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Title:
Weber's Sacred literature of the Jains
Series Title:
Indische Studien
Sacred literature of the Jains
Creator:
Weber, Albrecht, 1825-1901 ( Author, Primary )
Smith, Herbert Weir ( Translator )
Language:
English
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1 vol.

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Jainism ( LCSH )
Jaina literature ( LCSH )
à¤œà¥ˆà¤¨ à¤§à¤°à¥à¤®
Jainismus
Jinismus
à¤œà¥ˆà¤¨
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Europa -- Deutschland -- Berlin -- Berlin
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## Notes

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Translated by Dr. Herbert Weir Smith, Bryn Mawr College, U.S.A., From the Indische Studien, Vol. XVI., pp. 211-479 and Vol. XVII. pp. 1-90
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VIAF (name authority) : Weber, Albrecht, 1825-1901 : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/7814152/
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VIAF (name authority) : Smith, Herbert Weir : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/198607381/

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WEBER'S SACRED LITERATURE OF TIIE TRANSLATE!) BY DR. HERBERT WEIR SMITH, BRYN MA WR COLLEGE, U. S. A., From the Indische Studien, Vol. XVI., pp. 211-479, and Vol. XVII. pp. 1-90.1 I) ;P~s. ilINS, 0, L. \....; .According [211]2 to the conception of th1:1 modern Jains, their collective sacred texts date back to the first Jina, :i;tishabha.3 The first trace of this view appears to be found in the concluding paragraph4 of the Nan.:li, in which the a7:imna (anitjnd) is referred to Usab haseQa,6-the 12 a1igas having in the passage just before been enumerated as bhch,{1tiunna; -and in an earlier passage, in which 8,400,000 painnas are attributed to Vaddhamfu.1asami, the scholinm substitutes ~ishabhasvil.min for this name,6 The statements in Nemichandra's Pravachanasaroddlz{lra 36, composed in Prakrit, on titthavnch'chhea (in four verses inserted between 435 and 436), are, to a certain extent in agreement with the above. 'l'heRe verses7 are a detailed explanation of the statements in v. 434, which are rather general in character and obscure; and assert that during the eight ji'!laiiltaras: Usa1wji1,1i1i1cldu jd Siwihi, i.e., from Usaha 1 to Suvihi 9, there existed only eleven angas, without the di!fhiv{la, which stands in the twelfth place: 1nutt111:a di!.fhivdyaih hava1i1ti ilckarase 'va aiiigdiiii. During [212] the following seven ji7Ja1i1taras: Suvihijiriu jd Sa1i1ti, from Suvihi 9 to Samti lo, all twelve aitgas were v11chchhinna. But during the last eight }'i'(la1iltaras: Smi1tijirJ6 ju Viraih, from Samti 16 to Vfra 24, they were not vuchchhinna, The dit{hiviia was a second time lost : vuchchhinno difthivdo tahi1ii, These statements are, it is true, obscure, yet become clear by means of verse 434,8 which they are designed to explain .According to this verse, all three statements are valid merely for the interval between the Jinas. Their significance is as follows :-.A.t the t,ime of Usabba all twelve aizgas were extant; between Jinas 1-9 only the first eleven ; between Jinas 9-16 all twelve were lost ; and under or between Jinas 16-24 they were all extant. The twelfth anga was however lost again after Jina 24. Though these statements appear to establish the fact that the 12 aiigas are said to have existed as early as the time of U sabha, nevertheless it becomes perfectly plain from a. consideration of their nature, that this claim rests upon an insufficient foundation. The commen1 'l'he Editors of the Indian Antiquary, in which this translation first appeared, beg to acknowledge much valuable assistance kindly given l,y Professor Leumann, of Strassburg in taking this paper through the Press; and the translator adds his acknowledgments for assistance of the same scholar in respect of the translation from th .. German, also for some additional notes distinguished by asterisms with ~he initial L put after them. The figures iu brackets indicate the pages of the original German article. a Dharmasfigara in his Ku.pakshakauiikaditya, in the Proceedings of the Royal Academy of Sciences, Berlin, of 1882, p. 813, 23 (I cite this essay of mine under the abbreviation Kup.) and Jacobi in this Journal, ante, Vol. IX. p. 161 (1'880). Doubtless of secondary origin. e fidikarapurimati\.lc (kale!) pavattia Usabhasci;iassa. 6 See Jnd. Stud. 17, 15, note. Catalogue of the Berlin Sanskrit and Prd.krit MS. 2, p. 6i9. T In the commentary of Siddhasi'nasuri, composed Sariwat 1242 (A.D. 1186), these verses are I1ot explained, but n the MS. which I have before me they are found in the text, page 212, in the middle of the page, and are counted in with the rest. 8 It runs ; purimamtima-atfhaddha (nJ\hatlha !)'ri,taresu (chaturvirieatrs tlrthakritam trayovitiaatir rva 'mtara~i bhavanti) titthassa na 'tthi vochchhfu I majjhillaesn sattasn ittiyakiilath tu viichchheu I/ 434 IJ. Dr. Laumann informs me _that the source of these statemeI1ts is found BhagONat,,, 20, 8; of. also AvGiy. 3, 16; padha.maasa (ji1,13s,a) ba~asamgam, s~sfu:,' ikkliruau,hgasualtuilbho.

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. '!'he text-constitution of the llgama appears, after all, on nearer view, to be of a very multifarious character. And this is vouchsafed also by tradition itself. The council of Piltali putra, which the account of Hemachandra [218] places in the immediate neighbourhood of the date of Asoka, had, as we have seen above, been able to collect the 11 ai,gus only in a rather indifferent fashion, by acquiring one portion from one quarter, another from another (yad. angd.dltyayanoddes(idy asid yasya); and of the twelfth angd had been able to acquire only a part from Bhadrabahu. The existence of what had thus been collected, was, as time went on, endan gered from the fact that its transmission was only oral ;1 8 for which, according tu tradition, writing was not substituted till eight centuries later, in the year 980 Vira. This was effected by a. council in Valabhi under the presidency of Devarddhiga9i 1,shamasrum a'l}a; though others state that this ensm:d 13 years after (993 Vira), at the instance of a council in 1\1.athur:1 under sri Skandilficharya. In connection with this, the statement may be placed, that in the year 980 the Valabhi king Dhruvasena commanded that the Kalpas11tram should be recited publicly, Herein a special participation of the king in the work is indicated, be it in that of Devarddhigal}i or in that of Skarhdila, to whom by this a.et he gave decisive support, If, then, as a matter of fact in the interval of 800 01 1000 (980) years after Vira, the doctrines whose contents were promulgated by him (though the form of the doctrin~s is ascribed to his pupils and not to the master himself) were haded down by oral tradition alone-and in unison with this assumption is the fact that in the older portions of the text we find the introductory formula [219] suyaw me d.usa,i1, ie7J,aii, bhagavayd. BV(.fln altldia yam, and for the single sections the concluding formula ti Mmi-then we may well be astonished that the existing Siddhd.nta contains so many traces of antiquity as is the case. What knowledge would we possess of Christ if the New Testament had existed in an Ul\Written form till 980 A,D,,111 and if we were limited to a codification of traditions under Pope Sylvester II., which was based not on written, but on oral transmission Truly, in this interval the cultivation of the sacred text had not been entirely abandoned, So, for example, to the 19th patriarch, Vajra, is ascribed pal'ticular solicitude in its behalf20 cf. Kup. 811 (21). According to the statement of the Digambaras, cf. Jacobi, KaZpas. p. 30, the written codification of their sacred texts had been effected by Pushpadanta. A. V. 633-683,21 300 yeal'II before the date above mentioned, 'l'he sacred teKts alluded to are not the same as those of the usual Siddh{itita, which belongs to the Svetiirnb.aras, cf. Wilson, Se . W. 1, 279 & 281 ed. Rost. In the agama which we possess, writing plays a very important role ; so that [220] it becomes clear that writing had, at the time of the written codification of the Siddhanta, long been extensively used for literary purposes. Indeed the very lateness of the above-mentioned date necessitates this conclusion, A. V. 980 corresponding to the middle of the fifth or to the beginning of the sixth, century A.D.22 A distinct proof of this extensive use of writing is the e.xpresi;ion bambM. livi frequently used in aiigas 4, 5, upanga 4, etc., to denote the_ '' sacred writing." F1urthe1more, the characterization of its most important part, the angas, as duvd.lasa1hga1ii ga~11'pi
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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JA.INS. 5 distinctly in the Anuydgadvi1ras1Ura, In aii.ga 4 and 'Up, 4, eighteen different kinds of writing are mentioned, bamb/d, and java'l}uliyd. (yavani1n9 being placed first. Herein we may observe a close connection with the similar enumeration in Lalitavistara. Moreover all 18 are mentioned as used for the bambhi lid. The 46 mi1uyakkhari11}i in anga 4 ought to be mentioned here in this connection. Jacobi (Kalpas. p, 16n) has called our attention to the peculiar synchronism of the activity of Devarddhigal}i (or of Skandila), with the contemporaneous activity of Buddhaghosa as regards the drawing up in writing of the Pali canon. Since this latter is, furthermore, several decennia older (almost a century older than Jacobi's "adjusted date" of Vira 980), we must conclude that in any case he must have been followed [221] by his Jaina colleagues and not vz'ce versd.. A great difference is manifest, it must be confessed, between both parties. While Ruddhaghosa did not change the linguistic make-up of the Pali texts, the redactor of the Jaina texts adapted to the requirements of his own age the Milgadhi language, in which, we may probably suppose, they were originally composed (cf. in aii.ga 5, 2, 1, the salutation Magahil see Bhag. 2,250) and in which they had been in all likelihood allowed to remain by the council of Pa/aliputra. .. The character of the language of the redactor of the Jaina texts is incomparably younger than Pali,24 and consequently its official name addha-Magahil bhasil (in up. 1, 4, and elsewhere)25 or ardha-Mii.gadhi (so the Jain grammarians) bears traces of this late date. In fact, of the MagadM, only a few remnants, especially the Norn. Sing. Masc, of the 1 Deel. in e, have been retained, while even these disappear gradually in the course of time. In general the language may be characterized as a very much younger sister of Pd.li, 1'he reason for this faet must probably be sought in local influence, whether it be Valabhi or Mathura, where the written codification was m,de; at least such is a safe assumption. To the dialect of either Valabhi or Mathura these ancient texts, composed originally in Mii.gadM, had to accommodate themselves. The Council of Pa.taliputra, it is supposed, [222] limited its functions to the colledion of the angas; the written codification of Devarddhigai:ii, it is claimed, embraced the entire arjsiddhanta, c1gama,26 the sarvan granthd.n of this .Agama. See Jacobi, l. c. p 115-117. What position have we here to assume ? In a1i9a 3,,,1 we find angabil.hiri'ya texts expressly recog11ized :i.s different from the angas, and as pannattiit of this kind the names of itpltngas 5-7 are men tioned, together with a fourth name, which is that of a section in 1tpl1i1ga 3. In anga 3,10 ten dasu texts, each comprising 10 ajjhayatias, are enumerated, of which we possess only four as angas 7-10, and a fifth as chhedasutra 4. In anga 4 there are mentioned, besides the 11 (or 12) an.gas, the names of the 36 sections of the first mulasutra, and three other texts, which are no longer extant; the last occur only in a statement in reference to the number of their ajjhaya'f}as. A real enumeration of those texts, which besides the angas belong to the s'Uam (srntam), is found not in the aiigas, but in the Nandisutra, a work that is probably a production of Devarddhi ga1.1i himself. See below. In this work the sacred texts are divided into two groups: (1) the a,igapavi!(ha, i.e. the 12 angas, and (2) the anangapaviff ha texts. A further subdivision shows that under anmigap. there are flO single texts enumerated, 27 of which prove to be namC's of existing parts of the Siddhilnta the other names appear either to be merely titles of sections of single texts [223] or, and this is the case in the majority of instances, are not found in the Siddhunta, though anga 3, is acquainted wit,h some few of them. A repetition of 2, rf. Bhagav. I, 392-7. Vorlesungen iiber indische Lit. Geach. 2, p. 316. a s~ kith ta,ii bhusO.,iya V je ,a,h addha-Jliagaha.e bho.aM bhasatiiti, jattha ya nan-. bambM li1if pa1,atta'i.-Also according to up Miga I, 56 (see Leumann, Aupapat, p. 6) Mahavfra himself already preached in ArdhaMflgadhi..A.ccordingly we read in the quotation given by Hemachandra IV. 287: p81f!am addham6.gahabhas6.nioyo1i1 hata, suttam; cf. Pischel's note on this passage in his translation, p. 169. The ordinary term for that idiom with Hemachandra is 6.rsham. 26 Other synonyms are sruta, siltra, grantha., sl\sana f.jfie, vachana, upad{fa, prajfiapana. Such is the ennme ration in the A11uyligadv. (but in i'rl\krit). 27 Where the texts in question are called a.i,gabahira,

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6 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. this enumeration in the Pdkshi'.kasdtra27 adds at the end to the latter category four29 additional texts, the former existence of which can be proved from another source. Inas much as this proof is as entirely free from suspicion as it is surprising I deem it fit to discuss this matter here in some detail. In the Vihimaggapava, called briefly Vidhip1apa, that is to say, in a samay{lri of JirJapalrnmuni (Jinaprabha in Kosala; likewise author of the saii1dehavishaushadhi) composed Saiiuat 1363 (A.D. 1307) in Pra.lqit, the above-mentioned enumeration of the anai1gapavi/f!ta texts is found, with the addition of the same four names as in the Pakshikasutra, 'l'o these four there are added two more names. insP1ted between angas and wp{l,iga.~ are the following remarkable statements in reference to that state of advancement in which the student is to study the single texts. The statement occurs in a passage where the author describes in detail the diurnal occupation necessary to learn t}1e single texts of the Siddha.nta. The passage is as follows :-ittha chadakkha29 pariyaye1,1a tivas{) ftyarapakappam vahijja vaijja ya, evam chaiivaso suyagacja1h, pamchavaso dasilkappavvavahare, aghavilso tha1iasamaviie, dasavaso bhagavai (0vai'm), ikkarasavaso khuMiyavimaJ:].ai(0nadini) pamcha 'jjhayai;ie, v11rasavaso arul}ovavayai (011d1ni) [224] pamcha 'jjhayal),e, terasavaso uHhfU]asuyf1(0yadini) chaiirajjhayal]e chaiiddasaiaHhilra-samtavftso kame1,1a asivi sabhilvai;ia-dighiviiiabl111va1ia-chi1ra-I].abhilvana-mah1i sumiQabhaval),a-teyanisagge, egUl]RVlSavaso di~thivayam, sampunnav1savasO savvasuttajOg& tti. The same statements recur in an older :l'orm (cf. the name vivalui for ai1ga 5 and not bhagavai) in Silntichandra's Comm. on upa.nga 6 in 7 verses, the first two of which are found in Abhayadeva on aiiga 3 :. tivarisapariyagassa u ayarapakappanamam ajjl1aya1]am I chaiivarisassa ya sammam sftaga9am nfima amga1h ti II 1 II dasakappavvavaharfisamvachchharapai;iagadikkhiyasse va I thfu,1a1h samavaochiya amg' He3 0 aHhavasassa II 2 II dasavasassa vivfiho, egarasav'ilsagassa ya ime u khucJq.iyavimai;ia-m-ai ajjhayal]il pamcha nil.yavv11 II 3 II bil.rasavasassa taha arul)ovayai pamcha ajjha yal}il terasavasassa taha ughaI].asuyaiya chaiiro 11 4 11 chaiidasavasassa taha as1visabhava9am ji9a bimti pannarasavasagassa ya diHhavisabhaval}am taha ya 11 5 LI solasavasaisu ya ~guttaravuqghrnsu jahasamkham I charaI]abhavaI].amahasuviQabhavai;ia-t:aganisagga3l 11 6 11 egfoJavftsagassa dighi.ao duvalasamgam I sampunnavisavariso a9uvfti savvasuttassa tti II 7 II This enumeration is exceedingly notewortl1y from the fact, tl1at of the texts which now hclong to the Siddha.nta, only nine are mentioned (six a,~gas and three chhedasutras), whereas tl,e other eight names, to wl1ich reference will be made later on when we examine the Nand,, a1e at present not found therein. The question [225] arises : are we justified in placing the composition of these verses32 at a period in which the remaining portions of the present Siddlufota were as yet not embraced therein, their place being occupied by the eight lost texts which are mentioned in the enumeration? In any case the enumeration cannot be otherwise i.ban ancient, since at the date when it was composed, the dinhiv{la manifestly still existed, and in fact, as the highest in the order of gradation. 2si, Or 'five' P they seem to have been mentioned also by the original MS. commented on by the bhilsha of the L:aleutta edition of the Nan,Us. ; see the expla.nation of the five names in that edition p. 418 (after Vonhidasuo).-L. 2, The MS. has clakl,hah. But Visal'ga is of course here inappropriate. Is dikkhA rdlksha) the correct 1eadiugP 3 0 piiga masculine or et& neuter; see ime ajjhayal)ii in v. 3. 3 1 teyanisagga is, according to another passage of the Vidh.:prap6, another name .of the Gc.sula. book in the Bhagavat-1, the latter in its turn being dasavasassa 32 tlfinticha.ndra ma.intains a different view, viz., that since in v. 3 anga 5 is ascribed to daiavarshapary tyasya ,.,;dM(, therefore eo ipso aitga 6, and the connected v..pu.nga 6, took their places a.ccordingly. But how is 'the case with anf/a 7, etc. P

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JA.INS. 7 1 we now return to a consideration of the 60 onai1gapovi.t_tha texts of the l\-andi we shall find that we have to deal with a rich literature of which nearly half has probably been lost. Ou the other hand, among these 60 texts we miss not only at least six names "hich are now enumerated as portions of the Siddhanta; but all t.lie titles of those groups are lacking, in which the Siddhanta is at present divided. These 60 names are enumerated without any reference whatever to any definite order in groups, and in a succession entirely different from the present order. Does this state of things permit us to conclude tl1at neither the texts which are not mentioned in the enumeration nor the present groupings or titles of groups existed at the date of the N,mdi? At present the entire Siddhdnta embraces the following 45 texts33 divided into the following six groups: l. eleven ( or twelve) a;,gas: [226 J .Achil.ra, Sutrakritam(0krit), Sthiinam, Samavaya, Bhagavati, Jniitiidharmakathils, Uplisakadasils, Antakriddasii.s, Anuttaraupap11tikadas11s, PrasnavyakaraI].am, Vipl\.ka, (Drishtiviida, no longer extant),-2, twelve itpilngas: Aupapfiitkam, Ril.japrasniyam, Jivabhigama, Prajnapana, Jambudvipaprajnapti, Chandraprajnapti, Suryapraj napti, Nirayavali [or Kalpika], Kalpfivatansika, Pushpika, Pushpachulika, VrishI].idasas,-3. ten pa'innas: Chatu}.isaraI].a, Sarhstiira, Aturapratyakhyfinam, Bhaktaparijnii, Tavqulavaiyali,33 Chan davija,s, Devendrastava, GaI].ivija,s5 Mahiipratyakhyiinam, Virastava,-4. six chhedasutras: Nisitham, Mahanisitham, Vyavahara., Dasi\srutaskandha, Brihatkalpa, Paiichakalpa,-5. two sutraR without a common name, Nandi and Anuyllgadvaram,-6. four mulasutras: Uttar11dhya yanam, A vasyakam, Dasavaiki\likam aml Pi9q.aniryukti. 'l'his division is that of Buhler (see Jacobi, Ka/pas, p. 14), with an exception in the succession of up. 5-7, where I have deviated from his arrangement on the strength of the VidMprapti and the scholium on up. 6. The same division is found also in Ratnasagara (Cale. 1880) except that there groups 3 and 4 have changed places with 5 and 6, not to mention some minor differences. It is a very remarkable fact that in R11jendra Lala Mitra's Notices of Sanskrit lJ,fSS. 3, P. 67 (Oalc. 1874)-on the authority of a definite source of information, the Siddhdnta dharmasara,-we find an enumeration35 varying materially from the above. First a very different grouping may be noticed; [227] secondly, there are a few additional names (50 instead of 45), and finally remarkable variations in the names themselves. The first two groups of ail.gas and upiliigas are identical, although anga 10 has changed place with anga 11, and the name of upanga 12 having fallen out, in its stead another name (Kappi'.yasutra) has been introduced in the ninth place.3 6 The four Mulasutra.~ ;lppear as Group 3, and of these two have different names (2. Vi'.Mshdvasyaka, 4. Pilkshil.a). Group 4 bears the title Kalpasutras and consists of five text.s, viz.: mulas 1, chhedas. 1 and 3, Kalpasutra (part of chhedas. 4) and Jftalcalpasutra. Group 5 embraces 6 chhedasutras, of which the first three alone are perhaps identical with. chhedas. 1 ; the fourth corresponds to mulasiitra 4 of Buhler. The names are : 1 Mahanisithavrihadvacha~a. 2 Mabanislthalaghuvachana, 3 Mahanisitha (not in Rfijendra Lala Mitra, but in Kashinath Kunte) Madhyamavachana, 4 PiI].qaniryukti, 5 Aughaniryukti, 6 P1tryushaI].akalpa. Group 6 contains the ten painna or payanna texts, but in adifferent order. The Mara1J,asamdJhisutram., which is in the eighth place, takes the place of painna 10. Nandis1Um ani Anuyogadvarasutra, counting separately as groups 7 and 8 respectively, conclude the list. If, now, [228] after a consideration of the above, it is manifest that even the parts of the Siddlu1nta are at present uncertain, we have herein a sure proof of sa These are probably tho "45 aJ!l.mn,'' which the patron of the writer of a MS. (Samvat 1666, A.D. 1609) of the VyavahdTasuti-a (Berlin MS. or fol. 1038) had copied; see v. 10 of the statements at its end. s, These names, both as regards form and significa,tion are either of -doubtful explanation, or are involved in obscuHty. 85 Repeated in the Repo,t on the Sanskrit MSS. e,ramined d1tTing 1880-81" addressed to the Government of he Pai'ijd.b, by Pa1:1git Kashiuath Kunte. He has given the report twice with tolerable similarity :-Jan. 24, 1881 (p. 4-7) and June 6, 1881 (p. 6-9). ss Here Kashinath Kunte deviates from Rnjc\ndra Lala Mitra, adducing the common name of up. 12, but in the ntl: ple.ce. A further variation is that in the place of the Chandapannatti he adduces the Ma.hd.pannavand, which is found in the list of the anal!,gapayi!tha text in the Nand.i, The Mahiipan.navand. is characterised aH "obsolete and extinct by Kl\shinath Kunto.

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8 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. the unsettledness and uncertainty which attaches to the entire writings o:f the Jains. As a. matter o:f :fact, it is apparent that the oldest portions of their literature are in reality nothing but disjecta mernbra, that they are very unequal and, as regards the date o:f their composition, separated from each other by extensive periods. In the angas and 1tpdnga& we may observe groups, which are well defined, individual, and united through criteria which prove their interconnection. These groups were in a later age brought into connection with the other groups o:f like nature. Nevertheless it cannot be denied that a hand, aiming at unification and -order, has been brought to bear especially upon the angas and 1tpangas. Tl1is is clear from the. many remarks in reference to the redaction (Bliagav. I, 389), which consist partly o:f the parallel references o:f one text to another, partly of kdrikds which are placed at the beginning to serve as a general introduction or inserted in the middle or s11bjoined at the end. The linguistic character of these redactionary remarks can be readily distinguished from that of the text. Among the parallel references there are doubtless many which are to be ascribed, not to the redactor but (c:f. below) to the copyists; and among the kari'lriJs may be contained many additions o:f a decided Fecondary stamp. I:f we do not here discuss at length the problrm as to whether we are to consider alltl1e 45 agamas o:f Biihler's list as collected by Dharddhigar;ii [229] the belief o:f Jacobi, Kalpas. p. 16, we must accept this as a fact : that their present state cannot be that to which they were possibly brought by him, Despite the fil-m foundation erected by his activity, and despite the care which the Jains especially have, even from the earliest times, devoted to the restoration of their SS., nevertheless both the constitution and condition o:f the Siddl,iJnta texts have been subject to most important modifications. Jacobi, p. 16, 17, has called attention to the numerous pilthas (various readings) recognized in the Scholia, and ha.s expressed it as his conviction that it is impossible to restore Devarddhigal}i's recension or text, '!'here exist however other differences between the original and the present Siddlianta text. Not only have tl1ere been lost passages or sections of the text, which were extant at the date of the older commentaries, but also there have been inserted large interpolations which are apparent; and furthermore the text, according to all probability, has even suffered complete trans formations. I conjecture that the reason of these changes may be sought in tlie infhience of the orthodoxy of the Bvetdmbara sect,s7 which became more and more unbending to the various divisions of sectaries. The existing Siddlianta belongs exclnsively to the 1'vetdmbaras. The loss of the entire drishfiviJda (c:f. below) is doubt.less principally due to the fart that it had di1ect reference to the doctrines of the scbismatics, This point o:f view may aff01d us an explanation for the omissions, additions and transformations in the constitution o:f the other angas. The [230] rigour o:f the polemic against the annauttliiya, anyatrthika, parapdsa'l)rtain conclusion that the mahdpa'inria chapter of the first part o:f anga 1 long :formed an integral part of that anga before it was lost, as is at present the case. The ni'sf.haJjhaya1Jam, which originally belongs to the second part of that anga, bas been removed thence and given an iudependent position, that is to say, it exists, according to all probability, as clihedasutra l. Some ,erses, which originally had their place at the end of tbe first chapters o:f upiii1gas 5 and 7, and which the scholium ascribes to that place, are now not extant. On the other hand, there is no Jack o:f insertions :-At the date of the fourth al1ga ( ) the fifth had not yet attained the half of its present extent (84,000 instead of 184,000 pad as). 'l'he addition of certain portions called chulils protuberances), is expressly recognized by tradition as having taken place partly in aiaga 5 (vivfihachula), partly in angas 1 and _12 as also in m.ulastra 3. In the S7 A patent example of this inflexibility is to be found in the Kupalrshalrausikaditya.

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SACR:mD LiTERATURE OF Tlflil JAINS. 9 case of chhedasutra 4 we have a certain instance of a growth from manifold constituent parts. Besidel!I these changes, be they omissions or additions, there are traces of evident textual transformations. The statements in anga 3,10 in reference to the contents of angas 8-10 are drawn from a text quite different from our own, F'urthermore [231 J the statements in reference to the extent and division of all the 12 angaB, to be found in a detailed discussion of the subject partly in aiiga 4, partly in the Nandi, are oftentimes in unison neither with each other nor with the actual constitution of the text. Even the modern representation of the Vidhiprapii, dating from the commencement of the fourteenth century, shows extensive variations in the case of aitga 6, It is furthermore to be noticed that chapter 16 of the first part of anga 2, has a title which does not comport with the character of its contents. The same may be affirmed .of aiiga 10, the commentary to which refers to a textual division no longer in existence; nor is this aiiga couched in the same dialect as the others. Finally, the name of the second upd.nga does not harmonize with its traditional explanation, which, in turn, stands in no genuine relation to the contents of the upaitga. In this latter case there exists perhaps some .connection with a Buddhistic text of similar denomination, to which we may, in the last instance, ascribe some influence in bringing about the transformation of the text. We have seen that the corn,tituent parts of the tellrt in general have been exposed to modifications of the most varied character; and the same, we can confid~ntly assume, has been the case with the state of the text itself, The peculiar style of these works in the first instance is to be held responsible for this result. The massiveness and ponderosity especially of the presentation by means of continual repetitions a.nd constantly recurring stereotyped forms, has .often sor.ely tried the patience of the Jain clergy. A.II the precautions which were taken by the division of the text into granthas, that is to say, groups of 32 syllables3 S and by counting the latter by hundreds [2~2] or by thousands, which precautions, according to Jacobi, Kalpas. p. 2il,, emanated frqm D~varddhigai;ii himself, have not been able to protect the text from the insertion of single words,. or from abbreviations and omissions. The latter were compensated for by reference to the parallel passages in other texts, cf. p. 228. All this, tog2ther with the dangers accruing from the constant copying of th~ MSS., has produced a state of confusion which is utterly irremediable. Often the catchwords alone, the skeletons of the page, so to speak, ar.e left, and that which must be supplied is to be found in the preceding, which was identical in tenor. The omitted portion vrns thus left to oral delivery or to oral instruction. The allusions to .certain stereotyped descrip tions, the epitheta ornantia, the so-called 1:a,nna.a, var.'l}aka, are doubtless to b.e referred to the period of the redaction. Thns the text itself, as we see, has met with enormous losses in the course of time. The form of the words has suffered equally. I do not r.efer here to the frequent pathas, of which mention has already been made and which were intentionally ch~nged from reasons of the most various character, but to the form of the words itself. The Prakrit of these texts was, as we hav.e seen, page 221, afflicted in the ~ery beginning with "a thorn in the flesh," Its origin is to be sought in the East of India, in Magadha, and it was therefore provided _at the start with those peculiarities, or at least with a.good part of them, which belonged to the Mii.gaclhi dialect according to the testimony of the old inscriptions and to the tradition of the later grammarians. These texts were collected for the first time [233] by the Council of Pi1taliputra probably in that dialect, and after 800 years' transmission by word of mouth, if we trust the voice of tradi tion, were codified in writing in Western India, In this codification the attempt was don btle~s made to preserve a part of the ancient grammatical form particularly the termination of the Nom. Sing. Masc. of the lst decl., in e not in o. Such was the ancient colouring of the language of the "Scriptures," as the texts were now called. But, aside from this attempt at preserving an ancient flavouring, it may be stated as a general proposition, that the texts were writ.ten down in that form, which the language assumed at the time and place where the written codifica~ tion took place. In the case of those texts which were then not merely collected or compiled ss Also called liloka or anushtubh. See Ind. Strei/en, III. p. 212.

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10 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. from ancient material, but newly created by the sole assistance of this ancient material, the desire to preserve the ancient form held good merely as regards the ancient citations. The remainder of the contents, including the notes of the redactor and his additions, was at the outset composed in the new form (e.g., Norn. in 61 not in e), This then remained for the future the only authoritative form which, as far as ean be diseovered, was imperfect and contaminated by the most varied defects. No reference was paid t.o a substructure of grammar, and the flexibility of the rules as regards Hexion or non:flexion recalls the latit-nde which the Prakrit grammarians of a. later age [234] ascribed39 to the .Apabltransa in this particu.lar, In eornpounds the single members are either entirely without Samdhi, or the case termination is lacking in the latter member, so that it stands, like the other members, in its pure thematic form, The pure theme especially is frequently found instead of the inflected forms in the kiJ.rikiJ.s, which are inserted into the 'aiigas. The gender and number of the words which are associated, do not agree in a very large number of cases.40 The insertion of an inorganic m in the middle of compounds and at the end of a word, is a recognized practice. Corresponding occurrences or rather beg-innings of such a use are found even in ancient times, and in fact in the Veda (cf. iatamdti). The lilSe of the particles to (from ato) and 6, tu and u as mere expletives is exceedingly common. The indiscriminate variation of i and u with e and o before double consoHants makes many passages obscure aud difficult. l to these considerations we add the so-called yasruti, it is apparent what a wide field is opened up for the disfigurement of words. There is, however, one circumstance more, and that of a very peculiar nature. By reason of the falling out at any time of a t in the frequently recurring forms of the 3rd pers. Sing. Pres., and of the Part. Per. Pass., a misunderstanding arose in tl1e minds of the copyists, which is only to be explained from the fact that there was no absolutely established grammatical use. This misunderstanding arose bom the belief of the grammarians that t was a. sound [235] that could be omitted or inserted at pleasure. The insertion of such an inorganic t in time gained ground so extensively, that the recognition of the original form becomes a matter of exceeding difficulty. As a matter of fact it can be proved that this situation 0 affairs led even. at quite an early date to grotesque misunderstandings.41 As the result of all this, many words of the texts are exceedingly corrupt. We find it therefore almost beyond belief when we consider the nature of the licenses which modern Jain al!lthors allow themselves when they write Prakrit. In the scholia all matter of this class is explained simply as chhdndasa or iJ.rsha. If now, despite the great transformation of the constitution and condition of the text of the SiddhiJ.nta since DevarddhigaIJi, it is always difficnlt in a given case to demonstrate the posteri ority of a.ny definite text after him, there is nevertheless, [236] in the contents a sufficient number of dates which correspond exactly, or at least tally well, with the period in which he is placed by tradition, namely, the fifth century A.D. Of the evidence of this character we must first mention the astronomical and astrological conceptions, which are anterior to the authoritative infl1:1ence of Greek astronomy, or at least in all essentials independent of it. There is as yet no knowledge of the Zodiac; the planets are not arranged in the Greek order (as is the ease in several of the Ath. Paris.), and play a very unimportant part. The naksltatras and the Vedic yugam of five years still bold sway. The nakshatras are often found, arranged after the old order, starting with kf1ftiki1.. At the same time we find in the upaiigas the change of the vernal equinox from Tqittika to bhara'T}t, zs A perfect analogy is presented by the peculiar Sanskrit of the North Euddhistic texts Lalitavista:ra, kiaht1vastu, etc. ,o Just a..~ in the texts of the Avesta, especially the Vendidad, which were collected at a.bout this period. 11 All sorts of false forms which.had no claim to existence ea.me gradually into use in this way. An interesting case of this, which, if my conception is correct, transplants us into a. period before T'ar6,hamihira A.D. 504-587, will be found in the name of the metre vaitMiyam inanga 2, 1, 2. The title of the first upamga is incorrectly stated to be aupapMika instead of 0dika. The name M<'ayya (JJ1etayya) became Metorya, the -common form. In my treatise on Satru,njaya M6.h. p. 3. 4, when I had no knowledge of this inorganic t, I conjectured Metarya to have originated from Mdvdtrya. The Schol. on anga 2, 2, 7 ha.a, it must be confessed, M~darya. l~urthermore the later Ja.ins have been guilty of all sorts of wild misconceptions in reference to their own language ; a.s for example, the completely erroneous exp la.nation of the na.me nisiha by ni-ttha. In this category we may perhaps place Lichhaki for Lichhaii.

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. l1 indicated by the commencement with abhijit, which is such a favourite in the updngas.42 In this fact we have a sign that the influence of Greece had already become active. In general, however,. the statements of the ipangas still represent the stage of the so-called jy6tisham and of a part of the .Atharvaparisishfas. The names of the kuranas that have a foreign sound:bava, bdlava, etc., belong, it is true, to the updilgas; hora is found however for the first time in pa,nna, 8, v. 60. We must also mention the enumeration of the foreign, non-Aryan peoples [237] which are frequently referred to in the angas and upd.ngas. 'l'his enumeration transplants us with tolerable certainty to a period from the second to the fourth century A.D., which is the most ancient period in which the enumeration can have originated, though the present texts may be much later. The mention made of the Arabians among the list, in the form liro.va, which has yet not been discovered as occurring elsewhere in India, might lead us to suppose that we had to deal with a period far posterior to that delimited above. This could, however, be the case only on the supposition that the Arabians of Islam are referred to. It is my opinion that a, reference to an ante-Islamic period (in which Arabia and India were closely connected by commercial ties), is as fully justified as a reference to the Islamic period, From the mention of this peculiar denomination of the Arabians, which, as before said, appears here for the first time in the history of Indian literature, I conclude that the first author of the enumeration in question lived in a part of India in which the commercial connections with Arabia were very close, that is to say, on the west coast, The mention made of the seven schisms in anga 3, the last of which occurred in the year 584 Vira, compels us to regard the second century A.D. as the extreme limit a q_uo for the composition of the texts of the Siddhdnta. We have therefore to conclude that the period from the second to the fifth century is the period to which their composition must be relegated. The other dates, which we can extract from the texts, are in agreement with this delimitation of the period of their origin. Of special importance are the references in the aiigus to the corpus of Brahmanical secular literature [238] which existed at that time, see Bhagav. I, 441; 2, 446-~. Then, too, the use of the word anga to denote the oldest portions or the chief group of the Siddhanta's deserves attention, and makes probable the assumption that the period of their origin is the same as that to whic belong the Brahmanical angas and upa1igas, often alluded to in theirmost ancient portions, 'l'he s-econd of these two names (updnga) has been adopted by the Jains as the title of the second chief group of their texts. I have already called attention" to the close connection between the astronomical doctrines of the angai,; and those of the I "Jy~tisha" veddnga. Finally may be mentioned (see Bhagav. 1, 383) the solemn composition in the aryd measure'' of verses which are cited in the Sidd'6anta or inserted therein. This measure must at the time o:f the redaction of the Siddhdnta have enjoyed especial authoritative ness, otherwise it had never been made so exclusive a vehicle of composition. We must how ever call a.ttention to the fact that the oldest metrical portions of the texts are not composed in gdthas but in slokas thus anga 2, the metrical portions of the r,hhedasutras and those of miilasutras 1 and 3 [239], a.re composed in sloko.s, while the nijjutti and ehur'l}i belonging to those mulas. Rre in gd.thds. In anga 2 we find also the vaitaliya measure. The name of this metre (cf. acl loc.) which exists even in the Chhandas" vedd,iga, Rppears to have been caused' ,2 So also in ai1ga 3 ; in anga 4. 7 probably in an interpolation. The names of the nakshatras appear, we may notice in passing, here only in their secondary form, thns :--pushya, bhadrapada, etc. ,s The Buddhists in the case of the chief group of their own Scriptures make use of the word sli.tra to denote a claMs of literature of somewhat e.ncient date. The word satra occurs also in the colophons of the Jaina-SiddhMit" and plays a very important rii!e in the Scholia; yet is never used in the texts themselves with the same significance as among the Buddhists, if we except the Anuy5gadiaras. and Ava!y niifutti together with that section of anga 12 which has the specific title of suttai1i,. See Bhag. l, 441. 2, 196, 247 and Vories. uber Ind. Lit.-Gesch.2 316. The style of some of the oldest parts of the Siddhanta reminds us in a very slight degree of that of the later Brahmanics.l Si'Ura. In reference to the connection, of somewhat problematic character, between s.1.m!lyika or samd,yari and aamny(icM,rika, see later on under anga 1, or in Uttaradhy. 16. u There is frequently a great lack of metrical correctness in these verses. '6 The metre in question existed earlier as may be seen from its use in the Dh1mrnapada

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12 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. by a misunderstandifig of the name of a chapter of this anga, brought about by the insertion of an inorganic t, The existence of the name of this chapter of the anga would receive by this supposition a valuable attestation, inasmuch as it dates back to a very remote period. In slolrn,8 and vaitd,lfyaB are composed the verses of the Dhammapada of the Bnddhists, with which several portions of this anga, as well as of mulasutras 1 and 3, are very closely connected. We come at this point to a question, which I will here merely mention. What is the relation of the Siddhd.nta of the Jains to the sacred writings of the Buddhists, both northern and southern? A few side lights of this character will be brought into use as the course of om investigation progresses. The solution of the question cs.n only then be successfully undertaken, when we are in a position to compare the texts themselves. The following review of the contents of the Siddhanta endeavours, in the first place, to dis close to us the actual constitution of the texts which are at the present day reckoned as belonging to the Siddhd.nta. In this review I follow the order adopted by Buhler (see above, page 226). Secondly, it purposes from the dates cont11,ined therein to cast light upon the most important points for the date of the composition of each single division, and for the life of the founder [240] of Jainism, as far as this is possible for me in this first assault upon its literature, remarkable not less for its immensity than for its monotony and intellectual poverty. The more exii,ct details will be fond in the sepond part of my pe.talogue of the Sansluit and Priikrit MSS. of the Royal Library of Berlin, which is at present in the press.mi, I have unfortunately been able to m_ake use of the editions of a1iga 10 and upd.nga 2 alone i,i the Calcutta and Bombay editions of the al,gas and upd.iigas, published 1876 :ff~ At the conclusion of this introduction it may be permitted me to state that personally I still continue to regard the Jains as one of the oldest of the Buddhistic sects.mi, The fact that the tra dition in reference to the founder of Jainism deals partly with another personality than ijuddha Siikyamuni q.imself-with the name of a man wq.o in the :BuMhistip legend is men, tioned as one of the contemporary opponents of 'Sakyamuni-this fact, I say, does not, in my opinion, militate against the concl11siou that Jainism is merely one of the oldest of th,e B11ddhistic sects. It appears to me that the conception of the foun.der of Jainism as an opponent of Buddha can well be regarded as an int_entional dis.avowal of religious opinion which took its rise in se_ctarian hate. '.!:'he number !1,nd th,e sig~ificance of comip._on features in both Buddhistic 11,nd ;Tain traditions in r!:lferen_ce to the life and l,abours, et,c., of each of their founders 011tweigh any arguments that m.a~e for the contrary opinion. 1 we refl.ept-and I here repeat wat I have s_aid on page 219-that the Jain texts were, as the Ja.ins themselves claim, codified in writing 1000 years after the death of the founder of Jainism, then it is really marvellous [241] that they appear to _contain so much that is original, How large the number and bow influential the cha~acter of th.e events which o.ccurred in the interval, is f.or ti1e present veiled in obscurity, although the information eman_ating from t,he Jains therns_elves (or more particularly from the 'Sv,\tilmbaras with whose literature w_e have specially to do) in reference to the seven schisms, etc_., '8 affords us at least some slight base of operations. On,e fact, for e;irample, i_s notevrorthy ;-that the n;:i,k,edness, which is adduced by the :)3rahmins, (e.g. _also by Varaha mih. ij8, 4,~, 59, i9) as _a chief characteristic of the Ja.ins, and which accorq.ing to Buddhistic statements, was resolutely opposed by Buddha, assumes an unimportant position in the angat and at least is not regarded as a matt~r of necessity, s_ee Bhag. 2, 187, 239, 814, Later the 'G* Of this new catalogue Vol. I. has sin_ce appeared under the title: Difi Hq.ndschriften-Yerzeichnisse der kiinigL. Bib!iothek zu Berii;,,, Vol. V. Part II. Vol. I. [352 pages; see af!,te, 1887, p. 316], Vol. II. [p. 353-828) which is partiou~arly devoted to the sacred Jain Literatwe, is nearly ready.-L. U* This view (which in Europe has apparently persu.aded only M. Bartp. of Paris) will scarcely be maintainable any longer, since Prof. Biihler h11,s discovered inscriptional proofs for the authenticity of the old Thera. lists given by the KaLpas-0.tra, See the tw
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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JA.INS. 13 necessity of appearing naked was introduced as a dogma by a sect of dissenters. 1 we take into consideration the hate which the 'Svetambaras, who played the role of the orthodox sect, manifested so vigorously against the Digambaras in particular49 (](up. 797, 7), it is no rash conjecture to assume that many prescriptions or traditions in regard to this point have been removed from the Siddhanta of the S'l:etambaras. Even the orthodox do not deny that the Jinas themselves went naked ;50 they assert merely that what was permissible then is no longer permissible at the present day, At the head of [242] the Siddhanta stand then : a. The 11 (or 12) angas. We have seen above on page 211 ff. that, according to tradition, at the time of the first Jina all 12 angas were extant; that then between Jinas 2-9 there existed only eleven, i.e. all except anga 12; that between Jinas 9-16 those eleven also were lost, whereas in the time of, or between, Jinas 16-24, all twelve were extant, and that the 12th afterwards was again5 1 lost. 1 we exclude the mythical first Jina from our consid eration, the essence of this tradition is perhaps this ; the number of the angas was at. first eleven, to these a twelfth was joined, which twelfth anga was again lost. This assumption corresponds to the conclusions to be derived from the Siddhanta itself. In the an.gas themselves and in the 1tpihigas too,5 2 only eleven migas are as a rule mentioned. The principal exception to this assertion is the fourth anga, where at the very outset we find a short enumeration (which can easily be shown to be of secondary addition) of the single parts of the duvillasaihgaiit ga7Jipi
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14 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. to the Brahmanical samayaoh{/,rika (see M. Muller, Hist .Ano. S. Lit. p. 206 fg.) which here appears probably [244] in the term suinayari (see Uttarajjh. 26). 'l'his may be regarded as a counterpart of samaycichu,..i/r.a, In i1pdnga l at the end of the first part, the dharma of Mahavira is designated in a general way as sdmil.ia or as agdrasi[mdie dhainme and a?1agarasa0 The use of the word in this universal signification in a legend is at.tested for Mahilvira's predecessor Parsva; see Bhagav. 2, 184. Besides this Vl'ider signification there was developed a second, more restricted use (see reference just quoted), denoting the first member of the six sn-called arnsyakas,55 i.e., necessary observances, the treatment of which forms the chief subject of the AnuyO!Jadvarasutra and of the sutra text on which the A.iasyakanfjjutti is based. In both these works and in the Nandi, which in turn also makes special mention of the six avasyalcas with stimdiya at the head, the duvalasaihga gatiipi,Jaga with dohilra at the head is principally spoken of. Consequently it is easy to conjecture that the use of the wmd sumiJ.y-i'.ka, occurring here in its pregnant sense as the title of the first fi.vasyaka, has been the cause of the dropping of this denotation for the first anga (in order to avoid auy misunderstanding56), and the reason of the choice of the title dohara for this ai,ga, [245 J a title which is perfectly clear.5 7 Furthermore transitional stages may be found. In .Avasy. nijj. 2, 14 we read sdmdia-111-aiaih siiana1,iaih jiJ.va biiitdusaruo. Here the first aiiga is still entitled samaia although twelve aiigas are treated of. biiitduscira is the title of the fourteenth purva or of the concluding section the third p:1rt58 of the twelfth anga. In ohhedas. 2, 3 the same is said of the duvalasaiitgaiil suyandtJaih: that it is samaiya-m-ai logabi1iulusagara (&ara /) payyavaSll?lalit,5 9 If now t.he passages, in which eleven angas with samil.yika at their head are spoken of, are older than those in which reference is made to twelve an.gas with dohilra at their head, it becomes self-evident that the twelfth ang'l-in has been united to the other eleven as a secondary addition. According to tradition and to the actual state of the case, the twelfth angam did probably not long assert this secondary position which it had acquired; and at present at least is no longer extanL Doubtless it was lost long ago (cf. page 213). From this circumstance alone we may conjecture that there existed a species of opposition, an actual incongruity between it rmd the other eleven ai,gas, which led to its loss. For the confirmation of this assertion we still have proof. In both the works, which we have just found to be the two principal witnesses for the existence [246] of the duviilasa1hga1it ga'(fipiij.agam, viz.,. in the .Anuyogadv. and in the A.uasy. nijj., the t~elfth ai,gam under it,s title di!f hivda drish.tivdda, is placed in direct opposition to the other eleven angas, which are there included in the collective title of kc1liya1il suaiii /calika1il srutam. This occurs in the Anuyi1gadv., in the section parimli'(fasaJ.i1khd, where the means are explained by which the sacred text is assured through counting its constituent parts. Common subdivisions are ascribed to both its above-mentioned parts, but for the chief sections the titles iiddesaga, ajjhaya'(fa, suakhmhdha, a1itga are given to the ktliasua, the titles 71illmij.a, pilhu
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SAORED LITERATURE OF THE J AINS. 15 besides kd,liaauain and di_t/hivda. Of these the first is lost, the second has found lodgment among the existing upailgas. Its agreement wit.h the dif!ldvd,a in ite division into pdhucJ.a leads us to conclude that it must have some connection with it. Finally, of special importance is a notice found but a short distance from this in the same text (8, 40), according to which [247] up to the time of Ajja Vayara, that is, of Vajrasvilmin, apulzatte (aprithal.tvam) Mliaf!uoassa existed, and the puhatta,il (nithaktvam) "kuliasua di!!hivae a" had found entrance later on: te,;ul 'reJ]a, tata aratal). For the present at least it is quite uncertain how we are to understand this peculiar notice, or how we are to bring it into harmony with the position which Vajra holds elsewhere in tradi tion, that is, as the last dasapurvin-knower of (merely) ten purvas.. After him there were only navapurvins, and the knowledge of the p11.rvas gradually decreased until it finally ceased altogether (p. 213). We can determine at least this with certainty-that a thorough-going dif ference existed between ai1ga twelve and the other eleven. The hostility of the great Bhadra bahu, who is held to be tl:i.e real representative of the dtislz!ivada, to the sacred sa1i1gha is apparent from other sources and from the l'ate notice in Hemachandra's parisish!aparvan (above, p. 214),61 The reason for this enmity can be clearly discerned in the statements which have been preserved in refereuce to the twelfth an.7a. It may be permitted here to refer to the discussion of the same later on. .According to these statements, the first two of the five parts in whicrh it was presumably divided, dealt with the views (dr1alz!i) of the heterodox sects, the ajiviya and: the terc1sia62 besides treating of other subjects [248]. The name dtishfivllda may perhaps be explained by reference to tl'1is fact. The third: part consistecl of the so-called 14 purvas, the contents of which was proba.hly not in entire harmony with the sect of the Scetllm baras, which had gradually arrogated to itself the position of being the representative of ortho doxy. This then is perhaps the reason for the loss of the twelfth aiigam. The remaining extant eleven angas by no means represent a unit. since they faU into several groups, the single members of which are marked by certain formal peculiarities, which prove a connection closer in the case of some than in that of others. The first of those groups is formed by ailgas 1-4; all the larger divisions of which close with the words ti bemi, iti bravimi; and according to the Rcholia,. Sndharman, Mahavfra's pupil, is regarded as the one who gives utterance to this formula. The prose poItions begin with the formula; suyaih me dusa1ii! te1J,aih blzagavayu evam akl.;hayaih. "I have heard, 0 long-lived one! Thus has that saint spoken." Su.dharman is the speaker,. according to the Scholia. In this formu:la,63 which characterizes the contents as the oral transmission of the utterances of :Mahavira, a scholar of Sudharman, i.e., Jambu, is the one addressed. 'rhis introductory formula is found also in, other texts of the 'Siddhanta at the commencement of the prose sections; and with this the closing formula ti Mmi is generally CO'llnected. From this it appears to me that an immediate connection of these prose portions with the first four ailgas is here eo ipso indicated, in so far as. in. all probability [249] a.U bear the traces of a unifying hand. In regard to the especial connection of angas 1-3 with one another, this fact deserves mention: that in anga 4, 57 they appear a,s a group which belongs by itself or as the "three gotiipi
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16 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. refer on the one hand their contents directly to Subamma or Jambu, and on the other are shown by other statements to have been united by one band. See the remarks at the commencement of aiiga 6. Angas 7-9 appear to be connected by an especially close bond. The fifth anga and the existing redaction of aiiga 10 are not embraced in either of these groups. Ai1ga ] 0 belonged originally to the second group. It exists in a form demonstrably later, and is composed in another dialect (N om. Sing. in a). The fifth a,iga takes a separate position, and begins in a very peculiar way. It possesses however one point af similarity with aiiga 6 : kfhiki1s, which state the contents of what is to follow, are found with each larger section. 'fhese sections do not have in the case of this anga the title aj,ihayarya, but are called sa11a, sata. The title of the anga itself has some connection with the titles of upiiitgas 5-7, and this fact makes plain that there is an inner connection between them. That the reader may obtain a ready survey, ] add the statements in reference to the extent of each of the angas which are found [250] in the MSS. of each at the end. As stated above, page 231, the texts are divided into hundreds and thousands of granthas, i.e., gr,mps of 32 syllables, and these are marked at the proper place (either by thousands or by five hundreds) or the collective number of the granthas is stated at the end. As a matter of fact, the statements of the MSS. in reference to the number vary very frequently ; which is to be referred to the greater or smaller number of omissions which have been made therein. We shall refer further on, under anga 4, to this matter again. The following are the numbers in question :-1.2554 gr., -2.2300,-3.3750, -4.1667,-5.15750,-6.5375,-7.812,-8.890, -9.192,-10.1300, -11.1316. In the case of several angas at the clos@ there are special statements in reference to the number of days necessary for the study or for the recitation of the aitga-see Bhagav, 1, 377-8,-a subject which is treated of at great length in t1:_e Vidhipra1'a. 6i I now proceed to an examina-tion of each of the aitga texts. I. The first anga has, in its existing form, the name a.ya.ra, a.cha.ra, or a.ya.rapakappam66 and treats [251] in two suakkhaiildhas, srutaskandhas of the manner of life of a bhikkhu.66 The first srutask., baiilbhacheraiih, brahmacharyd. i;ii, contains at present eight ajjhayarJas with 44 uddesagas, the second 16 ajjh. and 34 udd. It is however definitely stated that the first srutask. contained previously not 8 but 9 ajjh. and the whole aitga consequently not 24, but 25 ojjh. and not 78, but 85 udd. Cf. especially in aitga 4 25 and 85 and the detailed resume of the 12 aitgas found both there and in the Nandt In 25, where the titles of the 25 ajjh. are enumerated one by one, we find the name mahiiparinnii belonging to this ajjh. which is no longer extant, placed in the ninth place between 1, 8 and 2, 1 V7*; and the same circumstance may be noticed as occurring in Avasy. 16, 112 fg. More exact information is found in the Vidhiprapa according to Avasy. 8, 46-49. Here we find that Vajrasviimin (prernmably 584 Vira) extracted68 from it the iigasagiiini1!i vijja; and from the fact that it contained exaggerations (? sc1isayatta1Je1_.a, 6i The names of the single ajjhayanas and the number of the uddesagas, etc., are specifically enumerated in the Vidhfprapi.l. :-anga 1, 50 days; 2, 30; 3, 18; 4, 18; 5, 77 (a second statement, it seems, allots 6 months 6 days) 6, 33; 7, H; 8, 12; 9, 7; 10, 14; 11, 24. In like manner the author examines and states the number of days necessary for certain work: livassaya (8 days), dasavMlia (15) uttarajjhaya'!a (39), nisiha (10) dasokappavavahdro, (20 or 22), ,nahdnislha (45). A recapitulation" in 68 a.r?16s" concludes the discussion: jilgn.vihi\:g.ari:t nama payaran.am. 65 See above, p. 223, 224: this is to be studied in the third year after the dikshd. 66 Teaching sacred observances after the practice of V1\sish~ha (!) and other saints, Wilson, Sel works I, 284 ed. Rost. 67*< According to Malayagiri 11,nd the Prakrit authority quoted by him (Nandts. p. 425) between I, 7 and 1, 8 (ohonas.)-L. 68 From this it seems as if its contents touched upon the subject of magic. Was this the cause of its removal r cf. the analogous case in aiiga 10. According to the Uanadhr,raso.rdhasata V. 29 (see p. 371) Vajrasv. borrowed the aylisog. vijjd from sumaho.painna puvvdu rather than from the ninth ajjh of the first sruta.sk. of anga 1.

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE J AINS. 17 according to Leumann, on account of the excellence of this extract) it was lost, 01 rather continued to exist only in the nijjiitti:. It was the opinion of Silamka (A.D. 876) that it occupied not the ninth but the eighth place.69 This latter statement is incorrect,70* for [252] in the existing commentary of 'SJ1fu:nka71 the mahuparinnu, which at, and probably long before, his time had been lost, is placed, not between I, 7 and I, 8, but between 1, 6 and 1, 7-that is to say, in the seventh place. In the Vic!hiprapa there is probably a confusion with Abhayadeva, in who8e conmieiltary on aiiga 4-as also in the anonymous comm. on the Nandf-the mahaparinnd keeps, it is true, the eighth place. The nijjiitti then, which manifestly was still extant at the time of Jinaprabha, is probably identical with that nijj., of which the author of the .1va.4y. n~jj. declares (2, 5) that he is himself the composer; and ,vhich served specially as a basis to the comm. of 'S1l,1mka. The scholia everywhere preserve a knowledge of the ninth chapter. Furthermore the comm, on chhedas. I in its opening still mentions nine baihbhachen1r;i. The titles of the 8 extant ajjh. of the first snc.taskanclha (V = Vidhiprapi1) are: 1. satthaparinna, sastraparijnii, with 7 ncld.-in iidd. 1 jivatvath, jivastitvaih samanyena, in 2-7 viseshetia prithivzkayddyastitoaiii, There are many references of a polemical nature to the Sukyas, or Bauddhas, in 2. 3, according to the scholiast. 2. logavijaya, lokasaravijaya, with 6 iidd. ; mokshtiv.lptihctubhutath charitrari1. 3. siosa:g.ijjam (s1usi0), sitoshJ?,tyam, with 4 mld. ; pratilumanulumapa1shahttl~. 4. sammattam, [253] samyaktvam, with 4 ucld.; samyagvttdaq., mithy:1vndabhfitatirthika matavich,1rnq.il. 5. logasi\ra; in anga 4, 25, in Avasy. n1)j. and in the schol. on Nanrlis.; uvaihti, according to the words of the commencement,72 with 6 udd,.; samyamaq. mokshas .cha, mnnibbavab. 6. dhuyn {dhuY.am V), dhfita, with 5 udd. ; nijakarmasarfropakarai]a .. vidhunanena ni}:isamgata. 7. vimuha, vimoksha (?), with 8 udd.; samyag niryagam. 8. ohaJ?,asuyam (uva0 V), upadMnasrutam, with 4 udd., treats of Vira Vardhami\nasvi\min who himself practised the course enjoined in ajjh. l to 7. This first srutasl". is exceedingly difficult to comprehend and belongs, as Jacobi, from whom we expect an edition,73* informs me in a letter of :March 14th, 1880, "without doubt to the oldest portions of Jaiua literature." Even the commentaries "very often do not understand the text, since from pure force of explanation they fail at reaching any explanation of the sense. The restorations, which must frequently be made, are in fact prodigious." This shows that we hav.e. to deal with the method of explanation found in the later Brahmanical sfltras74 (treating of ritual, grammar, philosophy), the difficulty of which is here increased from the fact that P:rakrit is the language used, and that the MSS. are uncertain. The seecmd srutaskandha is characterized by the epithet attached to it :-agresrntaska11dha (agre liaving the meanmg of "later" here)~ as a species of supplement to the first. This is in harmony [254 J with the peculiar designation of the four sections of which it consists according to the scholia, viz. :-ch11llt, i.e., "pudding," "excrescence," used figuratively here: 'ttldaseshanzwuJ:ini chu
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18 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JA.INS. clhyayanam,75 belonged to these, and that it was no longer reckoned as a part of the acliJra but placed at the head76 of the chhedasiitra$, It belonged however to the dchr1ra at the period. of ai1ga 4, 25, where the nisiha;'jl,aya1J,a1n is expre:ssly designated as "25th ajjh." of the achara, i.e., as the last of the 25 ajjh. enumerated there.77 The impression is made upon us that this ajjh. alone was caJled chitliyd. The achdra is there expressly designated as sachuliytlga, bnt in 57, where only 24 ajjh. are ascribed to it, the three aityas (1-3) which are there treated of, are designated as {iyftracMiliyavnjja; a statement which, as far as I can see, is to be explained with tolerable certainty only in the above way.78 Also at the time of the Avasy. [255] m:fj. lo, 114, the nisihajjh. was still regarded as a part of the ftchara, and in fact plays a greater role there than in ai1ya 4, 25. It is counted as having 3 ajjh. so that not 25 but 28 ajjh. are enttme:rated there.79 Even the Vi'.dhiprapd still designates the nisilzaJ}haya'l}1ini as the paifrcha11d, chi1la of the second srutasl.andh a. It consists manifestly of different constituent parts, which originally exist.ed independently of each other, but which at a later period were brought into conjunction. They begin almost always with the same formula: se bhikkhu va bhilckhu~ii vt1 abhilcaiiikhe .. In the Nandi, the ait:1achuliyu is expressly enumerated among the an1ngapavi.t.t11a texts. This is not in harmony with the position of our cliiUus either at 25, 57, 85 of aiiga 4 or with the detailed treatment of the 12 aitgas in miga 4 and in the .Nandi itself, since there the second frutaslc. with its chulils is invariably regarded as a part of anya 1. In ai,ga 3, 10 the aitgachuliya is mentioned as third ajjhaya'(l.ain of the saiilkheviya ilasuu,. Consequently reference is made to a text entirely different from these chulds. 'l'he 7 adhyay. of the first chuld bave the following titles:-1. piiiuj.esawJ. piiujaisha'(l.d, with 11 udd.-" collection of the necessities of life" (see Dasai-edl. 5) or '' rules for eating." 2. sejjd, sayya with 3 udd., "couch." 3. iriyd [256] irya with 3 itdd., "conduct of the sramara when he goes out piru!a-vasaty-artham." 4. bhasa}jdya, bhashdjataih with 2 udd., "what he has to say and what not to say.'' 5. vatthesaf!d, Mstraisha1.1d, with 2 udd. ; vastragrahal)avidhil:i. 6. pudeSaf!d, pfttraishaf!U, with 2 udd., ,, vessel for the pi1J PAGE 19 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 19 9. nisihiya, nisithika (also n,isM,0); begins: se bh. Ila bh. vu abhika1i1lche 11isihiya1h gama11ue. Very brief, 10. uclzcharapc1sav1u:za (0prasravara.) 11, saddasattikkaa, s.ibd .. i0 12. da1ilsa7Ja, d.irsana; ruvasattikleaymh v. 13. Without any specific title, according to V. parakiriy11sattikkayarn ; ragadveshotpat tinimittapratishedhal), 14. Without any specific title (saptamal,1 saptaikakal)), according -to V. annonnakiriya sattikkayarn ; anyonyakriya nishidhyate. Since it appears that here in the second (ninth) ajjh. the same subject is briefly treated of as in the fifth ch11 PAGE 20 20 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE J .A.INS. arhadvachanilnnyoga91 is divided into four groups: dharmakathil.nuyoga uttarfidhyayanadikal}, gai;iitanuyoga}J suryaprajnaptyadikal.J, dravyanuy6gal:j. purvil1,1i sammatyadikas92 cha, charitra karal}anuyogas cha 'charildikaJ>93; the last is pradhanatamal,1, sesha1;iam tadarthatvilt. These statements are in all essentials a reproduction [259] of those in Av. nijj. 8, 54 where uttarallhy. is represented by isibhasiyd.i1ii, which the commentator however explains by uttarll.0 ; see on aiiga 4, 44. II. The second a:r;igam, sil.yaga<;la, sutrakrita, destined for the fourth year of stndy, see p. 223f. likewise treats in two srutasl~anclhas (of which the first is composed in,slokas and other metres,94 the second in prose with the exception of a small portion: ajjh. 5, 6) of the suclhvuchura, the right course of action; and is at the same time chiefly polemical in character,95 According to anga 4 and Nindi,96 363 heterodox opinions annadi!fhiya (anga 4, pasaiiujiya N) are here com bated, viz.: those of 180 kiriyilvai, kriyil.vadiu, 84 akiriyllvai, akriyf1vadin, 67 annal)iyavlli, ajnilnika, 32 ve1}a'iyavil.i, vainayika. 97 In consequence ofthis the commentary frequently cites the names of Ohilrvil.ka, Bakya, Bauddha, Sil.mkhya, Vaiseshika, as those who are to be understood by the ege cited in the text as opponents. These are also referred to in the text as}utiaya, explained in the comm. by parif.itammanya Bauddhu~. But as the rootjnd is elsewhere used by the Jains chiefly in a good sense, 98 I should at least give expression to the conjecture that by these j; iatra prathama1h srimadl\cMrAmgam chara)}a0 gaprMha nyena vyll.khyatam, athe 'da1h srMHrakritakhyaih dviti yamgam dra0 gapri\dhlinyena vyakhyll.yate; sutram svapara samayasachanam kritarh y/lna tat sutrakrita1h. 96 Cited from this as well as from other sources in the introduction to Malayagiri's Comm. on the second 11p&iiga and in man:y other places. ~1 It is a most curious fact that a Tibetan text quoted by Schiefner, Ind. St1i,,l. Vol. IV. p. 335 exhibits also a11 enumeration of 363 heterodox opinions. As in Buddhistic texts this number is not fonnd anywhere (as far as I am aware), it might be that one day Tibetan tmnslations of Jain text.~ should turn up.-L. 98 cf. also the designation of their founder uncler the name of N!lyaputta, cf. p. 26~. 99 Janaka from Janaka, as Bauddha from Buddha.-Another explanation of the termj PAGE 21 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 21 sure, not impossible that these words solasaiih cha are a mere reference to the earlier enumeration in v. 65, 66 ; but, at any rate, we should have expected that this reference would occur before the first of these seven names, and not after the seventh. Also in the Vidhip,,.apa (= V), the names are singly enumerated; they are:-a. First srutaskandha. 1. samaya, with 4 u PAGE 22 22 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JA.INS. 4. itthiparinna, thipa O V, stdparijnil, with 2 udd., 53 vv. ; stripar1shah6 jeyal.1 ; conclusion in prose: ichch cvam ahu se Vire dhuyarae .. tti bemi. 5. narayavibhatti, niraya V, narakavibhakti with 2 udd., 52 vv. ; sMvasagasya narakapdta(, tatra cha yii.dtisyo vedan6)1. '' I asked the lceval-ia mahesi"-thus the author, according to the scholiast, Sudharmasvamin, begins his recital. "Thus questioned by me, Kdsave dsupanne (dsu11rajna~) i.e., Vira, spoke." 6. Viratthao, Mahadrastava, with 29 vv.; it begins: "The samai;ias and miiha9as, the agarins and the paratitthiyas ('Sakyadayal.1) asked about the doctrine and life (nd7Ja1h, dmi1sa1Jaii1, silaiii) of the Ndta." 7. kusilaparibhasiyam 0bhlisa v, kusilaparibhiisha, with 30 vv.; sarve jfod~ sukhaishi'(la~. 8. v'.lriya1n with 26 vv.; of bdla and of pmi11/iya; in v. 25 buddhal}. in a good sense= jndtatattvds. 9. dhammo with 36 vv.; in V, 1 mdha1J,B?,la ma"imaya, brdhma'T}ena matimatd referred by the Schol. to Vira. It concludes: g8ravd1.1i ya savvd'T}i nivvc11Jaiil saihdhae5 mu'T}i tti bemi [264 J. 10. samil.M, samiidhi, with 24 vv. ; it concludes: n6 jiviam 1J6 mara11d. 'bhikaiiilcM, chare}j6. bhikkhu valagd, vimitlclco tti bemi; in place of valagii we find in 12,22, 13,23 where the same conclusion recurs: valaya, and in the schol. valayani is explained by bhuvavalayaiii, muyd, saiilsu1a~. l this reading is correct, perhaps Vedic valaga might be thought 0.6 11. maggo, marga, with 36 VV,; in v. 1 miiha{IB'T}a maV,,mata as in 9, 1. 12. samosara.i;iam, samava0 with 22 vv.; kumd,rgatydga?t; four samavasara'(ld,ni paratfr. thikiibhyiipagamasamflharupii1J,i, i.e., the 180 7'iriyd,vd,i, etc. (see p. 251), 266). 13. ahataham, yathiitatham (hence by the ampliative ilea or ya also): ahattahie, ahittihie, ahattahijjam; avitaha (Av.), with 23 vv.; samyakcharitram. 14. gamtha (gamdho V), grantha, with 27 vv.; gra1i1tha1ii dhariud-ilca1h tyaktvu . 15. jam-a1am, yam at1tam (according to the opening words), or c1ddniyaih; with 25 vv. 16. g&ha or gathashoq.asaka1n ;7 despite this name, a prose explanation of the names mahaJ].a, sama.i;ia, bhikkhu, niggamtha and their identical signification (ekiirtha). b. Second srutaskandha. 1. pumeyar'.le, 0riyam V, pu.i;i9adka.a Comparison of the bhikkhu with a lotus flower in the middle of a pond; it begins (see above, p. 248): suaih rne uiisa1il, te'T}aiii bhagavaya [265] evam alckhdyam: iha khalu po1iuj,a'l'iya ndrna,h ajjhayaf}e, tassa 1J,aih ayaih aj!he pannatte. Th:is introductory formula, the second part of which occurs again in anga 6 et seq., is repeated with corresponding modification in ajjh. 2-4. .A.11 four ajjh. are in prose. 2. kiriyathiii;iam, of the 12 or 13 l.;riyasthdnas, 3. iihiiraparinnii, 0parijna. In the schoL a variant of the scholars of Nag:hjuna is adduced with the words N agarjun1(yf1)s tu pathamti. Ndgajju1J,avayaga, or 0raya1'ia, 01Jarisi, is men tioned with great honour in the opening of the Nand1 and of the Av., in the list of teachers v. 39, 40, 45, and in fact as separated by three gradations merely-Bhuadinna, Lohichcha and DusagaJ?.i from the author himself, whom the scholiast calls Devavachaka = Devarddhigavi, Jacobi, Kalpas. p. 15n. 4. pachchakkhfii;iakiriyfi, pratyakhyfmakriya. 5. in S. Xv. V. a1.iagf1ram (0rasuya S.) ; here however correctly a1iayfirasrutam, anacharasru tam, in 84 vv.; it opens as follows: adaya bambhacheram cha asupanne (i1suprajfa!J pa.i;ig.ita!J) imam charam I assiri1 (asmin) dhamme a~,ayaram n'ayareyya kaya i vi II 6 m6ksham samdadhyfit. G cf. also the manner of death valayamayakam up. I. 70, "death by magic arts?" Little can be made out of the commentaries. See the excellent glossary of Leumann which reaches me, May 1883, while these sheets are in the press. 7 'g!\thash6qas1\khyam shoqasam adhyayanam. Inv.: ga.hdsolasago ndmagao, 8 cf. anga 6, 1, 19, PAGE 23 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 23 6. .A.ddai'jjam, Ardrakiya1h, in 55 vv. A sermon of Ardraka, the son of a merchii.nt who, according to the scholiast, from the sight of a picture of Jina sent to him as a debt of gratitude by .A.bhayakumara (the son of the king 'Sre9ika of Rajagriha), obtained jatismara1Jam and turned to pravrajyd. so as to receive the pratyekalmddha dignity, etc. The sermon appears to be addressed to Gosala. In the last verse : buddhassa a1JdA imaiii samd.hiiil (tattvajnasya sri Vtrasya ajiid.y1Mi . ), buddha is used directly as a name of Vira [266]. 7. Nalamdai'.jjam, 0dft v., Nillamdiyam,9 in prose j sravakavidhi!J).1 Legend of Udaya (U daka) PerJ.hfilaputta Metajja,11 a Pasftvachchijja, Pi1rsvapatyiya, i.e. scholar, or follower of Parsva, whom the bhagavaiit Goyama (Indrabhuti) leads to Mahav1ra, after he has heard the same from the I( umd.ravuttiyil. (Kumaraputdya), nil.ma sainai,ul nigga,hthd.. U daya thusl2 leaves the chaujjama dhamma of Parsva and accepts the pamchamahavva'iyam sapagikkamal},am_ dhammam of Mahavka. The table of contents in anga 4 ( or N and?.) is as follows : kim tarn suyagage p13 suyaga<;le 1;i.ath sasamayil suijjamti parasamaya s. sasamayaparasamayil s., jiva s. ajivil 8. jivajiva s., logo s. alogo s. logalogo s. ;H suyagaQ.0 !},am jivajival5-punna-pa.v'-ftsava-samvara-nijjara-bamdha-mo kkhflvasilga payattha s&ijjamti j samar;ia.t}-am achirakalapavvai'yagariI kusamayamohamatimo hiyfu;tam samdehajaya-sahajabnddhi-pari1].ama-samsa1yf1i;iam16 pftvakaramalil}amai:gur}avisohai;ia ttham, asiyassa kiriyavaisayassa, chaiirasie akiriyavail}am, sattatthie annfir;iiyavaigam, vattisae V01}aiyavilli;iam, tit}ham tesaHha1_1am annaditthiya17 sayill}am buham18 [~67] kichcha sasamae thavijja'i ;19 na1)f1di~thiiamta20 vayal}il nissilram sut~hu darisayamtil. vivihavittharil.1:mgamaparamasab hhf1va-gm,1avisittha mokkhapahod1lragf1 2 1 udha anna1_1atam'arhdhakaraduggesu divabhuya sopal}a cheva siddhisuga'igharuttamassa22 nikkhobha"l}ippakampasuttattha.23 I have before me the commentary of Harshal.ula,2 ~ from the Tapd.gacha. It was composed "varshe 1583," but not after Vira, but after Vikrama, i.e .A..D. 1527,25 The origin of the Tapd.gaclta dates from Vi~a 1755. III. The third ail.gam., thA.1;1.am stha.na.m; an enumeration arranged in categories designed for the instruction of the more advanced and in fact for the eighth year of their instruction.26 The categories comprise succeRsively subjects or conceptions conceived as one, two, and so on up to ten. Hence tlie whole text consists of 10 ajjkaya'f}a, which are called elctisthd.na, dvisthana, etc.; ajjh. 2-4 each contain 4 udd., ajjh. 5 three 1idd., the rest of the ajjh. have no such sub-division, and exist as egasard.'f}i (V) of one udd. each. From the miscellaneous contents of this compendium I extract the following : the nalcshatras: addd., chittd., sd.ti [268] are designated as e'gatd.r.e, and then the number of the stars of 9 Named from N alanda, a suburb (? bdhiTikd.) of RAjagriha. lQ In the preceding 22 ajjh. aildhv-achl!ra4 prarfipita4, 11 M~ad:ryag8tr8~a schol. ; I conjecture that this is a mis)lnderstanding for M~vArya see above, p, 235. MJtary6. is regarded as the tenth scholar of Ma.hAvtra; see H~m. v. 32. 12 s. Bhagavatl 2, 185 and Jacobi, ante, Vol. IX. p. 160. rn sficbanat s-0.tram, s-0.tre!].a kritam tat s-0.trakritam. u In N. we first read loe aloe, loyaloe, then jfva aj. j. lastly sasamae p. sasamaaparasamae; so also in the, following angas. The verb is in each of the nine instances in the plural: sfiijjamti. The triads: jivAjtv{I. jivath (j!va ajivt\ jivjlvl\) 16ki'i'lfiko lokal} (li\kr.loka]:L), sat asat sad-asat are assigned specially to the Tcri\siyas, 'l'rairMika, by Abh. on anga 12, 1. 1s jtvfijt0 to vis6hal)attham is omitted by N. 10 samdchajfitM cha sahajabuddhipari!].fimasamsayitM cha ye. 17 pfisamcj.iya N. 1s pratiksMpam. 19 vijjamti N, 20 nfina0 etc. omitted in N. 21 mokshapathavatftraka. 22 grihottamasya. 2s s-0.tram chll'rthas cha nirynktibhashya-sathgraha!].lvritti-chfirJ].i-pamjikAdirO.pa iti s-0.trfirtha4, 24 We have a commentary to the fourth pa,nna by a certain Harshakusala. 25 The statements in reference to genealogy at the end are in agreement with Dharmasfigara's Gu1vavaJ, of th') '1.'apd{/acha, of the members of which patriarchs 44, 52-57 are mentioned; so that between 53 and M a Jagc1chcha ... dramuni is referred to. See KL p. 257 ab. 26 tatra bhavyasya mokshf1bhili\shi1].al) sthitagurupadesasya prA!].ino, 'shtavarahapramil!].apravrajyaparyayasyai 'va sfitrat6 'pi sthi\nih'ngam di'yam, Abhayadl\va; see above, p. 223, 224. PAGE 24 24 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. the other nak11hatras is enumerated,27 In an enumeration of the divisions of time in 2, 4 -beginni;g with 11-valiyii and reaching to sisapaheliya,28 pallova.ma, sftgarovama, 6sappi'(lf., ussappi'f}i the yuga is inserted between the year and the century as intermediate gradation and the quinquennial yugam is thereby still nsed as a means of calculation. On the other hand, we have here the 11ame enormous extension of periods of time which we find in 1,piinga 6 (Ja1i1b1,ddzvapannatti) and in the Anuyogadvifrasiitra; see Bhagav, 1, 427,29 though the latter works contain some modifications not present here. The existence of the above-mentioned u1){111g11, is furthermore recognized directly in 4, 1: 1;hatturi pannattfo a1i1gabahiriyl1u pa1il(natttfo',, tmil (jahii): chaiiadapannatti, sz1,rapannatti, Ja1hbuddivapannattf., dfoasllgarapannatti. The three pannattis, which are here mentioned in addition, occur again in 3, 1: ta6 pannattfa k11letiain ahijjaii.ti, ta1i1 : 1;haiiulapannatt'i., s12rapannatfli, divasllgarapannattf. Here and in 4, 1, are found the titles of updi1ga 7, 5, 6, in 3, 1, those of up. 7, 5; to which in both cases the clivasd0 is joined, which, though not an independent member of the Siddhanta, appears however as a section of the third upiliiga. That we have here to deal with the 11pdnga.~ respectively so named and not merely [269] with homonymous doctrines, is proved by one circumstance especially ; that besides the above-mentioned enumeration of the periods of time, the abhijit series of the nakshatras, which belongs to these works, is known even here -see ojjh. 7 near th~ end,3 0 And even if the direct mention of updnga texts is in this case doubtful because such mention in the anga.s does not_ occur in the text, but in the insertions at the hand of the redactor, in this case the designation (in 4, 1) of the four texts as aiigabdJ1iriya is so distinct and points so clearly to their actual existence apart from the angas, that all doubts are pub at rest. How far the existing texts of upai,ga 7, 5, 6, are meant by this, is, as we shall soon see, still an open question. One circumstance is worthy of note : -the order of names here is different from that of the existing texts; and the fourth name is equivalent merely to a part of the third 1tpilnga and not to the upilnga itself. We find in chapter 10 a second and more important statement or mention of texts existing apart from the aiigas. In that chapter are specified not merely the names [270] of ten das1iu (1:.e., texts containing ten aJjhaya'f}as), but also the names of each of the 10 ajjh. Among these are the names of four a1igas (7 10), references to a fifth (11), and the name of the fourth chhedasiltra; the other four names have in our Siddhc1nta no place whatever (as-rnakani apratitd{i, Abh. fol. 285a). At the head stand the ka.mmavivA.gadasa.u ;. by this name t,he eleventh anga is meant vivilgasud, vipdkasrutam. It contains, however not merely 10 but 20 ajjh. ; and the names adduced here as being those of the ten ajjh. are found only in part in aiiga 11. Two of them, at least, are exactly the same (1, 4) and three partly so (6-8) ; so that we cannot gainsay that there is some connection31 between these dasuu and aiiga ll. The names of the ten ajjh. here are: Miyaputte,sz Guttils~,33 aiiu}e,3 Sagag.e 'ti a varii3 5 I milha'f!ii, 27 See my treatise on the naksh'lti-as, 2, 381. Ind. Stud. 9, 448. 10, 293. Accord. to the schol. we have here to do with the krittika. series cf. Bhag. 1, 373. 441. The names of the nakshatras appear here invariably in their secondary form: dhaniHha, bhaddavayii, etc. The name of the ahibudhnya is (2, 3) corrupted into ioividdM (see Ind. Btud. 10, 296). 28 A number of 194 figures! tasyilrh chaturnavatyadhikam alhkasthiinasatam. bhavati. 29 According to Leumann's communication this occurs also in anga 5,1;,1. 6,7, 25, 5. ag mahilna.kkhatM sattat!\re pam tarn : abhitiaiyl\ .,_am satta nakkhattll puvvadilriyl\ pam tarn : abhli, savaJ}-r, dhaJ}-iHhll, sattabhisay!I., uttarabhaddavayA, revatl ; assi11lyadiyl\ .,_am satta nl!,kkhattl\ dilhil)adsriyii pam, tath : assiJ}-1, bhara.,_1, kattiyli, ri\hi.,_i, magasira, addA, pu.,.avvasu; pussatiyA J}-arh satta nakkhattll avaradariya pain, tarn: pussr, asilesa, maha, puvvaphagglll')I, uttarllphaggu)},l, hatthf>, chittll; slltiyl\diyll J}-a,h satta nakkhatta uttaradariya pam, tarn: sati, visllhtl, a11urahs, jeHhil, mula, puvvll Asaghll, uttara asllq.hs. of. Naksh. 2, 377n, Ind. Stud. 10, 304, and see my comments on anga 4, 7, s1 Abh. identifies them directly with the first fr1ita,kandlia of the eleventh aii,ga and represents the names and the contents of the single 10 adhy. as being all in harmony with the contents cf the 10 adhy. found there. a2 Mrigll, wife of Vijaya, king of the city Mrigagrnma. 3 gas trAsitavn iti Giltrilsi\ . idam cva cho 'jjhitaka niimna Vipilkasrute njjhitakam uchyate. 34 cf. aiiga 6, 1, 3,; kukkutildyanekavidhi\mq.akabhlimdavyavahiiri)},ii .. ; Vipi\kasrute chil 'bhaggasena itl 'dam a.dhyayanam uohyate. sa fakatam iti chl'l 'ra-ra,h, PAGE 25 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE J AINS. 25 Narhdisel}esa ya, Sorie3 7 yo, Udurhbare I sahassuddae c1malae38 lcmnc1re Lechai 'ti ya 1. It is well to be noted that in aitga 4 ( 43) too a text entitled lcainmavil'if.ya is mentioned, [271] tbongh 43 ajjh. are ascribed to it; and in the Kalpasutra Jinachar. ( 147) 55 ajjh. are attributed t0 the pa11aphalavivc1yci,i1il alone. This was a subject which invited repeated working over. The titles of angas 7 -9 appear as dasa.u 2 -4 ; and complete agreement exists in reference to the 1tvasagaclascfo (anga 7), even as regards the names of the ten ajjhayal!as. The eighth and ninth a1iga, the aihtagaq,aclascfo and the a'f}itttar5vavc1tiyaclasdzi have here however only ten ajjh. allotted them, whereas in the S-i,ldhll.nta they have 93 or 33. The names of the ten ajjk. of the aii1taga PAGE 26 26 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. The names of the following fou.r dasa.u do not. recur elsewhere. The names of the 10 ajjh. of dasd. 10 are mentioned, not as parts of the Siddhd.nta, but as belonging in or to it. In the seventh place appear the baiitdhadas1fo, the 10 ajjh. of which have the following names : baii1dhc4 4 ya molckM ya devi PAGE 27 SACRED LITERATURE OF-THE JAINS. 27 auvattiya, saniuclrnhhetiyd, dNeiriy1i, ten1siyt1, avarj,/u/,hiyfl (!); sit1a1i1 satfa7Jha-iil pavaya1}aninha gfl!la,h satta dhammayariyfl hotthii, taih: Jamflli, 'l'isagntte Asii4he, Asainitte, Gaihge, Clrnlue, Go!Piamdhile; eesi 'f!,lllil pa01J,lllh satta uppatt1:nagarfl hott!1ii, la,il: S.tvatthi, Usabhapuram, Seyabiyn, Mihil.1, Ullag.ltiram, 2mram Amtaramji, Dasapura(m) ni~1.haga-uppattinagarai1h. According to Avasy. nijj. 8, 61 ss, the last of these schisms occurred in the year Vira 584. ]from this we may derive some basis for chronological determination,63* See Jacobi, Kalpas. p. 15. An exact examination of this important text is a great desideratum, since in it are contained a large number of significant [276] statements and data. It constitutes a perfect treasure-house for the correct understanding of innumerable groups of conceptions, in distinguishing which from one another the pedantic formalism of the Jains was wont to run riot. The table of contents in anga 4 and Nandi (N) reads: se kim tarn thllQe? tha!].e ,;iam sasamayil thilvijjamti .parasamayil sasamayaparasamay.1; jivil tht1vijjarhti ajiv.1 jivajiva; logo alogo logillogo thavijjarhti ;5 4 ~hili;ie l}-arh davva-gm,m-khetta-kala-pajjavapayatthil l]-8In selil salila ya samudda-sura-bhava1la-vimil1l;i,-agara1,1adio nidhayo purisajayil.55 sar1156 ya gott.1 ya joisamvillil.6 7 ; ekaviham vattavvayarh duviharh jdua dasaviham vattavvayam jiva1,1a poggalal}-a ya logaHhairil cha l}-am parftval}-aya aghavijja'j,58 The commentary is by Abhayadeva, who both here at the end and elsewhere is frequently called navaiigforittikara~t. Commentaries to aiigas 3-11 are ascribed to him; and we have one from his hand on iipanga 1. He calls himself a scholar of Jinesvarachtirya69 and of Bnddhisilgara, the younger [277] brother of the former. The present commentary was prepared by him Saiiwat 1120 (A.D. 1064) in A'f}ahillapd!aka wi'th the help of f' asodevaga1~i, a Rcholar of Ajitasinhacha:rya, for a pa7J, PAGE 28 28 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. torical content in 1-100, in reference to the ex.tent and division of the separate angas, etc., (statements which were doubtless the principal cause of the addition of the full treatment of this subject); the mention of various celebrated Arhats of the past62 together with the number of their scholars (this was the cause of the addition of the concluding part); and the frequent reference to the lunar and nalcshatra computation of time and to the quinquennial yiigam.. The references to the yugam are E;)Xactly in the manner of the jyotisha vedai1ga, Krittika, etc., being the beginning of the series of the nalcshatras. Ai1ga 4 begins, after prefacing the customary introduction (myam me ifosaii1, ie1Ja,1ii bhagavaihte~iain evam aMchc1ya1h) with a fresh statement in reference to tne authorship of :Mahfivira :-iha kltalit samat1eria11'1 bhagavayfl Malu1vireria,ii (then follows the regular var'l}alca with about 40 attributes, among which are Ji1:e'l}mh .. b1tclclhe1}aiil bohael]aih .) ime duvcllasaii1ge ga11ipi PAGE 29 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE ,TAINS 29 iJhaya'l}a paiil(natta); the names are however not enumerated; accord. to the schol. the 20 a.iJh. of the eleventh ai,ga, called vivagasuya are hereby referred to, as also the 23 of the second (!) an.ga. Of. page 270 in reference to the ka.mmavivtigadastm in ten ajjh. mentioned in aitga 3, 10; 44 choyttusaih ajjhaya'T}a isibh9.siya. devalogaclzuyabhusiya paih(natt<1), both of which texts, at least under these names, are no longer extant,69* I have found t]rn devaMgadmyabhdsiyd mentioned in this place alone; the -isibhdsiya however are often mentioned. We have already come across them (see p. 272) in anga 3, 10 as third ajjh. of anga 10 (!) [281] In the Nandi they appear among the a-,:iaiigtipav(tfha texts and the author of the .Avasy. nijj. confesses that he (2, 6) is author of a nijj. to the isibhdsiai too, a.-qd (8, 54), placing them in the second place, describes them together with lcaliasua, aurapannatti and d.iNMvc1a as the four kinds of a1,tufia (see p. 258); Abhay. however here characterizes them as kdlikasrntaviseshabhutuni. Haribhadra. on .Av. identifies them, on one occasion (2, o) with paznna 7, on another (8, 54), he calls them uttaradhyayanddini See above, p. 259. They appear also in connection with the pa'innas, embracing 50 (!) ajjh. in the Vidhiprapl1, where the:i.r connection with the Uttarajjhaya!1a as matd,iltara is also referred to 46 cli!!hivuyassa 'l}aii, chhuyalisaiil ma.uyil.paya. (m,utrikapad,foi) paih(nattd); ba,hbhw 1Jaiil livfe chhaydl'isaiil mc1uara7.lcha (mdurakara BC, perhaps mdtta7c7charr1. ? matri + a7csh0 ) 11aih. In reference to the 46 mduydpayu of anga 12 see below. By the lelchyavidhau 46 matri7calcsharc1ri" of the Scriptures, are according to the schol., to be understood70 a to ha, with the addition of ksha, but with the omission of jha-:;la-tri(?)-111i1(?)-la (?) !71 These stat.ements are of the most remarkable charactel'. The numbel' of 46 aksharas, whether written signs or sounds (which can have reference to Sanslcrit alone and not to Pralqit, since lcsh is included in the list), I am as yet entirely unable to explain72_ 57 tit;1.ham gat;1.ipi~ag9..t;1.am dydrachuliyavajja7Ja1h sattdvannam ajjhaya'l}a pain (nattd) uydre 24, s11yagatj.e 23, l7uJ,7Je [282] 10; here the first 3 a1igas are taken together as a unit and called 'the three gaTJ,ipit/,agas 'par excellence. It is here worthy of note that only 24 ajjli,. are ascribed to the ayura after the separation of the dyarachi1liyd, and in fact (p. 254) only the '11,is'ihajjhaya'l}am, which in 25 is called the 25th ajjh., can be meant by aydrachuliyd ;-in 59 fifty-nine day-nights (rdtiiiidiya) are allotted to each season of the lunar year ; 61 paiilchasaiii vachchharassa 1}a1i1 jugassa ridumase1Jaih miyyama'l}assa egasaf!hi udumasa paiii(nutti1,) j see on this Jydtisha v. 31 (my treatise, p. 93) ;62 the quinquennial yugam has 62 full moons, 62 new moons; 67, 67 nalckhattamusd; according to 71, the winter of the fonrth lunar year (in the yug") has 71 vvx8ry.epa-cltaiitthassa 'l}lllh chaihdasaiiivachchharassa hemaihta ?tam elcasaftal'?.B rd.thhdi yehiiii vUiklcaihtehiih ;-in 72 enumeration of the 72 kal9..s which are essentially identical with those which recur in oi,ga 6, 1, 110, iip{higa 1, 107 and elsewhere; 73 the repeated use of the word lakkhara probably forms a literary synchronism with the Mahabhashya and the ./lthaivaparisishfas. See Ind. Stiid. 13, 460 Burnell, Tanjo1e Catalogiie, p. 9 fg. ; the names are :Leham I, gal).iyarh 2, ruvam 3, nattarh 4, giyarh 5, vaiyarh 6, sa~agayam 7, pukkharagayam 8, samatfilam 9, juyarh 10, jal).avilyam 11, porevachcham (A, kavvam B.C.)" 12, atthavaya:rh 13, dagamaftiya:rh 14, annavihim 15, pil.l).avibim 16, lel)..av.75 17, sayal)..av. 18, ajjapaheliyam (ajjarh pa O 69* See however the last but one asterism note. "oD The PfuJiniyl\ sikshl\ counts 63 or 64 vari;ias and (as is very remarkable) both for Sanskrit and for Prilkrit (!)" See I,ul. Stud. 4, 348, 849. n Among the Brahmans too there is found an enumeration of the alphabet in order to form a diagram. Cf. my treatise on the Rama Tap. Up. I. 62, p. 309. This enumeration contains 51 ol,sharas (16 vowels, 85 con sonants), which, after deducting 5 alcsha..as, shows the 46 mauyakkha.rli. ascribed in anga 4, 46 to the bathbM !ivf. In reference to their use see page 462. It i~ however doubtful whether the use of the latter ( on page 462) represents an example of the miiuyakkhar. n tl\ni cha 'kl\radini hakilramdatl\ni (0rilrhtl\ni) sal PAGE 30 30 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. BC) l(l, miigahiyam 20, gahath76 21, silogath 22, garhdha.juttim 23, [283] madhusittharh 24,77 abhara1,1avihi1h 25, tarur.1ipac;likammam 26, ittliilakkha1JRrh 27, purisal. 28, hayal. 29, ga.yal. 30, go1,1al.7~ 31, kukknc;lal. 32, miqbayal 33, chakkal. 34,79 chhattal. 35, dari,c;lal 36, asil. 37, ma1Jil 38, kilgaI].il. 39, chammal. 4o,so charhdayal. 41; surachariyarh 42, ri1huchariyath 43, gahachariyams1, 44, sobhakararh 45, dobhftkarath 46, vijjiigayam 47, marhtag. 48, rahassag. 49, sambhavarh 50, vararh (? cbi\rarh BC) 51, pac}ivararn ( chararh BC) 5~,s2 buharit 53, pagibuharh 54, kharhdhf1V11ramlh.rnril 55, nagaramfiI].arh 56, vatthumfiI].ari1 57, kharr.dhiiv,1ranivesam 58, nagar-anivesam 59, vattlm nivesarh 60, isattharh 61, chharuppav11yam (pagayam BC) 62, iisasikkham 63, hatthisikkharh 64, dha\mvedarh 65, hariI].avadam (hira;.i1].avt1yam BC) 66, suva91Javadari1 67, ma1.1ipiigari1 68, dhiiupa gam 69, bahujuddham 70, damgaj. 71, mutthij. 72, atthij. 73, juddhath 74, nijuddharh 75, juddhfit.ijuddharh 76, suttakhec;lgarh 77, I}iiliyftkhec;lc;lam 78, vattakhegc;lam 79, dbammakhec;lc;lam.83 80, chamharevattam (! pamhakhec;lc.Jam BC) 81, pattachheyyam 82, kac;laga(kaip]aga BC)chhey ya1n 83, patta.gachheyyaril 84, sajivam 85, nij!varit 86, saii11aruyam 87 iti. Of these 87 names, 15 are to be removed, whether they are pu/haiilta ras (see on No. 80) or interpolations. For the v. r. from Ndy. see below;81 viva.hapannattrn (in the fifth atiga) elclr.d.sfoi1 mahdjummasaya [284] (mahrJ.yugmasat1foi) 1ia1ii(nntta) ;84 vivahapa,'1,natties t7aiii bhagavaie chauri1sii1il payasct hassa padagge1Jaih punnattd. Later on in the course of our investigation we will recur to the fact that this statement in reference to the extent of the text is less by 100,000 padas than that of the present text, See 85 and 25 on the designation as bhagavaa, which has remained the exclusive property of this text.85 a.ya.rassa T}alh bhagavato sachuliyagassa pa1hchasii1h uddesa '(lalrald.; 88 d.itthiva.yassa t1a1i1 a1{hd_sfoi1 suttd.iih pa1h taih: ujjusuyaih, pari'!layapari'T}ayaiii, evaih a/fhasfiih S'U,fta'T}i bha'T}iyavva'l}i jahu Naii1die. This reference to the Nandt, by which any further enumeration has been spared, is very remarkable from the fact that the statements in it, a few pages farther on, are found in exactly the same detail in the fourth anga itself at this very point, in the consideration of the contents and extent of all the an.gas. This being the.case the reference ought to have followed the collective statement found several pages further on in the same anga. We are therefore compelled to believe that the Nandi is the original source of information for this presentation, common to anga 4 and the NamU, and that this presentation was at a later period taken from the N,indi and inserted in aitga 4; furthermore, this insertion must have occurred at a period succeeding that to which the above reference of the redactor belongs. Or have we merely to do with a later act of the scribes ? Were this the case, this act of theirs is at least very remarkable, if not unfortunately executed. 'l'here is, however, one difficulty in the way of the assumption that the Nand'i, is the ultimate source, viz. :-there are all manner of differences between the treatment in the Nandi and that here, differences in which the Nandi does not always [285] contain the more ancient statements. See below. The fact that t-he table of contents in N. ie. much shorter than that here makes, it is true, eo ipso, an impression of great.er antiquity; and N. offers in this table of contents many readings which are decidedly older and better. We have now reached a point where we may discuss the collective presentation itself. It begins simply: duvd.lasaihge g,uyipit!,age paii1(natte), ta1h: .. then follow the names of the 12 ail.gas and then the details in reference to contents, division rmd extent of each of the twelve. I insert here what I have collected from the statements in reference to division and extent, that the 1eader may obtain a general survey of the whole, I subjoin the v. r. from theNandi (N) which, after what I have said above, may in the last instance claim priority over those of the anga. 76 N,1.y. a.dd~ gttiyaiii. 77 Instead of 23. 24 Nriy. h!s hira]J'l'),ajutti1il, suva.'l'),JJaj. chun'l'),a.j. 78 Steinthal has gar;ial0 79 Nay. omits 33, 34. 8o 40-50 omitted in Nay. 81 Are they to ba regarded as planets or are they to be understood according to the fashion of the Ath, Paris. 53. 54? 82 Instead of 51-57 there are in Nay. the following 31 names; vatthuvijjan1, khanidharamri11,am 56. 53. 64, 51 (BC), 52 (BC) cha1kavuhani, garulavuha.1h, saga(javuhaiii, 74--76. 73. 72, 70, layd.juddhaiii, 61. 62, 65-67. 77. 79. 78. 81. 82. 85-87. ss Omitted in BC, where we read instead p~.1,,111htar8 (pdphr1.mtar8) chamha0 by:wbich chamha0 is manifestly d<1signated a.a v. 1. to pannha0 PAGE 31 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 31 1. a.ya.rl\, 2 suyakhamdh:1, 25 ajjhayagii, 85 uddesagakftl:1, 85 samuddesagakalii, 18 payasa hassiiiril payagge1_1a10. 2. suyagac;lll, 2 suyakh. 23 ajjh., 33 udd., 33 samudd., 36 padasaha.ssf1im (36,000) padag geJ?,am. 3. "j;ha.:r;ie, I suyakh., 10 ajjh., 21 udd., 2lsamudd., 72 payasahassaim (72,000) paya.ggei1am. 4. samava.e, 1 ajjh., I suyakh., l udd., 1 samudd., ege choyale payasayasahasse (144,000; saya is omitted in the incorrect Berlin MS. of N, but accord. to Leumann is in the N Ed.) pay. 5. viya.he, I suy ., 100 ajjh. with a residue (! ege siiirege ajjhayal}-asaye), I O uddesagasahas s1iril, 10 samuddesagasahassf1irh, 36 v11garagasahass,liri1, 84 (!J payasahass,1im (84,000) payag gegam :-the latter statement is found also in 84-see above page 284-N, however, has: do lakkha afthilsii (288,000) payasahassf1irh, which corresponds to twice the form~r steady increase in 1-4. 6. [::!86] na.ya.dhammakaha.u, 2 suyakh., 19 (AN Edit., 29 BCN) ajjh,84 10 dhamma kahilgam vagga (this omitted in N), 19 (AN Ed., 29 BCN) uddesa1,iak,lli, 19 (AN Ed., 29 BN) samuddesaJ?,akala, sa1hkhejjiiim payasayasahassaim p. (saya omitted in N., also in Ed.; 576,000 Schol.)-Between 10 dh. vagga and 19 (or 29) udd. we find inserted: in each dhammakaha 500 akli:haiyii, in each akkhiiiya 500 uvakkhiiiya, in each uvakkhaiyii 500 akkhaiyii-uvakkhaiya, in au 3f akkhaiyakog.io,85 In N this statement from dasadhammakahal].aih vagga (inclusive) on, is at an earlier pla.ce in the description of the contents. 7. uva.sagadasa.o, 1 suyakh., 10 ajjh., 10 udd. kal:1, 10 samud0la, samkhejjai payas ayasa hassf1i1h p. (saya omitted in N, also in Ed.; 1, 15:l,000 Schol.). 8, amtagac;ladasa.6, 1 suyakb., 10 ajjh. (N omits), 7 (8 N) vaggii, 10 (8 N) ud0la, 10 (8 N) samud01:1, samkhejjfiim payasayasahassiiim p. (saya omitted in N, also in Ed.; 2,304,000 Schol.). 9. a,;,.utta.r6vava.iyadasa.6, I suyakh., 10 ajjh. (omitted in N Ed.), 3 vagga, 10 (3 N) udd0la, 10 (3 N) sam0la, samkhejjaith payasayasahassaim p. (saya omitted in N, also in Ed.; 4,668,000 Schol.). 10. pai;i.ha.va.garai;i.a.:r;ii, I suyakh., [ 45 ajjh. NJ, 45 udd0Ia, 45 samudd0la, samkhejjliJ?,i payasayasahassih;ii p, (saya omitted in N, also in Ed.; 9,216,000 Schol.).86 11. viva.yasue, [2 suyakh. NJ, 20 ajjh., 20 udd0la, 20 samu0la, samkMjjf1im payasayasaha ssiiim p. (saya omitted in AN, also in Ed.; 18,432,000 Schol.)87 12. [2tl7] dit"j;hivM, 1 suyakh., 14 puvvaim, samkhijja vatthu, samkhejja chula (chulla N) vatthu, samkhejja pa.huc;U, s. pf1huc).apahug.11, samkhejjiiu pahuc).iyau, samkhejjau pt1huc).iyapahuq.iyfm, samkhejjill}.i payasahassilJ?,i, The most remarkable feature of the above is the statement in reference to the number of the words of each .ai1ga. According to .A.bhayadeva in the scholia,88 the number of words in the case of angas 1-4, increases continually by half till the eleventh anga is reached; and the Nand1. and an anonymous writer thereupon asserts the same with the modification that, instead of angas 1-4, ai1gas 1-5 are said to show this increase. This view is however in direct opposition to the actual facts of the case, for an.gas 7-11 are the least of all as regards their extent; which is so very small that there can be no thought of "100,00088 countable padas,"90 "countable ,-, meaning here probably "those that need a special count," 84 egil.,:iav!sa1h A N Bd., ekonaviitsati Schol. (also on N), egu,:iattlsam BCN. 86 Cf. my remarks on ai,ga 6 in reference to this remarkable number. We are lead to expect a. much higher figure. N Ed. has kahfi,:iagaki)0 accord. to Leumann instead of akkhaiyakogto. 86 Dvinavatir lakshf>Q sh6gasasahasrfidhikfil_1. 87 eku padakotis chaturaA1tir lnkshaQ dv,itriiisac cha sahasraQi. 88 Likewise also Nemichandra in the Pravachanasaruddhara 92 v. 726: paghamath Ayaramgam aHharasasahas sapayaparima,:iam I evam sesamga1Ja vi dugul!li\ dugui;iappamllQam 11 so N at least h9.s only thousands." 9~ Accord. to Laumann saihkhejja signifies merely an indefinite number that is still to be counted, and not always a large number. PAGE 32 32 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. "numerous" or "innumerable." If we reckon on the average for each pad am three abharas91 and for each grantha (slolca i.e. 32 alcsh.), twelve padas, the following is the result of a comparison of the number of these granthas, stated9 2 as in the MSS., with the above pada numbers [288]. 1. aiiga, 2554 gr., i. e. 30,64'3 padas, instead of 18,000 p. 93* 2, 2300 gr., 27,600 padas, 36,000 3. 3750 gr., 45,000 padas, ,, 72,000 4. 1607 gr., 19,284 padas, 144,000 5. 15,750 gr., 189,000 padas, 84,000 or (288, OOO N 6. 5,375 gr., 94 64,500 padas, ,, 576,000 7. 812 gr., 9,744 padas, [1,152,000] 8. 890 gr., 10,680 padas, [2,304,000] 9. 192 gr., 2,304 padas, [4,608,000] 10. 1,300 gr., 15,672 padas, [9,216,000] 11, 1,316 gr., 15,792 padas, [18,432,0UO] In the case of ai1gas 1 and 5, the numbers above given are less, in the case of all the others, greater than the actual state of the case. In a majority of cases the difference is simply ridiculous. The statement in reference to aizgci 5 (84,000)95 is not in harmony with the increase in 1-4 i.e. twice the number of the previous. We should expect thnt a1igci 5 should have preserved the same ratio, as is the case in N. This statement is in direct contradiction to those statements which are found in the MSS. of aitga 5; according to which its extent is not 84,000 (and not 288,000, as is stated in N) but 184,000 pac1as (Bhag. l, 377), which corresponds well enough to its actual extent: 15,750 gr = 189,000 padas. The peculiar nature of our statement in reference [289] to 84,000 padas is, finally, rendered more apparent by the fact that it is found in 84 of the first part of our aitga, on the strength of which it has again found a place here.96 In that it is so free from suspicion that I consider it correct for that period, and find in this very circumstance a critical criterion or testimony that, at that time, the fifth anga had not yet reached its present extent. As peculiar as the statements in reference to numbers of padas are those concerning the "3! kv!i" i. e. 35 millions, in anga 6. That all this is perfect nonsense, is perfectly apparent. See below. Finally there are several differences of a very surprising nature in the other statements which are not so readily set aside as incorrect or impossible, differences which exist partly in these statements themselves, partly in their relation to the actual facts. First, the difference in reference to the number of ajjhaya7Jas in ai1ga 6 ; according to v1 See Bhagav. l, 377. This is true in the case of the prose; in verse we mnst reduce the number somewhat. The preliminary qnestion is of conrse-What does the author nnderstand by pada? [lJfolayagfri in the Nandftika says p. 425 yatr~rthf,palabdhis tat padam.-L.] In this approximaticn of three aksharas to a pada I have reckoned the single members of compounds as a single word, in so far as the componnds can lay claim to be considered as such. 92 See above, p. 250. The grantha enumeration is of secondary origin in comparison with the pada enumeration. 93* So also in nisithubM.shya peclh. 1 (taken from the Achfira-niry.). It must, however, be noted that the above number (18,000) is refe,red to the first 'Srutaskcindha only. lJJalayr,gi,i says [Nandi-tikil, p. 425]: atra para aha yath'Achiire dvau srutaskandban paiichaviiisatir adhyayanftni padf,grel)a chfishtfidasa pada-sabasr,1ni tarhi yad bhal)itatn nava bambhachframai,, at?h6.rasa paya-sahassr,,; vi!o iti tad virndhyate; atra hi navabrahmacha~yadhyayana-miltra evashtadasa-padasahasrapramal)a Achi\ra uktu, 'smins tv adhyayan& dvau srutaskandhan paiichaviiisatir adhyayanani &tat samagrasy' Achfirasya parimi\vam nktari,, ashtiidasa padasahasravi pnna~ prathama-srutaskandhasya navabrahmacharyi\dhyayanasya. vichitrrtha-nibaddhf.ni hi sutri\vi bhavauti, ata eva chaishf.m samyagarthavagamo gnrupadesa~6 bhavati ni\nyathii, aha cha chu,T)ikrit : do suyakhandha pa'r)adsan, a,ijh,1yanr.mi, Gya,ii (,,y6.mgosahiyassa (?) Ay<1rassa pam6.rJa1h bhaT)iyarii; aftMrasa pa:ya-sahassa pu'l)a pa,Jhama suyak handhass,1 navabambhachframayassa pama,11ani; vichittaattha.nibaqdMT)i ya sutt,1,'r!i, guriivaesao esi,h atthiJ 'a>)iyarvo tti. This view of the Churnikrit (translate_?-by Malayagiri into Sanskrit) seems to be all the more right as the Digambaras ascribe also 18,000 padas to the Achara without acknowledging any second flrntaskandha, see Prof. Peterson's Second Report, p. 134.-L. B4 Another statement 5,500 gr., or 4,155 gr. 95 Or sa,va-milanena 1841 (v. 1. 1894) granthas DO So also Abhayadeva, who shows that he is evidently embarrassed in his statement: chaturasltipadasahasrilni padfigriJ?,e 'ti samavsyfipekshaya (" in reference to 84") dviguJ?,ataya (taya ?) iti (?) nMrayavfit (?), anyathi\ taddviguJ?,atve dve taksde ashta~itil;t sahasrf.J?,i cha bhavamti. In the following anga he states the number of padas to be 576,000 i. e. twice that of those in anga 5, according to his compntation. PAGE 33 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS 33 .A and Abhayad. there are 19 and such is the actual state of the case, but according to BCN97* there are 29. Then as regards aiiga 8 the 10 ajjh. are wanting in N.98 The number of the vaggas (7), of the ucld. (1.0) a:Ud of the sa11iud1l. (10) is in N everywhere 8; likewise as regards ailga 9 N has the number 3 as in the case of the vaggas, and in that of the udtl. and saiimcld.; in the case of a1iga 10 N adds 45 ajjh. and in that of anga 11 likewise 2 s1tyaMi. In reference then [290] to the actual facts, we must make the preliminary observation that the division into udrlesagas in the case of aiigas 8-11, and that into samucltlesagas in general in all the aiigas, is not denoted in the MSS.99* The other differences refer chiefly to the fifth a1igain which bas no division into ajjhaya'l}as; in that aitga they are called saya (sata), and their number is not 100 but 41 or, including the sub-sayas, 138; likewise the existing text has only 1925 (not 10,000) wldesagas. A specia.l demarcation of vclgara'T}-a sections is unknown.100 What can possibly be the meaning of 36,000 vagara'l}as and only 84,000 padas (cf. Bhag. 1. 37G). The differences in reference to angas 8-11 are not less remarkable. As regards the vaggas (8), aiiga 8 agrees with N, but has not 10 (cf. aitga 3, 10), but 93 ajjh. ;-aliga 9 has likewise not 10 (cf. again anga 3, 10), but l:!3 ajjh. ;-aitga 10 has ten daras; cf. the ten ajjh. in aiiga 3, 10, whereas we have here no information about da-ras or aJjh., and N, on the other hand, speaks of 45 ajjh. ; ai&ga 11 has in agreement with N the 2 s1tyakh., which are not mentioned in the source of information before us. In the case of ai1ga 12 there is no possibility of corn~ paring the statements in question with the text, since there is no longer any such extant. See below. 1 The question now arises how are these differences to find a fitting solution ? It is self evident, that, so far as the extraordina.ry character [291] both of our information in regard to the number of pa.das, and of the ald.haias in anga 6 is concerned, they are a fabrication of the author; nor is it improbable that a similar -explanation may hold good in the case of the special differences of detail. The carefulness of statement which we notice here renders it, on the other hand, possible that the author has based his statements on those of his authorities, and that we have to deal with genuine discrepancies between two different texts. Abhayadeva declares here that he is unable to explain the contradiction2 in the case of ai1gas 8 and 9 and in the case of anga 10 all that he does is to admit the existence of the confl.ict.3 But in his commentary on aiiga 10 he adduces (1) a further case of divergence-an introduction at variance with the general character of the introductions in that it allots to the aitga two suyaldcha1i1dhas, and (2) refers especially to the conflict between the purvilcharya~ and the aidaiilyugfoa~. See below. 0 primal importance for angas 8 to 10 (11) is the fact that the statements in aitga a; 10 too render it [292] probable that these ai,gas had then a text different from our own. Th!l 97* According to Laumann NEd. has 19 and not 29.-Here again, as with aiiga. 1, onZy the first Srutaskandha. is intended by the assertion of there being 19 ajjhaya:IJ,as and not 29. In the same way only Pa.rt I. of aiiga 11 has been known to the author of aiiga. 3, 10 as has-been shown above on p. 270,-L, 98 According to Laumann this is not so in NEd. uolf< This statement requires some modification; see the closing words of aiigas 8-10 in Weber's Cat. II., 502 (8). 507 (9). 520 (10: dasasu chllva divasesu u,J,disijjanti ,) ; anga 11 has in the place a reference to anga. 1 (see ibid. 534) which, however, has the same bearing.-L. 100 This demarcation, or the number 36,000 representing it, is also found in the table of contents of aiiga 5 preceding the statements in reference to the extent. l I will note here merely the fa.et that in the section in reference to the twelfth ang'.'tm, Bhad,labhit is men tioned by name, whom tradition proclaims to be the last teacher of this angam or of the fourteen p11rvas ; see above, p. 214. It is furthermore stated that therein was contained a section in reference to Bhaddabli.htt and to his history. 2 On 8: dasa ajjhayal},a tti prathamavargi\p/\kshayai 'va ghatate, N amdyil t,tthai 'va. vyilkhyiltatvi\t (see below) ; yatM (yach che) 'ha pathyate satta vaggt ti tat parthamavargacl anyavargi'1pf.kshayil yati\ 'tra sarve 'py ashja vaigO. Namdyilm a.pi tathl\ pathiti\J:,; .. sarval},i (adhyay~ni\ni) chai 'kavargagati\ni yugap9,d uddisyamte, at<, ('tra) bha\J,itarh: attha udd0la ity i\di, iha cha daso 'ddllsanakf1la adhiyamta iti na 'syi\ 'bhipri\yam adhigachhf1malJ ;and on 9: ih!\ 'dhyayanasamuhfJ Vargo, dasi\ 'dhyayanani, Vargas cha yugapad CVO 'padisyate, ity atas traya CVO 'ddesanakfllf1 bha.vamty evam cva cha Narhdav adhlyat/\, iha tu drisyate: das& 'ty, atrA 'bhiprayo na jfii\yatr. a Yady ap! 'ha adhyaya.nanarh dasatvf1d dasai 'vo 'ddcfana.kaHI bhavarhti, tathu 'pi vachani\ihtarfipi'ksh~yii (cf. N) pamchachatvarinsad iti sarhbhavya1i:tte iti pal)ayillisam ity il.di aviruddham (!). PAGE 34 34 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. irreconcilableness of title and contents show that in the case of angrt 10 something must have occurred to cause the present condition of affairs. As we have seen that there are important differences between ihe statements made hern or in N. and the actual state of things in the eleven angas, so far as extent and division are concerned, we now discover that the same holds good as regards the statements, now under examination, concerning the contents. These statements, which iu N are much more brief than those in a1iga 4, are, it must be said, of so general a character and so colourless that their real conteuts can only be discovered with difficulty. They appear in a form, that is purely stereotyped (see the common introduction in angas 2 to 5,4. and in 6-9 and 11,5) whereas there is no such similarity of contents between each of the single members of" these two groups; and the statements in question are not in exact accordance with the contents of any single one. This latter remark holds good in the case of the special statements in reference to the contents of anga 10, t.o which we do not find any such stereotyped introduction. These special state ments suit the name of the aiiga, but not its pres~nt contents. It is' of great significance that the statements in aiiga 3, 10 (see above, p. 272) are essentially in accordance with these now under discussion. This agreement [293] makes it extremely probable that the contents of the tenth angam, as it then existed, was in harmony with these statements. To the detailed consideration of the 12 ai1gas there is arpended here, as in the Nancli, a passage on the entire duva.lasalhgam gai;i.ipi(iagam. This deals partly with the attacks, which it was subjected to in the past,6 which it now experiences in the present and will experience in the future, partly with the devoted acquiescence which is its lot to meet with in these three periods and concludes with the declaration of its certain existence for ever : na kayi'\i na asi, na kayf1i na 'ttl1i, na kayfti na bhavissati. The concluding portion of the fourth ai,ga consists of frequent reference to the legendary l1agiology and history of the Jains, genealogical enumerations (and others of different content) of parents, wives, etc. of the lmlal.:ams, 24 titthakaras, 12 cltaldcava/f'is, 9 Baladevas, 9 DasA!as, 9 Vfisudevas, partly in metrical form (slolca and aryu). Towards the end there is a, transition to prophecy (constructl.on in the future). Our information here varies in part very materially from that contained in Hem. 26 fg. 691 fg. and is not preserved in the MSS. with any great consistency. Hence it appears that our knowledge is not complete, but is derived from accounts of a partial nature which is in need of additional supplementary testimony. Some of the MSS. afford at one time generous information and at another limited data. The survey of contents of ang~ 4, contained in the detailed account of the a1igas, runs as follows: se kim tam samavi1e ? samavae IJaih sasamayA sO.ijjamti. [294] parasamaya s. jil.va logaloge suijjamti7; samavfie1Jari1 egadiyaJ?,Rih egaHM1Ja:iii egnttariyiJ.parivaq.q.hiyas ( duvalasamgassa ya ga!]ipic;lagassa pallavagge sama1Jugaijjai)9 ~hi1I]agasayassaIO bi1rasavihavittharassall suyanft!]assa jagaj1vahiyassa 12 bhagavato samaSCI]aih samayarl\13 ahijjai: ; tattha ya na~1hihappagara j1v~j1vii ya vanniyf1l PAGE 35 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 85 vidhivisesfll9 ya, l\famdaril.d11].am maMdharal}.am, kulagara-titthagara-ga1].ahar11J].am samatta BharahahivaJ].am20 chaldd9a cheva chakkahara-halaharaJ].a ya, vasa1:ia21 ya niggamit22 samae, ete aii.ne ya evam-i'ii ettha23 vitthareJ].am attha samasejjamti.2~ The commentary is by Abhayadeva. V. The fifth angam, viya.ha or iivaha, ( or 0pannatti,2) with the epithet bliagavaM, and lastly also [295] merely bhagavati (Hem. v. 243); in 41 sayas, sata,2 6 of which some are divided into sub-divisions of the same name,27 and both into 1iddesagas. The number of the latter cannot be discovered from the MSS. them:;;elves, because the latter books (33-41) contain for the most part nothing but stereotyped descriptions, in reproducing which the greatest freedom has been taken. Some udclesagas are indicated merely by catch-words. According to the usual genera,l survey of extent and division of the work at the end of the MSS., there are in all 138 sayas, including all the sub-sayas, 1925 mldesagas, 184,000 padas; and these statements; especially those in reference to the number of words, are in exact agreement with the actual state of affairs, (see Bhag.1, 376), and ag1ee, so far as the number of the itdllesagas is concerned, with the specific statements on this head in the Vidhiprapil. (V), excepting in the case of an insignificant variation (there are only 1,923 iidd. see p. 29611). In reference to the great difference especially as regards the extent-184,000 padas-as opposed to the statements of anga 4 and of the Nandi the reader is referred to p. 288. Besides, in its genera.I survey of the extent of the angas, the fourth anga has in 84, where there is no occasion for suspecting its truth, the same statement that the vivcthapan-natti bhagavati had 84,000 paclas. This statement was transferred from there to the later gene1n,l survey (see page 289), although it does not belong there. I do not scruple, there fore, for this very reason to regard it as [296] correct. It would then have to be relegated to a period in which the fifth anga1n had not yet attained the half of its present extent. Cf. on this point the statements in anga 3, 10 in reference to the vivahachuliya as ajjh. 5 of the last of the ten dasa texts there cited. See above, p. 274. The vivah.ach. is also mentioned in a previous passage in the Nandi among the a1,1aiigapavit1ha texts (bhagavatichulil.d, Schol.). On the other hand it is noteworthy that a1iga 4 in 81, that is to say, just before the mention of the 84,000 padas of the bhagavati, refers expressly to its$1 rnahajmnmas (see above page 283); and c.onsequently there is herein a direct reference to its latter books. But these very latter books give one at first glance the impression of containing secondary additions. That aiiga 5 grew only gradually to its present extent of 15, 750 graiiitlttl9ra or 184,000 pa(las, is proved by a glance at the different proportions of the single books :-[1-8. 12---14. 18-20 with 10 1bdd. each, 9, 10 with 34 wid. each, 11 with 12 itdcl.; 15 without mlcl. ;28 16 with 14, 17 with 17 id,d., but 21 with 80,29 22 with 60,30 23 with 50,31 24 with 24, 26-30 with only 11 each, 25 with 12, but 31, 32 with 28 each, 33, 3432 with 124 each, 35-39 with [297] 132, 40 with 231, 41 with 196 itdd.J Their contents too prove. the gradual extension of anga 5. The first 20 books, which are the substructure of all, are clothed in a legendary form, and contain in irregular order, and without any recognizable connecting thread, the most varied legends in reference to the activity and teachings of Mahavira; his conversations33 with 10 viddhasesa A. 20 samasta Bharatadhipfinam. 21 varshi\Qnth Bharat/\diksMtriu)fLth. ?2 gama ya BC. 2s Mi 'ttba A. 24 So A, sami\hijjaihti BC samMriyantil, athavi\ samii.sya1hte. 25 Accord. to .A bhayacleva and Malayagiri (Schol. on up. 4) vyakhyi\prajiiapti (cf. H/\m, Schol. p. 319) : or vivaha0 or vi~u.dha,0 (cf. Wilson Bel. 1rV. 1, 281), s. Bhagnv. 1, 371-72. See ibid. p. 368n. and below on uplin11a,, r. foll., in reference to the name prajfiapti ancl the conclusions to be derived therefrom. 2s The reason for the name is as yet involved in obscurity. 27 ava1htarasaya in Viclhiprapii. 2s Gosalasayam cgasaram V. 29 With 8 vagga each with 10 udcl. V. so With 6 vagya each with lO tidd. a1 With 5 vagga each with 10 ucld. V, s2 33 and 39 with 12 avaiiltmasayas (of which8 with 11 each, 4 with 91Ulcl. each); 35-39 with 12 avathtaras, with 11-udd. each, 40 with 21 av. with 11 u. each; eva1h mahfijummasayftJ?.i (i. e. 35-40) 81, evarh savvagge1Jarh sayfi B8, savvaggeJ?.am udclesa 1923, V., to which a yantrakam, i. e., a tabular enumeration of the ud.cUsas ancl clays belonging to each saya, is appended. sa The question 9, 34, puris& r;iam bhamte purisam haJ?.amli.J?.e kim purisam haJ?.ati ?-is an interesting parallel to Bhagavadg. 2, 19; Kllth. Up. 1, 2. 18. 19,

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36 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE. JAlNS. his first scholar Irildabhuti (Goyama) at the time of king SeJ].ia of Rtijp,giha being made of special importance. In sayas 21 ff. there are no such legends, and each saya has not only a harmonious contents, but many of the sayas are connected together as groups. 21-23 treat of plants, 24 -30 of the different conditions of living creatures (jfoa), 24 of their origin, 25 of their lesyadayo bhavcl~, 2634 of their lcarmabanclha, 27 of their l.:armakara1,ta[298]kriya, 28 of their pdpalcarinud-idarglakanavaka, 29 of their 7,armaprasthdpanddi, 30 of the 4 sa1navasara?1a (see above, p. 264) ; 31-41, finally, in a most peculiar fashion, of their state during the four jimunas (yugina = yuga) : lca
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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 37 patronymic epithet [300] .Pttsc1vachchiJja (Pftrsvapatyiya) attached to their names.37 Herein the name of Parsva, the immediate predecessor of Mahllvira, Cftn be recognized; so, for example, in 1, 9 Kal11sa-Vesiyaputte (cf. Bhagav. 2, 183 fg. Jacobi, ante, Vol. IX. p. 160), is styled a Pil.sflvaclwhijja, ancl in 2, 5 there are four of this name: Kaliyapntta, Mehila, .AnamdarakkhiyfL and Kilsava, in 5, 9 P.1jjil theril bhagavarhto, in 9, 32 Pa0jje Gamgee. Pasa himself never appears heress though the conversion of his adherents to the doctrines of Mahilvira is often alluded to,39 The Vesilli-savayas too and their adherents appear as his older contemporaries; this is the calie in 2, 1 Piihgalat VesaU-siivad (s. Bhagav. 1, 440. 2, 184, 197, 249). 12, 2. See above, p. 262, 263, in reference to Vest1lia as a designation of Mahilvira himself. The following are additional names :-NiyarhthiputtiL 5, 8, Samkha-ppllmokkhil samax:iovasagA 12, 1, Pokkhali ibid., Gacl dabhali 2, 1, Dhammaghosa 11, 11, Sumamgala 15, 5, etc. I:rhdabhuti appears as the "oldest" scholar of Mahtivira, .A.ggibhfiti as the '' second," Vayubhfiti40 as the third." Some of the usual names of the scholars of Mahavha are not mentioned at all-especially that of Sudharman; and of those that are referred to, :Moriyaputta appears in an unusual connexion, viz., as a predecessor [301] of Mahavira (3, 1),41 while Max:ivi yaputta is here too designated as his scholar (3, 3.) Besides him there arc other scholars whose names are not found in the lat.er usual list of Vira's scholars; e.g. Roha 1, 6, Khamdaya KachcMyax:ia 2, 1, Kurudattaputta and TJsaya 3, 1, NArayaputta 5, 8, SAmahatthi 10, 4, .Anarr,da and Stmakkhatta 15, MAga:rhdiyaputta 18, 3; see Bhagav. 2, 195. We find in 9, 33 the history of his opponent Jamf1li and in book 1542 that of his 'shade of a scholar' (sishyt1bMsa) Gos,lla Mamkhaliputta related in great detail. There are here and there a few statements of an historical colouring; so e.g. the incidental mention (7, 9) of a victory of Vajji Videhaputta (cf. iip. 8) over nine (Mala'i-Malla'i Mallaki) and nine Lechchha'i (Lechchhaki = Lichcbha:vi) kings of Kasi-Kosala at the time of king Ko9ia, Kfii;iia of Campa, or of Mahavira himself; the history (12, 2) of Jayanti [aunt of the Kosambi king Udayax:ia, son of Saya91ya (Satftnika) grandson of Sahassa9iya] who was the patron of the Vesalisavayas, and who, after hearing the sermon of Mahavha, became a bhikkhul}-L .All these legends, [302] the number of which will be materially increased by a specia.1 investigation of the contents, give us the impression of containing traditions which have been handed down in good faith. They offer, therefore, in all probability (especially as they frequently agree with the Buddhistic legends) most important evidence for the period of the life of Mahilv1ra himself. Among those statements which may be adduced as witnesses for the first composition of the existing form of the text, an enumeration of foreign peoples asserts the chief place. The names of these peoples recur frequently in some customary form in t.he remaining texts of the Sid,dhanta, though accompanied by numerous variations of detail.43 In 9, 33. 12, 2 there are S7 See above, p. 260, from aiiga 2, 2, 7. ss In up. 10. 11 he appears in person as a teacher; and even till the present day he has received honours as such. The uvasaggaharastiltram, assigned to Bhadrabahu, is dedicated to him, see Jacobi, 1. c. p. 12, 13, and my remarks on 11puny. 2 below. 3 0 Conversion from the ohaujjama dhamma to the pmhcha mahavvayaim. see Bhcigav. 2. 185; Jacobi, ant:, Vol. IX. p. 160. 40 These three names in bhuti are probably nii.kshatra names; see Ind. Stv.d. 4, 380. 81, 3, 130: Naksh. 2, 320. 41 See Bhag. l, 440 in reference to chronological conclusions to be drawn from this name. i2 Giisala's ani'kadha janma marai;ia1n cha; according to the Vidhiprapi\ this book had another title GeisSlayasaye t~yanisaggav!tranii.maye anunnil~. This name, whioh appears in the MSS. of Bhag. at the very close of the _book, occurs (see page 224) as that of a text designed fo1 the eighteenth year of study whereas ai.iga 5 is designed for the tenth year. Since this book, not like the others, is egasam, i.e. not divider! into uddesagas, it may be ass11med that it is an independent text, which at a later period found a resting plae, here. Laumann thinks that he can discover in the Bhag. several other of the texts mentioned, p. 224; e.g. t}11! :1sivisabhl\va1:1a in 8, 2, 1 (cf. an[la 3, 4, 4,), the chl\ra,;iabhava,;ift in 20, 9, the mahfisumii.iabhava,;ia in 16, 6. 48 I clo not propose here to enter into a detailed discussion of these variations; see aiiga 6, 1, 117 (Steinthal, p. 28) up. 1, 55 (Leumann, p. 60) etc. Besides this enumeration, there is another which occurs only in thoHe texts which are characterized as younger fr0m the fact that they contain this second enumeration. I :refer to tha.t of the Mlcchchhas, in which some fifty (not sixteen) names are quoted; see anga 10, 1tp. 4.

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38 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. enumerated the foreign female slaves and waiting-maids in the house of a rich mahai;ia (brahmai;ia) ; consequently the names are all feminine : bahuhim khujjahim ChilatiyahiriJ44 vama1,1iyahim.45 vaq.ahiyahim46 BabbariyahiriJ47 Isiga1.1iyahim Vasagai;iiyahim4a Palhaviyahim Hlasiyahixil Laiisiyahim Arabihim Damilahim Simhallhizh Pulimdihirh Pukkalihizh49 Bahalihim Murazhq.ihim (Marumq.0 Abh.) Sarnvaribirh (Sav0 Abh.) Parasihirh nftnadesividesaparipimq.iyahirh. Of these names Palhaviya, [303] AraM, Babali, l\furamgi, and Pi1rasi are of special interest, since they deal with a period from the second till the fourth century A.D., the age of the Parthian Arsacids and the Persian Sassanids; cf. on Pahlavas (Parthians), Noldeke's remarks in my History of Sanskrit Literature, p. 338; on Muramq.a, Ind. Stud. XV. 280, on Bahli, Bactria, JJ{onatsberichte dei Konigl. Alcad. der Wiss. 1879, p. 462, The l\farui;igas especially appear together with the 'Sakas and the Shahan Shahi on the inscriptions of Samudragupta as tributary to him, the tribute consisting, -among other things, of girls (Lassen, 2, 952). The mention of the A rabas50 can be explained by reference ( cf. p. 23 7) to the flourishing state of trade with Arabia at this period. The name of a grain t1lisamdaga, in 21, 21, points to commercial intercourse at this date, since it may be explained, as I think, as signifying "coming from Alexandria" or" proceeding from A."51 It is not explained by the commentary. Alexandria, or the Persian ports Apologos and Omana, carried on a brisk trade with India in '11'ap8,voi El>EiaE'is, as we learn from the Periplus (cf. Lassen, 2, 557, 957, 1159). Another point confirmative of this fact (see introduction to my translation of. the Malav. p. 47) is that Yavani girls appear in Kalidasa in the immediate surrounding of the king. Here then we have direct evidence on the part of the Indian tradition. The great frequency of the appearance of foreign female slaves as waiting-maids and as nurses, which is regarded as customary [304] in the Jain texts, is very surprising, and may be regarded as a proof of national pride, called into existence by a few victories over some foreign peoples, which can be ascertained only with diffi culty. This national pride permitted these foreigners to appear in these menial capacities alone. In the inscriptions of Samudragupta we find immediate confirmation of this conjecture, as has been remarked above. The origin of these customary lists takes us back to the period of the Guptas. Besides the above-mentioned list of foreign peoples there is in ] 5, 17 an enumeration of native races. It contains 16 names :-Anga, Va1iga, Magaha, Malaya, Malavaya, Achcha, Vachchha, Kochchha(ttha ?), Fag.ha, Lag.ha, VajjI, Mall, Kosi, Kosala, Avaha, Subhattara. This list has the stamp of considerable antiquity, especially _if we compare it with the similar one, up. 4. The mention of the planets, the absence of any allusion to the zodiac, (Bhag. 1, 441; 2, 228) and the statements in reference to the Brahmanical literature existing at that period52 (ibid. 2, 246. 7) are in harmony with the date which we have assumed above. See above pages 236, 238. In angct 4 (or N1.1,ndi, N) there are contained the full statements of contents :-se kim tarn viyf1he53? viyf1hc i;iam [305 J sasamaya viahijjarilti parasamaya sasamayaparasamaya, jiva via0 3, loge :3 vif1hijjai: ;54 viyahe l}am55 nai;iftvihasnra-narimda-raya-risi-vivihasarhsai:yapuchchhiy!i;iam, jii;ie1ia 4'.I ChilMadesotpanna Abh. of. Kirata. 411 Hrasvasadril.bhil;i Abh. 46 Vag.abhiyil.hirh malj.ahakoshthabhil.1 Abh. (vakril.dhal;ikoshtMbhil.t Soho!. on up. 1). 47 Abh. adds Vaiisiyahim. 48 Vi\ruga:i;iiyahirh Abh. who adds Jo:i;iiyilhirh after this name. 40 Pakka0 Abh. G9 In Brahman texts they occur only in the list of peoples in Varilhamihira 14, 17, 51 I would mention incidentally that in 22, 11 pilu is mentioned among the names of trees and in 23, 1 simga vera. cinnamon among the spices. G 2 riuvcda-jajuveda-si!.mavllda-athavva:i;iaveda-itihasa-pamohamfl:i;ia1h nigharh\uohohhaHhll:i;iaih chaiii;iham vediinarh samgovamga:i;iam sarahassi\:i;ia:rh sarae varall dhilrae parae, shalj.amgav!, satthitarntavisarae, samkha:i;ie sikkha-ka:ppe vi\yara:i;ie chhamde nirutte jotisllm-aya:i;ill, annesu ya vahilsu vambho.nnaesu parivvayaesu nayesu supari-niHhie. 63 vyfikhyayamte , yasyiirh sa vyfikhyil.; viyahe iti pulli:rhganirdesal;i prakritatvilt; shattrinsatsahasraniim (vyakarai;illnam) darsanat srutfLrtho vyi,khyllyatll iti .. vakyasa:rhba1hdhal;i. 64 N has here the order Ille .. .. jiva .. sasamae .. ; the verb is here correct, viyahijja1 with IM, samae, 0jjathti with jlva. 55 vivilhc :i;iam C; the following is omitted in N.

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 39 vitthare!].arh5 6 bhasiyaI].arh, davva-guI].a-khettakAla-pajjavapaesapari9-ama jahatthiyabha.vaaI].nga manikkMva-naya-ppamilI].aSUI].im10-'vakkama vivihapagilrapilgaqapayarhsiya!].arh,57 logalogapagasiyaiiam,5S samsarasamuddarurhda-uttara11asamatthli!].a:m, 5 9 surava'isampuiyfq1am, bhaviyajaI].aypaa hiyayabhiI].allldiyaI].arh, tamaraya-vidhari1sa!].a9-am, sudighadivabhuya-ihamai-buddhivaddha!].ilI].arh, chattisasahassa-m-aI].UI].ayaI].am6 0 vagaraI].iiI].arh darhsai;iau 61 suyatthabahuvihappagaro.6 2 sisahiyat thaya63 guI].ahatthA,61 We have for this anga the commentary of .Abhayadeva. For a special table of contents for the first two books, two-thirds of the third book, for books 34-41, cf. my treatise, of which mention has often been made here and which created a new course for Jaina investigations: "On a fragment of the Bhagavat" part first 1866, part second 1867.65 VI. The sixth aligam, na.ya.dhammakaha.u, [306] jnfitd,66.dharinakathas, in two siiyaMiaii1dhas (friitaskandha), which are very different in extent. The first in 19 ajjhaya1}as contains the nilya!].i, which word is explained by itdahara1}a, drislzfa1i1ta, i.e. edifying tales or parables, designed to serve as moral examples; the second which is much smaller, contains in 10 vaggas the dharmnakahil,u, i.e. edifying legends. The specific difference in the contents of both parts is not rendered clear by this method of division,67 which itself is characterized in the legendary introduction to the text as a constituent part of the same. In this introduction, which begins with the formula usually found in legends-te1:w1h 1.ule-1_1aii1 te1Ja1h samae't1a11i-the work is referred to a dialogue between Mahavira's scholar Suhamma and the lat.ter's scholar Jariibu,69 which took place at the period of king KoI].ia of Champa. Suhamma represents. the transmission of the [307] sacred texts as proceeding directly from Mahavira. He prefaces the fifth anga is now ended (parhchamassa amgassa ayam atthe pannatM, what is the contents of the sixth anga ? and then continues with a detailed pre sentation of its division as given above, citing the titles of each of the 10 ajjhaya1}as of the first suakkharhdha. Hereupon follows one of the usual ajjhayaI].a introductions which from this point on is found at the beginning of each of the following ajjh. This style of introduction and of tabulation of the contents recurs69 in exactly the same form in the case of angas 7-11, and proves that these six angas especially are bound together and have perhaps been the subject of treatment at the hands of the same redactor. They are 56 vitthara A ; nanavidhail;i surair .. vividhasa:m.saya-vadbhil_i prishtanll:m. ; MahfivireJ?,a. 67 dravya . pariJ?,amana:m. yatha,thitabh:'.\vi\nugama-nikshepanayapramili:iasunipm;u'lpakramO vividhaprakarailJ prakatam pradar.litii yair vyfikaral)ais tfini teshi\m; . nayi\ naigamMayal;l. 58 16kal0kau prak!lsitau yeshu 59 sa:m.sl\rasamudrasya vistkl)asya uttaral)e samarthl\nil.m. 60 sushthu drishti\ni, dlpabhutani .. ; anyunakani sha\triusatsahasrai;,i yeshaii:J. tani, iha makarO 'nyathapadani-p!\tas cha pril.k;ibatvat anavadyam. 61 tesha:m. darsanat prakilsanad upariba:m.dhM ity a., athavi\ Mshi\:m. darsana upadarsaki\ ity a. 62 iirutarthill;l, te cha bahuvidhapraki.\ras che 'ti vigrahal;l, srutllrthanaili vii bahuvidhlll;l prakArAl;i iti vigrahal;i. 69 sishyahi tArthilya. 64 gul)amahattM (!) B.C.; gm;iahast!I gul].aparyilptyadilakshaJ).0 hasta iva hastal;i pradhanavayava(l;i) yeshilti>. tc ; (cf. Pet. Diet. s. v. hasta 1 i). 66 In the enumeration of daily labours, 1, 378, the statement in lines 9 and foll. is to be explained thus: "at most a whole saya on one day, a moderate measure in two days, at least a saya in three days"-see above p. 250. ilya:m.vila in 14 stands for ayf1ma:m.vila, llchfimilmra and signifies a meal taken during a fast consisting of a sour swallow," a portion of sour pap, cf. Leumann Aupap. p. 101, and in a derived sense a division of time necessa1y for this meal-1. 18 read: "need a day each;" 1. 19 read "se
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40 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JA.INS. connected iike links 1n a chain, inasmuch as in the beginning of each anga reference is made to the migas preceding it. The first four migas have a mark of unity in their introductory formula suyamme and in their close ti Mmi. The fifth aiiga occupies an isolated position. The fact that this introductio solennis is found in all six angas alike, is proof enough of its late origin and of its being the work of a hand which brought all six into close conjunction. l thi8 be so, it is possible to conceive that the explanation of the name r;iayadhammakaMu which occurs in aitga 6 (nayar;ii ya [308] dhammakahao ya) is not in harmony with it.I;! original signification. I prefer the foll. explanation : first separate the word intor;iilyadhamma and kahau and understand by nayildhamma the" dharma of the Jnfita," i. e., of Mahavira7o (see above, p. 261, on aitga 2, 1, 1, 6 ), and understand the meaning to be "Recitals for the dharma of the J:iiata." But we must not suppress an objection. In the aitga section in anga 4 and Nandi both parts of aitga 6 are especially t'ecognized, and in fact by the same titles : nf1yfii and dham makahilu. This misunderstanding, if such here exist, must have been anterior to the date of aitga 4 and N. I cannot however regard this as a cogent objection, since the Nandli, is the work, according to all probability, of Devarddhigal},i himself (980 Vira), and the section of anga 4 is perhaps, in the last instance, the production of a still later period (cf. above, p. 284.)71* The statements in reference to the extent of the second part of anga 6 contained in aitga 4 and identical with those of the Nandi, al'e full of the most fabulous exaggerations, cf. p. 286, 289. Each of the dhammakahas is said to contain 500 ak!rhaiyd.s, each of these 500 iwaklchcliy,ls; each uv. 500 aldchaiya-iwalclehfii11as with a total of "3! koti," i.e. 35 millions of akkhf1ias. This latter sum excites the hostility of surprise since, if we reckon each [309] of the ten vaggas of the second part as a dhammakahi\, the result for all 10 is, if we trust the above quoted statements, 125 'kofis, namely 10 X 500~, i. e. 1250 millions! According to the Schol. on the Nandithis riddle is solved by the assumption that of the 125 lcotis, only 3~ lco!i are "apunarukta," and the remaining 121! ko/is have occurred in the nine ajjh. 11-19 of part 1, each of which in tarn contains 540 aklch. having each 500 uvalcl~h. and these 500 alikh.-makkh each. Dismissing such calculations as mere child's-play, let ns examine the actual state of things. In the first place the titles of the 19 ajjhayar;ias of part 1 are enumerated at the outset (see page 307), and are found singly in .Avasy. J 6, 82. 83 (..Av.) and in the Vidhiprapa (V.)72 They are as follows :-1. ukkhittat;tM, utkshiptam: the "raised" but not replaced foot of an elephant, the first birth of prince Megha, whose history is here related ab 01:0 (pregnancy of his mother, birth of the child, education, marriage, instruction at the hands of Mahavira). See Paul Steinthal : "Spec.imen der Niiyf'tdhammakah!\," Leipzig, 1881.73 The contents are said by A.bh. to be anuchitapravrittikasya sishyasyo'pt1lambha]:i. 2. sarhkhll.Q.a (Av., sari1gha\la V), samgha~alm]:i; sr8shthichaurayor ekabamdbanabad dhatvam; or anuchitapravrittikochitapravrittikayor anarthf1rthapraptiparampara. 3. arhQ.a, mayurf1mc;lam (cf. p. 270 note 4) ; pravachanilrtheshu samkitfl.sa:rhkitayo!J pr11l)inor doshagui;iau [310]. 70 The length of the a of ni\yil. (cf. P,'\J:1. 6, 3, 129. 130) is irregular according to both explanations.-See however the first note on this a,iga. It certainly militates against the plausibility of the a.hove conjecture, that the recitals of the first part are cited in the references of the redactor under the designation of nfiya (jahii ami)anfie, jahf, lliallin:ie).-L. m;. There is no reason whatever to suppose a. misunderstanding in the above passages only to please an etymology of the 19th century; even in this very a;11ga 6 the term n6ya is a.pplied to the first and twelfth a_ijh. a8 will be seen from their titles given later on. Remember also the term n6.11'ajjhaym16.im spoken of al;ove en a.i1.ga 4.-L. 72 I extract these explanations or, as the case ma.y be, statements of contents, from the introdncticns to eacl: et the ajjh. in Abhayadeva's Comm. 73 On page 4 twenty-one ajjh. of part 1 are erroneously spoken of; there are but nineteen,

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JA.INS. 43 r1sahakasayasennadhiidha9-iya-samjamaiichchhaha r;iichhiyar;iam,100 arahiyanar;iadamsaq.acharit tajoganissallalsuddhasiddhalayamagga-m-abhimuhar;iam, surabhava!].avim:1r;iasokkhaim ar;iovamaim bhottuq.aZ chiram cha bhogabMga!].i [315] tar;ii divvar;ii maharihnr;ii tato ya knlakkamachuyaI].alD, jaha ya puq.oladdhasiddhi3magga9-a1il, amtakiriyachaliya1Ja ya, sadevama9-usadhirakara!].akara~1il.9-i buhal).a4-a1.1nst1sa1.1i'u:ii gul).adosadarisa1;iar,1i ditthamte pachchae5 ya sof11.1a, logammJil).o jaha ya tthiy:16 s11Sal).ammi jaramara9a9-asa1.1akare, arahiyasarnjama ya suralogapac).igiyatU uvemti7 jaha sasaya1il sivam savvadukkhamokkhariJ,8 eP. anne ya evamf1i 'ttha vittharcl).a ya.9 VII. The seventh angam uva.sagadasa.u, upasakadasns, in ten ajjhaya'f!as; legends about ten 1tpastilcas or pious fathers of families (giihava'i), who, by means of asceticism, &c., attained the divine condition ancl thereby releasement. Angas 7-9 belong to the second group of angas (see above, p. 249, 307), from the general connection of the contents of each, from their common designation in anga 3, 10 as dasifo,10 "decads," from the special denomination of their introduction (uldcheva, i1palcslzepa), or con clusion (nikheia), and from their very limited extent.11 [316] Angas 7-9 thus stand in immediate connection with each other and bear the stamp of an undeniable unity. This conclusion is drawn from tlie method of treatment which prevails in them, and which explains their inconsiderable extent. The first account contains (as is the case in part 2 of anga 6) the pattern on which all the others are modelled. We need therefore refer merely to the points of contact, and make mention of what is new in the presentation of the subject. An especial characteristic of aiiga 7 is this :-Though different localities are adduced for the single stories, which all belong to the period of Mahilvira, the king is in every case (the name Seq.ia in the eighth story is the solitary exception) calledl2 Jiyasatt.u, the origin of which name must be sought in the .A.jatasatru of the Buddhistic legends. The titles of the ten stories are found in anga 310 (S), and art1 in general the same as those given here ; see above, p. 271 :-1. Aq.amda in Vil!].iyagama. 2. Knmadcva in Champ:'L 3. Chula1,1i(9-1 SV)piya (0pitar) in Bal).arasi. 4. Sur11deva, in B111.1arasi. 5. Chullasai:ga (sae S, sayaga V) in A.labhiy1l. 6. [;H 7] Kuri1d11,kotFla (kolia S V) in Ka1hpillapura; opposition between l\faha v1ra and Gosa.la Mmhkhaliputta. 7. Sadd,llaputta in Polttsapura; he was a pott.e1 ancl adherent of the ajivicts (ajlviH~ Gos:llasishyt1l), Schol.). 8. :Mahasayaa (sayaga V) in Ril.yagiha. 9. Namdi1,11piya (0pitar), in Savatthi. 10. Leti:1pii1 (0pitar), in Savatthi. lGe jlya . srJ?.iddhittidhll.JJaya A; jitam parishahakashfiyasainyam yail;i, dhriter dhaniki\]:i svnmina]:i (cf. Aupaput. 32 p. 126), samyame utsnhi\ . avasyambMv! yeshfun. 1 i;iisalla A ; nil:1salyo mithyMarsanadirahitaJ:,. 2 bhuttiii;ia B C. s sicldha BC. 4 MclhaJ?.a BC. 5 pavatte BC, prat.yayi\irs cha, bf,dhaknra.,;iabhuti\ni vnkyiini. 6 jahatthiyii. B C; lokamunaya]:, pnrivrnjaki\dayo yath!\ cha ycna prakf1rei;ia sthitf,(]:i) siisane. v uviti C, uvrli A. B 0kkh!\ A. 9 cvam f1hi 'ttha vichhflri;ia ya A. 10 dasadhyayanarftpiil) see Hem. abhidh. v. 244. We saw, it is true, above (p. 270 seqq.) on C1ii.ga8, 10 that tho designation dald.s suits only the texts cited there, but not our texts of ahgas 7-9 with the exception of anga 7 ; these must consequently be regarded as secondary in comparison to the former. 11 The smallness of these ai,.gas is however to some extent only one of appenranoe, in so far as each of the numerous tales, which, from being idenMcal with previous ones, are reduced to some phrases only, must be counted in full. At the end especial mention is made of the number of days necessary for the uddesaiJam, i.e. recital or recitation of each of the ajjhayai),as or va1gas. The Vidhiprapf1 characterizes the 10 ajjh. as llgasara because the are not divided into uddesagas. 12 In each account there is a name beginning with Arui;ia; in the first the name.Aru]?.a itself, in the others it forms the first member of a compound e.g. Aru]?.iibhe, AruJ?.appahe, Aru]?.akarhte, ArnJ?.asitthr, &c.

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44 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. Vardha.ma.nadesana. is the title of a metrical treatment in Pri1krit gil.thtis of the contents of this aiiga, to which I have had access. The MS. is cut short at v. 865 in the history of Ananda. An interlineal version in Sanskrit accompanies the Prt1krit ; its first verse nites the title Vardh0 The sixth name is the same (v. 8) as in S V: koliae (kolika), the eighth (v. 9) MahasayaI].a (but sataka in the chhdyd), the tenth Tealipio (T~talipriya, seep. 310). There is an anonymous commentary, which refers to a vyr1ldiya on a1iga 6 by the same author. The word kaihfltya (often erroneously lcaiiwya), which is frequently used in the scholia when the meaning of a passage is plain and needs no further comment, implies that these passages are in everybody's throat, intelligible by themselves." This I owe to 'the courtesy of a communication from Buhler. The table of contents in a1iga 4 and Nandi (N) is as follows :-se kim tarn uvilsagadas;1u jl uvii0sasu IJarh uvasagilQarh (samova0 N) nagarilirh ujj,1 chei vaQa (N omits) ril.y:113 ammil samo dham mllyariya dhammakaha ihalogaparali\ga-iddhiHvisesfi, uvfisagi\.Qam cha15 sJlavvaya-veramaQa guQa-16pachcha [318] kkhilQa-posahovavil.sa-pagivajjaQaytm, 17 suyapariggaM tavo'vahil1,1airh pagimaulB uvasaggil sarhleha!]fm bhattapachchakkh:h)aU (01].ftirn N) piluvagama (pt1ovagamaQaim N) deva0 sukula0 puiJabohi010 amtakiriyau ya(N omits) ilghavijjarhti; uvi'tsagadasasuzo 1:iam uvil.sagi\Qarh riddhi visesfi parisfi21 vi ttharadhammasa vai)aJ].iZ2 ho hilftbha-ab h igama-sammatta vis uddhat.1-thira ttam23 mulagnQ.ottaraguiJ,1 atichilrli. ~hit.ivisesil.24 ya bahuvisesil pacJimt12; bhiggaha1Ja26 pillaQ1 uvasaggf1hiyllsa1].li.27 niruvasaggaya ya2B tavil2 9 ya charittf1 silavvayagn1Javerama1]apachchakkhft1.1aposabovavilsa apachchhimamilra9arhtiy1PO ya sarhleha!]il ya, 3 1 appai;iam jaha ya bhava'itta, bahuQi bhattfuJi aQasa9-.le ya chheitta,32 uvavanna kappavaravima9uttamesu33 jaha a!]ubhavamti suravaravimf19avaraporhl}ar1esu 34 sokkht1irh al]OVam,1im, kamel]a bhottur;ia uttamilim,35 tau ilukkhaeJ)[tlII chuyil Salllfll)a jalm ji1Jamayammi bi\hit:h laddhft9a36 ya samjamuttamam t[tIDrtmya oghavippa[319Jmukkf137 uvemti39 jaha akkhayari139 savvadukkhavimokkham ete anne ya evam-airi1. VIII. The eighth aligam, amtagac;ladasau, aiiltakritacla!uts, or a1iltakridllasds, see Rem. abh. v. 244; in eight vagyas, embraces in all 93 ajjhaya11as, viz. (10, 8, 13, 10, 10, 16, 13, 10) :~o it deals with legends concerning the pious, who have "put an end" to their worldly life.41 The number of the vaggas, eight, is very remarkable, as it is not in harmony with the concluding part of the title.42 Our surprise is however increased when we reflect that in aiiga 3 ~nd 13 N has again an inverted order ( and the complete words) sa. ra. am. dh0hil.o dh0riyi\. u riddhi N. 16 uv. cha N omits. 16 Inverted in N : bhogaparichchaya pariyiigft suyapariggaha tav6'vahih;i.flirh slla0 pagivajja1;1ayli pat}ima6, 17 gu1;1averama1;1a N (inverted). 18 sllavratany a,;mvratuni, viramai;iani ragudi(vi)ra(ta)yal)(!), gu1;1a gu1;1ava.rtfini, pratyakhyanani namaskara-sahitani; pcishadh6 'shtamyi\diparvadlni, tatro 'pavasanam ahf,rasarirasatkaradityf1ga}.1; pratipudinat6 19 deval6gagama1;1>1im sukulapachcMii pu1;1ab6hili'tbhli N. ~o What follows, omitted by N. 21 matl\pitripntdldikubhyamtara (!) parishat, di\sldftsamitrudikil. vil.. 22 vistaradharmasrava1;1ftni l\fahil.viri\din,nh sarlmidhau. 28 samyaktva visuddhati\ sthiratva. 2, ddhiti A ; guJ.1attaragu1;1atiyilra ~hitt.visesil B, thiti C. 26 samyagda1sanftdipratimfi]:i. 26 bhiggahagahaJ.iapft C. 17 hiti\sai;ifi BC, upasargMhisahanani, see Laumann, .Aupap. p. 100. 28 sagg!I ya B C. 29 tavi\ ya to 0i;ia,htiyi\ ya omitted in A. _so paschlltkfilabhi\vinya]:i, aldlras cha matl!galaparihi\rfirtha}.1 (!), marai;iarupe aro.te bhava murai;ifuhtikyaJ:i. a1 Thus A, sarl1lehai;iajjhosai;iuhim B C; i\tmana]:i sarlrasya jivasya cha samlrkhana. tapasa ri\gfLdijayanavasika-ra1;1i\ni tilsi\rh jjh6sa'.1a tti josha:r;i.il sevana. 32 chhlliyattll A; chhMayitvi\. 33 kalpavareshu yani vimanany uttami\ni teshu. s, varattapurl1darli"su A. 36 k. bh. utt. omitted in A. 3 6 bohi B, laddhei;ia A. 87 raja A. rayfigha B C : tamfiraja-6ghavipramuktftl_i ajnfmakarmapravahavipra0 se uverltti omitted in A; upayanti. :lo akshayam apunarilvrittikam. ,o Likewise in the Vidhiprapa. u athto vinMa]:i, sa cha karma1;1as ta.tphalasya cha samsf,rasya krito yais te 'mtakritf-.s te cha tlrthakart.daya]:i. u The scholiast seeks to reconcile the contradiction as follows :-prathamavarge dasl\ 'dhyayanftnl 'ti tatsam-khyayl\ alhtakritadaea. This is of course a mere make-shift. If Abh. appeals to the Nandi on this point (see p. 291n), he can mean nothing else (since the Nand! contains nothing of the kind) than that the Nandt cites for our r>nga eight" vaggas" instead of ten" ajjh,." This so-called" explanation" substitutes, without a word of warning ajjh. for iagga,."

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 45 anga 4 (see above 271, 286) ten aj.iha.yaT}as were allotted to our text; in aiiga 4, besides, seven vaggas and ten t,ddesa'l}akulas. The Nandi agrees with our text in apportioning to it eight vagga,, (and eight udd.), but makes no mention of ajjhaya'T}as whatever. Furthermore the titles of the ten ajjhay'a'T}.as cited in anga 3, 10, have scarcely anyt.hing in common with those of our t.ext (see p. 271, 322) ; some appear in anga P. There is therefore here a violent opposition between [320] the tradition and the actual constitution of the text. We have seen above, p. 272, 291, that even Abhayadeva on a1igas 3 and 4 confessed that he was unable to explain the differences between the statements made there and the text constituting the a,iga. In harmony with this is the fact that the existing text is in an exceedingly fragmentary condition, and is filled with references to sections in angas 5 and 6, up(litga 2, and, according to the scholia, to the Das(1arutaskandha, the fourth chhedasii.traiil. In many instances, the later crJjhayaT}as of a vagga, just as was the case in part 2 of the sixth anga and in anga 7, present us with nothing more than a mere title. Each vagga is preceded by a statement in /ccirika-form of the contents of the ajjhayaJ]as, which are therein contained. The scholiast on the Nandi thinks that by the vaggach-uliyftA3 (mentioned among the a1,ia1igap11vi{!ha texts) the 8 vaggas of the Antakriddasus are intended. The same staGement is found in the scholium on a1i9a 3, 10; though there appears to be no proper place for any chuZ.iyii. what.ever. The scene of the first story is in Bilr,hati at the court of king Arildhayava!].hi (Arhdha kavrishn,i), or of Ka9he nilma1h V,isudllvc r,iyii; the names Vasudeva, Baladeva, Ariithanemi, PajjlJ.nna, Samba, A1Jirnddba, J,1mbaYati', Sachchabhttmil, Ruppi,;it, &c., which belong to this story, and also that of B:lrilvati itself, are met with frequently as the recital pl'Oceeds. The ninth story of the first vagga trea.ts of Pas@ga'l, [321] Prasenajit.. 'l'he third varjga begins with the history of A!}1yasa, SOil of Nilge nama gah!ivati, Sulasa nama bhiiriya,44 under king Jiyasatt11 of Bhaddilapura. The sixth vagga begins with the history of Mak:iyi under king SeQ.ia of Rayagiha,. The other localities are essentially the same as those in anga 'l, viz.-Var1iya.game, Sfivatthi, Polasapura, V11Q.arasi, Champa, and also Sil.~ (Sak,}ta). The last vagga treats especially of the ten wives of king S@Q.ia, step-mothers (chullamauya') of king KoQ.iya: Kiili, Suka.l'i, &c., who one and a.ll zealously studied the s1imaiya-m-aiy1iim ekkttrasa amgil.irh and are instructed therein by the Ajja Cha:riJdaI].a (about whom no farther notice is given). 'l'his piety is probably connected wifl1 the death of the sons of each, cf. up1tng,1, 8 (Nira.y;ivalisutta); amL their grandsons-sons of these sons-become asceti~s if we may ascribe any probability to the legend, Cf. t,pc1nga 9. The lefirikus with the titles pf the ajjhll,yai;u:i.s for the single vargas are:1. Gotama'5 Samudda Siigara Gambhire cheva boi Tl).imete ya I Ayale KQ.mpille kbalu ..t\.kkhobhe PaseQai Vi1,1hu II 2. Akkhobhe Sagare khalu Samudde Himavamta ..t\.chala name ya t Dbara1,1e ya Purai;ie ya .!jjhicharhde (AbhiQ.a:riJde) cheva atthamae II 3. Arhase AQ.ari1taseQe AjjiyasllQ.e AQ.ihayariu DevaseQ.ii Satt1J.SeQ.e I Sarai}& Gae 81J.muha Dumuhe Kuvae Diisac AQ.ilhit~hi II [322] 4 Ja.Ii Mayilli Uvayf1li PurisaseI].i ya VariseQ.'.i ya I PajjuQ.l}a Samba ..t\.1].iruddha SacbchaJJemi ya Daq.ha1~ 'mi II For the first 5 names see anga 9, 1. 5. Paiimavatt Gori Gamdhari Lakkhag.a Sustma ya Jambavati I Sachchabhama ll,nppii;ii Mulasiri Muladatt:1 vi II 6. Makayi Kirhkam(m)e46 cheva Moggarapal}i ya KAsave I Khemate Dbitidhare cheva K~liise Haricha:riJdaQti II Vil.ratte Sud'irhsai;ie Punnabhadde tahit 8uma9abhadde SuIJai~the I 1\leha'timutte AlakkM ajjhayaQ.:1Q.a:riJ tu solasaya:riJ 11 3 The text has variiga., 0 but PAkshikasutra and VidhiprapA and also a.iiga 3, 10 (above p. 274) have like:wiee tagga'. u Cf. Jacobi, a.nte, Vol. IX. p. 28 (1880) and Abhay. on onga 3, a, and o. Leumann, Wiener Zeit~chrift f. d. Kunde dea Morgenl. Vol. III. p; 338. '6 Also in the 'Vidhipra.pA: ittha ajjha.y~AV,i Goyama-mfil~i. 46 Ximkamme is found in anga 3, 10, for anga 8 ; t]:s should have been stated on page 271. Iii reference to the

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JA.INS. 47 II. DthaseI?,e Mahase1,1e Laddhada1hte (again!) ya Gughadamte ya Suddhadamte ya I Halle Dumme Duma,ei)e Mah:ldumase1,1e ya ahite 11 1 11 Sihe ya Sihasel,le ya Mahasihase1,1e ya ahite I Pumase1,1e ya bodhavve terasame hoi ajjhayaI].e 11 2 11 III.6~ Dhanne ya Sunakkhatte Isid11se ya ahite I Pellae R:lmapntte Pachamdima Puttimlii ya II l 11 Pec).halaputte (cf. ai,ga 2, 2, 1) a!].ag,lre Pot~ileiya Vehalle I dasame vutte ime ye dasa ahiya II 2 11 Our information m reference to these persons is limited almost entirely to their names f325J alone. In the first history (of Jilli), which is a prototype of the rest, it is at least related that he elcl.rlrasa aihgtii1h ahijjati. It is sul'prising that the table of contents in anga 4, or Nancli (N), is particularly explicit. 'l'his is probably to be explained by the fact that it had as its subject an entirely different text from that which we possess. It is as follows :-se kim tarn a1,1uttarovavftiyadaS1tO ? a~lU0SUSU l,laffi a1,1uttarOVaV1\iy:'\1,1affi f.lagar1ti ujja0 chei0 Val)-a065 raya0 amm:'1 samo0 dhamm:lya0 dhammakahi\66 ihaloga0 67 pavvajja suya0 68 tavo0 pagimao69 S3!IDleha9-a bhatta0 pftu0 anuttal'OVavatti (A, vf1to B c, 0rovavilyatti N) sukulapachchayai (0y11ti B c, chchaio N) pu1,1abohi0 amtakiriyil ilghavijjamti; a9-u0s,1su7o I?,a111 titthagarasamosara1,1ilim parama ma1hgalajagahiy11ni (hittfu.1am A) jiI)atisesa ya bahuvises{i,71 ji1)asisil1_1:1m cheva samaI?,aga-ga, (ga1.1aga1.1a A) pavaragamdhahatth19ami2, thirajasfu?-:1ril, padsahasenna(sc1.1a A)rivu(ripu A) bala pa mad dar,i ,,u1am(bal,l pa C) tti vadi t ta73c hari tta1.1at)asam mat tasilravi vihappagilra vitthara paf:!attha gur:iasamj11y,1I].'.tm,N a1)ag,1ramaharisi9am a9agilragu1J:'\9-a111 vanna&,75 uttamavaratava visitthana i;iajogajuttil1,1am, jaha ya jagahiyam bhagavaii,76 jarisil. ya (omitted in B C) riddhi[326Jvisesa deviisurama1,msf1-garh, parisil1Ja1h pilnbbhava ya, ji1,1asam1vam jaha ya uvilsamtiji9avaram,77 jaha ya parikaheihti (harhti A)7B dhammam loga(loka A)guru79 amara-narasuraga9-119-aril, soili?-a ya tassa bhar.iiyath (bhasiyam A) avasesakammavisayaviratta nar11 jaha (jadha BC) abbhuvllmti (abbh,ivn.mti A) dhammam nralam samjamatavam ch!i 'vi bahuvihappag11ram, jaha bahu9-i vas,i1,1i a9ucharitta 11r11hiyanAr.iadamsa-gacharittajog11 jil)avaya1Ja-m-a9-ngayamahiyabhAsiy11,80 jit)avarih_u .. (ja1,1a A) hiyae1,1a-m a1?,r.9-ett,1,s1 j 3 ya jahi1h jattiyat)i bhattaI)i chheyaitta (0tittil BC, chheiyattil A), laddh119-a ya sam,1him uttamam, jjh{ll)ajogajuttfi uvavannil (0vn,tt;1 B) muI?,ivaruttam;l, jaha a1:mttaresu p11vamti (p11veti A) jaha a!JUttaram tattha visayasokkha1h, tat6B2 ya chuy11 kame9a kahi1hti sari1jayfr, jaha ya amtakil'iya.m, M (cte BC) anne ya evamfrdi 'ttha .iava. X. The tenth angam, pa1J.h1tva.gara]J.1tim, pra!mavyaliara~iani, in ten claras, treats ju a dogmatic and not. in a legendary form, of the ten ethical duties, viz. ; first of the 5 aclhammas or arihayas, tisrava,83 which must be avoided. These are, -injury to life, [327] lying; robbery, 64 Five of these names recur in anga 3, 10 for ahgas 8 and 9, cf. p. 271. 66 N omits (an error of the scribe.) 66 N inverts sa0 rll amo dh0hn
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48 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE B.INS. unchastity, (love of) possessions, and then of the 5 dhamrnas, or saiilvaras, (i.e. the opposites of each of the above sins.8 ~ The difference between the title and the actual text or contents, between t,he actual text and the statements of tradition on this point, is especially great. There is nothing said in reference to questions (prasna) which find their solution (vyii.lcara7]am.) The whole ai,ga appears to be a didactic dogmatic explanation addressed to Jambu, but not asked for by particular questions. The Nandi and aiiga 4 state that it contains 45 ajjhay01,1.as, 45 uddf!satias, etc.; but no such conclusion is warranted from the facts of the case, cf. p. 286, One suyaklchaiiidha, which these authorities and the existing constituent parts ascribe to the text, is branded by the scholiast Abhayadeva. He asserts t.hat the text "pustakaihtariJ"85 consistedQ6 rather of two suyak khaiiidhas ( each containing 5 ajjhaya1,1.as). To prove this the scholiast adduces verbatiin et litteratim a special introduction confirmatory of his assertionB7; but this cannot be found in the MSS. of our text. This introduction has the same usual form :is the introductions to ai,gas 6-9 and 11 ; and .Abh. refers directly to anga 6 for the correctness of his explanation, whereupon he adds : y/1, che ha dvi[:i28]smtaskamdhato 'kta 'sya Sana rughit, ekasrutlLskatildhatilyi'1 eva rf19hatvi\.t, fo all probability the enumeration of this text in aiiga 3, 10, in the sixth place among the ten das{fo, shows that it stands in close connection with the present text or its 10 duras. But we have seen, p. 272, that the names of the ten ojjhaya'f}as there have no connection whatever with our text, and that the author hii,d before him. quite a different text under t}iis name, It is an important feature, that, as stated above, his stii,tements or names are in essential harmony with those statements of contents in reference to our anga, which occur in aiiga 4, or in the N andi ; see page 334. It is of interest in this connection to notice the character of the remarks of the commentator at the beginning of the passage, in reference to the name pmsnaiyulcara7J,fld,1sas. This name, he states, is founcl, luvachit-it is found in aiiga 3, 10 and in a1iga 4, (see p. 334) aud consequently points to lO adhyayanas of prasnunu1h vydltara'f}d,ni. His words are :-ayam cha vyutpattyartho 'sya. purvakale 'bhud, idanirh tu Mravaparh.chakasamvarapamchakavyakritir eve 'ho 'palabhyate, atisayaniim (cf, p. 334) purvi\chf1ryair aidamyug1nupushtii (0napri0 ?) lariibana pratishevipurushapekshayo 'ttiiritatviid iti. B:owever the corrupt conclusion is to be understood -cf. Ed. p. 499-one fact at least is patent ; that we have here traces of the manifest con sciousness that the pi1rvacharyas were acquainted with a different text of this ai1ga than the aida1i1yug'ina. Everything shows that we are completely justified in asserting that we no longer possess ani;ra 10 in its original, [329] or in its ancient form, The introductory words in the commentary of Abh. are a proof of this :-sriVardhamrmam ilnamya vyilkhyil kachid vidhtyate I prasnavyakara1,14mgasya v:riddhanytyanusiiratal) 11 ajiia vayam, siistrani idam gabhtrath, priiyo 'sya kiltani cha pustakiini sutram vyavasthil.pya tato vimrisya vyiikhyiinakalpad ita eva n!l,i 'va II 2 II It is perfectly plain from this tha,t there is here a violent polemic agii,inst other text, forms. That aiiga 10 originally, like angas 7-9 and 11, was of a legendary character (cf, ai1ga 3, to), is rendered probable by a comparison with upa.iigas 8-12, which are of the same character. Their position at the end of the upanga series allows us to dr!l,w conclusions in reference to the anga corresponding to them. l this be so, the transformation of onr flnga must be placed at a still later period than tha,t to which we have to refer the harmonil!iing of the 12 aiigas and the 12 upungas, There are various criteria contained in the a1i,ga itself which determine the late da.te of its t~eim nl\mal}i, jaha : himslldaram I, mnsavl\yad, 2, Ml}iyad, B, m~hUl}ad. 4, P11>rigga.ha.d. 5 .. ahilhaild. 6, eachohad. 7, atcl}iyad. s, bambhach~rad. 9, apariggabadaram 10 (Vidhiprapa). 811 Likewise in the Vidhiprapa : ittha kei pa.Ihchahim ajjhayal}llhirh do suyakkbamdM ichhamti. 88 Thie is self-evident, since the contents a.re actually divided into two parts. a1 puatalt1tm~&l'E' pun&r evam upodghAtagra.mtha upa.la.bbyate.

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. composition. I premise tlrn.t the introdnction which we possess, consists, if the vocative Jambu be omitted, of tl~rec gdth{is, which state in brief the contents of the work:i1pun-o ai:ih:1,yasamvara,-vi1.1ichchhayarh pavaya1,1assa nisamdaril I vochchhiimi nichch hayattharh snbh,1sit:Lttharh ma,hcsihiril II 1 11 [330] parhcluwitlho pannatto Jii:iehiri1 iha ,t1,1hay0 a1.11tlye (ai:ititlii1 B) 1 hirhsa mosamSS ,ufaLta1h abn.rhbha (" is wanting; pmlrnps ya) pa.riggaharh ch~va II 2 II j;lrisao ja1h rn1m:i jaha ya kato jirisaphalam derhti 1,1is,imelm II 3 II je vi ya karerhti pava p,i1;avahari1 tarn Then follows m prose, first an explanation uf the pti".livaha; then 30 of its synonyms ( 111imi11.1i iml1,1i gonnf1J.1,i) ; then the subject itself is keated of, at the conclusion of which the entire doctrine is referred immediately to N11yakulana1hdana (Jrn1ta0 ) :89 evam aharhsu N1iyakula na1hdanl', mah:ipp:1 Jir.10 u Vit-,tvaranamadhejjo, kahesi ya pih.1ivahassa phalaviv,igarh: cso so p1ir,1ivadho charhgo , (as in the introduction) vemaJ.1,aso. The next four sections are similarly arranged, except that after the vocat,i ve Jambu the treatment of the aliyavayanarh, adinrnidar,mrh, abambharil, pariggaha, begins without the interposition of gcithct strophies. The synonyms are invariably 30 in number and the conclusion is the same. In the case of the five saii1varudari1i1i1, two gd.thii., arc found in the introduction of the first (ahirhsa) after Jarhbu :90 it.to samvaradara-i parhcha vuchchh:lmi ii.1~np11vvie I jaha bha1.1iya1.1i Blmgavaya savvadukkhavimukkha1,1a~thao 11 1 11 padhamarh hoi al1irhsa, biiyarh sachchavayaJ.1,arh ti pannattaw I datta.m al},UJ.l.l},aya sar:hv11ro ya barhbhacherarh parigga.hattar:h 11 2 11 [331 ]The further details in daras 6-10 are similar to those in di1ras 1-S. '1.'he enumeration of the synonyms, which are here called pajjavanitm.dni,-60 in the case of ahi1i1st1-is carried on in a style somewhat different, and the concluding formula is not the same :-cvarh Nayamul},i1p"i bhagavaya pannaviyarh paruviyam pasiddharh siddharh siddhavarasasa9am iI]am aghaviyarh suvesiyarh pasagharh (pa;lhamarh) sarhvaradrirarh 1111.mattarh ti bemi. The last two concluding words form a bond of connection between the exiiting redaction of anga 10 and aiigas 1-4, to which these words belong. Furthermore, the appeal to the Naya recalls ai1ga 2. Perhaps we have to deal here with traces of ancient date; but, on the other hand, if we consider how many considerations make for the opposite conclasion, a conservative point of vic~v will not permit too great weight to be laid upon these particulars, which are rather the result of an effort to impart an ancient flavour to the anga. The following arguments, drawn from anga 10 itself, reinforce our concluiiion that this aiiga is of late origin. The character of the language is late, The nominative in o has assumed in almost every instance the place of the nomin. in ~. except in quoted passages. In the frequent compounds there is no deference paid to the laws of sa,hdhi between the members of the compounds; also these are often not inflected at the end, (etilni pr11yo luptapmtham{lbahu vachau;lni padi1ni, are the words of the scholiast), bnt retain their pure thematic form. [332] In the other ai1gas (e. g. in the tables of contents in anga 4) and especially inserted in them, we find phenomena not dissimilar in character, but not in such numbers. '!'heir presence however invariably characterizes the passages in which they occur as being of seconda.ry urigiu. Fnrthermore-and this is conclusive e\'idence-the enumeration of 01c names of the non-.Aryan peoples is three times as great as that in aiigas 5, 6, (p. 302, :11:l). Hel'c there are 53, there bnt J8 names. The list lS as follows91 :-ime ye bahave .Milnkkha (milc0 BC)jiiH, kirh tc, Saga---------------------------------------------------~s i.e. mrisbavada. s9 Sec n.bovc, p. 261, on anga 2, 1, ~7. 90 There are fhe go.thris more inserted between dfras 5 anil 6. 9 1 Of the very fr~qnent vari,~nts in the l\188., 1 have chosen those whil'h a]>pcar to hal'c the best a11tl10_rit.~;
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50 SACRED LITI!1RATURE OF 'fH.E JAINS. J ava1Ja-Sabara-Vavvarn-Kf1ya-:Murmndo'ova)-P&kka1:rn,-Ga1h-dhahc1ra.ga (!)Vahal:a-Jall;'1ra-Mamasa-Vaiisn.03-11ialayf1 ya Cmitelrn;i yu Chu.liya K;11hkanio-a (Korhkanao-;1 B)-Me.)a9 4 Palhava-Mtilava-1\fa!!oO"fil'a-Abhf1siy;1 Anakklm. 0 0 ... ., Chi1Ja-l';H1asiya (Ltisiya BC)-Khasa-Klu1siya-Nidura (Nctara)-Marahagha05-l.lu!thiya (Maush-tik,11.1)-Arava-p&1nvilnga-Kuh m,m-Kt'.\kaya-H u.1.ia-Homaga-Bharu-Maraga-Chililla visny n vf1si yn. Some of these names are of evident.ly late occurrence. '!.'he peoples arc all characterized as p:ivamati~o and kfrrakammf1, [333] Especially interesting is the bittel' polemic against erroneous tenchers (1{althiknvf1i1.10 v;1malogav;'iJ)96 in d11ra 2 ; under these are comprised the BauddhiU.1" (Schol.), and the adherents of Issara ('Siva) and VirJlrn. Chl1.mpa~~a appears in clcfra 4, in the signification of "silk dress."67 In dara 5 are found the names of the planets; but not in t.he Greek order; thus Jupiter, Moon, Sun, Venus, Satum, Rf1hu, Dhumaketu, Mercury, Mars. The first of the series of the 28 nal;;ld1attas is unfortunately not stated ; only the first and the Inst of the 72 kalas are given: lehciiydit saii.1iaruyi1vasa7J.1i1t ;-in the same passage and in the ninth d1ira, 64 malt-ih1gu1J11s are likewise mentioned :-ra'ija1,1al}e sippasevarn etc.-'l.'he ahi1hsti is chamcterized in d11m 6 as bhagavai, truth sachcharn, in dura 7, as bhagavamtam titthagarasubh11siya1h dasavilia1i1&8 chaiiddasapuvvihirn pfthuq.atthavidiyarn,99 which is a reference to the pr;1bh:rita division in the 14 purvas. Abhayadeva comments on this ailga. The table of contents in ailga 4, or Nandi (N), is ;-se kim tarn pa1.1hf1v11gara1J.it1J.i? pai_1esu a~~lmttaram pasir,msayam, a. apasiQasayam, a. pasi1.1apaii1.iasayam,100 vijjiiti[33-1Jsayf 1 1 rn1gasn vannehitu saddhim2 divvfi samvf1yf13 ;1ghavijjamti; par,1hfivfigara1.1adasftsn I}am sasamayapara samayapannavaya (parJavay;1 A) patteyabnddhrivivihatthabhftsa(bh. omitted in A)bhasiyftl}aii1,4 atisayagul}a-u vasarna-nti1.1a ppag;1ra( rti A);1yariyablu1siyfqm1n vitthare1.rn 1h thira( tJf.ra A )mahesihifrt6 vi vihavittMrabhttsiy111J.am cha, jagahiyn1.tam, 6 add;1ga7-':rhgu~tha-bah a-asi-rnaJ}i-khom11;1-''tichcham-a1ym,iam, vivihamahApasiJ}avijj.1-ma:r;iapasi:r;ia vijjit( omitted in A )dai:vayapaiigappahii:r.mgu:rJapag;1siy111J.am, B sambhuyavigu1,iappabhttva(ppa orn. A)1J.aragni;m-m-ativimhayaka1i1,mri1, 9 [335] 9z Aroshilh, Arosh:11;,. 93 Ja.llf1ri1IJ Milmilshi\1;, Bakusill;, Schol. 91 Meta BC, Medi\!;,; see Elliot, Hist. of India, 1, 519 fg. Indische Streifen, Vol. II. p. 403. !lli pilt,hihhtare Maj.h11l;, (llfughal} E) Schol. 'l'he Maraha!th;i.s have nothing to do with the Mlechchhas. Rama\ha in upanga 4. 96 MkAyatikill;i, vilma.m pratlpam l6kath vadamti ye. 97 cf. chi1;1apittharasi in up. 2 and 3. 98 janapada.110.rhmata.satyildibhME'na. dasa.va.ikalikil.di prasiddha1h. 99 cha.turda.sa.pO.rvibhil} prilbhritllrthavidita.1h purva.ga.tfinsavisrshllbhidheyatayil jnlitam. IQO tatril 'thgula.biihuprasnil.dikil. ma1htravidyill} prasnill;, ; y!\[):i, vidyii):i or prasnavidyi\l;i; later on prasna. fa treated outright as a fem.] puna.r vidhinll japyamfmi1 aprishtf1 ha (subhfi)subha:th kathaya,hti tfL aprasnal,1; tathf1 arhgushthfidipra.snabhf1va.:th pratitya yil. vidyi\l} subh!isubhaih lmthaya1hti tiil,1 prasnf1prasnfd.1 ;-Schol. in Ny& prishja aprishtfts cha ka.tha.yalhti te prasnllprasna!J, 1 Instead of vijjll'' N has merely aihgujt,hapasi1;1fiiih vahupasii?i1iih addagapasi1;1aim anne vi vichittil divva vijjfitisayii nugasuva1;1nehilh siddhith divvf1 sathv11.yf1 ,,ghavijjairhti. Compare the names of the pa'l}hu0 yfd., prafoli~.

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 51 atisayam-aiyakalasamae10 damasama(sama is omitted in A)titthakaruttamassall Hhii (ghita A)kara1p1-k11rat)111,iariJ,1 2 durabhig[l,lna duravagahassa savvasavvannih immayassaI3 buddha(abuha A)ja1.mvi-bohakarassa pachchakkhayapachchayakari1p1,riJU pa1)ha1.iarh vivihagm)amahatthli ji1,1avarappa1.1lya fighavijjmilti (attlu1vijj0 A). xr. 'l'he eleventh ailgam, viva.gasuyam, viplikasrutam: in two srutaskandhas, of 10 aJjhaya7!as each, contains legends on the reward of good and evil deeds. Its division is in harmony with our information on this point in aitg'l 4 and Nand1, with this exception, that in ai,ga 4 nothing is said of the two srutaslr,andhas. See above, p. 270, 280, in refetence to the kaminaviviiga texts, which are connected in name and contents, and which have 10, 43 and 55 ujjh., and are mentioned in ail.gas 3, 10, 4, 43 and in the Kalpasutra. I,hdabhii.ti beholds some horrible deed, and is told by J\faluh-ira, whom he questionil concerning it, the previous history, e.g. previous births of the individual8 in question. The event itself is then explainedl5 and the fate of the persons in future births is made known to the inquirer. Mahf1vira's answer thus treats the question in a three-fold manner. There is here no mention of a chem chaitya, as is the case in other legends; [336] but a jalrkhayafa1}a of this :;,nd that jaldcha is continually referred to. The part played by the yalcsha here is at least as important as that in the PiUisutta of the Buddhists, if not more so ; see Ind. Sireifen, 3, 507a,-they being in fact exact representatives of the devasl6 of the Brahma1Js. Here, as in a1igas 7, &c., the first history only is related in detail, all the others being briefly told. The titles of the tales in the first suyalckhaii1clha are:-1. Miyaputta in Miyag:1ma, son of king Vijaya and Miya, born blind and deaf and dumb, lame, and a cripple, without hands, feet, ears, eyes, nose, and with mere indications (11gii, akriti) of the existence of these parts of the body. The account is similar in anga 3, 10 2. Ujjhiya (ya~ V), son of tlie merchant Vijayamitta and of Subhadda in V:11}iyag:1ma. A prostitute is here referred to, who was bavattarikalapam
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53 SACRED Ll'rERATURE OF THE J AINS. 9. Devadatta., daughter of the house-owner Datta and of Ka1Jhasiri rn Rohi1Jaa ( or Rohiq.aa). (A different name in aitga 3, 10.) 10. Amjti., daughter of the merchant Dhanadeva and of Piamgu m VaddLarnilIJapnra. (A different name in aiiga 3 10.) 'l'he ten ajjhaya'f}as cE the second suyakkhari1dlrn arc : 1. Subahu, son of king Addil).asatta ancl of Dht1ri1,1i in Hatthisi:;a. 2. llhaddanamcli, son of king Dha_1.1i'1vaha ancl of Sarassali in Usabhapnra. 3. Suj11ta, son of king Mitta ancl of Sid in Virapura. 4, Snviisava, son of king Vt1savada,tta and of Kal).h11 in Vijayapura, 5. Ji1Jad:isa, son of prince (kum:lra) J\IaMchamcJa ancl of Arahadatlt1 in Soga1i1dhit . l. 6.IB Dha,.iavati, son of the yuvar11ja Vcsamai.ia and of Siri in Ka,,akapura. 7. Bhaddanari1di, son of the prince Mahabbala and of Rattavat1 in Mahtipura. 8. [3313] Maharnbala, son of the prince Bhaddana1hdi, and of Sid in Snghosa. 9, Charhda, son of the prince Mahacha1hda and of J uvasirikarhta in Champii. 10. Varadatta, son of king Mittanarhdi and of Sirikarnta in Sa.gcya. All these fine-sounding names, and those brought into connection with them, arc in all probability pure fabrications; the names of the localities alone, e.g. PihJaliputta, Lave some chronological value. The table of contents in anga 4, or Kandi (N), is as follows :-sc kim tarn vivt1gnsue o viv:igasue !)-am sukacj.adukkacJi'11Jam kamma.I]alll phalaviv11gel9 "il.ghavijjamti, se20 sam1isnii duvihe pam, taril : duhavivagc chcva suhaviv1ige cheva, tattha l,lalll dasa duhaviv11g111,1i,19 dnsa suhaviv:1gfn:ii ;rn.:.....sc kim tarn dul1aviv11ge (0g11~1i B C)? duhavivgcsu 1)-a!h dnhaviv1ig1iI.1am (Nomitted in ABO) nagari chci ujja val)-a dyf1 amm:1piyaro samosaraI]a dhammayariya clham, makal11121 nagaragamaipiim22 samsti.rapavamchadubapararhparfrn yn 11ghavijjarhii, sc tarn duhavi vagili]i ;-se kirh tarn suhavivi\gf11,1i? suhaviviigesu r;iarn subavivagfo;mrn nagar11i1iJ2l jaw dhnm makaha ihalogaparaloga023 bhogapari0 pavva024 suyapariggaha tavo pariyfl25 samleha1,ia bbattapachcha p1lUVa26 [339] devaloga0 SUkuJaO pUI}-abohi0 amtakiriya.U ya aghavijjariJtj ;-duhavivage,m37 I,JaIIl pih;iat.ivaya aliyavayal).a. (yayal]aya A) chorikka(0rakka A)karaI]a paradt1ramehu!]a sasarngatae maha(0ha. A) tivvakasaya imdiyappamada pavappa6ga-asubhajjhavasa!]a-samchiyil.r;iari12s ka.me m1t1)a1h pavagai;iam pavaai;i.ubhagaphalavivaga r;iiraya(0ga!]i naraga A)gati tirikkhajoQi bahuviha ( 0ha A) vasai;i.asaya-paramparabaddhai;i.arn(0rapava0 A), mar;iuyatte (0tatte A) vi ligayni;i.am jaM29 pa.vakammasesei;t.a pavaga homti phaJaYiVaga bahuvasai;tavii;t.asa30 ni\sakannoghamgutthakara charal]Rl).ahachheyal)-a jibbhachheyaga (jibbhavechhe0 A) amjar;,.a.31 ka<;laggidaha1:ia32(df1h0 B C, dahi\l).a A) gayachalai;i.a malar;ia phalal)-a 3 3 ullambai;i.a.34 sula-laya(sulata. A)laiir_la-latthibhamjal)-ass taii-s1saga-tattatella-kalakala-abhisimchai;i.a kumbh'ipaga36 kampa!]a37 thirabamdhai;i.a38 (bamdha 18 In Vidhiprapil are the following inversions :-DhaJ]-ava"i 6, :Mahavvala 7, Blmddanarhd! 8, Mahiicharhda 9. 19 ga N, 20 se up to suhavivage chilva omitted in N ; samasat6 BC. 21 In N again transposed na. u. va. c/\. sa. rli. am. dh0hao dh0riya. 22 nagara0 tojdma dhammakah:1 omitted in N ;. nagarag-amai:iairil ti, bhagava.to Gautamasya bhikshiidyartharh, 2 ihaloiyapdral6iya ridclhiYisc~a N. 2, pavva.i A. 25 tav6 pwli B C. 26 bhilgn.parichchilgf1 pa.vvajjiif> pariyilgf1 suaparigg-ahf1 tav6-'vahih;1iiirh sari1lrha.J)ao bhattapachchakkhan,,irh pi,6vagamal}f1iri1 snhapararhpari\6 sukulapachchl'iio pui:iav6hilabh. mhtakiriyao a iigh0 N. 2 7 N omits all the following. 28 papapray6gasubhadhyavasanasamchitan:1m. 29 jahft to i:iahachf,ya1;u.1. omitted in .A. Po vinfifosh~ty(!)f,cli yiivat pratibhayakara karapra
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54 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. XII. The twelfth angam, diHhiva.a, drishtiv:'ida, presentation of the (different) views.7:1 This title [342] cOLresponds to oa.r information in reference to the contents of this text now no longer extant ; and we conjectured on page 248 that the character of its contents was the ca.11,sa movens of its loss. On page 242 we saw that in all probability the dit~hiv11a is not further mentioned even in tqe aitgas with the exception of a1igas 4,73 'l'his remark holds good merely .of the name dit~hivil.a and not of the so-called 14 puvvas, which, according to the presentation of the subject in a,iga 4, form a principal part of the diHh, Tradition indeed appears to regard the puvvas as identical with the ditth. The 14 puvvas are mentioned both in anga 10 (the redaction of which, as we have seen, p. 327 foll., is of secondary origi), where their division 1nto pahi1,~las is alluded to (see p. 333), and frequently in a1igas 6 and 8; and in fact in a very peculiar way. The detailed discussion, according to n~me and contents, of the 14 puvvas in aiiga 4 and Nandi and in the later tradition, cites the 11,ppayapuvva at their head. Twice in anga 6 and once in aiiga 8 (3, 1) are they characterized, just as are the eleven a1igas, or together with them, as .gamaiyu-rr..u,'.yrliin. Lenmann says : "0 special interest are three of the many instances in anga 6, where it is related that a man who has just become a member of the order studied the 14 puvvas or 11 aliJas." These three instances are found in p. 591 of the Calcutta edition, compared with p. 59 7, p. 1354, compared [343 J with p. 1355 and p. 1454, compared with p. 1455. 'l'he second passages quoted, in which the 11 a1iJas are mentioned, have reference to a period later by five to twenty years than the first, in which the 14 piv'Qa a1e treated of." How can this use of the attribute sc1miliya-in-uiyllini of the 14 puvvas be explained ? This use is found in no other placeH with the exception of aiigas 6 and. 8, and here only in the parallel ~se of the epithet in reference to the 11 ai1gas, and in no instance where there is an isolatecl mention of the 14 puvvas. Hence it is too bold an assumption if we assert that a sibnc1.iyapuvvarn, instead of the 11,ppuyapnvvam, once actually stood at the head of the 14 piVvas. On the other hand, it is probable that in aiiga 6 this epithet has b~en transferred from the aiigas to the pi1,vvas, and that the generic signification of the word samc1ia, and the greater antiquity which he statements in a1i1a 6 probably possess in contrast to those in aizgas 4, formed the means of transition. This assumption is however a mere make-shift, since there is no further criterion for such a special inter-relation of both groups of texts. The 11,pungas, too, attest in several particulars the existence of aiiga 12. In iip. 8 12, probably the oldest of the 11,paiiga texts, it is true, only 11 aiigas are mentioned. But in up. 1, 20 (Lenrnanu, p. 36) we discover a reference to the choddasapuvv1 together with the diivillasaihgi?18 ; and in the introcluction to up. 4, [3J.4] in v. 5, the diHhi~aa, and in v. 3, the puvvasiiya111, are mentioned by name as the source. of information of the author. It is furthermore worthy of note that up. 5 and 7 agree with the ziuvvcts in the division into pclhiiq,as. According to up. 6 they both appear to have been divided into vatthits at the time of this i1,pili1'Ja, The tradition is desirous of establishing a close con1iection between the upariga and the aiigct in the present order of succession of each. Hence we may conclude that, at the period in which the existing corpus of the twelve itpigas was established, -that is, at the date of the redaction of the present Siddhllnta, -there were in reality 12 a1igas, and that the dif!ltivila consequently s.till exist.eel or was considered as extant. The diHhivaa or, as the case may be, the duvalasamgarh gaQipicJagam is frequently mentio:p.ed in the other parts of the Siddhanta, which are united to the 11,pd.1iga. These portions of the Siddh:'inta are in reality the storehouse of information about the diHhivaa or duvalasamgam gatlipicJagam, See the citations on p. 246 from Ava9y. and Anityogaclv. With these may be associated the corresponding statements in chheclas. 2 and NancU, in which we find several direct 72 drishtayo darsanani, vadanam vadalJ, drish\ina_rh -yildo drishtinari:J. va pf,to yatra.. 73 Leumann cites aiiga 5, 2,1, a for the duvf,lasa1hga ganipi
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56 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE J AINS. So much is clear :-That that conceptiou which limits the d-i,tthivua to the 14 puvvas alone is too narrow. We find a rewgnition of the other constituent parts of the ditthivua also in those statements of the scholia, in which (cf. p. 258) "pi1rvc11}i sainmaty-uclikas cha" (annyogal;t) are mentioned i11ste3,d of the cliffhivcta referred to in the text. See A.v. nijj. 8, 54, By sa1i11naty-6clika?i (aiwy.) we are probably to understand the first parts of anga 12, though the order has been inverted.77 [348] To the statements made, p. 212 foll., in reference to the gradual decline of the know ledge of the p11vvas, I add the following :-In the killasattari of Dhammaghosa.78 verse 38 foll., Thulabhadda is referred to the year Vira 215; and there still existed in the time of Vazra 584 (Vira) 10, in that of Dubbalia 616 (Vira), 9! puvvas. In the scholiast on the passage and in Kl. 247b the latter name is cited as D11rbalikll-Pushpa(0shya)mitra; in the Berlin scholiast on the NancU, introduct. v. 32, as Dt1rvalikapushpa (0shya), he and his teacher .Arya rakshita being called the two navapur.vi~1au. In the year 1000 the entire puvvagayain was "gayain." Let us now tmn to the locns cfo.~siws itself. Its statements are unfortunately not clear and in fact were unintelligible to the scholiasts of both texts (Abhayadeva on anga 4, and Anon. 011 N andt). They both assert with tolerable unanimity that, inasmuch as the text itself was no longer extant, they merely report the few utterances of tradition. Abhayadcva has the foll. at the beginning of his remarks : sarvam idam prayo vyavachhinnaril tatha 'pi yathapishtaril (.! 0drisbtarh ?) kimchit likhyate; and the anonymous scboliast on N. has: s. i. pr. vy. tatha 'pi lesato yathil.gatasampradayarh kimchid vyakhyiiyate, In explaining the first part Ahhayadeva says: &tac ea sarrnril samf1lottarahhedarh sutr11rthat8 vyavachhinnarh and the anon. schol. : tiini cha samulottarabhedani sakalany api s11trato 'rtbatas cha [319] yavachhinnani yathftgatasam pradayatas cha darsitrmi. Finally, Abhayadeva expresses himself in a similar manner concerning the second part: amuny api sutrarthato vyavachhinnani tatba 'pi drishtanusarata~ kimchit likhyate, aud the anon. schol. says et,1ny api samprati sutrato 'rthatai cha vyav., yathagatasam pradf1yatu vf1chyani. The clif!hivcfo is stated to have consisted of five parts. The first part is the parikammam, by which, the scholiast says, we are to nnderstand those preparations necessary to grasp the meaning of the si1tras correctly. These preparatioIIS are analogous to the 16 arithmetical opera tions parikarmur.i, which must be understood in order to compute without assistance from others.79 They are divided into 7 groups, each one of which is again divided into various subdivisions, the total number of which is 83. The first two groups have each 14, the next five but 11 of t.hese subdivisions, which everywhere bear the same title. They begin,80 in the case of groups 1 and 2 with the inr'inydpayui1il, in the case of groups 3-7 with the pu
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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 57 else.al Furthermore since both scholia upon this occasion offer the second of the above-citerl explanations of their ignorance, and consequently make no attempt to clear up the names of the 7 groups or of their 84 subdivisions, it cannot be demanclecl of us that we clo more than fol1ow their example.sz Following upon the enumeration of the seven groups is the significant statement83 that six of this number (according to the suhol. the first six) belong to the system ,car' Eox11v (s1isama'iyn'(l,i) and tha~ the number seven belongs to the ajiviyas. The six are then oha r:icterized as ohaillclcana'iyifai (chaturnayikilni) ; the seven as terilsiyi\9i ( 0yil.irh nayilirh N, t.rairasikiini). The soholia explain one of these two names of schools by [31\1] Giisi1lapra vartitiljivika(0bil iljivikal}. N)= p1isha1lcJasiddh:hhta (plsha9<;linal1 N), the second by trair11sikapilsha9<;lasth11s. The mention of this second name leads us, so to speak, to the domiiin of history. The Teriisiyas represent the sixth schism,84 which .tivasy. 8, so, 12 refers to the year 544 after Vira ;85 and this name is perhaps attested by epigraphic testimony of the time of Gotami pntra SatakarQi. If we suppose that the reading TerilsiH, proposed by Biihler (Archreolog. Survey of West. India, 1882, p. 104) for the inscription Nasik No. lla, is conclusive, it is not improbable that it refers to the Terasiyas quoted above. Biihler, it must be confessed, -has aclopted another explanation of the name in his Survey. The explanations of the scho1iasts have as yeit not assisted me in the endeavour to discover what is referred to by the four nayas,so &c. [352] It is a significant fact that the twelfth anga, according to the above statements, treated not merely of_ the proper but also of heterodox doctrines, or, as the '?ase may be, of hermeneutic methods ; and the title of this anga seems to refer to this peculiarity in its contents, which was probably of great moment in determining the fate of the last of the a1igas. See pp. 248, 342. The sutfaii are cited as constituting the second part of the dif!hivaa. In all there are 88 s11ttili, a number ascribed87 to the' second part in angc 4, 88 In reality, however, there arn bnt 22; beginning with itjjuya ( iijjiisua N; rijuka), but conceived as divided into four parts. The proper orthodox (sasamaya) doctrines and the heterodox views are represented as being Bt It is greatly to be lamented that the. MS. of Abhayadeva to which I have had access, is here so corrupt, th,it nothing definite can be gained from it. The passage reads :-(clirthivilyassa t;1aih chbllyallsa1h mfinyfipaya parh, baihbhil\ t;1arh livi0 chhuyultsa,1h mi\uakkhar!l parh) : di\thivuyassa tti dvi\dast,rhgasya, mauyf,paya tti sakalatvfth mayasya (P) akvi\sadi (akftrttdi P) mfttrikapadani 'va clrishtivuclftrthaprasartha(P)nigamal~ I dhllvya (P) lakshat;1!\ni tfmi va (tilni cha) sidclhasrct;1i-manushyasr/\t;1yfidina, (i.e., names of the flist two groups of tho parikamma) vishaya bhf'Mva (0dena) katham api bhidyamfmflni shatchatvilrinsad gavat1 (bhavaiht1 'ti P) sarhbhadhyate (0vyate) : tathil baihbhie t;1arh Iivlc tti lekhyavidhau 46 mutrikfiksharut;1i, tani cha .. (see p. 281). 82 Some of these names are not certain since the MSS. vary. A.gltsapayl\it:b, keubhll.yat:b, rnsibaddharh, keubhOyn. pm).iggaho refer probably to the domain .. of astronomy. 88 In the Berlin MS. of the Nandi this passage is omitted in the text, thongh it is explained by the scholiast. "' See above p. 27~; accord. to Abhayadeva, howe.ver :-ta eva cl\ "jivikl\s trairasike. bhal}itl\l.i, or, accord. to the schol. on the Nandl, which is identical :-ta eva Gosalapravartitl\ ajiviki\l.i pashat;1~inas trairlsika uchyathte-tlie trn.irasild. are the same as the adherents of Gos6la In 6 of the TMrflvaU of the Kalpasll.tra Chhalua, the fou~der c,t thr sixth schism, is stated to have been the scholar of Mahagiri, who was the successor of ThO.labhadda (Vira 215, d. lJ :HR), and is placed about 300 years earlier than Vira 544. These are discrepancies not easily overcome. 'l'he further explanation of the name trairfsika in the scihol. on N. is :-te sarvarh vastu trayiltmakam ichhmhti, ta.cl yathfi: j1vo 'jivo jlvt,jivas cha, l,ikil 'lokfi li'>k,,-lokas cha, sat a,at sarlasat: nayachimtilylhn dravy,tstilm1n pary:1yi\stilmrh ubhay:l~tikmh cha; tatas tribhi(l;i) r,1sibhis charmhtl 'ti trairi\sikils, tanmatflna saptfl. 'pi parikarmilt;1i uchya,htll. It is worthy of note that the triacl form ascribed to the Trair11sikas is made use of cf. p. 266 in aiiga 4, whore"the statement of the contents of nhaas 2 5 is given, and in fact with the citation of hvo of the examples quoted here. Accorr1. to ~he schol. on Kal1rns., of. Jacobi, p. 119, the Vaiseshikadarsanam took its riso from the Terilsiyas. Cf. A 111iiy. 8 87: C.ehiiil (./\bhir naigam:'.\dibhir n11yail)) ditthiva/\ paruvat;1il suttaatthakahai;ii\ ya. "'' 11ayf1h sapta naigaml\clayali, naigami\ dvidhi\, si\miLnyagrfth! viseshagrfih1 cha, tatri\ "dyal) sarhgrah& clvitfyas tu er.,hvyavahilrfi pravishtal;i, tato dvan saihgrahavyavahi\ran, rijusO.tras chai' kal;i sabcli:\dayas cha trayil 'py rka /\va nayai.< kalpatr, tata &varit chatvi\ra eva nayi\1~, ftais chaturbhir nayair adyfini shat parikarmill].i avasamayavakta ,yatayti ehimtyarht~; on this see f3llfii,ka on ahga 1, l, s, above p. 347n, sr The ujjusuya ancl the paril},ayaparil;mymn are stated to be the first two in the series. As regards other names reference is marle to the Nandl and not to the independent treatment of the subject further on in anga 4. See ,;,bov~ p. 2g4,

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58 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE J AINS. equally anthoritative. The former are divided into two different forms which are also repre sented by the ajiviya (Gosalak~pravartital)IIShaI].qa Abh.), or terasiya. The 22 names are not explained by the scholia. They referBB the name sutra to the explanation of the meaning of the purvas, and consider this as well as the first part as au introduction to the third part of Uw di~thivf1a which follows. [353] The third part is composed of puvva gae, purvagatam, i.e.s9 the 14 pt1rva1#, which the tMhakara (Mahav1ra) himself is said to have imparted to his scholars, the gai;iadharas-see ,ibove p. 216, 217-who then composed the angas (11charf1dikam). Besides this expla.nation which represents the purvas as older and earlier doctrines a.nticipating the ai1gas, there is another which is possible. If our second conjecture is correct, we should have to understand by the purrns that preliminary lrnowledge necessary to the comprehension of the doctrine, The titles of the 14 purvas90 quoted here in the text and enumerated before in 14 are explained singly in the Rcholia, and the number of their padas is stated. The enormons size of these figures greatly exccerls as a rnle that which the scboliasts-see above p. 288-state to be the number of the padas of the angas, each one of which was said to contain twice the number of padas of the preceding. The names of the P-0.rvas [354 J are as follows :-1. upp11yapuvvam,D1 utpadapfirvam; 10 vastu and 4 chi'.Uiya vastu; eka padako~i, 10 millions. 2. aggeniyam (A B C), agge-a1~iyam N (aggaQ.iyam NED., according to Leumann); agre1p yam .Abh,,92 and agr11ya~1iyam93 Schol. on N; 14 vastu (so also in 14) and 12 cMliya vastu; sha1;wavatil) padalakshal) (V,600,000). A direct citation from this is found in Avasy. 10, 4294 and in Malayagiri on ipaiiga 4 (agrf1yaQiyakhye dvitiyapurve karmaprakriti prabhrite bamdhavi dhane sthitibamdhadhikihe chatvf1ri anuyogadvarf1i;ii . ). An anonymous avachuri on Chandramahattara's saptatika (ms. or. fol. 690) calls this work an excerpt from the dif.thivaa, especially from the fourth prabhritam (karmaprakritinamam) of the fifth vasti, of the second purva (" agraya1J1ya."). In the Vichllramritasamgraha we find the following interesting statement taken from the "Nandivritti" :'Sivasarma-St1ryadibhir agre 'i;iiyadipurvebhyal}. samuddhrital_1 sahakadi-karmagramtha}.t. There actually [355] exists a siddhapahuicl, The number of padas is the same as that stated in the introduction to the Kaipa.ntarva.chyd.ni. In this work the number of '!.'asti (? vastii) of each pur1a is said to increase from 1 on by geometrical progression (8192 in the case of 1Ju1va 14). Here however in the text itself see p. 366 we find entirely different figures which are quite eredible. The figures in the case of 1. 3. 7. 10 vary somewhat in the enumeration of the purvas in Nemichandra's pravachanasuroddhara 92, v. 719-25. 91 sarvadravyi\J}.iirh paryavfiJ}.a1u (! paryayi\J}.ilm} oho 'tpfula.bhil.vam alhgikritya prajnApani\ Abh., sarvadravyfi nt\m utpi\dam adhikritya prarupai;ia N. s2 tatril: 'pi sarveshilm dravyaJ}.am paryavilJ}.firh (!} jivaviseshaJ}.nm cha 'gram parimaJ}.am varJ}.yate ity agrer.iiyam, Abh.; agra:rh parimllJ}.am. tasya 'yanam parichhedas, tasmai hitam agrltyaJ}.iyath sarvadravyadiparimar.iakllri Schol. on N . 9s The.Schol. on Hem. and Kalpi\ntarvachyl!.ni has the same. 9. aggllJ}.iammi jaha Dtvayal)a ja.ttha ega tattha sayam. I jattha sayam tatthe 'go hammai: vii. bhumjae Vil vi II Haribbadra says: ja.hfl agri1J1J}.ie (!} virie atthinatthipavi\yapuvve ya p~ho: jatthe 'go Dtvayai;io bhumja.i" J;attha Dh-1\yaJ}.asayam bhumjai:, jattha DivAyaJ}.asayarh bhmhjai: tattha ego DivAyaJ}.o bhumjai" ; eva1h hammaL According t.o this the similar passage should be found also in puvvas 3 and 4. See the remarks on Ambaqa in A1ip. 89; Ambrrc1a is mentioned ibid. 76 together with Divayal)a.

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60 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. name achara) as. the source of the dghaniryukti treating of the oghasf1machart He says that the vghaniry1ikti is nirvyi14,lut therefrom. In an avachilri (composed5 A.D. 1383) on Droi;ificharya's vritti of the oghaniry1ilcti, the chlteclasutras, especially l"alpa and vyavahura, are referred to t.lu. sa.me spurce.. See also the scholiast on Uttarajjh. 2.6. 10. vijjlli;iupp'.:Lvaya:m, vidyanupravadam6 ; 15 vastus (also in 15); ekfi padakotil.i dasa cha padasahasrai:ii ( dasa cha p. omitted in N) 10,010,000. The. cause of the formation of the fourth schism is a passage froU?, this puvva, cited in the passages quoted on puuici 7, or Av. 8, oo: [358) 1;ieur;iia '1:iuppavae, on which Haribha.dra says: anupravt1dapfwve 1;iem}iya:m vachha:m [ vatthu ?] pa9hati), Laumann compares the 9 1:ieui;iiya vatthus in anga 3, o. 11. ava:mjham, avarhdhyari17; kalyav.am Hem., abandhyam iti v11 Schol.: 12 vastus; 2t:i padakotayal,i, 260 millions. 12. pui;iaurn, prui;iayus ;B pr111;iavayam (!) Hem.; 13 vastus (cf. 13); 1 padakiJti 5G padasatasahasra!]i, 15,600,000. 13. kiriyavisalam, kriy11(bhil,i) visiilam9 j 30 vast11s; 9 padakotayalJ, 90 miIIions. 14. logavim.dusaram (without Il\ga in 14), virhdur iva saram ;1 0 25 vastus (also in. 25); ardhatrayodasa(sardha0 N) padakotayah 12 5 (135 N) millions. This purvam, is often mentione(l as t.he conclusion of the angas or of the sua'l}ana. See above p. 245, 346. It is now perfectly clear that the number of padas which has been handed down to n,s is purely a matter of fiction. The exact figures in the case of 5 and 6 are simply amusing. It is easy to revel in details, when the fancy is the only controlling agent. The enumeration of the names in the text is followed by detailed statements in reference to the number of each of the vatthus, [359] vastu.~ and chuliyas, or chula-vatthns,U i.e., section~ into which each of the 14 puvvas are divided. These numbers, in all 225 vatthns (mz1ltiv.) and 34 chillav., are also mentioned in three kurikas, which have been inserted; and each of which ha~ been quoted in. its proper place. 'I'lrn fourth part is called anuyoga; Hem. calls it piir'l)(1nuyogaI2 and placesit (cf. p. 347) in the third position, tke pi'irvagatain oc,mpying, according to him, the fourth place. A contents of historical character is ascribed to this fourth pa.rt. The aniiyngais is divided into two sections: (1) into the mulaprathaind.niiyoga, treating of the root ( of the tree of the sacred doctrine), or, according to the scholiasts, of the tirthakaras,I4 i.e., the history of the beginning, qf the preliminary birth, of the existence and of the final completion of the bhagavmiitatiaiii arahaiiita?imh; ancl (2) nto the ga'l}q,ikunuyoga, i.e., the doctrine of the "little knots," single knotted points, members, 5 mivamap{'trvfohtarvarti trit!ya:rh samachar!vastv asti, tatra 'pi vinsatitami\t prabhp.tat sadhvanugr:1,hil.rth:i.11, Bha,1rahfihusvaminu nirvyMM, The following fact speaks dP.cisively against Bh. as author of the ,,gh:m. In Y. l not only are the chaiiddasapuvvins praised, to which he himself belongs, but also the dasapuvvins which reach to Vajra; consequently the existing text must have been composed at a period considerably posterior to Vajra. O tatrft 'nckaviclyatisaylt vari;iitil!J, Abh., viclya anekatisayasarhpanna anukulyena siddhiprakarshill'.la vaclati'ti, Schol. on N. On satisayatva in connection with vidya, cf. p. 251n .. 7 vaihclhyaih nania ni]:iphalarh, avamdhyam saphalath ity a., tatra hi. sarvc jnanatapa]:isarhyamayilgal) snhhnph01,lena saphalfi vari;iyathte, aprasastus cha pram!idlldika):i sarve asubhaphala vari;iya:rhte, Abh, s prai;ial) pa:rhce' mdriylli;ii 5, tri:r;ii manasad!ni va!Ani 3, uchv!lsa-ni(l))svasO 1; llyus cha, tani yatra var,;i.yarhtt ta.d upnch:'\rfit prfi:r;i.ayuh, schol. on N. ltriy!lbhil) sathyamakriyadibhil;l visAla:rh, schol. on N; tatra knyikyadayal) [kriyul} sabMdi\J.1 smhyamakriyfi ehhMi\11(chharhda?)kriyavidhanl\ni cha vari;iya1hte, Abh. (Malay. ha,s according to Laumann: sarhya,makriyfi chhm'ntlakriyaclaya,s cha). 1<> illke jagati srutalok~ va 'ksharasy6 'pari vhhdur iva sfirath, sarvaksharasa:rhuipatalabdhihiltutvf\t, dchol. on N. n N has cbullavatthu:r;i.i, which is explained by the schol. by kshullavastuni, whereas chula is expla-ine
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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 61 spronf.s,15 of the sacred doctrine, i.e., the history of the numerous figures of the Jaina hagiology which are stated to be [360] kulal,ara, tf.rtl,,akartJ, ga1Jadhara, chakkadhara, Dasara,16 Baladha, Vasa.deva.. The history of Harivamsa is added to this group and, strangely enough, that of Bhadrabahu himself, whom tradition represents to be the last teacher of the di{!/tivaa Other "knots "are finally added, viz. tavokammaga!].q.ika, chittamtara(chitr11mtara)gamqika, osappi!].i0 and ussappiq.i0 and also all sorts of stories illustrating the way how beings become gods, men, animals or hell-beings. Abhayadha is unfortunately very brief here, and to add to our difficulties the MS. is full of corruptions. Abh. refers especially to a Nanditika,17 composed probably in Prakrit, which is, however, not the same as the commentary on N, which I have before me. This too, is very brief and presumably contains a direct citat.ion from one of the sections which belong here. See below p. 368 on chittamtarag. The fifth part is composed of the chuliyas additions, which were referred to p. 358 in the discus'3ion on part 3 to which they belong. They belong however to the first four puvvas alone. According to the schol. (and also to the schol. on Hem. 246) by these chuliyas we are to understand cula-like (i.e., like excrescences) paddltatis, which embrace that which was not treated of in all the four preceding 18 parts of the drish{ivdda. [361] The text, however, takes pains to limit them to the first four puvvas. In the final remarks in reference to the complete extent of the di!l71iuila, the following parts are ascribed to it, -1 suyalclchandha, 14 puivas, saii1ldieyya "computable" (perhaps "innumerable," see above, p. 281) vatthu and chula(chulla N)vattha.,19 and pdhu
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f2 SACRED LITERATURE. OF. THE JAlNS. and especially of 2-4, 7-10, and from traditions in reference either to the extracts from them or to their relations to the origin of some of the seven schisms. Another proof of the validity of these statements lies in the fact that the number of the vatthus, mdnyd,padu1_1i a11d 1mtti17Ji, con tained in the dif!71iv., which is mentioned in aiiga 4 13 -lti. 18. 20. 25, 46 and 88 is in direct agreement with the later statement of contents. ]'i11ally the name pd,hiuj,a in aitga 10 appears in direct connection with the 14 puvvas. At the period of the AvasyakasiHra, especially, and at that of the Anuyogadvarasutra these texts must still have existed, and perl1aps even at the time of the older commentaries (cf. e.g., p. 347n.), if the statements of the latter are not mere repro,uctions of old traditions. See p. 225. The statement of the contents of aliga 12 is found m aiiga 4, or Na11di (N), and is as follows:Se kim tarn di~thivae? ditthiva~i I}ath savvabhtivapan1vav.ayt122 ftghavijja1nti,2 3 se sarnilsao parochavihepii.m[3~3](l}atte), tam: parikammatiJ2~ suttftitiJ puvvagayam25 al)UJOgo26 e}niliya; -se kim tarn parikamme? 2 sattavihe pam, ta1n: sidd!Ja2iset}iyaparikamme,2Sma1,mssase0 bu ddh.ase,29 uggaha1]f1se0 ,3 0 ~vasampajja9ase0,31 vippajahar.iase 0 chuyachuyase0 ; se kirn tarn sic~ dha.ie032 r 2 choddasavihe panuatte, tarn. jaha : rru1uyiipayii9i33 egatthiyapayaim pruJ,ho a~!l apa.yfu;ii 3 4 ftgasapay1i1,1i36 keubhuyam rasibaddham egagui:ia1ii duguQath tigm,1am keubhuya36_pa9iggahe 3 7 sariJtharapa(liggahe38 narndavattam siddhftvattariJ, 88 'ttarn siddhas~0 ; se kirl:J. tarn ma9ussase 0? 2 choddasavibe pariJ; tarn: tai1ii cheva mf1uyapay1lirn39 jiJva nariJdavattariJ mal}USSILVattam,40 se 'ttam ma9nssase 0,4l avasesi1i1iJ parikammai,il pfl
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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. tarn :50 uj_ugarh;51 pari1}ayil.pari1,1ayarh, bahubhari\giy~rh. vinayapavvatiyafu,52 a1}ali1taram,53 param pal'arh, samal}ath,54 samjuhath,56 bhinnath, ahavvf,yam,56 sovatthiyarh,67. gharhtarh, narhdilvattarh, bahularh, puHhiiput~ham,58 viyavattam, 5 9 evambhuyarh, duyilvattam, vattamal}uppayam,60 samabhiri'!ti;l.barh,61 savvatobhaddaih, 62 pa1}11sarh63 dupai;liggaharh, iohch-eiyf1irh bil.v1sath sutti1irh chhinm1,cheyal}a'iya1,1iM sasam[365]ayasuttapariv11gie i ichch-eiyaim65 bilvi;;arh suttaim achhinnachhaya1,1.a1ya1}iG6 11jiviyasuttapariv11~1e i ichcheiy11im67 bfniisarh snttairh tika68nayfu,1i69 terasiya70suttaparivagI} i ichch-eiyftim bavisarh chaukkal}ai'yal}i71 sasamayasuttaparivilgie72; evam eva sapuvvilvarel}am73 atthilsffi4 snttai1h7 bhavamti 'tti76.m-akkhayam77; se.'ttam sutt11irh. Se kirh tarh puvvagae p1s puvvagae choddasavihei9 pam, tarh : oppayapuvvarh, aggel}iyali,,so viriyam, atthinatthippavi\yarh, nftl}appavilyarh, sachchappavayath, ayapp., kammapp., pachchak khal}app.,81 vijj1l1,mppavayarh, avamjharh, pi'11]-ilum,s2 kiriyi'lvisi'1larh, logabimdusi\ram i oppaya [866] puvvassa l}arn83 dasa vatthu. chattilri chfiliya84 vatthu. pa:m0 aggel}iya:ssaB5 t;tam puvvasso choddasa v. bi'1rasa 8 6 chf1liyfi84 v. pam, viriyapuvvassa at~ha v. attha clruliyiiB4 v. p., atthinatthi pavayassa87 attharasa v. dasa cbt'.iliyaB4 v. p., nil1}appavayassa l}arh pnvvassa barasa v. p., sachcba ppavayassa 1,1.am P do88 v. p., ayapp .,.am P solasa v. p' kammapp. 1,1.atit P tisatit V, p., pachchakkhi'11,1.assa t}arh p. visarh v. p., vijjih.mpp. l}arh p. pannarasa v. p., avariljhassa I].arh p. !Jarasa 1!, p., pAI].aussa 1,1arh p. terasa v. p. kiriyavislilassa 1.1aih p. tisarh v. p., logavirhdusilrassa i;tarh p. pa1,1.av1sarh v. pam; dasa choddas' attha atth1iraseva (0sa N) barasa dnve ya vatthfh]i89 I solasa tisa visa pannar.tsa a1;mppavayarhmi 11 barasa ekk11rasame barasame terase 'va vatthul}i I tisa pnl}-a terasam', choddasame90 pannavisa n II chattfiri duv1Uasa at~ha cheva dasa cheva chula91 vatthu.1:1.i I aillal}-a chaii1.J.ham sesfu:1am chuliyil na 'tthi 11 ; se 'ttam puvvagayam.9 2 Se kim tarn al}-uyoge ?93 a.Oge cluvihe p., tarn: mu.la94paq.hamal}UJOge ya garhq.iyal}uyoga ya; 5g A omits. 63 raBC. 61 BC, ujjAyaril A, ujjusuam N. o, BON, s5.m0 A. 62 C, pachch0 B; vijayavirayath A; vijayachariyam N: 66 bO. B, simply juhav, A. 6.6 BC, cc A, ayachchuyam N. 69 vachcha.m N. 6T sava.0 N. 60 payam A. merely puttha:rh A. 61 ru~~ha.m N. 62 BC, savvao0 N, savvaii-A. es AC, pa1,u;iasam. BN. o, 0yaim N; iha yo nama naya}:i au.tram chh/\dena chhinnam eva 'bhipraiti, na : dvitiyena sO. trev,a saha sa.mba.:m.dhaya.ti.; ta.tha hi: dhammli ma.lhgalam ukkij:tham iti slokam chhinnachhedanayamatena. pflrvasurayal;i ta.tha vyakhya,i.itisma yatha na. dvitiyadislfik>lnam ap&k~ha syftt, tatha dvittyf1din api tatha vyakhyamti sma yathii na. t&sham adyasl<'>kapfkslia syftt ; tatha sO.trilJ?,Y api yatrayabhil)prayel}-a (yan nayf1bhi0 ) parasparam nirapekskf,1].i vyiikhyi\mti sma, sa chhMachhinn!l.naya}:i, tata]:t svasamayavakbvyatf1m adhikritya chhinnachhcdanayatva1h, tatba yal) sO.tra1h sO.trfiihtartl),a sah,1 'chhinnam arthatal) sa,hbamdham abhipraiti, sa achhinnachhedanay_al;i, yathil: dhammi\ mamgalarh ukkij:tham ity a.yam sllik'l 'chhinnachhedanayamatllna vyakhyayamfinli dvitlyadin apekshatl', 'py etath sllika1h, evam anyimya(,h) dvaviiisati(h) sO.tr,1v,i aksbararachanam adhikritya parasparam vibhaktfmy. apy dvitiyl\dayo arthasa,hva,ildham ap&kshya sapekshil!].i, schol. on N. 6 a A N, ctf,iru BC. oo <>:v,oyr.iri, B C. eT eyaim A; atba nayavibhagamtaram adhikritya bhedam aha: trairl\sikanayamat&na sO.traparipAtya1nvivakshi tayl\m trikana.yikani, svasa.maya.vaktavya.tll.m adhikritya s0.0 vi0 san,gra.h!lovyavahi\ra.rijmO.trasabdarupa'nayacha tushkayil (! omission) schol. on"N (Malay:, accord. to Laumann, continues cbatushtaylipetani samgrahll.dina.yacha tushtayena ohimtyamta ity a.) 68 tikka A. tiga N. os yAim. N, TO slim A. TI 0yaith N' v-ayfliv-i A. T2 N adds suttai.m. T 3 pO.rvapara.samudl\yarO.pev-a sarvasmhkhyaya, schol. on N. H 0sit1 B, 0s!ta C, 0sli A, 0 sai N. G 0v,i A . T6 titti A, tit.i N, bhavatitl BC. VT 0iyairh BC, 0iyav,iA, 0iyam N. -TS See Abhayadrva.'s scholion, above, p. 216. The anonym. schol. on Nand7 has the foll. iha tlrthakaras tlrtha, pravartanakflle gav,adharan adhikritya pO.rvam pO.rvagatasutri\.rtham bhashate, tata}:i purvll.J?,y nchyam.tll; gav-adharA api tatbai 'va rachayarhti pascdd ll.charll.dikam. T9 cbaiidd" N. 80 ABC, aggeav,iyarh N, aggani0 N ED . (accord. to Laumann). 81 BC, 01].uppavi\yam A, kkhi\na,h N, 82 BC, pav,au A, pfu,lll.o N BS N adds pilvvassa, H chulla N. 85 0n!assa N. 8 6 duvil.J.asa N. 87 yapuvvassa N. 88 dov,J?,i N. 89 mulavatthO.nam. N. Sij AN, chaiida0 BC. 81 chulla0 N. 92 ga~ A; ee 'ttarh p. omitted in N. 93 BC, ogl! N, uge A; and so throughout. N. omits.

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64 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. Se kirit tarn mi'llapa0ge ? ettha95 I].RID araharitta9am bhagavaritta9arh puvvabhava96 devalogaga ma9aim 9 7 fiuriJ98 chavaI].aim99 jamma[367]l}Rl}i ya abhiseya rayavarasiriolOO siyaa.l pavvajjllo2 tava ya bhatta3 kevalana9uppaya' titthappavatta9fi9i ya, samghaya9arh, 5 samthll.9am uchchattam aiJ.ri16 vannavibhago,7 BISU gaI].a8ga9ahara ya, ajja pavatti1.110,9 sa.rilghassa chaiivihassa jam cha 'vi10 parima9aril, ji9allma9apajjavalZ ohi91h:iil3 sammattasuyam11,1i1.tf> ya vf1d114 a9uttaragati yal5 utte.ravetivvi1,1016 ya m119i90 je.ttiya 2 siddha, siddhapahol7 jaha desio jachchiram kll.larit, paovagaol8 ya jo jahirh jattiyairiJl9 bhattaiKl chheya'ittft20 arhtagage21 m111.1ivaruttame22 tamarao. ghavippamukke23 siddhipaham24 a1.1uttaram cha patte,2 M anne ya evam-ai26 bhava mftJa27. pac;lhama9uoge kahiya aghavijjamti 2 B pannavi0 paruvi0 ; se 'ttam mt'.Hapaghamar;iuyBg}; se kirh tarn gam(jiyll.9uyogi1? 2 a1.1egavihe pannatte, tath jahft29: kulagaragathqiyfio 3 0 titthayarag. gat;1adharag.31 chakkaharag.s2 Das.hag. Baladevag. Vll.sudevag. Harivamsag.3 3 Bhaddabahug. [368] tavokammag. chittarittarag.34 osappi1.1ig.3 5 ussappi1.11g.36 amaranaratiriyanirayas7 gati3B gamal}a vivihe. pariyattai;ial}uyoge,39 evam-ad1yf1040 gatigam~iyao41 aghavijjamti panna042 parftOU; SC 'ttath garoc;iiyaI].Uyoge,43 Se kirit tarn chi'lliyao ?" jan nam.45 ailla9am chaii9harit puvv119arh chuliyao,46 sesll.im puvvaim achuliyaith47 ; se 'ttam chuliyao. At the conclusion of this review of the 12 angas, I present the apostrophe to eternity, which is given in anga 4 and in Nandi, in entire agreement with each other, at the close 0 their statement of the contents of the aiiga. With all the unwavering firmness of this apostrophe it looks like a protest against all who might either doubt or attempt to undermine its validity (see p. 293) :--. Ichch eiyam duvalasamgam ga9ipi~gam attte4a kale a1.1athta jivli a9i"ie'9 virahitta cMnram. tasarhsarakamtarath a1.mpariyattirhsu ;50 ichch eiyarh du0 ga0 pac;luppanne [369] kale (bis) 95 ABO, mil.0gl\ N. 96 arhatath bhagavatllti1 samyaktvabhavAd Arabhya pil.rvo.bhavAl;i, devalokagamanllni, tllshu pO.rvabhavl\shu chll 'yul;i, dcvalokebhyas chyavanam, Urthaka.rabhavatvcno 'tpadas, tatl> janmani, tatal;i sailarije surllsurair vidhiyamllnllabhishllkA tyiidi pllthasiddhath yilvo.n nigamanath; iha sarvatril 'py apilthta.rAle vartibhyl\ vadvyal;i lvah0 ?) pratiniyataik&rthlldhi ldlras, tat& vahuvachanath ; schol. on N. tT NA, "1].Ar;ii BC. as N, llO,th A, llu BC. 99 'j, chayar;illr;ii BC, chiyar;ii A. lGG N, ritO BC, rtu A. (NED. hrea~ oft', Iteumann says, at abhiscyA and is merely prathamabhaga.) 1 N omits. ll N, jjilto BC, jjAu A, a ABO, ugg& N. & A, pplly!itA BC, PiYAo :N. a sathgha0 to vibhllgo omitted in N. s A.u A. va~vibhAn A. s ABN, ga.r;it C. t N, r;iiu ABC. 1e vllvi ABO, cha N. 11 ji:i.iA BC. n vll N. 1s na:i.ii N; hii:i to siddhll omitted in A. u BC, pavM N. IB 0ga! a N. 16 utt. yam. in N alone. 11 siddhapahl> to klllath in N alone. 1a N, plltt>vagato BC, pailvagail A. 19 AN,jctti0 BC. :io ABO, chhllitta N. Ill N, 0cj.o BC, kaq.o A. u N, 0mli ABO. 2s N, kka ABO. 2' BC, sidha A, mukkhasuham N. ll6 N, patta ABO. 26 tidi A. ll7 A omits. 2a ilgh. p. p, omitted In N. 2, jahll omitted in A; instead of 2 ai:i~0 jab A N has ga0ge r;iarl1 jab~. so Thus N, 0yato BC, 0yau A; so also further on; kulakarar;iath Vimala\'l\banadinath pOrvabhavajanmanllmAdtni saprapamcham upavan;iyamte, evam ttrthakaragath,j.ikMishv abhidhanavasato bhllvantyalh schol. on N. si In N after Vasudevag. 81l BC, chakkavatti AN. 88 In N after Bhadda. H In N after osapp. ; chitra anekllrthA amtare l;l.ishabhijitatirthakarllpllmtaralc ~ishabhavarl1sasamudbhil.tllnam bhil.paUnAri1 seshagativyudllsena sivagatigamanllnuttaropaplltapratipAdika gari1q.iklls, tasllm cha prar]lpa:i.ia Subuddhi. uAmnii Saga.rachakraVllrtino mahllmi\tyenil 'shtllpadl\ Sagarachakravartisutcbhya Adityaye.s~prabhritlnilm ~ishabhai. vaiularl\ianllth narapat!nam sathkhyllpradaraan~na kriti\, ail chA "ichchejns1lii:iati1 Usabbasse 'tyfdiva 'vasllyil, schol. on N 36 N, usa0 BC, ussa A; i:ii BON, r;il A. BG BN omit; usa0 A, i:ii C. ST niraya omitted in A; ama.1c 'ti vividheshu parivartteshu bhavabhrnmai:i~shu jati1tftnllm iti gamyate 'ma.ratiryagnira yag&tigamanath, ham lldika ga.m
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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. a1:nipariyattirhti;51 -'ichch eiyarh d11 g,1 a1.1'1gae ldU (bi.~) ar.rnpariyattissarhti; ichch e1yari1 d 0 0 tt I 1 'tt h0 't' t s2 .. t' .. I I 11 ga a I e rn ea. J, a1;rne ara u ,a c a v1 1va 1msn, .. vnvmrn 1, . v11vn1ssarntr; 1c ie I eiyarh du0 g,1 na lrny,ii na fisi,53 na ka.yili na tt.hi, na ka.di mi bhaviFsa'i, bhuvirh0\ cha bltnvnrhti ya bhavissarhti ya,,56 dhuve niae0 7 s1:;a,~ akkhai\5S avrne"9 an1J,thicGO niehch .; 61 se jahf1 rntmae parhca atthikay11 na kayf1i na ilsi na kayfii na tthi na lrnyfii 1n1 hltaviFsarhti,C2 blrnvi1'n dm blmnni.1h ya bhavisRari:Jti ya dhnVll nitiya63 ,1(liJtt nicheh11, eV11l1l l'\'fl cln ga0 l!fl lrnyfti J~a IISi (oi.1) nieltche j ettlrn.6 l}rtlil du0 ge ;a." g.~ a1:1arht1 bhilv,1 a. abhavil, fl. 111'\fr a. ahefr, a k11rn1,1il a. nki'm,1,111, a. j'lvil a aj'lv11, a. blrnvasiddhi.,il a. abhavasiddhiy,1, a. sidtll111 a asiddhil i1ghavijja1nti paru0 l'anna0 dn,!il;;i0 nidaiiBi0 UV'11d111h.,;i,0 eyarh 11u0 gam ga0 ga1h. Before I pncee:1 fnl't,her I Rhoald liki to shte th,lt hesi,lo the Vi,lhipmpil. of Ji11aprahl1a (A.D. l307) (see above p. 223) in the meantirne twJ oth3r s\m'l.ch\ri texts, 11nfortn11atel.1 anonymous, have come to my knowled;e. 'L'lwy n.l'e !nth w1itte,1 in fJ,11/,: it wit.Ii n,n occa.,iornt! int.ermingling of Sansl,til, anrl are in agrnement thronghout with the statements in the Vi,lhip, which they antedate. Tl{e first of these texts, a,y\rav'ihi, in d,lr11; contn.i1rn in its tenth d1fr111ii, )'!/11Vilii, not merely the enumeration of the m',yal)(i/,irn text~, as fl!Vandi [370]. p;, kshikas aiHl Vidhi'prapti, especially in the form of the two latter, hut also the same detailed exposition ancl examination of the sin'gle p.ortions of the ai1gas, 11p6.1i.ga.~, &c., Recording to the pcriocl of time reqr11site for tlieir study (measured nocording to d1'i1a and dy111i11Jila): The onlm of succl'ssiou is the same as in the i-ection of the Vidliiprap11 which treats of this point. It is especially interesting that tc~n, and not five, ajjh. are hern see p. 8:U a~cribeLl to each of the first two va,-.y,u of the second part of a1iga 6: dus11 dusu. vaggesi;i kamfl ajjhaya,.1t1 hurhti. daRa yn chafrppanna I b.it,t1s11 chaii attha ya dhammakaha b1a sm1kkhamd!1t1 II The te,xt ,;hich we possess rloes not a'.,l'l'ee with this allotment of ajjh. 'l'he same holds good of the second of thest two texts, which bears the name s'l.mlyil.rivihi. We read in it the following concerning .the first varma: tammi clasa 'ajjbaya1/i, and immediately thereupon viti dasa ajjhaya1rL Since this second text is twi~yarh" to two authors considerably before his time. In v, 50, 51 of the Gal}adharnsardh~ilatakam composed by Ji11adattasf1ri, the sch~lar.of Ji.navallabha who died A.D. 1112, (see Kl, 248 b), the former of the t;o ~uthors is called the first teacher after the interval following upon .A.ryarakshita and Durbalik,1pushpa (above p. 348) .66 In Sarvariijaga1.1i's schol. on the Gal}adha.rasar~hasat.akam a sra'valc11prajnaz1ti is cited among the 500 (or 105 ?) payara1~as (prakara1:a), composed by him in Sauslcrit aec.ordiug to the statemellt in the text. The title sravakaprajnapti is in entire harmony with the statement of the ci.yamvih,i just qnobrl. According to the Gurvftvali of 'l'apilgacha Kl. 2fi3a (28) there lived an Umf1sv1}tikara in 1190 Vfra ( = Saihva'f; 7:W), who is, however, distinguished from the author of the srrfoalcaprajnapti (0ptyadi) (yatal}. sammativrittau, cf. abovep. 347, sr1 Umi\svfi tiv:ichaka ity nktam). 'l'he latter is probably, as Klatt kindly informs me, the person of 51 bhrama1iiti. 52 vyativrajitavantah. 58 n!\sl N {thus in every case). IS.J, bhfti,h N. (always). 55 bhava'i a N (~lways), 66.bhavissa'i a N {always). 67 niyata1h. fiB N omits; akshayam. 69 avyayam. 6Q avasthitam. r.1 Instead of av. uicce N has here suparitthill. In the following repetition, however, it is the same as in the text. 62 ssa1 N: 61 niyayi\ N. 6i The following is omitted in N. es siri Abhayade'va sf1riguruvaya1} mayam mac cyam I Parami\I}alhMI}a kayani II srl Abhayadcvasfrrcr i\syasar6ruhavihltri1}1 \?) patre I si\mi\chilri rumad (?) Parami'mathdi\t padari, chakre JI 66 The very faulty MS. reproduces the Um!\s!\yi of the text by Umfisvi'uni in the commentary! This form of the name is fouuJ elsewhere, e g., in the Yich!lri\mritasa111graha as that. of the author of the srf,0pti.

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6(i SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. this name who appears i'l the Bombay MS. of a paft,lvaH of the Vrihat-Kharataragachha, in the continuation of the old Sthaviri',vali immediatt'ly al'ter its last member, Df1shaga9i, the teacher of Devarddhiga1~i, and separated by one isradt1tion alone from Har1bhadra who is mentioned together with him in the uyaravih,:. Since the date of DeYarddhiga1.1i is 980 Vira, and the death of Haribhadra is placed in [372) 1055 Vfra, see Kl. 253a (27), tradition seems to place Um:1svfrtikara, the author of t,he sr.1vakaprajnapti, about lUOO Vira ( = Samvat 530) While it is true that the ay1fracih1: does not claim to stand in direct connection with Um11sv. and Haribh., me1 ely citing them, yet this citation is of such a chamcter that it is calculated to afford ancient testimony concerning a treiLtise which mentions, not sources of information of later date, but merely these two names which are manifes:ly of tolerable antiquity. The statements contained in this work gain consequently in authority; and the same conclusion holds good of the information of a literary and other nature in harmony therewith, contained in both silmilch1h-i texts (sil.0vihi and vihipav11). In continuing from this point on to adduce the testimony of the Vidhiprap11 (V) especially, I do so, partly because it has a fixed date, and partly because it contains the m9st detailed statements. I shall, however, not fail to state where Ayt1ravihi (.Avi.) or S1111111yihvihi (Svi.), which takes an intermediate position between Avi_. and V. as regards fullness, offer anything worthy of pa1ticular note. The second part of the Siddha.nta is formed by the 12 uvam.g11s, upa.ngas. This title is applied in the ai1gas to the Brfrhmanical upfrngas alone. In ai1ga 3, three of the existing uvamgas are apparently mentioned, but under the title angabahira and not under that of 1n-ari1ga. In the uvarhgas themselves this appellation occurs at the beginning of the eighth alone, but there, according to all probability, it is a special designation of uv. 8 -12 alone, and had consequently [373] not yet acquired its present signification. The N andi, too, does not accept it in its present meaning. It enumerates all the texts in question, which now bear this name, but enumerates them among the anai1gapftviHha (for which term the Pfrkshikasutram &c. present ai1gab11hira) and in an order diffe1ent from the usual one at present in vogue. 'l'he solitary passage, in which I have been iLble t.o discover tliis title used in the Siddhanta in its general signification, is in the :Mahanisiha, Book 3 (1tC1govai1ga .. ) At the present day there are 12 texts bearing this name, corresponding to the number of the ai1gas. 'l'his arrangement is probably intentional and dates from a period (see p. 344), in which the twelfth aiiga either really existed or ~t least was counted in with the other~. There is an alleged67 inter-relation between the 12 ai1gas and the 12 uvai1gas, nvai1ga 1 being placed in connection with anga 1, uvai1ga 2 with ai1ga 2, and so on. In the three stunayari texts,os uv. 8 12 are called niray1lvaliyasuakkhamdho uvari1gam (A.vi., Svi.), in the Vidhipr, egarnuvamgam; en.eh of the five va!!gas of which respectively corresponds69 to ai1gas 8 to 12. It is not improbable that l374J the existing order of the 12 texts may have been the result of sach considerations; and the similarity in ext.ent of each of the different members of both series renders this assumption the more worthy of credence.70 There are, however, so far as I can see, 67 cf. Abhayadeva on uv. 1, Malayagi ion uv. 2, 4, f:lanticbandra on uv. 6. 68 'l'he order of snccession adopted there, and which I follow from this point on, vitries so far as the position of uv. 5-i is concerned from that of Biihler see above p. 223 where these appear as Nos. 6, 7, 5, 69 In the Vidhiprapa we read: S,,me, however, regard both uv. 7 r.nd nv. 5 as belonging to anga 5, and according to their vicw, the nvamgam belonging to angas 7 -11 is the srutaskandha formed by uv. 8 -12: ann/\ pu1=111 chamdapannatti1i1 sllrapaona.tti1Il cha bbagava.iuvmhge bha1.1mhti, tC'sirh 1na&1.1a uvfisagaclasltJ?,.a. pari1ca1.1hn.1h a1Dgii1.1;1lll. uvarhgai:h niray,i.\'aliyf1suyttkkha1huhf1. This is mttnifest'.y an arrangement of those who no longer connt the di(thivaa as belonging to t'.ie ang,is, ,wd is in entire harmony with the actual facts of the case. The statement in V. that follows is n riddle: oraji annavtt:)il. sftjtt1hcha1n cik,.kapnpphavahidasil f1y11rfii-uv,1.1hgi\ nflyavva 11,:iupuvvi~ (this is the close of the uva1hgavihi). Tb.e sttme rcm11rk11ble st11tements are repeated in the Jf>gavihi\" in v. 60: vachcha"i sattadi,:iehi1h nirayavaliyasuyak k'1a1hdho II 59 II ilri\j'l pa::iava s!'.!jamchamnilmkapupphavanhidasa II llyi\ri\i-uva,hga n/\yavvil. a::iupnvviP II 60 II A solution of this riudle is, however, not far to seek, if we read f,0 rt, ji0 su0 jam0 cham0 ni' k11 ka0 By this means we have the beginning syllables of uv11Ihgas 1-3, 5-10 in their present order; and here again there is reference to 12 uv~1.:~gus and to 12 nllgas. 79 The last me:nbers in both series have the least, those in the middle the greatest, extent,

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 67 no instances of real inner conn.ection between the ai1gas and the uvai1gas having the same position in the series. I say this, despite the fact that the scholia are only too zealous in attempting to establish snch an inter-relation. Definite groups are recognizable here as in the case of the angas. Though all the uvathgas with the exception of nv. 3 begin with the legendary introductory formula ~garh kil.le1,iam , yet in the case of nv. 2. 4 the pamchanamukkara, which we have met with already in anga 5, is placed before this introduction. In uv. 4 a verse, designed to glorify this pamchanamukki\.ra, follows upou it, and then come several other verses of au introductory character. In the case of uv, 5 there is a larger number of introductory verses or of verses clescriptive of the contents of the whole, before the legendary beginning; in the case of u v. 7 these are placed after the legendary beginning. Both of theseuv. (5 and 7) differ from the others in the following particular, [375] they make use of the title piihuqa for their sections, a title which we have met with in the case of the 14 pC1rvas. In the introduction ofuv, 7 and in uv. 4there is a direct reference to the puvvas. These two uv. are peculiar in being identical or at least in representing two recensions of one and the same text. Uv. 5, 7 and 6 are mentioned together in ai1ga 3, and share an introduction that is completely identical, mutual references in the text to eaeh other, and above all in the concluding part of their titles, the common factor prumatti, praj iiapti. A part of uvathga 3, the d1vasiigarapannatti, belongs to the same category with them, since it has on the one hand the same termination in its title, and on the other is mentioned in ai1ga 3 with them. At the period of the N and1 and of that of ai1ga a it appears to have enjoyed a separate existence. Finally the title of upai1ga 4, pannava1a1a, is to be brought into this connection, so that upa.ngas 3 7 may be regarded as a group which is bound together by external criteria. The word pannatti which is here the link between them, was found in the title of aiiga 5. The words pannatta (prajnapta) and pannatti (prajfiapti) and the finite verb prajnapay have such a special use in the Bhagavati and, as was discovered later, in the entire Jaina-Siddhanta, that (Bhag. I. 368) I called attention to the [376] Pannattiviida, or Prajfiaptivadins, who are mentioned by the northern and southern Buddhists7l among the 18 chief sects of Buddhism at the time of the second council of .Asoka. According to Wassiljew, pp. 228, 244 (Germau transl. pp. 251, 268), this sect da.tes from the second century after Buddha's nirv1l9-a. Up9.ngas 8 -12 form a second group closely connected wit,h each other (see above). They form, as tradition itself asse1ts, in reality but five chapters of a single srutaskandh11, and are counted as five spucial text::; msrely to complete the pamllcl with the twelve ai1gas. 'rhe title of uv. '::! is later on, e. g. in the Vidhiprap l, regal'deJ also as the collective title of all five; and a special name, lrn,ppiy,lo, kalpik,ls, is allotted to uv. 8. In the Nandi all the 6 titles a.re placed together. According to the introduction of the avachC1r1_1i to the Oghaniryukti (see above, p. 217) the da~apu.rvins g,tined especial h:m:iur iu perf rrning the meritorious service. of composing 8 1111.~mh,11.11 to ~he uvarh_5ftS (or of composing the uv. and the sarhgr. ?), and therefore had just claim to the salntation (11amukk11ra) in the first verse of that Niryukti. Tradition calls Ajja S \ nu the a.11 thor of the foul'th nvarhgit, the Panna.va1~ l; see verse 4 of the introduction to that uvarhga. There is, however, another, who in this pass,tge characterizes himself as the real promnlgri.tor, aml intiodncns himself wit,h the word "I." [:377] In the c,1.se of t,he fir;;r, n v,lrhga, secondary additiom are, according to Leumann, clearly dem rnstr:1.ble Tl1tl sec.irul u varilga appears, however, to have suffernd more, and the ptesent text may, in fact., be a, 1liffcrent one from the original. 'l'he reader is further referred to my remarks made on ai1gas 8 -10 and especially on ai1ga 10. In the remarks of the retlactor scatterecl here and there in the ai1gas, there were many 71 pannatti is found in P!tli as the title of a work. See Childers s. v. pannatti (Abhidhammap). Works of the nam1 wore pro1uce1 by tha la.tar Jain3. SJe (above p. 371) my remarks on the sravakaprajiiapti of the U mtLSV ati(mi) \' fcchaka.

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68 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. references to the upangas, their titles being directly mentioned or the names of particular divisions cited In the upili1gw1 vice verscl there is no lack of references both to the ai1gas and to other up:1i1gas. Apparently we must recognize in these remarks of the redactor a hand aiming at unity (see above, p. 228), -a hand which has dealt uniformly with the ai1gas and upt1i1gas in that form of the text which both at present possess. The varying statements in the MSS. in reference to the extent of e:wh of the opa11gas a1e as follows: up. l has 1320 grantha,s,72 2. 2U78, 3. 4750, -4 7785, -5. (:2u011 ?),73 6. 4451, 7. 1600,74 8 -12. 1109. XIII. The first uplilgam, uvavaiyam, aupap1tikam, of renewed births. The explanation of the name by aupap,1tika is (see above, p. 32:3, Lenmmm, p. 2) an incorrect Sanskrit rendering, since the formation is from v'pacl + upa and not from yp:it + upa. 'l'he work is divided into two parts, which are, howeyer, not separn,terl by :rn:\-recognized divi,ling line. The fir3t, which is gre,iter in extent than the secon(l [:378], trn,its in gren,t detail of the appear,mce and srmnon of J\hhitvit-,t in Ch::vnp:l un(ler king Kfu1iy,1 B.Lmbhas,l1 aputta/5 and of the pilgtim:tgJ of the king to :i\Ltl1,h1m. The m,v1y v,11.1 dus, wliieli, 011 snch occasions as this, are foL1nd in the legendn,1'.Y int1odt1etiD11, to the aiL;,is, uvai1g-rts, &c., occnr in this instance in their full form. They a1e cDnsccpiently citecl elsewlwrn rnmely by their introductory words; and for anything beyo1ul this, refo1enee is genemlly made to om text. The law proclaimed by Mah 1.v1ra is here ( '> 7) designated partly as ilg lradhamme and partly as ag 1ra~;1m tie. See my re:nn,rks on page i4A, rvl :ii1g1t I. 'rhe secou,l p:11t. which contains tl1e essence of the work, is in extent SL'arcely more tlrn,n a thir1l of the whole, and looks, as Lenrna.1rn says, like a more detailed tre:ttn10nt of Blutg. 1, 1, 77 (see Bhag. 1, rn ). It is divided into divisions of tolerably small comp:1,ss, which :ill p:)sscss a fnl'111 eqnally solemn. 'l'hl'se small divisions are not equal in extent nor are tlll).V connk(l 011 to the c1ul. A.t the encl there are ~2 k.lrik,ls, which describe the abode &c. of the Si(l.llrns. 'viz. of tl111se th,it h,we escape1l migration of souls. We fit1d the teachin; of IriJ.1:1,bhur,i b: :lhliilvini. ke,itcl o~. p1dly in a gcneml way, pa,rtly in reference to lG definite ca,tegories of mJn as regal'LL,; theil' uv,w,ly:1 ri.m,rng the nera'iyas, &c., up to the heavenly worlds, and tD the fi1rnl pe1foction rrn,l r;:,si
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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 69 Nagga1 Bhaggai Tiya ('rika ?) Videhe rilyil Ram~ Bale 'ti ya. After this follows an enumeration of the works of Brt\luuanical literature) which is identical in every particular with that in the ti.fth aiiga.8 See above p, :i04. The sage Ambaqa,86 who is ennmerated among the 8 muha1:1aparivvayi\s, must have played no unimportant role in the opinion of his Jain colleagues or enemies, either at the time of the composition of this upfti1ga or at that of those who interpolated the statements in reference to hin1, There have been i11serted two detailed legends concerning him, the first of which deals especially with his [380] scholars,8 7 the second with himself, with his second birth in the person of the boy Dac}hapa'inna, and with his final perfection. Here occurs an enumeration of the ( 107) 7~ kalas, which are in fact essentially the same as those in ai1ga 3, and ( 105) of the foreign peoples from whom the female attendants of the boy (as in ai1ga 6) came. 'l'hese names are in general identical with those enumerated in ai1gas 5 and 6, and are also mentioned in a previons passage ( 53) where the maid-servants of the queen are treated of. The list is as follows: bahuhirh khujjiH1irh Chilillhirh v,1ma9ihiri1 vaq.abhihirn Babbarihirh Paiisiyilhirh (baii0 ) Jo1.1iyll11i1h Palhaviyilhirh IsiJ.!iyahirh ChilruiJ.1iy1lhirh (V11ru0 'l'hilru0 ) Lasiyahim Laiisiyf1him Damilihiri1 Sirhhalihirh .A.rabihirh Pulirhdihirh Pakka9ihirh BahaHhiri1 Marlllhq.ihim Sabarihirh Parasihirit n.11,uldesihim. For v. 1. see Leumann, p. 60. The 18 d~sibhilsas9 9 unfortunately are merely mentioned here ( 109) and not enumerated by name. Yve 1uight readily conjecture that the 18 foreign peoples, just mentioned, were here referred to, though the expression desi is not i11 harmony with such an assumption. For the expression desibhasilvisf1rae, which we meet with here, we find a faller form in aiiga 6 (cf.above, p. 313), atthi'irasavihipagilrades1bhilsilvis;'lrae. Dr. Leumann has had the kindness to inform me that the commentary has at least the appearance of referring this to the 18 modifications of one desibhilsa and not to 18 special languages; ash\ildasa vidhiprakarAl> [381] prav:rittiprakaritl1 ashtildasa.bhir va vidhibhir bhedail1 prachiiralJ. pravrittir yasyal1 sa, tathft tasyarh dMibhashily1lri1 sabhedena varQ.avaliriipayilm visarada.~1 parhg.ital.i. By the annaiitthiya ( 26, 99) of the text, i. e. according to the scholia anyayuthika (seep. 299), which are opposed to the niggantha pilvayaJ.la (' 16) of the genuine doctrine of the Jains, we are to understand the silkyadayal)., By the cheiyas ( 99) we must understand the arhachchaityani jinapratimillJ., and by the i\j1viyas ( 120) the adherents of Gosfila,99 The seven pavayaiJ.aninhagils ( 122), i. e. representatives of the seven schisms, which, to use the expression of Abhayadeva, Jiniigamam nihnuyate (! nihnuvate ?) apalapariit.i cha, are enumerated o.ne by one in the text. 'l'hey are as follows : bahuraya, jiva.padesiyil, avvattiyil, s,imuchchheiy,\, clokiriya, ter11siy11 (see p. 351), abaddhiya (avvaHhiya vat, 1.). A.bhayadeva characterizes them according to their order as JamalimatannsariJ.laQ., Tishyaguptachilryamatavisam.vildinalJ, .A.shilq.hacharyasishyamaMri1tal).patinal.1, Pushpa (shya)mitramatanusariJ.lalJ.,90 Garhgacharyamatanu vartinal.1; Rohagupta91 matanusariJ.1.al}., Goshfh1'l'm,'thilamatavalarhbinal). ; on this see p. 275 on aiiga 3, p. 355-6 on purvas 7 -9, and below my remarks on Avasy. Nijj. 8, Uttarajjh. 3, g. 65 saJarhgavi is here too explained by : sha').amgavidah and satthitamtavisAral\ by: K.pil!yatamtrapam4itl\l). *BG Also Amma
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70 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. [382] There is a commentary by Abhayadeva, a varttikam or avach11ri by Parsvachandra. In reference to. the difference of the constituent parts which were united to form this uvamgam, the reader is referred to Leumann, p. 20, who has made some pertinent remarks upon the subject. XIV. The second upa.iigam, ra.yapas~:t;1a.'iyyam, wl1ich is always translated by raJa prasmyam. This is perhaps to be explained as tt complete misunderstanding of the Pr11krit title by which this text is always cited in those passages from the hand of the redactor which refer to our text in the ai1gas, etc. :B'or pasetJa'iyyaD cannot properly. be prasnlyam, since the latter worcl rather pre~supposes a Prt1krit form patJhlyam. Paset]a'iyyam seems, according to the conclusion at which I arrived ad Bhag. 1, 3a2 to refer to the name of king Prasenajit who is well.-known in the legends of the Jains.9 2 There is, however, one :importa.nt objection to thisc concfosion, -there is no mention of this king in our text, which mentionsa king Paesi but no Pasel_la1. Inasmuch as the authenticity of the form of the name pasel_la'iyyam cannot be gainsaid,93 there remains but one possibility open: that the original title of the text has been preserved and eithet the name of Paesi has been substituted for that of Pase9ai9 ~ (see p. 384) in the text, or there has been substituted an. entirely different text for the whole of the old one. [38:3] Though .the latter conjectme savours of boldness, we are not without anaJogous examples as we have seen in the case of ai1gas 8 10. Our first means of explanation appeals much more to our sympathy, especially as we have a perfect parallel in a later legend. We possess two recensions of the Samyaktvakaumudikatha, in the first of which the scene is laid at the time of "Sre1,1ika, son of Prasenajit," in whose place Uditodaya, son of Padmodbhava appears in the second. 'l'his. is,. however, brought about in such. fashion tha.t 'Sre1.1ika is referred to in a two-fold introduction. The legend in question appears to be old and. to anteda.te the two existing recensions of the Samyaktvakaumud'.lkatha. The Sanskrit translation of the title Rilyapaset)aiyyam by rajaprasniyam is very far from being in harmony with the contents of the work. The burden of the very smallest portion of its extent is in our text the questions of a king. The questions play here no greater role than in any other of the legends similar to this in which a king requests instruction. The irreconcilability of this Sanskrit title with the contents of the work itself makes eo ipso for the conclusion that this title-.is nothing but a mei:e :me.keshi:l;t to conceal the @riginaI contents. It is, therefore, of no little significance that a beautiful conjecture elabomted into an investigation-by Dr. Leumann has shewn that one of the Pali texts of the Bnddhistic Tipi~aka, viz. the Pi1y11si-suttam (Dlghanikilya 1, 22), -is especially closely connected [384] with that part of our upanga which treats of king Paesi. It is apparent, then, that we mast assume either a common foundation for both or the use of a special Buddhistic work as a ground-work. 'rliat the original text o:f the Rayapasena'iyyam might easily have suffered a transformation, is indicated by the irreconcilability of this title with the Sauslqi t translation and with the contents. Thus the old. name Prasenajit gave place to that of our text Pacsi (Pf1y11si in Pali). It is noteworLhy that at the conclusion of the work there is an exclamation of reverence addressed to the Jinas, tothe suyadevaya(sruta0 ) bhagavai; to the pannatti bhag-avai, and to the hhagavat arahat Pilsa. Joined to this exclamation are some very connpt words, which are perhaps to be restored as follows,95 Passasuyassa vaI}IC, It is at least certain that Pasa, and not )falu1v'.lra, is glorified in this paragraph. Could this not be a residuum of the original text, 92 See e. g. aiiga 8, p. 320. 93 In Nandl, Pakshikas. and !.vi. the no.me is rayapa(ppa)s/\i:iiya; Svi. wnd V. have 0s/\~nf:Ya,; the passages in the texts shewing the hand of the redactor alwayshave the form 0senai'yya. s, Leume.nn is of the opinion (Aupap. p. 2) that the name Ri\yapas&i:ia1yya a.rose by connection with Rfije. P1asenajit by a. popularetymolo!l"Y" It seems to me, however, that Ri\ya.pasei:ia1yya is the p,ius and rajapra.sn1yam the posterius. e5 namo bhagavao] arahaf>, Pasassa., passe supass&, passav:ii:ii namo {! A, araha.1hto pa.sse supassc! passava7:1ie i:iamfJ E, arahamtfJ pass{! supassa. vai:iic namo E, ara.hamto pass~ suyassa vit}.!e namil G.

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 71 which hitd a right to the title rf1ya Pasel).ai'.yya and which perhaps treated of the relationR of king Prasenajit and Pilsa? Pil.sa, it should be noticed, appears as a teacher in up. 10, 11. The seer glorified in our present text is at least called Pilsi'ivachchiyya, i. e. scholar of Pil.sa ; and appears in a recital put in the mouth of :Mahilvira as the teacher of king Paesi. In the other legends, in which [385] any such Pilsilvachchiyyas occur, they are invariably characterized as converts to the teachings of Mahilvfra. See above, p. 300. Malayagiri attempts to find in this reference to the Pil.sf1vachchiyyas a special proof of the connection of upf1i1ga 2 with ai1ga 2 which, he maintains, treats of the views of the foreign pil.shal).gas. \Ve were for some time left in doubt whether the references in the ai,gas to the Ril.yapasc1_1a1yyam were in reality all contained iu the R1lyapase9aiyyam (cf. Jacobi Kalpas. p. 107); but Leumaun has shewn that this doubt is without foundation. See above, p. 29U. But, granted the actual occurrence of all these citations, this fact only makes for the conclusion, that, at the period of these remarks by the redactor, the substitution, which I assume, was already _a fa?'.t accornpli. Nor does this exclude the assumption that our text originally EOssessed a contents that was really in harmony with its title. 'l'he subject of the largest portion (almost two-thirds) of the existing text, which after the parnchanamukk1lra begins with the customary legendary introduction tel).aIU kaJel).aID, is .\S follows: The god Silriy,lbha, who has his throne in the Sohammakappa, makes a pilgrimage with a numerous retinue t.o Amalakappfl, the city of king Sea (Bveta), in order to offer his reverence to Mahf1vira (who is abiding in that city), especially by means of music, dancing and singing.96 Furthermore, the information is treated of which, in long spnn-out details, is imparted in reference to Sftriyabha, his synonymous vimilna and all his splendour, by Mahavira to Goyama (Iihdabhuti), who questions him on these points. [386] The discussion of the snbject consists in reality of a mere heaping together of compounds; and the sentences often extend civer several pages. It is idle to talk of this as style, since it exceeds even the widely ext.ended license which is customary in these sacred texts. We recall Bana's Ki'tdambari in this connection, thougli the latter possess a wealth" of poetic thdughts and images which elevates it ab~ve this dreary and insipid hodge-podge, We have however, the right to propound the question whether there may not be a genetic connection between works like the Kil.dambari and this species of Jain literatnre, since at least the con fused style of the Indian novel may have been influenced by Jain legends of this sort,97 On page 205 of the edition9 B (of the tex:t of 296 pages printed in India), Mahilvira finally comes to the point and informs us how Sf1riyilbha reached this glory of his, and of his first birth as king Paesi (Prad@si} in S@yaviyiL The latter sent his charioteer Chitta. [387] with presents to his vassal Jiyasattu at Savatthi in the land of Kut)ala,99 At that plane Chitta heard the sermon of the "Pilsavachchijj@ Kesi nama.m. kumare," and waslOO so much edified thereby that after his return home he induced his master Paesi to let him drive him to the sanctuary, where Kesi happened to be preaching at that very time. Chitta. brought about that conversation between Paesi and Kesito which the translation of the name Rilyapase~i'.yyam by Ril.japrasl).iyam refers. This 96 32 nattavihi, 4 vaitta, 4 g/\ya, again 4 nattavihi and 4 nat\tibhhJaya aro given hero in great detail. The commentator, Malayagiri, however, offers scarcely any explanation on this point. 97 It is certain that Indian fables are greatly under the influ,,nce of the simple ji\taka tales of the Buddhists. Likewise, the mod~rn stories as Siiih,lsanadvf1trii1sikf1 etc. are without doubt influenced by the kathi\nakas which were gradunlly culfr,ated more aud more by the Jaius. It is noteworthy, that in Ba:r;ia as in the Dasakumf,ra, the style of which is much better than that of Ba:r;ia, the same persons are frequently born thrice. This three-fold birth is the special delight of the Jain legends. Our text, in this very place, affords au example of this fact. Cf. the verse quoted, Ind. Stud. 16, page 156 from the Auuycigadv. in reference to the abbhuarasa. es This quarto edition contains the commentary of Malayagiri and a gloss in Bhfishi\. The text gives the yea: Sa1hvat 1732 (!), the gloss 2732 (!). I!i\vl\grfunma is mentioned in the latter as being the scene of the events narrated. 99 Reference to this point is found in upi\i,ga 8. 100 See Uttarajjh. Cap. 23. See the statements of Dharmaghosha in his Kupakshakausikllditya (1, ?), in my treatise on this subject, page 22, Journal of the Berlin Acad. of Sciences, 1882, p. 812, in reference to modnn desccnclants of this Kl\siknmara, who themselves claim this title until the end of the XVI. century.

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. conversation;which starts with the question in reference to the relation of the jiva to the sarira, reaches in the printed text from page 24:2 to page 279, and contains, thel'efore, abont an eighth part of the whole. In reality,' however, there is more than an eighth, :tince the beginning contains a good deal of commentary .. With the relation of the former birth of Suriyt1bha as Pafsi, Mahavira connects his prophecy in reference to his future birth as Daqhapai:nna. 'l'his prophecy is in all essentials completely identic'al (though somewhat more detailed) with that form of the history of this person, which we met with in up. 1 and in up. 8 (cf. also Bhag. 11, 11.)1 We have then dis0 covered here a fact that is likely to cast a somewhat suspicious light upon the history of the text of up. 2. The enumeration of the 72 kali'is (p. 290) varies here b-a:t inconsiderably; and :Malayagiri does not help us by giving any explanation of the names. The enumeration of the foreign peoples is in essential agreement with Bhag. 9, 33 (above p. H02), with the single exception; [388] that here, too, the Chaiisiyf1 (Vaii0 Paii0 ) and the Joi;iiy1l have been included in the list. '.l'her~ are, however, some few variations in the names and in the 01der of their succesiilion. See Leumann, Aap. p. 60. On page 52 ch11}api~thar11si is adduced among the red stuffs, and likewise in op. 3; cf. chinapaHa in anga 10, p. 333. The commentary of Malayagiri dates, according to Aufreclit, Catalogus, p. 396b, from tho year (Vira ?) 1772; acoording to Leuml\D.n this is merely the date of the ~aba based upon Malayagiri. XV. The third upA.ngam, jivA.bhigamas-0.tram, = instruction, in dialogue form, of Goyama (Imdabhil.ti) in reference to the different forms and groups of animated nature. This instruction is not placed in the mouth of Mahf1v'lra, but in that of a person who is not designated. The introdaction is composed without any legendary baUast, and reads as follows : ihaa khalu Jit]amayam Jil)al,lllfilaJalII Jigat)Ulomam Jil).appat)Jta1h Jjy~aparfiviyam Jinakkhayam ,liI)lll~Uchinnam. Jii;iapannattam Jir}adesiyam Jir}apasatthari! al_luvitiyam (?) taril saddahamal_la taIIl pattiyami'\i;i:1 ta1h roema.r.1il theri't blmgavamt& jiviljlv,1bhigamam nilma 'jjhayal).alh pannava1111su. In up. 10 these theril bhagava1hto are adduced by Mahf1vira himself -c. chhedasil.tra 4. The introduction then proceeds to give, in response to the questioI\ se kim tarn jlvabhigalne ?, a species of division of the entire work. No smaller sections, except some,3 a.re marked off iu the text. [389] The various views of those4. are here enumerated5 who characterize the j1va either as duviha (to i7a of the MS. ms. or. fol. 1081 -consisting of 212 leaves) or as follows, as tiviha (to 34a ), as cbaiivviha (to 184a ; this is the chief part, almost of the whole6), as pamchaviha (to 186a ), as chhavviha (to 193a ), sattaviha (to l93b ), at~ha0 (to 195a ), J)ava0 (to 195b ), :mcl dasaviha (to 197b ). Then the same paq.ivatti, follow in the same order, but according to another guidiug principle. within this system there are innumerable groups, species and sub-species of each of the jivas according to their properties and rela~ions. '.l'he contents is remarkably dry and offers but little of genuine interest. Very frequent are the references to the fourth upili1ga, which is quite similar to it in contents and form. .At pl'esent it is impossible to decide which text has the better claim to p1-iority. :Many single verses and someGimes whole se1ies of gilthas, or kilrikil-like verses are inserted The section which treats of the divas (and samncldas) (i. e. 89b to 167a ) appears at the ,fate of ai1ga 3 and of the Nandi7 to have had a separate existence under the name divasagarapan 11atti which is mentioned twice in angat 3. See p, 268, This section unfortunately contains l s. Leumaun, Aup. p. 75 fg. 2 This is preceded by a revel'ential exclamation J].amo U sabhr.diy~J].aih, chauvvislle tittha.ga1AJ].am, an unusual form, which appears to belong to the te:x;t itself and not to emanate from the copyists. s In the MS. chiefly used by me the conclusion of an udMsa is given three times. egi' evam l\ham.su. In nine groups (pa~ivatti, Vidhiprapa), introduced in a way that is quite identical iu each separate case. We find treated here the division into nel'aiya to 52b, tirikkha,ji\J].iya to 59b, maJ].USSa to 74b, deva to 183a, and then a few further remarks to 184a, 1 In tqe Vidhiprapn there is a sa,hgrahaJ].I on it cited, among the pa"innaya,.

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.SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 73 almost nothing of real geographical value, [390] and nothing b11t fantastic conceptions concerning mythology. This holds good in reference to the astronomical (if we may use the expression) remarks concerning the different numbers (!) of the s11ns, moons and stars in each of the dvipas, which appear to harmonize completely with the statements of the fifth (or seventh) upanga. See Ind. Stud. 10, zas, The 28 nakshatras conseq_uently begin with Abhijit and not with Krittik:i.. TheFe are no legends whatsoeva1, Dr. Leuniann 1:1ends me the following detailed statement of the contents of this -u.:pa.n.gam :I. Introdnction; -II. Two-fold division of creatures, l -10, thilvari1: l -5, pu9ha vikkiiiya egirl)diya, 6 7, aukkaiya eg., 8 10. va1,1assai"kl..aiyil eg; 1126, tasii : 11. teukkMyii ag., 12. vankkaiy.a eg., 13. beimdiya, 14, teimdiyi1, 15. chaii.rimdiya, l6 26, pa111-chimdiyil, 16. neraiya, 17 20. sammuchchhimatiri4.khajorJiyi1, 21 24. gabbhavakkamtiya tir., 25. ma1;mssii, 26 d~va; .....,. 27. ta.sit a1J.d tbillrara (in gener&l). lll. 'J.'hree.fold division of creatures: 1 6. itthiyiio, 7 12. purisi1, 13 li,. napumsagi1, 19 24. the three togeth!lr and among themselves. -IV, Four.fold division of creatures. A geographical text is inserted ea.lied the dtvasamudda. 1. pa~hamo nara'iya-uddeso, 2. bitiyanerai:ya-uddesao, 3. tarn naraya. uddesao, 4. tirikkhajo9iyapa4h. udd., f>, tirikkh. dd bjo., 6, ma9ussa, 7. 31 3.3. dhii, 8 28. divasamudd.i. 8 16. the Jambnddiva, the inmost part of the world, of circular form, 8. Desaription of the above, in general the same as that of 8ih-iyiibhavimf11].a in Rajapr. 9. the gate of the east, Vijaya dara .... 10. '!'he residence rayalu11,1i of the god Vijaya who rules there. 11. [391] 'rhe walk"of reverenae of Yijaya within his vimal}-a, 12, The duJation of the existence of Yijaya, 13. The gates of the t,hree remaining regions of the world : Vejayamta dAra, Jayamta dara and Apar11iya d1'iFa, and the distance of the daras from each other, -14. Jambuddiva as bounded by the Laval}-a sea which surrounds it on all sides like a riIJg,....,... 15. ExpJq,nq,tion of the na.me Jambuddiva, .... 16. Number of the constellations moving over Jamb., 17. The Laval}-a sea, the first ocean surrounding Jambuddtva like a. riI!-g; the desoription here corresponds to that of Jamb, a1id from this point on is in the same strain, 18, The Chanda-div4 and Sradiva of the different parts of the earth and oceans, 19. Appendix to 17 : Ebb and flow etc., 20. The second part of the globe, Dhf1ya'isa1,1tja, that in circnla.r form is contiguous to the Lava!].a sea; then the second ocean KIUuda which, in the form of a ring, is adjacent to Dhiiy. ; and finally the third part of the globe, Pukkha ravara, contiguous to ~i\loda, 21. 'fhe Samaya, or 1'la!].ussa,Khetta, consisting of the a.boye mentioned two first parts of the globe and the first two OP!lans together with the inner h11,lf of tlw ring of the third part of the glob!l, which is separated from the outer half by the circqlar mountain, 1\!a1].uss11ttara. 22. The following parts of the globe and oceans which a.r~ connected with one another as rings : Pukkharoda, Y11ru!].avara diva, Viirul}.oda., KMravarl:\ diva,, Khiroda, Ghatavara diva., Ghatoda, Khodavai'a diva, Khododa, 23, The following world.ring, Nandisaravara dtva. --24. The following oceans aud world-rings; Nandisaroda, Aru1,1a diva, etc., to :S:ara,varobhasoda. -:-25. l'he rem!Lining oceans and world-rings up to Sayi~mbhuramaga diva and Sayambhurama1.1oda. 26. The names of all these parts of the globe and oceans, -27. The [392] watel.'s and aquatic animals of the different ocea11s, 28. In reference to the divasamudd:1 in general (namadhejja, uddhiirasamaya, parir.u'\ma arid uvaviiya) ......., ~P. 30. A brief insertion, perhaps an appendix to the d1vasa.mudd11. 29. About parigama, 30. Concerning t.lie ability of gods to catch an object that has been thrown, to split a hair (? ga1hittae), to lengthen or to shorten one. 31 33. devil continuation; (see 7). 31. joisa-udd~sao. 32. pa~hamo Vemilq.iya-udd. 33. bio Vem11 l)iya-udd.s 34. Final collective stateIJ'.leuts ( duration of existence, etc.) in reference to the four divisions of creatures. -V. -X. Five-fold to the ten-fold division of creatures. XI. Introduction to the following analogous divisions of all creatures, -XII. to XX. Two-fold to ten-fold division of all creatures. 8 This concluding title, says Leuman_Il., is incorrectly placed after Chapter 34 instead of after 33 in the Berlin MSS. and in those of Prof. Monier Williams,

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74 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. XVI. The fourth upa.itgam, pannava1;1.a. (praj:fi.apana.) bha.gavai, likewise treats of the different forms, conditions oflife, etc., of the jiva. 9 It is divided into 36 pay as, (padas), of which several (15. 17. 23. 38) consist of from two to six uddesakas. According to the fourth of the nine verses of the introduction, it is the work of Ayya S11ma (Arya ~yilma, also 'Syamarya), who at the same time is called tlie twenty-third dhirapurisa" i. ~ after Vira (after Sudha1masvfnnin, according to :Malayagiri). [393] This statement causes 110 little difficulty. According to Klatt, l. l. p. 247b and 251b (9, 23) and in the Journal of the German Oriental Society 33, 4 1u, the modern Jain lists of teachers place, with some few di:fferences,1 0 'Syama in the fourth century after Vira; but the "twenty-third'' successor of V11a is placed by one list immediately before Devarddhiga1.1i, 980 after Vfra, and is regarded by the other as contemporaneous with the destruction of Valabhi (Valabhibhai1ga), 845 after Vira. The Gurvilvali of the 'l'apagachha expressly enumerates 'Sy11marya as a contemporary of the ninth patriarch ; and in both of the old TherhaHs of the Nandi (o~ Avasyaka) and of Merntui1ga he is enumerated as t.he 13th (not the 23rd) successor of Vira. This apparent contradiction is done away with by the explanation of Bhilu Di\ji, referred to p. 217n, according to which the eleven gai:iadharas of v:ra are regarded as being included in the designation of 'Syf1ma as "23rd" successor. This method of including the ga1~adha.ras has however not been traced elsewhere. The text begins with the pamchanamukkara, followed by the following glorification : .eso pamchanamukkf1ro savvapavapai;iasai;io I maigaial}am cha savvesim pa<;ihamam Mi marnga lain II This glorification is to be ascribed to the last dasapfirvin, sri Vajra (584 Vira), according to modern tradition. See Kup. 81J. (2]) on this point and also the same passage in _reference to the question whether in the last pt1da we must read hoi or havai,ll about which there is fierce contention among the Jain theologians. [394] Then followsl2 in nine verses the real introduction, of which Jacobi (Journ. Germ . Orient. Soc. 34, 2:n) sayi! "it is manifestly the production of Devarddhiga1.1in, the redactor of the Siddhi1nta." The first verse praises Mahavka; the second characterizes the pannavai;ia .Bavvabhava1~am as uvadarhsiya by him (bhagavaya); the third and fourth pay reverence ,to that saint,. Ajja Sama, the "23rd dhirapurisa," whose wisdom, perfected by listening .to the purvas, gave to his scholars this sruta-jewel after he had brought it up from the -!ruta-sea : vayagavaravamsilo tevisatimei;ia dh1rapuris~1~a I duddharadharei;ial3 IDUI}ii;ia pnvva suyasamiddhabe1ddhie14 II 3 II suyasil.yar11 vil}efi.l}a jel}a suyarayar;iam nttamam dinnam s1sagai;iassa, bhagavato tassa namo Ajja Samassa II 4 JI In verse 5 an "I" promises to describe (or proclaim) the work in the same way as the "bhagavant" has described it; and the work is charac~erized as "dripping with tlrishtivada:" ajjhaya,.1am il}am chittam suyarayai;iam ditthivayanisamdam15 I jaha vanuiyarn bhagavaya aham avi taha val).l)a'issami II 5 ii It is, of course, clear16 that some one else tl1an the previous speaker is to be understood by this "I;" and Jacobi's [395] conjecture, mentioned above, must e Cf. in the Schol. on the Nandi: jivadfoam padarthanl\m prajnf1panan1 yatra s& prajnapanl\, sai 'va vriha.ttarA ma.hAprajnapanl\. Two texts of this name are referred to there, a simple pann and a mahl\pann. The latter is adduced as the sixth upangam by Kashina.'th Kunte (p. 227) p. 5 and p. 7, who ea.Us it, however, "obsolete and extinct." He does not mention the chandapannatti. 19 The Patt(l\vaU of Kharntaragachhaj dates his birth 376 (or 386) after Vira; in the same year the Gurv(,'.vali of Tapugachha) assumes his death to have oacurred. He was also called Kalaka and wa.s one of the three celebrated teachel"a of this name. See Jacobi, Journ. Germ. Orient. Soc. 34, 25lff. 1l Thus in the beginning of the Kalpasutra, see Jacobi, p. 83, and Avasy. 9, 132, 12 The preceding is omitted by llfalayagiri, whose commentary begins here. 13 Jacobi translates "undergoing a severe test." I propose" holding that (in his head} which is difficult of ret9ntion"; cf. the use of dharae p. 30Jn (Bhag. 2, 2!5 n J. H buddht~am var. 1., construed by Jacobi with vl\yagavara, as if we had 0varli~a,u. 16 dvadasasya ',hgasya nishyaihdam iva. The expression di0nlsamda1h recurs in the words" aggc'IJiya-pnvvanis. sands" at the end of the siddhapnhu4a. See above, page 355. 16 Malayagiri refers'' bhagavayu" to Mahfiv!ra and not to Ayya Sama as the one who in the text carries on the dial<;>gue with Gi\yama. According to his. conception then the work of Ayya Sama begins with this verse ; and this is probably oorrect,

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 75 be referred and indeed limited to v. 1 -4 alone in so far as these verses appear as a prelude 9E secondary origin. In the four verses which then follow are contained the titles of the 36 .-sections :-1. Pannaval}.&, 2. tM9airh, 3. bahuvattavvam, 4. thit, 5. visesa ya J 6. vukkarht!, 7 ussaso, s. sannn,11 9. ju91 ya, 10. charimaim 11 6 JI, 11. bhasii, 12. sadra-, 13. pariiJihna-, 14. kasae-, 15. 1mdiya-, 16. (\J -is wanting) ppaogJ ya I 17. lesa, 18. ldyaghit ya, 19. sammatte (samyaktva), 20. amtakiriyf1 ya 11 1 11, 21. ugilhaI,1ilsamthiine,18 22. kiriy11, 23. kamme i yavare(?), 24. kam massa barltdhae, 25. vedassa barii.dhae, 26. kammassa vMae,19 27. veyaveyae II 8 20 II, 28. iihare, 29. uvaoge, 30. pasai;taya (darsanata), 31. sanni21 (samjnin), 32. sarhjame cheva J 33. ohi (avadhi), 34. paviyarar>a22 (read 0ra1!-:1 y1l), 35. veyal},a Cvedanil), 36. tatto samugghf1e 11 9 JI. Then comes the text t
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76 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. damba B, Godhai C) Damila Vilala {VillaI].a B, Chillala C) Pulim.da Harosa Dom.va (Tova B, Docha C) BoHhakliI].a(Vokkal}a BC) Gam.dhaharavtt (Pharaga B) Pahaliliya (Bahayaliya B, Pahaliya C) A.yyala R11ma Pasa Paiisa Nalaya (Navaya C) ya Bamdhuyti ya Suyali KothkaQa ga Meya (Mopamya B) Palhava Malava 1\!!aggar.i (0r.a BC) .Abhasiya ,al!::vayiva (:f{a,!J.virii, B) Lbasiya (Lha0 B) Khagga (Kkhasa B) Ga11iy!l, (~hasiyll, l3) ~oha, (N&.du )3, ~11,ddu C) :J:tamacjha27 (0tha B) Dombilaga ("Po C) Lajis!J, (00S!:!, C) Pao1:1a Kvokvatti (! Kakkveyti l3, K!!,)ivey11, C) Arakagii, (Aravaga BC) HuI].a Romaga Bharu Maruya Visalapavasi (Chilayavisavasi y~ B, Vilayavisay11,-vasi yii C) evamadi, se 'ttam Milakkha, The a.riyas are divided into nine groups, tb.e firfl,t of wliipli i'3 fo:r!'.lled by the khettariya, and is in gatha form. It is as follows:' Rayagiha Magaha, Champa A.m.ga taha, 'l'amalitti Vamga ya I KamchaI].apuram. Kalimga, Ba!iarasi (!) cheva Kasi ya II [398] Silha. Kosali'i, Gaya,puram ch11, ~uru, Soriyatjl K~satiha (0dd~ B, Wl) y11,2s I Kampil .. lam Pathchal~, 4-hichhatta J atjlgal11 cMva II . . . Baravai Sorattha, Mihila Videha ya, Vattha (9hohhJ1, B) Koimmbi I Namdipuram Sarh
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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE J AINS. 77 writing") pavattai"; barhbMe i;iarh liv1e atthilrasavihaZi/d.;havihfti;ie pai;ii;iatte,31 tarn, barhbM Jarni;i,i liya DasapHriya32 Kharotth1 Pit7(,klzarasari:ya33 Bhogavai'ya Paharaiyilu (Palia0 B, .:ll;ha C) ya arhtarakariyft (arhtakkhar0 B) itkklmraputthiyi\34 ve1_1ai'ya35 ni1Jha1yii amkalivi30 ga1Jitaliv137 garhdha vvalivi38 uyusalivi39 mlihesari4 DlimiH41 Polirhda,42 se 'ttarh bhflsf1riya. Malayagiri has on this merely: [400] brahmi-Yavanfmi (!) 'ty adayo lipibhcdas tu sampradayild avaseyal;i. It is evident that here too we have to deal with an ancient enumeration, since we find five of these names among the 65 names of writing mentioned in Lalitavistara, Chap. 10, p. 143 fg. (ed. Riljendra L:1la Mitra, see also Foucaux, Trans!. p. 123). These names are as follows, brillunl (at the head in tl1e Lalavist.), Kharosht?,~3 PuRhkarasarJ,44 Dravic;lalipi, garhdharvalipi, and a few other names as ga1Janavartalipi, antarikshadevalipi, madhyf1ksharavistliralipi are not far removed from the names enumerated here. The antiquity of these names becomes at. once apparent if we compare them with similar enumerations of kinds of writing which comprise quite different names (though they hold fast to the number 18). In the Kalpil.ntarv1ichy1ini we find (on Kalpas. 209) the following peculiar verse in reference to acquiring a knowledge of writing through the help of Jina: Leharh liMvihai;iam jii;iena b3:-mbh1i dahi1Jakarei;iarh I gai;iiarh sarhkhai;iam sumdadi v1ime1:m uvai'ttham II, then an enumeration of the 72 kaliis, which is followed by the following statements in reference to writing, the first of the 72 : Iekhauarh lipayai}. 18, tad yathil: hamsalipi bhC1talipi yaksha0 rakshasa0 Uc)c;li Y:ivani Turashld kari (?) DraviiJ.1 Sairhdhavi Malavi ni'tcJi nf1garl Late Pilrasi auimittalipi (ichhilsarhketadir11pa gloss) Chfq1akki Mauladevi. A second and more modern enumeration ibicl. reads : -[ 401 J desfidiviseshiicl anyatha vil 18 : Lttc)l Choc;li :P.ihali K:1nhac)1 GO.jari Sorathi MarahathJ Kaumkai;ii Khurast1i;ii (!) Sasi (?) SirhhaH HaiJ.1 Kiri HammM (!) ParatM Miigadhi Malavi Mahayodhi, In this enumeration the introduction is of especial interest, since it cans the addha-Magaha bhilsa, the language of the bambhi livi. See p, 221. No weight _is to be laid upon the statement, which the text evidently intends to make, that all the 18 methods of writing mentioned above were brought into nse for the bambhi livt This passage and that of the Lalitavistara must be regarded as of paramount inportance for the history of Indian writing, though these accounts contain much that can be recognized as purely fictitious. XVII. The fifth upa.i1gam, sttriyapannatti (sttryaprajftapti) bhagavati, in 20 pahucJ.as (prabhrita) of which 1 has eight, 2 three, and 10 twenty-two subdivisions called pahugapf1hnga. This strange name pahucJ.a is found beside here only in the puvva contained in the ditthivaa. By the nse of this word a special connection between the ditthivaa and this upan ga is eo ipsu rendered probable,45 Cf. also the direct statement in the introduction to up. 7. In discussing atiga 3 I have remarked (p, 269) that its mention of a s1'\.rapannatti designated as ai1gabahira had reference to this upanga, though it could not be regarded as certain that the present form of this npailg11. was thereby attested for that period. If it is doubtful whether the present form of this up. existed even at the date of the Nandi [402] in which the surapanuatti also is enumerated among the anarhgapavittha texts ; but there are two other texts enumerated together with (or immediately after) the si'1rap., treating in all probability 31 ovihe lrha(A, kha BC)vi0 4. si clasf1iiriyi\ (f1ri BC) 4. 33 kharotthiya I kharasf1hiyf1 4. s1, in 4 in another order:: pahfLraiy11 (tai0 BC) uvvattariyl\ akkharaput(hiyf1 bhogava"itti\ (0vayatfi BC). S5 ve,;ta,;tiy11 BC in 4. so arukilavi A in 4. 01 4 is omitted. 88 4 then adds bhu.yalivi. 89 fidamsalivi 4. ,o mehasai:alivi A, mf1h~sarilivi BC in 4. H damilivi livi A, dasilalivi B, dilmilalivi C in 4. n v6liritcla A, limdirhliv1 B, liclhhlivi C in 4. ,s Is Khar.'Jshtha who, according to Wassiljcw, is called by the Chinese Buddhists the first astronomer, honoured here under this name? Schiefner long ago referred to the Kharoshthi lipi of the Lalitavistara in this connection. Wassiljew attempts to fincl in Kharoshti the name of a Xarustr mentioned in an Armenian chronicles who together with Zoroaster is said to have inventccl astronomy in Chaldrea, See Ind. Streifen 3, s. 9, or another conjecture on this subject. '4 The grammarian Paushkarasndi may be recalled in this connection. '5 In up. 6 see p. 414 -a division into vatthus is ascribed, as seems probable, to our text. The name vatthu at least recalls the purva,,

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78 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. of the same subject., which are at present discussed in bo_oks l and 9 (see note 1, pages 406, 407). Perhaps the double mention of the sfrrap. in Avasy. Nijj. 2, 6 and 8 54, is to be referred still farther back, though it is still in clnbio whether this mention refers to the present text or not. In the first of these passages, the author says of himself that, besides other texts, he desired to provide both the suriapannatti and the isibhasiya with a nijjutti. If tradition is correct, Bhadrabt,husvamin is to be regarded as the speaker; and Malayagiri in the commencement of his comm. on uv. 5 makes especial mention of a lost niryukti of Bhadr. on the fifth uvamga. In the second passage both of the texts just mentioned_4o are adduced17 t.ogether with the kaliasuam (the 11 ai1gas according to the i:;chol.) and the ditthivaa as the four anuyogas, i. e. objects of study. In this passage the isibh. occupy the second place, the surap. the third, the diHhivi\a the fourth. The sfrrap. occupies here manifestly a very important position. The importance of the work is in fact very great, as is apparent from the thoroughgoing report I have made concerning it in Ind. Stud. X. 254 316. In it we find the most remarkable statements concerning the astronomy of the Jains arranged in a systematic form of presentation, [ 403] Apart from these most peculiar lucubrations, this account is of especial interest inasmuch as it displays remarkably close affiliation.;; with the Vedic calendar-text called Jyotisham, with the N akshatrakalpa and the parisishtas of the Atharva-Veda. The quinquennial yugam, sun and moon, and especially the 28 nakshatras, are placed in the fore ground. The planets are known (Jupiter and Saturn with their periodic times), though they assert a very unimportant position and are not cited in the Greek order. There is no mention whatsoever of the zodiac. The 28 nakshatras begin with Abhijit., and the yugam consequently begins with the summer and not with the winter solstice. The libido novandi of the Jains, which has intentionally changed almost entirely everything which they enjoyed in common with the Buddhist.s or Brahmans, is here very apparent. In reality, the Jains are but tolerably fitted out with intellectual gifts. In order to conceal and compensate for this lack of originality they seek to possess something that is their individual property, and to attain this end they do not hesitate to indulge in the wildest dreams of fancy. In the province of astronomy they have given full reins to their imagination. The polemical spirit, manifested especially in the surap. against other opinions (paqivatti), proves that they are perfectly aware of the opposition between their own views and those generally accepted. The beginning of the nakshatras with .Abhijit, as the sign of the summer solstice, [404] which Malayagi.ri presumably refers back to P11daliptasuri48 (1. 1. 286}, pre-supposes .Asvini as the sign of the vernal equinox (1. c. pp. 304, 305). It is based, therefore,_ upon the rectification of the old Krittika series, which had already taken place, and which upon occasion (see 20, 17) appears as the old traditional series. It is an open question whether Greek intluence made itself felt in this rectification; at any rate we have to deal here with an indigenous stage of Iudian astronomy antecedent to the authoritative and preponderating influence of the Hellenes. It is probable, therefore, that the period opened up to ns by these astronomical conceptions, is the period embracing the first few centuries of our era. G. Thibaut, in two treatises on the Suryaprajfiapti in the Journal As. Soc. Beng. 1880, pp. 107-127, 181-206, has collected some facts of especial interest in this connection, facts which make for the connection of the contents of the Suryapr. with the corresponding statements in the Tcheou Pey, see Ed. Biotin the Journal Asiatiqiie, 1841, pp. 592-639, the second part of which Biot holds to be not later than the second century A. D. Thibaut does not attempt :my answer to the question whether or not there is here any historical connexion. If such a connection be proved, the Chinese must be regarded as the borrowers, through the medium of Buddhism, with which Jainism was frequently confused by the Chinese. 'l'he opposite opinion appears entirely removed from the domain of possibility by the actual facts of the case. [ 40[, J The text has been banded down to us contaminated by many corruptions. The 6 isibMsiyaim is explained by the schol. here by uttaradhyayanlldfoi ; on 2, 6 by devendrastavfidfni. ~-ee pages 259, 281, 429, 442. n An imitation of this passage is the one quoted from !:!flllnka on p. 258. '8 In the year Vira 467 according to the thcrllvaU of the Kharatarag. see Klatt, p. 23.

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 79 numerous g,1thi\s contained in it often appear with entirely uninflected noun-forms (used in the nominative or accusative) in apabhramsa fashion. The nom. sing. of the first declension mostly ends in o and not in e. The numerals appear in a form that is excessively curtailed. If all' these are peccata ab origine, they are besides secondary corruptions of the text which are easily traceable. Several gathi\s49 stood originally at the end of several in Book l; the l\ISS. containing the express statement: attha .. gf1thi\n blutr,titavvi1u, but the words of the gi1thi\s have disappeared. Even Malayagiri is unable to restore them, since they were no longer extant when he wrote: samprati kva 'pi pustake na drisyamte, 1. c. p. 266n, 'rhe text begins with the legend (and in fact in the customary formula: tegam Hle1lam) that Imdabhuti, at the time of king Jiyasattu in Mihila, requested that he should be instructed (by Mahtiv.) in ..... and then follows in 15 gi1thils50 a complete statement of the contents of the 20 orthe33sub-divisious in books 1, 2, 10. The redaction is, therefore, the result of the activity of one individual. Books 10 and 15 close with the formula tti bemi, which we met with in the case of ai1gas 1 -3. Is it possible from this fa.et to conjecture [ 406] that originally they existed separately, before the author incorporated them in his work ?0 1 In I. 3 there is a reference in the text to the Jarhbnddivapannatti which here in turn cites our text. I here reproduce from my treatise cited above a short statement of the contents : Book I. in 8 chapters, marh;l.alai, the circles traversed annually by the sun,52 viz.: 1. vagghavagc;lhi mnhuttili;iarh, increase and decrease of the number of hours for day and night, 2. addhamam
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80 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS . Book IX. Of the -;mount of shade in the different seasons.5' See Ind. Stud. 10, 284. Book X. in 22 chap. (about t of the whole). Of the connection of the moon with the nakshatras, viz. : -1. avaliya, the order of succession of the 28 nahhatras beginning with Abhijit. 2. muhuttagge, the number of hours for the connection of each of the naksh. with the moon or with the sun. [ 408] 3. bhfiga, the parts of the day or night (or of the heavens) which be!ong to each of the nakf;hatr:u;, 4. jogas.1, more exact statements in reference to the time of day in which the naksha.tras come into conjunction with the moon and the length of this conjunction. 5. kulfiim, the family connections of the naksh. with the months. 6. punnamilsi, the days of the full moon; how and with which nakshatra these end during each of the five years of a yuga. 7. sanivfte, the mutual harmonious concatenation of the days of the new and full moon. 8. sa:rh~hii, figures of the naksh. 9. tiiraggam, number of stars of the naksl1. 10. neta, leader, i. e. which naksh. lead which month P ll. cha:rhdamaggam, relation of the nakshatras to the 15 day-circles of the moon. l ') devatfi1}a ya ajjhayal},e, the tutelary divinities of the nakshatras. 13. muhuttill},ail! namayai, the names of the 30 muhfirtas. 14. divasarfii, the names of the 15 days and the 15 nights of the karmamasa, calendar month. 15. tihi, tithayalJ, ditto of the lunar month. 16. gotta, the families of the naksh. 17. bhoyal},a!].i, the foods which are good during each of the naksh. -That the naksh. begin l1ere with Krittikfi (!), is due to the influence of the well-known material that is here treated uf. 18. aichchachfira, course (of the naksh.) with the sun or with the moon during the yaga. [409) 19. masa, names of the months of the world and those above the world (lokottara, chiefly of climatic contents). 20. pamcha samvachharai, the five years, viz. : -1. the naksbatra year with 12 periodic months of 327-H vvx611.pa. 2, the yuga year, lunar year of 354H vvx811.Epa. 3. the pamil1,1a (pra0 ) year, of which there are five kinds. In addition to the two just mentioned, the ritu year (savana) of 360 vvx611.pa, the solar year of 366 vvx611.Epa, and the lunar )(..leap-year of 383H vvx811.Epa. 4, the laksha1}a year, divided into the same five groups as above; there are, however, in addition certain requisites or characteristics. 5. the year of Saturn (30 years), during which Saturn completes his circuit though the :!8 naksh. 21. joisassa sayaduraim, the gates of the nakshatras (in what quarter of the heavens they bring good fortune). 22. nakkhattavija~ (vichayal1), transit of the sun and moon through the 28 naksh, Book XL Of the beginning of the five lunar years belonging to the yuga. Book XII. Of the five kinds of ye11,r, which were discussed in 10, 20 on pamilr;iasamvatsara; they receh-e a much fuller treatment here. H porisimarh!].alari:t is cited in N and I 11-s a separate text.

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE J AINS. 81 Book XIII. Of the waxing and waning of the moon. Book XIV. When is moonlight tlie brightest? Book XV. 0 th~ rapidity of the five classes of constellations-sun, moon, planets, naksh. and t.il.ril. -According to Leumann cf. also Jiv. 4, 31, 12. [410] Book XVI. Of the properties of moonlight. Book XVII. 0 the fall (passing away) and uvavaya (resurrection) of the genii of the moon, sun, etc. Book XVJII. Of the height of the constellations above, and their distance from, the earth cf. Jiv. 4, 31, a (L.) Book XIX. 0 the number of the suns, etc., in Jambudvipa, etc.; cf. Jiv. 4, 16. 17, 7 20, s. 10. 1. 21 (L.) Book XX. Of the nature and substance of the five classes of constellations. 'fhere is a commentary by Malayagiri. XVIII. The sixth up!IJigam, the Jambuddivapannatti. We have seen (above p. 268) that in the third ai1ga 4, 1 55 a work of t.l1is name was cited, if not as upai1ga, at least as ai1gaMhira. In that ai1ga we find the same minute division of time which we meet with here; hence the existence of this upai1ga is assured even if its present form is different from that then in vogue. In our text npon a definite occasion there is a special reference to up. 5 and up. 7, each of which in turn cites our upr1i1ga. It is, therefore, probable that these' works are synchronistic, supposing that the citations in tl1is instance are not, as usually the case, the work of the redactor. The legendary introduction to this upanga is wholly identical with that which commences [ 411] upai:tgas 5 and 7, upiti1gas which are connected by a very close tie. This introduction is inserted between upfii:tgas 5 and 7 in a very remarkable manner. Our up. is, however, different from these, in that, like a1igas 1 3, it concludes with the formula ti bemi, which, it must however, be confessed, is :found at t,he end at least of books 10, 15 ; see p. 405. There are no sub-divisions in the text itself, wlience the Vidhiprapfi calls it egasarfi. The commentary, however, recognizes seven sections which it calls by the strange title of vakslrns kfira.56 The mythical geography of Jambuddiva, interfnsed with many legends, :forms the contents of this upni1ga. The chief part -f of the whole concerns the description of the seven vllsas {varsha) and of the six vasahnras (varshadhara). The description ofBharahavfisa which is placed in the fore-front comprises at least f of the entire account. The legends of king Bharata, from whom it takes its name, claim a good half of the entire section. The detailed account of Bharaha viisa in the different gradations of the past and present (in all 4), and in the future (in all 8), is prece'1ed hy a minnte description of the divisions of time and extent; of which we have already (in ai1ga 3) met the first, from i'i valiyf1 to s1sapaheliyfi ( or to usappi1,1i) see above, p. 268. One difference is, however, noticeable: Bere5 7 the increase is by hundreds after the millennium, [ 412] after 100,000 years by 84's ( chaiir;'\sJtiv;1sasayasahassaim s@ ege puvvamge), and from this point on by 8 400,000 (chaiiras1t.ipuvvarhgasaya ... sahassRirh se @ge puvve); in ai1ga 3, however, we find no more exact statement in reference to the manner of the progression58 (vasakoqi 'ti va, puvvamg11 ti vii, pavvfi ti v;1). M In 3, I, however, only the titles of up~ngas 7. 5 (and the title of a part of up. 8) are mentioned. The title of our up. finds there no mention whatsoever. 60 This recurs e. g. in H{mahaisa's ny~yamari,jushf,, 57 So nlso in the Anuyc,gadvfirasutra, see Bhag. l, 427, See Ind. Stud. 18, 16~. Ind. Sti-eifen, 3, 3. P..dichad.a1J,r1achhntt,,ap,. p. 17 in reference to the customary use of the number 84. 58 According to the scholiast, we must assume tho.t the relations of modality in afiga 3 .are identical with those here :-pi\rval},i pf1rvt,mgfmy <'Va chaturas!ti varshalakshc.gmJitsni; purval)i chaturasitilakshagul},itfini trutituti1gf.ui bhavarhti ...

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82 SACRED LITERATURE OF THK JAINS; Af, the r.esnlt of the above we may observe one divergence as regards up. 5, where. in lJOok VI..(&ee Ind. Stud. 10, 282),.the word puvva occurred in the significationofa million years, and the ipcrease from that point on (without any special mention of the names in question) siml)lJpassing by paliovama and sagarovama, up to osappiI].i; merely by lO's .. '.!.'.he ennme;ation of the 7.2 kaHis in a legend of Usabha is not mentioned in detail; its beginning &nd end alone being mentioned. The women of the. forejgn peoples known to us from the Bhagav;i,H,see p. 302 -are enuwerated as. servants of king Bharaha: Tate nam tassa Bharahassa raI,11]0 bahuo khuyya59-Chililti-vfimaI].i-vagabhio Babbari-Vaiisiyao Jo!].iya-Palha viyiio, Isi1.11ya-Thtiru1].iya (ThiirukitJifi, Chariibha!].iya) Li\Esiya Laiisiya Damili S!haB taha .Aravi Pnlirhdi ya PakvatJi Valiali arumgi [413](:Mura0 Muro0 ) Savario Pi'\rasio ya appigatiyfio chaida1J.akalasahatthaJ7ayao .A.c.cor.ding to the commentary, the first four vakslrns-kai-as treat of the following subjects :The .firs~, of the Bharatakshetrasvarf1pam ; the second, of its special relations during the 14 tern por;iJ di visions, Bharatakshetrasvaru pa vari;i.ana prasta vanf1ga tfl vasarpi i;ty-n tsarpi 1,1id vayari't pa killachakra v1tr1J.an& nfirna.; the third, of the legends concerning king Bharata, Bharatakshetra pravrittinimittavirbhil.va.Bharata.chalnicl1aritrav. nfima; the. fourth, of the remaining 6 .v:1sas, or 6 vasaharas,60 kshudraHimavadiidivarshadharaira,vatitmtavarshavarI].ano nfuna, The. fifth treats, in legendary forn;i, _of the birth an.d consec.ratio:n of a titthak!it, tirthakrijjanmabhishekadhikarav. T.h.e six:th, unfortunately, gives but a very short review of the. divisions, ex.tent, mountains, temples,. lak,es, rivers,. e.tc., _of J am-budvipa, J ambudvipag!l,tapadarthasamgrahav 01: Tlie seventh rleals with ast:rologica,l and chronological mattea.s, jyotishkadhikarav., and especially with the JlU;mber, efo,., of the moons, suns and stars in Jarhbudv1pa. Herein it is in very close agreement with the si't.rap_anna.tti a.nd chamdapann.atti, ,both of.which are. cited a.t the. end . The 11,nswer to the questions under consideration found at the end 'isbased chiefly u1pon the discus sion.,: pamphamasue paghame uddesae, by which (414] Bhagavati 5, 1 is doubtless meant. It doses. in treating of th,e sn: ichch esa JambnddivapannattI sftrapannattlvatthusamasel}am samatta bh.avat.i. Then, in close,conju-nc.tion with the above, it, in,li,ke.manner, treats of the moon, and concludes.: ich,ch e!lil. Ja0ttt chamdapannattivatthusamaser:iam s. bh .. The ex-pression va:tth:U,. which occurs here. twice, belongs to the puvva sections see page.361. It does not occur in. the. existing texts of npai1 gas 5 and 7, which are divided into pu.lm~as, a term. which, .it must1be, confessed, .is similar to the p-firvas. Next follo.ws a discussion in reference to. the fiive different kinps,of year (see. above: p. 409), viz.; L The nakkhatta year (and by this is meant the. re~o]ution of Jupiter through the 2&.nak,;;hatras ;62 in up. 5 (see, Ind. Sturl, 10, 2~0), .this,is cited merely as. a, pakshamtaram. 2. The lunar yuga year. 3:. The. pamAI}a year with itsfive groups :is in up 5. 4. The lakkhai:ia year in five.gronp_s. The scholiast says that in the first of t.he five, the nakshatra year, the commencement is made with Krittikii and not with Abhijit The scholiast: on up. 5 at leai,t makes mention of Uttarf1shf1Qhfis cf. Ind. Shrd. 10, 301,note 7; 5; The year of Saturn or its rernlu.tion through the 28 naksbatra.s. Then follow the months, days, hours-and. the karaJ].a, which last was omitted in up. 5 .. The fourth, karaI].am is here called thlviloa!].a, strivilochana, or tLil.oaI].a (so. also in. the Ga1,1friyyf1 v. 42) and not taitila .. The. names. are. as nsual : Bavarh balave kolavam thiviloa1Jath [ 41 !i] garf1i vai;iijam vighi (these 7"are chara) .SRUI].l 69 kubji\4 kubjika vakrajanghal), Chilatyah chilatadrsotpannM;i, vl\manika atyamtahrasvonnatahridayakoshthi\ vii, varlabhika madahakoshthft vadha(,akrftdhal~ P)k~yi\ vi\; bakusadesa.j:'il~; t;iniki>]:t tharukinikl\~1; Htsakadesajl\4, lalrnsadcsajft):i; tatra chililtyfidayi'J 'shti\dasa tattaddrsodbhavatvtna tattannllmiki\ j~eya]:i, kubjildayas tu tisro viseshaQa.bhutiil.t; see Leuma;,,_n in the glossary to the A up. 69 Then follows: 2. The mountain (v,iisah~mpavvl\f,) chulla Himava1ht~, 8, in Hrmavl\f, v,;se, 4. mount maha Himftvamte, 5, in Harivi\se vase, G. mount Nisal\a, 7. in :Mahftvideh/\ vris;,, s. mount Nflavaiht/\, v. in Rammf.e vAs/\, 111. mount Rupp! (Rukmin), ll. in Hira1:q1avai' vasf, 12 mount Sihari (f:;ikharin), 18. in li:ravfte vils&. 61 2!leaves (75h to 77n) in a MS. of the t~xt embracing 95 leaves, of which the fiftb section embraces 66a to 75b, A gahf,, which summarizes the contents, forms the introduction. This giihii is at the head of a salitghayai;il in 20 tryA composed in very free Prfikrit, by Haribhadrasuri. See above, pp. 371, 372. 62 jam va vaha.ssa! mahaggahe duvAlasahim samvachharihiih savvanakkhattamamrJalam sathchArri se tam nakkhattasarhvachhare.

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SACRED LITER'ATURE" or THE JA.INS: chaiippaya J?.agam kimtthuggham (these 4 are thira). The beginning with Bava is the one which usually occurs elsewhere;: but in the qinquennial. yugam, contrary to other statements, everything has been changed. Of the two aya1,1asthe summersolstice is in the first place, the rainy season is first among the seasons, Sava!]-a ('Srava9a) first among the months, the bahulap; among the pakkha, the day among the ahoratta, and Abhijit among the nakshatras. Then follows a special discussion of. the nakishatras, their, position as rega;rds the moon,. their divinities, the number of tlieir stars, their gotta, their form, etc., just as in the Nakshatrakalpa or in upai1ga 5; and partly in the form of giiha. The names of the nakshatras appear here in their secondary form as in up. 5, in anga 3 see Ind. Stitd. ] 0, 286, and above p. 268 : Savana (instead of 'Srol}a), Dhari~tha (instead of. 'Sravishtha), Bhaddavaya (instead of Proshfhapada), Pussa (instead of Tishya). T,he conclusion is formed by all sor:ts: of rema;rk!able statements in reference to sun, moon, stars, the extent of their V'imilJ?.'11,, etc.; Mars (imgiila~ viyalae Iohita1ilke) and Saturn (saI,1ichhare) are. regaL"ded as l:ielimging to the court of the moon; cf. Bhagavatt 1, ,01, 2, 225, Jupiter was referred to above; but there is no mention of Mercury,. Venus, and the zodiac. The commentary is by Santichandra, scholar of"S!likala;cha.nd:ra, who lived at the time of the 58th patriarch of the Tapagachha, Htravijayasuri (t Samvat 165-2), -recognized by srt~Ak"1bbara suratral}a (Sultan), This, commentary63 is very verbose, but-in the introduc-tion it contafos numerous matters of interest in reference to the relations of ea;ch of the [416] 12 upa-i1gas to that one of the ad1gas whieh had a corresponding position among the series of twelve, and in reference to the. commentaries, thereupon 'Silf1mkachiirya (on an gas I. 2), Abhayad~va ( on a1igas 3 -11 and up.. 1), Ma:layagiri (on up. 2 -7), Chamdrasuri (on up. 8 12),-and fi'naJly see above p_, 22-4 -in reference to the period of advancement suitable for the stndy of each of the ai1gas, The full statement in reference to themutual relation of the aiigas and npili1gas is: tatril. 'Ihgani dvadasa, upamgany api amgaikadesaprapamcharupa~Ji prayal} pratyamgam ekaikabhavat tavam.ty: ha, tatrf1: 'mgany: acharamgadini pratitani,. tesham upamgani kram0IJR 'muni: acharamgasyau "pap_atikam 1,' sutrakridarhgasya rajap;rasniyam 2, sthanazhgasya jivabhigamai}. 3; samavayamgasya; pTajnapanil 4, bhagavatyal) suryaprajpaptil:J. 6, jpatadharmakatMm gasya jarhbudvipaprajnaptii}. 6, up_asakadasamgasya chamdt'aprajnaptil) 7, amtakriddast1rilg11dika. 11arh drishtivadaparyamtanftm: pamchanam apy azhganazh nirayiivalikf1srutaskamdhagatakalpikil dipamchavargal) pamcho 'pamgani, tatha hi: a1htakriddasa1hgasya kalpika 8, anuttaropapatika dasarhgasya kalpavatamsika 9, prasnavyakara9aRya pnsbpita 10, vipakasrutasya pushpachftlika u, drisbtivadasya Vrish9idasil. 12, iti. XIX~ The seventh up~g!l,lll,. charl:idapannatti:. We have, before; .frequentlyobserved that a text of this namei1dwice cited in aiiga 3; and in conjunction with texts whose titles belong to upai:igas 5, 6, or to a portion of up. 3; that the order.of :succession. of the titles.in aiiga:'('7; 5, 6) does not agree with the present position of these texts; Tiz. the title, of the chamdapannatti is there, and, in fact, in both the passages which concern this. matter, placed before the othe1s. The chamdap!J,nnatti .is cited. in the text of up, 6, as before rerr>arked. [ 417] Taking these facts irito consideration, it is in the highest degree remarkable that the existing, text is almost completely identical with that of -up. 5, differing from it, for example, in: about. the same way as the two schools of the white Yajus differ from each other. The, introduction. is; 110wever, quite different. The beginning consists of 4 ary_il. strophes, of which 1 and, 2 sing the praises of Vira Ptc,; v, 3 characterizes the work in the same. words.as are found-in up. 4, introd. v. 3 and, 5, i. e. as puvvasuyasaral}isamda:rh see P 394 .-and V, 4-traces back the joisarayapannatti, to the questions of Gotama Imdabhf1ti. 'l'hen follow upon these four strophes the same 15 verses in an interrogatory tone, which in up. 5, too, stat-e the contents of the 20 separate divisions (pahU<;la) aud subdivisions pahu~la pahuga. From this we can, draw the conclusion that there is complete identity of subject cs The date of its composition is Sa.rhvat 1651 (A, D. 1595) ; the wol'k was, however, revised for Vijayase.na nine years later.

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84 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. and method of treatment. The legendary introduction, which refers the whole to a conversation betweiin Mahavira and Indrabhuti, follows upon these 15 verses, and displays a few minor differences. From this point on, the text is similar to, and in fact, almost identical with, that of up. 5, with the exception of a few linguistic (e. g. rai, night, for rayaI?,i, rataI?,i, rajal},i) and stylistic differences. Our text is, here and there, somewhat briefer, which is compensated for by references to up. 3 and 6, which are lacking in up. 5. An exact comparison of the text of each will doubtless disclose many matters of difference between the two. Nevertheless, the inter-relation of the two is a fact, the remarkable character of which [ 418] is enhanced w lien we consider that Malayagiri composed a special commentary on this upM1ga also, which was essentially the same as that composed by him on up. 5, and that in neither of his commentaries does he say anything in reference to the mutual relation of both texts and commentaries. (The statement just made appears to be correct, though J have not made here an examination of Malayagiri's corn. ad amussim). Until new facts come to light that will solve this mystery, we must be content to accept the present situation. In the passage in up. 6 in which up. 5 and 7 are cited see above, p. 414 -the text reads as if the first had reference solely to the sun, the second solely to the moon. Our texts of up. 5 and 7, however, treat both uniformly and in a completely similar manner. XX. XXIV. The eighth to the twelfth upa.mgas, niraya.valiya.o., niraya.valikAs. Under this collective name aro comprised five small texts of legendary contents (vaggas) in one "srutaskandha." The first of these either has the special title of "srutaskandha," or is called kappiyi\8, kalpikas. The titles of the others are kappavaqa1hsiya8, pupphiyfio, puppha chuliy:io or 0chula8, Va!].hidasf18. Each of the first four has 10, the fifth 12 ajjhayai:ias.64 In the introduction to the first, all these five texts are characterized --see 372, 373 as uvamgal},am pamcha vagga .. We have seen above that this epithet recurs in the interior of no other one of the texts held to be upfti1gas. [419] It must, therefore, be deemed a probable supposition, if we assert that this epithet at the time of the composition of these five texts was restricted to them alone in their totality since they belonged together from the very beginning. Their present position at the end of the 12 upai1gas is to be explained by their legendary contents, which shows them to be perfectly adapted to serve as a pendant to the legendary texts of ai1gas 7-11 ;6 5 and tradition has see pp. 373, 416 -brought them into connection with these anga texts and especially with 8-12. They share with these not merely the common form of legendary introduction; they are referred back to Sudharman and Jambw; they have the names ukkheva and nikheva, usual in the customary introductory and concluding formulre ; they shew the division of each into ten ajjhaya,i:ias, and lastly they have the same form of the citation of a t.ext, i. e. the first ajjh. only is quoted entire, and 1.he catch-words suffice for those that follow. We may well call them an appendix bound to a1igas 7-11 by a Yery close tie. Their interconnection is, furthermore, attested by external evidence : -Their names are placed together in the enumeration of the anangapavittha texts in the Nandi, though the order of succession varies somewhat, the series there being 20, 22, 21, 23, 24, while between 20 and 22, as a separate text, the kappiyao are inserted, which in the Vidhiprapfi, [ 420] as iu 'Si\ntichandra on up. 6, see p. 416, appear merely as the name of the first of these 5 upfli1gas. In the scholiast on the Nandi, however, and in the Nandi itself they are regarded as an independent text existing by the side of the other five: naritkavftsas tadgfLminas cha narll yai l'a Yftr1?,ya1hte j kalpikal:,i Saudharm11dikalpavaktavyatagochara gramthapaddhatayal,1; evam kalpa vatamsika jneyf1t1; y:1s tu grihavi\samukulana(!)ty11gena jivf1l,1 samyamabhftvapushpita bhushita o,i, Avi. and Svi.: a,htagagadaslldipamchaJ?,harh arhgt,J?,aih nirayavaliyi'l-suakkhan,dhcl uva,hgam, tammi pamcha vaggll: kappiyao kappavadarhsiyllo pupphiyi\6 pupphachuliyao vauhidasilil, chalisu dasa ajjhayaJ?,11, pamchamil barasa. 6 5 As regards anga 10 I have mentioned on page 329 my conjecture that from the inter relation of up, 8-12 and angas 7-11 we have additional testimony for the view that aitga 10 too originally possessed a legendary character. See, however, p. 334 11.1

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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 85 oht'.\.yas tattyagato dul.ikhttvaptimukulena mukulifats tattyagatal.1 pnshpiti'll). pratipildyamte tttl:t pnshpital;i ; tad viseshapratipf1dikal). pushpachuq111.1 ; Ari:1dhaka-Vrish1:1idas,lm1rh siddhigamani1dila ks ha1]ilnf11h pratipadakll gmmthapaddhatayal.1. In the account of Raj. Lala Mitra, 1. c. (11,bove, p. 227), there is no mention of the VaQhidastto, 11iray11vali and kappiya are enumerated as two separate upai1gas (8 and 9), and Kappava<'-irnsay11, Pupphiya, Pupphach1'iliyf1 as N os. 10-rn. In Kashinath Kunte's report the order is nirayf1valik11. Vanhidasa, Kappavaqimsiyf1, Pupphiyn, Papphacht'.\.liya. It must, furthermore, be noticed that Abhayadeva on ai1ga 3, 10 is of the opinion tlmt several of the 10 ajjh. of the dihadasa cited there are especially closely connectecl with the uarakavalisrutaskandha see pp. 273, 423n. If this is the case, it supports the probability that the contents is of ancient date, which i.s indeed great on other grounds. The relation of the :five extant texts is as follows~ XX. up. 8, uvamga.i;ia:rh paQ.hame vagge, the niraya.valiya.6, or kappiyA6, treats of the ultimate fortunes of the ten princes Kftla etc. ,6 6 sons [ 4 21 J of the Ai1ga king Se1.1iya of Champ11. 'l'hese princes accompanied their half-brother Kfu:,.iya6 7 in his campaign against his grandfather, Che<'-aga of Vesi\H, the Videhaking, who refused to deliver up the own brother of Ku1,1iya who had tied to his court. Kfu.1iya on this account had declared war a.gainst Cbe<'-aga, who, in order to meet the impending danger, summoned nine Mallati (Mallaki) and nine Lechhati (Lichchhavi) kings and all 48 Ktts1-Kosalaya ga1.1ar1\y11!]8 (cf. Bhagav, 7, 9, p. 301), and opposed 57,000 elc phants, etc., to the 33,000 of the eleven princes (3,000 for each). The mothers68 of the ten princes, Kil.Ii, etc. (see ai'.1ga 8, above, p. 321), each ask in turn of :Mahavira whether they are destined to behold their sons alive again. Mahavira in reply not only informs Imdabhuti into what hell each must descend after he has fallen in the battle --=hence the title of the up:1mga and his future fate, but also relates t-he antecedent history of king Kur;iiya himself, beginning at that point when his mother was three months pregnant. The expulsion of his father Se1;iiya from the throne at his hands is then related and his father's death in prison. We possess in its complete forw the text of the fil"st ajjh. alone, the second being finished off in six, the remaining eight in two lines. The reader is referred to Jacobi's introduction to the kalpas. p. 2 for Ser;iiya Bhimbhisara,oo i. e., 'Srer;iika Bimbisil.ra. and his son Kfo;iiya Bambhasfiraputta,7 i. e. Ajfitasatra, [ 422 ]contemporaries of Buddha, and also in reference to the synchronistic conclu,;ions which may be drawn in r.eference to Mah11vlra. It is placed beyond the shadow of a doubt, that the Bauddhas and the Jainas possess herein a common heritage, and that genuine historical traditions form the foundation of the recita.l. Whether it is necessary to separate Mahiivira from Buddha is another question cf. Bhagav. 1, H~ The traditional connection of J\,Iahhtra with Natiputta, Buddha's oppomlnt, can also be regarded as the result cf. p. 240 -of an intentional variation cansed by sectarian hatred. The Nirayavali has been edit,ed by S. Warren, Antwerp, 1879, on which see H. Jacobi in Journ. Germ. Orient. Soc. 34, 178 ff, There is a commentary by Chandrasf1ri. 'l'he enumeration of the women of non-Aryan peoples,71 distinguished in the text merely by va.h1'\l1iri1 khuyyahim java, is riuoted by Chandrasuri in the same form which we meet with in Bhag. !=l, 33 (see P 302), etc. 'l'he citation jahil. Chittu tti, points to up. (2), jalu1 Pabl!Avati to ai1ga 5, 11. ---------------------------------------------------------------------eo Kl\lr, Suki\lcl,Mahitkfilt-, Kai;ihc\, Snkai;,hil, MahAkai;,he, Vlrakai;,hil, Rf1makai;,hr, Piusei;,akai;,he, Mah,1s/\i;iakai;thf'. 67 Son of Chellanl\, wife of Pai.imfivfi1 6.8 Stepmothers, chullamfinA, of Kl\i;,ia. 69 See ajjh. 10 of the dasftsrutaska.ndha. 70 See introduction to up. 2. More exact information in reference to his history is found in the scholiast on A.vasy. 18, 144, cf. Bhag. 7, o (Leuma.nn). 71 kubjikfibhil} vakraja1nghfibhil1, chililtlbhir anfiryadesotpannf,bhil;,, vamani'tbhir hrasvasarirt,bhih vac)abhfibhir marlaha.koshthabhil1, Va,var!bhir Varvaradesasambhavi\bhi]:t, Yakusikabhi]:t Yi'makfibhil:> Pai;,ha.vikftbhih fainik:sbhih Charukinikftbhi):i Ll\sikitbhih Dravidlbhih Rhhhallbhih Aravibhih Pakvanlbhih Vahalibhih MurmhcUbhih f3avar1bhih .Paraslbhil} nf,nil.dcsi1bhir val;uvidht~rry~praya.desotp0annabhil} ;. cf. p. 4i2. . .

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86 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JA.IN$. XXI. np. 9. varga 2, ka.ppa.va PAGE 87 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 87 the activity of Pasa, which preceded that of Mahavira), we may claim for them a value as regards our estimation of the relations under which we have to consider the life and works of Mahavlra. We have seen above that the uniformity of the contents, and the homogeneous method of treating it in all the five texts, make for the conclusion that they originally formed but one text. Tradition calls them merely the five parts of one srutaskandha. Their enumera tion as five separate texts was caused by the desire to have the number of the uvamgas correspond to that of the ail.gas. The fact is that the special limitation of the number of the ail.gas to eleven, which is found in uv. 8-12, must be regarded as a strange contradiction of the desire to assimilate the number of the uvarhgas to that of the angas. The title vagga belongs also to ai1gas 6 and 8, as au appendix or supplement to the latter of which two, thestl five texts may have come into existence. The history of the first vagga here (uv. 8-12) is, to a certain extent, an elucidatory supplement to the last of the vaggas there, i. e. in anga 8. [ 426] The third group of the texts of the Siddhanta is formed by the ten pa'innas' prakirI;1as. It is as yet undetermined how old is the position of the painnas, prakkJ?,as as the third part of the Siddhil.nta, and what caused their location there. In Avi. there follow upon the uvarhgas first the chheaggarhthas and then the pa"iunas. In Svi. and V. the painnas come directly after the uvarhgas, but the chcda texts (with the exception of mahanisiha which is reached after the pai:nnas are done with) have been placed before (between angas 4 and 5),as if their position at that point belonged to them. Is the mere fact that the pai:nnas are more numerous the reason that in the prese1it arrangement of the parts of the Siddhanta (see p. 226) they have been placed before the chheasuttas? They are certainly very much inferior to the chheasuttas both as i::egards inner worth and external extent.81 The joint name pa'inna, by which they are united, does not occur in any other place in the 8iddhil.nta, except in their own text, so far as I have been able to observe. The word painna is found, it is true, in the Nandi as sathjnil., but in another, far more universal signification, viz., as a means of denoting all those texts not contained in the ai1gas. In the passage of the Nandi 84,000 or even 8,400,000 pai'.nnagas are spoken of! The texts now extant called pa'innas in th<3 pregnant sense of the word, bear a name, which, denoting "scattered," "hastily sketched" pieces, well suits their real nature as a group of texts corresponding to the Vedic parisishtas. Like the parisishtas they are, with a few exceptions, com posed in metre ; [ 427] and in fact in ary1'l., the metre which is usual in the kilrikil. insertions in the angas, etc. They are different from the texts, which we have considered up to this point, in that the nom. sing. masc. first decl. regularly ends in o and not in e (for exceptions see on 5 and 7). This is a proof of their later origin. In the usual enumeration of the anai1gapaviHha texts in Nand1, P1'l.kshikas, and in the three Samil.yad we meet with but six of the ten separate titles of the present pai:nna group. In the works just mentioned, the titles of I, 3, 4, 10 are lacking, texts which bear a decidedly secondary stamp. (The scholiast on the Nandi appears also in the case of No. 2 to have had before him quite a different text from the one we possess.) 'l'hese ten texts did not originally enjoy the distinction of being the representatives of the pai'.nna group; and that they arrived but gradually at this honor is attested by manifold testi mony going to prove that considerable dissent at present exists in regard to the representative position claimed by them. In A vi. the enumeration on this point is _in three very imperfect gilth:1: sa1hpa1 pai'.nnaga, namdi h a1?,uogadf1ra 2, aurapachchakkhat,1a (2) 3, mah11pachch~kkhil.J?,a (9) 4, devirhdatthaa (7) 5, tarh PAGE 88 88 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JA.INS. Here then are twenty names, with but one exception (10 viratthaa) all belonging to the present group. There are five names which recur elsewhere in the Siddhfinta -(1, 2, rn, 17, 20) -; [428] two names which at least were mentioned in connection with the Siddh. u, 15, -; and finally there are four names found nowhere else except here 9, 11, 1a, 18. It is of especial interest to observe the ascribing of Nandi and A1;moga to the pa'inna group as being placed before them. This reference recurs in similar fashion in Svi., where the enumemtion is but fragmentary and limited to the mention of: narhdi 1 a1:mogadf1ra 2 deviri1datthaii (7) ~' tamg.ulavey11liyam (5) 4 chamdavivviyM (! 6) 5, aurapachchakkl111J].a (2) s, ga1,1ivijjf1i (8) 7; pafonagfinam. It then speaks of sesfiQi but does not enumerate them. In v'. the pai:nna texts are treated of on two occasions. In the first case we find, for some reason inexplicable to me, in the discussion in reference to the 15th book of anga 5, an enumeration of ten text8, which are not stated to be painnas, though the titles of si,11' are found among the titles of the 10 pafonas. At the head (the action in question is called nandi-m-aiQari1 vamdaI].aya) we again find namdi and aQuOga; then follow devimda (7) 3, tari19ula (:',) 4, chariJdavejjha (! 6) 5, gaI].ivijja (8) G, maraQa 7, jhaQavibhatti 8, aura (2). 9, mahfipachchakkha1,1a (9) 10, Of these No. 7 is doubtless identical82 with maraQasamf1bi in Avi. and No. 8 conesponds to a section in ~ See below. The second passage in V. is that in which the painnas are directly discussed; [ 429] and in this passage they appear in the forefront together with nii,ndi and a1,1uoga. 83 Fifteen names itre there mentioned, among which are all the ten ni.embers of the present list, though arranged differently, but at the end they are called only ichch-1li: sampayam painuag11: namdt 1, a~Qog(tdi\ri\ith 2 devi!hda t.thaya (7) 3, tamq.ulaveyaliya (5) 4; maraI]-asamfihi 5, mahapachchakk.hai;ia (9) 6, aurapachchakkhih?,a (2) 7, sa,mthi\raya (4) 8, cha:rildavijjhaya (6) 9, bhattaparinna (3) io, chaiisarar;ia (1) 1i viratthaya (10) 12, gaI].ivijja (8) 13, d1vasfiga1apannattisarhgaha111 14, gachhay11ra lo ichch-ai pafonaga9-i. 0 the three additional texts mentioned here No.5 is mentioned in A.vi. and elsewhere -seep. 428 as belonging to the pa'innas; the case is similar with No, 15. No. 14 belongs to the text referred to as No. 1a in Avi., a text which possesses a considerable antiquity -pp. 268, 389. ls the samgahai;ii on it Jllentioned here identical with the JarhbudvipasamgrahaQ1 of Haribhadra mentioned p. 413 ( on upai1ga 6) P ln connection with the above discussion V, treats of the isibhasiyairi1 (see pp, 259, 281, 402), and allots to them 5084 ajjhaya9-as. We have already observed that Haribhadra on A.v. 2, a identifies the isibh., quoted there, with the "devendrastava etc.," but on another occasion identifies the isibh. with the uttar11jjhayar;itt. We read therefore in V. that the isibh. were regarded by some as belonging to the uttarajjh, (430] uttarajjhaya9-esu eyaim amtabbhavamti, to which the mahrtnis1hajogavihi is joined in V. In the Vicharamritasarhgraha (see p. 3.55) as in the three samayf1ri there is an enumeration of the pai:nnagas, which begins with Nandi and A1:moga. Nineteen and not 10 pafonas are here enumerated, but of these only the first three are given a name. The passage, which is interesting for other reasons, reads in the very corrupt MSS.: amga 11, upftrhga 12, chhedasarhgha 5 (D rnw.lagramtha 4 pramukhill:i, pratiniyat,a eva grariJth:llJ kalpabhi\shyf1dyuktasfitralakshaI].opet,i1J.1, y.tal.1 kva 'pi yogavidhau drisyamaneshu na1ndy-annyogadvf1ra-"turapraty11khy1lnfidy-ekonavii1fatipmkirr;iakeshu kesharh chid eva jitakalpa-pamchakalp,1d111f1m virachayitaro jnfiyari1te n1imagraham, na sarveshfllh, yesham kartaro na jnayamte tani gai~adharakriti1ni. Here theu, aturapratyakhyanam (2), and not deveri:Jdrastava (7), comes after nandi and anuy0 at the head of the remaining p!Linnas. Here as in Avi., the parhchakalpa and, in connection with it, the jitakalpa Reem to be counted among the pa'innas, whereas see below -they are generally held to belong to the chhedasfitra.85 82 The maraJ?.asam,,hi is also mentioned elsewhere. See pp. 429, 431. We might well recall the maraJ?.avibhatti in connection with the maraJ?.a, or the maral}avisohi in the enumeration of the, anaiigapavittha, or ai,gabahira texts in Nandi etc. All these texts refer without doubt to euthanasy; of. pa'inna 2. 8s The connection with both is, however, very slight, for in v. 61 of thejogaviha:i;ia ,ve find the exp1ess statement: devimdatthayam-fii pa'innagf,, the connection of naudi and al?-uoga being ignored. 8' in anga 4, 44 only 44 ajjh. are allotted to them in conjunction with the dcvalogachuyal>hlisiya. 86 Either tli~ pamch. or the jltak. appears as No, 6. The Vichliram., however, recognizes onlr five chhlldasarhghas, Sec above. PAGE 89 SACRED LITER.A.TITRE OF THE JA.INS. 89 I have been able to discover no urtl1er information that would prove the connection of nandi and at}u<'>ga with the pai:nna group. The lists and MSS. of the pai:n11a group, which I possess, pay no attention to these two texts, [ 431 J and limit the pai:nnas to a smaller number, generally to ten. The enumeration in the Ratnas~gara.(Calc. 1880) is as follows: chaiisara1,1a (1) 1 saththi\ra (4) 2 tarhqnla (5) s, charhdilvijjiya (! 6) 4, ga1,1avijjiya (! 8) o, devavijjiya 6 viratlmva (10) 7 gachh1lyara s, j(y)otishkararh~a 9, mahi\pachchakkha1~a (9) IO Three names found in Biihler's list (2, 3, 7) do not occur here. To compensate for this omission there are 3 texts mentioned, of which one, Nq. 6, is quite unknown; the second, No. 8, is found in the V., and the thit-d, No. 9, is referred to even in A vi. among the pa"innas. In the enumeration of Rajendra Lala Mitra and of Kashina.th, see pp. 226, 227, we .find the list of Biihler (arranged 1, 2, 3, 9, 5, 6, 8, 7, 4). No. 10 is omitted and replaced by marana sami1hi, the acquaintance with which name we had already made in Avi. and V., and which here occupies the eighth position (between 8 and 7). I possess a MS. of the dasapai:nnas which contains a recension varying from that given in Biihler's list. The first page having disappeared, a page which does not belong there has been inserted in its place. It is, therefore, doubtful whether the first part is chaiisaraJ?.am (1) or not.so The arrangement of the following parts is (2, 3, 4, 8, 6, 9,87 5. Instead of 7 we have the gachhil yilra, [4:32] which we find in V. (seep. 429) and Ratnasagara (p. 431); but there is nothing to compensate for the omission of 10. The foregoing considerations prove conclusively that it is a matter involved in uncertainty what texts really belong to the pai:nna group, a fact that must be held to render this secondary character a matter of great probability. AU that can be drawn from the contents of the present 10 pafonas makes for the same conclusion. A considerable portion of the 10 painnas refers to the proper sort of euthanasy, the confes sion necessary for this end and the abjuration of everything evil. Several portions, however, treat of different subjects, viz. : 5 physiology, 7 mythology, 8 astrology, 10 hymns. That portion which is of mythological content recalls the Atharvaparisishta, though the Atharva parisishta must precede the painnas in order of time, since the latter contains the Greek terms hort1 and dikldtJ]..a. It is difficult to give a review of the contents of most of these small tests, since we possess !llO commentary. Th.e character of some portions (l, 5, 6-8) is very dissimilar from.that of others; 6-8 are of a similar type, which marks them out as a separate inter-dependent group. A peculiar characteristic of this group is that the author spenks of himself in the first person, and addresses his listeners in the plural or singular. In No. 7.a woman is the object of his instruction; and this painna has a special claim to antiquity since it is said to be identical with the isibhilsiyiliril. mentioned in ai1gas 3 H>4, 44 Seep. 429. It is, however, possible that another text [433] of the same name is there referred to. In the summary which I now give I follow the extant usual list of the 10 pa'innas which is found in Buhler. XXV. The first pa'innam, chai.isaraJ;).am, chatul;tl!araJ;).am; in 63 vv. The first seven verses8 B refer to the sha4i1vasyakam, the six daily duties necessary for the purification of life. See above pp. 161 n, 244. 8 6 Though the extent of the ohatisara,:ia with its 63 g,1.thas, appears to be very ln.rge for one leaf, it is, nevertheless possible that the missing leaf may have conta.ined this part, since this MS. has npon each page 19 lines of 74 aksharas so that the 2,800 aksharas of the front and reverse side would be entirely sufficient for these 63 gi\thas. 87 No. 9 has here not 86 but 31 verses. 88 The first verse r.:iads: savajjajc'\gavirai ukkitta,:i5. gu,:iavao ya pa~ivatti J khaliyassa nimdiu?fi va,:iatigiohchhi gu.J].adharal}-1\ cheva ii 1 IJ It recurs in similar form in the Anuyogadvaras, etc. PAGE 90 90 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE J AINS. I. The siimil.iam, sil.mf1yikam, explained in the text itself by s:1vajjajogavirai, desistanc~ from all eviJ.89 Cf. the use of this word to denote the first a.i1ga also in up. 1, 57 ('ib. 123, 125 s:1vaj~ jajogavahiya). 2. chai.i.visa"itliaa, chaturvii1satistava, explained ibid. by: ukkitta1,1il, praise of the virtues of the Jinas. 3. varhdaryaa, explained by g119avao patJivatti, honor of the guru. 4. patJikkama9arh, p1atikramal);am confession (to the guro), explained. by klialiyassa nimcla1_u1, censure of past misdeeds, conjoined with the intention of not committing the offence again.9 0 5. k:1ussagga, kt1yotsarga, expiation, explained by: va11atigichhil, healing of wounds, further purification of those who bave been absolved by confession. [434] G. pachchakk:hil.ryam, pratyiikhy:1nam, explained by: gm,1adh:1.ra1Ja, the observance of all virtues, or really the casting off of all evil. The following must be noticed as l'cgards the six f1rnsyakas, which we will discuss later on when treating of Nandi, Annyogadv., Avasy. It was to be expected that the explanations given for l and 6 should have changed their respective positions, 1'., e. sfimiliya should have bem explained by gmiadhara9a and pachchakkh,hJa by s:hajjajogavirat Had this been the case a better logical arrangement would have been effected, viz. : 1. good action, 2. confession of the commission of misdeeds, 5. compensat,ion for the misdeeds committed, 6. drsistance from all further sins. Do not these very names seem to indicate that this was the original arra11gernent ? The two :1vasyakas, cited i11 the second ancl third place, intermpt the connection between I and 4-G, aml are consequently probably to be regl>rdcd as secondary additions. Inv. 891 the fourteen dreams are enumerated which the mother of a tirthakrit dreams before his birth, an enumeration which is tantamount to a list of his fuurteen excellencies or virtues. with verse 9 the text 11er se begins (the preceding portion is doubtless a secondary addition) by the author announcing his purpose: vamdiurh :Mahaviram I knsal:11.JUbarndhibaiiJdhuram ajjhaya1}am kitta'issiimi II 9 II .Here we have t-he older name of the text, since the chaiisarai)atn, as will soon be shown, forms but a part of its contents. [ 435] In a MS. which contains all the 10 pa111nas and which is preceded by an introduction in reference to the sacred number fonr, the name of this pafona is stn.tecl to be knsaH1;1Ubari1,lhajjhaya1~1.m and not chai.i.sarai)atn. Inv. 10 is clescribecl the three-fold contents of the following portions, and an explanation given for this division that refers to the name adduced in v. 9: e.-m ga1p1 m)ava1ayaih k:1yavvo kusalaheu t.ti II 10 II At the head stands I. the chaiisara1.1agamal,lam (from which the customary title of this pa"inna has been borrowed), i. e. the pra.yers by mea11s of which four-fold protection can be obtained: the arihachta (arhant, v. 13-23), the siddha (v. 2:3-29), the sttlrn (siidhn, v. 30-40) and the dhamma (v. 41-48). Then follows 2. dukka<;lagarihii, a penitential system (v. 49-54) of confession to the guru, and 3. suka PAGE 91 SACRED LITERA'rURE OF THE J AINS. 91 'l'he commentary considers that this implies also a reference to the name of the author V1ra bhadra, presumably a sadhu, one of the 14,000 who joined Vka.92 [ 436] There is a commentary by Somasumdara from the 'l'apf1gachha; according to the Gurvfrvali of this gachha (see Kl. :256 ) born samv. 1430, died 1499, A. D. 1374-1443. In contradistinction to the triad of the Buddhists bnddha, dharma and samgha, we find here_ a quadripartite arrangement. The samgha is di vidcd into two parts, the earlier ancl the present saints, the siddha and the s;1dhu. 'l'he Buddhistic samgha, as is expressly stated in that of the Avesta, has reference merely to the pious of the present, who, it may be remarked, are divided in the A vesta according to sex : yen.he Mtam .. yf1011ham ch:1 His ch:1 tilos ch yazamaide. The "Holy Ghost" of the Christian trinity, th,e origin of which we ascribed (Ind. Streifen 3, 584 ) to gnostic connection either with the trinity of the Parsees or with that of the Buddhists, embraces all time. XXVI. The second pa'innam, a.urapachchakkha.i;i.am, a.turapraty0 c. 70 vv. with an insertion in prose after v. 10 treats6 of the renu.nciatio of the inoribunclns, the pmp;liyamaraiiam, the genuine cuthanasy, of. Bhagav. 2, 1, 48, 76 (my treatise, 2, 2aa-1, 29J). 'l'he introduction consists of enumerations of the five a1;mvvayas (p;11,1ivahaverama1;a etc.), and of the gm;avvayas and sikkh;1s.93 Inv. 8 there is a citation from the third pai:nna :jo bhattaparinnile (bhaktapraklr1;mke) uvakkamo vittharer;a niddittho 1-1 so che 'va bf1lapamqiya rnarai,ie neil jahf1juggam. 11 s II Inv. 10 the proclamation of the [ 437] real intention of the author: itto path<;liya pamc}iyarnaral).a!h95 vuchchham sarnf1s:1.rnm 11 10 11 The prose paragraph which follows contains a general formula for confession and renuncia tion, beginning with the words: ichhitrni hhamte uttamattham ( uttami\rtharn pfipfini\m praka ram, gloss) r-,ratikramilmi, and closes with 63 jhf11,1a, dhy:1na, formulas, beginning: annilr;iam jhih;e.96 Joined to these are corresponding formulas composed in gi\thils. The methods of counting the verses vary greatly in the different MSS., since in some the prose part is counted in as 13 verses, so that the total sum is 84 verses; and dif!:erences of another nature are also apparent. The scholiast on the Nand1, it may be remarked in passing, 97 in his enumeration of the anaiiga pavittha texts, held another text than the present one to be the tmrapachchakkh:11).aih [438] XXVII. Third pa'innam, the bhattaparinna., bhaktaparijna., in 172 vv., keats of the b{Uapa1h(liyamara1;am. Cf. the citation just made from v. 8 of the second pai:nna. This pa"inna contains ethical precepts9B which refer constantly to the ,Tinasftsa1;am, Jinavayal).am, the Ji1,1a par;i.iya(pra1,11ta) doctrines, while at the saine time it cites its own title; of. (v. 9-11, 14, 18, 35, 169, 171). In the verse before the last, this pa"inna is said like pa"inna, 1 to refer back to (the 9J yo 'sau Virabhadrasadhuli sr! Virasaktal;i chaturdasasahasramadhyavartl ta.syil 'dam etad adhyayanam, evarh sastrakartul;i samftsagarbham abhidhi\nam uktarh; asya chit 'dhyayanasya Virabhadrasi\dhukritatvajni\panena_yasya jinasya yitvantali sltdhaval;i pratyekabudhfi (see pp. 265, 334) api tavari:tta ilva praklr1;d\nyapi tfivamti bhavamti 'ti jni\pitafo bhavati (! see below on the Nand1). 0 3 In the Vichiiri\m;ita3amgah -seep. 430 -the !\urap.0 is placed after nandi and anuybga, at the head of the pa.inna.s. o.; Sec Windisch in Jotl1'. Ge,m. Or. Soc. 28, 22, (1874). 9 ital_1 pa1hdittmihi1 vistlshatf> 'pi pa 0aih prochyate samkshcpatal), 96 jhf,c is always construed here with the accus., i. e. probably as 1 p. sing. atm. of adenominativo (dhyilnay) P -A collection of examples of these dhyi\nas is to be found in the introduction of Harshakusala's commentary on the fourth pafoua: dhyilnabhccliis tu likhyaii:it&: ann,ajhail, atra m:1satusadrishtfontal1. Harshakusala recognizes the number of these formubs as G \. The words before jht,c appear in thematic form, as purvapadani, and not as accus. Cf. the jhtu;avibhatti above, p. 428. 97 The scholiast has here : chf,ritrasya vidhil); gili\akiratt1yaih giyattha pachchakkhavimti die 2 davvahltsaih karettf1 arhte a savvadt, paayM bhattatheragaril. I jii.attti ittinhassa bhavacharimapachchakkh&am karavc(rh)ti tti ityadi yatra varyat/\; mahatpratytikhyilna1h yatru 'irtaih. Even if the name aturapratyakhy,1nam is not directly mentioned, the meaning and the position of these words between the explanations of the titles: chara,:,avihl and mahapachchakkhi\r.,am makes most decidedly for the conclusion that this very corrupt statement of contents, the metre of which cannot be restored, belongs to the title aura0 which in the text is between these two titles. On giyatthi\ see below (pp. 450, 464, 478), on the chheclasutta. B8 Directions as to how a man should absttiin from foo,1, Kash. PAGE 92 92 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. doctrines of) Virabhadda, though it is perhaps better to assume that Mahavtra himself is referred to in this verse :-ia jo 1sara-jil}a-v1-rabhaddabhal}iyal}USari1;dm (!) ii].am-o I bhattaparinnam dhanno paq.hamti nisul}amti bhavamti II 171 11 sattarisayam JiQ.ftQ.a va gilhatJam samayakhittapannattam I arahamto vihiQ.a sasayasakkharh lahai: mukkham II m II According to this concluding verse the text should contain only 170 verses, but perhaps the two concluding verses are a secondary addition. The plural of the verbs in v. 171 in opposition to those in the singular jo . dhanno is at least very peculiar. Instead 0 the Sansk:!'it 0s1lri1Jim (0sil.ri1.1am B both times with m) 0sarir;iim is doubtless the better reading. XXVIII. Fourth pa1nnam, sa:rhtha.ra, sa:rhsta.ra, in 122 vv., treats 0 tlie bed upon straw. 0. Bhagav. 2, 1, 70, a (my treatise 2, 203, 207) as a preparation for the pamgiyamaraQ.am, the proper eathanasy. The title samthftra is frequently referred to throughout the text; cf. v. 1, 3, 4, 15, 21, 27, 30 etc.), thus e. g.: samthllrammi nibari1dham gm.iaparivagim. nisameha 11111. This was the case with pai:nna 3. [439] Inv. 32 44 the qualities of the man are described who intends to ascend the sarhthara, the second hemistich recurring throughout :1s a refrain; .. f1ruha1 jo samthararh suvisuddbo tassa sarhtharo. In v. 56 fg. there are cited all manner of instances of those who died samtharam aru<;lha. Thus, the flower-gatherer (? pupphachula) Ajj11 in Poyal}apura V, 56, Sa.kosalarisi v. 63, examples from Ujj~Q.i v. 65, R0Mdagari1 nayaram v. 68, P11q.aliputta vv. 70. 73, Kosambi v. 78, KuQ.illanagara v, 80, the names Kurudatta v. 84, Gayasulmmi\.la v. 85, Ohili'tipntta V, 80, :Mamkhali V, 87. It concludes: eva(m) mae abhitbuya samtharaga'imdakha:mdham aru1Jhft I susamitQ.anarimdachamda suhasarhkama"9-ari1 saya dithtu 11 122 II XXIX. Fifth pa'inna:rh, ta:rh<;lulaveya.liyam,99 in verse, prose, and again in verse. The contents are of an anthropological and physiological nature, and are briefly stated in the introduction:-vochchham pa'innagam iQ.am tari1cJulave11liya.m nilma 111 11 SUQ.aha gal}ielOO dasa das:l ( disa A) vllsasayfrnssa jaha vibbajjathti I samkalie vogasrn jari1 cha "yum sesayam hoi 11 2 11 jattiyamitte divase jattiya rai muhuttam ussaso I gabbhammi vasa'i jivo ahhavihim ya vochchhami 11 3 II Then follows the statement that the jiva [ 440 J remained in the womb 2 77 full ahorattas and one-half 0 an ahoratta (c. Aup. 104) -(26 verses + 3), The prose treats especially 0 the life and development of the embryo in the womb, striking parallels to which are found in the statements in Nira.kti 14, o, 7, aud in the Garbhopanishad (Ind. Stud. 2, 65), The subject is treated in the form of a dialogue, in antique form, between :Mahavrra and Guyama. The nominative often ends in e and not in o, so that we may suppose an older source is the base of this recital. Then followd an enumeration of the dasa dasi1o (disao A), ten "ages of man" (cf. Ath. 3, 4, 7): Mla, kiHa (A, kiq.a B, vig PAGE 93 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 93 (metre!) samattam sahassapattassa (metre!) II 17 II eyam sagagasarira:rh jai-jar,i[44l]maral}a veyal}iibahulam I taha pattaha1 kftum je2 jaha muchchaha savvadukkhaJ].am 11 1s II XXX. Sixth painnam, chamd11vijjhayam,a in 174 vv. In the introduction, a cl.1ragilhil v. 3), with a conspectus of the contents. Vv. 4 19 treat of vinaya in general, vv. 20 35 of the qualities of a teacher, ayariyagm,1a, vv. 36 51 of the scholar, s1sagm:ia, vv. 52 65 of the impediments (?), niggahagm;i.a,4 in the way of the vil}aya, vy. 66 -98 of perception, nal}agul}a, vv. 99 114 of the conduct of life, charal}agul}a, v. ] 15 fg. of death, marai;iagui;ia. All these sections are clearly separated by a verse which marks the end of one and the beginning of another (20, 35, 52, 66, 98, 115). Thus, e. g. v. 20: vi1_1ayar;;sa gm;i.avisesa M mile va9i;ii samilse1_1am I f1yariya1:iari1 cha gu9e egama1:ifi me nis,lmeha 11 20 11 Inv. 173 the contents is repeated or recapitulated as in the diiragiiha; and the concluding verse is closely connected with that of pa'inna 6: tahapattaha kilum je jaha muchchaha gabbhavasavasahii:ia1h I mara9apu9abbhavajammai;ia dugga"ivi9ivayagamal}-iil}am II 174 II XXXI. Seventh pai:nnam, dlvimdatthaa, dlvemdrastava; in 300 vv. A systematic enumeration of the 32 devimdas, and of all the gods according to their [442] groups, dwelling places, &c.5 The Norn, Sing. M. of Deel. I ends frequently in e, perhaps because the contents partially follows the statements in the angas and upiii1gas. The divisions are here, as in the case of pa'inna 6, distinctly separated ; and the author here, too, speaks of himself in the first person, and addresses not nnfrequently (cf. p. 458) a sUJhdari, sual}-u, as the one for whom his wrn:k iR intended.6 A patent contradiction to this secular method of treatment is found in Haribhadra on Avasy. 2, a, where the author proclaims himself to be the composer of a nijjutti: isibhasiiiI].a:rh, and explains this word by devemdrastavildinilm. We have seen above (pp. 259, 281, 429) that, on 8, 4 he referred it to the uttarajjhal},a, That our text should be so honoured as to be brought into connection with a work of such an important title as the isibh,lsiya (cf. angas 3, 10 4, 44 ) and to have been thought worthy of a nijjutti at the hands of the author of the Avasyaniryukti (whoever this may have been), seems utterly impossible if we take into consideration the secondary character of this small mythological manual (see above, pp. 280, 432). It. is, however, worth our attention to note the fact that also in Svi. V. (see above, p. 428 fg.) the pa'innas are frequently said to begin with a text of this name. [ 443] The table of contents in v. 7 ff. reads : kayare te vatt1sam clevimda? ko va kattha parivasai:? kevaiyil kassa thii? ko bhavaJ?.apariggaho kassa? 11 a II keva'iyil nu vima1.1ii? bhava1:ia nagara cha hu:rhti keva'iya? put;lhav19a cha vahuttam uyyattavimal}a vinno (?) vii II g 11 kilramti cha killel}a (!) ukkosam majjhimam jahannath cha I ussasll nissiiso UQQhi (?) visao va ko kesim? 11 10 11 and closes: deviri1danikayai;iam that> (iha) samatM aparis~so 11 300 II XXXII. Eighth painnam, ga:t;1.iviyya., ga:t;1.ividya., in 86 vv. The contents is of an astrological character.7 It begins : vuchchham balabalavihim navabalavihisuttasamchiu pasattham I jii;iava-1 Cf. pattihi in Ho.la. 2 See Hc-m. 2, 217, Hala 524 in Bhuv. (p. 189). 3 The name is obscure; viyyaya in A, but vijjhaya in B, Nandi, Pi\kshika and in the three samachar!; once in .A.vi. 0vijjbaya, in Svi. 0vivviyai (a poor MS.) and 0vejjha in V; Kashinath has: chand~vijaya, an account of witchcraft, magic and mysticism (!). -The right Sanskrit equivalent of the title is Candrnka.-vBdhya. which, a~ Ogha-niryukti 1142 shows, is the same as radhiZvMhya. 'aim-striking.' -L. niggayagm;ia vv. 3, niggahagu:g.~ in vv. 52 and 173. 5 Panegyrics on the Tirthakara's by Deva and Indra (!), Kashina.th. a The introduction states the situation in explicit terms: koi (koi ?) pa,j.hamapaiisammi savaii samayanichchiya viphaha:g.ft (P metre !) I vannei vayam uyaram jiyama)?-e Vaddhamll)?-ammi /J 3 ii tassa thu]?-arhtassa (..J stu, Cl. 9) ji)?-am samiliyakaqJ\ piyllsu hanisanni\ I pamjaliu,j.il abhimuh! su:g.ai' vayam Vaddhama-1?-assa II 8 II Likewise.in v. 7: sil piyari:, bha)?-ai, and in v. 11: padipuchhiO piya~ bha:g.ai': RUa)?-U tarn nisi\meha. Further on frequently: val?-1?-ihimi or va)?-:g.ehim (! varl?-ayishyami)," vuchham, vuchhihni, &c. The avachuri on the Nandl explains as follows: ga)?-ividya jyotishkanimittftdiparijnanarupf,, si\ hi samyak parijnayamana pravrnjanasi\mayikfropal)iipasthilpa)?-Mrutodd/\sanujnagu1:18ropa1?-adisanujnilvihtlr!\dipray&janeshu upayogint PAGE 94 94 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. yaI,1abhasiyam iI,1am pavaya1iasatthammi jahadit~ha1n II 1 II, and treats according to the di\.ragf1ha (v. 2): 1. 0 the days, divasa, vv. 3-8, -2. 0 the lunar days, tihi, vv. 9, 10, 3. of the nakshatra, vv. 11-41, 4. 0 the karaI,1a, vv. 42-46 5, of the planets, gahadivasa, vv. 47,48, 6. of the hours, muhutta, vv. 49-58, 7. of the omens, saii1Jabalam, vv. 59-63, -a. of the horoscope, laggabalam, vv. 64-72, -and o. of the signs, nimitta, vv. 73-85. Thll context corresponds in character with the statements of the Atharvaparisish~a. The names of the nakshatras represent a secondary stages as upai1gas 5-7. 'rhe kara1,as are, however, recognized he1e as in up. 6, though the fourth [444] is called, as in up. 6, not taitila, but th1loaI,1a, In the discussion in reference to the lagna the word hora is found (v. 66) and, as it appears (the passage is corrupt), also the word dikkal,la (vv. 67, 69), so that we have a patent instance of Greek influence. The second collection of the dasapa'inna (see above, p. 431) allots only 31 vv. to the ga1iiviyya. Of the verses here only the following recur there: 1-14, 21 32, 35, 37, 74, 82; 4 -8 arll entirely wanting, 3 has instead of 31 vv. only 14, and 9 instead of 13 only 2. XXXIII. Ninth painnam, maha.pachchakkhll.IJ,am, in 143 vv. A general formula designed for confession and renunciation. It begins: esa karemi pal,111mam titthayarfi1Ja:rh aI,1uttaragalI,1aril 111 II I saddahe jinapannattam pachchakkhftemi (a) pavagam 11 211 jam kim chi duchchari yam tarn aham nimdami savvabhil.eI,1am I sil.mil.iyam cha tivihim karemi savvam niril.garam II 3 ll The verses frequently close as groups with the same refrain; e. g. pamgiyamarai;iam marih.mi (future) vv. 41-48, pfrnvagao marihil.mi v. 50,rakkhamimahavvile pamcha vv. 68-76, si1hamtl (or silheum) appaI,10 attham vv. 80 84, vosirami, tti pavagam vv. 116 120. The formula uses the first person alone: nimdami, garihami, vosirami, vilsire, khamemi, pachchaikkhami (!). It concludes: eyarit pachchakkhil.tiam aIJUpalefuia suvihio sammam I vema1iiya vva dev& haviyylt ahavi\. visiyyiyya II 143 II, It, therefore, opens up as the prospect of the reward of correct perform ance of confession, entrance among the vemar.1iya gods or complete dissolution (visiryeta). XXXIV. The Tenth pai:nnam, virathaa, virastava, in 43 vv. Enumeration of the names of the siriVaddhamaIJ.a [ M5 J ( v. 4). It begins : namiu.J].a jinam jayajivabamdhavam bhaviyakusu maraya~1iyaram I Viram girimdadhiram thuI,1ilmi (staumi) payatthanamehim 11 111 It concludes : iya nftrnavali samthuya siri VirajiI,1imda mamdasul}assa (0tJl,lassa ?) I viyara karm,1ao Jinavara I sitapayamaI,1ahatthiram (?) Vira II 43 II The gachhayaram, which in V., in the Ratnasil.gara, and in the second collection of all the pai:nnas that I have before me, is cited as a part of the collection (see pp. 429, 431) contains in 138 vv. general rules of life, especially those for the bhikkhu and bhikkhnQ.i, in the form of a lesson to G&yama, who is several times mentioned in it. It begins : namiul,l'a Mahi\.viram .. I gachchfiyftram kimchi uddharimo suasamuddao 111 ll atth' ~ge Goyama pii1J1 l je ummaggapai:Hhie I gachchhammi samvasitMI,1aril I bhamai bhavaparampararh II 211 'rhe metre is almost everywhere sloka, though two syllables are often counted as one, one short being cast away; so for example in v. 15: samgah&vaggaham vihiI,1,a I na karei a j&gaip. I sama1tam samaIJ.ith tu dikkhittil I si\.milyarim na gahae \115 II vihii;ia, samat,lam, samaI,1im are to be read as dissyllables. At the end it is called (see verse 1) an extract from the mahanis1hakappa and hhe vavahara, sources which explain the use of the sl&ka here: mahil.nisihakappao I vavahil.rao tahe 'va ya silhu-salnuii-a~thae I gachhayi\.ram samuddhiam II 130 II paq.hamsu:rh sahUTJ.O, cam I asajjhayarh vivajjium I uttamasuanissamda1it I gachhayil.ram suuttamam 11137 II gachhiiyaram SU1?,itta9am I [446] paq.hitta bhikkhu bhikkhm,111 km]amtu jam jahabhaI,1iam I ichchha:rhtil. hiam appa!,1& II 138 II The fourth group of Siddhilnta texts is composed of D., the six chhMasutras. So at least according to Biihler's List (see above, p. 226). In the Ayaravihi and in the Ratnasagara ( Cale. 1880) these assert a prior place between the upai1gas and the pafonas. The 8 The name jilthamil.la {see Ind. Stud. 10, 286) is found here (v. 11); seep. 380. PAGE 95 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 95 name chh:edasutra9 (chheda, cutting, section ?) can be explained in many ways. There is no authentic explanation that I have been able to discover. This name recurs in the texts in question as infrequently as in the paragraphs in the MSR. The first time where it is mentioned, so far as I know,10 is in the A.vasy. nijj. 8, 05: ja:rh cha mahilkappari111 jar;ii a sesar;ii chhea suttf11,11, from which passage it is clear that then, besides the mahakappa:rh, there existed several other texts belonging to this group (kalpadini Schol.) ; and in another passage of the above cited work (16, 109), there are enumerated three texts which, at present, still bear this name and which state that they were divided12 just as we find them. They appear [447] to belong together after a fashion and to form a united group. In the enumeration of the ar;ia:rhgapavittha texts in the N andi, in the Pakshikasutra and in the three samacharis we find these texts arranged in the same order (dasa1.1a:rh, kappassa, vavahamssa). In the samachilris, in the passage in reference to the number of days necessary to learn them, we find that but one suyakkha:rhdha is allotted to them all: kappavavahil.radasill}a:rh (so A.vi., Svi., dasaka0ral}am V.) ego suakkha:rhdho. The Vidhipr., however, states that some (kei) "kappavavaharar;ia:rh bhinna:rh suyakkha:rhdha1h ichhamti," The title chheasutta is not mentioned in this list of the anai1gapavitthas or angabahiras, which cites, in addition to the three texts held to be chheasuttas, two others immediately afterward, one name alone intervening. These additionalchheasuttas are nisiha and mahanisiha, which now stand at the head of the chhedas. The mahakappasuam (seep. 478), too, is found in the list, but in a different place -about 24 places previous, From this we draw the conclusion that the author of the list did not regard the mahR.kappasuam (see p. 478) as belonging to these. chheasuttas. The mahakappa0 is mentioned in no other passage. In all other passages, where the chhe dasutras are enumerated, thenisiham is invariably placed at the head of the list. Thus in .A vi., where the number of days necessary for learning the chhedasutras is stated, [ 448] there are enumerated as the chheagga:rhtha" (here placed between upangas and pafonas ; see p. 446) the seven names: nisiha, dasil, kappa, vavahha, mahanis1ha, pa:rhchakappa and j1akappa. The pamcha kappa is mentioned also under t.he pai:nnas. Cf. above, pp. 427, 430. The case is similar in Svi., where, however, the name chhea0 is omitted, and the discussion on this subject is inserted between that concerning ai'1gas 4 and 5. In Svi. only siha, clasf1, kappa and vavahara are treated of together, pamchakappa and jiakappa not being mentioned, and mahanis1ha is disposed of at another place, viz. : -at the encl of the entire j5gavihi after the pai:nnas. V. agrees herein with Svi. completely, with the exception that, as Avi., it adds pamchakappa and jiakappa to nisiha, rlasii, k. and vav. In the metrical portion at the close, the jogavihar;iapagarana, however, the first four a.re treated of either as to be learned together in 30 days or as "savvai:ii vi chheasuttai;i.i," v. 22. In the next verse (23) there are statements concerning jiyak. and pamchak. (mahanisiha is not discussed till vv. 63, 64). In the Vicharamritas. the chheasuarn is called nisiha-m-aiyam on jitak., pamchak. see p. 430 ; and in the commentary on the sraddhajitakalpa see below sri nis1thadi chhedagranthasutra is spoken of. We find that this agrees with Biihler's list (above, p. 226). Besides this arrangement which places nisitha at the head we meet with statements in modern sources in which the number composing the series varies in many ways. The series, as we have seen above, was never fixed, continually varying between 4 and 7 members. 9 An older form of the name is perhaps chhasua, chhcdasruta; thus in a citation in the Vichl\rllmritasathgraha : "nisiham-Aiyassa chheasuassa"; chhMasamgha, too, is found in the same place (seep. 430), where it is said that they are five in number. 10 The name of the second group of the charittagm;iapram!ll}a in the Anuyiigadv!lrasi\tra chhedavaddhaval}lat char0 -may be recalled in this connection. 11 According to the Scholiast these texts are borrowed from the diijhivlla. (aiiga 12), and, consequently, are to be regarded as rishibh!i.shita : mahllkalpasrut!ldlnllm api rishibhAshitatvll(d) drishtivftdad uddh1itya t~shii.Iil pratipaditatvii.t dharmakath!i.nuyiiga vvii. (0 gatvils cha?) prasamga~. u dasa uddes~akii.la dasana., kappassa huri1ti chhach cheva I dasa cheva vavaharassa humti I savve vi chhavvi sam II PAGE 96 96 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. [449] In the Ratnasagara (Cale. 1880) we find the following arrangement: vyavahara vrihatkalpa, dasasruta, nisitha, mabanisitha, jitakalpa. These names are. the same with an e~ception in the case of jitakalpa (Buhler has pafichakalpa; Avi. has both names). The aiTangement of Raj. L. Mitra and after him that of Pa1Jq.it Kashinath KunM, taking its rise from the Siddhantadharmasara, is very remarkable. See my remarks on p. 227. The uncertainty of modern tradition may, it is true, create an impression unfavourable to the age of the chhedasutra tex~s which we possess. On the other hand, there are sufficient arguments which permit us to ascribe a relatively ancient date to the chief group at least, i. e. the three texts: dasa-kappa-vavahara. The order which I have here followed is, without doubt, the old arrangement, though, for convenience sake, I adopt that of Buhler from this point on : vavahara, dasa, kappa. We must here consider the statements of tradition in reference to the origin and composition of these texts. Haribhadra, on Avasy. 6, as, explains the third of the three forms of the samachari which are mentioned in the text: ohe dasaha payavibhAge, the paclavibhilgas11milchihi by chMdasfrtr111}i, and, as we have seen above, p. 357, he states that this is chhedasf1tralakshanfm navama pi'l.rvad eva nirvyuq.ha. On Avasy. 7, et he limits the equalization of the paclavi0chiil'i to kalpa. and vyavahara (sa. cha ka0hararilpi\). The same statement exists in the avachf1ri composed A. D. i383 by Jnanasagara on the Oghaniryukti: [450] padavi0chari lmlpavyavahfirau; and pi'l.rva 9 (vastu 3, prabbrita 20) is referred to as the source see above, p. 357 whence this Bhadrabflhusvamina nirvy-0.cJ,ha, The composition of these two texts, kalpa and vyavahara, is frequently referred back13 to Bhadrababu, who is said to have made use of the same sources as they. But in the rishima1,1q.alasutra (Jacobi, Kalpas, p. 11), (p. 472) the same is asserted of the third member of this group of texts, the dasau. We have consequently here, as in the case of upanga 4, to deal with an author whose name is specially mentioned. Whether this claim is correct or not (we will refer to this question below), the connection with the puvvas according to tradition, is significant. The contents of the existing chhedasutra.s makes it probable that a large portion of them is of considerable antiquity. This contents refers in general to the clergy and the rules of conduct prescribed14 for them, though there is a large admixture of subsidiary matter of a legendary character (e. g. the entire Kalpasutram). The first two rules, according to the existing order, refer to expiations and penances (prayaschitta)15 ; while all the rest contain general matters referring to discipline. [451] There is other testimony of an external character which makes for the antiquity of the chhedasutras. The first of these is, as is well known, closely connected with anga 1, and is, in fact, called a part of the latter (p. 254). Chhedasutras 2, 4 bear the stamp of antiquity because they resemble angas 1-4 as regards the introduction ; and because chhedas. 2 -5 resemble the same ai1gas as regards the conclusion.16 The ancient date of chhedas. 4 is eo ipso attested by the thoroughgoing mention of it and its ten sections in anga 3, 10, The testimony is not so favourable in the case of chhedasiltra 2. It must be ascribed to a somewhat later date from the fact that it contains a polemic against the ninhaga, a :iention lS The same is asserted of the nistham ; see p. 453n, u It corresponds consequently to the vinaya of the Buddhists with which, despite all differences, it is closely connected in contents and in style of treatment. 15 The expression glattha in the last verse of Dharmaghosha's lirl\ddhajltakalpa (seep. 478), treating of the prayas chitta, is explained in the anonymous scholiast thereupon by gltartha!;, sr!nislthitdichhedagramthast1trarthadharab, i. e. g!ta is explained by chhedagramthasil.tra. Dh. recommends to the giattha the correction of his work, which he conceives of as being closely connected with the chhedasfitras. This name g!ta does not agree particularly well with the form of the text of the existing chhedasfttras, since a large portion of the latter is composed in prose, and ~loka, not gatha is the prevailing form of metre in the metrical portions. Cf.", however, the name of the sixth book of the second chhedas. 1s It must, however, be noticed that (p. 448) in Svi. and V. the chheda texts are treated of between anga 4 and anga5. PAGE 97 of the dasap11vvin etc. inserted in chMdas. 4. SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 97 See below. We have exact chronological data for the Kalpasutram, Seep. 47~. It is remarkable that there are old commentaries called bha.shya and chftri,I7 composed in Prakrit, the first kind of texts written in gathlls, the second in prose, on three of om t,exts: nisiha, vava.httra, kappa. The Norn. Sgl. M. of the 1. Deel. ends invariably in o and not in e; and extensive use is made of the insertion of an inorganic m. The Prakrit shows many traces of a later age, e. g., we find the thematic instead of the declined form. Fnrthermore, the fact that these bhashyas [452] are, for the most part, composed in glithils, whereas the verses in the chhedasutras are mostly slokas, deserves our attention. The extent of each of the texts is as follows: -I. nisiham 812 ( or 815) gra.1hthas, 2. mahanisiham 4504 gr., 3. vavahilra 500 gr., 4. dasasrutaskamdham 800 gr., exclusive of the kalpasutra, that contains 1254 gr., -5. brihatkalpa 475 gr., 6. pamchakalpa (is wanting). XXXV. First chheidasfttram, the nisihajjhaya:i;i.am. This :name is explained, strangely enough, by nisitha, though the character of the contents would lead us to expect nishedha. In the scholiast on Uttarajjh. 26 2, nisihiyli is paraphrased by naishedhiki; and so in the scholiast on Dasavealia 5, 2, 2 : asamamjasanishedh:1n naisheclhik1; in the scholiast on Avasy. 7, 1 and on .Anuyogadv. introduction (2b in A) where Hemachandra explains it by savapari sthiipanabhumil}, The st,atements in the text in Avasy. 7, sa fg. are decisive: jamha tattha nisiMho te.1;1.am nisihia hoi II 33 II jo hoi nisiddhappa I nisihia tassa bhavao hoi I avisuddhassa nisihia k'.Jvalamittam havai: saddo II II; in 10, 40, 41 we read baddham abaddham tu suam, baddham tu duv11lasamganiddittharh I tavvivariam abaddham, nisiham anisiha baddharil tu II 40 II bhue paril}.ayavigae saddakaral}-am taheva anisiharh I pachchhannarh tu nisiham nisiha namam jahajjhaya1Jam II n II Scholiast herel8 ) : iha baddhasrutarh nishidham anishidham anishedharh cha, tatra rahasya[453Jpfi~had rahasyopadesach cha prachhannam nishidham uchyaM, prakiisapa~bat prak:1sopadesach cha 'nishidham, ... nishidharh guptartham uchyate. ]!'rom this we may indubitablyl9 conclude that the explanation by nisitha2 is simply an error, and :is to be classed in the same category as the explanation of uvavaiyam by aupapatikam and of rayapaS~I].ai:yyam by riijaprasntyam, Whether we are to understand 01w text under the nisihajjhay0 mentioned in ai1ga 4 (seep. 280) as part of the first anga or under the nis1ha nfimam ajjhayaI].am in Avasy. 10, 41, is a matter of doubt, since its title is perhaps not passive =pachhannam (s. below), guptiirtham, but active in sense. Nevertheless the statements, which (seep. 254 ff.) are fonnd in anga 1 in relation to its fifth chula called nis1ha (c. also nis1hiya as the name of ajjh. 2 of the second chfrla, ibid.),and in the introduction of the nis1thachurgi in reference to the identity of the chhedasfrtra with this fifth ch-&la21, make at least for the conclusion that tradition regards the nisiham ajjhayaI].am in our chhedasf1tra as originally forming a part of ai:tga 1 and separated from it at a later period. This does not, of course, exclude the possibility that the text in question existed origi nally as it exists to-day in an independent condition, and that it was at a later period joined with ai:tga 1, whence it was again separated. In the Nandi see below [454] the nisiham is mentioned after dasa kappa vavahil.ro and before mahanisiham. It is, therefore, certain that our text is referred to. The statements, 17 See Jacobi Ka.lpas. pp. 16, 25. 1s pa.dya.gadya.ba.ndhanad ba.ddha.m, s!istrllpadesava.d; dvad. achi\rMiga.7:1ipita,ka.m .. lokottara.m; a.ba.ddham laukikam. 1s In the enumeration of the 10 samayart (a.ngas 3, 10, 5, 7, uttara.jjh. 26,A.vasy. 7) the Avassaya, commandments are always found together with the nisthiyil, prohibitions (Laumann). 2u Intermediate forms a.re nishidha. see just above and nishltha. in the scholia.st on anga 1. 21 !:!Uanka, in the introduction to the second ~rutask. of a.nga 2 says that the "Achara.prakalpo nisithal/' is ' nirvyO.gha from pO.rva 9, 3, 20, (Leumann) ; see pages 357, 450n. PAGE 98 98 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE J .A.INS. which are found22 in .Avasy. 16, 114, (s. p. 255n) in reference to the three-fold division of nis1ham into three ajjhayaQ.as, by name ngghayam, aQ.uggbayam and aruv11Q.il, are not in harmony with the constitution of our text, which contains no trace of such a three-fold division, but on the other hand is divided into 20 uddMakas,23 containing hardly anything but prohibitions for the bhik shu.2~ The words ugghlltiya and aQ.uggh0 are, it is true, made use of, but this does not presnpposl" a direct division into _3 ajjh.25 All these prohibitions commence with the following words (c. the formula in the Pratimokshasfttra of the Buddhists) : -je bhikkhft .. kar~i and end with karemtam va sil.tijjai.26 We have here then a fixed canonical rule, which makes upon us the impression of being very old. At the conclusion of the udd. a penitence of one or, as the case may be, of four months is prescribed: tarn sevamai],e avayyati mllsiyam. pariharaHht1I],ath ugghiiti yam ( or ar,rnggh0 or chfm0 ) Jilisahe. The 20th udd. treats especially of this penitence and appeals thereby to the first udd. of the vavaM.ra. [455] At the end there are three aryil.s, in which Visahagai],i is stated to be the writer (!) : tassa lihiyam nisiham. These aryiis are counted as constituent parts of the text, since they are followed by the words iti nisihajjhayal}e visamo udde8aii sammatto. There is a very detailed commentary (bha.shya) in Prakrit in 11rylls, akin to the prose commentary, which Jinaprabha.muni, author 2; of the commentary on the parynsLaQ.ilkalpa niryukti, mentions as his source of information under the name nisithachfirQ.i. The bhashya offers but little assistance in regard to the explanation of the words of the text, but contains general remarks concerning the contents of each of the udd~sakas. It starts with a very lengthy introduction,29 which at the end is called pe<;lharn, i. e. pi~harn, cf. p1thika in Malayagiri, Each of the parag-raphs of the text is called sutram in every case. This commentary does not. discuss the three conclnding verses of the text. The writer of the Berlin l.VIS. (A.hmed:1b:1d Samv. 1629) belonged to the stock of Ahhayadeva.20 XXXVI. Second chhlldasu.tram, the maha.nisiham. Instruction of Goyama in reference to transgressions (salla) and punishments (pfiyachhitta, pachhitta), in 8 ajjhay al}as, of which [456] ajjh. ], 2 have a text composed partly in slokas or trish~ubh, (Norn. in o) and partly in prose (Norn. in e.); and in ajjh. 3 ff. many slokas are inserted. The sing le copy which I have by me, and that a very incorrect one, reproduces the text so very imperfectly that even the writer, overcome by the difficult,ies in his way, at the conclusion of the first ajjh., begsso, in Prakrit, that the fault be not laid at his door. He says that it is not a kulihiyam, but e. text sui generis with its mixture of verses, half-verses, prose and even single aksharas. See my remarks on p. 472. If my explanation of his words be correct the writer speaks also of marginal glosses and of leaves that have fallen out from his original (puvvf1yarisa, purvadarsa). Since these wonls too are very corrupt, they are not to be ascribed to the writer of the present MS., which is well 22 Haribhadra makes no statement on this head, since he holds the verses to be nigadasiddha. Cf. the five-fold division of the fiyara in anga 3, 5, 2 into: mAsii' ugghi1iil, m. ay;,.ugghfiie, chaummitsie u., cha. a;mggh., cha. a;mgghftie ii.rovanl\, (Leumann.) 2a' 1 with 48 paragraphs, 2 with 59, 3 with 74, 4 with 62, 5 with 76, 6 with 22, 7 with 37, 8 with 19, 9 with 26, etc. 1,1 According to Kash. Kuntfthe nis. treats of the duties of Si\dhus, and the fines and penalties to be imposed on them when they neglect them." 2 The 20 udd. are, however, divided into 3 groups (1-5, 6-19, and 20; Leumann). 20 "Who does this:or that and who does not do it." See Laumann, .Aup. Glossar, p. 159 s. 1. sajj (Pali sAdiyati} "take," "receive," accept, ''.perm.it/' 21 A. D. 1307, see Jacobi, Kalpas. p. 25; also author of the Vidhiprapll, above p. 223, Begins: navabambhachframai'.o attharasapadasahassi6 veto (ved!i,Q, seep. 457) I havati ya sapamchachillo bahu bahuta.ra6 padagge~am II 1 II fiyarap;1,kappassa tu .. II 2 II ayar6 aggari,tiyapakappa taha chlllia nis!ha,h ti .. H 3 n pakappammi ohuliyfienisih~ ya V. 1 is cited in the same form, by SUanka from Bhadr.'s licharanil'ynkti acco,u. ing to Leumann. 29 Sarhvat 1569 under Piitasfilia Mahamilda. so mahfinisihasuyaskarhdhassa pa~hamam ajjhayay;,.arh salluddhara~am nama II 1 !I eyassa ya kulihiyadc",sii na. dAyavv6 suaharehii:h I kim tu j6 ohcva eyassa puvvllyaris6 l\si, tattheva kattha ya silog6 katthai' sil6gaddharh k:a.tthai' payakkhararh katthai:rh akh.haraparhtiya katthai' pattayapu\thiya1h (" marginal notes" r) kai' M tinni pannii~i rva ghai (r) bahu gamshpa (gamtha P) parigaliyaril ti. PAGE 99 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 99 written to say the least, but to an earlier scribe, whose comments have always been copied together with the text. A statement in Sanslo:it, of not less peculiar nature, but banded down in a very corrupt state, is found at the end of the fourth ajjhayal)a, and is directed, not against the-con dition of the text, but against its contents. .Acnording to this statement Haribhadrasul'i had declared that it was impossible for him to believe some of the wonderful accounts contained in the text. [ 457] '1.'he writer first asserts that this scepticism of Haribhadrasuri has reference solely to a few of these statements and not to the entire fourth ajjh. or to the other ajjh. 'rbis scepticism, he says, was caused by the fact that in angas 3, 4 and in upai1gas 3, 4 nothing was said of these matters, "na kath::uhchid idam il.chakhye yatha." We must refer yathil to what follows, and regard the words as a kind of citation from ajjh. 4. The latter, however, does not suit the sense, which amounts to this: cave-dwellers are able to undergo hardships for a year. The meaning of the very obscure words at the end appears to be that since this sutram according to ancient tradition is an arsham, and in this srutaskandha there are contained many excellent "ga9adharoktil.ni vedavacbanani," it is the conclusion of the writer that there is no occasion for unbelief even as regards these remal'kable st.atements.31 The great Haribhadrasftri32 is undoubtedly referred to here, [ 458] who must have played an important role at the date of this remark of the copyist, to whom the polemic appeared as a bitter necessity. The wretched condition of the text is perhaps to be ascribed to the fact that the authority of the mahilnistthasutra found many opponents even among the Jains themselves. That the text is corrupt is manifested externally first of all in the imperfect tradition as regards its division. According to a special statement33 in the commencement of the third ajjh., after v. 3, (a statement that perhaps did not belong to the text originally) the mahil.nis. consists of 8 ajjhayal)aS, each of which contains a certain number of uddesas, which is stated. But in our :MS. there is no trace whatsoever of any uddesas. In the first ajjh. there are between the beginning and the end some numbers (31, 33, and 16, 17 for which 36, 37 are to be substi tuted), [459] and at the end the number 49, These numbers do not, however, refer to uddesa sections, since these are generally of greater extent, as is proved in the case of our text from the number of udd. ascribed to ajjh. 2-7. We have no statement of the kind in the case of ajjh. 1. These numbers are nine for 2, sixteen for 3, eight for 4, ten for 5, two for 6, three for 7, ten for 8. Ofthe eight ajjhayal)HS only the first six are specially distinguished, four having special s1 atra chaturthadhyayane bahavai) siddhfithtikf,}_i kechid ilyl\pakl\nna (P) samyak suc1adhycty (P) i"v~thtair asraddadhilnair asmakam api na samyak sraddhanam ity ilha Haribhadrasurii); na punal_i sarvam ~ve 'da1h chaturthitd!>.yayanam anyl\ni vA 'dhyayanani asyai 'va katipayai(}_i) parimitair Alilpakair asraddhitnam ity artha]:i; yatal.i sthi\na-samavaya.-jlvabhigama-p1ajna.panfidishu na kathathchid idam achakhyf,,, yatho I preti (P) samti\pas thl\nam asti, tai (P) guhavAsinas tu mannjnAs, teshu cha paramadhilrmik,i.'.\)fim puna]:i punal_i saptnshtavf;rf.n ysvad upapattes, teshfith cha tair dArm:iair vajrasilll.gharat\asamputair gilitanarh paripl~asaka lokatat(t)vanir'.\)aya dharmavi1:hdu 16kabithdu yogadrishtisamuchchaya darsanasaptatildl nfm,ichitralm vrihanmithyAtvama,hthana pamchas1'\traka sarhskritl\tmAnusi\sana sathskritachaityavathdanabhfishya anekfirhtajayapattkfi 'nekfithtapadaprav~saka paralf,lras:ddhi dbn.rmalobbasiddhi sfstravi\rttasamnchchnylLdiprakara'.\)fin,th, tatha avasyakavritti dasavaikalika vrihadvritti laghuvritti phiuj.aniryuktivritti jlvfibhigamaprajnipani\parhgavritt_i pamchavastukavritti anekfu:htajayapatakavritti chaityavamdanavritti .anuyiigadvAravritti nathdivritti sa,hgraha ,:,lvritti kshetrasama.savritti si\.strAvarttAsamuchchayavritti arhachhrtchil4ama'.\li Sama:;:"adityacharita lmthfikiisfidieAstrfL'.\)ftr:h. Not so complete are the statements in the Vichi\rl\mrito,sa1hgraha which contains, however, a l'argn number of the names. In the Vic. H.'s death is placed ( 8 begin.) in the year 1.050 after Vlra. ss Probably in four aryAs, though the metre or rather the text itself is very difficult to make out. The last verse reads : nikhittavibhittapli'.\)er;tath samghattll'.\)arh imO mahfurislha(m) I varasuyakkhathdhath vott:wvath cha auttagapl\'.\)age'.\)am (P) ti II In the preceding verses the word am bile is found three times: ta1e solasa ucld~se atjha tathl\va ambill\ I jam tath ita1:h chailtthi\ vipathchamathmi (!) 'chhfimi yambile II" dasa, chhaHhe dfi, sattami\ tinni, a~thamd, 'bile dasa a I ; this is probably a vocative to ambilfi, "little mother," and to be explained in the same way as sumdari in pa'inna. 7 (see p. 442). PAGE 100 100 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. names, though only those ascribed to the first two ajjh. are in harmony with the contents. The sixth ajjh. closes on f. 70a; the remainder is characterized at the close (96b) as : piiya, perhaps biiya, dvitiya, chftliya, so that two chftliya chapters are here indicated,84 which, ifadded to the 6 ajjh., gives the desired number 8. In this faulty condition of the MS. it is worth while to note the statements of the three sami1charis in reference to the mahan. .A. vi. treats of this subject (see pp. 447, 448) in discussing the chhilaggantha, and states that there were 8 ajjh. with 83 uddesas. The first ajjhayar.iam had then no divisions of this kind and was egasaram; the second had 9, the third and fourth 16 ea0h, the fifth 12, the sixth 4, the seventh 6, the eighth 20. The difference between this account and the information to be drawn from the MS. is very great indeed. (See above.) Svi. and V., on tbe other hand (seep. 448), separate the mabanisiharn from the of.her chheda texts, and treat, at the conclusion, of the jogavihi of the sacred texts after the pa'innagaviht [ 460] They too agree with .Avi. as regards the number of ajjh. and udd. The seventh and eighth ajjh. are expressly called by V. cb-0.16.rO.va (donni ch-0.lao, v. 64). Forty-three days are necessary to learn the mahitn., teyalisil.e dii;iehim ajjhaya1.1asamatti, but as two days are requisite for suyakkhamdhassa samu PAGE 101 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 101 pavi~~ha II. Furthermore [ 462] stress is la.id upon reverence (vamd~, varhdiyyft) for pictures (pag.ima) and temples (cheia, cMiiilaya). A special formula seems to have been made use of in this oonnection, an enigmatical treatment of the letters of which occurs36 after the fa,shion of the treatment of a n 111, (@iit) in. the Upanishads and in similar form11las in the tantra ritual. This entire subject was a riddle no the copyist cf. p. 456 a.md so it remains for us. After the real conclusion of the work, in au addition, a. simila.r subject is treated of in like manner merely by means of .sin,gle letter.s. Book II. i1S entitled kammavivaya1Jarh, perhaps karmavipilchaQ.a (cf. pp. 270, 280, 335). A.t the end is found an obscure statement which perhaps has reference to ajjh. I, 2 and which reads: eesirh tu doQ,harh ajjhayaQ.ilt1,am vihl pavvagei:i&m savvasi1mannam vatt8hi1,iari1 ti (?). Books III. and IV., without specific titles, are composed almost entirely in prose, and treat especially of the kusila. It is noticeable that in Book III. frequent reference is paid to the dnvalasarhgarh snyanftQ.am and the samgova:rnga duvf1lasamgasam11dda. The commencement with samaiya is retained. (cf. p. 243), and the suyanaQ.atn is then characterized as samf1iya-m-ai l.&gabimd11s11gara. (s11ral) payyavasfmam (p. 245). [463] We find in the text the following statements which are very characteristic as regards the origin and history of Book Ill.: tattha tattha bahuehim suyaharehirh sammilifi.i;iarh samguvarhgaduvalasamgfrn snyasamudcH\n anna-anna-uvarng(1suya(kkha)rhdha-ajjhaya1Ja-nddesag11Q.am samuchchinMi;iarn kirhchim kimchim samvayya.m.i'uJam ettham lihiyam ti, na u1.1a sakavvakayaih (svakttvyalqitam) ti. This is au example of the saying qui s'eaiciise s'accuse. It is more probable that the above is a production of the author himself than that it emanates from the hand of a copyist who is inclined to donbt. Book IV. contains a legend of two brothers, Sumati and Nitila,37 in which we may observe an occasional reference (in Sanskrit !) to an old elu.cidation (!) of aiiga 10: sesham. tu prasna vyt1kara1Javriddhavi.chilral}ild avaseyam. Whoever, bhikshu or bbik!!hu9i, should praise the adherents of hostile systems or schismatics (parapasamgil}am pasari:tsam kareyya, je ya vi l}arh niQhagll1iarh p. k.), whoever speaks in f!l,vou.rof theschismatics(nil}hagi1i;iam a\mkfi.lam bhiiseyyi'L), visits their temples (nil}h. ayaxai:iam pavisiyya), studies their texts (nii;ih. gamthasattlm payakkha1am vil paruveyyf1), or follows their ordinances (nil}h. sa1nkalie kilyakilesilie tavei VIL samjamei va jf11,1ei vil vinnilv.1i Vil suei vil pagivvei VII avimuhasuddhap!l,risilmayyagile sal:1ht'.\yyf1), his fate will be as disastrous as that of Snmati, sa vi i;iam paramfihammiesum uvavayyeyya. jahil Sumati. The hate against the heterodox and schismatics is here so bitter, [ 464 J that the conjecture is not too bold iE we assume tl).at the q.eterodox and schismatics had at that time got possession of the text of this hook, see pp. 293, 368, Book V., duvf1lasam.gasuyarI.1~1}assa n,av!l,tiyas~ra (?), mentions tb.e duv!ilasamga, but merely in a geI).eral way. It treats especially of the relation between the teacher (guru) and schola.1 (stsa), of the !iyara (gachhayara, see p. 445), and al}ayilra, Book VI., giyatthavihara (see pp. 437, 450), treats of the paahhittaprayaschitta, and contains a legend of a. teacher Bhadda and the ayyiyil (!iryika.) Ra.yyil. 'rhe mention of the dasapnvvi in the introduction brings eo ipso the. date of its composition down to a period snbsequent to tha.t of Bhadrabalrn, the last chaturdasapil.rvin, and to that of Vajra., the last da!iapfrr'."in. See pp. 2i9, 460. Books VII., VIII., which (see p. 459) are characterized as two chuliyas, a name which per se marks them as a secondary addition, treat likewise of t,he pachhitta, and, in fact, in such SG ama!].a J a J maii J kaiittha ava I acldhal!].a I am~a um J !]. am I up ay J ll:i;i. u J s llral !].a am J ll um !]. J amaii J sa am bh i J !]. na,s u I I I !]. amaii j kha! re ll J sabaddha I!]. I a u m I ~am u etc. -In a similar manner {each of the single consonants having virilma) we find the mantra composed which the Vidhiprapil cites in mentioning the ayariyapayat(hilva,:,aviht ancl uvajjhayapay0 These, however, commence with a J u I m I ; cf. the U panishade. Have we here an example of the mauyakkhara? see page 281 (with note) and page 350. a1 In the thcraval1 of Kalpa8., one of the four scholars of Vajra (svilmin), p. 460, or of Vajrasena, is called by this uame. He was the fonncler of a school which bqre his name. Bht\adinna, the schola1 of Nagajjuna, was from the N ftilakula; sec v. 4L of the TMr!lvall in the N andJs. PAGE 102 102. SAC&ED LITERATURE OF 'l'H.E JAINS. great detail, that the wards kim bahni]ft.9'' together with tbe formal frame-work enclosing them, are occasionally repeated several times in immediate slliccession. Shortly befoce the close these words occnr again. A legend of the dai111gbter o,f s:ll!yyasivi in Ava.nti pla,.ys a very pro minent part in these boob. The solemn adjnration (found also in another passage) to se;.ve this: Slitrarii from ainy damage, is another indication of its secondary origin : jaya. 1,1am Goyam,1 igam-o pachhittasuttari1 voch.chhiyyihii faya. J]aill chamdaichcha-gaha[ 4l35Jrikkha-til.raga. l}aril satta ah&.ratte ya I]O viplmriyy,t, imassa I]am vochh~l& Goya:llllil r. kasili!ltsa:nilkjamassa abhav6. To the conclusion (samattam mahilnisihasuyakkharilllham) are joined! too re-verential invo cations. to the 2.4 tittharhkaras, the tittha, the suyadevayil, the suyakevali, all the salm, sid'a!hiai to the bhagavamt arahamt. Th.en follow the incomprehensible separate aksharasetc., mentioned on page 462. The actual conclusion is formedi b,y the statement concerning the extent of the whole book (45.04 slokas): chattil.ri sahassfdm pamcha sayaim tah&va cmntari t cha.ttari (again !) silogil. viya mahanisihammi p,1enarh ll The mahanisiham is indisputably much younger thain the nisiham, and is almost six times its. size. It is noteworthy that this sO.tram, just as the fourth chhedas., acco,rding to its own t.tatements (see above ancJ pp. 4!56, 458, 4!6]) receives suyakkham.dha, s.rutaskandiha as an addition to. its name. This is a title that is used in the case od: the aiiigas for larger d.ivisiolls of an a1'iga. Bnt in the case of ai,gas 3-5, 7-10, up. 8-12 the expression also holds good for the who1e and! not me-re]y a part. There is no commentary, as in the case of the Disiha, with the exception of the chfuii, See above,. p. 445, for the origin of the gachhayarath from the mah11nisrha. XXXVII. Third chhedasfi.tram, the vavaha.ra. We have alroadly seen above, pp. 447, 449', that the three texts dasft, kappa and va.vahil.ra, according to the Avasy. 16, IOR, are connected as one group. In the arrangement found; in the Avasy. and in that handed down in the Nandi, vavahilra is placed in the las.t place after dasa and kappa. This position after the kappa is also allotted! to the vavahftra [ 466] in tlrn penultimate verse o.f the bhftshyaas belonging to it, and consequently in Malayagiri's comm., where there are two statements to this effect -in the introduction39 and at the conclusion of' the seventh u.dd.40 The same conclusion may be drawn from the compound kalpavyavaharau in schol. on Oghaniry. (seep. 449), though there may be here nothing more thain a mere re.ferenco to the greater brevity of the word kalpa. In the Eatnasc1'ga1:a (see p. 449), however, the vavahil.ra stands at the head of the chhedasO.tra. We have ailrcady seen (ibid.) that kalpa as vavahil.ra is attribUJted especially to Bhadrabf1hu and cons-idered as an ex.tract from purva .. s, 20, According to Avasy. 2, 5, Bhadrabithu (sup posing that he is here the speaker) comp~sed at least a niyyu.tti on it. And we have also seen (p. 446) that the text is divided into ten nddesas4i.l. in agreement with the. statements in Avasy. 16, 109. 'rhe contents consists od: genera.I regulations in reference to the penances etc., of the clergy and of diisc-ipJinary statutes collicerniing right and wrong kappati., no kappati. Each o,f the uddesas closes, after the fashion of ai1gas 1-3i )Vith ti bemi. The text is i.11 prose and well pieserved. '1'he Prakrit bMshya in ary11, is found entire in l\falayagiri's very detailed commentary, which is in reality rather a commentary on the bhashya than on the text itself. [ 467] In the commencement of the very lengthy introduction~2: we find the relation of the text to the kalpai stated as follows : kalp-:ld!hyayaneabhavat pi:aya8 PAGE 103 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 103 ndd. I treats of parihflrattha1,1am lasting I, 2, 3 or 4 months, -2 of the relation of two silhammiyas, -3 of teacher and scholar, 4 of the merit (maryada) silhfrl}am, -5 of the mera samjatil}ath,--:-n of mischances (also niggamtMl}a), -7 of the rftja.dina.m avagraha, -8 of the sildharmikavagra.ha, -9 of the 11h11ra., -10 of the a.bhigraha.. See above, p. 445, in reference to the vava.hi1ra as source of the gachMyara. XXXVIII. Fourth chhAdasiitram., the dasa.6 or a.va.radasa.u, dasas, in fuller form dasMrutaskandha, in 10 uddesas (uddesal}akala Avasy. 16, 109), of which I to 9 are called dasa, the eighth is called also ajjhayal}am and the tenth ajjhayaqam only. In Avasy. 2, 5 the speaker declares himself to be author of a dasill}am niyyutti whose author tradition (see Jacobi, l. c. p. 12) calls Bhadraha.hu. The great .antiquity of the text is proved by the fact that not only is it cited in anga 3, 10 under the title Ayil.radasa.u, but also the names of its ten ajjh. cited there are the same as those given here. Seep. 272. Each of the first seven dasas begins after the fashion of ai1ga I with the :formula: suyam me Ausam teq.am [468j bhagavaya evam akkhayam and closes with ti bemi. After akkhll.yam there follows another formula, which briefly says that the contents of the following ~ection is as "therehim bhagavaqitehim pannatta," as in up. 3 (p. 388), see Abhayadeva on ai1ga 3, 10 288b. The doctrines in question it refers to the predecessors of the bhagavant (see also up. 10, p. 423), In the first dasa 20 asamahit~hanil are treated of, in the second 21 sabalf143 (sabalani), in the third 33 asayaI].111, in the foul'th 8 ga~sampada, in the fifth 10 chittasamilhittha1Jil, or, according to V, attasohi ( here there is a legend of a sermon of Mahavfra at the time of Jiyasattn, king of Vil.I].iyagfuua, 'closing with 17 slokas), in the sixth 11 uvasagapagiman, in the seventh 12 bhikkhupacJimau. All this deals with regulations having reference to the department of the vil}aya, and treats of the course of life and the discipline of_the lait.y and clergy,44 The method of treatment is short and compact. The eighth section is called aijhaya"Qam, but in ai1ga 3, 10 as in V., pajjosftva1,1akappo, exceeds the first 7 dasis in its contents and in its extent.. Certainly its largest portion has been inserted here at a later period, It is formed of the work called Kalpas1itra and in fact of the entire work of this name in its three parts, according to the MSS. and the Kalpa.ntarva.chya.ni. Jacobi (Kalpas. pp. 22, 23) has already called our attention to the fa.et, that in reality only the last (the third) section, [469] which is called" siun:lchart, mles for yatis;'' and also paryusha!].il. kalpa cf. the title of this hook in aiiga 3 and V. be-longs in this place, and that it alone could claim, together with the remaining parts of the dasilisr., to be ascribed to Bhadrabahu. The closing words tti berni, payyosar}Akap,padasil aHhamaro ajjhayaq.am are s.imila.r to those of the other dasau and substantiates this conclusion. The contents of this section refers to the varshflvasa, a.nd treats of that which thereby is kappaii and no k. Jin the introduction commencing with the legendary formula teq.am kalegam -it is stated how MaMvira acted in these cases. The following portions, each of whose sentences invariably begins with a stereotyped refrain, is at the end ascribed to Mahavira in special legendary form likewise introduced b-y teq.am ~illeq.am. I will refer to the other parts of the Kalpasutra below. The ninth dasil, also eal1ed m~haiyyatthaQam, has. the usual legendary beginning : M1.1am kalei:iam and tells of a sermon of Mahavi:ra under king Koiya of Champa in reference to the 30 (so also ai1ga 3) mohavtha1;iairil. The portion dealing with this sermon consists of 39 slt,kas, for the most part with the refrain mahf1moham pakuvva'i. The conclusion 1s ti bemi. The tenth book, ay&titthf1q.am45 corpmences with the usual formula: teI].am kaleJ].am, and tells in great detail46 how SeJ].ia l 470] Bhimbhis11ra, king of Ra:yagiha, together with his spouse '" Cf. Av. 18, 04-99, and Prasna.vyiik. conclusion (Leumann). ,.; Cf. Avasy. 16, 17 fg. to iijananam fij,1ti(11) sammurchhanagarbhopap!ltat6 janm!, tasyal~ sthilnam sa,b.sl\ral} Abhayadeva. on aiiga 3, 10 (28Da) in the introduction, e It refers to up. 1. PAGE 104 104 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. Chellai;i.ii, listened to a sermon of Mahli vira. The sight of the princely splendour turned the thoughts of the followers of Mabavtra to worldly things, to rebuke which Mahavira preaches a lengthy sermon on the excellence of his doctrine, divided into 10 and beginning with the same refrain.47 Nor does he fo~get to mention the rewards of those who follow his teachings. The result of this sermon was that his audience were delighted and Mahavira continued to preach in R.ajagriha. The legendary excursi of the last dasau (5, 8, 9 and 10) in reference to Mabavira are doubtless the cause of the introduction of the KalpasiHra, the first part of which treats especially of the life of Mahavira. The Kalpasfttram was the first .Jain text which was made known, in 1848, in the very faulty transla.tion of Rev. J. Stevenson. It is now carefolly edited by H. Jacobi, 1879, to whose instructive introduction I have so often referred. We have already observed, that of the three parts of which it is composed, the last alone can claim to belong to the dasau. 'l'he two other parts were originally not connected. Each of them is divided into three portions, the first of which contains the history of Mahllvira, the second that of his 23 predecessors, the third a list of his successors, [47l J Therilvali, to Deviddhi-khamasamai;ta, the nominal redactor of the 45 ilgame.. This Thflra.vali agrees as regards each of its first twelve parts with tho1:1e statements which are found in the theravaH of the Nandi and of the Avasyakasutra, and in the later tradition of the Jains (rishimai;tgalasutra of the Dharmaghosha etc.). But from this point on there is no such harmony. The list found here is the most complete, since it embraces a large number of the lateral branches proceeding from each of the patriarchs ; and contains all sorts of divergences from the other lists. Jacobi distinguishes" four or five distinct treatises" (p. 23). It is self.evident that any connection is impossible between this Th~ravali and Bhaddabf1hu, the nominal author of the Kalpasutra see below who appears in the seventh place in the list of patriarchs . The Th~ravali contains eleven members more (ajja Va'ira, Vajrasv,1min, as number 16) nor c!.ic!. it belong originaUy to the Kalpasutra. This conclusion holds good also in the case of the account of the 23 p~edecessors of Vira which introduces it. In this account we find some few details in reference to two of Vira's immediate predecessors, Pt1sa and Ari~than~mo, and in reference to Usabha who is placed first in the ,series. The other pre decessors are treated of in I!, very few words. The relation is retrogressive, beginning with the 23rd. We find no mention that Malli (Mali in the tex.t of Jacobi) was a woman. The intention of collecting everything that had reference to Jainism is manifest in the addition [ 472] (see Stevenson, p. 99) of these two sections, in reference to the suc_cessoPs and predecessors of Mahf1vira, to the main part of the Kalpasutra which treated of his life. This main portion contains towards the close ( 148) statements mentioning the dates 980 and 993 after Vira. Aceording to Jacobi (p. 23) it is self-evident that these dates do not "refer to the author, but to Devarddhigai;ti'm, the editor of the Kalpasutra." Tradition places Bhadrabahu, the nominal author of the Kalpasutra, in the year 170 after Vira (see Jacobi, p. 114). But as far as I can see, an er1.>0r 01 confusion has b1ought it about that the Kalpasfitm has been ascribed to Bhadrabi\.hu, as tradition, e. g. the introduction to the Kalpantarvilchytmi, states. In the well attested statement (see above, p. 449) that the Kalpavy1J,vaharau was exlracted from purva 9, a, 20 by Bhadrabiihu, we must not understand by "ke.lpa" the Kalpasfttram, but the chhedasutra 5, a conclusion that may be drawn from the statements in reference to the division of the two tex.ts kappa and vavahara, which is found in .Avaiiy. 16, 10 9 The similar statement concerning the dasa-kappa-vyavahilra in the ~ishimai;tgalasutra (Jacobi, p. 11) is, after a consideration of this passage of the Avasy., not to be referred, as Jacobi refers it, to "the 17 mile dhamme pannatt,, i~am eva nigga,mthe pavaya~e, sa chil a~uttarc pa<}ipunnt kevale .. (cf. Aupapfi.t. !i 5G, p. 02, ed. Leumann). PAGE 105 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE J AINS. 105 ten kalpas and the Vyavahara," but (seep. 357, 450) to the three chhedasutras 3-5: the dasau, the vavahara and the kappa.48 Personally I am inclined on the strength of 148 to hold DharddhigaQi as the editor, ancl and even as the [ 473] "author" of the chief part of the Kalpasutra. I will even go a step farther and assert that in reality the Kalpasutram, or its present essential part, has no claim to this title, which is at complete variance with its contents. It has received this name after its junction with the paryushai)llkalpa, the eighth chapter of the dasau. This ancient title (see p. 468) is cited in the beginning of the samdehavishaushadhi as a collective title of the work. See Jacobi, p. 99. The Pam.chanamaska.ra, placed "keshuchid adarf:eshu" at the commencement of the text, is known to us from anga 3 and upanga 4. It is followed here as in up. 4 by the passage in its praise, which is supposed to date back to Vajra (see Kup. 8ll), and is designed to glorify this commencement. This passage of the pamchanam. contains the form hava'i -and not hoi a8 in up. 4-which in more modern times is regarded as the only well attested form. See p. 393, 1, 2, which contain the recital so obnoxious to the Digambara (see Jacobi, p. 22)see p. 261-that Mahavira first "entered the womb of (the mahaI).i) Devanandn49 before he was placed ( 21) in that of (the khattiy:lI).i) Trisalf1 "50), are borrowed outright from a11ga 1. Jacobi, p. 23, considers the portion containing the 14 dreams ( 33-46), with their long, complex compounds, as a secondary addition, since it is not in harmony with the prevailing archaic style" of the text. I should prefer to regard the solemnity of the subject as the cause of these stylistic differences. [474] Upon such occasions the ai1gas contain numerous stylistic excrescences, which, it should be remarked, occur not infrequently in other parts of the Kalpasutra. The differences of this kind in 33--46 (or does J. extend the description of the dreams further than 46 ?) may therefore, I should think, be reduced to a minimum. The historical kernel of the recital is exceedingly small. Up to 96 (incl.) the events before the birth of Mahavira alone are treated of. The following to 111 discuss the birth, naming, childhood of M. and his life as gihattha. It is 1wteworthy that th(;lre is no mention of foreign nurses, as is usual in the ai1gas and upangas on such occasions, nor are the 72 kaltis etc. referred to, The enumeration of the Brahminical sciences in 10 is the usual one, which w& have already met with in ai1ga 5. The recital as to how MaMvira : aI).agariyam pa'ivvae ( 116), and of his farther development up to the time of his death ( 132) is devoid of every particle of life. There is no trace of the many legends concerning him which we find scattered here and there in the angas, etc. They have not been made use of at all; hence the whole makes a most unsavoury impression as regards any biographical information. In 147 the mention of the 55 ajjhayaI).as of the pi3.vaphalavivayilirh (seep. 271) is of interest, as also that of the '36 aputthavayara1,ulim, which, according to Jacobi, p. 114, are to be referred to the uttarajjhayaQam. We have in the work entitled Kalpa.ntarvAchya.ni, a production partly in Prakrit, par.tly in Sanskrit, and in a mixture of the two [ 47 5]. After a self-evident introduction in reference to the ten forms of the kalpa: acMlukka (achelatvam), uddesia (auddesika piQc.].a), sijjayara (sijjataro [sayyil.0 ] vasatisvf1mi), rayapiI].qa (presents from the king), kiikamme (kriti0), vaya (vrata), jittha (jyeshthatvam), pacj.ikkama1}e, masaril (masakalpal;i), pajjovasaI].akappe (varshiisu chii.turmasi3.vasthanarupa]:i), in reference to the purvas, out of the ninth of which the lirikalpa of Bhadrabahu, "uddhrita," etc., is the Kalpftntar., in loose connection with the text of the Kalpasutra, makes the text of the latter the point of departure for the insertion of a large number of legends and other statements in prose arid verse. The frequent mention of Hemachandrasuri and or Manatumgasuri, Malayagiri, of the Vimanarh, SarasvatikaQthabharaQam (as vy11kara-,s We find, however, mention made of a ten-fold division of the kalpa, e, g. in the introduction to the Kal,pd.ntaTyd.chyd.ni. See p. 475. '" Wife of Usabhadatta, cf. Wilson, Bel. W. 1, 292 (see Bhagav. 9, 33, Leum.). og Wife of Siddhattha of the Naya race. PAGE 106 106 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 1_1am !) and Sarasvatam vyakara1.1am shows that it was composed at a tolerably recent date. In general it may be said that there is a large amount 0 citations collected here. 0 especial interest is the peculiar attempt made in the int.rod uction to prove the great age 0 the Jinasasa9am from supposed Vedic passages, as the two "vaisvadeva-richau Yajurvedes1 :" orh :rishabham pavitram puruhutam adhvaram yajneshu nagnam paramarh pavitram I srutadhararh yajnapatipradhilnam rituryajana (!) pasum indram ilhave 'ti svi1ha, and : tratilram imdram :rishabham vadarhti anitaram irhdram tarn arish~anemirh bhave 2 subhavarh saparsvam irhdrarh I have tu sakra ajitarh j'inerhdra1h tad vardhamana1h puruhf1tam i1hdrarh syahil, and also V s. Rl, l8, ~ik 2, 89, a etc. all of which is cited [ 476] incorrectly [52 The detailed enumeration 0 the Brahminical sciences in 10 contains much of interest (18 purfu;ias, 18 smritis, 18. vyakaraI].as). The foreign serving-women are em1merated in 16, essentially in the regular way : khujjfio chiliHo vilma1_1i8 vac;labhio babbario paiisiao j81.1ia8 palhaviilo isi1.1118 charui1.1i118 lilsiao laiisia8 demalio simhaHo abarlo (!) puli1hdio pakkagio marum c.Jio bahalio sabario parasio jatiya dilsyal;i. On 108: bhagavato lekhanasalakara1.1aprara1hbh8 likhyate (in Prakrit), -on 209 a double enumeration of the 72 kalits and 0 the 18 lipayas see above p. 400 -on 211, 64 mahilagu!].fis. The oldest of the commentaries to which I have had access is the Sarhdlhavishaushadhir of Jinaprabhamuni, composed in AyodhyaA. D.1307; at the end there is added a commentary to a paryusha1.1ftkalpaniryukt.i, Both texts are composed in Prakrit, and the commentary is based especially on the nisithachur1.1i, This fact recalls chap. 8 of chhedasil.tra 4, XXXIX. Fifth chhldasutram, the bt->ihatkalpa, in 6 uddesas. Ordinances or the clergy 0 both sexes (niggarhtha and niggamthi) in reference to that which is proper (kappati) and that which is not (no kappati). The agreement in reference to the division into 6 uddesas shews that it is our text which (p. 446 ff.) is designated in the Avasy. 16, 100 in connection with dasa and vavahara and under the name of kappa simply. [477] We shall have to recognize it under the designation of kappa, or kalpildhyayana, in other passages (see pp. 449, 472) where there is mention made 0 the extraction 0 kalpavya vaharau from purva 9, s, 20 by Bhadrab:1hu. Its designation as bfihatkalpa, or vrihatsfidhu kalpa is unsuitable ifwe regard the diminutive size 0 the text (only 475 gr.). The conclusion (ti Mmi) of udd, 4 and 6 is worthy 0 note. The old bhashya in Prakrit aryils, belonging to this text, is designated simply as kalpa bhashya, and is an enlargement of the "kappassa nijjutti," which the author of the Avasy. declares that he composed (2, 7). See Kielhorn (in the Report on the Search of Sanskrit MSS. 1880-81, pp. ix. x.), in reference to an old MSS. ofit (Sam.vat 1218), and to its very curious use of letters of the alphabet to denote numerical notation,5 3 The commencement differs con siderably from that in a palm-leaf MS. similar to this, but much younger (Sam.vat 1334); of which the Berlin Library possess a copy made on transparent paper. The commencement of the Berlin MS. -after prefacing the first 6 of the text-is naml\ araharil.tar;ram, kail.1.1a namokkllrarh titthayara1.1am tiloyamahiyllQarh I kappavvavaharaJ}.arh vakkha!]avihim pavakkhami II XL. The siXth chhlida.sfl.tram is called parhchakalpas~ in Biihler's list; -seep. 226. I have not had access to a text of this name, which is repeatedly mentioned (see pp. 448, 449) 61 I am unable to explain the first passage, the second is manifestly ~k 6, 47, 11 (Ts. 1, 6, 12, 5): trAtaram indram avitaram indram. have have suhavam suram imdram I hvayami sakram puruhutam indram. svasti no maghava dhatv imdral~ II The words of the text which I have enclosed in brackets above do not occur here. 1 2 na che 'dam Jinasasanam arvachina:rh, vedadishv api tadvaohanilt, tathil. hi: vedeshu jinaprams1;1Am.gula (~) darvi, tatha Yajurvede vaisvadeva-richau ... 68 On this see Bhagvanlal Indraji on the ancient Nllgari Numerals in the Indian Antiquary, 6, 42 fg. (1877) e.nd Buhler, ibid. p. 47 fg. H In Kielhorn's report, p. 94, there is mention made of a paiichakalpasutrachur1;1i by !mradevllcharya. PAGE 107 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JA.INS. 107 both in .A.vi. and V., together with a jiakappa. According to the Vichil.ramritasamgraha, the paiichakappa jg a work of Samghadllsavachaka, while the jitakalpa belongs to the Jinabhadragai:i,iksbamil.[478]sramm,a.55 We find in it citations from both texts. The jitakalpa is also enumerated in the Ratnasil.gara, p. 507, as the sixth chhedasutram, Raj. L. Mitra, however (see p. 227 above), mentions it as the last of his "five Kalpasfrtras." In lieu of commenting upon a text of the name of paii.chakalpa I will at least remark on the jitakalpa, which is mentioned together with it, that a liraddhajitakalpa in 141 Prakritgil.thlls actually exists. It treats of the pril.yaschitta, which suits the character of the chhedasutras exactly, but is referred to a definite author, Dharmaghosha, scholar of Dev~ndra munisvara. In the anonymous commentary on it it is designated as composed upanishatkalpa(!) kalpa-vyavahilra-nisithayatijitakalpanusarci:i,a. In the commentary reference is paid to the pravachanam as silmayikadibim.dusilrapal'yamtam, and in v. 58 erroneous doctrines and pil.shai:i,gin are treated of in detail. Then the giatthas (see above, pp. 437, 450, 464), to which the text refers in v. 141, are expressly explained as srinisithadichheclagramthttrthas-Cttradharf1l,.5o From all this we may draw the conclusion tha~ the text is closely, [ 479] if not directly connected with the chhedasutras. We have already mentioned in reference to the mahakappa, Avasy. 8, 5 5 above pp. 446 447, that the Nandi in its auangapavittha list recognizes the existence of a mahakappasuam a chullakappasuam, and a kappiy:1kappiam. In the scholiast ibid. we find the following explanation: kalpakalpapratiplldakam adhyayanarh kalpakalpam; tatha kalpal) sthavirakalpadil;t, tat pratipadakam srutam kalpasrutam, tach cha dvidha : kshullakakalp0 mahakalp0 cha, tatra 'kam alpagrarhtham alpil.rtham, dvitiyarh mahagralhtham mahartharh cha. There is, therefore no doubt but that texts of this class existed,67 [Vol. XVILp.1]. In Biihler's list there follow:-E. Nandis-0.tram and F. AnuyOgadva.rasutram, without any name to connect them. In Rf1jendra Lala Mitra, Notices of Sslc. MSS. 3, 67 (Cale. 1874) ahd in the Ratnasd,gara p. 508 (Cale. 1880) both texts are mentioned in conjunction, but at the close of the Siddhanta after the mulasutras. In the Ratnas. the Anuyogadv. precedes. On the other hand we have already seen (p. 427 fg.) that, at the time of the three Sd,mdyli.ris, and indeed at that of the Vichd.ramritasaiiigraha, both texts were placed in a much earlier place of the Siddh., at the head of the pai:nna group; ~hough in the Vidhiprapa at least, their connection with this group is represented as uncertain (see 429n), In bearing the stamp of individuality and having a systematic arrangement, both texts have a claim to a free and independent position. This shews that their author attempted to give an encyclopredic, but systematic, review of everything that appeared necessary to him as a means 66 See above, pp. 427, 430, where both texts are counted in with the pa,nnas. There are there several other texts ascribed to Jinabhadra. The passage reads : Jinabha0 srama:i;ia krita jitakalpal;i, kshetrasamAsal;i, samgraha:i;ii visesha:i;iavati cha. 66 In the scholiast on Vichnrftmritasati:tgraha the follmving explanation for ityakappa is found in citation from the Pamchakappa: jam jassa cha pachchhittam i\yariyaparamparllyai:viruddham l j6gA ya. bahuvihl yd. eso khalu jiyakappo u 11 ; and the word j!yam is ibid. explained as follows : jam bahil.hi:th glyattMhim ai:i;i:i;iam ta.m jtyam uchitam f1chittam ity anarthamtaram vyavaharachftr:i;iiplthe, j!tam niima prabht'l.tiin~kagltArthakritA maryadil, tatpratipadano gramtho 'py upacharat. 67 Compare, also, the title of upAnga 9. PAGE 108 108 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. of information in reference to the sources and forms of a correct knowledge and understanding of the sacred texts. In this way [2] he could present his readers with a hermeneutical introduction.I These two works are admirably adapted to the use of any one who, having completed a collection or redaction of them, then seeks for light concerning the nature of sacred knowledge itself. The statement of the scholiast on the Nandi. has no little internal probability2 in asserting that Devavachaka, i. e. Devarddhiga1.1i himself, was their author. Furthermore, the list of teachers in the commencement of the Nandi and also in the commencement of mfilas. 2, as we shall soon see, breaks off3 with Dilsaga1.1i, whom the scholiast states to_ be the teacher of Devavil.chaka, author of the Nandt There is, however, no external support for this conclusion which is not borne out by any information to be derived from the contents. In fact, the contrary view seems to result from these sources of our knowledge; see p. 17 ff. The Anuyogadv. contains all manner of statements, which would synchronize with the date of Devarddhiga1.1i, 980 Vi.ra, i. e. fifth, or sixth century A. D. But I possess no information which would lead me to connect the composition of the Anuy&gadv. especially with him; and the difference in the terminology militates against the probability of both texts being the production of one and the same author; see pp. 9, 11, 21. That the Nandi is anterior to the Anuyllgadv. is made probable by some passages of the latter work, which appear to have been extracted from the Nandt But the fact that the Anuyogadv. is mentioned in the ai;iangapavittha list in the Nandi (see p. 12), makes for the opposite conclusion. We find references to the Nandi in the remarks of the redactor scattered here and there in the ai1gas and upangas; and especial attention is directed to the statement of the contents of the 12 angas found in the N. This statement is found in greater detail in part 2 of anga 4. Hence the fact that in these references of the redactor, the N andi and not anga 4 is cited. We do not read jaha samavuye, but jahu Nandie ; see 284, 352 (accord. to Leumann, also Bhag. 25, 3 Rajapr. p. 243): -which must be regarded as a proof that the Nandi was the. authority on which these references were based. The treatment of the subject in anga 4 is, then, merely an appropriation to itself and extension of the contents of this part of the Nandt Other arguments, notably that many of the readings in the Nandi are older in special ca~es (see 349, 363) incline us to the same conclusion. If now the nominal redactor of the entire SiddMnta or at least of the angas and upangas, Devarddhigal}.i, was also author of the Nandi, it becomes at once apparent why he referred to his own work in reference to so special a subject as the statement of the contents of the 12 angas; and ~he account in anga 4 is to be regarded as an insertion made after D.'s time. See p. 19. I find in the Siddhiinta no remarks of a redactor in reference to the Anuyogadvil.ras, though Leumann thinks to have discovered one (Bhag. 5, 4). In the text of Avasy. 10, 1 the Anuyogadvil.ras. is mentioned together with, or r PAGE 109 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 109 short form as the case may be, for the savayakachcha1.1i (sravakakrityimi), especially for the didactic exposition or the recitation of the ailgas, etc. It is almost probable that by this the recitation of our text is referred to. We read in .A.vi.: tao guru namokkaratigapuvvam namdim kagghai'., sa cbe 'y11ri1: Jlfll)affi pamchaviham , and then follows the real commencement of the Nandi. See below. This is, however, soo11 interrupted, and the citation passes to that variant textual form which is found in Anuyogad v. Another change then occurs, and finally that enumeration of the sacred texts is reached which is found later on in the Nandi. We have, therefore, here no immediate citation from the text of the N andi but a relation based essentially on the same foundation but in its form independent, a relation whose designation by the same word is based upon the appellative signification of this expression. We may compare the [5] similar use of the word nandi in Skt. for those introductory strophies of a drama, which are designed to bring good fortune. Cf. also nil.ndika as the name of r.. door-post, and nandipata, a cover of a spring (P. W.). Haribhadra on .A.vasy. 9, 1 has the following: adimamgalartham namdi vyakhyata, and in the commencement of his commentary, ibid. : no-agamato bhavamamgalam namdi, tatra namdanam namdi, namdamty anaye 'ty va bhavya~ pri11.1ina iti namdi. The signification of the title of our text is really : an introduction designed to bring good fortune. This title can refer either to the entire contents of the work such as I have above sketched, or, and this seems preferable, to the 50 verses which form the beginning.' In vv. 1-19 Vira is praised, in vv. 20, 21 there is an enumeration of the 24 Jinas, in vv. 22, 23 a list of his immediate scholars, the 11 so-called gal)adharas, and finally, from v. 24 on, a theravaH beginning with Suhamma (1) and Jambil. (2), and embracing in all thirty members ; it closes in the third generation after Nf1gajju1.1a (20) with Dil.saga!].i (ao), who, according to the anonymous scholiast (on v. 27) was the teacher of Devavilchaka, the author.5 As we have already seen on page 471, this tMravaH varies, from the ninth member on, from the statements in the list contained in the Kalpasutra. [6] The reason for this is apparent from a consideration of the remarks of the scholiast (avachil.ri) on v. 27: Suhastinab. sishyilvalikayalJ srikalpe uktatvfit na ta(s)ya ihi\. 'dhikil.ral), tasyam Narhdikrid-Devavachaka gurvanntpattel,i. From this it is clear that the author of the avachu.ri considers Devaviichaka to be the author of the Nandi, and that this account does not emanate, like that of the srikalpa, from Suhastin (10). The evidence proves that it is rather to be referred to his immediate predecessor, or brother,6 Mahagiri ( 9 ), whose intellectual descent it makes known. In refere:ace to each of its members there exists great nncertainty,7 according to the statements of the scholiast, who says of verses 31, 32: kshepakatvi\d vrittau no 'ktam,e and remarks on vv. 33, 34: etadgathadvayartha fivaeyakadipikato likhito 'sti, avachur1.1ii.v api na 'sti, vv. 41, 42 is: vfitta.v avyakhyatatvat prakshiptam, and of G6vindacharya he says, on v. 43 : sishyakramabhavad vrittau no 'kta:I,i, ii.vasyakatikato likhita:I,i. These recur, as has already been mentioned, in the commencement of the Avasy. nijj. in identically the same form. 5 Cf. the name of the nl\ndimukha):i pitaras or of the nl\ndlsrdddham. In the case of the latter was there any recitation of a list of ancestors ? G ? gurubhrfitarau in Klatt, Indian Antiqu. 11, 251a, or ubhh api bhrAtarau in Dharmaghosha's'.Gurv&vali itself. Suhastin is characterized a,s the laghugurubhrl\tar of Mahl\giri, also in the pat!{l.vall of the Kharataragaoha, Klatt, 246b. Klatt in accordance with othflr traditions (cf. Kaipas12tra) refers both to different gotras : 2.nd Mahilgiri to Elapatyagotra (so here v. 27, EH\vachasagotta), Suhastin to VAsittha, Have they different mothers? 7 On this cf. Jacobi in Journ. Germ. Or. Soc. 34, 252, 3, especially iu reference to verses 27, 28, 36, 37, an. Leumann's remarks, ibid. 37, 497 fg. In v. 27 we must read in Jacobi : Bahulassa sarivvaya:rh (vvaya:rh for vayasam) vathde instead of bahulassa Sirivayam vamdf. ( see Klatt, 1. c. 25lb ); in the scholil!,st we read iha Mahagirer dvau sishyau abhflt.:rh: Vahulo Valissahas (cf. Kalpas. Therav. 6) cha; ta.to Mahsgirer anamtaram Vahulasys. yamalabhratritvst sadfisavayasam, prllvachanikatvena pradhanatvat,Valissa.ham eve 'ty arthab. s Aryanamdila (21) v. 33 becomes then lrya-MamgU:(16)sishya v. 30. But even verse 33, in which Aryanarhdila is mentioncrl, iR d.oubtfuJ.: sec a.hove. PAGE 110 110 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. [7] The list reads9: 1. Suhamma, 2. Jambn, 3. Pabhava, 4, Sijjambhava, 5. Jasabhadda, 6. Sambhua, -7. Bhaddavahu, -8. Thulabhadda, 9. Mahagiri (and Suhatthi, -10. (Valissaha) the twin-brother of Vahnla (see note 7 on p. 6), -ll. Sai,10 -12. Samajja, 'Syamarya,n -13. Samgilla, 14. Ajja12 Jiadhara, Jita0 -15. Samudda, ;._ 16. Marhgul3 v. 30, 17. Dhamma v. 31, -18. Bhaddagutta v. 31, 19. Vaara,14 Vajra v. 31, 2L1, Rakkhia v. 32, 21. Ajjanarhdila, i. e. perhaps Ajja .Anamdila (Ajja N Schol.) v. 33, 22. Nugahatthi v. 34, -23. Reva.foakkhatta V, 35, 24. Khamdila vv. 36, 37,15 25. Himavamta VV, 38, 39, 26. NagajjuQ.a,10 vv. 39, 40, 45, 27. Gavimda v. 41, 28. Bhuadinna vv. 42-45, scholar of Nagajjm,1a, 29. Lohichcha v. 46, -30. Dusagai;ii VV, 47-49. That this list actually reaches as far as the author or his teacher is rendered the more probable by the fact that in the last verse of the list (v. 50) the na1,1assa paruva1,1ath is stated to be the purpose of the account which is to follow and this purpose reproduces correctly the contents of N. Next follow two secondary insertions, first a gatha, [8] which cites 14 examples or titles of stories in reference to capable and incapable scholars (the avachuri contains a more detailed account) and secondly a short polemical notice of the three kinds of parisa, parshad, viz. : jal}.ia., ajill}.ia and duvviac].c].hiii each of which is illustrated by a gathll.. At this point the investigation of the jnanam begins, in which a principal part is played by the enumeration of the different categories and sub-categories of both the principal classes into which the jnanam is dividedl7 -the pachchakkhanal}.am and the parokkhana.i:iam. The latter contains much that is interesting. It in turn is twofold, abhiniv6hiya0 ( 0bodhika) and sua0 (sruta). In the account of one of the two gronps into which the abhinivohiyaparokkhana1J.am is divided, are inserted eight gi'lthiis, which contain the titles of stories which belong in this connection, and which are intended to serve as examples. The avachuri goes into detail on this point. The suanai:iaparokkham is divided into 14 groups among which Nos. 5, 6, 13, 14 are of special importance : ~The sammasuam 5, samyaksrutam, is explained as jam imam arihatht@him bhagavamtehim uppannana1].adamsa1].adharehirh .. pa!].tyam duv:1lasamgam ga!].ipiq.agam, tarn jaha: ayiro , dit~hivilo.18 ichch-eyam du0gath ga0gam choddasapuvvissa sammasuath abhinnalt da.sa[9Jpuvvissa sammasuam. The posteriority of its composition to Vajra at least is clearly brought out in this passage. In michchhasuam 6 we find that enumeration of some 20 works, or classes of works, of Brahminicalliterature which I cited from the Anuyogaclvarasi1tm20 and discussed on Bhagav. 2, us. This list is here more detailed and offers several variants : Bhilraham Ramaya1J.am Bhima-' See Merutunga.'s TMrdvaii in Bhau DAj!, Journ. Bombay Br. R. As. S. 9, 151 (1867). Nos. 17-20 a.re not found therein (seep. 6), No. 21 is called Ma.ndilla ( 0dila), No, 23 Reva.i:sinha., a.nd the list gives one na.me more in mentioning Dha.r(d)dhi himself after Dftsa.ga.l},i.. 10 Va.lissahasishyam HArfta.gotra.m Svatirh. n Nominally a.uthor of up. 4, seep. 392. 11 This epithet expla.ined by Arya.gotra. is found a.lso in Noa. 15-17, 19-22, 1s ke 'pi Mamgor Aryadha.rme 'ti nAma:mtaram ahul;t, No. 17 then falls out. 1' According to the scholiast the dasa.pftrvil},a.l;t (see Hem. v. 34) Arya.rakshita.s tachhishyo Durva.likiipushpa& cha. na.vapt'\rv.il)au, rea.ch from Mahagiri to Va.jra.. See pa.ge 348. 1& Bambha.diva.gaslhe, Vra.hma.dv!pikas1lkh6pa.la.kshitan Simb.an Siti:thachftryAn. 1e Of. the NagarjunlyAs in the Scholiast on aiiga. 2, 2, 2, and seep. 265. 17 nAl},ath pa.mchaviha.m: Abhiniv6hiyanu!].a.th sua.0 ohi0 mal},a.pa.jja.va0 k~va.la.0 Or duviham: pa.chcha.kkham and pa.rokkha.m, a.nd the la.tter is then: ubhinivohiyaparokkha.nal},a.m cha. sua.nal},a.parokkhe.rh cha.; the abhi0 is. eua.nissia.rh cha asuanissiyruh cha.; both a.re fourfold, a.nd the la.tter is divided into uppa.ttiya, V~l},a.i:A, ka.mmiA, :p11,ril},AmiA buddh! (see p. 14n). 11 In the scholia.st sAmAyikildi vimdusarapa.rya.1hta.m., see pages 244, 245, 843. lt ta.to 'dhomukha.pa.rihilnya yilvat sa.m.pftl'l},adasa.pftrvadhara.sya.; seep. 16n, :zo Where it is chara.cterized a.a no-!lgama.o bhilva.suyati:t o.nd as a.nnal},lhim michhadi~th!him sa.chchhamdabud daa.ma.i:vigappiya.rh; cf. the 29viha.m pava.s11a.m .!va.sy., Ind. Stud. 16, pp. 115, 116. I denote the four MSS . to which l have ha.d access a.s A B C R. The cita.tions from NEd. are by Leumann. PAGE 111 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE J"AINS. 111 -surukkha.m21 Ko PAGE 112 :J.!12 SACRED LITERATURE OF' '!'HE JAINS. 'foapp11sua1i1 4, mahdkappasua1i1, 40 5. ovaiyamU 13, 6. rayapaseQ,iyam.'3 ;14, 7. j.ivabhigamo IGl, 8. pai;ii;iavai;ia 16, 9. mahapa'f!Java1J6.,4310. pamayappamaymil,'' [12] n. narhdi45 41, 12. devim datthal\46 31, 13. ai;iuogad.araim 42, 14. tamdulaveyilliyam 29, 15. chamdavijjhayam!l.7 30, lo. surapai;ii;iattil.8 17, 17. porisimaii1{lalaii1,49 18. ma1il{lalappaveso,50, 19. vijjdcharlTfa'vinichchhao51 20. gai;i.ivijja52 32 21. jha1Javibhattf,53 22. rnara1Javibhattf,54 23. ayavisoM,55-24. vfyarayasua1i1,56 25. saiiildha'T}USUam,57 26. viharakapp,1.58 27. chara1JaviM,59 28. aura[l3Jpachchakkhii1?,am60 26, 29. mahii.pachchakkhf1i;iarh,6l 33 evam-ilt.62-To the kaliyam the following texts are ascribed: 30. uttarajjhaya!].uim63 43, 31. dasao 38, 32. kappo 39, 33. vavaharo 37, 3.4. nisiham64 35. 35, mahii.nisiham 3G, 36. isibhdsiydi1iJ65, 37. Jarhvudd1vapa1?,1.J,attl 1s, 38. divasugarapat11Jatti66 39, Chamdapar;i.J},atti 10, 40, khu PAGE 113 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. 113 42. a1ilgachillic168 43. vaiilgach1Uiya69 44. vivahachuliya7o, 45. Arntiovavden, 46. GarnlovavdJ72, [14 J 47. Dhaia'l}ovavae73 48. Vesaina1.1ovavde74, 49. Vela1ilclharovavile, 50. clevi1i11loiavae, 51. u.t.tha1fasue75 52. samu.(tha'f!asite76 53. nagapariyilvali:yao77, 54. nirayavaliyfto78 20, 55. kappiyi'lo7 8 20, 56. kappavai).irhsayao79 22, 57. pupphiyao 21, 58. pupphachuliyao 21, 59. V al).hlclasilo 24, ev:1m-ftiyfti:rh80 chaiidsti pa:innagasayasahassaim bhagavao Vagghamal).a samissa; ahavil jassa jattiyi1 s1sil uppattiy11e81 vel).ai'.yi1e kammiyae pilril).amiyae chaiivvihae bucldhJe uvaveyil tassa tattiyftirn. painnagasahassairh, pattegabuddha vi tattiy11 cheva; se 'tarn kaliam suarh. This is the conclusion in the Berlin MS. of N. Dr. Leumann, [15] however, says that this conclusion contains a large lacuna. We find in the edition of N :82 evamaiy 11irh chaiirils1i pai'.unagasahassaim bhagavao [U sahasilmissa aititthagarassa, taha sarhkhijj:'iim pafona gasahassilim majjhamagili;i.am Jii;i.avarill).ath, chaiiddasa pa1nnagasahass1lim bhagavao] Vagghamai;i.asilmissa, etc. From this we may draw the conclusion that the 59 titles8 3, according to the opinion of the author of the Nandi, represent merely a portion of the 84,000 pa'innus (our MS. has 184,000 in the.text!), which belonged to the first tirthakara IJ.ishabhasvilmin and to the 22 Jii;i.avaras following him; but that at the time of Vardhamanasvftmin their number was reduced to 14,000. Or according to another view, each of the 24 tirthakaras had just so many thousand 68 amgasya "charMes chulika uktlinuktfirthasamgrahatmik:1 grari1thapaddhatil,; sec pp. 255, 274. 69 so MS. P. A.vi., but vagga0 NEd., aiiga 3 (sec p. 2i4), Svi., V. and Avach.: vargo 'dhyayani\nilm samil.ho yathfi 'mtak)'idJa,siisv asht11,u v11,rgf,s (seep. 320), tcshfuil kalikfL (chi'.!1 ?). 7G bhagavatichulikil, see pp. 27 4, 296. 71 Arul}o niima devas, tadvaktavyatilyu]:i pratipi\dako grarhthal;t, parilvartyamanas cha tadupapf,tahetul;i so 'rUl}Opapatal;t; evarh garng.6papilti\day6 'pi vachyf1l;t; see pp. 224, 274, 316; cf. Arul}a as name of the da,vn or as that of the charioteer of the sun. Up to this point the nominatives end in o, from this point on in e; so also in P. 72 Garug.6 P. In P after 47. 73 So also S, but Varu0 in P and scholiast on anga 3, Vara.0 in the text there (see p. 274). '.!'he king of the Nagas is prabably referred to. 7' rn N after No. 49 we find vesamal}a = vaisraval}a. 75 utthanasrutam, udvasanahetukarh srutam, Avach. See page 224, where mention is made of four ajjh., which begin with utth., and which are the subject of the study of the thirteenth year. In this place, however, we find -0nly N os. 52-5.5 devoted to this year; but does No. 50, too, belong in this connection? In Sv. No. !50 stands between 52 11,nd 53. 76 samupasthapan11,srutam, bhuyas tatrai 'vii "vasana(r)hetukam srntam; vakaraWpal;t prflkritatviit, Avach. 77 so P, 0yavai;iiyao MS.; 0yavaliyal}arh Svi. V., 0pariavelial}aril avi.; nagakumilras, tesham parijna yatro 'kta, A vach. 78 so MS.2 P, 01!0 MS.1; 01iyai;iam S; No .54 in the existing Siddhanta is the collectire name of up. 8 to 12 and at the same time the specific title of up. 8; No. 55 is there merely another name for No. 5,4. Seep. 418; and.p. 420 for the explanation of 54-59. On page 420 we must read 0giichiirll grarh0 79 g.amsi P, cJirilsi V. se Instead of evam-aiyiiiril . P has 60 1\sivis11,bhfrrni;iil.'i, 61 dij1Mvisabh5.vai;ia6, 62 char&i;iasamai;iabhavai;iilo, 63 mahasuvii;iabhavai;ia6, 64 teaginisaggi\ 1:mi1 s,1,.~hitii pi i\..:unuri rungabi\hire kalie bhagavamte . (as above, p. 13, note 3). These five names are cited in S. too with th~ following variations: charai;iabhavai;iai;iam (omitted in Avi.), mahasumii;iagabhav. (V ., also omitted in ,hi.), t(n,.~i(trogga0 Avi.)nisaggfti;iam. -These five texts are found. in the s11,me order in the kfirikils mentioned in p. :!'2"1 :to; de$ig-.ied for the fourteenth to the eigh,teenth year of study. T&yanisagga is the special name of tho fiftct0nth book iu a1iga 5. See p. 30ln. s1 See above p. 8, note t ; autp11,ttiki, vaimiyiki ka.rma.s11,mnttha pf1rii;iiimik!. s2 The Avach. a,grees with the account in onr llfSS.: -evam adlni chat11rasttisa14khyani pr&kiri;iakasa.hasrai;ii l;tishabhasvilmiuas, tilvatpramUl}ILlllllll Sl":1lU'11}:1S11,h,tsril,;i,mt smilbh11,vlit, prali;iri;iakanam cha tadrachitatvi\t; madhya matlrthakriti\m api samkhyeyi\ni prnldri;in,k11salutsr,1l1i v:1chy,1ni; Vardhamil.nasvilminas chat~rdasasahasrili;ii. anye punar 1\hul;t : idam l;tishabhadinfi.in chaturas!tisalmsrildikruh sramai;iamilnam pradhilnesiltraracha:o,i\silmadhyam (or merely 0chanilm?) adhik,ityo 'ktam, anyn.th,, si\mi\nycisram11,i;ii\l;t prabhutataril api tadi\ ~ishabhadikale i\slran. anye punar evam ahul;i: JJishabhiidlnfLrh jlv11tfoh idmh chaturasitisahasradikam sramai;iamunarb., pravithat11,h punar ek11,ikasmin tirthe bhuyfuilso 'py aslran, tatra ye pradhfmasutrarachanasaktisamanviti\l;t suprasiddhatatvrui1dh:'iy11, (F) iatkalikil api tlrtham pravartami\nfts tatra 'Jhikritri(l;t ; ctacl eva darsayann aha: ahave 'ty-adi sugamam. ~3 Or 60 including marai;iavisoh! (Svi. V. between 23 and 24) and 65 with the addition of the five names in PS,

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114 8.A.ORED LITERATURE OF THE JAINS. pafonas, or pratyekabuddhasB4 [16] as he possessed scholars endowed with the correct fourfold knowledge. Estimating these exaggerated figures at their true value, let us consider the 5~ titles.as Of the texts now enumerated as parts of the Siddhanta the titles of the four pa'innas 2, 27, 29, 34, of the sixth chhedasutra 40 and of two of the mulasutras, 41 and 46 are omitted. Of these the four pa,innas are to be regarded as modern productions and later than the N ; the titles of the sixth chhcdasutra 40 and of the fourth mulasitra :10 are not certain ; and, finally, the title of the fourth mulastitra 41,, avasyaka, has been already mentioned .. See on p. 11. The remaiuing 27 titles of texts of the present 8iddhilnta not belonging to the ai1g~s (u fg.) are one aud all contained in the above list, though in a different order of arrangement and without any statement in reference to the names of their groups. Some, however, belong together as groups the first four and the. last five upangas (N os. 5-8 and 55-59) and the five chhMa~ sutras (Nos. 31-35). Besides these the list contains 3286 additional names whi:h are not directly represented by texts in the existing Siddhanta, Among these there are five for which corresponding sections in tl:J.e S. can be shown, thus: -10 pamilyappamayam, 17 porisimamdala1i:J, 18 mam
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SACRED LITERATURE OF THE JAlNS. 115 the citation is from the Nandi and not from anga 4. The Nancli and not ai1ga 4 is therefore indisputably the source whence these citations are drawn. But whether or no the account here is really to be regarded as the source whence came the account in ai1ga 4, appears to me to be still iii dubiis. 'l'his assumption is rendered improbable by the fact there are very great differences in these accounts, not to mention that that of ai1ga 4 is much more detailed. If, however, we regard the account in the N. as the source, then that in ai1ga 4 is secondary and enlarged after it had effected a lodgment in that anga. [19] But on the other hand it is a perfectly legitimate conclusion that the account in N. and in a1iga 4 were drawn from a common source now no longer extant. Finally, it must be stated that the entire section in N. almost gives me the impression of being a secondary insertion. 'l'he fact that it too contains the most wonderful statements, called into existence by the effort of pure fancy ( cf. especially the statements concerning anga 6 and ai1ga 12), cannot readily be reconciled with that tradition which regards the Nandi as the work of DevarddhigaQ.i, the nominal redactor of the whole Siddhiinta. Dharddhiga.r.ii would have expressed himself in a more sober, definite way, and would not have given rein to such monstrous figments of the imagination. We must not, however, suppress the fact that the P11kshikasutram takes no notice of this detailed statement of contents and extent87 of the 12 angas, but limits itself merely to the enumeration of the twelve names.SS Then, too, the general observations in reference to the duvilfo.samgarh gaQ.ipigagam, which are joined on to the account of each of the twelve ai1gas, are found here in just the same form as in ai1ga 4; cf. pp. 368, 369. The five karikf1s form the conclusion. 'l'hey contain statements in reference to the correct [20] attainment of the suanaQ.am; the last one reads: snttattho khalu paq.hamo, bio nijjutti(!)~misio bhaQ.io I ta'iou niravas@so, @sa vih1 hoi aIJuM II 5 II Accord ing to Leilmann, the reference in Bhag. 25, a cites this verse as the conclusion of this entire account (ja.va suttattho , aQ.uM). The nijjntti is also mentioned, Next follow some statements which are not noticed by the author o:fi the avachuri, from which we may conclude that they were inserted at a later period, though they inay in reality be of great age. They comprise a section in prose in reference to the aQ.unna, annjna, and a renewed repetition of the titles of the 12 ai1gas and a reference to U sabhas8r.ia, as the original source of the aQ.unna. See p. 15. The commentary, which I have before me (avachuri), the work 0 an anonymous author, is very short. The Calcutta edition contains the commentary of Mala.yagiri, according to Laumann. We have already seen that a Naiidivritti is frequently cited see pp. 353, 354 (Vicharilmritasamgraha), 360 (Abhayadeva), the citations from it being partly in Prakrit (gilthil), partly in Sanskrit, In the scholinm on the Ga'l}adharasurdhasata (see pp. 371, 458) SarvarajagaQ.i ascribes a nandiv;itti to the old Harihhadra, who is said' to have died 75 years after D8varddhigar;ii. The author of the Vicharamritasaiiigraha appears to ascribe such a nandivtitti to ltmasvilmivachaka who -1'!as about 50 years older (see pp. 371, 372), He says (fol. 3a of the Berlin MS.) tatha cha "ha bhaga-van Umasvamivachakalp samyagdarsanajnana charitra9-i moksha.marga iti Namdiv:rittau, vilcha.kasabdas cha purvagatasr;;_tadhare ruq.ho, yatha; purvagatam sutram anyach cha vin@yan vachayamti 'ti vnchaknl}., Namdivrittau: [21] vildi ya . (seep. 353n). Such statements as these in reference to commentaries of so great an age are of great importance as regards the age of the Nandi. XLII. The Anuy6gadvQras-O.tram is an encyclopredic review of everything worth know ing,89 composed in anuogas, questions and answers. It is composed in prose_ though there is 87 I oall attention here to the mention of the name Bhaddabahuon anga 12; pp. 360, 867. It is noteworthy that he appears in the same gradaticn (though last in order) as the names Das,'\ra, Baladeva, Vil.sud@va,Harivai.sa, and consequently as a mythological personage. 88 This is introduced in just the same manner as the previous one. See pp.10, 13 :--na.mo tesim khamasama. 1.1il.i;ia.m j&him imam viliyam duvlllasa.rhgari:t ga1;tipi,Jagam., tari:t jaha .. and oonoludes in the same way: sa.vvehim pi eya.mmi duvala.sari:tge ga1;1ipigage bha.gavarhte sasutte . 89 An account of the method of defining and explaining the Sastras, Kash.

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116 SACRED LITERATURE OF THE J.AINS. a frequent admixture 0 gathas. There are no subdivisions though a systemic arrangement prevails throughout. As in the N and1, the nil.i;iam is especially treated of here. The text commences forthwith with an enumeration 0 the same :6.ve forms of the rnh:i.a, which we find also in N. abhinibohiya0 suya0 ohi0 mai;iapayyava0 kevala0 The second form, the suyani\u..am, srutajniinam, is the one par excellence which is discussed further on in the Anuy. The subdivisions of the suyan. are indicated by means of the same names which we find in N, though the gradations are some~ what different; see p. 11. It is divided into ::i,rhgapaviHham and into arngab11hiram,90 the latter into kaliyam and iikkaliyam; the latter of which again into ilvassayam and avassayavai'.rittam. Here in the An., the a.vasaayam alone is discussed. The author states that he desires to explain his work according to the following four points of view, though the real reason for this statement is not clear: fivassayarn nikkhivissilmi, suarh (srutarh) ni0 kharndharn ni0 ajjhayal).arh ni0 After a karika inserted here the author proceeds to a discussion of the iivassayam per se, [22] which is chaiivviharn, viz. : nttma0 ~h:wa1pl0 davv:1, bhava0 respectively, the latter two being distinguished from the others as agamao and n6-t1gamao. At the end the synonyms (egatthiyii nfil).iighosa niil).avarnjal).fi namadhiyya) are stated as follows: il.vassayarn, av11ssakaral).iyya, dhuvaniggaho, "'l'isuM ya I ajjhayal).achhakkavaggo nilo ariihal).a maggo 11 samal).eqa savael).a ya avai,sakayavvayarn havii,1 jamha I arnto aho-nisassa ya tamha avassayam nil.ma 119 1 This designation as ajjhayal).achhakkavagga points iinequivocally to a definite text, divided into 6 adhyayanas. By the 6 adhyayanas we may understand the six kinds of il.vassayam enumerated in the Nand1, above p. 11, and occurring below (see pp. 23, 24). These names as well as all the other synonyms of il.vassaya belong to the domain of ethical, ritualistic or disciplinary matters. Our text, however, touches upon these subjects only occasionally Next to the enumeration of the synonyms of the 11vassayam come the auyam and the kharl:tdha, two of the four sections. To these we find that the same groups and sub-groups are ascribed as to the avassayam; and an enumeration of the synonyms of each formi, the conclusion, The verse containing the synonyms of the suya:i is as follows : -[23] sua-sutta-garhtha siddhamta-sasal).e a.I).a vayal).a uvaese I pannaval).a ilgame a egattha payyava sutte92 II, that containing the synonyms of kharndha : gl!,1.1akae a nikae kharndhe vagge taheva dsi a I purhje pirhq.e niare sarnghae aula s11mfthe II The :first names for "sacred text" refer then to the contents, the second to the extent. In one subdivision of kharhdha, the no-agamii,o bhavakharhdhe, the following explanation is found (se kirn tarn no-il.0): eesirn93 cheva samaiya-m-i\iyfl9arh chhaJ?,ham ajjhayai;ia9arh samudayasamitisamagame9arn avassayasuabhavakhamclhe labbhate, se tarn no-agamao bhavakharndhe. By