Citation
A comparative word-list of Old Burmese, Chinese, and Tibetan

Material Information

Title:
A comparative word-list of Old Burmese, Chinese, and Tibetan
Creator:
Luce, G. H ( Gordon Hannington ), 1889-1979
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
Publication Date:
Language:
Multiple languages
English
Burmese
Chinese
Tibetan
Physical Description:
xi, 88 p. : ill. (all facsims.) ; 30 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sino-Tibetan languages -- Glossaries, vocabularies, etc ( lcsh )
Genre:
book ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- China
Asia -- Myanmar
Asia -- China -- Tibet
亞洲 -- 中國
亞洲 -- 緬甸
亞洲 -- 中國 -- 西藏
亚洲 -- 中国
亚洲 -- 缅甸
亚洲 -- 中国 -- 西藏
Coordinates:
31.2 x 88.8 ( Tibet )
22 x 96 ( Myanmar )
35 x 103 ( China )

Notes

General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Luce, G. H. (Gordon Hannington), 1889-1979 : URI https://viaf.org/viaf/59482347
Statement of Responsibility:
G.H. Luce.

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
129283 ( aleph )
84143627 ( lccn )
0-7286-0084-6 ( isbn )
L Ref GPC412 /454923 ( soas classmark )
0728600846 ( isbn )

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Full Text
A Comparative Word-List of
Old Burmese, Chinese
and Tibetan
G.H. LUCE
SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES
UNIVERSITY OF LONDON
Malet Street, London WC1E 7HP
1981




A Comparative Word-List of
Old Burmese, Chinese
and Tibetan
G.H. LUCE
SOAS
SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES
UNIVERSITY OF LONDON
Malet Street, London WC1E 7HP
1981


(c) John M. Luce and Sandra C. Harding 1981
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Luce, G.H.
A comparative word-list of Old Burmese, Chinese
and Tibetan.
1. Tibeto-Burman languages
I. Title
495 PL3559
ISBN 0-7286-0084-6
Printed in Great Britain at the School of Oriental
and African Studies, University of London


CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION by Professor E.J.A. Henderson i
REFERENCES AND SOURCES by U Tin Htway v
FORWORD xi
VOWEL FINALS
-A Finals 1
-WA Finals 8
-I and -E Finals 10
-WE Finals 17
-AY Finals 19
-WAY Finals 22
-AW Finals 24
-UIW Finals 27
-U Finals 31
CONSONANT FINALS
-AP Finals 36
-IP Finals 38
-UP Finals 39
-AM Finals 41
-IM Finals 44
-UM Finals 45
-AT Finals, -WAT Finals 47
-IT Finals 49
-UT Finals 50
-AN Finals, -WAN Finals 52
-IN Finals 56
-UN Finals 57
-AC Finals, -WAC Finals 58
-AN Finals, -WAfi Finals 61
-AK Finals, -WAK Finals 66
-AN Finals 70
-WAN Finals 78
-OK Finals 80
-ON Finals 84




INTRODUCTION
For many years Gordon Luce cherished the intention to compile a
dictionary of what he referred to as "Pre-Standard Old Burmese", drawing
upon an intimate acquaintance with and love of Old Burmese inscriptions
which spanned half a century. His original plan was to produce a compar-
ative dictionary which would not only include Archaic Chinese and Tibetan
cognates but would also note ancient loans from Mon-Khmer and Indian lan-
guages. An early draft of the present work also included Hpun forms where
available, and added Ancient and Modern Chinese forms alongside the Archaic
ones. As late as 1977, Luce was referring in his letters to "tasks that
still remained to be done" which included the compilation of an index of
the words cited, and the writing of an introduction, which would discuss
his sources and make other comments of a general nature. In the event,
advancing years and failing eyesight persuaded him to content himself with
a less ambitious project, namely, the present list of some eight hundred
Old Burmese words, largely from the twelfth century A.D., covering what he
described as "the basic Sino/Tibetan/Burmese vocabulary", with suggested
comparisons confined to Archaic Chinese and Tibetan. Other than the short
Foreword included in this volume, no introduction was written by Luce him-
self. It is for this reason that, with considerable diffidence, I have
attempted in these introductory notes to give the reader some notion of
Luce's attitude towards his Old Burmese material, as conveyed in his
conversation and letters during his last years in Jersey.*
Anyone less like the layman's stereotype of a dry-as-dust philologist
than Gordon Luce is hard to imagine. A poet by inclination, he had a
deeply sensitive feeling for the use of words, nurtured by his familiarity
with the literatures of a wide variety of languages. His long acquaint-
ance with the Old Burmese inscriptions had implanted in him a keen aesthetic
delight in the language in which they are written. Aesthetic reactions of
this kind are bound to be in no small degree subjective, but in Luce's
company it was impossible not to be carried along by the warmth of his
enthusiasm and the liveliness of his exposition. He could bring Old
Burmese to life. Other scholars may dispute certain features of this
reincarnation, and Luce himself was always prepared to concede that some
of his interpretations and suggested comparisons might be proved wrong in
the light of further evidence. He argues, however, that, "however many
mistakes in detail I may make in my Word-Lists, there is, I claim, a
fundamental Tightness in the approach" (Jan.1978). The quasi-romantic
flavour of his feelings about Old Burmese, and of his own literary style,
is illustrated in the following passage from a letter written in August
1976.
"To accommodate Old Burmese and Tibetan, we have to unscramble
the monosyllabic clot which obviously Chinese underwent during the mil-
lenium previous to the Western Chou. And we have to forget the
legalistic evolution of the Indo-Germanic Verb and Noun, and the
regimentation by Conjunctions etc. of an over-organised sentence,and
* It should be borne in mind that the letters were not written for
publication, and that Luce himself might have wished to revise or
reformulate some of the contents if he had known they were to be made
public.


get back to a far more natural rounded sort of speech where rhythm,
musical pitch, good sense and brevity coped neatly and adequately with
most complexities, and kept the spoken language alive, still full of the
emotional life-force from which it first arose. I disagree when lin-
guists treat our Tonal differences in Lolo as original parts of the
word. They seem to be absent from Archaic Chinese; and when they first
show up in Ancient China c.600 A.D., they seem to have little in common
with Lolo tones. I suspect that they arose spontaneously within each
language group, as decay set in and there was need for them. Yet Old
Burmese proves that they are not invariable, but had emotional as well
as significant bases. They were not the property of any single word.
The great variety of spellings in 12th century Burmese is not evidence
that the writers were unschooled mis-spellers. It is a sign of life.
Whatever the cause, they felt the need for such variations. But this
is a complex subject requiring much larger treatment. It might open a
door into the origins both of the language, and of the people using it."
Luce felt strongly that there was a dominant emotional factor in the
use of tone in Old Burmese, and he used to cite as an example the emotional
use of the form hli? by Kyanzittha in the Myazedi inscription. He never-
theless believed that a two-fold lexical tone difference was very ancient
in Burmese, e.g. the difference between 0a with 'level' tone and 0a with
'heavy' tone. It will not have escaped the informed reader that such
aotions as that there may have been a non-tonal stage in the history of
Sino-Tibetan with tones developing when "there was need for them", and
that the early ancestor of Burmese may have had two tones only, are not
very far removed from some of the recent proposals made independently by
younger scholars currently working in the Tibeto-Burman field.
The aim of these brief notes has been to put forward Luce's own ideas,
in his own words as far as possible, so as to provide a background to the
Word-List itself. Such a background would not be complete without mention
of three Burmese scholars to whose learning and help Luce frequently
referred with the greatest respect and gratitude: the late Colonel Ba Shin
of the Burmese Archaeological Commission; Professor Hla Pe, until 1980 Professor of
Burmese at the School of Oriental and African Studies, London University;
and U Tin Htway of Heidelberg University, who in recent years visited
Jersey regularly in order to work with Luce on the inscriptions.
I am especially indebted to U Tin Htway for his invaluable help in
clarifying Luce's abbreviations and for his careful checking of the ref-
erences. The detailed comments and notes in the section dealing with
abbreviations on page v. were all supplied by U Tin Htway.
Arrangement of the Word List
The arrangement is under rhymes or 'finals' rather than under
initials, "so as to show the closeness to Tibetan and Chinese" (letter,
Dec. 1976).
The first column contains the English glosses.
The second column gives a roman transliteration of the modern Burmese
orthographic forms, which will be readily interpreted by those familiar
with the Burmese writing system. What Luce called the 'heavy tone' is
shown by a following colon, e.g. kra: ; the 'short' tone by a following


apostrophe, e.g. ka' ; and the 'level' tone by a following superscript '3',
e.g. ka 3. In earlier drafts of the list Luce separated his finals accord-
ing to tones, so that all _,A finals with short tone were grouped together,
then all _A finals with the level tone, and so on. In the final draft he
decided to "put the three Burmese tones together, so that their relation-
ships (if any) to each other and to Sinic will be more apparent" (letter,
Nov. 1976). Readers unfamiliar with Burmese pronunciation are warned that
the transliterations should not be taken as phonetic transcriptions in any
sense, since there is nowadays a wide gap between the spoken form and the
orthographic form. To take one example, the words spelt with final -AC
are in modern Burmese pronounced with final [-i0] . It should be remembered
that the finals are entered under their transliterated forms, not according
to their modern pronunciations; thus the forms pronounced [-i?] referred to
above are entered as finals having the vowel A , not as having the vowel I.
As Luce himself says: "Burmese is remarkably archaic in spellings but not
in pronunciation. Its final consonants, though still written, are hardly
ever pronounced. When we note the oldest Burmese spellings, the links
between Archaic Chinese and Tibetan, are remarkably easy to trace" (letter,
Jan. 1978).
The third column contains the relevant citations from Old Burmese
inscriptions. Of these citations Luce writes: "Where possible I have
chosen not merely the various oldest spellings of each word, but also
phrases showing its various uses" (Aug. 1976). A Key to the sources of
the citations is given in the following section.
The fourth column gives the suggested Archaic Chinese comparisons.
The Archaic Chinese reconstructions follow those proposed by Karlgren in
Grammata Serica, but in some instances Luce has modified the transcription;
for instance, he uses the phonetic symbol 1] where Karlgren writes ng.
The Tibetan comparisons in the fifth column are drawn from J'&schke's
Tibetan English Dictionary.
Luce appears to have felt reasonably confident about his Old Burmese
comparisons, which he copied ("as carefully as my eyes permit") from his
own original readings of the transcriptions concerned. The comparisons
with Tibetan and Archaic Chinese he felt were "much more questionable, espe-
cially those with Tibetan where my knowledge (largely based on Jaschke) is
inadequate. I feel less unsure in dealing with Karlgren's Grammata Serica
where not only careful sound-histories are provided back to c^.1000 B.C.,
but also a selection of the earliest pictograms" (Aug. 1976).
The order in which the finals are presented is given below. It will
be seen that the _I and _E finals are included under one heading. Luce
explained his decision thus: "I have decided to combine these [_I and _E
finals], since obviously they were confused in Old Burmese (contrast _fi [e]
and -E [e] which are scarcely ever confused!). One can only guess from the
context whether siy, siy, si, si, se, sey, etc. mean 'dead', 'fruit',
'know', 'yet', 'sing', 'separate', 'fine', 'urine', 'thread' etc. This is
one of my many problems. Old Burmese certainly could distinguish them, on
similar but not the same rigid lines as those by which they are now distin-
guished. I have satisfied myself that it was not just, or not always, a
matter of prevalent carelessness or mispelling. Variations are often due to
differences in Emotion, Rhythm or Focus. So in my present arrangement I no
longer try to impose modern rules, for fear of obscuring the facts. Let the
old spellings speak for themselves!" (Dec. 1976)
iii.


Numbering of Entries
As mentioned above Luce's original intention was to compile a much
longer list of words than that presented here. In his manuscript he some-
times left numbered spaces which he clearly intended to fill in later, but
which in the event were never dealt with. It would have been possible to
re-number the entries so that all the words in a given section ran consecu-
tively, but since both Tin Htway's and Luce's own references to individual
entries use the original numbering system, it has seemed wisest not to
tamper with this. We have accordingly deleted the unused numbers, but left
the numbering of the completed entries as in the manuscript.
E.J.A. Henderson


REFERENCES AND SOURCES
CHINESE - Bernard Karlgren, Grammata Serica (Stockholm, 1940)
" M Analytic Dictionary of Chinese and
Sino-Japanese (Paris, 1923)
Herbert A. Giles, A Chinese-English Dictionary,
2nd ed., 2 vols. (1912)
TIBETAN - H.A. Jaschke, A Tibetan-English Dictionary
(London, 1934) - Jaschke
OLD BURMESE - largely 12th century A.D.
Sources:- (i) Inscriptions of Burma, Portfolios I to V, 609 large
plates covering the period down to 726 _s.
(Burmese Era), 1364 A.D., and the founding of
Ava as capital.
(ii) C. Duroiselle's A List of Inscriptions found in Burma,
Part I (Rangoon, 1921), which gives references to
the six 'Elephant Volumes' in Burmese published in
Rangoon (1892-1913).
(iii) Epigraphia Birmanica Vol. I, Part I (Rangoon, 1919),
with Duroiselle's editing of the two Burmese faces
of the so-called 'Myazedi Inscriptions ' of
Prince Rajakumar.
(iv) G.H. Luce's Old Burma - Early Pagan (3 vols., New York,
1970), with its catalogue of Plates (PI.) giving
readings of the few early Burmese glosses on
votive tablets.
(v) The Lokahteikpan by the late Bohmu Ba Shin (Rangoon,
1962) - 212 pages, 70 plates and map of Pagan.
Chapters III to V give reliable readings and
translations (English and Burmese) of the many
ink-inscriptions on the temple walls, which are
mostly in Burmese.
(vi) Artibus Asiae, Vol. XXXIII, 3 (1971), pp. 167-218,
"Pagan, Wetkyi-in Kubyaukgyi, an early Burmese
temple with ink-glosses" by the late Col. Ba Shin,
K.J. Whitbread and G.H. Luce.
(vii) Selections from the Inscriptions of Pagan by Pe Maung Tin
and G.H. Luce (Rangoon University Publ. no. 1, 1928).
In Burmese. Stone inscriptions, pp.1-148. Ink in-
scriptions (mostly of Buddhist interest), pp.148-165.
(viii) Hitherto unpublished notebooks of Luce's readings of inscrip-
tions and plaques, as for example of the "Mingalazedi".
v.


List of Abbreviations used, with notes and comments by U Tin Htway
After each citation in the Old Burmese column there is a reference
to its source in parentheses. A guide to the conventions and abbreviations
used is given below:-
F. = File(s). That is to say, Luce's personal file(s) of
the transcription of INSCRIPTIONS OF BURMA (Five
Portfolios), almost all in his own handwriting.
14
e.g. "F. 593a " [see -I and _E Finals No. 10] refers to
No. 593a of his File (No. V) and the raised indices
refer to the number of the relevant line. The
numbering in these files is in accordance with the
numbering of the INSCRIPTIONS OF BURMA (Portfolios I
to V) so that this reference is to INSCRIPTIONS OF
BURMA, Plate No. 593a, line 14.
ink gloss= T.H. is unsure about this but thinks it refers to the
Ink-Glosses from WETKYI-IN KUBYAUK-GYI Pagoda, Pagan.
See, for example, _A Finals No. 23, the last entry.
J. = Jataka; e.g. J. 365 [see _AN Finals No. 64]
T.H. feels certain that Luce must have intended the
above mentioned reference to be to 'WK J. 365', but
that he omitted the 'WK' here.
L. = The Lokahteikpan; e.g. "L. 120" [see A Finals No.4]
refers to line 120 of Lokahteikpan inscription in
this book.
List = Duroiselle's A List of Inscriptions found in Burma;
e.g. " List. 885az " [see _A Finals No. 46] refers
to the inscription which is listed as No. 885a in
the above mentioned book and the raised indices refer
to the line number of the inscription.
MZ = The MINGALA-ZEDI Pagoda (Pagan)[where there are well
preserved and listed plaques of 'The 550 JATAKA
(stories)']
e.g.
(a) i. MZ pi. [see -IM Finals No. 3]
ii. MZ pi. [see -UN Finals No. 9]
iii. MZ plaques [see -UIW Finals No. 40]
iv. MZ plaques [see -UIW Finals No. 47]
v. MZ groundfloor plaques [see -A Finals No. 7]
All these references are to the Jataka plaques from
the MINGALA-ZEDI Pagoda but no specific number
is given.
(b) i. MZ pi. 50 [see _I and -E Finals No. 35]
ii. 126 (MZ) [see _A Finals No. 157]
iii. 67 (MZ pi.) [see _I and _E Finals No. 63]
iv. 166 (MZ pi.) [see -UT Finals No. 24]
vi.


v. 476 (MZ pi.) [see -AN Finals No. 120]
vi. 68 (MZ plaques) [see _A Finals No. 63]
vii. MZ J. 164, 38 [see -A Finals No. 44]
viii. MZ J. 265 [see _AW Finals No. 21]
All these references are to the Jataka plaques from
the MINGALA-ZEDI Pagoda with the listed numbers.
;) i. MZ Javanahamsa [see _AY Finals No. 30]
ii. MZ Mahos 57 [see _A Finals No. 115]
(Mahos = Mahosadha Jataka)
iii. MZ Vess pi. [see _AW Finals No. 26]
iv. MZ Vess plaque [see _I and -E Finals No. 52]
(Vess = Vessantara Jataka)
All these references are to the Jataka plaques from
the MINGALA-ZEDI Pagoda mentioned here by name. In
the case of (ii) there is specific reference to the
plaque No. 57 because there is more than one plaque
for the scenes from the Mahosakha Jataka.
Old Burmese (Language); e.g. [see _0K Finals No. 57]
G.H; LUCE'S OLD BURMA - EARLY PAGAN;
g. (i) OBEP I, 248187
[see -AN Finals No. 43]
(ii) OBEP I, p. 39617
[see _0K Finals No. 11]
Both references are to OLD BURMA - EARLY PAGAN,
Volume I, followed by the page number (with or
without 'p.'). The raised indices refer here to
the footnote number (and not to the line number of
the page).
Obverse ? [see -I and -E Finals No. 33, and -UT
Finals No. 20]
Plates in Vol. II of OLD BURMA - EARLY PAGAN.
The so-called 'Myazedi Inscriptions' of Prince
Rajakumar. See the edited version of the two
Burmese faces in Epigraphia Birmanica Vol. I, Part 1.
This four faced inscription has a duplicate. The
two stones are referred to by the editor as Stone
• a' and Stone 'b'.
g. (a) Ra10 [see -A Finals No.40] refers to line 10
of the 'Rajakumar Inscription' (Burmese Face),
Stone 'a'.
(b) Rb27 [see _A Finals No. 159] refers to line 27
of the 'Rajakumar Inscription' (Burmese Face),
Stone 'b'.
vii.


SIP = Pe Maung Tin and G.H. Luce, Selections from the
Inscriptions of Pagan;
e.g. (a) SIP 158 [see _A Finals No. 62]
(b) SIP p. 158 [see _UIW Finals No. 18]
Both refer to page number 158.
(c) SIP 15224 [see -UIW Finals No. 31]
refers to page number 152 of the above mentioned
book but the raised indices refer to the line number
of the original inscription which appears on this
page (i.e. it is not the line number of the page itself).
SN J = Sein-nyet Pagoda Jatakas, i.e. reference is to
the list of Jatakas on the Sein-nyet (Ama)
Pagoda;
e.g. ( i) SN J 198 [see _I and -E Finals No. 7]
( ii) SN J 393 [ " ]
(iii) SN J 3 [see -WAY Finals No. 24]
[see -UN Finals No. 1]
There are two Sein-nyet Pagodas, at the crest of
high ground about a mile S. of Myinpagan (near
Pagan). In the Sein-nyet (Ama) Pagoda, there are
walls and window-embrasures which have tiers of
Jataka panels with Burmese glosses. The series
starts on the S. wall from the S.E. corner, and
goes round the S., N. , and E. walls of the Hall,
approximately as follows:-
Tier 1 - Jat. 1 to 50.
2 - " 51 to 103.
3 - " 104 to 153.
4 - " 154 to 192.
5 - " 193 to 224
6 - " 225 to 255.
7 - " 256 to 326.
8 - " 327 to 395.
9 - " 396 to 463.
" 10 - " 464 etc.
(OLD BURMA - EARLY PAGAN,
Vol. 1, p. 411)
WK = Ba Shin et al., "Pagan, Wetkyi-in Kubyaukgyi, an
early Burmese temple with ink-glosses".
In this article there is a list of 'Jataka Series
ink glosses in Hall-Shrine' (pp. 200-217). The
authors provide 'the Singhalese title of the
Jataka for comparison' with numbers, which Luce
has used here in many cases. It is important to
note the so-called 'Square Number' which is shown
in brackets separately.
e.g.
(a) i. WK 195 [see _A Finals No. 110]
ii. WK 192 [see -AM Finals No. 11]
iii. WK 198 [see _AM Finals No. 22]
iv. WK 193 [see _IT Finals No. 10]
viii.


V. WK 195 [see -AN Finals No. 51]
vi. WK 195 [see -AN Finals No. 31]
vii. WK 195 [see _AK Finals No. 23]
Viii. WK 195 [see -AK Finals No. 50]
ix. WK 193 [see -IN Finals No. 6]
X. WK 199 [see -AN Finals No. 22]
xi. WK 199 [see _AK Finals No. 32]
xii. WK P- 197 [see _ .A Finals No . 23]
xiii. WK P. 192 [see _ .A Finals No . 46]
xiv. WK P. 195 [see _ .A Finals No . 49]
XV . WK P. 192 [see _ .A Finals No . 74]
xvi. WK P- 194 [see - -A Finals No.112]
xvii. WK P. 193 [see _ .AN Finals No. 5]
All these examples refer to page numbers (with or
without 'p.') in the Ba Shin article.
i. WK J. 116 [see -A Finals No. 4]
ii. WK J. 75 [see _A Finals No. 28]
iii. WK J. 164, 381, , 399, 427
[see -A Finals No. 44]
iv. WK J. 239 [see _A Finals No. 69]
v. WK J. 432 [see _A Finals No. 75]
vi. WK J. 29 [see _AK Finals No, â–  18]
vii. WK J. 388 [see _AK Finals No. . 52]
viii. WK J. 128, 129 [see _AK Finals No. 57]
All these examples refer to the above-mentioned
'List of Jataka Series', and the numbers are the
Jataka numbers according to the Singhalese order.
ix. WK 37, 438 [see _A Finals No. 20]
Here Luce appears to have forgotten to insert the
letter 'J' after 'WK', since on checking T.H. found
that these numbers are Jataka numbers and not page
numbers.
(c) i. WK square 261 [see _IP Finals No. 44]
ii. WK sq. 263 [see -AN Finals No. 92]
These examples refer to the 'List of Jataka
Series' and its 'Square numbers'.
iii. WK 208260 [see -IT Finals No. 6]
In this case, 208 is the page number and the
indices refer to the so-called 'Square number'
(d) i. WK Kukura J. 22 [see -WE Finals No. 146]
ii. WK J. 466 Samuddavanija
[see -AY Finals No. 25]
iii. WK J. 32, 136 Suvannahamsa
[see -AY Finals No. 30]
iv. WK J. 69 Visavanta
[see -AY Finals No. 45]
These examples have the title as well as the numbers
of the Jatakas.


Roman numerals I - V = Portfolios of the Inscriptions of Burma.
The arabic numeral following the roman numeral refers
to the inscription, raised indices following the
Inscription number refer to the line,
e.g. "IV 37032" = the 32nd line of the inscription
numbered 370 in Portfolio IV.
In the Archaic Chinese column unless otherwise stated references are
to the numbered dictionary entries in Karlgren's Grammata Serica.
Where comparisons are made with other works the following abbreviations
are used:
ADC = Karlgren's Analytic Dictionary of Chinese
and Sino-Japanese.
Giles = Giles' Chinese-English Dictionary.
GS = Grammata Serica.
In the Tibetan column the numerals refer to pages in Jaschke's
Tibetan-English Dictionary.


FOREWORD
Students of a language nowadays generally start at Its end - the
modern spoken form. If this spoken form is not their object, it would be
better, I suggest, to start at the beginning, or as near to it as possible.
Written Burmese - roughly as old as English - is accessible in its original
form from about 1100 AD: on clay ex-votos and many stone and ink inscrip-
tions. And there is no breach in its continuity from that day to this. I
doubt if any S.E. Asian language has so many original inscriptions as
Burmese. Once the norm had been established, Burmese spelling has remained
pretty constant; and, before then, the very variety of spellings in the
older inscriptions, helps to fix the pronunciation.
The language, of course, is far older than its written-form. Burmese
unquestionably goes back to a common ancestor with Tibetan and Chinese.
Pictographic writing may have kept Chinese more monosyllabic; but thanks
to Bernard Karlgren's Grammata Serica, we can see that though its pronuncia-
tion has changed greatly over the centuries, in the first millennium B.C.
it had much in common with Old Burmese. The following charts make no
pretension to cover any of these old languages. To cover Old Burmese alone
would need a big volume. From a small selection of its older inscriptions,
cited, with references, in transcription as full and accurate as space
permitted, I have sought, with the aid of Jaschke and Karlgren, to open a
small door into a vast garden.
Gordon H. Luce
March 27th, 1978




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[Nos. 116-136 uncompleted]


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[Nos. 33-34 uncompleted]


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[Nos. 50-68 uncompleted]


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[Nos. 10-14 uncompleted]


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Full Text

PAGE 1

! . >Ref.GPC \ _ _/412 I \ I I A Comparative WordList of Old Burmese, Chinese and Tibetan G.H. WCE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF LONDON Malet Street, London WC1E 7HP 1981

PAGE 3

A Comparative Word-List of Old Burmese, Chinese and Tibetan G.H. LUCE [1111] SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF LONDON Malet Street, London WC1E 7HP 1981

PAGE 4

f, ... _ '7 @) John M. Luce and Sandra C.. Harding 1981 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Luce, G.H. A comparative word-list of Old Burmese, Chinese and Tibetan. 1. Tibeto-Burman languages I. Title 495 PL3559 ISBN 0-7286-0084-6 Printed in Great Britain at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London

PAGE 5

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION by Professor E.J.A. Henderson REFERENCES AND SOURCES by U Tin Htway FORWORD VOWEL FINALS -A Finals -WA Finals -I and -E Finals -WE Finals -AY Finals -WAY Finals -AW Finals -UIW Finals -U Finals CONSONANT FINALS -AP Finals -IP Finals -UP Finals -AM Finals -IM Finals -UM Finals -AT Finals, -WAT Finals -IT Finals -UT Finals -AN Finals, -WAN Finals -IN Finals -UN Finals -AC Finals, -WAC Finals -AN Finals, -WAN Finals -AK Finals, -WAK Finals -AN Finals -WAN Finals -OK Finals -ON Finals i V xi 1 8 10 17 19 22 24 27 31 36 38 39 41 44 45 47 49 50 52 56 57 58 61 66 70 78 80 84

PAGE 7

INTRODUCTION For many years Gordon Luce cherished the intention to compile a dictionary of what he referred to as "Pre-Standard Old Burmese", drawing upon an intimate acquaintance with and love of Old Burmese inscriptions which spanned half a century. His original plan was to produce a comparative dictionary which would not only include Archaic Chinese and Tibetan cognates but would also note ancient loans from Mon-Khmer and Indian languages. An early draft of the present work also included Hpun forms where available, and added Ancient and Modern Chinese forms alongside the Archaic ones. As late as 1977, Luce was referring'in his letters to "tasks that still remained to be done'' which included the compilation of an index of the words cited, and the writing of an introduction, which would discuss his sources and make other comments of a general nature. In the event, advancing years and failing eyesight persuaded him to content himself with a less ambitious project, namely, the present list of some eight hundred Old Burmese words, largely from the tweifth century A.D., covering what he described as "the basic Sino/Tibetan/Burmese vocabulary", with suggested comparisons confined to Archaic Chinese and Tibetan. Other than the short Foreword included in this volume, no introduction was written by Luce himself. It is for this reason that, with considerable diffidence, I have attempted in these notes to give the reader some notion of Luce's attitude towards his Old Burmese material, as conveyed in his conversation and letters during his last years in Jersey.* Anyone less like the layman's stereotype of a dry-as-dust philologist than Gordon Luce is hard to imagine. A poet by inclination, he had a deeply sensitive feeling for the use of words, nurtured by his familiarity with the literatures of a wide variety of languages. His long acquaintance with the Old Burmese inscriptions had implanted in him a keen aesthetic delight in the language in which they are written. Aesthetic reactions of this kind are bound to be in no small degree subjective, but in Luce's company it was impossible not to be carried along by the warmth of his enthusiasm and the liveliness of his exposition. He could bring Old Burmese to life. Other scholars may dispute certain features of this reincarnation, and Luce himself was always prepared to concede that some of his interpretations and suggested comparisons might be proved wrong in the light of further evidence. He argues, however, that, "however many mistakes in detail I may make in my Word-Lists, there is, I claim, a fundamental rightness in the approach" (Jan.1978). The quasi-romantic flavour of his feelings about Old Burmese, and of his own literary style, is illustrated in the following passage from a letter written in August 1976. "To accommodate Old Burmese and Tibetan, we have to unscramble themonosyllabic clot which obviously Chinese underwent during the millenium previous to the Western Chou. And we have to forget the legalistic evolution of the Indo-Germanic Verb and Noun, and the regimentation by Conjunctions etc. of an over-organised sentence,and * It should be borne in mind that the letters were not written for publication, and that Luce himself might have wished to revise or reformulate some of the contents if he had known they were to be made public.

PAGE 8

get back to a far more natural rounded sort of speech where rhythm, musical pitch, good sense and brevity coped neatly and adequately with most complexities, and kept the spoken language alive, still full of the emotional life-force from which it first arose. I disagree when linguists treat our Tonal differences in Lolo as original parts of the word. They seem to be absent from Archaic Chinese; and when they first show up in Ancient China A.D., they seem to have little in common with Lolo tones. I suspect that they arose spontaneously within each language group, as decay set in and there was need for them. Yet Old Burmese proves that they are not invariable, but had emotional as well as significant bases. They were not the property of any single word. The great variety of spellings in 12th century Burmese is not evidence that the writers were unschooled mis-spellers. It is a sign of life. Whatever the cause, they felt the need for such variations. But this is a complex subject requiring much larger treatment. It might open a door into the origins both of the language, and of the people using it." .Luce felt strongly that there was a dominant emotional factor in the of tone in Old Burmese, and he used to cite as an example the emotional of the form hli? by Kyanzittha in the Myazedi inscription. He nevertheless believed that a two-fold lexical tone difference was very ancient in Burmese, e.g. the difference between Qa with 'level' tone and Qa with 'heavy' tone. It will not have escaped the informed reader that such as that there have been a non-tonal stage in the history of Sino-Tibetan with tones developing when "there was need for them", and that the early ancestor of Burmese may have had two tones only, are not far removed from some of the recent proposals made independently by younger scholars currently working in the Tibeto-Burman field. The aim of these brief notes has been to put forward Luce's own ideas, in his own words as far as possible, so as to provide a background to the Word-List itself. Such a background would not be complete without mention of three Burmese scholars to whose learning and help Luce frequently with the greatest respect and gratitude: the late Colonel Ba Shin af the Burmese Archaeological Commission; Professor Hla Pe, until 1980 Professor of Burmese at the School of Oriental and African Studies, London University; and U Tin Htway of Heidelberg University, who in recent years visited Jersey regularly in order to work with Luce on the inscriptions. I am especially indebted to U Tin Htway for his invaluable help in clarifying Luce's abbreviations and for his careful checking of the references. The detailed comments and notes in the section dealing with abbreviations on page v. were all supplied by U Tin Htway. of the Word List The arrangement is under rhymes or 'finals' rather than under initials, "so as to show the closeness to Tibetan and Chinese" (letter, Dec. 1976). The first column contains the English glosses. The second column gives a roman transliteration of the modern Burmese orthographic forms, which will be readily interpreted by those familiar with the Burmese writing system. What Luce called the 'heavy tone' is shown by a following colon, e.g. kra: ; the 'short' tone by a following

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e.g. ka' ; and the 'level' tone by a following superscript '3', e.g. ka 3 In earlier drafts of the list Luce separated his finals according to tones, so that all _A finals with short tone were grouped together, then all -! finals with the-level tone, and so on. In the final draft he decided to "put the three Burmese tones together, so that their relationships (if any) to each other and to Sinic will be more apparent" (letter, Nov. 1976). Readers unfamiliar with Burmese pronunciation are warned that the transliterations should not be taken as phonetic transcriptions in any sense, since there is nowadays a wide gap between the spoken form and the orthographic form. To take one example, the words spelt with final _AC are in modern Burmese pronounced with final [-i?]. It should be remembered that the finals are entered under their transliterated forms, not according to their modern pronunciations; thus the forms pronounced [-i?] referred to above are entered as finals having the vowel A , not as having the vowel I. As Luce himself says: "Burmese is remarkably archaic in spellings but notin pronunciation. Its final consonants, though still written, are hardly ever pronounced. When we note the oldest Burmese spellings, the links between Archaic Chinese and Tibetan, are remarkably easy to trace" (letter, Jan. 1978). The third column contains the relevant citations from Old Burmese inscriptions. Of these citations Luce writes: "Where possible I have chosen not merely the various oldest spellings of each word, but also phrases showing its various uses" (Aug. 1976). A Key to the sources of the citations is given in the following section. The fourth column gives the suggested Archaic Chinese comparisons. The Archaic Chinese reconstructions follow those proposed by Karlgren in Grammata Serica, but in some instances Luce has modified the transcription; for instance, he uses the phonetic symbol l) where Karlgren writes ng_. The Tibetan comparisons in the fifth column are drawn from Tibetan English Luce appears to have felt reasonably confident about his Old Burmese comparisons, which he copied ("as carefully as my eyes permit") his own original readings of the transcriptions concerned. The comparisons with Tibetan and Archaic Chinese he felt were "much more questionable, especially those with Tibetan where my knowledge (largely based on Jaschke) is inadequate. I feel less unsure in dealing with Karlgren's Grammata Serica where not only careful sound-histories are provided back to .1000 B.C., but also a selection of the earliest pictograms" (Aug. 1976). The order in which the finals are presented is given below. It will be seen that the -I and -E finals are included under one heading. Luce explained his decision thus: "I have decided to combine these [-I and _E finals], since obviously they were confused in Old Burmese (contrast _E [e] and -E [E] which are scarcely ever confused!). One can only guess from the context whether siy, siy, si, si, se, sey, etc. mean 'dead', 'fruit', 'know', 'yet', 'sing'-,--,separate',--'fine', 'urine', 'thread' etc. This is one of my many problems. Old Burmese certainly could distinguish them, on similar but not the same rigid lines as those by which they are now distinguished. I have satisfied myself that it was not just, or not always, a matter of prevalent carelessness or mispelling. Variations are often due to differences in Emotion, Rhythm or Focus. So in my present arrangement I no longer try to impose modern rules, for fear of obscuring the facts. Let the old spellings speak for themselves!" (Dec. 1976) iii

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Numbering of Entries As mentioned above Luce's original intention was to compile a much longer list of words than that presented here. In his manuscript he sometimes left numbered spaces which he clearly intended to fill in later, but which in the event were never dealt with. It would have been possible to re-number the entries so that all the words in a given section ran consecutively, but since both Tin Htway's and Luce's own references to individual entries use the original numbering system, it has seemed wisest not to tamper with this. We have accordingly deleted the unused numbers, but left the numbering of the completed entries as in the manuscript. E.J.A. Henderson

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CHINESE TIBETAN REFERENCES AND SOURCES Bernard Karlgren, Grammata Serica (Stockholm, 1940) " " Analytic Dictionary of Chinese and Sino-Japanese (Paris, 1923) Herbert A. Giles, A Chinese-English Dictionary, 2nd ed., 2 vols. (1912) H.A. Jaschke, A Tibetan-English Dictionary (London, 1934) -Jaschke OLD BURMESE largely 12th century A.D. Sources:(i) Inscriptions of Burma, Portfolios I to V, 609 large plates covering the period down to 726 (Burmese Era), 1364 A.D., and the founding of Ava as capital. (ii) C. Duroiselle's A List of Inscriptions found in Burma, Part I (Rangoon, 1921), which gives references to the six 'Elephant Volumes' in Burmese published in Rangoon (1892-1913). (iii) Epigraphia Birmanica Vol. I, Part I (Rangoon, 1919), with Duroiselle's editing of the two Burmese faces of the so-called 'Myazedi Inscriptions' of Prince Rajakumar. (iv) G.H. Luce's Old Burma-Early Pagan (3 vols., New York, 1970), with its catalogue of Plates (Pl.) giving readings of the few early Burmese glosses on votive tablets. (v) The Lokahteikpan by the late Bohmu Ba Shin (Rangoon, 1962) -212 pages, 70 plates and map of Pag;n. Chapters Ill to V give reliable readings and translations (English and Burmese) of the many ink-inscriptions on the temple walls, which are mostly in Burmese. (vi) Artibus Asiae, Vol. XXXIII, 3 (1971), pp. 167-218, "Pagan, Wetkyi-in Kubyaukgyi, an early Burmese temple with ink-glosses" by the late Col. Ba Shin, K.J. Whitbread and G.H. Luce. (vii) Selections from the Inscriptions of Pagan by Pe Maung Tin and G.H. Luce (Rangoon University Publ. no. 1, 1928). In Burmese. Stone inscriptions, pp.l-148. Ink inscriptions (mostly of Buddhist interest), pp.148-165. (viii) Hitherto unpublished notebooks of Luce's readings of inscriptions and plaques, as for example of the "Mingalazedi". v.

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List of Abbreviations used, with notes and comments by U Tin Htway After each citation in the Old Burmese column there is a reference to its source in parentheses. A guide to the conventions and abbreviations used is given below:-F. = File(s). That is to say, Luce's personal file(s) of the transcription of INSCRIPTIONS OF BURMA (Five Portfolios), almost all in his own handwriting. 14 e.g. "F. 593a " [see -I and _E Finals No. 10] refers to No. 593a of his File (No. V) and the raised indices refer to the number of the relevant line. The numbering in these files is in accordance with the numbering of the INSCRIPTIONS OF BURMA (Portfolios I to V) so that this reference is to INSCRIPTIONS OF BURMA, Plate No. 593a, line 14. ink gloss= T.H. is unsure about this but thinks it refers to the Ink-Glosses from WETKYI-IN KUBYAUK-GYI Pagoda, Pagan. J. L. List MZ = = = = See, .for example, _A Finals No. 23, the last entry. Jataka; e.g. J. 365 [see _AN Finals No. 64] T.H. feels certain that Luce must have intended the above mentioned reference to be to 'WK J. 365', but that he omitted the 'WK' here. The Lokahteikpan; e.g. 120" [see A Finals No.4] refers to line 120 of Lokahteikpan inscription in this book. Duroiselle's A List of Inscriptions found in Burma; e.g. " List. 885a2 " [see _A Finals No. 46] refers to the inscription which is listed as No. 885a in the above mentioned book and the raised indices refer to the line number of the inscription. The MINGALA-ZEDI Pagoda (Pagan)[where there are well preserved and .listed plaques of 'The 550 JATAKA (stories)'] e.g. (a) i. MZ pl. [see -IM Finals No. 3] MZ pl. [see -UN Finals No. 9] (b) ii. iii. iv. MZ plaques [see -UIW Finals No. 40] MZ plaques [see -UIW Finals No. 47] v. MZ groundfloor plaques [see -A Finals No. 7] All these references are to the Jataka plaques from the MINGALA-ZEDI Pagoda but no specific number is given. i. MZ pl. 50 [see -I and -E Finals No. 35] ii. 126 (MZ) [see Finals No. 157] iii. 67 (MZ pl.) [see -I and _E Finals No. 63] i-V'. 166 (MZ pl.) [see -UT Finals No. 24] vi.

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OB OBEP OBV Pl. v. 476 (MZ pl.) [see -AN Finals No. 120] vi. 68 (MZ plaques) [see -A Finals No. 63] vii. MZ J. 164, 38 [see -A Finals No. 44] viii. MZ J. 265 [see _AW Finals No. 21] All these references are to the Jataka plaques from the MINGALA-ZEDI Pagoda with the listed numbers. (c) i. MZ Javanahamsa [see _Ay Finals No. 30] ii. MZ Mahos 57 [see _A Finals No. 115] (Mahos = Mahosadha Jataka) iii. MZ Vess pl. [see _AW Finals No. 26] = iv. MZ Vess plaque [see _I and -E Finals No. 52] (Vess = Vessantara Jataka) All these references are to the Jataka plaques from the MINGALA-ZEDI Pagoda mentioned here by name. In the case of (ii) there is specific reference to the plaque No. 57 because there is more than one plaque for the scenes from the Mahosakha Jataka. Old Burmese (Language); e.g. [see _OK Finals No. 57] G.H; LUCE's OLD BURMA EARLY PAGAN; e.g. (i) OBEP I, 248187 = = e.g. ----[see -AN Finals No. 43] (ii) OBEP I, p. 39617 ----. [see _OK Finals No. 11] Both references are to OLD BURMA -EARLY PAGAN, Volume I, followed by the page number (with or without 'p. '). The raised indices refer here to the footnote number (and not to the line number of the page). Obverse ? [see -1 and -E Finals No. 33, and -UT' Finals No. 20] Plates in Vol. 11 of OLD BURMA -EARLY PAGAN. The so-called 'Myazedi Inscriptions' of Prince Rajakumar. See the edited version of the two Burmese faces in Epigraphia Birmanica Vol. I, Part 1. This four faced inscription has a duplicate. The two stones are referred to by the editor as Stone 'a' and Stone 'b'. (a) Ra10 [see _A Finals No.40] refers to line 10 of the 'Rajakumar Inscription' (Burmese Face), Stone 'a'. (b) Rb27 [see _A Finals No. 159] refers to line 27 of the 'Rajakumar Inscription' (Burmese Face), Stone 'b'. vii.

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SIP = Pe Maung Tin and G.H. Luce, Selections from the Inscriptions of Pagan; SN J WK e.g. (a) SIP 158 [see -A Finals No. 62] = e.g. = e.g. (a) (b) SIP p. 158 [see -UIW Finals No. 18] Both refer to page number 158. (c) SIP 15224 [see -UIW Finals No. 31] refers to page number 152 of the above mentioned book but the raised indices refer to the line number of the original inscription which appears on this page (i.e. it is not the line number of the page itself). Sein-nyet Pagoda Jatakas, i.e. reference is to the list of Jatakas on the Sein-nyet (Ama) Pagoda; ( i) SN J 198 [see -1 and -E Finals No. 7] ( ii) SN J 393 [ " ] (iii) SN J 3 [see -WAY Finals No. 24] [see -UN Finals No. 1] There are two Sein-nyet Pagodas, at the crest of high ground about a mile S. of Myinpagan (near Pagan). In the Sein-nyet (Ama) Pagoda, there are walls and window-embrasures which have tiers of Jataka panels with Burmese glosses. The series starts on the S. wall from the S.E. corner, and goes round the S., N., and E. walls of the Hall, approximately as follows:-Tier 1 Jat. 1 to 50. " 2 " 51 to 103. " 3 " 104 to 153. " 4 " 154 to 192. " 5 " 193 to 224 " 6 " 225 to 255. " 7 " 256 to 326. " 8 " 327 to 395. " 9 " 396 to 463. " 10 " 464 etc. (OLD BURMA -EARLY PAGAN, Vol. 1, p. 411) Ba Shin et al.,. "Pagan, Wetkyi-in Kubyaukgyi, an early Burmese temple with ink-glosses". In this article there is a list of 'Jataka Series -ink glosses in Hall-Shrine' (pp. 200-217). The authors provide 'the. Singhalese title of the Jataka for comparison' with numbers, which Luce has used here in many cases. It is important to note the so-called 'Square Number' which is shown in brackets separately. i. WK 195 [see _A Finals No. 110] ii. WK 192 [see -AM Finals No. 11] iii. WK 198 [see _AM Finals No. 22] iv. WK 193 [see _IT Finals No. 10] viii.

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v. WK 195 [see -AN Finals No. 51] vi. WK 195 [see -AN Finals No. 31] vii. WK 195 [see _AK Finals No. 23] Viii. WK 195 [see -AK Finals No. 50] ix. WK 193 [see -IN Finals No. 6] x. WK 199 [see -AN Finals No. 22] xi. WK 199 [see -AK Finals No. 32] xii. WK p. 197 [see _A Finals No. 23] xiii. WK p. 192 [see _A Finals No. 46] xiv. WK p. 195 [see -A Finals No. 49] xv. WK p. 192 [see -A Finals No. 74] xvi. WK p. 194 [see -A Finals No.112] xvii. WK p. 193 [see _AN Finals No. 5] All these examples refer to page numbers (with or without 'p. ') in the Ba Shin article. (b) i. WK J. 116 [see -A.Finals No. 4] ii. WK J. 75 [see _A Finals No. 28] iii. WK J. 164, 381, 399, 427 [see _A Finals No. 44] iv. WK J. 239 [see _A Finals No. 69] v. WK J. 432 [see _A Finals No. 75] vi. WK J. 29 [see _AK Finals No. 18] vii. WK J. 388 [see _AK Finals No. 52] viii. WK J. 128, 129 [see _AK Finals No. 57] All these examples refer to the above-mentioned 'List of Jataka Series', and the numbers are the Jataka numbers according to the Singhalese order. ix. WK 37, 438 [see _A Finals No. 20] Here Luce appears to have forgotten to insert the letter 'J' after 'WK', since on checking T.H. found that these numbers are Jataka numbers and not page numbers. (c) i. WK square 261 [see -IP Finals No. 44] ii. WK sq. 263 [see -AN Finals No. 92] These examples refer to the 'List of Jataka Series' and its 'Square numbers'. iii. WK 208260 [see _IT Finals No. 6] In this case, 208 is the page number and the indices refer to the so-called 'Square number' (d) i. WK Kukura J. 22 [see -WE Finals No. 146] ii. WK J. 466 Samuddavanija [see -AY Finals No. 25] iii. WK J. 32, 136 Suvannahamsa [see -AY Finals No. 30] iv. WK J. 69 Visavanta [see -AY Finals No. 45] These examples have the title as well as the numbers of the Jatakas.

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Roman numerals I -V = Portfolios of the Inscriptions of Burma. The arabic numeral following the roman numeral refers to the inscription, raised indices following the inscription number refer to the line, e.g. "IV 37o32n = the 32nd line of the inscription numbered 370 in Portfolio IV. In the Archaic Chinese column unless otherwise stated references are to the numbered dictionary entries in Karlgren's Grammata Serica. Where comparisons are made with other works the following abbreviations are used: ADC = Karlgren's Analytic Dictionary of Chinese and Sino-Japanese. Giles = Giles' Chinese-English Dictionary. GS = Grammata Serica. In the Tibetan column the numerals refer to pages in Jaschke's Tibetan-English Dictionary.

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FOREWORD Students of a language nowadays generally start at its end -the modern spoken form. If this spoken form is not their object, it would be better, I suggest, to start at the beginning, or as near to it as possible. Written Burmese -roughly as old as English -is accessible in its original form from about 1100 AD: on clay ex-votos and many stone and ink inscriptions. And there is no breach in its continuity from that day to this. I doubt if any S.E. Asian language has so many original inscriptions as Burmese. Once the norm had been established, Burmese spelling has remained pretty constant; and, before then, the very variety of spellings in the older inscriptions, helps to fix the pronunciation. The language, of course, is far older than its written-form. Burmese unquestionably goes back to a common ancestor with Tibetan and Chinese. Pictographic writing may have kept Chinese more monosyllabic; but thanks to Bernard Karlgren's Grammata Serica, we can see that though its pronunciation has changed greatly over the centuries, in the first millennium B.C. it had much in common with Old Burmese. The following charts make no pretension to cover any of these old languages. To cover Old Burmese alone would need a big volume. From a small selection of its older inscriptions, cited, with references, in transcription as full and accurate as space permitted, I have sought, with the aid of Jaschke and Karlgren, to open a small door into a vast garden. Gordon H. Luce March 27th, 1978

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Modern Burmese OLD BURMESE ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN '"AIM tn ... 'D. { _...L___ ______ --------

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I o -:1(. 16 (ffi kG. f,. '1'1 t';l -. 3) l_r-,, o.: .4-q.u t..". -t . l,•-p 1(0 .53G st' ( rl.ottr) IJ 4-Mn ....1--tr .t(A. st'o r !> 0 ADt r9! 1:1 f !)0. , !]-tD, 14-)JI.., 0 , D. :tb. T J'l ji ,() ().. 135' , . h 1'( 0, li't \37 , ,,,, t 11&-t.l 1)6 gyo.

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. Modern Burmese OLD BURMESE ARCHAIC CHINESE ,,.-+. (.4; •.t; oocL 'hS 4 X.:'Q d1"a S""' ...._ ,Z!A' f 11t TIBETAN fttJL, i7,.9 6. xa -l>u9 ;, ... .u6 y"!zA-.Ivo. > 'f15 47f, C .,Q. ISI r'..Q. JS''SI ..f.il 'nMn -ut,o.to'ft)!J-04 .. ,p(6111 • .,... ttr'f't 115

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S""n4 .31' /e' ('f. !4 'J oiAS ('Pf'.it)J.ItS I to le.

PAGE 23

Modern Burmese m . OLD BURMESE ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN

PAGE 24

'/95i !J-,, 7 'l-t '/ '1Q.. .fro. !f/' <'a-0 .. -f''o -ii 1tli0t ,. 94 A. F" 10 . 'lriO .If 8 ., -:uc{ • .f._, ; CJWL-• lS'S'

PAGE 25

Modern Burmese [Nos. 116-136 uncompleted] OLD BURMESE ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN

PAGE 26

Modern Burmese OLD BURMESE ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN

PAGE 27

! ttos • 'r'O 2Jf 30'1 O't -4-•t t """ Gd.1) 0 IYD

PAGE 28

0 .... J... • t: r,._,J.J Modern Burmese ' ... -t. .. -t., ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN "' • it ... ., • .tL t\-''le ,,.l&,u ' ,,2. .. 17' I

PAGE 29

to. o(' """' (.itci.t1.,4t""')

PAGE 30

Modern Burmese \..-) ... OLD BURMESE ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN Jg i. /. -k. (A 53

PAGE 31

1
PAGE 32

fOu. ......u.' Q. ?1"\)ti: ARCHAIC CHINESE Bf '147a. (U""k\ X-rrti.WM .. 7lf2 .. •A 5 ,. TIBETAN "'" (.,.• ra.,.)4oB JL M.ll. />a

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1 Modern Burmese OLD BURMESE ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN [Nos. 111-136 uncompleted] • .,..,.a, . ;.,-:ql • (i-4lf, ... 1 (AAh;f"•,ti"'f' , ..... 1 ff '-i=1-(fi+O )" 439

PAGE 35

I Modern Burmese OLD BURMESE ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN ..t\c. -tt.... :Zll, ('t-;tK.t.) .lrA .,Lfwl ( 3 &l oh. 'MO ..... )' 6 !J

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Z62 i f (toJCMl) ) • 1 !iS, .l> ')'rtC), 1137fla. 3JO ftJ "W\iwan M• ....t") (S ..\ .f. 7 I i. ""'?l' ,. (p.tjvN) ,,. f;'ij • 3'/ & t6%. 163.

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1-l CO Modern Burmese OLD BURMESE . ARCHAIC CHINESE t.v 17'j "4-{14lt"4) eU"-1Al: 310'" 1J "!) tAt a. 7' of ,jj '"'Q ( tr """•' ' Ot l ,-TIBETAN flD 11) ,. '/Xlllh • ,,__ (G f""'UJ) $'9 • ( tcmt-l"> !J(rf'tf lkcJ..) 't!J

PAGE 39

Modern Burmese OLD BURMESE ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN -$-.... ' ' IQ

PAGE 40

Modern Burmese ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN

PAGE 42

Modern Burmese -'S ? . ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN ----

PAGE 43

__,. u ....... . \ l"""' 1-nan, .9-n cri .. ( li "Miic.) !2(1

PAGE 44

Modern Burmese OLD BURMESE ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN

PAGE 45

• .. r. Modern Burmese ARCHAIC CHINESE •..t.1.l 12lo (.fd TIBETAN

PAGE 46

.s""" .. , .. (' .. "l.. y:to.t-4a. t\) • S"IJ1 , • pe 131,11 '/ •..le ... d..io "2 .. u ... lAf,. < 0 ... "' 10 S"J -rL'f 2+1 . O.!.
PAGE 47

• nt (fi +o•'') ) ton .. { /:.13o). ARCHAIC CHINESE ,o,7 • I' (f'll.t .AtJ...) TIBETAN J_. ZS5 13!f ..505

PAGE 49

-..,1 --... . . \i S ' Modern Burmese OLD BURMESE ' e..u. etA.; 15 &"'!) \ "fWt .k>l ( lf I,, A''), ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN n. JlO 7G ( . k '-t..\4. J.3 I k I -l G '11 J1fl IOt!J. (

PAGE 50

0 ''ad ;t>.. +1;0 ' ..

PAGE 51

l \ . I w Modern Burmese OLD BURMESE ARCHAIC CHINESE -fi"-1.3-\ tt,l TIBETAN ''7 A!Jo ll-4-

PAGE 53

,-.. 1 : .rr Modern Burmese OLD BURMESE ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN ,.. ,. )g t "o

PAGE 54

TIBETAN "krtJr 3S . (+fo4'4A:JI)tq Sf"'( 114. ? r< I 0 oft•"" _,. (.38

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[Nos. 33-34 uncompleted]

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TIBETAN AA .k .. L "c!.fa); 11 1'tmJI&I\.I ?-4i 4 lf'.&1aUv+twJ .. Cf'i"l .. rctm."U. I [Nos. 50-68 uncompleted]

PAGE 57

. . . r Modern Burmese '-'j.li j hv.iJj '1' 9s r 9'o ]3. J.j q60 t1 1i.up I -71-10 h.p 1\ . .ti l
PAGE 58

ttJi qr?

PAGE 59

.. tort e4f7\: ., IOJ4 fCI' a14.ftl '' ToW IOJ7 • • .t&.;.,l TIBETAN

PAGE 60

102 .. .') rc2s-•o:lS -"Nk .., . " 10-o Q.lWI\ v.., 1c11 TVlfn: to31 ,.t\ JID$ • 25.u 1 16llf f :i. .fi. 5\ S.to.... r-'" ton IO'S7

PAGE 61

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TIBETAN [Nos. 10-14 uncompleted]

PAGE 66

15. J'J.08 121l "14 c•...t 18, I?JS

PAGE 67

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PAGE 68

C1l 0 U. '" I!.V"..t ,2& I 1JJ2 TIBETAN

PAGE 69

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31.-4 {t;1li-A} 3\. SA-'10.. .. YtJ ..... 't'ltl-s "At! M 3A .g 'Al4 • ( 434

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TIBETAN

PAGE 73

nf' 1400 )_,. ... l+ol . /Jt01 Sl. li Jt:Jt .. 14D4 -t'wt.n' -p._Os """-w) 130. m-;tt ('1\J;U.)

PAGE 74

I ARCHAIC CHINESE r TIBETAN { ,f,(-4 Ill'

PAGE 75

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PAGE 76

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PAGE 77

IS.JbJ Jno "t . .(i (U\)1., ') tAt I.Sl4 1).1l.ltk J5).'i 1'f4)U&( l l-fi af
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0') 0 TIBETAN

PAGE 81

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1' ]1. 7" 7'S. t 11S9 ti ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN

PAGE 84

en en ARCHAIC CHINESE [ TIBETAN -)>o . '3 7

PAGE 86

TIBETAN

PAGE 87

5J .1,-u.ft; 11tA.?1 S!. HAfJ ; li

PAGE 88

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l1,CS 'frttR. , "T:'PW\L 'P ak Be.t:, 11 .. u.

PAGE 90

ARCHAIC CHINESE I TIBETAN

PAGE 92

TIBETAN d t. •rr l (4.., ;.,')-i-81 y A,... (" ,, ,0,

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ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN (Jfr,?ttlt).540 p.. (li . .k •• 1!1'1-b ..

PAGE 98

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PAGE 100

Modern Burmese OLD BURMESE ARCHAIC CHINESE r TIBETAN

PAGE 102

TiBETAN

PAGE 103

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• !.S. to Asl 3,. 38 . .l?'Cllt o9. Cttt fltl\ i ;4 nGU.fel.tU{ ... ARCHAIC CHINESE I TIBETAN

PAGE 106

OLD BURMESE ARCHAIC CHINESE TIBETAN

PAGE 107

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