Citation
Prabandhacintāmanị or wishing-stone of narratives

Material Information

Title:
Prabandhacintāmanị or wishing-stone of narratives
Uniform Title:
Prabandhacintāmanị. English
Creator:
Merūtuṅgācārya, active 14th century
Tawney, C. H. (Charles Henry), 1838-1922
Place of Publication:
Calcutta
Publisher:
Gilbert and Rivington for the Asiatic Society
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xx, 236 p. ; 25 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Jains -- Biography -- Early works to 1800 ( LCSH )
Temporal Coverage:
- 1800
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- India -- West Bengal -- Kolkata
এশিয়া -- ভারত -- পশ্চিমবঙ্গ -- কলকাতা
एशिया -- भारत -- पश्चिम बंगाल -- कोलकाता
Coordinates:
22.566667 x 88.366667

Notes

General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Merūtuṅgācārya, active 14th century : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/235532622/
General Note:
translated from the original Sanskrit by C.H. Tawney.

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Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
521600 ( ALEPH )
KC954 /5477 ( SOAS classmark )

Full Text
THE PRABANDHACINTAMANI




THE
PRABANDACINTMANI
or
WISHING-STONE OE NARRATIVES
COMPOSED BY
MERUTUNGA CRYA
TRANSLATED PROM THE ORIGINAL SANSKRIT BY
C. H. TAWNEY, M.A.
honorary member of the asiatic society of bengal
CALCUTTA
Published by THE ASIATIC SOCIETY
57, PARK STREET
and printed by
GILBERT & RIVINGrTON, Ltd.
ST. JOHN'S HOUSE, CLERKENWELL, E.C.
1901


LONDON
PRINTED BY GILBERT AND KIVINGTON, LD.,
ST. JOHX's HOUSE, C LE li KEN WELL, B.C.


PREFACE
T^ee Prabandhacintmani belongs to a class of compositions, the existence-
ofwhich does, to a certain extent, blunt the edge of the reproach frequently
directed against Sanskrit literature, that, with the single exception of the
Rjataraijgin, there is to be found in it no work meriting the title of his-
tory. To remove this reproach was the lifelong aspiration of the late
Hofrath Professor Btihler. Professor Jolly, in the interesting obituary of
Bihler, which he wrote for the Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie,
quotes from a letter of Buhler's addressed to Noldeke in 1877, You
are a little behind the age with your notion that the Indians have no
historical literature. In the last 20 years, five fairly voluminous works have
been discovered, emanating from authors contemporary with the events
which they describe. Pour of them I have discovered myself, viz.,
Yikramgkadevacarita, Gaudavaho, Prthvrjadigvijaya and Krtikaumud.
I am on the track of more than a dozen more."1 It is owing to Professor
Biihler's exertions that so many of these chronicles, historical poems, and
historical romances have been edited. It was at his suggestion that I
undertook the present translation, and it will be evident to any one, who
takes the trouble to read my notes, that, without his assistance and en-
couragement, it would never have been able to t{ pass the ferry backward into
light." It was his intention to write full historical and geographical notes
to it, which would have greatly enhanced its value. But this, unfortu-
nately, must now be numbered among the m any projects whelmed by that
fatal and perfidious bark, which sank so low that sacred head."
In connection with Indian historical literature, and especially that bear-
ing on the history of Gujarat, another name must occur to every British
student, that of Alexander Kinloch Forbes, author of the Ras Ml. His
life has been written by Mr. A. J. Nairne, B.C.S., and it will be found
prefixed to Colonel Watson's edition of the Ras Ml, published in 1878.
Mr. Forbes belonged to a class of Indian civilians deeply interested in the
1 It-appears from the Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, for March,
1900, p. 70 and ff., that Mahmahopdhyya Hara Prasad giistr, M.A., has found a
MS. named Rmaplacarita, by Sandhykara Nandi, giving an account of
Rmapla, king of Gauda, who succeeded his father, Yigrahapla, in 1080.
a


( vi )
history, literature and antiquities of the people among whom their lot was
cast. His careful and conscientious study of these subjects is apparent in
every page of the Ks Ml. The Prabandhacintmani is one of the many
sources from which that work was compiled. So complete was the use
that he made of this chronicle, that in the course of writing my own
translation, it often occurred to me that I was engaged in an unnecessary
labour. My justification must be that, as I was informed by Professor
Buhler, Mr. Forbes himself often expressed the wish that the Prabandhacin-
tmani might be translated. Besides, I flatter myself that not only
students of Indian history, but folklorists and anthropologists may take
interest in the quaint traditions recorded by this medieval Jain monk,
which lose half their charm when paraphrased or summarized. He himself
tells us that his principal object is to amuse, and confesses that the stories
he has been able to gather about persons and events are frequently incon-
sistent. Moreover, as Dr. Johnson, when composing the Parliamentary
Debates in a garret in Exeter Street, took care that the Whig dogs should
not have the best of it, so this zealous Jain has an evident leaning in all
doubtful cases towards the votaries of the orthodox faith of Mahvra, and
takes care that they shall not suffer in comparison with the worshippers of
iva. Professor Buhler puts the matter very clearly in the following
words, u The objects with which the Caritas and Prabandhas were com-
posed, were to edify the Jain community, to convince them of the glory
and power of the Jain religion, or, in cases where the subject is a purely
secular one, to provide them with an agreeable entertainment." It is
therefore useless to expect from these writers a Thucydidean narrative, or
the mature wisdom of Tacitus. Buhler, in fact, places the Jain chroniclers,
in point of credibility, below the medieval European and Arab chroniclers.
He warns us that they are to be used with the greatest caution. But, at
the same time, he reminds us that their testimony is often confirmed by
inscriptions and other evidence of a trustworthy kind.
" In particular, must it be admitted that the persons introduced in the
older, as well as in the more recent narratives, are really historical charac-
ters. Although it is frequently the case that an individual is introduced at
a period earlier or later than that to which he really belonged, or that the
most absurd stories are told with regard to him, yet there is no case forth-
coming in which we could affirm with certainty that a man named by
these chroniclers is a pure figment of the imagination. On the contrary,
nearly every freshly discovered inscription, every collection of old manu-
scripts, and every really historical work that is brought to light, furnishes
confirmation of the actual existence of one or other of the characters de-
1 Boswell's Life of Johnson, Vol. I. p. 103. (Macmillan and Co., 1900.)


( vii )
scribed by them. In the same way all exact dates given by them deserve
the most careful attention. When they are found to agree in two works of
this class, that are independent of one another, they may, without hesitation,
be accepted as historically correct."1
In estimating the comparative value of the various narratives contained
in the following work, it is perhaps scarcely necessary to draw attention to
the fact, that those dealing with individuals, preceding the time of the
author by a century or two, deserve more credence than those embodying
traditions about more remote epochs. Merutuijga, of Vardhamnapura or
Vadhvn, completed his Prabandhacintmani, according to the date given
in Dnntha's edition, in the year 1361 of the era of Vikramditya.
Kumrapla died in 1229 of the same era. It is, therefore, hardly too
much to suppose that Meruturjga's account of Kumrapla and his suc-
cessors is based upon respectable oral tradition.
By this I do not mean to imply that our author had no documents before
him. His statements at the commencement of his work seem to imply
that he had. I think, however, that he has quoted even the Krtikaumud
of Somevara from memory. He certainly not only misquotes, but mis-
understands that poet.
The section dealing with the life of Vikramditya, though it has no
claim to be called historical, possesses an interest of its own. It may be
compared with the Jain recension of the Simhsanadvtrimik so exhaus-
tively discussed by Professor Weber in the XVth volume of the Indische
Studien, and the account given of the same monarch in the Prabandhakosha.
In accordance with their custom of annexing all the heroes of Indian
tradition, the Jains maintain that Vikramditya was converted to the Jain
faith by Siddhasena.2 The story of livhana is treated on much the
same principle as that of Siddhasena. I would fain hope that these sections
may be of some interest to the folklorist and the student of religion, but I
cannot flatter myself that they possess any solid historical value.3
We seem to approach the domain of historical tradition with the found-
ing of the city of Anahillapura, or nhilwd, in the 802nd 37ear of the era
of Vikramditya, which corresponds to 746 A.D. Miss Duff (Mrs.
Rickmers) in her Chronology of India, seems to accept this date given by
Merutugga, and also the tradition of the Ratnaml that Vanarja was
the son of Jayaekhara of Pancara. The most that can be said for
1 Buhler, Uber das Leben des Jaina Mnches Hemacandra, p. 6.
2 See, in my translation of the Kath Koa, p. 191, the note furnished by the
great Jain teacher tmiirm Muni. In theXVIIIth Book of the Kath Sarit Sgara,
the adventures of Vikramditya are related from the Hindu point of view.
3 But Forbes, who misses nothing or very little, when describing on pages 190,
191, of the Rs Ml, the swinging bed on which the king of Gujarat slept, was in-
debted to the Vikramditya section of the Prabandhacintmani, p. 4.


( viii )
Merutuijga's support of this genealogy is, that his narrative is not inconsis-
tent with it. If we adopt this tradition of the Ratnaml, given by Forbes-
in the Ras Ml, we may, perhaps, conclude that the name of his maternal
uncle, who lived the life of a bandit, was rapla (Soorpal).
The story of the founding of Anahill apura or Anhilwd, belongs to a
class of legends, which might appropriately be termed the city foundation
cycle." The animal, with which the foundation of this city is connected
by our author, is a hare. One is irresistibly reminded of the legend of
Aeneas. I quote from Arnold's history of Rome, Vol. I. p. 2, "The
Trojans, when they had brought their gods on shore, began to sacrifice.
But the victim, a milk-white sow, just ready to farrow, broke from the
priests and their ministers, and fled away. Aeneas followed her, for an
oracle had told him that a four-footed beast should guide him to the spot
where he was to build his city." It is unnecessary to pursue the story
further, but we should, perhaps, be justified in comparing the Jli-tree
with the Ficus Ruminalis.1 In the same way Cadmus was commanded by
the oracle at Delphi to follow a cow of a certain kind, and to build a city
on the spot where the cow should sink down from fatigue.2 Athens also
had its horse and its olive, not to mention the owl. Perhaps the wolfr
" the thunder-stricken nurse of Rome," belongs to the same cycle. So the
first beginnings of the new city, founded with Jain mantras," as the pious
chronicler tells us, may, after all, be more closely connected with the wor-
ship of trees and animals than with the formulas of Mahvra.
As indicated in my note on page 22 of the following translation, the
story of the three pilgrims, who paid a visit to king Bhuyadadeva, does not
find favour with modern critics. Biihler gives his opinion in the following
words, I think Merutuijga's whole narrative must be rejected, as an in-
vention of the bards, who wished to join together, in a convenient manner,
the histories of their Cpotkata and Caulukya rulers.3 Miss Duff's chrono-
logical note runs as follows, A.D. 941, V. Samvat 998. Mlarja I. son
of Rji of Kalyna (probably Kanauj) conquers Gujarat and founds there
the Caulukya or Solaijk dynasty of Anhilwd : reigns till A.D. 996."
Possibly, the inventors of this romantic tale may have wished to explain
1 It would, perhaps, be going too far to compare Vanarja (the forest king) with
Silvius.
2 Andrew Lang (Custom and Myth, p. 114) quotes from Strabo a story to this
effect4 That emigrants had set out in prehistoric times from Crete. The oracle
advised them to settle wherever they were attacked by the children of the soil/
At Hamaxitus in the Troad they were assailed in the night by mice, which ate all
that was edible cf their armour and bowstrings. The colonists made up their
minds that these mice were 4 the children of the soil,' settled there, and adored the
mouse Apollo."
3 Buhler, however, seems disposed to concede that Miilarja's mother may have
been a Cpotkata. For the bards of Gujarat, see Rs Ml (Watson's edition)
pp. 558-61.


( i* )
the proverbial phrase a Cpotkata's gift." We may leave the question as
it now stands, with the hope that some inscription may soon be discovered,
which will clear the matter up.
Mlarja's victories over Brapa and Laksa, the king of Kach, are men-
by Arisimha. The retirement of Mlarja before Brapa and Vigraharja
to Kanthkot derives some support from a grant published by Buhler in the
Indian Antiquary, Vol. VI., p. 180 and ff.1 The testimony of the poet
Somevara (KK. ii. 3 and 4) is to the same effect, as far as regards the
ultimate triumph of Mularja, but the preliminary retirement is not
mentioned.
The section of the Prabandhacintmani dealing with the history of
Munja contains at least one historical fact, that Munja, or Vkpatirja II.,2
carried on war for a long time with Tailapa II., the Clukya king of
Kalyna, and was at last conquered by him and put to death. Buhler has
shown that of this execution there can be little doubt, as two Clukya inscrip-
tions boast of it. Moreover, Rudrditya was really his minister, as he is men-
tioned in the grant of 979 A.D. The fact that Vkpatirja or Munja was
put to death by Tailapa II. makes it possible, with the aid of a notice in a Jain
work, to fix, within narrow limits, the time when his campaign took place
and his reign came to an end. Amitagati finished his Subhsitaratnasandoha
in V.S. 1050 or 993-94 A.D., in the reign of king Munja,3 and Tailapa II.
died shortly before, or actually in, the aka year 919, i.e. 997998 A.D.,
which is the first year of his successor. The death of Munja, therefore,
must have taken place in one of the three years 994-996. The beginning
of his reign must be fixed before Y.S. 1031 or 974 A.D., the date of his first
grant of land, but, as we have before remarked, cannot be far removed from
that date." 4
The portion of this section that describes Tailapa's treatment of Munja,
when in captivity, possesses a poetical, rather than a historical, truth. But
there is a strange pathos in the romantic story told by Merutugga. Even,
if we do not accept the details, we may be satisfied that Merutugga's
account contains nothing which his readers would consider improbable, and
that, therefore, the picture, which he gives of the life and manners of the
Indian princes of the time, represents substantial truth. Moreover, king
Munja's boast before his execution, that by his death Sarasvat would be
left without a support, rests on a solid basis of fact. Not only did he
patronize Padmagupta, who wrote the Navashasijkacarita in praise of
1 See particularly p. 184. For Arisimha's testimony, see Buhler, Das Sukritasam-
krtana des Arisimha, p. 11.
2 For his other names see note on p. 30 of my translation.
3 See also Miss Duff's Chronology of India, p. 102.
4 Buhler und Zachariso, NavashasTjkacarita, p. 44.


( x )
his successor, and Dlianapla, who flourished under him and not under
Bhoja, as Merutugga erroneously states, but Dhananjaya and his brother
Dhanika, of whom the first wrote the Daarpa, while the second com-
mented on it. alyudha also, the commentator on Piijgala's work, lived
according to his own statement (Subhasitval, p. 115) under the sway of
this prince. That he was himself a poet rests not only on the fact that
Merutuijga and the other authors of Prabandhas, and also the compilers of
anthologies ascribe to him verses, but a stanza is given as his by Ksemendra,
who wrote about fifty years after his death.1
About few kings of India have more myths accumulated than about
Bhoja or Bhojadeva, the famous Paramra sovereign of Dhr. We must,
therefore, not be surprised to find that, in giving an account of his treatment
in early youth by his uncle, Merutuijga at once falls into the mythopoeic
vein. The oft-repeated story of the wicked uncle Munja must, to begin
with, be relegated to the domain of folk-lore, and with it must go all
Merutuijga's statements with regard to Sindhurja or Sindhula, which remind
one of a tale in the Kath Sarit Sgara. As a matter of fact, he succeeded
his brother Muiija, and though he may, occasionally, have been on bad
terms with him, it is obvious that he was not confined in a wooden cage, or
deprived of his eyes.2 The reign of this prince may be described in the
words of Miss Duff,"Sindhurja, Navashasijka, or Kumranryana,
Paramra of Mlava, conquered a king of the Hunas, a prince of the
Koalas, the inhabitants of Viigada and Lata, and the Muralas ; wedded the
Nga princess aiprabh, probably of the race of the Nga Ksatriyas ;
had for his chief minister Yaobhata-Ramggada." 3 It would appear that
he was by no means successful in his war against the Caulukya king of
Gujarat, Cmundarja, if Merutuijga is correct in his statement that this
king died of small-pox while investing the fortifications of Dhr.
The section of our author's work, dealing with Bhoja and Bhlma, may be
looked at from two points of view. It is in the first place a storehouse of
mythical legends with regard to Bhoja, the reputed author of the Sarasvat-
kanthbharana and other works, who is supposed to have been surrounded
by a galaxy of poets ; and in the second place it is a political history of the
two kingdoms of Mfilava and Gujarat, under two rival sovereigns. The
history of king Bhoja's relations with his literary coterie sets chronology at
defiance. Of the poets with whom he is associated by Merutuijga,
Rjaekhara flourished under Mahendrapla of Kanauj (A.D. 903-7) and
his son Mahpla (A.D. 917); Dhanapla, as before remarked, flourished
1 See Buhler und Zachariae, Navashasrjkacarita p. 42 ; Miss Duff, Chronology
of India, p. 100.
2 See Buhler und Zacharise, Navashasrjkacarita, p. 45 and ff.
3 Chronology of India, p. 102.


( xi )
under Munja ; while Bna and Mayura and Mnatuijga are generally held
to have been contemporaries of the great Harsavardhana of Thnesar, and
Kanauj. Mgha, whatever his date may have been, probably lived before the
time of king Bhoja.
No one, who considers the history of king Bhlma as detailed in this
section, can help being struck by one remarkable omission. Nothing is
said about the capture of Somantha Pattana by Mahmd of Grhazn, though
this event appears to have taken place in 1026 A.D., according to Miss
Duff's Chronology of India, four years after Bhlma's accession. Perhaps
Merutuijga omits to mention this disaster from patriotic motives, though
Bhma is said to have displayed great courage on the occasion. He does not
scruple to mention the sacking of Anhilwd by Kulacandra, though he
accounts for it by the absence of Bhma in Sindh, and treats it as a mere
raid. JForbes seems to accept as historical Bhlma's visit to Bhoja's court in
ing enmity between the Caulukyas
Mlava, which is ascribed by Merutuijga to Munja's ill-treatment of
Durlabha, took a tragic turn for king Bhoja. (^^hjma allied h i m s e 1 f w i t h
Karna of Dhala, which is probably equivalent to Cedi or Bandelkhand,1
and with his help overpowered Bhoja. This statement of Merutuijga's is
supported by the Krtikaumud, the Sukrtasaijkrtana, and by Kumrapla's
fVadnagarpraastis There seems to be some doubt as to how Bhoja met with
his end. Somevara seems to imply that Bhma spared his life.3 Miss Duff tells
us that the exact date of his death is unknown. The date given by Merutuijga
for the accession of Karna, the son of Bhima, is accepted by Miss Duff.
The statement of this author, that this king was married to Mayanalladevi,.
daughter of Jayakein, is, according to the same authority, confirmed by
Hemacandra and Abhayatilaka. This Jayakein is supposed to be
Jayakein I. of the Kdamba family of Goa. Merutuijga's account of Karna
is meagre, though he mentions his public works, but he takes great interest
in his son and successor Jayasimha or Siddharja, probably because in his
reign the great Jain teacher HemacaJidEa-fi^st comes into prominence. It
would appear that Siddharja was not only a great conqueror, who captured
Yaovarman, king of Mlava, and reduced Yarvaraka, apparently the
leader of a non-Aryan tribe, to the position of an obedient vassal, but
also took great interest in literature and religion. His court-poet, we
learn from the Prabandhacintmani, was rpla, but he appears to have
favoured other literary men. Though he was a professed votary of
iva, the god of his family, he seems to have been somewhat latitudi-
1 Buhler's introduction to his edition of the Vikramarjkadevacarita, p. 18.
2 Chronology of India, p. 112.
3 See the oouplet quoted in the note to p. 71 of my translation.
disguise, which is admirably related


( xii )
narian in his religions views, and, like Akbar, to have taken pleasure in
controversies between the adherents of rival creeds. Hemacandra, no
doubt, gained his favour, at first, by his literary eminence, and subse-
quently made good use of his gifts as a courtier to advocate the claims of
his own faith. On the whole, there can be little doubt that Merutuijga's
picture of Siddharja's court is true to life. It is possible to feel doubt
about particular incidents, which are omitted or related in a slightly
different form by other authorities, but not to doubt the main effect of
our author's narrative.1 Moreover, it is impossible to doubt that
Hemacandra composed his well-known grammar at the request of
Siddharja, and it is, at least, probable that he took part in the famous
discussion between Devasuri and Hemacandra, though this discussion
may have taken place at an earlier date than that assigned to it by
Merutuijga.
The section dealing with the life of king Kumrapla, the Paramfirhata,
must have been a labour of love to the Jain chronicler. This being the
case, it is painful to have to point out that Buhler convicts him of a gross
anachronism at the outset.2 It is difficult to believe that Hemacandra was
introduced to Kumrapla by Udayana. According to Merutuijga's own
statement, Udayana migrated into Gujarat shortly after the commence-
ment of tha^reign of Siddharja, that is to say, about' 1150 Y.S^~ But
^ufflrapl^ aucceeded his great uncle m 1199 Y.S. It is obvious that
Udayana cannot have been long employed under the latter monarch, even
if he was alive in his reign. Merutuijga is also guilty of an inaccuracy in
asserting that Hemacandra recommended Kumrapla to restore the
temple of Somantha at Devapattana. For an inscription in the temple
of Bhadrakl, at Devapattana, dated Yalabh-Samvat 1850, or Y.S. 1225,
expressly states that the Ganda Brhaspati, who had already been in great
favour with Jaya9imha, induced Kumrapla to rebuild the ruined temple.
This is intrinsically more probable than Merutugga's tale. As it appears
that Merutugga's story about the introduction of Hemacandra to
Kumrapla is not to be trusted, suspicion is also cast upon our author's
account of their earlier relations.
It is evident that Kumrapla was engaged in war with Arnorja shortly
after he ascended the throne.3 This alone would make it probable that
Kumrapla's acquaintance with Hemacandra and his conversion to
1 The stories told by Merutirrjga, Jinamandana,the author of the Kumraplacarita,
and the authors of the Prabhvakacaritra are compared and critically examined by
Buhler in his essay, tf ber das Leben des Jaina Mnches Hemacandra."
^ Buhler's Hemacandra, p. 29.
3 Miss Duff tellsJLa^tha^Kumraplai conquered Mlava and defeated Arnorja in
or shortly before w^S/l^OTTTTTT5"H) I may here mention that the same authority
accepts as historical the defeat of Mallikrjuna by his general mbada.


( xiii )
the Jaina faith took place at a later date than is represented by
Merutuijga.
JThe exact .date ol Kumrapla's conversion to Jainism is inferred by
Buhler from a passage in Yacahpla's drama, the ^JJiaBriya. In this
play the king's conversion is allegorically represented as his marriage with
Krpsundar (beautiful compassion), the daughter of Dharmarja and
Viratidevi, and Hemacandra is mentioned as the p^ieskthat blessed the
union. The date of the marriage is given as fy.S. 1216.1 As the
Mohaparjaya was written shortly after the death of Kmrapla, this date
may be accepted as correct. Buhler would place the introduction of
Hemacandra to Kumrapla about two years earlier.
Whatever may be thought of Merutugga's dates, or Biihler's rectification
of them, there can be no doubt that Kumrapla was practically converted
to Jainism, and set himself to make Gujart a model Jain state. Under
the guidance of Hemacandra, he not only denied himself the enjoyments
and amusements forbidden by the Jain law, but he compelled his subjects
to practise similar self-denial. He promulgated an edict which enjoined
-abstention from the taking of animal life in the widest sense of the term,
and which was most strictly enforced in every.part of his dominions. The
Brahmans, who immolated animals at their sacrifices, were ordered to give.
up the practice and to substitute corn. Even in Palldea, in Rajputana,
people were compelled to obey this edict, and the ascetics of that country,
who clothed themselves with the skins of antelopes, found great difficulty
in procuring them. The consequence was that, as we are told in the
Mahvracarita, the Pndurarjgas (i.e. the votaries of iva) had to live like
born rvakas. The prohibition of the chase, of which the above-
mentioned work speaks, was the obvious result of this edict, and even the
inhabitants of Pancladea, that is, of middle Kthiawd, who had been
terrible sinners in this respect, were obliged to submit to it. A further
consequence of it was the measure against butchers, of which we read in
the Dvyraya Kvya. They had to give up their trade, and received
compensation to the amount of three years' income.3
The absurd extent to which Kumrapla carried his tenderness for
animal life, is shown by the ridiculous story of the Ykvihra, told by
Merutuijga.3 Such are the melancholy results that follow, when philosophers
and literary men, like Hemacandra, are in a position to control the govern-
ment of a nation. A less objectionable result was the prohibition of
spirituous drinks, dice-playing, animal combats and betting, which, according
to Buhler, is vouched for by two of the Jain authorities. But the people
1 The same date is given in a story which forms an appendix to MSS. P and a.
In this story the lady is called Ahims, the daughter of rmadarhaddharma by
Anukampdev.
2 Buhler's Hemacandra, page 39. 3 See page 143 of my translation.


( xiv )
of Gujarat were no more ripe for this advanced legislation in the twelfth
century than the people of Great Britain were in the nineteenth. Another
instance of the conscientiousness of Kumrapla is related by Merutuijga.
He determined to forego the income derived from confiscating the property
of those of his subjects, who died leaving widows,1 but no son. Buhler
points out that this practice, though contrary to the Smrtis, prevailed in
many parts of India, notably in the west. Accordingly, it is alluded to by
Klidsa, who was a native of Mlava, which borders on Gujarat, in his
Abhijnnakuntala.
(^Ijjough-Xumrapla-was, no doubt, a conscientious follower of the Jain
disci^lineJh^managed, to combine with it a lurking regard for iva, the
family god of the Caulukyas .of Gujarat. This halting between two or
more opinions in religion has been characteristic of many Indian sovereigns.
Buhler in his essay on the life of Hemacandra, and Cowell and Thomas,
in their translation of the rharsacarita, ascribe this liberality of view to
the famous Harsavardhana of Thnesar and Kanauj. He was the Akbar
of the Hindu period of Indian history ; and under his wise toleration the
adherents of the contending religions, Brahmanism and Buddhism, seemed
to forget their divisions in a common feeling of loyalty, just as Rajputs
and Muhammadans served Akbar with equal devotion.''3 Biihler thinks
that Kumrapla was compelled to show some consideration for the
orthodox party because some of his courtiers and ministers belonged to
it.3 It would seem from Merutuijga's narrative that even Hemacandra was
not ashamed to bow himself in the house of Somantha in the company of
his sovereign.4 He probably excused himself on the ground that his
object was to win over, by a pious fraud, Kumrapla to the Jain faith.5.
The friendship between the sage and the monarch, which was brought
about by the similarity of their religious views, seems to have been
sincere, resembling that between Fronto and Marcus Aurelius.
Merutuijga's description of the closing scene of Kumrapla's life is full
of genuine pathos.6 But, unfortunately, the parallel between the Roman
Stoic and the Indian Paramrhata holds good in another particular. As
Aurelius looked forward to the day when his courtiers would congratulate
1 See page 133 of my translation.
2 Harsacarita of Bna, translated by Cowell and Thomas, Preface, pages viii.
and ix.
3 I think, however, that Kapardin was clearly a Jain, in spite of Buhler's doubts.
See page 152 of my translation. On another point I should presume to differ from
the guru. I should compare the story of the priests of Kanthevar (H.C.,pp. 45,
46) to that of the priests of Bel in the Apocrypha. The parallel is very close.
4 Page 131 of my translation.
5 Buhler (H.C. p. 29) is justly severe upon die Uebertlpelung des Knigs
durch einen Hokus-Pokus," which he declares to be quite after the manner of Jain
missionaries.
Page 151 of my translation.


( XV )
themselves on being rid of this pedagogue/'1 so Kumrapla, if he had
been able to foresee the future, might have beheld his most faithful followers
tortured and slain, and his temples broken down by his nephew Ajaya-
pla,2 who is pictured by the Jain writers as an Indian Commodus. But
some excuse may be found for Ajayapla's severity in the tradition that
the Jain party in the state had wished to exclude him from the throne, in
favour of Pratpamalla, the son of Kumrapla's daughter, who was sound
in the Jain faith. It is clear that, on Ajayapala's accession, a reaction in
favour of the religion of iva set in. Merutuijga tells us that Ajayapla
was stabbed by a door-keeper, and, like another religious persecutor, was
eaten of worms.3
Merutuijga drops no hint which might guide us as to his opinion on
the character of Bhmadeva II. He mentions an abortive invasion of
Gujarat by Sohada of Mlava, and a subsequent successful invasion by his
son Arjunadeva. Bhma does not seem to have been a very capable
monarch, and it used to be supposed that Lavanaprasda and his son
Vradhavala rebelled against him, and established an independent
sovereignty at Dholka about A.D. 1219. This view was put forward by
Biihler in the Indian Antiquary, Yol. "VI., page 187 and ff., and is adopted
by Miss Duff in her Chronology of India. But Merutuijga lends no
support to this view. He speaks of Lavanaprasda as the vicegerent of
Bhma. Buhler in his Sukrtasaijkrtana of Arisimha, p. 21 and ff., retracts
his former view. He is of opinion that recent discoveries make it doubtful
whether Lavanaprasda ever rebelled against Bhma. Not only the state-
ments of Arisimha, but the terms of a grant dated V.S. 1288, in a book
called Lekhapancik, discovered by Dr. R. G. Bhnlrkar, show that
Lavanaprasda recognized Bhma II., outwardly at any rate, as his over-
lord. Professor Kthavate is very near the mark when he compares the
attitude of Lavanaprasda towards Bhma, with that of the Peshvs
towards the court of Satr.4 The fact that Merutuijga takes such interest
in Lavanaprasda is, no doubt, in great measure to be ascribed to the
discretion which he showed in choosing the famous Jain brothers Vastu-
pla and Tejahpla for his ministers. Though pious Jains, they were, like
Amrabhata, the follower of Kumrapla, men of action. Moreover, they
seem to have shown a becoming regard for learned men. 4t was, apparently,
von_account of his patronage of poets and pandits that Vastupal'ws
called the younger Bhoja. ^ ""
^~The"story of Yastupla's pilgrimage is also told by Arisimha and Some-
1 Ai'atrveva'uixv irote tr b tovtov t ou iraiSaycoyov. Meditations of Marcus Aurelius,
X. 36.
2 See the practical protest of the jester Sla (p. 151 of my translation).
Cp. II. Maccabees, IX. 9.
4 Introduction to Kthavate's edition of the Krtikaumud, p. xxv.


( xvi )
vara. They fill in details which Merutugga lias overlooked. Vastupla,
as leader of the pilgrimage, seems to have provided the poorer pilgrims
not only with protection, but also with conveyances and food. Here
Kthavate's remarks are very much to the point,'1 When there were no
made roads, when pilgrims had to pass through the territories of neigh-
bouring princes, bearing all varieties of relations one to another, and when
bands of marauders were more numerous than peaceful travellers, when-
ever a great man undertook a pilgrimage, all the intending pilgrims in the
neighbourhood and poor people unable to bear the expense of the journey
flocked together under the wings of this great man, who then considered
himself responsible for protecting them against the dangers of the way,
and for supplying their wants.' '1 Arisimha, in his account of Vastupla's
pilgrimage, tells us that this pious leader of the Jain religious caravan went
so far as to provide .medicines and physicians for any pilgrims that might
happen to fall sick. His benevolence seems to have known no bounds.
We read that a halt was made at Ksahrada, and a feast held in the temple
of Rsabha. When the foot of atrunjaya was reached, Vastupla made a
great encampment, and distributed presents, principally of food, to all the
needy among his followers. Buhler gives the following summary of
Arisimha's description of Vastupla's visit to this holy mountain :" The
ascent of the mountain took place the morning after his arrival. The first
sanctuary that the pilgrims visited was that of the Yaksa Kapardin.
Vastupla worshipped the Yaksa and sang a hymn in his praise. Then he
hastened to the temple of dintha (Rsabha), whither the majority of the
pilgrims followed him in dense crowds. Vastupla, still covered with the
dust of the journey, fell down before the lord of the Jinas, and adored him
with a hymn of praise. Then, and not till then, did he indulge in
ablutions, whereupon the pilgrims followed his example, and he and they
approached the Caitya with dancing and song. Then he washed the
image, in accordance with due prescription, with saffron-water, and
anointed it with musk, and hung garlands round it. The pilgrims, at the
same time, burned so much incense, that the temple was completely
darkened by the fumes, and finally the rtrika was performed by the
waving of lights in front of the image." 2
In a note to page 136,1 quoted, to illustrate the description of the setting
up of the finial on the temple of Suvrata by mrabhata, an extract from
a communication made to the Times of India of April 13th, 1889, by
Mr. A. Cousens. I now proceed to lay this interesting narrative once
1 Note on Somevara's Krtikaumud, IX. 2.
2 Buhler's Arisimha, p. 26. With regard to the washing of the image cp. Forbes's
Ras Ml (Watson's edition), pp. 596-8. The washing of the image is common to
Jains and Hindoos.


( xvii )
more under contribution in connection with Arisimha's and Merutuijga's-
descriptions of Vastupala's pilgrimage. After describing his ascent of the
hill in company with gaily-dressed crowds of pilgrims, and his entry into
the sacred precincts, Mr. Cousens proceeds to give an account of the scene
in front of that very lord of the Jinas whom Vastupla adored. 'c Within
the temple are men, women and children, with a sprinkling of Yatis,
sitting, kneeling, or standing, all more or less engaged in reciting or
chanting their sacred hymns, while on the brass stands before them they
lay their offerings, and mark out with grains of rice the sacred symbols.
In the shrine, whose brazen doors stand open, on the high throne sits, in
solid marble effigy, the great Rsabha or dintha. With legs crossed,
and hands lying in listless repose in his lap, he sits there with a placid,,
contemplative expression, adorned with great garlands of pink roses. Small
hanging lamps lend an additional subdued and mysterious light, while
backwards and forwards move the picturesque forms of the pujaris. On
special occasions the image is laden with its jewels, and these are both
magnificent and costly. A massive crown adorns his brow, an ample
breast-plate with heavy armlets and wristlets further embellishes his
person, and all these are richly wrought in gold, thickly set with diamonds,
rubies, emeralds, and pearls ; and the rich necklaces of pearls are enough
of themselves to make the feminine mind envious. It is said that this
jewellery is valued at four lakhs of rupees ; it is kept in a strong room on
the hill."
It appears from Mr. Cousens's narrative that the enthusiasm of the Jain
pilgrims to atruijaya has by no means died out in modern times. In
some points there is a change. The pilgrims no longer pass the night upon
the hill, though we read that Vastupla's stay there lasted eight days.
Moreover the establishment of the pax Britannica has rendered an armed
escort unnecessary for pilgrims, and though some of the antiquated pieces
of ordnance, formerly used to defend the shrines, may still be seen on the
hill, and the strong gates of the enclosures still remain, the fortifications,
are not armed and guarded, as in the old days, when the land swarmed with
marauders.
Both Arisimha and Somecvara assert that Vastuptila travelled to Girnar
and the temple of Somantha. Arisimha describes his worship in the
temple of Nemintha, on Girnar, with much detail, but as the rites do not
differ materially from those performed in the shrine of dintha, it is,
perhaps, hardly worth while to reproduce his statements.
The account given by Merutuijga is not so clear, but there is a substantial
agreement between all three writers.
With the death of Vastupla, Merutuijga brings to an end that part of"
his work which may be looked upon as a continuous narrative.


( xviii )
The miscellaneous chapter is, as its name imports, a collection of discon-
nected anecdotes. The account of the destruction of Valabh1 is, to a
-certain extent, supported by the testimony of Alberuni, and may, possibly,
be partly historical. But the episode of Raijka, and his daughter's fateful
comb, savours strongly of the story of Count Julian and his daughter,
which is, I believe, not accepted in all its details by sober historians.
Miss Duff considers that the Mlecchas were Muhammadans, and that they
came from Sindh under 'Amru Ibn Jamal. The Mlecchas were also instru-
mental in causing the death of Jayacandra of Benares, according to Meru-
turjga.2 It is not difficult to identify this sovereign. According to Miss
Duff, in the year 1194 4 4 Qutbu-d-Dn, leaving Delhi, crosses the Jun and
takes the fort of Kol after an obstinate resistance. Later in the same year
he aids Mu'izzu-d-Dln in defeating Jayacandra of Benares and Kanauj, and
capturing his fort of Asn." It appears that Jayacandra met his death on
this occasion. He was the last of the Rthor dynasty of Kanauj. Another
prince overthrown and killed by the Mlecchas was the well-known
Prthvrja. Of this monarch Merutugga relates in the first place that he
defeated Paramardideva. This king, who has left, according to Miss Duff,
numerous inscriptions, appears to be the Candella sovereign who succeeded
his father Madanavarman in 1167. This sovereign was, according to the
same authority, defeated by the Chamna king Prthvrja in 1182. This
date is based upon inscriptions. The following account is given of
Prthvrj's final overthrow in 1192 :" Mu'izzu-d-Dn, returning to Hin-
dustan, again encounters Prthvrja and his allies near Thnesar, and totally
defeats them, thus becoming virtually master of the country. Prthvrja,
being captured, is put to death, and his son appointed governor of Ajmir."
Much will be found about Prthvrja in Forbes's Rs Ml, Elphinstone's
History of India and other works, but my present object is to show that
Merutuijga's statements are, on the whole, not at variance with the
testimony of inscriptions and of Muhammadan historians.
The king, Laksmanasena, of Gauda, who had for a minister Umpatidhara,
may possibly have been the Yaidya king of Bengal, who founded the
Laksmanasena era in 1119. Tradition has it that Jayadeva, the author of
the Gt Govinda, flourished under a king of that name.3 I have pointed
out4 that a poet of the name of Umpatidhara is mentioned in the fourth
stanza of the Gt Govinda. There can be no doubt that the poet and the
.minister who admonished his king in verse are identical.
1 Pages 172-176 of my translation.
2 Pages 183-186 of my translation. 3 Indian Chronology, p. 136.
4 In my note on p. 181. [The poetical claims of Umpatidhara have been con-
sidered by Professor Pischel in his pamphlet, Die Hofdichter des Laksmanasena,
Gottingen, 1893, pp. 6, 7, 8, 9, and 13. I owe my introduction to this pamphlet to
Professor Zacharige. I wish I had known of it sooner.]


( xix )
There is little else in the miscellaneous section that can properly be
called historical. Many of the tales belong to the great mass of edifying
anecdote that seems to have been at the disposal of the Jain community,
consisting principally of old Indian legends, skilfully adapted by Jain
teachers for the moral improvement of the faithful. The fact that Indian
folklore, principally in my opinion the folklore of Eastern India, was so
adapted, by no means deprives the stories of their interest for students of
that new science, the importance of which is, perhaps, greater than some
people suppose ; and the fact that Jain chroniclers delicately manipulated
history, with the object of putting Jain kings and Jain ministers in a
favourable light, should not prevent readers from receiving their descriptions
as a faithful picture of the social and political condition of the times in
which they lived. Moreover, it seems to be demonstrated by the testimony
of grants and inscriptions that many of their statements are literally
accurate.1 Much has been done already towards revealing this new world
of literature to the Indian public,2 and it is to be hoped that the young
Sanskrit scholars of India will not rest until all the works that have any
claim to the title of history are edited and translated.
I have used, in making this translation, three MSS., one-lent to me by
the kindness of the Bombay Government, No. 617 of 1885-86,3 my colla-
tion of which I call P, in honour of the late Dr. Peterson, and Nos. 296
and 297, belonging to the collection which the late Hofrath Biihler pre-
sented to the India Office, which I call a and fi respectively.
Of the first MS. Dr. Peterson writes in his second report (pp. 86-87).
" I will close these hurried notes with the announcement that in the end
of the year I was fortunate enough to secure a copy of Merutugga's Pra-
bandhacintmani, a work of great historical importance, which we have
been long endeavouring to add to our collection. I have placed this copy
in Pandit Bhagwn Lai's hands, for whose forthcoming history of Guzarfit
it was very necessary, and that learned scholar has furnished me with the
following account of it for the purpose of this report :
Folios 81. Slokas 3004. MS. about 200 years old. Generally
correct. Character Jain Ngar. This is a rare book. The late Mr. A.
K. Forbes obtained a copy of it through a merchant named Yircandj
Bhandr. (Compare preface in Foibes's Rs Ml.) This copy was pre-
sented by Mr. Forbes to the Forbes Gujart Sabh, but is now missing.
1 The chronology of India, by Miss C. Mabel Duff (Mrs. W. R. Rickmers), renders
it an easy matter to bring Merutuijga's anecdotes in contact with the touchstone of
documentary history. It seems to me, personally, that the importance of this work
can hardly be exaggerated.
2 I take this opportunity of expressing my respectful admiration of the work
of Jstr Rmacandra Dnntha, and of Professor Kthavate, the learned editor of
the Krtikaumud.
3 The figure 3 in note 1 on the second page of my translation is a misprint for 7.


( XX )
Much of it has been used by Mr. Forbes in his Ras Ml. The author is
Merutuijga, who finished it at Wadhwn on the Yaikha full moon of
Samvat 1362.' "
To these remarks I will only add that the MS. contains thirteen lines in
a page.
It will be seen, from a various reading given by Dnntha in a note to
page 323 of his edition, that there is some doubt about the exact date of
the completion of the work, but the discrepancy seems to me to be of no
practical importance.1
MS. No. 296 of the Buhler collection in the India Office Library was
transcribed from a copy belonging to Mr. Umankar Yajik. It contains
276 pages. The Prabandhacintmani really ends on page 272. The
remaining pages contain a story, which is also found in the Bombay
Government MS. No. 617.
There is an unfortunate hiatus in the middle of this MS. The text
breaks off* after the words jtipiunaih Jcrp0 (page 160 of DInntha's
edition) and recommences with the words nthnyadd Karnameruprsde
(p. 175).
MS. No. 297 is a copy of a Bhatner MS. which the late Hofrath Buhler
had copied for Government in 1874. It is defective at the beginning,
commencing with the words Samajani nihesarjagunapunjamiinjlasya
rimujasya (p. 55 of Dnntha's edition). It contains 284 pages. Both
of these copies are inferior in correctness to No. 617 of 1885-86.
1 See Biihler, ber des Leben des Jaina Monches Hemacandra, pp. 4 and 54.


THE PBABANDHACINTAMANI
OR
WISHING-STONE OF NABBATIVES
CHAPTER I.
Om I adore r I adore the lord Mahvra !
May the Jina Rshabha, the divine son of Nabhi, the Paramesthin, who
makes an end of births,
Protect the four gates of the glorious goddess of speech, which become her,
in that she has four mouths.1
I meditate on that spiritual preceptor, the lord Candraprabha,3 who is
made up of accomplishments, as the moon is made up of digits,
Whose hand melts stone-like men, as the ray of the moon melts stones.
1 It will be apparent from the note in the printed text that Bhratyo0 is a
misprint for Bhratyci0, which is the reading of Biihler MS. No. 296. The four
gates are the four classes of the Jaina-scriptures, which are sometimes divided into
(1) Prathammiyoga, i.e. legends and history ; (2) Karannuyoga, i.e. works
describing the origin and order of the universe ; (3) Dravytinuyogct, treating of
philosophy and doctrine ; (4) Caranctnuyoga, treating of customs and worship. As
the classes of the sacred writings are four, they fit into the four mouths of Sarasvat,
wrho has four heads in the Jaina mythology. The names of the four classes given
above are taken from Hofrath Buhler's article on the Digambara Jainas (Indian
Antiquary, VIL p. 28). But Hofrath Buhler informs me that these four classes are
known to the vetmbara Jainas by slightly different names, namely dharmalcath-
miyoga ; gcmitclnuyoga ; dravynuyoga ; caranalcarctnimyoga. Hofrath Biihler refers
me to Weber, Catalog, Vol. II. pt. 2, p. 361.
1 may here mention that as a general rule I do not translate r and rmat when
prefixed to the names of persons and places. Our author employs these words very
freely. [Since I wrote the above, Sanskrit scholarship and many friends in all parts
of the world have suffered a terrible loss by the death of Professor and Hofrath
J. G-. Buhler, C.I.E.]
2 Candraprabha means gleaming like the moon": the word hal means "ac-
complishment," and also "digit" or "sixteenth part of the moon." The candra-
knta or moonstone is said to dissolve under the rays of the moon. Candraprabha
is the name of the eighth Trtha^kara.
B
0


2
After turning over many collections, Merutuijga makes this book
From the prose narratives therein contained, for the easy comprehension of
the wise.
Moreover, when I was desirous of extracting this Prabandhacintmani,
From the tradition of sound spiritual teachers, as from a mine of jewels,
The reverend Dharmadeva assisted me in it,
By means of narratives a hundred times repeated.1
The reverend Ganin Gunacandra produced the first copy of the Prabandha-
cintmani,
A new book, pleasing as the Mahbhrata.2
Ancient stories, because they have been so often heard,
Do not delight so much the minds of the wise,
Therefore I compose this Prabandhacintmani book
Out oFthe life-histories of men not far removed from my own time.
Although narratives, which the wise relate
Each according to his own mind,3 must necessarily differ in character,
Still, as this book is put together from a good tradition,
The discreet should not indulge in cavilling with regard to it.
The History of Vikramrka
Vikramrka, though of lowest rank, became foremost on the face of this
earth by his virtues,
By courage, generosity and other graces, an incomparable lord of earth.
At the beginning of my book I give a slight sketch of the history of that
king,
Like a nectar-infusion in the ear of the listener, abridging it greatly,
though a vast theme.
Thus runs the tale :
In the country of Avanti, in the city called Supratisthna, there was
a Kajput named Yikrama, full of courage4 and other virtues, an incom-
1 I read atadhoditetivrttairca for pratlicimoparodJiavrtteca. This reading is given
in the Appendix and in Hofrath Buhler's MS. No. 296, which I shall henceforth
call a. MS. No. 613, lent to me by the kindness of the Bombay Government, my
collation of which I call P, has prathamoparodhavrttaica. A full account of these
MSS. will be given in the Introduction. The text perhaps means, "gave me the
assistance of a most encouraging attitude."
2 More literally produced the Prabandhacintmani in the first copy." I follow
Hofrath Buhler's translation on page 5 of his pamphlet, Ueber das Leben des
Jaina Monches Hemacandra." I find in a the various reading *tra nirmitavccn. P has
3tra dar.itavn.
3 I read svadhiyo0 for sudhiyo0 with a and P. See Hofrath Buhler's Ueber das
Leben des Jaina Monches Hemacandra," p. 5. This I shall henceforth quote as
Biihler's H.C.
4 Sanskrit vilerama.


3
parable treasure-house of unrivalled daring, endowed with god-like marks.L
Now this man, though afflicted with poverty from his birth, was devoted to
policy, and when he did not obtain wealth even by more than a thousand
devices, he, once on a time, set out for the Rohana mountain in company
with a friend named Bhattamtra. When they approached it, they 3 rested
in the house of a potter, in a city called Pravara, near the mountain.
When Bhattamtra, the next morning, asked the potter for a pickaxe, he
said, Any man in low circumstances, who goes into the middle of this
mine, and hearing in the morning unwelcome news,3 touches his forehead
with his hand, and exclaims, 4 Alas, Destiny and then strikes a blow,
obtains whatever jewels may turn up." Bhattamtra, having thoroughly
ascertained this fact from the potter, took those tools with him, and when
Vikrama4 was standing in the mine, ready to strike, in order to obtain
jewels, being unable to induce him to assume the requisite despondency by
any other method, he said to him, A certain stranger has come from
Ujjayin, and when he was asked for news of the welfare of those at home,
he said that your mother was dead." When Vikrama heard that intelligence,
which was like a red-hot diamond needle, he struck his forehead with the
palm of his hand, and exclaiming, Alas, Destiny he flung the pickaxe
from his grasp. When the ground was torn up by the point of the pickaxe,
a gleaming jewel, worth a lakh and a quarter, sprang to light. Bhattamtra
took the jewel and returned with Vikrama. In order to remove the danger of
the dart of his friend's grief, Bhattamtra told him at that time the secret of
the mine, and also the fact that his mother was in perfect health. Thinking
that covetousness was bred in the bone of Bhattamtra, Vikrama flew into a
passion, and tearing the jewel from his hand, he returned to the mouth of
the mine. He exclaimed,
Curse on the Rohana mountain, that heals the wound of the poverty of the
wretched !
Which gives jewels to petitioners, on their exclaiming, "Alas, Destiny!"
After uttering these words, he flung down the jewel in that very mine, in
the sight of all the people, and wandering off to another country he reached
the environs of Avanti. Having heard the sound of a shrill drum, and
having ascertained the whole secret, he kept quiet about it, and entered the
palace simultaneously with the drum. The ministers installed him as
1 See Index to my translation of the Kath Sarit Sgara s.v. marks."
2 Strictly speaking we are only told in the original that Bhattamtra rested.
3 I read prtarapunyaravanaprvam as the context seems to require it. P
has punyarvanprvam. The reading punyaravancttprvam, mentioned in the
Appendix, would give a tolerable sense.
4 He is sometimes called in the text Yikrama, and sometimes Vikramrka, or
Vikramditya. The latter is the best known name.


4
king, in that very muhrta, without inquiring whether it was favourable
or not, after twenty-four hours' interval. Owing to his sagacity, he said
to himself, Some mighty demon or god is angry with this kingdom, and
kills one king every day, and1 as there is no king, wastes the realm. So by
fair or foul means I must win him over.2 So he had prepared various kinds
of viands and delicacies, and having arranged them all at night-fall in an
upper room of the palace, he went there immediately after the evening
ceremony of waving lights before the idol, surrounded by his guards, and
placed a bolster covered with his own turban and garments on a swinging
bed which was suspended from the ceiling by chains,3 while he himself,
excelling in valour the three worlds, stood, sword in hand, in a part of the room
not lit up by the lamp. While he remained gazing into the air, lo in the
very dead of the night he beheld entering by way of the window first a smoke,
then a flame, then a terrible vampire,4 looking like the visible embodiment
of the ruler of the dead ; and he, with belly pinched with hunger, having
enjoyed to his fill those delicacies, and having anointed his body with the
sweet-smelling substances, and being pleased by tasting the betel, sat down
on that bed and said to Vikrania, Mortal, my name is Agnivetla, and I
am well known as the doorkeeper of the king of the gods. I kill one king
every day. However, being pleased with this devotion on your part, I grant
you your life and give you the kingdom, but you must always provide for
me the same amount of viands and delicacies." When both had agreed to
this compact, after the lapse of some time, king Yikrama asked the Vetla
the length of his own life. The Vetla said, I do not know, but I will
ask my master and inform you.,; Having said this, he departed. He came
again on another night and said to Vikrama, The great Indra says that
you will live for one hundred years exactly." The king urged strongly the
obligations of friendship and entreated him earnestly, that he would induce-
Indra to make the hundred years shorter or longer5 by one year. He
promised to do so, but returned and said, The great Indra will not consent
to make your life ninety-nine or one hundred and one years." When the
king heard this decision, he ordered the customary viands and delicacies not
to be cooked for the next day, and remained at night ready to do battle.
Thereupon the vampire came there the next night according to previous
1 P and a insert ca after nrpblive.
2 This story is found in the Jaina recension of the Simlisanobdvtrimifo. See-
Weber's Indische Studien, XV. pp. 273275. Perhaps by force or flattery would
do equally well as a translation of bhkty alcty va.
See Ras Ml (reprint by Colonel Watson), pp. 191, 192.
4 Vetla.
5 After hnam I insert with a, adhikam vet. It is clear from what follows that
these words are required. This is clear also from the Jaina version of the Simh-
sanadvtririiik (Indische Studien, XY. p. 274) where we read mamyusi nyam
patitam tat tvay varsam elcam nynam samadhikam vet Icavaiuyam.


5
custom, and said the same thing to the king, and not seeing those viands and
other luxuries, objurgated him. Then a single combat took place between
them, and lasted for a long time, but at last the king, by the help of his own
good actions in a previous state of existence, beat the vampire down to the
ground and putting his foot upon his heart, he said to him, Call to mind
your favourite deity." The vampire answered the king, I am delighted
with this marvellous daring on your part, and you may consider that you
have won over me, the vampire named Agnivetla, as a slave to execute all
your commands."1 So Yikrama's kingdom became free from enemies.2 In
this way he brought into subjection to "himself the territories of ninety-six
rival monarchs, conquering by his prowess the whole circle of the regions.
0 Sfihasfigka,3 the wild elephant of the woods, approaching the palaces of
thy enemies,
And beholding afar, in that part of their walls which is made of crystal, his
own reflected image,
Thinking it a rival elephant, smites it in wrath, and breaking his tusk, looks
again,
And then slowly, slowly strokes it, thinking it a female of his own race.
In the city of Avanti lived Priyaijgumanjar, the daughter of King
Yikramditya. She was made over to a pandit named "Vararuci for the
purpose of study, and, owing to her cleverness, she learnt the stras from
him in a few days. She was in the prime of youth, and remained continu-
ally gratifying her father. One day in the season .of spring, when she was
sitting on a sofa in the window at the time of mid-day, when the sun was
scorching men's foreheads, she saw her teacher coming along in the road ;
and when he had rested in the shade of the window, she said to him,
showing him some mango fruits mellow with ripeness, and knowing that he
longed for them, Would you like to have these fruits warm or cold?"
He, not seeing the real cunning of her question, answered, I should like
to have them warm." Thereupon, she threw them sideways into the corner
of his garment, which he held out to receive them. They fell on the
ground, and were consequently covered with dust. So the pandit took
them in his two palms, and proceeded to remove the dust by blowing upon
them. While he was doing this, the princess said to him tauntingly, "What,
1 I read with a and P, yatkrtydeakr. The vampire is called Agniikha in the
Kath Sarit Sgara. See Vol. II. of my translation, page 572.
2 Literally, "thorns."
Shasgka, i.e. characterized by daring," is a name of Yikramditya. At
the end of these lines a inserts the following words, Now we return to the narra-
tive. Being praised in such words by Klidsa and other great poets, he enjoyed
for a long time the kingdom. Now we will relate concisely the origin of Klidsa,
as the subject presents itself naturally." The story of Klidsa is tacked on in a
clumsy way, whatever reading we adopt.


6
are these fruits too hot, that you cool them with your breath 1v 1 That
Brahman, being annoyed by her taunting speech, said to her, "Ah! young-
woman, you fancy that you are very clever, but as yon choose to cavil at
your teacher, may you have a herdsman for a husband When she heard
this curse of his, she uttered the following vow, Whoever is your supreme
preceptor through excelling you in knowledge,2 though you do know the
three Yedas, that man I will marry." Then, as king Vikrama was whelmed
in a sea of anxiety with regard to finding a distinguished youth who would
be a suitable match for her, once on a time that pandit, by order of the
king, who had become impatient for the pointing out of the desired bride-
groom, entered a large forest, and was afflicted with excessive thirst. As
no water appeared in any direction,3 seeing a herdsman he asked him for
water. The herdsman, as he had no water to give, said, "Drink milk,"
and then told him to make a Icaravadl.4 When the pandit heard this term,
which of all terms he had never heard before in his life, his mind was
devoured by bewilderment. But the herdsman put his hand on the
pandit's head, and placed him under a buffalo-cow, and then, having
induced the pandit to put the palms of his hands together, so as to form what
is called a Jcaravcidi, he made him drink milk till his throat was filled.
The pandit considered the herdsman as good as his preceptor, because he
placed his hand on his head and taught him. the specific term harauad, and
thought that he would be a fitting bridegroom for the princess.5 So lie
made him leave the buffalo-cow, and brought him to his own palace ; and
for six months made him cultivate his person, and repeat the formula of
blessing, Om namah ivyal After six months he found that those
syllables were well impressed on the surface of his throat, so in a fortunate
mulmrta he conducted him to the court of the king, after he had been
suitably adorned. The herdsman was so bewildered by the sight of the
court, that when he tried to address to the king the formula of blessing lie
had carefully practised, he brought out the syllables, Ucarata" 6 When
the king was puzzled with the herdsman's stammering utterance, the
panlit, wishing to have him credited with a cleverness he did not possess,
said :
1 This feeble joke is found in the Kath Sarit Sgara. See Yol. II. of my trans-
lation, p. 619.
2 I read with a and P, adhilcavidyatay. This reading is justified by the sequel.
It is also found in the MSS. which Dnntha calls A and B.
I read sarvatah sarvaiomukhbhvt. I find this reading in a and P. Hofrath
Biihler has reminded me that sarvatomukha means water."
4 A, B and a give karacandim. P agrees clearly with the text, wherever the
word occurs. I have therefore followed the text.
5 It will be observed that he satisfied both conditions, being a herdsman, and
the preceptor of the pandit, superior to him in the knowledge of one word.
f) For a similar story see the reference on p. 161 of Fick's Sociale Grliederung
im Nordstlichen Indien zu Buddha's Zeit to the Somadatta Jtaka (II. 165).


7
4'May Rudra together with Um, bestowing blessings, trident in hand,
Elated with the might of his shout, protect thee, 0 lord of the Earth 11
By understanding this couplet to be intended, he interpreted in diffuse
language the depth of the herdsman's learning. The king, pleased with
this satisfactory evidence of the herdsman's learning, had him married to
his daughter. In accordance with the advice of the pandit, the herdsman
preserved unbroken silence ; but the princess, wishing to test his cleverness,
entreated him to revise 1 a newly-written book. He placed the book in the
palm of his hand, and with a nail-parer proceeded to remove from the
letters in it the dots and the oblique lines at the top indicating vowels,2
and thus to isolate them, and then the princess discovered that he was a
cowherd. After that the son-in-law's revision became a proverb everywhere.
Once on a time they pointed out to him a herd of buffalo-cows in a picture
painted on a wall. In his delight he forgot his high rank, and uttered the
barbarous3 words made use of for calling buffalo-cows. So it was ascer-
tained for certain that he was a keeper of buffalo-cows.4 The herdsman,
reflecting on that contempt, which the princess showed towards him, began
to propitiate the goddess Kl in order to attain learning. The king, being
afraid that his daughter would be left a widow, sent a female slave in
disguise 5 at night, and when she woke him up and said to him, "I am
pleased with you," the goddess Kl herself, apprehending that some
disaster would take place, appeared in visible form and granted his request.
When the princess heard of that occurrence she was delighted, and came
there and said, Is there any special utterance 1 He thereupon, having
become known by the name of Klidsa, composed the three Mahkvyas,
the Kumra Sambhava, and so on, and six other works.6
Once on a time a merchant named Dnta, who lived in King Vikram-
ditya's city, came to him as he was in his hall of audience, with a present
in his hand, and, bowing low, said to him, King, in a lucky muhurta I
had a palace built by distinguished^]^ and I went into it with
1 The word used means also purify," and perhaps the herdsman interpreted it
literally.
2 I have taken this sense of mettra from Molesworth's Marth Dictionary. But
in Hindi, according to the Dictionary of Bates, the word in addition to this
meaning, indicates the horizontal stroke of a letter.
I read with P, vikrta for vilcrti.
4 I find tayd inserted in a after nicihye. This means that the princess ascer-
tained the fact.
5 She was of course personating the goddess. Propitiating Kl often involves
suicide.
G This account of Klidiisa's origin and his acquisition of literary ability by the
favour of the goddess Kl is also found in Trntha's History of Buddhism. See
Mr. Heeley's paper in the Indian Antiquary, Vol. IY. pp. 101104. Cp. also the
form of the story given in the Indian Antiquary, Vol. VII. pp. 115117. The
editor gives other references in a footnote.


8
great rejoicings : but, while I was lying there on my bed at night, half
asleep and half awake, I suddenly heard a voice say, I am about to fall.'
I was bewildered with fear, and exclaiming, Do not fall,' I immediately
made my escape. I have been to no purpose mulcted by the astrologers,
who have had to do with this mansion, and by the architects, in the form of
contributions, such as seasonable complimentary presents,1 and so on. Now
it remains for your Majesty to decide what should be done." When the
king had carefully considered the account given by the merchant, he paid
him the three lakhs which he fixed as the price of that splendid mansion,
and, after the general assembly3 of the evening, king Yikrama slept
comfortably in that palace which he had made his own. When he heard
that same voice say, I am falling," he, being a man of unrivalled daring,
said, Fall quickly," and so he obtained a man of gold that fell near him.
Such is the story of the attainment of the man of gold.3
Then, on another occasion,4 a certain poverty-stricken man was introduced
by the warder, with a very thin iron doll, representing poverty,5 in his
hand, and said to the king, "Your Majesty, I heard the report that in
Avant, famous for having you as its lord, all things are quickly sold and
easily purchased, and yet I have during a day and night carried round this
poverty-doll for sale in the eighty-four cross-roads of the city, but no one
has bought it ; on the contrary, I have been abused. I have made known
to your Majesty this reproach to the city, as it is, and I now return by the
way by which I came. I hereby take my leave of your Majesty." Imme-
diately the king, taking into account that great stain of reproach 6 on the
honour of his city, gave him one hundred thousand cllnras, and placed
that iron doll in his treasury. In the course of that same night, in the first
watch, the deity that presided over the elephants 7 appeared to the king as
he was comfortably asleep ; in the second watch appeared the deity that
presided over the horses; in the third watch appeared the goddess of Fortune
herself, and they all said, u Since your Majesty has been pleased to buy a
doll representing poverty, it is not fitting for us to remain here." In these
words they took leave of him, and saying, Let not your Majesty's courage
1 I read yathvasarcim arlwnctdibliih. This is found in P and a, and is given in
the Appendix as the reading of A and B.
2 It is obvious that sarvcivasao'a, as used in this book, corresponds to the Urdu.
dlwcm-i-1 cimm or darbr-i-'mm.
3 This man of gold was also attained by Ragka. See page 276 of the printed
text. It seems to be a favourite siddki. Another account will be found in Weber's
Indische Studien, XV. p. 278.
4 I read with a, athnyasminnavasare.
5 Daridraputraka. But below it is called ddridryaputraka, which gives a better
sense.
6 Literally, "mud of reproach."
7 The text has rjydhisthtrdaivatam. But a has gajadliistlicLtrwhich is shown
by the sequel to be the right reading. P has gajdhisttr0 (sic).


9
be daunted departed, after receiving permission from the king. In the
fourth watch a certain noble-looking man, of a celestial radiant form,
appeared, and said, "I am named Courage ;1 I have attended on you since
your birth, and now I take leave of you, being about to go." 2 When the
apparition had said this, the king took his sword in his grasp and prepared
to slay himself, but that moment that very same being seized him by the
hand, and restrained him, saying, I am pleased with you." The three
deities that presided over the elephants and other departments, returned,
and said to the king, <£ We have been deceived by this genius of courage,
who has broken the compact we made to depart, so it is not fit that we
should go away and leave the king." Accordingly, they also remained,
without the king's making any effort to detain them.
Then, on another occasion, a certain foreigner, who was well acquainted
with the science of palmistry, was introduced by'the doorkeeper into the
presence of the king, who was in his hall of audience, and after entering,
looked at his marks, and began to shake his head. The king asked him the
cause of his despondency. He replied, Now that I have seen that,
though you possess in fulness all the inauspicious marks, you are enjoying
the fortune of sovereignty over ninety-six realms, I have become sceptical
about the science of palmistry. Eut I do not perceive in you any speckled
entrail, which could give you the power'to hold sway, as you do." As soon
as king Vikramditya heard this speech, he seized his sword, and proceeded
to put it to his stomach, but the professor of palmistry asked him what he
was about. The king answered, I am about to rip open my stomach and
show you an entrail of that kind." The professor of palmistry said, I
now perceive 3 that you possess the mark of courage, which is better than
all the thirty-two auspicious marks." Thereupon the king dismissed him
with a present.
Then, having heard on a certain occasion, that all accomplishments are
useless in comparison with the art of entering the bodies of other creatures,
king Yikrama repaired to the Yogin Bhairavnanda, and propitiated him
for a long time on the mountain of r.^ But a former servant of his, a
certain Brahman, said to the king, You ought not to receive from the
teacher the art of entering other bodies, unless it is given to me at the
same time." Having been thus entreated, the king made this request to
the teacher, when he was desirous of bestowing oil him the science, "First
1 Sattva.
2 In a is found the word mutlcalpayasmi (for inutkalpayisymi ?). This word is
found in the Kath Koa. See the preface to my translation, page xxii.
3 Here a gives nvagamitam for novagatam. It probably means, I did not
perceive when I first came in." For the 32 Makdjpurusalaksanas, see Kern's Manual
of Buddhism, page 62.
4 See Wilson's Hindu Theatre, Vol. II. page 18, note.


10
bestow the science on this Brahman, then on me." The teacher said,
" King, this man is altogether unworthy of the science." Then he gave
him this warning, You will again and again repent of this request."
After the teacher had given this warning, at the earnest entreaty of the
king, he bestowed the science on the Brahman. Then both returned
to Ujjayin. When the king reached it, seeing that his courtiers were
depressed on account of the death of the state elephant,1 and also in order
to test the science of entering another body, he transferred his soul into
the body of his own elephant.
The occurrence is thus described :
The king, while the Brahman kept guard, entered by his science the body
of his elephant ;
The Brahman entered the body of the king ; then the king became a pet
parrot ;
The king transferred himself into the body of a lizard ; then considering
that the queen was likely to die,
The Brahman restored to life the parrot, and the great Vikrama recovered
his own body.
In this way Vikramditya acquired the art of entering another body.3
Then, 011 another occasion,3 as King Yikrama was going about on his
royal circuit, he saw the teacher Siddhasena 4 approaching, being followed
by the members of the Jaina community residing in that city, and praised
by sons of bards as the son of the All-knowing. The king was annoyed by
the phrase son of the All-knowing." In order to test his omniscience,
he paid him the tribute of a mental salutation.
When a worthy person has come within range of my eyes, ten hundred,
and when I speak to him, ten thousand,
And as for the man whose saying may make me laugh, on him let a hundred
thousand be quickly bestowed by you,
I always give in a present ten million nislcas, such is my supreme command
for aye,
0 superintendent of the treasury ; such a system of liberality did Vikram-
ditya observe.5
Siddhasena, for his part, by means of the Pfirvagata scripture 6 having
understood the mind of the king, lifted up his right hand and gave the
1 Pattahastin.
2 See my translation of the Kath Sarit Sgara, Yol. I. pp. 21, 22 ; Vol. II. p. 353.
[i I read at tmyasmmnavasare with a.
4 For the story of Siddhasena see Weber's Indische Stndien, XV. p. 279 and ff.
5 This stanza is found in the Jaina recension of the Simhsanadvtriihik. See
Indische Studien, XV. p. 309, where arte is read for apte.
6 I find c.rutci in P after purvagata.


il
king his benediction,1 expressing a wish that he might obtain the faith.
The king asked him the reason which led him to bestow his benediction.
Thereupon the great hermit told him, that it was being bestowed upon him
in return for his mental salutation. When he said this, the king, astonished
at his knowledge, gave him ten millions of gold pieces by way of reward.
Then, on another occasion, the king asked the superintendent of the
treasury the story of the gold which he had ordered to be given to the
sage, and he said, I entered the item of the gift of gold in the charity
accounts 3 in the form of the following couplet,
" When the Jaina sage Siddhasena, lifting up his hand, said to the king
from afar,
c May you obtain the faith,' the monarch of men gave him ten millions." 3
Afterwards, when the king summoned the sage Siddhasena into the hall
of audience, and said, Take that gold," the sage exclaiming that it was
useless to give food to the sated, bade him free the earth which was laden
with debt, by means of that gold. When the king had received this piece
of advice, being pleased with the contentment of the sage, he promised to
do as he bade.
A beggar, that has come, longing to see you, stands stopped at the door,
With four couplets in his hand ; is he to come or go %4
Let ten hundred thousand be given, and fourteen grants,
With four couplets in his hand, let him come or go !
Falsely art thou praised by the wise on the ground that always thou givest
all things,
Thy enemies have not gained a sight of thy back, nor the wives of others
thy heart.5
The goddess of eloquence resides in thy mouth, fortune in the lotus of thy hand,
Why is fame so wroth, 0 king, that she has travelled to foreign lands I6
Whence hast thou learnt this so strange science of archery?
The stream of arrows7 conies towards thee, the bow-string 8 goes to another
quarter.
1 The words dahsinajpnimdadciu form half a loka.
2 DhnrmavahiJcayciih. In the Gujarati language vahl means an account-book.
Hofrath Biihler refers me to the Vienna Oriental Journal, Yol. III. p. 365 and ff.
6 This stanza is found in the Jaina recension of the Simhsanadvtrimik.
Indisc-he Studien, XV. p. 286.
4 This couplet is found in the Bhojaprabandha, p. 102 of Pavie's edition, with the
variant him Cigacchcitu. See also Indische Studien, XV. p. 287.
5 Found in a slightly different form in the Bhojapabandha, ed. Pavie, p. 124. See
also Weber's Indische Studien. XV. p. 288.
6 The king's fame has spread to foreign countries. For this stanza see Indische
Studien, XV. p. 288.
7 The word that means "arrow," also means "petitioner." This couplet is
found on page 124 of Pavie's Bhojaprabandha.
8 The word guna means bow-string or "virtue." The king's virtue is renowned
afar. See Indische Studien, XV. p. 287for this, and page 288 for the following couplet.


12
"When tliy loud-sounding drum is struck, the hearts of thy enemies break
like jars,
But the eyes of their wives stream ; this, 0 king, is a great miracle.
The goddess of eloquence 1 dwells ever in the lotus of thy mouth, but thy
lower lip is always red,
Thy arm is quick to remind men of the might of Rama, thy right hand is
a sea,2
Armies,3 having come to thy side, do not even for a moment leave thee,
Whence, 0 lord of earth, is there repeatedly in this thy transparent inner
mind,4 the desire of drinking water ?
In that very night the king roamed5 about in the city in search of adven-
tures, and heard the following half-couplet being repeated again and again
by the mouth of an oilman :
One might indeed call our ruler Krsna the preserver.6
The king waited all the remainder of the night until daybreak, in hopes
of hearing the second half of the couplet, but not hearing it he became
despondent, and going back to his palace he went to sleep. In the
morning, after the king had performed the duties incumbent on him at that
time, 'he summoned the oilman, and asked him the second half of the
couplet. He repeated it as follows :
The world is whelmed in poverty, and the bonds of taxation7 are not
indeed relaxed.
Reflecting that Siddhasena's advice was now repeated, he began to free
the world from debt. Then he asked Siddhasena whether there would ever
be any Jaina king like himself ; and thereupon the sage Siddhasena
said :
" When a thousand years are fulfilled, and a hundred and ninety-nine,
There shall be a king, Kumrapla by name, like thee, 0 Vikramditya."
Then, on another occasion, while the world was being freed from debt,
feeling puffed up with conceit on account of his own virtue of generosity,
1 Sarasvat is represented as extremely white. See Miss Bidding's Kdambar,
p. 104-, note.
2 Perhaps it also means "You have the Southern sea."
3 Or rivers."
4 In mind (mnasa) there is a reference to the Mnasa lake. Here I have omitted
one Sanskrit couplet, which is repeated further on in the book, and one Prakrit
couplet for reasons which will be apparent to the student of the original text.
5 Here a and P have paribliraman for bhraman. This is, perhaps, an improve-
ment.
G The reading of a is nciryana ha Icahijja.
7 The word translated "bonds of taxation also means "fettering of Bali."
Visnu i3 called Balibandhana," the fetterer of Bali, in allusion to the dwarf in-
carnation. No doubt the king expected that the second line would be laudatory.


13
lie said to himself that he would have a pillar of fame erected next morning,
and as he was wandering about that very same night in the cross-road in
search of adventures, being chased by two fighting bulls, he climbed up a
pillar in the ruined cowhouse of a certain Brahman afflicted with poverty,
and while he was there, these two bulls struck the pillar again and again
with the points of their horns. In the meanwhile that Brahman was
suddenly awakened from sleep, and seeing that the disk of the moon was
obscured in the sky by Venus and Jupiter, he woke up his wife, and
perceiving that danger to the life of the king was indicated by the disk of
the moon, he ordered his wife to bring things fit for sacrifice, in order that
he might make an oblation in the fire to avert that calamity.1 The king all
this while was listening attentively, and heard his wife answer him, This
king, though he is freeing3 the world from debt, does not bestow wealth to
marry my seven daughters.8 So how can it be fitting to perform an evil-
averting ceremony to deliver such a man from calamity ? By this speech
of the Brahman's wife, the king had his pride completely stripped from
him, and after he had escaped4 from that danger, forgetting all about the
pillar of fame, he ruled his realm for a long time.
Alas though thou hast lost thy courage and defiled thyself,
Thou hast not obtained freedom from old age and death :5 alas Vikrama,
thy birth has been thrown away.
Once on a time, at the end of his life, when Vikrama was in an
unhealthy state of body, a certain professor of medical science gave this
advice, The disease may be cured by eating the flesh of a crow." The
king ordered that dish to be cooked, but the physician, reflecting that this
was in opposition to his natural character, said to him, At the present
juncture the medicine of religion is the really efficacious one. The altera-
tion of the natural character of anything is a portent of evil. Through
longing for life you have abandoned your world-surpassiDg courageous
nature, and long for the flesh of a crow ; so, in any case, you will not live."
When thus admonished by the physician, the king gave him a present, and
praised him as his true friend. He then distributed to petitioners all his
property, consisting of elephants, horses, treasure, and so on, and took leave
of the courtiers and the citizens, and after performing the charitable
1 A very similar incident will be found in Jtaka 290 (p. 291 of Jtaka, Vol. II.
Rouse). To this Fick refers (Sociale Gliederung, p. 150).
2 I find in a, kurvannapi.
In modern Bengal a poor Kuln Brahman with seven daughters to marry
would, indeed, be in a pitiable position.
4 The word chutitah as it stands in a and P, or chuttitcih as it is given by Dn-
ntha, is perhaps the Hindi chutn or the Gujarati chutvum.
5 i.e. molcsa or salvation.


14
donations to the sick, and the worshipping of the gods suited to the
occasion, he took up his position on a couch of darbha-grass in a certain
private part of the palace, and began to think that he would dismiss his
soul by the door of Brahma.1 While engaged in these reflections, he saw
suddenly appearing a bevy of heavenly nymphs ; so placing his hands in a
suppliant attitude, and prostrating himself, he asked, Who are you ? "
The nymphs said, The present occasion is not suitable for a long speech ;
we are come to take leave of you.'' When they had given this answer they
prepared to depart, but the king said to them again, Though you have
been created by the new Brahma, and have precisely similar forms, yet
one2 of your forms is without a nose ; I wish to know the reason of that."
Then they clapped their hands and laughed, and said, "You attribute your
own fault to us," and thereupon relapsed into silence. The king said to
them, When you live in the world of heaven, how can my fault be
attributed to you?" When the king's speech was ended, the chief of the
nymphs, named Sumukhy, said to him, King, owing to the development
of your meritorious actions in a former life, in this life nine treasures have
descended into your palace. We preside over them. Your Majesty, by
giving great gifts from your birth like a god,3 has subtracted so much from
one treasure, that you do not see the tip of its nose." When he heard this
reply from the nymph, he touched his forehead with the palm of his hand,
and said, C If I had known that I had nine treasures, I would have given
them to nine men ; I have been defrauded by destiny, owing to my
ignorance." While he was uttering these words, they informed him that
lie was the only really generous man in the Kali Yuga,4 and so he passed
to the other world. From that time forth, this Saiiivatsara era of that
Vikramditya has prevailed in the world up to the present day. So we
have ielated various stories about the generosity of Vikramditya.
Now follows the hlstory of liveana.5
Now you must learn the story of Stavhana, illustrative of generosity
and wisdom, related according to tradition. The story of his former life is
as follows :
As king tavhana was going on his royal circuit in the city of
1 Brahmadvdra is, of course, equivalent to Brahinarandhra, a suture or aperture
in the crown of the head, through which the soul is said to escape at death.
2 I read ekcim eva with A, B, a, and P. The sequel will show that this is
absolutely necessary.
3 The reading of the text is supported by P. Devatrpena is omitted in a.
4 This corresponds to the Iron Age of European mythology.
5 Dinntha points out that this king- is called livhana, lavliana, Sla-
vhana, Slavhana, Slhana, Stavhana, and la. He is also called ptav-
hana in this book.


15
Pratisthna, he saw in the river near the city a certain fish that had been
thrown up by the waves on the bank of the river, laughing ; and reflecting
that the alteration of the natural character of anything is a portent of evil,
he was bewildered with fear, and he asked all clever people about this
doubtful point, and at last he questioned a Jaina hermit, named Jnna-
sgara. He having discerned by the surpassing excellence of his knowledge
the king's former life, gave this instructive response, In a former life you
were in this very city a man whose family had become extinct, and you
supported yourself only by carrying loads of wood. At meal-time you used
to repair to this very river, and on a slab of rock near it, you used con-
tinually to stir up barley-meal with water and eat it. Once on a time you saw
walking in front of you a Jaina hermit, who had come to take food after
a month's fast. So you called him, and gave 1 him the ball of meal that
you had made. From the surpassing merit acquired by giving to that
fitting object, you have become King lavehana. That hermit has
become a god. That god entered into the fish, and the fish being thus
animated by the god laughed for joy at beholding the soul of the wood-
carrier, which is none other than yourself, born in the rank of a king."
And this story is summed up in the following stanza :
When the face, of the fish laughed, the hermit said to king Cfitavfdiana,
Who was bewildered with fear, "Because thou on the bank of this river,
Didst cause a hermit to break his fast on barley-meal long ago,
Happening to behold thee, thereupon the fish laughed."
That fitavhana, having represented to his mind, by his power of
remembering his former births, that incident of old time, practised from
that day forth the virtue of charity, and devoted himself to collecting the
compositions of all great poets and wise men. He bought four gths for
forty million gold pieces, and had a book made, which was a treasury of
gths that he had collected,2 named livhana, containing seven hundred
gths, and so being a storehouse of various glorious achievements, he
ruled for a long time.
These four3 gths are as follows :
1 I have given what I suppose to be the sense of the passage. The MSS. support
the text.
- Say g rahag th koa. Saygraha is omitted in a. In the Navashasrjkacarita by
Biihley and Zachariso, p. 32 note, we find Der Stavhana, welcher hier gemeint
ist, wird Hla der compilator des Gthkosa sein." On the second page of Weber's
" Ueber das Saptaatakam des Hla," we find it stated that Dr. Bhau Dji identi-
fied Hla with tavhana. See Cowell and Thomas's translation of the Harsa-
carita, p. 2, n. 13.
3 Ten gths are given in Dnntha's edition, but four of them are not worth
translating into English. The first and tenth enumerate the sums paid, mentioning
the principal words of the gths bought. I have not found any one of the ten
gths in Weber's book.


16
Do not learn, 0 parrot, how a ripe mango, caressed by the beak, falls,
Here is a field of rice sprung up, presuming on its hardness.
No disrespect should be shown to those men, who are like banana-stems,
Who, when bestowing fruits, do not regard their own destruction.
The Yindhya supports every day dry trees as well as trees full of sap,
The great do not abandon one who has been reared in their laps, though he
be worthless.
When a first object of regard has for some reason or other been adopted by
those men and women,
The reason that they do not look at another is that it is even like the roof-
tree familiar to them from their birth.
Will the fragrance delighting all men, that belongs to the sandal-wood tree,
though dry,
Will this fragrance, I say, be found in it, in the condition of a new tree full
of sap 1
The banana-tree, the Yindhya mountain, the object of regard, and the
sandal-wood tree,
These were immediately bought by livhana for ninety millions.
Now follows the story of the moral vow. The following is a brief abstract
of it. In the city of Kanyakubja, the royal residence,1 which is of the size
of thirty-six lakhs of villages, the king Bhdeva, on account of the fact
that he fell in love with the wife of the servant that superintended his
beverages, propitiated Kadramahkla in Mlava, and after giving the realm
of Mlava to that god, himself became an ascetic.2
In the land of Grujavt, in the region called Yadhyra, in the village of
Pancara, the mother of a boy of the Cpotkata race placed him in a
cradle 3 on a tree called vana, and herself went to gather fuel.
It happened that, for some reason or other, the Jaina teacher, named
lagunasri, came there and saw that the shade of that tree was not inclined r
though it was the afternoon. He thought that this strange fact must be
due to the power of the merit of that very boy that was in the cradle, and
hoping that he was destined to extend the Jaina faith, he bought him from
1 Kalyncikatalca. Is this the Hindustani urdu mw'aU"?
2 The story is told at length in the Appendix to Dnntha's edition, after B
apparently. It is also given in a. The god is called simply Mahkla. By way
of atonement for his offence, the king makes over to the god the land of Mlava,,
which is half of the kingdom of Kanyakubja, and appoints the Paramra Rajputs
to guard it.
3 Sanskrit Jholikd. Hofrath Buhler (H.C. p. 41) translates Jholikvihra by
" Wiegen-Tempel." I find that in Hindi there is a word Jhull meaning "a
hammock or swinging-cot," while in Gujarati Jhod means a child's cradle."
Another, and a still more romantic, account of the origin of this dynasty will be
found in the Rs Ml (Watson's edition), p. 19 and ff.


17
his mother by giving her the means of subsistence.1 He was brought up
by the abbess Vramat,3 and his spiritual preceptor gave him the name of
Vanarfija. When he was eight years old he was entrusted with the duty
of keeping off the mice that spoiled the offerings made to the god. He
killed them with clods,3 but was forbidden by the teacher, whereupon he
said they must be got rid of by the fourth expedient.4 The teacher investi-
gated his horoscope, and finding in it an arrangement of the heavenly
bodies, which showed that lie was destined for kingship, he came to the
conclusion that he would be a powerful sovereign, and gave him back to
his mother. He lived with his mother in a certain district, inhabited by a
wild tribe,5 belonging to his maternal uncle, and as his maternal uncle lived
the life of a bandit, he made raiding expeditions in all directions. Once
on a time,0 in the village of Kkara, he had dug a tunnel into the house of
a merchant, and was stealing his wealth, when his hand slipped into a
vessel of curds. He said to himself, I have eaten in this house,'; and so
lie left all the merchant's possessions there, and went out. The next day the
merchant's sister rdev sent for him secretly in the night, out of love for
her brother. She treated him kindly, giving him food and wealth ;7 so he
made her this promise, You, lady, shall at the ceremony of my coronation,
place, as my sister, the ornament 8 on my forehead." Then, on another
occasion, as lie was living the life of a freebooter,9 some of his bandit
followers stopped in a certain district of the forest a merchant named
Jamba,10 who, seeing those three thieves, broke two out of the five arrows
that he had. They asked him the reason. He said, Since there are only
three of you, the two surplus arrows are useless." When he had given this
answer they pointed out to him a moving11 mark, which he hit with an
arrow. They were so delighted that they took him with them to Vanarja,
who admired so much his warlike skill, that he said to him, At the cere-
1 We learn from Buhler's Hemacandra that the order of Yatis is recruited by the
purchase of boys. Sometimes the Yatis beg children or adopt orphans. (H.C. p. 9.)
2 Vramatlganiny. But I find in a, Vramatiganin, the masculine instead of the
feminine. P gives Viramcitigauinyd.
* I find in a, vdnena with an arrow. A and B give the plural <£ with arrows."
P gives bdnena.
4 The four updyas (or expedients) are sowing dissension, negotiation, bribery,
and open attack.
5 Pallibhmi.
6 I insert kaddcit with a. The Globe newspaper for February 4th, 1899, tells a
similar story with regard to a bandit named Yakook Lais who flourished about
the middle of the ninth century. "The robber's eye was attracted by something
small and glittering on the ground, which he took to be a diamond ; picking it up
he thoughtlessly conveyed it to his lips." The consequence was that the robber
had to abandon the property of the governor of the province, as he had eaten his
salt.
7 Or according to a, a bath, food and clothes. A and B have the same reading.
s TilaJca. u Garatavrtty vartamnasya. 10 Here P gives Jamba.
11 I adopt calavedhyam, the reading of A, B, a and P..
C


18
mony of my coronation you shall be my chief minister," and so he dismissed
him. Then a pancakula 1 came from Kanyakubja in order to draw tribute
from the land of G-ujart, which had been given by the king of that
country 2 to his daughter named Mahanikfi, by way of marriage portion, and
he made the man named Vanarja his arrow-bearer.3 After the pancalcula
had collected wealth from the country for six months, he set out to return
to his own land, with twenty-four lakhs of silver drarrimas, and four
thousand well-bred horses ; but Vanarja killed him at a glit named
Saurstra, and lived in concealment for a year in a certain forest fastness,
out of fear of his sovereign. Then he was desirous of building a capital,
in order that he might be crowned as monarch of his own territory ; so he
began to look oat for a heroic stretch of land, and as he was thus engaged,
he was asked by aman named Anahilla, the son of Bhryla Skhada, who
was comfortably seated on the edge of the Ppalut tank, What are you
looking for ? Those ministers 4 said, We are looking for a heroic stretch
of land fit to build a city on." He answered, If you will give my name
to the city that you build, I will show you the piece of land of which you
are in search." Then he went near a Jli-tree, and showed them as much
land as a dog was chased over by a hare.5 There Vanarja founded a city
called Anahillapura, on the second day of the white fortnight of Vaikha,
on a Monday, in the 802nd year of the era of Vikramditya, and had a
palace built under that Jli-tree. Then, a time pointed out by the
astrologers as suitable for his coronation having arrived, he sent for that
rdev,0 whom he had adopted as his sister, who lived in the village of
Kkara, and had the ornament on his forehead affixed by her, and had him-
self crowned king under the title of Vanarja, being fifty-six years old.
That merchant, named Jamba, was made his prime minister. He brought
1 This word occurs frequently in this book. It seems to denote a government
officer, not necessarily, in all cases, a revenue officer, though, as a general rule,
that meaning is appropriate. On pages 232 and 302 it is strikingly inappropriate.
2 I read with a and P, taddearjiiah for tdrarjnah. This reading is also given
in the Appendix. The statement in the text derives some support from a recently
discovered copperplate, which seems to belong to the eighth century. We learn from
it that king Bhoja of Mahodaya or Kanauj confirmed a land-grant made originally
by his great grandfather Vatsarja and a letter of consent (anumati) of his grand-
father Ngabhata. The village, which was the subject of the grant (rccsana) was
ivgrma situated in the Dendva province of Gujarat. This information I owe
to Hofrath Buhler.
3 Sellabhrt. The word sello is given by Hemacandra as equivalent to mrgaiuh
araca. Forbes (Ras Ml, p. 28 of Watson's edition) translates it by spear-
bearer." He tells us that "King Bhoowur had assigned the revenues of Gujarat
as the portion of his daughter Milan Devee."
4 Taih pradlinair. But a has simply tair, which would mean "he said." The
reading of the text probably points to some omission.
5 I read with P, yvatni bhuvam acalcena v trsitastvatm. This agrees with
the reading of a, but a has aciijlcena. The reading I have adopted is also found in
the Appendix.
6 Here called riydev. But see Appendix.


19
with great respect from the village of Pancsara the Jaina doctor, laguna,
and placed him on his own throne in his palace, and being the very crest-
jewel of gratitude, he wished to make over to him his kingdom with all its
seven constituent parts ; but the sage, who was free from covetousness,
again forbade him.1 Thinking that he would iu this way repay his kind-
ness, the king caused to be built, in accordance with the command of the
sage, the Caitya called Pailcsara, adorned with an image of Prvantha,3
and furnished with a statue of himself as a worshipper. In the same way
also he had made a temple of Kanthevar in the immediate neighbourhood 3
of his palace.
Bat this kingdom of the Gurjaras, even from the time of King Yanarja,
Was established with Jaina mantras, its foe indeed has no cause to rejoice.
From the commencement of his reign, until its termination, Yanarja
reigned 59 years, 2 months and 21 days the whole life of Yanarja was
109 years, 2 months and 21 days. In the 862nd year of the era of king
Yikramditya, on the third day of the white fortnight of sdha, on a
Thursday, in the naksatra of vin, during the continuance of the lacjna of
Leo, took place the coronation of Yogarja, the son of Yanarja. He had
three sons. Once on a time the prince named Ksemarja made this repre-
sentation to the king. The ships of a king of a foreign country having been
driven out of their course by a cyclone, have come from other tidal shores
to Somevarapattana. Now there are in them a thousand spirited horses,
:and elephants a hundred and fifty in number, and of other things to the
number of ten millions. All these will go to their own country through
our country. If your Majesty will give the order, then I will bring them
to you." When this proposal had been made to the king, he forbade
the attempt. Immediately those three princes, thinking that the king
was decrepit from old age, made ready an army in that very border district
of their country, and in the stealthy manner of thieves intercepted that
whole caravan and brought it to their father. The king was inly wroth, so
1 The seven constituent parts of a kingdom are the king, his ministers, ally,
territory, fortress, army and treasury. P gives again and again forbade him."
But a supports the text.
2 This is mentioned in the Sukrtasamkrtana of Arisimha. See pages S, 9 of
Hofrath Buhler's pamphlet (Sitzungsberichte der Kais. Akademie der Wissen-
schaften in Wien, Band CXIX. vii.). See also Forbes's Rs Ml, p. 29, where we
learn that an image of the king in the attitude of a worshipper, covered, however,
by his scarlet umbrella, is still preserved in the temple.
3 Perhaps we should omit the word kanthe with A and a, which give only
tlhavalagrhe. In P, kanthe is inserted by a later hand.
4 I translate the text of the Bombay edition, the list in which is nearly identical
with that of Arisimha. The list as given in Biihler, MS. 296 (a), is nearly identical
with that of A and B given in the Appendix to the Bombay edition (see Buhler's
.Arisimha, p. 9, note 1). For the chronology of this dynasty I would beg to refer to
p. 282 of the Chronology of India, by C. Mabel Duff (Mrs. W. R. Rickmers).


20
he kept silence, and did not extend to them any welcome, or any kind of
civility. Prince Ksemarja, having made over all that wealth to the king,
asked him whether their deed was honourable or dishonourable. Then the
king said, If 1 were to say that it was honourable, I should be guilty of
the crime of stealing my neighbour's goods, if I were to say that it was dis-
honourable, I should produce a feeling of irritation in your mind.1 There-
fore I have come to the conclusion that silence is the preferable course.
Now let me tell you why I forbade you to carry off the property of your
neighbour, when you first asked me. When in foreign countries, kings
praise the government of all sovereigns, they say .scornfully that in the land
of Gujarat there is a government of robbers. When we are informed of
this and similar facts by our representatives 2 in their reports, we are afflicted^
because we do to a certain extent feel despondent on account of our
ancestors. If this reproach attaching to our ancestors could be forgotten in
the hearts of all men, then we also might attain the title of kings in all
gatherings of sovereigns. But now, you princes, being greedy of a trifling
gain, have furbished up anew 3 that reproach of our ancestors." Then the
king brought out his own bow from the armoury, and said, u Let which-
ever among you is a strong man, bend this bow When he had given
this order, they all tried in succession with all their might, but not one of
them was able to bend it. Thereupon the king strung it with ease,4 and
said,
" Disobeying the order of kings, cutting off the salary of dependents,
And deserting the society of wives, is called killing without weapons.5
u It follows that, according to this teaching of the treatises on policy, you,,
my sons, are killing me without weapons,6 so what punishment will meet
your case 1 Then the king starved himself, and ascended the funeral pyre
after one hundred and twenty years had been accomplished.7 This king
built the temple of the goddess Yogvar. The reign of Yogarja lasted
for 17 years, 1 month and 1 day, as it came to an end in the 878th
year of the era of Yikramclitya, on the 4th day of the white fort-
1 I find in a, cetahsu, in your minds.
2 Here a gives sthanapurusaih. This word occurs frequently in the Cintmani.
The officers denoted by it seem to have been very like consuls.
3 I read unmrjya which I find in a and P. This appears to be the reading which
Forbes followed.
4 It is strange that Forbes should omit this incident, which reminds us of Rma
and Ulysses.
5 This couplet is No. 876 in Bhtlingk's Indische Spriiche, but there the second
Pda is brhmannm andcwah.
G P and a insert ajficibhaygad, by disobeying my orders.
' The chronology of the text seems to be defective, but I give it, as I find it in
the edition of Dnntha. He is evidently dissatisfied with some of the dates given
in his text.


21
night of the month rvana. In the 878th year of the same era, on the
5th day of the white fortnight of the month rvana, in the naksatra of
Uttarsdha, in the lagna of Sagittarius, Ratnditya's coronation took place.
His reign came to an end in V.S.1 881, on the 9th day of the white fort-
night of Krtika, so this king reigned 3 years, 3 months and 4 days.3 In
V.S. 898, on the 13th day of the white fortnight of Jyestha, on a Saturday, in
the naksatra of Hasta, in the lagna of Leo, the coronation of king Ksemarja
took place. That king's reign came to an end- in V.S. 922, on Sunday the
15th clay of the white fortnight of Bhdrapada, after it had lasted for 38
years, 3 months and 10 days. The coronation of king Cmundarja took
place in V.S. 935, on Monday the first day of the white fortnight of
vina, in the naksatra of RohinI, in the lagna of Aquarius. His reign
came to an end in V.S. 938, on a Monday, the 3rd day in the black fort-
night of Mgha, and so that king reigned 13 years, 4 months and 16 days.
King kadadeva ascended the throne in V.S. 938, on the 14th day of the
black fortnight of Mgha, on a Tuesday, in the naksatra of Svti, in the
lagna of Leo. This monarch caused to be built in the city of Karkar the
temple of kadevar and Kanthevar. His reign came to an end in V.S.
965, on the 9th day of the white fortnight of Pausa, being a Wednesday,
and so he reigned 26 years, 1 month and 20 days. Bhfiyagadadeva came to
the throne in V.S. 990, on the 10th day of the white fortnight of Pausa, on
a Thursday, in the naksatra of rdr, in the lagna of Aquarius. This
king made the temple of Bhuyagadecvara in Pattana and a rampart. His
reign came to an end in V.S. 991, on the 15th day of the white fortnight of
sdha, and so he reigned 27 years, 6 months and 5 days. So there were
seven kings of the Cpotkata dynasty, and their reigns extended over 190
years, 2 months and 7 days.3
The elephants are ill to take service with, the mountains have lost their
wings,
1 V.S. stands for the era of Yikramditya. In P I find only the figure 8. In
other cases also that MS. gives only one figure.
2 The text does not give the number of days.
I now give for the purpose of comparison a translation of the list as given
in the Appendix from MSS. A B. This agrees almost exactly with that of MS.
No. 296 (a).
"This king reigned 35 years. Ksemarja's reign began in Y.S. 897, and he
reigned 25 years. Bhuyada's reign began in Y.S. 922, and he reigned 29 years.
He caused to be built the temple of Bhuyadevara in Pattana. In Y.S. 951 Vairi-
sirnha began to reign, and ho reigned 25 years. In Y.S. 976 Ratnditya began to
reign, and he reigned 15 years. In Y.S. 991 Smantasiriha began'to reign, and he
reigned 7 years. So there were seven kings of the Cpotkata race, and they came
to an end in Y.S. 998." The passage continues as in the printed text, but the
verses are omitted, and the three brothers are made to return from pilgrimage
during the reign of Smantasimha, instead of during the reign of Bhfiyadadeva.
So also in MS. 296 (a).


22
The tortoise is a laggard in love of his friends, and this lord of the
snakes is double-tongued ;
The Creator considering all this, produced, for the support of the earth,
From the mouthful of water sipped at the evening ceremony, a brave
warrior with waving sword-blade.1
Then three brothers by the same mother, sons of Munjladeva, of the
family of King Bhuyagada, previously mentioned, named Rja, Bja and
D^ndaka, went on a pilgrimage to Somantha, and paid their adorations to
him, and on their return were looking at King Bhuyadadeva, while engaged
in the amusement of the manege..2 When the king gave the horse a stroke
with the whip, the Ksatriya named Raja, who was dressed as a pilgrim,
was annoyed with that cut, which was given inopportunely. He shook
his head, and said, "Alas Alas When the king asked him the reason
of his behaviour, he praised the particular pace performed by the horse,
considering it not inappropriate, and said, When you gave the horse a
cut with the whip, you made my heart bleed." The king was astonished
at that speech of his, and made over to him the horse to drive. He, seeing
that the horse and groom were equally well-trained,3 praised them at every
step. That conduct on his part made the king think that he was of high
birth, so he gave him his sister, called Lldev. After some time had
elapsed from the beginning of her pregnancy, the lady died suddenly, and
the ministers reflecting that if they did not take some steps the child would
die also, performed the csesarian4 operation, and took the child out of her
body. Because he was born under the nalcsatra Mla, he gained the
name of Mlarja. By his general popularity, due to his being resplen-
dent as the newly-risen sun, and by his valour, he extended the sway of
his maternal uncle. Under these circumstances, king Bhyada,5 when
intoxicated, used to have him crowned king, and used again to depose him
when he became sober.6 From that time forth a Capotkata's gift has
1 In these lines Caulukya, the name of the dynasty, is derived from culuha. The
elephants, the tortoise, and the king of the snakes support the earth. The moun-
tains had their wings clipped by Indra. But the word wing also means party,
following." Mountains, as well as kings, are spoken of as earth-supporters."
The word mtayga, which means elephant," also denotes a Candla, or man of
the lowest caste. Such people are ordained to serve, not to keep servants.
2 Buhler (Antiquary, Vol. YI. p. 181) rejects this story as an invention of the
bards. The chronological difficulties are enormous. See also Biihler's Arisimha,
p. 10. Generally the king is called in the text Bhyagada, but here Bhyada.
3 I find in a, sadrayogyatm.
4 Thus this heroic king was exsectus jam matre perempt, like Macduff.
5 According to A and a, Smantasimha.
fi I find in P, madamattena smrjye 5bhisicyate amattenotthdpyate ca. This I have
translated. Forbes (R.M. p. 37) describes the transaction in the following words,
"When he was arrived at mature age, Smant Singh, in a fit of drunkenness,
caused the ceremony of his inauguration to be performed, but no sooner had the
king recovered his senses, than he revoked his abdication of the throne. From


23
become a proverbial jest. Being disappointed 1 every day in this way, he
made ready his followers, and having been placed on the throne by his
uncle when not master of himself, he killed him, and became king in
reality. In the year 993 Y.S., on the 15th day of the bright fortnight of
the month slha, being a Thursday, in the naksatra of Avin, in the
lagna of Leo, at twelve o'clock in the night, in the twenty-first year from
his birth, Mularja was crowned 3 king.
On a certain occasion, the king of the country of Sapdalaksa 3 came to the
border 4 of the land of Gujarat to attack Mularja. At the very same time
arrived Brava, the general of the monarch that ruled over the Tilaijga
country.5 King Mularja, in deliberation with his ministers, laid before
them the probability that, while he was fighting with one enemy the other
would attack him in the rear. They said to him, If you throw yourself into
the fort of Kanth,6 and tide over some days, when the Navartra 7 festival
comes, the king of Sapdalaksa will go to his capital of kambhar to
worship his family goddess. In that interval we will conquer the general
named Brava,8 and after him the king of Sapdalaksa also." When he
heard this advice of the ministers, the king said,44 Will not the disgrace of
running away attach to me in the world? But they said,
" That the ram retires, the reason is that he may butt,
The lion also, in wrath,9 contracts his body, eager for the spring,
With enmity hid in their hearts, employing secret counsels,
The wise endure anything, making it of little account." 10
Persuaded by this speech of theirs, Mularja threw himself into the fort
of Kanth. The king of Sapdalaksa passed the rainy season in the
country of Gujart, and when the Navartra came on, he planted the
city of kambhar on the very ground where his camp stood, and having
brought his family goddess to the spot, began the Navartra festival
there. Mularja, hearing of that occurrence, perceived that his ministers
were men of no resource, and developing in that crisis great intellectual
that time,' says the Jaina annalist, the valuelessness of the gift made by a
Cpotkata became proverbial.' "
1 I find in a, vanibyavidno.
- I regard abhiseka, as practically equivalent to the European ceremony of
coronation.
Eastern Rjputn (Buhler's H.C. p. 26). The name probably means one
lakh and a quarter of villages or towns."
4 Sandhan. But a gives sanwdhau.
0 The Ciukya sovereign of Kalyna. For tadyaugapadyena, a gives tadAjogapattena.
r> The modern Kanthkot in the eastern (Vgad) division of Kach.
7 See B.s Ml, p. 612. The word means, of course, nine nights.
s Also called Brapa and Brasa. 9 P gives atilcopdt, in great wrath.
10 No. 5179 in Bhtlingk's Indische Spruche. It is found in the Pancatantra.
Bhtlingk reads lirdayanihitbhv.


24
brightness, he proceeded to compose a state paper,1 and summoned by a
royal rescript all the neighbouring feudal lords, and by the mouth of the
Pancakula, who was secured by spending money on a fictitious account,3 he
appealed to all the Rajputs and foot soldiers by pointing to the noble
deeds of their families, and won them over by suitable gifts and other
attentions. Then he informed them of the time agreed upon, and placed
them all near the camp of the king of the Sapdalaksa country. On the
day fixed, Mlarja mounted a splendid female camel, and with its keeper
traversed a great tract of country, and in the early morning unexpectedly
entered the camp of the Sapdalaksa king, and dismounting from the
camel alone, sword in hand, said to the king's doorkeeper, Is the king at
leisure at present ? Inform your master that king Mlarja is entering
the royal door." And with these words he pushed the servant away from
the neighbourhood of the door with a blow of his strong arm, and himself
entered the royal pavilion 3 at the very moment that the doorkeeper was
saying, Here is king Mlarja entering at the door," and sat down on the
king's bed. The king, beside himself with fear, kept silence for a
moment, and then shaking off his terror to a certain extent, he said, Are
you really king Mlarja T' Mlarja said in clear tones, "Yes." The
Sapdalaksa king, hearing this utterance, was proceeding to make some
remark suitable to the occasion, when those soldiers with whom it had been
previously arranged, four thousand in number, surrounded that pavilion.
Then Mlarja said to that king, When I was reflecting whether on this
terrestrial globe there was any king heroic enough to stand against me in
battle or not, you arrived exactly in accordance with my wishes. But as
flies alight in swarms at meal-time, this general of the king of the land of
Tilagga, who is named Tailapa, has come to conquer me, so I have come
here to ask you to abstain from attacking me in the rear, and similar opera-
tions, while I am engaged in chastising him." When Mlarja had said
this, the king replied, Since you, though a sovereign, are so careless of your
life as to enter thus alone the dwelling of your enemy, like a common soldier,
I will make peace with you until the end of my life." When the
Sapdalaksa monarch said this, Mlarja rejected his overtures, saying,
"Do not speak thus," and when invited to take food he refused the
invitation out of contempt. He rose up, grasping his sword in his hand,
and mounting that female camel, surrounded by that very body of troops,
he fell upon the camp of the general Brava. He killed him, and captured
his horses, ten thousand in number, and eighteen elephants, and while
1 Perhaps we ought to read raja0 with a and B for rj.
2 Here a has ks unal ekhaka.
3 Gurdwra. The word occurs frequently in this book, and its meaning is self-
evident.


25
he was encamping, the Sapdalaksa king, having been informed of this fact
by his spies, took to flight. That king caused to be built the vasaliik 1 of
Mularja in Pattana, and the temple of Muiijladevasvmin. Moreover, he
went continually every Monday on a pilgrimage to Somevarapattana 3 out of
devotion to the god iva, and Somantha was so pleased with his devotion
that, after informing him of his intention, he came to the town of Mandal.
The king caused to be built there the Mlevara temple, and as he went there
every day in the ecstasy of his devotional fervour, the god Somecvara was
so much pleased with the zeal of his worshipper, that he said, I will come
to your capital and bring the sea with me," and thereupon he manifested
himself in Anahillapura.3 As a proof that the sea had come with him, all
the waters in all the reservoirs in that city became brackish. The king
caused to be built in that city the Tripurusa temple. Then while he was
looking out for an ascetic, who would be a fitting superintendent of that
temple, he heard of an ascetic named Kanthadi, on the bank of the river
Sarasvat, who, in taking nourishment after an Ekntara fast, was living
on five mouthfuls of food not specially set apart for him. When the king
went there to pay him his respects, the ascetic, who was suffering from a
tertian5 ague, transferred the ague to his patched garment. The king
observing that, asked him how it came to pass that the garment trembled.
The ascetic replied that he had transferred the ague to it, as otherwise he
could not talk to the king. Thereupon the king said, If you possess such
power, why do you not get rid of the fever altogether ? Then the ascetic
repeated the following distich from the iv^apurna,
Let my diseases come upon me, whatever they may be, that were earned in
previous lives,
I wish to go clear of debt to that supreme place of iva.
He then went on to say, As I know that action, the consequences of
which have not been endured, is not exhausted,6 how can I dismiss this
fever 1 When he said this, the king asked him to accept the office of
superintendent of the Tripurusa religious foundation. But the ascetic
1 This word denotes an aggregate of buildings, including a temple and monastery,
and corresponds to the term basti, i.e. vasati, used by the Digambaras. (Biihler,
H.C. 1. 57.) .Jo
2 I here follow the reading of a and P, rsomevarcipattane. Hofrath Biihler has
some remarks on this absurd story in his Arisimha, p. 10. Of course the author
uses Somevara and Somantha indifferently.
3 The modern name is Anhilwd.
4 Professor Leumann informs me that I am justified in taking this to mean
" fasting every other day."
5 In P the word t-rtiya is inserted above the line by a later hand.
fi MS. No. 296 (a) has the full quotation, "Action, the consequences of which
have not been endured, is not exhausted even in hundreds of crores of kalpas ; we
must of necessity suffer the consequences of the deeds that we have done, whether
they be good, or whether they be evil."


26
refused in the following words, Since I know the maxim of the Smrti,
which runs as follows,
By holding office for three months, by being abbot of a monastery for three
days, hell is certain ;
But if you wish to merit hell quickly, you have only to be a king's domestic
chaplain 1 for one day :
why should I, who have crossed the ocean of mundane existence in the boat
of ascetism, be drowned in a puddle 1 3 After this refusal, the king had a
copper grant prepared and baked up in pastry, and gave it him in the hollow
of a leaf, when he came to beg. He returned from the palace ignorant of
that fact. Though the river Sarasvat had let him pass before, it was now in
flood, and would not let him pass. He therefore began to think over his
sins from the time of his birth, and at last to look carefully in order to find
out if there was anything wrong with the food which he had just begged,
and lo his eye fell on the copper grant. Afterwards the king, knowing
that the ascetic was angry, came to visit him, and while he was making
deferential speeches to propitiate him, the ascetic observing that, as he must
have taken the copper grant with his right hand, it could not be null
and void, made over to the king his pupil, named Vayajalladeva. That
Vayajalladeva said, If you will give me every day for the rubbing and
cleansing of ray body eight palcis of genuine saffron and four %)ctla$ of musk,
and one pala of camphor, and if you will also give me thirty-two women,
and a white umbrella with a grant of land,3 I will then accept the office of
superintendent." The king agreed to all his conditions, and so he was
installed in the office of chief of ascetics in the Tripurusa religious house.
He became known by the name of Kagkaraula. Though he enjoyed
luxuries in this style, he lived in unblemished chastity. Once on a time
Mlarja's wife proceeded to test his chastity at night. He made her a leper
by striking her with betel, but on being propitiated, he restored her to health
by having her rubbed with the unguents with which he anointed himself,
and washed in the water that he had used for bathing.4
1 Perhaps there is an allusion to the fact that a king's domestic chaplain must be
acquainted with sorcery. See Maurice Bloomfield's Introduction to the Hymns of
the Atharva Veda, pp. xlvi., xlix. and lxi.
- Literally, enough water to fill the hole made by a cow's foot." Cowell and
Thomas (Harsa Carita, p. 169), compare the use of fiobs ttA.V in Hesiod's "Works
and Days, 489.
MSS. A, B, and P read grasasahitam, which means "with a grant of land."
Forbes (Rs Ml, p. 186) expressly says so. It appears that the word grcis was at
this time exclusively appropriated to religious grants, and Forbes refers to this
particular instance. It is absurd to suppose that this luxurious gentleman would
have been satisfied with one village. I therefore follow the MSS.
4 This is a translation of the reading given by a and P, which runs as follows,
nijodvartanavilepamt snnocchistajpayah-prakslancca.


27
Now follows the story of the birth and death 1 of Lkhka.
Long ago, in a certain Paramra family, there was a king called
Krtirja, who had a daughter named Kmalat. Once on a time, in her
childhood, as she was playing with her female friends in front of a certain
temple, they said to her, Choose a bridegroom."2 That Kmalat, having
her sight dimmed with terrible darkness, chose a neatherd named Phulacla,8
who was concealed by a pillar of the temple. Having chosen him without
knowing exactly what she was doing, though she was subsequently during
many years offered to many distinguished bridegrooms, yet she craved the
permission of her parents to carry out her vow of fidelity to her first love, and
owing to her persistency, succeeded in marrying him. Their son was Lska :
he was the king of Kaccha, and owing to the boon of Yaorja, whom he had
propitiated, he was altogether invincible. He repulsed eleven times the
army of king Mlarja)y On one occasion, Lska, while in the fortress of
Kapilakoti, was besieged by king Mlarja in person. Thereupon he1 kept
waiting for the return of a follower named Mheca, a man of great
courage, whom he had sent to attack some place or other. Mlarja, having
ascertained that fact, occupied all the avenues by which Mheca could
return, and as he was coming back, having accomplished the errand on
which he was sent, he was summoned by the king's soldiers to surrender
his weapon. In order to aid the cause of his master, he did so, and going
into the presence of Lska, he prostrated himself before him. Then, when
the time of battle came, Lska uttered many words of wisdom, such as the
following,
" In the place where he was not warmed with courage the contemptible
Laksa says,
4 When you sum up the days, how many are gained h Ten, perhaps, or
eight;"'
and having his valour stimulated by beholding the magnanimous behaviour
of his follower Mheca,5 he engaged in a single combat with Mularja.
Mlarja, after three days' fight, considering that his foe was invincible,
called to mind Somevara, and a portion of Rudra came from that god and
slew Laksa. Then, Laksa having fallen on the field of battle, king
1 I read vipatti0 for vipratipatti0. This king is afterwards called Laksa and
Lska. But s and hh are frequently interchanged in MSS.
2 In the original "Choose ye bridegrooms." The plural may be used out of
deference, or perhaps the words were addressed to all present, though this does
not quite agree with the text.
In a and P I find Phulada.
4 In the original that Lalcsa."
5 I read with a, Mhicabhrtyodbhatavrttidaranena. I find the same reading in P,
but Mdlac for Mhica.
The text perhaps means "by his follower M. by exhibiting magnanimous
behaviour."


28
Mularja touched with his foot the beard of his foe, which was waving in
the wind, and was cursed by Laksa's mother in the following words,
" Your race shall be afflicted with the disease of leprosy.,, 1
Who made a sacrifice of Laksa in the fire of his valour,
And so put an end to the drought, which withheld the tears of his wives,
Who killed the Laksa of Kaccha,2 when he rushed inconsiderately into an
overlong net,
And so showed a fisherman's skill in the midst of the sea of battle.
Here ends the story of the birth and death of Lska.
The creeper of generosity first sprang up in the earth in Bali,3 who
conquered the mighty ;
It fixed its roots firmly in Dadhci ; 4 in Rfima it put forth shoots ;
In the child of the sun5 it spread into great and smpJl branches; owing to
Ngrjuna 6 it budded a little ;
In Yikramditya it blossomed ; but in thy generous self, 0 Mularja, it
was covered with fruits from its root.
The palaces of your enemies, bathed in the rainy season with the waters
from the clouds,
Having taken, as it were, bundles of kua in the form of tufts of bent-
grass that grow on them,
Having given the prescribed handfuls of water by means of the gushings
from their spouts, seem in the masses of masonry that fall from their
walls,
To be performing every day the ceremony of offeriug funeral-cakes to the
ghosts of their7 dead lords.
So this king enjoyed a reign free from enemies for fifty-five years. Once
on a time, immediately after the evening ceremony of waving lights, the
king gave some betel to the servant, and he, on receiving it in the palms
1 Ltitiroga. See Forbes, Rs Ml, p. 44. Monier-Williams tells us tliat lutcc
means spider and a cutaneous disease produced by its poison.
'2 Or a hundred thousand turtles."
He gave heaven and earth to Visnu, who appeared before him as a dwarf.
4 He devoted himself to death, in order that his bones might be forged into the
thunderbolt with which Indra slew Vrtra.
5 Karna. Indra disguised himself as a Brahman and cajoled him out of his
divine cuirass." (Dowson, Dictionary of Indian Mythology, p. 150.)
G He gave away his head a hundred times. Kath Sarit Sgara, Yol. I.
pp. 376-378.
7 Literally to the ghost" (pretdya). Professor Hillebrandtinforms us (Ritual-
Litteratur, p. 90) that the soul of the dead man does not enter at once the world of
the Manes, but remains for a certain time as prta separated from them. To this
single dead person the koddistarddlia, is offered. For this ceremony only purify-
ing grass, a pitcher of Arghya water and a ball of meal are required.


29
of Lis hands, perceived worms in it. Hearing of that circumstance the
king was seized with a desire for asceticism, and determined to abandon
the world, and applied fire to the toe of his right foot, and performing the
great gifts, such as the bestowal of elephants and so on, through a period
of eight days
Submissive to discipline only, he endured clinging to his foot
A fire, with its smoke streaming up like hair ;
Why mention any other brave warrior in comparison with him 1
Since1 he pierced even the circle of the sun.2
Being praised with this and other panegyrics of the kind, he ascended to
heaven.
Then in 1050 V.S.3 on the 11th day of the white fortnight of rvana,
being a Friday, in the naksatra of Pusya, in the lagna of Taurus, king
Cmuncla ascended the throne. He caused to be built in Pattana the
temple of the god Candantha and the god Ccinevara. His reign came
to an end in V.S. 1055, on the 5th day of the white fortnight of vina,
on a Monday. He reigned for thirteen years, one month, and twenty-four
days. In 10G5 V.S. on the 6th day of the white fortnight of vina, on
a Tuesday, in the naksatra of Jyesthfi, in the lagna of Gemini, king
Vallabharja assumed the sovereignty. That king, after investing the
fortifications of Dhr, in the country of Mlava, died of smallpox.4 He
acquired two titles, Subduer of kings, as iva subdued the god of Love,"5
and 44 Shaker of the world." In 1065 V.S., on the 5th day of the white
fortnight of Caitra, his reign came to an end, so he reigned five months
and twenty-nine days. In 1065 V.S., on the 6th day of the white fort-
night of Caitra, being a Thursday, in the naksatra of Uttarsfidha, in the
lagna of Capricorn, his brother, named Durlabharja, was crowned king.
He caused to be built in Pattana a palace with seven storeys, with a dis-
bursement office, and an elephant-stable, and a clock-tower. Moreover, he
had built for the welfare of the soul of his brother Vallabharja the temple
of Madanaaijkara, and he also had the tank of Durlabha excavated. He
reigned twelve years in this fashion, and at the end of that time he
established on the throne the son of his brother, who was called Bhma.
1 For lea yad, a reads Icacid. The Bombay text seems to require sah for yah.
2 Cp. Harsa Carita translated by Cowell and Thomas, note 3 on page 5, and note 1
on page 34.
3 I translate the figures given in the printed text. The editor would substitute
1052 for 1050. P gives only 50.
4 lirogena. See Forbes, Bas Ml, p. 52.
5 Here I read rdjamadanaravjlcara. (See Appendix to the Bombay edition.) But
as this king was very chaste (Buhler's Arisimha, 11) and as a temple of Madana-
agkara was built for his spiritual benefit, perhaps the rja is superfluous. P
supports the printed text.


30
This took place in 1077 V.S., on the 12th day of the white fortnight of
Jyestha, on a Tuesday, in the nalcsatra of Avin, in the lagna of Capri-
corn. Being himself desirous of travelling to Benares, as he longed to
perform his devotions1 in a holy place, he reached the country of Mlava.
There he was called upon by king Munja to give up the umbrella and
chowries and the other insignia of royalty, and to continue his journey in
the dress of a pilgrim, or to fight his way through. When this message
was delivered to him, he perceived that an obstacle to his religious resolutions
had arisen in his path, and after impressing the circumstance in the
strongest way on king Bhlma, he went to the holy place in the dress of a
pilgrim and gained paradise. From that day forth there was rooted enmity
between the kings of Gujarat and Mlava. Now we will relate, as follows,
the history of king Munja, the ornament of the country of Mlava, which
presents itself naturally to our consideration at this point.3
The History of King Munja.
Long ago in that very country of Mlava, a king named Sirhhadantabhata,
of the race of Paramra,3 as he was roaming about on his royal circuit, saw
in the midst of a thicket of reeds a certain male child of exceeding beauty,
that had been just born. He took it up as lovingly as if it were his own
son, and made it over to his queen. The child's name was called Munja4
with reference to his origin. After that, a son was born to the king,
named Sndhala. As Munja was attractive by uniting in himself all good
qualities, the king wished to crown him king, and visited his palace for
1 Or according to the reading of a, to fast."
- I now proceed to translate the account of these kings given in the Appendix
from A and B. It agrees pretty closely with the readings of Buhler's 296, which I
call a.
" Then Mularaja ruled for fifty-five years, as his reign began in 998 Y.S. So
far the history of Mlarja. The reign of king Cmunda began in 1053 Y.S. and
continued thirteen years. Then Yallabharja began to reign in 1066 Y.S., and
reigned for six months. Then in 1066 Y.S. Durlabharja came to the throne and
reigned eleven years and six months. [Then that king acquired the two titles of
Rjamadanaarjkara and Jagajjhampana.B.] That king made the tank of
Durlabha in the city of Pattana. Afterwards, he placed on the throne his own
son named Bhma." Arisimha tells us (Buhler's Arisimha, p. 11) that Yallabha
was called Jagajjhampana. Whatever may be thought of the reason assigned for
the enmity btween the Paramras of Mlava and the Caulukyas of Gujarat, there
can be no doubt that it existed. Buhler thinks that it was due to a race-feud, and
the natural tendency to expansion of the two kingdoms. (Navashasijkacarita,
p. 47.)
See the Navashasijkacarita by Buhler and Zachariae, pp. 28, 29, 36, 37.
Paramra, the Heros eponymos of this race, is said to have sprung from the flame
of Yaistha's sacrifice on Mount Abu. Simhadantabhata is probably identical with
the Siyaka of Padmagupta (op. cit. p. 39).
4 Munja and )ara are said to be names for the Saccharum Sara. Buhler and
Zachariae (op. cit. p. 40) reject the legend that Muiija was a foundling as unhis-
torical. Munja was also called Ykpatirja II., Utpalarja, Amoghavarsa,
Prthvvallabha, and rvallabha.


31
that purpose. Munja, out of excessive bashfulness, hid his wife behind a
cane sofa,1 and politely received the king with the customary prostration.
The king, seeing that that place was apparently private, told him of the
circumstances of his origin from the beginning, and said, 44 I am so pleased
with your devotion to me that I mean to pass over my son, and bestow the
kingdom on you, but you must live on good terms with this brother of
yours named Sndhala." Having given him this caution, he performed
the ceremony of his coronation. Munja, fearing that the story of his
origin would get abroad, went so far as to kill his own wife. Then he
conquered the earth by his valour, and for a long time enjoyed pleasures,
while the great minister named Rudmditya, a very prince of good men,
looked after the affairs of his kingdom. During this stage of his life, he
was devoted to a certain lady, and he used to mount a camel named Ciri-
kalla, and travel twelve yojanas, and return in a night. When he broke
off his liaison with her, she sent him this dodhaha verse,
Munja, the rope has fallen ; you do not see it, mean wretch,
The clouds of sdha are roaring, the ground will now be slimy.2
That brother, named Sndhala, out of high spirit, disobeyed the orders of
Muiija ; accordingly he banished him from his kingdom, and so ruled for a
long time. That Sndhala came to Gujarat, and established his settlement3
in the neighbourhood of the city of Kficahrada 4
Once, on the Dwl festival, he went out to hunt at night. He saw a
boar roaming near a place where a thief had been put to death, and not
observing that the corpse of the thief had fallen down from the stake on
which he had been impaled, he pressed it down with his knee, and pro-
ceeded to aim an arrow at the boar. Thereupon that corpse called to him.
He prevented it from touching his hand, and having pierced the boar with
an arrow, was drawing it towards him, when the corpse rose up, uttering a
loud laugh. Sndhala said to it, When you called to me, was it better
that I should hit the boar, or attend to you and not hit the boar ? "5 When
he had finished his speech, that ghost, which was seeking occasion against
him, was so pleased with his boundless daring that it said,6 Ask a boon
from me." Sndhala requested that his shaft might never fall useless to
1 I give what seems to be the sense, neglecting grammar. From this point I am
able to use Biihler's MS., No. 297, which I shall call
2 This gth is added by a later hand in P. It is not found in a and /3. For nci,
P gives jai.
Pa III.
4 The modern Ksandra or Ksandhra. (See Biihler's Arisimha, p. 25.)
5 I read avabudhya madadattah prahra iti. I find in a, avabudhya madattah.
P has avabudhya matpradattah praharah, which may be translated or attend to
you and let the boar strike me."
6 I find in a and J3, Uyabhihite.


32
the earth. But the ghost then ordered him to ask another boon. When
he heard that, he said, May all fortune be in the power of my two arms "
That ghost, astonished at his daring, said to him, "You must go to the
country of Miilava. There king Munja's destruction is drawing near, but
you must go all the same ; there the sceptre shall be in your line."
Being thus sent by the ghost, he went there, and received from king Munja
a certain district, which brought him in revenue ; but again displaying
haughtiness, he had his eyes put out by Munja, and was confined in a
wooden cage.1 He begot a son named Bhoja.
Bhoja studied all the treatises 011 king-craft, and learnt the use of thirty-
six weapons, and attained the further shore of the ocean of seventy-two
accomplishments, and grew up distinguished by all the auspicious marks.
At his birth, a certain astrologer, skilled in calculating nativities, gave in
the following horoscope,
For fifty-five years, seven months, and three days
King Bhoja is destined to rule Daksinfipatha with Gauda.
When Munja learnt the meaning of these lines, he feared that, if Bhoja
lived, his son would not inherit the kingdom, so he made over Bhoja to
some men of the lowest caste, to be put to death.3 Then, at night, they
perceiving that his form was conspicuous for beauty, felt pity for him, and
trembled, and said to him, Call to mind your favourite deity." Then he
wrote on a leaf the following stanza :
Mfindhfitr, that lord of earth, the ornament of the Krta age, passed
away ;
Where is that enemy of the ten-headed Rvana, who made the bridge over
the ocean
And many other sovereigns have there been, Yudhisthira and others,
ending with thee,3 0 king ;
Not with one of them did the earth pass away : I suppose, it will pass
away with thee.
1 So far from this being true it appears that Sndhula or Sindhurja, as he is
also called, ruled over Mlava for a long time. (Buhler and Zachariae, Navas-
hasrjkacarita, p. 45.) Sndhula was called Navashasijka, because he undertook
hundreds of daring deeds. He was succeeded by his son Bhoja. Our author uses
throughout the form Sindhala.
- This story of the wicked uncle Munja is now disproved. (Buhler and Zachariae,
Kavashasijkacarita, p. 50.)
3 I find in a, cdstanb cjatd," instead of ydvcul bhavdn." The rendering will
therefore be, "Many other sovereigns, Yudhisthira and others, have perished."
This is the reading followed by Forbes. (See Bas Ml, p. 65.) The stanza, as in
the Bombay printed text, is No. 4831 in Bhtlingk's Indische Spruche. He refers
it to the Subhsitrnava.


33
This stanza he sent to the king by the hand of the executioners. When
the king saw it, his mind was tilled with regret, and he shed tears, and
blamed himself as equal in guilt to the slayer of an embryo. Then the
king had Bhoja brought by them with great respect, and honoured him
with the dignity of crown-prince. Then as the king of the Tiliijga country,
named Tailapadeva,1 harassed Munja by sending raiders into his country,
he determined to march against him, though his prime minister Rudrditya,
who was seized with illness, endeavoured to dissuade him. The minister
conjured him to make the river Godvar the utmost limit of his expedition,
and not to advance beyond it, but he looked upon Tailapa with contempt, as
he had conquered him six times before ; so in his overweening confidence
he crossed the river and pitched his camp on the other side. When
Rudrditya heard what the king had done, he augured that some mis-
fortune would result from his headstrong conduct, and he himself entered
the flames of a funeral pile. Then Tailapa by force and fraud cut Munja's
army to pieces, and took king Munja prisoner, binding him with a rope
of reed.3 He was put in prison and confined in a cage of wood, and waited
upon by Tailapa's sister Mrnlavat, with whom he formed a marriage
union. His ministers, who had arrived subsequently,3 dug a tunnel to
where he was, and made an appointment with him. Once on a time, as he
was looking at his own reflection in a mirror, Mrnlavat came up behind
him, without his being aware what she was going to do, and seeing in the
mirror the reflection of her own face wrinkled 4 with old age near the face
of the youthful Munja, she was despondent on account of its extreme
want of brightness. Munja, perceiving this, addressed her in the following
couplet,
Munja says, 0 Mrnlavat, do not regret your vanished youth,
Though the sugar has been pounded into a hundred fragments, still its
powder is sweet.
After addressing her in these words, he was eager to start for his own
country, but unable to endure separation from her, and yet afraid to tell
lier the facts ; and though she spoke to him again and again, he would not
reveal the cause of his perturbation. She gave him food 5 without salt to
1 This was Tailapa II. of Kalyna. (See the Navashasgkacarita by Biihler and
Zachari, pp. 43, 44.) Rudrditya was really the minister of Munja or Vkpati-
rja II., as he is mentioned in his Csana of 979 a.d. Munja's death took place in
one of the three years 994-96.
2 Munja.
3 I owe this interpretation of pctyair0 to Hofrath Buhler. On page 153 of the
printed text jpctyni means that were left behind."
4 Jarjara means literally broken," which sense harmonizes with the expressions
used in the couplet that follows.
5 Rasavatl. According to the Kath Koa, Nala was celebrated for his skilHin
preparing this dish.
D


34
eat, and food with too much salt, but he did not seem to recognize any
difference in the taste, so she questioned him lovingly with a voice per-
sistently charming, and at last he said, I am about to escape by this
tunnel to my own country ; if you will come there, I will crown you as my
queen consort, and show you the fruit of my favour." When he said this,
she answered, Wait a minute, while I fetch a casket of jewels." But she
said to herself, As I am a middle-aged widow.1 when he reaches his own
kingdom, he will cast me off" ; so she went and told the whole story to her
brother the king, and then, in order to expose him to special scorn, had
him bound with cords, and taken about to beg from house to house. As
he was going round to the various houses, being full of despondency, he
uttered the following speeches 2 :
Those men are terribly grieved in their hearts, who confide in a woman,
Who, to captivate all minds, speaks courteously with words of love.
Burnt and broken why did I not die 1 why did I not become a heap of
ashes 1
Munja wanders about, tied with a string like a monkey.
And such as these :
I have lost my elephants and chariots, I have lost my horses ; I have lost
my footmen, servants have I none ;
So, Rudrditya, sitting in heaven, invite me eager to join you.
Then, on another day, he was taken to the house of a certain householder
to beg. The householder's wife, seeing him with a little pot 3 in his hand,
made him drink buttermilk and water, but, having her neck uplifted with
pride, forbade food to be given to him when he begged, so Munja said to
her,
Foolish fair one, do not show pride, though you see me with a little pot in
my hand,
Munja has lost fourteen hundred and seventy-six elephants.
Do not be distressed, O monkey,4 that I was ruined by her :
Who have not been ruined by women, Bama, Havana, Munja, and others?
Do not weep, 0 my jailor, that I have been made to wander by her,
Only by casting a sidelong glance, much more, when she drew me by the
hand.
If I had had at first that discretion, which was produced too late,
Says Munja, O Mrnlavat, no one would have cast an obstacle in my path.
1 I read lctyyanim with a and j8.
2 I translate the printed text, which omits many Prakrit verses contained in a.
3 P and a give padulcapni.
4 I take maylcada to be a Prakrit form for marlcaia ; but P gives mandaka.


35
Munja, that treasury of glory, lord of elephants, king of the land of
Avanti,
'That creature who was long ago produced as the dwelling-place of
Sarasvat,
He has been captured by the lord of Karnta, owing to the wisdom of his
ministers,
And has been impaled 011 a stake : alas perplexing are the results of
Karma.
Daaratha, friend of the king of the gods, father of a portion of the might
of the genius that issued from the sacrifice,1
Perished on his bed, out of sorrow for separation from his son Rama.
The body of that king was placed in a cask of boiling oil,3
And his funeral took place after a long time : alas perplexing are the
results of Karma.
0 man, bewildered with the darkness of wealth, why do you laugh at the
man fallen into calamity 1
What is there strange in the fact that Fortune is not constant 1
Do you not see that in the water-wheel for irrigating fields
The empty buckets become full and the full buckets empty ?3
His ornament is a terrible human skull ;
His retinue Bhrijgin of shrivelled frame, and his wealth one aged bull ;
When this is the condition even of iva, the chief of all the gods,
Of what account, pray, are we poor wretches, when once adverse fortune
has stood on our heads ?
The sea for a moat Lagk for a fortress its commander the ten-headed
king *
When his fortunes fell, all that fell : do not despair, 0 Munja.
After they had led him about in this way to beg for a long time, they
took him, by the king's order, to the place of execution, in order to carry
out the sentence of death. They said to him, "Call to mind your
favourite deity." He exclaimed,
Fortune will go to Govinda ; the glory of heroism to the house of the
Hero ;
But when Munja has passed away, that storehouse of Fame, Sarasvat will
be without a support.5
1 See Rmyana I. 15 (Gorresio's edition). Rama was born from Kaualy,
who received a portion of the pciyasa, brought by a great being that issued from
the flame of Daaratha's sacrifice.
2 See Rmyana II. 68. Daaratha's body was placed in a tailaclron.
3 No. 963 in Bhtlingk's Indische Spruche. He refers it to the Subhsitrnava.
4 i.e. Rvana.
5 Fortune or Laksm is the wife of Govinda or Visnu. The Hero is perhaps
Mahvra or Civa. Sarasvat is the goddess of literature. Forbes (Ras Mala,


36
These and other speeches of Munja are to be looked upon as based an
oral tradition. Then the king had Munja put to death, and his head fixed
on a stake in the courtyard of the palace, and by keeping it continually
covered 1 with thick sour milk he gratified his own anger.
Then the ministers in the country of Mlava, hearing of that event,
placed on the throne Bhoja, the son of Munja's brother.
Here ends the first chapter of the Prabandhacintmani, entitled the
Chronicle of the Kings, beginning with Yikramditya.
CHAPTER II.
history of bhoja and bhma.
Now, when king Bhoja was reigning in Mlava, at that very time in this
land of Gujart, Bhma, of the Caulukya race, was ruling the earth.
Once on a time, at the close of night, Bhoja was meditating in his heart
on the instability of fortune, and reflecting that his own life was uncertain
as a wave ; so, after the morning duties, he went into the pavilion of dis-
tribution, and began to bestow at will gold coins on petitioners summoned
by his attendants. Then his prime minister, named Rohaka, considering
that the king's virtue of generosity was really a vice, because it exhausted
the treasury, and seeing no other means of putting a stop to that system of
charity, after the general assembly 3 was dissolved, wrote with chalk on the-
notice-board of the pavilion the following words :
" One should preserve wealth against the day of calamity."
Next morning the king happened casually to observe these words, and
as all his attendants denied that they had done the deed, he wrote up,
" How can calamities befall one who enjoys good fortune ?"
When the king had written this, the minister wrote up,
" Sometimes, verily, Destiny is angry."
p. 66) quotes these lines, but follows the story given in a (Buhler, MS. No. 296),
according to which Munja was hanged on a tree. Buhler and Zachariae, while
recognizing the legendary character of many of the incidents in this tale, point
out that two Clukya inscriptions boast of this execution. In a footnote they
refer to J. F. Fleet, the dynasties of the Kanarese Districts, p. 40. (Navasha-
sgkacarita, p. 44.)
1 The Buhler MSS. (a and /3) read viliptam for vestitam.
2 I think that in this work sarvvasarci is equivalent to the Urdu phrase dlwcin-i-
'mm or dcirlr-i-lmm. Notice-board is a conjectural translation of bharapatta.
In the Bhojaprabandha (p. 151 of the Bombay edition published at Kalyna in 1895)
the words are said to have been written up in the bedroom of the king.


37
Afterwards the king saw it, and wrote up,
" Even a piled-up heap disappears." 1
When the king wrote up this before his eyes, the minister craved that
his life might be spared, and confessed to what he had written. After
that the king said, u People like the prime minister are not able to restrain
the elephant of my intention with the elephant-hook of knowledge," and
so five hundred learned men obtained the grants they chose to ask for.2
"For indeed," continued the king, "I have inscribed on my bracelet the
following four ry couplets :
This is the opportunity for doing good, as long as I possess this prosperity
by nature uncertain,
In calamity, which must, of necessity, arise, how will there be a further
chance of doing good ?
<3 full moon, whiten the worlds with the full wealth of your abundant rays.
Accursed destiny, alas does not suffer anything to remain long well
established here.
This is the time for you, 0 lake, to aid suppliants continually with
fertilizing streams ;
Moreover, this water is easy to obtain, since long ago the clouds arose.
But for a few days does the flood remain, though mounting high, with
violent current,
Only the mischief, that it does, remains long, laying low the trees on the
river-bank.
Moreover,
If I have not given wealth to suppliants before the sun sets,3
I do not know to whom that wealth will belong on the morrow.
Muttering this couplet, which was composed by myself and made the
-ornament of my neck, like a favourite charm, how am I, 0 minister, to be
entrapped by you, as by a ghost ? "
Then, on a subsequent occasion, the king, while going round on his
circuit, reached the bank of the river. He saw a certain Brahman, afflicted
with poverty, who had forded the river, coming towards him, carrying a
load of wood, and said to him,
" How deep is the water, 0 Brahman? 4
1 The four inscriptions form a couplet.
2 This passage is evidently corrupt. The printed text follows P pretty closely.
3 I find in a, /3 and P, yadanastamite. The sense is much the same as that of the
printed text. Of course this couplet is in the Anustubh metre.
4 This is found in the Bhojaprabandha (Bombay edition of 1875, p. 143).


38
The Brahman answered,
" Knee-deep, 0 king."
When he said that, the king continued,
" How have you been reduced to this state % "
The Brahman replied,
" Not everywhere are there patrons like you." 1
The present, which the king caused to be given to the Brahman, when
he ended this speech, was entered in the charity account-book by the
minister in the form of the following couplet :
A lakh, a lakh, again a lakh, and ten furious elephants
Were given by the king, pleased on account of the knee-deep utterance.3
Then, on another occasion, at night, at the midnight hour, the king
suddenly woke up, and seeing the moon recently risen in the sphere of
heaven, he uttered this half-stanza, like the rising tide of his literary
sea :
This, which within the moon has the appearance of a strip of cloud,
People call a hare, but to me it does not wear that form.
When the king had repeated this half-stanza again and again, a certain
thief,3 that had entered the king's treasure-room by digging a tunnel into
his palace, being unable to restrain the volume of his poetical inspiration,,
exclaimed,
But I think that the moon has its body marked with the brands of a
hundred scars,
Entrenched by the meteor-strokes of the sidelong glances of the fair girls
afflicted by separation from your foes.
When the thief had recited this half-stanza, the king had him put in
prison by his guards. Then, at the dawn of day, he had the thief summoned
to his hall of audience, and gave him a present, which the officer, who
superintended his charity account-book, entered in the following stanza :
To this thief, who laid aside the fear of death, and composed
The two remaining lines,4 the king, being pleased, gave
Ten crores of gold coins, and eight mighty elephants also,
Wounding mountains with the points of their tusks, while bees hum
rejoicing in their ichor.
1 These four speeches form a couplet.
2 But C, D and P give prabhsine, to the utterer of the knee-deep couplet. This-
is found in the Bhojaprabandha (Bombay edition of 1895, p. 146).
3 This story will be found on page 184 of the Bhojaprabandha (Bombay edition
of 1895).
4 I read with a and /8, pdadv ay alerte. This reading is also found in the Bhoja-
prabandha.


39
Then, once on a time, while this book was being read, the king, consider-
ing himself munificent, exclaimed, as if overpowered with the demon of
pride,
I have done what no man has done, I have given what no man has given,
I have accomplished what it is impossible to accomplish, my heart is not
thereby grieved.
While he was praising himself1 again and again in these words, a certain
old minister, wishing to cut short his pride, brought to the king the
charity account-book of Yikramditya.
In the introductory section of the book, first of all was found this stanza,
being the first in it :
Eight crores of gold, ninety-three tuls of pearls,
Fifty elephants excited with anger on account of the bees drunk with the
smell of their ichor,
Ten thousand horses, a hundred fair ones wheedling with wiles,
All this that was given by the Pndu king by way of fine, was made over
to a bard.2
This stanza is to be known as the ie eight crores of gold stanza, on
account of the nature of the remuneratory gift described in it.
When king Bhoja had grasped the purport of this stanza, all his pride
was crushed by the liberality of Vikramditya, and after he had worshipped
that account-book, he had it put back in its place.
Then he was addressed by the warder in the following words, Your
Majesty, the family of Sarasvat waits at your gate, eager for an interview
with the king." The king gave this order, u Introduce them quickly."
Then the family entered in order of precedence. The servant said,
The father is learned, the son of the father also is learned,
The mother is learned, the daughter of the mother also is learned,
The wretched one-eyed maid-servant is also learned,
King, I think that this family is a mass of learning.
The king laughed somewhat at this farcical utterance of the warder, and
gave to the eldest male of the party the following quarter of a couplet to
complete :
" From the unsubstantial one should extract substance."
1 I read clCigliavatinah with /3.
2 I omit four lines which have already been translated in the history of Yikram-
ditya. In MS. /3 they come before these lines. This stanza is found on page 181
of the Bhojaprabandha (Bombay edition of 1895).


40
The verse ran thus when completed :
Munificence from wealth, truth from speech, so, too, fame and piety from
life,
Doing good to one's neighbour from the body ; from the unsubstantial one
should extract substance.1
Then the king gave to the son the following words :
Himalaya, in truth, the monarch of mountains ;
Mena, with her limbs afflicted by bereavement, made.
No sooner had the king spoken than the son replied,
By the fire of thy valour was melted
Himalaya, in truth, the monarch of mountains ;
Mena,2 with her limbs afflicted by bereavement, made
A bed of young shoots the refuge of her body.
When the stanza had been thus completed, the king said to the wife of
the eldest son :
" Which am I to feed with milk ? "
When the king gave her this quarter of a couplet to fill up, she filled it
up as follows :
And if Kvana, in truth, was born with ten mouths, but one body,
His mother gaping with astonishment must have thought, Which am I to
feed with milk ? "
Then the king gave the following quarter of a couplet to be completed:
Cl On whose neck am I to hang ? "
The maid-servant3 thus filled it up :
A certain lady, enraged with neglect, drove away her wretched husband,
My friend, a strange thought did I think, On whose neck am I to hang ? "
The king forgot to test the daughter, but rewarded them all, and then
dismissed them. Then the king, as he was walking about on the floor of
the upper room of his palace, holding up an umbrella, during an audience at
which everybody was allowed to be present,4 was reminded by the warder
of what had happened to the daughter. The king said to her, Speak"
Then she uttered this stanza :
1 This stanza is No. 2750 in Bohtlingk's Indische Spruche. He finds it in the
Shityadarpana and the Subhsitrnava.
2 The wife of Himalaya and mother of Prvat.
3 I read sa with a and
4 Here again I take sarvclvasara as equivalent to dn-n-i-'cimm.


11
0 king Bhoja, light of your race, crest-jewel of all kings,
It is right that you should walk about in this world with an umbrella, even
at night,
Lest, by beholding your face, the moon should become abashed with shame,
And this reverend saint Arundhat1 should be tempted to unchastity.
As soon as she had said this, the king, having his mind captivated by
her beauty, married her, and made her one of his wives. Then, on another
occasion, king Bhoja, though a league of friendship 3 subsisted between
him and Bhima, being desirous of breaking the peace, and also wishing to
test the cleverness of the inhabitants of the country of Gujarat, put this
gth into the hand of a diplomatic agent,3 and sent it to Bhma :
The lion who with ease cleaves the foreheads of mighty elephants, the pro-
gress of whose valour is published abroad,
Has no war with the deer, and yet cannot be said to have peace with him.
Bhma was asked to send a gtJi in answer to this, but considered all
the compositions, which the great poets submitted, as so many fruitless
efforts, until at last this gth came :
Bhima was created on the earth by Destiny as the destroyer of the sons of
Andhaka,
How can he, who made no account of a hundred foes, make account of thee
who art but one ? 4
The king sent this mind-astonishing gth, which was composed by
Govindcrya, to king Blioja, by the hand of that minister, and thus
avoided a breach of peaceful relations.
On a certain occasion,5 a certain man, introduced by the warder, entered
the hall of audience, and said to Bhoja,
The mother is not satisfied with me nor with the daughter-in-law, the
daughter-in-law neither with the mother nor me,
1 for my part neither with one woman nor the other ; tell me, 0 king,
whose is this fault ?6
1 The wife of Vaistha (or Vasistha) and one of the Pleiades. This stanza is
found on pp. 163, 164 of the Bhojaprabandha (Bombay edition of 1895).
2 Yamalap%tresu.
3 Sndhivigraliilca. Forbes (Rs Ml, p. 188) tells us that at the courts of their
more powerful neighbours, the kings of Anhilwr were represented by accredited
diplomatic agents, called Sndhivigrahik or makers of peace and war, whose
duty it was to keep them informed of foreign affairsa task performed also in
another manner by persons called Sthnpurush," men of the country or spies,
who were probably unrecognized by their employers.
4 I read with B, a and (3, Bhmo puhavii, omitting ya.
0 Here P gives sarvvasare, which, as I have already pointed out, means an
audience, open to all people, of whatever rank.
c The Bombay edition of the Bhojaprabandha (Kalyna, 1895) reads kupyciti for
tusyati in this couplet, which is found on page 252.


42
As soon as the king heard this, he caused a present to be given to him,
which chased away the poverty that had beset him from his birth. Then
on a certain night in the winter season, as the king was roaming about in
search of adventures,1 he heard a certain man in front of a certain temple
repeating the following stanza :
While I am shrivelled up 3 with cold like the fruit of the bean, and plunged
in a sea of anxiety,
The fire of my belly pinched with hunger, which blows and parts my lips,
is appeased,
Sleep has abandoned me, and gone somewhere far away, like an insulted
wife,
The night does not waste away, like fortune bestowed on a worthy
recipient.
After the king had got through the latter part of the night, he summoned
that man in the morning, and said to him, iC How did you endure the great
severity of the cold during the rest of the night 1 And then he reminded
him of the line :
"The night does not waste away, like fortune bestowed on a worthy
recipient."
The man answered, Your Majesty, by virtue of the three thick garments a
I manage to hold out against the cold." When the king asked him again,
"What is that triad of garments4 that you speak of," he repeated the
following couplet :
At night the knee, by day the sun, the fire at both twilights,
King, I endured the cold by the help of knee, sun and fire.
When he said this, he was made happy by the king by the gift of three
lakhs. The man continued,
By thee, thus imprisoning thyself5 now by the way of munificence,
Bali, Karna and others have been released from their gaol in the minds of
the good.
1 Forbes has some interesting remarks on this subject. See page 191 of the Has
Ml, Watson's edition.
2 This translation is conjectural. Perhaps we ought to read ucldlirstfasya with
D. This word is said to mean shivering." Monier-Williams tells us that
uddhusana is a corruption of uddliarsana. In the Bhojaprabandha (page 181 of the
Bombay edition of 1895) this stanza begins with teriOJiyusiiasya.
3 Here I read with a, tricel for triveli. P has maydya for may ci.
4 Here I read vastratrayl with a, or perhaps it would be better to read tricel
again, taking into consideration the fact that in Jaina MSS. it is difficult to
distinguish c from v.
5 I read with a and P, 0tmnamaho for Omnamalio. I find tmnam in the
corresponding passage in the Bhojaprabandha (Bombay edition, p. 183), but the
rest of the stanza differs so much that it throws no light on this.


43
While the man was thus pouring forth the full volume of his literary
flood,1 the king, who felt unable to give an adequate present in return for
it, induced him by his entreaties to stop. On another occasion, when the
king was mounted on an elephant, and was going round the town on his
royal circuit,2 he saw a certain beggar picking up grains that had fallen on
the ground. The king uttered the first half of a half-stanza,3
What is the use of those people being born who are not able to fill their
own stomachs 1
The beggar continued,
Indeed there is no use at all of those people being born, who do not help
others, though well able to do it.
When he had ended, the king continued,
0 mother, do not produce such a son as is intent on begging from his
neighbours !
After this speech, the beggar rejoined,
Do not, 0 earth, do not give support to those who refuse their neighbours'
requests !
When he had said this, the king said, Who are you % He replied, I
here am Rjaekhara, who, having been prevented by the chief men of the
city from obtaining in any other way an entrance into your coterie of various
learned men, have striven by this trick to enjoy an interview with your
Highness." When he had been favoured with great gifts, suitable to him>
he said,
In that lake in which the frogs, lying in the holes, were as if dead, the
tortoises had gone into the earth,
The sheat-fish had swooned again and again, from rolling on the broad slab
of mud,
In that very lake a cloud, rising out of season, has wrought such a mighty
work,
That herds of wild elephants drink water in it, immersed up to their
foreheads.4
This is the utterance of Rjaekhara called "The cloud out of season."
In a certain year, owing to a failure of rain, it became impossible to obtain
1 P has odgdraparastat. 2 I read with a, rdjaptikym.
3 Here the text reads ardhakavin. But I have substituted ardhakavit.
4 This stanza is found on page 155 of the Bhojaprabandha (Bombay edition of
1895).


44
grain and grass, and king Bhma was informed by his representatives 1 that
king Bhoja was for this very reason preparing an invasion. This made
him anxious, and he gave orders to a diplomatic agent named Dmara, to
this effect, Whatever we may have to pay by way of fine, king Bhoja
must be prevented from coming into this country during the present year."
On receiving this order, he repaired to the court of king Bhoja. Now he
was exceedingly ugly, but skilled in penetrating the minds of others. King
Bhoja said to him,
" Tell me how many messengers are there, belonging to your king, holding
the office of diplomatic agent 1 "
The ambassador replied,
u Many like me, 0 king of Mlava, they are there of three degrees,
They are sent in order, according as the foreign court is considered to be
of low, medium, or excellent quality."
When he gave this answer with a suppressed smile, the king of Dhr
was pleased with him.
King Bhoja, astonished at the cleverness of his speech, had the drums
beat as a signal for beginning the march towards Gujarat. At the time
of beginning the march, a bard said,
The Cola king enters the bosom of the sea, the Andhra king repairs to a
hole in a mighty mountain ;
The king of Karnta does not wear his turban, the king of Gujarat frequents
the mountain torrents ;
Cedi, that warlike monarch, flickers with weapons ; the king of Kanyakubja
is here bent double ;
O Bhoja, all the kings are distracted with the burden of the fear of the
advance of thy army only.
On the floor of thy prison, the angry wrangle about a place on which to
lay their beds,
Has increased in the night among these mutual rivals, who thus dispute,
" The king of Koijkana sleeps in the corner, Lata near the door, Kaligga in
the courtyard ;
You are a new arrival, Koala ; my father also used to abide on this level
spot."
After the king had ordered the drum for the advance to be beaten, a
1 Stlidnapurusaih. Forbes (Ras Ml, p. 188) gives it as his opinion that these
"men of the country were spies. But we shall soon come to a passage which
shows that one of the representatives of the Gujarati sovereign in Mlava declared
himself to be a native of Gujarat. The passage is found on page 108 of the
Sanskrit printed text.


45
dramatic performance, taking off all the kings, was enacted. In it a certain
angry king tried to make Tailapa, who, being in the prison, had established
himself in a comfortable place, get up, and was thus addressed by him, '' I
have an ancestral holding here, why should I leave my own home at the
bidding of a new-comer like you 1 Thereupon the king turned to Dmara
with a laugh, and praised the display of wit in the play, but received from
him this reply, "King, the display of wit is, no doubt, extraordinary, but
out on the ignorance that this actor 1 shows with regard to the history of
the hero of the tale, for this mighty king Tailapadeva is recognized by
having the head of king Munja fixed on a stake When Dmara said
this before all the court, Bhoja was so stung by his sarcasm, that, without
making any further preparation, he proceeded to march at once towards the
country of Tilaijga. Then, hearing that a very strong force was coming
under the banner of Tailapadeva, Bhoja was very anxious, and at this con-
juncture Dmara came to him, and showing him a forged rescript from the
king, informed him that Bhma had reached Bhogapura. By that intelligence
brought by Dmara, which was like the sprinkling of salt on a wound, king
Bhoja was exceedingly cast down, and he said to Dmara, You must, by
hook or by crook, prevent your master from coming here during the present
year." When the king said this over and over again in plaintive accents,
Dmara, who knew how to suit himself to every conjuncture, took a male
and female elephant from him by way of present, and sent them to Bhma
in Pattana to appease him.
When king Bhoja was listening to the reading of a treatise on law, he
heard of the tdlivedha2 of Arjuna. He reflected, What is difficult to
practise 1 And so he himself, by dint of constant practice, succeeded in
performing the world-famed Rdhvedha, and then proceeded to illuminate
the markets of the city ; but an oilman and a tailor out of contempt would
have nothing to do with his rejoicings, and then justified their refusal ta
the king. The oilman stood in the upper room of a house, and from it
poured a stream of oil into a narrow-mouthed earthen vessel that was on
the ground ; and the tailor stood on the ground, and on the point of an up-
lifted thread caught the eye of a needle,3 that was thrown down from
above, and so threaded the needle. Having shown in this way their skill
acquired by practice, they said to the king, If your Majesty possesses the
1 I read ixatasya for bhatasya. P has dhig natasyci, a, dhik natasya, >8, dliigdhana-
tasya.
2 This is said to mean a particular attitude in shooting, but I think it must mean
a feat similar to that performed by Odysseus. Bhtlingk and Roth, in their
Wrterbuch in kiirzerer Fassung, give for Rdhvedhin etwa nach der Scheibe
schiessend." The meaning will, to a certain extent, appear in the sequel. Literally
translated it means the cleaving of Rdh."
3 P gives bhmistliita rdlivmuMiakrtatcbntramiiklie, but also vivare.


46
requisite skill, then do what we have done." In this way they cut short the
king's pride.
King Bhoja, I know why you performed the cleaving of Rdh,1
It was because your Majesty could not tolerate an opposite to Dhr.
In these words he was praised by the learned, and being desirous of laying
out a new city, he had the drum beaten. Then a hetaera, named Dhr,
who, with her husband, named Agnivetla, had gone to Laijka, and seen the
way in which that town was laid out, and returned, requested that her name
might be given to the new city, and making over to the king an accurate
plan of Laijk, she laid out the town of Dhr.
On a certain day, the king was wandering about in his town, after the
evening general assembly, and he heard a certain Digambara reciting the
following gatlia,
This birth has been a failure,21 have not broken the successful sword of the
warrior ;
I have not listened to the shrill drums ;3 I have not clung to the neck of a
fair one.
The next morning the king summoned him, and taking the opportunity
of reminding him of the fact that he had uttered these words in the night,
he asked him what ability he possessed. The Digambara set forth his
valour in the following couplet,
King, when the Dpll festival has taken place, and the ichor of elephants
flows,
I will reduce under one umbrella Gaula and Daksinpatha.
Thereupon he was appointed commander-in-chief. King Bhma having
marched 4 to conquer the country of Sindh, the Digambara arrived with all
the officers and sacked the august city of Anahilla, and having caused cowries
to be sown at the gate of the clock-tower of the palace, extorted a record
of victory. From that day forth it became a common saying in that land
that such and such a thing has been stolen by Kulacandra. He returned to
the country of Mlava with that record of victory, and related the whole
story to king Bhoja. He said to him, Why did you not have charcoal
sown 1 The taxes of this country shall go to the land of Gujart." This is
what king Bhoja, the neck-ornament of Sarasvat, said to him.
1 Rdhvedha. Of course, if the syllables of Rdh are inverted we obtain
Dhr.
2 P gives naggaham. I take it to be the Sanskrit nigraham.
3 P gives tilclchm turiya na mniy, but a and jS give tirak (sic). The anusvra
in P is not very clear. For gorl see Hemacandra (ed. Pischel) IV. 395, 4.
4 P, a and /3 read vydprte, being engaged in conquering.


47
One night, Bhoja was sitting in the rays of the moon, with Kulacandra
near him, and looking at the circle of the full moon, he repeated these two
lines,
Those who find the night pass as quickly as a moment in the society of the
beloved,
Find, when separated, the cold-rayed moon as scorching as a meteor.
When the poet-king had in these words uttered the half1 of a stanza,
Kulacandra continued,
But I have neither a beloved nor separation ; therefore to me deprived of
both these things
This moon shines like a mirror, neither hot nor yet cold.
After Kulacandra had said this, the king bestowed on him a beautiful
damsel.
Then the diplomatic agent, named Dm ara, came from the country of
Mlava, and by describing the court of Bhoja, created great astonishment.
Then he returned to Mlava, and by describing Bhma as possessing
extraordinary beauty, he made2 Bhoja excited with a longing to see him ;
so Bhoja entreated him, saying, Bring him here, or take me to his
capital ; and Bhma, who wished to see the court of Bhoja, used exactly
the same language to him. So, in a certain year, the resourceful Dmara,
conveying a great present, and taking with him king Bhma, disguised as a
Brahman, and officiating as a betel-box bearer, went into the court of
Bhoja, and made his salutation. When Bhoja began to broach the subject
of his bringing king Bhma, Dmara said,u Kings are independent persons,
and who can force them to do what they do not wish to do ?3 But, anyhow,
some slaves must not be despised by your Majesty." 4 After he had said
this, Bhoja asked what the age, colour, and form of Bhma were like, and
looked round at those people who were present in court. Then Dmara
pointed out the betel-box bearer, and said to Bhoja, "King,
He has the same form, the same colour, the same beauty, and the same age ;
The difference between him and the king is that between glass and a
wishing-jewel."
1 I read arclhe, but a lias tenoktam which comes to the same. P gives iti ardha-
kavincI tenokte. See page 74 of the printed text, where ardhkavin occurs.
2 The grammar in this passage seems to be defective. I have given what I
suppose to be the sense.
I read with a and /3, svdmino' nabhimatam. P gives ndbhimatam, which gives
the same sense.
4 Perhaps the reading of j8, sarvatheyam had nvcidliraniy is correct. The
same reading is found in a except that im is given for yam. This will mean
You must certainly not entertain this chimerical hope." P has this reading, but
lead0 for kad. However, the reading of the printed text gives a tolerable sense.


48
When he said this, king Bhoja, who was a very emperor among dis-
cerning men, looked at the distinguishing marks of the betel-box bearer,
and then, with fixed gaze,1 reflected that such a person must be a king.
Then the diplomatic agent sent the betel-box bearer to bring the articles
that composed the present. While the things were being brought, a great
deal of time was taken up by Dmara's protracting matters by describing
their advantages, and dilating on other subjects. At last the king said to
him, How much longer is this betel-box bearer going to linger V' Then
Dmara told him plainly that he was Bhma. Immediately the king set
about getting ready troops to pursue him. But Dmara said to him, At
the end of every twelve yojanas there are horses attached to a horse-litter,
and female camels2 that go a yojana in twenty-four minutes, so, as Bhma
is getting over the ground with all these appliances, how are you likely to
catch him ? When Dmara had made this representation, Bhoja remained
for a long time rubbing his hands.
Then king Bhoja, having been continually hearing of the literary merit
and virtue of the pandit Mgha, out of eagerness to see him, kept con-
tinually sending royal invitations, and so brought him from the town of
rmla in the cold weather season. He entertained him with the utmost
respect, with delicious dishes and other luxuries, and after that showed
him entertainments fit for a king, and then, at night, after the ceremony of
waving lights before the idol was concluded, he made the pandit Mgha
recline on a bed near his own, and exactly like it, and lie gave him his own
iug, and after conversing pleasantly with him for a long time, he slept
comfortably. In the morning the king was aroused by the sound of the
auspicious drums, and then the pandit Mgha asked him for leave to return
home. The king, with his heart full of astonishment, asked him how he
had enjoyed his food and coverlets in the day that had passed, but he said,
" Let us not discuss the question as to whether the food was good or bad,"
but represented that he was exhausted with the weight of the rug.3 The
king, who was vexed, at last, with difficulty, consented to his departure,
and so the pandit Mgha, being accompanied by the king as far as the city
park, and honourably dismissed, returned to his own home. Mgha, before
he left, entreated4 the king to honour him with the favour of a visit to
him in his own house. Some days after, king Bhoja, eager to see the
apparatus of Mgha's wealth and 1 uxury, went to the town of rmla.
1 P and j8 give nicaladran nrpam. This would mean, I suppose, that Dmara,
remarking that Bhoja was looking intently at Bhma, sent the latter away. In
any case, the grammar is defective.
a MS. a has karinyah (female elephants), ka/ribliyah.
a I read itarakfblirena with P, a and /3, instead of tabharena, which is,
perhaps, a misprint.
4 P, a and fi give vijnapya.


49
The pandit Mgha won his heart by showing him appropriate respect in
going to meet him and paying him other attentions, and the king found
that there was room for himself and his army in Mgha's stables. But he
himself went to pandit Mgha's palace, and observed that the floor of the
passage leading to it was inlaid with gold.1 After he had bathed, he put
on a clean garment, standing on the floor of the god's shrine, which was
made of a pavement of crystal and emerald in such a way as to resemble
water full of the branching stems of aquatic plants. The commencement
of the rite was immediately announced to him by the family priest, and
after the worship of the god was over, and the mantra ceremony 2 had come
to an end, the king tasted the savoury food, which was brought in at
meal-time. His mind was surprised by all kinds of accessory delicacies,
such as fruits, which came from foreign countries, or were produced out of
their due season. After he had eaten to his fill savoury food remarkable
for well-seasoned milk and rice, at the end of the meal he went up into the
upper chamber, and was a spectator of poems, tales, histories, and plays,
not seen or heard3 before. Though it was the cold season, there was
artificially produced a sudden semblance of terrible heat,4 so that the king
had to put on white transparent garments, and being fanned by servants
holding palm-leaves in their hands, and having his clothes anointed with
much sandal-wood ointment, he passed that night in delightful sleep, as if
it had been but a moment. In the morning he was waked by the sound
of conchs, and was informed by the panlit Mgha of the fact that the hot
season had suddenly appeared in the middle of the cold weather.5 He
spent some days, as suited the season, full of astonishment, and then asked
leave to depart to his own country, and after bestowing on Mgha all the
merit of the new Bhojasvmin temple, that he was about to build6
himself, he set out for the country of Mlava.
Now, on the day of his birth, Mgha's father had his horoscope cast by
an astrologer, and the astrologer stated that at the beginning of his life his
prosperity would be continually increasing, but at the end he would lose all his
opulence, and a disease of swelling would to a certain extent manifest itself
in his feet, and so he would die. When the astrologer said this,7 Mgha's
father was desirous of counteracting that predicted course of the planets by
an accumulation of wealth, and so, having reflected that in the life of a
1 Or glass, according to a and 0, which have kcabaddhm.
2 Probably the circumambillation accompanied by the repetition of a mantra.
(Forbes, Rs Ml, p. 397.)
3 P gives arutdrsf prva0. I have followed the printed text.
4 P, a and j8 give bhsmosmabhrnty. This I translate.
5 The reading of a, vyatikaram, improves the grammar. I find vyatikara in jS.
fi Both a and /3 read krita = caused to be built.
' P and a give Iti nimittavidd nivedite. This I have followed, but the sense is
not thereby much altered.
e


50
human "being, which is of the length of a hundred years, there will be
thirty-six thousand days, he placed so many strings threaded with coins
in new receptacles that he had made for the purpose, and gave his son
hundredfold more wealth in addition to that, and bestowed on him the
name of Mgha, and gave him the education befitting his family, and then
thinking that he had done his duty, he died. Immediately Mgha, having,
like the lord of the northern quarter,1 a vast empire over luxuries,3 began to
give to learned men as much wealth as they desired, and fulfilled the wishes
of the tribe of petitioners with measureless gifts, and by various3 kinds of
enjoyments showed himself in his own country 4 like the incarnation of a
god. He excited admiration in learned men by composing th3 epic poem
named iuplabadha ; but at the end of his life, owing to the fact that
the merit acquired in a previous state of existence was exhausted, he lost
his wealth, and as calamity had fallen upon him, he was unable to remain
in his own country, and so he went with his wife to the country of
Mlava, and took up his residence in Dhr.5 He made up his mind that
he must obtain some money from king Bhoja by offering him a book to
purchase. So he sent his wife to him, and remained long hoping for it.
In the meanwhile, king Bhoja, seeing his wife in that condition, opened
that book, hastily thrusting a pin6 into it and saw the following stanza:
The clump of night-lotuses has lost its glory, glorious is the mass of day-
lotuses,
The owl abandons his joy, the Brahmany drake is full of happiness,
The warm-rayed sun is rising, the cold-rayed moon 7 is setting,
Various, alas is the development of the freaks of accursed Fate.
Then, having grasped the meaning of the stanza, he said, Why need
we consider the whole book ? The world itself would be a small price for
this stanza alone." So the king gave by way of remuneration for the
word IC Alas which was appropriate to the occasion, and not redundant,
wealth to the amount of a lakh, and so dismissed Mgha's wife. But she
1 i.e. Kuvera, the god of wealth.
2 I insert with a, bhojya between prjya0 and samrjyo. The same MS. has
prapta before prdjya0.
3 I read with a, /3 and P, taistair0.
4 Before svam I insert nijadee, which I find in a.
5 This part of the story is found in the Bhojaprabandha, pp. 220 and ff. (edition
of 1895, Kalyna, Bombay).
G According to Molesworth's Marthi Dictionary, it is customary to examine a
candidate by piercing the sheets of a book with a alk or pin, and asking him to
explain the stanza on which the pin rests. Books are apparently used in this way
to inquire into the future. Cp. the Sortes Virgilianae. The word alk may also
mean a stilus for writing on palm-leaves. (Buhler Indische Palaeographie, p. 92.)
7 The moon is the friend of the white lotus, which expands its petals during the
night, and closes them in the daytime. The Brahmany drake is separated from
his mate during the night.


51
as she was returning from the king's palace, being known to be the wife of
the pandit Mgha, was solicited for alms by certain petitioners, and so she
gave them the whole of the king's present, and returned to the house no
richer than she left it, and informed her husband, in whose feet a swelling
had to a certain extent manifested itself, of what had taken place, with a
full explanation. Then he praised her, saying, You are my reputation
manifest in bodily form," and then, seeing that a beggar had come to his
house, and that there was nothing in it fit to give him, he fell into a state
of despondency, and said this,
I have no wealth, and yet vain hope does not leave me,
My perverse hand does not1 abandon the desire to give.
Begging involves disgrace, and yet in self-slaughter there is sin,
Ye vital spirits, depart ye of yourselves ; what availeth it to lament h
The scorching of the fire of poverty is allayed with the water of acquiescence,
But, as for this pain produced by frustrating the expectation of the wretched,
by what is this to be allayed 1
Leave me, leave me, ye vital spirits, since a petitioner has gone to dis-
appointment,
Sooner or later you will have to go, but where will you find such a caravan
to start with 1
In time of famine begging is out of place ; how can the poorly-circum-
stanced contract a loan ?
And who will give the lords of the earth work to do
This householder is about to perish without having given a mouthful ; 3
Where are we to go, what are we to do, wife 1 Mysterious is life's dis-
pensation.
A wayfarer, gaunt with famine, has come from some place asking for my
house ;
So, wife, is there anything which this man, afflicted with hunger, may eat 1
She says with lier voice, There is," and again, There is not," without
syllables ;
By drops of flowing tears, by broad, broad streams pouring from her rolling
eyes.
1 I find in /3, tycigclnna sancalati and in P and a, ddndnna saykucciti. I think that
a negative is required. I find in the Bhojaprabandha, tydge ratim vahati. The
reading of the printed text means, "In truth my perverse hand contracts from
giving."
2 This passage is full of puns. Disappointment may also mean "want of
meaning ; the word for caravan means also having meaning," and the word
for "petitioner "is connected with arthci which means "petition," "meaning,"
and wealth."
Or, This sun is setting without allowing Rhu to swallow him in an eclipse."
Grdsa also means grant."


52
Immediately after uttering this speech, that pandit Mgha died. Next
morning king Bhoja heard of that occurrence, and as Mgha's fellow-
tribesmen, the Mlas, were wealthy, and yet allowed such an admirable-
man to die overpowered with hunger, he gave them the well-known name
of Bhilla1-Malas.
Once on a time, in the city of Vil, which was great in prosperity, there-
was dwelling a Brahman of the name of Sarvadeva, of the Kyapa gotra, a
native of Madhyadea.3 By associating with the followers of the Jaina
religion, he had well-nigh suppressed falsehood3 in himself. With his two
sons, Dhanapla and obhana, he entertained in a monastery 4 of his own,
out of regard for his merits, the Jaina teacher, Vardhamna, who came to
him one day, and as the teacher was pleased with his unvarying devotion,
Sarvadeva, thinking that he was a son of the omniscient one, asked him
about a treasure of his ancestors that had disappeared. The teacher,
making use of words intentionally ambiguous, asked him to give him half,
and after Sarvadeva had found the treasure by the indications which the
teacher gave, he was for giving him half of the treasure, but the teacher
then asked him for half his couple of sons. Dhanapla, the eldest, whose
mind was blinded by falsehood, and who was addicted to denouncing the
Jaina way, refused his consent, and with regard to the younger, named
obhana, he was restrained by compassion. So, being desirous of washing
away in holy bathing-places the crime of breaking his promise, he set out
on a pilgrimage to holy bathing-places. Then the younger son, named
obhana, who was devoted to his father, dissuaded him from his intention,
and took a vow to make good his father's promise, and himself repaired to
that Jaina teacher. Dhanapla studied all the branches of Brahmanical
learning, and, by the favour of king Bhoja, obtained the post of superior5
of all the pandits, and, out of a feeling of hostility to his brother, he pre-
vented the professors of the Jaina faith from entering his country for the
space of twelve years. The Jaina laymen of that country called upon the
teacher with vehement entreaty, and so that ascetic, named obhana, who
had reached the further shore of the ocean of Jaina treatises, took leave of
the teacher, and went there and entered Dhr. As he was entering, the
pandit Dhanapla, who was accompanying the king on his royal circuit, not
1 Or "barbarous Mlas." The reading of a and /3, tajjter ma would mean,
" He gave that tribe the name," &c. Buhler (Indian Studies, No. 1) tells us that
"rmla" is another name of Bhillamla, the modern Bhnmfd in southern
Mrvd. P has, as I read it, tajjtar, the vowel e being omitted.
2 The country lying between the Himlayas on the north, the Yindhya moun-
tains on the south, Vinaana on the west, Prayga on the east.
* Probably in the sense of wrong belief from the Jaina point of view.
4 Upraya.
5 P and a give prasta (for prasthd) instead of the prak-rsta of the printed text. I
have followed these two MSS.


53
recognizing that he was his brother, said to him jeeringly, '' All hail ass-
toothed mendicant The hermit, obhana, answered, Good luck befall
you, my friend, with a mouth like a kapivrsana." Dhanapla was inwardly
astonished at this speech of obhana's, and said to himself, I said, 4 All
hail to you,' in pure joke, but this man, by saying i Good luck to you, my
friend,' has conquered me by his dexterity in speech." So he said to
obhana, Whose guests are you?" These speeches of Dhanapla
elicited from the hermit obhana the reply, 44 We are your guests, sir."
When Dhanapla heard this speech of the hermit obhana, he sent obhana,
with his attendant novice, to his own palace, and assigned him a place there.
Then Dhanapla himself returned to the palace, and with polite speeches
invited obhana with his attendant to dinner. But they,3 who were
addicted to taking only pure food, refused. Dhanapla earnestly inquired
what objection could be taken to his food. They answered,
A hermit should eat food collected as bees collect honey, even if given by a
family of Mlecchas,
He should not eat a regular meal, even if offered by one equal to
Vrhaspati.
Moreover, the same doctrine is laid down in the Jaina religion, in the
Daavaiklika,
Those wise persons, who are like bees, not depending on any one person for
food,
Delighting in many scraps, self-subdued, are for that reason called saints.3
Accordingly, as food expressly prepared for us is forbidden both by our
own religion and an alien religion, we avoid it, and eat pure food.
Dhanapla was astonished at their virtuous practice, and silently rising up
went into his palace. When he was beginning his bath, those two hermits
arrived on a begging round, and the Brahman's wife seeing them, as the
cooking of the food Was not completed,4 brought the two hermits sour milk
to drink. They asked, For how many days has this been kept ? But
Dhanapla jeeringly remarked, Do you suppose that there are maggots in
it h The Brahman's wife investigated the matter and said, It has been
kept for two days." Thereupon the two hermits said, Undoubtedly there
1 Perhaps this refers to the fact that the Jaina ascetic ate only vegetables.
Professor Leumann kindly informs me that Gardabhadanta bhadanta namaste "
and Kcqrivrsandsya vayasya sukham te" are two Pdas composed in the Yiloka
metre with rhyming syllables. I do not understand the meaning of kapivrsana.
2 Here the plural is used, but further on the dual.
This passage is found on page 613 of Professor Leumann's Daavaiklika Sutra,
as he has kindly pointed out to me. The same idea will be found in Hemacandra's
Yogastra, III. 140.
4 I read asiddhe 'nnapke with /8. I find in a, asiddhntapke. P gives asiddhe
annapake. P also gives prcchyamno Dhanapalah.


54
are maggots in it."1 So Dhanapla rose up from the seat on which he had
placed himself to take his bath, in order to look into the matter, and when
he saw that on a piece of cotton coloured red being placed in the vicinity
of the sour milk, which was put on a plate, creatures 2 of the colour of the sour
milk climbed upon the red cotton, and made it as white as the clot of milk,
he admitted that the Jaina religion was conspicuous for its compassion
towards all living creatures, and also conferred skill in detecting their
production. For
One should avoid madga and msa3 and other leguminous plants, if un-
boiled milk is thrown upon them,
They say, moreover, that living animals are produced in sour milk, after it
has remained three days.
This is laid down in the law of the Jina. Having ascertained this,
Dhanapla, owing to the excellent instruction of the hermit obhana,
accepted the correct belief, and entered into full possession of the truth.4
Being naturally clever, he became exceedingly learned in the Karmaprakrti
and other argumentative treatises of the Jainas, and he repeated as follows,
every morning after the ceremony of worshipping the Jina,
The lord of'a few cities, hard to win even by bodily sacrifices,
I have, als in former days followed, under the delusion that he would
bestow measureless gifts ;5
Now I have gained as my master the lord of the three worlds, who bestows
his own rank,
Who is to be worshipped with the reason ; but the waste of days, that
preceded my conversion, afflicts me.
I thought that true religion was everywhere until, 0 Jina, I knew thy law,
As the gold-sick think everything gold, not having recovered their white
condition.6
1 P reads ptarh santtyatra abhihite. The two other MSS. give, with the text,,
a superfluous iti.
2 I find in P, tairjantubhvr0, those creatures. Pumba is, I suppose, the Persian
word pamba, which is sometimes pronounced pumba.
Mug g amas ai. Hoernle tells us that mudga is Phaseolus Mungo, and msa is
Phaseolus mungo radiatus (Uvsagadaso, p. 18). My translation is based upon
Hemacandra's Yogastra (ed. Windisch), III. 7.
Amagorasasamprktam dvidalam puspitaudanam
Dadliyaliardvitayttam kuthitnnam ca varjayet.
4 I find in P, a and samyaktattvam bheje. This I translate.
5 I follow P, which gives durgralxomitavitaritcimoliena. I assume that amitavitarin
means giver of measureless gifts."
6 The editor explains that this gold-sickness is produced by the Dhattra poison ;
" as all looks yellow to the jaundiced eye." He gives another explanation of the
concluding words of the second line : not obtaining a place suitable for confi-
dence." I prefer to read alabliamdndnam with a and /8, and apparently P. For
this gold-sickness cp. Pariista Parvan (ed. Jacobi), p. 166, Mrtpindam api hemaiva
pitonmatto hi paya.ti.


55
The lord of a country bestows one village,
The lord of a village bestows one field,
The lord of a field bestows kidney-beans,
The All-knowing one, propitiated, bestows liis own bliss.
Such speeches Dhanapla recited continually.
While in this frame of mind, he was one day taken out to hunt with the
king, and was thus addressed by him,
" Dhanapla, what, pray, is the cause that these deer
Leap up towards the sky, while the boars furrow the ground 1 "
Dhanapla answered,
King, terrified by your weapons, they seek to take refuge with their kind,
The deer with the deer in the deer-marked moon, the boars with the
primeval boar.1
When the king pierced a deer with an arrow, he looked at the face of
Dhanapla, in order that he might celebrate his exploit in verse, but
Dhanapla said,
May your valour in this matter go to the region under the earth !
This is evil policy, for he who takes refuge is held guiltless :
That the weak is even slain by the mighty,
Oh alas woe worth the day is a sign that the world is kingless.
The king was indignant at this reproach from Dhanapla, and said,
" What is the meaning of this 1 But he received this answer,
Since even enemies are let off, when near death, if they take grass in their
mouths,
How can you slay these harmless beasts, who always feed on grass 1
Then a strange pity arose in the mind of the king, and he consented to
break his bow and arrows, and he renounced the evil practice of hunting
for the term of his natural life. As he was returning to the town, he heard
there the plaintive cry of a goat that was fastened to a sacrificial post in the
sacrifice-shed, and asked Dhanapla, What does this animal say 1 There-
upon he answered, It is entreating ihat it may not be slain.
I am not desirous of enjoying the fruits of heaven, I never asked you for
them ;
I am always satisfied with eating grass ; this conduct does not become you,
holy man ;
1 It is well known that the Hindus place a deer in the moon instead of a man ;
the primeval boar is, of course, Yisnu in his third incarnation.


56
If the living creatures slain by you in sacrifice assuredly go to heaven,
Why do you not offer sacrifice with your mother and father, your sons and
brothers likewise ? 1
When he had said this, the king again attacked him with the question,
" What does this mean 1 He replied,
Having made a sacrificial post, having slain beasts, having made gory
mire
If by this one goes to heaven, by what does one go to hell ?
Truth is my sacrificial post, penance indeed is my fire, deeds are my fuel,
One should offer harmlessness as a burnt-offeriDg, thus one's sacrifice is
approved by the good.3
Reciting these and other speeches uttered in the ukasariivda, in front
of the king, and teaching him that those creatures of harmful nature, who
preach the gospel of doing harm to living beings, are only Rkshasas in
Brahman form, he made king Bhoja well-disposed towards the Jaina
religion. Then, on a certain occasion, the king was walking in the
Sarasvatkanthbharana temple, and he said to the pandit Dhanapla, who
was always praising the law of the All-knowing one, "Admitting that
there once was an All-knowing one, is there now any superiority of know-
ledge in his sect?" Thereupon Dhanapla answered, In the book called
Arhacclmani written by the Arhat, there is even now contained informa-
tion about the real facts with regard to all objects in the three worlds in
past, present and future." When he said this, the king was in the ante-
chamber 3 of the temple, which had three doors. Being eager to cast a slur
^ on the Jaina treatises, he said, "By what door are we going out?" Then
Dhanapla, proving the truth of the version, The really auspicious thir-
teenth 4 is intellect only," wrote the answer to the king's question on a leaf
1 See the translation of the Sarva Darana Saggraha by Cowell and Gough, p. 10.
2 I find in a and B, Esha yajnah santctanah. P gives scuncitanah (sic).
3 Sanskrit mandaPa- Dr- Burgess translates it sometimes by "hall," sometimes
by "porch." On this point Dr. Burgess writes to me as follows : "The shrine
(garbliagrha) contains the image or liyga. In larger temples there is often in front
of it a chamber either partly or entirely open in front, with pillars between it and
the hall : this is the antarala-mandapa. In front of this again is a larger apartment
with the walls rising to half the height (in smaller temples), the upper part of the
height having short pillars to support the roof ; usually four, twelve or more pillars
according to size. This is the mandapa (if there is not a second in the front of it
again), or mahcimandapa ; and if the walls go to the roof, I would call it the Hall.
If it is a cporch' open for the upper part of the height, and not very large, I think
i porch' is the more descriptive appellation. Again, in front of the Mahmandapa
there is not unfrequently a smaller porch, often open, supported by pillars on three
sides. This then is the mandapa or true porch. There may also be a small pavilion
over the Garuda or Nandi in front of the temple, which is the Garuda-mandapa or
Nandi-m andapa. '
4 This appears, according to the Bombay editor, to be an improved version of
the astrologers' saying, The thirteenth is all-auspicious."


57
of birch-bark, and placed it in an earthen jar, and gave the jar to the
betel-box bearer,1 and then said to the king, "Set on your foot, your
Highness." The king thought that he himself had now fallen into a
difficulty created for him by the cleverness of Dhanapla,3 but considering
that Dhanapla must have fixed on one of the three doors, he had the lotus_
slabji)f the ante-chamber removed by masons, and went out by that aperture.
Then he broke the jar, and reading the precise description of this mode of
exit in those letters inscribed on the birch leaf, he was excited in mind by
surprise at that incident, and praised the law of the Jina.
What Visnu cannot see with his two eyes, iva with his three, and
Brahma the Creator with his eight,
What Skanda cannot see with his twelve eyes, and the lord of Laijk with
his twice ten,
What Indra cannot see with his ten hundred, what the multitude cannot
see even with their countless eyes,
That thing the wise man sees clearly with the eye of wisdom alone.
Then Dhanpala, after composing the praise of Rsabha in fifty verses,1
showed to the king, once on a time, a eulogistic tablet composed by himself,
in the Sarasvatkanthbharana temple. On it there was the following
stanza :
He has delivered the earth, he has torn open the enemy's breast,
He has, with might, taken into his bosom the fortune of the kingdom of
Bali,
This young man has achieved in one birth
What the primeval spirit accomplished in three.5
Having read this stanza, the king gave by way of recompense for that
tablet a jar of gold. As Dhanapla was leaving that temple, he saw in the
passage 6 of the door, a statue of the god of love clapping hands with his
wife Rati,7 and laughed. When the king asked him the cause of his
laughter, the pandit said,
1 Chagikd0 is, of course, a misprint for sthagikd0.
2 I find in a, nrpastu buddhi0. This, perhaps, gives a better sense.
3 I find in a a simpler reading, viz. lm, which I translate stone." The king
therefore had a stone removed. But P gives jpadmailm. Dr. Burgess refers me
to Fergusson's Eastern Architecture, p. 197, where he figures two "moonstones."
Dr. Burgess informs me that these are often carved with lotus-petals and cahvcts.
4 According to Buhler (Introduction to Piyalacch, p. 9) this work is still
extant. Buhler quite accepts Merutugga's statement that Dhanapla was converted
from Brahmanism to the Jaina religion.
5 This is an allusion to the Varha, Narasimha and Ymana incarnations of
Visnu. "The kingdom of Bali" may also be translated "The kingdom of the
mighty."
fi Sanskrit khattaka. 7 For param P gives parasparam.


58
"That very iva, whose self-restraint is celebrated through the three
worlds,
Afflicted with separation, now bears his beloved in his own body,1
So we are conquered by this god, are we 1 saying this, and patting with
his hand
The hand of his beloved, triumphs laughingly the god of love.
Another day, beholding, in the temple of iva, Bhrijgin at his own door,
The king asked Dhanapla, Why does he look so emaciated? Dhana-
pla answered,
" If he is sky-clothed, why has he a bow 1 If he has a bow, away with
ashes !
If he has ashes, then why a wife ? If he has a wife, then why does he
hate Love ? "
Beholding thus the inconsistent conduct of his own master, Alas !
Bhrijgin has his body reduced to a skeleton, and rough, as covered with
a close network of veins.2
Glorious is the body of iva, at the time of his marriage, horripilant,
adorned with ashes,
In which the god of love has, as it were, sprouted, though reduced to a
cinder.
She eats filth, void of discernment,
She loves her own son, too fondly attached,
With hoof-points and horns she smites creatures,
For what good quality, 0 king, is the cow worshipped 1 3
If the cow is to be worshipped, because it is able to give milk, why not
the female buffalo ?
There is not seen in the cow even the slightest superiority to the other.4
While Dhanapla was delighting the king by these and other well-
known perfect literary utterances, a certain merchant, announced by the
1 An allusion to the Ardhanra form of iva. This god, on one occasion,
reduced Kama, the god of love, to ashes with the fire of his eye.
2 Professor Leumann informs me that the last four lines are also quoted in the
commentary on the first two stanzas in Haribhadra's Astaka.
3 It will be observed that Dhanapla runs a tilt at sacrifices, and the principal
Hindu gods, and, at last, attacks the sacred cow.
4 I find in P an interesting stanza which is omitted in the printed text. It runs
as follows :
Asatyuttamayge katham mrdhni mala ?
Abhlasya bhle katham pattabandJiah ?
Akarnasya kavne katham cjltanrtye ?
Apd.asya pde katham me pranmah ?
As he has no head, how can there be a garland on it ?
As he has no forehead, how can it be crowned with a turban ?
As he has no ears, how can song and dance sound in his ears ?
As he has no feet, how can I fall prostrate at his foot ?


59
warder, entered the hall of audience, and, after bowing to the king, showed
some laudatory stanzas on a tablet of wax. When the king asked where
they were obtained, he said as follows, My ship suddenly stopped in
mid-ocean, and when the sailors began to sound the sea, they saw submerged
in it a temple of iva, and though the waves were surging around it, they
saw that, inside, it was free from water, and perceiving that there were
letters on a certain wall, they applied a tablet of wax to it, in order to find
out what they were, and here is the tablet with the letters that came off
on it." 1
When the king heard that, he applied a tablet of clay to the wax tablet,
and had the letters 2 that then appeared on it, read by pandits. They ran
as follows :
"Though brought indeed by me, through my association with him from
boyhood, to the highest pitch of prosperity,
This king's son is now ashamed, when there is even any conversation
about me."
Thus vexed, supported by glory, as if by a son, the aged assemblage of
virtues
Has gone to the ascetic groves on the bank of the sea, as if to perform
penance.
When the king, eager to conquer the world, was roaming about wrathful to
every quarter,
Imposing vows of widowhood on the wives of rivals, who took in hand
the bow,
Not to speak of other ladies, even Rati, through fear, did not permit her
husband
To carry in his hand his flowery bow, which is clothed with the indigo hue
of female bees, blind with joy.
King, these wives of your enemies carry, without resting, with the twin
pitchers of their breasts,
Sighing as they go, in the shape of a stream of tears discharged from the
revolving buckets of their broad eyes,
Drawn by the ever-moving irrigation wheel of much grief from the deep
well of thought,
The water of weeping, falling through the difficult path of the bridge of
the nose, as if through pipes of bamboo.
While these complete stanzas were being read, they came upon this half
stanza :
1 I read with /8, tatkrntJcsarcimay. The text would mean "containing those
beautiful letters."
- P, a and £ insert viparitn, reversed, like the inscription on a seal.


60
Alas indeed the results of deeds formerly done
Are terrible in the case of living creatures.
Though more than a hundred pandits, skilled in completing fragmentary
stanzas, tried to produce a second half to this, their-compositions would not,
in the opinion of the king, harmonize with the first part. Then the panlit
Dhanapla was asked by the king. He produced the following continua-
tion,
Alas Alas those very heads, which gleamed on the head of iva,
Are now rolled about by the feet of kites.1
When the king said, This second half really harmonizes with the first,"
the pandit asserted, If this is not found both in words and sense on the
wall that contains this panegyric at Rmevara, I will henceforth renounce
the profession of poet until the end of my life." The moment the king
heard Dhanapla make this vow, he ordered sailors to embark on a vessel,
and putting out to sea, they reached that temple in six months, and again
applied a tablet of wax to the inscription. When the king saw that they
brought this very second half of the stanza, he gave the pandit the reward
that he deserved for his cleverness. The numerous stanzas of the frag-
mentary inscription must be considered as related above according to
tradition.
One day the king asked the pandit the reason of his remissness in attend-
ance. He excused himself on the ground that he was engaged in composing
the Tilakamanjar.3 The king was at a loss for some distraction in the last
watch of a night of the cold weather, so he got the pandit to bring for
him the first original manuscript3 of the story called Tilakamanjar, which
he read, while the panlit explained it. While he was reading it, being
afraid that the sentiment4 of the book might fall, he placed under it a
golden plate with a saucer. When the king had finished it, his mind was
filled with admiration on account of its wonderful poetical merit, and he
said to the panlit, Make me the hero of this tale, and put Avant in the
place of Vinat, and let the shrine of Mahkla take the place of the holy
1 These two lines are found in the Bhojaprabandha (p. 246 of the Bombay edition
of 1895), but the second line begins, iva, iva, tni. This suggests the reading,
Hara, Hara, tni. The word which I have translated, "Alas!" means literally,
" 0 Visnu." In the Bhojaprabandha the inscription is found by fishermen on a
stone in the Narmad.
2 Professor Aufrecht, in his Catalogus Catalogorum, tells us that this book by
Dhanapla is quoted by Nami on Kvylaijkra 16, 3.
3 The three MSS. that I have seen, give pratim. I find that in Gujarati and
Marathi prata means a copy of a book.
4 Rasa means "moisture" and also "sentiment" or "poetical flavour." The
action is, probably, to be conceived of as symbolical.


61
water of akrvatra,1 and then I will give you whatever you like to ask/'
The pandit thereupon exclaimed, There is as vast a difference between
the two sets of things as there is between a fire-fly and the sun ; between
a grain of mustard-seed and the Golden Mountain ;2 between glass and gold ;
between a Dhattra plant and the wishing-tree of paradise ; and he
continued,
Double-mouthed, speechless, covetous-minded, javelin-like creature, what
are we to say of you 1
Weighing gold with gunja-seeds3 you have not gone to the subterranean
world.
While the pandit was reproaching him in these words, King Bhoja4
burnt that original draft in the blazing fire. Then the pandit was doubly
dispirited and doubly crestfallen, and he flung himself down on an old
couch in the back part of his palace, and lay there sighing deeply. His
daughter Blapandit5 roused him from his stupor with loving attention
and made him bathe and eat and drink, and then remembering the first
half of the Tilakamanjar from having seen the writing of the first draft of
it,6 she wrote it out, and the second half she composed anew, and so
completed the book.
One day, in the assembly-hall of Bhoja, Dhanapla uttered this stanza,
O lord of Dhr, this Creator, wishing to count the kings of the earth,
Made a streak in the sky with a piece of chalk to note down you,
That became this very river of the gods ; 7 because there is not a husband of
the earth equal to you,
He let drop the piece of chalk ; this on the surface of the earth is that snowy
Himlaya.
When the other pandits laughed at this stanza, Dhanapla said,
Vlmki makes the sea to be bridged with rocks brought by the monkeys,
Vysa by the arrows of Arjuna ; and yet they are not charged with exaggera-
tion ;
1 Mentioned in the Jaina recension of the Simhsanadvtriihik, fifteenth story.
Indische Studien, XV. p. 362.
2 i.e. Sumeru.
3 The seeds of the Abrus precatorius (rati seeds) are used by goldsmiths as their
smallest weights. They are red with a black spot. For tuijha kim, a and /8 read
kittiyam.
4 I read Qrl Bhojas0 for r Bhoje. The words are omitted in a and It is
clear that the king burnt the book.
5 Infant female pandit.
6 The reading of C, D and a, prathamdaralekhant means from having written
the first draft of it."
" i.e. the Ganges.


62
We say a certain thing which is to the point j nevertheless loudly
Laughs this people, shooting out the mouth ; we bow to thee, 0 established
reputation.1
Once, when a pandit said to the king, Listen, O king, to the story of
the Mahbhrata," that excellent follower of the Jina said to the
pandit,
Of the hermit Vysa, born from an unmarried woman, who outraged the
widowhood of his brother's wife,
The five heroes, the Pndavas, were the sons of the son of an erring widow,
and were themselves born in adultery ;
These very five men are said to have had one wife between them if the
story, that celebrates them,
Is holy, and brings blessings to men, what other way is the way of evil 1
The poem of praise written by the hermit obhana in twenty-four stanzas
is well known.3
When the king said to Dhanapla, Have you now any narrative 4 or
other work in the course of composition'?" Dhanapla answered,
Fearing that her throat might be burnt with hot sour gruel,5
Sarasvat has left my mouth,
Therefore I have no poetical faculty remaining,
0 thou whose hand is busy in seizing the hair of thy enemies' Fortune !
Who, indeed, is not refreshed by taking to heart, full of charm,6
The language of Dhanapla, and the sandal-wood of the Malaya mountain ?
On another occasion, the king called together into one place, representa-
tives of all the sects, and asked them the way of salvation. They revealed
in their speeches partiality for their own particular sects, but being united
by a desire to find out the true way, they fixed as a limit a period of six
1 The meaning seems to be : Vlmki the author of the Rmyana, and Vysa
the author of the Mahbhrata, as their reputation is established, escape criticism.
2 I conjecture samctnajnaya0 for samnajtaya0.
3 This work of fobhana is extant according to Buhler (Introduction to Piya-
lacch, p. 9).
4 Sanskrit prabandlia.
5 Hoernle, in his note on page 108 of his translation of the Bower Manuscript,
tells us that rancda is the same as kncika or dhnymla. On page 14 he speaks
of it as a kind of sour gruel made with unhusked rice. It is clear that Dhanapla
was under medical treatment. This stanza is found in the Bhojaprabandha, p. 228
(Bombay edition of 1895).
6 Rasa means juice," and also poetical sentiment. This couplet is found in the
Krttikaumud of Somevara, I. 16. Dhanapla composed Sanskrit poetry and a
Sanskrit Kosa, and also the Piyalacch for his sister Sundar. (Buhler's Introduc-
tion to the Piyalacch, pp. 7 and 10.) It is, unfortunately, probable that Meru-
tugga's account of Dhanapla's adventures at Bhoja's court is not founded on fact.
(Buhler o.c. p. 9.) Dhanapla was really a contemporary of Munja or Vkpati-
rja II. (Buhler and Zacharise, Navashasgkacarita, p. 42.)


63
months, and devoted themselves to propitiating the goddess Sarasvat. At
the end of a certain night, the goddess roused up the king, saying, "Are
you awake ?
You must listen to the religion of the Buddhists, but you must practise
that of the Jainas,
You must observe in ordinary life that of the Vedas, you must meditate on
the supreme 1 iva."
Or, You must meditate on the undecaying place." 3 Having repeated
this verse to the king, and the representatives of the sects, the goddess
Sarasvat disappeared. Then they composed this couplet, which continued
the sense of the preceding one :3
Religion is characterized by harmlessness, and one must honour the goddess
Sarasvat,
By meditation one obtains salvation ; this is the view of all the sectaries.
Thus they gave the king a safe decision.
Then a cook, living in that town, named t,4 when a pilgrim, a native
of a foreign country, had arrived on the solar festival, with food to be
cooked,5 and had come to her house, after tasting, at a tank, oil of Panic
seed, and she saw that he had died from that emetic, being tormented with
fear that a stigma would attach to her on account of his being possessed of
wealth, swallowed that very emetic, in order that she might die. When
she persisted in this endeavour, there was produced in her intellectual
ability ; and so, after she had to a certain extent studied the three Yedas,
the Raghuvama, the Kmastra of Ytsyyana, and the writings of
Cnakya on morals and the principles of government, she went with her
daughter, named Vijay, who was in her fresh you^h and learned, and
adorning with her presence and that of her daughter the royal assembly-
hall, said to king Bhoja,
His valour extends even to the extirpation of the race of his enemies, his
glory over the vessel of the universe,
His munificence extends to satisfying the wants of petitioners, as this earth
extends to the sea,
1 I read dhycitavyah with a, 0 and P.
2 This is omitted in a and 0, but P has dhytavyam padam alcshayam. This I translate.
3 I read yugmaloham with a and /3.
4 For some account of the poetess JJt or St, see Navashasrjkacarita, by
Buhler and Zacharisc, p. 30, note 2. They refer to Pischel in Festgruss an
Bohtlingk. The poetess St is mentioned in the Bhojaprabandha (edition of 1895,
Kalyna, Bombay), pp. 88, 89, 147, 204, and some verses by her are given.
5 Here I follow a, which reads krpatikam pkcbyanam upaniya sryaparvani.
P has the same reading, but plcayanam ; /8 also, but updya for upaniya. The
words seem to have been misplaced in the text by the printers. But /8 goes on to
represent that the cook t ate the food, not the oil. I find in a, sdya for
svdya. All the MSS. give tasmin stlxire, which I do not understand.


64
His faith extends to the measure of the two feet of the husband 1 of the
daughter of the mountain,
But the other virtues of the glorious king Bhoja extend without limit.
Then king Bhoja made Yijay an inmate of his harem.2 Once on a
time, being touched by the rays of the moon within the lattice, she
repeated this :
Cease, 0 planet adorned with a spot, this sport of touching people with thy
rays,
Thou art not fit for touching, being the remains of the adornment of the
person of the husband of CandL3
On this point much is to be said, but it must be learnt from tradition.
Here ends the story of the learned t.
Then two pandits, related as sister's husband and wife's brother,4 who
were called Mayura and Bna, and were engaged in a perpetual rivalry on
account of their own respective literary merits, had obtained an honourable
position in the king's court. One day the panlit Bna went to his sister's
house at night, to pay her a visit, and as he was lying down at the door, he
heard his sister's husband trying to conciliate her, and paying attention to
what was being said, he managed to catch these lines :
The night is almost gone, and the emaciated moon is, so to speak, wasting
away,
This lamp, having come into the power of sleep, seems drowsily to nod,
Haughtiness is generally appeased by submission, but, alas you do not,
even in spite of submission, abandon your anger,
When Bna had heard these three lines repeated over and over again by
Mayra, he added a fourth line :
Cruel one, your heart also is hard from immediate proximity to your breast.
When Mayura's wife heard this fourth line from the mouth of her
brother, being angry and ashamed, she cursed him, saying, Become a
leper." Owing to the might of the vow of his sister, who observed strictly
her vow of fidelity to her husband, Bna was seized with the malady of
leprosy from that very moment. In the morning he went into the
1 i.e. piva, the husband of Prvat.
2 I have omitted the poetical effusions to which Vijay gave vent on this par-
ticular occasion.
3 This is probably an allusion to the fact that iva wears the moon's crescent
round or above his central eye. Candi = Prvat. The word translated by
"remains of the adornment" is nirmdhjam. The word that means "ray," also
means "hand."
4 Bhdvukalakau. It is clear that laka = syla. It is probable that these two
poets lived in the time of Jrharsa, 606 to 648 a.d.


65
assembly-hall of the king, with his body covered with a rug. When
Mayiira, with a soft voice, like a peacock,1 said to him in the Prakrit
language, Ten million blessings on you the king, who was foremost
among the discerning, looked at Bna with astonishment, and thought
in his own mind that Bna would, on a future occasion, make use of
some device for propitiating the deity ; but Bna rose up from his
seat in the assembly-hall utterly abashed, and setting up a post on the
border of the town, he placed under it a fire-pit, full of charcoal made
of Khadira wood, himself mounted on a palanquin3 at the end of
the post, and began uttering a hymn of praise to the sun-god.3 At
the end of every stanza he cut away, with his knife, one support of the
palanquin,4 and at the end of five stanzas five supports had been cut away
by him, and he was left clinging to the end of the palanquin. While the
sixth stanza was being recited, the sun-god appeared in visible form, and
owing to his favour, Bna at once acquired a body of the colour of pure
gold.5 On a subsequent day he came with his body anointed with golden
sandal-wood and clothed in a magnificent white garment. When the
king saw the healthy condition of his body, Mayura represented that it was
all due to the favour of the sun-god. Then Bna pierced him in a vital
spot with an arrow-like speech.6 If the propitiating of a god is an easy
matter, then do you also display some wonderful performance in this line."
When he said this, that Mayura aimed7 at him the following retort, "What
need has a healthy man of one skilled in the science of medicine ? Never-
theless, so much I will do. You, after cutting your hands and feets with a
knife to confirm your words, propitiated the sun with your sixth stanza,
but I will propitiate Bhavn with the sixth syllable of my first stanza."
Having made this promise, he entered the back part of the temple of
Candik sitting in a comfortable litter, and when he uttered the sixth
syllable of the poem beginning, tc Do not interrupt your coquetry," 9 by the
favour of Candik visibly manifested his tender body seemed to be entirely
renewed, and then he looked at the temple of the goddess fronting it,10 and
1 Mayiira means peacock. I read prati after tam with a, £ and P.
2 Sanskrit sikkaka.
Mayiira, not Bna, is the reputed author of the Sryaataka, printed recently
in the Kvyaml (No. 19, 1889), with the commentary of Tribhuvanapla. The
poem will also be found in Haberlin's Anthology.
4 In the Sanskrit sikkakapadam.
5 I find in a and kyakntih, the beauty of a body of pure gold.
6 Bna means arrow.
7 Literally, put it on the string like an arrow."
8 Ca should no doubt follow pdni, as in a and /3. The author seems to have
followed here a different version of the story.
9 This poem is called the Candataka and is attributed to Bna, not Mayiira.
It has been published in the Kvyaml, beginning in No. 19 (Bombay, 1887).
10 The reading of the text is supported here by P and a. It will be observed that
the Jaina teacher afterwards faces the temple.
f


66
the courtiers, headed by the king, came to meet him, and uttered the cry
of l Bravo bravo and so with great jubilation he entered the city.
At this conjuncture, the law of the false believers being triumphant, some
principal men, who hated the true religion, said to the king, If among
the adherents of the Jaina system any such display of power 1 takes place,
then establish the white-robed Jainas in your territory, but if not, then
banish them." No sooner had this been said than the king summoned the
teacher, Mnatuijga, and said, l< Show some miracle of your deities." He
said, "As our deities are emancipated from the bonds of existence, what
miracle is possible for them here ? Nevertheless, I will show you a mani-
festation of the power of their servants, the lower gods, that will astonish
the universe." When he had said this, he caused himself to be bound with
forty-four fetters, and placing himself in the back part of the temple of
Rsabha, who was worshipped in that city, he composed a new hymn of
praise, full of spells, beginning, Having duly worshipped the two feet of
the Jina illuminating the brightness of the prostrate crest-jewels of devoted
gods," 3 and with each stanza of the hymn one fetter broke, until he had
completed the hymn with a number of stanzas equal to the number of
fetters. Then he faced the temple and preached the law.
Here ends the story of the great teacher Manatuijga.
Then, one day, the king began to praise the learning of the pandits of his
country, and to blame the land of Gujarat for the stupidity of its people,
when a representative of the king of Gujarat3 said to him, Not one of
your distinguished pandits is fit to be weighed in the balance even with a
man of our country who has been a cowherd from his childhood." Then
king Bhma, having been informed of this occurrence, sent to king Bhoja's
capital, once on a time, a pandit dressed as a cowherd,4 and a hetaera.
When they arrived there, the cowherd was taken before the king in the
early morning, and Bhoja ordered him to say something, so he said,
Bhoja, tell me what kind of fitness has this ornament on your neck,
Why do you place a barrier between Laksm on your breast and Sarasvat
in your mouth 15
This is what the Sarasvatkanthbharana cowherd said.0 Then the king
1 Here P gives prabhdvavibhavah. I follow the text.
2 This is the beginning of the Bhaktmarastotra. The feet of the Jina increase
the brightness of the crest-jewels of the immortals. I have added a few words
taken from the poem, to complete the sense. It contains forty-four stanzas.
3 Sthana/purusa. Forbes (Bas Ml, p. 188) gives "man of the country" as the
equivalent of this word. It is clear that this man was a native of Gujarat. Perhaps
it might be translated consul."
4 I read gojpa for go0 with P and /B.
5 According to Hemacandra (iv. 352) Lacchihi must be locative singular. In a
and j3 I find uri LacchiM muhi Sarasatihi. P gives nibaddln hdim.
0 These words are not in a and /3.


67
was astonished at his speech. When the assembly-hall was adorned with
visitors, king Bhoja, seeing in front of him the hetaera fully attired,
addressed to her this unexpected speech, Why here 1 Then that fair
one, being a storehouse of intellect, chosen by Sarasvat as a vessel of her
favour, as if through partiality for lier own kind, resembling incarnate
cleverness,1 understood the real meaning of his remark though it was
obscure, and returned this answer to the king, They are asking." The
face of king Bhoja was expanded at her appropriate reply, and he ordered
three lakhs to be given to her. Though he said it to the superintendent
of the treasury three times, he, not understanding the real state of affairs,
did not give the money. Then the king said out loud to him, "Out of
regard for the good of my country, and owing to the utter niggardliness of
my character,2 I order only three lakhs to be given to her, but from the
point of view of generosity even a kingdom 3 would be too small a present."
When the king said this, the superintendent of the treasury, at the instiga-
tion of all the courtiers, asked the king the connection between the two
utterances, and received this answer,4 Observing that the two lines of
collyrium applied to the outer corners of her two eyes had simultaneously
extended themselves to her ears, I said, Why here 1 But she, in accord-
ance with the rule of the Prakrit grammar,5 that the plural should be used
instead of the dual, answered, They are asking.' She, in fact, gave as lier
answer that her two eyes had gone disguised as collyrium-streaks to her ears,
to inquire whether I was the very king Bhoja that the ears had previously
heard about. So she is simply Sarasvat manifested in visible form.
Accordingly, what are three lakhs by way of recompense to her 1 Then, as
he had uttered the words u three lakhs three times (in speaking to the
superintendent of the treasury), he caused nine lakhs to be given to her.
Now that king, even from his childhood, was unremitting in the practice
of virtue, because he recognized the truth embodied in the following
lines :
If these people only saw death, which is impending over their heads,
Even their food would give them no pleasure, much less the doing what
they ought not to do.
One day, just after he had woke up from sleep, a learned man came to
1 I substitute with a and 0 and P, arrini for iroman.
2 I find in a, deasmyt pralcrtikrpaiiyt laics atr ay am. I have followed the
printed text.
Even a rich kingdom according to a.
4 I read with P, prcchannitya'bliidadlie. This gives a better sense than the printed
text.
5 P and j3 insert siitra between prakrta and laksant, according to the direction
of the Prakrit Sutra." I find siitra similarly inserted in a. The Sutra will be
found on page 157 of Cowell's Edition of Yararuci's Prkrta Praka.


68
him and said, The lord of the dead 1 is approaching you mounted on a
swift horse, consequently you must be prompt in the practice of virtue."
Accordingly he gave every day an appropriate gift to the learned author
of this speech. One day he sat down on the throne in the hall of audience
in the afternoon, and he threw a pn-leaf into his mouth and devoured it,
before the areca-nut and other ingredients were presented from the
store in the betel-box. When those who knew the usual etiquette asked
him why he did that, he said, "As men are within the teeth of death, what
they give and what they enjoy may be said to be their own, but about the
rest there is a doubt, and so
Every day, when one gets up from one's bed, one must consider what good
action is to be done to-day,
The sun will go to its setting, taking away a part of one's life.
People ask what news there is with me, saying, 'Is there health in your body?'
How can health be ours 1 Life departs day by day.
One should do to-day the duty of to-morrow, and in the forenoon the duty
of the afternoon,
For death will not consider whether one has done one's work or not.3
Is death dead, is old age decrepit, are disasters destroyed ?
Are diseases then arrested,3 that these people are so merry ? "
Here ends the story of the four couplets on impermanence.
Then, once on a time, king Bhoja asked king Bhma by the mouth of an
ambassador, for four things. The first thing exists in this world and not in
the next ; the second thing exists in the next world and not in this ; the
third thing exists in both ; the fourth thing is non-existent in both. The
learned were puzzled about the matter. So a drum was beaten round the
city, and by the advice of a hetaera, (who solved the problem), the four
things were sent, in the shape of a hetaera, an ascetic, an exceedingly liberal
man, and a gambler. Here ends the story about the four things.
On another occasion, king Bhoja, as he was roaming about at night in
search of adventures, heard the following couplet being recited by a certain
poor man's wife :
Ten conditions are allotted to every man, so runs the popular proverb that
we hear,
But my husband has only one condition, the remaining nine have been
obtained by others.4
1 Yama, the god of death, who generally rides on a buffalo.
2 The first three couplets will be found in Bhtlingk's Indische Spriiche with
slight variations : 1 is No. 1204, 2 is No. 5867, 3 is No. 6595. Bhtlingk translates
kim adya sukrtam krtam by welches gute Werk wird.' heute vollbracht ? "
3 I follow the reading of the printed text. But perhaps vydhith, the reading
of a, and apparently C, is better. This would mean, <£ Are diseases diseased ? "
4 I have endeavoured to translate the reading of the printed text, but I find that


69
The king, feeling pity for her miserable condition, summoned her
husband to the court in the morning, and thinking of something that would
be to her advantage in the long run, gave him two citrons, putting in each
of them a jewel worth a lakh, in order to benefit him. He, not knowing
that fact, sold them for a price in the vegetable market, and the man who
bought them gave those two citrons to some one as a present, and he gave
them to king Bhoja.
Even if a jewel rolled about by the great waves of the tide has reached a
mountain brook,
It again sets out on its journey and returns to the ocean, the home of jewels.
Considering this, king Bhoja came to the conclusion that fortune was
right,1 for,
Even when the rains gratify the whole world, the ctaka will certainly not
receive
One drop of water, for how is to be attained the unattainable 1
Here ends the story of the citrons.
Then, on another occasion, the king, having secretly taught a pet parrot,
during a certain night, the words, Alone is not becoming," instructed it
that it was next morning to utter these words in the assembly of pandits.3
Accordingly, when the parrot said this, the king asked the pandits what the
parrot meant, but they, not being able to solve the problem, asked for a term
of six months. Then Vararuci, the head of them, wandering about in a
foreign land, in order to discover the solution, was thus addressed by a
certain herdsman, I will tell your master the answer to the puzzle, but I
cannot on account of my age carry this dog,3 and on account of my affection
for him I cannot leave him." When he said this, Vararuci put the dog upon
his own shoulder, and taking the herdsman with him, went to the audience-
hall of the king, and informed him that the herdsman would give him an
answer to his riddle. Then the king asked the herdsman the meaning of
that very utterance of the parrot. He answered, "In this world of living
creatures, 0 king, covetousness alone is not becoming." The king again
in P the second line ends thus, avari te corihim licldha, those remaining ones have
been taken by thieves. The reading of a and & gives the following sense, The
gods have framed for men ten states apiece, but my husband has only one, the
(other) nine have been stolen by thieves." I take avari as equivalent to upwri.
1 The word "fortune" is omitted in a and 0. The passage will therefore mean,
" Reflecting on the case of the poor man, the king considered the statement in the
above couplet to be true."
2 I have adopted paiiditasabhym from a.
3 I find in a and vnavam, this puppy.


70
asked him, "Why?" He answered, "That a Brahman carries on his
shoulder a dog, which he ought not even to touch, is a manifestation of
covetousness ; 1 therefore covetousness is not becoming."
Then, on another occasion, the king, roaming about at night accompanied
only by a friend, being afflicted with thirst, went to the house of a hetaera,
and by the mouth of his friend asked for water. Then the ambhali 3 with
genuine affection, after some delay, brought a cocoanut-shell full of sugar-
cane juice, not without distress. When the king's friend asked her the cause
of her distress, she said, In old times a stalk of sugar-cane contained
enough juice in all to fill a pitcher together with a vhatik,3 but now that
the king's mind is evilly disposed towards his subjects,4 for a long time the
stalk of a sugar-cane has yielded only enough juice to fill a vhatik ; this is
the cause of my distress." When the king heard that, he reflected that,
when a certain merchant exhibited a great play in the temple of iva, he
had formed the intention of plundering him, and that so the ambhali s
speech5 was true ; then he went back from that place, and after reaching his
own palace, went to sleep. The next day the king, having become full of
compassion for his subjects, went to the house of the hetaera : and then the
ambhali said, "It is evident from the sign, that there is abundance
of sugar-cane juice, that the king is now loving to his subjects." So
the king was pleased with her. Here ends the story of the sugar-cane
juice.
Then the king was in the habit of going continually to worship his family
goddess that was set up in a temple in a suburb of the city of Dhr, and
one day the goddess, who had been won over by his devotion, appearing in
visible form, said to the king, The enemies' army has come near, so depart
quickly." With these words she dismissed him. Immediately he saw that
he was surrounded by the Gujart soldiers. He galloped off on his horse,
which was of surpassing swiftness, and as he was entering the gate of the
city of Dhr, two Gujart cavalry soldiers, named lya and Akoluya,
three their bows over his neck and saying,6 So near have you come
to being killed," let him go.
1 The covetousness of Brahmans is a perpetual subject of satire in Sanskrit
literature. We learn from page 171 of the translation of the Harsa Carita by
Cowell and Thomas, that a Brahman without greed" is hard to find.
2 i.q. kuttani.
I presume that vhatik is the Gujart vt, which has the following meanings :
1, a saucer-form vessel of metal ; 2, a half of a cocoanut-shell ; anything hollow
like a cup.
4 I find in a, viruddlie nrpamnase, and in 13, viruddhamnase nrpe. I follow the
latter, as P gives viruddhamnase pe. It is clear that nr has fallen out. No doubt
the visarga after rasa should be deleted as in P.
5 I find in P tadvacastathyam eveti.
6 I read vadadbhydm with a. There is a misprint in the text.


71
King Bhoja, who seemed to think, It is not strung," but when the strung
bow reached his neck,
He saw that it was strung, being hurled from his horse.1
Here ends the story of the cavalry soldiers.
Then, on another occasion, that very king, returning from his royal circuit,
entered the gate of the city with his horse let go at pleasure,3 and frightened
the people. As the spectators were running in all directions, the vibration
of the earth produced by their trampling threw down on the ground and
broke the vessels of a woman who sold buttermilk ; and the king, seeing
that her face was as radiant as ever, though the milk was running like the
stream of a river, said to her, What is the reason that you are not despon-
dent? When the king asked her this question, she said,
Having slain a king, and having beheld my husband bitten 3 by a serpent,
I became by the power of fate a hetaera in a foreign country,
Having married my own son, I then entered the funeral fire :
Being now the wife of a cowherd, how can I mourn for buttermilk.
They said that from that place a great river 4 took its rise.
Here ends the story of the cowherd's wife.
One day, the king, being happy, was joyously practising the art of
archery, by aiming at a small rock. At that moment the teacher Candana,
wearing the dress of a vetmbara, came to have an interview with him,
and as he was one who pleased by his ready wit, he uttered an appropriate
saying
Let this rock be pierced again and again, but henceforth, king, be merciful,
and abandon
Your delight in the vicious custom of piercing stones by way of sport, with
the bow,
1 This couplet is not found in a and /3. It is found in a different form in the
Krtikaumud of Somevara (ed. Kthavate), ii. 18.
Asau gunlti matveva Bhojah kantham upeyus
Dhanus gunin yasya nayannavn na ptilah.
By whose strung bow, though it reached his neck, Bhoja, when flying, was not
hurled from his horse, as if supposing that he was virtuous (or strung). The bow
belonged of course to Bhma. P reads yaca jpayannacvnniptitah. It is evident
that Merutugga quotes from memory.
2 The text has sumukhamuktena, but P, a, and (3 have sukhamuktena. This I
have followed. /
I read das t am with P.
4 I think that we ought to read mahnad. I find in a, malipatir malnyasi nad,
and in (3, malipatin mahyasl nad. P omits the passage. But main, the reading
of the printed text, may perhaps be justified by the Cullavagga of the Yinaya
Pitaka (ix. 1, 4) where a river Mah is mentioned. (Fick, Die Sociale G-liederung,
P- 11.)


72
If this amusement is allowed to extend further, you will make the family
of principal mountains 1 the butt of your archery,
Then, 0 best of kings, the earth, losing its supports, will go to the bottom
of Hades.
The king was astonished at the wonderful poetical ability displayed
in this stanza, but, after reflecting a little, he said, "The fact that
you, being one who has entirely mastered all the sacred books, have
uttered a line beginning 4 Dhr is ruined,'that forebodes some great
misfortune."
And thus it came to pass.
The queen of the country of Dhala, Demat by name, was a great
witch, and once on a time, when she was about to have a child, she kept
continually asking the astrologers, In what auspicious moment must a
son be born in order to be lord of the whole earth ? Then they carefully
considered the matter, and said, When the benign planets are in the
signs that contain their exaltation, and are at the same time in the first,
fourth, seventh, and tenth houses, which are called centres, and the malign
planets are in the third, sixth and eleventh houses,2a son, that is born in
such a moment, will be king of the whole earth." When she heard that
response, she delayed, by employing magic arts, the birth of her child for
sixteen watches beyond the natural day for her delivery, and in the
moment fixed by the astrologers she gave birth to a son named Karna.
But owing to the injury to her health produced by thus delaying the birth,
she died in the eighth watch. Because Karna was born in an auspicious
moment, he conquered by his valour the circle of the regions, he was
obeyed by one hundred and thirty-six kings, he attained great excellence
in the four royal sciences, and he was praised by Vidypati and other great
poets. Thus the stanzas ran :
1 There are seven principal mountains in India. The mountains are held to
support the earth. But dlivastdhr, if resolved into two words, means Dhr
is ruined."
2 I owe this translation to Professor Jacobi of Bonn. He thinks it impossible
that the benign planets should stand in the ucca signs and at the same time in the
" centres," since the former are so disposed that they could not well come into the
position of the centres." At the same time it appears that the horoscope under
consideration is derived from the rules of the Jtaka. For in the Laghujtaka,
ix. 23, it is said triprabhrtibhir uccasthair nrpavamabhav bhavanti rjncih. By
means of three or more planets in their exaltation, children born in a royal race
become kings ; and ix. 25
Eko' pi nrpatijanmaprado grahah svoccagah suhrddrstah
Balibhih kendropagatais triprabhrtibhir avanipalabhavah.
Even one planet in exaltation and looked at by a friendly planet will produce the
birth of a king ; three or more powerful planets in centres will produce an emperor
of the earth. Professor Jacobi refers me to his dissertation, De astrologie Indicao
' hor appellatae originibus :" Bonn, 1872. I have translated his Latin into English.


73
On the face was the hanging of a necklace, on the two eyes the weight of
a bracelet,
On the hips ornamental tattooing, and the two hands were marked with
the patch ;
In the forest, 0 king Karna, why has this strange style of adornment
Now, alas befallen the wives of thy enemies, owing to the might of
destiny ?1
Abandoning the breast of Visnu too much engrossed by the gopis,
The goddess of Fortune dwells in your eyes, mistaking them, I think, for
lotuses,
Since, 0 fortunate king Karna, wherever goes the spray of your eyebrow,
wavy like a creeper,
There is broken the seal of poverty, brittle through fear.
In this way was king Karna praised. One day that king sent a message
to Bhoja by the mouth of an ambassador, In your city there are 104
temples built by your orders, and even so many in number are your
poetical compositions, and so many are your titles : therefore conquer me in
a battle with a force of four arms,2 or in single combat, or as a disputant
in the four sciences, or in the faculty of munificence, and become a
possessor of 105 titles ; otherwise, by conquering you, I shall become the
lord of 137 kings." When king Bhoja received this message, the lotus of
his face became faded, and reflecting that the king of the city of Benares
was apt to be victorious in every way, and considering himself as good as
conquered, he humbly solicited him, and got him to agree to the following
arrangement, "I in Avant!, and Karna in Benares, shall, on the same day,
and at the same moment, select the sites 3 of two temples fifty cubits in
height, and begin to build them, running them up in rivalry with one
another, and on whichever king's temple the finial4 and the flag shall first
be set up, on that day of festival the rival king must abandon his umbrella
1 The expression translated "ornamental tattooing" may also mean "a row of
leaves," and the word translated "patch" may also refer to the Tilaka tree. The
word kaojkana, which means "bracelet," may also, according to the smaller
Petersburg Dictionary, mean drops of water," and hra, which means necklace,"
may also mean deprivation," removing," loss."
2 i.e. elephants, chariots, cavalry and infantry. The four sciences are the triple
Veda, logic and metaphysics, the science of government, and practical arts.
3 See Hillebrandt, Ritual-Litteratur, p. 80. A trench is dug of the depth of
the knee, and the earth taken out is shovelled in again. If the earth stands above
the level of the ground, the site is good, if it is even with the surrounding soil, it is
tolerable, if not, bad. Another method is to fill the trench with water oversight ;
if the water runs away, the site is bad." The authority will be found in Aval-
yana's G-rhya Sutra, ii. 8. It will be observed that Avalyana uses the words
garta and pa/ripurayeb.
4 Dr. Burgess informs me that kalaa is really the finial of the spire, which is
shaped like a vase or urn. The setting up of the flagstaff is sometimes a separate
function from the setting up of the kalaa, according to Mr. Cousens.


74
and chowries,1 and mount an elephant, and come in." "When this agree-
ment of king Bhoja, which was quite in accordance with Kama's wishes,
reached that sovereign, he was eager to defeat king Bhoja in that very
way, and so both temples were begun separately on the same day, in the
same moment. Karna, who was having his own temple constructed 3 with
all diligence, asked his architect, Tell me, in one day between the rising
and the setting of the sun, how much work can be run up ? 3 Then that
architect on the fourteenth day, which was a day on which the Vedas are
not read,4 began there eleven temples, seven cubits in height, at dawn, and
had them finished by the end of the day, as far as the setting up of the
finial, and showed them to the king. The king was delighted in his
heart with all that despatch of work, and as the finishing touches5 were
being put to his temple, he diligently imposed the finial on his own temple,
and. ascertained a lucky moment for setting up the flag, and in accordance
with that promise summoned king Bhoja by an ambassador. Then king
Bhoja, sovereign of the country of Mlava, being afraid of breaking his
promise, and not being able to go in the required way, remained silent.
Then king Karna, as soon as he had set up the flag on the temple, set out
with the above-mentioned number of kings,0 to make war on king Bhoja,
and at the same time he invited Bhma to attack the country of Mlava in
the rear, promising him the half of Bhoja's kingdom. Then king Bhoja,
being attacked by those two kings, lost his pride, as a snake, overcome
with a charm, loses its poison. And then a sudden corporal malady took
hold of Bhoja, and king Bhma, as all the mountain passes and fords were
closed, and his own officers refused to allow any foreigners to approach
him, applied by means of one of his servants to his own diplomatic agent
Dmara, who was in the court of king Karna, in order to ascertain the
condition of Bhoja. Dmara taught the servant a gth, and sent him off,
and so he came to the assembly-hall of king Bhma. The gth ran as
follows :
The fruit of the mango is fully ripe ; the stalk is loose ; the wind is high;
The branch is withering ; we do not know the end of the business.
This gth induced king Bhma to remain quiet.
Then Bhoja, as his journey to the other world drew nigh, performed the
1 The distinctive emblems of a monarch.
2 I read nirmpayan with P : /8 has nirmyayoM ; a, nirmapayan. I omit tatra
with these MSS.
3 Here P, a and £ read Icarmasthciyo. I have attempted to translate the text. I
suppose Mycin Tccbrmasthyo would mean, How much construction can be done P "
4 Manu, iv. 113.
5 Perhaps we should read kaplabandJie with a and This might mean, "as
the construction of the dome of his temple was going on." I do not understand
the printed text. 6 Yiz. 136.


75
religious duties appropriate to the occasion, and gave the following order,
" After my death, my hands are to be placed outside my chariot/' and then
went to heaven.
Whose hand, 0 wife and son 1 Alas whose hand, 0 all my house 1
Alone I come, alone I go, having rubbed my two hands and feet.
This speech of Bhoja's was repeated to the people by a hetaerci, and
Karna, hearing of that occurrence, broke down the fort and took all the
wealth of Bhoja. Then Bhma sent the following order to Dmara, You
must either give me the half of the kingdom stipulated for by me, obtaining
it from king Karna, or your own head." 1 Accordingly, desirous of carry-
ing out the orders of his sovereign, he entered the royal pavilion with thirty-
two foot-soldiers, and took Karna prisoner,2 when he was asleep in the
middle of the day. Then he put in one division a shrine of gods, of which
the chief were iva, the lagrma stone and Ganea,3 and in the other he
placed all the property of the kingdom,4 and said to the king, Take which-
ever half you please." Having said this, he kept quiet for sixteen watches,
but afterwards by order of king Bhma he took the shrine, and made a
present of it to king Bhma. Now the whole of the story is summed up in
the two following connected stanzas :
Two temples of a god, fifty cubits in height, having in the same auspicious
moment
Been previously begun, whichever of the monarchs first imposes the finial,
to him
The other king must come without umbrella and chowries, this having been
agreed,
King Bhoja, his mind being averse to expenditure, was conquered by king
Karna.
King Bhoja having gone to heaven, the very powerful Kama, while engaged
In sacking the town of Dhr, by solicitation made Bhma his ally,
And Karna was taken prisoner 5 by Bhma's servant Dmara, and from him
were extracted
A golden shrine, and the lord iva associated with Ganea.
1 I read with a and /3, matparikalpitam rjydrdham nijairo va.
2 For the chdndyam of the text a has bandAhyai, /3, clidndAje, P, bandy am. I have
given what I supjDose to be the meaning.
3 This translation is suggested by Forbes's Ras Ml, p. 552, Every Hindoo has
in the Devmandeer within his house-a small throne upon which seven or eight idols
are placed, as the Shlagrm stone (a representative of Yishnoo), Bal Mookoond
(the same deity in the form of the infant Krishn), Shiva, Gunputee, Doorga Devee,
Sooruj (the sun), Hunooman or others." (I have preserved the spelling of Forbes.)
I take cintdmani to refer to the lagrma stone. I find rdjiid in a and /3, but X
have followed the printed text. P has raja.
4 P has rdjyavastuni with the u short. This I follow.
5 Here we have bandkrttit0.


Then the poet Karpura recited in the presence of Karna the poem be-
ginning On the face was the hanging of a necklace." But as he used
ungrammatical expressions, the king did not give anything to that poet.
Then the poet Nacirja uttered the following stanza,
Visnu, the enemy of Kaitabha, holds these three worlds in the hollow of
his belly ;
The king of the snakes joyfully supports him with this great weight inside
him,
And that king of the snakes was the necklace of iva; bearing that god in
your heart,
You, king Karna, have destroyed in your enemies even the mention of
valour.
Thereupon the king recompensed him as follows,
He gave a crore of gold pieces and ten furious elephants,
This was given by king Karna in his joy to the poet Ncirja.
Then the poet Karpura, incited by his wife, uttered this stanza in the road,
in front of the poet Ncirja, as he was coming along,
Lady, who are you 1 Do you not know even me, poet Karpura 1 Are you
Sarasvat 1
Tell me truly, why are you sad ? I have been robbed, my child. By what
evil destiny, mother?
Have your two eyes, Munja and Bhoja, been taken 1 How do you
subsist ?
The long-lived poet Nacirja acts the part of a stick to the blind.
The poet Ncirja, being pleased, gave to the poet Karpura all that the
king had given to himself.
Such are some of the various stories recorded about Bhoja, the rest must
be considered to be based on oral tradition.
King, when the cloud of your hand had begun its auspicious ascent in the
ten quarters of the heavens,
And was raining the nectar-flood of gold, with the splendour of the trembling
golden bracelet flickering like lightning,
The river of fame became swollen ; all virtues were refreshed like the
earth ;
The lake of petitioners was filled, and the forest-fire of the poverty of the
learned was extinguished.
Like the wishing-tree, having frightened away by his munificent gifts all
poverty on the earth,


77
Like an incarnate Vrhaspati, having swiftly1 put together various
compositions,
In Bdhvedha like Arjuna, summoned speedily3 by the bands of im-
mortals,
Whose hearts were long ago made to wish for him by his glory, king Bhoja
went to heaven.
Here ends the second chapter in the Prabandhacintmani composed by
the crya Merutuijga, entitled the description of the various achievements
of the kings Bhoja and Bhma.
CHAPTER III.
the history of siddharja.
Then, once on a time, in the land of Gujarat, the rains having been
checked by drought, the people of the country were unable to render to
the king the share of the produce due to him, and so they were brought to
Pattana by officers employed by him, and their presence was notified to
him. Then, one day, in the early morning, prince Mlarja, as he was
wandering in that direction, saw all the people being harassed by the
king's officers, in connection with the king's share that was to be deducted
from the grain,3 and having heard all the circumstances from his attendants,
he had his eyes slightly suffused with tears from compassion. He pleased
the king by his unequalled skill in the manege, and having been com-
manded by the king to choose some boon, he requested that it might be
laid up in store.4 The king said to him, Why do you not ask for
something?5' He answered, "Because I do not feel certain that I shall
obtain what I want." Then, as the king pressed him exceedingly, he
asked him, by way of boon, that those heads of families5 might be
relieved from payment of the king's share. Then the king's eyes were
filled with tears of joy, and he consented, saying, So be it and
said to him, "Make another request." But the prince remembered the
stanza,
1 I read javctddrbcllia with. /3 : a has jav ; P has javdt or javdn.
2 I read srg : & gives drag.
3 I follow P which gives sasya-nidn-blita-dAin-sambandlie : a gives ddnay
P, ddnim. It is evident from line 12 of page 129, and the first line of page 131
that ddn means the king's share.
4 Cp. Chalmers's translation of the Jtakas, Vol. I., p. 24, and my translation of
the Kath Koa, p. 48.
5 Or perhaps simply Koonbees. See Ks Ml, p. 541 and ff.


78
There are mean people by thousands, intent only on the business of
nourishing themselves,
That man alone is chief of the good, who makes his neighbour's concern
his own,
The submarine fire drinks up the ocean, to fill its insatiate maw,
But the cloud, to put an end to the affliction of the world produced by the
heat.1
By the help of the teaching of this stanza, the prince restrained excessive
greed, and owing to his soul being elevated by pride, he simply returned
to his palace without asking for anything.3 Then, on the third clay after,
being praised by the heads of families,3 that prince Mularja went to the
heavenly world. The king and the courtiers and the people, who were
previously begged off by him, were for a long time plunged in a sea of
grief on that account, but at length wise men, by dint of various
admonitions, extracted their dart of grief. Then, as in the next year, all
the corn grew up successfully, thanks to the rain, the cultivators offered to
pay the share due to the king for two years, the past as well as the present
year,4 but the king refused to receive it. Thereupon they convoked a
court of appeal, and of the members of that court the characteristics were
as follows,
That is not a court in which there are not elders,
Those are not elders who do not utter justice,
And that is not justice in which there is not truth,
That is not truth which is pervaded by fiction.5
In accordance with these principles the members of the court decided
the matter, and made the king take his share for the previous year and
that year. Then, with that money, and other money contributed from
the treasury, king Bhma caused to be built a new temple, called Tripuru-
saprsda, for the welfare of prince Mularja. He also caused to be
built in Pattana the temples of Bhmevaradeva and the goddess Bhrun.
He began to reign in 1077 Y.S. and reigned forty-two years, ten months,
and nine days. His queen, named Udayamati, caused to be made in
Pattana a new reservoir, surpassing even the Sahasraliijga lake. Then
king Kama's coronation took place in 1120 V.S., on the seventh day of
1 This is No. 2032 in Bohtlingk's Indische Spruche. He finds it in the Vikra-
mgkacarita, and rggadharapaddhati.
2 Here I follow P which reads tatah Icimapyatlinartliya mnonnatay, omitting
bhyah.
Or Koonbee folk (?).
4 For pradiyamane, P, a and £ give praviyamne.
5 This is No. 3483 in Bohtlingk's Indische Spruche. He finds it in the Mah-
bhrata, the Hitopadea, and the rijgadharapaddhati.


79
the black fortnight of Caitra, on a Monday, in the nciksatra of Hasta, in
the lagna of Pisces.
Now it happened that a king of Karnta, named ubhakein, was run
away with by his horse and carried into a forest, and while he was enjoying
in some part of it the shade of a leafy tree, a forest conflagration approached
him. Owing to a sense of gratitude, he did not like to leave that tree that
had benefited him by giving him rest, and so he made his life a burnt-
offering in that fire, together with the tree. Then his son, named Jayakein,
was placed on his throne by his ministers, and in course of time he had
born to him a daughter, named Mayanalladevl. And she, merely on
hearing the name of Somevara mentioned by some votaries of iva,
remembered her former birth. She said to herself, "In a former life I
was a Brhman, and I performed twelve fasts of a month's duration, and
on the completion of each fast I gave away twelve things, and then I set
out to worship Somevara, and I reached the town of Bhuloda,1 but not
being able to pay the duty levied there, I was not allowed to proceed
further, and in despair thereat I made an earnest aspiration that in my
next birth I might bring about the remission of that duty, and then I
died and was born in this family." This was her recollection with regard
to her former birth. Then, in order that she might procure the remission
of the tax at Bhuloda, she longed for the king of Gujarat as an eligible
bridegroom, and told the whole story to her father. Then king Jayakein,
hearing of that circumstance, asked Karna through his ministers, to accept
the gift of his daughter Mayanalladev's hand.3 But king Karna, having
heard of her plainness, was indifferent to her, so at last, as MayanalladevT
was obstinately determined on marrying him, her father sent her to king
Karna, as a maiden choosing her own husband. Then king Karna, having
himself secretly observed the fact of her ugliness, became altogether
neglectful of her. Accordingly Mayanalladevi and her eight companions
made up their minds to sacrifice their lives in order to compass the death
of the king ; but Karna's mother Udayamati,3 hearing of this intention of
theirs, and not being able to witness their death, made a vow to live or
die with them, for
The great are not as much afflicted in their own calamity, as in the calamities
of others,
The earth, which is immovable in its own shocks, trembles in the woes of
others.
1 Now Bhlod, a ford of the Nerbudda river a little above Shookulteerth.
{Forbes's Ras Ml, p. 84.)
2 Here P reads Atha Jayalceirjnci ffrlcamah svapradhnaih svasuty Mayanalla-
devy, &c. There seems to be a misprint in the text.
3 Deyamati in the printed text is clearly a misprint. The MSS. give Udayamati.


80
Then king Kama, discovering that a great calamity was at hand, married
Mayanalladev out of regard for his mother, and afterwards did not honour
her even with a look. One day the minister Muiijla, finding out by means
of the chamberlain, that the king was in love with a woman of low rank,
dressed up Mayanalladev in her clothes and ornaments, and sent her, after
the usual monthly ablution, to secretly take the place of that woman. As
the king supposed that she was that very woman, he received her ardently
and she became pregnant. Then she, by way of a convincing proof of the
interview, took from the king's hand a ring marked with his name and
placed it on her own hand.1 Then, the next morning, the king was pre-
pared to forfeit his life on account of that sinful deed, and asked the doctors
of canonical law the proper expiation for it. They informed him that he
must embrace a red-hot copper image, but when he was about to comply
with their command in order to expiate his sin, the minister told him the
real facts of the case. To that son, who was born in an auspicious moment,
the king gave the name of Jayasiiiiha. He, when a child of three years old,
as he was playing with some young princes of the same age, adorned the
throne, by sitting down on it. As the astrologers said that that very
moment was one likely to bring about prosperity, the king performed then
and there the coronation of that son. In 1150 Y.S. on the third day of the
dark fortnight of Pausa, on a Saturday, in the naksatra of ravana, in the
lagna of Taurus, the coronation of Siddharja took place. But Karna
himself went to attack a Bhilla named dwelling in pall, and an
omen of Bhairavadevi 3 having taken place, he built there a temple to the
goddess named Kocharaba,3 and after conquering the Bhilla, who was king
over six lakhs, he established there in a temple the goddess Jayant, and also
he made the temple of Karnevara, adorned with the lake of Karnasgara.4
He founded the city of Karnvat and reigned there himself. In Pattana
he caused to be built the temple of Karnameru.5 This king began to reign
in 1120 V.S., on the seventh day of the white fortnight of Caitra, and he
reigned till the second day of the black fortnight of Pausa in 1150 Y.S., a
Jinamandana, the author of the Kumraplacarita, tells us that the object of
Mayanalladev and her companions was to throw on the king the guilt of their
death. I do not see how this meaning can be obtained from Merutugga's words.
1 This story reminds one of Shakespeare's play, All's Well that Ends Well.
2 Bhairava is omitted in a and (3. Probably the reference is to an owl.
3 According to Forbes this name is still preserved in that of a locality on the
bank of the river immediately contiguous to Ahmedabad. pall is now
shwul. (Forbes's Rs Ml, p. 79.)
4 In the Rs Ml, p. 80, we learn that this lake was made by damming up the
river Roopeyn. The river broke through the embankment in 1814. The remains
of the reservoir are known as the "ten mile tank."
5 This would appear to mean "the Meru of Karna." According to the Brliat
Sariiliit LYI 20, quoted by Buhler in his article, On the origin of the town of
Ajmer and its name," Vienna Oriental Journal, 1897, p. 56, Meru in this connection
means a large temple with six towers, twelve storeys and wronderful vaults."