Citation
Plants of the coast of Coromandel

Material Information

Title:
Plants of the coast of Coromandel Selected from drawings and descriptions presented to the hon. court of directors to the East India Company
Creator:
Roxburgh, William, 1751-1815
Banks, Joseph, 1743-1820
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
East India Company
Manufacturer:
W. Bulmer and Co.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1795
Language:
English
Physical Description:
volumes 1, fasc. 1-4, volumes 2, fasc. 5-8., volumes 3, fasc. 9 : col. illustrations

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Botany -- New Zealand -- Coromandel Peninsula
Plants -- New Zealand -- Coromandel Peninsula
Tipu -- Aotearoa -- Te Taone o Coromandel
Temporal Coverage:
- 1795
Spatial Coverage:
Oceania -- New Zealand -- Waikato -- Thames-Coromandel District Council -- North Island -- Coromandel Peninsula
Te Moana nui a Kiwa -- Aotearoa -- Waikato -- Te Kaunihera Takiwa o Thames-Coromandel -- Te Tai Tokerau -- Te Taone o Coromandel
Coordinates:
-36.833333 x 175.583333

Notes

General Note:
"by William Roxburgh. Publ., by their order, under the dir. of Joseph Banks"
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Roxburgh, William, 1751-1815 : URI https://viaf.org/viaf/40160036
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Banks, Joseph, 1743-1820 : URI https://viaf.org/viaf/46830189
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : East India Company : URI https://viaf.org/viaf/239176400

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
Archives and Special Collections
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
46465320 ( OCLC )
MS 268364 ( SOAS manuscript number )

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Full Text
PLANTS
of the
COAST OF COROMANDEL;
selected from
DRAWINGS AND DESCRIPTIONS
presented to
THE HON. COURT OF DIRECTORS OF THE
EAST INDIA COMPANY.

BY
WILLIAM ROXBURGH, M.D.
published, by their order, under the direction
OF
SIR JOSEPH BANKS, BART.
p. r. s.
VOL. I.
london:
printed by w. bulmer and co.
for george nicol, bookseller to his majesty,
PALL-MALL.
1795.


-_


PREFACE.
*
The present Fasciculus of Plants growing on the Coast of Coromandel, being the first of a.progressive
work, with which the Honourable Court of Directors of the East India Company has determined to
favour the public, it is hoped, will prove as acceptable to the lovers of Botany in general, as useful
at the Company's establishments abroad.
It is intended that the selection should be made from five hundred drawings and descriptions, pre-
sented to the Honourable Court of Directors by Dr. William Roxburgh, one of the Company's medical
servants, and their Botanist in the Carnatic; and, with a more immediate view to utility, while
preference will be given to subjects connected either with medicine, the arts, cy: manufactures, the
liberality o.f the# Jdonourable Court of Directors encourages the admission of new plants, or of such
as have hitherto been imperfectly described, although their qualities and uses may as yet remain
unexplored.
After all that has been already done, India still presents a wide field for research; ancj the progress
made, of late years, in other branches of knowledge, affords room to expect material improvement in
Natural History, if ardour for inquiry continues to prevail; if the means of making new acquisitions
are facilitated ; and if a spirit of scientific emulation among the Company's servants abroad, meets with
such; encouragement as must naturally tend to rescue many of those hours of leisure from indolent neglect,
wh (considering the fertile advantages of situation) might be employed with no less pleasure to the
HaIiual, than eventually to the public benefit.
i';] within these forty years, Botany seems fo have been little attended to in the Carnatic; about
which period, if not introduced, it was at least greatly promoted by a foreign naturalist.
John Gerard Koenig, a native (it is believed) of Courland, and a pupil of Linnaeus, contemporary
with the late Dr. Solander, had early distinguished himself, by his travels into Iceland,*in the year 1765/
and was honoured by having a plant named after him.
The precise time of,his setting out for India is not known, but it was probably in 1768 ; as in a letter
to Linn^us, dated from Tranquebar, July 26, 1769, he refers to another letter written more than thr^p
months before, which is not found among a number of his letters from India, now in the possession or
Dr. James Edward Smith. ^ \
It appears that he went to India under the protection of the king of Denmark, partly as physician
to the Danish settlement in the Carnatic, but chiefly for the purpose of making improvements in the
natural history of that country; and he resided for several years at Tranquebar, or in its \ficinity, inde-
fatigabb j ^aployed in researches of various kinds. .
KSfiig w as singularly qualified for the employment he had engaged in. More covetous of fame than
,of-fortune, he persevered in his pursuits with an enthusiasm that set bodily fatigue, spare meals, and
a scorching climate at defiance ; while the simplicity of his manners, and his unassuming readiness to
impart knowledge to others, conciliated, almost at first sight, the benevolence ~pf those with whom he
conversed. Thus qualified for an inquisitive traveller, he became known at the Dutch, French, and
British setdements on the Coast, which he occasionally visited in his excursions, and every where he
acquired friends.
* Mantissa Linn. Gen. Ph p 13.


PREFACE. iv

11
Koenig, finding his slender salary at Tranquebar insufficient for the expence of requisite excursions
into the country, however frugally conducted, was, by the interest of friends, introduced as a natu-
ralist fo the Nabob of Arcot, in whose service he remained for several years; during which he made
excursions among the hills near Velore, Amboor, &c. and afterwards made a voyage to the island of
Ceylon.* c
His frequent residence at Madras, while in the Nabob's service, naturally led him into a more
familiar intercourse with the English, of whom several seized the opportunity of profiting by his in-
struction. Dr. James Anderson, the present physician general at Fort St. George, when he occasionally
speaks of mineralogy, always mentions him with gratitude.
Among the first of the English who attached themselves to Koenig, in the botanical line, was Mr.
George Campbell, a young medical gentleman on the Madras establishment. They made a short excur-
sion together into the Pullicate hills, in April, 1766 ; + and Mr. Campbell, on his return, candidly
acknowledged to a friend, that he had learned more of practical Botany in one fortnight, than in the
whole course of his former studies. By all accounts, Campbell was a youth of most promising talents.
With a decided intention of prosecuting Botany, he gave a large commission for books on that subject
from England; but they never reached him: for, being wounded, and taken prisoner, in the unfor-
tunate defeat of Colonel Baillie's detachment, in September, 1780, he died a short time after, universally
lamented.
Dr. Roxburgh, who entered into the service at Madras in the spring, 1766, had long applied to
Botany, under Dr. Hope, then professor of Botany at the university of Edinburgh; and bringing ^vith
him to India the love of the study, he found in Koenig an experienced conductor through an unkxjfewn
wilderness. Their friendship continued to the last; and Dr. Roxburgh takes a pleasure in acknow-
ledging his obligations to his guide.
On a representation from Dr. Koenig to the Board of Madras, in 1778, that his finances were far
. < ... f
inadequate to the extensive schemes he had in contemplation, and that his salary from the Nabob was
irregularly paid, ihe Board, in consideration of his merit, was pleased to grant a monthly allowance,
in order to enable him the better fto prosecute his researches.
With this aid, he proceeded in the month of August to the Straits of Malacca, and Siam ; from
whence he returned towards the end of 1779. From his report to the Board of Madras, it*appears,
''that. he had the good fortune to meet with several new subjects in natural history' and to make some
" discoveries in Botany and Mineralogy, which he flattered himself might prove acceptable to the
" public; particularly in respect to the article of tin ore." He mentioned at the same time his having
had the honour of letters from the President of the.Royal Society, and the Honourable Charles Greville,
requesting specimens ofhis collection, which it was his intention to transmit to them, as the best means
of rendering his "discoveries useful in England. He intimated also his intention of sending tqSt* Helena,
by the ships then on departure, the seeds of such esculent and other plants, and of such treSor fflifubs
as he had then got ready, and might probably be of use in that island.
Having now determined to devote his future time entirely to the service of the India Company, the
Board of Madras was pleased, in 1780, to make an addition to his salary, which met with the appro-
bation of the Honourable Court of Directors.
Hel^inhlZw5 "0tf rng the rr; be9Ueathed 10 Sir j0Seph Banks ; but -count of it is given by
nennmgs. m his description of Tanjore, and of th e Danish colony at Tranquebar.
+ The original sketch of Mr. Campbells journal, is in the possession of Dr. Russell


PREFACE.
He soon after, m that year, made a short excursion to Trinkamaly; and early in the following year
he made a second excursion to Columbo.
In the beginning of June, 1782, Dr. Patrick Russell, on his arrival in India, had the pleasure of
meeting with Dr. Koenig at Tranquebar, who not only communicated the catalogue of his Coromandel
collection of plants, but as an inducement to engage in Indian Botany, favoured him with a number
of specimens. From that time commenced a correspondence, which was continued till within a fort-
night of Dr. Koenig's death.
In 1784, Roenig fulfilled the promise he had given of a visit to his old friend Mr. Claud Russell,
then chief at Vizagapatam. It was on his way to Bengal; but as he made some stay at Vizagapatam,
Dr. Russell had time to submit to his examination a pretty large collection of plants made in that
district, and to profit by his assistance in arranging them/ He took the opportunity also off urging to
Dr. Koenig, (what lie had more than once hinted before in correspondence,) the propriety of trans-
mitting to the Court of Directors, a select Fasciculus of drawings and descriptions, by way of specimen
of his labours ; at the same time, earnestly recommending his making such a disposition, in respect to
his manuscript papers, as might, in case of death, insure their falling into the possession of some one
qualified to appreciate their merit, and not less able, than liberally disposed, to employ them in the
manner most conducive to the writer's reputation.
In this last view, Sir Joseph Banks was considered, of all others the person most eligible. Koenig
had been in correspondence with Dr. Solander, from the year 1774 ; and had from time to time trans-
mitted specimens and seeds of plants for Sir Joseph.
Koenig departed from Vizagapatam, impressed with the justness of what had been suggested to him;
but eager in the pursuit of new objects on the journey, and immersed in various avocations at Calcutta,
he delayed from day to day, what he was conscious it was wrong to procrastinate, and on his return
to Vizagapatam in April, 1785, he had executed no part of his former resolutions ; thgugh the declining
state of his health at that time, rendered it more than ever expedient to prepare for an event, which
he himself appeared to consider as at no great distance. >
After a rest of two or three weeks at Vizagapatam, in which time he remarkably recovered his
strength and spirit^, he proceeded to Jagrenatporum, with a full resolution of immediately setting aboft
the proposed selection; but towards the end of May, his distemper (which was a flux,) returning, he
gradually sunk under it, in spite of the skill and friendly attentions of Dr. Roxburgh, and on the 26th
of June expired. *
On the 6th of that month he had made his will, bequeathing the whole of his manuscripts, and
specimens of plants, to Sir Joseph Banks; of which he acquainted Dr. Russell in a letter dated the 12th.
SomLe dzvs before his death, he himself saw such papers as he was then in possession of, sealed up in
the presence of Dr. Roxburgh, by whom they were despatched to Sir Joseph Banks, and arrived safely;
'but those dispersed in different places, particularly at Tranquebar,, (among wdiich unfortunately was his
Ceylon Journal,) have hitherto not appeared, though Dr. Roxburgh and Dr. Russell did all in their
power in India to recover them.
Though these manuscripts contained many valuable descriptions and observations, there was nothing
* On Dr. Russell's leaving India, the cabinet containing the above collection, considerably augmented, was presented by
him to the Company, and deposited at the Presidency, with the approbation of the Governor in council.
4


iv
PREFACE.
found in a state lit for a distinct or separate publication; but they have afforded assistance to the pre-
sent work, in which his botanical remarks will occasionally be inserted.*
Koenig had maintained a correspondence with Linnaeus, as well as with other eminent Botanists in
Europe, and several of his communications from India have been published in the Transactions of the
Societies of CQpenhagen and Berlin, or inserted in the works of Retzius, and other authors. A list of
such publications + was supplied by Mr. Dryander, whose aid has also been of material service in the
correction of descriptions, and in settling synonyma.
A few months after Koenig's death, Dr. Russell was nominated his successor; and allotted to Botany
whatever time he could spare from the investigation of Snakes and Fishes, in which he had been engaged
from the time of his arrival in India.
Considering it however as a public loss, if the design of Koenig should be entirely relinquished; and
conceiving that many descriptions and remarks would be found among his papers, whife drawings from
the living plants might be made in India, Dr. Russell resolved to attempt a work limited to the useful
plants of Coromandel; which, though perhaps less generally interesting to the Botanists in Europe, he
was inclined \o think might prove of real service to India.
His plan was first communicated to the Governor of Madras, but afterwards explained more fully in
a memorial addressed to the Medical Board; and meeting with the unanimous approbation of both, it
was transmitted to the Honourable Court of Directors.
In the interim, circular letters, with a list of the plants proposed for the first publication, was tsent
by the Medical Board to the subordinate settlements, requesting it might be favoured with any infor-
mation respecting the subjects in question, which the medical gentlemen might have it in their power
to communicate; and in consequence several useful communications were received.
In the memorial to the Medical Board Dr. Russell had mentioned his hope that Sir Joseph Banks, if
his advice were requested, might probably point out the best mode of carrying the plan into execution,
and having before, in correspondence, hinted to him the design, then only in contemplation, he thought
it now proper to transmit for his inspection, the explanatory detail contained in the memorial to the
Medical Board.
J'' The solicitation of private friendship was not requisite to induce Sir Joseph Bank§ to interest himself
in a proposal which he considered as calculated for public utility: he not only, when applied to by the
Court of Directors, expressed his approbation, but suggested some alterations in the original plan.
Thus corrected, the plan was returned to India, accompanied with a paragraph in the general letter
to the Board of Madras, expressive of the readiness, at all times, of the Court of Directors to promote
" the improvement of Natural History, and of their approbation of Dr. Russell's proposal for publishing
" a select collection of useful Indian plants; but desired that the alteration suggested by S\v Joseph
" Banks, should be attended to."
Before the arrival of the above letter at Madras, Dr. Russell had left India. The directions it con-(
tained, however, fell fortunately into hands well qualified for carrying them into execution.
Dr. Roxburgh of Samuleottah, who had lived much with Koenig, and, when disengaged from the
duties of his station, had pursued his favourite study, succeeded to the botanical department. He had
made large collections of plants in the Carnatic ; and, for several years previously to his appointment,
* List of Koenig's manuscripts, received by Sir Joseph Banks, will be found at the end of the Preface.
+ See the end of the Preface.


PREFACE. v
#
had retained a painter constantly employed in drawing plants, which he accurately described, and
added such remarks on their uses as he had learned from experience, or collected from the natives.
Of these drawings and descriptions, which he devoted to the Honourable Court of Directors, the
first parcel was received in 1791; others followed in succession; and the last parcel, which completed
the number of five hundred, arrived in 1794. It is from these that the present Selection has been made;
but many more drawings remain in India, ready to be sent home by the first opportunity t
Dr. Roxburgh's industry has also for some years been employed in the cultivation of pepper and
indigo, in one of the Northern Circars; and, besides a letter on the qualities of the Swietenia Bark,
published by order of the Directors, he has communicated other discoveries, to be found in the Philo-
sophical Transactions, the Indian Repertory, and the Asiatic Researches. Such commendable zeal in
the service has not passed unnoticed by the Court of Directors, which has lately honoured him with a
handsome present of botanical books, as well as with other marks of approbation.
On the 4th of July, 1794, after the last parcel of drawings was delivered to him, Sir Joseph Banks,
in compliance with his former promise to the Court of Directors, presented a plan, and an estimate
of the expence of the proposed publication, accompanied with specimens of the engravings. He was
pleased to add, For my part, I am most ready to undertake the general overlooking of the work, to
" set the engravers their tasks, and to see that they are executed with accuracy: Dr. Russell (Dr. Rox-
u burgh's predecessor) will I am sure readily assist in correcting the press of the descriptions." He at
the same time recommended as the publisher, Mr. Nicol, his Majesty's bookseller, who had formerly
assisted him in the publication of Captain Cook's Voyage.
An answer from the Court of Directors to this letter was returned on the 11th of the same month, in
which they gave their assent to the execution of the work, exactly in the way that Sir Joseph had pointed
out; and, in very polite terms, expressed a sense of obligation for the assistance, with such liberality
offered, of superintending the publication.
The
writer of this Preface willingly undertook the part allotted him, in the absence of his friend
Dr. Roxburgh, on whom the task should naturally have devolved; but the Doctor is still labouring in
India; and, having lately been appointed Inspector of the Botanical Gardeij at Calcutta, may possibly
be induced to protract his stay in that country longer than he some time ago intended.
The foregoing narrative of the origin and progress of the present work, it is presumed, will not be
deemed impertinent. It pays a small tribute to the memory of Koenig, to whom Indian Botany stands
so highly indebted: it shows the disposition of the Honourable Court of Directors to promote science in
India; and produces an example for the encouragement of the Company's servants abroad, to dedicate
their leisure hours to useful research, as a means of recommendation to the notice of their superiors, as
well as of obtaining a well earned reputation in their native country.
%
PAT. RUSSELL.
t London, March 20, 17 95 .


PREFACE.
c
An Account of the Ebony Tree; in the first volume of
the Transactions of the Society of Lund.
Several letters, relating to the Natural History of the East
Indies; in different volumes of the Transactions of the Royal
Society of Copenhagen, and of the Society of Berlin : as also
in the Naturforscher.
A great number of plants discovered by Koenig, are found
in Retzii Observationes Botanicae. In the third Fasciculus,
are printed Koenig's Descriptiones Monandrarum; and in
the sixth, his Descriptiones Epidendrorum.
An Account of his voyage to Ceylon, in 17 7 7, is found
in Hennings's Description of Tanjore, and the Danish colony
at Tranquebar.
In part XX. of the Naturforscher is an Account of a new
Genus of Plants, called Xylocarpus.
In the ninth volume of the Commentationes of the Society
of Gottingen is a Memoir, by Professor Murray, on the Trees
which produce the Gummi Gutta, entirely drawn up from
Koenig's papers, sent to Professor Murray by Sir Joseph
Banks.
In the first volume of the Transactions of the Linnaean
Society, Mr. Dryander has published Koenig's Description
of a new Species of Begonia; and in the second volume, his
Description of Jambolifera.
List of Dr. Koenig's Manuscripts, 'received by
Sir Joseph Banks.
Journal of his Voyage to Siam, commencing August 8,
1 7 7 8, and ending abruptly December 12, 1 7 7 9. The part
from February 22, to the end of April, is wanting.
Journal of this Voyage from Madras to Trinkamaly, com-
mencing April 15, 1 780, and ending May 11, when he still
was in Trinkamaly.
Journal of his Voyage from Nagore to Ceylon, commen-
cing January 7,1781, and ending April 11, when he was still
in Ceylon. From a memorandum in another place, it ap-
pears that he returned to Tranquebar August 23.
The rest of his manuscripts consists chiefly of descriptions
of plants: very little in them relates to animals, and still less
to minerals. They are collected together in nineteen vo-
lumes.* c
* Several letters to Linnaeus, on the subject of Iceland, as also respecting the East
Indies, are in the possession of thr President of the Linnaean Society.
A List of various Publications by Dr. Koenig.
A Treatise on the White Ants, is found in the fourth vo
lume of the Berlin Transactions.
c'


PREFACE
The present Fasciculus of Plants growing on the Coast of Coromandel, being the first of a.progressive
work, with which the Honourable Court of Directors of the East India Company has determined to
favour the public, it is hoped, will prove as acceptable to the lovers of Botany in general, as useful
at the Company's establishments abroad.
It is intended that the selection should be made from five hundred drawings and descriptions, pre-
sented to the Honourable Court of Directors by Dr. William Roxburgh, one of the Company's medical
servants, and their Botanist in the Carnatic; and, with a more immediate view to utility, while
preference will be given to subjects connected either with medicine, the arts, qr manufactures, the
liberality o/the# JHonourable Court of Directors encourages the admission of new plants, or of such
as have hitherto been imperfectly described, although their qualities and uses may as yet remain
unexplored.
After all that has been already done, India still presents a wide field for research; ancj the progress
made, of late years, in other branches of knowledge, affords room to expect material improvement in
Natural History, if ardour for inquiry continues to prevail; if the means of making new acquisitions
are facilitated ; and if a spirit of scientific emulation among the Company's servants abroad, meets with
such, encouragement as must naturally tend to rescue many of those hours of leisure from indolent neglect,
wh (considering the fertile advantages of situation) might be employed with no less pleasure to the
iiY/t/Iual, than eventually to the public benefit.
Y 1 within these forty years, Botany seems fo have been little attended to in the Carnatic; about
which p: rioi, if not introduced, it was at least greatly promoted by a foreign naturalist.

John Gerard Koenig, a native (it is believed) of Courland, and a pupil of Linnaeus, contemporary
with the late Dr. Solander, had early distinguished himself, by his travels into Iceland,*in the year 1765/
and was honoured by having a plant named after him.
The precise time of 1.lis setting out for India is not known, but it was probably in 1768 ; as in a letter
to LinnAus, dated from Tranquebar, July 26, 1769, he refers to another letter written more than thr^e
months before, which is not found among a number of his letters from India, now in the possession or
Dr. James Edward Smith. \
It appears that he went to India under the protection of the king of Denmark, partly as physician
to the Danish settlement in the Carnatic, but chiefly for the purpose of making improvements in the
natural history of that country; and he resided for several years at Tranquebar, or in its \ficinity, inde-
cr a-
fatigabb j ^aployed in researches of various kinds. -
fc&iiig \\ as singularly qualified for the employment he had engaged in. More covetous of fame than
.of fortune, he persevered in his pursuits with an enthusiasm that set bodily fatigue, spare meals, and
a scorching climate at defiance; while the simplicity of his manners, and his unassuming readiness to

impart knowk dge to others, conciliated, almost at first sight, the benevolence of those with whom he
conversed. Thus qualified for an inquisitive traveller, he became known at the Dutch, French, and
British settlements on the Coast, which he occasionally visited in his excursions, and every where he
acquired friends.
* Mantissa Linn. Gen. PI. p 13.


l. GYROCARPUS JACQUINI
Gcertn. sem. 2. p. 92. tab. 97.
Gyrocarpus americanus. Jacqu. amer. 282. t. 178if. 80
Afrag. Voyage de Le Brun en Perse, vol. 2. p. 25 7. cum Jit
Tanucoo of the Telingas.
Cattamaran Wood Tree.
GENERIC CHARACTER.
Hermaphrodite. Calyx above, four-leaved, unequal.* Corol none.
Nectary four clubbed glands. Stamens four. Pistil one. Style
none. Capsule one-celled, one-seeded, ending in two long
membranaceous wings.
Male. Calyx five-leaved, equal. Nectary and Stamens as in the
Hermaphrodite, without pistil.
DESCRIPTION,
Trunk in general erect: Bark smooth, greenish ash colour.
Branches thin, irregularly spreading in every direction.
Leaves approximated about the extremities of the branchlets, pe-
tioled, broad hearted, three-nerved, frequently slightly lobed,
above smooth, below downy ; there are two pits on the upper
side of the base ; length and breadth various, but in general
five or six inches each way.
Petiole round, downy, three inches long.
Panicles terminal, umbell-like : divisions two-forked.
Flowers very small, yellow.
Hermaphrodite Flowers solitary, sessile, in the divisions of the
panicle.
Calyx above, four-leaved: leaflets unequal; exterior pair small, oval,
falling; interior pair large, wedge-shaped, three-toothed, per-
manent, and increasing in size with the pericarp into two
long membranaceous wings.
Corol none.
Nectary four clubbed, yellow, glands.
Filavients four, longer than the calyx, inserted alternately with the
nectarial glands into a perforated receptacle.
Anthers quadrangular, opening on each side with an oval lid.
Germ below, egged.
Style none.
Stigma small, immersed in the perforation of the receptacle of the
filaments and nectarial glands.
Capsule globular, wrinkled, one-celled, one-valved, does not open,
size* of a cherry, ends in two long, obtuse, lanced, membrana-
ceous wings.
Seed one.
OBSERVATIONS.
This grows to be a very large tree, is chiefly a native of the moun-
tainous parts of the coast, casts its leaves about the end of the wet
season ; flowers during the cold season when the tree is naked; the
leaves come out soon after.
The wood of this tree is white and very light, is employed to
make cattamarans (rafts), when to be had, in preference to any other.
2. SIRIUM MYRTIFQLIUM.
Linn. Mant. 200.
Sandal Wood Tree.
Leaves opposite, short-petioled, spreading,lanced, entire, waved,
smooth, shining, about two inches long, and three-quarters of
an inch broad.
Stipules none.
Raceme thyrse-like, terminal, compound, small, erect.
Flowers small, red. %
Calyx above, belled, four-cleft: divisions egged, expanding, co-
loured.
Corol none, except the nectary be such.
Nectary four-leaved, inverse-hearted, notcfied, inserted into the
mouth of the calyx.
Filaments four, short, hairy, inserted into the calyx alternately with
the leaflets of the nectary.
Stigma four-lobed.
Berry globular, size of a large pea, smooth, juicy, black when ripe,
one-seeded.
This valuable tree is a native of many parts of India : here, in
the Circar mountains, where it is wild, it is but of a small size,
and the wood of little value. On the Malabar coast it is much
larger, and the wood reckoned of the best sort.
The wood of this tree is the white and yellow Sanders, Santa-
liim album et flavum of the Materia Medica ; both the sorts are the
produce of the same tree, and not, as Garcias says, of different trees.
Most trees in India* when, large and old, become coloured towards
the centre, that part is always much more hard and durable than the
exterior uncoloured part. It is the same with the Sandal tree: the
centre, when the tree becomes large, acquires a yellow colour, great
fragrance, and hardness ; while the exterior part of the same tree,
that covers the coloured part, is less firm, white, and without fra-
grance. It is only the yellow sort that is of use; and the larger
the tree the more valuable is the wood, it having then acquired a
greater degree of fragrance, for which alone it is held in such uni-
versal estimation.
Birds eat greedily the berries, by which means it is propagated
extensively.
3. OJLDENLAJYDIA UMBELLATA.
Linn. Spec. Plant. 17 4.
Root very long, from one to two feet, slender, with few lateral
fibres, when fresh the bark is orange coloured ; in the culti-
vated sort it is longest, and with fewer fibres.
Tsheri-vello of the Telingas.
Saya-ver, or Imburel of the Tamuls.
Chay Root, or East India Madder of the English.


o
J
OLDENLANDIA UMBELLATA.
OLDENLANDIA UMBELLATA,
4
Stem in the cultivated sort erect, round, jointed below, very ramous,
somewhat scabrous, from six to twelve inches high.
Branches axillary, the under opposite, decussated, spreading hori-
zontal, and nearly as long as the stem; above alternate, or in
pairs from the axill.
In the wild sort there is scarce any stem, but many diffuse
scraggy branches, with their flower-bearing extremities erect.
Leaves opposite, terij or quatern, sessile, linear, pointed, scabrous,
spreading, from f to i inch long, by \ broad ; in the axills of
the principal leaves are generally fascicles of smaller leaves.
Stipules connecting, ciliated.
Flowers terminal, small, white, very numerous, the whole forming
a large umbell, composed of small three-cleft umbellets.
Bracts minute, awled.
The parts of fructification agree exactly with those of the genus.
This is a small biennial, rarely triennial plant, it grows in very
light dry sandy ground near the sea. Flowers during the latter part
of the wet season ; seed ripe in January .
Itris much cultivated on the coast of Coromandel, and grows best
in the purest and lightest sand, there its roots descend to a great
depth. Cattle are penned upon the ground for some time before it
is sown, to manure it, or some other manure employed, generally
the lightest; it is then'cleared of weeds, and its surface made level,
if not so before. The seeds are mixed with much sand, and sown as
soon as the rains begin in June or July (that is in the Circars); the
sand is mixed with the seed to enable 'the sower to sow it suffi-
ciently thin; it requires to be often watered if showers are not fre-
quent, till the plants are about two or three inches high. The first
watering is peculiar; some fresh cow-dung is mixed with the water,
the chief object of which is to give the sand at the surface some de-
gree of adhesion, which prevents the strong winds that prevail at
this season from blowing away the seeds; after, it requires little or
no care, few weeds grow in such a soil as fits this culture, of course
a very little labour keepc it clean: if the season is remarkably wet,
the quality of the roots are much injured, and the drier the season
the richer they are in colour and quality. In February, which
is seven or eight months from the time the seeds were sown, the
roots are reckoned to be in a proper stafe for faking up; to effect
which a trench is made along the side of the field, fully as deep,
or rather deeper than the length of the longest roots, which may
be reckoned two feet; a two-pronged fork is then employed to
undermine the ground, and as it falls in, the roots are taken up,
the stems and branches cut off; the entire roots dried in the sun,
tied up in small bundles of a few ounces, and kept in dry airy
pieces, which is all the preparations it receives from the cultivators :
it will remain good three, four, or even five years, and the dyers
and chints painters, who are the people best acquainted with this
root, say its colouring powers improve by keeping for that length
of time ; a fortunate circumstance for its exportation to Europe.
When the wild sort can be had in any quantity, it is esteemed
one-third, or one-fourth stronger, and, which is of more conse-
quence, yields a better colour : and wjien these rqots can be had of
two years growth, they are reckoned still better, but the farmer
does not find it answers his purpose to let it be longer in the ground
than one season.
The woody part of the root is white and tasteless, it is the bark
only that is possessed of the colouring principle; when fresh it is
orange-coloured, tinges the spittle yellow, and leaves a light degree
of acrimony on the point of the tongue for some hours after chew-
ing ; to appearance it loses its yellow colour in drying, but still
retains the abovementioned properties on being chewed. It
im-
pregnates cold water or spirits of a straw colour; to boiling water
it gives a brownish porter colour. The watery infusions and spi-
rituous tinctures are changed into a bright and deep red by alka-
line substances; and are rendered paler, or nearly destroyed, by
acids. I have tried various experiments to enable me to dye red
with this root (I may say two or three hundred), in a more expedi-
tious and less troublesome way than what the natives follow, but
all with no satisfactory success ; it is therefore unnecessary for me
to detail these experiments in this place (however, I doubt not but
a person well acquainted with the art of dying might effect it); all
that is necessary for me to say at present, is to give the process for
dying, painting, or printing red with this root, as practised by the
natives in the Circars.
A receipt for dying red with these roots, as practised in the Ma-
sulipatam district, suppose one square yard of pretty fine cotton
cloth, which has been previously bleached.
First. Take of the coarsely powdered root one or one and a
half ounce, boil it gently for a few minutes in three pints of soft
water; in this dip the cloth repeatedly for a few minutes, wring
and wash it out in cold water, and ctfy it in strong sunshine upon
sand or gravel.
" This first operation is to take out any remains of.the quick-lime,
&c. employed by the bleachers in whitening the cloth.
Second day. Take half an ounce of the outer covering of cadu-
cay nuts (nuts of Terminalia citrina), in powder, mix it in a pint
of cold water,* let it stand a little, then strain it through a bit of
thin rag, with this mix a third part of fresh buffalo's milk (I believe
cow's milk is as good); in this wash or rub the cloth thoroughly,
wring it gently, and dry it in the sun.
Third day. The cloth is washed out in cold water; yesterday's
operation repeated ; f when finished, the cloth feels very harsh ; to
soften it, it is folded up and very well beetled.
Fourth day A quarter of an ounce of alum and as much turme-
rick in powder are infused in a pint of cold water for a few hours;
the beetled cloth is now spread out on grass, and exceedingly well
rubbed with the above mixture; when dry (if to be coloured on
both sides) it is turned, and equally well rubbed with the same
mixture on the other side ; then dried and put by. X
Fifth day. This day the cloth is only well washed in cold wa-
ter, and dried in the sun.
Sixth day. The fourth day's operation of rubbing both sides, &c.
is repeated. .
Seventh day. Wash it well in cold water, and while moist, wet
it in a cold infusion of a little powdered caducay; dry it in the sun
or shade.
The Malabars omit this part of the operation.
Eighth day. Take six pints of water and a pound of chay root,
put them on the fire, and when scalding hot put the unwashed
cloth into it, to be kept in a scalding heat, stirring and turning the
cloth frequently for three or four hours ; the waste of water may be
supplied by now and then adding to it; the cloth'is suffered to
remain in the liquor till cold, then wring it out half dry, and again
return it into the same decoction, which is now made to b6il gently
* Over the southern parts of the coast the powdered caducay is exceedingly well boiled
in water, and the strained decoction mixed with only a fourth part of milk.
Z r;he,f Uth7ard tIlis Action is performed in the same manner, but with only one-
eighth of milk to the water and caducay. Beetling the-same.
t South among the Malabars, this operation differs much from the above ; it is done as
foHows. Take of sapan wood (Csalpinia Sappan) in shavings one ounce, water a pint
and a half mix and let them stand for two days, then boil them till a third is gone" to
IhtTlrd ^ 10-add tW<^S of an ounce of powdered alum, with this the
and sixtl^day ^ ^ ** ** turmerick, See. on the fourth, fifth,


5
OLDENLANDIA UMBELLATA.
OLDENLANDIA UMBELLATA.
6
for five or six hours, stirring, &c. as above ; the fire is then to be
withdrawn, and the whole left to cool till next day. The cloth is
now of a dirty deep brick-dust colour.
The Malabars perform only the first part of this day's work.
Ninth day. The cloth is washed in cold water, well wetted in
a cold infusion of caducay and water, dried and put by, as on the
seventh day.
Tenth day. Wash the cloth in cold water, and boil it gently
for two hours in a decoction of a quarter of a pound of chay root
in six pints of water, suffer it to cool in the decoction as before;
then wring it out, dry it, and put it by.
This part of the operation, as well as that of the ninth day, the
Malabars omit.
Eleventh day. The cloth is to be worked about for a short time
in as much water, well mixed with fresh cow-dung, as will cover
it, then wrung out, and dried in the sun.
Twelfth day. The cloth is washed, spread out to the sun, and
sprinkled with water as it dries, for a day.
Thirteenth day. The operation is finished by washing with
soap, which improves the colour; and the oftener it is washed, the
brighter the colour becomes.
I have in the above pointed out whenever the Telinga opera-
tors differ from the Malabar. I believe the Telingas are esteemed
the best artists; however, of this I cannot well determine, as dura-
bility, as well as the immediate appearance of the colour, must be
taken into consideration.
It may be proper to observe, that in dying with these roots the
heat is always gentle, it is probable that these contain some other
principle, which a strong heat might extract, and debase the in-
tended colour.
They are also used by the natives to dye brown, purple, and
orange, with their various shades.
Cotton cloth, previously prepared with a solution of alum, re-
ceives from a decoction of this root and tartar, a pretty good yellow
colour; but it is changed to a pale red on being washed with soap:
this points out strongly the powers of an alkali on the colouring
matter of this root.
To dye purple with chay roots, as practised by the natives in
the Masulipatam district.
First. The cloth (suppose four yards) is to be washed in a hot
decoction of the root, dried, anS next day wetted in an infusion
of caducay in milk and water, as practised in dying red. On
the
Third day, take two quarts of cle#r sour conjee (rice gruel)
and one pint of cassim, mix them very early in the morning, and
first beating off the dew, if there is any, spread out the cloth on the
grass, and rub both sides of it with the above mixture, as directed
above with the turmerick infusion in dying red ; this part of the
operation is only done once on each side here.
Fourth day. The cloth is well washed in cold water, and boiled
gently for, one hour in a decoction of chay roots (say three pounds
in eight gallons of water), let it remain in the decoction till cold,
then wring it, and dry it.
Fifth day. It is boiled as yesterday in a fresh decoction of the
roots, which is only half so strong (viz. one pound and a half to
eight gallons of water); it is immediately removed from the dye,
* Cassim is the Telinga name of a solution of iron in a vegetable acid, and-is prepared
as follows. Take Palmira toddy (juice of Borassus flabelliformis) one gallon, into which
put some broken pieces of the vitrified matter of a blacksmith's forge, and some bits of old
rusty iron, let the whole stand exposed to the sun for ten days; then pour off the liquor
clear fox use.
after being suffered to cool, into a mixture of fresh cow-dung and
water, where it remains for the night.
Sixth day. It is exposed to the sun, and watered as it dries, 8cc.
as for finishing the red dye.
To dye a deep but clear brown with chay root, as*practised by
the same people ; say four yards of cotton clotli.
The cloth is first to be dyed red, as above described, till we
come to the bucking in cow-dung, which is to be omitted; and in
its stead, the cloth is to be well wetted in the mixture of caducay
in milk and water, and dried in the sun.
Second day. Very early, the cloth is spread out, and both sides
rubbed with the cassim, &c. as has been already mentioned for
purple, but with this difference, that here each side must be done
twice over.
Third day. When it is well washed in cold water, and boiled
gently for one hour in a decoction.of the chay root, let it remain
in the liquor till Cold, then wring it, and half dry it; when it must
be returned into the same decoction, and boiled for another h*>ur,
the operation is finished by bucking in cow-dung, &c. as for red
and purple.
*
To dye orange with the same root, as practised by the same
people; say four yards of cotton cloth.
First. Wash in a scalding decoction of the root, as for red.
Second day. Take aldkcay (galls of Terminalia citrina) and the
outer cover of caducay nuts, of each four ounces in powder, and in-
fuse them in three or four pints of warm water, strain the mixture
through a bit of thin rag, in which dip the cloth repeatedly till well
wetted, wring and beat it a little, then dry it; and repeat the wet-
ting in the above mixture, beating and drying. Next day, dissolve
two ounces of alum in a quart of water, with this wash the cloth,
and put it out to dry. Next day it is to be wetted in a weak lixi-
vium of alkaline earth (earth of cretaceous soda) and quick-lime,
wrung out and dried. Next day, wash it out in cold water, and boil
it once only, and for one hour, in a deccfction of chay; let it remain
in the liquor till cold ; dry it, and put it by till next day, then
finish the operation by washing with soap.
To paint the red figures on chints with these roots, as practised
by the chints painters in the Masulipatam district.
It is necessary to observe, that for every sort of chints, whether
painted or printed, the cloth must first be bleached, then well
washed out in a scalding decoction of chay root, and wetted in a
cold mixture of milk, water, and powdered caducay, as practised
to prepare the cloth for the red dye before mentioned ; (this last part
of the process is by the Malabars done witbua strong decoction of
the aldecay, as for the red dye.) This mixture they say prevents
the colours that are to be applied from running, as pounce does ink
on bad paper; and it is also found that milk is absolutely a neces-
sary part of the mixture, for an infusion or decoction of the nuts
will not answer without the^milk. The abovementioned work
occupies two days generally.
Third day. The cloth is now well beetled, and the figures traced,
or marked out by applying pieces of paper over the prepared cloth,
that has all the outlines pricked with a pin, a small bag of finely pow-
dered charcoal is rubbed backwards and forwards over the paper,
a sufficient quantity of the powder will pass the holes in the paper
to mark distinctly the outlines of the figures ; when this part of the
work is finished, these lines marked out by the charcoal that are to
be red, yellow, or orange, with their various shades, are to be
done over with a cold watery infusion of sappan wood (Caesalpinia


7
OLDENLANDIA UMBELLATA.
OLDENLANDIA UMBELLATA.
Ay *. # \ A- ,
8
sappan) and alum, which has been prepared a day or two (the Mala-
bar painters boil the sappan wood, as mentioned before for dying);
and those that are to be purple, blue, or green, with their shades,
are done withdhe martial solution, called by the Gentoos Cassim,
which has been already taken notice of.
The chints painter's pencil is the most simple that can be con-
ceived"; a small bit of bamboo or other stick, tapering to a point
like a skewer, and split at the point for about one inch, with a
bit of rag or a little hair tied round it about an inch from the
point, in form of a ball; this receives and retains the colour em-
ployed, and the point of the pencil is kept moist by gently squeez-
ing the moistened ball, which is easily done by the hand that holds
the pencil: with wonderful dexterity a good painter will run over
a piece of cloth in this manner.
Fourth day. The operation of delineating the outlines of the
figures being over, the cloth washed in cold water and half dried, a
decoction of chay rqot is prepared, about ten or twelve ounces in
powder to each gallon of water, sufficient to cover the cloth per-
fectly^, so as to let it be easily moved about in the liquor during the
boiling, which must be gentle, and for about an hour and an half;
the cloth must remain in the liquor till perfectly cold, it is then
washed out in cold water, and dried.
Fifth day. The n&xt work is to repeat the first part of the ope-
ration, viz. to wet well the half finished cloth in a mixture of pow-
dered caducay nuts in milk and water, and dry it in the sun or shade.
Sixth day. The parts that are to becof the best and brightest
red are now shaded with an infusion of turmerick and alum in cold
water, (such as was employed on the fourth day in dying red) those
that are to be red-purpte (the literal translation of the Telinga
words yerra-bannas, which is a deep brownish purple) have the
light shades covered with wax, which is done with the common
painting pencil above described and melted wax: when finished,
these parts are to be done over with the following mixture ; cassim
one part, sour conjee (pullagalli of the Telingas) and infusion of
sappan wood, each four parts; the wax prevents this colour from
tinging the parts it adheres to: the work is dried in the shade, and
put by for that day.
Seventh day. It is washed in cold water, when half dry boiled
in a decoction of the roots, as on the fourth day, and when cold well
wrung out, and immediately wetted in the mixture of milk, water,
and caclucay, as on the second day, only the proportion of milk is
diminished, dried, and put by till next day.
Eighth day. The parts that are to be of the best red, as mentioned
on the sixth day, have the parts that are to be shaded light, covered
with wax, and over the whole of these the turmerick infusion with
alum is to be applied the second time.
Ninth day. Wettqd in cold water for a few minutes, and dried
in the sun.
Tenth day. The parts done with turmerick, 8cc. as on the eighth
day, must be again done over with the same colour, which is the
third time. The parts that are to be purple have their light shades
done with melted wax, and covered with a mixture of one part of
cassim and two of sour clear rice gruel.
Eleventh day. Wash it in cold water, and boil it in a decoction
of chay for one hour or so, half dry it in the shade; then return it
into the decoction, boil it again for some time, half dry, 8cc. repeat-
ing the boiling, or rather scalding, and half drying, for they must
be gentle, for the whole of this day; at night it is put into a mixture
of fresh cow-dung and water, and there remains till the morning.
Twelfth day. It is washed out, exposed on grass to the sun, and
watered as it dries ; this requires two or three days to make the un-
painted parts of the cloth perfectly white again, for the chay will
not stand bleaching, except where it has been fixed with alum; on
such places it stands every sort of washing and bleaching, provided
the process has been properly performed: those parts in the above
description are the flowers, 8cc. that were done with the infusion
of sappan wood and a.lum, or with that of turmerick and alum, or
both; neither the sappan nor turmerick infusion alone are of them-
selves essential for fixing the colour of this root, they serve to lighten
them, but the durability depends chiefly, if not entirely, on the
alum with which they were mixed.
Fifteenth day. The twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth having
been employed to whiten and clean the cloth, it is now starched
with a decoction of rice, dried in the sun and beetled, when it is
ready to receive the wax, which is melted, and with the pencil or a
small brush laid over every part of the cloth that is not to be blue
or green; when that is performed, it is put into the cold blue vat
(which must be in a proper state for dying) for a few minutes, then
exposed to the air, dipped and exposed to the air alternately till it
has received a sufficient quantity of the dye, wrung half dry and
washed out in cold water ; it is then put into scalding water to take
off the wax (which is not injured by the operation, but serves to
wax other pieces with); the cloth, or rather nearly finished chints,
must now be washed with soap and cold water, and left in a weak
solution of soap the whole night.
Sixteenth day. In the morning wash it out with more soap and
cold water; expose it to the sun on the grass, and sprinkle it with
water as it dries, at night wash it in cold water and put it by.
Seventeenth day. Wash it out with soap and water, and expose
it to the sun, sprinkling it with water as it dries for two or three
hours only; wash it in cold water, and dry it in the sun ; the whole
is now to be wetted in a mixture of milk and water, dried in the
sun, and put by till next day.
Eighteenth day. Take a small quantity of aldecay in powder,
boil it well in a little water, with this, when cold, the parts that are
to be green (they having been already dyed blue) are painted over
and dried in the shade; after which they are to be done over (fixed)
with a strong solution of alum, and dried in the shade. A strong
lixivium of washerman's earth (earth of cretaceous soda) is now
prepared, the chints is well wetted in it, wrung out, and put by for
the night.
Nineteenth day. Wash it out with cold water, and then with
soap and water; then expose it to the sun, and sprinkle it with
water as it dries for a few hours;' after which it is to be washed
again in cold water, and dried in the sun. There now remains only
that part of the process which prepares it for the market, viz. starch-
ing, beetling, and chanki^g ; tljis last is similar to calendering,
which is performed with a smooth shell rubbed backwards and for-
wards over the painted side of the chints, till it has acquired a very
high gloss or polish.
The Telinga physicians do not give any part of the plant a place
in- their Materia Medica; but the Malabar physicians say that the
roots cure poisonous bites, the cold, and the itch, and warm the con-
stitution.
4. STRYCHNOS NUX VOMICA.
Linn. Spec. Plant. 271.
Musadie of the Telingas. A
Trunk short and crooked, but pretty thick.
Branches irregular: both are covered with smooth ash-coloured
bark.


9 STRYCHNOS NUX VOMICA.
Leaves opposite, short petioled, round-ov^l, shining, smooth on both
sides, entire, three-five-nerved, differing in size, from one and
a half to four inches long, and from one to three broad.
Stipules none.
Flowers small, greenish white, collected on small terminal umbells.
Calyx lasting;
Corol as in the genus.
Filaments scarce any, or exceeding short, inserted into the divisions
of the corol.
Anthers half within the tube, and half out.
Style length of the tube of the corol.
Berry round, smooth, size of a pretty large apple, covered with a
smooth somewhat hard shell, of a rich beautiful orange colour
when ripe, filled with a soft jelly-like pulp.
Seeds from two to five, immersed in the pulp of the berry.
A middling sized tree, is common in almost every part of the
coast. Flowers during the cold season. The wood of this tree is
hard and durable, and is used for many purposes by the natives.
Itns exceeding bitter, particularly that of the root, which is used to
cure intermitting fevers, and the bites of venomous snakes, when
that of Naga-musadie cannot be had. The seeds are employed in
the distillation of country spirits, to render them more intoxicating.
The pulp of the fruit seems perfectly innocent, as it is eat greedily
by many sorts of birds.
There is a tree, but exceeding rare on this coast, which the Te-
lingas call Naga Musadie (Naga, or Tansoo Paum in the Telinga
language means the Cobra de Capella or Coluber Naja of Linnaeus,
tansoo means dancing, and paum snake, this sort being famous for
erecting its head, and moving it from side to side at the sound of
music) i. e. Cobra de Capella Musadie. I have only once met with
it, and then it was pointed out to me by a Telinga physician. The
tree had been cut down and carried away some time before, most
of the roots were also dug up and carried away; from the only
remaining one that I could find, some shoots had sprung up. The
leaves upon these were opposite, short petioled, obtuse, lanced,
three-nerved, about two or two and a half inches long, by three-
quarters broad; the petioles were very short, and connected at their
insertions by a membrane, as in the natural order of Rubiaceae. I
took up this root with the greatest care, cut off the upper part from
whence the shoots grew, and planted it in my garden ; but it soon
perished. From the above circumstances l am inclined to think
there is a species different from the Nux vomica tree, which yields
the real Lignum Colubrinum. The wood of the root of this sort is
esteemed by the Telinga physicians an infallible remedy for the
bite of the naga, as well as for th#t of every other venomous snake :
it is applied externally, and at the same time given internally; it is
also given in substance for the cure of intermitting fevers.
In the plate, the dissected flower is magnified ; the fruit of its
natural size.
Induga of the Telingas.
Tettan-Kottah of the Tamuls.
Clearing-nut of the English.
The description of this tree in the Supplementum Plantarum is
so perfect, as to leave me little to add; the only observations I have
to make are, that the leaves cannot be said to be five-nerved.
STRYCHNOS POTATORUM. 10
Stipules entire, connecting.
Panicles from the extremities of the last year's shoots, round the base
of this year's, bearing a few small, erect, fragrant, greenish-
yellow flowers. Filaments rather longer than in Nux vomica.
Berry shining, black when ripe.
This species grows to be a larger tree than the Nux vomica tree,
it is much scarcer, being only found among#mountains, and woods
of great extent. It flowers during the hot season. The wood, like
that of the former, is hard and durable, aifd used for various econo-
mical purposes. The pulp of the fruit when ripe is eat by the
natives; to me the taste is rather disagreeable.
The ripe seeds are dried and sold in every market, to clear muddy
water. The natives never drink clear well-water if they can get
pond or river water, which is always more or less impure according
to circumstances. One of the seeds, or nuts, as they are generally
called, is rubbed very hard for a minute or two round the inside of
the vessel containing the water,'which is generally an unglazed
earthen one, and the water left to settle: in a very short time the
impurities fall to the bottom, leaving the water clear, and, so%far as
I have been able to learn, perfectly wholesome. These nuts are
constantly carried about by the more provident part of our officers
and soldiers, in time of war, to enable therji to purify their water;
they are easier to be had than alum, and are probably less hurtful
to the constitution.
In the plate, the dissected flower is magnified; the fruit of its
natural size.
6. TECTONA GRANDIS.
Linn. Suppl. 151.
Theka. Rkeed. mat. A. p. 5 7. tab. 27.
Iatus. Rumph. amb. 3. p. 3 4. tab. 18.
Teke of the Telingas.
Trunk erect, growing to an immense size. Bark ash-coloured.
Branches cross-armed, numerous, spreading: young shoots four-
sided, sides channelled.
Leaves opposite, petioled, spreading, egged, a little scolloped, above
scabrous, below covered with white soft down; they are larger
at a distance from the flowers, and on young trees fromtwelve
to twenty-four inches long, and from eight to sixteen broad.
Petiole short, thick, laterally compressed.
Panicle terminal, very large, cross-armed, small: divisions dicho-
tomous, with a sessile fertile flower in each cleft; the whole
covered with a hoary-coloured farinaceous substance.
Peduncle common, quadrangular, sides deeply channelled, angles
obtuse.
Bracts opposite, lanced, two at each subdivision.
Flowers small, white, very numerous, fragrant.
Calyx and Corol as described in the Supplementum Plantarum,
only ofteney six than five-cleft.
JVectary very small, often wanting,
Stamens oftener six than five.
Stigma two-cleft: divisions obtuse, spreading.
Drupe within the enlarged inflated dry calyx, obtusely four-sided,
woolly, spongy, dry.
Mit exceeding hard, four-celled.
This most useful tree is a native of various parts of India, viz. of
the mountainous part of the Malabar and Coromandel coasts, of the
5. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM.
Linn. SuppL 148.


11
TECTONA GRANDIS.
mountains bordering on the banks of the Godavery above Rajah-
mundry, Pegu, kc. &c. Lord Cornwallis and Colonel Kyd have
begun some time ago to introduce it into Bengal, where it thrives
well. On this coast it flowers in the hot season. Seed ripe in
o
August and September.
The wood of this tree, the only useful part of it, from long expe-
rience has been found to be by far the most useful timber in Asia;
it is light, easily worked, and at the same time both strong and
durable: that which grows near the banks of the Godavery is
beautifully veined, considerably closer in the grain and heavier than
any other I have seen; it is therefore particularly fit for furniture,
gun carriages, &c. where small timber is wanted. For ship building
the teke is reckoned superior to any other sort of wood, being light,
strong, and very durable, either in or out of the water. Pegu pro-
duces the largest quantity, the large rivers there enable the natives to
bring it down to the sea ports from the interior mountainous parts
of the country, where it grows, at a cheap rate, which enables them
to sell it lower than ih any other*part of India.
C ______
7. CEROPEGIA BULBOSA.
' ' - C '
Manchy Mandu of the Telingas.
Root bulbous, solid, a little flattened, with several fibres from it base,
size of a small turnip.
Stem twining, herbaceous, smooth, succulent, from two to four feet
long. c
Leaves opposite, short petioled, obverse-egged, with a small point;
entire, fleshy; size various.
Umbellets lateral, length of the leaves, peduncled, few-flowered, di-
rection various.
Flowers pretty large, erect: tube greenish, border purple.
Calyx below, five-toothed", tooth-lets acute, permanent.
Corol one-petaled, tube swelled at the base, contracted about the
middle, enlarging from thence to the mouth : border five-part-
ed: segments linear, downy, purple, erect; tops united, gaping
at the sides. <
Nectary composed of five compound bodies, which surround and
hide the pistil ; from each rises a curved filament, which is
akout half the length of the tube.
Anthers, if they can be so called, for they are only yellow scales;
five pair resting on the black pointed angles of tire stigma,
(corpus truncatum.)
a
Germs two, united.
Styles seemingly two, united, short, thick.
Stigma (corpus truncatum) large, targeted, five-cornered, before the
flowers open these corners adhere firmly to five incurved yel-
low glandulous parts of the nectary, and between them the
anthers; it requires some force to separate them to have a
view of the anthers; afterwards, when the flower is full
blown, they separate of themselves; the anthers are then seen
poised, as it were, on the five black pointed angles of the
stigma.
Follicles two, slender, each about three or four inches long.
Grows amongst bushes, in dry barren uncultivated ground and
hedges. Flowers during the hot season.
Every part of this plant is eat by the natives, either raw, or
stewed in their curries. The fresh roots taste like a raw turnip, the
leaves and the stem like purslane.
12
8. CEROPEGIA ACUMINATA.
Commoo-manda of the Telingas.
Root perennial, a flattened solid bulb with few fibres from its base.
Stem annual, twining, smooth, jointed.
Leaves opposite, erect, short-petioled, linear, tapering from the base
to an acute point, succulent, entire; from two to four inches
long, and a quarter or half an inch broad at the base, which
is the broadest.
Umbellets lateral, spreading, peduncled, shorter than the leaves.
Flowers, kc. exactly as in C. bulbosa.
Is a native of the s-ame places with the former ; flowering time
the same. Every part of it is esculent, as in the foregoing.
9. CEROPEGIA TUBEROSA.
Batsala-mandu of the Telingas.
Root, many small tuberous knobs, with thick fleshy fibres; per-
ennial.
Stem twining, herbaceous, annual, round, smooth, jointed, much
less succulent than either of the former, from four to twelve
feet long.
Leaves opposite, petioled, below hearted, about the middle egged,
above oblong; all are a little pointed, waved, entire, smooth,
margins coloured, two to three inches long, and one or two
broad.
Petiole channelled.
Umbellets lateral, erect, peduncled, longer than the leaves.
Calyx as in the former.
Corol: tube as in C. bulbosa; here the segments of the border either
adhere for full half their length, or do not meet; filaments of
the nectary clubbed.
This, like the two former, grows in dry uncultivated land
amongst bushes: flowers during the same season, and, like the
former, every part is esculent; the roots are eat raw, and are more
palatable than those of C. bulbosa, fhough not near so large.
10. CEROPEGIA JUNCEA.
Bella-gada of the Telingas.
Root tuberous, with many ramons fibres.
Stem twining, round, smooth, jointed, succulent.
Leaves very remote, and very small, opposite, sessile, lanced, en-
tire, fleshy. c
Umbellets lateral, peduncled, or axillary, erect, few-flowered.
Flowers erect, very large, beautifully variegated with yellow, green,
and purple.
Peduncle and Pedicels clubbed.
Calyx as in the former.
Corol: mouth of the tube and border much larger in proportion to
the other parts than the last, but in other respects the same.
Nectary nearly the same.
Pistil, kc. the same.

(


13
CEROPEGIA JUNCEA,
SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM.
14
w
This, like the former, has perennial roots, and an annual stem,
is a native of similar places; flowers at the same time; and, like the
former, every part of this plant is esculent; eat raw it abates thirst.
11. PERIPLOCA ESCULENTA.
Linn. Suppl. 16 8.
Oudy-palla of the Telingas.
Root filiform, fibrous.
Stems and Branches numerous, twining, round, smooth, running
over bushes of considerable size.
Leaves opposite, spreading, short-petioled, linear, tapering to a fine
point, rounded at the base, entire, smooth, from four to six
inches long, and about three-eighths of an inch broad.
Raceme lateral, long, few-flowered.
Fl&wers large, beautiful whif?, with a small tinge of the rose, and
striated with purple veins, inodorous.
Xectary and Stamens as in Asclepias and Pergularia.
Follicles oblong, inflated.
It is a twining perennial, grows in hedges and among bushes on
the banks of water courses, pools, &c. casts its leaves during the
dry season; is in flower and foliage during the rainy. On this
coast I do not find that the natives ever eat it, nor apply it to any
purpose whatever. Cattle eat it. Its elegant flowers render it well
deserving of a place in the flower garden.
12.
SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM.
Linn. Suppl. 182.
Nella-jiedy of the Telingas.
Marking-nut of the English.
Anacardium orientale of the Materia Medica.
Trunk very large, straight, high, covered with grey scabrous bark,
the bark of the younger parts smooth, light ash-colour; its
inner substance contains in crevices a quantity of a white, soft,
almost insipid gum.
Branches numerous, spreading. m
Leaves about the extremities of the branchlets, alternate, petioled,
wedge-form, rounded at the apex, entire, firm, above pretty
smooth, below whitish and scabrous, from nine to eighteen
inches long, and from four to eight broad.
Petiole one add a half or two inches long, half-round.
Panicle terminal, very large, composed of many simple spikes, that
of the male tree much slenderer, but as large or larger.
Bracts many, small, falling.
Flowers numerous, small, of a dirty greenish yellow colour.
Hermaphrodite flowers as in the Supplementum Plantarum.
Pericarp none. Receptacle erect, fleshy, pear-shaped, smooth, when
ripe yellow, about the size of the nut.
Seed: a single nut, resting upon the receptacle, hearted, flattened
on both sides, smooth, shining, black ; the cover or the shell
of the seed is composed of two laminae, the inner hard, the
outer less so, and leathery; between them are cells which con-
tain the black corrosive resinous juice, which has long made
them famous; this juice is of a pale milk colour, till perfectly
ripe, when it becomes black.
Male flowers on a separate tree, they are smaller than the herma-
phrodite.
Calyx and Corol, as in the hermaphrodite.
Filaments five, the length of the petals.
Anthers much larger than in the hermaphrodite.
Pistil none ; but in its place a semiglobular hairy glandulous body.
A large tree, bearing male flowers on one, and hermaphrodite on
another. It is a native of all the mountainous parts of India. Flower-
ing time July and August. Seed ripe in January and February.
The wood of this tree is reckoned of no use, not only on account
of its softness, but also on account of its confining much acrid juice,
which renders it dangerous to cut down and work upon. The fleshy
receptacles on which the seed rests, are roasted in the ashes, and
eat by the natives; their taste is exceedingly like that of roasted
apples; before they are roasted, they taste adstringent and acrid,
leaving a painful sensation on the tongue for some time. The ker-
nels are rarely eaten.
The green fruit well pounded into a pulp makes good bird-lime.
The pure black acrid juice of the shell is employed by the natives
externally to remove rheumatic pains, aches* and sprains ; a little is
well rubbed over the part affected; but in tender constitutions it
often produces inflammation and swelling, doing much more harm
than good. I think wherfc it has not these disagreeable effects, which
is generally the case, it is an efficacious remedy.
It is employed by the Telinga physicians in the cure of almost
every sort of venereal complaint; it is prepared as follows: take
of this black juice and of the expressed juice of garlic, each one
ounce, expressed juice of fresh tamarind-tree leaves, coco-nut oil,
and sugar, of each two ounces, mix and boil them for a few minutes ;
a table spoonful is given to the patient twice a day. I know nothing
of the efficacy of this composition myselj7.
It is universally employed to mark all sorts of cotton cloth; the
colour is improved and prevented froimrunning, by a little mixture
of quick-lime and water. This juice is not soluble in water, and only
diffusible in spirits of wine, for it soon falls to the bottom, unless the
menstruum be previously alkalized. The solution is then pretty
complete, and of a deep black colour. It sinks in, but soon unites
perfectly with expressed oils; alkaline lixivium acts upoh. it with
no better success than plain water. ^
In the plate the dissected flower is magnified ; the fruit of its na-
tural size,
13. CURCULIGO ORCfilOIDES.
Gcertn. sent. 1. p. 6 3. tab. 16.
Nalla-tady of the Telingas.
Root tuberous, with many fleshy vermicular fibres.
Leaves numerous, all radical, petioled, sword-form, nerved, slender;
when young there are a very few soft white hairs on them,
from six to eighteen inches long, and half or three-quarters of
an inch broad.
Petiole channelled, below sheath-form, embracing those within.
Raceme solitary, axillary, two-ranked, its apex just appearing above
the earth.
Peduncle compressed, clubbed, about an inch long.
Bracts below remote, above nearer, spath-like, pointed, decreasing


15
CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES.
MIMUSOPS ELENGI.
16
in length towards the top, so that their apices are nearly hori-
zontal (corymbe-like) one-flowered.
Flowers pretty large, yellow; the one or two lowermost are herma-
phrodite, c above all male.
Hermaphrodite flowers below.
Peduncle (of the flower) so long as to elevate the flower above the
earth about one inch, hairy, three-sided.
C .
Calyx none.
Petals six, oblong, spreading, withering.
Filaments six, very short.
Anthers linear, erect.
Germ sessile, lanced.
Style very short.
Stigma large, tapering, capex three-cleft.
Capsule, when a germ, shews three cells, with the rudiments of
six or eight seeds in each; but when the seeds are ripe, the
number is only from one to four, and they seem as if in a
transparent fleshy one-celled capsule, and separated by a
spongy fleshy substance.
Seeds from one to four, shining, black, beaked.
Male Flowers: Peduncle, Corol, and Stamen as above; the Germ, Style,
( and Stigma are wanting.*
... _ > - c . ' -'
A native of shady uncultivated places about Samulcotah, though
by no means common. In my garden it flowers all the year round.
14. MIMUSOPS ELENGI.
Linn. Spec. Plant. 49 7.
Pagadoo of the Telingas.
Magadoo of the Tamuls.
Kunki of the native Portuguese.
Trunk erect, in general from eight to twelve feet to the branches.
Ba^rk pretty smooth.
Branches exceedingly numerous, spreading, with the extremities as-
cending, so as to form a most elegant globular, thick head.
Leaves alternate, short-petioled, approximated, declined or depend-
ing^ waved, very firm, both sides a deep shining green, three
toTour inches long, and one or one and a half broad.
* Description by Doctor Koenig.
Radix biennis, fusiformis, rugosa, rugis annularibus, cortice fusco tecta, superne squamis
scariosis vestita, carnosa, sesquipedaiis, crassitie digiti minors.
Folia radiealia, fasciculatim conferta, erecta et recurvata, quaedam terra incumbentia, linea-
ria, acuta, striata, canaljculata, basi plerumque quinquenervia, punctis minimis
densis, pilisque rarioribus longis albis adspersa, pedalia.
Scapus vix supra terram prominulus, angulosus, stratus, albus, squamis scariosis foliisque
obvolutus, brevissimus. Flares parum supra terram prominuli, fasciculatim conferti,
pedunculati. Pedunculi erecti, compressiusculi, subalati, basi tenuiores, pilis rario-
ribus longis albis adspersi, tubo floris breviores, nivei.
Spatha monophylla, lineari-oblonga, acuta, membranacea, striata, pilis rarioribus adspersa,
longitudine tubi coroliae, germen involvens.
Corolla monopetala, infundibuliformis. Tubus filiformis, pilosus, inanis, niveus. Limbus
sexpartitus: lacinra patentee, concavae, ovato-oblongae, acute, apice barbate, extus
pallidas, intus flavae, pilis brevioribus adspersae, subcarnosae.
Filamenta sex, coroliae adnata, patentia, filiformia, vix longitudine styli. Anthem lineari-
hastate, longitudine filamentorum.
, nean oblon^um, triquetro-compressum. Stylus cum tubo corollas unitus,
extra tuburn corolla ad'natus, pyramiclalis, basi contractus, sexangularis, angulis mar-
ginatis, ciliatis, parum tortuosis, corolla brevior. Stigma obtusiusculum.
Capsula subterranea, lineari-oblonga, utrinque acuta, triquetra, leviter striata, bilocularis,
vix pollicaris, crassitie pennae anserinas, alba. Semina 6 ad 8, raro plura, subnidu-
kntia, ovata, compressiuscula, rostrata, rostro obtusiusculo, prominulo.
Stipules small, lanced, concave, rusty, falling.
Peduncles axillary, from one to eight, short, clubbed, bowing, undi-
vided, one-flowered.
Flowers middle-sized, depending, white, very fragrant.
Perianth below, eight-leaved in a double row: leaflets lanced, four
exterior leathery and larger, permanent.
Tube of the Corol very short, fleshy; border (it may be divided into
a double series of segments and a single nectary, or a single
series of segments and a double nectary, the first method I shall
follow) composedof a double series of segments: the exterior
consists of sixteen, spreading; the interior of eight, generally
contorted, converging; all are lanced, and a little torn at their
extremities.
Nectary eight-leaved, conical, ragged, hairy near the base, inserted
alternately with the filaments into the mouth of the tube, con-
verging.
Filaments eight, short, hairy.
Anthers linear, sharp-pointed, below two-parted, converging.
Germ egged, hairy; in it are always fee rudiments of eight seed*!.
Style awled.
Stigmagenerally a little ragged.
Berry oval, size and shape of an olive, generally one-seeded.
Seedovzl, compressed, smooth, shining, chesnut-coloured.
I have only once found this in its wild state, it was on the moun-
tains in the Rajahmundry Circar, where it grows to be a middle sized
tree. On account of its fragrant flowers it is universally planted in
the gardens of the natives, as well as in those of all the European
nations in India. It flowers chiefly during the hot season.
The flowers are sacred to the Hindoo gods.
15. MIMUSOPS EIEXANDRA.
Palla of the Telingas.
Trunk erect; frequently when old it has large rotten excavations.
Bark ash-coloured.
Branches numerous, spreading, extremities nearly erect, forming a
large shady head.
Leaves alternate, petioled, broad, wedge-form, or inverse-hearted,
deeply end-nicked, very hard, both sides a deep shining green,
three to five inches long, and one and a half or two broad.
Petiole round, one or one and a haljF inch long.
Peduncles axillary, from one to six, erect, or spreading, nearly as
long as the petiole, clubbed, undivided, one-flowered.
Flowers considerably smaller than the former.
Calyx below, six-leaved, three interior, and three exterior: the
exterior are leathery.
Corol one-petaled: tube very short; border like the former, con-
sists of two rows of segments, the exterior twelve, the interior
six; all spreading.
Nectary situate between the filaments, as in the former, but spread-
ing, shorter, and more deeply indented.
Filaments six, spreading.
Anthers oval..
Pistil as in the former.
Berry as in the former.
n J,hlrka laAe tree' natlve 0f the mountainus> uncultivated
parts of the Ctrcars; ts never cultivated, nor seen near culti-


15 CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES.
in length towards the top, so that their apices are nearly hori-
zontal (corymbe-like) one-flowered.
Flowers pretty large, yellow; the one or two lowermost are herma-
phrodite,, above all male.
Hermaphrodite flowers below.
Peduncle (of fee flower) so long as to elevate the flower above the
earth about one inch, hairy, three-sided.
c . .
Calyx none.
Petals six, oblong, spreading, withering.
Filaments six, very short.
Anthers linear, erect.
Germ sessile, lanced.
Style very short.
Stigma large, tapering, capex three-cleft.
Capsule, when a germ, shews three cells, with the rudiments of
six or eight seeds in each; but when the seeds are ripe, the
number is only from onec to four, and they seem as if in a
transparent fleshy one-celled capsule, and separated by a
spongy fleshy substance.
Seeds from one to four, shining, black, beaked.
Male Flowers: Peduncle, Corol, and Stamen as above; the Germ, Style,
o. and Stigma are wanting*
A native of shady uncultivated places about Samulcotah, though
by no means common. In my garden it flowers all the year round.
* Description by Doctor Koenig.
Radix biennis, fusiformis, rugosa, rugis annularibus, cortice fusco tecta, superne squamis
c scariosis vestita, carnosa, sesquipedalis, crassitie digiti minoris.
Folia radicalia, fasciculatim conferta, erecta etrecurvata, quaedam terra incumbentia, linea-
ria, acuta, striata, cana^culata, basi plerumque quinquenervia, punctis minimis
densis, pilisque rarioribus longis albis adspersa, pedalia.
Scopus vix supra terram prominulus, angulosus, striatus, albus, squamis scariosis foliisque
obvolutus, brevissimus. Flores parum supra terram prominuli, fasciculatim conferti,
pedunculati. Pedunculi erecti, compressiusculi, subalati, basi tenuiores, pilis rario-
ribus longis albis adspersi, tubo floris breviores, nivei.
Spatha monophylla, lineari-oblonga, acuta, membranacea, striata, pilis rarioribus adspersa,
longitudine tubi corollae, germen involvens. "
Corolla monopetala, infundibuliformis. Tubus filiformis, pilosus, inanis, niveus. Limbus
sexpartitus: laciniae patentee, concavas, ovato-oblongae, acute, apice barbate, extus
pallida, intus flava, pilis brevioribus adspersa, subcarnosa.
Filamenta sex, corolla adnata, patentia, filiformia, vix longitudine styli. Anlhera lineari-
hastata, longitudine filamentorum.
Germen inferum, lineari-oblongum, triquetro-compressum. Stylus cum tubo corolla unitus,
extra tubum corolla adnatus, pyramidalis, basi contractus, sexangularis, angulis mar-
ginatis, ciliatis, parum tortuosis, corolla brevior. Stigma obtusiusculum.
Capsula subterranea, lineari-oblonga, utrinque acuta, triquetra, leviter striata, bilocularis,
vix pollicaris, crassitie penna anserina, alba. Semina 6 ad 8, raro plura, subnidu-
Untia, ovata, compressiuscula, rostrata, rostro obtusiuseulo, prominulo.
MIMUSOPS ELENGI. 16
Stipules small, lanced, concave, rusty, falling.
Peduncles axillary, from one to eight, short, clubbed, bowing, undi-
vided, one-flowered.
Flowers middle-sized, depending, white, very fragrant.
Perianth below, eight-leaved in a double row: leaflets lanced, four
exterior leathery and larger, permanent.
Tube of the Corol very short, fleshy; border (it may be divided into
a double series of segments and a single nectary, or a single
series of segments and a double nectary, the first method I shall
follow) composed of a double series of segments: the exterior
consists of sixteen, spreading; the interior of eight, generally
contorted, converging; all are lanced, and a little torn at their
extremities.
Xectary eight-leaved, conical, ragged, hairy near the base, inserted
alternately with the filaments into the mouth of the tube, con-
verging.
Filaments eight, short, hairy.
Anthers linear, sharp-pointed, below two-parted, converging.
Germ egged, hairy; in it are always fee rudiments of eight seecfe.
Style awled.
Stigmagenerally a little ragged.
Berry oval, size and shape of an olive, generally one-seeded.
Seed oval, compressed, smooth, shining, chesnut-coloured.
I have only once found this in its wild state, it was on the moun-
tains in the Rajahmundry Circar, where it grows to be a middle sized
tree. On account of its fragrant flowers it is universally planted in
the gardens of the natives, as well as in those of all the European
nations in India. It flowers chiefly during the hot season.
The flowers are sacred to the Elindoo gods.
Trunk erect; frequently when old it has large rotten excavations.
Bark ash-coloured.
Branches numerous, spreading, extremities nearly erect, forming a
large shady head.
Leaves alternate, petioled, broad, wedge-form, or inverse-hearted,
deeply end-nicked, very hard, both sides a deep shining green,
three to five inches long, and one and a half or two broad.
Petiole round, one or one and a half inch long.
Peduncles axillary, from one to six, erect, or spreading, nearly as
long as the petiole, clubbed, undivided, one-flowered.
Flowers considerably smaller than the former.
Calyx below, six-leaved, three interior, and three exterior: the
exterior are leathery.
Corol one-petaled: tube very short; border like the former con-
sists of two rows of segments, the exterior twelve, the interior
six; all spreading.
Xectary situate between the filaments, as in the former, but spread-
ing, shorter, and more deeply indented.
Filaments six, spreading.
Anthers oval.
Pistil as in the former.
Berry as in the former.
ml/AAY tree' 3 mtIVe f the uncultivated
parts of the Crrcars; never cultivated, nor seen near culti-
14. mimusops ELENGI.
Lirin. Spec. Plant. 497.
Pagadoo of the Telingas.
Magadoo of the Tarnuls.
Kunki of the native Portuguese,
Trunk erect, in general from eight to twelve feet to the branches*
Ba'rk pretty smooth.
Branches exceedingly numerous, spreading, wife the extremities as-
cending, so as to form a most elegani globular, thick head.
Leaves alternate, short-petioled, approximated, declined or depend-
ing^ waved, very firm, both sides a deep shining green, three
toTour inches long, and one or one and a half broad.
15. MIMUSOPS PIEXANDRA.
Palla of the Telingas.


17
MIMUSOPS HEXANDRA.
CAESALPINIA SAPPAN.
18
vated places. Flowers during the hot and beginning of the wet
season.
The wood is remarkably hard and heavy, for these reasons it is
much used by the washermen to beetle their cloth on.
16. CiESALPINIA SAPPAN.
Linn. Spec. Plant. 5 45.
Buckan-chitto of the Telingas.
Sappan Wood Tree of the English.
Trunk irregular, the largest twelve feet or more in circumference.
Bark very thin, ash-coloured, that of the branches thickly set with
round scabrous tuberosities, each crowned with a small sharp
somewhat curved prickle; these drop as the wood becomes
large. The young shocks have the prickles, but want their
tuberous receptacles.
Branches few, spreading, irregularly armed as above mentioned.
Leaves alternate, abruptly twice feathered, oblong, from twelve to
twenty inches long : feathers ten to twelve pair. Leaflets oppo-
site, from eight to fourteen pair, somewhat rhomboidal, end-
nicked, smooth, three-quarters of an inch long by three-eighths
broad.
Petiole common, round, smooth, generally armed with three prickles
at the insertion of the feather, the pair below, and the single
one above.
Stipules obliquely lanced, falling.
Panicle terminal, large, composed of many simple racemes.
Peduncle and Pedicels round and smooth.
Bracts lanced, concave, one-flpwered, falling.
Flowers very numerous, pretty large, yellow, without smell.
Calyx as in the genus.
Corol: the four lateral petals equal, the upper (there is none below)
small and streaked with red.
Stamen ascending towards the upper coloured petal.
Stigma tubular.
Legume rhomboidal, three inches long, one and three-quarters broad,
much compressed.
Seeds thxez ox four, very rarely five* oval, a little compressed, smooth,
hard, light brown.
This very valuable tree I lately discovered to be a native of that
chain of mountains which separates the Circars from the Berar
Rajah's dominions, where it grows to be a very large tree. Flowers
during the wet season. Seed ripe in January and February.
This tree is by no means common on this coast, and it is only
among the aboxementioned mountains that I have found it wild.
It is also a native of the south-west frontier of the Bengal province,
and probably of many other parts. The markets over India are
supplied with wood from Siam, and the Malay countries to the east-
ward. I have some thousands of young trees about the Company's
pepper plantations, which thrive well, and in the course of a few
years will be fully as large as what is generally met with at market,
although, like others of this nature, the colour of the wood improves
by age, and ought therefore to be left till the colour has attained to
its utmost degree of perfection. The uses of this wood in dying are
numerous throughout Asia; it is an ingredient in the red dye of
this coast, commonly called the Chay dye, as may be seen above
under the description of Oldenlandia umbellata.
Where a cheap red is required for cotton cloth, this wood is em-
ployed by our Telinga dyers, but they cannot make it stand; their
general process is as follows ; suppose for four yards of bleached
cotton cloth. It must be well washed, to take out any remains of the
quick-lime, &c. used in bleaching; an infusion of half a pound of
powdered caducay in a pint and an half of cold water strained, is
employed to prepare the cloth, which is done by wetting it twice
in the same infusion, drying it between and after. Next day it is
twice wetted in a strong solution of alum, and as often dried in the
sun. Next day a decoction of the sappan wood is prepared as fol-
lows : take one pound of sappan wood in powder, water twelve
quarts, boil it till a third is consumed; divide the remaining eight
quarts of the decoction into three parts, one of four, and the other
two of two quarts each; into the four quarts put the cloth, wet it
well, wring it gently and half dry it; it is again wetted in one of
the small portions,, and when half dry, wetted for the third and last
time in the other remaining portion of the decoction; dry it in the
shade, which finishes the process.
This wood seems possessed of nearly the same quality as B^azi-
letto, its infusion and decoction are heightened by alkalies, and
destroyed by mineral acids; a solution of tin in aqua regia precipi-
tates from the infusion a beautiful crimson coloured lake; the wdbd
itself is orange coloured, without smell or tasfe ; it gives to spirits a
saffron colour.
This tree seems as if it would be a very proper prop for pepper
vines to run on. I am now making the trial; should it answer,
the cultivation of pepper over these parts of the coast may be ren-
dered exceedingly profitable; for when the vines have done bear-
ing, the sappan wood will have acquired more age, and of course
more colour than is generally met with, and will consequently sell
for a higher price, probably as much as will defray the expence of
the whole culture, and the rent of the land during the time it has
been occupied by the pepper vines.
The numerous thorns, with which this tsee is covered, render it
very proper for high extensive fences, which will afterwards become
profitable. It is of a pretty quick growth; in two years from the
time the seeds are sown, if in a pretty good soil, they will have
attained to the height of eight or ten feet, and begin to flower and
bear seed; about the same time the centre part of the stem begins to
acquire colour, which yearly improves in quality, as well as in-
creases in quantity.
A
17. SWIETENIA FEBRIFUGA.
Roxburgh's monography, printed by order of the East India Company.
Swietenia Soymida. Duncan tent, inaug. de Swietenia Soymida.
Edinb. 1 7 94.
Soymida of the Telingas.
Trunk very straight, rising to a great height, of a great thickness,
and covered with a grey, scabrous, cracked bark.
Branches numerous, the lower spreading, the higher ascending,
forming a very large shady head.
Leaves alternate, about the extremities of the branchlets, abruptly
feathered, about twelve inches long. Leaflets opposite, very
short, petiolated, three or four pair, oval, obtuse or end-nicked,
the lower side generally extending a little further down on the
petiolet than the upper, smooth, shining, from three to five
inches long, and from two to three broad, the inferior smallest.
Petiole round, smooth, about nine or ten inches long.
Stipules none.


Gartner a racemosa.
20
19
SWIETENIA FEBRIFUGA.
Panicle very large, terminal, diffuse, bearing great numbers of
middle-sized, white, inodorous flowers.
Peduncle and Pedicels round and smooth.
Bracts very minute.
(Myx below,cfive-lea\fcd: Leafletsoval, deciduous.
Petals five, inverse-egged, obtuse, concave, expanding.
Xectary not quite half the length of the petals, a little bellied:
mouth ten-toothed, teeth bifid.
Filaments ten, very short, inserted just within the mouth of the
nectary.
Anthers oval.
Germ conical.
Style thick, tapering. c
Stigma large, targeted, shutting up the mouth of the nectary.
Capsule egged, large, five-celled, five-valved: valvelets gaping
from the top. ^
Receptacle in the centre, large, spongy, five-angled: angles sharp,
. and connected with the sutures of the capsule, between them
F
deeply sulcated.
Seeds many in each cell, imbricated, obliquely wedge-shaped, en-
C larged by a long membranaceous wing, inserted at the upper
point of the wing into a long brown speck, on the upper part
of the excavations of the receptacle: all the rest of the recep-
tacle is white.
This is a very large tree, a native of the mountainous parts of the
Rajahmundry Circar, north of Samulcotah and Peddapore. It
flowers about the end of* the cold, or beginning of the hot season.
Seeds ripen in three or four months after.
The wood of this tree is of a dull red colour, remarkably hard
and heavy; itis reckoned by the nativesby far the most durable wood
they know, on that account it is used for all the wood work in their
temples, it is also very,serviceable for various other purposes.
The bark is internally of a light red colour; a decoction dyes
brown of various shades, according as the cloth has been prepared,
&c. Its taste is a bitter and adstringent conjoined, and very strong,
particularly the bitter, at the same time not any way nauseous or
otherwise disagreeable, for the bitter,* although strong, is rather
more palatable than most others I have tasted.
In the plate the dissected flower is magnified; the fruit of its
natifral size.
18. GtERTNERA racemosa.
Gaertnera. Schrebt.gen.135.
Molina racemosa. Cavanill. monad, p. 435. t. 263.
Hiptage Madablota. Gartn.sem. 2. p. 16 9. t. 116.
Madablota. Banisteria tetraptera. Sonnerat voyage aux Indes, 2.
p. 238. tab. 135.
Banisteria unicapsularis. Lamarck encycl. I. p. 3 6 7.
Banisteria benghalensis. Linn. spec, plant. 611.
Vedal-chittoo of the Telingas.
Trunk and Branches climbing. Bark covered with light coloured
scabrous dots.
Leaves opposite, short-petioled, oblong, waved, pointed, entire,
smooth, shining; small glands round the under edge of the
margin, and two larger at its termination in the petiole, about
four to six inches long and two broad.
Raceme terminal, though sometimes from the exterior axills, co-
rymbe-like while flowering.
Pedicels jointed at the middle, and three-bracted.
small acute one under the insertion of each pedicel, and
another smaller at the joint
Flowers large, nearly white, very beautifully fringed and waved,
or to the base five-parted: Leaflets oblong,
permanent ; there is only one gland on the whole calyx, it is
large oblong, smooth, elevated, chesnut-coloured, placed
partly on the two upper leaflets, and partly on the pedicel,
permanent. n
Petals five, unequal, irregular, claws short, they are totally reflected
back towards the raceme: the lower two are oval; the next
two lateral above orbicular ; the superior petal broader, lies
back over the rest, is beautifully tinged with yellow in the
middle; all are most beautifully fringed round the margin.
Filaments ten, of which the lower one is twice the length and thick-
ness of the rest; all are ascending.
Anthers egged, equal. ^
Germs three, united as it were into one three-lobed body.
Style single, ascending, about as long as the large stamen.
Stigma simple, incurved.
Capsules, from one to three, globular, size of a large pea, one-celled,
one-valved, not opening, each is enlarged with three unequal
spreading, membranaceous, wedge-shaped, obtuse wings, be-
sides a small erect one in the centre.
Seed single, globular, affixed to the bottom of the capsule.
It is a large climbing woody shrub, a native of the Circar moun-
tains. Flowering time the wet and cold season. It is cultivated in
our gardens all over the coast, on account of the beauty and fra-
grance of its flowers.
19. BASSIA LATIFOLIA.
Mahwah Tree. Transact, of the Society of Bengal, vol. 1. p. 300.
Ipie of the Telingas.
Illipay of the Tamuls.
Oil Tree of the English.
*
Trunk straight, but short, covered with smooth ash-coloured Bark.
Branches very numerous; the lower spreading horizontally.
Leaves alternate, petiohM, crowded about the extremities of the
branches, oblong, rigid, smooth above, below somewhat whit-
ish, from four to eight inches long, and from two to four
broad.
Petiole round, about an inch long.
none. m
Flowers numerous, crowded from the extremities of the generally
naked branchlets, peduncled, at all times bowing (bent, with
the mouth of the flower directly to the ground). #
Peduncles about an inch long, round, thickened, covered with rust-
coloured down.
Calyx as in the genus.
Corol: tube as in the genus; border from seven to fourteen-parted.
Stamen Pistil, and Drupe as in the genus.
iZZ endt0 fUr' generally ne r two' oblon§' Pointed at th&
coat f a middVmg Size' a native of the mountainous parts of the
' CaStS ltS leaves during the cold season, they appear again


21
BASSIA LATIFOLIA.
*
BUTEA FRONDOSA.
22
with the flowers in March and April. Seed ripe in July and
August.
This is a very useful tree; the wood is hard, very strong, and
proper for naves of wheel-carriages, 8cc.
The flowers are eat raw by the natives of the mountainous parts
of the Circars; the jackals also eat them. They have a sweet spiri-
tuous taste, and a spirit, which is strong and intoxicating, is distilled
from them by the hill people. The seeds yield a large quantity of
oil by expression, but it is thick, and of a quality inferior to castor
oil, and used only by the poorer people to burn.
On the apices of the flowers, before they open, there is frequently
a drop of a whitish, soft, tasteless resin to be found.
20. DILLENIA PENT AG YN A.
f Rawadam of the Telingas.
Trunk erect, very large.
Branches numerous, ascending.
Leaves alternate, petioled, about the extremities of the branchlets,
oblong, pointed, sharp-sawed, having large elevated parallel
veins, smooth, shining, except when very young, then downy,
from twelve to twenty inches long, and from four to six broad.
Petiole about two inches long, deep channelled, embracing the
branchlets, leaving a permanent mark when it falls off.
Peduncles collected in bundles from tuberosities over the naked
woody two or three years old branchlets, erect, round, smooth,
two inches long, undivided, one-flowered.
Bracts no other than the rust-coloured downy scales that surround
the insertion of the peduncles.
Flowers middle-sized, yellow.
Calyx as in the genus.
Petals oblong, or lanced.
Filaments many, of which the interior ten are twice the length of
the rest.
Anthers sword-shaped: those of the short or exterior filaments are
erect; of the long filaments twice the size of the others, and
spread out over them in £orm of a star.
Germs five.
Styles five, short.
Stigmas lanced, spreading.
Pericarp pendulous, size of a small natmeg; the firm, fleshy leaflets
of the calyx (here not increased in size) surround and entirely
inclose five small soft capsules, which contain a soft transpa-
rent gluten.
Seeds reniform, few come to maturity, generally one, rarely two, in
each capsule.
This* tree is a native of the valleys far up among the mountains;
it flowers in March and April.
In the plate the dissected flower and germ are magnified; the
fruit of its natural size, when ripe ; the seed magnified.
21. BUTEA FRONDOSA.
Erythrina monosperma. Lamarck encycL 2. p. 391.
Plaso. Rheed. mal. 6. p. 29. tab. 16, 17.
Maduga of the Telingas.
Trunk irregular, generally a little crooked, covered with ash-coloured,
spongy, thick, slightly scabrous Bark, the middle strata of
which contain a red juice, hereafter to be mentioned.
Branches very irregularly bent in various directions; young shoots
downy.
Leaves alternate, spreading, three'd, from $ight to sixteen inches
long. Leajtets emarginated, or rounded at the apex, leathery,
above shining and pretty smooth, below slightly hoary, en-
tire ; the lateral are obliquely oval, from five to seven inches
long, and from three to four and a half broad; the terminal
inverse-hearted, or in other words, transversely oval, and con-
siderably larger than the lateral.
Common Petiole round, when young dowffy, length of the leaflets.
Stipules of the petiole small, recurved, downy; of the leaflets
awled.
Racemes terminal, axillary, and from tuberosities over the naked
woody branchlets, rigid, covered with a soft, greenish-purple-
coloured down. %
Flowers papilionaceous, pendulous, numerous, pediceled, large,
their ground colour a beautiful deep red, shaded with orange
and silver-coloured down, which gives them a most elegant
appearance.
Pedicels round, about an inch long, articulated near the apex, and
covered with the same greenish velvet-like down.
Bracts, one below the insertion of each pedicel, lanced, falling;
two similar but smaller, pressing on the calyx, falling also.
Calyx belled, leathery, two-lipped : upper lip large, scarce emargi-
nated; under lip three-toothed, covered with the same dark
green down that the raceme and pedicels are covered with,
withering.
CoroL Banner reflected, egged, pointed, very little longer than the
wings. Wings ascending, lanced, length of the keel. Keel be-
low, two-parted, ascending, large, nfooned, length of the wings
and banner.
Filaments one and nine, ascending in a regular semicircle, about as
long as the corol.
Anthers equal, linear, ergct.
Germ short, thick, pediceled, lanced, downy.
Style ascending, a little larger than the filaments. ^
Stigma small, glandulous. ^
Legume pediceled, large, pendulous, all but the apex, where the
seed is lodged leafy, downy, about six inches long, by two
broad, never opens of itself.
Seed one, lodged at the point of the legume, oval, much compressed,
smooth, brown, from one and a quarter to one and a half inch
long, and about one broad. *
This is a middle sized, or rather a large tree, not common on the
low lands of this coast, but very common among the mountains;
casts its leaves during the cold season; they come out again with the
flowers about tjie months af March and April; seed ripe in June
and July.
From natural fissures, and wounds made in the bark of this tree,
during the hot season, there issues a most beautiful red juice, which
soon hardens into a ruby-coloured, brittle, astringent gum; but it
soon loses its beautiful colour if exposed to the air. To preserve the
colour, the gum must be gathered as soon as it becomes hard, and
closely corked up in a bottle.
This gum held in the flame of a candle swells, and burns away
slowly, without smell or the least flame, into a coal, and then into
fine light white ashes; held in the mouth it soon dissolves, it tastes
strongly but simply astringent; heat does not soften it, but rather


bute a superb a.
24
23
bute a frondosa.
renders it more brittle. Pure water dissolves it perfectly, and the so-
lution is of a deep, clear, red colour. It is in a great measure soluble
in spirits, but tfie solution is paler and A little turbid; the watery
solution also becomes turbid when spirit is added, and the spirituous
more clear by the addition of water ; diluted vitriolic acid renders
both solutions turbid; mild caustic vegetable alkali changes the
colour of the watery solution to a clear, deep, fiery, blood red* the
spirituous it also deepenc, but in a less degree ; sal martis changes
the watery solution into a good durable ink.
These are, I think, proofs that it contains a very small proportion
of resin; in which it differs from the gum resin called Kino, or
gummi rubrum astringens Gambiense, which the Edinburgh col-
lege has taken into their Materia Medica (I have used the recent gum
in making my experiments, which may make some difference), but
as this can be most perfectly dissolved in a watery menstruum, it may
prove of use where ac spirituous1 solution of Kino (being the most
complete) cannot be properly administered, consequently it may
provefe valuable acquisition.
Infusions of the flowers, either fresh or dried, dye cotton cloth,
previously impregnated with a solution of alum, or alum and tartar,
a most beautiful bright ^yellow, more or less deep according to the
strength of the infusion: a little alkali added to the infusion changes
it to a deep redish orange, which dyes unprepared cotton cloth of
the same colour, but the least acid changes it to a yellow, or lemon.
These beautiful colours I have not been able to render perfectly per-
manent.
Among numberless experiments, I expressed a quantity of the
juice of the fresh flowers, which being diluted with alum water, and
rendered perfectly clear by depuration, was then evaporated by
the heat of the sun, into a soft extract; this proved a brighter water
colour than any gamboge I have met with; it is one year since I
first used it, and it remains bright. Infusions of the dried flowers
yielded an extract very litfle, if any thing, inferior to this last men-
tioned; they yield also a very fine, durable, yellow lake, and all
these in a very large proportion.
The Lac insects are frequently found on the small branches and
the petioles of the leaves of this tree. Whether tlie natural juices of
its bark contribute to improve the colour of their red nidus (colouring
matter) I cannot say ; to determine it, would require a set of experi-
ments accurately made on specimens of lac gathered from the various
trees it is found upon, at the same time, and as nearly as possible
from the same place.
I do not find that the natives make any use of the gum or flowers,
c although they promise to be valuable; the former as a medicine, and
the latter as a pigment and dying drug.
22. BUTEA SUPERBA.
Tiga Maduga of the Telingas. c c
Root spindle-form, very large.
Stem twining, as thick or thicker than a man's leg, woody, very
long, running over large trees. Bark ash-coloured, pretty
smooth.
Branches like the stem but small, and with a smoother bark.
Leaves alternate, three'd, remote, very large. Leaflets downy, in
* With an alkalized decoction of this gum, I tried to dye cotton cloth prepared with
alum, with sugar of lead, and with a solution of tin in aqua regia, but the reds produced
thereby were bad^ that where alum was employed was the best.
other respects as in Butea frondosa. but greatly larger the ter-
minal one is generally about twenty mches long, and broad rn
proportion; the lateral somewhat less.
Racemes as in the former, but much larger.
Fleers also the same, only much larger and more numerous,
Cafyx divided as the other, but the divisrons longer and much more
pointed.
Corol the same. i
Legume and Seed as in the former, but rather larger.
This is a very large twining shrub, a native of the mountains.
Flowering time the beginning of the hot season.
When this species is in full flower, I do not think the vegetable
world offers a more gaudy show. The flowers are incomparably
beautiful, very large, and very numerous; the colours are so exceed-
ingly vivid, that my best painter has not been able with his utmost
skill to imitate their brightness. ^
From fissures in the bark, the same sort of ruby-coloured astrin-
gent gum exsudes, the flowers also yield the same beautiful yellow
dye and pigment.
23. AILANTHUS EXCELSA.
Pedda-maunchitto of the Telingas.
Trunk perfectly straight, rising like that of the fir-tree to a very
great height. Bark smooth, ash-coloured.
Branches pretty numerous, ascending.
Leaves about the extremities of the branchlets, abruptly pinnated,
generally about three feet long. Leaflets short-petiolated, from
ten to fourteen pair, obliquely oblong, or somewhat sickle-
form, the nerve runs so as to make the exterior portion twice
as broad as the interior, very remotely and grossly serrated, or
indented, smooth, about four inches long and two broad.
Petiole round, smooth.
Panicle terminal, very large.
Bracts minute.
Flowers exceedingly numerous, small, slightly tinged with yellow,
hermaphrodite and male mixed.
hermaphrodite flowers.
Calyx as in the genus.
Petals five, many times largeffthan fee calyx
Sectary or Receptacle is a perforated, glandulous, notched body,
which surrounds, and in a great measure hides, the germs.
Fdaments ten, shorter than the petals, inserted into the lower edge of
the nectary.
Germs above, from one t0 fourj very ^^ ^ ^
ioration of the nectary.
Style none.
Stigma small.
fi^fa; from one to four but generally one or two, not connected
ceous win v TY ^ nded with a large membrana-
Seed one^fl^tetfed^ tvte(Iat the apex and base. jj
^Mk^^^ hermaphrodite, but no


25
AILANTHUS EXCELS A.
26
mountains ; flowers during the cold season ; seed ripe in April
and May.
The wood of this tree is white and light, of course it soon
perishes ; is chiefly used to make cattamarans (rafts for fishermen to
go a fishing on).
In the plate the dissected flowers are magnified; the fruit of its
natural size.
24. STERCULIA URENS.
Cavallie of the Telingas.
Trunk erect, very straight; top large and shady. Bark ash-coloured,
very smooth ; its outer coat is thin, transparent, covered with
, a farinaceous substanc^and peels off like the pellicle of the
birch-bark ; inwardly it is fibrous and netted.
Leaves about the extremities of the branches, alternate, petioled,
five-lobed, five-nerved: lobes acute, very downy, from nine to
twelve inches each way.
Petiole nearly as long as the leaf, round, downy.
Panicles terminal, pretty large; every part covered with a gluti-
nous, farinaceous, yellow down.
Bracts lanced.
Flowers small, numerous, yellow, male and hermaphrodite mixed;
there is but a small proportion of the latter.
hermaphrodite flowers.
Calyx below, belled, five-toothed, leathery, divisions acute ; on the
inside of each division near the base there is an inverse-hearted
hairy gland.
Corol none.
Filaments ten, short, alternately longer, united below into a thin
sheath, which girds the base of the germs.
Anthers large, two-lobed, alternately larger.
Germs five, placed on a thick short pedicel.
Style single, short, thick.
Stigma five-lobed.
Capsules five, leguminous, unitej in form of a star, one-celled, one-
valved, opening lengthways, on the outside covered with
yellow down, and many stiff burning hairs.
Seeds from three to five, oblong, chesnut-coloured, inserted alter-
nately into the margins of the capSules.
male flowers.
Calyx, Stamen, and columnar Receptacle as in the hermaphrodite.
Pistil: the rudiments of the germs only, without any appearance of
a style. ,
This is a very large tree, chiefly a native of the mountainous
countries on the coast; casts its leaves about the end of the wet sea-
son; flowers during the cold; the leaves come out with the fruit
about the beginning of the hot season.
The wood of this tree is soft and spongy; towards the centre of
large trees it is reddish. I do not know of any use it is put to, ex-
cept to make Hindoo guitars.
I observed that the water in which I kept green branches for exa-
mination, became thick, like a clear, glutinous jelly.
Bark exceedingly astringent, tinges the saliva reddish. Seeds
are roasted and eaten by the natives; they taste very like parched
pease.
25. STERCULIA COLORATA.
Caraka of the Telingas.
Trunk erect, growing to a very great size. Bark ash-coloured, and
a little scabrous.
Branches numerous, irregularly spreading; Ttark as on the trunk,
but smoother.
Leaves alternate, about the extremities of &e branchlets, petioled,
considerably broader than long, five-nerved, five-lobed : lobes
acute ; soft and a little downy; they are generally, when full
grown, from nine to twelve inches broad, and from six to nine
4ong.
Petiole round, a little downy, about nine inches long.
Stipules two, erect, lanced, inserted into the petiole near its base.
Panicles terminal, small, numerous, red like coral, covered with

many red stellated hairs : when in flower this tree appears as
if entirely covered with fine ramifications of red coral. ^
Flowers numerous, about an inch long.
Calyx below, funnel-form, leathery, its mouth five-toothed, outride
covered with red stellated hairs, withering. |
Corol none.
Filaments scarce any.
Anthers about thirty, kidney-form, sitting sessile round the border
of the extremity of the receptacle.
Receptacle of the pistil cylindric, bent a little, length of the calyx,
round, smooth, bearing five oval germs on its top.
Styles short, recurved.
Stigmas acute.
Capsules from one to five come to maturity, leguminous, pedicelled,
pendulous, leathery, one-celled, one-valved, opening on the
outside long before the seeds are ripe.
Seeds two, adhering one to each margin of nate, about the size and shape of a French bean.
i
This is a very large tree, a native of the mountainous parts of the
Rajahmundry Circar; casts its leaves during the cold season; flowers
in April; soon after the leaves make their appearance.
'j
26. SALVADORA PERSICA.
Linn. Spec. Plant. 17 8. Vahl Symb. 1. p. 12. tab. 4.
Embelia Grossularia. Retz.obs. 4. p. 24.
Pedda Waragowenky of the Telingas.
Trunk generally crooked, eight or ten feet high to the branches, and
one in diameter. Bark very scabrous and deeply cracked.
Branches exceedingly numerous, spreading, with their extremities
perfectly pendulous, lik*e the weeping willow.
Leaves opposite, petioled, oval or oblong, entire, very smooth and
shining on both sides, without veins, from one to two inches
long, and about one broad.
Stipules none.
Panicle terminal, and from the exterior axills, composed.
Flowers minute, very numerous, greenish yellow.
Bracts minute.
Calyx below, four-toothed, lasting.
Corol one-petaled: tube short; border four-cleft; segments oblong,
revolute.


27 .
SALVADORA PERSICA.
abdisia solanacea.
' 28
Filaments four, inserted below the divisions of the corol, and rather
shorter than them.
Anthers oval. t
Germ globular.
Style none. *
Stigma scabrous.
Berry very minute, much smaller than a grain of black pepper,
smooth, red, juicy.
Seed one.*

This is a middle sized tree, a native of most parts of the Circars,
though by no means common ; it seems to grow equally well in
every soil; flowers andjiears ripe fruit all the year round.
The berries have a strong aromatic smell, and taste much like
garden-cresses.
The bark of the root is remarkably acrid; bruised and applied
to the skin it soon raises blisters, for which purpose the natives
ofteij/use it; as a stimulant it promises to be a medicine possessed
of very considerable powers.


27.: ARDISIA SOLANACEA.
Conda Mayoor of the Telingas.
Trunk one or more from the same root, erect. Bark ash-coloured.
Leaves alternate, short-petioled, oval,pointed, entire, smooth, glossy,
somewhat succulent, from four to six inches long, and from two
to three broad.
Raceme corymbe-like, axillary, shorter than the leaf.
Peduncle round, smooth.
Pedicel clubbed, round, smooth.
Bracts, a concave one bek>w each pedicel.
Flowers pretty large, rose-coloured.
Calyx below, five-leaved : Leaflets imbricated, concave, roundish,
Corol one-petaled: tube exceedingly short border five-cleft: divi-
sions spreading, hearted.
Filaments five, exceedingly short, from the bottom of the tube.
Anthers oblong, acute.
Germ oblong.
Style awled.
Stigma acute.
Besrry size of a small cherry, round, juicy, black, one-seeded.
A small tree, or large shrub; a native of moist places in the va|-
le:Thrpe^tTS^is of a very beautiful bright red colour;
upon paper it changes to a durable brown. |
' 28. SIDEROXYLON TOMENTOSUM.
Trunk erect. Bark ash-coloured.
Branches erect, very numerous.
Leaves alternate, short-petioled, oval, a little scolloped ; when full
grown smooth, when young covered with much rust-coloured
down, from three to five inches long, and one and a half broad.
Pedwides axillary, numerous, short, downy, bowing, undivided,
one-flowered.
Flowers small, dirty white.
Calyx below, five-leaved : leaflets indicated, downy, permanent.
Corol one-petaled: tube short, inside downy, margin five-parted:
segments spreading, half-lanced, acute, waved. ,;
Nectary: five petals alternate with the filaments, waved, length of
the stamens.
Stamens five. .
Berry oval, size, of an olive.
Seed generally one or two, though there are the rudiments of five.
A small tree, a native of the tops of the mountains chiefly;
flowers during the hot season.
29. BUTTNERIA HERBACEA.
Leaves alternate, petioled, hearted, sawed, downy, two and a half
inches long, and one and a half broad.
Stipules reflex, small, acute.
Peduncles axillary, one or more, three-flowered.
Leaflets of the calyx large, reflex.
Nectary one-leaved, five-toothed : teeth converging over the pistil.
Filaments five, very short, from the^fissures of the nectary, reflex.
Anthers double, singly oval, the rest as in the genus.
An erect herbaceous plant, a native of the tops of the mountains.
* Description by Doctor Koenig.
oppositi, teretes, glabri, nitidi, articulati, ad articulos compressiusculi, et linea trans-
versali prominula a stipulis caducis utrinque notati, flaccidi, penduli, longi.
Folia opposita, pendula, petiolata, lanceolato-oblonga, obtusa cum acumine, integerrima,
margine calloso, utrinque glabra, nitida, nervosa, rigida, subcarnosa. Petioli paten-
tes, filiformes, glabri, vix longitudine tertiaepartis folii.
Flores ad apices ramorum axillares, racemosi. I^acemi paniculati^' trichotomi. Bractece
oppositae, sessiles, oblongae, membranaceae, eaducae.
Calyx monophyllus, campanulatus, quadridentatus : denticulispatentibus, rotundatis, lacero-
ciliatis; glaber, membranaceus, persistens.
Corolla monopetala, campanulas, glabra, membranacea, quadrifida: laciniae reflexae, ovate,
acute, marginibus reyoiutis, pilis minimis adpressis viridibus adspersae; calyce duplo
major, viridi-flavicans, persistens.
Filamenta quatuor, infra lacinias corollae adnata, pateritia, brevia. Anthem oblongae, parvae,
virides.
Germen superum, globosum, glabrum. Stylus vix ullus. Stigma hypocrateriforme, per-
foratum.
Bacca globosa, carnosa, pellucida, rubra, fertilis magnitudine pisi minoris. Semen unicum,
globosum, viridi-fuscum, magnitudine piperisalbi. Bacc et magis pellucidae sunt.
STAPELIA ADSCENDENS.
Car-allum of the Telingas.
Root fibrous.
Stems several, perennial/succulent, about a foot or two high, at the
base they rest on the ground, and strike root; above erect, four-
sided: angles blunt, notched.
Branches erect, like the stems.
Leaves alternate, sessile, on the angles of the branches, lanced, very
minute. /
Fleers axillary, about the extrenrities of the branches, peduncled,
yellow ' Sma11' Variegated Wkh dark purple and
Calyx to the bottom five-cleft: divisions lanced. .










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Full Text

PAGE 1

PLANT S O F TH E COAS T O F COROMANDEL ; SELECTE D FRO M DRAWING S AN D DESCRIPTION S PRESENTE D T O THE HON COUR T O F DIRECTOR S O F TH E EAS T INDI A COMPANY B Y WILLIA M ROXBURGH M.D PUBLISHED B Y THEI R ORDER UNDE R TH E DIRECTIO N O F SI R JOSEP H BANKS BART P R S VOL I LONDON : PRINTE D B Y W BULME R AN D CO FO R GEORG E NICOL BOOKSELLE R T O HI S MAJESTY PALL-MALL 1 7 95

PAGE 3

PREFACE TH E presen t Fasciculu s o f Plant s growin g o n th e Coas t o f Coromandel bein g th e first o f a.progressiv e work wit h whic h th e Honourabl e Cour t o f Director s o f th e Eas t Indi a Compan y ha s determine d t o favou r th e public i t i s hoped wil l prov e a s acceptabl e t o th e lover s o f Botan y i n general a s usefu l a t th e Company' s establishment s abroad I t i s intende d tha t th e selectio n shoul d b e mad e from five hundre d drawing s an d descriptions pre sente d t o th e Honourabl e Cour t o f Director s b y Dr Willia m Roxburgh on e o f th e Company' s medica l servants an d thei r Botanis t i n th e Carnatic ; and wit h a mor e immediat e vie w t o utility whil e preferenc e wil l b e give n t o subject s connecte d eithe r wit h medicine th e arts cy : manufactures th e liberalit y o. f the # Jdonourabl e Cour t o f Director s encourage s th e admissio n o f ne w plants o r o f suc h a s hav e hithert o bee n imperfectl y described althoug h thei r qualitie s an d use s ma y a s ye t remai n unexplored Afte r al l tha t ha s bee n alread y done Indi a stil l present s a wid e field fo r research ; anc j th e progres s made o f lat e years i n othe r branche s o f knowledge afford s roo m t o expec t materia l improvemen t i n Natura l History i f ardou r fo r inquir y continue s t o prevail ; i f th e mean s o f makin g ne w acquisition s ar e facilitate d ; an d i f a spiri t o f scientifi c emulatio n amon g th e Company' s servant s abroad meet s wit h such ; encouragemen t a s mus t naturall y ten d t o rescu e man y o f thos e hour s o f leisur e fro m indolen t neglect w h (considerin g th e fertil e advantage s o f situation ) migh t b e employe d wit h n o les s pleasur e t o th e H A Iiual tha n eventuall y t o th e publi c benefit i'; ] withi n thes e fort y years Botan y seem s f o hav e bee n littl e attende d t o i n th e Carnatic ; abou t whic h period i f no t introduced i t wa s a t leas t greatl y promote d b y a foreig n naturalist Joh n Gerar d Koenig a nativ e (i t i s believed ) o f Courland an d a pupi l o f Linnaeus contemporar y wit h th e lat e Dr Solander ha d earl y distinguishe d himself b y hi s travel s int o Iceland,*i n th e yea r 1765 / an d wa s honoure d b y havin g a plan t name d afte r him Th e precis e tim e of,hi s settin g ou t fo r Indi a i s no t known bu t i t wa s probabl y i n 176 8 ; a s i n a lette r t o Linn^us date d fro m Tranquebar Jul y 26 1769 h e refer s t o anothe r lette r writte n mor e tha n thr^ p month s before whic h i s no t foun d amon g a numbe r o f hi s letter s from India no w i n th e possessio n o r Dr Jame s Edwar d Smith ^ \ I t appear s tha t h e wen t t o Indi a unde r th e protectio n o f th e kin g o f Denmark partl y a s physicia n t o th e Danis h settlemen t i n th e Carnatic bu t chiefl y fo r th e purpos e o f makin g improvement s i n th e natura l histor y o f tha t country ; an d h e reside d fo r severa l year s a t Tranquebar o r i n it s \ficinity inde fatigab b j ^aploye d i n researche s o f variou s kinds . •KSfii g w a s singularl y qualifie d fo r th e employmen t h e ha d engage d in Mor e covetou s o f fam e tha n ,of-fortune h e persevere d i n hi s pursuit s wit h a n enthusias m tha t se t bodil y fatigue spar e meals an d a scorchin g climat e a t defianc e ; whil e th e simplicit y o f hi s manners an d hi s unassumin g readines s t o impar t knowledg e t o others conciliated almos t a t first sight th e benevolenc e ~p f thos e wit h who m h e conversed Thu s qualifie d fo r a n inquisitiv e traveller h e becam e know n a t th e Dutch French an d Britis h setdement s o n th e Coast whic h h e occasionall y visite d i n hi s excursions an d ever y wher e h e acquire d friends Mantiss a Linn Gen P h p 13

PAGE 4

PREFACE iv • • 1 1 Koenig finding hi s slende r salar y a t Tranqueba r insufficien t for th e expenc e o f requisit e excursion s int o th e country howeve r frugall y conducted was b y th e interes t o f friends introduce d a s a natu ralis t f o th e Nabo b o f Arcot i n whos e servic e h e remaine d fo r severa l years ; durin g whic h h e mad e excursion s amon g th e hill s nea r Velore Amboor &c an d afterward s mad e a voyag e t o th e islan d o f Ceylon. c • Hi s frequen t residenc e a t Madras whil e i n th e Nabob' s service naturall y le d hi m int o a mor e familia r intercours e wit h th e English o f who m severa l seize d th e opportunit y o f profitin g b y hi s in struction Dr Jame s Anderson th e presen t physicia n genera l a t For t St George whe n h e occasionall y speak s o f mineralogy alway s mention s hi m wit h gratitude Amon g th e first o f th e Englis h wh o attache d themselve s t o Koenig i n th e botanica l line wa s Mr Georg e Campbell a youn g medica l gentlema n o n th e Madra s establishment The y mad e a shor t excur sio n togethe r int o th e Pullicat e hills i n April 176 6 ; + an d Mr Campbell o n hi s return candidl y acknowledge d t o a friend tha t h e ha d learne d mor e o f practica l Botan y i n on e fortnight tha n i n th e whol e cours e o f hi s forme r studies B y al l accounts Campbel l wa s a yout h o f mos t promisin g talents Wit h a decide d intentio n o f prosecutin g Botany h e gav e a larg e commissio n fo r book s o n tha t subjec t fro m England ; bu t the y neve r reache d him : for bein g wounded an d take n prisoner i n th e unfor tunat e defea t o f Colone l Baillie' s detachment i n September 1780 h e die d a shor t tim e after universall y lamented Dr Roxburgh wh o entere d int o th e servic e a t Madra s i n th e spring 1766 ha d lon g applie d t o Botany unde r Dr Hope the n professo r o f Botan y a t th e universit y o f Edinburgh ; an d bringin g ^vit h hi m t o Indi a th e lov e o f th e study h e foun d i n Koeni g a n experience d conducto r throug h a n unkxjfew n wilderness Thei r friendshi p continue d t o th e last ; an d Dr Roxburg h take s a pleasur e i n acknow ledgin g hi s obligation s t o hi s guide O n a representatio n fro m Dr Koeni g t o th e Boar d o f Madras i n 1778 tha t hi s finances wer e fa r < .. . f inadequat e t o th e extensiv e scheme s h e ha d i n contemplation an d tha t hi s salar y fro m th e Nabo b wa s irregularl y paid ih e Board i n consideratio n o f hi s merit wa s please d t o gran t a monthl y allowance i n orde r t o enabl e hi m th e bette r f t o prosecut e hi s researches Wit h thi s aid h e proceede d i n th e mont h o f Augus t t o th e Strait s o f Malacca an d Sia m ; fro m whenc e h e returne d toward s th e en d o f 1779 Fro m hi s repor t t o th e Boar d o f Madras it*appears ''that h e ha d th e goo d fortun e t o mee t wit h severa l ne w subject s i n natura l history an d t o mak e som e discoverie s i n Botan y an d Mineralogy whic h h e flattered himsel f migh t prov e acceptabl e t o th e public ; particularl y i n respec t t o th e articl e o f ti n ore. H e mentione d a t th e sam e tim e hi s havin g ha d th e honou r o f letter s fro m th e Presiden t o f the.Roya l Society an d th e Honourabl e Charle s Greville requestin g specimen s ofhi s collection whic h i t wa s hi s intentio n t o transmi t t o them a s th e bes t mean s o f renderin g hi s "discoverie s usefu l i n England H e intimate d als o hi s intentio n o f sendin g tqSt Helena b y th e ship s the n o n departure th e seed s o f suc h esculen t an d othe r plants an d o f suc h treSo r fflifubs a s h e ha d the n go t ready an d migh t probabl y b e o f us e i n tha t island Havin g no w determine d t o devot e hi s futur e tim e entirel y t o th e servic e o f th e Indi a Company th e Boar d o f Madra s wa s pleased i n 1780 t o mak e a n additio n t o hi s salary whic h me t wit h th e appro batio n o f th e Honourabl e Cour t o f Directors Hel^inhlZw 5 0 t f r n g th e rr ; be9Ueathe d 1 0 Si r j0Sep h Bank s ; bu t — -coun t o f i t i s give n b y nennmgs m hi s descriptio n o f Tanjore an d o f t h e Danis h colon y a t Tranquebar + Th e origina l sketc h o f Mr Campbell s journal i s i n th e possessio n o f Dr Russel l

PAGE 5

PREFACE H e soo n after m tha t year mad e a shor t excursio n t o Trinkamaly ; an d earl y i n th e followin g yea r h e mad e a secon d excursio n t o Columbo I n th e beginnin g o f June 1782 Dr Patric k Russell o n hi s arriva l i n India ha d th e pleasur e o f meetin g wit h Dr Koeni g a t Tranquebar wh o no t onl y communicate d th e catalogu e o f hi s Coromande l collectio n o f plants bu t a s a n inducemen t t o engag e i n India n Botany favoure d hi m wit h a numbe r o f specimens Fro m tha t tim e commence d a correspondence whic h wa s continue d til l withi n a fort nigh t o f Dr Koenig' s death I n 1784 Roeni g fulfille d th e promis e h e ha d give n o f a visi t t o hi s ol d frien d Mr Clau d Russell the n chie f a t Vizagapatam I t wa s o n hi s wa y t o Bengal ; bu t a s h e mad e som e sta y a t Vizagapatam Dr Russel l ha d tim e t o submi t t o hi s examinatio n a prett y larg e collectio n o f plant s mad e i n tha t district an d t o profi t b y hi s assistanc e i n arrangin g them / H e too k th e opportunit y als o of f urgin g t o Dr Koenig (wha t li e ha d mor e tha n onc e hinte d befor e i n correspondence, ) th e propriet y o f trans mittin g t o th e Cour t o f Directors a selec t Fasciculu s o f drawing s an d descriptions b y wa y o f specime n o f hi s labour s ; a t th e sam e time earnestl y recommendin g hi s makin g suc h a disposition i n respec t t o hi s manuscrip t papers a s might i n cas e o f death insur e thei r fallin g int o th e possessio n o f som e on e qualifie d t o appreciat e thei r merit an d no t les s able tha n liberall y disposed t o emplo y the m i n th e manne r mos t conduciv e t o th e writer' s reputation I n thi s las t view Si r Josep h Bank s wa s considered o f al l other s th e perso n mos t eligible Koeni g ha d bee n i n correspondenc e wit h Dr Solander fro m th e yea r 177 4 ; an d ha d fro m tim e t o tim e trans mitte d specimen s an d seed s o f plant s fo r Si r Joseph Koeni g departe d fro m Vizagapatam impresse d wit h th e justnes s o f wha t ha d bee n suggeste d t o him ; bu t eage r i n th e pursui t o f ne w object s o n th e journey an d immerse d i n variou s avocation s a t Calcutta h e delaye d fro m da y t o day wha t h e wa s consciou s i t wa s wron g t o procrastinate an d o n hi s retur n t o Vizagapata m i n April 1785 h e ha d execute d n o par t o f hi s forme r resolution s ; thgug h th e declinin g stat e o f hi s healt h a t tha t time rendere d i t mor e tha n eve r expedien t t o prepar e fo r a n event whic h h e himsel f appeare d t o conside r a s a t n o grea t distance > Afte r a res t o f tw o o r thre e week s a t Vizagapatam i n whic h tim e h e remarkabl y recovere d hi s strengt h an d spirit^ h e proceede d t o Jagrenatporum wit h a ful l resolutio n o f immediatel y settin g abof t th e propose d selection ; bu t toward s th e en d o f May hi s distempe r (whic h wa s a flux, ) returning h e graduall y sun k unde r it i n spit e o f th e skil l an d friendl y attention s o f Dr Roxburgh an d o n th e 26t h o f Jun e expired * O n th e 6t h o f tha t mont h h e ha d mad e hi s will bequeathin g th e whol e o f hi s manuscripts an d specimen s o f plants t o Si r Josep h Banks ; o f whic h h e acquainte d Dr Russel l i n a lette r date d th e 12th SomL e dzv s befor e hi s death h e himsel f sa w suc h paper s a s h e wa s the n i n possessio n of seale d u p i n th e presenc e o f Dr Roxburgh b y who m the y wer e despatche d t o Si r Josep h Banks an d arrive d safely ; 'bu t thos e disperse d i n differen t places particularl y a t Tranquebar, (amon g wdiic h unfortunatel y wa s hi s Ceylo n Journal, ) hav e hithert o no t appeared thoug h Dr Roxburg h an d Dr Russel l di d al l i n thei r powe r i n Indi a t o recove r them Thoug h thes e manuscript s containe d man y valuabl e description s an d observations ther e wa s nothin g O n Dr Russell' s leavin g India th e cabine t containin g th e abov e collection considerabl y augmented wa s presente d b y hi m t o th e Company an d deposite d a t th e Presidency wit h th e approbatio n o f th e Governo r i n council 4

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i v PREFACE foun d i n a stat e li t fo r a distinc t o r separat e publication ; bu t the y hav e afforde d assistanc e t o th e pre sen t work i n whic h hi s botanica l remark s wil l occasionall y b e inserted. Koeni g ha d maintaine d a correspondenc e wit h Linnaeus a s wel l a s wit h othe r eminen t Botanist s i n Europe an d severa l o f hi s communication s fro m Indi a hav e bee n publishe d i n th e Transaction s o f th e Societie s o f CQpenhage n an d Berlin o r inserte d i n th e work s o f Retzius an d othe r authors A lis t o f suc h publication s + wa s supplie d b y Mr Dryander whos e ai d ha s als o bee n o f materia l servic e i n th e correctio n o f descriptions an d i n settlin g synonyma A fe w month s afte r Koenig' s death Dr Russel l wa s nominate d hi s successor ; an d allotte d t o Botan y whateve r tim e h e coul d spar e fro m th e investigatio n o f Snake s an d Fishes i n whic h h e ha d bee n engage d fro m th e tim e o f hi s arriva l i n India Considerin g i t howeve r a s a publi c loss i f th e desig n o f Koeni g shoul d b e entirel y relinquished ; an d conceivin g tha t man y description s an d remark s woul d b e foun d amon g hi s papers whif e drawing s fro m th e livin g plant s migh t b e mad e i n India Dr Russel l resolve d t o attemp t a wor k limite d t o th e usefu l plant s o f Coromandel ; which thoug h perhap s les s generall y interestin g t o th e Botanist s i n Europe h e wa s incline d \o thin k migh t prov e o f rea l servic e t o India Hi s pla n wa s first communicate d t o th e Governo r o f Madras bu t afterward s explaine d mor e full y i n a memoria l addresse d t o th e Medica l Board ; an d meetin g wit h th e unanimou s approbatio n o f both i t wa s transmitte d t o th e Honourabl e Cour t o f Directors I n th e interim circula r letters wit h a lis t o f th e plant s propose d fo r th e first publication wa s t sen t b y th e Medica l Boar d t o th e subordinat e settlements requestin g i t migh t b e favoure d wit h an y infor matio n respectin g th e subject s i n question whic h th e medica l gentleme n migh t hav e i t i n thei r powe r t o communicate ; an d i n consequenc e severa l usefu l communication s wer e received I n th e memoria l t o th e Medica l Boar d Dr Russel l ha d mentione d hi s hop e tha t Si r Josep h Banks i f hi s advic e wer e requested migh t probabl y poin t ou t th e bes t mod e o f carryin g th e pla n int o execution an d havin g before i n correspondence hinte d t o hi m th e design the n onl y i n contemplation h e though t i t no w prope r t o transmi t fo r hi s inspection th e explanator y detai l containe d i n th e memoria l t o th e Medica l Board J' Th e solicitatio n o f privat e friendshi p wa s no t requisit e t o induc e Si r Josep h Bank § t o interes t himsel f i n a proposa l whic h h e considere d a s calculate d fo r publi c utility : h e no t only whe n applie d t o b y th e Cour t o f Directors expresse d hi s approbation bu t suggeste d som e alteration s i n th e origina l plan Thu s corrected th e pla n wa s returne d t o India accompanie d wit h a paragrap h i n th e genera l lette r t o th e Boar d o f Madras expressiv e o f th e readiness a t al l times o f th e Cour t o f Director s t o promot e th e improvemen t o f Natura l History an d o f thei r approbatio n o f Dr Russell' s proposa l fo r publishin g a selec t collectio n o f usefu l India n plants ; bu t desire d tha t th e alteratio n suggeste d b y S\v Josep h Banks shoul d b e attende d to. Befor e th e arriva l o f th e abov e lette r a t Madras Dr Russel l ha d lef t India Th e direction s i t con( tained however fel l fortunatel y int o hand s wel l qualifie d fo r carryin g the m int o execution Dr Roxburg h o f Samuleottah wh o ha d live d muc h wit h Koenig and whe n disengage d fro m th e dutie s o f hi s station ha d pursue d hi s favourit e study succeede d t o th e botanica l department H e ha d mad e larg e collection s o f plant s i n th e Carnati c ; and fo r severa l year s previousl y t o hi s appointment Lis t o f Koenig' s manuscripts receive d b y Si r Josep h Banks wil l b e foun d a t th e en d o f th e Preface + Se e th e en d o f th e Preface

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PREFACE v # ha d retaine d a painte r constantl y employe d i n drawin g plants whic h h e accuratel y described an d adde d suc h remark s o n thei r use s a s h e ha d learne d fro m experience o r collecte d fro m th e natives O f thes e drawing s an d descriptions whic h h e devote d t o th e Honourabl e Cour t o f Directors th e first parce l wa s receive d i n 1791 ; other s followe d i n succession ; an d th e las t parcel whic h complete d th e numbe r o f five hundred arrive d i n 1794 I t i s fro m thes e tha t th e presen t Selectio n ha s bee n made ; bu t man y mor e drawing s remai n i n India read y t o b e sen t hom e b y th e first opportunit y t Dr Roxburgh' s industr y ha s als o fo r som e year s bee n employe d i n th e cultivatio n o f peppe r an d indigo i n on e o f th e Norther n Circars ; and beside s a lette r o n th e qualitie s o f th e Swieteni a Bark publishe d b y orde r o f th e Directors h e ha s communicate d othe r discoveries t o b e foun d i n th e Philo sophica l Transactions th e India n Repertory an d th e Asiati c Researches Suc h commendabl e zea l i n th e servic e ha s no t passe d unnotice d b y th e Cour t o f Directors whic h ha s latel y honoure d hi m wit h a handsom e presen t o f botanica l books a s wel l a s wit h othe r mark s o f approbation • • O n th e 4t h o f July 1794 afte r th e las t parce l o f drawing s wa s delivere d t o him Si r Josep h Banks i n complianc e wit h hi s forme r promis e t o th e Cour t o f Directors presente d a plan an d a n estimat e o f th e expenc e o f th e propose d publication accompanie d wit h specimen s o f th e engravings H e wa s please d t o add Fo r m y part I a m mos t read y t o undertak e th e genera l overlookin g o f th e work t o se t th e engraver s thei r tasks an d t o se e tha t the y ar e execute d wit h accuracy : Dr Russel l (Dr Rox u burgh' s predecessor ) wil l I a m sur e readil y assis t i n correctin g th e pres s o f th e descriptions. H e a t th e sam e tim e recommende d a s th e publisher Mr Nicol hi s Majesty' s bookseller wh o ha d formerl y assiste d hi m i n th e publicatio n o f Captai n Cook' s Voyage A n answe r fro m th e Cour t o f Director s t o thi s lette r wa s returne d o n th e 11t h o f th e sam e month i n whic h the y gav e thei r assen t t o th e executio n o f th e work exactl y i n th e wa y tha t Si r Josep h ha d pointe d out ; and i n ver y polit e terms expresse d a sens e o f obligatio n fo r th e assistance wit h suc h liberalit y offered o f superintendin g th e publication Th e write r o f thi s Prefac e willingl y undertoo k th e par t allotte d him i n th e absenc e o f hi s frien d Dr Roxburgh o n who m th e tas k shoul d naturall y hav e devolved ; bu t th e Docto r i s stil l labourin g i n India ; and havin g latel y bee n appointe d Inspecto r o f th e Botanica l Gardei j a t Calcutta ma y possibl y b e induce d t o protrac t hi s sta y i n tha t countr y longe r tha n h e som e tim e ag o intended Th e foregoin g narrativ e o f th e origi n an d progres s o f th e presen t work i t i s presumed wil l no t b e deeme d impertinent I t pay s a smal l tribut e t o th e memor y o f Koenig t o who m India n Botan y stand s s o highl y indebted : i t show s th e dispositio n o f th e Honourabl e Cour t o f Director s t o promot e scienc e i n India ; an d produce s a n exampl e fo r th e encouragemen t o f th e Company' s servant s abroad t o dedicat e thei r leisur e hour s t o usefu l research a s a mean s o f recommendatio n t o th e notic e o f thei r superiors a s wel l a s o f obtainin g a wel l earne d reputatio n i n thei r nativ e country % PAT RUSSELL t London, March 20 1 7 9 5

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PREFACE c A n Accoun t o f th e Ebon y Tree ; i n th e first volum e o f th e Transaction s o f th e Societ y o f Lund Severa l letters relatin g t o th e Natura l Histor y o f th e Eas t Indies ; i n differen t volume s o f th e Transaction s o f th e Roya l Societ y o f Copenhagen an d o f th e Societ y o f Berli n : a s als o i n th e Naturforscher A grea t numbe r o f plant s discovere d b y Koenig ar e foun d i n Retzi i Observatione s Botanicae I n th e thir d Fasciculus ar e printe d Koenig' s Descriptione s Monandrarum ; an d i n th e sixth hi s Descriptione s Epidendrorum A n Accoun t o f hi s voyag e t o Ceylon i n 1 7 7 7 i s foun d i n Hennings' s Descriptio n o f Tanjore an d th e Danis h colon y a t Tranquebar I n par t XX o f th e Naturforsche r i s a n Accoun t o f a ne w Genu s o f Plants calle d Xylocarpus I n th e nint h volum e o f th e Commentatione s o f th e Societ y o f Gottinge n i s a Memoir b y Professo r Murray o n th e Tree s whic h produc e th e Gumm i Gutta entirel y draw n u p fro m Koenig' s papers sen t t o Professo r Murra y b y Si r Josep h Banks I n th e first volum e o f th e Transaction s o f th e Linnaea n Society Mr Dryande r ha s publishe d Koenig' s Descriptio n o f a ne w Specie s o f Begonia ; an d i n th e secon d volume hi s Descriptio n o f Jambolifera List of Dr. KOENIG' S Manuscripts, 'received by SI R JOSEP H BANKS Journa l o f hi s Voyag e t o Siam commencin g Augus t 8 1 7 7 8 an d endin g abruptl y Decembe r 12 1 7 7 9 Th e par t fro m Februar y 22 t o th e en d o f April i s wanting Journa l o f thi s Voyag e fro m Madra s t o Trinkamaly com mencin g Apri l 15 1 780 an d endin g Ma y 11 whe n h e stil l wa s i n Trinkamaly Journa l o f hi s Voyag e fro m Nagor e t o Ceylon commen cin g Januar y 7,1781 an d endin g Apri l 11 whe n h e wa s stil l i n Ceylon Fro m a memorandu m i n anothe r place i t ap pear s tha t h e returne d t o Tranqueba r Augus t 23 Th e res t o f hi s manuscript s consist s chiefl y o f description s o f plants : ver y littl e i n the m relate s t o animals an d stil l les s t o minerals The y ar e collecte d togethe r i n ninetee n vo lumes. c Severa l letter s t o Linnaeus o n th e subjec t o f Iceland a s als o respectin g th e Eas t Indies ar e i n th e possessio n o f th r Presiden t o f th e Linnaea n Society A List of various Publications by Dr. KOENIG A Treatis e o n th e Whit e Ants i s foun d i n th e fourt h v o lum e o f th e Berli n Transactions C

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PREFAC E TH E presen t Fasciculu s o f Plant s growin g o n th e Coas t o f Coromandel bein g th e first o f a.progressiv e work wit h whic h th e Honourabl e Cour t o f Director s o f th e Eas t Indi a Compan y ha s determine d t o favou r th e public i t i s hoped wil l prov e a s acceptabl e t o th e lover s o f Botan y i n general a s usefu l a t th e Company' s establishment s abroad I t i s intende d tha t th e selectio n shoul d b e mad e from five hundre d drawing s an d descriptions pre sente d t o th e Honourabl e Cour t o f Director s b y Dr Willia m Roxburgh on e o f th e Company' s medica l servants an d thei r Botanis t i n th e Carnatic ; and wit h a mor e immediat e vie w t o utility whil e preferenc e wil l b e give n t o subject s connecte d eithe r wit h medicine th e arts q r manufactures th e liberalit y o/the # JHonourabl e Cour t o f Director s encourage s th e admissio n o f ne w plants o r o f suc h a s hav e hithert o bee n imperfectl y described althoug h thei r qualitie s an d use s ma y a s ye t remai n unexplored Afte r al l tha t ha s bee n alread y done Indi a stil l present s a wid e field fo r research ; anc j th e progres s made o f lat e years i n othe r branche s o f knowledge afford s roo m t o expec t materia l improvemen t i n Natura l History i f ardou r fo r inquir y continue s t o prevail ; i f th e mean s o f makin g ne w acquisition s ar e facilitate d ; an d i f a spiri t o f scientifi c emulatio n amon g th e Company' s servant s abroad meet s wit h such encouragemen t a s mus t naturall y ten d t o rescu e man y o f thos e hour s o f leisur e fro m indolen t neglect w h (considerin g th e fertil e advantage s o f situation ) migh t b e employe d wit h n o les s pleasur e t o th e iiY/t/Iual tha n eventuall y t o th e publi c benefit Y 1 withi n thes e fort y years Botan y seem s f o hav e bee n littl e attende d t o i n th e Carnatic ; abou t whic h p : rioi i f no t introduced i t wa s a t leas t greatl y promote d b y a foreig n naturalist • Joh n Gerar d Koenig a nativ e (i t i s believed ) o f Courland an d a pupi l o f Linnaeus contemporar y wit h th e lat e Dr Solander ha d earl y distinguishe d himself b y hi s travel s int o Iceland,*i n th e yea r 1765 / an d wa s honoure d b y havin g a plan t name d afte r him Th e precis e tim e o f 1.li s settin g ou t fo r Indi a i s no t known bu t i t wa s probabl y i n 176 8 ; a s i n a lette r t o LinnAus date d fro m Tranquebar Jul y 26 1769 h e refer s t o anothe r lette r writte n mor e tha n thr^ e month s before whic h i s no t foun d amon g a numbe r o f hi s letter s from India no w i n th e possessio n o r Dr Jame s Edwar d Smith • \ I t appear s tha t h e wen t t o Indi a unde r th e protectio n o f th e kin g o f Denmark partl y a s physicia n t o th e Danis h settlemen t i n th e Carnatic bu t chiefl y fo r th e purpos e o f makin g improvement s i n th e natura l histor y o f tha t country ; an d h e reside d fo r severa l year s a t Tranquebar o r i n it s \ficinity inde c r a fatigab b j ^aploye d i n researche s o f variou s kinds fc&iiig \ \ a s singularl y qualifie d fo r th e employmen t h e ha d engage d in Mor e covetou s o f fam e tha n .o f fortune h e persevere d i n hi s pursuit s wit h a n enthusias m tha t se t bodil y fatigue spar e meals an d a scorchin g climat e a t defiance ; whil e th e simplicit y o f hi s manners an d hi s unassumin g readines s t o impar t know k dg e t o others conciliated almos t a t first sight th e benevolenc e o f thos e wit h who m h e conversed Thu s qualifie d fo r a n inquisitiv e traveller h e becam e know n a t th e Dutch French an d Britis h settlement s o n th e Coast whic h h e occasionall y visite d i n hi s excursions an d ever y wher e h e acquire d friends Mantiss a Linn Gen PI p 13

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l GYROCARPU S JACQUIN I Gcertn. sem. 2. p. 92 tab. 97 Gyrocarpu s americanus Jacqu. amer. 282 t. 178 if 8 0 Afrag Voyage de Le Brun en Perse, vol. 2 p. 25 7. cum Ji t Tanuco o o f th e Telingas Cattamara n Woo d Tree • GENERI C CHARACTER HERMAPHRODITE Calyx above four-leaved unequal. Corol none Nectary fou r clubbe d glands Stamens four Pistil one. Style none Capsule one-celled one-seeded endin g i n tw o lon g membranaceou s wings MALE Calyx five-leaved, equal Nectary an d Stamens a s i n th e Hermaphrodite withou t pistil DESCRIPTION T run k i n genera l erect : Bark smooth greenis h as h colour Branches thin irregularl y spreadin g i n ever y direction Leaves approximate d abou t th e extremitie s o f th e branchlets pe tioled broa d hearted three-nerved frequentl y slightl y lobed abov e smooth belo w down y ; ther e ar e tw o pit s o n th e uppe r sid e o f th e bas e ; lengt h an d breadt h various bu t i n genera l five o r si x inche s eac h way Petiole round downy thre e inche s long Panicles terminal umbell-lik e : division s two-forked Flowers ver y small yellow Hermaphrodite Flowers solitary sessile i n th e division s o f th e panicle Calyx above four-leaved : leaflet s unequal ; exterio r pai r small oval falling ; interio r pai r large wedge-shaped three-toothed per manent an d increasin g i n siz e wit h th e pericar p int o tw o lon g membranaceou s wings Corol none Nectary fou r clubbed yellow glands Filavients four longe r tha n th e calyx inserte d alternatel y wit h th e nectaria l gland s int o a perforate d receptacle Anthers quadrangular openin g o n eac h sid e wit h a n ova l lid Germ below egged Style none Stigma small immerse d i n th e perforatio n o f th e receptacl e o f th e filaments an d nectaria l glands Capsule globular wrinkled one-celled one-valved doe s no t open size o f a cherry end s i n tw o long obtuse lanced membrana ceou s wings Seed one OBSERVATIONS Thi s grow s t o b e a ver y larg e tree i s chiefl y a nativ e o f th e moun tainou s part s o f th e coast cast s it s leave s abou t th e en d o f th e we t seaso n ; flowers durin g th e col d seaso n whe n th e tre e i s naked ; th e leave s com e ou t soo n after Th e woo d o f thi s tre e i s whit e an d ver y light i s employe d t o mak e cattamaran s (rafts) whe n t o b e had i n preferenc e t o an y other 2 SIRIU M MYRTIFQLIUM Linn. Mant. 200 Sanda l Woo d Tree Leaves opposite short-petioled spreading,lanced entire waved smooth shining abou t tw o inche s long an d three-quarter s o f a n inc h broad Stipules none • • Raceme thyrse-like terminal compound small erect Flowers small red % Calyx above belled four-cleft : division s egged expanding co loured Corol none excep t th e nectar y b e such Nectary four-leaved inverse-hearted notcfied inserte d int o th e mout h o f th e calyx Filaments four short hairy inserte d int o th e caly x alternatel y wit h th e leaflet s o f th e nectary Stigma four-lobed Berry globular siz e o f a larg e pea smooth juicy blac k whe n ripe one-seeded Thi s valuabl e tre e i s a nativ e o f man y part s o f Indi a : here i n th e Circa r mountains wher e i t i s wild i t i s bu t o f a smal l size an d th e woo d o f littl e value O n th e Malaba r coas t i t i s muc h larger an d th e woo d reckone d o f th e bes t sort Th e woo d o f thi s tre e i s th e whit e an d yello w Sanders Santa lii m albu m e t flavum o f th e Materi a Medic a ; bot h th e sort s ar e th e produc e o f th e sam e tree an d not a s Garcia s says o f differen t trees Mos t tree s i n India when larg e an d old becom e coloure d toward s th e centre tha t par t i s alway s muc h mor e har d an d durabl e tha n th e exterio r uncoloure d part I t i s th e sam e wit h th e Sanda l tree : th e centre whe n th e tre e become s large acquire s a yello w colour grea t fragrance an d hardnes s ; whil e th e exterio r par t o f th e sam e tree tha t cover s th e coloure d part i s les s firm, white an d withou t fra grance I t i s onl y th e yello w sor t tha t i s o f use ; an d th e large r th e tre e th e mor e valuabl e i s th e wood i t havin g the n acquire d a greate r degre e o f fragrance fo r whic h alon e i t i s hel d i n suc h uni versa l estimation • Bird s ea t greedil y th e berries b y whic h mean s i t i s propagate d extensively 3 OJLDENLAJYDI A UMBELLATA Linn. Spec. Plant. 1 7 4 Root ver y long fro m on e t o tw o feet slender wit h fe w latera l fibres, whe n fres h th e bar k i s orang e coloure d ; i n th e culti vate d sor t i t i s longest an d wit h fewe r fibres. Tsheri-vell o o f th e Telingas Saya-ver o r Imbure l o f th e Tamuls Cha y Root o r Eas t Indi a Madde r o f th e English

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o J OLDENLANDI A UMBELLATA OLDENLANDI A UMBELLATA 4 Stem i n th e cultivate d sor t erect round jointe d below ver y ramous somewha t scabrous fro m si x t o twelv e inche s high Branches axillary th e unde r opposite decussated spreadin g hori zontal an d nearl y a s lon g a s th e stem ; abov e alternate o r i n pair s fro m th e axill I n th e wil d sor t ther e i s scarc e an y stem bu t man y diffus e scragg y branches wit h thei r flower-bearing extremitie s erect Leaves opposite teri j o r quatern sessile linear pointed scabrous spreading fro m f t o i inc h long b y \ broa d ; i n th e axill s o f th e principa l leave s ar e generall y fascicle s o f smalle r leaves •Stipules connecting ciliated Flowers terminal small white ver y numerous th e whol e formin g a larg e umbell compose d o f smal l three-clef t umbellets Bracts minute awled Th e part s o f fructificatio n agre e exactl y wit h thos e o f th e genus Thi s i s a smal l biennial rarel y triennia l plant i t grow s i n ver y ligh t dr y sand y groun d nea r th e sea Flower s durin g th e latte r par t o f th e we t seaso n ; see d rip e i n Januar y It r i s muc h cultivate d o n th e coas t o f Coromandel an d grow s bes t i n th e pures t an d lightes t sand ther e it s root s descen d t o a grea t depth Cattl e ar e penne d upo n th e groun d fo r som e tim e befor e i t i s sown t o manur e it o r som e othe r manur e employed generall y th e lightest ; i t i s then'cleare d o f weeds an d it s surfac e mad e level i f no t s o before Th e seed s ar e mixe d wit h muc h sand an d sow n a s soo n a s th e rain s begi n i n Jun e o r Jul y (tha t i s i n th e Circars) ; th e san d i s mixe d wit h th e see d t o enabl e 'th e sowe r t o so w i t suffi cientl y thin ; i t require s t o b e ofte n watere d i f shower s ar e no t fre quent til l th e plant s ar e abou t tw o o r thre e inche s high Th e firs t waterin g i s peculiar ; som e fres h cow-dun g i s mixe d wit h th e water th e chie f objec t o f whic h i s t o giv e th e san d a t th e surfac e som e de gre e o f adhesion whic h prevent s th e stron g wind s tha t prevai l a t thi s seaso n fro m blowin g awa y th e seeds ; after i t require s littl e o r n o care fe w weed s gro w i n suc h a soi l a s fits thi s culture o f cours e a ver y littl e labou r keep c i t clean : i f th e seaso n i s remarkabl y wet th e qualit y o f th e root s ar e muc h injured an d th e drie r th e seaso n th e riche r the y ar e i n colou r an d quality I n February whic h i s seve n o r eigh t month s fro m th e tim e th e seed s wer e sown th e root s ar e reckone d t o b e i n a prope r staf e fo r fakin g up ; t o effec t whic h a trenc h i s mad e alon g th e sid e o f th e field, full y a s deep o r rathe r deepe r tha n th e lengt h o f th e longes t roots whic h ma y b e reckone d tw o feet ; a two-pronge d for k i s the n employe d t o undermin e th e ground an d a s i t fall s in th e root s ar e take n up th e stem s an d branche s cu t off ; th e entir e root s drie d i n th e sun tie d u p i n smal l bundle s o f a fe w ounces an d kep t i n dr y air y pieces whic h i s al l th e preparation s i t receive s fro m th e cultivator s : i t wil l remai n goo d three four o r eve n five years an d th e dyer s an d chint s painters wh o ar e th e peopl e bes t acquainte d wit h thi s root sa y it s colourin g power s improv e b y keepin g fo r tha t lengt h o f tim e ; a fortunat e circumstanc e fo r it s exportatio n to Europe Whe n th e wil d sor t ca n b e ha d i n an y quantity i t i s esteeme d one-third o r one-fourt h stronger and whic h i s o f mor e conse quence yield s a bette r colou r : an d wjie n thes e rqot s ca n b e ha d o f tw o year s growth the y ar e reckone d stil l better bu t th e farme r doe s no t find i t answer s hi s purpos e t o le t i t b e longe r i n th e groun d tha n on e season Th e wood y par t o f th e roo t i s whit e an d tasteless i t i s th e bar k onl y tha t i s possesse d o f th e colourin g principle ; whe n fres h i t i s orange-coloured tinge s th e spittl e yellow an d leave s a ligh t degre e o f acrimon y o n th e poin t o f th e tongu e fo r som e hour s afte r chew in g ; t o appearanc e i t lose s it s yello w colou r i n drying bu t stil l retain s th e abovementione d propertie s o n bein g chewed I t im pregnate s col d wate r o r spirit s o f a stra w colour ; t o boilin g wate r i t give s a brownis h porte r colour Th e water y infusion s an d spi rituou s tincture s ar e change d int o a brigh t an d dee p re d b y alka lin e substances ; an d ar e rendere d paler o r nearl y destroyed b y acids I hav e trie d variou s experiment s t o enabl e m e t o dy e re d wit h thi s roo t ( I ma y sa y tw o o r thre e hundred) i n a mor e expedi tiou s an d les s troublesom e wa y tha n wha t th e native s follow bu t al l wit h n o satisfactor y succes s ; i t i s therefor e unnecessar y fo r m e t o detai l thes e experiment s i n thi s plac e (however I doub t no t bu t a perso n wel l acquainte d wit h th e ar t o f dyin g migh t effec t it) ; al l tha t i s necessar y fo r m e t o sa y a t present i s t o giv e th e proces s fo r dying painting o r printin g re d wit h thi s root a s practise d b y th e native s i n th e Circars A receip t fo r dyin g re d wit h thes e roots a s practise d i n th e Ma sulipata m district suppos e on e squar e yar d o f prett y fine cotto n cloth whic h ha s bee n previousl y bleached First Tak e o f th e coarsel y powdere d roo t on e o r on e an d a hal f ounce boi l i t gentl y fo r a fe w minute s i n thre e pint s o f sof t water ; i n thi s di p th e clot h repeatedl y fo r a fe w minutes wrin g an d was h i t ou t i n col d water an d ctf y i t i n stron g sunshin e upo n san d o r gravel Thi s first operatio n i s t o tak e ou t an y remain s of.th e quick-lime &c employe d b y th e bleacher s i n whitenin g th e cloth Secon d day Tak e hal f a n ounc e o f th e oute r coverin g o f cadu ca y nut s (nut s o f Terminali a citrina) i n powder mi x i t i n a pin t o f col d water, le t i t stan d a little the n strai n i t throug h a bi t o f thi n rag wit h thi s mi x a thir d par t o f fres h buffalo' s mil k ( I believ e cow' s mil k i s a s good) ; i n thi s was h o r ru b th e clot h thoroughly wrin g i t gently an d dr y i t i n th e sun Thir d day Th e clot h i s washe d ou t i n col d water ; yesterday' s operatio n repeate d ; f whe n finished, th e clot h feel s ver y hars h ; t o softe n it i t i s folde d u p an d ver y wel l beetled Fourt h da y A quarte r o f a n ounc e o f alu m an d a s muc h turme ric k i n powde r ar e infuse d i n a pin t o f col d wate r fo r a fe w hours ; th e beetle d clot h i s no w sprea d ou t o n grass an d exceedingl y wel l rubbe d wit h th e abov e mixture ; whe n dr y (i f t o b e coloure d o n bot h sides ) i t i s turned an d equall y wel l rubbe d wit h th e sam e mixtur e o n th e othe r sid e ; the n drie d an d pu t by X Fift h day Thi s da y th e clot h i s onl y wel l washe d i n col d wa ter an d drie d i n th e sun Sixt h day Th e fourt h day' s operatio n o f rubbin g bot h sides &c i s repeated . • Sevent h day Was h i t wel l i n col d water an d whil e moist we t i t i n a col d infusio n o f a littl e powdere d caducay ; dr y i t i n th e su n o r shade Th e Malabar s omi t thi s par t o f th e operation Eight h day Tak e si x pint s o f wate r an d a poun d o f cha y root pu t the m o n th e fire, an d whe n scaldin g ho t pu t th e unwashe d clot h int o it t o b e kep t i n a scaldin g heat stirrin g an d turnin g th e clot h frequentl y fo r thre e o r fou r hour s ; th e wast e o f wate r ma y b e supplie d b y no w an d the n addin g t o it ; th e cloth'i s suffere d t o remai n i n th e liquo r til l cold the n wrin g i t ou t hal f dry an d agai n retur n i t int o th e sam e decoction whic h i s no w mad e t o b6i l gentl y Ove r th e souther n part s o f th e coas t th e powdere d caduca y i s exceedingl y wel l boile d i n water an d th e straine d decoctio n mixe d wit h onl y a fourt h par t o f milk • Z r ; h e f Ut h 7 ar d tIli s Actio n i s performe d i n th e sam e manner bu t wit h onl y one eight h o f mil k t o th e wate r an d caducay Beetlin g the-same t Sout h amon g th e Malabars thi s operatio n differ s muc h fro m th e abov e ; i t i s don e a s foHows Tak e o f sapa n woo d (Csalpini a Sappan ) i n shaving s on e ounce wate r a pin t an d a hal f mi x an d le t the m stan d fo r tw o days the n boi l the m til l a thir d i s gone t o IhtTlr d ^ 1 0 ad d tW < ^ S o f a n ounc e o f powdere d alum wit h thi s th e an d sixtl^da y ^ ^ * * turmerick See o n th e fourth fifth,

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5 OLDENLANDI A UMBELLATA OLDENLANDI A UMBELLATA 6 fo r five o r si x hours stirring &c a s abov e ; th e fire i s the n t o b e withdrawn an d th e whol e lef t t o coo l til l nex t day Th e clot h i s no w o f a dirt y dee p brick-dus t colour Th e Malabar s perfor m onl y th e first par t o f thi s day' s work Nint h day Th e clot h i s washe d i n col d water wel l wette d i n a col d infusio n o f caduca y an d water drie d an d pu t by a s o n th e sevent h day Tent h day Was h th e clot h i n col d water an d boi l i t gentl y fo r tw o hour s i n a decoctio n o f a quarte r o f a poun d o f cha y roo t i n si x pint s o f water suffe r i t t o coo l i n th e decoctio n a s before ; the n wrin g i t out dr y it an d pu t i t by Thi s par t o f th e operation a s wel l a s tha t o f th e nint h day th e Malabar s omit Elevent h day Th e clot h i s t o b e worke d abou t fo r a shor t tim e i n a s muc h water wel l mixe d wit h fres h cow-dung a s wil l cove r it the n wrun g out an d drie d i n th e sun Twelft h day Th e clot h i s washed sprea d ou t t o th e sun an d sprinkle d wit h wate r a s i t dries fo r a day Thirteent h day Th e operatio n i s finished b y washin g wit h soap whic h improve s th e colour ; an d th e oftene r i t i s washed th e brighte r th e colou r becomes I hav e i n th e abov e pointe d ou t wheneve r th e Teling a opera tor s diffe r fro m th e Malabar I believ e th e Telinga s ar e esteemed th e bes t artists ; however o f thi s I canno t wel l determine a s dura bility a s wel l a s th e immediat e appearanc e o f th e colour mus t b e take n int o consideration I t ma y b e prope r t o observe tha t i n dyin g wit h thes e root s th e hea t i s alway s gentle i t i s probabl e tha t thes e contai n som e othe r principle whic h a stron g hea t migh t extract an d debas e th e in tende d colour The y ar e als o use d b y th e native s t o dy e brown purple an d orange wit h thei r variou s shades Cotto n cloth previousl y prepare d wit h a solutio n o f alum re ceive s fro m a decoctio n o f thi s roo t an d tartar a prett y goo d yello w colour ; bu t i t i s change d t o a pal e re d o n bein g washe d wit h soap : thi s point s ou t strongl y th e power s o f a n alkal i o n th e colourin g matte r o f thi s root T o dy e purpl e wit h cha y roots a s practise d b y th e native s i n th e Masulipata m district First Th e clot h (suppos e fou r yards ) i s t o b e washe d i n a ho t decoctio n o f th e root dried an S nex t da y wette d i n a n infusio n o f caduca y i n mil k an d water a s practise d i n dyin g red O n th e Thir d day tak e tw o quart s o f cle# r sou r conje e (ric e gruel ) an d on e pin t o f cassim mi x the m ver y earl y i n th e morning an d first beatin g of f th e dew i f ther e i s any sprea d ou t th e clot h o n th e grass an d ru b bot h side s o f i t wit h th e abov e mixture a s directe d abov e wit h th e turmeric k infusio n i n dyin g re d ; thi s par t o f th e operatio n i s onl y don e onc e o n eac h sid e here Fourt h day Th e clot h i s wel l washe d i n col d water an d boile d gentl y for on e hou r i n a decoctio n o f cha y root s (sa y thre e pound s i n eigh t gallon s o f water) le t i t remai n i n th e decoctio n til l cold the n wrin g it an d dr y it Fift h day I t i s boile d a s yesterda y i n a fres h decoctio n o f th e roots whic h i s onl y hal f s o stron g (viz on e poun d an d a hal f t o eigh t gallon s o f water) ; i t i s immediatel y remove d fro m th e dye Cassi m i s th e Teling a nam e o f a solutio n o f iro n i n a vegetabl e acid and-i s prepare d a s follows Tak e Palmir a todd y (juic e o f Borassu s flabelliformis) on e gallon int o whic h pu t som e broke n piece s o f th e vitrifie d matte r o f a blacksmith' s forge an d som e bit s o f ol d rust y iron le t th e whol e stan d expose d t o th e su n fo r te n days ; the n pou r of f th e liquo r clea r fo x use afte r bein g suffere d t o cool int o a mixtur e o f fres h cow-dun g an d water wher e i t remain s fo r th e night Sixt h day I t i s expose d t o th e sun an d watere d a s i t dries 8cc a s fo r finishing th e re d dye • T o dy e a dee p bu t clea r brow n wit h cha y root as*practise d b y th e sam e peopl e ; sa y fou r yard s o f cotto n clotli Th e clot h i s first t o b e dye d red a s abov e described til l w e com e t o th e buckin g i n cow-dung whic h i s t o b e omitted ; an d i n it s stead th e clot h i s t o b e wel l wette d i n th e mixtur e o f caduca y i n mil k an d water an d drie d i n th e sun Secon d day Ver y early th e clot h i s sprea d out an d bot h side s rubbe d wit h th e cassim &c a s ha s bee n alread y mentione d fo r purple bu t wit h thi s difference tha t her e eac h sid e mus t b e don e twic e over Thir d day Whe n i t i s wel l washe d i n col d water an d boile d gentl y fo r on e hou r i n a decoction.o f th e cha y root le t i t remai n i n th e liquo r til l Cold the n wrin g it an d hal f dr y it ; whe n i t mus t b e returne d int o th e sam e decoction an d boile d fo r anothe r h*>ur th e operatio n i s finished b y buckin g i n cow-dung &c a s fo r re d an d purple T o dy e orang e wit h th e sam e root a s practise d b y th e sam e people ; sa y fou r yard s o f cotto n cloth First Was h i n a scaldin g decoctio n o f th e root a s fo r red Secon d day Tak e aldkca y (gall s o f Terminali a citrina ) an d th e oute r cove r o f caduca y nuts o f eac h fou r ounce s i n powder an d in fus e the m i n thre e o r fou r pint s o f war m water strai n th e mixtur e throug h a bi t o f thi n rag i n whic h di p th e clot h repeatedl y til l wel l wetted wrin g an d bea t i t a little the n dr y it ; an d repea t th e wet tin g i n th e abov e mixture beatin g an d drying Nex t day dissolv e tw o ounce s o f alu m i n a quar t o f water wit h thi s was h th e cloth an d pu t i t ou t t o dry Nex t da y i t i s t o b e wette d i n a wea k lixi viu m o f alkalin e eart h (eart h o f cretaceou s soda ) an d quick-lime wrun g ou t an d dried Nex t day was h i t ou t i n col d water an d boi l i t onc e only an d fo r on e hour i n a deccfctio n o f chay ; le t i t remai n i n th e liquo r til l col d ; dr y it an d pu t i t b y til l nex t day the n finish th e operatio n b y washin g wit h soap T o pain t th e re d figures o n chint s wit h thes e roots a s practise d b y th e chint s painter s i n th e Masulipata m district I t i s necessar y t o observe tha t fo r ever y sor t o f chints whethe r painte d o r printed th e clot h mus t first b e bleached the n wel l washe d ou t i n a scaldin g decoctio n o f cha y root an d wette d i n a col d mixtur e o f milk water an d powdere d caducay a s practise d t o prepar e th e clot h fo r th e re d dy e befor e mentione d ; (thi s las t par t o f th e proces s i s b y th e Malabar s don e witbu a stron g decoctio n o f th e aldecay a s fo r th e re d dye. ) Thi s mixtur e the y sa y prevent s th e colour s tha t ar e t o b e applie d fro m running a s pounc e doe s in k o n ba d paper ; an d i t i s als o foun d tha t mil k i s absolutel y a neces sar y par t o f th e mixture fo r a n infusio n o r decoctio n o f th e nut s wil l no t answe r withou t the^milk Th e abovementione d wor k occupie s tw o day s generally Thir d day Th e clot h i s no w wel l beetled an d th e figures traced o r marke d ou t b y applyin g piece s o f pape r ove r th e prepare d cloth tha t ha s al l th e outline s pricke d wit h a pin a smal l ba g o f finely pow dere d charcoa l i s rubbe d backward s an d forward s ove r th e paper a sufficien t quantit y o f th e powde r wil l pas s th e hole s i n th e pape r t o mar k distinctl y th e outline s o f th e figures ; whe n thi s par t o f th e wor k i s finished, thes e line s marke d ou t b y th e charcoa l tha t ar e t o b e red yellow o r orange wit h thei r variou s shades ar e t o b e don e ove r wit h a col d water y infusio n o f sappa n woo d (Caesalpini a

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7 OLDENLANDI A UMBELLATA OLDENLANDI A UMBELLATA • A y • # \ A 8 sappan ) an d alum whic h ha s bee n prepare d a da y o r tw o (th e Mala ba r painter s boi l th e sappa n wood a s mentione d befor e fo r dying) ; an d thos e tha t ar e t o b e purple blue o r green wit h thei r shades ar e don e withdh e martia l solution calle d b y th e Gentoo s Cassim whic h ha s bee n alread y take n notic e of Th e chint s painter' s penci l i s th e mos t simpl e tha t ca n b e con ceived" ; a smal l bi t o f bambo o o r othe r stick taperin g t o a poin t lik e a skewer an d spli t a t th e poin t fo r abou t on e inch wit h a bi t o f ra g o r a littl e hai r tie d roun d i t abou t a n inc h fro m th e point i n for m o f a ball ; thi s receive s an d retain s th e colou r em ployed an d th e poin t o f th e penci l i s kep t mois t b y gentl y squeez in g th e moistene d ball whic h i s easil y don e b y th e han d tha t hold s th e pencil : wit h wonderfu l dexterit y a goo d painte r wil l ru n ove r a piec e o f clot h i n thi s manner Fourt h day Th e operatio n o f delineatin g th e outline s o f th e figures bein g over th e clot h washe d i n col d wate r an d hal f dried a decoctio n o f cha y rqo t i s prepared abou t te n o r twelv e ounce s i n powde r t o eac h gallo n o f water sufficien t t o cove r th e clot h per fectly^ s o a s t o le t i t b e easil y move d abou t i n th e liquo r durin g th e boiling whic h mus t b e gentle an d fo r abou t a n hou r an d a n half ; th e clot h mus t remai n i n th e liquo r til l perfectl y cold i t i s the n washe d ou t i n col d water an d dried Fift h day Th e n&x t wor k i s t o repea t th e first par t o f th e ope ration viz t o we t wel l th e hal f finished clot h i n a mixtur e o f pow dere d caduca y nut s i n mil k an d water an d dr y i t i n th e su n o r shade Sixt h day Th e part s tha t ar e t o be c o f th e bes t an d brightes t re d ar e no w shade d wit h a n infusio n o f turmeric k an d alu m i n col d water (suc h a s wa s employe d o n th e fourt h da y i n dyin g red ) thos e tha t ar e t o b e red-purpt e (th e litera l translatio n o f th e Teling a word s yerra-bannas whic h i s a dee p brownis h purple ) hav e th e ligh t shade s covere d wit h wax whic h i s don e wit h th e commo n paintin g penci l abov e describe d an d melte d wax : whe n finished, thes e part s ar e t o b e don e ove r wit h th e followin g mixtur e ; cassi m on e part sou r conje e (pullagall i o f th e Telingas ) an d infusio n o f sappa n wood eac h fou r parts ; th e wa x prevent s thi s colou r fro m tingin g th e part s i t adhere s to: th e wor k i s drie d i n th e shade an d pu t b y fo r tha t day Sevent h day I t i s washe d i n col d water whe n hal f dr y boile d i n a decoctio n o f th e roots a s o n th e fourt h day an d whe n col d wel l wrun g out an d immediatel y wette d i n th e mixtur e o f milk water an d caclucay a s o n th e secon d day onl y th e proportio n o f mil k i s diminished dried an d pu t b y til l nex t day Eight h day Th e part s tha t ar e t o b e o f th e bes t red a s mentione d o n th e sixt h day hav e th e part s tha t ar e t o b e shade d light covere d wit h wax an d ove r th e whol e o f thes e th e turmeric k infusio n wit h alu m i s t o b e applie d th e secon d time Nint h day Wettq d i n col d wate r fo r a fe w minutes an d drie d i n th e sun Tent h day Th e part s don e wit h turmerick 8cc a s o n th e eight h day mus t b e agai n don e ove r wit h th e sam e colour whic h i s th e thir d time Th e part s tha t ar e t o b e purpl e hav e thei r ligh t shade s don e wit h melte d wax an d covere d wit h a mixtur e o f on e par t o f cassi m an d tw o o f sou r clea r ric e gruel Elevent h day Was h i t i n col d water an d boi l i t i n a decoctio n o f cha y fo r on e hou r o r so hal f dr y i t i n th e shade ; the n retur n i t int o th e decoction boi l i t agai n fo r som e time hal f dry 8cc repeat in g th e boiling o r rathe r scalding an d hal f drying fo r the y mus t b e gentle fo r th e whol e o f thi s day ; a t nigh t i t i s pu t int o a mixtur e o f fres h cow-dun g an d water an d ther e remain s til l th e morning Twelft h day I t i s washe d out expose d o n gras s t o th e sun an d watere d a s i t drie s ; thi s require s tw o o r thre e day s t o mak e th e un painte d part s o f th e clot h perfectl y whit e again fo r th e cha y wil l no t stan d bleaching excep t wher e i t ha s bee n fixed wit h alum ; o n suc h place s i t stand s ever y sor t o f washin g an d bleaching provide d th e proces s ha s bee n properl y performed : thos e part s i n th e abov e descriptio n ar e th e flowers 8cc tha t wer e don e wit h th e infusio n o f sappa n woo d an d a.lum o r wit h tha t o f turmeric k an d alum o r both ; neithe r th e sappa n no r turmeric k infusio n alon e ar e o f them selve s essentia l fo r fixing th e colou r o f thi s root the y serv e t o lighte n them bu t th e durabilit y depend s chiefly i f no t entirely o n th e alu m wit h whic h the y wer e mixed Fifteent h day Th e twelfth thirteenth an d fourteent h havin g bee n employe d t o white n an d clea n th e cloth i t i s no w starche d wit h a decoctio n o f rice drie d i n th e su n an d beetled whe n i t i s read y t o receiv e th e wax whic h i s melted an d wit h th e penci l o r a smal l brus h lai d ove r ever y par t o f th e clot h tha t i s no t t o b e blu e o r green ; whe n tha t i s performed i t i s pu t int o th e col d blu e va t (whic h mus t b e i n a prope r stat e fo r dying ) fo r a fe w minutes the n expose d t o th e air dippe d an d expose d t o th e ai r alternatel y til l i t ha s receive d a sufficien t quantit y o f th e dye wrun g hal f dr y an d washe d ou t i n col d wate r ; i t i s the n pu t int o scaldin g wate r t o take of f th e wa x (whic h i s no t injure d b y th e operation bu t serve s t o wa x othe r piece s with) ; th e cloth o r rathe r nearl y finished chints mus t no w b e washe d wit h soa p an d col d water an d lef t i n a wea k solutio n o f soa p th e whol e night Sixteent h day I n th e mornin g was h i t ou t wit h mor e soa p an d col d water ; expos e i t t o th e su n o n th e grass an d sprinkl e i t wit h wate r a s i t dries a t nigh t was h i t i n col d wate r an d pu t i t by Seventeent h day Was h i t ou t wit h soa p an d water an d expos e i t t o th e sun sprinklin g i t wit h wate r a s i t drie s fo r tw o o r thre e hour s only ; was h i t i n col d water an d dr y i t i n th e su n ; th e whol e i s no w t o b e wette d i n a mixtur e o f mil k an d water drie d i n th e sun an d pu t b y til l nex t day Eighteent h day Tak e a smal l quantit y o f aldeca y i n powder boi l i t wel l i n a littl e water wit h this whe n cold th e part s tha t ar e t o b e gree n (the y havin g bee n alread y dye d blue ) ar e painte d ove r an d drie d i n th e shade ; afte r whic h the y ar e t o b e don e ove r (fixed ) wit h a stron g solutio n o f alum an d drie d i n th e shade A stron g lixiviu m o f washerman' s eart h (eart h o f cretaceou s soda ) i s no w prepared th e chint s i s wel l wette d i n it wrun g out an d pu t b y fo r th e night Nineteent h day Was h i t ou t wit h col d water an d the n wit h soa p an d water ; the n expos e i t t o th e sun an d sprinkl e i t wit h wate r a s i t drie s fo r a fe w hours; afte r whic h i t i s t o b e washe d agai n i n col d water an d drie d i n th e sun Ther e no w remain s onl y tha t par t o f th e proces s whic h prepare s i t fo r th e market viz starch ing beetling an d chanki^ g ; tlji s las t i s simila r t o calendering whic h i s performe d wit h a smoot h shel l rubbe d backward s an d for ward s ove r th e painte d sid e o f th e chints til l i t ha s acquire d a ver y hig h glos s o r polish Th e Teling a physician s d o no t giv e an y par t o f th e plan t a plac e in thei r Materi a Medica ; bu t th e Malaba r physician s sa y tha t th e root s cur e poisonou s bites th e cold an d th e itch an d war m th e con stitution 4 STRYCHNO S NU X VOMICA Linn. Spec. Plant. 271 Musadi e o f th e Telingas A Trunk shor t an d crooked bu t prett y thick Branches irregular : bot h ar e covere d wit h smoot h ash-coloure d bark

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9 STRYCHNO S NU X VOMICA Leave s opposite shor t petioled round-ov^l shining smoot h o n bot h sides entire three-five-nerved differin g i n size fro m on e an d a hal f t o fou r inche s long an d fro m on e t o thre e broad Stipules none Flowers small greenis h white collecte d o n smal l termina l umbells Calyx lasting ; Corol a s i n th e genus Filaments scarc e any o r exceedin g short inserte d int o th e division s o f th e corol Anthers hal f withi n th e tube an d hal f out Style lengt h o f th e tub e o f th e corol Berry round smooth siz e o f a prett y larg e apple covere d wit h a smoot h somewha t har d shell o f a ric h beautifu l orang e colou r whe n ripe fille d wit h a sof t jelly-lik e pulp Seeds fro m tw o t o five immerse d i n th e pul p o f th e berry A middlin g size d tree i s commo n i n almos t ever y par t o f th e coast Flower s durin g th e col d season Th e woo d o f thi s tre e i s har d an d durable an d i s use d fo r man y purpose s b y th e natives Itn s exceedin g bitter particularl y tha t o f th e root whic h i s use d t o cur e intermittin g fevers an d th e bite s o f venomou s snakes whe n tha t o f Naga-musadi e canno t b e had Th e seed s ar e employe d i n th e distillatio n o f countr y spirits t o rende r the m mor e intoxicating Th e pul p o f th e frui t seem s perfectl y innocent a s i t i s ea t greedil y b y man y sort s o f birds Ther e i s a tree bu t exceedin g rar e o n thi s coast whic h th e Te linga s cal l Nag a Musadi e (Naga o r Tanso o Pau m i n th e Teling a languag e mean s th e Cobr a d e Capell a o r Colube r Naj a o f Linnaeus tanso o mean s dancing an d pau m snake thi s sor t bein g famou s fo r erectin g it s head an d movin g i t fro m sid e t o sid e a t th e soun d o f music ) i. e. Cobr a d e Capell a Musadie I hav e onl y onc e me t wit h it an d the n i t wa s pointe d ou t t o m e b y a Teling a physician Th e tre e ha d bee n cu t dow n an d carrie d awa y som e tim e before mos t o f th e root s wer e als o du g u p an d carrie d away ; fro m th e onl y remainin g on e tha t I coul d find som e shoot s ha d sprun g up Th e leave s upo n thes e wer e opposite shor t petioled obtuse lanced three-nerved abou t tw o o r tw o an d a hal f inche s long b y three quarter s broad ; th e petiole s wer e ver y short an d connecte d a t thei r insertion s b y a membrane a s i n th e natura l orde r o f Rubiaceae I too k u p thi s roo t wit h th e greates t care cu t of f th e uppe r par t fro m whenc e th e shoot s grew an d plante d i t i n m y garde n ; bu t i t soo n perished Fro m th e abov e circumstance s l a m incline d t o thin k ther e i s a specie s differen t fro m th e Nu x vomic a tree whic h yield s th e rea l Lignu m Colubrinum Th e woo d o f th e roo t o f thi s sor t i s esteeme d b y th e Teling a physician s a n infallibl e remed y fo r th e bit e o f th e naga a s wel l a s fo r th# t o f ever y othe r venomou s snak e : i t i s applie d externally an d a t th e sam e tim e give n internally ; i t i s als o give n i n substanc e fo r th e cur e o f intermittin g fevers I n th e plate th e dissecte d flower i s magnifie d ; th e frui t o f it s natura l size Indug a o f th e Telingas Tettan-Kotta h o f th e Tamuls Clearing-nu t o f th e English Th e descriptio n o f thi s tre e i n th e Supplementu m Plantaru m i s s o perfect a s t o leav e m e littl e t o add ; th e onl y observation s I hav e t o mak e are tha t th e leave s canno t b e sai d t o b e five-nerved. STRYCHNO S POTATORUM 1 0 Stipules entire connecting Panicles fro m th e extremitie s o f th e las t year' s shoots roun d th e bas e o f thi s year's bearin g a fe w small erect fragrant greenish yello w flowers. Filaments rathe r longe r tha n i n Nu x vomica Berry shining blac k whe n ripe Thi s specie s grow s t o b e a large r tre e tha n th e Nu x vomic a tree i t i s muc h scarcer bein g onl y foun d among # mountains an d wood s o f grea t extent I t flowers durin g th e ho t season Th e wood lik e tha t o f th e former i s har d an d durable aif d use d fo r variou s econo mica l purposes Th e pul p o f th e frui t whe n rip e i s ea t b y th e natives ; t o m e th e tast e i s rathe r disagreeable Th e rip e seed s ar e drie d an d sol d i n ever y market t o clea r mudd y water Th e native s neve r drin k clea r well-wate r i f the y ca n ge t pon d o r rive r water whic h i s alway s mor e o r les s impur e accordin g t o circumstances On e o f th e seeds o r nuts a s the y ar e generall y called i s rubbe d ver y har d fo r a minut e o r tw o roun d th e insid e o f th e vesse l containin g th e water,'whic h i s generall y a n unglaze d earthe n one an d th e wate r lef t t o settle : i n a ver y shor t tim e th e impuritie s fal l t o th e bottom leavin g th e wate r clear and so % fa r a s I hav e bee n abl e t o learn perfectl y wholesome Thes e nut s ar e constantl y carrie d abou t b y th e mor e providen t par t o f ou r officer s an d soldiers i n tim e o f war t o enabl e therj i t o purif y thei r water ; the y ar e easie r t o b e ha d tha n alum an d ar e probabl y les s hurtfu l t o th e constitution I n th e plate th e dissecte d flower i s magnified ; th e frui t o f it s natura l size 6 TECTON A GRANDIS Linn. Suppl. 151. Theka Rkeed. mat. A. p. 5 7 tab. 27 Iatus Rumph. amb. 3 p. 3 4 tab. 18. Tek e o f th e Telingas Trunk erect growin g t o a n immens e size Bark ash-coloured Branches cross-armed numerous spreading : youn g shoot s four sided side s channelled Leaves opposite petioled spreading egged a littl e scolloped abov e scabrous belo w covere d wit h whit e sof t down ; the y ar e large r a t a distanc e fro m th e flowers, an d o n youn g tree s fromtwelv e t o twenty-fou r inche s long an d fro m eigh t t o sixtee n broad Petiole short thick laterall y compressed Panicle terminal ver y large cross-armed small : division s dicho tomous wit h a sessil e fertil e flower i n eac h cleft ; th e whol e covere d wit h a hoary-coloure d farinaceou s substance Peduncle common quadrangular side s deepl y channelled angle s obtuse Bracts opposite lanced tw o a t eac h subdivision Flowers small white ver y numerous fragrant Calyx an d Corol a s describe d i n th e Supplementu m Plantarum onl y oftene y si x tha n five-cleft JVectary ver y small ofte n wanting Stamens oftene r si x tha n five Stigma two-cleft : division s obtuse spreading Drupe withi n th e enlarge d inflate d dr y calyx obtusel y four-sided woolly spongy dry Mit exceedin g hard four-celled Thi s mos t usefu l tre e i s a nativ e o f variou s part s o f India viz o f th e mountainou s par t o f th e Malaba r an d Coromande l coasts o f th e 5 STRYCHNO S POTATORUM Linn. SuppL 148.

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1 1 TECTON A GRANDIS mountain s borderin g o n th e bank s o f th e Godaver y abov e Rajah mundry Pegu kc. &c Lor d Cornwalli s an d Colone l Ky d hav e begu n som e tim e ag o t o introduc e i t int o Bengal wher e i t thrive s well O n thi s coas t i t flowers i n th e ho t season See d rip e i n o Augus t an d September Th e woo d o f thi s tree th e onl y usefu l par t o f it fro m lon g expe rienc e ha s bee n foun d t o b e b y fa r th e mos t usefu l timbe r i n Asia ; i t i s light easil y worked an d a t th e sam e tim e bot h stron g an d durable : tha t whic h grow s nea r th e bank s o f th e Godaver y i s beautifull y veined considerabl y close r i n th e grai n an d heavie r tha n an y othe r I hav e seen ; i t i s therefor e particularl y fit fo r furniture gu n carriages &c wher e smal l timbe r i s wanted Fo r shi p buildin g th e tek e i s reckone d superio r t o an y othe r sor t o f wood bein g light strong an d ver y durable eithe r i n o r ou t o f th e water Peg u pro duce s th e larges t quantity th e larg e river s ther e enabl e th e native s t o brin g i t dow n t o th e se a port s fro m th e interio r mountainou s part s o f th e country wher e i t grows a t a chea p rate whic h enable s the m t o sell i t lowe r tha n i h an y other*par t o f India C • 7 CEROPEGI A BULBOSA ' C Manch y Mand u o f th e Telingas Root bulbous solid a littl e flattened, wit h severa l fibres fro m i t base siz e o f a smal l turnip Stem twining herbaceous smooth succulent fro m tw o t o fou r fee t long c Leaves opposite shor t petioled obverse-egged wit h a smal l point ; entire fleshy; siz e various Umbellets lateral lengt h o f th e leaves peduncled few-flowered di rectio n various Flowers prett y large erect : tub e greenish borde r purple Calyx below five-toothed", tooth-let s acute permanent Corol one-petaled tub e swelle d a t th e base contracte d abou t th e middle enlargin g fro m thenc e t o th e mout h : borde r five-parted : segment s linear downy purple erect ; top s united gapin g a t th e sides < Nectary compose d o f five compoun d bodies whic h surroun d an d hid e th e pisti l ; fro m eac h rise s a curve d filament, whic h i s akou t hal f th e lengt h o f th e tube Anthers, i f the y ca n b e s o called fo r the y ar e onl y yello w scales ; five pai r restin g o n th e blac k pointe d angle s o f tir e stigma (corpu s truncatum. ) a Germs two united Styles seemingl y two united short thick Stigma (corpu s truncatum ) large targeted five-cornered, befor e th e flowers ope n thes e corner s adher e firml y t o five incurve d yel lo w glandulou s part s o f th e nectary an d betwee n the m th e anthers ; i t require s som e forc e t o separat e the m t o hav e a vie w o f th e anthers ; afterwards whe n th e flower i s ful l blown the y separat e o f themselves ; th e anther s ar e the n see n poised a s i t were o n th e fiv e blac k pointe d angle s o f th e stigma • Follicles two slender eac h abou t thre e o r fou r inche s long Grow s amongs t bushes i n dr y barre n uncultivate d groun d an d hedges Flower s durin g th e ho t season Ever y par t o f thi s plan t i s ea t b y th e natives eithe r raw o r stewe d i n thei r curries Th e fres h root s tast e lik e a ra w turnip th e leave s an d th e ste m lik e purslane 1 2 8 CEROPEGI A ACUMINATA Commoo-mand a o f th e Telingas Root perennial a flattened soli d bul b wit h fe w fibres fro m it s base Stem annual twining smooth jointed Leaves opposite erect short-petioled linear taperin g fro m th e bas e t o a n acut e point succulent entire ; fro m tw o t o fou r inche s long an d a quarte r o r hal f a n inc h broa d a t th e base whic h i s th e broadest Umbellets lateral spreading peduncled shorte r tha n th e leaves Flowers, kc. exactl y a s i n C bulbosa I s a nativ e o f th e s-am e place s wit h th e forme r ; flowering tim e th e same Ever y par t o f i t i s esculent a s i n th e foregoing 9. CEROPEGI A TUBEROSA Batsala-mand u o f th e Telingas Root, man y smal l tuberou s knobs wit h thic k fleshy fibres ; per ennial Stem twining herbaceous annual round smooth jointed muc h les s succulen t tha n eithe r o f th e former fro m fou r t o twelv e fee t long Leaves opposite petioled belo w hearted abou t th e middl e egged abov e oblong ; al l ar e a littl e pointed waved entire smooth margin s coloured tw o t o thre e inche s long an d on e o r tw o broad Petiole channelled Umbellets lateral erect peduncled longe r tha n th e leaves Calyx a s i n th e former Corol : tub e a s i n C bulbosa ; her e th e segment s o f th e borde r eithe r adher e fo r ful l hal f thei r length o r d o no t meet ; filament s o f th e nectar y clubbed This lik e th e tw o former grow s i n dr y uncultivate d lan d amongs t bushes : flowers durin g th e sam e season and lik e th e former ever y par t i s esculent ; th e root s ar e ea t raw an d ar e mor e palatabl e tha n thos e o f C bulbosa fhoug h no t nea r s o large 10 CEROPEGI A JUNCEA Bella-gad a o f th e Telingas Root tuberous wit h man y ramon s fibres Stem twining round smooth jointed succulent Leaves ver y remote an d ver y small opposite sessile lanced en tire fleshy. c Umbellets lateral peduncled o r axillary erect few-flowered Flowers erect ver y large beautifull y variegate d wit h yellow green an d purple Peduncle an d Pedicel s clubbed Calyx a s i n th e former Corol: mout h o f th e tub e an d borde r muc h large r i n proportio n t o th e othe r part s tha n th e last bu t i n othe r respect s th e same Nectary nearl y th e same Pistil, kc. th e same (

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1 3 CEROPEGI A JUNCEA SEMECARPU S ANACARDIUM 1 4 w This lik e th e former ha s perennia l roots an d a n annua l stem i s a nativ e o f simila r places ; flowers a t th e sam e time ; and lik e th e former ever y par t o f thi s plan t i s esculent ; ea t ra w i t abate s thirst 11 PERIPLOC A ESCULENTA Linn. Suppl. 1 6 8 Oudy-pall a o f th e Telingas Root filiform, fibrous. Stems an d Branches numerous twining round smooth runnin g ove r bushe s o f considerabl e size Leaves opposite spreading short-petioled linear taperin g t o a fine point rounde d a t th e base entire smooth fro m fou r t o si x inche s long an d abou t three-eighth s o f a n inc h broad Raceme lateral long few-flowered Fl&wers large beautifu l whif? wit h a smal l ting e o f th e rose an d striate d wit h purpl e veins inodorous Xectary an d Stamens a s i n Asclepia s an d Pergularia Follicles oblong inflated I t i s a twinin g perennial grow s i n hedge s an d amon g bushe s o n th e bank s o f wate r courses pools &c cast s it s leave s durin g th e dr y season ; i s i n flower an d foliag e durin g th e rainy O n thi s coas t I d o no t find tha t th e native s eve r ea t it no r appl y i t t o an y purpos e whatever Cattl e ea t it It s elegan t flowers rende r i t wel l deservin g o f a plac e i n th e flower garden 12 SEMECARPU S ANACARDIUM Linn. Suppl. 182. Nella-jied y o f th e Telingas Marking-nu t o f th e English Anacardiu m oriental e o f th e Materi a Medica Trunk ver y large straight high covere d wit h gre y scabrou s bark th e bar k o f th e younge r part s smooth ligh t ash-colour ; it s inne r substanc e contain s i n crevice s a quantit y o f a white soft almos t insipi d gum Branches numerous spreading m • Leaves abou t th e extremitie s o f th e branchlets alternate petioled wedge-form rounde d a t th e apex entire firm, abov e prett y smooth belo w whitis h an d scabrous fro m nin e t o eightee n inche s long an d fro m fou r t o eigh t broad Petiole on e ad d a hal f o r tw o inche s long half-round Panicle terminal ver y large compose d o f man y simpl e spikes tha t o f th e mal e tre e muc h slenderer bu t a s larg e o r larger Bracts many small falling Flowers numerous small o f a dirt y greenis h yello w colour Hermaphrodite flowers a s i n th e Supplementu m Plantarum Pericarp none Receptacle erect fleshy, pear-shaped smooth whe n rip e yellow abou t th e siz e o f th e nut Seed: a singl e nut restin g upo n th e receptacle hearted flattened o n bot h sides smooth shining blac k ; th e cove r o r th e shel l o f th e see d i s compose d o f tw o laminae th e inne r hard th e oute r les s so an d leathery ; betwee n the m ar e cell s whic h con tai n th e blac k corrosiv e resinou s juice whic h ha s lon g mad e the m famous ; thi s juic e i s o f a pal e mil k colour til l perfectl y ripe whe n i t become s black Male flowers o n a separat e tree the y ar e smalle r tha n th e herma phrodite „ Calyx an d Corol a s i n th e hermaphrodite Filaments five, th e lengt h o f th e petals „ Anthers muc h large r tha n i n th e hermaphrodite Pistil non e ; bu t i n it s plac e a semiglobula r hair y glandulou s body A larg e tree bearin g mal e flowers o n one an d hermaphrodit e o n another I t i s a nativ e o f al l th e mountainou s part s o f India Flower in g tim e Jul y an d August See d rip e i n Januar y an d February Th e woo d o f thi s tre e i s reckone d o f n o use no t onl y o n accoun t o f it s softness bu t als o o n accoun t o f it s confinin g muc h acri d juice whic h render s i t dangerou s t o cu t dow n an d wor k upon Th e fleshy receptacle s o n whic h th e see d rests ar e roaste d i n th e ashes an d ea t b y th e natives ; thei r tast e i s exceedingl y lik e tha t o f roaste d apples ; befor e the y ar e roasted the y tast e adstringen t an d acrid leavin g a painfu l sensatio n o n th e tongu e fo r som e time Th e ker nel s ar e rarel y eaten Th e gree n frui t wel l pounde d int o a pul p make s goo d bird-lime Th e pur e blac k acri d juic e o f th e shel l i s employe d b y th e native s externall y t o remov e rheumati c pains aches an d sprain s ; a littl e i s wel l rubbe d ove r th e par t affected ; bu t i n tende r constitution s i t ofte n produce s inflammatio n an d swelling doin g muc h mor e har m tha n good I thin k wherf c i t ha s no t thes e disagreeabl e effects whic h i s generall y th e case i t i s a n efficaciou s remedy I t i s employe d b y th e Teling a physician s i n th e cur e o f almos t ever y sor t o f venerea l complaint ; i t i s prepare d a s follows : tak e o f thi s blac k juic e an d o f th e expresse d juic e o f garlic eac h on e ounce expresse d juic e o f fres h tamarind-tre e leaves coco-nu t oil an d sugar o f eac h tw o ounces mi x an d boi l the m fo r a fe w minute s ; a tabl e spoonfu l i s give n t o th e patien t twic e a day I kno w nothin g o f th e efficac y o f thi s compositio n myselj 7 I t i s universall y employe d t o mar k al l sort s o f cotto n cloth ; th e colou r i s improve d an d prevente d froimrunning b y a littl e mixtur e o f quick-lim e an d water Thi s juic e i s no t solubl e i n water an d onl y diffusibl e i n spirit s o f wine fo r i t soo n fall s t o th e bottom unles s th e menstruu m b e previousl y alkalized Th e solutio n i s the n prett y complete an d o f a dee p blac k colour I t sink s in bu t soo n unite s perfectl y wit h expresse d oils ; alkalin e lixiviu m act s upoh i t wit h n o bette r succes s tha n plai n water ^ I n th e plat e th e dissecte d flower i s magnifie d ; th e frui t o f it s na tura l size 13 CURCULIG O ORCfilOIDES Gcertn. sent. 1 p. 6 3 tab. 16 Nalla-tad y o f th e Telingas Root tuberous wit h man y fleshy vermicula r fibres Leaves numerous al l radical petioled sword-form nerved slender ; whe n youn g ther e ar e a ver y fe w sof t whit e hair s o n them fro m si x t o eightee n inche s long an d hal f o r three-quarter s o f a n inc h broad Petiole channelled belo w sheath-form embracin g thos e within Raceme solitary axillary two-ranked it s ape x jus t appearin g abov e th e earth Peduncle compressed clubbed abou t a n inc h long Bracts belo w remote abov e nearer spath-like pointed decreasin g

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1 5 CURCULIG O ORCHIOIDES MIMUSOP S ELENGI 1 6 i n lengt h toward s th e top s o tha t thei r apice s ar e nearl y hori zonta l (corymbe-like ) one-flowered Flowers prett y large yellow ; th e on e o r tw o lowermos t ar e herma phrodite c abov e al l male Hermaphrodite flowers below Peduncle (o f th e flower) s o lon g a s t o elevat e th e flower abov e th e eart h abou t on e inch hairy three-sided C Calyx none Petals six oblong spreading withering Filaments six ver y short Anthers linear erect Germ sessile lanced Style ver y short Stigma large tapering c ape x three-cleft Capsule whe n a germ shew s thre e cells wit h th e rudiment s o f si x o r eigh t seed s i n each ; bu t whe n th e seed s ar e ripe th e numbe r i s onl y fro m on e t o four an d the y see m a s i f i n a transparen t fleshy one-celle d capsule an d separate d b y a spong y fleshy substance Seeds fro m on e t o four shining black beaked Male Flowers: Peduncle, Corol, an d Stamen a s above ; th e Germ, Style, ( an d Stigma ar e wanting. • .. > c • • • . • • • • • A nativ e o f shad y uncultivate d place s abou t Samulcotah thoug h b y n o mean s common I n m y garde n i t flowers al l th e yea r round 14 MIMUSOP S ELENGI Linn. Spec. Plant. 4 9 7 Pagado o o f th e Telingas Magado o o f th e Tamuls Kunk i o f th e nativ e Portuguese Trunk erect i n genera l fro m eigh t t o twelv e fee t t o th e branches Ba^rk prett y smooth Branches exceedingl y numerous spreading wit h th e extremitie s as cending s o a s t o for m a mos t elegan t globular thic k head Leaves alternate short-petioled approximated decline d o r depend ing ^ waved ver y firm, bot h side s a dee p shinin g green thre e toTou r inche s long an d on e o r on e an d a hal f broad Descriptio n b y Docto r Koenig Radix biennis fusiformis rugosa rugi s annularibus cortic e fusc o tecta supern e squami s scariosi s vestita carnosa sesquipedaiis crassiti e digit i minors Folia radiealia fasciculati m conferta erect a e t recurvata quaeda m terr a incumbentia linea ria acuta striata canaljculata bas i plerumqu e quinquenervia puncti s minimi s densis pilisqu e rarioribu s longi s albi s adspersa pedalia Scapus vi x supr a terra m prominulus angulosus stratus albus squami s scariosi s foliisqu e obvolutus brevissimus Flares paru m supr a terra m prominuli fasciculati m conferti pedunculati Pedunculi erecti compressiusculi subalati bas i tenuiores pili s rario ribu s longi s albi s adspersi tub o floris breviores nivei Spatha monophylla lineari-oblonga acuta membranacea striata pili s rarioribu s adspersa longitudin e tub i coroliae germe n involvens Corolla monopetala infundibuliformis Tubus filiformis, pilosus inanis niveus Limbus sexpartitus : lacinr a patentee concavae ovato-oblongae acute apic e barbate extu s pallidas intu s flavae pili s brevioribu s adspersae subcarnosae Filamenta sex corolia e adnata patentia filiformia, vi x longitudin e styli Anthem lineari hastate longitudin e filamentorum. nea n oblon^um triquetro-compressum Stylus cu m tub o corolla s unitus extr a tubur n coroll a ad'natus pyramiclalis bas i contractus sexangularis anguli s mar ginatis ciliatis paru m tortuosis coroll a brevior Stigma obtusiusculum Capsula subterranea lineari-oblonga utrinqu e acuta triquetra levite r striata bilocularis vi x pollicaris crassiti e penna e anserinas alba Semina 6 a d 8 rar o plura subnidu kntia ovata compressiuscula rostrata rostr o obtusiusculo prominulo Stipules small lanced concave rusty falling Peduncles axillary fro m on e t o eight short clubbed bowing undi vided one-flowered Flowers middle-sized depending white ver y fragrant Perianth below eight-leave d i n a doubl e row : leaflet s lanced fou r exterio r leather y an d larger permanent Tube o f th e Corol ver y short fleshy; borde r (i t ma y b e divide d int o a doubl e serie s o f segment s an d a singl e nectary o r a singl e serie s o f segment s an d a doubl e nectary th e first metho d I shal l follow ) composedo f a doubl e serie s o f segments : th e exterio r consist s o f sixteen spreading ; th e interio r o f eight generall y contorted converging ; al l ar e lanced an d a littl e tor n a t thei r extremities Nectary eight-leaved conical ragged hair y nea r th e base inserte d alternatel y wit h th e filament s int o th e mout h o f th e tube con verging Filaments eight short hairy Anthers linear sharp-pointed belo w two-parted converging Germ egged hairy ; i n i t ar e alway s fee rudiment s o f eigh t seed*! Style awled Stigma generally a littl e ragged Berry oval siz e an d shap e o f a n olive generall y one-seeded Seedovzl, compressed smooth shining chesnut-coloured I hav e onl y onc e foun d thi s i n it s wil d state i t wa s o n th e moun tain s i n th e Rajahmundr y Circar wher e i t grow s t o b e a middl e size d tree O n accoun t o f it s fragran t flowers i t i s universall y plante d i n th e garden s o f th e natives a s wel l a s i n thos e o f al l th e Europea n nation s i n India I t flowers chiefl y durin g th e ho t season Th e flowers ar e sacre d t o th e Hindo o gods 15 MIMUSOP S EIEXANDRA Pall a o f th e Telingas Trunk erect ; frequentl y whe n ol d i t ha s larg e rotte n excavations Bark ash-coloured Branches numerous spreading extremitie s nearl y erect formin g a larg e shad y head Leaves alternate petioled broad wedge-form o r inverse-hearted deepl y end-nicked ver y hard bot h side s a dee p shinin g green thre e t o fiv e inche s long an d on e an d a hal f o r tw o broad Petiole round on e o r on e an d a halj F inc h long Peduncles axillary fro m on e t o six erect o r spreading nearl y a s lon g a s th e petiole clubbed undivided one-flowered Flowers considerabl y smalle r tha n th e former Calyx below six-leaved thre e interior an d thre e exterior : th e exterio r ar e leathery Corol one-petaled : tub e ver y short ; borde r lik e th e former con sist s o f tw o row s o f segments th e exterio r twelve th e interio r six ; al l spreading Nectary situat e betwee n th e filaments, a s i n th e former bu t spread ing shorter an d mor e deepl y indented Filaments six spreading Anthers oval. Pistil a s i n th e former Berry a s i n th e former n J, h l rk a l a A e tre e natlv e 0 f th e mount a i n us > uncultivate d part s o f th e Ctrcars ; t s neve r cultivated no r see n nea r culti

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1 5 CURCULIG O ORCHIOIDES i n lengt h toward s th e top s o tha t thei r apice s ar e nearl y hori zonta l (corymbe-like ) one-flowered Flowers prett y large yellow ; th e on e o r tw o lowermos t ar e herma phrodite, abov e al l male Hermaphrodite flowers below Peduncle (o f fee flower) s o lon g a s t o elevat e th e flower abov e th e eart h abou t on e inch hairy three-sided c . Calyx none Petals six oblong spreading withering Filaments six ver y short Anthers linear erect Germ sessile lanced Style ver y short Stigma large tapering c ape x three-cleft Capsule whe n a germ shew s thre e cells wit h th e rudiment s o f si x o r eigh t seed s i n each ; bu t whe n th e seed s ar e ripe th e numbe r i s onl y fro m one c t o four an d the y see m a s i f i n a transparen t fleshy one-celle d capsule an d separate d b y a spong y fleshy substance Seeds fro m on e t o four shining black beaked Male Flowers: Peduncle, Corol, an d Stamen a s above ; th e Germ, Style, o. an d Stigma ar e wanting A nativ e o f shad y uncultivate d place s abou t Samulcotah thoug h b y n o mean s common I n m y garde n i t flowers al l th e yea r round Descriptio n b y Docto r Koenig Radix biennis fusiformis rugosa rugi s annularibus cortic e fusc o tecta supern e squami s • c scariosi s vestita carnosa sesquipedalis crassiti e digit i minoris Folia radicalia fasciculati m conferta erect a etrecurvata quaeda m terr a incumbentia linea ria acuta striata cana^culata bas i plerumqu e quinquenervia puncti s minimi s densis pilisqu e rarioribu s longi s albi s adspersa pedalia Scopus vi x supr a terra m prominulus angulosus striatus albus squami s scariosi s foliisqu e obvolutus brevissimus Flores paru m supr a terra m prominuli fasciculati m conferti pedunculati Pedunculi erecti compressiusculi subalati bas i tenuiores pili s rario ribu s longi s albi s adspersi tub o floris breviores nivei Spatha monophylla lineari-oblonga acuta membranacea striata pili s rarioribu s adspersa longitudin e tub i corollae germe n involvens Corolla monopetala infundibuliformis Tubus filiformis, pilosus inanis niveus Limbus sexpartitus : lacinia e patentee concavas ovato-oblongae acute apic e barbate extu s pallida intu s flava, pili s brevioribu s adspersa subcarnosa Filamenta sex coroll a adnata patentia filiformia, vi x longitudin e styli Anlhera lineari hastata longitudin e filamentorum. Germen inferum lineari-oblongum triquetro-compressum Stylus cu m tub o coroll a unitus extr a tubu m coroll a adnatus pyramidalis bas i contractus sexangularis anguli s mar ginatis ciliatis paru m tortuosis coroll a brevior Stigma obtusiusculum Capsula subterranea lineari-oblonga utrinqu e acuta triquetra levite r striata bilocularis vi x pollicaris crassiti e penn a anserina alba Semina 6 a d 8 rar o plura subnidu Untia ovata compressiuscula rostrata rostr o obtusiuseulo prominulo MIMUSOP S ELENGI 1 6 Stipules small lanced concave rusty falling Peduncles axillary fro m on e t o eight short clubbed bowing undi vided one-flowered Flowers middle-sized depending white ver y fragrant Perianth below eight-leave d i n a doubl e row : leaflet s lanced fou r exterio r leather y an d larger permanent Tube o f th e Corol ver y short fleshy; borde r (i t ma y b e divide d int o a doubl e serie s o f segment s an d a singl e nectary o r a singl e serie s o f segment s an d a doubl e nectary th e first metho d I shal l follow ) compose d o f a doubl e serie s o f segments : th e exterio r consist s o f sixteen spreading ; th e interio r o f eight generall y contorted converging ; al l ar e lanced an d a littl e tor n a t thei r extremities Xectary eight-leaved conical ragged hair y nea r th e base inserte d alternatel y wit h th e filaments int o th e mout h o f th e tube con verging Filaments eight short hairy Anthers linear sharp-pointed belo w two-parted converging Germ egged hairy ; i n i t ar e alway s fee rudiment s o f eigh t seecfe Style awled Stigma generally a littl e ragged Berry oval siz e an d shap e o f a n olive generall y one-seeded Seed oval compressed smooth shining chesnut-coloured I hav e onl y onc e foun d thi s i n it s wil d state i t wa s o n th e moun tain s i n th e Rajahmundr y Circar wher e i t grow s t o b e a middl e size d tree O n accoun t o f it s fragran t flowers i t i s universall y plante d i n th e garden s o f th e natives a s wel l a s i n thos e o f al l th e Europea n nation s i n India I t flowers chiefl y durin g th e ho t season Th e flowers ar e sacre d t o th e Elindo o gods Trunk erect ; frequentl y whe n ol d i t ha s larg e rotte n excavations Bark ash-coloured Branches numerous spreading extremitie s nearl y erect formin g a larg e shad y head Leaves alternate petioled broad wedge-form o r inverse-hearted deepl y end-nicked ver y hard bot h side s a dee p shinin g green thre e t o five inche s long an d on e an d a hal f o r tw o broad Petiole round on e o r on e an d a hal f inc h long Peduncles axillary fro m on e t o six erect o r spreading nearl y a s lon g a s th e petiole clubbed undivided one-flowered Flowers considerabl y smalle r tha n th e former Calyx below six-leaved thre e interior an d thre e exterior : th e exterio r ar e leathery Corol one-petaled : tub e ver y short ; borde r lik e th e forme r con sist s o f tw o row s o f segments th e exterio r twelve th e interio r six ; al l spreading Xectary situat e betwee n th e filaments, a s i n th e former bu t spread ing shorter an d mor e deepl y indented Filaments six spreading Anthers oval Pistil a s i n th e former Berry a s i n th e former ml/AA Y tre e 3 mtIV e f th e uncultivate d part s o f th e Crrcars ; „ neve r cultivated no r see n nea r culti 14 MIMUSOP S ELENGI Lirin. Spec. Plant. 497 Pagado o o f th e Telingas Magado o o f th e Tarnuls Kunk i o f th e nativ e Portuguese Trunk erect i n genera l fro m eigh t t o twelv e fee t t o th e branches Ba'rk prett y smooth Branches exceedingl y numerous spreading wif e th e extremitie s as cending s o a s t o for m a mos t elegan i globular thic k head Leaves alternate short-petioled approximated decline d o r depend ing ^ waved ver y firm, bot h side s a dee p shinin g green thre e toTou r inche s long an d on e o r on e an d a hal f broad 15 MIMUSOP S PIEXANDRA Pall a o f th e Telingas

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1 7 MIMUSOP S HEXANDRA CAESALPINI A SAPPAN 1 8 vate d places Flower s durin g th e ho t an d beginnin g o f th e we t season Th e woo d i s remarkabl y har d an d heavy fo r thes e reason s i t i s muc h use d b y th e washerme n t o beetl e thei r clot h on 16 CIESALPINI A SAPPAN Linn. Spec. Plant. 5 45 Buckan-chitt o o f th e Telingas Sappa n Woo d Tre e o f th e English Trunk irregular th e larges t twelv e fee t o r mor e i n circumference Bark ver y thin ash-coloured tha t o f th e branche s thickl y se t wit h roun d scabrou s tuberosities eac h crowne d wit h a smal l shar p somewha t curve d prickle ; thes e dro p a s th e woo d become s large Th e youn g shock s hav e th e prickles bu t wan t thei r tuberou s receptacles Branches few spreading irregularl y arme d a s abov e mentioned Leaves alternate abruptl y twic e feathered oblong fro m twelv e t o twent y inche s lon g : feather s te n t o twelv e pair Leaflets oppo site fro m eigh t t o fourtee n pair somewha t rhomboidal end nicked smooth three-quarter s o f a n inc h lon g b y three-eighth s broad Petiole common round smooth generall y arme d wit h thre e prickle s a t th e insertio n o f th e feather th e pai r below an d th e singl e on e above Stipules obliquel y lanced falling Panicle terminal large compose d o f man y simpl e racemes Peduncle an d Pedicels roun d an d smooth Bracts lanced concave one-flpwered falling Flowers ver y numerous prett y large yellow withou t smell Calyx a s i n th e genus Corol: th e fou r latera l petal s equal th e uppe r (ther e i s non e below ) smal l an d streake d wit h red Stamen ascendin g toward s th e uppe r coloure d petal Stigma tubular Legume rhomboidal thre e inche s long on e an d three-quarter s broad muc h compressed Seeds thxez ox four ver y rarel y five oval a littl e compressed smooth hard ligh t brown Thi s ver y valuabl e tre e I latel y discovere d t o b e a nativ e o f tha t chai n o f mountain s whic h separate s th e Circar s fro m th e Bera r Rajah' s dominions wher e i t grow s t o b e a ver y larg e tree Flower s durin g th e we t season See d rip e i n Januar y an d February Thi s tre e i s b y n o mean s commo n o n thi s coast an d i t i s onl y amon g th e aboxementione d mountain s tha t I hav e foun d i t wild I t i s als o a nativ e o f th e south-wes t frontie r o f th e Benga l province an d probabl y o f man y othe r parts Th e market s ove r Indi a ar e supplie d wit h woo d fro m Siam an d th e Mala y countrie s t o th e east ward I hav e som e thousand s o f youn g tree s abou t th e Company' s peppe r plantations whic h thriv e well an d i n th e cours e o f a fe w year s wil l b e full y a s larg e a s wha t i s generall y me t wit h a t market although lik e other s o f thi s nature th e colou r o f th e woo d improve s b y age an d ough t therefor e t o b e lef t til l th e colou r ha s attaine d t o it s utmos t degre e o f perfection Th e use s o f thi s woo d i n dyin g ar e numerou s throughou t Asia ; i t i s a n ingredien t i n th e re d dy e o f thi s coast commonl y calle d th e Cha y dye a s ma y b e see n abov e unde r th e descriptio n o f Oldenlandi a umbellata Wher e a chea p re d i s require d fo r cotto n cloth thi s woo d i s em ploye d b y ou r Teling a dyers bu t the y canno t mak e i t stand ; thei r genera l proces s i s a s follow s ; suppos e fo r fou r yard s o f bleache d cotto n cloth I t mus t b e wel l washed t o tak e ou t an y remain s o f th e quick-lime &c use d i n bleaching ; a n infusio n o f hal f a poun d o f powdere d caduca y i n a pin t an d a n hal f o f col d wate r strained i s employe d t o prepar e th e cloth whic h i s don e b y wettin g i t twic e i n th e sam e infusion dryin g i t betwee n an d after Nex t da y i t i s twic e wette d i n a stron g solutio n o f alum an d a s ofte n drie d i n th e sun Nex t da y a decoctio n o f th e sappa n woo d i s prepare d a s fol low s : tak e on e poun d o f sappa n woo d i n powder wate r twelv e quarts boi l i t til l a thir d i s consumed ; divid e th e remainin g eigh t quart s o f th e decoctio n int o thre e parts on e o f four an d th e othe r tw o o f tw o quart s each ; int o th e fou r quart s pu t th e cloth we t i t well wrin g i t gentl y an d hal f dr y it ; i t i s agai n wette d i n on e o f th e smal l portions, an d whe n hal f dry wette d fo r th e thir d an d las t tim e i n th e othe r remainin g portio n o f th e decoction ; dr y i t i n th e shade whic h finishe s th e process Thi s woo d seem s possesse d o f nearl y th e sam e qualit y a s B^azi letto it s infusio n an d decoctio n ar e heightene d b y alkalies an d destroye d b y minera l acids ; a solutio n o f ti n i n aqu a regi a precipi tate s fro m th e infusio n a beautifu l crimso n coloure d lake ; th e wdb d itsel f i s orang e coloured withou t smel l o r tasf e ; i t give s t o spirit s a saffro n colour Thi s tre e seem s a s i f i t woul d b e a ver y prope r pro p fo r peppe r vine s t o ru n on I a m no w makin g th e trial ; shoul d i t answer th e cultivatio n o f peppe r ove r thes e part s o f th e coas t ma y b e ren dere d exceedingl y profitable ; fo r whe n th e vine s hav e don e bear ing th e sappa n woo d wil l hav e acquire d mor e age an d o f cours e mor e colou r tha n i s generall y me t with an d wil l consequentl y sel l fo r a highe r price probabl y a s muc h a s wil l defra y th e expenc e o f th e whol e culture an d th e ren t o f th e lan d durin g th e tim e i t ha s bee n occupie d b y th e peppe r vines Th e numerou s thorns wit h whic h thi s tse e i s covered rende r i t ver y prope r fo r hig h extensiv e fences whic h wil l afterward s becom e profitable I t i s o f a prett y quic k growth ; i n tw o year s fro m th e tim e th e seed s ar e sown i f i n a prett y goo d soil the y wil l hav e attaine d t o th e heigh t o f eigh t o r te n feet an d begi n t o flowe r an d bea r seed ; abou t th e sam e tim e th e centr e par t o f th e ste m begin s t o acquir e colour whic h yearl y improve s i n quality a s wel l a s in crease s i n quantity A 17 SWIETENI A FEBRIFUGA Roxburgh's monography, printed by order of the East India Company. Swieteni a Soymida Duncan tent, inaug. de Swietenia Soymida. Edinb. 1 7 94 Soymid a o f th e Telingas Trunk ver y straight risin g t o a grea t height o f a grea t thickness an d covere d wit h a grey scabrous cracke d bark Branches numerous th e lowe r spreading th e highe r ascending formin g a ver y larg e shad y head Leaves alternate abou t th e extremitie s o f th e branchlets abruptl y feathered abou t twelv e inche s long Leaflets opposite ver y short petiolated thre e o r fou r pair oval obtus e o r end-nicked th e lowe r sid e generall y extendin g a littl e furthe r dow n o n th e petiole t tha n th e upper smooth shining fro m thre e t o five inche s long an d fro m tw o t o thre e broad th e inferio r smallest Petiole round smooth abou t nin e o r te n inche s long Stipules none

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G ARTNE R A RACEMOSA 2 0 1 9 SWIETENI A FEBRIFUGA Panicle ver y large terminal diffuse bearin g grea t number s o f middle-sized white inodorou s flowers. Peduncle an d Pedicels roun d an d smooth Bracts ver y minute (Myx below,cfive-lea\fcd : Leaflets oval, deciduous Petals five, inverse-egged obtuse concave expanding Xectary no t quit e hal f th e lengt h o f th e petals a littl e bellied : mout h ten-toothed teet h bifid Filaments ten ver y short inserte d jus t withi n th e mout h o f th e nectary Anthers oval Germ conical Style thick tapering c Stigma large targeted shuttin g u p th e mout h o f th e nectary Capsule egged large five-celled, five-valved: valvelet s gapin g fro m th e top ^ Receptacle i n th e centre large spongy five-angled: angle s sharp an d connecte d wit h th e suture s o f th e capsule betwee n the m F deepl y sulcated Seeds man y i n eac h cell imbricated obliquel y wedge-shaped en C large d b y a lon g membranaceou s wing inserte d a t th e uppe r poin t o f th e win g int o a lon g brow n speck o n th e uppe r par t o f th e excavation s o f th e receptacle : al l th e res t o f th e recep tacl e i s white Thi s i s a ver y larg e tree a nativ e o f th e mountainou s part s o f th e Rajahmundr y Circar nort h o f Samulcota h an d Peddapore I t flowers abou t th e en d of th e cold o r beginnin g o f th e ho t season Seed s ripe n i n thre e o r fou r month s after Th e woo d o f thi s tre e i s o f a dul l re d colour remarkabl y har d an d heavy ; iti s reckone d b y th e nativesb y fa r th e mos t durabl e woo d the y know o n tha t accoun t i t i s use d fo r al l th e woo d wor k i n thei r temples i t i s als o very,serviceabl e fo r variou s othe r purposes Th e bar k i s internall y o f a ligh t re d colour ; a decoctio n dye s brow n o f variou s shades accordin g a s th e clot h ha s bee n prepared &c It s tast e i s a bitte r an d adstringen t conjoined an d ver y strong particularl y th e bitter a t th e sam e tim e no t an y wa y nauseou s o r otherwis e disagreeable fo r th e bitter, althoug h strong i s rathe r mor e palatabl e tha n mos t other s I hav e tasted I n th e plat e th e dissecte d flower i s magnified ; th e frui t o f it s natifra l size 18 GTERTNER A RACEMOSA Gaertnera Schrebt.gen.1 35 Molin a racemosa Cavanill. monad, p. 435 t. 263. Hiptag e Madablota Gartn.sem. 2 p. 1 6 9 t. 116 Madablota Banisteri a tetraptera Sonnerat voyage aux Indes, 2 p. 238 tab. 135 Banisteri a unicapsularis Lamarck encycl. I. p. 3 6 7 Banisteri a benghalensis Linn. spec, plant. 611 Vedal-chitto o o f th e Telingas Trunk an d Branches climbing Bark covere d wit h ligh t coloure d scabrou s dots Leaves opposite short-petioled oblong waved pointed entire smooth shining ; smal l gland s roun d th e unde r edg e o f th e margin an d tw o large r a t it s terminatio n i n th e petiole abou t fou r t o si x inche s lon g an d tw o broad Raceme terminal thoug h sometime s fro m th e exterio r axills co rymbe-lik e whil e flowering. Pedicels jointe d a t th e middle an d three-bracted smal l acut e on e unde r th e insertio n o f eac h pedicel an d anothe r smalle r a t th e join t Flowers large nearl y white ver y beautifull y fringe d an d waved o r t o th e bas e five-parted: Leaflets oblong permanen t ; ther e i s onl y on e glan d o n th e whol e calyx i t i s larg e oblong smooth elevated chesnut-coloured place d partl y o n th e tw o uppe r leaflets an d partl y o n th e pedicel permanent n • Petals five, unequal irregular claw s short the y ar e totall y reflecte d bac k toward s th e raceme : th e lowe r tw o ar e oval ; th e nex t tw o latera l abov e orbicula r ; th e superio r peta l broader lie s bac k ove r th e rest i s beautifull y tinge d wit h yello w i n th e middle ; al l ar e mos t beautifull y fringe d roun d th e margin Filaments ten o f whic h th e lowe r on e i s twic e th e lengt h an d thick nes s o f th e rest ; al l ar e ascending Anthers egged equal ^ Germs three unite d a s i t wer e int o on e three-lobe d body Style single ascending abou t a s lon g a s th e larg e stamen Stigma simple incurved Capsules fro m on e t o three globular siz e o f a larg e pea one-celled one-valved no t opening eac h i s enlarge d wit h thre e unequa l spreading membranaceous wedge-shaped obtus e wings be side s a smal l erec t on e i n th e centre Seed single globular affixe d t o th e botto m o f th e capsule I t i s a larg e climbin g wood y shrub a nativ e o f th e Circa r moun tains Flowerin g tim e th e we t an d col d season I t i s cultivate d i n ou r garden s al l ove r th e coast o n accoun t o f th e beaut y an d fra granc e o f it s flowers. 19 BASSI A LATIFOLIA Mahwa h Tree Transact, of the Society of Bengal, vol. 1 p. 300 Ipi e o f th e Telingas Illipa y o f th e Tamuls Oi l Tre e o f th e English Trunk straight bu t short covere d wit h smoot h ash-coloure d Bark. Branches ver y numerous ; th e lowe r spreadin g horizontally Leaves alternate petiohM crowde d abou t th e extremitie s o f th e branches oblong rigid smoot h above belo w somewha t whit ish fro m fou r t o eigh t inche s long an d fro m tw o t o fou r broad Petiole round abou t a n inc h long none m Flowers numerous crowde d fro m th e extremitie s o f th e generall y nake d branchlets peduncled a t al l time s bowin g (bent wit h th e mout h o f th e flower directl y t o th e ground) # Peduncles abou t a n inc h long round thickened covere d wit h rust coloure d down Calyx a s i n th e genus Corol: tub e a s i n th e genus ; borde r fro m seve n t o fourteen-parted Stamen Pistil, an d Drupe a s i n th e genus iZ Z end t 0 f U r generall y n e r tw o oblo n § P ointe d a t th & coa t f a middVm g Siz e a nat i v e o f th e mountainou s part s o f th e ' CaSt S lt S leave s durin g th e col d season the y appea r agai n

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2 1 BASSI A LATIFOLIA BUTE A FRONDOSA 2 2 wit h th e flower s i n Marc h an d April See d rip e i n Jul y an d August Thi s i s a ver y usefu l tree ; th e woo d i s hard ver y strong an d prope r fo r nave s o f wheel-carriages 8cc Th e flowers ar e ea t ra w b y th e native s o f th e mountainou s part s o f th e Circars ; th e jackal s als o ea t them The y hav e a swee t spiri tuou s taste an d a spirit whic h i s stron g an d intoxicating i s distille d fro m the m b y th e hil l people Th e seed s yiel d a larg e quantit y o f oi l b y expression bu t i t i s thick an d o f a qualit y inferio r t o casto r oil an d use d onl y b y th e poore r peopl e t o burn O n th e apice s o f th e flowers, befor e the y open ther e i s frequentl y a dro p o f a whitish soft tasteles s resi n t o b e found 20 DILLENI A PEN T A G Y N A f Rawada m o f th e Telingas Trunk erect ver y large Branches numerous ascending Leaves alternate petioled abou t th e extremitie s o f th e branchlets oblong pointed sharp-sawed havin g larg e elevate d paralle l veins smooth shining excep t whe n ver y young the n downy fro m twelv e t o twent y inche s long an d fro m fou r t o si x broad Petiole abou t tw o inche s long dee p channelled embracin g th e branchlets leavin g a permanen t mar k whe n i t fall s off Peduncles collecte d i n bundle s fro m tuberositie s ove r th e nake d wood y tw o o r thre e year s ol d branchlets erect round smooth tw o inche s long undivided one-flowered Bracts n o othe r tha n th e rust-coloure d down y scale s tha t surroun d th e insertio n o f th e peduncles Flowers middle-sized yellow Calyx a s i n th e genus Petals oblong o r lanced Filaments many o f whic h th e interio r te n ar e twic e th e lengt h o f th e rest Anthers sword-shaped : thos e o f th e shor t o r exterio r filament s ar e erect ; o f th e lon g filaments twic e th e siz e o f th e others an d sprea d ou t ove r the m i n £or m o f a star Germs five. Styles five, short Stigmas lanced spreading Pericarp pendulous siz e o f a smal l natmeg ; th e firm, flesh y leaflet s o f th e caly x (her e no t increase d i n size ) surroun d an d entirel y inclos e five smal l sof t capsules whic h contai n a sof t transpa ren t gluten Seeds reniform fe w com e t o maturity generall y one rarel y two i n eac h capsule This tre e i s a nativ e o f th e valley s fa r u p amon g th e mountains ; i t flower s i n Marc h an d April I n th e plat e th e dissecte d flowe r an d ger m ar e magnified ; th e frui t o f it s natura l size whe n rip e ; th e see d magnified 21 BUTE A FRONDOSA Erythrin a monosperma Lamarck encycL 2 p. 391 Plaso Rheed. mal. 6 p. 29 tab. 16 17 Madug a o f th e Telingas Trunk irregular generall y a littl e crooked covere d wit h ash-coloured spongy thick slightl y scabrou s Bark th e middl e strat a o f whic h contai n a re d juice hereafte r t o b e mentioned Branches ver y irregularl y ben t i n variou s directions ; youn g shoot s downy Leaves alternate spreading three'd fro m $igh t t o sixtee n inche s long Leajtets emarginated o r rounde d a t th e apex leathery abov e shinin g an d prett y smooth belo w slightl y hoary en tir e ; th e latera l ar e obliquel y oval fro m five t o seve n inche s long an d fro m thre e t o fou r an d a hal f broad ; th e termina l inverse-hearted o r i n othe r words transversel y oval an d con siderabl y large r tha n th e lateral Common Petiole round whe n youn g dowffy lengt h o f th e leaflets Stipules o f th e petiol e small recurved downy ; o f th e leaflet s awled Racemes terminal axillary an d from tuberositie s ove r th e nake d wood y branchlets rigid covere d wit h a soft greenish-purple coloure d down % Flowers papilionaceous pendulous numerous pediceled large thei r groun d colou r a beautifu l dee p red shade d wit h orang e an d silver-coloure d down whic h give s the m a mos t elegan t appearance Pedicels round abou t a n inc h long articulate d nea r th e apex an d covere d wit h th e sam e greenis h velvet-lik e down Bracts on e belo w th e insertio n o f eac h pedicel lanced falling ; tw o simila r bu t smaller pressin g o n th e calyx fallin g also Calyx belled leathery two-lippe d : uppe r li p large scarc e emargi nated ; unde r li p three-toothed covere d wit h th e sam e dar k gree n dow n tha t th e racem e an d pedicel s ar e covere d with withering CoroL Banner reflected egged pointed ver y littl e longe r tha n th e wings Wings ascending lanced lengt h o f th e keel Keel be low two-parted ascending large nfooned lengt h o f th e wing s an d banner Filaments on e an d nine ascendin g i n a regula r semicircle abou t a s lon g a s th e corol Anthers equal linear ergct Germ short thick pediceled lanced downy Style ascending a littl e large r tha n th e filaments. ^ Stigma small glandulous ^ Legume pediceled large pendulous al l bu t th e apex wher e th e see d i s lodge d leafy downy abou t si x inche s long b y tw o broad neve r open s o f itself Seed one lodge d a t th e poin t o f th e legume oval muc h compressed smooth brown fro m on e an d a quarte r t o on e an d a hal f inc h long an d abou t on e broad Thi s i s a middl e sized o r rathe r a larg e tree no t commo n o n th e lo w land s o f thi s coast bu t ver y commo n amon g th e mountains ; cast s it s leave s durin g th e col d season ; the y com e ou t agai n wit h th e flower s abou t tji e month s a f Marc h an d April ; see d rip e i n Jun e an d July Fro m natura l fissures, an d wound s mad e i n th e bar k o f thi s tree durin g th e ho t season ther e issue s a mos t beautifu l re d juice whic h soo n harden s int o a ruby-coloured brittle astringen t gum ; bu t i t soo n lose s it s beautifu l colou r i f expose d t o th e air T o preserv e th e colour th e gu m mus t b e gathere d a s soo n a s i t become s hard an d closel y corke d u p i n a bottle Thi s gu m hel d i n th e flame o f a candl e swells an d burn s awa y slowly withou t smel l o r th e leas t flame, int o a coal an d the n int o fine ligh t whit e ashes ; hel d i n th e mout h i t soo n dissolves i t taste s strongl y bu t simpl y astringent ; hea t doe s no t softe n it bu t rathe r

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BUT E A SUPER B A 2 4 2 3 BUT E A FRONDOSA render s i t mor e brittle Pur e wate r dissolve s i t perfectly an d th e so lutio n i s o f a deep clear re d colour I t i s i n a grea t measur e solubl e i n spirits bu t tfi e solutio n i s pale r an d A littl e turbid ; th e water y solutio n als o become s turbi d whe n spiri t i s added an d th e spirituou s mor e clea r b y th e additio n o f wate r ; dilute d vitrioli c aci d render s bot h solution s turbid ; mil d causti c vegetabl e alkal i change s th e colou r o f th e water y solutio n t o a clear deep fiery, bloo d red th e spirituou s i t als o deepenc bu t i n a les s degre e ; sa l marti s change s th e water y solutio n int o a goo d durabl e ink Thes e are I think proof s tha t i t contain s a ver y smal l proportio n o f resin ; i n whic h i t differ s fro m th e gu m resi n calle d Kino o r gumm i rubru m astringen s Gambiense whic h th e Edinburg h col leg e ha s take n int o thei r Materi a Medic a ( I hav e use d th e recen t gu m i n makin g m y experiments whic h ma y mak e som e difference) bu t a s thi s ca n b e mos t perfectl y dissolve d i n a water y menstruum i t ma y prov e o f us e wher e a c spirituous 1 solutio n o f Kin o (bein g th e mos t complete ) canno t b e properl y administered consequentl y i t ma y provef e valuabl e acquisition Infusion s o f th e flowers, eithe r fres h o r dried dy e cotto n cloth previousl y impregnate d wit h a solutio n o f alum o r alu m an d tartar a mos t beautifu l brigh t ^yellow mor e o r les s dee p accordin g t o th e strengt h o f th e infusion : a littl e alkal i adde d t o th e infusio n change s i t t o a dee p redis h orange whic h dye s unprepare d cotto n clot h o f th e sam e colour bu t th e leas t aci d change s i t t o a yellow o r lemon Thes e beautifu l colour s I hav e no t bee n abl e t o rende r perfectl y per manent Amon g numberles s experiments I expresse d a quantit y o f th e juic e o f th e fres h flowers, whic h bein g dilute d wit h alu m water an d rendere d perfectl y clea r b y depuration wa s the n evaporate d b y th e hea t o f th e sun int o a sof t extract ; thi s prove d a brighte r wate r colou r tha n an y gambog e I hav e me t with ; i t i s on e yea r sinc e I first use d it an d i t remain s bright Infusion s o f th e drie d flowers yielde d a n extrac t ver y litfle i f an y thing inferio r t o thi s las t men tioned ; the y yiel d als o a ver y fine, durable yello w lake an d al l thes e i n a ver y larg e proportion Th e La c insect s ar e frequentl y foun d o n th e smal l branche s an d th e petiole s o f th e leave s o f thi s tree Whethe r tli e natura l juice s o f it s bar k contribut e t o improv e th e colou r o f thei r re d nidu s (colourin g matter ) I canno t sa y ; t o determin e it woul d requir e a se t o f experi ment s accuratel y mad e o n specimen s o f la c gathere d fro m th e variou s tree s i t i s foun d upon a t th e sam e time an d a s nearl y a s possibl e fro m th e sam e place I d o no t find tha t th e native s mak e an y us e o f th e gu m o r flowers, c althoug h the y promis e t o b e valuable ; th e forme r a s a medicine an d th e latte r a s a pigmen t an d dyin g drug 22 BUTE A SUPERBA Tig a Madug a o f th e Telingas c c Root spindle-form ver y large Stem twining a s thic k o r thicke r tha n a man' s leg woody ver y long runnin g ove r larg e trees Bark ash-coloured prett y smooth Branches lik e th e ste m bu t small an d wit h a smoothe r bark Leaves alternate three'd remote ver y large Leaflets downy i n Wit h a n alkalize d decoctio n o f thi s gum I trie d t o dy e cotto n clot h prepare d wit h alum wit h suga r o f lead an d wit h a solutio n o f ti n i n aqu a regia bu t th e red s produce d thereb y wer e bad ^ tha t wher e alu m wa s employe d wa s th e best othe r respect s a s i n Bute a frondosa bu t greatl y large r th e ter mina l on e i s generall y abou t twent y mche s long an d broa d r n proportion ; th e latera l somewha t less Racemes a s i n th e former bu t muc h larger Fleers als o th e same onl y muc h large r an d mor e numerous Cafyx divide d a s th e other bu t th e divisron s longe r an d muc h mor e pointed Corol th e same i Legume an d Seed a s i n th e former bu t rathe r larger Thi s i s a ver y larg e twinin g shrub a nativ e o f th e mountains Flowerin g tim e th e beginnin g o f th e ho t season Whe n thi s specie s i s i n ful l flower, I d o no t thin k th e vegetabl e worl d offer s a mor e gaud y show Th e flowers ar e incomparabl y beautiful ver y large an d ver y numerous ; th e colour s ar e s o exceed ingl y vivid tha t m y bes t painte r ha s no t bee n abl e wit h hi s utmos t skil l t o imitat e thei r brightness ^ Fro m fissures i n th e bark th e sam e sor t o f ruby-coloure d astrin gen t gu m exsudes th e flowers als o yiel d th e sam e beautifu l yello w dy e an d pigment 23 AILANTHU S EXCELSA Pedda-maunchitt o o f th e Telingas Trunk perfectl y straight risin g lik e tha t o f th e fir-tree t o a ver y grea t height Bark smooth ash-coloured Branches prett y numerous ascending Leaves abou t th e extremitie s o f th e branchlets abruptl y pinnated generall y abou t thre e fee t long Leaflets short-petiolated fro m te n t o fourtee n pair obliquel y oblong o r somewha t sickle form th e nerv e run s s o a s t o mak e th e exterio r portio n twic e a s broa d a s th e interior ver y remotel y an d grossl y serrated o r indented smooth abou t fou r inche s lon g an d tw o broad Petiole round smooth Panicle terminal ver y large Bracts minute Flowers exceedingl y numerous small slightl y tinge d wit h yellow hermaphrodit e an d mal e mixed HERMAPHRODIT E FLOWERS Calyx a s i n th e genus Petals five, man y time s largefftha n fee caly x Sectary or Receptacle i s a perforated glandulous notche d body whic h surrounds an d i n a grea t measur e hides th e germs Fdaments ten shorte r tha n th e petals inserte d int o th e lowe r edg e o f th e nectary Germs above fro m on e t 0 four j ver y ^ ^ ^ ^ ioratio n o f th e nectary Style none. Stigma small fi^fa; fro m on e t o fou r bu t generall y on e o r two no t connecte d ceou s wi n v T Y ^ ™ nde d wit h a larg e membrana Seed one^fl^tetfed ^ t v ™ te ( I a t th e ape x an d base j j ^Mk^^ ^ hermaphrodite bu t n o

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2 5 AILANTHU S EXCEL S A 2 6 mountain s ; flowers durin g th e col d seaso n ; see d rip e i n Apri l an d May Th e woo d o f thi s tre e i s whit e an d light o f cours e i t soo n perishe s ; i s chiefl y use d t o mak e cattamaran s (raft s fo r fishermen t o g o a fishing on) I n th e plat e th e dissecte d flowers ar e magnified ; th e frui t o f it s natura l size 24 STERCULI A URENS Cavalli e o f th e Telingas Trunk erect ver y straight ; to p larg e an d shady Bark ash-coloured ver y smoot h ; it s oute r coa t i s thin transparent covere d wit h a farinaceou s substanc^an d peel s of f lik e th e pellicl e o f th e birch-bar k ; inwardl y i t i s fibrous an d netted Leaves abou t th e extremitie s o f th e branches alternate petioled five-lobed, five-nerved: lobe s acute ver y downy fro m nin e t o twelv e inche s eac h way Petiole nearl y a s lon g a s th e leaf round downy Panicles terminal prett y large ; ever y par t covere d wit h a gluti nous farinaceous yello w down Bracts lanced Flowers small numerous yellow mal e an d hermaphrodit e mixed ; ther e i s bu t a smal l proportio n o f th e latter HERMAPHRODIT E FLOWERS Calyx below belled five-toothed, leathery division s acut e ; o n th e insid e o f eac h divisio n nea r th e bas e ther e i s a n inverse-hearte d hair y gland Corol none Filaments ten short alternatel y longer unite d belo w int o a thi n sheath whic h gird s th e bas e o f th e germs Anthers large two-lobed alternatel y larger Germs five, place d o n a thic k shor t pedicel Style single short thick Stigma five-lobed. Capsules five, leguminous unite j i n for m o f a star one-celled one valved openin g lengthways o n th e outsid e covere d wit h yello w down an d man y stif f burnin g hairs Seeds fro m thre e t o five, oblong chesnut-coloured inserte d alter natel y int o th e margin s o f th e capSules MAL E FLOWERS Calyx, Stamen, an d columna r Receptacle a s i n th e hermaphrodite Pistil: th e rudiment s o f th e germ s only withou t an y appearanc e o f a style Thi s i s a ver y larg e tree chiefl y a nativ e o f th e mountainou s countrie s o n th e coast ; cast s it s leave s abou t th e en d o f th e we t sea son ; flowers durin g th e cold ; th e leave s com e ou t wit h th e frui t abou t th e beginnin g o f th e ho t season Th e woo d o f thi s tre e i s sof t an d spongy ; toward s th e centr e o f larg e tree s i t i s reddish I d o no t kno w o f an y us e i t i s pu t to ex cep t t o mak e Hindo o guitars I observe d tha t th e wate r i n whic h I kep t gree n branche s fo r exa mination becam e thick lik e a clear glutinou s jelly Bar k exceedingl y astringent tinge s th e saliv a reddish Seed s ar e roaste d an d eate n b y th e natives ; the y tast e ver y lik e parche d pease 25 STERCULI A COLORATA Carak a o f th e Telingas Trunk erect growin g t o a ver y grea t size Bark ash-coloured an d a littl e scabrous Branches numerous irregularl y spreading ; Ttark a s o n th e trunk bu t smoother Leaves alternate abou t th e extremitie s o f & e branchlets petioled considerabl y broade r tha n long five-nerved, five-lobed : lobe s acut e ; sof t an d a littl e downy ; the y ar e generally whe n ful l grown fro m nin e t o twelv e inche s broad an d fro m si x t o nin e 4ong Petiole round a littl e downy abou t nin e inche s long Stipules two erect lanced inserte d int o th e petiol e nea r it s base Panicles terminal small numerous re d lik e coral covere d wit h man y re d stellate d hair s : whe n i n flower thi s tre e appear s a s i f entirel y covere d wit h fine ramification s o f re d coral ^ Flowers numerous abou t a n inc h long Calyx below funnel-form leathery it s mout h five-toothed, outrid e covere d wit h re d stellate d hairs withering | Corol none Filaments scarc e any Anthers abou t thirty kidney-form sittin g sessil e roun d th e borde r o f th e extremit y o f th e receptacle Receptacle o f th e pisti l cylindric ben t a little lengt h o f th e calyx round smooth bearin g five ova l germ s o n it s top Styles short recurved Stigmas acute Capsules fro m on e t o five com e t o maturity leguminous pedicelled pendulous leathery one-celled one-valved openin g o n th e outsid e lon g befor e th e seed s ar e ripe Seeds two adherin g on e t o eac h margi n o f
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2 7 SALVADOR A PERSICA ABDISI A SOLANACEA 2 8 Filaments four inserte d belo w th e division s o f th e corol an d rathe r shorte r tha n them Anthers oval t Germ globular • Style none Stigma scabrous Berry ver y minute muc h smalle r tha n a grai n o f blac k pepper smooth red juicy Seed one. Thi s i s a middl e size d tree a nativ e o f mos t part s o f th e Circars thoug h b y n o mean s commo n ; i t seem s t o gro w equall y wel l i n ever y soil ; flowers andjiear s rip e frui t al l th e yea r round Th e berrie s hav e a stron g aromati c smell an d tast e muc h lik e garden-cresses Th e bar k o f th e roo t i s remarkabl y acrid ; bruise d an d applie d t o th e ski n i t soo n raise s blisters fo r whic h purpos e th e native s ofteij/us e it ; a s a stimulan t i t promise s t o b e a medicin e possesse d o f ver y considerabl e powers 27. : ARDISI A SOLANACEA Cond a Mayoo r o f th e Telingas Trunk on e o r mor e fro m th e sam e root erect Bark ash-coloured Leaves alternate short-petioled oval,pointed entire smooth glossy somewha t succulent fro m fou r t o si x inche s long an d fro m tw o t o thre e broad Raceme corymbe-like axillary shorte r tha n th e leaf Peduncle round smooth Pedice l clubbed round smooth Bracts, a concav e on e bek> w eac h pedicel Flowers prett y large rose-coloured Calyx below five-leaved : Leaflets imbricated concave roundish Corol one-petaled : tub e exceedingl y shor t • borde r five-cleft : divi sion s spreading hearted Filaments five exceedingl y short fro m th e botto m o f th e tube Anthers oblong acute Germ oblong Style awled Stigma acute Besrry siz e o f a smal l cherry round juicy black one-seeded A smal l tree o r larg e shrub ; a nativ e o f mois t place s i n th e va| le : Thrpe^tTS^i s o f a ver y beautifu l brigh t re d colour ; upo n pape r i t change s t o a durabl e brown | ' 28 SIDEROXYLO N TOMENTOSUM Trunk erect Bark ash-coloured Branches erect ver y numerous Leaves alternate short-petioled oval a littl e scollope d ; whe n ful l grow n smooth whe n youn g covere d wit h muc h rust-coloure d down fro m thre e t o fiv e inche s long an d on e an d a hal f broad Pedwides axillary numerous short downy bowing undivided one-flowered Flowers small dirt y white Calyx below five-leave d : leaflet s indicated downy permanent Corol one-petaled : tub e short insid e downy margi n five-parted : segment s spreading half-lanced acute waved ; Nectary : five petal s alternat e wit h th e filaments waved lengt h o f th e stamens Stamens five . • Berry oval size o f a n olive Seed generall y on e o r two thoug h ther e ar e th e rudiment s o f five A smal l tree a nativ e o f th e top s o f th e mountain s chiefly ; flowers durin g th e ho t season 29 BUTTNERI A HERBACEA Leaves alternate petioled hearted sawed downy tw o an d a hal f inche s long an d on e an d a hal f broad Stipules reflex small acute Peduncles axillary on e o r more three-flowered Leaflets o f th e caly x large reflex Nectary one-leaved five-toothe d : teet h convergin g ove r th e pistil Filaments five ver y short fro m the^fissure s o f th e nectary reflex Anthers double singl y oval th e res t a s i n th e genus A n erec t herbaceou s plant a nativ e o f th e top s o f th e mountains Descriptio n b y Docto r Koenig oppositi teretes glabri nitidi articulati a d articulo s compressiusculi e t line a trans versal i prominul a a stipuli s caduci s utrinqu e notati flaccidi, penduli longi Folia opposita pendula petiolata lanceolato-oblonga obtus a cu m acumine integerrima margin e calloso utrinqu e glabra nitida nervosa rigida subcarnosa Petioli paten tes filiformes, glabri vi x longitudin e tertiaeparti s folii Flores a d apice s ramoru m axillares racemosi I^acemi paniculati^ trichotomi Bractece oppositae sessiles oblongae membranaceae eaducae Calyx monophyllus campanulatus quadridentatu s : denticulispatentibus rotundatis lacero ciliatis ; glaber membranaceus persistens Corolla monopetala campanulas glabra membranacea quadrifida : lacinia e reflexae ovate acute marginibu s reyoiutis pili s minimi s adpressi s viridibu s adspersae ; calyc e dupl o major viridi-flavicans persistens Filamenta quatuor infr a lacinia s corolla e adnata pateritia brevia Anthem oblongae parvae virides Germen superum globosum glabrum Stylus vi x ullus Stigma hypocrateriforme per foratum Bacca globosa carnosa pellucida rubra fertili s magnitudin e pis i minoris Semen unicum globosum viridi-fuscum magnitudin e piperisalbi Bacc< e sterile s colori s elegantiori s e t magi s pellucida e sunt STAPELI A ADSCENDENS Car-allu m o f th e Telingas Root fibrous Stems several perennial/succulent abou t a foo t o r tw o high a t th e bas e the y res t o n th e ground an d strik e root ; abov e erect four sided : angle s blunt notched Branches erect lik e th e stems Leaves alternate sessile o n th e angle s o f th e branches lanced ver y minute / Fleers axillary abou t th e extrenritie s o f th e branches peduncled yello w ' Sma1 1 Variegate d Wk h dar k purpl e an d Calyx t o th e botto m five-cleft: division s lanced .

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