Jaina studies

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Jaina studies
Alternate Title:
Centre of Jaina Studies newsletter
Alternate Title:
newsletter of the Centre of Jaina Studies
University of London. School of African and Oriental Studies. Centre of Jaina Studies
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Centre of Jaina Studies newsletter, SOAS, University of London
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University of London. School of African and Oriental Studies. Centre of Jaina Studies
Jainism -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Jainism -- Study and teaching -- Great Britain -- Periodicals
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Europe -- United Kingdom -- England -- Greater London -- London -- Camden -- Bloomsbury
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X University of London
Jaina Studies

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March 2018
Issue 13

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Centre of jaina Studies Members
Honorary President
Professor J. Clifford Wright
South Asia Department
Chair/Director of the Centre
Dr Peter Fliigel
Department of History, Religions and
Dr Crispin Branfoot
Department of the History of Art
and Archaeology
Professor Rachel Dwyer
South Asia Department
Dr Sean Gaffney
School of History, Religions and Philosophy
Professor Werner Menski
School of Law
Dr James Mallinson
South Asia Department
Professor Francesca Orsini
South Asia Department
Dr Ulrich Pagel
School of History, Religions and Philosophy
Dr Theodore Proferes
School of History, Religions and Philosophy
Professor Richard Reid
School of History, Religions and Philosophy
Dr Peter D. Sharrock
Department of Art and Archaeology
Dr Renate Sdhnen-Thieme
South Asia Department
Paul Dundas
(University of Edinburgh)
Dr William Johnson
(University of Cardiff)
Dr Naomi Appleton
(University of Edinburgh)
Professor Lawrence A. Babb
(Amherst College)
Professor Nalini Balbir
(Sorbonne Nouvelle)
Dr Ana Bajzelj
(Polonsky Academy,
The Van Leer Jerusalem Institute, Israel)
Professor Piotr Balcerowicz
(University of Warsaw)
Nicholas Barnard
(Victoria and Albert Museum)
Dr Rohit Barot
(University of Bristol)
Professor Jagat Ram Bhattacharyya
(Visva-BharatT-University, Santiniketan)
Professor Willem Bollee
(University of Heidelberg)
Professor Frank van den Bossche
(University of Ghent)
Surendra Bothra
(Prakrit Bharati Academy Jaipur)
Professor Torkel Brekke
(University of Oslo)
Professor Johannes Bronkhorst
(University of Lausanne)
Professor Christopher Key Chappie
(Loyola University, Los Angeles)
Professor Christine Chojnacki
(University of Lyon)
Dr AnneClavel
(Aix en Province)
Professor John E. Cort
(Denison University)
Dr Eva De Clercq
(University of Ghent)
Dr Robert J. Del Bonta
(Independent Scholar)
Dr SaryuV. Doshi
Professor Christoph Emmrich
(University of Toronto)
Dr Anna Aurelia Esposito
(University of Wurzburg)
Dr Sherry Fohr
(Converse College)
Janet Leigh Foster
(SOAS Alumna)
Dr Lynn Foulston
(University of Wales)
DrYumi Fujimoto
(Sendai, Japan)
Dr Sin Fujinaga
(Miyakonojo Kosen, Japan)
Dr Richard Fynes
(De Montfort University, Leicester)
Professor Jonardon Ganeri
(New York University)
Dr Jonathan Geen
(University of Western Ontario)
Dr Marie-Helene Gorisse
(University of Lille)
Professor Phyllis Granoff
(Yale University)
Dr Ellen Gough
(Emory University, Atlanta)
John Guy
(Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Professor Julia Hegewald
(University of Bonn)
Dr Haiyan Hu-von Hiniiber
(University of Freiburg)
Dr Kazuyoshi Hotta
(Otani University, Kyoto)
Professor Dharmacand Jain
(Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur)
Professor Prem Suman Jain
(Bahubali Prakrt VidyapTth, Sravanabelagola)
Professor Rishabh Chandra Jain
(Muzaffarpur University)
Dr Sagarmal Jain
(Pracya Vidyapeeth, Shajapur)
Professor Padmanabh S. Jaini
(UC Berkeley)
Dr Yutaka Kawasaki
(University of Tokyo)
Dr M. Whitney Kelting
(Northeastern University Boston)
Dr Laurent Keiff
(University of Lille)
Dr Kornelius Kriimpelmann
Dr Hawon Ku
(Seoul National University)
Muni Mahendra Kumar
(JainVishva Bharati Institute, India)
Dr James Laidlaw
(University of Cambridge)
Dr Basile Leclere
(University of Lyon)
Dr Jeffery Long
(Elizabethtown College)
Dr Andrea Luithle-Hardenberg
(University of Tubingen)
Professor Adelheid Mette
(University of Munich)
Gerd Mevissen
(Berliner Indologische Studien)
Professor Anne E. Monius
(Harvard Divinity School)
Dr Andrew More
(University of Toronto)
Dr Catherine Morice-Singh
(Universite Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris)
Professor Hampa P. Nagarajaiah
(University of Bangalore)
Professor Thomas Oberlies
(University of Gottingen)
Dr Andrew Ollett
(University of Chicago)
Dr Leslie Orr
(Concordia University, Montreal)
Dr Jean-Pierre Osier
Dr Lisa Nadine Owen
(University of North Texas)
Professor Olle Qvarnstrom
(University of Lund)
Dr Pratapaditya Pal
(Los Angeles)
Dr Jerome Petit
(Bibliotheque Nationale de France,
Adrian Plau
SamanI Unnata Prajna
(JVBI Lad nun, SOAS)
SamanI Kusuma Prajna
(JVB Ladnun)
SamanI Dr Pratibha Prajna
(JVB Ladnun, SOAS South Asia
Prof Shahid Rahman
(University of Lille)
Aleksandra Restifo
(Yale University)
Dr Josephine Reynell
(Oxford University)
Susan Roach
(SOAS Department of History, Religions
and Philosophies)
Dr Sreeramula Rajeswara Sarma
Dr Fabien Schang
(State University of Moscow)
Dr Maria Schetelich
(University of Leipzig)
Dr Shalini Sinha
(SOAS Alumna, University of Reading)
Dr AtulShah
(University Campus Suffolk)
Professor Bindi Shah
(University of Southampton)
Ratnakumar Shah
Dr Kanubhai Sheth
(LD Institute, Ahmedabad)
Dr Kalpana Sheth
Dr Kamala Canda Sogani
(Apapramsa Sahitya Academy, Jaipur)
Dr Jayandra Soni
(University of Marburg)
Dr Luitgard Soni
(University of Marburg)
Dr Herman Tieken
(Institut Kern, Universiteit Leiden)
Professor Maruti Nandan P.Tiwari
(Banaras Hindu University)
Dr HimalTrikha
(Austrian Academy of Sciences)
DrTomoyuki Uno
(Chikushi Jogakuen University)
Dr AnneVallely
(University of Ottawa)
Dr Steven M. Vose
Florida International University
Kenji Watanabe
Dr Royce Wiles
Nan Tien Institute, Wollongong
Dr Kristi L.Wiley
(University of California Berkeley)
Professor Michael Willis
(British Museum)
Dr Juan Wu
(University of Leiden ,Tsinghua University,
Dr Ayako Yagi-Hohara
(Osaka University)

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Jaina Studies
4 Letter from the Chair
Conferences and News
5 History and Current State of Jaina Studies: Programme
6 History and Current State of Jaina Studies: Abstracts
8 Jainism and Money: 21st Jaina Studies Workshop 2016
10 Jainism and Buddhism: 19th Jaina Studies Workshop at SOAS
15 Jaina Studies in Japan
16 Gyan Sagar Science Foundation
17 International Prakrit Conference on Prakrit Literature and Culture
19 The Concept of Rationality in Jaina Thought
20 Communicating Jainism
23 Jainism Panels at the Conference on South Asia
24 Jainism Panels at the American Academy of Religion
26 An Exploratory Survey of the Jaina Heritage in Pakistan
33 A South Indian Jaina Rathotsava (Chariot Festival) at Nellikar in Tulunadu
41 The Theater of Renunciation: Religion and Pleasure in Medieval Gujarat
43 The Tradition of Sattaka Literature
46 Jaina Objects at the British Museum
49 Victoria & Albert Museum Jain Art Fund
50 Jain Sites of Tamil Nadu
52 International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online)
52 Digital Resources in Jaina Studies at SOAS
53 Jaina Studies Series
Jaina Studies at the University of London
54 Postgraduate Courses in Jainism at SOAS
54 PhD/MPhil in Jainism at SOAS
55 Jaina Studies at the University of London
On the Cover
Jain Sculptures at the Gwalior Fort Madhya Pradesh,
India in the Nineteenth Century
From ElMundo en La Mano, Published 1878

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Letter from the Chair
Dear Friends,
The 20th Jaina Studies Workshop is certainly a landmark for the CoJS. Who would have thought that the enthusiasm of
Jainologists from all over the world contributing to it would last so long? Because a change of generation of scholars
is imminent, and also because of the recent project of the CoJS on Johannes Klatt's Jaina-Onomasticon, the
forthcoming Brill's Encyclopaedia of Jainism, and new developments in the field, the theme History and Current State
of Jaina Studies presented itself almost naturally.
The current issue of the Newsletter features a report on Jainism in Pakistan, an under-researched area which promises to
yield many more interesting findings in the future, when safe working conditions are secured in the area. It also
contains an historic article by Padmanabh S. Jaini, one of the most revered scholars in the field, on an annual ritual in
his home village, which has never been studied before. We feel honoured that he has chosen our humble Newsletter to
publish this significant report.
In addition to the important conference reports, without which little would be known about the latest research findings
in the field, the volume also reports on the results of two excellent doctoral dissertations by Aleksandra Restifo of Yale
and by Melinda Fodor of the Sorbonne. In this context we wish to express our congratulations to Dr Samanf Pratibha
Prajna, who completed her doctoral studies at SOAS in 2017, as the first Jaina nun to do so outside of India.
Finally, we have two reports on Jaina images: in the British Museum, displayed in a newly designed gallery, and on the
wonderful collection of materials assembled by the project on Jaina Sites of Tamil Nadu completed by a research team
of the University of Paris and the French Institute in Pondicherry, led by Nalini Balbir.
We think the volume is fitting the occasion of the 20th Anniversary Workshop and hope you will enjoy it!
Jain Sculptures at the Gwalior Fort Madhya Pradesh, India in the Nineteenth Century. From ElMundo en La Mano, Published 1878.

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
The 18th Annual jaina Lecture
Jainism and the Ramayana
Eva de Clercq
(University of of Ghent)
Friday 23 March 2018
18.00-19.30 Brunei Gallery Lecture Theatre
1930 Reception Brunei Gallery Suite
History and Current State of
Jaina Studies
20th Anniversary Jaina Studies Workshop
Saturday, 24 March 2018
Brunei Gallery Lecture Theatre
First Session: History of Digambara Literature and
9.15 Hampana Nagarajaiah
Current Debates on the Influence of Jainism on
Early Kannada Literature
9.45 Nalini Balbir
Digambara Books of Discipline: A Study in
10.15 Piotr Balcerowicz
A Note on the Oeuvre of the 'Collective Thinker'
Kundakunda. The Case of the Pahcastikaya-
sahgraha (Pamc'atthiya-samgaha)
10.45 Tea and Coffee
Second Session: Brajbhasa, Science and Technology in
Jaina Studies
11.15 Adrian Plau
Ramcand Balak's Sitacarit: A 'New' Jain
Ramayana in Brajbhasa
11.45 Himal Trikha
Digital Corpus of Vidyanandin's Works
12.15 Peter Fliigel
The Jaina-Prosopography Database
12.45 Group Photo
13.00 Lunch: Brunei Gallery Suite
14.00 Award Ceremony: Shravanabelagola 2017
International Prakrit JnanabharatT Award

Jain Sculptures at the Gwalior Fort Madhya Pradesh, India in the
Nineteenth Century. From ElMundo en La Mano, Published 1878.
Third Session: Brill's Encyclopaedia of Jainism
14.15 Roundtable Discussion
John Cort, Paul Dundas, Kristi Wiley
Jayandra Soni (chair) Christine Chojnacki
15.00 Tea and Coffee
Fourth Session: Jaina Studies and the Jaina
15.30 Shin Fujinaga (Miyakonojo Kosen)
Pandits and Monks in Jaina Studies
16.00 Steven M.Vose
From Jainology to Jaina Studies...and Back?
Toward a Dialogic Approach to Scholarly
Engagement with Jaina Communities
16.30 Brief Break
Fifth Session: Current State of Jaina Studies and
Future Prospects
16.45 Roundtable Discussion
Christine Chojnacki, Hampana Nagarajaiah
Samanl Pratibhaprajna, Olle Qvarnstrom
Jayandra Soni
John Cort (chair), Paul Dundas (discussant)
18.00 Final Remarks
The conference is co-organised by Peter Fliigel (CoJS), Charles
Taillandier-Ubsdell and Shahrar Ali (SOAS Centres and Programmes
Office), and co-sponsored by the JivDaya Foundation (Dallas) and
the Shravanabelgola Matha.
University of London

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Digambara Books of Discipline: A Study in Progress
Nalini Balbir, Sorbonne III, University of Paris, France
While the canonical Svetambara Chedasutras have
been the starting point of increased scholarship in the
last decades, their Digambara counterparts are still
very little-known. The present paper will explore these
texts known as Chedapinda and Chedasastra written in
Jain SaurasenT Prakrit (edited by Pandit Pannalal Soni,
published in MDJG 18.1921 under the collective title
A Note on the Oeuvre of the 'Collective Thinker'
Kundakunda.The Case of the Pancastikaya-sangraha
Piotr Balcerowicz, University of Warsaw, Poland
After a brief sketch of methodology applied to analyse
the contents and structural/historical layers of works
ascribed to Kundakunda, the paper takes as an example
the Pamc'atthiya-samgaha. The examination reveals that
the text is a compilation of three small works, each of
which consists of a number of historical layers spanning
a few centuries. The same approach can be applied to
other works ascribed to Kundakunda, who should be
taken as a collective author 'Kundakunda'. The most
probable compiler of the works which came to form the
Pamc'atthiya-samgaha was Amrtacandra-suri. Further,
the paper discusses possible historical reasons behind the
popularity of 'Kundakunda' in Jainism.
Jainism and the Ramayana
Eva de Clercq, University of Gent, Belgium
The Ramayana is without a doubt one of the most
influential stories in the history of the South Asian
subcontinent. Jains, too, engaged with the story and
composed their own versions of it. In view of the
conference theme, this lecture will focus on different
aspects of these Jain Ramayanas, and reflect on their
significance for the history of Jaina Studies, on the one
hand, and of Ramayana Studies, on the other, and on
their intersection.
The Jaina-Prosopography Database
Peter Fliigel, SOAS
One of the main desiderata in Jaina Studies is the
investigation of the social history of the Jaina tradition.
The Jaina mendicant tradition exerted a lasting influence
on Indian culture and society. It emerged in Magadha
some two and a half thousand years ago, and spread to
most parts of South Asia. In the process, it segmented
into numerous competing schools, sects, and lineages,
in complex interaction with local social and political
configurations. Some of these traditions have been
short-lived, while others still exist today. Since the
inception of Jaina Studies as an academic field in the
19th century, considerable advances have been made
towards the reconstruction of the history of these
mendicant traditions, particularly through the analysis of
monastic chronicles and inscriptions. The social history
of Jainism remains, however, imperfectly understood.
This is because the principal sources, a vast corpus of
unpublished and published bio-bibliographical data,
extracted from manuscripts and inscriptions, still await
systematic investigation.
The need for interlinking the available, but scattered
information on the itinerant Jaina ascetics, their lineages,
networks, and relationships to followers and patrons
has long been felt. A great number of catalogues and
conspectuses of relevant primary sources have and are
being produced in pursuit of this aim. Yet, the only
attempt systematically to pull together data from different
published sources to date remains Johannes Klatt's (2016)
belatedly published Jaina-Onomasticon. Klatt's work
offers a comprehensive compilation of the information
available up to 1892, but makes no attempt at cross-
referencing and interlinking the assembled data through
indexes, since the onomasticon itself is a kind of index.
The links are also too numerous, and would have required
the creation of a second, supplementary volume, which,
as far as one can tell, was not planned. Klatt was mainly
interested in producing a bio-bibliographical directory of
individual names of persons, places, organisations, and
literary works. His encyclopaedic list of proper names
is accurately described as an Onomasticon. Due to the
colossal amount of detailed information presented in this
way, the work serves equally as a source book for Jaina
collective biography as well as a proto-prosopography.
The usefulness of meta-catalogues and meta-indexes,
such as Klatt's, for prosopographical research has only
recently become apparent after the introduction of
modern computer technology to Jaina Studies. With the
help of computers, the social and geographical contexts
in which monastic lineages and support networks were
formed, texts composed, temples and halls constructed,
and socio-religious events arranged, can for the first time
be systematically mapped out, and studied from different
points of view, on the basis of already published meta-
data, such as those collated by Klatt and subsequently
produced catalogues of Jaina manuscripts and
inscriptions, as well as the sizable biographical literature
of the Jainas. A fresh look at this body of published data
with the help of the new tool boxes of Digital Humanities
has not been attempted as yet, though promising new
analytical strategies abound.
In February 2017, a Leverhulme Trust Research Grant
supported research project of the Centre of Jaina Studies
at SOAS, Jaina-Prosopography: Monastic Lineages,
Networks, and Patronage, commenced to explore the
relationships between Jaina mendicant lineages and
their supporters, focusing on the nexus of monastic
recruitment, geographical circulation of monks and
nuns, their biographies, literary works, and patterns of
householder support and patronage of mendicant inspired
religious ventures. The project is inspired by the overall
vision to produce a comprehensive prosopographical

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
database for the reconstruction of the social-history of
the Jaina tradition. Electronic databases will permit
the introduction of novel quantitative and qualitative
sociological approaches to Jaina Studies, for instance
for sociological analyses of the conjunction between
monastic lineages and their social support networks,
as documented in donative inscription and colophons
of manuscripts, using network analysis, statistical
methods, advanced digital technology and visualization
techniques. It can be expected that computer-assisted
prosopographical investigations will become an essential
part of most future research in the socio-religious history
of the Jaina tradition, once reliable and sufficiently
populated databases have been produced.
The paper will present a work in progress report on
the current development and future requirements of the
Jaina-Prosopography Database, a new open access tool
for anyone interested in Jaina Studies.
Pandits and Monks in Jain Studies
Sin Fujinaga, Miyakonojo Kosen, Japan
Activities of Jains began to be known to scholars in Europe
and other parts of the world in the middle of the 19th
century. At the beginning of the following century, Jaina
Studies in India started to bloom and this has continued
for ten decades. This flourishing of scholarship was
brought about mainly through contributions of pandits
and monks. The fruits yielded by their endeavours were
articles mainly written in Indian vernaculars and finely
edited Sanskrit and Prakrit texts, published in numerous
series. Some of these will be highlighted, namely,
the pandits M. K. Jain and D. D. Malvania, and Muni
Jambuvijaya. The main aim of this paper is to explore
how and why they were able to accomplish their brilliant
and lasting achievements in various fields of Indology.
Ramcand Balak's STtacarit: A 'New' Jain Ramayana
in Brajbhasa
Adrian Plau, SOAS
The STtacarit is a mid-17th century retelling in Brajbasa
of the Jain Ramayana composed by Ramcand Balak, a
Digambar about whom we know next to nothing. Yet
the manuscript evidence indicates that his STtacarit was
popular; multiple manuscripts from the 18th and 19th
centuries are found in Digambara temple libraries across
Western and Central India. The text itself is innovative
in its reordering of the familiar Ramayana narrative to
emphasise Srta standing as a devout Jain laywoman,
a mahasatT, aesthetically daring in its free-flowing
combination of metres and its embrace of everyday
vernacular language usage, and arguably a significant
epic narrative of early modern Hindi literature.
Yet like other larger Jain narratives in Brajbhasa, the
STtacarit has received little to no interest in the modern
era and has till now never been available outside of
the manuscript format. In this talk, I will draw on my
forthcoming critical edition of the STtacarit to highlight
some of the composition's remarkable features and
address what I perceive to be some of the cultural and
historical assumptions that may have led to the lacking
recognition of the position of Jain literature in Brajbhasa
in both the Jain literary canon and in early modern Indian
literature in general.
Digital Corpus of Vidyanandin's Works
Himal Trikha, University of Vienna, Austria
The Digital Corpus of Vidyanandin's Works is a web
application that provides digital resources for the study
of the Sanskrit works of the lOth-century Digambara
philosopher Vidyanandin. In the current stage of
development, the application can be used to search
through the text of editions of these works, which add up
to 1,200 pages in Devanagari script. In my presentation,
I will first introduce central features of the search
function of the application. I will then talk about future
developments and their requirements. These include the
identification and documentation of lemmata, quotations
and parallel texts.
From Jainology to Jain Studies...and Back? Toward
a Dialogic Approach to Scholarly Engagement with
Jain Communities
Steven M. Vose, Florida International University, Miami,
'Lived religions' approaches have reshaped 'Jainology'
into 'Jaina Studies' over the last 30 years in the American
academy. Focusing on the practices, statements, texts
and objects which Jains themselves engage in and use,
scholars argued these approaches better describe what it
means to be Jain than previous studies that investigated
doctrines, philosophies, etc. as found in canonical
scriptures and intellectual works. Anthropological and
historical studies of Jains have sought to describe the
Jain traditions in ways recognizable to Jains themselves.
However, some groups of Jains, especially those in the
diaspora, have expressed uneasiness about the state and
nature of this style of scholarship, expressing a preference
for scholars to study Jainism rather than Jains themselves.
That is, they would prefer scholars focus on the study of
abstract doctrines and philosophies, especially as they
may address contemporary global issues. This presents
scholars of the 'lived religions' approach with the ethical
challenge of how to address the changing dynamics
within Jain communities and between communities and
scholars. Is it possible to do justice both to the demands
of historicist and phenomenological studies while
engaging with Jain community interests in scriptural
and philosophical studies, which may be far from the
everyday experiences of many other Jains? Attending to
the problems of doing so may help scholars to recognize
latent forms of Orientalism in our work, including ways
that the lived religions approach remains predicated on
a 'world religions' epistemological model that has been
heavily critiqued in recent studies. By refiguring the lived

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
religions approach toward a dialogical model of writing
and speaking, we may begin to develop an academic
platform for engaging Jain communities' interests in
tenets, doctrines and philosophies as new forms of praxis.
Such re-centering may help scholars of Jainism become
more responsive to new gender and class dynamics that
exist within Jain communities in India and in the diaspora,
as we continue to ask the vital question of who has the
power to represent Jains and Jainism. Such an approach
could also help scholars to make concerns about gender
and class audible and sensible to Jain communities
looking to connect their tradition to cosmopolitan and
diasporic contexts.
Roundtable Discussion on Brill's Encyclopaedia of
John Cort (Denison University, USA), Paul Dundas
(University of Edinburgh), Kristi Wiley (Berkeley, USA)
In their opening remarks, Cort, Dundas and Wiley,
the editors of the forthcoming Brill's Encyclopedia of
Jainism, will address how the state of the field of Jaina
Studies appears from their perspective of working on
Roundtable Discussion on Current State of Jaina
Studies and Future Prospects
Christine Chojnacki, Hampana Nagarajaiah, Samani
Pratibhaprajna, Olle Qvarnstrom, Jayandra Soni, John
Cort (chair), Paul Dundas (discussant)
The roundtable will address the question of the current
state and future prospects of Jaina Studies.
University of London
21st jaina Studies workshop
jainism and Money
23-24 March 2019
Papers addressing Jainism and Money are invited.
For further information please see:
www. soas. ac. uk/j ainastudie s

University of London
Jaina Studies Certificate
Jain courses are open to members of the public who can participate
as 'occasional' or 'certificate' students. The SOAS certificate in
Jaina Studies is a one-year program recognised by the University
of London. It can be taken in one year, or part-time over two
or three years. The certificate comprises four courses, including
Jainism at the undergraduate level. Students can combine courses
according to their individual interests.
The certificate is of particular value for individuals with an
interest in Jainism who are not yet in the university system, who
do not have previous university qualification, or who do not have
the time to pursue a regular university degree. It provides an
opportunity to study Jainism at an academic level and is flexible
to meet diverse personal needs and interests.
For information please contact:

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
history and current state of jaina studies
Speakers and Discussants
Professor Nalini Balbir
Sorbonne III
University of Paris
Paris (France)
nalini .balbir @ wanadoo .fr
Professor Piotr Balcerowicz
Institute of Oriental Studies
Krakowskie Przedmiescie 26/28
PL 00-927 Warszawa (Poland)
Professor Christine Chojnacki
Professeur de langues et cultures
Faculte des langues
Universite de Lyon 3
Cours Albert Thomas
69008 Lyon (France)
Christine .choj nacki @ uni v- ly on3 .fr
Professor Eva De Clercq
Department of Indology
University of Gent
Blandijnberg 2-146
9000 Gent (Belgium)
Professor John E. Cort
Department of Religion
Denison University
Granville, OH 43023 (USA)
Paul Dundas
University of Edinburgh
7 Buccleuch Place
Edinburgh EH8 9LW (Scotland, UK)
Dr Peter Flugel
Centre of Jaina Studies
SOAS, University of London
Thornhaugh Street
London WC1H OXG (UK)
Dr Sin Fujinaga
c/o Miyakonojo Kosen
Miyakonojo, Miyazaki
Professor Hampana Padmanabaiah
1079,18-A Main, 5th Block
Bangalore 500 010 (India)
Indiahampana 1 @ gmail .com
Adrian Plau PhD Candidate
South Asia Department
School of History, Religions and Philosophy
SOAS, University of London
Thornhaugh Street
London WC1H (UK)
Dr Samanl Pratibhaprajna
School of History, Religions and Philosophy
SOAS, University of London
Thornhaugh Street
London WC1H (UK)
164429@ soas .ac .uk
Professor Olle Qvarnstrom
Lund University
Allhelgona Kyrkogata 8
SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden)
Olle .Qvarnstrom @ teol .lu .se
Dr Jayandra Soni
Associate of the University of Innsbruck
Poltenweg 4
A-6080 Innsbruck
Dr Himal Trikha
Institute for the Cultural and Intellectual
History of Asia
Austrian Academy of Sciences
Apostelgasse 23
A-1030 Vienna (Austria)
himal .trikha@ .at
Dr Steven M. Vose
Department of Religious Studies
Florida International University
Modesto A. Maidique Campus
Deuxieme Maison, Room DM 302
11200 SW 8th Street
Miami FL 33199 (USA)
Dr Kristi Wiley
1200 Woodland Ave.
Menlo Park, CA 94025 (USA)
kristi .wiley @ gmail .com

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Jainism and Buddhism: 19th Jaina Studies Workshop, SOAS 17-18 March 2017
Samani Pratibha Pragya
The 17th Annual Jaina Lecture and Jainism and
Buddhism, the 19th Jaina Studies Workshop, took
place at SOAS on 17-18 March 2017. The Lecture and
Workshop were co-hosted by the Centre of Jaina Studies
and the SOAS Centre of Buddhist Studies, with generous
additional support from the V&A Jain Art Fund, and the
Jivdaya Foundation in Dallas.
17th Annual Jaina Lecture
The proceedings commenced with the ceremonial Launch
of Johannes Klatt's Jaina-Onomasticon. Thereafter, Sin
Fujinaga (Miyakonjo Kosen, Japan) delivered the 17th
Annual Jaina Lecture on 'Nidana: A World with Different
Meaning'. Investigating the concept of nidana within the
wider Indian philosophical context, he showed that it
is used in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. The term
4nidana' is used in the sense of 'cause' in Buddhism,
whereas in Jainism it holds a specific meaning, namely,
the 'bartering of penance'. Fujjinaga noted that a Buddhist
text, the Suttanipata, offers the oldest use of nidana,
designating a cause that evokes lust and hatred. He referred
especially to the Mahanidanasutta, a dialogue between
Ananda and the Buddha about dependent origination
(paticcasamuppada). In this text the Buddha is said to
have anticipated diverse perspectives about nidana,
such as cause (hetu), origin (samudaya), and source
(paccaya). Fujinaga then discussed the application of the
term nidana in early Jaina texts such as the Acarahga-
sutra and the Uttaradhy ana-sutra. In a former text (AS, nidana refers to something which obstructs the
way to liberation. The commentator Sflanka construes
this term as 'upadanam karman\ Fujinaga gave the term
upadana used in Buddhism a slightly different meaning:
'a special cause of reincarnation'. He noted that in
other parts of the Acarahga, commented on by Sflanka
(AS;, the term nidana appears twice
Launch of Johannes Klatt's Jaina-Onomasticon, Peter Fliigel, Hampana Nagarajaiah, Samani Pratibha Prajna, Renate Sohnen-Thieme, Samani Unnata
Prajna, J. Clifford Wright, Kornelius Kriimpelmann.
Sin Fujinaga (Miyakonojo Kosen)
with a negative prefix 'a' in the same phrase a-nidana
('aniyana'). In this context nidana designates something
which causes adverse effects, especially passions such as
anger. He noted that an early Jaina canonical text, the
Uttaradhy ana-sutra, narrates in the thirteenth chapter
the story of Citta and Sambhuta. This story is very
important for illustrating how nidana can be effective
in enabling a series of desired reincarnations. The idea
of nidana in this context could be regarded as a cause
which leads to rebirths. Moreover, the Acaradasah, an
earlier canonical text and originally the second part of
Acarahga-sutra, describes nidana in the tenth chapter
with regard to ten stories. Of these, the first nine are
concerned with nidana and the tenth narrates a-nidana.
The first and second stories depict Jaina monks and
nuns. In the first story King Srenika and his queen
Cellana are depicted as leading a happy life with opulent
ornaments and many attendants. Observing this, some
Jaina mendicants thought, 'If there is a special boon for

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
penance, regulation, chastity and perseverance, then we
will also experience various luxuries of human beings
in another life. How wonderful!' In the story, Mahavfra
refers to such thoughts as nidana. He further elaborates
that such mendicants, having entertained such thoughts
without confession and atonement, will be born as gods
or reincarnate as members of noble families. However,
they will not be able to imbibe dharma. In the third story,
a monk worries about his life as a male and wishes to
be born as a female, whilst in the fourth story a nun
expresses the difficulties of being a woman and desires
to be a male. Such wishes and desires are also called
nidana, because without confession or atonement,
even though they may bring about rebirth as a god or a
goddess who enjoys life in heaven, they will be unable
to hear and comprehend the preaching of the omniscient
ones. These examples suggest that the idea of nidana
was meant to encompass all followers of Jainism, both
ascetics and laypersons. Fujinaga had briefly investigated
this concept in Buddhism, and in Svetambara Jaina texts.
He suggested, however, that there may be more evidence
about the concept of nidana available in Digambara
texts such as the Satkandagama and its commentaries.
Fujinaga noted that the concept is not used in Hinduism
at all.
Workshop: Jainism and Buddhism
The first session of the 19th Jaina Studies Workshop
commenced on 18 March 2017, and was chaired by
Vincent Tournier (SOAS Centre of Buddhist Studies).
The first paper was read by Charles DiSimone (Ludwig-
Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, Germany) who
spoke on the Mulasarvastivada Dlrghagama Manuscript
Found at Gilgit that Deals with Jainism in the Eyes of
the Buddhist. He mentioned that collections that were
lost for centuries were found at Gilgit, which is on the
border of Pakistan and Afghanistan. These findings are
known as Dirghagama, which are a 'collections of long
discourses', comprising 47 fragmented texts. They are
analogous to the Dighanikaya of the Theravada Buddhist
tradition. The focus of the presentation was a depiction of
Mahavfra's death (jhataputra nirvana) and a discussion
of his teachings, including the understanding and
misunderstandings of his disciples. The Prasadika-sutra
narrates about Mahavfra's demise followed by a split and
dispute among his disciples. According to the Buddhist
view, an ill proclaimed doctrine is not praiseworthy.
Only the Buddhist doctrine are considered complete
and beyond doubt, and even after the Buddha passed
away, they are praiseworthy. DiSimone concludes that
based on the nature of manuscripts, during the time of
the composition of the Dlrghagama there was no actual
debate with any religious opponents (anyatTrthika).
Hypothetically, the narrative served as a means of
proselytization and legitimizing Buddhist doctrine.
The second paper was by Christopher Key Chappie
(Loyola Marymount University, USA) on The Conversion
of Jaina Women to the Buddhist Path According to the
Juan Wu (University of Leiden)
Pali Canon. The Therlgatha provides accounts of early
Jaina nuns who were influenced by Buddhist teachers
and converted to Buddhism. Such tales of conversion
are not available in Jaina canonical texts. Chappie cited
two stories of ladies who had been members of Jaina
religious orders before converting to Buddhism. The
first woman was Bhadda Kundalakesa, who was born
into a 'financier's' family and trained as a Jaina nun. She
eventually became proficient at debating, travelling from
village to village as a religious master. She was persuaded
to adopt Buddhism by Sariputra. The second nun was
Nanduttara, who was born into a Brahmin family but later
became a Jaina nun. In a similar vein, she too became adept
at debating, and eventually became a Buddhist nun after
an encounter with Moggallana. The paper speculated on
how these two narratives characterise, from a Buddhist
perspective, early conversations between Buddhists and
Jainas. Chappie commented, finally, on the life-style
documented, which closely resembles the norms of Jaina
ascetics, such as not eating after sunset, sleeping on the
ground, and so on, which are important aspects of a Jaina
nun's lifestyle.
The third paper by Juan Wu (Leiden University and
Tsinghua University) was entitled The Buddhist Salvation
of Ajatasatru and the Jaina Non-Salvation of Kunika.
Ajatasatru was considered to be a proponent of both
Buddhism and Jainism. Both traditions share a common
narrative that Ajatasatru / Kunika, for the sake of a throne,
imprisoned his father Bimbisara / Srenika which led to
his death. The Buddhists, however, portray Bimbisara's
death as patricide whereas the Jainas consider it to be
a case of suicide. Juan Wu concluded that the Buddhist
tradition is quite compassionate towards liberating
Ajatasatru from the sin of patricide and opens the door of
liberation for him. In contrast, the Jaina textual tradition
mentions his reincarnation in hell with no indication of
future liberation.
The second session, which was chaired by Paul
Dundas (University of Edinburgh), opened with Haiyan
Hu-von Hinuber (University of Freiburg, Germany) who

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
presented a paper on Ekaposadha and EkamandalT: Some
Comparative Notes of Jaina and Buddhist Monastic
Rules. Both religions belong to the sramana tradition,
and they differentiate between the pausadhalposadha
ceremony for the monastic members in Buddhism and
those for the laity in Jainism. She mentioned that the
practice of posadha has been an ongoing practice since
the time of the historical Buddha. According to some
of the early Buddhist sources such as the Ahguttara
Nikaya, the Vinayapitaka of the Mahasamghika and the
Mulasarvastivada school, it is evident that the Buddhists
actually adopted the posadha ritual from 'ascetics of
different faith' (anyatTrthikaparivrajaka), among those
the niganthuposatha is explicitly referred to as the
source. Comparing the above mentioned Buddhist texts
with some early sources of the Jaina canon (Uttarajjhaya,
Viyahapannati, Uvasagadasao, etc.), the paper discussed
the usage of certain technical terms. Hintiber discussed
the boundary, or ekamandalT ('in one district only'),
of the group of mendicants collecting alms and eating
together. Technically it is known as sambhoga in Jainism.
She further discussed the required ritual immaculateness
demanded of all monks or nuns staying within a mandalT,
who have to confess offences before taking the meal
jointly. The Buddhist Vinaya, presents boundaries
(sTma) which correspond to the Jaina term mandalT, and
prescribes that only one uposatha / posadha ceremony is
allowed to be held in one residence of monks, in order to
guarantee the purity of the samgha.
The next paper of this session was read by Kazuyoshi
Hotta (Otani University, Kyoto) on Corresponding
Sanskrit Words of Prakrit Posaha: With Special
Reference to Sravakacara Texts and Buddhist Texts.
He argued, on the basis of the earliest use of the term
upavasatha documented in Satapathabrahmana,
that this was a purification rite practiced on the day prior
to the performance of a Vedic ritual. Later on the rite of
upavastha as posaha had been incorporated by Jainism
and Buddhism in distinctive ways. Buddhism developed
this rite mainly as a ritual for mendicants whereas
Jainism employed this rite mainly as a practice for the
laity. Consequently, descriptions of Jaina posaha are
found in the group of texts called the Sravakacara which
contain codes of conduct for the laity. R. Williams states
that there are several Sanskrit word-forms like pausadha,
prosadha, and posadha that correspond to the Prakrit
posaha. In addition to this, the only exceptional form —
uposadha—is found in editions currently in circulation.
However, it is necessary to carefully consider whether
this form can be traced back to the original manuscripts.
Many scholars have followed R. Williams' opinion that
posadha attained general currency, but we cannot accept
this statement without qualification. Hotta argued in this
presentation that the word prosadha is most frequently
used in the Sravakacara texts. He referred to 52 kinds
of Sravakacara texts. Finally, he concluded that an
important factor in this regard is the fact that Digambaras
have overwhelmingly more Sravakacara texts than
The third session, chaired by Sin Fujinaga, began
f' university of London
Jayandra Soni (University of Innsbruck)
with Yumi Fujimoto's (Miyagi, Japan) presentation
on Vasati in Vyavaharabhasya I-II in Comparison to
Buddhist Texts. The vasati is a place where ascetics
stay and used synonymously with the terms sayya (a
bedding) and upasraya (abode, house, dwelling place,
Jaina monastery). Similarly, the ksetra can be interpreted
either 'the site where a gana is established' or 'the
territory of a gana\ Fujimoto discussed at length the
rules of prohibition and execution related to staying into
a vasati by Jaina ascetics. In the context of dwellings,
she explained that there are some specific places such as
abhisayya and abhinaisedhikx where monks are allowed
to go in a group for svadhyaya etc. with the permission
of leader. The difference between abhisayya and
abhinaisedhikx depends on whether they spend a night
there or not. When monks return to a vasati at night, the
place is called abhinaisedhikx, and when monks spend a
night there, the place is called abhisayya. Furthermore,
the vasati is similar to avasa or vihara mentioned in
Buddhist texts, although vasati does not seem to have
as many facilities as the vihara in Buddhist texts. In
conclusion, Yumi suggested that upasraya, abhisayya
and abhinaisedhikT can be compared with senasanam or
the five kinds of lena,which are places to stay in the Pali-
vinaya. There is a difference between vasati and other
places to stay, a distinction that is maintained in the Pali-
vinaya according to Fujimoto.
Yutaka Kawasaki (Tokyo University) presented his
paper on Haribhadra's Criticism on the Concept of
Possession (parigraha). In the Dhammasahgahani,
Haribhadra comments on the possession of property by
Buddhist monks. He says that the possession of villages
believed to contribute to the growth of the three jewels
namely dhamma, buddha and sangha was flawed. He
opines that detachment from the material world is not
complete as long as ownership of properties or assets
prevails, and suggests that the growth of religion can
be attained only with a commitment to living without
any possessions. It is customary, he suggests, for the
disciples and followers to make necessary arrangements
for mendicants. The focus of mendicants should not

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
be perturbed by indulging in materialistic possessions.
Thus, monks should not deviate from their goals when
they have chosen to follow the path of non-attachment
(aparigraha). Yutaka concluded that it is uncertain that
these views were articulated by Haribhadra, even though
Haribhadra did accept the principle of aparigraha.
Samani Kusum Pragya (Jain Vishva Bharati Institute,
Ladnun) sent her paper on Why is the Buddha Missing
in the Isibhasiyaim? She stated that in Indian literature,
Isibhasiyaim is the only work which includes the teaching
of sages from all three Indian traditions—Vedic, Jaina
and Buddhist. The text includes prominent figures of the
Jaina tradition such as Parsva and Mahavfra, Vedic sages
such as Yajnvalkya and Narada, and Buddhist sages such
as Sariputra, Vajjiyaputra and Mahakasyapa. Considering
that each of these are presented, it is perplexing why
the Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, is missing
in Isibhasiyaim. Samani Kusuma Pragya attempted
to answer this question by using a philological and
historical approach to research the identity of Saiputra/
Satiputra, and trying to trace the Buddha through him.
She notes that the name of the Buddha's mother was
Maya. In Hemacandra's Abhidhanacintamani 2.151 the
synonym of the Buddha is mayasuta and furthermore
saci is one of the synonyms of Maya. Therefore, it is
likely that Saciputra is the name of the Buddha. This
is consistent with an ancient tradition where a person
and place is given a new name using its synonyms. For
example, the town Ratangarh is also known as Vasugarh
and Ratnadurga. In conclusion, she claimed, Saiputta
must be the Buddha, but leaves the question open for
further research. Because Samani Kusum Pragya was not
able to present her paper in person, it was read by Samani
Pratibha Pragya on her behalf.
The fourth session, chaired by Marie-Helene Gorisse
(Ghent University and SOAS), began with a presentation
by Lucas den Boer (Leiden University) on Jaina and
Buddhist Epistemology in Umasvati's Time. He argued
that the epistemological innovations in the Tattvartha-
sutra were partly motivated by encounters with other
philosophical movements. Den Boer investigated
references to other philosophical movements in the
epistemological parts of the text and its auto-commentary.
He mentioned that these texts occasionally refer to
other schools by name. There are also several implicit
references to existing debates and positions that throw
some light on the intellectual surroundings of the TS. He
argued by explaining some terms which are indicative of
other philosophical movements such as padartha from
the Vaisesika school, samyak from the Buddhist tradition
and the definition of (a)jhana from the Yoga school.
He mentioned that there is a strong influence of Nyaya
thought on chapter one and its auto-commentary.
Jayendra Soni (University of Innsbruck) explored
The Digambara Vidyanandin's Discussion with the
Buddhist on Svasamvedana, Pratyaksa and Pramana.
He presented a comparative study of an epistemological
problem debated between the Jainas and Buddhists. Soni
discussed Vidyanandin's approach to elaborating the
Jaina theory of particulars and universals (amsa/amsin
and avayavalavayavin), to counteract the Buddhist
position by quoting DharmakTrti's Pramana-varttika.
Vidyanandin brings into discussion the concept of
perception of an object as a whole, and further continues
with svasamvedana, pratyaksa and pramana (self-
awareness, perception, and valid means of knowledge).
The presentation attempted to deal with these concepts
in order to see how Vidyanandin vindicates the Jaina
position vis-a-vis the Buddhist one.
The last presentation of this workshop was by Heleen
De Jonckheere (University of Ghent) who presented her
paper on Two Buddhists, Two Jackals and a Flying Stupa:
Examination of the Buddhists in the DharmaparTksa.
This text, written by Amitagati in 1014, is an example
of how the Jains dealt with their 'others', especially with
Hindus and Buddhists. She focused on the 'strange' story
of two young Buddhist laymen who staged climbing a
stupa, which was then lifted up by two animals. Their
decision to become monks, after they were saved by
hunters who happened to be passing by, does not seem
to be based on rational reasons. The tale was clearly
meant to be comical. Yet, it is not clear if this laughter
was directed towards the Buddhists, or served merely
to mock and criticize the Brahmanical Puranas and the
Brahmanical tradition. De Jonckheere concluded that
such stories and satirical criticisms of other religious
traditions in the DharmaparTksa were most likely meant
to be heard or read by a Jaina lay audience, with the goal

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
problem debated between the Jainas and Buddhists.
Soni discussed Vidyanandin's approach to elaborating
the Jaina theory of particulars and universals (amsa/
amsin and avay aval avayavin), to counteract the Buddhist
position by quoting Dharmakfrti's Pramana-varttika.
Vidyanandin brings into discussion the concept of
perception of an object as a whole, and further continues
with svasamvedana, pratyaksa and pramana (self-
awareness, perception, and valid means of knowledge).
The presentation attempted to deal with these concepts
in order to see how Vidyanandin vindicates the Jaina
position vis-a-vis the Buddhist one.
The last presentation of this workshop was by Heleen
De Jonckheere (University of Ghent) who presented her
paper on Two Buddhists, Two Jackals and a Flying Stupa:
Examination of the Buddhists in the DharmaparTksa.
This text, written by Amitagati in 1014, is an example
of how the Jains dealt with their 'others', especially with
Hindus and Buddhists. She focused on the 'strange' story
of two young Buddhist laymen who staged climbing a
stupa, which was then lifted up by two animals. Their
decision to become monks, after they were saved by
hunters who happened to be passing by, does not seem
to be based on rational reasons. The tale was clearly
meant to be comical. Yet, it is not clear if this laughter
was directed towards the Buddhists, or served merely
to mock and criticize the Brahmanical Puranas and the
Brahmanical tradition. De Jonckheere concluded that
such stories and satirical criticisms of other religious
traditions in the DharmaparTksa were most likely meant
to be heard or read by a Jaina lay audience, with the goal
of directing them back on the Jaina path. They were also
sometimes used as a tool for refuting other religious
traditions and converting their followers to Jainism.
The Centre of Jaina Studies congratulates Dr
Samani Pratibhaprajna for having earned her
doctorate at SOAS, 2017, on completion of
her dissertation:
Preksa Meditation: History and Methods
Samanis Unnata Pragya, Kusuma Pragya, Pratibha Pragya, Satya Pragya, Punya Pragya, Rohini Pragya (after the
ceremony at SOAS). Photo: Peter Fliigel

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Jaina Studies in Japan: Conference Reports
Masahiro Ueda
Participants of the 32nd Conference of the Society for Jaina Studies at Hanazono University
The 68th Annual Conference of the Japanese
Association of Indian and Buddhist Studies (JAIBS)
The 68th Annual Conference of the Japanese Association
of Indian and Buddhist Studies (JAIBS) was held at
Hanazono University in Kyoto on 2-3 September 2017.
In this conference, five papers on Jainism were presented.
In "The Criteria for himsa and ahimsa in Jainism,"
Tomoyuki Uno (Chikushi Jogakuen University) revealed
the history of discussion of the criteria for himsa and
ahimsa, examining the description in commentaries
of Svetambara Jaina scriptures. According to him, an
important criterion for determining whether an act is
recognized as himsa or not is based on arguments in
Niryuktis and Bhasyas, which were written in verse
during the 5th through 7th centuries. He focused on
discussions in Bhadrabahu's Niryukth and pointed
out that criteria for himsa are closely related to the
state of the mind of the one who engaged in the act.
He examined the Brhatkalpahhasya by Sanghadasa,
the Visesavasyakabhasya by Jinabhadra and the
Himsaphalastaka by Haribhadra and detailed the
historical evolution of discussion on the criteria.
Kazuyoshi Hotta (Otani University) read a paper
entitled "Are prthivT, dp, tejas and vayu alive?
Reexamining an Animistic Aspect of Jainism." He
reviewed the perception of Jainism as animism, as
represented, for instance, by H. Jacobi, and also the
criticism against it in previous research. According
to Hotta, a problem in the view of Jainism as animism
is that it is based on the idea that animism is based on
conceptions from prior centuries. This point has not
been focused on in previous studies so far. He pointed
out that this idea is influenced by the theory of cultural
evolutionism, which regards animism as the earlier
phase in the development of religions. However, cultural
evolutionism is hardly accepted today. Therefore, he
concluded that there is room for reconsideration of the
perception of Jainism as animism, which derives from
cultural evolutionism.
In "Haribhadra on the Affirmation of kama
'Sexual Appetite'," Yutaka Kawasaki (University of
Tokyo) focused on a controversy over kama in the
Dharmasahgrahani by Haribhadra. Kawasaki pointed out
the possibility that, in this work, the subject of criticism of
Tomoyuki Uno (Chikushi Jogakuen University)
those who affirm kama is not directed at people who live
their life according to the view of life of Brahmanism,
but to those belonging to his own Svetambara sect, who
were more tolerant of kama. Kawasaki argued that this is
because Haribhadra's primary concern is not the offence
of the sexual intercourse of lay people of other traditions,
but that of Svetambara monks.
In "A Change of the Neminatha Story: From Carita to
Barahmasa," Tomoyuki Yamahata (Hokkaido University
of Science) discussed differences of the episodes that
appeared in the Neminatha stories and the historical
transition of the Jain tales from the sixth century to the
thirteenth century. He mainly focused on the characteristic
of Rajal, a fiancee of Neminatha, who appears in these
narratives. According to him, the Neminatha stories can
be categorized into three major stages from the historical
point of view. The first one deals mainly with episodes
concerning Ratanemi, Nemi's brother, the second one
mainly with the life of Krsna, who is Nemi's cousin, and
the last one with the mourning of Rajal's separation.
In "An Example of the Deities and Rituals in the
Gotras of Jainas: Murtipujaka in Punjab," Akiko Shimizu
(The Nakamura Hajime Eastern Institute) reported on
her fieldwork on the deities and the rites amongst Jainas
which was carried out in 2017 in Dehli and Ludhiana.
She focused on the gotras of Murtipujaka Svetambaras
belonging to the Sri Atmananda Jain Sabha. According to
her, the characteristic of deities of gotras in Punjab is that
they worship their ancestors as deities. There are rituals
for the deities of gotras mainly in daily life, in every

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
season, in every year, at an initiation ceremony and what
is done on special occasions such as yatra. She pointed
out that they differed from gotra to gotra.
32nd Conference of the Society for Jaina Studies
On 30 September 2017 the 32nd Conference of the
Society for Jaina Studies was held at Otani University,
Kyoto. Three papers were read at this conference.
In "On the Two Types of Exile from Gana in the
Brhatkalpasutra IV 2-3," Yumi Fujimoto (Tohoku-
gakuin Tsutsujigaoka High School) examined in detail
the difference between demotion («anavasthapya) and
exclusion (parahcita), which are respectively the 9th
and 10th atonements defined in the Brhatkalpasutra IV
2-3 and its commentaries. According to Fujimoto, the
periods imposed for atonement are common in both.
Another common point is that these atonements will be
lifted if ordered by a king. In the case of anavasthapya,
the monks who are accepting it will cohabit with other
members in their gannana. However, in the case of
parahcita, they must go outside their gannana. This
is one of the most significant differences seen in both
atonements. In addition, Fujimoto pointed out that a
verse that defines anavasthapya in the Brhatkalpabhasya
appears in the context that defines both anavasthapya
and parahcita in the Vyavaharabhasya.
In "Minakata Kumagusu and Jainism," Tomoyuki
Uno (Chikushi Jogakuen University) clarified a part of
the history of Jainism in Japan. Minakata Kumagusu was
a famous Japanese biologist, naturalist and ethnologist
who lived in the late 19th to early 20th centuries. In
some previous studies, he has been regarded as highly
appreciative of Jainism and its ahimsa from a biological
point of view. Uno carefully traced the source of this
perception and also examined the work of Minakata in
detail. He revealed that there is no basis for this view
and concluded that Minakata Kumagusu knew Jainism in
fact, but did not appreciate Jainism highly.
In "Dhammapada 160 and Jainism Scriptures," Kenji
Watanabe (Taisho University) examined the meaning of
natha in detail, based on previous research and similar
expressions in other texts. According to him, it is well
known that the 160th verse of the Dhammapada shares
common parts with the 380th verse. Few Indologists have
mentioned the similarities to phrases in the BhagavadgTta
VI, 5. Watanabe also pointed out that there is another
example in the Uttaradhyayanasutra (Utt.) XX, 35. He
also examined the expression in the Utt. XX, 12 and the
Manusmrti VIII, 84 and concluded that the meaning of
natha is "the Lord."
Masahiro Ueda is a PhD candidate at Kyoto University.
His dissertation centres on the study of the exegetical
literature of the Svetambara Jainas. He is currently an
adjunct lecturer at Kyoto University, and is presently
editing the unpublished text of the Curni commentary on
the Vyavaharabhasya.
Gyan Sagar Science
With the blessing of Param
Pujya Sarakoddharak
Acharya Shri 108 Gyan
Sagar Maharaj Ji and
his vision and the Gyan
Sagar Science Foundation
(GSF) came into being in September 2009 with
the primary object of bridging Science and Society
and to propagate ancient scientific knowledge
for the wellbeing of mankind. The foundation
aims to provide a national forum where different
disciplines of Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology,
Medicine, Engineering, Agriculture etc.), Society
and Spirituality are converged and views are
exchanged for sustaining life and harmonious living.
The Foundation seeks to cultivate and promote
value-based education of today's youth in proper
prospective and a harmonious application of Science
with Religion.
The work of this Foundation is dedicated to
Sarakoddharak Acharya Shri 108 Gyan Sagar
Maharaj Ji who has tirelessly worked to propagate
the eternal principles of SATYA (Truth) and AHIMSA
(Non-violence) and to promote the culture of
vegetarianism. He has been instrumental in holding
seminars/conferences of students, teachers, doctors,
engineers, chartered accountants, bank officers,
bureaucrats, legislators, lawyers, etc. to instill moral
values amongst people from all walks of life and
work collectively for establishing peace in the world
and progress for betterment of the country.
Activities of the Foundation include conferences
(Bangalore, 29-31 January 2010; Mumbai, 7-8
January 2012; New Delhi, 8-9 February 2014;
Sonagiri, 5-6 December 2015, Vahalana Ji 14-15
October 2017) and an annual journal: Journal of Gyan
Sagar Science Foundation. The fourth volume was
published in October 2017 (available online: www. This issue covered
all abstracts presented during two conferences and
some full-length papers. The papers were published
after a peer review process.
To appreciate and recognize contributions of
individual scientists to society, the Foundation has
instituted an award. The award consists of a cash
prize of Rs. 200,000 in the beginning, a medal and
a citation. The first award was bestowed on Prof.
Parasmal Ji Agrawal Jain for his paper "Doer, Deeds,
Nimitta and Upadana in the context of Modern
Science and Spriritual Science." It was presented
at the 2nd Jain Laureate award handed over to Dr
D.CJain for his research work on Neuro Sciences.
GSF is also a regular contributor to the annual Jaina
Studies conference at SOAS, and has committed to
five years of sponsorship of Jaina Studies, Newsletter
of the Centre of Jaina Studies at SOAS.


CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
International Prakrit Conference on Prakrit Literature and Culture
Luitgard Soni
The Mdfa&m&stdksL-abhisekha of the colossal statue
of SrT Gommatesvara BahubalT in Sravanabelgola,
celebrated in a twelve-year cycle, is being staged starting
from February 2018. As a festive prelude to it, the
First International Prakrit Conference was held on 3-6
November 2017 in Sravanabelgola, Karnataka, and it
presented itself as an extraordinary academic event. In
the sequel to several past National Prakrit Conferences
and Seminars connected with the Bahubalr Prakrita
VidyapTtha, this First International Conference stands
also as a sign-post for the Prakrit-University to be opened
in 2019.
The four-day conference was a multifaceted gathering
in honour of Prakrit and its heritage and was a powerful
cultural statement under the auspices of Svasti SrT
CarukTrti Bhattaraka SvamijT. It was graced by the
presence of many Jaina nuns and monks in a Guruvandana
gathering, honoured by persons from public life, arts,
education and politics, and hosted an array of about 150
scholars whose research work, in one way or the other,
pertains to the Prakrit languages.
The inaugural function celebrated the event with
prayers and praises and a warm welcome speech by
Professor Hampa Nagarajaiah. The president of the
conference, Prem Suman Jain tuned the audience into the
theme of the conference and a very old illustrated palm
leaf manuscript of the Gommatasara by Nemicandra
Siddhanta Cakravarti was displayed ceremoniously in a
very dignified way.
Nalini Balbir (Sorbonne-Nouvelle University, Paris)
delivered the keynote address which brought on stage
a scholarly view and an inspiring perspective on Prakrit
and on the present state and future tasks of Prakrit studies.
Her speech underpinned the significance of a Prakrit
International Conference particularly in view of the
fact that Prakrit does not have the status of a 'Classical
Language' as do Tamil, Sanskrit, Kannada, Telugu and
Odia, in spite of clearly fulfilling the official criteria for
eligibility. Balbir indicated the broad scope of Prakrit, its
distinct relation to Sanskrit as well as the vernaculars, its
prominent place in the classical Indian literary heritage,
evident for example in muktaka-poetry, major epic
poems, novels, in classical Indian plays, in the sattaka-
genre, the Jaina scriptures and in inscriptions. A glance
at what has been achieved for the study of the language,
the edition of texts in the past decades, and at what is
being done now is encouraging. Balbir mentioned that
several university departments in India and abroad have
Prakrit courses in their programme, that summer schools
are organised, and that in Sravanabelgola there has been
the National Institute of Prakrit Studies and Research
since 1993. Editions and partial or full studies of seminal
works such as the VasudevahindT and the Kuvalayamala
have been brought out, several editions of the Agamas
can be consulted, in-depth and comparative studies
of stories and their sources are available for research,
Nalini Balbir (Sorbonne-Nouvelle University, Paris)
as are editions of leading works of the Digambara
tradition such as the Mulacara, BhagavatT Aradhana
and the Satkandagama. With these and other examples
of achievement, a challenge persists to promote the
teaching of Prakrit and to coordinate the efforts to make
more Prakrit texts accessible, in print as well as online.
In the plenary academic session, the theme 'Prakrit
Studies: Today and Tomorrow' was discussed and
suggestions were given for the support and promotion
of Prakrit studies regarding teaching and research in
linguistics, history and literature.
G.C. Tripathi (Delhi) pointed out that the numerous
Prakrit manuscripts lying in libraries all over India call
for work on a new history of Prakrit languages and for
research in Prakrit texts pertaining to any discipline. He
also drew attention to the beauty of Prakrit recitation and
emphasized the importance of an actual teacher-taught
situation for the pronunciation, since the sound values
can hardly be transmitted online.
Peter Flugel's (SOAS) speech focussed on essential
features of the ordination of monks on the basis of
'The Nikkhamana of MahavTra according to the Old
Biographies'. The oldest surviving narratives on
MahavTra's Nikkhamana, i.e. the Avasyaka-Niryukti,
Ayara, and Jinacariya, appear to be retrospective
constructions of late-canonical origin. From the analysis
of the three main accounts few shared core-elements can
be identified. Leaving the house and pulling out the hair
are essential elements. Invariable named elements of the
plots are dana, chattha-bhatta and pamca-muttiya-loya.
He also argued that the historical sequence of the old
biographies could be determined freshly on grounds of

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
their degrees of completeness rather than, as previously,
on disputed linguistic terms. Full life stories including
the funeral ceremony can only be found in much later
Hampa Nagarajaiah (Bengaluru) raised the question
of the neglected status of Prakrit which does not rank
as a classical language in spite of its heritage and the
enormous corpus of texts.
For the sake of anchoring Prakrit as an important part
of Indian history and culture, and to facilitate its study,
Prem Suman Jain (Udaipur) emphasized the necessity of
Numerous discussants responded to these speeches
and supplied valuable information about the work of
several institutions all over India where Prakrit plays the
central role for research.
The following two and a half days were filled with
parallel academic sessions in which 140 papers of 10
minutes each were read and discussed for 5 minutes.
Almost half of the papers were read in Hindi, the other
half divided into English, Prakrit and Kannada. Certainly
the multilingual conditions posed a taxing challenge for
the discussion and the exchange of ideas, but they also
reflected the reality of a polyglot academic gathering
exposed to the necessity of grasping and expressing ideas
in more than one language. It was in any case a most
impressive experience to listen to Prakrit, quoted, recited
and sung in many of the presentations and discussions.
Under the main theme of the conference, 'Prakrit
Literature and Culture' the research papers covered varied
areas and topics and texts: epigraphy, manuscriptology,
grammar, narrative literature, epics, poetry and drama.
Jaina philosophical concepts and ethics, cosmology and
karma theory were dealt with in several papers, some
in a more general way, but most on the basis of textual
studies. Linguistic studies pertained to Pali, Prakrits and
Apabhramsa as well as their relation to modern Indian
languages. There were a few studies on medicinal plants
in canonical texts, on mathematical texts, on issues
contained in several canonical and post-canonical texts
related to sociology, life-science and environment.
Several presentations pointed out their relevance to
modernity. The papers on modern Prakrit writers,
contributions of women in editing Prakrit texts, Prakrit
Studies of the past two decades and methods of teaching
Prakrit enriched the scope of the academic sessions.
The abstracts of the papers are printed in: Paiyam
Abbhutthamo Souvenir - 2017, edited by Prem Suman
Jain and published by the Bahubali Prakrit Vidyapeeth
and the Mahamastakabhisheka Mahotsav Committee
2018, Shravanabelagola 2017. The plan is to publish
all the papers of the Conference, to be published and
released at the Mahamastaka-abhiseka in February 2018.
In the concluding session of this First International
Prakrit Conference it was announced that the recipient
of the Prakrta Jnanabharatr International Award for
2016 was Natalia Zheleznova, Institute of Oriental
Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, for her
extensive work on Jaina philosophy and especially for
her translations into Russian of works by Kundakunda
and Pujyapada.
Also, at the valedictory function, the president of
the conference Prem Suman Jain presented some of
the resolutions taken at the Conference, by way of
extracting the impetus provided by this event for future
research. He confirmed that the work on the Gommatesa
Prakrta Visvavidyalaya, the Prakrit University, in
Shravanabelgola, would start soon; further there is a
plan to found a second Prakrit University in Mahavfra's
birthplace, in VaisalL It was also resolved to promote the
establishment of Prakrit academies in several states of
India. Setting up a National Library of Prakrit Studies
and Jainology in Shravanabelgola was regarded as a very
important project.
The cultural programmes presented in the evenings
abounded in dance, song, and play. Students competed
in a Prakrit Antyaksari and displayed their spontaneous
skills in the language. Several authors of Prakrit poems

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
recited their compositions with verve and were applauded
Celebrating, honouring and studying Prakrit with
ceremony and with scholarship were the great gestures
of this First International Prakrit Conference at the feet
of Bahubali. An extraordinary gesture was above all the
very generous hospitality provided for all the delegates;
it extended to travel, accommodation, honorarium and
excellent food, all of which were organized perfectly and
managed with utmost care.
Workshop: The Concept of Rationality
in Jaina Thought
On 9th November 2017 the National Institute of
Advanced Studies (NIAS), in the wonderfully
green Indian Institute of Science Campus, Bengaluru,
Karnataka, hosted a one day Workshop on The Concept
of Rationality in Jaina Thought, planned and realized by
Sundar Sarukkai, Professor of Philosophy in NIAS. Varun
Bhatta organized the day efficiently and with great care.
About 40 participants and three speakers spent a whole
day in lively encounters while presenting, exchanging
and discussing terms, concepts, theses and particulars of
Jaina rationality.
The opening lecture by Jayendra Soni (University
of Innsbruck) offered a broad context for the theme of
rationality: 'The Tension between Reason/Rationality and
Wisdom/Mysticism in Indian Thought'. The reference by
Indian systems to a reality 'as it is' (yathartha) that is
to be realised, contains a certain mystical component in
its definitions as well as in the modes of its realisation
as, for example, in the Jaina concept of the sentient
being inherently possessing samyag-darsana, samyag-
jhana, and samyak-caritra. This aspect can be contrasted
with the role of reason and rationality in epistemology.
By describing the means of cognition, their numbers
and their characteristics, Soni outlined the concept of
cognition which is decisive for the discussion of the
terms philosophy and mysticism. Another conspicuous
component of Indian thinking which was described
in detail are dialogue and debate reflecting reason and
rationality. The key words of this lecture triggered a vivid
discussion with inputs from various areas, reflecting the
interests and the engagement of the persons present
whose fields were philosophy, sociology, medicine, arts,
science and architecture.
The next presentation involved the audience in
one of the most salient epistemological positions of
Jaina philosophy: Himal Trikha (University of Vienna)
depicted and analysed 'The role of Rationality in Jaina
Perspectivism'. Starting with the claim that falsification
plays a significant role in the argumentation of medieval
Jaina philosophers and linking it to Popper's model of
scientific progress, Trikha highlighted Vidyanandin's
attitude to the factual plurality of opinions and
stated its potential for reconciling conflicting views.
Vidyanandin's critical perspectivism rationally treats
the tension between exclusivistic and perspectivistic
Sundar Sarukkai, NIAS, Bengaluru
positions by arguing sharply against several dissonant
simplistic hypotheses and arriving at complex theories
with consonant epistemic alternatives. The lecture was
illustrated by several examples, citations and graphs
supporting the fascinating premodern Jaina method of
falsification and epistemic pluralism.
The meaningful engagement with themes of a
philosophical tradition, such as Jaina rationality,
was depicted in a philosophically far-reaching and
intricate lecture by Sundar Sarukkai (NIAS Bengaluru)
'Implications of Jaina Rationality'. Probing the sense in
which we talk about rationality in Jainism, led Sarrukai
to fundamental questions as to why the theme rationality
is important in connection with Indian philosophy. Indian
philosophy, being a wide field where philosophical and
religious systems are discernible and yet interconnected,
prompts one to track the role of rationality within
belief systems. Rationality in Indian medicine, logic
and mathematics is yet another authentic philosophical
quest. The Jaina analysis of utterances presents itself
as constructing forms of reasons. The topic of plurality
as addressed by Jaina thinkers is a fertile ground and
important feature in the implementation of rationality as
The last session of the workshop was a panel discussion
along with a lively, general discussion moderated by
Varun Bhatta (NIAS Bengaluru). Detailed questions were
put to the presenters and led to intensive discussions with
regard to themes such as substance, quality and mode,
the role of karma in Jainism and the relevance of syad-
vada. The concept of rationality became embedded in the
wider framework of Jaina metaphysics.
Luitgard Soni has a PhD from the University of Salzburg,
and studied Sanskrit, Indian Philosophy and Hindi at
the Banaras Hindu University. She was affiliated to the
Department of Indology at the University of Marburg
from 1992 until 2012. She works mainly on Jaina

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Communicating Jainism: Media and
Study of Religion Conference 2017
Heleen De Jonckheere
This year's meeting of the European Association for
the Study of Religion Conference (EASR), held at
the Catholic University of Leuven from 18-21 September
2017, hosted as many as eleven international scholars to
discuss topics on Jainism. Since the Conference centred
around the communication of religion, Tillo Detige,
Tine Vekemans and Heleen De Jonckheere (all Ghent
University) organised a panel titled Communicating
Jainism: Media and Messages.
Steven Vose (Florida International University) opened
the first of three sessions, Communicating Jainism:
Theoretical Perspectives with a paper titled 'Reflections
Toward a New Approach to the Anthropology of Jainism'
in which he discussed current tensions in Jaina Studies
between the relatively recent scholarly 'lived tradition'
approaches and approaches preferred by certain Jain
groups that focus on doctrine and beliefs. Taking a
short tour into the history of Jaina Studies, he explained
how older scholarly analyses mostly centred around
beliefs and doctrines of Jainism, while disregarding Jain
practices. An important turning point was John Cort's
PhD dissertation Jains in the World: Religious Values and
Ideology in India (completed 1989, published in 2001).
Instead of studying Jainism, Cort studied Jains using
anthropological and historical approaches. Some thirty
years later this 'lived tradition' approach is well settled in
the field of Jaina Studies. However, with chairs in Jaina
Studies becoming more prevalent at US universities, and
the annual Jain Summer School, ways of thinking about
Jainism by (mostly wealthy male) Jains, especially in the
diaspora, characterized by a focus on doctrine and text,
start to influence academic work more heavily. Therefore,
Steven Vose suggested an 'anthropology of Jainism'
alongside an 'anthropology of the Jains' in future studies,
by which scholars would work collaboratively with
Jain communities, while explicating influences of such
relations within Jaina Studies.
Tillo Detige (Ghent University) in 'Commu(nica)
ting Selves: Dancing Devotees & A Practice Theoretical
Approach to Jainism' questioned whether it is practice
or theory which comes first in Jainism and which should
therefore also be prioritized in scholarly descriptions
of the tradition. He advocated an approach towards the
study of Jainism that looks at their media of knowledge
transmission. Detige proposed to put ritual and
devotional practices, story-telling, meditation, songs and
dance, pilgrimage and dietary practices first in the study
of Jainism, analysing how these 'technologies of the self'
construct practical, experiential, relational and embodied
knowledge. In this way, Detige suggested a turn away
from a scholarly focus on beliefs and reified doctrines,
shifting instead towards Jainism as 'lived tradition'
with a focus on its material, sensory, performative and
emotional aspects.
at the European Association for the
Steven Vose and Tine Vekemans
Tine Vekemans' (Ghent University) presentation,
'Learning Jain Online: How New Technologies Impact
Upon the Practice-Theory Equilibrium,' explored
how research on Jain online media could contribute
to the discussion about a practice or doctrine focussed
approach in the study of Jainism. Referring to the panel
title Vekemans suggested that each medium for learning
Jainism favours a certain type of message. In diasporic
contexts, where Vekemans' research is set, learning
Jainism takes very different forms in comparison to
Indian contexts where munis, temples, etc., are easily
accessible. Jains in the diaspora therefore use other ways
of learning Jainism such as reference books, pathsalas
and, with its growing popularity, online media. From an
examination of digital media it appears that older online
media were mostly text-based containing descriptions
of Jain philosophy and teachings, while newer media
include more interactive elements. This shift impacts
upon the conveyed message in that it reflects a turn from
doctrine toward practicing Jainism.
The second session on written texts, Communicating
Jainism: Storytelling, Wordplay and Titerary
Composition, was opened by Heleen De Jonckheere
(Ghent University) who in her paper 'The Story of
the Stories within the Story: Narrating Jain Selves'
discussed how one narrative text, the DharmaparTksa
by Amitagati (1014 CE) both reflected and transformed
the Jain tradition. The DharmaparTksa, a collection of
stories aimed at criticizing Puranic Hinduism, seems to
reveal aspects of what it meant to be a Jain at that time.
The opening theme is the concern about 'false belief'
(mithyatva), while the inner core seems to comment more
upon everyday morality and behaviour. Also dominant are
motives from the Puranas and epics that show the Jains'
concern with popular Hinduism. By both including and
criticizing these stories the author of the DharmaparTksa
uses a double strategy of denying the authority of and
also opposing the Hindu tradition. De Jonckheere argues
that with these different layers the DharmaparTksa shows

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
the richness of Jain narrative literature, using didactic
motives and popular material, and adapting to changing
environments, thereby transforming and perpetuating the
Jain tradition.
In her presentation 'The Transformative Nature of
Hymns: A Twelfth-century Jain Monk's Usage and
Conceptualization of Stotras' Lynna Dhanani (Yale
University) examined the relationship between stotra
and narrative, focusing on a portion of Hemacandra's
Vitaraga-Stotra that appears in the biography of
MahavTra found in his Trisasti-salaka-purusa-caritra.
Presenting current research that has discovered over
half of XhtVTtaraga Stotra embedded within both the
Ajitanatha and MahavTra caritras, Dhanani showed how
Hemacandra's placement of stotra within biography
reflects both a continuation of a tradition of embedding
stotras at the moment of an auspicious life event or
kalyanaka in the biographies of Jinas and his expansion
of the use of stotra within this genre to include them
in events occuring outside of a kalyanaka. The paper
examined one such instance by showing how stotra was
used to advance the narratives concerning Gautama's
omniscience and the testing of the laywoman Sulasa's
faith in the Jina's teachings, as one example of the ways
in which medieval monks were experimenting with and
extending the use of stotra.
In 'Playing with Words when Stating an Inference:
The Practice of Patra in Jainism' Marie-Helene Gorisse
(Ghent University & SOAS) presented the theory of
patras or puzzle-arguments using two Digambara
Jain texts, the PatraparTksa by Vidyananda and the
Prameyakamalamartanda by Prabhacandra. A patra
is an inferential reasoning expressed by means of
statements not directly comprehensible as such and
is thus very difficult to understand by an audience
unfamiliar with this type of argumentation. The difficulty
is strengthened by a puzzle of coding techniques such
as periphrastic presentations of concepts, alternative
analysis of expressions, alternative meanings of words,
references to lists and other references. This all requires
that the receiver of a patra has a lot of background
knowledge, which is probably why patras are so rarely
found. However, according to Gorisse,patras have some
benefits: they ensure the reliability of the debater, with
their multiple possible meanings they train the listener
in a sensitivity to the Jain concept of non-onesidedness,
and they 'embody' the connections that in the Jain view
exists between all complex objects of knowledge. As
such, the practice of puzzle-arguments is in line with the
Jain perspectivist teaching of non-onesidedness.
The last session of our Jain panel, Communicating
Jainism: New Media, New Messages, brought us back to
modern times. In 'A Real Tirth Has a Website, A Real
Tirth Needs No Website: Using Media to Build Temple
Prestige' Whitney Kelting (Northeastern University)
revealed a change in websites on Jain pilgrimage
sites using the Seth Ananda Kalyanji Trust website as
example. Just a few years ago (before about 2014) online
sources on Jain pilgrimage sites were rare, as people used
pilgrimage guidebooks and their common knowledge
about Jain festivities to go on pilgrimages. However,
very recently sites such as and gojainyatra.
com have appeared providing online users with broad
information on Jain tirthas and methods for online
booking of taxis and dharmasala rooms. In reaction to
this phenomenon the trusts of some pilgrimage sites, such
as the Ananda Kalyanji Trust, have published their own
website with detailed information and festivity dates of

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
specific tirthas linked to their trust (e.g. Shatrunjaya). In
this way the Trust claims control over access, information
and prestige surrounding the pilgrimage site, asserting its
legitimacy in response to the new unofficial websites.
In 'Communicating Heritage: Construction of Tamil
Jain Identity in Print and Social Media' Mahima Jain
examined the role of different modern media in the
construction of contemporary Tamil Jain identity.
Looking at extracts from The Hindu the overall ill-
represented Tamil Jains are mostly portrayed as a
community from the past, given that articles on Jain
heritage and history dominate print media. This neglects
the fact that Tamil Nadu still has a lively Jain population.
Therefore, Tamil Jains have turned to social media to
voice their interests and identity as Tamil Jains. Even if
discourse on heritage is also here strongly present, media
such as Facebook and WhatsApp have given the Tamil
Jain population the opportunity to talk about themselves
and their own pilgrimage experience. As such reflecting
the need of Tamil Jains to identify and show themselves
as Tamil Jains with their own characteristics, different
from northern Jains.
In 'Narratives of Jain Religiosity or of
Humanitarianism: Understanding Jain Diaspora
Philanthropy' Bindi Shah presented her fieldwork with
a Jain socio-spiritual organisation, TripleS, focussing
on the meaning people in this organisation have given
to diasporic philanthropy. TripleS was founded with the
mission of doing seva (selfless service to the poor) as a
reinterpretation of the Jain path to liberation. A large part
of this seva is transferring donations (dana) from Jains
in the diaspora to several education and health projects
in India. From interviews with donators to TripleS
it appears that a number of motivations lie behind the
donations, like feelings of equality and passing on Jain
norms of compassion to younger generations. Through
this dana Jains in diaspora are able to practice their
religiosity in the modern world and carry Jainism to
younger generations.
At the end of a day full of thought-provoking
presentations, Samani Pratibha Pragya (SOAS)
talked about the 'Role of Media and Manpower in
Dissemination of Preksa-dhyana.' She argued that the
meditative practices, called preksa-dhyana, developed
by Acarya Mahaprajna and further promoted by the Jain
Terapanth sahgha, engage in a cultural process shared
with twentieth-century yoga gurus to promote their own
meditation or yoga package in the contemporary world
as a tool for holistic development and solving 'everyday'
problems of the individual. The Terapanthis promote their
preksa-dhyana through various means such as national
and international camps, trainers' sessions, celebrating
a preksa day, building preksa meditation centres, and
publishing special magazines, websites, apps, television
shows, etc. Samani Pratibha Pragya analysed these
various methods with their varying strategies therein to
look at how the Terapanthis promote and spread their
meditative practices in the modern-day world.
Every paper of the session Communicating Jainism:
Media and Messages was followed by a lively discussion
encouraging both speakers and audience to think further
on topics ranging from theories toward Jain studies to
Jain meditation. More discussion and new ideas were
shared during an informal conference dinner. We hope
this will foster good connections between Jain scholars
and perhaps inspire new challenging research.
In a separate conference panel on Religion, Spirituality
and Mental Health Samani Unnata Pragya also presented
at this year's EASR with a paper 'Communication with
the Jina through Samudghata and non-Samudghata
Heleen De Jonckheere is a PhD candidate at the
Department of Languages and Cultures of Ghent
University in Belgium. Her research deals with Jain
narratives and inter-religious, literary dialogues
in medieval North India, focusing on the genre of
Parsvanatha Mandira, Sarikhesvara. Photo: Ingrid Schoon 27.12.2015

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Jainism Panels at the Annual Conference on South Asia
and the American Academy of Religion
Steven M. Vose
In late October 2017 at the 46th Annual Conference on
South Asia, hosted by the University of Wisconsin's
Center for South Asia in Madison, there were four papers
presented on Jainism-related topics.
Steven M. Vose (Florida International University)
presented the paper, "Forming the Traditional Modern
Ascetic: Translating Textual and Visual Tropes in
Representations of Rajacandra (1867-1901)." Vose
analyzed two biographies of Rajacandra, focusing on
their depictions of his memory performances (avadhana),
a popular practice in the 19th century, comparing them to
the two most frequently used photographs of him. The
comparison revealed two ways that modern empirical
methods blended with traditional categories of value to
demonstrate his spiritual advancement. Vose argued that
the extensive discussion of avadhana performances in his
biographies, even though Rajacandra himself repudiated
the practice as a hindrance to spiritual advancement,
uses a traditional practice to connect him with a category
usually reserved for monks (i .e., the satavadhani, one who
can attend to 100 different tasks at once) while satisfying
the requirements of modern empirical standards to prove
his uniqueness. Vose then compared the photographs of
Rajacandra's emaciated body to stone images of the Jinas
and of famous monks and nuns, as well as to photographs
of Mahatma Gandhi. Here, he showed that the model
for Rajacandra's bodily presentation is modern, as the
appreciation of the depiction of his thin body comes
not from traditional categories, which neither show nor
describe Jinas' bodies as emaciated (tapahkrsa), but from
modern photographic images of ascetic bodies. Vose
concluded by showing recent sculptures of Rajacandra's
body and their ritual use in the Dharampur Mission.
Lynna Dhanani (ABD, Yale) explored the relationship
between stotra and mantra in Hemacandra's twelfth-
century Sanskrit hymn, the Mahadeva Stotra, in which
he lauds the Jina as Siva. Focusing on the last seven
verses, which contain an explication of the mantra, arhan
(which in Prakrit is more commonly found as arham,
for the Sanskrit arhant), she shows how Heamcandra
associated each of its phonemes with a Hindu god and
with the attributes linked to a Jina's omniscience. She
contextualized her analysis of this Jain mantra with
passages from earlier Jain texts and from the chapter
on meditation and visualization in Hemacandra's
Yogasastra to show that this unique exposition in the Jain
context closely mirrored the explication of the mantra
aum found in certain Vedic texts and in several Saiva
stotras. Hemacandra described a Jain mahamantra in a
manner reminiscent of a Hindu mahamantra that would
have been familiar to his intended audience, the Saiva
king Kumarapala, Dhanani argued that Hemacandra's
discussion of a mantra within stotra allowed him to
demonstrate his knowledge of two ritual systems and

f '!
Hemacandracarya, Parsvanatha Daherasar Patan (Photo: Steven Vose
May 2010)
their corresponding textual traditions while presenting
a doctrinal exposition of the Jina's omniscience and
highlighting its role in demonstrating the correctness of
the Jain path to the Hindu king.
Jahnabi Barooah (University of Michigan) examined
prasasth, eulogistic verses appearing at the end of many
Jain manuscripts composed in western India in the period
c. 1200-1600 CE. Despite largely fading from public
inscriptions after Islamic polities were established across
the subcontinent beginning in the thirteenth century,
prasasth continued to be composed, appearing frequently
in Jain manuscripts. Barooah examined several previously
un-translated Jain prasasth and other scribal remarks to
interrogate this period, during which manuscript culture
and literary production burgeoned in the region. Through
her close reading of these "genealogical microhistories,"
she shed new light on the emergence of new power elites,
literati associations, centers of manuscript production,
and the rise of professional authors and scribes. Further,
by examining the broader aesthetics of patronage in the

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
region, she was able to assess why Jain patrons sought
to legitimize their family histories through the use of
prasasth, despite their decreasing popularity among
other communities
Miki Chase (Johns Hopkins, PhD student) presented,
"Producing a4 Useable PastJain Discursive Engagements
with Atheism and Secularity." Chase argued that Hindu,
Islamic, and modern secular challenges to Jain religiosity
have produced strands of a dominant discourse around
"Jainism," which she traces as a semantic and lexical
field. Modern Jain intellectuals, monks, and scholars,
as well as international scholars who study Jainism,
use such English terms as "secular," "atheist," "(non-)
materialist," "rational," "modern," and "scientific" to
illuminate "Jainism" as such. Using critical discourse
analysis to examine patterns of both Jain discourse and
scholarly discourse on Jainism, this paper illustrated how
Jains have fashioned new rhetorical engagements with
"Jainism" as a semantic field in a way that is socially and
politically meaningful to the construction of a modern
Jain identity.
American Academy of Religion (AAR)
In November 2017, the Jain Studies Unit at the Annual
Meeting of the American Academy of Religion (AAR),
hosted the panel, "Region and Identity in the Study of the
Jains," organized by Gregory Clines (ABD, Harvard).
The panel featured two papers on medieval western India
and two on modern diaspora communities in the UK.
Clines spoke on "The Multiple Regions and Multiple
Languages of Early Modern Digambara Literature."
He offered a careful reconstruction of the relationship
between Sanskrit and regional language literatures in
the Digambara tradition centered in Idar, Gujarat in the
fifteenth century, the period in which Gujarati literature
burgeoned. Examining the relationship between region,
language and communal identity, he argued that
understanding the interrelationship among these three
factors is the key to theorize "vernacularization" properly.
Specifically, he focused on the "work" that Sanskrit and
vernacular literatures do in specific contexts in order to
help us understand why one author might compose in both
linguistic registers. Focusing on the Digambara author
Brahma Jinadasa who composed works in both Sanskrit
and the local vernacular, Clines argues that Jinadasa
undertook a self-conscious project of composition and
dissemination of works in both languages to express an
identity that was at once a "localized cosmopolitan" and
a regionally specific one. Jinadasa composed tellings
of the Ramayana in both languages, a Padmapurana in
Sanskrit and a Ram Ras in the vernacular. Wishing to
move beyond the didactic function of the Rama story to
ask why these texts were composed in their respective
languages, Clines focusesd on the social interests the
author expressed in each work. The cosmopolitan reach
of the Sanskrit telling, he argued, spoke to Jinadasa's
desire to connect his monastic order (gana) to the
broader Jain tradition; vernacular compositions served
a "complementary" purpose of localizing his order's
authority among the laity in the Idar region. To do this,
he showed how Jinadasa constructs himself as an author
in each text. In the vernacular, Jinadasa emphasizes his
immediate guru and the local monastic order; he also
emphasizes local lay religious practices. In the Sanskrit,
Clines showed that Jinadasa connects himself to the
long lineage of the Digambara tradition going back to
Kundakunda; the monk also evoked the translocal world
of pilgrimage networks. Clines also showed that while
Jinadasa claims to be the creator of the Ram Ras, he
claims merely to be the "inheritor" of the Sanskrit telling
passed down through his lineage, specifically declaring
that he was working from Ravisena's seventh-century
Padmapurana, to show that he was qualified to re-tell
the Rama story. Clines' work sought to challenge and
refine current theories of vernacularization as well as
Pollock's conceptualization of regional languages as
"cosmopolitan vernaculars."
Aleksandra Gordeeva Restifo (ABD, Yale) analyzed
medieval depictions of life in the City of Anahilavad,
the capital of the Caulukya Empire encompassing
much of present-day Gujarat. The vibrant capital was
central to Svetambara Jain prosperity and as such was
hotly contested among the various mendicant orders
(,gaccha) for families and clans affiliating with the
tradition. Restifo compared the court poet Ramacandra's
Kumaraviharasataka with three of the Kharatara acarya
Jinadattasuri's works: the Ganadharasarddhasataka,
Upadesarasayanarasa, and the CarcarT. Restifo
argued that "attitudes toward aesthetic pleasure and
artistic expression... delineated religious affiliations
and were part of personal religious identities." While
Ramacandra, a student of Hemacandra, lauds the city's
potential for leading a spiritual life, tying literary and
other artistic performances to the vibrant and properly
spiritual daily life of the temple, Jinadatta uses double-
entendre to subtly critique the city as itself the setting
of a drama, going so far as to critique Jain monks for
their interest in artistic production and to make clear that
the temple, as a site for attaining liberation, should not
be a site for sensual pleasures. Restifo pointed out the
ambiguous nature of the Kharatara monk's criticism of
artistic production, noting his mastery of the poetics of
each of his works. She further argued that a seventeenth-
century commentary was composed at a time when the
Kharataras were losing out to the Tapa Gaccha as an effort
to re-assert the importance of the Kharatara emphasis on
correct ritual praxis.
Anja Pogacnik (ABD, University of Edinburgh)
presented a comparative study of Jain youth under 30
in India and England to understand how Jains living in
Leicester conceptualize their status as living in a diaspora,
in terms of social and geographical changes from India
to England as well as inter-generational changes to
religious practices and ideas. Examining how locality
influences religious expression and religious practices
and attitudes, she foregrounds "interpretative variability"
of what counts as proper to the practice and expression

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
of Jainism. Variables such as contact with other Jains,
accessibility of religious centers, and attitudes of the
surrounding non-Jain society toward their faith, she
shows, affect how Jain youth perceive what is important
about their tradition. She notes that Leicester Jains lack
the "stabilizing influences" on Jain practice, which leads
to greater degrees of reinterpretation of certain practices,
self-consciously modifying them from the way of older
generations, rejecting temple ritual and prioritizing in-
depth understanding of doctrines. Pogacnik shows that
the importance youths placed on the supremacy of Jainism
did not diminish, but rather the contours of what counted
as "essential" to being a practicing Jain tended to conform
with those of a generalized Protestant Christian ethos,
placing greater emphasis on reading and understanding
scriptures, on philosophy and internal dispositions rather
than ritual performances, and rigid adherence to dietary
strictures as part of an overall strategy of self-discipline.
Emma Tomalin and Caroline Starkey (University
of Leeds) presented their analysis of the recent survey
of Jain communities in England to show patterns of
settlement and integration, focusing on the various types
of religious centers established since the 1990s. The
general trend shows that Jains have created spaces from
home shrines to temples made from converted homes to
full-scale temple complexes. They further showed that as
the Jain community has grown, Jains have moved from
an earlier tendency to form caste (jati)-specific centers to
form sect- or tradition-specific centers, including several
Digambara centers. They argued that an analysis of the
built environment can help scholars to identify ever
subtler patterns of community development and change,
showing how Jain communities are maturing in terms
of identity formation in contemporary, "super-diverse"
Ellen Gough (Emory University) responded.
The New Directions in the Study of South Asian
Religions panel, hosted by the Religion in South Asia
(RISA) Unit featured two papers on Jainism.
Lynna Dhanani presented another part of her thesis
on Hemacandra's hymns in Sanskrit, focusing here on
the intertextual and devotional elements of his Vitaraga
Stotra. Dhanani showed how Hemacandra, in his quest
to convert the Caulukyan Saiva King Kumarapala to
Jainism, placed the genres of sastra, biography, and
stotra in conversation with one another. She showed how
Hemacandra uses the flexible genre of stotra to reiterate
fundamental notions of Jain doctrine in ways similar to
both his Yoga Sastra and certain narrative moments in
his voluminous Trisastisalakapurusacaritra. Drawing on
passages that articulate Hemacandra's polemical views
on the inferiority of Hindu gods and the superiority of the
Jina, Dhanani argued that Hemacandra's stotra extracts
from these other textual materials a normative definition
of Jain devotion in order to negotiate its value within the
larger arena of Indian religiosity.
In "From Hilltop Ascetics to Courtly Advisors: The
Development of Jain Monastic Communities and Literary
Production in Ancient Tamil Nadu," Julie Hanlon
(University of Chicago) analyzed archaeological sites
and early Tamil literature to reconsider the prevailing
historical narrative about the development and growth of
the Jain community in South India. Using archaeological
evidence to reassess the extent of the Jain presence in
the region from the 3rd century BCE to the 6th century
CE, she shows how Jains slowly gained political power
and an ever-greater presence in royal courts of the region.
While the predominant narratives speak of Jains in
pejorative and negative terms as outsiders who migrated
into Tamil Nadu, they fail to account for how they
integrated into Tamil society and how Jainism gained
popularity in the Tamil South. Rather than merely North
Indian outsiders who competed with Hindu bhaktas for
royal patronage, she shows that Jain authors may have
been some of the earliest authors of Tamil literature,
using indigenous Tamil literary genres to propagate
Jainism. She supports her analysis of literature with the
archaeological and epigraphic evidence of sites located
in the hills surrounding Madurai.
Anne Monius (Harvard) responded.
Steven M. Vose is the Bhagwan Mahavir Assistant
Professor of Jain Studies and Director of the Jain Studies
Program at Florida International University. Vose's
PhD dissertation focused on late medieval Svetambara
literature in Sanskrit, Prakrit and Old Gujarati to
understand how mendicants' intellectual practices
facilitated the encounter between Jains and the Delhi
Sultanate in the early fourteenth century.
Samosarana of Simandara, Simandhara Svami Mandira, Mahesana
Photo: Peter Fliigel 25.12.2017

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
An Exploratory Survey of the Jaina Heritage in Pakistan
Peter Flilgel and Muzaffar Ahmad
The neglected field of the Jaina heritage in Pakistan
was revived in 2015-17 through a pilot study
conducted by the CoJS of SOAS in collaboration with
a research team of the Nusrat Jahan College (NJC) in
Rabwah, with additional help of local historians of
Jainism in North India.1 In view of the long-term neglect
of Jaina sites in Pakistan, and the pressing need of
preserving key religious monuments, the project focused
on the documentation of the surviving infrastructure,
Jaina temples, halls, community buildings, art and
writings, along with a historical and demographic study
of the Jaina sectarian traditions in the region. Our report
summarizes key findings.
Jainism has a long history in Pakistan, going back to the
early historical period, and ending with the partition of
British India in 1947. The extent of the Jaina presence
in the region in ancient times is yet to be fully assessed.2
Early Muslim, Sultanate and Mughal periods show
only little Jaina activity, predominately in Sindh. Many
of the Jain merchants that had settled west of the Rann
of Kutch and the Thar desert came under the influence
of the Kharataragaccha, which became the dominant
Jaina tradition in the region. This was mainly due to
the influence of its third "miracle producing" dadaguru
Jinakusalasuri (1280-1332), who toured the small towns
and villages of the Indus valley south of Multan for
five years between V.S. 1384 and 1389, until his death
in Derawar (Devarajapura, Deraur), where a stupa
(,samadhi) was erected over his ashes and a "dadaban"
1 The work was sponsored through a generous gift of Baron Dilip
Mehta of Antwerp. Key contributors were PI Peter Fliigel (SOAS),
Mirza Naseer Ahmad (NJC), coordinator of work in Pakistan, and RO
Muzaffar Ahmad, who analysed datafrom published sources in Urdu and
English and from museums in Pakistan and planned the field research.
Fieldwork was conducted and written up by Asif Rana, and maps were
produced by Naeem Ahmad and Tahira Siddiqa (all NJC). Ravinder
Jain of Maler Kotla and Purushottam Jain of Mandi Gobindgarh in
India provided invaluable background information about locations
of Jaina sites in Pakistan, based on prior research (Jain & Jain 1974)
and communications from Sadhvl Svarnakanta (1929-2001) (born in
Lahore), Sadhvl Arcana (family from Rawalpindi), Mahindra Kumar
Jain (Co-researcher of the late Hiralal Duggar in Panch Kula), and
others, and from Iqbal Qaisar in Lahore, who conducted independent
research on the same subject. See Qaisar (2018). Valuable information
was also supplied by Noel Q. King (1922-2009) of Corralitos in
California (born in Taxila), who in 2003 researched the Jain temples
and institutions in Pakistan but had his notes stolen on a train, and Raj
Kumar Jain (born in Jhelum), the principal stalwart of the Svetambara
refugee community in Delhi. They were interviewed by PI on 8.6.2005
and 23.2.2017 respectively. Further interviews were conducted with
informants in Meerut, Jaipur, Bikaner, etc.
2 For an overview, see Duggar (1979). Fresh archaeological
discoveries continuously increase our understanding of the Jaina past
in Pakistan. Members of the research team located carana-padukas of
uncertain date in Chakwal (Ahmad 2015), and in Nagarparkar recorded
on site sculptures, of relatively recent origin, being excavated by the
Department of Archaeology Sindh.
surrounding it (Fig. I).3 The samadhi was regarded as
a miracle working shrine, and became the center of a
network of dadabans dedicated to Jinakusalasuri, in
Halla, Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan, Lahore, Narowal, etc.
Some Jaina presence is notable in Lahore, Sialkot,
Gujranwala and Multan during the Mughal rule. The
dadaban in Lahore was constructed by Akbar's Osavala
minster Karmacand Bacchavat (1542-1607) from
Bikaner, a disciple of the fourth dadaguru, "Akbara-
pratibodhaka" Jinacandrasuri VI (1541-1613), who,
through Karmacand's intercession, met the Emperor
Akbar in Lahore at various occasions in 1592, 1593,
and 1594. In 1595 Jinacandra walked, via Multan
(Mulasthana) and Uch (Uccapuri), to the samadhi at
Derawar, to pay his respects, and then back to Rajasthan.4
Under the reign of Muslim rulers who vigorously opposed
image veneration, the influence of the Kharataragaccha
declined due to the impact of non-image-venerating
{amurtipujaka) Jaina mendicant traditions, whose
followers took control of most religious properties of the
Kharataragaccha in the Punjab at the time of the Partition.
Yet, the Kharataragaccha maintained its presence in the
desert region of Tharparkar in Sindh, where it still has a
few followers today.
The new religious developments in the Punjab were
initiated between 1503 and 1551 by the monks Rayamalla
and Bhallo, two disciples of Yati Sarava, sixth leader of
the recently formed amurtipujaka Gujarati Lonkagaccha,
who wandered from Gujarat to Lahore, and founded the
Lahaurf- or Uttarardha Lonkagaccha, which became the
most popular tradition amongst the Jainas in the northern
Punjab in the 17th and 18th centuries. It established
permanent seats (gaddr), first in Lahore, and later in
Jandiyala Guru, Phagvara, Nakodar, Ludhiana, Patti,
Samana, Maler Kotla, Patiala, Sunam, Ambala, Kasur,
etc. After a while, image-veneration was re-introduced by
the yatis and temples erected in places such as Ramnagar
(Rasulnagar), Gujranwala, Sialkot, Pinda Dadan Khan,
or Papanakha.5 Hence, between 1673 and 1693, the
orthodox monk Haridasa split from the Uttarardha
Lonkagaccha, joined the Dhundhaka (Sthanakavasf)
tradition of Lavajr in Gujarat, and finally founded his
own reformist amurtipujaka tradition in Lahore. The
tradition became known under the name Panjab Lavajr
Rsi Sampradaya. Under Acarya Amarasimha (1805-
1881) it gradually absorbed the Uttarardha Lonkagaccha,
and became the dominant Jaina tradition in the Punjab.6
At the time of the Sikh expansion individual
Jainas played important economic and political roles.
And significant mercantile communities established
themselves in the Punjab, mainly dealing in cloth,
3 After Partition, relics, sand and stone, were moved from the site to the
Deraur Dadabarl near Jaipur (Vinayasagara 2004/5: 197).
4 Vinayasagara (2004/5: 226-9).
5 Duggar (1979: 339,355).
6 On the history of the amurtipujaka Jaina traditions in the Punjab and
adjacent regions, see Fliigel (forthcoming).

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Figure 1. Samadhi of Jinakusalasuri at Derawer (Photo: Asif Rana 15.4.2016)
grains, general merchandise, jewelry, and banking. The
British period brought in a new system of roads and
railways, and Jaina merchant communities took full
advantage of it. New settlements emerged alongside
these trade routes in Sindh and in the Punjab. In this
period, between 1855 and 1875, sixteen mendicants split
off the SthanakavasT Gangarama JTvaraja Sampradaya,
a small mendicant tradition that was popular in the
southwest of Ludhiana, and joined the murtipujaka
Tapagaccha in Gujarat. The main leaders until 1947 were
Buddhivijaya (SthanakavasT name: Buteraya) (1806-
1882), Vijayanandasuri or Atmananda (SthanakavasT
name: Atmarama) (1836-1896), and the Gujarati monk
"Panjab KesarT" Vijayavallabhasuri (1870-1954), whose
lineage, the Vallabha Samudaya, was and still is the
most active branch of the Tapagaccha in the Punjab.
They regarded temple construction as a necessity for
the survival of the Jaina tradition in the Punjab, where
Christian missions and Dayananda's Arya Samaj had
gained support, and inspired their lay-followers to take
possession of buildings vacated by the slowly vanishing
Lonka tradition, and to erect new temples, with adjacent
upasraya for visiting mendicants.7
The SthanakavasT mendicants were very orthodox
at the time. They rejected all "violent" construction
work, not only of temples, but also of halls (sthanaka =
upasraya) as "non-" or "anti-religious." Generally, they
resided in empty rooms of private houses or in empty
buildings judged to be acceptable in terms of monastic
codes of conduct. By the end of the 19th century,
however, empty buildings of the Lonkagaccha yatis were
7 See Duggar (2013: 204f.) on Buddhivijaya's initiatives and temples
already existing prior to this.
also taken over by the SthanakavasTs. The first mendicant
in the Punjab who, against internal opposition, advocated
the construction of sthanakas, religious schools and
libraries, was Muni Khazancand (1884-1945) of the
Panjab Sampradaya. With permission of "Panjab KesarT"
Acarya KasTram (1884-1945), he started in the 1930s
in his birth place Rawalpindi, a city dominated by the
SthanakavasT community, located at the very edge of
the realms of movement of Jaina mendicants, and later
in towns such as Gujranwala, Jhelum, Kasur, Lahore,
Sialkot, Maler Kotla, and Dhuri.8
Due to the influence of the charismatic Vijayanandasuri,
many SthanakavasT sravakas had converted to the
Tapagaccha between 1855 and 1945. In turn, the leaders
of the Panjab LavajT Rsi Sampradaya prohibited inter-
sectarian marriage, and occasionally commensality. As
a consequence, the members of the local Osavala caste
were split along sectarian lines for almost a century. With
the exception of Sindh, where Poravada and SrlmalT
castes prevailed, almost all Svetambaras in the region
of modern Pakistan were Osavalas. They were migrants,
who had lost contact with their native Rajasthan, stopped
intermarrying with Rajasthani Osavalas, adopted Urdu
as their first language, and Persian as their second. Their
"mother tongue" Punjabi was only used as a spoken
language. Maybe for these reasons the Punjabi Osavalas
referred to themselves not as "Osavala," or "BTsa / Dasa
Osavala," but as "Bhabaras."9
8 Cavala (1945/7: 71, 88, 270).
9 Sumitta Bhikkhu (1949: 195) derives the term from the compound
bhava-bara ("great belief'), while Duggar (1979: 236f.) opts for the
name of the village Bhavara, south of Lahore, where Karam Chand
Bachhawat had erected a foot-image (carana-bimba) of Jinakusalasuri,
which became the local focus of the popular dadaban cult.

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
In the British period, the Bhavara communities,
became the leading mercantile class in the Punjab, and
many villages, bazars and mohallas in Pakistan still
retain this name. Bhavara Jains distinguished themselves
in the fields of finance, education and publishing early
on. Most Jaina heritage sites in the Punjab were once
owned by Bhavara associations. Yet, not all Jains in
the Punjab were Bhavaras. Almost as many mendicants
of the Panjab Lavajf Rsi Sampradaya were and are
recruited from Brahmana, Ksatriya (Rajput), Agravala,
and Jat families as from Bhavara families, not to speak
of mendicants from low castes.10 Generally, northwest
of Ambala no Digambara communities can be found.
The small minority of Terapanth Digambara Agravalas,
who established small communities and settled in towns
such as Rawalpindi, Sialkot, Lahore and Karachi were
suppliers of the British military. Their temples were
located in the cantonment areas. Most, if not all of them
have been demolished after 1947. Only few towns such
as Multan (which once had a bhattaraka seat) featured
old Digambara temples in the bazar areas of the walled
Before Partition, the Jaina community was less than
one percent of the total population in areas which were
included into Pakistan. At the eve of partition almost the
entire Jain population migrated to India, except for a
few households in Nagarparker. Some Jainas are said to
have converted to Islam.11 But most left in the protective
presence of the British Army and, in exceptional cases,
of monks, such as Vijayavallabhasuri, who were forced
to break their monastic rules and to use trucks, trains or
planes, to save their lives. The refugees mostly settled
in the Indian Punjab, Hariyana, Rajasthan, U.P., and in
Delhi. They took with them their portable religious art
and libraries, leaving behind empty buildings, shelves,
and niches.
In 1960, the Government of Pakistan established the
Evacuee Trust Property Board (Awqaf) for the protection
and administration of properties attached to educational,
charitable or religious trusts of migrated Hindu and
Sikh communities. For the Muslims in Pakistan the
Jainas were "Hindus," and the Jaina religious heritage
is therefore also generally being considered as "Hindu."
Only with prior information at hand can one hope to find
a mention of Jaina sites in Awqaf's records, and this is
not always the case. Non-religious heritage buildings
have long been occupied by locals. In some cases Muslim
migrants from India exchanged properties with migrant
Jain communities from Pakistan, as in the case of the Shri
Amar Jain Hostel Lahore, now located in Chandigarh.
After Partition, no research on the Jaina heritage in
Pakistan has been conducted. Hfralal Duggar (1979:
354) hence noted that "at the present time there is no
information on the condition of all the temples and
institutions in Pakistan." Similar observations were
made by R. K. Jain (2003: 2): "The present status of
Jain Temples, Upashrayas and Sthanaks is generally
not known. Whereas Ghar-Mandirs, Upashrayas and
10 See Fliigel (forthcoming).
11 Noel King, Interview 8.6.2005.
Sthanaks have by and large been usurped and put to
different uses by the Pakistan Authorities and Public,
the Sikhar Band Mandirs still seem to exist. Since there
are no Jains left in Pakistan, these Temples are not being
worshipped at all." Our research project tried to answer
the question as to the current state of Jaina temples and
Field Survey
In the first phase of project a thorough literary review
was conducted and relevant information on pre-Partition
demographics and sites of the Jaina community collected
from available literary sources, and through interviews.
Thus a list of about one hundred potential Jaina sites at
thirty locations in the Punjab, North West Frontier (KPK)
and Sindh was prepared. Subsequently it was modified
and reduced to approximately ninety locations in the
end. These sites include Digambara and Svetambara
temples, dadabarfs, sthanakas, samadhis, libraries,
schools, hostels, as well as mohallas identifiable through
their Jaina or caste names, etc. Most of these structures
were built or renovated during the British period,
between 1865 and 1947. During the literature review
demographic trends of the in Jaina populace of Pakistan
were traced through a study of available Gazetteers
and some other research publications of the British era.
Significant information is available in these sources
about demography, caste background, and distribution
of the predominately city-dwelling Jaina population,
concentrated in particular quarters,12 from 1819 to
1947. The official data, suggesting the existence of some
12,861+ Jains in the region in 1941, is incomplete, and
not reliable.13 It also does not offer a breakdown of the
religious affiliation of the Jaina population. A tentative
overview of the geographical distribution of the three
main sectarian traditions in 1947: the Sthanakavasf
traditions (especially the dominant Panjab Lavajf Rsi
Sampradaya), Tapagaccha & Kharataragaccha, and
Terapanth Digambara, is offered by the table on the
facing page.
The information is based on estimates of Jaina
refugees in India. It was collated by R. K. Jain in 2003
"from some elderly people," and on the basis of his "own
memory," on request of the Anandji Kalyanji Pedhi in
Ahmedabad. As admitted by the compiler R. K. Jain,
the number of Sthanakavasfs is underestimated. The
numerical proportions may be relatively accurate. But
in some cases the low figures seem only to make sense
if taken to refer to houses rather than persons.14 The
corresponding census data, included in the table, are,
however, equally low.
The research focused on a survey of the built heritage.
12 Almost all Jains of Karachi lived in the quarter of Runchore
(Lambrick 1942: 98).
13 Lambrick 1942: 25 mentions the desirability of "more accurate
14 Ravinder Jain 8.3.2018. Sumittabhikkhu 1949: 417 reports of 500
SthanakavasI "houses" in Karachi in 1945, pointing to a figure of
ca. 2500 Sthanakavasls. Figures for the North Western Frontier were
extremely low and were excluded from the 1931 Census Report.

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Estimated Number of Jainas in Selected Towns 1947 & Census Data 1941
Punjab - Province Murtipujaka Sthanakavasi Digambara CENSUS
Lahore 200 500 350 1095
Lahore Cantonment 99
Kasur 350 350 X 452
Gujranwala 1750 2100 X 1343
Pipanakha 70 X X
Ram Nagar (Rasul Nagar) 70 X X 14
Sialkot 15 2100 X 2710
Sialkot Cantonment 90
Sankhatra 70 X X
Pasrur X 350 X 106
Narowal 280 70 X 240
Khanga Dogran 70 X X
Jhelum 70 80 X 146
Pind Dadan Khan 70 X X 12
Rohtas X 140 X
Rawalpindi X 1400 X 1301
Rawalpindi Cantonment X X 175 101
Multan 700 175 350 499
Multan Cantonment 34
Bhera (Dist. Sargodha) X X X 1
Kala Bagh (Dist. Mianwali) 70 35 X 23
Dera Ghazi Khan (Distr. Same) 350 X X 106
North West Frontier - Province (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa)
Bannu 70 X X
Latamber (Dist. Bannu) 35 X X
Kohat 35 X X
Sind - Province (Sindh)
Karachi 1000 700 300 3214
Hyderabad 70 X X 217
New Halla (Mirpur Khas Road) 70 X X
Thar Parkar 212
(Sources: R.K. Jain 2003: If., Fazl-i-Ilahi 1941: 33, 35, 37, 44, 59, 61, 63, Lambrick 1942: 23-5, 28, 98, Scott 1942: 20, 23, 30)

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
A team of NJC researchers travelled thousands of
kilometers in Punjab and Sindh, mapping and recording
identifiable Jaina sites in the districts of Lahore, Qasur,
Sialkot, Chakwal, Khoshab, Bhera, Gujranwala,
Farooqabad, Jhang, Chiniot, Multan, Bahawalpur,
Marot, Rahimyar Khan, Karachi, Nawab Shah, Kunri,
Tharparkar, and Nagarparkar. Observable features,
murals, inscriptions, icons and sculptures, street views,
etc., were recorded as much as permitted access allowed.
All structures were photographed, and a database of
more than three thousand photographs was created,
planned to be put online, together with a spreadsheet with
descriptive, background, and interview data.15
Inscriptions of the British era are found on some Jaina
buildings in Punjab. They are mostly in Devanagari
script, but also in Persian script. In some cases Urdu and
Hindi bilingual or Urdu, English and Hindi trilingual
inscriptions are found. Occasionally the words are in
Rajasthani or Gujarati. In a few cases, local Landa scripts
are also evident, along with above mentioned languages
and scripts. Some Jaina edifices provide a glimpse into
the art of religious painting popular in Sikh and British
periods, presenting scenes from Jaina religious history,
and sometimes explaining them with short inscriptions.
Yet, with the notable exception of the temple in Gauri,
most surviving inscriptions and mural paintings are
reduced to small fragments of little historical or aesthetic
Since many investigated sites were found ruined,
demolished, or could not be clearly identified, the
interpretation of the collected data relies largely on
background information available only in India in oral
and written form, and to local historians, who were
interviewed wherever possible. Ravinder K. Jain of Maler
Kotla motivated migrant Jaina community members to
help identifying further Jaina heritage sites in Pakistan,
confirm or disconfirm collected information, and to
supply supplementary evidence. Additional interviews
with migrants were conducted in India by the PI in Delhi,
Meerut, and Jaipur. On the basis of the written and oral
record, many of the surveyed sites could be re-connected
to particular social groups, religious traditions, and
historical events.16 Not all sites indicated on the map of
investigated locations (facing page) still exist, or can be
unequivocally linked to the Jaina tradition.17 The initial
survey of the built heritage brought this fact to light that
Jainism has lost its footing in modern Pakistani society
decades ago. Many temples, under the administration of
the Evacuee Trust Property Board, have been allotted to
the local families who reside there. Houses were assigned
to new residents, and community buildings given on rent
15 See:
the-j aina-heritage-in-paki stan.
16 The findings of the recently published narrative work of Iqbal
Qaisar (2018) Visiting Deserted Doors: Historical Fiction of the Jain
Temples in Pakistan (in Urdu & Forthcoming English Version), are
also being taken into account. Based on a long-term collaboration with
Ravinder Jain and Purushottam Jain, the book is not quite as "fictitious"
as it pretends to be.
17 Cf. Marshall's (1951 II: 463-6) speculations on "Jaina stupas" at
by the Evacuee Board without maintaining any separate
record, and many temples and halls, many of them built
shortly before Partition, were simply demolished. Most
of the remainder are left to the process of natural decay.
Survey of Museums, Libraries, and Archives
The last stage of this pilot study was to survey museums,
libraries and archives for Jaina heritage. The Umarkot
museum in Tharparkar and the Bahawalpur museum
yielded very little in this regard. The Lahore museum
has the best collection of Jaina artifacts and structures
anywhere in Pakistan. The artifacts from Murti are
potentially important. They were brought into the
museum right after the site was excavated by Stein. Yet,
most of the collection is in storage and inaccessible.
The other notable collection in the Lahore museum is of
carana-padukas. The most impressive items belong to
Gujranwala Jaina sites, and were transferred from there
to the museum to prevent their destruction. There are also
impressive Jaina statues on display, but no record of their
whereabouts exists.
Apart from one Jaina manuscript housed in the
Lahore Museum Library, there is a big collection of
Jaina manuscripts in Punjab University's Woolner
Collection. Other than the old catalog published by the
Punjab University, there is a newly developed database
produced by a joint project of the Punjab University and
the University of Vienna, and Geumgang University.18
Most other Jaina manuscripts and books held by Jaina
institutions were transferred to India around 1947. Most
of these sources are now preserved by the B. L. Institute in
Delhi. Verbal accounts tell also of missing and destroyed
materials which were never recovered.
Some pamphlets published in Urdu as part of the
Jaina Tract series from Lahore, Delhi and Ambala are
found in the Khilafat Library Rabwah and the Punjab
Public Library Lahore. The Khilafat Library Rabwah,
Punjab Public Library, Punjab University Library, Iqbal
Public Library Lyallpur, National Archives, National
Documentation Center and the Punjab Archives all have
vast collections of books in Devanagari and Gurumukhi
scripts.19 Since there are no catalogue records of these
materials, nothing can be presently said of the Jaina
books in these collections. The unorganized nature of
these archives demands a full project of cataloguing or
sifting through these archival materials to locate any
material relevant to Jaina Studies.
This first systematic field survey and mapping of the Jaina
heritage in Pakistan after 1947 brought to light a wealth
of information about the current state of the built heritage,
sacred art and literary contribution of the Jainas. The
18 https://www.istb
19 The PU Library contains for instance a copy of the "Jaina History"
written in Urdu by Pandit Prabhu Dayal in 1902. Most of the book
contains translations of Jaina inscriptions by the author: https://archive.
org/details/Jainltihas 1902UrduPanditPrabhuDayal Jain

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Murti • , Basharat JheTurn^
(E Pind Dadan Khan • ** S)a • ( AAi *+ lkot Pasrun
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CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
picture is not rosy. The surviving structures are generally
in miserable condition. The Temple at Multan is mostly
intact as it was turned into a Madrasa and its management
takes good care of the building and the paintings. One
temple in Farooqabad is occupied by a local merchant
who takes good care of it. The temples in Tharparkar are
not used for Jain worship anymore, but the structures of
some temples, in Bhodesar, Nagarparka, and Virawah
are intact, and worth preserving, in particular the famous
paintings of the Gauri temple, which are in urgent need of
restoration. Most murals in Jain temples have either been
vandalized or left to decay.
After Partition, Jainism and Jaina communities of
Pakistani Punjab and Sindh vanished from the collective
memory. There are almost no references of Jainism or
Jains in the local literature. History books on Bhera,
Sialkot and Lahore have a few lines on Jains here
and there. Old people above the age of 80 still retain
memories of their Bhavara neighbours. The lack of
interest and records of the migrated Jaina families in
India and fading memories is another problem. Only a
few Jaina households in Nagarparkar remain. But they
are unwilling to disclose their religious identity.
In the light of this pilot study, the following conclusions
have been reached.
1. The Jaina built heritage in Pakistan from the 19th and
20th centuries is in miserable condition and requires a
swift transfer from the control of Awqaf to the Department
of Archaeology or to the Ministry of Culture, to facilitate
the preservation of religious monuments of historical
2. The labelling of artifacts displayed in museums should
be reviewed, since generally no clear distinction between
"Hindu" and "Jaina" objects is made.
3. Libraries and archives should be encouraged to
catalogue work in Devanagari and Gurumukhi scripts.
4. Results of this pilot study suggest that careful
archaeological surveillance could bring to the surface
further evidence of Jaina activity. An archaeological
survey to locate and study pre-Muslim Jaina heritage in
Pakistan should be conducted.
5. A Department of Jaina Studies should be established in
a federally run university.
Ahmad, Muzaffar. "Newly Discovered Jaina Carana-
Padukas in Chel-Abdal Chakwal." Jaina Studies:
Newsletter of the Centre of Jaina Studies 10 (2015) 40-
Cavala, Kamsl Rama. SvamT Sri KhazanacandajT
[KalyanacandajT] Maharaja. Hindi Anuvadaka: Syama
Lala Jain. Dhurl Mandi (Patiyala Stet): Lala Durgadasa
Jain, (1945) 1947 [Original in Urdu].
Duggar, Hlralal. Madhya Esiya Aura Pahjab Mem
Jainadharma. Dill!: Jaina Praclna Sahitya Prakasana
Mandira, 1979.
Duggar, Hlralal. Saddharmasamraksaka: Muni
SriBuddhivijaya (ButerayajT) Maharaja Ka Jivana-
Vrttanta. Godhara: Bhadrankarodaya Siksana Trast,
Fazl-i-Ilahi, Khan Bahadur Sheikh. Census of India.
1941, Vol. VI: Punjab-Tables. Delhi: Government of
India Press, 1941.
Flugel, Peter. SthanakavasT Svetambara Jaina-
Traditionen in Nordindien: Manoharadasa-, LavajT
Rsi-, HarajT- und Jivaraja-Sampradaya. Wiesbaden:
Harrassowitz (Forthcoming).
Jain, Raj Kumar. "Jain Temples in Pakistan and the then
Jain Population." Letter to Sheth Shrenikbhai (Sheth
Anandji Kalyanji Pedhi), Delhi 18.7.2003.
Jain, Raj Kumar. My Life Journey: Through the Memory
Lane. Delhi 31.5.2015 (unpublished manuscript).
Jain, Ravindar & Purusottam Jain. Puratana Pamjab
Vica Jaina Dharama. Prerika: Savarana [Svarna] Kanta.
Maler Kotla: Pacclsvlm Mahavlra Niravana Satabadl
Samyojika Samiti, Panjab, 1974. http://www.jainworld.
Lambrick, H. T. Census of India. 1941, Vol, XII: Sind-
Tables. Simla: Government of India Press, 1942.
Marshall, John Hubert. Taxila: An Illustrated Account of
Archaeological Excavations carried out at Taxila under
the Orders of the Government of India between 1913
and 1934. Vols. I-III. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1951.
Qaisar, Iqbal. Ujare Daram De Darsan: Pakistan Vicale
Jain Mandiram dT Tavarlkhi Liksan (Visiting Deserted
Doors: Historical Fiction of the Jain Temples in Pakistan).
Lahore: Pakistan Punjabi Adabi Board, 2018.
Samudrasuri, Acarya. "SrlmadViyayananda Surisvarajl
Ke Sisyadi Ka Pattaka." Navayuga Nirmata:
Nyayambhonidhi SrT Acarya Vijayananda Suri SrT
Maharaja KT Jivana Gatha. By Vijayavallabhasuri.
Parisista 2: 425-438. Sampadaka: Hamsaraja Sastrl.
Ambala: Atmananda Jaina Mahasabha Panjab, 1956.
Scott, I. D. Census of India. 1941, Vol. X: North-West
Lrontier Province. Simla: Government of India Press,
Sumittabhikkhu (Sumitra Muni, Sumitra Deva). KasmTr
se KaracT. Prakasaka: Visvesvarddayala Jaina. Gurgamv-
Chavanl (Panjab): Malik Naukar Ayran Stor, 1949.
Vinayasagara, Mahopadhyaya. Kharataragaccha Ka
Brhad Itihasa. Samyojana: Bhamvaralala Nahata.
Sampadaka: Siva Prasada. Dvitlya Samskarana.
Jayapura: Prakrt Bharatl, 2004/2005.

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
A South Indian Jaina Rathotsava (Chariot Festival) at Nellikar in Tulunadu
Padmanabh S. Jaini
The present day Tulunadu Jains can be divided into
three groups: (1) Jains (2) Setti-Jains and (3) Indra-s.
They are all Digambaras and speak both Tulu and
The Indra-Jains (also known as "Purohita-s" and
"Jain-Brahmanas") are hereditary priests at [Digambara]
Jain temples (basadi-s). The Venerable Bhattaraka
CarukTrti Svami-jT of the Shravanabelgola Matha
belongs to this community. The Indra-s are functionally
comparable to the Upadhye-s of northern Karnataka.
MunisrT Vidyananda-jT, presently in Delhi, as well as
the renowned Prakrit scholar, Dr. Adinatha Neminatha
Upadhye, are Upadhye-s from the Kolhapur area.
A majority of the Jain community are simply called
"Jains." Most of them were land-owners who lived in
villages and near market places (pete). They cultivated
the paddy-fields, and plantations of coconuts and areca
(adike) nuts. The term "Jain" was never used by them as
a surname. They shared a dozen or more surnames (e.g.
Ajila, Adhikari, Ballala, Banga, Kadamba) with a non-
Jain Tulu community called the Bunts, and also followed
their aliya-kattu, the law of matrilineal inheritance (Rao
2010: 150-5).
The "Jains" appear to have been very active in
building basadi-s. The earliest Jain inscription in
Tulunadu is found in MudabidrT, where the date 714
CE is given for the re-consecration of the image of
tlrthahkara Parsvanatha at the Guru-Basadi. Here the
manuscripts of holy scriptures (Dhavala-Jayadhavala-
Mahadhavala) were also preserved at a later time. The
guru-pTtha known by the name CarukTrti - B hattaraka was
established in the year 1220. The famous temple called
Tribhuvana-Tilaka-Cudamani (Crest-jewel of the Three
Worlds) was inaugurated in the year 1430, and a large
mandapa (assembly hall) was added to it by the Princess
BhairadevT in 1462. MudabidrT occupied a strategically
central place between two colossal images of Bahubali,
one erected by the Bhairava-arasu (=raja) of Karkala in
1432, and the other by the Ajila-arasu at Venuru in 1604.
The Kannada word Setti comes from Sanskrit
Sresthin (a foreman of a guild, an honorable banker)
and appears in Hindi as Seth or SethT, and also in Tamil
as Chetti where it mostly applied to a tradesman. It was
believed that a large number of these Tulunadu Jains
(Setti-s to be distinguished from Bunt-Setti-s), over
many centuries, had migrated from northern Karnataka
into Tulunadu, adopting Tulu and (in many cases)
the aliya-kattu, prevalent among the "Jains." Several
temples at MudabidrT are named after such Setti-s: Cola
Setti gaddige mandapa Guru Basadi (1538), Vikrama
Setti Basadi, Deramma Setti Basadi, Cola Setti Basadi,
Madaya Setti Basadi, also Ambu Setti Nisidhi, Adu Setti
Nisidhi, etc.
It is believed that the Hoysala King Devaraya
of HalebTdu was converted from the Jaina faith to
Vaisnavism and took the name Visnuvardhana (r. 1104-
Figure 1. The image of Anantanatha Jina with termite marks. (Photo
courtesy of Sheethal K. Jain)
1141). This resulted in violence towards Jain merchants
causing waves (over centuries) of migration of Jain-
Setti-s to the coastal area of Tulunadu. They settled in
various places where Jain arasu-s (raja-s), the Bhairava-s
at Karkala, the Ajila-s at Venuru, the Cautas at MudabidrT
and the Banga-s in Belthangady, sheltered them. They
brought wealth and prosperity to the area, and lived
side by side with the local "Jain-s," while maintaining
their own trades and traditions primarily by endogamous
marriage within the Setti community. The Indra-s also
married within their own group, and strictly adhered to
the patrilineal inheritance (makkala-kattu) like the non-
Jain (Vaisnava-Saiva-Smarta) brahmanas.
Nellikar [=Nellikaru]
Nellikar is one such settlement, on a long cart road (now
a busy bus route of 60 miles) going from Karkala to
Dharmasthala, via Belthangady (another former Jain pete
with three Jain temples, c. 1600). Nellikar is unique in
that there are no houses of "Jains," let alone, non-Jains. It
is populated only by Jain-Setti-s and one Indra family. It
is believed that (around 1700) these Setti families arrived
here from Karkala as the Bhairava royal palaces were
reduced to ashes in a huge fire and the merchant class
sought safety elsewhere.
The layout of the town is noteworthy. At a short
distance from the main bus-road stands a large asvattha-
vrksa (banyan tree), that marks the start of the town. The
first noteworthy building is a shed on the left side of
the road. It houses the large wooden chariot (ratha), the
bamboo structures and the cloth and paper decorations
that will be mounted on them, as well as the long ropes to

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
pull the chariot through the street. On each side of a wide
road there are five large two-storied houses, the fronts
of which might have once served as the market (pete).
Houses end at the foot of a small hill.
Fifteen large stone steps bring one in front of a double
storied Jain basadi within three brick-walls. There is no
manastambha (the customary "pillar of fame" in front
of a Digambara temple), but there is an Indra-dhvaja,
a tall wooden flag pole covered in copper plate, with a
metal flag high on top (cf. Hegewald 2009: 193, # 405).
It is believed that Indra, the king of Bhavanavasi deva-s
(gods) in Jain cosmology, raises the manastambha in the
Holy Assembly (samavasarana) of a tirthahkara. Hence
this pillar is also known as indradhvaja (manastambhah
... praptendradhvajarudhikah / Adipurana 22/101).
Probably some four hundred years old, this temple is
dedicated to the fourteenth tlrthahkara Anantanatha, a
black stone image in cross-legged (padmasana) posture
(fig. 1). Two devT-s, Sarasvati and Padmavati, appear at
a distance on the left and right sides of the main image.
During special days (such as the rathotsava) the central
position between the devT-s is given to Brahma-deva, a
sidewise horse-riding black stone image with two arms.
In the right-arm it holds up a short sword while in the left
a large fruit. It is famous for its miraculous power of hu
koduvudu, i.e., bestowing a flower at the end of a special
puja as a blessing in response to the prayers of devotees
(see Flugel 2015).
All three sides of the temple walls are surrounded by
two-storied houses, with their own wells, backyards and
cow-sheds. Facing the temple, the first house on the left
is called Hale-mane (Old House), meaning probably the
ancient house. A nagabana, "snake-forest" for a human
faced snake image, under trees within a circular wall,
is in front and belongs to this house. It is our ancestral
home. There are only ten houses surrounding the temple.
The last house called Indra-ra mane (Indras' House)
facing ours on the other side of the temple, is that of the
temple-priest SrT Candayya (=Candraraja) Indra, whose
great-grandsons now perform the puja at the temple as
Why Halemane?
During my college days (c. 1940) I became curious about
the unusual name Hale-mane (Old House) of our home
and casually asked my mother for an explanation. She
knew she had heard something, but asked me to see SrT
Candayya Indra (1890-1950) a contemporary of my
father. What I learnt from him has not been published
and deserves to be known. He asked me to come next
day early morning in clean clothes to the temple and wait
for his call to enter the inner sanctum (where only Indras
may go).
As I arrived there properly attired, he took me to the
main stone image of SrT Anantanatha Svami, seated in a
cross-legged position. He pointed to me the deep termite
(or white ant) marks all over the forehead, mouth, the
torso, the shoulders, hands and the folded legs! And he
told me an extraordinary story he had heard from his
elders, of what had transpired here some three hundred
years ago:
Several Jain merchants (setti-s) running away from
the fires of the Karkala palaces of the Bhairava
Kings, came here to settle down and found this
image seated inside a huge anthill (hutta in
Kannada), and the temple, then probably a small
building covered by a thatched roof, in ruins! They
found the town deserted except the house near the
Nagabana, known since then as Hale manel The
new settlers cleared the anthill, cleaned the termite/
ant-eaten image, performed the ritual of abhiseka
(lustration) to the image on the same place and
rebuilt a small shrine. Slowly the town grew and
the additional images, including that of the devT-s
and the yaksa-Brahmadeva (the guardian deity of
the Bahubali image in Karkala) were installed.
Not a single inscription was found there to collaborate
this narrative, but the deep termite-marks on the image
validate the above account. (Figure 1)
In all no more than twenty houses, the temple (basadi)
is the heart of the town, where young and old (mostly
males) gather daily for morning darsana (vision) and
the evening abhiseka (lustration) with water, milk and
sandalwood paste of the main image, followed by arati
(offering of lamps, with camphor) to the beating of drums
and sound of bells.
The ritual of abhiseka is an enactment of the first
bathing, on the mount Meru, of the baby tirthahkara (to
be) soon after his birth (janma), by Indra, the King of
the Saudharma heaven. In ancient times, it was probably
the simple daily praksalana (washing with water) of a
tirthahkara image. It might have developed into an
elaborate daily "lustration" ritual (with water, milk,
sandalwood paste, flowers, etc.), popularized by the
9th-century acarya Jinasena's Adipurana, where the
janmabhiseka of the first tlrthahkara Adinatha by the
god Indra is described in as many as 219 sloka-s, as in
the following:
suddhambusnapane nistham gate gandhambubhih
tato'bhisektum Tsanam Satayajva pracakrame//
Adipurana, parva 13,185.
When the bathing with pure water was over, Indra
(=-satayajva) commenced lustering the Lord (Jina)
with the auspicious fragrant waters (mixed with
sandalwood paste).1
The title Indra:
At a later time, the temple priest performing this
janmabhiseka would assume the title "Indra," reciting
1 Acarya Hemacandra gives an equally lengthy description. See
Johnson's Translation of Trisastisalakapurusa-caritra, Vol. I, pp. 111-

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
the following verse:
soman Mandaramastake sucijalair dhautaih
pfthe muktivaram nidhaya racitam tvat
padapadmasraj ah//
Indro'ham nija-bhusanartham amalam
yajnopavftam dadhe,
mudra-kankana-sekharany api tatha
Jain Pujapatha-sangrahah/2
On the peak of the holy Mandara platform [of the
Mount Meru], cleaned with pure water, darbha grass
and rice grains, I place the Lord of Emancipation
(the Jina) ...
I am Indra, for my ornamentation I wear this sacred
thread for the worship (yajha),
the seal ring, bracelet, crown and so forth, at the
lustration ceremony of his birth.
The Jains in Tulunadu may offer similar lustration to
a portable image of a Jina placed in the outer hall of
the temple, but they do not enter the inner shrine. It is
well known that the Digambaras in the North have no
temple-priests, nor sacred thread. A layman and his wife
may perform this ritual, wearing a crown, on special
occasions, calling themselves Indra and Indranf for the
duration of this ritual.
The Indras of the Tulunadu, however, appear to have
received (from some unknown authority) the honorific
name Indra as their permanent designation, probably to
distinguish them from non-Jain brahmana priests, and to
officiate daily as hereditary priests of Jain temples.
Rathotsava (The Chariot Festival)
The high point of the temple ritual is the annual
rathotsava (Chariot festival of seven days) beginning
on the Yugadi day, the first day of a New Year of the
Salivahana Saka era observed in South India (beginning
in 78 CE). I have an elaborate invitation on a long and
gaudy paper (snmukha patrika) dated, 8 March (Friday)
thru 14 March (Thursday), 2016. It describes the daily
ritual activities («dharmika-vidhi) for this period in
Kannada. The invitation issued for the last year (March
2017) rathotsava is however quite simple. The following
is a translation of the patrika for the year 2016.
Sukravara, Friday, 3/08/2016, Yugadi day. [Srf
Mahavfra Saka 2542] Durmukha nama samvatsara,
Yugadi padya 1.
Early morning, after the arati, hundreds of Jains from
the surrounding area gather and pull out the four-wheeled
wooden chariot from its shed and bring it to the steps
of the temple. It has a tall platform, reached by a ten-
2 See also Mandira-Vedi-pratistha-Kalasarohana-vidhi.
step ladder. Several decorated wooden boards are raised
around it, with colorful paper flags above, mounted high
on bamboo rings. It thus becomes a holy shrine for the
main rituals on Wednesday the 13th, to be performed in
the presence of Svasti Srf Bhattaraka Lalitakfrti Svamf-jf,
Srf Jaina Matha, Karkala.
6:45 a.m. Indra-pratisthe: Invoking god Indra at the
temple door.
7:45 a.m. in Mesa-lagna, Torana-muhurta: placing a
new flag made of tall pieces of wood in the shape of
an "A," with fresh mango leaves tied around. Vimana
suddhi: purification of the ratha by chanting of mantras.
Pahcamrta-abhiseka: lustration of the main image with
five ambrosias: water (jala), milk (ksTra), curds (dadhi),
sandalwood-paste (gandha) and a shower of flowers
(puspa). Yaksa-pratistha and purvabhimukha-vidhana:
Temple dignitaries and visiting Indras gather to see the
horse-riding stone image of yaksa Brahmadeva (fig. 2),
being transferred from its high seat near the massive
stone pillar in the corner, to the highly decorated
area, facing East, in front of the image of tlrthahkara
Anantanatha, between the images of the devT-s Sarasvatf
and PadmavatL
2:00 p.m. NandT-Mahgala-vidhana: Chanting of the
pahca-namaskara-mantra for happiness and fortune of
all. In the evening srl-bali-vidhana: Offering of fruits
and flowers on a short stone pillar at the entrance of the
temple door (probably to ward off evil spirits).
At night, after the daily abhiseka and arati, vasanta-
katte-puje: A portable image (utsava-murti) of a
tirthahkara is carried in a decorated palanquin by priests
Figure 2. The image of Yaksa Brahmadeva. (Photo courtesy of Sheethal
K. Jain)

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around the outer wall of the basadi, receiving flowers
from householders, and is placed on a decorated high
seat called vasanta-katte (spring-platform), under a
campaka (sampige in Kannada) flower tree. Music
is played, fireworks follow and the palanquin returns
to the temple. Finally, there is Maha mahgalarati (the
grand arati) after which the activities of the day are over.
(Services for the day were performed in the presence of
Svasti SrT Bhattaraka CarukTrti SvamT-jT, Sri Jaina Matha,
Sanivara, Saturday, 3/09/16:
8:00 a.m. Daily morning abhiseka.
11:25 At Mithuna-lagna, SrT Ksetrapala-aradhana:
propitiation of the guardian yaksa who has a small shrine
on top of a stone pillar outside, within the temple wall.
12:25 At Abhijit-muhurta, SrT Nagadeva puja: Under the
Ksetrapala pillar there are several stone images of hooded
snakes. These are protectors of the basadi. A worship is
performed asking for their continued protection.
12:45 Vastu-puja-vidhana: purifying the House (probably
the Chamber on the ratha).
Mangalasutra-bandhana: Tying the auspicious thread to
the wrists of those who have commissioned performance
of yantra-puja-s.
Navagraha Mahasanti puja: Worship commissioned by
a family for pacification of the nine planets: Sun, Moon,
Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Mars, Mercury, Rahu and Ketu.
Grama-bali (offering worship to the village.) Probably
offerings of coconuts to the village goddesses at the
Asvattha (banyan) tree at the entrance to the village.
At night: The daily abhiseka and arati, followed by the
vasanta-katte puja.
Ravivara, Sunday, 3/10/16:
8:00 a.m. The daily abhiseka on the ground floor, is
followed by the abhiseka upstairs to the image of SrT
Candranatha Svami. Performance (aradhana) of the
Vajra-pahjara (Diamond Cage) a copper plate yantra,
inscribed with holy diagrams for health and longevity.
4:15 p.m. In Simha-lagna, SrT Sarasvati DevT pratisthe:
A "re-consecration" ceremony for the image of Sarasvati-
devL (Probably this is not a public function.)
At night: Vasanta-katte puje.
(Services for today were performed in the presence of
Svasti SrT Bhattaraka Laksmisena SvamT-jT, SrT Jaina
Matha, Simhanagadde, Narasimharajapura).
Somavara, Monday, 3/11/16:
8:00 a.m. SrT Caturvimsati-tTrthahkara-aradhane:
Worship of the 24 tTrthahkaras.
12:00. p.m. Upstairs abhiseka to the image of tTrthahkara
SrT Candranatha Svami.
6:15 p.m. In Kanya-lagna, SrT Padmavati-devTpratisthe:
A "re-consecration" ceremony for the image of SrT
Padmavati-devT. At night: Vasanta-katte puja.
(Services for today were performed in the presence of
Svasti SrT Bhattaraka LalitakTrti SvamT-jT, SrT Jaina
Matha, Karkala.)
Mangalavara, Tuesday, 3/12/16:
8:00 a.m. After the daily abhiseka and arati there follows
an elaborate ritual of the pratistha ("re-consecration") of
the mulanayaka image of SrTAnantanatha Svami.
In the daily [janma] abhiseka, the festival is of bathing
the new born baby (tTrthahkara to be). At the time
of the rathotsava, there is going to be a celebration of
the same person's attainment of Omniscience (kevala-
jhana) and thus becoming a tTrthahkara. He will then
appear in the holy assembly called samavasarana. This
transition is implied in the pratistha (or symbolically
a re-consecration) by the rituals of Mantra-nyasa and
NayanonmTlana, given below. These are performed by a
senior Indra, a Master (acarya) of pratistha.
12:05 Asta-diksu-dhama samproksana: purification of
eight directions by sprinkling holy sandalwood-paste
Gandha(Ganadhara?)-yantra-aradhana: Worship of
a yantra with the names of twelve canonical scriptures
inscribed, as taught by the immediate disciples
(ganadhara- s) of the tTrthahkara MahavTra.
Mantra-nyasa: writing (with sandalwood paste) of the
holy mantras on the image of SrTAnantanatha Svami.
Samskara-mala-arohana: placing of a consecrated
garland on the image. In Mithuna-lagna the pratistha of
the image by nayanonnulana ("opening of the eyes") [by
a small stick with sandalwood paste]. This is followed by
abhiseka with 108 pitchers of water.
6:15. p.m. in Kanya-lagna, a ritual of the pratistha ("re-
consecration") of the image of SrT Yaksa Brahmadeva.
Daily abhiseka and arati.
Asvattha-katte-puja: Offering lamp-worship at the
platform under the Banyan tree at the start of the
town. While returning, Aramane-katte-puja, arati on a
decorated Platform in front of the "palace," the ancestral
home of Pattana-setty, the City Mayor, followed by
Vasanta-katte puja, etc.
(Services for today were performed in the presence of
Svasti SrT Bhattaraka DevendrakTrti SvamT-jT, SrT Jaina
Matha, Hombuja = Humca).
Budhavara, Wednesday, 3/13/16:
The samavasarana where the tTrthahkara sits in his
omniscient glory, is decorated (by gods) with eight
auspicious objects (lotus, golden jar filled with water,
etc.). Yaksa-s stand with arms raised high, holding the
dharma-cakra (The Wheel of Law) on their heads, the
Adipurana, p. xxii, v. 292, says:
tarn pTthikam alamcakrur astamahgalasampadah/
dharmacakrani codhani pramsubhir
On this day, the Festival of the Chariot (ratha) begins.
This is the day memorable for the procession of
two yaksa-s, from the temple to the ratha. One is
Brahmadeva, whose horse-riding image is familiar to the
public. There is another, called Sarvahna yaksa, whose
image is seen in public only on this occasion. This is

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
because, this four armed yaksa performs a distinguished
function of carrying a dharma-cakra in his raised two
back-hands, while folding his two front hands in greeting
(namaskara)\ This yaksa is also known as Gomedha
(Sarvahana) yaksa of tirthankara Nemi, but without an
image (cf. Hegewald 2009: 671). It is believed that this
yaksa heralds the arrival of the tirthankara, who is going
(vihara) from place to place.
7:00 a.m. The abhiseka of nine pitchers to the images
of SrT Anantanatha Svami and SrT Brahmadeva. This is
followed by Laksa-huvina-puje (worship with a lakh
flowers), apparently performed by laymen and women.
SrT Bali-vidhana: possibly, offering fruits and flowers
at the Banyan Tree-platform, pacifying the village
Ratha-samproksane: sprinkling of holy water (collected
from the abhiseka) on the ratha, both inside and outside.
By 11:00a.m. a crowd has gathered around the ratha,
waiting for the arrival of the yaksa-s.
Then in the Abhijit muhurta, the dignitaries of the town
and the assembled Indras, pray to the yaksa Brahmadeva
for permission to begin the rathotsava.
SrT Sarvahna-yaksa-vihara:
This is the time for bringing out a portable bronze image,
called utsava-murti, of the yaksa Sarvahna, holding the
dharma-cakra (fig. 3). It is profusely decorated with
ornaments and flower garlands. It is carried on his
head by an Indra, dressed in silken colored dhoti, but
bare-chested, with strings of beads and gold necklaces,
hanging from his neck. He comes out of the temple and
a procession begins, within the temple walls, keeping
the temple to the right hand, with music of nagasvaram
(Indian pipe) and the beating of drums, followed by the
crowd, all barefoot in scorching heat.
The procession returns from the left side and the
Indra stands in front of the temple gates, facing the ratha
below. The Indras on one side and trustees on the other,
greet him and invoke the yaksa Sarvahna to appear and
join the ratha festival. At the moment of the arati, the
Indra carrying the yaksa image raises his arms high (as
if imitating the yaksa image holding the dharma-cakra)
and exhibits a slight animation. It is believed that he
thus becomes a patri (a role player) of the yaksa (fig. 4).
The yaksa image slowly descends the temple steps and
meets the large crowd waiting near the decorated ratha.
He walks on both sides of the street giving the crowd a
vision (darsana) and stands by the ladder of the ratha,
awaiting the arrival of the tlrthahkara-image (fig. 5).
SrT Anantanatha Svami-vihara by an Indra, a patri of
SrT Brahmadeva yaksa:
Another Indra then comes out of the temple, carrying on
his head a portable bronze image (utsava-murti) of the
standing tlrthahkara Anantanatha Svami (fig. 6). He is
said to be a patri (role player) of the yaksa Brahmadeva.
He goes around the inner walls of the temple, and
descends the temple steps to the loud greetings of jaya-
jaya (victory, victory) from the gathered devotees. The
two Indras, one carrying the image of yaksa Sarvahna and
the other carrying the image of tirthahkara Anantanatha
Svami, meet face to face. This is said to be a magical
moment of the ritual, attended by loud chanting of
hymns, welcoming the arrival of the tirthahkara to the
newly erected gandha-kuti (a fragrant hut) for him on the
It would appear, from the way the dharma-cakra
carrying image leads the tirthahkara image to the
"chariot-shrine," that the ratha ceremony is, in essence,
an enactment of the vihara of the tlrthahkara from one
place to another. The images are then carried above,
climbing the ladder and placed ceremonially on the high
seat prepared for the tlrthahkara, and a lower side seat
for the Sarvahna yaksa. Waving of the lamps (arati)
and shower of flowers (puspavrsti) will follow and the
crowd disperses having witnessed an enactment of a
vision (darsana) of the tirthahkara on his arrival at their
humble abode!
Both images are returned to the temple for the evening
arati. Public meetings are held for discourses by learned
speakers and the chanting of bhajana-s by women. The
night ends with artists from surrounding areas performing
dance-dramas called yaksa-gana on the Jain themes
like Bahubali's renunciation after defeating his brother
Bharata, the two sons of the first tlrthahkara Adinatha.
(Services for today were performed in the presence of
Svasti SrT Bhattaraka LalitakTrti SvamT-jT, SrT Jaina
Matha, Karkala.)
Figure 3. The image of Sarvahna Yaksa carrying dharmacakra.
(Photo courtesy of Bhattaraka Caruklrtiji, Jain Matha, Mudabidrl)

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Figure 4. Indra carrying the image of Sarvahna yaksa descends the steps to the decorated ratha (chariot).(Photo: Sheethal Nisarga Hosmar)
Figure 5. Indra carrying the image of Sarvahna yaksa awaits the arrival of the Indra carrying the image of a standing Jina. (Photo: Sheethal Nisarga
Guruvara, Thursday 4/14/2016
7:00 a.m. avabhrt[h]a-snana ("bathing or ablution after
a sacrificial ceremony." Monier-Williams Dictionary)
The daily abhiseka and arati.
Guru-puja: The trustees honor with shawls and daksina
(gifts) of silver coins, primarily the pratisthacarya Srr
Nagakumara Indra from Karkala, who presided over
the ritual activities. He is followed by the pratistha-
upadhyaya Srr Prasanna Indra of the Nellikar basadi, his
family members, and guest Indras in attendance.
Kahkana-visarjana: Untying the red string on the wrist
(that was tied on the first day). This indicates that the
Indras and the trustees have accomplished their task and
are now free from certain restrictions accepted during the
rathotsava period.
Dhvaja-avarohana: Bringing the A-shaped wooden flag

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
(idhvaja) from the temple-door step to the ratha.
Kumkumotsava: Celebrating the conclusion by sprinkling
water mixed with vermilion on each other, okuli in
Kannada, followed by the removal of flags and other
decorations of the ratha. At the end, the ratha is taken
back to its shed.
Have the Indra-s always been Jains?
The janmabhiseka is an exclusively Jain ritual, and the
participation of the "Jain" yaksa-s in it is supported
by the Purana-s. In the SrTmukha-patrika, there
appear non-Jain elements in other rituals, notably, the
Navagrahamahasanti-puja, the Vajrapahjara-aradhana,
the SrT Bali-vidhana, and most importantly, the avabhrta-
snana and the distribution of daksina-s to the Indra-s.
Have these priests (Jain-brahmana-s) always been
Jains, as they are believed to be? A study of some
literary and inscriptional sources (given here in their
chronological order) shows that, around 10th century,
certain South Indian Vedic brahmana-s of high standing
and learning, became converts to the Jaina faith, a few
eminent poets (kavi-s) producing classical works in
Apabhramsa or Kannada, while some becoming priests
in Jain temples.
Two poets of a South Indian brahmana family
accepting the Jain faith.
(1) Mahakavi Puspadanta (=Pupphayamta): He is the
author of the Apabhramsa Mahapuranu (completed in
Saka 887 = 965 CE), during the rule of the Rashtrakuta
Krishna III, at Manyakheda=Malkhed village, (destroyed
in 970 CE) now in Maharashtra. In his prasasti of the
Mahapuranu, Puspadanta says:
Sivabhattaim mi Jinasannasem ve vi mayaim
bambhanaim Kasava-risigottaim
MuddhadevT-Kesavanamaim mahu piyaraim
homtu suhadhamaiml/
My parents, devotees of Siva, died in the manner
of the recluses of the Jina (i.e. by performing
sallekhana=fast unto death) as their ears were filled
with the ambrosia of the [Jain] words. They were
brahmanas of the gotra of the sage Kasyapa, my
mother MugdhadevT and my father Kesava. May
they attain happy abodes.
At the end of the Uttarapurana:
Mannakhedapuravare nivasamte mane Arahamtu
deu jhayamte/...
Pupphayamtakaina dhuyapamkem jai
kayau kavvu bhattie paramatthem Jinapaya-
(Harivamsapuranu, Introduction, p. 2,1941).
Figure 6. Indra carrying the image of a standing Jina around the temple
on his way to the ratha (chariot). (Photo courtesy of Shailendra)
The Poet Puspadanta, known by the name
4Abhimana-meru', living in the Manyakheta City,
having cleaned his mind of sins by contemplating
in his mind on the Divine (deva) Arahanta (One
worthy of honor, i.e. the Jina), and having joined
his hands in worship of his lotus-feet, has created
this kavya [Mahapurana] with pure devotion.
(2) The tenth century "Kannada adikavi" Pampa.
Pampa is the author of the Adipurana and
Vikramarjunavijaya (= Pampa Bharata), the latter
completed in 941 CE during the reign of the Calukya
Prince Arikesari II at Vengi (in Andhra). In the
Pampabharatam (Ch. 14,48) Pampa, who had the epithet
of kavita-gunarnava, says:
jatimolellam uttamada jatiya Viprakulage
ato Jinendradharma-me valam dore
dharmadavemdu nambi ta-j-jatiyan uttarottarama
madi negalididan intaratma-vi- khyatiyan atanada
magam negaldam Kavita-gunarnavam// 48//
Of all the varna-s Brahmanism is the best. But
Jainism is king among religions. For a Brahmin
who desires to improve his caste, Jainism is ideal
choice. With this belief, Abhiramadevaraya (=
BhTmapayya) embraced Jainism.

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Inscriptional record of a temple priest "Jina-
At Amarapuram (in Karnataka) in the year 1278
CE came into being a significant temple dedicated
to god Prasanna Parsvadeva, which was named
Brahma Jinalaya. Balendu Maladharideva,
Kundakundanvaya ... was responsible for the
creation of this holy structure ... Mallisetti ...
made a gift ... for the temple. The income derived
from the gift was to be used for reconstructing the
Jaina temple with stone from the foundation to the
pinnacle with the mahamandapa, bhadramandapa,
Lakshmlmandapa, gopura, manastambha ... the
gift was received by the temple priest Chellapille
who hailed from Bhuvalokanathanallur in the
southern Pandya country. He was a Jina Brahmana
of Yajurveda, Aitareya sakha, Vasistha gotra and
the pravara Kaundinya-Maitravaruna-Vasistha ...
at this time the region was under the ... Nolamba-
Pallava chief Irungola II who was a patron and
follower of the Jaina religion" (South Indian
Epigraphy, 1917, Appendix C, No. 40-42, in Desai
1957: 158).
I would like to suggest the possibility of the Tulunadu
Jain-brahmanas being successors to a similar Vedic
heritage, prior to their conversion to Jainism. While
following the Adipurana as their primary scripture, they
may have adopted non-Jain rituals like the Navagraha-
santi-vidhana, popular among the laity.
In doing this no Vedic divinity was invoked. Instead,
the graha-s (planets), like Saturn (sani) were joined
with a tirthahkara and a Jain yaksa, as in the following
Om namo arhate bhagavate srimate Munisuvrata
tirthakaraya Varuna yaksa BahurupinT yaksT
sahitaya Sani mahagrahadevaya ... nakstra-jatasya
... namadheyasya sarva santim kuru kuru svahall
The Indras of Nellikar are to be commended for their
dedication in carrying out the centuries old annual Jain
rathotsava in a traditional manner.
Padmanabh S. Jaini is Professor Emeritus of Buddhist
Studies at the Department of South and Southeast Asian
Studies, University of California, Berkeley.
Adipurana of Jinasena. 9th C. In: Acarya Jinasena-Krta
Adipurana. Bhaga I-II. Hindi Anuvada, Prastavana Tatha
Parisista Sahita. Sampadana - Anuvada: Pannalala Jaina.
Kasl: Bharatiya Jnanapltha, 1950/ 1963.
Chabda, K. (Ed.). Jaina Pujapatha-samgrahah. Calcutta,
no date.
Desai, Pandurang Bhimarao. Jainism in South India
and Some Jaina Epigraphs. Sholapur: Jaina Samskriti
Samarshak Sangh, 1957.
Flugel, Peter: "Digambara Jaina Divination Rituals in
Coastal Karnataka." Jaina Tantra. 16th Jain Studies
Workshop, Centre of Jaina Studies, SOAS, 20.3. 2015
Harivamsapuranu. Ed. P. L. Vaidya. Vol. Ill. Pariccheda-s
82 to 92. Poona, 1941.
Hegewald, Julia A. B. Jaina Temple Architecture: The
Development of a Distinct Language in Space and Ritual.
Monographien zur indischen Archaologie. Berlin: G. H.
Verlag, 2009 (Kunst und Philologie 19).
Mandira- VedT-pratistha-Kalasarohana-vidhi, Varanasi,
Pampabharatam. Ed. K. V. Puttappa (Ch. 14, 48) emba
Vikramarjunavijayam. Mysore: Mysore University,
Rao, Surendra B. "The Jaina Connection." Bunts
in History and Culture. Mangalore: World Bunts'
Foundation Trust, 2010, pp. 150-155.
SrTmukha Patrika: March 08 - March 14, 2016. Nellikar
Basadi. Karnataka.
Trisastisalakapurusacaritra of Acarya Sri Hemacandra.
Translated by Helen M. Johnson: The Lives of Sixty-three
Illustrious Persons. Vol. I. Baroda: Oriental Institute,
1931 (Gaekwad's Oriental Series 51).
3 Obtained orally from a Nellikar Indra.

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
The Theater of Renunciation: Religion and Pleasure in Medieval Gujarat
Aleksandra Restifo
Svetambara canonical and commentarial literature
prohibits Jain mendicants from engaging with dance,
drama, and other forms of aesthetic activity and enjoins
laypeople to abstain from sensual pleasures. iThese
activities stir up emotions and passions and infringe
on monastic and lay discipline. However, Svetambara
sources describe the dancing of devotees and
professionals at celebrations of the Jina's kalyanakas,
during the rites of worship, and at other festive events.2
Gods and laypeople often express their devotion (bhakti)
to the Jina and mendicants through artistic expression.
The incongruity between the rejection of aesthetic
activities and their pervasive presence in Jain literature
raises the following questions: How did Jains conceive
of artistic expression? In what ways did they negotiate
the tension between pleasure and restraint? What do
conceptions of aesthetic activities tell us about Jains'
inter-sectarian relationships and religious identities?
This report on a dissertation entitled "The Theater of
Renunciation: Religion and Pleasure in Medieval Gujarat"
offers an example of how Jain mendicants tackled this
inherent controversy and argues that despite the criticism
of aesthetic pleasure in ancient and medieval literature,
Jains recognized sensual activities such as dance and
drama as efficacious devotional practices from the early
centuries of the Common Era. The tension between
aesthetic pleasure and the Jain principle of detachment
reflects larger processes within the Jain fold, that is, the
necessity to negotiate the requirement of lay support
and royal patronage, to adhere to canonical injunctions,
and to respect the authority of mendicant leaders. The
controversy over aesthetic experience highlights this
complex relationship.
The report on my thesis focuses on the
Rayapaseniyasutta,3 a Svetambara canonical text, in
which a performance organized by the god Suriyabha
for Mahavfra displays the interweaving of sensual
pleasure, ritual, and devotion. It, next, considers the
implications of a medieval debate between Kharatara
mendicants, particularly Jinadatta (1075-1154) and
Jinapala (thirteenth century), and the Jain monk and court
poet Ramacandra (1093-1174), a disciple of Hemacandra
(1088-1172), through the study of their works about the
nature of temple rites.
The Rayapaseniya already provides a particularly
elaborate model of worshipping the Jina and mendicants
1 Ayaramga; Suyagadamga 2.2.664; Panhavagaranai
2.4.43,2.5.45; Uttarajjhayana 13.422; Uvasagadasao 1.48, 1.57
2 Kappasutta 97-9, 111-113. In the Digambara TiloyapannattT
of Yativrsabhacarya and Harivamsapurana of Jinasena (vv.
57.27,38,68,93), theater spaces where female dancers continually
perform dance-dramas are integrated in the build-up of the Jina's
preaching assembly (samavasarana). In TiloyapannattT 4.756-760
(also 4.815-816, 4.838-839), each theater consists of thirty-two stages
and on each stage thirty-two female dancers and singers incessantly
praise the Jina.
3 The Rayapaseniya was composed in the early centuries of the
Common Era, see Jain 1947,35-37.
Musicians. Kumaravihara Temple, Tharad. Photo: Aleksandra Restifo,
December 2016.
with supreme opulence, splendor, preeminence
(ideviddhi, devajui, devanubhava), and thirty-two dance-
dramas (nattavihi) 4 In it, the god Suriyabha travels to
Jambudvfpa in order to pay homage to Mahavfra. The
thirty-two dance-dramas, performed by young gods
and goddesses produced out of Suriyabha's body,
should be understood as a complex phenomenon that
represents a ritual, an aesthetic spectacle that evokes
the erotic (simgara) emotion,5 and a devotional (bhatti)
expression.6 The thirty-one dramatic dances are largely
aesthetic and mimetic, and only the final element in
Suriyabha's performance consists of the adaptation of
Mahavfra's life story from his past births to liberation.
This reenactment of the Jina's biography is one of the
earliest accounts of what Haribhadra later describes as
a dharmic drama (Pahcasakaprakarana v. 9.11) to be
performed at the celebration of the Jinas' kalyanakas
and other festivals (yatras) in imitation of Indra and
other gods ( 9.30-37). Suriyabha's spectacle is deliberately designed
to offer sensual pleasure. It endorses artistic expression
and pleasurable experience as an efficacious devotional
practice, thereby creating a model ritual for laypeople
who temporally transform into gods and goddesses
during the worship of the Jina.7
Haribhadra's limitation of artistic expression to the
singing of the Jina's virtues that evokes a desire for
liberation (samvega) and to dharmic dramas during festival
processions curtails the element of sensual pleasure in
4 Rayapaseniya 22 (p. 242)
5 Rayapaseniya 23 (p. 244)
6 Rayapaseniya 22 (p. 245)
7 For early references to devotion in Jainism, see Cort 2002.

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
devotional worship (Pahcasakaprakarana vv. 9.9-ll).8
Building upon Haribhadra's injunctions, eleventh-
thirteenth-century Kharatara monks developed extensive
arguments against a number of devotional and aesthetic
practices in temples.9 The Kharatara reaction to aesthetic
activities in temples can be construed as a response to the
increasing interest in drama in Gujarat and Rajasthan.10
For instance, in his Ganadharasardhasataka (vv. 65-
68), Jinadatta likens the city of Anahilavad, in which
Jinesvara arrives to establish the system of temporary
lodgings (vasahi) for mendicants, to a play through the
literary device of double entendre, suggesting that the
city turned into a drama. However, the Kharatara critique
also appears to be a means of encouraging devotees to
construct new temples (vihiceT) called ayayanas ("abode"
for the Jina, not monks) and establishing the authority of
Kharatara mendicant leaders (CarcarT v. 15).
While in his Upadesarasayanarasa and CarcarT,n
Jinadatta proscribes inappropriate singing, watching
plays, performing dance-dramas, playing games, or
engaging in other amusements that do not aim to evoke
the sentiment of detachment (Upadesarasayanarasa v.
37), he concedes that following the example of gods,
a layperson can arrange a dance on the occasion of the
Jina's kalyanaka with the permission of a true mendicant
(Upadesarasayanarasa v. 32). Jinapala (1235) further
explains that in light of the danger posed by the
presence of female dancers in the temple, Kharatara
monks forbade devotees to invite them. And they did
so in opposition to the canonical texts, which did not
prohibit it (agamanisiddham api). Monks reasoned that
the performance of a skilled and beautiful female dancer
would cause young laymen to grow lax about their
religious responsibilities, such as giving donations, and
to stray away from dharma (Upadesarasayanarasa v. 32;
see also vv. 33,34).
In regulating the performance of aesthetic activities
in temples, the Kharatara leaders put their authority
not only above the agamas, but also above other
contemporaneous monks, including Hemacandra and
Ramacandra. Hemacandra includes watching dances
and dramas in the list of careless acts (pramadacarana)
that must be avoided (Yogasastra vv. 3.78ff.), but he
also recommends that wealthy lay people build temples
and arrange plays and musical performances in them
(Yogasastra v. 3.120). However, the main advocate
of aesthetic pleasure should be considered his disciple
Ramacandra, the author of a poem dedicated to the
Parsvanatha temple commissioned by King Kumarapala.
Ramacandra's Kumaraviharasataka paints a picture of
8 For a recent interpretation of Haribhadra's verse 9.11, see Chojnacki
and Leclere 2012, 168f.
9 On the relationship between Haribhadra and Kharataras, see Granoff
1992. On Jinesvara's views on temples, see Dundas 2008.
10 On the proliferation and production of dramas in and outside temples
in twelfth-thirteenth-century Gujarat, see Leclere 2010, 2013. Leclere
(2013, 67, note 235; 331, note 1754) observes that a later text, the
Kharataragacchabrhadgurvavali (biographies of Kharatara mendicant
leaders from the eleventh century to 1336), describes lay people
organizing night dances and other pleasurable activities in the temple.
11 CarcarT vv. 12,16,18,19,20,22,28. For a comprehensive study of
carcarT and rasaka, see Leclere 2013,74-98,392-394.
a space meant for both ritual and devotional purposes
as well as aesthetic and sensual pleasures. Ramacandra
depicts nighttime and sensual dances, music, and plays
as key components of temple life.12 The poet celebrates
the very sensual pleasures, which temple rites offer to
devotees, that the Kharataras critique. Thus, the attitude
to artistic expression grew to constitute a sectarian
The notion that aesthetic performance is an appropriate
mediation of devotion for the Jina and mendicants goes
back to the Rayapaseniyasutta, where the god's spectacle
is embedded in the Jina worship, which is said to bring
about great fruit (mahaphala) P This idea is continually
reaffirmed through stories and accounts ranging from
that of Indra's majestic performances for the Jina to that
of the minister Vastupala's arranging of a dance before
the image of Adinatha.14 These literary examples of
devotional expression and direct injunctions to arrange
aesthetic dance-dramas during festival celebrations in
other sources provide models, worthy of emulation, for
lay support and royal patronage. The Kharatara attempts
to regulate this practice and restrict the performance of
dance-drama to solely didactic plays and songs that focus
on the Jina's virtues represent yet another technique to
denounce the temples of sedentary monks (anayatana)
and inspire Jains to build new correct (vidhi) temples
( being faithful to the word of the agamas in their reshaping
of Jain orthopraxy, placed their authority to guard over
devotees' conduct still higher than the agamas and thus
resolved the tension between the ideal of restraint of
sense organs and sensual pleasures. This tension lies at
the heart of Jain culture and is rooted in a larger complex
relationship, one between monastic imperatives and
mendicant dependence on lay support.
Aleksandra Restifo is a PhD candidate in the Religious
Studies Department at Yale University. She has degrees
from SO AS (MA, 2012) and Hyderabad Central
University (MA, 2009). Her research on Jainism lies at
the intersection of literature, aesthetic practices, and
mendicant culture.
Primary Sources
Ayaramga, BhagavaT. Nayadhammakahao,
Panhavagaranai, Rayapaseniya, Suyagadamga,
Uttarajjhayana in Agamasuttani SatTkam. Edited by
Muni DTparatnasagara. Ahmadabad: Agama Aradhana
Kendra, 2000.
12 See vv. 15,17,50,57,90,92,109.
13 Rayapaseniya 6 (p. 212). For a study of dancing and playing
musical instruments during mendicants' (and householders') funeral
rites as meritorious {punya) "symbolic performances," see Fliigel 2017.
14 For Indra's worship of the Jina, see, for instance, the Dasannabhadda
(Dasarnabhadra) story in STlankasuri's Caupannamahapurisacariya
25. For the episode of Vastupala's worship, see Balacandra's
Vasantavilasamahakavya 10.84-85.

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
CarcarT and Upadesarasayanarasa in Three Apabhramsa
Works of Jinadattasuri, with Commentaries. GOS 37.
Edited by Lalcandra Bhagavandas Gandhi. Baroda:
Oriental Institute, 1927.
Caupannamahapurisacariya. Edited by Amrtlal
Mohanlal Bhojak. Ahmadabad: Prakrta Grantha Parisad,
Ganadharasardhasataka. Edited by Muni Kamtisagar.
With a short commentary by Padmamamdiragani. Surata:
SrTjinadattasurijnanabhamdara, 1955.
Harivamsapurana. Edited with Hindi translation by
Pannalal Jain. NaT DillT: Bharatiya JnanapTtha, 2003.
Kappasutta. Edited with Hindi translation by
Mahopadhyaya Vinayasagar. English translation by
Mukund Lath. Jaipur: Prakrit Bharati, 1977.
Kumaraviharasataka. Edited by Muni
Ratnabodhivijaya. MumbaT: SrT Jinasasana Aradhana
Trust, 2002.
Pahcasakaprakarana. Edited by Sagarmal Jain and
Kamleskumar Jain. Hindi translation by DTnanath Sarma.
VaranasT: Parsvanatha VidyapTtha, 1997.
TiloyapannattT. Edited by A.N. Upadhye and Hiralal
Jain. Hindi translation by Balchandra. Solapur: Jaina
Samskrti Samraksaka Samgha, 1956.
Uvasagadasao. The Uvasagadasao or Religious
Profession of an Uvasaga Expounded in Ten Lectures,
Being the Seventh Anga of the Jains, edited and translated
by A. F. Rudolf Hoernle. With Sanskrit
commentary by Abhayadeva. Calcutta: The Asiatic
Society, 1890.
Vasantavilasamahakavya. Edited by Chimanlal D. Dalai.
GOS 7. Baroda: Central Library, 1917.
Yogasastra ofHemacandra: A Twelfth Century Handbook
of Svetambara Jainism. Translated by Olle Qvarnstrom.
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002.
Secondary Sources
Chojnacki, Christine & Basile Leclere. 2012.
"Interpreting New Literary Forms in Jain Medieval
Literature: The Vibudhananda Play in Sllanka's Novel
Caupannamahapurisacariya." In Jaina Studies:
Proceedings of the DOT 2010 Panel in Marburg,
Germany, edited by Jayandra Soni. New Delhi: Aditya
Prakashan, 167-200.
Cort, John E. 2002. "Bhakti in the Early Jain Tradition:
Understanding Devotional Religion in South Asia."
History of Religions 42: 59-86.
Dundas, Paul. 2008. "The Uses of Narratives: Jinesvara
Suri's Kathakosaprakarana as Polemical Text." In Jaina
Studies: Papers of the 12th World Sanskrit Conference,
edited by Collette Caillat and Nalini Balbir. Volume 9.
Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 101-115.
Fliigel, Peter. 2017. "Jaina Afterlife Beliefs and Funerary
Practices." In The Routledge Companion to Death and
Dying, edited by Christopher M. Moreman. Abingdon,
New York: Routledge, 119-132.
Granoff, Phyllis. 1992. "Jinaprabhasuri and Jinadattasuri:
Two Studies from the Svetambara Jain Tradition." In
Speaking of Monks: Religious Biography in India and
China, edited by Phyllis Granoff and Koichi Shinohara.
Oakville, Ontario: Mosaic Press, 1-96.
Jain, Jagdish Chandra. 1947. Life in Ancient India as
Depicted in the Jain Canons (With Commentaries): An
Administrative, Economic, Social and Geographical
Survey of Ancient India Based on the Jain Canons.
Bombay: New Book Company.
Leclere, Basile. 2010. "Performance of Sanskrit Theater
in Medieval Gujarat and Rajasthan (From the 11th to
the 13th century)." In Indisches Theater: Text, Theorie,
Praxis, herausgegeben von Karin Steiner & Heidrun
Bruckner. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 27-62.
Leclere, Basile. 2013. Le theatre de llnde medievale
entre tradition et innovation: le Moharajaparajaya de
Yasahpala. Amoneburg: Indica et Tibetica.
Centre of
jaina Studies

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
The Tradition of Sattaka Literature
Melinda Fodor
There is a dramatic genre called sattaka ("a [short
love] drama"), which is unique among the traditional
plays, first of all in terms of its language. It was entirely
written in Prakrit, and not alternating Sanskrit and Prakrit
dialects, as most of the classical Indian plays. Five
sattakas, written between the 10th and the 18th centuries,
have come down to us in manuscripts, each of them
following the pattern of the very first representative of
this genre: Rajasekhara's KarpuramahjarT. In my thesis,
defended in December 2017, entitled "Contribution a
l'etude du genre sattaka, pieces en langue prakrite: la
KarpuramahjarT et ses successeurs," I investigated all
theories about this genre and analysed the five extant
plays themselves. This work was necessary, because
the sattaka has been defined on the basis of a very low
number of criteria. Several studies have been published
on some aspects of the KarpuramahjarT, but the other
sattakas have not yet been thoroughly analysed; what
is more, most of them have not even been translated
so far. Assessments were made mostly according to
Visvanatha's Sahityadarpana, considered as the theory
of dramaturgy par excellence, and according to him, the
sattaka is an uparupaka ("minor genre"), while most of
theoreticians say that it is a rupaka ("major genre"). In
my thesis I tried therefore to elucidate doubtful points
and give a solid framework on the following question:
What is a sattaka?
Although the name of this genre was known at the time
of Kohala, a contemporary of Bharata (2nd-4th centuries),
the first definition can be found in the prologue of the
KarpuramahjarT of Rajasekhara (9th-10th centuries).
According to him, the sattaka is a dramatic genre related
to the natika ("a [short love] drama"), which are four-
act romantic comedies, characterized by the use of
many female characters, as well as dances, songs and
music. However, according to the definition quoted by
Rajasekhara, the sattaka omits the viskambhaka (a kind
of interlude introducing the first act) and the pravesaka
(a kind of interlude introducing each following act), two
mandatory explanatory devices in the natika.
Five authors followed in Rajasekhara's footsteps.
Nayacandra Suri, who lived in the 14th-15th centuries
in Gwalior, even if he kept Sanskrit in his sattaka
for the speeches of high-ranked men, he wrote his
RambhamahjarT on the model of the KarpuramahjarT.
Markandeya, a 15th-16th century grammarian in TrivenT,
composed his VilasavatT, a sattaka that we know only by
the reference in his Prakrit grammar. The Candralekha is
the only work to have come to us from Rudradasa who
lived in Calicut in the 17th century. This play bears another
title too: Manaveda-carita. Visvesvara Pandeya wrote
his SrhgaramahjarT in KasT in the 17th-18th centuries.
Finally, Ghanasyama, minister of TukojT I in the 18th
century in Thanjavur, composed three sattakas. Only the
AnandasundarT was passed down to us in manuscripts. In
his works, Ghanasyama mentions the Vaikuntha-carita, a
sattaka about Krsna's life, and another untitled one.
It seems that the genre sattaka existed before the
KarpuramahjarT as a kind of natika, and except the
omission of the two explanatory devices, it followed
the rules of the Natyasastra, including the multilingual
rules of Indian Classical Theatre. The combination of
several elements allowed Rajasekhara to break away
from the tradition of classical theatre and to replace
multilingualism with monolingualism in his sattaka.
Rajasekhara composed his KarpuramahjarT towards
the end of his life, having acquired a certain renown,
becoming a kaviraja ("the king of poets") free in his
choices, independent of his patron. This play was
commissioned by his wife, an expert in poetry, and not
by a royal patron. The natika was very popular in his
time. It has been scrupulously defined in the Natyasastra,
including the linguistic rules to be applied, and well
known through Harsa's plays; the tradition forced
authors to keep strictly to the rules. On the other hand,
as the sattaka was neglected by theoreticians and poets,
Dancing girl with musicians in the palace of the young
prince Siddhartha Gautama. Ajanta, 2nd century bce
(Photo: Melinda Fodor)

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
it was easier to introduce novelties. Bharata himself
exempts authors from applying the multilinguistic rules
of classical theatre, on condition that any discrepancy
should be well founded.
Concerning Rajasekhara's choice for Prakrit, he
gives only a general answer [KarpuramanjarT 1.07],
designating his four literary languages, Sanskrit, Prakrit,
PaisacT and Apabhramsa, as being able to convey poetic
expressions [cf. KavyamTmamsa \\\,WW, Balaramayana
1.11]. According to him, by the progressive evolution
(parinama) of the poet in poetic art, the latter manages
to compose more and more beautiful expressions.
Nevertheless, the true poetry emanates from the
talent being capable of giving a particular aspect to its
expressions (ukti-visesa) [KarpuramanjarT 1.07]. These
can be only appreciated by an equally talented public
who are able to relish in them [KavyamTmamsa IV].
Rajasekhara, by applying the vrttis ("phonetic styles")
of Udbhata and Rudrata, designates the Prakrit language
soft by nature [Balaramayana 1.11], and therefore the
most appropriate to express love in the human world
(aryavarta) [KavyamTmamsa X].
The KarpuramanjarT provoked discussions,
including its language. All, theoreticians and later
authors of sattakas, explained this choice of language
by the sweetness of Prakrit, considered to be the most
appropriate language for a love story. Apparently, the
stanza 1.08 of the KarpuramanjarT is a later addition
expressing exactly this idea, based on Rajasekhara's
concept [Balaramayana 1.11] mentioned above. The
language of the KarpuramanjarT is called a-samskrta-
prakrta ("not [alternating] Sanskrit and Prakrit"), eka-
bhasa ("one [homogeneous] language") or simply
Prakrit. Some theoreticians tried to define its dialects and
gave Maharastn, Saurasem and MagadhL Indeed, the
Prakrit of Rajasekhara, according to his KavyamTmamsa,
incorporates these three grouped together by their
common feature: the phonetic softness. Thus, the authors
of the sattakas do not follow the rules of the dramatic art
that indicate the use of the Maharastn in the stanzas and
Saurasem in prose. These two dialects, as well as others,
are present in the sattaka in a mixed form, either in prose
or in verses; we call this language a "Literary Hybrid
Not only the language, but some scenes of the
KarpuramanjarT also served as a model for later writers.
Nevertheless, they have interpreted it in two ways that
we call "typical" or "atypical" sattaka. A typical sattaka
is the most faithful to the KarpuramanjarT. At the same
time, it gets closer to the natika in some respect. The
Candralekha replaces the carcarT (a kind of popular
dance) with a lasyahga (a kind of song defined in classical
Indian theatre) and omits the wrath and the vulgarity of
the jester. The SrhgaramanjarT borrows many passages
from the works of Kalidasa and also omits any vulgarity.
On the other hand, an atypical sattaka is not up to the
pattern, wanting to surpass the KarpuramanjarT. The
RambhamanjarT is a kind of pastiche, the beginning of
which is the imitation of the KarpuramanjarT, the end is a
musical show with many erotic scenes. Nayacandra Suri
explains this divergence by the example of the maturity
of the mango, whose taste is flavourless at the beginning
but sweet at the end. The Anandasundan is a comedy
rather than a romantic play. Ghanasyama decomposed
the KarpuramanjarT and used some of its elements in
a crooked way. The novelties the authors introduce into
their plays are strongly influenced by the literary, cultural
and historical trends of their time.
The sattaka is a hybrid genre of classical theatre
(samkTrna-rupaka), and not a minor one (uparupaka).
Firstly, it is related to the natika, which is a popular
genre of soft type, a mixture of two major genres
(rupaka), the nataka ("a [long heroic] drama") and the
prakarana ("a [long fictitious] drama"). Secondly, most
theoreticians adhere to this concept and this is the most
accurate classification. In their volume and complexity,
the sattaka and the natika stand fourth among classical
dramatic genres. Finally, the sattaka is intended for
being recited (pathya) and imitated (natya) on stage, it
is soaked with the rasa, the sattvika ("natural") states are
duly represented, and passages of diverse dances (nrtya
"dance with mimicry", nrtta "pure dance") and songs are
integrated into the play. Their structure corresponds to
the theory of dramatic art, including visible and invisible
preparations (purvarahga), prologue, acts, dramatic
links, their subdivisions, and other structural elements.
The two omitted explanatory devices are replaced
by other dramatic elements. Their omission is not a
characteristic of minor genres, as they are omitted in the
satire (prahasana) too, which is one of Bharata's major
Finally, the sattaka has never been "popular" as the
minor genres. The poetic language of these works is
sophisticated and complex in accordance with the rules of
poetic art. Poets' aim is to delight the spectator and gain a
certain renown. The double meanings in Anandasundan
and the philosophical discourses in SrhgaramahjarT have
not been designed for a modest audience. The language
of the sattakas, far removed from spoken languages
and little cultivated in the circle of scholars versed in
Sanskrit between the 10th and 18th centuries, make the
composition, recitation and understanding of the text
more difficult. It is for this reason that Rudradasa stated
that a sattaka is the touchstone of experimented poets
and actors. Ghanasyama expresses the same idea, when
he confirms that only a true poet can compose a sattaka.
An ordinary audience would not have been able to enjoy
a sattaka.
Melinda Fodor completed her PhD at the EPHE,
Paris (2017). Having specialized in Prakrit, Pali,
Sanskrit, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit and classical Tibetan
languages, her research fields include kavya literature,
alamkara (<(ars poetica") theories and Buddhist
philosophy. She has been granted a Gonda Fellowship
in Ley den (2018) where she will be working on a critical
edition of Ghanasyama's Anandasundarl.

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Jaina Objects at the British Museum
Sushma Jansari
The British Museum holds at least 125 Jaina objects
from India that span almost two thousand years of
Jaina history. Stone and metal sculpture is particularly
well represented, although a small number of textiles,
painted palm-leaf manuscripts and a yantra that dates
to 1631 are also included among the collections. The
refurbishment of the Sir Joseph Hotung Gallery for
China and South Asia, which reopened in November
2017, was a good occasion to reassess the Jaina holdings
and to display objects that were previously in the reserve
collections. It also provided an excellent opportunity to
make the collections better known to colleagues outside
the museum and the general public, and to bring Jainism
to the attention of the Museum's many visitors. The
new layout takes a broadly chronological approach to
the different regions in South Asia. Within this scheme,
the Jaina objects are displayed in three main sections:
Mathura, Western and Central India, and the Deccan.
The Edwardian mahogany display cases that are original
to the gallery have been retained and all of the objects,
with the exception of very large sculptures, are on
display within these cases. What follows is by no means
Figure 2. Standing figure of the goddess SarasvatI
Rajasthan, mid-11th century
White marble
British Museum Asia 1880.349
© The Trustees of the British Museum
Figure 1. ayagapata (fragment, reverse shown)
Mathura, 1st century CE (front) and 3rd or 4th century CE (reverse)
British Museum Asia 1901,1224.10
© The Trustees of the British Museum
an exhaustive account of the Jaina collections, but an
introduction to the material that gives a broad overview.
Overall, it is notable that a large proportion of the Jaina
sculptures were acquired in India and donated to the
Museum by British colonial officials in the 19th and
early 20th centuries.
Like most museums outside India, the British Museum
does not have an extensive collection of sculpture from
Mathura. In 1901, Lord George Francis Hamilton,
Secretary of State for India (1895-1903), gave eleven
objects from Mathura to the Museum. This donation
included all of the Jaina objects from Kankali Tila in
Mathura that the museum now holds. It is not clear how,
or from whom, he acquired this material.
The earliest of these objects is a fragment of an
ayagapata ('plaque of veneration'). (Figure 1) The earlier
face, dating to the c.lst century CE, has circular bands
of floral motifs as well as a small seated Jina flanked
by celestial garland bearers. It was re-used in antiquity
and the carving on the reverse dates to about the 3rd or
4th century CE. This later side features the lower half
of a Jina with hands in dhyanamudra sitting on a lion
throne, and devotional figures standing beneath. Railing
pillars are also displayed in this section but their religious
context is unclear.

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Figure 3. Seated figure of a tirthahkara
Gujarat, mid-12th century
White marble
British Museum Asia 1915,0515.1
© The Trustees of the British Museum
Western and Central India
The museum holds a range of Jaina objects from Western
and Central India, and a selection of these are now on
display in the Hotung Gallery. These include white
marble sculptures of a mid-llth-century representation
of SarasvatT from Rajasthan (Figure 2), and a mid-12th-
century tlrthahkara from Gujarat. (Figure 3) The latter
was donated by Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall (1835-1911), a
prominent British colonial official in India, and the first
Chancellor of Allahabad University.
Three copper alloy sculptures of tTrthankaras are also
on display. One, from Gujarat, is among the earliest in
the museum's collections and dates to the 7th or 8th
century. Another example depicts Sambhavanatha, and
the inscription on the back reveals that in 1454 it was
dedicated by members of the Jaina community from the
town of Srimala (now 'Bhinmal') in Rajasthan.
The central object in this section, however, is
the important sculpture of Ambika from Dhar.1 The
inscription written in Sanskrit in the NagarT script records
that one Manathala carved this sculpture and Sivadeva
inscribed it in 1034 or 1035. Vararuci, a member of the
court of King Bhoja (reigned c. 1000-1055) commissioned
this and other sculptures. This piece was acquired in India
by Maj.-Gen. William Kincaid (1831-1909) and donated
to the museum where it was registered in 1909.
1 See: Willis, Michael, 'New Discoveries from Old Finds,' Jaina
Studies: SOAS Newsletter of the Centre of Jaina Studies, 6, (March
2011), 28-30.
Among the exceptional collections of Maj.-Gen.
Charles 'Hindoo' Stuart (1757/58-1828) that were
subsequently acquired at auction by John Bridge (1755-
1834) and later donated to the museum, is an 11th-
century sandstone sculpture depicting Rsabhanatha.
(Figure 4) This object seems to be mentioned in Stuart's
will where the provenance is given only as 'Bundle Cd'
('Bundelkhand'). It is possible that Stuart acquired it in
Khajuraho, but this is by no means certain.
As with the collections from Western India, the museum
holds a range of stone and metal Jaina sculpture from
the Deccan. A selection of the copper alloy sculptures
is on display. Most of this material dates to the 10th-
11th centuries and include images of Parsvanatha, a
vidyadevT and a yaksa and yaksT. An llth-12th-century
tTrthankara figure standing 44 cm high was donated by
Sir Walter Elliot (1803-1887), who excavated the stupa
at Amaravati. (Figure 5)
A rare stone container sits alongside this figure.
(Figure 6) The object may have functioned as a portable
shrine, or perhaps a container for ritual utensils such as
a mala. Three tfrthahkaras are carved on the lid of this
unusual Jaina shrine, and BahubalT is depicted inside as
the main icon for worship. This devotional object dates
to the 16th or 17th century, and may be from Karnataka
or southern Maharashtra. It was acquired by the Museum
in 1888, but the precise details, including the name of the
Figure 4. Seated figure of Rsabhanatha
Probably Bundelkhand. Dated to the 11th century
British Museum Asia 1872,0701.98
© The Trustees of the British Museum

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
donor, are unclear.2
Four stone sculptures are displayed in this section,
including an llth-12th-century figure of Padmavatf with
a serpent canopy covering her head and a small seated
figure of Parsvanatha above it. A highly polished nth-
century Hoysala sculpture of a standing tlrthankara is
placed alongside a later sculpture of Bahubalf, possibly
from Rajasthan, and a Jaina yantra that dates to 1631.
Finally, there is a standing figure of a tirthankara
(Figure 7) that was originally part of the collection of Sir
Stamford Raffles (1781-1826), Lieutenant-Governor of
Java and founder of Singapore. It was among the Raffles
material that was donated to the museum by his nephew,
Rev. W. C. Raffles Flint in 1859.3
2 Exemplifying scholarly collaboration, colleagues from institutions in
the UK, India and the USA kindly shared their knowledge and thoughts
about this shrine.
3 Alongside his better-known Javanese collections, Raffles also had
a small but superb collection of material from India that is now held
at the British Museum, including 18th-century Thanjavur paintings.
When I was looking through his drawings, I came across one that
depicted the interior of a Jaina temple. The drawing dates to about 1783
and was presented by Thomas Law to C. Wilkins. These individuals
are presumably the British East India Company employees Thomas
Law (1756-1834), a judge who lived and worked in Bihar, and
Charles Wilkins (1749-1836), the well-known linguist. During this
period, colonial officials knew little of the Jaina religion. This lack
of knowledge about Jainism is evident in the title Law gives to the
Figure 6. Portable shrine or container for ritual objects (2 views:
Above: exterior; Below: interior)
Southern Maharashtra or Karnataka, 16th-17th century
British Museum Asia 1888,0515.5
© The Trustees of the British Museum
The central object in this overall section is a striking
dark grey schist sculpture of Parsvanatha that is almost a
metre tall. The tfrthankara is flanked by fly-whisk bearers,
and Dharanendra and Padmavatf sit by his knees. The
sculpture was originally part of the East India Company's
Indian Museum on Leadenhall Street, City of London.
Once this museum closed in 1879, it was transferred to
the British Museum.
Unfortunately, a number of constraints had an influence
on the objects selected for display in the gallery. This
was due mainly to the display space available in the
Figure 5. Standing figure of a tlrthahkara
Deccan, 11th-12th century
British Museum Asia 1882,1010.26
© The Trustees of the British Museum
drawing: 'Inside the Temple of Boodha [Buddha] at Gaya'. This is
despite the obviously Jain iconography — Parsvanatha is flanked by
numerous figures of other tlrthankaras in the garbha-grha of a Jain
temple. How this drawing came to be in Raffles' possession is not clear.
This drawing will not be on display in the gallery, but it can be seen on
the Museum's Collection Online.

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Figure 7. Standing figure of a tlrthahkara (possibly Munisuvrata)
Deccan, 12th-14th century
British Museum Asia 1859,1228.172
© The Trustees of the British Museum
Edwardian cases, the size of the objects, and the light-
sensitivity of the material from which some of the
objects were made. Some of the Jaina material that is
not displayed in the Hotung Gallery can be seen on the
Museum's Collection Online (
research/collection_online/search.aspx). My aim here
was to give a representative overview of the temporal
and geographical breadth of the important Jaina material
that is held at the British Museum, and a taste of what is
on display in the refurbished gallery. I hope you are able
to come and visit the new displays, and enjoy them.
Dr Sushma Jansari
Curator Asian Ethnographic and South Asia Collections
Research and Travel Grants
The Victoria and Albert Museum Jain Art Fund
was created as a result of the exhibition 'The
Peaceful Liberators: Jain Art from India9 (1994-
96), jointly organised by the Los Angeles County
Museum of Art and the Victoria and Albert
The V&A Jain Art Fund, in association with the
Nehru Trust for the Indian Collections at the
V&A, offers a series of research and travel grants,
which are administered under the auspices of the
Nehru Trust, New Delhi.
The Jain Art Fund grants support study, research
or training in the field of Jain cultural, histori-
cal and art historical studies. They support both
Indian-based scholars and museum curators
spending time in the UK, and UK-based scholars
and curators visiting India for study and research
Scholarships are offered in each of the following
1. UK Visiting Fellowship
For a period of further professional training in
the UK
One award per year, to provide airfare and main-
2. UK Travel Award
For a short visit to the UK
One award per year, to a maximum of £1000
3. India Travel Award
For a short visit to India
One award per year, to a maximum of Rs. 80,000/-
4. Small Study and Research Grant (UK)
For acquiring essential research materials in the
United Kingdom
One or more grants per year, to a maximum of
5. Small Study and Research Grant (India)
A number of small grants
The deadline for applications is normally 15
February for awards beginning in April of the
same year.
For further details and application forms, see
w w w.nehrutrustvam .org
Jain Art Fund

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Jain Sites of Tamil Nadu: A CD published by the French Institute of Pondicherry
Nalini Balbir and Karine Ladrech
The vast region corresponding to today's Tamil Nadu
had an enduring presence of Jain communities from
the first centuries before the beginning of the common
era until now. Tamil BrahmT inscriptions (Figure 1),
rock-beds, sculptured rocks, temples (Figure 2), loose
Jain images are some important manifestations of
this historical presence. Worship and festivals being
conducted today are the signs of a living presence. Jains
have never been alone in the Tamil region, which has a
complex religious history. They have been one of the
communities of the region, with ups and downs, along
with Buddhists, for a time, and with Hindus, especially
Saivas, for a very long time. Like Buddhism, Jainism
was never the tradition of a majority. But it is clear from
the availability of epigraphical records that Jainism is
much older than Buddhism in the region, and was well
established in the pre-Pallava period. These communities
have been competing, sometimes fiercely, for patronage
and for recognition. Buddhism and Jainism adopted
different strategies. While Buddhism finally disappeared,
Jainism could survive over the centuries. Yet, to some
extent, the prevalence of Saivism in the region has led to
the suppression of Jain identity and to the removal of its
presence: Jain temples or Jain images being converted
to Hindu deities or local deities are cases in point. But,
in practice, the situation is much more complex: these
images may be fully worshipped by the local population
who does not care about any sectarian label.
Today, the Jains in Tamil Nadu mainly belong to
two groups. Tamil Jains or Samanars constitute a micro
Jain community of around 35,000 to 40,000 members,
representing less than 0.1% of the population of Tamil
Nadu. They are Digambaras and traditionally live in rural
areas, depending on agriculture and allied activities. But
more and more tend to shift to cities for professional
prospects. The second group of Jains in Tamil Nadu are
those who migrated from other parts of India, mainly
Rajasthan and Gujarat, for business purposes. They
are either Digambaras or Svetambaras, and tend to live
in cities. In general, interactions between these two
groups are rather limited. Jain monks and nuns are a less
common sight in today's Tamil Nadu than in Rajasthan
Figure 1. Rock-shelter in Muttupatti, district Madurai.
Cover of the CD Jain sites of Tamil Nadu.
or Gujarat for instance. Yet, small groups of Svetambara
ascetics do occasionally stay in Chennai for their rainy
season and Digambara ascetics with their entourage do
the same in Chennai, Puducherry, when they are invited
by prominent community leaders.
In addition, the Jain landscape in Tamil Nadu is
strongly marked by the presence and action of two leading
figures: Svasti srT LaksmTsena Bhattaraka Bhattacarya
Vary a Mahasvamigal is the head of the Digambara
Jain Math at Melsittamur and Svasti srT DhavalakTrti
Bhattaraka is the head of the Tirumalai Math. Both of
them, efficient managers and learned scholars, preside
over the destinies of Jain temples, lands and local Jain
festivals in the region.
Despite existing studies, it was felt that the Jain sites of
Tamil Nadu needed to be documented afresh with precise
location and adequate descriptions, and that the living
Figure 2. Parsvanatha temple and spring on Tirumalai hill, district
Regards sur l'Asie du Sud / South Asian Perspectives no. 12
Jain Sites of Tamil Nadu

Figure 3. Rock-cut images on a rock-shelter site in Kalugumalai,
district Tuticorin.
aspects of Jains' religious life as illustrated in Tamil
Nadu should be better known. Jain Sites of Tamil Nadu is
a new interactive CD (working on internet with Mozilla
Firefox) including comprehensive material on about 400
sites. It has just been published by the French Institute
of Pondicherry (IFP) which was the main institution
behind this collective project (authored by Nalini Balbir,
Karine Ladrech, N. Murugesan and K. Ramesh Kumar)
as no. 12 in the series Regards sur TAsie du Sud / South
Asian Perspectives and is available from this Institute.
The project has been supported in particular by the
Jain community of Pondicherry and the BharatvarsTya
Digambar Jain Tirthaksetra KometT.
The first aim of this CD has been to present a full
photographic documentation of all the Jain sites of the
region with their monuments or remains. The bulk of
it was done from 2007 onwards by K. Ramesh Kumar
from the IFP. It grew over the years as more sites came
to light. Tamil Nadu has some Jain sites that are well
known, such as Kalugumalai (Figure 3), Mel Sittamur,
etc. Some are under the protection of the Archaeological
Survey of India. But there is also a myriad of small places
located far away from today's main roads, not easily
accessible, quietly awaiting the visitor in remote and
green countryside, or perched on top of hills. Further, in
recent years, more and more loose Jain images, earlier
ignored because they are not in a Jain environment or
proper shrine, have come to light as well. On the other
hand, temples and sculptures that were in good condition
some decades ago have deteriorated, were removed
or stolen. The photographic archives of the IFP which
document a few Jain sites from 1956 onwards are
therefore invaluable. Not least because some sites have
been repainted colourfully.
About 400 sites have been documented. The team
has done its best to provide all possible information for
the precise location of the sites. This is a necessity as
confusions are not rare in existing literature. The maps
elaborated by the GIS of the IFP, following the lines of
the Historical Atlas of South India produced by the same
institution, are adequate tools allowing an understanding
of the area, its topography and history beyond the surface
of today's routes. Some sites are small, represented by
one loose Jain sculpture (Figure 4), for instance; some
are large and have been divided into sub-sites. Each site
CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Figure 4. Jina image and remains of a ruined temple in Puthambur,
district Pudukottai.
and sub-site is treated as a separate entry containing
its description. These descriptions and the related
photographic documentation are accessed through the
map or by selecting district, taluk and site name. A search
engine also allows to find photographs matching criteria
defined by the user (keyword search).
Further, we have tried to document the actual practice
of Jain rituals in Tamil Nadu and the ways in which Jains
in the region celebrate some important festivals, such as
the Mel Sittamur car festival or the less famous Theppal
festival in Thirupanamur (Figure 5). All the material has
been contextualized through additional texts describing
specific aspects of Tamil religious and literary culture.
All illustrations are courtesy of the French Institute of
Nalini Balbir is Professor of Indology at Sorbonne-
Nouvelle University, Paris and member of UMR 7528
"Mondes iranien et indien"; Karine Ladrech is Lecturer
in Indian Art at Sorbonne University, Paris.
Figure 5. The culminating point of the Theppal festival with the images
of Dharanendra and Padmavatl being taken on a floating platform.

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Recent Articles:
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online)
Vol. 13, No. 2 (2017) 1-17
On Corresponding Sanskrit Words For The
Prakrit Term Posaha: With Special Reference
To Sravakacara Texts
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online)
Vol. 13, No. 3 (2017) 1-39
The Treatment Of Series In The
Ganitasarasamgraha Of Mahavlracarya And Its
Connections To Jaina Cosmology
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online)
Vol. 13, No. 4 (2017) 1-34
Architectural Science in Jain Poetry: The
Descriptions of Kumarapala's Temples
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online)
Vol. 13, No. 5 (2017) 1-10
Haribhadra on Property Ownership of Buddhist
"fit * -.V.
University of London
Published by the
Centre of Jaina Studies
ISSN: 1748-1074
About the IJJS
The Centre of Jaina Studies
at SOAS established the International Journal of Jaina
Studies (Online) to facilitate academic communication. The
main objective of the journal is to publish research papers,
monographs, and reviews in the field of Jaina Studies in
a form that makes them quickly and easily accessible to
the international academic community, and to the general
public. The journal draws on the research and the symposia
conducted at the Centre of Jaina Studies at the School of
Oriental and African Studies, University of London, and
on the global network of Jaina scholarship. The opinions
expressed in the journal are those of the authors, and do not
represent the views of the School of Oriental and African
Studies or the Editors, unless otherwise indicated.
The International Journal of Jaina Studies is a publication
of the Centre of Jaina Studies at the School of Oriental and
African Studies of the University of London. It is available
in two different forms: online at: and in
print by Hindi Granth Karyalay. Articles published online
should be cited: International Journal of Jaina Studies (On-
line), and articles published in print: International Journal
of Jaina Studies.
w w w.soas .ac .uk/ijj s/index .html
soas centre of jaina studies digital resources
University of London
The Centre of Jaina Studies has launched its new website for Digital Resources in Jaina Studies on 23 March 2018 to allow open
access publication of rare resources in digital form on its Website. These include journals and manuscripts. Materials acquired
by the AHRB Funded Project on Jaina Law are in the form of digital images of manuscripts and printed texts .To make these
materials publicly available, a section for Digital Jaina Resources was set up on the Centre website. There is also a monograph
in the new series 'Working Papers of the Centre of Jaina Studies' (Vol. 1):
Flugel, Peter (2012) Askese und Devotion: Das rituelle System der Terapanth Svetambara Jains. Centre of Jaina Studies
Working Paper Vol. 1. London: Centre of Jaina Studies.

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Jaina Studies Series
Series editor: Peter Flilgel
School of Oriental and African Studies,
University of London
Jaina Studies have become an accepted part of the Study
of Religion. This series provides a medium for regular
scholarly exchange across disciplinary boundaries. It will
include edited volumes and monographs on Jainism and
the Jains.
Volume One: Studies in Jaina History and Culture:
Disputes and Dialogues, edited by Peter Fliigel (SOAS).
This book breaks new ground by investigating the doc-
trinal differences and debates amongst the Jains rather
than presenting Jainism as a seamless whole whose doc-
trinal core has remained virtually unchanged throughout
its long history. The focus of the book is the discourse
concerning orthodoxy and heresy in the Jaina tradition,
the question of omniscience and Jaina logic, role models
for women and female identity, Jaina schools and sects,
religious property, law and ethics. The internal diver-
sity of the Jaina tradition and Jain techniques of living
with diversity are explored from an interdisciplinary
point of view by fifteen leading scholars in Jaina stud-
ies. The contributors focus on the principal social units of
the tradition: the schools, movements, sects and orders,
rather than Jain religious culture in abstract. This book
provides a representative snapshot of the current state of
Jaina studies that will interest students and academics in-
volved in the study of religion or South Asian cultures.
March 2006: 234x156: 512pp Hb: 0-415-36099-4
Volume Two: History, Scripture and Controversy in a
Medieval Jain Sect, Paul Dundas, University of Edin-
The subject of this fine book is the history and intellec-
tual activity of the medieval Svetambara Jain disciplinary
order, the Tapa Gaccha. The overall theme of this book
is the consolidation from the thirteenth century by the
Tapa Gaccha of its identity as the dominant Svetambara
Jain disciplinary order. Thanks to the author's excep-
tional knowledge of the field, the topic is shown in prac-
tice to be central to our understanding of many of the
key questions scholars have been asking about the his-
tory and development, not just of Jainism, but of South
Asian religious traditions in general, including the way
in which traditions establish and maintain their authority
in relation to texts, the relationship between text, com-
mentary and tradition, attitudes to female religiosity, and
tensions both within and between sects. December 2007:
234x156: 256pp Hb: 0-415-37611-4: £65.00
Paul Dundas is Reader in Sanskrit at the University of
Edinburgh, Scotland. His previous book, The Jains, is
also available from Routledge.
Volume Three: The History of Vegetarianism and Cow-
Veneration in India, Ludwig Alsdorf, translated by Bal
Patil and edited by Willem Bollee (University of Heidel-
For the first time, this influential classic study by Ludwig
Alsdorf is made available to an English speaking audi-
ence. At the core of the text is the analysis of the role of
Jainism for the history of vegetarianism. Furthermore, it
also refers to Hindu texts such as pertinent chapters of the
Book of Manu. Besides a comprehensive translation of
the original German manuscript, "Beitrage zur Geschich-
te von Vegetarismus und der Rinderverehrung in Indien",
which refers to two of the most pertinent issues in Indie
religion, three important articles related to Alsdorf s work
are made available in this new edition. February 2010:
234x156: 240 pp Hb: 978-0-415.54824-3: £85.00
Willem Bollee is Professor Emeritus at the University of
Heidelberg, Germany. Bal Patel, the translator, is a jour-
nalist and Chairman of the Jain Minority Status Commit-
tee, Dakshin Bharat Jain Sabha.
Volume Four: Jaina Law and Society, edited by Peter
Flugel (SOAS)
The struggle for the legal recognition of the Jain com-
munity in India as a religious minority from 1992 on-
wards has generated a renewed interest in Jaina law and
an intense debate on the question of Jain identity in the
context of the wider question of the interface between
religion, society, law and politics in contemporary South
Asia. This book analyses contemporary Jain identity and
legal status in India.
Chapters in this book written by experts on the sub-
ject, address the following issues: How do Jains them-
selves define their identity and customs, privately and
collectively, in different situations and to what extent
are such self-definitions recognised by Hindu law? In
what way does the understanding of the social identity
of lay Jains and their identification as 'secular' Hindu or
'religious' Jain offer in various Jain communities? The
book explores these aspects which differ in accordance
to the Jain representatives' distinct doctrinal interpreta-
tions, forms of organisation, and legal and ethical codes.
It presents the social history of Jain law and the modern
construction of Jainism as an independent religion on the
basis of legal documents, biographies, community his-
tories and ethnographies, disputes over religious sites,
and interviews with community leaders in both north and
south India. The book fills a gap in the literature and will
be an essential resource for researchers interested in Jain-
ism, Indian religions, Indian history, Religious Studies
and Law. December 2013: 234x156: 256 pp Hb: 978-0-
415-54711-6: £85.00

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
University of London
postgraduate courses
in Jaina Studies
Non-Violence in Jaina Scriptures, Philosophy
and Law
The aim of this course is to introduce students to the Jaina
ethics of non-violence, ahimsa, in Jaina scriptures, phi-
losophy and law. In cultural history, the Jaina scriptures
are unique in their exclusive focus on the religious sig-
nificance of strictly non-violent practice, in mind, speech
and action. Jaina literature offers a millennia old tradition
of philosophical and legal reflection on solutions for prac-
tical dilemmas faced by individuals or groups intent on
the implementation of non-violent principles in everyday
Based on key texts in translation, selected from the
canonical and post-canonical Jaina literature, and illus-
trated by ethnographic examples, the course discusses the
distinct contributions of Jaina literature to the philosophy
of consciousness and applied ethics (asceticism, vegetari-
anism, discourse ethics, philosophical pluralism, conflict
resolution, and legal philosophy and procedure).
At the end of the course students should be familiar
with the most important sources and developmental stages
of the Jaina philosophy of non-violence, the principal is-
sues structuring ethical and legal debates within the Jaina
tradition, and their practical implications for contempo-
rary discourse and practice of non-violence as a way of
Jainism: History, Doctrine and the
Contemporary World
The aim of this MA course is to introduce students to key
aspects of Jainism. It will focus on the doctrinal and so-
cial history of Jainism, on the Jaina paths of salvation,
Jaina asceticism and monasticism, Jaina communities
and Jaina sectarianism, and on religious practices. These
include, the rites of purification or avasyaka rites, self-
mortification (tapasya), meditation (dhyana), temple wor-
ship (puja), charity (dana), vegetarianism and the Jaina
practice of sallekhana or death through self-starvation.
The course will conclude with an overview of Jaina philo-
sophical pluralism and modern Jaina ecology.
The structure of the course is broadly historical, but
material will be drawn from both textual and ethnographic
sources. The key subjects will be the history of Jainism,
the Jaina prophets and Jaina scriptures, Jaina doctrines of
non-violence, Jaina schools and sects, contemporary re-
ligious and social practices, and Jainism in the modern
Convenor: Peter Fliigel (
www.soas .ac .uk/jainastudies
University of London
PhD/MPhil in Jainism
SOAS offers two kinds of Research Degrees
in the Study of Jainism.
PhD. This involves at least three years of full-time
study, leading to a thesis of 100,000 words and an
oral examination. The thesis must be an original piece
of work and make a distinct contribution to know-
ledge of the subject.
MPhil. This entails at least two years of full-time
study, leading to a thesis of 60,000 words and a viva.
It should be either a record of original research work
or a critical discussion of existing knowledge.
Why choose SOAS?
The Centre of Jaina Studies
The unique activities of the Centre of Jaina Studies
provide an ideal research environment for Jaina Stud-
ies and a vibrant forum for debate.
The SOAS Library
SOAS has one of the best libraries for Asian and Afri-
can Studies, with nearly a million volumes. Students
have access to other world-class libraries in walking
distance, such as the British Library, which hosts one
of the largest collections of Jaina texts in the world.
Languages and Cultures
SOAS has a uniquely cosmopolitan character. Cen-
tral to the School's identity is the study of Asian and
African languages and the relationship between lan-
guage, culture, religion and society.
The fees of SOAS are very competitive compared to
other Ivy League universities. The School offers nine
Research Student Fellowships each year. Awards are
also available from funding bodies such as the Arts
and Humanities Research Council in the UK.
For further details please contact:
Centre of Jaina Studies
j ainstudies @ soas .ac .uk
SOAS Registry:
registrar @ soas .ac .uk
020 7898 4321

CoJS Newsletter • March 2018 • Issue 13
Introduction to Jainism
Jaina Scripture and Community
Non-violence in Jaina Scriptures, Philosophy
and Law
Introduction to Prakrit
Readings in Prakrit
Jainism History, Doctrine and the
Contemporary World
Jaina Scripture and Community
Non-Violence in Jaina Scriptures, Philosophy
and Law
Introduction to Prakrit
MA Jaina Studies
MA Prakrit Studies
Three-year PhD in Jaina Studies
The CoJS organizes the annual SOAS Jaina Studies
International Conference and regular lectures and
seminar series.
For further details about studying at SOAS please contact the Student Recruitment Office:
Tel: 020 7898 4034 Email: University of London
The School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) offers undergraduate, postgraduate and research
opportunities at the Centre of Jaina Studies (CoJS).
The aim of the CoJS is to promote the study of Jaina religion and culture by providing an interdiscipli-
nary platform for academic research, teaching and publication in the field.
The School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London, is one
of the world's leading institutions of Higher Education with a unique focus on the
study of Africa, Asia and the Middle East.
Courses in Jaina Studies can form part of a BA or MA in Study of Religions, taken as
part of our interdisciplinary Asia Area Studies programmes. PhD programmes are
also available. Study of Religions at SOAS can also be combined with law, social
sciences, languages or humanities subjects.

Centre of Jaina Studies
School of Oriental and African Studies
Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square
London WC1H0XG
Centre Chair
Dr Peter Flugel
Newsletter Editors
Dr Peter Flugel & Janet Leigh Foster
Janet Leigh Foster
Printed by The Printroom at SOAS
For information on the Centre please consult the Centre website:
ISSN 2059-416X
SOAS • Russell Square • London WC1H OXG •

Full Text




2 Dr Hawon Ku (Seoul National University) Muni Mahendra Kumar (Jain Vishva Bharati Institute, India) Dr James Laidlaw (University of Cambridge) Dr Basile Leclre (University of Lyon) Dr Jeery Long (Elizabethtown College) Dr Andrea Luithle-Hardenberg (University of Tbingen) Professor Adelheid Mette (University of Munich) Gerd Mevissen (Berliner Indologische Studien) Professor Anne E. Monius (Harvard Divinity School) Dr Andrew More (University of Toronto) Dr Catherine Morice-Singh (Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris) Professor Hampa P. Nagarajaiah (University of Bangalore) Professor Thomas Oberlies (University of Gttingen) Dr Andrew Ollett (University of Chicago) Dr Leslie Orr (Concordia University, Montreal) Dr Jean-Pierre Osier (Paris) Dr Lisa Nadine Owen (University of North Texas) Professor Olle Qvarnstrm (University of Lund) Dr Pratapaditya Pal (Los Angeles) Dr Jrme Petit (Bibliothque Nationale de France, Paris) Adrian Plau (SOAS) Sama Unnata Praj (JVBI Ladnun, SOAS) Sama Kusuma Praj (JVB Ladnun) Sama Dr Pratibh Praj (JVB Ladnun, SOAS South Asia Department) Prof Shahid Rahman (University of Lille) Aleksandra Restifo (Yale University) Dr Josephine Reynell (Oxford University) Susan Roach (SOAS Department of History, Religions and Philosophies) Dr Sreeramula Rajeswara Sarma (Dsseldorf) Dr Fabien Schang (State University of Moscow) Dr Maria Schetelich (University of Leipzig)Centre of Jaina Studies MembersSOAS MEMBERSHonorary President Professor J. Cliord Wright South Asia Department Chair/Director of the Centre Dr Peter Flgel Department of History, Religions and Philosophies Dr Crispin Branfoot Department of the History of Art and Archaeology Professor Rachel Dwyer South Asia Department Dr Sean Ganey School of History, Religions and Philosophy Professor Werner Menski School of Law Dr James Mallinson South Asia Department Professor Francesca Orsini South Asia Department Dr Ulrich Pagel School of History, Religions and Philosophy Dr Theodore Proferes School of History, Religions and Philosophy Professor Richard Reid School of History, Religions and Philosophy Dr Peter D. Sharrock Department of Art and Archaeology Dr Renate Shnen-Thieme South Asia Department Paul Dundas (University of Edinburgh) Dr William Johnson (University of Cardi)EXTERNAL MEMBERS ASSOCIATE MEMBERSDr Naomi Appleton (University of Edinburgh) Professor Lawrence A. Babb (Amherst College) Professor Nalini Balbir (Sorbonne Nouvelle) Dr Ana Bajelj (Polonsky Academy, The Van Leer Jerusalem Institute, Israel) Professor Piotr Balcerowicz (University of Warsaw) Nicholas Barnard (Victoria and Albert Museum) Dr Rohit Barot (University of Bristol) Professor Jagat Ram Bhattacharyya (Viva-Bhrat-University, ntiniketan) Professor Willem Bolle (University of Heidelberg) Professor Frank van den Bossche (University of Ghent) Surendra Bothra (Prakrit Bharati Academy Jaipur) Professor Torkel Brekke (University of Oslo) Professor Johannes Bronkhorst (University of Lausanne) Professor Christopher Key Chapple (Loyola University, Los Angeles) Professor Christine Chojnacki (University of Lyon) Dr Anne Clavel (Aix en Province) Professor John E. Cort (Denison University) Dr Eva De Clercq (University of Ghent) Dr Robert J. Del Bont (Independent Scholar) Dr Saryu V. Doshi (Mumbai) Professor Christoph Emmrich (University of Toronto) Dr Anna Aurelia Esposito (University of Wrzburg) Dr Sherry Fohr (Converse College) Janet Leigh Foster (SOAS Alumna) Dr Lynn Foulston (University of Wales) Dr Yumi Fujimoto (Sendai, Japan) Dr Sin Fujinaga (Miyakonoj Ksen, Japan) Dr Richard Fynes (De Montfort University, Leicester) Professor Jonardon Ganeri (New York University) Dr Jonathan Geen (University of Western Ontario) Dr Marie-Hlne Gorisse (University of Lille) Professor Phyllis Grano (Yale University) Dr Ellen Gough (Emory University, Atlanta) John Guy (Metropolitan Museum of Art) Professor Julia Hegewald (University of Bonn) Dr Haiyan Hu-von Hinber (University of Freiburg) Dr Kazuyoshi Hotta (Otani University, Kyoto) Professor Dharmacand Jain (Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur) Professor Prem Suman Jain ( ) Professor Rishabh Chandra Jain (Muzaarpur University) Dr Sagarmal Jain (Pracya Vidyapeeth, Shajapur) Professor Padmanabh S. Jaini (UC Berkeley) Dr Yutaka Kawasaki (University of Tokyo) Dr M. Whitney Kelting (Northeastern University Boston) Dr Laurent Kei (University of Lille) Dr Kornelius Krmpelmann (Mnster) Dr Shalini Sinha (SOAS Alumna, University of Reading) Dr Atul Shah (University Campus Suolk) Professor Bindi Shah (University of Southampton) Ratnakumar Shah (Pune) Dr Kanubhai Sheth (LD Institute, Ahmedabad) Dr Kalpana Sheth (Ahmedabad) Dr Kamala Canda Sogani (Apaprama Shitya Academy, Jaipur) Dr Jayandra Soni (University of Marburg) Dr Luitgard Soni (University of Marburg) Dr Herman Tieken (Institut Kern, Universiteit Leiden) Professor Maruti Nandan P. Tiwari (Banaras Hindu University) Dr Himal Trikha (Austrian Academy of Sciences) Dr Tomoyuki Uno (Chikushi Jogakuen University) Dr Anne Vallely (University of Ottawa) Dr Steven M. Vose Florida International University Kenji Watanabe (Tokyo) Dr Royce Wiles Nan Tien Institute, Wollongong Dr Kristi L. Wiley (University of California Berkeley) Professor Michael Willis (British Museum) Dr Juan Wu (University of Leiden , Tsinghua University, Beijing) Dr Ayako Yagi-Hohara (Osaka University)


3 Conferences and News Research Publications Jain Sites of Tamil Nadu International Journal of Jaina Studies Jaina Studies at the University of London On the Cover Jaina Studies NEWSLETTER OF THE CENTRE OF JAINA STUDIESContents: Jain Sculptures at the Gwalior Fort Madhya Pradesh, India in the Nineteenth Century From El Mundo en La Mano, Published 1878


4 Letter fr om the Chair 20th Jaina Studies Workshop Jaina-Onomasticon History and Current State of Jaina Studies Newsletter Newsletter Jain Sculptures at the Gwalior Fort Madhya Pradesh, India in the Nineteenth Century. From El Mundo en La Mano, Published 1878.


5 History and Current State of Jaina Studies20th Anniversary Jaina Studies Workshop at SOAS Saturday, 24 March 2018 Brunei Gallery Lecture Theatre First Session: History of Digambara Literature and Philosophy 9.15 Hampana Nagarajaiah Early Kannada Literature 9.45 Nalini Balbir Digambara Books of Discipline: A Study in Progress 10.15 Piotr Balcerowicz A Note on the Oeuvre of the ‘Collective Thinker’ Kundakunda. The Case of the( ) 10.45 Tea and Coffee Jaina Studies þ 11.15 Adrian Plau : A ‘New’ Jain 11.45 Himal Trikha 12.15 Peter Flgel The Jaina-Prosopography Database 12.45 Group Photo 13.00 Lunch: Brunei Gallery Suite 14.00 Award Ceremony: Shravanabelagola 2017 The 18th Annual Jaina Lecture Eva de Clercq (University of of Ghent) Friday 23 March 2018 18.00-19.30 Brunei Gallery Lecture Theatre 19.30 Reception Brunei Gallery Suite Third Session: Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Jainism 14.15 Roundtable Discussion Jayandra Soni (chair) Christine Chojnacki (discussant) 15.00 Tea and Coffee Fourth Session: Jaina Studies and the Jaina Community 15.30 16.00 Steven M. Vose From Jainology to Jaina Studiesand Back? Toward a Dialogic Approach to Scholarly Engagement with Jaina Communities 16.30 Brief Break Fifth Session: Current State of Jaina Studies and Future Prospects 16.45 Roundtable Discussion Christine Chojnacki, Hampana Nagarajaiah Jayandra Soni John Cort (chair), Paul Dundas (discussant) 18.00 Final Remarks Jain Sculptures at the Gwalior Fort Madhya Pradesh, India in the Nineteenth Century. From El Mundo en La Mano, Published 1878.


6Digambara Books of Discipline: A Study in Progress A Note on the Oeuvre of the ‘Collective Thinker’ The Jaina-Prosopography Database Jaina-Onomasticon Onomasticon ABSTRACTS


7 From Jainology to Jain Studiesand Back? Toward a Dialogic Approach to Scholarly Engagement with Jain Communities


8 21st Jaina Studies Workshop Jainsm and Money For further information please see: Inquiries: Jaina Stu dies Certificate Roundtable Discussion on Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Jainism Roundtable Discussion on Current State of Jaina Studies and Future Prospects


9 Professor Nalini Balbir Sorbonne III University of Paris Paris (France) Professor Piotr Balcerowicz Institute of Oriental Studies Professor Christine Chojnacki Professeur de langues et cultures indiennes Facult des langues Universit de Lyon 3 Cours Albert Thomas 69008 Lyon (France) Professor Eva De Clercq Department of Indology University of Gent Blandijnberg 2-146 9000 Gent (Belgium) Professor John E. Cort Department of Religion Denison University Granville, OH 43023 (USA) Paul Dundas University of Edinburgh 7 Buccleuch Place Dr Peter Flgel Centre of Jaina Studies SOAS, University of London Thornhaugh Street Dr Sin Fujinaga Japan and Current State of Jaina Studies Speakers and DiscussantsProfessor Hampana Padmanabaiah Nagarajaiah 1079, 18-A Main, 5th Block Rajajinagar Bangalore 500 010 (India) Adrian Plau PhD Candidate South Asia Department School of History, Religions and Philosophy SOAS, University of London Thornhaugh Street School of History, Religions and Philosophy SOAS, University of London Thornhaugh Street Lund University Allhelgona Kyrkogata 8 SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden) Dr Jayandra Soni Associate of the University of Innsbruck Poltenweg 4 A-6080 Innsbruck Austria Dr Himal Trikha Institute for the Cultural and Intellectual History of Asia Austrian Academy of Sciences Apostelgasse 23 A-1030 Vienna (Austria) Dr Steven M. Vose Department of Religious Studies Florida International University Modesto A. Maidique Campus Deuxieme Maison, Room DM 302 Miami FL 33199 (USA) Menlo Park, CA 94025 (USA)


10 Jainism and Buddhism 17th Annual Jaina Lecture Jaina-Onomasticon hetusamudaya paccaya _____________________________________________________________________ Sin Fujinaga (


11 the Buddhist Pali Canon


12 Rules Vinaya uposatha posaha posaha posaha


13 saci Jaina and a




15The 68th Annual Conference of the Japanese Association of Indian and Buddhist Studies (JAIBS) Niryukti Niryukti teja Gotra Jaina Studies in Japan: Conference Reports_____________________________________________________________________


16 32nd Conference of the Society for Jaina Studies Gana commentary on the Gyan Sagar Science Foundation Journal of Gyan


17 First International Prakrit Conference National Prakrit Conferences and Seminars First International Conference muktaka Jinacariya International Prakrit Conference on Prakrit Literature and Culture _____________________________________________________________________


18 First International Prakrit Conference


19 First International Prakrit Conference in Jaina Thought The Concept


20Communicating Jainism: Media and Messages at the European Association for the Study of Religion Conference 2017_____________________________________________________________________ muni Composition


21 stotra caritra stotra stotra stotra stotra patra patra patra patra patra com tirtha


22 tirtha


23Jainism Panels at the Annual Conference on South Asia and the American Academy of Religion_________________________________________________________________________________ stotra mantra arhan arhant aum stotra stotra c


24 American Academy of Religion (AAR)


25 Stotra stotra stotra Steven M. Vose


26 4 yati An Exploratory Survey of the Jaina Heritage in Pakistan_____________________________________________________________________


27 yati






30 Temples in Pakistan




32 Newsletter of the Centre of Jaina Studies Census of India Punjab-Tables Tables


33_________________________________________________________________________________ basadi basadi arasu arasu ratha


34 basadi Indra-ra mane c hutta basadi janma The title Indra:


35 yaja Rathotsava (The Chariot Festival) ratha jaladadhi


36 campaka – basadi ratha yantra Vajra-pajara yantra janma Gandha yantra dharma-cakra ratha ratha


37 dharma-cakra lakh ratha ratha dharma-cakra dhoti ratha ratha dharma-cakra ratha ratha jayajaya ratha dharma-cakra ratha bhajana dharmacakra


38 ratha


39 ratha ratha ratha Have the Indra-s always been Jains? accepting the Jain faith. þ þ


40Inscriptional record of a temple priest “JinaJainism in South India Jaina Tantra Pariccheda emba Bunts in History and Culture Illustrious Persons


41The Theater of Renunciation: Religion and Pleasure in Medieval GujaratAleksandra Restifo _________________________________________________________________________________ bhakti 4 bhatti þ




43 Jaina China Centre of Jaina Studies


44 The Tradition of Literature_________________________________________________________________________________


45 ekarasa prahasana


46 Jaina Objects at the British MuseumSushma Jansari________________________________________________________________________________


47 Jaina Deccan


48 yantra


49 VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM JAIN ART FUND Research and Travel Grants The Victoria and Albert Museum Jain Art Fund was created as a result of the exhibition ‘The Peaceful Liberators: Jain Art from India’ (199496), jointly organised by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and the Victoria and Albert Museum. The V&A Jain Art Fund, in association with the Nehru Trust for the Indian Collections at the V&A, offers a series of research and travel grants, which are administered under the auspices of the Nehru Trust, New Delhi. The Jain Art Fund grants support study, research cal and art historical studies. They support both Indian-based scholars and museum curators spending time in the UK, and UK-based scholars and curators visiting India for study and research purposes. Scholarships are offered in each of the following categories. 1. UK Visiting Fellowship For a period of further professional training in the UK One award per year, to provide airfare and maintenance 2. UK Travel Award For a short visit to the UK One award per year, to a maximum of 3. India Travel Award For a short visit to India 4. Small Study and Research Grant (UK) For acquiring essential research materials in the United Kingdom One or more grants per year, to a maximum of 5. Small Study and Research Grant (India) A number of small grants The deadline for applications is normally 15 February for awards beginning in April of the same year. For further details and application forms, see www.nehrutrustvam.orgJain Art Fund


50 : A CD published by the French Institute of Pondicherry_________________________________________________________________________________ Jain sites of Tamil Nadu


51 Jain Sites of Tamil Nadu Historical Atlas of South India


52 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF JAINA STUDIES (ONLINE) Recent Articles: About the IJJS International Journal of Jaina International Journal of Jaina Studies International Journal of Jaina Studies (OnInternational Journal Published by the Centre of Jaina Studies SOASISSN: 1748-1074 SOAS Centre of Jaina Studies Digital Resources


53 Volume One: Volume Two: Paul Dundas The Jains Volume Three: Bal Patel Volume Four: Jaina Studies Series_________________________________________________________________________________


54 SOAS offers two kinds of Research Degrees in the Study of Jainism. PhD MPhil The Centre of Jaina Studies The SOAS Library Languages and Cultures Funding For further details please contact: Postgraduate Courses in Jaina Studies Non-Violence in Jaina Scriptures, Philosophy and Law Jainism: History, Doctrine and the tapasya Centre of Jaina Studies


55 COURSES INJAINA STUDIES TAUGHT UNDERGRADUATE Introduction to Jainism Jaina Scripture and Community Non-Violence in Jaina Scriptures, Philosophy and Law Introduction to Prakrit Readings in PrakritTAUGHT POSTGRADUATE Jainism History, Doctrine and the Jaina Scripture and Community Non-Violence in Jaina Scriptures, Philosophy and Law Introduction to PrakritPOSTGRADUATE RESEARCH MA Jaina Studies MA Prakrit Studies Three-year PhD in Jaina Studies The CoJS organizes the annual SOAS Jaina Studies International Conference and regular lectures and seminar series. The School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London, is one of the world's leading institutions of Higher Education with a unique focus on the study of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Courses in Jaina Studies can form part of a BA or MA in Study of Religions, taken as part of our interdisciplinary Asia Area Studies programmes. PhD programmes are also available. Study of Religions at SOAS can also be combined with law, social sciences, languages or humanities subjects.SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES


Centre of Jaina Studies School of Oriental and African Studies Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square London WC1H 0XG email: Centre ChairDr Peter Flgel Newsletter EditorsDr Peter Flgel & Janet Leigh FosterDesignJanet Leigh Foster Printed by The Printroom at SOAS For information on the Centre please consult the Centre website: SOAS Russell Square London WC1H 0XG Email: Centre of Jaina Studies