INSTITUTE OF NATIONAL LANGUAGE
Bulletin No. 3 October, 1939
THE INFIXES la, li, lo AND al IN
FELIZBERTO B. VIRAY
BUREAU OF PRINTING
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INSTITUTE OF NATIONAL LANGUAGE
Bulletin No. 3
THE INFIXES la, li, lo AND al IN
FELIZBERTO B. VIRAY
BUREAU OF PRINTING
INSTITUTE OF NATIONAL LANGUAGE
Jaime C. de Veyra, Director
Cecilio Lopez, Secretary and Executive Officer
Felix S. Salas Rodriguez, Member
Santiago A. Fonacier, Member
Casimiro F. Perfecto, Member
Isidro Abad, Member
Zoilo Hilario, Member
Lope K. Santos, Member
Jose I. Zulueta, Member
THE INFIXES la, li, lo AND al IN
FELIZBERTO B. VIRAY
Words in Philippine languages are formed by the com-
bination of roots and affixes. The affixes which are pre-
fixes, infixes, and suffixes enliven the words of the lang-
uages and complete the ideas to be expressed by their
being added to the roots of words.
The prefixes are numerous in all the Philippine languages
but the infixes and suffixes are few.
The infixes that are so far known are urn, in, and la, li,
lo. The infixes la, li, lo take other forms such as ra, ri, ro,
ga, gi, go and ya, yi, yo following the operation of the RLD 2
and RGH3 laws in Philippine languages.
Spanish grammarians writing on the languages of the
Visayan Islands and Justice Norberto Romualdez in his
Bisayan Grammar, have recognized the occurrence of the
infixes la, li, lo and their equivalent forms; but those who
wrote on the languages of Luzon and Mindanao have made
1 Lecture delivered in the Villamor Hall, October 12, 1939.
2 The RLD law is the correspondence of r, I and d in the name
of a thing, e. g., Pangasinan ngaran name, Magindanaw nalan,
Bagobo nadgan; Ibanag langit sky, Inibaloi dangit, Zambali-Boli-
3 The RGH law is the correspondence of the letters r, g, h and
sometimes y in the different languages, either initial, medial or
terminal, e. g., Tagalog gamot root, Iloko ramut, Pangasinan la-
mot, Ivatan yamut; Tagalog ugat vein, Iloko urat, Pangasinan
ulat, Ivatan uyat; Tagalog ikog tail, Tiruray igor, Pangasinan
no mention of the existence of such infixes in these lan-
guages. So far, we know only of Mr. Louis B. Wolfenson
of Johns Hopkins University, and Mr. Julian C. Balma-
seda, now special assistant in the Institute of National
Language, Manila, who have made studies on these affixes
la, li, lo in Tagalog. Professor Frank R. Blake in a foot-
note in his A Grammar of the Tagalog Language . re-
ferred to Mr. Wolfensons paper The Infixes la, li, lo in
Tagalog. Of the other languages in Luzon and Mindanao
we have not come across any study on these affixes.
One of the works of the Institute of National Language
is to make a comparative critical study of all Philippine
prefixes, infixes and suffixes.
This present paper is a comparative study of the infixes
la, li, lo and their equivalents and al in the Philippine
languages which are being studied and represented in the
Institute of National Language, namely: Tagalog, Sebu,
Hiligaynon, Samar-Leyte, Bikol, Pangasinan, Pampangan
In our study, we grouped together (1) those languages
which have clear infixes la, li, lo or their equivalents per-
forming specific functions and the derivatives formed
having meanings semantic with those of the roots, and (2)
those languages which have the infix al which has been
treated as the equivalent of the infixes la, li, lo by the au-
thors we have named in the introduction.
I. LANGUAGES WHICH HAVE CLEAR. INFIXES la, li, lo-
We use the forms la, li, lo because in roots beginning
with a vowel, if al, il, ol are used, the al, il, ol become
prefixes instead of infixes, e. g., Sebu alagian passage
used, it begins with a consonant instead of a vowel, e. g.,
Hiligaynon matalotamis pretty sweet (
with infix lo; Samar-Leyte sarosakayan small ship (
kayan ship), iroisda object like fish (
karokawatan small toy (
small goat (
reason is that syllabications in Philippine languages are
formed beginning with consonants, e. g., ba, ka, da, etc.
The foregoing observations lead us to believe that the
correct forms of these infixes are la, li, lo and generally
they are infixed between the first syllable and the root,
e. g., Samar-Leyte sarosakayan small ship (
ship), Bikol karowatan small toy (
This method of infixing the particles la, li, lo is different
from that of infixing um and in which is done by inserting
these latter infixes between the letters of the first syllable
of the root, e. g., Tagalog s-um-ulat to write (
write), s-in-ulat wrote, written (
Each one of these infixes la, li, lo used alone with a root
or with a prefix or suffix or both, forms derivative sub-
stantives, adjectives and verbs.
In partially reduplicated roots with these particles in-
fixed between the first syllable and the root, an inten-
sifying meaning, either augmentative or diminutive, of the
derivatives is clearly evident.
Sebu: solosingbahan chapel, like a church (
church), bolobabaye like a woman (
kolokabayo like a horse (
tive meaning of the derivatives is understood by the fact
that an object similar to the one indicated by the root
is smaller than that indicated by the root.
In the examples given, the vowel of the first syllable
of the derivative is the same as that of the infix. This
is a variation of the general rule that the vowel of the
infix is the same as that of the first syllable of the root.
When the vowel of the infix is o and the first syllable of
the derivative has the same vowel o, a diminutive meaning
of a derivative substantive is indicated in Sebu, Hiligaynon
Hiligaynon: polopanday a carpenter of little experience
ship), molomaestro little teacher (
Some writers and speakers in Hiligaynon write and pro-
nounce the foregoing examples palopanday, salosakayan,
malomaestro. When the first syllable of the derivative
takes the same vowel as that of the fixed form of the
infix, the derivative denotes either a diminutive or similar
meaning with that expressed by the root, e. g., gologan-
tang small ganta or an object like a ganta (
a unit of measure of capacity of three liters), solosilhig
small broom or an object like a broom, silhig broom).
Samar-Leyte: sarosakayan small ship (
ship), darodampog object like cloud (
karokabayo small horse (
that ro is the generally used infix in this language.
Bikol: gar amigo small friends (
pinto small door (
or somewhat a servant (
amples have infixes ra, ri, ro respectively, each infix having
the same vowel as that of the first syllable of the root.
But ro is generally used in this language, e. g., karokawatan
tiny toy (
the first syllable of the derivative has an o vowel with an
infix ro, the derivative has a diminutive or similar mean-
ing with that indicated by the root, e. g., sorosakayan
tiny boat (
The intensifying meaning of derivatives having the in-
fixes la, li, lo may be either augmentative or diminutive.
Sebu: With augmentative meaning, e. g., talahoron re-
revere), bilihon precious (
tive meaning, e. g., molomatamis a little sweet (
sweet), polopait a little bitter (
a little tasteless (
Hiligaynon: With augmentative meaning, e. g., masa-
lakiton very sickly (
love), with infixes la, li, lo, each infix having the same
vowel as that of the first syllable of the root. With diminu-
tive meaning, e. g., aloaslum a little sour (
palopait a little bitter (
little sweet (
Samar-Leyte: With augmentative meaning, e. g., dara-
yegon venerable (
lovable (higugma love), boroyboyon fond of accusing
meaning, e. g., maoroopay pretty good; better (ma +
high) with infix ro.
Bikol: With augmentative meaning, e. g., saradangon
very small (
tight), durodustaon very dirty (
fixes ra, ri, ro. With diminutive meaning, e. g., maroma-
raot a little bad (ma-\-
bit fast (
The foregoing examples which we have given for deriv-
ative adjectives in Sebu, Hiligaynon, Samar-Leyte and
Bikol show that where an augmentative meaning is ex-
pressed the infix has the same vowel as that of the first
syllable of the root; but where a diminutive is expressed the
infix takes the vowel o.
The derivatives with infixes la, li, lo express either di-
minutive or frequentative action.
Sebu: nagatolotindog standing a little (tindog stand).
nagatoloon studying a little (
coming or going once in a while (
The diminutive meaning of the derivatives with infix Zo
is apparent; but with the same word formation, a fre-
quentative meaning may also be expressed depending on
Hiligaynon: nagatoloon studying a little (
study), nagailinum drinking a little (
nagakalaon eating a little (
fixes la, li, lo has the same vowel as that of the first syllable
of the root. The examples given above may also express
frequentative or progressive action depending on the con-
text. With prefix nagaka- and infix Zo the derivatives
denote inchoate action, e. g., naxjakaaloaslum beginning to
be sour (
Samar-Leyte: nagasusurosurat writing a little (
write), nagsosorosilhig sweeping a little (
Without a prefix, the derivatives with infix ro have clear
frequentative meaning, e. g., barobagid scrape frequently
small denominations frequently (
Bikol: nagsaramba adore God devotedly (< samba
adore God), pinagmamaramasdan observe very closely
express feigned action, e. g., nagmamaromaluya pretend
to be weak (ma +
pretend to be good (ma +
romaisog pretend to be brave (ma -(-
With prefix ka, infixes la, li, lo and suffix an or on, the
derivatives formed in Sebu and Samar-Leyte denote ab-
stract substantives, e. g., Sebu kalawadon or kawalalaon
want, nothingness (
ban sadness (
nouns with prefix ka and suffix an although sometimes the
root is partially reduplicated, e. g., kabubuton will, pru-
With infixes la, li, lo and suffix on, the derivatives
formed in Sebu, Hiligaynon and Samar-Leyte denote ob-
jects of actions, e. g., Sebu kalanon food to be eaten (
eat), ilimnon water or liquor to be taken (
buluhaton work to be done (
kalanonon food (
or liquor (
Derivatives with infixes la, li, lo with suffix an denote
places of action in Sebu, Hiligaynon and Samar-Leyte,
e. g., Sebu alagian passage (agi pass), dalangpan re-
ilimnan place of drinking (tuba) (
place of study (
place of eating (
The agents of actions or occupations indicated by the
roots may be expressed by derivatives with infixes la,
li, lo and prefix um in Hiligaynon and prefix mag in Samar-
Leyte, e. g., Hiligaynon umalagi passenger (
umiligo guesser (
sonant, the prefix um becomes infixed, e. g., kumulumpay
grass dealer (
transient guest (
yaw dancer (
In Hiligaynon derivatives are formed with prefix i and
infixes la, li, lo which method of word formation is not
found in the other languages. The derivatives formed
denote the following:
a. Nouns indicating the senses, e. g., itiluluk or itutuluk
idulungug ear (
hot smell), ibalatiag feeling (
b. Power, capacity or faculty of the mind, e. g., ihilibalo
c. Instrument, e. g., ihiliwa knife (
dus whip (
The infixes ra, ri, ro in Bikol and Ibanag inserted in a
number of roots, with or without prefixes form derivatives
which have plural meanings, e. g., Bikol karatood friends
panion), turukawan seats (
raman fathers (
mother). With prefix mag derivatives are formed denot-
ing substantives of relation with more than two subjects,
e. g,. Bikol magbarayaw more than two persons who are
more than two persons who are cousins (
sin), magturugang more than two persons who are
than two persons who are brothers or sisters (
brother or sister), mappiritta more than two persons who
are cousins (
pang sole of foot), dapir aping dirts, stains
stain), dalaralaya* lemons (
The infixes ra, ri, ro in Bikol and Ibanag do not only
pluralize substantives but also verbs and adjectives in a
sentence, e. g.
(1) Kita nagbarangna (
We devide (things) among ourselves.
(2) Su mga nagiriwal (
Those who were fighting were arrested.
(3) Kun saradang (
If the fishes are small, give the people by piece.
(1) Ik kitu na ay dakal.
His dog is big.
(2) Darakal ngamin ik kitu.
(Big all the dogs.)
The dogs are big.
(3) Da Maria, Jose anni Juan e nattarali (
ira tai lapis.
(They) Maria, Jose and Juan exchange pencils.
(4) Massirigut (
ik kalangat tazn.
Let us take a bath after we finish our work.
The foregoing examples show grammatical agreement
between the substantives and adjectives and verbs in sen-
tences, i. e., the adjectives and verbs agree in number
(plural) with the substantives.
Of the languages covered by our study, we found as
having clear infixes la, li, lo the following languages: Sebu,
Hiligaynon, Samar-Leyte, Bikol and Ibanag. This fact is
significant because the languages having these infixes la,
li, lo or their equivalents save Ibanag are spoken in neigh-
boring places (see map).
These infixes la, li, lo, with or without other affixes form
derivatives in Sebu, Hiligaynon, Samar-Leyte and Bikol
which express intensifying meaning of substantives, ad-
jectives and verbs. The same word formation which ex-
presses diminutive action may express frequentative action
depending on the context.
When these infixes la, li, lo are used with prefix ka,
and suffix an or on, they form derivatives denoting ab-
stract substantives in Sebu, and Samar-Leyte; with suffix
on, they form derivatives which denote objects of actions
in Sebu, Hiligaynon and Samar-Leyte; and with suffix an
derivatives are formed which denote places of action in
Sebu, Hiligaynon and Samar-Leyte.
These infixes la, li, lo with prefix um in Hiligaynon and
prefix mag in Samar-Leyte form substantives denoting
agents of actions or occupations.
With prefix i, these infixes la, li, lo form derivatives in
Hiligaynon which denote (1) nouns indicating the senses,
(2) power, capacity or faculty of the mind, and (3) in-
In Bikol and Ibanag, the infixes ra, ri, ro pluralize sub-
stantives, adjectives and verbs. It is interesting to note
that in a sentence the adjectives and verbs agree in num-
ber with the substantives. However, this use of these
infixes is only found in Ibanag and Bikol but not in Sebu,
Hiligaynon and Samar-Leyte.
Generally the vowels of these infixes are the same as
those of the first syllables of the roots. There are two
exceptions: (1) There seems to be a fixed form for these
infixes which is with a vowel o; (2) When the infix has o
vowel, sometimes the first syllable of the derivative takes
the same vowel which derivative generally denotes diminu-
MAP OF THE PHILIPPINES
Note.The portions of the map inclosed by broken lines show thef places Where the
languages with infixes la, li, lo are spoken. Hiligaynon is spoken, in the islands of Panay
and in Negros Occidental; Sebu in the islandsi of Sebu, Bohol and in Negros Oriental;
Samar-Leyte in the islands of Samar, Leyte, and in the southern part of Masbate; Bikol
in the Bikol peninsula and in the northern part of Masbate; and Ibanag in the Province of
II. LANGUAGES WHICH HAVE INFIX al
The other part of this paper is about the infix al in
Tagalog, Sebu, Hiligaynon, Iloko, Samar-Leyte, Bikol, Pan-
gasinan, Pampangan and Ibanag.
None of the grammarians in the Tagalog, Iloko, Panga-
sinan, Pampangan and Ibanag languages save Frank R.
Blake in his Grammar of the Tagalog Language have re-
cognized the existence of the infixes la, li, lo. Recently, Mr.
Wolfenson and Mr. Balma/eda have written papers finding
equivalents for these infixes la, li, lo in Tagalog, the latter
finding al as their equivalent.
Mr. Louis B. Wolfenson in his The Infixes la, li, lo in
Tagalog, published in the Journal of the American Oriental
Society, Vol. XXVII, 1906, pp. 142-146, makes the follow-
ing observations on these infixes:
The diminutive force in these cases may be due to the
reduplication of the root; for in both Tagalog and Bisayan
there are instances of diminutive reproduction, e. g., mabuti-
buti pretty good, and Bisayan tawotawo little man. But
it is perhaps more likely that the diminutive force is due to
the combination of the partial reduplication and the infixed
The infixes la, li, lo are found not only in Bisayan, but
occur also in Tagalog in a considerable number of words,
although they are not recognized as such by the Spanish
grammarians, e. g., salaysay, explain from the root saysay
explain, clear up, with infixed la; bulitiktik be very full,
from butiktik be replete with, with infixed li; and dalotdot
dig a little, which is probably derived from dotdot stir
with the finger, with infixed io.
The force of these particles in Tagalog is for the most
part very indistinct, the meaning of the derivative with pre-
fixed particle being often the same as that of the word or
root from which it is formed, as in the cases of the first two
examples cited above. There are, however, some traces of
diminutive force as in dalotdot dig little, and giliginto the
(little) golden eyes that form on soup, properly the little
golden ones, or the goldfish ones, from ginto gold, which
must be compared with the Bisayan formations like tolo-
tigolong oldish and karokabayo little horse, etc., mentioned
In Tagalog then, just as in Bisayan, a number of words
containing the infixes la, li, lo are found, the words con-
taining these infixes being treated as roots in the various
grammars and dictionaries of Tagalog. In general the par-
ticles seem to have little or no force, although in some in-
stances traces of a diminutive meaning are apparent.
Mr. Julian Balmg^da, in a lecture which he had before
the Balagtasiana on December 28, 192$, discussed the in-
fix al in Tagalog; and in a paper submitted to the same
body on February 24, 1934, he criticized Mr. Wolfensons
The Infixes la, li, lo in Tagalog mentioned above. The two
papers of Mr. Balmaseda show apparently that he believes
that al is the correct form in Tagalog of the infixes la, li, lo.
After listing a number of words which are among the
about a hundred words in Tagalog which we found as
having al, Mr. Balmaseda gives seven uses of al which are
the following: (1) Extends the meaning or force of the
root, e. g., kalahig rake, kahig scratch as in chicken
scratching on the ground; (2) determines or gives a par-
ticular meaning to the root, e. g., kalahati one-half, kahati
a party to a division, 25 centavos or | of 50 centavos; (3)
repeats the meaning and action of the root, e. g., balugbog
to give blows upon ones spinal region, bugbog to beat
with a club; (4) gives a synonimous meaning, e. g., sa-
langit to get in or go out of a small passage, singit groin,
inginal region; (5) increases or augments the size of the
root, e. g., palapag floor of a building, papag bamboo bed
for one person only; (6) decreases the size of the thing
named by the root, e. g., balanga small pot for cooking,
banga jar for drinking water; and (7) gives a contrasting
meaning, e. g., salabat a band about the body passing over
one of the shoulders, sabat to die.
Mr. Louis B. Wolfenson adds the group of words with
prefix halo as containing the particle lo by stating that the
prefix halo contains perhaps the infix Io. Mr. Balmaseda
seconds Mr. Wolfenson by asserting that the infix al is
also present in derivatives with prefixes mala, pala, kala
and sola, the al of the prefixes being the infix al of the
derivatives. The obvious incorrectness of the foregoing
conclusions lies in the fact that an infix is inserted in a
root and not in an affix.
Mr. Wolfenson begins his study of -the infixes la, li, lo,
by studying derivatives containing these particles in Sebu
and Samar-Leyte. Then he proceeds to find their equiv-
alents in Tagalog. With Bisayan examples in his mind
he constructs most of his Tagalog equivalents in the Bisayan
method of word formation with these infixes, the result
being that most of his examples are not Tagalog.
Like Mr. Wolfenson, Mr. Balmaseda seeks to find the
equivalents of the infixes la, li, lo in Tagalog. He col-
lected practically all the words containing al in Tagalog
and contends that the correct form of the particles la, li,
lo in Tagalog is al. A large number of the words which
he considers as derivatives, with infix al, have no semantic
relation with his supposed roots.
The infix al is a particle which has come in a number
of words in the Philippine languages. Unlike the infixes
la, li, lo whose presence are easily noticed by the change
or variation of meaning they give to the roots, the infix al
seems to be present in words which have distinct meanings
from those of the roots or words of the same spelling
minus the letters al that only by a study of the semantic
relation of the derivatives and the roots can its presence
The infix al has other forms such as ar, ag, and ay in the
different Philippine languages following also the operation
of the RGH and RLD laws. Sometimes more than one
form exist in a language such as in Iloko in which the ar,
ag, and ay forms all exist.
For the purposes of our study we have included only
words which show the effect of the addition of the infix
al to the root leaving the ar, ag, ay because they are but
other forms of the infix al.
The infix al inserted between the initial consonant and
the other part of the root, a derivative with indistinct in-
tensifying meaning, is formed, e. g., Tagalog balanga
small pot for cooking (
palapag floor of house (
Iloko saleksek to fill by overcrowding (
insert), talaytay walk on a rope or bamboo (
bridge); Pangasinan kalawit hook with handle (
a curbed instrument in the form of a hook), galapgap
remove the entire coating of anything (
slice of a thing); Pampangan kalangkang something noisy
tied to a dogs neck (
We have also a number of words with infix al whose
meanings are the extension of those indicated by the roots,
e. g., Tagalog salabat band around the body strung over
one of the shoulders (
placed vertically on the roof where nipa roofing is tied
out of mothers womb (
balitbit carry heavy things ( < bitbit carry with the hand);
Hiligaynon talangban deep cave (
talankan pot for cooking (
et. in a pot); Iloko kalapkap inference, conjecture (
kap grope in the dark by feeling or touching), kal-laisa
union of a man and woman (
dalogoan dogs teeth stained by blood-like spots (
blood), balakbak bark of banana, abaca and the like
fictitious, superficial (
which is removed and given to cats), palaway clear open
knock), Ibanag dalurug place a thing or person on the
side of another (
side by side), palappang fell branches of trees (
pang cut nails off finger or toes, or hair).
But in the majority of cases derivatives with infix al
have similar or practically the same meaning as those
of the roots, e. g., Tagalog kalahati one-half (
party to a division who usually receives one-half), ba-
lugbog to give blows to a person especially on his back,
cluster of fruits, flowers (
mix a liquid with another (
gaynon balisbis lemon (
a weapon in the girdle (
girdle; insert); Samar-Leyte dalandan float with the cur-
person or thing (
joint two pieces of cloth together (
pangan talampakan sole of foot (
salitsit hissing sound (< sit sit whisper); Ibanag taletay
In general, therefore, the infix al performs these func-
tions: it gives to the derivative (1) indistinct intensifying
meaning, (2) extension of the meaning of the root, (3)
similar or practically the same meaning as that of the root.
But al can only be used with the words in which it is
present which are but few in all the languages studied.
This peculiar circumstance has lead some people to believe
that al is not an infix but a part of the root, and that the
words containing it are distinct roots from those without
In the languages having the infixes la, li, lo, confusion
arises whether al or la is used in a derivative. It is clear
that al is used when the vowel of the first syllable of a root
is i or u, e. g., Sebu palungpong cluster of fruits, flowers
lemon). But where the vowel of the first syllable is a,
the difficulty of determining whether al or la is used arises.
We advance that the function performed by the infix as
we have already indicated provides a good test.
The foregoing facts show that infix al is present in all
the languages studied, namely: Tagalog, Sebu, Hiligaynon,
Iloko, Samar-Leyte, Bikol, Pangasinan, Pampangan, Bikol
and Ibanag. On the other hand, the infixes la, li, lo and
their equivalents are present only in Sebu, Hiligaynon,
Samar-Leyte, Bikol and Ibanag.
We tender the expression of our gratitude for informa-
tion given us on sundry specific points of this study to the
members of the technical staff of the Institute of National
1. Agudo, Hortensia, Preliminary Study of the Affixes in Ibanag.
Institute of National Language. Manila. Typewritten.
2. Balmaseda, Julian C., Ang tipik na al sa wikang Tagalog.
Consisting of a lecture delivered before and a paper sub-
mitted to the Balagtasiana. Manila. Typewritten.
3. Bergano, Diego, Arte de la lengua pampanga. Tercera edicion.
Conforme a la hecha en el convento de Nuestra Sra. de el
Loreto de el pueblo de Sampaloc, ano 1736. Manila. Tip.
del Colegio de Santo Tomas. 1916.
4. Bergano, Diego, Vocabulario de la lengua pampanga en ro-
mance. Compuesto por el M. R. P. lector Fr. Diego Bergano.
2a ed. Reimpreso: Manila. Impr. de Ramirez y Giraudier.
5. Bermejo, Julian, Arte compendiado de la lengua cebuana, sa-
cado del que escribio, el r. p. fr. Francisco Encina. Tambo-
bong Pequena. Tipo.-lit. del asilo de huerfanos. 1894.
6. Blake, Frank R., A Grammar of the Tagalog Language, the
chief native idiom of the Philippine Islands, by Frank R.
Blake. . New Haven, Conn. American Oriental Society.
7. Bugarin, Jose, Diccionario ibanag-espahol, compuesto en lo
antiguo por el R. P. Fr. Jose Bugarin, reducido a mejor forma
por el R. P. Fr. Julian Velinchon, reducido en metodo mas
claro, en suplemento y dado a luz por el R. P. Fr. Ramon
Rodriguez. Manila. Imp. Amigos del Pais. 1854.
8. Calderon, Sofronio G., Diccionario ingles-espanol-tagalog.
Manila. J. Martinez. 1915.
9. Carro, Andres, Vocabulario iloco-espahol, trabajado por varios
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11. Desmond, Henry, Elements oj Tagalog Grammar. Manila.
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12. Diccionario espanol-ibanag: o sea, tesauro hispano-cagayan, sa-
cado de los manuscritos antiguos, y nuevamente corr. y
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Reprint from the Journal of the American Oriental Society,
1906, v. 27, p. 142-146.
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