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Guide to the study of Shan

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Title:
Guide to the study of Shan
Creator:
Bigg-Wither, F.
Place of Publication:
Rangoon
Publisher:
American Baptist Mission Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Shan
Physical Description:
xi, 235 p.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Shan language -- Grammar ( lcsh )
Shan language -- Conversation and phrase books -- English. ( lcsh )
Genre:
Grammars
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Myanmar -- Shan State
Coordinates:
21.5 x 98

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This title is in the public domain under copyright legislation of the USA

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SOAS University of London
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SOAS University of London
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Full Text
A GUIDE TO THE

STUDY OF SHAN.


A GUIDE

TO THE

STUDY OF SHAN

By Major F. BIGG-WITHER, I.A.

BURMA COMMISSION

AUTHOR OF

A GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF BRAHUL

RANGOON

AMERICAN BAPTIST MISSION PRESS
F. D. PHINNEY, SUPT.

1911<




DEDICATED TO

SIR HUGH BARNES, K.C.S.I., K.C.V.O.
in remembrance of his many acts of kindness
to the author.




CONTENTS.

Preface Pages ix to xi
Part I Grammar Page I
Part II Sentences I Miscellaneous 99 19
II Age 99 52
III Time 9* 52
IV School 99 56
V Tattooing 99 58
VI Water 99 59
VII Forests 99 61
VIII Road and Travel 9 62
IX Village Matters and Headmen ,, 66
X Agricultural and Cattle 99 70
XI Attack, Fight, Wounds 9 9 82
XII Promotion 99 85
XIII Gambling 86
XIV Marriage and Divorce 9 87
XV Law and Police 9 88
Part III Exercises-English-Shan 9 102
Part IV Shan Petitions 99 129




ERRATA.

5 line 3 for is read in-line 4 for read oocy^o

8 last line for ooooS read JplOoS or ogSjg5''g9n

Page 5
page 8
page 9
page 12
page 15
16
371

sentence 362 cg£cg£g£c88y8c8 is better Shan,
i Shan should be yoSS^S^^S/aQ^ScSoSii
389 insert o9 after ^-391 insert ccS after oc^Sii
392 the Shan should read o8go8<5o9c8SecS-412 the Shan should
be 8^Sc^8^'?oo|goS-418 the Shan should be jaoySoc9
8 9? /ao oS /so o^S jg II

433 the Shan should be jp8x>ScgoSooS/309?o9c^-434 should be

(p8'O|J3Q§8c8jj800Sii

435 should read ooSjdo^SqS/^qSoSoSc^-^Nos. 433 to 435 the

Shan given though not incorrect is uncommon.)

497 omit jdo8-512 for coc^ read ojcpu
671 should read cSjaoao^Syy8y8oy8z>8o|o9ii
691 should read cjd|^o98^8

705 for o9 read o^8-page 54 sentence 41 a better alternative
is 8S/aQa8(^8poo8a'^?ii

43 for jsqoS read 0098-page 57 No. 39 insert JoS before fjJ8n
Petition 67 line 2 for 008 read co8ii 72 line 3 for oc^jSread /39tg]Slii

74 line 1 for o^8 read o^Sii

78 line 1 for /3Qc8 read /aocSii line 5 for ooo^ read goo^ii

line 16 for 008 read 00811

79 line 4 for c8 read c8n line 7 for read oco£u

80 line 25 and 81 line 18 for o|coS read *010080 82 line 5

for 00S008 read ooScoSn
122 heading for ^oSaj read ^<^o8o^u




PREFACE.

This book lays no claim to be other than an 6 aid or as its
title implies a guideand a rough one at thatto the study
of practical Shan. It does not pretend to teach Shan which can
only be acquired orally. It owes its origin to the fact that when
I went to the Shan States and was desirous of speedily learning
the language of the country I found the utmost difficulty in getting
hold of any practical work on Shan as spoken in the villages or in
the courts as a basis on which to start work : and it is with the
view of saving others the labour, no small one, of collecting the
material, herein set forth, from a variety of scattered sources that
I have ventured on the publication of this little work.

Dr. Cushings Handbook and Grammar to which I am greatly
indebted were of course a help and I should have been badly off with-
out his Dictionary which I believe is about to be greatly enlarged:
but it will be no disparagement of the Handbook to say that,
excellent as it is as far as it goes, it was of little practical use to a,
district or political officer, or to an officer desirous of passing the*
Lower and Higher Standard examinations.

What was wanted was something in the nature of a compendium
of Shan as she is spoke: and I have aimed at supplying in
one cover sufficient material to assist a traveller or an official pri-
marily to enter into intercourse with the people of the country on
all ordinary topics such as themselves, their crops and methods of
cultivation, their cattle, their law-suits, their village matters &c &c;
and secondarily to read up for the examinations if he be that way
inclined.

I have endeavoured to do this by means of some brief notes on
Grammar, by many sentences (1650) English into Shan classified
under certain headings, by a few exercises (£0 ) English into Shan
containing examples of those set in examinations, and by a large
number (200) of Shan petitions on divers subjects among which are


X.

included some Shan stories. An English Shan Vocabulary is
beyond the scope of this work though later I hope to bring out an
English Shan Dictionary towards which about 10,000 words have
been already collected.

Much of the matter has been gathered from other works. The
first 50 petitions for instance are translations of the petitions in
Wedderspoon and Yeo Wun Sin's 3 volumes of Burmese Petitions,
and many of the sentences are from the same source--and I take
this opportunity of again thanking Mr. Wedderspoon and the
publishers for their kindly permission to me to make use of their
valuable work. Petitions 131 to 136 are those that have been
actually set in examinationsNumbers 138 to 178 are original
petitions submitted to officials in the Shan States, and most of the
remainder were specially written for me. The full honorific begin-
nings and endings of some of the later petitions have been abbrevia-
ted. Of the sentences some are translations of those I made use of
when studying other languages, and I am thus under a double obli-
gation to Messrs. Sandys, McKertich, Ranking and other well
known authors. To Dr. Cushing too I am under obligation. Much
of the matter is however original in that it was got by me directly

from the people of the country.

To compile and collate the material and to make it useful as
far as it goes no pains have been spared. The writer has had but
the equipment of an amateur and scant leisure and would be the
last to claim that the work accomplishes all that has been attemp-
ted. A cursory examination will show that the book purports to
be only a rough guide: but, remembering that teachers of Shan
are either not to be had, or if forth-coming are often imperfectly
acquainted with English idiom, and that there has hitherto been
no single book from which a student could acquire the material;
and technical terms herein set forth as a basis on which to start
work, if this book gives any of its readers a clearer insight into
the Shan mode and manner of expression, or renders the task easier
for those who wish to pass the Government examinations, I shall
look upon its publication as fortunate and consider myself amply
repaid for whatever trouble it has cost me.


XI.

That some such work was wanted I have this authority of a late
Lieutenant-Governor of Burma who writes to me that something
of this kind was much needed in Burma.

Finally I must express my gratitude to the present Lieutenant
Governor of the Province but for whose kindly assistance I could not
have afforded the cost of publication.

F. BIGG-WITHER, Major i.a.

Burma Commission.




GRAMMAR.

A few simple notes for the traveller and the official.

1. PRELIMINARY.

Shan is a tonal language like Burmese and Chinese and other
languages which belong to the Mongolian family: and like the
Burmese it was doubtless originally monosyllabic.

The generally accepted hypothesis as to the whence of the
Shans is that they came originally from Southern China.

The tones are of the utmost importance and their mastery is
absolutely essential for the understanding of and being understood
in the language. It is scarcely an exaggeration to state that the
simple sentence 6 saddle my pony spoken incorrectly might be
heard and understood by the Shan attendant to mean cut off my dogs
tail. Hang in one tone is to saddle, in another it is tail.
Ma in one tone is pony, and in another dog, and so on.

In fact a very large proportion of Shan words spelt exactly
alike are distinguished only by tones and the worst of it is the
tones are in no way indicated in writing.

There are two main classes of tones, the closed opiSopt?, uttered
with the lips partly closed, and the open /aoiojK?, uttered with the
mouth wide open, and Dr. Cushing, a learned Shan scholar, dis-
tinguishes a third class, the mediate, uttered in a way intermediate
to the other two classes. Each of these classes admits of five
tones.

(1) The natural tone, which is spoken in the natural pitch
of the voice with a slightly rising inflection at the end of the
syllable.

(2) The heavy tone, a deep bass.

(3) The ordinary tone, which is the natural without any
rising inflection.

(4) The high tone, uttered with a markedly high pitch of
the voice.

G. S. S. 1.


2

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

(5) The emphatic tone, abruptly strangled in utterance.
They can only be acquired from a Shan and they constitute

the main difficulty in learning the language.

2. THE ALPHABET.

Shan is written from left to right.

a. The vowels and diphthongs are

J3Q a short as in fat.

a long as in rather.

& i short as in sip and also as e in set.

js8 i long as in police.

u short as 00 in 1 when followed by cp this o short
hook, also as o in coke J is pronounced we or way.

o long as in go.
u long as in flute.

c/s8 e as ay in hay.
m? ai as in aisle.

aw as in avful.
ow as in how.

js^8 eu as u in the German Munster and 0 in the German
hoh (/3q8 and are really words and not distinct

letters.)

jsg9 oi as in boil.

as ug in dug with the g very much strangled in pro-
nunciation.

When combined with consonants the vowels except abbreviated or symbolic form. >30 have an
becomes { placed after the consonant as ma.
^8 ,, 0 above ,, ti.
? above ,, ,, ,, <8 ti.
,, I below ,, ,, ,, Sl hu.
x^8 ,, [8 below and after a8 ho.
H below Si hu.
jsS c before c9 pe.


A Guide to the Study of Shan. 3

becomes 9 above the consonant as i oo sai.
6-1 before and after ,, cy? haw.
J8 8 after ,, jo8 kao.
4^8 ?? 08 above, below and after
the consonant as §8 meu.
43g 9 above and below the
consonant as hoi.
C C above and below the
consonant as § kwag.
b. The Consonants are as follows'.
& ka, *3 hka, c nga, co sa, oo hsa, cp nya, oo ta, co hta,
oo na, O pa, co hpa, o ma, oo ya, cj ya, co la, o wa,

gq a.

They call for no special comment; it will be noticed that the
English consonants 6, d, f, g, j and z, have no exact equivalents,
and GO (ya and la) are interchangeable, and jso (a) is both

a consonant and a vowel.

There are a few
symbols as:---

compound consonants which are represented by

(1)

(2)

oo

o

00

and jo forming jg and pronounced cha. cha.
and jo 99
and jo ,, and ig ,, kaw and kwa.
and o 21 chaw.

combine with consonants

The way vowels
shown.

has already been

A final consonant is indicated by the mark Q placed over it as
oS in JoS to do or make.

There are only nine final consonants e. g. jo c oo cp oo oc o
O but long is frequently written with the final mark over it
as in GJO^p but this is doubtless incorrect.

The mark and are really final consonants. The first
placed over a consonant is a final o or am, as g kwam, a word;
the second e placed over a consonant is a final im or em
as in do to write.


4

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

The doubling of the final sign over a word means that word
is repeated i. e. instead of writing c8c8cc very good, and ^8*^8

c8c8 o and are written.

Other abbreviations which are in common use are:-----

0*8* for 0a8oc*, ocS* for 88 for 0883 and ^*{ for

*8^1

There are practically no stops and divisions between written
words and sentences.

3. ARTICLES.

There are no exact equivalents fdr our indefinite and definite
articles a and the.

If it is required to use the indefinite article the Shan equiva-
lent is one; e. g. jp^8 c01S[ may be frequently and correctly
translated a man though 8[ is literally one.

The context would always determine whether j^**8cz>p[ was a
man, a certain man, or one man in contradistinction to two or
more men.

The nearest equivalent to the definite particle the is the Shan
00* or 0008 this or that.

4. PARTS OF SPEECH.

A large number of Shan words, as in Burmese, are derived
from original roots, radicals, which by means of particles in the
form of prefixes and affixes are converted into different parts of
speech.

Shan words generally are not inflexional or declinable and
Shan grammar therefore is proportionately simple.

The parts of speech are eightnoun, adjective, pronoun, verb
adverb, preposition, conjunction and interjection.

5. NOUN.

(1) Proper Nouns, the names of particular persons or places,

etc., call for no comment.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

5

(%) Common Nouns, which are simple or compound, examples
of simple common nouns are jjg£ man g^£ bird. Compound
Nouns are formed is many ways e. g. by joining:

A "C:

i two nouns, as gq^gg a well C-l- <7 <>£* <
ii noun and verb, as a cheat CoS'S a goldsmith

iii noun, verb and noun, as jjgSJoSggS a tanner

iv the substantive prefix ooS and verb, as 00SJ0S work

ooSj3G9 shame

v the particle c8 place and verb, as cBogoS a bed

vi the particle or ooS/sggS with verb, etc., as j3Gg8

c§8 excess oo£j3GG?§o8o5oo| fidelity.

Number. The plural is formed by affixing 08 as jjgSgS, 00S
co9 as jjgSooSco9, gg as jjgSgg (not so common) c^Sgg9 or
0^8 gggS as jjg8c^8gg9 men and sometimes as ?Sc§ oxen.

Gender. This is formed either by affixes as j?gSoo9 a male jjg8
c8S a female, or by different words as father ccS mother.

Case. Shan nouns are not inflected. Sometimes particles are pre-
fixed to distinguish the cases, but these are frequently omitted.

The word gg9 or gggS is generally affixed to the subject of a
sentence to give the necessary prominence.

The genitive and accusative have as a rule no particles added. c8
is the proper particle to use with the dative, as c8g8 to him and
OgBz>|c8 or goSz>|c8 or z>|g^ with the ablative as op£z>|c88S
from the city. The vocative is distinguished by the affix as

kun oi oh man.

6. ADJECTIVES.

There are many kinds as in other languages but it is only
necessary to distinguish (l) all ordinary adjectives from (2)
numeral adjectives.

(l) Adjectives generally follow the noun they qualify. Exam-
ples of the many kinds are jj>gSc8 a good man jjGS/3GG?jp9 or

a bad man jj^Sgg9 this man.


6

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

Some of the pronominal adjectives precede the noun e. g.
every house goSgjd^ each person ooSgjd1]' another person, but

not always e.g. jjoSooScnT another man.

ooS meaning all is placed before a noun in the sense of the
whole as 00S8S the whole city. n.b. This ooS 4c is different from
ooS So meaning other.

The Comparative Degree is formed by using the word coS which
is equivalent to our than: this is good than that is the Shan
equivalent of this is better than that i.e. the adjective itself is
indeclinable /39989c9 c8gc3/3998 9^98 js!^8

The Superlative is formed by using the words than others:
this is the best is /39989c9 c8gc3^98 literally this is good than
(alt) others.

(S) Numeral Adjectives. Not only are the Shan digits the
same as the Burmese digits, but the same complicated rule applies
to the compounding of a cardinal number and a noun.

This rule is that the cardinals cannot be simply joined to the
nouns they qualify, but must be accompanied by certain descriptive
words which are called numeral generic affixes, and as there is a
large number of these affixes their correct use forms somewhat of a
pons asinorum to idiomatic speaking.

For example, the terms one man, one dog, one chair are ex-
pressed in Shan by man one rational being, dog one animal, chair
one thing. i.e. JjoScjDpp |Op8q, c89c£/3998|^

These three affixes Op8, ,9998 are the most important and

in common use as they are applied respectively to rational beings,
all brute animals and inanimate things.

Other fairly common numeral affixes are ^6* 3 5 ^98 o8S
o8c£ oj c8S <^98 g5 coS co
^98 as in 36c898yjjj five pairs of sandals four bunches

of plantains gcSS^ one sheet of paper co9/o8o83 a ladder of nine steps 38 roads (dgpoooj three gods. oo8(£98og£op two priests ^98cjpi['Sfpjo|8
five kings one load of fire wood OOo5o5d^o8 three mats-


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

7

'SjpiwB five needles cotfoowB three swords how many

rivers ^oSoocoS three houses ^8/d8oo nine boats eg9 oo op *8 or eg9
oo^cp three mountains 8-^30^^ three bracelets jpcpoo8?p three
skeins of cotton ^9800088 three rows of houses ^sSogStfa? a
two-storeyed house.

In Shan, as in Burmese, the noun itself not infrequently becomes
its own generic affix as in 8Sjp|8S jive cities.

As to the places of the numerals, affixes and nouns, i. e. as to
the sequence of these words, the general rules are:

1. If the numeral is one, first comes the noun, then the affix,
and lastly the numeral, as one ox.

Should the numeral be ten or an exact multiple of it, the
affix is generally omitted as for
3. Should the numeral be other than one, or ten, or an exact
multiple of ten, then the numeral comes between the noun and the
affix, as 8oocp8 3 oxen
The cardinal numbers are as follows:

1. 0 o8S or si 21 JO 008738 oS
2. J cgS 25 J 3 ooSyt
3. ? OO 30 9 oooStS
4. 9 dS 40 9 dSo85
5. 3 yi 90 go .08085
6. 6 a5 100 ooo o£o98[
7. c8oS 101 ooo
8. o 80S 102 OO J oBo9ogS
9. e jo8 200 J 00 cgSo£
10. oo oS 11. oo 086728 oS 1000 0000 ?S*L
12. OJ oStfogS 1001 OOOO
19. oe 086708 2000 J ooo cgfJS
20. J O oo8s[ 5000 3000


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

10,000 0 oooo
20,000 J oooo ogS^oS
50,000 30000
1,00,000 oooooo o8c£n
4,00,000 cyooooo d8o8c£5
10,00,000 0000000
10 Million 00000000

c8oS?[ or
?£tL

MlH FHH*

Fractions can always be and are
generally expressed as indicated by
'[ one part of four or
one quarter, one sixth would be

six parts, one part, and so on.

Ordinals. Shan ordinals can be made by prefixing
to the cardinals but this is uncommon, in practice the Pali numerals
are used as in Burmese, e. g. first coo second opc8oo third oo
c8oo &c., &c., and ocj>o£dj!58[ a£9Sc£jS£ogS are rarely seen.

(a) Money. The numeral adjectives cannot always be applied
in accordance with the above general rules to money:
different terms are often employed as is illustrated in the
following:

1 pie 8Sg[

1 pice 8J5il
half-anna cgS8£

1 anna c
4 annas

8 annas C}|^ or ooSs^

14 annas 36i|Og^ literally one rupee less two annas.

l/ one rupee or

1/2 one rupee 2 annas

1/4 one rupee 4 annas C]to5

1/8 W

1/12

2/- 'fiV

2/8 oooc-5 _ \


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

9

8/- 10/- ^98 J. soS
12/ ooogS
15/-
20/- n8s
22/8 5'I8sycSS'xa 25/- ^a£c8o5t[
30/ OOSoS
40/- dSsoS
50/- jJSsoS, c8o5oo8
80/- ooS or SoSsoS
92/- jd8*s o8o9cg£jg5
100/-
150/-
200/- 4l
.250/- jpy| so? or cg*g[
262/8
300/- oSog
980/- X>8cg9O98oSso8
The signs splaced over numbers stand

for

annas and pies respectively, as 8gjx Rs. 1/9/2.

rupees.

(b.') Date. This, as in Burmese, is expressed by putting the
year first then the month and part of the month, i.e. the
waxing or waning of the moon, and then the day.

Thus the 10th day of the waxing moon of the 11th
month of the year 1238 is in Shan: oj^o Op8c^-aSo8
and the 18th July, 1900, is ogoo
cxjjcSS oo oqS The 2nd waxing of Taboung 1250 is
oj 30 cSc^oSoS^ooScgS'o.

If the year ends in 10 or an exact multiple of ten the
affix used is c8 which is Shan, or which is Burmese,
otherwise the affix is Op8.


10

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

The waxing of the moon is the waning is

cgS

The word ooBn^oS (thagarit) meaning era sometimes
precedes the year.

The Shan months, with the approximately corresponding Eng-

lish months, are:
January
February
March cJjSoSdS
April
May
June C^oScQoS
July C§oS8o5
August
September
October cJjioSoSiS'jaSoS
November c^aSoSi'ogS or c^qSjdcSS
December c^a?c8S

The days of the weeks have been adopted from and practically
are Burmese:-----

Sunday Thursday /giootSoeoS
Monday ooocSco{ Friday
Tuesday J3qSx>[ Saturday oocoS
Wednesday ?£o55ii
7. PRONOUNS.
Pronouns are not inflectional. The principal classes are (1

Personal (2) Reflexive (3) Demonstrative (4) Interrogative (5)
Indefinite and (6) an equivalent for the relative.

(1) There are many forms of the first and second persons of the

personal pronouns and their use depends, as in Burmese, on
the relative rank of the speaker and the addressee. There is
as a rule no distinction of gender.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

11

I, used by a superior is z>8 or polite conversation by equals and also by a superior is

I, used by inferiors is ^icoS or 'sqcoStpS

We, used by superiors and by equals is
We, used by inferiors is or '|oo8'8

You, used by a superior or equal is § (singular) and oj
(plural). You, used by inferiors is 008 or co8y8 or ojco8
(singular) and ojco8 (plural) and in both cases the inferior
would add c8,o| or oo,s>|oro'[c8'0| C9q to the end of his sentence.

The third person singular, he, she, or it, is 098 and the
third person plural they is '8. In speaking of superiors and
persons of rank 098008 and 08008 are used.

The plural affixes of nouns namely and

0^89008 are also used with the pronouns, the use of the plural
affix 08 being common.

There being no sign of the genitive case, possessive pronouns
are personal pronouns affixed to nouns as qx>8o| my horse.

(2) Reflexive Pronouns.

In common use for either gender and person the word for
self or selves is op8z>8 or 0^8008.08. SS which has the same
meaning as op8, body, is occasionally used for self.

The equivalent of each other, one another is

(3) Demonstrative Pronouns.

These are this and that qq9 and 9098 and are as often
adjectives as pronouns and should perhapsbe called Pronominal
Demonstrative Adjectives but to go into such nice distinctions
is certainly outside the scope of these rough practical notes.

9C? and 9098 follow the noun they qualify as 0^9890* this
man 6.0^9098 that person.

90* and 9098 cannot be used alone. When the noun is
not used 9C* and 9^98 become and 029989098


12

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

When this is used in the sense of so or thus it becomes for
practical purposes an adverb, or adverbial phrase as

<4)

Interrogative Pronouns.

These are for both numbers and for all cases

Who? <53 and

Which? c§ and

What? ooS, n|ooS and js8ooS and sometimes JO|Oo8n}o8S

^5) Indefinite Pronouns.

In certain senses the words any, whatever, none, etc., are
perhaps pronouns but they are often adjectives and should, I
think be called pronominal indefinite adjectives.

There is nothing peculiar about their use e. g. I did not
find any one /3QO^5jj'o8cc8cz)ri'. Take whatever you want

(6 ) Relative Pronouns.

The only equivalent of who and which is and it can-

not be used apart from its antecedent

The person who did thus

8. VERBS.

Verbs have no personal inflections and no passive voice.

They have strictly speaking only two moods, the indicative and
the imperative, but practically they have also an infinitive mood:
that is that while strictly speaking the verb itself does not answer
to, nor has it any exact equivalent to our infinitive proper and
the verbal noun or gerund formed by prefixing 00 S or ooSjao^S
to the verb as well as the making the verb substantive by prefix-
ing to it the particle jaQ'aS, take its place; nevertheless in practice
and in conversation the root form of the verb, i. e. the verb itself
without any particles, is used just as we in English use the
infinitive.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

13

The correct Shan equivalent of to buy

buying >
the buying

of a bullock is
difficult

not

is, I think, ooS (/aooS) c£jS8/3Q8g8crp8q.QOOO for him to go, ja998098^|9C98c^Sc8js^8 But it is also coirect to
say c8 JoSz>pS/30oS,oS-ay o for it is well to do as I

say.

(a) Tenses. There are five tenses commonly used.

(1) The present tense formed by adding the assertive affix

(in formal speech c/ao^) to the verb as 098^1^8 he
goes or he is going. If the continuance of the action is
implied then the verb og to remain is added to the verb
just as is in Burmese e.g. he is still writing 098 008
cScSBog^o

They come and go daily '89G,jg|0HogJgof/3^8.

(2) The past tense by adding the word 008 meaning done to*
the verb. He went 098^1008

(3) The perfect tense (not common) is formed by adding 008
008 to the verb. He has gone 098^1008008.

(4) The future tense. This is formed by prefixing 008 and1
affixing J5S8 to the verb 098ooBg|j^8 he will go.
coS the colloquial form of 00£ is exceedingly common even
in writing.

(5) The future perfect tense. This is formed by prefixing-
00B or coS and affixing 008 to the verb. He will have
gone 098008^1008.

To express incompleteness of action og is used. I was eat
ing would be x>8|£98og


14

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

(&) The Subjunctive is formed by prefixing conjunctions such as
CoV vf> i/to the verb proper

If he comes co^pyaSypo^S
If he were coming Go*py pc^S
If he had gone co*p^|oo8c^S

S(c) Whether the subject be singular or plural, masculine or
feminine, the form of the verb, and of course that of the
particles and 008, never changes /, thou, we, they go
is
The particle is however comonly used as a plural affix.

M

The negative is expressed by inserting the particle J39 or
8 before the verb

ya£/30g,j^8 he does not go 98j3Q^g|oo8 he did not go
yo8oo£j3Qcg| he will not go

if you do not go

1(0) Interrogation is expressed by the particle fjJ8. It takes the
place of in the present future tenses and is added
to 008 is the past tenses e. g. Is he guarding the house

Will he go yoScoS'g'l^S did he go dg|oo8^8
Has he not gone J3O^}oc8§8

When interrogative pronouns or adverbs are used then the
verbal particle is omitted.

Who is guarding the house?

What do you want? ^,9coFz>'|OoS

Imperative Mood.

This is formed by affixing the particle 00 or coS in ordinary
affirmative command and goSA in the polite affirmation.

The negative imperative or prohibition is expressed by pre-
fixing the particle oo^gcS to the verb. Occasionally GD]o* is
prefixed and 00 also affixed. 00 is frequently omitted
even with the affirmative.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

15

Go, go away ,g{oo ^goS
Please go ^|goSB
Come here wpjoioc9
Do not go O0{c6\g|

Let us have a race cScpG'SjooSooyS let us go ^[oocpS

Other particles occasionally used with the affirmative impera-
tive are oj and gcS.

When the word must is used as you must go the Shan
equivalent is ooBco9 or coSco9 e. g. coSco9you must go. In
the negative form ooB or go8 is omitted, as j3Qco9^| you must
not go.

(^g^ There are a great many auxiliary particles in use to express
the different tenses and moods, etc., of verbs. Some of the
most common are e8 ought, c^B fit, or proper, oSjJS exceed,
to exceed, co to begin, coS to be shilled in, coS to be
in the habit of, og to remain, co9 to be able, coooB about
to, goSooS implying completed action, c8o| or c8O'|GQcrj'
implying great respect and always used by inferiors, ^08
again, oo again, o3S finished, *s>9 to wish. Many of these
are themselves verbs and their use can be learnt best by

reading petitions and talking to the people.

The passive voice proper do.es not exist. If a Shan cannot

paraphrase a passive voice into an active one by saying for
example they killed him for he was killed, he commonly
uses the verb o, meaning to suffer, with the verbal noun,
e.g. he suffered death for he was killed 'oo£oo9oo8, or the
verb arrive, as he arrived at safety for he was saved.

(f) Causal Verbs.

These are formed by the use of the affixes
cg£sc£§8 etc.

Make him go §'oS,g'|oo

They have gone to cut trees S>8-^9vg'[z>a8oo8Jco9c5o^8^o8

In order to acquire merit cg£s


16

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

9. ADVERBS.

There are the usual adverbs of time, place, manner, emphasis,
etc., etc. When qualifying a verb or adjective they usually follow
the word qualified but not always. Interrogative adverbs generally
follow the verb.

He did well Gz/foc^oScScSooS

He is very handsome

Now I am much afraid coo
Whither goest thou §g{c8c§

We must not lose our goods for nothing y8jaoco*o^8c88co*co*

I never said so /aoog-aScooSocSoc

Why are you waiting here ^oSooSgcS^ojcSqc'qc*

How do you know JoSc^8^8§
10 PREPOSITIONS.

These call for no special comment. They immediately precede
the word they qualify, that is there are no postpositions in Shan,,
whereas exactly the opposite, obtains in Burmese.

In this city

Behind the house z>|c86o*coS^oS

In stalls outside the town z>}^ojx>{c8Qg£8S

11 CONJUNCTIONS.

Their place in a sentence is the natural one i. e. between the
words or sentences they join.

Some common conjunctions are:

008 and used between nouns 008 .... ooS both .... and
6jj]SccSo2-c^8ccSoc* moreover.

Of c dS Q nevertheless

go^ if go{ .... cJjlS if oo8 if
^8gg9gcS therefore

jao-acoSG/^-co^/so^coS or, otherwise
ccSooS .... gcSooS either ... or


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

17

12 INTERJECTIONS.

They are rarely met with, with the exception of the vocative
oi O; fortunately, luckily, joo5jo{zjoSccSSgSgoS

gcS and one or two others.

13. SYNTAX.

The construction of sentences and the arrangement of the words
therein differs markedly from English usage, in that Shan sen-
tences, like Burmese, are much longer than in English; and not
only is there in Shan this absence of short sentences but the use
of the word and so much used in English to connect sentences
rarely obtains in Shan. He looked and went away would be in
Shan having looked he went away. Shan sentences like the
Burmese are joined together in proper subordination by such words
as because, when, having, etc., etc.

Shan differs from Burmese in that the verb is not commonly
put at the end of the sentence but comes in its natural place,
though its affix usually ends the sentence.

There is fortunately no literature of modern Shan; there is a
mass of archaic literature certainly but its style is such, of so
flowery a nature and it is so crammed with meaningless words,
that Shans themselves, unless specially trained, cannot understand it.

Not only will the student find that a knowledge of Burmese
is the best preparation he can have for the study of Shan and that
practically every letter in the Shan alphabet is but a slightly
modified form of the Burmese character, but that Burmese words
and phrases are being with ever increasing frequency imported into
Shan and the dominant language Burmese is slowly but surely
ousting Shan.

G. S. S. 2.




A Guide to the Study of Shan.

19

Part II.

SENTENCES.

I.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

English.

Miscellaneous.

Where do you live?

Where were you born?
What is your occupation?
How long has he been here?
I have lived here since child-

hood.

How many children has he?
I have eight children.

What is your name?

My name is Maung Sayee.
What is your village called?
Come here.

Go away.

Come quickly----be quick.

Speak slowly.

Speak softly.

Speak up-speak loud.
Whence do you come?
Whither are you going?

Do you understand?

I do not understand.
Whither does this road lead?
Do you like this country?
Do you like mangoes?

Do you like ngapee?

Are you enjoying your food?
How many days journey is

it? How far is it?

How far away is that vil-
lage? It is a days journey.

Shan.


20

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

28. How far is it from here to

your house?

29. It is about a mile.

30. It is as far as Linke.

31. I have lost my way.

32. I dont know where I am.

33. He has forgotten the way.

34. I will not forget.

35. Who owns that house?

36. Has the road been repaired?

37. It is nearly finished.

38. Why did you go there?

39. What is the matter?

40. What is the matter with

your eyes?

41. Nothing is the matter.

42. Never mind.

43. What is the other side of

the hill?

44. There is nothing.

45. Can you read and write?

46. Wait a little.

47. Dont wait for me.

48. Stay here until I return.

49. We waited on.

50. He waited on for news.

51. I had to suffer delay.

52. I again had to wait 3 days.

53. Wait patiently for 3 months.

54. It is the same thing.

55. He is fined 10 rupees.

56. Light the fire.

57. Put out the fire.

58. The fire is out.

59. He is asleep.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

21

60. Awake him.

61. Give the pony paddy.

62. Get out of the way.

63. Make him go.

64. What is your monthly pay?

65. Put the bullocks to.

66. Unyoke the bullock.

67. How does he earn his living?

68. What goods do you sell?

69. What do you trade in?

70. Do you make much profit?

71. Can you ride?

72. The boat upset.

73. He was drowned.

74. Say it again.

75. The boat sunk.

76. They swam ashore.

77. What can you do?

78. Can you make clothes?

79. Saddle the pony.

80. Are you of this village?

81. I am not of this village.

82. I am of another village.

83. I am only putting up here

for a few days.

84. Is beef and fish cheap?

85. How many cigars will you

sell for one anna?

86. How much are cigars per 100?

87. What is the price of paddy

per 100 baskets?

88. How much do you get a day

for cutting down trees?

89. Are you married?


22

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

90. The box is full.

91. The box is empty,

92. The house is empty.

93. The gun is loaded.

94. Unload the gun.

95. He aimed a loaded gun at me.

96. A stick about ten feet long.

97. Dont go there again.

98. I kicked against a stone.

99. Two carts collided.

100. Two tarts tried to pass eah

other.

101. Their wheels got locked.

102. He leant against a tree.

103. He was leaning (resting) on

his elbow.

104. I sat with my head on my

hand at the table.

105. Do not go before we return.

106. His wife died before he did.

107. Go ahead.

108. You go first.

109. He was the first to do it.

110. I will follow.

111. As for him, he is homeless.

112. He hid the ring behind the

door.

113. He hid behind the door.

114. No one now comes from the

Shan country.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

115. What is the difference be-

tween this and that?

116. Did you see them do it?

117. I saw it after it was done.

118. Tighten this rope, it has be-

come loose.

119. Let me work for nothing to

support life.

120. He held his breath as if he

were dead.

121. Do not stay in one place.

122. It is entangled in weeds.

123. The Sawbwa had many at-

tendants.

124. It is certainly so.

125. They do not use gold or

silver.

126. The loss of property is esti-

mated at 8000/-

127. As soon as his parents died.

128. As soon as he arrived.

129. When did you see him last?

130. The next time you see him

tell him to come to me.

131. Have they been vaccinated?

132. Since my last visit I found

the town much enlarged.

133. He waits with a drawn sword.

134. Bazar day is every fifth day.

135. You must pitch the tents on

dry ground.

136. Does this tent take to pieces?


24

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

137. In how many days can you

finish the job?

138. I will bring the money and

pay it in to the treasury
officer.

139- He walked by the river bank.
140. Do not touch the boat----leave

it alone.

141 Let him alone.

142. Let him eat.

143. He thought it was true.

144. In water up to his neck.

145. From the day I was born.

146. The pongyi died.

147. It smelt of kerosene oil.

148. They collected subscriptions.

149. What do you want to sell?

150. I am very tired.

151. He is tired out from running.

152. Having to walk all day

dont you feel tired?

153. Drink when rested.

154. These villagers are poor.

155. He has a chronic cough.

156. I will send for him as soon

as I want him.

157. He appears to have come on

important business.

158. Who sold him this house?

159. My humble petition is.

160. To-day will be fine.

161. He ran through the house.

162. Order the thugyi to have

boats ready.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

25

163 Do they employ spies?

164. He hawks cloth through the

whole village.

165. The railway will come through

the Shan states.

166. I will arrange to____

167. I was distant a stones-throw

from the accused.

168. I was a gun shot from him.

169. This boat won by a length.

170. When returning home.

171. You ought not to petition.

172. They came stealthily.

173. They followed secretly.

174. This is money privately ad-

vanced.

175. He is an extra assistant com-

missioner.

176. After his transfer.

177. You must do as you please.

178. He did just as he pleased.

179. As you please.

180. Do exactly as you like.

181. There is none to say you nay.

182. A man called Maung Pe.

183. As nowas at present.

184. They packed salt in bundles.

185. They cut the meat in slices.

186. While master was in camp.

187. He is a novitiate.

188. He stretched out his hand.

189. He broke it into small pieces.

190. To do ones best.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

191. He acted according to his
ability------------He did his beet.

19^. He has great ability.

193. He fell into the water.

194. He fell from off the house.

195. Let me ask a question.

196. How is this?

197. How will he pay his debts?

198. I cannot bear it.

199. He will not stand it.

200. His shoulder is swollen.

201. His elbow is stiff.

202. He is saving up money for

the future.

203. There is no occasion to fear.

204. There is nothing to fear.

205. Fear nothing.

206. You can go without fear.

207. They are waiting round the

house.

208. He is surrounded by re-

tainers.

209. His faithful retainers are
around him.

210. The house is surrounded by

fruit trees.

211. The chiefs house is in the

middle.

212. In the middle of the house.

213. They were completely sur-

rounded.

214. He threatened me and went

away.

215. They acted without authority.

216. They did it by force.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.



217. They thwarted him.

218. Did they get enough to eat?

219. How many years have you

served Government?

220. I have been in Government

Service for over 20 years.

221. What pay do you get per

mensem?

222. I get Rs. 75/- a month.

£23. Of your eight children how
many are sons and how
many are daughters?

224. Three of them are boys and

five are girls.

225. How many of your eight sons

and daughters are mar-
ried or not yet married?

226. Of my eight children three

boys are married.

227. Of the five remaining girls

not one is yet married.

228. Before you came to Taunggyi

where were you living?

229. Before I came to Taunggyi

I used to live in the Sta-
tion of Mong Sawk.

230. Being a native of Mong Sit

why have you taken
Government service?

231. WhenllivedasachildinMong

Sit I ran away and went


28

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

and lived in Rangoon.

232. And then I got Government

work in Rangoon.

233. Being a Shan of Mong Sit

why did you run away
and live in Rangoon?

234. In my youth I was very

wicked.

235. My parents disapproved and

drove me away and I
settled in Rangoon?

236. How many head of cattle

will you sell?

237. My cigar has gone out, give

me a light.

238. He lit a cigar.

239. This cigar will not draw.

240. Wake me at 5 oclock to-
morrow morning.

241. If you guide me well, I will

give you Rs. 5/-

242. Are there fish in this river?

243. Do not climb the tree.

244. You must not bathe here.

245. Do not kill.

246. Give me a glass of water.

247. They caught a thief. _

248. Get ready to go on tour.

249. How many prisoners are there

in the jail?

250. Come to office at ten tomor-

row morning.

251. On what business have you

come?

252. How much property is left?


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

29

253. Why have you got angry?

254. Be sure to warn me.

255. Go back home now.

256. If I want you I will call you.

257. I must go to Pauktaw accord-

ing to the D. Cs orders.

258. We shall all return on Mon-

day.

259. I am very pleased to see you.

260. If you work well you will be

well rewarded.

261. On the house owner waking

up the thieves ran off.

262. If you call me I will come

at once.

263. To-days work should not be

put off till to-morrow.

264. Do not postpone things.

265. We did not find any curi-
osities in the bazaar.

266. So far we know nothing as

to where the fire started.

267. The above mentioned case.

268. A man was found drowned

in a tank.

269. I was publicly adopted.

270. I have cut my finger.

£71. He was educated here.

£72. This child is a chatterbox.

273. He performs summersaults.

274. He is standing on his head.

275. Show me how to do it.

*276. How do you know?


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

30

£77. My box is heavier than yours.
£78. This is the best pony.

£79. Everyone has to pay taxes.
£80. Any man or woman whatever.
£81. I do not want any.

£8£. Give each of them Re. 1/-
£83. How many kinds?

£84. Take every kind.

£85. They hate each other.

£86. The thief has taken all I

possess.

£87. The whole family has run
away.

£88. What kind of horse is this?
£89. Of what race are these men?
£90. How much money have you?
£91. Only so much.

£9£. Whatever he does he makes
profit.

£93. I found no one at home.
£94. Get another man for this job.

£95. They work in pairs.

£96. Some men are always trying
to get others into trouble.

£97. We came across the fields.
£98. They went across the hills.
£99. We ran after the thief.

300. Did you come round or by

a short cut?

301. What are you looking for?
30£. What do you want?

303. The thief ran off.

304. There is a road between these

two houses.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

31

305. I know because people say so.

306. Have you counted the houses ?

307. I think you are hurt.

308. Sawbwa, I am going through

your territory.

309. The Sawbwa will come and
meet me.

310. You must see I get all I want.

311. I know nothing of your affairs.

312. What do you call this?

313. Speak the truth.

314. The wheels stuck in the mud.

315. He stabbed him with a dagger.

316. He was hanged.

317. Shans drink a lot.

318. They both got drunk.

319. He got drunk.

320. The doctor treated him.

321. The kite fought the bird.

322. I sent and said.

323. I am indeed afraid of this.

324. We will be answerable.

325. We three will be responsible.

326. If you can do the job

thoroughly.

327. Nothing shall happen to you.

328. Nothing shall touch you.

329 They lived each ajbne.

330. He built a two storied house.

331. His house has three storeys.

332. It is a house with three rooms.

333. The house was far too small

for us.


32

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

334. The house is now in two parts,

two storied, occupying the
same inside space.

335. A stake pierced his foot.

336. He sleeps on his back.

337. He sleeps on his face.

338. Comb my hair.

339. Can you believe him?

340. Avoid dishonest men.

341. I will change my clothes.

342. I have no change of clothes.

343. If you get wet you must

change your clothes.

344. This jacket is torn.

345. Sew on buttons.

346. These stockings want mending.

347. I sent him to buy beef in the

bazar.

348. They killed him by impaling.

349. He is treacherous.

350. He saw me thro the window.

351. It happened fortunately.

352. It happened unfortunately.

353. As she has acted so badly to

her parents.

354. I will get the pack bullocks

ready.

355. I will sell expeditiously.

356. They are on bad terms.

357. He and I have a quarrel.

358. Father and son were greatly

at variance.

359. The interest amounted to 400/-

360. He collected some debts.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

361. I departed from the house.

362. Twice two are four.

363. What is your house made of?

364. This house is haunted.

365. Rats must be caught alive.

366. Are you not afraid you will

be bewitched?

367. I am amazed at your action.

368. They use paddy husk as fuel.

369. The flood spread everywhere.

370. The Burmese army spread

over the country.

371. He is of pure descent.

372. Can you describe himwhat

is his appearance like?

373. His complexion is fair.

374. His complexion is ruddy.

375. He is very talkative.

376. He has grey hair.

377. Whence comes this cart?

378. It comes from the village.

379. Can I hire carts here?

380. Not a cart could be hired.

381. Is the paddy good this year?

382. The rains have not come.

383. The rains are not good.

384. Here and there.

385. Tell him to supply fowls.

386. Is the road good for riding?

387. Show me your diary.

388. What is the cost of five ar-

ticles at Rs. 2-8 each?

389. Is your shop insured against

fire?

G. S. S. 3.


34

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

390. The wind blew down the trees.

391. The wind blew away the paper.

392. Blow out the candle.

393. Please admonish him.

394. Give him water to drink.

395. I have not yet been once.

396. He is about to lose his post.

397. That man is still eating.

398. If I have time I will look

again.

399. Small pox is very prevalent

in those villages.

400. Malaria is very rife there.

401. Before long the river will eat

away the bank.

402. Do not make a flat thatch roof.

403. You must make the thatch

roof sloping.

404. How high is this mountain?

405. Is this paper to be burnt?

406. He is always exempted from

capitation tax.

407. Sandflies and mosquitos bit

me all night.

408. A spider spun his web.

409. The tree was struck by light-

ning.

410. He is sore from head to foot.

411. I do not know whether he

will come or not.

412. That is always the way.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

413. It is ever thus.

414. Of what use is it?

415. It is useless.

416. How do they make use of it?

417. I have use for it.

418. It is of use.

419. He has already lived here

over two years.

420. He was not far off.

421. The place in question is an

unfrequented one.

422. The place of occurrence is in

an out of the way spot.

423. This village is in an out of

the way place.

424. This seems to be a bad rupee,

it does not ring well.

4*25. He turned his back in con-
tempt.

426. I was quite at ease and my

mind at rest.

427. I have suffered no sorrows or

worries.

428. We act unmolested.

429. They manage their own af-

fairs.

430. There is no anxiety as to our

serving well.

431. We are all at ease and at

peace.

432. Everything is now peaceful

and quiet.


36

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

433. We are free from anxiety.

434. We have nothing to fear.

435. Trade is peacefully carried on.

436. We ask for rest.

437. Some men do not yet know

ease.

438. Our ways severally parted.

439. There is no way of getting

enough money in Mone.

440. Dry my clothes in the sun.

441. We put up the two carts.

442. He hinted by winking.

443. The sun shone into ones eyes.

444. The sun is very dazzling.

445. The three objects of worship.

446. A series of marvels.

447. A golden statue of Buddha.

448. Some bells were inscribed with

the donors names.

449. They placed the statues with

great pomp and ceremony
on elephants.

450. This angle equals that angle.

451. This is about equal to that.

452. The money earned is not

commensurate with the
work done.

453. It is about the same.

454. I wish to be your associate.

455. He gets his living easily.

456. He acts in a headlong manner.

457. He acts without method.

458. Go and look for its tracks.

459. I thought he was a bad man

because I saw him peep-
ing into the house.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

37

460. I saw him crouching over

the fire.

461. I did not suffer him.

462. It is not good to eat this

fruit, it is poisonous.

463. They seized him and burnt

him alive.

464. The posts are still standing

at the house.

465. You had better do what I

tell you.

466. It is best to remain here.

467. He not only gave him 100/-

but also built him a house.

468. It is ten viss in weight.

469. Are you related to him?

470. How are you related to him?

471. The night is dark.

472. It is a moonlight night.

473. In the middle of the road.

474. At the side of the road.

475. They both went.

476. He never eat anything.

477. He never said so.

478. This roof is rain-proof.

479. Has he been in a train?

480. They ran along the river

bank at full speed.

481. The dog is wagging its tail.

482. I think its price is low.

483. The men I despatched.

484. All high and low are most

grateful.

485. As a poor man.


38

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

486. A man of unknown name.

487. Nothing was left.

488. He fell from the tree and

was crushed to pieces.

489. It is not proper,not right.

490. It is not becoming.

491. Certain things unbecoming.

492. He was very near death.

493. We could do nothing and had

to return.

494. He came to our village in the

course of his travels.

495. He put up with me as my

guest for four days.

496. I will go and walk about the

village.

497. Being very tired I fell fast

asleep.

498. We woke up alarmed.

499. When all were sound asleep.

500. We became greatly alarmed.

501. I ran with the utmost haste.

502. I told him off to keep watch

in the house.

503. I must not lose my property

for nothing.

504. No one but he took them.

505. This wood is very hard.

506. The two persuaded each other

to go and see a pwe.

507. Not long after they had left

the house.

508. We are temporarily changing

our abode.

509. His back was cut in two.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

39

510. It is well to go and seek al-

liance with.

511. We parted company.

512. Your letter about the ...

513. He clearly showed.

514. His family became extinct.

515. They received and fraternized

with the prince.

516. They tied him to a tree.

517. We had left the pwe about

half-a-mile behind.

518. Was the bazar crowded?

519. The pwe was then crowded.

520. He gave up the desire to live.

521. He sat cross-legged as a deity.

522. I escaped by the skin of my

teeth.

523. It is quite a separate country.

524. He asked about their original

place of residence.

525. When was this city founded?

526. He loved her greatly.

527. He received the merest pit-

tance (lit. the price of chil-
lies and salt.)

528. I sell liquor retail.

529. They all sell wholesale.

530. I do not sell on credit.

531. I sell on cash payment.

532. Because of many differences

in price.

533. Who lives in the house next

to the bazar ?


40

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

534. Once in debt one seldom gets

clear.

535. Did you watch the thief run

as far as you could see?

536. In an earthquake the cliffs

and hills break up.

537. A piece of the wall became

detached.

538. They broke the mat walls

and railings to pieces.

539. In order to shame me and in-

jure my character.

540. He dashed water on me.

541. I stood rooted with am azement.

542. I could not think of any one

else, it could only be he.

543. The clerk too has made the

transfer of names.

544. If you do not thatch your roof

this year it will leak.

545. Those who have signed below

546. As contained below.

547. Just carry me home.

548. In order to accompany your

honour.

549. We planned and did it to-

gether.

550. In order to injure the Bud-

dhist religion.

551. He is a religious teacher.

552. They held counsel.

553. A few come to worship.

554. Many come for pleasure.

555. Each wears his or her best.

c$tjjoo£o9Go9 oo?oo]

§S

j385oog8 c$oS ooScg9
cSo{CODSop£'S(S8[B
C$01 § g8 c$o| CO g8 co O S dg { U

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3po8igS^8ao8o
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goSjjSii

/ao oS co £ o5 o H fcC 9 8 c8 GC 1
J2Q 98 o 18 8 8 m c8 S C$0 9 GO g8 II
c cS/ao 8 Q8 8 g8

£(0*CO yS^p/ggS^JOGSooSi,

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38go9c^SoSc^£8Sii
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g£c8S ccSooS jjg8co9gc8ooS

goSgjo| G^SooS ^8g^Sc8
gcS^gSii


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

41

556. They are walking arm in arm.

557. Has the house a visitors

room ?

558. I found no comparison.

559. Is this the case with many ?

560. He lives on the interest.

561. He works for daily wages.

562. Do you work on daily or on

monthly wages?

563. The child is suckled.

564. He takes bribes.

565. One or other of the two came.

566. The lamps were being lighted.

567. The lamps were burning.

568. The lights were put out.

569. He recognized him as he had

scrutinized him well.

570. He recognised him by his face.

571. He identified him.

572. The milk has turned sour.

573. I happened to be in the shop.

574. He had no right to so use

his official authority.

575. You had no right to create

a disturbance in another
mans house.

576. He found nothing unlawful.


42

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

577. I have lived with him.

578. This man boasts of his wealth.

579. He has not a pice to his name.

580. A few minutes after dinner

he will go sound asleep.

581. This man wants looking after.

582. I think you had better take

ten days leave.

583. You look rather washed out.

584. He seemed on the mend.

585. He has rad a relapse.

586. Late at night.

587. When I called out, he took

no notice.

588. Water beat into the boat.

589. He gave 10/- earnest money.

590. The matter is uncertain.

591. As he is so changeable I

cannot rely upon him.

592. We are not inconstant.

593. We are steadfast as a block

of iron.

594. Directly I gave him medicine

his fever disappeared.

595. Shans take off their shoes be-

fore entering a monastery
compound.

596. It is customary to hold pwes

in the cold weather.

597. In the race between these

boats it was a close finish.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

43

598. There are so many boats that

the race must be run in
heats.

599. This was a brand-new box.

600. Now white ants have eaten a

hole in it.

601. Whose duty is it to be here

in the day time?

602. The priests are going their

morning rounds receiving
offerings of food.

603. Work is increasing and there

is no leisure.

604. The party consisted of 11 men.

605. They were sitting in a group

smoking on some open
ground near the river.

606. They were oblivious of the

interest the master would
take in the story of the
fight.

607. Follow your nose.

608. Over two thousand rupees can

easily be collected.

609. It is not known whether he

will recover or not.

610. They have lost their all.

611. I will share expenses with

you.

612. The place where he lives is

strongly stockaded.

613. On the east of the fort is a

steep precipice.

614. He gives himself airshe is

. conceited.


44

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

615. The tusks were of beautiful

design.

616. Ivory to decorate temples.

617. The geography of Burman

historians is very hazy.

618. He told of the wonders they

had seen.

619. He told of the perils they

had incurred.

620. The king soon repented his

self-glorifying speech.

621. No one consulted him.

622. In to whose possession it

came I do not know.

623. He alighted from the Man-

dalay mail.

624. I went and discussed a law-

suit with the Sawbwa.

625. It is a letter summoning.

626. 1 then sent and demanded

a small sum from_each lot.

627. He was ordered to pay in a

large sum by a certain
day.

628. There are no means of look-

ing after them.

629. The non-receipts were many.

630. Four annas a letter.

631. He has abused his position.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

45

632. He has violated his oath of

allegiance.

633. He appointed his eldest son

to be heir-apparent.

634. When the king observed the

increasing influence and
prosperity enjoyed by the
heir-apparent.

635. He became anxious for the

security of his kingship.

636. Business transactions.

637. He kept him as a slave.

638. While employed with the

Royal troops.

639. He had occassion to punish

his slave.

640. It is clear he died of the in-

juries he received.

641. I appointed a guard of armed

men at the mango grove.

642. Each guard has to find sen-

tries night and day.

643. He has been ordered comp-

lete rest.

644. He went very reluctantly.

645. He hardly ventured to go

646. Something seemed wrong with

the bridge.

647. In order to see if it would

bear its weight.

648. Both elephant and driver

were precipitated into the
river.

649. He used to sit at the door

of his house.


46

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

650. The elephant is not so easily

tricked as you think.

651. He threw his trunk round

the man.

652. He dashed him to the ground.

653. He trampled him to death.

654. They are pieces of stick of

equal length.

655. He cut off a fingers breadth

off his stick.

656. His stick will be a fingers

breadth longer.

657. He goaded the elephant.

658. I have been acquainted there-

with from childhood.

659. They will display treesas offer-

ings.

660. There will be fireworks.

661. There will be Karen dances.

662. A short distance away.

663. They gave signals by blow-

ing whistles.

664. He felt about for the bag.

665. He rode an apparelled ele-

phant.

666. The elephant will not pick

up the log.

667. I have reason to believe.

668. He works only when watched.

669. They broke it up into fire-

wood.

670. What it is your business to

do, you do not.


A Guide to the Study of Sham.

47

671. I have not been appointed by

the Burmese or Chinese.

672. I have hired men and paid

them.

673. He discovered his mistake.

674. He is wholly deceitful.

675. You must not dun him.

676. They thrust a piece of bam-

boo up his nose.

677. At intervals of time.

678. I am deterred by feelings of

respect for the Saya.

679. I am deterred by fear of

offending the Saya.

680. Let happen what may.

681. She made herself beautiful.

682. He let himself be caught.

683. We had to put up in other

peoples villages.

684. They carried the drum three

times round the city.

685. I am the child of good and

honest parents.

686. Thinking it was a ghost I

was much startled.

687. As I had night mare I star-

ted up and awoke.

688. If you get into any trouble

I will ignore you.

689. Boxers can only box after

girding up their loins.

690. In the end my son could

not be prevailed upon.

691. He has become a mendicant

in the jungle.


48

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

69&. I am ruined.

693. My reputation is gone.

694. They are having much music.

695. We must live in safety.

696. He came to life again.

697. We habitually suspected him.

698. Half the country.

699. There is no trace of them.

700. Fugitives and those who

change their abode.

701. The customary order.

702. As I fully expected.

703. When least expected.

704. With good luck I will sup-

port myself.

705. It is a letter on Shan paper.

706. Please excuse the unsavoury

things I have to say.

707. I put on thanaka.

708. He pushed his way after me.

709. He pulled off my coat.

710. He dragged me along and

threw me on the ground.

711. We support the young prince.

712. I thought she gave it to her

parents to use and enjoy.

713. This money too was not in

rupees but in two-anna
pieces and small change.

714. We shall surely keep what

we possess.

715. Do not chatter about it.

716. He will make astrological

calculations and see.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

49

717. You must adhere to the rules.

718. Is it really true?

719. I was dissatisfied with him.

720. He made over to him.

721. How will he get it?

722. They invoked the Nats as

witnesses.

723. His intention was frustrated.

724. Various kinds of weapons.

725. They are close friends.

726. We are fast friends (lit. like

bullocks side by side in a
narrow place.)

727. We are both equally to be

considered chief men.

728. When it ripens it drops off.

729. It gradually diminished.

730. We three will die together.

731. We made each other presents.

732. When the question of business

was raised it was agreed.

733. They did not let things be

correctly appraised.

734. He fell and got suspended in

the sycamore tree.

735. The woman is rocking the

cradle.

736. At the feet ofunder the feet.

737. I am of royal lineage.

738. I am not well to-day-I have

a headache.

739. During the night I was sick

many times.

740. My eyesight does not allow

me to thread needles.

G. S. S. 4.


50

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

741. Last night a fire broke out

in a populous quarter.

742. It was luckily discovered

before much was burnt.

743. The house is on fire and there

are clouds of black smoke.

744. The city was reduced to ashes.

745. To stop the fire spreading.

746. You may encounter all kinds

of dangers.

747. He has no fixed abode and

I know not where he stays.

748. We have been long separated.

749. How long is it since you

came up to Taunggyi ?

750. It is a little over two months

since I came to Taunggyi.

751. Where did you live before

coming to the Shan States?

752. Before I came to Taunggyi

I lived in Moulmein.

753. And were you born in Moul-

mein?

754. No I was born in England.

755. Now you have come to the

Shan States what work
will you do?

756. Now that I have come up to

the Shan States I shall go
and do work in Mone.

757. It is wrong to ill treat and

kill animals.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

51

758. He turned up at dusk.

759. Is the fodder and water sup-

ply sufficient here?

760. Who is the chief of this State?

761. The chief sometimes comes

down to the plains.

762. There is a feud between him

and the tribe on the other
side of Mono-

763. They did not get on together.

764. Do they ever come to blows?

765. They came to blows.

766. What weapons do they use?

767. They are armed with spears.

768. He is most quarrelsome.

769. They insulted each other.

770. Game is plentiful here, both

big and small.

771. What is the occupation of

the hill tribes?

772. Some rear short-horned cattle.

773. Some live by hunting and

barter skins, horns and
dried fish with rice, salt
and coarse cloths.

774. The males are generally of

fine physique.

775. The women are dumpy and

ugly, the children chubby.


52

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

II. Age.

1. How old are you?

2. I am 52 years old.

3. He is about three years old.

4. He is older than me.

5. Are you the eldest or youngest?

6. I am the middle child.

7. He has just turned two years.

8. You are not much over seven.
9- He was only 8 years old.

10. I am now over 60 and an old

man.

11. He is grown up.

12. He is in the prime of life.

13. He keeps his age well.

14. He is past the prime of life.

15. She has reached the age of

puberty.

16. You are now of mature age.

17. During his time, the time he

flourished.

18. He appeared to be 17.

19. I have aged somewhat.

20. In my youth.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

53

III. Time.

1. He came just a month ago.

2. After the three months of Lent.

3. Childrens sleeping time.

4. Cattle returning time.

5. When the sun reaches the

height of a toddy tree.

6. He left about 10 minutes ago

(a betel chew.)

7. What time in the morning

does the train start?

8. It will start early to-morrow.

9. At dawn, daybreak.

10. Before daylight---before sun-

rise.

11. After daybreak.

12. Just before dawn.

13. Just before midday.

14. Midday.

Midnight.

15. Three oclock.

16. Three a.m.

17. About 9 p.m.

18. By midday.

19. It is late to night.

20. I came home late last night.

21. You are late this morning.

22. Run or you will be late.

23. I got up late.

24. If we go on foot how many

hours will it take us?


54

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

25. At eventide.

26. In the forenoon.

27. The afternoon.

28. Late in the forenoon.

29. Late in the afternoon.

30. About half-an-hour (lit. About

the time if takes a pot of
rice to boil.)

31. He has been waiting for half-

an-hour.

^2. I cannot find time to go.

^3. In the time of our ancestors.

34. From our great-great-grand-

fathers time.

35. At the beginning of the year.

36. At the end of the year.

37. When it was nearly 5 p. m.

About evening cooking
time.

38. Dont go about late at night.

39. Dont cross from village to

village after dark.

40. From previous times.

41. From a long time past.

42. From this time onward.

43. The whole of that night.

44. From morn till night.

45. The melee lasted about an

hour.

46. Between breakfast and dinner.

47. Between my exit and return.

48. About a fortnight ago.

49. Three months ago.

50. Sooner or later.

51. Two months have now elapsed.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

55

52. Many days and months have

long since elapsed.

53. Within one month.

54. At intervals of time.

55. During the mothers lifetime.

56. After a short time he came to.

57. One and a half months.

58. At an auspicious time.

59. When fowls usually go to roost.

60. By a certain day.

61. Let there be no delay.

62. After three days.

63. A year has already passed.

64. Before 9 oclock.

65. It is 7 months past the time.

66. Afterwards let us go.

67. On the expiry of three months.


56

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

IV. School.

1. They play much ball.

2. Many naked children are mak-

ing mud pies.

3. The children are flying kites.

4. Pay attention to your teacher.

5. Children must not play on

this road.

6. I know this child traps birds.

7. Children must obey their pa-

rents.

8. Whose child is this?

9. He is my adopted child.

10. You must keep quiet.

11. Can you speak Shan?

12. We come and go every day.

13. It is our habit to obey him.

14. One need not learn the whole

book.

15. What is that called in Shan?

16. Is it difficult to learn Burmese?

17. Whether right or wrong you

must not speak.

18. Address this letter for me.

19. He is disappointed at failing

in his examination.

20. He cannot read half as well as

I do.

21. I can hardly speak I am so

hoarse.

22. How far have you advanced

in your studies?

23. Have you gone up a class?


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

57

24. If you are deceitful.

25. You will surely get into trouble

one day.

26. Do not entertain evil deeds

even in thought.

27. Dont drink it shortens life.

28. Do they rob birds nests?

29. We must rise early to-morrow.

30. My sleep was broken last night.

31. Let him take the book he

likes.

32. He is straightforward in speech.

33. He speaks to the point.

34. Do not let your mind wander.

35. Say all you have to say.

36. Do not beat about the bush.

37. He makes no direct charge.

38. He only makes insinuations.

39. How can it be true?

40. He never asked me a single

question.

41. He said so in your presence.

42. There is nothing to be asham-

ed of in this matter.

43. There is no cause for distress.

44. He speaks ambiguously.

45. He understands readily.

46. You must read in the same

way as he does.

47. As he spoke ill of me I was

hated.

48. Act straight at all times.


58

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

F. Tattooing.

1. At what age are Shan children

tattooed ?

2. Between the ages of ten and

fifteen

3. From where to where on their

bodies are they tattooed?

4. Some are tattooed from their

knees to their waists.

5. Some are tattooed from ankle

to chest.

6. How much is done at a sitting?

7. One thigh is done at a time.

8. The tattooer will come again

in 25 days.

9. Is tattooing very painful?

10. Does the child have to be held

when tattooed?

11. Tattooing is indelible.

12. He will pierce his childs ears

to-day.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

5

VI. Water.

1. Is the water deep or shallow?
We tried to ascend the creek.

3. It is dead low water.

4. It is high water.

5. The current is very swift.

6. This river is at the most about

half-a-mile wide.

7. This bridge is badly mended,

it will not last long.

8. It is floating on the surface.

9. He lowered a bucket into the

well.

10. They are trapping eels.

11. Can you go by boat?

12. Boats come up with the tide.

13. That boat will go down stream.

14. We are poling the boat up----

stream.

15. We are going to windward.

16. They blasted the rocks with

dynamite.

17. Then two or three steamers

came easily up and down.

18. How much does the boat draw?

19. A boat to hold 3000 baskets

of paddy.

20. Instruments for use in the boat.

21. How far away is this lake?

22. It lies within 10 miles of the

village where I live.

23. How big is the lake?


60

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

24. The boat became a wreck.

25. Three boatmen were saved.

26. They hoisted the mast.

27. They spread sail.

28. They lorvered sail.

29. They came alongside.

30. They ran onto a sand-bank.

31. Are those boats for hire?

32. He hired two boats.

33. I was ferried across.

34. I am a worker of fisheries.

35. A net of J inch mesh and

weighted with lead.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

61

VII. Forests.

1. Teak is very scarce now.

2. Every tree that bears fruit.

3. In their natural state.

4. The tree is growing.

5. In the Shan States there are

only a few reserved forests.

6. It will take 3 days more to get

the timber to the Salween.

7. They are too short to be joined.

8. I am thinking of taking a

contract to work forests.

9. Revenue-free timber.

10. Teak trees must never be felled

without permission.

11. Some trees give good shade.

12. This fruit is sour, that is sweet.

13. Fruits appear in their proper

season, not out of season.

14. How is the saw-dust of this

mill utilized?

15. How many timber rafts are

lying at this depot?

16. How much do you get a day

for salving timber?

17. How many girdled trees are

there in the forest?

18. We notify stranded drift tim-

ber so that owners may
come and claim it.

19. How many fallen trees are

there in the jungle?

20. Do not wild elephants go

about in herds?


62

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

VIII. Road and Travel.

1. Communication is interrupted.

2. How many stages are there

between here and Mone?

3. There are 20 unequal stages.

4. At the first stopping place

(railway.)

5. A days journey.

6. How long is the march ?

7. Does the road fork anywhere ?

8. Can I make a mistake and

miss my way?

9. You cannot go the wrong way.

10. Take the turning to the right

on reaching the tamarind
tree beyond thevillage.

11. We could not get half way

before 9 oclock.

12. It is a dangerous road.

13. If we go on foot, how many

hours will it take us ?

14. It is level all the way.

15. The road is clear.

16. The road is tangled with scrub.

17. Can you wade across the ferry?

18. Did you not have to go to

Mandalay ?

19. When you left the train at

Thazi by what road did
you come, Sir ?

:20. When I left the train I came
up the Government made
road.

21. Did you come on foot?


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

63

22. No I rode up.

23. Did you not drive up ?

24. There are now no carriages.

25. There are only bullock carts

which I did not use.

26. When you rode up was not

the sun very hot?

27. When I came up the sun was

not very hot.

28. If the sun had been hot I

should not have felt it as
I was wearing a hat.

29. To get from Taunggyi to Mone

what road must I take?

30. To get to Mone you should

follow the Hopong road.

31. What will be my first sleeping

place.

32. Your first sleeping place will

be Hopong?

33. Is there a good rest house at

Hopong?

34. Can I get fodder and paddy

and rice, etc., easily?

35. The wants of manpaddy,

firewood and water---are

readily obtainable.

36. Where must we next sleep?

37. In the Tamsan rest house is

there everything the same
as at Hopong?


64

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

38. At the Tamsan stage too you

can get everything you
want.

39. After leaving Mainpun for

Mone how many halts are
there before reaching Mo-
ne ? (see sentence 2).

40. You must halt six times more.

41. Are there rest houses at each

of these six stages ?

42. What are the names of the

places where there are no
rest ho uses, where are they?

43. How shall I manage for sleep-

ing without bungalows ?

44. You must pitch tents for sleep-

ing.

45. The road must be free from

all risks and dangers.

46. The road must be kept clear

of thieves and marauders.

47. Traffic is unceasing on this

pleasant trade route.

48. We think the Mandalay trade

route will be closed.

49. Because of the falling off in

trade of every kind.

50. Permanent patrols must be post-

ed along the trade route.

51. Let permanent guards be post-

ed where the road begins.

52. There is no danger and no

cause for fear or anxiety.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

65

53. Good progress has been made

in road work.

54. To get through the forest you

must travel the whole day.

55. When your honour came here

from Moulmein by what
road did you come ?

56. I had to come by train.

57. The road was dusty.

58. The road was very muddy.

59. The road is very winding.

60. It is up hill and down dale.

61. The bridges are slippery.

62. The lanes are ankle deep in

mud.


66

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

IX. Village Matters and Headmen,

1. The village is very dirty.

You must keep it clean.

3. You must burn the rubbish.

4. He is going round inspecting

villages.

5. The headman did nothing.

6. He ought to have called.

7. If he had not delayed.

8. We were delayed on the road.

9. The land (is) bounded by these

four localities.

10. Point out the city boundary.

11. The boundaries of this State

touch three States.

12. What is this district called ?

13. Sir, this district of ours is call-

ed Haipak.

14. How long have you been circle

headman of Haipak?

15. I have been circle headman of

Haipak for 10 years.

16. How many villages are there

in the Haipak district ?

17. In my district of Haipak there

are 25 villages.

18. In each of these 25 villages how

many houses are there ?

19. Some of these 25 villages have

50 houses, some 30, some
14 and some 15 houses.

20. Are you all Shans in the Hai-

pak district?


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

67

21. How many tribes are there?

22. In our district there are three or

four tribes.

23. Of the three or four tribes who

live here which is the
most numerous?

24. Most of us are Shans.

25. And what tribes are these four

tribes ?

26. One is Shan, one Yangsek Ka-

ren, one Taungthu and
one Black Karen.

27. The whole village hate this

man for his many arti-
fices and knavish tricks.

28. When was this village founded?

29. If they are assessed according

to their means they will be
pleased.

30. What do the 4 tribes Shan, Ta-

ungthu, Karen and Black
Karen do for a living ?

31. We Shans who live in the

Haipak district live by
lowland cultivation.

32. Those villagers have no stated

religion, they worship nats.

33. A yearly festival is held on

the slope of that hill.

34. There is a large gathering on

full moon day.

35. Once this village had to keep

3 hostages in Rangoon.

36. The village was fined for har-

bouring dacoits.


68

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

37. Why did the carts I told you

to send last night only
come at 6 this morning?

38. You have been reported for

disobedience of orders.

39. What have you to say?

40. He lost his appointment be-

cause he was too lazy to
carry out orders.

41. For persistent neglect of govern-

ment orders the whole vil-
lage was fined.

42. Do the villagers in this dis-

trict keep a strict watch
at night?

43. That city is full of dacoits.

44. In accordance with order No.

100 received.

45. Does he pay tribute to any-

one?

46. By this time the village was

thoroughly aroused.

47. I reported this headman for

being insolent.

48. The headmans statement.

49. Not to have informed the

myok would have been bad.

50. In my own village he treats

me with indifference.

51. He levied over 1000/- in excess

of the lawful demand.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

69

52. The village elders recommen-

ded one Ai Saw for the
appointment of Heng.

53. I will go further into the mat-

ter and pass orders later.

54. Neighbouring villages.

55. Do headmen who collect re-

venue get commission?

56. This headman has no control

over his villagers.

57. He fears bad characters.

58. If he punishes people as they

deserve he is afraid his
house will be burnt down.


70

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

X. Agricultural and Cattle.

1. I possess two fields.

I have worked and lived on

them for five years.

3. I have paid the land tax

regularly and without fail.

4. Another man claims one

field.

5. The tank overflowed.

6. He refuses to pay.

7. How much land have you?

8. How is it irrigated?

9. It is irrigated by rain water.

10. It is irrigated by channels.

11. When I reaped the field the

out-turn was very small.

12. How many baskets of paddy

does your field yield?

13. Please reduce the tax.

14. This is revenue paying land.

15. Have the paddy plants been

transplanted?

16. How much revenue is collect-

ed yearly in this village?

17. This paddy has not been pro-

perly winnowed.

18. Though the number of houses

has increased, why has the
revenue decreased?

19. Owing to poor crops this year

the remissions have been
greater than usual.

20. I have cleared and worked

this garden land at a cost
of over 250/-


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

71

21. This garden has produced

many trees, flowering plants
and fruit trees.

22. Please divide the holding

between us.

23. This holding is valued at

200/-

24. The price of paddy has risen.

25. The price of paddy has fallen.

26. He bought the standing crop.

27. He is going round collecting

and assessing taxes.

28. I have worked the Sitpin and

Okla kwins continously
for many years.

29. The lands have become poor.

30. The rice plants are infested

with insects.

31. My one-basket capacity field

yielded 46 baskets of paddy.

32. Next year I only got 18 J

baskets.

33. The land tax assessed by your

honour this year is exces-
sive.

34. Now it is only just the begin-

ning of June.

35. I will pay at the rate of l/8

an acre.

36. He says my land is his graz-

ing grqund.

37. They will spread the heaps of

earth over the field.


7£

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

38. Fruits appear in their seasons.

39. The plaintain tree bears fruit

all the year round.

40. We offered to deliver the

paddy in instalments.

41. What are the first steps taken

in tobacco cultivation?

42. In the beginning we plough

the land and turn the soil.

43. After ploughing and turning

the soil what is next done?

44. After ploughing and turning

we collect and throw away
the grass roots.

45. After gathering and throw-

ing away the roots what
do you next do?

46. We dig holes, Sir.

47. After making holes do you

sow the seed, or trans-
plant it straight away?

48. Having sown the seed we pull

up the roots and plant
them one in each-hole.

49. And after this how and where

do you then plant?

50. We prepare nursery beds and

plant thereon.

51. What is the next procedure?

52. We then cut moss and throw

it over the beds

53. How big are the tobacco

shoots when transplanted?


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

73

54. When each shoot is a thumb

to middle, or thumb to
first, finger long we trans-
plant them.

55. In what month do you trans-

plant?

56. Some we transplant in Octo-

ber and some in November.

57. When the plants become knee

or thigh-high we break
off the heads and throw
away the shoots.

58. When the leaves swell and

mature we pluck them
and slice them at home.

59. Do you slice them at once or

after how many days?

60. We pluck and slice at once.

61. On getting many leaves we

cover and slice them again.

62. We spread them on woven

mats in the sun and dew.

63. Whenthe tobacco gets red on

both sides we flatten it
and put it into woven
baskets and granaries.

64. Questions on land cultivation.

65. Answers on land cultivation.

66. You lowland cultivators of

the Haipak district, how do
you cultivate? Tell me in
detail just what you do.

67. Shan paddy cultivators.

68. At the commencement of the

rains in May or June.


74

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

69. They work together and flood

kwins and fields with river,
creek and dam water.

70. Very good. After clearing the

creeks and dams and lett-
ing in water to their fields
what do they next do?

71. After they flood their fields

they then plough them
witfi buffaloes.

72. After ploughing with buffa-

loes do they sow the seed
at once?

73. No sir, after the buffalo

ploughing they then give
a first harrowing.

74. After harrowing the soil in

again turned.

75. After turning the soil another

harrowing, and then the
final harrowing is given.

76. After harrowing and turning

the soil and finally har-
rowing it do they at once
sow the seed?

77. No sir, after turning the soil

and harrowing it again
they pull up the plants
they have planted.

78. After ploughing turning and

harrowing do they not
forthwith sow the seed as
is done in Burma?

79. After fully ploughing and

harrowing we certainly do
do not sow the seed as


A Guide to the Study of Sham.

75

they do in Burma.

80. Well you must first of all sow

the seed of these young
paddy plants?

81. That is true, sir; after plough-

ing and harrowing very
thoroughly the nursery
beds spoken of. ....

82. We first sow the seed just

before we let in much
water and just before the
ploughing and harrowing.

83. And after this, how many

days old are the young
plants when you trans-
plant them into the fields?

84. When the plants, Sir, are

50 or 60 days old they
are pulled up and trans-
planted into the fields.

85. In what month do you reap

your matured crops?

86. The reaping is done in No-

vember or December and
even at times in January.

87. After your qjrops have tho-

roughly ripened and been
reaped what do you next
do?

88. After reaping we gather the

sheaves together and then
beat out the paddy.


76

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

89. After this you do as they do

in Burma?

90. And having properly prepar-

ed a threshing floor do you
tread out with buffaloes?

91. It is not our custom at all

to prepare threshing-floors
and tread out the corn
with buffaloes.

92. Our Shan practice is, after we

have reaped and collected
the sheaves to jointly beat
out the paddy.

93. When we have jointly thresh-

ed out much paddy we
take it home in bullock
carts and store it.

94. Questions on the method of

upland cultivation by the
Taungthus and Karens.

95. You Taungthus, Yangseks

and black Karens who live
in the Haipak district what
do you do for a living?

96. We all earn our livelihood as

upland and garden culti-
vators, Sir.

97. What sort of gardens are those

you work, are they many
and what do you plant?

98. Some of us live, Sir, by culti-

vating hill gardens.

99. And what do you hill gar-

deners grow?

100. Some Taungthus grow, special
leaves for rolling cigars.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

77

101. Some grow tobacco.

102. Some cultivate plantains, some

mangoes, jack fruit the
guava and other fruits.

103. And so you Taungthus do

no wet garden cultivation?

104. No, Taungthus do no wet cul-

tivation, we do solely dry
cultivation.

105. What tribes do upland and

wet cultivation?

106. Those who live by upland

and wet garden cultiva-
tion are Yangseks and
black Karens.

107. And what flowering and other

plants do they grow?

108. They grow the mustard plant,

radishes, garlic and onions.

109. They cultivate only the mor-

mordica plant, snake gourd
brinjalls and tomatoes.

110. What varieties of plants are

grown in dry cultivation?

111. In their upland fields some

grow paddy and some
sessamum.

112. In their upland rice and ses-

samun fields are not other
plants also grown?

113. They grow interspersed in

addition cucumbers, white
pumpkins, yellow pump-
kins and leguminous plants.


78

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

114. In what month do those hill

cultivators begin to plough ?

115. They begin to clear the ground

in October, Sir.

116. And in November they com-

mence ploughing.

117. After this how often do they

plough before completion ?

118. This ploughing is done three

times.

119. What is done after the plough-

ing?

120. After 3 complete ploughings

they break up the sods.

121. After breaking up the sods

they next collect dry cow
and buffalo dung.

122. They burn this and spread it

about in heaps.

123. And what do they do after

making it into heaps?

124. At the beginning of the rains

in May or June when the
first showers fall.....

125. They then dig up the culti-

vation mounds and spread-
ing them about sow the
paddy seed.

126. Do the Yangsek and black

Karen upland cultivators
only cultivate paddy?

127. Not so sir, some of the Ka-

rens cultivate ground nuts,
some plantains and some

sessamum.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

79

128. Do sessamum and ground

nut and plaintain culti-
vations require the burnt
heaps just the same?

129. Yes Sir, they all require and

are better for these burnt
heaps.

130. In sessamum and ground nut

land if there is no burn-
ing what happens?

131. If (the heaps) were not pro-

perly burnt red ants, white
ants, worms and insects
would eat up every-thing.

132. The ground nut sessamum and

banana plants would suffer.

133. Beginning with the nursery

beds and field plots.

134. How old are the paddy plants

when transplanted?

135. Gardens are not so paying

as paddy fields.

136. They are cutting and clear-

ing scrub.

137. The dry season has set in.

138. This is a wooden bell and clap-

per worked by the wind.

139. This is a hollow bamboo

worked by falling water.

140. This is growing kaing grass.

141. They are grinding paddy.

142. The pack bullock is well bro-

ken.

143. Is this horse well broken?

144. With what do you plough ?


80

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

145. We have to light fires to

keep away mosquitoes.

146. You must feed up this pony.

147. After using the bullocks, feed

them well.

148. Go and graze the cattle.

149. They went I know not where

beyond the grazing ground.

150. The owner reported the loss of

his cattle to the headman.

151. He pulled up the tying post.

152. On my arrival the tracks were

followed up.

153. The tracks disappeared.

154. How much is it for the ser-

vice of your bull?.

155. The bullocks should have been

recovered.

156. Tighten the girths.

157. This horse walks well.

158. It trots well.

159. It gallops well.

160. This pony is frightened.

161. What is this ponys height?

162. It has a soft mouth.

163. Dont pull his bridle.

164. The pony will bolt with you.

165. Dont ride at full gallop.

166. The pony is very quiet to ride.

167. A pair of bullocks worth 150/-

168. He bought the 4 pairs of buf-

falos for 500/

169. Tie up my mare in the stable.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

81

170. There are no cattle for work.

171. Those buffaloes are not your

buffaloes.

172. Those 2 buffaloes you claim

as yours are not yours.

173. A grazing ground.

174. Is there cattle disease here?

175. What colour is the pony?

176. The description of the miss-

ing elephant is as follows.

177. It has short stumpy tusks.

178. Its head is speckled.

179. This cow has short horns.

180. It has a blaze on the forehead.

181. It has a white tipped tail.

182. It is speckled round the eyes.

183. Its horns are curved forward.

184. It has a speckled hump.

185. It has no natural deformities.

186. It has a flexure at the navel.

187. It has a rounded body.

188. Are buffaloes hard to manage ?

189. Are these buffaloes quiet?

190. Are they wild or savage?

191. The ox will rest and get strong.

192. They do not deprive calves

of their mothers milk.

193. Have you a flock of sheep?

194. No, I have a herd of oxen.

195. He drove the ox by poking

it and twisting its tail.

196. This pony runs into people.

197. They raced their ponies.

198. Let us have a race.

199. Your pony is saddle-galled.

200. Which pony will you buy?

G. S. S. 6.


82

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

XI. Attack, Fight, Wounds.

1. Is the powder flask full?

2. Can you shoot?

3. This is a double-barrelled gun.

4. Have a shot at that tree.

5. I fired twice.

6. When I have time I will clean

the guns.

7. They make their own powder.

8. They cast their own bullets.

9. They are splendid shots at 500

yards.

10. You had better look after

your guns here, this place
has a bad reputation.

11. Dacoits attacked my village.

12. The troops fell back into the

stockade.

13. In order to rapidly occupy

Mandalay we will come
down and seize Thibaw.

14. The dacoits are near the village.

15. You must help government.

16. He strove to conquer.

17. Why did you kill him when

he never resisted you?

18. If they resist I will shoot them

down.

19. I nearly shot him by mistake.

20. I fired at him and just missed

him.

21. He pressed my head down.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

83

22. He squeezed me by the throat.

23. News was brought that many

dacoits would attack a
village two miles away.

24. When driving game walk ab-

reast at 10 feet intervals.

25. They are between two hostile

bodies of men.

26. It was an accident.

27. He was hit by the stone ac-

cidentally.

28. The house was well guarded.

29. The dacoits were sheltered be-

hind the village.

30. Peace is restored.

31. Hostilities have ceased.

32. They forced them to take.

33. We sent a mounted force to

await and resist him.

34. They could not restrain their

feelings.

35. A disturbance arose.

36. He went to pacify.

37. He would not suffer arrest.

38. He struggled in vain.

39. In the last war did you see

much fighting?

40. 10,000 Karens will attack the

foreigners.

41. There is no strife or dispute.

42. Let there be no disturbance on

the road.

43. He was severely stabbed.

44. He was bleeding all over.

45. We tried hard to stop the bleed-

ing, but without avail.


84

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

46. He was not expected to live

more than a few minutes.

47. He was brought to hospital

suffering from three sword
cuts on the right arm.

48. They are only flesh wounds.

49. On examination many wounds

were found on the body.

50. It was thought the wounds were

caused by a club.

51. The idea was that the body had

been thrown into the water
when life was extinct.

52. Many people were more or less

seriously injured.

53. The doctor has given up this

patient.

54. My arm and leg are broken.

55. How did you get this wound?

56. Have you had your wound

dressed?

57. How many inches long is the

wound on your head?

58. Do you know the man who

stabbed you?

59. How many days had you to

stay in hospital because of
your scalp wound ?

60. This dah makes a clean cut.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

85

XII. Promotion.

1. I have striven hard so as never

to have neglected my work.

2. I have never forgotten nor

neglected my work.

8. I have not been negligent.

4. I have kept special watch.

5. As he has been promoted.

6. Please promote me to the

vacant place.

7. I will raise him in rank.

8. He has no chance of promotion.

9. I am careful to be industrious.

10. He strives hard to look after

our welfare.

11. He never never neglects us.

IS. With a view to my future pros-

pects.


86

A Guide to the Study of Shan.

XIII. Gambling.

1. He who wishes to act as da-

ing (croupier.)

2. To act as croupier in black

and white dice.

Do. Do. in the 15 card game.
Do. Do. in the game of red

dice by 4 players.

Do. Do. in the 36 animal

game.

3. They are asked to pay in their

various stakes for the wa-
ing.

4. To play cards.

5. To throw dice.

6. Losers pay winners.

7. If he stakes l/ on the odd

number and this turns up
he wins l/

8. There are only two sides on

the gaming board.

9. If the forfeited stakes are in-

sufficient then the croupier
must pay from the bank.

10. The forfeits being sufficient

any excess goes to the
croupier as his profit.

11. Are Anidaung and the twelve

animal game played?

12. Gambling is the cause of much

crime.

13. Losers in gaming take to theft.

14. Quarrels ending in bloodshed

occur at gambling dens.


A Guide to the Study of Shan.

87

AVF. Marriage and divorce.

1. It is a divorce case.

My parents gave me in mar-

riage to him and we set
up house together.

3. He does not look after me

his wife properly.

4. I have established sufficient

reasons please divorce us.

5. He is an adulterer.

6. She is an adulteress.

7. An adultery case.

8 I have been married to Maung
Lin since I was 15 years
old.

9. As husband and wife we two
have lived together for
better for worse.

10. We are one for better for worse.

11. We are one for evil.

12. Their children are betrothed

at 5 or 6 years of age.

13. He said unpleasant things un-

bearable to my feelings.

14. They gave her away in mar-

riage in her early youth.

15. We gave our daughter in mar-

riage to a broker.

16. He appointed his wife to the

business of the shop.

17. She had recently put up her

hair.


Full Text