Manual of the Sikkim Bhutia language or Dénjong ké

Material Information

Manual of the Sikkim Bhutia language or Dénjong ké
Alternate Title:
Manual of the Sikkim Bhutia language or Denjong ke
Sandberg, Graham, 1852-1905
Place of Publication:
A. Constable & Co.
Publication Date:
2d and enl. ed
Physical Description:
144 pages ; 19 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Dänjong-kä language ( LCSH )
Danjong-ka language

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
6538216 ( OCLC )
CM 495.47 /3564 ( SOAS classmark )


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IDanbboofc of
Colloquial Cibeiait;

Being a Practical duicle: to tjje language o|

Central TiBet.


(1) Grammar of the Colloquial.

(2) Conversational Exercises and Copious Technical
Lists setting forth the Mythology, Zoology, Botany,
Food-stuffs, Religious Rites and Appliances, Bud-
dhist Sects, Titles of State, Weights and Measures,
&c. &c.

(3) Compendious Vocabulary : LadakiCentral Tibet-
an-Literary Tibetan.









Second and Enlarged Edition





Printed By Jadu Nath Seal,


46, Bechu Chatterjees Street, Calcutta.

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writer of these pages has often

wondered why those who spend so
many months yearly at Darjiling never
seem to take the slightest interest in the
language spoken by the bulk of the popula-
tion there. They may not be aware that
the uncouth-sounding chatter of the Bhutias
about the place is in reality a dialect of one
of the great literary languages of Asia. It
differs in many particulars from Tibetan
but on examination will be found full of
interest, and by no means so barbarous a
speech as is supposed. To acquire the
Sikkim dialect might form a preliminary
step to the study of the Tibetan tongue,
which has been so long and strangely neg-
lected. Moreover, now that Sikkim is
being fast opened out, the traveller, and
especially the missionary, the sportsman
and the soldier, will find a knowledge of
this dialect most desirable. At any rate an
exposition of this Bhutia speech, never
previously analysed, is here made and pre-
sented to the public.

Jhansi : N. W. P., July 1888.

C 8 ]

The annexation of Sikkim has enhanced
the importance of the language. In this
Second Edition of my manual, the former
issue (containing many errors unavoidable
in the first investigation of a new tongue)
has been revised throughout and the size
more than doubled. Numerous sen-
tences have been added to the colloquial
exercises, together with several new sec-
tions. The lists in the appendix and the
ample Vocabulary are likewise additional
matter, now first printed.

Sabathu : Punjab, J


April 1895* J


Introductory Note ii


Pronunciation l7

The Article . 21

Noun Substantives . 22

Adjectives . 31

Pronouns 34

The Verb 40

Adverbs . 52

Postpositions 54

Conjunctions 56

Formativfs 58

Numerals 59


Brief Orders ... 63

Useful Questions and Answers 65

On a Journey . . 67

Asking the Way 69

The Weather . 7

Buying and Selling . 72

Preparing and Eating Food 74

Horses and Guns . . 7^

Shooting in the Hills . 77

Engaging Coolies . 78

[ 10 ]

A Nights Lodging . . . .80

Up to the Dong-khya/ Pass between Sikkim and

Tibet . . 82

Teaching in School 89

Talk on Religion . . 92

Lords Prayer in De'n-Jong Ke/ . g6

Miscellaneous Sentences . 96



1. Mammalia of Sikkim . . . 117

2. Topographical List with Significations 123

3. Lepcha Words and Phrases . . . 139


The state of Sikkim, which until 1891 was under
the suzerainty of the Grand Lama of Lhasa, is that
portion of the Eastern Himalaya Mountains which
lies wedged in between the kingdom of Nepal and the
independent territory of Bhutan. The northernmost
point on the Tibetan frontier falls under Lat,
28-7'3o" N. and the southern apex lies in Lat. 275# N.,
barely ten miles north of Darjiling. Comprising as
it does some of the highest and most rugged moun-
tains in the world, as well as being rent and parcelled
out in every direction by ravines and river-gorges of
stupendous depth and labyrinthine course, the actual
area of Sikkim cannot with certainty be estimated.
However the theoretical superficies measured in one
plane may be put down at 2684 square miles and not
r55 square miles as given in Hunter's Gazetteer.
Moreover, before the Darjiling and Kalimpong dis-
tricts were severed the area approached 4000 square

Sikkim is only the Gurkha name of the territory
we are dealing with. The Tibetan appellation is D£i-

[ 12 ]

jong (vulgarly Denjong) or rice district; whilst the
Lepchas or Rong-pa (i.e., Ravine folk,) said to be
the oldest occupants of the country, formerly styled it
Nelyang but now call it Ren-jong.

In estimating the inhabitants of the country we
shall naturally class with them the native population
of Darjiling and Kalimpong, who, but for the recent
overflux of Nepalese immigrants, are practically one
with the Sikkim folk. Tribes of various races have
settled in these mountainous regions ; but the De-
jong-pa or Bhutias everywhere predominate in Sikkim
Proper; and these latter are being constantly aug-
mented by accessions from their Tibetan and Bhuta-
nese cousins. The rightful occupants of the country
are apparently the Lepchas whose kings formerly were
Tulers here. But the Sikkim Bhutias can now fairly
claim an historical connection with the land; and,
though of Tibetan origin, by this time have acquired
an autonomy and local characteristics of their own.
This Tibetan race began to over-run D6n-jong or
Sikkim some 350 years ago ; and the first Bhutia King,
Puntso Namgyal by name, assumed control here
about the same year that King Edward VI. ascend-
ed the British Throne. These Bhutias came from the
province of Tsang in Tibet and doubtless brought with
them the then prevailing dialect of that province.

C 13 ]

Both their sovereigns and their speech continued to
the present day ; but, alas, since the first issue of this
little book, the kings have been suspended, and the
Gye* po of Sikkim, whose ancestors so long had held
the throne, is now a poor prisoner at Kursiong with less
pay than a junior clerk in a Government office.

The Lepchas, also, have maintained their own
language, and have a distinctive and peculiarly beauti-
ful series of characters in which it is written ; never-
theless, the Bhutia folk being now in point both of
numbers and of power the predominant people, we may,
we think, not unreasonably speak of the Bhutia
tongue as the Denjong Ke or vernacular of Sikkim.
The language in question is admittedly a Tibetan
dialectsome doubtless would style it a corrupt
Tibetan, because both in vocabulary and grammatical
forms it differs from the speech of Lhasa. So far as
pronunciation goes, however, it seems to be the
speech of Lhasa which has acquired corruptions \
whilst the Denjong Ke, in common with the dialect
of Balti beyond Ladak, has retained, in some notable
instances, a purer method of pronunciationat least
a method more in accord with the ancient spelling.

It must not be supposed that the Denjong dialect
is the general speech of all Tibetans in Sikkim. Our
tenancy of Darjiling has attracted many from the

[ H ]

mother country and elsewhere, who rarely use, though
they may understand, the grammatical peculiarities of;
the Sikkim folk. In the Kalimpong district many
families speak the Tibetan dialect of Bhutan. At
Ghum are settled pure Tibetans and Wallung-pa from *
Nepal, who rather despise the Sikkim race. The
Sharpa Bhutias, a cross race between the Lepchas and
Bhutias, make use of the Denjong vernacular.

The great divergence between the orthography and
the pronunciation of Tibetan words is well known.
In this respect the Sikkim speech has peculiarities of
its own. Thus the kr. gr. &c., which in Tibetan are
sounded as the cerebral t, d, &c., are here pro-
nounced ky, gy, &c. As a dialect distinct from
the general Tibetan language, the Denjong Ke cannot
claim to be called a written speech. Sikkim indeed in
past years has been the native home of literary
authors, both of the Lepcha and Bhutia race, who have
issued works in their own respective languages. The
heads of the two great Sikkim monasteries, Labrang
and Tashiding, are always held to be incarnate lamas,
having within them the spirits of two of the Buddhist
apostles who converted the Lepchas (in part) and the
Murmis to the latter faith. Two or three of the line
of these incarnate ones have produced in their day
religious works, written of course in classical Tibetan.

[ i5 ]

These were printed either at Nartang in Tibet or
else in Khams. One popular Bhutia composition is
said to be indigenous to Sikkim, where it is met with
chiefly in MS. form, namely, the Bkrashis Gsung.
There also exists a Lepcha translation of the book.

The official language of Denjong is Tibetan and in
the Kalimpong and Darjiling districts our Govern-
ment notices are primed collaterally in Bengali and
Tibetan. Unfortunately the tendency under the new
regime is to foist a foreign idiom on the people.
Hindu clerks are employed in preference to Tibetans
and the Bhutia Boarding School has been turned
into a mixed Hindustani academy !

The running hand employed in letters and business
contracts, as written by the Lamas of Sikkim, appears
to be rather different from that in general use in
Tibet. We wish we could have reproduced a speci-
men epistle written to us by our friend Puntso
Wingden, an accomplished caligraphist; but the
expence of lithography must not be incurred, at least
in the present form of this little book.




The sounds occurring in the Den-jong dialect of
Tibetan are these :


k; pronounced as the English k in king.
kh; the aspirated k as in the Hindustani khana.
g; as our hard g in goat.

ng*; occurring both as an initial and as a final; at the
commencement of a word sounded something as
our gn in gnarled but more nasal,
eh; as in our church.

ehh; the aspirated chas the ch and h taken to-
gether in sounding the words reach-hither.
j ; as in our jam, but generally more aspirated,
ny; an initial whose sound may be learnt by pro-
nouncing n and y together in such a word as
t; as our t.
d; as in den.

th; the aspirated /, not as our th but as t and
h together in such a combination as hit him
and as the Hindi: thana. We shall represent
this sound by f.

dh ; d aspirated as the last letter, to be represented by d.

The four last-named letters sometimes occur
with a slightly different sound. Instead of being pro-

[ i8 ]

nounced with the tongue touching the teeth or gums,
they are varied by being sounded with the tongue put
back and pressed against the front part of the roof of
the mouth. They are then called cerebrals ; and will
be represented by the ordinary letters with a dot

p; as in our put.

ph; the last letter aspirated; not sounded as f, but
as the p and h together in top-heavy; herein
to stand as p\
b; as the English b.
m; as in mast.

ts ; as in lets, but always an initial, never a final,
ts; same aspirated.

-dz ; our d and z sounded together as a rough z.

W; as our w in woof.

zh; as the French j in jujubea rough sh.



all as the English letters.

h; J

ky; I The k, g, and aspirated p, sounded with y
gy ; V immediately following; the last to be re-
phy ; J presented here by fly.

hi; the 1 aspirated. Not unlike the sound of the
Welsh double 1.


d ; as a in father.
a ; as u in fun.

[ 19 ]


i; as ee in teem, but often as our i in tin, e.g. in
the Bhutia words min, rin, fin &*c.

O; always as o in stone, never as o in pot, &c.,
except in potso a boy and about two other words.

II; as 00 in Poona; shorter than our 00 in pool
au; as au in taught or as ou in ought.

6U \ as u in cue,

ai; the Tibetan mode of sounding their as; either
like 6 as above, or more correctly as a followed
rapidly by a very short i (ee). Thus ndi here.
e; represents the sound of a final ad in the original
Tibetan spelling, and is heard as if ea ; or perhaps
as our ay in may, only more prolonged.

6 ; is our o and e conjoined and sounded with the
opening of the mouth narrowed as if about to
whistle; or one might describe it as an e said with
affectation. In German a well known sound,
ii; as eu in the French word feu, pronounced with
the lips pointed and almost closed.

At first when speaking it will be found difficult to
give the sounds the exact accent, or rather tone of
the Bhutia natives. The two last mentioned diph-
thongs are puzzling sounds to imitate ; and yet, if an
ordinary o and u were to be used in their places, words
would be understood perfectly different to those which
were intended.

Ng, though easy enough to say as a final, when
occurring as the first letter of a word requires much
practice to acquire. Two separate sounds must not be
made of the n and g. It is one letter, and therefore a
single nasal vowel sound, uttered with the roof of the

[ 20 ]

mouth, must alone be; heard. Practice unga ah$
that will lead you to the correct sound.

To say gy rightly, personally I have found it
almost advisable, strange though it may seem, to pro-
nounce it as dy. Thus gyuk-she to run is almost:

Remember u is always nearly as long as our oo
not as our u in duck, but as our u in put.

In two-letter syllables ending in o, as bo, mo, the o
is heard rather as an abrupt u (oo) yet still an o sound.

Now and then in these pages we have employed
accents to shew where the stress should be laid ; but a
merely ndicates the long Irish a as given above.

L 21 ]


The indefinite article a, an, is represented by chik
placed after the noun or adjective. The final k is-
generally, however, left unsounded : Pum chi' a. girl.

We do not often use this article except when the
noun is in the nominative case, unless indeed it occurs
in the sense of one. Thus a boy will be Potso chi;
of a boy Potso kyi; of one boy Potso chiyi.

The definite article is very much in use : di the.
It is heard with the inflected noun as well as when the
latter stands in the nominative. When the noun has a
possessive pronoun attached we often find di still
added, (see IV. I. d)

The plural of di is di-ts'o, as gyomci di-ts'o, the

JDi changes to tc when something previously re-
ferred to is again mentioned.

Ordinarily di follows its noun ; but where any singl-
ing out of the noun is desired we have one di placed
before and another di after the word, e.g., di p'yd di
the bird, (see also IV. 3. Exam J

[ 22 ]


i.In the Denjong Ke the different cases of the
noun are specified by means of short syllables, called'
postpositions, annexed to the words :

Khirn chi a house.

Nom : Khim chi a house.

Gen : Khim kyi or hi of a house.

Dat: Khim lo to a house.

Accus : Khim or Khim lo a house.

Loc : Khim na at or in a house.

Abl: Khim ne or le from a house.
Agentive : Khim kyi by a house.

Where the word terminates in g or ng a variation*
is made :

Chd-dong di

Nom : Chd-dong di
Gen : Chd-dong gi
Dat : Cha dong lo

Accus : Chd-dong or
chd-dong lo

Loc : Chddong na
Abl : Chd-dong le
Agen : Chd-dong gl

the tea-churn.

the tea-churn
of the tea-churn
to the tea-churn

the tea-churn
in or at the tea-churrb
from the tea-churn
by the tea-churn

L 23 ]

Also with words ending with a vowel, the affixes
of the genitive and agentive are rather different:

Pyd chi a bird

Nom : Pyd chi
Gen : Pyd-i or Pyc
Dat: P'ya-lo
Accus : Pyd or Pyd lo
Loc : P}yd na
Abl: Pyd ne or le
Agent: P'yd-l or kl

a bird
of a bird
to a bird
a bird

in or at a bird
from a bird
by a bird

But where a final consonant has been elided in
the original spelling the genitive, &c. is not altered :

Khd-rii chi a snow-slip.

Gen : Kha-rii kyi of a snow-slip

Agent : Khd-ru kyi by a snow-slip

After a final vowel the gen. affix ought to be i 01
yi sounded separately ; but kyi is often employed-
especially after the article : e. g., di-kyi of the.

The Plural number is not often expressed; but where
doubt would arise, the particles cha or tso may be
added, e. gnyi-lam a dream nyi-lam cha dreams;
Gya-mi a Chinaman Gyd-mi ts'o Chinamen, Chinese*
The case signs would follow the plural particle.

E H ]

Where any case other than the nominative occurs
'the definite article is not expressed, e. g. >

Potso-kyi lu di: The song of the boy ; the boys song.

Khyi di alii lo so-tap ong : The dog will bite the cat.

In the latter sentence alii lo is the accus. after the

verb so-tap ong will bite, so-tap meaning ^/ strike, so
(with the) teeth.

However the definite article is sometimes used
with the accus. when the verb is in the Imperative
Mood :

Gom di p'i : Open the door To-za di tso : cook the food !

The other connections of nouns such as with,
upon. under, unto, will be explained under the
heading Postpositions. These are indeed at times
,added where we should not consider their introduction
required, as where we should use only a simple case
sign, *. g.

Shing audi teng-kha dzek : Climb this tree.

Here teng-kha upon is introduced in accordance
with Tibetan idiom ; and placed after Shing audi this
tree. The accus. case may be expressed by the
simple word without the affix lo, where no ambiguity
,would result as to wiiich were the nominative, espe-
cially in imperative sentences, as in the example given

Gom di pi : Open the door.

But where a dative sense is implied in any way the
lo must be used :

Mi-lo lam di ten nang: Shew (to) the man the way.

I *5 ]

2.A rather important case rule to be remembered
^however is this :

Where both subject and object occur in any sen-
tence, the subject is put in the agentive case, except
where the verb of the sentence is part of the verb to

Rule though this is, it is generally not observed by
the uneducated ; and therefore we shall not keep to
it in our conversational examples to be given hereafter,
the nominative being usually heard as in English.
One example is now given :

Bagrak kyi ts'dng chi pyd chen du : A spider is making
a web.

This is literally :

((By a spider a web for nest") is making/

We conclude the present section by appending a
-classified list of useful nouns :

Animate Beings.

mi man

g&J'ok 1 husband
khyo-ga J

mobi: woman

khimme; wife

dfio: father

rdmo : mother

.fiugu : child

tsd-yuk: grand child

tunclo any animal

id horse
te mule

bong-gu ass
bhdchu cow
jo-mo milch-yak
luk sheep
rapo goat
fag-mo pig

[ 26 ]

potso: boy khyi dog
pum: girl alii or \
shempa : youth shim J
aft: grandmother fb calf
pu : son pit si rat
pum: daughter . jag-ma squirrel
pun : brothers, relatives dm silver fox
drcho: elder brother dom bear
piin-gya: younger brother kardi-pyu marmot
aji: elder sister p'yd any bird
num: younger sister p'ya-lak eagle
singmo: a sister khim-p'ya domestic fowl'
yo-ko: servant ok-ld crow
bomsho: head servant beu (byu) snake
hu-nyet: temple chowkidar bep frog
bak-khen : coolie p'yd-wang bat
fti-pbn : head of District. nyam-yo tree-cricket
tarpon: sub officer si?7iuk tree-frog

Things Eatable. *

Cha tea de-chhang rice beer

* Many herbs and so-called weeds, neglected in Europe,
are cultivated in prepared soil as articles of vegetable food
by the cottagers of Sikkim. These include large docks and
Polygonum cymosum (known as Pu-lop-bi) boiled like our
spinach ; also shepherds purse, various nettles, several
balsams, Thlaspi arvense, mithridate cress, Galeopsis, two kinds
of Cynoglossum, a purple Dentaria (styled kenrup-bi) common
English Poa grass (for cattle) and especially the white radish

[ 27 ]

pa-leb loaf
khu cake

shurbu dough-balls in
tea or soup

to or to-zd victuals, dinner

om milk

gongdo eggs

mar butter

fukpa broth

sha-chuk dry meat

luk-sha mutton

chum rice

khim p\yd fowl

nyd fish

chu soft curds

chuzip dried curds,

singma murwar beer
chhu water

kyur-ru vinegar

kyiu potato
tarulbdk yam
dowa artichoke
rdmpd Sikkim leek
khdmbu peach
ts'd lumpa orange
kye-dong plantain
tserlum raspberry
chukhd rhubarb
kara sugar
ts'd salt

khabze twisted pastry-cake-

House and its Contents.

khim house p'orpa bowl

nyuk-khim house of bamboo loknyo spoon
shing-khim hut of wood ki-chhung knife

(known as lapuk). Besides these, the tubers of several large
arums are used as food (styled tong) after the poisonous
juices have been extracted by boiling; also chokli, the flower-
heads of a large pot-herb, a Smilacina.


, do-chhal the pavement
gom door
khang-mik room
ge-kdr window
entar floor
ker-khd stair ladder
mi fire
chenfe table
gy&fi chair
shu-ten cushion-seat
chhd cupboard
nyd-fi bedstead
khyu-zhong bathing tub
de-cho W. C.


nyim sun
dau moon
kdm star
humpo cloud
ri mountain
gang hill-spur
. kang-chen glacier
rong ravine
sdrrii land ship
kha-rii snow-slip

karyo cup

derma dish

tse-a basket

mezen blanket

kho-di teapot

dom or gum box

pallattila scales

fe-kyal flour-bag

sang cooking-kettle, degchi

te-ko wash-basin

shel fglass in window, &c.)

gyimtse scissors

pakze brush

chumi lamp


kya-ma fern

do stone

mukpa fog

khd snow

khek ice

iak rock

sha-mo fungus

soke shdmo mushroom

shing-gi ddma tree-leaf

chha-rd evergreen oak

[ 29 J

fokpo deep gorge pd-ma cypress
lam-tang cliff-ledge gomrok holly
fokzdr torrent-bed shukpa juniper
chhabo rain ydli maple
tsang-chhu river gai dong india-rubber tree
tsd grass kydn-me shing pine tree
shing tree pyung smaller bamboo
mi?itok flower du7ii-po tree-trunk
Parts of the Body.
zuk the body mi-ko throat
go head to-ko stomach
kya hair kye-pa waist
khddong face che tongue
kha mouth so tooth, teeth
dempo cheek le-dui?i leg (upper part)
nd nose kang-pa foot, leg ( lower part) >
namcho ear lak-ko arm, hand
mido eye dzum-mo fingers, toes
gyap back kup backside
chha-kha a thing kangshd funeral ceremony;*-
wing name tdrcho flag
ur noise do magic stringed sticks.

[ 30 ]

ma a sore
lu song
hi market
lapta school
yVkhang post office
gompa temple
du-gang temple hall
thhor-ten sacred obelisk
ku-ten images

set gold
ngii silver
khyd blood
ko-lak coat
torma trousers
sha??i-ko lamas skirt
hlam boots
shdmbu cap
sungbu charm-locket

[ 3i ]


The adjective invariably follows its noun; and
when the noun is thus qualified by an adjective the
proper case-sign is affixed to the latter only, e.g.

PHru noksup chi : a dark night.

Potso tsok kyi lak-ko di; the hand of a dirty boy.

Pu lem chi : a good son.

Where the adjective is used as an attribute, the
article is often placed before as well as after the
noun; e.g.

PH-ru di noksup be
or Di p'i-ru di noksup be



The night is dark.

Here is the adjective as a single attribute :

Ngd fang chhe-po yin : I am tired.

The adjective is rendered more intense by various
words placed before \t:hd-chang or ?iyogi= much,
very. Mam and nyok=\try; and follow the adjective.
But these are properly adverbs.

Td di hachang nyambu du: The horse is very quiet.

Rin di hdchang be*: The price is too much.

Di nyim di nyogi futn-po be*: The sun is very hot.

Td-to nyogi khya-bo be : It is very cold now.

Te-kha nyok : Very dirty.

[ 32 ]

Comparison of Adjectives.

Greater is rendered te-le chhe than that, great.

Stronger ,, ,, te-le she than that, strong.

Pa-shing audi te-le she min du' : This pole is not stronger
than that.

Strongest is rendered gun le she than all, strong.,

Tsim field gim le fo be\ That peak is the highest.

Tse-o di lo riyung audi le ringkyam chi go pe: The
basket requires a longer tie-rope than that: {lit: To
the basket, than this tie-rope, a long is wanting.)

The comparative form of sentence may be slightly
varied by the insertion of the word yang after the
particle le which stands for than.

My heart is heavier than my load : Nge sem di nge toi di
le yang ji-chen be\

A common superlative expletive is ckhok:

This is the best : audi lem chhok be\

This way is the shortest: Di lam di Vung-kyam chhok bed

Some Ordinary Adjectives.

Lem good chhempo or chhe great

Mdlep bad chhung small

yak po good \of actions and nyok-ma muddy
wakpo bad j things tsok or te-kha dirty

she??ipa young tsangmo clean

ge-po old noksup dark

[ 33 ]

nyom-chhung poor
ji-chen heavy
ydng-ke or yang-mo light
jamtong easy
jdm-po soft
takia hard
khe-li all, the whole
sarpa fresh, new
nying-po old, not new
fiimpo hot
khya-bo cold
ring-kyam long
fung-kyam short
kom-bo dry
po?ig-po wet
lo-chen lazy
dze-bo pretty

wd-chen light

kh'e-ta or khesta clever

she strong

bekta weak

gyop fast

bul-po slow

bom-po thick (also loud)

sim-bu thin (slender)

zhang-zhang broad

zhangme narrow

map red

ndk-po black

kdp white

serp yellow

leb-lep flat

ddlchen quiet, smooth
kyur-po sour


[ 34 ]


i. Personal Pronounsa. These are subject to
inflection of case as nouns and adjectives are.

Ngd or ngd-rang I ; Nge of me, my ; Nga-lot me,
to me ; ngdkl by me.

Chho you ; Chho-kyi of you, your ; Chho-lo you,
to you ; Chho-kl by you.

Kho : he ; Kho-i of him, his ; Kho-lo to him,
him ; Kho-yl or Kho by him. (Kho frequently sounds

Mo : she ; Mo-i or mo of her, hers ; Mo-lo to her
her ; Mo-yl or mo by her.

Di: It ; Di-kyi of it ; Di-lo it, to it.

The use of mo as the feminine third personal
pronoun is not universal, and kho in many parts of
Sikkim as in Tibet represents both he and she.

b.The Plural forms are Ngdcha we, Khong and
Khocha they, Di-ts'o them ; but, except where mis-
apprehension might arise, the singular forms fre-
quently stand in their place. There is, however, a
special plural possessive of the first person, ngdchi
our, invariably resorted to, as

Kho ngdchi lopon be / He is our teacher.

In many districts ngd-rang is always used in pre-
ference to ngd.

Examples :

Chhd pum lem be' : You are a good girl.

Kho potso malep be' : He is a bad boy.

[ 35 ]

'Chho-kyi mi-do tsum : Shut your eyes.

Kho nga-lo gongdo gu tsong she in : He will sell me
'time eggs.

Mo-i kya ring-kyam du : Her hair is long.

Ngd-rang rampa dama sd do in : I am eating rampa

c. The genitive affix is often omitted from Chho
and Kho, the simple pronoun being used to express the
^possessive as well as the nominative. So we hear

Chhd lak-ko tsang min be : Your hands are not clean.

dA curious point in the use of the possessive
case of these pronouns must be noted. The noun may
be accompanied (as in Italian) by both the possessive
^pronoun and the definite article.

Nge dom di bdk shvk : Bring my box.

This is literally : Bring the my box but the con-
struction evidently arises from the pronoun being
treated as a noun in the genitive case, and if a noun
were to be substituted for the pronoun the above form
would be perfectly regular. The rendering is really ;
Bring the box of me. The employment of this article
in such cases seems often to be left to the choice of
the speaker or else is ruled by the general custom in
each individual instance. However the article must
be used in this way where the intention is to parti-
cularise anything belonging to a person as apart from
the property of others. Where no stress is laid upon
the ownership the article may be omitted, e. g.

Moi pu shi song du : Her son has died.

Moi pu di ngd-lo ten nang : Show me her son.

[ 36 ]

Again :

Di-kyi gong di nyok be' : The price of it is much.

N. B.The pronoun di it, stands for this when*
the latter is used apart from any expressed noun, ancfc
is varied to te for that when similarly occuring.

2. Demonstrative PronounsAlthough we
have appended the foregoing note to the poceeding
section, we find the article di often loosely conjoined
to a noun to indicate both this and that. In-
classical Tibetan we find the same practice ; but, in
the colloquial dialect of Sikkim, provision has been pro-
perly made for distinguishing the demonstrative pro-
nouns from the mere definite article. The pronouns
themselves are

Audi : this. P'idi : that.

However where we should ordinarily say that we
frequently find audi is the pronoun used. The fact
is, this usage really arises from the accuracy with which
Tibetans ( in common with other orientals) employ
their demonstrative pronouns to. discriminate at once
the proximity or distance in situation of the thing
indicated. We on the contrary generally use this
or that almost indiscriminately and more in relation
to the priority of the time of mentioning a thing than
in reference to its actual place.

In fact

Audi this here ; Pidi = that yonder

These pronouns are used both when conjoined to>
nouns and when pure pro-nouns, e.g.

Audi ke-kyi khim bo ? Whose house is this ( or that near

[ 37 ]

Khim audi ke bo : Whose is this house P

Chh'o audi kam pya do* : Why are you doing that ?

(properly this)

Nga-lo gompa pidi nangsha ta go ; I want to see within
^that temple (yonder)

[We may usefully construe the last sentence:
Nga-lo to me, go it is necessary td {she) to see na?ig-sha
within gompa f idi that temple.]

In numerous instances, as in the case of the per-
sonal pronouns, the definite article is used in conjunc-
tion with the demonstative pronoun. The latter is
then placed before instead of after the noun, e.g.

Audi ki-chhung di nyogi ring-kyam du' : That knife is
very long, (near at hand).

Audi dom diyd-te bdk song : Take that box up-stairs.

Ngd-lo audi den di mingo : I dont want this carpet.

Where there is an interrogative pronoun also, the
di by custom is placed after the latter : e.g.

Audi pum kd di bo : Who is this girl ?

3. Relative Pronouns.These which hardly
occur at all in literary Tibetan are perhaps altogether
absent from D6n-jong ke, except in a few correlative
phrases which need not be particularised here. How-
ever, all the purposes of our relative pronouns are
fitly compassed by means of participial clauses. The
participial clause is introduced immediately in front
*of what would in English be the antecedent of the
relative pronoun, and stands as if it were a huge com-
pound adjective qualifying the antecedent noun to
'which it refers. Thus the sentence The man who

[ 38 ]

lived in that house died yesterday would take the-
form : The living-in-that-house man died yesterday/'
Here living-in-that-house is the big adjective-
qualifying man. In literary Tibetan this participial
clause might be placed, like any ordinary adjective,
either following the noun to which it was related, or
else before it with the participle of this clause inflect-
ed in the genitive case. In the Sikkim colloquial
the latter alternative seems to be the only admissable
practice, the genitive inflection being, however, dis-
pensed with.

The participle is formed by merely affixing the-
the syllable khen to the root of the verb ; and, save-
in a few exceptional instances, we find no difference
in expression between the present and the past
participle. The context must determine the time to-
the English speaker ; for the Tibetan sees no necessity
to discriminate between a present and a past in mere
dependent clauses. Thus we have :ts'ongnyi to*
sell ; tsong khen, selling, who sells ; ts'ong khen^having
sold, who sold.

The participles passive would even be loosely
rendered by the very same expressions as the fore-
going ; although if precision were required we should
probably find the distinction marked by the addition of
zhe or kyap to the verbal root, thus :tsong zhe khen
being sold, which is sold ; ts'ong zhe'khen having been
sold, which was sold, which had been sold. Kyap is
used only with certain verbs. Had been sold might
be further discriminated by the insertion of ^^,thus :
ts'ong song zhe khen ; but this compound would only
be used where particular stress as to time and manner
of the transaction was thought to be desirable.

[ 39 ]

Examples of Relative Clauses.

a. Chho t&song nyo khen om di nga-lo nang. Give me
the milk which you bought this morning.

fi. Khim lo luk bak yong khen shempa di-yi potso-i hlam
ku bak song: The butcher who brought the sheep to
the house stole the boys boots.

(N. B. Shempa di-yi the instrumental case as given
in this sentence is grammatically correct; but common-
ly, as we have, sufficiently shewn, the nom. is always
used and thus the yi would most likely not be said.)

7* Konchhok lo de-pa kye khen di-tso ngd nyinpo kyd-nyi :
I want to love those who have faith in God.

§. Di piru kyang ab khen khyi di sung-khyi mdlep be9 :
The dog who barks all night is a bad watch dog.

(Here we find the definite article placed at the
commencement and close of the relative clause, thus
neatly marking it off. This is only as expansion of a
similar use of the article already noticed in § I )

4. Interrogative Pronouns. These are ke or
kd who, kan or kam which, what, karnbe why, ke or ke-
kyi whose, ke-nai from whom ? All such have been
sufficiently illustrated under § 2 of this chapter. One
further Example

P'idi alii ke-kyi bo : Whose cat is that ?

Kam supplants Kan when initial of word following
is b, m, or p,

5. Indefinite Pronouns. We may mention
khe-li all, dtsichi some, any, reshi, some, zhiima others
zhen chi another, ts'angma the whole, chhdbu part.

[ 40 ]


We find in the Sikkim Dialect a fairly systematic
method of expressing the various phases of the verb.
I,n fact the different tenses are particularised in this
dialect with greater accuracy and regularity than are
to be found in the book language of Tibet. Some
variety in the affixes appended to the verbal roots is
met with according to the locality of the speakers. In
the Darjiling and Kalimpong districts we find certain
strange affixes which disappear as we proceed north
of Tamlong. On the Tibetan frontier moreover the
verbal inflections assimilate entirely with those pecu-
liar to Tsang. We believe however the southern
manner of inflexion to be that proper to the Sikkim
dialect and to be generally comprehendible to natives
.and itinerants in the northern districts. Nevertheless
all variations shall be noted below.

1. Infinitive.This is formed by adding she or
nyi to the root of the verb, e.g., kap-she or kap-?iyi to
cover. She is the usual affix throughout Tsang and
equally common in Sikkim. Nyi is peculiar to the
Darjiling district.

2. Future tense.From the Infinitive the
future tense is formed by adding 7>z (really jiv>2) for the
first person and be or sometimes du' (duk) for the 2nd
and 3rd person. But frequently when the 3rd person
future has to be expressed the regular Tibetan future,
formed by the addition of ong not to the infinitive
but to the root, is resorted to.

Examples will make this sufficiently understood :

I shall drink :

J Ngd tung she Hn.

\ or Ngd tung nyi in

[ 4i ]

He will drink :

( Kho tung ong.

I <

I or kho tung she be.

Ong becomes yong in northern Sikkim as in Tibet. Else-
where always ong as in Balti.

The formation of the future from the infinitive, it will be
noted, is very natural ; for in=am, ^=is. So we have t'ung
she to drink ; t' ung shein am to drink = will drink; tung-
she-be is to drink = will drink.

3. Present tense.The root with do in annex-
ed ''probably du' *in or dukyin) is generally heard when
the first person occurs. The root with chen du or
chen bd for the 2nd and 3rd persons. Thus

I am eating rice : Ngd chum-lo sa do in.

He is coming home : Khu khim-lo ong chen du'.

You are beating the I ^ ^ i0 ny0g{ chen du.

horse very much 1 j & r

But in many districts of Sikkim do bd or to bd
would be employed with the 2nd and 3rd persons ; to
being used for do when euphonically more suitable :

He is sitting on the ground : Kho sd-Io dii to bd.

He runs like a horse : Kho id deni chhong do bd.

The water is freezing : Chhu di khek gyu do bd.

The lama is speaking : Lama di lap to be.

Sometimes the bd is omitted :

1 am sinking into the snow : Ngd khau-d nangsha nup gyu


The use of the present tense in do is, as we shall
see, common throughout Sikkim in the interrogative
form. (See V. § 9.) Often be or pe) alone, added to
the root, stands for the simple present ; e. g.

The yak grunts loudly : Yak di bompo nguk bd.

You look very clean to-day : Chho taring tsang

mam tam-pd.

[ 42 ]

4. Perfect tenses.The past definite form*
generally can be expressed by the root of the verb
with zhe, che, or jhe (variously sounded) annexed. The
past indefinite requires song zhe or song du\ Thus

He wrote a letter : Kho yige chi p'i zhe.

To-day the sun has shone : Taring nyim dilshd]zhe.

He has written a letter : Kho yige chi pH song du'.

Sometimes with du alone:

Mo zung du1 she seized, did seize.

Mo or mu-i chhak du*: She broke.

There seems no decided distinction between Active
and Passive voices : chhak song du has been broken
but gyu chung often indicates the Passive, e.g., sd gyu
chung has been eaten.

Certain styles are preferred for certain verbs.
Thus shi she to die, always forms the past tense witb

shi song, died; shi song zhe has ^ quite) died, is dead.

shi song du did die (emphatic)

t'ong chef saw ; t'ong song zhe has seen

Other verbs have special past forms :

gyu-she, to go ; song went

bdk do nyi, to take, take away; bdk song zhe has taken.

pya-she} to do ; zhe or che: did : zhe song has done. And1
a few others.

5. Imperative.The simple root; or else the
root with tang and, as a politer form, with nang or
nyd added.

Eat this: andi sd. Open the door: gom-di pH! Cook food::
to tso tang! Fasten the dog: khyi tdk tangl

[ 43 3

Please show the way: Lam di ten-nang.

Please give me a rupee: Nga-lo tiruk chi pin nang or p in

Look for it: Tsol nyd.

Please assist him : Kho-lo rok be' nyd.

A favourite inperative affix with many persons is-
me\ used in both positive and negative sentences:

Ask him : Kho-lo di me.

Dont kill the bird : Pya di ma se me'.

Be quick : Gyop be' me !

6. Potential Mood.The root, or sometimes-
the infinitive, with chog or ts'uk annexed. The better-
form is the latter verb, chog or ckok being provincial.

I can run quickly : Ngd gyop chong tsuk.

He can climb up the tree: Kho shing di dzek chok.

The interrogative form is most frequently used
and differs from the ordinary interrogatives to be
explained hereafter :

Can you read the book : Chho chho di dok ts'uk kd ?

Can you see the gentleman : Chhd kusho di t'ong chog-gd ?

Is he able to use a gun : Khu mindd chi kyi p'ent'o p'yd she
chog-gd ?

Are you able to fight: Chho t'abmo kyap chhug-gd ?

Can the boy sing a song : Potso di lu kyap tsuk-kd ?

Does he know : Khu shekd ?

[ 44 ]


In the Sikkim district be' 'really bad) is the com-
mon word for is ; but be' is often varied to me' and
pe'> When used interrogatively is takes the form
bo or mo.

Ngd or ng&rang 'in : I am. Ngdchd 'in : We are.

Chhd or chhorang be' : Thou art. Chhd be' : You are.

Kho or korang be' : He is. Khnng be' :

Khong-tso be' :

lam very wet: Ngd nyogi bong-bo in.

I am sorry : Ngd-lo sent duko be' (* there is sorrow to me.)
You are a bad girl : Chho pum mdlep be'

The book is easy to read : Di chho di dok-nyi jam-tong be'.
You are a clean boy : Chhd potso tsang-mo be'.

You are a filthy girl : Chho pum tsok be'.

He is an idle man : Kho mi she-Lo be'.

The woman is pretty and dirty: Di pum di dzebo tdrung

malebo be.

i They are.

The other form of be' namely me' might be heard
in the above. We find occasionally du' substituted for
be' by the more Tibetanized folk.

That girl is my wife : Audi pum di nge mobi du'.

That pretty girl is to be my wife : Pum dzebo audi nge
.mobi chung she du'

She is unmarried: Mo menshar du.

L 45 ]

The interrogative form of the verb to be runs
thus :

Ngd yo td : am I ? Chhd bo : are you ? Kho bo : is he ?

A common alternative form of bo is mo:

Where are you P Chhd ka-khd mo ?

Who is that lama behind the house: Audi Idma khim di
se-lo di kd mo ?

Are you young : Chhd shempa bo ?

Is the horse cold : Td di khyabo vio ?

Where is the man who came | Ndi khdsong ong khen mi
here yesterday f di ka-khd be ? or kd-khd bo ?

Who is out there : P'd-ki pila kd mo ?

8. The Possessive verb to have.As in
Russian, Hindustani, and many other languages the
possessive verb is rendered by the circumlocution

There is near------ or to------there is. Thus : I

have three children becomes to me three children
are Nga-lo pugu sum be. Again : you have a warm
dry coat is best turned near you a warm dry coat is
Chhd zd ko-lak tum-po kambo du\ Interrogatively :
Have you three children Chho-lo pugu sum bo ?
Have you any boots to sell Chhd zd di tsong-khen
hlam kan di bo ? Here note how the double article
didi is used to bind the participle ts'ong-khen to its
proper antecedent.

Where have is a simple auxiliary joined to another
verb, it is usually represented by du\

[ 46 ]

9General Interrogatives.

aThe primary mode of expressing these is by
the addition of the particle bo or mo to the proper
tense of the verb required, thus

Did you go to the bazaar Chhd khdsang he'-lo song bo ?
yesterday :

Will you sell me that sheep : Chhd nga-lo luk pidi ts*ong

she mo f

When the present is used interrogatively, that form
of the tense is chosen which takes do or to (ante § 4):

Are you drinking beer : Chhd chhang t'ung do bo ?

Are you fetching the bellows : Chhd bipa bdk nang do bo ?

p By custom the interrogative particle is abridged
.into 0 with certain verbs ending in k (really g) :

Did you break the dish : Chhd derma di chhdk-o ?

Where have you put the oranges : Chhd tsd-lumpa te kdna

zhak-o ?

Have you read it : Chhd di-lo dok-o ?

yExcept when it is itself the verb substantive,
the interrogative particle can be omitted if an interro-
gative pronoun occurs :

Why are you doing that : Chhd audi kam be p'ya chen du ?

What are you throwing away : Chhd chhd-la kan ko

tang do ?

Who teaches you at school : Chhd lap-ta-lo ke-ki hlap to ?

[ 47 ]

However the particle is as frequently heard with
-such pronouns in many common phrases :

Who is living in the white house : Khim hap na ke dii

to mo.

From where are you driving Chhd audi dzo di-ts'o kdnale
those dzo (cross-breed yak) : da to bo ?

5.'Sometimes the interrogative perfect requires
a further affix sounded nyd as well as bo :

Have you come from Darjiling : Chhd Dorling-le ong

bo-nyd ?

Did he get a dog for me: Kho nge ton-le khyi chi Pop

bo-nya ?

Also, when the concluding affix of the perfect is
zhe or che, a particle na is substituted for bo :

Has the lama sold my horse : Lama di nge td di ts'ong

zhe-nd ?

Did you see it there : Pina di-lo tong che-nd ?

e.With a Potential auxiliary the interrogative
seems always to follow the ordinary Tibetan style :

Can you read : Chhd yi-ge dok chog-gd

Can you come with me : Chhd nge nyambu ong ts'ug-gd

We have also heard the Tibetan form in other expressions,
such as do you like n : go-pe-ka or ga-ei-ka ?

[ 4§ ]


The negative verb is expressed by the particle ma
with the perfect or imperative and by mi with the
present or future tenses :

Don't talk nonsense : Chhdl-kha ma lap !

He did not give me one rupee : Kho nga-lo tiruk chi' p'in

ma che.

The girl will not come with me : Pum di nge nyambu ong

nyi min (or m'ong nyi'in)
He will not bite : Kho so tap mi ong.

He is not reading your book : Kho chho-kyi chho di dok

chen min du'.

He is not eating now : Ta-to sd do min.

It will be observed from the above examples that
the negative is either compounded with the auxiliary
member of any verb or placed immediately preceding
the last syllable of the verb. With the past tense the
latter course is always pursued : e.g., Kho shi ma song:
He has not died. With the infinitive form of the verb
we find the negative placed last : e.g.,

The idle man has nothing to eat : Mi shelo di sd
nyi mi.

11. Participles.The syllable khen added to
the verbal root forms the participle. This important
branch of the verb is fully illustrated under § iv, 3.

12. Gerunds.These are formed by the addition
of certain brief particles to the verb of the gerundial
clause. These particles are te often vulgarly ti}, ne,
jang, and par or war.

L 49 ]

a.The first two are commonly employed to ex-
press clauses such as in English are introduced by the
words when, as, having. Examples will best
illustrate our meaning :

Having eaten his food, he desired the remainder :
Ri-kyi to di sd song-te hlak-ma do zhe du\

(N. B.Ri-kyi is here used for khoi because the
possessor is also the acting subject of the sentence
§ iv, i, b.)

When you have done, come to me: Chhd-kyi zhe song-ne

nga-lo shok.

(Chhd-kyi is the agentive case which should always
be used with transitive verbs instead of the nom. case ;
but colloquially the rule is only in a few such instances
as the present one commonly observed. Zhe song is
the past tense of pyd she to do).

Go and fetch it (i.e., going, fetch it) : Gyu-ti di-lo bdk


(This form is exactly parallel to the Hindustani
jdkar usko le-ao).

Since then he has been sick and has left his employment:
Te 6nd-le khu nd-ti yok tang-bo-be

lTang joined to the infinitive best interprets
short dependent clauses :

On my firing the gun, three men fell: Ngd mindd kyap-pa
tang, mi sum hlum song zhe.


[ 50 ]

(Kyap-pa is the Tibetan form of the infinitive
which in our dialect should be kyap-she; yet this is
the form we generally hear with tang, which, be it
noted, invariably requires the infinitive when used as
a gerundial particle).

Hearing you call, I came: Chho ke kyap-ne ngd nyen-pa
tang ong zhe. (Lit-, you calling, I on hearing"J

Looking down the kud, I saw the man lying: Kad di teng-
lo mik td-ne ngd di nye-khen mi di t'ong zhe.

c.We find par or war joined to the repeated root
to express concurrent clauses introduced in English
by the word while.

While I am sleeping, dont make a noise: Ngd nye nye par
tir ma kyap.

While I am going to the market, you must dig up the arti-
chokes : Ngd he} la gyu gyu mar chhorang do-wa ko go.

While I am gone, watch : Ngd song song par kug tang !

This section may be concluded by the enumeration
of certain of the more commonly occurring verbs :

P'in-she to give
nar-nyi to bestow
gyu-she to go
dul-nyi to walk
chong-she to run
hlum-she to fall
ong-nyi to come

Tong-she to see
tip-she to beat
ko-iungshe to throwaway
ten-nyi to show
mik td-7iyi to look at
kon-nyi to wear, put on
zhak-she to place, put


sa-nyi to eat
fung-she to drink
hlap-ngo-she to learn
.hum ghd nyi to choke
nye-she to lie down
nya'-do-nyi to sleep
or die nyi to sit, or

nyo-nyi{or nyu-tita she)
to buy

ts'ong-she to sell
khyu-she to wash, bathe
yige-dok-she to read
pH-she to write
pi-she to open
isum-she to shut
dzung-she to consider
dzung-she to hold
kdp-she to cover
nyen-she to listen, hear
khd nyen she to obey
bak ong nyi to bring
bdk nang nyi to fetch
hdk gyu nyi to take

51 ]

fyd-nyi to do, make
tsuk-nyi to strike, push
ts'uk-she to be able
chhog-she to be able
top-she to obtain
ko-nyi to dig
kyap-she to throw
ts'ol-she to seek
ngoshi-she to know
kyamba gyushe to walk
gii-she to stay, wait
shi-nyi to die
lap-she to speak
ser-she to tell, to name
gau-deb-she to laugh
gyo do shor-she to laugh
go-she to want
tabmo kyap-she to fight
ne' kyap-she to become ill
tok-nyi to cut
dzek-she to climb
lem-she to crush
den-she to pull, draw
sik-she to hoist, shove

[ 52 ]


i. In the Sikkim colloquial we find no distinction'
made between the adjective and its corresponding,
adverb. Thus jampot both soft and softly;
sarpa=-li new and fresh newly jam-tong=
easily and easy.

However, in addition to the adverbs derived from
adjectives, there are in use a number of primitive
adverbs, both simple and compoundadverbs of
time and place.

A few of these may be noted here.

Always is rendered by dtang mache ; often
by dtang.

Never is expressed by dtang or nd-mong, with*
a negative before the verb, thus :

Ngd nd-mong chhd-kha malep mi tsong: I never sell bad'

The past sense requires ma nyung after this verb-
without any prior word as :

Chhd ngd-lo lahta chi p'in ma nyung : You have
never given me any present.

Other temporal adverbs are gyop soon, lok-te
again, mold immediately, har suddenly, tdto now, lately,,
and se-lo afterwards. Also those in connection with
the measurement of time :

Td-ring to-day Tasong this morning ; tdringp'iru
to-night. Khdsang yesterday ; dang last night; nyim-



53 ]

kyang all day. N^aru : to-morrow (morning) ; forang
to-morrow ; nang day-after-to-morrow.

Adverbs of Place :Ndi here, fdki yonder, hdki
-over there, tekya-lo straight on, forward ma-ki
below, at bottom, yd-ki up there khor round, khor-
khor around, pang-kha outside, nang-kha inside,
ts'angma-la everywhere, di me'lo the lower part, di yen-
do the upper part. Ond here ; p'ind there.

2. Interrogative adverbs.These are nam
'when, ka-khd or kd-na where, kd-na whither, kd-na-le
whence, jhi-tar how, in what way, kd-dem how, kd
dzii (mo) how much, kd dzii sdnte how long 'i.e. time)
tu-tu how many. They are employed precisely as
the interrogative pronouns ; in the sentence generally
standing next before the verb. ^See § v, 9).


Dumra nang-sha zigmo tu-tu t'ong bo : How many por-
cupines did you see in the garden ?

Kho nam shi song zhe : When did he die P

Chhd Dorling-lo kd dzii sdnte dii she mo:
you remain in Darjiling?

[ 54 ]


These are simple and compound ; the first being;
merely the case-signs already enumerated. On the
former however a few remarks may be made here. Lo
the dative and accus affix rarely signifies to except
after verbs meaning to give. The locative na is of
course the proper affix to use in those cases where we
should say at or to. However for at the post-
position za=unear is sometimes employed, just as
pas is used in Hindustani. The best form for from
is le (pronounced lai in Tsang. i The Tibetan termi-
native case is hardly heard at all in southern Sikkim.

Compound Postpositions are very frequent. Some
of the chief are these :

nang-shd or | . . ,

A r ln> lnt0-

na-sna J

ten-le for, instead of.
teng-kha or )

khd f on, upon.

teng-lo. down.

dem like, such as.
tsd-hha .near

tonda le because of, on account of
se-lo behind, after.

diin-tu before.
buna in the middle of
khd-ivak under, beneath
nyam-bo with, along with
sdn-te up to, unto.
tengkha le from off

On the above let us remark teng-kha is sometimes*
used for up, e.g. Shing di teng-kha dzek\ climb up
the tree ; sdnte when combined with a negative is the
method of expressing until. The latter usage is
worthy of note. Thus: I shall wait until you return'
is rendered chhd lokti ma ong sdn-te ngd git she 'in.
Often we hear this chho lok mong sdnte ngd git she 'in.
Again : Walk on until you see a bamboo house chhiL

[ 55 ]

nyuk-khim chi ma fong sdnte long dul. Literally of
course this would express the reverse of what is really
understood, namely Until you do not see a bamboo
house, walk on. When sdnte has the signification of
as far as or to the negative does not occur.

Properly all the compound postpositions govern
the genitive case and ought to be preceded by nouns so-
inflected ; but in practice such a rule is rarely observed,
the simple nouns or adjective standing uninflected and!
followed by the governing postposition. e.g.,

Khim nang-sha gyu : Go in the house.

Ngd tiruk nyi pin she Jin khyi di tonda le : I will give
two rupees for the dog.

But we have heard :

Taring mi chi ta-i tengkha le hlum jhe : A man has fallen
from his horse today.

Nge tsakha ma ong: Dont come near me.

[ 56 ]


Rarely used ; the gerundial affixes usually supply-
ing their place when coupling clauses or sentences to-
gether. Thus Go and tell him becomes .going,
tell him gyu-ti kho-lo ser just as in Hindustani we
should say Jakcir usiko bolo Come and look :
Ong-ti td /

A copulative conjunction for coupling nouns is
however, in use : Tdrung and, e.g., khyi tdrung alii
dog and cat. When no stress is laid on the conjunc-
tion it is readily omitted : ngd lo mar gongdo chd bdk
shok Bring me butter, eggs, and tea. Tdrung means
really still more yet.

The conjunction if is rendered by ne or nu placed
after the verb, as in the following sentences :

Nyirn kyang yige dok nu, chho-kyi mik suk kyap ong' If
you read all day, your eyes will ache (feel pain;.

Pidi sd ne, chhd shi she be : You will die if you eat that.

Chhd lem min nu, ngd tip she in : If you are not good,
I shall beat (you).

Chhd audem gyop sd takye nu, kyom ghd ong\ If you con-
tinue eating so fast, you will choke.

Sometimes the regular Tibetan form na is employ-
ed instead of the corrupted form nu. Moreover
every Daijong man would, when writing, put na not nu.

[ 57 ]

Although is expressed by rung placed similarly
to nu. Thus :

Chhd ne kyi kvat> runs', si s'o be: Though you are ill, you
'must eat.

Khu nyim tsdn kyarts' sd rung, nd-mo gyak-shd mi ong:
Although he ate all d ly and night, he would never become fat.

(Note here the absence of and between nyim
and ts'dn; also use of nd-mo with negative for

When rung occurs with the verb to be, the in-
tensive form of that verb is generally resorted to
'namely the Tibetan mod-pa to be indeed, sounded

Ri-kyi to di dur buna rung, chho lok-te lang nyi 'in :
Though your body is indeed in the grave you shall rise again.

The conjunction or is rarely translated, the
alternatives being arranged consecutively so as to
imply the intended contrast. Thus :

Is your father alive or dead : Chhd dpo do yd bo shu bo ?

Will you eat rice or potatoes: Chum kyiu chho kan sd-
she-bo? (lit: rice, potato, which will you eat.)

But in such a sentence as Bring either beef or
mutton, the conjunction must be introduced, and is
therefore thus expressed: bd-shd in-na-yang luk-shd
bdk shok.

[ 58 ]


That which is treated of in Grammars under the
head of Derivation may be very briefly disposed
of here.

1. Certain adjectives are formed or derived
from nouns by the addition of the syllable chen to the-
noun, e.g., rin price, rin-chen expensive; ts1 erma thorn
ts'ermci-cheti thorny, prickly, khyo anger, khyo-chen*
angry ; khyd blood, khya-chen bloody. In fact most
of our adjectives ending in y or ous are formed
in Denjong Ke thus from substantives.

The negative formative corresponding to chen is mer

2. The affix chhok added to a verbal root goes to*
form those adjectives which signify capability of suffer-
ing anything, or fitness for being made use of. Sa-nyi
to eat, sa-chhok eatable ; fong she to see, tong chhok
visible, capable of being seen, chhdk-ske to break,
chhak-chhok breakable, &c. The negative form takes
mi, as fong mi chhok invisible.

3. A third formative s nnen signifying chiefly the
doer of any action, much akin to the Hindustani
wala ; as pyd~khen doer, maker, dok-khen reader, bdk-
khen carrier. Like wala added also to substantives ;
as toi a load, toi-khen bearer of a load, hlam-khen
bootmaker, ta-khen a groom, sais.


Chi one
Nyi two
Sum three
Zhi four
Nga five
Tuk six
Duin seven
Gye eight
Gu nine
Chu-tamba ten
Chu-chi eleven
Chu-nyi twelve
Chu-sum thirteen
Chub-zhi fourteen
Chenga fifteen
Chu-tuk sixteen
Chubduin seventeen
Chegye eighteen
Chu-gu nineteen

Khe-chik twenty
Sum-chu tamba thirty
So-chi thirty-one
So-nyi, &c. thirty-two,&c.
Zhib-chu tamba: forty
Zhe-chi,&c. Ngabchu Khe-sum forty-one, &c.. fifty sixty
or Tukchu
Re-chi sixty-one
Re-nyij&c. sixty-two, &c..
Diinchu seventy
Don-chi seventy-one
Gye-chu eighty
Gu-chu ninety
Go-chi ninety-one
Gy£ one hundred-
Tong -ta thousand

C 6 ]


Sd-nyim :

Sa-dou :
Sa-purbo :
Sa-pdsang :

Ndi sd-pembo shok:

Chho- lo ka dzu sotn-bo :
Ngd-lo khe chik 'in : *

*Gantak-lo mdkmi pdo tong-
rok chi da gyd da nga-tuk
Dotling-le lep song:









Come here on Saturday.

How old are you ?

1 am twenty years old.

Eleven hundred and fitty six
brave soldiers have arrived at
Gantak from Darjiling.


Note.These sentences are nearly all in the
Sikkim colloquial or Den-jong Ke. Accordingly when
Tibetans from beyond the J6-lep, Dongkya, Kangla,
and other passes, are communicated with, the follow-
ing rules may be observed : For be (is, are) usedu' or
yin; for bo or mo say du-kd or yotam or yin nd. Bdk
song and bdk sho' should be avoided, and khyer song
take away and khyer shd bring should be sub-
stituted. The future tense may be rendered by means
of yong or gyu du added to the verbal root: ten yong
will shew, dzek gyu du 1 will climb. Song for the
past tense is very universal, but chung or jhung is the
commoner affix in Central Tibet, e. g. Nd-la di nang
jhung du'\ The rent has been paid; but in
Sikkim colloquial: Nd-la di fin song zhe.

[ 63 ]


Come here :

Come back
Dont come now :

Come with me
Come near me
Come to-morrow
Speak slowly
Go awaay
Go at once
Go to the market:

Go and fetch some water :

Go outside :

Go and tell him what
I say :

Co home again :

Go in front :

Go behind :

Go behind him :

Go further :

Go gently :

Bring me some tea :

Bring more water:

Fetch the horse here :

Ndi shok I
Lokte shok !

Tato ma ong !

Nge nyambu shok !

Nge tsar-ka (or zd) shok !
Torang-ra shok !

Kulyu lap /

Long song !

Hle7n song !

He* na gyu !

Song-ne chhu atsichi bdk
shok !

Pang-kha song!

Gyu-ne nga ser-khen di lap /

Khi77i-na lok song !

Hen-le gyu !

Gyap-le gyu J
Kho gyap-le song me?
P)ar-tsa77i gyu /

Kale gyu !

Cha ngd-lo bdk shok !

Chhu hldko bdk shok!

Td di ndi fi shok !

[ 64 ]

Tnke away those things :
Take the coat and dry it:

Throw it away :

Search for it :

Send word (Give notice)
Send him here :

Make haste :

Take care :

Be steady (or careful :

Sit down now :

Remain here :

Wait a little :

Say that again :

Dont tell a lie :

Open the door :

Put my box on the ground :
Lift up this box :

Take this letter to the
post office :

Light the fire :

Dont forget:

Dont bother me :

Thats enough :

That will do to-day :

Now it is time to go :

Never mind \kuchchparwa
ne :

Chha-ka di-tak bdk song !

Di kolak di bdk song di
kambd shok 1
Di fu ko tang !

Tsol nyd I
Lon ser !

Kho-lo ndi tong.

Gyop bd me /

IT ip!

Riko gyim
Ta-to die!

On a do nyd !

Gil atsichi
Lok-te lap
Ha ma kyap !

Gom di pH.

Nge dom di sd lo zhok.

Gum di ydte fo

Yige di yi-khim na bdk

Mi di par !


Ngd-lo duk ma pH
Audi dik-e J
Taring audi dik she bd
Tato gyu renpo tsu in.

Nang td mi

[ 65 ]

Now you may go :

Dont come late in
morning :

Wake me early in

Tdto chhd gyu tfu pe
the Ngdrup'ip-na ma ong

this Torang jole kd tong nyd.


Can you speak Hindu-
stani :

Yes ; a little, a little :

Can you speak English :

No ; not at all:

Who is this boy :

He is my younger brother:
What are you doing :

Why are you doing like
that :

Why are you asking :

1 want to know :

When did you see him:
Where did you see it:
Behind the temple:

Did you see a silver fox :

Look! do you see that

Why ? where ?

Chhd Hindu-i ke lap

tdug-gd ?

Las ; dtsichi, dtsichi

Chho Ingreji ke lap

ts'ug-gd ?

Mem-be ; kan de mi
Potso audi kd mo ?

Kho nge pitn-gya be\

Chhd kam pyd do 7110 ?
Chho audi dem kambe
p'yd do ?

Chho kambe fe do
Ngd she go

Chhd kho-lo na)n fong bo ?
Chhd di-lo kdna fong bo ?
Gumpe gyap-na
Chhd 07?i chi fong-che-na ?
Td / flidi shing-lo fong be
bo ?

Ka7u pyd te 1 Kd-kha ?


[ 66 ]

Is he dead:

Where have you been :
From where have you
come :

What do you say :

What do you want:

I do not understand you :
Have you any rice :

No; I have none :

I have nothing to give

What is your name :

Where do you live :

Down this hill in the
Bhutia village:

Who lives in that house :
Where are you going :

When did you come to

I arrived here last year :

Where have you put my

Where have I put my
keys .*

Who are you? What

Why have you come here :
I have come to see you :

Kho shi song zhe bo ?

Chhd kd-khd song zhe ?
Chhd kand-le ong bo nyd ?

Chhd kan lapto ?

Chhd ham go she bo ?

Ngd chho-ke di ha-ma-ho.
Chho-lo chum yo-ga
Men ; ngd-lo tsal-le mi

Ngd-i chho-lo p'in-she kart
de mi

Chhd ming ham bo t
Chhd ha-hha dil to bo ?

Ri ma-lo ; Do-tsuk na

Khim p'idi na ke dii to mo f
Chhd kand gyu do bo ?

Chhb Dorling-lo nam ong
bo ?

Ngd ndi lo p'amu hlep che

Chhd nge hlam ha-kha zhd-
ko ?

Ngd ri-hyi dimi kana zhd-
ho ?

Chhd kd mo ? ming ham
bo ?

Chhd ndi kambe ong mo ?
Ngd chho td ong che.

[ 67 ]


Make everything ready for

Pack up the tent:

Roll up the rugs :

Fasten that bundle more
securely than that:

You carry the tent-poles :
That is your load :

Your load is not heavy :

Now we must set off:

It is time to go :

'Go in front: I will walk
behind you :

Lift up that box :

Turn the horse round .
Walk quickly :

Hold the bridge firmly :

You go over the bridge
first :

Are you tired :

We have not travelled far:

I am tired :

You can climb as quickly
as a horse :

Chhd-kha kheli t'dltik p'yd

Kur zyuk tok.

Chha-li di gyilp'yd

Di t'zwi-po di te-le tang

Chho gur-shing bak song ?

Audi chho-kyi toi di du'

Chhd kyi toi di jimpu 77iem

Ta-to gyu go-pe'

Gyu-nyi til cho bd

P'i?ia song; ngarang chhd
kyi sole gyu she 'in

Di dom di yd fo

Td di kho7* kyap

Gyop gyu kyamba

Sampa di tangpo chhin

Chhd sampe tengle henle

Chhd f ang-chhe-po 7iya f

Ngdcha fa ringkyam 771a

Ngd f ang-chhe-po yin

Chhd td chi dei7i gyop dzek
ts'uk bd

[ 68 ]

Carry that slowly up the

Tell him to come here

Can you see the top of the
pass from here:

The path is dangerous;
dont fall:

I am slipping; seize my

I have let fall my staff;
hand it to me please :

That leech is sucking your
blood :

Sit down :

Go into that house and
buy some food :

Do you see many leeches
on this grass :

I am lame .

Do you see any leeches on
my leg :

How far can you walk :

Di chha-kha di gang teng-
kha kalyu bdk so?ig

Kho-lo gyoba ndi shok lap

Di-ne laptse di mik td tsu-
ga ?

Lamkha di nyenchen bd;
chhd ma ri

Ngd drdtak shor do in ;
nge lak-ko zim tong

Ri-ki yuk-shing Ihum chuk ;
di ling tong zhu

Audipii-po di chhd-kyi khya
jip chen du

Sd die J

Khim pidi nang-sha gyute
to d-tsi-chi nyoba sho

Chhd pii-po nyok tsd audi
tengkhd f o?ig-che-na ?

Ngd kang kyo be

Chhd pii-po dtsichi nge le-
dum tengkha tong-ga ?

Chhd ta ring-tung kd dzu
kyamba gyu tsu-pe ?

Ta-to ngal-so renpo tsii be..

Now it is time to halt :

[ 6g ]


Whose house is this : Khim audi ke bo ?

What is the name of the
village :

Is that a temple on the

Show me the way to Nga-


I dont understand you .*

Say that again :

^Speak slowly :

Where is the bridge :

To where does that road

Is the path difficult :

It is an easy path to

How far is it from here to
Tumlong ?

How far is it from
Darjiling to Sargong ?

Is it a long way to a
Lachhung :

Which is the way :

The village is near that
monastery :

Yults'o kyi ming kd mo ?

Pidi gompa gang tengkha
di bo ?

Ngd-tong-ki lam di nga-lo
ten nang

Ngd chhd kd di hdmako

Lok-te lap

Kulyu lap

Samp a ka-kha mo ?

P'idi lam di kd lo ?

Lam-khd di khdkpo mo ?

Namgd ?ia lam di jam-tong

Nai-le Tumlong san-te fd
ring fung kd dzo mo ?

Dorling-le Sargong-lo fd
ring fung kd dzo mo ?

Lachhung sdnte lam ring-
kyam bo 1

Di lam di kd mo ?

Chhoide p'idi tsa-ne tong-
gu di die

[ 70 ]

Do you know the way to Chhd-kyi gyu-she lam di
go ? she-sa ?

The path goes round the Lamkhd di gang kor kor
hill : ran chen dii.

By which way shall I re- Lam kan-le lok-she bo ?
turn back :

I am going to the Je-lep Ngarang Je-lep la lo gyu-
pass : do in

It is a district full of Yul rong-yul be
ravines :

Where are you coming Chhd ka-le ong do mo ?
from :

Where are you going : Chho ka-kha na gyu do 9in

That is all deep snow : Pidi khau-a ting-ring-po

kheli be\


The night is very dark : Piru di nyogi noksu bd

Rain is going to fall : Chhabo bab she in

The rain will not cease Chhabo di taring chhe mi
to-day : ong

I see the mist rising : Ngd humpo di longpo fong

The ground is wet now : Sd di td-to bong-bo du1

The rain will soon come : Di chhabo di gyoba ong

she 5in

Can you run quickly : Chho gyoba chong tdug-ga

(or chhug-ga)

C 71 ]

The pass is filled with
snow ;

I am sinking in the snow .*

A man was killed down
there by a snow slip /

There is too much rain :
I cannot go out at
present :

To-day the sun will not
shine ;

When the rain ceases the
air will grow clear :

The sun is very hot:

The sun will cause pain
in your head :

There is no moon to-
night :

The wind is rising ;

Put wood on the fire :

Shake the cloak well:

The wind is very cold :

The air will be mild at
Nar-ling ;

The ground is very wet:

La di khau-kyl kangbo bd

Ngarang khau-kyi buna
fimbo bd

Mdki kharid ki mi chik sc

bo bed

Chhabo mam kyap-to ; ngd
ting-sang gyu mi ts'u-pe.

Taring nyim shd she min be/

Di chhdbo di chh'e-ne ngara
saliva ong she did

Di nyim di nyogi fsdpo bd

Di nyim di chho-kyi go na-
sha suk kyap bd

TaringpHru dou kan de md

Lung di lang chen du

Shing mi-na fsuk
Chhdb-khebma zob-zob kyap
Lung di nyogi khydbo bd

Ngd-ra di Narling zd jampa
ong she in

Sd di mam p'ongpo bd.

[ 72 ]


I want to buy some milk

These Lepchas sell eggs :

What will you sell me :

How much is the price (
this :

What do you want ;

What have you got:

Nothing to-day :

I want nothing :

Do you sell tea, butter,

C m you get me any meat :

You ask too much :

Your price is very high :

1 cannot give that price :

That man is a rogue :

1 will give you io rupees
for this book :

I want twenty rupees for
it : that is the exact
price ;

: Ngd um nyo go be'

Di Rong-pa di gongdo isong

Chho ngd-lo kan ts'ong she
bo ?

Audi gong kd dzu mo ?

Chhd kan go she bo ?

Chho-lo kam bo ?

Taring kan de mi'. ''or)
Taring ?nipo :

Mingo ( not wanted.)

Chhd cha, mar, ts'a ts'ongbo?

Chhd ngd-lo sha t'op tsug-ga f

Chho nyogi gong zhu do' in.
for) zhu chen du.'

Chhd-kyi rin di kyapo

Ngd gong te p'in mi ts'uk.

Mi p'idi kunchhe be'

Ngd chho-lo tiruk chu-
taniba p'in yong audi
chho di tonda le.

Ngd di ten-le tiruk khe-
chik go ; audi gong di
ts'ampo be'.

[ 73 ]

away : I dont want the
thing :

What have you got in this
bag :

Show me some other
things :

I want to buy a knife :

This is not a good goat :

Give me two rupees for
it :

Have you any boots to
sell :

Give me another;

Are you a Wallung man or
a Sikkim man :

Come again to-morrow :

I want nothing to-day :

I have not any money :

Have you any dried curd :

No ; I have none :

Long song: nga-lo chhd-
khd di mingo.

Chhd audi bakhu buna
kam bo ?

Ngd-lo chhd-kha zhil-ma di
ten tang.

Ngd-lo ki-chhung chi nyo


Audi rdma di lent mem be.

Ngd-lo tiruk nyi fin tang
di tenle.

Chhd ts'ong-khen hlam
du bo ?

Zhen-chi ngd-lo tong.

Chhd Wallung ki mi bo,
ya-men-ne Dai-jong ki
mi bo ?

Ngd-ru lok-ti shok.

Ngd taring kan de mingo.

Ngd-lo ngi'l kan de mi.

Chho-lo chu atsichi do bo
(or yo'ga ?)

Men ngd-lo tsal-le mi.

[ 74 ]


What have you got for
food to-day :

Make the water boil:

Make the fire burn brightly:

Bring the fish in a basket:

Bring the eggs : be care-
ful :

Bring some hot water now :

Washing the rampa stalks,
put them in the soup-
kettle on the fire :

Put tea in the tea-pot :

I do not want tea to-day :

Will you eat tsampa in the
tea :

Give me some bread: I
don't want pak (sops) :

I shall dip bread in the

It is now time to eat dinner:

Toast this meat at the fire :

Place the dishes on the

These are me at-puflfs :

Chhd taring to-na kan fop-
che ?

Chhu kii be me1

Mi di leba par zo\

Nyd di tseo nd-sha bdk shok.

Gongdo di bdk shok : IT ip !

Ta-to chhu fum chi bdk

Rampa khyu-ti, mi tengkha
ki tsiim-ki sang-na hluk.

Chd, chdmbing nd-sha kyap.

Ngd taring chd mingo pe'

Chho tsampa chd nydmbu
sd she bo ?

Ngalo khu atsichi nang:
ngd pak mingo pe\

Ngd khu di sha-ruk nd-sha
pak she in

Tato sum sd ren do.

Di shd di ml dun-tu sdk

Pakna so-so di chenft
tengkha zhak.

Di-ts'o mokmo be.'

I shall eat rice this evening:

Have you any :

Make the dumplings hot :

I am eating dinner now;
go away:

She cannot eat rice :

Shut your eyes; open your
mouth :

Pour the soup in the
bowls :

Give me the cup which is
on the table :

Do you drink tea or beer:

I do not like sugar in tea :

Cover the ashes : bank up
the fire (lit: put the
fire to bed.)

Call the servant to light
the fire :

Ngd taring p'iru chum sd
she in.

Chho-lo atsichi bo 1

Shurbu di ts'abo pe' me'

Ngd ta-to to (ox sum) sd do
in ; lok song ?

Moi chum sd mi ts'uk be'

Chhd mi-do tsum ; chho khd

Tsiim di p'urpa-na hluk.

Chen-t'e tengkha karyo' di
ngd-lo nang tang.

Chhd chhang t'ungdo bo
chd t'ung do bo ?

Ngd chd-na kara kyap min
go pe.

Mi-dak kap ; mi nyal zhdk.

Yo-ko di ke' kyap mi par
she lo.

[ 76 ]


Is this a quiet horse :

Sir, it is :

Can it run quickly ;

How old is the horse :

It is four years old :

Give the horse its food :

-Get bamboo leaves for
the horse :

Make the horse ready ;

Put on the saddle ;

Have you the whip :

Have you the whip ; (less

Bring me a warm coat ;

'Where is my gun :

The gun-stock is dirty.
Lengthen the stirrupstrap :
Now, the other one :

Bring the powder : Be

Can you shoot with a
gun :

There are tree-leopards in
that hill :

Td audi nyambu bo ?

Lhd ; la-so. (or) Kusho, la

Di gyop chhong chhog-ga.
Di td di-lo kd dzii som bo ?
Di-lo lo zhi in.

Td-lo ri-kyi to tong.

Nyuk kyi ddmd fop td di

Td di fal-tik pe* me\

Ta-gd di gyap.

Chho-lo buiko diydp nyd ?
Chho-lo buiko di do bo ?

Ngd-lo kolak fsapo chi
bdk shok !

Nge mindd ka-kha mo ? >
Gu7iidd di malebo be.
Yob-fak di ring-kyam pyd.
la-to, zhii-77ia-di.

Medze bdk shok. Riko
gyi?n !

Chhd mindd kyap ts'u-ga.

Pidi gang di teng-kha sd-
juk fop be\

[ 77 ]

Come behind me; dont Nge se-lo shok; ur ma
make a noise : kyap !

That is a tiger-cat; it is P'idi Zikmar di bd ; mam
very fierce. ngarpo be.


See a leopard :

He went behind that
rock :

Go softly like a snake :

Carefully Dont cough :

Stop Come back here :

I have hit him ;

Give me the other gun ;

Take care He is coming
at us :

Beat the long grass :

Take your bamboo stick :

We must climb up this
hill ;

I am going down the
kud :

Sit down! Wait till I
come :

Td sd chi.

Tak-kyi gyab-lo song.

Byii dem jampo gyu !

IT ip lo-cham ma kyap.

Khok ndi loke-te shok.

Ngd kho-lo tip che.

Mindd zhii-ma tong.

Riko gyim / kho nga chhok
lo ong chen du\

Di tsd ring-kyam di tip

Ri-kyi pct-shing bdk song.

Gang audi tengkha dzek

Ngd ghad teng-lo gyuchen

Sd dii! Ngd 771a ong sdnte

[ 7 J

'When I fire rny gun, you Ngd mindd kyap-pa fang,;
run quickly towards chho nga-lo gyop chhong
me : song.

Wait here and watch : Ndi kug-te dil.

'Yes, Sir, yes : Kd-so, kds.

A have seen some musk Ngd Id-wa t'ong-che.
deer :

'Wnen? Just now ; Nambo ? Td-to, ta-to.

Is the ground firm ; Sd di taktd bo ?

Do you see peacocks in Mdbja disd-chhd audi t'ong
this part; chen bo ?

Wnat other birds are Pya zhii-ma ndi kam bo ?
here :

-Go out of the way : Lam-khd long song!

Heres my hat: Catch Audi nge shamo ; audi she I
it :


.1 want twelve coolies Ngd-lo bdk khen chu-nyi go
(carriers) ; be\

You will need twenty for Chho-lo audem toi mam
so much baggage ; tonle khe-chik go she be\

.How much will each Bak-khen re-re-i kd dzii bdk
coolie carry ; she bo ?

Thirty seers each coolie : Bak-khen re re-lo sir sum-

chu so-so.

Dossers and pack-cradles Tongma khur-shinggo she

[ 79 1

will be necessary ; bring be' ; te-ts'o bdk shok.

them :

How much will you give Mi re-re lo nyim di nyim
each man per day : di gong' kd dzii nang she

bo 1

I will give wages and Ngdrang Id to p'in she'in.
food :

I will give each man four Ngd mi-tso lo nyim di

annas a day:

The custom in Sikkim is
five annas:

Your load is light :

This is not a heavy box :

Lift up the box :

Load up that pack-
cradle :

Can this old woman carry
like a coolie :

She can carry more than
a man :

Where is your tie-rope ;

Start now : make haste :

I shall want two mules :

Wait at the bridge until
I arrive :

nyim di anna zhi re-re p'in
she 'in.

Shrol di Denjong-kyi anna
ngd du'.

Chhd-kyi toi di yang-ke be.

Di dom di jhi77ipu mem

Di dom di yd t'o
Khurshing p'idi kal tong /

Ge7n audi bak-khe7i chi detn
bdk chog-ga.

Mo-ki 771 i le hlako bdk


Chho-kyi go-t'd di kd-khd


Ta-to song: gyop p'yd.
Ngd-lo te nyi go nyi 'in.

Ngd 77ia lep sd)i-te sa77ipa
di za gii.

[ 8o ]

Wait at the temple until
you see me:

You are an idle man :

You sleep all day :

Lift up this packet on her
back ;

You are always sitting
down :

Chhd ngd-lo ma fongsan-te'
gompa di zd gii.

Chhd mi shailo (sJie-lo) chi

Chhd nyim-kyam nye bo e.

Tse-o audi fu-ti mo-i gyap*
lo zhak.

Chhd atang-mache sd die
chen be\


Where is the landlord :

I am the landlady ; Salaam ; Sir
I want lodgings this please : night
Sir; you are welcome Many thanks :
Where have you from : come
I have come from jiling: Dar-
I am tired : please shew

the bed :

Is there a bathing-tub :
The bed is very hard :

Na-bo di kd-na du\

Ngdrang ?id-mo yin, ku-
sho, chhd pe.

Ngd-lo ndts\ing taring
piru di go nyd.

Ku-sho ; chhd pd zhu nyd.

Tu je chhe.

Chho ka- na-le hlep che-na ?

Ngd Dorling-le hltp che.

Ngd fang chhe po in ; nye-
sa di ten-nang>

Chhu tumbe chi mo ;

Nye-sd (or nya-fi) di nyogt-
takta be\

[ 8i ]

The bed is not clean:
There is no other:

There are licebugson

Call my servant to light
a fire:

Please shut the door ;
Shake the coverlet well:
Give me a light:

What is the charge :

Nye-sa khe ma kyap bo be!.
Zhen dtsichi mem be\

Di tengkha d-chhddeshi

Nge yoko di ke kyap, mi
par-she lo.

Gom di tsum nang.

Khebma zob-zob kyap !
Ngd-lo chhu-mi pin tang.
Nd-la ka dzii mo ?

5 6

[ 82 ]


[Of all the passes from Sikkim into Tibet this one is the
most distant from Darjiling, being 78 miles therefrom in
direct line; and is also the loftiest, having an altitude above
sea-level of 18,170 feet. Dr. Waddell states that the name
Dong-khy£ (signifying frozen wild-yak ) was given to the
Pass in remembrance of the fact that a herd of wild yak was
once frozen to death in crossing it. The route to Dong-khy&
La is to make first for the village of La-chhung, which lies
on the terraced flats of a wide open valley and consists of
about 100 wooden houses built on piles. The La-chhung
river, here some 40 feet broad, runs down from a branch valley
which opens to the N. W. 5 miles from the village. Ascend-
ing this valley, Yumtong, on a flat by the La-chhung and
11,920 feet in altitude, can be reached the next day. Thence
the way lies to Momi Samdong (15,362 feet), from which the
Pass, 7 miles to the N. E., can be gained in one march.]

La-chhung is a warm La-chhung sa-chha tom-mo
place ; much grass is be9 ; ts'd nyogi nai be\

The place is damp and Sd-chha di bong-bo p'ya-ti,
fever arises : rong-ts'e chung (lit: the

place making damp,
fever arises.,)

[ 83 ]

We start to-morrow morn-
ing do not be late .

Bring the boxes out of
the shed :

Tell the coolies to lift up
the loads :

That mans load is too

Never mind; that will do :

Now we startquick,


We shall quickly escape
from the La-chhung
demon :

No matter the demon;
are there any wild ani-
mals here :

Down here musk-deer
and racoons ; up there
go-a deer and snow
leopards :

Now we turn up this val-
ley to the left, we shall
find much mud and

The tree trunks are buried
in the thick mud :

Ngaru gyu-she Hn ; pHp'u
p'ya-ti ma ong (lit to-
morrow morning shall
go; making late dont

Gum di nyuk-khim le bd

Bak-khen-lo lap ; toi di yd
fo. (lit: say to coo-
lies ; lift up the load.)

PHdi mipo-i toi di nyogi
yang-ke be\

Nang-ta mi; audi dik-she be'.

Ta-to gyu tsu-pegyop,
gyop !

La-chhung tsen di-le gyop
doi-she Hn

Tsen-lo mi fok; ri-dak shV
sa-chha di-lo do to bo ?

Di men-lo Id-wa wok-dong-
kha bd ; pHdi yen-lo go-a
dharung sd be.'

Td-to yon-lok-ki lung-pa
audi lo kyok-ti, dam-
sok dd chhu-pang mam
ong-she be9.

Dumpo di damparak tukpo-
lo kung song zhe.

[ 84 ]

Here the ground is dry ; Ndi sd di kam-sa bd ; audf
place the baggage on do lo khur-shing sho'.
these stones :

I must stay here for to- Ngd audip'iru nai do go ;
night; make a fire : mi par chik.

You can get rhododen- Chhd mi tonda-la takpa-
dron-wood and dhali shing dhali chukma fop

twigs for the fire; they chok; te-ts'u gyop ts'ik-

will burn quickly : she be\

Bring some more water; Dharung chhu bdk shok /
is the fire burning mi di song-ngd ?

It is very cold ; I will give Nam mam khyabo be';-
you each some tea from chhd re-re lo chd fin
my pot : she 'in nge so'-sang-le.

Please give us the re- Ngd-lo chaklii di so'sang-le
mains in the pot; fin tong zhu.

Why ; Oh, you want to Kam p'ya-te! a-la-la child
eat the tea-leaves : chd lo-ma sd go pe\

We shall reach Yum-tong Chhu-ts'o sum gyap-lo Yum-
after three hours ; tong-na lep-she 'in.

Yum-tong lies on a flat Chhu tsakhd lep-lep-na
near the river ; there Yum-tong do to be'; p'i-na

are many flowers and mam mintok chukha

rhubarb and fir-trees : diinshing be'

We can remain in that P'idi shing-khim-na do
hut ; the village is a ts'u-pe te-le dong-gu tak

little distance from it: t'ung-kyam be'.

See the steep cliffs above ; Diyen-lo gangsdr td shik ;
there is danger in this audi khim-na nyen-chem

shed: do 'in

[ 5 ]

Slips of earth and rocks
will fall and kill us all:

If the rain falls much,
slips will come; there
is no rain now :

I will stay in the shed to-
night ; I will not stay
in the tent:

You coolies can lie down
beneath that rock over
there; then the slips
cannot fall on you ;

What is the name of that
mountain with the
glacier :

Which mountain?

That one up there to the
north ; it has a huge
glacier on its side :

The name of that is Chan-
go kang :

'Many yaks graze at Yum-
tong in the winter ; in
summer they are driven
up to Mom£ Samdong :

I will ride a yak up to
Mome this morning :

It is time to go now ; see
a snow-storm is rising :

Sd tak rii gyel-ti kheli
ngacha se she be.

Chhabo di mdm bap-nz, ril
ong-she be' / ta-to chhabo
mem be\

Ngarang p'iru di shing-
khim buna do she'in;
kur na do she min.

Chhd, bak-khen-ts'u, p'dki
tak te-i wakna nye ts'uk
ne ; te ton-le ru-ts'u chhd
teng khd hlum ma ts'u'pe.

Kang-che n-ki ri p'idi-i
ming di kam bo ?

Ri-ga kan ?

Yd-ki p'idi chang-lo; ngd
khd kangchen chhe di be'.

P'idi ming di Chdngo-kang
ser be\

Yumto?ig-lo giinka-na yak
mdm so do be ; yarka-na
Momi Samdo?ig-lo dd
she be\

Ngd tdsong Momi tuk yak
chi tengkha zhon-ti gyu

Td-to gyu renpo be'; td shik,
khd-tsup di lang-chcn-du.

[ 86 ]

It is never fine up here;
it is always snowing and
raining :

What huge boulders in
this valley ; I have never
seen such big ones :

Now we must cross the
river, and ascend yon
steep slip of stones :

These stones are from
rocks which have fallen
from the top of the
mountain ;

It is bleakness itself in
this part we have got
to; not a tree, not a
flower :

See! there are two or
three tall juniper trees
juniper-trees over there :

Now we are nearing
Mome :

At Mom£ is the meeting
of three rivers ;

There is a hut here with
plenty of grass for
cattle :

From here I can see
Dongkhya mountain
but not the Pass :

Diyen-lo nam di fang kdp
namo min be'; kh&w
chhd-bo atang-mdche bap-

Rong audi nd-sha p'o-long
chhe chhe bd; p'i-deni chhe
di-lo nd-mo fong ma che.

Td-lo chhu di gdl-ti do-rii
zdr-zar p'idi yd-te gyu go

Audi do di ri-ki tsim-le
hlum-ki tak-le ong che.

Kd-ru hlep che tong-pa nyi
mo' be'; shing chi mem be',
mintok chi mem be'.

To tangJ p'a-ki shukpo
shing ring-po nyi sum be'.

Td-to ngdcha Momi tsaka
ong do 'in.

Momi-lo tsang-chhu sum ki
do di be'.

Shing-khim chi nai be' tang
tsd mdm tundro tondd-

Di-na-le Dongkhyd Rt
fong ts'u' pe, wonte La
di fong mi ts'uk.

L 87 J

How long shall you stay
at the Pass-top ;


If you remain long, we
shall die from the sold
and from Pass-poison :

When will you return
back ;

Dont bother me now
start; you are standing
in the middle of the
way :

Those peaks are very high :

Look up that valley to
the west, that mountain
is the highest; it is
called To-mo Cha-mo,
on the east of Kinchin-
jhow :

We have come now to
the last valley at the
foot of the Pass :

See a storm is rising ; it
grows dark ; the snow
is beginning:

How quickly it comes.
Listen to the thunder :

And now the rocks are fal-
ling ; the mountains are
speaking to one another :

Chhd laptse di-lo kd dzii
sdnte do she mo ?

Kam p'ya-ti ?

Nyok tui do ne, ngdchc
tong-mo kl da ladug-kft
shi-she 'in.

Chhd nam lok-she mo ?

Ngd-lo duk ma pH! Td-to
chho gyuk; chhd lam-
buna long do du'

P'idi ri-tsim te mdm t'o be'.

Nup-ki lung-pa-na ya-ki-lo
td chik p'a-ki ri te t'on-
sho be'; p'idi To mo Cha-
mo ser be', Kangchan-
gyau-ki shar-ngo-lo.

Td-to latsa-lo lungpa t'ama-
na hlep song zhe.

Td tang ts'ubma langchen
be'; nam mun-nak gyu
do be'; kkau di go-dzuk
to be'.

Gyop-gyop ong chen be /
Druk-ke'-lo nyen chik.

Td-to yang tak-iak di Mum
do be'; ri-ts'u di re-re-la
lap to be'.

[ 88 ]

We will creep beneath
yon boulder; it will
offer shelter:

The storm has ceased ; it
rises quickly and de-
parts quickly;

The snow lies thick here ;
and beyond are great
ice-blocks :

Now the river is frozen,
and the water runs un-
derneath the ice :

We can cross the river on
that snow-bridge.

On the left that glacier is
very blue ; it is beauti-

Can we ascend the Pass ;
the snow is thickest at
the waist of the Pass ;
afterwards at the top it
will be thin :

Be careful of holes ; they
are sometimes covered
with yielding snow:

If you see any yellow
flowers, do not pick
them, do not smell
them :

If you smell them, the
Pass poison will injure

Ngacha p'd-ki ftong-gi
wakna to p'e she 'in ; te
chhabyap p'in ong.

Ts'ubma di chhe song du' ;
di gyop lang-te, gyop nup

Khau ndi bomho be'; p'a-
kharu khekrom chhe
chhe be'.

Td-to tsang-chhu di khek
song-ti, khek-ki wakna
chhu di gyun chen be'.

Tsang-chhu di-lo gal ts'u'pe
khau-sam tengkha.

Yon-ngo-lo kangchen p'idi
mdm ngombo be'-; dze-
pa be'.

La di teng-khd dzek ts'ug-
ga ; khau di Ld-kye-pa-lo
boms ho be; se-lo laptse-
na zimbu ong she be'.

Biang-ts'u riko gyim ; kap
kap-lo khau kampu ki te-
ts'u kab song du'.

Chho mintok serp dtsichi
t'ong-ne, te-ts'u ma druk,
ma num !

Chho-ki 7nintok num-ti,
Iddug chho-lo mdm no'pa

[ §9 ]

you more and make
you sick :

It is difficult to breathe
now; I am gasping, I
am panting:

I cannot speak ; my head-
aches badly; I am with-
out strength :

But no matter ; it will pass
away :

Here is the Pass-top;
there I see the mani-
cairns :

kyap-ti chhd kyuk-she-lo
p'yci ong.

Td-to hu hu kyap-she ka-
le khdkpo be1; ngd hig-
hig kyap-to-be\ ngd hang-

Ngd lap mi ts'upe; nge
go-na mdm zuk be1; ngd-
lo hal me1 pe1.

Kalte nangta mi ; audi ha-
la gyuk she be1.

Ndi laptse di yd1; p'dki
ngd mani dobong fong


It is time to begin : Go-tsuk renpo be1.

You have come late to- Taring chhd p'ip-na hlep
day : che.

Come in time ; dont come Ts'u-na shok ; p^p^ p'yd-
late : ti ma ong.

When did you start from Khim-ne nam gyu song bo ?

First we will offer prayers Tangpo, Konchho- lo mo-
to God : lam sal-she Hn (or kyap-

she1 in.)

Be silent; shut your eyes : Khd tsum; chhd mik tsum.

[ 90 ]

Bring my chair : Nge gyd-fi bdk shok.

You look very clean to- Taring chhd tsang mdm
day : tam-pe.

Your face and hands are Chhd khadong lak-ko tsok
dirty : bd

You ought to wash face Chhd nyim-atang khddong
and hands every day; lakko khyu men ne chhd

and your whole body go-bo ts'angma di diint'd

once a week : chig-bo.

Begin to say your lesson : Chhd chho-gyuk lap-she ki

go tsuk.

I have not learnt my Ngd chho-gyuk ma hlap-
lesson ; ngo che.

Say the Tibetan num- Pope angki di lap
bers :

Can you read and write : Chhd yige dok she da pi-

she-ga ?

Go ontake care : Lapriko gyim.

What do you say : Chhd kan lap-to ?

I dont understand you : Nga chhd ke di ha-md-ko.

You speak too loudly ; Chhd ke bompo kyap be'

Dont make such a noise : Ur audem ma kyap.

You are always laughing : Chho atang-mdchha gau be'.

Does he know; say it Kho she'-kd; lokti lap.

Who is this little girl: Audi pum chhung kd mo f

She is my younger sister; Mo nge num bd

Where did you learn to turn Chhd ka-kha hlap boy le-zhu
round the handspindle : di kor kyap-she t

[ 9i ]

When I learnt to turn Ngd-kl le-zhu kor kyap-she
round the hand-spindle, hlap-bo gang-lo ngd pum
I was a very little girl; chhung chhung 'in.

Last night I had head- Dangp'iru ngd go nd zhe.
ache ;

I am sorry you are ill: Sem duko be, chhd nd-o-le

I cannot leave my book Nai nge chho di zhdk mi
here; ts'u-pe.

I cannot let you go home Ngd chho-lo khim-nagyu mi
until you have finished chuk, audi tsi ma tsar
these sums : barpo.

Do you like to learn Chhd chho-gyuk hlap-ngo
lessons; go be-kd.

If you will not learn, I Hlap-ngo ma ong-ne, ngd-ki
must beat your hands chhd lak-ko dd gyap tip-
and back ; she go-pe.

Dont trouble me like this : Ngd-lo au-dem duk ma p'i.

Let me see your sum : Chhd tsi td chuk

Thats enough; now you Audi dik-ke ; ta-to chhd gyu
may go : ts'u-pe'.

Who teaches you at Chho lap-ta-lo ke-kyl hlap-
school : to ?

Our head-teacher being Ngdchi lopon bomsho di
sick, has obtained nd-ti, gongpo tang zhe.

Our third master has re- Ngdchi lo-pon sumpo di lok
turned ; he is teaching hlep zhe; kho td-to hlap
now. to be'.

When will you return to Chhd lap-ta-na nam lok she

school: bo ?

[ 92 ]

'Read this sentence care- Lo-gyu audi rik-rik dok.

Spell the letters of these Audi tsik-ts'u-ki yige chik-
words: chik lap.


Shall we have a chat on
Religion :

We both have faith in
God :

There are not many Gods i
You speak of Konchho; and
we will give that name

to the One True God :

You worship Shakva Tub-
pa calling him Buddha ;
1 worship the One True
God calling him Kon-
chho :

There is only one God :

There is none besides that
God :

God made everything :

God made the things of
Heaven and earth :

Ngdcha chhoi-ki lap chhd
kyap she bo t

Chhorang, ngarang, nyi-ka
Konchho-lo de'pa zin zhe.

Lha-ts'o mangbo mem be'.

Chhd audem lap-tokon-
chho ; ngdcha tdrung ming

te tab she'in Ihd ngotok

Chhd Shdkya-fup ki kurim
kyap-to Sang-gye ser-ti;
ngdrang Konchho ser-ti
hid ngotok chikpo-i kurim

Di Konchho di chikpo khar-
kyang be\

Konchho te man-na min dul

Konchho-kl kheli zo zhe.

Konchho-kl namkha-i chhd-
kha jik-ten-ki chhakha
zo zhe.

[ 93 ]

God is king of the world
and Protector and gov-
erns it :

God is like a father to us :

Christians call Him Our

God pities us when we
are in trouble :

We ask; then he gives

Jesus Christ came from
Heaven to tell us about

Jesus Christ came to say
where man are to go
on dying:

Jesus Christ became a
human being and dwelt
in the world :

He came upon the world
to speak tidings from

Christ told men of another
better world than this
present world:

When we die we shall
enter a new life in

Konchho jik-ten-ki gydpo,
gompo du'-ti, te-lo gyur.

Konchho yap chik dem bd
ngdcha tonda-le.

Ngdchi yapft idem Mdshi-
ka-pa-po ser.

Ngdcha duk-ngal rakii^Kon-
chho-le nying-je du\

Ngacha-kl shu-wa tab-tiy
roram ter she be\

Ye-shu Mdshika forl-ne
p'ep che Konchho-ki Ion
bdk ?iang-she ton-le.

Ye-shu Mdshika p'ep song
du\ audem she' pe tonle:
mi-tsu shi-ne kdru gyu-
she be\

Ye-shu Mdshika kye-bo chik
gyur-tijikten-7ia zhu do

Kho jikten tengkha chung
zhe, Konchho kyi Ion ser-

Jiktzn zhen chi audi jikten
di le lent be; p'i-dem
Mdshika-i sung song zhe.

Ngdcha shi-ne, ts'e sarpo chi
namkha buna fop nyi in..

[ 94 ]

We shall not enter another
body in this world :

We shall not be born again
here for another life as
one of the six classes of
animated beings :

We shall not be born again
in the bodies of beasts
or birds :

Jesus Christ was killed for

He died to make payment
for your sins :

All are pure & good in
Heaven ; and you may
not enter there because
you are evil and impure :

But Jesus offered his life
a ransom to redeem all

Thus He cleanses your
soul from impurity; and
God lets you enter Hea-
ven :

I believe in Jesus Christ:

Audi jikten di tengkha, ngd-
cha pumpo zhen bu-na
gyu ma ong.

Ngdcha ts'e zhen ton le ndi
kyu-she min, semchen-ki
rik tuk le pungpo chik

Ngdcha cholsong p'ya-i ro-
na tang kyu chung she

Ye-shu Mdshika se' po be'
chhd to'nda-le.

Khorang shi song zhe, chhd
kyon-ki lu-rin p'in-khen-
ki ton-le.

Namkhd nangsha kheli
dakmo yakpo be'; chho-
rang ngempo ma dak yo1
pe, teru zhuk ma ts'upe.

Onte Ye-shu ri-kyi sok sal
jhe, dikchen mi kheli lu-
na lu-tsap.

P idem chhorang-gi semnyi
kyuk-do-le khyu ti. Kon-
chho-gl chhd namkhd bu-
na gyu chuk.

Ngd Ye-shu Mashika-io yi-
chhe do 'in.

Alas you do not believe ; A-tsa-ma l chhd yi mi chhe-


Pray to God to shew you Konchho lo molam kvap

[ 95 ]

the real truth ;

Christ is the true thing
and He died as substi-
tute for all :

Buddha became a good
man; but he never ob-
tained happiness.

You reach happiness when
your sins have been
forgiven :

tang chho lo empa ngotok
di ten-nyi.

Mdshika di nga-wo kho
rang di bd; kho yang mi
tam-che ki ts'abpo shi

Chomdende mi lem chi chung
song ; kalte nd-mong ga-
mochen top ma che

Chhd-kyi dikpa di sdl chung
ne chho ki gdmochen dub

[ 96 ]

Cho-oi Monlam.

Namo ngdchi Yap Nyirang ting-sang namkha-f
nasha zhu be. Nyikyi ming di dambu ser go-pe.
Nyikyi gye-si gyop pep she gong tang Namkha-i
nasha nyikyi ka-gyur di dub-te ; pidi dem jikten-na
nyen she go-pe. Nge to-za nyim-re di ngd-lo nyim-
tang-nyim pin-tang. Mi-tso-ki dak-lo nopa kyal-ne
te-tso-lo zbpe ; audi dem ddk-ki dikpa sdl pya sollo l
Ngd-lo dikpai tso zung-khen di ma nang. Onte
ngempo-le ngd-lo toi nyd. Gye-si, wangbu, rdkchen,.
kheli nyirangchen du.Amen.


Will the Raja grant ad-
mission to his presence:

My wife is dying :

What is the name of that
peak ?

What is the use of that

That woman wears a long
plait of hair:

What is the use of putting
the shell on your hand:

Gye-po di ku diin-lo gongpa
nang she bo ?

Nge mobi di shi dap be\

Gang-tse fidi ki ming kd
de'su ?

Fidi tar chho di ki kho kan
do ko ?

Pam audi kya hlow-wa chi
kiln chen du\

Lak-koi tengkha fung di
chhuk-te, p'ento kam bo ?

[ 97 ]

Paint worn by Tibetan Tiii-ja.
women on their cheeks :

Shell worn on wrist:

Long plait of hair worn :

Charm round neck:

Hand-spindle :

Dandi bearer (of Darjil-
ing) :

A China-man :


Revenue Superintendents
of the twelve districts
into which Sikkim is
divided :

Village head-man:

The Raja or ex-king of
Sikkim :


Kya hlow-wa.



Dandi bak-khen.

Gya-nak-pa; or Gyd-mi

Ka-zi (Bka-gzigs).






Full Text


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