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Annual report of the Executive Secretary to the Civil Governor [for the] year ended ...

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Title:
Annual report of the Executive Secretary to the Civil Governor [for the] year ended ...
Alternate Title:
Second annual report of the Executive Secretary to the Civil Governor, year ended September 30, 1903
Alternate Title:
Third annual report of the Executive Secretary to the Civil Governor for the year ended September 30, 1904.
Creator:
Philippines. Executive Bureau
Fergusson, A. W. (Arthur W.), 1859-
Place of Publication:
Manila
Publisher:
Bureau of Public Printing
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : 24 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Executive departments ( lcsh )
Philippines ( lcsh )
Philippines -- Politics and government ( lcsh )
Philippines -- History ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Temporal Coverage:
19030101 - 19041231
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Philippines
Asia -- Filipinas
Asya -- Pilipinas
Coordinates:
13 x 122

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General Note:
A. W. Fergusson, served as United States' Executive Secretary to the Civil Governor of the Philippines during the early 1900s
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SOAS records for source documents are catalogued independently, as monographs.
Funding:
Funded with resources from SOAS Archives and Special Collections and with the generous support of the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs and the Office of Senator Loren Legarda.

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SOAS University of London
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SOAS University of London
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
10243351 ( ALEPH )
132691875 ( OCLC )
10243350 ( Aleph )
319493048 ( OCLC )
EM3164 /524340 ( SOAS classmark )

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Full Text
THIRD ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
EX] EOTJTIVE SECRETARY
TO THE
Pi- CIVIL GOVERNOR
FOR THE
YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1904
FOR USE ONLY
MANILA BUREAU OF PUBLIC PRINTING 1904 IN THE LIBRARY
24904




THIRD ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
EXECUTIVE SECRETARY
TO THE
CIVIL GOVERNOR
FOR THE
YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1904
manila
BUREAU OF PUBLIC PRINTING
1904




THIRD ANNUAL REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY TO THE
CIVIL GOVERNOR.
Manila, October 1, 190k.
Sir: I have, the honor to submit the following report of the
work of the Executive Bureau for the year ending September 30,
1904:
The scope of the work of this Bureau as reorganized was set
forth in detail in my last annual report, and, as there has been
no material change therein, it will be unnecessary to dwell upon
that subject in this report further than it will be touched upon
under the subheads hereinafter following.
bureau personnel.
The feature of this subject that stands out with great prominence
is the feverishly unsettled condition of the Philippine civil service
as far as this Bureau is concerned.
The force at present employed in the Bureau consists of 2 officials,
1 chief clerk, 1 recorder, 1 law clerk, 6 chiefs of division, 8 private
secretaries, 95 clerks and messengers, and 14 laborers, a total of
128 (52 Americans and 76 Filipinos), as against 123 for the
previous year.
During the year there have been the following changes:
Amer- Filipi-
icans. nos.
23 47
6 8
5 13
10 4
15
Permanent appointments __.
Temporary appointments __
Resignations________________
Transfers to other Bureaus-
Removals (all messengers)-
This statement shows that there has been an aggregate of 47
separations and 84 new appointments in a total force of 128. The
result of this state of affairs has been to cast upon the chiefs of
division and the older employees the brunt of the work and re-
3


4
sponsibility, naturally heavier than would have been the case had the
entire force been thoroughly trained in the Bureau work. In
addition to the performance of their official duties, the older
employees have been required to instruct and train the constant
stream of new appointees, who would very often, at the beginning,
be only an additional hindrance instead of rendering material
assistance where it was most needed. This difficulty has been more
particularly felt in the action divisions, there being even now a
dearth of thoroughly trained clerks experienced in the work of
the Bureau who are able to take the initiative in matters important
as well as routinary, and to instruct employees in the lower grades,
thereby being of real assistance to the chiefs of division.
Aside from this, the Bureau has not even had the benefit,
during the entire year, of the services of all of the older employees
in the higher grades still on the rolls, the following being at
present on leave of absence in the United States: The chief clerk,
Recorder of the Commission, law clerk (who has just resigned, as
mentioned elsewhere in this report), disbursing officer, two private
secretaries to Commissioners, and two clerks class 7, in addition
to which I have been absent myself for five months, as stated
elsewhere. All of the positions mentioned, with the exception of
that of the disbursing officer, have been filled temporarily by draw-
ing upon officials and clerks in the next lower grades.
Most of the absences in this Bureau, as undoubtedly in other
Bureaus, are due to the fact that the employees who have served
the Insular Government since the first and second years of its
inauguration have earned and are taking a needed rest. The
existence in the United States of the St. Louis Exposition has
proved an added attraction to draw clerks home.
However, in spite of these abnormal conditions, it is gratifying
to be able to state that the general public business of the Bureau has
not been delayed, and a source of satisfaction to note the efforts
most of the members of the force have made to keep up with the
work and the just pride they have felt in their success. Their close
application is eloquently testified to by the fact that during the
year they have performed voluntarily twenty-four thousand five
hundred and eighty-three hours of overtime, or three thousand
seven hundred and eighty-two working days of six and one-half
hours each, an average of three hundred and fifteen days per
month, for which no extra compensation is allowed.


5
It was attempted this year again to permit the clerks of the
Bureau to enjoy the shorter hours provided by law for the "heated
term," but a few days sufficed to demonstrate the fact that under
present conditions the employees of the Executive Bureau may not
hope to come within the provisions of the second proviso of section 1
of Act No. 1040, nor to shorten the office hours at any time of the
year while the chiefs and officials of other Bureaus that have a
continuous session of six and one-half hours continue to pay their
respects to this Bureau after closing their own offices for the day.
While there has been a steady increase in the quantity of work
over the preceding year, the relative increase has not been so great
by far as in former years, owing principally to the fact that the
Insular Government is now firmly organized, and further increases
in the work will depend naturally upon the economical development
of the Islands and their prosperity. The unexpected may happen
at any time, of course, but it is thought that, under normal condi-
tions, with its entire force on duty the Bureau will be able to
respond to all calls upon it.
During my absence from the Islands for five months discharging
the duties imposed upon me by the provisions of Act No. 1080
(amendatory of No. 1030), referred to elsewhere in this report, Mr.
Frank W. Carpenter, Assistant Executive Secretary, had resting
upon him the combined duties of his own office and of the Executive
Secretary, and from December 24, 1903, the date of the vacation of
the office of Secretary of Commerce and Police and the assumption
of the duties of Acting Civil Governor by the present Civil Gov-
ernor, until August 8, 1904, the date of the induction into office
of Secretary of Commerce and Police of the Hon. W. Cameron
Forbes, there also devolved upon Mr. Carpenter, to a very large
extent, the discharge of the duties of this latter office. That he
performed all these duties with ability and efficiency is vouched for
by his excellent record and the high standards he has ever set for
himself.
retrenchment through reorganization and systematization.
The Philippine Commission, during the discussion of the last
appropriation bill, suggested the necessity of retrenchment in the
matter of the fixed charges of the Government. This Bureau at
once set about to devise a plan whereby the wishes of the Commis-
sion in the premises might be realized. Having evolved what it


6
considered the most feasible plan, it was at once put into practice
in a tentative way, and its workings have been snch that it em-
boldens me to submit it to the Civil Governor, as also the advisa-
bility of extending its scope should it meet his approval and that
of the heads of the Executive Departments, so as to include all the
Bureaus of the Insular Government. It is not claimed that the
plan hereinbelow outlined has any of the elements of novelty, but,
as it seems to meet the ends sought and hence commends itself to
me, I submit it for what it is worth.
With the gradual extension of administrative organization there
necessarily has been a continual increase in the fixed charges of the
Government for salaries and wages and contingent office expenses,
and the present time seems opportune for calling a halt, as the
preliminary formative period has ended.
There still remains of the present fiscal year a sufficient period
within which to prepare for reorganization upon a more economical
and no less efficient basis with the beginning of the next year (July
1, 1905), when it is believed there should be a general reorganization
in the clerical and other nontechnical personnel of all Bureaus.
In view of the falling off in the revenues of the Government and
the recognized necessity for retrenchment, the Executive Bureau
is prepared to contribute its share toward the reduction of expenses
and to submit estimates for current expenses for the fiscal year 1906
looking to a considerable decrease in authorized expenditure for
salaries and wages and contingent expenses. It is expected that
this may be accomplished by reorganization of personnel and because
of the fact that the office equipment, while not so complete or elabo-
rate as is desired, is nevertheless adequate for the present and until
conditions shall have changed to a degree warranting further con-
siderable expenditure on this account. This does not mean to say
that the work of the Bureau has decreased during the past year,
nor that there is any decrease expected during the coming year,
but that, by a redistribution of work in recognition of the increas-
ing capacity of Filipino clerks and the discontinuance of several
positions above class 9, a reduction may be effected in the estimated
expenditure for salaries and wages.
The course now being followed in pursuit of this end is a
reassignment of duties and redistribution of work, the theory of
which is that no duty which may be performed by a messenger
shall be assigned to a clerk; that no employee of Class H shall


7
perform duties which may be performed by an employee of Class
K; nor that an employee of class 7 shall be permitted or required
to occupy his time with duties which may be discharged by an
employee of a lower grade; in other words, a progressive distribu-
tion of the work of the Bureau, beginning with employees in the
lowest classes and working upward, assigning each higher class
duties requiring knowledge or responsibility which properly may
not be exacted of any lower class. This leaves a greatly reduced
amount of work for assignment to expployees above class 9, and
therefore certain positions in classes above this latter may be dis-
continued gradually without detriment to the efficient and prompt
discharge of business. Certain of these positions in the Executive
Bureau have become vacant through the ordinary casualties of
service, and the vacancies will not be filled; other positions will be
vacated during the next half year, and, should it become apparent,
when the last quarter of this fiscal year arrives, that by the end
of the year the office force will not reach the contemplated re-
duction, the names of individuals whose positions it is desired
to discontinue will be reported to the Civil Service Board with the
necessary statement of efficiency and qualifications, in order that
they may be transferred to vacancies that must be filled in other
Bureaus.
To carry this plan out requires continuous intelligent and loyal
effort on the part of the chief clerk and the chiefs of divisions
and sections. The value of each of these assistants, like that of a
Bureau chief, is determined by the ratio of work-wbdehF results to
expenditures.
The reduction of fixed charges in office expenses may be effected
only by a clear understanding on the part of all responsible officials
and employees that the Government is not an eleemosynary institu-
tion, but a corporate body bound to give the public the highest
possible degree of service and benefits at the lowest cost in taxes
upon private funds and conveniences, and to this end no expense
not essential to such service and benefits may be tolerated.
It is the duty of every employee having the immediate supervision
and direction of subordinates to instruct and prepare eaj3h of the
latter to fill the position next higher than that he holds, and any
official or employee who fails to pursue conscientiously this course
of imparting and receiving instructions should be required to
seek employment elsewhere than in the Government service.


8
In this way onlyby forming a competent personnel from the
local supplymay the Government hope to escape the heavy ex-
pense occasioned by reliance upon the large proportion of imported
employees at present utilized for nontechnical positions.
As complementary to the foregoing plan, and in the conviction
that economy in time and expense is secured by having a concise
and uniform set of rules for the conduct of business in all the
offices of the Insular Government and its dependencies (which is
not now the case), there is attached hereto, marked "Appendix A,"
a draft of proposed rules prepared by the Assistant Executive
Secretary, which is respectfully submitted for the consideration
of the Civil Governor and heads of the Executive Departments.
the new law as to "vacation leaves."
The provision of law authorizing the granting of vacation leave
(Act No. 1040, sec. 3) and abolishing the sick-leave privileges
heretofore authorized has, in a general way, proven entirely satis-
factory to this Bureau and is considered an improvement upon
former legislation upon the subject of leave.
At the close of September of this year (the above-cited act
having been in force about eight and one-half months) per
cent of the total Bureau personnel had used all vacation leave due
for the year, per cent had used one-half and over, 18 per cent
had used one or two weeks, 32 per cent a few days only, and
16 per cent none. Some of the latter will be able to use all or
a portion of their vacation before the close of the year, about
one-half of them having signified their intention not to use any
unless ill.
The advantage of the new system over the former is that it
encourages travel in the Islands, thereby broadening the views of the
clerks and giving them a keener interest in their work, and affords
them an opportunity to take rest and recreation which formerly
was impossible without utilizing a portion of the accumulated
accrued leave, which, to the American clerks at least, was obnoxious
in that they were anxious to save the latter for a visit to the United
States, the consequence being that they often remained tied down
to their desks until actually too ill to continue. This naturally
impaired their efficiency and often resulted in the permanent loss
of the services of a good clerk.
Under the present system if a clerk happens to desire a few days


9
of rest or recreation, even while enjoying good healthand occa-
sional "breathing spells" tend to put every clerk in a better frame
of mind and improved physical condition, enabling him to with-
stand better the effects of the climate or of overworkhe may do
so without the loss of pay or accrued leave. If he happens to be
indisposed or physically run down it is only necessary for him to
get informal permission from his chief to be absent for a few days,
and, either before leaving the office or after returning to duty, fill
out the required application for vacation leave covering the period,
thus doing away with the medical certificate nuisance which was
one of the concomitants of the "sick-leave" provision of the former
system, the abolishment of which was a move in the right direction.
The present system does away with all investigation into the
question of whether the absence of a clerk is due to illness and
repugnant and inquisitorial examination into the nature and cause
of the same. So long as a clerk has vacation leave to his credit
and informal permission to be absent no further questions are
asked.
The law requires that vacation leave must be taken within the
calendar year for which granted, and it can not accumulate in the
same manner as accrued leave.
If a clerk is absent on account of illness after he has exceeded
his vacation leave such absence is charged against his accrued leave.
As a consequence clerks are naturally reluctant to take their vaca-
tion leave during the first half and middle portion of the calendar
year, fearing they might be taken ill later and before the close of
the year and have the absence occasioned thereby charged to accrued
leave. In view of this natural propensity of the clerks, and recog-
nizing the tendency on the part of the majority of those in this
Bureau to work overtime, and in order to preserve their health
and keep their mental vigor unimpaired and to prevent many
absences within a short period from seriously embarrassing the
work of the Bureau, the clerks were given to understand, after
the passage of the act, that the chances of an application for vaca-
tion leave being approved decreased with the approach of the closing
months of the year. Each chief of division likewise was told that
he must arrange the granting of vacation leaves with respect to the
work and personnel of his division independent of the other divi-
sions. The results have been that some clerks take all their vacation
leave early, others take only a portion, reserving the balance for use


10
during possible illness, and still others decide to reserve all against
possible illness, and that, while a number of clerks have been absent
from the Bureau at the same time at various periods, there were
never so many absent from any one division as to seriously interfere
with the work thereof, though it undoubtedly increased somewhat
the amount of overtime work put in by those remaining on duty.
There is of course the possibility of a clerk falling prey to a
serious malady which would necessitate his absence from the office
for a period longer than the law allows for vacation leave, but there
are, unfortunately, always unavoidable cases of individual hardships
arising under every general provision of law.
Another thing in favor of the vacation leave is that it may be
taken in connection with accrued leave, and thus enables clerks
to plan for more extended trips, either home or to neighboring
countries.
In short, it is believed that the law as administered in this
Bureau, and in its beneficial results with respect to its force, has
done "the greatest good to the greatest number."
municipal and provincial elections.
The general municipal elections for the year 1902 were postponed
until the first Tuesday in May, 1903, by executive order of the
Civil Governor dated November 17, 1902, so as to prevent a
change of municipal officials during the taking of the census; and
again, by Act No. 730 (enacted April 8, 1903), until the first
Tuesday in December, 1903, on account of the consolidation of
municipalities in a large number of provinces. The general elec-
tions were the second held since the establishment of civil govern-
ment in the Islands.
The Bureau for some weeks prior to the date of the same was
flooded with mail and telegraphic inquiries as to the manner of
conducting them, which inquiries covered a wide range of subjects,
showing that the provisions of the Municipal Code regarding elec-
tions and the subsequent laws passed relating to the same had not
been well digested by either the municipal authorities or the great
body of electors. It was not surprising, therefore, that for some
time subsequent to the date of the election protests against the
action of the provincial boards on contested-election cases should
have been submitted to the Civil Governor on appeal. There were
64 of these cases that passed through the hands of the law clerk


11
of the Bureau and were submitted with full memoranda to the
Civil Governor for decision. Of these cases there were 2 in the
municipalities of Albay; of Antique, 1; Batangas, 3; Bulacan, 2;
Cagayan, 5; Capiz, 3; Cavite, 3; Cebu, 1; Ilocos Norte, 3; Ilocos
Sur, 3; La Laguna, 5; La Union, 1; Leyte, 1; Occidental Negros,
3; Oriental Negros, 1; Nueva Vizcaya, 2; Pampanga, 5; Pangasi-
nan, 11; Rizal, 1; Samar, 3; Sorsogon, 2, and Tarlac, 3.
The Provinces of Abra, Ambos Camarines, Bataan, Bohol, Iloilo,
Isabela, Masbate, Mindoro, Misamis, Nueva Ecija, Paragua, Rom-
blon, Surigao, Tayabas, and Zambales distinguished themselves by
having no protested elections.
The papers in these cases make it clear that the law as it now
stands needs amendment in some particulars, more especially if it
is the intention of the Philippine Commission to leave the provincial
boards as final arbiters of election protests, for the experience of
this Bureau shows that substantial justice, as a rule, will not be
done the contestants in an election case by these boards. This
statement is partly based upon the admission of several provincial
boards in cases arising out of the last municipal elections, as
also upon other facts adduced from the papers in such cases, which
conclusively prove that in nine of the sixty-four cases the provincial
boards proceeded unlawfully.
One objection to the present law is that it does not afford the
provincial boards sufficient time to investigate and decide such
cases, and some of the irregularities attributable to them are
doubtless due to the haste with which they must act. The mem-
oranda referred to above, prepared by the law clerk, contained the
following paragraph on this subject:
The law allows the board only seven days from the date of the receipt
of election returns within which to make an investigation. As all protests
must be forwarded to the board within three days after the election, the
protests all reach the provincial capital at about the same time. When the
uncertainty of mail communications and the difficulties of transportation
in the provinces are recalled, it will be apparent at once that the time
allowed is too short. In many cases provincial boards have found them-
selves compelled, in justice to the electors, to revise their findings and annul
deoisions reached in haste.
That the present law at least is not clear to those who are to put
it into execution is borne out by the fact that over 200 opinions
and rulings in regard to elections were rendered by the Attorney-


12
General and this Bureau within the few months preceding and
succeeding the last municipal and provincial elections.
It would therefore seem that if the Philippine Commission is
of opinion that the present law should remain on the books, or
should enact new legislation upon the subject of elections, in either
event it would be well to prepare and publish in a printed form
certain general instructions pertaining to the proper conduct of
both municipal and provincial elections in the effort to introduce
certainty and uniformity in the methods of conducting the same,
and to furnish provincial boards and other persons interested in
the elections information which the experience of this year shows
them to need and to be desirous of obtaining.
The gubernatorial elections were held on the first Monday in
February of this year, and a number of communications upon the
manner of conducting them were received by this office. Despite
the fact that two or more telegrams of instructions in the premises,
which were thought to thoroughly cover the field, had been sent
out to all provinces interested some weeks before the election, the
Bureau was in receipt of inquiries regarding it almost up to the
hour of opening the polls. The nature of these inquiries developed
some peculiar facts:
The law requires that every councilor, to be eligible for such
an office, must know how to write, and yet from at least two
provinces came the question whether councilors who could not
write could vote at the election for provincial governor. Obviously
ineligible men had been elected as councilors.
Another governor wished to know what ought to be done in order
to avoid greater transportation expenses for councilors and vice-
presidents when no candidate for governor received a majority of
the votes, evidently believing that should the first ballot result in no
election the convention should adjourn until convened again by due
proclamation.
The provincial secretary of the same province followed the gov-
ernor's inquiry, when answered, by propounding the question
whether a recess could be taken between the different ballots.
These questions and others no less rudimentary are not surprising
when it is considered that elections and their machinery were
absolutely unknown until the establishment of civil government
here a little over three years ago.
Of the forty provinces in the Islands, in six the governorship


13
is appointive, in two the gubernatorial elections were postponed
by the Civil Governor, which left thirty-two provinces in which they
were held. The result of the elections was as follows: Incumbent
reelected in seventeen provinces, acting governor elected in two
provinces, and new governor elected in thirteen provinces. In
twenty-one of the thirty-two conventions 1 ballot was cast, in eight
2 were cast, and in three 3 were cast.
There were nineteen elections unprotested and thirteen protested.
All of the unprotested elections have been confirmed by the Civil
Governor under Act No. 336. Of the twelve protested cases acted
on the former incumbent was seated in six and a new man in six.
The other case has not been decided owing to the absence in the
United States and Europe of the governor against whose election
the protest was filed.
provincial and municipal organizations.
At the time of my last report the Archipelago was divided into
forty provinces, thirty-four of which were organized under the
Provincial Government Act (Act No. 83) and the remaining six
under special acts. There has been no change in the number of
provinces since then, nor material change in their forms of govern-
ment. The organized municipalities, however, have been reduced
through consolidations from 1,035 at the time of my last report to
706 at the present date, their forms of government remaining the
same. The consolidations were made by the Commission for
reasons of economy, one set of municipal officials now being suffi-
cient where formerly several were required. Small "and sparsely
populated towns lying in close proximity to a central larger one
were, as a rule, fused with the latter, which became the seat of
municipal government, and the smaller towns thus fused were
reduced to the category of barrios, or districts.
reports of provincial governors.
It was suggested in my report for last year, and recommended
to the Commission by the Civil Governor, that the reports of the
provincial governors ought to be brought down to a date much
later than the first of the calendar year, as theretofore, in order
that the Civil Governor and the Commission might have available
more recent data when preparing their annual reports. The Com-
mission accordingly, on January 26, 1904, passed Act No. 1044,


14
providing in effect that between the 1st and 15th day of July of
each year the provincial governors should submit their annual
reports to the Civil Governor "for the fiscal year ending on the
thirtieth of June." Under this law, the reports hereto annexed,
marked "Appendix B," will be found to cover data six months later
than in previous years, yet there was sufficient time between the
date of their receipt and the date of this report for the translation
of those written in the Spanish language.
Reference to these reports shows that the economic conditions
in the provinces, although improved, are not as a rule very flattering,
while the political conditions, with very rare exceptions, have im-
proved greatly.
The provincial governors, almost without exception, speak of the
lack of transportation facilities as one of the great drawbacks to the
commercial advancement of the provinces, and likewise refer to
the establishment of mortgage-and-loan banks as very necessary to
the improvement of the agricultural "conditions. Many of them
speak of the need for modern systems of cultivation and request
that the Government give local practical demonstrations of the use
of modern agricultural machinery.
The surra and rinderpest have again been prevalent in several
of the provinces. In Ilocos Sur 2,493 head of live stock have
succumbed to rinderpest. In one town in Leyte 30 per cent of the
carabaos died of that disease, and in Oriental Negros only 7,000
carabaos are left out of over 100,000 existing before the appearance
of the disease. In Pampanga 590 carabaos were carried off by it,
as were great numbers in Sorsogon, while its ravages in Tayabas
were very severe. From some of the provinces, like Benguet,
Lepanto-Bontoc, Nueva Yizcaya, Mindoro, Capiz, and some others,
the reports, however, are far more encouraging. In the three first
named the live stock has not been affected by any diseases and
the number has increased considerably.
The Province of Capiz has demonstrated that four crops of
corn instead of one can be raised in a year, and there was eight
times as much rice and twice as much hemp shipped out as during
the previous year.
In Mindoro over 500,000 cocoanut trees and as many more hemp
plants have been set out.
The cultivation of sugar cane, it seems, is being put aside because
the planters can find no profitable market for their sugar, and


15
in many provinces large areas have been devoted to the raising of
the maguey plant (Agave americana), which is giving excellent
results and will no doubt within a few years prove a very profitable
pursuit.
A majority of the provincial governors speak of the encouraging
interest taken by the people in education, which is evidenced by
the increasing number of schoolhouses that are being erected at
public expense in many of the provinces, and in at least one (Sor-
sogon) by private subscription. One of the governors reports that
in his province (Batangas) in many of the towns the presidents,
justices of the peace, and other prominent persons attend the
night schools, and in the Province of Cavite the attendance at the
public schools has increased from 16 to 26 per cent during the
past year.
The governors are almost a unit in recommending reforms and
improvements in the present justice-of-the-peace system, and a
great number of them recommend a road-tax law providing that
those who do not pay the tax shall work on the roads for a certain
number of days, as is the almost universal custom in the United
States.
In almost every province the fusion of the municipalities is
reported to have borne good results, not only in the way of eco-
nomic administration but in an improved administrative personnel.
Many of the governors speak of the marked improvement in
the mail service in their provinces, and in the morale and discipline
of the municipal police whenever they have been put under the
supervision of Constabulary inspectors.
Some of the governors refer regretfully to the prevalence in
their provinces of "caciquism," with all its harmful consequences.
One of the governors states that suffrage is unnecessarily restrict-
ed by reason of the fact that persons possessing property of the
value of 500 pesos or more undervalue it and thus cut themselves
off from voting, which would seem to indicate that there are persons
who do not prize the franchise as highly as it is valued at home.
The suggestion made by another provincial governor that the
provincial and municipal codes be taught in the public schools
would seem to be a most commendable one, and the plan would be
productive of far more beneficial and immediate results if the
municipal authorities could be induced or required to attend the
classes engaged in the study of the two codes.


16
the locust plague.
There has been in a number of the provinces a recurrence of the
locust plague referred to in my report for last year. Fortunately,
however, although some of the provinces have suffered severely in
this regard, the reports show that the total amount of locusts
destroyed since October 1, 1903, to the date of this report in the
nineteen provinces to which the plague seems to have been limited,
was 11,242,547 pounds, or 5,621.27 tons, as against 8,501f tons
last year. The greatest sufferers in this respect during the present
year have been Albay, Pampanga, Tayabas, Batangas, and Occiden-
tal Negros. In one of the provinces, at least, four different sowings
were destroyed by those pests.
the great seal.
The Great Seal of the Government of the Philippine Islands,
which was made at the United States Bureau of Engraving and
Printing at Washington, arrived here during the last week of
November, 1903, and has since been in use, although no act adopt-
ing the same has been passed as yet by the Philippine Commission,
which body now has before it for approval a more elaborate design
by Mr. Gaillard Hunt, of the United States Department of State,
more in keeping with heraldic requirements than the present seal.
The latter is an enlarged reproduction of the obverse of the new
Philippine peso, authorized by act of Congress approved March 2,
1903.
With the arrival of the seal in the Islands began the work of
preparing and engrossing the commissions of all classes of officials
whose appointments had been made by the Civil Governor with the
advice and consent of the Commission since the inauguration of
civil government in the Islands on July 4, 1901. As justices and
auxiliary justices of the peace are gubernatorial appointments re-
quiring the approval of the Commission, and their number was
formerly so large and there had been so many resignations among
them, requiring the frequent filling of vacancies, the total number
of commissions unissued at the time of the arrival of the seal footed
up to 4,000. These have all been filled out, signed and attested,
and forwarded to the parties interested, many of whom are no
longer in the Philippine Islands.
In addition to the above, the commissions for all appointees of


17
the Civil Governor made since the arrival of the seal have been
engrossed, signed, and forwarded to the parties in interest, and
the work is now np to date.
currency signs.
With the adoption and circulation of the new Philippine currency
it became advisable and necessary for the sake of brevity and con-
venience to adopt distinctive signs for the three general kinds of
currency in circulation in the Islands, and accordingly, at the
suggestion of the Secretary of War, the Civil Governor issued the
following executive order on August 3, 1903, to wit:
The Government of the Philippine Islands,
Executive Bureau.
Manila, August 3, 1903.
Executive Order I
No. 66. /
The following character will be used by all officials of this Government
as the designation for the new Philippine pesos, in contradistinction to
the $ mark for United States currency and Pfs. for Mexican or Spanish
currency:
Wm. H. Taft, Civil Governor.
As a consequence the peso sign (thus, has now been gen-
erally adopted throughout the Islands, by the banks, commercial
houses, and private citizens, and of course by Government officials.
congressional-relief-fund rice.
The last two cargoes of rice purchased from the fund of $3,000,-
000 appropriated by act of Congress approved March 3, 1903, for
the relief of distress in these Islands were received in the month of
March, 1904, approximating 32,000 piculs or 2,000 tons. These
cargoes were purchased in order to fill outstanding orders from
provinces to which relief rice had been promised. Since that time
no additional rice has been promised any of the provinces, it having
been decided to purchase no more unless it should be necessary
again to relieve distress, which contingency has not as yet arisen.
Owing to various causesnot the least of which was the advent of
the rainy season, preventing work being prosecuted vigorously and
extensively upon roads, bridges, and the construction of barrio
schoolhouses, the laborers upon which were to be paid for their
24904-2


18
work in rice in lieu of cashthe last of the above cargoes was not
distributed until the first week of September, 1904. At this date,
however, there is not a pound of Congressional-relief-fund rice in
the Government warehouses, although some time will elapse before
all of this rice distributed in the provinces will be disposed of
according to destination and all reports and accounts in connection
therewith received, checked, and approved.
The present more favorable crop and economic conditions
throughout the Archipelago, which avoid the necessity of further
general assistance to the people at this time in the way of rice or
other food stuffs, brings to the office force of this Bureau no small
degree of relief and satisfaction, for, while everyone in the Bureau
cheerfully bore the extra burden of the great amount of new work
incident to the proper distribution of and accounting for so large
an amount of property during a period of over a year, in a country
where as yet transportation facilities are extremely crude and un-
certain, it is but natural that those upon whom these duties were
imposed should hail with delight the arrival of the time when
circumstances no longer require such additional expenditure of time
and patience, more especially as the causes which appealed to
Congress to pass this philanthropic appropriation have ceased to
exist.
transportation of government employees.
The favorable rates secured by the Bureau of Insular Affairs of
the War Department at Washington from railroad and steamship
companies for the transportation of Insular Government officials
and employees and their families were continued during the year
and are still in force.
The number of sailings of Army transports from San Francisco
and Manila having been reduced to one per month, thus affording
very little room for civilians on the monthly transports, and there
having been a heavy demand for transportation due to employees
going home on leave, the attraction of the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, the visits to the United States of the Honorary Board
of Commissioners and of Government students, etc., there has
been turned over to the commercial lines in question at this end
$60,768.70, United States currency, representing the value of
transportation orders. Of this sum there was paid into this
Bureau $43,487.50 ($225 of which was refunded on account of


19
the cancellation of transportation requests), which amount was
deposited in the Insular Treasury to the credit of the Insular
salary and expense fund, wherefrom the transportation companies
are paid. The balance ($17,506.20) of the transportation was
official and at the expense of the Insular Government. The total
number of persons furnished transportation was 441, being 421
adults, 14 children at half rate, and 6 children at quarter rate.
transportation of vagrants and of indigent citizens of the
united states.
The fact that the American colony in the Islands was being
considerably increased by an impecunious and often undesirable
element which had drifted here in search of adventure or a live-
lihood, and which too often added nothing to the wage-earning
capacity of the inhabitants, and certainly not to the educative and
uplifting purposes of the Government, and which was likely to
become a charge upon the community, led the Philippine Com-
mission, on September 24, 1903, to pass Act No. 899, authorizing
the suspension of sentence imposed upon citizens of the United
States convicted of vagrancy under the provisions of Act No. 519,
and providing for their transportation to the United States.
Under this act there have been furnished with steerage transporta-
tion to the United States during the year a total of 74 undesirable
characters convicted of vagrancy. In each instance, after con-
viction, the Civil Governor granted a pardon conditioned upon
the person involved leaving the Philippine Islands and never
returning, or sentence was suspended by the trial judge upon the
same conditions, as provided in Act No. 899. Thereupon a written
request was made upon some steamship company for steerage trans-
portation to the Pacific coast of the United States, accompanied by
a certificate under the seal of the Executive Bureau addressed to
all United States immigration officials, setting forth the circum-
stances of the person's arrival in these Islands, his citizenship,
career, etc., and accompanied by a letter of explanation containing,
among other things, a clause to the effect that if the immigration
officials at the port of destination for any valid reason declined to
permit the person to land, the Insular Government would reim-
burse the steamship company for his return transportation to
Manila. No demand for return transportation has ever been made
to date.


20
If the person to be transported had been at any time in the
military or naval service of the United States, had arrived in the
Islands as a stowaway on an Army transport, or had been a civilian
employee attached to the naval or military service of the United
States -in these Islands, transportation as a rule was secured upon
an Army transport, the Insular Government defraying the cost
of subsistence at soldiers' rates.
Transportation of the above character has also been furnished
to a total of 17 worthy destitute United States citizens, the
procedure followed being the same as in the case of vagrants with
the exception, of course, that no pardon or suspension of sentence
was involved.
passports.
During the period covered by this report there have been issued
55 passports to citizens of the United States and 33 to citizens of
the Philippine Islands. The first passport was issued on December
8, 1903.
During the past year Act No. 11 of the Philippine Commission
and Executive Order No. 13, series of 1903, of the Civil Governor,
which were quoted in my report of last year, have not been followed,
it having been determined to act under the provisions of the rules
governing the granting and issuing of passports in the insular
possessions of the United States issued by the President on July 19,
1902.
A difficulty has arisen in connection with the issuance of pass-
ports, owing to the fact that the civil rights and political status
of certain classes of persons, residents of the Islands, do not appear
to have been as yet fixed by Congress.
Article IX of the treaty of Paris provides:
Spanish subjects, natives of the Peninsula, residing in the territory over
which Spain by the present treaty relinquishes or cedes her sovereignty,
may remain in such territory or may remove therefrom, retaining in either
event all their rights of property, including the right to sell or dispose of
such property or of its proceeds; and they shall also have the right to
carry on their industry, commerce and professions, being subject in respect
thereof to such laws as are applicable to other foreigners. In case they
remain in the territory they may preserve their allegiance to the Crown
of Spain by making, before a court of record, within a year from the date
of the exchange of the ratification of this treaty, a declaration of their
decision to preserve such allegiance; in default of which declaration they


21
shall be held to have renounced it and to have adopted the nationality of
the territory in which they may reside.
The civil rights and political status of the native inhabitants of the
territories hereby ceded to the United States shall be determined by the
Congress.
By the protocol of agreement of April 28, 1900, the time for the
completion of the registration required by Article IX was extended
for a further period of six months, beginning April 11, 1900.
In legislating upon the question of citizenship in the Philippine
Islands, Congress by section 4 of the act of July 1, 1902, which is
the only Congressional legislation bearing directly upon this subject,
provided
That all inhabitants of the Philippine Islands continuing to reside therein
who were Spanish subjects on the eleventh day of April, eighteen hundred
and ninety-nine, and then resided in said Islands, and their children born
subsequent thereto, shall be deemed and held to be citizens of the Philippine
Islands and as such entitled to the protection of the United States, except
such as shall have elected to preserve their allegiance to the Crown of
Spain in accordance with the provisions of the treaty of peace between the
United States and Spain, signed at Paris December tenth, eighteen hundred
and ninety-eight.
In order to ascertain who are the citizens of the Philippine
Islands referred to in the section quoted above, it becomes necessary
to determine what persons were Spanish subjects on the 11th day
of April, 1899, and who did not preserve their allegiance to the
Crown of Spain by registration in the manner provided by law.
To do this we must go back to the Spanish Civil Code in force
in the Islands up to the date of the signing of the treaty of Paris,
and we find the following articles thereof bearing upon the subject:
Art. 17. The following are Spaniards:
(1) Persons born in Spanish territory.
(2) Children of a Spanish father or mother, even though they were
born out of Spain.
(3) Foreigners who may have obtained naturalization papers.
(4) Those who, without said papers, may have acquired a residence in
any town in the Monarchy.
Art. 18. Children, while they remain under the parental authority, have
the nationality of their parents. (
In order that those born of foreign parents in Spanish territory may
enjoy the benefits granted them by No. 1 of article 17, it shall be an indis-
pensable requisite that the parents declare, in the manner and before the
officials specified in article 19, that they choose in the name of their chil-
dren the Spanish nationality, renouncing all others.


22
Art. 19. The children of a foreigner born in Spanish possessions must
state, within a year following their majority or emancipation, whether
they desire to enjoy the citizenship of Spaniards, granted them of article 17.
Those who are in the Kingdom shall make this declaration before the
official in charge of the civil registry of the town in which they reside; those
who reside abroad before one of the consular or diplomatic agents of the
Spanish Government, and those who are in a country in which the Govern-
ment has no agent addressing the secretary of state of Spain.
Applications are now being received by the Bureau from children
born in the Islands of foreign fathers, who at the time of the
signing of the treaty of Paris were minors whose parents neglected
to register them in the Spanish registry as required by article 18
of the Spanish Civil Code, and who themselves failed to make
election within one year following their majority or emancipation
as required by article 19.
These applicants are manifestly not included among the persons
whose status as citizens is fixed by section 4 of the act of Congress
of July 1, 1902, inasmuch as they were not Spanish subjects on
April 11, 1899. In many cases they are the children of Filipina
mothers by foreign fathers, and all of them are native inhabitants
of the Islands, having been born in the Archipelago and constantly
resided therein since their birth. The number of applicants of
this class is likely to increase as children who were minors on the
11th day of April, 1899, become of age.
It will be observed that by the second paragraph of Article IX
of the treaty of Paris, which reads
The civil rights and political status of the native inhabitants of the
territories hereby ceded to the United States shall be determined by the
Congress
a distinction is made between Spanish subjects and native in-
habitants of the territory ceded by Spain. It therefore appears
that section 4 of the act of Congress of July 1, 1902, does not
follow the distinction made by the two paragraphs of Article IX
of the treaty of Paris, inasmuch as the only persons to whom Fili-
pino citizenship is conceded must be found among those who were
Spanish subjects on the 11th day of April, 1899. Congress has
therefore failed to provide for all the native inhabitants, as it
apparently sought to do and as the treaty of' Paris provided it
should do.
It may be interesting to note, in connection with this failure, that
Congress, by section 4 of the act of July 1, 1902, was, in one respect,


23
apparently more liberal than required by the terms of the treaty
of Paris, which treaty, by Article IX, provides that the only persons
who could preserve or renounce their allegiance to the Crown of
Spain, as they may elect, were "Spanish subjects, natives of the
Peninsula."
When the terms of the treaty were being discussed at Paris the
"Spanish commissioners proposed that the benefits of registration
to preserve Spanish nationality be extended to "all Spanish subjects
now or hereafter residing or domiciled in the territory the sov-
ereignty over which Spain relinquishes or cedes *," but
the American commissioners insisted that, "as to natives, their
status and civil rights are left to Congress, which will enact laws
to govern the ceded territory." The treaty, as finally agreed upon,
restricted the benefits of registration to "Spanish subjects, natives
of the Peninsula," excluding all others.
Congress, however, in enacting the law on the subject by the said
section 4 of the act of July 1, 1902, evidently receded from the
position taken by the American commissioners at Paris, providing
that "all inhabitants of the Philippine Islands, continuing to
reside therein, who were Spanish subjects on the 11th day of April,
1899, but did not elect to preserve their allegiance to the Crown of
Spain in accordance with the treaty of peace," shall be deemed and
held to be citizens of the Philippine Islands.
This provision, however, was made too late to affect the treaty,
which limited the right of registration or renunciation to "Spanish
subjects, natives of the Peninsula," the time set by the treaty and
extended by the protocol of April 28, 1900, having already expired.
In default of any specific declaration by Congress determining
the civil rights and political status of natives of the Islands as
distinguished from Spanish subjects who have failed to retain
their allegiance, and into which class the children of foreign fathers
born and domiciled in the Philippines would naturally fall, it is
for the present being held that the latter are not citizens of the
Philippine Islands and that passports can not be issued to them.
Several years having elapsed since many of them reached their
majority, and, not having taken steps in due season to claim the
nationality of their fathers, native-born children in the 'above
category desiring to hold allegiance to the land of their birth find
themselves without a government to which they can turn for protec-
tion when abroad.


24
There is another class of persons in the Islands in much the
same position as regards protection. The Civil Law of Spain
(art. 23 of the Spanish Civil Code) declares that any Spaniard
who accepts employment from any other Government without the
King's permission thereby forfeits his citizenship. There are in
the employ of the Government of the Philippine Islands a number
of former Spanish subjects who, by the terms of this provision,
have forfeited their claim to Spanish protection. They arrived
in the Islands since the signing of the treaty of Paris, and of course
do not fall under its provisions, neither can they at present acquire
the status of citizens of the Islands. They are therefore in the
position of men without a country, and can not claim the protection
afforded by an American passport.
firearm permits.
Under existing provisions of law and executive orders (Acts
Nos. 610 and 652; Executive Orders Nos. 9, 14, 71, and 81, series
of 1903) there were issued during the past year a total of 2,766
firearm permits throughout the provinces and in the city of Manila.
In the provinces the provincial governors issued 1,195 permits
and the senior inspectors of Constabulary 990. There were issued
in the city of Manila by the Chief of Police 581 permits, which in
the aggregate make the total above mentioned.
Permits issued by the provincial governors and the Chief of
Police of Manila were approved by the undersigned by direction
of the Civil Governor, and those issued by the senior inspectors
of Constabulary were approved by the Chief of the Constabulary.
There is now in process of preparation a detailed circular letter
of instruction to all concerned in respect of the subject of firearm
permits and the laws and orders governing the issuance of the
same, to insure proper compliance with the regulations, and at the
same time to avoid delays which may be annoying and even cause
offense in certain instances through misunderstanding.
annotated edition of laws.
During the year there was prepared in the Bureau, printed and
published in English and Spanish, an annotated edition of the acts
of the Philippine Commission, in two volumes, covering the legisla-
tion of the latter from September 12, 1900, to August 29, 1903,
or from Act No. 1 to Act No. 862. Work is in progress to similarly


25
treat and annotate the laws enacted since the last-named date.
These volumes are fully indexed, and through the marginal annota-
tions furnish hapdy and ready reference. They contain also
executive orders, proclamations of the President, acts of Congress,
and treaties relating to the Islands, orders of the War Department
and military authorities affecting civil government in the Archi-
pelago, as well as an alphabetical list of executive orders and
proclamations issued by the Civil Governor since the establishment
of civil government.
Of Volume I, English, an edition of 2,000 copies was issued,
1,500 of which were bound in paper and 500 in full sheep. Of
the Spanish edition 2,500 copies were issued, 2,150 in paper and
350 in full sheep. Of Volume II, English, 2,000 copies, 1,600
bound in paper and 400 in full sheep, were issued. The Spanish
edition of this volume was issued in the same relative quantities as
Volume I in Spanish. Of the four volumes, a total general
distribution of 173 paper-bound and 1,177 sheep-bound copies has
been made to officials of the Government for official use, and to
other persons where it seemed advisable and proper. The balance
have been placed on sale in the Bureau, and 61 paper and 156
sheep bound copies have been sold to date.
law clerk.
The report of the acting law clerk is hereto attached, marked
"Appendix C."
The most important change in the duties of the law clerk has
been the addition to his regular work of the supervision over what
was formerly the appointment section of the administration and
finance division, which comprises, among other things, the preparing
of commissions and of reports in connection with the suspension,
removal, reinstatement, etc., of provincial and municipal officials,
justices and auxiliary justices of the peace. The position has
developed into one of considerable importance, necessitating the
possession of a clear knowledge of the principles of law, and, more
particularly, of the provincial and municipal codes, in order that
the person discharging the duties of the office may be equipped to
dispose of a great many matters which otherwise would necessitate
submission to the Attorney-General for opinion.
Mr. Frederick F. Barker, the law clerk of the Bureau, became
seriously ill in April of this year, but recovered sufficiently to


26
take a trip to the United States, being granted his accrued leave
of absence on May 12, 1904. Upon the expiration of his leave
he decided not to return to the Islands and tendered his resignation,
which has been accepted. The Bureau thus loses an efficient
and painstaking public servant who has left in its files many
evidences of his ability and industry.
Mr. Harry E. Laughlin, who was Mr. Barker's assistant, since
the latter's absence has conducted the work of the division in a
very efficient manner, and his report contains much interesting
data, closing with a reference to a matter that in his opinion (in
which I concur) is an evil demanding remedy. I refer to the
justices and auxiliary justices of the peace, and take the liberty
of suggesting, in case the Philippine Commission can not at this
time see its way clear to make any change in the present system
regulating the said officers, that a manual of instructions, to quote
Mr. Laughlin's words, "containing information as to where the
substantive law which they are likely to need, and the rules of
procedure, may be found, and also a detailed and specific statement
of the fees and costs which may be collected," be prepared and
distributed among these officers. Experience has demonstrated,
as stated by the acting law clerk, that much of the misconstruction
of the law and many of the illegal acts of these officials are due to
excusable ignorance, and it is believed that the foregoing sugges-
tion, if favorably acted upon, will doubtless remedy some of the
defects, at least, in the present system.
translating division.
The report of the chief of the translating division is hereto
attached, marked "Appendix D."
A perusal of this report will show that the conditions referred
to in my last annual report, with respect to the dearth of expert
Spanish-English translators, still exists, and that this particular
class of translations, which forms nearly three-fourths of the work
of the division, has consequently accumulated at times beyond the
capacity of the present force.
During August and September the annual reports of the native
provincial governors (31) have had to be translated from Spanish
into English, in addition to the regular work of translating laws,
current correspondence, petitions and other documents presented
in Spanish, and reviewing the native press.


27
The small force of the division is to be congratulated upon the
diligence displayed in coping with the volume of work that has
been its lot.
legislative division.
The report of the chief of the legislative division is rendered in
his capacity of Acting Becorder of the Commission, and is hereto
attached, marked "Appendix E."
The work of this division has settled down to a normal basis.
In personnel it has experienced the same radical changes as the
other divisions, at present the Becorder, as stated elsewhere herein,
being absent in the United States, and the position of chief of
division, becoming vacant through the promotion of the former
incumbent to the position of private secretary to the Civil Gov-
ernor, was filled by the appointment of Mr. David Lewis Cobb to
the vacancy on September 6 last.
The annotated edition of the laws of the Commission, referred
to elsewhere in this report, was prepared in this division, requiring
the undivided attention of a portion of its force during the entire
year.
I invite special attention to Mr. Cobb's report, as it gives not
only a very full description of the character of the work entailed
upon the legislative division and the Becorder of the Commission,
but also gives in detail the important measures considered by the
Philippine Commission during the year and goes extensively into
the public sessions on the Forest Act and the Internal Bevenue
Law, showing the thoroughness with which these two important
measures were treated by the Commission, and the large number
of local and foreign interests represented at the public sessions
when these measures were discussed.
administration and finance division.
The report of the acting chief of the administration and finance
division is hereto attached, marked "Appendix F."
This division may truthfully be said to bear the brunt of the
action work in the Bureau, being primarily an administration
division. Any sudden increase in current work, or any work of
a special nature, such as the drafting of the annual appropriation
bills, preparation of data for and copying of the annual reports of
the Civil Governor and the Commissioners, etc., affects this divi-


28
sion very keenly, it being drawn upon for the necessary help,
having, by its nature, clerks and stenographers suitable for such
work. It is called upon to furnish stenographic assistance to the
private secretaries to the Commissioners whenever necessary. At
present it is also furnishing the acting chief clerk of the Bureau,
acting private secretaries to the Yice-Governor and the Secretary
of Public Instruction, and, until recently, an acting private sec-
retary to the Civil Governor and the acting law clerk owing to
the absence in the United States on leave of the regular incumbents,
and, in the last two cases, vacancies. This has been and is a heavy
drain upon the trained force of the division, as such details can
only be properly filled by first-class clerks.
Transfers and resignations have also heavily affected the divi-
sion's personnel, it being a notable fact that out of the American
clerks on duty in the division proper at the time of my last report
but one remains on duty at present, and that one is in charge of
the division as acting chief.
It is a satisfaction to state that the native members of the
clerical force have made rapid strides in their efficiency and grasp
of the duties required of them, and have been of valuable assistance
in those lines of work they have mastered. One of them, who has
been studying stenography outside of office hours, has made suffi-
cient progress in that branch, as well as in the English language,
to enable him to take moderate dictation in the latter, and, though
he is unable as yet to pass the civil-service examination as a stenog-
rapher, he is being utilized considerably in that capacity.
The work of the divisionby dint of close application of the
available force, personal attention to details of routine by the
chief, which ought not to rest upon him ordinarily were well-trained
assistants available, and a great deal of overtime work, averaging
one hundred and forty-five working days of six and one-half hours
each per month for the divisionhas never been allowed to run
behind more than approximately one day at a time and generally
has been kept right up to date. Important urgent matters have
always been handled without any delay.
The force consists at present of 14 Americans and 11 Filipino
clerks, including all clerks detailed for duty outside the division,
also 15 messengers, which includes those detailed in the offices of
the Civil Governor, Commissioners, Executive Secretary, and As-
sistant Executive Secretary.


29
records division.
The annual report of the chief of the records division is hereto
attached, marked "Appendix G-."
The conditions affecting work in the Bureau in general, particu-
larly in respect of personnel and quantity of work, are naturally
felt acutely in a division of this kind. However, as appears
from the report of the chief of the division, it is anticipated that
with the gradual development of settled conditions in the Bureau
the volume of new work has also reached its limit in the division.
The increase during the past year, while steady and considerable,
was approximately 58 per cent as against 73 per cent for the preced-
ing year, the number of separate papers passing through the mailing
section of the division being 85,000 as against 53,717 for last year.
An idea of the importance of the division, the responsibility and
magnitude of the work devolving upon the chief and his force, can
be gained from the fact there are now on file some 300,000 docu-
ments, all of which are thoroughly indexed and so filed as to be
readily accessible. The importance of the work performed in the
division is further emphasized by the fact that the accuracy of the
work in the other divisionsparticularly that of the action clerks
depends to a great extent upon the clerks in the records division
furnishing quickly and correctly all of the previous records upon
subjects that are brought up anew each day by the hundreds through
correspondence and in the line of the regular work of the Bureau.
document division.
The chief of the division is also property clerk of the Bureau,
and his report is hereto attached, marked "Appendix H."
In this division are stored and from it distributed Philippine,
United States, foreign, and miscellaneous publications, reports,
records, orders, maps, regulations, etc., including also the laws of
the Commission, and in it is stored all surplus property belonging
to the Bureau and the Ayuntamiento Building.
Since June 30, 1904, the property clerk has been personally
accountable for all property belonging to the Bureau and the
Ayuntamiento Building, the Assistant Executive Secretary, there-
fore the accounting officer, having been authorized to make the
transfer.
The report of the division shows that 1,804,804 publications were


30
handled in and out during the year; that there were received
during the same time and previously on hand, 1,679,223; dis-
tributed, 663,927; sold, 1,461; realized from sales, 1*3,776.10, Pfs.
160.99, as against $1,224.77 for last year.
division of accounts.
The report of the acting disbursing officer is hereto attached,
marked "Appendix I."
This is one of the most important disbursing offices in the Islands
in point of volume of business, there having been disbursed during
the year a total of 1*1,720,583.05; the collections from various
sources having amounted during the same period to 1*106,504.67.
Mr. Harry A. Lampman, the permanent incumbent, having been
granted leave of absence with permission to visit the United States,
was relieved on April 1, 1904, by Mr. Louis M. Lang as acting
disbursing officer, an official of wide experience in accounts, and
who has since then filled the position to the satisfaction of all con-
cerned.
On July 25, 1904, Mr. Lang's duties were still further enlarged
through the issuance of the following order:
The Government of the Philippine Islands, Executive Bureau.
Manila, July 25, 1-904,
Effective August first, nineteen hundred and four, Louis M. Lang is
hereby designated Acting Disbursing Officer for the Executive Bureau,
Philippine Civil Service Board, Bureau of Public Lands, Bureau of Gov-
ernment Laboratories, Mining Bureau, Ethnological Survey, Coast. and
Geodetic Survey, Bureau of Internal Revenue, Bureau of Engineering,
Bureau of Public Printing, Bureau of Archives, American Circulating
Library, Official Gazette, Philippine Exposition Board, funds appropriated
under Act No. 69, Philippine Commission, to pay costs and expenses of
litigation in connection with the College of San Jos6, and for such funds
appropriated from the Congressional Relief Fund, disbursement of which
by him is specified.
By direction of the Civil Governor:
F. W. Carpenter,
Acting Executive Secretary.
visit to the united states of the honorary board of commis-
sioners to the louisiana purchase exposition.
Pursuant to the provisions of section 1 of Act No. 1080 (amenda-
tory of Act No. 1030) I accompanied, as the representative of. the
Philippine Government, the Honorary Board of Commissioners to


31
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition on its visit to the United
States, and have the honor to make the following report in respect
thereto:
The Board was composed, through appointment by the Civil
Governor, by and with the consent of the Philippine Commission,
of the following Filipinos of "prominence and education," repre-
senting twenty-two provinces and the city of Manila:
Hon. T. H. Pardo de Tavera, Philippine Commissioner, Manila;
Hon. Benito Legarda, Philippine Commissioner, Manila; Hon.
Victorino Mapa, associate judge, Supreme Court, Manila; Mr. Juan
de Leon, municipal president of Iloilo, Iloilo; Mr. Manuel de
Iriarte, Chief of the Bureau of Archives, Patents, Copyrights,
and Trade-marks, Manila; Dr. Manuel Gomez Martinez, secretary,
Insular Board of Health, Manila; Hon. Bernardino Monreal, pro-
vincial governor, Sorsogon; Mr. Leon Novenario, clerk in Exec-
utive Bureau, Manila; Hon. Epifanio de los Santos, provincial gov-
ernor, Nueva Ecija; Hon. Tomas G. del Rosario, provincial gov-
ernor, Bataan; Hon. Juan Pimentel, provincial governor, Ambos
Camarines; Hon. Mariano Trias, ex-provincial governor, Cavite;
Hon, Simeon Luz, ex-provincial governor, Batangas; Hon. Poten-
ciano Lesaca, provincial governor, Zambales; Hon. Juan Villamor,
ex-provincial governor, Abra; Hon. Alfonso Ramos, provincial
governor, Tarlac; Hon. Joaquin Ortega, ex-provincial governor,
Union; Hon. Julio Agcaoili, provincial governor, Ilocos Norte;
Dr. Alejandro Albert, Manila; Mr. Juan Sumulong, Manila, Mr.
Jose de Loyzaga y Ageo, proprietor of El Comercio, Manila; Mr.
Ramon B. Genato, Filipino Chamber of Commerce, Manila; Mr. Vi-
cente Nepomuceno, provincial fiscal, Cagayan; Mr. Leoncio Gon-
zalez Liquete, editor of La Dem.ocracia, Manila; Dr. Baldomero
Roxas, assistant police surgeon, Manila; Mr. Marcial Calleja, pro-
vincial fiscal, Albay; Mr. Rafael 0. Ramos, Occidental Negros;
Mr. Tomas Argiielles, Manila; Mr. Juan Arane'ta, Occidental
Negros; Mr. Alfredo de Castro, municipal president of Atimo-
nan, Tayabas; Mr. Guillermo Gomez, Iloilo; Mr. Ceferino de
Leon, Bulacan; Mr. Vicente Llamas, Laguna; Mr. Eusebio Lu-
zuriaga, Occidental Negros; Mr. Alejandro R. Mendoza, muni-
cipal president of Binalonan, Pangasinan; Mr. Mariano Moreno
Ramirez, Ambos Camarines; Mr. Hilarion Raymundo, Rizal; Mr.
Jose Rivera, provincial secretary, Laguna; Mr. Vicente Singson
Encarnacion, provincial fiscal, Ilocos Sur; Mr. Gervasio Unson,


32
provincial secretary, Tayabas; Mr. Vicente Noel, Cebn; Mr. Ale-
jandro Roces, Laguna, and Hon. Juan Climaco, provincial gov-
ernor, Cebu.
A short biographical sketch of each of the foregoing members,
excepting Hon. Juan Climaco, and the text of Acts Nos. 1030 and
1080 are hereto annexed, marked "Appendix J."
On April 14, 1904, the Civil Governor designated Capt. Thomas
Hardeman, provincial treasurer of Pangasinan, as disbursing
officer of the Board.
The members of the Board having assembled in Manila, met in
the Marble Room of the Ayuntamiento Building on April 21, 1904,
for the purpose of organizing pursuant to the provisions of section
4 of Act No. 1030 "by the election of a chairman, a secretary, and
an executive committee of five." By invitation I presided at the
meeting. The balloting resulted in the election of Hon. T. H.
Pardo de Tavera, president; Leon Novenario, secretary, and Juan
de Leon, Manuel de Iriarte, Victorino Mapa, Manuel Gomez
Martinez, and Bernardino Monreal as the executive committee.
The Civil Governor having designated April 23, 1904, as the
date of departure of the Board, it accordingly embarked on the
steamship Rubi for Hongkong at midday of that date, arriving at
the latter port on the afternoon of the 25th, and remaining there
until midday of the 30th, when it embarked on the Pacific Mail
steamship Siberia en route for San Francisco, the intervening time
being employed by the party in outfitting.
Before sailing from Manila the following telegram was sent to
the Civil Governor, then at Baguio:
Manila, P. I., April 23, 1904.
Governor Wright, Baguio, Benguet:
Having been elected president of the Honorary Board of Commissioners
to visit St. Louis, in my own behalf and in that of the Board, I wish at
the moment of leaving these shores to express to you and the members of
the Philippine Commission our sincere thanks for and appreciation of the
honor conferred upon us, and to assure you that all our efforts will be
directed toward strengthening the bonds that bind us to the American
nation and assisting in the great work of civilization, peace, and order
which the Philippine Commission is so ably carrying out in these Islands.
~ Pardo de Tavera,
President Honorary Commission.
On April 24, while on board the Rubi en route to Hongkong,
the executive committee met and appointed Messrs. Alejandro
Albert, Leoncio Gonzalez Liquete, and Epifanio de los Santos a


33
committee "to keep a history of the journey and to make a con-
nected account and report thereof to the Civil Governor on the
return of the Board to Manila," as provided in section 4 of Act
No. 1030. This action was subsequently ratified by the full Board,
but the committee has not yet reported.
Gov. Juan Climaco, of Cebu, by reason of illness found it neces-
sary to separate from the Board at Hongkong, and he accord-
ingly returned to Manila on the Eubi on April 30.
The Siberia anchored off the mouth of the Woosung River
(Shanghai) on the night of May 3, sailing the next night for
Nagasaki, which was reached on the morning of the 5th. Here
the Board was the recipient of courtesies at the hands of the
governor of the port, the United States consul, and others.
On the 7th the Siberia reached Kobe, lying there until the 8th
in the afternoon, and again were courtesies extended by the
Japanese officials of the port.
Yokohama was reached on the afternoon of the 9th. Here the
Hon. Goro Narita, Japanese consul at Manila, became the constant
and solicitous companion and cicerone of the party until the date
of its departure. The Japanese Government officials extended
every courtesy to the Board, which was. sumptuously entertained
by the Hon. Lloyd Griscom, United States minister, and his family
at the legation in Tokio, and the members of the Tokio and
Yokohama Chambers of Commerce tendered it a reception, enter-
tainment, and banquet at the Maple Leaf Club in the same city,
at which many of the higher officials of the Imperial Government,
the governors and mayors of both Yokohama and Tokio, officials and
attaches of the United States legation, as well as a number of
Japanese notables, were present.
Sailing on May 11, we reached Honolulu on the morning of the
20th, where the Board was enthusiastically received by a delega-
tion from the Honolulu commercial bodies. Following is the
program arranged for the entertainment of the Board:
Friday, May 20, 1904.
9 a. m. City of Honolulu seen from electric cars, including inspection of
Honolulu Iron Works and the Honolulu Electric Railway plant.
12.30 p. m. Luncheon at Moana Hotel.
2.30 p. m. Visit to Ewa sugar plantation by special train on Oahu
Railway.
7.30 p. m. Concert and reception, roof garden of Alexander Young Hotel.
24904--3


34
The Siberia left Honolulu on the 21st for San Francisco, which
was reached early on the morning of May 27.
As soon as practicable after disembarking the following telegram
was sent to the Secretary of War by the president of the Honorary
Board:
San Francisco, May 27, 190k-
Secretary of War, Washington:
Honorary Commission on reaching American territory send respectful
greetings and expression of loyal adhesion to the President and Secretary
Taft, the friend of the Filipino people.
Tavera.
The following reply was received on the same day:
Washington, May 27, 1904.
Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera and Senor Benito Legarda,
Commissioners, and Others of the Filipino Delegation,
Palace Hotel, San Francisco, Cal.:
I welcome you with all my heart to the shores of America, and cherish
the hope that your stay in this country may prove to be of the greatest
benefit to yourselves and to the people of the United States and of the
Philippines. I look forward with pleasure to greeting each one of you in
person. The President joins me in this welcome and congratulations on
your safe arrival.
Wm. H. Taft.
The Board remained in San Francisco, quartered at the Palace
Hotel, until the morning of June 1. The programme of entertain-
ment at San Francisco included a banquet at the Palace Hotel on
the evening of May 28, when the Board was the guest of the
Chamber of Commerce and the Merchants' Association of San
Francisco; and, with the same commercial bodies as hosts, an excur-
sion on the bay on the United States Army tug Slocum on May 31,
including a visit to the Mare Island Navy-Yard and the Union Iron
Works, where several battleships and cruisers are being built for
the United States Navy. On May 28, Maj. Gen. Arthur MacArthur,
the second American Military Governor of the Philippines, called
formally upon the Board, the officers of which returned the call on
the following day.
On arriving at San Francisco it was learned that the Bureau of
Insular Affairs of the War Department at Washington, with the
approval of the Secretary of War, had prepared an itinerary for the
trip of the Board through the United States, which included a
number of principal cities that had extended an invitation to the
party to visit them, expressing a willingness to defray all expenses


35
other than transportation charges while acting as hosts. Had it not
been for this hospitality it would have been impracticable for the
Board to accept the invitations, owing to the limitations of the ap-
propriation. The Insular Bureau likewise had made preliminary
arrangements for railroad transportation as far as Washington,
D. C., which were completed upon our arrival, and two special
sleeping and one baggage car chartered for the trip to Leavenworth,
Kans., over the Southern Pacific and Union Pacific railroads.
The party left San Francisco on the Atlantic Express at 9 a. m.
on June 1 and reached Leavenworth on the night of the 4th.
At Leavenworth the train was met by Brig. Gen. J. Franklin Bell,
U. S. A., and staff, the mayor of the city, and an immense throng
of people, which escorted the Board to the hotel, where supper was
served and a reception was held, attended by the citizens of Leaven-
worth and the officers and ladies of Fort Leavenworth. On the
following day the members of the Board were the guests of Gen-
eral Bell at Fort Leavenworth, being most charmingly entertained
by General and Mrs. Bell and the officers and ladies of the post.
The party also witnessed a review of the troops and made a thorough
inspection of the interesting details of this great military post.
Having been almost wholly without assistance since the departure
from Manila (the state of Captain Hardeman's health up to this
time preventing him from attending to any duties other than those
strictly within his capacity as disbursing officer, although later I
am indebted to him for his many kindly efforts to lighten my bur-
dens, and for his unfailing assistance in the discharge of some of
the duties which under the law devolved upon me, such as the
making of contracts and arrangements for transportation and sub-
sistence) General Bell courteously detailed two young officers at
Fort LeavenworthFirst Lieut. Daniel Van Yoorhis, Third United
States Cavalry, one of his aides, and First Lieut. Howard G.
Young, Sixth United States Infantryto accompany me as assist-
ants and interpreters. Upon our arrival in Washington the Secre-
tary of War extended this detail to include the whole itinerary as far
as St. Louis, Mo., and I owe both these gentlemen a debt of
gratitude, since I found Lieutenants Van Voorhis and Young,
through their knowledge of Spanish, tact, and tireless energy
during a very strenuous trip ever alert and invaluable assistants.
Leaving Leavenworth on the evening of June 5, Cincinnati was
reached on the evening of the 6th, having run over the Missouri


36
Pacific Railroad from Kansas City to St. Louis, and from this
point to Cincinnati over the Baltimore and Ohio Southwestern.
As guests of the city of Cincinnati the members of the Board spent
the next two days in carrying out the following programme:
The Honorary Board will be met at the depot by a committee and escorted
to the Grand Hotel for dinner.
Later in the evening the members will attend a reception at the home of
the Hon. Charles P. Taft, a committee acting as escort from the hotel
to the residence of Mr. Taft.
Tuesday, June 7, 1904.
9 a. m. Leave Grand Hotel.
9.15 to 10.15 a. m. Inspection of plants of Krohn, Fechheimer & Co., Val.
Duttenhofer Sons Co., Krippendorf-Dittman Co. (shoe manufactures) ;
party being divided into three sections.
10.30 to 11.30 a, m. Visit to Rookwood Pottery.
12 m. to 1 p. m. Dutch lunch at Mecklenburg's.
1.15 to 2. p. m. Inspection of plant of Cincinnati Car Works.
Special train to Ivorydale.
2.15 to 3.15 p. m. Inspection of plant of Proctor & Gamble Co. (soap
manufacturers). /
4 to 10 p. m. Visit to Zoological Gardens.
6 p. m. Dinner served at Zoo Club House.
Wednesday, June 8, 1904.
9.30 a. m. Leave Grand Hotel.
9.45 to 10.45 a. m. Inspection of city hall and review of police and fire
departments.
12.30 p. m. Guests of Bullock Electric Company (luncheon).
1.30 p. m. Inspection of plant of Bullock Electric Company.
2.30 p. m. Inspection of plant of United States Lithographing Company.
(Party will be photographed.)
3 p. m. Inspection of plant of United States Playing Card Company.
4.45 p. in. Guests of Moerlein Brewing Company.
The Board was the recipient of a loving cup, presented by
the president of the Rookwood Pottery Company, at the dinner
at the Zoo Club House, which is one of the mementos most
highly prized by the members of the party, and which is now in
the custody of the undersigned, awaiting the arrival of Dr. Tavera.
Leaving Cincinnati on the night of the 8th, over the Chesapeake
and Ohio Railroad, Washington was reached on the afternoon of
the 9th, where the Board was met by a large representation from
the Business Men's Association of the city and Government officials,
and escorted to the Arlington Hotel. At 7.30 o'clock of the same


37
evening a reception was given the Board by the District Commis-
sioners and the Business Men's Association at the Corcoran Gallery
of Art. The programme for the next three days was as follows:
Friday, June 10, 1904.
10 a. m. Board received by the Secretary of War at his office in the War
Department.
2 to 6 p. m. Luncheon and reception at the White House by the President
and Mrs. Roosevelt.
Saturday, June 11, 1904.
9.30 a. m. Drive around the city and inspection of Bureau of Engraving
and Printing, United States Capitol, Congressional Library, Govern-
ment Printing Office, Washington Navy-Yard, and other public build-
ings, escorted by committee of the Business Men's Association.
8 p. m. Reception at the Army and Navy Club House by officers of the
Army and Navy.
Sunday, June 12, 1904.
9.30 a. m. Visit to Mount Vernon, home and tomb of Washington, on board
the U. S. S. Sylph.
While at the capital city, by direction of the Secretary of War,
Col. James S. Pettit, Maj. John Biddle Porter, Capt. John R. M.
Taylor, Mr. W. Leon Pepperman, and Mr. Frank L. Joannini
were added to the staff to assist the undersigned in caring for
the comfort of and acting as interpreters for such of the members of
the Board as did not speak English, and accompanied it as far
as Boston, with the exception of Mr. Joannini, who continued to
St. Louis, the others returning to Washington. I desire to thank
these gentlemen for the courteous assistance they rendered the
Board and myself.
Leaving Washington on the morning of the 13th, over the Balti-
more and Ohio Railroad, Philadelphia was reached about 11 o'clock
a. m., and a day and a half were most pleasantly and profitably spent
as the guests of the city officials and prominent business men.
The programme arranged for the entertainment of the Board in
Philadelphia was as follows:
Monday, June 13, 1904.
11 a. m. Carriages at Baltimore and Ohio Station at Twenty-fourth and
Chestnut Streets.
12 m. Luncheon at Hotel Walton.
1.30 p. m. Leave Hotel Walton.
1.45 p. m. Arrive City Hall.


38
2.30 p. m. Leave City Hall.
3 p. m. Arrive Drexel Institute.
3.45 p. m. Leave Drexel Institute.
4 p. m. Arrive University of Pennsylvania.
5 p. m. Leave University of Pennsylvania.
5.15 p. m. Arrive Commercial Museums. Thence by carriages to Fair-
mount Park and the Philadelphia Country Club.
7.15 p. m. Dinner served at the Country Club.
Tuesday, June 14, 1904.
9 a. m. Leave Hotel Walton.
9.30 a. m. Arrive Chestnut Street wharf, boarding tug Ashbridge for League
Island, returning by river route to Torresdale. (Luncheon served on
tug Ashbridge en route.)
1 p. m. Arrive at the William Cramp Sons' Ship and Engine Building
Company.
1.30 p. m. Leave the William Cramp Sons' Ship and Engine Building
Company in carriages.
2 p. m. Arrive Baldwin Locomotive Works.
6 p. m. Leave Baldwin Locomotive Works for United States Mint and
Girard College, returning to Hotel Walton.
Leaving Philadelphia at midnight of the 14th, on the Pennsyl-
vania Railroad and transferring to the West Shore road at Jersey
City, West Point was reached at an early hour on the morning
of the 15th, and here the Board was most hospitably entertained
by the officers of the Military Academy and an opportunity was
afforded to inspect the grounds, witness a review of the cadets,
and the graduating exercises of the largest class that has ever
been graduated from that historic institution.
A committee from the Chamber of Commerce of the State of
New York met the Board at West Point on the afternoon of June
15, and escorted it to New York on board steamer Matteawan.
Following is the programme arranged by the Chamber of Com-
merce of the State of New York for the entertainment of the
Honorary Board:
Wednesday, June 15, 1904.
2.30 p. m. Leave West Point on steamer Matteawem.
5.30 p. m. Water-throwing exhibition by the fire boat George B. McGlellan,
foot West Twenty-second Street.
The Mattecvwan will round the Battery, steam up the East River as far as
Navy-Yard, affording view of new bridges over East River, returning
to West Twenty-second Street pier, whence party will be driven in
carriages to Murray Hill Hotel.


39
Thursday, June 16, 1904.
10 a. m. Visit in automobiles to American Surety Company Building, in
order that the party may get a general view of the city from the roof.
11 a. m. Reception at the Chamber of Commerce.
12 m. Luncheon at the Chamber of Commerce.
Friday, June 17, 1904.
10 a. m. Ride in automobiles through Central Park and Riverside Drive to
Grant's tomb.
11.30 a. m. Visit to Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Museum of
Natural History.
7.30 p. m. Banquet at Delmonico's.
Early on the morning of June 18 the Board, accompanied by
a committee from the city of Bridgeport, Conn., left over the New
York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad for that city, arriving
there the same morning and becoming the guests of the city author-
ities and the Board of Trade.
The programme of entertainment at Bridgeport was as follows:
Saturday, June 18, 1904.
10.28 a. m. Arrival from New York in two special parlor cars.
10.30 a. m. to 12.15 p. m. Visit East Side factories in automobiles.
12.30 p. m. Commission will be photographed on steps of court-house.
12.45 p. m. Fire-alarm box 32 will be rung and a fire display given.
1 p. m. Luncheon at Atlantic Hotel.
4 to 6 p. m. Reception at public library and distribution of souvenirs.
2.45 to 3.45 p. m. Visit West End factories in automobiles.
6 to 7 p. m. Return to Atlantic Hotel and prepare for evening.
7 to 8 p. m. Reception in parlors of Atlantic Hotel.
8 p. m. Banquet to Commissioners and guestis.
Sunday, June 19, 1904.
9 a. m. Attend mass at St. Augustine's Church.
10 a. m. Ride about city in carriages.
12.30 p. m. Luncheon.
2.27 p. m. Depart for New York in special cars.
Returning to New York on the afternoon of the 19th, the Board
took the Fall River steamer Priscilla and made a night trip, via
Long Island Sound, to Fall River, Mass., which was reached early
on the morning of the 20th and where the following programme,
prepared by the mayor and leading business men of the city of Fall
River, was carried out:


40
7.30 a. m. Breakfast on board the Priscilla.
8.30 a. m. Mayor Grime and citizen escort will meet Honorary Board on
the Priscilla, taking carriages to visit the Fall River Iron Works, the
American Printing Company, the King Philip Mills, and the Stevens
Manufacturing Company.
1.30 p. m. Dinner at Quequechan Club.
3.48 p. m. Honorary Board will be escorted to train leaving Fall River
for Boston.
Leaving Fall River at 3.48 p. m. of the same day, on the New
York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, Boston was reached at
5.06 p. m., the Board being met en route by a delegation from the
Chamber of Commerce of the latter city.
Following was the programme of entertainment in Boston:
Monday, June 20, 1904.
5.06 p. m. Arrive at South Station from Fall River, carriages to Hotel
Vendome.
7.30 p. m. Leave Hotel for Keith's Theater.
Tuesday, June 21, 1904.
9.30 a. m. Carriages for State House.
10 a. m. Reception by his excellency Governor Bates.
10.30 a. m. Carriages for Public Library.
11 a. m. Carriages for Harvard University.
1.20 p. m. Arrive at Cambridge; reception by President Eliot. Party con-
ducted through University.
1.30 p. m. Lunch at Colonial Club.
2.45 p. m. Electrics for Milton.
4 p. m. Arrive Milton. Reception given by Mrs. W. H. Forbes (mother
of the Hon W. Cameron Forbes, Philippine Commission).
5.30 p. m. Leave Milton for Boston.
6.15 p. m. Arrive Hotel Vendome. Dinner.
7.45 p. m. Electrics for Tremont Theater.
Wednesday, June 22, 1904.
Party will visit Lynn as the guests of that city.
Thursday, June 23, 1904.
9.30 a. m. Carriages for Boston Chamber of Commerce.
10 a. m. Reception by Boston business men.
10.30 a. m. Carriages to Long Wharf. Transfer to U. S. revenue cutter
Algonquin.
12.30 p. m. Lunch on the boat, given by Mayor Collins.
2.30 p. m. Arrive at Long Wharf (elevated railway for Boyleston Street
Station). Drags at Boyleston Street Station for drive through Park-
way. Short stop at Country Club and Chestnut Hill pumping station.


41
5.30 p. m. Arrive at hotel.
7.30 p. m. Leave hotel for Algonquin Club.
8 p. m. Dinner at Algonquin Club, tendered by Governor Bates.
Friday, June 24, 1904.
10.30 a. m. Carriages for South Station.
The programme at Lynn, Mass., prepared by the city officials of
Lynn, the Board of Trade, and the Shoe Manufacturers' Associa-
tion, was as follows:
Wednesday, June 22, 1904.
8 a. m. A committee will receive the Honorary Board of Filipino Com-
missioners at the Hotel Vendome, Boston, and escort them to the
mayor's office, city hall, Lynn.
9.45 a. m. Reception at mayor's office.
10 a. m. Visit to the General Electric Works.
12 m. Ride around the city in autos.
1 p. m. Dinner at the Relay House, Nahant.
3 p. m. Visit to the shoe factories of A. E. Little, Walton & Logan Co.,
and John H. Cross.
4.30 p. m. Visit to Littlefield and Plummer's Box Factory.
5.30 p. m. Reception and luncheon at the Oxford Club Hall.
Leaving Boston on the 24th in the morning, over the Boston
and Albany Railroad as far as Albany, N. Y., and the New York
Central from that city, we reached Buffalo late in the evening of
the same day, where the Board was entertained for two days by the
Buffalo Chamber of Commerce, the programme being as follows:
Friday, June 24, 1904.
Commissioners will be met at train by a committee of the Chamber of
Commerce and escorted to the Niagara Hotel.
Saturday, June 25, 1904.
9.30 a. m. Reception and welcome at Niagara Hotel, Hon. Erastus C.
Knight, mayor; Mr. Jas. J. H. Brown, president of the Chamber of
Commerce.
10 a. m. Trip about harbor.
2 p. m. Luncheon, Niagara Hotel.
3.30 p. m. Trips around city in autos and a visit to Kenilworth Race Track.
7. p. m. Dinner, Niagara Hotel.
8.30 p. m. Reception, Buffalo Club.
Sunday, June 26, 1904.
10 a. m. Trip to Niagara Falls.
11.30 a. m. Visit to plant of Niagara Falls Power Company.


42
I.30 p. m. Luncheon, Niagara Falls, Ontario.
2.30 p. m. Trip through the Gorge.
7 p. m. Dinner, Niagara Hotel.
Five of the members of the Board separated from it at Buffalo
to become the guests for several days, at Rochester, N. Y., of Major-
General Otis, the first American Military Governor of the Philip-
pines. They rejoined the main body at Detroit. The president
of the Board also left it here to proceed to New Haven, Conn.,
where he received, on June 29, from Yale University, the honorary
degree of Master of Arts. Dr. Tavera rejoined the Board at St.
Louis.
Leaving Buffalo on the night of June 26, over the Pennsylvania
Railroad, the Board, accompanied by two members of the city
council of Pittsburg, Pa., reached the latter city early in the
morning of the 27th, where, as guests of the city, the following
programme had been arranged for the entertainment of the party:
Monday, June 27, 1904.
7.30 a. m. Arrival of Honorary Board of Filipino Commissioners at Union
Station.
7.30 a. m. Leave on special trolley cars for Hotel Schenley.
9.30 a. m. Leave Hotel Schenley on special trolley cars for East Liberty
Station.
10 a. m. Leave East Liberty on train.
10.20 a. m. Arrive at East Pittsburg. Visit Westingbouse Electric and
Manufacturing Company and Westinghouse Machine Company.
II.40 a. m. Leave East Pittsburg.
11.50 a. m. Arrive Bessemer. Visit Bessemer rail mills (Carnegie Steel
Company).
12.40 p. m. Leave Bessemer via Monongahela Division. Luncheon en route.
2 p. m. Arrive Charleroi. Visit Pittsburg Glass Company's works.
2.40 p. m. Leave Charleroi.
3.40 p. m. Arrive at Homestead. Visit Homestead mills (Carnegie Steel
Company).
5 p. m. Leave Homestead. t
5.20 p. m. Arrive Pittsburg.
5.50 p. m. Reach Hotel Schenley.
7.30 p. m. Reception and banquet.
Tuesday, June 28, 1904.
8.30 a. m. Leave hotel by trolley cars.
9 a. m. Leave Union Station.
9.40 a. m. Arrive Ambridge.
10.30 a. m. Leave Ambridge.


43
10.50 a. m. Arrive at Davis Island Dam. Inspecting Government dam.
Board steamer Mayflower. (Boat leaves foot of Market Street at
9 a. m. to meet the Commissioners at Davis Island Dam.) Up the
river to Port Perry Lock. Luncheon on boat.
2 p. m. Take Pittsburg and Lake Erie train.
2.10 p. m. Arrive Demmler. Visit Firth-Stirling Steel Works (projectiles).
2.40 p. m. Leave Demmler.
3 p. m. Arrive Glassport. Visit United States Glass Company.
3.30 p. m. Leave Glassport.
4 p. m. Arrive Port Perry. Board steamer for city.
Departing from Pittsburg on the night of the 28th, over the
Pennsylvania Railroad, we arrived in Cleveland, Ohio, on the
morning of the 29th, during which day and the next the Board
was the guest of the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce, which had
prepared the following programme for its entertainment:
Wednesday, June 29, 1904.
7 a. m. Honorary Commission will be met by a committee of the Chamber
of Commerce and escorted to the Colonial Hotel.
9.30 a. m. Committee of the Chamber of Commerce will meet party at
the Colonial Hotel and visit the following factories: Cleveland City
Forge Company, Brown Hoisting Company, and the King Bridge
Company.
12 m. Automobile ride through the parks and boulevards, with visit to
the Country Club.
3.30 p. m. Ride through the lower park to Wade Park, thence to Euclid
Club, where luncheon will be served. Return to Colonial Hotel.
Thursday, June 30, 1904.
9.30 a. m. Board will be driven to Nicola-Stone Docks and embark in
tugs for trip up and down the river.
11.30 a. m. Party will board the U. S. S. Hawk for a sail on the lake.
(Luncheon will be served on board.)
2 p. m. Return to hotel.
4.30 to 6 p. m. Reception at the Chamber of Commerce, where the Board
will meet the mayor of Detroit and two members of the Board of
Trade, who will escort them to the "City of the Straits."
A committee of the Board, composed of the following, Juan de
Leon, Mariano Trias, Leoncio Gonzalez Liquete, Juan Sumulong,
and Vicente Noel, accompanied by Lieut. Daniel Van Voorhis,
left Cleveland on the morning of June 30 for Canton, Ohio,
bearing a magnificent wreath, toward the purchase of which each
member of the Board had voluntarily subscribed, to lay upon the
tomb of the martyred President McKinley, and to pay their


44
respects to his widow. The committee was met at the Canton
Station by Associate Justice William R. Da}^ of the Supreme Court
of the United States; the mayor of the city, and other prominent
officials and citizens, and was the recipient of many courtesies at
their hands. After depositing the wreath upon the temporary
resting place of President McKinley, and calling upon Mrs. Mc-
Kinley, who presented each member of the committee with a
photograph of the President, they returned to Cleveland on the
evening of the same day in time to join the majority of the Board
and to take the steamer City of Detroit for that city, accompanied
by the mayor and a delegation of city officials, as stated in the
Cleveland programme, whose hospitality was unremitting during
the trip.
The programme of entertainment in Detroit was as follows:
Friday, July 1, 1904.
7 a. m. Leave Detroit and Cleveland boat.
10 a. m. Take autos for Russell House. Immediately upon arrival at
hotel the delegates will be assigned to their rooms, and afterwards
served with breakfast. Assemble in "ordinary" of hotel for introduc-
tion of committeemen and welcome.
11 a. m. Take autos for Parke, Davis & Co.'s Laboratory.
12.30 p. m. A substantial luncheon will be served by Parke, Davis & Co.
at their plant. Proceed to Michigan Stove Works, remaining there
as long as the delegates desire.
1.30 p. m. Return to hotel via East Boulevard, Grand Boulevard, and
Woodward Avenue. Visit baseball grounds to witness game between
the Detroit and Cleveland nines.
No particular program for evening. Tickets gratis for such of the delegates
as care to attend the theater will be provided.
Saturday, July 2, 1904.
9 a. m. Take autos at hotel for Belle Isle. Party will be met at bridge
by escort of mounted police. Proceed around island with escort,
inspect aquarium, and stop at playground for drill of mounted police.
After drill proceed to Inselruhe Dock.
10.30 a. m. Steamer Owana will leave foot of Griswold Street with members
of common council, members of board of estimates, and other city
officials and members of the board of commerce, stopping at Inselruhe
Dock, Belle Isle, to take on the Honorary Commission and their
attendants, proceeding thence to the Flats. Luncheon will be served
on the boat. The Owana will return to her dock at the foot of
Griswold Street about 1.30 o'clock.
Balance of afternoon will be spent in ride around Western Boulevard.


45
Sunday, July 3, 1904.
Joint committee will meet at hotel at 12.30 p. m. sharp to escort delegation
to Michigan Central Depot, where our guests will board the train
for Chicago.
Early in the afternoon of July 3 the Board, accompanied by
three members of the Board of Aldermen of Chicago, left for that
city over the Michigan Central Railroad, arriving at the western
metropolis the same night, and being conducted in carriages to the
Auditorium Annex Hotel. Here the Board was the guest of the
city of Chicago, which had prepared the following programme of
entertainment:
Monday, July 4, 1904.
The Board, having breakfasted, will assemble in the hotel lobby at 8.45
a. m., prepared to start for the day.
The Commission will be the guests of the board of trustees of the sanitary
district of Chicago, and go by boat, upon which luncheon will be
served, down the canal and return by rail.
Carriages will be taken upon arrival for a drive through the parks and
boulevards of the North Side, stopping for supper at an outdoor
music garden.
Tuesday, July 5, 1904.
The Board, having breakfasted, will assemble in the hotel lobby at
9 a. m., prepared to start for the day.
Carriages will be taken through the boulevards and parks of the South
Side, visiting the site of the World's Columbian Exposition, 1892-93.
A short stop will be made at the University of Chicago. Guests will
then be driven to the stock yards, where luncheon will be served,
after which the packing houses and yards will be visited. From the
yards the Commission will go to the McCormick Reaper Works and
the Kimball Piano Works, returning to hotel through the parks
and boulevards of West Side.
There will be no entertainment for the evening, and guests will be given
an opportunity to enjoy the freedom of the city in their own way.
Wednesday, July 6, 1904.
The Board, having breakfasted, will assemble in the hotel lobby at 9 a. m.,
prepared to start for the day.
Carriages will be taken for the various points of interest in the business
district, including mercantile houses and the Board of Trade.
The citizens and officials will tender a luncheon at the Auditorium Hotel
at 12.30 p. m.
At 3.30 p. m. the Board will assemble in the hotel lobby and will be
escorted to the Illinois Steel Mills at South Chicago, and return to
the hotel for supper.


46
The continuous movement to which the Board was subjected in
order to property show its appreciation of the invitations extended
it by many cities in the United States, and of the programmes pre-
pared for its entertainment, which necessitated long and irksome
railroad trips between cities and almost constant energetic motion,
with but little time for rest, had been telling on the members to a
considerable extent. Judge Mapa had become quite ill en route to
Washington, and was left in that city under the care of a physician
for several days, rejoining the Board at New York and continuing
thereafter with it, although at times being unable to take part in
the programmes arranged for the entertainment of the Board.
While in Boston I received a telegram from the Bureau of
Insular Affairs of the War Department as follows:
Washington, D. C., June 21.
Hon. A. W. Fergusson,
Vendome Hotel, Boston, Mass.:
Following is telegram sent Buffalo and all cities after: "Judging from
cities already visited, fear programmes arranged by reception committees
for Honorary Commissioners too exhausting. This delegation has been
traveling hard for over two months. Firmly believe reception committees
should so arrange as to permit Filipinos to conform to long-established
custom of extended rest after luncheon if it is impracticable to leave
entire afternoons for this purpose." Secwar directs that you see that
his wishes are carried out to preserve health of your party.
Magoon.
While at Pittsburg I was apprised of a courteous invitation from
the cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis for the Board to visit them,
and that it had been arranged for the Board to visit Indianapolis
on the 14th, 15th, and 16th of July, but as many of the members
were showing evidences of fatigue, and fearing a breakdown on
the part of some, I advised the Chief of the Bureau of Insular
Affairs of the inability of the Board to accept the invitations of
St. Paul and Minneapolis, and that the time between July 6 and
14 ought to be devoted to rest, in harmony with the wishes of the
Secretary of War.
In a wire from Pittsburg on June 28, among other things, I
expressed myself to Colonel Edwards as follows:
Earnestly request itinerary be not lengthened by addition any cities
after Chicago and Indianapolis. Party exhausted. Only fifteen responded
this morning to take river excursion. Strain is telling on every man.
Blistered feet prevalent. Rest imperative, else ends sought likely to be
defeated. What about filling time between Chicago and Indianapolis with
visit to summer resort? Party anticipates it longingly.


47
On reaching Cleveland it became still more apparent that the
Board would need a rest in order to arrive in good physical con-
dition at St. Louis, where it would have to spend a month under
the provisions of Act No. 1030, and the Bureau of Insular Affairs
was requested to select some point in the vicinity of Chicago where
the needed respite might be secured between the dates mentioned
above.
Through the kindly offices of Brig. Gen. Frederick D. Grant,
accommodations for the Board were secured at the Chicago Beach
Hotel at acceptable rates, and the party moved out to that hotel
on the morning of July 7, remaining there until the morning of
the 14th.
On the morning of July 4, while in Chicago, I received the
following telegram from Colonel Edwards, Chief of the Bureau of
Insular Affairs:
Washington, D. C., July 4-
Arthur W. Fergus son,
Auditorium Annex, Chicago, III.:
Your wire yesterday received at 3 o'clock. Indianapolis wants you to
arrive 14th, and remain 14th, 15th, and 16th. Make plans accordingly
and wire me what they are.
Edwards.
Upon the receipt of this telegram Captain Hardeman, at my
request, entered into negotiations with the Big Four Railroad to
transport the Board to St. Louis via Indianapolis, with a three-day
lay over at the latter city, which negotiations resulted in satis-
factory arrangements being concluded.
On July 6 I received by reference from the Bureau of Insular
Affairs an official copy of the following letter:
The Commercial Club,
Indianapolis, Ind., July 1, 1904.
Col. C. R. Edwards, Washington, D. C.
Dear Sir: At a meeting of the committee in charge of arrangements for
the entertainment of the Philippine Commission this noon I was instructed
to inform you that it was the desire that the Commission arrive here at
3 o'clock on the afternoon of July 14. We note in your telegram that
the Big Four is preferable and I believe there is a train that leaves
Chicago about 9 o'clock which would land them here in Indianapolis about
2.45. The programme, as agreed upon to-day, is a reception at the station,
escort to hotel, banquet at 7 o'clock on day of arrival; visit two factories
Friday morning, two in the afternoon; lunch will be served at the Lay-
cock Manufacturing Company's plant; visit one of the parks at 4 o'clock;
return to hotel at 7 o'clock for dinner. Saturday morning visit two


48
factories and Saturday evening interurban ride to Greenfield and Knights-
town; visit glass factory at former place; return to the city at 7 o'clock.
This completes the programme as outlined. It was thought by our com-
mittee that it would be well for our chairman to interview them personally
and learn what they are particularly interested in so we can proceed more
intelligently. If you will kindly advise me where and when our chairman
can meet them in Chicago he will make a trip there for that purpose.
The hotel accommodations have been arranged and a duplicate list of the
names, number of room, etc., will be forwarded to the man in charge of
the party before they depart from the resort where they spend a week
before coming here. If you have any suggestions or if any part of this
programme does not seem satisfactory, do not hesitate to tell me about it
because it is our desire to make it satisfactory to every one concerned.
Yours, very truly,
Lewis Hoover, Secretary.
On the morning of July 8 a letter was received from Mr. Lewis
Hoover inclosing a printed list giving the names of the members of
the Board, with the number of the room to be occupied by each
at the Claypool Hotel opposite his name.
On the evening of July 8, while at the Chicago Beach Hotel, I
received a visit from Mr. Charles Emmett Coffin, of Indianapolis,
a member of the Commercial Club, who informed me that at the
banquet to be given on the evening of July 14 Senator Fairbanks,
the Republican nominee for Vice-President of the United States ;
Governor Durbin; the attorney-general of the State; the mayor of
the city of Indianapolis, and other prominent officials of the State
would make addresses, and I informed him that they would
be replied to by Dr. Tavera, who was then in St. Louis and
whom I would request to meet us at Indianapolis, and one other
of the members of the Board. In the course of our conversation
it developed that it was expected that the Board should pay its own
hotel expenses, and that the Commercial Club so understood. I
replied that all other cities had defrayed these expenses, and that
in view of the long time that the Board had to remain in St. Louis
I doubted whether the per diems allowed the members could stand
this extra tax, although I assured him that the Board was very
anxious to go to Indianapolis, if for no other reason, because of the
prominence of the gentlemen who were to address it at the banquet,
and that I would telegraph the War Department for further instruc-
tions in the premises. Mr. Coffin stated that he would likewise
communicate with the Commercial Club and would call me up
at noon of the 10th by long-distance telephone from a neighboring


49
city in Illinois. He also asked if it would not be possible for the
Board to postpone its visit to Indianapolis for one month, to which
I replied that, however much we might desire to do this, it was an
impossibility, as we had to leave St. Louis not later than August
16 in order to take steamer at San Francisco which would return
us to the Islands within the five-month period fixed by law, and
that, as a matter of fact, by accepting the Indianapolis invitation,
we should have to cut our stay in St. Louis short by three days.
The same evening I wired Colonel Edwards the foregoing facts,
receiving an answer on the following day, as follows:
Have telegraphed Hoover, Indianapolis, calling his attention my letter
to Beveridge, which distinctly stated we could not go there unless expenses
paid. Trust will get favorable response to this communication.
On the morning of July 10 I received another wire from Colonel
Edwards, as follows:
Leave matter going St. Louis direct entirely to you. Handle the matter
with Indianapolis people so as to remove any cause for hurt feelings.
* Deplore the mistake, but it was not ours.
When called up over long-distance telephone by Mr. Coffin I was
informed, that the Commercial Club felt that they could not stand
the expense of quartering the Board at a hotel, and I replied that
upon mature deliberation I had determined to take the Board to
Indianapolis at its own expense, which information he received with
every evidence of satisfaction.
That same evening I gave out to the representatives of the
Chicago press the fact of our intention to leave on the morning
of the 14th for Indianapolis, and gave the programme of entertain-
ment there as well as I could recall it, never mentioning to any one
the fact that a misunderstanding had ever occurred with respect
to this visit.
On the morning of July 11 I received a telegram from the
proprietor of the Claypool Hotel, informing me of the rates that
he would charge the Board for quartering it at that hotel. An
hour later I received the following dispatch:
Indianapolis, Ind., July 11.
Hon. A. W. Fergusson,
Secretary Philippine Commission, Chicago Beach Hotel:
In the uncertainty growing out of the publicity of the regrettable mis-
understanding of last week, our plans for entertaining your Honorable
Commission have been disarranged, and it will be impossible now for
24904-4


50
us to satisfactorily arrange for your visit to Indianapolis. Senators
Fairbanks and Beveridge, Governor Durbin, all of our committee will be
out of the city this week. We therefore respectfully request postponement
of the visit until a later date, when our city will most cordially welcome the
distinguished members of the Commission. I am instructed by the local
committee to express the hope that the change of plans will meet with
your approval. Please let me have prompt reply.
Lewis Hoover,
Secretary the Commercial Club.
Immediately upon receipt of this wire, which to me was inex-
plicable in view of all the preceding facts, I telegraphed as follows:
Chicago, III., July 11, 1904.
Lewis Hoover,
Secretary the Commercial Club, Indianapolis, Ind.:
In view of your wire of this date, Commission will proceed to St. Louis
from here, with regrets that it can not accept your cordial invitation for
a visit at a later date. Deplore publicity of misunderstanding, but assure
you it did not emanate from this end. Pray accept thanks for yourself
and committee for your courteous invitation.
A. W. Fergusson,
Executive Secretary, Philippine Islands.
I also wired Colonel Edwards and Dr. W. P. Wilson, chairman
of the Philippine Exposition Board at St. Louis, to the same effect,
asking the latter if accommodations would be ready.
Captain Hardeman was requested to cancel the Indianapolis trip
with the Big Four Railroad and to enter into negotiations with the
Illinois Central Railroad for the trip to St. Louis. Arrangements
were completed on July 13, and the Board left Chicago for St.
Louis over that railroad at 9 o'clock on the morning of July 14,
reaching the latter city at 6 o'clock in the evening.
The train bearing the Board was met at the St. Louis depot by
representatives of the National Commission of the World's Fair,
and of President Francis of the same, a municipal delegation, a
delegation from the commercial bodies of the city, the entire Phil-
ippine Exposition Board, and a number of newspaper men,, together
with the battaliqns of Philippine Scouts and Constabulary stationed
at the World's Fair, and the Constabulary band, and was escorted
in carriages to the Hamilton Hotel, which became its headquarters
during its stay in St. Louis, from July 14 to August 16.-
During this time the members of the Board were untrammeled
in their selection of quarters, and many stopped at private houses


51
in the hope of perfecting themselves in the English language. The
majority, however, remained at the Hamilton Hotel.
Through the courtesy of the Philippine Exposition Board, an
office and reading room for the use of the members of the Honorary
Board were furnished in the Administration Building, on the
grounds of the Philippine Exhibit, a courtesy which was highly
appreciated, as were many other courtesies extended to the members
and to me by the Philippine Exposition Board.
The time of the members of the Honorary Board was largely
taken up with the duties imposed upon them as members of the
several juries of award for the Philippine Exhibit, which occupies
47 acres of space within the grounds of the World's Fair, and which,
by reason of its completeness in every detail, its instructive elements,
and its diversified character, is one of which the Insular Government
may well be proud.
This Exhibit could not fail to be the most interesting object of
study for the Filipinos in the whole trip, for, while the purpose in
sending the Board to the St. Louis Exposition was that it might
learn, of those things that interested the world at large and show
the advancement of progress and civilization in all countriesand
a grander field of study than the St. Louis Exposition they could
not well have hadit is a fact that they learned more of their own
Islands and their own people than they had ever known before, a
kind of education that in the aggregate would be infinitely greater
and broader than they would gain through years of ordinary travel
at home. It is impossible to overestimate the value of such training
to such keen and intelligent observers.
Besides daily visits to the Exposition, the members of the
Board were the guests, on July 25, of the Anheuser-Busch Brewing
Association, and were conducted through all the departments of
their great establishment; on July 28, of the Merchants' Exchange
of St. Louis, which invited the Board to their building to witness
the operations on 'change, and where addresses were made by the
president of the Merchants' Exchange and Dr. Tavera on behalf
of the Board. This visit was succeeded by a luncheon at the rooms
of the Missouri Athletic Club.
On the evening of the same day the members of the Board gave
a farewell dinner to its president, Dr. Pardo de Tavera, on the roof
garden of the Hamilton Hotel, at which the Philippines Constab-
ulary band rendered the music. Dr. Tavera left on the morning


52
of the 29th for New York, where he embarked, with Governor de
los Santos, for Europe on August 4.
Mr. Ramon B. Genato received cable advices from Manila of the
precarious condition of his father's health and left St. Louis for
San Francisco on July 31, sailing from the latter port on August
6 for the Philippine Islands.
On August 1 the Board was the guest of the Hamilton Brown
Shoe Company at luncheon, after making an inspection of their
great factory.
On the evening of August 3, by invitations of the Business Men's
League and the Merchants' Exchange, the Board and other invited
guests were taken in a special train to the Glen Echo Country Club,
where many of them for the first time witnessed and had explained
to them the game of "golf;" and an excellent dinner was served,
at which Representative Bartholdt and other prominent gentlemen
and members of the Board made addresses. The music on this
occasion was furnished by the band of the battalion of Philippine
Scouts, United States Army, stationed at the World's Fair. The
Board was also the recipient of several other courtesies from the
citizens of St. Louis.
The heat of St. Louis seriously affected a number of the mem-
bers of the Board, and it became necessary to send three to San
Francisco, where, by reason of the cooler climate, they were soon
restored to health. Ex-Governor Mariano Trias, of Cavite, who
had been taken ill in Chicago, and whose illness took a serious turn
in St. Louis, was moved to the hospital on the Philippine reserva-
tion, and remained there until a few days before the departure of
the Board for the northwest, when, although still weak, he was
discharged as cured.
On July 31 the Board held a meeting at the Hamilton Hotel for
the purpose of electing a new president, the result being that Hon.
Benito Legarda became the successor of Dr. Tavera by a majority
vote.
August 13 had been set aside by the authorities of the St. Louis
Exposition as "Philippine Day," and was celebrated with great
enthusiasm by a large concourse of people. All the United States
forces stationed in the vicinity of St. Louis, the Scouts and Constab-
ulary, together with many veterans of the Spanish-American war
who had served in the Philippines, and other bodies, paraded
through the grounds of the Exposition and were reviewed by the


53
Secretary of War and several general officers who had served in the
Philippines on the parade ground of the Philippines Constabulary
in the Philippine Exhibit. Dr. William P. Wilson, president of the
Philippine Exposition Board, presided at the exercises which fol-
lowed the parade, and addresses were made by President Francis
of the World's Fair, the Secretary of War, Hon. John M. Allen on
behalf of the National Commission, and others, and by Hon. Benito
Legarda on behalf of the Honorary Board of Commissioners. After
luncheon the several native villages, departments, and buildings
of the Philippine Exhibit were visited by the Secretary of War and
prominent guests.
On the morning of August 16 the following members of the
Board, to wit, Dr. Manuel Gomez Martinez, Bernardino Monreal,
Leon Novenario, Simeon Luz, Potenciano Lesaca, Alfonso Ramos,
Joaquin Ortega, Julio Agcaoili, Jose de Loyzaga y Ageo, Vicente
Nepomuceno, Leoncio Gonzalez Liquete, Marcial Calleja, Tomas
Argiielles, Alfredo de Castro, Guillermo Gomez, Ceferino de Leon,
Vicente Llamas, Alejandro R. Mendoza, Hilarion Raymundo, Jose
Rivera, Gervasio Unson, and Vicente Noel, accompanied by the
undersigned, left St. Louis over the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy
Railroad for Billings, Mont., where the special car containing the
party was attached to a Northern Pacific Railroad train, and the
party reached Seattle, Wash., at 9 p. m. on August 19, remaining
there until 10 p. m. of the 21st as guests of the Chamber of Com-
merce and city authorities.
The programme of entertainment here was as follows:
Friday, August 19, 1904.
9 p. m. The Board will be met at the Union Station by the mayor of the
city and a committee of the Chamber of Commerce, and escorted to
the Washington Hotel in carriages.
Saturday, August 20, 1904.
9.30 a. m. Honorary Board will take "seeing Seattle" car at corner
Second Avenue and Pike Street for a trip around the city, including
trip to big lumber mills in Ballard and inspection of battleship
Nebraska in Moran Brothers' shipbuilding yard.
12.30 p. m. Luncheon at Hotel Washington.
1.30 p. m. Run along the water front and trip to Puget Sound Navy-Yard
at Bremerton on board the U. S. A. tender Cartioright.
In the evening the Commissioners will assemble in the lobby of the Wash-
ington Hotel, where they will be glad to receive and converse with
business men and citizens generally.


54
Sunday, August 21, 1904.
9.30 a. m. The Board will take electric cars for a ride through Madrona
Park, then will take a launch for a ride on Lake Washington.
9. p. m. A committee will escort the Board in carriages from the Washing-
ton Hotel to the Union Depot.
Leaving Seattle on August 21, at 10 p. m., on the Northern
Pacific Railroad, Portland, Oreg., was reached at 7 a. m. of the
22d, where the train was met by a delegation from the Portland
Commercial Club, whose guest the Board was while in the city.
Following is the programme arranged for the entertainment of
the Board:
Monday, August 22, 1904.
7 a. m. The Honorary Board will be met at the station and taken in a
special car to the Portland Hotel, where breakfast will be served.
9.30 a. m. Visit to the museum at the city hall, to be followed by a visit
to the opening of the Association of the American Mining Congress at
the Armory.
10.30 a. m. Honorary Board will take a special car to the Heights on the
new scenic loop, and thence to the Lewis and Clarke Fair Grounds,
where an inspection will be made of the grounds, and luncheon served.
1.30 p. m. Visit to the Portland Cordage Works.
2 p. m. Visit to the rooms of the Portland Commercial Club.
6 p. m. Dinner at the Portland Hotel.
8 p. m. Board will leave hotel in carriages, escorted by committee of the
Portland Commercial Club.
The members of the Board were struck by the natural beauty
of the surroundings of the locality selected for the site of the
Lewis and Clarke Exposition, and the imposing appearance of the
buildings already erected there, and they became staunch advocates
of the proposition to have the Philippine Islands represented at the
fair next year.
The departure from Portland was on the same day (August 22)
at 8.30 p. m., over the Southern Pacific Railroad, and the arrival
at San Francisco on August 24 at 9 a. m.
The following members of the Board, Manuel de Iriarte, Juan
Pimentel, Baldomero Roxas, and Vicente Singson Encarnacion,
having been granted an extension of leave of absence of two
months from September 24, without salary, by the Civil Governor,
and Juan Sumulong, Mariano Moreno Ramirez having received
authority from me, sailed from New York on August 23 for Europe,
to return to the Islands via the Suez Canal. Tomas G. del Rosario


55
was also granted two months' extension of leave by the Civil
Governor, and Juan de Leon was authorized by me to remain in
the United States.
Upon the departure of the majority of the Board for the
northwest, Hon. Benito Legarda, Hon. Yictorino Mapa, Hon. Tomas
G. del Rosario, Hon. Juan Villamor, Dr. Alejandro Albert, Hon.
Mariano Trias, and Mr. Alejandro Roces, together with the disburs-
ing officer, Capt. Thomas Hardeman, remained in St. Louis and
returned to San Francisco over the same route followed by the
Board on its eastward trip, arriving in San Francisco on August 25.
On the morning of August 28 almost the entire membership of
the Board, by invitation of the president and general manager of
the Italian-Swiss Agricultural Colony, visited its vineyards, winery,
and distillery at Asti, Sonoma County, Cal., over the California
Northwestern Railway, and spent a most enjoyable day as the
guests of the colony, inspecting the great vineyards and modern
methods of viticulture and winemaking, returning to San Francisco
late in the evening.
On August 29, by invitation of the chief of the San Francisco
fire department, a number of the members witnessed a most inter-
esting exhibition of a water tower and battery in operation.
Although every effort had been made by the Bureau of Insular
Affairs and by me to secure return transportation for the Board
in time to reach Manila within the five months designated in the
law in the premises, it was not available until August 30, on which
date, at 1 o'clock p. m., the Board sailed from San Francisco on
the Pacific Mail steamship Manchuria, it being her maiden voyage
across the Pacific. By reason of slow time and unexpected delays
in discharging cargo at the ports of Yokohama and Kobe the
Manchuria did not reach Manila until early on the morning of
October 1, five days after she was scheduled to arrive and eight
days after the time set by law for the return of the Board. This
would seem to constitute a case of force majeure, and in view of
the fact that due diligence, industry, and care were exercised in
endeavoring to return on time, it is respectfully submitted that
the members of the Board are entitled to receive their per diems
for the eight days of unforeseen delay in their return rather than
to be cut off therefrom by too strict a construction of the law.
The disbursing officer of the Board, pursuant to the provisions of


56
the law, ceased to pay per diems on September 23, the Board having
sailed from Manila on April 23.
On its arrival at Manila the Board was enthusiastically received,
being escorted from the Manchuria in bunting-decorated launches
with bands of music, and by a long procession of civic bodies from
the water front to the Ayuntamiento Building, where they were
met by the members of the Philippine Commission and a large
concourse of people in the Marble Room, and where addresses
were made by the Civil Governor, the chairman of the reception
committee, and the president of the Board.
During its absence the Board traveled 9,182 miles by rail and
steamer within the territory of the United States, exclusive of the
mileage covered on visits and excursions while the guest of cities,
and 15,761 miles by sea, making a total of 24,943 miles.
Of the original appropriation of $75,000 for the trip, $59,199.75
have been expended, leaving a balance of $15,800.25 to be returned
to the Insular Treasury. These figures show that the expense
incurred by the Insular Government in sending the Honorary Board
to the United States was small when compared with the undoubted
benefits that have resulted and will flow from the undertaking,
representing, as it does, a little more than 5J cents per mile for
each of the forty-four members of the party.
As the representative of the Philippine Government, I took
occasion while in the United States to express in writing the
appreciation and thanks of the Insular Government and of the
Honorary Board of Commissioners to the State and municipal
officials and commercial bodies and*others that entertained us
while in the United States, for all that they had done in our
behalf, receiving many gratifying replies to my letters. I take
great pleasure in renewing my acknowledgments here. It was
due to their generosity, public spirit, and genuine hospitality that
the members of the Board were enabled to get an insight into many
phases of American life and character to which they were strangers
before. They had come in contact on these shores with the military
and political sides of our institutions; but they had no personal
acquaintance with those mighty forces that have wrought such
peaceful conquest in the commercial and industrial world through
the employment and utilization of human ingenuity and labor, the
true elements of our national greatness; they had but a limited
conception of the dignity that labor has attained beyond seas, or


57
of the many temples it has reared in the homeland to its prowess;
they had but a slight idea of the true feeling of the people of the
United States toward them and their countrymen. Through the
generosity of this Government and of those I have mentioned
they have been permitted with their own eyes to see things as they
are, and have been afforded an opportunity to correct any erroneous
impressions they may have entertained previously.
I can not close without recording my high appreciation of the
kindness and courteous interest in all the movements of the Board
of the Secretary of War; Col. Clarence E: Edwards, Chief of the
Bureau of Insular Affairs; his assistant, Mr. W. Leon Pepperman;
Maj. C. A. Devol, U. S. A., depot quartermaster, San Francisco,
Cal.; Gen. J. Franklin Bell; Gen. Frederick D. Grant; Dr. W. P.
Wilson; Dr. Gustave Neiderlein; Mr. Leon M. Guerrero, and Mr.
Edmund A. Felder, executive officer, Philippine Exposition Board,
and of their untiring efforts to make the visit to the United States
and the St. Louis Exposition one of profit and of pleasure.
I desire further to extend thanks to the officials of the railroad
companies mentioned in these pages for the kindly interest they
displayed in making the discomforts of travel as light as possible
by sending on trains bearing the Board, in nearly every instance,
a representative of the passenger department of each road to
minister to the wants of the members.
In conclusion I would express also my deep satisfaction at the
demeanor of the members of the Board from the time they left these
shores until they returned thereto, and congratulate them upon
the good impression they made wherever they went. They stood
the discomforts of travel uncomplainingly and good-naturedly; and
it is but fair to say that they bore themselves at all times and places
in a gentle, dignified, and courteous manner that won the admira-
tion of everyone with whom they came in contact.
Very respectfully,
A. W. Fergusson,
Executive Secretary.
The Honorable the Civil Governor.




APPENDIXES.




Appendix A.
DRAFT OF RULES TO BE OBSERVED IN THE PREPA-
RATION, COURSING, AND RECORDING OF OFFICIAL
CORRESPONDENCE.
The following rules will be observed throughout the service of
the Insular Government and by provincial and municipal govern-
ments in correspondence with offices of the Insular Government:
general.
1. An official communication to a Government or corporation
official should be addressed to his official position and not to him
by name, unless it concerns him as an individuali. e., a request
for information as to when the treasurer of La Laguna Province
will pay a certain account should be addressed to "The provincial
treasurer, Santa Cruz, La Laguna"but a communication looking
to correction of error in payment already made by that officer
should be addressed to the individual by whom settlement was
madethus, "Jas. P. Brown, provincial treasurer, Santa Cruz, La
Laguna."
2. Notwithstanding the fact that the duties of an office are being-
performed by a temporary appointee or detail, communications
should be addressed in the usual wayi. e., to "The Director of
Posts," not to "The Acting Director of Posts."
3. Official channels should be shortened to the greatest extent
practicable. Unless otherwise directed by the head of its Depart-
ment, an office desiring information from an office in another
Department should send the communication direct, and the office
replying should do so through the office of the Secretary of its
Departmenti. e., if the Collector of Customs desires a statement
from the Chief of Constabulary as to when the supply officer at
Iloilo will vacate a custom-house bodega occupied by the supply
61


62
store at that port, the communication should be addressed direct
by the Collector of Customs for the Philippine Islands to the Chief
of the Philippines Constabulary, and the reply made by the latter
through the office of the Secretary of Commerce and Police, by whom
it would be forwarded to the Secretary of Finance and Justice and
by him to the Collector of Customsthus keeping heads of Depart-
ments advised as to interdepartmental-bureau relations and afford-
ing expeditious determination of questions that may arise. On the
other hand, many interdepartmental matters should be coursed
through the official channel from the beginning. Thus, the request
of the General Superintendent of Education that provincial fiscals
be required to advise division superintendents of schools upon
questions of law should be addressed to the Secretary of Public
Instruction, by whom it would be forwarded, with such recommenda-
tions and pertinent comment as he may see fit to make, to the Civil
Governor, under whose direction provincial officials are.
4. Communications for the information of or action by the Civil
Governor or Philippine Commission should be addressed to the
Secretary of the Department to which the writer pertains; Bureaus
and Offices not assigned to one of the Executive Departments should
address such communications to "The Executive Secretary, Manila,"
who is chief of the Bureau created by law (Act 167) "to assist the
Civil Governor in his executive duties" and into which has been
merged (Act 609) the office of the Secretary of the Philippine
Commission.
5. Heads of Departments will regulate official correspondence
within their respective Departments as may seem to them wise, if
not in conflict with these rules, which are for the service generally.
6. Carbon or press copies of all official communications sent
will be filed and preserved by Bureaus and Offices. Official com-
munications received or copies thereof will be filed likewise. All
other papers, including records of important transactions within
the Bureau or Office, of sufficient import, will be treated as directed
in the case of communications received and sent, and together with
them will constitute the records of an office. Such records should
be numbered in series; ordinarily all except retained papers pertain-
ing to the money and property accountability of disbursing officers
and property clerks should be numbered chronologically considering
date of receipt or signature, and in one series, which may be annual
or biannual, as the volume of business may warrant. All records


63
should be intelligently indexed, each record appearing under at
least two index heads in order that it may be located with reasonable
facility in search. Files should be examined frequently as to their
condition of preservation and careful attention given to prevent the
presence of anay. Once a year a competent, experienced office
assistant should go through the files and withdraw and destroy all
papers whose value as records has ceased. Obviously great care
and intelligent discrimination must be exercised in this work, and
its importance warrants the assignment of as high grade an official
or employee as may be to this work.
When thus reduced to permanent archives the indexes should
be revised and written up on typewriter in duplicate, using indelible
ink and fresh carbon or water-press copy, bound, and one copy filed
in a fireproof safe or vault if it be available.
Books and papers pertaining to the money and property account-
ability of cashiers, disbursing officers, and property clerks may be
kept apart from the general records of the Bureau upon closing the
accounts of a fiscal year or upon the relief of the accountable officer
or employee. All pertinent books and retained papers pertaining
to the period should be completed, properly arranged, and filed
either in the disbursing or property office or in the general records
of the Bureau, as may be directed by the Chief of Bureau, who
becomes the official custodian thereof upon the relief of an account-
able officer.
7. Official correspondence may be classified as letters, telegrams,
indorsements, and reports.
letters.
1. An official letter should be written only when communicating
or requesting information of character and importance warranting
official record. The telephone and other means of informal com-
munication should be utilized whenever possible in order that the
bulk of office records and other service requirements generally may
be kept at the minimum consistent with efficient administration.
2. A letter should treat of but one subject.
3. A letter should be typewritten if practicable, on medium or
heavy white paper 8 by inches, with indelible or record ink,
on but one side of each sheet, two spaces between lines, leaving
a margin at the top of each page not less than 1-J inches, 1J inches


64
or ten typewriter spaces at the left, five spaces at the right, and at
the bottom of the pages at least three-fourths of an inch.
4. A letter should be framed so as to comprise (a) the caption
or authorized title of the Bureau or Office and name of city or town
and province where written, name of month, the date, and year;
(b) the salutation, which should be "Sir" or "Gentlemen," as the
case may be; (c) the introductory sentence-and paragraph, com-
mencing "I have the honor," and stating clearly and concisely the
object of the letter; (d) succeeding paragraphs (not numbered)
as may be necessary properly to elucidate the request or statement
made in the first sentence; (e) the subscription, which should be
"Very respectfully"; (/) the signature; (g) the official title or
designation of the writer, as "Insular Purchasing Agent" or "Clerk,
class 8," and the address of writer if it be not clearly and correctly
given in the caption; (h) inclosure notation at the left and slightly
lower than the signature to be made thus, "2 inclosures." If inclo-
sures be not so specifically mentioned in the letter as to identify
them, there should be added to the notation on the last page a
concise indication by which they may be recognized readily should
they become at any time mixed with other papers, the notation
then reading thus, "2 inclosures: Map of Tayabas Province, & Ex.
Bu. No. 42318-al4"; (i) the name or official title and full address
of the person to whom the communication is directed; (j) state-
ment of official channel, as "Through Office of Secretary of Finance
and Justice."
5. An official letter should be both clear and conciseindeed, it is
seldom that one should cover more than one page.
6. To prepare a letter for mailing, it should be folded twice
toward the top so as to make three equal folds.
7. The inclosures should be folded as nearly letter size as possible
and numbered on their brief folds: "Inclosure 1" and "Inclosure 2,"
etc. If because of their size or character it is not practicable to
send inclosures in the same envelope package with the letter, there
should be added to the inclosure notation an explanatory note
stating that all or certain inclosures are forwarded under separate
cover.
telegrams.
1. A telegram should never be sent unless the matter be so urgent
that a letter by mail will not serve the purpose.
2. A telegram should not have more than one subject.


65
3. A telegram should be typewritten if practicable to avoid danger
of errors in transmission.
4. A telegram should always be followed by an exact copy, carbon
or letter press if possible, by first mail to confirm original, which
may have become garbled or lost in transmission.
5. No official or employee is authorized to send as official business
or free of charge telegrams upon private matters.
indorsements.
1. Ordinarily, in replying to a communication received, a letter
rather than an indorsement should be used. However, when the
communication received bears previous indorsements, or is long and
may not be given final action by the receiving office, or for other
reasons which ordinarily intelligent discrimination will recognize
as they occur, it will be necessary to forward, refer, return, or
transmit the papers by indorsement.
2. If the papers to be indorsed bear no previous indorsement, the
first step will be to prepare a wrapper. This is done by taking a
sheet of heavy, white, letter-size typewriter paper, folding it twice
as prescribed in the case of letters, taking care that the last fold or
upper third of the sheet shall be sufficiently wide to cover entirely
either of the other two. Upon the outer surface of this fold, com-
mencing about 1 inch from the top as it is held perpendicularly,
should be written what is termed the "brief," which should be a
concise resume of the letter to be indorsed. Models follow:
Manila, November 1, 1904-
INSULAR PURCHASING AGENT
States that position of buyer, class 5, may be
discontinued and present appointee, Peter C.
Smith, transferred to some other Bureau. In-
closes statement of qualifications and record.
1 inclosure.
Or
Manila, November 1, 1904-
SMITH, EDWARD L.,
Chief Clerk,
Bureau of Public Lands,
Applies for transportation, Manila to San Fran-
cisco. Incloses original appointment.
1 inclosure.
24904-5


66
3.' The indorsement should be placed on the next fold to the right,
and the indorsement should be in form as follows:
[First indorsement.]
Bureau of Public Lands,
Manila, November 2, 190k
Respectfully forwarded, through the Office of
the Secretary of the Interior, to the Executive
Secretary, recommending favorable considera-
tion.
(Signature) ..........................................,
Chief of Bureau.
4. Succeeding indoi^ements should be numbered in regular order,
and if aiiy be so long as to require more space than that afforded by
one fold of the wrapper it should be written on letter-size paper,
using the indorsement caption, or as a signed memorandum, Tetter,
or report, as the circumstances may seem to indicate, placed With
the original communication within the wrapper, and marked1 as the
indorsementi. e., there should be written on the proper indorse-
ment' fold of the wrapper in form as follows
[Second indorsement ]
department of the interior.
[See within.]
And1 upon and; hear the middle of the brief fold of the indorsement
inclosed "Sbconcf indorsement."
5. When the second and third folds of the wrapper have been
filled and it is necessary to have additional space for further indorse-
ment it may be secured by pasting indorsement slips on the inner
surface of the right-hand edge of the third fold, these slips being
arranged as the leaves of a book. They may be prepared most
readily by cutting in half medium or heavy, letter-size sheets of
typewriter paper and folding these half sheets in- such a way as to
give a writing surface of exactly or slightly less than the width of
the brief fold. An indorsement slip should never be attached by
its end.
6. When papers are added to or withdrawn from those originally
in the wrapper a suitable notation should be made to the left and
slightly below the signature title on the indorsement, in form, thus,
"3 addT incls," or "Incls. 1 & 2 withdrawn," and in red ink on the
brief fold below the next preceding inclosure notation there made,


67'
in form as follows: "3'adcFl incls, 2dind." or "Incls. I & 2' with-
drawn, 3d ind."
7. No; indorsement should be a mere transmittal,, but should
embody'action, as approval or disapproval if such' may be expected
or required, or at least the statement "contents noted."
8. The first sentence of an indorsement should begin-: with
the words "Respectfully returned," "forwarded," "referred," or
"transmitted)" using "returned" when sending the paper direct or
through channels to the writer or to that of any of the preceding
indorsements; "forwarded" when indorsing to an official- superior
who has not had the paper previously ; "referred" when a new course
is given the paper and the office or person to whom it is directed is
the official inferior of the indorser; "transmitted"' when passing
the paper downward through channels pursuant to a; preceding
indorsement.
9. Every clerk through whose hands papers pass should be
required to see to it that they are arranged properly, before they leave
his desk. For example: A letter with its inclosures) being coursed
by indorsements, should be assembled, so far as possible, as follows:
The last inclosure should be laid on the desk face upward and each
preceding inclosure on it running thus, inclosure 4, 3, 2, and 1,
and on these, face upward, the letter; the papers should then be
folded as heretpfore described, and so placed within the wrapper
that they may be ready for immediate perusal in their proper order
upon opening without turning or other rearrangement. When
folded in the wrapper the latter should be so arranged that its two
surfaces will be the brief and the last indorsement. Occasionally
the bulk of the papers will be so great as to render such arrangement
in detail impracticable to a degree but never entirely.
reports.
1. Reports other than those submitted on printed forms should
be typewritten as indicated in the foregoing instructions regarding
official letters, though, if long, cap size or 8 by 13 inch paper may be
used. The lines should be separated by what is known as double
spacing.
2. Reports required by law at certain intervals, such as anrfual
reports, should be forwarded promptly. If for any reason it be
impracticable to do this, statement of that fact and probable date


68
when report may be forwarded should be sent to the office to which
the report is due.
.3. Reflections on other officials or the Government or the public
generally have no place in a regular report. When for any reason
the attention of higher authority should be called to improper con-
duct of officials or branches of the public service, a prompt special
report of facts, affidavits, names of witnesses, and other specific
data obtainable should be sent to the Civil Governor or head of
Department in which the person making the report is employed.
4. A report may not be given out for publication or otherwise
treated than as a confidential document until such time as it shall
have been released by the office to which it was rendered, or by
higher authority. A report is not at the disposal of the person by
whom it was rendered but of him to whom it is addressed.
Reports should be as concise as practicable and never be padded
with appendixes not directly pertinent to them.
Inclosures to reports are termed "Appendixes." They should
be noted and treated as directed in the case of inclosures to letters.


Appendix B.1
ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE GOVERNORS OF THE
PROVINCES FOR THE FISCAL YEAR FROM JULY 1,
1903, TO JUNE 30, 1904.
ABRA.
Office of the Governor, Province of Abra,
Bangued, July 15, 1904-.
Sir : I have the honor to submit to you the following report for
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, through which yon may learn
of the real needs of the Province of Abra, of the progress of its
administration and government, and of its principal sources of
wealth and prosperity:
Having had little experience with administrative problems, I
will finish writing this report without making a single recommenda-
tion or suggestion as to the manner of meeting the needs of the
province, being convinced that nothing will escape the perspicacity
of our first authority and that yon will not fail to find and make
use of the proper measures for that purpose, having at hand, as
you have, unlimited resources.
There are two things of exceptional importance to the province
which in my opinion deserve mentioning. They are: (1) Affecting
the system of communication between the pueblos, and (2) relative
to the condition of the provincial treasury.
(1) At the last regular general convention of presidents a resolu-
tion was passed asking the honorable Philippine Commission for its
1 The photographs or illustrations referred to in this appendix are omitted
in this report. Most of them will be found in the Annual Report of the
Philippine Commission for 1904.
69


70
support in the carrying out of a plan to unite the pueblos of the
province by a telephone line. The resolution was as follows:
Fifth. On motion of the president of the convention, Senor Marcos
Baula, it was resolved to inform the honorable the Philippine Commission
how, in view of the great distances between the municipalities of the
province, the presidents of the municipalities, aided by friends who seek
the common welfare, had agreed to the proposition of establishing com-
munication between themselves by a .telephone line and to pay out of their
own pockets the cost of the necessary apparatus, counting upon a regular
schedule of prices to maintain the operating expenses of the line, such
tariff to apply only to private parties, but the great difficulty in the way
of the realization of the project was the lack of money with which to buy
the wire, insulators, and poles properly to equip the line. Under the
circumstances and desirous of seeking this importantnot to say indis-
pensableimprovement put through in the interests of the province, which
for many reasons would be thereby benefited, the convention is under the
necessity of petitioning the honorable the Philippine Commission to most
emphatically lend its support to this idea, so as to enact a law by the
provisions of which said wires, batteries, and insulators will be made a
present to the Province of Abra. Unanimously passed.
This resolution was supported by the provincial board, and its
approval by the honorable Commission was recommended by it in
the following letter sent to your honor:
Office of the Provincial Governor of Abra,
Bangued, July 12, 1904.
Sir: I have the honor to send you a copy of the resolutions adopted by
the municipal presidents of the province at their last convention, and a
copy of the recommendation made by the provincial board with reference
to said resolutions. In supporting the petition of the presidents regarding
the establishment of a telephone system, the provincial: board has taken
into consideration the mountainous character of the province, the rivers
traversing it, the general imperfect condition of the wagon roads, especially
in the rainy season, the frequent raids of the wild Igorrotes, and other
unforeseen cases and events which require the immediate knowledge and
speedy action of the Government. In view of these considerations I can
not but impress upon you on my part the advisability of a favorable con-
sideration by you and the honorable Commission of the petition for some
aid.
Yours, very respectfully, Blas Villamor,
Provincial Governor of Abra.
.The Civil Governor of the Philippines.
(2) The provincial'board, at a session held July 8, 1904, thought
proper to make a recommendation to the honorable Philippine


71
CommissiQn, as the only saving measure during the. crisis through
which the provincial treasury is,passing, that read as follpws:
(10) On motion it is also resolved by the board, to recpmmend to the
honorable Civil Commission the enactment pf a law by which the present
legislation relative to municipal government of non-Christian tribes, shall
be repealed, and providing that, with the exception of the municipalities
of San Quintin, Lagangilang, Penarrubia, and Manabo, those of non-
Christian tribes known as settlements of the first, second, and third class
shall be abolished and returned to the Christian municipalities as they
were before the approval of Act No. 3.87; that the said. municipalities of
San Quintin, Lagangilang, Penarrubia, and Manabo, having acquired suffi-
cient enlightenment and having the territorial area and number of inhabi-
tants necessary to enjoy the benefits of the Municipal Code, Act No. 82,
as amended, enter into the full exercise of their rights as a municipality
organized under the said Act. This recommendation is based upon the
great pecessity that the said four municipalities, that have now reached
the stage where they are conveniently able to enjoy the benefits of Act
No. 82, shall not continue, as up to the present, withholding their support
from the provincial treasury, but share the obligations which it has to
meet; and in that the old administration of the balance of the non-
Christian tribes was, less complicated, than the present one and more favor-
able to the development and education of. the Tinguianes, and more, fayorable
to the financial interests of the provincial government. It is also recom-
mended to the honorable Commission, in case that it sees fit to enact the
law asked for by this resolution, it do so as soon as possible, in order
that under its provisions the new assessments of land shall be finished
before 1905, and that the said law may go into effect at the beginning of
the year.
This resolution was sent to the Secretary of the Interior on July
12, 1904.
In conclusion I desire urgently to recommend to yon, honorable
Sir, the carrying out of the two projects above indicated, in order
that by facilitating communication between the pueblos and between
these and the provincial capital, and by reenforcing the exhausted
funds, of the provincial treasury, two needs, both of them important
for the good of the government and administration of the Province
of Abra, which seems, threatened to disappear as a result of, the law
relative to non-Christian tribes than to an insufficiency of revenues
for its self-support, may be. met.
commercial conditions.
The development of commerce in this province is languid and
labored, trade being reduced to the following articles: (1) Dry


72
goods, notions, and other small articles in the hands of Chinese
shopkeepers, who own ten or twelve stores, the majority in the
provincial capital and the balance in two or three other pueblos,
the average daily sales being but some 5 pesos in each store of
the first mentioned and to 3 pesos at the most in the others. (2)
Two stalls, improperly called stores, where beverages, canned goods,
and manufactured tobacco are occasionally sold to clerks and other
employees who receive a fixed monthly salary. (3) Horse selling,
that during the past was never very brisk in comparison to the
number raised and is now less so, both on account of the greater risk,
in view of the prevalence of epidemics and the increase in the price
of transportation, which is double what it was in the past, and,
finally, perhaps, also because Manila and other provinces that for-
merly were large buyers have got to using automobiles that have
advantageously taken the place of animal traction. Horse dealing
is carried on here either through paid agents or by the stock raiser
'and the capitalist, who share the profits or losses of the business,
as the case may be. In this latter case a man will buy a number of
horses in Abranever more than thirtywhich he drives to Manila,
selling all he can on the road when an opportunity offers, the
balance, generally in a bad condition when they arrive at the capital
of the Archipelago, being sold for whatever they will fetch. Such
is the system in vogue here, one which is also followed by dealers
from other provinces, though these latter also ship their stock by
sea when they have an order from Manila, something that the
natives of this province are unable to do on account of having no
commercial relations with that capital. (4) The utilization of
forestry products, in which business but twenty energetic men are
engaged, the sweat of whose brows serves but to enrich the capitalists
of Yigan, Ilocos Sur, as they make their own prices, having no
competitorscutters scarcely make a living. Here the lumbermen
have no guild or union and work independently of one another,
with the result that they generally sell the product of their labor
to one of their number who has 200 or 300 pesos or so, and he in
turn sells at Vigan by disposing of the lumber in lots of from 50
to 100 pieces. (5) Lastly, the only article of some importance
shipped out of the province is tobacco, that a few years ago was the
chief article of commerce, but last year and this it has greatly
declined owing to the cupidity of the only house dealing in this
articleLa Companla General de Tabacos de Filipinasand to the


73
scarcity of draft cattle and the timidity of the planter, who will not
raise large crops because of the poor prices which prevailed last
season.
Table of products shipped to and from Abra, during the fiscal year ended June 30,
1904, according to official statistics and figures furnished by business men.
Shipped in:
Textiles__________________________________yards __ 82, 296
Petroleum__________________________________cans.. 1,440
Matches__________________________________gross. 504
Iron (bar)------------------------------pounds.. 6,696
Iron, manufactures of (tools, etc.)________pieces.. 3,024
Notions, inclusive of cotton thread (value)________$36, 600
General merchandise (value)____________________$66, 600
Pharmaceutical products (value)_________________ PI, 440
Manufactured tobacco
Cigars (approximate)______________number._ 24,400
Cigarettes (approximate)______________do____ 150,600
Horses (value)__________________________________ PI, 400
Shipped out:
Forestry products____________________cubic feet.. 27, 720
Leaf tobacco (at $9,827 per quintal) ...quintales.. 5, 345
In conclusion of this subject I might include the few operations
of a small druggist's shop which has been established in this capital
more as a matter of philanthropy than with the idea of gain, and
whose sales are mostly of medicines of indispensable use in cases
of emergency.
economic conditions.
Although the description we have just made under the preceding
subheading does not give a flattering prospect for the treatment of
the subject we are about to take up, we would not be sticking to the
truth did we not set forth that in staple articles the inhabitants,
though lacking the superfluous, have not been in want for the neces-
sities, a good proof of this assertion being that a great part of the
rice given by the Insular Government was not sold nor was it dis-
tributed as alms.
There has been no change here in the old and almost primitive
manner of cultivating the land by means of the plow and carabao.
There are no manufacturing concerns, either large or small, nor
companies of any sort for the improvement of agriculture or any
branch of industry. But individual effort is untiring in making use


74
of the primitive and rudimentary methods in vogue for the, advance-
ment of the material prosperity of the province.
We are pleased to state that education has made rapid strides
since 1901, especially during the past two years, the province now
having 54 schools without counting the one recently established
for the instruction of teachers for settlements of non-Christian
tribes. The percentage of people speaking English is greater than
that shown by the last census; besides this, there is a goodly number
of natives of this province who are engaged as teachers.
The following figures, from official sources and information
obtained from intelligent persons, show the enrollment of the public
schools: Boys, 1,943; girls, 1,218.
From a political point of view, the economic conditions present
the following aspect: Agriculture and stock raising are the only
sources of wealth in this provincethe latter, as has been remarked
above, on a very small scaleand,they are both advancing slowly by
rudimentary processes, held back by lack of capital and development
companies.
The following products are all consumed in the province and add
nothing to the volume of exportations:
Cavanes.
Corn_________________________________________________ 22,580
Bucacao________________________________________________ 3,645
Sesame________________________________________________ 2,125
Achoete_______________________________________________ 506
These food plants are fairly well distributed, being principally
raised in some municipalities like Dolores. It is a rare thing for
a farmer not to own his little piece of land, but it is still more rare
to find one whose land is assessed at more that ^5,000. Before
the late war and subsequently prior to the terrible cattle plague
farmers as a general rule cultivated their lands with their own
animals.
It is superfluous to state that the above-described conditions haye
in no way contributed to increasing the public funds^ which are
at present insufficient to cover the expenses of the administration
of the pueblos. Expenditures have been reduced to the lowest
limit in all branches, and yet at the date,-of this report.nearly all
of the piunicipalities.are in. debt apd the province has been unable
to pay salaries since February and Marcfi. The reason of this is
the organization of municipalities of f non-Christian tribes under
Act No. 387, as their separation from the Christian pueblos to


:75
which they formerly belonged means a loss to them and to the
province of $3,000, United States currency, per year. The consol-
idation.^ of. Christian municipalities, and consequent expense entailed
thereby, has not had the effect of wiping out the loss caused by
Act No. 387.
financial: conditions.
Though hard to collect, the taxes are being paid with comparative
punctuality. The cedula tax is nearly all in, thanks to the oppor-
tunity offered for earning a daily wage by the repair of roads and
especially the construction of the general highway from Bangued
to Vigan. For these reasons the provincial board passed a reso-
lution disapproving the recommendation of the convention of
municipal presidents for an extension of time for the payment of
the land tax without penalty, it being my opinion that the people
have not made the least effort so to do. Our view is upheld by the
situation as described under the heading "Economic conditions."
With the exception of the indebtedness of the provincial and
municipal treasuries the finances of the province are not in such
a very deplorable state. The property belonging to the Government
is in good condition. Money has not been wanting to keep it in
repair, and repairs have been made not only to it but also to some
of the provincial roads; if all have not been put in order it is.
because of lack of time. The small building belonging to the
provincial government was repaired and put in condition to be
used by the Court of First Instance, which now occupies it, a
saving of 20 pesos a month in rent having been effected by this
change. The provincial building has also been put in order,
all of the provincial offices, the forestry office, and two or three
school class rooms being conveniently installed therein. However,
there still remains the necessary amount of storage room and a
portion used as barracks for the municipal police.
Finally, all of the consolidated municipalities, it is hoped, will
be well able to construct buildings for their offices, now located in
improvised camarines built of flimsy materials, or installed in the
convent buildings.
industrial conditions.
The condition of the province as described under the preceding
headings must be attributed in a measure to the political disturb-
ances which have prevailed throughout the Archipe]ago, and


76
subsequently to the locust plague and cattle disease which has
recently again broken out to an alarming proportion considering
the extent of its ravages. Up to date there is no sign of abatement.
With regard to industry, we note the same decrease as in other
branches, which is but natural, for in an essentially agricultural
province like Abra industrial conditions are directly affected by
agricultural conditions. During prosperous times agricultural prod-
ucts have never in this province been converted into manufactures
by the aid of machinery or mechanical devices, and, now that
agriculture is in so depressed a condition, the raw material produced
is scarcely sufficient to employ the primitive instruments used for
converting it into an article of higher value.
Such is the deplorable condition of industry in Abra that there
is not a single machine in use, if exception is made of some twenty
"sewing machines, the use of which is not general, either. Every-
thing here is done by handsteam, electricity, and hydraulic power
being so many myths and stupendous fabrications beyond all belief
to the minds of the inhabitants of this province.
But it is satisfactory to know that the education being diffused
by means of the schools, and understood because of the liberties
granted us by the present Government, is gradually dissipating these
black clouds of ignorance, and a bright horizon in an industrial
sense is coming into view for these people. During the past two
years I have been personally interested in organizing a company
to introduce here a system of irrigation, and in another one which
proposed to set up a sawmill, but, although we were able to get
together nearly all of the necessary elements, we met with an
insuperable obstacle in a lack of money.
political conditions.
In some of the municipalities like that of Bangued, capital of
the province, the provincial and municipal boards of health have
encountered a certain amount of opposition, owing, we have
observed, to exaggerated reports of abuses, impositions, and the
adoption of measures incompatible with the general views of the
inhabitants and their deep-rooted sentiments as to family life. To
this may be added the indifference and lack of energy on the part
of some councilors in being unable to suppress false rumors started
by idle persons who had an interest in so doing.
The municipal council of Bangued had not the valor to raise the


77
rate of the land tax above the minimum allowed by law, or was
perhaps influenced thereto by the desire not to burden the lands
of its own members too heavily, although the reason they alleged
for their action was that the council wished to be condescending to
the desires of the public. For this and other reasons nine of the
councilors were suspended and their removal recommended to the
Civil Governor; the matter has not yet been acted upon. The
majority of the municipalities accepted without protest the maxi-
mum rate fixed by law, undoubtedly because they understood that
this was necessary for a good administration. The opposition attrib-
uted to the people of Bangued is not correct; it arose from the
causes already indicated. Any opposition that there has been on
the part of the public is simply the customary one on the part of
each individual taxpayer. The inhabitants of Bangued are in no
way different from those of other municipalities except that it is
certain that they are better educated and more enlightened.
The consolidation of the municipalities, which was protested
against by the majority before it went into effect and afterwards
accepted with certain reserve, is to-day considered as satisfactory
in view of its results, which have been good, with a few exceptions,
arising from political differences and jealousies between caciques
of different pueblos. These objections have been skillfully set right
by the provincial officers, who can affirm that the consolidation has
proven itself a practical and beneficial measure.
All of the laws, orders, and decrees of the Insular Government
have been favorably received here. There have been no popular
demonstrations here to protest against any legislative measure.
With one single exception, which is now no more, there have been
no bands of ladrones in this province nor any cases of prosecution for
sedition, rebellion, bandolerismo, conspiracy, or violation of oath of
allegiance, and there have been few cases of vagrancyit can be
said that at present there are none.
Here there are no great struggles between capital and labor or
differences between the people and the authorities with the exception
of a quiet, pacific, and lawfully conducted dispute between munici-
palities and the representatives of the Catholic Church over the
ownership and possession of certain propertiesa dispute which is
in process of settlement through the mediation of the Government.
There is no religious strife in spite of the fact that the Aglipayan
sect has made some converts. Passions have not been excited nor


78
is there any likelihood1 that they will be, considering the peaceful
character of the inhabitants of Abr& and the tact and prudence of
the authorities. Both the Catholics arid the Aglipay&ns have
availed themselves of the use of no other arms than persuasion,
especially the' former, and When the Catholic priest lets fly his
shafts of oratory in condemnation of the schismatic sect from the
pulpit he is listened to with respectful attention without manifesta-
tioris of hostility or approval.
As to political differences, they soon die out after the electoral
struggle' is over, and relations between different factions quickly
become harmonious. Even during the heat of the elections rarely
dbes the strife descend to personalities or to use of those instruments
of caciquismviolence, treachery, and lawlessnessto gain' the
ascendency in popular suffrage. Protests sent relative to the last
elections reveal bitter disappointment on the part of those who
have lost, more than any other one thing,, but no corruption or
immorality.
The authorities and the people have a mutual respect and regard
for each other. The best of feeling prevails between the Americans,
foreigners, and natives, especially between the first and last named;
a frequent contact between the American teachers and their scholars
is cementing these relations more and more. In my opinion, by
this me^ns the love Of the people for the Government and1 its
institutions is best kept alive, as Abra is fortunate in having the
best class of American professors:
I desire to state, before' finishing this report, that the political1
conditions of rtiv province, Which faithfully reflect the pacific and
loyal character of the inhabitants of Abra, can last as long as the
source from which they spring, and as the latter grows so will they
progress, the people of Abra having the greatest faith in the prom-
ises of the great American nation with respect to the future of the
Philippines.
Respectfully' submitted.
BLAS VlLLAMORy
Governor of the' Province of Abra.
The Civil Governor of the Philippine Islands.


ALBAY.
Office of the Governor, Province of Albay,
Ajlbay, August' 1*8, 190%.
Sir : I have the honor to forward herewith my report to the
honorable Civil Governor of the Islands on the general conditions
in this province relating'to the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904'.
This report consists of a total of 87 pages, accompanied by
three photographs.
The report is late, which; I beg niay be excused; as its tardiness
occurred through' the pressure on the office facilities Caused by
tfrial of suspended municipal officials, which has the right of way
over Other business.
Very respectfully,-
R. P. Santos,
Governor of tlveProvince of Albay,
Hon: F. W. Carpenter,
Acting Executive Secretary, Manila, P. I.
Office of the Governor,- Province of Albay,
Albay, July 1, 190%.
Sir : In accordance with the provisions of Act No. 1044, I have
the honor to submit the following annual report of the conditions
existing in the Province of Albay during the fiscal year from
July 1, 1903; to June 30, 1904, under the respective general head-
ings of "Political," "Administrative," "Economic," "Commerce
and transportation," "Industrial," and "Social and sociological."
Under the heading of "Economic" is treated financial, including
taxation and revenue, currency, financial institutions, labor; under
"Commerce and transportation" is included roads, and under that
of "Industrial" are included agriculture, trade, fishery, and manu-
factures.
political.
During the greater' part of the first half of the fiscal yeW the
peace 6f the province was disturbed by ladrohilsrii, and the vigOfbuSr
79


80
efforts made to extirpate it were crowned with success. One of
the measures that had been adopted for the speedy restoration
of peaceful conditions was a reconcentration of the people, bringing
them in from outside barrios, where they were exposed to the
depredations of the ladrones and often captured and forced to
serve in their bands and, as a regular thing, to furnish food and
money for the support of these lawbreakers, into a protected zone
which extended to within a radius of 1,000 varas on each
side of the main roadwhich runs through all the townsand
extending the same distance on either side of the tribunal, thus
forming a square with a perimeter of 8,000 yards or varas. This
congestion of the people, which had begun in March, lasted until
about the end of October, 1903, when the people were allowed to
return to their homes. Naturally, the effect of this unusual volume
of persons in such a limited area was disease and suffering for want
of food and ordinary living accommodations. But through it all
the pacific and obedient nature of the people demonstrated itself,
and the political situation was never in danger from any of the
effects of this reconcentration on the masses of the people.
To relieve the economic situation among the people, a law-and-
order committee was formed, composed of prominent men from
various towns, which was instrumental in collecting funds, destined
both for the furnishing of food supplies to the poor and for the
support of the volunteers from the towns that went into the hills
in aid of the regular forces of the Government in the suppression
of ladronism. Through the beneficence of the Insular Govern-
ment the situation was further relieved by the sending down here
of large quantities of rice, a great deal of which was distributed
to the people in return for their labor on public works, and the
rest was sold and made a part of the Congressional relief fund for
the benefit of this province, most of which again was used in the
relief of public distress. In this way 1*14,135.85 of the said Con-
gressional relief fund were spent.
The success of the Constabulary and Scout operationsthe two
forces operating as one under the command of the Constabulary
colonels who succeeded each otherwas remarkable in view of
the arduous conditions under which campaigning had to be under-
taken in this province. Impregnable mountain fastnesses and the
densest of vegetation rendered the position of the ladrones most
secure and most difficult to cope with; and the attacking forces, even


81
though operating with the greatest caution, found that surprises
were the usual accompaniments of an expedition; and such fights
as there were, were always begun with a disadvantage on the part
of the Government forces. Great thanks are due to Col. H. H.
Bandholtz, of the Constabulary, who carried the operations to a
successful finish; to Colonel Baker, who took hold of the work at a
critical time and introduced efficient methods, and to the inspectors
of the Constabulary and the officers of the Scouts for the capable
work done in the extermination of ladronism here. There now
remains only a small band in the hills, commanded by a notorious
and cowardly thief called Agustin Saria. The Constabulary are
vigorously after him, and his end is no doubt near. Capt. John
W. Swann, captain and inspector in charge in this province, has put
Lieutenant Kellermeyer on the trail of this robber. He has struck
the band several times, and is wearing them down. This same
lieutenant did a fine piece of work in the killing of a peculiarly
cunning and murderous lad rone operating in the district around
the town of Manito, that district now enjoying a much-longed-for
security.
The significance of the ladrone movement, although it affected
the political conditions of the province, was not primarily due to
political motives, but simply to the desire for an easy life on the
part of the left-over malcontents who headed the movement, and
whose previous experience of freebooting in the hills during what
was called the "Filipino revolution" against the American occupa-
tion had been too agreeable to permit them to do anything else than
live by the toil of others. When stable boys, cocheros, and loafers of
various grades, who spent the time in gambling and dancing, were
made majors and colonels and generals, as they were in the time of
the so-called revolution, a return to peaceful conditions could only
result in reducing them to their now despised and humble means
of gaining a living, which was not at all to the taste of the erst-
while and suddenly constituted "leaders of society," to the disgust
of the real society. So that there was nothing to do, according to
their ideas, than to get together a following from the members of
which they could receive their titular honors and through whom
they would be able to instil fear among the peaceful people of the
province, live by the toil of others, commit robberies as a rule,
murder as an incident to the success of their robberies, and restore
24904-6


82
themselves as far as possible to their former high estate. The
leaders, to give color to their thievery and lawlessness, called them-
selves insurrectos, covering their depredations under the style of
measures for the success of the insurrection; affecting to be in-
sulted and humiliated by the application to them of the term that
really expressed their character and purposes, namely, ladrones or
common thieves. They were nothing more. There was never any
desire on the part of the people, in the towns or in the hills, to rise
against the Government. But as there are never wanting ignorant
ones who can be prevailed upon by words or force to follow a leader
of any sort of a movement, so it is not surprising that the leader
of most prominence, and under whose control the other bands oper-
ated, was able to have under him, and thus engaged in the whole
movement, about 600 men. It was never believed, and has not
turned out, that these followers went with him and the subleaders
for reasons of discontent with governmental measures. All the
leaders and the whole body of the men, with the exception of the
little band already mentioned, were captured or surrendered. Of
the leaders, eleven were sentenced to be hanged, of whom one died
in the jail, and nine are in Bilibid Prison awaiting final deter-
mination of sentence by the Supreme Court. This accounts for
ten; the other was executed here on April and was not a ladrone
leader but a volunteer of the town of Oas, named Francisco Ream
tazoj convicted of having helped in the surprise of the garrison
of the Constabulary stationed at Oas, when there were captured
about forty of the guns and over a thousand rounds of ammunition.
Others Were sentenced to thirty years of imprisonment, and three
or four Were killed during the operations; The majority of the
followers were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment and num-
bers of them liberated as being of too little account to be made
an expense on the Government for maintenance during a period of
years.
The noise and turmoil attending the ultimate period of ladronism
here must not be construed against the fair name of Albay, as if
her people had suddenly got to the climax Of a rebellious mood
and had gathered their forces to take final issue with the Govern-
ment. For there Was never deeper-seated allegiance than exists
here, and the people as such were never out of their allegiance
to the United States Government. The condition must be fairly
interpreted; ladronism had been going on here, a6 in almost every


83
other province in the islands, as an incident of the loose political
conditions and police regulations in other times. That it now
became the chief issue in political-conditions was not due to itself,
nor to any increase in numbers of its adherents or spread of senti-
ment in that direction, but because a strong and self-respecting
Government was now concentrating its efforts on the extermination
of this element for the protection of its vast numbers of good
citizens here; its police regulations were being fully enforced, and
it was asserting its absolute sovereignty over every inch of its
territory. It was hunting the ladrones out of their lairs and holes,
making them prominent for their more easy capture; and it was
simply a hue and cry after a gang of miserable thieves who in
themselves are not representative of the society on which they were
preying and could never tarnish the character of the people as a
whole. Ladronism as such did not even reach the significance of
Italian brigandage, Where lawless criminals take the offensive
and attack Government officials and institutions from revengeful
motives, and very often, by their forcefulness and daring, capture the
admiration and sympathy of communities and are able to wage
successful and long-continued warfare against all efforts of their
Government to dislodge them. Ladronism here never had the
sympathy of any community. Its support was to be found only
among a few ambitious discontents in the towns, and, probably, in
other provinces; it succumbed as soon as sufficient efforts were
brought to bear against it; it is not a recurrent thing, as Italian
brigandage is; for, now that it is dead, it will never raise its head
again. It is a thing of the past. It was the last stage of the
ulcer of licencious political conditions that prevailed here before
the establishment of the authority of the United States. And,
further, it should be understood that it did not emanate from among
these people, but that it was a foreign tribal element which was
at the head of the whole movement. The characteristically loyal
and peaceful nature of the natives of this provincethe Bicols
renders safe the assurance that the peace of the province will never
again be disturbed by similar conditions, and that their allegiance
to the Government is firm and secure, it being only necessary to
be watchful to keep out such unwholesome stirrers up of trouble
as embody the seditious relics of the "revolution," and whom, from
thirst for prominence and personal aggrandizement, it is unsafe
to admit into any peaceful and law-abiding community.


84
visit of the commissioners.
A notable incident, the remembrance of which is highly pleasing
to the provincial officials and the people in general, was the visit
to the province, .in July, 1903, of the Hon. Luke E. Wright, Civil
Governor of the Philippine Islands, then Vice-Governor, down here
in representation of Governor Taft, and Commissioner Pardo de
Tavera, accompanied by Executive Secretary Fergusson. This
visit, for the purpose of becoming personally acquainted with the
political situation, was productive of results greatly beneficial to the
complete restoration of peace in the province, as the municipal
officials were greatly stimulated and incited to their best efforts by the
words of good counsel and stimulation addressed to them by the
representatives of the Insular Government. A meeting of all presi-
dentes and other prominent municipal and other officials was held
in the capital at Alb ay, at which the presidentes freely expressed
their views of the situation, gave their observations of events, and
stated what they might consider remedies for the existing con-
ditions. The visiting gentlemen then made a trip into the interior
as far as the town of Gninobatan, returning to Legaspi the next day
and making a sea trip to the town of Tabaco, after which they left
for Manila, carrying with them the grateful thanks of the people
and officials for their opportune visit and for their valuable and
powerful influence and interest in the adjusting of conditions and
forging of a state of affairs that took form shortly after in a much-
desired peace.
Now that the province is well advanced on the highway to its
characteristic prosperity and responds more and more to the impulses
of the economic forces at work to bring this about, the people and
the officials of the province extend a most cordial invitation to the
honorable Civil Governor and to the Commission as a body to
visit ns once more, and, should we be thus honored, the spontaneous
desire of the people will find the occasion most grateful for a
manifestation of hospitable and loving welcome and entertainment.
elections.
These were held in December, on the first Tuesday, in accordance
with law, and were orderly and conducted in good faith generally,
though there were some grave irregularities which cropped out and
made necessary the annulling of six of the elections.


85
As a result of the first elections in the 27 towns of the province,
protests were received from eleven towns, the provincial board
annulling six elections as a consequence.
As a result of the six new elections, held January 12, five- were
protested, the provincial board annulling only one electionthat of
Malilipot. The same candidate was successful in four of the six
cases.
In the town of Malilipot a third election was held, on February
16, in which the candidate elected at the first election was reelected
over his defeat in the second.
It will thus be seen that there was only one case in which the
annulling of the election as first held resulted in a different presi-
dente for the town.
The special trouble was due to the polls having been closed before
the hour set by law, thus preventing a few persons from voting in
every case, which was excused in the investigation before the board
by stating that some were known to be sick, others to be absent from
the town, and similarly. But as the political acumen of the leaders
of the factions would very readily take advantage of this feature,
if allowed, to shut off opposing voters in other elections, and as the
concessions made at these first elections conducted entirely by the
natives would be taken for precedents for what could be done with
impunity in succeeding ones, it was considered proper to draw their
attention very closely to the necessity of observing the law and
allowing the fullest opportunities for a fair election.
There is here, as everywhere else, a great cry of "bossism" in all
the towns, and political feuds, carried over into private life, affect
the successful administration of several of the towns. There are
always two strong factions in the towns, which produces much fric-
tion at election times. The leaders use their influence over the
election judges, and it appeared, in at least one election, that large
numbers of registered voters were excluded from voting without
having been given the notice necessary in order that they might have
been able to defend their right to vote, the names having been
simply excluded by wholesale because they were attacked as those
of unqualified persons by one of the "bosses." The annulments did
them good.
Actual voting was honestly done, and it appeared that, though
the people are largely under the influence of the bosses, the suffrage
was exercised with considerable free will and for sympathetic


86
motivesas everybody knows everybody else in these towns. The
moral effect of the influential candidate and his backers was no doubt
great over the masses of the voters, as it could be known after the
voting whom each had voted for, because the names of the candidates
had to be written on the ballots, and, as a consequence of the inti-
macy of acquaintance, a man's writing could readily be identified;
and it is not to be doubted that many voters did not dare to tempt
the vindictiveness of candidates for whom they had promised to
vote or who held expectations of votes from them, should such
lapses become known, as they certainly would. But bribery was
not frequent, and such cases as were reported turned out, when
examined into, to be nothing that could be so termed. It would
be better if the system of selecting candidates here and the intel-
ligence of the voters would make it possible for the Australian
ballot to be used in elections.
The number of those who vote as compared with the number of
the population is very small. In towns of 10,000 inhabitants only
about 200 votes were cast. In the largest town in the province
Tabaco, having a population of over 20,000the number of voters
was about 500. Of these, probably one-third can not write, and are
thus subject to the wiles of the persons set there to write for them,
and, as it turned out in many instances, some of these persons were
very sedulously working in the interest of one or the other candidate.
The small number of persons voting in the towns is due not only
to the disqualifications effected by the law but to neglect on the part
of a large number to exercise the privilege; to persons having a
property-qualification ability having excluded themselves by declar-
ing property worth 1*500the qualifying amount marked by the
lawas of much less value; to wrong interpretation of the qualifica-
tionsas, for instance, ability to write and read, applying which
some of the qualifying judges were not willing to admit a man as a
voter simply because he could write a name or read one, but required
him to pass a regular literary examination, which resulted in the
exclusion of many.
It is thought that there would be a great stimulus to education if
in all cases ability to read and write were required as a qualification.
It would also help strongly in the emission of the free will of the
voter. Such a law would not exclude many of the voters who are
not excluded now, as there was only an eighth part, on the average,
among those who voted who could neither read nor write. In the


87
town of Albay, of about 240 voters, 30 were innocent of reading
and writing; in Camalig about the same number voted, and there
were about 25 who could not read or write.
The election for governor was held on the 1st and 2d of February,
1904. On the first day the voters could get no further than to
organize the assembly, composed of vice-presidentes and councilmen,
designated by law as holding the elective franchise for election of
governors. Bad weather having prevented many of them from
arriving, it was thought well' not to continue over into a night
session, but to give the belated ones a chance to arrive. They did
not arrive up to the middle of the succeeding day, after the election
had been proceeded with. Two hundred and fourteen was the num-
ber of those who attended, out of a total of 272 councilmen and vice-
presidentes in the province. As stated, bad weather detained a
party of these voters on their way to the election, and the election
was protested by the candidate who claimed the said party as being
of his adherence. The protest failed of effect, and the present gov-
ernor was sustained as elected. The election was orderly and well-
conducted. It took three ballots to elect, the present governor
receiving 111 votes to 52 for the next highest candidate. Nine
persons were voted for, of whom six were avowed candidates.
The Provincial Code has fully answered the purposes for which it
was enacted, and the breadth of its provisions give ample scope for
effective action by the provincial board and the executive.
One of the points that has not been determined is whether the
governor has power to grant leaves of absence to presidentes of
towns when the presidente desires this for causes other than sickness
or disability. Such license to leave the pueblo, or, even, remain
in the town, on a vacation is frequently asked for, and it is desired
that information be given this office as to the extent of the gov-
ernor's power, if he has it, in this direction, or how the presidentes
can be given vacations.
The Municipal Code gives a form of government for the towns
in harmony with the best systems of American city government,
and gives them a measure of autonomy that is of very practical use
to the citizens in inculcating a knowledge of the best principles of
self-government in accordance with American standards. The
power of the old-time presidente has been sufficiently restrained to
give weight to the wishes of the people as expressed through their
councilmen, and the reducing of the chief authority to his legitimate


88
functions as executive only has undoubtedly effected much good in
the management of the towns. The supervision over the town
affairs exercised by the provincial board is well calculated to pro-
duce a feeling of responsibility among the representatives of the
municipalities in their deliberations and measures proposed and
adopted, and it appears that a balance has been struck that neither
represses the natural instinct to independent management of affairs
nor allows immature citizenship to run to extremes.
The working of the Municipal Code has therefore been satisfac-
tory, and if the towns have not secured from its provisions the
fullness of the benefits it confers it is because in many cases it has
not been fully read, even by those who know Spanish. It is, of
course, practically a closed book to many of the councilmen, as in
all the towns there are councilmen who do not understand Spanish.
It is thought that good results would be produced were the Code
translated into Bicol for the benefit of the well-meaning but elemen-
tal members of the councils who speak only the native dialect.
The councilmen have in great measure worked away from the
former dominance of the presidentes, both by operation of the law
and by their grasping of the functions pertaining to them under
the new system. Liberty of thought, of speech, and of action
is becoming more and more apparent, and, in some cases, it even
gets beyond the range of a due regard for the local executive
authority. Can the municipal council hold a meeting, cause one
of the councilmen to preside over it, and absolutely ignore the
presidente, he being present in town and he being the officer called
upon by law to preside over all the meetings of the council? The
presence of a presidente was thus suppressed in a recent meeting
held by a municipal council, against which he protests vigorously.
Under the code, two members of the council can call a meeting, and
the council is also the judge of its own proceedings; in calling a
meeting they are only obliged to notify those who are members of
the council, and as the presidente has no vote except in case of
a tie he is not held to be a member. But shall he not always
preside if he is present in the town and only awaits notice in order
to be present ? Are the acts of the council valid when they suppress
the presence of the presidente? These are points that need to be
settled in order to clear the municipal legislative atmosphere here.
The preparation in deliberative assemblies that the people are
getting will be certain to operate to produce men who will be their


89
fitting representatives in the insular representative assembly that
is to be constituted. Great interest is taken in the body thus
soon to be organized, and it will add greatly to the building up
of self-respecting citizenship.
It is here thought fit to mention the establishment of a United
States Army headquarters post in the province during the fiscal
year, which has been named Camp Daraga. The post is spoken
of at greater length in the part of the report entitled "Social and
sociological."
catanduanes.
During the year the point was agitated as to whether or not it
would be advisable to set up a subgovernment in and for the Island
of Catanduanes, and, after deliberation, the provincial board re-
commended that the honorable Commission institute such a form
of administration for that island. The island, because of its former
isolation, presented rather a problem as to the matter of its proper
administration from the mainland. It has a population of about
35,000, as compared with 200,000 on the mainland, and produced
about one-sixth of the revenue of the province, very little of which
was returned to the island in the shape of improvementsin roads
and other public worksas it should have been. This was not
due to any disposition on the part of the provincial officials to slight
the necessities of the island, but because, the island being 40 miles
away and always difficult to reach on account of the tempestuous
weather that usually prevails in the waters between it and this
section, and the high cost and infreqnency of transportation, a
visit to the island is an expenditure of time and money which could
only be afforded on infrequent occasions, and entailed a neglect of
the pressing necessities of the mainland which was not warranted by
the conditions.
But the laying of the cable to that island, a matter of great
rejoicing both on the part of the people over there and the officials
here, has made communication so easy, with at least the principal
town, and so reduced the former difficulties of getting news from
the others, and the hope of the provincial board that a launch
belonging to the government will be soon acquired" and enable
them to make frequent visits there, have so modified the situation
that the question of subgovernment is not now so vital for the
interests of the island as it would otherwise have been.


90
But for the further economizing of time and as an aid to
efficient administration of the island's affairs, there is no doubt but
that a set of officials over there, subject to the officials on the
mainland, would be a proper step, and the subgovernment is there^
fore recommended.
ADMINISTRATIVE.
Housed in the one existing provincial building, which at the
same time serves as a jail where the provincial prisoners are
confined, and a photograph of which is sent, are the various
administrative departments of the government. Very much more
room is needed than is at the disposal of the chiefs of the various
offices, and it has been the desire of the provincial board to recom
struct as speedily as possible the building, now in ruins, that was
formerly the residence and offices of the Spanish governor. That
building would give ample room for every purpose of office work,
taking in all the departments. The town of Albay, the capital, is
destitute of suitable houses for residence, all the provincial build-
ings, except the one mentioned, being in ruins; and the governor is
obliged to live in the neighboring town of Legaspi, where rents
are very high. If the unfortunate conditions of the ladrone period
had not interfered, the 50,000 pesos returned from the Insular
Government to the provincial government of Albay, in lieu of
certain insurrectory funds collected among the inhabitants of this
province and deposited in the Insular Treasury, would have been
used to rebuild one of the provincial buildings, as plans are now
completed and in the hands of the supervisor for the reconstruction
of one of them, funds only being necessary for their realization. As
it was, the said amount was loaned out to the various towns to
relieve the destitute condition of their people by furnishing them
money to pay the people for their labor on public works. The
necessity for paying high rents for living accommodations by the
provincial officers is a serious inroad in their salaries which it is
not thought was contemplated when the salaries were fixed. The
cost of living in this province is higher than in any other, prob-
ably, in the Islands.
Salaries of provincial officers are too small. It is expected, and
properly so, that provincial officers should live in a style becoming
their positions. They must do this, or they forfeit the respect
of the people of the province. Unless they are paid better salaries
the people will feel that they are considered of little importance


91
by the authorities at Manila, and the people will take a similar
viewthat is, referring to the officers. Provincial officers are with-
out the perquisites of Army officers and the representatives of
English firms doing business here. To live in the same style costs
them more. They are expected to dG considerable entertaining, and
are frequently embarrassed for the necessary funds. Worry over this
matter detracts their minds from their official duties. A man
whose mind is easy on his private affairs can render more valuable
official services than one who is constantly trying to keep out of
debt and make both ends meet. This subject is a serious one,
affecting officers and employees, and demands and merits prompt
attention.
living quarters for officers.
The Government should build comfortable houses, with modern
improvements, for provincial officers. There are several reasons
why this should be done:
(1) In Albay, the capital of the province, there is only one
building, which is owned by private parties, suitable for the resi-
dence of a provincial officer. That is a very poorly constructed
house, and it brings 1*125 rent per month.
(2) The people of this province have never seen a well-constructed
residence with modern improvements. Four or five such houses
built here would be an object lesson to the native which might
result in general improvement of residential facilities of the
province.
(3) Most important of all is the influence they would have on
the native estimate of the provincial officer and of the provincial
government. The Government has built comfortable quarters for
the Army officers in our province; the English firms doing business
here have furnished splendid homes for their agents, tending to
show that they- are here to stay; but there is no such indication as
to the permanency of the occupancy of the civil officials. This
is an important point.
It is very unfortunate that all the public buildings at the capital
at Albay should have been destroyed just at about the time of
American occupation. Were they all rebuilt they could be used to
great effect in the proper administration of the affairs of the
province: The provincial treasury is in great need of more room
for the conduct of the extensive business embraced by that depart-
ment. So, also, with the governor's, supervisor's, and, in fact,


92
almost all the offices. The Court of First Instance should be
given more room, or, at least, so situated in a building that it
would be free from the disturbing noises that now interfere greatly
with the operations of the court. A building for a high school is
much needed in the capital town of Alb ay. This school is now
being conducted in a hired building in the town of G-uinobatan. The
location in Albay would be a much more favorable one. No new
schoolhouses were built during the past year, most of the towns
being fairly well provided for in that respect. But there are
notable exceptions, and this fact has been appreciated by the pro-
vincial board. A resolution was passed requesting of the honorable
Commission the appropriation of 1*35,000 of the Congressional
relief fund for the building and repairing of schoolhouses, to
be taken out of the total of said funds in the hands of the
provincial treasurer awaiting disposition. This was granted. It
is now felt, however, that this amount, when distributed among the
towns needing to build or repair schoolhouses, will be insufficient,
only bamboo and nipa improvements being possible therewith. On
the other hand, the urgent necessity of a high-school building can
be very well satisfied by the investment of this whole sum in a
permanent edifice, and it is the purpose to request the change of
this appropriation to the second use mentioned.
The public schools have done most commendable and important
work in the dissemination of instruction and, principally, of a
knowledge of the English language, which has reached not only
to the boys and girls of tender age but has included the young
men and women of the province, and even those of mature age, so
that there is a very gratifying foundation laid in the province in
the English language. The teaching of the language has been
imparted from the pursuit of studies from books written in English,
and it is only fair to state that the knowledge thus gained is
stronger and more comprehensive and more lasting than could
possibly have been reached by a purely philological method of
instruction. Children speak the language everywhere on the
streets; they play baseball, and shout to one another in English;
the youth are everywhere ready and proud to show their knowledge
of it, and many of them have passed examinations and acquired
positions as insular teachers at salaries beyond the dreams of
what a teacher was supposed to be entitled to in Spanish times;
and, in general, all who have taken pains to acquire the language,


93
as well as it may be in a few years, have been well rewarded for
their trouble. Two young men, sufficiently proficient in English
to pass the requisite examination, were selected and sent to the
United States by the Insular Government at the cost of the Govern-
ment, there to pursue studies for three years or so that, it is
hoped, will make them fit exponents of American ideas, customs,
and progress on their return to the province. This has stimulated
immensely the study of English.
Since the commencement of the present administration visits
of inspection have been made to all the towns on the mainland of
the province, and to the islands, except Catanduanes, though an
expensive attempt was made to reach the towns there, which failed
on account of the very bad weather prevailing at the time. This
weather set in suddenly after start had been made by hired launch,
the frustration of this visit being a very expensive experience for
the province, as the launch had been hired on a ten-day contract
and had to be paid for. This is an argument in favor of the
granting of the request of the province that a launch be assigned
to it for use in visiting these coast towns, as they are, speaking of
those on the mainland coast, most easily reached by water, while
this is the most expensive means of doing so if the boat has tojie
hired. For good administration of the Island of Catanduanes the
possession of a launch by the province is an absolute necessity.
The water area of the province is very extensive, and the posses-
sion of means for water transportation follows as a necessary
result.
As a result of the Governor's visits of inspection referred to,
letters were written to all the towns inspected on the subjects of
"public order"calling their attention to the lessons of the recent
disturbed period and cautioning them to the adoption of measures
that will insure speedy extermination of the few remaining outlaws
and prevent any possibility of its recurrence in the future; of
"unity of action" on the part of officials and people of the towns
for the public welfare; "hygiene;" "roads"urging the adoption
of means in the various towns to repair their own roads; "public
instruction;" "trade"urging the adoption of better measures in
the production of the hemp fiber, looking toward a finer and better
product, which will bring in money returns more than the equivalent
of labor expended; "economy in administration and efficient aid to
the treasury in the collection of taxes." Other circulars have alsr


94
been written from time to time, and with frequency, on all the
important points affecting the proper administration of the munici-
palities and the province as a whole.
The administration of the various departments by the chiefs
thereof has been most efficient and praiseworthy. The difficulties
besetting the path of administration during the past fiscal year have
not been few, and most creditable work has been done by the chiefs.
Each department has been called upon to devise ways to meet
unexpected situations, to which it has responded in an admirable
manner, and the leading feature of the year in administrative work
has been the tax on the resourcefulness of the heads of the offices.
The governor takes this occasion to express his appreciation of the
good work of all the heads of offices, and his gratification that the
cordial relations existing among those in executive positions has
never been marred by the least discord during the year.
Each of the departments renders its annual report to the executive
head in Manila, and it is not the intention to do more than indicate
generally in this report what has been accomplished by the other
branches of the administration of the province.
The work of the provincial treasury is sketched in a general
manner in the part of this report dealing with revenue. That
officer has just rendered a Very exhaustive and detailed report to the
Insular Treasurer treating of the work of his department for the
fiscal year just ended.
The supervisor's department spent a total of 1*18,469.07 during
the year, as a result of the use of which 19 miles of road Were
repaired, both substantially and lightly, four bridges Were repaired,
four buildings were constructed, five buildings were repaired, three
surveys were made, transportation equipmentchiefly mules, and
one wagonto the value of 1*4,374.50 was acquired, two telegraph
lines Were constructed, and 387.5 cubic yards of stone were quarried
almost entirely by prison labor.
During the time of living in restricted areas by the people two
wooden bridges Were built in exchange for rice furnished for labor,
one of the bridges being in the town of Libon and another between
the towns of Oas and Polangui, Where bridges Were very much
needed. A provincial hospital, of bamboo and nipa materials, Was
built, and later a veranda was built around it. The main road
between Legaspi and Guinbbatan, a distance of about 14 miles,


95
was the object of repairs along the whole length indicated during
the year.
Another road which received attention during the year was what
is known as the Gogon Road, between Daraga and Legaspi, running
parallel with and about a mile and a half over from the camino real.
This road is intended for use of the carabao carts, taking most of
the heavy traffic for this distance off the camino real. The carabao-
cart traffic is about evenly divided between the two roads at present.
This has always been a most impassable and neglected section of the
road, and the money spent in its repair has been of substantial
benefit to the traffic of the province and to the economizing of the
good work placed on the main road.
sheriff.
The sheriff's duties have been continuous, and the orders and
processes have been on the whole well carried out by the system of
deputy sheriffs established throughout the province; The president
of each town is the deputy of the provincial sheriff in his town.
Delays are sometimes occasioned by the slowness of transportation
and means of communication in certain parts of the province.
During the year the highest number of prisoners which the sheriff
has had under his care was 740. This most unusual number, due
to the surrender of large numbers of the followers of the bandit
leaders, had to be divided into three carcel's, for which purpose a
building had to be temporarily prepared in Albay and a large
almacen hived in Legaspi) at a cost of $500, gold, per month, which
gives some idea of the cost of rent in that town. The prison records
show that 350 men entered the jail on the 26th of October and 30
or 40 move during the tiext few days after that date. A number
of these ignorant and deluded followers of the bandit chiefs were
liberated by the judge of the Court of First Instance, chiefly for
Want of proof against them, many of them having simply been
vaguely accused of being sympathizers of the bandits, or, in other
cases, they were those who had either not heard of the order
requiring law-abiding citizens to repair to the towns to live during
the disturbed period or had chosen to disobey the order, due to the
difficulty for them to make a living in the town, while they could
always subsist in some Way in the hills. These people Were not
criminals in the sense that the actual followers of the bandits were.
In the photograph of the administration building of Albay are seen


96
a multitude of persons drawn up in front of the building. The bulk
of these are the surrendered followers of the ladrones, guarded by
a Constabulary detachment and with the provincial officials and
employees as witnesses of the scene.
During the year 191 prisoners sentenced to more than two years'
imprisonment were sent to Manila for confinement in Bilibid
Prison. At present there are 194 prisoners confined here, all being
males. Of this number 21 are awaiting sentence. The jail proper,
which is now the back part of the government building, can hold
about 200 prisoners.
When the present provincial medical officer, Dr. Shannon Rich-
mond, took charge an infections disease was insidiously and effec-
tively at work among the prisoners, there being an alarming death
rate at the time. Before the doctor came it had been thought
to be beri-beri, but after his diagnosis and one or two autopsies it was
discovered to be scurvy. It was then possible to give proper treat-
ment, and the disease was checked after a short time. The health
conditions of the prison are now very satisfactory. The provincial
prison hospital has been of great utility in the proper treatment
of diseases among the prisoners and in furnishing much-needed
accommodations for the sick.
suspensions of municipal officers.
There has been some trouble with heads of municipalities, and
suspensions have had to be made in at least two cases to date. The
left-over animus of the recent elections proved too strong for the
peace of a community in one case; and ease of election, followed
by a triumph over a protest, made another official so secure in his
position that he left room for charges of inefficiency to be preferred
against him. Investigations of these cases were made by the
provincial board May 20 and May 27, and the papers were sent
to Manila on May 26 and June 22, with recommendations favorable
to the suspended officials in each instance, for the action of the
Civil Governor.
A change in the municipal law that is likely to be of much benefit
to the towns and has already shown signs of the good results to be
expected from it is the provision making the provincial treasurer
the appointing head of all the municipal treasurers. This gives
the heretofore needed freedom of action in the administration of
this important branch of the town's affairs to an official whose work
was much hampered by the interference of the town presidentes.


97
financial.
taxation and revenue.
The land tax, the cedula or poll tax, the patente tax, and the
forestry tax have, as a whole, returned a fair yield for the support
of the provincial government. The cednla tax is well paid by the
people; tradition and age are in its favor, as it is a continuation of
one of the features of the Spanish system of taxation. The land
tax is not so well paid, and returns from this source are insufficient
when the universality of the tax is considered. But it appears that
it does not reach as many people as it should, because numerous
holdings throughout the province are not declared as to their owners,
and the machinery of the provincial treasury and the means within
the power of the provincial treasurer for forcing to light the prin-
cipal persons on whom the charge should rest and for making collec-
tions at the best times have not heretofore been large or varied
enough. Now that the municipal treasurers are appointed by
the provincial treasurer and many of them constituted his deputies,
he is really given an increased force with an intimate knowledge
of facts essential to the proper laying and collecting of taxes in
the various towns, and it is believed that this will produce much
better results from the land tax.
The total receipts of the province from taxes in operation here
amounted to 1*132,622.09, Philippine currency, and Pfs. 204,805.11,
local currency, making a total, with the local currency reduced to
Philippine currency at the rate of 1.13 to 1, of 1*310,800.63.
Balances in the provincial treasury at the close of the fiscal year
June 30, 1904, were as follows:
Item.
General fund_____________
Road fund________________
Congressional relief fund.
Municipal ledger_________
Forestry tax______________
Municipal deposits_______
Deposits for exchange____
Law-and-order fund______
Official Gazette___________
Deductions from salary
Total_______________
Philippine
currency.
F14,452.24
3,460.48
54,671.56
26,802.27
979.21
8,029.36
19,161.16
3,259.44
132.00
133.33
131,081.05
Local cur-
rency.
24904-


98
Of provincial receipts the greater part was spent, owing to the
critical financial situation in which the province was thrown by
the operation of the measures for maintaining the people within
restricted living areas, when the source of its supply of funds was
cut off; and not only that, but there was a clamor on the part of the
towns and of the people for loans for the support of the needy,
which had to be complied with by the provincial government.
Then, the debts of the province had been accumulating, and had
to be paid off as far as they could be at the same time when these
other unusual drains were doing their work in diminishing the
provincial board.
The province owes some considerable sums to the Insular Pur-
chasing Agent, on which it is now making large payments. The
confident belief is that it will soon be free from debt. Given the
ordinary economical and political conditions that prevail here, then
the financial condition of the province is always a flourishing one.
As stated in reports of the former Governor Betts, the revenues of
the province are ample to run the government on a very liberal basis.
That is the normal condition of things, and that is the result
expected the coming year. As soon as the beneficent influences of
time and good weather shall have given us increased hemp crops and
thus caused business conditions to recuperate, there will be a stream
of gold flowing into the treasury that will place the province in the
happy position of being able to pay off its debts without delay and
go on to make much-needed public improvements that are only
waiting on the realization of these conditions.
new taxes.
The laying of a tax on inheritances is recommended. It would
no doubt yield a very pretty sum, and would serve to supplement the
deficiency that appears through the operation of the land tax. This
country having been developed under European systems for several
hundred years, responds in the way that European nations do to
the laying of certain kinds of taxes that might in the United States
be somewhat unpopular, as, for instance, the cedula tax. The
inheritance tax is a European tax, but has so much to commend it
that it has already been adopted in some parts of the United States,
and is suitable to the fiscal system of this country. Prompt pay-
ment of the tax would be one of its pleasing features, as the tax is
in strict accord with one of the best canons of taxation, providing


Full Text

PAGE 1

THIR D ANNUA L REPOR T O F TH E EX ] EOTJTIV E SECRETAR Y T O TH E Pi CIVI L GOVERNO R FO R TH E YEA R ENDE D SEPTEMBE R 30 190 4 FO R US E ONL Y MANIL A BUREA U O F PUBLI C PRINTIN G 190 4 I N TH E LIBRAR Y •2490 4

PAGE 3

THIR D ANNUA L REPOR T O F TH E EXECUTIV E SECRETAR Y T O TH E CIVI L GOVERNO R FO R TH E YEA R ENDE D SEPTEMBE R 30 190 4 MANIL A BUREA U O F PUBLI C PRINTIN G 190 4

PAGE 5

THIR D ANNUA L REPOR T O F TH E EXECUTIV E SECRETAR Y T O TH E CIVI L GOVERNOR MANILA October 1, 190k. SIR : I have th e hono r t o submi t th e followin g repor t o f th e wor k o f th e Executive Burea u fo r th e yea r endin g Septembe r 30 1904 : Th e scop e o f th e wor k o f thi s Burea u a s reorganize d wa s se t fort h i n detai l i n m y las t annua l report and a s ther e ha s bee n n o materia l chang e therein i t wil l b e unnecessar y t o dwel l upo n tha t subjec t i n thi s repor t furthe r tha n i t wil l b e touche d upo n unde r th e subhead s hereinafte r following BUREA U PERSONNEL Th e featur e o f thi s subjec t tha t stand s ou t wit h grea t prominenc e i s th e feverishl y unsettle d conditio n o f th e Philippin e civi l servic e a s fa r a s thi s Burea u i s concerned Th e forc e a t presen t employe d i n th e Burea u consist s o f 2 officials 1 chie f clerk 1 recorder 1 la w clerk 6 chief s o f division 8 privat e secretaries 9 5 clerk s an d messengers an d 1 4 laborers a tota l o f 12 8 (5 2 American s an d 7 6 Filipinos) a s agains t 12 3 fo r th e previou s year Durin g th e yea r ther e hav e bee n th e followin g changes : Amer Filipi icans nos 2 3 4 7 6 8 5 1 3 1 0 4 1 5 Permanen t appointment s __ Temporar y appointment s Resignation s Transfer s t o othe r Bureaus Removal s (al l messengers) Thi s statemen t show s tha t ther e ha s bee n a n aggregat e o f 4 7 separation s an d 8 4 ne w appointment s i n a tota l forc e o f 128 Th e resul t o f thi s stat e o f affair s ha s bee n t o cas t upo n th e chief s o f divisio n an d th e olde r employee s th e brun t o f th e wor k an d re 3

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4 sponsibility naturall y heavie r tha n woul d hav e bee n th e cas e ha d th e entir e forc e bee n thoroughl y traine d i n th e Burea u work I n additio n t o th e performanc e o f thei r officia l duties th e olde r employee s hav e bee n require d t o instruc t an d trai n th e constan t strea m o f ne w appointees wh o woul d ver y often a t th e beginning b e onl y a n additiona l hindranc e instea d o f renderin g materia l assistanc e wher e i t wa s mos t needed Thi s difficult y ha s bee n mor e particularl y fel t i n th e actio n divisions ther e bein g eve n no w a deart h o f thoroughl y traine d clerk s experience d i n th e wor k o f th e Burea u wh o ar e abl e t o tak e th e initiativ e i n matter s importan t a s wel l a s routinary an d t o instruc t employee s i n th e lowe r grades thereb y bein g o f rea l assistanc e t o th e chief s o f division Asid e fro m this th e Burea u ha s no t eve n ha d th e benefit durin g th e entir e year o f th e service s o f al l o f th e olde r employee s i n th e highe r grade s stil l o n th e rolls th e followin g bein g a t presen t o n leav e o f absenc e i n th e Unite d States : Th e chie f clerk Recorde r o f th e Commission la w cler k (wh o ha s jus t resigned a s mentione d elsewher e i n thi s report) disbursin g officer tw o privat e secretarie s t o Commissioners an d tw o clerk s clas s 7 i n additio n t o whic h I hav e bee n absen t mysel f fo r fiv e months a s state d elsewhere Al l o f th e position s mentioned wit h th e exceptio n o f tha t o f th e disbursin g officer hav e bee n fille d temporaril y b y draw in g upo n official s an d clerk s i n th e nex t lowe r grades Mos t o f th e absence s i n thi s Bureau a s undoubtedl y i n othe r Bureaus ar e du e t o th e fac t tha t th e employee s wh o hav e serve d th e Insula r Governmen t sinc e th e firs t an d secon d year s o f it s inauguratio n hav e earne d an d ar e takin g a neede d rest Th e existenc e i n th e United State s o f th e St Loui s Expositio n ha s prove d a n adde d attractio n t o dra w clerk s home However i n spit e o f thes e abnorma l conditions i t i s gratifyin g t o b e abl e t o stat e tha t th e genera l publi c busines s o f th e Burea u ha s no t bee n delayed an d a sourc e o f satisfactio n t o not e th e effort s mos t o f th e member s o f th e forc e hav e mad e t o kee p u p wit h th e wor k an d th e jus t prid e the y hav e fel t i n thei r success Thei r clos e applicatio n i s eloquentl y testifie d t o b y th e fac t tha t durin g th e yea r the y hav e performe d voluntaril y twenty-fou r thousan d fiv e hundre d an d eighty-thre e hour s o f overtime o r thre e thousan d seve n hundre d an d eighty-tw o workin g day s o f si x an d one-hal f hour s each a n averag e o f thre e hundre d an d fiftee n day s pe r month fo r whic h n o extr a compensatio n i s allowed

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5 I t wa s attempte d thi s yea r agai n t o permi t th e clerk s o f th e Burea u t o enjo y th e shorte r hour s provide d b y la w fo r th e "heate d term, bu t a fe w day s suffice d t o demonstrat e th e fac t tha t unde r presen t condition s th e employee s o f th e Executive Burea u ma y no t hop e t o com e withi n th e provision s o f th e secon d provis o o f sectio n 1 o f Ac t No 1040 no r t o shorte n th e offic e hour s a t an y tim e o f th e yea r whil e th e chief s an d official s o f othe r Bureau s tha t hav e a continuou s sessio n o f si x an d one-hal f hour s continu e t o pa y thei r respect s t o thi s Burea u afte r closin g thei r ow n office s fo r th e day Whil e ther e ha s bee n a stead y increas e i n th e quantit y o f wor k ove r th e precedin g year th e relativ e increas e ha s no t bee n s o grea t b y fa r a s i n forme r years owin g principall y t o th e fac t tha t th e Insula r Governmen t i s no w firmly organized an d furthe r increase s i n th e wor k wil l depen d naturall y upo n th e economica l developmen t o f th e Island s an d thei r prosperity Th e unexpecte d ma y happe n a t an y time o f course bu t i t i s though t that unde r norma l condi tions wit h it s entir e forc e o n dut y th e Burea u wil l b e abl e t o respon d t o al l call s upo n it Durin g m y absenc e fro m th e Island s fo r five month s dischargin g th e dutie s impose d upo n m e b y th e provision s o f Ac t No 108 0 (amendator y o f No 1030) referre d t o elsewher e i n thi s report Mr Fran k W Carpenter Assistan t Executiv e Secretary ha d restin g upo n hi m th e combine d dutie s o f hi s ow n offic e an d o f th e Executiv e Secretary an d fro m Decembe r 24 1903 th e dat e o f th e vacatio n o f th e offic e o f Secretar y o f Commerc e an d Polic e an d th e assumptio n o f th e dutie s o f Actin g Civi l Governo r b y th e presen t Civi l Gov ernor unti l Augus t 8 1904 th e dat e o f th e inductio n int o offic e o f Secretar y o f Commerc e an d Polic e o f th e Hon W Camero n Forbes ther e als o devolve d upo n Mr Carpenter t o a ver y larg e extent th e discharg e o f th e dutie s o f thi s latte r office Tha t h e performe d al l thes e dutie s wit h abilit y an d efficienc y i s vouche d fo r b y hi s excellen t recor d an d th e hig h standard s h e ha s eve r se t fo r himself RETRENCHMEN T THROUG H REORGANIZATIO N AN D SYSTEMATIZATION Th e Philippin e Commission durin g th e discussio n o f th e las t appropriatio n bill suggeste d th e necessit y o f retrenchmen t i n th e matte r o f th e fixed charge s o f th e Government Thi s Burea u a t onc e se t abou t t o devis e a pla n whereb y th e wishe s o f th e Commis sio n i n th e premise s migh t b e realized Havin g evolve d wha t i t

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6 considere d th e mos t feasibl e plan i t wa s a t onc e pu t int o practic e i n a tentativ e way an d it s working s hav e bee n snc h tha t i t em bolden s m e t o submi t i t t o th e Civi l Governor a s als o th e advisa bilit y o f extendin g it s scop e shoul d i t mee t hi s approva l an d tha t o f th e head s o f th e Executive Departments s o a s t o includ e al l th e Bureau s o f th e Insula r Government I t i s no t claime d tha t th e pla n hereinbelo w outline d ha s an y o f th e element s o f novelty but a s i t seem s t o mee t th e end s sough t an d henc e commend s itsel f t o me I submi t i t fo r wha t i t i s worth Wit h th e gradua l extensio n o f administrativ e organizatio n ther e necessaril y ha s bee n a continua l increas e i n th e fixed charge s o f th e Governmen t fo r salarie s an d wage s an d contingen t offic e expenses an d th e presen t tim e seem s opportun e fo r callin g a halt a s th e preliminar y formativ e perio d ha s ended Ther e stil l remain s o f th e presen t fiscal yea r a sufficien t perio d withi n whic h t o prepar e fo r reorganizatio n upo n a mor e economica l an d n o les s efficien t basi s wit h th e beginnin g o f th e nex t yea r (Jul y 1 1905) whe n i t i s believe d ther e shoul d b e a genera l reorganizatio n i n th e clerica l an d othe r nontechnica l personne l o f al l Bureaus I n vie w o f th e fallin g of f i n th e revenue s o f th e Governmen t an d th e recognize d necessit y fo r retrenchment th e Executiv e Burea u i s prepare d t o contribut e it s shar e towar d th e reductio n o f expense s an d t o submi t estimate s fo r curren t expense s fo r th e fiscal yea r 190 6 lookin g t o a considerabl e decreas e i n authorize d expenditur e fo r salarie s an d wage s an d contingen t expenses I t i s expecte d tha t thi s ma y b e accomplishe d b y reorganizatio n o f personne l an d becaus e o f th e fac t tha t th e offic e equipment whil e no t s o complet e o r elabo rat e a s i s desired i s nevertheles s adequat e fo r th e presen t an d unti l conditions shal l hav e change d t o a degre e warrantin g furthe r con siderabl e expenditur e o n thi s account Thi s doe s no t mea n t o sa y tha t th e wor k o f th e Burea u ha s decrease d durin g th e pas t year no r tha t ther e i s an y decreas e expecte d durin g th e comin g year bu t that b y a redistributio n o f wor k i n recognitio n o f th e increas in g capacit y o f Filipin o clerk s an d th e discontinuanc e o f severa l position s abov e clas s 9 a reductio n ma y b e effecte d i n th e estimate d expenditur e fo r salarie s an d wages Th e cours e no w bein g followe d i n pursui t o f thi s en d i s a reassignmen t o f dutie s an d redistributio n o f work th e theor y o f whic h i s tha t n o dut y whic h ma y b e performe d b y a messenge r shal l b e assigne d t o a clerk ; tha t n o employe e o f Clas s H shal l

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7 perfor m dutie s whic h ma y b e performe d b y a n employe e o f Clas s K ; no r tha t a n employe e o f clas s 7 shal l b e permitte d o r require d t o occup y hi s tim e wit h dutie s whic h ma y b e discharge d b y a n employe e o f a lowe r grade ; i n othe r words a progressiv e distribu tio n o f th e wor k o f th e Bureau beginnin g wit h employee s i n th e lowes t classe s an d workin g upward assignin g eac h highe r clas s dutie s requirin g knowledg e o r responsibilit y whic h properl y ma y no t b e exacte d o f an y lowe r class Thi s leave s a greatl y reduce d amoun t o f wor k fo r assignmen t t o eipployee s abov e clas s 9 an d therefor e certai n position s i n classe s abov e thi s latte r ma y b e dis continue d graduall y withou t detrimen t t o th e efficien t an d promp t discharg e o f business Certai n o f thes e position s i n th e Executiv e Burea u hav e becom e vacan t throug h th e ordinar y casualtie s o f service an d th e vacancie s wil l no t b e filled; othe r position s wil l b e vacate d durin g th e nex t hal f year and shoul d i t becom e apparent whe n th e las t quarte r o f thi s fiscal yea r arrives tha t b y th e en d o f th e yea r th e offic e forc e wil l no t reac h th e contemplate d re duction th e name s o f individual s whos e position s i t i s desire d t o discontinu e wil l b e reporte d t o th e Civi l Servic e Boar d wit h th e necessar y statemen t o f efficienc y an d qualifications i n orde r tha t the y ma y b e transferre d t o vacancie s tha t mus t b e filled i n othe r Bureaus T o carr y thi s pla n ou t require s continuous intelligen t an d loya l effor t o n th e par t o f th e chie f cler k an d th e chief s o f division s an d sections Th e valu e o f eac h o f thes e assistants lik e tha t o f a Burea u chief i s determine d b y th e rati o o f work-wbffeh F result s t o expenditures Th e reductio n o f fixed charge s i n offic e expense s ma y b e effecte d onl y b y a clea r understandin g o n th e par t o f al l responsibl e official s an d employee s tha t th e Governmen t i s no t a n eleemosynar y institu tion bu t a corporat e bod y boun d t o giv e th e publi c th e highes t possibl e degre e o f servic e an d benefit s a t th e lowes t cos t i n taxe s upo n privat e fund s an d conveniences an d t o thi s en d n o expens e no t essentia l t o suc h servic e an d benefit s ma y b e tolerated I t i s th e dut y o f ever y employe e havin g th e immediat e supervisio n an d directio n o f subordinate s t o instruc t an d prepar e eaj3 h o f th e latte r t o fill th e positio n nex t highe r tha n tha t h e holds an d an y officia l o r employe e wh o fail s t o pursu e conscientiousl y thi s cours e o f impartin g an d receivin g instruction s shoul d b e require d t o see k employmen t elsewher e tha n i n th e Governmen t service

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8 I n thi s wa y only—b y formin g a competen t personne l fro m th e loca l supply—ma y th e Governmen t hop e t o escap e th e heav y ex pens e occasione d b y relianc e upo n th e larg e proportio n o f importe d employee s a t presen t utilize d fo r nontechnica l positions A s complementar y t o th e foregoin g plan an d i n th e convictio n tha t econom y i n tim e an d expens e i s secure d b y havin g a concis e an d unifor m se t o f rule s fo r th e conduc t o f busines s i n al l th e office s o f th e Insula r Governmen t an d it s dependencie s (whic h i s no t no w th e case) ther e i s attache d hereto marke d "Appendi x A, a draf t o f propose d rule s prepare d b y th e Assistan t Executiv e Secretary whic h i s respectfull y submitte d fo r th e consideratio n o f th e Civi l Governo r an d head s o f th e Executiv e Departments TH E NE W LA W A S T O "VACATIO N LEAVES. Th e provisio n o f la w authorizin g th e grantin g o f vacatio n leav e (Ac t No 1040 sec 3 ) an d abolishin g th e sick-leav e privilege s heretofor e authorize d has i n a genera l way prove n entirel y satis factor y t o thi s Burea u an d i s considere d a n improvemen t upo n forme r legislatio n upo n th e subjec t o f leave A t th e clos e o f Septembe r o f thi s yea r (th e above-cite d ac t havin g bee n i n forc e abou t eigh t an d one-hal f months ) pe r cen t o f th e tota l Burea u personne l ha d use d al l vacatio n leav e du e fo r th e year pe r cen t ha d use d one-hal f an d over 1 8 pe r cen t ha d use d on e o r tw o weeks 3 2 pe r cen t a fe w day s only an d 1 6 pe r cen t none Som e o f th e latte r wil l b e abl e t o us e al l o r a portio n o f thei r vacatio n befor e th e clos e o f th e year abou t one-hal f o f the m havin g signifie d thei r intentio n no t t o us e an y unles s ill Th e advantag e o f th e ne w syste m ove r th e forme r i s tha t i t encourage s trave l i n th e Islands thereb y broadenin g th e view s o f th e clerk s an d givin g the m a keene r interes t i n thei r work an d afford s the m a n opportunit y t o tak e res t an d recreatio n whic h formerl y wa s impossibl e withou t utilizin g a portio n o f th e accumulate d accrue d leave which t o th e America n clerk s a t least wa s obnoxiou s i n tha t the y wer e anxiou s t o sav e th e latte r fo r a visi t t o th e United States th e consequenc e bein g tha t the y ofte n remaine d tie d dow n t o thei r desk s unti l actuall y to o il l t o continue Thi s naturall y impaire d thei r efficienc y an d ofte n resulte d i n th e permanen t los s o f th e service s o f a goo d clerk Unde r th e presen t syste m i f a cler k happen s t o desir e a fe w day s

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9 o f res t o r recreation eve n whil e enjoyin g goo d health—an d occa siona l "breathin g spells ten d t o pu t ever y cler k i n a bette r fram e o f min d an d improve d physica l condition enablin g hi m t o with stan d bette r th e effect s o f th e climat e o r o f overwork—h e ma y d o s o withou t th e los s o f pa y o r accrue d leave I f h e happen s t o b e indispose d o r physicall y ru n dow n i t i s onl y necessar y fo r hi m t o ge t informa l permissio n fro m hi s chie f t o b e absen t fo r a fe w days and eithe r befor e leavin g th e offic e o r afte r returnin g t o duty fill ou t th e require d applicatio n fo r vacatio n leav e coverin g th e period thu s doin g awa y wit h th e medica l certificat e nuisanc e whic h wa s on e o f th e concomitant s o f th e "sick-leave provisio n o f th e forme r system th e abolishmen t o f whic h wa s a mov e i n th e righ t direction Th e presen t syste m doe s awa y wit h al l investigatio n int o th e •questio n o f whethe r th e absenc e o f a cler k i s du e t o illnes s an d repugnan t an d inquisitoria l examinatio n int o th e natur e an d caus e o f th e same S o lon g a s a cler k ha s vacatio n leav e t o hi s credi t an d informa l permissio n t o b e absen t n o furthe r question s ar e asked Th e la w require s tha t vacatio n leav e mus t b e take n withi n th e calenda r yea r fo r whic h granted an d i t ca n no t accumulat e i n th e sam e manne r a s accrue d leave I f a cler k i s absen t o n accoun t o f illnes s afte r h e ha s exceede d hi s vacatio n leav e suc h absenc e i s charge d agains t hi s accrue d leave A s a consequenc e clerk s ar e naturall y reluctan t t o tak e thei r vaca tio n leav e durin g th e first hal f an d middl e portio n o f th e calenda r year fearin g the y migh t b e take n il l late r an d befor e th e clos e o f th e yea r an d hav e th e absenc e occasione d thereb y charge d t o accrue d leave I n vie w o f thi s natura l propensit y o f th e clerks an d recog nizin g th e tendenc y o n th e par t o f th e majorit y o f thos e i n thi s Burea u t o wor k overtime an d i n orde r t o preserv e thei r healt h an d kee p thei r menta l vigo r unimpaire d an d t o preven t man y absence s withi n a shor t perio d fro m seriousl y embarrassin g th e wor k o f th e Bureau th e clerk s wer e give n t o understand afte r th e passag e o f th e act tha t th e chance s o f a n applicatio n fo r vaca tio n leav e bein g approve d decrease d wit h th e approac h o f th e closin g month s o f th e year Eac h chie f o f divisio n likewis e wa s tol d tha t h e mus t arrang e th e grantin g o f vacatio n leave s wit h respec t t o th e wor k an d personne l o f hi s divisio n independen t o f th e othe r divi sions Th e result s hav e bee n tha t som e clerk s tak e al l thei r vacatio n leav e early other s tak e onl y a portion reservin g th e balanc e fo r us e

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1 0 durin g possibl e illness an d stil l other s decid e t o reserv e al l agains t possibl e illness an d that whil e a numbe r o f clerk s hav e bee n absen t fro m th e Burea u a t th e sam e tim e a t variou s periods ther e wer e neve r s o man y absen t fro m an y on e divisio n a s t o seriousl y interfer e wit h th e wor k thereof thoug h i t undoubtedl y increase d somewha t th e amoun t o f overtim e wor k pu t i n b y thos e remainin g o n duty Ther e i s o f cours e th e possibilit y o f a cler k fallin g pre y t o a seriou s malad y whic h woul d necessitat e hi s absenc e fro m th e offic e fo r a perio d longe r tha n th e la w allow s fo r vacatio n leave bu t ther e are unfortunately alway s unavoidabl e case s o f individua l hardship s arisin g unde r ever y genera l provisio n o f law Another thin g i n favo r o f th e vacatio n leav e i s tha t i t ma y b e take n i n connectio n wit h accrue d leave an d thu s enable s clerk s t o pla n fo r mor e extende d trips eithe r hom e o r t o neighborin g countries I n short i t i s believe d tha t th e la w a s administere d i n thi s Bureau an d i n it s beneficia l result s wit h respec t t o it s force ha s don e "th e greates t goo d t o th e greates t number. MUNICIPA L AN D PROVINCIA L ELECTIONS Th e genera l municipa l election s fo r th e yea r 190 2 wer e postpone d unti l th e firs t Tuesda y i n May 1903 b y executiv e orde r o f th e Civi l Governo r date d Novembe r 17 1902 s o a s t o preven t a chang e o f municipa l official s durin g th e takin g o f th e census ; an d again b y Ac t No 73 0 (enacte d Apri l 8 1903) unti l th e firs t Tuesda y i n December 1903 o n accoun t o f th e consolidatio n o f municipalitie s i n a larg e numbe r o f provinces Th e genera l elec tion s wer e th e secon d hel d sinc e th e establishmen t o f civi l govern men t i n th e Islands Th e Burea u fo r som e week s prio r t o th e dat e o f th e sam e wa s floode d wit h mai l an d telegraphi c inquirie s a s t o th e manne r o f conductin g them whic h inquirie s covere d a wid e rang e o f subjects showin g tha t th e provision s o f th e Municipa l Cod e regardin g elec tion s an d th e subsequen t law s passe d relatin g t o th e sam e ha d no t bee n wel l digeste d b y eithe r th e municipa l authoritie s o r th e grea t bod y o f electors I t wa s no t surprising therefore tha t fo r som e tim e subsequen t t o th e dat e o f th e electio n protest s agains t th e actio n o f th e provincia l board s o n contested-electio n case s shoul d hav e bee n submitte d t o th e Civi l Governo r o n appeal Ther e wer e 6 4 o f thes e case s tha t passe d throug h th e hand s o f th e la w cler k

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1 1 o f th e Burea u an d wer e submitte d wit h ful l memorand a t o th e Civi l Governo r fo r decision O f thes e case s ther e wer e 2 i n th e municipalitie s o f Albay ; o f Antique 1 ; Batangas 3 ; Bulacan 2 ; Cagayan 5 ; Capiz 3 ; Cavite 3 ; Cebu 1 ; Iloco s Norte 3 ; Iloco s Sur 3 ; L a Laguna 5 ; L a Union 1 ; Leyte 1 ; Occidenta l Negros 3 ; Orienta l Negros 1 ; Nuev a Vizcaya 2 ; Pampanga, 5 ; Pangasi nan 11 ; Rizal 1 ; Samar 3 ; Sorsogon 2 an d Tarlac 3 Th e Province s o f Abra Ambo s Camarines Bataan Bohol Iloilo Isabela Masbate Mindoro Misamis Nuev a Ecija Paragua Rom blon Surigao Tayabas an d Zambale s distinguishe d themselve s b y havin g n o proteste d elections Th e paper s i n thes e case s mak e i t clea r tha t th e la w a s i t no w stand s need s amendmen t i n som e particulars mor e especiall y i f i t i s th e intentio n o f th e Philippin e Commissio n t o leav e th e provincia l board s a s fina l arbiter s o f electio n protests fo r th e experienc e o f thi s Burea u show s tha t substantia l justice a s a rule wil l no t b e don e th e contestant s i n a n electio n cas e b y thes e boards Thi s statemen t i s partl y base d upo n th e admissio n o f severa l provincia l board s i n case s arisin g ou t o f th e las t municipa l elections a s als o upo n othe r fact s adduce d fro m th e paper s i n suc h cases whic h conclusivel y prove tha t i n nin e o f th e sixty-fou r case s th e provincia l board s proceede d unlawfully On e objectio n t o th e presen t la w i s tha t i t doe s no t affor d th e provincia l board s sufficien t tim e t o investigat e an d decid e suc h cases an d som e o f th e irregularitie s attributabl e t o the m ar e doubtles s du e t o th e hast e wit h whic h the y mus t act Th e mem orand a referre d t o above prepare d b y th e la w clerk containe d th e followin g paragrap h o n thi s subject : Th e la w allow s th e boar d onl y seve n day s fro m th e dat e o f th e receip t o f electio n return s withi n whic h t o mak e a n investigation A s al l protest s mus t b e forwarde d t o th e boar d withi n thre e day s afte r th e election th e protest s al l reac h th e provincia l capita l a t abou t th e sam e time Whe n th e uncertaint y o f mai l communication s an d th e difficultie s o f transportatio n i n th e province s ar e recalled i t wil l b e apparen t a t onc e tha t th e tim e allowe d i s to o short I n man y case s provincia l board s hav e foun d them selve s compelled i n justic e t o th e electors t o revis e thei r findings an d annu l deoision s reache d i n haste Tha t th e presen t la w a t leas t i s no t clea r t o thos e wh o ar e t o pu t i t int o executio n i s born e ou t b y th e fac t tha t ove r 20 0 opinion s an d ruling s i n regar d t o election s wer e rendere d b y th e Attorney

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1 2 Genera l an d thi s Burea u withi n th e fe w month s precedin g an d succeedin g th e las t municipa l an d provincia l elections I t woul d therefor e see m tha t i f th e Philippin e Commissio n i s o f opinio n tha t th e presen t la w shoul d remai n o n th e books o r shoul d enac t ne w legislatio n upo n th e subjec t o f elections i n eithe r even t i t woul d b e wel l t o prepar e an d publis h i n a printe d for m certai n genera l instruction s pertainin g t o th e prope r conduc t o f bot h municipa l an d provincia l election s i n th e effor t t o introduc e certaint y an d uniformit y i n th e method s o f conductin g th e same an d t o furnis h provincia l board s an d othe r person s intereste d i n th e election s informatio n whic h th e experienc e o f thi s yea r show s the m t o nee d an d t o b e desirou s o f obtaining Th e gubernatoria l election s wer e hel d o n th e firs t Monda y i n Februar y o f thi s year an d a numbe r o f communication s upo n th e manne r o f conductin g the m wer e receive d b y thi s office Despit e th e fac t tha t tw o o r mor e telegram s o f instruction s i n th e premises whic h wer e though t t o thoroughl y cove r th e field ha d bee n sen t ou t t o al l province s intereste d som e week s befor e th e election th e Burea u wa s i n receip t o f inquirie s regardin g i t almos t u p t o th e hou r o f openin g th e polls Th e natur e o f thes e inquirie s develope d som e peculia r facts : Th e la w require s tha t ever y councilor t o b e eligibl e fo r suc h a n office mus t kno w ho w t o write, an d ye t fro m a t leas t tw o province s cam e th e questio n whethe r councilor s wh o coul d no t writ e coul d vot e a t th e electio n fo r provincia l governor Obviousl y ineligibl e me n ha d bee n electe d a s councilors Another governo r wishe d t o kno w wha t ough t t o b e don e i n orde r t o avoi d greate r transportatio n expense s fo r councilor s an d vice president s whe n n o candidat e fo r governo r receive d a majorit y o f th e votes evidentl y believin g tha t shoul d th e firs t ballo t resul t i n n o electio n th e conventio n shoul d adjour n unti l convene d agai n b y du e proclamation Th e provincia l secretar y o f th e sam e provinc e followe d th e gov ernor' s inquiry whe n answered b y propoundin g th e questio n whethe r a reces s coul d b e take n betwee n th e differen t ballots Thes e question s an d other s n o les s rudimentar y ar e no t surprisin g whe n i t i s considere d tha t election s an d thei r machiner y wer e absolutel y unknow n unti l th e establishmen t o f civi l governmen t her e a littl e ove r thre e year s ago O f th e fort y province s i n th e Islands i n si x th e governorshi p

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1 3 i s appointive i n tw o th e gubernatoria l election s wer e postpone d b y th e Civi l Governor whic h lef t thirty-tw o province s i n whic h the y wer e held Th e resul t o f th e election s wa s a s follows : Incumben t reelecte d i n seventee n provinces actin g governo r electe d i n tw o provinces an d ne w governo r electe d i n thirtee n provinces I n twenty-on e o f th e thirty-tw o convention s 1 ballo t wa s cast i n eigh t 2 wer e cast an d i n thre e 3 wer e cast Ther e wer e ninetee n election s unproteste d an d thirtee n protested Al l o f th e unproteste d election s hav e bee n confirme d b y th e Civi l Governo r unde r Ac t No 336 O f th e twelv e proteste d case s acte d o n th e forme r incumben t wa s seate d i n si x an d a ne w ma n i n six Th e othe r cas e ha s no t bee n decide d owin g t o th e absenc e i n th e Unite d State s an d Europ e o f th e governo r agains t whos e electio n th e protes t wa s filed PROVINCIA L AN D MUNICIPA L ORGANIZATIONS A t th e tim e o f m y las t repor t th e Archipelag o wa s divide d int o fort y provinces thirty-fou r o f whic h wer e organize d unde r th e Provincia l Governmen t Ac t (Ac t No 83 ) an d th e remainin g si x unde r specia l acts Ther e ha s bee n n o chang e i n th e numbe r o f province s sinc e then no r materia l chang e i n thei r form s o f govern ment Th e organize d municipalities however hav e bee n reduce d throug h consolidation s fro m 1,03 5 a t th e tim e o f m y las t repor t t o 70 6 a t th e presen t date thei r form s o f governmen t remainin g th e same Th e consolidation s wer e mad e b y th e Commissio n fo r reason s o f economy on e se t o f municipa l official s no w bein g suffi cien t wher e formerl y severa l wer e required Smal l "an d sparsel y populate d town s lyin g i n clos e proximit y t o a centra l large r on e were a s a rule fuse d wit h th e latter whic h becam e th e sea t o f municipa l government an d th e smalle r town s thu s fuse d wer e reduce d t o th e categor y o f barrios o r districts REPORT S O F PROVINCIA L GOVERNORS I t wa s suggeste d i n m y repor t fo r las t year an d recommende d t o th e Commissio n b y th e Civi l Governor tha t th e report s o f th e provincia l governor s ough t t o b e brough t dow n t o a dat e muc h late r tha n th e firs t o f th e calenda r year a s theretofore i n orde r tha t th e Civi l Governo r an d th e Commissio n migh t hav e availabl e mor e recen t dat a whe n preparin g thei r annua l reports Th e Com missio n accordingly o n Januar y 26 1904 passe d Ac t No 1044

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1 4 providin g i n effec t tha t betwee n th e 1s t an d 15t h da y o f Jul y o f eac h yea r th e provincia l governor s shoul d submi t thei r annua l report s t o th e Civi l Governo r "fo r th e fisca l yea r endin g o n th e thirtiet h o f June. Unde r thi s law th e report s heret o annexed marke d "Appendi x B, wil l b e foun d t o cove r dat a si x month s late r tha n i n previou s years ye t ther e wa s sufficien t tim e betwee n th e dat e o f thei r receip t an d th e dat e o f thi s repor t fo r th e translatio n o f thos e writte n i n th e Spanis h language Referenc e t o thes e report s show s tha t th e economi c condition s i n th e provinces althoug h improved ar e no t a s a rul e ver y flattering whil e th e politica l conditions wit h ver y rar e exceptions hav e im prove d greatly Th e provincia l governors almos t withou t exception spea k o f th e lac k o f transportatio n facilitie s a s on e o f th e grea t drawback s t o th e commercia l advancemen t o f th e provinces an d likewis e refe r t o th e establishmen t o f mortgage-and-loa n bank s a s ver y necessar y t o th e improvemen t o f th e agricultura l "conditions Man y o f the m spea k o f th e nee d fo r moder n system s o f cultivatio n an d reques t tha t th e Governmen t giv e loca l practica l demonstration s o f th e us e o f moder n agricultura l machinery Th e surr a an d rinderpes t hav e agai n bee n prevalen t i n severa l o f th e provinces I n Iloco s Su r 2,49 3 hea d o f liv e stoc k hav e succumbe d t o rinderpest I n on e tow n i n Leyt e 3 0 pe r cen t o f th e carabao s die d o f tha t disease an d i n Orienta l Negro s onl y 7,00 0 carabao s ar e lef t ou t o f ove r 100,00 0 existin g befor e th e appearanc e o f th e disease I n Pampang a 59 0 carabao s wer e carrie d of f b y it a s wer e grea t number s i n Sorsogon whil e it s ravage s i n Tayaba s wer e ver y severe Fro m som e o f th e provinces lik e Benguet Lepanto-Bontoc Nuev a Yizcaya Mindoro Capiz an d som e others th e reports however ar e fa r mor e encouraging I n th e thre e firs t name d th e liv e stoc k ha s no t bee n affecte d b y an y disease s an d th e numbe r ha s increase d considerably Th e Provinc e o f Capi z ha s demonstrate d tha t fou r crop s o f cor n instea d o f on e ca n b e raise d i n a year an d ther e wa s eigh t time s a s muc h ric e an d twic e a s muc h hem p shippe d ou t a s durin g th e previou s year I n Mindor o ove r 500,00 0 cocoanu t tree s an d a s man y mor e hem p plant s hav e bee n se t out Th e cultivatio n o f suga r cane i t seems i s bein g pu t asid e becaus e th e planter s ca n fin d n o profitabl e marke t fo r thei r sugar an d

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1 5 i n man y province s larg e area s hav e bee n devote d t o th e raisin g o f th e mague y plan t ( Agav e americana), whic h i s givin g excellen t result s an d wil l n o doub t withi n a fe w year s prov e a ver y profitabl e pursuit A majorit y o f th e provincia l governor s spea k o f th e encouragin g interes t take n b y th e peopl e i n education whic h i s evidence d b y th e increasin g numbe r o f schoolhouse s tha t ar e bein g erecte d a t publi c expens e i n man y o f th e provinces an d i n a t leas t on e (Sor sogon ) b y privat e subscription On e o f th e governor s report s tha t i n hi s provinc e (Batangas ) i n man y o f th e town s th e presidents justice s o f th e peace an d othe r prominen t person s atten d th e nigh t schools an d i n th e Provinc e o f Cavit e th e attendanc e a t th e publi c school s ha s increase d fro m 1 6 t o 2 6 pe r cen t durin g th e pas t year Th e governor s ar e almos t a uni t i n recommendin g reform s an d improvement s i n th e presen t justice-of-the-peac e system an d a grea t numbe r o f the m recommen d a road-ta x la w providin g tha t thos e wh o d o no t pa y th e ta x shal l wor k o n th e road s fo r a certai n numbe r o f days a s i s th e almos t universa l custo m i n th e Unite d States I n almos t ever y provinc e th e fusio n o f th e municipalitie s i s reporte d t o hav e born e goo d results no t onl y i n th e wa y o f eco nomi c administratio n bu t i n a n improve d administrativ e personnel Man y o f th e governor s spea k o f th e marke d improvemen t i n th e mai l servic e i n thei r provinces an d i n th e moral e an d disciplin e o f th e municipa l polic e wheneve r the y hav e bee n pu t unde r th e supervisio n o f Constabular y inspectors Som e o f th e governor s refe r regretfull y t o th e prevalenc e i n thei r province s o f "caciquism, wit h al l it s harmfu l consequences On e o f th e governor s state s tha t suffrag e i s unnecessaril y restricte d b y reaso n o f th e fac t tha t person s possessin g propert y o f th e valu e o f 50 0 peso s o r mor e undervalu e i t an d thu s cu t themselve s of f fro m voting whic h woul d see m t o indicat e tha t ther e ar e person s wh o d o no t priz e th e franchis e a s highl y a s i t i s value d a t home Th e suggestio n mad e b y anothe r provincia l governo r tha t th e provincia l an d municipa l code s b e taugh t i n th e publi c school s woul d see m t o b e a mos t commendabl e one an d th e pla n woul d b e productiv e o f fa r mor e beneficia l an d immediat e result s i f th e municipa l authoritie s coul d b e induce d o r require d t o atten d th e classe s engage d i n th e stud y o f th e tw o codes

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1 6 TH E LOCUS T PLAGUE Ther e ha s bee n i n a numbe r o f th e province s a recurrenc e o f th e locus t plagu e referre d t o i n m y repor t fo r las t year Fortunately however althoug h som e o f th e province s hav e suffere d severel y i n thi s regard th e report s sho w tha t th e tota l amoun t o f locust s destroye d sinc e Octobe r 1 1903 t o th e dat e o f thi s repor t i n th e ninetee n province s t o whic h th e plagu e seem s t o hav e bee n limited wa s 11,242,54 7 pounds o r 5,621.2 7 tons a s agains t 8,501 f ton s las t year Th e greates t sufferer s i n thi s respec t durin g th e presen t yea r hav e bee n Albay Pampanga Tayabas Batangas an d Occiden ta l Negros I n on e o f th e provinces a t least fou r differen t sowing s wer e destroye d b y thos e pests TH E GREA T SEAL Th e Grea t Sea l o f th e Governmen t o f th e Philippin e Islands whic h wa s mad e a t th e United State s Burea u o f Engravin g an d Printin g a t Washington arrive d her e durin g th e las t wee k o f November 1903 an d ha s sinc e bee n i n use althoug h n o ac t adopt in g th e sam e ha s bee n passe d a s ye t b y th e Philippin e Commission whic h bod y no w ha s befor e i t fo r approva l a mor e elaborat e desig n b y Mr Gaillar d Hunt o f th e Unite d State s Departmen t o f State mor e i n keepin g wit h heraldi c requirement s tha n th e presen t seal Th e latte r i s a n enlarge d reproductio n o f th e obvers e o f th e ne w Philippin e peso authorize d b y ac t o f Congres s approve d Marc h 2 1903 Wit h th e arriva l o f th e sea l i n th e Island s bega n th e wor k o f preparin g an d engrossin g th e commission s o f al l classe s o f official s whos e appointment s ha d bee n mad e b y th e Civi l Governo r wit h th e advic e an d consen t o f th e Commissio n sinc e th e inauguratio n o f civi l governmen t i n th e Island s o n Jul y 4 1901 A s justice s an d auxiliar y justice s o f th e peac e ar e gubernatoria l appointment s re quirin g th e approva l o f th e Commission an d thei r numbe r wa s formerl y s o larg e an d ther e ha d bee n s o man y resignation s amon g them requirin g th e frequen t fillin g o f vacancies th e tota l numbe r o f commission s unissue d a t th e tim e o f th e arriva l o f th e sea l foote d u p t o 4,000 Thes e hav e al l bee n fille d out signe d an d attested an d forwarde d t o th e partie s interested man y o f who m ar e n o longe r i n th e Philippin e Islands I n additio n t o th e above th e commission s fo r al l appointee s o f

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1 7 th e Civi l Governo r mad e sinc e th e arriva l o f th e sea l hav e bee n engrossed signed an d forwarde d t o th e partie s i n interest an d th e wor k i s no w n p t o date CURRENC Y SIGNS Wit h th e adoptio n an d circulatio n o f th e ne w Philippin e currenc y i t becam e advisabl e an d necessar y fo r th e sak e o f brevit y an d con venienc e t o adop t distinctiv e sign s fo r th e thre e genera l kind s o f currenc y i n circulatio n i n th e Islands an d accordingly a t th e suggestio n o f th e Secretar y o f War th e Civi l Governo r issue d th e followin g executiv e orde r o n Augus t 3 1903 t o wit : TH E GOVERNMEN T O F TH E PHILIPPIN E ISLANDS EXECUTIV E BUREAU MANILA August 3, 1903. EXECUTIV E ORDE R I No 66 / Th e followin g characte r wil l b e use d b y al l official s o f thi s Governmen t a s th e designatio n fo r th e ne w Philippin e pesos i n contradistinctio n t o th e $ mar k fo r Unite d State s currenc y an d Pfs fo r Mexica n o r Spanis h currency : WM H TAFT Civil Governor. A s a consequenc e th e pes o sig n (thus ha s no w bee n gen erall y adopte d throughou t th e Islands b y th e banks commercia l houses an d privat e citizens an d o f cours e b y Governmen t officials CONGRESSIONAL-RELIEF-FUN D RICE Th e las t tw o cargoe s o f ric e purchase d fro m th e fun d o f $3,000, 00 0 appropriate d b y ac t o f Congres s approve d Marc h 3 1903 fo r th e relie f o f distres s i n thes e Island s wer e receive d i n th e mont h o f March 1904 approximatin g 32,00 0 piculs o r 2,00 0 tons Thes e cargoe s wer e purchase d i n orde r t o fill outstandin g order s fro m province s t o whic h relie f ric e ha d bee n promised Sinc e tha t tim e n o additiona l ric e ha s bee n promise d an y o f th e provinces i t havin g bee n decide d t o purchas e n o mor e unles s i t shoul d b e necessar y agai n t o reliev e distress whic h contingenc y ha s no t a s ye t arisen Owin g t o variou s causes—no t th e leas t o f whic h wa s th e adven t o f th e rain y season preventin g wor k bein g prosecute d vigorousl y an d extensivel y upo n roads bridges an d th e constructio n o f barri o schoolhouses th e laborer s upo n whic h wer e t o b e pai d fo r thei r 2490 4 2

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1 8 wor k i n ric e i n lie u o f cash—th e las t o f th e abov e cargoe s wa s no t distribute d unti l th e first wee k o f September 1904 A t thi s date however ther e i s no t a poun d o f Congressional-relief-fun d ric e i n th e Governmen t warehouses althoug h som e tim e wil l elaps e befor e al l o f thi s ric e distribute d i n th e province s wil l b e dispose d o f accordin g t o destinatio n an d al l report s an d account s i n connectio n therewit h received checked an d approved Th e presen t mor e favorabl e cro p an d economi c condition s throughou t th e Archipelago whic h avoi d th e necessit y o f furthe r genera l assistanc e t o th e peopl e a t thi s tim e i n th e wa y o f ric e o r othe r foo d stuffs bring s t o th e offic e forc e o f thi s Burea u n o smal l degre e o f relie f an d satisfaction for whil e everyon e i n th e Burea u cheerfull y bor e th e extr a burde n o f th e grea t amoun t o f ne w wor k inciden t t o th e prope r distributio n o f an d accountin g fo r s o larg e a n amoun t o f propert y durin g a perio d o f ove r a year i n a countr y wher e a s ye t transportatio n facilitie s ar e extremel y crud e an d un certain i t i s bu t natura l tha t thos e upo n who m thes e dutie s wer e impose d shoul d hai l wit h deligh t th e arriva l o f th e tim e whe n circumstance s n o longe r requir e suc h additiona l expenditur e o f tim e an d patience mor e especiall y a s th e cause s whic h appeale d t o Congres s t o pas s thi s philanthropi c appropriatio n hav e cease d t o exist TRANSPORTATIO N O F GOVERNMEN T EMPLOYEES Th e favorabl e rate s secure d b y th e Burea u o f Insula r Affair s o f th e Wa r Departmen t a t Washingto n fro m railroa d an d steamshi p companie s fo r th e transportatio n o f Insula r Governmen t official s an d employee s an d thei r familie s wer e continue d durin g th e yea r an d ar e stil l i n force Th e numbe r o f sailing s o f Arm y transport s fro m Sa n Francisc o an d Manil a havin g bee n reduce d t o on e pe r month thu s affordin g ver y littl e roo m fo r civilian s o n th e monthl y transports an d ther e havin g bee n a heav y deman d fo r transportatio n du e t o employee s goin g hom e o n leave th e attractio n o f th e Louisian a Purchas e Exposition th e visit s t o th e Unite d State s o f th e Honorar y Boar d o f Commissioner s an d o f Governmen t students etc. ther e ha s bee n turne d ove r t o th e commercia l line s i n questio n a t thi s en d $60,768.70 Unite d State s currency representin g th e valu e o f transportatio n orders O f thi s su m ther e wa s pai d int o thi s Burea u $43,487.5 0 ($22 5 o f whic h wa s refunde d o n accoun t o f

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1 9 th e cancellatio n o f transportatio n requests) whic h amoun t wa s deposite d i n th e Insula r Treasur y t o th e credi t o f th e Insula r salar y an d expens e fund wherefro m th e transportatio n companie s ar e paid Th e balanc e ($17,506.20 ) o f th e transportatio n wa s officia l an d a t th e expens e o f th e Insula r Government Th e tota l numbe r o f person s furnishe d transportatio n wa s 441 bein g 42 1 adults 1 4 childre n a t hal f rate an d 6 childre n a t quarte r rate TRANSPORTATIO N O F VAGRANT S AN D O F INDIGEN T CITIZEN S O F TH E UNITE D STATES Th e fac t tha t th e America n colon y i n th e Island s wa s bein g considerabl y increase d b y a n impecuniou s an d ofte n undesirabl e elemen t whic h ha d drifte d her e i n searc h o f adventur e o r a live lihood an d whic h to o ofte n adde d nothin g t o th e wage-earnin g capacit y o f th e inhabitants an d certainl y no t t o th e educativ e an d upliftin g purpose s o f th e Government an d whic h wa s likel y t o becom e a charg e upo n th e community le d th e Philippin e Com mission o n Septembe r 24 1903 t o pas s Ac t No 899 authorizin g th e suspensio n o f sentenc e impose d upo n citizen s o f th e Unite d State s convicte d o f vagranc y unde r th e provision s o f Ac t No 519 an d providin g fo r thei r transportatio n t o th e Unite d States Unde r thi s ac t ther e hav e bee n furnishe d wit h steerag e transporta tio n t o th e United State s durin g th e yea r a tota l o f 7 4 undesirabl e character s convicte d o f vagrancy I n eac h instance afte r con viction th e Civi l Governo r grante d a pardo n conditione d upo n th e perso n involve d leavin g th e Philippin e Island s an d neve r returning o r sentenc e wa s suspende d b y th e tria l judg e upo n th e sam e conditions a s provide d i n Ac t No 899 Thereupo n a writte n reques t wa s mad e upo n som e steamshi p compan y fo r steerag e trans portatio n t o th e Pacifi c coas t o f th e Unite d States accompanie d b y a certificat e unde r th e sea l o f th e Executiv e Burea u addresse d t o al l Unite d State s immigratio n officials settin g fort h th e circum stance s o f th e person' s arriva l i n thes e Islands hi s citizenship career etc. an d accompanie d b y a lette r o f explanatio n containing amon g othe r things a claus e t o th e effec t tha t i f th e immigratio n official s a t th e por t o f destinatio n fo r an y vali d reaso n decline d t o permi t th e perso n t o land th e Insula r Governmen t woul d reim burs e th e steamshi p compan y fo r hi s retur n transportatio n t o Manila N o deman d fo r retur n transportatio n ha s eve r bee n mad e t o date

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2 0 I f th e perso n t o b e transporte d ha d bee n a t an y tim e i n th e militar y o r nava l servic e o f th e United States ha d arrive d i n th e Island s a s a stowawa y o n a n Arm y transport o r ha d bee n a civilia n employe e attache d t o th e nava l o r militar y servic e o f th e Unite d State s -i n thes e Islands transportatio n a s a rnl e wa s secure d upo n a n Arm y transport th e Insula r Governmen t defrayin g th e cos t o f subsistenc e a t soldiers rates Transportatio n o f th e abov e characte r ha s als o bee n furnishe d t o a tota l o f 1 7 worth y destitut e Unite d State s citizens th e procedur e followe d bein g th e sam e a s i n th e cas e o f vagrant s wit h th e exception o f course tha t n o pardo n o r suspensio n o f sentenc e wa s involved PASSPORTS Durin g th e perio d covere d b y thi s repor t ther e hav e bee n issue d 5 5 passport s t o citizen s o f th e United State s an d 3 3 t o citizen s o f th e Philippin e Islands Th e firs t passpor t wa s issue d o n Decembe r 8 1903 Durin g th e pas t yea r Ac t No 1 1 o f th e Philippin e Commissio n an d Executiv e Orde r No 13 serie s o f 1903 o f th e Civi l Governor whic h wer e quote d i n m y repor t o f las t year hav e no t bee n followed i t havin g bee n determine d t o ac t unde r th e provision s o f th e rule s governin g th e grantin g an d issuin g o f passport s i n th e insula r possession s o f th e Unite d State s issue d b y th e Presiden t o n Jul y 19 1902 A difficult y ha s arise n i n connectio n wit h th e issuanc e o f pass ports owin g t o th e fac t tha t th e civi l right s an d politica l statu s o f certai n classe s o f persons resident s o f th e Islands d o no t appea r t o hav e bee n a s ye t fixe d b y Congress Articl e I X o f th e treat y o f Pari s provides : Spanis h subjects natives o f th e Peninsula residin g i n th e territor y ove r whic h Spai n b y th e presen t treat y relinquishe s o r cede s he r sovereignty ma y remai n i n suc h territor y o r ma y remov e therefrom retainin g i n eithe r even t al l thei r right s o f property includin g th e righ t t o sel l o r dispos e o f suc h propert y o r o f it s proceeds ; an d the y shal l als o hav e th e righ t t o carr y o n thei r industry commerc e an d professions bein g subjec t i n respec t thereo f t o suc h law s a s ar e applicabl e t o othe r foreigners I n cas e the y remai n i n th e territor y the y ma y preserv e thei r allegianc e t o th e Crow n o f Spai n b y making befor e a cour t o f record withi n a yea r fro m th e dat e o f th e exchang e o f th e ratificatio n o f thi s treaty a declaratio n o f thei r decisio n t o preserv e suc h allegiance ; i n defaul t o f whic h declaratio n the y

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2 1 shal l b e hel d t o hav e renounce d i t an d t o hav e adopte d th e nationalit y o f th e territor y i n whic h the y ma y reside Th e civi l right s an d politica l statu s o f th e nativ e inhabitant s o f th e territorie s hereb y cede d t o th e Unite d State s shal l b e determine d b y th e Congress B y th e protoco l o f agreemen t o f Apri l 28 1900 th e tim e fo r th e completio n o f th e registratio n require d b y Articl e I X wa s extende d fo r a furthe r perio d o f si x months beginnin g Apri l 11 1900 I n legislatin g upo n th e questio n o f citizenshi p i n th e Philippin e Islands Congres s b y sectio n 4 o f th e ac t o f Jul y 1 1902 whic h i s th e onl y Congressiona l legislatio n bearin g directl y upo n thi s subject provided — Tha t al l inhabitant s o f th e Philippin e Island s continuin g t o resid e therei n wh o wer e Spanis h subject s o n th e elevent h da y o f April eightee n hundre d an d ninety-nine an d the n reside d i n sai d Islands an d thei r childre n bor n subsequen t thereto shal l b e deeme d an d hel d t o b e citizen s o f th e Philippin e Island s an d a s suc h entitle d t o th e protectio n o f th e Unite d States excep t suc h a s shal l hav e electe d t o preserv e thei r allegianc e t o th e Crow n o f Spai n i n accordanc e wit h th e provision s o f th e treat y o f peac e betwee n th e Unite d State s an d Spain signe d a t Pari s Decembe r tenth eightee n hundre d an d ninety-eight I n orde r t o ascertai n wh o ar e th e citizen s o f th e Philippin e Island s referre d t o i n th e sectio n quote d above i t become s necessar y t o determin e wha t person s wer e Spanis h subject s o n th e 11t h da y o f April 1899 an d wh o di d no t preserv e thei r allegianc e t o th e Crow n o f Spai n b y registratio n i n th e manne r provide d b y law T o d o thi s w e mus t g o bac k t o th e Spanis h Civi l Cod e i n forc e i n th e Island s u p t o th e dat e o f th e signin g o f th e treat y o f Paris an d w e fin d th e followin g article s thereo f bearin g upo n th e subject : ART 17 Th e followin g ar e Spaniards : (1 ) Person s bor n i n Spanis h territory (2 ) Childre n o f a Spanis h fathe r o r mother eve n thoug h the y wer e bor n ou t o f Spain (3 ) Foreigner s wh o ma y hav e obtaine d naturalizatio n papers (4 ) Thos e who withou t sai d papers ma y hav e acquire d a residenc e i n an y tow n i n th e Monarchy ART 18 Children whil e the y remai n unde r th e parenta l authority hav e th e nationalit y o f thei r parents ( I n orde r tha t thos e bor n o f foreig n parent s i n Spanis h territor y ma y enjo y th e benefit s grante d the m b y No 1 o f articl e 17 i t shal l b e a n indis pensabl e requisit e tha t th e parent s declare i n th e manne r an d befor e th e official s specifie d i n articl e 19 tha t the y choos e i n th e nam e o f thei r chil dre n th e Spanis h nationality renouncin g al l others

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2 2 ABT 19 Th e childre n o f a foreigne r bor n i n Spanis h possession s mus t state withi n a yea r followin g thei r majorit y o r emancipation whethe r the y desir e t o enjo y th e citizenshi p o f Spaniards grante d the m o f articl e 17 Thos e wh o ar e i n th e Kingdo m shal l mak e thi s declaratio n befor e th e officia l i n charg e o f th e civi l registr y o f th e tow n i n whic h the y reside ; thos e wh o resid e abroa d befor e on e o f th e consula r o r diplomati c agent s o f th e Spanis h Government an d thos e wh o ar e i n a countr y i n whic h th e Govern men t ha s n o agen t addressin g th e secretar y o f stat e o f Spain Application s ar e no w bein g receive d b y th e Burea u fro m childre n bor n i n th e Islands o f foreig n fathers wh o a t th e tim e o f th e signin g o f th e treat y o f Pari s wer e minor s whos e parent s neglecte d t o registe r the m i n th e Spanis h registr y a s require d b y articl e 1 8 o f th e Spanis h Civi l Code an d wh o themselve s faile d t o mak e electio n withi n on e yea r followin g thei r majorit y o r emancipatio n a s require d b y articl e 19 Thes e applicant s ar e manifestl y no t include d amon g th e person s whos e statu s a s citizen s i s fixed b y sectio n 4 o f th e ac t o f Congres s o f Jul y 1 1902 inasmuc h a s the y wer e no t Spanis h subject s o n Apri l 11 1899 I n man y case s the y ar e th e childre n o f Filipin a mother s b y foreig n fathers an d al l o f the m ar e nativ e inhabitant s o f th e Islands havin g bee n bor n i n th e Archipelag o an d constantl y reside d therei n sinc e thei r birth Th e numbe r o f applicant s o f thi s clas s i s likel y t o increas e a s childre n wh o wer e minor s o n th e 11t h da y o f April 1899 becom e o f age I t wil l b e observe d tha t b y th e secon d paragrap h o f Articl e I X o f th e treat y o f Paris whic h reads — Th e civi l right s an d politica l statu s o f th e nativ e inhabitant s o f th e territorie s hereb y cede d t o th e Unite d State s shal l b e determine d b y th e Congress — a distinctio n i s mad e betwee n Spanis h subject s an d nativ e in habitant s o f th e territor y cede d b y Spain I t therefor e appear s tha t sectio n 4 o f th e ac t o f Congres s o f Jul y 1 1902 doe s no t follo w th e distinctio n mad e b y th e tw o paragraph s o f Articl e I X o f th e treat y o f Paris inasmuc h a s th e onl y person s t o who m Fili pin o citizenshi p i s concede d mus t b e foun d amon g thos e wh o wer e Spanis h subject s o n th e 11t h da y o f April 1899 Congres s ha s therefor e faile d t o provid e fo r al l th e nativ e inhabitants a s i t apparentl y sough t t o d o an d a s th e treat y of Pari s provide d i t shoul d do I t ma y b e interestin g t o note i n connectio n wit h thi s failure tha t Congress b y sectio n 4 o f th e ac t o f Jul y 1 1902 was i n on e respect

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2 3 apparentl y mor e libera l tha n require d b y th e term s o f th e treat y o f Paris whic h treaty b y Articl e IX provide s tha t th e onl y person s wh o coul d preserv e o r renounc e thei r allegianc e t o th e Crow n o f Spain a s the y ma y elect wer e "Spanis h subjects native s o f th e Peninsula. Whe n th e term s o f th e treat y wer e bein g discusse d a t Pari s th e "Spanis h commissioner s propose d tha t th e benefit s o f registratio n t o preserv e Spanis h nationalit y b e extende d t o "al l Spanis h subject s no w o r hereafte r residin g o r domicile d i n th e territor y th e sov ereignt y ove r whic h Spai n relinquishe s o r cede s *, bu t th e America n commissioner s insiste d that "a s t o natives thei r statu s an d civi l right s ar e lef t t o Congress whic h wil l enac t law s t o gover n th e cede d territory. Th e treaty a s finally agree d upon restricte d th e benefit s o f registratio n t o "Spanis h subjects native s o f th e Peninsula, excludin g al l others Congress however i n enactin g th e la w o n th e subjec t b y th e sai d sectio n 4 o f th e ac t o f Jul y 1 1902 evidentl y recede d fro m th e positio n take n b y th e America n commissioner s a t Paris providin g tha t "al l inhabitant s o f th e Philippin e Islands continuin g t o resid e therein wh o wer e Spanis h subject s o n th e 11t h da y o f April 1899 bu t di d no t elec t t o preserv e thei r allegianc e t o th e Crow n o f Spai n i n accordanc e wit h th e treat y o f peace, shal l b e deeme d an d hel d t o b e citizen s o f th e Philippin e Islands Thi s provision however wa s mad e to o lat e t o affec t th e treaty whic h limite d th e righ t o f registratio n o r renunciatio n t o "Spanis h subjects native s o f th e Peninsula, th e tim e se t b y th e treat y an d extende d b y th e protoco l o f Apri l 28 1900 havin g alread y expired I n defaul t o f an y specifi c declaratio n b y Congres s determinin g th e civi l right s an d politica l statu s o f native s o f th e Islands a s distinguishe d fro m Spanis h subject s wh o hav e faile d t o retai n thei r allegiance an d int o whic h clas s th e childre n o f foreig n father s bor n an d domicile d i n th e Philippine s woul d naturall y fall i t i s fo r th e presen t bein g hel d tha t th e latte r ar e no t citizen s o f th e Philippin e Island s an d tha t passport s ca n no t b e issue d t o them Severa l year s having elapse d sinc e man y o f the m reache d thei r majority and no t havin g take n step s i n du e seaso n t o clai m th e nationalit y o f thei r fathers native-bor n childre n i n th e 'abov e categor y desirin g t o hol d allegianc e t o th e lan d o f thei r birt h find themselve s withou t a governmen t t o whic h the y ca n tur n fo r protec tio n whe n abroad

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2 4 Ther e i s anothe r clas s o f person s i n th e Island s i n muc h th e sam e positio n a s regard s protection Th e Civi l La w o f Spai n (art 2 3 o f th e Spanis h Civi l Code ) declare s tha t an y Spaniar d wh o accept s employmen t fro m an y othe r Governmen t withou t th e King' s permissio n thereb y forfeit s hi s citizenship Ther e ar e i n th e emplo y o f th e Governmen t o f th e Philippin e Island s a numbe r o f forme r Spanis h subject s who b y th e term s o f thi s provision hav e forfeite d thei r clai m t o Spanis h protection The y arrive d i n th e Islands sinc e th e signin g o f th e treat y o f Paris an d o f cours e d o no t fal l unde r it s provisions neithe r ca n the y a t presen t acquir e th e statu s o f citizen s o f th e Islands The y ar e therefor e i n th e positio n o f me n withou t a country an d ca n no t clai m th e protectio n afforde d b y a n America n passport FIREAR M PERMITS Unde r existin g provision s o f la w an d executiv e order s (Act s Nos 61 0 an d 652 ; Executiv e Order s Nos 9 14 71 an d 81 serie s o f 1903 ) ther e wer e issue d durin g th e pas t yea r a tota l o f 2,76 6 firearm permit s throughou t th e province s an d i n th e cit y o f Manila I n th e province s th e provincia l governor s issue d 1,19 5 permit s an d th e senio r inspector s o f Constabular y 990 Ther e wer e issue d i n th e cit y o f Manil a b y th e Chie f o f Polic e 58 1 permits whic h i n th e aggregat e mak e th e tota l abov e mentioned Permit s issue d b y th e provincia l governor s an d th e Chie f o f Polic e o f Manil a wer e approve d b y th e undersigne d b y directio n o f th e Civi l Governor an d thos e issue d b y th e senio r inspector s o f Constabular y wer e approve d b y th e Chie f o f th e Constabulary Ther e i s no w i n proces s o f preparatio n a detaile d circula r lette r o f instructio n t o al l concerne d i n respec t o f th e subjec t o f firearm permit s an d th e law s an d order s governin g th e issuanc e o f th e same t o insur e prope r complianc e wit h th e regulations an d a t th e sam e tim e t o avoi d delay s whic h ma y b e annoyin g an d eve n caus e offens e i n certai n instance s throug h misunderstanding ANNOTATE D EDITIO N O F LAWS Durin g th e yea r ther e wa s prepare d i n th e Bureau printe d an d publishe d i n Englis h an d Spanish a n annotate d editio n o f th e act s o f th e Philippin e Commission i n tw o volumes coverin g th e legisla tio n o f th e latte r fro m Septembe r 12 1900 t o Augus t 29 1903 o r fro m Ac t No 1 t o Ac t No 862 Wor k i s i n progres s t o similarl y

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2 5 trea t an d annotat e th e law s enacte d sinc e th e last-name d date Thes e volume s ar e full y indexed an d throug h th e margina l annota tion s furnis h hapd y an d read y reference The y contai n als o executiv e orders proclamation s o f th e President act s o f Congress an d treatie s relatin g t o th e Islands order s o f th e Wa r Departmen t an d militar y authoritie s affectin g civi l governmen t i n th e Archi pelago a s wel l a s a n alphabetica l lis t o f executiv e order s an d proclamation s issue d b y th e Civi l Governo r sinc e th e establishmen t o f civi l government O f Volum e I English a n editio n o f 2,00 0 copie s wa s issued 1,50 0 o f whic h wer e boun d i n pape r an d 50 0 i n ful l sheep O f th e Spanis h editio n 2,50 0 copie s wer e issued 2,15 0 i n pape r an d 35 0 i n ful l sheep O f Volum e II English 2,00 0 copies 1,60 0 boun d i n pape r an d 40 0 i n ful l sheep wer e issued Th e Spanis h editio n o f thi s volum e wa s issue d i n th e sam e relativ e quantitie s a s Volum e I i n Spanish O f th e fou r volumes a tota l genera l distributio n o f 17 3 paper-boun d an d 1,17 7 sheep-boun d copie s ha s bee n mad e t o official s o f th e Governmen t fo r officia l use an d t o othe r person s wher e i t seeme d advisabl e an d proper Th e balanc e hav e bee n place d o n sal e i n th e Bureau an d 6 1 pape r an d 15 6 shee p boun d copie s hav e bee n sol d t o date LA W CLERK Th e repor t o f th e actin g la w cler k i s heret o attached marke d "Appendi x C. Th e mos t importan t chang e i n th e dutie s o f th e la w cler k ha s bee n th e additio n t o hi s regula r wor k o f th e supervisio n ove r wha t wa s formerl y th e appointmen t sectio n o f th e administratio n an d financ e division whic h comprises amon g othe r things th e preparin g o f commission s an d o f report s i n connectio n wit h th e suspension removal reinstatement etc. o f provincia l an d municipa l officials justice s an d auxiliar y justice s o f th e peace Th e positio n ha s develope d int o on e o f considerabl e importance necessitatin g th e possessio n o f a clea r knowledg e o f th e principle s o f law and mor e particularly o f th e provincia l an d municipa l codes i n orde r tha t th e perso n dischargin g th e dutie s o f th e offic e ma y b e equippe d t o dispos e o f a grea t man y matter s whic h otherwis e woul d necessitat e submissio n t o th e Attorney-Genera l fo r opinion Mr Frederic k F Barker th e la w cler k o f th e Bureau becam e seriousl y il l i n Apri l o f thi s year bu t recovere d sufficientl y t o

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2 6 tak e a tri p t o th e Unite d States bein g grante d hi s accrue d leav e o f absenc e o n Ma y 12 1904 Upo n th e expiratio n o f hi s leav e h e decide d no t t o retur n t o th e Island s an d tendere d hi s resignation whic h ha s bee n accepted Th e Burea u thu s lose s a n efficien t an d painstakin g publi c servan t wh o ha s lef t i n it s files man y evidence s o f hi s abilit y an d industry Mr Harr y E Laughlin wh o wa s Mr Barker' s assistant sinc e th e latter' s absenc e ha s conducte d th e wor k o f th e divisio n i n a ver y efficien t manner an d hi s repor t contain s muc h interestin g data closin g wit h a referenc e t o a matte r tha t i n hi s opinio n (i n whic h I concur ) i s a n evi l demandin g remedy I refe r t o th e justice s an d auxiliar y justice s o f th e peace an d tak e th e libert y o f suggesting i n cas e th e Philippin e Commissio n ca n no t a t thi s tim e se e it s wa y clea r t o mak e an y chang e i n th e presen t syste m regulatin g th e sai d officers tha t a manua l o f instructions t o quot e Mr Laughlin' s words, "containin g informatio n a s t o wher e th e substantiv e la w whic h the y ar e likel y t o need an d th e rule s o f procedure ma y b e found an d als o a detaile d an d specifi c statemen t o f th e fee s an d cost s whic h ma y b e collected, b e prepare d an d distribute d amon g thes e officers Experienc e ha s demonstrated a s state d b y th e actin g la w clerk tha t muc h o f th e misconstructio n o f th e la w an d man y o f th e illega l act s o f thes e official s ar e du e t o excusabl e ignorance an d i t i s believe d tha t th e foregoin g sugges tion i f favorabl y acte d upon wil l doubtles s remed y som e o f th e defects a t least i n th e presen t system TRANSLATIN G DIVISION Th e repor t o f th e chie f o f th e translatin g divisio n i s heret o attached marke d "Appendi x D. A perusa l o f thi s repor t wil l sho w tha t th e condition s referre d t o i n m y las t annua l report wit h respec t t o th e deart h o f exper t Spanish-Englis h translators stil l exists an d tha t thi s particula r clas s o f translations whic h form s nearl y three-fourth s o f th e wor k o f th e division ha s consequentl y accumulate d a t time s beyon d th e capacit y o f th e presen t force Durin g Augus t an d Septembe r th e annua l report s o f th e nativ e provincia l governor s (31 ) hav e ha d t o b e translate d fro m Spanis h int o English i n additio n t o th e regula r wor k o f translatin g laws curren t correspondence petition s an d othe r document s presente d i n Spanish an d reviewin g th e nativ e press

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2 7 Th e smal l forc e o f th e divisio n i s t o b e congratulate d upo n th e diligenc e displaye d i n copin g wit h th e volum e o f wor k tha t ha s bee n it s lot LEGISLATIV E DIVISION Th e repor t o f th e chie f o f th e legislativ e divisio n i s rendere d i n hi s capacit y o f Actin g Recorde r o f th e Commission an d i s heret o attached marke d "Appendi x E. Th e wor k o f thi s divisio n ha s settle d dow n t o a norma l basis I n personne l i t ha s experience d th e sam e radica l change s a s th e othe r divisions a t presen t th e Recorder a s state d elsewher e herein bein g absen t i n th e Unite d States an d th e positio n o f chie f o f division becomin g vacan t throug h th e promotio n o f th e forme r incumben t t o th e positio n o f privat e secretar y t o th e Civi l Gov ernor wa s fille d b y th e appointmen t o f Mr Davi d Lewi s Cob b t o th e vacanc y o n Septembe r 6 last Th e annotate d editio n o f th e law s o f th e Commission referre d t o elsewher e i n thi s report wa s prepare d i n thi s division requirin g th e undivide d attentio n o f a portio n o f it s forc e durin g th e entir e year I invit e specia l attentio n t o Mr Cobb' s report a s i t give s no t onl y a ver y ful l descriptio n o f th e characte r o f th e wor k entaile d upo n th e legislativ e divisio n an d th e Recorde r o f th e Commission bu t als o give s i n detai l th e importan t measure s considere d b y th e Philippin e Commissio n durin g th e yea r an d goe s extensivel y int o th e publi c session s o n th e Fores t Ac t an d th e Interna l Revenu e Law showin g th e thoroughnes s wit h whic h thes e tw o importan t measure s wer e treate d b y th e Commission an d th e larg e numbe r o f loca l an d foreig n interest s represente d a t th e publi c session s whe n thes e measure s wer e discussed ADMINISTRATIO N AN D FINANC E DIVISION Th e repor t o f th e actin g chie f o f th e administratio n an d finance divisio n i s heret o attached marke d "Appendi x F. Thi s divisio n ma y truthfull y b e sai d t o bea r th e brun t o f th e actio n wor k i n th e Bureau bein g primaril y a n administratio n division An y sudde n increas e i n curren t work o r an y wor k o f a specia l nature suc h a s th e draftin g o f th e annua l appropriatio n bills preparatio n o f dat a fo r an d copyin g o f th e annua l report s o f th e Civi l Governo r an d th e Commissioners etc. affect s thi s divi

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2 8 sio n ver y keenly i t bein g draw n upo n fo r th e necessar y help having b y it s nature clerk s an d stenographer s suitabl e fo r suc h work I t i s calle d upo n t o furnis h stenographi c assistanc e t o th e privat e secretarie s t o th e Commissioner s wheneve r necessary A t presen t i t i s als o furnishin g th e actin g chie f cler k o f th e Bureau actin g privat e secretarie s t o th e Vice-Governo r an d th e Secretar y o f Publi c Instruction and unti l recently a n actin g privat e sec retar y t o th e Civi l Governo r an d th e actin g la w cler k owin g t o th e absenc e i n th e Unite d State s o n leav e o f th e regula r incumbents and i n th e las t tw o cases vacancies Thi s ha s bee n an d i s a heav y drai n upo n th e traine d forc e o f th e division a s suc h detail s ca n onl y b e properl y fille d b y first-clas s clerks Transfer s an d resignation s hav e als o heavil y affecte d th e divi sion' s personnel i t bein g a notabl e fac t tha t ou t o f th e America n clerk s o n dut y i n th e divisio n prope r a t th e tim e o f m y las t repor t bu t on e remain s o n dut y a t present an d tha t on e i s i n charg e o f th e divisio n a s actin g chief I t i s a satisfactio n t o stat e tha t th e nativ e member s o f th e clerica l forc e hav e mad e rapi d stride s i n thei r efficienc y an d gras p o f th e dutie s require d o f them an d hav e bee n o f valuabl e assistanc e i n thos e line s o f wor k the y hav e mastered On e o f them wh o ha s bee n studyin g stenograph y outsid e o f offic e hours ha s mad e suffi cien t progres s i n tha t branch a s wel l a s i n th e Englis h language t o enabl e hi m t o tak e moderat e dictatio n i n th e latter and thoug h h e i s unabl e a s ye t t o pas s th e civil-service examinatio n a s a stenog rapher h e i s bein g utilize d considerabl y i n tha t capacity Th e wor k o f th e division—b y din t o f clos e applicatio n o f th e availabl e force persona l attentio n t o detail s o f routin e b y th e chief whic h ough t no t t o res t upo n hi m ordinaril y wer e well-traine d assistant s available an d a grea t dea l o f overtim e work averagin g on e hundre d an d forty-fiv e workin g day s o f si x an d one-hal f hour s eac h pe r mont h fo r th e division—ha s neve r bee n allowe d t o ru n behin d mor e tha n approximatel y on e da y a t a tim e an d generall y ha s bee n kep t righ t u p t o date Importan t urgen t matter s hav e alway s bee n handle d withou t an y delay Th e forc e consist s a t presen t o f 1 4 American s an d 1 1 Filipin o clerks includin g al l clerk s detaile d fo r dut y outsid e th e division als o 1 5 messengers whic h include s thos e detaile d i n th e office s o f th e Civi l Governor Commissioners Executiv e Secretary an d As sistan t Executiv e Secretary

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2 9 RECORD S DIVISION Th e annua l repor t o f th e chie f o f th e record s divisio n i s heret o attached marke d "Appendi x G-. Th e condition s affectin g wor k i n th e Burea u i n general particu larl y i n respec t o f personne l an d quantit y o f work ar e naturall y fel t acutel y i n a divisio n o f thi s kind However a s appear s fro m th e repor t o f th e chie f o f th e division i t i s anticipate d tha t wit h th e gradua l developmen t o f settle d condition s i n th e Burea u th e volum e o f ne w wor k ha s als o reache d it s limi t i n th e division Th e increas e durin g th e pas t year whil e stead y an d considerable wa s approximatel y 5 8 pe r cen t a s agains t 7 3 pe r cen t fo r th e preced in g year th e numbe r o f separat e paper s passin g throug h th e mailin g sectio n o f th e divisio n bein g 85,00 0 a s agains t 53,71 7 fo r las t year A n ide a o f th e importanc e o f th e division th e responsibilit y an d magnitude o f th e wor k devolvin g upo n th e chie f an d hi s force ca n b e gaine d fro m th e fac t ther e ar e no w o n file som e 300,00 0 docu ments al l o f whic h ar e thoroughl y indexe d an d s o filed a s t o b e readil y accessible Th e importance o f th e wor k performe d i n th e divisio n i s furthe r emphasize d b y th e fac t tha t th e accurac y o f th e wor k i n th e othe r divisions—particularl y tha t o f th e actio n clerks — depend s t o a grea t exten t upo n th e clerk s i n th e record s divisio n furnishin g quickl y an d correctl y al l o f th e previou s record s upo n subject s tha t ar e brough t u p ane w eac h da y b y th e hundred s throug h correspondenc e an d i n th e lin e o f th e regula r wor k o f th e Bureau DOCUMEN T DIVISION Th e chie f o f th e divisio n i s als o propert y cler k o f th e Bureau an d hi s repor t i s heret o attached marke d "Appendi x H. I n thi s divisio n ar e store d an d fro m i t distribute d Philippine Unite d States foreign an d miscellaneou s publications reports records orders maps regulations etc. includin g als o th e law s o f th e Commission an d i n i t i s store d al l surplu s propert y belongin g t o th e Burea u an d th e Ayuntamient o Building Sinc e Jun e 30 1904 th e propert y cler k ha s bee n personall y accountabl e fo r al l propert y belongin g t o th e Burea u an d th e Ayuntamient o Building th e Assistan t Executiv e Secretary there for e th e accountin g officer havin g bee n authorize d t o mak e th e transfer Th e repor t o f th e divisio n show s tha t 1,804,80 4 publication s wer e

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3 0 handle d i n an d ou t durin g th e year ; tha t ther e wer e receive d durin g th e sam e tim e an d previousl y o n hand 1,679,223 ; dis tributed 663,927 ; sold 1,461 ; realize d fro m sales 1*3,776.10 Pfs 160.99 a s agains t $1,224.7 7 fo r las t year DIVISIO N O F ACCOUNTS Th e repor t o f th e actin g disbursin g office r i s heret o attached marke d "Appendi x I. Thi s i s on e o f th e mos t importan t disbursin g office s i n th e Island s i n poin t o f volum e o f business ther e havin g bee n disburse d durin g th e yea r a tota l o f 1*1,720,583.05 ; th e collection s fro m variou s source s having amounte d durin g th e sam e perio d t o 1*106,504.67 Mr Harr y A Lampman th e permanen t incumbent havin g bee n grante d leav e o f absenc e wit h permissio n t o visi t th e Unite d States wa s relieve d o n Apri l 1 1904 b y Mr Loui s M Lan g a s actin g disbursin g officer a n officia l o f wid e experienc e i n accounts an d wh o ha s sinc e the n filled th e positio n t o th e satisfactio n o f al l con cerned O n Jul y 25 1904 Mr Lang' s dutie s wer e stil l furthe r enlarge d throug h th e issuanc e o f th e followin g order : TH E GOVERNMEN T O F TH E PHILIPPIN E ISLANDS EXECUTIV E BUREAU MANILA July 25, 1-904, Effectiv e Augus t first, ninetee n hundre d an d four Loui s M Lan g i s hereb y designate d Actin g Disbursin g Office r fo r th e Executiv e Bureau Philippin e Civi l Servic e Board Burea u o f Publi c Lands Burea u o f Gov ernmen t Laboratories Minin g Bureau Ethnologica l Survey Coast an d Geodeti c Survey Burea u o f Interna l Revenue Burea u o f Engineering Burea u o f Publi c Printing Burea u o f Archives America n Circulatin g Library Officia l Gazette Philippin e Expositio n Board fund s appropriate d unde r Ac t No 69 Philippin e Commission t o pa y cost s an d expense s o f litigatio n i n connectio n wit h th e Colleg e o f Sa n Jos6 an d fo r suc h fund s appropriate d fro m th e Congressiona l Relie f Fund disbursemen t o f whic h b y hi m i s specified B y directio n o f th e Civi l Governor : F W CARPENTER Acting Executive Secretary. VISI T T O TH E UNITE D STATE S O F TH E HONORAR Y BOAR D O F COMMIS SIONER S T O TH E LOUISIAN A PURCHAS E EXPOSITION Pursuan t t o th e provision s o f sectio n 1 o f Ac t No 108 0 (amenda tor y o f Ac t No 1030 ) I accompanied a s th e representativ e of th e Philippin e Government th e Honorar y Boar d o f Commissioner s t o

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3 1 th e Louisian a Purchas e Expositio n o n it s visi t t o th e Unite d States an d hav e th e hono r t o mak e th e followin g repor t i n respec t thereto : Th e Boar d wa s composed throug h appointmen t b y th e Civi l Governor b y an d wit h th e consen t o f th e Philippin e Commission o f th e followin g Filipino s o f "prominenc e an d education, repre sentin g twenty-tw o province s an d th e cit y o f Manila : Hon T H Pard o d e Tavera Philippin e Commissioner Manila ; Hon Benit o Legarda Philippin e Commissioner Manila ; Hon Yictorin o Mapa associat e judge Suprem e Court, Manila ; Mr Jua n d e Leon municipa l presiden t o f Iloilo Iloilo ; Mr Manue l d e Iriarte Chie f o f th e Burea u o f Archives Patents Copyrights an d Trade-marks Manila ; Dr Manue l Gome z Martinez secretary Insula r Boar d o f Health Manila ; Hon Bernardin o Monreal pro vincia l governor Sorsogon ; Mr Leo n Novenario cler k i n Exec utiv e Bureau Manila ; Hon Epifani o d e lo s Santos provincia l gov ernor Nuev a Ecija ; Hon Toma s G de l Rosario provincia l gov ernor Bataan ; Hon Jua n Pimentel provincia l governor Ambo s Camarines ; Hon Marian o Trias ex-provincia l governor Cavite ; Hon Simeo n Luz ex-provincia l governor Batangas ; Hon Poten cian o Lesaca provincia l governor Zambales ; Hon Jua n Yillamor ex-provincia l governor Abra ; Hon Alfons o Ramos provincia l governor Tarlac ; Hon Joaqui n Ortega ex-provincia l governor Union ; Hon Juli o Agcaoili provincia l governor Iloco s Norte ; Dr Alejandr o Albert Manila ; Mr Jua n Sumulong Manila Mr Jos e d e Loyzag a y Ageo proprieto r o f El Comercio Manila ; Mr Ramo n B Genato Filipin o Chambe r o f Commerce Manila ; Mr Vi cent e Nepomuceno provincia l fiscal Cagayan ; Mr Leonci o Gon zale z Liquete edito r o f La Dem.ocracia, Manila ; Dr Baldomer o Roxas assistan t polic e surgeon Manila ; Mr Marcia l Calleja pro vincia l fiscal Albay ; Mr Rafae l 0 Ramos Occidenta l Negros ; Mr Toma s Argiielles Manila ; Mr Jua n Arane'ta Occidenta l Negros ; Mr Alfred o d e Castro municipa l presiden t o f Atimo nan Tayabas ; Mr Guillerm o Gomez Iloilo ; Mr Ceferin o d e Leon Bulacan ; Mr Yicent e Llamas Laguna ; Mr Eusebi o Lu zuriaga Occidenta l Negros ; Mr Alejandr o R Mendoza muni cipa l presiden t o f Binalonan Pangasinan ; Mr Marian o Moren o Ramirez Ambo s Camarines ; Mr Hilario n Raymundo Rizal ; Mr Jos e Rivera provincia l secretary Laguna ; Mr Vicent e Singso n Encarnacion provincia l fiscal Iloco s Sur ; Mr Gervasi o Unson

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3 2 provincia l secretary Tayabas ; Mr Vicent e Noel Cebn ; Mr Ale jandr o Roces Laguna an d Hon Jua n Climaco provincia l gov ernor Cebu A shor t biographica l sketc h o f eac h o f th e foregoin g members exceptin g Hon Jua n Climaco an d th e tex t o f Act s Nos 103 0 an d 108 0 ar e heret o annexed marke d "Appendi x J. O n Apri l 14 1904 th e Civi l Governo r designate d Capt Thoma s Hardeman provincia l treasure r o f Pangasinan a s disbursin g office r o f th e Board Th e member s o f th e Boar d having assemble d i n Manila me t i n th e Marbl e Roo m o f th e Ayuntamient o Buildin g o n Apri l 21 1904 fo r th e purpos e o f organizin g pursuan t t o th e provision s o f sectio n 4 o f Ac t No 103 0 "b y th e electio n o f a chairman a secretary an d a n executiv e committe e o f five." B y invitatio n I preside d a t th e meeting Th e ballotin g resulte d i n th e electio n o f Hon T H Pard o d e Tavera president ; Leo n Novenario secretary an d Jua n d e Leon Manue l d e Iriarte Victorin o Mapa Manue l Gome z Martinez an d Bernardin o Monrea l a s th e executiv e committee Th e Civi l Governo r havin g designate d Apri l 23 1904 a s th e dat e o f departur e o f th e Board i t accordingl y embarke d o n th e steamshi p Rubi fo r Hongkon g a t midda y o f tha t date arrivin g a t th e latte r por t o n th e afternoo n o f th e 25th an d remainin g ther e unti l midda y o f th e 30th whe n i t embarke d o n th e Pacifi c Mai l steamshi p Siberia e n rout e fo r Sa n Francisco th e intervenin g tim e bein g employe d b y th e part y i n outfitting Befor e sailin g fro m Manil a th e followin g telegra m wa s sen t t o th e Civi l Governor the n a t Baguio : MANILA P I. April 23, 1904. Governo r WRIGHT Baguio, Benguet: Havin g bee n electe d presiden t o f th e Honorar y Boar d o f Commissioner s t o visi t St Louis i n m y ow n behal f an d i n tha t o f th e Board I wis h a t th e momen t o f leavin g thes e shore s t o expres s t o yo u an d th e member s o f th e Philippin e Commissio n ou r sincer e thank s fo r an d appreciatio n o f th e hono r conferre d upo n us an d t o assur e yo u tha t al l ou r effort s wil l b e directe d towar d strengthenin g th e bond s tha t bin d u s t o th e America n natio n an d assistin g i n th e grea t wor k o f civilization peace an d orde r whic h th e Philippin e Commissio n i s s o abl y carryin g ou t i n thes e Islands PARD O D E TAVERA President Honorary Commission. O n Apri l 24 whil e o n boar d th e Riibi e n rout e t o Hongkong th e executiv e committe e me t an d appointe d Messrs Alejandr o Albert Leonci o Gonzale z Liquete an d Epifani o d e lo s Santo s a

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3 3 committe e "t o kee p a histor y o f th e journe y an d t o mak e a con necte d accoun t an d repor t thereo f t o th e Civi l Governo r o n th e retur n o f th e Boar d t o Manila, a s provide d i n sectio n 4 o f Ac t No 1030 Thi s actio n wa s subsequentl y ratifie d b y th e ful l Board bu t th e committe e ha s no t ye t reported Gov Jua n Climaco o f Cebu b y reaso n o f illnes s foun d i t neces sar y t o separat e fro m th e Boar d a t Hongkong an d h e accord ingl y returne d t o Manil a o n th e Eubi o n Apri l 30 Th e Siberia anchore d of f th e mout h o f th e Woosun g Rive r (Shanghai ) o n th e nigh t o f Ma y 3 sailin g th e nex t nigh t fo r Nagasaki whic h wa s reache d o n th e mornin g o f th e 5th Her e th e Boar d wa s th e recipien t o f courtesie s a t th e hand s o f th e governo r o f th e port th e Unite d State s consul an d others O n th e 7t h th e Siberia reache d Kobe lyin g ther e unti l th e 8t h i n th e afternoon an d agai n wer e courtesie s extende d b y th e Japanes e official s o f th e port Yokoham a wa s reache d o n th e afternoo n o f th e 9th Her e th e Hon Gor o Narita Japanes e consu l a t Manila becam e th e constan t an d solicitou s companio n an d ciceron e o f th e part y unti l th e dat e o f it s departure Th e Japanes e Governmen t official s extende d ever y courtes y t o th e Board whic h was sumptuousl y entertaine d b y th e Hon Lloy d Griscom Unite d State s minister an d hi s famil y a t th e legatio n i n Tokio an d th e member s o f th e Toki o an d Yokoham a Chamber s o f Commerc e tendere d i t a reception enter tainment an d banque t a t th e Mapl e Lea f Clu b i n th e sam e city a t whic h man y o f th e highe r official s o f th e Imperia l Government th e governor s an d mayor s o f bot h Yokoham a an d Tokio, • official s an d attache s o f th e Unite d State s legation a s wel l a s a numbe r o f Japanes e notables wer e present Sailin g o n Ma y 11 w e reache d Honolul u o n th e mornin g o f th e 20th wher e th e Boar d wa s enthusiasticall y receive d b y a delega tio n fro m th e Honolul u commercia l bodies Followin g i s th e progra m arrange d fo r th e entertainmen t o f th e Board : FRIDAY MA Y 20 1904 9 a m Cit y o f Honolul u see n fro m electri c cars includin g inspectio n o f Honolul u Iro n Work s an d th e Honolul u Electri c Railwa y plant 12.3 0 p m Luncheo n a t Moan a Hotel 2.3 0 p m Visi t t o Ew a suga r plantatio n b y specia l trai n o n Oah u Railway 7.3 0 p m Concer t an d reception roo f garde n o f Alexande r Youn g Hotel 24904 3

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3 4 Th e Siberia lef t Honolul u o n th e 21s t fo r Sa n Francisco whic h wa s reache d earl y o n th e mornin g o f Ma y 27 A s soo n a s practicabl e afte r disembarkin g th e followin g telegra m wa s sen t t o th e Secretar y o f Wa r b y th e presiden t o f th e Honorar y Board : SA N FRANCISCO May 27, 190kSECRETAR Y O F WAR Washington: Honorar y Commissio n o n reachin g America n territor y sen d respectfu l greeting s an d expressio n o f loya l adhesio n t o th e Presiden t an d Secretar y Taft th e frien d o f th e Filipin o people TAVERA Th e followin g repl y wa s receive d o n th e sam e day : WASHINGTON May 27, 1904. DR T H PARD O D E TAVER A AN D SENO R BENIT O LEGARDA COMMISSIONERS AN D OTHER S O F TH E FILIPIN O DELEGATION Palace Hotel, San Francisco, Gal.: I welcom e yo u wit h al l m y hear t t o th e shore s o f America an d cheris h th e hop e tha t you r sta y i n thi s countr y ma y prov e t o b e o f th e greates t benefi t t o yourselve s an d t o th e peopl e o f th e Unite d State s an d o f th e Philippines I loo k forwar d wit h pleasur e t o greetin g eac h on e o f yo u i n person Th e Presiden t join s m e i n thi s welcom e an d congratulation s o n you r saf e arrival WM H TAFT Th e Boar d remaine d i n Sa n Francisco quartere d a t th e Palac e Hotel unti l th e mornin g o f Jun e 1 Th e programm e o f entertain men t a t Sa n Francisc o include d a banque t a t th e Palac e Hote l o n th e evenin g o f Ma y 28 whe n th e Boar d wa s th e gues t o f th e Chambe r o f Commerc e an d th e Merchants Associatio n o f Sa n Francisco ; and wit h th e sam e commercia l bodie s a s hosts a n excur sio n o n th e ba y o n th e Unite d State s Arm y tu g Slocum o n Ma y 31 includin g a visi t t o th e Mar e Islan d Navy-Yar d an d th e Unio n Iro n Works wher e severa l battleship s an d cruiser s ar e bein g buil t fo r th e Unite d State s Navy O n Ma y 28 Maj Oen Arthu r MacArthur th e secon d America n Militar y Governo r o f th e Philippines calle d formall y upo n th e Board th e officer s o f whic h returne d th e cal l o n th e followin g day O n arrivin g a t Sa n Francisc o i t wa s learne d tha t th e Burea u o f Insula r Affair s o f th e Wa r Departmen t a t Washington wit h th e approva l o f th e Secretar y o f War ha d prepare d a n itinerar y fo r th e tri p o f th e Boar d throug h th e Unite d States whic h include d a numbe r o f principa l citie s tha t ha d extende d a n invitatio n t o th e part y t o visi t them expressin g a willingnes s t o defra y al l expense s

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3 5 othe r tha n transportatio n charge s whil e actin g a s hosts Ha d i t no t bee n fo r thi s hospitalit y i t woul d hav e bee n impracticabl e fo r th e Boar d t o accep t th e invitations owin g t o th e limitation s o f th e ap propriation Th e Insula r Burea u likewis e ha d mad e preliminar y arrangement s fo r railroa d transportatio n a s fa r a s Washington D C. whic h wer e complete d upo n ou r arrival an d tw o specia l sleepin g an d on e baggag e ca r chartere d fo r th e tri p t o Leavenworth Kans. ove r th e Souther n Pacifi c an d Unio n Pacifi c railroads Th e part y lef t Sa n Francisc o o n th e Atlanti c Expres s a t 9 a m o n Jun e 1 an d reache d Leavenwort h o n th e nigh t o f th e 4th A t Leavenwort h th e trai n wa s me t b y Brig Gen J Frankli n Bell U S A. an d staff th e mayo r o f th e city an d a n immens e thron g o f people whic h escorte d th e Boar d t o th e hotel wher e suppe r wa s serve d an d a receptio n wa s held attende d b y th e citizen s o f Leaven wort h an d th e officer s an d ladie s o f For t Leavenworth O n th e followin g da y th e member s o f th e Boar d wer e th e guest s o f Gen era l Bel l a t For t Leavenworth bein g mos t charmingl y entertaine d b y Genera l an d Mrs Bel l an d th e officer s an d ladie s o f th e post Th e part y als o witnesse d a revie w o f th e troop s an d mad e a thoroug h inspectio n o f th e interestin g detail s o f thi s grea t militar y post Havin g bee n almos t wholl y withou t assistanc e sinc e th e departur e fro m Manil a (th e stat e o f Captai n Hardeman' s healt h u p t o thi s tim e preventin g hi m fro m attendin g t o an y dutie s othe r tha n thos e strictl y withi n hi s capacit y a s disbursin g officer althoug h late r I a m indebte d t o hi m fo r hi s man y kindl y effort s t o lighte n m y bur dens an d fo r hi s unfailin g assistanc e i n th e discharg e o f som e o f th e dutie s whic h unde r th e la w devolve d upo n me suc h a s th e makin g o f contract s an d arrangement s fo r transportatio n an d sub sistence ) Genera l Bel l courteousl y detaile d tw o youn g officer s a t For t Leavenworth—Firs t Lieut Danie l Va n Voorhis Thir d Unite d State s Cavalry on e o f hi s aides an d Firs t Lieut Howar d G Young Sixt h Unite d State s Infantry—t o accompan y m e a s assist ant s an d interpreters Upo n ou r arriva l i n Washingto n th e Secre tar y o f Wa r extende d thi s detai l t o includ e th e whol e itinerar y a s fa r a s St Louis Mo. an d I ow e bot h thes e gentleme n a deb t o f gratitude sinc e I foun d Lieutenant s Va n Yoorhi s an d Young throug h thei r knowledg e o f Spanish tact an d tireles s energ y durin g a ver y strenuou s tri p eve r aler t an d invaluabl e assistants Leavin g Leavenwort h o n th e evenin g o f Jun e 5 Cincinnat i wa s reache d o n th e evenin g o f th e 6th havin g ru n ove r th e Missour i

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3 6 Pacifi c Railroa d fro m Kansa s Cit y t o St Louis an d fro m thi s poin t t o Cincinnat i ove r th e Baltimor e an d Ohi o Southwestern A s guest s o f th e cit y o f Cincinnat i th e member s o f th e Boar d spen t th e nex t tw o day s i n carryin g ou t th e followin g programme : Th e Honorar y Boar d wil l b e me t a t th e depo t b y a committe e an d escorte d t o th e Gran d Hote l fo r dinner Late r i n th e evenin g th e member s wil l atten d a receptio n a t th e hom e o f th e Hon Charle s P Taft a committe e actin g a s escor t fro m th e hote l t o th e residenc e o f Mr Taft TUESDAY JUN E 7 1904 9 a m Leav e Gran d Hotel 9.1 5 t o 10.1 5 a m Inspectio n o f plant s o f Krohn Fechheime r & Co. Val Duttenhofe r Son s Co. Krippendorf-Dittma n Co (sho e manufactures ) ; part y bein g divide d int o thre e sections 10.3 0 t o 11.3 0 a m Visi t t o Rookwoo d Pottery 1 2 m t o 1 p m Dutc h lunc h a t Mecklenburg's 1.1 5 t o 2 p m Inspectio n o f plan t o f Cincinnat i Ca r Works Specia l trai n t o Ivorydale 2.1 5 t o 3.1 5 p m Inspectio n o f plan t o f Procto r & Gambl e Co (soa p manufacturers) / 4 t o 1 0 p m Visi t t o Zoologica l Gardens 6 p m Dinne r serve d a t Zo o Clu b House WEDNESDAY JUN E 8 1904 9.3 0 a m Leav e Gran d Hotel 9.4 5 t o 10.4 5 a m Inspectio n o f cit y hal l an d revie w o f polic e an d fire departments 12.3 0 p m Guests o f Bulloc k Electri c Compan y (luncheon) 1.3 0 p m Inspectio n o f plan t o f Bulloc k Electri c Company 2.3 0 p m Inspectio n o f plan t o f Unite d State s Lithographin g Company (Part y wil l b e photographed. ) 3 p m Inspectio n o f plan t o f Unite d State s Playin g Car d Company 4.4 5 p in Guest s o f Moerlei n Brewin g Company Th e Boar d wa s th e recipien t o f a lovin g cup presente d b y th e presiden t o f th e Rookwoo d Potter y Company a t th e dinne r a t th e Zo o Clu b House whic h i s on e o f th e memento s mos t highl y prize d b y th e member s o f th e party an d whic h i s no w i n th e custod y o f th e undersigned awaitin g th e arriva l o f Dr Tavera Leavin g Cincinnat i o n th e nigh t o f th e 8th ove r th e Chesapeak e an d Ohi o Railroad Washingto n wa s reache d o n th e afternoo n o f th e 9th wher e th e Boar d wa s me t b y a larg e representatio n fro m th e Busines s Men' s Associatio n o f th e cit y an d Governmen t officials an d escorte d t o th e Arlingto n Hotel A t 7.3 0 o'cloc k o f th e sam e

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3 7 evenin g a receptio n wa s give n th e Boar d b y th e Distric t Commis sioner s an d th e Busines s Men's Associatio n a t th e Corcora n Galler y o f Art Th e programm e fo r th e nex t thre e day s wa s a s follows : FRIDAY JUN E 10 1904 1 0 a m Boar d receive d b y th e Secretar y o f Wa r a t hi s offic e i n th e Wa r Department 2 t o 6 p m Luncheo n an d receptio n a t th e Whit e Hous e b y th e Presiden t an d Mrs Roosevelt SATURDAY JUN E 11 1904 9.3 0 a m Driv e aroun d th e cit y an d inspectio n o f Burea u o f Engravin g an d Printing Unite d State s Capitol Congressiona l Library Govern men t Printin g Office Washingto n Navy-Yard an d othe r publi c build ings escorte d b y committe e o f th e Busines s Men' s Association 8 p m Receptio n a t th e Arm y an d Nav y Clu b Hous e b y officer s o f th e Arm y an d Navy SUNDAY JUN E 12 1904 9.3 0 a m Visi t t o Moun t Vernon hom e an d tom b o f Washington o n boar d th e U S S Sylph. Whil e a t th e capita l city b y directio n o f th e Secretar y o f War Col Jame s S Pettit Maj Joh n Biddl e Porter Capt Joh n R M Taylor Mr W Leo n Pepperman an d Mr Fran k L Joannin i wer e adde d t o th e staf f t o assis t th e undersigne d i n carin g fo r th e comfor t o f an d actin g a s interpreter s fo r suc h o f th e member s o f th e Boar d a s di d no t spea k English an d accompanie d i t a s fa r a s Boston wit h th e exceptio n o f Mr Joannini wh o continue d t o St Louis th e other s returnin g t o Washington I desir e t o than k thes e gentleme n fo r th e courteou s assistanc e the y rendere d th e Boar d an d myself Leavin g Washingto n o n th e mornin g o f th e 13th ove r th e Balti mor e an d Ohi o Railroad Philadelphi a wa s reache d abou t 1 1 o'cloc k a m. an d a da y an d a hal f wer e mos t pleasantl y an d profitabl y spen t a s th e guest s o f th e cit y official s an d prominen t busines s men Th e programm e arrange d fo r th e entertainmen t o f th e Boar d i n Philadelphi a wa s a s follows : MONDAY JUN E 13 1904 1 1 a m Carriage s a t Baltimor e an d Ohi o Statio n a t Twenty-fourt h an d Chestnu t Streets 1 2 m Luncheo n a t Hote l Walton 1.3 0 p m Leav e Hote l Walton 1.4 5 p m Arriv e Cit y Hall

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3 8 2.3 0 p m Leav e Cit y Hall 3 p m Arriv e Drexe l Institute 3.4 5 p m Leav e Drexe l Institute 4 p m Arriv e Universit y o f Pennsylvania 5 p m Leav e Universit y o f Pennsylvania 5.1 5 p m Arriv e Commercia l Museums Thenc e b y carriage s t o Fair moun t Par k an d th e Philadelphi a Countr y Club 7.1 5 p m Dinne r serve d a t th e Countr y Club TUESDAY JUN E 14 1904 9 a m Leav e Hote l Walton 9.3 0 a m Arriv e Chestnu t Stree t wharf boardin g tu g Ashbridge fo r Leagu e Island returnin g b y rive r rout e t o Torresdale (Luncheo n serve d o n tu g Ashbridge e n route. ) 1 p m Arriv e a t th e Willia m Cram p Sons Shi p an d Engin e Buildin g Company 1.3 0 p m Leav e th e Willia m Cram p Sons Shi p an d Engin e Buildin g Compan y i n carriages 2 p m Arriv e Baldwi n Locomotiv e Works 6 p m Leav e Baldwi n Locomotiv e Work s fo r Unite d State s Min t an d Girar d College returnin g t o Hote l Walton Leavin g Philadelphi a a t midnigh t o f th e 14th o n th e Pennsyl vani a Railroa d an d transferrin g t o th e Wes t Shor e roa d a t Jerse y City Wes t Poin t wa s reache d a t a n earl y hou r o n th e mornin g o f th e 15th an d her e th e Boar d wa s mos t hospitabl y entertaine d b y th e officer s o f th e Militar y Academ y an d a n opportunit y wa s afforde d t o inspec t th e grounds witnes s a revie w o f th e cadets an d th e graduatin g exercise s o f th e larges t clas s tha t ha s eve r bee n graduate d fro m tha t histori c institution A committe e fro m th e Chambe r o f Commerc e o f th e Stat e o f Ne w Yor k me t th e Boar d a t Wes t Poin t o n th e afternoo n o f Jun e 15 an d escorte d i t t o Ne w Yor k o n boar d steame r Matteawan. Followin g i s th e programm e arrange d b y th e Chambe r o f Com merc e o f th e Stat e o f Ne w Yor k fo r th e entertainmen t o f th e Honorar y Board : WEDNESDAY JUN E 15 1904 2.3 0 p m Leav e Wes t Poin t o n steame r Matteawem. 5.3 0 p m Water-throwin g exhibitio n b y th e fir e boa t George B. McGlellan, foo t Wes t Twenty-secon d Street Th e Mattecvwan wil l roun d th e Battery stea m u p th e Eas t Rive r a s fa r a s Navy-Yard affordin g vie w o f ne w bridge s ove r Eas t River returnin g t o Wes t Twenty-secon d Stree t pier whenc e part y wil l b e drive n i n carriage s t o Murra y Hil l Hotel

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3 9 THURSDAY JUN E 16 1904 1 0 a m Visi t i n automobile s t o America n Suret y Compan y Building i n orde r tha t th e part y ma y ge t a genera l vie w o f th e cit y fro m th e roof 1 1 a m Receptio n a t th e Chambe r o f Commerce 1 2 m Luncheo n a t th e Chambe r o f Commerce FRIDAY JUN E 17 1904 1 0 a m Rid e i n automobile s throug h Centra l Par k an d Riversid e Driv e t o Grant' s tomb 11.3 0 a m Visi t t o Metropolita n Museu m o f Ar t an d th e Museu m o f Natura l History 7.3 0 p m Banque t a t Delmonico's Earl y o n th e mornin g o f Jun e 1 8 th e Board accompanie d b y a committe e fro m th e cit y o f Bridgeport Conn. lef t ove r th e New York Ne w Have n an d Hartfor d Railroa d fo r tha t city arrivin g ther e th e sam e mornin g an d becomin g th e guest s o f th e cit y author itie s an d th e Boar d o f Trade Th e programm e o f entertainmen t a t Bridgepor t wa s a s follows : SATURDAY JUN E 18 1904 10.2 8 a m Arriva l fro m Ne w Yor k i n tw o specia l parlo r cars 10.3 0 a m t o 12.1 5 p m Visi t Eas t Sid e factorie s i n automobiles 12.3 0 p m Commissio n wil l b e photographe d o n step s o f court-house 12.4 5 p m Fire-alar m bo x 3 2 wil l b e run g an d a fir e displa y given 1 p m Luncheo n a t Atlanti c Hotel 4 t o 6 p m Receptio n a t publi c librar y an d distributio n o f souvenirs 2.4 5 t o 3.4 5 p m Visi t Wes t En d factorie s i n automobiles 6 t o 7 p m Retur n t o Atlanti c Hote l an d prepar e fo r evening 7 t o 8 p m Receptio n i n parlor s o f Atlanti c Hotel 8 p m Banque t t o Commissioner s an d guestis SUNDAY JUN E 19 1904 9 a m Atten d mas s a t St Augustine' s Church 1 0 a m Rid e abou t cit y i n carriages 12.3 0 p m Luncheon 2.2 7 p m Depar t fo r Ne w Yor k i n specia l cars Returnin g t o Ne w Yor k o n th e afternoo n o f th e 19th th e Boar d too k th e Fal l Rive r steame r Priscilla an d mad e a nigh t trip vi a Lon g Islan d Sound t o Fal l River Mass. whic h wa s reache d earl y o n th e mornin g o f th e 20t h an d wher e th e followin g programme prepare d b y th e mayo r an d leadin g busines s me n o f th e cit y o f Fal l River wa s carrie d out :

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4 0 7.3 0 a m Breakfas t o n boar d th e Priscilla. 8.3 0 a m Mayo r Grim e an d citize n escor t wil l mee t Honorar y Boar d o n th e Priscilla, takin g carriage s t o visi t th e Fal l Rive r Iro n Works th e America n Printin g Company th e Kin g Phili p Mills an d th e Steven s Manufacturin g Company 1.3 0 p m Dinne r a t Quequecha n Club 3.4 8 p m Honorar y Boar d wil l b e escorte d t o trai n leavin g Fal l Rive r fo r Boston Leavin g Fal l Rive r a t 3.4 8 p m o f th e sam e day o n th e Ne w York Ne w Have n an d Hartfor d Railroad Bosto n wa s reache d a t 5.0 6 p m. th e Boar d bein g me t e n rout e b y a delegatio n fro m th e Chambe r o f Commerc e o f th e latte r city Followin g wa s th e programm e o f entertainmen t i n Boston : MONDAY JUN E 20 1904 5.0 6 p m Arriv e a t Sout h Statio n fro m Fal l River carriage s t o Hote l Vendome 7.3 0 p m Leav e Hote l fo r Keith' s Theater TUESDAY JUN E 21 1904 9.3 0 a m Carriage s fo r Stat e House 1 0 a m Receptio n b y hi s excellenc y Governo r Bates 10.3 0 a m Carriage s fo r Publi c Library 1 1 a m Carriage s fo r Harvar d University 1.2 0 p m Arriv e a t Cambridge ; receptio n b y Presiden t Eliot Part y con ducte d throug h University 1.3 0 p m Lunc h a t Colonia l Club 2.4 5 p m Electric s fo r Milton 4 p m Arriv e Milton Receptio n give n b y Mrs W H Forbe s (mothe r o f th e Ho n W Camero n Forbes Philippin e Commission) 5.3 0 p m Leav e Milto n fo r Boston 6.1 5 p m Arriv e Hote l Vendome Dinner 7.4 5 p m Electric s fo r Tremon t Theater WEDNESDAY JUN E 22 1904 Part y wil l visi t Lyn n a s th e guest s o f tha t city THURSDAY JUN E 23 1904 9.3 0 a m Carriage s fo r Bosto n Chambe r o f Commerce 1 0 a m Receptio n b y Bosto n busines s men 10.3 0 a m Carriage s t o Lon g Wharf Transfe r t o U S revenu e cutte r Algonquin. 12.3 0 p m Lunc h o n th e boat give n b y Mayo r Collins 2.3 0 p m Arriv e a t Lon g Whar f (elevate d railwa y fo r Boylesto n Stree t Station) Drag s a t Boylesto n Stree t Statio n fo r driv e throug h Park way Shor t sto p a t Countr y Clu b an d Chestnu t Hil l pumpin g station

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4 1 5.3 0 p m Arriv e a t hotel 7.3 0 p m Leav e hote l fo r Algonqui n Club 8 p m Dinne r a t Algonqui n Club tendere d b y Governo r Bates FRIDAY JUN E 24 1904 10.3 0 a m Carriage s fo r Sout h Station Th e programm e a t Lynn Mass. prepare d b y th e cit y official s o f Lynn th e Boar d o f Trade an d th e Sho e Manufacturers Associa tion wa s a s follows : WEDNESDAY JUN E 22 1904 8 a m A committe e wil l receiv e th e Honorar y Boar d o f Filipin o Com missioner s a t th e Hote l Vendome Boston an d escor t the m t o th e mayor' s office cit y hall Lynn 9.4 5 a m Receptio n a t mayor' s office 1 0 a m Visi t t o th e Genera l Electri c Works 1 2 m Rid e aroun d th e cit y i n autos 1 p m Dinne r a t th e Rela y House Nahant 3 p m Visi t t o th e sho e factorie s o f A E Little Walto n & Loga n Co. an d Joh n H Cross 4.3 0 p m Visi t t o Littlefiel d an d Plummer' s Bo x Factory 5.3 0 p m Receptio n an d luncheo n a t th e Oxfor d Clu b Hall Leavin g Bosto n o n th e 24t h i n th e morning ove r th e Bosto n an d Alban y Railroa d a s fa r a s Albany N Y. an d th e Ne w Yor k Centra l fro m tha t city w e reache d Buffal o lat e i n th e evenin g o f th e sam e day wher e th e Boar d wa s entertaine d fo r tw o day s b y th e Buffal o Chambe r o f Commerce th e programm e bein g a s follows : FRIDAY JUN E 24 1904 Commissioner s wil l b e me t a t trai n b y a committe e o f th e Chambe r o f Commerc e an d escorte d t o th e Niagar a Hotel SATURDAY JUN E 25 1904 9.3 0 a m Receptio n an d welcom e a t Niagar a Hotel Hon Erastu s C Knight mayor ; Mr Jas J H Brown presiden t o f th e Chambe r o f Commerce 1 0 a m Tri p abou t harbor 2 p m Luncheon Niagar a Hotel 3.3 0 p m Trip s aroun d cit y i n auto s an d a visi t t o Kenilwort h Rac e Track 7 p m Dinner Niagar a Hotel 8.3 0 p m Reception Buffal o Club SUNDAY JUN E 26 1904 1 0 a m Tri p t o Niagar a Falls 11.3 0 a m Visi t t o plan t o f Niagar a Fall s Powe r Company

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4 2 I.3 0 p m Luncheon Niagar a Falls Ontario 2.3 0 p m Tri p throug h th e Gorge 7 p m Dinner Niagar a Hotel Fiv e o f th e member s o f th e Boar d separate d fro m i t a t Buffal o t o becom e th e guest s fo r severa l days a t Rochester N Y. o f Major Genera l Otis th e first America n Militar y Governo r o f th e Philip pines The y rejoine d th e mai n bod y a t Detroit Th e presiden t o f th e Boar d als o lef t i t her e t o procee d t o Ne w Haven Conn. wher e h e received o n Jun e 29 fro m Yal e University th e honorar y degre e o f Maste r o f Arts Dr Taver a rejoine d th e Boar d a t St Louis Leavin g Buffal o o n th e nigh t o f Jun e 26 ove r th e Pennsylvani a Railroad th e Board accompanie d b y tw o member s o f th e cit y counci l o f Pittsburg Pa. reache d th e latte r cit y earl y i n th e mornin g o f th e 27th where a s guest s o f th e city th e followin g programm e ha d bee n arrange d fo r th e entertainmen t o f th e party : MONDAY JUN E 27 1904 7.3 0 a m Arriva l o f Honorar y Boar d o f Filipin o Commissioner s a t Unio n Station 7.3 0 a m Leav e o n specia l trolle y car s fo r Hote l Schenley 9.3 0 a m Leav e Hote l Schenle y o n specia l trolle y car s fo r Eas t Libert y Station 1 0 a m Leav e Eas t Libert y o n train 10.2 0 a m Arriv e a t Eas t Pittsburg Visi t Westinghous e Electri c an d Manufacturin g Compan y an d Westinghous e Machin e Company II.4 0 a m Leav e Eas t Pittsburg 11.5 0 a m Arriv e Bessemer Visi t Besseme r rai l mill s (Carnegi e Stee l Company) 12.4 0 p m Leav e Besseme r vi a Monongahel a Division Luncheo n e n route 2 p m Arriv e Charleroi Visi t Pittsbur g Glas s Company' s works 2.4 0 p m Leav e Charleroi 3.4 0 p m Arriv e a t Homestead Visi t Homestea d mill s (Carnegi e Stee l Company) 5 p m Leav e Homestead t 5.2 0 p m Arriv e Pittsburg 5.5 0 p m Reac h Hote l Schenley 7.3 0 p m Receptio n an d banquet TUESDAY JUN E 28 1904 8.3 0 a m Leav e hote l b y trolle y cars 9 a m Leav e Unio n Station 9.4 0 a m Arriv e Ambridge 10.3 0 a m Leav e Ambridge

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4 3 10.5 0 a m Arriv e a t Davi s Islan d Dam Inspectin g Governmen t dam Boar d steame r Mayflower. (Boa t leave s foo t o f Marke t Stree t a t 9 a m t o mee t th e Commissioner s a t Davi s Islan d Dam. ) U p th e rive r t o Por t Perr y Lock Luncheo n o n boat 2 p m Tak e Pittsbur g an d Lak e Eri e train 2.1 0 p m Arriv e Demmler Visi t Firth-Stirlin g Stee l Work s (projectiles) 2.4 0 p m Leav e Demmler 3 p m Arriv e Glassport Visi t Unite d State s Glas s Company 3.3 0 p m Leav e Glassport 4 p m Arriv e Por t Perry Boar d steame r fo r city Departin g fro m Pittsbur g o n th e nigh t o f th e 28th ove r th e Pennsylvani a Railroad w e arrive d i n Cleveland Ohio o n th e mornin g o f th e 29th durin g whic h da y an d th e nex t th e Boar d wa s th e gues t o f th e Clevelan d Chambe r o f Commerce whic h ha d prepare d th e followin g programm e fo r it s entertainment : WEDNESDAY JUN E 29 1904 7 a m Honorar y Commissio n wil l b e me t b y a committe e o f th e Chambe r o f Commerc e an d escorte d t o th e Colonia l Hotel 9.3 0 a m Committe e o f th e Chambe r o f Commerc e wil l mee t part y a t th e Colonia l Hote l an d visi t th e followin g factories : Clevelan d Cit y Forg e Company Brow n Hoistin g Company an d th e Kin g Bridg e Company 1 2 m Automobil e rid e throug h th e park s an d boulevards wit h visi t t o th e Countr y Club 3.3 0 p m Rid e throug h th e lowe r par k t o Wad e Park thenc e t o Eucli d Club wher e luncheo n wil l b e served Retur n t o Colonia l Hotel THURSDAY JUN E 30 1904 9.3 0 a m Boar d wil l b e drive n t o Nicola-Ston e Dock s an d embar k i n tug s fo r tri p u p an d dow n th e river 11.3 0 a m Part y wil l boar d th e U S S Hawk fo r a sai l o n th e lake (Luncheo n wil l b e serve d o n board. ) 2 p m Retur n t o hotel 4.3 0 t o 6 p m Receptio n a t th e Chambe r o f Commerce wher e th e Boar d wil l mee t th e mayo r o f Detroi t an d tw o member s o f th e Boar d o f Trade wh o wil l escor t the m t o th e "Cit y o f th e Straits. A committe e o f th e Board compose d o f th e following Jua n d e Leon Marian o Trias Leonci o Gonzale z Liquete Jua n Sumulong an d Vicent e Noel accompanie d b y Lieut Danie l Va n Voorhis lef t Clevelan d o n th e mornin g o f Jun e 3 0 fo r Canton Ohio bearin g a magnificen t wreath towar d th e purchas e o f whic h eac h membe r o f th e Boar d ha d voluntaril y subscribed t o la y upo n th e tom b o f th e martyre d Presiden t McKinley an d t o pa y thei r

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4 4 respect s t o hi s widow Th e committe e wa s me t a t th e Canto n Statio n b y Associat e Justic e Willia m R Da} ^ o f th e Suprem e Cour t o f th e Unite d States ; th e mayo r o f th e city an d othe r prominen t official s an d citizens an d wa s th e recipien t o f man y courtesie s a t thei r hands Afte r depositin g th e wreat h upo n th e temporar y restin g plac e o f President McKinley an d callin g upo n Mrs Mc Kinley wh o presente d eac h membe r o f th e committe e wit h a photograp h o f th e President the y returne d t o Clevelan d o n th e evenin g o f th e sam e da y i n tim e t o joi n th e majorit y o f th e Boar d an d t o tak e th e steame r City of Detroit fo r tha t city accompanie d b y th e mayo r an d a delegatio n o f cit y officials a s state d i n th e Clevelan d programme whos e hospitalit y wa s unremittin g durin g th e trip Th e programm e o f entertainmen t i n Detroi t wa s a s follows : FRIDAY JUL Y 1 1904 7 a m Leav e Detroi t an d Clevelan d boat 1 0 a m Tak e auto s fo r Russel l House Immediatel y upo n arriva l a t hote l th e delegate s wil l b e assigne d t o thei r rooms an d afterward s serve d wit h breakfast Assembl e i n "ordinary o f hote l fo r introduc tio n o f committeeme n an d welcome 1 1 a m Tak e auto s fo r Parke Davi s & Co.' s Laboratory 12.3 0 p m A substantia l luncheo n wil l b e serve d b y Parke Davi s & Co a t thei r plant Procee d t o Michiga n Stov e Works remainin g ther e a s lon g a s th e delegate s desire 1.3 0 p m Retur n t o hote l vi a Eas t Boulevard Gran d Boulevard an d Woodwar d Avenue Visi t basebal l ground s t o witnes s gam e betwee n th e Detroi t an d Clevelan d nines N o particula r progra m fo r evening Ticket s grati s fo r suc h o f th e delegate s a s car e t o atten d th e theate r wil l b e provided SATURDAY JUL Y 2 1904 9 a m Tak e auto s a t hote l fo r Bell e Isle Part y wil l b e me t a t bridg e b y escor t o f mounte d police Procee d aroun d islan d wit h escort inspec t aquarium, an d sto p a t playgroun d fo r dril l o f mounte d police Afte r dril l procee d t o Inselruhe Dock 10.3 0 a m Steame r Owana wil l leav e foo t o f Griswol d Stree t wit h member s o f commo n council member s o f boar d o f estimates an d othe r cit y official s an d member s o f th e boar d o f commerce stoppin g a t Inselruhe Dock Bell e Isle t o tak e o n th e Honorar y Commissio n an d thei r attendants proceedin g thenc e t o th e Flats Luncheo n wil l b e serve d o n th e boat Th e Owana wil l retur n t o he r doc k a t th e foo t o f Griswol d Stree t abou t 1.3 0 o'clock Balanc e o f afternoo n wil l b e spen t i n rid e aroun d Wester n Boulevard

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4 5 SUNDAY JUL Y 3 1904 Join t committe e wil l mee t a t hote l a t 12.3 0 p m shar p t o escor t delegatio n t o Michiga n Centra l Depot wher e ou r guest s wil l boar d th e trai n fo r Chicago Earl y i n th e afternoo n o f Jul y 3 th e Board accompanie d b y thre e member s o f th e Boar d o f Alderme n o f Chicago lef t fo r tha t cit y ove r th e Michiga n Centra l Railroad arrivin g a t th e wester n metropoli s th e sam e night an d bein g conducte d i n carriage s t o th e Auditoriu m Anne x Hotel Her e th e Boar d wa s th e gues t o f th e cit y o f Chicago whic h ha d prepare d th e followin g programm e o f entertainment : MONDAY JUL Y 4 1904 Th e Board havin g breakfasted wil l assembl e i n th e hote l lobb y a t 8.4 5 a m. prepare d t o star t fo r th e day Th e Commissio n wil l b e th e guest s o f th e boar d o f trustee s o f th e sanitar y distric t o f Chicago an d g o b y boat upo n whic h luncheo n wil l b e served dow n th e cana l an d retur n b y rail Carriage s wil l b e take n upo n arriva l fo r a driv e throug h th e park s an d boulevard s o f th e Nort h Side stoppin g fo r suppe r a t a n outdoo r musi c garden TUESDAY JUL Y 5 1904 Th e Board havin g breakfasted wil l assembl e i n th e hote l lobb y a t 9 a m. prepare d t o star t fo r th e day Carriage s wil l b e take n throug h th e boulevard s an d park s o f th e Sout h Side visitin g th e sit e o f th e World' s Columbia n Exposition 1892-93 A shor t sto p wil l b e mad e a t th e Universit y o f Chicago Guests wil l the n b e drive n t o th e stoc k yards wher e luncheo n wil l b e served afte r whic h th e packin g house s an d yard s wil l b e visited Fro m th e yard s th e Commissio n wil l g o t o th e McCormic k Reape r Work s an d th e Kimbal l Pian o Works returnin g t o hote l throug h th e park s an d boulevard s o f Wes t Side Ther e wil l b e n o entertainmen t fo r th e evening an d guest s wil l b e give n a n opportunit y t o enjo y th e freedo m o f th e cit y i n thei r ow n way WEDNESDAY JUL Y 6 1904 Th e Board havin g breakfasted wil l assembl e i n th e hote l lobb y a t 9 a m. prepare d t o star t fo r th e day Carriage s wil l b e take n fo r th e variou s point s o f interes t i n th e busines s district includin g mercantil e house s an d th e Boar d o f Trade Th e citizen s an d official s wil l tende r a luncheo n a t th e Auditoriu m Hote l a t 12.3 0 p m A t 3.3 0 p m th e Boar d wil l assembl e i n th e hote l lobb y an d wil l b e escorte d t o th e Illinoi s Stee l Mill s a t Sout h Chicago an d retur n t o th e hote l fo r supper

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4 6 Th e continuou s movemen t t o whic h th e Boar d wa s subjecte d i n orde r t o propert y sho w it s appreciatio n o f th e invitation s extende d i t b y man y citie s i n th e Unite d States an d o f th e programme s pre pare d fo r it s entertainment whic h necessitate d lon g an d irksom e railroa d trip s betwee n citie s an d almos t constan t energeti c motion wit h bu t littl e tim e fo r rest ha d bee n tellin g o n th e member s t o a considerabl e extent Judg e Map a ha d becom e quit e il l e n rout e t o Washington an d wa s lef t i n tha t cit y unde r th e car e o f a physicia n fo r severa l days rejoinin g th e Boar d a t Ne w Yor k an d continuin g thereafte r wit h it althoug h a t time s bein g unabl e t o tak e par t i n th e programme s arrange d fo r th e entertainmen t o f th e Board Whil e i n Bosto n I receive d a telegra m fro m th e Burea u o f Insula r Affair s o f th e Wa r Departmen t a s follows : WASHINGTON D C. June 21. Hon A W FERGUSSON Vendome Hotel, Boston, Mass.: Followin g i s telegra m sen t Buffal o an d al l citie s after : "Judgin g fro m citie s alread y visited fea r programme s arrange d b y receptio n committee s fo r Honorar y Commissioner s to o exhausting Thi s delegatio n ha s bee n travelin g bar d fo r ove r tw o months Firml y believ e receptio n committee s shoul d s o arrang e a s t o permi t Filipino s t o confor m t o long-establishe d custo m o f extende d res t afte r luncheo n i f i t i s impracticabl e t o leav e entir e afternoon s fo r thi s purpose. Secwa r direct s tha t yo u se e tha t hi s wishe s ar e carrie d ou t t o preserv e healt h o f you r party MAGOON Whil e a t Pittsbur g I wa s apprise d o f a courteou s invitatio n fro m th e citie s o f St Pau l an d Minneapoli s fo r th e Boar d t o visi t them an d tha t i t ha d bee n arrange d fo r th e Boar d t o visi t Indianapoli s o n th e 14th 15th an d 16t h o f July bu t a s man y o f th e member s wer e showin g evidence s o f fatigue an d fearin g a breakdow n o n th e par t o f some I advise d th e Chie f o f th e Burea u o f Insula r Affair s o f th e inabilit y o f th e Boar d t o accep t th e invitation s o f St Pau l an d Minneapolis an d tha t th e tim e betwee n Jul y 6 an d 1 4 ough t t o b e devote d t o rest i n harmon y wit h th e wishe s o f th e Secretar y o f War I n a wir e fro m Pittsbur g o n Jun e 28 amon g othe r things I expresse d mysel f t o Colone l Edward s a s follows : Earnestl y reques t itinerar y b e no t lengthene d b y additio n an y citie s afte r Chicag o an d Indianapolis Part y exhausted Onl y fifteen responde d thi s mornin g t o tak e rive r excursion Strai n i s tellin g o n ever y man Blistere d fee t prevalent Bes t imperative els e end s sough t likel y t o b e defeated Wha t abou t filling tim e betwee n Chicag o an d Indianapoli s wit h visi t t o summe r resort ? Part y anticipate s i t longingly

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4 7 O n reachin g Clevelan d i t becam e stil l mor e apparen t tha t th e Boar d woul d nee d a res t i n orde r t o arriv e i n goo d physica l con ditio n a t St Louis wher e i t woul d hav e t o spen d a mont h unde r th e provision s o f Ac t No 1030 an d th e Burea u o f Insula r Affair s wa s requeste d t o selec t som e poin t i n th e vicinit y o f Chicag o wher e th e neede d respit e migh t b e secure d betwee n th e date s mentione d above Throug h th e kindl y office s o f Brig Gen Frederic k D Grant accommodation s fo r th e Boar d wer e secure d a t th e Chicag o Beac h Hote l a t acceptabl e rates an d th e part y move d ou t t o tha t hote l o n th e mornin g o f Jul y 7 remainin g ther e unti l th e mornin g o f th e 14th O n th e mornin g o f Jul y 4 whil e i n Chicago I receive d th e followin g telegra m fro m Colone l Edwards Chie f o f th e Burea u o f Insula r Affairs : WASHINGTON D C. July 4ARTHU R W FERGU S SON Auditorium Annex, Chicago, III.: You r wir e yesterda y receive d a t 3 o'clock Indianapoli s want s yo u t o arriv e 14th an d remai n 14th 15th an d 16th Mak e plan s accordingl y an d wir e m e wha t the y are EDWARDS Upo n th e receip t o f thi s telegra m Captai n Hardeman a t m y request entere d int o negotiation s wit h th e Bi g Fou r Railroa d t o transpor t th e Boar d t o St Loui s vi a Indianapolis wit h a three-da y la y ove r a t th e latte r city whic h negotiation s resulte d i n satis factor y arrangement s bein g concluded O n Jul y 6 I receive d b y referenc e fro m th e Burea u o f Insula r Affair s a n officia l cop y o f th e followin g letter : TH E COMMERCIA L CLUB Indianapolis, Ind., July 1, 1904. Col C R EDWARDS Washington, D. C. DEA R SIR : A t a meetin g o f th e committe e i n charg e o f arrangement s fo r th e entertainmen t o f th e Philippin e Commissio n thi s noo n I wa s instructe d t o infor m yo u tha t i t wa s th e desir e tha t th e Commissio n arriv e her e a t 3 o'cloc k o n th e afternoo n o f Jul y 14 W e not e i n you r telegra m tha t th e Bi g Fou r i s preferabl e an d I believ e ther e i s a trai n tha t leave s Chicag o abou t 9 o'cloc k whic h woul d lan d the m her e i n Indianapoli s abou t 2.45 Th e programme a s agree d upo n to-day i s a receptio n a t th e station escor t t o hotel banque t a t 7 o'cloc k o n da y o f arrival ; visi t tw o factorie s Frida y morning tw o i n th e afternoon ; lunc h wil l b e serve d a t th e Lay coc k Manufacturin g Company' s plant ; visi t on e o f th e park s a t 4 o'clock ; retur n t o hote l a t 7 o'cloc k fo r dinner Saturda y mornin g visi t tw o

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4 8 factorie s an d Saturda y evenin g interurba n rid e t o Greenfiel d an d Knights town ; visi t glas s factor y a t forme r place ; retur n t o th e cit y a t 7 o'clock Thi s complete s th e programm e a s outlined I t wa s though t b y ou r com mitte e tha t i t woul d b e wel l fo r ou r chairma n t o intervie w the m personall y an d lear n wha t the y ar e particularl y intereste d i n s o w e ca n procee d mor e intelligently I f yo u wil l kindl y advis e m e wher e an d whe n ou r chairma n ca n mee t the m i n Chicag o h e wil l mak e a tri p ther e fo r tha t purpose Th e hote l accommodation s hav e bee n arrange d an d a duplicat e lis t o f th e names numbe r o f room etc. wil l b e forwarde d t o th e ma n i n charg e o f th e part y befor e the y depar t fro m th e resor t wher e the y spen d a wee k befor e comin g here I f yo u hav e an y suggestion s o r i f an y par t o f thi s programm e doe s no t see m satisfactory d o no t hesitat e t o tel l m e abou t i t becaus e i t i s ou r desir e t o mak e i t satisfactor y t o ever y on e concerned Yours ver y truly LEWI S HOOVER Secretary. O n th e mornin g o f Jul y 8 a lette r wa s receive d fro m Mr Lewi s Hoove r inclosin g a printe d lis t givin g th e name s o f th e member s o f th e Board wit h th e numbe r o f th e roo m t o b e occupie d b y eac h a t th e Claypoo l Hote l opposit e hi s name O n th e evenin g o f Jul y 8 whil e a t th e Chicag o Beac h Hotel I receive d a visi t fro m Mr Charle s Emmet t Coffin o f Indianapolis a membe r o f th e Commercia l Club wh o informe d m e tha t a t th e banque t t o b e give n o n th e evenin g o f Jul y 1 4 Senato r Fairbanks th e Republica n nomine e fo r Vice-Presiden t o f th e Unite d State s ; Governo r Durbin ; th e attorney-genera l o f th e State ; th e mayo r o f th e cit y o f Indianapolis an d othe r prominen t official s o f th e Stat e woul d mak e addresses an d I informe d hi m tha t the y woul d b e replie d t o b y Dr Tavera wh o wa s the n i n St Loui s an d who m I woul d reques t t o mee t u s a t Indianapolis an d on e othe r o f th e member s o f th e Board I n th e cours e o f ou r conversatio n i t develope d tha t i t wa s expecte d tha t th e Boar d shoul d pa y it s ow n hote l expenses an d tha t th e Commercia l Clu b s o understood I replie d tha t al l othe r citie s ha d defraye d thes e expenses an d tha t i n vie w o f th e lon g tim e tha t th e Boar d ha d t o remai n i n St Loui s I doubte d whethe r th e pe r diem s allowe d th e member s coul d stan d thi s extr a tax althoug h I assure d hi m tha t th e Boar d wa s ver y anxiou s t o g o t o Indianapolis i f fo r n o othe r reason becaus e o f th e prominenc e o f th e gentleme n wh o wer e t o addres s i t a t th e banquet an d tha t I woul d telegrap h th e Wa r Departmen t fo r furthe r instruc tion s i n th e premises Mr Coffi n state d tha t h e woul d likewis e communicat e wit h th e Commercia l Clu b an d woul d cal l m e u p a t noo n o f th e 10t h b y long-distanc e telephon e fro m a neighborin g

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4 9 cit y i n Illinois H e als o aske d i f i t woul d no t b e possibl e fo r th e Boar d t o postpon e it s visi t t o Indianapoli s fo r on e month t o whic h I replie d that howeve r muc h w e migh t desir e t o d o this i t wa s a n impossibility a s w e ha d t o leav e St Loui s no t late r tha n Augus t 1 6 i n orde r t o tak e steame r a t Sa n Francisc o whic h woul d retur n u s t o th e Island s withi n th e five-month perio d fixed b y law an d that a s a matte r o f fact b y acceptin g th e Indianapoli s invitation w e shoul d hav e t o cu t ou r sta y i n St Loui s shor t b y thre e days Th e sam e evenin g I wire d Colone l Edward s th e foregoin g facts receivin g a n answe r o n th e followin g day a s follows : Hav e telegraphe d Hoover Indianapolis calling hi s attentio n m y letter t o Beveridge whic h distinctl y state d w e coul d no t g o ther e unles s expense s paid Trus t wil l ge t favorabl e respons e t o thi s communication O n th e mornin g o f Jul y 1 0 I receive d anothe r wir e fro m Colone l Edwards a s follows : Leav e matte r goin g St Loui s direc t entirel y t o you Handl e th e matte r wit h Indianapoli s peopl e s o a s t o remov e an y caus e fo r hur t feelings Deplor e th e mistake bu t i t wa s no t ours Whe n calle d u p ove r long-distanc e telephon e b y Mr Coffi n I wa s informed tha t th e Commercia l Clu b fel t tha t the y coul d no t stan d th e expens e o f quarterin g th e Boar d a t a hotel an d I replie d tha t upo n matur e deliberatio n I ha d determine d t o tak e th e Boar d t o Indianapoli s a t it s ow n expense whic h informatio n h e receive d wit h ever y evidenc e o f satisfaction Tha t sam e evenin g I gav e ou t t o th e representative s o f th e Chicag o pres s th e fac t o f ou r intentio n t o leav e o n th e mornin g o f th e 14t h fo r Indianapolis an d gav e th e programm e o f entertain men t ther e a s wel l a s I coul d recal l it neve r mentionin g t o an y on e th e fac t tha t a misunderstandin g ha d eve r occurre d wit h respec t t o thi s visit O n th e mornin g o f Jul y 1 1 I receive d a telegra m fro m th e proprieto r o f th e Claypoo l Hotel informin g m e o f th e rate s tha t h e woul d charg e th e Boar d fo r quarterin g i t a t tha t hotel A n hou r late r I receive d th e followin g dispatch : INDIANAPOLIS IND. July 11. Hon A W FERGUSSON Secretary Philippine Commission, Chicago Beach Hotel: I n th e uncertaint y growin g ou t o f th e publicit y o f th e regrettabl e mis understandin g o f las t week ou r plan s fo r entertainin g you r Honorabl e Commissio n hav e bee n disarranged an d i t wil l b e impossibl e no w fo r 2490 4 4

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5 0 u s t o satisfactoril y arrang e fo r you r visi t t o Indianapolis Senator s Fairbank s an d Beveridge Governo r Durbin al l o f ou r committe e wil l b e ou t o f th e cit y thi s week W e therefor e respectfull y reques t postponemen t o f th e visi t unti l a late r date whe n ou r cit y wil l mos t cordiall y welcom e th e distinguishe d member s o f th e Commission I a m instructe d b y th e loca l committe e t o expres s th e hop e tha t th e chang e o f plan s wil l mee t wit h you r approval Pleas e le t m e hav e promp t reply LEWI S HOOVER Secretary the Commercial Club. Immediatel y upo n receip t o f thi s wire whic h t o m e wa s inex plicabl e i n vie w o f al l th e precedin g facts I telegraphe d a s follows : CHICAGO III. July 11, 1904. LEWI S HOOVER Secretary the Commercial Club, Indianapolis, Ind.: I n vie w o f you r wir e o f thi s date Commissio n wil l procee d t o St Loui s fro m here wit h regret s tha t i t ca n no t accep t you r cordia l invitatio n fo r a visi t a t a late r date Deplor e publicit y o f misunderstanding bu t assur e yo u i t di d no t emanat e fro m thi s end Pra y accep t thank s fo r yoursel f an d committe e fo r you r courteou s invitation A W FERGUSSON Executive Secretary, Philippine Islands. I als o wire d Colone l Edward s an d Dr W P Wilson chairma n o f th e Philippin e Expositio n Boar d a t St Louis t o th e sam e effect askin g th e latte r i f accommodation s woul d b e ready Captai n Hardema n wa s requeste d t o cance l th e Indianapoli s tri p wit h th e Bi g Fou r Railroa d an d t o ente r int o negotiation s wit h th e Illinoi s Centra l Railroa d fo r th e tri p t o St Louis Arrangement s wer e complete d o n Jul y 13 an d th e Boar d lef t Chicag o fo r St Loui s ove r tha t railroa d a t 9 o'cloc k o n th e mornin g o f Jul y 14 reachin g th e latte r cit y a t 6 o'cloc k i n th e evening Th e trai n bearin g th e Boar d wa s me t a t th e St Loui s depo t b y representative s o f th e Nationa l Commissio n o f th e World' s Fair an d o f Presiden t Franci s o f th e same a municipa l delegation a delegatio n fro m th e commercia l bodie s o f th e city th e entir e Phil ippin e Expositio n Board an d a numbe r o f newspape r men, togethe r wit h th e battaliqn s o f Philippin e Scout s an d Constabular y statione d a t th e World' s Fair an d th e Constabular y band an d wa s escorte d i n carriage s t o th e Hamilto n Hotel whic h becam e it s headquarter s durin g it s sta y i n St Louis fro m Jul y 1 4 t o Augus t 16. Durin g thi s tim e th e member s o f th e Boar d wer e untrammele d i n thei r selectio n o f quarters an d man y stoppe d a t privat e house s

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5 1 i n th e hop e o f perfectin g themselve s i n th e Englis h language Th e majority however remaine d a t th e Hamilto n Hotel Throug h th e courtes y o f th e Philippin e Expositio n Board a n offic e an d readin g roo m fo r th e us e o f th e member s o f th e Honorar y Boar d wer e furnishe d i n th e Administratio n Building o n th e ground s o f th e Philippin e Exhibit a courtes y whic h wa s highl y appreciated a s wer e man y othe r courtesie s extende d t o th e member s an d t o m e b y th e Philippin e Expositio n Board Th e tim e o f th e member s o f th e Honorar y Boar d wa s largel y take n u p wit h th e dutie s impose d upo n the m a s member s o f th e severa l jurie s o f awar d fo r th e Philippin e Exhibit whic h occupie s 4 7 acre s o f spac e withi n th e ground s o f th e World' s Fair an d which b y reaso n o f it s completenes s i n ever y detail it s instructiv e elements an d it s diversifie d character i s on e o f whic h th e Insula r Governmen t ma y wel l b e proud Thi s Exhibi t coul d no t fai l t o b e th e mos t interestin g objec t o f stud y fo r th e Filipino s i n th e whol e trip for whil e th e purpos e i n sendin g th e Boar d t o th e St Loui s Expositio n wa s tha t i t migh t learn o f thos e thing s tha t intereste d th e worl d a t larg e an d sho w th e advancemen t o f progres s an d civilizatio n i n al l countries—an d a grande r field o f stud y tha n th e St Loui s Expositio n the y coul d no t wel l hav e had—i t i s a fac t tha t the y learne d mor e o f thei r ow n Island s an d thei r ow n peopl e tha n the y ha d eve r know n before a kin d o f educatio n tha t i n th e aggregat e woul d b e infinitel y greate r an d broade r tha n the y woul d gai n throug h year s o f ordinar y trave l a t home I t i s impossibl e t o overestimat e th e valu e o f suc h trainin g t o suc h kee n an d intelligen t observers Beside s dail y visit s t o th e Exposition th e member s o f th e Boar d wer e th e guests o n Jul y 25 o f th e Anheuser-Busc h Brewin g Association an d wer e conducte d throug h al l th e department s o f thei r grea t establishment ; o n Jul y 28 o f th e Merchants Exchang e o f St Louis whic h invite d th e Boar d t o thei r buildin g t o witnes s th e operation s o n 'change an d wher e addresse s wer e mad e b y th e presiden t o f th e Merchants Exchang e an d Dr Taver a o n behal f o f th e Board Thi s visi t wa s succeede d b y a luncheo n a t th e room s o f th e Missour i Athleti c Club O n th e evenin g o f th e sam e da y th e member s o f th e Boar d gav e a farewel l dinne r t o it s president Dr Pard o d e Tavera o n th e roo f garde n o f th e Hamilto n Hotel a t whic h th e Philippine s Constab ular y ban d rendere d th e music Dr Taver a lef t o n th e mornin g

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5 2 o f th e 29t h fo r Ne w York wher e h e embarked wit h Governo r d e lo s Santos fo r Europ e o n Augus t 4 Mr Ramo n B Genat o receive d cabl e advice s fro m Manil a o f th e precariou s conditio n o f hi s father' s healt h an d lef t St Loui s fo r Sa n Francisc o o n Jul y 31 sailin g fro m th e latte r por t o n Augus t 6 fo r th e Philippin e Islands O n Augus t 1 th e Boar d wa s th e gues t o f th e Hamilto n Brow n Sho e Compan y a t luncheon afte r makin g a n inspectio n o f thei r grea t factory O n th e evenin g o f Augus t 3 b y invitation s o f th e Busines s Men' s Leagu e an d th e Merchants Exchange th e Boar d an d othe r invite d guest s wer e take n i n a specia l trai n t o th e Gle n Ech o Countr y Club wher e man y o f the m fo r th e first tim e witnesse d an d ha d explaine d t o the m th e gam e o f "golf; an d a n excellen t dinne r wa s served a t whic h Representativ e Barthold t an d othe r prominen t gentleme n an d member s o f th e Boar d mad e addresses Th e musi c o n thi s occasio n wa s furnishe d b y th e ban d o f th e battalio n o f Philippin e Scouts Unite d State s Army statione d a t th e World' s Fair Th e Boar d wa s als o th e recipien t o f severa l othe r courtesie s fro m th e citizen s o f St Louis Th e hea t o f St Loui s seriousl y affecte d a numbe r o f th e mem ber s o f th e Board an d i t becam e necessar y t o sen d thre e t o Sa n Francisco where b y reaso n o f th e coole r climate the y wer e soo n restore d t o health Ex-Governo r Marian o Trias o f Cavite wh o ha d bee n take n il l i n Chicago an d whos e illnes s too k a seriou s tur n i n St Louis wa s move d t o th e hospita l o n th e Philippin e reserva tion an d remaine d ther e unti l a fe w day s befor e th e departur e o f th e Boar d fo r th e northwest when althoug h stil l weak h e wa s discharge d a s cured O n Jul y 3 1 th e Boar d hel d a meetin g a t th e Hamilto n Hote l fo r th e purpos e o f electin g a ne w president th e resul t bein g tha t Hon Benit o Legard a becam e th e successo r o f Dr Taver a b y a majorit y vote Augus t 1 3 ha d bee n se t asid e b y th e authoritie s o f th e St Loui s Expositio n a s "Philippin e Day, an d wa s celebrate d wit h grea t enthusias m b y a larg e concours e o f people Al l th e Unite d State s force s statione d i n th e vicinit y o f St Louis th e Scout s an d Constab ulary togethe r wit h man y veteran s o f th e Spanish-America n wa r wh o ha d serve d i n th e Philippines an d othe r bodies parade d throug h th e ground s o f th e Expositio n an d wer e reviewe d b y th e

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5 3 Secretar y o f Wa r an d severa l genera l officer s wh o ha d serve d i n th e Philippine s o n th e parad e groun d o f th e Philippine s Constabular y i n th e Philippin e Exhibit Dr Willia m P Wilson presiden t o f th e Philippin e Expositio n Board preside d a t th e exercise s whic h fol lowe d th e parade an d addresse s wer e mad e b y Presiden t Franci s o f th e World' s Fair th e Secretar y o f War Hon Joh n M Alle n o n behal f o f th e Nationa l Commission an d others an d b y Hon Benit o Legard a o n behal f o f th e Honorar y Boar d o f Commissioners Afte r luncheo n th e severa l nativ e villages departments an d building s o f th e Philippin e Exhibi t wer e visite d b y th e Secretar y o f Wa r an d prominen t guests O n th e mornin g o f Augus t 1 6 th e followin g member s o f th e Board t o wit Dr Manue l Gome z Martinez Bernardin o Monreal Leo n Novenario Simeo n Luz Potencian o Lesaca Alfons o Ramos Joaqui n Ortega Juli o Agcaoili Jos e d e Loyzag a y Ageo Vicent e Nepomuceno Leonci o Gonzale z Liquete Marcia l Calleja Toma s Argiielles Alfred o d e Castro Guillerm o Gomez Ceferin o d e Leon Vicent e Llamas Alejandr o R Mendoza Hilario n Raymundo Jos e Rivera Gervasi o Unson an d Vicent e Noel accompanie d b y th e undersigned lef t St Loui s ove r th e Chicago Burlingto n an d Quinc y Railroa d fo r Billings Mont. wher e th e specia l ca r containin g th e part y wa s attache d t o a Norther n Pacifi c Railroa d train an d th e part y reache d Seattle Wash. a t 9 p m o n Augus t 19 remainin g ther e unti l 1 0 p m o f th e 21s t a s guest s o f th e Chambe r o f Com merc e an d cit y authorities Th e programm e o f entertainmen t her e wa s a s follows : FRIDAY AUGUS T 19 1904 9 p m Th e Boar d wil l b e me t a t th e Unio n Statio n b y th e mayo r o f th e cit y an d a committe e o f th e Chambe r o f Commerce an d escorte d t o th e Washingto n Hote l i n carriages SATURDAY AUGUS T 20 1904 9.3 0 a m Honorar y Boar d wil l tak e "seein g Seattle ca r a t corne r Secon d Avenu e an d Pik e Stree t fo r a tri p aroun d th e city includin g tri p t o bi g lumbe r mill s i n Ballar d an d inspectio n o f battleshi p Nebraska i n Mora n Brothers shipbuildin g yard 12.3 0 p m Luncheo n a t Hote l Washington 1.3 0 p m Ru n alon g th e wate r fron t an d tri p t o Puge t Soun d Navy-Yar d a t Bremerto n o n boar d th e U S A tende r Cartioright. I n th e evenin g th e Commissioner s wil l assembl e i n th e lobb y o f th e Wash ingto n Hotel wher e the y wil l b e gla d t o receiv e an d convers e wit h busines s me n an d citizen s generally

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5 4 SUNDAY AUGUS T 21 1904 9.3 0 a m Th e Boar d wil l tak e electri c car s fo r a rid e throug h Madron a Park the n wil l tak e a launc h fo r a rid e o n Lak e Washington 9 p m A committe e wil l escor t th e Boar d i n carriage s fro m th e Washing to n Hote l t o th e Unio n Depot Leavin g Seattl e o n Augus t 21 a t 1 0 p m. o n th e Norther n Pacifi c Railroad Portland Oreg. wa s reache d a t 7 a m o f th e 22d wher e th e trai n wa s me t b y a delegatio n fro m th e Portlan d Commercia l Club whos e gues t th e Boar d wa s whil e i n th e city Followin g i s th e programm e arrange d fo r th e entertainmen t o f th e Board : MONDAY AUGUS T 22 1904 7 a m Th e Honorar y Boar d wil l b e me t a t th e statio n an d take n i n a specia l ca r t o th e Portlan d Hotel wher e breakfas t wil l b e served 9.3 0 a m Visi t t o th e museu m a t th e cit y hall t o b e followe d b y a visi t t o th e openin g o f th e Associatio n o f th e America n Minin g Congres s a t th e Armory 10.3 0 a m Honorar y Boar d wil l tak e a specia l ca r t o th e Height s o n th e ne w sceni c loop an d thenc e t o th e Lewis an d Clark e Fai r Grounds wher e a n inspectio n wil l b e mad e o f th e grounds an d luncheo n served 1.3 0 p m Visi t t o th e Portlan d Cordag e Works 2 p m Visi t t o th e room s o f th e Portlan d Commercia l Club 6 p m Dinne r a t th e Portlan d Hotel 8 p m Boar d wil l leav e hote l i n carriages escorte d b y committe e o f th e Portlan d Commercia l Club Th e member s o f th e Boar d wer e struc k b y th e natura l beaut y o f th e surrounding s o f th e localit y selecte d fo r th e sit e o f th e Lewi s an d Clark e Exposition an d th e imposin g appearanc e o f th e building s alread y erecte d there an d the y becam e staunc h advocate s o f th e propositio n t o hav e th e Philippin e Island s represente d a t th e fai r nex t year Th e departur e fro m Portlan d wa s o n th e sam e da y (Augus t 22 ) a t 8.3 0 p m. ove r th e Souther n Pacifi c Railroad an d th e arriva l a t Sa n Francisc o o n Augus t 2 4 a t 9 a m Th e followin g member s o f th e Board Manue l d e Iriarte Jua n Pimentel Baldomer o Roxas an d Vicent e Singso n Encarnacion havin g bee n grante d a n extensio n o f leav e o f absenc e o f tw o month s fro m Septembe r 24 withou t salary b y th e Civi l Governor an d Jua n Sumulong Marian o Moren o Ramire z havin g receive d authorit y fro m me saile d fro m Ne w Yor k o n Augus t 2 3 fo r Europe t o retur n t o th e Island s vi a th e Sue z Canal Toma s G de l Rosari o

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5 5 wa s als o grante d tw o months extensio n o f leav e b y th e Civi l Governor an d Jua n d e Leo n wa s authorize d b y m e t o remai n i n th e Unite d States Upo n th e departur e o f th e majorit y o f th e Boar d fo r th e northwest Hon Benit o Legarda Hon Victorin o Mapa Hon Toma s G de l Rosario Hon Jua n Villamor Dr Alejandr o Albert Hon Marian o Trias an d Mr Alejandr o Roces togethe r wit h th e disburs in g officer Capt Thoma s Hardeman remaine d i n St Loui s an d returne d t o Sa n Francisc o ove r th e sam e rout e followe d b y th e Boar d o n it s eastwar d trip arrivin g i n Sa n Francisc o o n Augus t 25 O n th e mornin g o f Augus t 2 8 almos t th e entir e membershi p o f th e Board b y invitatio n o f th e presiden t an d genera l manage r o f th e Italian-Swis s Agricultura l Colony visite d it s vineyards winery an d distiller y a t Asti Sonom a County Cal. ove r th e Californi a Northwester n Railway an d spen t a mos t enjoyabl e da y a s th e guest s o f th e colony inspectin g th e grea t vineyard s an d moder n method s o f viticultur e an d winemaking returnin g t o Sa n Francisc o lat e i n th e evening O n Augus t 29 b y invitatio n o f th e chie f o f th e Sa n Francisc o fire department a numbe r o f th e member s witnesse d a mos t inter estin g exhibitio n o f a wate r towe r an d batter y i n operation Althoug h ever y effor t ha d bee n mad e b y th e Burea u o f Insula r Affair s an d b y m e t o secur e retur n transportatio n fo r th e Boar d i n tim e t o reac h Manil a withi n th e five month s designate d i n th e la w i n th e premises i t wa s no t availabl e unti l Augus t 30 o n whic h date a t 1 o'cloc k p m. th e Boar d saile d fro m Sa n Francisc o o n th e Pacifi c Mai l steamshi p Manchuria i t bein g he r maide n voyag e acros s th e Pacific B y reaso n o f slo w tim e an d unexpecte d delay s i n dischargin g carg o a t th e port s o f Yokoham a an d Kob e th e Manchuria di d no t reac h Manil a unti l earl y o n th e mornin g o f Octobe r 1 five day s afte r sh e wa s schedule d t o arriv e an d eigh t day s afte r th e tim e se t b y la w fo r th e retur n o f th e Board Thi s woul d see m t o constitut e a cas e o f force majeure an d i n vie w o f th e fac t tha t du e diligence industry an d car e wer e exercise d i n endeavorin g t o retur n o n time i t i s respectfull y submitte d tha t th e member s o f th e Boar d ar e entitle d t o receiv e thei r pe r diem s fo r th e eigh t day s o f unforesee n dela y i n thei r retur n rathe r tha n t o b e cu t of f therefro m b y to o stric t a constructio n o f th e law Th e disbursin g office r o f th e Board pursuan t t o th e provision s o f

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5 6 th e law cease d t o pa y pe r diem s o n Septembe r 23 th e Boar d havin g saile d fro m Manil a o n Apri l 23 O n it s arriva l a t Manil a th e Boar d wa s enthusiasticall y received bein g escorte d fro m th e Manchuria i n bunting-decorate d launche s wit h band s o f music an d b y a lon g processio n o f civi c bodie s fro m th e wate r fron t t o th e Ayuntamient o Building wher e the y wer e me t b y th e member s o f th e Philippin e Commissio n an d a larg e concours e o f peopl e i n th e Marbl e Room an d wher e addresse s wer e mad e b y th e Civi l Governor th e chairma n o f th e receptio n committee an d th e presiden t o f th e Board Durin g it s absenc e th e Boar d travele d 9,18 2 mile s b y rai l an d steame r withi n th e territor y o f th e Unite d States exclusiv e o f th e mileag e covere d o n visits an d excursion s whil e th e gues t o f cities an d 15,76 1 mile s b y sea makin g a tota l o f 24,94 3 miles O f th e origina l appropriatio n o f $75,00 0 fo r th e trip $59,199.7 5 hav e bee n expended leavin g a balanc e o f $15,800.2 5 t o b e returne d t o th e Insula r Treasury Thes e figures sho w tha t th e expens e incurre d b y th e Insula r Governmen t i n sendin g th e Honorar y Boar d t o th e Unite d State s wa s smal l whe n compare d wit h th e undoubte d benefit s tha t hav e resulte d an d wil l flow fro m th e undertaking representing a s i t does a littl e mor e tha n 5 J cent s pe r mil e fo r eac h o f th e forty-fou r member s o f th e party A s th e representativ e o f th e Philippin e Government I too k occasio n whil e i n th e Unite d State s t o expres s i n writin g th e appreciatio n an d thank s o f th e Insula r Governmen t an d o f th e Honorar y Boar d o f Commissioner s t o th e Stat e an d municipa l official s an d commercia l bodie s an d •other s tha t entertaine d u s whil e i n th e Unite d States fo r al l tha t the y ha d don e i n ou r behalf receivin g man y gratifyin g replie s t o m y letters I tak e grea t pleasur e i n renewin g m y acknowledgment s here I t wa s du e t o thei r generosity publi c spirit an d genuin e hospitalit y tha t th e member s o f th e Boar d wer e enable d t o ge t a n insigh t int o man y phase s o f America n lif e an d characte r t o whic h the y wer e stranger s before The y ha d com e i n contac t o n thes e shore s wit h th e militar y an d politica l side s o f ou r institutions ; bu t the y ha d n o persona l acquaintanc e wit h thos e might y force s tha t hav e wrough t suc h peacefu l conques t i n th e commercia l an d industria l worl d throug h th e employmen t an d utilizatio n o f huma n ingenuit y an d labor th e tru e element s o f ou r nationa l greatness ; the y ha d bu t a limite d conceptio n o f th e dignit y tha t labo r ha s attaine d beyon d seas o r

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5 7 o f th e man y temple s i t ha s reare d i n th e homelan d t o it s prowess ; the y ha d bu t a sligh t ide a o f th e tru e feelin g o f th e peopl e o f th e Unite d State s towar d the m an d thei r countrymen Throug h th e generosit y o f thi s Governmen t an d o f thos e I hav e mentione d the y hav e bee n permitte d wit h thei r ow n eye s t o se e thing s a s the y are an d hav e bee n afforde d a n opportunit y t o correc t an y erroneou s impression s the y ma y hav e entertaine d previously I ca n no t clos e withou t recordin g m y hig h appreciatio n o f th e kindnes s an d courteou s interes t i n al l th e movement s o f th e Boar d o f th e Secretar y o f War ; Col Clarenc e E : Edwards Chie f o f th e Burea u o f Insula r Affairs ; hi s assistant Mr W Leo n Pepperman ; Maj C A Devol U S A. depo t quartermaster Sa n Francisco Cal. ; Gen J Frankli n Bell ; Gen Frederic k D Grant ; Dr W P Wilson ; Dr Gustav e Neiderlein ; Mr Leo n M Guerrero an d Mr Edmun d A Felder executiv e officer Philippin e Expositio n Board an d o f thei r untirin g effort s t o mak e th e visi t t o th e Unite d State s an d th e St Loui s Expositio n on e o f profi t an d o f pleasure I desir e furthe r t o exten d thank s t o th e official s o f th e railroa d companie s mentione d i n thes e page s fo r th e kindl y interes t the y displaye d i n makin g th e discomfort s o f trave l a s ligh t a s possibl e b y sendin g o n train s bearin g th e Board i n nearl y ever y instance a representativ e o f th e passenge r departmen t o f eac h roa d t o ministe r t o th e want s o f th e members I n conclusio n I woul d expres s als o m y dee p satisfactio n a t th e demeano r o f th e member s o f th e Boar d fro m th e tim e the y lef t thes e shore s unti l the y returne d thereto an d congratulat e the m upo n th e goo d impressio n the y mad e whereve r the y went The y stoo d th e discomfort s o f trave l uncomplainingl y an d good-naturedly ; an d i t i s bu t fai r t o sa y tha t the y bor e themselve s a t al l time s an d place s i n a gentle, dignified an d courteou s manne r tha t wo n th e admira tio n o f everyon e wit h who m the y cam e i n contact Ver y respectfully A W FERGUSSON Executive Secretary. Th e Honorabl e th e CIVI L GOVERNOR

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APPENDIXES

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APPENDI X A DRAF T O F RULE S T O B E OBSERVE D I N TH E PREPA RATION COURSING AN D RECORDIN G O F OFFICIA L CORRESPONDENCE Th e followin g rule s wil l b e observe d throughou t th e servic e o f th e Insula r Governmen t an d b y provincia l an d municipa l govern ment s i n correspondenc e wit h office s o f th e Insula r Government : GENERAL 1 A n officia l communicatio n t o a Governmen t o r corporatio n officia l shoul d b e addresse d t o hi s officia l positio n an d no t t o hi m b y name unles s i t concern s hi m a s a n individual—i e. a reques t fo r informatio n a s t o whe n th e treasure r o f L a Lagun a Provinc e wil l pa y a certai n accoun t shoul d b e addresse d t o "Th e provincia l treasurer Sant a Cruz L a Laguna"—bu t a communicatio n lookin g t o correctio n o f erro r i n paymen t alread y mad e b y tha t office r shoul d b e addresse d t o th e individua l b y who m settlemen t wa s made—thus "Jas P Brown provincia l treasurer, Sant a Cruz L a Laguna. 2 Notwithstandin g th e fac t tha t th e dutie s o f a n offic e ar e being performe d b y a temporar y appointe e o r detail communication s shoul d b e addresse d i n th e usua l way—i e. t o "Th e Directo r o f Posts, no t t o "Th e Actin g Directo r o f Posts. 3 Officia l channels shoul d b e shortene d t o th e greates t exten t practicable Unles s otherwis e directe d b y th e hea d o f it s Depart ment a n offic e desirin g informatio n fro m a n offic e i n anothe r Departmen t shoul d sen d th e communicatio n direct an d th e offic e replyin g shoul d d o s o throug h th e offic e o f th e Secretar y o f it s Department—i e. i f th e Collecto r o f Custom s desire s a statemen t fro m th e Chie f o f Constabulary a s t o whe n th e suppl y office r a t Iloil o wil l vacat e a custom-hous e bodeg a occupie d b y th e suppl y 6 1

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6 2 stor e a t tha t port th e communicatio n shoul d b e addresse d direc t b y th e Collecto r o f Custom s fo r th e Philippin e Island s t o th e Chie f o f th e Philippine s Constabulary an d th e repl y mad e b y th e latte r throug h th e offic e o f th e Secretar y o f Commerc e an d Police b y who m i t woul d b e forwarde d t o th e Secretar y o f Financ e an d Justic e an d b y hi m t o th e Collecto r o f Customs—thu s keepin g head s o f Depart ment s advise d a s t o interdepartmental-burea u relation s an d afford in g expeditiou s determinatio n o f question s tha t ma y arise O n th e othe r hand man y interdepartmenta l matter s shoul d b e course d throug h th e officia l channe l fro m th e beginning Thus th e reques t o f th e Genera l Superintenden t o f Educatio n tha t provincia l fiscal s b e require d t o advis e divisio n superintendent s o f school s upo n question s o f la w shoul d b e addresse d t o th e Secretar y o f Publi c Instruction b y who m i t woul d b e forwarded wit h suc h recommenda tion s an d pertinen t commen t a s h e ma y se e fi t t o make t o th e Civi l Governor unde r whos e directio n provincia l official s are 4 Communication s fo r th e informatio n o f o r actio n b y th e Civi l Governo r o r Philippin e Commissio n shoul d b e addresse d t o th e Secretar y o f th e Departmen t t o whic h th e write r pertains ; Bureau s an d Office s no t assigne d t o on e o f th e Executiv e Department s shoul d addres s suc h communication s t o "Th e Executiv e Secretary Manila, wh o i s chie f o f th e Burea u create d b y la w (Ac t 167 ) "t o assis t th e Civi l Governo r i n hi s executiv e duties an d int o whic h ha s bee n merge d (Ac t 609 ) th e offic e o f th e Secretar y o f th e Philippin e Commission 5 Head s o f Department s wil l regulat e officia l correspondenc e withi n thei r respectiv e Department s a s ma y see m t o the m wise i f no t i n conflic t wit h thes e rules whic h ar e fo r th e servic e generally 6 Carbo n o r pres s copie s o f al l officia l communication s sen t wil l b e file d an d preserve d b y Bureau s an d Offices Officia l com munication s receive d o r copie s thereo f wil l b e file d likewise Al l othe r papers includin g record s o f importan t transaction s withi n th e Burea u o r Office o f sufficien t import wil l b e treate d a s directe d i n th e cas e o f communication s receive d an d sent an d togethe r wit h the m wil l constitut e th e record s o f a n office Suc h record s shoul d b e numbere d i n series ; ordinaril y al l excep t retaine d paper s pertain in g t o th e mone y an d propert y accountabilit y o f disbursin g officer s an d propert y clerk s shoul d b e numbere d chronologicall y considerin g dat e o f receip t o r signature an d i n on e series whic h ma y b e annua l o r biannual a s th e volum e o f busines s ma y warrant Al l record s

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6 3 shoul d b e intelligentl y indexed eac h recor d appearin g unde r a t leas t tw o inde x head s i n orde r tha t i t ma y b e locate d wit h reasonabl e facilit y i n search File s shoul d b e examine d frequentl y a s t o thei r conditio n o f preservatio n an d carefu l attentio n give n t o preven t th e presenc e o f anay. Onc e a yea r a competent experience d offic e assistan t shoul d g o throug h th e file s an d withdra w an d destro y al l paper s whos e valu e a s record s ha s ceased Obviousl y grea t car e an d intelligen t discriminatio n mus t b e exercise d i n thi s work an d it s importanc e warrant s th e assignmen t o f a s hig h grad e a n officia l o r employe e a s ma y b e t o thi s work Whe n thu s reduce d t o permanen t archive s th e indexe s shoul d b e revise d an d writte n u p o n typewrite r i n duplicate usin g indelibl e in k an d fres h carbo n o r water-pres s copy bound an d on e cop y file d i n a fireproo f saf e o r vaul t i f i t b e available Book s an d paper s pertainin g t o th e mone y an d propert y account abilit y o f cashiers disbursin g officers an d propert y clerk s ma y b e kep t apar t fro m th e genera l record s o f th e Burea u upo n closin g th e account s o f a fiscal yea r o r upo n th e relie f o f th e accountabl e office r o r employee Al l pertinen t book s an d retaine d paper s pertainin g t o th e perio d shoul d b e completed properl y arranged an d filed eithe r i n th e disbursin g o r propert y offic e o r i n th e genera l record s o f th e Bureau a s ma y b e directe d b y th e Chie f o f Bureau wh o become s th e officia l custodia n thereo f upo n th e relie f o f a n account abl e officer 7 Officia l correspondenc e ma y b e classifie d a s letters telegrams indorsements an d reports LETTERS 1 A n officia l lette r shoul d b e writte n onl y whe n communicatin g o r requestin g informatio n o f characte r an d importanc e warrantin g officia l record Th e telephon e an d othe r mean s o f informa l com municatio n shoul d b e utilize d wheneve r possibl e i n orde r tha t th e bul k o f offic e record s an d othe r servic e requirement s generall y ma y b e kep t a t th e minimu m consisten t wit h efficien t administration 2 A lette r shoul d trea t o f bu t on e subject 3 A lette r shoul d b e typewritte n i f practicable o n mediu m o r heav y whit e pape r 8 b y inches wit h indelibl e o r recor d ink o n bu t on e sid e o f eac h sheet tw o space s betwee n lines leavin g a margi n a t th e to p o f eac h pag e no t les s tha n 1J inches 1 J inche s

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6 4 o r te n typewrite r space s a t th e left five space s a t th e right an d a t th e botto m o f th e page s a t leas t three-fourth s o f a n inch 4 A lette r shoul d b e frame d s o a s t o compris e (a) th e captio n o r authorize d titl e o f th e Burea u o r Offic e an d nam e o f cit y o r tow n an d provinc e wher e written nam e o f month th e date an d year ; (b ) th e salutation whic h shoul d b e "Sir o r "Gentlemen, a s th e cas e ma y be ; (c ) th e introductor y sentence-an d paragraph com mencin g I hav e th e honor, an d statin g clearl y an d concisel y th e objec t o f th e letter ; (d ) succeedin g paragraph s (no t numbered ) a s ma y b e necessar y properl y t o elucidat e th e reques t o r statemen t mad e i n th e first sentence ; (e ) th e subscription whic h shoul d b e "Ver y respectfully" ; (/ ) th e signature ; (g ) th e officia l titl e o r designatio n o f th e writer a s "Insula r Purchasin g Agent o r "Clerk clas s 8, an d th e addres s o f write r i f i t b e no t clearl y an d correctl y given i n th e caption ; (h ) inclosur e notatio n a t th e lef t an d slightl y lowe r tha n th e signatur e t o b e mad e thus 2 inclosures. I f inclo sure s b e no t s o specificall y mentione d i n th e lette r a s t o identif y them ther e shoul d b e adde d t o th e notatio n o n th e las t pag e a concis e indicatio n b y whic h the y ma y b e recognize d readil y shoul d the y becom e a t an y tim e mixe d wit h othe r papers th e notatio n the n readin g thus 2 inclosures : Ma p o f Tayaba s Province & Ex Bu No 42318-al4" ; (i ) th e nam e o r officia l titl e an d ful l addres s o f th e perso n t o who m th e communicatio n i s directed ; (j) state men t o f officia l channel a s "Throug h Offic e o f Secretar y o f Financ e an d Justice. 5 A n officia l lette r shoul d b e bot h clea r an d concise—indeed i t i s seldo m tha t on e shoul d cove r mor e tha n on e page 6 T o prepar e a lette r fo r mailing i t shoul d b e folde d twic e towar d th e to p s o a s t o mak e thre e equa l folds 7 Th e inclosure s shoul d b e folde d a s nearl y lette r siz e a s possibl e an d numbere d o n thei r brie f folds : "Inclosur e 1 an d "Inclosur e 2, etc I f becaus e o f thei r siz e o r characte r i t i s no t practicabl e t o sen d inclosure s i n th e sam e envelop e packag e wit h th e letter ther e shoul d b e adde d t o th e inclosur e notatio n a n explanator y not e statin g tha t al l o r certai n inclosure s ar e forwarde d unde r separat e cover TELEGRAMS 1 A telegra m shoul d neve r b e sen t unles s th e matte r b e s o urgen t tha t a lette r b y mai l wil l no t serv e th e purpose 2 A telegra m shoul d no t hav e mor e tha n on e subject

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6 5 3 A telegra m shoul d b e typewritte n i f practicabl e t o avoi d dange r o f error s i n transmission 4 A telegra m shoul d alway s b e followe d b y a n exac t copy carbo n o r lette r pres s i f possible b y firs t mai l t o confir m original whic h ma y hav e becom e garble d o r los t i n transmission 5 N o officia l o r employe e i s authorize d t o sen d a s officia l busines s o r fre e o f charg e telegram s upo n privat e matters INDORSEMENTS 1 Ordinarily i n replyin g t o a communicatio n received a lette r rathe r tha n a n indorsemen t shoul d b e used However, whe n th e communicatio n receive d bear s previou s indorsements o r i s lon g an d ma y no t b e give n fina l actio n b y th e receivin g office o r fo r othe r reason s whic h ordinaril y intelligen t discriminatio n wil l recogniz e a s the y occur i t wil l b e necessar y t o forward refer return, o r transmi t th e paper s b y indorsement 2 I f th e paper s t o b e indorse d bea r n o previou s indorsement th e firs t ste p wil l b e t o prepar e a wrapper Thi s i s don e b y takin g a shee t o f heavy white letter-siz e typewrite r paper foldin g i t twic e a s prescribe d i n th e cas e o f letters takin g car e tha t th e las t fol d o r uppe r thir d o f th e shee t shal l b e sufficientl y wid e t o cove r entirel y eithe r o f th e othe r two Upo n th e oute r surfac e o f thi s fold com mencin g abou t 1 inc h fro m th e to p a s i t i s hel d perpendicularly shoul d b e writte n wha t i s terme d th e "brief, whic h shoul d b e a concis e resum e o f th e lette r t o b e indorsed Model s follow : MANILA November 1, 1904INSULA R PURCHASIN G AGEN T State s tha t positio n o f buyer clas s 5 ma y b e discontinue d an d presen t appointee Pete r C Smith transferre d t o som e othe r Bureau In close s statemen t o f qualification s an d record 1 inclosure Or — MANILA November 1, 1904. SMITH EDWAR D L. Chie f Clerk Burea u o f Publi c Lands Applie s fo r transportation Manil a t o Sa n Fran cisco Inclose s origina l appointment 1 inclosure 2490 4 5

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6 6 3. Th e indorsemen t shoul d b e place d o n th e nex t fol d t o th e right an d th e indorsemen t shoul d b e i n for m a s follows : [Firs t indorsement. ] BUREA U O F PUBLI C LANDS Manila, November 2, 1904Respectfull y forwarded throug h th e Offic e o f th e Secretar y o f th e Interior t o th e Executiv e Secretary recommendin g favorabl e considera tion (Signature ) Chief of Bureau. 4 Succeedin g indoi^ement s shotil d b e numbere d i n regula r order an d i f aii y b e s o lon g a s t o requir e mor e spac e tha n tha t afforde d b y on e fol d o f th e wrappe r i t shoul d b e writte n o n letter-siz e paper usin g th e indorsemen t caption o r a s a signe d memorandum Tetter o r report a s th e circumstance s ma y see m t o indicate place d wit h th e origina l communicatio n withi n th e wrapper an d marked 1 a s th e indorsement—i e. ther e shoul d b e writte n o n th e prope r indorse ment fol d o f th e wrappe r i n for m a s follows — [Secon d indorsemen t ] DEPARTMEN T O F TH E INTERIOR [Se e within. ] And 1 upo n and ; dea r th e middl e o f th e brie f fol d o f th e indorsemen t inclose d "Sdconc f indorsement. 5 Whe n th e secon d an d thir d fold s o f th e wrappe r hav e bee n filled an d i t i s necessar y t o hav e additiona l spac e fo r furthe r indorse men t i t ma y b e secure d b y pastin g indorsemen t slip s o n th e inne r surfac e o f th e right-hand edg e o f th e thir d fold thes e slip s bein g arrange d a s th e leave s o f a book The y ma y b e prepare d mos t readil y b y cuttin g i n hal f mediu m o r heavy letter-siz e sheet s o f typewrite r pape r an d foldin g thes e hal f sheet s in suc h a wa y a s t o giv e a writin g surfac e o f exactl y o r slightl y les s tha n th e widt h o f th e brief fold. A n indorsemen t sli p shoul d neve r b e attache d b y it s end 6 Whe n paper s ar e adde d t o o r withdraw n fro m thos e originall y i n th e wrappe r a suitabl e notatio n shoul d b e mad e t o th e lef t an d slightl y belo w th e signatur e titl e o n th e indorsement i n form thus 3 add T incls, o r "Incls 1 & 2 withdrawn, an d i n re d in k o n th e brie f fol d belo w th e nex t precedin g inclosur e notatio n ther e made

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67 i n for m a s follows : 3 add' l incls 2dind. o r "Incls 1 & 2 with drawn 3 d ind. 7 No ; indorsemen t shoul d b e a mer e transmittal, bu t shoul d embody'action a s approva l o r disapprova l i f such ma y b e expecte d o r required o r a t leas t th e statemen t "content s noted. 8 Th e firs t sentenc e o f a n indorsemen t shoul d begin: wit h th e word s "Respectfull y returned, "forwarded, "referred, o r "transmitted) usin g "returned whe n sendin g th e pape r direc t o r throug h channel s t o th e write r o r t o tha t o f an y o f th e precedin g indorsements ; "forwarded whe n indorsin g t o a n official superio r wh o ha s no t ha d th e pape r previousl y ; "referred whe n a ne w cours e i s give n th e pape r an d th e offic e o r perso n t o who m i t i s directe d i s th e officia l inferio r o f th e indorser ; "transmitted" when passin g th e pape r downwar d throug h channel s pursuan t t o a ; precedin g indorsement 9 Ever y cler k throug h whos e hand s paper s pas s shoul d b e require d t o se e t o i t tha t the y ar e arrange d properl y befor e the y leav e hi s desk Fo r example : A letter wit h it s inclosures ) bein g course d b y indorsements shoul d b e assembled s o fa r a s possible a s follows : Th e las t inclosur e shoul d b e lai d o n th e des k fac e upwar d an d eac h precedin g inclosur e o n i t runnin g thus inclosur e 4 3 2 an d 1 an d o n these fac e upward th e letter ; th e paper s shoul d the n b e folde d a s heretpfor e described an d s o place d withi n th e wrappe r tha t the y ma y b e read y fo r immediat e perusa l i n thei r prope r orde r upo n openin g withou t turnin g o r othe r rearrangement Whe n folde d i n th e wrappe r th e latte r shoul d b e s o arrange d tha t it s tw o surface s wil l b e th e brie f an d th e las t indorsement Occasionall y th e bul k o f th e paper s wil l b e s o grea t a s t o rende r suc h arrangemen t i n detai l impracticabl e t o a degre e bu t neve r entirely REPORTS 1 Report s othe r tha n thos e submitte d o n printe d form s shoul d b e typewritte n a s indicate d i n th e foregoin g instruction s regardin g officia l letters though i f long ca p siz e o r 8 b y 1 3 inc h pape r ma y b e used Th e line s shoul d b e separate d b y wha t i s know n a s doubl e spacing 2 Report s require d b y la w a t certai n intervals suc h a s anrfua l reports shoul d b e forwarde d promptly I f fo r an y reaso n i t b e impracticabl e t o d o this statemen t o f tha t fac t an d probabl e dat e

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6 8 whe n repor t ma y b e forwarde d shoul d b e sen t t o th e offic e t o whic h th e repor t i s due .3 Reflection s o n othe r official s o r th e Governmen t o r th e publi c generall y hav e n o plac e i n a regula r report Whe n fo r an y reaso n th e attentio n o f highe r authorit y shoul d b e calle d t o imprope r con duc t o f official s o r branche s o f th e publi c service a promp t specia l repor t o f facts affidavits name s o f witnesses an d othe r specifi c dat a obtainabl e shoul d b e sen t t o th e Civi l Governo r o r hea d o f Departmen t i n whic h th e perso n makin g th e repor t i s employed 4 A repor t ma y no t b e give n ou t fo r publicatio n o r otherwis e treate d tha n a s a confidentia l documen t unti l suc h tim e a s i t shal l hav e bee n release d b y th e offic e to whic h i t wa s rendered o r b y highe r authority A repor t i s no t a t th e disposa l o f th e perso n b y who m i t wa s rendere d bu t o f hi m t o who m i t i s addressed Report s shoul d b e a s concis e a s practicabl e an d neve r b e padde d wit h appendixe s no t directly pertinen t t o them Inclosure s t o report s ar e terme d "Appendixes. The y shoul d b e note d an d treate d a s directe d i n th e cas e o f inclosure s t o letters

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APPENDI X B. 1 ANNUA L REPORT S O F TH E GOVERNOR S O F TH E PROVINCE S FO R TH E FISCA L YEA R FRO M JUL Y 1 1903 T O JUN E 30 1904 ABRA OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR PROVINC E O F ABRA Bangued, July 15, 190J+. SI R : I hav e th e hono r t o submi t t o yo u th e followin g repor t fo r th e fiscal yea r endin g Jun e 30 1904 throug h whic h yo n ma y lear n o f th e rea l need s o f th e Provinc e o f Abra o f th e progres s o f it s administratio n an d government an d o f it s principa l source s o f wealt h an d prosperity : Havin g had littl e experienc e wit h administrativ e problems I wil l finish writin g thi s repor t withou t makin g a singl e recommenda tio n o r suggestio n a s t o th e manne r o f meetin g th e need s o f th e province bein g convince d tha t nothin g wil l escap e th e perspicacit y o f ou r first authorit y an d tha t yo u wil l no t fai l t o find an d mak e ris e o f th e prope r measure s fo r tha t purpose havin g a t hand a s yo u have unlimite d resources Ther e ar e tw o thing s o f exceptiona l importanc e t o th e provinc e whic h i n m y opinio n deserv e mentioning The y are : (1 ) Affectin g th e syste m o f communicatio n betwee n th e pueblos an d (2 ) relativ e t o th e conditio n o f th e provincia l treasury (1 ) A t th e las t regula r genera l conventio n o f president s a resolu tio n wa s passe d askin g th e honorabl e Philippin e Commissio n fo r it s 1 Th e photograph s o r illustration s referre d t o i n thi s appendi x ar e omitte d i n thi s report Mos t o f the m wil l b e foun d i n th e Annua l Repor t o f th e Philippin e Commissio n fo r 1904 6 9

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7 0 suppor t i n th e carryin g ou t o f a pla n t o unit e th e pueblo s o f th e provinc e b y a telephon e line Th e resolutio n wa s a s follows : Fifth O n motio n o f th e presiden t o f th e convention Seno r Marco s Baula i t wa s resolve d t o infor m th e honorabl e th e Philippin e Commissio n how i n vie w o f th e grea t distance s betwee n th e municipalitie s o f th e province th e president s o f th e municipalities aide d b y friend s wh o see k th e commo n welfare ha d agree d t o th e propositio n o f establishin g com municatio n betwee n themselve s b y a .telephon e lin e an d t o pa y ou t o f thei r ow n pocket s th e cos t o f th e necessar y apparatus countin g upo n a regula r schedul e o f price s t o maintai n th e operatin g expense s o f th e line suc h tarif f t o appl y onl y t o privat e parties bu t th e grea t difficult y i n th e wa y o f th e realizatio n o f th e projec t wa s th e lac k o f mone y wit h whic h t o bu y th e wire insulators an d pole s properl y t o equi p th e line Unde r th e circumstance s an d desirou s o f seekin g thi s important—no t t o sa y indis pensable—improvemen t pu t throug h i n th e interest s o f th e province whic h fo r man y reason s woul d b e thereb y benefited th e conventio n i s unde r th e necessit y o f petitionin g th e honorabl e th e Philippin e Commissio n t o mos t emphaticall y len d it s suppor t t o thi s idea s o a s t o enac t a la w b y th e provision s o f whic h sai d wires batteries an d insulator s wil l b e mad e a presen t t o th e Provinc e o f Abra Unanimousl y passed Thi s resolutio n wa s supporte d b y th e provincia l board an d it s approva l b y th e honorabl e Commissio n wa s recommende d b y i t i n th e followin g lette r sen t t o you r honor : OFFIC E O F TH E PROVINCIA L GOVERNO R O F ABRA Bangued, duly 12, 1904. SIR : I hav e th e hono r t o sen d yo u a cop y o f th e resolution s adopte d b y th e municipal president s o f th e provinc e a t thei r las t convention an d a cop y o f th e recommendatio n mad e b y th e provincia l boar d wit h referenc e t o sai d resolutions I n supportin g th e petitio n o f th e president s regardin g th e establishmen t o f a telephon e system th e provincial : boar d ha s take n int o consideratio n th e mountainou s characte r o f th e province th e river s traversin g it th e genera l imperfec t conditio n o f th e wago n roads especiall y i n th e rain y season th e frequen t raid s o f th e wil d Igorrotes an d othe r unforesee n case s an d event s whic h requir e th e immediat e knowledg e an d speed y actio n o f th e Government I n vie w o f thes e consideration s I ca n no t bu t impres s upo n yo u o n m y par t th e advisabilit y o f a favorabl e con sideratio n b y yo u an d th e honorabl e Commissio n o f th e petitio n fo r som e aid Yours ver y respectfully BLA S VILLAMOR Provincial Governor of Abra. .Th e CIVI L GOVERNO R O F TH E PHILIPPINES (2 ) Th e provincial'board a t a sessio n hel d Jul y 8 1904 though t prope r t o mak e a recommendatio n t o th e honorabl e Philippin e

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7 1 Commission a s th e onl y savin g measur e durin g the crisi s throug h whic h th e provincia l treasur y is,passing tha t rea d a s foll.ows : (10 ) O n motio n i t i s als o resolve d b y th e board t o recpmmen d t o th e honorabl e Civi l Commissio n th e enactmen t p f a la w b y whic h th e presen t legislatio n relativ e t o municipa l governmen t o f non-Christia n tribes shal l b e repealed an d providin g that wit h th e exceptio n o f th e municipalitie s o f Sa n Quintin Lagangilang Penarrubia an d Manabo thos e o f non Christia n tribe s know n a s settlement s o f th e first, second an d thir d clas s shal l b e abolishe d an d returne d t o th e Christia n municipalitie s a s the y wer e befor e th e approva l o f Ac t No 3.87 ; tha t th e said municipalitie s o f Sa n Quintin Lagangilang Penarrubia an d Manabo havin g acquire d suffi cien t enlightenmen t an d havin g th e territoria l are a an d numbe r o f inhabi tant s necessar y t o enjo y th e benefit s o f th e Municipa l Code Ac t No 82 a s amended ente r int o th e ful l exercis e o f thei r right s a s a municipalit y organize d unde r th e sai d Act Thi s recommendatio n i s base d upo n th e grea t pecessit y tha t th e sai d fou r municipalities tha t have no w reache d th e stag e wher e the y ar e convenientl y abl e t o enjo y th e benefit s o f Ac t No 82 shal l no t continue a s u p t o th e present withholdin g thei r support fro m th e provincia l treasury bu t shar e th e obligation s whic h i t ha s t o meet ; an d i n tha t th e ol d administratio n o f th e balanc e o f th e non Christia n tribe s was les s complicated tha n th e presen t on e an d mor e favor able t o th e developmen t an d educatio n of th e Tinguianes an d more fayorabl e t o th e financial interest s o f th e provincia l government I t i s als o recom mende d t o th e honorabl e Commission i n cas e tha t i t see s fit t o enac t th e la w aske d fo r b y thi s resolution i t d o s o a s soo n a s possible i n orde r tha t unde r it s provision s th e ne w assessment s o f lan d shal l b e finished befor e 1905 an d tha t th e sai d la w ma y g o int o effec t a t th e beginnin g o f th e year Thi s resolutio n wa s sen t t o th e Secretar y o f th e Interio r o n Jul y 12 1904 I n conclusio n I desir e urgentl y t o recommen d t o you honorabl e Sir th e carryin g ou t o f th e tw o project s abov e indicated i n orde r tha t b y facilitatin g communicatio n betwee n th e pueblo s an d betwee n thes e an d th e provincia l capital an d b y reenforcin g th e exhauste d funds o f th e provincia l treasury tw o needs bot h o f the m importan t fo r th e goo d o f th e governmen t an d administratio n o f th e Provinc e o f Abra whic h seems threatene d t o disappea r a s a resul t of th e la w relativ e t o non-Christia n tribe s tha n t o a n insufficienc y o f revenue s fo r it s self-support ma y be met COMMERCIA L CONDITIONS Th e developmen t o f commerc e i n thi s provinc e i s langui d an d labored trad e bein g reduce d t o th e followin g articles : (1 ) Dr y

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7 2 goods notions an d othe r smal l article s i n th e hand s o f Chines e shopkeepers wh o ow n te n o r twelv e stores th e majorit y i n th e provincia l capita l an d th e balanc e i n tw o o r thre e othe r pueblos th e averag e dail y sale s bein g bu t som e 5 peso s i n eac h stor e o f th e firs t mentione d an d t o 3 peso s a t th e mos t i n th e others (2 ) Tw o stalls improperl y calle d stores wher e beverages canne d goods an d manufacture d tobacc o ar e occasionall y sol d t o clerk s an d othe r employee s wh o receiv e a fixed monthl y salary (3 ) Hors e selling tha t durin g th e pas t wa s neve r ver y bris k i n compariso n t o th e numbe r raise d an d i s no w les s so bot h o n accoun t o f th e greate r risk i n vie w o f th e prevalenc e o f epidemic s an d th e increas e i n th e pric e o f transportation whic h i s doubl e wha t i t wa s i n th e past and finally, perhaps als o becaus e Manil a an d othe r province s tha t for merl y wer e larg e buyer s hav e go t t o usin g automobile s tha t hav e advantageousl y take n th e plac e o f anima l traction Hors e dealin g i s carrie d o n her e eithe r throug h pai d agent s o r b y th e stoc k raise r 'an d th e capitalist wh o shar e th e profit s o r losse s o f th e business a s th e cas e ma y be I n thi s latte r cas e a ma n wil l bu y a numbe r o f horse s i n Abra—neve r mor e tha n thirty—whic h h e drive s t o Manila sellin g al l h e ca n o n th e roa d whe n a n opportunit y offers th e balance generall y i n a ba d conditio n whe n the y arriv e a t th e capita l o f th e Archipelago bein g sol d fo r whateve r the y wil l fetch Suc h i s th e syste m i n vogu e here on e whic h i s als o followe d b y dealer s fro m othe r provinces thoug h thes e latte r als o shi p thei r stoc k b y se a whe n the y hav e a n orde r fro m Manila somethin g tha t th e native s o f thi s provinc e ar e unabl e t o d o o n accoun t o f havin g n o commercia l relation s wit h tha t capital (4 ) Th e utilizatio n o f forestr y products i n whic h busines s bu t twent y energeti c me n ar e engaged th e swea t o f whos e brow s serve s bu t t o enric h th e capitalist s o f Yigan Iloco s Sur a s the y mak e thei r ow n prices havin g n o competitors—cutter s scarcel y mak e a living Her e th e lumberme n hav e n o guil d o r unio n an d wor k independentl y o f on e another wit h th e resul t tha t the y generall y sel l th e produc t o f thei r labo r t o on e o f thei r numbe r wh o ha s 20 0 o r 30 0 peso s o r so an d h e i n tur n sell s a t Yiga n b y disposin g o f th e lumbe r i n lot s o f fro m 5 0 t o 10 0 pieces (5 ) Lastly th e onl y articl e o f som e importance shippe d ou t o f th e provinc e i s tobacco tha t a fe w year s ag o wa s th e chie f articl e o f commerce bu t las t yea r an d thi s i t ha s greatl y decline d owin g t o th e cupidit y o f th e onl y hous e dealin g i n thi s article—L a Companl a Genera l d e Tabaco s d e Filipinas—an d t o th e

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7 3 scarcit y o f draf t cattl e an d th e timidit y o f th e planter wh o wil l no t rais e larg e crop s becaus e o f th e poo r price s whic h prevaile d las t season Table of products shipped to and from Abro, during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1904, according to official statistics and figures furnished by business men. Shippe d in : Textile s yard s 82 29 6 Petroleu m cans. 1,44 0 Matche s gross 50 4 Iro n (bar ) pounds. 6,69 6 Iron manufacture s o f (tools etc. ) pieces. 3,02 4 Notions inclusiv e o f cotto n threa d (value ) $36 60 0 Genera l merchandis e (value ) $66 60 0 Pharmaceutica l product s (value ) PI 44 0 Manufacture d tobacco — Cigar s (approximate ) number. 24,40 0 Cigarette s (approximate ) d o 150,60 0 Horse s (value ) PI 40 0 Shippe d out : Forestr y product s cubi c feet. 27 72 0 Lea f tobacc o (a t $9,82 7 pe r quintal ) ...quintales. 5 34 5 I n conclusio n o f thi s subjec t I migh t includ e th e fe w operation s o f a smal l druggist' s sho p whic h ha s bee n establishe d i n thi s capita l mor e a s a matte r o f philanthrop y tha n wit h th e ide a o f gain an d whos e sale s ar e mostl y o f medicine s o f indispensabl e us e i n case s o f emergency ECONOMI C CONDITIONS Althoug h th e descriptio n w e hav e jus t mad e unde r th e precedin g subheadin g doe s no t giv e a flatterin g prospec t fo r th e treatmen t o f th e subjec t w e ar e abou t t o tak e up w e woul d no t b e stickin g t o th e trut h di d w e no t se t fort h tha t i n stapl e article s th e inhabitants thoug h lackin g th e superfluous hav e no t bee n i n wan t fo r th e neces sities a goo d proo f o f thi s assertio n bein g tha t a grea t par t o f th e ric e give n b y th e Insula r Governmen t wa s no t sol d no r wa s i t dis tribute d a s alms Ther e ha s bee n n o chang e her e i n th e ol d an d almos t primitiv e manne r o f cultivatin g th e lan d b y mean s o f th e plo w an d carabao Ther e ar e n o manufacturin g concerns eithe r larg e o r small no r companie s o f an y sor t fo r th e improvemen t o f agricultur e o r an y branc h o f industry Bu t individua l effor t i s untirin g i n makin g us e

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7 4 o f th e primitiv e an d rudimentar y method s i n vogu e fo r the advance men t o f th e materia l prosperit y o f th e province W e ar e please d t o stat e tha t educatio n ha s mad e rapi d stride s sinc e 1901 especiall y durin g th e pas t tw o years th e provinc e no w havin g 5 4 school s withou t countin g th e on e recentl y establishe d fo r th e instructio n o f teacher s fo r settlement s o f non-Christia n tribes Th e percentag e o f peopl e speakin g Englis h i s greate r tha n tha t show n b y th e las t census ; beside s this ther e i s a goodl y numbe r o f native s o f thi s provinc e wh o ar e engage d a s teachers Th e followin g figures fro m officia l source s an d informatio n obtaine d fro m intelligen t persons sho w th e enrollmen t o f th e publi c schools : Boys 1,943 ; girls 1,218 Fro m a politica l poin t o f view th e economi c condition s presen t th e followin g aspect : Agricultur e an d stoc k raisin g ar e th e onl y source s o f wealt h i n thi s province—th e latter a s ha s bee n remarke d above o n a ver y smal l scale—and,the y ar e bot h advancin g slowl y b y rudimentar y processes hel d bac k b y lac k o f capita l an d developmen t companies Th e followin g product s ar e al l consume d i n th e provinc e an d ad d nothin g t o th e volum e o f exportations : Cavanes Cor n 22,58 0 Bucaca o 3,64 5 Sesam e 2,12 5 Achoet e 50 6 Thes e foo d plant s ar e fairl y wel l distributed bein g principall y raise d i n som e municipalitie s lik e Dolores I t i s a rar e thin g fo r a farme r no t t o ow n hi s littl e piec e o f land bu t i t i s stil l mor e rar e t o fin d on e whos e lan d i s assesse d a t mor e tha t ^5,000 Befor e th e lat e wa r an d subsequentl y prio r t o th e terribl e cattl e plagu e farmer s a s a genera l rul e cultivate d thei r land s wit h thei r ow n animals I t i s superfluou s t o stat e tha t th e above-describe d condition s hay e i n n o wa y contribute d t o increasin g th e publi c funds ^ whic h ar e a t presen t insufficien t t o cove r th e expense s o f th e administration o f th e pueblos Expenditure s hav e bee n reduce d t o th e lowes t limit • i n al l branches an d ye t a t th e date,-o f thi s report.nearl y al l o f th e piunicipalities.ar e in deb t audth e provinc e ha s bee n unabl e t o pa y salarie s sinc e Februar y an d Marcfi Th e reaso n o f thi s i s th e organizatio n o f municipalitie s o f f non-Christia n tribe s unde r Ac t No 387 a s thei r separatio n fro m th e Christia n pueblo s t o

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:7 5 whic h the y formerl y belonge d mean s a los s t o the m an d t o th e provinc e o f $3,000 Unite d State s currency pe r year Th e consol idation. ^ of Christia n municipalities an d consequen t expens e entaile d thereby ha s no t ha d th e effec t o f wipin g ou t th e los s cause d b y Ac t No 387 FINANCIAL : CONDITIONS Thoug h har d t o collect th e taxe s ar e bein g pai d wit h comparativ e punctuality Th e cedul a ta x i s nearl y al l in thank s t o th e oppor tunit y offere d fo r earnin g a dail y wag e b y th e repai r o f road s an d especiall y th e constructio n o f th e genera l highwa y fro m Bangue d t o Vigan Fo r thes e reason s th e provincia l boar d passe d a reso lutio n disapprovin g th e recommendatio n o f th e conventio n o f municipa l president s fo r a n extensio n o f tim e fo r th e paymen t o f th e lan d ta x withou t penalty i t bein g m y opinio n tha t th e peopl e hav e no t mad e th e leas t effor t s o t o do Ou r vie w i s uphel d b y th e situatio n a s describe d unde r th e headin g "Economi c conditions. Wit h th e exceptio n o f th e indebtednes s o f th e provincia l an d municipa l treasurie s th e finances o f th e provinc e ar e no t i n suc h a ver y deplorabl e state Th e propert y belongin g t o th e Governmen t i s i n goo d condition Mone y ha s no t bee n wantin g t o kee p i t i n repair an d repair s hav e bee n mad e no t onl y t o i t bu t als o t o som e o f th e provincia l roads ; i f al l hav e no t bee n pu t i n orde r i t is becaus e o f lac k o f time Th e smal l buildin g belongin g t o th e provincia l governmen t wa s repaire d an d pu t i n conditio n t o b e use d b y th e Cour t o f Firs t Instance whic h no w occupie s it a savin g o f 2 0 peso s a mont h i n ren t havin g bee n effecte d b y thi s change Th e provincia l buildin g ha s als o bee n pu t i n order al l o f th e provincia l offices th e forestr y office an d tw o o r thre e schoo l clas s room s bein g convenientl y installe d therein However ther e stil l remain s th e necessar y amoun t o f storag e roo m an d a portio n use d a s barrack s fo r th e municipa l police Finally al l o f th e consolidate d municipalities i t i s hoped wil l b e wel l abl e t o construc t building s fo r thei r offices no w locate d i n improvise d camarines buil t o f flims y materials o r installe d i n th e conven t buildings INDUSTRIA L CONDITIONS Th e conditio n o f th e provinc e a s describe d unde r th e precedin g heading s mus t b e attribute d i n a measur e t o th e politica l disturb ance s whic h hav e prevaile d throughou t th e Archipe]ago an d

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7 6 subsequentl y t o th e locus t plagu e an d cattl e diseas e whic h ha s recentl y agai n broke n ou t t o a n alarmin g proportio n considerin g th e exten t o f it s ravages U p t o dat e ther e i s n o sig n o f abatement Wit h regar d t o industry w e not e th e sam e decreas e a s i n othe r branches whic h i s bu t natural fo r i n a n essentiall y agricultura l provinc e lik e Abr a industria l condition s ar e directl y affecte d b y agricultura l conditions Durin g prosperou s time s agricultura l prod uct s hav e neve r i n thi s provinc e bee n converte d int o manufacture s b y th e ai d o f machiner y o r mechanica l devices and no w tha t agricultur e i s i n s o depresse d a condition th e ra w materia l produce d i s scarcel y sufficien t t o emplo y th e primitiv e instrument s use d fo r convertin g i t int o a n articl e o f highe r value Suc h i s th e deplorabl e conditio n o f industr y i n Abr a tha t ther e i s no t a singl e machin e i n use i f exceptio n i s mad e o f som e twent y "sewin g machines th e us e o f whic h i s no t general either Every thin g her e i s don e b y hand—steam electricity an d hydrauli c powe r bein g s o man y myth s an d stupendou s fabrication s beyon d al l belie f t o th e mind s o f th e inhabitant s o f thi s province Bu t i t i s satisfactor y t o kno w tha t th e educatio n bein g diffuse d b y mean s o f th e schools an d understoo d becaus e o f th e libertie s grante d u s b y th e presen t Government i s graduall y dissipatin g thes e blac k cloud s o f ignorance an d a brigh t horizo n i n a n industria l sens e i s comin g int o vie w fo r thes e people Durin g th e pas t tw o year s I hav e bee n personall y intereste d i n organizin g a compan y t o introduc e her e a syste m o f irrigation an d i n anothe r on e whic h propose d t o se t u p a sawmill but althoug h w e wer e abl e t o ge t togethe r nearl y al l o f th e necessar y elements w e me t wit h a n insuperabl e obstacl e i n a lac k o f money POLITICA L CONDITIONS I n som e o f th e municipalitie s lik e tha t o f Bangued capita l o f th e province th e provincia l an d municipa l board s o f healt h hav e encountere d a certai n amoun t o f opposition owing w e hav e observed t o exaggerate d report s o f abuses impositions an d th e adoptio n o f measure s incompatibl e wit h th e genera l view s o f th e inhabitant s an d thei r deep-roote d sentiment s a s t o famil y life T o thi s ma y b e adde d th e indifferenc e an d lac k o f energ y o n th e par t o f som e councilor s i n bein g unabl e t o suppres s fals e rumor s starte d b y idl e person s wh o ha d a n interes t i n s o doing Th e municipa l counci l o f Bangue d ha d no t th e valo r t o rais e th e

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7 7 rat e o f th e lan d ta x abov e th e minimu m allowe d b y law o r wa s perhap s influence d theret o b y th e desir e no t t o burde n th e land s o f it s ow n member s to o heavily althoug h th e reaso n the y allege d fo r thei r actio n wa s tha t th e counci l wishe d t o b e condescendin g t o th e desire s o f th e public Fo r thi s an d othe r reason s nin e o f th e councilor s wer e suspende d an d thei r remova l recommende d t o th e Civi l Governor ; th e matte r ha s no t ye t bee n acte d upon Th e majorit y o f th e municipalitie s accepte d withou t protes t th e maxi mu m rat e fixe d b y law undoubtedl y becaus e the y understoo d tha t thi s wa s necessar y fo r a goo d administration Th e oppositio n attrib ute d t o th e peopl e o f Bangue d i s no t correct ; i t aros e fro m th e cause s alread y indicated An y oppositio n tha t ther e ha s bee n o n th e par t o f th e publi c i s simpl y th e customar y on e o n th e par t o f eac h individua l taxpayer Th e inhabitant s o f Bangue d ar e i n n o wa y differen t fro m thos e o f othe r municipalitie s excep t tha t i t i s certai n tha t the y ar e bette r educate d an d mor e enlightened Th e consolidatio n o f th e municipalities whic h wa s proteste d agains t b y th e majorit y befor e i t wen t int o effec t an d afterward s accepte d wit h certai n reserve i s to-da y considere d a s satisfactor y i n vie w o f it s results whic h hav e bee n good wit h a fe w exceptions arisin g fro m politica l difference s an d jealousie s betwee n cacique s o f differen t pueblos Thes e objection s hav e bee n skillfull y se t righ t b y th e provincia l officers wh o ca n affir m tha t th e consolidatio n ha s prove n itsel f a practica l an d beneficia l measure Al l o f th e laws orders an d decree s o f th e Insula r Governmen t hav e bee n favorabl y receive d here Ther e hav e bee n n o popula r demonstration s her e t o protes t agains t an y legislativ e measure Wit h on e singl e exception whic h i s no w n o more ther e hav e bee n n o band s o f ladrones i n thi s provinc e no r an y case s o f prosecutio n fo r sedition rebellion bandolerismo conspiracy o r violatio n o f oat h o f allegiance an d ther e hav e bee n fe w case s o f vagrancy—i t ca n b e sai d tha t a t presen t ther e ar e none Her e ther e ar e n o grea t struggle s betwee n capita l an d labo r o r difference s betwee n th e peopl e an d th e authoritie s wit h th e exceptio n o f a quiet pacific an d lawfull y conducte d disput e betwee n munici palitie s an d th e representative s o f th e Catholi c Churc h ove r th e ownershi p an d possessio n o f certai n properties— a disput e whic h i s i n proces s o f settlemen t throug h th e mediatio n o f th e Government Ther e i s n o religiou s strif e i n spit e o f th e fac t tha t th e Aglipaya n sec t ha s mad e som e converts Passion s hav e no t bee n excite d no r

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7 8 i s ther e an y likelihood 1 tha t the y wil l be considerin g th e peacefu l characte r o f th e inhabitant s o f Abr & an d th e tac t an d prudenc e o f th e authorities Bot h th e Catholic s ari d th e Aglipay&n s hav e availe d themselve s o f th e us e o f n o othe r arm s tha n persuasion especiall y the former an d Whe n th e Catholi c pries t let s fl y hi s shaft s o f orator y i n condemnatio n o f th e schismati c sec t fro m th e pulpi t h e i s listene d t o wit h respectfu l attentio n withou t manifesta tiori s o f hostilit y o r approval A s t o politica l differences the y soo n di e ou t afte r th e electora l struggle i s over an d relation s betwee n differen t faction s quickl y becom e harmonious Eve n durin g th e hea t o f th e election s rarel y dbe s th e strif e descen d t o personalitie s o r t o us e o f thos e instrument s o f caciquism—violence treachery an d lawlessness—t o gain th e ascendenc y i n popula r suffrage Protest s sen t relativ e t o th e las t election s revea l bitte r disappointmen t o n th e par t o f thos e wh o hav e lost mor e tha n an y othe r on e thing, bu t n o corruptio n o r immorality Th e authoritie s an d th e peopl e hav e a mutua l respec t an d regar d fo r eac h other Th e bes t o f feelin g prevail s betwee n th e Americans foreigners an d natives especiall y betwee n th e firs t an d las t named ; a frequen t contac t betwee n th e America n teacher s an d thei r scholar s i s cementin g thes e relation s mor e an d more I n m y opinion b y thi s mean s th e lov e O f th e peopl e fo r th e Governmen t and 1 it s institution s i s bes t kep t alive a s Abr a i s fortunat e i n havin g th e bes t clas s o f America n professors : I desir e t o state before finishin g thi s report tha t th e political 1 condition s o f m y province Whic h faithfull y reflec t th e pacifi c an d loya l characte r o f th e inhabitant s o f Abra ca n las t a s lon g a s th e sourc e fro m whic h the y spring an d a s th e latte r grow s s o wil l the y progress th e peopl e o f Abr a havin g th e greates t fait h i n th e prom ise s o f th e grea t America n natio n wit h respec t t o th e futur e o f th e Philippines Respectfully submitted BLA S VLLLAMOR Y Governor of the' Province of Abra. Th e CIVI L GOVERNO R O F TH E PHILIPPIN E ISLANDS

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ALBAY OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR PROVINC E O F ALBAY Ajlbay, August' 1*8, 190%. SI R : I hav e th e hono r t o forwar d herewit h m y repor t t o th e honorabl e Civi l Governo r o f th e Island s o n th e genera l condition s i n thi s provinc e relating't o th e fiscal yea r endin g Jun e 30 1904' Thi s repor t consist s o f a tota l o f 8 7 pages accompanie d b y thre e photographs Th e repor t i s late which ; I be g nia y b e excused ; a s it s tardines s occurre d through th e pressur e o n th e offic e facilitie s Cause d b y tfria l o f suspende d municipa l officials whic h ha s th e righ t o f wa y ove r Othe r business Ver y respectfully, B P SANTOS Governor of tlveProvince of Albayi Hor n F W CARPENTER Acting Executive Secretary, Manila, P. I. OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR, PROVINC E O F ALBAY Albay, July 1, 190%. SI R : I n accordanc e wit h th e provision s o f Ac t No 1044 I hav e th e hono r t o submi t th e followin g annua l repor t o f th e condition s existin g i n th e Provinc e o f Alba y durin g th e fiscal yea r fro m Jul y 1 1903 ; t o Jun e 30 1904 unde r th e respectiv e genera l head ing s o f "Political, "Administrative, "Economic, "Commerc e and transportation, "Industrial, an d "Socia l an d sociological. Unde r th e headin g o f "Economic i s treate d financial, includin g taxatio n an d revenue currency financial institutions labor ; unde r "Commerc e an d transportation i s include d roads an d unde r tha t o f "Industrial ar e include d agriculture trade fishery, an d manu factures POLITICAL Durin g th e greater par t o f th e first hal f o f th e fiscal ye W th e peac e 6 f th e provinc e wa s disturbe d b y ladrofiilsrii and th e vigOfbuB r 7 9

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8 0 effort s mad e t o extirpat e i t wer e crowne d wit h success On e o f th e measure s tha t ha d bee n adopte d fo r th e speed y restoratio n o f peacefu l condition s wa s a reconcentratio n o f th e people bringin g the m i n fro m outsid e barrios wher e the y wer e expose d t o th e depredation s o f th e ladrone s an d ofte n capture d an d force d t o serv e i n thei r band s and a s a regula r thing t o furnis h foo d an d mone y fo r th e suppor t o f thes e lawbreakers int o a protecte d zon e whic h extende d t o withi n a radiu s o f 1,00 0 vara s o n eac h sid e o f th e mai n road—whic h run s throug h al l th e towns—an d extendin g th e sam e distanc e o n eithe r sid e o f th e tribunal thu s formin g a squar e wit h a perimete r o f 8,00 0 yard s o r varas Thi s congestio n o f th e people whic h ha d begu n i n March laste d unti l abou t th e en d o f October 1903 whe n th e peopl e wer e allowe d t o retur n t o thei r homes Naturally th e effec t o f thi s unusua l volum e o f person s i n suc h a limite d are a wa s diseas e an d sufferin g fo r wan t o f foo d an d ordinar y livin g accommodations Bu t throug h i t al l th e pacifi c an d obedien t natur e o f th e peopl e demonstrate d itself an d th e politica l situatio n wa s neve r i n dange r fro m an y o f th e effect s o f thi s reconcentratio n o n th e masse s o f th e people T o reliev e th e economi c situatio n amon g th e people a law-and orde r committe e wa s formed compose d o f prominen t me n fro m variou s towns whic h wa s instrumenta l i n collectin g funds destine d bot h fo r th e furnishin g o f foo d supplie s t o th e poo r an d fo r th e suppor t o f th e volunteer s fro m th e town s tha t wen t int o th e hill s i n ai d o f th e regula r force s o f th e Governmen t i n th e suppressio n o f ladronism Throug h th e beneficenc e o f th e Insula r Govern men t th e situatio n wa s furthe r relieve d b y th e sendin g dow n her e o f larg e quantitie s o f rice a grea t dea l o f whic h wa s distribute d t o th e peopl e i n retur n fo r thei r labo r o n publi c works an d th e res t wa s sol d an d mad e a par t o f th e Congressiona l relie f fun d fo r th e benefi t o f thi s province mos t o f whic h agai n wa s use d i n th e relie f o f publi c distress I n thi s wa y 1*14,135.8 5 o f th e sai d Con gressiona l relie f fun d wer e spent Th e succes s o f th e Constabular y an d Scou t operations—th e tw o force s operatin g a s on e unde r th e comman d o f th e Constabular y colonel s wh o succeede d eac h other—wa s remarkabl e i n vie w o f th e arduou s condition s unde r whic h campaignin g ha d t o b e under take n i n thi s province Impregnabl e mountai n fastnesse s an d th e denses t o f vegetatio n rendere d th e positio n o f th e ladrone s mos t secur e an d mos t difficul t t o cop e with ; an d th e attackin g forces eve n

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8 1 thoug h operatin g wit h th e greates t caution foun d tha t surprise s wer e th e usua l accompaniment s o f a n expedition ; an d suc h fights a s ther e were wer e alway s begu n wit h a disadvantag e o n th e par t o f th e Governmen t forces Grea t thank s ar e du e t o Col H H Bandholtz o f th e Constabulary wh o carrie d th e operation s t o a successfu l finish; t o Colone l Baker wh o too k hol d o f th e wor k a t a critica l tim e an d introduce d efficien t methods an d t o th e inspector s o f th e Constabular y an d th e officer s o f th e Scout s fo r th e capabl e wor k don e i n th e exterminatio n o f ladronis m here Ther e no w remain s onl y a smal l ban d i n th e hills commande d b y a notoriou s an d cowardl y thie f calle d Agusti n Saria Th e Constabular y ar e vigorousl y afte r him an d hi s en d i s n o doub t near Capt Joh n W Swann captai n an d inspecto r i n charg e i n thi s province ha s pu t Lieutenan t Kellermeye r o n th e trai l o f thi s robber H e ha s struc k th e ban d severa l times an d i s wearin g the m down Thi s sam e lieutenan t di d a fine piec e o f wor k i n th e killin g o f a peculiarl y cunnin g an d murderou s la d ron e operatin g i n th e distric t aroun d th e tow n o f Manito tha t distric t no w enjoyin g a much-longed-fo r security Th e significanc e o f th e ladron e movement althoug h i t affecte d th e politica l condition s o f th e province wa s no t primaril y du e t o politica l motives bu t simpl y t o th e desir e fo r a n eas y lif e o n th e par t o f th e left-ove r malcontent s wh o heade d th e movement an d whos e previou s experienc e o f freebootin g i n th e hill s durin g wha t wa s calle d th e "Filipin o revolution agains t th e America n occupa tio n ha d bee n to o agreeabl e t o permi t the m t o d o anythin g els e tha n liv e b y th e toi l o f others Whe n stabl e boys cocheros an d loafer s o f variou s grades wh o spen t th e tim e i n gamblin g an d dancing wer e mad e major s an d colonel s an d generals a s the y wer e i n th e tim e o f th e so-calle d revolution a retur n t o peacefu l condition s coul d onl y resul t i n reducin g the m t o thei r no w despise d an d humbl e mean s o f gainin g a living whic h wa s no t a t al l t o th e tast e o f th e erst whil e an d suddenl y constitute d "leader s o f society, t o th e disgus t o f th e rea l society S o tha t ther e wa s nothin g t o do accordin g t o thei r ideas tha n t o ge t togethe r a followin g fro m th e member s o f whic h the y coul d receiv e thei r titula r honor s an d throug h who m the y woul d b e abl e t o insti l fea r amon g th e peacefu l peopl e o f th e province liv e b y th e toi l o f others commi t robberie s a s a rule murde r a s a n inciden t t o th e succes s o f thei r robberies an d restor e 2490 4 6

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8 2 themselve s a s fa r a s possibl e t o thei r forme r hig h estate Th e leaders t o giv e colo r t o thei r thiever y an d lawlessness calle d them selve s insurrectos coverin g thei r depredation s unde r th e styl e o f measure s fo r th e succes s o f th e insurrection ; affectin g t o b e in sulte d an d humiliate d b y th e applicatio n t o the m o f th e ter m tha t reall y expresse d thei r characte r an d purposes namely ladrone s o r commo n thieves The y wer e nothin g more Ther e wa s ileve r an y desir e o n th e par t o f th e people i n th e town s o r i n th e hills t o ris e agains t th e Government Bu t a s ther e ar e neve r wantin g ignoran t one s wh o ca n b e prevaile d upo n b y word s o r forc e t o follo w a leade r o f an y sor t o f a movement s o i t i s no t surprisin g tha t th e leade r o f mos t prominence an d unde r whos e contro l th e othe r band s oper ated wa s abl e t o hav e unde r him an d thu s engage d i n th e whol e movement abou t 60 0 men I t wa s neve r believed an d ha s no t turne d out tha t thes e follower s wen t wit h hi m an d th e subleader s fo r reason s o f disconten t wit h governmenta l measures Al l th e leader s an d th e whol e bod y o f th e men wit h th e exceptio n o f th e littl e ban d alread y mentioned wer e capture d o r surrendered O f th e leaders eleve n wer e sentence d t o b e hanged o f who m on e die d i n th e jail an d nin e ar e i n Bilibi d Priso n awaitin g fina l deter minatio n o f sentenc e b y th e Suprem e Court Thi s account s fo r ten ; th e othe r wa s execute d her e o n Apri l an d wa s no t a ladron e leade r bu t a voluntee r o f th e tow n o f Oas name d Francisc o Rea m tazo j convicte d o f having helpe d i n th e surpris e o f th e garriso n o f th e Constabular y statione d a t Oas whe n ther e wer e capture d abou t fort y o f th e gun s an d ove r a thousan d round s o f ammunition Other s Wer e sentence d t o thirt y year s o f imprisonment an d thre e o r fou r Wer e kille d durin g th e operations ; Th e majorit y o f th e follower s wer e sentence d t o shor t term s o f imprisonmen t an d num ber s o f the m liberate d a s bein g o f to o littl e accoun t t o b e mad e a n expens e o n th e Governmen t fo r maintenanc e durin g a perio d o f years Th e nois e an d turmoi l attendin g th e ultimat e perio d o f ladronis m her e mus t no t b e construe d agains t th e fai r nam e o f Albay a s i f he r peopl e ha d suddenl y go t t o th e clima x O f a rebelliou s moo d an d ha d gathere d thei r force s t o tak e fina l issu e wit h th e Govern ment Fo r ther e Wa s neve r deeper-seate d allegianc e tha n exist s here an d th e peopl e a s suc h wer e neve r ou t o f thei r allegianc e t o th e Unite d State s Government Th e conditio n mus t b e fairl y interpreted ; ladronis m ha d bee n goin g o n here a 6 i n almos t ever y

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8 3 othe r provinc e i n th e islands a s a n inciden t o f th e loos e politica l condition s an d polic e regulation s i n othe r times Tha t i t no w becam e th e chie f issu e i n political-condition s wa s no t du e t o itself no r t o an y increas e i n number s o f it s adherent s o r sprea d o f senti men t i n tha t direction bu t becaus e a stron g an d self-respectin g Governmen t wa s no w concentratin g it s effort s o n th e exterminatio n o f thi s elemen t fo r th e protectio n o f it s vas t number s o f goo d citizen s here ; it s polic e regulation s wer e bein g full y enforced an d i t wa s assertin g it s absolut e sovereignt y ove r ever y inc h o f it s territory I t wa s huntin g th e ladrone s ou t o f thei r lair s an d holes makin g the m prominen t fo r thei r mor e eas y capture ; an d i t wa s simpl y a hu e an d cr y afte r a gan g o f miserabl e thieve s wh o i n themselve s ar e no t representativ e o f th e societ y o n whic h the y wer e preyin g an d coul d neve r tarnis h th e characte r o f th e peopl e a s a whole Ladronis m a s suc h di d no t eve n reac h th e significanc e o f Italia n brigandage, Wher e lawles s criminal s tak e th e offensiv e an d attac k Governmen t official s an d institution s fro m revengefu l motives an d ver y often b y thei r f orcefulnes s an d daring captur e th e admiratio n an d sympath y o f communitie s an d ar e abl e t o wag e successfu l an d long-continue d warfar e agains t al l effort s o f thei r Governmen t t o dislodg e them Ladronis m her e neve r ha d th e sympath y o f an y community It s suppor t wa s t o b e foun d onl y amon g a fe w ambitiou s discontent s i n th e towns and probably i n othe r provinces ; i t succumbe d a s soo n a s sufficien t effort s wer e brough t t o bea r agains t it ; i t i s no t a recurren t thing a s Italia n brigandag e is ; for no w tha t i t i s dead i t wil l neve r rais e it s hea d again I t i s a thin g o f th e past I t wa s th e las t stag e o f th e ulce r o f licenciou s politica l condition s tha t prevaile d her e befor e th e establishmen t o f th e authorit y o f th e Unite d States And further i t shoul d b e understoo d tha t i t di d no t emanat e fro m amon g thes e people bu t tha t i t wa s a foreig n triba l elemen t whic h wa s a t th e hea d o f th e whol e movement Th e characteristicall y loyal an d peacefu l natur e o f th e native s o f thi s province—th e Bicols — render s saf e th e assuranc e tha t th e peac e o f th e provinc e wil l neve r agai n b e disturbe d b y simila r conditions an d tha t thei r allegianc e t o th e Governmen t i s firm an d secure i t bein g onl y necessar y t o b e watchfu l t o kee p ou t suc h unwholesom e stirrer s u p o f trouble a s embod y th e seditiou s relic s o f th e "revolution, an d whom fro m thirs t fo r prominenc e an d persona l aggrandizement i t i s unsaf e t o admi t int o an y peacefu l an d law-abidin g community

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8 4 VISI T O F TH E COMMISSIONERS A notabl e incident th e remembranc e o f whic h i s highl y pleasin g t o th e provincia l official s an d th e peopl e i n general wa s th e visi t t o th e province .i n July 1903 o f th e Hon Luk e E Wright Civi l Governo r o f th e Philippin e Islands the n Vice-Governor dow n her e i n representatio n o f Governo r Taft an d Commissione r Pard o d e Tavera accompanie d b y Executiv e Secretar y Fergusson Thi s visit fo r th e purpos e o f becomin g personall y acquainte d wit h th e politica l situation wa s productiv e o f result s greatl y beneficia l t o th e complet e restoratio n o f peac e i n th e province a s th e municipa l official s wer e greatl y stimulate d an d incite d t o thei r bes t effort s b y th e word s o f goo d counse l an d stimulatio n addresse d t o the m b y th e representative s o f th e Insula r Government A meetin g o f al l presi dente s an d othe r prominen t municipa l an d othe r official s wa s hel d i n th e capita l a t Al b ay a t whic h th e presidente s freel y expresse d thei r view s o f th e situation gav e thei r observation s o f events an d state d wha t the y migh t conside r remedie s fo r th e existin g con ditions Th e visitin g gentleme n the n mad e a tri p int o th e interio r a s fa r a s th e tow n o f Guinobatan returnin g t o Legasp i th e nex t da y an d makin g a se a tri p t o th e tow n o f Tabaco afte r whic h the y lef t fo r Manila carryin g wit h the m th e gratefu l thank s o f th e peopl e an d official s fo r thei r opportun e visi t an d fo r thei r valuabl e an d powerfu l influenc e an d interes t i n th e adjustin g o f condition s an d forgin g o f a stat e o f affair s tha t too k for m shortl y afte r i n a much desire d peace No w tha t th e provinc e i s wel l advance d o n th e highwa y t o it s characteristi c prosperit y an d respond s mor e an d mor e t o th e impulse s o f th e economi c force s a t wor k t o brin g thi s about th e peopl e an d th e official s o f th e provinc e exten d a mos t cordia l invitatio n t o th e honorabl e Civi l Governo r an d t o th e Commissio n a s a bod y t o visi t u s onc e more and shoul d w e b e thu s honored th e spontaneou s desir e o f th e peopl e wil l fin d th e occasio n mos t gratefu l fo r a manifestatio n o f hospitabl e an d lovin g welcom e an d entertainment ELECTIONS Thes e wer e hel d i n December o n th e firs t Tuesday i n accordanc e wit h law an d wer e orderl y an d conducte d i n goo d fait h generally thoug h ther e wer e som e grav e irregularitie s whic h croppe d ou t an d mad e necessar y th e annullin g o f si x o f th e elections

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8 5 A s a resul t o f th e firs t election s i n th e 27 town s o f th e province protest s wer e receive d fro m eleve n towns th e provincia l boar d annullin g si x election s a s a consequence A s a resul t o f th e si x ne w elections hel d Januar y 12 five wer e protested th e provincia l boar d annullin g onl y on e election—tha t o f Malilipot Th e sam e candidat e wa s successfu l i n fou r o f th e si x cases I n th e tow n o f Malilipo t a thir d electio n wa s held o n Februar y 16 i n whic h th e candidat e electe d a t th e firs t electio n wa s reelecte d ove r hi s defea t i n th e second I t wil l thu s b e see n tha t ther e wa s onl y on e cas e i n whic h th e annullin g o f th e electio n a s firs t hel d resulte d i n a differen t presi dent e fo r th e town Th e specia l troubl e wa s du e t o th e poll s havin g bee n close d befor e th e hou r se t b y law thu s preventin g a fe w person s fro m votin g i n ever y case whic h wa s excuse d i n th e investigatio n befor e th e boar d b y statin g tha t som e wer e know n t o b e sick other s t o b e absen t fro m th e town an d similarly Bu t a s th e politica l acume n o f th e leader s o f th e faction s woul d ver y readil y tak e advantag e o f thi s feature i f allowed t o shu t of f opposin g voter s i n othe r elections an d a s th e concession s mad e a t thes e firs t election s conducte d entirel y b y th e native s woul d b e take n fo r precedent s fo r wha t coul d b e don e wit h impunit y i n succeedin g ones i t wa s considere d prope r t o dra w thei r attentio n ver y closel y t o th e necessit y o f observin g th e la w an d allowin g th e fulles t opportunitie s fo r a fai r election Ther e i s here a s everywher e else a grea t cr y o f "bossism i n al l th e towns an d politica l fends carrie d ove r int o privat e life affec t th e successfu l administratio n o f severa l o f th e towns Ther e ar e alway s tw o stron g faction s i n th e towns whic h produce s muc h fric tio n a t electio n times Th e leader s us e thei r influenc e ove r th e electio n judges an d i t appeared i n a t leas t on e election tha t larg e number s o f registere d voter s wer e exclude d fro m votin g withou t havin g bee n give n th e notic e necessar y i n orde r tha t the y migh t hav e bee n abl e t o defen d thei r righ t t o vote th e name s havin g bee n simpl y exclude d b y wholesal e becaus e the y wer e attacke d a s thos e o f unqualifie d person s b y on e o f th e "bosses. Th e annulment s di d the m good Actua l votin g wa s honestl y done an d i t appeare d that thoug h th e peopl e ar e largel y unde r th e influenc e o f th e bosses th e suffrag e wa s exercise d wit h considerabl e fre e wil l an d fo r sympatheti c

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8 6 motives—a s everybod y know s everybod y els e i n thes e towns Th e mora l effec t o f th e influentia l candidat e an d hi s backer s wa s n o doub t grea t ove r th e masse s o f th e voters a s i t coul d b e know n afte r th e votin g who m eac h ha d vote d for becaus e th e name s o f th e candidate s ha d t o b e writte n o n th e ballots and a s a consequenc e o f th e inti mac y o f acquaintance a man' s writin g coul d readil y b e identified ; an d i t i s no t t o b e doubte d tha t man y voter s di d no t dar e t o temp t th e vindictivenes s o f candidate s fo r who m the y ha d promise d t o vot e o r wh o hel d expectation s o f vote s fro m them shoul d suc h lapse s becom e known a s the y certainl y would Bu t briber y wa s no t frequent an d suc h case s a s wer e reporte d turne d out whe n examine d into t o b e nothin g tha t coul d b e s o termed I t woul d b e bette r i f th e syste m o f selectin g candidate s her e an d th e intel ligenc e o f th e voter s woul d mak e i t possibl e fo r th e Australia n ballo t t o b e use d i n elections Th e numbe r o f thos e wh o vot e a s compare d wit h th e numbe r o f th e populatio n i s ver y small I n town s o f 10,00 0 inhabitant s onl y abou t 20 0 vote s wer e cast I n th e larges t tow n i n th e province — Tabaco havin g a populatio n o f ove r 20,000—th e numbe r o f voter s wa s abou t 500 O f these probabl y one-thir d ca n no t write an d ar e thu s subjec t t o th e wile s o f th e person s se t ther e t o writ e fo r them and a s i t turne d ou t i n man y instances som e o f thes e person s wer e ver y sedulousl y workin g i n th e interes t o f on e o r th e othe r candidate Th e smal l numbe r o f person s votin g i n th e town s i s du e no t onl y t o th e disqualification s effecte d b y th e la w bu t t o neglec t o n th e par t o f a larg e numbe r t o exercis e th e privilege ; t o person s havin g a property-qualificatio n abilit y havin g exclude d themselve s b y declar in g propert y wort h 1*500—th e qualifyin g amoun t marke d b y th e law—a s o f muc h les s value ; t o wron g interpretatio n o f th e qualifica tions—as fo r instance abilit y t o writ e an d read applyin g whic h som e o f th e qualifyin g judge s wer e no t willin g t o admi t a ma n a s a vote r simpl y becaus e h e coul d writ e a nam e o r rea d one bu t require d hi m t o pas s a regula r literar y examination whic h resulte d i n th e exclusio n o f many I t i s though t tha t ther e woul d b e a grea t stimulu s t o educatio n i f i n al l case s abilit y t o rea d an d writ e wer e require d a s a qualification I t woul d als o hel p strongl y i n th e emissio n o f th e fre e wil l o f th e voter Suc h a la w woul d no t exclud e man y o f th e voter s wh o ar e no t exclude d now a s ther e wa s onl y a n eight h part o n th e average amon g thos e wh o vote d wh o coul d neithe r rea d no r write I n th e

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8 7 tow n o f Albay o f abou t 24 0 voters 3 0 wer e innocen t o f readin g an d writing ; i n Camali g abou t th e sam e numbe r voted an d ther e wer e abou t 2 5 wh o coul d no t rea d o r write Th e electio n fo r governo r wa s hel d o n th e 1s t an d 2 d o f February 1904 O n th e firs t da y th e voter s coul d ge t n o furthe r tha n t o organiz e th e assembly compose d o f vice-presidente s an d councilmen designate d b y la w a s holdin g th e electiv e franchis e fo r electio n o f governors Ba d weathe r havin g prevente d man y o f the m fro m arriving i t wa s though t well no t t o continu e ove r int o a nigh t session bu t t o giv e th e belate d one s a chanc e t o arrive The y di d no t arriv e u p t o th e middl e o f th e succeedin g day afte r th e electio n ha d bee n proceede d with Tw o hundre d an d fourtee n wa s th e num be r o f thos e wh o attended ou t o f a tota l o f 27 2 councilme n an d vice presidente s i n th e province A s stated ba d weathe r detaine d a part y o f thes e voter s o n thei r wa y t o th e election an d th e electio n wa s proteste d b y th e candidat e wh o claime d th e sai d part y a s bein g o f hi s adherence Th e protes t faile d o f effect an d th e presen t gov erno r wa s sustaine d a s elected Th e electio n wa s orderl y an d well conducted I t too k thre e ballot s t o elect th e presen t governo r receivin g 11 1 vote s t o 5 2 fo r th e nex t highes t candidate Nin e person s wer e vote d for o f who m si x wer e avowe d candidates Th e Provincia l Cod e ha s full y answere d th e purpose s fo r whic h i t wa s enacted an d th e breadt h o f it s provision s giv e ampl e scop e fo r effectiv e actio n b y th e provincia l boar d an d th e executive On e o f th e point s tha t ha s no t bee n determine d i s whethe r th e governo r ha s powe r t o gran t leave s o f absenc e t o presidente s o f town s whe n th e president e desire s thi s fo r cause s othe r tha n sicknes s o r disability Suc h licens e t o leav e th e pueblo or even remai n i n th e town o n a vacatio n i s frequentl y aske d for an d i t i s desire d tha t informatio n b e give n thi s offic e a s t o th e exten t o f th e gov ernor' s power i f h e ha s it i n thi s direction o r ho w th e presidente s ca n b e give n vacations Th e Municipa l Cod e give s a for m o f governmen t fo r th e town s i n harmon y wit h th e bes t system s o f America n cit y government an d give s the m a measur e o f autonom y tha t i s o f ver y practica l us e t o th e citizen s i n inculcatin g a knowledg e o f th e bes t principle s o f self-governmen t i n accordanc e wit h America n standards Th e powe r o f th e old-tim e president e ha s bee n sufficientl y restraine d t o giv e weigh t t o th e wishe s o f th e peopl e a s expresse d throug h thei r councilmen an d th e reducin g o f th e chie f authorit y t o hi s legitimat e

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8 8 function s a s executiv e onl y ha s undoubtedl y effecte d muc h goo d i n th e managemen t o f th e towns Th e supervisio n ove r th e tow n affair s exercise d b y th e provincia l boar d i s wel l calculate d t o pro duc e a feelin g o f responsibilit y amon g th e representative s o f th e municipalitie s i n thei r deliberation s an d measure s propose d an d adopted an d i t appear s tha t a balanc e ha s bee n struc k tha t neithe r represse s th e natura l instinc t t o independen t managemen t o f affair s no r allow s immatur e citizenshi p t o ru n t o extremes Th e workin g o f th e Municipa l Cod e ha s therefor e bee n satisfac tory an d i f th e town s hav e no t secure d fro m it s provision s th e fullnes s o f th e benefit s i t confer s i t i s becaus e i n man y case s i t ha s no t bee n full y read eve n b y thos e wh o kno w Spanish I t is o f course practicall y a close d boo k t o man y o f th e councilmen a s i n al l th e town s ther e ar e councilme n wh o d o no t understan d Spanish I t i s though t tha t goo d result s woul d b e produce d wer e th e Cod e translate d int o Bico l fo r th e benefi t o f th e well-meanin g bu t elemen ta l member s o f th e council s wh o spea k onl y th e nativ e dialect Th e councilme n hav e i n grea t measur e worke d awa y fro m th e forme r dominanc e o f th e presidentes bot h b y operatio n o f th e la w an d b y thei r graspin g o f th e function s pertainin g t o the m unde r th e ne w system Libert y o f thought o f speech an d o f actio n i s becomin g mor e an d mor e apparent and i n som e cases i t eve n get s beyon d th e rang e o f a du e regar d fo r th e loca l executiv e authority Ca n th e municipa l counci l hol d a meeting caus e on e o f th e councilme n t o presid e ove r it an d absolutel y ignor e th e presidente h e bein g presen t i n tow n an d h e bein g th e office r calle d upo n b y la w t o presid e ove r al l th e meeting s o f th e council ? Th e presenc e o f a president e wa s thu s suppresse d i n a recen t meetin g hel d b y a municipa l council agains t whic h h e protest s vigorously Unde r th e code tw o member s o f th e counci l ca n cal l a meeting an d th e counci l i s als o th e judg e o f it s ow n proceedings ; i n callin g a meetin g the y ar e onl y obliged t o notif y thos e wh o ar e member s o f th e council an d a s th e president e ha s n o vot e excep t i n cas e o f a ti e h e i s no t hel d t o b e a member Bu t shal l h e no t alway s presid e i f h e i s presen t i n th e tow n an d onl y await s notic e i n orde r t o b e presen t ? Ar e th e act s o f th e counci l vali d whe n the y suppres s th e presenc e o f th e presidente ? Thes e ar e point s tha t nee d t o b e settle d i n orde r t o clea r th e municipa l legislativ e atmospher e here Th e preparatio n i n deliberativ e assemblie s tha t th e peopl e ar e gettin g wil l b e certai n t o operat e t o produc e me n wh o wil l b e thei r

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8 9 fittin g representative s i n th e insula r representativ e assembl y tha t i s t o b e constituted Grea t interes t i s take n i n th e bod y thu s soo n t o b e organized an d i t wil l ad d greatl y t o th e buildin g u p o f self-respectin g citizenship I t i s her e though t fi t t o mentio n th e establishmen t o f a Unite d State s Arm y headquarter s pos t i n th e provinc e durin g th e fiscal year whic h ha s bee n name d Cam p Daraga Th e pos t i s spoke n o f a t greate r lengt h i n th e par t o f th e repor t entitle d "Socia l an d sociological. CATANDUANES Durin g th e yea r th e poin t wa s agitate d a s t o whethe r o r no t i t woul d b e advisabl e t o se t u p a subgovernmen t i n an d fo r th e Islan d o f Catanduanes and afte r deliberation th e provincia l boar d re commende d tha t th e honorabl e Commissio n institut e suc h a for m o f administratio n fo r tha t island Th e island becaus e o f it s forme r isolation presente d rathe r a proble m a s t o th e matte r o f it s prope r administratio n fro m th e mainland I t ha s a populatio n o f abou t 35,000 a s compare d wit h 200,00 0 o n th e mainland an d produce d abou t one-sixt h o f th e revenu e o f th e province ver y littl e o f whic h wa s returne d t o th e islan d i n th e shap e o f improvements—i n road s an d othe r publi c works—a s i t shoul d hav e been Thi s wa s no t du e t o an y dispositio n o n th e par t o f th e provincia l official s t o sligh t th e necessitie s o f th e island bu t because th e islan d bein g 4 0 mile s awa y an d alway s difficul t t o reac h o n accoun t o f th e tempestuou s weathe r tha t usuall y prevail s i n th e water s betwee n i t an d thi s section an d th e hig h cos t an d infrequenc y o f transportation a visi t t o th e islan d i s a n expenditur e o f tim e an d mone y whic h coul d onl y b e afforde d o n infrequen t occasions an d entaile d a neglec t o f th e pressin g necessitie s o f th e mainlan d whic h wa s no t warrante d b y th e conditions Bu t th e layin g o f th e cabl e t o tha t island a matte r o f grea t rejoicin g bot h o n th e par t o f th e peopl e ove r ther e an d th e official s here ha s mad e communicatio n s o easy wit h a t leas t th e principa l town an d s o reduce d th e forme r difficultie s o f gettin g new s fro m th e others an d th e hop e o f th e provincia l boar d tha t a launc h belongin g t o th e governmen t wil l b e soo n acquired an d enabl e the m t o mak e frequen t visit s there hav e s o modifie d th e situatio n tha t th e questio n o f subgovernmen t i s no t no w s o vita l fo r th e interest s o f th e islan d a s i t woul d otherwis e hav e been

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9 0 Bu t fo r th e furthe r economizin g o f tim e an d a s a n ai d t o efficien t administratio n o f th e island' s affairs ther e i s n o doub t bu t tha t a se t o f official s ove r there subjec t t o th e official s o n th e mainland woul d b e a prope r step an d th e subgovernmen t i s there ^ for e recommended ADMINISTRATIVE House d i n th e on e existin g provincia l building whic h a t th e sam e tim e serve s a s a jai l wher e th e provincia l prisoner s ar e confined an d a photograp h o f whic h i s sent ar e th e variou s administrativ e department s o f th e government Ver y muc h mor e roo m i s neede d tha n i s a t th e disposa l o f th e chief s o f th e variou s offices an d i t ha s bee n th e desir e o f th e provincia l boar d t o reco m struc t a s speedil y a s possibl e th e building no w i n ruins tha t wa s formerl y th e residenc e an d office s o f th e Spanis h governor Tha t buildin g woul d giv e ampl e roo m fo r ever y purpos e o f offic e work takin g i n al l th e departments Th e tow n o f Albay th e capital i s destitut e o f suitabl e house s fo r residence al l th e provincia l build ings excep t th e on e mentioned bein g i n ruins ; an d th e governo r i s obliged t o liv e i n th e neighborin g tow n o f Legaspi wher e rent s ar e ver y high I f th e unfortunat e condition s o f th e ladron e perio d ha d no t interfered th e 50,00 0 peso s returne d fro m th e Insula r Governmen t t o th e provincia l governmen t o f Albay i n lie u o f certai n insurrector y fund s collecte d amon g th e inhabitant s o f thi s provinc e an d deposite d i n th e Insula r Treasury woul d hav e bee n use d t o rebuil d on e o f th e provincia l buildings a s plan s ar e no w complete d an d i n th e hand s o f th e superviso r fo r th e reconstructio n o f on e o f them fund s onl y bein g necessar y fo r thei r realization A s i t was th e sai d amoun t wa s loane d ou t t o th e variou s town s t o reliev e th e destitut e conditio n o f thei r peopl e b y furnishin g the m mone y t o pa y th e peopl e fo r thei r labo r o n publi c works Th e necessit y fo r payin g hig h rent s fo r livin g accommodation s b y th e provincia l officer s i s a seriou s inroa d i n thei r salarie s whic h i t i s no t though t wa s contemplate d whe n th e salarie s wer e fixed Th e cos t o f livin g i n thi s provinc e i s highe r tha n i n an y other prob ably i n th e Islands Salarie s o f provincia l officer s ar e to o small I t i s expected an d properl y so tha t provincia l officer s shoul d liv e i n a styl e becomin g thei r positions The y mus t d o this o r the y forfei t th e respec t o f th e peopl e o f th e province Unles s the y ar e pai d bette r salarie s th e peopl e wil l fee l tha t the y ar e considere d o f littl e importanc e

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9 1 b y th e authoritie s a t Manila an d th e peopl e wil l tak e a simila r view—tha t is referrin g t o th e officers Provincia l officer s ar e with ou t th e perquisite s o f Arm y officer s an d th e representative s o f Englis h firms doin g busines s here T o liv e i n th e sam e styl e cost s the m more The y ar e expecte d t o d G considerabl e entertaining an d ar e frequentl y embarrasse d fo r th e necessar y funds Worr y ove r thi s matte r detract s thei r mind s fro m thei r officia l duties A ma n whos e min d i s eas y o n hi s privat e affair s ca n rende r mor e valuabl e officia l service s tha n on e wh o i s constantl y tryin g t o kee p ou t o f deb t an d mak e bot h end s meet Thi s subjec t i s a seriou s one affectin g officer s an d employees an d demand s an d merit s promp t attention LIVIN G QUARTER S FO R OFFICERS Th e Governmen t shoul d buil d comfortabl e houses wit h moder n improvements fo r provincia l officers Ther e ar e severa l reason s wh y thi s shoul d b e done : (1 ) I n Albay th e capita l o f th e province ther e i s onl y on e building whic h i s owne d b y privat e parties suitabl e fo r th e resi denc e o f a provincia l officer Tha t i s a ver y poorl y constructe d house an d i t bring s 1*12 5 ren t pe r month (2 ) Th e peopl e o f thi s provinc e hav e neve r see n a well-constructe d residenc e wit h moder n improvements Fou r o r five suc h house s buil t her e woul d b e a n objec t lesso n t o th e nativ e whic h migh t resul t i n genera l improvemen t o f residentia l facilitie s o f th e province (3 ) Mos t importan t o f al l i s th e influenc e the y woul d hav e o n th e nativ e estimat e o f th e provincia l office r an d o f th e provincia l government Th e Governmen t ha s buil t comfortabl e quarter s fo r th e Arm y officer s i n ou r province ; th e Englis h firms doin g busines s her e hav e furnishe d splendi d home s fo r thei r agents tendin g t o sho w tha t they ar e her e t o stay ; bu t ther e i s n o suc h indicatio n a s t o th e permanenc y o f th e occupanc y o f th e civi l officials Thi s i s a n importan t point I t i s ver y unfortunat e tha t al l th e publi c building s a t th e capita l a t Alba y shoul d hav e bee n destroye d jus t a t abou t th e tim e o f America n occupation Wer e the y al l rebuil t the y coul d b e use d t o grea t effec t i n th e prope r administratio n o f th e affair s o f th e province : Th e provincia l treasur y i s i n grea t nee d o f mor e roo m fo r th e conduc t o f th e extensiv e busines s embrace d b y tha t depart ment So also wit h th e governor's supervisor's and i n fact

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9 2 almos t al l th e offices Th e Cour t o f Firs t Instanc e shoul d b e given mor e room or a t least s o situate d i n a buildin g tha t i t woul d b e fre e fro m th e disturbin g noise s tha t no w interfer e greatl y wit h th e operation s o f th e court A buildin g fo r a hig h schoo l i s muc h neede d i n th e capita l tow n o f Al b ay Thi s schoo l i s no w bein g conducte d i n a hire d buildin g i n th e tow n o f G-uinobatan Th e locatio n i n Alba y woul d b e a muc h mor e favorabl e one N o ne w schoolhouse s wer e buil t durin g th e pas t year mos t o f th e town s bein g fairl y wel l provide d fo r i n tha t respect Bu t ther e ar e notabl e exceptions an d thi s fac t ha s bee n appreciate d b y th e pro vincia l board A resolutio n wa s passe d requestin g o f th e honorabl e Commissio n th e appropriatio n o f 1*35,00 0 o f th e Congressiona l relie f fun d fo r th e buildin g an d repairin g o f schoolhouses t o b e take n ou t o f th e tota l o f sai d fund s i n th e hand s o f th e provincia l treasure r awaitin g disposition Thi s wa s granted I t i s no w felt however tha t thi s amount whe n distribute d amon g th e town s needin g t o buil d o r repai r schoolhouses wil l b e insufficient onl y bambo o an d nip a improvement s bein g possibl e therewith O n th e othe r hand th e urgen t necessit y o f a high-schoo l buildin g ca n b e ver y wel l satisfie d b y th e investmen t o f thi s whol e su m i n a permanen t edifice an d i t i s th e purpos e t o reques t th e chang e o f thi s appropriatio n t o th e secon d us e mentioned Th e publi c school s hav e don e mos t commendabl e an d importan t wor k i n th e disseminatio n o f instructio n and principally o f a knowledg e o f th e Englis h language whic h ha s reache d no t onl y t o th e boy s an d girl s o f tende r ag e bu t ha s include d th e youn g me n an d wome n o f th e province an d eve n thos e o f matur e age s o tha t ther e i s a ver y gratifyin g foundatio n lai d i n th e provinc e i n th e Englis h language Th e teachin g o f th e languag e ha s bee n imparte d fro m th e pursui t o f studie s fro m book s writte n i n English an d i t i s onl y fai r t o stat e tha t th e knowledg e thu s gaine d i s stronge r an d mor e comprehensiv e an d mor e lastin g tha n coul d possibl y hav e bee n reache d b y a purel y philologica l metho d o f instruction Childre n spea k th e languag e everywher e o n th e streets ; the y pla y baseball an d shou t t o on e anothe r i n English ; th e yout h ar e everywher e read y an d prou d t o sho w thei r knowledg e o f it an d man y o f the m hav e passe d examination s an d acquire d position s a s insula r teacher s a t salarie s beyon d th e dream s o f wha t a teache r wa s suppose d t o b e entitle d t o i n Spanis h times ; and i n general al l wh o hav e take n pain s t o acquir e th e language

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9 3 a s wel l a s i t ma y b e i n a fe w years hav e bee n wel l rewarde d fo r thei r trouble Tw o youn g men sufficientl y proficien t i n Englis h t o pas s th e requisit e examination wer e selecte d an d sen t t o th e United State s b y th e Insula r Governmen t a t th e cos t o f th e Govern ment ther e t o pursu e studie s fo r thre e year s o r s o that i t i s hoped, wil l mak e the m fi t exponent s o f America n ideas customs an d progres s o n thei r retur n t o th e province Thi s ha s stimulate d immensel y th e stud y o f English Sinc e th e commencemen t o f th e presen t administratio n visit s o f inspectio n hav e bee n mad e t o al l th e town s o n th e mainlan d o f th e province an d t o th e islands excep t Catanduanes thoug h a n expensiv e attemp t wa s mad e t o reac h th e town s there whic h faile d o n accoun t o f th e ver y ba d weathe r prevailin g a t th e time Thi s weathe r se t i n suddenl y afte r star t ha d bee n mad e b y hire d launch th e frustratio n o f thi s visi t bein g a ver y expensiv e experienc e fo r th e province a s th e launc h ha d bee n hire d o n a ten-da y contrac t an d ha d t o b e pai d for Thi s i s a n argumen t i n favo r o f th e grantin g o f th e reques t o f th e provinc e tha t a launc h b e assigne d t o i t fo r us e i n visitin g thes e coas t towns a s the y are speakin g o f thos e o n th e mainlan d coast mos t easil y reache d b y water whil e thi s i s th e mos t expensiv e mean s o f doin g s o i f th e boa t ha s toji e hired Fo r goo d administratio n o f th e Islan d o f Catanduane s th e possessio n o f a launc h b y th e provinc e i s a n absolut e necessity Th e wate r are a o f th e provinc e i s ver y extensive an d th e posses sio n o f mean s fo r wate r transportatio n follow s a s a necessar y result A s a resul t o f th e Governor' s visit s o f inspectio n referre d to letter s wer e writte n t o al l th e town s inspecte d o n th e subject s o f "publi c order"—callin g thei r attentio n t o th e lesson s o f th e recen t disturbe d perio d an d cautionin g the m t o th e adoptio n o f measure s tha t wil l insur e speed y exterminatio n o f th e fe w remainin g outlaw s an d preven t an y possibilit y o f it s recurrenc e i n th e future ; o f "unit y o f action o n th e par t o f official s an d peopl e o f th e town s fo r th e publi c welfare ; "hygiene; "roads"—urgin g th e adoptio n o f mean s i n th e variou s town s t o repai r thei r ow n roads ; "publi c instruction; "trade"—urgin g th e adoptio n o f bette r measure s i n th e productio n o f th e hem p fiber, lookin g towar d a finer an d bette r product whic h wil l brin g i n mone y return s mor e tha n th e equivalen t o f labo r expended ; "econom y i n administratio n an d efficien t ai d t o th e treasur y i n th e collectio n o f taxes. Othe r circular s hav e als r

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9 4 bee n writte n fro m tim e t o time an d wit h frequency o n al l th e importan t point s affectin g th e prope r administratio n o f th e munici palitie s an d th e provinc e a s a whole Th e administratio n o f th e variou s department s b y th e chief s thereo f ha s bee n mos t efficien t an d praiseworthy Th e difficultie s besettin g th e pat h o f administratio n durin g th e pas t fiscal yea r hav e no t bee n few an d mos t creditabl e wor k ha s bee n don e b y th e chiefs Eac h departmen t ha s bee n calle d upo n t o devis e way s t o mee t unexpecte d situations t o whic h i t ha s responde d i n a n admirabl e manner an d th e leadin g featur e o f th e yea r i n administrativ e wor k ha s bee n th e ta x o n th e resourcefulnes s o f th e head s o f th e offices Th e governo r take s thi s occasio n t o expres s hi s appreciatio n o f th e goo d wor k o f al l th e head s o f offices an d hi s gratificatio n tha t th e cordia l relation s existin g amon g thos e i n executiv e position s ha s neve r bee n marre d b y th e leas t discor d durin g th e year Eac h o f th e department s render s it s annua l repor t t o th e executiv e hea d i n Manila an d i t i s no t th e intentio n t o d o mor e tha n indicat e generall y i n thi s repor t wha t ha s bee n accomplishe d b y th e othe r branche s o f th e administratio n o f th e province Th e wor k o f th e provincia l treasur y i s sketche d i n a genera l manne r i n th e par t o f thi s repor t dealin g wit h revenue Tha t office r ha s jus t rendere d a Ver y exhaustiv e an d detaile d repor t t o th e Insula r Treasure r treatin g o f th e wor k o f hi s departmen t fo r th e fiscal yea r jus t ended Th e supervisor' s departmen t spen t a tota l o f 1*18,469.0 7 durin g th e year a s a resul t o f th e us e o f whic h 1 9 mile s o f roa d wer e repaired bot h substantiall y an d lightly fou r bridge s wer e repaired fou r building s wer e constructed five building s wer e repaired thre e survey s wer e made transportatio n equipment—chiefl y mules an d on e wagon—t o th e valu e o f 1*4,374.5 0 wa s acquired tw o telegrap h line s wer e constructed an d 387. 5 cubi c yard s o f ston e wer e quarrie d almos t entirel y b y priso n labor Durin g th e tim e o f livin g i n restricte d area s b y th e peopl e tw o woode n bridges wer e buil t i n exchang e fo r ric e furnishe d fo r labor on e o f th e bridge s bein g i n th e tow n o f Libo n an d anothe r betwee n th e town s o f Oa s an d PolaUgui wher e bridge s wer e ver y muc h needed A provincia l hospital o f bambo o an d nip a materials Wa s built an d late r a verand a wa s buil t aroun d it Th e mai n roa d betwee n Legasp i an d Guinobatan a distanc e o f abou t 1 4 miles

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9 5 wa s th e objec t o f repair s alon g th e whol e lengt h indicate d durin g th e year Anothe r roa d whic h receive d attentio n durin g th e yea r wa s wha t i s know n a s th e Gogo n Road betwee n Darag a an d Legaspi runnin g paralle l wit h an d abou t a mil e an d a hal f ove r fro m th e camin o real Thi s roa d i s intende d fo r us e o f th e caraba o carts takin g mos t o f th e heav y traffi c fo r thi s distanc e of f th e camin o real Th e carabao car t traffi c i s abou t evenl y divide d betwee n th e tw o road s a t present Thi s ha s alway s bee n a mos t impassabl e an d neglecte d sectio n o f th e road an d th e mone y spen t i n it s repai r ha s bee n o f substantia l benefi t t o th e traffi c o f th e provinc e an d t o th e economizin g o f th e goo d wor k place d o n th e mai n road SHERIFF Th e sheriff' s dutie s hav e bee n continuous an d th e order s an d processe s hav e bee n o n th e whol e wel l carrie d ou t b y th e syste m o f deput y sheriff s establishe d throughou t th e province ; Th e presiden t o f eac h tow n i s th e deput y o f th e provincia l sherif f i n hi s town Delay s ar e sometime s occasione d b y th e slownes s o f transportatio n an d mean s o f communicatio n i n certai n part s o f th e province Durin g th e yea r th e highes t numbe r o f prisoner s whic h th e sherif f ha s ha d unde r hi s car e wa s 740 Thi s mos t unusua l number du e t o th e surrende r o f larg e number s o f th e follower s o f th e bandi t leaders ha d t o b e divide d int o thre e carcel's fo r whic h purpos e a buildin g ha d t o b e temporaril y prepare d i n Alba y an d a larg e almace n hire d i n Legaspi ^ a t a cos t o f $500 gold pe r month whic h give s som e ide a o f th e cos t o f ren t i n tha t town Th e priso n record s sho w tha t 35 0 me n entere d th e jai l o n th e 26t h o f Octobe r an d 3 0 o r 4 0 mor e durin g th e ttext fe w day s afte r tha t date A numbe r o f thes e ignoran t an d delude d follower s o f th e bandi t chief s wer e liberate d b y th e judg e o f th e Cour t o f Firs t Instance chiefl y fo r Wan t o f proo f agains t them man y o f the m havin g simpl y bee n vaguel y accuse d o f bein g sympathizer s o f th e bandits or i n othe r cases the y wer e thos e wh o ha d eithe r no t hear d o f th e orde r requirin g law-abidin g citizen s t o repai r t o th e town s t o liv e durin g th e disturbe d perio d o r ha d chose n t o disobe y th e order du e t o th e difficult y fo r the m t o mak e a livin g i n th e town whil e the y coul d alway s subsis t i n som e Wa y i n th e hills Thes e peopl e Wer e no t criminal s i n th e sens e tha t th e actua l follower s o f th e bandit s were I n th e photograp h o f th e administratio n buildin g o f Alba y ar e see n

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9 6 a multitud e o f person s draw n u p i n fron t o f th e building Th e bul k o f thes e ar e th e surrendere d follower s o f th e ladrones guarde d b y a Constabular y detachmen t an d wit h th e provincia l official s an d employee s a s witnesse s o f th e scene Durin g th e yea r 19 1 prisoner s sentence d t o mor e tha n tw o years imprisonmen t wer e sen t t o Manil a fo r confinemen t i n Bilibi d Prison A t presen t ther e ar e 19 4 prisoner s confine d here al l bein g males O f thi s numbe r 2 1 ar e awaitin g sentence Th e jai l proper whic h i s no w th e bac k par t o f th e governmen t building ca n hol d abou t 20 0 prisoners Whe n th e presen t provincia l medica l officer Dr Shanno n Rich mond too k charg e a n infection s diseas e wa s insidiousl y an d effec tivel y a t wor k amon g th e prisoners ther e bein g a n alarmin g deat h rat e a t th e time Befor e th e docto r cam e i t ha d bee n though t t o b e beri-beri bu t afte r hi s diagnosi s an d on e o r tw o autopsie s i t wa s discovere d t o b e scurvy I t wa s the n possibl e t o giv e prope r treat ment an d th e diseas e wa s checke d afte r a shor t time Th e healt h condition s o f th e priso n ar e no w ver y satisfactory Th e provincia l priso n hospita l ha s bee n o f grea t utilit y i n th e prope r treatmen t o f disease s amon g th e prisoner s an d i n furnishin g much-neede d accommodation s fo r th e sick SUSPENSION S O F MUNICIPA L OFFICERS Ther e ha s bee n som e trouble wit h head s o f municipalities an d suspension s hav e ha d t o b e mad e i n a t leas t tw o case s t o date Th e left-ove r animu s o f th e recen t election s prove d to o stron g fo r th e peac e o f a communit y i n on e case ; an d eas e o f election followe d b y a triump h ove r a protest mad e anothe r officia l s o secur e i n hi s positio n tha t h e lef t roo m fo r charge s o f inefficienc y t o b e preferre d agains t him Investigation s o f thes e case s wer e mad e b y th e provincia l boar d Ma y 2 0 an d Ma y 27 an d th e paper s wer e sen t t o Manil a o n Ma y 2 6 an d Jun e 22 wit h recommendation s favorabl e t o th e suspende d official s i n eac h instance fo r th e actio n o f th e Civi l Governor A chang e i n th e municipa l la w tha t i s likel y t o b e o f muc h benefi t t o th e town s an d ha s alread y show n sign s o f th e goo d result s t o b e expecte d fro m i t i s th e provisio n makin g th e provincia l treasure r th e appointin g hea d o f al l th e municipa l treasurers Thi s give s th e heretofor e neede d freedo m o f actio n i n th e administratio n o f thi s importan t branc h o f th e town' s affair s t o a n officia l whos e wor k wa s muc h hampere d b y th e interferenc e o f th e tow n presidentes

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9 7 FINANCIAL TAXATIO N AN D REVENUE Th e lan d tax th e cedul a o r pol l tax th e patent e tax an d th e forestr y ta x have a s a whole returne d a fai r yiel d fo r th e suppor t o f th e provincia l government Th e cedul a ta x i s wel l pai d b y th e people ; traditio n an d ag e ar e i n it s favor a s i t i s a continuatio n o f on e o f th e feature s o f th e Spanis h syste m o f taxation Th e lan d ta x i s no t s o wel l paid an d return s fro m thi s sourc e ar e insufficien t whe n th e universalit y o f th e ta x i s considered Bu t i t appear s tha t i t doe s no t reac h a s man y peopl e a s i t should becaus e numerou s holding s throughou t th e provinc e ar e no t declare d a s t o thei r owners an d th e machiner y o f th e provincia l treasur y an d th e mean s withi n th e powe r o f th e provincia l treasure r fo r forcin g t o ligh t th e prin cipa l person s o n who m th e charg e shoul d res t an d fo r makin g collec tion s a t th e bes t time s hav e no t heretofor e bee n larg e o r varie d enough No w tha t th e municipa l treasurer s ar e appointe d b y th e provincia l treasure r an d man y o f the m constitute d hi s deputies h e i s reall y given a n increase d forc e wit h a n intimat e knowledg e o f fact s essentia l t o th e prope r layin g an d collectin g o f taxe s i n th e variou s towns an d i t i s believe d tha t thi s wil l produc e muc h bette r result s fro m th e lan d tax. Th e tota l receipt s o f th e provinc e fro m taxe s i n operatio n her e amounte d t o 1*132,622.09 Philippin e currency an d Pfs 204,805.11 loca l currency makin g a total wit h th e loca l currenc y reduce d t o Philippin e currenc y a t th e rat e o f 1.1 3 t o 1 o f ?*310,800.63 Balance s i n th e provincia l treasur y a t th e clos e o f th e fiscal yea r Jun e 30 1904 wer e a s follows : Item Genera l fun d Roa d fun d Congressiona l relie f fund Municipa l ledge r Forestr y ta x Municipa l deposit s Deposit s fo r exchang e Law-and-orde r fun d Officia l Gazett e Deduction s fro m salar y Tota l Philippin e currency ^14,452.2 4 3,460.4 8 54,671.5 6 26,802.2 7 979.2 1 8,029.3 6 19,161.1 6 3,259.4 4 132.0 0 133.3 3 131,081.0 5 Loca l cur rency 24904

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9 8 O f provincia l receipt s th e greate r par t wa s spent owin g t o th e critica l financia l situatio n i n whic h th e provinc e wa s throw n b y th e operatio n o f th e measure s fo r maintainin g th e peopl e withi n restricte d livin g areas whe n th e sourc e o f it s suppl y o f fund s wa s cu t off ; an d no t onl y that bu t ther e wa s a clamo r o n th e par t o f th e town s an d o f th e peopl e fo r loan s fo r th e suppor t o f th e needy whic h ha d t o b e complie d wit h b y th e provincia l government Then th e debt s o f th e provinc e ha d bee n accumulating an d ha d t o b e pai d of f a s fa r a s the y coul d b e a t th e sam e tim e whe n thes e othe r unusua l drain s wer e doin g thei r wor k i n diminishin g th e provincia l board Th e provinc e owe s som e considerabl e sum s t o th e Insula r Pur chasin g Agent o n whic h i t i s no w makin g larg e payments Th e confiden t belie f i s tha t i t wil l soo n b e fre e fro m debt Give n th e ordinar y economica l an d politica l condition s tha t prevai l here the n th e financia l conditio n o f th e provinc e i s alway s a flourishin g one A s state d i n report s o f th e forme r Governo r Betts th e revenue s o f th e provinc e ar e ampl e t o ru n th e governmen t o n a ver y libera l basis Tha t i s th e norma l conditio n o f things an d tha t i s th e resul t expecte d th e comin g year A s soo n a s th e beneficen t influence s o f tim e an d goo d weathe r shal l hav e give n u s increase d hem p crop s an d thu s cause d busines s condition s t o recuperate ther e wil l b e a strea m o f gol d flowin g int o th e treasur y tha t wil l plac e th e provinc e i n th e happ y positio n o f bein g abl e t o pa y of f it s debt s withou t dela y an d g o o n t o mak e much-neede d publi c improvement s tha t ar e onl y waitin g o n th e realizatio n o f thes e conditions NE W TAXES Th e layin g o f a ta x o n inheritance s i s recommended I t woul d n o doub t yiel d a ver y prett y sum an d woul d serv e t o supplemen t th e deficienc y tha t appear s throug h th e operatio n o f th e lan d tax. Thi s countr y havin g bee n develope d unde r Europea n system s fo r severa l hundre d years respond s i n th e wa y tha t Europea n nation s d o t o th e layin g o f certai n kind s o f taxe s tha t migh t i n th e Unite d State s b e somewha t unpopular as fo r instance th e cedul a tax Th e inheritanc e ta x i s a Europea n tax bu t ha s s o muc h t o commen d i t tha t i t ha s alread y bee n adopte d i n som e part s o f th e Unite d States an d i s suitabl e t o th e fiscal syste m o f thi s country Promp t pay men t o f th e ta x woul d b e on e o f it s pleasin g features a s th e ta x i s i n stric t accor d wit h on e o f th e bes t canon s o f taxation providin g

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9 9 tha t taxe s shoul d b e levie d a t a tim e whe n i t i s mos t convenien t t o mak e payment Th e hei r wh o ha s jus t com e int o hi s ne w fortun e i s i n a stat e o f complacenc y whic h i s hardl y lessene d eve n whe n th e collecto r present s himsel f t o gathe r th e tax. Al l propert y shoul d b e subjec t t o th e ta x whic h passe s b y wil l o r descen t o r b y a conveyanc e mad e i n contemplatio n o f th e grantor' s death Th e ta x shoul d b e pai d t o th e provincia l treasure r fo r us e o f th e province Th e rat e o f taxatio n ma y b e 1 pe r cen t o f th e marke t valu e o f th e propert y wheneve r th e beneficia l interes t passe s t o a father mother husband wife child brother o r sister ; wif e o r wido w o f a son o r husban d o f a daughter A n estat e wort h les s tha n 1*5,00 0 i s no t subjec t t o suc h a tax I n othe r case s th e rat e ma y b e 5 pe r cent n o estat e wort h les s tha n 1*50 0 bein g subjec t thereto Religious educational charitable an d humani taria n corporation s shoul d b e constitute d exemp t fro m th e paymen t o f th e tax as also societie s organize d fo r othe r tha n busines s pur poses and o f course corporation s exemp t b y la w fro m genera l taxatio n wil l als o b e exemp t fro m thi s tax A roa d ta x shoul d b e lai d i n thi s province I t ha s bee n recom mende d severa l time s b y th e presidente s a t thei r semiannua l ses sions Reason s connecte d wit h th e layin g o f thi s ta x ar e t o b e foun d i n th e par t o f th e repol t entitle d "Transportation. Owin g t o th e difficult y o f transportatio n an d th e scarcit y o f it s mean s i n thi s province th e percentag e o f cos t o f collectio n o f taxe s i s quit e high thoug h jus t wha t i t i s ca n no t b e gotte n a t a t thi s time Boat s an d carriage s an d horse s mus t b e independentl y hire d fo r th e us e o f th e deput y treasurer s i n makin g thei r visit s t o th e towns an d th e cos t o f trave l i s ver y great Whe n th e provinc e get s it s launch a s i t hope s t o soon al l th e coas t town s o n th e mainlan d an d o n th e Islan d o f Catanduane s an d th e Islan d o f Rapu-Rapu ca n b e visite d ver y cheapl y an d frequently whic h wil l produc e a goo d effec t o n th e collectio n o f taxes CURRENCY Th e kind s o f currenc y i n genera l us e i n th e provinc e ar e th e ol d Mexican Spanish-Filipino th e Philippin e coins an d th e mone y o f th e United States beside s waif s fro m Chin a an d Britis h posses sions O f these th e Mexica n an d Spanish-Filipin o greatl y pre dominate fo r th e reaso n tha t al l hem p buyer s brin g i n Spanish Filipin o an d Mexica n coi n t o mak e thei r purchase s o f hemp t o th e

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10 0 prejudic e o f th e ne w money Furthermore whe n the y receiv e ne w mone y the y shi p i t a t onc e t o Manil a an d exchang e i t ther e fo r Spanish-Filipin o an d Mexica n a t th e rati o prevailing Also th e Chines e merchant s ar e i n th e habi t o f sendin g thei r Philippin e currenc y t o Manil a t o pa y thei r curren t bills ; no t onl y that bu t the y tak e th e mone y t o th e hem p dealer s an d presen t th e Philippin e mone y an d receiv e i n retur n draft s withou t an y exchang e whatever an d thi s cas h i s sen t b y steamer s owne d b y th e concern s thes e hem p buyer s represen t i n Manil a an d ther e exchange d fo r Spanish Filipin o an d Mexican ; s o tha t ther e ha s bee n a constan t drai n o f th e ne w mone y eve r sinc e i t wa s introduce d i n th e interes t o f thes e people wh o ca n brin g i n th e chea p mone y a s a mer e busines s transaction Th e Governmen t admit s i n paymen t o f due s Spanish-Filipino th e ne w Philippine an d Unite d State s currency Afte r Septembe r 3 0 th e Spanish-Filipin o wil l no t b e s o admitted Sinc e January 1903 Mexica n coin s hav e no t bee n receive d b y th e Government neithe r fo r paymen t o f due s no r fo r exchange Thi s i n n o wa y affecte d th e us e o f th e Mexica n money ; i n fact loca l value s i n smal l transaction s hav e neve r bee n affecte d b y th e introductio n o f th e ne w mone y no r b y th e discriminatio n agains t Mexica n b y th e Government A curiou s featur e o f th e monetar y situatio n i s th e opposit e estimation s i n whic h Mexica n an d Spanish-Filipin o coin s ar e hel d b y th e Governmen t an d b y th e merchants Th e Govern men t ha s absolutel y demonetize d th e Mexican i t bein g a n entirel y foreig n coin absolutel y prejudicia l t o busines s interest s becaus e o f it s fluctuations ; an d th e Government bein g unde r n o obligation s t o it treat s i t lik e th e strange r tha t i t reall y is ; th e Spanish-Filipin o coins however havin g bee n pu t i n her e b y Spain receiv e considerat e regar d fro m th e Government eve n thoug h the y b e a s troublesom e i n busines s transaction s a s th e Mexican and u p t o th e present ar e receive d i n settlemen t o f Governmen t due s a t a presen t rat e o f exchang e t o Philippin e currenc y o f 1.1 3 t o 1 Th e merchants however tak e th e contrar y vie w actuate d b y purel y busines s inter ests The y admi t al l th e Mexica n the y ca n get refusin g th e Spanish-Filipino Th e reaso n i s tha t the y ca n expor t th e Mexica n t o Hongkon g an d othe r point s wher e i t i s current whil e th e Spanish Filipin o i s no t curren t beyon d th e confine s o f thes e Islands an d i t woul d hampe r thei r method s t o admi t i t i n larg e quantities Althoug h th e provincia l treasury b y th e operatio n o f exchange

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10 1 ha s take n on t fro m th e circulatio n i n th e provinc e ove r 200,00 0 pesos i n bot h Mexica n an d Spanish-Filipino still thi s amount an d more ha s simpl y returne d int o th e circulatio n b y th e processe s abov e mentioned Neithe r merchant s no r privat e partie s mad e deman d o n th e treasur y fo r exchang e o f th e ol d mone y fo r th e new Al l th e ne w mone y pu t b y th e provinc e int o circulatio n ha s bee n throug h paymen t b y th e provinc e o f it s debt s i n thi s kin d o f coin Th e firs t shipmen t o f Philippin e coin s cam e t o thi s province t o th e treasury i n September 1903 bein g a n amoun t o f ^25,000 whic h wa s pu t int o circulatio n a s fas t a s i t coul d b e done I t i s no t though t tha t th e Mexica n an d Spanish-Filipin o mone y wil l b e abl e t o hol d thei r place s i n .th e circulatio n afte r Septembe r 30 1904 Ther e ar e indication s tha t th e commercia l house s wil l kee p al l thei r book s i n th e ne w currenc y afte r tha t date an d th e coin s mentione d wil l no t the n mee t suc h a friendl y receptio n amon g sai d house s a s the y no w do Humiliatin g a s i t is t o confes s it th e fac t i s tha t Mexica n an d th e othe r fluctuatin g money s hav e bee n th e master s ove r gol d i n th e market s an d store s here For Mexica n bein g a t a n exchang e valu e o f 2.2 6 wit h gold a n articl e tha t cos t 2.2 6 Mexica n i n th e store s coul d no t b e purchase d fo r a gol d dolla r b y an y means Yo u woul d hav e t o giv e th e gol d dolla r an d 2 6 cent s Mexica n besides Wherefor e i t i s tha t neithe r Unite d State s mone y no r th e ne w Philippin e mone y ha s give n th e citize n th e ful l benefi t o f it s purchasin g power an d th e citize n ha s rathe r los t consistentl y a su m equivalen t t o th e differenc e betwee n th e value s o f Mexica n an d th e ne w mone y sinc e i t wa s introduced Fo r article s marke d i n Mexica n value s hav e neve r bee n change d i n price an d th e pur chasin g powe r o f th e ne w mone y ha s neve r bee n greate r tha n tha t o f th e antiquate d coin s i t i s suppose d t o b e superio r to Wha t formerl y cos t a Mexica n pes o no w cost s a Philippin e peso Bu t nevertheless th e introductio n o f th e ne w mone y ha s bee n a n immens e benefi t t o al l i n othe r ways Th e vas t savin g i n calculations th e fixit y o f it s valu e wit h gold it s receptio n everywher e fo r al l purposes—al l thes e hav e mad e i t a mediu m fo r transaction s whic h i s incomparabl y superio r t o an y befor e know n o r use d i n thi s province Includin g al l th e specie s o f mone y i n th e province ther e i s generall y concede d t o b e sufficien t fo r th e ordinar y demand s o f busines s an d trade Bu t i f exchang e o f Spanish-Filipin o an d Mexica n i s t o b e mad e fo r Philippin e money mor e tha n 1*2,000,00 0

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10 2 wil l b e neede d i n thi s province I t i s though t tha t ther e i s a sufficienc y o f pape r mone y i n th e province Th e peopl e hav e bee n s o use d t o carryin g th e heav y load s o f meta l tha t the y d o no t see m t o min d it Wer e ther e bill s o f 1-pes o denominatio n man y o f the m woul d b e used Th e bill s ar e grea t favorite s amon g American s an d i n larg e transactions FINANCIA L INSTITUTIONS Th e nee d o f financia l institution s i n th e provinc e i s ver y great, as th e busines s interest s o f th e provinc e bein g immense usin g th e ter m i n a sens e comparativ e wit h tha t o f som e o f th e othe r province s o f considerabl e commercia l interests thes e usefu l an d indee d indispensabl e agent s i n busines s intercours e an d smoother s o f th e path s o f trad e ar e loudl y calle d fo r here W e nee d a genera l deposit-and-loa n ban k an d a saving s bank on e i n eac h o f th e town s o f Legasp i an d Tabaco th e tw o port s o f th e province wit h pos sibl y a branc h i n th e tow n o f Liga o o r Guinobatan i n th e interior Ther e i s th e busines s o f a n arm y o f hem p dealers—producers buyers middlemen exporters—t o do Becaus e o f th e lac k o f saving s bank s here th e peopl e o f a n economica l tur n o f min d hav e adopte d ver y generall y th e pla n o f depositin g thei r mone y wit h th e Government i n th e post-offices b y purchasin g mone y orders payabl e t o th e depositor th e mone y thu s bein g secur e fo r on e year whe n th e order s mus t b e renewed payin g th e smal l percentag e th e Governmen t collect s fo r mon'e y orders Thi s i s a ver y forcibl e argumen t i n favo r o f posta l saving s banks whic h coul d b e establishe d wher e th e purel y commercia l enterpris e o f a n ordinar y saving s ban k coul d no t b e expecte d t o se t up eithe r becaus e o f lac k o f sufficien t trad e o r indifferenc e o f wealth y person s o r corporation s wh o ca n fin d othe r investment s fo r thei r money Posta l saving s bank s woul d reall y b e mos t usefu l i n thes e out-of-the wa y sections wher e ther e i s reall y plent y o f busines s fo r financia l institutions bu t where a s explaine d above becaus e the y eithe r hav e neve r existe d o r enterpris e doe s no t choos e t o adop t tha t for m o f investmen t an d accommodatio n t o th e publi c an d trade peopl e an d busines s interest s ar e force d t o ge t alon g b y adoptin g variou s makeshift s an d substitute s fo r th e regula r institutions Speakin g o f th e saving s featur e first i t ma y b e sai d tha t tha t nee d i s ver y general ; and althoug h th e masse s o f th e peopl e ma y no t hav e bee n cultivate d int o th e us e o f a saving s bank i t i s certai n

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10 3 tha t it s usefulnes s woul d soo n becom e apparen t t o the m an d tha t it s goo d office s a s a n ai d t o savin g woul d b e ver y generall y take n advantag e of I t ma y b e assure d fro m th e beginnin g tha t ther e i s a business-minde d clas s o f peopl e i n th e province consistin g o f th e Americans th e clerk s i n th e office s generally bot h mercantil e an d governmental wit h especia l referenc e t o thos e i n th e larg e numbe r o f municipa l offices an d othe r youn g peopl e o f intelligenc e i n grea t number wh o woul d immediatel y b e patron s o f th e saving s bank an d i t woul d b e a succes s fro m th e start wit h a brigh t futur e befor e it It s permanenc e i s assure d fro m th e beginning Th e genera l bankin g institution s suggeste d t o b e establishe d i n Legasp i an d Tabaco wit h a branc h hous e i n Liga o o r Guinobatan fin d thei r callin g an d electio n sur e i n th e immediat e an d long existen t need s o f commerce Anyon e who'ha s see n th e hem p pro ducer s an d trafficker s loadin g u p wit h immens e weight s o f coi n whic h ha s t o b e transporte d lon g distance s t o mak e payment s i n th e interio r an d shippe d a s s o muc h freigh t t o Manil a t o pa y of f obliga tion s there whic h coul d b e s o readil y an d wel l dispatche d b y a ban k check o r wh o ha s experience d th e vai n effort s t o effec t exchang e o f coi n o r ge t a bil l o f exchang e betwee n point s her e an d i n Manila th e State s o r foreig n countries unles s the y b e o n intimat e term s wit h on e o r othe r o f th e branche s her e o f th e larg e hemp-buyin g firm s whos e centra l office s i n th e Island s ar e i n Manila an d s o ca n ge t thes e facilitie s throug h them wil l immediatel y appreciat e th e vas t usefulnes s ope n t o a ban k i n thi s province Th e function s o f mercantil e paper wel l understoo d bu t practicall y unavailabl e here would i f mor e generall y introduced serv e thei r end s b y givin g a n immens e impetu s t o commerc e an d trade I t woul d exten d credit economiz e us e o f currency— a mos t happ y circumstanc e here wher e currenc y i s bot h limite d i n amoun t an d troublesom e t o convey—an d expedit e th e settlemen t o f outsid e account s i n a mos t efficien t way wit h securit y agains t th e los s tha t i s alway s liabl e t o occu r b y maritim e disaste r i n case s o f shipmen t o f coin Quotin g fro m th e Gazettee r o f th e Philippin e Islands wher e i t treat s o f th e commerc e o f Al b ay th e necessit y fo r financia l institu tion s i s show n i n th e following : Th e coastwis e trad e o f th e provinc e largel y consist s i n th e transporta tio n o f th e enormou s hem p yiel d fro m th e numerou s village s alon g th e shore s o f th e grea t bay s t o th e seaports fro m whic h steame r shipment s ar e mad e t o Manil a o r direc t t o foreig n port s b y th e grea t carryin g corpora

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10 4 tion s i n th e Orient Som e ide a o f th e enormou s busines s don e i n th e provinc e a t th e presen t [tw o year s ago ] ca n b e ha d fro m the t fac t tha t i n th e tow n o f Legasp i alon e ove r $1,000,00 0 change s hand s ever y thirt y days Business however i s muc h hampere d fro m th e lac k o f bankin g facilities an d al l clearance s ar e mad e throug h th e bank s a t Manila Thes e grea t sum s o f mone y ar e brough t dow n b y th e steamships fo r whic h the y charg e 0.7 5 pe r cen t fo r transportation The y ar e returne d t o Manil a a t th e sam e rate Wit h a ban k a t Legasp i thes e clearance s coul d b e mad e there an d th e amoun t o f transportation alone woul d b e goo d interes t fo r a n institutio n o f thi s sort Mone y loan s i n thi s provinc e a t al l th e wa y fro m 1 0 t o 2 0 pe r cent LABOR A s a whole labo r i n thi s provinc e i s scarce eve n a s compare d wit h othe r provinces Th e reaso n ma y b e becaus e i t i s no t a densel y populate d region and besides th e laborer s here an d a grea t man y more ca n al l ge t wor k i n th e hem p fields. Thu s th e laborer s for othe r purpose s ar e ver y limite d i n number Ther e i s als o mor e mone y t o b e mad e b y workin g i n th e hem p tha n i n an y othe r line Tw o t o thre e dollar s pe r day—tha t is pesos — ca n b e mad e b y a n able-bodied willin g worke r i n th e hem p fields. I n almos t ever y kin d o f occupatio n afforde d her e labo r i s greatl y needed Th e experienc e o f employer s wit h labo r i s tha t laborer s generall y hol d steadil y t o thei r work whic h i s especiall y th e cas e wit h suc h a s hav e families O f course fiestas ar e alway s recurring an d thes e furnis h a n inevitabl e caus e fo r th e stoppin g o f wor k b y al l hands Th e rain s seriousl y interfer e wit h al l outdoo r work Th e outpu t o f th e nativ e labore r i s mor e i n proportio n t o pa y than fo r instance tha t o f th e Japanese th e onl y othe r clas s o f laborer s employe d i n thi s province speakin g fro m th e experienc e o f th e provinc e a s a n employe r o f labor America n labo r ha s neve r bee n actuall y employe d manuall y i n roa d buildin g o r hem p working ; the y generall y wor k a s foremen Th e ou t pu t o f America n laborer s i n suc h line s a s the y ar e accustome d to an d i n suc h line s a s the y migh t adap t themselve s to woul d certainl y greatl y exceed tha t o f th e native Th e impuls e t o see k wor k tha t i s callin g fo r laborer s doe s no t exis t t o an y noticeabl e extent Th e wor k mus t see k th e laborer Lif e i s to o simpl e an d eas y a thin g i n thes e tropica l countrie s t o mak e me n ver y activ e i n thei r searc h fo r work Laborer s ar e generall y mos t abundan t i n th e section s wher e ther e i s n o hem p grown—a s i n th e town s o f Oa s an d Libon wher e

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10 5 ther e i s mor e ric e raise d tha n hemp—an d the y ar e scarces t aroun d th e town s i n thos e section s wher e hem p i s mos t abundant whic h constitute s th e greate r par t o f th e province Laborer s ar e plentifu l i n th e neighborin g Provinc e o f Ambo s Camarines an d tha t i s th e neares t poin t outsid e thi s provinc e fro m whic h the y ca n b e obtained Tha t i s a ric e province an d i t i s understoo d tha t no t muc h ric e i s bein g raise d ther e now Fo r th e developmen t o f th e resource s o f thi s provinc e i t i s necessar y tha t th e suppl y o f laborer s b e greatl y increased preferabl y fro m othe r province s i n whic h labo r i s abundant or i n cas e the y ar e no t t o b e s o secured fro m nearb y foreig n countries Th e provincia l governmen t employe d abou t fort y Japanes e laborer s o n roa d wor k fo r abou t thre e month s durin g th e fiscal year Th e averag e pa y wa s abou t 2 peso s pe r day abou t twic e th e pa y o f nativ e laborers Th e results i n bot h quantit y an d quality wer e inferio r t o Filipin o labor eve n a t th e sam e pric e a s tha t o f th e Japanese o n roa d work Labo r i s no t versatil e i n thi s province due generally t o th e fac t tha t the y ca n mak e s o muc h mor e mone y workin g hem p tha t the y hav e neve r cultivate d a knowledg e of othe r kind s o f work Th e onl y kind s o f wor k fo r which ^ laborers a s a rule ar e immedi atel y competen t ar e hem p workin g an d stevedoring Whil e th e dignit y o f labo r ma y no t b e a s generall y understoo d her e a s i t i s i n th e Unite d States ye t th e progressiv e spiri t o f th e people thei r adaptability throug h th e operatio n o f th e principl e o f imitation i s s o grea t that wer e ther e sufficien t opportunit y her e t o lear n trade s an d th e differen t form s o f manua l labor an d wer e ther e a sufficien t variet y o f busines s an d socia l interest s t o mak e thes e occupation s gainful i t i s fai r t o asser t tha t w e woul d no t the n se e al l ou r youn g me n o f goo d familie s endeavorin g t o ge t purel y clerica l positions t o b e "escribientes i n Governmen t offices and regardles s o f pay t o secur e position s which i n thei r ow n eye s an d i n th e eye s o f thei r companion s an d people represen t dignit y an d ar e conservativ e o f honor Bu t a s condition s exis t no w i n th e province ther e i s n o variet y offere d t o th e seeke r afte r work Ther e i s n o opportunit y fo r engagin g onesel f t o wor k wit h th e hands a s th e ter m i s generall y understood Th e worker s mus t eithe r b e escribiente s o r polista s (commo n da y laborer s o n th e road s an d wharve s an d i n th e fields). Th e vas t rang e o f opportunitie s fo r workin g i n trade s afforde d i n

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10 6 th e Unite d States th e resul t o f a highl y organize d an d comple x conditio n o f society requirin g a minut e divisio n o f labor i s entirel y lackin g here Th e youn g me n neglec t trade s becaus e ther e ar e hardl y an y suc h establishe d interest s her e t o dra w thei r attentio n t o th e wor k o f th e artisa n an d t o affor d the m occupatio n onc e th e trade s ar e learned ; an d whil e i t i s tru e tha t the y migh t lear n trade s an d se t u p independentl y t o practic e thern neithe r i s th e deman d fo r thei r wor k s o pressin g o r eviden t tha t the y ca n b e assure d o f succes s tha t wil l repa y them Th e nee d exists o f course bu t i t ha s gon e s o lon g unsatisfie d tha t i t ha s almos t cease d t o clamo r fo r recognition an d no w require s patien t cultivatio n t o caus e i t t o yiel d satisfactor y returns A cabinetmaker fo r example here fo r whos e service s ther e i s undoubtedl y abundan t remunera tion b y th e ver y conditio n o f busines s i n tha t lin e woul d firs t hav e t o b e somewha t o f a n itinerant workma n befor e h e woul d b e i n suc h a positio n tha t h e coul d mak e o f hi s establishmen t a recognize d cente r fo r supplyin g th e call s o f trad e i n hi s line Thi s i s no t a manufacturin g province an d workme n fo r manufacturin g line s ar e no t t o b e foun d here Th e scal e o f livin g amon g th e masse s i s a limite d one thei r need s ar e few ; th e socia l condition s ar e divers e i n a sense The y ar e primitiv e amon g th e masse s an d moder n amon g th e few ; wherefor e th e pro'duct s neede d t o balanc e th e differenc e betwee n lif e o n a primitiv e scal e an d lif e a s ou r moder n societ y understand s i t ca n ver y easil y b e brough t i n fro m othe r countries Primitiv e ma n need s n o shoes ; moder n ma n does an d shoemaker s ar e a necessar y par t o f al l moder n communities Whil e w e ar e moder n enoug h her e t o nee d shoe s an d t o wea r the m amon g abou t one-tent h o f th e population still w e ar e antiquate d enoug h t o b e abl e t o d o withou t shoemakers an d yo u mus t thro w awa y shoe s tha t unde r a modernl y organize d economi c societ y woul d b e repaired S o i t i s i n othe r cases W e hav e kitche n stove s o f foreig n manufacture bu t no t many an d i f on e shoul d ge t broke n ther e i s n o on e t o repai r it an d i t mus t b e throw n o n th e iro n heap Typewriter s ar e almos t a n everyda y matte r i n th e province bu t a s the y ge t ou t o f orde r the y ar e simpl y abandoned a s n o on e her e repair s them an d the y mus t b e sen t t o Manil a i f i t i s desire d t o hav e the m fixed an d th e excessiv e freigh t doe s no t encourag e this Bu t economi c processe s ar e makin g themselve s felt an d i t i s hope d tha t soo n th e cal l fo r artisans mechanics sanitarians an d

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10 7 other s o f simila r an d o f manua l occupation s wil l becom e s o lou d an d insisten t tha t th e answe r wil l b e immediat e an d heart y an d tha t w e shal l find ou r deficiencie s wel l provide d for COMMERC E AN D TRANSPORTATION Commerce properl y s o called i s limite d t o intercours e wit h Manila th e centra l distributin g poin t fo r th e province s withi n th e Islan d o f Luzon Bu t Al b a y i s capabl e o f supportin g a com merc e tha t shal l b e direc t wit h America n an d Europea n ports ; fo r th e soi l yield s a natura l produc t o f grea t importanc e an d volume — th e hemp—whic h th e traffickin g nation s o f th e worl d woul d b e onl y to o gla d t o tak e righ t of f th e dock s a t Legasp i an d Tabac o t o thei r hom e ports savin g th e grea t an d useles s expens e o f freightag e t o Manila handlin g fo r deposi t ther e an d rehandlin g fo r shipmen t fro m there I t i s sincerel y hoped, a s suggeste d i n anothe r par t o f thi s repor t (unde r "Trade" ) tha t Legasp i wil l b e mad e a n ope n por t b y th e honorabl e Commission Ther e ar e variou s line s o f coastin g steamer s tha t cal l a t Legasp i an d Tabaco th e tw o port s o f th e provinc e o n th e mainland These wit h th e Coas t Guar d boat s an d Governmen t transports giv e u s ship s i n Legasp i Harbo r almos t al l th e time an d ther e i s frequen t communicatio n wit h Manila I t ca n hardl y b e sai d t o b e a s fixed an d regula r a s i t shoul d be however Generall y ther e i s a vesse l goin g t o Manil a onc e ever y week On e ca n writ e a lette r an d receiv e a n answe r fro m Manil a b y retur n mai l i n abou t tw o weeks ; sometime s thi s i s accomplishe d i n five days Th e freigh t o n a bal e o f hem p (13 7 pounds ) t o Manil a i s 5 0 cents Philippin e currency th e distanc e bein g 23 7 miles Durin g th e pas t yea r freigh t rate s o n packag e stuf f fro m Manil a hav e bee n ver y high eve n exorbitant ; an d i t i s saf e t o sa y tha t th e peopl e o f thi s provinc e woul d hav e bee n greatl y please d ha d th e commerc e t o coastwis e port s bee n throw n ope n t o ship s o f al l nations a s i t ha d bee n proposed Man y step s o f importanc e t o facilitat e th e wa y o f commerc e hav e bee n taken Th e erectio n o f a light-hous e a t Sa n Roque a portio n o f Legasp i beach ha s prove n t o b e o f grea t utilit y t o commerce Formerl y th e light bein g a singl e whit e one wa s hardl y distinguishabl e fro m th e numerou s light s tha t shon e ou t al l ove r th e ba y a t nigh t fro m steamers boats an d shore bu t no w a re d ligh t ha s bee n added an d i t i s mor e readil y picke d up Still

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10 8 th e glea m o f th e ligh t doe s no t ye t reac h fa r enoug h ou t t o sea a s som e mariner s hav e commented an d thi s coul d b e secure d b y increasin g th e heigh t o f th e structur e a fe w feet Anothe r light hous e i s planne d fo r Rapu-Rap u Islan d Point wher e i t wil l b e o f ver y grea t importanc e a s a n ai d t o th e navigation o f th e treacherou s an d difficul t passage s o f Sa n Bernardin o Strait Th e Catanduane s cable i n th e acquisitio n o f whic h ex-Governor Bett s too k suc h a grea t interest ha s bee n laid th e wor k havin g bee n terminate d som e tim e i n June 1904 thu s bringin g tha t islan d int o communicatio n wit h th e res t o f th e world Th e people — o f ver y progressiv e tendencies thoug h hithert o i n a ver y isolate d position—ar e overjoye d t o b e thu s favore d i n th e wa y o f communica tion an d .celebrate d th e occasio n o f th e completin g o f th e wor k o f layin g th e cabl e an d stringin g o f th e connectin g lan d line s i n a fittin g way A fiest a committe e wa s appointed an d invitation s t o th e followin g effec t wer e sen t out : Al l Catanduane s invite s yo u t o assis t i n th e merrymakin g a t Vira c i n commemoratio n of-ou r releas e fro m isolatio n wit h th e outsid e world Th e much-desire d telegrap h cabl e i s no w a reality It s completio n i s t o b e celebrate d o n Jun e 3 0 an d Jul y 1 an d 2 Com e an d enjo y wit h us Th e cabl e run s acros s fro m th e tow n o f Malinao o n th e main land t o th e tow n o f Calolbon o n Catanduane s Island th e shortes t route Malina o i s connecte d wit h Tabaco an d Calolbo n wit h Viract b y lan d telegrap h lines Th e mai l servic e a s i t i s no w established bot h withi n th e provinc e an d wit h Manila i s a n excellen t an d valuabl e ai d t o commerce an d i s highl y appreciate d b y th e people Whe n th e road s leadin g t o th e coas t town s ar e repaire d an d i n a stat e fo r th e affordin g o f goo d transi t fo r vehicles th e mai l communication wit h tha t par t o f th e province no w afforde d b y courie r onc e o r twic e a week wil l n o doub t b e a s frequen t an d quic k a s i t i s wit h th e interior I n a lette r t o th e honorabl e Civi l Governo r fro m thi s office sen t i n March i t wa s recommende d tha t a whar f o f stron g bu t simpl e proportion s b e buil t a t Legasp i fo r th e exclusiv e us e o f th e ship s o f th e Civi l Governmen t an d th e military I t wa s sug geste d tha t engineer s b e sen t dow n t o stud y th e shor e condition s an d th e pla n an d mak e estimate s o n th e propose d work whic h wa s done i t havin g bee n recommende d tha t a su m o f abou t $25,000 gold b e spen t fo r thi s purpose I t i s hope d tha t thi s whar f wil l

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10 9 b e i n operatio n befor e long Privat e partie s charg e enormou s sum s fo r th e us e o f thei r wharfag e facilitie s an d the y are further o f ver y poo r construction Althoug h the y ar e ver y long the y ar e s o constructe d tha t onl y on e shi p ca n ti e u p t o a whar f a t a time an d th e Governmen t ship s ar e ofte n obliged t o ancho r of f o n th e ba y awaitin g opportunit y t o occup y a whar f an d unload Tim e an d mone y wil l b e save d b y th e constructio n o f thi s sug geste d wharf—o r pantalan a s i t i s called—i n th e ver y nea r futur e here ROADS Th e principa l road s ar e fro m Legaspi th e por t town t o Libon th e las t tow n o n th e borde r o f th e Provinc e o f Ambo s Camarines abou t 3 1 mile s long an d fro m Tabaco a n importan t seapor t an d th e bes t harbo r o f th e province t o Libog o n th e sout h side 1 0 miles an d Tabac o t o Tivi o n th e nort h abou t 1 1 miles Th e first roa d traverse s th e interio r i n a direc t line alon g whic h al l th e town s ar e situate d excep t Jovellar a t righ t angle s hal f wa y u p an d i n a ver y isolate d position ; an d th e othe r roa d run s alon g th e coast als o takin g i n al l th e town s fro m Legasp i north Pro m Legasp i t o Libo g ther e i s nothin g tha t ca n b e calle d a road suc h roa d a s ther e wa s havin g bee n destroye d i n th e volcani c eruptio n o f som e year s ago On e goe s b y hors e t o Libog followin g th e beach Th e conditio n o f th e first-mentioned roa d varie s i n differen t parts al l o f i t bein g passabl e fo r al l kind s o f vehicles A smal l par t o f i t ma y b e calle d ver y poor especiall y fro m beyon d Liga o t o Libon Ther e ar e som e ver y goo d bridge s o n thi s road all.bein g i n excellen t condition Abou t five mile s o f thi s roa d ar e i n excellen t condition Larg e sum s o f mone y hav e bee n spen t o n thi s roa d i n orde r t o preserv e i t i n goo d condition bu t th e heav y rain s an d th e heav y traffi c mak e thi s a difficul t problem Th e othe r tw o road s ar e i n passabl e condition bu t hav e receive d n o attention th e road s bein g naturall y wel l draine d an d keepin g i n goo d condition onl y smal l part s o f the m bein g bad Al l th e bridge s o n thi s roa d ar e bad Th e superviso r propose s tha t a regula r organizatio n fo r roa d maintenanc e b e pu t o n th e roads th e sam e t o b e divide d int o sec tion s wit h a sectio n gan g i n charg e o f eac h section Thi s i s a n absolutel y necessar y ste p i f th e road s ar e t o b e kep t i n goo d condi tion Th e recen t rain s hav e emphasize d wha t ha s alread y bee n sai d

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11 0 i n thi s connectio n a s t o th e maintenanc e o f a regula r organize d force Survey s fo r a roa d betwee n Liga o an d Tabaco a distanc e o f 17J miles an d anothe r betwee n Guinobata n an d Jovellar a distanc e o f 9 miles wer e mad e i n December 1903 an d Januar y an d February 1904 A n estimate d cos t o f th e road s wa s arrive d at amountin g t o nearl y 230,00 0 pesos A reques t fo r th e appropriatio n o f thi s amoun t fro m th e Congressiona l relie f fun d wa s mad e t o th e Com mission Th e firs t aspec t a s t o favorabl e actio n wa s ver y encourag in g t o th e provincia l board bu t u p t o th e presen t th e appropriatio n ha s no t bee n made Ther e i s th e greates t possibl e necessit y fo r thes e tw o road s i n th e section s i n whic h i t i s propose d t o ope n them Goo d administratio n demand s tha t Jovella r b e brough t ou t o f it s isolation an d th e potentia l agricultura l wealt h o f th e territor y t o th e nort h o f th e Volcan o Ma y o n call s fo r developmen t an d th e mean s fo r eas y acces s t o th e trad e center s suc h a roa d ther e woul d provide Ther e i s absolutel y n o road s no r trail s ther e tha t ar e passable eve n fo r animals muc h les s fo r vehicles Thes e tw o section s ar e probabl y th e riches t hem p district s i n th e province Ther e ar e enormou s area s o f hem p ther e tha t ar e no t worke d a t all Bot h ar e throug h mountainou s countries an d tha t i s wher e th e bes t hem p i s produced I t i s a well-watere d country suitabl e fo r home s an d settlements Suc h hem p a s i s produce d ther e i s brough t ou t o n th e back s o f men I n th e recen t operation s agains t th e ladrone s th e heavies t fightin g an d th e mos t difficul t campaignin g wa s i n th e vicinit y o f Jovellar Becaus e o f th e impassabl e natur e o f th e country, th e ladrone s fel t themselve s almos t immun e fro m attack ; the y hovere d aroun d th e distric t wher e a roa d ough t t o b e an d wher e i t i s propose d t o pu t one an d i t i s certai n tha t ha d ther e bee n a passabl e roa d ther e the y neve r coul d hav e maintaine d themselve s ther e no r bee n a s bol d a s the y became Onl y th e loyalt y o f th e peopl e o f Jovella r save d tha t tow n fro m bein g a n eas y captur e fo r th e ladrones TRANSPORTATION I n th e las t fisca l yea r th e cos t o f cartag e fro m Liga o t o Legaspi 2 2 miles ha s varie d fro m 1 9 peso s pe r loa d o f 9 piculs (13 7 pound s each ) o f hem p t o 6 peso s pe r load I n th e firs t par t o f th e yea r th e relativel y hig h pric e o f cart s wa s du e t o th e fac t tha t th e people havin g bee n recentl y release d fro m livin g i n restricte d area s o n accoun t o f th e operation s agains t ladronism wen t int o th e hill s an d

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Il l turne d ou t a n enormou s quantit y o f hem p fiber, overtaxin g th e transportatio n facilitie s o f thei r sections A s th e volum e o f hem p t o b e transporte d fell and also becaus e o f improve d conditio n o f th e roads th e cos t o f transportatio n als o fell Passenge r vehicle s ar e exceedingl y scarc e here an d ver y hig h i n price A s a matte r o f fact a strange r i n thi s provinc e i s a t a considerabl e disadvantag e i n th e wa y o f securin g vehicle s fo r passenge r transportatio n t o th e interio r towns I t cost s 2 5 peso s t o g o fro m Legasp i t o Guinobatan abou t 1 4 miles takin g abou t thre e hour s an d a half returnin g th e nex t day Wit h th e immens e traffi c tha t goe s ove r thi s road bot h freigh t an d passenger i t i s ver y clea r tha t a smal l railroa d her e woul d find constan t occupatio n an d rea p larg e profits Ther e no w run s ove r thi s roa d a triweekl y stage whic h ease s th e situatio n considerabl y an d i s a n institutio n tha t th e peopl e woul d no t b e willin g t o par t wit h no w tha t the y hav e it Furthe r progres s i s natura l t o expec t i n th e wa y o f a railroad Th e stag e carrie s th e mail s bac k an d forth whic h ha s resulte d i n a n improve men t i n facilit y o f communicatio n tha t i s highl y appreciated Th e Burea u o f Post s i s t o b e congratulate d o n th e effort s mad e t o facilitat e mai l servic e t o th e towns ther e no w bein g a post-offic e i n ever y tow n excep t Libo n o n th e roa d t o th e interior o f th e greates t utilit y t o th e towns Ther e ar e als o post-office s o n th e coas t rout e an d o n th e islan d towns thoug h transportatio n t o thes e i s no t s o complet e a s wit h th e interior Al l sort s o f transportatio n vehicle s ar e neede d suc h a s woul d b e neede d i n an y othe r regio n wher e th e road s ar e comparativel y bad America n four-wheele d wagon s hav e take n th e plac e o f caraba o cart s i n severa l instances an d ar e muc h easie r o n th e animal s an d like d b y th e natives The y woul d n o doub t sel l well a s i t cost s a s muc h fo r th e roughl y mad e carts pervertin g al l know n law s o f physic s i n thei r construction a s fo r a moder n wago n tha t woul d las t equall y a s lon g an d b e equall y a s serviceable A photograp h o f th e kin d o f car t i n us e fo r transportatio n o f hemp an d eve n fo r passengers i s sent Th e road s ar e continuall y bein g destroye d b y thes e carts The y al l trave l a t on e time formin g a long continuou s line exertin g pressur e ove r onl y tw o narro w strip s o f th e roa d wher e th e wheel s pass an d thu s cuttin g rut s i n th e roa d tha t th e rain s soo n wea r int o smal l ditches whic h cos t immens e labo r an d mone y t o repair

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11 2 A n electri c standard-gaug e railwa y i s projecte d fro m Legasp i t o Polangui a distanc e o f 2 5 miles t o b e constructe d firs t t o th e tow n o f Liga o an d late r extende d t o th e limi t mentioned Also a branc h o f thi s sam e lin e i s t o b e constructe d fro m Liga o t o Tabaco a distanc e o f nearl y 2 0 miles Th e prospect s o f thi s road shoul d i t b e constructed ar e certainl y bright I t woul d surel y b e o f immens e materia l benefi t t o th e province an d i t i s th e desir e her e t o furthe r it s constructio n i n ever y way Carabaos th e onl y animal s use d fo r heav y draf t work hav e slightl y increase d i n numbe r durin g th e pas t year du e t o calvin g o f th e cow s an d importations chiefl y fro m th e Provinc e o f Sor sogo n an d th e Islan d o f Bufias Th e averag e pric e o f carabao s i s 15 0 peso s pe r head N o insula r carabao s wer e brough t here althoug h reques t wa s mad e fo r some The y wer e no t shipped probabl y du e t o fea r tha t the y woul d introduc e diseas e here Th e mortalit y amon g horse s stil l continue s t o a regrettabl e extent Th e us e o f narrow-tire d wheel s o n freight-carryin g cart s i s pro hibite d o n th e importan t road s o f th e province an d resolution s wer e passe d b y th e provincia l boar d makin g clea r thi s prohibition defin in g th e roads an d sendin g th e sam e t o th e variou s town s t o b e poste d o n th e provincia l building s fo r th e informatio n o f th e public Th e municipa l policeme n hav e generall y don e th e actua l wor k o f turnin g ou t o f th e road s suc h cart s a s infringe d thes e provisions an d the y wer e fined b y th e tow n presidentes Thi s measur e ha s bee n ver y beneficia l t o th e roads an d i f i t wer e no t fo r th e periodica l heav y rains whic h alway s produc e washout s an d destro y expensiv e repair s fro m tim e t o time th e road s woul d no w b e i n a mos t satisfac tor y condition Th e roa d fun d a s i t no w exist s doe s no t yiel d a sufficien t amoun t t o properl y maintai n th e road s o r t o mak e improvements A roa d ta x shoul d b e create d whic h woul d effec t a n inflo w int o th e roa d fun d o f a sufficien t amoun t t o properl y car e fo r thi s vita l featur e i n th e productio n an d distributio n o f wealt h i n th e province—such fo r instance a s a la w imposin g a ta x equivalen t t o five days valu e o f th e labo r o f a man th e averag e valu e o f a day' s labo r t o b e fixed b y th e provincia l board I t ha s bee n demonstrate d tim e an d agai n tha t th e peopl e o f th e provinc e ar e anxiou s t o d o al l the y ca n fo r th e improvemen t o f th e roads an d a roa d ta x woul d no t b e onerou s t o them I n tw o towns afte r th e presidente s ha d requeste d th e provincia l boar d t o allo w the m t o orde r th e peopl e ou t t o wor k

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11 3 o n th e roads suc h reques t havin g bee n denied th e peopl e themselve s voluntaril y wen t t o wor k an d repaire d th e roads I n severa l o f th e semiannua l meeting s o f th e presidente s resolution s hav e bee n passe d requestin g tha t a compulsor y roa d la w b e enacted an d car e wa s take n t o mak e i t apparen t tha t thi s wa s practicall y unanimou s wit h th e wishe s o f th e peopl e themselves—tha t i s t o say th e peopl e wan t th e goo d road s an d ar e willin g t o tur n ou t an d wor k o r t o contribut e somethin g towar d thi s end thoug h this t o giv e practica l results shoul d b e a matte r o f statutor y provision Th e presidente s aske d fo r thre e days wor k b y eac h adult bu t woul d hav e mad e i t fiv e di d the y no t fee l tha t propositions t o insur e results shoul d b e mad e a s moderat e a s possible Certai n i t i s tha t million s coul d b e spen t o n road s i n thi s provinc e an d justifie d a s prope r administratio n an d a s roa d building t o giv e goo d results engulf s enormou s sum s o f money ampl e fund s shoul d alway s b e a t th e disposa l o f th e provinc e fo r carryin g o n th e goo d an d importan t wor k i n thi s direction T o mak e a flyin g visi t t o al l th e town s o f th e provinc e woul d tak e abou t fifteen days an d cos t abou t 22 5 peso s fo r far e only callin g for a s mean s o f transportation a carromat a an d horse a ridin g horse an d a barot o (boat ) or—whic h woul d ad d abou t 20 0 peso s t o th e trip— a launch COA L : TH E RELIANC E O F MODERN-DA Y TRANSPORTATION O n th e Islan d o f Batan abou t 2 0 mile s fro m Legaspi, coa l deposit s o f extensiv e characte r wer e lon g know n t o exis t an d ha d bee n worke d fo r som e forty year s o r mor e b y th e Spaniards I n May 1903 th e matte r o f investigatio n b y th e Quartermaster' s Departmen t o f th e United State s Army wit h a vie w t o determinin g whethe r th e coa l know n t o b e i n Bata n wa s valuabl e fo r us e o n interislan d transports wa s take n up One-hal f th e islan d wa s fo r th e pres en t declare d t o b e a civi l reservation pendin g th e tim e whe n th e militar y authoritie s coul d tak e th e matte r u p wit h Washingto n an d hav e i t declare d a militar y reservation Thi s las t featur e o f "th e questio n ha s no t ye t bee n decided Ther e i s n o rea l mining a s such goin g o n i n th e island A t th e first th e ol d digging s i n th e hillside s lef t b y th e Spaniard s wer e experimentall y worke d an d sufficien t coa l take n ou t t o tes t th e produc t an d se e whethe r i t woul d serv e o n th e transports I t havin g prove n satisfactory ^ 2490 4 8

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11 4 investigation s ar e no w bein g mad e wit h drill s t o determin e th e exten t an d continuit y o f th e coa l seams Th e prospect s fo r a valuabl e suppl y o f coa l ar e excellent I t i s believe d tha t wher e mine s ar e opene d i n th e reserve d hal f o f th e islan d th e ful l produc t wil l b e require d b y th e Government an d th e wor k wil l al l b e unde r Governmen t supervision However ther e i s plent y o f coa l outsid e th e reservation whic h commercia l companie s coul d exploit Th e wor k o n th e mine s ha s furnishe d continuou s employmen t o n th e islan d fo r abou t 5 0 natives Ther e i s a detachmen t o f abou t 2 0 Unite d State s soldier s o n th e island Th e native s ar e pai d 2 0 peso s pe r mont h an d receiv e thei r foo d free I f th e exten t o f th e deposit s o f coa l turn s ou t a s i t promises th e suppl y tha t ma y b e expecte d fro m th e hal f o f th e islan d ope n t o commercia l companie s i s estimate d a t 200,00 0 ton s a yea r fo r tw o hundre d years Th e islan d ha s bee n visite d b y th e examine r o f title s fro m th e Cour t o f Lan d Registration an d th e peopl e tol d t o ge t thei r title s t o thei r lan d registere d befor e th e expiratio n o f th e si x months perio d allowe d afte r th e warning A s the y ar e ver y simpl e peopl e an d ar e no t ver y clea r a s t o wha t thei r right s an d privilege s ar e an d ho w the y shoul d b e protected specia l consideratio n i s requeste d fo r them AGRICULTURE Owin g t o th e recen t drought tha t laste d int o th e greate r par t o f th e first hal f o f th e fiscal year th e tota l valu e o f agricultura l product s ha s diminished Th e valu e o f th e entir e cro p o f hem p produce d wil l probabl y reac h 8,000,00 0 pesos o r no t mor e tha n abou t hal f th e valu e o f th e hem p produce d durin g th e preced in g year Thi s i s du e t o th e fac t tha t a t th e tim e o f th e assemblin g i n th e town s o f th e inhabitant s o f th e countr y district s larg e area s o f hem p wer e lef t unreaped an d rotte d befor e th e peopl e wer e allowe d t o g o bac k int o th e hill s an d tak e u p thei r wor k again an d becaus e a t th e sam e tim e i n whic h thes e event s occurre d th e drough t prevailed whic h cause d grea t mortalit y amon g th e plants I t i s though t tha t fo r th e comin g yea r th e condition s wil l b e some wha t better but generall y speaking i t wil l tak e fro m thre e t o fou r year s fo r th e retur n o f th e hem p fields t o thei r forme r excel len t an d flourishing condition Ne w plantin g t o replac e deat h o f paren t stalk s i s necessary ; an d i f thi s i s no t undertake n th e

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11 5 hem p field s wil l alway s b e i n a somewha t decaden t condition Th e tim e tha t wil l elaps e betwee n th e plantin g an d maturit y o f th e ne w plants—thre e years—represent s th e perio d durin g whic h th e conditio n o f th e hem p field s wil l b e on e o f les s vigorou s growt h an d productio n tha n i s characteristi c o f thi s province Th e somewha t unusua l conditio n no w exist s o f a surplu s o f hem p workers whic h i s du e t o th e scarcit y o f th e produc t thi s year I n ordinar y time s ther e i s alway s muc h mor e wor k i n th e hem p field s tha n ther e ar e hand s t o accomplis h it Anothe r caus e o f th e poo r conditio n o f th e hem p field s i s tha t o f th e fire s tha t destroye d th e produc t o f man y larg e area s durin g th e tim e whe n th e peopl e wer e al l ou t o f th e hill s an d living i n accordanc e wit h order s o f th e provincia l government withi n restricte d zone s nea r th e towns Th e unfortunat e stat e o f thing s necessaril y cause d th e abandonmen t o f th e hem p field s t o th e unchecke d ravage s o f al l occurrence s inimica l t o a successfu l harvest Th e principa l crop s o f th e province beside s hemp whic h i s overwhelmingl y i n advanc e o f an y other ar e rice coprax—whic h i s th e drie d mea t o f th e cocoanut—an d man y tropica l vegetable s produce d onl y fo r hom e consumption Th e coprax produce d i s wort h abou t 100,00 0 peso s annually Th e ric e field s ar e ver y generall y bein g pu t unde r cultivation an d i t i s though t tha t i n th e yea r jus t close d a cro p greatl y i n exces s o f th e cro p fo r man y year s previou s ha s bee n reaped Fo r th e comin g year barrin g accidents th e cro p wil l b e greate r still A stimulu s wa s given t o ric e raisin g durin g th e perio d o f livin g i n restricte d area s nea r th e town s b y th e peopl e i n complianc e wit h orders A t th e presen t time al l alon g th e mai n roa d fro m nea r Legasp i t o Libon ar e t o b e see n flourishin g area s o f ric e unde r cultivation A s a n illustratio n o f th e ric e raise d thi s yea r ma y b e presente d th e facts a s nea r a s the y ca n b e go t at relatin g t o th e town s o f Alba y an d Legaspi : Presumably—i n th e lan d measur e o f th e people — ther e wer e abou t 20 0 pisosone s o f land equa l t o abou t 35 0 hectareas whic h produce d abou t 10,00 0 cavanes i n bulk o f rice Thi s rice havin g th e hus k on weigh s abou t 8 0 pound s th e cavan Unthreshe d i t i s calle d palay, sellin g fo r abou t 3 peso s th e cavan Threshed fo r sal e i n th e market th e produc t mus t b e state d a t hal f th e quan

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11 6 tit y a t doubl e th e pric e pe r cavan sal e no w bein g mad e b y weights o r 12 5 pound s th e cavan Th e valu e o f a uni t o f hemp—whic h i s th e picul weighin g 137 £ pounds—a t th e por t o f Legasp i i s 1 7 pesos Philippin e currency subjec t t o fluctuation Th e presen t pric e i s les s tha n i t wa s las t yea r a t thi s time Ordinaril y th e payment s ar e mad e i n Mexican Philippin e coin s bein g scarc e i n th e market Th e diminishe d pric e i s du e t o th e stringenc y o f mone} q a s th e companie s ar e callin g i n loan s o n accoun t o f th e delicac y o f th e financia l situation th e circulatin g mediu m bein g abou t t o underg o a radica l change whic h ha s it s effec t o n th e amoun t offere d fo r abac a o r hemp Bu t th e deman d fo r th e produc t i s a s grea t a s ever thi s industr y enjoyin g th e peculia r advantag e o f neve r bein g i n exces s o f th e use s tha t cal l fo r it n o matte r ho w abundan t th e cro p ma y b e i n thi s province Th e cos t o f transportin g a picu l o f hem p ove r 1 5 mile s o f goo d road i n carts i s abou t 1 peso Ther e i s n o rotatio n o f crop s practiced but i n spit e o f this th e reproductio n yea r afte r yea r o f abac a doe s no t see m t o exhaus t th e soil whic h i s n o doub t du e t o th e fac t tha t th e soi l accidentall y receive s a larg e amoun t o f fertilize r fro m th e deca y o f th e vegetabl e refus e deposite d afte r th e workin g u p t o th e plan t int o fiber an d als o t o th e fac t tha t larg e tree s ar e grow n amon g th e abac a a s shade whic h ar e deciduous sheddin g thei r leave s a t jus t th e prope r seaso n fo r th e benefi t o f th e abaca an d th e rottin g o n th e soi l o f thes e leave s als o furnishe s i t wit h nourishment Manur e a s suc h i s no t used A n interestin g featur e i n connectio n wit h agricultur e i n thi s province an d especiall y wit h th e raisin g o f hemp i s tha t i t appear s tha t th e idea l an d much-sought-afte r solutio n o f th e difference s betwee n labo r an d capital a s t o tha t par t tha t labo r shoul d enjo y i n th e profit s o f capital ha s bee n reache d here Th e universa l custo m i n thi s provinc e i s t o giv e t o th e laborer s durin g th e cro p seaso n hal f th e marke t valu e o f al l th e hem p harveste d b y the m i n compensatio n fo r thei r wor k o n it S o that a s labo r receive s it s ful l shar e o f th e benefit s o f capital ther e i s n o lac k o f economica l impuls e t o work an d th e fulles t possibl e cro p i s produced Th e onl y tim e i n whic h th e laborer s i n th e fiel d ar e pai d a dail y wag e i s durin g th e perio d o f th e growin g crops whe n onl y th e preserva tio n an d weedin g o f th e fields ar e th e point s t o b e attende d to Probabl y th e larges t singl e holdin g o f hem p lan d her e i s on e o f

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11 7 10,00 0 hectareas Almos t th e whol e are a o f th e provinc e whic h i s devote d t o hem p raising—possibl y one-thir d o f th e gros s exten t o f 586,23 9 hectareas—i s hel d b y pett y proprietor s i n fe e simple whic h conduce s greatl y t o th e prosperit y o f th e region Th e Provinc e o f Alba y i s generall y considere d t o b e on e o f th e riches t i n th e Islands whic h i s du e i n grea t par t t o independen t ownershi p i n smal l holding s o f th e soi l an d th e intensiv e cultivatio n o f hem p carrie d o n unde r th e stimulu s o f th e greates t possibl e retur n fro m one' s ow n land House s hav e bee n constructe d o n al l th e littl e holdings an d th e mountain s o f Alba y ar e ver y generall y inhabited Suc h lan d her e a s i s uncultivate d i s mos t suitabl e t o th e growt h o f hemp an d i t woul d b e bette r t o exten d th e hem p are a tha n t o introduc e othe r kind s o f plan t growth s here However, marke t gardenin g shoul d b e mor e largel y practiced Coffe e an d cor n migh t b e raise d a s stapl e crops ; bu t th e produc t woul d neithe r b e s o easil y derive d no r brin g suc h valuabl e return s no r mee t suc h a read y an d certai n sal e a s th e hemp Ther e i s plent y o f roo m fo r th e plantin g o f mor e hemp an d i t shoul d b e pu t in Th e whol e Islan d o f Catan duane s i s a n overgrow n wildernes s tha t coul d b e mad e t o flouris h wit h cultivate d growths Th e valu e o f a hectare—equa l t o abou t 2 J acres—o f cleare d land i s abou t 25 0 pesos Uncleare d lan d i s wort h fro m 4 0 t o 5 0 peso s pe r hectare Th e wa y lan d i s cleare d her e i s t o cho p dow n th e larg e tree s an d se t fir e t o th e rubbis h a s a whole thu s consumin g th e bushe s i n th e process Thi s cost s abou t 2 5 peso s fo r labo r o n a hectare I n a hectar e ar e se t abou t 10,00 0 stalk s o f hemp whic h ar e no w wort h abou t 2 peso s pe r hundre d stalk s wer e th e planter s willin g t o sel l them whic h the y ar e not Informatio n o n thi s poin t wa s give n t o th e Burea u o f Agricultur e thi s year A goo d dea l o f weedin g i s necessar y th e firs t year ; but a s th e hem p grow s an d spreads i t kill s of f th e weeds an d afte r th e thir d yea r ther e i s ver y littl e weedin g t o b e done Th e produc t i s obtaine d a t th e en d o f thre e year s i f grow n fro m th e stalks I f grow n fro m th e see d i t take s a yea r o r s o longer Th e entir e produc t o f suc h a piec e o f lan d woul d b e fro m four t o fiv e piculs o f which, afterwards th e hal f belong s t o th e laborers Th e produc t i s yielde d a t it s bes t ever y eigh t months bu t man y peopl e her e cu t thei r hemp—tha t is rea p th e product—ever y si x months I f on e wishe s t o rea p th e whol e produc t o f a hectar e o f lan d

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11 8 i n on e week' s tim e i t ca n b e don e b y th e employmen t o f thre e men givin g th e produc t read y fo r transportatio n a t th e en d o f tha t time T o conduc t th e hem p fro m a fiel d hidde n awa y i n th e mountain s abou t thre e mile s t o th e tow n i t cost s abou t 2 J peso s pe r picul i t bein g carrie d o n th e back s o f men Thi s i s ver y muc h -highe r tha n th e cos t o f transportatio n fro m th e tow n 1 5 mile s upo n th e mai n roa d t o th e por t town whic h cost s abou t 1 pes o pe r picul AGRICULTURA L PESTS Th e hem p plan t seem s t o b e immun e t o pest s o f an y sort s o tha t th e appearanc e o f immens e swarm s o f locust s whic h swep t ove r th e provinc e durin g th e latte r par t o f th e firs t hal f o f th e fisca l yea r onl y affecte d th e ric e plant s an d th e cocoanu t grove s a s bein g vulnerabl e t o thei r attacks I t wa s a t th e en d o f Augus t tha t th e locust s appeared an d th e locus t boar d ha d t o undertak e an d con tinu e th e figh t agains t the m unti l abou t th e en d o f October whe n ther e wer e onl y sporadi c an d negligibl e incursion s fro m them Man y million s o f thes e insatiabl e devourer s o f plan t lif e wer e caugh t an d destroyed Fo r thi s servic e thos e engaged—th e poo r an d need y o f th e town s affecte d b y th e pest—wer e pai d i n ric e o f th e Congressional-relief-fun d shipmen t here somethin g lik e 15 0 sack s o f ric e bein g distribute d o n thi s principl e o f exchange a t 8 t o 1 0 chupa s o f ric e pe r ba g o f locust s destroyed A chup a contain s a littl e mor e tha n a pint dr y measure I n som e province s i t appear s tha t mone y o f th e Congressiona l relie f fun d wa s spen t fo r th e purchas e o f galvanized-iro n sheet s t o b e use d i n a metho d broadl y suggeste d fo r th e successfu l captur e o f thes e locusts ; bu t i n thi s provinc e n o suc h iro n wa s bought th e locust s havin g bee n captured first b y placin g i n th e suppose d bed s o f th e youn g locust s a chemica l substanc e calle d fungus supplie d b y th e Burea u o f Governmen t Laboratories which, b y development,-acquire d propertie s destructiv e t o them ; later b y ope n sack s swishe d throug h th e ai r agains t th e fligh t o f locusts and also b y th e peopl e goin g ou t i n th e field s an d destroyin g th e youn g whereve r foun d befor e the y coul d fly AGRICULTURA L IMPLEMENTS Thos e use d her e are fo r hemp th e universa l bol o an d a roug h instrumen t wit h a toothe d knif e fo r extractin g th e fiber Man y

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11 9 o f thes e wer e sen t t o th e St Loui s Exposition A n up-to-dat e machin e i s muc h neede d fo r th e mor e speed y an d economica l extractio n o f thi s fiber, a s th e resul t woul d b e a greatl y increase d product A s i t is ther e i s a n immens e amoun t o f shor t wast e fiber tha t serve s fo r nothin g bu t fertilizer afte r i t rot s wher e i t i s allowe d t o li e i n th e fields. I t ha s bee n suggeste d tha t thi s wast e fiber woul d mak e u p int o a ver y superio r kin d o f writin g an d wrappin g paper I n ric e cultivatio n nothin g bu t a hand-mad e woode n plo w i s used Ther e i s roo m i n thi s industr y fo r th e sal e o f American mad e plows Threshin g machines fo r separatin g th e ric e grain s fro m th e stalks ar e needed TRADE Th e principa l kind s o f trad e i n thi s provinc e ar e th e buyin g an d sellin g o f hem p i n th e islan d town s an d it s exportatio n fro m Legasp i t o Manila ; similarl y wit h rice excep t tha t thi s i s brough t i n throug h Manila ; an d th e supplyin g o f th e various—bu t fo r th e mos t par t primitiv e an d simple—want s o f a populatio n o f abou t 250,00 0 person s b y store s th e stock s o f whic h ar e alway s genera l i n thei r make-up Ther e i s a n immens e lo t o f tradin g o n a mino r scal e i n th e markets o r plazas chiefl y i n article s fo r consumptio n a s food Thoug h i t i s no t possible becaus e o f lac k o f statistica l informa tion fo r thi s offic e t o giv e a trustworth y estimate o f th e tota l volum e o f trad e o f al l kind s carrie d o n i n th e provinc e pe r year still considerin g th e thre e mos t importan t article s o f trade---viz hemp rice an d dr y goods—i t i s bu t natura l fo r u s t o suppos e tha t th e genera l volum e o f trad e effecte d i n thi s provinc e mus t amoun t t o mor e tha n 20,000,00 0 peso s pe r year Th e wealt h an d th e varie d traffi c o f th e provinc e restin g o n it s productio n o f hemp fish, an d a fe w simpl e an d primitiv e manufactures whenc e purchasin g abilit y i s derived th e export s an d import s o f th e provinc e ca n b e ver y nearl y fixed b y arrivin g a t th e valu e o f th e above-name d item s o f commerce whic h i s calculate d a s follows : Hemp pe r year 15,000,00 0 pesos ; fish, 2,000,000 ; manufactures 2,000,000 O f this almos t al l th e hem p i s exported and possibly one-thir d o f th e manufactures makin g a total'o f somewha t ove r 15,000,00 0 pesos wort h o f export s pe r year thoug h thi s yea r i t wa s muc h smalle r owin g t o th e grea t interruptio n o f trad e cause d b y th e stagnatio n

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12 0 i n th e abaca o r hemp industr y fo r si x month s o f th e year du e t o politica l causes—tha t is th e livin g o f th e peopl e i n restricte d area s durin g th e operatio n agains t th e disturber s o f th e peac e o f th e province Mor e tha n 500,00 0 sack s o f ric e ar e importe d annually wort h abou t 3,000,00 0 peso s a s sold an d merchandise possibl y t o th e sam e amount i s imported makin g a tota l importatio n o f 6,000,00 0 pesos Th e ne w mone y ha s effecte d a mos t favorabl e chang e i n trad e condition s i n thi s province an d i f i t wer e mor e plentifu l trad e woul d b e correspondingl y increased a s i t ha s cause d a smoothnes s i n busines s intercours e tha t i s ver y gratifyin g an d helpfu l t o trad e afte r th e sever e an d unpleasan t frictio n wit h th e complicate d fisca l syste m i n operatio n onl y a shor t tim e ago O f course ther e stil l remai n th e Spanish-Filipin o currenc y t o trouble an d retar d trade and fo r th e goo d o f al l th e people on e singl e mediu m o f exchang e ca n no t to o soo n becom e th e prevalen t order Th e goo d sens e o f th e peopl e wil l n o doub t ai d governmenta l measure s t o thi s end Althoug h the y wer e ver y muc h wedde d t o th e ol d Mexica n coin an d hav e a somewha t simila r affectio n fo r th e Spanish-Filipin o currency still th e ne w money b y th e simpl e lubricatio n o f th e frictiona l part s o f trad e machinery ha s com e t o b e a genera l favorit e an d ha s cause d th e ol d money s t o los e thei r hol d o n th e affection s o f th e people Almos t th e entir e importatio n o f manufacture d good s i s fro m Germany whic h countr y i s apparentl y thu s fa r th e leade r o f th e natio n o f th e exportatio n o f good s t o th e Orient A s i t make s n o differenc e t o th e customer s wher e th e good s tha t ar e sol d ar e made i t i s hope d tha t soo n th e bul k o f th e importatio n wil l b e fro m th e Unite d States a s certainl y shoul d b e th e cas e unde r th e ne w orde r o f things LEGASP I A N OPE N PORT A s conduciv e t o thi s i t i s suggeste d tha t th e por t o f Legasp i b e mad e a n ope n por t o f cal l fo r th e ship s o f al l nations Wit h th e immens e volum e o f hem p exporte d fro m thi s province a ver y larg e percentag e o f i t goin g t o th e Unite d States i t ca n b e con fidentl y asserte d tha t line s o f steamship s woul d b e immediatel y place d i n operatio n fro m Sa n Francisc o an d Ne w Yor k t o 'Legasp i direct Th e sam e i s tru e o f English French an d Germa n ports

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12 1 Thi s direc t trad e woul d giv e t o th e province b y retur n int o th e circulatio n an d t o th e benefi t o f trade th e larg e amoun t o f mone y no w spen t fo r freigh t t o Manila Manil a undul y profit s a t th e expens e o f thi s province Immens e sum s tha t o f righ t ough t t o b e kep t her e ar e spen t ther e fo r paymen t o f freight s bot h way s an d intermediat e profit s o n good s tha t unde r th e presen t condition s mus t first b e lande d an d handle d there Wit h direc t shippin g an d receivin g o f goods bank s woul d b e opene d i n Legaspi, commerc e woul d tak e o n increase d activit y an d i n ne w directions an d mor e goo d woul d b e effecte d t o th e peopl e an d trad e o f th e provinc e b y thi s on e ste p tha n coul d b e don e b y an y othe r singl e measur e tha t coul d b e suggeste d a s a mean s fo r th e improvemen t o f industria l conditions Direc t line s t o Americ a an d Europ e fro m port s o f Alba y Provinc e ar e no t unreasonabl e t o wis h fo r an d expect a s th e fertil e an d fruitfu l soi l yield s a n immens e quantit y o f a commodit y tha t th e worl d mus t have enoug h t o sustai n it s ow n commerce whic h make s th e trad e tha t wil l cal l th e steamships a s a measur e o f econom y fo r bot h sides I t i s recommended an d sincerel y hope d tha t th e recommendatio n wil l mee t wit h th e approva l o f th e honorabl e Commission tha t th e por t o f Legasp i b e thu s throw n ope n t o th e commerc e o f th e world FISHERY Th e fisheries o f th e provinc e ar e a n importan t sourc e o f it s wealth an d th e large r par t o f th e inhabitant s o f th e coas t an d islan d town s ar e devote d t o i t a s a n industry Possibl y al l th e fish caugh t her e i s consume d i n th e province th e tota l valu e o f th e produc t bein g abou t 2,000,00 0 peso s pe r year Thoug h th e water s o f th e provinc e aboun d i n fish, stil l th e catc h i s neithe r s o certain constant an d larg e a s i t shoul d b e unde r th e ver y favorabl e circumstance s o f abundanc e o f supply Th e extraor dinar y spectacl e i s offere d her e o f a n immensit y o f fish i n th e sea a ver y universa l deman d fo r i t a s a goo d product an d wha t migh t b e calle d a scarcit y o f th e articl e i n th e markets sellin g a t a rathe r exorbitan t pric e a t al l times Fis h o f an y specie s her e cost s abou t 2 5 cents gold pe r pound What th e industr y needs n o doubt i s organization I f a regula r dependabl e suppl y coul d b e kep t i n th e market s o f al l th e town s ever y da y i t coul d certainl y b e al l dispose d o f an d woul d bette r th e livin g situation A s i t i s now i n town s 5 o r 6 mile s fro m th e coas t th e fish tha t i s sol d

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12 2 i s principall y salted Rapi d mean s o f transportatio n ar e neede d fo r th e conveyanc e o f thi s perishabl e produc t t o th e interior an d i t i s hope d tha t on e o r othe r o f th e variou s railroa d scheme s propose d wil l b e realize d fo r th e grea t benefit s tha t wil l accru e t o trad e b y eas e o f communication Fis h i s als o brough t i n fro m th e neigh borin g Provinc e o f Sorsogon an d ther e i s a lak e a t th e hea d o f th e province formin g par t o f th e boundar y betwee n i t an d th e Cama rines wher e larg e quantitie s o f fres h fish ar e caught an d thi s suppl y i s the n brough t dow n t o th e interio r town s t o b e sold Th e hig h pric e o f thi s produc t i s du e t o othe r reason s tha n th e relatio n betwee n suppl y an d deman d i n a mer e quantitativ e sense becaus e bot h thes e factor s i n trad e i n thi s lin e hav e bee n constan t an d equabl e fo r years th e deman d bein g universa l an d th e suppl y immense ; i t n o doub t finds par t o f it s explanatio n i n th e scarcit y o f meat liv e stoc k o f al l kind s bein g exceedingl y fe w i n numbe r i n th e province Fis h an d mea t ar e sol d a t abou t th e sam e figure pe r pound I t wa s understoo d a t on e tim e tha t th e Unite d State s Fis h Com missio n intende d t o sen d a n investigatin g part y t o thes e Island s t o gathe r scientifi c an d practica l informatio n a s t o fish tha t inhabi t thes e waters whic h woul d n o doub t resul t i n grea t benefit s t o th e industr y a s a whole I t i s hope d tha t thi s ma y b e don e i n th e nea r future a s som e interestin g an d usefu l dat a woul d thu s b e gathere d i n connectio n wit h thi s valuabl e foo d element whic h i s suc h a prim e necessit y i n th e house s o f th e poo r an d a genera l favorit e o n th e table s o f th e well-to-do MANUFACTURES Thes e ar e ver y insignificant bot h i n variet y an d quantit y o f output A s i s wel l known thi s i s no t a manufacturin g province relyin g entirel y o n agricultur e a s a produce r o f wealth ; bu t stil l ther e ar e certai n littl e industrie s i n th e wa y o f manufacture s tha t ar e carrie d o n her e tha t furnis h occupatio n fo r severa l hundre d persons principall y women an d ther e i s n o doub t bu t tha t certai n manufacture s coul d b e introduce d her e wit h profit Thes e mine s abov e groun d woul d b e a valuabl e additio n t o th e industria l lif e o f th e province Chie f amon g manufacture s i s th e weavin g o f cloth .calle d sinamay fro m th e hem p fiber. Thi s i s don e i n a ver y expert.ma m ne r b y th e women an d possibl y a s muc h a s 100,00 0 yard s pe r yea r

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12 3 ar e woven wort h somewha t les s tha n tha t figur e i n money Som e o f i t i s exported bu t th e mos t o f i t i s consume d a t hom e fo r th e makin g o f th e ceat-shirt s o f th e men—th e onl y outsid e to p coverin g th e larg e majorit y o f th e me n wear—an d waist s fo r th e women I n thi s connection o f manufacture s fro m hemp a ne w manufac tur e tha t coul d b e introduce d wit h profi t woul d b e th e makin g o f pape r fro m th e residu e o f th e hem p fiber sai d b y man y experience d peopl e t o b e a produc t unexcelle d fo r thi s purpose ; an d th e suppl y i s inexhaustible Rop e an d cordage ar e no t mad e here bu t the y migh t ver y wel l be a s thi s provinc e i s th e chie f sourc e fo r th e materia l fro m whic h the y ar e made an d th e freigh t o n th e finishe d produc t t o Manil a woul d n o doub t b e les s tha n o n th e ra w material a s th e bul k woul d b e less Bu t i f Legasp i wer e mad e a n ope n por t thi s branc h o f manufactur e woul d n o doub t b e starte d an d th e produc t shippe d direc t t o Americ a an d Europe Th e nex t importan t branc h o f manufactur e her e i s tha t o f th e large simpl e mats mad e o f cellular soft pith y stalk s o f a specie s o f cactus thes e mat s bein g calle d "petates, whic h th e nativ e spread s o n th e floo r o f hi s hous e an d sleep s on i t bein g bot h be d an d be d cover Thes e ar e mad e i n mor e fanciful finished an d nea t styl e i n th e tow n o f Malilipot I n th e tow n o f Tiv i ther e ar e larg e an d extensiv e deposit s o f red clay whic h materia l i s mad e u p int o larg e earthe n jar s an d pot s o f al l kinds loade d int o boats an d brough t t o Tabac o an d Legasp i harbor s fo r sale Thi s i s quit e a n industry Th e manufacture d articl e i s ver y crud e i n appearanc e an d simpl e i n form bu t goblet s an d vessel s wit h coolin g propertie s fo r holdin g wate r coul d b e mad e u p i n ver y nea t shape s an d decorate d i n attractiv e design s wer e th e busines s handle d i n a skillfu l manner an d woul d n o doub t the n b e a n industr y wort h considerabl e t o th e provinc e i n th e wa y o f returns Whit e clay s ar e als o foun d i n Tivi whic h coul d n o doub t b e worke d int o statuar y an d use d fo r decorativ e an d othe r purposes Som e o f thes e wer e sen t t o th e St Loui s Exposition Tiv i a s a tow n i s note d fo r it s splendi d minera l spring s an d gushin g hot-wate r jets o r geyser s o n a smal l scale produc t o f th e eruptiv e processe s o f th e formidabl e Volcan o Mayon Thes e springs o r baths—th e wate r onl y bein g drun k fo r medica l purposes—hav e mos t valuabl e healin g properties an d man y malignan t type s o f ski n disease s ar e

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12 4 cure d b y simpl e immersio n persevere d i n fo r a shor t perio d an d couple d wit h interna l washin g ou t o f th e syste m therewit h b y repeate d draft s o f th e water I n th e tow n o f Manit o ther e ar e als o valuabl e re d an d whit e cla y deposits Tre e gum s tha t mak e u p int o fine varnishe s ar e found som e i n Manito other s i n Tivi an d als o i n th e interio r o f th e province Soft pith y wood s o f variou s kind s ar e found muc h lighte r eve n tha n cork ; som e o f thi s wa s see n i n th e tow n o f Manito suppose d t o hav e com e fro m th e wood s i n th e vicinity Ther e ar e als o a hos t o f othe r curiou s natura l product s t o b e encountered whic h coul d b e turne d t o scientifi c an d genera l commercia l use s wer e th e matte r looke d int o intelligentl y b y competen t an d intereste d exploiter s o f trad e an d source s o f wealth Broad-brimmed curiousl y shape d hat s ar e mad e fro m fine rattan calle d bejuco interwove n ove r a supportin g substance an d als o fro m plaited peele d bamboo Hat s o f ver y superio r appearanc e an d mak e ar e mad e u p her e fro m sinama y cloth Lon g strip s o f th e cloth neatl y colore d o r white ar e mad e up an d the n sewe d int o overlappin g componen t layer s t o mak e th e hat I t become s a ver y elegant-lookin g articl e o f apparel an d on e i s wort h abou t 5 pesos Hat s ar e mad e i n th e tow n o f Tabac o fro m a fine straw resemblin g • Panam a straw tha t ar e beautifu l i n shap e an d elegan t i n work manshi p a s i s th e rea l Panam a hat On e wa s sen t t o th e St Loui s Exposition Al l thi s wor k i s don e o n a ver y mino r scale bu t wer e the y manufacture d a s a regula r thin g i n th e town s wher e mos t th e industr y i s characteristic an d sprea d throughou t th e province o r eve n exported ther e woul d b e a larg e deman d fo r th e product Stra w hat s o f excellen t fiber an d shap e ar e als o made Little decorative an d larg e usefu l basket s ar e mad e fro m th e spin e o f th e individua l leave s o f th e cocoanu t branches The y ar e ver y beautifu l an d cheap bu t th e produc t i s quit e rar e i n th e markets A ver y payin g industr y i s th e manufactur e o f ilang-ilan g per fum e fro m th e flower o f th e tre e o f tha t name whic h grow s quit e abundantl y here I n th e tow n o f Guinobata n ther e i s a stil l fo r th e extractio n o f thi s perfume an d th e manufacture r ther e sen t a bottl e o f hi s produc t t o th e St Loui s Exposition Fro m thi s provinc e wer e sen t a larg e numbe r o f articles o f a s

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12 5 varie d a n assortmen t a s possible fo r exhibitio n a t th e St Loui s Exposition Th e tim e o f th e collection however wa s on e o f dis turbanc e politicall y an d interruptio n commerciall y here s o tha t i t wa s difficul t an d slo w wor k bringin g togethe r a representativ e collection Continuin g manufactures ther e ar e th e simpl e drink s o f tub a an d it s stronger-spirite d o r alcoholic-distille d offspring vin o (calle d "beno") go t fro m th e juic e o f th e tende r middl e shoo t o f th e cocoanu t palm Ther e ar e an y numbe r o f littl e still s al l ove r th e province chiefl y owne d b y Chinamen wher e thi s produc t i s go t out I t i s probabl y al l consume d i n th e province but nevertheless drunkennes s i s ver y rar e o n thi s o r an y othe r account Fis h net s ar e manufacture d i n grea t variet y an d exten t i n th e coas t towns an d als o fishing tackl e o f superio r quality Fis h line s tha t woul d mak e th e America n angler' s hear t happ y ar e t o b e foun d i n th e tow n o f Libog Ver y handsom e fishing rod s ar e mad e fro m th e bambo o tha t grow s here Manufacturer s a s suc h ar e awaitin g th e comin g i n o f outsid e capita l fo r development Profitabl e venture s coul d b e pu t i n opera tion bu t th e grea t volum e o f th e energ y o f th e peopl e i s turne d towar d agriculture an d the y onl y manufactur e th e mos t primitiv e an d homel y necessities ; whateve r the y wan t ca n b e brough t i n an d bough t ver y cheaply Th e thin g t o b e don e i s t o develo p a fe w alread y well-define d line s o f industry an d us e th e excellen t nativ e talen t i n th e wa y peculia r t o th e workme n fo r manufactur e o f a fe w article s o n a larg e scale tha t coul d b e sen t ou t o f th e provinc e an d als o mee t wit h a read y sal e i n thi s ver y provinc e a s wel l a s i n other s an d i n th e Unite d States I t i s certai n tha t th e mat s an d th e earthenwar e an d th e hat s an d th e pape r an d th e cordag e coul d thu s b e develope d a s standar d manufacture s fo r th e swellin g o f th e bul k o f th e busines s o f th e provinc e an d th e variatio n o f th e mechanica l skil l an d interest s o f th e people an d th e consequen t broadenin g o f business increas e o f persona l property an d increase d happines s o f th e population SOCIA L AN D SOCIOLOGICAL Th e populatio n o f th e Provinc e o f Albay includin g bot h main lan d an d adjacen t islands number s som e 240,00 0 souls whic h i s a n estimate a s th e figures o f th e censu s take n her e b y th e United State s Governmen t i n th e si x month s fro m Januar y t o July 1903

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12 6 ar e no t ye t available Th e Chines e i s th e onl y foreig n rac e tha t figure s t o an y exten t i n th e make-u p o f th e population Ther e ar e 3,00 0 o r 4,00 0 o f the m i n th e province A s i s wel l known the y for m th e bul k o f th e merchant-tradin g class al l th e tiend a busines s bein g i n thei r hands The y quickl y sprin g u p i n ne w place s wher e ther e i s an y recognizabl e sig n o f busines s opportunity The y outd o th e nativ e ever y tim e i n thi s wide-awak e capacit y fo r storekeeping and a t an y rate tim e an d usag e hav e given the m suc h a hol d o n busines s o f thi s kin d tha t ther e i s n o competitio n i n i t fro m other s tha n hi s ow n fellow-tradesmen. Th e nativ e calml y leave s i t al l t o th e Chines e an d take s t o som e othe r mean s t o mak e a living Th e Chines e ar e th e grea t middlemen th e commercia l brokers fo r th e Filipinos Th e Filipino s themselve s ar e a t th e tw o extremes th e hem p plantatio n proprietor—tha t is th e producer—an d th e professiona l ma n a t on e en d an d th e labore r o f al l grade s a t th e other Th e elemen t i n th e populatio n nex t prominen t i n numbe r i s th e American which a s i t ha s bee n largel y increase d b y th e military no w number s som e 70 0 representatives Ther e ar e abou t 5 0 o r 6 0 civilians th e large r numbe r o f who m ar e representative s o f th e Governmen t i n on e capacit y o r another an d a fe w o f who m ar e busines s men Th e settlemen t o f th e militar y i n a permanen t pos t i n Albay calle d Cam p Daraga ha s bee n th e grea t featur e o f th e yea r i n th e effec t i t ha s ha d o n th e genera l condition s an d th e societ y o f whic h the y no w for m a part A descriptio n o f th e pos t follows a s i s warrante d b y it s importance : Darag a i s a tow n 1 J mile s distan t fro m Alba y towar d th e interior However th e camp a s i t i s popularl y called i s situate d entirel y withi n th e tow n o f Albay touchin g o n th e limit s o f Daraga I t i s a n eight-compan y post consistin g o f tw o battalions Th e regimen t i s th e Fourt h Infantry Ther e ar e abou t 60 0 officer s an d me n i n th e post whic h i s commande d b y Col P H Ray I t embrace s a n are a o f abou t 20 0 acres al l o f whic h i s no t ye t cleared Th e condi tion s hav e bee n foun d t o b e ver y healthy bein g considere d mor e health y tha n mos t post s i n th e Unite d States Ther e i s a n excel len t suppl y o f water Ther e hav e bee n erecte d abou t 4 5 build ings an d i t i s th e intentio n t o construc t 65 Thi s constructio n wor k ha s bee n don e almos t entirel y b y Japanes e labor I t ha s a wate r system pumpe d fro m a sprin g nea r Darag a int o a reservoi r

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12 7 tha t i s bein g bnil t o n th e hill th e wate r bein g piped i n th e post Th e house s ar e buil t o n America n plan s an d o f America n lumber an d wil l n o doub t serv e a s model s o f simpl e America n architectur e t o thos e o f th e native s wh o migh t lik e t o construc t simila r houses I t ha s bee n foun d tha t thes e building s ar e equall y a s coo l a s th e nativ e houses bein g roofe d wit h rubberoid Thi s i s th e onl y per manen t statio n o f regula r troop s o n th e eas t sid e o f th e Islan d o f Luzon Th e behavio r o f th e troop s ha s bee n excellen t i n ever y way Th e pos t i s a centra l poin t o f diversio n fo r th e peopl e o f th e nearb y towns an d th e evenin g concert s o f th e ban d hel p t o destro y th e dullnes s o f lif e i n thes e simpl e localities I t wa s abou t th e 1s t o f June 1903 tha t i t wa s decide d t o mak e thi s a permanen t post an d i n th e earl y par t o f th e fisca l yea r th e wor k o f constructio n wa s begun Th e troop s tha t wer e formerl y a t Nuev a Caceres Provinc e o f Ambo s Camarines an d a t th e town s o f Sorsogon Bacon an d Bulan Provinc e o f Sorsogon hav e almos t al l bee n brough t i n here an d b y th e 1s t o f Augus t th e whol e o f th e troop s wil l b e here Th e relation s betwee n th e civi l governmen t an d th e militar y hav e bee n an d ar e mos t cordial an d ther e ha s bee n n o frictio n o f an y kin d betwee n th e militar y an d th e citizens whic h i s a matte r o f gratificatio n t o bot h representative s o f th e differen t sphere s o f authority America n ideas i n hom e an d socia l life ge t a goo d introductio n throug h th e presenc e her e o f a numbe r o f America n families a s represente d b y th e Arm y officer s an d thei r wive s an d children But thei r presenc e i s especiall y gratifyin g t o th e fe w American s wh o wer e her e befor e an d wh o foun d th e opportunitie s fo r socia l intercours e wit h American s s o limite d a s t o fee l continuall y th e strangenes s o f thei r positio n and fo r tha t reason th e dullnes s o f lif e here Th e societ y a s i t exist s her e i s a great plasti c mass read y t o respon d t o al l suc h externa l force s a s migh t b e brough t intelligentl y t o bea r o n i t fo r it s prope r development I t lend s itsel f readil y t o imitation i n whic h w e fin d on e o f th e sures t sign s o f progress ivenes s i n a people Th e avidit y wit h whic h America n idea s ar e absorbe d wil l soo n produc e a fundamenta l chang e i n th e characte r o f th e people an d i t i s saf e t o predic t tha t th e littl e one s wh o ar e no w th e objec t o f th e especia l car e o f th e school s an d i n who m America n method s an d th e spiri t o f America n institution s

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12 8 ar e findin g read y lodgmen t ar e goin g t o giv e a n impetu s t o th e countr y i n th e nex t generation an d i n accordanc e wit h America n standards whic h i t ha s no t fel t i n hundred s o f year s before Educatio n an d intercours e naturall y ar e th e chie f mean s o f pro motin g goodwil l an d understandin g amon g peoples and a s thes e ar e th e method s adopte d here the y ar e doin g thei r ful l shar e i n th e developmen t o f thes e desirabl e attitude s o f hear t an d mind Th e peopl e themselves a s a matte r o f fact demonstrat e thei r heart y appreciatio n o f America n principles institutions an d ideal s b y th e effort s the y mak e t o hav e thei r childre n educate d i n accord anc e wit h thes e standards man y o f the m havin g sen t thei r son s t o th e Unite d State s t o receiv e suc h educatio n a s wil l b e mos t thoroughl y representativ e o f al l tha t i s characteristi c o f Americ a a s a peopl e an d a s a nation Ver y thoroughl y i s th e dee p solicitud e o f th e Governmen t fo r th e interest s o f th e peopl e appreciate d here an d th e utmos t confidenc e i s fel t i n al l measure s adopte d b y th e Governmen t fo r th e regulatio n o f publi c concerns Fre e fro m apprehension s a s t o th e hig h consideratio n i n whic h thei r interest s ar e hel d unde r th e ne w orde r o f things thei r energ y i s no t diverte d int o unwholesom e channels bu t th e ful l curren t i s turne d int o th e developmen t o f persona l an d busines s interests an d a widesprea d prosperit y i n th e natura l result Lawbreaker s ar e looke d o n wit h th e greates t intoleranc e b y th e people ; an d i f th e unsettle d condition s o f fou r year s ag o cause d t o b e lef t an d brough t ove r int o peacefu l time s a n elemen t o f lawlessnes s tha t wa s t o b e th e thor n o n th e flowe r o f peac e tha t ha d blossomed it s remova l wa s sur e t o b e speedil y brough t about a s i t reall y ha s been unde r th e ne w system th e spiri t o f th e peopl e themselve s contributin g t o th e ultimat e harmon y o f things Thi s mutua l sentimen t o f th e Governmen t an d th e people—tha t la w an d orde r shoul d prevai l eve n i n th e remotenes s o f th e hills—coul d no t fai l t o crystalliz e int o th e adoptio n o f measureS^fo r th e cuttin g of f o f thi s troublesom e excrescence thu s leavin g th e peopl e fre e t o th e fulles t enjoymen t o f th e benefit s o f th e new-foun d inheritanc e int o whic h the y ha d bee n adopte d unde r th e America n Government Th e aspec t o f society—th e peopl e a s a whole—therefore i s ver y encouraging an d ful l remuneratio n ha s me t al l measure s o f th e Governmen t fo r it s improvement Her e clas s distinction s ar e no t marked I f th e universa l difference s i n statio n produce d b y th e contras t betwee n wealt h an d poverty gentl e birt h an d lo w

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12 9 birth exist the y ar e rathe r les s distinguishabl e her e tha n i n man y othe r countrie s o f equa l o r highe r enlightenmen t an d moder n attainments Ther e i s ver y littl e arroganc e exhibite d b y th e ric h towar d th e poor Th e countr y i s primitive an d need s an d encourage s al l it s bes t me n withou t regar d t o socia l status I f ther e eve r wa s i n existenc e her e a syste m o f repressio n o f intellectua l advancement i t disappeare d wit h th e comin g o f th e America n Gov ernment whic h ha s pu t a premiu m o n intelligenc e an d reward s liberall y al l thos e wh o adher e t o th e standard s o f progress I t i s ver y gratifyin g t o stat e that eve n amon g th e ver y poo r an d ignorant woma n i s respecte d an d lif e i s morall y pure Thi s conditio n i s th e mor e gratifyin g t o stat e i n vie w o f th e crowde d conditio n unde r whic h th e peopl e liv e an d th e freedo m wit h whic h bot h sexe s mee t i n th e home s an d field s an d o n th e highway s o f livin g an d labor ; fo r amon g th e lowe r classe s th e woma n i s a s universa l a worke r a s th e man an d ye t ther e i s exhibite d towar d the m a certai n gentlenes s an d respec t whic h i s certainl y ap t t o b e los t unde r suc h conditions Al l throug h th e mountain s w e fin d littl e settlement s an d scattere d house s wherei n i t i s saf e t o sa y ther e i s presen t a n observanc e o f th e canon s o f moralit y an d a prevalenc e o f th e natura l form s o f socia l etiquett e an d o f hospitalit y tha t i s mos t admirable Th e principle s b} whic h cohesio n an d concer t o f actio n amon g th e peopl e ar e secure d are o f course founde d o n triba l affiliation her e a s everywher e els e i n th e Archipelago an d this n o doubt operate s t o th e genera l disadvantage Bu t withi n th e district s wher e eac h trib e predominates meaning generally distinc t prov inces th e impuls e al l bein g on e way ther e i s n o lac k o f publi c spiri t fo r th e promotio n o f publi c interests Th e peopl e her e ar e al l o f on e tribe—th e Bicols—an d therefor e triba l distinction s an d jealousie s ca n no t operat e t o retar d th e interest s o f th e province Ther e ar e onl y a fe w Igorrote s i n th e hills—aroun d th e tow n o f Malinao—an d the y ar e ver y peaceful an d ar e not further o f th e kin d o f tribe s tha t interfer e wit h governmen t an d existin g condi tion s fo r ambitiou s motives ; the y desir e n o othe r emolument s an d distinctions tha n fre e lif e i n th e hills devotin g themselve s t o agriculture Th e mas s o f th e people—th e lowe r classes—sho w a spiri t o l intoleranc e towar d stranger s fro m othe r part s o f th e Orient ; bu t 2490 4 9

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13 0 thi s reall y i s bu t a superficia l attitude an d a goo d illustratio n o f wha t provincialis m means Th e Chines e hav e force d thei r wa y i n an d hav e becom e a necessar y elemen t o f th e populatio n i n a n •economi c sense fo r the y ar e ver y usefu l factor s i n th e community. ministerin g t o th e divers e materia l need s o f th e people Th e complacenc y wit h whic h h e i s viewe d i s du e largel y t o lon g settle men t amon g th e people Gamblin g i s a vic e s o genera l an d witha l s o mil d i n it s effec t a s a produce r o f disturbance s an d o f th e breakin g o f polic e regula tion s tha t i t occupie s a peculia r positio n i n th e catalogu e o f viola tion s o f th e law I t i s a vic e tha t i s ver y underminin g t o th e mora l ton e an d economi c prosperit y o f an y community bu t i n thes e Islands it s outwar d aspec t i s no t tha t abhorrent turbi d evidenc e o f a socia l diseas e tha t produce s a s a consequenc e o f it s presenc e violen t quarrels shootings suicides an d menta l an d materia l rui n amon g th e people a s usuall y i s th e cas e i n th e wester n world I t i s a mean s o f diversio n tha t ha s grow n u p amon g th e peopl e an d take n suc h dee p roo t tha t i t mus t b e exterminate d gradually I t shoul d b e regulate d i n a sever e man ner lookin g towar d it s extinctio n a s a vice I t ca n hardl y b e banishe d a t a wor d b y prohibitor y measures Th e grea t nee d o f th e peopl e i s mean s o f diversion I f ther e wer e prope r transportatio n facilitie s s o tha t troupe s o f actors exhibitio n enterprises ^ circuses an d s o forth coul d convenientl y trave l an d exhibit i n th e differen t town s a t seasons ther e woul d b e abundan t remuneratio n t o th e proprietor s fo r th e amusemen t afforded Th e characte r o f th e peopl e i s mad e u p wit h a ver y larg e vei n tha t carrie s wha t ma y b e name d lov e o f diversion whic h i s exhibite d i n th e frequenc y o f ball s an d dance s an d th e avidit y wit h whic h weddin g an d baptis m celebration s an d tow n fiestas ar e attended Th e first tw o ar e th e mean s i n th e privat e lif e o f th e peopl e offere d a s outlet s fo r th e gratificatio n o f thei r lov e o f amusement ; th e secon d i s th e onl y phbli c mean s a t thei r disposal Ther e ar e n o othe r publi c channel s int o whic h i t coul d b e conducte d an d held an d th e -satisfyin g o f i t mad e anothe r sourc e o f wealth a s a n adde d elemen t i n th e universalit y o f interest s whic h constitut e ever y highl y organize d for m o f society Th e lif e o f th e nativ e i s ver y narro w a s i t is Ther e i s enoug h mone y an d a sufficien t responsivenes s o f spiri t t o enterpris e her e t o mak e possibl e th e

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13 1 broadenin g o f livin g condition s b y th e introductio n o f ne w form s o f diversio n amon g th e people A s a n instanc e o f th e eagernes s wit h whic h th e peopl e seiz e opportunitie s t o diver t themselve s ma y b e mentione d th e grea t celebratio n o f th e Fourt h o f Jul y thi s calenda r yea r 1904 Thi s wa s hel d i n th e capita l a t Alba y an d i n th e neighborin g tow n o f Legaspi Popula r sport s wer e offere d fo r th e amusemen t fo r th e peopl e durin g th e day ; stand s ha d bee n erecte d i n th e publi c plaza ; ther e wer e presen t larg e gathering s o f schoo l children wh o san g patrioti c air s i n English recitation s b y youn g me n an d girl s advance d i n English ordere d b y Fathe r Jua n Calleja th e paris h pries t o f Albay wh o spok e i n English ; ther e wa s a barbecu e an d a publi c dinner ; a speec h fro m th e governor an d a bal l i n th e governor' s residenc e a t Legaspi Peopl e cam e fro m al l ove r th e provinc e t o tak e par t i n th e festival O f course th e movin g caus e i n thi s wa s th e patrioti c sentimen t amon g th e people bu t i t i s saf e t o sa y tha t ha d i t bee n anythin g els e tha n a celebratio n wher e jo y wa s t o b e unconfine d an d th e danc e brough t o n no t hal f th e numbe r woul d hav e attended Crim e i s no t especiall y prevalen t amon g th e people an d th e percentag e o f criminals—takin g ou t th e extraordinar y numbe r o f bandolerism o case s th e las t yea r an d considerin g onl y thos e confine d i n th e provincia l jail ther e bein g ver y fe w confine d i n th e municipa l jail—i s onl y abou t 1 pe r 1,00 0 o f population Th e leadin g socia l characteristi c o f th e peopl e i s a lov e fo r amusement H e wh o wil l properl y suppl y th e mean s fo r th e grati ficatio n o f thi s fulsom e tendenc y wil l receiv e hig h compensatio n i n th e shap e o f profitabl e return s fo r hi s trouble Th e foregoin g i s respectfull y submitted R F SANTOS Governor of the Province of Albay. Th e CIVI L GOVERNO R O F TH E PHILIPPIN E ISLANDS

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AMBO S CAMARINES OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR PROVINC E O F AMBO S CAMARINES Nueva Gaceres, December 81, 1903/ SIR : I n complianc e wit h th e law I hav e th e hono r t o transmi t th e followin g repor t fo r th e perio d endin g Decembe r 31 1903 : Havin g bee n honore d wit h th e appointmen t o f governo r o f thi s provinc e t o succee d Hon Governo r Ros s upo n hi s promotio n t o th e offic e o f superviso r o f fiscals I arrive d i n thi s cit y o n Jun e 29 1903 and havin g take n possessio n o f th e offic e o n Jul y 7 I ha d th e immens e satisfactio n o f seein g tha t everythin g had bee n cleare d fo r th e complianc e wit h m y firs t dutie s b y th e labor s o f m y tw o worth y predecessor s an d th e valuabl e cooperatio n o f th e n o les s worth y member s o f th e provincia l board particularl y tha t o f th e provincia l secretary Seno r Enrile al l o f th e wor k connecte d wit h th e administratio n o f th e provinc e commende d t o eac h on e o f thes e gentleme n bein g i n a flourishin g condition Whe n I bega n m y labor s ther e wer e 4 1 dul y organize d munic ipalitie s i n th e province bu t thi s numbe r wa s subsequentl y reduce d b y a n ac t o f th e Philippin e Commissio n t o 3 5 throug h th e con solidatio n b y annexatio n o f six Durin g th e calamitou s perio d covere d b y m y repor t I personall y visite d nearl y al l o f th e pueblos and althoug h a mos t enviabl e condition a s t o peace goo d order and tranquillit y everywher e reigned I wa s paine d t o observ e tha t th e majorit y o f th e inhabitant s wer e plunge d i n th e greates t miser y a s th e resul t o f th e presenc e o f malaria l fever s whic h appeare d i n al l o f th e pueblo s o f th e provinc e i n epidemi c for m scarcel y ha d th e choler a subsided Th e situatio n wa s aggravate d b y famin e whic h existe d principall y amon g th e laborin g classe s consequen t upo n th e failur e t o plan t rice—th e onl y cro p raise d b y a larg e par t o f th e pueblo s o f thi s region—tha t ha d bee n unabl e t o gro w th e highl y prize d hem p sinc e th e rinderpes t carrie d of f thei r wor k animal s thre e year s ago Thi s deplorabl e stat e o f affair s cause d suc h a n increas e i n mortalit y a s t o paralyz e 13 2

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13 3 agricultura l wor k becaus e o f a shortag e o f hands T o suc h a n exten t di d thi s prevai l that i n spit e o f th e grea t improvemen t i n th e publi c healt h sinc e th e latte r par t o f 1903 ther e i s stil l a considerabl e numbe r o f convalescent s i n th e pueblos an d unfortunatel y a fe w death s cause d b y relapse s whic h ar e du e t o insufficien t nourish ment I n orde r t o alleviat e thes e evil s i n a measure th e provincia l boar d vote d a n appropriatio n o f $1,500 Mexican fro m provincia l fund s a s a first relie f t o sufferin g familie s i n exchang e fo r labo r performe d o n th e differen t wago n road s o f th e province an d a t th e sam e time upo n th e recommendatio n o f Dr Shanno n Richmond th e presiden t o f th e provincia l boar d o f health a n orde r fo r medica l supplie s wa s place d i n Manil a tha t o n severa l occasion s sen t the m here wher e the y wer e distribute d gratuitousl y amon g th e sic k unde r m y persona l supervisio n an d wit h th e assistanc e o f Dr Richmond wh o accompanie d m e i n m y visit s i n orde r t o pu t int o practic e measure s calculate d t o arres t th e evil Th e succes s whic h attende d ou r effort s I hav e th e satisfactio n o f believin g wa s du e t o th e energ y an d activit y wit h whic h th e municipalitie s performe d thei r shar e o f thi s human e labor S o man y repeate d misfortune s producin g consequen t miser y an d hardshi p hav e ha d th e effec t o f onc e mor e chastenin g th e spirit — lon g sufferin g an d patient—o f thes e peoples bu t hav e bee n unabl e t o i n th e leas t influenc e norma l condition s a s t o th e peac e an d goo d orde r enjoye d b y th e inhabitants for thoug h i t i s tru e tha t som e crime s agains t person s an d propert y hav e bee n committed nearl y al l hav e bee n o f n o mor e importanc e tha n thos e whic h wer e won t t o occu r i n thes e part s i n time s comparativel y prosperous Durin g m y recen t visit s I travele d i n nearl y al l part s o f th e provinc e withou t arm s o r guide s an d everywher e foun d nothin g bu t kindnes s an d goo d wil l o n th e par t o f al l classe s o f society An d thi s i s becaus e th e peopl e o f thi s province conten t wit h th e civi l governmen t establishe d i n thi s Archipelago hav e ful l confidenc e i n th e hono r an d justic e o f th e America n Governmen t an d people an d d o no t doub t tha t i n th e futur e thei r prosperit y wil l b e looke d afte r an d thei r right s an d interest s safeguarded I n thi s convictio n the y confidentl y expec t a brigh t futur e fo r th e Philippine s unde r th e wis e contro l o f th e Governmen t tha t rule s thei r destinies ; fo r thi s reaso n al l ar e devotin g themselve s t o thei r usua l pursuit s with ou t i n th e leas t hinderin g th e working s o f th e Government eage' r

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13 4 t o achiev e succes s i n recuperating i n s o fa r a s possible th e pros perit y los t t o the m a s a consequenc e o f pas t disturbance s an d recen t publi c calamities an d are willin g a t an y cos t t o maintai n complet e peace s o necessar y fo r th e succes s o f thei r patrioti c purposes I ca n assur e yo u thi s opinio n i s share d b y al l wh o hav e ha d a n opportunit y t o follow ste p b y step th e cours e o f event s i n thi s province TH E CONSTABULAR Y I N TH E PROVINCE Upo n takin g charg e o f th e governmen t o f thi s provinc e I foun d tha t ther e wa s a captai n o f Constabulary Mr Harr y A Porter an d thre e lieutenants Mr Joh n Arthur Sen-o r Deogracia s Buena ventura an d Seno r Simeo n Lara wit h 14 8 men includin g non commissione d officers distribute d amon g five detachments t o wit Nuev a Caceres Indan Buhi Iriga an d Tigaon Nothin g o f importanc e occurre d durin g July August an d Sep tember durin g whic h tim e I frequentl y visite d nearl y al l o f th e pueblo s i n th e provinc e wher e ther e wer e detachments accompanie d b y Capt Harr y A Porter Th e greate r par t o f thi s tim e th e Constabular y a t Tigaon Iriga an d Buhi togethe r wit h th e volunteer s o f Nabu a an d th e tw o last-mentione d pueblos exercise d th e greates t vigilanc e ove r th e ladro n band s o f thi s provinc e an d Alba y wh o frequentl y appeare d i n th e outlyin g place s an d barrio s o f th e pueblo s o f Buhi Iriga an d Bato O n Octobe r 9 the y ha d a fight wit h a ban d o f ladrone s nea r Buhi an d durin g th e entir e mont h a har d campaig n wa s wage d agains t th e bandit s unde r th e leadershi p o f Tit o Saculo On e ladro n wa s killed A t Raga y ther e wer e als o som e expedition s whic h brough t abou t on e encounte r wit h Avila' s band bu t withou t results ; i n Novembe r an d Decembe r othe r expedition s wer e mad e t o th e hill s o f Ragay Labo an d Guinayangan als o withou t satisfactor y results Upo n th e pacificatio n o f th e Provinc e o f Alba y th e wor k o f th e Constabular y diminished bu t towar d th e en d o f Decembe r stren uou s effort s wer e mad e t o ru n dow n th e ladrone s unde r th e leade r Avila Excellen t service s wer e rendere d b y th e ne w senio r inspector Lieut Richar d Griffiths wh o succeede d Captai n Porter an d b y Secon d Lieutenan t Eawcet t i n followin g th e trai l o f th e perpetrator s o f th e robber y o f th e provincia l treasur y o n a cle w furnishe d b y th e provincia l fiscal, the y havin g capture d th e robbers on e o f whom Marian o Villar wa s killed

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13 5 Th e efficienc y an d loyalt y o f th e Constabular y i n thi s provinc e ar e worth y o f specia l mention al l o f th e inhabitant s havin g th e greates t confidenc e i n them Th e majorit y o f th e .Constabular y locate d a t Nuev a Cacere s ar e o n dut y a t th e provincia l buildin g an d ac t a s guard s o f th e provincia l jail TOPOGRAPH Y AN D HYGIENE Wit h th e exceptio n o f epidemic s tha t appea r fro m tim e t o tim e an d whos e ravage s ar e fel t throughou t th e Islands th e Provinc e o f Ambo s Camarines bot h o n accoun t o f it s topographica l situatio n an d th e custom s an d manner s o f it s inhabitants a s wel l a s th e influenc e o f a mil d climate i s a health y place I f th e mortalit y wa s greate r durin g th e perio d covere d b y thi s repor t tha n usua l i t wa s o n accoun t o f th e cause s alread y mentioned • Nuev a Caceres th e capital situat e o n th e bank s o f th e Bico l River wit h a populatio n o f 18,05 2 inhabitant s an d a territoria l are a o f approximatel y 12,00 0 hectares no w include s th e ol d pueblo s o f Camaliga n an d Canaman whic h ar e annexe d t o it I t i s th e headquarter s o f th e provincia l government th e Cour t o f Firs t Instance departmen t o f education an d th e provincia l Constabular y force I t ha s som e importan t building s constructe d o f soli d mate rials suc h a s th e provincia l building th e municipa l building th e Episcopa l palace th e Paulis t seminary Sant a Isabe l schoo l fo r girl s (conducte d b y th e Sister s o f Charity) th e Cathedral th e Sa n Francisc o an d Pena-Franci a churches an d severa l haiidsom e privat e building s o n th e principa l street s o f th e town Ther e ar e th e publi c primar y school s an d a norma l hig h schoo l wher e English grammar arithmetic geography history etc. ar e taught I t i s a municipalit y o f th e firs t class Th e provinc e i s a t presen t divide d int o fou r districts—Bicol Rinconad a d e Iriga Lagonoy an d Daet formerl y calle d Camarine s Norte Th e firs t include s Nuev a Caceres Pili Milaor Minilabag Sa n Fernando Pamplona Pasacao Libmanan Sipocot Lupi Ra gay Magarao Calabanga Tinambac an d Siroma ; th e second Bula Baao Nabua Bato Iriga an d Buhi ; th e third Tigaon Saganav Goa Sa n Jose Lagonoy an d Caramoan al l o f whic h ar e situat e nort h o f Moun t Isarog ; th e fourth Daet Indan Sa n Vicente Labo Paracale Mambulao an d Capaolonga Al l o f the m ar e municipal itie s o f th e thir d clas s excep t Nuev a Caceres which, a s I hav e alread y said i s o f th e firs t class an d Daet Nabua an d Irig a o f th e secon d class

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13 6 PUBLI C INSTRUCTION I n spit e o f th e fata l epidemi c o f malaria l feve r whic h laste d fro m Ma y t o September th e school s hav e mad e greate r progres s tha n ever Th e larges t enrollmen t fo r 190 2 wa s 2,400 an d a t th e en d o f December 1903 i t reache d som e 7,000 a figure whic h i s constantl y increasing I t ha s bee n demonstrate d a t Nuev a Cacere s tha t th e provincia l schoo l i s exceedingl y popula r an d ha s give n th e mos t satisfactor y results Th e principal Mr Crone an d hi s assistant s hav e wo n th e regar d o f th e scholar s o n accoun t o f thei r treatmen t o f the m an d thei r untirin g effort s t o advanc e th e interest s o f education Th e attendanc e a t th e primar y an d secondar y school s i s growin g dail y du e t o th e assiduit y an d tireles s energ y o f th e divisio n superintendent Mr Freer an d th e America n teacher s i n diffusin g a knowledg e o f th e Englis h language I n vie w o f th e grea t attendanc e a t th e publi c schoo l o f Dae t a provincia l hig h schoo l ha s bee n establishe d ther e unde r th e supervisio n o f Prof W A Wedgworth whic h obviate s th e neces sit y o f poo r scholar s desirin g t o continu e thei r studie s havin g t o com e t o Nuev a Caceres Th e municipalit y o f Dae t ha s contribute d greatl y t o th e establishmen t o f thi s schoo l b y givin g u p th e Cas a Tribunal whic h wa s adequatel y prepare d fo r th e purpose s o f th e schoo l a t th e expens e o f th e municipa l funds Moreover i t ha s greatl y contribute d t o th e developmen t o f educatio n i n othe r ways fo r whic h reaso n I regar d Daet a s on e o f th e pueblo s wher e edu catio n i s mos t advanced Nearl y al l o f th e pueblo s ar e clamorin g fo r America n o r dul y qualifie d Filipin o schoolmaster s t o teac h English bu t unfortunatel y thei r numbe r i s to o smal l t o cove r al l o f th e pueblos Moreover ther e ar e si x o r seve n municipalitie s tha t formerl y ha d America n teacher s tha t ar e no w withou t them the y havin g lef t fo r Americ a o r fo r othe r provinces I t i s a pit y tha t childre n wh o hav e learne d a certai n amoun t o f Englis h wil l hav e t o forge t it Fo r thi s reaso n I desir e t o recommen d a n increas e i n th e numbe r o f teacher s i n orde r tha t pueblo s havin g relativel y a larg e numbe r o f schoo l childre n ma y b e provide d wit h teachers I a m quit e sur e tha t th e attendanc e a t th e publi c school s wil l continu e t o increas e unles s th e malaria l feve r put s i n it s appearanc e again i t havin g arreste d th e sprea d o f educatio n mor e tha n an y othe r cause

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13 7 AGRICULTURE Th e principa l source s o f wealt h i n thi s province a s i n th e res t o f th e Archipelago prio r t o th e yea r 190 0 wer e undoubtedl y agri cultur e an d stoc k raising Th e forme r consisted i n th e majorit y o f th e pueblo s o f Ambo s Camarines especiall y thos e o f th e distric t o f Bicol o f ric e produce d i n sufficien t quantitie s t o permi t o f exportatio n t o othe r provinces bu t unfortunatel y th e rinderpes t carrie d of f abou t 9 5 pe r cen t o f th e wor k animals an d planter s hav e sinc e the n bee n unabl e t o cultivat e mor e tha n a fift h par t o f th e fields Thi s produce d a scarcit y an d consequentl y a n increas e i n th e pric e o f thi s stapl e an d brough t abou t a crisi s tha t th e farmer s a t th e instanc e o f th e Governmen t endeavore d t o overcom e b y plowin g an d sowin g thei r fields, makin g th e mos t extraordinar y effort s alon g thi s line bu t a long-continue d drough t whic h laste d mor e o r les s durin g th e pas t thre e year s brough t failur e an d mad e mor e difficul t stil l th e deplorabl e situatio n o f th e ric e planters Whe n th e saving s o f th e planter s wer e exhauste d an d th e laboring classe s wer e withou t work excep t suc h a s the y coul d find t o d o i n loca l improvement s an d i n th e lin e o f industr y an d commerce famin e bega n t o mak e itsel f fel t s o tha t th e peopl e wer e compelle d t o emigrat e t o othe r pueblo s o f th e provinc e an d t o Alba y t o mak e thei r livelihoo d i n th e hem p fields. A t first i t wa s though t tha t the situatio n coul d b e remedied bu t al l hop e wa s los t wit h th e appearanc e o f th e choler a epidemic subsequentl y followe d b y malaria l fevers whic h cause d a grea t man y death s amon g th e impoverishe d peopl e o f th e pueblos However notwithstandin g thes e deplorabl e conditions th e gov ernment unde r m y charge i n complianc e wit h order s receive d fro m th e superio r authoritie s an d upo n it s ow n initiative kne w ho w t o mee t them I conside r i t unnecessar y fo r m e her e t o repea t th e sani tar y measure s adopte d t o arres t th e evil i t bein g sufficient i n m y opinion t o sa y tha t i n orde r t o remedy i f no t completel y a t leas t partially th e effect s o f th e famine energeti c measure s wer e adopte d t o compe l th e pueblo s o f th e provinc e t o plan t rice corn swee t potatoes an d othe r foo d plant s o f quic k growth an d tha t nearl y al l o f th e pueblo s responde d s o tha t th e result s obtaine d i f no t completel y satisfactory owin g t o th e ravage s o f th e crop s b y a plagu e o f locusts wer e considerabl y so I n th e fac e o f al l thes e misfortune s th e peopl e hav e neve r los t courage Suc h pueblo s a s Siroma Calabanga thos e annexe d t o

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13 8 th e latter an d Magarao Pili Bula Bato an d Minalabag formerl y exclusivel y ric e producing hav e recentl y turne d thei r attentio n t o plantin g hem p an d cocoanuts an d i f thi s movemen t doe s no t resul t i n failur e thi s provinc e wil l soo n reac h th e leve l o f it s neighbor Albay a s regard s th e productio n o f thi s highl y prize d textile especiall y whe n i t i s take n int o accoun t tha t Ambo s Camarine s ha s th e advantag e i n havin g a n immens e amoun t o f lan d ver y wel l adapte d t o th e cultivatio n o f hemp Th e experimen t mad e wit h Japanes e rice 20 0 sack s o f whic h wer e ordere d sen t her e b y th e honorabl e Philippin e Commission di d no t giv e th e desire d result s i n vie w o f th e fac t tha t th e see d scarcel y gre w i n th e seedin g plats makin g transplantatio n impos sible Thi s ma y b e du e t o th e fac t tha t a differen t proces s i s employe d i n Japa n fo r th e cultivatio n o f thi s cerea l tha t th e native s o f thi s provinc e d o no t know o r perhap s i t ma y requir e a certai n seaso n an d climate fo r it s development O n th e othe r hand th e vegetabl e seed s sen t b y th e Burea u o f Agricultur e hav e give n goo d results an d I hav e hope s tha t th e plant s wil l gro w wel l here especiall y i n lan d no t subjec t t o overflow A s ther e ar e immens e tract s o f lan d tha t ar e uncultivate d owin g t o th e scarcit y o f draf t cattle thei r owner s ar e dail y becomin g mor e har d presse d fo r mone y wit h whic h t o purchas e th e animal s tha t th e Governmen t ha s s o liberall y offere d t o sel l a t cos t price Th e ide a ha s suggeste d itsel f t o m e o f organizin g a n agricultura l ban k i n th e provinc e wit h privat e capital subsidized i f possible b y th e Governmen t wit h Congressiona l relie f funds i n orde r tha t thes e landowner s ma y rais e th e necessar y amount s upo n thei r propert y t o b e abl e t o reestablis h thei r estates ; loan s t o b e mad e a t a moderat e rat e o f interest I ca n d o n o les s tha n t o recommen d s o laudabl e a n ide a t o th e Governmen t fo r it s consideration PUBLI C HEALTH Durin g th e shor t tim e I hav e bee n i n offic e th e healt h o f the provinc e ha s bee n fair bu t fe w case s o f choler a accompanie d b y death s havin g bee n recorde d i n th e municipalitie s o f Nuev a Caceres Nabua Baao Iriga Magarao an d Daet Th e malaria l fever a wer e effectuall y combate d b y th e sendin g o f adequat e medicine s an d th e relie f furnishe d i n ric e t o th e differen t pueblo s i n exchange ^ fo r labor Death s resultin g fro m th e fever s ma y b e attribute d a s a rul e t o wan t o f care whic h i s ver y necessar y i n thi s sicknes s durin g th e perio d o f convalescence

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13 9 Loca l board s o f healt h hav e bee n organize d i n th e followin g pueblos : Nuev a Caceres president Seno r Candid o Amador ; Daet president Seno r Narcis o Sa n Agustin ; Iriga president Seho r Epi fani o Villafuerte ; Tigaon president Seho r Yictorin o Guinto ; Goa president Seho r Francisc o Imperial ; Buhi president Seho r Adrian o Trinidad Th e balanc e o f th e pueblo s shoul d als o hav e board s o f health bu t a lac k o f fund s ha s prevente d the m fro m attendin g t o thi s importan t branc h o f th e administration Vaccinations. —According t o figures furnishe d t o thi s offic e b y municipa l presidents 83,00 0 person s o f bot h sexe s wer e vaccinate d durin g th e year Th e provinc e ha s som e 8 8 demente d persons fo r who m ther e i s n o asylum Th e lepe r hospita l i s i n charg e o f Seho r Juli o Tuason a practicant e i n medicine an d contain s som e 2 5 patients Ther e ar e som e 7 5 other s scattere d throughou t th e provinc e wh o migh t b e bette r of f i n th e hospital considerin g it s conditions Th e tow n o f Nuev a Cacere s an d adjacen t pueblos o n accoun t o f thei r lo w situation ar e periodicall y subjec t t o floods an d therefor e unhealthy Durin g th e rain y seaso n th e majorit y o f it s streets an d al l lo w place s ar e ofte n unde r wate r fo r severa l day s a t a time T o thes e unhealth y condition s mus t b e adde d th e lac k o f goo d drinkin g water al l tha t fo r domesti c purpose s bein g take n fro m th e river whic h i s no t a s clea n a s migh t b e desired I f i t i s wishe d t o improv e th e water-suppl y syste m i t wil l b e necessar y t o la y a pip e lin e fro m th e uppe r par t o f th e pueblo PUBLI C WORKS Th e preservatio n o f publi c building s an d provincia l road s demand s tha t the y b e immediatel y repaire d an d th e expenditur e o f appropriation s mad e fo r th e purpose Durin g th e shor t perio d tha t I hav e hel d th e gubernatoria l offic e th e followin g publi c improvement s wer e carrie d o n a t th e expens e indicate d below : Wall 2 fee t 5 inche s thic k an d 8 5 fee t long buil t o n th e prem ise s o f th e provincia l building ; cost $2,167.99 Repair s t o provincia l jail ; fixing furniture ; whitewashin g an d repair s t o roof ; cost $507.16 Wor k o n roa d an d bridg e betwee n Nuev a Cacere s an d Quipayo ; cost $2,013.65 Mexican an d $3,698.82 Congressiona l relie f funds

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14 0 Constructio n o f 25,97 0 fee t ditchin g an d repai r o f tw o bridges 8 an d 1 0 feet betwee n Nuev a Ecij a an d Iriga ; cost $2,762.11 provincia l funds Fo r repai r 5,00 0 fee t roa d an d si x bridges 8 t o 5 0 feet an d nip a roo f fo r on e 45-foo t bridg e o n sam e road ; cost $3,697.02 Congressiona l relie f funds Repai r o f 5,28 0 fee t roa d betwee n Nabu a an d Iriga ; cost $428.18 Congressiona l relie f funds Repai r o f roa d betwee n Irig a an d Buhi 1,50 0 feet ; als o wit h Congressiona l relie f funds Clearin g highwa y betwee n Lup i an d Ragay ; cost $98.75 Congres siona l relie f funds Improvemen t an d dredgin g Bico l Rive r t o allo w passag e o f thre e stea m launches makin g dail y trips ; distance 6 miles ; cost $1,280.38 Congressiona l relie f funds Al l o f thi s wor k wa s don e unde r th e intelligen t supervisio n o f th e provincia l supervisor Mr Edwar d P Shuman an d severa l efficien t foremen bot h American s an d Filipinos COMMERCE, NAVIGATION AN D MEAN S O F TRANSPORTATION Th e commerc e o f thi s provinc e consist s i n th e exportatio n o f hem p fiber whic h i s produce d i n nearl y al l o f th e pueblo s t o tak e th e plac e o f rice whic h ca n no t b e cultivate d o n accoun t o f a lac k o f draf t cattle Th e productio n o f hem p i s becomin g mor e importan t ever y day Copra ilang-ilan g (i n smal l quantities) spli t bamboo pear l shells balate lumber firewood an d gu m masti c ar e als o shippe d ou t o f th e province Betwee n th e mont h o f Jun e o f las t yea r an d th e sam e mont h thi s yea r 174,70 8 picul s o f hemp 45,67 0 picul s o f copra 18,265,14 0 piece s o f spli t bamboo an d pear l shells lumber gu m mastic balate an d cocoanu t oi l i n considerabl e quantitie s wer e shippe d ou t fro m th e por t o f Daet Nuev a Cacere s shippe d 218,67 6 picul s o f hemp 36,28 3 sack s o f copra 50 2 tin s o f cocoanu t oil ; Lagono y district 193,85 0 picul s o f hem p an d othe r articles Thi s por t importe d ric e i n larg e quantities anisett e wine flour an d othe r foreig n manufacture d articles Durin g th e sam e perio d o f tim e Dae t importe d 54,75 0 piculs o f rice 8,50 0 arroba s o f nativ e liquors 14 5 quintal s o f flour an d a larg e quantit y o f othe r merchandise

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14 1 Nuev a Cacere s importe d durin g th e perio d mentione d 358,97 1 picul s o f rice 19,54 0 tin s o f petroleum 6,79 3 sack s o f salt 5,83 3 sack s flour 6,09 7 demijohn s anisette an d a considerabl e quantit y o f othe r merchandise Severa l steamer s cal l fro m Manil a twic e a wee k a t th e port s o f Lagonoy Dae t an d Nuev a Caceres beside s othe r vessel s carryin g freight Th e port s o f Pasaca o an d Raga y ar e als o visite d b y vessel s o f al l descriptions Ther e ar e thre e stea m launche s a t presen t navigatin g th e Bico l Rive r tha t carr y freigh t an d mak e tw o o r thre e trip s a week Th e lac k o f dredge s t o deepe n th e channe l an d ba r a t Sa n Migue l Ba y make s i t impossibl e fo r larg e vessel s t o mak e Nuev a Caceres Ther e ar e wago n road s connectin g nearl y al l o f th e pueblos bu t som e o f the m ca n no t communicat e wit h th e provincia l capita l excep t b y ver y ba d road s scarcel y suitabl e fo r vehicle s o r horses Thi s i s especiall y tru e o f th e town s i n th e district s o f Dae t an d Lagonoy FORESTR Y WEALTH Th e Tinalmu d mountai n chai n extendin g throug h th e district s o f Ragay Lupi Sipocot an d al l o f th e souther n par t o f th e provinc e contain s forest s wher e th e followin g valuabl e specie s o f wood s pre dominate : Aranoja mangachapuy dungol ipil calantas tindalo an d barayong ; an d a s o f th e secon d group palo-maria batitinan molave narra lanaan banoy malanijat an d baticuling I n th e centra l chain—tha t is th e foothill s o f Moun t Isarog lyin g withi n th e district s o f th e pueblo s o f Bato Bula Nabua Baao Minalabog Sa n Fernando Pamplona an d Libmanan—th e followin g specie s predominate : Anaj'aoan hapnit ogao carogcog teadean wood s generall y use d fo r buildin g purposes ; an d als o molave narra mangachapuy barayon g an d batitinan tha t ar e wood s o f considerabl e valu e o n accoun t o f thei r goo d quality Ther e ar e als o th e wood s suc h a s taloto malapaya matanguaco polotan putat, tabog an d ubad whic h ar e o f s o inferio r a qualit y a s seldo m t o b e utilized Th e forest s o f Caramoan Siroma an d Tinamba c ar e ric h i n th e mos t highl y prize d species suc h a s molave narra mangachapu y (yellow) tindalo batitinan an d guijo Thoug h no t i n abundac e dohgon malasinero barayong an d yaca l ar e als o t o b e found Th e distric t o f Dae t als o contain s th e bes t clas s o f timbe r i n it s forests

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14 2 I n it s mangrov e swamp s firewoods o f th e followin g specie s ar e found : Tanogan bacanan culasi langaray tongag dayon an d pagatpat I n th e distric t o f Lagono y o n th e spur s o f Moun t Isaro g narr a i s cu t i n good-size d lengths Th e followin g wood s ar e als o lum bere d t o quit e a n extent : Lauan anajaoan danlog teadean catmon bulala an d o n a smal l scal e guijo carogcog palo-maria barayong, balnot aga anabe ba r in betis camagsa balete bagtugnin buluy butihan hanaya hinguio magney malobago mayquidit napus hito olas oyango pandan pina saba samorong-pula samorong puti tanag tindoc an d al l kind s o f bamboos o f whic h th e variet y know n a s malapay o yield s th e bala o oil ar e t o b e foun d i n th e forest s o f Ragay Lupi an d Sipocot" Man y medicina l plant s ar e known Sam o i n abundance calin gog o r wil d cinnamon th e wil d fig, hagonoy maeahuhay dita anunana an d man y others FORESTR Y STATISTICS Consumptio n i n th e province 138,95 5 cubi c feet value d a t $7,767.87 ; firewood, 6,95 9 squar e meters value d a t $1,114.31 Shippe d t o Manila : Lumber 103,35 1 cubi c feet value d a t $13,184.24 ; firewood, 1,08 6 squar e meters value d a t $217.25 Fre e cutting 34 3 cubi c feet value d a t $1,901.35 ; makin g a tota l o f 242,64 9 cubi c feet value d a t $22,853.46 an d 8,04 4 squar e meter s o f firewood, value d a t $1,331.56 POSTA L SERVICE Ther e ar e eleve n post-office s i n th e province—Nuev a Caceres Libmanan Pasacao Pamplona Calabanga Magarao Iriga Nabua Tigaon Sa n Jose an d Daet Mail s leav e Nuev a Cacere s twic e a wee k fo r al l post-office s i n th e provinc e excep t Pasaca o an d Pamplona wher e the y ar e sen t onc e a week Mail s fo r Dae t leav e b y ever y steamer Th e mail s ar e carrie d b y th e municipalitie s wit h th e exceptio n o f Nabua Iriga an d Daet T o Nabu a an d Irig a the y ar e carrie d b y th e launc h Bicol. Durin g th e yea r 1903 1,24 9 sack s o f mai l wer e receive d b y th e Nuev a Cacere s post-offic e an d 83 5 sack s dispatched Numbe r o f registere d letters 1,016 ; numbe r o f registere d packages 553 Nuev a Cacere s i s th e onl y money-orde r office Numbe r issue d i n 1903 1,597 ; numbe r paid 248

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14 3 ELECTIONS Th e las t election s i n th e 3 5 pneblo s o f thi s provinc e wer e hel d o n th e first Monda y o f thi s month Protest s fro m 2 3 pueblo s wer e received whic h th e provincia l boar d se t right Th e majorit y o f th e protest s agains t th e result s o f th e election s aros e fro m part y question s o f smal l importanc e an d ha d relatio n t o irregularitie s oi l th e par t o f electora l boards Th e provincia l boar d devote d mos t o f it s session s durin g th e mont h o f Decembe r t o th e settlemen t o f thes e questions mor e tha n 4 5 session s havin g bee n hel d an d 1 3 Teelection s ordered I n sai d election s 6,14 0 dul y qualifie d elector s voted ; 3 3 pueblo s swor e i n thei r municipa l officers Revenues and expenditures of the provincial treasury of Ambos Camarines during the year 1903. Item Philippin e currency revenues Balanc e i n cas h Decembe r 31,190 2 Registratio n o f propert y Supplie s sol d t o municipalitie s Industria l ta x Cedulas. Stamp s Car t taxe s Lan d ta x Municipa l ta x Forestr y ta x Revenue s (internal ) Sale s fo r nonpaymen t lan d ta x Tota l revenue s Fl,094.3 8 251.2 5 381.6 9 9,914.7 0 534.9 4 385.6 9 40.6 4 20,766.7 6 1,188.0 6 8,661.5 1 450.0 8 350.6 0 44,020.3 0 expenditures Payment s t o municipalitie s Road s an d bridge s Repai r o f norma l schoo l Supplie s Expense s o f cour t an d jai l Transportatio n Rent s Cost s o f sale s fo r nonpaymen t lan d ta x Repair s t o building s Provincia l boar d o f healt h Salarie s o f employee s Travelin g expense s Volunteer s Commissions sale s o f cedula s Inoculatio n o f locust s ____ • Balanc e i n cas h Decembe r 31,190 3 Tota l expenditure s Balanc e i n cas n Decembe r 31,190 2 Tota l revenue s durin g th e yea r Tota l revenue s durin g th e yea r ____ Tota l expenditure s durin g th e year 838.0 8 2.092.4 3 7.2 0 4,493.8 5 2.616.4 4 3,390.0 9 167.7 7 726.6 0 2,519.0 5 1,441.! 13,175.1 8 851.2 5 Balanc e i n cas h Decembe r 31,190 3 55.0 0 11,645.4 8 •44,020.3 0 1,094.3 8 42,925.9 2 44,020.3 0 32,374.8 2 11,645.4 8

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14 4 GENERAL Durin g m y ter m i n offic e al l matters bot h municipa l an d provin cial hav e bee n adequatel y administered an d I ca n sa y tha t n o complain t ha s com e t o m y knowledg e befor e o r afte r m y recen t officia l visi t t o th e pueblos whic h demonstrate s th e satisfactor y condition s o f th e province Th e provincia l boar d ha s mad e bu t on e investigatio n o f a municipa l president—tha t o f Moise s Sayson o f Bato o n th e charg e o f neglec t o f dut y upo n th e occasio n whe n hi s puebl o wa s invade d b y th e ladrone s las t July—whic h fac t I men tione d i n m y telegra m o f th e 14t h o f th e sai d month I n thi s cas e th e boar d wa s regretfull y compelle d t o suspen d thi s office r an d recommen d hi s removal I n al l o f th e branche s o f th e provincia l governmen t I hav e observe d tha t al l employee s hav e discharge d thei r dutie s wit h integrity probity loyalty an d i n goo d faith the y bein g worth y o f th e confidenc e repose d i n the m b y th e Government an d i t i s a sourc e o f satisfactio n t o m e t o her e se t fort h th e hig h qualitie s tha t ador n thes e officer s an d t o acknowledg e th e deb t o f gratitud e owe d the m b y th e provinc e I govern Respectfull y submitted JUA N PIMENTEL Governor of the Province of Ambos Camarines. Th e CIVI L GOVERNO R O F TH E PHILIPPIN E ISLANDS REPOR T O P TH E ACTIN G PROVINCIA L GOVERNOR OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR PROVINC E O F AMBO S CAMARINES Nueva Caceres, July 15, 1904-. SI R : I n accordanc e wit h th e provision s o f Ac t No 1044 I hav e th e hono r t o submi t th e followin g repor t a s th e actin g governo r o f th e Provinc e o f Ambo s Camarine s fo r th e fisca l yea r ende d Jun e 30 1904 : Hon Jua n Pimentel th e provincia l governor havin g bee n appointe d a n honorar y commissione r t o visi t th e expositio n a t St Louis I wa s appointe d actin g provincia l governo r o n Apri l 28 1904 an d assume d th e dutie s o f th e offic e o n Ma y 12 1904 Unde r dat e o f Decembe r 31 1903 Governo r Pimente l submitte d a ful l repor t fo r th e calenda r yea r ende d tha t day i n accordanc e wit h

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14 5 th e la w the n i n force an d consequentl y i n thi s repor t I shal l no t reiterat e detail s full y covere d i n hi s report th e condition s no t havin g materiall y change d sinc e hi s repor t wa s made COMMERCIAL Th e export s o f th e provinc e ar e hemp coprax an d bejuco O f thes e hem p i s th e onl y produc t exporte d i n an y considerabl e quantity Th e import s ar e ric e an d article s fo r genera l domesti c consumption th e chie f articl e importe d bein g rice Th e cultur e o f hem p an d othe r product s o f th e provinc e coul d b e greatl y extende d wer e i t no t fo r th e lac k o f mean s o f transportation Transportatio n an d commerc e ar e S o interdependen t tha t the y mus t exis t togethe r o r no t a t all Th e incom e fro m th e roa d ta x i s hardl y sufficien t t o kee p i n repai r existin g roads Ne w roa d i n thi s provinc e cost s a t leas t 1*6,00 0 pe r mile an d th e projec t o f adequatel y supplyin g ne w road s i s s o vas t an d expensiv e tha t i t ca n no t b e considered Th e questio n befor e u s -the n is What i f anything ca n b e don e t o ameliorat e existin g condition s unti l suc h tim e a s capita l ca n b e enliste d t o buil d railway s ? Th e Bico l Rive r run s throug h th e centra l portio n o f th e province fro m th e Alba y lin e t o th e Ba y o f Sa n Miguel O n it s bank s an d it s tributarie s an d estuarie s ar e situate d fiftee n munic ipalities whic h ca n al l b e reache d b y barato o r canoe whic h i s practicall y th e onl y mean s o f communicatio n the y no w have On e smal l stern-whee l boa t an d a smal l launc h no w navigat e th e rive r proper bu t durin g th e dr y seaso n i t i s difficul t an d dangerous I thin k wit h th e expenditur e o f a su m o f mone y comparativel y smal l a s compare d wit h th e buildin g o f road s thi s rive r an d it s tributarie s an d estuarie s coul d b e mad e navigabl e fo r rive r steamer s a t al l seasons Wer e thi s th e cas e th e provinc e coul d the n devot e it s availabl e fund s t o th e wor k o f buildin g road s fro m th e rive r int o th e country thu s openin g ne w area s t o cultivatio n an d increasin g th e productivenes s o f th e province Thi s work however shoul d b e undertake n b y th e Insula r Government an d you r attentio n i s respectfull y calle d t o it s urgenc y an d necessity A tramwa y t o b e operate d b y anima l powe r i s no w bein g buil t fro m Mercedes th e por t o f Daet t o th e municipalit y o f Daet I t i s believe d tha t thi s wil l prov e successfu l an d wil l b e th e beginnin g o f improve d mean s o f transportation 2490 4 1 0

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14 6 ECONOMIC Th e economi c conditio n o f th e provinc e i s poor bu t ma y b e sai d t o b e ver y slowl y improving Th e grea t scarcit y o f animal s fo r agricultura l wor k i s th e principa l caus e o f th e presen t condition I n Camarine s Nort e an d th e partid o o f Lagoiioy wher e hem p i s th e principa l product th e peopl e ar e i n a fairl y prosperou s condi tion I n th e centra l portio n o f th e province wher e ric e wa s formerl y th e principa l product th e peopl e ar e ver y poor Th e numbe r o f carabao s i s slowl y increasing Th e diseas e tha t ha s bee n killin g th e carabao s ha s recentl y reappeare d i n tw o place s i n th e province bu t i n eac h cas e wa s promptl y checke d b y mean s o f inoculation Th e surr a ha s recentl y reappeare d an d i s rapidl y reducin g th e smal l numbe r o f horse s whic h survive d th e previou s epidemic FINANCIAL Th e receipt s an d disbursement s fo r th e fisca l yea r ende d Jun e 30 1904 hav e bee n a s follow s : Receipts and disbursements. Philippin e currency Loca l cur rency receipts Balanc e o n hand provincia l an d municipal Jul y 1,1903 Lan d tax : Provincia l Municipal — Registr y o f propert y Miscellaneou s provincia l revenu e Industria l ta x "Cedul a ta x • Stam p ta x Car t ta x Miscellaneou s municipa l taxe s Tota l Receipt s fro m Insula r Treasur y b y warrant Forestr y taxe s refunde d Payment s t o volunteer s refunde d Exchange s o f currencie s Tota l receipts disbursements Salarie s o f official s Salarie s o f clerk s an d permanen t employee s Provincia l ground s an d b.uilding s Furnitur e an d offic e supplie s .. Miscellaneou s •Expenditure s fo r road s an d bridge s Exchange s o f currencie s Transferre d t o municipalitie s Balanc e o n hand provincia l an d municipal Jun e 30 190 4 Tota l disbursement s 1*4,261.4 0 19,435.3 4 24,312.6 4 366.2 5 3,548.3 0 24,920.6 7 12,635.1 0 969.3 2 454.9 6 3,357.1 3 94,261.1 1 14,967.3 3 2,219.6 6 76,832.1 3 188,280.2 3 19,087.6 5 15,219.6 9 3,052.2 6 7,154.8 1 26,045.2 3 5,740.5 6 42,454.4 7 54,709.8 3 14,815.7 3 188,280.2 3 $29,900.1 6 22,812.8 4 29,419.1 0 25.0 8 2,336.8 3 23,669.9 6 26,162.3 7 721.7 6 323.7 3 3,972.8 6 139,344.6 9 47,830.7 9 187,175.4 8 3,946.6 9 4,198.4 9 270.1 0 327.8 1 9,703.9 3 2,763.1 2 86,982.0 3 51,055.2 6 27,928.0 5 187,175.4 8

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14 7 Th e receipt s ar e sufficien t fo r th e ordinar y provincia l expenses bu t ther e i s no t sufficien t surplu s fo r neede d publi c improvements Ther e ha s als o bee n receive d fro m th e Congressiona l relie f fun d 1*14,983.8 0 an d Pfs 4,743.77 whic h ha s bee n expende d i n roa d an d bridg e wor k an d i n buildin g temporar y schoolhouse s i n th e municipalitie s whic h neede d the m th e most A provincia l schoo l buildin g i s badl y needed an d i t i s hope d tha t ai d fo r tha t purpos e ma y b e ha d fro m th e Insula r Government Th e ne w revenu e la w wil l probabl y no t materiall y chang e th e revenu e o f th e province INDUSTRIAL N o manufacture d article s a"r e exporte d fro m th e province Abou t 6 0 pe r cen t o f th e are a o f th e provinc e i s fores t lan d an d nearl y al l o f th e timbe r valuable bu t th e difficult y i n transportatio n fro m th e fores t t o tidewate r restrict s th e output POLITICAL Th e municipa l election s wer e commente d upo n i n th e repor t o f Governo r Pimentel an d I wil l no t touc h upo n tha t subject Ther e hav e bee n n o disturbance s o f consequence O n th e borde r o f th e provinc e betwee n Tayaba s an d Ambo s Camarine s a ban d o f ladrone s ha s lon g existed bu t th e Constabular y prosecute d a vigorou s cam paig n agains t the m an d thei r leade r i s believe d t o hav e bee n killed A t al l event s the y hav e give n n o trouble fo r severa l months O n th e Alba y borde r a simila r ban d stil l exist s an d i t i s hope d tha t th e Constabular y wil l succee d i n capturin g them On e Jos e Raldon comin g fro m th e Provinc e o f Tayabas appeare d i n th e centra l par t o f th e provinc e i n th e mont h o f Ma y an d attempte d t o organiz e a force bu t withou t success H e onl y gathere d abou t hi m a fe w ignoran t worker s i n th e hem p fields A s a rul e th e municipa l officer s i n th e municipalitie s i n whic h thi s ma n attempte d hi s wor k wer e activ e an d efficien t i n givin g informatio n an d th e Constab ular y wer e a t all.time s advise d o f hi s approximat e whereabouts althoug h the y wer e unabl e t o captur e him H e ha s sinc e returne d t o Tayabas CONCLUSION Th e provincia l officer s ar e zealou s an d efficien t i n th e perform anc e o f thei r dutie s an d i t give s m e grea t pleasur e t o repor t tha t

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14 8 al l department s o f th e governmen t i n thi s province bot h insula r an d provincial ar e workin g i n perfec t harmony an d nothin g ha s occurre d t o distur b th e pleasan t relations bot h officia l an d social tha t exis t betwee n th e severa l officials Ver y respectfully J Q A BRADEN Acting Provincial Governor. Th e CIVI L GOVERNO R O F TH E PHILIPPIN E ISLANDS

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ANTIQUE OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR PROVINC E O F ANTIQUE San Jose de Buena Vista, July 15/ 1901+. SI R : I n accordanc e wit h Ac t No 1044, I hav e th e hono r t o submi t t o yo u th e followin g repor t fo r th e fiscal yea r endin g Jun e 30 1904 : PROVINCIA L ADMINISTRATION Th e governmen t o f th e Provinc e o f Antiqu e ha s withi n it s scop e 1 1 municipalities tha t bein g th e numbe r t o whic h th e 2 1 pueblo s tha t formerl y mad e u p th e provinc e wer e reduce d b y virtu e o f th e provision s o f Ac t No 961 The y hav e a tota l populatio n o f nearl y 134,00 0 inhabitants Th e consolidatio n o f th e municipalitie s ha s increase d th e exten t o f territor y governe d b y eac h o f th e municipa l presidentes bu t i t ha s als o resulte d i n offerin g a bette r opportunit y fo r th e selectio n o f capabl e me n t o harmoniz e th e opposin g interest s o f th e consoli date d pueblo s an d t o solv e th e man y problem s o f municipa l administration A s a consequenc e o f thi s fusio n w e ar e gla d t o b e abl e t o stat e tha t w e no w hav e bette r municipa l official s wh o hav e s o fa r show n tha t the y hav e a bette r knowledg e o f thei r power s an d dutie s tha n thei r predecessors an d henc e th e municipa l government s hav e bee n mor e properl y conducte d alon g lega l lines Thi s bein g th e case th e actio n o f th e provincia l governmen t ha s no t me t wit h delay s o r opposition s t o an y grea t extent an d th e civi l governmen t in augurate d i n thi s provinc e o n Apri l 13 1901 ha s steadil y improved A t th e presen t tim e th e provinc e ha s n o interpreter th e provincia l boar d ha s als o abolishe d som e clerica l positions an d th e provincia l jai l ha s bee n place d unde r th e custod y o f th e Constabulary Th e financial conditio n ha s no t bee n a s goo d a s i t shoul d owin g t o th e scarcit y o f product s brough t abou t b y th e serie s o f mis fortune s t o th e provinc e an d becaus e th e taxpayer s wer e unabl e t o mee t thei r obligation s unti l th e las t quarte r o f th e fiscal year However th e appointmen t o f municipa l treasurer s a s deputie s o f th e supervisor-treasure r i n thei r respectiv e municipalitie s unde r th e 14 9

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15 0 provision s o f Ac t Xo 999 will i t i s believed brin g abou t a n improvemen t i n th e financia l conditio n o f th e provinc e an d reliev e i t i n th e futur e fro m financia l stress CONSOLIDATIO N O F MUNICIPALITIE S MUNICIPA L POLICE Th e propositio n o f consolidatin g th e municipalitie s wa s no t a s a genera l rul e wel l receive d b y a majorit y o f th e official s o f th e pueblos a s the y harbore d th e fea r tha t wit h th e fusio n thos e pueblo s tha t wer e no t selecte d a s th e seat s o f th e ne w municipa l government s woul d b e entirel y neglected a s th e officer s o f th e newl y organize d pueblos howeve r grea t thei r activit y migh t be woul d b e unabl e t o loo k afte r th e need s o f th e man y barrio s include d withi n th e jurisdictio n o f th e ne w municipalitieis I t i s m y opinion how ever tha t somethin g ha s bee n gaine d b y thi s change ; a bette r clas s o f municipa l officer s ha s bee n selecte d t o administe r th e ne w municipalities a s a genera l rule an d the y hav e demonstrate d tha t the y ar e me n o f a highe r intelligenc e and o f a mor e extensiv e knowledg e o f thei r dutie s tha n th e official s o f th e ol d pueblos Th e succes s o f thi s measur e would hav e bee n mor e complet e i f th e municipa l polic e ha d bee n furnishe d wit h mor e an d bette r arm s an d place d unde r th e supervisio n o f th e inspector s o f Constab ular y i n s o fa r a s disciplin e i s concerned bu t lef t entirel y unde r th e contro l o f th e municipa l presidente s i n al l othe r things th e latte r bein g unde r th e direc t supervisio n o f th e provincia l governor I strongl y recommen d thi s measur e i n th e interest s o f th e pueblo s themselves O n th e othe r hand i t i s believe d tha t th e administra tio n o f th e pueblo s shoul d b e lef t entirel y i n thei r ow n hands an d tha t responsibilit y shoul d b e exacte d fro m the m fo r fault s com mitted I t i s logica l i f suc h responsibilit y i s exacte d fro m the m tha t the y shoul d b e give n a n opportunit y t o compl y wit h thei r duties—amon g these t o preserv e goo d orde r an d publi c safety — bu t a n unarme d municipa l polic e forc e ca n no t hop e t o obtai n th e respec t o f malefactor s an d enemie s o f th e publi c older—it s service s ca n b e o f littl e o r n o valu e fo r safeguardin g th e interest s o f th e pueblos—an d i t simpl y become s a decorativ e appendag e o f th e municipality Tha t th e municipa l polic e hav e no t demon strate d u p t o no w tha t the y ar e a discipline d forc e an d fo r thi s reaso n i t i s believe d dangerou s t o trus t the m wit h rifles i s a questio n tha t ca n b e solve d i n th e first plac e b y th e bond s exacte d fro m municipa l officials an d i n th e secon d plac e b y th e senio r

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15 1 inspecto r o f Constabular y o f th e province wh o ca n detai l a n office r properl y t o disciplin e th e member s o f th e municipa l polic e force Wit h a n efficien t corp s i n eac h on e o f th e pueblo s som e o f th e detachment s o f Constabular y coul d b e redueed thu s savin g use les s expens e t o th e Insula r Government MALEFACTOR S SURRENDERE D PARDON S FO R SAME Th e Provinc e o f Antiqu e ca n prid e itsel f upo n bein g on e o f th e mos t peacefu l province s o f th e Archipelago I t ha s enjoye d a n Octavia n peac e sinc e th e Bantolo s wer e capture d an d sentence d t o lon g term s o f imprisonmen t i n January 1903 Thes e individual s ha d bee n a sourc e o f troubl e fo r a lon g tim e t o th e centra l par t o f th e province Santos' s ban d an d othe r ladrone s als o surren dere d t o m e abou t th e sam e time manifestin g thei r willingnes s to liv e withi n th e pal e o f th e law Mor e recentl y th e notoriou s band s Unde r Ompon g an d Agustin numbering 23 0 men presente d them selve s wit h thei r arm s o n Jun e 22 1904 a t Pandan The y ha d bee n a nightmar e t o th e pueblo s o f th e norther n par t o f th e prov ince especiall y Panda n an d Sebaste th e fiel d o f thei r depredations Wit h th e presentatio n an d captur e o f th e bandit s mentione d i t ca n b e assure d tha t ther e i s no w n o gan g o f bandit s i n thi s provinc e wit h th e exceptio n o f on e unde r Bitoc whic h ha s foun d refug e i n th e fastnesse s o f th e forest s o f Capi z nea r th e Panda n an d Culas i Hills Thi s ban d operate s usuall y i n Capiz Thes e outlaw s presente d themselves trustin g tha t the y woul d no t b e moleste d b y th e Governmen t fo r thei r pas t misdeeds an d I woul d sugges t tha t the y b e pardoned believin g tha t th e arres t an d prosecutio n o f an y o f the m fo r pas t offense s woul d b e sufficien t t o mak e al l th e res t retur n t o th e hill s an d unde r th e spu r o f hunge r t o rene w thei r operation s agains t th e neighborin g pueblos I believ e tha t i t woul d b e preferabl e t o relegat e t o oblivio n th e pas t action s o f thes e me n i f thei r prosecutio n woul d jeopardiz e th e tranquillit y o f ou r province DANGER S T O PEACE I n spit e o f th e fac t tha t w e ar e enjoyin g complet e peac e here th e grea t fea r i s tha t disturbance s ma y gro w ou t o f th e religiou s strif e betwee n th e follower s o f Aglipayan s an d thos e o f th e Roma n Catholi c chitrches a s ther e ha s bee n a recrudescenc e o f th e hostil e feelin g betwee n the m durin g th e pas t fisca l year Thi s strif e i s

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15 2 no t th e resul t o f th e desir e o n th e par t o f eithe r o f the m t o hav e th e ascendanc y ove r th e mind s o f th e people bu t i s du e t o th e interventio n o f th e fria r element which asid e fro m it s religiou s character i s her e considere d a s a politica l an d socia l evil th e mer e presenc e o f whic h embitter s th e mind s o f th e masse s an d produce s genera l il l feeling I n Bugaso n a fria r name d Vaquerin g produce d suc h a stat e o f affair s upo n hi s arriva l i n tha t pueblo ; th e sam e thin g i s passin g i n Pandan wher e ther e i s anothe r friar Th e fria r Doming o wa s recentl y receive d i n Da o wit h a showe r o f stones an d i t ca n b e safel y asserte d tha t an y othe r puebl o wil l receiv e friar s i n a lik e manne r shoul d i t hav e th e misfortun e t o b e visite d b y them Th e mer e reaso n tha t ther e i s no t a n enlight ene d Filipin o i n th e Island s wh o i s i n favo r o f havin g th e friar s her e i s i n m y humbl e opinio n sufficien t motiv e fo r th e Governmen t t o adop t measure s t o prohibi t th e entranc e o f thi s prejudicia l elemen t i n th e Archipelag o i n th e sam e manne r a s th e entranc e o f Chines e int o th e Unite d State s i s prohibited Withou t th e interventio n o f th e fria r th e religiou s contention s betwee n Agli payan s an d Roma n Catholic s wer e o f n o importanc e whatever RICE—IT S QUALITY Th e financia l conditio n o f th e provinc e wa s seriousl y affecte d b y a serie s o f calamitie s whic h destroye d nearl y al l agricultur e sinc e 1901 Durin g th e yea r 190 3 th e choler a epidemi c an d fever s mad e thei r appearanc e i n th e mont h o f May an d wer e a t thei r heigh t durin g th e seaso n o f sowing fo r whic h reaso n les s tha n one-hal f o f the plantation s wa s se t out an d o f wha t wa s sown whic h di d no t gro w wel l o n accoun t o f th e drout h lastin g fro m th e latte r par t o f Jul y t o th e beginnin g o f August one-thir d wa s badl y cultivated du e i n th e firs t plac e t o th e fea r o f th e peopl e t o g o ou t i n th e field s durin g th e choler a epidemi c an d i n th e secon d plac e t o th e lac k o f carabaos O n th e to p o f al l o f thes e misfortune s i t happene d tha t durin g th e harves t seaso n i n Decembe r i t raine d s o har d tha t th e qualit y o f th e ric e wa s spoiled s o tha t th e Antiqu e articl e i s no t a t presen t wel l receive d i n th e niarket Ther e is however a sufficien t stoc k o f thi s cerea l i n th e granarie s o f th e planter s t o fee d al l o f th e inhabitant s o f th e provinc e unti l som e month s afte r th e nex t harvest As ther e wa s bu t littl e sale althoug h w e d o no t fea r famin e w e will however suffe r fro m a lac k o f money Fortunately, th e en d o f th e fisca l yea r appear s t o smil e upo n th e farmers th e rain s fro m Apri l t o Jul y havin g bee n ver y favorabl e t o th e crops s o tha t i f

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15 3 the y continu e t o fal l a s the y hav e don e u p t o th e presen t tim e brighte r prospect s ma y b e cherishe d o f a n abundan t harves t durin g th e comin g fisca l year HEM P I N PLAC E O F SUGA R OTHE R PRODUCTS Uuti l 189 6 suga r wa s th e principa l produc t o f thi s province bu t subsequen t t o thi s dat e th e destructio n o f machiner y durin g th e revolutio n an d mor e recentl y th e deat h o f draf t animal s hav e con tribute d t o th e declin e o f th e suga r industry whic h ma y b e sai d t o hav e receive d a deat h blow ruinin g th e suga r planter s an d produc in g a monetar y crisi s i n th e province whic h wa s aggravate d b y man y calamitie s lik e locust s an d rat s i n 190 2 an d th e beginnin g o f 1903 beside s th e epidemi c diseases A t th e presen t tim e th e pro ductio n o f suga r i s almos t nothing Man y o f th e planters profitin g b y thi s sever e lesso n an d encourage d b y th e hig h price s fo r hemp decide d i n 190 2 t o plan t hem p instea d o f sugar Th e forme r grow s wel l throughou t th e entir e province especiall y s o i n th e pueblo s o f Panda n an d Culasi Durin g th e pas t fiscal yea r larg e plantation s o f thi s textil e plan t hav e bee n mad e i n Panda n an d Culas i a s wel l a s o n smalle r scal e throughou t th e othe r pueblo s o f Antique wit h th e exceptio n o f Sa n Jos e d e Buen a Vista whos e land s ar e no t suitabl e fo r it s cultivation I t i s certai n tha t afte r five year s th e Provinc e o f Antiqu e wil l figure a s on e o f th e hemp-producin g province s o f th e Archipelago Th e principa l produc t o f th e provinc e i s rice whic h i s grow n i n sufficien t quantitie s no t onl y fo r loca l consumptio n bu t als o fo r shipmen t t o Iloilo Capiz an d Mindoro eve n durin g ba d years Whil e hem p grow s luxuriantl y i n th e interior eve n o n th e side s o f th e mountains cocoanut s ar e bes t adapte d t o th e seacosts an d i t i s expecte d tha t i n te n year s fro m th e presen t tim e on e o f th e principa l product s o f Antiqu e will-b e copra Coco a an d coffe e gro w wel l i n al l o f th e pueblo s o f th e province ; th e coco a o f Barbaza knqw n commerciall y a s "Antiqu e cocoa, i s muc h sough t afte r an d bring s a hig h pric e i n th e marke t o f Iloilo However th e productio n o f thes e tw o article s i s scarcel y sufficien t t o satisf y loca l consumptio n a t present I hav e greatl y wondere d wh y i t i s tha t coco a an d coffee bein g o f a qualit y superio r t o tha t o f Lipa ar e no t grow n i n quantitie s sufficien t fo r export Thi s i s a proble m whic h I shal l submi t t o th e consideratio n o f th e municipa l officer s an d tr y t o ge t the m intereste d i n encouragin g th e peopl e o f thei r respectiv e pueblo s t o tak e u p thi s ver y profitabl e business

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15 4 Th e provinc e als o produce s th e mong o an d a larg e variet y o f vegetable s an d smal l fruit s wit h migh t b e mad e a n elemen t o f it s wealt h i f w e ha d rapi d an d eas y mean s o f communicatio n wit h th e larg e center s o f populatio n i n th e Islan d o f Panay TI-I E NEGRITOS Beside s th e Christa n populatio n ther e i s a certai n numbe r o f Negrito s o r iEtas wh o liv e o n th e side s o f th e mountain s an d in ; th e neighborhoo d o f streams Thei r numbe r i s approximatel y 50 0 souls includin g men women an d children The y ar e savages bu t coul d b e groupe d togethe r unde r a suitabl e governmen t o f thei r own Beside s thes e ther e ar e mountai n tribe s wh o numbe r ove r 2,00 0 i n al l o f th e municipalitie s o f th e province Thes e peopl e hav e n o connectio n whateve r wit h th e Christia n population hav e supersti tiou s beliefs an d hid e themselve s i n th e fastnesse s o f th e mos t inaccessibl e forests Thei r grouping i f possibl e unde r a separat e government woul d b e mor e advantageou s t o thei r ow n interest s an d t o thos e o f th e province The y shoul d no t b e subjecte d t o an y sor t o f taxatio n fo r som e }^ears Befor e finishin g thi s repor t I regre t t o stat e tha t insuperabl e difficultie s hav e prevente d m e fro m sendin g photograph s whic h i t Wa s m y desir e shoul d accompan y it bu t th e lac k o f a camer a ha s mad e th e realizatio n o f m y wis h a n impossibility Fo r tha t reaso n I conside r m y repor t incomplete Finally I hav e th e satisfactio n o f sayin g tha t a s a genera l rul e th e employee s o f thi s governmen t ar e efficient an d I a m complyin g wit h a dut y i n statin g tha t th e official s ar e perfec t gentleme n wh o hav e extende d t o m e valuabl e assistanc e i n carryin g o n th e publi c administration Efficienc y ca n onl y b e obtaine d b y experience an d th e peopl e o f Antique a s tim e goe s on ar e demonstratin g tha t the y ar e beginnin g perfectl y t o understan d th e libera l institution s o f th e America n people Th e partisan s o f educatio n ar e eac h da y mor e numerous a s i s eloquentl y show n b y th e grea t increas e i n attendanc e a t th e publi c schools Respectfull y submitted L FULLON Governor of the Province of Antique. Th e CIVI L GOVERNO R O F TH E PHILIPPIN E ISLANDS

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BATAAN OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR PROVINC E O F BATAAN B dicing a, July 12, 190kSI R : I n accordanc e wit h th e provision s o f sectio n 7 o f th e Provin cia l Act a s amende d b y Ac t No 1044 I hav e th e hono r t o submi t th e followin g repor t fo r th e fisca l yea r endin g Jun e 30 1904 accompanie d b y te n photographi c views : COMMERCIA L CONDITIONS Th e principa l article s o f commerc e i n thi s provinc e includ e sugar lumber fres h an d sal t fish .and i n a relativel y unimportan t amount rice Durin g th e perio d embrace d b y thi s repor t th e principa l articl e o f commerc e wa s fish O f ric e ther e ha s scarcel y bee n sufficien t produce d t o cove r th e necessitie s o f th e inhabitant s o f thi s province Wit h relatio n t o sugar th e productio n o f thi s article whic h constitute s th e basi s o f th e commercia l wealt h o f th e provinc e i n general ha s bee n ver y muc h les s tha n las t year due accordin g t o th e genera l opinion t o th e competitio n o f foreig n sugar s enterin g th e Philippin e market Lumberin g t o a certai n degre e ha s bee n profitabl y carrie d on I t ma y b e state d tha t thi s industr y aii d fisherie s ar e th e onl y tw o whic h hav e increase d i n commercia l importanc e addin g t o th e provincia l wealth I t i s worth y o f note however tha t th e lumbe r outpu t a t Marivele s ha s durin g th e perio d o f thi s repor t bee n ver y limited du e t o th e fac t tha t th e nava l reservatio n a t tha t plac e occupied 1 th e majorit y o f th e bes t forest s constitutin g th e sourc e o f revenu e o f th e pueblo However b y virtu e o f th e recen t provision s o f th e superio r authorities th e large r par t o f thes e forest s ha s reverte d t o th e municipalit y a s a consequenc e o f th e reductio n o f th e nava l reservation an d th e pueblo' s revenue s hav e thereb y bee n increased Nearl y al l o f th e commerc e o f thi s provinc e wit h th e outsid e worl d i s carrie d o n b y rive r an d se a transportation bu t a s non e o f th e pueblo s i s provide d wit h wharve s transportatio n i s bot h difficul t an d costly causin g grea t har m t o busines s i n genera l a s 15 5

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15 6 wel l a s t o privat e interests I n orde r t o giv e lif e an d vigo r t o commerc e an d industr y th e constructio n o f wharve s i s a s urgentl y necessar y a s th e buildin g o f roads ports an d publi c buildings Amon g th e road s mos t neede d ar e on e fro m Balang a t o Baga c an d anothe r fro m Oran i t o Olongapo crossin g th e mountain s i n a straigh t line Fro m a commercia l a s wel l a s fro m a n administrativ e an d politica l poin t o f vie w th e constructio n o f sai d road s woul d b e o f utilit y an d benefit an d i t i s highl y desirabl e tha t th e necessar y appropriatio n fo r thi s wor k b e mad e fro m th e Congressiona l relie f fund ECONOMI C CONDITIONS Th e serie s o f disaster s whic h ha s afflicte d thi s provinc e durin g las t yea r an d th e secon d si x month s o f th e fisca l year—amon g the m th e cholera th e rinderpest th e locus t plague an d severa l fire s i n th e pueblo—ha s profoundl y affecte d it s uco.nomi c con dition Thes e untowar d events thoug h passed hav e lef t thei r natura l consequence s an d brough t about th e povert y no w felt but thank s t o th e ric e donate d b y th e Governmen t t o thi s province th e situatio n ha s bee n alleviate d an d wil l continu e t o improv e s o lon g a s thi s articl e o f foo d i s distribute d amon g th e laborer s o n publi c work s i n Bataan Th e initiativ e take n b y severa l resident s o f thi s provinc e i n makin g plantation s o f hemp an d maguey whic h grow s abundantl y i n th e forests promise s i n th e no t fa r distan t futur e t o b e o f grea t benefi t t o "th e inhabitants FINANCIA L CONDITIONS I n spit e o f th e disaster s mentioned taxe s hav e bee n pai d wit h a fai r degre e o f regularity bu t fe w taxpayer s bein g insolven t las t yea r a s compare d wit h this Th e fac t tha t th e majorit y o f th e taxpayer s ar e delinquen t a t presen t i s perhap s du e t o th e las t harves t bein g wha t wa s lef t o f th e destructio n cause d b y th e locust s tha t desolate d thi s province Th e deman d a t thi s seaso n fo r ric e an d suga r bein g almos t ni l i s als o a reaso n fo r this Sinc e th e arriva l o f Treasure r E R Yund t t o thi s provinc e taxe s hav e bee n collecte d wit h comparativ e ease Th e provincia l treasur y i s wel l abl e t o mee t th e ordinar y expense s o f th e province an d ha s jus t repai d t o th e Insula r Treasury i n spit e o f th e dis aster s referre d to th e 1*5,000 Philippin e currency loane d t o it

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15 7 INDUSTRIA L CONDITIONS Fishin g i s a n industr y whic h ha s bee n followe d b y th e inhabitant s o f nearl y al l o f th e pueblos tha t i n th e majorit y ar e coas t towns b y mean s o f weir s locate d o n th e seashor e an d als o b y net s handle d b y squad s o f me n i n vessel s o f larg e an d smal l draft Thi s industr y bring s larg e an d sur e returns a s th e majorit y o f th e fish i s transporte d i n th e sam e boat s o r b y steame r direc t t o Manil a o r adjacen t provinces wher e i t i s sbl d a t a goo d price I n som e pueblos lik e Orion warehouse s ar e locate d wher e th e fish i s salte d an d dried t o b e afterward s sol d i n Manil a an d th e nearb y provinces I t i s a busines s yieldin g constan t returns interrupte d onl y b y storm y days I n som e part s o f thi s provinc e fish hatcherie s ar e locate d wher e th e specie s name d i n th e vernacula r bangus i s propagate d i n grea t abundance bein g a n articl e o f genera l consumption Th e bangus fish ar e caugh t b y th e native s o f Baga c an d Moron g i n net s mad e o f th e sinama y textil e an d transporte d i n earthenwar e jar s o n th e shoulder s o f bearer s t o th e differen t pueblo s o f th e province Thi s metho d o f transportatio n i s th e onl y practicabl e on e o n accoun t o f th e ruggednes s o f th e countr y an d ba d roads Som e o f thes e fish hatcherie s ar e supplie d fro m Manila wher e th e fr y i s brough t fro m Taal Batangas Sal t makin g i s als o a n industr y i n th e majorit y o f th e coas t towns whic h tak e advantag e o f th e fac t tha t larg e area s o f lan d ar e subjec t t o th e overflo w b y th e sea Th e majorit y o f thes e coas t pueblo s ar e als o engage d i n th e cultivatio n o f bacauan a smal l tre e whic h grow s abundantl y o n marsh y lan d subjec t t o overflo w b y th e sea muc h sough t afte r an d esteeme d fo r firewood. Al l o f th e industrie s mentione d hav e bee n self-supportin g rathe r tha n gainin g durin g thi s period Th e cultivatio n o f indig o o n a smal l scal e ha s bee n carrie d o n i n a fe w pueblo s o f thi s province bu t i t appear s tha t a t presen t i t i s n o longe r s o o r tha t it s importanc e i s insignificant Th e principal mos t important an d productiv e industr y o f th e provinc e i s undoubtedl y tha t o f suga r obtaine d fro m cane Larg e plantation s o f can e exis t i n al l o f th e pueblos an d ther e ar e man y suga r mill s operate d b y anima l power water an d steam thoug h thes e latte r ar e ver y few Ther e ar e n o refineries A s alread y stated th e importanc e o f thi s produc t ha s diminishe d rathe r tha n increased

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15 8 Anothe r industr y whic h ma y b e sai d t o b e derive d fro m tha t o f suga r makin g i s th e distillatio n o f alcoho l fro m molasses However, i n th e entir e provinc e ther e i s onl y on e distillery locate d a t th e provincia l capital an d it s profit s hav e diminishe d o n accoun t o f th e competitio n o f foreig n spirits A fe w primitiv e still s formerl y existe d i n som e o f th e pueblos bu t the y hav e al l disappeare d wit h th e exceptio n o f on e operate d i n th e municipalit y o f Orani I n thi s latte r puebl o a soa p factor y i s i n operation ; th e ra w material s ar e brough t fro m Manila It s outpu t nearl y satisfie s th e loca l demand Tw o potterie s fo r th e makin g o f cla y cone s use d a s package s fo r suga r als o exist Th e ancien t method s o f manufac tur e use d b y thi s industr y demonstrat e tha t i t wa s introduce d fro m China al l o f th e tool s havin g Chines e names A plan t fo r th e distillatio n o f ilang-ilan g perfum e i s runnin g i n th e municipalit y o f Samal latel y consolidate d wit h Orani Th e flower s ar e gathere d fro m tree s scattere d i n differen t place s wher e th e virgi n natura l wealt h o f th e soi l produce s thi s produc t i n abundance Th e manufactur e o f nip a roof s i s carrie d o n exclusivel y i n th e municipalit y o f Orani th e ra w material s use d bein g th e leave s o f th e nipal o r nip a palm Th e outpu t i s consume d i n tha t province bu t a t certai n time s two-fifth s i s sol d i n th e adjacen t provinces Th e lumbe r industry i s relativel y untouched an d i t woul d b e a praiseworth y ac t t o encourag e it fo r th e immensit y o f th e lumbe r wealt h o f th e virgi n forest s o f thi s provinc e i s incalculable On e o f th e principa l mean s o f favorin g thi s industr y woul d undoubtedl y b e t o provid e eas y mean s o f communicatio n betwee n th e lumbe r center s an d th e mills I t ha s bee n th e lac k o f road s whic h ha s hel d bac k th e developmen t o f thi s industr y i n Bataan an d i t ma y b e state d that i n spit e o f th e enormou s timbe r resource s o f th e province owin g t o lac k o f transportatio n the y hav e a s ye t remaine d untouched Brigandag e stil l exist s i n th e prov ince thoug h i t i s infrequen t an d ha s bee n relegate d t o th e hill s an d isolate d pueblos wher e ther e ar e a fe w maraudin g bands Fortunately thank s t o th e service s rendere d b y th e Insula r Con stabular y an d municipa l police thi s evi l tend s t o disappea r rathe r tha n t o increase It s existenc e a t th e presen t time i n connectio n wit h th e othe r evil s fro m whic h thi s provinc e ha s suffered ha s ha d th e effec t o f discouragin g th e inhabitant s an d o f delayin g

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15 9 th e tim e whe n publi c tranquillit y shal l hav e becom e a n accomplishe d fact MISCELLANEOU S MATTERS Compare d wit h las t yea r educatio n ha s fel t a grea t an d favor abl e influence althoug h th e attendanc e o f childre n o f bot h sexe s i n th e publi c school s i s no t entirel y satisfactory I t i s onl y a t Balanga Orion an d Oran i tha t th e attendanc e i s large ; i n thes e pueblo s th e progres s i n th e Englis h language whic h t o a certai n poin t i n remarkabl e i n compariso n wit h th e othe r pueblos an d tha t mad e i n th e element s o f arithmetic, geography an d histor y ha s bee n noted Th e smal l attendanc e a t th e othe r publi c school s i n th e provinc e ma y b e attribute d t o th e lac k o f America n teacher s an d t o th e wan t o f a compulsor y schoo l la w whic h shal l oblig e th e attendanc e o f al l childre n betwee n 7 an d 1 2 year s o f ag e no t onl y i n thi s provinc e bu t throughou t th e Archipelago Th e nee d o f suc h a la w i s apparen t fro m th e apath y o f head s o f familie s wit h regar d t o th e educatio n o f thei r mino r childre n o r wards Th e grea t interes t take n b y Hon Toma s de l Rosari o i n securin g th e establishmen t i n thi s provincia l capita l o f a secondar y schoo l an d a schoo l o f art s an d trade s ha s resulte d i n th e provinc e havin g secure d a hig h schoo l wher e man y youn g peopl e wh o ar e unabl e t o broade n thei r knowledg e i n th e educationa l center s o f Manil a ca n to-da y continu e thei r studie s t o thei r ow n satisfactio n n o les s tha n t o tha t o f thei r parents wh o ca n sen d the m t o thi s provincia l capita l a t a muc h les s expense I n cas e th e provincia l treasur y i s unabl e t o bea r th e expens e occasione d b y th e establishmen t o f a colleg e o r schoo l o f secondar y instructio n o r o f art s an d trades i t wil l b e necessar y t o appea l t o th e Insula r Treasur y unde r th e condition s prescribe d b y la w fo r suc h cases Th e provincia l governmen t i s a t presen t directin g it s effort s t o enlightenin g th e non-Christia n o r Negrit o tribe s i n thi s provinc e an d givin g the m th e experienc e necessar y t o establis h loca l popula r government Th e provision s o f sectio n 1 o f th e ac t o f th e Com missio n relativ e t o thi s matte r ha s bee n pu t int o practice subjec t t o th e restriction s o f section s 2 3 an d 4 o f th e sai d act wit h som e sho w o f success Crime s an d act s o f violenc e hav e bee n ver y rare a s i s prove n b y th e record s o f th e Cour t o f Firs t Instanc e o f thi s provinc e an d o f

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16 0 th e justice-of-the-peac e courts demonstratin g tha t th e peopl e respec t th e la w an d kno w ho w t o compl y wit h thei r duties Ther e ar e a t presen t bu t 1 4 prisoner s i n th e provincia l jai l a t thi s capita l servin g sentence s fo r mino r misdemeanors Civi l suit s ar e likewis e ver y few indicatin g goo d fait h i n th e transactio n o f busines s an d th e fulfillmen t o f contract s durin g th e yea r 190 3 an d th e first si x month s o f 1904 I n th e Cour t o f Firs t Instanc e i n 1 9 case s judg men t wa s awarded 7 2 wer e dismissed 1 7 ar e pending an d 4 wer e dispose d o f b y prohibition Sinc e th e latte r par t o f April whe n I too k charg e provisionall y o f th e offic e o f governo r o f thi s province I hav e observe d tha t th e forc e o f Constabular y her e i s a n excellentl y discipline d corp s unde r th e skillfu l managemen t o f Senio r Inspecto r Capt H Knauber Hi s temporar y transfe r t o th e Provinc e o f Cagaya n ha s apparentl y wrough t n o change a s Inspecto r Clark e ha s continue d th e untirin g pursui t o f th e fe w bandit s stil l maraudin g i n th e hills thu s con tributin g greatl y t o th e maintenanc e o f orde r an d publi c tran quillity Th e wor k o f Messrs Heartt Baltazar an d Rodriguez inspecto r o f Constabular}^ cler k o f th e court an d presiden t o f th e municipalit y o f Mariveles respectively i n capturin g Artemi o Ricart e i s o f incalculabl e benefit an d thes e gentleme n hav e mad e themselve s deservin g o f th e rewar d whic h the y received I hav e als o observe d tha t al l o f th e employees—insular provin cial an d municipal—wit h who m I hav e com e i n contac t b y virtu e o f th e offic e I hol d temporaril y compl y wit h thei r dutie s wit h goo d sense judgment an d intelligence an d th e tranquillit y o f th e prov inc e i s du e t o thi s valuabl e combinatio n i n connectio n wit h th e abilit y o f th e peopl e t o understan d an d thei r earnes t effort s t o adap t them selve s t o th e ne w institution s tha t th e Governmen t o f th e Unite d State s ha s give n the m i n th e ampl e autonom y whic h the y enjo y i n municipa l an d provincia l government Thes e condition s hav e firmly establishe d a stat e o f peac e an d orde r tha t neithe r th e publi c disas ter s whic h fo r year s hav e afflicte d th e provinc e no r an y othe r cause s hav e bee n abl e t o shake an d i t i s thi s spiri t whic h ha s operate d greatl y t o diminis h al l sort s o f crime s an d conflict s s o fre quen t an d inevitabl e durin g th e calamitou s period s o f transition Respectfull y submitted CLAR O PASCUA L SEVILLA Acting Governor of the Province of Bataan. Th e CIVI L GOVERNO R O F TH E PHILIPPINES

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BATANGAS OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR PROVINC E O F BATANGAS Batangas, September 15, 190k. SIR : I hav e th e hono r t o submi t t o yo n th e followin g repor t o f th e condition s prevailin g i n th e Provinc e o f Batangas : GENERA L CONDITIONS I hav e jus t visite d th e 1 5 municipalitie s whic h to-da y constitut e th e 2 2 pueblo s formerl y existin g i n thi s province I hav e stoppe d i n eac h o f the m sufficien t tim e t o hol d popula r meeting s an d giv e publi c lecture s an d t o intervie w th e mos t influentia l peopl e i n eac h localit y wit h th e en d i n vie w o f inculcatin g i n al l o f the m a lov e fo r work fo r education an d fo r peace th e onl y road s leadin g t o prosperit y and tru e progress I hav e i n eac h instanc e endeav ore d t o sho w th e importanc e o f agricultura l improvements loca l industries an d th e developmen t o f education an d departin g a s muc h a s possibl e fro m politics i n vie w o f th e fac t tha t politic s i s th e subjec t o f endles s intrigu e an d conjecture s fo r th e futur e o n th e par t o f certai n elements whil e I believ e tha t th e leader s o f th e Filipin o people i f trul y anxiou s conscientiousl y an d wit h sincer e patriotis m t o labo r i n th e interest s o f thei r fellow-citizens ough t t o concentrat e al l o f thei r efforts energy an d intellectua l powe r t o brin g abou t th e reconstitution improvement an d stabilit y o f prevailin g condition s withou t botherin g themselve s a grea t dea l abou t th e future fo r th e futur e wil l tak e car e o f itself bein g bu t a natura l developmen t o f th e present I hav e devote d al l o f th e tim e necessar y t o inspec t an d carefull y examin e th e diver s mani festation s o f th e lif e o f a municipality I hav e unreservedl y place d mysel f a t th e dispositio n o f everyon e havin g som e complaint protest claim o r suggestio n t o make an d th e genera l impressio n whic h I hav e receive d i s tha t th e pueblo s o f thi s province wit h ver y rar e exceptions ar e i n a reall y satisfactor y state I n th e firs t place becaus e o f thei r zea l i n th e complianc e o f thei r dutie s 24904—-1 1 16 1

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16 2 an d th e perfec t harmon y an d fraterna l assistanc e whic h prevail s betwee n th e provincia l an d municipa l official s a s wel l a s betwee n th e civi l an d militar y element s tha t ar e boun d b y th e closes t tie s o f sincer e regard a s i s demonstrate d b y th e petition s sen t throug h m e t o th e superio r authoritie s b y thos e municipalitie s n o soone r d o the y becom e awar e o f a prospectiv e transfe r o f a militar y pos t o r station ; becaus e o f th e goo d dispositio n generall y show n b y taxpayer s o f al l sort s i n thei r willingnes s t o shar e municipa l an d provincia l burden s tha t th e exigencie s o f progres s impose ; becaus e o f th e grea t enthusias m animatin g al l classe s i n favo r o f th e disseminatio n o f popula r education and abov e all becaus e o f th e indomitabl e energ y an d heroi c lov e o f wor k mad e s o paten t b y th e peopl e o f Batanga s tha t i t i s impossibl e fo r u s t o fai l t o se e it — i n th e rud e struggl e fo r existenc e th e native s o f thi s provinc e ar e wel l fitte d t o survive Nothin g terrifie s them nothin g discourage s them If yea r afte r year thei r land s ar e invade d b y cloud s o f locusts on e an d all includin g th e smalles t child haste n t o exter minat e them ; i f thei r animal s ar e carrie d of f b y th e rinderpes t they confidin g i n th e strengt h o f thei r arm wit h a piec e o f iron wit h thei r ow n nails the y ren d th e eart h an d wres t fro m i t th e nourishmen t the y require ; i f natur e denie s the m th e rai n o f heaven torrent s o f th e swea t o f thei r brow s fertiliz e thei r deser t lands ; wit h a n indomitabl e and invincibl e spirit wit h hea d erect prou d o f thei r self-relianc e durin g thi s struggl e agains t th e crueltie s o f nature the y onl y ben d th e hea d t o kis s an d bles s th e generou s han d o f Americ a an d rende r t o i t unconditiona l adhesio n an d infinit e acknowledgmen t fo r th e splendi d gift s tha t i t ha s showere d upo n th e peopl e i n day s o f sorrow misery an d hunger I n genera l terms complet e peac e prevails— a peac e undisturbe d b y a singl e sympto m o f religiou s strife th e disastrou s consequence s o f whic h histor y an d experienc e teac h u s consis t i n makin g dee p dissensions enervatin g energy an d constitutin g a n eterna l obstacl e t o rea l progress I t ca n b e affirme d tha t ther e i s no t officiall y on e singl e activ e Aglipaya n i n an y par t o f thi s province ; s o tha t i f an y sligh t inciden t doe s sometime s occu r i t i s du e t o question s o f a persona l characte r whic h originat e rathe r mor e fro m th e idiosyn cras y an d individua l manne r o f conduc t o f th e actor s i n suc h event s tha n fro m uncompromisin g sectarianism Wit h regar d t o th e prohibitio n o f funeral s whe n th e bod y i s carrie d i n a n ope n casket whic h gav e ris e t o s o muc h tal k i n th e sensationa l newspapers thi s

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165 i s a technica l proble m o f th e exclusiv e jurisdictio n o f th e Burea u o f Publi c Health whic h I presum e wil l soo n hav e th e las t wor d sai d abou t thi s matter O n th e othe r hand i n th e heart s o f th e inhabitanf s o f thi s provinc e ther e i s da y b y da y takin g deepe r roo t a profoun d lov e fo r peac e an d goo d orde r whic h the y unanimousl y recogniz e a s th e onl y true soli d basi s o f thei r regeneration welfare an d progress al l o f the m feelin g consequentl y a hatre d n o les s profoun d agains t th e crimina l disturber s o f th e peace An d her e w e hav e a grea t question Thi s scu m o f pas t perio d o f turbulenc e i s nothin g mor e o r les s tha n a n aggregatio n o f incorrigibl e criminals monstrou s abortion s o f evil—jailbirds i n short—th e residu e lef t b y th e revolutionar y wav e whe n th e stor m ha d subside d unde r th e influenc e o f th e magi c wan d o f peace Thes e peopl e hav e no t a n ato m o f anythin g resem blin g a politica l idea l no r d o the y eve n posses s th e madnes s o f th e dream s o f a n Utopia Ther e w e fin d a hotbe d o f crim e an d a blindnes s tha t lead s t o annihilation The y ar e th e pre y o f remorse and bein g outcast s amon g thei r ow n people the y rov e ove r th e mountain s lik e veritabl e wil d beasts N o othe r measure s ar e pos sibl e wit h them excep t tha t o f extermination I n th e pueblo s th e inhabitant s ar e activ e i n th e pursui t o f thes e wil d beasts an d when eve r the y ar e i n reac h the y d o no t hesitat e t o hun t the m down AGRICULTUR E LOCUST S RINDERPEST Thi s i s essentiall y a n agricultura l province an d formerly durin g th e perio d o f it s greates t splendor i t owe d everythin g t o agriculture a s al l o f it s source s o f wealt h emanate d fro m it I believ e tha t i t ca n b e affirme d withou t grea t ris k o f fallin g int o erro r tha t th e Batanga s regio n ha s i n th e pas t demonstrate d th e highes t capacit y fo r agricultura l production du e a s muc h t o th e marvelou s persever anc e o f th e inhabitant s i n thei r labor s a s t o it s soi l o f grea t variet y an d inexhaustibl e fertility I n bette r time s Batanga s wa s trul y on e grea t mode l far m wher e i t appeare d tha t natur e ha d mad e a magnifi cen t display a mos t dazzlin g exhibitio n o f al l thos e product s mad e i n th e mysteriou s an d innermos t recesse s o f it s sacre d bosom Bu t th e blas t o f misfortun e an d calamit y wa s felt an d tha t enchante d Ede n wa s change d int o somethin g lik e a desolat e an d lugubriou s paramo Te n year s o f locus t plagues th e los s o f it s mos t valuabl e product—coffee ; th e rinderpest whic h exterminate d al l o f th e draf t •animals ; th e destructio n lef t i n th e wak e o f th e war ; an d tw o year s

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16 4 o f drout h lef t thi s province almos t i n th e throe s o f death How eve r thi s year thank s t o establishmen t o f peac e an d th e generou s protectio n o f th e America n Government an d th e imponderabl e activit y o f it s inhabitants it s conditio n i s slowl y bu t surel y improv ing Thi s yea r ther e wa s a ne w invasio n o f locusts believe d t o hav e com e ove r fro m Mindoro bu t th e people encourage d b y th e succo r extende d t o the m b y th e Civi l Commission whic h place d 1,00 0 picul s o f ric e a t thei r dispositio n fo r thi s purpose an d th e indefatigabl e zea l o f th e provincia l an d municipa l authorities hav e bee n abl e t o exterminat e i n th e shor t perio d o f tw o an d one hal f month s nearl y 15,00 0 sack s o f youn g locusts thereb y succeedin g i n savin g al l o f thei r plantations Ther e wa s a ne w outbrea k o f th e rinderpes t fro m Januar y t o Jun e whic h cause d th e deat h o f 5 6 horses 5 4 cattle 7 5 carabaos an d 1,59 5 hogs th e diseas e bein g speciall y sever e i n Lipa wher e i n tw o month s i t kille d of f 5 0 animals I t i s a sigh t t o se e th e poo r farmer s doin g th e wor k o f animal s becaus e o f th e scarcit y o f th e latter However fro m dat a a t hand al l o f th e pueblo s hav e thi s yea r cultivate d large r area s o f lan d tha n durin g forme r years som e o f them lik e Taa l an d Bauan havin g increase d thei r sowing s t o fou r time s mor e tha n i n othe r years Lipa Sa n Juan Sant o Tomas an d Batanga s hav e increase d their s t o double whil e i n th e balanc e o f th e pueblo s th e increas e ha s bee n fro m one-thir d t o one-hal f ove r tha t o f forme r years ; and thank s t o th e timel y an d copiou s rains i f n o othe r disappointment s overtak e th e farme r i t i s everywher e expecte d tha t an abundan t cro p wil l rewar d thei r efforts Al l th e farmer s ar e exceedingl y anxiou s t o substitut e thei r ol d crops whic h ar e alway s a t th e merc y o f th e weather o f th e innumerabl e plagues an d th e lac k o f draf t animals wit h othe r an d ne w one s no t subjec t t o suc h contingencies Th e min d i s comforte d an d fait h i n a prosperou s futur e i s renewe d i n th e contemplatio n o f th e extensiv e plantation s o f hemp maguey cotton oranges cocoanu t trees pine apples mulberr y tree s fo r th e cultivatio n o f th e silkworm ilang ilang cocoa an d eve n a fe w coffe e trees However i t i s impossibl e t o ge t alon g withou t th e cultivatio n o f rice th e basi s o f ou r food an d suga r cane an d fo r thi s reaso n i t i s necessar y seriousl y t o thin k o f th e manne r o f replacin g th e cattl e an d carabao s los t throug h diseas e b y othe r mean s an d method s fo r tillin g th e ground such fo r instance a s stea m plows an d thi s i s a proble m a t presen t i n th e mind s i f th e larges t landholders t o whic h I hav e th e hono r t o cal l

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16 5 th e attentio n o f th e Government Suc h ne w an d progressiv e method s an d th e mnch-wished-fo r agricultura l mortagage-and loa n ban k t o pro p th e unfortunat e farmer s wh o hav e bee n fleeced b y usurer s an d suffere d othe r calamitie s ar e th e onl y solu tion s o f th e proble m whic h wil l sav e on r agricultur e fro m it s pres en t conditio n o f anguish I n al l th e labor s connecte d wit h thi s importan t branc h an d man y other s o f a diver s an d genera l characte r whic h weig h upo n th e provincia l board nearl y th e entir e wor k fall s upo n th e shoulder s o f th e provincia l secretary Mr Caedo a mode l func tionar y o n accoun t o f hi s hig h endowment s an d uprigh t character who a t th e hea d o f hi s efficien t forc e durin g nearl y fou r years ~ha s dail y performe d i n a n assiduou s an d mos t worth y manne r a n immens e amoun t o f work I n a ver y fe w months asid e fro m th e multipl e an d unforesee n wor k connecte d wit h th e provincia l boar d an d th e provincia l boar d o f health h e ha s bee n abl e t o complet e wit h th e mos t brillian t succes s th e wor k connecte d wit h th e ne w boar d o f revision exterminatio n o f locusts relie f boards reorgan izatio n o f municipa l police electora l census constructio n o f th e hig h school conventio n o f presidents wit h severa l governmenta l investigations interrogatorie s t o th e municipalitie s relativ e t o roa d taxe s an d th e maintenanc e o f roads t o agricultura l an d industria l production statistics reports survey s o f barrios etc. beside s th e immens e accumulatio n o f records reports circulars an d th e grea t mas s o f document s receive d fro m th e differen t Bureau s o f th e Government FINANCIA L CONDITION Wit h th e exceptio n o f thre e o r fou r municipalitie s tha t o n accoun t o f thei r smal l siz e hav e suffere d financial straits al l o f th e res t hav e thei r treasurie s i n a conditio n o f brillian t prosperity bein g fre e fro m th e anxietie s o f a prospectiv e deficit whil e som e ma y b e eve n sai d t o b e swimmin g i n th e abundanc e o f a copiou s surplus Thank s t o th e wis e measur e adopte d b y th e Civi l Com missio n relativ e t o th e redemptio n o f delinquen t personal-registra tio n taxe s o f forme r year s b y five days work thi s ta x ha s bee n col lecte d wit h mor e regularit y an d muc h les s trouble Muc h th e sam e thin g ma y b e sai d wit h regar d t o th e lan d tax ; som e error s havin g bee n corrected excessiv e assessment s reduced and al l o f th e complaint s o f propert y owner s having bee n attende d t o b y th e ne w

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16 6 boar d o f revision thes e taxes formerl y s o odiou s an d looke d upo n wit h s o muc h aversion ar e no w paid relativel y speaking wit h genera l satisfaction especiall y s o a s th e peopl e hav e becom e con vince d tha t thes e taxe s ar e th e pillar s whic h sustai n th e publi c work s (school s an d roads ) tha t moder n civilization whic h Americ a ha s brough t t o u s i n it s highes t development demands Suc h i s th e prosperit y o f som e municipalitie s lik e Lipa Batangas Taal an d Baua n tha t the y hav e permitte d themselve s th e luxur y o f renounc in g th e one-fourt h o f 1 pe r cen t whic h correspond s t o the m fo r genera l expense s i n orde r t o somewha t alleviat e th e hardship s tha t th e landowner s hav e ha d t o bear I f th e financial conditio n o f th e municipalitie s continue s i n thi s wis e w e hop e tha t i n les s tha n tw o year s th e mos t populou s o f the m a t leas t wil l hav e thei r ow n market s lik e tha t o f th e provincia l capital municipa l buildings an d publi c schools and i f loca l exigencie s deman d it thei r ow n nonsectaria n cemeteries Wit h thi s purpos e i n min d w e hav e joine d ou r effort s t o thos e o f Mr Blanchard ou r mos t worth y treasurer wh o ha s bee n fou r year s i n th e discharg e o f hi s arduou s dutie s wit h th e mos t pronounce d efficiency h e bein g distinguishe d a s a n officia l o f exceptiona l merit grea t intellectua l powers an d a philanthropi c heart H e i s a perfec t parago n o f a treasurer Accordin g t o dat a existin g i n th e offic e o f th e provincia l treas ure r ther e ha s bee n collected fo r personal-registratio n certificate s o r cedulas 1*52,456.6 5 an d $20,465.51 Mexican ; lan d tax 1*41,175.2 0 an d $13,025.57 Mexican ; industria l tax 1*18,592.1 1 an d $4,880.51 Mexican ; fisheries, 1*5,059.9 7 an d $3,520.33 Mex ican ; concession s an d others 1*6,598.2 2 an d $8,239.40 Mexican ; municipa l licenses 1*11,086.4 3 an d $3,784 Mexican ; cattle $2,692.4 0 an d $4,073.37 Mexican ; fines, 1*1,840.2 5 an d $,1,041.03 Mexican ; registratio n o f property 1*21 2 an d $11.50 Mexican CONSTABULAR Y AN D MUNICIPA L POLICE A s I hav e alread y indicated ther e i s a loft y publi c spiri t o f courageou s solidarit y t o exterminat e an d annihilat e th e crimina l disturber s o f peac e an d orde r whic h i s strongl y i n evidence Th e brillian t an d energeti c corp s o f Constabular y an d Scout s greatl y contribut e t o it s maintenanc e an d development I migh t sa y i n lik e manner bu t no t t o s o grea t a n extent th e sam e thin g i s tru e wit h regar d t o th e municipa l polic e o f recen t organizatio n i n thi s

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16 7 province Th e hea d o f th e Constabular y corp s i n thi s provinc e i s th e youn g an d courteou s Capt Chas E Manison whos e prestig e i s grea t i n th e corps a s i n les s tha n tw o year s h e ha s cleane d th e extensiv e an d troublou s Islan d o f Mindor o o f ladrones capture d ove r 7 0 rifles an d i s a worth y successo r o f th e never-to-be-forgotte n Captai n Griffit h becaus e o f hi s activity energy an d tac t displaye d i n th e discharg e o f th e delicat e dut y o f exercisin g contro l ove r th e municipa l police I f evidenc e i s desire d t o prove th e existenc e o f tha t loft y spiri t t o whic h I hav e referred i t i s onl y necessar y t o recollec t th e event s whic h occurre d i n Sant o Tomas Tanauan Lipa Rosario Bauan an d Nasugbu wher e defenseles s rustic s an d unarme d tenientes de barrio defyin g th e ir e an d facin g th e vengeanc e o f savag e tulisanes availin g themselve s o f a thousan d artifice s an d stratagems—a s strengt h the y ha d none—wer e suc cessfu l i n capturin g th e enemie s o f goo d orde r an d th e infamou s deforciant s o f thei r person s an d property Ho w ofte n ha s suc h braver y me t wit h death kidnaping an d wit h martyrdom Th e sa d situatio n o f thes e poo r rustic s wh o are s o t o speak betwee n th e sword' s poin t an d th e wall i s worth y o f th e mos t human e attentio n an d give s ris e t o man y bitte r reflection s bette r suite d t o a socio logica l articl e tha n t o a n officia l report Th e municipa l polic e o f Sant o Tomas Tanauan Lipa an d Taal wh o ar e provide d wit h goo d arm s an d uniforms labo r t o th e exten t o f thei r powe r unde r th e order s o f thei r worth y president s an d th e directio n o f th e Constabular y inspector ; an d the y hav e capture d man y rifles revolvers an d othe r arm s fro m th e bandits th e polic e forc e o f Sant o Toma s bein g especiall y remarkabl e o n accoun t o f th e man y successe s whic h hav e crowne d it s efforts Wit h th e exceptio n o f thos e pueblo s tha t o n accoun t o f thei r proximit y t o Cavit e an d Lagun a suffer fro m tim e t o tim e fro m th e deplorabl e effects o f brigandage th e othe r pueblo s o f th e provinc e enjo y th e mos t perfec t tranquillity especiall y Batangas Sa n Juan Bauan Taysan Ibaan Lobo Calatagan Calaca Tuy an d Balayan fro m wher e no t eve n th e leas t disturbanc e ha s bee n reporte d t o me Ther e ar e Constabular y post s a t Batangas wher e th e headquarter s i s situated a t Lipa Tanauan Tayabas Taal Calaca an d Tuy an d o f Scout s a t Nasugbu Bayuyungan Talisay Ambulong an d Sa n Juan I thin k tha t a goo d syste m o f telephone s unitin g al l o f th e pueblo s woul d ad d t o th e rapidit y o f actio n an d efficac y o f operation s o f th e Constabular y an d Scouts

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16 8 I n orde r th e contribut e somewha t t o th e exterminatio n o f brig andage th e greates t desir e guidin g al l o f m y actions I hav e proclaime d t o al l o f th e municipalitie s tha t I wil l pa y ou t o f m y ow n pocke t fro m 5 t o 1 0 peso s fo r eac h revolve r an d fro m 1 0 t o 2 0 peso s fo r eac h shotgu n o r rifl e presente d t o me a s I believ e tha t i n orde r t o b e successfu l th e principa l thin g t o b e don e i s t o depriv e the m o f thei r arms an d I a m alread y obtainin g som e results I shal l conside r mysel f fortunat e th e mont h whe n th e 37 5 peso s I receiv e fro m th e provinc e ar e al l use d fo r thi s purpose, fo r I shal l hav e returne d it s mone y t o th e provinc e i n th e for m o f adde d tranquillit y an d welfar e b y annihilatin g thos e accurse d instrument s o f disorde r an d crime HIGHWAY S O F COMMUNICATION Ther e ar e tw o grea t wago n roads—on e fro m Batanga s t o Calamba passin g throug h Sa n Jose Lipa Tanauan an d Sant o Tomas an d anothe r startin g fro m th e sam e poin t an d runnin g throug h Bauan Taal Lemery Calaca Balayan Tuy an d Lian I wa s ove r thes e road s durin g th e rain y seaso n (Jun £ an d July ) an d foun d the m i n th e bes t possibl e stat e o f preservation thank s t o th e incessan t industr y o f th e supervisor Mr Westerhouse a mos t exper t enginee r an d a veritabl e prototyp e o f indefatigabl e activity wh o ma y b e sai d t o alway s hav e a n ey e o n th e road s i n orde r immediatel y t o repai r an y damag e tha t th e element s migh t cause I woul d mak e bol d t o petitio n th e Governmen t tha t i t deig n t o fi x it s attentio n upo n th e road s unitin g thi s provincia l capita l wit h Ibaan Tayabas Rosario an d Sa n Jnan Th e super viso r i s makin g superhuma n effort s t o repai r thes e roads bu t i n a provisiona l manne r an d b y sections s o t o speak a s a lac k o f fund s doe s no t permi t hi m t o undertak e a definitiv e an d lastin g wor k suc h a s ha s bee n don e o n th e othe r wago n roads An d a s i t i s thi s par t o f th e provinc e tha t i s precisel y th e leas t cultivate d an d wher e th e greates t miser y an d povert y reign th e rinderpes t an d othe r disease s an d calamitie s havin g bee n mor e cruell y an d harshl y fel t i n thi s regio n tha n i n an y othe r par t o f th e province I believ e tha t th e Governmen t woul d b e performin g a wor k o f charit y i f i t woul d gran t a n appropriatio n t o construc t a goo d wago n roa d fro m Batanga s t o Sa n Juan passin g throug h th e pueblo s mentioned Thi s par t o f th e province moreover doe s no t expec t t o ge t th e benefi t o f th e advantage s o f th e railroad a s i t i s of f th e

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16 9 propose d line I t i s als o b y al l mean s necessar y tha t wor k o n th e whar f a t Batanga s shoul d begi n soon thi s bein g a concessio n promise d som e tim e ago Wha t woul d b e trul y th e renaissanc e o f th e provinc e i s th e layin g o f a lin e o f railroad Thi s woul d ac t a s a revivifyin g fluid generat in g ne w habit s o f activit y i n diffusin g itsel f throug h al l o f th e organism s o f thi s impoverishe d region I t woul d awake n ne w energie s an d a t th e sam e tim e attrac t ne w element s o f life Al l o f thes e immens e benefit s we expec t fro m th e promise s tha t fro m th e highes t sphere s o f th e Governmen t hav e bee n receive d i n ou r heart s a s a consolin g blessin g whic h wil l brin g fort h lov e an d eterna l acknowledgmen t o f th e magnanimit y o f th e America n nation A mai l servic e i s i n regula r operatio n an d ver y wel l organized PUBLI C INSTRUCTION Batanga s count s 2,61 2 scholar s i n th e thre e school s o f th e tow n an d th e fiftee n i n th e barrios ; Baua n 1,03 7 i n tw o school s i n th e puebl o an d sixtee n i n th e barrios ; Lip a 1,22 7 i n tw o school s i n th e puebl o an d eigh t i n th e barrios ; Nasugb u 78 3 i n on e schoo l i n th e puebl o an d five i n th e barrios ; Taa l 63 2 i n tw o school s i n th e puebl o an d eigh t i n th e barrios ; Cuenc a 62 3 i n on e schoo l i n th e puebl o an d on e i n th e barrio ; Balaya n 45 6 i n on e schoo l i n th e puebl o an d fou r i n th e barrios ; Sa n Jua n 44 4 i n on e schoo l i n th e puebl o an d fou r i n th e barrios ; Sa n Jos e 35 0 i n on e schoo l i n th e puebl o an d tw o i n th e barrios ; Rosari o 18 3 i n on e schoo l i n th e puebl o an d on e i n th e barri o ; Calac a 15 0 i n on e schoo l i n th e puebl o an d on e i n th e barrio ; Sant o Toma s 14 3 i n on e schoo l i n th e puebl o an d si x i n th e barrios ; Lob o 6 8 i n on e school ; Ibaa n 6 0 i n on e school—whic h make s a tota l o f 9,368 an d i f t o thi s i s adde d on e hig h school on e o f art s an d trades an d anothe r o f agricultur e i n th e provincia l capital an d th e intermediat e school s i n Lipa Bauan Taal Balayan an d Tanauan an d th e nigh t school s i n al l o f th e pueblo s wher e th e entir e municipa l governments includin g presi dent s an d justice s o f th e peac e an d th e mos t prominen t peopl e i n th e tow n attend i s take n int o account a n approximat e ide a o f th e magnificen t leve l reache d b y thi s mos t importan t branc h o f th e Governmen t wil l b e had whic h i s greatl y t o th e hono r o f th e superintendent Mr Buck wh o carrie s forwar d hi s sublim e missio n

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17 0 o f diffusin g popula r educatio n wit h veritabl e fervo r an d th e zea l o f a n apostle H e i s on e o f th e mos t valuabl e American s an d ha s th e greates t affectio n fo r thi s country H e i s a livin g exampl e o f th e valu e o f self-help an d fo r tha t reaso n bette r tha n anyon e els e h e i s capabl e o f Saxonizin g ou r childre n i n th e fulles t an d highes t acceptatio n o f thi s word Nearl y al l o f th e president s ar e assistin g hi m t o th e exten t o f thei r abilit y i n thi s nobl e work an d i n con nectio n wit h thi s matte r I woul d stat e tha t th e presiden t o f Batanga s ha s distinguishe d himsel f i n th e extrem e i n thi s work Batanga s is o n th e othe r hand a mode l municipalit y fro m ever y poin t o f view—admirabl e becaus e o f it s resourcefu l initiative an d meritin g mentio n amon g al l th e res t i n th e provinc e becaus e o f th e fac t tha t i t appropriate s f*6,00 0 fo r educationa l purpose s fro m it s genera l funds Th e presiden t an d othe r municipa l officer s o f Tanaua n hav e renounce d th e privileg e o f receivin g th e maximu m o f thei r salarie s i n orde r t o maintai n th e barri o school s wit h th e mone y thu s saved A t Baua n th e presiden t an d councilor s ar e canvassin g th e barrio s i n orde r t o rais e a smal l contributio n s o a s t o ge t fund s wit h whic h t o maintai n th e rura l schools Th e munici palit y o f Sant o Toma s i s als o engage d i n th e wor k o f raisin g vol untar y subscription s fo r th e constructio n o f schools Th e presiden t an d headme n o f Sa n Jos e distribut e monthl y prize s amon g th e students Lipa no t t o b e outdone ha s mad e donation s o f supplie s an d lan d fo r schoo l purpose s an d ha s raise d subscription s i n it s barrio s fo r th e sam e purpose Sa n Jua n an d Nasugb u hav e don e th e sam e thing I n fact al l o f th e pueblos i s spit e o f th e genera l crisi s throug h whic h thi s countr y i s passing ar e willin g t o g o t o an y sacrific e whe n th e interest s o f educatio n ar e involved Carrie d awa y b y thi s genera l an d widesprea d enthusias m prevalen t amon g al l o f th e inhabitants I hav e institute d man y prize s i n differen t pueblo s o n m y ow n accoun t i n orde r t o encourag e th e scholars Th e provincia l treasure r maintain s a fe w poo r students I n thi s provincia l capita l a schoo l o f agricultur e an d classe s i n manua l trainin g hav e begu n operation an d w e trus t tha t th e result s fro m thes e center s o f learnin g wil l giv e a ne w cours e t o education makin g i t o f a mor e practica l character Beside s th e officia l establishment s ther e ar e som e Catholi c school s an d a fe w college s connecte d wit h th e Manil a center s o f learning — Sa n Jua n d e Letra n an d Lice o d e Manila

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17 1 PROVINCIA L JAI L JUSTICE S O F TH E PEACE Th e provincia l jai l i s a handsom e buildin g unitin g goo d sanitar y condition s wit h perfec t security I t i s situat e i n a n isolate d plac e outsid e o f th e tow n an d i s swep t b y th e salubriou s se a breezes Som e o f it s department s ar e use d a s barrack s b y th e Constabular y detachmen t i n thi s provincia l capital the y havin g guar d ove r th e place Whe n I too k charg e o f th e provincia l governmen t on e o f m y deares t wishe s wa s t o improv e th e situatio n o f th e unfortunat e prisoners The y ar e no w uniformed whic h fac t t o a certai n exten t i s a safeguar d agains t th e formerl y frequent jai l breaks ; the y ar e provide d wit h plates cups an d othe r necessar y utensils Th e jai l i s provide d wit h a goo d infirmar y unde r th e charg e o f th e municipa l doctor an d als o wit h a departmen t fo r women Th e prisoner s ar e take n ou t o n publi c work s unde r th e immediat e inspectio n o f a deput y o f th e provincia l superviso r wit h si x arme d guards an d al l sort s o f precaution s ar e take n t o avoi d escape Ther e ar e a t presen t 15 0 o f them o f whic h numbe r 8 6 ar e awaitin g definitiv e sentence bu t w e hop e tha t withi n a shor t tim e thi s numbe r wil l diminis h owin g t o th e activity whic h i s reall y admirable tha t th e provincia l fiscal Mr Dieg o Gloria assiste d b y a personne l whic h thoug h smal l i s capabl e an d diligent i s displayin g i n th e preparatio n o f cause s an d th e interes t h e i s takin g i n thei r promp t disposa l whe n cour t nex t opens H e i s a n officia l wh o deserve s al l sort s o f praise bein g active upright an d inflexibl e i n th e complianc e o f hi s difficul t duties H e ha s bee n nearl y fou r year s zealousl y servin g th e Govern men t i n th e laboriou s tas k o f prosecutin g crime Th e justice-of-the-peac e court s ar e not a s a genera l rule badl y administered an d u p t o th e presen t tim e no t a singl e cas e o f prevaricatio n ha s bee n recorded However I adher e t o th e sug gestion s s o ofte n mad e b y variou s entitie s relativ e t o th e makin g o f radica l reform s i n thi s importan t branc h o f th e administratio n o f justice such fo r example a s th e aggregatio n o f th e presen t municipalitie s int o district s preside d ove r b y justice s o f th e peac e wh o ar e learne d i n th e la w an d wil l b e abl e bette r t o discharg e th e dutie s o f thei r office The y shoul d b e wel l remunerated PUBLI C HEALTH—INCREAS E O F POPULATION Th e publi c healt h coul d no t b e better accordin g t o dat a fur nishe d b y th e efficien t provincia l departmen t o f health Ther e

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17 2 ha s bee n a ver y larg e increas e o f birth s ove r deaths an d n o epidemi c diseas e ha s presente d itsel f fo r som e tim e past Nearl y 38,00 0 vaccination s hav e bee n made Dr Roxas presiden t o f th e munic ipa l boar d o f Lipa having especiall y distinguishe d himsel f i n thi s work Malaria l fever s hav e diminished—i n fact the y hav e almos t disappeared—thi s bein g attribute d t o th e fac t tha t forme r larg e tract s o f unfille d land s hav e bee n plowe d u p an d drained Ther e ar e municipa l board s o f healt h establishe d i n al l o f th e pueblos ther e bein g on e doctor eigh t licentiate s i n medicin e an d som e practicantes an d eleve n pharmacie s t o atten d t o th e sanitar y need s o f th e province Dr Losada on e o f th e mos t distinguishe d Filipin o physicians i s a t th e hea d o f th e provincia l boar d o f health H e i s a ma n o f superio r educatio n an d graduate d a t th e hea d o f hi s clas s i n th e Universit y o f Manila afterward s completin g hi s educationa l caree r i n th e mos t famou s school s o f Europe I n al l o f hi s officia l act s a mos t unusua l anxiet y t o organiz e th e differen t branche s o f th e boar d o f healt h i n thi s provinc e a s perfectl y a s possibl e ha s bee n noted Owin g t o al l o f thes e favorabl e circum stance s relativ e t o th e excellen t sanitar y condition s o f th e province a notabl e increas e i n th e populatio n ha s bee n observed ; i n les s tha n a yea r i t ha s amounte d t o 5,10 0 inhabitants Thes e eloquen t figures brin g comfor t t o ou r sou l an d mak e u s hop e tha t withi n a shor t tim e w e shal l hav e recuperate d th e 100,00 0 inhabitant s tha t a n overwhelmin g serie s o f terribl e misfortune s an d calamitie s too k awa y fro m th e formerl y wealthy flourishing an d populou s Provinc e o f Batangas CONCLUSION Honorabl e Sir I hav e reache d th e en d o f m y modes t report writte n ver y hurriedl y an d withou t an y pretensions bu t onl y wit h th e desir e t o compl y wit h a dut y tha t th e la w demand s o f me I t wil l b e note d tha t i t i s rathe r o f a descriptiv e characte r an d ver y sparin g i n it s recommendations A s a matte r o f fact ther e ar e man y an d seriou s problem s floatin g befor e ou r visio n tha t loo k upo n u s wit h th e scrutinizin g gaz e o f a n implacabl e sphinx ; bu t i n thes e critica l moment s o f transitio n throug h whic h w e ar e passin g an d i n th e mids t o f th e vacillatio n o f th e polic y o f experimen t i n whic h w e ar e hovering i t woul d b e a n exces s o f foll y an d o f arroganc e t o offe r a definitiv e solution afte r scarcel y five months a tim e insufficien t t o hav e appreciate d th e importanc e o f man y

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17 3 thing s wit h nothin g mor e t o bas e i t upo n tha n dogmati c formula s an d th e luminou s abstraction s tha t th e scienc e o f sociolog y an d tha t o f politica l econom y migh t inspir e i n th e obscur e recesse s o f a privat e office Perhap s thi s repor t ma y als o b e accuse d o f indulg in g to o muc h i n personalities ; bu t i n dealin g wit h th e official s o f th e variou s department s whic h mak e u p th e provincia l government whic h I believ e i s th e bes t wa y o f givin g a n ide a o f th e conditio n o f th e province i t i s perforc e necessar y t o spea k o f th e mai n whee l whic h transmit s th e powe r an d i s th e mainsprin g o f th e govern menta l machine Therefore n o cours e i s lef t ope n bu t t o examin e it fo r upo n it s goo d o r ba d qualitie s th e genera l working s o f th e governmen t depend I t i s unnecessar y fo r m e t o assur e yo u tha t i n everythin g concernin g th e personne l o f thi s governmen t I hav e bee n guide d b y th e mos t stric t an d dispassionat e impartiality Finally th e requirin g o f report s fro m officer s o f th e administratio n i s on e o f th e mos t efficaciou s procedure s o f th e America n system I t i s a mos t efficien t manne r o f keepin g the m aliv e a t al l time s t o th e importanc e o f th e complianc e wit h thei r duties an d i t oblige s the m furthe r t o concentrat e al l o f thei r energies attention powers an d activit y i n carryin g ou t th e charg e intruste d t o the m b y popula r vot e o r b y th e confidenc e o f th e Government Respectfull y submitted GREGORI O AGUILER A SOLIS Governor of the Province of Batangas. Th e CIVI L GOVERNO R O F TH E PHILIPPIN E ISLANDS

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BENGUET OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR PROVINC E O F BENGUET Bagnio, P. IJune 30, 1904. SIR : I hav e th e hono r t o repor t fo r th e perio d endin g Jun e 30 1904 th e genera l prosperit y an d contentmen t o f th e peopl e o f th e Provinc e o f Bengue t an d th e condition s o f th e province CLASSES Ther e ar e thre e distinc t classe s o f peopl e t o b e considere d i n th e governmen t o f thi s mountai n province namely th e natura l hei r o f th e country th e Igorrote ; th e whit e residen t wh o adopt s thi s a s hi s home ; an d th e touris t o r visitor th e "strange r withi n ou r gates. GOVERNMENT Th e loca l governmen t o f th e township s o f th e provinc e i s entirel y i n th e hand s o f th e natives unde r th e supervisio n and inspectio n o f th e provincia l governor Thi s give s th e nativ e a sens e o f respon sibility t o which I a m please d t o report he i s now i n ever y town ship respondin g willingl y an d wit h prid e no t i n himsel f bu t i n th e prosperit y o f hi s section PUBLI C IMPROVEMENTS Th e publi c improvement s i n th e town s consis t o f tribunal s an d roads Ne w building s fo r publi c us e ar e bein g erecte d i n man y towns i n other s ol d one s ar e bein g repaired an d i n al l town s roa d wor k i s continuous Th e native s themselves i n ever y township passe d a n ac t requirin g fiftee n days wor k fro m al l able-bodie d me n betwee n th e age s o f 1 8 an d 6 0 o n pubi c work s i n thei r respectiv e townships and i n consequence th e footpath s ar e graduall y becom in g ridabl e trail s an d th e ol d trail s ar e assumin g 2-mete r propor tion s i n widt h an d bein g change d fro m impassabl e grade s t o eas y ones However owin g t o th e precipitou s characte r o f thi s moun tai n province i t wil l b e som e year s ye t befor e th e bicycl e touris t wil l fin d muc h pleasur e i n a wheelin g tri p throug h Benguet Tw o 17 4

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17 5 year s ag o on e coul d no t rid e t o hal f th e town s i n th e province ; no w on e ca n rid e a pon y int o ever y barrio I n thei r tow n governmen t th e Igorrote s ar e ver y considerat e an d just and o n th e whole con duc t th e busines s o f th e tow n intelligen t an d wisely PEOPLE Mos t estimate s o f th e Igorrot e ar e base d upo n observations mad e o n th e trail o f th e polista class but a s wit h mos t peoples ther e i s here also anothe r class— a higher richer cleane r class—whos e individual s thin k an d stud y someho w an d fro m somewher e glea n valuabl e information an d t o thi s clas s al l othe r classe s rende r implici t fait h an d obedience Al l o f thes e native s ar e satisfie d an d contente d wit h ou r America n Government whic h protect s the m i n thei r right s a s me n an d i n thei r propert y interests an d whic h give s the m read y acces s t o court s o f justice makin g the m fee l that i n thei r hom e provinc e a t least the y ar e accorde d equa l right s wit h al l othe r men PRODUCTS Tha t the y ar e prosperou s wil l b e show n b y th e followin g com parativ e tabl e o f product s an d possessions : Article 1901 Cattl e number. Coffe e cavanes_ Ric e d o Gol d ounces. 1902 Cattl e number Horse s d o Coffe e cavanes Ric e d o 1903 Cattl e number Horse s d o Hog s d o Goat s d o Coffe e cavanes „ Ric e d o Gol d ounces — Camote s (swee t potato ) cayabanes A "cayabane i s mor e tha n one-hal f bushel COFFEE Tw o year s ag o al l th e nativ e official s an d th e Igorrot e chief s wer e instructe d t o advis e thei r peopl e t o plan t coffee wit h th e resul t

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17 6 tha t now i n ever y barri o i n Benguet ther e ar e youn g coffe e tree s whic h wil l soo n begi n t o bear an d a s a consequenc e Bengue t wil l tak e a prominen t i f no t a for e plac e i n th e Archipelag o i n th e productio n o f coffee INFLUENC E O F PUBLI C WORKS Owin g t o th e publi c work s bein g carrie d o n b y th e Insula r Gov ernmen t i n Bengue t Province th e Igorrote s hav e plent y o f mone y wit h whic h t o g o t o th e coas t an d bu y stock accordin g t o thei r ambitions fo r th e Igorrot e i s neve r a ric h ma n (o r bocnong ), n o matte r ho w muc h mone y h e ma y have unles s h e ha s animal s t o sho w fo r it S o th e ambitiou s conver t thei r hard-earne d cas h int o hog s o r cattle an d possessor s o f suc h ma y tak e a plac e amon g th e counselor s o f thei r race Thi s traditionar y custo m wil l mak e thes e peopl e wealt h producer s instea d o f consumers and a s the y hav e a thoroug h appreciatio n o f th e protectio n o f propert y afforde d the m b y ou r America n Government the y wil l becom e valuabl e allie s i n pushin g ou r method s o f progres s stil l furthe r ove r th e mountain s amon g ou r native s no t ye t wholl y tamed INSPECTION S O F ACCOUNTS Th e inspectio n o f townshi p account s b y th e provincia l gov erno r i n Ma y showe d ever y townshi p i n a prosperou s condition wit h enoug h cas h o n han d fo r al l legitimat e expenses an d mos t o f the m wit h comparativel y handsom e balance s wit h whic h t o star t furthe r improvement s nex t year I n ever y cas e th e cas h wa s i n th e hand s o f th e presidente an d counte d ou t correctl y t o th e cent AUDITIN G O F ACCOUNTS A s ther e ar e sixtee n town s i n Bengue t an d n o mone y ca n b e pai d ou t o f thei r treasurie s withou t th e approva l o f thei r governor ther e i s require d a syste m o f auditin g thes e account s eac h mont h an d settlin g the m promptly Thi s keep s th e hea d o f th e provinc e i n perfec t touc h wit h al l hi s territory a s thi s monthl y repor t no t onl y show s th e cas h accoun t bu t als o th e public-labo r accoun t o f th e differen t towns th e deaths births marriages an d divorces an d t o tha t official a t least i s wort h al l th e labo r involved thoug h i t b e n o smal l portio n o f hi s man y duties

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17 7 DUTIE S LESSENED Bu t whil e th e offic e wor k o f th e provinc e ha s increase d an d th e necessit y fo r careful watchfu l wor k amon g th e Igorrote s ha s becom e mor e apparent th e dutie s an d obligation s restin g upo n th e provin g cia l governo r an d th e whit e resident s o f th e provinc e hav e materiall y lessene d an d becom e mor e pleasan t throug h a divisio n o f respon sibilit y wit h th e judg e an d officer s o f th e Cour t o f Firs t Instanc e o f th e Mountai n District wit h headquarter s a t Baguio WHIT E CITIZENS Ther e ar e man y whit e citizen s here—squatters the y ma y b e called—havin g goo d succes s wit h vegetables wh o ar e waitin g fo r youn g coffe e plant s t o com e t o bearin g age expectin g the n t o rea p th e fruit s o f thei r labor bu t th e greate r numbe r o f whit e resident s ar e prospector s wh o ar e searchin g fo r gold GOLD Ther e i s n o longe r an y doub t bu t tha t Bengue t i s a grea t field fo r low-grad e producin g ore bu t th e prospecto r i s lookin g fo r th e high-grad e spo t whic h h e think s i s sur e t o exis t i n suc h a field. Severa l ol d miner s an d me n o f experienc e ar e conten t t o settl e dow n o n thei r presen t discoverie s an d b y developmen t ope n the m u p t o a distrustin g world Th e fac t tha t th e Igorrote s washe d ou t 22 6 ounce s o f gol d las t yea r i s proo f conclusiv e tha t thes e me n ar e no t bein g le d b y a will-o'-the-wisp an d i t i s saf e t o predic t tha t a s soo n a s transportatio n i s availabl e fo r heav y machiner y severa l stron g corporation s wil l establis h extensiv e minin g plant s i n thi s minera l district BENGUE T ROAD Withi n th e pas t yea r th e Bengue t road throug h th e indomitabl e perseveranc e an d extraordinar y energ y o f Maj L W V Kennon Unite d State s Army th e office r i n charg e o f thi s construction ha s bee n pushe d fro m Dagupa n t o a poin t abou t 8 mile s fro m Baguio ove r whic h wheele d transportatio n i s available Fro m thi s poin t connectio n wit h Bagui o i s mad e b y a goo d mountai n trai l ove r whic h on e ma y safel y pas s o n horsebac k o r b e carrie d i n chair s b y th e Igorrot e carriers Th e openin g o f thi s rout e t o an d fro m Bagui o afford s th e publi c a glanc e a t an d give s a hin t o f th e stupen 2490 4 1 2

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17 8 dou s amoun t o f wor k necessary a s wel l a s mone y required t o pu t int o effec t thi s grea t engineerin g plan Upo n th e openin g o f thi s roa d a s a transi t lin e th e annoyin g troubl e inciden t t o polista (Igorrot e carriers ) servic e wil l cease Bu t unti l the n th e visitor s t o thes e "delectabl e mountains, th e "enchante d ground o f th e Philippines mus t maintai n thei r soul s wit h patience wit h th e furthe r assuranc e tha t th e provincia l authoritie s wil l d o al l tha t the y ca n consisten t wit h thei r officia l obligation s t o assis t the m i n securin g transportation an d the y wil l b e accorde d a cordia l welcome Al l o f whic h i s respectfull y submitted WILLIA M F PACK Governor of the Province of Benguet. Th e CIVI L GOVERNO R O F TH E PHILIPPIN E ISLANDS

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BOHOL OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR PROVINC E O F BOHOL Tagbilaran, August 20, 190If. SI R : I hav e th e hono r t o submi t fo r you r consideratio n th e repor t correspondin g t o th e fisca l yea r endin g Jun e 3 0 last regrettin g tha t I a m unabl e a t presen t t o sen d wit h i t an y photograph s o f interes t t o th e Governmen t fo r th e reaso n tha t ther e i s n o photographe r I n an y par t o f th e provinc e wh o coul d provid e th e provincia l boar d wit h thes e pictures POLITICA L CONDITION S O F TH E PROVINCE I n lookin g bac k ove r th e histor y o f th e Islan d o f Boho l durin g th e pas t thre e year s th e peac e an d tranquillit y i n whic h th e native s hav e live d ar e strongl y i n evidence an d I d o no t hesitat e i n als o sayin g th e sam e thin g wit h regar d t o thei r complet e submissio n t o America n sovereignty Thi s submissio n i s withou t a doub t th e resul t o f th e polic y o f conciliatio n adopte d b y th e honorabl e Com missio n i n thes e Island s which adherin g strictl y t o th e instruction s o f th e lat e Presiden t McKinley ha s develope d a syste m o f govern men t whic h ha s satisfie d th e mos t radica l Filipin o eve r i n arm s agains t America I n thi s wor k o f pacificatio n th e militar y hav e contribute d largely a s wel l a s th e America n employee s and teachers th e provincia l officials an d th e nativ e municipa l authorities wh o hav e bee n successfu l i n inculcatin g th e masse s o f th e peopl e wit h th e rea l purpose s o f th e America n Governmen t upo n it s acceptanc e o f responsibilit y fo r thes e Islands Th e peopl e o f Bohol convince d o f th e jus t purpose s o f th e Gov ernmen t o f th e sovereig n country hav e no t hesitate d t o plac e thei r entir e confidenc e i n i t and i n it s promise s o f securin g th e welfar e o f th e inhabitant s o f thes e Island s an d o f teachin g the m th e secre t o f self-government Moreove r thes e peopl e understan d tha t th e basi s o f th e progres s o f an y countr y i s tranquillity an d fo r thi s reaso n hav e mad e secur e 17 9 •

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18 0 th e tranquillit y o f thi s province Shoul d an y malconten t attemp t a disturbanc e o f th e publi c orde r h e woul d immediatel y b e denounce d t o th e authorities an d i f necessar y th e peopl e themselve s woul d tak e u p arm s t o hel p t o restor e peace— a peac e whic h the y desir e a t al l cost s t o preserv e fo r thei r greate r felicity A s a matte r o f fac t th e native s o f thi s provinc e ar e b y natur e a peacefu l lot an d wer e i t no t fo r a fe w outsider s livin g i n thei r mids t th e Constabular y forc e woul d b e superfluous Th e provincia l employee s compl y wit h th e dutie s impose d upo n the m b y law mak e justic e prevail an d follo w a lin e o f conduc t i n thei r relation s wit h th e peopl e whic h adhere s mos t closel y t o th e strictes t morality I n th e sam e manne r th e municipa l officer s hav e alway s given a tru e interpretatio n 't o th e laws hav e diffuse d education contribute d t o th e advancemen t o f agriculture directe d th e actio n o f th e polic e an d th e collectio n an d distributio n o f taxes an d hav e guarantee d publi c orde r an d persona l security PUBLI C ORDER Th e onl y thin g whic h ca n b e feare d tha t i s capabl e o f disturbin g th e tranquillit y o f thi s provinc e i s tha t th e ba d peopl e campin g i n th e mountain s o f th e neighborin g Islan d o f Ceb u migh t pas s ove r t o thos e pueblo s whic h ar e o f eas y access fo r th e reaso n tha t thei r inhabitants bein g accustome d t o liv e withou t fea r o r anxiet y o f an y sort giv e themselve s u p entirel y t o th e delight s o f a relativel y happ y an d tranqui l existence neglectin g everythin g connecte d wit h th e securit y o f thei r person s an d propert y unti l surprise d b y th e depredation s o f thes e peopl e o f evi l lives an d b y th e robber y o f thei r carabao s an d cattle Bu t suc h occurrence s ar e s o rare owin g t o th e activ e wor k o n th e par t o f th e loca l polic e i n eac h district tha t i t i s no t apprehende d tha t i t wil l b e necessar y t o cal l upo n th e Constabular y fo r hel p o r interventio n i n orde r t o arres t thei r growth I t i s s o notoriou s a s t o b e proverbia l i n thi s provinc e tha t i n a puebl o wher e man y peopl e o f th e neighborin g islan d resid e moralit y an d orde r are i f no t a chimera a myth Th e puebl o o f Ynabanga notoriou s fo r th e murder s an d blood y quarrel s whic h frequentl y occu r eithe r i n th e puebl o itsel f o r i n th e variou s islet s withi n it s boundaries th e majorit y o f whos e inhabitant s ar e Cebuans i s a goo d exampl e o f th e resul t o f th e

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18 1 poiso n whic h i s characteristi c o f th e bloo d o r th e resul t o f th e evi l custom s o f thos e people Th e balanc e o f th e pueblo s adjacen t t o th e Islan d o f Ceb u wil l resul t i n becomin g contaminate d if a s i n th e puebl o o f Ynabanga th e Cebua n populatio n shoul d multipl y i n them I f th e power s o f th e provincia l governo r shoul d includ e tha t o f bein g abl e t o expel withou t th e necessar y investigation o r a t leas t t o imped e th e avalanch e o f peopl e o f suspiciou s origi n t o hi s province th e undersigne d woul d no t b e th e firs t t o tak e suc h measures a s prio r t o thi s tim e an d a lon g tim e prio r hi s predecessor s i n th e govern men t o f thi s peaceful industrious an d culture d Provinc e o f Boho l woul d hav e don e s o fo r th e goo d o f th e publi c order th e moralit y an d securit y o f th e inhabitants I t mus t no t b e interprete d fro m th e abov e tha t i t i s m y desir e t o attribut e al l o f th e virtue s t o th e masse s i n thi s province i n th e mids t o f which—thoug h i n a n embryoni c state i f I ma y b e permitte d t o us e th e expression—i t i s tru e ther e ar e band s o f person s wh o i f no t actuall y discontente d wit h th e presen t stat e o f affair s hav e a propensit y fo r revoltin g agains t th e Governmen t an d it s representatives Fortunately however th e socia l grad e o f peopl e constitutin g thes e band s i s th e rudes t an d mos t ignorant unde r th e leadershi p o f a fe w ex-revolutionist s wh o cal l themselve s th e defender s o f th e people' s interest s an d wh o surreptitiousl y labo r agains t th e loca l an d eve n th e provincia l authoritie s tha t i n thei r judgmen t ma y b e a n impedimen t t o thei r work whic h the y hav e calle d tha t o f regeneration whe n i n realit y i t merel y tend s t o a n exploitatio n o f th e ignoranc e o f delude d people I n orde r t o dea l thes e peopl e a sever e blow especiall y th e leader s wh o cal l themselve s thei r defenders thi s provincia l governmen t i s countin g upo n th e efficaciou s cooperatio n o f th e president s o f som e pueblo s i n accumulatin g dat a an d proof s whic h wil l b e sufficien t t o tak e a decide d ste p i n th e matter I n th e meanwhil e I improv e th e opportunit y afforde d b y m y visit s o f inspectio n t o th e municipalitie s o f th e provinc e t o tel l th e people wh o ar e gathere d togethe r t o sho w thei r respec t fo r th e Governmen t I represent amon g othe r thing s wha t th e true intention s o f certai n person s ar e i n organizin g thes e band s o f ignoran t people—n o othe r tha n t o satiat e thei r voraciou s ambitio n t o accumulat e wealt h unde r th e pretex t o f patriotis m an d a t th e cos t o f al l sort s o f sacrifice s o n th e par t o f thos e unfortunat e

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18 2 peopl e wh o allo w themselve s t o b e deceive d an d the n b e abandone d t o povert y an d misfortun e afte r th e end s o f thei r self-constitnte d "redeemers ar e satisfied S o grea t wa s th e fea r harbore d b y th e peopl e tha t i n th e nea r futur e ther e woul d b e anothe r uprisin g i n thi s province tha t befor e m y visi t o f inspectio n t o th e pueblo s th e municipalitie s o f Bilar Batuan Carmen Sierr a Bullones an d other s wer e littl e les s tha n deserte d becaus e thei r inhabitants frightene d b y th e cos t t o the m o f th e lat e insurrection ha d s o littl e confidenc e i n th e continuanc e o f peac e an d tranquillit y i n thi s provinc e tha t the y di d no t dar e t o reconstruc t thei r ol d home s i n th e town s bu t preferre d t o continu e livin g a n almos t nomadi c lif e i n th e densit y o f th e forests TERRITORIA L SUBDIVISION Th e ol d territoria l subdivisio n o f th e pueblo s o f thi s provinc e wa s s o wel l regulate d tha t th e influenc e o f th e Governmen t extende d t o th e farthes t boundarie s o f thi s provinc e an d th e native s wer e easil y afforde d al l o f th e protectio n t o whic h the y wer e entitled Th e difficultie s encountere d b y th e sai d municipalitie s consiste d solel y i n tha t the y wer e unabl e t o giv e du e attentio n t o thei r need s o n accoun t o f th e smallnes s o f thei r revenues fo r whic h reaso n th e honorabl e Philippin e Commissio n adopte d th e politica l meas ur e o f consolidatin g th e pueblo s a s a mean s o f mutua l suppor t bu t withou t alterin g thei r ol d boundaries s o a s t o avoi d th e useles s expens e t o th e provincia l treasury an d fo r th e purpos e o f respecting a s wa s jus t an d advisable thei r traditiona l habits time-honore d customs lov e o f nativ e land an d tha t enviabl e sympath y mutuall y professe d b y peopl e bor n i n th e sam e pueblo Bu t th e polic y adopte d b y th e provincia l boar d o f thi s provinc e o f supportin g viciou s petition s fro m th e wealth y native s o f som e o f th e barrio s askin g tha t the y b e organize d a s independent ne w municipalities an d o f other s t o b e annexe d t o anothe r pueblo ha s offse t th e benefit s o f thi s politica l measur e o f th e Philippin e Commission fo r instea d o f securin g a goo d administratio n t o th e pueblo s i t ha s prove d a n obstacl e t o it an d instea d o f improvin g th e financia l conditio n o f th e • sam e i t ha s resulte d i n makin g i t wors e tha n wha t i t was Th e municipalit y o f Ubay i n a writte n petitio n presente d b y i t t o th e provincia l board ask s tha t i t b e consolidate d wit h anothe r puebl o i n vie w o f th e fac t tha t it s presen t revenue s woul d no t an y longe r permi t i t t o liv e a s a n independen t municipality I n th e

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18 3 sam e manne r th e municipalitie s o f Loon Cortes Corella an d Sierr a Bullone s presente d petition s settin g fort h thei r desir e t o b e con solidate d wit h th e municipalitie s o f Maribojoc Tagbilaran Bacla yan an d Carmen respectively PUBLI C INSTRUCTION I n th e las t annua l repor t fo r th e fiscal yea r 19023 ex-Governor Clarl n se t fort h th e eagernes s wit h whic h childre n o f bot h sexe s i n thi s provinc e studie d th e Englis h language Th e metho d o f instruction—differen t fro m tha t o f th e Span iards—pu t int o practic e b y th e America n teacher s ha s bee n ver y suc cessful an d fo r thi s reaso n ha s wo n th e regar d o f th e peopl e o f Bohol who desirin g t o respon d t o th e generou s effort s o f th e Governmen t o f thes e Island s fo r th e educatio n o f th e Filipino s i n orde r tha t the y ma y becom e fre e citizen s capabl e i n th e futur e o f formin g a n intel ligen t peopl e abl e t o gover n themselves hav e pu t u p schoo l building s i n eac h o f th e barrio s an d pueblo s which thoug h constructe d o f ligh t materials combin e th e necessar y condition s a s t o sanitatio n an d adequacy I n thes e barri o school s childre n o f bot h sexe s ar e taugh t thei r first letter s i n Spanis h b y Filipin o teacher s pai d b y th e resident s o f th e barrios i n vie w o f th e fac t tha t th e smallnes s o f th e revenue s o f th e municipalitie s o f thi s provinc e ha s no t permitte d the m t o compl y wit h thi s obligation However som e o f thes e teacher s receiv e a par t an d sometime s one-hal f o f thei r monthl y salaries a s i n th e cas e o f tw o o r thre e municipalitie s whos e finances ar e i n a bette r conditio n tha n th e rest Al l o f th e barri o teacher s hav e receive d preliminar y instructio n i n English a s wel l a s i n th e method s whic h the y mus t follo w i n teachin g i n thei r respectiv e schools a t th e norma l schoo l situat e i n thi s cit y whic h i s ope n t?v o month s i n th e year—fro m th e 1 5 t h o f Ma y unti l th e 15t h o f July Classe s ar e ope n fo r thi s purpos e ever y nigh t excep t holidays Th e result s o f th e wor k don e b y th e norma l schoo l ar e ver y satisfactor y t o th e teachers wh o retur n t o thei r respectiv e barrio s wit h th e laudabl e purpos e o f educatin g thei r scholar s i n thos e matter s taugh t the m durin g th e tw o month s mentioned I n vie w o f th e grea t interes t demonstrate d b y th e citizen s o f thi s provinc e i n th e educatio n o f thei r childre n i n th e Englis h language an d th e figures furnishe d b y th e divisio n superintenden t o f school s o f Boho l t o th e provincia l boar d showin g a n enrollmen t a t th e

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18 4 norma l schoo l o f 55 5 teachers whic h di d no t includ e teacher s i n th e pueblo s o f Mabini Carmen an d Ubay an d a n enrollmen t i n th e secondar y schoo l o f 15 7 student s o f bot h sexes an d th e fac t tha t ther e i s n o schoo l buildin g i n thi s localit y wit h a sufficien t capacit y t o accommodat e th e abov e numbe r o f student s o r adapte d t o schoo l uses th e member s o f th e provincia l boar d o f Boho l passe d a resolu tio n askin g th e Insula r Treasur y fo r a loa n o f ^20,00 0 t o b e expende d i n th e constructio n o f a buildin g t o b e use d a s a provin cia l hig h school sai d su m t o b e returne d t o th e Insula r Treasur y withou t interes t a s follows : O n th e 1s t da y o f December 1905 f*4,000 ; o n th e 1s t da y o f December 1907 f*4,000 ; o n th e 1s t da y o f December 1908 f*4,000 ; o n th e 1s t da y o f December 1909 ^4,000 ; th e buildin g i n questio n t o b e constructe d o n plan s t o b e draw n b y th e Chie f o f th e Burea u o f Architecture approve d b y th e Genera l Superintenden t o f Educatio n an d th e Secretar y o f Publi c Instruction an d unde r th e supervisio n o f th e provincia l board Th e inhabitant s o f thi s provinc e bein g convince d o f th e benefit s t o b e derive d fro m educatio n an d o f th e importanc e an d utilit y o f th e stud y o f th e Englis h language hav e no t cease d i n thei r purpos e t o hav e thei r childre n educate d b y America n teachers a s th e suc cessfu l result s whic h crow n th e effort s o f thes e teacher s hav e le d head s o f familie s i n pueblo s wher e n o America n teacher s ar e detaile d t o complai n tha t the y ha d no t bee n give n a competen t teache r fo r th e education o f thei r children Durin g m y visi t o f inspectio n t o th e pueblo s o f th e nort h an d interio r o f thi s provinc e I foun d tha t petition s ha d bee n filed wit h som e o f th e municipa l council s wit h regar d t o thi s matter an d I wa s aske d b y th e latte r tha t America n teacher s b e provide d i n orde r t o satisf y th e jus t desire s o f th e citizens I n vie w o f thi s I addresse d a n officia l lette r o n Jun e 1 1 t o th e Genera l Superintenden t o f Educatio n askin g fo r 2 0 addi tiona l teacher s fo r school s tha t hav e bee n unde r th e charg e o f th e Filipin o teachers u p t o presen t time a s thes e latte r are i n th e majority o f meage r educatio n an d therefor e unabl e full y t o compl y wit h th e desire s o f father s o f familie s wit h regar d t o th e educatio n o f thei r children FINANCIA L CONDITIONS Notwithstandin g th e straightene d circumstance s i n whic h th e native s o f thi s province wh o ar e humbl e an d submissiv e people hav e bee n livin g durin g th e pas t thre e years ; notwithstandin g th e

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18 5 fata l an d mournfu l consequence s o f th e war rinderpest an d othe r calamitie s whic h hav e weighe d upo n them taxe s o f al l descriptions — property industrial commercial an d others—thoug h no t pai d punc tuall y eithe r becaus e o f lac k o f fund s o r becaus e th e taxpayer s liv e a t a grea t distanc e fro m th e municipa l buildin g o f th e puebl o an d ar e no t awar e o f th e presenc e o f th e provincia l treasure r o r hi s deputie s i n th e municipality hav e bee n collecte d wit h fai r regular ity bringin g int o th e treasur y o f thi s provinc e a n amoun t mor e tha n sufficien t t o cove r al l o f th e obligation s whic h th e provincia l governmen t ha s t o meet Fro m Januar y 1 t o Ma y 3 1 o f th e presen t yea r th e followin g provincia l revenue s fro m variou s source s wer e collected : Kin d o f tax Philippin e currency Loca l cur rency Industria l ta x P6,719.9 3 7,624.0 0 429.6 7 4,441.4 4 $6,672.2 5 21,860.2 6 492.8 5 8,467.0 6 Persona l cedula s P6,719.9 3 7,624.0 0 429.6 7 4,441.4 4 $6,672.2 5 21,860.2 6 492.8 5 8,467.0 6 Sal e o f stamp s P6,719.9 3 7,624.0 0 429.6 7 4,441.4 4 $6,672.2 5 21,860.2 6 492.8 5 8,467.0 6 Lan d ta x P6,719.9 3 7,624.0 0 429.6 7 4,441.4 4 $6,672.2 5 21,860.2 6 492.8 5 8,467.0 6 P6,719.9 3 7,624.0 0 429.6 7 4,441.4 4 $6,672.2 5 21,860.2 6 492.8 5 8,467.0 6 A s ma y b e see n fro m th e abov e tabl e th e larges t sourc e o f revenu e t o th e provinc e i s th e personal-registratio n ta x o r cedula ; a n equall y larg e amount i f no t larger shoul d b e collecte d fro m th e lan d tax bu t thi s wil l no t hav e th e importanc e whic h woul d b e desire d unti l th e pueblo s burne d durin g th e revolutio n shal l hav e bee n completel y rebuilt a s a t th e presen t tim e th e house s buil t t o replac e thos e burne d durin g th e revolutio n ar e s o smal l an d poo r tha t the y scarcel y deserv e th e name whil e th e agricultura l land s tha t ar e s o fertil e an d yiel d suc h larg e return s whe n properl y cultivated i f no t actuall y abandone d b y thei r owner s i n vie w o f th e impossibilit y o f tillin g them ar e assesse d upo n a ver y lo w valuation Takin g th e collection s fo r th e yea r 190 3 a s a basi s i t ca n b e safel y estimate d tha t th e followin g collection s wil l b e mad e fo r th e prov inc e durin g th e followin g month s o f 1904 : Kin d o f tax June 1904 July 1904 August 1904 Kin d o f tax Philippin e currency Loca l cur rency Philippin e currency Loca l cur rency Philippin e currency Loca l cur rency Fo r industria l taxe s Fo r personal-regis tratio n certifi cate s o r cedula s Fo r sal e o f stamp s Fo r taxe s o n cart s Fo r lan d taxe s PI 101.3 4 2,552.0 0 83.7 0 "137037741 $5,752.6 0 1^763773 PI 577.3 1 1,571.0 0 150.13 9.0 0 764.8 7 $430.2 6 2,499.9 7 5.3 7 3.3 0 0.4 5 PI 000.0 0 1,000.0 0 50.0 0 10,000.0 0 $1,500.0 0 1,500.0 0 50.0 0 30.0 0 PI 101.3 4 2,552.0 0 83.7 0 "137037741 $5,752.6 0 1^763773 PI 577.3 1 1,571.0 0 150.13 9.0 0 764.8 7 $430.2 6 2,499.9 7 5.3 7 3.3 0 0.4 5 PI 000.0 0 1,000.0 0 50.0 0 10,000.0 0

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18 6 Kin d o f tax September 1904 October 1904 Kin d o f tax Philippin e currency Loca l cur rency Philippin e currency Loca l cur rency Fo r industria l taxe s Fo r personal-registratio n certificate s o r cedula s Fl 000.0 0 3,000.0 0 150.0 0 $1,000.0 0 4,000.0 0 F2,000.0 0 2,000.0 0 150.0 0 150.0 0 2,000.0 0 $2,000.0 0 2,000.0 0 Fo r sal e o f stamp s Fl 000.0 0 3,000.0 0 150.0 0 $1,000.0 0 4,000.0 0 F2,000.0 0 2,000.0 0 150.0 0 150.0 0 2,000.0 0 $2,000.0 0 2,000.0 0 Fo r taxe s o n cart s Fl 000.0 0 3,000.0 0 150.0 0 F2,000.0 0 2,000.0 0 150.0 0 150.0 0 2,000.0 0 Fo r lan d taxe s 700.0 0 F2,000.0 0 2,000.0 0 150.0 0 150.0 0 2,000.0 0 700.0 0 F2,000.0 0 2,000.0 0 150.0 0 150.0 0 2,000.0 0 Kin d o f tax November 1904 December 1904 Kin d o f tax Philippin e currency Loca l cur rency Philippin e currency Loca l cur rency Fo r industria l taxe s F200.0 0 500.0 0 75.0 0 $200.0 0 Fl,500.0 0 2,000.0 0 75.0 0 Fo r personal-registratio n certificate s o r cedula s F200.0 0 500.0 0 75.0 0 $200.0 0 Fl,500.0 0 2,000.0 0 75.0 0 Fo r sal e o f stamp s F200.0 0 500.0 0 75.0 0 Fl,500.0 0 2,000.0 0 75.0 0 Fo r taxe s o n cart s F200.0 0 500.0 0 75.0 0 Fl,500.0 0 2,000.0 0 75.0 0 Fo r lan d taxe s 2,500.0 0 1,500.0 0 1,000.0 0 Fo r forestr y taxe s 2,500.0 0 1,500.0 0 1,000.0 0 1,500.0 0 1,000.0 0 Amon g al l th e taxe s an d impost s abov e specifie d th e cheapes t an d easies t t o collec t i s tha t o f personal-registratio n certificates no t s o muc h o n accoun t o f th e punctualit y i n paymen t bu t becaus e o f th e undeniabl e succes s o f th e syste m o f collectin g sam e whic h i s ver y differen t fro m tha t followe d i n th e collectio n o f othe r taxe s b y th e provincia l treasure r o r hi s deputies Th e municipa l treas urer s ar e th e person s authorize d t o issu e cedula s i n thei r respectiv e municipalities O f th e efficienc y o f thes e municipa l official s I thin k i t i s unneces sar y fo r m e t o speak i n vie w o f th e fac t tha t Ac t No 109 7 regulate s thei r appointmen t an d employment Th e disbursement s o f th e provincia l treasur y fo r travelin g ex pense s o f deputie s o f treasurer s represen t a respectabl e su m whic h th e Governmen t migh t sav e if instea d o f collectin g othe r taxe s an d impost s i n accordanc e wit h th e syste m followe d u p t o th e presen t tim e b y employee s o f th e provincia l treasury thi s dut y wer e delegate d t o th e municipa l treasurers I f thi s wer e t o b e don e a s suggeste d th e journey s mad e a t presen t b y th e deputie s o f th e provincia l treasurer s which, having t o las t tw o week s o r mor e ever y hal f yea r i n eac h municipality causin g th e provincia l treasur y a n expens e o f thousand s o f dollars woul d tak e bu t ver y littl e time inasmuc h a s th e dutie s o f th e provincia l treasure r o r hi s deputie s woul d b e limite d t o examinin g th e book s an d account s o f eac h municipa l treasure r an d t o tak e u p th e mone y correspondin g t o th e province

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18 7 Whe n th e presen t syste m o f collectin g taxes which beside s bein g ver y costl y t o th e province offer s othe r objection s tha t i t woul d b e superfluou s t o enumerate i s don e awa y with th e extravaganc e o f th e offic e o f th e provincia l treasure r i n connectio n wit h th e numbe r o f employee s woul d ceas e an d thereb y caus e a savin g t o th e provincia l government whic h need s mone y t o carr y ou t severa l work s i n projec t whic h i t ha s bee n unabl e t o eve n commenc e unde r presen t conditions PUBLI C WORKS Thi s importan t branc h o f th e administratio n which, a s yo u ar e aware ca n contribut e t o th e advancemen t o f commerc e an d th e developmen t o f industr y an d agricultur e i n thi s province thereb y makin g th e beneficen t influenc e o f th e administratio n an d o f th e Governmen t fel t an d eve n develo p civilization—fo r al l thes e thing s ar e dependen t upo n goo d mean s o f communication whic h dra w togethe r th e pueblo s an d mak e mor e clos e thei r socia l bond s a s wel l a s allowin g the m commonl y t o participat e i n thei r industry arts an d sciences an d eve n thei r prosperity an d furthermor e whic h ten d t o giv e the m tha t unit y whic h i s th e resul t o f a similarit y o f habits wants an d custom s throug h th e frequen t intercours e whic h commercia l relation s establish—i s i n a stat e o f neglect especiall y th e road s an d bridge s fro m Tubigo n t o Guindulma n i n th e norther n par t o f th e Islands I wil l no t spea k o f th e road s an d bridges existin g betwee n Lobo c an d Sierr a Bullone s o r Ubay a s th e surve y part y whic h th e honorabl e Philippin e Commissio n wa s please d t o sen d t o thi s provinc e i n respons e t o th e petitio n mad e b y th e provincia l boar d i n February 1904 ha s alread y com mence d it s wor k o f surveyin g an d o f investigatin g th e probabl e cos t o f a roa d acros s th e island Wit h regar d t o th e road s i n th e souther n par t o f th e province thoug h i n a ba d stat e o f repair the y ar e passabl e fo r vehicles bu t I ca n no t sa y th e sam e thin g wit h regar d t o th e bridges a s sinc e thi s governmen t wa s constitute d th e provincia l boar d ha s onl y bee n abl e t o repai r on e bridg e i n th e puebl o o f Loa y an d tw o i n tha t o f Calape A s t o th e bridge s i n th e pueblo s o f Dimiao Valencia an d Garcia-Hernandez th e repair s o f whic h correspon d t o thi s provincia l board the y wer e mad e b y th e inhabitant s o f th e pueblo s mentione d who understandin g th e necessit y o f havin g goo d highway s o f communication wer e no t patien t enoug h t o wai t unti l th e provincia l governmen t ha d th e tim e t o repai r same Al l o f

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18 8 th e othe r provincia l bridge s excep t thos e abov e mentione d ar e completel y ruined. Th e presen t syste m o f constructin g an d repairin g road s an d bridge s is i n theory goo d an d worth y o f th e Governmen t whic h rule s ove r th e destinie s o f thes e Islands— a Governmen t tha t i n th e enactmen t o f law s draw s it s onl y inspiratio n fro m th e principle s o f equit y an d justice However th e experienc e tha t thi s provincia l governmen t ha s acquire d durin g th e year s o f it s existenc e ha s demonstrate d tha t thi s syste m i n practic e doe s no t produc e th e result s tha t th e Governmen t purpose s t o obtain fo r i t finds insuperabl e difficultie s whic h i t i s unabl e t o overcom e o n accoun t o f th e insufficienc y o f th e appropriation s mad e fo r thi s purpose, owin g t o th e magnitud e o f th e publi c wor k th e provinc e ha s t o perform Fo r thi s reaso n I a m takin g th e libert y t o sugges t tha t th e followin g syste m b e adopted whic h i n m y opinio n woul d giv e bette r results : (1 ) Tha t th e mone y collecte d fo r th e constructio n an d repair o f bridge s an d road s b e declare d municipa l fund s an d b e expende d fo r thi s purpos e b y th e presiden t an d th e municipa l counci l unde r th e directio n o f th e provincia l superviso r an d wit h th e knowledg e o f th e provincia l board (2 ) I f i t i s foun d tha t thes e sum s ar e no t sufficien t properl y t o perfor m th e obligation s o f th e municipa l government a la w shoul d b e enacte d compellin g al l mal e citizen s withou t exceptio n wh o ar e abl e t o wor k fro m th e age s o f 1 8 t o 5 0 year s t o labo r upo n th e constructio n an d repai r o f bridge s an d road s fo r a perio d o f tw o day s eac h yea r o r t o redee m suc h labo r b y th e paymen t o f ML (3 ) Thi s assistanc e tha t able-bodie d mal e citizen s betwee n th e age s o f 1 8 an d 5 0 year s giv e i n th e constructio n an d repai r o f bridge s an d road s o f thi s provinc e wil l ceas e whe n the y shal l hav e al l bee n constructe d an d repaired th e maintenanc e o f whic h shal l b e don e wit h th e fund s se t asid e fo r thi s purpos e fro m th e amoun t collecte d fo r th e lan d tax (4 ) I n orde r t o avoi d a corrup t administratio n o f thes e funds whic h unde r th e Spanis h Governmen t mad e thi s ta x hatefu l t o th e Filipin o people i t shoul d b e provide d tha t al l wor k undertake n shal l b e carrie d o n unde r th e directio n o f th e provincia l superviso r wh o shal l ask i n writing th e municipa l presiden t o f th e puebl o i n whos e jurisdictio n th e wor k i s t o b e don e fo r th e numbe r o f laborer s necessary ; withou t thi s for m o f petitio n o f th e provincia l

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18 9 superviso r th e municipa l presiden t shal l b e unabl e t o mak e us e o f thi s hel p fro m th e people (5 ) A s abov e state d thi s labo r ca n b e redeeme d b y th e paymen t o f 1*1 whic h su m shal l g o int o th e municipa l fund s a s a roa d tax a receip t therefo r bein g give n i n eac h instanc e signe d b y th e presiden t an d treasure r o f th e municipality Th e undersigne d believe s tha t wit h th e adoptio n o f thi s syste m th e provincia l an d municipa l bridge s an d roads whic h a t presen t ar e i n a deplorabl e state a s abov e described wil l soo n b e repaire d an d constructed PORT Th e channe l o f th e por t o f Tagbilaran capita l o f thi s province offer s unsurpassabl e condition s o f securit y t o vessels a s i t i s wel l sheltere d fro m th e winds Th e improvemen t o f thi s highwa y o f navigation woul d certainl y contribut e t o th e progres s an d develop men t o f th e commerc e o f thi s island a s sailin g ship s an d steamer s instea d o f havin g t o pas s roun d th e Islan d o f Panglao whic h i s ver y dangerou s o n accoun t o f th e stron g curren t an d th e bank s an< J reef s existin g there wher e a goo d man y sailin g ship s an d steamer s unabl e t o stan d th e fur y o f th e element s hav e bee n wrecked wil l prefe r t o mak e us e o f thi s channel, eve n thoug h the y ar e oblige d t o pa y fo r th e privilege a s i t i s a ver y muc h shorte r road offerin g n o dange r o f an y sort beside s bein g a sur e plac e o f refug e i n cas e o f storms Fro m a n administrativ e standpoin t th e wor k fo r th e improvemen t i n questio n ma y b e considere d a s publi c work a s i t wil l serv e t o facilitat e transportatio n an d shorte n th e highway s o f communica tion Th e obstacle s i n th e wa y o f a fre e passag e fo r ship s throug h th e channe l referre d t o ar e t o b e foun d onl y i n th e isthmu s unitin g th e tw o pueblo s o f Tagbilara n an d Daui s an d th e poin t o f lan d calle d Totola n o n th e norther n sid e o f th e Islan d o f Panglao i n th e jurisdictio n o f Dauis wher e th e wate r i s ver y shallow thoug h beyon d ther e i s a dept h o f fro m 8 t o 1 0 fathoms Thes e obstacle s whic h compe l steamer s t o ancho r 4 mile s fro m th e whar f occasio n expens e t o th e Governmen t an d t o merchant s i n tha t i t i s necessar y t o lighte r good s fro m shi p t o shor e o r vic e vers a i n smal l cascoe s an d othe r light-draf t boats Wit h wha t I hav e state d abov e th e necessit y o f improvin g th e por t referre d t o i s demonstrated Thi s improvemen t I believ e

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19 0 woul d no t greatl y increas e th e appropriation s o f th e Insula r Gov ernment a s I estimat e tha t wit h $5,00 0 th e channe l coul d b e mad e fre e fo r navigatio n i n les s tha n on e year ECONOMI C CONDITION S O F TH E PROVINCE Th e stagnatio n i n agriculture owin g t o th e lac k o f it s principa l factor—th e carabao ; th e ravage s o f malaria l fever s i n man y pueblo s o f thi s province th e victim s o f whic h i f the y d o no t succum b las t throug h a convalescenc e o f nin e lon g months durin g whic h tim e i t i s impossibl e fo r the m t o devot e thei r energie s t o an y sor t o f work ; th e adoptio n o f a ne w currenc y whic h ha s cause d disar rangemen t o f business ; th e taxes ; hig h price s o f domesti c an d foreig n products th e domesti c owin g t o thei r scarcit y an d th e foreig n o n accoun t o f th e heav y custom s duties ; th e scarcit y o f work an d th e commercia l crisis—al l o f thes e hav e produce d th e lamentabl e economi c stat e o f thi s province Th e remed y fo r thi s evi l afflictin g th e Philippin e Island s i s i n th e hand s o f th e Governmen t whic h rule s ove r th e destinie s o f th e inhabitant s o f thi s Archipelago COMMERCIA L CONDITIONS Th e commerc e o f thi s province lik e tha t o f other s i n th e Archipelago i s languishing Al l o f th e merchant s complai n tha t thei r sale s ar e small thei r expense s large an d tha t bankruptc y stare s the m i n th e face L a Socieda d Mercantil o f th e puebl o o f Jagna foun d whe n i t balance d it s book s fo r th e pas t fisca l yea r tha t i t ha d a los s o f =8,000 Import s ar e te n time s a s muc h a s exports Sailin g ship s an d steamer s leav e th e port s o f thi s island som e wit h a smal l amoun t o f hem p an d other s entirel y empty an d retur n her e wit h cargoe s o f ric e an d textile s whic h i t take s the m month s t o unload Bu t I nee d no t dwel l o n thi s particular Th e clamo r i s general an d th e chamber s o f commerc e o f Manil a wil l hav e informe d yo u alread y o f th e presen t stat e o f commerc e i n thes e Islands INDUSTRIA L CONDITIONS Thi s province thoug h i t ha s no t advance d i n industry becaus e th e native s hav e mad e n o effort s t o perfec t themselve s i n thi s art produce s however i f no t a grea t deal sufficien t t o cove r thei r necessities

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19 1 Th e principa l industria l product s o f thi s provinc e ar e th e fol lowin g : Saba sinamay. —This i s manufacture d i n nearl y al l o f th e pueblo s o f th e province especiall y i n thos e o f Baclayon Loboc Diiniao Valencia Garcia-Hernandez Jagna Duero an d Sevilla I t i s estimate d tha t throughou t th e provinc e 35,00 0 piece s (o f 3 vara s t o th e piece ) o f sinama y ar e wove n weekly Th e majorit y o f thi s produc t i s exporte d t o th e adjacen t provinces Pihay sinamay. —This fine produc t o f industr y i s manufacture d onl y i n Tagbilaran Owin g t o it s scarcit y i t cost s ^ 4 a piece Ugpae. —This textil e i s manufacture d o f th e fibers o f hemp I t i s use d fo r th e linin g o f skirt s an d fo r makin g nets Thi s province beside s consumin g a grea t quantit y o f thi s article make s shipment s o f i t t o neighborin g provinces Cotton.—The native s manufactur e cotto n napkins tablecloths an d skirts Formerl y quit e a larg e quantit y o f thes e product s wa s shippe d t o othe r provinces ; however a t presen t th e native s hav e nearl y given u p thi s industry Ticog mats. —These mat s ar e manufacture d i n Talibo n i n fairl y larg e quantitie s fo r consumptio n withi n th e provinc e an d shipmen t t o th e neighborin g ones Buri mats. —The bur i ma t i s mad e i n man y o f th e pueblo s o f th e province bu t no t i n sufficien t quantitie s eve n t o suppl y th e loca l demand Baliw mats. —The product s o f thi s industr y ar e consume d onl y i n th e interio r o f th e province Saguran. —This produc t i s manufacture d i n th e pueblo s o f Alburquerque Loboc Cortes Calape Tubigon an d Ynabanga A portio n o f thi s produc t i s shippe d t o othe r provinces Fisheries. —Fish weirs nets an d othe r device s ar e use d fo r fishing an d providin g th e market s o f thi s provinc e an d eve n thos e o f th e neighborin g ones Hats. —Hats ar e als o manufacture d o f bugang ticog buri amor secos cane an d straw Ther e ar e man y othe r smal l industrie s ou t o f whic h th e native s mak e a living AGRICULTURE Fro m thi s veritabl e fountai n o f wealt h nothin g ca n b e hope d a t presen t i f th e deplorabl e syste m o f cultivatio n followe d i n thi s provinc e i s no t improved I t i s a viciou s syste m becaus e i t doe s

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19 2 no t allo w th e bes t result s t o b e obtaine d fro m suc h a climat e a s w e hav e i n thi s countr y combine d wit h th e advantage s whic h migh t b e obtaine d fro m th e prope r distributio n an d utilizatio n o f irrigation Owin g t o th e defectiv e syste m o f cultivatio n use d i n thi s provinc e an d th e lac k o f carabaos I tak e th e libert y t o sugges t t o th e honorabl e Philippin e Commissio n th e advisabilit y o f introducin g int o thes e Island s th e syste m o f cultivatio n i n vogu e i n th e Unite d State s o f America a s wel l a s agricultura l tools whic h woul d withou t doub t resul t i n encouragin g farmers Man y o f the m wh o posses s man y hectare s o f lan d hav e sai d tha t the y woul d for m companie s t o pa y fo r th e sai d agricultura l tool s i f the y wer e importe d here I t i s sa d t o se e larg e tract s o f lan d whic h prio r t o th e rinderpes t wer e cultivate d no w i n a stat e o f complet e neglect I n orde r t o improv e th e conditio n o f th e farmer s o f thi s province who eve n ha d the y th e prope r tools woul d no t obtai n grea t benefit s a s th e resul t o f thei r wor k becaus e o f th e lac k o f th e cultur e necessar y t o enric h th e groun d an d mak e i t fertile I woul d tak e th e liberty honorabl e Civi l Governor t o sugges t th e necessit y tha t thi s provincia l boar d shall wit h th e consen t o f th e honorabl e Commission sen d thre e youn g men a t least t o Manil a t o acquir e moder n knowledg e o f th e ar t o f cultivatin g th e grounds s o tha t afte r thei r studie s ar e finished the y ma y instruc t thei r coprovincial s i n th e knowledg e tha t the y hav e acquired a s withou t thi s mean s progres s an d advancemen t i n agricultur e ca n no t b e obtained ; an d agricultur e i s th e sourc e o f wealt h i n ever y countr y an d o f ever y government a s wit h progres s an d advancemen t i n agricultur e industr y an d commerc e woul d als o develop Furthermore t o cultivat e th e groun d wit h profi t on e mus t wor k mor e wit h hi s hea d tha n wit h hi s hands An d therefor e taxe s woul d no t b e s o oppressiv e t o th e farme r i f h e wer e abl e t o tak e ou t o f th e ground b y mean s o f th e knowledg e an d method s abov e indicated th e greates t possibl e advantage an d th e ta x whic h h e to-da y finds excessiv e woul d see m t o hi m insignificant Hemp. —Hemp i s cultivate d i n th e pueblo s o f Garcia-Hernandez > Jagna Duero Guindulman Anda Candijay Mabini Loboc Car men Sierra-Bullones Balilijan Antequera Calape Tubigon an d Ynabanga Th e cultivatio n o f thi s fibrous plan t i s increasin g i n thi s provinc e due first, t o th e goo d pric e a t whic h i t i s quote d

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19 3 i n th e markets and second t o th e los s o f carabaos ; moreove r th e cultivatio n o f hem p yield s bette r return s tha n tha t o f cereal s t o th e farmer Durin g th e pas t yea r thi s provinc e produce d ove r 20,00 0 picul s o f hemp and takin g int o accoun t th e amoun t o f lan d plante d t o i t a t present i n tw o o r thre e year s i t wil l produc e tripl e o r quadrupl e thi s quantity Th e clas s o f hem p produce d i n thi s provinc e i s equa l t o tha t o f Leyte Corn. —As th e cultivatio n o f thi s grai n doe s no t requir e muc h preparator y workin g o f th e ground th e caraba o bein g no t altogethe r necessary i t ha s greatl y increased for wher e formerl y thi s provinc e produce d 100,00 0 cavanes to-da y mor e tha n 200,00 0 ar e harvested Sugar. —The cultivatio n o f thi s plant. i s deficien t i n thi s prov ince Durin g th e pas t year accordin g t o th e informatio n furnishe d b y municipa l president s t o thi s office onl y 1,19 3 picul s wer e pro duce d b y th e 1 3 pueblo s wher e suga r i s raised Maguey. —This plan t grow s wel l o n differen t kind s o f lan d i n thi s province Ver y fe w o f th e natives however avai l themselve s o f it s fibers. Copra. —During th e pas t fiscal yea r th e provinc e di d no t expor t a singl e picu l o f copra whe n formerl y i t exporte d fro m 60,00 0 t o 70,00 0 piculs I ca n no t explai n th e caus e o f thi s phenomenon Th e cocoanu t tree s yiel d abundantly bu t th e frui t whe n th e siz e o f a n orang e fall s t o th e ground whic h i s sa d t o see Tobacco. —There ar e n o larg e tobacc o plantation s i n thi s prov ince bu t fro m 4,00 0 t o 5,00 0 quintal s a yea r bein g gathered Sheep and goats. —In thi s provinc e ver y fe w peopl e ar e engage d i n woo l raising owing possibly t o th e ignoranc e o f man y o f th e farmer s o f th e profit s fro m thi s business Wha t fe w shee p ar e raise d ar e fo r thei r mutton Th e sam e thin g ma y b e sai d wit h regar d t o th e goat whic h som e native s kee p onl y fo r thei r milk Cattle, carahaos, and horses. —Stock raisin g i s withou t doub t th e mos t soli d basi s o f agricultura l prosperity becaus e manur e i s a grea t fertilize r an d a sur e sourc e o f wealth Moreover th e presen t pric e o f stock no t onl y i n th e market s o f Manila Cebu an d othe r province s o f th e Archipelago wher e thes e animal s brin g twic e a s muc h a s the y d o here bu t als o i n th e market s o f thi s provinc e eac h co w use d fo r breedin g purpose s cost s 1*5 0 an d th e larges t bull s M0 ; eac h hea d o f caraba o suitabl e fo r plowin g 1*10 0 an d eac h caraba o co w fro m M 0 t o M0 ; caraba o calve s fro m M 0 t o M0 ; 2490 4 1 3

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19 4 goo d horse s cos t fro m M.5 0 t o 1*20 0 an d th e bes t fro m 1*25 0 t o 1*500 A t th e presen t price s stoc k raisin g woul d b e a ver y profit abl e an d sur e business Thi s provinc e ha s extensiv e plain s whic h ar e adaptabl e fo r stoc k raising Befor e th e wa r an d th e rinderpes t thi s provinc e supplie d th e market s o f Manila Cebu an d adjacen t province s wit h cattl e an d horses A t th e presen t tim e th e numbe r o f cattl e an d horse s raised eve n i n thos e pueblo s wher e stoc k raisin g i s th e principa l pursui t o f th e people i s ver y small A t leas t 8 0 pe r cen t o f th e cattl e hav e die d fro m th e rinderpest Th e municipalitie s o f thi s provinc e hav e passe d ordinance s strictl y forbiddin g th e slaughterin g o f cattle eve n thos e use d onl y fo r breedin g purpose s an d o f carabao s whic h ar e stil l usefu l fo r draf t purposes Respectfull y submitted SALUSTIAN O BORJA Governor of the Province of BohoL Th e CIVI L GOVERNO R O F TH E PHILIPPIN E ISLANDS

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BULACAN PROVINC E O F BULACAN OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR Malolos, July 15, 190%. SIR : I hav e th e hono r t o submi t t o yo n th e followin g repor t o f th e Provinc e o f Bulaca n fo r th e fisca l yea r 1903-4 : POLITICA L CONDITION S O F TH E PROVINCE Durin g th e fisca l yea r 19034 no t a singl e ac t agains t th e sover eignt y o f th e Unite d State s ha s bee n committe d b y an y o f th e inhabitant s o f thi s province a n eloquen t proo f o f it s adhesion t o th e constitute d government Th e conditio n o f publi c orde r i n th e provinc e i s a n enviabl e one th e inhabitant s enjoyin g complet e tranquillit y an d bein g engage d i n thei r usua l pursuits Considerin g th e spiri t o f th e inhabitant s o f thi s provinc e and th e goo d sens e wit h whic h th e allurin g promise s o f th e Governmen t ar e bein g worke d ou t i n th e labo r o f regeneratin g th e Filipino s leadin g t o th e goa l o f thei r aspiration I believ e an d ma y sa y a m convince d tha t i t woul d b e impossibl e fo r th e uncompromisin g element—th e enem y o f th e progres s o f th e Philippines—t o us e it s art s an d b e successfu l i n winnin g sympathizer s i n thi s province Proo f o f thi s i s foun d i n th e fac t tha t Ricarte' s profusel y dis tribute d proclamatio n foun d n o ech o i n thi s par t o f th e Islands O n th e contrary al l o f th e pueblo s o f Bulacan upo n learnin g o f it stoo d read y t o repe l th e leas t movemen t calculate d t o resul t i n a disturbanc e o f th e publi c orde r i n thei r respectiv e districts A n instanc e o f thi s i s th e puebl o o f Bulacan Whe n Leo n Villa fuerte mos t likel y on e o f th e follower s o f Ricarte ha d scarcel y begu n th e organizatio n o f a handfu l o f unwar y me n a t Guiguinto th e polic e o f tha t puebl o fel l upo n th e ban d a t it s meetin g plac e and completel y brok e u p th e gang ; som e o f thes e me n wer e captured a s wel l a s thre e rifles severa l bolos an d som e article s o f wearin g apparel Althoug h i t i s tru e tha t i n a smal l barri o nea r th e ba y o f thi s sam e puebl o tw o secret-servic e me n wer e murdered i t ca n 19 5

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19 6 no t b e take n a s a stai n upo n th e edifyin g conduc t o f th e police fo r th e reaso n tha t i t wa s no t a n ac t o f rebellio n agains t th e Govern men t bu t simpl y th e resul t o f th e enmit y existin g betwee n on e o f th e secret-servic e me n an d th e perpetrato r o f th e crime Th e municipa l polic e o f Angat assiste d b y th e Constabulary n o soone r learne d o f th e existenc e o f a ban d o f thieve s i n it s district whic h lie s clos e t o th e hills tha n i t wen t ou t an d fongh t them capturin g som e o f thei r numbe r togethe r wit h a fe w rifle s an d documents Thi s gan g probabl y cam e ove r fro m th e Provinc e o f Cavit e o r Batangas whenc e i t ha d bee n expelled Th e inhabitant s o f Paombon g workin g wit h th e municipa l polic e o f tha t town wer e als o abl e t o catc h som e tulisanes an d captur e thei r rifles Thes e robber s ha d bee n committin g depredation s i n th e vicinit y fo r som e tim e an d preye d upo n th e rive r traffi c betwee n thi s province Malabon an d Manila I n short I hav e observe d tha t al l o f th e pueblo s i n Bnlaca n hav e endeavore d t o avoi d an y disturbanc e o f th e publi c orde r withi n thei r respectiv e jurisdiction s an d hav e trie d t o liv e u p t o th e laws showin g fo r eac h othe r tha t mutua l respec t whic h al l goo d citizen s shoul d hav e fo r on e another Althoug h th e consolidatio n o f th e municipalitie s wa s a matte r o f seriou s preoccupation apparently t o man y people i t wa s carrie d ou t withou t difficult y o r oppositio n whe n it s obviou s advantage s an d beneficen t result s wer e mad e manifest ; afte r this wit h th e peopl e referre d to th e ide a o f oppositio n t o th e measur e wa s substitute d b y tha t o f winnin g ou t i n th e municipa l election s unde r th e con solidate d government Th e municipa l government s wor k ver y satisfactorily I hav e observe d tha t municipa l officer s ar e full y cognizan t o f thei r dutie s an d power s b y virtu e o f thei r office a s i s born e ou t b y th e regularit y wit h whic h th e council s hol d thei r meetings th e resolution s passed an d thei r effort s o n behal f o f th e prosperit y o f th e pueblos I ma y sa y tha t I a m full y satisfie d wit h th e progres s mad e b y th e municipa l governments Th e municipalitie s ar e to-da y unite d b y telephone Th e politica l condition s o f th e provinc e bein g suc h a s I hav e describe d them I a m sur e tha t th e inhabitant s ar e marchin g o n th e roa d o f progress an d i t i s a sourc e o f grea t satisfactio n fo r m e t o stat e i n thi s repor t tha t the y hav e thu s show n thei r goo d sens e an d loyalt y t o th e constitute d government

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19 7 PUBLI C INSTRUCTION Th e developmen t o f educatio n i n thi s provinc e ha s bee n remark able a s ha s bee n prove n b y th e openin g o f th e norma l schoo l i n thi s capita l an d th e selectio n o f a numbe r o f advance d student s a s teacher s i n th e publi c school s o f th e pueblos Som e o f th e childre n ar e s o advance d i n thei r studie s tha t the y ar e abl e t o rea d Englis h fairl y well ca n convers e a little an d understan d th e explanation s give n the m o f thei r lesson s i n tha t tongue I a m sur e tha t i n th e no t fa r distan t futur e th e sprea d o f educatio n i n thi s provinc e wil l hav e reache d th e exten t t o b e desire d o n accoun t o f th e excellen t method s employe d b y th e teachers an d mor e especiall y o f th e zea l displaye d b y th e divisio n superintenden t o f schools a s wel l a s th e interes t show n b y th e inhabitant s i n genera l an d th e suppor t len t b y municipa l council s i n th e enactmen t o f ordinance s tendin g t o favo r th e caus e o f education Som e o f th e pueblo s hav e buil t schoolhouse s i n th e cente r o f th e town amon g the m Malolos Bulacan an d Paombong Man y town s hav e starte d t o buil d house s o f stron g material s fo r thi s purpose includin g nearl y al l o f th e pueblo s an d barrio s wher e ther e ar e a considerabl e numbe r o f childre n o f schoo l age Th e repor t o f th e Genera l Superintenden t o f Educatio n show s a n enrollmen t o f 9,71 2 an d a n averag e dail y attendanc e o f 6,720 AGRICULTURE Thank s t o th e extraordinar y effort s o f th e provincia l boar d fo r th e exterminatio n o f locust s an d th e efficien t assistanc e o f th e inhab itant s o f th e province th e cro p o f 190 3 wa s save d fro m destructio n b y tha t plague Althoug h th e cro p wa s no t a larg e one owin g t o th e fac t tha t larg e area s o f lan d wer e lef t uncultivate d throug h th e lac k o f draf t cattl e an d tha t th e seaso n wa s unusuall y dry I believ e tha t ther e i s a sufficien t stoc k o f ric e i n th e provinc e t o las t unti l th e nex t crop Ther e i s als o a fairl y larg e stoc k o f suga r whic h i s no t movin g o n accoun t o f a lac k o f deman d an d lo w prices I n spit e o f thi s fac t i t i s observe d tha t th e farmer s o f th e provinc e hav e returne d t o th e cultivatio n o f th e can e whic h the y ha d give n u p fo r ric e o n accoun t o f th e latte r requirin g les s capita l an d muc h les s care Som e o f th e pueblo s o f thi s province particularl y thos e lyin g clos e t o th e hills ar e plantin g cocoanuts maguey an d j;h e famou s

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19 8 ilang-ilan g tree Th e desir e o f th e inhabitant s o f Bnlaca n t o wide n th e field o f thei r agricultura l labor s i s everywher e manifest Notwithstandin g al l this th e ol d method s o f farmin g hav e undergone n o change th e sam e rudimentar y one s bein g stil l fol lowed I believ e tha t i t woul d b e advisabl e fo r th e Governmen t t o giv e practica l demonstratio n o f th e us e o f moder n agricultura l machin ery especiall y stea m plows i n thi s provinc e i n orde r t o chang e th e presen t primitiv e practices I als o thin k i t advisibl e t o mak e a stud y o f th e provinc e wit h a vie w o f furnishin g i t wit h a n adequat e syste m o f irrigation whic h I thin k coul d b e easil y don e b y usin g th e water s o f th e Anga t Rive r tha t coul d suppl y al l o f th e pueblo s o f th e sout h an d east thos e o f th e Quingu a Rive r fo r th e pueblo s o f th e west an d thos e o f th e Bul o Rive r a t Sa n Migue l fo r th e pueblo s o f th e north A s thi s provinc e i s essentiall y a n agricultura l on e a goo d syste m o f irrigatio n woul d b e highl y beneficia l an d woul d plac e agricultur e i n a flourishing conditio n beyon d th e uncertaintie s o f weathe r conditions Th e lac k o f capita l ha s bee n a seriou s setbac k t o th e prope r developmen t o f th e agricultura l resource s o f thi s province an d I ca n d o n o les s tha n reiterat e m y recommendatio n containe d i n th e repor t fo r 190 2 relativ e t o th e establishmen t o f agricultura l bank s b y th e Governmen t o r private citizen s wher e propert y owner s ca n borro w mone y o n real-estat e security COMMERC E AN D INDUSTRY A s indicate d i n th e precedin g sectio n o f thi s report th e Provinc e o f Bulaca n i s essentiall y agricultural an d ther e i s bu t littl e com merce an d tha t conducte d o n a smal l scale principall y i n unshelle d an d shelle d ric e an d i n sugar I n spit e o f th e crisi s throug h whic h th e provinc e ha s passed busines s ha s increase d somewha t durin g th e fiscal yea r 1903-4 Ther e ha s als o bee n a smal l increas e i n th e manufacturin g industrie s o f a fe w pueblos whic h consis t i n th e makin g o f can e hat s an d baskets ; bur i mats ; textile s o f jusi pina an d silk an d can e an d ratta n furniture O n th e othe r hand th e ric e mill s an d distillerie s hav e don e ver y littl e o r n o business Wit h th e openin g o f th e branc h lin e o f th e Manil a an d Dagu pa n Railwa y t o Cabanatua n th e prospect s fo r bette r busines s ar e bright

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19 9 I t i s m y desire an d I believe tha t wit h th e whistl e o f th e locomotiv e crossin g th e norther n par t o f thi s provinc e commerc e an d industry wil l receiv e a grea t impetus Summin g up th e commerc e an d industr y o f thi s provinc e a t presen t ca n no t b e sai d t o b e i n a ver y ba d condition FINANCIA L AN D ECONOMI C CONDITION S O F TH E PROVINCE Th e provinc e i s financiall y i n a highl y prosperou s condition Bulaca n i n thi s respec t ca n b e compare d t o th e riches t an d mos t importan t province s o f th e Archipelago Th e wor k o f collectin g th e taxe s ha s bee n s o thoroughl y don e tha t th e provinc e ha s responde d t o th e cal l o f th e Government eve n thoug h a t a sacrifice o n accoun t o f th e crisi s throug h whic h i t ha s passed an d thu s th e obligation s o f th e administratio n hav e bee n me t an d al l o f th e improvement s planne d hav e bee n carrie d through Th e economi c conditio n o f th e provinc e i s du e no t onl y t o th e financia l conditio n o f th e provinc e bu t also an d largely t o th e intelligen t administratio n o f Mr Richar d W Goodhart th e pro vincia l treasurer Th e provinc e wa s abl e t o mee t al l o f it s obligation s durin g th e fiscal yea r withou t goin g int o debt an d i s no w buildin g a provincia l hous e ou t o f a n appropriatio n mad e fo r thi s purpose I hav e th e hono r t o accompan y thi s repor t wit h a statemen t o f th e financial conditio n o f th e provincia l treasury Th e financial conditio n o f th e municipalitie s o f thi s provinc e i s excellent an d I a m sur e tha t thei r estimate s o f expenditure s fo r th e presen t yea r (1904 ) wil l b e covere d withou t difficulty PUBLI C WORKS Durin g th e fiscal yea r jus t passe d man y publi c work s hav e bee n complete d i n th e province amon g the m th e constructio n an d repai r o f bridge s an d roads bot h municipa l an d provincial Th e provinc e ha s goo d road s an d bridges an d th e facilitie s fo r transportatio n betwee n th e pueblo s ar e ample wit h th e exceptio n o f th e municipalit y o f Sa n Miguel th e roa d t o whic h plac e th e provinc e i s unabl e a t presen t t o pu t i n orde r an d practicall y recon struc t o n accoun t o f th e grea t cos t o f th e work Wor k o n th e constructio n o f th e ne w provincia l governmen t buildin g i s quit e advance d an d I hop e wil l b e finished ver y soon A detaile d repor t o f th e wor k don e b y th e provinc e i n thi s lin e

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20 0 i s attache d t o thi s report Th e sam e wa s furnishe d b y th e pro vincia l supervisor HEALTH Th e healt h o f th e provinc e durin g th e las t fiscal yea r ha s bee n satisfactory, i t having bee n observe d tha t th e municipa l board s o f healt h an d municipa l council s hav e take n grea t interes t i n al l matter s relatin g t o th e sanitatio n o f th e pueblo s an d hav e enforce d th e ordinance s o f th e provincia l boar d o f health I a m ver y wel l satisfie d wit h th e result s o f m y inspectio n o f th e sanitar y condition s o f th e pueblos Thoug h i t i s tru e tha t th e smallpo x brok e ou t i n a n epidemi c for m i n on e o r tw o o f th e pueblo s o f th e province ther e hav e bee n comparativel y fe w deaths RECOMMENDATIONS Th e puebl o o f Sa n Migue l i s surrounde d b y land s o f suc h fertilit y tha t i t i s undoubtedl y th e greates t rice-producin g puebl o i n th e province Northeas t o f th e puebl o ther e i s a larg e are a o f ric e lan d whic h i s completel y unde r wate r durin g th e seaso n o f heav y rainfall Owin g t o thi s fac t thi s lan d ca n no t b e cultivate d durin g a portio n o f eac h year an d nearl y ever y seaso n th e ric e crop s ar e destroye d b y water I t woul d fo r thi s reaso n b e o f grea t utilit y t o construc t a cana l capabl e o f drainin g thi s lan d an d tha t coul d b e use d fo r navigation Suc h a cana l shoul d star t a t th e Salanga n River pas s unde r th e bridg e a t Garlang an d thenc e i n a straigh t lin e t o Fina c d e Camdaba Ther e ca n b e n o doub t tha t i f thi s wor k wer e t o b e pu t throug h i t woul d b e o f grea t benefi t an d giv e positiv e result s t o Sa n Miguel increasin g it s cro p o f ric e mor e tha n 25,00 0 cavanes Sa n Migue l woul d als o benefi t b y having wate r connectio n wit h Pam panga Bulacan an d Manila an d th e Salanga n roa d woul d b e save d fro m destructiv e washouts Grea t benefit s woul d als o b e derive d fro m th e buildin g o f a cana l betwee n th e rive r runnin g throug h th e barri o o f Sa n "Vicent e an d th e Atla g River I n th e first plac e th e rive r flowing throug h Malolo s woul d b e cleanse d b y th e buildin g o f thi s canal an d i t woul d serv e a s drainag e fo r th e ric e land s situat e t o th e northeas t o f th e tow n o n

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20 1 th e roa d t o Quingu a an d woul d serv e a s a mean s o f navigatio n fo r smal l boat s comin g fro m surroundin g towns whic h coul d brin g thei r product s t o th e ne w marke t recentl y constructe d here Th e presen t stat e o f th e rive r i s filthy an d insanitary especiall y durin g th e dr y season o n accoun t o f it s shallownes s an d lac k o f current I f thes e recommendation s an d th e on e relativ e t o th e syste m o f irrigatio n mad e i n anothe r par t o f thi s repor t wer e t o b e approve d an d th e wor k done thi s provinc e woul d se e th e realizatio n o f on e o f it s deares t hopes Respectfull y submitted PABL O TECSON Governor of the Province of Bulacan. Th e CIVI L GOVERNO R O F TIL E PHILIPPINES REPOR T O F TH E SUPERVISOR Th e mos t importan t piec e o f wor k fro m a n engineerin g stand poin t ha s bee n th e constructio n o f th e Hagono y drawbridg e an d th e Malolos-Hagonoy road Th e Hagono y drawbridge no w unde r construction consist s o f a circula r cente r pie r 1 4 fee t i n diameter restin g wel l belo w rive r botto m o n foundatio n o f 2 5 t o 3 0 foo t woode n pile s cu t of f wel l belo w lo w wate r leve l an d 1 2 t o 3 0 foo t concret e pile s extendin g int o th e pier Th e pie r consist s o f a thi n sheet-iro n shel l filled wit h grave l concret e ( 1 cement 2 sand 4 washe d gravel) Th e weigh t o f th e pie r i s estimate d t o b e 9 0 tons O n thi s pie r rest s a smal l turn tabl e purchase d fro m th e Manil a an d Dagupa n Railwa y Compan y an d a cast-iro n rac k cas t i n Manila Th e turntabl e i s ri m bearin g an d th e roller s ru n o n a circula r rai l partl y embedde d i n concrete Yaca l beam s wer e use d t o properl y strengthe n th e to p o f th e turntabl e t o sustai n th e estimate d weigh t o f th e drawspan whic h i s 10 0 fee t lon g betwee n en d bearing s an d estimate d t o weigh unloaded 2 5 ton s (50 0 pound s pe r linea r foot) O f course onl y one-hal f o f th e liv e loa d i s expecte d t o b e carrie d b y th e cente r pier Th e leve l loa d wa s estimate d t o b e 1,50 0 pound s pe r linea r foot whic h i s ver y hig h fo r .th e location bu t considerin g th e possibl e deterioratio n an d weakenin g o f an y par t throug h neglec t a hig h facto r o f safet y wa s used Th e drawspa n h a combinatio n whic h resemble s a How e trus s

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20 2 i n th e we b member s bu t differ s fro m i t throug h th e incline d to p chord Thi s styl e o f trus s wa s adopte d o n accoun t o f it s lo w cente r o f gravity whic h greatl y add s t o th e stability Th e incline d towe r pos t wa s use d solel y o n accoun t o f it s bette r appearanc e fro m a n architectura l poin t o f view Th e differenc e o f stresse s throug h inclinatio n i s ver y small Th e end s o f th e drawspa n wil l res t o n cast-iro n roller s which runnin g u p a sligh t inclin e o n th e timbe r approac h pier wil l giv e th e necessar y end-liftin g effect Th e approache s t o th e draw spa n res t o n five 3-pil e trestles wel l braced an d ar e eac h 6 0 fee t long T o sav e embankmen t an d stil l allo w smal l craft s t o pas s unde r th e close d drawspa n the y ar e o n a 4 pe r cen t grade Al l pile s ar e t o b e incase d i n concret e t o abov e th e highwate r lin e t o preven t attack s o f th e tered o whic h occasionall y i s foun d i n th e vicinit y o f thi s bridge Th e lumbe r use d i s Orego n pin e excep t th e loadin g beams keys an d turntabl e strengthening whic h ar e o f yacal Al l timbe r i s t o b e painte d wit h carbolineum whic h ha s prove n t o b e a n effectiv e preventiv e agains t whit e ants pro vidin g i t i s properl y applie d an d renewe d ever y tw o o r thre e years Th e cos t o f thi s preservativ e a s compare d wit h othe r paint s i s i n favo r o f paint bu t th e result s obtaine d ar e greatl y i n favo r o f carbo lineum Th e turnin g devic e fo r thi s bridg e consist s o f a rac k 1 3 fee t 6 inche s i n diameter 2-inc h pitc h an d 4 inche s high i n whic h engage s a pinio n connecte d t o a horizonta l gea r b y a vertica l shaft Th e pinio n o f thi s gea r ha s a square d shaf t o n whic h fits a key whic h i f worke d wit h a leve r enable s on e ma n t o mov e th e bridge Th e lockin g devic e i s th e simples t an d was secure d wit h th e turntable Suitabl e arrangement s wil l b e mad e t o clos e th e ap proache s t o preven t accident s whe n th e bridg e i s open A dra w protectio n i s contemplate d an d wil l b e pu t i n afte r completion Th e tota l cos t o f thi s bridg e whe n complete d wil l b e =14,000 ; =10,50 0 o f thi s wer e appropriate d b y th e municipa l council whic h pu t th e plannin g an d buildin g o f thi s bridg e entirel y unde r m y supervision Th e =3,50 0 no t accounte d fo r abov e ar e a deb t o f th e tow n t o th e Insula r Governmen t fo r supplies t o b e pai d as soo n a s th e amoun t i s available

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20 3 TH E HAGONO Y ROAD Thi s roa d run s throug h a ver y fertil e par t o f th e provinc e an d connect s th e town s o f Malolo s an d Hagonoy runnin g throug h th e tow n o f Paornhong Th e roa d i s abou t mile s lon g an d th e entir e lengt h o f i t run s o n a n embankment i n som e place s 1 0 fee t abov e th e surroundin g country, thi s heigh t bein g necessar y o n accoun t o f th e annua l flooding o f th e entir e countr y throug h whic h thi s roa d runs Durin g th e las t heav y rain s thi s ha s prove n inade quate an d part s o f thi s roa d wer e unde r water Th e embankmen t wa s buil t las t year and fo r reason s given i n previou s report s o n thi s road unde r th e mos t advers e conditions Nearl y al l o f th e materia l ha d t o b e haule d wit h banca s fro m th e dike s use d t o separat e th e ric e fields. Th e embankmen t wa s packe d partl y b y th e rain s tha t fel l las t yea r an d partl y b y rolling an d finally a laye r o f first-class grave l fro m 7 t o 1 2 inche s dee p wa s pu t o n i n thi n layers Thi s ha s mad e a ver y goo d roa d ou t o f a trai l formerl y onl y passabl e durin g par t o f th e dr y season an d the n unde r difficultie s only Eigh t woode n bridge s wer e con structe d i n 190 2 whic h hav e don e ver y well Eleve n stone-arc h culvert s wer e buil t a t th e sam e tim e th e roa d wa s constructed Te n o f thes e ar e 3 fee t 6 inche s i n diamete r an d on e 1 2 feet Materia l use d wa s Meycauaya n stone th e bes t available Thi s roa d cos t 1*28,078.77 th e greate r par t o f whic h wa s pai d i n rice PROVINCIA L BUILDING Th e origina l plan s fo r thi s buildin g wer e selecte d fro m competi tiv e design s submitted Thes e plan s wer e change d considerabl y afte r acceptance an d finally th e contrac t fo r th e buildin g wa s awarde d t o B W Cad wallade r & Co Th e contrac t pric e i s 1*36,075 Th e buildin g i s locate d nea r th e Malolo s railwa y statio n o n lan d whic h thoug h apparentl y lo w i s quit e a s hig h a s an y lan d i n Malo los Th e wate r i s damme d ther e occasionall y b y th e hig h railwa y embankment Thi s wil l b e remedie d shortly Th e structur e rest s o n a ston e foundatio n 13 2 b y 11 7 feet 5 fee t high an d i s buil t o f Orego n pin e exceptin g th e floor, whic h wil l b e o f guij o an d yaca l lai d alternately Th e buildin g i s on e stor y hig h an d ha s a verand a roo f supporte d b y ornamenta l hard-woo d post s aroun d th e entir e outside Tw o

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20 4 inne r court s provid e ligh t an d ai r fo r th e corridor s inside Th e office s ar e 1 6 fee t 6 inche s high an d ther e i s plent y o f roo m fo r an y enlargemen t tha t ca n b e anticipate d fo r th e nex t fe w years Th e roo f i s covere d wit h corrugate d shee t iro n an d ha s a decorativ e ven tilato r tower A larg e pedimen t i n fron t case d i n har d woo d wil l ad d greatl y t o th e appearance Th e framin g i s a combinatio n o f America n an d nativ e practice som e o f th e post s runnin g int o th e groun d (thes e ar e splice d a t thei r lowe r en d wit h molave) Other s ar e mortise d int o a sil l bolte d t o th e foundation Al l connection s o f th e trusse s ar e bolted Partition s hav e 4 b y 4 inc h studdin g an d ar e sheathe d o n bot h sides offerin g grea t latera l resistance whic h i s almos t entirel y lack in g i n nativ e construction Al l plumbin g wil l b e modern anc l th e buildin g wil l b e lighte d b y electricit y an d b e supplie d wit h electri c fans Fo r thi s purpos e specification s fo r a smal l electric-ligh t plan t wer e prepare d b y thi s offic e an d contrac t wa s awarde d t o Henr y D Woolf e fo r a su m o f 1*6,313.90 Thi s electric-ligh t plan t als o wa s designe d muc h large r tha n neede d a t present bu t a s a provincia l hig h schoo l i s contemplate d thi s wa s take n int o consideration Th e Sa n Rafae l bridg e i s a timbe r bridg e consistin g o f tw o 38-foo t Kin g ro d trusse s supporte d o n pil e trestles Th e string er s o f thi s bridg e res t directl y o n th e botto m chord s o f th e trusses an d th e floor i s spike d o n diagonally Creosote d Orego n pin e wa s used Schoolhouse s wer e buil t b y thi s offic e i n Malolo s an d Paombong I n th e forme r tow n al's o a larg e marke t she d wa s constructed Th e constructio n o f thes e wa s undertake n upo n reques t o f th e respectiv e municipa l councils Th e greates t drawbac k t o al l wor k wa s th e questio n o f transporta tion whic h wa s somewha t relieve d throug h th e purchas e o f Chines e horse s b y th e province Thes e hav e don e exceptionall y well Th e questio n o f unskille d labo r ha s neve r bee n o f an y concer n here ther e alway s bein g plent y available I t i s almos t unbelievable bu t nevertheles s a fact tha t ther e ar e hardl y an y native s her e tha t ca n handl e a shove l o r spad e properly Thi s i s pur e an d simpl e ignorance I t seem s tha t i f som e shovels o r fo r tha t matte r al l tools coul d b e secure d slightl y smalle r tha n usuall y use d i n th e Unite d State s bette r result s coul d b e obtained Th e us e o f th e wheelbarro w wa s give n u p almos t entirel y an d a two-wheele d car t wa s secure d wit h whic h on e nativ e doe s exactl y fou r time s th e amoun t o f wor k tha t h e ca n d o wit h a wheelbarrow

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20 5 A s a whol e th e laborer s ca n b e considere d satisfactor y i f properl y managed bu t i t i s ver y difficul t t o secur e a good competen t foreman Som e furnitur e wa s manufactured amon g i t 50 0 schoo l desk s fo r barri o schools Thes e wer e sol d fo r 1*2.50 whic h wa s 6 0 pe r cen t o f th e lowes t bi d received Lumbe r bein g cheaper the y ca n no w b e sol d fo r 1*2.20 A grea t dea l o f supplie s wa s sol d t o th e municipality entailin g a grea t amoun t o f wor k o n thi s office Th e amoun t o f al l supplie s purchase d durin g th e pas t yea r b y thi s offic e wa s 1*43,990.7 0 an d $4,001.12 loca l currency Te n thousan d piculs o f ric e wer e handle d an d accounte d for Al l publi c wor k don e i s mentione d i n inclose d tabulate d report Som e wor k wa s don e whic h woul d usuall y no t b e considere d ver y good bu t lac k o f fund s mad e anythin g bette r impossible ; s o th e bes t possibl e wit h th e fund s availabl e wa s done I woul d sugges t tha t experiment s b e mad e i n thes e Island s wit h oile d roads Fro m report s i n engineerin g paper s an d unofficia l informatio n I mad e i t a poin t t o get i t seem s tha t th e climat e an d othe r condition s ar e ver y favorabl e fo r th e successfu l introduc tio n o f thi s syste m o f improvin g highways Recommendatio n i n thi s connectio n wa s mad e t o th e provincia l board bu t onl y a ver y smal l appropriatio n wa s secure d fo r thi s purpose Respectfull y submitted H THURBER Supervisor of the Province of Bulacan. REPOR T O P TH E TREASURER Statement of receipts and expenditures. Item Philippin e currency Loca l cur rency Expenditure s fo r provincia l purposes general : Philippin e Loca l currency currency Salarie s o f official s P8,189.5 4 $9,653.4 4 Clerk s an d permanen t employee s 11,292.8 7 11,716.5 3 Provincia l ground s an d building s 22,812.8 8 578.0 3 Provincia l schoo l ground s an d building s Furnitur e an d offic e supplie s 25,165.4 1 2,478.9 5 Miscellaneou s 12,201.8 7 9,302.8 0 P79,662.5 7 $33,729.7 5

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20 6 Statement of receipts and expenditures —Continued. Item Philippin e currency credits —continued Expenditure s fo r road s an d bridges : Philippin e Loca l Salarie s an d wage s temporar y foreme n currency currency an d laborer s F3,357.6 6 $3,184.2 6 Material s an d transportatio n o f sam e __ 7,487.8 9 2,238.8 6 Tool s an d implement s 3,813.1 8 95.2 1 Loan s repai d Loan s t o municipalitie s Exchang e o f currencie s Miscellaneous Transfe r t o Congressiona l relie f fun d Transferre d t o municipalitie s Balanc e o n hand provincia l an d municipal Jun e 30,1904 PT4,658.7 3 10,000.0 0 21,122.6 0 808.8 9 129,253.3 7 73,564.5 5 Tota l credits. 329,070.7 1 Balanc e o n hand provincia l an d municipal Jul y 1,190 4 Lan d tax provincia l Lan d tax municipa l Registr y o f propert y Miscellaneou s provincia l revenu e Philippin e Loca l Join t provincia l an d municipa l taxes : currency currency Industria l P-36,088.0 9 $41,816.4 6 Cedul a 33,345.5 0 14,779.7 6 Stam p 612.7 3 813.6 6 Car t 470.5 2 371.9 8 Miscellaneou s municipa l taxes Tota l Receipt s fro m Insula r Treasur y b y warrant : j refunde d Interna l revenu e i Forestr y taxe s refunde d Loans transfe r fro m Congressiona l relie f fund Appropriation s fo r genera l expense s Loan s t o municipalitie s repai d Exchang e o f currencie s Tota l debits. 4,228.5 8 55,937.5 0 59,784.1 7 274.6 0 23,862.6 1 70,516.8 4 19,813.3 0 234,417.6 0 22.0 5 7,787.0 9 832.9 0 600.0 0 85,411.0 7 329,070.7 1 summary Provincia l revenues : Balanc e o n han d Jul y 1,190 3 Receive d fro m al l source s durin g th e year Disburse d Balanc e o n han d Jun e 30,190 4 Municipa l revenues : Balanc e du e municipalitie s Jul y 1,190 3 Municipa l revenue s collecte d Municipa l fund s transferre d Balanc e du e municipalitie s Jun e 30,190 4 Pai d i n exchange : T o Insula r Treasur y T o municipalitie s T o th e genera l publi c exchanges Total Receive d in exchange : Fro m Insula r Treasury.. Fro m municipalitie s Fro m th e genera l publi c 3,452.8 8 196,364.4 6 126,252.7 9 73,564.5 5 775.7 0 128,477.6 7 129,253.3 7 8.7 5 21,100.5 8 13.2 7 21,122.6 0 85,411.0 7 Tota l j 85,411.0 7 96,778.8 2 9.6 3 23,350.4 3 15.0 0 23,375.0 6

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20 7 Balances of cash on hand in the municipal treasuries of Buacan Province cm June 30, 1904. Municipality Genera l fund Schoo l fund Malolo s Baliua g Hagono y Sa n Migue l Quingu a Bocau e Pol o Bulaca n Calumpit— — Meycauaya n Sant a Maria Anga t Paombon g Tota l 1*5,276.1 9 4,322.2 2 10,291.0 4 1,930.5 9 4,815.1 7 2,583.2 7 4,947.2 2 1,970.0 6 1.844.9 8 4.024.9 9 187.2 8 1 293.9 7 2,179.3 7 44,666.3 5 1*5,867.3 3 5,457.6 2 4,598.4 3 4,561.2 9 3,531.8 0 3,176.9 6 2,712.5 3 6,878.8 0 2,868.4 0 4,858.1 5 1,600.8 0 751.7 8 1,448.9 5 48,312.8 4 X A credi t balanc e o f P3,932.30 Philippin e currency appear s o n th e book s o f thi s offic e i n favo r o f th e municipalit y o f Angat whic h whe n transferre d wil l increas e th e cas h balanc e o f tha t municipalit y t o 1*4,978.05 Approved : RICHAR D W GOODHART Treasurer of the Province of Bulacan.

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CAGAYAN OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR PROVINC E O F CAGAYAN Tuguegarao, August 10, 1904SI R : I n complianc e wit h th e provision s o f Ac t No 1044 I hav e th e hono r t o submi t th e followin g report : SOCIA L AN D POLITICA L CONDITIONS Th e Provinc e o f Cagaya n i s situate d i n th e extrem e nort h o f Luzon I t i s bounde d o n th e nort h b y th e Chin a Sea o n th e eas t b y th e Pacifi c Ocean o n th e south b y th e Provinc e o f Isabela an d o n th e wes t b y Iloco s Nort e an d Iloco s Sur MUNICIPALITIES Th e undersigned i n makin g hi s tou r o f inspectio n o f th e munici palitie s o f thi s provinc e i n accordanc e wit h th e provision s o f sectio n 7 o f th e Provincia l Ac t (No 83) ha s onc e mor e bee n convince d tha t th e enviabl e peac e and tranquillit y whic h hav e alway s reigne d i n the m an d tha t th e unshake n suppor t o f thei r inhabitant s o f th e constitute d governmen t stil l exist Th e recen t election s wer e th e caus e o f deplorabl e dissension s betwee n th e partisan s o f th e man y candidate s fo r municipa l offices a s i s usuall y th e custo m i n eac h municipality Durin g m y tou r o f inspectio n and visit s t o eac h on e o f th e municipalitie s I hav e endeavore d t o unit e thes e elements makin g the m understan d tha t wher e peac e an d harmon y i s lackin g progres s i s impossible an d tha t part y spiri t shoul d disappea r onc e th e cause s tha t gav e ris e t o i t n o longe r exist an d tha t i t wa s th e dut y o f eac h and al l o f the m t o cooperat e fo r th e welfar e an d prosperit y o f thei r pueblos I n m y opinio n th e cause s whic h hav e brough t abou t th e critica l situatio n throug h whic h thi s province formerl y s o rich i s passing ar e many I shal l touc h upo n the m whe n I trea t o f th e subjec t o f agriculture Owin g t o thes e cause s som e o f th e municipalitie s o f th e provinc e ar e i n quit e a ba d conditio n a s regard s thei r 20 8

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20 9 financial state I f thing s continu e a s the y are th e municipalitie s o f Gattara n an d Pamplon a wil l b e unabl e t o remai n independen t entities an d i t wil l b e necessar y t o anne x the m t o othe r muni cipalities Wit h regar d t o th e administration althoug h th e numbe r o f employee s i s smal l I believ e tha t i t i s sufficient Thank s t o th e activit y o f th e provincia l treasure r an d hi s knowledg e o f th e necessitie s o f eac h municipality h e ha s bee n abl e satisfactoril y t o arrang e thi s poin t whe n approvin g th e estimate s o f municipa l revenue s an d expenses I n m y visit s t o th e municipalitie s m y attentio n ha s bee n calle d t o th e smal l salarie s pai d municipa l teachers whic h ar e insufficien t fo r thei r mos t pressin g necessities A s thes e salarie s ar e no t enoug h fo r the m t o liv e upon i t i s impossibl e fo r th e school s t o b e attende d t o a s the y woul d b e i f th e Filipin o teacher' s salar y wa s suc h tha t i t woul d b e unnecessar y fo r hi m t o see k othe r employmen t i n orde r t o b e abl e t o live I t i s tru e tha t som e o f th e municipalitie s wil l b e unabl e t o pa y large r salaries ; bu t coul d no t thi s deficienc y b e correcte d an d th e situatio n o f th e municipa l teacher s referre d to wh o ar e a s worth y o f consideratio n o n th e par t o f th e Governmen t a s an y other i n vie w o f th e importan t missio n intruste d t o the m b y society—th e educatio n o f th e youth — b e improve d b y havin g th e provincia l treasur y contribut e a fe w thousan d dollar s fo r thi s purpose ? Th e larges t salar y i s pai d b y th e municipalitie s o f Aparr i an d Tuguegara o an d amount s t o 1*35 whic h sum takin g int o accoun t th e grea t cos t o f livin g here i s insufficien t fo r a poo r teache r wit h a family Now i f i t i s impossibl e fo r a teache r t o liv e o n P3 5 a month ho w d o thos e wh o receiv e 1*20,1*12 an d W O live ? Eve n wit h thos e smal l salarie s som e o f the m migh t b e abl e t o ge t alon g i f the y wer e allowe d t o remai n i n thei r ow n towns bu t b y followin g th e syste m whic h ha s bee n introduced i n thi s provinc e a t least o f placin g Filipin o teacher s i n pueblo s awa y fro m wher e thei r familie s live i t i s impossibl e fo r the m eve n wit h W O a mont h t o mak e a decen t living Owin g t o thi s practic e som e teacher s hav e bee n oblige d t o resign Another grea t defec t whic h I hav e note d i n nearl y al l o f th e municipalitie s i s tha t the y ar e no t provide d wit h al l o f th e law s promulgate d u p t o th e presen t tim e amendin g man y section s o f 2490 4 1 4

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21 0 th e Municipa l Code ; henc e th e numbe r o f error s t o b e foun d i n man y o f thei r resolutions I n vie w o f thi s fac t I woul d recom men d tha t yo u b e please d t o orde r th e prope r partie s t o furnis h al l o f th e law s amendin g section s o f th e Municipa l Cod e t o th e municipalities I f thi s provinc e ca n b e prou d o f anything i t i s perhap s o f it s morality Wha t ar e calle d house s o f prostitutio n ar e unknow n here an d th e numbe r o f crime s recorde d i n th e annal s o f th e court s i s insignifican t i n compariso n t o othe r provinces Th e onl y vic e whos e deplorabl e result s ar e trul y regrettabl e i s tha t o f cattl e stealing Unfortunately i t i s quit e commo n amon g th e lowe r classes wh o i n no t a fe w instance s receiv e th e suppor t o f prominen t me n i n th e pueblos Ther e ar e stron g suspicion s tha t thes e cattl e thieve s ar e protecte d b y influentia l person s i n th e pueblo s wh o n o doub t shar e i n n o smal l par t o f th e proceed s o f thei r robberies Thes e suspicion s ar e founde d o n th e fac t tha t man y me n o f goo d standin g an d reputatio n i n th e pueblo s hav e ofte n bee n know n t o defen d cattl e thieve s fro m th e actio n o f th e polic e an d giv e bond s fo r thei r releas e whe n captured Wit h regar d t o thi s point I a m thinkin g o f transmittin g t o th e honorabl e Philippin e Commission throug h you r goo d offices a repor t sug gestin g th e measure s whic h I believ e shoul d b e adopte d t o pu t a sto p t o thi s evil HEALTH Th e Provinc e o f Cagaya n i s surrounde d b y a tripl e mountai n chai n o f exuberan t vegetatio n an d ha s a milde r climat e tha n th e othe r provinces However, malari a i s a ver y commo n diseas e here thoug h i n ver y easil y yield s t o treatment Amon g th e poo r peopl e it s consequence s ar e mos t serious eithe r becaus e o f thei r inabilit y t o pa y fo r prope r medica l assistanc e o r o n accoun t o f th e ba d sanitar y conditio n i n whic h the y liv e an d th e insufficienc y o f thei r food Th e smallpo x brok e ou t afres h abou t th e mont h o f Ma y i n th e puebl o o f Aparri but thank s t o th e energeti c method s adopted i t wa s a t onc e localize d an d stampe d out Bronchitis diarrhe a an d enteritis consumption an d chroni c rheumatis m ar e commo n disease s here thoug h the y d o no t caus e man y deaths Ther e i s n o doub t tha t on e o f th e grea t factor s favorin g th e developmen t o f thes e disease s an d thei r fata l con

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21 1 sequence s i s t o b e foun d i n th e manne r o f livin g amon g th e native s o f thi s province particularl y th e poo r an d workin g classes ADMINISTRATIV E CONDITIONS I n dealin g wit h thi s topi c I mus t infor m yo u tha t al l o f th e municipalitie s o f th e provinc e ar e provide d wit h so-calle d municipa l police whic h i n man y pueblo s ar e insufficient especiall y i n Aparr i an d Tuguegarao considering th e populatio n o f thes e town s an d th e exten t o f territor y the y cover Wit h regar d t o it s organizatio n th e municipa l polic e leav e muc h t o b e desired Fo r thi s reaso n th e provincia l boar d passe d a resolutio n a t a sessio n hel d Jun e 22 1904 t o petitio n th e honor abl e Philippin e Commissio n b y telegrap h fo r th e appointmen t o f a n office r o f Constabular y temporaril y t o tak e charg e o f th e instructio n an d organizatio n o f th e polic e i n al l o f th e municipal ities Bu t a s regard s thei r administratio n an d mobilization I believ e tha t the y shoul d b e unde r th e contro l o f th e municipa l pres idents a s otherwis e th e latte r woul d find themselve s withou t a forc e t o maintai n orde r i n th e pueblo s i n certai n cases an d i t woul d b e a restrictio n o f thei r authorit y t o hav e t o b e subordinat e t o an y deput y o f th e Chie f o f Constabulary And moreover thes e deputie s ar e t o b e foun d i n onl y a fe w o f th e pueblo s o f th e province I t i s impossibl e fo r th e municipa l polic e a s a t presen t organize d t o compl y a s the y ough t t o wit h thei r duties a s th e majorit y o f the m ar e ignorant uneducate d me n withou t a knowledg e o f th e dutie s expecte d o f them ; consequentl y i t become s absolutel y neces sar y tha t the y shoul d b e reorganize d an d trained I mus t cal l you r attention honorabl e Sir t o th e necessit y o f increasin g th e numbe r o f police a t leas t fo r th e present i n th e pueblo s o f Tu guegara o an d Aparri bu t accordin g t o informatio n receive d fro m th e municipa l president s o f thes e town s i t i s impossibl e fo r the m t o maintai n a large r numbe r o f polic e wit h municipa l funds fo r whic h reaso n i t woul d b e advisabl e tha t thes e pueblo s b e assiste d fo r a whil e wit h provincia l fund s i n orde r tha t th e numbe r o f polic e absolutel y necessar y fo r th e securit y o f orde r an d propert y ma y b e employed I t i s als o ver y necessar y t o increas e th e numbe r o f polic e i n th e pueblo s o f Tua o an d Mauanan i n th e distric t o f Itaves a s

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21 2 thes e pueblo s ar e alway s i n dange r o f th e depredation s o f th e Oalingas Thes e peopl e ar e ver y fanatica l an d believ e tha t i t i s necessar y t o sacrific e a Christia n i n orde r tha t th e crop s ma y gro w well The y believ e tha t th e sam e thin g i s necessar y a t harves t time Owin g t o thi s fact thre e me n fel l victim s t o thi s strang e belie f o f th e Calinga s las t month an d a s th e latte r alway s tak e advan tag e o f th e obscurit y o f th e nigh t i t wa s impossibl e t o lear n wh o th e author s o f thes e crime s were PUBLI C INSTRUCTION Beside s th e municipa l schoo l ther e ar e a t thi s provincia l capita l a norma l school a provincia l school an d a schoo l o f art s an d trades Municipa l school s ar e als o establishe d i n nearl y al l o f it s barrios Beside s thes e center s o f learnin g ther e ar e others suc h a s th e Colegi o d e Sa n Jacinto manage d an d administere d b y th e Domin ica n friars wher e primar y an d secondar y instructio n fo r th e degre e o f bachelo r o f art s i s given ; degree s o f mercantil e exper t an d agricultura l exper t ar e als o given b y thi s college Lastly ther e i s anothe r colleg e establishe d her e know n a s th e "Asociacio n Cato lica, unde r th e managemen t o f th e paris h pries t assiste d b y th e Asociacio n d e Dama s Catolicas whic h i s exclusivel y fo r girls A carefu l an d complet e cours e o f teachin g i s given i n thi s school whic h include s i n it s curriculu m th e stud y o f English A s wil l b e seen th e provinc e ha s a numbe r o f educationa l institu tion s wher e father s o f familie s ca n sen d thei r children whic h account s fo r th e enthusias m o f th e youn g peopl e o f Cagaya n fo r educatio n an d th e fac t tha t thes e differen t school s I hav e jus t enumerate d ar e filled wit h student s eage r t o learn I t i s a grea t satisfactio n fo r m e t o b e abl e t o stat e tha t withi n thre e years owin g t o th e effort s o f th e America n teachers th e school s throughou t th e provinc e wil l b e unde r th e directio n o f nativ e teachers Thi s i s explaine d b y th e enthusias m an d progres s mad e b y th e youn g peopl e o f Cagaya n i n th e stud y o f th e Englis h language the y havin g demonstrate d a n aptitud e an d facilit y fo r learnin g i t rathe r uncommon Unfortunately th e othe r pueblo s o f th e provinc e ar e no t a s wel l provide d a t presen t wit h educationa l facilitie s a s Tuguegarao A grea t dea l o f neglec t o f educatio n ha s bee n note d i n them Som e o f

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21 3 th e pueblo s hav e no t ye t see n a teache r sinc e th e organizatio n o f civi l government Fo r thi s reaso n o n th e occasion o f m y visit s o f inspectio n I hav e earnestl y requeste d th e president s an d councilor s o f al l th e municipalitie s t o giv e al l o f thei r attentio n t o thi s impor tan t matter an d the y hav e al l promise d me i n thei r ow n name s an d i n representatio n o f th e peopl e o f th e barrios tha t the y wer e dispose d t o len d m e thei r assistance th e peopl e o f eac h on e o f th e barrio s o r o f severa l adjacen t barrio s promisin g t o construc t school house s providin g tha t the y wer e furnishe d school-teachers Fo r thi s reaso n I repea t m y recommendatio n t o yo u containe d i n m y telegram s o tha t yo u ma y interes t th e honorabl e Secretar y o f Publi c Instructio n i n orde r tha t a t leas t eac h on e o f th e pueblo s o f th e provinc e ma y b e provide d wit h a teacher B y s o doin g th e advancemen t o f educatio n wil l b e assure d an d a t th e sam e tim e w e wil l hav e satisfie d th e aspiration s o f th e youn g peopl e o f thi s prov inc e an d lifte d th e majorit y o f th e boy s an d girl s livin g i n th e barrio s fro m th e lamentabl e stat e o f ignoranc e i n whic h the y a t presen t are HIGHWAY S O F COMMUNICATION A t th e presen t tim e th e onl y highwa y o f communicatio n whic h ca n b e use d i n th e provinc e i s th e Bi o Grand e d e Cagayan Bu t thi s rive r offer s th e grea t objectio n tha t fro m th e beginnin g o f Septembe r unti l Marc h i t i s unnavigabl e eve n fo r th e smalles t steamer s an d othe r light-draf t vessels Durin g thes e si x month s o f th e dr y seaso n betwee n th e pueblo s o f Alcal a t o Tuguegara o ther e ar e thre e o r fou r place s wher e navigation i s impossibl e o n accoun t o f th e shallownes s o f th e stream Thi s obstacl e coul d b e easil y overcom e b y dredging Th e entir e rive r coul d b e mad e navigabl e throughou t th e yea r i f thi s wer e t o b e done an d th e busines s o f th e provinc e thereb y greatl y benefited I n orde r t o pa y fo r th e cos t o f thi s wor k ever y vesse l migh t b e taxe d a smal l amount an d thu s thi s ver y importan t improvemen t coul d b e carrie d ou t withou t expens e t o th e province Lan d transportatio n o r trave l i s almos t impossible eve n durin g th e dr y season o n accoun t o f th e ba d conditio n o f th e roads Dur in g th e rain y reaso n freightin g i s entirel y impossible whil e traveler s find th e road s extremel y difficul t an d dangerous I n orde r t o plac e the m i n goo d conditio n th e provinc e woul d hav e t o expen d a n

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21 4 enormou s amoun t o f money whic h i t wil l b e unabl e t o d o fo r a lon g tim e t o come Th e onl y wor k no w bein g don e b y th e provinc e i n thi s connectio n i s th e constructio n o f som e bridge s i n orde r tha t traveler s ma y avoi d th e dange r fro m alligator s i n fordin g streams Th e provinc e ha s alread y buil t 32 bridge s an d ha s 5 other s unde r construction Accordin g t o informatio n furnishe d b y th e provincia l treasurer abou t 1*20,00 0 hav e bee n expende d u p t o dat e i n th e constructio n an d repai r o f bridges AGRICULTURE Nearl y al l o f th e inhabitant s o f thi s provinc e ar e engage d i n agriculture Tobacco corn rice and i n on e o r tw o pueblos cocoanuts ar e th e onl y product s gathere d i n th e province Thirtee n pueblo s deriv e thei r principa l sourc e o f wealt h fro m th e cultivatio n o f tobacco ; the y als o rais e corn Th e balanc e o f th e pueblo s cultivat e rice Tobacc o ( Nicotian a tabacum) belong s t o th e famil y Solanacece, genus Nicotiana, an d give s on e cro p a year Sinc e th e yea r 190 1 t o dat e th e productio n ha s bee n ver y small du e t o variou s causes : (1 ) Th e lac k o f draf t animal s whic h wer e decimate d b y th e rinderpes t an d othe r diseases ; (2 ) t o th e freshet s an d floods whic h inundat e th e lowland s use d fo r tobacc o cultivation whic h cause s a dela y i n plantin g an d doe s no t giv e sufficien t tim e fo r th e prope r developmen t o f th e growt h o f th e plant ; (3 ) t o th e discouragemen t o f th e planter s i n vie w o f th e fac t tha t th e Governmen t o f th e sovereig n countr y ha s faile d t o exten d it s protectio n t o thi s product an d t o th e lo w pric e fo r i t i n th e Manil a market I t i s absolutel y necessar y tha t th e Governmen t tak e som e interes t i n th e inhabitant s o f thi s province formerl y s o wealthy an d to-da y threatene d wit h famine Neve r befor e i n thei r histor y hav e the y bee n i n suc h sor e strait s o r experience d th e wan t tha t the y ar e no w feeling A s abov e indicated i n th e majorit y o f th e pueblo s tobacc o onl y i s grown an d th e proceed s o f th e sal e o f thi s produc t ar e no t sufficien t t o cove r al l o f thei r necessities I n orde r t o d o awa y wit h th e povert y fel t b y thes e unhapp y pueblo s I ca n se e bu t tw o means Th e first tha t th e Governmen t exten d it s protectio n t o tobacc o b y lowerin g expor t dutie s an d openin g u p ne w markets A t th e presen t tim e th e pueblo s hav e onl y th e Manil a market an d ar e oblige d t o sel l i n thi s provinc e t o tw o o r thre e house s tha t

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21 5 hav e th e contro l an d therefor e fix a pric e whic h i s extremel y lo w bu t whic h the y kno w th e planter s wil l b e oblige d t o accep t unles s the y wis h t o di e o f hunger Second t o endeavo r t o mak e the m cultivat e othe r crop s beside s tobacc o whic h wil l brin g the m i n mor e profit Thi s latte r method however require s a grea t dea l o f time an d th e conditio n o f th e inhabitant s o f thi s provinc e wil l no t broo k suc h delay Th e seve n othe r pueblo s o f th e provinc e ar e engage d i n th e cultivatio n o f rice an d I hav e bee n informe d b y th e municipa l president s o f th e pueblo s o f Claveri a an d Sanche z Mir a tha t the y wil l gathe r sufficien t o f thi s articl e t o provid e fo r th e necessitie s o f th e entir e province bu t th e difficult y o f communicatio n betwee n thes e pueblo s an d th e other s o f th e provinc e make s i t impossibl e t o distribut e thi s article T o brin g th e ric e dow n fro m thes e pueblo s t o Aparr i an d the n tak e i t u p th e Ri o Grand e i t i s necessar y t o emplo y cart s an d boats Fro m Sanche z Mir a t o Aparr i i t i s impossibl e t o transpor t thi s articl e al l th e wa y eithe r b y lan d o r b y water a s bot h method s o f transportatio n hav e t o b e employed A t presen t i n orde r t o plac e 10 0 cavane s o f ric e i n Tuguegara o fro m Sanche z Mir a i t cost s no t les s tha n 1*150 ; s o tha t i f a cava n o f ric e i n Sanche z Mir a an d Claveri a i s sol d a t fro m 1*3.5 0 t o 1* 4 i t i s impossibl e t o dispos e o f i t i n Tuguegara o an d othe r pueblo s fo r les s tha n 1* 7 o r 1* 8 a cavan whic h i s th e pric e o f Saigo n rice T o facilitat e transportatio n betwee n Sanche z Mir a an d Aparr i ther e i s a n eas y an d commodiou s mean s whic h coul d b e utilize d t o th e grea t advantag e o f th e entir e provinc e an d withou t costin g i t a grea t deal Durin g th e tim e o f th e Spanis h Governmen t wor k wa s starte d o n a cana l connectin g th e Lina o Rive r wit h tha t o f Abulug Th e pueblo s o f Sanche z Mir a an d Pamplon a too k par t i n thi s work whic h cos t th e Spanis h Governmen t scarcel y anything Th e cana l wa s almos t finished whe n th e revolutio n brok e out an d a s nobody ha s take n an y interes t i n i t sinc e th e cana l i s filled u p an d withou t water I f i t wer e t o b e reopene d th e shipmen t o f ric e t o al l th e pueblo s o f th e provinc e woul d b e ver y eas y an d th e pric e o f thi s stapl e articl e woul d b e materiall y cheapened I thin k tha t thi s i s th e mos t importan t wor k fo r th e provinc e

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21 6 t o undertake an d on e whic h shoul d b e speedil y completed A s J hav e stated i t woul d no t cos t th e provinc e a grea t dea l i f i t carrie d i t out a s fro m informatio n obtaine d fro m th e president s o f th e pueblo s o f Sanche z Mir a an d Claveria a s wel l a s tha t o f Pamplona al l o f th e inhabitant s o f th e sai d pueblo s ar e dispose d t o giv e thei r labo r free a s the y ar e persuade d o f th e grea t benefit s whic h woul d redoun d t o the m upo n th e completio n o f th e work FINANCIA L CONDITION Th e financial conditio n o f th e province a s ma y b e see n fro m th e annexe d table i s sufficientl y satisfactory Afte r payin g al l genera l expense s ther e i s a surplu s o f W5,125.6 6 an d $29,700.88 Mexican a n amoun t almos t equivalen t t o th e surplu s fo r th e yea r 1903 Al l o f th e lan d ta x ha s no t ye t bee n collecte d owin g t o th e extensio n o f tim e grante d t o Septembe r 30 I t i s m y opinio n tha t no t al l o f th e taxpayer s wil l b e abl e t o pa y thi s ta x eve n dur in g tha t mont h becaus e o f th e scarcit y o f mone y i n th e province Cagaya n ha s alway s bee n th e bes t provinc e i n th e paymen t o f taxes bu t a t presen t th e planter s ar e s o poor owin g t o th e cause s abov e se t forth tha t man y o f the m i n orde r t o pa y th e lan d ta x hav e bee n oblige d t o mortgag e thei r land s o r sel l thei r tobacc o a t a ver y lo w figure, th e latte r metho d bein g th e on e usuall y followed I n vie w o f th e surplu s whic h alway s exist s i n th e fund s o f thi s province i t woul d b e ver y advisabl e tha t tw o o r thre e smal l dredge s b e provide d t o mak e th e Ri o Grand e navigabl e durin g ever y seaso n o f th e year Thi s woul d greatl y favo r th e developmen t o f busines s i n th e provinc e an d woul d largel y increas e it s wealth BATANE S ISLANDS A municipalit y situate d i n Basc o an d anothe r on e i n Calaya n (Babuyane s Islands ) wer e organize d b y Mr Thoma s R Manus a n American deput y o f th e provincia l treasurer wh o wa s com missione d fo r th e purpos e b y th e provincia l board Wit h regar d t o th e administratio n o f thes e islands thei r condi tio n i s simila r t o tha t o f othe r pueblo s o f th e provinc e wit h th e differenc e tha t i n severa l o f thei r town s ther e ar e school s preside d ove r b y Filipin o teachers I believ e ther e i s n o on e ther e capabl e c f teachin g English

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21 7 Th e financia l conditio n o f thes e municipalitie s coul d no t b e better a s the y hav e sufficien t fund s o n han d t o mak e the m self supporting Th e principa l busines s o f thes e island s i s tha t o f stoc k raisin g an d th e cultivatio n o f onion s an d garlic I hav e bee n unabl e a s ye t t o inspec t thes e municipalities a s i t i s impossibl e fo r steamer s t o reac h the m a t thi s seaso n o f th e year However I shal l endeavo r t o visi t the m durin g Marc h o r April th e bes t seaso n fo r navigatin g i n thes e waters I n orde r t o complet e thi s repor t I hav e though t i t advisabl e t o appen d severa l table s dealin g wit h th e subject s indicate d b y thei r titles I f thi s ill-constructe d repor t an d th e recommendation s therei n containe d ar e wel l receive d b y you honorabl e Sir th e aspiration s o f th e undersigne d wil l hav e bee n fulfille d an d th e welfar e o f thi s provinc e assured Respectfull y submitted P GUZMAN Governor of the Province of Cagayan. Th e CIVI L GOVERNO R O F TH E PHILIPPIN E ISLANDS Financial condition of the province of Cagayan. Item Philippin e currency Balanc e roa d an d bridg e fund Jun e 30,190 3 Balanc e genera l fund Jun e 30,190 3 Tota l provincia l funds Jun e 30,190 3 Balanc e roa d an d bridg e fund Jun e 30,190 4 Balanc e genera l fund Jun e 30,190 4 Tota l provincia l funds Jun e 30 190 4 Disburse d Jun e 30 1903 t o Jun e 30,190 4 debits Tota l balanc e Jun e 30,190 3 Receive d durin g yea r Balanc e accoun t o f exchange s Tota l credits Disburse d durin g yea r Balanc e accoun t o f exchange s Tota l balanc e Jun e 30,190 4 Tota l Note .—Thi s tabl e wa s furnishe d b y th e provincia l treasurer 1*411.5 2 19,859.8 4 20,271.3 6 12,539.0 9 2,586.5 7 15,125.6 6 49,287.9 4 20,271.3 6 37,557.2 0 6,585.0 4 64,413.6 0 49,287.9 4 ~15~125r66 ~ 64,413.6 0

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21 8 Public expenses incurred in provincial administration of Cagayan. Municipalities Police Salarie s o f em ployees Tuguegarao — Enril e Solan a Tua o Mauana n Pia t Sant o Nin o Igui g Am u lun g Bagga o Alcal a Gattara n Lal-lo c Camalaniuga n Aparr i Abulu g Pamplon a Sancne z Mir a Claveri a Penablanca — Note .—A s th e provincia l treasur y ha s no t ye t receive d th e estimate s o f revenue s an d expense s o f th e municipalitie s o f Basc o an d Oalaya n the y d o no t appea r i n thi s table Courts.— 1 The expense s o f th e court s an d thei r personne l ar e pai d wit h insula r funds Jails.— Expenses incurre d i n th e maintenanc e o f prisoner s ar e pai d ou t o f provincia l funds consequentl y sam e ar e include d i n th e tabl e o f th e financia l conditio n o f th e province Political and social condition of the Province of Cagayan. Municipalities Tuguegara o Enril e Solan a Tua o Mauana n Pia t Sant o Nin o Igui g Amulun g Bagga o Alcal a Gattara n Lal-loc Camalaniuga n Aparr i Abulu g Pamplon a Sancne z Mir a Claveri a Penablanc a Basc o Calaya n Inhabit ants 14,30 3 5,38 1 7,84 3 7,15 4 3,36 5 4,40 7 3,55 7 4,07 6 6,55 2 3,55 2 6,43 7 2,41 0 6,77 3 6,33 3 18,01 4 7,67 0 3,86 0 4,71 0 4,87 8 4,97 0 8,58 8 Numbe r o f voters Numbe r o f stu dents Births Mar riages Cholera Deaths Small pox Othe r diseases 61 8 49 0 52 7 16 8 8 5 46 0 30 1 15 1 29 6 21 3 6 6 1 4 11 4 6 5 38 3 38 8 36 3 8 4 21 8 18 9 11 0 49 8 26 5 6 4 1 2 4 0 8 4 7 3 7 1 12 5 29 3 15 3 1 4 5 1 9 9 6 10 3 5 0 2 8 27 6 25 5 4 3 5 3 2 8 8 8 38 4 65 5 24 1 6 0 9 6 11 4 65 5 9 0 36 8 4 9 1 5 8 5 8 8 51 0 19 2 9 0 36 8 12 8 3 8 1 0 8 5 8 8 16 6 4 0 3 1 1 0 18 5 26 6 27 0 3 9 21 4 7 14 9 8 7 22 4 8 6 37 1 3 7 11 7 41 3 61 5 90 0 17 1 38 1 41 4 15 3 74 1 33 6 6 5 25 7 3 8 33 5 24 4 20 8 6 6 3 5 8 2 14 1 8 9 17 6 2 0 7 2 3 7 14 1 8 9 14 1 5 0 2 6 1 7 28 0 9 0 14 6 2 7 7 6 5 1 10 3 11 6 2 3 | 2 3 1 education Schools.— There ar e onl y 2 4 school s i n th e entir e province Som e pueblo s hav e tw o o r thre e schools countin g thos e i n th e barrios whil e otner s hav e non e a t all Teachers.— There ar e 4 9 Filipin o teachers distribute d throughou t th e differen t pueblo s o f th e province morality Jails.— There i s onl y on e jai l i n th e entir e province situat e i n th e provincia l capital Number of prisoners.—AX presen t ther e ar e 5 5 prisoner s i n th e provincia l jail annua l mortality Accordin g t o dat a furnishe d b y th e provincia l boar d o f health th e annua l averag e o f death s fo r th e provinc e i s 2 5 pe r 1,000

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CAPIZ OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR PROVINC E O F CAPIZ Capiz, August 1, 190%. SI R : Owin g t o th e provision s o f Ac t No 1044 thi s repor t whic h I hav e th e hono r t o submi t embrace s a perio d o f on e yea r an d a hal f fro m Januar y 1 1903 t o Jul y 1 1904 GENERA L CONDITION S O F TH E PROVINCE A t th e beginnin g o f 190 3 th e condition s i n th e provinc e wer e th e sam e a s thos e prevailin g durin g 1902 Ther e wa s famin e i n man y o f th e pueblos thoug h somewha t relieve d b y th e wage s pai d b y th e provincia l governmen t fo r wor k o n th e Sapian Pilar an d Bang a wago n roads Condition s a s t o healt h a t th e beginnin g o f th e sai d yea r ha d greatl y improved th e choler a havin g passe d th e perio d o f greates t mortalit y notwithstandin g th e fac t tha t i t stil l claime d numerou s victims wit h 7 1 pe r cen t o f death s amon g thos e attacke d durin g th e first month s o f th e year Th e povert y an d misfortun e suffere d b y th e provinc e greatl y affecte d th e provincia l revenue s durin g th e first hal f o f th e fiscal year—t o suc h a n exten t tha t th e provincia l boar d wa s oblige d t o appea l t o th e honorabl e Philippin e Commissio n fo r a loa n o f $7,500 gold wit h whic h t o pa y it s genera l expenses th e employee s o f th e provinc e havin g receive d n o mone y fo r thre e months Th e stor m whic h swep t ove r Capi z o n Jun e 2 1903 aggravate d th e unfortunat e situatio n o f th e provinc e an d wa s particularl y disastrou s t o agricultur e an d property It s effect s ar e stil l fel t i n th e productio n o f copra hemp an d tuba I n spit e o f th e lac k o f carabao s th e farmer s mad e us e o f ever y imaginabl e mean s fo r gettin g i n thei r plantation s o f ric e an d corn bu t a t a tim e whe n th e crop s promise d t o b e quadrupl e thos e o f 190 2 cloud s o f locust s fro m Masbat e an d Concepcio n appeare d i n thi s provinc e an d desolate d th e plantations destroyin g mor e tha n one-fourt h o f th e standin g crops Thi s occurre d i n th e mont h o f 21 9

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22 0 July an d wa s followe d b y a prolonge d drout h an d th e appearanc e o f certai n worm s know n t o th e native s b y th e nam e o f "tagustus, an d grea t swarm s o f rat s tha t destroye d anothe r quarte r o f th e crops s o tha t th e amoun t actuall y harveste d wa s hal f wha t i t woul d hav e bee n withou t thes e evils I n spit e o f everything however th e ric e cro p fo r 190 3 wa s doubl e tha t o f th e previou s year I n spit e o f th e calamitie s abov e describe d th e spirit s o f th e inhab itant s o f thi s provinc e di d no t flag. O n th e contrary th e farmer s redouble d thei r effort s an d s o fa r overcam e al l difficultie s i n thei r wa y tha t famin e di d no t clai m th e numbe r o f victim s tha t i t di d i n 1902 an d durin g th e las t fou r month s o f th e year whe n th e harvestin g o f th e ric e cro p commenced ever y dange r o f famin e completel y disappeared Th e cro p wa s s o abundan t tha t i n som e o f th e pueblos lik e Dumalag one-hal f o f th e ear s i n bearin g wer e lef t i n th e fields fo r lac k o f labo r t o gathe r them Th e harves t wa s equall y abundan t i n othe r municipalities suc h a s Dumarao Dao Jamindan Mambusao Sigma an d Panitan A n evidenc e o f th e abundanc e o f th e cro p o f cor n an d ric e wa s see n i n th e price s a t whic h thes e product s wer e quote d tha t yea r i n compariso n wit h th e yea r before Shelle d cor n wa s wort h 1*3.5 0 a cava n i n 1902 ; thi s yea r i t brough t KL.25 Ric e sol d fo r 1*4.5 0 a cava n i n 1902 whil e las t yea r an d a t presen t i t i s quote d a t 1*1.7 5 a cava n i n th e pueblo s o f Dao Dumalag Mambusao Jamindan etc. an d a t 1*2.2 5 i n thi s provincia l capital. Th e takin g o f th e censu s an d th e sendin g t o Americ a o f tw o nativ e student s o f thi s provinc e serve d no t onl y t o assuag e th e distres s o f th e inhabitant s o f thi s provinc e bu t als o a s a patrioti c stimulu s whic h encourage d the m t o hop e fo r a brillian t futur e fo r thes e Islands Th e misfortune s throug h whic h th e farmer s passe d an d th e man y obstacle s whic h thei r perseveranc e an d tenacit y over cam e wil l undoubtedl y contribut e i n th e futur e t o th e greate r materia l prosperit y o f thi s province Th e activit y o f th e Constabular y an d th e efficien t hel p rendere d b y th e peopl e o f th e pueblos resultin g i n th e complet e disappearanc e o f brigandag e i n thi s province gav e th e farme r a n opportunit y t o devot e himsel f freel y t o hi s agricultura l labo r withou t fear s o f an y sort an d thi s fac t wa s on e o f th e principa l thing s whic h con tribute d t o th e ver y gratifyin g resul t o f th e cro p o f 1903 A t th e beginnin g o f 190 4 th e revenue s o f th e provincia l treasur y wer e greatl y increase d a s a resul t o f th e larg e harvest s o tha t no w th e provincia l governmen t ha s sufficien t fund s o n han d t o mee t it s

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22 1 mos t pressin g obligations th e differenc e betwee n collection s fo r th e fisca l yea r 19034 an d th e fisca l yea r 19023 bein g trul y remark able (Se e tabl e hereunder. ) Educatio n durin g th e yea r ha s mad e satisfactor y progress th e attendanc e a t th e specia l school s o f carpentry gardening an d th e norma l school s a s wel l a s th e publi c school s bein g doubl e wha t i t wa s las t year I hav e abov e se t fort h th e genera l condition s o f th e province an d i n th e followin g section s wil l endeavo r t o demonstrat e b y statistic s th e increase d revenue s o f th e province it s trade an d th e grea t developmen t o f othe r branche s o f th e administration suc h a s publi c instruction publi c improvements etc Financial conditions. Item Philippin e currency Loca l cur rency provincia l revenues Balanc e Jul y 1,190 3 Collection s durin g th e fiscal yea r Expenditure s Balanc e Jun e 30,190 4 municipa l revenues Balanc e Jul y 1,190 3 Monthl y taxe s collecte d Municipa l fund s transferre d Balanc e o f municipa l fund s o n han d Jun e 30,1904 T171.6 8 65,441.2 7 58,993.9 9 6,618.9 6 511.9 4 33,438.5 1 32,852.9 0 1,097.5 5 A t th e en d o f 190 2 ther e wa s a balanc e o f cas h o n han d i n th e provincia l treasur y o f 1*171.6 8 an d $3,263.49 loca l currency ; o n th e sam e da y i n 190 4 ther e wa s 1*6,618.9 6 an d $745.56 loca l cur rency A s ma y b e see n i n spit e o f th e man y disbursement s mad e b y th e provincia l treasur y durin g th e pas t fisca l year th e balanc e o n han d compare d wit h th e balanc e fo r 190 2 i s mor e tha n doubl e withou t countin g th e lan d taxes th e collectio n o f whic h ha s bee n postponed Thi s stat e o f comparativ e prosperit y i s du e t o th e increas e i n agricultura l product s an d th e activit y displaye d b y th e municipa l president s i n assistin g municipa l treasurer s i n makin g collections A t th e tim e o f th e collectio n o f taxe s fo r personal-registratio n certificate s i t wa s note d tha t th e majorit y o f th e taxpayer s o f th e poore r classe s preferre d arres t an d five days imprisonmen t wit h har d labo r o n publi c work s o f th e municipalitie s t o th e paymen t o f th e 2 peso s correspondin g t o eac h certificate Thi s i s du e t o th e fac t tha t th e pa y o f th e ordinar y labore r i n thi s provinc e i s fro m 2 0 centavo s t o 3 0 centavo s a day s o tha t

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22 2 b y workin g ou t thi s ta x a t th e rat e o f 4 0 centavo s pe r da y I foun d tha t th e poore r taxpayer s gaine d a grea t advantage I n orde r t o avoi d thi s i n th e futur e an d tha t th e municipa l revenue s shoul d no t suffer i t woul d b e wel l t o amen d th e la w providin g fo r fiftee n days imprisonmen t instea d o f five I t i s wel l t o stat e tha t nearl y al l o f thos e person s delinquen t i n th e paymen t o f thi s ta x wer e wel l abl e t o pa y i t ha d the y desire d t o d o s o an d wer e the y no t addicte d t o indolence Statistics of the number of cases and deaths from Asiatic cholera in the Province of Capiz from the time of its appearance until the month of December, 1903. Month September Octobe r Novembe r Decembe r Januar y Februar y Marc h Apri l Augus t September Octobe r Novembe r 1902 1903 1,14 2 2,44 1 2,52 7 1,58 9 64 5 22 4 18 4 26 3 4 23 8 9 5 6 1 Percentag e o f deaths 1902 2 5 pe r cent ; 1903 7 1 pe r cent Statement of products shipped out of the province during the fiscal years 1902-3 and 1903-4[Fro m statistic s take n fro m custom-house s a t Capi z an d Ne w Washington. ] Article July 1902-June 1903 : (1 ) Rice__. cavanes. (2 ) Copr a piculs — (3 ) Tobacc o bales. (4 ) Suga r piculs — (5 ) Cocoanut s number. (6 ) Cocoanutoi l tin s (7 ) Nip a wine barrel s (15 0 liters ) Nip a piculs Hide s number Hem p 1 piculs_ i S i na m a y (nativ e tex tile ) cases. Pineapple s sacks. Bayones—package s (5 0 each ) (14 ) Mats-package s (2 5 each ) (15 ) Nigu i (dyewood ) (16 ) Lumbe r boards (17 ) Firewoo d pieces. (18 ) Fagot s (19 ) Mother-of-pear l shells — (20 ) Bong a nut s sacks (8 ) (1 0 1 1 IS ) Quantity 2,54 0 11,45 7 11 2 9,28 9 13,99 7 37 7 1,69 8 420,80 8 1,86 5 11,55 7 1,11 0 4 1 1,630,35 2 67 8 65,30 0 33 7 846,35 4 2,051,55 0 6 1 7 Article July 1903-June 1904 : (1 1 Ric e cavanes_ (2 ) Copr a piculs (3 ) Tobacc o bales (4 ) Suga r piculs — (5 ) Cocoanut s number. (6 ) Cocoanu t oi l tin s (7 ) Nip a wine barrel s (15 0 liters ) (8 ) Nip a piculs. (9 ) Hide s number. (10 ) Hem p piculs. (11 ) Sinama y (nativ e tex tile ) cases. (12 ) Pineapple s sacks. (13 ) Bayones—package s (5 0 each ) (14 ) Mats.package s (25each ) (15 ) Nigu i (dyewood ) (16 ) Lumbe r boards. (17 ) Firewoo d pieces. (18 ) Fagot s (19 ) Mother-of-pear l shells. (20 ) Bong a nut s sacks.

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22 3 Analyzin g th e foregoin g i t i s a t onc e observe d tha t th e amoun t an d qualit y o f shipment s durin g th e pas t fiscal yea r excee d thos e fo r th e previou s year No 1 show s a differenc e o f 18,32 0 c a vane s o f ric e i n favo r o f th e pas t fiscal year Al l o f thi s produc t ha s bee n shippe d fro m th e por t o f Capi z whic h correspond s t o th e municipalitie s o f th e distric t o f Ylaya o f th e easter n par t o f th e province th e sam e a s th e por t o f Ne w Washingto n correspond s t o th e distric t o f Acla n o r th e wester n part Accordin g t o informatio n furnishe d b y person s wh o hel d offic e durin g Spanis h rul e i n Capi z an d whos e dutie s wer e suc h a s t o mak e the m familia r wit h th e facts th e amoun t o f ric e shippe d fro m thi s provinc e durin g th e perio d embrace d betwee n th e year s 188 4 an d 189 0 reache d enormou s quantit y o f 1,000,00 0 cavane s pe r year t o sa y nothin g o f th e amoun t consume d locally A t th e presen t time accordin g t o informatio n furnishe d b y th e municipa l presidents th e entir e cro p fo r thi s yea r wil l scarcel y reac h 300,00 0 cavanes whic h i s hardl y sufficien t fo r loca l consumption I t ap pear s anomalou s tha t i n spit e o f thi s scarcit y an d tha t th e cro p o f ric e wa s no t sufficien t t o cove r th e loca l demand 20,86 6 cavane s shoul d hav e bee n shippe d ou t o f th e provinc e durin g th e pas t year bu t thi s i s explaine d i f i t i s born e i n min d tha t a t th e beginnin g o f 190 3 ric e wa s wort h 4 peso s a cavan whil e th e Saigo n ric e sol d i n thi s marke t a t f*6.6 0 a picul th e pueblo s o f th e wester n par t o r i n th e distric t o f Acla n bein g larg e consumer s o f thi s rice Beside s thi s th e poore r peopl e fe d almos t entirel y o n corn swee t potatoes sube gabe mongos cadyus an d othe r tuber s tha t the y ha d plante d i n grea t abundance followin g ou t th e stric t order s o f th e president s wh o stimulate d thi s clas s o f wor k i n complianc e wit h th e wis e instruction s containe d i n th e circula r lette r o f Hon Governo r Taf t relatin g t o th e measure s whic h wer e t o b e adopte d i n orde r t o aver t famin e i n th e provinces Th e imperiou s neces sit y o f substitutin g th e labo r o f th e caraba o b y tha t o f ma n ha s give n th e profitabl e resul t tha t th e agriculturalis t ha s com e t o understan d tha t land s ca n b e cultivate d wit h a ho e an d spad e an d th e us e o f manua l labo r s o a s t o yiel d satisfactor y results Me n an d wome n wh o hav e use d thi s clas s o f labo r hav e experience d tha t thei r sacrifice s wer e compensate d b y mothe r eart h wit h sufficien t return s t o satisfy al l o f th e thei r mos t pressin g wants Anothe r discover y mad e b y th e farme r durin g thos e day s o f

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22 4 tria l consiste d i n hi s findin g ou t tha t corn whic h use d t o b e sow n bu t onc e a year ca n b e mad e t o yiel d a s muc h a s fou r crop s a year Cor n wil l yiel d abundantl y i n thi s provinc e providin g ther e i s no t to o muc h rain Moreove r th e los s o f carabao s ha s compelle d th e farme r t o var y hi s crops A t presen t h e appear s t o b e devotin g hi s specia l attention t o cocoanuts hemp maguey cocoa an d coffee No 2 show s 11,45 9 picul s o f copr a shippe d durin g th e fiscal yea r 19023 agains t 12,85 1 picul s fo r th e pas t fiscal year showin g a smal l gai n fo r th e latter I f i t ha d no t bee n fo r th e stor m whic h passe d ove r thi s provinc e i n June 1903 th e cocoanu t plantation s woul d hav e bee n o f muc h greate r importance a s i n th e pas t fe w years especiall y sinc e 1901 man y thousand s o f ne w tree s hav e bee n se t out a larg e portio n o f whic h wil l com e int o bearin g i n 1907 Th e 1,39 4 picul s i n favo r o f th e fiscal yea r 19034 d o no t signif y a n appreciabl e increas e i n thi s production o n accoun t o f ol d stock s hel d ove r i n warehouses W e migh t rathe r conside r i t a s a decreas e du e t o th e stor m o f 1902 whic h ha d th e mos t disastrou s effect s o n cocoanu t plantations man y tree s having bee n uprooted whil e mos t o f the m ha d th e frui t shake n dow n b y th e violenc e o f th e wind Th e nut s gathere d durin g th e month s followin g th e stor m wer e shrunke n an d ful l o f milk bu t lackin g i n oil y substance I f t o thi s i s adde d th e lo w pric e o f copr a i n th e Manil a an d Iloil o market s i t wil l b e easil y understoo d tha t larg e stock s o f thi s articl e ar e hel d i n th e warehouse s fo r bette r prices Thi s i s th e cas e to-da y i n Calibo Ibajay an d Ne w Washington th e district s whic h ar e th e larges t producer s o f copra Th e cultivatio n o f cocoanu t i s extendin g da y b y da y throughou t th e province Si x year s ag o thi s pal m wa s cultivate d o n a larg e scal e onl y i n th e pueblo s o f th e distric t o f Aclan I n th e distric t o f Ylaya—tha t i s t o say th e easter n par t o f th e province—rice sugar an d nip a win e wer e produce d only A t th e presen t time however al l o f th e pueblos realizin g th e importanc e o f copra an d bein g i n a measur e oblige d fro m a lac k o f carabao s t o cultivat e thi s plant hav e lai n ou t larg e tract s o f lan d t o cocoanuts Th e followin g statistic s fro m th e custom-hous e a t Capi z relativ e t o th e copr a show s th e importanc e tha t th e cultivatio n o f cocoanut s ha s assume d i n th e pueblo s tha t formerl y di d no t produc e a singl e picu l o f thi s article Th e copr a shippe d fro m Capi z i n 190 2 amounte d

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22 5 t o 9,66 1 piculs whil e i n 190 3 10 2 picul s wer e shipped S o tha t o f th e 11,45 7 picul s o f copr a exporte d i n th e fiscal yea r 1902-3 a s show n b y No 2 9,66 1 wer e shippe d fro m Capiz th e por t fo r th e easter n par t o f thi s province an d 1,79 6 fro m Ne w Washington I n 19034 th e opposit e o f thi s too k place O f th e 12,85 1 picul s shippe d onl y 10 2 wer e shippe d fro m Capiz th e balanc e bein g shippe d fro m Ne w Washington Thes e figures ar e significan t an d indicat e th e commercia l movemen t o f th e tw o custom-house s corre spondin g t o th e tw o region s int o whic h w e migh t divid e th e prov ince fo r whil e i n 190 3 Ne w Washingto n shippe d 12,56 0 picul s o f copr a an d Capi z onl y 291 o n th e othe r han d Capi z shippe d 20,86. 6 cavane s o f ric e t o mak e u p fo r th e los s o f it s cro p o f copra No 3 show s a n insignifican t amoun t o f tobacc o shipped Thi s produc t tha t i n 188 4 o r 188 5 figured a s on e o f th e mos t importan t article s produce d i n thi s province—datin g fro m th e tim e o f th e roya l decre e o f th e Spanis h Governmen t whic h declare d th e Stat e monopol y o n tobacc o broken—wa s cultivate d t o a considerabl e exten t i n th e pueblo s o f th e distric t o f Aclan bu t sinc e tha t time ; i t ha s almos t disappeared fo r th e reaso n tha t i n orde r t o success full y gro w th e plan t th e lan d need s t o b e carefull y cultivated an d thi s ca n no t b e don e withou t th e ai d o f carabaos Thi s i s th e reaso n wh y man y wh o formerl y engage d i n growin g tobacc o hav e give n i t up No 4 show s 9,28 9 picul s o f suga r shippe d i n 19023 agains t 2,80 0 piculs fo r 1903-4 Thes e figures ar e insignifican t consider in g th e importance o f thi s cro p durin g th e year s 189 5 t o 1897 > whe n th e shipment s exceede d 250,00 0 picul s an d ther e wer e suga r estate s lik e tha t o f Jaboyana i n th e jurisdictio n o f th e munici palit y o f Pilar whic h produce d i n th e yea r 189 6 50,00 0 piculs beside s other s lik e tha t o f Rosario Cabug-cabug Aranguel Lang tangan Carmen Curilang Binontucan Dulangan an d si x mor e i n th e jurisdictio n o f Pila r an d Pontevedra al l o f whic h wer e provide d wit h stea m machiner y fo r suga r makin g an d whos e annua l produc tio n fluctuate d betwee n 10,00 0 an d 20,00 0 picul s fo r eac h estate Al l o f thes e suga r mill s wer e destroye d wit h th e exceptio n o f thos e o f Lantanga n an d Curilan g b y th e revolutionist s i n 189 7 an d 1898 Th e suga r land s lyin g withi n th e municipalitie s o f Pila r an d Pontevedr a ar e s o fertil e tha t the y ar e superio r t o thos e o f Conceptio n an d Orienta l Negros thei r produc t reachin g 10 0 2490 4 1 5

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22 6 picul s pe r hectar e an d havin g th e grea t advantag e ove r thos e i n othe r province s o f bein g nea r goo d anchorag e ground s wher e steamer s drawin g fro m 1 2 t o 1 5 fee t o f wate r ca n lie ; beside s thi s the y ar e surrounde d b y a plentifu l suppl y o f excellen t timber Thes e ric h land s ar e to-da y i n a stat e o f neglec t owin g t o th e fac t tha t thei r owner s ca n ge t n o fund s fro m th e bank s wit h whic h t o purchas e th e carabao s necessar y fo r thei r cultivation I n tim e al l o f thes e fine propertie s wil l fal l int o th e hand s o f th e foreig n merchant s establishe d i n Iloilo a s the y ar e al l mortgage d fo r sum s advance d o n th e crop s o f 189 7 an d 189 8 whe n th e revolutio n brok e ou t an d th e entir e crop s wer e lost A fe w week s ag o th e beautifu l estate s belongin g t o Seno r Alvar o Alcantar a an d brother s a t Cabug-cabug Carmen an d Rosario wer e foreclose d b y Mr Wichof o f Iloilo t o who m Messrs Alcantar a owe d a fe w thousan d pesos Mexican Th e valu e o f thes e estate s i s approximatel y 1*100,000 Th e establishmen t o f mortgage-and-loa n bank s woul d sav e th e situatio n fo r thes e planter s an d woul d plac e thi s provinc e i n a positio n t o compet e wit h Negrito s i n th e productio n o f sugar a s wage s her e ar e one-hal f wha t the y ar e i n th e Islan d o f Negros Nos 5 an d 6 sho w th e numbe r o f cocoanut s an d th e amoun t o f cocoanu t oi l shipped Durin g th e pas t fiscal yea r th e shipment s hav e bee n insignifican t compare d wit h th e previou s year Th e reason s fo r thi s hav e alread y bee n explaine d i n ou r remark s relativ e t o copra No 7 show s tha t i n 19023 1,69 8 barrel s o f nip a win e (1 5 arroba s each ) wer e shipped whil e i n 19034 2,03 6 barrel s wer e exported Th e differenc e o f 33 8 barrel s i n favo r o f th e pas t fiscal yea r i s ver y smal l considering tha t formerl y 500,00 0 arroba s o f thi s win e wer e annuall y shipped Par t o f th e distille d spirit s mad e b y th e te n distillerie s o f thi s provinc e i s consume d i n th e interio r o f th e province Th e majority however i s i n th e warehouse s awaitin g highe r price s tha n th e rulin g on e o f ^2.4 0 a n arroba Th e onl y distiller y whic h ha s shippe d ou t an y win e i s tha t o f Ayal a & Co. o f Manila whic h ha s thre e distillerie s i n thi s prov ince I t i s als o th e onl y hous e tha t ha s produce d distille d spirit s t o an y extent I t fixes th e pric e fo r nip a win e i n thi s localit y o n accoun t o f bein g th e larges t manufacturin g concer n an d havin g comman d o f th e marke t here

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22 7 No 8 (nipa ) : Durin g 19023 420,80 8 piece s o f wove n nip a wer e shipped whil e th e figures fo r 19034 sho w 484,349 Thi s produc t represent s th e industr y o f th e poore r peopl e in habitin g th e nip a swamps I t consist s i n weavin g th e nip a aroun d a sectio n o f can e i n piece s 2 o r 3 fee t wid e b y 4 o r 5 fee t lon g whic h ar e use d fo r roofin g houses Th e marke t pric e her e i s fro m 1*2.5 0 t o 1* 4 pe r thousand No 9 (hides ) : Wit h th e disappearanc e o f th e cattl e an d caraba o herd s o f th e provinc e shipment s o f hide s hav e falle n of f a grea t deal No 1 0 show s 11,55 9 picul s o f hem p exporte d i n 19023 an d 23,83 4 picul s i n 1903-4 A s wil l b e seen th e differenc e fo r thi s fiscal yea r i s doubl e tha t fo r th e on e befor e i n spit e o f th e disastrou s effect s o f th e stor m t o thi s plant I t mus t b e born e i n min d tha t th e fiber o f hem p i s use d largel y i n sinama y textile s a s wel l a s i n othe r sort s know n b y th e nam e o f biran g textiles I t i s als o use d i n th e manufactur e o f rop e i n thi s province whil e a larg e portio n o f th e hem p i s shippe d t o Iloil o overlan d fo r th e loom s o f tha t province—as fo r instance al l o f tha t produce d i n th e municipalit y o f Tapa z whic h th e merchant s o f Iloil o com e dow n t o bu y ever y wee k an d tak e awa y wit h the m a t th e rat e o f fro m 3 0 t o 4 0 picul s o n eac h marke t day whic h i s Friday Durin g th e las t thre e year s hem p plantation s hav e becom e ver y important th e larges t producer s o f thi s textil e plan t bein g th e pueblo s o f Tapaz Jamindan Ne w Washington Libacao Malinao Ybajay an d Taft Thei r prosperit y i s constantl y o n th e increas e becaus e o f th e hig h price s brough t b y thi s fiber i n th e Manil a market Th e balanc e o f th e municipalitie s o f th e provinc e ar e makin g experiment s i n th e cultivatio n o f hemp an d withi n fou r year s Sigma Pontevedra Pilar Mambusao Calibo an d Dumara o wil l produc e larg e quantitie s fo r shipment thei r presen t productio n bein g consume d locally No 1 1 show s tha t 1,11 0 boxe s o f sinama y wer e shippe d i n 19023 agains t 7,05 8 boxe s fo r 1903-4 Th e increas e fo r th e pas t fiscal yea r o f 5,94 8 boxe s indicate s th e grea t importance o f thi s hom e industry th e benefit s o f whic h ar e enjoye d b y th e women an d i t ca n b e state d tha t th e relativ e prosperit y enjoye d b y th e municipalitie s i n th e distric t o f Aclan wher e th e ric e cro p wa s almos t nothing i s du e t o thi s industry an d i t i s a n admirabl e exampl e o f th e resul t o f th e har d wor k o f

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22 8 thes e wome n o f tha t district The y have b y thei r industr y durin g har d times born e th e famil y burdens an d i n th e pueblo s o f Ylaya—tha t i s t o say th e easter n par t o f th e province—th e wome n ar e engage d i n weavin g ba y one s ( a specie s o f burlaps) mats an d hats man y havin g latel y learne d thi s ar t fro m th e wome n o f Calibo s o tha t ther e i s no w scarcel y a hous e withou t a loo m fo r makin g thes e articles Sinama y i s sol d a t th e followin g prices : Fo r ordinar y piece s o f hem p fiber fro m =0.5 0 t o = 2 eac h whe n wove n wit h pih a (fibe r o f pineappl e plant) jusi o r silk ; th e sinama y sell s fo r = 4 t o =1 5 a piece Thes e textile s ar e highl y prize d i n th e Provinc e o f Luzon an d a par t o f th e product s o f th e loom s o f Capi z i s take n b y th e inhabitant s o f tha t island No 1 2 refer s t o pineapple s exported Th e numbe r i s s o smal l a s scarcel y t o deserv e attention No 1 3 (bayones ) : O n 19023 1,630,35 2 package s (o f 5 0 each ) wer e shipped agains t 551,31 6 durin g th e pas t fisca l year Thi s i s anothe r on e o f th e hom e industrie s followe d t o a larg e exten t i n th e pueblo s o f th e easter n par t o f th e province especiall y i n Capiz Panay Yuisan an d Pontevedra O f th e 1,630,35 2 package s shippe d i n 19023 231,30 0 package s passe d throug h th e custom-hous e o f Ne w Washingto n an d 1,399,05 3 throug h tha t o f Capiz O f th e 551,31 6 package s shippe d durin g th e pas t fisca l yea r 31,50 0 passe d throug h Ne w Washingto n an d 519,81 6 throug h Capiz A s ma y b e see n fro m thes e figures, th e industry i n bot h o f th e district s o f th e provinc e i s quit e a larg e one Th e grea t fallin g of f i n th e shipmen t o f bayone s i s du e t o a shortag e i n th e suga r cro p i n th e Province s o f Iloil o an d Negros wher e thes e burlap s ar e sold Man y familie s find a mean s o f livelihoo d i n thi s industr y whos e welfar e depend s upo n th e pric e o f sugar whic h regulate s tha t o f th e bayones On e hundre d o f thes e sack s wove n o f bur i ar e wort h a t presen t =3 a goo d pric e i n compariso n wit h th e = 2 tha t the y brough t unti l ver y recently No 1 4 (mats ) : Th e makin g o f mat s i s a ne w hom e industry The y ar e wove n o f th e tende r leave s o f th e nip a pal m an d brin g =2 0 pe r hundre d i n thi s province whil e i n Iloil o the y brin g =30 No 1 5 relate s th e nigu i (specie s o f dyewood) Thi s produc t i s th e bar k o f a tre e use d fo r dyein g purposes I t i s shippe d onl y fro m Ne w Washingto n an d grow n exclusivel y i n th e distric t o f Aclan Durin g 19023 65,30 0 package s wer e shipped agains t

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22 9 740,70 0 durin g th e pas t fiscal year Thes e figures indicat e th e importanc e o f thi s produc t i n th e market whic h i t i s hope d wil l constitut e a sourc e o f wealt h t o tha t region especiall y th e munic ipalit y o f Ne w Washington wher e i t i s grow n extensively No 1 6 (lumber ) show s tha t ther e wer e 33 7 board s shippe d i n 1902-3 agains t 10 0 board s i n 1903-4 A s thi s provinc e ha s n o sawmills shipment s o f lumbe r wil l amoun t t o bu t littl e i n spit e o f th e fac t tha t i t ha s a n abundanc e o f ver y valuabl e timber No 1 7 (firewood) : Shipment s o f firewood hav e falle n of f owin g t o th e lo w pric e o f thi s articl e i n th e Manil a market Ne w Washington Pontevedra an d Pila r formerl y shippe d a considerabl e quantit y o f thi s article No 1 8 (fagots ) : Durin g 19023 2,051,55 0 piece s wer e exported agains t onl y 251,47 4 durin g th e pas t fiscal year Th e fallin g of f i n shipment s o f thi s articl e i s du e t o th e sam e reason s a s se t fort h i n regar d t o firewood. No 1 9 (mother-of-pearl) : Pear l divin g i n th e Ba y o f Bataa n ha s bee n starte d b y Mr Alonso a residen t o f Manila wh o ha s a smal l sloo p an d th e necessar y apparatu s there Thi s busines s ha s jus t bee n started Las t w e hav e th e shipment s o f bong a nuts whic h ar e relativel y o f s o smal l importanc e a s hardl y t o deserv e attention Th e abov e i s a detaile d accoun t o f al l o f th e shipment s mad e o f product s o f thi s provinc e durin g th e pas t fiscal year I t i s gratifyin g t o se e tha t th e mos t valuabl e article s ar e bein g shippe d i n large r quantities an d w e harbo r th e hop e tha t i n th e futur e thi s trad e wil l increas e yea r b y year PUBLI C INSTRUCTION Th e man y deplorabl e vicissitude s throug h whic h thi s provinc e passe d fro m 190 1 t o th e beginnin g o f 1904 an d th e presenc e o f th e choler a whic h laste d unti l Decembe r las t year resulte d i n a smal l attendanc e a t th e publi c schools bu t sinc e Januar y al l o f th e primar y da y school s hav e bee n wel l attended an d th e sam e thin g ma y b e sai d wit h regar d t o th e nigh t schools th e norma l schools an d th e industria l an d agricultura l institutions Durin g th e first month s o f 190 2 th e municipalities havin g mor e fund s tha n durin g th e previou s fiscal yea r an d wit h th e assistanc e o f ric e donate d b y th e Centra l Government gav e thei r bes t attentio n

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23 0 t o education constructin g schoolhouse s wher e ther e wer e non e o r repairin g thos e tha t wer e i n ba d condition Durin g th e first quarte r o f 190 4 th e attendanc e a t th e publi c school s ha s considerabl y increased som e barrios lik e Lactuban o f thi s city havin g school s wher e mor e tha n 20 0 childre n attend Th e schoo l referre d t o i s preside d ove r b y a Filipin o teacher an d ther e ar e othe r primar y school s i n thi s provinc e whic h hav e no t bee n larg e enoug h t o accommodat e al l o f th e scholars I t i s hope d tha t attendanc e durin g th e yea r 190 4 wil l b e te n time s a s muc h a s durin g 190 3 owin g t o th e specia l interes t take n b y th e provincia l governmen t an d th e municipalitie s i n th e developmen t o f educatio n i n thi s province Th e followin g statemen t indicate s th e conditio n o f educatio n durin g th e yea r 1903 : School statistics for the Province of Capiz for the fiscal year 1902-3. Numbe r o f pueblo s i n th e provinc e 3 4 Estimate d numbe r o f childre n o f schoo l ag e i n th e provinc e 50,00 0 Numbe r o f Englis h schools—day night an d second ar y 1 3 Numbe r o f teacher s i n th e norma l school s 9 Numbe r o f nigh t school s 3 Numbe r o f pueblo s withou t Englis h scholar s 2 6 Numbe r o f America n school-teacher s i n th e provinc e 1 0 Numbe r o f Filipin o school-teacher s i n th e province. 1 5 Numbe r o f pueblo s havin g America n teacher s o r superintendent s 8 Numbe r o f school s taugh t b y Filipin o teacher s unde r America n inspectio n 1 5 WOR K ACCOMPLISHED Numbe r o f childre n enrolled : Primar y da y school s 97 5 Secondar y da y school s 2 7 Industria l schoo l None Nigh t school s 13 2 Norma l school s 2 0 Tota l numbe r o f scholar s enrolle d i n th e •provinc e 1,15 4 Pe r cen t o f th e populatio n o f schoo l ag e 5

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23 1 School statistics, etc. —Continued WOR K ACCOMPLISHED—continued Numbe r o f childre n attendin g th e primar y da y school s 72 2 Numbe r o f student s attendin g th e secondar y school. 2 4 Numbe r o f student s attendin g th e industria l school. None Numbe r o f student s attendin g nigh t school s 8 1 Numbe r o f student s attendin g th e norma l schools... 1 8 Tota l numbe r o f student s i n al l o f school s o f th e provinc e 84 5 Averag e attendanc e pe r eac h America n teache r 8 5 Averag e attendanc e pe r eac h Filipin o teache r (? ) Municipa l fund s fro m th e industria l ta x se t asid e fo r primar y da y school s o f th e provinc e 0,00 0 ROADS WAGO N ROADS AN D BRIDGES Durin g th e pas t fiscal yea r wor k ha s bee n mor e activel y prosecute d o n road s an d bridges first b y th e supervisor-treasurer Mr Thornton an d a t presen t b y hi s successor Mr Chapman Wit h th e balanc e o f th e loa n o f $25,000 gold an d th e 5,00 0 picul s o f ric e grante d t o thi s provinc e ou t o f th e Congressiona l relie f fund th e importan t wago n roa d connectin g thi s provincia l capita l wit h Panay Ponte vedra an d Pila r wil l soo n b e finished an d giv e th e tow n o f Capi z eas y acces s t o th e ric h countr y i n th e easter n par t o f th e province wher e ther e ar e twelv e larg e suga r estates fou r o f whic h ar e operatin g a t th e presen t time Th e other s hav e bee n completel y neglecte d b y thei r owner s sinc e thei r mill s wer e burne d dow n b y th e revolutionist s i n 1898 Thes e estate s ar e al l provide d wit h suga r mill s o f fro m 6 t o 1 2 horsepower whic h i f repaire d coul d immediatel y begi n operating Thi s offic e ha s bee n informe d tha t th e planters bein g encourage d b y th e grea t improvemen t wrough t b y th e constructio n o f thi s wago n roa d an d th e complet e disappear anc e o f brigandag e tha t formerl y infeste d tha t par t o f th e country wil l soo n begi n wor k agai n i f successfu l i n securin g sufficien t carabao s t o til l thei r lands On e o f thes e planter s i s Mr Wichof o f Iloilo wh o recentl y acquire d tw o estate s i n tha t district Th e roa d starte d a t Pila r wit h Pontevedr a a s it s objectiv e poin t ha s a t presen t bee n carrie d a s fa r a s th e boundarie s o f Libacao whic h i s ver y clos e t o Pontevedra Afte r th e bridge s hav e bee n buil t o n thi s roa d th e entir e distanc e wil l b e read y fo r travel A t th e sam e tim e tha t th e wor k wa s commence d a t Pila r th e wor k o n th e

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23 2 roa d betwee n Capi z an d Pana y an d fro m thenc e t o Pontevedr a wa s als o started th e wor k o n th e latte r sectio n bein g nearl y completed a s bu t thre e bridge s ar e lacking I n th e yea r 190 2 th e wor k o f rebuildin g th e ol d wago n roa d betwee n Capi z an d Calib o passin g throug h th e municipalitie s o f Yuisan Sapian Jimeno Balete Madalga Banga an d a branc h roa d t o Ne w Washingto n wa s started Thi s i s a wago n roa d o f grea t commercia l importance a s i t wil l facilitat e communicatio n betwee n th e tw o mos t importan t region s o f th e province whic h ar e th e easter n part know n a s th e Ylay a district an d th e wester n part calle d th e distric t o f Aclan Th e municipalit y o f Sapia n bein g o n th e boundar y betwee n thes e tw o regions a wago n roa d shoul d b e constructe d fro m tha t poin t t o Mambusa o i n orde r t o connec t th e tw o district s o f th e province (Se e th e annexe d map. ) Durin g thi s yea r th e wago n roa d betwee n th e municipalitie s o f Capiz Yuisan an d Sapia n wa s finished Tw o bridge s ar e no w bein g buil t o n th e roa d fro m Sapia n t o Jimeno fou r ou t o f seventee n havin g alread y bee n constructed I f th e contracto r complie s wit h hi s agreemen t befor e th e en d o f th e yea r 190 4 th e entir e roa d wil l b e opene d up an d ther e wil l b e fre e an d eas y communicatio n betwee n th e easter n an d wester n par t o f th e province A larg e forc e o f laborer s unde r th e directio n o f a n America n superintenden t i s finishing th e wor k o n th e roa d betwee n Calib o an d th e importan t por t o f Ne w Washington Thi s ne w roa d wil l soo n b e opene d t o traffic : Th e roa d referre d t o whic h shoul d hav e bee n buil t wit h municipa l fund s b y Calib o an d Ne w Washingto n wa s buil t i n accordanc e wit h th e resolutio n o f th e provincia l boar d ou t o f th e Congressiona l jcelie f fun d o n accoun t o f it s grea t importanc e t o th e trad e o f bot h towns a s al l o f th e copra hemp an d sinama y fro m Calib o wil l pas s ove r thi s road ; a s wel l a s al l o f th e ric e consume d i n tha t jegio n an d brough t t o Ne w Washingto n fro m Manila Th e provincia l board understandin g th e necessit y o f unitin g th e consolidate d municipalitie s o f Tangala n an d Macato no w th e municipalit y o f Taft an d tha t o f Calibo starte d wor k i n Octobe r o f las t yea r a t Tangala n repairin g th e roa d betwee n Tangala n an d Macato an d ha s mo w finished tha t section whic h i s abou t two third s o f th e entir e distance Th e roa d a s fa r a s Calib o wil l b e finished i n a shor t time A s ma y b e see n fro m th e ma p th e road s .alread y repaire d are marke d wit h a re d line ; road s unde r con

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23 3 structio n wher e bridges hav e no t ye t bee n pu t i n ar e designate d wit h re d dot s abov e a re d line whil e th e ol d road s npo n whic h n o wor k ha s bee n don e ar e trace d ou t wit h re d dot s only I t woul d b e ver y advantageou s t o th e prosperit y o f thi s provinc e i f th e ol d roads th e majorit y o f whic h nee d onl y bridges wer e t o b e pu t int o a stat e o f goo d repair a s communicatio n betwee n th e municipalitie s i s ver y difficult especiall y i n th e interior bu t a t th e presen t tim e th e provincia l boar d ca n no t undertak e thi s wor k an d wil l b e unabl e t o d o s o unti l th e road s unde r constructio n ar e al l finished. I woul d als o stat e tha t th e fund s destine d fo r thi s purpos e wil l soo n giv e out an d i t wil l b e a grea t pit y t o hav e t o leav e th e wor k incomplete losin g th e fruit s o f s o muc h labor I f thes e road s ar e lef t withou t th e necessar y bridge s bein g pu t i n th e peopl e wil l g o bac k t o th e ol d trail s an d leav e th e road s t o becom e con verte d int o thic k forest s o f cogon th e bridges no w finished bein g als o lost I t woul d b e desirabl e t o hav e th e Burea u o f Engineer in g loo k ove r thi s wor k whe n ou r fund s giv e ou t an d undertak e th e completio n o f th e bridge s an d mos t necessar y section s o f wago n road s i n orde r tha t th e wor k don e b y th e provinc e ma y b e utilize d an d communicatio n establishe d betwee n th e easter n an d wester n regions r Th e wonderfull y luxurian t vegetatio n o f thes e Island s i s wel l known an d th e eas e wit h whic h th e cleanes t road s ca n becom e converte d insid e o f a fe w week s int o thic k forest s o f cogo n woul d mak e i t desirable i n vie w o f th e difficult y o f th e provincia l boar d t o overcom e thi s obstacle fo r th e Philippin e Commissio n t o enac t a la w obligin g th e inhabitant s residen t i n th e municipa l district s throug h whos e jurisdictio n a ne w roa d passe s t o loo k t o it s main tenanc e withi n thei r distric t unde r a penalt y no t t o excee d ^25 o r imprisonmen t no t exceedin g tw o months o r both fo r eac h day' s failur e t o .labo r o n th e sai d road s whe n require d t o d o s o b y th e councilo r o f th e district unles s a reasonabl e excus e whic h shal l b e acceptabl e t o th e municipa l counci l ca n b e give n fo r suc h failure Person s exempte d fro m labo r i n connectio n wit h th e exterminatio n o f locust s b y th e la w o f th e Commissio n migh t b e als o exempte d fro m complianc e wit h thi s propose d roa d law ; Wit h suc h a la w th e province s woul d b e abl e t o bette r thei r roads a s th e onl y expens e whic h th e provincia l boar d woul d hav e woul d b e t o construc t an d repai r th e bridge s an d culverts

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23 4 Befor e leavin g thi s subjec t I mus t expres s th e profoun d grat itud e o f th e inhabitant s o f thi s provinc e t o th e honorabl e Philip pin e Commissio n fo r it s having sen t th e part y o f engineer s tha t i s a t presen t workin g o n a surve y fo r th e railwa y betwee n thi s provinc e an d Iloilo al l bein g convince d tha t th e sai d lin e wil l b e a regeneratin g forc e t o thes e region s an d wil l conver t the m int o productiv e field s o f al l o f th e varie d product s o f th e Philippines CENSU S O F TH E PROVINC E O F CAPI Z DURIN G TH E YEA R 1903 On e o f th e mos t remarkabl e event s i n th e politica l histor y o f thi s provinc e wa s th e takin g o f th e censu s o f 1903 Fo r th e preparatio n o f th e municipa l maps owin g t o th e error s containe d i n som e o f the m du e t o th e lac k o f exper t personne l i n som e o f th e municipalities i t wa s necessar y t o engag e tw o drafts men wh o wer e o f grea t hel p i n correctin g an d makin g u p sai d municipa l map s a s wel l a s th e genera l ma p o f th e province On e hundre d an d eighty-tw o enumerators 3 4 specia l agents an d 3 specia l enumerator s o f non-Christia n tribe s wer e appointed Al l o f the m discharge d thei r dutie s wit h enthusias m i n spit e o f th e prevalenc e o f th e cholera whic h mad e th e wor k dangerou s i n place s remot e fro m th e town However wit h th e greates t valo r an d patriotism th e wor k wa s carrie d ou t t o th e satisfactio n o f Genera l Sanger Directo r o f th e Census al l o f th e dat a havin g bee n turne d ove r t o hi m o n th e da y fixe d fo r th e terminatio n o f th e census A t th e beginnin g th e enumerator s foun d grea t difficult y i n th e wa y o f filling ou t Tabl e No 2 relativ e t o agriculture a s man y o f th e inhabitant s believe d tha t th e enumeratio n o f th e domesti c animals suc h a s chickens pigs cattle an d carabaos wa s bein g don e b y th e Governmen t fo r th e purpos e o f taxation I n thi s connectio n th e followin g inciden t too k plac e i n th e munic ipalit y o f Loctugan : Whe n th e enumerator s starte d t o tak e th e censu s o f thi s plac e the y wer e surprise d t o se e tha t th e majorit y o f th e poultry pigs an d othe r domesti c animal s ha d disappeared an d i n spit e o f al l thei r questionin g th e native s persiste d tha t the y ha d die d o f th e plague bu t i t happene d tha t a rura l enumerato r o f tha t district havin g gon e on e mornin g t o enumerat e tha t inhab itant s o f a certai n barri o followe d b y hi s dog foun d a plac e wher e a grea t numbe r o f pigs cocks an d hen s an d othe r animal s wer e hidden throug h th e barkin g o f th e dog an d bein g surprise d a t thi s h e investigate d an d foun d ou t tha t thei r owner s ha d hidde n

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23 5 them fearin g tha t th e Governmen t wa s goin g t o impos e larg e taxe s o n thes e animals Th e enumerator afte r havin g explaine d th e purpos e o f th e la w an d publishe d th e prope r notices ha d n o difficult y i n afterward s filling ou t Tabl e No 2 Th e specia l agent s appointe d fo r th e municipalitie s o f Tapaz Jamindan Madalag Libacao an d Malinao togethe r wit h th e specia l enumerator s fo r th e non-Christia n tribes me t wit h grea t difficultie s i n enumeratin g th e latte r o n accoun t o f thei r bein g nomad s an d th e facilit y wit h whic h the y change d thei r habitatio n fro m th e mountain s o f Capi z t o thos e o f Antiqu e an d Iloilo th e centra l mountai n chai n o f th e Islan d o f Pana y dividin g thes e thre e provinces Thi s fac t mad e i t materiall y difficul t t o ge t a complet e enumeratio n o f thes e tribes However, althoug h th e figures obtaine d ar e no t exact i t ca n b e assure d tha t the y ar e th e mos t approximat e eve r obtaine d o f thes e tribes Suc h wer e th e difficultie s foun d b y th e enumerator s an d skillfull y overcom e b y them I t i s m y dut y t o pa y tribut e i n thi s repor t t o th e memor y o f Seno r Eugeni o Alcal a Delfin justic e o f th e peac e o f Pontevedr a an d enumerato r o f tha t district wh o die d a victi m o f choler a an d wh o unti l th e da y befor e hi s deat h carrie d hi s enumerator' s portfoli o an d discharge d th e dutie s o f hi s office H e lef t a widow an d severa l children STOR M O F JUN E 2 1903 Th e oldes t inhabitant s i n thi s provincia l capita l stat e tha t i t i s man y year s sinc e the y recollec t havin g experience d s o destructiv e a stor m i n thi s localit y o r having see n suc h disastrou s effects a s thos e produce d b y tha t o f Jun e 2 1903 Thi s atmospheri c phenomeno n bega n wit h heav y rain s accom panie d b y ligh t gust s o f win d abou t 7 p m. everybod y thinkin g tha t i t wa s bu t a passin g rainstorm Bu t abou t 1 1 o'cloc k a t night whe n th e majorit y o f th e resident s o f thi s localit y wer e abou t t o retire th e win d ble w wit h suc h forc e tha t everybod y feare d fo r th e safet y o f thei r homes Fro m tha t tim e unti l 2 o'cloc k i n th e mornin g th e fur y o f th e cyclon e increased an d eve n house s o f stron g material s wit h galvanized-iro n roof s an d masonr y walls suc h a s tha t inhabite d b y th e write r o f thi s report threatene d t o com e down fo r suc h wa s th e forc e o f th e win d tha t th e house s shoo k lik e a hammoc k an d th e galvanized-iro n sheet s fro m th e roo f wer e

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23 6 flyin g abou t lik e bit s o f paper Th e stor m wa s o f snc h strengt h tha t woode n partitions balconies an d door s wer e draw n fro m thei r fastenings an d ther e wer e eve n house s bnil t o f stron g mate rials lik e tha t o f th e provincia l fiscal, th e headquarter s o f th e captai n o f th e port an d others tha t o n th e da y followin g th e stor m wer e mer e skeleton s withou t roof s o r walls Th e greate r par t o f th e furnitur e o f th e custom s office r wa s blow n int o th e river togethe r wit h th e galvanized-iro n roo f an d atti c o f hi s house Ha d th e souther n win d laste d a n hou r longe r th e rui n o f thi s provincia l capita l woul d hav e bee n complete a s al l o f it s house s woul d hav e bee n wrecked O f course i t i s unnecessar y to'stat e tha t house s buil t o f mixe d materials—tha t i s t o say o f hoard s an d nip a an d o f can e an d nipa—suffere d greatly no t mor e tha n 1 0 pe r cen t having escape d destruction thos e remainin g bein g unroofe d an d otherwis e seriousl y damaged I n th e countr y th e destructio n wa s eve n mor e complete th e house s o f th e native s bein g pile d u p i n a miscellaneou s mas s o f timber cane an d nipa Man y carabaos cattle goats an d shee p perishe d durin g th e storm durin g whic h ther e wa s a stron g shoc k o f earthquak e lastin g som e seconds Wit h thi s repor t I sen d som e photographi c view s take n th e da y afte r th e storm Th e photograp h marke d "No 1 i s a vie w o f th e corne r o f Riza l Street showin g a hous e buil t o f stron g material s considerabl y damaged ; behin d sam e ar e t o b e see n warehouse s use d a s stable s b y th e quartermaster whic h wer e blow n down Vie w No 2 o f th e building s o n th e lef t ban k o f th e Rive r Capi z show s a numbe r o f house s wit h galvanized-iro n roof s tor n off Vie w No 3 i s a vie w o f th e sam e ban k o f th e rive r a littl e farthe r down showin g th e hous e o f th e provincia l fiscal an d tha t o f Lawye r Altava s completel y unroofed Vie w 4 i s th e bac k par t o f th e municipa l building No 5 i s a vie w o f th e provincia l building showin g par t o f th e roo f blow n awa y an d th e fencin g aroun d th e garde n completel y blow n down No 6 i s a vie w o f Valenci a Street showin g th e destructio n wrough t amon g th e nip a houses No 7 i s a vie w o f a countr y place showin g a fish hatcher y an d a hous e o f mixe d material s completel y destroyed

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23 7 Such honorabl e sir wer e th e mos t notabl e event s whic h occurre d i n th e provinc e durin g th e yea r 190 3 an d durin g th e presen t yea r t o th e en d o f June Th e undersigne d woul d hav e desire d t o illustrat e thi s repor t wit h mor e photographi c views bu t th e fac t o f hi s no t havin g a goo d camera an d tha t i t wa s onl y withi n th e las t fe w week s tha t h e wa s abl e t o ge t one i s th e reaso n wh y thi s desir e coul d no t b e realized bu t h e hope s i n a shor t time durin g hi s visit s o f inspectio n t o th e municipalitie s o f thi s province h e ma y b e abl e t o ge t som e goo d view s o f th e mos t interestin g an d notabl e thing s i n thi s prov inc e wit h whic h t o illustrat e hi s subsequen t report Respectfull y submitted S JUG O VIDAL Governor of the Province of Capiz. Th e CIVI L GOVERNO R O F TH E PHILIPPIN E ISLANDS

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CAVITE OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR PROVINC E O F CAVITE Cavite, June SO, 190kSIR : I hav e th e hono r t o submi t th e followin g repor t require d b y Ac t No 1044 Philippin e Commission DESCRIPTIO N AN D GENERA L CONDITIONS Th e Provinc e o f Cavit e i s situate d o n th e souther n shor e o f th e Ba y o f Manila O n th e eas t i t i s bounde d b y th e Province s o f Riza l an d Laguna O n th e sout h b y th e Provinc e o f Batangas th e boundar y lin e bein g i n th e mai n th e crest s o f th e Sunga y and Tagayta y mountai n ridges O n th e wes t i t i s bounde d b y Manil a Ba y and th e Chin a Sea I t i s a Tagalo g province an d accordin g t o th e las t censu s th e populatio n b y town s wa s a s follows : Amade o 3,77 1 Alfons o 3,69 2 Bacoo r 10,99 8 Baile n 2,50 5 Carida d 4,91 7 Cavit e 4,49 5 Cavite-Vi e j o 6,17 3 Pere z Dazmarifia s 3,07 4 Imu s 12,97 0 Indan g 11,97 8 Magallane s 3,50 3 Maragondo n 7,20 1 Mendez-Nune z 3,74 1 Nai c 9,23 5 Novelet a 2,36 2 Rosari o 6,60 8 Sa n Francisc o Malabo n 9,67 3 Sa n Roqu e 6,15 8 Sant a Cru z Malabo n 8,80 1 Silan g 5,64 3 Ternat e 2,46 0 Corregido r 70 3 Carmon a 2,60 9 Tota l 135,24 3 23 8

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23 9 Unde r th e provision s o f Ac t 947 Philippin e Commission thes e twenty-thre e town s wer e consolidate d i n December 1903 int o eleve n municipalitie s a s follows : Caridad Cavite an d Sa n Roque know n a s Cavite ; sea t o f municipalit y a t Sa n Roque Imu s an d Bacoor know n a s Imus ; sea t o f municipalit y a t Imus Arnade o an d Silang know n a s Silang ; sea t o f municipalit y a t Silang Alfonso Bailen an d Mendez-Nunez know n a s Alfonso ; sea t o f municipalit y a t Alfonso Magallane s an d Maragondon know n a s Maragondon ; sea t o f municipalit y a t Maragondon Nai c an d Ternate know n a s Naic ; sea t o f municipalit y a t Naic Sa n Francisc o an d Sant a Cru z d e Malabon know n a s Sa n Francisc o d e Malabo n ; sea t o f municipalit y a t Sa n Francisc o d e Malabon Cavite-Viejo Noveleta an d Rosario know n a s Noveleta ; sea t o f municipalit y a t Noveleta Indang Carmona an d Corregidor no t consolidated Th e are a o f th e provinc e i s abou t 51 0 squar e miles I n genera l term s i t measure s nearl y 3 0 mile s fro m eas t t o wes t an d nearl y 2 0 mile s fro m nort h t o south Ther e ar e numerou s river s risin g i n th e slope s o f th e Sunga y an d Tagayta y ridges al l flowing i n a genera l northerl y direction Fro m th e shor e o f Manil a Ba y t o th e cres t formin g th e souther n boundar y th e ascen t i s ver y gradual Th e first fe w mile s southwar d fro m th e coas t ar e nearl y level givin g a fine stretc h o f ric e lan d fro m Maragondon o n th e wes t t o th e Zapot e Rive r o n th e east Ther e mus t b e mor e tha n 50,00 0 acre s o f nearl y leve l ric e land wit h dike s fo r retainin g th e water A considerabl e par t o f thi s lan d i s irrigate d an d i s capabl e o f producin g tw o goo d crop s pe r year Th e gentl y rollin g table-lan d jus t t o th e sout h o f th e leve l ric e land s i s admirabl y adapte d t o th e cultivatio n o f sugar I n forme r times whe n suga r coul d b e raise d a t a profit it s cultivatio n wa s on e o f th e mai n industrie s o f th e province Ther e ar e man y can e mill s i n th e province th e motiv e powe r i n mos t case s bein g th e swiftl y flowing stream s fro m th e mountains Man y o f thes e mill s ar e no w i n a dilapidate d condition bu t som e ar e i n activ e opera tion Th e souther n par t o f th e provinc e i s closel y wooded, wit h man y scattere d fields devote d t o th e cultivatio n o f mountai n rice

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24 0 corn an d variou s vegetables Formerl y thi s sectio n produce d muc h coffee an d th e coffe e town s wer e th e riches t o f th e province Fo r severa l year s past however th e coffe e tree s hav e bee n afflicte d wit h a scal e o r bligh t tha t i n larg e par t ha s destroye d th e fruit-bearin g powe r o f th e tree Som e coffe e i s stil l raised bu t no t enoug h t o b e o f materia l consequence Th e tree s ar e stil l standing an d th e cro p las t yea r wa s greate r tha n tha t o f th e yea r before makin g th e owner s entertai n hope s tha t th e tree s ma y i n tim e regai n thei r productiveness I hav e corresponde d wit h th e Agricultura l Burea u o n th e subject bu t thei r repl y seem s t o indicat e tha t a s ye t ther e i s n o know n remed y tha t wil l kil l th e bligh t withou t a t th e sam e tim e killin g th e treb Thi s sectio n als o produce s som e caca o an d coprax Bu t th e mai n hop e o f tha t sectio n o f th e provinc e lie s i n it s hemp Formerl y hem p wa s scarcel y grow n a t all becaus e th e peopl e foun d th e cultivatio n o f coffe e an d caca o mor e profitable Bu t th e bligh t whic h attacke d th e coffe e tre e an d th e locus t whic h at e u p th e ric e cro p mad e th e peopl e loo k aroun d fo r som e ne w mean s o f livelihood Th e resul t ha s bee n tha t ther e ha s bee n extensiv e plantin g o f hemp Th e hollows an d sheltere d rollin g lands whic h aboun d i n th e souther n par t o f th e province ar e admirabl y adapte d t o th e cultivatio n o f hemp whic h require s fo r it s bes t growt h moist fertil e lan d sheltere d fro m storms I t require s abou t fou r year s fo r hem p t o mature Thi s yea r ther e wa s a considerabl e increas e ove r las t year an d nex t yea r ther e wil l b e a larg e increas e ove r thi s year Th e cultivatio n o f hemp a t presen t prices i s extremel y profitable an d th e qualit y produce d i n thi s provinc e i s equale d i n fe w province s an d excelle d b y none I thin k withi n tw o year s hem p wil l b e a grea t sourc e o f wealt h t o th e peopl e o f th e mountai n sectio n o f th e province It s cultur e i s ver y profitabl e an d i t seem s a pit y tha t s o muc h o f th e mone y derive d fro m it s sal e shoul d g o t o th e merchan t wh o buy s it an d relativel y s o littl e t o th e labore r wh o produce s it Whe n i t coul d b e sol d i n Manil a a t 1*2 5 pe r picu l th e marke t pric e a t Inda n wa s onl y P10 Th e differenc e represente d a fine margi n o f profi t fo r th e middle me n (mostl y Chinos) Th e Provinc e o f Cavit e unde r norma l condition s i s ver y rich It s resource s ar e almos t entirel y agricultural al l o f it s soi l i s fertile mos t o f i t i s capabl e o f cultivation Som e o f it notabl y th e fine

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24 1 regio n lyin g sout h o f Alfonso i s o f extrem e fertilit y an d wil l pro duc e i n abundanc e almos t an y cro p tha t ma y b e planted Th e grea t financial hardshi p tha t ha s cdm e upo n th e provinc e consist s i n th e fac t tha t it s cas h incom e wa s derive d largel y fro m onl y tw o sources coffe e an d sugar bot h o f whic h ar e practicall y dea d fo r reason s explaine d elsewhere Broadl y classifie d th e principa l occupation s an d mean s o f liveli hoo d ma y b e state d a s follows : (1 ) Fishing engage d i n b y al l o f th e town s alon g th e coast embracin g Bacoor Cavite-Viejo Sa n Roque Caridad Naic an d especiall y Rosario an d Sant a Cru z d e Malabon Th e Manil a an d Cavit e market s affor d read y cas h sal e fo r al l o f th e fish caught Man y fish ar e sen t t o th e interio r town s o f th e province A s a n all aroun d industr y fishing employ s man y peopl e o f th e province an d i s quit e profitable (2 ) Wor k i n th e Unite d State s Nava l Arsena l a t Cavit e give s stead y employmen t t o mor e tha n 2,00 0 men an d th e privat e ship yard s a t Canaca o an d Sa n Roqu e emplo y severa l hundre d more Th e rat e o f pa y a t th e nava l yar d range s fro m 5 0 cents Conant fo r boy s t o =4 Conant fo r th e mor e skillfu l mechanics Thes e wage s ar e fa r i n exces s o f wha t wer e eve r pai d i n day s o f th e Spanis h Government an d enabl e thos e employe d t o hav e comfort s i n th e wa y o f food etc. suc h a s the y hav e no t previousl y enjoyed Muc h o f th e wor k a t th e shipyard s i s unde r th e supervisio n an d directio n o f America n foremen Th e nava l authoritie s ar e wel l satisfie d wit h th e qualit y an d amoun t o f wor k performe d b y th e nativ e employees Th e tota l pa y roll s amoun t t o man y thousand s o f dollar s monthly an d sustai n i n comfor t al l thos e employed a s wel l a s thei r families (3 ) Th e cultivatio n o f ric e occupie s a larg e numbe r o f people Th e leve l lan d extendin g alon g th e coas t fro m Maragondo n o n th e wes t t o th e Zapot e Rive r o n th e eas t embrace s mor e tha n 50,00 0 acres Thi s wa s formerl y nearl y al l fria r land A t tha t tim e Cavit e raise d mor e ric e tha n wa s neede d fo r consumptio n i n th e province A s previousl y explained a larg e par t o f thi s lan d i s irri gated an d i s capabl e o f producin g tw o crop s pe r year Th e ric e cro p las t seaso n wa s th e bes t tha t ha s bee n gathere d sinc e th e adven t o f th e locust s i n 1900 Th e cro p wa s no t a s larg e a s i t shoul d hav e been however fo r a considerabl e proportio n o f excellen t 2490 4 1 6

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24 2 ric e lan d wa s no t plante d a t all Th e native s ar e accustome d t o pu t th e blam e o f shor t crop s o n presenc e o f locust s an d th e scarcit y o f carabaos Thi s wil l accoun t onl y i n par t fo r th e fields whic h migh t hav e bee n tille d bu t wer e not I n m y opinio n ther e ar e othe r reasons elsewher e discussed whic h mor e adequatel y explai n th e lac k o f agricultura l activity (4 ) Th e cultivatio n o f suga r wa s formerl y a profitabl e sourc e o f revenu e t o man y an d on e o f th e mos t importan t industrie s o f th e province Ther e i s a stretc h o f rollin g lan d connectin g th e leve l ric e land s nea r th e coas t wit h th e mountai n ridge s alon g th e souther n border Thi s regio n i s admirabl y adapte d t o suga r culture Som e O i thi s lan d i s irrigated Al l o f i t i s fertile ; nearl y al l o f i t i s wel l adapte d t o suga r culture Man y can e mill s wer e erecte d alon g th e wate r courses Som e fe w ar e i n operatio n now bu t th e cultivatio n o f suga r i s no t sufficientl y profitabl e t o induc e man y t o engag e i n it I n th e vicinit y o f th e barri o o f Buenavista jurisdictio n o f Sa n Francisc o d e Malabon ther e i s quit e a larg e are a o f suga r lan d unde r cultivation ; an d ther e ar e scattere d fields elsewher e i n th e province Bu t unde r presen t condition s I d o no t thin k ther e i s an y prospec t o f increas e i n th e suga r crop whic h formerl y wa s th e mai n sourc e o f wealth Wit h a materia l reductio n i n th e America n tarif f o n suga r i t i s probabl e tha t suga r woul d becom e agai n th e leadin g industr y o f th e province (5 ) Th e hem p o f th e souther n par t o f th e provinc e i s ye t a n infan t industry bu t on e capabl e o f almos t indefinit e development Thi s yea r i t brough t quit e a littl e read y cas h t o tha t par t o f th e province ; an d withi n on e o r tw o mor e year s wil l full y replac e coffe e a s a sourc e o f wealth I n thi s sam e distric t severa l thousan d mague y plant s hav e bee n se t ou t a s a n experiment an d effort s ar e als o bein g mad e t o se e whethe r cotto n an d rubbe r ca n no t b e success full y grown Th e foregoin g five item s compris e th e mai n source s o f wealt h an d o f livelihoo d i n th e province Ther e are o f course othe r subsidiar y sources^ Th e frui t crop s (especiall y o f mangoes whic h ar e ver y fine an d abundant ) brin g i n a goo d dea l o f money an d othe r smalle r industries suc h a s transportatio n b y boa t an d b y land manufactur e o f hem p cloth etc. serv e a s employmen t t o many Th e foregoin g fairl y represent s th e mean s o f livelihoo d o f th e peopl e o f th e province Ther e ar e n o mines an d n o forest s o f valuabl e timber

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24 3 Th e mai n source s o f wealt h ar e almos t entirel y agricultural Th e tw o tha t ar e mos t i n nee d o f developmen t an d improvemen t ar e th e cultur e o f ric e an d o f sugar Ther e seem s t o b e n o hop e o f an y considerabl e developmen t i n th e productio n o f suga r unti l ther e i s suc h modificatio n o f tarif f law s a s wil l provid e a mor e profitabl e marke t fo r th e product Th e cultur e o f ric e ha s falle n of f ver y much Formerl y thi s provinc e produce d sufficien t ric e fo r it s ow n consumptio n an d ha d a surplu s t o sell No w i t i s a buye r o f rice Las t summe r durin g th e ric e plantin g month s o f Jul y an d Augus t i t wa s unusuall y dry Locust s wer e plentifu l i n ever y par t o f th e province Man y field s o f earl y ric e wer e totall y destroyed Thi s n o doub t discourage d man y fro m preparin g th e soil I n th e month s o f Septembe r an d Octobe r th e rainfal l wa s abundant an d a larg e cro p o f lat e ric e wa s planted, especiall y aroun d Naic Th e heav y rain s o f Decembe r serve d t o matur e thi s cro p i n goo d condition an d th e yiel d wa s a n excellen t one Th e locust s disappeare d i n Novem ber s o tha t th e damag e don e wa s muc h les s tha n i n forme r years Tw o crop s o' f ric e ca n b e grow n annuall y o n th e irrigate d ric e lan d o f th e province Ther e i s a n excellen t cro p no w growin g o n som e o f th e irrigate d lands especiall y thos e aroun d Naic Thi s cro p wil l b e harveste d durin g Jul y an d Augus t an d anothe r plante d dur in g Septembe r an d October A considerabl e par t o f thi s irrigate d lan d i s no t unde r cultivatio n fo r th e earl y crop I ca n attribut e i t onl y t o th e fac t tha t th e averag e Filipin o labore r doe s no t se e th e necessit y o f plantin g anothe r cro p whe n h e ha s jus t reape d a goo d one Th e agricultura l labore r lack s initiativ e an d lack s ambition Necessit y no t ambitio n drive s hi m t o work Unde r th e Spanis h rul e thi s lan d wa s al l cultivate d unde r a sor t o f feuda l system A pressur e wa s brough t t o bea r upo n tji e labore r that'mad e hi m stic k t o hi s work No w tha t th e pressur e i s remove d an d eac h erstwhil e labore r i s possesse d o f hi s ow n vin e an d fi g tree an d i s a t libert y t o suppl y hi s ow n initiative i t i s ofte n th e cas e tha t ambitio n i s lacking Wit h referenc e t o th e outloo k fo r th e presen t ric e cro p i t i s bette r tha n fo r year s past I n th e souther n par t o f th e provinc e a larg e are a ha s bee n plante d i n mountai n rice an d th e recen t heav y rain s hav e pu t i t i n excellen t condition Thu s fa r th e locust s hav e no t bee n sufficientl y numerou s t o d o muc h damage A s th e mountai n

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24 4 cro p i s a n earl y on e i t i s no t likel y tha t th e locust s wil l materiall y damag e it an d th e souther n par t o f th e provinc e shoul d hav e a bette r yiel d tha n fo r a lon g tim e past Th e abundan t rain s hav e als o permitte d earl y preparatio n o f th e groun d fo r ric e i n th e leve l distric t o f th e province Unles s som e untowar d even t happen s th e ric e cro p o f th e provinc e wil l b e bette r tha n fo r severa l year s past an d shoul d b e sufficien t fo r th e maintenanc e o f th e entir e population PROVINCIA L JAI L AN D PRISONERS Th e provincia l jai l i s locate d i n th e lowe r par t o f th e provincia l building I t i s sufficien t t o accommodat e 10 0 prisoners thoug h mor e tha n tha t numbe r hav e sometime s bee n confine d there Owin g t o th e crowde d conditio n o f th e jai l th e Commissio n o n Octobe r 26 1903 passe d a n ac t givin g authorit y t o th e provinc e t o sen d t o Bilibid whil e awaitin g trial suc h prisoner s a t i t ma y desire payin g fo r thei r dail y kee p a su m t o b e agree d upo n wit h th e Warde n o f tha t institution Unde r thi s authorit y th e provinc e ha s fro m tim e t o tim e sen t prisoner s t o Bilibid payin g 4 0 cents Conant pe r day Th e cos t o f keepin g the m i n jai l her e i s bu t 2 5 cents Conant pe r day There for e th e exces s cos t o f keepin g a prisone r i n Bilibi d amount s t o 1 5 cents Conant pe r day Owin g t o th e larg e numbe r o f arrest s i n thi s provinc e unde r charg e o f bandolerism o th e numbe r o f prisoner s t o b e maintaine d ha s alway s bee n large O n Februar y 1 5 o f th e curren t yea r ther e wer e 19 7 crimina l case s awaitin g trial o f who m 11 5 wer e confine d i n th e provincia l jail 6 7 wer e ou t o n bond an d th e remainde r wer e confine d i n Bilibid Ther e wer e 5 3 prisoner s i n confinemen t awaitin g tria l o n Jun e 30 1904 an d 2 8 ar e unde r bon d awaitin g trial Th e maintenanc e o f th e provincia l prisoner s i s a heav y drai n o n th e fund s o f th e province Th e mos t seriou s drain however i s tha t arisin g fro m th e maintenanc e i n Bilibi d a t provincia l expens e o f thos e prisoner s wh o hav e bee n convicte d bu t wh o hav e take n a n appea l t o th e Suprem e Court Unde r th e la w thes e prisoner s mus t b e sen t t o Bilibid bu t thei r kee p whil e ther e i s a t provincia l expense Fo r abou t si x month s th e provinc e ha s ha d 5 8 suc h prisoner s awaitin g actio n b y th e Suprem e Court Th e monthl y expens e o f maintainin g the m amount s t o nearl y MOO This o f course i s additiona l t o th e expens e o f maintainin g i n th e provin

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24 5 cia l jai l thos e prisoner s wh o ar e awaitin g trial I d o no t kno w whethe r prisoner s i n Bilibi d awaitin g actio n b y th e Suprem e Cour t ar e require d t o work Presumabl y the y are I f the y ar e require d t o work th e priso n get s th e benefi t o f thei r labor an d the y shoul d b e abl e t o ear n thei r ow n living Th e cos t o f th e maintenanc e o f prisoner s i s a seriou s proble m i n thi s provinc e an d threaten s t o becom e a burde n to o heav y t o b e me t fro m provincia l funds I shoul d b e gla d i f som e metho d o f relie f ca n b e devised O n Augus t 24 1903 a t th e reques t o f th e provincia l board an d b y directio n o f th e honorabl e Civi l Governor th e provincia l jai l wa s place d unde r th e contro l o f th e senio r inspecto r o f Con stabulary A detachmen t o f Constabular y sufficien t fo r purpos e o f guar d i s quartere d i n th e sam e building an d i t i s unquestionabl y mor e satisfactor y t o hav e Constabular y a s guard s tha n t o hav e a selecte d civi l guar d withou t opportunit y fo r instructio n an d discipline Th e province moreover i s thereb y relieve d fro m th e additiona l expense I n m y opinio n th e mos t unfortunat e thin g abou t th e presen t managemen t o f provincia l prisoner s i s th e fac t tha t the y ca n no t b e require d t o wor k prio r t o conviction Whe n i t i s considere d tha t mos t o f th e prisoner s wh o fil l th e provincia l jai l belon g t o th e lowes t crimina l class an d tha t prio r t o confinemen t i n th e jai l thei r case s hav e alread y bee n acte d upo n b y a justic e o f th e peac e an d sufficien t caus e foun d t o sho w a probabilit y o f guilt i t seem s a pit y tha t the y mus t b e maintaine d i n idleness sometime s fo r months befor e a sessio n o f th e cour t ca n pas s upo n th e case Th e averag e ladron e doe s no t loo k upo n idlenes s i n priso n a s muc h o f a hardship Th e terror s o f priso n lif e woul d b e greatl y increase d i f i t mean t har d wor k fro m th e momen t o f incarceration I inclose a tabulate d list marke d "C, o f actio n take n o n prisoner s durin g th e pas t year showin g numbe r o f convictions 223 ; numbe r o f acquittals 188 ; numbe r wher e actio n wa s with drawn 152 O f th e conviction s n o fewe r tha n 17 3 wer e fo r bandolerismo I thin k i t ver y probabl e tha t wit h improve d condition s an d th e clear in g u p tha t ha s alread y take n plac e thi s clas s o f criminal s wil l b e no t nearl y s o numerou s durin g th e curren t year an d i s alread y showin g a stead y decline

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24 6 ROADS A s a rul e th e soi l o f Cavit e Provinc e i s a ric h loam Ther e i s n o grave l soi l anywher e withi n th e province Roc k i s scarc e an d ca n b e foun d onl y i n th e bottom s o f rive r beds A s thes e rive r bed s ar e usuall y a t th e botto m o f dee p ravines i t i s a difficul t matte r t o obtai n th e rock an d eve n the n mos t o f i t i s to o sof t t o b e suitabl e fo r roa d building A littl e grave l ma y b e foun d a t a fe w point s alon g som e o f th e streams bu t i t i s scarc e an d ofte n inaccessible Th e foregoin g fact s mak e i t apparen t tha t th e build in g o f goo d road s i n th e provinc e i s bot h difficul t an d costly O f cours e wher e i t ha s n o har d surfac e material a roa d goe s t o piece s ver y rapidl y durin g th e rain y season Th e torrentia l storm s quickly rui n an y roa d tha t i s no t wel l built A-roa d tha t i s i n excellen t conditio n durin g th e whol e o f th e dr y seaso n ma y becom e absolutel y impassabl e withi n te n day s afte r th e we t seaso n opens Al l roa d buildin g ough t t o b e wit h a vie w t o permanency an d thi s wil l requir e tha t it s surfac e b e covere d wit h grave l o r crushe d stone Ver y fe w o f th e road s o f th e provinc e hav e an y suc h surfac e dressing Th e wor k o f supplyin g i t wil l b e bot h slo w an d costly Still i t shoul d b e undertake n an d continue d a s rapidl y a s possible Th e cos t an d th e difficult y o f constructin g an d maintainin g goo d road s ar e gon e int o somewha t full y wit h a vie w o f showin g th e entir e inadequac y o f th e resource s a t presen t availabl e fo r th e roa d fund A t bes t th e tota l annua l incom e o f th e provincia l roa d fun d wil l no t excee d $6,000 gold pe r annum Thi s amoun t wil l scarcel y suffic e t o pa y runnin g expense s an d provid e materia l necessar y fo r repairin g bridges. Bu t fo r th e fac t tha t th e provinc e receive d a loa n o f 1*50,00 0 an d a gif t o f 7,00 0 picul s o f ric e fo r roa d wor k th e road s woul d hav e becom e impassable I n orde r t o ge t th e road s int o an y sor t o f satisfactor y shap e i t wil l requir e a n annua l expenditure i n cas h o r it s equivalent o f ^=50,00 0 fo r man y year s t o come A s ther e i s n o possibilit y o f th e provinc e bein g abl e t o provid e an y suc h su m fro m taxation I se e n o othe r possibl e solutio n excep t b y th e enactmen t o f a roa d la w requirin g o f eac h able-bodie d mal e inhabitan t a certai n numbe r o f days wor k eac h year—say five—o r paymen t o f a fin e t o th e roa d fun d o f 5 0 cent s fo r eac h da y tha t

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24 7 wor k i s no t performed Suc h a la w wa s formerl y i n forc e i n th e day s o f Spanis h rule bu t th e numbe r o f day s the n require d wa s fifteen. I understan d tha t th e la w finally becam e ver y unpopular bu t i t wa s mor e throug h abuse s o f th e la w tha n throug h it s legiti mat e application Unles s som e suc h la w i s pu t int o forc e th e road s wil l deteriorat e instea d o f becomin g better an d wil l finally becom e impassabl e durin g a considerabl e par t o f th e year I n additio n t o th e road s alread y constructe d o r provide d for on e leadin g fro m Nai c t o Sant a Cru z i s muc h needed Th e prov inc e ha s no t th e mean s o f repairin g thi s roa d an d wil l no t hav e fo r a lon g tim e t o come Thi s i s muc h t o b e regretted becaus e a numbe r o f well-constructe d bridge s o n th e road s ar e goin g t o rui n becaus e o f lac k o f repair Th e onl y practicabl e mean s o f transportatio n wit h th e countr y i n th e vicinit y o f Nai c i s b y water Whe n th e weathe r i s storm y tha t par t o f th e provinc e i s completel y shu t off The y shoul d hav e a road an d th e soone r wor k ca n b e commence d th e les s expensiv e i t wil l be FINANCIA L CONDITION Th e assesse d valuatio n o f th e land s an d improvement s o f th e provinc e accordin g t o th e assessmen t a s establishe d b y th e boar d o f ta x revisio n o f 190 3 wa s $5,8:89,755 gold Ther e wer e man y an d continue d complaint s fro m th e peopl e o f th e town s o f th e souther n part s o f th e provinc e tha t thei r assessmen t ha d bee n enormousl y increased an d tha t n o representativ e o f tha t par t o f th e provinc e ha d bee n a membe r o f th e boar d o f ta x revision an d tha t th e la w governin g sai d revisio n ha d no t bee n complie d with Thes e complaints i n larg e part wer e wel l founded an d th e Commissio n o n Apri l 5 1904 passe d a n ac t constitutin g th e provincia l boar d a s a ne w tax-revisio n board I n accordanc e wit h th e sai d Ac t No 1106 th e provincia l board afte r visitin g th e town s wher e th e complaint s ha d arisen adopte d a schem e o f equalizatio n whic h reduce d th e assesse d valuatio n o f th e propert y o f th e provinc e t o abou t $5,178,716 whic h actio n ha s prove n generall y acceptabl e an d satisfactory Th e valu e unde r th e ol d assessmen t o f 190 2 wa s $4,349,288 I f al l o f th e lan d ta x wer e collected th e tota l provincia l incom e fro m tha t sourc e woul d b e abou t $19,420 gold o f whic h one-thir d woul d g o t o th e roa d funds Th e cedul a ta x amount s t o abou t 1*40,00 0 pe r year an d th e

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24 8 industria l ta x t o abou t =10,00 0 pe r year One-hal f o f thes e taxe s i s carrie d t o th e provincia l fund makin g a tota l income includin g roa d fund no t exceedin g $30,000 gold • Th e provinc e owe s t o th e Insula r Governmen t $2,50 0 borrowe d fo r genera l purposes an d 50,00 0 pesos Mexican borrowe d fo r th e roa d fund Th e cos t o f maintainin g prisoner s i s on e o f th e seriou s drain s o n th e genera l fun d o f th e provincia l treasury I t i s wit h difficult y tha t th e yearl y expense s o f th e provinc e ca n b e kep t withi n it s income A s a rul e th e improvement s o n th e land especiall y tow n properties ar e undervalued man y piece s o f propert y ar e no t assesse d a t thei r actua l valuation an d th e assessment s a s fixed b y loca l board s ar e subjec t t o s o man y loca l influence s tha t i t woul d b e wel l fo r th e government a ful l yea r i n advanc e o f th e nex t genera l assessment t o appoin t a provincia l assessor o f know n honest y an d ability wh o shoul d devot e a n entir e yea r t o carefull y revisin g an d adjustin g th e existin g assess ments goin g fo r thi s purpos e fro m on e tow n t o anothe r i n suc cession Considerin g th e larg e numbe r o f separat e piece s o f prop ert y t o b e valued a ful l yea r wil l no t giv e mor e tha n th e tim e required H e migh t b e require d t o wor k i n conjunctio n wit h th e lpca l boar d o f assessors an y difference s arisin g t o b e adjuste d b y th e provincia l board H e shoul d no t b e a residen t o f th e province i n orde r t o avoi d loca l influence s mor e readily an d hi s characte r shoul d b e abov e suspicion I regar d thi s matte r a s o f extrem e importanc e i n orde r that onc e fo r all a n approximatel y accurat e basi s o f assessmen t ma y b e obtained FRIA R LAND S AN D IMPROVEMENTS Mor e tha n one-fourt h o f al l th e fria r holding s o f th e Archipelag o ar e t o b e foun d i n th e Provinc e o f Cavite Thes e land s embrac e a stretc h o f fine leve l ric e land s extendin g fro m Maragondon o n th e wes t t o th e Zapot e Rive r o n th e east includin g al l o f th e municipalitie s o f Naic Sant a Cru z d e Malabon Sa n Francisc o d e Malabon an d Imus an d part s o f Pere z Dasma rinas Noveleta Rosario an d Bacoor I n all approximatel y 125,00 0 acre s ar e include d i n wha t ar e terme d th e fria r lands A s alread y stated muc h o f th e ric e lan d i s dike d an d capable unde r irrigation o f producin g tw o goo d crop s o f ric e pe r year

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24 9 Som e fine irrigate d suga r land s ar e als o include d i n th e tract s surveyed A numbe r o f valuabl e an d costl y improvement s ar e included Som e o f thes e ar e i n th e natur e o f haciend a buildings bu t th e mos t valuabl e consis t i n hug e ston e dam s an d irrigatin g canals ditches etc Ther e i s a magnificen t suga r distric t aroun d th e barri o o f Pali paran som e 6 mile s fro m Silang Unfortunatel y ther e i s nothin g doin g i n th e suga r busines s now owin g t o th e genera l paralysi s o f tha t industry Abou t 3 mile s sout h o f Palipara n ther e i s a fine ston e da m som e 8 0 fee t i n heigh t controllin g th e water s o f a rive r formerl y use d fo r irrigation Ther e i s a n irrigatin g tunne l mor e tha n 6 fee t hig h an d mor e tha n hal f a mil e i n lengt h cu t throug h th e soli d rock wit h thre e ai r shaft s t o th e surfac e o f th e groun d above Th e tunne l debouche s o n th e norther n sid e o f th e hil l int o a cu t throug h th e soli d rock Th e side s o f thi s cu t nea r th e mout h o f th e tunne l ar e nearl y 4 0 fee t i n height bu t constantl y lesse n i n heigh t unti l a t a distanc e o f som e 2 mile s fro m th e mout h o f th e tunne l th e wate r wa s distribute d through irrigatin g main s an d ditche s ove r a magnificen t stretc h o f gentl y rollin g suga r land an d ove r a larg e are a o f fine ric e lan d farthe r t o th e north Th e wate r doe s no t no w flow throug h th e tunne l owin g t o a lea k i n th e dam bu t th e whol e syste m ca n agai n b e pu t i n operatio n a t triflin g expense Thi s irrigatin g syste m belonge d t o wha t i s know n a s th e Imu s hacienda Ther e ar e ma y othe r valuabl e im provement s i n th e wa y o f ston e dam s an d irrigatin g canals Ther e ar e severa l fine ston e bridge s buil t a s a par t o f th e improvemen t o f th e estat e an d no t connecte d wit h th e publi c roads Amon g thes e ar e tw o magnificen t ston e bridges eac h nearl y o r quit e 10 0 fee t high betwee n th e barrio s o f Buenavist a an d Quin tana Thes e bridge s wer e buil t fo r convenienc e i n connectin g part s o f th e haciend a separate d b y dee p ravines an d afforde d mean s fo r transportatio n o f th e suga r t o th e mai n depositos A t Paliparan Buenavista Palauit Tre s Cruces an d man y othe r point s ther e ar e magnificen t ston e dams, som e o f whic h ar e mor e tha n 6 0 fee t high storin g th e wate r an d turnin g i t int o th e variou s irrigatin g canals Som e o f thes e canal s an d large r irrigatin g ditche s ar e i n nee d

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25 0 o f repair bu t i n grea t par t th e syste m i s i n operatio n now an d add s greatl y t o th e valu e o f th e land s o f th e province I t i s no t possibl e fo r m e t o giv e a n accurat e estimat e o f th e tota l cos t o f th e irrigatio n improvement s o f th e province A t th e tim e the y wer e buil t labo r wa s cheap an d th e cas h expenditur e wa s probabl y small Bu t a t th e presen t rat e o f wag e th e cos t o f suc h a syste m woul d b e man y hundred s o f thousand s i n gold Unde r th e contro l o f progressiv e companie s thes e fine estate s woul d increas e man y time s i n valu e an d productiveness Unde r suc h cultivatio n a s i s give n b y th e ordinar y labore r workin g o n hi s ow n account a considerabl e par t wil l remai n uncultivated an d improvemen t o f presen t condition s wil l b e slow Thi s wil l b e so becaus e th e ordinar y labore r wil l no t promptl y adop t improve d method s o f agricultur e an d becaus e hi s effort s ar e likel y t o h e confine d t o providin g fo r hi s presen t necessities Withou t a t al l interferin g wit h th e individua l libert y o f actio n guarantee d b y th e law ever y effor t i s bein g mad e throug h th e president s an d othe r municipa l official s t o secur e greate r agricultura l activit y an d t o increas e th e are a o f groun d unde r tillage Wa r an d insurrection continue d throug h severa l years followe d b y los s o f wor k animals drought an d plagu e o f locust s hav e al l serve d t o brea k i n o n th e agricultur e o f th e province I a m gla d t o be abl e t o repor t tha t I believ e th e presen t prospect s t o h e hette r tha n fo r severa l year s pas t an d muc h bette r tha n a yea r ago RELIGIOU S QUESTIONS Th e tw o mai n churc h parties Aglipa y an d Roma n Catholic ar e o f nearl y equa l strengt h i n th e province Th e mai n strengt h o f th e Aglipa y factio n i s t o b e foun d i n th e town s alon g th e coast Th e town s i n th e souther n par t o f th e provinc e ar e largel y Roma n Catholic Th e separatio n o f churc h an d stat e i s a lesso n no t ye t thoroughl y understoo d b y th e mas s o f th e people I t sometime s happen s tha t th e act s o f a municipa l counci l ca n b e understoo d onl y b y takin g int o aeconn t th e animositie s engendere d b y religiou s strife I t i s probabl e tha t thi s will'wea r awa y i n time Th e principa l bon e o f contentio n a t Hi e presen t tim e seem s t o b e th e possessio n o f th e churches convents an d cemeteries Onc e thi s questio n i s defi nitel y an d permanentl y settle d b y th e courts th e mai n caus e o f existin g dissensio n wil l b e removed

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25 1 SCHOOLS Perhap s nothin g els e tha t th e Governmen t ha s undertake n fo r th e improvemen t o f th e peopl e ha s me t wit h mor e enthusiasti c suppor t tha n th e publi c schools Th e attendanc e ha s gon e rapidl y forwar d an d ha s bee n limite d onl y b y capacit y an d numbe r o f schoolhouse s available Attached marke d "B, i s a repor t fro m th e divisio n superintenden t o f schools Mr S A Campbell showin g a n increas e i n enrollmen t fro m 3,45 4 i n March 1903 t o 7,73 9 i n March 1904 o r a n increas e i n enrollmen t i n on e yea r o f 11 7 pe r cent Abou t Januar y o f th e presen t yea r th e provinc e receive d a n appropriatio n o f 10,00 0 picul s o f ric e fro m th e Congressiona l relie f fun d fo r the purpos e o f providin g schoolhouse s i n suc h town s an d barrio s a s wer e no t alread y provide d wit h them Man y o f thes e ar e alread y finished an d ar e no w i n use Other s ar e i n cours e o f construction B y th e clos e o f th e curren t yea r al l town s an d larg e barrio s o f th e provinc e wil l h e provide d wit h adequat e schoo l build ings an d th e resul t wil l n o doub t b e a larg e increas e i n attendance Th e divisio n superintendent Mr S A Campbell ha s undertake n th e inauguratio n o f a practica l cours e i n carpentr y an d mechanic s i n connectio n wit h th e provincia l hig h school Thi s ha s apparentl y me t wit h interes t an d success I believ e i t t o b e a ste p i n th e righ t directio n a s givin g th e pupil s a practica l instructio n tha t wil l late r b e o f us e t o the m i n earnin g a living I t ca n no t b e doubte d tha t th e practica l illustratio n i n th e work shop s a t th e Cavit e Nava l Statio n ha s gon e fa r towar d impartin g a n interes t i n carpentr y an d mechanic s tha t woul d no t otherwis e exist Whe n th e pupil s se e th e ordinar y labore r satisfie d wit h 8 0 cent s pe r da y whil e th e skille d mechanic wh o work s n o harder obtain s moj e tha n fou r time s a s muc h i t i s a n eloquen t argumen t i n favo r o f learnin g how s o a s t o ge t o n th e roll s o f th e skillful Later i f mean s an d opportunit y permit th e divisio n super intenden t desire s t o establis h i n a smal l way i n connectio n wit h on e o f th e secondar y school s o f th e province a branc h tha t wil l instruc t i n scientifi c horticultur e an d agriculture Suc h instruc tio n woul d b e o f grea t importance i n a provinc e whos e wealt h consist s almos t entirel y i n agriculture Thes e practica l school s ough t t o b e encourage d i n ever y wa y possibl e s o tha t th e peopl e

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25 2 ma y se e tha t educatio n lead s u p t o th e practica l affair s o f lif e a s wel l a s t o suc h profession s a s thos e o f th e lawyer doctor jour nalist etc LOCUSTS Durin g th e summe r o f 190 3 th e provinc e suffere d greatl y fro m depredation s o f locusts whic h wer e numerou s an d persistent Man y field s o f earl y ric e wer e completel y devoured Th e abundan t rain s fro m Septembe r t o December inclusive wer e sufficien t t o matur e th e lat e crops O n Augus t 8 th e provincia l locus t boar d wa s organized Th e peopl e wer e activ e an d persisten t i n thei r effort s t o destro y th e locusts Man y differen t method s wer e employed bu t fo r th e full y grow n insec t th e closel y wove n fis h net place d o n a wide-spreadin g forke d handle suc h a s i s use d b y native s i n catchin g minnows wa s foun d t o b e th e mos t efficacious Accordin g t o report s o f th e agricultura l member s submitte d weekl y ther e wa s a n aggregat e o f mor e tha n 5,00 0 cavane s caugh t an d destroyed I n Novembe r coole r weathe r an d heav y rain s se t in I t wa s notice d abou t thi s tim e tha t man y dea d locust s wer e found an d a smal l whit e wor m o r maggo t nearl y a s larg e a s a grai n o f ric e coul d b e foun d embedde d i n th e body Shortl y afte r thi s th e locust s completel y disappeared Befor e Decembe r 1 5 ther e wa s no t on e t o b e found eve n i n place s wher e recentl y ther e ha d bee n myriad s o f them Thi s yea r n o locust s appeare d unti l abou t Jun e 6 whe n the y wer e reporte d a s bein g i n on e o r tw o barrio s o f Alfonso whenc e the y sprea d t o Nai c an d Maragondon Som e hav e als o bee n reporte d a t Sa n Francisc o d e Malabon N o damag e o f consequenc e ha s s o fa r bee n don e b y them I t i s m y belie f tha t a n exces s o f rain y o r storm y weathe r accomplishe s a grea t dea l i n th e wa y o f thei r extermination Th e heav y rain s i n Jun e hav e prevente d thei r spreading an d a t thi s writin g the y ar e reporte d a s n o longe r foun d i n th e jurisdictio n o f Sa n Francisc o d e Malabo n o r Alfonso an d onl y i n smal l number s i n th e jurisdictio n o f Nai c an d Maragondon I f th e summe r shoul d b e on e o f continuous heav y rains i t i s probabl e tha t the y wil l everywher e disappear A t presen t the y ar e mostl y i n th e locton e stage an d th e peopl e ar e makin g vigorou s effort s t o suppres s them

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25 3 MUNICIPA L POLICE I n accordanc e wit h th e provision s o f Ac t 781 th e provincia l boar d o n Jnn e 24 1903 adopte d resolution s providin g fo r th e organizatio n o f a municipa l polic e forc e an d fixin g th e pa y o f policeme n an d numbe r o f gun s fo r eac h town I n it s actio n take n a t tha t time befor e m y appointmen t a s gov ernor th e provincia l boar d seem s t o hav e bee n guide d b y th e belie f tha t i t coul d secur e a considerabl e loa n fro m th e Insula r Governmen t t o b e use d b y th e provinc e i n th e .maintenanc e o f th e municipa l police Thi s anticipate d loa n coul d no t b e granted Th e town s wer e no t abl e t o properl y maintai n th e numbe r o f polic e prescribed an d thi s fac t resulte d i n considerabl e modifications Th e pa y o f th e polic e wa s reduced I n som e case s th e amount s availabl e fo r thei r pa y wa s increase d b y a syste m o f voluntar y contributions I n som e case s onl y a fe w policeme n wer e main taine d o n th e pa y rolls ; th e extr a gun s wer e kep t i n th e presidencia an d a t nigh t o r i n activ e servic e th e polic e forc e wa s augmente d b y volunteer s selecte d b y th e municipa l president Recentl y a n office r o f Constabular y wa s assigne d t o th e provinc e fo r th e expres s purpos e o f havin g comman d o f th e municipa l polic e an d improvin g thei r efficiency Ther e hav e bee n n o desertion s fro m th e polic e forc e durin g th e yea r an d n o gun s hav e bee n lost On e policema n wa s accidentall y kille d b y anothe r an d tw o wer e kille d i n fight s wit h ladrone s durin g th e year Severa l towns no w barrio s sinc e th e recen t consolidation hav e bee n protecte d onl y b y police an d i t ca n no t b e doubte d tha t i n man y way s the y hav e rendere d goo d service Neithe r ca n i t b e doubte d tha t th e syste m i s fault y i n tha t thei r instructio n an d disciplin e i s la x an d difficul t o f improvement I n th e earl y futur e considerabl e reduction s wil l b e mad e i n th e numbe r o f policeme n require d t o b e maintaine d b y som e o f th e town s wit h a vie w o f makin g bette r provision s fo r th e remainder LADRON E CONDITIONS Fo r generation s pas t th e Provinc e o f Cavit e ha s bee n notoriou s fo r it s ladrones The y existe d i n larg e number s prio r t o th e out brea k o f th e insurrectio n agains t th e Spanis h Government I n th e subsequen t insurrectio n agains t th e American s man y o f th e ladron e

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25 4 leader s becam e officer s o f th e insurrect o army Whe n th e insurrec tio n wa s close d i n 1901 severa l o f thes e leader s di d no t surrender bu t remaine d i n th e field wit h thei r arms an d returne d t o thei r forme r occupatio n a s leader s o f th e ladron e bands I n thi s wa y the y wer e abl e t o retai n a larg e numbe r o f gun s an d revolvers Afte r civi l governmen t ha d bee n establishe d ther e remaine d i n th e field larg e band s o f well-arme d ladrone s wh o continue d t o giv e trouble Durin g th e insurrectio n th e peopl e ha d bee n accustome d t o maintai n th e insurrect o troop s b y mean s o f contribution s o f mone y an d supplies Thi s syste m o f contribution whethe r voluntar y o r not wa s con tinue d wit h referenc e t o th e ladron e band s whic h remaine d i n th e field. I t ha s bee n extremel y difficul t t o brea k u p thi s "contribu tion system becaus e ladrone s alway s threatened an d frequentl y executed dir e vengeanc e agains t thos e wh o demurred I t woul d probabl y hav e bee n bette r i f th e establishmen t o f civi l governmen t i n thi s provinc e ha d bee n delaye d fo r a time an d i f th e prerequisit e ha d bee n demande d an d insiste d upo n o f havin g th e provinc e completel y cleane d up an d al l arm s surrendered prio r t o organizatio n o f civi l government Thi s woul d hav e bee n eas y o f accomplishmen t a t tha t time fo r i t woul d hav e pu t th e onu s upo n th e peopl e an d thei r leaders The y wer e al l anxiou s fo r th e promp t establishmen t o f civi l government Th e leader s easil y woul d hav e bee n abl e t o brin g i n al l o f th e gun s an d t o accomplis h th e surrende r o f al l arme d band s ha d th e establishmen t o f civi l governmen t depende d thereon A s i t was however th e newl y establishe d civi l governmen t foun d i t necessar y t o dea l wit h .numer ou s ladron e band s possessin g a t tha t tim e som e 30 0 gun s o r more Th e captur e o f thes e gun s ha s bee n a difficul t matter I t ha s gon e steadil y forward however an d I believ e i t ma y no w b e sai d tha t ther e ar e fewe r gun s an d les s ladron e activit y tha n a t an y tim e sinc e th e clos e o f th e insurrection On e reaso n o f th e difficult y i n catchin g th e ladron e band s i s o n accoun t o f th e terren e o f th e province It s dee p an d almos t inac cessibl e ravine s an d it s extensiv e jungle s affor d secur e hidin g places a t th e sam e tim e renderin g i t difficul t fo r troop s t o mov e fro m on e poin t t o another Ther e are'hundred s o f mile s o f road s an d trail s i n th e closel y woode d jungle s wher e a t an y poin t a ladron e i s hidde n fro m vie w b y a plung e o f a fe w step s int o th e brush Pursui t i s impossible an d escap e i s easy

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25 5 Unde r suc h condition s a s thes e I believ e th e us e o f th e blood houn d woul d b e no t onl y justifie d bu t woul d b e foun d t o b e th e bes t mean s o f entirel y an d permanentl y clearing-ou t th e ladrone s fro m th e jungles Thei r us e i s provide d fo r i n man y part s o f Americ a i n trackin g criminals an d thi s i s a countr y comparativel y ope n an d wher e reliabl e informatio n regardin g criminal s ma y b e obtaine d fro m ever y citizen I n thi s country wher e peopl e ar e preye d upo n b y th e ladrones wher e informatio n i s s o difficul t t o obtain an d wher e escap e i s s o easy I believ e a fe w hound s woul d prov e o f grea t value Fro m suc h inquir y a s I hav e bee n abl e t o mak e fro m thos e havin g practica l experience I believ e the y woul d prov e especiall y valuabl e i n tracin g stole n horse s an d carabaos Whe n ladrone s stea l horse s o r carabaos thei r firs t effor t i s t o tak e th e animal s s o tha t thei r trai l ma y inter mingl e wit h th e trail s o f others Afterward s i t i s no t possibl e fo r huma n kin d t o follo w th e stole n animals If a s claimed dog s ca n b e successfull y use d fo r thi s purpose a fe w practica l objec t lesson s woul d g o furthe r towar d cleanin g ou t caraba o thieve s tha n a whol e regimen t o f troops Anothe r difficult y encountere d i s tha t o f securin g information Throug h fear an d frequentl y throug h favor th e peopl e shiel d ladrone s an d refus e t o giv e necessar y information I n severa l instance s durin g th e pas t yea r th e ladrone s hav e wreake d a brufa l vengeanc e upo n thos e suspecte d o f givin g information Thi s o f cours e ha s th e effec t o f actin g a s a deterren t o n others Sometime s ladrone s hav e maltreate d native s foun d act in g a s guide s fo r troops Frequentl y thi s ha s bee n urge d b y native s a s th e reaso n o f unwillingnes s t o brin g i n information ; viz tha t the y woul d b e expecte d (ver y naturally ) t o ac t a s a guide an d tha t thi s woul d mak e the m subjec t t o ladron e vengeanc e afte r the y ha d returne d t o thei r houses Earl y i n th e yea r I wen t ove r thos e part s o f th e provinc e mos t infeste d b y ladrones visitin g nearl y al l o f th e man y barrio s an d sitios Som e o f thes e wer e foun d t o b e i n isolate d spot s i n th e mountain s o r forests Frequentl y the y consiste d o f onl y a fe w smal l scattere d huts almos t inaccessible an d a t a considerabl e distanc e fro m th e neares t detachmen t o f troops I t wa s impossibl e t o fur nis h adequat e protectio n t o al l o f thes e smal l barrio s o r sitios I t wa s equall y impossibl e t o provid e schoo l facilitie s fo r th e children Moreover thes e smal l barrio s an d sitio s wer e ofte n lodgin g place s

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25 6 fo r ladrone s prowlin g i n th e vicinity Eve n i f ther e wer e n o ladrone s i n th e country th e condition s wer e ver y unfavorabl e fo r th e developmen t an d improvemen t o f th e peopl e livin g i n thes e detache d sitios Thei r childre n coul d no t g o t o school an d ther e coul d b e n o progress I n vie w o f thes e "condition s an d unde r th e genera l authorit y containe d i n Ac t 781 th e Commissio n o n Februar y 2 8 authorized wit h th e approva l o f th e honorabl e Civi l Governor th e remova l o f th e peopl e livin g i n som e o f thes e isolate d point s t o th e towns o r t o a large r barrio wher e bette r protectio n an d educationa l facilitie s wer e afforded Thi s wa s don e i n a numbe r o f instances car e bein g take n t o selec t thos e wher e i t wa s apparen t tha t improvemen t mus t result Th e effec t ha s bee n distinctl y good N o hardshi p ha s resulted Th e peopl e concerne d soo n recognize d th e necessit y for an d th e benefi t of th e change I n a fe w instance s th e peopl e o f barrio s voluntaril y requeste d permissio n t o move I n part s o f th e provinc e wher e thi s ha s bee n trie d ladrone s hav e sinc e given n o troubl e whatever I n a fe w case s peopl e hav e bee n permitte d t o retur n t o th e barrio s i n orde r tha t the y migh t b e neare r t o thei r wor k i n th e fields. Wher e ladronis m i s a s extensiv e a s i t ha s bee n i n thi s provinc e fo r generations i t wil l requir e tim e an d constan t activit y fo r it s complet e extermination Muc h ha s bee n accomplished Severa l band s o f a yea r ag o hav e bee n completel y broke n up Tw o o f th e principa l leader s hav e bee n inactive s o fa r a s thi s provinc e i s con cerned fo r severa l month s past Th e attache d list marke d "C, show s th e numbe r o f conviction s fo r bandolerism o durin g th e pas t yea r t o b e 173 Thes e represen t member s o f variou s bands caraba o thieves etc. wh o hav e bee n capture d an d punished A t th e presen t tim e ther e ar e tw o principa l band s tha t giv e troubl e i n th e province possessin g no t mor e tha n 1 5 gun s each Fo r som e week s pas t thes e tw o band s hav e bee n inactive bu t th e troop s hav e no t ye t bee n abl e t o brea k the m u p o r t o effec t thei r capture I n September 1903 th e Constabular y headquarter s establishe d i n Imu s a burea u o f informatio n unde r Captai n Cram e o f th e Phil ippine s Constabulary B y mean s o f nativ e spie s h e wa s abl e t o obtai n muc h valuabl e informatio n an d t o mak e man y importan t arrests

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25 7 Hi s wor k ha s resulte d i n grea t good an d th e improvemen t a t Imu s an d vicinit y (the n th e wors t par t o f th e province ) i s marked I regar d th e informatio n burea u a s b y odd s th e mos t effectiv e mean s o f cleanin g n p th e countr y tha t ha s bee n tried I t requires however a specia l abilit y i n tha t line Th e office r mus t b e abl e t o spea k Spanis h an d th e nativ e languag e a s well A suboffic e unde r Lieutenan t Ramo s a t Sa n Francisc o d e Malabo n als o di d importan t work I inclos e a synopsis marke d "D, show in g th e wor k accomplishe d b y thes e tw o offices an d th e on e recentl y establishe d a t Alfonso I n som e case s Captai n Cram e ha s bee n abl e t o establis h tha t certai n well-to-d o native s livin g i n th e town s wer e secretl y connivin g wit h ladron e band s an d assistin g i n thei r main tenance I n retur n th e ladrone s acte d a s a sor t o f guar d fo r th e stoc k o f thei r protectors neithe r stealin g i t themselve s no r permit tin g i t t o b e stole n b y othe r ladrones Th e arres t an d punishmen t o f suc h me n i s a mos t importan t step Th e ta o wh o carrie s a gu n i n th e jungl e i s no t nearl y s o importan t a s th e "principale wh o live s i n comfor t i n th e tow n an d profit s b y th e misdeed s o f th e ignorant I n Spanis h time s Cavit e wa s know n a s th e "mothe r o f ladrones. Thi s ba d reputatio n ha s oftentime s serve d t o brin g upon th e prov inc e th e sin s o f others Hardl y a scra p take s plac e wit h th e loca l gang s o f adjacen t province s wherei n th e publishe d account s d o no t represen t th e escape d bandit s a s "fleein g t o thei r lai r i n Cavite. I f misdeed s o f ladrone s o f othe r province s occu r aroun d som e barri o whos e locatio n i s a littl e hazy th e matte r i s soo n settle d b y th e publishe d account s locatin g th e disturbanc e i n Cavite "Whe n onc e a do g ha s a ba d nam e everybod y give s hi m a kick. Thi s provinc e ha s sometime s bee n credite d wit h fights whic h too k plac e mile s withou t it s borders Cavit e ha s ha d man y ladrones an d som e o f the m remain bu t th e provinc e i s neare r t o bein g clea n no w tha n a t an y tim e sinc e I hav e know n it Ver y respectfully D C SHANKS Governor, Province of Cavite. Th e CIVI L GOVERNO R O F TH E PHILIPPIN E ISLANDS 24904 1 7

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25 8 EXHIBI T A LIS T O F TH E PROVINCIA L AN D MUNICIPA L OFFICERS PROVINC E O F CAVITE Governor Davi d C Shanks ; secretary Danie l Tirona ; treasurer Arthu r S Emery ; supervisor Elme r 0 Worrick ; fiscal Francisc o Santamaria ; presiden t provincia l boar d o f health Marian o Feli zardo Alfonso .—Justice o f th e peace Lorenz o Angeles ; auxiliar y justic e o f th e peace Fide l Madlansacay ; municipa l presiden t (acting) Lorenz o Angeles ; treasurer Luci o Torres ; secretary Jos e Escober ; presiden t boar d o f health Reymund o Jeciel Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1905 ) : Narcis o Mojica Santiag o Belostrino Jua n Abinante Macari o de l Mundo Severin o Llamado Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1906 ) : Balbin o Crusillo Dorote o Panga niban Modest o Dimapilis Roma n Mabituin Bartolom e Angat Cavite. —Justice o f th e peace Jos e A Reyes ; auxiliar y justic e o f th e peace Nicola s Nava ; municipa l president Catalin o Nicolas ; vice-president Hug o Adorable ; treasurer Antoni o Garduno ; secre tary Albin o Santos ; presiden t o f th e boar d o f health Pedr o Lucas Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1905 ) : Ramo n Maceo Jos e Rivera Teodor o Plata Teodoric o Gomez Rafae l R Bautista Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1906 ) : Jua n N Santos Manue l Arce Valenti n Giron Catalin o Santos Marcelin o Reyes Carmona. —Justice o f th e peace Januari o Loyola ; auxiliar y justic e o f th e peace Teodor o Quiamson ; municipa l president Jua n Papa ; vice-president Segund o Annlat ; treasurer Jos e R S Agustin ; secretary Marcelin o Clarito ; presiden t boar d o f health Mamert o d e Leon Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1905 ) : Perpetu o Mapanoo Demetri o Tenedero Ignaci o Mapanoo Evarist o Dias Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1906 ) : Rupert o Loyola Jorg e Mapanoo Martinian o Reyes Ignaci o Quiamson Corregidor. —Justice o f th e peace Simeo n d e lo s Reyes ; auxiliar y justic e o f th e peace Jua n Canoy ; municipa l president Jua n Medi na ; vice-president Teodoric o Javier ; treasurer Eugeni o Tanjoco ; secretar y Marian o Aguilar Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1905 ) : Gervasi o Garrido Pedr o Pelinas Vicent e Magtira Ciriac o Alejo Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1906 ) : Toma s Aguilar Nicasi o Crisostomo Gabrie l Camilo Lazar o d e Guia

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25 9 Imus. —Justice o f th e peace Jos e Elices ; auxiliar y justic e o f th e peace Segund o Francisco ; municipa l president Pantaleo n Garcia ; vice-president Epifani o Gomez ; treasurer Antoni o Javie r Centeno ; secretary Celestin o Aragon ; presiden t boar d o f health Regin o Mota Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1905 ) : Cayetan o Topacio Epifani o Paredes Ignaci o Bella Nicola s Gonzales Gi l Ignacio Genar o Galvez Bia s Rivera Placid o Campos Gregori o Bautista Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1906 ) : Felip e Reyes Cecili o Camantigue Sixt o Sapinoso Elias Guinto Just o Narvaez Alipi o Locso Nicola s Rivera Felip e Tirona Guillerm o Tirona Indang. —Justice o f th e peace Jos e Pi o d e Roda ; auxiliar y justic e o f th e peace Numerian o Salazar ; municipa l president Eugeni o Salazar ; vice-president Marcel o Baza ; treasurer Benit o Ocamp o secretary Marian o Penaflorida ; presiden t boar d o f health Esteba n Abutin Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1905 ) : Jua n Mojica Ambrosi o Mojica Gregori o Mojica Francisc o Pi o d e Roda Gervasi o de l Rosario Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1906 ) : Feli z Ruiz Pi o Mojica Anaclet o Penaflor Victo r Hilagan Gabrie l Espineli Maragondon. —Justice o f th e peace Vicent e Riego ; auxiliar y justic e o f th e peace Francisc o Espineli ; municipa l president Florentin o d e Guia ; vice-president Cloduald o Bello ; treasurer Ladisla o Afabl e Jose ; secretary Hug o Area ; presiden t boar d o f health Ambrosi o Area Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1905) : Joaqui n Angeles Eusebi o Panganiban Gabin o Alvarez Quiric o Ogot Valenti n Anglo Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1906 ) : Pasto r Belugan Jos e Riego Teodor o Mojica Ciriac o Angeles Agapit o Espineli Naic. —Justice o f th e peace Nicola s Guevara ; auxiliar y justic e o f th e peace J os e d e Leon ; municipa l president Ciriac o Nazareno ; vice-president Valenti n Olano ; treasurer Hilario n Somonte ; sec retary Valenti n Nigoza ; presiden t boar d o f health Migue l Garcia Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1905 ) : Simeo n Arenas Apo linari o Ramos Pedr o Papa Pedr o Valenzuela Sixt o Velazco Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1906 ) : Danie l Montoya Guil lerm o Buenaflor Brauli o Alejo Jos e Aatangan Jos e Tolentino Noveleta. —Justice o f th e peace Victorian o de l Rosario ; auxiliar y justic e o f th e peace Benit o Santi ; municipa l president Andre s Ner ; vice-president Pascua l Alvarez ; treasurer Felician o Alarcon ; secretary Benign o Santi ; presiden t boar d o f health Andre s Mala

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26 0 jab Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1905 ) : Marian o Alva rez Celedoni o Santamaria Marian o Punzalan Baldomer o Agui naldo Agusti n Encarnacion Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1906 ) : Claudi o Tirona Silvestr e Legazpi Ignaci o Rodriguez Robert o Punzalan Severin o Abneg San Francisco de Malabon. —Justice o f th e peace Jos e Ma de l Rosario ; auxiliar y justic e o f th e peace Doming o Colmenar ; munic ipa l president Benign o Sarayba ; vice-president Poncian o Polido ; treasurer Casimir o d e l a Cruz ; secretary Andre s Castaneda ; presiden t boar d o f health Antoni o Ramirez Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1905 ) : Segund o Colmenar Estanisla o Arnaldo Ciriac o Montano Eduard o Imson Adrian o Soriano Pi o Fojas Antoni o Brosas Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1906 ) : Andre s Columna Gi l Potente Agusti n Angquico Santiag o Mon tano Marian o Deseo Macari o Solis Toma s Estacion Silang. —Justice o f th e peace Pedr o Lavina ; auxiliar y justic e o f th e peace Gregori o Ermitano ; municipa l president Prim o Yilla nneva ; vice-president Leonci o Ramos ; treasurer Isaia s Benjamin ; secretary Nicola s Madlansaeay ; presiden t boar d o f health Inocen ci o Cariaga Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1905 ) : Lin o Yelazco Jua n Montano Agusti n Toledo Teodor o d e l a Rea Councilor s (ter m expire s Januar y 1 1906 ) : Fanst o Montoya Francisc o Reyes Pedr o Bayo t Ambat Doming o Yillanueva EXHIBI T B REPOR T O F EDUCATIONA L DEPARTMENT JULY 1904 CAVITE July 12, 190 f. DEA R SIR' : A t you r reques t I submi t th e followin g repor t t o yo u o n th e schoo l wor k o f Cavit e Provinc e fo r th e las t year Accompanyin g th e genera l repor t coverin g statistic s o f attend ance buildings finance, an d s o on I hav e als o give n a genera l summar y o f conditions a s I se e the m an d appen d report s i n ful l submitte d t o m e b y Messrs P F Kin g an d S K Mitchell prin cipals respectively o f th e vacatio n norma l institut e an d o f th e provincia l hig h school ENROLLMEN T AN D ATTENDANCE Th e schoo l yea r opene d Jun e 20 afte r a vacatio n lastin g te n weeks Th e prospect s ar e ver y brigh t fo r a goo d year bu t i n

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26 1 makin g u p a repor t o f attendance o f pupils enrollment an d s o on i t wil l b e necessary i n orde r t o arriv e a t an y conclusio n i n regar d t o advance s mad e an d change s tha t hav e take n place t o compar e th e mont h o f March 1904 wit h March 1903 I t wil l b e see n b y accompanyin g statistic s tha t th e provinc e ha s gaine d a grea t dea l durin g th e yea r i n thes e respects Belo w i s a compariso n o f th e enrollmen t an d attendanc e i n th e differen t branche s fo r th e mont h o f February 1903 an d February 1904 ; o f March 1903 an d March 1904 ; an d o f December 1903 wit h March 1904 : Branch February 1903 February 1904 Increase Branch Enroll ment Attend ance Enroll ment Attend ance Enroll ment Attend ance Da y schoo l Nigh t schoo l Teachers clas s Tota l Pe r cen t o f increas e 2,88 8 29 0 6 3 1,88 6 20 6 6 3 6,05 2 65 9 10 2 4,36 7 46 0 9 3 3,16 4 36 9 3 9 2,48 1 25 4 3 0 Da y schoo l Nigh t schoo l Teachers clas s Tota l Pe r cen t o f increas e 3,14 1 2,33 5 6,81 3 4,92 0 3,67 2 11 6 2,76 5 11 8 3,67 2 11 6 2,76 5 11 8 Branch March 1903 March 1904 Increase Branch Enroll ment Attend ance Enroll ment Attend ance Enroll ment Attend ance Da y schoo l Nigh t schoo l Teachers clas s Tota l Pe r cen t o f increas e 3,24 0 25 6 5 8 2,35 8 19 0 5 4 6,97 1 65 8 11 0 5,03 5 50 6 10 3 3,73 1 40 2 5 2 2,67 7 31 6 4 9 Da y schoo l Nigh t schoo l Teachers clas s Tota l Pe r cen t o f increas e 3,45 4 2,60 2 7,73 9 5,64 4 4,18 5 11 7 3,04 2 11 6 4,18 5 11 7 3,04 2 11 6 Branch December 1903 March 1904 Increase Branch Enroll ment Attend ance Enroll ment Attend ance Enroll ment Attend ance Da y schoo l Nigh t schoo l Teachers clas s Tota l Pe r cen t o f increas e 4,53 0 40 8 7 7 3,70 0 32 5 7 3 6,97 1 65 8 11 0 5,03 5 50 6 10 3 2,44 1 25 0 3 3 1,33 5 18 1 3 0 Da y schoo l Nigh t schoo l Teachers clas s Tota l Pe r cen t o f increas e 5,02 7 4,07 8 7,73 9 5,64 4 2,72 4 5 2 1,54 6 3 7 2,72 4 5 2 1,54 6 3 7 A s yo u wil l observe th e enrollmen t fo r March 1904 i s 7,739 an d averag e attendanc e 5,644 Fo r da y school s th e enrollmen t i s 6,971 and takin g 26,85 7 (figure s given i n Officia l Gazette ) a s th e schoo l population I find tha t thi s provinc e ha s increase d fro m 1 6 pe r cen t las t Septembe r t o 2 6 pe r cen t i n th e mont h o f March Thi s ne w schoo l yea r wil l witnes s eve n greate r changes Cavit e Province a s yo u know ha s alway s bee n given a ba d name A shor t tim e ag o condition s wer e declare d to o ba d t o ris k a n election Th e paper s hav e bee n ful l o f th e doing s o f th e Cavit e ladrones

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26 2 I shal l no t discus s th e truthfulnes s o r th e revers e o f thes e report s an d conditions bu t i t i s obviou s tha t i f th e peopl e ar e oppose d t o America n governmen t an d custom s tha t th e school s wil l suffer thereby I n vie w o f th e situation I thin k th e provinc e i s doin g remarkabl y well an d tha t th e teachers America n an d Filipino. o f th e provinc e ar e t o b e congratulate d fo r goo d wor k done TEACHER S AN D SALARIES Th e teachin g forc e a t presen t consist s o f 2 0 America n teachers 7 Filipin o teacher s pai d b y th e Insula r Government an d 8 8 Filipin o municipa l teachers Cavit e ha s 1 4 municipa l teacher s receivin g 1*489.50 ; Imu s 16 receivin g P=390 ; Novelet a 14 receivin g P=245 ; an d Malabo n 12 receivin g ^261 Thes e ar e th e larges t towns hav e th e larges t corp s o f teachers an d pay o n th e average th e bes t salaries Th e othe r town s hav e fewe r teachers Altogethe r ther e i s pai d PI, 9 0 1 pe r mont h t o municipa l teachers ; tha t is a n averag e o f 1*2 1 pe r mont h pe r teacher ; or i n othe r words, 1*22,81 2 pe r year an d a n averag e yearl y salar y o f 1*259 Ther e ar e 5 5 publi c school s in y operatio n i n th e provinc e an d 2 school s t o whic h teacher s hav e no t ye t bee n assigned Whil e attendance an d mor e particularl y regula r attendance ha s bee n emphasized th e matte r o f instruction subjects an d method s ar e als o receive d considerabl e attention an d thi s importan t phas e o f th e wor k wil l compar e favorabl y wit h an y I kno w o f i n th e Islands BUILDINGS Thi s provinc e hithert o ha s suffere d fro m lac k o f buildings I n Marc h 1 4 building s wer e rented Th e followin g town s ha d building s o f thei r own : Cavite Imus 2 ; Carmona Mende z Nunez Magallanes Indang Corregidor Noveleta 7 ; Sa n Francisc o d e Malabon 2 ; Silang 2 Schoo l wa s hel d i n th e conven t i n tw o towns ; i n th e municipa l buildin g i n one Forty-tw o school s wer e i n operatio n i n March Th e gai n ha s bee n mad e i n barri o schools Throug h th e hel p o f th e Insula r Governmen t i n givin g 10,00 0 picul s o f ric e fo r schoolhouse s i n th e province th e matte r o f build ing s wil l b e adjusted. Plan s hav e bee n draw n an d contract s le t fo r 5 5 ne w buildings Whe n thes e ar e complete d an d teacher s

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26 3 appointed ther e wil l b e 7 9 school s an d 12 0 Filipin o teacher s i n thi s province al l house d i n suitabl e building s owne d b y th e Government Th e building s bein g erecte d wit h th e ric e fun d migh t b e divide d int o thre e classes : 1 On e an d tw o roome d building s wit h eart h floor, bambo o lattice wor k walls fram e o f timber an d nip a o r cogo n roof I inclos e a pictur e o f a typica l schoo l o f thi s clas s pu t u p i n a barri o o f Silan g unde r supervisio n o f Mr H J Hawkins 2 Tw o an d thre e roome d buildings boar d floo r raise d 3 fee t fro m ground bambo o lattice-wor k frame nip a o r cogo n roof 3 Fou r t o si x roome d fram e buildings boar d floo r raise d 3 feet nip a o r iro n roof Th e majorit y o f building s belon g t o clas s 1 Th e secon d an d thir d clas s building s ar e fewer cos t more an d hav e bee n place d i n larg e an d importan t barrios an d wher e a larg e an d successfn l schoo l ha s bee n carrie d o n i n pas t month s unde r advers e circnmstance s i n chnrc h buildings theaters rente d houses an d s o on A t th e tim e o f writin g 1 8 o f thes e building s hav e bee n finished an d wit h tw o exception s alread y hav e larg e an d successfu l school s withi n thei r walls On e tow n buil t a schoo l fo r itsel f las t February Thi s wa s th e tow n o f Imus whic h i n som e si x week s buil t a n excellen t fram e school 3 0 b y 6 0 feet a t a cos t o f =1,779 I inclos e a pictur e o f thi s building FURNITURE Mos t o f th e school s o f th e provinc e lac k furniture ; tha t is t o b e mor e definite desk s an d seat s fo r th e pupils Th e barri o school s tha t hav e recentl y bee n buil t wit h th e ric e fun d hav e bee n provide d wit h bambo o benches whic h i s a hel p an d a necessit y wher e eart h floor s ar e th e rule bu t i n al l rente d building s an d i n school s wit h boar d floor s man y o f th e pupil s si t o n th e floor Thi s i s unhealthy t o sa y th e least an d i s no t sub servien t o f th e bes t orde r o f teaching Som e o f th e town s ar e havin g desk s made notabl y Cavite whic h ha s jus t ha d sitting s fo r 10 0 childre n mad e a t a cos t o f =280 Som e town s ca n no t affor d this however an d I hop e som e provisio n ma y b e mad e whereb y i n thes e municipalitie s som e o f th e ric e fun d ma y b e appropriate d fo r thi s purpose

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26 4 MUNICIPA L AN D BARRI O SCHOO L ORGANIZATION Th e positio n o f th e America n teache r i s becomin g mor e an d mor a tha t o f a supervisor Fo r example Mr Eichenberg o f Imus ha s a programm e o f wor k fo r th e wee k a s follows : On e day Das marinas ; on e day Malagasan g an d Bucandala ; on e day Anab o an d Tansang-Luma ; on e day Alapa n an d Binacayan ; on e day centra l school Th e programm e o f th e da y fo r th e municipa l school s i s a s follows : 7.3 0 t o 11.3 0 a m. sessio n fo r pupils ; 3.3 0 t o 4.3 0 p m. sessio n fo r Filipin o teachers ; 6.3 0 t o 8 p m. nigh t schoo l fo r adults A programm e o f studie s includes : English conversatio n an d reading arithmetic ; geography ; Histor y o f Unite d State s an d Philippin e Islands ; natur e study ; and i n addition music physica l culture an d drawing. Th e Filipin o teache r i s provin g reliable willing an d capabl e an d ever y yea r see s hi m advanced i n Englis h an d othe r branches i n responsibl e positions i n bette r salary Filipin o teacher s ar e i n charg e o f eigh t school s i n th e provinc e wit h n o mor e supervisio n tha n tha t give n t o America n teachers Som e o f thes e school s ar e amon g th e bes t i n th e province ; a responsibl e positio n seem s ver y ofte n t o brin g ou t th e bes t ther e i s i n som e o f th e teachers an d i t ha s bee n surprisin g wha t som e o f the m hav e accomplishe d i n buildin g u p an d maintainin g a goo d school NIGH T SCHOOLS Nigh t school s ar e mor e successfu l tha n an y othe r branc h o f th e work Ther e ar e no w eleve n school s runnin g i n th e provinc e an d a deman d fo r more Thes e eleve n ar e pai d b y th e Insula r Govern ment Ther e are besides a numbe r o f privat e classe s conducte d b y teacher s an d pai d fo r b y th e pupils Thi s i s mos t encouraging sinc e i f th e olde r an d mor e influentia l peopl e ar e intereste d enoug h i n learnin g Englis h t o pa y fo r instructio n the y wil l undoubtedl y influenc e th e childre n t o atten d schoo l an d ge t thi s advantag e whil e young fre e o f cost Th e norma l institut e an d provincia l schoo l ar e tw o importan t part s o f th e educationa l work an d fo r thi s reaso n I presen t th e repor t i n full I wis h t o ad d m y appreciatio n o f wor k o f America n teacher s i n thi s provinc e sinc e I hav e bee n here Everyon e seem s t o b e

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26 5 intereste d i n th e wor k an d t o hav e bu t on e purpose—tha t o f makin g thei r schoo l an d thei r wor k th e bes t an d t o hav e thei r live s an d influenc e coun t fo r a s muc h a s possibl e wit h th e peopl e fo r who m the y ar e working Thi s repor t woul d no t b e complet e i f I di d no t mentio n th e eordia l relation s existin g betwee n thi s departmen t an d th e pro vincia l board Eac h an d ever y membe r give s al l assistanc e i n hi s power whic h i s a grea t deal an d thi s i s appreciate d b y bot h teacher s an d superintenden t ver y much Thi s harmon y an d cooperatio n coun t ver y muc h an d i s a happ y augur y fo r th e futur e well-bein g an d prosperit y o f th e school s an d al l department s o f th e province Yours respectfully S A CAMPBELL Division Superintendent of Schools. Governo r D C SHANKS Cavite, Cavite Province, P. I. REPOR T O F NORMA L INSTITUT E O F CAVIT E PROVINC E APRI L 4 T O 29 1904 Th e norma l schoo l opene d o n Monday Apri l 4 a t 7.3 0 a m. i n th e municipa l schoo l buildin g i n Cavite N o tim e wa s los t i n beginnin g wor k a t th e appointe d tim e sinc e mos t o f th e wor k o f organizatio n ha d bee n complete d th e wee k before Followin g th e record s o f th e previou s norma l institut e an d fro m recommendation s submitte d b y th e America n teacher s o f th e provinc e i n regar d t o Filipin o teachers thi s wor k o f organizatio n wa s a comparativel y eas y matter Followin g th e pla n o f las t yea r w e divide d th e student-teache r bod y int o fou r classes A B C an d D i n th e orde r o f thei r ability I n makin g thi s divisio n teachin g abilit y counte d fo r most Programme s o f wor k havin g bee n distribute d i n th e differen t room s an d tfc e teachin g staf f o f eigh t America n teacher s havin g bee n assigne d thei r work w e bega n on r dail y ses sion s o n th e mornin g o f th e first day Th e thre e lowe r classe s ha d wor k i n th e followin g subjects : Arithmetic geography readin g an d objec t lessons drawing physica l culture natur e study civi l government an d music Clas s A substitute d histor y o f th e Unite d State s fo r civi l govern men t an d Englis h compositio n fo r readin g an d objec t lessons The y als o studie d hygiene Thes e change s an d addition s wer e mad e fo r

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26 6 th e purpos e o f preparin g thi s clas s fo r th e civil-service examination Al l th e wor k i n arithmeti c an d i n readin g an d objec t lesson s i n th e thre e lowe r classe s consiste d solel y o f method s o f teachin g thes e subjects N o text-book s wer e provide d i n thes e subjects Natur e stud y wa s somethin g ne w t o a grea t many Th e wor k i n thi s subjec t wa s no t a s clearl y outline d a s on e woul d hav e wished bu t stil l a beginnin g wa s made Wha t wit h th e simplicit y o f treatment th e nativ e teacher s wil l b e abl e t o tak e u p th e wor k i n thei r school s i n a n intelligen t manner I n thi s nature-stud y wor k w e ha d th e goo d fortun e o f havin g wit h u s fo r severa l day s Dr Coulter wh o discusse d th e natur e o f th e work th e purpos e i t serves an d beside s taugh t severa l introductor y lesson s i n th e subject W e bega n ou r wor k i n musi c wit h th e objec t o f preparin g th e nativ e teache r t o tak e charg e o f th e singin g i n hi s school Beside s th e teachin g o f severa l song s muc h technica l wor k wa s done Muc h wa s accomplishe d i n thi s subject especiall y wit h Classe s A an d B Th e wa y th e student s too k hol d o f thi s wor k wa s surprising Wor k i n physica l cultur e wa s s o conducte d tha t a t th e clos e o f th e institut e an y studen t coul d tak e charg e o f a clas s an d lea d i n th e exercises A s a hel p i n nex t year' s schoo l wor k a n outlin e o f exercise s i s i n th e possessio n o f eac h teacher Drawin g a s a subjec t o f stud y wa s ne w t o mos t o f th e students Sufficien t o f th e principle s o f perspectiv e wer e give n t o insur e fairl y accurat e representatio n o f straigh t line s an d curve s i n differen t positions Ther e wa s muc h wor k i n rapi d sketchin g fro m natura l objects I n civi l governmen t a text-boo k wa s used namely Civi l Govern men t i n th e Philippin e Islands. Mos t o f th e wor k i n geograph y deal t wit h th e Philippin e Islands N o text-book s wer e give n t o students I n al l clas s wor k not e book s wer e kep t b y students Th e objec t i n no t givin g text-book s wa s t o dispe l th e erroneou s ide a tha t book s ar e absolutel y necessar y i n class-roo m work Severa l lesson s i n makin g o f lesso q plan s wer e give n t o Clas s A A s a hel p i n thei r regula r schoo l wor k a n outlin e t o b e use d i n th e preparatio n o f lesson s wa s give n t o them Th e enrollmen t o n th e secon d da y wa s 117 O n th e thir d da y al l ha d matriculated swellin g th e numbe r t o 119 Durin g th e sessio n thre e lef t o n accoun t o f sicknes s an d tw o entere d th e provincia l school

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26 7 Ther e wa s i n connectio n wit h ou r wor k a practic e schoo l con sistin g o f tw o classe s o f ver y youn g pupils Thi s schoo l wa s unde r th e supervisio n o f a n America n teacher Subject s taugh t i n thi s schoo l wer e numbe r work English reading conversation writing natur e study an d physica l culture O n th e mornin g o f th e secon d da y Classe s A an d B wer e eac h divide d int o tw o divisions On e divisio n o f Clas s A observe d th e wor k i n th e practic e schoo l fro m 7.4 0 t o 9.10 Fro m 9.1 0 t o 10.3 0 on e o f th e division s o f Clas s B observed Th e clas s wor k fo r nex t mornin g wa s assigne d t o dif feren t number s o f thes e divisions Th e nex t da y eac h o f thes e sam e division s cam e a t it s appointe d time an d thos e t o who m th e clas s wor k ha d bee n assigne d di d th e teaching Th e followin g da y ne w division s observe d an d wer e assigne d th e clas s wor k nex t morning Thi s wor k wa s continue d afte r thi s fashio n unti l th e clos e o f th e school Th e teache r i n charg e o f thi s kep t record s o f eac h teacher' s work Thes e record s wer e presente d t o th e divisio n superintendent Althoug h al l th e nativ e teacher s ha d no t th e chanc e t o teac h i n th e practic e school stil l ever y on e ha d th e advantag e o f observin g th e wor k bot h o f th e America n teache r an d th e nativ e teachers Ou r mornin g sessio n extende d fro m 7.3 0 t o 11.30 A s a par t o f ou r work teachers meeting s ha d bee n planne d for ; s o al l ther e wa s t o b e don e wa s t o fi x th e hou r o f meetin g an d assig n work Tw o afternoon s o f th e wee k wer e give n t o nativ e teacher s an d tw o t o America n teachers I n thes e meeting s paper s dealin g wit h problem s o f schoo l wor k wer e presente d an d discussed Th e follow in g ar e a fe w o f th e subject s discusse d i n th e America n teachers meetings : Attendance punctuality night schools teachers class schoo l reports th e provincia l school etc Amon g th e paper s dis cusse d i n th e Filipin o teachers meetin g th e followin g ma y b e men tioned : "Regularit y o f attendance, "Shoul d municipa l teacher s forfei t salar y fo r absence, "Punctuality, "Preparatio n o f teachers, etc. "Responsibilit y o f Filipin o teachers," b y th e divisio n super intendent Th e divisio n superintenden t wa s i n charg e o f thes e meetings Th e socia l sid e o f lif e wa s no t neglected A s soo n a s w e wer e wel l starte d i n ou r clas s wor k committee s wer e appointe d t o mak e arrangement s fo r entertainment A s a resul t a stereoptica n lectur e wa s give n b y th e divisio n superintendent A phonograp h concer t serve d t o entertai n o n anothe r occasion Ever y Frida y night ther e

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26 8 wa s dancin g i n th e high-schoo l building an d o n th e las t da y o f schoo l ther e was i n additio n t o th e dancing th e commencemen t exercise s o f th e provincia l school I n genera l thes e gathering s wer e wel l attende d bot h b y American s an d Filipin o teachers Thes e socia l meeting s wer e a sourc e o f muc h enjoymen t an d serve d a s a commo n groun d o f meetin g betwee n American s an d Filipinos Al l classes wit h th e exceptio n o f Clas s D covere d a grea t dea l o f ground Th e wor k seeme d t o b e beyon d th e gras p o f th e grea t majorit y o f th e latte r class I n contras t t o th e wor k o f Clas s D wa s tha t o f Clas s A Thi s clas s too k hol d o f th e wor k wit h th e prope r spirit wa s ver y responsiv e a t al l times an d too k a n intel ligen t interes t i n al l th e work I n a les s degre e th e sam e ca n b e sai d o f Classe s B an d C Th e onl y rea l disappointmen t wa s wit h Clas s D Th e ste p fro m grad e D t o C wa s to o great I thin k tha t i n thei r recommendation s t o th e divisio n superintenden t som e o f th e America n teacher s mad e assignment s t o Clas s D fro m th e basi s o f th e wor k i n th e Clas s D o f th e previou s year ignorin g th e fac t tha t th e standar d o f Clas s D pupil s o f th e yea r befor e ha d rise n considerably S o ne w student s wer e entere d wh o wer e muc h belo w thi s standard Th e resul t o f cours e wa s natural Thi s di d no t happe n i n Classe s B an d C fo r th e reaso n tha t wit h fe w exception s ther e wer e n o ne w student s i n thes e classes Durin g th e sessio n ther e wer e fe w absence s an d bu t fou r case s o f tardiness To o muc h ca n no t b e sai d i n prais e o f th e teachers meeting s tha t wer e held Th e teacher s gaine d ver y muc h fro m thes e discus sions Las t bu t no t leas t wa s th e activ e interes t an d attentio n t o dut y o f th e America n teachin g staff I respectfull y submi t th e abov e report P F KING Principal. REPOR T O F PROVINCIA L SCHOOL JUL Y 12 1904 Th e provincia l schoo l i s hel d a t presen t i n th e buildin g formerl y occupie d b y th e Hospita l d e Sa n Jua n d e Dios Thi s buildin g wa s considerabl y injure d durin g an d afte r th e war I t has however

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26 9 bee n cleaned repaired an d repainte d insid e b y th e provincia l board s o tha t i t make s a ver y wsuitabl e schoolhouse W e shal l hav e shortl y availabl e 7 recitatio n rooms a specia l roo m equippe d wit h table s fo r th e clas s i n science an d a n assembl y roo m t o b e use d als o a s a stud y hall fo r whic h th e boar d i s providin g seats A cours e o f stud y ha s bee n planne d an d i s bein g followed I t i s base d o n th e suggestiv e cours e sen t ou t b y th e Genera l Super intendent bu t i s mor e advanced I t include s mathematic s throug h plan e geometry thre e year s o f Spanish thre e year s o f Latin fou r year s i n history five year s o f English an d fou r year s o f scienc e (botany geology physics chemistry physica l geography ; physi olog y i s complete d befor e th e high-schoo l cours e i s begun) No Gree k i s offered Th e wor k i n Englis h include s compositio n an d rhetoric an d durin g th e las t thre e year s o f th e cours e wil l b e rea d th e lis t o f classica l work s recommende d fo r entranc e t o colleg e i n th e Unite d States Th e schoo l i s divide d int o tw o departments th e hig h schoo l an d th e intermediat e school Tw o classe s ar e pursuin g th e wor k o f th e first tw o year s o f th e high-schoo l course Ther e ar e fou r classe s i n th e intermediat e department Th e fourt h yea r o f th e inter mediat e wil l thi s yea r complet e geograph y (text-book Natura l Advance d Geography) arithmeti c (text-book Milne' s Standar d Arithmetic) a cours e i n elementar y gramma r an d composition physiology an d a brie f preliminar y cours e i n botany. Th e first yea r o f th e intermediat e begin s geography i s reviewin g th e fou r fundamenta l operation s i n arithmetic, i s readin g Arnold' s Secon d Reade r wit h wor k i n conversation ver y elementar y gramma r an d composition an d ha s simpl e wor k i n natur e stud y an d physi ology Al l classe s i n th e schoo l stud y musi c an d drawing Followin g i s a detaile d statemen t o f th e numbe r i n eac h clas s i n school : High school. Secon d yea r 1 6 Firs t yea r 2 5 Intermediate. Fourt h yea r 2 2 Thir d yea r 1 3 4 Secon d yea r 4 0 Firs t yea r 4 G

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27 0 Th e followin g figures sho w th e growt h o f th e schoo l sinc e it s beginnin g i n June 1902 : Boys Girls 5 6 7 0 12 5 14 9 June 190 2 March 190 3 July 190 3 March 190 4 July 190 4 Fifty-fiv e ne w pupil s hav e bee n admitte d thi s term Thirty-fiv e pupil s o f las t yea r hav e no t ye t returned A s th e majorit y wil l rreturn th e enrollmen t wil l the n b e mor e tha n 200 Th e numbe r o f girl s no w attendin g i s smalle r tha n las t year Thi s seem s t o b e du e t o th e unwillingnes s o f th e parent s t o allo w the m t o b e awa y fro m hom e unles s the y ar e i n th e car e o f som e relativ e o r frien d o f th e family Thi s difficult y coul d b e probabl y obviate d b y th e establishmen t o f a girls dormitor y whic h woul d b e i n charg e o f a teacher Attendance of towns. Town Sa n Roqu e Cavit e Carida d Imu s Bacoo r Cavit e Viej o Binacaya n Rosari o Novelet a Siltin g Dasmariha s Indang Mende z Nufie z Malabo n Sant a Cru z Maragondo n Ternat e Men Wo me n 1 3 9 1 3 2 1 1 Th e lis t o f attendanc e b y town s show s tha t th e schoo l draw s wel l fro m th e town s a t thi s en d o f th e provinc e wit h th e exceptio n o f Bacoor Cavit e Viejo an d Sant a Cruz Bacoo r ha s bee n a tow n hostil e t o th e America n primar y school an d a s th e primar y schoo l i s th e feede r o f th e secondar y school ou r quot a fro m ther e i s small Cavit e Viej o ha s no t ha d a n Amer ica n teache r durin g th e pas t schoo l year Thi s migh t partiall y explai n th e smal l representation Fro m th e souther n par t o f th e province th e representatio n i s

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27 1 smal l o n accoun t o f th e distance Bu t al l th e town s o f importanc e hav e pupil s i n th e schoo l excep t Naic Alfonso an d Magallanes I t i s wort h whil e t o conside r ho w fa r th e provincia l schoo l attain s a t presen t th e America n idea l o f a popula r school i e. on e whic h draw s fro m al l classe s o f th e people A s th e childre n i n th e barrio s hav e no t ha d th e opportunit y til l no w t o a grea t exten t t o atten d school th e mos t o f ou r pupil s com e fro m th e poblacion Fro m th e occupatio n o f thei r parents i t i s see n tha t mos t o f the m ar e me n eithe r o f educatio n o r property Abou t one-fift h o f th e pupil s com e fro m th e familie s o f doctors teachers o r official s o f a municipality al l o f who m hav e bee n educate d i n Spanis h schools Thes e certainl y belon g t o th e bes t clas s o f Filipinos Storekeepers farmers an d fishermen furnis h mor e tha n one-hal f o f th e pupils Thes e ar e me n o f propert y wh o ma y o r ma y no t hav e receive d a Spanis h education Judgin g fro m th e fac t tha t th e grea t majorit y o f pupil s i n th e schoo l kno w n o Spanish i t woul d see m t o b e a ne w clas s whic h i s forcin g itsel f u p b y virtu e o f it s money bu t whic h di d no t receiv e muc h opportunit y fo r educatio n unde r th e Spanis h system Abou t one-sixt h describ e thei r father s a s carpenters mechanics o r laborers Thes e see m t o b e a clas s lower stil l i n th e socia l system Bu t o f th e lowe r classe s w e hav e fe w o r none O n th e whole th e schoo l i s attende d b y peopl e belongin g t o th e uppe r an d middl e classes Th e accessibilit y o f Manila wit h it s big well-advertise d schools help s t o kee p dow n ou r enrollment a s wealth y parent s believe perhap s rightly tha t thei r childre n wil l receiv e greate r oppor tunitie s there particularl y i n th e Lice o d e Manil a an d th e Atene o Municipal Occupations of parents. Carpenter s Mechanic s Fisherme n Tailor s Clerks official s o f municipality et c Plater o Musicia n Firema n Laborer s Doctors teachers justice s o f th e peace etc Storekeepers traders et c Farmer s 1 2 1 4 1 5 5 2 1 2 1 1 5 1 4 3 7 2 7

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27 2 Twenty-fiv e pupil s tak e woochvor k an d mechanica l drawin g i n additio n t o th e commo n branches Th e prejudic e agains t manua l labo r i s no t s o grea t here an d th e cours e wil l b e successfu l i f th e parent s an d pupil s com e t o se e tha t i t wil l ope n th e wa y t o a "carrera. The y d o no t se e muc h advantag e i n goin g t o schoo l t o becom e a simpl e carpenter however Ther e wil l b e twenty-on e candidate s eligibl e fo r th e scholarshi p examinatio n fo r th e Unite d State s nex t March Twent y othe r pupil s wil l b e exclude d b y th e ag e limit Twenty-fiv e other s woul d b e eligibl e t o tr y th e examinatio n excep t i n Unite d State s History bu t th e mos t o f the m woul d als o b e exclude d b y th e ag e limit SYDNE Y K MITCHELL Principal. EXHIBI T C Number of convictions by the Court of First Instance of Cavite for offenses detailed below during the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1903, and ending June 30, 1904. Abductio n 1 Bandolerism o 17 3 Murde r 9 Robber y .... 4 Assaul t wit h bodil y injur y 3 Thef t ~ U Vagranc y 9 Rap e — 1 Illega l us e o f prohibite d arm s 3 Misapplicatio n o f publi c fund s 1 Gamblin g 1 9 Sleepin g o n pos t 2 Cowardic e an d desertio n o f pos t 1 Robber y i n a ban d 1 Desertio n 1 Crimina l attempt s agains t th e authoritie s 1 Falsificatio n o f publi c document s 2 Insurrectio n 1 Tota l 24 3 Number of acquittals by the Court of First Instance of Cavite during the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1903, and ending June 30, 1904• Abductio n — 4 Bandolerism o 11 9 Murde r 7 Homicid e 2 Insurrectio n 1

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27 3 Number of acquittals, etc. —Continued. Robber y 2 Thef t 2 Assaul t wit h bodil y injur y 2 Rap e 3 Illega l us e o f prohibite d arm s 4 Faithlessnes s i n th e custod y o f prisoners... 2 Estaf a 3 Falsificatio n 1 1 Gamblin g 4 1 Lendin g ai d an d comfor t t o ladrone s 1 Coercio n 1 Violatio n o f oat h o f allegianc e 1 Violatio n o f Ac t 76 1 3 Treaso n 1 Illega l detentio n 5 Resistanc e t o th e authoritie s 1 3 Tota l 18 8 Number of cases dismissed by the Court of First Instance of Cavite during the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1903, and ending June 30, 1904, giving nature of each case. Bandolerism o 5 2 Murde r 1 Homicid e 2 Robber y 1 0 Thef t 1 4 Rebellio n 1 Insurrectio n 2 Withholdin g informatio n relativ e t o th e whereabout s o f bandit s 3 Assaul t wit h bodil y injur y 3 Vagranc y 1 5 Attempte d rap e 1 Rap e : 1 1 Abductio n 4 Illega l us e o f prohibite d arm s 5 Faithlessnes s i n th e custod y o f prisoner s : 5 Prevarication 2 Fals e testimon y — 8 Estaf a 1 Injurie s 2 Violatio n o f th e Municipa l Cod e 1 Deliberat e an d willfu l dela y i n th e administratio n o f justic e 1 Gamblin g 5 Libe l 2 Tota l 15 2 2490 4 1 8

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27 4 EXHIBI T D HEADQUARTER S PHILIPPINE S CONSTABULARY DIVISIO N O F INFORMATION Imus (Cavite), P. I., July 17, 1904• SENIOR : I hav e th e hono r t o submi t th e followin g repor t o f th e operation s o f thi s subdivisio n fro m Septembe r 1 1903 t o Ma y 25 1904 : Capture s made : Person s charge d wit h differen t crime s 35 9 Sentence d 14 1 Acquitte d 9 8 Carabao s 13 0 Ponie s 1 5 Revolver s 3 2 Tercerol a 1 Rifle s 6 Ammunitio n „ 3,83 1 Poniard s 3 Returne d t o owner s o n provin g ownership : Carabao s 7 Turne d ove r t o provincia l superviso r o f Cavite P I. : Carabao s 12 3 Ponie s 1 5 ALFONS O (CAVITE) P I. July 27, 1904. SENIOR : I hav e th e hono r t o submi t th e followin g repor t o f th e operation s o f thi s subdivisio n fro m Ma y 27 1904 t o Jul y 15 1904 : Capture s made : Persons charge d wit h differen t crime s 2 9 Waitin g tria l 2 4 Sentence d 5 Carabao s 2 4 Pon y 1 Revolve r 1 Bolo s 2 Poniar d 1 Returne d t o owner s o n provin g ownership : Carabao s 2 1 Turne d ove r t o municipa l treasurer : Carabao s 2 Co w 1 Pon y 1

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27 5 SA N FRANCISC O D E MALABON CAVITE P I. July 26, 190kSENIO R : I hav e th e hono r t o submi t th e followin g repor t o f th e operation s o f thi s subdivisio n fro m Marc h 4 1904 t o Jul y 15 1904 : Capture s made : Person s charge d wit h differen t crime s 6 4 Waitin g tria l 5 2 Acquitte d 1 2 Carabaos male s an d female s 2 3 Gun s 2 Revolver s 7 Bolo s 2 Ponie s 4 Returne d t o owner s o n provin g ownership : Carabao s 8 Ponie s 2 Turne d ove r t o provincia l superviso r o f Cavite P I. : Carabao s 1 5 Ponie s 2 CAPT WINFIEL D S GROVE Superintendent Division of Information, P. CManila, P. I. OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR PROVINC E O F CAVITE Cavite, September 26, 190kSIR : I n complianc e wit h Ac t No 1044 Philippin e Commission an d you r circula r lette r referrin g t o th e same I hav e th e hono r t o state i n th e wa y o f a brie f supplementa l report tha t th e seaso n fo r th e ric e cro p ha s bee n ver y favorable an d th e amoun t o f groun d unde r cultivatio n ha s bee n greatl y increased Th e ric e cro p i s no w i n fine shap e an d th e prospec t i s fo r a yiel d large r tha n fo r severa l year s past Ther e ha s bee n a larg e increas e i n th e groun d unde r hem p culti vation Withi n a shor t tim e hem p wil l b e th e leadin g industr y o f th e province an d wil l full y replac e i n valu e th e coffe e cro p whic h ha s bee n destroye d b y th e blight Ther e i s a considerabl e increas e i n th e suga r acreag e thi s year especiall y aroun d th e barrio s o f Buenavist a an d Palani t i n th e jurisdictio n o f Sa n Francisc o d e Malabon an d Palipara n i n th e jurisdictio n o f Imus Ther e i s muc h fine suga r lan d i n th e province an d wit h a littl e encourage men t i n th e wa y o f tarif f reductio n suga r woul d soo n becom e agai n th e principa l industr y o f th e province

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27 6 O f th e forme r ladron e leader s neithe r Felizard o no r Montalo n ha s give n troubl e i n th e provinc e durin g th e pas t si x months an d ther e ha s bee n ver y littl e ladron e activity Th e provinc e ha s bee n mor e quie t tha n a t an y tim e sinc e I hav e know n it Th e har d rain s hav e don e a grea t amoun t o f damag e t o th e road s an d seem s t o m e t o indicat e clearl y th e necessit y fo r supplementar y actio n o f som e kin d t o enabl e th e provincia l superviso r t o kee p th e road s i n an y sor t o f condition Ver y respectfully D C SHANKS Governor, Province of Cavite. Th e EXECUTIV E SECRETARY

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CEBIJ OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR PROVINC E O F CEBU Cebu, September 13, 190%.SIR : I hav e th e hono r t o sen d yo u herewit h m y annua l report which i n accordanc e wit h th e provision s o f a recen t enactmen t rela tiv e t o it s submission I hav e mad e t o embrac e th e perio d betwee n th e 1s t o f January 1903 and Jun e 30 1904 I regre t m y in abilit y t o hav e sen t i t i n time du e t o th e fac t tha t I bu t recentl y returne d t o thi s province towar d th e en d o f las t July an d tha t i t wa s impossibl e fo r m e t o tak e u p th e wor k unti l a fe w day s afte r o n accoun t o f peremptor y and urgen t busines s connecte d wit h m y takin g possessio n o f thi s offic e fo r th e secon d time Owin g t o th e lac k o f tim e an d t o th e deficiencie s o f th e person ne l o f m y office whos e tim e wa s take n u p wit h othe r matters I hav e bee n unabl e t o enlarg e upo n th e dat a an d information speciall y tha t whic h refer s t o th e industr y an d agricultur e o f thi s province containe d i n thi s report Fo r th e sak e o f clearnes s an d convenienc e I hav e though t i t advisabl e t o draf t thi s repor t s o a s t o dea l separatel y wit h eac h subject I n spit e o f it s man y defect s I trus t tha t i t wil l meri t you r approva l a s th e produc t o f m y desir e t o compl y wit h a duty POLITICA L ADMINISTRATION CENSU S O F TH E PROVINCE Th e censu s o f thi s provinc e wa s take n i n complianc e wit h a la w promulgate d fo r tha t purpose and wor k thereo n wa s starte d o n Marc h 2 1903 an d finished abou t th e en d o f April Th e result s o f th e enumeratio n sho w 653,72 7 inhabitant s dis tribute d amon g 5 7 municipalitie s an d 72 5 barrios Th e followin g wer e employe d i n thi s work : On e distric t in spector 5 7 specia l agents 2 8 specia l enumerators and 51 7 distric t enumerators Fro m th e abov e figures i t ca n b e see n tha t thi s distric t gav e th e 27 7

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27 8 greates t amoun t o f wor k t o th e inspector wh o wa s oblige d t o super vis e th e labor s o f a grea t numbe r o f enumerators Nothin g remarkabl e occurre d durin g th e takin g o f th e censu s excep t som e sligh t difficult y whic h wa s encountere d i n th e enume ratio n o f th e district s whic h includ e th e Pard o d e Guadalup e Moun tain s owin g t o a fe w maraudin g band s o f pulajanes a t tha t tim e lurkin g i n tha t region I t wa s als o necessar y t o us e persuasio n i n orde r t o overcom e th e misgiving s o f th e rura l population wh o suspecte d tha t th e purpos e o f th e censu s wa s th e creatio n o f ne w taxes REDUCTIO N I N TH E NUMBE R O F MUNICIPALITIES A s a measur e o f econom y th e followin g sixtee n municipalitie s wer e annexe d t o others : Mabolo Pardo Consolacion Compostela Sogod Alcoy Nuev a Caceres Santander Sa n Sebastian Alcantara Ronda Sant a Fe Madridejos Cordoba Sant a Rosa an d Poro Th e entir e numbe r o f municipalitie s wa s reduce d t o 41 classifie d a s follows : Municipalitie s o f th e firs t class 5 ; municipalitie s o f th e secon d class 5 ; municipalitie s o f th e thir d class 17 ; municipalitie s o f th e fourt h class 14 Th e municipalitie s o f Cordoba Poro Sant a Rosa Consolacion an d Sant a F e proteste d agains t th e consolidation allegin g tha t thei r municipa l appropriations ha d alway s bee n sufficien t t o cove r thei r expenses Th e municipalitie s wher e som e progres s ha s bee n note d i n th e wa y o f municipa l improvement s an d educationa l facilitie s ar e th e following : Carcar Dumanjug Dalaguete Ginatilan Toledo Ban tayan Bogo Carmen Danao an d Liloan CONVENTIO N O F MUNICIPA L PRESIDENTS O n Jun e 3 1903 ther e wa s a conventio n o f 2 8 municipa l presi dents a t whic h th e followin g resolution s wer e passed : (1 ) Tha t a recommendatio n b e mad e t o th e provincia l boar d tha t i t solici t firearm s fo r th e municipalities th e sam e t o b e supplie d t o the m upo n thei r furnishin g bond s i n accordanc e wit h th e pro vision s o f Executiv e Orde r No 9 an d tha t th e president s an d councilor s b e authorize d t o carr y an d us e firearm s withou t th e necessit y o f puttin g u p bonds (2 ) Tha t a n amendmen t o f Ac t No 67 6 b e recommende d i n vie w o f th e fac t tha t thi s la w i s to o muc h o f a restrictio n o f th e autonom y o f th e municipalitie s an d o f th e municipa l presidents

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27 9 an d tha t instea d o f s o grea t a restrictio n th e president s an d mu nicipa l council s b e authorize d t o consul t th e provincia l fiscal wit h regar d t o municipa l ordinance s an d resolutions an d tha t i n cas e o f thei r disagreemen t wit h th e opinio n o f th e fiscal the y b e empow ere d t o carr y suc h ordinance s an d resolution s int o effec t upo n thei r ow n responsibility (3 ) Tha t a recommendatio n b e mad e t o th e provincia l boar d t o th e en d tha t i t ma y obtai n th e approva l o f th e superio r authoritie s o f thos e recommendation s indorse d b y th e provincia l boar d upo n whic h n o actio n ha s ye t bee n taken (4 ) Tha t a recommendatio n b e mad e t o th e provincia l boar d askin g tha t i t mak e applicatio n t o th e prope r authoritie s fo r 10,00 0 cavane s o f ric e t o b e delivere d t o th e municipalitie s fo r distributio n an d sal e t o th e townspeople an d tha t person s employe d o n publi c work s b e pai d eithe r i n mone y o r ric e afte r th e prope r measure s shal l hav e bee n adopte d fo r th e carryin g ou t o f al l o f th e publi c work s neede d b y th e province o r a t leas t th e wago n road s unde r it s charge (5 ) Tha t a recommendatio n b e mad e t o th e provincia l boar d askin g i t t o secur e on e doze n stu d jack s fo r thi s province t o cros s wit h nativ e mare s i n orde r t o rais e mules (6 ) Tha t a requisitio n fo r a doze n horse s als o b e made an d i f the y prov e usefu l fo r agricultura l purpose s tha t a furthe r orde r b e placed (7 ) Tha t a recommendatio n b e mad e t o th e provincia l boar d askin g tha t i t solici t th e prohibitio n o f th e importatio n o f playin g cards MUNICIPA L GOVERNMENTS Genera l election s wer e hel d i n al l o f th e municipalitie s i n th e mont h o f December 1903 O f th e electio n return s submitte d t o th e provincia l boar d 3 5 wer e approve d an d 6 disapprove d becaus e o f essentia l irregularities Th e followin g wer e partiall y annulled : Th e electio n o f th e presiden t o f Nag a becaus e o f hi s bein g unde r the legal age Tha t o f a councilo r o f Bantaya n becaus e o f irregularities Tha t o f a councilo r o f Bog o becaus e o f hi s bein g unde r th e lega l age Th e change s mad e i n th e personne l o f municipa l office s durin g th e perio d embrace d b y thi s repor t wer e a s follows : Th e municipa l presiden t o f Cebu Seno r Florentin o Rallos wa s

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28 0 suspende d Augus t 10 1903 fo r violatio n o f th e la w an d falsification Th e resul t o f th e tria l wa s tha t th e majorit y o f th e boar d (treasure r an d supervisor ) recommende d reinstatement an d th e minorit y (th e governor ) dismissal Th e Civi l Governor i n consideratio n o f th e repor t o f th e minority decide d i n it s favor—tha t i s t o say i n favo r o f dismissal Th e municipa l treasure r o f Cebu Seho r Timote o d e Castro wa s suspende d Augus t 10 1903 fo r defraudation Th e tria l re sulte d i n tha t th e majorit y recommende d hi s dismissa l an d th e boar d wa s s o instructe d b y th e superio r authority Th e vice-presiden t o f th e municipalit y o f Cebu Seho r Filemo n Sotto whil e actin g presiden t wa s suspende d o n Decembe r 23 1903 fo r disobedience Th e tria l resulte d i n tha t th e majorit y o f th e provincia l boar d (th e treasure r an d supervisor ) recommende d reinstatement an d th e minorit y (th e provincia l governor ) dismissal I n vie w o f th e repor t submitted th e honorabl e Civi l Governo r decide d i n favo r o f dismissal bu t takin g int o accoun t th e fac t tha t th e officia l suspende d ha d cease d t o hol d offic e i t wa s impos sibl e t o carr y ou t thi s determination Th e presiden t o f Tuburan Seho r Bonifaci o Alburo wa s drowne d durin g th e stor m whic h occurre d o n th e 2 d o f June 1903 Th e presiden t o f Alegria Seho r Agusti n Carriaga die d a natura l deat h i n June 1903 • Durin g thi s perio d five councilor s o f th e municipalitie s o f Con solation Carcar Nuev a Caceres Sant a Rosa an d Sa n Francisc o als o died Thre e councilor s o f th e municipalitie s o f Cebu Dumanjug an d Tubura n an d th e vice-presiden t o f Ginatila n resigne d an d thei r resignation s wer e accepte d b y th e provincia l boar d o n justifiabl e grounds MUNICIPA L POLICE Th e followin g i s a statemen t o f th e municipa l polic e forc e i n thi s province : Lieutenant s : 1 3 Sergeant s 3 3 Corporal s 6 6 Polic e 52 0 Tota l 63 2

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28 1 I n som e o f th e municipalitie s th e forc e i s wel l organized bu t i t i s ver y importan t tha t i t shoul d everywher e b e properl y armed eve n i f onl y temporarily s o lon g a s ther e i s dange r fro m partie s o f arme d bandits I n orde r tha t thi s establishmen t ma y b e reall y effectiv e an d subserv e th e purpose s fo r whic h i t wa s created uniformit y i n it s organizatio n an d disciplin e i s necessar y i n orde r tha t ther e ma y b e a n organi c unit y whic h shal l b e a guarant y o f publi c order T o thi s en d thi s governmen t ha d th e hono r t o transmi t t o th e honorabl e Civi l Governor unde r dat e o f Apri l 8 1903 a recommendatio n whic h include d th e draf t o f a la w relativ e t o th e reorganizatio n o f th e municipa l police whic h wa s accom panie d b y a repor t o f it s presen t condition VOLUNTEE R FORCE Thi s forc e wa s organize d abou t th e middl e o f 190 3 whe n ther e wer e sign s o f renewe d activit y amon g th e pulahanes. Capt Rober t H Page forme r senio r inspecto r o f Constabular y i n thi s province too k charg e o f it s organizatio n an d wa s successfu l i n bringin g i t n p t o a fairl y goo d level Alon g wit h th e repor t sen t t o th e honorabl e Civi l Governo r o n Ma y 26 1903 detailin g condition s i n Ceb u a s regard s brigandage th e draf t o f a la w bearin g upo n th e reorganizatio n o f whic h forc e wa s included • Th e volunteer s wer e disbande d a t th e beginnin g o f 1904 althoug h som e municipalitie s hav e stil l kep t u p thi s organizatio n t o date Th e disbandmen t wa s effecte d owin g t o th e complet e exterminatio n o f th e pulahanes thoug h shortl y afterward s thei r successors a n associatio n calle d th e Capio-an whic h wa s spli t int o separat e groups gav e som e sign s o f life thoug h i t di d no t demonstrat e a grea t dea l o f activity Th e service s rendere d b y th e volunteer s durin g th e perio d o f thei r organizatio n wer e importan t an d valuable the y havin g bee n th e principa l facto r i n th e exterminatio n o f th e pulaJianes. Ther e wa s no t on e singl e cas e o f disloyalt y o r infidelity POSTA L SERVICE Everythin g ha s bee n don e b y th e municipalitie s withi n thei r limite d resource s t o secur e a goo d mai l service bu t withou t avail fo r th e reason s alread y se t fort h i n las t year' s repor t o f thi s government i n whic h a radica l chang e i n th e posta l servic e wa s

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28 2 recommended Durin g th e las t few month s i t appear s tha t th e Burea u o f Post s ha s pu t a par t o f thes e recommendation s int o practice an d althoug h i t i s tru e tha t th e municipalitie s ar e stil l burdene d b y havin g t o pa y postag e o n officia l correspondence the y d o not a s formerly experienc e s o grea t a dela y i n transmission PROVINCIA L GOVERNMENT Provincial board. —Between January 1903 an d June 1904 th e provincia l boar d hel d 21 4 session s an d acte d upo n 1,08 2 separat e matters I t als o mad e 8 forma l investigations eac h o f whic h laste d fro m on e t o five sessions th e mos t importan t bein g thos e hel d wit h regar d t o th e suspensio n o f Presiden t Rallo s o f th e municipalit y o f Ceb u an d t o conside r th e electio n return s o f th e sai d municipality I n bot h o f thes e investigations a s wel l a s i n tha t o f th e cas e o f Vice-Presiden t Sotto wh o wa s suspende d whil e actin g presiden t o f Cebu ther e wa s a deadloc k betwee n th e member s o f th e board wh o wer e -utterl y unabl e t o com e t o a n agreement Th e public thoug h divide d i n it s appreciatio n o f thi s matter eithe r throug h favo r o r part y spirit som e favorin g reinstatemen t an d other s th e dismissa l o f President s Rallo s an d Sotto i n th e sam e manne r a s som e favore d th e candidacy o f Rallo s whils t other s favore d tha t o f Rodrigue z (th e presen t president ) a s regard s th e elections wa s unanimousl y i n accor d i n tha t th e member s o f th e provincia l boar d di d no t see k thei r inspiratio n i n th e spiri t o f th e la w no r i n tha t o f impartialit y an d th e publi c welfare bu t wer e blinde d b y prej udice s growin g ou t o f thei r ow n persona l an d deep-roote d opinions b y passio n o r friendship i n deliberatin g upo n an d judgin g thes e cases Unde r simila r circumstance s opinion s are a s a genera l rule th e result s o f systemati c opposition A s th e resolutio n o f th e board o r th e majorit y o f th e board relativ e t o suspension s o f municipa l officer s i s no t definite a s it s actio n i s limite d t o makin g recommendation s i n th e premises n o deplorabl e consequence s ca n follo w t o th e publi c interest s i n cas e tha t th e boar d i s i n suc h a condition a s th e determinatio n o f th e matte r i s lef t i n th e hand s o f th e Civi l Governor ; bu t i n thos e matter s which, lik e municipa l elections th e resolutio n o f th e boar d i s final an d ca n no t b e appeale d from suc h a stat e o f affair s i s o f th e mos t lamentabl e consequenc e fo r th e reaso n tha t th e interest s o f th e publi c ar e lef t unprotected.

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28 3 W e ar e no t i n favo r o f th e centralizatio n o f authority bu t expe rienc e ha s demonstrate d tha t i n simila r cases wher e th e autonom y o f a n institutio n become s a n instrumen t fo r th e enforcemen t o f arbitrar y provisions i t i s mor e preferabl e t o restric t i t tha n t o preserv e it I n vie w o f thi s fac t th e followin g amendmen t i s recom mende d : Al l matter s th e final determinatio n o f whic h correspond s t o th e powe r o f th e provincia l boar d ar e subjec t t o appea l t o th e Civi l Governo r when eve r a differenc e o f opinio n exist s amon g th e member s o f th e provincia l board an d th e resolution s o f th e majorit y shal l hav e n o effec t s o lon g a s th e resul t o f th e appea l i s no t known Office of the provincial governor. —During th e perio d covere d b y thi s repor t 2,32 4 reports communications an d resolution s wer e drafte d b y thi s office a s show n b y th e records Eigh t memorial s relativ e t o differen t matter s wer e written Charge s agains t 5 municipa l official s wer e investigated Sinc e Ac t No 67 6 o f Marc h 12 1903 cam e int o effec t 20 6 resolu tion s adopte d b y municipa l council s hav e bee n receive d fo r revision ; 10 5 hav e bee n revised whil e th e balanc e ar e pendin g revision Provincial jail. —During th e pas t fiscal yea r thre e me n hav e hel d th e offic e o f warde n o f th e provincia l jai l throug h resignations Abou t th e middl e o f th e yea r 190 3 th e custod y o f th e jai l wa s turne d ove r t o th e Constabular y upo n recommendatio n o f th e provincia l board a s th e resul t o f whic h th e provincia l guard s wh o ha d th e custod y o f th e buildin g wer e disbanded Th e ground s upo n whic h th e majorit y o f th e boar d mad e it s recommendatio n t o th e Civi l Governo r relativ e t o th e custod y o f th e jai l wer e th e escap e o f som e prisoners bu t i n vie w o f th e fac t tha t ther e hav e bee n jai l break s sinc e th e Constabular y too k charge n o doub t i t i s convince d tha t th e defec t wa s no t t o b e foun d i n th e bod y wh o ha d th e custody bu t i n th e conditio n o f th e jai l itself an d fo r thi s reaso n th e undersigne d severa l time s aske d tha t th e buildin g b e repaired bu t withou t avai l unti l th e senio r inspecto r o f Constab ular y insiste d upo n it Th e record s o f thi s jai l sho w th e followin g dat a fo r th e perio d covere d b y thi s report : Numbe r o f prisoner s enterin g th e institutio n 39 2 Release d 13 0 Death s 5 Amon g thi s numbe r bu t 2 8 wer e women

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28 4 PERMIT S FO R TH E US E O F FIREARMS Permit s authorize d b y th e Civi l Governo r accordin g t o th e reco i d s o f thi s offic e wer e a s follows : Fo r th e us e o f revolvers 47 ; fo r rifle s an d carbines 2 ; shotguns 4 PUBLI C ORDER Th e genera l conditio n o f th e provinc e i s peacefu l an d fairl y tranqui l i n spit e o f th e fac t tha t ther e ar e outbreak s o f brigandag e fro m tim e t o time Th e pulahanes an d th e capioanes tw o aggregation s o f brigands wer e i n evidenc e durin g th e tim e embrace d b y thi s report Th e first wa s organize d i n 190 2 unde r th e leadershi p o f Robert o Caballero It s field o f operation s wa s i n th e neighborhoo d o f th e mountain s o f Sa n Remij o u p a s fa r a s Baril i o n th e wes t coas t an d fro m Carca r t o Tabogo n o n th e eas t coast I t wa s exclusivel y a religiou s an d fanati c aggregatio n whe n first started bu t afterward s spli t u p int o arme d band s owin g t o it s havin g bee n continuall y hounde d down Thes e band s wer e exterminate d towar d th e latte r par t o f las t yea r b y th e goo d wor k o f th e municipa l polic e an d loca l volunteer s organize d fo r th e purpose wh o capture d th e majorit y o f th e leaders Nothin g i s know n a t presen t o f th e whereabout s o f th e leader Robert o Caballero wh o i s suppose d t o b e dea d o r t o hav e gon e t o anothe r province I n m y report s o f Apri l 1 4 an d Ma y 26 1903 mor e detaile d informatio n i s give n wit h regar d t o brigandage Th e secon d association th e capioan, wa s spli t u p int o smal l band s o f fro m thre e t o si x me n each wh o maraude d i n th e immediat e vicinit y o f th e centra l mountai n chai n o f thi s islan d abou t th e beginnin g o f las t year i t havin g bee n impossibl e fo r the m t o exten d thei r field o f operation s owin g t o th e enmit y an d persecutio n o f th e pulahanes; thes e tw o organization s hav e ha d a fe w skirmishe s upo n occasion s whe n the y hav e met Th e capioanes, compose d almos t entirel y o f cattl e thieves date s bac k t o th e tim e o f Spanis h rule it s leaders Ado y an d Quinti n Tabal havin g devote d thei r entir e tim e t o robber y an d pillag e fo r man y year s past althoug h th e certificate s o f membershi p sol d b y the m denot e politica l idea s agains t th e constitute d government Thes e ar e th e band s a t presen t existin g i n thi s province the y havin g somewha t increase d a s a resul t o f th e exterminatio n o f th e

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28 5 pulahanes wit h who m the y ar e fa r fro m comparin g i n importance fo r the y numbe r onl y a fe w proselyte s an d thei r fiel d o f actio n i s limite d t o th e mountain s o f Pinamungaja n an d Nag a i n th e sout h an d thos e o f Balamba n an d Mandau e i n th e north The y d o no t dar e generall y t o g o beyon d thes e boundarie s a s th e groun d i s les s thickl y woode d an d doe s no t offe r the m a s secur e a lurkin g place Onc e i n awhil e thes e band s coalesce bu t whe n pursue d an d harasse d the y immediatel y disband eac h individua l membe r seekin g refug e i n th e mos t inaccessibl e par t o f th e mountains Fo r thi s reaso n thei r captureSi s a ver y difficul t feat a s the y wil l no t leav e thei r hidin g place s s o 'long a s ther e i s th e leas t danger Th e followin g ar e th e mos t importan t event s whic h hav e occurre d i n connectio n wit h th e exploit s o f bandit s durin g th e perio d covere d b y thi s report : Severa l time s durin g th e yea r 190 3 larg e band s o f robber s entere d th e town s o f Tuburan Aloguinsan an d Borbon Th e polic e forc e o f thes e pueblos bein g inadequatel y armed wer e unabl e t o mak e a stan d i n th e fac e o f a larg e party eve n thoug h th e latte r migh t b e ver y insufficientl y provide d wit h firearms However th e polic e o f Tubura n offere d resistance intrenchin g itsel f unti l reinforce ment s arrived Th e bandit s wer e unabl e t o inflic t an y harm Durin g th e sam e yea r an d a t differen t time s th e bandit s entere d th e followin g barrios : Lambusan Luyang an d Victori a o f th e municipalit y o f Sa n Remigio Puna y o f th e municipalit y o f Alo guinsan Cabcaba n o f th e municipalit y o f Barili Mont e o f th e municipalit y o f Danao an d th e hill s i n th e vicinit y o f th e municipalit y o f Toledo Smal l band s entere d th e followin g barrio s i n th e perio d embrace d betwee n Januar y an d June 1904 : Cogo n o f th e municipalit y o f Cebu Tango b o f th e municipalit y o f Pinamungajan an d Casil i o f th e municipalit y o f Consolacion Al l o f thes e barrio s ar e completel y defenseles s an d th e majorit y o f the m to o remot e fro m th e tow n t o b e abl e t o depen d upo n promp t assistance notwithstandin g i n som e th e resident s an d volunteer s resiste d an d repelle d th e attack s o f th e bandits A s a resul t o f th e event s abov e recite d som e house s wer e burne d an d seve n residents amon g the m tw o tenientes de barrio, wer e killed ; o n th e othe r han d fou r bandit s wer e killed Workin g independently the y succeede d i n kidnapin g fiv e men

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28 6 wh o wer e carrie d of f t o th e hill s o f Dana o an d wh o subsequentl y mad e goo d thei r escape The y als o committe d tw o murder s i n differen t municipalities Th e mos t notabl e exploit s performe d b y th e polic e an d volunteer s o f th e severa l municipalitie s durin g th e tim e covere d b y thi s repor t ar e a s follows : Asid e fro m th e insignifican t encounter s ha d wit h band s o f robber s ther e wer e twelv e skirmishe s o f som e importance a s a resul t o f whic h severa l prisoner s wer e take n an d eigh t bandit s killed amon g the m thre e leader s an d on e self-style d general Twent}r-fiv e arme d bandit s wer e capture d i n differen t municipali ties tw o o f who m bor e th e titl e o f general on e tha t o f captain an d anothe r o f lieutenant A rewar d o f 10 0 pesos Mexican wa s offere d fo r th e captur e o f on e o f thes e general s name d Ruf o Daclan Beside s thes e man y apprehension s o f bandit s an d thei r abettor s wer e mad e b y th e polic e an d th e volunteers Durin g th e perio d referre d t o thre e leader s accompanie d b y mem ber s o f thei r band s surrendered togethe r wit h thei r arms i n dif feren t municipalities A so-calle d genera l name d Marti n Cabuenes on e o f th e principa l chieftain s o f th e pulahanes als o presente d himself Th e Constabular y forc e o f thi s province a t time s supporte d b y th e polic e an d volunteers ha d severa l shar p engagement s wit h band s o f robber s an d wer e uniforml y successfu l i n dispersin g them Abou t th e middl e o f May 1903 a forc e o f Constabular y unde r th e comman d o f Lieutenan t Walke r i n a n expeditio n t o th e moun tain s o f Carca r an d Aloguinsa n ha d t o lamen t a n unfortunat e sur prise Bein g unacquainte d wit h th e countr y throug h whic h the y wer e passin g an d owin g t o a lac k o f cautio n o n th e par t o f th e lieutenan t i n command the y wer e surprise d an d route d b y th e bandits th e sai d Lieutenan t Walke r havin g bee n killed som e o f hi s me n wounded an d severa l rifle s lost Thi s ban d wa s engage d a fe w day s afterward s b y Colone l Taylo r an d a forc e o f Constabulary municipa l police an d volunteer s fro m Carca r an d wa s severel y punished havin g suffere d man y casualties Th e mos t importan t captur e mad e wa s tha t o f th e chieftai n Bit o wit h al l o f th e me n unde r him i n th e hill s aroun d th e municipalit y o f Naga Thi s captur e wa s du e t o th e effort s o f Capt H P Nevill e an d Lieut M Lug a o f th e Constabulary

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28 7 Betwee n January 1903 an d June 1904 eight y me n wer e trie d fo r bandolerismo i n th e Cour t o f Firs t Instanc e o f thi s province Beside s severa l othe r measure s take n fo r th e exterminatio n o f bandolerismo voluntee r force s wer e organize d i n th e municipalitie s an d a reorganizatio n o f th e municipa l polic e wa s effected Bu t i n spit e o f recommendation s mad e an d o f th e fac t tha t th e municipali tie s pu t u p prope r bonds i t wa s no t possibl e t o secur e bette r arm s fo r thes e loca l forces Ha d the y obtaine d the m the y woul d hav e ha d th e mean s o f extirpating bandolerismo, an d th e pueblo s woul d hav e bee n encourage d t o hun t dow n th e rovin g band s o f robber s i n thei r severa l districts bein g certai n tha t i n cas e o f reprisal s o r ven geanc e o n th e par t o f th e latte r the y woul d hav e ha d sufficien t arm s fo r thei r defense B y givin g th e pueblo s sufficien t arm s properl y t o defen d them selve s greate r responsibilit y ca n b e exacte d fro m the m fo r th e mis deed s committe d withi n thei r respectiv e jurisdiction s b y organize d band s o f robbers Wer e thi s don e ther e woul d b e n o necessit y fo r keepin g detachment s o f Constabular y i n th e town s an d thes e force s coul d b e employe d i n scourin g th e hill s an d i n establishin g tw o o r thre e detachment s i n thos e place s generall y selecte d b y th e bandit s fo r thei r retrea t whic h ar e to o remot e t o b e reache d by th e municipa l police Recommendation s t o thi s effec t hav e bee n repeatedl y made Th e syste m o f espionag e inaugurate d b y mysel f i n th e munici palitie s gav e th e ver y bes t results a s th e effort s o f th e secret-servic e me n resulte d i n th e majorit y o f th e capture s made Th e polic y o f conciliatio n als o ha d considerabl e influenc e i n th e exterminatio n o f th e pulahanes whic h sec t laste d bu t on e yea r i n spit e o f it s havin g starte d it s existenc e i n a flourishin g condition Th e capioanes, wh o succeede d th e pulahanes, ca n b e exterminate d i n a comparativel y shor t tim e i f sufficien t activit y i s show n i n huntin g the m dow n an d a littl e tac t an d prudenc e i s exercise d i n th e work Complet e detail s o f th e event s abov e relate d ar e t o b e foun d i n m y report s sen t t o th e honorabl e Civi l Governo r o n Apri l 1 4 an d Ma y 26 1903 an d th e 12t h an d 27t h o f February 1904 Hereunde r wil l b e foun d a statemen t o f firearm s furnishe d t o th e municipa l police Th e majorit y ar e Remingto n shotguns bu t o f s o inferio r a clas s tha t the y hav e resulte d i n accident s t o th e me n handlin g them th e barrel s bein g ver y liabl e t o explode

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28 8 Statement of the firear ms in some of the municipalities on March 29, 1904. Pueblos Winches te r re peatin g shotguns Revolv er s (sev era l makes) Reming to n shot guns Reming to n rifles Kra g car bine Asturia s 1 3 3 Aloguinsa n 1 3 3 Bantaya n __ 1 3 3 1 9 1 1 2 2 9 Baril i 4 3 1 9 1 1 2 2 9 3 9 1 0 1 Bog o 4 3 1 9 1 1 2 2 9 3 9 1 0 1 Badia n 3 1 9 1 1 2 2 9 3 9 Balamba n 3 1 9 1 1 2 2 9 Carca r 3 1 9 1 1 2 2 9 1 0 Catmo n 3 1 9 1 1 2 2 9 1 0 4 1 0 Carme n 1 0 4 Ceb u 6 8 2 8 1 6 1 5 2 1 0 4 Dana o 6 8 2 8 1 6 1 5 2 Mandau e 6 8 2 8 1 6 1 5 2 4 Naga_ 6 8 2 8 1 6 1 5 2 4 Opo n 6 8 2 8 1 6 1 5 2 4 5 6 Pinamungaja n 6 8 2 8 1 6 1 5 2 4 5 6 Tubura n 6 8 2 8 1 6 1 5 2 4 5 6 1 0 9 Toled o 6 8 2 8 1 6 1 5 2 4 5 6 1 0 9 1 0 9 FINANCIA L ADMINISTRATION MUNICIPALITIES Th e agricultura l crisi s afflictin g thes e Island s ha s necessaril y deepl y affecte d the m i n a financial way Thi s i s th e reaso n tha t • th e municipalitie s hav e bee n scarcel y abl e t o obtai n sufficien t reve nue s t o atten d t o thei r mos t pressin g necessities Th e estimat e o f municipa l expenditure s fo r th e yea r 190 3 amounte d t o $302,401 i t havin g bee n cu t dow n a s muc h a s possibl e i n orde r t o mak e i t balanc e wit h th e estimate d revenues Th e distributio n mad e o f thi s amoun t i s a s follows : Salarie s o f employee s an d offic e supplie s $76,027.1 6 Police paymen t o f salarie s an d supplie s 82,952.0 0 Education salarie s an d supplie s 45,804.7 4 Publi c works salarie s an d supplie s 44,982.4 5 Boar d o f healt h 18,525.5 0 Posta l service salarie s an d supplie s 6,425.0 0 Ren t o f building s 7,243.0 0 Contingen t expense s 7,110.0 0 I t wil l b e see n fro m th e abov e tabl e tha t th e majorit y o f th e expense s o f municipa l administratio n consis t i n th e paymen t o f salarie s an d wages th e purchas e o f office supplies an d th e mainte nanc e o f th e polic e force However ther e ar e severa l presidents secretaries an d treasurer s o f municipalitie s wh o receiv e salarie s muc h lowe r tha n thos e fixed b y la w i n orde r t o hel p ou t th e municipa l budgets

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28 9 PUBLI C WORK S I N TH E MUNICIPALITIES Publi c works whic h i n vie w o f th e deplorabl e stat e o f wago n an d loca l road' s shoul d receiv e th e larges t appropriations hav e bee n th e leas t benefite d i n thi s distribution S o tru e i s thi s tha t ther e ar e severa l municipalitie s tha t di d no t mak e an y appropriatio n whateve r fo r thi s purpose I t i s therefor e no t surprisin g tha t th e majorit y o f th e highway s o f communicatio n b y lan d hav e no t bee n repaire d no r kep t u p sinc e th e establishmen t o f th e presen t civi l government Severa l pueblo s ar e eve n lackin g i n municipa l building s o f thei r own a s ou t o f 4 1 municipalitie s i n thi s provinc e onl y 2 1 o f the m ow n thei r ow n municipa l buildings an d o f thes e 6 ar e i n ba d repair Th e municipalitie s tha t hav e se t asid e th e larges t appropriation s fo r municipa l improvement s ar e a s follows : Municipality Amount Pe r cen t o f tota l appropri ations Bantayan Bog o Mandau e Ginatilan. Baril i Carme n Ceb u $1,38 9 2,35 6 95 8 1,20 6 2,45 6 66 5 28,16 1 3 5 3 9 2 2 7 2 6 2 4 2 0 PROVINCIA L FINANCES Th e repor t o f th e provincia l treasure r fo r th e fiscal yea r fro m Jul y 1 1903 t o Jun e 30 1904 show s th e followin g data : Item debits Cas h balance provincia l an d municipa l funds Jul y 1,190 4 Lan d tax : Provincia l Municipa l Registratio n o f propert y Variou s taxe s Tota l assessments provincia l an d municipal : Philippin e Loca l currency currency Industria l P38,317.5 0 $30,020.2 1 Cedill a ta x 51,545.1 4 98,052.8 6 Stamp s 2,511.2 6 2,083.3 1 Cart s 1,049.8 4 767.3 1 Variou s municipa l taxe s — Tota l Variou s fund s — Forestr y ta x fun d Profi t o n exchang e Appropriation s fo r genera l expenses Congressiona l relie f fund___ Debt s pai d t o municipalitie s Sale s o f propert y : Exchang e o f currenc y Tota l debit s 2490 4 1 9 Philippin e Loca l currency currency PT6,034.9 4 28,328.0 2 37,769.5 5 105.5 0 6.0 0 93,423.7 4 22,424.7 2 198,092.4 7 1,917.4 5 1,521.5 1 .0 3 35,489.2 5 227.2 7 217.5 H 71,035.0 8 308,500.6 4

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29 0 Item Philippin e Genera l provincia l expenses : currency Salarie s o f provincia l officer s f*14,251.2 6 Clerk s an d permanen t employee s 14,253.3 5 Provincia l lot s an d building s 641.4 3 Buildin g an d lan d o f provincia l school 1,223.3 2 Furnitur e an d offic e supplie s 9,730.7 5 Variou s 33,039.9 3 Tota l Road-and-bridg e fund : Salarie s an d wage s o f forema n an d da y laborer s 38,164.1 0 35,495.7 6 Material s an d transportatio n o f sam e 643.6 0 1,393.9 3 Tool s an d instrument s 9,101.2 0 33.1 6 Loca l currency $9,187.6 4 14,339.4 9 3,446.8 0 870.0 0 777.2 2 20,324.0 9 Total Loan s t o municipalitie s Exchang e o f currenc y Variou s Transferre d t o municipalitie s Balanc e o f cash provincia l an d municipal Jun e 30 1904 Tota l credit s Philippin e currency f*73,140.0 4 47,908.9 0 65,784.6 3 90.9 0 102,508.4 4 19,067.7 3 308,500.6 4 PROVINCIA L PROPERTY Valu e o f offic e buildin g an d lan d P50,000.0 0 Valu e o f instruments tools an d cart s 23,404.8 6 Valu e o f mean s o f transportatio n 150.0 0 Tota l 73,554.8 6 Summary. Item provincia l revenues Cas h balanc e Jul y 1,190 3 Receive d fro m al l source s durin g th e yea r Payment s Cas h balance Jun e 30,190 4 municipa l revenues Balanc e du e municipalitie s Jul y 1,190 3 Municipa l revenue s collecte d Municipa l fund s transferre d Balanc e du e municipalitie s Jun e 30,190 4 Philippin e currency P-14,313.2 0 181,064.6 2 186,924.4 7 8,453.3 5 1,721.7 4 111,860.7 4 102,968.1 0 10,614.3 8 Th e figure s abov e se t fort h sho w tha t salarie s an d expense s o f provincia l employee s absorbe d th e majorit y o f th e revenues Al thoug h th e constructio n an d maintenanc e o f provincia l road s an d bridge s cause d a n expens e o f $5,642.51 gold an d $24,912.83 Mexican durin g th e secon d hal f o f 190 2 an d th e firs t hal f o f 1903 i t coul d no t b e sai d tha t the y hav e bee n properl y attende d to inas muc h a s onl y one-thir d o f th e provincia l highway s ha s bee n pu t i n orde r an d a ver y limite d numbe r o f bridges constructed

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29 1 PROVINCIA L PUBLI C WORKS Th e road s repaire d durin g th e tim e embrace d b y thi s repor t wit h provincia l fund s consis t o f th e highwa y betwee n th e munic ipalitie s o f Ceb u an d Carca r o n th e sout h an d t o Carme n o n th e north I t i s impossibl e fo r m e t o giv e figure s a s t o th e exten t o f th e repair s mad e i n vie w o f th e fac t tha t the y d o no t exis t i n th e offic e o f th e provincia l supervisor an d tha t Superviso r D e Lan o faile d t o sen d a repor t t o th e provincia l boar d a s h e ha d bee n directe d t o do N o repair s hav e bee n mad e t o th e bridges alon g thes e road s an d fo r thi s reaso n the y ar e a t presen t i n a ver y ba d condition especiall y o n th e roa d t o Carmen Th e provincia l boar d i n th e latte r par t o f 190 3 planne d t o repai r som e o f thes e bridges especiall y thos e o n th e roa d fro m Liloa n t o Compostel a o n th e Rive r Cotcot an d o n tha t betwee n Dana o an d Carme n throug h a mangrov e swamp a s a t th e place s mentione d th e roa d i s almos t impassable ; bu t th e propositio n o f th e provincia l boar d ha s no t bee n carrie d int o effect I d o no t kno w fo r wha t reason Th e road s repaire d wit h th e 10,00 0 piculs o f ric e receive d fro m th e Insula r Governmen t fo r th e relie f o f th e famine-stricke n pueblo s ar e situat e i n th e municipalitie s detaile d i n th e followin g table : Municipality Amoun t o f ric e (pounds) Value Philippin e currency Mexica n currency Opo n towar d C6rdob a Baril i towar d Aloguinsa n Arga o towar d Sibonga Arga o towar d Dalaguete Arga o withi n th e tow n itsel f Sibong a Dalaguet e towar d Boljoon Dalaguet e withi n th e tow n itsel f Boljoo n towar d Nuev a Caceres Boljoo n towar d Dalaguete Boljoo n withi n th e tow n itsel f Oslo b towar d Nuev a Caceres Oslo b withi n th e tow n itself Ginatila n Puent e d e Nag a 35,06 2 99,38 2 272,53 6 45,02 4 P-1,407.14 4,075 r 10,857.3 7 1,739.6 4 74,07 4 158,73 9 52,15 0 13 3 $469.2 0 1,232.5 0 3,723.1 0 664.3 0 128,32 2 3,857.9 9 2,004.8 0 1,088.3 2 6,519.9 9 7.~31 ~ 170.3 9 1,988.0 0 2,646.0 0 Th e puebl o mos t benefited a s show n b y th e abov e statement i s Argao whic h figure s a s havin g receive d 272,53 6 pound s o f rice equivalen t t o f*10,857.3 7 an d $3,723.10 Mexican I t wa s no t becaus e i t wa s i n a wors e conditio n tha n th e othe r municipalitie s tha t i t wa s give n thi s preference a s th e provincia l boar d se t asid e onl y 1,00 0 piculs o f ric e fo r th e repai r o f it s road bu t throug h th e influenc e exercise d b y it s municipa l presiden t ove r th e min d o f th e provincia l supervisor Mr D e Lano i t wa s abl e t o obtai n a large r

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29 2 quantit y o f ric e tha n tha t assigne d t o i t withou t th e prio r consen t o f th e board whic h di d no t len d it s approva l unti l th e amoun t ha d bee n expende d an d i t fel t i n vie w o f th e circumstance s tha t i t wa s force d t o d o so Ther e wer e othe r municipalitie s bette r entitle d t o thi s relie f an d othe r road s tha t ha d greate r nee d o f bein g repaire d o n accoun t o f thei r importance—such fo r example a s th e roa d fro m Baril i t o Aloguinsan whic h wa s no t complete d throug h lac k o f rice an d withou t whic h communicatio n betwee n th e tw o pueblo s eve n o n horsebac k i s difficult Fro m th e foregoin g i t ma y b e judge d tha t th e distributio n wa s no t equitabl y mad e i n accordanc e wit h th e purpose s tha t le d u p t o th e donatio n o f thi s rice No r i s i t possibl e t o giv e th e exten t o f roa d wor k don e wit h thi s ric e fo r th e reason s abov e se t forth—tha t is tha t ther e ar e n o dat a i n th e offic e o f th e provincia l supervisor Th e roa d acros s th e islan d fro m Carca r t o Barili whic h i t wa s propose d t o ope n a t th e expens e o f th e Congressiona l relie f fund ha d t o b e suspende d i n it s constructio n o n accoun t o f th e $56,00 0 fun d appropriate d fo r th e purpos e having becom e exhausted althoug h ther e i s onl y a stretc h o f 5 kilometer s tha t remai n t o b e don e i n orde r t o reac h Barili Wit h regar d t o th e wago n road s acros s th e islan d whic h plac e th e pueblo s o f bot h coast s i n communication the y ar e o f th e greates t importanc e fo r th e prosperit y o f thi s province Fo r thi s reaso n i t wa s recommende d tha t thre e roads equidistant shoul d b e buil t acros s th e islan d a s follows : Fro m Carca r t o Barili fro m Nag a o r Minglanill a t o Toledo an d fro m Sogo d to.Tuburan Th e open in g o f th e first an d las t name d wa s approved an d a n appropriatio n o f $234,00 0 wa s made n o actio n havin g bee n take n wit h regar d t o th e second I n vie w o f th e fac t tha t th e roa d fro m Sogo d t o Tubura n i s o f les s importanc e tha n tha t fro m Minglanill a t o Toledo I recommende d o n Decembe r 29 1903 t o th e honorabl e Philippin e Commission i n a repor t mad e t o tha t body tha t th e appropriatio n mad e fo r th e forme r shoul d b e transferre d t o th e latter bu t th e Consultin g Enginee r t o th e Commissio n di d no t suppor t m y recommendatio n i n hi s report o n th e ground s o f th e costl y an d difficul t wor k connecte d wit h th e openin g o f a roa d fro m Nag a o r fro m th e immediat e vicinit y o f th e cit y o f Ceb u t o Toled o an d o f it s proximit y t o th e wago n roa d acros s th e islan d fro m Carca r t o Barili h e havin g considere d onl y th e locatio n o f thi s

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29 3 roa d an d faile d t o tak e int o accoun t th e interest s o f th e province whic h woul d b e mor e greatl y benefite d b y a roa d passin g throug h th e cente r o f th e island Th e provincia l boar d ha s lately, i n vie w o f thes e considerations recommende d tha t th e appropriatio n mad e fo r th e roa d fro m Sogo d t o Tubura n b e transferre d fo r th e construc tio n o f a roa d betwee n th e cit y o f Ceb n an d Toledo Thi s recom mendatio n di d no t hav e th e desire d results A s regard s th e genera l conditio n o f road s an d bridge s a t th e presen t time the y ar e i n a ver y ba d state Sinc e th e establishmen t o f th e presen t regim e th e entir e lengt h o f roa d fro m Carca r t o Dana o o n th e eas t coas t ha s twic e bee n repaire d an d onc e partiall y repaired whil e th e roa d fro m Carme n t o Bog o an d alon g th e wes t coas t ha s no t bee n repaire d a t al l a t th e expens e o f th e provincia l government I t i s wit h reaso n tha t thos e pueblo s complai n o f th e neglec t o f th e provincia l boar d i n no t payin g prope r attentio n t o th e main tenanc e an d repai r o f thei r highway s o f communication The y hav e repeatedl y petitione d thi s governmen t fo r ai d i n orde r tha t thei r interest s migh t b e adequatel y protected I n suppor t o f thei r jus t demand s I hav e o n severa l occasion s brough t th e matte r u p befor e th e provincia l boar d i n orde r tha t a n appropriatio n o f provincia l fund s migh t b e mad e fo r thi s work suggestin g tha t a n equitabl e distributio n t o roa d an d bridg e fund s b e mad e t o al l o f th e pueblo s o f th e provinc e i n vie w o f th e fac t tha t the y al l pa y taxe s equally Bu t thes e proposition s o f mine thoug h no t rejected wer e lai d o n th e tabl e t o b e late r considered an d on e thin g an d anothe r ha s serve d a s a n excus e t o dela y actio n upo n same A s ther e ar e n o larg e forest s i n thi s province forestr y product s ar e o f smal l importance ; bein g scarcel y sufficien t t o satisf y th e loca l demand Th e followin g tabl e show s th e utilizatio n o f forestr y product s durin g th e yea r 190 3 an d fro m Januar y t o June 1904 an d i s fro m dat a furnishe d b y th e forestr y inspector : FORESTR Y PRODUCTS Product 1903 1904 Cascalet e Lumbe r Firewoo d Bala o .cubi c feet_ 33,32 6 30,16 4 d o 43,69 6 16,65 1 gantas — 10 2 3 6 piculs — 1 7 5 Tota l values : 1903 F3,357.32 ; 1904 TZ,729.65

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29 4 ADMINISTRATIO N O F JUSTICE COUR T O F FIRS T INSTANCE Durin g th e perio d covere d b y thi s repor t ther e hav e bee n 20 8 sitting s i n th e Cour t o f Firs t Instance ther e havin g bee n sitting s twic e a da y durin g th e month s o f August September October November an d December Th e numbe r o f case s brough t u p ar e given i n th e followin g table : Criminal causes. Class From, January to December, 1903. Parricid e Murde r Homicid e Bandolerism o Assaul t accompanie d b y seriou s phys ica l injurie s r Assaul t accompanie d b y sligh t phy s ica l injurie s Seditio n Robber y Robber y an d homicid e Thef t Estaf a Adulter y Illega l detentio n Arbitrar y arres t Usurpatio n o f authorit y Assumptio n o f authorit y Falsificatio n Rap e Infidelit y in th e custod y o f prisoners Desertio n Attemp t t o distur b th e publi c order Crim e agains t th e publi c orde r Libe l Illega l carryin g o f arm s — Slande r Disorderl y conduc t Abductio n Infractio n o f municipa l ordinance s Malversatio n o f publi c fund s Dischargin g firearms withi n prohib ite d limit s Damage s t o propert y Housebreakin g Vagranc y Arso n Failur e t o remi t publi c fund s Illega l cockfightin g Threat s ^ Gamblin g Tota l i Num be r o f 22 5 Class From January to June, 190k. Parricid e Murde r Homicide Frustrate d murde r Arso n Bandolerism o Homicid e cause d b y assaul t accom panie d b y physica l injurie s Homicid e cause d b y reckles s negli genc e Frustrate d homicid e Rebellio n Illega l detentio n Assaul t accompanie d b y seriou s physica l injurie s Assaul t accompanie d b y sligh t physica l injurie s Robber y Thef t Estaf a Attempte d homicid e Frustrate d rap e Violatio n o f immigratio n law s Violatio n o f Ac t No 35 5 Infidelit y i n th e custod y o f prisoner s Housebreakin g : Illega l carryin g o f firearms Offense s agains t person s Corruptio n o f minor s Slande r Calumn y — Rap e (estupro ) Tota l 2 Num be r o f cases 1 1 1 2 1 0 8 0 1 Ther e wer e 6 7 convictions 10 8 cause s wer e dismissed an d 7 2 ar e pending 2 I n th e abov e case s 2 4 conviction s wer e secured 1 7 wer e dismissed an d 3 7 ar e pending

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29 5 CIVI L CASES O n th e 30t h da y o f Jun e o f thi s yea r ther e wer e 13 3 civi l case s i n th e cour t whic h ha d bee n brough t ove r fro m forme r years Durin g th e perio d fro m Januar y t o Jun e o f th e sai d year judgmen t wa s awarde d i n 1 0 cases 2 wer e dismissed an d 6 6 ar e pending Th e abov e dat a sho w th e grea t importance o f thi s judicia l distric t an d th e advisabilit y o f dividin g i t i n orde r tha t al l matter s ma y b e attende d t o an d dispose d o f i n accordanc e wit h th e bes t interest s o f th e public Th e sam e thin g ma y b e sai d wit h regar d t o th e offic e o f th e provincia l fiscal, whic h i s trul y unabl e t o cop e wit h th e immens e amoun t o f accumulate d wor k o n accoun t o f th e lac k o f personnel I t i s absolutel y indispensabl e t o hav e a n assistan t fiscal appointe d i n orde r tha t th e wor k o f thi s offic e ma y no t suffe r grea t delay JUSTICE-OF-THE-PEAC E COURTS Th e dat a .ar e no t a t han d t o b e abl e t o estimat e th e numbe r o f matter s whic h hav e passe d throug h th e justices court s i n th e differen t municipalities I t ca n b e stated however tha t i n th e majorit y o f case s irregularitie s an d deficiencie s ar e note d owin g t o th e ineptitud e o f th e justices Thi s i s no t du e t o a lac k o f person s wh o hav e th e necessar y condition s an d qualification s properl y t o discharg e th e dutie s o f th e office bu t t o th e fac t tha t th e wor k an d responsibilit y attache d t o i t ar e no t i n proportio n t o th e salary ; Thi s i s th e reaso n o f th e frequen t resignations especiall y o f thos e person s wh o hav e som e busines s interest s t o atten d to wh o ar e generall y th e one s chose n fo r th e offic e becaus e o f thei r bein g bette r educate d tha n thei r fellow-townsmen Th e reorganizatio n o f thes e court s i s peremptoril y demande d b y th e interest s o f th e public I f a chang e i s mad e th e syste m o f dividin g u p th e presen t judicia l district s int o subdistrict s coul d b e adopted Thes e subdistrict s shoul d b e establishe d s o a s t o includ e fro m 40,00 0 t o 50,00 0 inhabitant s an d classifie d accordin g t o first an d secon d clas s i n cas e tha t th e presidin g justic e receive s a fixed salary ; bu t thi s wil l b e unnecessar y i f th e presen t syste m o f fee s i s continued I n th e classificatio n o f thes e district s th e numbe r o f case s handle d o r tha t ar e liabl e t o occu r i n eac h sub distric t annuall y shoul d speciall y b e take n int o account th e estimat e

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29 6 bein g base d upo n th e statistic s fo r forme r year s an d als o th e cos t o f livin g i n th e town s include d withi n eac h snbdistrict Suspensions and dismissals .—During th e tim e covere d b y thi s repor t bu t on e justic e o f th e peace Seno r Jua n Villarosa o f th e municipalit y o f Cebu wa s dismisse d o n accoun t o f irregularitie s committe d m th e exercis e o f hi s office PUBLI C INSTRUCTION MUNICIPA L SCHOOLS Ther e ha s bee n a considerabl e advanc e mad e i n al l o f th e munic ipalitie s sinc e January 1903 i n publi c education Th e numbe r o f insula r teacher s a t presen t i n th e provinc e i s insufficient s o muc h s o tha t severa l municipalitie s ar e insistentl y solicitin g tha t som e o f th e sai d teacher s b e sen t t o them Th e tota l appropriation s mad e b y th e municipalitie s i n 190 3 fo r educationa l purpose s amoun t t o $45,804.70—tha t i s t o say 15.1 8 pe r cen t o f thei r tota l appropriations. Th e municipalitie s whic h hav e estimate d large r annua l expendi ture s fo r educatio n tha n an y othe r item wit h th e exceptio n o f salarie s an d wage s o f officer s an d employees ar e th e following : Municipality Rond a Badia n Moalboa l Oslo b Aloguinsan Por o Sibong a Talisa y Toled o Malabuyo c Dumanjug. Asturia s Pe r cen t o f it s Amoun t tota l appro priation $1,35 0 8 1 1,34 6 5 2 1,45 0 3 5 70 8 3 0 61 6 36 0 2 6 2 6 2,68 6 1,15 0 2 6 2,68 6 1,15 0 2 6 1,19 9 2 6 44 2 2 3 1,12 9 2 2 33 6 1 6 I n proportio n t o thei r revenue s thes e municipalitie s hav e no t onl y reconstructe d an d repaire d building s fo r school s i n th e cente r o f th e tow n bu t als o hav e buil t an d ar e continuin g t o buil d school house s i n th e barrio s i n orde r tha t childre n livin g awa y fro m th e tow n shal l no t los e th e opportunit y o f obtainin g a n education Th e 5,00 0 picul s o f ric e give n b y th e Insula r Governmen t fo r th e buildin g o f schoolhouse s ha s don e a grea t amoun t o f goo d t o

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29 7 som e o f th e pueblo s that i n spit e o f al l o f thei r efforts sa w tha t i t wa s impossibl e t o buil d schoolhouse s eve n i n th e mos t importan t o f thei r barrios Th e dat a obtaine d b y th e divisio n superintenden t o f school s o f thi s provinc e sho w a stead y annua l increas e i n th e numbe r o f pupil s attendin g th e publi c schools June 190 3 3,03 1 July 190 3 2,41 1 August 190 3 3,66 8 September 190 3 4,38 1 November 190 3 6,78 8 December 190 3 7,47 9 January 190 4 16,37 3 February 190 4 22,17 2 March 1904 24,88 5 Th e municipalit y o f Ginatila n ha s th e larges t numbe r o f childre n enrolle d i n proportio n t o it s populatio n i n th e publi c schools—1,422 Ther e ar e severa l municipalitie s tha t d o no t ow n thei r school houses an d man y tha t d o fin d tha t the y ar e i n a ba d stat e o f repai r an d tha t th e amoun t o f thei r revenue s i s insufficien t t o mak e an y improvemen t upo n them However, i n spit e o f thes e circumstances ther e ha s bee n n o decreas e i n th e enthusias m fel t b y th e youn g peopl e fo r education Wit h regar d t o schoo l furnitur e an d supplies a n equa l deficienc y i s noted bu t th e municipalitie s ar e endeavorin g t o mak e a n improve men t i n thi s regar d i n s o fa r a s thei r revenue s wil l permit On e thousan d American-mad e desk s sen t b y th e Insula r Governmen t hav e bee n distribute d amon g som e o f th e municipalitie s o f thi s province I n th e cit y o f Ceb n th e stride s mad e b y educatio n hav e bee n remarkable I n June 1903 th e enrollmen t amounte d t o 758 students whil e i n March 1904 thi s numbe r wa s increase d t o 2,161 Ther e ar e a t presen t th e followin g school s establishe d i n thi s city : Sa n Nicolas Mambaling E l Pardo Ermita Ceb u Central Cogon Tejero Mabolo an d a separat e schoo l fo r Chinese Al l o f thes e school s ar e unde r th e charg e o f 3 America n an d 2 7 Filipin o teachers NORMA L SCHOOL Th e norma l schoo l i n thi s cit y wa s establishe d wit h provincia l funds Sinc e it s foundatio n t o dat e i t ha s mad e considerabl e

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29 8 progress a s i s demonstrate d b y th e repor t o f th e divisio n superin tenden t o f school s give n hereunder : Th e schoo l occupie s on e o f th e bes t building s i n th e city fo r whic h th e provinc e pay s P20 0 a month Th e growt h o f thi s schoo l durin g th e pas t yea r ma y b e see n fro m th e followin g figures : June 190 3 11 5 July 190 3 20 6 August 190 3 24 9 September 190 3 29 0 October 190 3 23 4 November 190 3 37 8 December 190 3 37 2 January 190 4 41 5 February 190 4 47 6 March 190 4 40 1 O f thi s numbe r 17 0 cam e fro m th e provinces Ceb u ha s 13 5 an d Leyt e 26 Al l o f thos e wh o faile d t o pas s th e examinatio n ar e exclude d fro m thi s schoo l i n orde r tha t i t ma y i n realit y b e converte d int o a n institutio n o f hig h education Th e cours e o f stud y embrace s th e followin g subjects taugh t b y te n America n teachers : First preparatory .—English, languag e study element s o f grammer com positio n an d letter writing spelling cop y books an d supplementar y reading ; arithmetic ; geography ; drawing ; voca l exercises Second preparatory. —English, advance d gramma r an d composition Phil ippin e an d America n history civics ; arithmetic ; geography ; science firs t hal f year ; plan t study ; physiolog y an d hygiene ; drawing ; music First year. —English literature narrativ e an d descriptiv e prose mino r classi c prose ; principle s o f arithmetic commercia l transactions interest commission discount insurance banking shipping an d accounts ; principle s o f algebra ; botany ; history Philippin e Islands ; Spanis h o r French Second year. —English literature lyri c an d romanti c poetry ; algebr a u p t o squar e root principle s o f geometry ; science comparativ e anatom y an d anima l physiology ; history beginnin g o f civilization ancien t countrie s o f th e East ; th e Mediterranea n befor e th e Christia n era ; Spanis h o r French Third year. —Manual fo r teachers ; arithmetic ; genera l history ; physica l geography ; English ; botany ; Latin W e ar e no w read y t o commenc e manual-trainin g work Th e Departmen t o f Publi c Instructio n ha s furnishe d u s wit h a practica l teache r an d a n excellen t collectio n o f tools costin g ove r $1,000 I hav e grea t hope s tha t thi s practic e i n connectio n wit h education whic h ha s no t bee n s o greatl y neglecte d u p t o th e presen t time wil l stimulat e industr y an d improv e th e community W e als o pla n a commercia l cours e a s soo n a s th e student s ar e sufficientl y advance d t o b e abl e t o profi t b y thi s work Th e Provinc e o f Ceb u ha s 100,00 0 schoo l children Durin g th e pas t

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29 9 yea r th e America n teacher s hav e establishe d an d inspecte d many barri o schools thu s extendin g th e rudiment s o f educatio n t o man y wh o u p t o th e presen t hav e no t enjoye d thi s benefit Thi s wor k ha s bee n difficul t o n accoun t o f lac k o f facilities o f school-teachers o f money o r schoo l furniture Th e Filipin o teacher s hav e mad e grea t progres s durin g th e pas t year Whereve r ther e i s a n America n teache r (w e hav e no w 3 7 i n all ) a t leas t on e hou r a da y i s use d t o instruc t municipa l teachers I n additio n t o this on e mont h o f eac h yea r i s employe d i n th e educatio n o f teachers Th e las t course whic h commence d Marc h 2 8 an d ende d Apri l 22 1904 wa s attende d b y 2 8 America n teacher s an d 60 5 Filipin o teacher s an d aspirants an d a t leas t 15 0 wer e exclude d becaus e the y coul d no t b e accommodated Th e municipal teacher s derive d grea t benefi t fro m thi s meeting a t th e terminatio n o f whic h the y receive d thei r appointments Th e salarie s assigne d t o nativ e teacher s wer e ou t o f proportio n t o th e municipa l fund s an d th e individua l abilit y o f eac h teacher I t ca n b e stated however tha t th e salarie s pai d t o th e Filipin o teacher s ar e com pletel y inadequate Fo r th e curren t yea r w e hav e 23 3 teacher s an d ^33,614.3 3 fo r salaries o r a n averag e o f PT 2 a mont h only Thi s divisio n als o ha s seve n Filipin o insula r teacher s wh o hav e starte d i n a t salarie s o f $2 0 t o $25 gold a month Fo r th e present owin g t o th e scarcit y o f goo d material onl y fou r o f thes e position s ar e occupied Th e estimat e o f revenue s an d expense s fo r schoo l purpose s mad e b y th e municipalitie s durin g th e presen t yea r (1904 ) i s annexe d heret o a s Exhibi t A Thi s exhibit show s th e followin g figures: Receipts : On e quarte r o f 1 pe r cen t o f th e lan d ta x $55,618.2 2 Appropriate d fro m genera l fund s 6,275.1 3 Tota l receipt s 61,893.3 5 Expenses : Constructio n o f schoolhouse s 14,355,2 4 Ren t o f schoolhouse s 6,150.0 0 Purchas e an d repai r o f schoolhouse s 5,218.7 9 Salarie s o f teacher s 33,614.3 3 Supplie s 1,083.0 0 Tota l expense s 60,421.3 6 Balanc e i n treasur y 1,471.9 9 PRIVAT E SCHOOLS Ther e ar e severa l privat e school s i n th e municipalitie s o f thi s province particularl y i n thi s city Sinc e th e beginnin g o f th e yea r 190 3 i n th e majorit y o f th e pueblo s th e Centr o Catolic o ha s bee n organizin g school s whic h ar e unde r th e contro l o f th e paris h

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30 0 priest s an d attende d t o b y th e severa l committee s o r branche s o f th e sai d Centra l Catolico A s thes e school s ar e maintaine d b y th e voluntar y contribution s o f th e Catholi c resident s i n eac h mu nicipality thei r prosperit y depend s directl y upo n th e financial conditio n o f th e same s o tha t a t th e presen t tim e thes e school s ar e no t prosperin g a s thei r founder s woul d desir e tha t the y shoul d owin g t o th e har d times O f thos e existin g i n thi s cit y th e Colegi o d e Sa n Carlo s merit s specia l mentio n becaus e o f it s importance Thi s colleg e i s admin istere d b y th e Paulis t Fathers an d th e seminar y o f th e Immac ulat e Conception manage d b y th e Sister s o f Charity i s anothe r notable institution Sa n Carlo s Colleg e i n forme r year s wa s exclusivel y a theologica l seminary an d i t wa s onl y recentl y tha t a cours e o f stud y simila r t o tha t o f th e secondar y instructio n given b y th e Universit y o f Sant o Toma s wa s establishe d i n it Th e followin g tabl e show s th e numbe r o f scholar s enrolle d i n thi s institutio n durin g th e presen t year : Theologica l 6 2 Boarder s 10 7 Da y scholar s 22 5 Preparator y schoo l 7 6 Fre e primar y instructio n 11 0 Tota l 58 0 Accordin g t o informatio n furnishe d b y th e directo r o f thi s college th e tota l attendanc e thi s yea r i s les s tha n las t owin g t o th e precariou s financial conditio n o f th e Islands. Th e Colleg e 6 f th e Immaculat e Conceptio n ha s th e followin g numbe r o f students : Boarder s 11 2 Da y scholar s 4 0 Scholar s i n Catholi c schoo l 14 0 Tota l 29 2 Th e establishmen t o f trad e school s i s a n imperiou s necessit y t o th e developmen t o f industr y i n thes e Islands. S o lon g a s thes e school s ca n no t b e establishe d i t i s recommende d tha t wome n attendin g th e norma l schoo l shoul d h e taugh t t o weav e wit h moder n looms especiall y i n cotton an d ho w t o prepar e th e ra w materia l fo r thi s purpose instea d o f bein g taugh t purel y ornamenta l

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30 1 work Al l o f th e apparatu s coul d b e bough t ^b y th e province Sewin g an d cookin g migh t als o b e profitabl y taugh t alon g wit h th e ar t o f weaving PUBLI C HEALTH Th e statistic s o f th e provincia l boar d of healt h sho w tha t 19,92 3 death s i n a populatio n o f 667,05 7 inhabitant s occurre d i n thi s provinc e betwee n Jul y 20 1903 an d Ma y 31 1904 Thi s make s a monthl y averag e o f 1,99 2 death s an d a n averag e o f 3 0 pe r thousand Th e municipalit y o f Aloguinsa n ha s th e smalles t deat h rate whic h i s 9.2 9 pe r thousand an d tha t o f Carca r th e maximu m o f 102.8 6 pe r thousand Th e followin g tabl e show s th e civi l statu s o f th e person s dyin g durin g th e perio d mentioned : Females Marrie d Widower s Singl e Childre n Unclassifie d Tota l 20 3 6 3 13 8 5,47 7 5,47 7 13 5 U0 0 11 3 4,77 1 4,04 4 10,76 0 9,16 3 i Widows Th e disease s whic h hav e cause d th e greates t mortalit y ar e th e following : Cholera 5,94 2 deaths ; smallpox 2,351 ; intermitten t fevers 814 ; tuberculosis 572 ; beriberi 364 ; dysentery 260 ; malaria l fever 266 Th e reappearanc e o f th e choler a whic h occurre d a t th e beginnin g o f June 1903 cam e i n a muc h milde r epidemi c for m tha n i n th e yea r 1902 I t i s suppose d tha t th e contagio n wa s brough t ove r fro m th e neighborin g Provinc e o f Bohol Smallpo x i s no w o f a n endemi c characte r i n thi s province and appearin g i n a mor e O r les s sever e form ha s claime d a goo d man y victim s durin g th e perio d covere d b y thi s report Ther e wer e a fe w case s o f buboni c plague mostl y amon g Chi namen Leprosy a diseas e a s terribl e a s i t i s disgusting i s wha t i s causin g th e greates t ravage s i n thi s province Th e tota l numbe r o f leper s i n th e islan d i s 1,011 O f thi s numbe r ther e ar e 22 5 i n th e Governmen t Hospital

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30 2 Opo n i s th e municipalit y wher e th e larges t number o f leper s i s t o b e found th e figures bein g 12 8 ou t o f 18,85 0 inhabitants Th e pueblo s o f Bolhoon Dumanjug an d Moalboal wit h 7,347 32,051 an d 16,10 7 inhabitants respectively hav e onl y thre e leper s each Th e lepe r hospital whic h i s situat e withi n th e boundarie s o f thi s city i s ver y dangerou s t o th e peopl e o f th e town Havin g n o guard s t o watc h th e sick the y ar e won t t o mak e thei r escap e b y nigh t an d quietl y wal k i n amon g a lo t o f peopl e gathere d togethe r fo r som e reaso n o r other Th e lowe r classes a s a genera l rule tak e n o notic e o f thi s diseas e no r d o the y endeavo r t o avoi d contact bein g incredulou s a s t o th e danger Thi s perhap s account s fo r th e rapi d sprea d o f thi s disease I t i s therefor e ver y urgen t tha t thi s hospita l shoul d b e trans ferre d t o a mor e isolate d plac e a s soo n a s possible Births. —During th e sam e perio d 19,68 3 births whic h i s a n averag e o f 32.0 7 pe r thousan d inhabitants wer e registered Com pare d wit h th e numbe r o f death s i t show s a decreas e i n populatio n o f 24 0 inhabitants However th e figures o f birth s ar e probabl y inexact whe n i t i s take n int o accoun t tha t i n th e majorit y o f th e municipalitie s n o registratio n o f birth s i s kep t othe r tha n th e paris h books I n non e o f th e municipalitie s o f thi s province wit h th e exceptio n o f tha t o f Cebu hav e ther e bee n municipa l board s o f healt h established eithe r becaus e o f th e lac k o f doctor s o r o f fund s t o maintai n same AGRICULTURE KIN D AN D IMPORTANC E O F TH E PRESEN T AGRICULTURA L PRODUCTS Th e agricultura l productio n o f th e provinc e i s represente d b y th e followin g articles : Sugar copra tobacco an d hemp Sugar. —Sugar wa s formerl y on e o f th e mos t importan t product s an d th e principa l facto r of trad e an d commerc e i n thi s province Befor e th e revolutio n th e averag e annua l productio n fluctuated betwee n 250,00 0 an d 300,00 0 piculs whil e th e cro p o f 190 3 wa s onl y 110,25 9 picul s an d th e presen t cro p scarcel y reache d 15,00 0 piculs I t i s thu s see n tha t th e las t productio n compare d t o tha t o f th e yea r befor e show s a fallin g of f o f 95,25 9 piculs an d a s compare d t o th e averag e norma l productio n durin g th e year s prio r t o th e revolutio n i t show s a decreas e o f 285,00 0 piculs

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30 3 S o lon g a s th e cause s whic h hav e occasione d it s deca y exis t ther e ca n b e n o hop e o f a retur n t o it s forme r prosperou s state bu t o n th e contrar y i n a shor t tim e i t wil l ceas e t o b e cultivated b y th e farmer s eve n thoug h the y ar e compelle d t o los e considerabl e capita l investe d i n suga r mills Copra. —In vie w o f th e fac t tha t n o cattl e ar e necessar y fo r it s cultivation copr a i s a produc t whic h ha s a goo d futur e befor e it Fo r thi s reaso n cocoanu t plantation s ar e becomin g mor e extensive al l availabl e lan d bein g graduall y take n up Th e pro ductio n o f thi s articl e i n th e yea r 190 3 i s estimate d approximatel y a t 10,40 0 picnls an d i t i s ver y probabl e tha t thi s year' s cro p wil l sho w a n increas e o f one-third takin g int o accoun t th e productio n u p t o date Tobacco. —Although thi s plan t require s carefu l an d costl y cul tivatio n an d i s o f rathe r uncertai n yield muc h dependin g upo n th e weather it s quick-growin g qualitie s an d it s valu e compare d t o th e are a cultivate d i s th e reaso n tha t man y farmer s wh o hav e onl y smal l holding s whic h the y cultivat e themselve s prefe r t o cultivat e i t i n rotatio n wit h cor n t o an y othe r product Thi s explain s wh y th e productio n o f tobacc o an d cor n durin g th e las t thre e year s ha s bee n steady thoug h i t i s onl y abou t hal f wha t i t use d t o b e durin g norma l year s befor e th e revolution Thi s year' s cro p wil l b e abou t 1 0 pe r cen t les s tha n las t year whe n i t amounte d t o 29,80 0 quintals It s qualit y i s als o inferio r o n accoun t o f th e heav y an d abundan t rains Hemp. —The cultivatio n o f hem p i s increasin g ver y slowl y owin g t o th e fac t tha t ther e i s ver y littl e lan d i n thi s provinc e adapte d fo r it Th e plan t doe s no t gro w s o larg e her e a s i n Leyt e an d othe r hemp-prodncin g provinces Fo r *tha t reaso n quit e a larg e are a o f lan d i s require d i n orde r t o giv e a profi t t o th e planter Th e fallin g of f i n thi s productio n fo r th e presen t yea r i s approx imatel y 2 0 pe r cen t a s compare d t o las t year whe n th e cro p amounte d t o 10,73 0 piculs Product s consume d i n th e interio r ar e corn rice borona mongos cacao coffee potatoes an d tuber s o f severa l kinds Com. —Corn i s a t presen t th e mos t importan t produc t o f thi s provinc e an d tha t whic h maintain s th e farmer s throug h thes e precariou s times Thoug h i t i s no t a n articl e o f export larg e quantitie s ar e shippe d t o adjacen t provinces an d th e native s o f Ceb u us e i t a s thei r principa l articl e o f food Th e lac k o f draf t

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30 4 cattl e make s it s cultivatio n ver y costly bu t thi s i s compensate d b y th e hig h pric e i t brings Th e approximat e cro p fo r 190 3 wa s 407,62 1 cavans an d th e price s brough t fro m $4.5 0 t o $ 5 a cavan Durin g th e presen t year t o judg e b y th e amoun t alread y gathered i t i s estimate d tha t ther e wil l b e a n increas e o f 3 0 pe r cen t ove r last Th e presen t pric e i s fro m $ 3 t o $3.5 0 a cavan Rice. —Rice i s gathere d i n ruc h smal l quantitie s tha t i t i s scarcel y sufficien t fo r loca l consumption Th e cultivatio n o f thi s cerea l prio r t o th e revolution whe n ther e wa s a n abundanc e o f cattl e an d wage s wer e low neve r amounte d t o much a s th e lan d her e i s no t wel l adapte d t o it s cultivation Fo r tha t reaso n suga r cane tobacco an d othe r crop s wer e preferre d becaus e the y require d les s attentio n an d ar e les s costl y t o rais e and moreover d o no t requir e irrigate d lands, whic h ar e ver y expensiv e i n Cebu I t i s ver y probabl e tha t wit h moder n method s an d tool s whic h woul d reduc e th e cos t o f raisin g ric e it s cultivatio n migh t becom e mor e genera l an d yiel d a t leas t sufficien t t o satif y th e loca l demand Wit h regar d t o othe r article s mentioned suc h a s borona mongoes cacao an d coffee the y ar e raise d o n a ver y smal l scal e an d ar e scarcel y sufficien t t o satisf y th e need s o f th e provinc e itself Potatoe s ar e onl y raise d i n tw o pueblo s o f thi s province o n a n insignifican t scale Wit h regar d t o othe r tubers especiall y th e swee t potato man y hav e bee n planted thoug h no t t o s o grea t a n exten t a s t o mak e th e swee t potat o o f commercia l importance Bu t eac h famil y o f farmer s ha s it s ow n plo t o f groun d se t asid e exclusivel y fo r th e cultivatio n o f thi s plan t a s a preventiv e measur e agains t th e dange r o f famine I t i s du e t o thi s precautio n tha t thi s provinc e di d no t suffe r muc h fro m th e congruence s o f time s o f scarcity Maguey or sisal. —I hav e no t mentione d thi s produc t amon g th e oth^ s fo r th e reaso n tha t I though t i t mor e advisabl e t o spea k a t lengt h i n regar d t o i t i n thi s report Thi s i s a plan t whic h unti l recentl y wa s onl y use d t o mar k boundarie s o f land s o r fo r th e purpos e o f fencin g an d t o extrac t th e fibers fro m it s leave s whic h ar e use d i n th e makin g o f rope However th e valu e acquire d b y thes e fibers i n th e marke t fo r exportatio n make s n s hop e tha t withi n a shor t tim e it s cultivatio n wil l becom e greatl y developed Bein g confiden t tha t th e cultivatio n o f thi s plan t migh t offe r a goo d futur e fo r agriculture I hav e suggeste d t o th e municipali tie s durin g m y visit s o f inspectio n tha t the y recommen d planter s

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30 5 t o devot e a portio n o f thei r land s t o th e cultivatio n o f thi s plant eve n i f onl y a s a n experiment a s i t migh t b e tha t thei r futur e prosperit y woul d depen d upo n thi s product mague y bein g eas y t o cultivat e o n eve n th e poores t land an d no t requirin g th e us e o f draf t cattl e eve n o n th e larges t plantations A t th e beginnin g o f thi s yea r a fe w crop s ha d alread y bee n gathered an d i t i s estimate d tha t th e yiel d fo r 190 4 wil l amoun t t o 50 0 piculs Th e fibe r i s no w quote d a t fro m $ 8 t o $ 9 th e picul GENERA L CONDITIO N O F AGRICULTURE Th e continua l decadenc e o f agricultur e i n thi s islan d fro m yea r t o yea r i s remarkable Nothin g i s perceive d whic h woul d offe r hope s o f it s promp t reestablishmen t an d brin g i t bac k t o th e plac e wher e i t wa s befor e th e revolution Th e fact s abov e se t fort h giv e painfu l evidenc e o f it s eritiea l situation Al l o f it s importan t product s hav e suffere d a decreas e amountin g t o one-half mor e o r less a s compare d t o that period an d i t i s impossibl e t o prophes y ho w lon g thi s stat e o f affair s will exist ; I t i s tru e tha t ther e ha s bee n a n increas e i n som e product s suc h a s corn bu t thi s doe s no t signif y tha t ther e i s any indicatio n o f a n improvement becaus e proportionatel y a greater-amoun t o f labo r ha s had t o b e employe d tha n ordinaril y i s th e case I mea n t o sa y b y thi s tha t a farme r who le t u s say wit h proper tool s an d animal s ca n cultivat e 3 hectare s o f lan d t o corn withou t thes e thing s woul d necessaril y hav e t o emplo y fou r me n t o cultivat e th e sam e are a o f ground ORIGI N O F TH E PRESEN T CRISIS Variou s factor s hav e contribute d t o th e rui n o f agricultur e i n thi s province th e principa l on e bein g th e result s o f th e revolution durin g whic h larg e sum s o f money represente d b y larg e plantation s burn t dow n o r neglected wer e lost Beside s thi s ther e wer e th e warehouses suga r mills agricultura l tool s an d implement s tha t wer e destroye d o r burnt an d th e draf t cattl e eithe r die d o r wer e stolen especiall y durin g th e insurrectio n agains t Spanis h rule Eve n durin g norma l time s ther e ha s bee n a scarcit y o f capital s o tha t i t ha s alway s bee n difficul t t o secur e loan s eve n a t th e exor bitan t interes t o f fro m 2 0 t o 2 5 pe r cen t an d wit h goo d security. ; Planter s an d farmer s hav e always i n th e grea t majority live d o n credit secure d no t precisel y b y th e nomina l valu e o f thei r land s 2490 4 2 0

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30 6 bu t b y th e valu e represente d b y th e improvement s thereon th e method s o f productio n an d th e crops al l o f whic h wer e hypothecate d t o respon d fo r th e amoun t o f th e deb t an d interes t thereon Whe n al l thes e element s ha d bee n los t disaste r resulte d t o agricul ture an d a s a natura l consequenc e bot h principa l an d interes t wer e los t i n th e majorit y o f cases Unde r thes e circumstance s th e capi talists i n th e impossibilit y o f bein g reimbursed los t confidenc e an d wil l mak e n o ne w loan s upo n agricultura l propert y eve n a t th e ver y highes t rate s o f interest Anothe r reaso n fo r th e deca y o f agricultur e i s th e increas e i n wage s du e t o th e hig h pric e o f stapl e article s o f food Th e presen t cos t o f labo r i s s o ou t o f proportio n wit h th e valu e o f agricultura l product s o f certai n kinds—lik e sugar fo r instance—tha t i t i s impossibl e t o cultivat e the m excep t a t a loss Ther e wer e othe r contributar y cause s whic h hav e brough t agricultur e t o it s presen t state suc h a s th e frequen t plague s o f locusts drought etc. bu t owin g t o thei r transitor y characte r the y d o no t constitut e a proble m th e solutio n o f whic h require s carefu l study Th e solutio n o f th e problem therefore i s th e resul t o f th e follow in g factors : (1 ) Lac k o f capital. (2 ) Lac k o f cattle ; an d (3 ) Th e hig h pric e o f labo r an d th e lo w price s brough t b y agri cultura l products Perhap s i t wil l b e state d tha t th e lac k o f cattl e ca n b e overcom e b y purchasin g ne w stoc k whe n th e farmer s shal l hav e gotte n o n thei r fee t again Thi s i s true bu t i t mus t b e born e i n min d tha t th e frequen t occurrenc e o f rinderpes t an d othe r cattl e disease s mak e th e farme r continuall y expose d t o th e dange r o f losin g th e capita l investe d i n them an d s o rathe r tha n ru n thi s ris k h e prefer s t o cultivat e hi s land s i n accordanc e wit h hi s presen t resource s an d withou t contractin g ne w obligation s whic h migh t mea n rui n t o him MEAN S O F SOLVIN G TH E AGRICULTURA L PROBLEM A s th e cause s abov e indicate d ar e known i t wil l no t b e impos sibl e t o see k th e remed y whic h shal l adequatel y restor e agricultur e t o it s forme r condition However i t i s necessar y tha t th e questio n b e looke d a t fro m ever y poin t o f vie w an d tha t al l o f th e factor s whic h hav e contribute d t o th e decadenc e b e eliminate d a t on e time an d no t t o attemp t t o eliminat e the m on e b y one a s th e Governmen t

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30 7 ha s don e i n it s experimen t o f importin g draf t cattle whic h u p t o th e presen t da y ha s no t ha d th e resul t o f improvin g th e conditio n o f agriculture A s m y dutie s tak e u p almos t m y entir e time I regre t tha t i n thi s repor t i t i s no t possibl e fo r m e t o tak e u p an d explai n wha t appear s t o m e woul d wor k a solutio n o f thi s proble m whic h o n accoun t o f it s transcendenc y deserve s specia l attentio n an d carefu l study I wil l therefor e leav e thi s matte r t o b e dwel t upo n a t lengt h a t som e futur e day Befor e finishing thi s par t o f m y repor t I woul d say .i n passing tha t th e establishmen t o f a fe w manufactorie s whos e ra w material s ca n b e cultivate d i n thi s provinc e woul d giv e a grea t impuls e t o th e developmen t o f agriculture—fo r example tha t o f cotto n mills whos e product s ar e largel y consume d i n thes e Islands A s a ra w material cotto n i s a plan t easil y an d cheapl y cultivated I t doe s no t requir e th e us e o f draf t cattl e eve n whe n raise d o n a larg e scale I f ther e wer e a deman d fo r cotton planter s woul d a t onc e cultivat e thi s plan t t o land s tha t ar e bar e an d uncultivated, an d th e profit s woul d no t onl y brin g result s t o agricultur e itsel f bu t th e manufacturer bein g abl e t o acquir e ra w materia l cheap coul d advantageousl y compet e wit h th e foreig n produc t an d th e consume r coul d bu y th e finished articl e muc h cheape r tha n h e no w does ADVERSITIE S SUFFERE D B Y AGRICULTURE Durin g th e perio d covere d b y thi s repor t th e provinc e wa s invade d b y locust s severa l times th e las t plague s occurrin g i n Augus t an d December 1903 an d th e beginnin g o f Jun e o f thi s year Th e pueblo s whic h mos t severel y suffere d wer e Sa n Fer nando Carcar Argoa Bogo Bantayan Sa n Remigio Asturias Toledo Aloguinsan Barili Naga an d Talisay Fo r th e exterminatio n o f thi s pes t 98 8 galvanized-iro n sheet s an d 15 1 sack s o f ric e wer e equitabl y distribute d amon g th e pueblos I n al l o f th e municipalitie s th e amoun t o f locust s kille d wa s 1,72 8 cavanes Th e provincia l locus t boar d a s wel l a s th e loca l board s wer e dul y organize d unde r th e provision s o f th e la w an d adopte d regu lation s an d too k suc h measure s a s th e circumstance s require d i n connectio n wit h th e balanc e o f thei r duties Th e prolonge d drough t fel t abou t th e beginnin g o f th e yea r 190 3

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30 8 an d th e excessiv e rain s a t th e en d o f tha t yea r resulte d i n th e los s o f man y crops especiall y th e drought whic h ha d a grea t dea l t o d o wit h th e presenc e o f famin e i n som e parts I n th e sam e manne r th e stor m o f Jun e 2 1903 i n th e norther n par t o f thi s island destroye d man y crop s i n th e municipalitie s o f Bantayan Sa n Remigio Bogo an d Tabogan Th e famin e fel t i n som e o f th e municipalitie s wa s combate d wit h th e relie f fun d o f 10,00 0 picul s o f ric e receive d fro m th e Insula r Government whic h wa s use d fo r th e paymen t o f labo r o n th e road s constructe d i n th e municipalitie s wher e matter s wer e a t thei r worst Th e rinderpes t i s stil l prevalen t an d continue s it s wor k o f exterminatin g th e remnant s o f th e provincia l herds Th e commissione r sen t dow n b y th e Governmen t fo r th e purpos e o f inoculatin g cattl e wit h th e prophylacti c seru m i n thos e pueblo s wher e ther e wer e case s o f th e epidemic me t wit h th e mos t deplorabl e failur e a s th e majorit y o f th e cattl e inoculate d died s o tha t th e countr y peopl e hav e los t fait h i n thes e remedie s an d ar e resigne d t o th e los s o f thei r cattle bu t the y wil l not unde r an y circum stances ris k th e dange r o f inoculation fo r the y ar e convince d tha t it s effect s ar e fatal INDUSTRIES Th e industrie s o f thi s provinc e ar e i n th e sam e conditio n a s tha t describe d i n m y las t annua l report Wit h th e exceptio n o f th e cit y o f Cebu wher e a fe w industrie s o f littl e importanc e ar e established i n th e balanc e o f th e municipalitie s the y ar e merel y o f a hom e character Th e fosterin g o f a fe w manufactorie s whos e ra w material s ar e produced o r coul d b e produced i n thi s region woul d giv e a grea t impuls e t o th e financial prosperit y o f thes e Islands Th e establishmen t o f trad e school s i n al l o f th e province s woul d constitut e a n importan t facto r i n th e industria l developmen t o f thes e Islands becaus e the n th e capitalis t wh o desire d t o establis h himsel f her e coul d find intelligen t an d skille d labo r fro m thes e schools an d the y woul d b e muc h cheape r tha n importe d help COMMERCE Th e trad e o f thi s provinc e i s almos t i n exactl y th e sam e conditio n a s durin g th e yea r 1902 a n accoun t o f whic h i s t o b e foun d i n

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. 30 9 m y repor t fo r tha t period Fo r thi s reaso n I thin k i t i s unneces sar y fo r m e t o ente r int o detail s wit h regar d t o thi s matter I recommend however th e promp t completio n o f th e improve ment s o f th e por t o f Cebn a s thi s woul d b e a grea t ai d t o th e commerc e o f th e province Respectfull y submitted JUA N CLIMACO Governor of the Province of Cebu. Th e CIVI L GOVERNO R O F TH E PHILIPPIN E ISLANDS

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ILOCO S NORTE OFFIC E O F TH E GOVERNOR PROVINC E O F ILOCO S NORTE Laoag, July 15, 1901+SI R : I hav e th e honor t o submi t t o yo n th e followin g repor t o f th e Provinc e o f Iloco s Nort e fo r th e fiscal yea r 1903-4 : ADMINISTRATIO N AN D PROGRES S O F TH E PROVINCIA L GOVERNMENT Durin g th e perio d embrace d b y thi s repor t thi s provinc e has speakin g broadly advance d graduall y bu t steadil y unde r th e pro vincia l an d municipa l law s (Act s Nos 8 3 an d 82) a s i s manifeste d b y th e growt h o f publi c interes t i n th e administratio n and th e developmen t o f it s materia l resources Thi s ha s bee n accomplishe d b y a n uprigh t and impartia l applicatio n o f th e law s governin g u s an d wit h th e assistanc e o f th e protectio n an d hel p extende d b y th e Insula r Government I t i s necessar y t o confes s tha t i t a t first appeare d a s i f th e presen t constitutio n wer e no t adaptabl e t o th e peopl e o f thi s provinc e o r o f .th e Archipelago i n vie w o f thei r socia l an d politica l trainin g i n th e past an d tha t therefor e i t woul d b e necessar y t o labo r a s w e hav e bee n laborin g i n orde r t o brin g abou t harmon y betwee n publi c and privat e interest tha t i s t o say a n advantageou s reciprocit y i n th e relation s o f th e individua l wit h th e Government an d ther e ca n b e n o doub t tha t fro m th e sacrifice s o f th e Governmen t and th e effort s o f th e peopl e bor n o f thei r natura l desir e t o adap t themselve s t o existin g circumstances a favorabl e resul t ha s bee n achieved S o tru e i s thi s tha t durin g th e las t fiscal yea r th e mora l an d materia l prosperit y o f th e provinc e wa s greate r tha n durin g th e tw o forme r year s withou t ther e havin g bee n th e leas t sho w o f oppositio n t o a complianc e wit h publi c dutie s and th e observanc e and practic e o f th e idea s involve d i n existin g institutions Th e peopl e hav e no t show n themselve s indifferen t t o thei r materia l welfare ; o n th e contrary the y ar e becomin g stronge r i n thei r 31 0

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. 31 1 convictio n tha t thei r institution s ar e o f a libera l characte r an d nobl e i n thei r purpose fo r the y hav e see n thei r beneficen t influenc e upo n thei r ow n lives The y hav e directe d thei r effort s towar d th e genera l welfare bearin g th e publi c burden s wit h docility ; the y hav e maintaine d a goo d standar d o f publi c moralit y an d hav e favore d educatio n an d sanitation an d the y hav e take n advantag e o f peac e an d tranquillit y t o direc t thei r effort s towar d th e greates t possibl e developmen t o f thei r resource s t o suc h a n exten t that thoug h thei r evolutio n ha s bee n somewha t slo w an d laborious i t ha s bee n paralle l wit h th e nobl e desir e o f th e Governmen t t o giv e t o the m th e fullnes s o f thei r materia l an d mora l advancemen t an d henc e t o thei r highes t possibl e welfare Thi s resul t wa s t o b e expecte d i n vie w o f th e fac t tha t th e individua l an d collectiv e working s