Suggestions for a grammar of "Bangala" (the lingua franca of the Upper Congo), with 2000 words and many useful phrases

Material Information

Suggestions for a grammar of "Bangala" (the lingua franca of the Upper Congo), with 2000 words and many useful phrases
Alternate Title:
Bangala grammar
Stapleton, William Henry
Place of Publication:
Yakusu, Stanley Falls, Congo Independent State
Baptist Missionary Society
Hannah Wade Printing Press, Baptist Missionary Society
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
j, 116 p. ; 17.5 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Lingala language -- Dictionaries -- English ( lcsh )
Lingala language ( lcsh )
English language -- Dictionaries -- Lingala ( lcsh )
Temporal Coverage:
- 1903
Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Congo (Kinshasa) -- Orientale Province -- Tshopo District -- Yakusu
Afrique -- Congo (Kinshasa) -- Province Orientale -- District de Tshopo -- Yakusu
Africa -- Congo Independent State -- Stanley Falls -- Yakusu
Afrique -- État indépendant du Congo -- Stanley Falls -- Yakusu
-2.88 x 23.656
0.570609 x 25.023095


General Note:
Cover title: Bangala grammar

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
42246222 ( OCLC )
Y Lingala A /434,848 ( SOAS classmark )
Y Lingala A /20907


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to %
Hnrijool of dental ^tuhiea,
fr, ,,,0, - --

tor A
(The Lingua Franca of the Upper Congo),
With 2000 Words and many useful Phrases,
Missionary of the Upper Congo.
Baptist Missionary Society.
Stanley Falls,
Congo Independent State.

Ti-ie difficulties met with by the Congo Free State
officials in their endeavour to open up and admin-
ister the huge territory for which they are respon-
sible can only be appreciated by those who live
in this section of the tropical belt, and by the men
who are engaged in similar work in like regions.
Many of these difficulties have been energetically
attacked and satisfactorily solved, some in quite bril-
liant fashion. The manner in which the transport
difficulty was solved is a striking instance.
The work of bridging the cataracts of the Lower
Congo by a railway, and of placing and maintaining
a regular fleet of steamers on the Upper Congo, has
been carried out with rare skill and enterprise, and
with a measure of success largely exceeding the most
sanguine expectations of those of us who remember
the conditions of travel and transport on the Congo
between ten and twenty years ago.

Many problems, however, yet await solution ; not the
least important of them, perhaps, being that of securing
an efficient means of communication between the white
men and the many Bantu tribes which occupy this
vast region.
In preparing a Comparative Handbook of Congo
languages," which is a comparative study of nine lan-
guages spoken on the Congo from the Atlantic to Stanley
Falls, at Mr. Grenfell's suggestion I wrote a chapter on
the subject of a common language, but, the volume
being already large enough, that chapter is here pre-
sented in the form of a pamphlet for circulation amongst
the white men on the Congo who may feel that the time
has come for some attempt to be made towards the so-
lution of the language difficulty.
My thanks arc due to the staff of the Printing
Office at Bolobo for printing this book, and to the
Baptist Missionary Society for bearing the cost of its
July, /903.
Walter H. Stapleton.

Arising out of the subject of a common language
for the lower section of the Upper Congo River referred
to in the introduction of a Comparative Handbook of
Congo Languages" I have been asked whether the
comparative study of the languages there dealt with
has yielded any results which might be embodied into
" Suggestions for a Grammar of the Bangala."
This is a subject which I approach with considerable
diffidence, for I am under no delusion as to its thorny
character. I am well aware of the many arguments
which may be at once advanced for leaving the matter
severely alone. It will be said that "the Bangala' is a
grammarless jargon traversing practically every rule of
Bantu word and sentence construction." That it may
possibly serve as a medium for the purchase of food,
and even for the direction of labour, maybe, but only
this on the condition that a considerable amount of
suggestive gesture is used by the speaker, and a large
measure of the responsibility of interpretation is
accepted by the hearer."
" Interchange of thought" it will be said is by it

practically impossible," "as an cffectivc means of
intercommunication it is hopelessly inadequate." Its
verb has no tenses." No attempt is made to concord
its parts of speech." Teaching in such a medium is
out of the question." Again, it may be urged, that
" as missionaries, it is our business to give the natives the
word of God in their beautifully expressive mother
tongues," and so on.
Notwithstanding all this, a little consideration will
shew that there is much to be said on the other side. /
A common language is a practical necessity of
the situation. The attempt made by the State
authorities to impose one administration over the whole
area of.the Congo basin involves some common efficient
means of intercommunication between the forces of
Government and the many tribes of the Bantu race
speaking different languages which occupy this huge
territory. ,
It .is quite impossible that the State.officials should
learn -all the languages spoken in the Congo basin, or
indeed any large number of them ; and no one language
at present serves for a region of even moderate extent.
Thus :on the iooo miles of open waterway between
S tap ley Pool and. Stanley Falls, on the lowest estimate,
five, distinct languages are spoken ; not to speak of
several dialects not yet classified. That captains of
steamers should learn all these, or that State officials
who may be changed from station to station should
undertake the task of learning a new language with
every removal, or that a commissairc of a district should

speak three or tour languages to the peoples he governs,
is utterly impracticable.. ; ? ^
Seeing the difficulty the Government decided some
years ago that Bangala should be used as the lingua
franca. It is to be regretted that no official gave
the Ngala (z. e., the language spoken by the. tribe of
\.people living about Nouvelle A rivers) scientific study.
Had a simple. Grammar and Vocabulary been drawn
up and published some years ago, we might now have
been in the possession of the common effective means
of intercommunication between white man and black
man, administrator and subject, which is daily becoming
a more urgent necessity.
As it is, out of this felt necessity has grown up a
jargon called "Bangala" which is spreading rapidly
over the whole of that part of the Congo basin which
has never passed under the domination of the Arabs.
In the Oriental Zone a broken Swahili is, for the
moment, a strong competitor; but even there "Bangala"
is largely spoken by the Free State forces, and is now
more or less spoken from the Atlantic to Lake
Tanganyika, and from the regions of the Upper Kasai
to the Nile. -
It is evident, then, that a common language is a.felt
necessity,' and must certainly come. Is there any
further question as to what that language is to be ? Sir
H. Johnston thinks that the only satisfactory solution
of the language difficulty in these great .African States
is the introduction of a European language. For the
Congo, administered by Belgians, with French as the

official language, but one European language is possible,
namely, French. But experience has shewn that the
Congo native does not readily acquire French, and we
have not yet arrived at the day of Government schools.
But need a European language be considered ?
" Bangala has come and scorn it as we may, it has
come to stay. It must be plain to all that it would greatly
simplify the outlook for all who are attempting to
administer, civilise, and uplift the Congo races, and to
open up the country to the best forces of civilisation, .if
a common language were spoken over a wide area.
Will it not be wise for us to consider whether or no
" Bangala" could be used as the basis of an effective
common language ? Could not the white men introduce
into this lingua franca those grammatical forms of
expression which would make it such, and without
which it will, and must remain an utterly ineffective
jargon ?
I am convinced that Bangala has come to stay ;
and there are but two courses open to us with regard
to it. We can ignore it, but I think we ought then
to face the issue that it will produce its effects for all
that, and one effect is even now distinctly visible. We
have a people growing up around us who, in spite of all
our educational efforts, are losing grip of their expres-
sive mother tongues, and speaking a jargon which it is
impossible to use in their uplifting. I yield to none in
my desire to give the peoples of the Congo the
Scriptures in their mother tongue (the fact that I have
translated some portions in two languages will shew

this) but I cannot shut my eyes to the fact that already
thousands have been born to the State forces to whom
" Bangala is the only mother tongue they know ; and
that thousands of the workers, drawn from the differ-
ent tribes of the Congo basin, are forgetting their parent
speech, and whilst they speak the Bangala" with
amazing fluency, their range of thought and idea,
limited enough before, is now confined to the narrow
circle of physical need and supply.
This is a movement I feel we hardly dare ignore, or
in a few years we may be left with translations of the
Scriptures lofty, may be, in their diction, idiomatic in
their expression, models of accuracy in their gramma-
tical form, but as antiquated and obsolete as the
translation Elliott gave to the Red Indians.
One other course is open. We can attempt to direct
and control this movement, shaping the Bangala
gradually into a language which will serve for State
station, colony, and mission school, for the purposes of the
Government, the commercialhouses, and the Missionary
Societies ; and as an effective medium of interchange
of thought and idea between the widely scattered
tribes of this region of Darkest Africa.
In this chapter I venture to make some suggestions
towards a Vocabulary and Grammar of the Bangala "
or lingua franca.
I take it that, in theory, the only vocabulary which
is at all likely to be accepted as a common one by a
number of different tribes must conform^"to those rules
of syllabisation and pronunciation which are common

to all the speakers. Peculiar forms of pronunciation
would stand no chance of acceptance.
So with a common Grammar, it must be based 011
principles of clearness and simplicity.
And, as a matter of fact, an examination of the
" Bangala" shews that this is exactly what has
How has u Bangala grown up ? There are three
languages spoken between Stanley Pool and Mobeka;
the language of the Bobangi, that of the Lolo, and that
of the Bangala peoples, and these have very many
features in common, for they belong to the same-branch
of the Bantu language family. The dialects spoken in
Lake Ntomba, and in the neighbourhood of Lulanga
are but agglomerates of Bangi, Lolo, and Ngala. The
so-called Upoto language is but a dialect of Ngala, with
some elements both in grammar and vocabulary drawn
from Ngombe and the language of Basoko.
The observation has been advanced that the Bobangi
is the basis of the eclectic language called the "Bangala."
This observation is scarcely borne out by facts. It
would seem to be nearerthe truth to say that the features
common to the three languages afore-mentioned, with
their dialects, are the basis of the Bangala language ;
and neither of the three languages has contributed more
than the merest quota of its peculiarities.
Historically, it is easy to see how this has come about.
The workers for the State, traders, missionaries, etc., in
the early days were drawn from the area lying between
Stanley Pool and Mobeka, and a little later from as far

as Upoto. These workers, being- brought ^together on
steamed and station, soon found the commoil Mse of
their several languages, and used it as the medium'of
intercourse, and the white men picked it up from them.
This point must be remeirhbered when we speak of
the -' Bangala as a grammarless jargon. It can be
readily pointed out that, in many cases--where
grammatical rules have been departed from, analagous
methods of construction can be given from the above
three languages. It is by no means the grammarless
jargon of Pidgin English, for it has arisen not from the
endeavour of the black man to speak a language
belonging to a totally different language family, but
from the endeavour of a number of people of one race,
speaking languages of the same family to reach a
common medium of intercourse ; though it must be
admitted that the unwillingness shewn by white men
to take the trouble to learn the Ngala language, and to
speak it at all grammatically, has sadly marred the
The lines of a Grammar and Vocabulary, therefore,
would seem to be marked out for us in the process
which has produced the present spoken What is necessary is to give some form and shape to
modes of expression which are essential, but wofully
lacking, and these must follow the lines of the present
growth of the Bangala."
I am here making such an attempt. It will be
understood of course that these Suggestions towards
a Grammar and Vocabulary for the "Bangala" are

tentative, put forward principally as a means of calling
attention to a question of increasing gravity, with a
view to provoke thought, and to start other minds upon
a consideration of the problem, in the hope that
something practical may ensue.
I should be glad of suggestions and help from any


A. Preliminary Observations.
The "Bangala" is a language of the Bantu Family
and is distinguished from the European languages
mainly by three characteristics.
The first is the division of nouns into Classes. These
Classes have each of them prefixes proper to the Singular
and the Plural Number, and it is by their prefixes that
we distinguish between them, and determine the Classes
to which they belong.
The second is the agreement made between the
noun and all qualifying or dependent words by these
prefixes which vary according to the different Classes
of nouns.*
The third is the absence of gender. To indicate
the sex a noun signifying male ox female'is used after
the ordinary noun ; mume or leli signifies male and
muntaka or muke female :
mwana muke, a girl.
mwana mume, a boy.
ntaba muntaka, a female goat.
ntaba leli, a male goat.
* As will be seen, however, later on in these notes "Bangala" is
steadily ridding itself of the principle of Alliterative Concord.

B. The Alphabet.
" Bangala'
is written in Roman characters. The
vowels are pronounced generally as in Italian, the
consonants as in English. The following are the letters
with their approximate values.
b b ,, ^oat.
ch ch ,, fAurch.
d d ,, done.
j) c ,, brt.
f f ,, /ate.
g (T J 5 ,, n-ate.
h h /*at.
i i ,, machzne.
j-. > J m jy-
k k *ey.
1 I ,, /ct.
m ,, ,, m ,, wan, lamb.
n ,, ,, n ,, wail, at.
o ,, ,, on ,, battght.
P P /ay.
r 5 ,, r bury.
s ,, 5 -V ,, see.
t t ,, /ake.
u ,, ,, 00 tool.
v ,, V ,, z/alc.
w ,, ,, w ,, walk.
y y ,, j/'et.
z ft >> - ,, seal.

There are four diphthongs :
Ai is pronounced as the ai in a/sle.
art ,, ,, ozv ,, now.
ei ,, ,, ay ,, pay.
cu ,, ,, ew ,,
L is a feeble letter and is pronounced often
as d or r by numerous speakers. H is pronounced as
gh and kh by Basoko tribesmen. M is replaced by b
in the Equator and Stanley Falls districts.
C. On Syllables.
Every syllable ends in a vowel.
mo-tu, a man.
ba-tu, men.
ma-su-a, steatfier.
mu-nta-ka, a fe?nale.
D. On Accents.
The primary accent falls on the first syllable of the
stem. When the word has more than three syllables
a secondary accent falls on the penult.
a plantain,
to scatter.

A. Classification of Nouns.
" Bangala nouns are made up of a stem and a prefix.
mo-tu, a person.
li-kondo, a plantain.
Mo- and li- are the prefixes, tu and kondo the stems
of the two nouns mo-tu,person, and li-kondo, plantain.
These prefixes which arc singular in number arc
replaced in the plural number by the prefixes bar and
ma-i respectively.
ba-tu, persons.
ma-kondo, plantains.
Nouns are divided into Classes by these Prefixes
and arc named the Mo-Ba Class, the Li-Ma Class, etc.,
mo being the singular Prefix of Nouns which make
their plural by exchanging mo- for ba,- and li- the
singular Prefix of Nouns which make their plural by
exchanging li- for ma-.

Bangala has 8 classcs of Nouns :
I St Class, mo-ba.
2nd Class, mo-mi.
3 rd Class, n-n.
4th Class, li-ma.
5th Class, e-bi.
6th Class, bo-ma.
7th Class, lo-n.
8th Class, lo-ma.
ist or Mo-Ba Class.This class comprises those
nouns which have mo- for the Singular Prefix and make
the plural by changing mo- into ba-. Before a vowel
stem the Singular Prefix is mw- (m- before o); the
plural is b-.
A few nouns have the singular prefix mu-.
mo-tu, a person, ba-tu, persons.
mu-ntaka, a female, ba-ntaka, females.
mo-tuli, a blacksmith, ba-tuli, blacksmiths.
mw-asi, a wife, b-asi, wives.
mw-ana, a child, b-ana, children.
m-ombo, a slave, b-ombo, slaves.
Some speakers pronounce the m of the singular
prefix as b.
Some Personal Nouns in this class have no prefix
in the singular, but take the prefix ba- in the plural.
sango, a fathei, ba-sango, fathers.
nyango, a mother, ba-nyango, mothers.
Also some introduced words, as yanji, a jigger ; ba-
jiggers ; chupa, a bottle; bachupa, bottles.
2nd or Mo-Mi Class.Comprises all those nouns

which have mo- or mu- for the singular prefix, and
make their plural by changing mo- or mu- into mi-.
Before a vowel stem the singular prefix is mw- (before
o it is m-) ; the plural prefix is always mi-.
Some speakers pronounce the initial m in these
prefixes as b, and sometimes (as by Lolo men) the
plural prefix is pronounced as be-.
mo-nkoko, sugar cane, mi-nkoko, sugar canes.
mo-tema, heart, mi-tema, hearts.
mo-noko, mouth, mi-noko, mouths.
mo-tako, a brass rod, mi-tako, brass rods.
mo-kanda, a book, mi-kanda, books.
mw-ete, a tree, mi-ete, trees.
m-oto, a candle, mi-oto, candles.
# 3rd or N-N Classs.This class of nouns comprises
those nouns which do not change their form to make
the plural. They usually have the letter n- or m- as
the initial.
ndako, a house, or houses.
mboka, a tozvn, or towns.
nsu, a fish, or fish.
mbwa, a dog, or dogs.
mpota, a sore, or sores.
mbula, rain, or riins.
nsusu, a fowl, or fowls.
On the upper reaches of the river there is a tendency
to drop the initial nasal, and one hears su or swi for
fish ; susu for chicken, also koko.
In some cases nouns which formerly belonged to
this class drop the nasal and adopt the prefixes mo-mi,
as ntuku, a ten, now nearly always heard motukii, ten,
mituku, tens.

4th or Li-Ma Class.This class comprises all those
nouns which make the singular with the prefix li-, and
the plural by changing li- into ma-.
li-kei, an egg, ma-kei, eggs.
li-kongo, a spear. ma-kongo, spears.
li-toko, a spoon, ma-toko, spoons.
li-kondo, a banana. ma-kondo, bananas.
Before vowel stems the singular prefix is reduccd
to 1-, the plural to m-.
1-iso, eye, m-iso, eyes.
1-ino, tooth, m-ino, teeth.
1-ina. a name, m-ina, names.
1-angu, a leaf, mangu, leaves.
Sometimes the singular prefix is z- or j- before a
vowel stem.
z-ambi, a palaver, m-ambi, palavers.
5th or E-Bi Class.This class comprises all those
nouns which take e- for the prefix in*the singular, and
make their plural by changing e- into b-.
e-loko, a thing, bi-loko, things.
e-lamba, cloth, bi-lamba, cloths.
e-lema, a fool. bi-lema, foo Is.
e-benga, a pigeon, bi-benga, pigeons.
6th or Bo-Ma Class.Comprises all those nouns
which have the singular prefix bo-, and change bo- into
ma- to mark the plural.
bo-ndoki, a gun, ma-ndoki, guns.
bo-kobo, paint, ma-kobo, paints.
Before vowel stems the singular prefix is bw- (b-
before o) and the plural is m-.
b-oke, a sandbank, m-oke, sandbanks.
bw-ato, canoe, m-ato, canoes.

Abstract nouns belong to this class; some have
only a singular number, and others only a plural.
bo-bolo, cowardice, bo-boto, kindliness.
ma-yele, cunning, ma-kasi, strength.
A few other nouns which have no singular appear
as plural nouns of this class.
mai, water, mali, oil, hitter, grease.
7th or Lo-N Class.Comprises those nouns which
have lo- for the singular prefix, and change lo- into m-
or n- for the plural.
(a) When the stem commences with k, s, or t, the
plural is formed by changing the lo- into n-.
lo-kele, spoon, n-kele, spoons.
lo-seba, a, steamer whistle, n-seba, steamer whistles.
lo-toto, a spark, n-toto, sparks.
(/;) When the stem commences with 1 the plural is
formed by changing lo- into n-, and the prefix n then
changes the 1 of the stem into d.
lo-lemo, a tongue, n-demo, to7igues.
lo-lenge, a sort, n-denge, sorts, kinds.
(V) When the stem commences with y the plural
takes n-, and the n- changes the y into j or z.
lo-yembo, song, n-jembo, or n-zembo, songs.
( plural is formed by changing lo- into m-.
lo-bila, a palm nut, m-bila, palm nuts.
lo-poso, a skin, m-poso, skins.
(,e) When the stem commences with n or m the
plural is made by dropping the singular prefix.
lo-ngele, a brass rod, ngele, brass rods.
lo-meko, a measure, meko, measures.

There is a tendency to drop the nasal prefix in the
plural, and one often hears :
poso, skinsi kele, spoons.
8th or Lo-Ma Class.Contains two nouns.
lo-boko, an arm, ma-boko, arms.
lo-kulu, a leg, ma-kulu, legs.
In the district about Nouvclle An vers there is a
tendency to make a collective noun from nouns
belonging to the Mo-Mi Class by putting them into
the 3rd or N-N Class,mw-ete, a tree ; mi-ete, trees ;
but speaking of a large or indefinite number, njete,
trees; mu-nkei, an egg; mi-nkei, eggs; but nkei when
speaking of a large or indefinite number.
Many nouns are shifting out of the 3rd or Nasal
class under this rule and into the Mo-Mi Class. Thus
instead of ntako, a brass rod, mo-tako, plural, mi-tako,
and so on. Another reason for this is the fact that the
Ngombe, the Basoko, and the Lokele peoples are
steadily ridding their, nouns of the nasal which is
difficult for them pronounce. Other speakers, who have
been accustomed to use the nasal as the prefix
characteristic of these nouns, object to using the stem
only, and add the most popular prefix mo- making the
plural in mi-.
The languages of the Balolo, the people of Upoto,

and the Lokclc living between the Lomami mouth and
Stanleyville, have a class of nouns with the prefixes
I-To. These nouns are generally diminutive. Other
nouns can be made diminutive by dropping the ordinary
prefix, doubling the first syllable of the stem, and adding
the prefix i- in the singular and to- in the plural.
i-ndandako, a little house; to-ndandako, small houses.
When the word is a monosyllable the whole word
is repeated before applying the prefix.
mpo, a rat ; impompo, a small rat.
This method of making nouns diminutive would be
easily understood, and it might be a good idea to get
it into use.

The languages from which Bangala" has drawn
its forms have a few adjectives which according to Bantu
law concord with the nouns they qualify by adopting
a prefix proper to the Class and Number of the Noun.
mo-tu mo-lamu, a good man.
li-kongo li-sanda, a long spear.
" Bangala," however, has attached a definite prefix
to the stems of these concording adjectives and
formed them into indeclinable adjectives.*
The rules for Adjectives in "Bangala" may be given
(i) Adjectives follow the nouns they qualify,
batu makasi, strong people.
masua monene, a large ship.
makei mabe, bad eggs.
ndako mosanda, a tall house.
* Bangala'' thus breaks away from an important rule in Bantu
structure,the rule thai every part of speech dependent on the Noun
should be brought into concord with it. by adopting a prefix proper to the
Class and Number of the Noun. Here again, however, it may be pointed
out that Kangala has found the common base in the extension of a
principle illustrated in the Upper Congo languages.
In Ngala the Abstract noun can be used after the noun to qualify it,
instead of the adjective, thus, motu mo-nene, motu bo-nene, both
meaning a large man.

(2) These Adjectives can be used absolutely, i. e> to
refer to nouns understood or implied, (the verb to be
does not need to be expressed).
This is the principle adopted by "Bangala," it has made its adjectives
into nouns of quality which are used as indeclinable adjectives.
But it will be noted that this nounal adjective has not adopted the
prefix bo- which is the common prefix for forming abstract nouns from
Adjective stems, they appear with the prefixes mo- as mo-nene, andma-as
The second rule above serves to explain this. In all the languages
from which Bangala" has drawn its grammatical forms the Adjectives
can be used absolutely. Thus one can say malamu referring to nouns
understood, provided that these nouns bear the prefix ma-. Thus malamu
may be used referring to ma-nkeke bamboos, ma-nkoko, sugar canes,
' and ma-tu, canoes, etc., meaning they are good.
But there is always a difficulty when the adjective is needed to
refer to nouns of different classes, thus if one wishes to lump say e-lamba
cloth, and nsusu, fowls, and makondo, bananas, and say they are
good, what prefix shall one apply to the adjective? Shall one say
bi-lamu or li-lamu or ma-lamu ? On this point there is no general
agreement between the rules of the different languages, nor any absolute
rule in any one language, which would be followed by all speakers. In
''Bangala5' the general consensus of opinion has decided on a certain
prefix for the several adjectives when used absolutely, and then has
gradually come to use these indeclinable forms to qualify nouns even
when the noun is expressed; so that these absolute forms have now taken
the place of the concording Adjectives.
And this, again, is but the further extension of another mode of
expression which may be illustrated from the Upper River languages.
There are a certain number of nouns denoting a quality which are used
to qualify nouns, and in this construction may be called nounal adjectives.
Thus in Bangi libunu means a curve ; libunu can be used after another
noun to denote the possession of that quality; longele libunu,
a curved brass rod. Or, in Ngala, ngombila, is a noun meaning cloud;
this noun may follow another noun, as butu a day. and thus butu
ngombila, a cloudy day.
" Bangala" has thus, by a perfectly legitimate process, formed nouns
of quality from the radicals of the heretofore concording Adjectives, by
giving them a' noun prefix, and uses them to qualify nouns after the
model of butu ngombila, hence dispensing with ihe necessity of concord.
{they aie or it is) good,
{they are or it is) strong

The following are the most important of the
monene, large, big.
moke, small.
mosanda, tall, long.
mokuse, short.
bobolo, cowardly.
goi goi cowaidly, weak.
mwindu, black.
pembe, white.
mingi, many.
(3) Adjectives are intensified in force bv the use of
be after the adjective, or by doubling the adjective.
makasi be, very strong.
moke moke, very small.
Adjectival phrases are formed by the particle na,*
which is invariable for all classes. This particle may
be said to represent the preposition of.
motu na nguvu, a man of strength a strong man.
Na also represents to belong to.
bwato na mondele, the canoe belonging to the white man.
bana na mwasi, the children belonging to the woman.
* This is another breach of the Rule of Concord, but it must be said
that Bangala" has here solved a difficulty in a very ingenious way.
The languages which have contributed to the formation of "Bangala"
follow mainly two methods of forming Adjectival clauses. Examples
may be taken from Ngala and Bangi.
Ngala has an adjectival particle -a which is brought into concord
with the noun by the use of the adjectival prefix to form Adjectival
clauses, thus,
mw-ete mw-a mondele, the trees of the white man.
mi-tako mi-a mokonji, the brass rods of the chief

The cardinal Numerals are invariable*.
moko, one, motoba, six.
mibale, two, nsambu, seven.
misato, three, mwambi, eight.
minei, four, libwa, nine.
mitano, five, jumo, ten.
Bangi does not possess this particle, but ihe concording prefix is
used to introduce the Adjectival clause.
mo-nkoko mo mwana, the sugar cane of the child.
li-kongo li motu, the spear of the man.
Which of these methods should be adopted ? It is evident that it
would not be an easy matter for a people accustomed to one of these
methods to learn and use the other. "Bangala" solved the difficulty
again by extending another method of forming adjectival clauses which
is used in Ngala, a proceeding by which both methods of concording
might be dropped. Thus, with a few personal nouns, Ngala uses the
particle na, and or with, to form adjectival phrases.
ndeko na moto, a friend of the man, lit., a friend
with the man.
batu na mokonji, the people of the chief.
This is the method adopted in Bangala."
Here, again, one may grieve to lose the variety and precision given
by the use of concording particle, but it must be agreed that "Bangala" has
found the line of least resistance. We have no right to call these forms
ungrammatical, and we may well remember that experts attribute the
spread of English largely to the facility with which il has dropped, and
does still drop its inflexions.
In Ngala and Bangi (lie first five numerals are adjectives and
concord with the nouns they qualify as Ngala : batu babale, two people,
ndako ibale, two houses. "Bangala" has seized the form of the
numeral which was generally used when the noun was not expressed or
implied, and uses it as an indeclinable form, really making the first five
numerals into nouns corresponding to the second five, which are nouns
in all the languages.

The tens are expressed by the noun motuku, pi.
mituku, followed by the multiplying unit.
The hundreds are expressed by the noun monkama,
pi. minkama, followed by the multiplying unit.
The thousands are expressed by the noun nkoto,
(which does not change to form the plural) followed by
the multiplying unit.
jumo na moko, eleven.
jumo na mibale, twelve.
jumo na mitano, fifteen.
jumo na mwambi, eighteen.
mituku mibale na motoba, twenty sis.
mituku minei na libwa, forty nine.
monkama moko na mituku nsambu na mitano, one hundred
and seventy five.
motuku moko,
mituku mibale,
mituku misato,
mituku minei,
forty, and so on.
monkama moko, one hundred.
minkama mibale, two hundred.
minkama mitano, five hundred.
minkama mwambi, eight hundred.
nkoto moko, one thousand.
nkoto minei. four thousand.
nkoto mitano, five thousand.
nkoto libwa, nine thousand,

minkama mitano na mituku mibale na minei, five hundred and
twenty four.
nkoto motoba, na minkama misato, na mituku motoba na
libwa, six thousand and three hundred and sixty nine.
nkoto jumo na mwambi, na minkama mibale, na mituku mi-
sato na nsambu, eighteen thousand and two hundred and
thirty seven.
(a) Numeral Adjectives follow the nouns they
batu jumo na motoba, sixteen people.
mandoki nkoto moko na minkama mitano, One thousandfive
hundred guns.
mitako minkama libwa na mituku libwa na libwa, nine
hundred and ninety nine brass rods.
{li) The numerals are used absolutely,
mitano, five; monkama, one hundred.
The ordinals Numeral are formed from the Cardinal
Numerals preceded by na,* except the first which is
motu na boso,
batu na nsambo,
ngwende na motoba,
kopo na libwa,
the first man
the seventh man.
the sixth chair,
the ninth glass.
etc. etc.
* This is in accordance with the method adopted by "Bangala"
in the formation of Adjectival phrases. The River languages concord
these forms :
Ngala : motu wa babale, the second man.
Bangi : moto o nsambo, (he seventh man.

The Possessive Adjectives arc:
na ngai, my, na biso, our.
na yo, thy, na bino, your.
na yeye, his, its, na bango, their.
These are really the Objective Pronouns preceded
by the possessive particle na*.
Na yeye its, na bango theirs, refer to nouns of all
(a) Possessive Adjectives follow the nouns they qualify.
mombo na ngai, my slave, batu na biso, our people.
ndako na yo, thy house, mandoki ma bino, your guns.
molangi na yeye, his bottle, basi na bango, their wives.
The Demonstrative Adjectives mark two positions,
ist Position : Near the speaker, 2nd Position : Near the
person spoken to, or some distance away from the speaker,
or previously mentioned.
* A further extension of the method adopted by "Bangala" of
forming Adjectival phrases by the use of na. The Upper River lan-
guages concord these forms. Ngala: batu ba ngai, my people, Bangi:
nkeni e yo, his cup.
+ Due doubtless to the necessity of finding the common base of
the River languages. Some of the languages have a special form of the
Possessive Adjective for its, theirs, referring to the nouns of each separate
Ngala : mwana wayango, the child of it, referring to ntaba a goat.
Bangi: loposo lo mongo, the bark of it, its bark (referring to mwete,
a tree). Others, such as the language of Basoko have no Possessive
forms outside the ist or Mu-Ba Class, but use the Demonstrative ; hence
"Bangala" has dropped all the forms except those above.

The Demonstrative Adjectives of the ist. Position
are made up of the stem -ye, which is brought into
concord with the Noun by the Adjectival Prefix. (The
Singular form of the ist. Position of the ist or Mo-Ba
Class is the only exception).
The Demonstrative Adjectives of the ist Position
arc :
i st Class sing, mo-, plur. ba-:
motu yoyo, this man.
batu baye, these people.
2nd Class sing, mo-, plur. mi-:
mwete moye, this tree.
miete miye, these trees.
3rd Class sing, n-, plur. n-:
ndako yeye. this house.
ndako liye, or ndako yiyi, these houses.
4th Class sing, li-, plur. ma-:
likongo liye, this spear.
makongo maye, these spears.
5th Class sing, e-, plur. bi-:
elamba yeye, this cloth.
bilamba biye, these cloths.
6th Class sing, bo-, plur. ma-:
bondoki boye, this gun.
mandoki maye, these guns.
7th Class sing, lo-, plur. n-:
lokele loye, this spoon.
nkele liye, or nkele yiyi, these spoons.
8th Class sing, lo-, plur. ma-:
loboko loye, this arm.
maboko maye, these arms.

The Demonstrative Adjectives of the 2nd Position
arc formed by adding this same Adjectival Prefix to
the enclitic -na.
ist Class sing, mo-, plur. ba-:
mwana yona, that child.
bana bana, those children.
2nd Class sing, mo-, plur. mi-:
motako mona, that brass rod.
mitako mina, those brass rods.
3rd Class sing, n-, plur. n-:
ntaba yena, that goat.
ntaba lina, or ntaba yina, those goats.
4th Class sing, li-, plur. ma-:
lisasi lina, that cartridge.
masasi mana, those cartridges.
5th Class sing, e-, plur bi-:
eloko yena, that thing.
biloko bina, those things.
6th Class sing, bo-, plur. ma-:
bwato bona, that canoc.
mato mana, those canoes.
7th Class sing, lo-, plur. n- :
lobeki lona, that basin.
mbeki yina, those basins.
(Sth Class sing, lo-, plur. ma- :
lokulu lona, that leg.
makulu mana, those legs.
Greater distance is marked by lengthening the
final vowel of this form.
As will be seen above, Demonstrative Adjectives
follow the nouns they qualify.

There is a strong tendency towards reducing
in number the classes of Demonstrative Adjectives, and
it is extremely likely that yeye this, yiyi these, yena
that and yina those, will be used to qualify nouns of all
Classes except the ist or Mo-Ba Class. There seems
to be no inclination to tamper with the Demonstrative
Adjectives of the ist Class. Even now, perhaps, an
alternative table to the above should be given, as
follows :
ist Position :
ist Class sing, mo, plur. ba.:
motu yoyo,
batu baye,
this man.
these men.
All other Classes, sing, yeye, plur. yiyi:
mwete yeye, this t?ee.
mandoki yiyi, these guns.
2nd Position :
ist Class sing, mo, plur. ba:
motu yona,
batu bana,
that man.
those man.
All other Classes, sing, yena, plur. yina.
motako yena,
biloko yina,
that brass rod.
those things.

A. Personal Pronouns.
I St Pors., ngai, /, me,
2nd Pers., yo, thou, thee.
3rd Pers., yeye, he, him, it,
biso, we, us.
bino, you.
bango, they, them.
These forms are both Nominative and Objective,
and serve to represent the nouns of all Classes.*
They may be called Self-standing Pronouns to
distinguish them from the Pronominal Prefixes which
represent the subject of the verb.
The Possessive Pronouns arc identical with the
Possessive Adjectives.
mbele na yo malamu, na ngai mabe, your knife is good, mine is
tikaka nsu na ngai, kamata na yo, leave my fish alone,-take yours.
* Some of the Upper River languages have Pronouns to represent
the nouns of all the Classes. Thus, in Bangi, mongo and mingo are the
sing, and plur. pronouns referring to all nouns of the Mo-Mi Class ;
mwango and miango are the corresponding Ngala forms. 'But some of t he
languages have no special Pronouns to represent Nouns outside of the
ist or Mo-Ba Class. True to its central principle of dropping forms
which are not common to all the languages u Bangala" uses yeye and
bango, for it, they, or them, referring to nouns of all Classes.
B. Possessive Pronouns.

C. Demonstrative Pronouns.
The Demonstrative Pronouns arc identical with the
Demonstrative Adjectives.
sumbaka makondo maye, tika mana, buy these plantain, leave
kenda na motu yoyo, yona ake na ngai, go with this man, that one
goes with me.
yaka na mitako miye, pese basali mina, come with these brass
rods, give the workmen those.
D. Interrogative Pronouns.
Who ? interrogative is rendered by na? njai? nani?
nani kofuta basali ? who is paying the workmen.
What ? interrogative is rendered by nini ? nde ?
motu njai ?
yeye koloba na ?
who is the man ?
who is it who is speaking ?
akolinga nde ?
nini ?
what does he want ?
what is it ?
zambi nde ? mpo nini ? what is the mattei

Verbs are divided into three Conjugations. Verbs
ending in a form the a conjugation, those ending in e
the e conjugation, those ending in o the o conjugation,
a,^ loba, to speak ; bete, to beat; kombo, to sweep.
A. Inflexions of the Verb.
Verbs are inflected in relation to Number and Person,
Mood and Tense.
The relations of Number and Person are shewn by
prefixes attached to the verb. These prefixes represent
the Subject of the verb and translate /, thou, he, it, they,
before, the verb, and are thus called Pronominal
Prefixes *
Pronominal Prefixes.
Singular. Plural.
- ist Pers., na, I, to, we.
2nd Pers., o, thou, bo, jyou.
3rd Pers., a, he, it, ba, they.
* The Upper River languages have Pronominal Prefixes proper to
the several classes into which the nouns are divided. The rule of concord
demands that the verb take the prefix proper to the class of its noun or
pronoun subject. Thus mwete mo-kwi na ntongo, the tree fell this

When for the sake of emphasis or clearness the
Subject of the verb is expressed by a Substantive or
Self-standing Pronoun the verb still takes the
Pronominal Prefix. When the Subject is not so
expressed the Pronominal Prefix sufficiently represents
na-lali o masua, I slept on the steamer.
ngai na-sosi ngombe na yo, I have washed your clothes.
a-yibaki nsusu na ngai, he stole my fowl.
motu a-yibaki ntaba kala-kala, the man stole a goat long ago.
ba-bomi nkoli na ntongo, they killed a crocodile this morning.
batu ba-luki wato, the men paddled the canoe.
Five Moods may be recognised, the Indicative
Mood, the Imperative Mood, the Infinitive Mood, the
Subjunctive Mood, and the Participial Mood.
B. Indicative Mood.
" Bangala forms but three Tenses in the Indicative
Mood, {a) a Present or Customary Tense, (b) a Past
Indefinite Tense, (c) a Past Definite Tense.
morning, miete mi-kwi na ntongo, the trees fell this morning. Mo-
und mi- arc the Pronominal prefixes proper to the Mo-Mi Class, and
they translate it, and they, referring to nouns of the Mo-Mi Class. In
" Bangala v this concord is dispensed with, and verbs take the prefix a- for
the 3rd Pers. sing, and ba- for the 3rd Pers. plural whether the subject is
expressed by a Noun or a Self-standing Pronoun or the Pronominal
Prefix itself represents the subject. Thus in Bangala the two sentences
above would be mwete a-kwi na ntongo, and miete ba-kwi na
ntongo, respectively. So also in Bangala" a-kwi na ntongo, it fell
this morning, and ba-kwi na ntongo, they fell this morning, instead of
mo-kwi na ntongo, mi-kwi na ntongo.

(1) Present or Customary Tense :
This Tense is formed from the Simple verb by
adding the prefix ko-. The Pronoun Subject may be
expressed either (a). By the Pronominal Prefix, or
(£). By the Self-standing Pronoun.*
ist Pers., na-ko-ya, I am coming.
2nd Pers., o-ko-ya, thou art coming.
3rd Pers., a-ko-ya, he is coming.
I st Pers., to-ko-ya, we are coming,
2nd Pers.,' bo-ko-ya, you are coming.
3rd Pers., ba-ko-ya, they are coming.
Ai.ternativk Form.
ist Pers., ngai ko-ya, T am coming.
2nd Pers., yo ko-ya, thou art coming.
3rd Pers., yeye ko-ya, he is coming.
ist Pers., biso ko-ya, we are coming.
2nd Pers., bino ko-ya, you are coming.
3rd Pers., bango ko-ya, they are coming.
(2) Past Indefinite :
Formed by changing the final letter of the verb into
i in the three conjugations. The Subject of the verb
* The Present Tense has long been the Subject of derision as a line
example of the ungrammatical forms current in "Bangala." On the lower
reaches of the Upper River no Tense was known which-dispensed with
the Pronominal Prefixes. This very Tense however is in use in Lokele
the principal language of the Stanley Falls group, and in the same sense
as in "Bangala," thus, imi koke, / a/n going, iyo kokela ongoma
lise la lise, they do so every day. This fact indicates that early criticism
of "Bangala" did not take into account the wide area from which the
natives who formed this "lingua franca" were drawn.

is represented by the Pronominal Prefix, thus, loba, to
speak, becomes lobi; bete, to beat, becomes beti;
kombo to sweep, becomes kombi.
Singular. Plural.
ist Pers., na-lobi, I spoke, to-lobi, we spoke.
2nd Pers., o-lobi, thou didst speak, bo-lobi, you spoke.
3rd Pers., a-lobi, he or it spoke, ba-lobi, they spoke.
1 st Pers., na-beti, I beat, to-beti, we beat.
2nd Pers., o-beti, thou didst beat, bo-beti, you beat.
3rd Pers., a-beti, he or it beat, ba-beti, they beat.
ist Pers., na-kombi, I swept, to-kombi, we swept.
2nd Pers., o-kombi, thou didst sweep, bo-kombi, you swept.
3nd Pers., a-kombi, he or it swept., ba-kombi, they swept.
(3) Past Definite :
Formed from the Simple verb of the three Conjuga-
tions by adding the suffix -ki, as, loba-ki, bete-ki,
Singular. Plural.
i st Pers., na-loba-ki, 1 spoke, did speak, to-loba-ki, I spoke, did speak.
2nd Pers., o-loba-ki, thou didst speak, bo-loba-ki, you spoke, did speak.
3nd Pers., a-loba-ki, he or it spoke, did speak, ba-loba-ki, they spoke.
So of the other Conjugations, na-bete-ki, I beat;
a-kombo-ki, he sivept.
Another mode of forming the Past Definite tense is
sometimes heard. The suffix -ki is added not to the
Simple verb but to the Past Indefinite forms, as,
na-lobi-ki, I spoke, did speak, na-beti-ki, I beat, did
beat; na-kombi-ki, I swept, did siveep. Both these
forms are in use on the Upper River, some of the
languages, as Bangi and Lolo, favouring the form
given above ; whilst Ngala, Poto, and Kele use the

second form. It is a little doubtful yet which form
will prevail, so I give the alternative form. Either
may .be said to be correct.
Sing, na-lobi-ki, I spoke, did speak, plur. to-lobi-ki, we spoke, did speak.
., o-lobi-ki, thou didst speak, ,, bo-lobi-ki, you spoke.
,, a-lobi-ki, hem it spoke, did speak, ,, ba-lobi-ki, they spoke.
So also a-bete-ki, he or it beat, a-kombi-ki, he or it swept.
Strictly speaking Bangala" has no Imperfect-
Tenses, but the imperfect idea is rendered by an
idiomatic use of the verb to be before the Past Indefinite
and Definite Tenses, making what might be regarded
as the Past and Anterior Imperfect Tenses respectively.
The Subject of the verb expressed by the Pronominal
Prefix must be used with both the auxiliary and the
principal verb.
(1) The Imperfect:
Sing, ist Pers., na-baki na-sali, I was working.
,, 2nd Persf, o-baki o-sali, thou wast working.
,, 3rd Pers., a-baki a-sali, he 7vas wo> king.
Plur. ist Pers., to-baki to-sali, we tvere working.
,, 2nd Pers., bo-baki bo-sali, you were working.
,, 3rd Pers., ba-baki ba-sali, they were working.
(2) The Anterior Imperfect :
Sing, ist Pers., na-baki na-sala-ki, I had beenworking.
,. 2nd Pers., o-baki o-sala-ki, thou hadst been working.
,, 3rd Pers., a-baki a-sala-ki, he had been wo> king.
Plur. ist Pers., to-baki to-sala-ki, wc had been working.
,, 2nd Pers.. bo-bakibo-sala-ki, you had been working.
,, 3rd Pers., ba-baki ba-sala-ki, they had been working.

The Bangala verb would be greatly strengthened
by the introduction of two or three additional Tenses.
It will be observed that there is no Present Perfect
Tense and no Future Tense.
There are two methods of representing the Perfect in
vogue on the Upper River. Ngala, which has a verb
rich in Past Tenses both Definite and Continuative, has
no special form for the Perfect, and uses the Past
Indefinite as a Perfect Tense. l< Bangala follows this
rule, and a-beti, may be either he beat or he has beaten.
But whilst Ngala is quite able, owing to its rich variety
of Past Tenses, to dispense with a special Perfect Tense,
" Bangala," which forms only two Past Tenses, would
be much the better for a Perfect Tense.
Bangi makes a Perfect Tense by the prefix o- as
a-o-loba, he has spoken. Kele (the language spoken
near Stanley Falls) makes a Perfect with the prefix so-,
as does also one of the dialects near Lake Ntomba.
As Bangi has the so- prefix also, though used in a
slightly different sense, whilst the o- prefix is peculiar
to Bangi, I would suggest the use of the so- prefix to
make a Perfect Tense, as this would seem the likeliest
form to be acccpted.
(i) Present Perfect Tense:
The Present Perfect is formed by adding SO- as a
prefix to the Simple verb of the three Conjugations.
The Subject is expressed by the Pronominal Prefix.

Sing, na-so-loba, I have spoken, plur. to-so-loba, we have spoken.-
,, o-so-loba, thou hast spoken, ,, bo-so-loba, you have spoken.
,, a-so-loba, he ox it has spoken, ,, ba-so-loba, they have spoken.
So of the other conjugations, as ;a-so-bete,he or it
has beaten, ba-so-kombo, they have swept.
Speaking generally the Upper River languages do
not form Future Tenses, but use the Present Tense for
Future also. This is sufficiently clear when Future
Time is indicated by the context, but one does not
always gather quite accurately whether the Present
Tense is used as a Present or a Future when Time is
not thus indicated. According to Mr Whitehead Bangi
shews the Future by change of tone in the vowels. Not
to speak of the fact that tones are not easily recognised
by many hearers, there is another drawback to this
method, these changes of tone can only be shewn in
writing by signs over the letters, which with almost one
consent have been dispensed with in all translations
yet made.
In Ngala, and in the language of the people of Upoto
there is a Future Tense formed by a prefix. In Ngala
the prefix is ka-, as, na-ka-bete, I will beat. In the
language of Upoto it is ma- as, m-ma-kala, I zvill love.
I would suggest that the Ngala form be introduced
into Bangala as being more likely to be accepted
than the form in ma-. The syllable ka- is to be found
in all the Upper River languages either as a prefix or
a suffix. I have not been able to find the prefix ma-

anywhere outside of the Upoto area.
With this Future introduced, the rule that the Present
Tense may be used as a Future when Future time is
indicated by the context could still be followed, and
the suggested Future Indefinite be used when time is
not thus indicated.
(i) Future Indefinite Tense :
Formed from the Simple verb in the three Conj ligations
by adding the prefix ka-. The Subject of the verb is
expressed by the Pronominal Prefix.
Singular. Plural,
ist Pers., na-ka-lala, I shall sleep, to-ka-lala, we shall sleep.
2nd Pers., o-ka-lala, thou wilt sleep, bo-ka-lala, you will sleep.
3nd Pers., a-ka-lala, he or it toil I sleep, ba-ka-lala, they will sleep.
So of the other Conjugations as na-ka-pese, I shall give, na-ka-
kombo I shall sweep.
C. Force of the Tenses.
(1) Present or Customary Tense:
This Tense denotes the action as in progress, about
to be commenced, or as Customary.
keka mondele, mosali na yo akobula sanduku na yo, look while
man, your workman is breaking your box.
sapi 1 ngai koya, wait a bit! I am coining.
mwasi na ngai akososa bilamba mikolo yonso, my wife washes
clothes every day.
It is also used of Future actions when the time is
indicated by the context.
mondele akoya na basilikani lobi, to-morrow the ivhite man ivillcome
with soldiers.
bino koke na mbisa, you will go afterwards.
(2) Past Indefinite Tense:

The Past Indefinite is used of actions in Past Time,
nothing is indicated as to the completeness or otherwise
of the action.
bayibi kwanga mingi mingi, they stole a large quantity of cassava.
ndako na mosenje akwi na se, the house of the native fell down.
basali na biso bateki bilamba, our workmen sold clothes.
zambi nde akamati ntaba ? why did he catch the goat.,
(3) Past Definite Tense :
The Past Definite Tense denotes an action considered
to have been complete in Past'Time.
nayebaki mwasi na yeye kala kala, I knezu his wife long ago.
basalaki o masua boso, they worked on the steamer before.
Used of one action considered to have preceded
another this tense translates a pluperfect.
soko masua ayi nasilaki lisala na ngai, when the steamer came
I had finished my work.
(4) The Imperfect Tense:
The Imperfect Tense indicates that the action was in
progress in Past Time.
nabaki nalali na yeye o ndako bango bakimi, I was sleeping with
him in the house and they fled.
ekimi bango nabaki nalali na yeye o ndako, when they fled I was
sleeping with him in the house.
The Anterior Imperfect marks that the action had
been in progress.
nabaki nasalaki na bango 0 masua mpe eyibaki bango biloko
ngai nasilaki boso nalongwaki, I had been working with them
on the steamer but when they stole the things I had gone.
(1) The Present Perfect Tense :
To be used of an action considered as complete in

present time or to have existing results.
mondele asoya na ntongo, the white man has come this morning.
basali na masua basobela, the workmen on the steamer are sick.
(2) The Future Indefinite Tense:
To be used of actions which are likely to happen,
Future Time not being indicated by other words.
bakabuna na basenje, they will fight the natives.
bakakela saboni, they will make soap.
nakateka mbalankata na ngai, I will sell my plate.
B. The Imperative Mood.
" Bangala uses the Simple Form of the verb in the
Imperative Mood, sumba, buy; kamata, catch; lete,
bring ; solo, choose.
These forms are made Emphatic by adding the suffix
-ka to verbs ending in a, -ke to verbs ending in e, and
ko to verb ending in o.
loba-ka, speak; benda-ka, pull; pese-ke, give; solo-ko, choose.
Sometimes ko- is prefixed to the verb, kokamata,
C. The Infinitive Mood.
The Infinitive is formed by the prefix -ko.
ko-sosa bilamba na saboni ajaji malamu, to wash clothes with
soap is good.
ake kokamata ntaba na yeye, he has gone to catch his goal.
noki! noki! yaka koboma mbwa, Quick! Quick! Come and kill
the dog.

D. The Subjunctive Mood.
The Subjunctive Mood has one Tense. It consists of
the Simple verb. The Subject is expressed by the
Pronominal Prefixes.
pese yeye nsusu alamba na mai, give him a fowl that he ?nay cook
it with water.
The Subjunctive is used after verbs expressing
entreaty, purpose, desire, etc.
alingi ake, he wishes that he may go.
yaka toke, come let us go, or ale toke.
tika yeye alongola biloko na yeye, let him take away his things.
Any tense of the Indicative Mood may be used in
asking questions, but the Subjunctive is generally used
when the reference is future, as, naya ? shall I come ;
ake ? shall he go ? babuna ? shall they fight ?
Compare alobi boye ? did he speak thus ? asumbaki
ngombe ? Had he bought cloth ?
E. Participial Mood.
The Participial Tenses arc formed from the
Indicative Tenses by inversion ; e- is prefixed to the
Tense form, and the Subject Noun or Pronoun follows
the verb.
(i) Present Conditional Tense:
Sing, ist Pers., e-kolinga ngai, zvhen or whenever I love.
2nd Pers., e-ko-linga yo, when or whenever thou lovest.
3rd Pers., e-ko-linga yeye, when or zvhenever he loves.
Plur. ist Pers., e-ko-linga biso, when or zvhc7iever we love.
2nd Pers., e-ko-linga bino, when or whenever you love.
3rd Pers., e-ko-linga bango, when or zvhcncvcr they love.

(2) The Past Indefinite is formed in the same way :
Sing, ist Pers., e-lingi ngai, when I loved.
Plur. 2nd Pers., e-lingi bango, when they loved.
(3) So also the Past Definite :
Sing, ist Pers., e-sala-kiyo, when thou didst or hadst worked.
Plur. 2nd Pers., e-sala-ki bino, whenyott worked or had worked.
There is a Future Anterior Tense of the Participial
Mood which has two alternative Forms. It is made
either from the Subjunctive by adding the suffix -ka
or from the Indicative Present by the same suffix.
(4) Future Anterior :
Sing, ist Pers., na-sala-ka or ngai ko-sala-ka, when I shall have
. worked.
2nd Pers., o-sala-ka or yo ko-sala-ka, when thou shall have
3rd Pers., a-sala-ka or yeye ko-sala-ka, when he shall have
Plur. ist Pers., to-sala-ka or biso ko-sala-ka, when wc shall have
2nd Pers., bo-sala-ka or bino ko-sala-ka, when you shall have
3rd Pers., ba-sala-ka or bango ko-sala-ka, when they shall
have worked.
These Tenses can only be used in clauses which
indicate the condition and only when the condition, was,
is or will be fulfilled. It is for this reason I have
called this Mood Participial and not Conditional.
esalaki ngai na mondele afuti ngai na mosolo mingi, when I
worked for the white man he paid me tvell.
ngai ko-silaka lisala na ngai nakosunga yo, when I shall have
finished my work I will help you.

When doubt or uncertainty is indicated, conditional
particles arc used followed by the Tenses of the
Indicative Mood or the Subjunctive.
soko akoya lobi ngai koke na yeye, if he comes to-morrow, I will
go with him.
te nakokima na jamba yo kokela nde ? If I should run away
into the forest what would you do ?
In resulting clauses the Tenses of the Indicative
Mood are used.
soko akopese ngai nsusu ngai kojala ndeko na yeye, If he gives
mc a fowl I will be his friend.
When the result is regarded as certain to follow, the
Past Indefinite Tense is used preceded by nde.
soko masua akoya lelo kapiteni nde akamati nkuni, if the
steamer should come to-day the captain will take firewood.
Uncertainty as to the result would be indicated by
mbele or soko.
soko akokamata nkuni, perhaps he will take firewood.
mbele akokamata nkuni, he may take firewood (he may or may not).
F. Negation.
All verbs are negatived by the particle te standing
after the verb, or at the end of the clause.
There is thus no necessity to set out the negative
Conjugation the following examples will-suffice.
Sing, na-lobi te, I spoke not, plur. to-lobi te, we spoke not.
,, o-lobi te, thou didst not speak, ,, bo-lobi te, you did not speak.
,, a-lobi te, he spoke not, ,, ba-lobi te, they spoke not.

kolamba b'oli te ajaji malamu te. not to cook food is not good.
oyaka te, do not comc.
zambi nde olobi na ngai te ? why did you not speak to vie 'f
nalingi nake te, I do not wish to go.
kanga ntaba na nkamba akima te, tie the goat with rope that he
may not run away.
nabiangi yo kala kala ooki ngai te ? / called you long ago did you
not hear me ?
meme akofwi na. nde ? babomi te ? how did the sheep die ? did .
they not kill it?

A. The Passive Verb.
Of the Upper River languages only the Bangi
language has a true Passive Verb. The ending is -ibwa,
but this would seem to have been summarily rejected.
Most of the other languages, however, form a Passive
sentence by inversion, and this is the method which
is likely to be accepted, though, as the Upper River
languages do not like Passive Forms, perhaps even this
mode may be rejected.
Active sentence: nakangi ntaba, I tied the goat.
Passive sentence : ntaba e-kangi na ngai, the goat
was caught by me.
To mark the Passive the sentence is inverted. Ntaba
is the object of the active sentence and in agreement
with the common rule in "Bangala" appears after the
verb. Ntaba is the Subject of the Passive sentence, it
appears before the verb, and the agent preceded by
the preposition na follows the verb.
In all the Upper River languages, however, there is a
Neuter or Stative verb. This is occasionally heard in

"Bangala" and it is highly desirable that some attempt
should be made to retain this form, for now one usually
hears abeti, both for he beat, and he was beaten; akangi,
he ties, and he was tied, which, to say the least of it, is
somewhat confusing.
B. The Neuter Verb.
The Neuter verb is easily formed. Setting aside
some peculiarities found in the different languages, the
following rules are simple and easily understood.
Verbs ending in o add -mo, kombo, to sweep,
kombomo, to be szvept.
Verbs ending in e add -me, bete to beat, beteme,
to be beaten.
Verbs ending in a add -ma, sosa, to wash, sosama,
to be washed.
These verbs are then conjugated exactly as are the
Simple verbs ending in a, e, and o.
ndako akokombomo, the house is being swept.
batu bakobeteme, the people are being beaten.
ngombe akososama, the cloth is being washed.
C. The Applicative Verb.
There is another Derived Verb which is common to
all^the languages and is sometimes heard in "Bangala"
which would tend to clearness of expression if it could
be retained. It is formed by adding -ela to the verb
stem. The addition of this suffix adds a prepositional
idea to the idea of the simple verb, as sumba, to buy,

sumbela, to buy for; buna, to fight / bunela, to
fight for.
alambi nyama, he rooked meat.
alambeli mondele nyama, he cooked meat for the white man.
asosi bilamba, he washed cloth cs.
asoseli mwasi na yeye bilamba, he -washed clothes for his wife.
D. The Causative Verb.
The Causative verb is formed by adding -isa or -esa
to the simple verb stem. ; It marks that the object of the
verb is caused to perform the action or to exist in the
state described by the verb, as beka, to borrow, bekisa,
lend, lit. cause to borrow, yala, to sit, yalesa, to cause to
sit, to seat. This derived verb is conjugated in the same
way as any simple verb ending in a.
bekisa ngai mitako jumo, lend me ten brass rods.
E. The Reciprocal Verb.
This derived verb is formed by adding the suffixes -na
to verbs ending in a, -ne to verbs ending in e, and -no
to verbs ending in o. It denotes that the action is
reciprocal, as buna, to fight, bunana, to fight each other,
kaba, to divide, kabana, to divide together, to share ;
pese, to give, pesene, to give each other ; solo, to chose,
solono, to choose each other. These verbs are conju-
gated in the same way as simple verbs ending in a, e,
and o respectively.
bakabani nsu na makondo, they have shared up the fish and the
Mankasa na Lotika bakosongono, Majikasa and Lotika arc
mar>yin together.

A. Adverbs.
There are but few adverbs.
I give the following with the renderings of some
adverbial phrases.
(1) Adverbs of Manner and Quality :
pamba, freely, gratis, vainly.
bobele, completely, exactly.
upesi. quickly, at once.
noki noki, quickly, at once.
na moi na moi, slowly, quietly.
soko, perhaps, probably.
sawa sawa, pila moko, as, like.
boye, thus, in this way.
pole pole, quietly, patiently.
bongo, thus, in that way.
sana, very good, very well.
nye, quite, completely.
(2) Adverbs of Place :
awa, hapa, here, in this place.
kuna, there, in that place.
bele bele, near to.
mosika, zamani, far azvay.
ndani, in, within.
nyuma, mbisa, after, behind.

(3) Adverbs of Time :
lelo, to-day.
lobi, kesho, to-morrow, yesterday.
nyuma, afterzvards.
kala kala, long ago.
samani, long ago.
sasa hivi, now.
sikawa, nozv.
kwanza, boso, before.
ndiki, when, at the time.
(4) Adverbs of Quantity :
moke moke, a fezu, a little quantity.
mingi mingi, many, much.
mosusu or mosiso, more, another.
ngine, more, another.
(5) Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation :
io, e, yes.
te, hapana, ve, no, not.
solo, certainly.
lokuta, not so.
soko, perhaps.
(6) Adverbs of Interrogation :
kwe ? how many ? how much
wapi ? zvhe? e ?
zambi nde ? mhy ?
What price? is rendered on the lower reaches of
the river by motuya nde ? zvhatprice ? On the upper
reaches by nguo ngapi ? how many doti of cloth ?
(7) Some adverbial Phrases :
O likolo, above.
na mbisa, afterzvards.
misa manso, mikolo yonso, siku zote, always> every day.
na bobe, ill, badly.
na malamo, excellently, well.
na mayele, wisely.
na moi na moi, quietly, carefully.
na nguvu, strongly.
o boso, bfoie.

B. Prepositions.
There are but two prepositions na and o, and there
is a tendency to drop the o.
Na is the preposition of instrument and association,
abomi ntaba na mbele, he killed the goat with a knife.
O is the preposition of direction and must be defined
by the verb which it follows. It may render .on, upon,
in, under, etc., etc.
ajali o ndako,
abati o likolo na ndako,
akimi o se na mwete,
alindi o nti na masua,
yaka o wato,
The tendency to use na as the only preposition
should be resisted, as with both o and na in use the
meanings are not always clear.
Thus one frequently hears yaka na wato instead of
o wato, thus making no distinction between come into
the boat and come with the boat.
A few of the prepositional phrases are as follows :
he is in the house,
he climbed on to the top of the house,
he ) an azvay from under the tree,
he sank between the steamers,
come into the boat.
o likolo na,
o se na,
o nti na,
o boso na,
o mbisa na,
on the top of.
inside of.
in front of.
at the back of.
C. Conjunctions.
na, la,
and, with,
D. Interjections.
Upesi! Noki noki! Ale Quick!
E Tata ! Alas! alas / (lit. O father!)
Basi ! Just so! That will do.

Many points which naturally come under this
heading- have been dealt with in the grammar, others arc
better treated here.
A. Formation of Substantives.
(a) The noun denoting the agent, or performer of
the action, is formed from the Indefinite Past Tense of
the Simple verb by adding the Prefixes of the ist or
Mo-Ba Class.
tula, to forge, past indef. tuli; mo-tuli, a blacksmith.
bete, to beat, past indef. beti; mo-beti, a beater.
benga, to follow, past indef. bengi; mo-bengi, a follower.
sala, to work, past indef. sali; mo-sali, a worker.
(b) The sufferer of the action is denoted by the
corresponding noun formed from the Stative verb.
kangama, to be tied, past indef. kangami; mo-kangami, one
lied, a prisoner.
beteme, to be beaten, past indef. betemi; mo-betemi, one
(c) The noun denoting the effect of the action is
formed from the Past In clef. Tense, by adding the
prefixes of the 4th or Li-Ma Class.
koma, to w/ ite, past indef. komi; li-komi, writing.
tena, lo cut, past indef. teni ; li-teni, the piece cut off.

(d) The name of the instrument is formed by adding
the prefixes of the 5th or E-Bi Class to the Applica-
tive verb, and changing the final letter into i.
koma, to write, applicative verb, komela ; e-komeli, a pencil.
bakola, to take apart.; applicative verb, bakolela ; e-bakoleli, a
(e) The noun denoting the place where the action
is wrought can be formed by adding the same prefixes
to the Applicative verb, but the final letter is changed
into 0.
bumba, to hide, applicative verb, bumbela ; e-bumbelo, a hiding
(f) The numerical noun is formed from the Simple
verb by adding the Prefixes of the Mo-Mi or 2nd
bete, to beat, mo-bete moko, one. stroke.
luka, to paddle, mi-luka mibale, two strokes or pulls.
baluki mi-luka mitano, they pulled five strokes.
nayi miya mingi, T came many times (comings J.
(g) Introduced words are* generally regarded as.
singular nouns of the ist or Mo-Ba Class, and make
a plural by adding ba.
sanduku, trunk, ba-sanduku, trunks.
Sometimes, however, the first syllable of the noun,
when pronounced by the native, sounds like one of
the other singular prefixes, and is treated as such, the
plural taking the corresponding plural prefix, as bo-la-
nkete, pi. ma-lankete, from the English blanket. Thus
bo-lankete is a noun of the Bo-Ma Class.

B. Gender.
Sex is not represented in the inflexions of the noun,
but must be indicated by a noun signifying male or
female used as an adjective after the noun denoting
the object.
motu molomi, a person (male) ; motu muntaka, a person (femaleJ.
ntaba molomi, a male goat; ntaba muntaka, a female goat.
Mume is also used for male, and muke, and mwasi, for female.
C. Adjectives.
It will have been noticed that Bangala has but few-
Adjectives ; many of our Adjectives must be rendered
by the Past Indefinite Tense of an appropriate verb.
yaka na batu bakoki lisala, come with men sufficient for the work.
ndako abongi, a statable house ; mai aleki, running water.
D. Comparison of Adjectives.
To compare two objects in the positive degree pila
moko and sawa sawa are used.
ndako na ngai ajaji monene pila moko na ndako na yo, my house
is as large as yours.
batu na yo bajaji mabe sawa sawa na yo, your people are as bad
as you.
The Comparative degree is expressed by the verb
leka to surpass.
boi na ngai akoleka boi na yeye, my boy is better than his.
mankeke na yeye baleki na bino na masanda, his bamboos are
longer than yours.

The Superlative is rendered by the same verb.
koko na mwasi bakoleka, the fowls of the woman are the best.
ndako na ngai akoleka ndako yonso, my house surpasses all houses,
i.e., is the best.
E. Indefinite Adjectives.
None, no one is rendered by the negative : motu te,
no man.
Certain by moko: motu moko, a certain man.
Several is rendered by mingi = many, or mosusu
= more^ others.
The whole is rendered by yonso or enso, njoto yonso,
the whole body, nsu enso, the whole fish.
All by banso : bato banso or yonso, all the people.
Each is rendered by repeating the noun : motu na
motu bakwi mbele moko moko, each man took one
F. Pronouns.
When the Personal Pronouns are used as Subjects
they stand before the verb.
ngai koya, I am coming; bango baye, they came.
As objects they stand after the verb,
nakolinga yeye, I like him.
The same rule applies to the Demonstrative Pronouns.
yoyo ayibi biloko, yona abumbi yeye, this one stole the things,
that one hid him.
ngai nameni baye, yeye akamati bana, /'saw these, he caught

G. Relative Pronoun.
There is only an Interrogative Relative Pronoun.
It appears in two forms, njai? and nini?
nani aleki awa ? who passed here ?
yo kolinga njai ? or ndai ? whom do you love ?
Bilamba na nini ? whose clothes ?
H. Relative Clauses.
A Subjective Relative Clause differs in no way
from an Absolute Clause, motu abeti ngai is either
the man beat me, or the man who beat me.
An Objective Relative Clause may be formed in
two ways.
(a) By inversion :
motu abeti na ngai, the man whom I beat.
(J?) The Relative may be expressed by a Demonstra-
tive Pronoun placed before the verb :
motu yona nabeti yeye, the man whom 1 beat (lit. man that I beat
him ).
I. Interrogative Expressions.
What ? is rendered by nde ? or nini ? standing at
the end of the clause.
zambi nde ? what is the matter ? okolinga nde ? yo kolinga nini ?
zvhat. do you ivant ?
Where ? by wapi ?
yo koke wapi ? where are you going /
batu bajaji wapi ? where are the people ?
Which ? is rendered by nde ? wapi ?
mbele nde ? ivhich knife ?
mbalankata wapi ? which plate ?

How much ? How many ? by kwe? nini? and ngapi?
motuya kwe? what price? ngombe ngapi? how many clothes?
nguo ngapi ? how many doti ? batu bakimi nini ? how many people
ran aiuay ?
Why ? by zambi nde ?
yo kokela boye zambi nde ? why did you do so ?
When ? by mokolo wapi ?
bayibi wato mokolo wapi ? when did they steal the canoe ?
Hozu ? by nini ? na nde ?
yo akimi nini ? how did he run away ? akokela na nde ? how
does he do it ?
J. The Verb.
(a) Agreement with its Subject.
When a verb has several Subjects the verb takes
the plural prefix.
wato na mbele na mandoki na masasi balindi o mai, the canoe
and the knives and the guns and the cartridges sank in the water.
(b) The Force of the Tenses in the Indicative has
been shewn (30-2). It may be said here, however, that a
number of verbs use the Past Indefinite in the place of
the Present. Notably meni, to see, jaji, to be, leki,
to surpass.
(c) The use of the Imperative and the Subjunctive is
practically the same as in English.


C H A P T E R I.
A. Preliminary Observations.
(a) Bangala is yet in the process of making and
many words arc not yet fixed. The inhabitants of the
State stations and camps, traders establishments, etc.,
will naturally use many words peculiar to the districts
in which they are living. With freer and more constant
intercourse words will tend more and more to become
fixed, and will then qualify for inclusion in the common
In preparing this vocabulary I have tried to secure
the words most generally used, but in those cases where
no word seemed generally current I have given,
wherever possible, the word common to the majority
of the riverine languages. In those cases where these
languages do not possess a good word, and one is
known to the Congo speakers of Svvahili I have adopted
that word.
It is scarcely to be expected that more than a fair
proportion of these suggested words will be accepted.
The present Bangala" vocabulary used by the
" Bangala" speakers shews too many vagaries in its
formation for it to be otherwise, hence I have thought

it desirable to leave a wide margin in this section, to
allow of other words being added as readers may deem
A collation of these new words, from books filled in
by workers in the several districts, would make it
possible to issue a larger and more accurate vocabulary
later on. One may be permitted to hope, perhaps,
that an adequate number of men may be found whose
interest in the subject will be warm enough to lead
them to contribute this much towards the betterment
of a common means of intercourse.
(b) In those cases where the noun changes its prefix
to mark the plural both the Singular and Plural forms
are given.
(c) Following the vocabulary is a suggested transli-
teration of the Metric System, the names of the days
and months, and a table of the hours of the day.
(d) It will be noted that a number of verbs end in
-oa, and some others in -wa, as longoa, to awake,
longwa, to depart. Some difference in the representa-
tion of these endings was necessary as verbs ending in
oa make the Past Indef. in oi, whilst those ending in
wa, make this Tense in -wi, as na-longoi, I awoke,
na-longwi, I went away.

B. Vocabulary.
Abandon, tika, leme, macha.
abate, bende.
abhor, yina.
ability, bwanya, ntoko.
able, v.i., koka, yisa.
abominate, kila.
abortive, pamba, bule.
above, 11., likolo.
prep., o likolo na.
abscess, lituku, pi. matuku.
abundance, mingi mingi.
abundant, mingi.
abuse, v.t., kumba.
accompany, kamba.
accept, kwa, yamba.
accomplish, silesa, komesa.
accomplished, sila, sidi.
accuse, pata, tuba,
accuse each other, patana, tubana.
achieve, silesa bobele.
acid, nkangi, ngai.
acquaint, sakola, sangela.
acquiesce, yamba.
acquire, kula, kwa.
acquit, longesa.
adapt, bongesa, yengibinya.
adapted be, bonga, yengebene, koka.
adequate, v.i., koka.
adjacent, bele bele na.
adjust, ponga, bongesa.
admire, sima.
adorn, lata bompala.
adultery, jambu, mobako.
adze, n., ngwa.

adze, papa.
affair, mpo, zambi, pi. mambi; mbembo, maneno.
affirm, simba ndai, lai ndai.
after, na mbisa.
afternoon, na mpokwa.
afterwards, na mbisa.
afraid be, jika, yoka bongo.
ago long, kala kala.
agree, yamba.
agree together, yambana.
aid, v.t., sunga.
aim, v.t., sisa.
alarm, v.t., bangesa.
alarmed he, banga.
alike, pila moko, sawa sawa.
allow, tika, leme, macha.
almost, bele bele.
alone, mpenja.
amass, yanginya.
amaze, kamwisa.
amazed be, kamwa, mwala.
amend, nyanga.
amiability, boboto.
ammunition, masasi.
anchor, mboko.
and, na, mpe.
anger, v. t., okesa nkele.
anger, nkele, makasi.
angry be, oka nkele.
animal, nyama.
announce, sakola, sangela
annoy, tumola.
annul, yunzola, boiya.
another, mosusu.
answer, v. t., yanola.
ant, nsombi.
antelope, mboloko.

anus, molindi, pi. milindi.
anvil, bokengo.
anxiety, nkasa.
anxious be, paka, oka nkasa.
anyone, moko.
appear, enene, menene.
appease, bondesa, utesa.
approach, v.t., beleme.
arm, loboko, pi. maboko.
arrange, lengele, pongia.
arranged be, ponga, bonga.
arrest, kamata.
arrive, ya, yetela, kuma.
arrow, likula, pi. makula.
artery, mosisa, pi. misisa.
artful, mayele.
as (like to), pila moko.
ascend, bata.
ask, tuna, luka.
assemble, v.t., yonginya
assemble, v.?., yongana.
assist, sunga.
assure, kangesa, sangela.
astonish, kamwisa.
astonished be, kamwa, mwala.
attempt, meka.
avenge, yuta.
avoid, pengoa.
await, jila, lendela.
awake, v.?., longoa, yumwa.
awaken, longola, yumola.
Back, mokia, mbisa, nyuma.
bad, mabe.
badly, na mabe.
bag, bokumbe, pi. makumbe ; likoba, pi. makoba.
bake, tumba.

bamboo, linkeke, pi. monkeke.
banish, panja.
bark (of tree, etc.,) loposo, pi. mposo.
barren, ekomba.
barter, bukinya.
basin (small), kibakuli.
(large), tei, mosingwa, pi. misingwa.
bathe, sosa.
bathe a wound, libisa.
batter down, bula.
battle, etumba, pi. bitumba.
be, jaji, yala. jala.
be quiet! jala biu! boka lokolo! makelele!
beach, mbongo, libongo, pi. mabongo.
beads, mayaka.
bear (give birth to), bota.
beard, lole, pi. njole.
beast, nyama, mbiji.
beat, bete, kuta.
beater, mobeti, pi. babeti.
beauty, bompala.
beautiful, na bompala, mozuri.
because, ntina te, zambi, maneno.
bed, mbeto, tange, nkela ; etuti, pi. bituti.
before, boso.
before, adv., na boso.
before, prep., o boso.
beg, unga, pekele.
beget, botesa.
begin, banda.
behind, prep., o mbisa, nyuma.
believe, yamba, mekinya.
bell, eyengele, pi. biyengele, ngunga.
belly, libumu, pi. mabumu, solo.
bend, yumba.
beneficient, na likabo.
bent be, yumbama.

beseech, bondela, nyingonola.
bestow, pese, kabela na.
bestride, pangia.
better, adj., leki na malamu.
betray, lengele.
between, o nti, na nti.
bewail, lela.
bewitch, loko, loka.
bind, linga, kanga, jinga.
bird, nyoli; moleki, pi. mileki.
biscuit, bisikiti.
black, mwindo, pipi.
blacksmith, motuli, pi. batuli.
blanket, kamba ; bolankete, pi. malankete.
bleed, yunga.
bleed, v. i., tanga makila.
blockhead, elema, pi. bilema.
blood, makila.
blow, lobete, pi. mbete.
blow a horn, etc., yula.
of wind, pepe.
the nose, fwembe moyuyu.
whistle of steamer, benda loseba.
blue, mwindo, pitipiti.
blunt, botunu.
boat, bota, pi. mata.
body, njoto.
boil, v.i., toko,
boldness, makasi.
bolt, eyikeli, pi. biyikeli.
bolt, v.l., yika.
bone, monkua, pi. minkua.
book, mokanda, pi. mikanda.
boot, molato, pi. milato ; ekoto, pi. bikoto.
bore, tubela.
borrow, beka.
bosom, bontolo, pi. mantolo.

bottle, molangi, pi milangi; chupa, pi bachupa.
bottom, se, nse.
boundary, ndelo.
bowl, lobeki, pi. mbeki.
box, sanduku, pi. basanduku, nkobe.
boy, elenge, pi. bilenge ; boi.
brass wire, motako, pi. mitako.
bread, mbolo.
break, buna, buja, bukia.
break, v.i., bunya, buka.
breast, libele, pi. mabele.
breath, mpoma, mouli.
breathe, yema, yula.
bridge, etalango, pi. bitalango.
brilliant, langi langi.
bring, yaka na, beke, twala, lete.
broom, liyombo, pi. mayombo ; ekombeli, pi bikombeli.
buffalo, ngombe.
build, tunga.
builder, motungi, pi. batungi.
bullet, eyeli, pi. biyeli.
bundle, ebimba, pi bibimba.
burn, tumba, jika.
burn down, tumba na meya, or moto.
burst out (of water, etc.), punjoa.
burst, v.i., tuba, buka.
bury, kunda.
button, bofungu, pi bifungu ; nseti,
butter, mali-ma-ngombe.
buy, sumba.
buyer, mosumbi, pi bosumbi.
Call, bianga.
calm, 7j. t., bondesa.
candle, moto, pi mioto.
cap, enkoti, pi binkoti; komo.
captain, kapitene, pi bakapitene.

carefully, na moi na moi, pole pole,
carpenter, mokakala, pi. bakakala.
cartridge, lisasi, pi. masasi; linyo, pi. mainyo.
carry, tomba, nyanya.
carve, sese.
(with tool), koma.
cassava, chikwanga.
cat, ngampango, paka.
certainly solo !
chair, ngwende, kiti.
charcoal, maala.
chase, benga.
chastise, pika, bete,
chat, lobana.
chatter, //., biloba.
cheat, 7'./., limba, jimba, kutinya,
cheese, jibini, pi. mabini.
chew, nyamuta.
chicken, nsusu, koko.
chief, mokonji, pi. bakonji; monanga, pi. bananga.
child, mwana, bana.
chin, ebeku, pi. bibeku.
chocolate, shokola.
choke, v.t., kibisa.
choked be, kiba.
choose, solo,
chop, kete.
circumcise, tena nsonge.
cinders, maala.
clarify, kengisa.
'claw, lonjala, pi. njala.
clay, biyotu.
clean, v.t., petola, ponga.
clean, adj., peto.
cleanse, petola.
clear the table, tandola meza.
clearly, polele, sembo.
climb, bata.

clip, tena.
close, v.t., liba, jimba.
cloth, elamba, pi. bilamba; ngombe.
clothe, watisa, latisa.
cloudy day, butu ngombila.
clutch, kamata, pela, kanga.
coagulate, kangana.
cockroach, mpesekele.
cocao, kakau.
coffee, kawa.
cold, na mpio.
coldness, mpio.
come, ya.
back, butwa.
from, kuma, yuta.
near, beleme.
out, pima, bima.
commandant, kwamanda, pi. bakwamanda.
commence, banda.
companion, ndeko, pi. bandeko.
compensation, mbondi.
competent, -koki
complete, v.t., kokisa, silesa.
completed, sila bobele.
comprehend, yoka, yeba.
comrade, ndeko, pi. bandeko.
conceal, bumba.
congeal, kangana, lala.
consent, yamba.
construct (make), tunga.
contend together, bunana.
continue, bika.
contravene, bebisa, yunzola.
converse, lobana.
convert, bongola, kikola.
convey to, kamba na, tomba na.
convince, yambisa.

cook, lamba.
cord, mokulu, pi. mikulu ; mokoli, pi. mikoli.
cord, v.t., linga na mokoli.
cork, lilinja, pi. malinja.
corkscrew, eyundeli, pi biyundeli.
corpse, ebembe, pi. bibembe.
correct, v.tponga.
correspond, yengebene.
corrupt, v.t., bebisa.
corrupt become, beba, pondo.
cost, motuya, pi. mituya.
count, tanga.
country, yese, pi. biese.
courage, mpiko.
cough, loketu, pi. nketu ; lokesu,//. nkesu.
cough, v., ketula.
cover, 71. i ebumbeli, pi. bibumbeli; epotela, pi. bipotela.
cover, v., poto, bumba, linja.
coward, goi-goi.
crack, n., monkaka, pi. minkaka.
crack, v., buka, unya, ata, yatwa.
crave for, yoka mposa.
crease, monyuta, pi. minyuta.
crime, nsoki.
crocodile, nkoli.
crooked, yotongono.
crooked make, yotinginya.
cripple, v.t., lemisa.
crush, v.t., nyatela, matela.
cry, lela.
cry out, nganga, ama.
cunning, mayele.
cup, nkeni.
cured be, nyanga.
curse, v.t., kumba.
custom, ejaleli, pi. bijaleli.
customs-house, etakoleli, pi. bitakoleli.

cut, tena.
cut in pieccs, sese.
cut off, kwete.
Dally, mongo.
clam, liboko, pi maboko.
dance, bina.
darkness, jombe.
dart, v.t., ta.
dash (present), matabishe.
daub, v.t., kula, singa.
daughter, mwana-muke.
dawdle, mongo.
daylight, mwese.
daybreak, munyeli abimi.
dead, -wi, kofwi.
deaf person, looko, pi balooko.
death, liwa.
debase, bebisa.
debt, nyungu ; mombale, pi mimbale.
decant, angola,
deceive, limba, jimba.
decide, sekisa.
decide a palaver, tena likambo.
declare, sakola, sangela.
deduct, longola.
defame, knmba.
defect, mpota.
deficient be, yesene.
defraud, yiba.
deliberate, kanisa.
demolish, bula.
denounce, pata.
deny, angana.
depilitate, bila, bilola.
deprave, bebisa.
depraved become, beba.

deprive, botolo, pima.
depth, bojindo.
descend, sunda, kitela.
descend a river, twa, tia.
deserve, komo.
desire, n., mposa.
desire, v., yoka mposa, linga.
desist from, tika.
despatch, v.t., toma.
despise, yina.
destroy, bula.
detach, v.i., pusola, tangola, lutola,
detached become, pusoa, tangwa, lutoa.
deteriorate, beba.
determine, kana.
detest, yina.
devastate, bula, bebisa, nyanga.
deviate, pengoa.
devour, lia.
dexterity, ntoko.
diarrhoea, leka moi.
die, wa, kofwa.
different, pila moko te, pila mosusu.
dig, tima.
dig trenches, bokola.
dilatoriness, mongi-mongi.
diminish, v.i., bende.
dip, yina.
direct, v.t., lakisa.
disappear, lemwa, lemoa.
disarrange, bulinginya.
disarranged be, bulangana.
disavow, angana.
discern, sosolo.
discharge cargo, lubola, labola.
disciple, moyekoli, pi. bayekoli.
discontinue, tika, leme, macha.
discourse, zambi, pi. mambi; maneno, mpo.

discover, kundola, libola, bumbola.
discreetly, pole-pole.
disembark, labwa, lubwa.
disembark, zlubola, labola.
disfigure, bebisa.
disgrace, n., nsoni.
dish, lilongo, pi. malongo.
dishonour, yokesa nsoni, pese nsoni.
disinter, kundola.
dismay, n. bongo.
dismayed be, yoka bongo.
dismiss, panja.
disown, angana.
disperse, v.t., palanganesa, palinginya.
disperse, v.z., palangana.
dispossess, botolo.
dispute, v.i. yangana.
dissolute, ewolo.
dissolute person, motu na ewolo.
distant, mosika.
distinct, sembo.
distinguish, sosolo, kakola.
distort, yotwinginya.
distorted be, yotwangana.
distribute, kabela.
district, yese, pi. biese.
ditch, mongololo, pi. mingololo.
divest, lutola, pusola.
divide, kaba.
divided be, kabana.
division (share), likabo, pi. makabo.
do, kela.
docility, bompolo.
doctor, nganga, pi. banganga.
dog, mbwa.
domestic servant, boi, pi. baboi.
dominate, longa.

door, ekuki, pi. bikuki; ejibeli, bijibeli,
down, o se, na se.
down river, ngele, mboli.
drag, benda, luta.
draw water, toka.
draw out, bila.
dress, lata bilamba.
dress (clothes), elamba, pi. bilamba.
dream, n., nsaki.
dream, v., lota nsaki.
drink, 7>.L, mele, mwa, nua.
drip, tanga, tono.
drive away, panja.
drown, kiba na mai.
drown, v.t., kibisa na mai.
drum, mokuka, pi. mikuka.
drum, v., bete mokuka.
drunk be, langa masanga.
dry up, yoma.
dry up, v.t., yomisa.
duck, lisweswe, pi. masweswe ; mbata.
dung, batubi, toi, nyei.
dupe, v.t. limbesa, jimba.
dust, mobulu, pi. mibulu.
dust, v.t., pupola.
duty, lotomo, pi. ntomo.
dwell, yala, jala, jaji.
dwindle, ondo.
Each, yonso.
pese yonso likabo na yeye, give each his share,
ear, litoi, pi. matoi.
early, na nta ntongo.
cat, lia.
efface, kunyola.
egg, likei, pi. makei; munkei, pi. minkei.
eight, mwambi.

either the one or the other, soko yeye, soko yeye.
eject, pimisa, bimisa.
elephant, njoku.
embark, kwela.
embrace, lingana, pese bontolo.
employment, lisala, pi. masala.
enact a decree, ta mobeko, pi. mibeko.
enclose, lingela.
encourage, mekisa.
endeavour, meka.
endure, bika.
energetically, na nguvu, na makasi.
energy, nguvu, makasi.
Englishman, Engilisi, pi. Baengilisi.
enjoin, sakola, sangela.
enquire, loboto.
enraged be, oka nkelele.
ensign, mbandela.
ensnare, limba, jimba, limbesa.
enter, ingela, wele.
entirely, bobele, nye.
entrails, nso.
entrance, monoko, pi. minoko.
entwine, lingitinya.
entwined be, lingatana.
enumerate, tanga.
envy, v., yunela.
equal, pila moko, sawa sawa.
equity, boyengebene.
equivalent be, yengebene.
erect, v.t., temesa.
escape, kima.
establish, kotisa, bakisa.
evacuate, kela batubi, kela toi, kela nyei.
evade, v.t., pengola.
evening, nkumba akweti.
evil, mabe.

exact, adj., be-be.
examine, loboto.
exasperate, yokesa nkelele, tumola.
exasperated be, oka nkelele.
exceed, leka, pita, longa.
excellent, molamo, malamo.
except, tu se.
excite, yokesa (with noun of quality),
exclaim, nganga.
excrement, batuba, toi, nyei.
execute, kela, komia, silesa.
exhibit, tamba, menesa.
exist, yala, jaja, jala.
exonerate, longesa.
expectorate, twa nsoi.
expectoration, nsoi.
expedient, bonga.
expel, pimisa, bimia.
expense, motuya, pi. mituya.
expiate, yuta.
expire (of candle etc.), lima.
expire, wa, sila.
explain, limbola.
expose for sale, tamba, tambesa.
expound, limbola ntina.
extinguish (as fire etc.), limesa.
extol, sanzola.
extort, botolo.
extract, v.t., bila.
eye, lisu, pi. misu.
eyebrow, lokiki, pi. nkiki.
eyelid, eteke, pi. biteke.
Face, elongi, pi. bilongi; bombo, boso.
feces, batubi, toi, nyei.
faint, v., wa bonsinga.
faith, boyambi, limekinyi.

fall, jcwa.
false, na lokuta.
falsehood, lokuta.
family, libota, pi. mabota.
famish,'wa na nzala.
famous, na lokumu.
far, mosika, zamani.
fasten, kanga, funga.
fat, motuba, bonuku.
fathom, loboko, pi. maboko; upande, pi. pande.
fatigued be, njoto alembi.
father, sango, pi. basango.
fear, n., bongo.
fear, v., banga, jika, yoka bongo.
feather, lunsala, pi. nsala.
feeble, goi-goi, bolembu.
feel, yoka.
fell a tree, inda.
fence, lobala, pi. mbala.
fence in, lingela na lobala.
fetch, benga.
few, moke-moke.
light, buna, mana, piga.
fight together, bunana, betene, pigana.
file, n., esibeli, pi. bisibeli.
fill, nyalisa, tumesa.
finger, mosei, pi. misei; munsai, pi. minsai.
find, kuminya, kundola.
finish, sila.
finish, v. t., silesa.
finished be, sila bobele.
fire, moto, pi. mioto; meya, pi. mieya.
fire a gun, bete, or ta bondoki.
fire, v., jika, tumba.
firewood, nkuni, towala.
firmness, makasi.
firmly, na makasi.

first, boso.
fish, nsu, samaki, mbiji.
fissure, monkaka, pi. minkaka.
lit in, yongia, ingesa.
fitting, -bongi.
ndako abongi, the house is fitting,
fix, v.t., bakia.
fixed be, baka.
flag, //., mbandela, ndele.
flaw, mpota.
flay, pulola, pusola.
flee, kima, lota, kotola.
fling, usa, kusha, kushya.
flint gun, fataki.
float, v., tepa.
flock, 11., etonga, pi. bitonga.
flog, kuta, bete, piga.
flour, mposoko.
fly, v-<> yumboa, yumbwa.
fog, lompembe, pi. mpembe.
fold, v.t., linga.
follow, benga, tuta.
folly, elema.
food, boli, bieka, chakula.
fool, motu na bilema.
foolish, na bilema.
footprint, litambi, pi. matambi.
forbear, tika, leme, macha.
forest, jamba, lokunda.
forge, v., tula.
forget, bunga, limba.
fork, nkanya ; engasa, pi. bingasa.
form, ji., lolenge, pi. ndenge.
formerly, boso.
forsake, tikela, tika.
foundation, moboko, pi. miboko ; esukela, pi bisukela.
fowl, nsusu, koko, kuku.

friend, ndeko, pi. bandekOc
frog, montoki, pi. mintoki.
front, boso.
fruit, mbuma, mbolo.
fry, kanga.
fry pan, litawa, pi. matawa ; ekangeli, pi. bikangeli.
function, lotomo, ntomo.
Gable, kumbo.
gain, z/., kula, jwa, kwa.
game, lisano, pi. masano.
gang, libula, pi. mabula.
garden, lisala, pi. masala ; jala, pi. maala.
gaze at, keka.
get away, longwa.
get out of the way, longwa na njela.
get up, teme.
ghost, mongoli, />/. mingoli.
give, pese.
girl, elengi, pi. bilengi; mwana-muke.
gladden, yokesa esengo.
glass (drinking), kopo.
glass looking, talatala, pi. batalatala.
gnaw, kekete.
goat, ntaba, mbuli.
go, kwenda, kende, ke.
go away, longwa, sokwa.
go down, kita, sunda.
go out (of candle, etc.), lima.
God, Nyambe, Nzakomba, Mungu.
good, malamo, mozuri, mbote.
gourd, ekutu, pi. bikutu.
govern, komonya.
grace, ngolu.
grasp, kamata, kata.
gratis, mpamba, bule.
gratuity, matabishe.

grave, ngau, liyita, pi. bayita.
gray hair, mbwi.
great, monene, mokubwa.
great become, kuma monene.
greatness, bonene.
grind, toko.
grind the teeth, kelete mino.
groan, kimela.
grow ripe, yula.
grope, momo, yingayinga.
ground, se, nse.
on the, o nse, na nse.
grow, v., yula.
guard, batela, kengele.
guard, n., mobateli, pi. babateli; sentili, pi. basentili.
gush out, sonjoa.
guide, v., lakisa njela.
guile, mayele.
gun, bondoki, pi. mandoki.
gun, flint, fataki.
Habit, ejaleli, pi. bijaleli.
hack, kete.
hair, swi, nswi, nswe.
hammer, bokengo, pi. makengo.
hand, likata, pi. makata.
handkerchief, leso.
handle, mobala, pi. mibala.
hang up, bakia.
happiness, esengo, limengo.
happy, na esengo.
hard, makasi.
hardness, makasi, bokoti.
harass, nyokolo.
haste, lobangu, mangumangu, upesi, noki noki.
haste, v., ke lobangu, ke upesi, meme.
hat, komo ; enkoti, pi. binkoti.

7 2
hate, yina.
haul, benda.
haul up, benda likolo.
have, jala na, jaja na, jaji na, yali na.
head, motu, pi. miutu.
heal, v.t., nyangia, bikisa.
heal, a. i., nyanga.
health good, nzoto kilikili ; nzoto nkinki.
healthy, kilikili, nkinki.
heap up, sanganesa, takanesa.
heap together, yanginya.
hear, yoka, oka.
heart, motema, pi. mitema.
heat, moi, mwesa, mweya.
height, mosanda, molai.
heir, motiki, pi. batiki; motuki, pi. batuki,
help, sunga.
her, yeye.
herb, eyembu, pi. biyembu.
here, awa, weni, hapa.
heritage, etiki, pi. bitiki.
hers, na yeye.
hide, v. t., bumba.
high, mosanda, molai.
him, yeye.
himself, momene.
hinge, pata, pi. bapata.
his, na yeye.
hoe, v.t., tima, fua, fusa.
hoist, batisa.
hold, kamata, jwa, kula, kata.
hold your tongue boka lokolo tika biloba makelele !
hole, lilusu, pi. malusu.
holiday, yenga.
honey, boi, we.
hope, v., likia.
hope, n., elikia, pi. bilikia.

horn, liseke, pi. maseke.
horror, mangei.
horse, punda, pi. bapunda.
hour, lobete, pi. mbete.
house, ndako.
how many ? kwe ? ngapi ?
humbug, v.t., limbesa, jimbesa, kutinya.
humiliate, sokia, kwesa.
hundred, monkama, pi. minkama.
hunger, nzala.
hungry be, oka nzala.
hunt, benginya.
hurl, ta, ousa.
husband, molomi, pi. balomi; mobaH. /'/. babali.
husk, loposo, pi. mposo.
hymn, loyembu, pi. njembu.
I, ngai.
idea, zambi, pi. mambi.
idiot, elema, pi. bilema.
if, ndiki, soko, te.
ignorance, botutuku.
imbibe, nua, mele.
immediately, bobele, sikawa.
immerse, yina.
impair, bebisa.
impertinence, loma.
impertinent, na loma.
implicate, kakatinya.
implore, nyingonola, pekele, bondela.
important, monene, zambi monene.
impose upon, jimba, kutinya.
impotence, bobolo.
impotent, na bobolo.
impregnate, pese jemi; pese libumu.
impregnated, jwi jemi ; kuli libumu.
impudence, loma.

impudent, na loma.
in, o, na.
inadequate, koki te, kutwa.
incapable, koki te, bongi te.
incompatible, yesene.
incompetent, koki te.
incorrigible, na yeloi.
inculpate, pata, tuba,
indemnify, yuta.
indecency, bopunda.
indifference, lokino.
indolence, lomongi.
induce, lombo.
infamous, na lumu.
inform, sakola, sangela.
inherit, kwa etiki, jwa etiki.
ink, bokobo.
instruct, lakisa, yekola.
instructor, molakisi, pi. balakisi.
insolence, loma.
insufficient, koki te, kutoa.
insult, v.t., kumba, tumola.
inter, kunda.
interchange, bukinya.
interdict, kila.
intimidate, kembisa.
into, o, na.
intoxicated become, langa.
nvite, bianga, beka.
invoke, bianga, tuna, bondela.
iron, ebuni, pi. bibuni; mbolo.
island, mosanga, pi. misanga ; yanga, pi bianga.
issue, v. kuma, yuma.
it, yeye, a-,
its, na yeye.
itself, yeye momene.
ivory, mpembe.

Jam, boi, we.
jaw, ebanga, pi. bibanga.
join, v.i., baka.
journey, mobembo, pi. mibembo ; lokendo, pi. nkendo.
joy, esengo, pi. bisengo.
judge, juje, pi. bajuje ; motendi, pi. batendi.
jump, yumbwa, yumboa.
just, na yengebene.
just so bongo !
justify, longesa, yengibinya.
Kernel, njika.
kill, boma.
kilogramme, kilo, pi. bakilo.
kilometre, kilometa, pi. bakilometa.
kind (sort), lolenge, pi. ndenge.
knead, nyila, nyata.
knee, libongo, pi. mabongo.
knife, mbele ; kisu, pi. visu.
knock, tita, betele.
know, yeba, ebi.
known become, yebana.
Labour, sala.
labourer, mosali, pi. basali.
lad, elenge, pi. bilenge.
ladder, kidi, bonango.
lag, mongo.
lamp, lampe, pi. balampe.
land, v., labwa, luboa.
land (put in of steamer, etc.), seme.
landing place, libongo, pi. mabongo ; mbongo.
language, nkofi, lokota, likoli, lioi.
lantern, kindili,bakandili.
large, monene, mokubwa.
laugh, seke.
laughter die of, wa na makei,

laugh at, sisola.
law, mobeko, pi. mibeko.
lay hold, kamata.
lay the table, tanda meza.
lay upon, yakia.
lazy, goi-goi, na lomongi.
leaf, mokanda, pi. mikanda ; langu, pi. mangu ; lokasa, pi. kasa,
leap, yumbwa, yumboa.
leg, lokulu, pi. makulu.
lemon, limau, pi. mamau.
lend, bekisa.
lender, mobekisi, pi. babekisi.
lengthen, sandisa.
let (allow), tika, leme, macha.
let down, sundisa, kiteja.
letter, mokanda, pi. mikanda.
lettuce, letu, pi. baletu.
level, v., sembola, yengibinya.
liberate, pusola, lutola.
lick, lete, pele.
lie, lokuta, pi. nkuta ; efo, pi. bifo.
lie, v., loba lokuta ; kolo bifo.
life, bomoi.
lift, tomba, netola.
light, v., bambola.
lightning, mokakali, pi. mikakali.
lime, lilala, pi. malala ; londimu, pi. ndimu.
limit, ndelo.
line, molongo, pi. milongo.
linen, lifuta, pi. mafuta.
lip, lobebu, pi. mbebu.
listen to, yokamela.
litre, lita, pi. balita.
little, moke moke,
live, jala, yala, jaji.
loathe, yina.
lock, v., funga.

loiter, mongo.
long, mosanda.
long ago, kala kala.
look tene I keka tazama !
look at, keka.
loosen, tungola, lutola.
loosen, 7'. i., tungoa, lutoa.
lose, laba.
lose one's way, laba, limba, pengoa.
louse, nshidi.
love, linga, taka.
lower, kiteja, sundisa.
Machine, makine, pi bamakine.
madame, bibi.
maiden, ngonde, pi bangonde.
maize, lisangu, pi masangu.
make, kela.
make an inquiry, loboto.
maker, mokeli, pi bakeli.
male, molomi, pi balomi ; mume, pi baume.
man, motu, pi batu.
man freed, libere, pi balibere.
manage, komanya.
mango, mango,//, bamango ; lingolapi mangola.
manifest, v.t., monesa.
manioc, chikwanga.
mark, kela ndembe.
mark, n., ndembe.
market place, libongo, pi mabongo.
marry, bala, songo.
marvel, v., bwana.
match (lucifcr), kwala, pi bakwalala ; eseno, pi biseno.
matter (affair), zambi, pi mambi; maneno, mpo, mbembo.
meaning, ntina.
measure, nlomeko, pi meko.
meat, nyama, mbiji.

meditate, manyolela.
meet together, komana.
mercy, ngolu.
merchant, motekisi, pi. batekisi.
merely, mpenza.
messenger, ntoma.
midday, njanga.
middle, o nti, na nti.
midnight, eko, bojekitana.
milk, mabele.
mince, sese.
milk, ama.
mine, na ngai.
minor, elengi, pi. bilengi.
minute, //., jakika, pi. makika.
mirror, talatala, pi. batalatala.
misery, bwale, bololi.
mislead, pengola, limbesa.
miss, siswa, sisoa. .
mist, lompembe.
mix, v.t., bulinginya.
mixed, bulangana.
mock, sisola, tumola.
money, palata, pi. bapalata.
monkey, nkema.
monsieur, bwana.
moon, songe, nsonge, sanja.
more, mosusu.
morning early, na ntongo.
morsel, etomba, pi. bitomba ; eti, pi. biti.
mother, nyango, pi. banyango.
mother-in-law, bokilo, pi. makilo.
motive, ntina.
mount, bata.
mountain, nkeka.
mourn, lela.
mouse, mpo ; impompo, pi. tompompo,

mouth, monoko, pi. minoko.
much, mingi mingi.
mud, masotu.
mute person, mbubu.
my, na ngai.
Naked, bontaka.
nail (finger), lunjala, pi. njala.
nail, nseti; likoko, pi. nkoko.
nail-puller, ebakoleli, pi. bibakoleli.
name, nkumbu ; lina, pi. mina.
nnrrate, tuta.
near, bele bele.
neck, nkingo.
needle, lontunga, pi. ntunga.
new, motemu, moni.
news, nsango.
newspapers, mangongo na nsango.
niggardly, na moyimi.
night, mokolo, butu.
noise, lokuku.
nothing, mpamba.
notify, sakola.
number, motuya, pi. mituya.
number, v.i., tanga motuya.
Oath, ndai.
oath, take an, simba ndai, lai ndai.
obey, tosa.
obscurity, jombe.
observe, kengele, mona, mene,
obstinate, na mpokotoi.
obtain, jwa, kula.
of, na.
offer, pese, tamba.
oil, xnali.
old, monunu.

old grow, kotoa, kotwa.
omit, lekisa, bunga.
onion, litungulu, pi. matungulu.
open, libola.
open, v.z., liboa, libwa.
orange, lilanje, pi. malanje.
organ, likwengo, pi. makwengo.
ornamentation, bompala.
ours, na biso.
outside, ndanda, libanda.
overcome, longa.
overthrow, bula, kweya.
oyster, lokeli, pi. nkeli.
Pacify, bondo.
pacify, v.t., bondesa.
package, ebimba, pi. bibimba,
paddle, kai, nkai.
paddle v., luka.
padlock, lofungola, pi. fungola.
page, langu, pi. mangu.
pain, bwale, bololi.
paint, bokobo, pi. makobo.
paint, v. kula bokobo.
palmtree, mbila.
paper, lingongo, pi. mangongo.
blotting, lingongo na esungolele.
stamped, lingongo na ndembe.
unwritten, lingongo mpembe.
writing, lingongo na esonele.
paper-knife, eteneli na lingongo.
parent, (father), Sango, pi. Basango.
parent (mother), NyangQ, pi. Banyango.
parry, tamba.
pass, leka.
pass, v.t., lekisa.
patience, mpiko.

patient be, yika mpiko.
paw, likaka, pi. makaka.
pawn, tika ndaka.
pay, futa.
pay, 7i., mosolo.
peel, 77., loposo, pi. poso.
peel, v., pusola, pulola.
penetrate, wele, tubia.
people, batu.
pepper, ndongo.
perceive, mene, keka, yeba.
perforate, tubela, tubia.
perform, kela, baka.
perhaps, soko.
perish, wa, kofwa.
perplex, kakitinya.
perplexed be, kakatana.
permit, tika, leme, macha.
persecute, nyokolo.
perspire, pama.
perspiration, epamiza, pi. bipamiza.
pickaxe, etimeli, pi. bitimeh.
picture, bolendela ; elilingi, pi. bililingi.
pie, pai.
pierce, tubela, tubia.
pig. ngombele, ndei, nguluba.
pigeon, ebenga, pi. bibenga.
pilfer, yiba.
pillage, punza, yiba.
pillow, likoba, pi. makoba.
pilot, lakisa njela.
pincers, koleyo ; ebileli, pi. bibileli.
pipe, nkonango.
pit, lifoko, pi. mafoko.
pity, mawa.
pity, v., yokela mawa.
place, yuma, pi. biuma ; nongo; elela, pi. bilela.

plague, v., tumola, nyokolo.
plainly, sembo.
plane, v., kombo.
plane, ;/., likombo,//. makombo.
plank, epomba, pi. bipomba.
plant, 7)., sika, luna, olo.
plantain, likondo, pi. makondo ; likemba,pl. makemba.
plate, mbalankata, sahani.
play, sana.
plead, bondela.
pleasure, esengo.
pledge, n., ntuka.
pluck, v., muka, nuka, twa.
plunder, botolo, yiba, punza.
pocket, bokombe, pi. makombe.
police (force publique), silikani, pi. basilikani; embulambula,
pi. bimbulambula.
polish, petolo, tanesa.
pollute, bebisa.
pomp, bompala.
ponder over, manyolela.
porridge, fuka.
portion, likabo, pi. makabo.
possess, jala na, jwa, kula.
possessor, nkolo, ngene.
potatoes, babengi.
pound, toko,
pour, swela.
pour into, angola,
pour away, swela, swa.
poverty, boboiyo.
power, makasi, nguvu.
praise, sima.
pray, bondela.
preach, lambola, nangola.
prepare, ponga.
present, v., pese, pa.

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