Study of the five Zarathushtrian (Zoroastrian) Gâthâs with text and translations

Material Information

Study of the five Zarathushtrian (Zoroastrian) Gâthâs with text and translations

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.


This item has the following downloads:

Full Text

’ //

•e •v <.r
/.<•• •
<*>• ■
tâ– '.
/ ;
â–  :a-
â–  M
â–º/. **
t .
j * y


XXiQ-- 4 zX*»u p l (V— • -r <$r,
&r—• C ^-w~-
^QU A'f (7^ r-
Ga*-^ (
<£n— ^a”1^!^^SOB’ ’
l9»Qr v^*r" 'A—*^, /r—rar
i ofMXU i A ,0A/nF-* 4/^v- • r< * Arr 0?*
.^•j’ .L- .*•'

* r J
■ A :,»
. * . 7:\.'

A study of the
Five Zarathushtrian (Zoroastrian)
texts and translations,
also with the
Pahlavi translation for the first time edited with collation of
manuscripts, and now prepared from all the known codices, also
deciphered, and for the first time translated in its entirety into
a European language,
Neryosangh’s Sanskrit text edited with the collation of five MSS.,
and with a first translation,
with the Persian text contained in Codex 12 b of the Munich
Collection edited in transliteration,
together with
a commentary,
being the literary apparatus and argument to the translation of the Gäthäs
in the XXXIst volume of the Sacred Books of the East
Lawrence H. Mills, D.D.
This work is published with the assistance of the Secretary of State for India in
Council (of Her Britannic Majesty’s Government), and also with that of the Trustees
of the Parsi Panchayet Translation Fund of Bombay.

In attempting to fol valent in writing
prefaces and introductior z x »resent case, at a
certain disadvantage.
The Introduction proper to this work has been already
published in pp. i-xlvii of the XXXIst vol. of the Sacred Books
of the East. But, owing to the unusually extended range taken in
by the present treatise, a preface of itself must take on some of the
characteristics of an introduction ; that is to say, in explaining my
procedure, and in extenuating my shortcomings, I am obliged to
enter to some degree into discussion, and therefore into matters
more fitting to an introduction than to a preface.
If I attempt to make any distinction at all between a preface
and an introduction, I shall have to do so on mechanical principles.
That is, I shall simply take out from the bulk of my introductory
preface some important particulars which might not receive their due
share of notice if left there, and as to what these particulars should
be no one will disagree with me. They are simply the expression
of my great indebtedness to eminent scholars for providing me with
the means of consulting very important MSS. and books, and to
others for what was equally desirable, and that is, for assisting me
to defray the expenses involved in the printing of my work by
subscribing beforehand for a good number of copies of it.
But, before I mention the kind co-operation of my friends, I
had better explain how it was secured. It was caused by the
examination of the first part of the book, pp. 1-393, which came to
be distributed in the following manner. In 1882 a copy of the
proof-sheets was urgently requested of me by an eminent German
friend under circumstances which precluded a refusal. I had
received unusual kindness from him, and mutual assistance had
taken place between us throughout the working time of an entire
year; and although I felt some apprehension in placing a book of
uncorrected proof-sheets in the hands of so redoubted a critic, I
thought it was little enough for me to do to express a gratitude
which I hope I shall never cease to feel, and it was a matter of
great gratification that this friend, in requesting me to send him
the remaining portions of my book, wrote of it as sehr eriviinscht.

Having placed my unfinished book in the hands of this leading
master, I decided to withhold it from nobody, and I accordingly
sent it gratuitously to nearly all the leading specialists in Europe
and America, refusing no application to allow it to be used. I
should add that the first request had been followed by others quite
as urgent and complimentary.
I do not regret that I acceded to these expressed wishes, for it
placed my humble labours at the service of those who are helping
on the development of Zoroastrian science, and I have not been
without many further indications, both published and private, to
the effect that my labours have not been in vain.
It was entirely owing to the interest awakened by this
gratuitous distribution that I have been enabled to secure the
many important subscriptions to which I refer, and I have there-
fore a double reason to be satisfied with the apparently large
pecuniary sacrifice that I made.
I may now state, as directly bearing upon what follows, the
reasons why a year, or more, must yet elapse before I re-issue that
first volume in its completed condition. The new MSS. which
have been acquired, and the extensive citation of variations in
Geldner’s edition, would of themselves suggest the reprinting of
many sheets of it, while the length of time which has transpired
since the first pages were printed should render the presentation of
the work in its antiquated condition a most improper proceeding.
But the remodelling and printing of the Commentary, together
with other professional labours, has occupied the close labour of the
last three and a half years. The reprinting of antiquated parts will
now be proceeded with.
In the all-important matter of the acquisition of MSS. my
gratitude is first owing to Destoor Jamaspji Minocheherji Jamasp
Asana, Ph.D. of Tuebingen, Hon. D.C.L. Oxon., for having sent me
for my private use three valuable MSS. of the Yasna, and one of
the Vendidad.
The first of these is the now celebrated MS. with Pahlavi
translation, J.2, written by Mihiräpän Kai Khusro, in the year of
Yezdegird 692 (a.d. 1323), the sister MS. to that so justly treasured
by the University of Copenhagen (K.6), which was brought to that
city by Bask previously to 1832. The second was an ancient codex,
J.3, written soon after the death of Neryosangh, the learned Parsi
scholar, whose important labours date from about 500 to 600 years
ago. This is a Yasna with Neryosangh’s Sanskrit translation,
beautifully written, and, if of less value than the other, it is so

only because its translation is in Sanskrit rather than in the more
original Pahlavi. I should mention that this latter MS. is in a
very fragile condition, and that many of the folios have suffered
from abrasion.
I am also deeply gratified that the learned possessor has
presented both of these precious codices to the Bodleian Library at
my suggestion. I must also express my hearty thanks as an
individual scholar to Professor Max Miiller and to Sir William
Markby for their great interest manifested in this matter, and to
the Delegates of the Clarendon Press for the issue of a collotyped
reproduction of the Zend-Pahlavi MS. mentioned, executed in the
actual dimensions and in a manner which surpasses that of most
publications of the kind.
The third MS. is in Zend with Sanskrit translation, J.*, written
by an ancestor of the Destoor’s, and apparently some hundreds of
years old. The fourth MS., a valuable Vendidäd with Pahlavi trans-
lation, the generous scholar has presented to me as a personal gift.
Beside these, Destoor Darab Peshotan Sanjana, Professor of
Zend and Pahlavi in the Sir Jamshedji Oriental College, Bombay,
has kindly sent me a Yasna with Pahlavi translation. This is not
an ancient codex, but it is executed with unusual critical care and
I also take this opportunity to thank Professor v. Spiegel for
sending me his transcription of the MS. numbered 6 in Wester-
gaard’s catalogue in the University Library of Copenhagen, con-
taining also a collation of the MS. numbered 2 fonds d’Anquetil
in Paris.
I would also express my grateful thanks to Professor R. v.
Roth for furnishing me, in 1883, with a collation of the Sanskrit
translation contained in the very important MS. J.3, already
mentioned as later presented to the Bodleian Library, and also to
Dr. M. A. Stein for a collation of the Sanskrit translation in J.4 in
the same year.
I would also express my acknowledgments to Dr. Laubmann, the
Librarian of the Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in Munich, for sending to
the Bodleian Library, for my use, a valuable Zend-Pahlavi Yasna,
and also a Vendidad in Pahlavi with Persian translation.
These last MSS. were formerly the property of Professor
Haug, and the first was presented to him by some of the Parsis in
recognition of his labours on the Avesta, and of his epoch-making
transliterations of the Pahlavi. (One of my collateral occupations
during the past three years, as I may mention in passing, has been

to transcribe in its entirety the Persian translation of the Pahlavi
in this MS. of the Vendidad, it being in its extent about one-third
of the Avesta.)
I would also mention that my kind friend Dr. Rost, the
Librarian to the India Office, has sent me many and valuable works
to be used in domicile.
The space would fail me to express my obligation to eminent
scholars for various acts of friendly assistance, and I shall take a
further opportunity, but I cannot refrain from thanking once more
my distinguished friend Dr. West for devoting, in 1881, an entire
month of his valuable time to reading and revising my first Pahlavi
translation of the Gäthäs, and for giving me much counsel and assist-
ance in the, at times, almost insurmountable difficulties of my task.
I would here recall the fact that Haug’s translation of the
Pahlavi Yasna xxviii-xxxii. i, (see the Essays, pp. 338-354,) was
largely revised by Dr. West, and it is owing to this fact that this
masterly performance has assumed its present shape. One might
well enquire how far the learned public is aware of the exceptionally
difficult nature of the Pahlavi documents with which Dr. West so
ably deals in the Series of the S. B. E. In some respects the
decipherment of Pahlavi surpasses in difficulty that of the most
ancient Inscriptions in other languages, and our gratitude to this
eminent scholar should be proportionate.
Finally, I have to thank those whose generous co-operation has
made the appearance of this work (in its present form) possible.
And first among these I have the honour to name Major-
General Sir Henry Rawlinson, Bart., &c., to whose interest I owe
it that the Secretary of State for India in Council has subventioned
me with a considerable sum.
Not less liberal has been the action of the trustees of the
Parsi Punchayet Translation Fund of Bombay, who have assisted me
with a subscription to the amount of nine hundred and twenty-five
rupees (about).
Other friends who have taken copies, thereby enabling me
partially to meet the expenses involved, are gratefully mentioned in
my subscription list.
L. H. M.
Oxford, January, 1891.
P.S.—I am happy to add that Destoor Darab Peshotan Sanjana has, at my suggestion, offered
the very valuable MS. mentioned above to the Bodleian Library, and that it has been thankfully

As I have stated in the pre
been circulating among specialisi
^Wr/of this book has
etrs, although it has
never heretofore been offered for sale.
The reason for this has also been long known (see my remarks
in the Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft 42. Band
S. 439; 1888). The book was never finished; one eighth part of it
standing in type, while the former portions had been so long printed
that they had already become somewhat antiquated; and the second
part consisting of the Commentary was entirely in manuscript; and in
a different shape.
The completion of the work was rendered for the time impossible
by my accepting the invitation of Professor Max Müller as strongly
urged by Professor Darmesteter, to undertake the translation of the
Yasna, Visparad; Afrinagän, and Gähs in the XXXIst vol. of the Sacred
Books of the East (see the London Athenaeum of April 12th, 1884).
But this interruption is really only apparent. The matter con-
tained in the XXXIst vol. of the S. B. E. pp. i—xlvii; as well as the
extensive summaries at the head of each chapter in that work; and
the comments there presented throughout were; and are, an integral
part of this same exposition. If they had not been presented there,
they'would have been presented here. This book contains, as is stated
on the .title-page, the literary apparatus and argument to the other.
The entire discussion in that one is supposed to be under the eye of
the reader examining this, and this commentary especially is by no
means offered as an argument aside from the other.
What is said of S. B. E. XXXI, is naturally said, and with more
emphasis, of the first volume of this work containing the Zend, Pahlavi,
Sanskrit, and Persian texts with translations in its relation to this

commentary, and this commentary is published at present chiefly for
the benefit of those scholars in Europe and in America who have for
so long a time been using that volume.
I state this the more distinctly on account of the perhaps painful
succinctness and curtailment here practised. The commentary is pre-
sented with its present great economy in the use of words from the
necessity to restrict the work to practicable limits. Had I indulged in
fully rounded explanations at every point, the book would have reached
a bulk one eighth or one quarter greater than its present dimensions.
Nevertheless this present condensed treatment has only been hazarded
in view of the fulness and simplicity of the other parts; aside from them
the cost of extension would not have been considered.
In the first part of this work the Gäthic text is presented with an
amplitude for which as to some particulars I must apologize; see below.
For variations in the MSS. of the Gäthä I refer to the-rich col-
lection of Geldner, who has supplemented Westergaard’s neglect in this
respect, and surpassed Spiegel’s fulness, Prof. v. Spiegel having refrained
from publishing a large mass of variations which he had collected under
the mistaken impression that they would be superfluous.
I have two MSS. of considerable importance which Geldner has
not collated, although I formerly had the impression that one of them
was the same that he describes as J.4, but the learned possessor, Dr.
Destoor Jamaspji Minocheherji, has corrected my misapprehension as
to this particular, not however before I had cited it several times as
the supposed J.4 (see on p. 521 where I commence the use of the ab-
breviation J.*). My mistake was caused by the impression that Pro-
fessor Geldner had mentioned all the MSS. in the possession of the
Destoor in his edition. I give the variations in the Gathic text of this
MS. occasionally where they seem called for, but, as the reader can
readily understand, I do not desire to note every item of mechanical
variation in the Zend text here, although a still fuller report of the
variations of MSS. than has been given elsewhere would be at times
I useGeldner’s abbreviations to designate the several Zend MSS., except
Pt 4., adding J.* for theYasnaMS. not yet collated by him. That is to
say I use these abbreviations when citing the Zend texts; as to the
texts of the Pahlavi translation see below.
In the translation of the Gäthä texts I have used a simple Latin

after the example of Haug, a word for word translation into English
being out of the question.
I have pursued the policy of alternative translation in these dif-
ficult hymns, giving what was at the time of printing my preferred
view in the verbatim, but sometimes adding alternative elements in the
free metrical, and not hesitating to supersede both as well, as that in
S. B. E. XXXI, by later and preferred views in the Commentary.
Beside these I cite various published and unpublished opinions
which have circulated among scholars, taking especial care not to hold
any individual, much less any one eminent individual, at all responsible
for reported views which may nevertheless seem somewhat coloured
after his. It is to be hoped that I have suggested nearly every possible
view of the mass of difficulties which meet us in the Gäthäs, and many
scholars will recognize some which have long been familiar, while others
are entirely new. I have not cited the names of authors often, as
opinions change frequently, and some scholars do not care to father
discarded views.
The Pahl. trlr. is not printed in its original characters, which
would have been an exceptionally easy but expensive task. It is
however edited with the collation of all the known MSS. and deciphered
in Roman characters, which last together with its translation might be
considered the crux of Zend philology.
In those parts of the work where I do not mention Spiegel’s
readings I take it for granted that his text is under the reader’s eye.
It is practically that of the Copenhagen MS. numbered five, the only
MS. accessible to occidental scholars at the time of Spiegel’s printing
in 1858. The letters DJ. recall Destoor (Dastur) Jamaspji’s MSS., see
elsewhere. D. stands for the MS. of Darab Destoor Peshotan Sanjana.
M.1, or M., stands for the Munich MS. mentioned elsewhere.
Neryosangh has been edited with the collation of five MSS. which
comprise all those of most importance. The abbreviations are J.3, J.4, J.*
for Destoor Jamaspji’s MSS., C. for that of Copenhagen, no. VI of
Westergaard’s Catalogue transcribed by Professor v. Spiegel in 1845-46,
and P. for that of Codex fonds d’Ang. nr. 11 collated by Dr. Spiegel
with his transcription in 184—(?). Some variations of another but in-
ferior Paris MS. may be gathered from the fragments of Neryosangh’s
Sanskrit text published by Haug in his commentary. These of course
I do not republish.

In editing the Parsi-persian text I have again refrained from the
easy hut expensive device of printing the original characters, which
would have entirely spared me the often harassing duty of deciding-
on the short vowels in a codex badly written in a dialect composed of
Pahlavi, Parsi, Persian and Arabic.
I have noted the variations in the Pahlavi text of this Parsi-per-
sian translation from my texts in the reprinted portions, and from
Spiegel's text (K.5) in the older parts; [ ] marks omissions, [= —]
marks insertions, thus [minü = madonad], The first is the Parsi-pers.
translation, the second is the Pahlavi text of the MS. in italics.
It is to be noticed that the Pahlavi text cited in the variations of
the Parsi-persian MS. stands for the most part in the traditional trans-
literation, and it would have been a fortunate circumstance had I been
able to present more extensive portions of this old-fashioned translitei^
ation, as scholars are too liable to lose sight of it, and a knowledge
of it is quite important at times.
I must now apologize for imperfections, or explain what may seem
such. The first feature which I mention is one which I have heartily
to regret, and that is the transliteration of the Zend text.
My reasons for this mistaken step were the following. When I
first began to print, now about ten years ago, I was much disturbed
at what seemed the certainty of incurring very considerable expense
with no return. As my means were not large, I could only rely on
the friendly help of many gentlemen in whom I could never hope to
awaken more than a superficial interest in my subject. In my effort
to render the aspect of my pages less forbidding to those among such
friends who might casually occupy themselves with the subject, I printed
the Roman equivalents to the Zend characters immediately beneath them.
It is perhaps true that what I did has attained its purpose to
some extent, and that many scholarly men of other specialties in taking
up my proof-sheets have felt led on by the sight of familiar letters,
and I may also owe some important subscriptions indirectly to this
otherwise so useless feature, but none the less at present I regret it.
More objectionable however are various dubious uses, which are,
or were, some of them, unfortunately common to all Zendists.
The most serious of these is the use of the German w = English
v in a work otherwise written in English for Zend and again the

use of German v (properly /) for a letter which is for the most part
our English w (half vowel). Avesta » ought never to have been written
v in Germany^ nor do I think that Avesta English v should have
been transcribed by me as w while otherwise using the English language,
but it must be remembered that this work was written mainly in Ger-
many, and that it has been most used by German scholars; moreover
I followed Haug’s example, who wrote thwd in his English Essays.
Zendists have been too careless in these littler matters. Read English
v everywhere for this really erroneous German w.
Then again formerly no distinction was noticed between yu and p,
as many MSS. use both for the same letter, and so at the time when
I was first committed to as equalling hv (v) and //. Later it was
noticed by Sallemann that corresponded more to h (some think
to kh (?)), while yu oftener stood for hv or v alone. I signify this
distinction now at every occurrence of the letter in the notes. Then y^
and £0 were at first, and have been since my first printing represented
by others by the same letter, e. It is of course better to distinguish
between y^ and by e and e, or by some similar device. In the
Commentary I write e, adding the distinction, thus e (e), and e (e), and
this notwithstanding the unsightliness.
Then scholars formerly preferred to render p by d, approximating
it to the Persian, now we rather prefer to leave 'it in the more ancient
form; p is probably a spirant (or a spirate), and we may have its
survival'in our English third personal^, as in ‘doth’, ‘hatti etc. I now
write both d and t, d(f).
Then the letter written in the very ancient and important
Zend-Pahlavi MS. J.2 is transcribed by me s(k) solely to show its shape.
It should be pronounced simply sh> In the Commentary and in the
reprinted parts I put the k in parentheses to guard the beginner, thus s(Jc).
The difficulty in meddling with transliterations is very great when
one is preparing an extended work. The mechanical labour of producing
the book cannot be completed before the fashions change. Some able
scholars have changed their modes of transliteration even from year to

I shall not therefore reprint my entire work to replace e by e or
e, w = by v, and v = » by w. (This last is still somewhat du-
bious in certain connections); nor shall I, on the other hand, in reprinting
a large portion of the work now badly antiquated, for the sake of
uniformity between the old and the new printing, use the antiquated
characters, for wherever they are still left they were printed by me
with great reluctance and aversion long after I had disapproved of
their use, and solely with the mistaken purpose of making the two
parts of the book exactly correspond even as to this trifling mechanical
If this humble production were intended as a parade exposition
without interior discussions, I might be tempted to reprint the very few
antiquated transliterations which occur in a small portion of it, as it
is, I rely on the ample notes to warn the beginner.
As to the Pahlavi, I have used Haug’s transliteration not because
it is not susceptible of improvement, for I have slightly altered it at
West’s suggestion, but because the glossaries for the most part cor-
respond to it.
For Sanskrit, I have adopted the simplest possible modes, some-
times at the sacrifice of pleasing effect. I have written ch because
English c suggests a different sound, and I have therefore necessarily
written the clumsy chh, also in everywhere, correcting however its
occurrence in the MSS. in such places as the third pi. Qainti for °anti.
As to my transliteration of the Parsi-persian, there is little that I
would change at present, for no scholar will be at all likely to mistake
it for an exercise in the latest dialect. Perhaps if I were not committed
to w for j, I might write v everywhere now, but as I have used Ger-
man w = English v for Zend this is only a further transgression.
Then I may also recall the somewhat dubious use of some Persian
transliterators who consider the Persian v to be a sound verging upon
w. This also induced me to adopt w in this mixed dialect. In a purely
Persian text I should now prefer v.
Then I was perplexed at the Päzand u — Pahl. va, as occurring
not in the middle of a sentence where it is unobjectionable, but at the
beginning of a sentence, while the Persian has always wa (properly va)
at the beginning and u in the interior, whereas we suppose the Pahlavi) to
be better transliterated as va throughout. In the chaos of usage I for-

merly wrote wa throughout after the Pahlavi, but in the reprinted
portions I will adopt the Persian custom.
I have written this Parsi-persian hitherto well-nigh as unlike
the latest Persian as possible, and intending to lead scholars to connect
the words at once with their Zend, or Pahlavi originals (that is, where
they are not Arabic). For instance I wrote ruwdn (cp. rubdn, zirvdn),
and not as usually in Persian rawdn, jihdn (cp. gehdno) and not jahdn,
and in my earlier treatment I even ventured upon burand as more original
than barand. For the differing letters I use h for %ay £ (Greek %),
s, or th, for say Ö, z for zäl ö, zh for jay (French j) j<, s for sad
z for zäd z for zay lb, 'for ‘ain £, gh for ghain g, k for käf O’-
As to my alternative method in dealing with the translation of the
Gäthä, I make no apology whatsoever. Some scholars in other branches
of oriental study have been praised for the assurance of their statements
as calculated to carry conviction home to their readers. This tone,
while highly desirable for popular reproduction and short treatises, is
in my opinion entirely to be discarded in exegetical works which go to
the depths of a subject.
The Zend Avesta, while fully made out for all the purposes of com-
parative religion, and history; yet presents in its ultimate detail diffi-
culties so great, that more than one differing suggestion is a necessity
in discussing with serious scholars.
New light, or what we hope to be new light, is sometimes got in
these -studies within a few months, not to say years, and I therefore
present as much alternative opinion as is practicable, and naturally on
those portions which have been the longest printed. And I do not always
reprint for the simple reason that the older views are alternatively pos-
sible, an'(J may be (some of them) after all the best.
So likewise with the Pahlavi translation. Scholars in other depart-
ments of oriental research may be surprised to hear of a translation of a
translation, but Zendists will smile in their turn at such a feeling. As
is the case in other important instances, the accompanying translation
in a difficult language’ helps indeed when partially deciphered and
translated, but the full translation and explanation of this translation
presents very much more difficulty than the now several times attempted
translation of its original.
The first task is of course the decipherment of the Pahlavi charac-

ters which are at times so utterly indefinite that such words as ufyä
and nafsh0, for instance, are spelt with the same signs.
The next effort is to know how to begin to handle the question of
its translation. No simple rendering of it as ordinary Pahlavi is at all
safe. The reason of this is that the sequence of the words in pure Pah-
lavi is of great importance to the syntax and the resulting meaning,
but the consecutive order of the words in these translations is for the most
part controlled by that of the Gäthä of which it is largely a word for
word rendering, and the order of words in the Gäthä lines differs very
widely from this order in an ordinary Pahlavi sentence, the degree
in which the two languages are inflected being also widely different.
How then can we treat such a fettered rendering as if it were ordinary
Pahlavi, the meaning of which depends so largely on the order of the
sequence of the words?
Can we then abandon altogether the attempt at anything further
than an indication of the roots present? This would indeed be more
scientific than the foolish attempt to read these translations as ordinary
Pahlavi. But here again we are headed off. The word for word sequence,
while very largely that of the Gäthä which it translates, is not wholly
so. It is fitfully departed from to a greater or less extent in almost
every strophe. We are also constrained to attempt a translation of the
Pahlavi of the Gäthäs from the fact that the language as it stands offers
a reasonable meaning, and that, when due allowance is made for the
unusual circumstances, we can apply the laws which interpret the meanings
of Pahlavi words from their positions in a sentence in a somewhat
unusual manner. For instance, when a noun or pronoun stands at the
beginning of a sentence in such a connection that we should naturally
take it as a nominative while it yet translates a Gäthic noun or
pronoun in an oblique case, we are in such a case not entitled but
obliged by critical laws to credit such a Pahlavi noun or pronoun with
its priority in position, and accordingly we are both allowed and
necessitated to render it as if in an oblique case to correspond to the
original of which it is an attempted translation, or the relic of an
attempted translation.
So also I think we should at times credit a Pahlavi word with
the case of its original even when it possesses no claims to such a
declension from prepositions, postpositions, or from its position in the
sequence of words (I will not say in the sentence). We should not

forget that the last transcriber of the Pahlavi had just written the
inflected Gäthic word before its Pahlavi equivalent, and while this last
transcriber was merely the reproducer of much more ancient materials
in the Pahlavi translation which may have translated a totally different
Gäthic text#, yet we cannot but suppose that the sight of the Gäthä
word written almost beside its supposed Pahlavi equivalent may have
made the copyist less careful to reproduce the prepositions or postpositions
which, beside the position of the Pahlavi word in the sentence, could
alone determine its case.
So also in treating the glosses. No expert will now doubt that
they are often originally of different age from the text. The text grew
out of the Gäthä itself, and the glosses have been added and varied
from generation to generation. The text should be considered apart
from them, and no treatment is complete without an alternative presented
in that sense, while even in the most superficial rendering of the Pahlavi
translation these glosses should be so managed as not to interrupt the
flow of the sentences. One further element of difficulty is the undoubted
fact that the Pahl. trlr. reproduces at times alternative translations.
Very often two (or more (?)) distinct translations of the same word
have descended to the last translator from different predecessors.
Occasionally he formally introduces them with the words ‘some say',
ait mün yemalelüned, again he simply observes ‘it may be’, yehevunad.
But more frequently the last worker-over of the Pahl. tri. betrays his
ignorance of the fact that an alternative translation is before him; and
works two widely differing and distinct translations for the same word (!)
inherited from predecessors into the body of his text, or introduces
them, if original with himself, in such a way as to give the reader no
notice that they are alternative expressions for the same word.
Any competent philolog will acknowledge that we have here most
harassing difficulties before us. I have accordingly first endeavoured
to render the Pahlavi translation as being as closely faithful a repro-
duction of its original as the facts will allow us to suppose. That is
to say, 1 have pursued this course in the reprinted portions; formerly I
was animated by a strong desire to make the Pahl. tri. appear as
unlike its original as was possible; this from a mistaken conscientiousness.
My first translation, even in my reprinted portions, I must offer of course
* Sometimes the Pahlavi translation is presented entirely without any Zend text,
as in the Munich MSS. of Haug’s collection, 12 a, h.

as made in the light of the glosses, but I add copiously other suggestions
made as if with the marring glosses omitted. I need hardly say that
this treatment is properly exposition rather than translation, and as
such I desire it to be considered.
The same remarks apply with some modifications to the work of
Neryosangh. Is it possible to translate his text? We must endeavour
to explain it, if we cannot fully translate it, and we can only hope to
do so by the exercise of unusual care.
In the first place it is a great step in advance that no respectable
scholar will ever again criticise Neryosangh’s work as an immediate
translation of the Yasna. Nor, may I hope, will any one again suppose
the meaning of Neryosangh to coincide with a true translation of the
Pahlavi which was chiefly his original, if for no other reason, then
because we do not know exactly what his Pahlavi text was. The best
Pahlavi text which we can now produce evidently differs sometimes
from the Pahlavi texts which he used, and Neryosangh’s rendering of
those parts of the Pahlavi which we know to have been actually before
him, while a noble attempt at his early day, and of great importance
since as affording invaluable hints, still leaves, as might be expected,
very much to be desired. No man writing at that early period could
fail to err both as to transliteration and translation. Had I offered
Neryosangh’s text without translation, or explanations so full as to be
equivalent to translations, I should have left students a wide scope for
error, and surely it is no very scholarly proceeding to cite Neryosangh
quite astray.
I would here say that it is in no invidious or hypercritical spirit
that I occasionally notice Haug’s slips in this particular in his energetic
pioneer volumes on the Gäthäs. We must be grateful for the instruction
and stimulus which he offered, even while we guard the student against
his mistakes. They occurred in consequence of his not having become
acquainted with the Pahlavi translation, and Neryosangh is inexplicable
without that. Let any Sanskritist living, who is not at the same time
acquainted with the Pahlavi translation of the Yasna, write a translation
of Neryosangh, and then any master of the Pahlavi would be able to
point out numerous errors. His use of Sanskrit was necessarily peculiar
to himself.
And in his mode of treating his subject he varies. At times he
seems merely to reproduce his original in its general ideas, rendering

the Pahlavi or Gäthä with little attempt at an exact reproduction of
the syntax but for the most part indicating the roots present, again he
offers a flash of keen and independent exegesis. Then again we find
alternative translation, but of course awkwardly arranged, while the
alternative translations of the same Gäthä word in the Pahlavi are often
reproduced by him as if they were the translations of separate words.
As regards the glosses in Neryosangh we may suppose that
they are chiefly from the original hand, but we have very positive
evidence that Neryosangh was not the only Parsi of his time who wrote
in Sanskrit. The various readings in the Sanskrit translations of the
Yasna leave little doubt that Neryosangh’s successors often ventured on
emendations of his text, but these differing readings are not often very
extended. They however furnish us with evidence sufficient to enable
us to doubt the originality of some of the glosses, and this should serve
as a check against hypercriticism of his work. That I have reproduced
his ideas with exactness, it is impossible for me to say, as it is impossible
for others to deny.
A literary translation in the usual sense of the term is of course
not to be attempted, as this translation of a translation does not flow
freely like an ordinary treatise. Alternative suggestions should be made
at every step. I therefore desire my translation of Neryosangh, as of
the Pahlavi, to be regarded as comment quite as much as translation,
and as a treatment which may guard scholars against that superficial
hypercriticism of Neryosangh in which Haug so unfortunately led the way.
It might be asked why I do not afford more explanations of the
very irregular Parsi-persian in the Commentary. But as the Persian is
a translation of the Pahlavi, the discussions on the Pahlavi, of which
its translation is merely a part, include a treatment of the Persian.
This Parsi-persian text has been added not only to show its
readings of the Pahlavi, and to give scholars an interesting specimen of
the word for word translations of the Pahlavi of the Avesta, but also
to. assist the science of comparative philology as it bears upon the
subject. Indeed I may say that this mass of native comment, Pahl. and
Sanskrit, as well as Persian, is presented largely because it bears upon
the question of the original Indo - germanic. The Sanskrit lies near to
the Zend, and the ancient and middle Persian lie nearer to us than the
Sanskrit. But of course their direct evidence was my more immediate
object. And beside their independent opinions ? which although arrived

at under every disadvantage, are often keen and stimulating and also
often correct, they offer us what are greatly more valuable than any
opinions of their own, and that is, the broken fragments of original
tradition. For I think we may fairly claim that a tradition of inter-
pretation of the Avesta has existed from the first, and that we have
portions of it in this mass of comment before us.
And here I must pause for a moment to recall our reasons for
supposing that such an original traditional exegesis of the Gäthäs was at all
possible under any circumstances. First let us ask whether an original
traditional exegesis of any very ancient lore preserved in MSS. is possible.
We have undoubted tradition at least in texts. The Gäthic text and
the rest of the Avesta are in themselves a marvellous tradition, so is
the Rig-Veda text, and so are all very ancient books. Rock inscriptions
keep themselves, but what has kept the apparently frail life of ancient
books? Their characters were imbedded in the human memory in the
continuous life of generations.
The sanctity which attached to the Gäthäs from the first was naturally
calculated to awaken a keen solicitude for their preservation, and as a
matter of fact we find that phonological laws have been observed in
the forms in which the Gäthäs and the rest of the Avesta have come
down to us, and minute distinctions have been preserved with curious
fidelity; and this proves a tradition of scholarship.
That certain original and correct ideas as to the meaning of
Gäthic words and passages have been preserved in this tradition is ä
priori very probable, but it is folly to expect anything approaching to
a modern precision in the shape in which these remotely ancient opinions
have survived to us. They are the descendants of descendants, and
more often marred than assisted by later additions.
I regard it therefore as a very false policy to take this mass of
mutilated tradition as if it were original tradition, and I of course hold
that we should dispute even the original tradition at times, if we could
be sure that we had seized it, for I doubt very greatly whether even
the contemporaries of Zarathushtra knew always what he meant, and I
am strongly inclined to suspect that he at times even aifected obscurity.
I therefore regard it as the only critical procedure to follow the
‘tradition’ at one time and to disagree with it at another where the
facts seem to call for such a course, and also to follow what may be
the original suggestions of ancient Parsi scholars which abound in these

native translations, and which are in themselves no proper tradition in
the original sense, and to follow them sometimes as opposed both to
original tradition and to modern conjectures where they seem superior
to either of them, as is often the case. And as we have no longer any
external signs by which to distinguish between this original tradition
and this superadded ancient lore, we must rely wholly on our critical
acumen to guide us in our procedure.
We have then comparative philology, original tradition, and the
results of ancient scholarship in these translations; and each is a distinct
and independent factor bearing upon the exegesis of their original.
It is of course very important that we should recognize these
ancient works as our instructors in the past, for on that recognition
depends their influence upon us in the future. Not only has the entire
ground-work of our original information been laid by them, but often
our latest and most subtle distinctions might have been much sooner
made had we heeded their indications. Our discoveries are often
rediscoveries. (See on ¥. 48, 8.) Like the companions of Columbus
it is easy for us to balance the egg, after they have shown us the way.
The great task they leave us is to find the exact point and meaning of
the rich lore to which they roughly introduce us.
As was said in the preface, the Introduction proper to this work
is to be found on pp. i — xlvii of the XXXIst vol. of the S. B. E.,
but as that was published so long ago as May, 1887, it is to be expected
that I should have on reflection some modifications to offer. And there
are indeed two points on which I now feel less hesitation than I did then.
The first is as to the probable age of the Gäthäs. As is seen, I have
made the endeavour to place them as late as possible, and at the time
of publishing I had reached the conclusion that they may date as late
as about 1000 B. C. while also possibly so old as 1500 B. C. But since
then I have ceased to resist the conviction that the latter limit may be
put further back. If they antedate the worship of Mithra (which
is however almost incredible) they would appear to be the oldest written
compositions which have reached us not inscribed on stone. But looking at
all the facts, the ancient, or better the little altered, state in which our
Aryan speech appears in them, the absence of Mithra, Haoma, and
of the throng of Gods which are common to the later Avesta and to the
Rig-Veda, they seem to express a religious aspiration so bereft of
superstition that it must have taken a very long time for it to have

degenerated either for the first, or for the second, time into the religion
of Mithra, Haoma, and the rest, as we have it in the Yashts and in
the Rik. But those deities were beyond a doubt very ancient indeed.
If the Gäthäs antedated their cult, there is no telling how old they may
be. The decision of criticism is to refrain from conjectures too closely
limiting their age.
The other particular as to which I would now abandon my scepticism
is the poetic personification of the Bountiful (or Holy) Immortals. I no
longer doubt that it was poetical, and that they were actually appealed
to and besought to approach the worshippers while yet understood to be
divine and human attributes and not merely personal beings. I of course
yielded to this opinion frequently in my earlier treatment, but I would
now cancel every doubt. When the Good Mind, the Holy Order, and the
Divine Sovereign Power, are bid ‘to hear’ and ‘to come’, I am now willing
to believe that the sage subordinated entirely the inferior conception
that they were personal beings to the very impressive conception that
they were spiritual qualities in the mind of the Deity which were
besought-for as acquisitions to the mind of the worshipper. The
personification was almost wholly figurative in the Gäthäs, and this
appears to me to be most remarkable in view of their remote age.
In this part of my book which I now offer to the learned public,
and especially to those eminent scholars who have so long been in
possession of the first part in its imperfect condition, I have used, as I
have said, a perhaps painful succinctness. And I have expressed the
hope that this will be condoned by non-specialists and by beginners in
view of the fulness and unusual simplicity of the mass of exegetical
matter which I have now with equal fulness introduced, and which is
contained in the XXXIst vol. of the Sacred Books of the East, and in
the first volume of this work, but I trust that notwithstanding a perhaps
excessive parsimony in the use of language here, no statement will be
found on careful examination to be obscure. I cannot however claim
that the Commentary, if read by itself, will be other than inscrutable to
non-specialists, and not very inviting to beginners. It is not intended
to replace a dictionary, nor yet a grammar, both of which I had hoped
and still hope to furnish. (My grammar, which I hope will appear
before very long, will contain, and in fact will largely consist of a
very full collection of comparative paradigms of the Zend and Vedic

In concluding my necessarily extended explanations, I shall say a
word to the large number of scholarly friends (not specialists in Oriental
philology) who may have censured (some of them) the devotion of so
many years to a recondite and difficult branch of investigation.
My answer to any such strictures would be short. If the history
of human thought is of any importance, the Avesta claims a very
prominent position in that history. It not only affords one of the oldest,
if not the oldest, monument of Aryan speculation, but, in view of its
enormous influence upon later Jewish and Christian theology, it must
justly claim a decisive place in the development of religion and so
even in the moulding and destiny of the human soul. We have the
gravest reason to believe that the entire change from the free-thinking
Sadduceeism to that orthodoxy which now underlies the Catholic Creed
was due to Parsism which moulded Judaism under the modified name
of Pharisaism. So far as I can see, no thorough examination of the
Jewish theology can be completed without a thorough knowledge of the
Avesta in its general complexion, and in many of its particular
But I have a further excuse. A valuable knowledge of the Avesta
can now be acquired with little labour and delay, but a critical
knowledge of it, which alone befits an original expositor, requires very
extensive and prolonged study, and this not only consumes a good part
of a lifetime, but it leads the toiler through fields of supreme interest.
First there is the Veda, and especially the Rik, so different from the
oldest part of the Avesta, and so kindred to the Yashts. Here is an
engaging study alone worth years, and to prepare himself for the Avesta
the specialist in Zend should study hundreds of these rich and poetic
hymns. Then Pahlavi literature has its gems, as West has so thoroughly
shown us, and for an author in Zend the Pahlavi is indispensable. Then
the 7i^A.-philolog must see much of the Persian. Surely these particulars
alone furnish an excuse for concentration. It is concentration not upon
a point but upon a disc, and upon a disc of no narrow dimensions.
As several intelligent friends and sympathizers have also asked me
what led me at first to Zoroastrianism, I may as well descend still
further into personal particulars and describe an experience of very
great enjoyment as well as profound satisfaction. I had felt an irresistible
tendency to interior investigations from early years, and at last began
to specialize on the Gnostic philosophy, happening first upon Matter’s

work. Coming to Europe in 1872 1 developed this pursuit till it became
time to turn to the descendants of Gnosticism in the modern philosophy.
But in that rich study I became so fascinated with Kant’s immortal
Kritik that I settled upon an exposition of it, and I have my copious
MSS. yet with the subject worked up from its foundations and with
close detail having availed myself of the advice of the then leading
German authorities. I left the Kantian philosophy and its successors
for Zend philology to seek the origin of the Gnosis, as I had left the
Gnosis for them to search for its results. The whole series of studies are
closely connected, and each is an independent link in one chain, the
history of religious philosophy in its entirety. Surely no one should
accuse me of undue concentration after this.
L. H. Mills.
Oxford, Dec., 1890.

Additional remarks on the publication of Yasna XXVIII—XXXIV
as part I of the work.
On issuing the Ahunavaiti text entirely reprinted I would only
add a few words to what was said when I published the Commentary
some time ago. First as to the Alphabet: I would retract my remark
on p. 447; I no longer think that , is better than | for n, as ) stands in
the oldest undated Zend document J.3.
The letter should be curved somewhat even when represented by
j, as it is curved toward the bottom in J.2 It is however straight in D.,
and longer than seems natural. Not to be singular I have used Go1
in reprinting, but stands in J.2, J.3, J*. 5(/t) stands in J.2, K.5, J.3
in s(Jk)yaotW, otherwise s/?y, or sy, appears oftenest, so ashyö appears
in the Vendidäd MS. given me by Dastür J. M.
Perhaps the additional stroke was the Pahlavi sign for y, as the
character never occurs except as preceding y in the newer Avesta
character. In D. and others is used. Except where sh = Sansk. ksh,
I have used — sk uniformly before y in reprinting in order not to
differ needlessly from Geldner, and this notwithstanding the usage of the
older MSS.
The distinction between p and is carried out in J.2, J.3, but
not in J.*, nor in D.: (v is also used for v in my Vendidäd MS. b
exactly in that form I find in J.* as far as to Y. 44. 2, b where a
different writer begins who uses In D. it occurs in sQ^yaothna.
J.2, J.3 have more erect than ? has both Ö "and apparently,
and in somewhat close proximity, but the more erect form turns to the
left at the top. I have only noticed Ö^in the Vendidäd MS. My printer
did not appear to have a type which could represent erect when
printing the texts.
I must also mention that I have collated still one more MS. of the
Pahlavi. It was from Haug’s Munich collection no. 7 under 6a, 66 which
contains scattered fragments of the Gäthäs with Pahlavi translations,
but as they seem very much more extended than the others, it was hardly

fair to publish the differences as variations of the same document. In
reprinting I have given a partially restored text in the transliteration.
Schleicher first suggested the most frequent of these reconstructions,
Spiegel following with many others, but Roth through his able pupil
Aurel Mayr applied the principles which had been established to the
first four Gäthäs; see the interesting treatise Resultate der silben-zäh-
lung aus den ersten vier Gäthäs (1871). This was well reproduced and
extended by Bartholomae in his valuable edition in 1879. I regret that
I omitted applying this improvement in the parts longest printed, as it
is very useful although not everywhere producable without fault.
The letter ere = Sanskt. ri should be pronounced as one syllable,
so also one syllable only should be sounded wherever a curve is under
two vowels, ao7 etc. Hvo sometimes = huvö as similar Vedic words are
often to be pronounced, the false writing jyä (°aujJ(J^) is explained as
for jivä? (ojw»^^^), etc., etc.
With regard to exegesis, I would remind beginners that all exten-
ded works are apt to be more conservative, rash suggestions being large-
ly confined now-a-days to short articles in periodicals. I accordingly
endeavour to present my more hazardous proposals in alternative ren-
derings, not thinking it desirable to fasten uncertain opinions upon in-
experienced readers merely for the sake of an affirmative style, a mode
of procedure better adapted to a science later on than to one the ma-
terials of which have only now been fully examined.
I need hardly remind Zendists that I endeavour at every step to
improve on my renderings in the Sacred Books of the East, XXXI,
(1887). I trust that I have not wantonly varied from them, but five
years is a considerable interval, and most Zendists seek to vary their
views at every publication. I have not made myself an exception, for
I have even endeavoured to improve in different parts of this same book.
The Commentary was printed while the texts were in manuscript, and
in printing the texts later I have suggested improvements up to the
last, and I will continue to do so. I may even adopt the proper letter
v where I have elsewhere followed the old custom of using the German
letter w for it; this to avoid misleading beginners.
As to the Pahlavi text, an estimable Parsi friend once told me that
he thought it would have been better had I produced the Pahlavi in its

original character without transliteration, affording only a translation,
and leaving scholars to transliterate for themselves. But I need hardly
say'that one third of the labour consists in the decipherment, which is
at times so difficult as to baffle us entirely. It would have been an
easy device to send the copied characters to the printer. With regard
to the translation of both the Pahlavi and Neryosangh, but especially
with regard to the former, I would repeat with greater emphasis what I
said perhaps too moderately on pp. XIV, XV, XVI, XVII. A treatment
of these commentaries without the closest regard to their original is in
my judgment totally unscientific, and can only lead to spurious results.
The translation of the Pahlavi especially should be broken up by a con-
stant effort to follow its original, and exposition should intervene at
every call for it. That sprightly vivacity which we so value in the
translation of original matter (which the Pahlavi in these translations
is not) would only destroy what likeness the translation bears to its
original, and so give beginners an excuse for neglect.
As to Neryosangh I would only add that he should not be read
in the light of hitherto quotable Sanskrit, for that would be to blunder
at every step; but he should be regarded as himself affording usage
quotable in future Sanskrit lexicography.
Beyond all doubt he uses words in a sense correct as attested by
his contexts and his originals, but in a sense discarded as unquotable
from the later dictionaries.
And he by no means invents these definitions; they were once pre-
valently in use when he was taught Sanskrit, as we see from the older
dictionaries, and the quasi artificial character of all the later Sanskrit
should make us cautious how we condemn meanings given to words
even by such an irregular writer merely because they have not been
found applied in the same way in more classical productions.
I would especially recommend Burnoufs Sanskrit dictionary to be
used constantly together with the other lexicographical works, but the
remoter date of Burnoufs book should of course be borne in mind, and
it should be used with every caution.
As to the former practice of citing Neryosangh untranslated and as
if he presented a rendering of our present Pahlavi texts see above on
p. XVI.
We may say of his work in its entirety and with all its imperfec-

tions that when it is understood, as it only can be by the most careful
study of its originals, it turns out to be, or at least to have once been,
one of the most important texts in the language in which it stands as
well as one of the most difficult, for it has assisted in giving us that
original exegesis of the Gäthäs which first taught us where to begin,
and its usefulness continues.
The Parsi-persian however vies with, or even surpasses Neryosangh
in value because it gives (or ‘gave’) us the most direct clue to the at times
almost inscrutable Pahlavi, and it must be itself a descendant of Parsi
translations of the Pahlavi which existed from times long previous to
Neryosangh and shortly after the Arabic had pervaded the purer Persian
of the priests.
With regard to my free rhythmical reproductions I would ask those
to whom English is not vernacular to remember that the accent in
English, as it does in German, alone brings out the metre, and unless
the English accent is familiar the rhythm will be wholly lost. This re-
mark applies also to the entire volume in the Sacred Books of the East, but
especially to Y. IX—XI which ought to have been printed in the form
of poetical verses, many syllables being freely thrown in to improve the
One important word to scholars interested in the science of Com-
parative Religion. One scholarly gentleman cited by Professor Cheyne
(see his Bampton Lectures for 1891, p. 434) was so far scandalized at
the uncertainties of the Gäthäs that he feared, as he said, ‘even after
Mills’ translation1 to use them as materials in Comparative Theology; but
it should be well noted that the uncertainties of the Gäthäs chiefly con-
cern closer detail. The terms which they use are such, and the cha-
racter of their syntax is such that they almost always afford us alter-
native certainty. If one idea is not exactly expressed, then another
closely kindred to it is present.
To the philolog the difference is great, and the controversies will
probably only be decided by external interests, but to the student of
Comparative Theology it is very often really indifferent what one of
two, three, or even four somewhat differing casts may be given to any
single strophe, as each view abounds in the characteristic religious tone
of the whole, and where a particularly striking idea may be only pos-
sibly present in one place it, may generally be found without any doubt

in some other1. The uncertainties of the Gäthäs should trouble Compa-
rative Theology scarcely more than those of the Old Testament, and
this can be easily verified from this or other books
There should be some profit for specialists in the general grouping
of the differing translations aside from their more immediate study.
The differences in these historical renderings in the Pahlavi, San-
skrit, and Persian from those adopted by us of to-day should be highly
salutary in the lesson which they convey. The imperfections, self-
contradictions, and at times puerile suggestions which appear in them
furnish one of the most interesting cases of traditional uncertainty ever
succinctly presented, and are nearly as important in warning us against
implicit confidence in ‘tradition’ as their, on the whole, astonishing
approaches to accuracy are important to warn us against its neglect.
Specialists in Vedic and even those in Semitic exegesis should read
these commentaries carefully if only to learn how curiously ancient critics
could err, as well as how wonderfully they could succeed; and they should
apply the lesson gained to their own departments, neglecting no ancient
hints, but taking special care not to follow them implicitly, above all
things to distrust what seem to be at first sight their indications as to
With these remarks I offer my texts again, and this time not only
to specialists but to the public, and I do not think that any scholar
will deny that they form a useful book; but 1 must warn inexperienced
readers that such productions, unless carefully guarded by a body of
pupils, are apt to become the objects of jealous opposition, sometimes,
as we have too sadly seen in the past history of Zend philology, of a
jealousy excited to a morbid pitch.
It would even seem at times as if this contemptible passion afforded
the only factor in criticism, and as if it were all the more prevalent
the higher the sphere of labour in which it has its play. Individuals
engaged in the humblest mechanical pursuits sometimes present a favour-
1) For instance, what difference does it make to Comparative Theology whether
the composer said ‘finding the way to Ahura’, or ‘finding the throne of Ahura’?; each
is a valuable idea, and one or the other is certainly present in Y. 28, 5. Or take
even line c; we may have there either ‘we keep off the flesh-devouring fiends’, or ‘we
convert their polluted victims’. But either is a good theological idea, and often repro-
duced in its main meaning in different places.

able contrast in this respect with those engaged in the most important
L. H. Mills.
[Since printing the above a discovery has been made which adds
greatly to the value of the MS. D. (or Pt.4). We are now convinced
that its descent can be traced from a copy made early in the eleventh
century (through a copy made by an ancestor of the writer of K.& and
J. 2) to the well-known copy by Hoshang Siyavakhsh (a writer of A. D.
1478) which must have been brought to India, as Destour* Darab Peshotan
Sanjana says it was from it that Pt.4 (D.) was copied in 1780*, as
well as another copy which he has; Mf.4 (or Mf.) is also a third copy
from this Hoshang’s MS. I will take a later opportunity of referring
to the remoter original of these three precious copies (an original of
different family from DJ. (J.2) and K.5). But whether we can fix its
date in the eleventh century or not, one thing is certain, and that is
that this D. (Pt.4) is a verified copy of a MS. written only 155 years
after DJ. (J.2), and K.5 and from a distinctly different original. I must
also add that we have probably discovered that DJ. (J.2) is older than
K. 5, but more of this hereafter. I should add that my notes of the
variations in Mf.4 (or Mf. which stands for the Moolla* Feeroz* Library
in Bombay) were lent me by Dr. West, he having transcribed them
in his copy of Spiegel's text together with his notes of DJ. (J.2) and
D. (Pt.4)]. May 1892.
Dec. 1893. Zendists do not now need to be told that the date till
recently assigned to the MS. DJ. (J.2) as Dec. 9, 1323 A. D. has been
deceided by West, Darmesteter and myself to be impossible, and that
we have fixed upon Jan. 26, 1323 A. D. as the proper date. The question
will be found reasoned out in my paper ‘On the Zend MSS. recently
presented to the Bodleian Library7 read at the Ninth International Con-
gress of Orientalists held in London on Sep. 10% 1892 (see the Trans-
actions, Vol. II, pages 517, 518 *) and later in my Introductory note to
the collotyped Edition of the MS. DJ. (J.2) pages VI and VII.
With regard to that MS. I have a little explanation to make.
My distinguished colleague Professor Darmesteter has relieved the uni-
formity of generous praise by calling attention to the fact that I do
not cite some marginal glosses which appear on its folios those of DJ»

(J.2)* *1, but he omits to state that these scraps of sentences have little if
anything to do with the text-substance of the Pahlavi Commentary, for
they are quite generically different from the usual glosses. Their chief
connection with the text is their for the most part superfluous or value-
less indication as to who the leading speakers are; but this is either
obvious from the texts themselves or else doubtfully explained by these
trivial comments. On the other hand I might pleasantly retaliate and
ask why my friend does not cite them, as they have some reference to
ritual with which his work especially deals. The Pahlavi texts in this
present book are treated in close connection with other matter and
space could not be spared for such additions here for the reason that
they were all to be published in fac-simile elsewhere*2. I may also add
an article in a prominent periodical explaining them in detail.
At this late date I may be permitted to say a word by way of
retrospect as to one minor feature of my work, viz my Persian text.
I am more than ever pleased that I have edited it for we have had
some rich results from it. All scholars, I trust, appreciate the high
value of Darmesteter’s advanced suggestions even where we are not able
to follow them; but we owe some of the most striking of them to this text;
compare for instance gazishn in Y. 30, 11 which is accepted by D. while
wrongfully rejected by Haug, West, and myself (see however my improve-
ments, page 622), and then zuzag at Y. 53, 7 gave us D.’s interesting
views there*3; see also Y. XXXIV, 5 where D.’s piquant remark as to
the Dervishes finds its original in the Parsi-persian darvishän, and so
I have endeavoured in my Paper on the Zend MS. and in these
last texts to point out once more, and with more emphasis than ever
See the Revue Critique of Paris, Sep. 18th 1893. I am particulary gratified
that both Justi and Darmesteter accept what I am forced to term my important dis-
covery that some Zend letters are polyphones; see the Göttingische Gelehrten An-
zeigen of May 15th 1893, and Darmesteter’s translation Vol. Ill, p. xcn as compared
with S.B. E. XXXI, p. xxxiv, and this work in the Commentary here and there throughout.
*2 See the Ancient MS. of the Yasna . . . generally cited as J.2 now in the pos-
session of the Bodleian Library edited with an introductory note by L. H. Mills, DD., etc.
Oxford at the Clarendon Press MDCCCXCIII, price 10guineas, pp. 348-441, 542-601.
*3 That Professor D. has made an oversight as to the meaning laklwdr yckavi-
müned (which occurs in the sense of ‘recoil from’ ‘khvetü-dath’, cp. Y. 45, 3; see also
lakhvär, Y. 46, 4), does not detract from the stimulating character of his suggestion.

the self-stultification which results from rendering the Pahlavi trans-
lations as if they were continuous documents written in the good Pahlavi
of the Arda Viräf, and I have still more clearly shown them to be
a mass of partly literal, partly free, and at times (be it remarked)
alternative translations and comments; and I would again say that to
treat them without the closest recognition of these facts would be mere
incompetence if it were not also imposture.
I should here thank a few of my friends for glancing over my
Latin verbatim translations as proof-readers thereby saving me from
several oversights; but I should say that my object was to explain the
subject by word-for-word renderings to be studied by students at the
finger’s point, and not to execute a piece of dilettanteism by adhering to
terms of the classical period which could not express so fully more
modern ideas. I have been somewhat gratified as well as surprised to
learn from these gentlemen (who are not experts in Zend) that they not
only make out the meaning of these verbatims and paraphrases, but
even find them of interest.
One final word as to a more recent conjecture that the Gäthäs,
while being the oldest part of the Avesta, are with the rest of it so
modern as the year One*. As all students are aware an opinion
practically identical with this had been carefully considered in the
shape of a doubt by all Zend-scholars and rejected as untenable. I re-
member Professor Roth’s speaking of the reasons which induced him to
believe the Gäthäs to be genuine and therefore remotely ancient; but
I believe that I was historically the first person who ever published the
oft-investigated query: see S. B. E. XXXI. Introduction, p. xxxvi fig.
No one in rude and uncultured Iran in AD. I, or near it, could forge such docu-
ments as the Gäthäs with all their pulsation of personal life; and that
there was actually a King of the name of Vishtäspa and a prophet
called Zarathushtra at that late date seems equally incredible.
Our conclusion is that we have no alternative; we must accept
the documents as genuine notwithstanding their remarkable character;
and we must place them at such a period in history as is indicated
by logical conclusions from the facts.

Gätha(ä) Ahunavaiti(i) (Yasna cap. 28—34).
Transliteration. Yänim manö yänim vacho yänim s(k)yaothnem ashaonö
Zarathustrahe [=°hya]. (b) Fra Ameshä Spentä Gäthäo geurväin*1. (c)Nemo ve
Gätlläo ashaonis! (The letter v often = English w throughout, and w = v.)
Verbatim transl. Beneficium-corroborans [est] cogitatio, beneficium ver-
bum, beneficium actio sancti Zarathushtrae. Ad-verbum [i. e. amplius, prorsus]
Immortales Benefici Gäthas faciant-ut-excipiant (vel G. excipiant)]. Laus
vobis, Gäthae sanctae!
Pahl. text transliterated. Yän minishnö, va1 yän göbishnö, va yän
künishnö2* yehevünd i3 aharübö Zaratüshtö. [Minishnö, va3 göbishnö, va3
künishnö i1 frärünö räi4, pavan nadükih arjänik yehevünd]. (b) Fräz
Ameshöspendänö Gäsänö5 vakhdünd, [aighshänö6 pavan stl fraz däshtö]. (c)
Niyäyishnö avö leküm, Gasänö i aharübö!
1 DJ. oin. 2 D. ins. gl. as P. 3 DJ. ins. 4 D. orn. 5 DJ. omits kard va, D. om.
kard. 6 so DJ. and D.; Sp. and M.1 mun; see thePers. *Mf. ins. i, and then as D. and P.
Pahl. transl. A blessing was the thought, and a blessing was the
word, and a blessing was the deed of the holy Zaratüsht. [On account of
pious thoughts, words, and deeds he was deserving of happiness], (b) The
Ameshöspends took forth the Gäthas, [that is, held them forth in the
world], (c) Praise to you, ye sacred Gäthas!
Ner.’s sansk. text, translit. Qobhanamanälh]1 <;obhanavachä[h]2, (jobhana-
karmä3 babhüva punyätmä Jarathu§tra[hj. [Manasah vachasah karmanah

Trlit. Ahyä yäsä nemanhä ustäna-zastö raf(e)dhrahyä
Mainyeus* Mazdä paourvim [°viyem] spentahyä Ashä vispeng s(k)yaothnä
Vanheus khratüm Mananhö yä khshnevishä Geuschä (U)r[u]vänem.

â– I
Ahuna’ metre,
The Anthem called ‘ Ahuna
and following the
Free transl. A strengthening* * blessing*^§4fee^fought, a blessing is the
word, a blessing is the deed of the holy Zarathushtra. Forth-on* (continu-
ously) may the Bounteous Immortals take up (or ‘cause men to take up’)
the chants, (c) Praise to you, ye sacred Anthems!
sadvyäpäratvät §ubhänurüpo babhüva, yady asau evaiii chakara]. (b) Pra-
krishtam Amaränäm Mahattaränäm Gäthäh samjagräha, [kila, täh pahktyä
[-tyäm*] nidargayäm4 äsa [sa]5 pahktyä [-tyäm*] nidarganäya6. Käryaiii idaih
babhüva yady7 asau7 vismartum7 nasa8 [(?) na tad (täh)] yatobhyah9 [(?)yatebh-
yah] komalä10 yathä sarve ’pi käryanyäyäh11 ye samagrebhyah Avistäarthebh-
yah prakatäh tän antar gäthäsu nidargayäiii äsa, täbhyah12 pranämaiii13 chakre],
(c) yat: namo yushmabhyam, he Gäthäh punyätmanyah! * Anusvära omitted.
1 J.3. J.* Omanä, C., P. Omanasä. 2 J.3, J.* °vacliä, P., C. °asä. 3J.3, P. karmä, but
C., °manä. 4J.3, J.*, P. ß all seem sä. °all nidargayanäya. 7J.* om. 8J.3, J.*, P. nas-,
but J.4, C.narä. °J.* 10 JA J.* °la, C. °lo. 11 J.* °yenya. 12 J.* «bhyam; J.30bhya*. 13 so all.
Ner. transl. The holy Jarathustra was good in thoughts, words, and
deeds; [from good conduct in thought, word, and deed he was deserving of
happiness, if so he did]. He took up the Gäthäs of the Greater Immortals,
[i. e. he revealed them in the world for manifestation. This was his deed
(or ‘object’), if he made them, or ‘it’(?), easy to those bound* by them* that
they might not forget them, as he also made manifest in the Gäthäs all the laws
of duty which are revealed by all the Avista-interpretations, and established
a worship by, or ‘ for ’, them], (c) wherefore: Praise to you, 0 sacred Gäthäs!
Parsi-persian Ms. Wa yän minishn, wa yän göbishn, wa yän künishn [neki rä pah neki
arzani = frärün rä pavan nadüki arzani\ bud ashö Zaratusht w [Minishn, göbishn,
künishn i frärün (?) [ ] pah neki arzäni büd] & (b) Fräz Amshäsfendän Qäsän girift (?)
[kü] [ ] [iz(a)dän = (space), no text] [ ] gurüli fräz däsht (?) # (c) Niyäyishn
än shumä Gäsän i ashö & (The letter w = English v; but see pages 154—275).
Fr. With hands outstretched I beseech, with praise for this grace, the first blessing,
All actions done in the Right, gift of, Mazda, Thy bounteous spirit,
And the Good Mind’s understanding, thus the soul of the Kine appeasing.*
* Exact reproductions of metre and words are not here attempted.
Verbatim transl. Hujus precibus-contendo[-am] laude* erectas-manus-
habens gratiae (b) Spiritus*, 0 Magni-donator (P)*1 (vel, 0 Sapiens*1 (?)), primum
[donorum omnium] bene - largiti*, [ut] sanctitate erga-omnes [vel omnia*]
facta [consummata sint], (c) [et] Bonae intelligentiam Mentis [hanc etiam exoro]
qua satisfaciam Bovisque-animam [-mae]. *4 Vel. lege °däo, a-spiritu Mazda (?).

XXVIII. 1, 2.
Pahl. textltranslit. Zak [mozd i valman i1 Aüharmazd nafshman]2
bavihunam pavan niyäyishnö3 [amat dädakgöbih i4 Yazadänö5 shapiränö vädu-
nam-e6], aüstänö-yadman [mimshnich7] pavan rämishnö [i nafshman] (b) pavan
minavadikih3 Auharmazd3 fratum8 [pavan Gäsänikih] afzäyinishnö Aharäyih i
pavan harvispö9 künishnö, [aigh, künishnö10 harnak11 pavan Gäsänikih künish-
nö], (c) pavan zak i Vohüman12 khirado13 [pavan äsnö khirado] shnäyinishnö14
l Göshäürvan*15, [aigh, pährejö1 i gospendän pavan dänäkih künishnö].
1 DJ. 2 M. ins. benafshman. 3 D. i. 4 DJ. om. 5 D. ins. va. 6 D. °yen. 7 D. °ik.
8 DJ. avia. 9 so DJ. 10 D. ins. mindavam. 11 DJ. and D. 12 D.* vohuman; DJ. valnian. 13 DJ., va. 14D., others shnayishnö. 15DJ., D., MJgeush0. (D. arrived* later* here; Mf. follows it).
Pahl. transl. I pray with praise [for that reward of Him who is
Auharmazd Himself when I would effect the mediation of the Good Yazads],
lifting up the hand [also the mind] for [its own] joy, (b) seeking through
the spirituality [the Gathic doctrine], the first gift of Auharmazd, the
righteousness of* the* blessing* which is to be fulfilled toward all, [that is,
all actions should be done in accordance with the Gathic doctrine]; (e) and
through a good mind’s* wisdom [even innate wisdom] 1 pray for the satisfying of
Göshäurvan*, [that is, the care of the herds is to be undertaken with wisdom].
Ner.’s sansk. text. Asya samihe1 namaskaranena [asya, iti, Hormij-
dasya svädhinam prasädam samihe, kila yachnam2 Svamini* (?) uttame* (?)
karomi] uttänahastah pramodena (b) adri^yasya Mahäjnäninah pürvarii

Tri if. Ye Väo Mazda Ahurä
Maibyö dävöi ah[u]väo
Äyaptä Ashäd(t) hachä
Verbatim transl. [Ego]
pairi-jasäi Vohü Mananhä
astvataschä hyad(t)chä mananhö
yäis rapantö* daidicl(t)** väthre [=huv°].
qui Vos, Mazda Ahura, circum-ibo* Bona
cum-Mente, (b) mihi ad-dandum [este1] duarum-vitarum, corporalis, quod-
que [ejus-quae] mentis-est, (c)praemia-attacta*2 Sanctitate ex, quibus [Sanctitas
(?) ea] gaudio-accipientes ponet in beatitudine[-nem]. *x i. e. date. *2 obtenta.
Pahl. text translit. Mün1 avö Leküm, Auharmazd, barä yämtünäni2
pavan3 Vohüman3, [aigh pavan frärünöih bündak barä val4 khveshih5 i Le-
küm6 madö hömanäni7], (b) avö li yehabünedö pavan kolä II (dö) ahvänö, i ast-
hömandän, va münich minavadänö [nadükih i3 latamman va3 zakich i3 tam-
man] (c)8 ävädih min Aharäyih aväkih, [aigham padikhvih9 pavan frärünöih
yehabüned] mün avö10 valmann+12 räminidär yehabüned khvärih12 [pavan
rämishnö barä12 aväyad kardanö]. (Mf. is almost identical with D. throughout.)

XXVIII. 1, 2. 5
prithulatayä* 3 punyaiii viqveshu karmasu, [kila, karma sarvani Gäthäbhih
käryaiii], (c) Uttamasyacha buddhyä Manasah [*naisargikabuddhyä4], yä sat-
kärayitri5 6 Goiätmanah. [Pratiyatnaiii gopa$unäiii* parijnänatayä kurute].
(Dviväram väcliyo gujastah . . . ). 1 J * °hena. 2 J.*. 3 J.3, J.4, C., P., but J *
°tvena. 4 J.4, but J.3, J* °gikä°, P. °giki°. 5 J.4 (?); J.3, C. °käyitri, J.* °yayitri.
Ner. transl. I seek His gift by means of adoration [‘his’, thus;
I desire Hormijda’s absolute (or ‘own’) grace; that is, I make a request (the
Lord being** good)] with hands stretched out in joy, (b) beseeching for that
which is the first thing in greatness which belongs to the Great Wise Spirit,
sanctity in all deeds, [that is, every deed is to be accomplished in accor-
dance* with* the Gäthäs, (they representing all sanctity)], (c) and with the
wisdom of the highest mind [with the innate* wisdom] which is reverential*
toward Gorätman, that is, one makes careful effort for the herds, and in
an understanding manner]. (This text is to be repeated twice, etc.). *Cp. Y. 22,29 (Sp.).
Parsi-persian Ms. An [muzd z’ll i Hormuzd khwesh] khwäham pah niyäyishn, kilija-
dangöi i lz(a)dän i vehän [] [kuuand = vägünancl(sio)\ bar-däsht-dast [minishn] pah rämishn
[/ khwesh] #. (b) Pah minüi Hormuzd awwal [pah Gäsäni] afzäyishn Sawäb i pah tamäm
kunishn, [ku, kunishn [chiz = mandum (sic)] tamäm pah Gäsäni kunishn] w (c) Pah
an i Bahman*1 khirad, [pah as(a)nidah (?) khirad], — i pasüshüruu* [= p°], [kü, par-
warishn i gosfendän pah dänäi kardan(?)] *N.B. see D. arrived after printing Comm.
Free tr. I who You two encircle, Great Giver the Lord, with the Good Mind,
Gifts for the two lives grant me, this bodily life and the mental,
The prizes by Right deserved; thus to Glory he brings his blest*.
1 So D.; Mf. amat. 21)J., D. °and. 3 so DJ., D. 4 DJ. val lekurn. 5 D. nafshmanih.
6 DJ. om. 7 DJ., M. °and. 8 DJ., D. om. va. 9 DJ. no d. 10 Sp., M., DJ. val. 11 DJ. val. 12 D.
ins. i, see Pers. (The MSS. write °änd for °äni; hereafter I will seldom notice the fact.)
Pahl. tri. I who, (or ‘When I’ (amat*)), 0 Auharmazd, shall come to You through
Vohuman, [that is, when, perfect in piety, I shall have come fully into Your
possession], (b) give Ye* [happiness] to me for both lives, that which is bod-
ily and also that of the spirits, [that is, that here and that beyond], (c)
even prosperity from the aid* of Sanctity, [that is, give me abundance
through piety] by which he gives glory* (or 'happiness’) to that gladdener,
[that is, it is necessary to effect it for the sake of joy], *Or ‘accompaniment’.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Yadi Yushmasu, Mahajnanin Svarnin, sariipräpnomi
Uttamena Manasä, [kila, chet sadvyäpäritayä** svädhinatve1 Yushmakaiii ägato
’smi], (b) mahyarii deyät2 ubhayor bhuvanayor yat srishtimatam, yachcha pa-
ralokinäiii (c) aiqvaryaiii* punyät saiiiyogi, [kila me samriddhatvarii sadvyäpä-
rät präpyarii dehi], yad3 änandakartre däsyati §ubhani, [yah Iajadänäm4 Uttamä-

XXVIII. 2, 3.
näiiicha anandam karoti, tasmai yat samriddhatvarii gubhäni däsyati, tan me
dehi]. 1 P., but J.3, J.4, J.* * °tvena. 2 so J.3, J.*, P., but J.4, C. dehäyat*. 8 J.3, J.4,
J.* yat, P. yata, C. yad. 4 J.*, P. **cp. vyäpärin.
Ner. transl. If I arrive among You, 0 Great Wise One the Lord,
through the Best Mind, [that is, if I have come into Your possession through
my good conduct], (b) let him (?) grant me for both worlds (that which is of
the earthly, and that which belongs to those who live beyond) (c) a sove-
reignty accompanying me* (?) from rectitude, [that is, grant me the success to
| • ■uj£t^u • ♦ ^*0 3.
• Ac-"» |
Trlit. Ye väo Ashä ufyäni Manaschä Vohü apaourvim [= °viyem]
Mazdämchä Ahurem yaeibyo Khshathremcha aghzhaonvam[ä]nem*
Var(e)daiti Är[a]maitis ä moi raf(e)dhrai zaveng jasatä.
Verbatim tri. [Ego] qui Vos celebrabo, Sanctitas, Mensque Bona, [cantu]
sine - exemplo** [vel eum*-nullum-primum*-habentem*] Mazdamque Ahuram
(Dominum (vel deum)), quibus Ptegnumque immutabile* auget [vel augens (?)]
Pietas; ad* mei [vel mihi (fortasse me)] gratiae [gratiam-dandi-causa ad] in-
vocationes [meas] venite, [vel veniat* Pietas (?)]. * Lit. non-fluens.*
Pahl. text translit. Mün1 lekum, Ashavahishto, nafshman homanani
Vohümanöich* i2 fratüm, [aigh, pavan khveshih i3 lekum yekavimünäni4], (b)
va Auharmazdich [ash nafshman homanani] munash zak i valmanshänö
khüdäyih5 pavan anizar-vindishnih, [aighash shalitaih*6 madam Ameshospen-
dänö stavar]; (c) valmanich i2 värishn* dädär7 Spendarmad [ash nafshman
homanani]. Zak8 avö li pavan rämishnö pavan karitünishnö yämtüned.
[Amat9 Tänö avö10 karitünäni, am pavan rämishnö madam glial yämtuned].
1 So D. mün. 2 DJ., D. ins. 3 DJ. om. 4 D. °nam. 5 D. °yän. 0 DJ. pädakli-
sliah; D. °ih; DJ. no i, others i. 7 M. om. 8 M. om. 9 so DJ., D.; Sp. aigh; M. om.
10 DJ., D. * Perhaps vahrishn* is possible as meaning ‘ increase
Pahl. transl. I who* shall be your* own*, 0 Ashavähisht and Vohu-
man, the first, [that is, I shall be in your possession], (b) Aühar-
mazd’s also [His own I shall be], through whose unweakened acquisition
his rule over them exists, [that is, His rule over the Ameshospends is firm];
(c) and she** also Spendarmad, is** the giver* of outpouring (or ‘increase’ to
that* rule*) [her own I shall be]; she comes to me with joy, when I invoke
her*1. [Or*1 ‘when I shall call upon You, come Ye on toward me with joy’.]

XXVIII. 2, 3.
be obtained by means of good conduct] when he will give felicities, or
‘glories’, to the producer of joy. [What he will give to the one who produces
the joy of the exalted Yajads, as prosperity and felicities, give that to me].
Parsi-pers. Ms. Kih änShumä, H., bih [] [rasand — jdmtunand (sic)] pah Bahman,
[kü, pah neki pur bih [] [6= o] khweshi i Shumä rasid [] [hastand = homunhend*]],
(b) an man dehad** 1 pah har do jihän*2, i ast-homand (sic), [ ] kih ham [neki =
nadüki] i minuwän, [ [] i injä u an ham i änjä], (c) nihnat az Sawäb —, [kü, — pah
neki dehad*1] kih [] [6 in = mr an (sic pro val an)] i ü rämishni (so) dehad äsäni. [Pah
rämishn bih bäyad kardan] Deli0 seems more original than dih°. *2 or jalian.
Fr. 0 Righteousness and thou Good Mind, with surpassing chants I’ll praise you,
And Mazda, for whom our Piety aids the everlasting kingdom,
Aye, together I adore you; then for grace while I call draw near.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Yadi yushmakarii, he Agavahista*, he Dharma, svädh-
ino ’smi Manasagcha Uttamasya prathamasya, [asya prathamatvarii idarii
yad Amarebhyo Mahattarebhyo1 prathamaiii Gvahmano dattah, kila, chet
svadhinataya yushmakam tishthami], (b) Mahajnanin Svämin2, [asya ’pi
svädhino ’smi] yebhyo räjyamcha analyalabdhyä*3(?) [kila, parthivatvam sthu-
lataram] (c) vriddhidaya^cha Spindärmadäyäh [prithivyäh. Asyagcha dadi-*4
svädhino ’smi] tan me änande ämantranecha sariiprapnuvantu, [yadi Yush-
makam abhimantrayami, tan me änande upari präpnuta]. * Cp. Burnouf’s ‘al’.
1 So J.*. 2 J.*, P, °minah. 3 J.3; J.4 analyaläbdhyä, J.* °labdhyäm’; C. anatyalab-
dhe (?); P. ama(ly)alabdhya (Sp.). 4 J.* yadi(?). Sandhi is intermittingly applied throughout.)
Ner. transl. If I am your own, 0 Agavahista, 0 Sanctity, the
property* of* the Best Mind, the first, [his firstness was this, that Gvahmana
was created* before the Immortal Greater ones, that is, if I stand in Your
absolute possession], (b) 0 Great Wise One the Lord, [I am also His pro-
perty (related to his absoluteness)], for whom is the Kingdom with unimpe-
ded*1 acquisition (or 'the Kingdom with sinless(?)*2 acquisition’), [that is, the
greater kingdom], (c) the kingdom of the increase-giving Spindärmada also,
[the earth. And her own I am by, or ‘ as* ’, a gift]; and may these come to
me in joy, and in, or ‘through’, my appeal. [If I invoke Your help, then
come Ye on to me with* joy]. *1 See the PahL; Ner. may well have accepted an
'aP ‘to hinder’. *2 reading amalya0 (?).
Parsi-persian Ms. Kih shumä, Ardibahisht, khwesh hastend (?) u Bahman [] awwal, [kü,
pah khweshi i shumä estem] & (b) [] Hormuzd [— ash khwesh —] kish* an i öshänkhudäi
pah nizär(so)—, [küsh pädishähi awar Amshäsfendän buzurg], (c) u ham i — dädär Spen-
darmad, [ [wa — va] ash khwesh [] [no tri. for homunhend*] w An an man pah rämishn
pah khwanishn rased*, [kih tän än] [ ] [khwänand (?) = karitunhend] ma-rä pah rämishn
awar 6 (or ü) [] [rasad* = jämtüned (sic)] ] #

XXVIII. 4, 5.
Trlit. Ye (u)r[u]vanem men gaire Vohü clade hathrä Mananhä
Ashischä^?) s(k)yaothananäm* vidus Mazdäo Ahurahyä
Yavad(t) isäi tavächä avad(t) khsäi aeshe Ashahyä. 1J* ashischä.
Verbatim transl. [Ego] qui animam mentem [-que] ad laudem*(?), [vel ad
vigilantiam1] bona do [dirigo] cum Mente (b) beata-praemiaque factorum noscens
Mazdae Ahurae, (c) quamdiu possim, facultasque mihi sit tamdiu doceam [-ebo]
in-optatione2 Sanctitatis. 1 Vel lege gairim* = ad Montem, i. e. ad caelum. 2 optare (?).
Pahl. text translit. TMün rübäno den Garodmänö yehabüned2 pavan
aväkih i3 Vohüman [ae kolä mün yehabüned, ash4 pavan4 aväkih4 i4 Vohü-
mano4+5 yehabünd4 yehevüned], (b) afash tarsakäsihich6 (sic) g'hal7 künishnö-
karänö [mün valman7 räi vädünyen i sazed] äkäs yehevuned pavan zak
l Aüharmazd, [8Dinö i Aüharmazd]. (c) Chand khvästär tübänik hömanam
havänd (sic) ämükht-am (?) khvahishno i3 Aharäyih [kär va kirfak].
1 See P. 2 D. ins. ash*. 3 DJ., D. ins. i. 4 D. om. or lias later, also i. 5 DJ. ins.
6 Sp., M.; DJ. °agäih (so), D., °agäi- ich (?). 7DJ. ghal. 8DJ. ins. va. *Mf. om. ash. inD.’s a.
Pahl. transl. He who gives his soul up within Garodman (the Abode-
of-Song) in accompaniment with*1 Vohüman, [that is, when any one
gives it, it is so given by him in accompaniment with*1 Vohuman], (b) he
is also thereby*2 intelligent concerning*2 the *2veneration2* (?) for the doers of
good works [who would do what is fitting for the sake of that] through, or
Trlit. Asha kad(t) Thwä dar(e)sani Manaschä Vohü vaederaano1
Gätümchä [— °uem°] Ahuräi* sevistäi* Sraoshem Mazdai* *Dat. of goal(?).
Ana Mäthrä raazistem väjiröimaidi [= vavaröi0] Khrafsträ hizvä. 1 so J.* etc.
Verbatim transl. 0 Sanctitas, quando, [vel nonne*] te aspiciam inveniens*
[vel sciens*, ego] viamque [vel sedemque*] Ahurae (dat. vel loco gen.) bene-
ficentissimo[-mi ?] Oboedientiam*1 Mazdae. Illo sacro-rationis-verbo maxime*
[-mo2] faciemus-ut-credant** khrafstri* [-tris-daemonibus-servientes-homines]
lingua. 1 Fortasse ‘erga sanctum ohoedientem’. *2 fieri potest ‘in* maximum Ahuram
Pahl. text translit. Ashavahishtö, aimat lak khaditünam pavan
zak i Vohüman äkäs-dahishnih denman khavitünam? [aighat den zak daman

XXVIII. 4, 5.
Free tr. I, who my soul am giving
For every action the grace
In wish for the Truth will I teach
to watchful zeal with Thy Good Mind,
of Mazda, the Living One, knowing,
while I can, and have aught of power.
in, what is Auharmazd’s [Auharmazd’s Religion], (c) As long as I am, or
have been, a capable suppliant, so long have I inculcated, or do I inculcate
(for ämuzam) the desire of Righteousness [that is, duty and charity].
w 1 Or ‘by the aid of’. # 2 or ‘his is veneration’, but see the Gatlia.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Yä* atmane Garothmane Uttamasya diyate saha-
tayä (so) Manasah, (b) satkärinicha karmakritäm vettrinaiii Mahäjiiänin1,
yä Sväminah, [kila, satkäraiii tasmai kurute yasya yujyate kartuiiiyo2 vettä
bhavati Dinyä Hormijdasya] * • •. (c) Yavanthii (sic) yachayituiii (jakto ’smi,
tavantim* yächaye yächanäiii punyasva.
1 C. repeats from sat0 to °ni (sic) inclus. both °jhanin. 2 J.3, C. yo, but J.*, P. yä.
Ner. transl. She (sic) who is given up for (or in) the soul in Garothmäna
with the helping* companionship* of the best mind, (b) performing that act of
reverence, or satisfaction which is of, or for, the intelligent doers (?) of good
actions, 0 Great Wise One, she who is the Lord’s, [that is, she renders reverence,
or satisfaction, to him to whom it is fitting to render it, and who is intelligent
through Hormijdas’s Din] • • •. (c) As long a prayer* as I am able to pray, so
long do I offer (or cause to be offered) the prayer for (or of) righteousness.
Parsi-persian Ms. Kih ruwän den (sic) Garotman dehad [ash= ash] pah — ZBahman,
[e bar kih dehad ash pah — i Baliman [ ] [dehad = dabanecl (sic)] bed]# (b) /Vzasli (sic)
bandagi ham 6 — [kihürä kunand [ ]] ägäh bed (sic) pah an i Hormuzd, [Din Z Hormuzd] #
(c) Cliand khwästar tuwän hastam, [] ämükhtom (sic) khwahishn i Sawäb, [kär [ ] kirfali].
Free tr. 0 Righteousness, when shall I see Thee, and thou Good Mind, as I
Obedience, the path* to the Lord, to Mazda, the most beneficent?
With that Manthra will we teach foul heretics faith on our God.
khaditunam, amat1 kolä aish pavan frärunih äkäs, barä aimat yehevuncd ?],
(b) va2 gäsich i Aüharmazd [aimat khaditunam], i süd khvästär? [Zak gas]
pavan Srösh [khavituni-ait], [aigh, amat dastobar yakhsenund shäyacl kliavi-
tunast3 aigh nadiikih i4 min zak5 gas maman]. (c) Zak Mänsar i mahist
ash hemnuninishnö yehabunishnö valinan mün khiradö staredö yekavimuned
pavan6 hüzvänö6, [valmanich6 mun6 khiradö6 staredö6 yekavimuned6, ash
mindavam7 denman pählum8, amat Aerpatistänö9 vadunyen],
1 So Mf.; D. mun. 2 DJ. om. va. 3 D. khavitunastano. 4 D. ins. i. 5 DJ. ins.
piin (late). 0 D. om. 7 DJ. ins. ae late. 8 D. shapir. 9 so DJ., D., see Pers.
Pahl. transl. 0 Ashavahisht, when do (shall) I see Thee?, and know this
)y that which is a good mind’s instruction?, [that is, I (shall) see Thee in

XXVIII, 5. 6:
that time when every man is intelligent (or aware of it) through piety, but
when shall it be?] (b) and the place, or seat, of Aüharmazd, [when do (shall)
I see it], I a suppliant for a benefit? [That place is known] through Srosh,-
[that is, when they have a Dastür, they, or he ought to know what the
happiness which comes from that place is], (c) That, or to that (oblique
by pos.) Manthra which is the (or of the) greatest, to it belongs the giving
of the teaching by tongue to him whose understanding is confused, [for him
also whose understanding is perverted this thing is the best, that they
should hold priestly-assemblies for his instruction].
Ner.’s sansk. text. He Agavahista, he Dharma, kadä Tväiii pagyämi
Manasa1 Uttamasya vettritaya*, [kila, tarn kalaiii kadä pagyämi yatra Tväiii
sarvah ko’pi sadvyäpäritayä* [-rena] vettä bhavati], (b) sthäuaiiicha Svämino
läbhäbhiläshatah* Qrogena2 parijneyaiii3, [tad api kadä pagyämi? Chet guruiii
grihnanti, gaknuvanti parijnätuiii yat gubham tasmät sthänät kiiii], (c) yatah
säVäni mahattarä aparasmät kasmächchit yä prabodhadä buddhijadäya jihvayä,
[yah buddhijado bhavati tasya kiiiichit idaiii eva utkrishtataraih, yat adh-

Trlit. Vohu gaidi Mananhä däidi ashä-däo dar(e)gäyu
Ereshväis Tu ukhdbäis Mazdä Zarathusträi aojönhvad(t) raf(e)no
Ahmaibyächä Ahurä yä d(ai)bishvatö dvaeshäo taurvayämä.
Verbatim tri. Bona veni Mente, da Santitatis-praemia-dator vitam- longin-
quitate-productam* rectis(vel elatis), tu, verbis, 0 Mazda, Zarathushtrae validam
gratiam, nobisque, Ahura, qua vexatoris vexationes devincamus. #Vel iu-vitam-10.
Pahl. text translit. ^ämtünishnö i2+3 Vohuman [avö tanö* i aishänö]
yehabünäi-m4, Ashavahishtö dahishnö i5 derjänih, [aigham3 zak mindavam
al yehabünäd6 i pavan tanö* i pasinö7 lakhvär aväyänd8 yektelünd]. (b)
Pavan zak i7 rästö sakhün Lak, Aüharmazd, val Zaratusht [numucl yeka-
vimuned at] min valman i9 aöj-hömänd, [Vishtäsp ait, aighat], räminishnö9
[hömanam], [aighat pavan nadükih fräz avö khüdäyänö debrunishnö hömanam],
(c) va manikänich10, Aüharmazd, [va11 hävishtänö i5 li afat pavan nadükih
fräz debrunishnö hömanend12] mün13 beshidäränö besh [yehevüned amat aetünö]
vädünyen turvinishnö, [aigh besh i13 min valmanshän akär yehevüned].
1 See Pers. 2 DJ. ins. 3D. ins. tan; Mf. not. 4 so Sp., M., but D. °bünem. 5 D. om. i.
6 so DJ., but Sp., M., D. dakäd. 7 DJ., om. 8 so DJ., Sp. aväyend. 0 DJ., D. 10 Sp.
M. ins. i. 11 DJ., D. om. 12 so DJ., M. liomand. 13 D. ins. (Mf. is almost ide ntical with DJ

yayanaiil kurute [-yät]]. 1 P. °sa, J.3, C. manasäm. 2 J.4, J.* (?) Qrogena. 3 Ö. -eyam.
Ner. transl. 0 Agavahista, 0 Sanctity, when do I see Thee by means
of the highest (i. e. the good) Mind’s insight, [i. e. when shall I see the
time when every man becomes acquainted with Thee by means (?) of good
conduct], (b) and token do 1 see the place of the Lord who desires an ac-
quisition to be recognized through Qroga?, [this too when do I see? If they
accept the spiritual master, they become able to recognize what the benefit
which comes from that place is], (c) because the Word is greater than any
other thing whatsoever, the Word which is a giving of knowledge to the
dull of understanding by means of the tongue, [the best thing for the dull
man is just this, that he should prosecute study].
Parsi-persian Ms. Ardibahist, kill Tu bin am pah an i Balnnan ägäh-dädan ? in
dänam ? [kut an dar an zaman binam, kill liar kas pah neki agali, kih bed (sic)?] & (b) []
Gah ham i Ilormuzd [— binam], i sud khwastar? # An gab pah Srösh [däned; ku kih
Pastür darad shayad dänistan kü neki az an gab chili], (c) An Manth(h)rah* (sic) i
mahist ash — dahishn u kih khirad bi-hush ested [] [ash cliiz in veil, kih magopatdäri
kunand]. w * Perhaps manhthrali (sic).
Fr. Come with the Good Mind, and give us | long life, 0 Thou giver of blessings.
Through revealed truth do Thou grant Zarathushtra Thy strong help;
Grant that to us by whose aid we may crush the tormentor’s torments.
Pahl. transl. Let there be the coming (infin. for imper.*1) of Vohuman
[into the bodies of persons]; and grant me Ashavahisht’s gift*2 which is long
life, [that is, may they, or he, not grant me that thing which in the final
body they may wish again destroyed ]. (b) Do Thou grant it through the
true word, 0 Auharmazd, to Zaratüsht, [it is revealed by Thee (or he has
revealed it for Thee). Thine it As] from, or by him who (? or that which) is the
strong \by Vishtäsp. That is, I am (I will be) Thy] gladdening, [that is, for
or by Thee I am carrying it (or to be carried (?)) forth as a benefit to the
rulers], (c) and mine also, 0 Auharmazd, [and my disciples are (will be)
also carrying it (or to be carried (??)) forth for, or by Thee for a benefit],
which [is] a torment of the tormentors [when thus] they shall do injury, [that is,
torment which is from them (the tormentors) is rendered, harmless by them}.
41 Qr ‘graut tpe coming’. *2 Ashavahishto-dahishno might — ‘giving A.’s gift’, a compos.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Uttamasya praptim Manasah dehi, he Dharma,
datiiii*1 dirghajiväih* [kila, me tat1 kiiiichid api ma2 prapnotu yena vapushi
pagchatye punali samihante hantuiii |. (b) Satyabhis tvaiii vagbhih* Mahajna-
nin, Jarathuqtro [’ham] balavattaman3 [Gustaspat] pramodayami, kila, f;ub-
haiii svamibhyah samihe datum], (c) madiyaQcha, Svamin, ye4 badhakaranaiii
badhaih nihantarah, [kila, <;ishya<;cha ye5 madiyäh, te ’pi Qubhaiii svamibhyah
samihante datum]. 1 J.3. J.* tat (?) kimchid api na. 2 J.* ma. 3 J.*, C. °man. 4 J.4. 5 corr.

XXVIII. 6, 7.
Ner. transl. Grant that acquisition of the best mind, 0 Sanctity, the
gift of long life, [that is, let nothing come to me on account of which, in
the later body, they may desire to slay anew], (b) I, Jarathustra, rejoice
Thee (?), 0 Great Wise One! on account of the true words which have
fallen from the most powerful [Gustäspa, that is, I desire to bestow happiness
from, or upon the lords], (c) and my people, 0 Lord, are rejoicing Thee, they
who are smiting the pain of the grievers, [that is, my disciples, they also
desire to confer happiness from, or upon, the lords]. Or ‘by means of’.

Trlit. Däidi Asha tarn ashim Vanheus äyapta Mananhö
Däidi tu Är[a]maite Vistäspäi aeshem maibyächa
Daostü, Mazda khshayächa, yäVemäthra* srevaema radäo. :J:Or °thrao.
Verbatim transl. Da, Sanctitas, hoc praemium-gratiae, Bonae proposita-
attacta Mentis, (b) da tu, Pietas, Vishtäspae rem-optam* 1, mihique, (c) des
tu, Mazda, dominansque*2 [id] quo Vestra Rationis-verba audiamus [nos-vobis-
efficaciter] servientes3. * Potest verti: ‘0 Sanctitas dominansque’; vide Ve.
1 Vigorem (?). 2 vel provide-tu(?). 3 fortasse (verba) valde-benigna (mäthräo radh°).
Pahl. text translit. ^ehabünäi-m2^3, Ashavahisht, zak i3 tarsakäsih4
(sic) i pavan Vohuman äväclih, faigham tarsakäsih (sic)5 i aetuno dahäd, i
pavan tanö* i pasinö lakhvär lä äväyänd6 yektelünd7]. (b) Afam yehabunäi-m8
lak, Spendarmad, zak i9 min9 Vishtäsp9 khvahishnö, [Magopatän10 Magöpatih10J
va manikänich, [hävishtän i li ashän Magopatän10 Magöpatih10 yehabün].
(c) Afam yehabunäi11 stäyidär12 päclakhshah13 Aüharmazd, [Vishtäspö] i
amat ae14 i Leküm Mänsar sräyeni15, [aigh, Diuö i Leküm yemalelunäni],
äräyishn yehabüned, [aigh, rübäk vädünyen].
1 See P. 2 DJ. °näi- m.; D. °nem. 3 DJ. ins. i. 4 so Sp., M., D. 5 so Sp. c so
DJ.; others °yend. 7 so DJ., D.; others °ünd. 8 M. °ih, DJ. ins. m. 9 so D. 10 so
DJ., I)., others man0. -ll DJ., D., M. °ih for °ai. 12 DJ., D. ins. i. 13 so I).; DJ. °sliäi.
or °shah, D. ins. i. 14 D, an (sic) ae i 1°, DJ. ae, M. I. ,ß so DJ., D., others stay0.
Pahl. transl. Grant me, 0 Ashavahisht, that revering recognition (?) (or
reverence) which is as, or through the blessing of a good mind, [that is,
may he grant me such veneration as that, in the final body, they shall not
desire to destroy it again], (b) Do thou also grant me, 0 Spendarmad, what
is to be asked for by, or from Vishtäsp, [that is, aMobadship of the Mobads],
and to mine also [to my disciples, to them also do thou give a mobadship of
the Mobads]; (c) and grant me also, 0 (?) ruler, Aüharmazd, a praiser (or

XXVIIL 6, 7.
Parsi-persian Ms. Rasishn [/tan (sic) = tan] /Bahman an tan i kasan [] [deli am =
dabnnam] Ardibahisht, [space] der - , [küm an mandum (sic) [] [wa (?) ma = rar (sic = va
al1*;] shad (sic, no text, but space*2) i pah tail i pasin baz bay ad jagtrüntan] & (b) Pah
an i rast sakhun Tu, Hormuzd, 6 Zartusht [namud ested - ] az ü i------Vishtasp hast kü
[]]ramishn [hastam], [kut, pah lieki fraz an khudayan — hastani], # (c) wa mäyän [ ],
Hormuzd, [ [] shägirdän i man ham [] pah neki fraz — hastand], [] äzär-dehandahgän
azar [bed kill edün] kunand shikastan, [kü, azar i az oslian akar bed (sic)]
*1 Perhaps it is va am = va li (?). 2 deliad was misread.
Freelr. Give, Righteousness, Thou this blessing | gains earned by a Good Mind
And grant our wish, 0 Ärmaiti,
Grant Thou us, 0 Mazda ruler,
to us,
to me, and to Vishtasp’ together.
Your beneficent* words to hear.
a praiser-king) [Vishtasp (?)] who, when I shall recite this your Manthra, [that
is, when I, or they (sräyend) shall proclaim your religion may make the
arrangements [so that they may (or, so do thou (?)) make it advance].
Ner.’s sansk. text. Dehi me1, Dharma, tarn bhaktiiii ya Uttamasya
adhyataya2 Manasah, [kila, marii bhaktigilarii evani kuru yatlia me sam-
riddhatvaiii* sadvyaparat]. (b) Dehi Tvam Sampurnamanase [prithivyam3]
Gustaspät ichchhäiii madiyebhyagcha, [kila, acharyanaih acharyatvaiii ma-
hyaiii dehi, gishyebhyo ’pi madiyebhyah]. (c) Dehi stotrin, Mahajnanin, pär-
thivän4, ye vo Väniiii vaktarah rachanädätärah, [kila, ye Tava Vaniiii gish-
yanti* pravartamanäiiicha kurvantij.
1 So J.4, others he. 2 so J.3, P.; C., adya°. 8 so P. 4 so J.3, J.4 seem, others °vat.
Ner. transl. Grant me, 0 Sanctity, the devotion (?), or blessed portion (?)
which is from the riches (?) of the Best Mind, [that is, make me so religious
that prosperity may result to me from my good conduct], (b) Grant Thou to
the perfect mind [in, or to, the earth] the wish that proceeds from Gustaspa,
and for, or from my people, [that is, grant me the tutorship (priestly dignity)
of the teachers, and also for my disciples, (c) Grant praisers, 0 Great Wise
One, kings, who may be announcers of your Word, and bestowers of ar-
rangements for the service, [that is, who may teach Thy Word, and render
it progressive].
Parsi-persian Ms. Deh am * J, Ardibahisht, [u = va] an i bandagi i pah [no tr. for
am----------------pah tan i pasin baz nah bäyad zadan] & (b) Ma-ra deliih tu, Spend-
armad an i az Vishtasp khwaliishn [Mobadan Mobadi] wa mäyän ham, — i ra (sic
pro man) ashan (sic) Mobadan Mobadi deh.] w (c) Ma-ra dehi sitündar läik*2 (:=pdtakh-
*ha) Hormuzd [Vishtasp] i kill [ ] [an = an] e i Shuma Manth(h)rah (sic) srayand, [kü
Din i Shuma [] ], arastah deliad, [kü, rawa kunand] w
*1 Perhaps deham = dabunam (?). :f: 2 or layik.

XXVIII. 8. 9,
.J^Q)>J.oZ? ♦ I J^O‘)'UO‘}$U^ • £!^ • "■/>*JJJJJJ
& ^O»»"|-UG
Trlit. Vahistem Thwä vahistä yem Asha Vahistä hazaoshem
Ahurem yäsa väunus naröi Frashaosträi maibyächä
Yaeibyaschä id(t) räohhahhöi vispai yave Vaiiheus Manahho.
Verbatim transl. Optimum [hoc] [a] Te, optime, quern [qui] cum-
Sanctitate optima unanimum [-mus sis], (b) A. precibus-peto, [id] exoptans viro
Frashaoshtrae, mihique, (c) [et-iis] quibus(que) illud*1 largiaris*2 omni [in-
omne] saeculo[-um] Bonae Mentis. ** vel vere (?) *2 vel largiar (?).
Pahl. text translit. 1 [Amat] pahlumih i2 Lako3 [Dino i4 Lak] i5 pallium
[min avärik mindavam] pavan Aharäyih6 pählüm val7 ham döshäni8, [pavan
frarünih], (b) Auharmazd, am pavan khvahishno vindinäi9 gabrä i Frashöshtar,
[aigham Frashöshtar pavan hävishtih bara yehabuu], manikanich [i2 Frash-
öshtar afash10 hävishtih yehabun]. (c) Avöch valmanshän adinö11 rädö ho-
manih12 hamäi13 vad avö14 vispö pavan Vohüman, [aigh Frashöshtar va hä-
vishtän i5 Frashöshtar vad tanö* i2 pasinö hamäi nadükih padash vädun].
1 See P. 2 DJ. om. i. 3 DJ., D. lak. 4 DJ. om. i. 5 DJ., D. ins. G D. ins. i.
7 DJ. val, D. avö, Sp., M. glial. 8 so DJ., D , others döshend, or0 eni. 9 so M., DJ.; D. °ili.
10so DJ.,D, n so DJ., D.; Sp. aito.12all °ih(?) for °ai. 13so DJ., D. 14 so Mf.; DJ. val; D. valman.
Pahl. transl. Since I, or they (döshänd) may have sympathetic affec-
tion for Thy#1 best interest [Thy Religion] which is [of all other things]
the best through Sanctity [through piety], (b) let me gain over, 0 (?)
Auharmazd, the man Frashöshtar in prayer, [that is, give up Frashöshtar
to me in discipleship], and my people also [do Thou give to* Frashöshtar in
his discipleship], (c) Be Thou also then bountiful to them for ever until all
AtHJ I ■»O»-“/?-)*-«■»■»O’•■wjjjj.uJ.uG
Trlit. Anäis Väo nöid(t) Aliurä Mazdä Ashemchä yänäis zaranaemä
Manaschä hyad(t) vahistem yöi Ve yöithimä daseme[=dasme(?)] stütäm
Yüzhem zevistyäohhö aeshö-khshathremchä savahhäm.
Verbatim tri. His Vos ne, Ahura Mazda, Sanctitatemque beneficiis-precibus-

XXVIII. 8, 9.
Free. tr. That best I ask, Thou Best One, One-in-mind with the Right
Of Thee, Ahura, I ask it, for Frashoashtra and me beseeching;
Freely to us may’st Thou give it, for the Good Mind’s lasting age.
through Vohuman, [that is, for Frashoshtar and the disciples of Frashoshtar
for ever, until the final body, provide a benefit thereby], w1 0 Thou (? om. i).
Ner.’s sansk. text. Utkrishtatäiii1 Te utkrishtataram yadi punyena2
utkrishtatarena saha mitrayamah, [kila, Te utkrishtataraiii aparasmät kas-
mächchit chet sadvyäparataya* Dini(iii) anugilayämah], (b) Svarnin, yacha-
nayäiii saiiiyataya3 naraiii Phregaostraiii4 madiyebhyagcha, [kila, me Phre-
gaostraiii5 gishyatayä dehi], madiyagchaf- an0] gishyäh[-än] Phregaosträya
dehi]. (c) Tebhyah tato dakshini bhava sadai ’va yävat sarvarii Uttamena
Manasä, [kila, Phregaosträya6, gishyebhyagcha Phregaostrasya, yävat vapuh
pägchätyaiii, gubhaiii tebhyah kuru].
1 So J.3, but C., P. °krishlam. 2 so J.3, P., but J.4 punye. 3 so J.3, J.4 4 J.3, J.4
phregi(i)ug° but J.* pharagaos0, P. Pliera-. 5 J.4 Plireg0, J.* phara0. 6 J.4phirag°, P. Phereg®.
Ner. transl If we befriend Thine excellent quality, or possession which
is the more (most) excellent with the most excellent Sanctity, [that is, if
we strive after Thy Religion, which is more excellent than any other thing,
with good conduct], (b) 0 Lord, unite the man Fregaostra (so) to my people in,
or according to my prayer, [that is, grant me Fregaostra in discipleship,
and grant my disciples to Fregaostra]. (c). Be bountiful to these with the
Best Mind henceforth, as long as until all, [that is, to Fregaostra and to
the disciples of Fregaostra do good, as long as until the later body].
Parsi-persian Ms. [Kih] bulandi i Tu [Din i Tu] i buland [az baki [] ] pah
Sawab buland' an ham [ ] [pah neki] # (b) Hormuzd man pah khwahishn basil mard i
Frashoshtar, [ku, [ ] Frashoshtar pah shagirdi bih deli] —, [/ Frashoshtar azasli (sic)
shagirdi deli] w (c) An ham öshän agar (? = pahl agin) rad [u = va} hasti tamam
ta an tamam pah Bahman, [kü, Frashoshtar, u — i Frashostar, vad (sic) tan i pasin
taniam neki az u kun]. #
Free. With prayers for these blessings, 0 Mazda and Asha, may we not pain you,
And Best Mind, we who aid you in the tenfold (?) chorus of praisers.
Propitious verily be Ye toward the mighty possessor of weal,
rogatis vexemus (vel iis beneficiis instillatr (sic)) mentemque quod [quae]
optimum [-ma], nos qui Vobis servivimus in decade [vel sacrificio] laudantium.
(c) Vos promoventes [este erga eum] secundum-optationem-suam-dominan-
temque (vel possessoremque) beneficiorum. * vel inspirati.
Pahl. text translit. Anayätünishnih* räi1 avöLeküm, Aüharmazd, [den-
man] lä [vädünam-e], [aigli2, barä avö3 Lekum lä yätünam]? Ashava-
hishtöch pavan yän lä äzäram 4, [yänich-15 lä6 bavihunam i Ashavahisht düsh-

XXVIII. 9. 10.
khvär7 medammüned], (b) va8 Vohümanich i9 pählüm [ash lä äzäram] mün
avö10 hanä i11 Lekurn aiyärih* yehabüned stäyidäränö, [aigh, Ilüshcdar12,
Hüshedar-mäh, va11 Söshäns, barä avö ham-pursakih i Lekum haityüned13].
(c) Lekum dösbako [hömaned] pavan khvahishnö i khüdäyih süd-hömand14,
[aigh, khüdäyih i11 süd-hömand barä döshed, va barä yehabuned].
1 So D.; M. lä, DJ. lä, or räi. 2 DJ., D. ins. 3 M. avö, DJ. val. 4 DJ., D. seem äzäram.
5 DJ., D. I.; M. l (?). 6 DJ. om. Sp.’s yehabunam, M. lias yehevunam. 7 M. ins. madam.
8 DJ., D. om. 9 DJ., D. om. i. 10 so M.; DJ. valman i. 11 DJ. om. 12 DJ. om. va.
13 DJ , D. 14 DJ. °hömand.
Pahl. transl. As regards (?) a not-coming to You, 0 Aüharmazd, [this I
would not do. (Or thus; I will not come (inf. for imper.) to You)"1]. Asha-
vahisht also I do not pain for the sake of a blessing, [that is, not a single
blessing do I desire which appears displeasing to Ashavahisht], (b) also
Vohuman, the excellent [I do not harass him] who gives praisers for Your
help, [that is, He will bring Hüshedar, Hüshedar-mäh, and Söshäns into
conference with You], (c) You are propitious toward the prayer of the be-
neficial sovereignty, [that is, Ye will favour (love) the beneficial sovereignty,
aild Ye will bestow (or establish) it|. * Perhaps altern, tri. and note; see v. 6.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Anägamtä* Yushmäsu1 na, Svämin Mahäjnänin,
[kila, grihitagurvädegät*1 viparyayi2 na bhavämi], Dharmamcha <;nbhena
nä ’bädhaye3, [kila, tat Qiibham na samihe yat Dharmasya bädhäkaraiii (so)
Trlit. Ad(t) yeng Ashäd(t)chä vöistä
Erethweng Mazdä Ahurä
Acl(t) ve khshmaibyä asünä
Vaiiheuschä dätheng Mananhö
aeibyö perenä äpanäis kämein;
vaedä var(e)thyä vaintyä sraväo.
Verbatim transl. Ita quos [-as] ex-Sanctitate scivisti Bonaeque leges
(vel creaturas (sic)) Mentis (b) rectos [-as, vel sublimes], Mazda Ahura, illis
comple praemiis-attingendis desiderium. (c) Ita vestra a-vobis nunquam-in-
ania scivi [vel adeptus sum] ad-nutribilia-impertienda-apta [vel bene-finem-
suam-attingeutia (?)] ad-possessiones-impertiendas-apta verba [i. e. doctrinas].
Pahl. text translit. Amat aetünö Aharäyih äkäs hömanäni1, va
zakich2 i3 Vohüinan dahishnö, [aigh, pavan rästih, va4 pavan4+5 fräiünih,
bündak äkäs barä yehevünd hömanäni] (b) i6 frärünö, Aüharmazd, am pa-
van valmanshän pür anbäred kämak, [aigham nadükih padash vädünyen],

XXVIII. 9. 10.
bhavati]. (b) Mana^cha yat utkrishtataram, [Gvahmanaih amaraiii tarn api nä
’bädhaye3], yo Yushmäkarii* punyopachiti (?-aprichchham*)4 dada(u) stotribhyah,
[kila, Husedaraih, Husedaramahaih, QauQiOQamcha, samaiiipra^natveYushmakam
änayati5], (c) Yushmakaiii abhiläshukebhyo yächanayä4 räjyamcha läbhamatta-
maiil. 1 J? °gurvyädid°. 2 J.3; J.* vipravayi0, or °pracb°. 3C., P. °aya. 4 all-pacbiti (?)
5 so J.4, J.*, P., but C. anäryate. * For the needed sense see the’Pahl.
Ner. transl. I am not one who avoids coming to You, Great Wise
One the Lord, [that is, I am no strayer-away from the accepted word of the
master], nor do I pain Sanctity because of a desired advantage, or happiness,
[that is, I do not desire that happiness which is a source of pain to Sanc-
tity]. (b) And the mind which is the more (most) excellent [ Gvahmana the
immortal, [him also I do not pain] for he has given Your praisers a questioning*
with1 Sanctity, [that is, he brings Husedara, Husedaramaha and Qau^ioga into
conference with You], (c) and in accordance with(?) prayer he brings Your
most beneficial sovereignty to those desiring it. i Or Parsi-persian Ms. Nah äinadan rä an Shuraä, Hormuzd, [in] nah [kunand (sic)] [], ku
bih an Shumä nah ämadam] # Ardibahisht [] pah [] [jän = gari], nah äzär-deham [] [jän
ham = ganich (?)] [] nah khwaham i Ardibahisht [ham = ich] [u = m] bad — khwähad*] w
(b) Wa Buhman ham i buland ash nah äzär-deham] kih an in i Shumä [no tr. for asari$
ayari)] dehad hampursid (?sic), [kü, Hüshedar, Hüshedar-mäh, u Soshyosh, bih an ham-
pursid (sic) i Shumä äwared (= aitined (sic vid))] ] (c) Shumä khwähad (sic) hastid pah
kwhähishn i khudäi i südmand, [kü, khudäi i südmand bih khwähad*, [ ] bih dehad] #
Fr. What laws of truth Thou knowest from insight of Right, and the Good
With these as the gains for earning, 0 Ahura, fill our desire
Thus do I learn Your commands, complete for our plenty and weal.
(c) amat7 aetünö pavan zak i8 Leküm asüdakö vindined9 khurishn va5
vastarg, pavan zak i10 sräyishnö11 [amat pavan Yazishnö i Leküm südakö12
la yehevuned, ash khürishnö va vastarg vindined].
^J., D. hömanäni. 2D. om. ich. 3 DJ. om. i. 4 DJ., D. om. va pavan. 5 DJ. has
va. 6 DJ., D. ins. i, M. om. 7 so DJ., D.; M. mün. 8 DJ. om. 9 so M.; DJ. vindinidak.
10 D. ins. i. 11 so DJ., D.; M., Sp. stäy°; M. ins. va. 12 DJ. om. va.
Pahl. transl. When thus I shall have become acquainted with Aha-
räyih, and also with the gift, or dispensation of Vohümanö, [that is, when I
shall have become perfectly intelligent, through truth, and through piety]
(b), (which gift is pious) then, 0 A., heap Ye full my desire with these things,
[that is, do me good thereby], (c) if thus, one obtains food and clothing
by that which is not remiss toward (?) You, by chanting, [that is, when it is
not remiss in Your Service, one obtains food and clothing by it].
Ner.’s sansk. text. Evam ye Dharmasya vettärah Uttamasyacha1 dä-

XXVIII. 10. 11.
ter*2 Mauasah, [kila3, ye satyatayä sadvyäpäratayächa* vettäro jätäli santi],
(b) ekahelaya, Mahäjnänin Svämin, tebhyo4 pürnam pariehinuhi5 kamarii;
[kila matsamihitena Qubhaiii tebhyah kuru], (c) Evaiiicha Ijisneh analaso
labhatäm khädyäni6 vastränicha vadanena. ^/om. cha. 2 so P.; and C , P, J.4 ins.
dharma. 3 J.4, C , P. ins. sa. 4 so J*. 5 all °cliinohi (cp. Ved. use for °uln). 6 J.4, J.* sh for kh.
Ner. transl. Thus those who are acquainted with Sanctity, and with
the gift of the Best Mind, [that is, who are born with insight through truth
and good conduct], (b) in harmony with this, 0 Great Wise One The Lord,

Trlit. Ye äis Ashem nipaohhc Manaschä Vohü yavaetäite
T[u]vem Mazda Ahurä fro mäsishä Thwahmäd(t) vaochanhe
Mainyeus hachä Thwä (e.e.)äonha yäis ä anhus paouruyo [=°vivo] bavad(t).
Verb. tri. [Ego] qui his Sanctitatem tuear [-ebor] Mentemque Bonam
in-aeternum (b) Tu, Mazda Ahura, prae me doce e-Te enuntiandi-causa* 1 [ut-id-
significem], (c) spiritualis-essentiae ex Tuo ore, quibus [principiis] a mundus
prior exstitit[-titerit]. 1 Fortasse significa (dat. infin. pro imper.).
Pahl. text translit. Amat pavan1 nikirishnö2 Aharäyih barä netrü-
nam3 va Vohumanich vad avö4 hamäi rübishnih, [aigh, rästih va frärünih
pänakih vädunam-e5], (b) Lak6 zak7, Aüharmazd, fräz avö li ämüzäi8 ae i
Lak pavan göbishnö, (c) minavadikih [Gäsänikih] i min ae9 i7 Lak pavan
pumman [pccläk, vad10 min zak pedäk i7 Lak pavan pumman barä yemale-
lünih11] mün den ahvänö fratüm yehevund12, [aigh, zak i12 fratüm13 yehe-
vund14 ash däd, Gäsänikih yehevündj.
1 D. om. 2DJ., D. om. i. 3 D. netründö-am. 4 DJ., D. om. lak va; D. also avö.
DJ. lias val for avö. 5 D. °yen. 6 D. leküm. 7 M. ins. i. 8 M. °ih for °äi, D. yemale-
lünih. 0 so DJ.; D. liana. 10 D. i for vad. 11 all °nih for °nai. 12 so DJ., D. 13 so DJ.,
D.; M. avvlä (so). 14 DJ., D. om.; N.B. see Pers.
Pahl. transl. When in* this* regard* I shall defend Aharäyih and
Vohüman until the eternal progress, [that is, ivhen I would effect the pro-
tection of truth and piety], (b) teach Thou me forth in words this thing

XXVIII. 10. 11.
fulfil desire perfectly unto these; that is, in accordance with this prayer* from
me (?) do them good], (c) And so let the unwearied reciter of the Yasna
obtain food and clothing through his utterance. *Or ‘with accordant desire’.
Parsi-persian Ms. Kih edün Sawäb ägäh hastand*, wa an i Bahman dahishn, [kü,
pah rästi [ ] neki bundah (sic) ägäh bill bud —] (b) i nek, Hörmuzd, ma-rä pah oshän pur
anbärad (?) kämah [küm neki padash kunand] w (c) Kih edun pah än i Slnunä [ ]
(no space) häsil-kunad khürishn u vastark (sic) pah än sräyidan, [kih pah Yazishn i
Shuniä süd nah bed, ash khürishn u vastark(g) häsil-kunad].& * -änd for-äni throughout.
Free tr. I who the Right to shelter, and the Good Mind, am set for ever,
Teach Thou me forth from Thyself to proclaim, from Thy mouth of spirit,
The laws by which at the first, this world into being entered!
which is Thine, 0 A., (c) the;Xil spiritual thing [the Gathic doctrine]
which is [revealed] from this which is Thine by mouth, [until from that
which is Thine it is manifest, tell me forth by mouth] what was first in the
worlds, [that is, what first existed was made by him; it was the Gathic doctrine].
&* 1 Or ‘by Thy mouth of spirituality’ (gen. by position).
Ner.’s sansk. text. Yadi sunirikshanatayä1 Dharmam pälayami Ma-
nagcha Uttamam sadapravrittaye2, [kila, chet satyasya sadvyaparasyacha
rakshäm karomi], (b) Tvaiii tat, Mahäjiiänin Svamin, prakrishtaiii me giksh-
äpaya [yah3 kurute] vächi. (c) Adrigya Tvatto mukhena sphutaya antar
bhuvane4 pürvam babhüva, [tarn srishtim me bruhi].
1 C. sunirikritayä, J.4, P. sunariksh-. 2 C. -prakrit0. 3 0. has yayah; J.3 om.,
J.* ya. 4 P. bhüva, others -vanena.
Ner. transl. If in*1 consideration* of this(f) I protect Sanctity and the
Highest Mind, for, or until, the continual advance, [that is, if I effect the
protection of truth and good conduct], (b) do Thou, 0 Great Wise One the
Lord, reveal this to me in speech [i. e. him who is producing them], (c)
0 invisible One (Spirit), from Thyself with mouth make manifest what first
arose within the world, [that is, declare the creation to me]. *:1 Or ‘with’.
Parsi-persian Ms. Kih pah nigaridan* Sawäb bih pädam u Vahöman [ ] tä
än tamä (sic) —, [kü, rästi u frärüni päspäni [] [kunand = vägunand (?)] (b) Tu
än, Hörmuzd, fräz än man [] [güi =jamnüni] e i Tü pah göbishn # (c) Minü [] [zish
Gäsäni = zisli Gäsäni} i az in i Tü pah dalian [pedä, tä az än pedä i Tü pah dahan
bih güi], kih andar jihän* awwal büd, [kü, än i awwal [ ] ash däd, Gäsäni büd]

. J^g.JLuÖli" | . XU^OJJXu/y . J^G .
R ... k k
Trlit. Khshmaibyä Geus (U)r[u]vä gerezhdä: kahmäi mä* thwar(ö)zhdüm
[°dvem]? ke mä tashad(t)?
Ä mä aeshemo hazaschä remö ahishayä dereschä tavischä
Nöid(t) möi västä Khshmad(t) anyö athä möi sästä vohü västryä. *j.*mäm.
Verb. tr. Vobis Bovis anima conquerens-clamavit: cui me crcavistis? Quis mefor-
mavit? (b) Contra me [veniunt] saevitia vehementiaque, ictus cum-uece-per-
ensem1, insolentiaque, potentiaque. (c) Non mihi pabuli-dator nisi-Vos alius,
ita me docete [meae salutis causa] bona ad-agri-culturam-pertinentia L
1 vel (ä)hishäyä = oppressit.
Pahl. text translit. Avö Leküm, Ameshöspeudän, Göshäürvan garzid,
[aitö mün aetünö yemalelüned1: khüdäi-gäsh2 (?) (or khüdäyihash2) güft val
Aüharmazd rünö3] aigh: Avö mün li barehinid hörnanam [pavan vashtamün-
tanö4 va5 däshtanö]? Val mün li6 täshid hörnanam, [aigh, avö mün yehabünd
hörnanam] ? (b)Zak li zak i7 kheshmö*, [münam pavan kheshmö* zaned8], staha-
mak, [aigham barä äzäredö], i reshkün (?), [aigham apadmän küslitanö9 am ahü-
kined pavan hamäk], lakhvär10 sedküntärich, [aigham bödökzed barä vädünyen11],
va taraftärich12, [aigham barä düzdedö13]. (c) Lä li västaridär14 (? or väsnidär)
zakäe15 min Leküm, [aigh aish I lä khavitünam münam nadükih16 aetünö azasli
chigün min Leküm], aetünö li17 räi18 säzed19 zak i shapir västar. *OrAesh°.
1 D., M. ins. ae = aigh(?). 2 DJ., others kliüdäyih. 3 M. göshäürvan, DJ., D. rünö.
4 DJ. °ündö. 5 D. ins. va. 6 DJ., D. ins. li. 7D. ins. i. 8 D. makhitüned. 9D. küsht. 10 DJ.
om. va. 11 D. °änd. 12 DJ. maman for ich. 13 DJ., M. düzed. 14 DJ., D. väsnidär; M.
äsn-khiradö(?) 15 DJ. zak. 16 so DJ., M. 17 D. om. li. 18 so D., see Pers. 19 D., Pers.; see P.
Pahl. transl. To you, 0 Ye Ameshöspends, Göshäürvan complained, [some
say that the Lord-bull (or his sovereignty) addressed Aüharmazd, thus]: 4 To
whom am I allotted [for feeding and keeping?] For whom am I shaped?,
[that is, for whom am I created] ? (b) This one is upon me, Fury [who smites
me with fury], the tyrannical, [that is, he will harass me], the wounder,
[that is, my unmeasured slaughter makes my life in all things hateful], and

Fr. tr. To You cried the Kine’s soul: for what did Ye form? who made me?
On me come Wrath and the blow, the murder’s shock, contempt’s defiance,
Than You none other have I, then prosper, 0 guardian, my tillage.
a tearer again he is, [that is, they will commit murder on me], and a plun-
derer also, [that is, he will rob me], (c) I have no nourisher2 (or favourer)
save You, [that is, I know none from whom my welfare3 so comes as from
You], therefore prepare Ye for4 me that which is a good pasture.
(The flexible Paid, should be read throughout as a tri., not as an independent document).
Ner.’s sansk. text. Yushmasu gopagünäm Ätmä krandati: [he susvä-
minah], kasmai avinirmito ’smi, pkhaditurii2 dhartumcha]? kasmai ghatito*
’smi1, [kila, kasmai pradatto ’smi]? (b) Sa mam kopaluh (sic), [yah krodhena
nihanti] hathicha, [yo hathät harati], irshyäluh, [yah apramanaih vadhyati3,
(‘äbädhayati’ sarvatra jneyam)] därayitacha stenagcha, [yo me jivavighatam
kurute, yagcha mam chorayati]. (c) Na mam palayitä Yushmät anyah, evarii
madartham sammarjayati uttamaiii gopagukarma4, [api5 na5 jane yasmat
gubharii evaih yathä bhavadbhyah]. 1 J* om. from khaditum to ’smi inclus. 2 C.
svaditum. 3 so J.3, J.4, J.*, but C., P. badhy0. 4 J.3, J.4, J.* °kam, C. °karma. ß so J.3,
hut C. yena, P. yina. (Trivial variations and obvious corrections are not always mentioned.
Kopaluh is for kupayuh accidentally (?) altered on account of irshyäluh).
Ner. transl. Among You the Soul of the herds complained, [0 good
Lords], for whom am I not (sic) patterned, [toeat(?) and to keep]? For whom
am I formed*? [that is, to whom am I given over]? (b) He is angry with
me, [who destroys me with anger], and a murderer he is, [who seizes me
with violence], the envious one [who slays without limit. The words ‘he tor-
ments’ are everywhere (see ‘without limit (?)’) to be understood] and he is a
cleaver and a thief [who commits life-smiting upon me, and robs me], (c)
There is no other protector for me save You, so that one prepares* for me
the best cattle-culture (not ‘ sacrifice ’), [I know not also from whom good so
comes as it does from You]. (Many Sansk. words throughout express unusual meanings).
Parsi-persian Ms. An Shumä, Amshäsfendän, Göshürün bäng-kard, [hed (sic) kill
edün guyad e: khudai [ ] guft an Hormuzd pesli (Pahl. run) kü]: an kill man pcda-
kard hastam, [pah khurdan u däshtan] [ ] [wa 6 = va an] kih man täshid-hastam, [kü,
an kih dad hastam] ? (b) An man an i liishni (sic), [ [u = va] kih man pah hislim (sic)
zanad], zulm, [küm bib äzär-dehad], zzaklim, [kü, [] bi-andazah kushed (so) ma-ra kinah-
kunad pah tamäm], bäz — ham; [küm [] [zit — zakat (sic)] bih — ] — , [kü — bill
düzdad] (c) Nah man parwarish-kunandah (Pahl. västiridär (sic)) digar az Shumä,
[kü [’m = — (?)] kasi nah dänam, kih am neki edün azash chün az Shumä], edün [ ] rä
säzad (?) än i veh käh & (w = English v throughout.)

XXIX. 2, 3.
" 2.
Trlit. Ada tashä Geus peresad(t) Ashem: kathä toi Gavöi ratus
Hyad(t) him data, khshayantö, hadä västrä, gaodäyö, thwakhshö?
Kem hoi ustä ahurem ye dregvöd(e)bis aesh(e)mem vädäyöid(t)?
Verb. tri. Deinde creator Bovis interrogavit Sanctitatem: quomodo
[vel nonne] tibi Bovi magister [fuit], (b) quum eam creabatis dominantes
[vel potentes] ? simul-cum pabulo [quomodo tibi magister fuit] in-re-pecuaria-
aptus efficax [que] ? (c) Quem illi [Bovi] volebatis, i. e. statuebatis dominum,
qui a-sceleratis [emissam] saevitiam repercutiat?
Pahl. text tr. Aetünö zak i göspend1 täshidär [Aüharmazd], pürsid
aigh: Ashavahishtö mün lak göspend radö, [aighat2 denman dädistänö3
chigün, aighat2 radö i göspendän mün], (b) 4mün denman5 dadö6 pädakh-
shah7 [vashtamüntanö8 va9 däshtano], münash aitö yehabüned västar10,
zakich göspendän dahishnö9 tükhshäk, [aighash västar yehabüned, afasb
pasüshäürün I min zak pedäkined, mün göspend barä afzäyined]? (c) Mün
avö11 pavan nadükih khüdäi12, [amatash fravarishn9 lä vädünyen ach
pädakhshah13 vashtamüntanö], mün avö14 darvand: kheshmo* anäer zanishnö15:
[yehabüned denman pasukhvö, aighash stübö vädünyen]? *OrAeshmö.
1 D. om. l. 2 D. om. at. 3 DJ. dinä. 4 D. ins. va. 5 so DJ. D. «so M., but D. yelia-
büned; DJ. °bünd. 7 so D., but DJ. °hih; M. shalitäih. 8 DJ., D. °mündö. 9 DJ., om. va. 10 DJ ,
D. ins. va. 11 D. valman. 12 DJ., D. ins. i. 13 D. pädokh0; DJ. pädaklishahih; M. slialitä.
14 Mf. valmani. 15 Mf., D. van0. (13 D. later received; I correct Comm. p. 413.)
Pahl. tr. So the herd’s Creator asked thus: Ashavahisht, by what
means (or who (?)) was there a master of the herd for thee, [that is, what
is this thy opinion, by what means (or who) was there a herds’ chieftain

XXIX. 2, 3.
How had’st thou for kine a chieftain? thus the Cow’s maker asked of Asha;
When, ruling ones, ye made her, with the field, kine-breeding, zealous?
Whom gave ye her life’s master, wrath from the wicked ones smiting?
for thee], (b) when (or whom?) ye (or he) did as ruling* create (or appoint)
this one (the herd (?)) [to feed and to keep] by whom (or whose) it is that
one gives (or ye give) them pasture, and also that one is diligent as to the
giving, or producing of the herds, [that is, one gives, (or ye give) it pasture,
and also one makes (or ye make) a cattle-guardian manifest from that who
will increase the herd], (c) Whom did ye appoint as a ruler with a benefit [a
ruler to feed it when they would provide no nourishment for it, and who
gives this answer] to the wicked: ‘The fury [of the Non-iranian is] to be
smitten’, [that is, ‘they shall (or do thou) render him stupefied’].
Ner.’s sansk. text. Evarii1 ghatayitä gopa^unarii2 Hormijda aprichchhat3
Dharmani: kas te gopagunam guruh, (b)yas tebhyo data svami saha gocba-
rena*5 gosrishtivyavasäyinarii, [kila, gocharaiii6 dadäti tebhyah pa^upätä-
raiiicha dadäti, yo pa§ün pravardhayati] ? (c) Kas teshäih §ubhasya svami,
yo durgatimatäiii ämarshasya* talanaih (sic) datte, [kila, yo durgatimatäiii
anyäyam nihanti? Sa eva räjnäm räjä teshäiii, §ubharii khädituiii svami].
1 J.4 ins. go. 2 J.4 om. go. 3 J.* abravit. 5 J.4 (?), C., P. gov° (?). 6 P. goch°.
Ner. tr. So Hormijda, the herds’ former, asked of Sanctity: ‘Who is
thy herd-master, (b) who is thy lord giving them, together with pasture*, a
clever cattle-breeder?, [that is, who gives them pasture, and a herdsman
who increases the herds]? (c) Who is the lord for* their benefit, who delivers
a blow1 upon the rage* of the wicked, [that is, who smites their disorder?
He is thus a king of these kings, a lord to devour their good]’. i Cp. Y. 1,19; 9,68.
Parsi-persian Ms. Edün an i gösfend täshidär [Hormuzd] pursid kü: Ardibahisht kill
tu gösfend rad, [küt in liukm chün [] rad i gösfend kih], (b) [wa = w] kih an deliad
läik* [khürdan u däshtan] kiyash bast i dehad käh, wa an ham gösfendän dädan ku-
shishn, [kü, [] käh dehad, azash pasüsh(h)ürün (sic) az an zähir, kih gösfend bih afzäyad] ?
(c) kih ü (?) pah neki khudä [kiyash parwarishn nah kunand ham, läik* khurdan(?)], kill ö dar-
wand: kheshm i aner khürishn (?sic vid.), dehad in (?) jawäb, [kusli — (?) kunand] (?). *layik.
Free tr. Asha to him made answer: ‘No chief driving grief can be offered.
Of these things that is hidden how the lofty move their plans.
Of beings He is mightiest whom I near with earnest calls’.
Verb. tri. Huic Sanctitate [vel °tas, lege Ashem]: Non est magister
expers-vexationum [i. e. vexationes procul prohibens] Bovi [pro Bove], respon-
ds. (b) Ex illarum-rerum non ad-sciendum [est ilia res] qua accedat [-dant]
ad (vel promoveat [-veant]) fines-propositas-suas spiritus-elati*1. (c) (Fortasse
Bos(?) loquitur). Exsistentium file potentissimus cui [i. e. ad quern] invocationes
[dirigens] adeam^2 [adibo] dirigens-strenuitate. *x vel ab illis non ad seien-

XXIX. 3. 4.
Trlit. Ahmäi Ashä noid(t) sar(e)jä advaeshö Gavoi paiti-mravad(t)
Avaeshäm noid(t) viduye [=°dvc] yä shavaite ädreng ereshväorihö;
Hätäm H[u]vö aojistö yahmäi zaveng jimä keredushä.
dum [est ea res] qua promoveat igues sublimes. 2 vel ad officia-oblationis ad-
euntes [sunt] celebrantes. (Yahmäi clat. of goal; cp. dat. with ä; otherwise for gen.).
Pahl. Valman mün zak i1 gospendänö tanö sardärih lä pavan abeshidärih [ma-
manash pavan beshidarih] Asliavahishtö pasukhvö güft, [aigliash2 pädafräs vädü-
nänd3]. (b) Valmanshän lä äkäs hömand zak i4 äshtih va5 röshanöi4 rästö,
[valmanshän darvand pädafräs, i6 pavan rübänö, maman chand vädünänd, lä
khavitünänd7]. (c) Min aitänö8 zak aöj-hömandtar, [aigh, aöj9 i zak4 i4 valman
pavan kärtar], mün avö10 zak pavan karitünishnö yämtüned avö kardärih,
[aigh, amatash karitünd aigh: kär va kirfako vädün, vädünyen].
1 DJ., D. ins. i. 2 D. om. ash. 3 M. vädünyen. 4 D. om. 5 DJ., D. om. va, ins. i.
6 DJ. om. i. 7 DJ. °äiid. 8 so DJ., others aitöänö. 9 D. avö, or änö. 10 DJ. valman.
Pahl. tr. He (or To him) Ashavahisht thus made answer: ‘He whose
is the authority over the body of the herds is not in a condition without
distress [for he is in distress; that is, that they shall execute chastisement
upon him], (b) They (or of these things (gen. by pos.) they) are not knowing
the peace nor the light which is righteous, [nor shall they know what the
chastisement of the wicked in the soul is, nor how great they shall make
it]. ,(c) Of beings He is the mightier (-tiest), [that is, his strength is more
Trlit. Mazdäo savär(e) mairistö yä zi väverezöi pairi-chithid(t)
Dae väischä mas(k)yäischä* yächä var(e)sliaite aipi-chithicl(t)(* K.5, J.2 °shy°.)
Hvö vichirö Ahurö athä ne anhad(t) yatliä Hvö vasad(t).
Verb. tr. M. verba [-orum-mandatorum-et-decretorum] maxime-memor
[est, et eorum] quae enim perfecta sunt [sint] antea [ante hoc tempus], (b) Daevis-
daemonibus [i. e. cultoribus eorum] hominibusque [nostrae-religioni-devotis]
[et] quae(que) perfectura-sint postea [abhinc]. (c) Ille arbiter-decernens A.,
ita nobis sit [i. e. erit] sicut ille velit [volet]. (Dictio consulto obscura).
Pahl. text translit. ^üharmazd sakbünän ämärinidär2, [aigh, pavan
vinäs va3 kirfak ämär2 vädünyen], (b) münshän varzid peshich Shedään va
anshütään4 va3 münich5 varzend akhar. (c) Zak barä vijidär, khücläi, [aigh,
kär va dinä6 barä vijined], aetünö lanman hömanem, chigün Valman7 kämak,
[aigh, lanmanich aväyast8 zak i9 Valman7].
1 See P. 2‘M. ämär°(?). 3 DJ., D. ins. 4D. mardümän. 5 DJ. ins. i. 6 D. dädistänö.
7 so DJ.; M. and others änö, or avö. 8 so DJ.; Sp. aväyed. 9 Sp. ins. avö.

XXIX. 3, 4.
energetic] to whom in invocation that one comes for, or in energy, [that is,
when they call upon him thus: ‘Do duty and good works’ he(?) would do them].
Ner.’s sansk. text. Tasmai Dharmo: na svämine aduhkhakartritayä1
gopa^unäiii*, praty uttaram abravit,[kila, yo gopagünäiii* duhkhakartritayä2 svämi
tasya nigraham kurute]. (b) Teshäm na vettä ’si ye anänandäh3 parisphutagcha
satyagcha, [kila, nigraho yah ätmanikah kiyän iti na jänäsi]. (c) Satarn sa bala-
vattamah, yah äkäranena* präpnoti kartritve*, [kiiiichit äkärayanti* yat: käryaiii
punyaiii kuru, karoticha]. 1 So J.3, J.4. 2 so J.3, J.4, P. 3 so all. * special use.
Ner. transl. To him Sanctity answered: ‘If zs(?) not for this lord (or ‘to this
one as a lord ’ (?)) without the harming of the herds, [i. e. who as lord effects the
hindrance (or punishment) of it, the herd, by causing it pain, (b) Of these thou
art not cognizant who are manifest and true as the joyless ones2, [that is, Thou
dost not know how great the soul’s oppression (punishment) is], (c) He is
the mightiest of beings, who comes into activity through an appeal, [that is
they make an appeal for a thing thus: ‘Do a good work’, and he does it].
Parsi-persian Ms. U kill an i gosfendän tan sardäri: nah pah nä-äzär [chib ü
pah—] Ardibahisht jawäb guft, [küsh pädahfräh kunand] (b) Öshän nah agäh bend
an i äshti -ya‘ni- dosti [ ] rüshan i rast, [öshän darwan d pädahfräh i pah ruwän chili
chand an kunand, nah dänad] (c) Az hastän ä.n buland(i)mandtar, [kü, [] än i u
pah kärtar], [kih än än pah khwänishn rasad än —, [kü, kiyash khwänad kü: kär []
kirfah kun; (wa) kunand] <<
Fr. tr. God is of decrees most mindful, deeds beforehand done remembering,
By infidels done, and by us, and what both may do hereafter.
The Lord shall all things discern; To us shall it be as He willeth.
Pahl. transl. Auharmazd numbers (is a rememberer of) words, [that is,
they shall make an enumeration of sins and good works] which have been
done (b) by those Demons and men before, and which they are doing now,
later, (c) He is the distinguisher-apart, the Lord, [that is, he will discrimi-
nate in both action and law*]; so we are as is His desire, [that is, by us
also that is desired which is desired by him]. *Or ‘opinion’.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Mahäjnäninärii vachasäm gananakarah*, [kila, päpena1
punyenacha saiiikhyärii kurute]. (b) Yänicha ächäritäni* purvariichit devai^cha
manushyai^cha, yänicha ächarishyanti* pa^chät, [ete Deväh manushyä2 ye2 ni-
krishtarii sainkhyah]. (c) Asya vivektuh*3 Sväminah, [Svämi yah käryaiii punyaiii
vivinakti*]. Evarii vayaiii small43 yatha asya kaniah, [kila, asmakam api
samihitaiii tat yad asya]. 1 So J.4; J*, päpe; C., J.4 om. cha. 2 so J.3, J.4; J.*
°yäh ye; C., P. °yär (so) ye, Sp. manushyärthe. 3 so J.4. 4 all asmah (sic). * special use.
Ner. tri. He is an enumerator of the words of Great Wise Ones*, [that is, he
makes a reckoning concerning righteousness and sin], (b) And he numbers the

XXIX. 4, 5.
things done at first by Devas and by men, and what they shall do hereafter.
[These Devas are men who are to be regarded as a degraded thing (or for the
sake of, as representing men (manushyarthef?)), they are to be looked down
upon.)] (c) This is this discerning Lord’s [the Lord who discerns holy action]; (c)
so we are, as is His desire, [that is, even our desired object is that which is His].
Trlit. Ad(t) väo ustänäis aliva zastäis frinemnä Ahuräi ä
Me (U)r[u]vä Geuschä azyäo hyad(t) Mazdam dvaidi f(e)rasabyo
Noid(t) erezh(e)jyoi frajyäitis[°jiv°] noid(t) fshuyante dregvasü pairi.
Verb. tr. At vobis* erectis nos-duo-simus (erimus) [vel vitarum-duarum
(ahväo)] manibus, [nos- duo-]precibus-expetentes [ab] Ahurae [-a] ad (ab), (b)
mea anima, Bovisque genetricis [anima] quum Mazdam [precabimur] in dubio
(vel quum uos-duo M. urgemus (duvaidi)) quaestionibus. (c) Non [sit] recte-
viventi exitium, non-diligenti-agricolae scelestos inter. *Orva = vere.
Pahl. text translit Aetünö min Lekum, [Ameshöspendänö1] pavan aüstä-
nishnih2 [minishnik3* aüstänö*] dastih4 tükhshäkihä franämam avö Aüharmazd
zak, [aigli min Ameshöspendänö5 avö mindavam* Aüharmazd vösh franämam6,
mindavam i Aüharmazd vesh7 vädünam-e], (b) [aigli] zak i8 li rübänö Toräi Az9
levatman [yehevünädö10, aigham rübänumozd yehabünänd12]; Aüharmazd zaki
pavan gümänik hampürseni13, [aigh zak i14 gümänik yehevünäni, am min Aühar-
mazd levatman tübänö yehevünäd15 pürsidanö]. (c) La ghal16 rästö zivishnö
fräz17 aväsihishnih6, [aigh mün pavan rästih ziveclö, ash aväsihishnih6 i8
pavan rübänö lä yehevüned], lä ghal16+14 fshüvinidar, [aigh avö18+8 fshüvi-
nidär mün mindavam pavan frärünöih yakhsenuned lä6 aetünö chigün]; barä
min valman i darvand, [maman avö8+14 darvand ghal yehevüneclö]. * Or aus0.
1 DJ. ins. li (?). 2 DJ., D.? M. °taiiishn°. 3 M. ins. va, or ö*. 4 D. yadmanih. 5 DJ. repeats
six words. 6 so DJ., D. 7 DJ., ins. franämam. 8D. om.i. 9 M. curious sign ä (?) for az. 10 D.
°vüned (?). 11 DJ. om. 12 DJ. ins. avö i, D. ins. va avö (?), or va änö(?). 13 DJ., D., M.
°pürsend, Sp. °end or °eni. 14 DJ. om. i. 15 DJ., D. ins. 16 DJ. ghal, others valman.
17 DJ. ins. 18 so DJ. * Mf. °nih and ins. i, otherwise as D.
Pahl. tr. Thus more than (or from) You, 0 Ye Ameshöspends, I diligent-
ly bow myself before Aüharmazd, with a lifting up [a spiritual lifting up]
of hands, [that is, I worship Aüharmazd more in the matter than the

XXIX. 4, 5.
Parsi-persian Ms. Hörmuzd sukliän (sic) shumar-kunandali, [kü, pah wanah u
kirfali shumar-kunand], (b) kishän varzid pesh [ ] De wan w marduman, u kih ham
varzinand (sic) pas ham # (c) An bill defaced khudä, [kü, kär u dädistän bana (sic)
v no tr. for Paid. vajinend(?)] # Edun ma hastam (?) chun Ü kämah, [kü ma ham —
an i Ü, [— vajinem (?)]] #
Free tr. Thus we two beseeching, with hands outstretched to Ahura,
I, and the mother Cow, with questions in doubt press Mazda.
Not on the diligent saint let destruction fall with the faithless.
Ameshospends, and 1 would further the object of Auharmazd more], (b) [that
is, let] my soul [be] with the Cow Az, [that is, let them give my soul its
reward], and I will consult Auharmazd concerning what is in doubt, [that is,
may it be possible to me to consult Auharmazd as to that whereon I shall
be doubtful], (c) Not for that righteously-living man is ruin appointed, [that
is, there is no destruction in the soul of him who lives in justice], nor for
him who is an increaser of blessings, [that is for him who is an increaser,
and who maintains the matter in piety, it is not like that]; he is apart*
from* him who is wicked, [for to him, who is wicked it happens thus]. *Except.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Evam bhavadbhyah [Iajadäh] uttänahastena1
vyavasäyatayä prabravimi Svämine tat, [kila, Amarebhyo Mahattarebhyah
käryäya2 nyayayacha3 Hormijdasya prabhütataram prabravimi]. (b) Me
atmanah Go§cha Ajinämnyah, [Ajinämni tnvarshiki* Gauh4], ye Mahäjiiänine*
saiiidehiyam* prichchhanti, [kila5, yena samdigdhah santi, tat sarvam ye
Hormijdaya punah punah prichchhanti5]. (c) Na satyajivane(h)*6 prakrishta
hänih, nacha vriddhikartuh, [kila, etesham prakrishta hänir ma bhüyätj;
durgatina vinä, [yato ’sya bhuyäd eva].
1 All uttänaühena. 2 J.3, J.4, J.* om. clia. 3 J.4, P. nyäyäyacliclia; J.*, C. nyä-
yächcha. 4 all goh. 5 J.4 om. the gloss. 6 all °vane; Ner. accepted a jivani (?).
Ner. transl. Thus better than You [0 Ye Yajads] with outstretched
hand, and with zeal, I praise, (or I declare (?;) this for, or to, the Lord, [that
is, I praise more, (or declare a better thing) for the deed* of Hormijda and
His discipline than the Greater Immortals do]. (b) It is my soul and that
of the Cow called Aji [the one named Aji is the three year-old cow] who
are asking of the Great Wise One the doubtful question, [that is, who are
asking again and again of Hormijda concerning every thing as to which they
(so) are in doubt], (c) No continuous disaster is for* the man who lives
aright, nor for the increaser of blessings, [that is, let not their deprivation
be advanced]. He is apart* from the wicked, [wherefore his (the wicked's)
let it thus be]. * Or the ‘object’, possibly ‘duty toward’.
Parsi-persian Ms. Edun az Shumä [Amshäsfendän] pah bar-dashti, [minishni [u= va

XXIX. 6, 7.
bar-däsht] dast kushishn[] [—(Palil. fravamam (sic))] än Hörmuzd än, [kü, az Amshös-
fendan7' (sic vid.) an chiz Hörmuzd zyädah [ ] [— fravämam (sic)] [u = va] chiz i
Hörmuzd zyädah kunam], (b) kü, an i man ruwän Gäv i {no tr. for Pahl. Ach) awä
[bäd, küm ruwän(?) muzd [ ] tr.for däbünäd] ]; [] [wa an =—] Hörmuzd an i pah gumän
| e) .â– U)Q^A-e?S>iy>
Trlit. Ad(t) evaochad(t) Ahurö Mazdao vidväo vafüs vyänayä
Nöid(t) aevä aliu vistö naedä ratus Ashäd(t)chid(t) hachä
Ad(t) zi thwä fshuyantaechä västryäichä thwörestä tatashä.
Verb. tri. Deinde dixit A. M intelligens remedium-decretum [vel (e-con-
trario) damnum (ab anima Bovis defletum) sua] perspicientia (b): Non [est] sic
dominus inventus, neque magister Sanctitate -omnino ex. (c) Itaque enim te clili-
gentique agricolaeque creator [ut hunc magistrum] formavi [i e. statui],
Pahl. text trlit. 1Aetünösh pavan2 pümman gufto Aüharmazd äkasiha:
vishüpishnö vijärishnö, [aighash dänishnik güft, aighash3 anäldh min Ganräk
Minavad2 chärak aitö]. (b) La aetünö ahüikih vindishnö, [aigh, zak i4 pavan jinäk
chärak kardanö lä shäyadö5, hanä räich6 khüdäi pavan khüdäi7 lä yakhse-
nund8], va9 lä dahishn i9 radih min Aharäyih chigämehäi10 [aigh, Dastöbarich
aetünö chigünö aväyad däshtanö11 lä yakhsenund]. (c) Aetünö lak avö12
valman i2 fshüvinidär va13 varzidär barehinid hömanih va täshid14 hömanih,
[aigh, avö valman i2 tükhshäk15 i9 padmänik yehabünd hömanih].
1 See P. 2 DJ., D. ins. 3 DJ., D. om. asb. 4 D. ins. 6 DJ. om. 6 D. maman
for ich, and DJ. om. i. 7 so DJ., Mf., D. 8 DJ. därend. 9 DJ. om. 10 so D. and ins. I.
11 DJ. dädanö. 12 DJ. val. 13 DJ., D. om. 14 D. tükhshäk (so). 15 DJ. °shak.
Pahl. tri. Thus spake A. to him with his mouth, and with knowledge:
‘The ruin is to be discriminated (?) or avoided (?)’, [that is, a wise thing was said
by Him, viz. that He has a remedy against harm from the wicked Spirit], (b) but
not so is a mastership to be obtained, [that is, it is not possible to make a remedy
in that place, also because they do not possess (or consider?) a lord as a
lord], and they have no gift of mastership from Sanctity whatsoever, [that is, they
have not even such Dasturship as they ought to have], (c) Therefore thou art

XXIX. 6. 7.
hampursand, [kü, an i gumäni — ma-ra az Hormuzd awä tuwän bad pursidan] #
(c) Nah u* rast zistan fraz—, [kü, kill pah rast iz—(sic) ash [] pavan ruwän nah bedj,
wa nah u—, [kü, ü - kill clriz pah neki darad, nah aedun cliuni (so)] bill az ü i dar-
wand, [chili 6 darwand 6 lied]. & *u = vannan.
Free tr. Then spake Ahura Mazda, He knowing the help by his insight:
No chieftain is found for us here, nor a Lord from the Right inspired.
Then thee for the diligent hind, as a Lord, the Creator ordered.
(hast?) allotted and formed for him who is an increaser of prosperity, and a
husbandman, [that is, thou art given to him who is diligent and steady].
Ner.’s sansk. text. Evaiii mukhena avochat Svami Mahajhani viditvä
vinagasya vicjuddhim, [idaiii kimchit vijnaya abravit yat anyayo yah Ähar-
manät tasya upäyo’sti]. (b) Na evaih svämibhrishtasya (sic (?)) \ [kila, etasmin
kasmiihgchit sthäne upayarii karturii na gakyate iti], hetoh2 yatah Svaminaih
svamitvena na dadhate3, nä ’dadänasya*4 (sic) guruiii punyät yathä kathaih-
chit, [kila, gurumcha evaiii yathä yujyate grahitum na grihnanti]. (c) Evaih
yatas5 tvaiii vriddhikartrecha käryakartrecha nirmitavän6 asi ghatitavän
asi, [kila, tasmai yo vyavasäyi pramänicha* pradattavän* asi].
1 So J.4, J.*. 2 J.* lieto. 3 so J.3, J.4, butC. P. dadäte. 4 so all (?). c so J.3, J.4, J.*.
c so C, P., but J.4, J.:i: vinir0.
Ner. transl. Thus spake with his mouth the Lord, the Great Wise
One, knowing the purification (? or clear knowledge) of the destruction, [he
said this to the discerning, that there is a remedy against the evil device
which emanates from Äharmana]. (b) But not thus is it with the— (?) of a
master, [that is, in this place, wherever it may be, it is not possible to pro-
duce a remedy thus], for the reason that they do not possess a lord with
lordship, nor a master of (or with) liberality in any way influenced by sanc-
tity, [that is, they do not accept a spiritual master as it is fitting to take
one], (c) And thus it is that (?) thou art a former (so) and a maker (so)
(formed and made (?)) for the increaser and the diligent, [that is, thou art a
producer (meaning produced) for him who is zealous and regular].
Parsi-persian Ms. Edün u pah [] khwesh = napshnan} guft Hörmuzd ägähihä [no tr.
for Palil. vishüpislm]' güzärishn (sic), [küsli [] guft kü [] zan— (? Pahl. anäki) az Gana
Minu cliarali lied] # (b) Nah edün — häsil-kunad, [kü, an i pah jai cliärah kardan nah shayad,
in ra [] [chih=7w wäb harkudam, [kü, Dastür ham edün chün bayad däslit, nah darad] & (c)Edun tu an in —
[] varzidär pedä-kard hasti, wa kushishn hasti, [kü, änü a kushishn i andazah dad hasti] #
Fr. tr. Mazda this offering’s Manthra created with Asha consenting,
Food on the Kine he bestowed, on the eaters with kind commandment
Who, with the Good Mind’s grace, will declare it with mouth to mortals?
Verb. tri. Hoc ubertatis [prosperitatis et sacrificii (?)] A. Rationis-verbum
creavit [i. e. constituit] cum-Sanctitate unanimus (b) M. Bovi pabulumque eden-

XXIX. 7, 8
Trlit. Tem äzutöis Aliurö Mäthrem tashad(t) Ashä hazaoshö
Mazdäo Gavöi khshvidemcha hvö-urushaeibyö spento säsnayä
Kaste Vohü Mananhä ye i dayäd(t) eeä vä mar(e)taeibyo.
tibus*1 [-que], beue-largiens doctrinae-mandato. (c) Quis-tibi Bona Mente, qui
ea det*2 [edet] ore (?) vere hominibus?
* 1 Suffix uslia (cp. us + a). * 2 (la as 2nd cl.; cp. däti.
Pahl. text translit. ^ak i afzünikih2 pavan Mänsar Auharmazd val-
man3 val3 täshidar4 mün pavan Aharäyih ham-doshishnih, [aigh, zak5 mozdi6
min Mänsar pedäk avö valman yehabund mün kär va kirfak vädünyen
(sic)], (b) Auharmazd gospend vakhshinecl, [aighash barä afzäyined] avö
khürdärän, [aigh pavan padmän vashtamüned7], Valman i5+6 afzunik, [Auhar-
mazd ]8 ämükht [pavan sinak9 masih10, va bäzäi masih11]. (c) Mün Lak hanä
vohüman, [aigh, hanä zit ghal haityuned] mün pavan zak i7 kolä do [Aves-
täk va8 Zand], pümman yehabüned12 höshmürdäränö Aerpatänö?
1 See P, 2 DJ. ins. i. 3DJ., I), val. valman. 4DJ.; M. tvakhsh-(?). 5DJ. ins. i 6D. ins.i.
7 DJ., D. om. i. 8 DJ. ins. va. 9Sp., M.; DJ., D. sinok. 10 so DJ., D. 11 so M. 12 DJ. yehevüned.
Pahl. tr. Auharmazd is that creating one affording bounty through, or
as the Manthra, He whose is harmony with Sanctity [i. e. they give that
reward declared from the Manthra, to him (them) who would perform duty
and good works], (b) A. makes the herd grow [that is, He will increase it]
for the eaters, [that is, one eats with full measure]. He the bountiful [A.]
taught us [to eat by the breastful and armful] (c) Who is Thine, this good-
minded-one [that is, this one brings what is Thine], who gives the reciting
priests a mouth as to both, [the Avesta and Zand]?

Trlit. Aem [ayem] möi idä vistö ye ne aevö säsnäo güshatä
Zarathuströ Spitämö hvö ne Mazdäi vasti Ashäichä
Char(e)kerethrä srävayanhe (°enhe) hyad(t) hoi hudemem dyäi vakh(e)dhrahyä.
Verb. tri. Ille mihi hie inventus [est] qui nostras solus doctrinas
auribus-accipiebat [accipiet] (b) Zarathushtra Spitama, ille nostra (Mazdae*)
desiderat (Sanctitatique) (c) consilia-sacra enuntiare, qua-re ei bonum-statum
statuo [-am] (prophetae legem meam) promulgantis. * Vel ‘0 M.’ = °dä.

XXIX. 7, 8.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Tat mahattamatvam Svami Mänthriyaiii* aghatayat1
Punyena saha saihghatitaya, [kila, taiii prasädaiii yam Avistaväksaiiibhavaiii
tasmai dadau yena karyaiii punyaiiicha kritam äste]. (b) Mahäjnäni gopacgm
vika^ayati bhoktribhyo, mahattäm* su^ikshitebliyali, [kila, yaih sinali masäe
bäjäeyamasäe, kriyä japayajnavidheh2 mahattäm*3, gikshitä äste], (c) Kas te,
uttamamanä(h)*4 yo dvitayaiii dadäti mukhena adhyayanakarebhyah, [kila, yo
dvitayaiii, Avistäavistäarthaiiicha*5, vidyärthibhyo jnäpayati]?
1 J.4, J.* aghatat. 2 C., P. °yap°, J.:f: kriyäpaQÜyajna0, J.4 kriyäp0, J.3 wanting.
3 all °mä. 4 all °ali. 5 J.4, J.* °istär°.
Ner. transl. The greatest magnitude of the Manthra the Lord produced
together with Sanctity for cooperation, [that is, he has given to him by whom
a holy work is done that reward, which has origin from (or ‘union with’) the
Avista-word]. (b) The Great Wise One discloses (?) (increases) the herds for
the eaters, and the great matter to the well-taught disciples, [that is, by
whom sinah masäe bäjäeyamasäe, the duty of reciting the great* matter* by rule
of the Yasna, (!) is taught], (c) Who is Thine, the best-minded one, who gives
the two things by mouth to those who are prosecuting studies, [that is, who
makes the two things, the Avista and Avista-interpretation, known to those
solicitous of knowledge]? * Or (°tamä) ‘the greatest duty of reciting, etc.’
Parsi-persian Ms. An i — pah Manth(h)rah (sic) Hormuzd u 6 täsliid [] pah Sawab
ham khwähishn, [kü, an muzd i az Mänthhrah (sic) pedä o'u dehad kill kär u kirfali
kunand(?)] & (b) Hormuzd gosfend —, [küsh bill afzun (? sic vid.)] an khürdaran [kü,
pah andäzah khürad] & Ü — [Hormuzd] ämükht [pah sinah andäzah, u baja (sic pro
bazü) andazah] & (c) Kih Tu in Bahman, [kü, in zit 6 —] kih pah har du [Avesta [] Zand],
dalian dehad shumürdaran Herbadän
Fr. Found for me here is the man, who alone to our doctrines hath hearkened.
Zarathushtra Spitama. Our sacred counsels (Asha’s and Mazda’s),
Forth to proclaim he desires. Him the place of my prophet give 1.
Pahl. text. Hanä li1 dahishnö vindidö2, [aigham zak3 aetuuö ae4 khadük
vindidö], avö zak i5 lanman ämükhtishnö hanä khadük6 mün nyökhshäk, (b)
Zaratüsht i Spitämän7; valman zak i lanman, Aüharmazd kämak, Aharäyihich7,
[aigh, aväyast ghäl8 kär va5 kirfak5+9 bundak]. (c) Chärakö kardärihich
sräyedö, [aigh, chärak iDrüj i5 den gehän baräyemalelüned1+10], mün avö valman
hü-demünih (sic) yehabüned pavan göbishnö [aigh göbishnö i5 frärünih11 rät
i5 ghal yemalelüned, ash tamman, pavan minavad, gäs i nadük12 yehabünd].
1 D., Mf. ins. 2 M. vindidö-änd (so), D. vindidö-em, or -am. 3 D. ins. i. 4 DJ. hanä.
5 DJ. om, 6 DJ. ins. av, or än. 7 DJ., D. om. i ach (?). 8 D. avö. 9 M. ins. vesli.
10 DJ., D. ins. 11 D. °rün; M. ins. i. 12 DJ. ins. i frärünö.
Pahl. tri. This one is obtained as my gift, [that is, he, this one, is
thus obtained by me] this one who was listening to that which is our teach-
ing, (b) Zaratüsht the Spitämän. His is our desire (or a desire for us),

XXIX. 8, 9.
Auharmazd’s, and also Sanctity’s [that is, that perfect duty and good
work are desired], (c) He recites a remedy-making also, [that is, he will
declare a remedy against the Druj who is in the world] which grants (or
for which one grants him) a good dwelling (or basis) for speech [that is,
for his word of piety which he utters they grant him a good place beyond
in heaven (sic)].
Ner’.s sansk. text. Ayaiii me enäm dätirii* alabhata [Gorupäiii] yo
’syärii tatra1 ekah (jikshäm QUQräva (b) Jarathustrah, Spitamaputrah. Asau
asmäkaiii Mahäjnäninäm kam am Dharmasyacha2 (c) upayakartritvamcha
samudgirati, [kila, asmäi ’va rochate yat Dinih pravartamana bhavati [-vet],
upäyamcha Drüjasya kathayati], yad asmaicha supadatvain* dasyati vachasä,
[kila, vachasä tad evo ’dgirati, yad asya sthanam paraloke dasyati].
1 J.3 yo ’syam trail, J.4 yo atra syam trail (sic), J.* yo asyam tatra, C , P. yo ’syam
tali; Sp. corr. asmabhyam. 2 J.4, J.*.

Tri. Ad(t)cha Geus (U)r[u]väraostä ye anaeshem khshänmaine rädern
Vächim neres asurahyä yemävas(e)miaeshä*-khshathrim[°thriyem]
Kadä yavä hvö anhad(t) ye hoi dadad(t) zastavad(t) avö. *Or islio-.
Verb. tri. Atque Bovis anima flevit: qui [-ae] [-ego] non optationem-
suam-adipiscentem [vocem mihi-] animum-vulneratum-habenti [vel vulnerato
(erga vulneratum)] adipiscar (b) vocem viri non-heroici [ego] qui [-ae] vere
(vel me [mihi]) desidero [magistrum] auctoritatem-secundum-optationem-
suam-habentem (c) Quando tempore [umquam] ille [ad-] sit [-erit] qui illi*
det manum-habens [manibus-adhibitis] auxilium? * Vel mihi.
Pahl. text tri. ^etünöch2 3Göshäürvan4 garzido aigh: änö i5 akhvästär
räi6 [atübänö, Zaratusht] am yehevüned ashäyedö*-minishnih7 pavan zak i
arad dahishnih, [amatash8 bundak madam barä lä rädinend9], (b) gobishn-
öch l10 avö gabrään anafzärih räi, [amat Dino* bundak lä rubäk], munam11
valmanshän kämak khvahishnö i avö12 khüdäyih13, [aigham14 valmanshän räi
Magöpatän15 Magöpatih15 aväyad]. (c) Chigün akarazö zak dahishno aitö,
[aigh, zak damän16 akarazö yämtüned], amat avö valmau yehabüni-ait pavan
tubän17 khvahishnih aiyyärih, [avö valman6 Zaratushtö].
1 See P. 2 D. om. ich. 3 DJ. ins. i. 4 DJ. geush0. 5 DJ. om. i. 6 M. ins. i. 7 DJ., D.
min0, M. °män. 8 D. mün for amat. 9 DJ. radend. 10 all i. 11 DJ. ins. an or av. 12 D val.
13 so DJ., D. 14 D. aighash. 15 so DJ., D.; M. man0. 10 so DJ., others damanak. 17 D , Mf. ih.
Pahl. transl. Göshürvanalso bewailed thus to me: ‘On account of that
[impotent] prayerless (or desireless) one [Zaratusht] there is to me an afflicted*
mind through the illiberal giving [since they will not bestow gifts upon

XXIX. 8, 9.
Ner. transl. This one acquired the gift for me (or my gift) [suitable for
the Cow], he who alone there in this(?) has heard the doctrine, (b, c) Jarathustra,
Spitama’s son. He chants his prayer* for* us*, the Great Wise Ones, even
the remedy-making of Sanctity, [that is, so it pleases him that the Din should be
progressive, and he declares a remedy against the Drüja], and this will afford
him a good footing (so) on account of, or by means of his speaking, [that is,
he proclaims that so by word, which will give him his place in the other world(?)].
Parsi-persian Ms. In man — [], [küm an edün e yak häsil-kunad], an an i mä
(sic) ämükktan an yak kih sliunav* (= nyoshak (?)) (b) Zaratusht i Spitämän ü an i mä,
Hormuzd, kämah, Sawäb ham, [kü, bäyad an kär u kirfah pur] # (c) Chärah — ham
sräyad, [kü, charah i Drüj i andar jihän* bih güyad] kih an ü - dehad pah gobishn,
[kü, guftan i neki rä i 6 güyad, ash änyä [-ja], pah minü, gäh i nek dehand]. #
* Or shin0.
Fr. Then wept theKine’s Soul:‘gain I | a lord for the grieving feeble,
A voice of an impotent man, while I pray for a kingly chief’.
When shall he ever appear who may give to her help strong-handed?
him with perfect liberality] (b) owing to the inefficiency of his words also
to, or for, men, [since the religion is not making full progress], for whom by
me there is a desire for a will which extends to sovereignty, [that is, for
their sakes I need a Mobadship of the Mobads (?)]’. (c) How ever is that dis-
pensation ? [that is, is that time ever coming] when aid is given to him [to
that Zaratusht] through powerful prayer?* * A mind without the needed thing.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Evamcha gopagünäm* Ätmä krandati: yah ayächa-
kah, anänandamanä* adakshinädänenar, [yad asyo ’pari vapuh saihpurnam
na dakshinyam1 ayächakagcha, agaktitayä], (b) vächarii naränäm asädhana-
täyai2 [yat3 Dinih sampurnam na pravartate], yah tasmai ipsayitä yächayitä
rajyaiii [tasmai Jarathusträya Moibadänäm4 Moibadatvam4 samihate] (c) Katham
dätih*? Kadächit säasti, [kila, sa kälah kadächit präpsyati5], yä6 asmaidäsyati
gaktitayä sähäyyarii'*^ [asmai Jarathusträya?] 1 All-kshan0. 2 P. sädh°. 8 so
J.4, C., but. P. yata. 4 J.3 moivad0. 6 J.4 6 so J.4; P. yo (?). 7 P. sähäyam.
Ner. tri. And so the Soul of the cattle bewailed: ‘He who is prayer-
less, and of joyless mind because they do not give, [because for him the
body, or person, is entirely without offered-reward, and without prayer through
powerlessness], (b) beivailing the voice of men for its inefficiency, [because
the Din does not fully advance] who is desiring and praying # for the autho-
rity for this one, [that is, he desires the Mobadship of the Mobads for this
Jarathustra]. (c) How is that gift? Some day (when(?)) will it come?, [that is,
is the time ever (when is it ever?) coming?], which gift shall afford helpful
companionship to him with power [to this Jarathustra]?’

XXIX. 10, 11.
Parsi-persian MS. Edün [ ] Ruwän i gosfendän gbaugbä-kard kft: ft i nä-khwästär rä,
[nä-tuwän Zaratusbt], man bed (sic) # Nä-shäd minishni, pah aiu ua-sakhi, de'had, [kiyash
pur [u=va] awar bih nah —]# (b) Wa gobislm ham i an mardümän [no tr.for anafzär-(?)] rä

Trlit. Yüzhem aeibyö Ahurä aogö data Ashä khshathremchä
Avad(t) Vohü Manahhä yä hushitis rämämchä däd(t)
Azemchid(t) ahyä Mazda Th(u)wäm* meiihi paourvim [°viyem] vaedem.
Verbatim transl. Vos his, Ahura, [rem] gratum [-am, et felicitatem
(vel fortasse potentiam)] date, Sanctitas, Regnumque (b) tantum [tale] Bona
Mente [institutum] quo [his] prosperitates-domesticas gaudium-que det. (c)
Ego-etiam [vel omnino] hujus, Mazda, Te existimavi primum possessorem.
Pahl. text translit. 1Leküm av8 valmanshan, Auharmazd, aiyyarih
yehabüned, Ashavahishto va Khshatvero2 (sic), [aigh, Zaratüsht va3 havish-
tänö i Zaratüshto 4 nadukih padash vädünyen], (b) aetünoch Vohüman5, rnun
hü-mänishnih [gas i6 tamraan], va rämishnöch ash yehabüned. (c) Homanich
valman, Aüharmazd [valman Zaratüshto4], ash min Lak7 minam8 fratüm vin-
dishno, [aighash fratüm nadukih min Lak yehevüned]
1 DJ. ins. va, see P. throughout. 2 K.6, M. om. kh. 3 D. om. 4 DJ., D. 6 D.
om. repetition. 6 D. om. i. 7 original (?) correction in DJ. 8 D. mindavam.
Pahl. transl. Give ye assistance to these, Auharmazd, Ashavahisht, and
Khshatvero, [that is, may they (or do Thou) secure the happiness of Zaratüsht,
and Zaratüsht’s disciples by this means], (b) so also Vohüman, who gives
him a pleasing habitation [the place which is beyond] and also joy. (c) I even
Trlit. Kudä Ashem Vohuchä Manö Khshathremchä: ad(t) mä mashä
Yüzhem Mazda fräkhshnene mazoi Magäi ä paiti-zänatä
Ahurä nü näo avar(e) ehmäi rätois Yüshmävatäm.
Verbatim tri. Quando [vel unde] Sanctitas, Bonaque Mens, Regnumque,
venitisl Tum me [obviam venientes mihi] festinantes (b) Vos, 0 Mazda, ad me
edocendum [causa] magnae Magae [hujus magni conatus] adjudicate [i. e. Offerte]

XXIX. 10, 11.
[kih — pur nah rawä] kih man öshän kämah khwähishn i 6 säliibi [[]'[küsh = dghash]
öshän ra Mohadän Möbadi bäyad] # (c) Chün hargiz an — hast, [kü, an zainän hargiz
rased], kih 6 u dehad pah tuwän khwähishn yäri, [an ü Zaratusht]?#
Free tr. Grant gladness, 0 Ahura and the Right, unto these a kingdom,
A Realm with the Good Mind ordered, which joy and amenity giveth.
Of these, 0 Mazda, ever the possessor first I thought Thee,
that one, 0 Auharmazd, [that Zaratusht] (or I even of that thing), I think that
from Thee is his (or its) first acquisition, [that is, to him happiness is first
from Thee].
Ner.’s sansk. text. Yüyametebhyah, Svämin,sähäyyamdattaAQavahistäya
Saharevaräyacha [Dharmaya, Rajnecha1]. (b) Evamcha Uttamaya Manase2,
Gvahmanaya, yah suniväsatäih3 anandamcha datte [sthanarii yat paralokiyaih].
(c) Ahaiiichit ayarii [Jarathustro], Mahäjhänin, Tvatto dhyäyämi präktanäih
labdhiih [kila, me prathamam Qubham Tvatto bhavati, (uktarii yat gorupam)].
1 So J.3 seems; J.4, J.*, C. -jhevacha (sic). 2P. °ah, others °asa. 3 all but J.3 °tvam.
Ner. transl. Do ye grant helpful friendship to these, 0 Lord, to A§a-
vahista, and Saharevara [to Sanctity and to the King], (b) and so also to
the Highest (Good) Mind, to Gvahmana, who grants* joy, and a good abode
[the place which is beyond], (c) I even, this [Jarathustra], think that the an-
cient acquisition was from Thee, 0 Great Wise One, [that is, happiness was
first mine from Thee, (a speech which is adapted (referring (?)) to the Cow)].
Parsi-persian Ms. Shumä an öshän, Hörmuzd, yäri dehad (?), Ardibahisht it Shaha-
revar, [kü, Zaratusht, u — i Zaratusht, neki padash kunand] # (h) Edün ham Bahman,
kih mändan [gäh i änjä] u rämishn ham ash dehäd # (c) Man ham ü, Hörmuzd,
[ü Zaratusht], ash az Tu [ ] [chiz = mandwn] pradum (sic) — [küsh pradum neki az
Tu bed (sic)] w
Fr. Whence Righteousness, Good Mind, and Thou | the Kingdom, come Ye?
Then hastening
To grant us light, 0 Lord, for The Holy Cause do Ye reach us
Your aid, 0 Living One, now yea, the helpful gift of Your faithful,
(c) Ahura nunc nobis [proferte] auxilium huic # [Magae] largitatis vestri-simi-
lium [vel servorum vestrorum corde addictorum]. # Vel ehmä = simus (participes).
Pahl. text translit. 1Aigh dahishnö i2 Ashavahisht, va3 Vohuman va
Khshatraver, mün aetünö avo li yämtünined [gobishnö i Zaratüshtö, aigh,
zak i2 mozd, aigh jinäk yekavimuned] ? (b) Lekurn am4, Auharmazd kabed
pavan hanä mas magih padadahishnined [aigham pavan hanä5 avejak shapirih6
pädadahishnö vädünyen], (c) Auharmazd, kevan lanman karnak zak i avo7
lanman rädih i8 min9 Lekurn [kevan amat afdih i Lekurn vesh khavitu-

XXIX. 11.
nam, am nadukih i10 min Leküm kämaktar. Yehevund mün yemalelüned11
ae: kevan amat12 Dinö rübäk barä yehevund, li va hävishtänö i2+13 liu mozd
i15 min Lak kamak], 1 See P. 2 DJ., D. om. i. 3 DJ., D. ins. va. 4 P J., D., M. am.
5 DJ., D. liana. • D. vehih. ’ DJ. valman i, D. om. all. 8 D J. om. i. 9 DJ. ins. i. 10 D. ins.
11 DJ., D. güft. 12 D. om. 13 DJ. ins. nadukih. 14 DJ. om. 15 DJ., D. ins. i.
Pahl. transl. Where is the dispensation of Ashavahisht, Vohuman, and
Khshatraver, Ye who are thus sending* it to me? [It is the word of Zara-
tusht; where is the reward?; where is its place?] (b) Do Ye recompense
me much, 0 Aüharmazd, for, or in, this chief Magianship, [that is, do Thou,
(or they shall) bring about my reward in this pure goodness], (c) Give us
now, 0 Aüharmazd, our desire, that which is a liberal gift for us which is
from You. [Now, since I know Your wonderful grace better, that happiness
which comes from You is more desired by me. Some say this: ‘Now since
the Religion has been fully advanced, mine and my disciples’ is the reward
which is from Thy desire’]. * Perhaps not caus.; read ‘coming’; see Ner.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Kva dänarii, Agavahisto, Gvahmanah, SaharevaraQ-
cha, evam mahyarii präpsyati, [kila Punyam, Uttamamcha Mano, Rajyaiiicha,
sa prasädah kva sthäne äste yah evam mahyam präpsyati]? (b) Yuyarn Ma-
i“ 1.
Trlit. Ad(t) tä vakhshyä ishento, yä mazdäthä hyadchid(t) vidushe.
Staotächä Ahuräi, yesn[i]yächä Vanheus Mananho,
Humäzdrä Ashä yäechä, yäraochebis dar(e)satä urväzä [vräzä].
Verbatim transl. Ita haec dicam [0 vos] venientes, quae [sunt]-admo-
nitiones [ei] quid-omnino [quicquid sit] [penitus-] scienti, (b) laudesque Ahurae,
sacra-officiaque Bonae Mentis, (c) duo-benigna-consilia [per] Sanctitate [-tern]
quaeque-duo1 [sunt ea] qua [= per quam rem, vel = ut] in luminibus visa-sint
propitia. 1 Fortasse ashayaecha = Sanctae beatitudini(?), vel etiam yeclia = exoro (aegre).
Pahl. text translit. lAetünö zak i2 kolä II göbishnö khvahishnö i Aü-
harmazd däd3 [Avestäk va Zand], münich4 akas [aigh, dänäk, ash Aerpatis-
tänö künishnö], (b) mün stayishnö i Aüharmazd, va Yazishno i2 Vöhüman,
[afash pedäk zak i5 Avestak va6 Zand], (c) mün hü-minidär pavan Aharäyih,

XXIX. 11.
häjnänin, prabhütatararii mahattamena uttamatvena1 prasadayati [-ata*2], [kila,
tena nirmalatamena3 uttamatvena mahyain prasädarii kuru]. (c) Svämin, iha
asmakarii, asmabhyaiiicha dakshina Tvattah. (Dviväraiii vächyo gujastah • ■ •)
1 J.4, C. ins. matena; P. tena. 2 see yuyam. 3 J.* °latvena.
Ner. transl. Whence will the gift so come to me? and Ashavahista,
Gvahmana, and Saharevara, [that is, Sanctity, and the Highest (Good)
Mind, and the Kingdom?; where is the reward placed which will thus come
to me]? (b) He affords (?, or do Ye*1, 0 Great Wise One, afford*) me the
more excellent thing, in reference to, or by the greatest exaltation*2, [that is,
effect a reward for me as regards, or by that spotless exaltation*2], (c) Here,
0 Lord, is the gift which is ours, and which comes to us from Thee. (This
text to be repeated ttvice), etc. The Pahl. cned was misread. *2 the Holy Cause.
Parsi-persian Ms. Kü — i Ardibahisht u Bahman [] Shaharevar (imperfect), kih
edun an man r— (?) [guftan i Zaratusht, kü an i muzd, kü jäi istad]. # (b) Shumä
rä (?ra = li) Hörmuzd bisyär pah in meh------[kumpah in avezhah (so) vehi padadahishn
kunand] & (c) Hörmuzd, aknü (sic-nün) mä kämahän* [] [ü = varman] radi i az Shumä,
[aknü (sic) kih — i Shumä zyädah danarn, ma-ra neki i az Shumä kamahtar & bud kih guft
e: aknü [-nun] [ ] Din rawä bih büd, man [ ] shägirdän i man muzd i az Tu karnah] #
Fr. Thus I will speak monitions, ye who come, yea the wise one’s monitions,
Praises I speak for the Lord, and the offerings of the Good Mind
Both benignant counsels from Truth whence signs in the lights seem friendly.
zakich7 rnun [mindavam i frärünö mined, ash kirfak yazishnö i4 mas yehe-
vuned], münshän den roshanih pavan venishnih8 hü-raväkh-manih [aighshän
amat minavad yazishnö 9+4 khaditund, ashän ramishn yehevuned].
1 See P. 2 DJ. om. i. 3 DJ. yehabund; K.® dad. 4 DJ., D. om. i. ® D. om. i.
6 DJ. om. va. 7 DJ. om. ich; D. (not Mf.) ins. i. 8 so DJ. 9 DJ., M. ayaz°, or ayaz°.
Pahl. tri. Thus both those truths are to be spoken, and are to be sought,
(or a supplication, poss., 0 seeking ones(?)) which Auharmazd gave forth [the
Avesta and Zand], which also are for the intelligent [that is, the learned, by
him priestly studies are to be pursued], (b) which (or whose) are the praise
of Auharmazd, and the Yasna of the Good Mind [also the Avesta and Zand
are revealed to him] (c) which (or he who is) the good thinker thinks through
Sanctity; that one also who [thinks the thing which is pious, to him good
works equal* a great religious service], and what* things are* to them (or whose
is) joy in looking into the light, [that is, to them when they behold the
worship of the (or a) spirit, it is a joy to them]. * Or4 by which to them there is joy ’.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Evam te [tau] vächau1 abhiläshukah [-kau] ye [yau]
Mahajnanin [-ni] ädatte, [Avistävänirii vyäkhyänamcha], ya§cha vettä [kila, jnätä,

XXX. 1, 2.
tasya [tena] adhyayanam käryam], (b) 2stotacha3 Svamino Hormijdasya4,
[asau® yasmät prakatah(?) Avistävachaso vyäkhyänächcha], ärädhaka^cha Utta-
masya Manaso [Gvahmanasya]. (c) Suma(n)ta(?)* punyena ya^cha [sacha yah
kimchit sadächärataraiii*6 manyate, tasya punyarii Ijisneh mahatyäh bhavati],
yagchä ’ntar rochishi älokanena änanditah [Sväminarii ye adri^yäyäm Ijisnau
paQyanti, teshärii änandah samudbhavati]. * Or “tä = “täni (Saüsk. of diff. period).
1 J.* vächau. 2 J.* ins. asau. 3 all stau“. 4 J.4 Haur°. 6 J.* om. 3 J.4, J.* “chära“,
or °ri°; cp. chärin.
Ner. transl. So these are the two words of prayer which the Great Wise
One delivers [the Avista-word and the Interpretation]; and he who is in-
telligent [that is, the one who is informed], by him study is to be pursued;
(b) and he is a praiser of the Lord Hormijda, [that one by whom He (?) is revealed

Trlit. Sraotä Geushäis vahistä *a(ä)vaenata süchä Mananhä!
Ä var(e)näo vichithahyä narem narem vahyäi tanuye (= °uve).
Para maze yäoiiho ahmäi ne sazdyäi baodantd paiti!
Verbatim transl. Audite auribus. Optima conspicite flammas [sacras (vel
lumina caeli (?))] Mente; (b) ad [apud] electiones [i. e. per occasionem hujus de
capitibus doctrinae] discretionis virum [i. e. vir per] virum [singuli] proprio corpori
[proprie] (c) in-facie magni conatus huic [ad hanc] nostram(?) enuntiare *1
[enuntiationem] experrecti [sunto (expergiscimini)] (ad). (vel (om. ne (?))
huic [personae (singulatim)] enuntiabo (infin. for imper.)).
Pahl.texttranslit. ^öshänö2 srüd*nyökhshishnih3 [aighash4 gösh barä vash-
ammünd, shäd vazlünd, barä karitünd5] vahisht* [vakhshinishnih, aighash4 Aer-
patistänö2 künishnö]. 6Münash ävinäpdäk7 zak i röshanö pavan minishnö [aigli,
zak i8 Aerpatänö röshanö avö9 tärik]. (b) Kämak lanman barä vijinishnö, lnün
gabrä va10 neshman hömanem, avö zak i nafshman tanö [aighmän rnindavam i
frärünö min zak i avärünö barä vijinishnö, afmänö zak i frärünö11 ghal künishnö].
(c) Aigh barä, pavan zak8 mas kär [pavan pasäkhtö12 i13 pavan tanö* i14
pasinö], avö zak i14 ämükhtishnö i8 lanman nikezend pädadahishnö [aigh-
mänö rnindavam15 i14 frärünö ämükhtanö rät16 pädadahishnö vädünäfid17].
1 See P. 2 so DJ.; D., M. göshänak. 3 M. om. 4 DJ., D. om. from gosh to
aighash inclus. 5M. ius. nyökhsh0. 6 DJ. ins. va. 7D. ae or äv-vin°(?); DJ. vin°; Sp.,
M. ävin°. 8 DJ. om. 0 DJ., D. valman. 10 M. ins. va. 11 D. frärünö (?). 12 DJ., D.
13 so D., M.; DJ. om. 14 D. om. 15 DJ. rnindavam (?). 16 M. om. 17 so Mf. etc.; D. °yen.
Pahl. tri. Let there ie*1 a listening to what is heard* by the ear, [that is,

XXX. 1, 2.
from the Avista-word, and the Interpretation], and he is a propitiator of the
Highest Mind [of Gvahmana], (c) He who thinks* good thoughts through
Sanctity [he who meditates a thing which is more correct, his is the Sanc-
tity of the great Service], who also is rejoiced by a view which he gains
amidst the light, [that is, the joy of those persons arises, who behold the
Lord in the spiritual service]. * If sumatä — °tani, then ‘kindly thoughts’.
Parsi-persian Ms. Edün an i liar du guftan khwahishn (sic) i Hormuzd dehad
[Awestä u Zand] kih ham ägäh, [kü, dänä, ash Magopatdarih kardan] ««, (b) kih sifcudan
i Hormuzd, wa yazishn i Bahman, [azash (sic) pedä an i Avesta u Zand] w (c)
kih — pah Sawah, an ham mun (sic? kih), [mandum (sic pro chiz) i frärün mined, ash
kirfah yazishn i meh bed] kih -shän andar rushani pah minishn (sic pro hinishn) khoshi
[küshän, kih [u = va] rninu yazishn vinend, ashän (?) rämishn bed] w
Fr. Hear ye this with the ears!
Faith’s choice must ye now fix
The great concern is at hand,
Behold ye the flames with the Best Mind,
for yourselves man and man deciding,
to this our teaching awake ye!
the ear listened to it, and became glad, and they will invoke it] as what is best
[as prospering increase, that is, priestly studies are to be completed by him*].
What affords one ä view, becomes light in the mind, [that is, the Herbad’s
light in darkness], (b) Our desires are to be discriminated, we who are men
and women, for our own selves (or bodies), [that is, the pious thing is to
be distinguished by us from the impious, and what is proper is to be done
by us, or for us], (c) So besides this, in that great undertaking, [in the
consummation which is in the final body] they are attentive to, i. e. they
are considering a reward*2 for us for our teaching, [that is, they will effect a
recompense for us for teaching the pious things].
Infin. for imper. *2 or ‘to our teaching, and considering its reward’.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Ya^cha §rotragravanah*, [kila, kiriichit prasäda-
taraiii crinoti], vikäcjayita, [kila, adhyayanakarta], älokayitächa nirmalatararii
rnanasa1, [kila, Ervadeshu yah nirmala(h) *2, yah nirmalatarah tasrnat yah
timiravän, tena adhyayanam käryarii]. (b) Kamarii asmäkam vibhettä, yah,
naränämchä närinäriicha sviye3 vapushi, |kila, tachcha yat sadächäritaraiii*4
anächäritararii*4 [sat8] vibhinatti]. (c) Prakrishtarii mahatä käryena tain
vayarii gikshäpayämah6 dai'Qayanto upari, [kila, kiriichit yat sadächärataram7
Qikshäpay auto small8]. ‘J* °sah. 2 all seem °la. 3 so J.’, J.*; J.4 °yena. 4 cp. charin(?).
3 J.* om.; others r;at. 6 so J.3, J.4; C. {ikskay0. ’ so J.4 8 the most ’small (sic).
Ner. transl. And he who is hearing-of-ear, [that is, who hears some-
thing more gracious] is a revealer (or an increaser of prosperity*), [that is,
the student], and the one who observes the clearest* thing with the mind,
[that is, he who is clear (or pure (?)) among the Ervads, who is clearer*
far than he who is in darkness, by him even study is to be pursued].

XXX. 3, 4.
(b) And he also is an analyst of our desire, the desire of men and of
women, each in his, or her own self or body, [that is, he distinguishes
what is better done, and what is less (or worse) done], (c) And we cause
this to be promulgated by the great enterprise, showing it above other
things, [that is, we are causing something which is a better course of action
to be taught]. * okägayitä prob, renders vakhsho, sense ‘increaser’; I corr. Comm.

Corr. 0.
Tri it. Ad(t) täMainyü paouruye [=°viyä] yäyemä vaf(e)na asr[u]vatem,
Manahichä, vachahichä, s(k)yaothanoi, hi vahyö akemchä,
Ayäoschä hudäonho eres vis(k)yätä, noicl(t) duzhdäonho.
Verbatim transl. Ita hi duo-Spiritus duo-priores (paourvyä*) [vel °ye
in principio(?)] qui gemini sua-sponte-agentes auditi-sunt [clari-facti-sunt] (b)
in-cogitatione, in-sermone, in-actione hi (vel haec) duo, melius, pravumque
[sunt], (c) Eorum-que (de iis duobus) bene-facientes [vel sapientes] recte
decernant, non [ne] malum-statuentes [vel male-sapientes]. * Vide annotations.
Pahl. text translit. detune zak i2 kolä II Minavad [Auharmazd va
Gan(r)äk] ashänö fratum zak i yömäi*3 benafshman srud, [aighshänö vinäs va
kirfakbenafshman baräyemalelund4], (b) minishnö, va5 gobishnö, va künishnö,
zak i6 kola IL mün shapir, va münich saritar, [khadük, zak i7 shapir, minid,
va5 güft va8 kardö, khadük, zak i9 saritar]. (c) Min valmanshän valman i8 hü-
dänäk [Auharmazd] rasto barä vijid, lä zak i7 düsh-dänäk [Ganrak10 Minavad].
1 See P. 2 DJ., D. om. 3 D. yom äi. 4 DJ., D. güft. 5 D. ins. va. 6 D. om. 7 DJ.,
ins. i. 8DJ., D. ins. °D. ins. i. 10 DJ. seems ganrakli0; M. ganäk-.
Pahl. transl. Thus these two Spirits, Auharmazd and The Evil One, at
the first declared themselves, or were heard of, as a pair, [that is, they announ-
ced themselves fully as sin and good works] (b) as to thought, word, and deed,

Trlit. Ad(t)chä hyad(t) tä hem Mainyü jasaotem paourvim [=°viyem] dazde
Gaemchä[=gayem°], ajyäitimchä[=ajiv°], yathächä anhad(t) apemem anhu§,
Achistö dregvatäm, ad(t) ashäune Vahistem Manö.

XXX. 3, 4.
Parsi-persian Ws. Göshü (sic) srüd [küsh [] Magopatdäri kardan]. Kiyash []
[e = ae ?] an i rüshan pah minishn, [kü, an i Magopatdari rush (sic) [6, or u = varman]
tärik] # (b) Kämah mä hih —, kih mard u (= va) zan hastim an an i khweshtan
[kü, man chiz i nek az an i bad bih —, [] mä an i nek (= frarün) 6 (or ü (?)) kunishn]'#
(c) Kü bih, pah an meh kär [pah säkhtan] i pah tan i pasin, an; no tr. for the remainder;
Patil, textz ämükhtishn i varman (sic vid.), then as above. #
Free tr. Thus are the spirits primeval who, as Twain, by their acts are famed
In thought, in word, and in deed, a better they two, and an evil;
Of these, let (?) the wise choose aright, and not as the evil-minded.
the one who is good, and the one who is evil. [One thought, spoke, and did
good, one (the other) evil], (c) Of these, the wise [Auharmazd(?)] chose
aright, and not [the Evil Spirit], wise-in-evil. *Or °ed = ‘choose ye aright’.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Evam tau* 1 Adrigyamurti2, [Hormijdah Aharrna-
na^cha], purvani yau3 bhumandale svayam avochatam, [kila, yau punyam
papamcha svayam avochatam] (b) manasicha, vachasi4, karmanicha, tat
dvitayam, uttamamcha nikrishtamcha. (c) Etayo§cha uttamajnani [Hormij-
dah] satyam vibhaktavän, nacha dushtajnäni [Ganämainio[-ah]].
1 So J.*; J.4, C., P. to. 2 P. 3 Haug. 4so J.*; J.4, C., P. vachakar0; no note of om. in J.3.
Ner. transl. Thus the two Spirits [Hormijda and Aharmana] who
uttered first in the world, each his own* principle, [that is, who each de-
clared, one his own good deed, and the other his own* sin], (b) these were
a pair, in thought, word, and deed, a highest, and a degraded one. (c) And
of these two, the one endowed with good intelligence [Hormijda] was the
distinguisher of the truth, and not the one with evil intelligence, [Ganä-
mainia]. * Or ‘themselves’.
Parsi-persian Ms. Edün an i har dü Minü [Hörmuzd wa Ganä] ashän (?) awwal an i [ ]
[rüzhä = jomä (?)] khöd srüd, [küshän gunäh u kirfah khöd hih guft] # (h) Minishn
u göbishn u kunishn, an i har dü, kih veh u [ ] [ [ ] [kardan (?) = — ?] [u =
va] yak an i hadtar # (c) [ ] [kih = miin] öshän ü i nek-dänä [Hörmuzd] rast hih
vazidan (? sic), nah. an i had-dänä [Ganä Minü] #
Fr. Then those spirits created,
Life and our death, decreeing
For evil men Hell, the Worst life,
as first they two came together,
how all at the last shall be ordered,
for the righteous, the Best Mind,Heaven.
Verbatim transl. Atque quum hi-duo con- duo-Spiritus -veniebant primum
ad-constituendum* (b) vitamque non-vitam [mortem (?)]-que, -et-quo-modo sit
[erit] postremo mundus, (c) pessimus [mundus, id est, Tartarus*] scelestorum
[-tis], sed sancto Optima Mens [id est caelum*] •• #Vel ‘creat uterque(?) (creaverunt)’.

XXX. 4, 5.
Pahl. text translit. Aetünöch zak i kolä II Minavad avö ham madö
hömand avo zak i1 fratüm dahishnö, [aigh, kolä II minavad avö Gäyö-
mardö2 mad hömand], (b) [Amatich3] pavan zendakih4, [Auharmazd pa-
van hanä kär, aigh vadash zendakH5 yakhsenunänd6 *], va münich pavan
azendakih’, [Ganräk8 Minavad pavan ae9 kär, aigh vadash barä yekte-
lünänd], münich aetünö zak ait vad val1# zak i afdüm den ahvan, [aigh,
anshütäch i11 avärik madam ghal yämtünöd], (c) Vadtümih i12 darvandän,
[Äharmanö13 darvandän räi awasihinishnih14 barä khaditünd15], va13 aetünö
zak i aharübö pählüm minishnih16, [Aüharmazd hämit 17+18 hamäikihä 19].
1 DJ., D. ins. valman. 2 DJ. Gäyök0. 3 DJ., D. münich. 4 D. zivand0. 3 see P.
• DJ., D. ’ DJ. aziv°. 8 DJ. ganakh0, D. ganäk. 8 D. hanä. 10 D. avö. 11 D. om. 12 DJ. ins.,
M. om. 13 DJ. om. va. 14 DJ., D., M. 18 D. °nedö. 18 DJ. ins i. ” D. hämitök.
18 DJ., D. om. 2nd hämit; DJ., M. ins. i. 18 DJ., Mf.
Pahl. transl. Thus both these Spirits came together for the first
creation, [that is, both spirits come together for Gäyömard]. (b) [When
Auharmazd produced him] in life, [it was for this object, that (or while)
they might preserve life in him, and when [Ganräk Minavad made kirn} in
non-life, [it was for this object, that they might kill him], which is also the
case until the last in the world, [that is, it happens so also to other and
later men], (c) [Äharmana saw thoroughly] the worst thing (or production)
of the wicked [the devastation owing to the wicked; and so Auharmazd saw
forever] the best thought of the pure.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Evamcha yat tau dvau samänamcha1 Adri^yamurti
. jßjjjjjjöxujy |
Trlit. Ayäo maniväo varatä ye dregväo achistä verezyö [= °iyö];
Ashem mainyus spenistö, ye khraozhdisteiig asenö vaste,
Yaechäkhshnaoshen Ahuretn haithyäis s(k)yaothanäis fraored(t) Mazdäm.
Verbatim transl. Horum-duorum Spirituum [ita] sibi- eligebat qui scelestus
[erat], pessima perpetrans*1, (b) [sed] Sanctitatem [eligebat] spiritus beneficen-
tissimus, quise in-firmissimacaela*2 induit, (c) [eos] quique propitient (vel-tiabant)
Ahuram vere-bonis actionibus pie[-perfectis] Mazdam. *4 "trantes (?) *2 saxea-
Pahl. text translit. xMin döänö minavadän ash döshid mün darvand
zak i saritar varzishnö, [Äharmanö; zak i saritar varzishnö kämak büd2].

XXX. 4, 5.
äjagmäshuh(sic)* 2 präktanäm yäm dätau [Gaiomarde] (b)jivitenacha ajivitenacha
[Hormijdah anena käryena, kila, yat1 yävat* (?) jivitam dadhäti, Äharmanagcha
anena käryena, yat yävat* (?) nihanti], evariicha äste1 yävat* nirvänam antar
bhuvane, [asyärii upari samägachchhatah1]. (c) Nikrishtamatäm pralayam
[asyäh dadarga Ganämainio(-ah)], evarii punyätmano [Hormijdasya] utkrishta-
taraiil manah. 1 C., P. diff. 2 so all; read äjagmatur.
Ner. transl. And thus these two spirits came mutually together to
the first production in the creation [in (?) Gaiomarda], (b) with life and non-
life [Hormijda with the former action, that is, as long as until* he
establishes life, and Äharmana with the latter action, until* he destroys
as much as is to be destroyed}, and so it is in the world, as long as
until* Nirväna, [for this creation, they two come (or came (?)) together],
(c) The destruction of the degraded ones [of the creation Ganämainia beheld];
and so the most exalted (good) mind of the pure-souled [Hormijda
Hormijda viewed as His}. * Yävat = vad.
Parsi-persian Ms. Edün ham an i har du Minü an ham rasid hend an an i [ü = var-
mari] i awwal pedäish * \ [kü, kanä (sic, pro har) du Minü an Gayomard rasid hend] #
(b) [Kih ham] pah zivandagi, [Hormuzd, pah in kär, kü, täsh (= vadash) zend (sic
pro zendah) darand], wa kih ham pah bi-zendagi (sic vid.), [Ganä Minü, bih (pah?) in
kär, kü täsh (= vadash) bih zadan] kih ham edün än hast [] än än i äkhar*2 andar
akhän, [kü, ädami ham i bäki awar 6 (or ü) rasad] (c) [ ] [badtum, Pahl. vadtümi] i dar-
wandän, [Ähariman darwandän rä kähidan bih binad], wa edün än i ashö buland
minishni [Hörmuzd [ ] [khwähad, no text] tamämhä (sic vid.)] # *1 Or paidäyish. *2 vel äkhir.
Free tr. Of these two spirits he chose who is evil, the worst things working,
But Right chose the Spirit bounteous, clothing-on the firm stones of heaven,
(Choosing) those who content Ahura with actions essentially pure.
(b) Aharäyih minavad i3 afzünik Aüharmazd Aharäyih [döshidö],4 amatich ash1
zak i5 sakhtö sag6 nihufto [äsmänich, pavan7 ae8 kär pirämünö*9 i10 gehänö
barä kardö, aigh vad Aharäyih rübäk yehevünäd11], (c) münich shnäyined
Aüharmazd, [afash12 kämak zak i Aüharmazd], va5 pavan zak i10 äshkärak kü-
nishnö avö Aüharmazd, [aigh, pavan zak kämak1 künishnö, val13 Aüharmazd
shäyad madanö14], 1 See P. 2 D. yehevündö. 3 D. ins. i. 4 DJ. ins. va. 5 DJ. om.
6 D. sag. 7 DJ., D., M. pavan. 8 D. hanä. 9 D. piri° (?). 10 DJ. ins. i. 11 Mf. -ned.
12 all avoash, or afoash (sic). 13 D., Mf. avö. 14 DJ., M. mado.
Pahl. transl. Of these two spirits, he who is wicked loved the worse
action, or acting one [Aharman; that which is the worse action was his desire],
(b) But the bountiful Spirit Aüharmazd [loved] Sanctity, since also the
hard stony [sky] was covered-on* by him, [by this labour also the circuit
of the world was fully completed, that is, until, or that the progress of
Sanctity shall be completed], (c) And he loved him also who

XXX. 5, 6.
propitiates Aüharmazd, [i. e. him whose desire is A. (or the same as that of
Aüharmazd)], and who in that his open (and true) action, is for Aüharmazd,
[that is, by that act of his desire he is rejoiced to come to Aüharmazd].
Ner.’s sansk. text. Asyäm Adricyamürtibhyäm1 abhipsitam \ [kila mai-
trikritam], yah durgatiman nikrishtam karma, (b) punyam Adri§yo guru-
tarah, yo gadhataram akagam dadau, [asau anena käryena dadau, kila yä-
vat (?) Dinih pravrittä bhavati], (c) ya§cha satkärajnänam Hormijdaya pra-
katai§cha karmabhih apapaih2 [proktam Hormijdaya]. 1 P. 2 J.4, J.*.
Ner. transl. What was desired by these two Spirits, in this creation
was this, [namely, friendship-making was desired by the one], and the evil one
Trlit. Ayäo noid(t) eres vis(k)yätä daevächinä, hyad(t) is ä debaomä
Peresmaneng upä-jasad(t), hyad(t) verenätä achistem manö;
Ad(t) Aeshemem hendvärentä yä bänayen ahüm mar(e)tänö!
Verbatim tri. Horum-duorum [de his] non recte decernant[-ent] Daevae-
daemones-omnino quoniam [ad] eos fallacia [specie personae] (b) [interrogationi-
bus-inter-se] consultantes appropinquabat, ut [ipsam] sibi-eligant, Pessima* Mens*
(c) Itaque [ad-] Saevitiam concurrebant [vel-rent (?) hi-scelesti] quo [ut] *delerent
[-eant] vitam hominis, [vel homines (?) destruant, etc. (?)]. * Pessimam Menteip (?).
Pahl. text translit. 1 Valmanshän2 lä rästö barä3 vijinend, mün Shedayyä4
hömand chigämchäi, [aigh, Shedayyä5 mindavam i frärünö lä vädünänd6], va7
*inünich8 valmanshän frift [valmanshän mün Shedään9 frift yekavimünd10,
rast ach lä vädünyen*11]. (b) Avö pürsishnö madam madö hömand, [aigh-
shän levatman Shedään hampürsidö yehevünedö], münshän12 döshid zak
i13 saritar pavan minishnö. (c) Aetünö levatman Kheshm* avö harn dübärast*
hömand, afshänÖ vimärinidö14 ahvän i15 mardümän16, [aigh, levatman Kheshm
(or Ae°) anshütään ahükinend]. 1 See P. 2 DJ., D. om. va. 3 DJ., D. ins. 4 DJ. 5
D. shedä. 5 D. shedä (?). 6 D. °yen. 7 DJ., D. i. 8 DJ., D. om. i. 9 D.; DJ. °än;
M. °dä zak. 10 DJ., D. °üned. 11 DJ. künend. 12 D. mün. 13 DJ., D. ins. 14 D.
15 D. om. 16 DJ., D. anshütään. (*DJ. from münich to vädünyen later; om. räst.) * or Aesh°.
Pahl. transl. Of these they who are Demons do not discriminate*1 aright in
any particular whatsoever, [that is, the Demons may not accomplish any

XXX. 5, 6.
desired degraded action, (b) The Greater Spirit desired Sanctity, the one
who created the most firm heaven, [and he has granted, or made, the heaven
complete with this object, namely as far as (until)* the Din is advanced by it], (c)
and he desired the man who also offers the wisdom of reverence to Hormijda
[that wisdom, which is proclaimed to Hormijda] by open and sinless deeds.
Parsi-persian Ms. Az düän (sic) Minü, ash doshed + khwähish-kunad kih darwand an
i hadtar varzishn [Ahariman, (sic) an i (space) badtar varzishn kamak bud] # (h) Sa-
wäb Minü i afzuni Hormuzd Sawäb [khwähad] [ü = varman], kih ham [] [an = zak]
i an säkht (no tr. for Pahl. sag) nihän [äsmän ham, pah in kär pirämun i jihän * bill
kard (?), kü, tä Sawäb rawä bed] # (c) Kih ham sitüd Hormuzd [ [ ] [no tr. for Pahl.
ajoashn (ajash*)] karnah an i Hormuzd], wa pah an i äshkärah kardan an Hormuzd,
[kü, pah an karnah kardan, an Hormuzd shäyad rasidan] &
Free tr. Of these two choose not aright | the Devas; theirs was deception;
Those questioning then he.approached, the WorstMind, that he* might* be* chosen;
Together they rushed unto Wrath, and the life of the mortal ruin!
pious result], by which also they* are deceived*2, [the Demons are*3 deceived;
they also would do nothing aright], (b) To their questioning they came on,
[that is, consultation with the Demons was held by those] by whom he who
was worse [worst] in his thoughts was loved; (c) and thus have they rushed
together unto Wrath, and the lives of men are also diseased by them, [that
is, together with the Wrath-ctemon, they make the lives of men the object
of their hatred (or distort* them)]. * 1 Or 'help us to discriminate’ (?). * 2 or ‘who are
deceived by them’. *3 or ‘those whom the Demons have deceived’.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Techa no1 satyam vivijanti2* ye Devali santi,
[kila, kiiiichit sadächäritaram* no satyam vivijanti*3]; yecha taih viprata-
ritäh [te ’pi no satyam vivijanti*]. (b) Pra§nai§cha upari upägachchhat,
[yah samam Devaih], yaiQcha maitrikritam nikrishtarii mano, [yathä Dahä-
kahj. (c) Evarii amarshena* samarii durägachchhan, ye nijaghnur bhuvanaih
manushyänäm, [sthanam yat paralokiyarii, kila, samarii krodhena manushyän
akrOQayanti]. 1 C.; P. nä. 2 °vij° = °vich° ; J.4 vivajanti. 3 J.3, J * vivaj-. J.4 vivijante.
Ner. transl. And they, the Devas, do not discriminate* aright, [that
is, they do not discriminate any better action aright]; they also who are
deceived by them, [they too do not distinguish aright], (b) With questions
he came up, [that is, he who was in company with the Devas], and with
those by whom the degraded mind is cherished, [like the destructive
Dahaka]. (c)So with anger* (see Burn.), and for evil*, they came together who have
destroyed the world of men, [that is, they have destroyed the place which
belongs to the other world, that is, they curse men fatally with their anger].
Parsi-persian Ms. Öshän nah rast bih chinad(?) kih Dew (?) hend har-kudäm, [kü,

XXX. 7, 8.
Dewän cliiz i nek nah kunand] [ ] kih ham öskän frift, [öshän [ham = —] kih Dewän
freb (farib (?)) — [ ] ach (sic) nah kunand] & (b) An pursishn awar rasid hend, [küshän awä
Dewän hampursid bed] kih [ ] khwähed (so) an i hadtar pah minishn # (c) Edün awä
Trlit. Ahmäichä khshathrä jasad(t) Mananhä Vohü Ashächä,
Ad(t) kehrpem utayüitis dadäd(t) Är(a)maitis änmä;
Aeshäm Toi ä anhad(t) yathäayanhäädänäispaouruyo [=°vyo].
Verbatim transl. Huicque [vel ad-hunc*1] Regno accedebat [vel accessit]
Mente-cum Bona, Sanctitateque, (b) tum [spiritui] corpus sempiterna dabat [vel
dedit] Pietas (prompta-mens) firma. (c) Horum [ita] Tibi (ad ^) [hos Tuos
apud (?)] sit (vel erat) quam [quum] veniebas*2 [vel - ias - ies] laboribus-
creationis primus. 4:1 Fortasse ad nos. * 2 vel ibas (eas).
Pahl. text transl. ^vö valman Khshatraver yämtünedö, Vohüman, va2
Ashavahishtöch*3, [kardanö madam ghal yämtünd]4. (b) Afash aetünö kerpö
tükhishnö*5 yeliabünedö Spendarmadö pavan astübih6, [aigh, vadash yehe-
vüned, stübö lä yehevünedö]. (c) Valmanshän i7 Lak zak aitö8, [aigh,
avö valman9 aish aetünö yämtünd] mün aetünö yätünishnö10 chigün dahishnö
i7 fratüm, [aighash7 kamakö va2 künishnö zak i11 Gäyömardö12].
1 See P. 2 DJ., D. ins. va. 3 D. ins. as Pers. 4 M. ins. (Haug’s hand) as P. at 8
5 so D., P.; others extra stroke. 6 D. astubänih or °ish (?). 7 DJ. om. 8 DJ., D., M.
9 DJ., D. valman; M. val. 10 M. °ned. 11 DJ., D. ins. 12 D., Mf. gayök0.
Pahl. transl. To him comes Khshatraver, and Vohüman, and Asha-
vahisht also, [that is, they approach him for pious labour], (b) Also thus
likewise Spendarmad gives him energy of body without stupefaction, [that
is, so long as it is his, he is not stupefied], (c) Theirs also who are Thine

Trlit. Ad(t)chä yadä aeshäm kaenä jamaiti aenanhäm,
Ad(t) Mazda TaibyöKhshathrem Vohü Mananhä vöividäite
Aeibyö saste Ahurä yöi Ashäi daden zastayö Drujem.
Verbatim transl. Atque quum horum ultio venit malefactorum [vel ex
his maleficis], (b) tum Mazda, Tibi Regnum, Bona [cum] Mente, valde-

XXX. 7, 8.
kashtam (so for kheshm?) an ham-dubarid hend, [] oshan bimar- (no tr, for termin.)
jihän* i ädamyän, [kü, awä hasktam (so again for klieshm) ädamyän — (Pahl.
defaced)] &
Free tr. To him came then the helper with Kingdom, Right, and the Good Mind,
And a body gave Armaiti the eternal and never bending,
With these who are Thine may she be, as Thou earnest first in creations.
that person is thus, [that is, they come thus to that person] whose coming is
such as the creation which was first, [that is, both his desire and his ac-
tions are like those of Gayomard].
Ner.’s sansk. text. Tatracha Saharevarah präpnoti, Manaqcha Utta-
mam, Dharmaqcha [qubham tatra kartuinj. (b) Evarii käye adhyavasayarii
dadäti Spindärmadä, *anyarthe1 dattyä2, [kila, yävat nirvinno na bhavati].
(c) Techa Te tasmin santi, [kila, tasmin präpnuvanti]. Yah evam ägantä3,
yathä dätih pürvä, [yathä Gaiomardah2]. ^.»ani0 (cp. anirrithe (?)). 2J.*. 3 all diff.
Ner. transl. And there Saharevara comes, and the Best Mind, and
Sanctity, [to do good there], (b) So also Spindarmada imparts energy to the
body through her bounty in indestructible existence, [that is, so long as
until he (the created man) is not mentally at a loss], (c) And these are each
of them in this Thy world, [that is, they are coming into this world].
He who is thus a coming one is coming as the first creation came, [as
Parsi-persian Ms. An ü Shaharever rasid (or-ed) Bahman, [] Ardibahisht, [[] [kü, ü
i Gasani ash pah neki padash = agh varman i Gasani ash pavan naduki padash] kardan
awar 6 (or ü) rasad (?)] & (b) Azash (sic) edün----[] [lied = -nüned (sic)] Sfendar-
mad pah ustuwäri, [kü, task [] [dehad = däbünecl] cajiz nah bed]] & (c) Öshan i Tu
an hast, [kü, an ü kas edün [] [rasad = jämüüned (sic)]], kih edün amadishu
(= yätünishn) chün defaced i awwal, [kush kamah u kardan an i Gayomard]
Fr. Thus when the vengeance cometh, vengeance just upon foulest wretches
Thereon for Thee, Ahura, is the kingdom gained by the Good Mind,
And for those declared, 0 Mazda, who the Lie unto Truth deliver.
accipiatur^1. (c) His [his Tuis servitoribus] enuntiatur^2 [hoc Regnum], Ahura,
qui Sanctitati dent [dabunt] in [ejus] manibus [-nus] -duabus [-as] Mendacii-dae-
monem. wi Accipietur. w2 vel imperatur (imperson.); fortasse infin. (?).
Pahl. text translit. Aetunöch1 pavan zak2 dahishnö, [pavan tanö i
pasinö], avö valmanshän kinikänö3 [va vinäskäränö] yämtünedo kinö, [aigh-
shän pädafräs vädünänd]. (b) Aetünö, Aüharmazd, mün avö4 Lak khüdä-
yih, ash Vohüman barä yehabüned mozd (c) pavan valmanshän ämükh-»

XXX. 8, 9.
tishnö (sic), Aüharmazd, [pavan Dinö* i Aüharmazd] amat avö valman mün
Aharäyih, [aigh, pavan mindavam i frärünö ämükhtö yekavimünedö] ash
avö yadman yehabüni-ait Drüjö5 [Drüj i Aharmökih6].
^D. om. i. 2 DJ. ins. i. 3 DJ. om. i. 4 DJ. 5 DJ., M. ins. va. 6 DJ., D. °mökih.; see P.
Pahl. transl. Thus also in that dispensation [in the later body] hatred
comes to these haters and sinners, [that is, the avengers shall execute
chastisement upon them], (b) And therefore, 0 Aüharmazd, to him by whom
sovereignty is for Thee Vohüman will give a reward (c) through their teach-
ings, 0 Aüharmazd, [through the Religion of Aüharmazd] when into the
hand of him who (or whose) is sanctity, [i. e. who has been instructed
in the interests of the upright] the Drüj [the Drüj of Aharmökih] is given.
Ner.’s. sansk. text. Evamcha tayä dätyä* teshäm nigraham* 1 präpnoti
dveshinam, [päpakarminäm *], [kila, tanoh akshayatäyäm2 tesham nigraham
kurvanti]. (b) Evaih, Mahajiiänin, Tvadiyänäm rajyam Gvahmano dadäti.
Tr. Ad(t)chä Toi vaem [=vayem] hyämä, yöi im frashim [°yam] kerenäun
[°aven] ahüm,
Mazdäoschä Ahuräonhö, ämöyasträ, baranä, Ashächä,
Hvad(t) hathrä manäo bavad(t), yathrä chistis anhad(t) maetha.
Verbatim transl. Atque illi nos simus qui hanc [sine-i nter mission e-in-
prosperitate-] progredientem* faciant (i. e. reddemus) vitam, (b) 0 (?) Mazdae
Ahurae*, in-caritate, oblata-offerentes*1, cum-Sanctitateque, (c) quia hic
cogitationes [nostrae] erat [erunt] ubi intelligentia-[spiritualis] sit in domicilio
(domi* et eo propensa (?)) Offerte ((?) aegre).
Pahl. text translit. Aetünöch* lanman mün1 Lak hömanem, [aigh, Lak
nafshman hömanem amän] denman Frashakard künishnö den ahvän.
(b) Aüharmazdicli zak i2 hamäk hanjamanikih, va3 yedrünishnö i Ashava-
histöch, [aighshän hamishakö hanjaman4+i madam tanö i pasinö künishnö].
(c) Mün asär (sic) minishnö yehevünedö, [aigh, minishnö pavan Dastöbarihi1
ahvö*2 yakhsenunedö], ash tamman farzänakih* aitö, [aigh, farjäm5 i min-
davam6 pavan frärünöih barä khavitünedö], den mihanö.
1 D. ins. i. 2 DJ. ins. i. 3 DJ., D. om. 4 DJ. orig, liömand. 5 so DJ., D.;
Sp., M. farzänak. 6 DJ., D.; M. chiz, or chish. * D. om. i in a.
Pahl. translit. So also we who are Thine, [that is, we are Thine
own], ours is the achieving of this Completed Progress in the world, (b)
and we are also forming the entire congregation of Aüharmazd, and

XXX. 8, 9.
(c) Taucha §ishyä Hormijdasya, [kila, Avistävachobhili vyäkhyänaigcha §ikshi-
täh santi], ye punyätmano haste däsyanti Deviiii, [Asmoi*3 vipratäranaih],
1 So I’.; C., J.4 niknshtagraham. 2 so J.3, P.; J.4 akshayäm tain yam, C. "taiii-
yäiii (sic). 3 so C., P.; J.3 agmo, or asmyo(?), J.4 agmyoi.
Ner. transl. So likewise the defeat* of the enemies [the malefactors]
comes through that dispensation* (or donation (?)), [that is, they will cause
their defeat in the (time of the) indestructibility of the body], (b) and thus, 0
Great Wise One, does Gvahmana bestow the kingdom of) or upon, Thy people,
(c) and by these are the disciples by the words of the Avista, and by their explanations] who therefore shall
give the goddess [Asmoi, the deception] into the hand of the pure in soul.
Parsi-persian Ms. Edün ham i pah an — [pah tan pasin]Aän oshän kinahgän [u
wanähgärän *] rased* kinah, [küshän pädafrah kunand] (b) Edün, Hormuzd, kih an
Tu khudäi, ash Bahman bih dehad muzd* (c) pah oshä(n) amükhtan, Hormuzd, [pah
(defaced) i Hormuzd] kih an ü kih Sawäb, [kü, pah chiz i nek ämükht ested] ash an
dast dehad Druj [Druj i Ashmogh] #
Fr. tr. Thus may we be like those who bring on this world’s completion,
As Ahuras of the Lord, bearing gifts with Asha’s grace,
For there are our thoughts abiding, where wisdom lives in her home.
by us the bringing-in of Ashavahisht is also to be accomplished, [that
is, an assembly is to be held perpetually by them concerning the later body],
(c) Because** 1 he*1 is present*2-minded (or because his thinking is ever (?))
thus (or endless (?)), [that is, because he keeps his thoughts on the master
of the Dasturship] his knowledge is in the abode beyond, [i. e. he will under-
stand the end of the matter through his piety]. *iOr‘He who’. *2hasär — hathrä.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Evamcha Te vayam svadinah smah1 ye idam akshayat-
vam kurmahe bhuvane, (b) Mahäjhäninecha Svämine tat Qa§vat hanjamanarh*2
(sic) kurvanäh Dharmayacha, [kila, ye sadai ’va hahjamanarii*2 upari tanoh
akshayatäyäm vidhätäro smah3]. (c) Yah ade§amano*(?) bhavati, [kila manah
ädegena Svämino dhatte] tasya paraloke nirvänajhänam asti antar bhuvane,
[kila, tanoh akshayatve sati4 akhsamatayaiii samtishthati kshinasainyah5].
1 All asinah (sic). 2 Parsi. 3 all ’smi. 4 J.4, J.* saiiiti. 5 The most °sen°.
Ner. transl. And thus are we Thine own, we who are producing this
state of indestructibility in the world, (b) forming the assembly always for
the Great Wise One the Lord, and for Sanctity, [that is, we who are ever
arrangers of an assembly concerning the indestructibility of the body], (c) He
who is well-ordered in his mind, [that is, who disposes his mind according to the
order of the Lord] possesses that knowledge which concerns the end of things in
the other world, \that is, when the indestructibility of the body has been realized
he whose host has been destroyed (or the host-destroyer) meets impotence],

XXX. 10, 11.
Parsi-persian Ms. Edünö (or aedünö, sic) ham mä kih an i Tu hastam(-im), [kü an
i Tu khwesh hastam(-im) in (sic? under amän)] [] Ristäkhiz*1 kardan andar jihän*&
(h)Hormuzd ham an i tamarn anjumani [] burishn, [u= va\ Ardibahisht, [küshän hamishah
Trlit Ada zi avä Drüjo (avo) bavaiti skendö spayathrahyä
Ad(t) äsistä yaozante* ä hushitois Vanheus Mananho
Mazdäo Ashahyächä yöi zazente varihau sravahi.
Verb. tri. Deinde enim desuper-in Drujae[-jam] (dein-super) est (i. e.
cadit) discissura (sic, deletio) exercitus; (b) at velocissimi (i. e. citissime) festi-
nant (vel yaoj° congrediuntur) ad [in] faustae [-tam]-habitationis [-ionem]
Bonae Mentis, (c) Mazdae, Sanctitatisque qui progrediuntur (fortasse gig-
nuntur (zan (?))) in bona fama [vel in sancta disciplina docti].
Pahl. text translit. 1 Aetünö pavan zak dahishnö1 [pavan tanö* i pasinö]
valman i2 Drüj [i2+3 Ganräk* (?)4 Minavad] pavan fröd-büyishnih5 [amatash6+1
mindavam barä avö7 uizärih yekavhnünädö] tebrüni-ait sipäh, (b) aetünö tizö
äyüzend (or äyüj°) [avö mozd yansegüntan8] zak i pavan hü-mänishnih9 i Vohü-
manö [amat pavan frärünöih ketrünastö* (sic) yekavimünd10^1]. (c) Avö Aühar-
mazd va2 Ashavahishtöch1 [äyüzend] mün vakhdünd1 zak i shapir nämikih,
[aigh, zak11 aish vazlüned avö mozd yansegüntanö^12^-1 mun hü-sröbö aitö].
^eeP. 2D. om. 3 DJ., D., om. i va. 4 DJ. ganäkh(?). 5 M. yehevünishnih. 6 DJ. ins.
ash. 7 DJ. ghal. 8 D. °ünänd. 9 Mf. °min°. 10 D. °üned. 11 DJ. ins. i. 12 DJ.
Pahl. transl. Thus in that dispensation [in the later body] the Drüj [who
is Ganräk* Minavad] will be overthrown (in overthrow) when his affairs are
in a state of meagreness, and his(?) host is shattered, (b) Thus they move*
keenly on (or swiftly unite) to seize the reward which is attained in (or
Trlit. Hyad(t) tä (u)rvätä[=vrät°]sashathä, yä Mazdäo dadäd(t) ma§(k)[i]väonhö,
Vitichä [= huv°] eneiti, hyad(t)chä dar(e)gem dregvöd(e)byö rasho,
Savachä ashavabyö, ad(t) aipi täis anhaiti ustä!

XXX. 10, 11.
anjuman awar tan i pasin —] (c) Kill — minishn* bed, [kü, minishn pah--------därad]
asb änjä dänäi hast [kü, äkhar*2 i chiz pah neki hili dänad] andar makän # Some-
times rast0. *2 or akhir.
Free tr. There on the host of the Lie the blow of destruction descendeth,
But swiftest in the abode of the Good Mind gather the righteous,
With Mazda and Asha they dwell advancing in holier fame.
through) the good habitation (or abiding) of Vohüman, [when they shall have
dwelt in piety], (c) They who are seizing (or creating (vädund)) a good renown
are thus moving on toward Auharmazd and Ashavahisht, [that is, the person
who is of good repute goes forward to seize the reward].
Ner.’s sansk. text. Tayä dätyä hi asau Devah adhasi (? adhas) bhaveta,
kriQatarapatäkinikah* (b) evam (jighram prärohanti te suniväsatatayä (so,
°täm) UttamasyaManasah1, (c) Hormijdecha Dharmecha, [techa ye sadächä-
ratayä äväsitäh santi prasädeshu Qighram prayäti (-yanti)], ye kurvanti* ut-
tamänälh2 kirtiin. 1 P. ins. pranati (for prayäti). 2 P. uttamaih no.
Ner. tr. For by means of this dispensation that Deva should be put in
subjection (underneath), his host having become thinner, (b, c) So in view
of this they who are producing the fame of the most exalted ones (the good)
are arising quickly through (meaning‘to’) the good lodging of the (their (?))
best mind to Hormijda and to Sanctity, [and they who are thus lodged there
because of good conduct advance quickly among the rewards].
Parsi-persian Ms. Edün pah an [] [pah tan i pasin] ü i Druj [i'GanaMinu] pah —
— [kiyash (kih ash) chiz hih an nizäri istäd] shikastah sipäh # (b) edün tiz {no tr.
for Pahl. ayüzend) [an muzd sitadan]* an i pah nek [] [minishni* — minishn (so)] i
Vahoman (sic), [kih pah neki rnandah (?) istäd] # (c) An Hormuzd u Ardihahisht [] [no
tr. for indecipherable Pahl.] kih [] [kunad = vägüned] än i veh nämi (?), [kü, än kas
shawed* (-wad) än muzd* sitadan kih — hast] #
Free tr. When then these doctrines ye learn which Ahura gave, 0 ye mortals,
For our welfare and in grace, when long is the wound for the wicked,
And blessings the lot of the pure, upon this shall there be salvation.
Verbatim. Quum [vel quod] has doctrinas discite quas Mazda dabat,
[i. e. revelavit, 0 vos] homines, (b) [quas] sua-sponte (vel, [ad] prosperitati
[-tern augendam) inspirat(?) [vel strenuitate-promovet (?)], quodque [quumque]
[revelavit etiam] longinquam [adversus] scelestis [-tos] sauciationem, beneficia
[emolumentaque pro hominibus] probis, turn in [post(?)] his [haec] eritsalus!
Pahl. text tr. ^akPkoläll äfrinagänih*1 ämükhtishnö (sic) mun3^1 Au-
harmazd dädö4 avö anshütäänö (b) 5munich6 khvad(?) [nahin(h)(?)] (or khvaen*7

XXXI. 1.
(?) ahin(h)(?)) ämükhtishnö8+1 (sic) zak mindavam, [aigh, vad am pavan pasäkh-
tö8+x yazishnö lä yehevünädö], münich der resh [min zak pasäkhtö^1] darvan-
dän, (c) südich i9 aharübän, [aigh, chigun aväyadö kardanö], aetünö akhar val-
manshän aitö nadükih*10 [amatzaksüd bundak barä madö]. ^eeP. 2D. om. 3 DJ.,
D. (?), M., K.5 i. 4 so DJ. GD. ins. va. 6 M. ich i, DJ. om. i, D. om. ich i. 7 DJ. seems eyp*
corrected, not as in Comm. 8 DJ., D., M. 9 DJ. ins. 10 DJ., D. °ükö.
Pahl. tri. Both those blessed revelations are doctrines which A. gave
to men (b) by whose self (?) also [with no violence (?) (mercifully)] (or, ‘with
whom also glittering (?) (iron(?)’) is that subject of teaching, [that is, while,
or in case that, the service may not have been completed for me], and what
also is the long wounding for the wicked [from that evil celebration], (c) and
those revelations are also advantageous to the righteous, [that is, when pro-
duced as it is fitting to produce them], and so after these things, there is
felicity [when that benefit shall have fully arrived],
Ner.’s sansk. text. Yas tau prasiddhau gikshati [Avistävänhh vyäkh-
yänaihcha] yau1 Mahäjnäni dadau manushyebliyah (b) abhilashuka^cha

Trlit. Tä Ve urvätä [=vrata] marento,
Aeibyo, yoi urvätäis [=vrä°] Drüjö
Adchid(t) aeibyo vahistä,

agusta vachäo senhämahi
Ashahyä gaethäo vimerenchaite,
yoi zar(a)zdao anhen Mazdfii.
Verb. tri. Haec Vestrum [vestras] doctrinas memorantes hue usque-in-
audita (vel sine-obedientia-audita) verba pronuntiemus (b) his qui doctrinis
Mendacii-daemonis Sanctitatis [viros-] colonias [-habitantes] interficiant [-ient]
(vel eas colonias vastabunt), (c) at-quidem [verba] his optima qui corde-
addicti sint Mazdae.
Pahl. text translit. 4Zak i2 kola do äfrinagänih* i3 avö2 Leküm hosh-
müröm4 [Avestäk va5 Zand] valmanich6 i anyokhshidar7 [Aharmok] pavan
gobishnö ämuzem9, [den varhömandih10 l10, si bar avö11 göbishnö, va8 amat
aevar*(?cp. evar) khavitunedo, aigh la ämükht-ed12 (sic) si bar], (b) Valmanshan
mun13 pavan äfrinagänih*! Drüj14 zak i Aharäyihgehan barämarenchinend, [amat
Drüj2 pavan äfrinagänö1 yakhsenund], (c) adinoch i2 valmanshan pählüm

XXXI. 1.
gikshäyäli, ya^.cha dirghaiii durgatimatäin chhettä, [kila, nigraham päpakar-
minärii* yathä ’nurüpatayä kurute] (c) läbhagcha muktätmabhyah evarii pa§-
Chät tebhyall asti (jubhatarall. Pürvoktavat. xSo J.3, but J.4 yo, J.* ye; C., P. yan.
Ner. transl. He who teaches these two revelations [the Avista-word,
and the interpretation], which two the Great Wise One has given to men,
(b) and who is also desirous of the doctrine, and has been long a cleaver of
the wicked, [that is, he causes the defeat of those who work wickedness as
if by congruity], (c) for such free-souled, or righteous, persons there is a
beneficial acquisition, and so after these things that acquisition is more happy.
(As before said at the end of verse 1; This verse is to be repeated hvice).
Parsi-persian Ms. (No translation for ‘a’; text as above except that ämükhtan
stands for °ishn) (b) kill no tr. as far as bam, (text mün khin ahin) bam ämükhtan
an chiz, [kü, tä ma-rä pah pasäkht no tr. for gazishn (so for yazishn) nah bad], kill
ham der zakhm [az an pasäkht*] i darwandän, (c) [wa = va} süd ham i ashavän*,
[kü, cliün bäyad kardan], edün pas öshän hast [] [nek = nadük*}, [kih än süd bnn-
dah* (?) bill rasad]
Free tr. These your doctrines reciting, words unheeded yet let us utter
By those unheard who our farms through the creeds of the lie are destroying,
But words of the best unto those who to Mazda are heartily faithful.
homanai, amat rübäk dahishnö hömanänd pavan zak i3 Aüharmazd, [aigh,
valinanshanich15+16 Aharmökänö mindavam I17 denman pählüm hömanäi18
amat19 Dinö i Auharmazd rübäk vädünänd].
1 See P. 2DJ., D., Mf. om i. 3 DJ. ora. 4D., Mf. °mürdö. CDJ., D„ Mf. ins. #DJ.
avdch. 7 D., Mf. nyoklish0. 8 DJ. om. va. 9 so DJ.; others °am, or °em. 10 DJ., D., Mf.
11 DJ. ghal, D., Mf. om., M. avö. 12 M. °ükht-äi. 13 Mf. amat. 14 DJ. ins. i. 15 DJ., D.,
Mf. ins. ich. 10 DJ., D., Mf. om. pählümich. 17 DJ., D., Mf. 18 DJ. om. 18 Mf., D. mün.
Pahl. tr. Both these blessed revelations which I recite for You (or as
Yours; om. avö) [the Avesta and Zand] we are teaching by word to him who
is no hearer, [to the Destroyer-of-Sanctity or Persecutor. In a doubtful matter
we teach him three times by word, and if he knows without doubting, then he
is not thus taught three times], (b) to those who utterly slay the settle-
ments of Sanctity through the benedictions of the Drüj, [when they maintain the
Drüj by false benedictions], (c) then to those this might be the best thing,
when they would cause progress in what belongs to Auharmazd, [that is, to
those persecuting* heretics* even it would be a best thing if they should
make the Religion of Auharmazd progressive].

XXXI. 1, 2.
Ner/s sansk. text Taucha prasiddhau manyämahe, [kila, jänimah Avistä-
vanirh arthamcha] a^rotrinäm (?) [Äsmogänäm* 1 (?)] vachasä2 gikshäpayämah
[a'ntali samgayatve3 trin värän*, chet jänäti pratikaroticha, sadai’va, chet jänäti,
na pratikaroti, ekaväram*] (b) teshäm ye prakäganti Drüjasya, [kila, ye
Drüjam prasiddham dadhati, Drüjam Asmogatvam kapatachihnam], ye pun-
yäni* jagatyäh vilumpanti, (c) evaiii tebhyah utkrishtataränäm (?) [tebhyah
Äsmogebhyah] ye pravrittidäh santi Mahäjnänibhyah, [kila, ye Dinim Ma-
häjnäninah pravartamänärii kurvanti*].
1 C., P. 2 C., P. and J.* diff. 3 C. °tvena. 4 J.3, J.*. (Sansk. of every period is used
throughout, and Sandhi is intermittingly applied).
Ner. transl. And to these two revelations we pay attention, [that is,
we understand the Avista-word and the interpretation], and we teach them
by word even to those who stop the ears, [that is, even to the Äsmogas, in
doubt three times; if the person understands it and resists, always; if he
understands and does not resist, once]; (b) and we also teach them to those

Trlit. Yezi äis noid(t) (u)rväue [=ruv°] adväo aibi-deresta vah[i]yao,
Ad(t) vao vispeng äyöi, yathä ratüm Ahurö vaedä
Mazdäo ayäo äsayäo, yä Ashäd(t) hachä j[i]vämahi.
Verbatim tri. Si iis non animae non-ambigua (i. e. doctrinas sine
ullo dubio (cp. Y. XXX, 1 etc.)) apprehensae [smZ] meliores (vel si melior
via (leg. advä) non in-conspectu (?) sit), (b) turn ad vos omnes adeo [adibo ut eas
doctrinas veras promulgem] sicut regulam [-suam] Ahura agnovit (c) Mazda
harum-duarum-partium [vel portionum (?)] qua [vel ut] Sanctitate (ex) vivamus.
Pahl. text translit. 1Mün* pavan nikirishnö la hemnunedo, ash pavan zak
i2 agumanikih, [amat pavan mindavam i3 Yazadänö2 lach gümänö], aigh, ait
madam nikezishnih4 shapir [amatash pavan andäzakö1 i stih barä numäyend].
(b) Aetünö5 avö lekum harvispö2 yätünd, [aigh, kolä aish barä avö khveshih
i Leküm yätünd6], amat aetünö radih i Aüharmazd äkäs yehevünd, [aigh,
afdih i Aüharmazd barä khavitünd]. (c) Min Aüharmazd, min valmanshän zak
yämtünishnö amat min Aharäyih aväkih zivam, [min Ameshöspendän am7 den-
man nadükih*, min1 Aüharmazd, amat levatman kär va kirfakö zim aitö
ghal zivam 1+8]. 1 See P. 2 DJ. 3 D. 4 DJ. lä yazishnih. 5 so D.; DJ. li (N.B.)
avö, M., K.6 val i. 9 so Mf. etc.; D. yakhsenünd. 7 DJ. min am. 8 Mf. zim (?).

XXXI. 1, 2.
who reveal (so, or ‘increase’ (so ka$ with Ner. often)) the Druja’s doctrine
(or who appear to be the Druja’s adherents), [that is, who establish, or
regard, the Druja as a revelation, the Druja, the Äsmoga-characteristic who
has the sign of deceit], and who afflict the sacred things of the earth, (c) And
thus also we teach it to those more exalted (better) than these [these Asmoha
devotees], that is, to those who bestow propagation upon the Great Wise Ones,
[that is, who render the Din of the Great Wise One progressive].
Parsi-persian Ms. An i har du maslihüri* i [] shumä [] [shumürad* = hoslimurd]
[Avestä u Zand], wa ü ham i bi-shinidar (sic) [Ashmögh] pavan gobishn amuzain, [andar
shakmandi* sih + III bar, [] gobishn, wa kill bi-gumän dänad, kü nah aniukht sih
bar] (b) Oshan kih pah {space) i Druj an i Sawäb jihän* bih kharäb-kunand [kih Druj
pah {space, no tr. or text) därad], (c) agin ham (sic vid.) i oshan* buland Imsti, kih
rawä-dahishn hend pah an i Hörmuzd, [kü i oshan ham Ashmögh chiz in buland hasti (?),
kih awä (? It may be rawä slipped in from above or possibly andar (?)) = Palil. den
for Din) i Hörmuzd rawä-kunand]
Fr. If through this for the soul the truths are not held as the better,
Then teaching to all will I come, with God’s law more fully confirmed
Law over both sides, Mazda, that moved by the Right we may live.
Pahl. transl. When* (or since), as one observes, one does not believe
according to what is not doubtful to him [when one is also not doubtful
in the matter of the Yazads], then* it is good on viewing (or exposition)
[when they will make it clear by an estimate, or example, from the world],
(b) so (or therefore) to You all are coming, [that is, every one. will come into
Your possession], when they become thus aware of the regulation of Auhar-
mazd, [that is, when they shall know the wonderful power (or character) of
Auharmazd]. (c) From Auharmazd and from those (the Ameshöspends) does
it happen, if I live on through the aid* of* Aharayih, [that is, this happiness
comes to me from the Ameshöspends, and from Aüharrnazd, if I live on with
the industry and charity which are appropriate for me]. *Or ‘in accompaniment with’.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Yat nirikshanena1* na pratibudhyati*, [kila yat nirik-
shate1 tasya mahattvam yat Dineh, na pratibudhyati] asarinjavatvena upari-
prapädanaiii** uttamam, [chet vastuni Iajadanam2 samdigdho3 na bhavet,
drishtäntair jagatyäh komalam käryaiii]. (b) Evam Yushmäsu sarve äyänti,
[kila, sarve ’pi svädhinatve Yushmäkam äyänti]; yady evam Gurutvam Svämino
vindanti4 (? so), [kila, chet mahattvam Hormijdasya jänanti* sarve ’pi Dinau
Hormijdasya äyänti]. (c) Hormijdät tebhyah täm präptim chet punyasamsrish-
tärii5 yächayämali, [Amigäspintebhyah vayaihenänisaiiipattimmänushhhHormijd-
ächcha, chet käryäva punyäyacha asmäkaiii asti, yächayämali]. 1 nirikshane
samänena. 2J.3, J* Iajadinib. 3 J.* °dhä. 4J.*vid°; C. °ati. 6J.8, J.4, C. °tim; P. °täm.
Ner. transl. Because he does not understand by this consideration,
[that is, because he considers the greatness of this, which is that of the Din,

XXXI. 2, 3.
and does not understand], therefore that teaching (?) which is without any
hesitation is the best, [that is, if he is not doubtful as to the nature of the
Yazads, the teaching is to be made easy by the examples of the world],
(b) Thus all are coming among You, [that is, into Your control or possession],
if they are those who know (so, not 1 obtain ’) the spiritual Mastership of the
Lord, [that is, in case that they know the greatness of Hormijda, and also
come, all of them, into the Din of Hormijda]. (c) If we ask from Hormijda
and from these for the attainment produced by Sanctity, we are asking from

Trlit. Yarn däo, Mainyü, Äthrächä Ashächä chöis ränöibyä khshnütem,
Hyad(t) urvatem [=vra°]chazd6nhvad(e)by6, tad(t) ne Mazda vidvanöi vaochä
Hizvä [hizuva] Thwahyä äonhö, yäj[i]vantö vispefig väurayä [=vava°, or vär0].
Verb. tr. Quam [placationem (vel cognitionem-certam)] dedisti [vel des]
spiritu [vel, 0 Spiritus,] Igneque, Sanctitateque assignavisti [-gnes] certantibus-
duobus [vel e lignis duobus] placationem (vel cognitionem certam), (b) [et]
quod [qua] doctrina peritia-praeditis [nuntianda sit], hoc [hanc] nobis Mazda
[ad earn] sciendo [-dam (et revelandam)] die (c) lingua Tui oris, qua [faciam
ut] viventes omnes credant [eos convertam-et-in-fide-firmos-aedificem].
Pahl. text translit. 4Amat at1 däd2 pavan minavadikih ätäsh3 va4Asha-
vahishtö, afat chäshtö avö patkärdäränö* shnakhtärih, [aighat bukht va4
äirikht5 pedäk kardö], (b) afat mün äfrinagänih avö6 valman* aimär4 (sic (?)
ämär) vijärdär2 ach [yehabünd Nirang i6 var1 yehabünd], zak avö lanman,
Aüharmazd, äkäsihä yemalelünäi dänäkihä [zak Nirang-F-var1], (c) pavan huz-
vänö i Lak, pavan pümman, zendakäu harvist-gün8 hemnund, [afash akhar
yemalelünd9 yehevüned, aigh, yemalelünamj. 1 See P. 2 so DJ. 3DJ., D. ins. i.
4 DJ. om. va. 5 D., M. äirikht (formerly deciphered agiräid), Sp. airid; DJ. impf.
8 DJ. va for i, D. om. i. 7 DJ. om. i. 8D. harvistö (for harvisp). 9 so DJ. * Mf. °inö°,
and ins. i, otherwise it coincides with D. throughout.
Pahl. transl. Since Thou gavest understanding (or contentment (?)) by
the spiritual influence, the Fire, and Ashavahisht, and also taughtest it to
the disputants, [that is, the true (pure) and the impure were made evident
by Thee], (b) since it has also been given to us by Thee, [who gavest] the
benediction to him who was the discerner of the numbers [the nirang-i-var],
tell that to us intelligibly and wisely, 0 Aüharmazd, that [Nirang-i-var2]

XXXI. 2, 3. 57
the Ami§apinta and from Hormijda that human felicity, if perchance, for the
performance of duty and for sanctity it is (or ‘may become’) ours].
Parsi-persian Ms. Kih pah nikirishn* (so) nah khwähed (so), ash pah an i bi-gumäni,
[kih pah chiz [] [shan == —] nah ham gumän], kü, hast awar nigarishni* veh*, [kiyash
pah [] i geti bih numäyad] # (b) edün an shumä tamäm ämad, [kü, har kas bih an
khweshi i Shumä ämad], kih edün radi i Hörmuzd ägäh hüd, [kü, — i Hörmuzd bih
dänad] # (c) Az Hörmuzd [ ] [kih = mun] öshän än rasishn, kih az Sawäb — jizom
((?)pro jijom (sic) = zivom), [az Ameshäsfendän* (sic) am in neki [] [kih = mun} Hör-
muzd, kih awä kär u kirfah, am hast, ö [] [ma-rä (? sic = text) m, or ziyam (?)]#
Free. What by Fire Thou givest, 0* Spirit, and by Right, the two-strivers teaching,
What doctrine is for discerners, tell us that, that we know it, Mazda,
Tongue of Thy mouth declare it, that we teach all living the Faith.
(c) through Thy tongue and mouth; thus the living of all kinds believe,
[and also afterwards it, the Nirang-i-var, is uttered by Him (Auharmazd),
that is, I speak it in His name, (or thus: ‘I speak it')}.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Yam datta* 1 adri§yataya Agnim, A§avahistamcha,
parijnäpitum prativadinam prabodham, [kila, §uddhimcha2 prakatikurute
A^avahistamcha, Agnim patim], (b) yachcha praka§atvam [pratidvandvinam]
vivektuh, [Nirangamantram1 divyasya], tat no, Mahäjnänin, suprabodhatayä*
brühi, [tan3 Nirangamantram divyasya], (c) jihvayä taträ ’nane*, yä jivatah
sarvän prabodhakä (?), [pagchäd uktam eva syät; yat brumahe].
1 J.3, J.4 2 J.4, c. 3 J.3; J.4, C., P., tat.
Ner. transl. Which Fire, even A^avahista, may Ye give (improp. conj.,
or ‘Ye gave’ (if datte, then ‘he gives’ not ‘takes’)) through the spiritual
influence to make the intelligence of the disputants comprehend, [that is,
he makes manifest both the clear (or the pure (?)) truth, and A$avahista
(Agni the lord)], (b) which was the blessing (? kag in Ner.’s sense ‘prosper’,
or ‘ distinction ’ (?)) of the discerner [of (or between) the strivers, the Niranga-
mantra of the celestial one}, therefore tell it to us, 0 Great Wise One, with
Thy wisdom, [this Niranga-mantra of the heavenly one], (c) with the tongue
there, in* the mouth, which ivisdom* is enlightening, or awakening, all the
living, [and afterwards (later) also let it so be uttered, which zs* we say z7*
(or ‘which we declare’, but see the Pahl.)].
Parsi-persian Ms. Kih at (sic) däd pah minüi ätash [] Ardibahisht (sic) tu-rä chäsht*
än dalil-därän shnäkhtäri*, [kü, [] khälisi [] nä-khälisi pedä — **] # (b) Tu-ra* kih w — än
ü shumär vazärdär* harn [däd Nirang i [ ] [man = ra (li)] däd], än än mä, Hör-
muzd agähiä (sic vid. pro-°ihä) gü*2 dänä(i)hä* (?) [än nirang []], # (c) pah zabän i
Tü, pah dahan, zivandagän tamäm khwähand, [azash (? sic) pas guft bed (so), kü,
güyam] *1Pahl. perhaps meant for kardan. *2 Parsi gö.

XXXI. 4, 5.

Trlit. Yadä Ashem zevim [=°viyem] anhen Mazdäoschä Ahuräonho
Ashichä Är[a]maiti Vahistä ishasä Mananha,
Maibyö khshathrem aojonhvad(t) yehyä veredä vanaemä Drujem.
Verbatim tri. Quando Sanctitas invocanda [propitia et propensa sit (erit),
et propensi] sint [erunt] Mazdaeque Domini (b) beäta-que cum Pietate ([vel
Beatitudines-duae (?) et Pietates duae (?), hoc est simpliciter, hae duae etiam
propensae sint]) [turn hoc] Optima desiderem [-abo, precibus petam] Mente,
(c) mihiRegnum potentia-praeditum cujus robore occidamus Mendacii-daemonem.
Pahl. text translit. xAmat pavan zak dahishno [pavan tanö* i pasinö]
Ashavahishtö karitüntär hömanäni2 va3 Aüharmazdich, [aigham shapirih4 I i
aetüno yehevünädö zim5, Aüharmazd i Ashavahishtö tübänö yehevünädö kari-
tündö], (b) 6+1 valmanich i tarsagäi** (sic) Spendarmadö [ash7^1 karitüntär hö-
manäni2^1], pählümih bavihünam Vohümanö6 [mozd]. (c) Manikänöch1 [hävish-
tänö i li] khudayih min8 valman i9 aoj-homand, [aighshän10 padakhshahih11
min Söshäns yehabün12] mün1 pavan zak i9 valman gurdih [aighash pavan
afzär i nafshmanö13 tübänö6+1 yehevünedö kardanö], va khüshidö Drüjö [ae,
denman khavitünam aigh den zak damän Drüjö 3+T stübö shäyadö kardanö].
^ee P. 2 DJ., Mf. °änd (for °äni). 3 DJ. om. va. 4D. om. ih. 5 DJ. ins. i. ßDJ.,
D. om. va. 7 D. ash; others ayen (so). 8 DJ., D.; others mün. 9 D. ins. i. 10 D. om.
shän. 11 so D.; DJ. °shah; M. shalitaih. 12 D. yehahünd. 13 DJ. om. I corr. Comm.
Pahl. transl. When in that dispensation [in the final body] I shall be
an invoker of Ashavahisht and of Aüharmazd also, [that is, let there be thus
one good quality which is mine; may it be possible for me to invoke the
Aüharmazd of* Ashavahisht], (b) and that also which is veneration (or ‘the
venerating recognition’) Spendermad, [of her may I be an invoker]. I desire
(or ‘pray for’) the best thing, Vohüman’s [reward]. (c)Mine also, [that is, my
disciples’ be the authority which is from the strong one, [that is, give them

XXXI. 4, 5.
Free tr. When to our prayers inclining are Thine Order and Ahuras
Then with Armaiti the blest and the Best Mind will I implore You;
Grant me the powerful Kingship; by its strength let us smite the foe.
sovereignty from Soshäns], by whose fortitude, [that is, with his own weapons
he is able to do it] the Druj is overcome, [that is, I know this that in that
time it is (will be) possible* to render the Drüj stupefied]. *See tübänö.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Yadi dänena1 Agavahistasya nimantrakah smah,
[punyasya], MahäjnäninaQcha Sväminah (b) bhaktigilayagcha prithivyah, [kilä
’smakam uttamatvam* evam astu, yathä teshäiii gakta bhavamah nimantra-
yitum], utkrishtatvam abhipsamo, Gvahmana, [kila, mahyam prasadam dehi],
(c) madiyebhyo räjyam balavattamat2, [kila, gishyebhyo me parthivatvaih
Qaogiogat dehi], yasya sainyatayä*3 apaniyate Drujah, [kila, mam sädhanaih*
sviyarii §akta bhavanti kartuiii, idamcha veda4 yat antas tasmin kale Drujam
akshamarii* gakyate karturii].
1 J.4, C. dänecha. 2 P. °mat; J.3, J.*, C. °man. 3 J.3, P. gain-; C. gaun°, J.4,
gaitanyä, J.* gaitanyayä. 4 J.4 vaclia-; J.* veva-; C., P. vecba.
Ner. transl. If, by means of the gift of offering, we are invokers of
A^avahista, [of Sanctity], and of the Great Wise One, the Lord, and (b) of
the pious one, the Earth, [that is, ours may the goodness* be in order that
we may be able to invoke theirs] then we are seeking, 0 Gvahmana, to
reach the exaltation, or goodness, [that is, grant this to me as a reward], (c)
and we are seeking the sovereignty for my people from the most powerful one,
[that is, grant my disciples the sovereignty derived from Qaogioga] by whose
martial* power* the Druja is removed, \that is, they are able to make me
their own through martial weapons*, or ardour*, and this I know, that in that
time, it will be possible to render the Druja powerless*].
Parsi-persian Ms. Kill pah an daliishn [pall tan i pasin] Ardibahisht khwändär —
(= -and) [] Hörmnzd [], [kü, ma-rä veh [] i edün bad, man Hormuzd i Ardibahisht
tübän (sic) bad kbwänd] (b) ü bam i bandagi Spendarmad [asb khwändär liend (?)] *
Buland khwäham Babman [rauzd] (c) Mä, [] [sbägirdän i man], khudäi az ü i —
hend, kü[] pädishäbi az Söshyösh dehi (= (?))] [] [az = min] pah an i ü —, [kusb
pah aüzär* i khwesh tuwän* bed kardan], — Druj [e, in dänam, kü, andar än zamän
Druj äkbir (sic ? = mirum (?)) sbäyad kardan]
Free tr. This tell that I discern it, which through Truth Ye give as the better,
Whose atonement I may know, and ponder through Thy Good Mind,
Those things, 0 Mazda Ahura, which should be, or should not be.
Verbatim transl. Hoc mihi ad- [-id] discernendum die quod mihi Sanc-
titate dabitis [dabatis (?) omnibus aliis] melius (b) ad- [id] -sciendum Bona

XXXI. 5, 6.
Mente, [et] ad-mentem(que) dare [advertendam ad eum] cujus [i. e. a quo
veniat] ad*-me* [vel mea] expurgatio ([vel id cujus (de quo) me (meus) propheta
(loquatur)]), (c) haec-etiam, Mazda Ahura, [dic]quae non vel (jure(?)) sit [sint],
erit [erunt] vel. (The well-nigh useless transliteration is omitted above to gain space).
Pahl. text translit. 'Zak2 avö2 li vijardö* yemalelünäi, [va3 roshanak4
yemalelünäi, aigh zak mozd, chigün avö nafshman shäyadö kardanö] mün5
avö li pavan Aharäyih [amatam kär va kirfakö kardö yekavimünedö] dahishnö
i shapir, [aigham zak mozd i shapir ghal yehabünishnö]2. (b) Äkäs-dahishnö6
i® pavan Vohüman avö li zak7 yehabünäi, [aigham8, zak i9 dänäkih pavan
frärünöih barä yemalelunäi], mün li [pavan zak i valman10], zak i avö11 arsh11
(vel hanvärih), [aigham pavan zak dänäkih frärünöih pasukhvö i7 avö12 arsh12
(vel hanvärih) tübänö yehevünäd dädanö]. (c) Zakich i5, Aüharmazd, lä aitö zak
i aitö räi [yemalelünedö], [aigh, Gäsänikih räi i7 aitö, yemalelüned, aigh löit].
'See P. ‘DJ. avö zak. ’DJ. D. om. va. 4DJ. °nok (?). 5D. om. 6D. °mh; om. i.
’ DJ., D. ins. 8D. aigham. 9 DJ. ins. i. 10 DJ. avo. 11 DJ., M., K.’; D. avö arshö (?).
w DJ., D., M.
Pahl. transl. Tell me this distinctly, [tell it to me clearly, where is
that reward? How ought one to make it one’s own], the reward which is to be
given me through Sanctity [when duty and good works have been fulfilled by me]
that gift which is the good owe?, [that is, let there be (or ‘ when is ? ’) the giving
of that good reward to me], (b) Give me that information, which is through
VohümaD, [that is, tell me thoroughly what is wisdom realized through piety],
and from*1 whom, or which, [by means of that one] that which is for* right
(or ‘justice’) becomes also mine, [that is, may it be possible to me through the
piety of that wisdom to give every man an answer according to right], (c)
That also which does not exist, 0 Aüharmazd, it, (or ‘ A. ’) [declares] according
to what does exist, [that is, according to the Gäthic doctrine which exists
He* declares where it does not exist (or ‘ where there is nothing’). *' Oblique by pos.

Trlit. Ahmäi anhad(t) vahistem yemoividväo vaochad(t) haithim [=#iyem],
Mäthrem yim Haurvatätö Ashahyä Ameretätaschä;
Mazdäi avad(t) Khshathrem hyad(t) höiVohü vakhshad(t) Mananhä
Verb. tri. Huic erit (vel erat) optimum, qui mihi sciens [id] dicet [(?) dicebat ut]
verum (b) Rationis-verbum quem [quod] Salubritatis Sanctitatis Immortalitatis-

XXXI. 5, 6.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Tat1 mahyam viviktam2 brühi, [kila, me idarii nir-
malataram* brühi] yan mahyam punyena danarn uttamam, [kila, yan maya
karyain punyamcha kritam^ste, tena Te yat uttamam prasädadänam; katham
sviyam §akyate kartum]. (b) Vettritvarii3 Uttamena Manasä mahyamcha4 dehi,
[kila, me tat jnänarii yat sadacharatayä brühi5] yena me achchhedah6, [kila,
tena jnänena sadächärinä pratyuttaram *achchhedarii6 Qakto bhavämi datum]
(c) tachcha, Mahäjnänin Svämin, yan no7 vä asti, asti vä, [srishtaye yat asti
uchyate, yachcha nä ’sti].
1 J? tatali? 2 J.3 -vikta (so), J.4, C. vikta. 3 J.* vettritt0. 4 C. om. cka; J.4
adds. c C. om. gloss. 6 J.4 acblied0. 7 all yan mo.
Ner. transl. Tell this to me distinctly, [that is, declare to me this more
clearly*] that which is the highest gift, and which is given to me through
sanctity, [that is, because even a* holy* work* is done by me, therefore the
best gift of Thy reward is bestowed, but how is it possible to make it one’s
own]? (b) Grant me the knowledge through the Best Mind, [that is, declare
that intelligence to me which comes through good conduct], and by which
also safety from injury is secured to me, [that is, through that beneficent
information, or science, may I be able to render a reply without receiving a
blow]; (c) and declare either that which is not, or that which is, 0 Great
Wise One, the Lord, [that is, that which is, as well as that which is not,
is declared to the world].
Parsi-persian Ms. An an man jawäb (?) gü*1, [ [] rüshan gü*1, kü, an muzd cbün an
khwesh shäyad kardan ?] kih an man pah Sawäb, [kih ma-rä kär [] kirfah kard istad],
dädan i veh, [kü, ma-rä an [ ] i veh ü (or 6) —] ? (b) Ägäh — i pah Bahman an man an
dehi, [kü, [ma-rä = m\ an i dänäi pah frärüni bih gü*] kih man [pah an i ü] an i [ ]
an [rast = rüshan (Rasim (?))], [kü, ma-rä pah än dänäi neki päsugh* i än — tuwän
bäd dädan] (c) Än ham i Hörmuzd nah hast, än i hast rä [güyad], [kü, Gäsäni rä
i hast, güyad kü nah] # Or ‘gö’ (Parsi).
Fr. To him was that most* precious*, who declared it as truth, the All-wise One,
That Manthra which is the word of Health, Right, and the Life Immortal:
“To Mazda shall be such Kingdom as shall groW through His holy Mind.”
que [sit]; (c) Mazdae tale Regnum [sit] quod [quale] ei Bona crescat Mente ([vel
Regnum quod ei Bona faciet-ut (illud Verbum-rationis)-se-promulget Mente]).
Pahl. text translit. Falman2 aitö pählüm, mün avö3 li äkäsihä*1 yema-
lelünäi*1 äshkärak [röshanak4, aigh, Aerpat shapir aigh5^1 hävishtö] (b)
Mänsar i6 hamäkH-1 rübishnö, [aigh, hamäk7+1 dam pavan8 ras i9 Mänsar
lakhvär avö khweshih i Aüharmazd yämtünedö], i amat pavan Aharäyih
yakhsenund [hü-kün*10] amarg-rübishnih afash [yehevuned den zak i11 LVII
shnat], (c) Aüharmazd avänd (sic) khüdäyih chand den valman12 vakhshed

XXXI. 6, 7.
Vohumanö, [aighash pädakhshahih13 pavan tanö* i gabrä avänd, cbandash Vo-
humanö pavan tanö mähmäno]. 4See P. 2 DJ. avö. 3Mf., etc. avö; D. valman. 4 DJ.
°iiok. 5 DJ., M. aigh, D. ayüf. 6 DJ., D. ins. 7 DJ., D. °äk, M. °äi. 8 M., Sp. ins. lak;
DJ., D. om. 9 DJ., om i. 10 DJ., D. ins. ash. 11 D. om. i. 12 D. valman. 13 DJ., D.
pädakhshahih. #1 Frgts. °sih yemalelüned, and unimportant var. :’:1° avö kevan (?).
Pahl. transl. He is the best one, (or ‘His is that best thing’) who would*
declare* to me understandingly what is manifestly real [and clear, that is,
the priest is better than the disciple], (b) the Manthra of the universal pro-
gression, [that is, all the creatures are returning into the possession of Au-
harmazd by way of the Manthra], and when they hold it fast through sanctity
[as the well-doer* does*], immortal progress also [comes*] from it, [within fifty-
seven years], (c) Belonging to Mazda [gen. by pos.] is such sovereignty as
the Good Mind increases in that one, [that is, his sovereignty is to such an extent
(or ‘so long’) in the body of man, as Vohuman is a guest within that body].
Ner.’s sansk. text. Asau asti utkrishtatarah [ächäryebhyah, gishyebhyo
vä] yo me vettritayä1 vakti vigadaiii (b) *Manthrim yam sarvapravrittirh,
[kila, chet sakalä ’pi srishtih märgena mänthravänyäh punah svadhinatve2
Hormijdasya präpnoti] punyatayä amrityupravrittim, [kila, chet sadächära-
tayä dhatte, amrityupravrittigcha tasyäh bhavati, antah saptapahchä^at*
varsheshu. Manthri ’ti Avistavani]. (c) Hormijdiyam tävad eva rajyam, [ki-

T rl. Yastä mantä paouruyo[=°viyo] raochebis röithwen[=röithu°]väthrä[=huv°],
Hvo Khrathwä dämis Ashem, yä därayad(t) Vahistem Mano;
Tä Mazda mainyu ukhshyö ye ä nüremchid(t) Ahurä hämo.
Verbatim transl. Qui haec mente-concepit primus, [et in] luminibus
[-ina] manabant [se induebant [-ent* veritates (cp. Y. 30) supernae] glo-
riosa [-sae] (vel caela (?)), (b) Ille intelligentia Creator [creavit] Sanctum-
ordinem, qua fecit-ut-tenuerit [-tenta sit] Optimam [-ma] Mentem [Mens] (vel
qua sustinebit o. m.), (c) Haec, Mazda Spiritus, * facias-ut-crescant, qui [es]
[usque ad] nuuc etiam [vel omnino], Ahura, idem!
Pahl. text translit. 1Madash padmän2 fratüm, munash avö röshanih
gümikhtö khvärih, [i3 Aüharmazd mun4+1 denman4+1 kardo, aigh, nadukih
zakash latamman, ash tamman levatman, ash denman mindavam madö
yekavimuned, aighash Gäsänikih lakhvär yämtünedö], (b) Valman dam,
[aigh, dam i frärünö5 valman nafshman] mun1* pavan khiradö Aharayih

XXXI, 6, 7.
lä ’sya pärthivatvarii vapushi mänushiye tävad eva, yävad asminUttamaiiivikaga-
yati Manah, [kilä ’sya Gvahmano vapushi abhyägatali]. i J.* * * 4 5 vetta0. 2 j * otvena
Ner. transl. That person is more excellent [than the teachers, or than
the scholars] who speaks for me clearly and with knowledge (b) that Manthra,
which is a universal advance, an immortal (eternal) advance through sanctity,
[that is, if the entire creation proceeds according to the way of the Manthra-
word, and comes again into the possession of Hormijda, that is, if it, or He,
possesses, or establishes, the Manthra through good conduct, eternal (im-
mortal) progress will become its* own within fifty-seven years. The word
of the Manthra (thus) is the Avistä-word]. (c) The kingdom of Hormijda exists
so long, [that is, his sovereignty exists so long (or ‘to such an extent’) in the
human body] as an exalted Mind sheds light (or ‘causes increase’; see the Pahl.)
within it, [that is, so long, or so much, as Gvahmana is a guest within that body].
Parsi-persian Ms. Ü hast buland, kih an man ägälnhä (sic vid.) güi aslikarah [ []
[l’üshan = rdshdn (?)], kü, Herbad veh [] [bä = awd] shägird] (b) Mänsar (sic) i
tarn am raftani*, [kü, tamarn pedaishn* pah rah 1 Mänsar bäz an khwe3hi i Hormuzd
rased (so)], i kih pah Sawäb därad {space for tivo words') bi-marg raftani* azash (sic)
[bed andar panjali u haft sal (? sal)] =£ (c) Hdrmusd {no tr. for dhand) (sic) khudai,
chand andar ü afzayed* (so) — (?), [küsh pädishähi pah tan i mard — chandi* — (?)
pah tan mihrnan]
Who first these words conceived, that, as truths, they were clothed in light,
By mind is the Truth’s Creator, and by Her the Best Mind upholdeth;
These, Spirit! shalt Thou prosper; same Thou art, and abidest ever!
yakhshenunedö, va3^1 pählüm-minishmh, [aigh6, pavan rästih va frärünöih,
yakhsenunedö]. (c)Zak 17 kolä II, Aüharmazd pavan minavadikih8 vakhshined
[aigh, mindavam 1 minavad va stih, valman9 barä afzäyinedö] mün10 kevanich
ham1^1 khüdäi. 1 See P. 2 D. ins. i. 3 DJ., D. om. 4 So DJ., D.; M. mindavam-
5 D. °ih. 6 DJ., D. ins. 7 DJ. om. i. 8 corr. 0 DJ. avö. 10 D. amat. 11 DJ. °ai.
* Mf. om., otherwise it coincides with D.
Pahl. transl. The regulating measure came first to Him who mingled
His glory (or ‘whose glory was mixed’) with light, [that is, it is the glory
of Auharmazd, who did this, that is, the benefit which is his here in what
he created is with him beyond; and this thing has come to Him, that is, His
Gäthic doctrine comes back to Him], (b) His are the creatures, [that is, the
proper (clean ?) creatures are His own], whereby* He maintains Sanctity through
wisdom, and the best mind also, [that is, He maintains them through truth
and piety], (c) Auharmazd causes, (or, ‘ 0 Aüharmazd, do Ye (?) cause ’) both
these influences to increase through spirituality, [that is, He will (or, ‘do
Ye (?)’) increase the thing which is spiritual, and also that which is of this
world], He who is, (or ‘ Thou who art (?)’) now even, the same, a king,

XXXI. 7, 8.
Ner.’s sansk. text. Präptocha* pramanam prathamam, rochishi samtjlishta
(jubhata, [kila, yah präk adri ’sti, yat srishtau punah präpnoti1]. (b) Tasya srishtih buddhyä punyaih yo dadau
utkrishtataram manah, [kila, yah satyaih sadächäratvamcha dadau, srishtih
tasyai ’va svädhinä2]. (c) Tad dvitayam Mahäjnäni adriijyatayä* vika§ayat,
[kila, kimchit* yat paralokiyam* ihalokiyamcha*] yasya sa punar api raja
sarvasya]. 1 0. °tu. 2 j* «jna, p. °äii, J? °inah.
Ner. transl. And he* attained* that regulating-conception first, and the
glorious object, or ‘characteristic’, became enclosed in light, [that is, he who
was formerly produced in invisibility (in the spiritual state), his is this thing
(see mindavam) thus obtained when he comes again into the creation], (b) His is
Trlit. Ad(t) Thwä metihi paourvim [=°viyem], Mazda, yezim[°iyem] stoi mananhä
Vanheus patarem Mananho, hyad(t)Th[u]wahem chashmaini (hen)grabem,
Haithim [= °yem] Ashahyä dämim anheus Ahurem s(k)yaothanaeshu.
Verbatim transl. Turn Te existimavi primum, Mazda, adorandum [i. e.
adorabilem] populo^-civitatis [nostrae] mente (b) Bonae patrem Mentis, quum
Te cum- [valde] in-oculo*2 comprehendebam [-di], (c) verum [et benignum]
Sanctitatis creatorem, [nostrae] vitae Dominum [salvantem* (servantem)]
in-actionibus! *1 Esse (? aegre). *2visu.
Pahl. text translit. 1Aetunom2 Lak rät minid, Auharmazd, aighat pavan
zäkih yekavimuned Vohuman fraturn, [va1 amatam Vohumano khaditund, am3
aetünö minidö aigh zäk i4 Lak]. (b) Vohümanö abuö homanih Lak [abüö i
Vohumano homanih] amatam Lak pavan hamchashmih* avö ham vakhdund5
homanih, [aigham pavan kola II chashm khaditund homanih, am aetünö minid,
aigh6+1 abü i7+1 Vohuman homanih] (c) Äshkärak zak i Aharäyih dam [rösha-
nakö1 aigh, dam i frärünö8 Lak yehabündö9], den ahvänö pavan künishnö10
khüdäi homanih, [aigh, pavan vinäs va11 kirfakö, ämär12 vädünäiid13].
1 See P. 2 D. °osh. 3 DJ. zim. 4DJ. om. i. 5 D. kardö. 6 DJ. mün lak i. 7 DJ., D. om.
vad. 8 DJ. ins. i. 9DJ. om. va, M. has. 10 M. ins. i; DJ., D. om. 11 D J. om. 12 all butM.
aimar (sic). 13 DJ., D. °ahd (ae (?)).
Pahl. transl. Thus I thought concerning Thee, 0 Auharmazd, that
in production Vohuman was* Thy first, \that is, when I saw Vohuman first
it was thought by me thus: ‘fle is Thine offspring’], (b) Thy* Good Mind’s

XXXI. 7, 8.
the creation by wisdom, even Sanctity. His who has produced the most excellent
(i. e. the good) mind, [that is, his own alone is the creation, who has pro-
duced truth and good conduct], (c) This two-fold thing the Great Wise One
revealed (?, or ‘increased’ (see the Pahl.)) through his spirituality, [that is,
that thing* which lies beyond, and that which is here] of all of which he is
also once again the sovereign.
Parsi-persian Ms. — andazah awwal, kiyasli an rushani amikht asani [z'Hormuzd
kill in kard, kü, neki — inja, ash änja awä # Ash in chiz rasid ested; küsh Gäsäni
awäj (sic pro awäzh = haz) rased*] w (b) Ü pedäish* [kü, pedäish* i nek ft khwesh], []
pah khirad Sawäb därad, [] buland minishni, [kü, pah rästi u neki därad] # (c) An i
har duHonnuzd pah minüi afzünad, [kü, chiz i minu u geti ü bih afzäyad], kih aknün
ham [] [am = am (?)] klinda * Or paidayish.
Free tr. Foremost I thought Thee, Mazda, adored with the mind in creation,
Father of Kindliest Feeling, when with eye at the first I seized Thee,
Essential Creator of Grace, saving* Lord in the actions of Life.
father Thou art, when Thou art taken in by my survey, [that is, when Thou
wast seen by me with both the eyes I thought thus: ‘ Thou art the Good Mind’s
father’], (c) Manifestly*1 real (?) are*1 the*1 creatures* of Aharayih; [it is clear*
that the creatures which are clean (pious) are created by Thee]; in the world
Thou art a king in (or ‘over’), action, [that is, they shall render an account
to Thee concerning sin and good works]. *x Or ‘of the creatures ’(gen. by pos.)
Ner.’s sansk. text. Evam Tvaiii mato ’si pürvam, Mahäjnänin, yat yoni-
tayä* tishthasi Gvahmanasya [pürvarii yan mayä Tvam drishto ’si, evaiii matam1;
yat yonitvam* Gvahmanasya], (b) Uttamasya pitararii2 Manasah [kila Gvahmana-
pratipälako* ’si] yasyäiii*3 samälochanatvena* samagrihnanti4 [yan mayä dväbyärii
lochanäbhyäih drishto ’si, evaiii matam5, yat] pita ’si Gvahmanasya] (c) Prakata-
punyasya*6 srishteh6, [kila, nirmalatarasrishtirii sadächärinhh Tvam datse] bhu-
vane raja ’si karmana, [yatra Qubharii yujyate karturii, yatracha nigraharii, tas-
min Qaktimän asi]. satäm; J.* satafn. 2 J.3, J.4, C., P. pitan. *3srishtau under-
stood. 4 J.3 °namti, J.* °hnanti. 5 P. mataiii, J.4, C. mantam. 8 Ner. read Paid. gen.
Ner. transl. Thus Thou wert (?) thought at the first by me, 0 Great
Wise One, when Thou wert (?) engaged in the production of Gvahmana,
[when Thou wert (?) first seen by me I thought thus, that it was the pro-
duction of Gvahmana], (b) in which production they apprehend the father of
the Best Mind, observing him with a full-faced look, [that is, Thou art Gvah-
mana’s protector. When Thou wert* seen by me fully, and with both the
eyes, I* thought* thus; ‘that Thou art Gvahmana’s father’], (c) and Thou art
the father of that creation which is manifest Sanctity*1, [that is, Thou makest
the clearer (or ‘purer’) well-conducted creation]. Thou art a king in the

XXXI. 9, 10.
world by action, [that is, where it is fitting to confer a benefit, and also
where it is fitting to inflict a punishment, in each of these Thou art capable],
+1 Or read °yayah (adj.) = ‘of the manifestly holy creation1.
Parsi-persian Ms. Edüni (sic) Tu-ra andeshad (?), Hormuzd, küt pah — ested (so)
Bahman awwal, [ [) kih man Bahman didah (sic vid.) am edün andeshad (?) kn,

Trlit. Thwöi [=thvaya] as Är[a]maitis, thwe ä Geus tashä as khratus
Mainyeus, Mazda Ahurä, hyad(t) ahyäi dadäo pathara;
Västryäd(t) vä äite, ye vä noid(t) anhad(t) vastr[i]yo.
Verbatim transl. Tua* erat Pietas (mens prompta) Thus [Tua] (ad) ([vel
0 (?)]) Bovis formator erat intelligentia (b) spiritui, Mazda Ahura, quum
ei dedisti viam. (c) Ab-agricola [sancto nostro cive adjuta in cursu-laboris-
sui destinati] (vel) procedit, [aut ab eo] qui (vel) non erat [vel sit] agricola
[i. e. a scelesto nostro hoste praedatore ducta]. * vide annotationes.
Pahl. text translit. 4Lak aitö Spendannadö, [aigh, Lak nafshmanj.
2Pavan Lak aitö zak i göspend3 täshidär khiradö. (b) Pavan minavadikih,
Aüharmazd, at avö valman yehabünd räs, [aighat räs i tamnian avö valman4
yehabünd], (c) mün pavan varzidärih yätüned, [aighash kär va4 kirfak kardö
yekavimüned], mün la ait varzidar [at lä yehabünd].
1 See P. 2 D. ins. va. 3 DJ. om. i. 4 DJ., D. ins.
Pahl. transl. Thine is Spendarmazd [that is, Thine own]; with Thee
is the wisdom which belongs* to*, or is, the former of the Herd, (b) Through
the spiritualtruth wasa way provided by Thee, 0 Aüharmazd, for him, or ‘it, (the

Trlit. Ad(t) hi ayäo fravar(e)ta
Ahurem ashavanem
Noid(t), Mazda. avastr[i]yo
västrim [=°iyem] ahyäi fshuyafitem,
Vanheus fshenghim [°iyem] Mananhö;
daväschinä humeretöis bakhstä.
Verbatim transl. At ilia [Bos] eorum-duorum eligebat agri-colam ei
[sibi] diligentem-[et-ergo-divitem] (b) dominum sanctum, et Bonae divitias