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Translation of the Peking gazette

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Title:
Translation of the Peking gazette
Alternate Title:
Peking gazette
Alternate Title:
North-China Herald and Supreme Court and Consular Gazette
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North China Herald
Place of Publication:
Shanghai
Publisher:
North China Herald
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Chinese
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v. ; 21.5 cm

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newspaper ( sobekcm )
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Asia -- China -- Beijing -- Beijing
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39.916667 x 116.383333

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General Note:
"Reprinted from the 'North-China Herald and Supreme Court and Consular Gazette'."
General Note:
Some sources credit translation to William Frederick Mayers

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SOAS University of London
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SOAS University of London
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Full Text


TRANSLATION

OF

THE PEKING GAZETTE



1878.

SHANGHAI

REPRINTED FROM THE u NORTH-CHINA HERALD AND SUPREME COURT AND
CONSULAR GAZETTE.

18 79.


PREFACE.

The year 1878 has been one of great anxiety for the Government of
China. One of tlie most disastrous and terrible famines tliat history has
to record has af&icted a large portion £ the Empire, and the memorials
reporting the progress and extent £ tkis famine are fall of the deepest
interest. Tlie eloquent and toncliing appeals for aid from the high,
authorities of the provinces directly interested, the exhortations to economy,
and outcries for administrative reform that have been submitted by
Censor after Censor, with, the decrees tliat these have called forth, show
that the heart of tlie Empire lias been deeply moved. However
temporary the excitement may be, there has undoubtedly been a genuine
desire on the part of many energetic and earnest men to direct the
attention of tkeir rulers to the numberless abuses that are sapping the
foundations of Empire, and the memorials on this subject are exceptionally
nameroas and interesting.

The conquest of K^sligaria/ has pnfc an end to a cosfcly warthe
maintenance of which for the past sixteen years has been a heavy drain
on the Exchequer. The triumphant decrees tkat follow the annoancemenfc
of the victories £ the successful general Tso Tsung-fang sliow wliafc
importance is attached to tke completion of an enterprise that was at
one time regarded by the European world as perfectly hopeless.

The usual copious index will be found at the commencement of the
volume, the usefulness of wkicli will, it is hoped, be increased by the
record it contains of all promotions and official transfers, which have been
noted during tlie past year with special care.

Owing to unavoidable circumstancesthe translations for the last;
six weeks of the year were prepared by a different hand, whicli will
account for a lack of uniformity in the orthograplij of proper names.

Shanghai, 1879.




INDEX

TO THE

PEKING GAZETTE

FOR

1 878.

*** For purposes of classification, with a view to ready reference, the contents
of the Peking Gazettet as translated in this volume, have been indexed under six
principal headings, viz Court Affairs, Judicial and Revenue Administration, Civil
and Military Administration, Instruction, Worship, and Usages, External Relations,
and the Provinces. Under each of these main divisions, the subjects are still further
arranged in appropriate categories.

I.COURT AFFAIRS.

Imperial Genealogical roll completed ............... Jan. 2, 12, 2L

Prince Peh-yen-na-mo-hu had audience ............. Jan. 30.

Court Ceremonial New-Year^ Day ................... Feb. 1.

Beildh Tsai Ying admitted to entree .............. Feb. 1.

Prince of CliSng granted cong6.................... Feb. 22.

Death of Empress of Tung ChihCeremonies on com-
pletion of three years* mourning ................. March 3.

Pottery for Palace from Kiukiang ................. March 18.

Palace economies.................................. March 29, 30.

Do. do...................................... April 2, 9, 14, 26, 27.

Do. do...................................... May 14.

Palace GateLoss of Seal.......................... April 12, 30.

Imperial Banqueting CourtCharges against Secretary. April 28.

Portrait of late EmperorArrival of .............. May 4.

Do. do. Installation of.......... May 14, 29.

Reverential attitude of Court and Ministers ...... May 25, June 8.

Presents of Crape to Prince of Tun................ May 27.

Do. Birds nests do. do..................... Sept. 9.

Yuan Ming-ytian, Colonel, steals materials ....... June 11.

Decree on meteorological portents, popular superstition,

&c.................................... June IX, 24.

Imperial ClansmenScheme for removal to F^ng-fien

abandoned............................. July 3, 20.

Do. do. do. Two months pay July 11.


BirtMay of Senior Empress Dowager (Aug. lOth).Jisly 12,

Do. do. Mistake of

Financial Cominissioner.......... July 16.

Do. EmperorCeremonies to be observed ... July 20.

Winter hatscommenced to be worn ................ Sept, 22.

Prince of Fow, adopted successor.^....,........ Sept. 23y Oct, 9.

Imperial Equipage DepartmentArrears owing to.. Oct. 4, 19.

Do. Osequiesdate of....................... Oct. 15, 29.

Prince of KungPresent of silk ................. Dec. 4.

Ta Ch§ng-tienDate for commencing repairs Dec. 26.

Mausolea,

Repairs at Mn Tung-Kng sanctioned ..................

Do. do. ...................

Troops at MausoleaInsufficiency of supplies for ...

Heturn of Officers from Spring Sacrifices ..........

Officers appointed to vacancies m Battery Offices...

Ming TombsSacrifice at ...........................

Survey of repairs ordered ..........................

Fittings^ etc., for Buddliistic room at Tung-ling ..

Sums owing to Shantung for construction of Mausolea
Expenses of guard-houses at Mausolea repudiated by

Governor-General of Chihli ............

Votive tablet for Emperor Tung Chih.................

Final obsequies of Emperor Tung Chih-Imperial visit

to Mausolea ...........................

Coir Matting and Gold Leaf applied for..............

Arrears from ChihliPayment demanded................

Concubine of Emperor Hisu FdngRepairs to Mausoleum.

Feb. 17f Mar. 7.

May 23,

March 11, April 23, May 2S
April 9.

July 28,

Sept. 3.

Sept. 7.

Sept. 16-
Nov. 12

Nov. 18.

Nov, 25.

Dec. 6, 8, 21, 22, 26, 28.
Dec. 14.

Dec. 21.

Dec. 26.

Manufactories.

W^n Kwei, Superintendent at Hangchow, in mourning. Jan. 15.

Prices of Silk in Chekiang........................ Feb. 9.

Adulteration in SilksFor patent scrolls, &c...... Feb. 17.

Ming-hlln, Superintendent at Nanking, takes over

patterns ............................ March 3.

Do. do. year of office expires Sept. 30.

SoochowReturn of receipts and disbursements ..... March 10.

KiangsuInability to make good arrears ........... April 12.

Do. Arrears of Satin Velvet .................. June 3.

NankingApplication for restoration of Manufactory of

Sacrificial Silks, &c................ July 10.

Trappings for Imperial carriages ................. Sept. 19.

KiangsuSilks for PalaceExtension of time solicited.. Dec 26.

JUDICIAL AND KEYENUE ADMINISTRATION.
Appeal Cases.

Judicial ArrearsProposed measures concerning... March 3, Aug. 15.

Spurious CashProhibition of manufacture ....... July 11.

Appeal CasesBelay in hearing of ............... Aug. 22.

AdministrationCensor Tung Tsung-han upon....... Sept. 517.


iii

Provincial CourtsDelay in hearing of cases ..... Sept. 6.

Appeal CasesRe-hearing of by Provincial Judges

Question to be considered ........... Dec. 14.

Summonses in Civil SuitsPekingSeals affixed to ... Dec. 21.
FormosaLin Tai-she^ renewed appealre murder of

her son .............................. Jan. 4.

ShantungMurder case.............................. May 3.

Disputed right to water privilege .... July 25.

Burglaries in Tan District............. Aug. 27.

KiangsuMurder of father by uncles of appellant June 2.

Hupeh Murder by proprietors of manufactory ..... June 16.

Murder and robbery by local bullies ....Sept. 13, 30.

Son appeals against murder of father..... Oct. 28.

Hunan Murder of husband by his father-in-law ... Aug. 6.

Shopman poisoned by his partner ........ Aug. 6.

Robbery of official .................... Sept. 5.

FuhkienMurder of father and falsification of evi-
dence .............................................July 10.

Two men gouged by relatives .......... Sept. 13.

MongoliaExtortion and murder by Kharach^n

Tabunang ............................. July 18.

JehhohMurder of eight persons .................. Sept. 6.

AnhweiMagistrate appeals against dismissal...... July 22, Aug. 6.

SzechwanOld woman trodden to death .............Aug. 3.

Suspicious death ............ ....... Aug. 3.

Robbery of widow..................... Sept. 5.

Magistrate appeals against dismissal. Sept. 8.

Mother beaten to death .............. Nov. 24.

HonanSon appeals against murder of his father by

burglars............................. Aug. 27.

Hh LungkiangAppeals against finding at inquest ... April 16.

Kirin, burglary and murderCharges against Governor Sept. 15.

Do. attempted seduction and suicide.............. Oct. 18.

TJung ChowIllegal imprisonment and death of pri-
soners .........................................Sept. 30.

ChekiangAppeal against official extortion....... Nov. 2.

Reheabings.

H6h LungkiangInquest on body of suicide,

Hu KwangSuspicious death of old man .........

ShengkingHomicide............................

KiangsuSuicide of widow taken away from her second
husband.......................................

Mar. 20,31, Apr, 16, Aug. 12,
Oct. 9.

July 19.

Oct. 30.

June 28.

Crime.

HupehAdultery and murderWoman executed by

ling-che .............................. Jan. 1, 13, July 27.

Incest and murderWoman executed by

ling-che ............................... April 27.

Burglary in Ching-siang district............ July 29.

Execution of official for forging seals, &c. Nov. 11.


IV

KiangsuParricide of ill-tempered mother ........

Peking~Burglaries committed.......................

Theft by Secretary of Board ..............

BurglariesOrders to authorities .........

Pillage of food shops.....................

Fraudulent assumption of official rank ...

Robbery of graves ........................

Gambling inProhibition againat ..........

KweichowFelonious intermarriage of officii.......

OfficiaVs concubine buried alive ......

FuhkienExtortion resulting in suicide ...........

Commutation of penalty for procuring sub-
stitute at examination..................

KwangtungCaptures of members of affiliated society.

Burglary by disbanded braves ..........

Impostures practised by Taouist priests

and others ........................

Chih-liKetum of cases for seven years ...........

Triple murderExecution by Ung-cKe .......

Double murder and attempted outrage ......

ChekiangAssault on shop-keepers by Mancbu Boldier.
HonanMurderofmother-in-lawExecutionby ling-chye

Capture and execution of bandit chief.....

Abductor of women captured and executed

YlionanCapture of salt smugglers.................

Murder of father and three sons ..........

SzechVan.Matricide by maniac~Execution by ling-cl^e
Operations against salt smugglers and ban-

ditti...............................

Murder of adopted fatherSon executed

ling-chye ...........................

Theft of medals by military ofi&cer ...

Theft of silks by military officer ....

ShdnsiTriple murder and execution by ling-cNe ...

Heh Lung-hiangManslaughter by exorcist...........

Tsi-tsi-harRape of bannerman^ daughter .......

Conviction of horse stealers ..........

KirinFraudulent personification of high official.

ShansiSon poisons his father with dumplings .....

Petun^Execution of Police runners for quarrelling

and robbery ...........................

ShansiMurder and robbery in Yung-shou Hien.......^

Robbery of funds from Bureau of Armament...
ChaharFrequency of robberies and measures to

prevent ...............................

ShansiPrevalence of infanticide..................

Sedition.

MoukdenCapture and execution of mounted banditti..

ShansiBanditti in................................

SzeehwanSuppression of uprisings ...............

Capture and dispersion of rebels.......

Aug. 22.

Jan. 21, April %
March 13.

March 14.

April 3.

April 30.

May 18.

Dec. 4, 17,

Feb. 24.

Feb. 24.

March 10.

April 15.

April 4.

July 26.

Sept. 9.

April 8.

Aug. 13.

Dec. 5.

June 16, Oct 24*
May 8.

Sept. 23.

Nov. 12, 30.
June 7.

July 13.

May 18.

June 22.

July 30.

Aug. 13.

Aug. 20.

Way 18.

Aug. 20.

July 29.

Aug. 5.

Oct. 20.

Nov. 3.

Nov. 14.

Dec. 16.

Dec. 16.

Dec. 28.

Dec. 30.

Maroh 3.

April 12.

April 21.

Nov. 19.


Cha-harCapture of banditti, &c., in neighbourhood of

Great Wall...........................

KwangtungOccupation of Fo-kang Ting by banditti.

KwangsiBanditti at Hwai-yuan ..................

Ch§-kiangRising in KHi-shan...................

Arrest of lekin rioters...............

KirimOutlaws exterminated .....................

Hu-kwangCapture and execution of marauders.....

Opium.

Ngan-hweiDuties on opium ......................

Taotai Liu HienSuspended for opium smoking ....

Cultivation of PoppyProhibition ...............

Reference to................

Efforts at suppression in Kansuh.

Penalties in Shansi.........

District Magistrate in Kiang-suProtest against dis-
missal .........................................

Lelcin on Foreign Opium (note).....................

Duty on do. Peking .....................

Poppy CultivationOfficer degraded for neglecting to

enforce prohibition...........

Do. do. ShensiEffects of prohibition, &c....

Do. do. ShansiFurther prohibition.........

Lekin.

Malpractices by collector in' Hupeh.................

Unauthorized levy by notables at Fank^w ............

Carelessness of Superintendent of Collectorate inYiing^ft.

Proposals for additional lekin on salt .............

Censor Tung Tsung-han on leJcin ...........*........

LeJcin on silkCh§kiang.......... ..................

Do. from Kiang-su for 1878..,..,..................

Grain Tribute.

ChekiangFreights for 0. M. S. N. Co.........

KiangsuTribute forwarded ...................

Grain Transport.

KiangsuFirst instalment despatched
Seoond and last do.

Economies proposed ......

ChekiangFirst instalment proposed .

Last do. .

ShantungLoss of grain junk ...............

HukwangCommutation of tribute ............

Rivers and Canals.

Preservation of water supplies ....................

Yellow EiverSpring freshets.......................

Do. Peach freshets................

Do. Repairs to embankment.....................

Do. Dangers averted ....................

Chih-liSuggestion that law of respectful withdrawal

be applied to officers on river works .

Breach in Grand Canal ....................

June 29.

Sept. 12.

Oct. 31, Nov. 15.
Sept. 18, Oct. 4.
Nov. 16.

Nov. 4.

Nov. 11.

Jan. 20.

Jan. 26, Feb. 23.
March 9, 27.
April 6.

Aug. 18, Sept. 1.
Sept. 29.

April 23, May 11, Sept. 12,24.
June 11.

Sept. 18.

]STov. 17.

Nov. 18.

Dec. 12.

Jan. 16.

Feb. 7.

March 24.

April 17. *

Sept. 5, 17.

Oct. 29.

Dec. 6.

March 2.

March 2, June 8.

April 11.

June 7.

May 24.

April 11.

June 12.

June 11.

Nov. 21.

March 6, 25.
March 23.

June 1.

May 21.

Sept. 17, Oct. 19.

June 18.

Aug. 29, Sept. 11.


vi

ShantungReport on condition of Grand Canal ...... July 24.

Grand CanalSummer freshets ...................... Sept. 17.

Embankments, &c., at Fan-fou Hupeh................ Oct. 26, Nov. 9, 30.

Grand CanalMemorial from Superintendent of Peking

'Ganaries........................... Oct. 31.

Do. Officers sent to inspect.............. Nov. 18.

Yungting RiverOverflow and rewards to officials Nov. 21.

Repairs to Canal near Yang-chow Fu................ Nov. 25.

Yellow RiverRepairs to banks ........... ........ Nov. 27.

Tsin RiverOverflow of .......................... Dec. 1, 2.

Yellow RiverOverflow at K^i-chow................. Dec. 20.

Grand Canal Repairs to upper portion............. Dec. 4.

Yellow RiverContinued safety, &c................. Dec. 6.

Do. Tour of inspection ...................... Dec. 17.

Grand Canal do. do. .............................. Dec. 18.

Embankments at Fan-kowDifference of opinion be-
tween Admiral and Gov. Gen..................... Dec. 30.

Revenue and Customs.

ShansiSalt revenueCensor's proposals.............

Grain tax remitted .......................

HwainganExtension of salt licenses ...............

Do. do. objections by

Shen Pao-cheng.........................

FuhkienSalt taxes inProposals for remission in

flooded districts .....................

SzechVanProposals for permission to sell salt in

Hwai-ngan area (note)..................

KiangsiUnauthorized levy of land and grain tax ...

Hankow CustomsFlourishing condition of............

ShantungArrears of interest due from..............

YunnanSalt smuggling in ..........................

PekingLive stock and house duty ..................

Customs and Octroi .......................

HupehOfficial rewarded for collecting full amount of

duty assessed..........................

Sha Hu KowSuperintendent of Customs applies for

to defer presentation of accounts.

KirinMemorial on Taxation ........................

TientsinReturn of Duties collected by Native Customs.

KwangtungSalt arrearsPayment deferred ...........

HonanGrain tax remitted ..........................

KalganSuperintendent of Customs applied to be
allowed to make good a portion of his

deficit................................

HupehSuperintendent of duties on bamboo furniture

appointment renewed ..................

ChihliFresh import on Ch^ng-lu salt ..............

WuhuReturn of duties collected ...................

Customg Station established near to.......

ChihliStatements on revenue of province ..........

ShantungArrears from .............................

Jan. 22, Feb. 13.

Sept. 11.

March. 19.

Aug. 2.

March 5.

March 30, April 9, 17, 28.
April 29, May 16.

April 7.

May 17.

June 7.

July 22, Aug. 8, 9, 29, 31.

Sept. 1.

July 26.

Aug. 31, Sept. 28.

Sept. 7.

Sept. 8.

Sept. 10.

Sept. 13.

Oct. 8, 23.

Oct. 10.
Oct. 12.
Oct. 27.
Nov. 29.
Nov. 18.
Nov. 29.


Salt in ChekiangAccumulation of................. Dec. 10.

Hui-an Customs Return of receipts .............. Dec. 11.

Huai-an SaltTls. 40,000 for Peking Gendarmerie.. Dec. 13.

Salt in ShansiExcess of supply.................. Dec. 30.

Official Charities,

PekingMillet, etc. to relief agencies at .........

Two additional relief agencies at ........

Relief agencies atExtension of period ...

AgenciesSuggestions for removal..........

Tls. 20,000 for sending home refugees.....

Refugees inProposed arrangements for send-
ing back...................................

Issue of rations reduced to one per diem at

relief agencies at ...................

Wadded jackets for paupers................

Tientsin and Pao tingRelief agencies at ..........

Do. Sale of surplus rice at reduced

rates...................

Chang-kia WanAgency at...........................

Tung-chowRice for agencies .......................

Ho-kien FuContributions for......................

Jan. 12, 21, June 10, Sept.

21, 23, 30.

Jan. 22.

March 20, April 6, 13, 28,
June 15, 18.

April 18, May 6.

June 10.

June 23.

June 24.

Sept. 30.

April 1.

April 1.

April 8.

Feb. 9, April 8, Noy. 25.
Nov. 7.

ShansiOrphanage at T^i-yuan Fu ................. Sept. 29.

Contributions and Charities.

F^ng-tienContributions for Shansi .............. March 11.

Return of contributions from. ........ Aug. 11.

Kiang-suRewards for contributions in aid of refugees. March 12.

Relief of refugees at Soochow ........ March 12.

Contributions of land for charitable granaries. May 9.
Do. for HonanModes of raising,

&c..................... Sept. 24.

SzechVanContributions for Shansi ............... April 16.

Do. do. Honan ..................... July 24.

ChekiangContributions for Shan-si and Honan.....June 12.

KweichowContributions for Shansi .............. June 14.

ShantungContributions for Shansi Tls. 11,000 ... July 28.

Bequest by officialRewards applied for ... Oct. 2.
Ch^ii Kieh-ki_Remarkable benevolenee ... Oct. 2.

FuhkienContributions from ..................... Sept. 2.

Do. to sufferers by flood ...... Nov. 2, 4.

Do. for Honan......-............ Nov. 6.

SwatowAmount raised on behalf of Shansi....... Jan. 6.

Hongkong, Singapore, &c.Subscriptions raised... Jan. 6.

CantonSuperintendent of Customs Tls. 10,000 ... March 26.

TaiwanTls. 13,600 ............................. July 4.

ShanghaiLiberality of native residents ........ Aug. 9.

Ch'aharContributions of plough oxen ........... Sept. 8.

Tu Tsung-yingTls. 12,000 ..................... April 7.

Hu Kwang-jungSums contributed by .............. June 13.

Do. Contributions to famine fund in Shenai June 26.


viii

Li YingTestamentary bequest .....................

Hia Kia-kao Tls. 3,000 to Shansi fund ...........

Wang TsengTls. 2,0Q0Tablet granted.............

Hia Hien-lunTaotai of TaiVan and others, $3,000 ...
Liu King-fen_Tls. 1,000Tablet granted ; with other

donations amounting to Tls. 5,000 ....

Chu K^-ang and Brotliei Tls. 3,125.................

Ying KweiTls. 5,400 .............................

Mao Lin and Ts^ng LinTls. 4,000 to military postal

service...............................

Do. do. mitigation of penalties .....

Ni W^n-wei and brotherTls. 6,220 ................

Yuan Pao-linTls. 3,000 for Honan ................

Su-c^eng-mei, AnhweiTls. 1,200 ..................

The Lady Ko Memorial arch .......................

SzecliVanCharitable bequest by widow.............

HonanModifications of contribution agencies for,

sanctioned............................

Contributions from anti-extortion allowances for
Do. do. Palace, Tls. 10,000

Contributions by ladies ..........................

Subscriptions in aid of ancestral charities ......

Offices for sale of titles Applications for reward to
contributors to be made direct to the

Throne ...............................

Kweichow office in ShantungTime for opening ex-
tended ...........................................

AnhweiMother of official sells her ornaments ....

Ting Jih-changSummary of contribution and applica-
tion for rewards .................................

Deceased relief distributorsRecord of services to be

made .................................

Contributions from benevolent societies...........

Rewards to contributors solicited by Governor of Shansi

ChihliTablets for contributors ..................

Governor of HupehTls. 2,000Tablet granted.......

Lit. Chancellor SzecliVanTls. 1,200..............

CIVIL APPOINTMENTS.

Chang Yltn-k^ng, Vice-Director of Impl. Clan Court...

Do. do. Assist. President of Censorate.........

Che Hoh, Vice-President Board of Punishments......

Do. do. do. Revenue...........

Ch^n Lan-pin, Vice-Director Imperial Clan Court...

Chlng Ts-ao-ju, Customs Taotai, Tientsin..........

Ch^ng Fuh, Judl. Commissioner, Kwangtung..........

Do. Financial Commr., Honan ..................

ChJeng Lin, Comptr. Imperial Household............

Do. Acting Vice-President Bd. of Civil Office...
Chow Jui-ts^ng, Commissioner, Office of Transmission.

June 26.
July 3.
July 4.
July 4.

July 4.
July 6.
Sept. 11.

Oct. 5.
Oct. 5.
Nov. 17,
Dec. 4.
Dec. 13.
Dec. 13.
June 10.

Aug. 10.
Aug. 10.
Sept. 23.
April 10.
April 13.

Aug. 24.

Aug. 24.
Sept. 19.

Oct. 8.

Oct. 20.
Dec. 2.
Dec. 14.
Dec. 18.
Dec. 21.
Dec. 28.

Jan. 4.
Jan. 19.
March 22.
June 2.
March 24.
Dec. 24.
March 10.
Nov. 17.
May 10.

Sept. 10.


IX

Chow Klia-mei, Governor of Shun-fien ................ Aug. 21,

Do. do. Minister Tsung-li Yamn............ Aug. 21.

Chung Nien-tsu, Salt Intendant, Yilnnan ............. July 10.

OhJung How, Vice-President Board of Civil Office .... April 15.

Oh^ng Hun, Chief Supervisor of Instruction .......... July 15.

Ch^ng Li, Actg. Depy. Lieut. -Genl................... Oct, 6.

C^ung Shan, Intendant, She Tang Circuit, Ylinnaa ... May 22.

Ch^ng Slin, Commissioner Office of Transmission ..... Aug. 16.

Fan Liang, Lieut.-Governor Kwangsi................... Jan. 8.

Fang Ting-jui, Taotai, Hangchow ..................... March 11.

F6ng Yu-k^, Vice-President, Board of Ceremonies...... June 19, Sept. 23.

Hai Jung, Prefect of Ning-hia Kansuh ................ Aug. 22.

Heng Ki, Lieutenant-Governor, Chihli .................. July 23.

Hia Kia-kao, Directou Court of Imperial Stud .......... July 23.

Hia Nieh-hing, Grain Commissioner, Kwangtung .......... Nov. 18.

Hia T^ng-shan, Literary Chancellor Kiangsu ............ Dec. 13.

Hoh Ohao-yung, Salt Comptroller, Kwangtung .......... March 11.

Hli Ohe-hiang, Supervisor of Instruction ............ May 18.

Hti Tung, President Board of Ceremonies............. June 19.

Hu Y^n-kwei, Prefect of Ch^ng-king, Szechuan ........ Aug. 22.

Hu Yti-fan, Judge, Anhwei............................ July 31.

Hii Shu-ming, Sub-Directorj Court of Revision ....... Oct. 23.

Hwang Ghoh, Vice-President, Board of Punishments... May 15.

Do. Senior President do. Sept. 23

Hwang Ytih-ng§n, Prefect, Kwei-chow Fu ................ Jan. 7.

I Nien, Sub-Chancellor Grand Secretariat............... Dec. 10.

J^n Tao-jung, Lieutenant-Governor, Chekiang.......... March 10.

Jung Luh, President Court of Censors .................. June 12.

Do. do. Board of Works ........................... June 15.

Jung Ts^an, Superintendent House Duty, Peking........ July 10.

Ki Ko, Vice-President Board of Punishments ............ June 2.

KJi Hing, Chief Comptroller of Hunting Grounds ...... April 4.

K}i Siu, Assistant Supervisor ...*................... Aug. 6.

Do. Chief do............................. Oct. 2.

Do. Sub-Chancellor Grand Secretariat ............. Nov. 20.

K7i Yuan, Vice-President Board of Punish., Moukden. .. June 2.

Kiang Ki-chu, Taotai, Kiangsi........................ Oct. 31.

Kin Kwoh-sli§, Judge, Kwangtung...................... Nov. 17.

King Lien, President, Board of Revenue .............. June 15.

Klin Ki, ^--appointed to Canton Customs.............. March 5.

Kwang Lin, Superintendent, Hwai-ngan Customs ........ April 28.

Kw^ng Show, Comptroller, Imperial Household.......... May 10.

Kwei Jun, Vice-President, Board of Ceremonies........ June 2.

Kwei H^ng, Junior Deputy Supervisor of Instruction... Sept. 25.

Kwoh Ying, Judicial Commissioner, Kiangsi ........... March 10.

Kw^n Kang, Vice-President, Board of Ceremonies....... March 22.

Do. do. Board of War........... April 15.

L^h Fang-ki, Lieutenant- Governor, Kiangsu .......... Jan. 8.

Liang Kwei, Tutor, Imperial Academy.................. July 24.

Do. Assistant Secretary Imperial Supervi-

sorate.................................. June 30.


Li Chao-tung, Judicial Commissioner of Chihli.......

Li Jeh-ngo, Lieutenant-Governor, Yunnan ............

Li Ming-ch'e, Lieutenant-Governor, Fuhkien .........

Li W^n-min, Governor of Kwangsi.....................

Liang Kwei, Junior Assistant Secretary, Supervisorate

of Instruction .........................

Lin Shuh, Vice-President, Board of Revenue .........

Ling Kwei, President, Board of Civil Office.........

Liu Jui-f§n, Taotai at Shanghai ....................

Liu Kin-fang, Director, Court of Sacrificial Worsliip...
Do. Commissioner, office of transmission ...

Lu She-sieh, Judicial Commissioner, Fuhkien ........

Lung I-sin, Inspector of Forces ....................

Mien Yi, Vice-President Board of War, Moukden ......

Ming Sun, Superintendent, Imperial Manufacturies,

appointment renewed ....................

Ngan Te, Superintendent Live Stock, Peking .........

Ngen Ch^ng, President Court of Censors..............

Do. do. Board of Ceremonies ..............

Do. Assistant Secretary, Imperial Supervi-

sorate .............................

P^n Tsu-yin, Senior Vice-President, Board of Revenue
Do. Director General varitable, Record Office

Pan Wei, Governor of Hupeh.........................

Pao T^ng, Junior Deputy Supervisor of Instruction ...

Do. Senior do. .................

Peng Tsu-hien, Governor of Shun-fien Fu.............

Do. Financial Commissioner, Kiangsi.......

Po-yen-na-m^-lm, Comptroller of Troops on active service

Do. Custodian, Imperial Armoury........

Sang Ch^n-jung, President of Wu Ying Tien ..........

Shao H^ng-yli, Governor of Hunan....................

She Tsdng, Junior High Commissioner, Peking Customs

Shen T^i, Financial Commissioner, Yunnan............

Show Ch^ng, Director Court of State Ceremonial .....

Si Ch^ng, Imperial Agent, Si-ning...................

Si Ch§n, Vice-President, Court of Censorate.........

Do. Assistant, resident in Tibet..................

Si Tze-hung, Vice-President, Board of Ceremonies....

Sieh Yun-sh§ng, Judicial Commissioner, Shansi ......

Sii O^ang, Intendant, Kin Shan Hai Circuit .........

Sit Ying-jung, Judge, Honan.........................

Do. do. Kiangau...........................

Sun Yi-king, sub-Chancellor, Grand Secretariat .....

Sung Ch^ng, Grain Intendant, Kwei-chow .............

Sung Klian, Warden of Imperial Parks...............

Sung Sh§n, Vice-President, Board of Ceremonies......

H§ Hing, Financial Commissioner, Kiangsu ...........

Do. Judge, Honan..................................

Ts^ng Ki-ts^, Sub-Director, Court of Sacrificial Worship
Tsdng Show, Judge, Chekiang.........................

Jan. 8.
May 29.
March 30.
Aug. 21.

June 30.
March 22.
June 2.
May 21.
May 5.
Aug. 6.
March 30.
March 21.
June 2.

Sept. 17.
July 9.
April 15.
June 2.

June 30.
June 19.
Aug. 1.
Sept. 29.
June 30.
Sept. 25.
Jan. 5.
Aug. 21.
March 21.
June 21.
June 20.
April 11.
Aug. 23.
Aug. 2.
Nov. 30.
Nov. 14.
July 11.
Nov. 5.
Sept. 23.
March 30.
Sept. 19.
Oct. 30.
Nov. 17.
March 14.
J£111. 3
May 13.
April 15.
July 16.
Nov. 17.
Oct. 31.
Aug. 2.


xi

Tsai Ling, Director-General, Veritable Record Office ... April 17

Do. Grand Secretary, Ti Jen-koh ............... July 5.

Do. High Commissioner, Peking Customs.......... Aug. 23.

Tsing An, Military Assistant Governor, Kobdo ....... Aug. 4.

Tsing Lien, Deputy Supervisor of Instruction .......June 14.

Tstian Lin, Chief Supervisor........................ March 14.

Do. Sub-Chancellor, Grand Secretariat.......... May 28.

Tstian T^ing President Board of Punishments......... April 15.

Tu Jui-lien, Governor of Ytinnan ................... Aug. 1.

Tung Hun, Director-General, Veritable Record OflB.ce... June 20.

Tung Hwa, Director-General State Historiographer^

Office............................... June 20.

Do. Vice-President, Board of Civil 0ce Sept. 23.

Wan Shun, Superintendent Imperial Manufactory,

Soochow................................ July 13.

Wan Ts^g-li, President Board of Revenue ............ June 19.

Wang Che-han, Sub-Chancellor, Grand Secretariat..... Aug. 2.

Wang Sze-yi, Financial Commissioner, Shansi......... July 31,

Wang Ta-king, Financial Commissioner, Hupeh ........ Aug. 2.

Wang W^n-shao, Vice-President, Board of Ceremonies May 15.

Do. Probationer, Grand Council......... Mar. 8.

Do. Acting Vice-President, Board of War Mar. 8.

Do. Appointed to Tsung-li Yamln........ Aug. 21.

W6n Chung-han, Intendant, Wen-chJu Circuit ......... Mar.* 12.

W^n Yli, President, Court of Censors................ June 15.

W§ng Hio-p§n, Grain Intendant, Fuh-kien ............ March 31.

Weng T^ng-ho, President, Court of Censors .......... June 19.

Wu Tsau-c^eng, Acting Governor of Fuh-kien ......... May 8.

Do. President of Banqueting Court ..... Nov. 8.

Yang Ch^ng-ktin, Assistant to Tso Tsung-fang........ June 16, July I.

Do. Decree............................. July 1.

Yao Kin-yuan, Judge, Hupeh ......................... Aug. 2.

Yeh Ta-cho, Groom of the Library.................... June 25.

Yi Tsing, Sub-Chancellor, Grand Secretariat ........ April 22.

Ying Kwei, Imperial agent at K^run.................. April 12.

Yii Kw^n, Governor of Fuh-kien ..................... Nov. 16.

Yti Sze-shu, Lieutenant-Governor, Shantung .......... Jan. 2.

PUBLIC SERVICE.

Chang Ts^ng-lung, retained for service in Kiangnan ... Nov. 6.

Ch^ng Shun, Acting Commandant, Barkul ............ Nov. 18.

Ch^n Lan-pin, Audience of Leave .................. March 12.

Che Kang, Imperial Agent, Urga, retires .......... April 11.

Chung How, summoned to Peking..................... June 22.

Do. arrives and has audience ................ Aug. 14, Sept. 11, Oct. 6.

Ch^n Ts^o-ju, services applied for by Li Hung-chang... Aug. 13.

Ch^ng Lin, permitted to ride in forbidden city ... Nov. 11.

Chow HSng-ki, Financial Commissioner, Chihli, ab-
solved from Audience............................... Aug. 16.

Ching Chun, Tartar General, Foochow, penalties

inflicted"........................... Sept. 1.


XU

Ch^n T65-fu, Brigadier-General, T(^ng-chowReport

on capacity ...........................

Cli^ng Fu, Judicial Commissioner, Kwarrtung, takes

office ................................

Chow HSng-ki, Financial Commissioner, Chihli,

assumes office ..........................

Fuh ShSng, Lieutenant-General, penalties inflicted..

Fuh Show-tang, Judge of Honan, resumes charge of his

original post.....................

Do. Lieutenant-Governor of Honan, re-
sumes his original duties ....................

t). Punished and removed.................

Fu-erh-sun, Deputy Lieutenant-General at Clia

goes to Peking ......................

Do. Charges against, explanation demanded...

Do. Assumes duties of Brigadier-General at

Hangchow.............................

Do. Penalties to be inflicted...............

Do. Difference with Tartar General ............

Hwang T^-fang, Penalties remitted.....................

Do. Thanks from ........................

Hu Kwang-jung, Yellow riding jacket bestowed upon...

Hueh Shu-ch'ang acts as Judge of Kiangsu ..........

Ho King, Governor-General, Mincli^li, one month cong6

Hia Kia-kao, Given Button of Second Rank...........

Hieh Yun-sli§ng assumes office as judge of Shansi .

Hu Ohung-ho, Oommaiider-in-chief, deprived of Yellow

Riding, Jacket, &c.....................

Hwang Ping-ytin, late Brigade-General, Tai-yuan,

granted sick leave ....................

Jung Yli, Investigation of charges against.........

Jung Hit, Assistant Chamberlain, dismissed.........

Jen Tao-jung, Financial Commissioner, Hangchow,
takes office........................................

Rung T^ng, Commandant of forces at Urumtsi, assumes

office ...............................

Kung Ling-i succeeds to Confucian dukedom, (and

note).................................

Kiin Ki to resume charge of Canton Customs ........

Do. Reward for contribution of Tls. 10,000......

Kwei F^ng, Assistant Resident Tibet, recalled .....

KwJei Ling, President Board of Revenue, retires....

Kw^i F§ng censured for error in memorial ..........

Kiang Ning-hio, Treasurer Shansi, retires..........

Do. Permission solicited ..............

Li Chao-yuan, Acting Governor, Kweichow..............

Li Cheng-mow, Commander-in-chief, Naval Forces,

mourning ceased ......................

Li Stian-hwa recalled from Shantung ...............

Li Hoh-nien took seals of office...................

Do. Resigns acting governorship of Honan ...

Nov. 11.

Nov. 9,

Sept. 4.

March 9,

June 5.

June 5.

Oct. 29, Nov. 16.

June 27.

Sept 26.

Oct. 10.

Nov. 28.

Dec. 13.

April 13.

April 14, 30.

May 31, June 13.
June 4.

Jime 21.

July 3.

Nov. 29.

July 10.

Oct. 1.

May 24.

April 19.

Aug. 18.

Oct, 4,

Jan. 8.

March 5.

Oct. 3.

Nov. 5.

June 14.

July 5.

July 31.

Aug. 16.

Nov. 21.

Dec. 31.

Jan. 2.

Feb. 11.

June 4.


xiii

Li Pei-king, goes to Peking........................Nov. 21.

Liu Hien, Taotai, Commended by W^n Pin, (see also

opium) .................................. Jan. 5.

Liu Show-fu, Memorial on his behalf.................. Jan. 24.

Li Hung-chang, Penalties requested and remitted ...... April 19.

Do. do. inflicted for breach in Grand

Canal................................ Aug. 30

Do. Goes to Paoting ........................ Dec. 8.-

Li Lien-hiu, compilation of official biography sanctioned May 19.

Liu Jui-fen, Taotai of Shanghai, had audience.......... June 3.

Lo Fang-k^, Acting Governor of Kiangsu................. June 4.

Do. Goes into mourning........................... Aug. 1.

Liu Tien, Permitted to retire ......................... June 16, July 1.

,Li Ming-che, Financial Commissioner, Fuhkien, returns June 20.

thanks for appointment................

Li Chao-fang, Judge of Chihli, retires ............. July 3.

Li Wei-shu, General in Kwangsi, audience of leave... Oct. 3.

Liu Ch^ng-yeo, &c., censured for want of supervision

over his subordinates.................... July 10.

Liu Ping-chang, retires ........................... Nov. 21.

Li W^n-k,i, Prefect in Kiangsu, charge of mean origin

not proved............................... July 18.

Li Wen-ming, Acting Governor, Kiangsi ................. Nov. 21.

Liu Kwun-yi, One months cong6 ....................... Aug. 8.

Do. Resumes duties....................... Sept. 10.

Lu Shih-kieh, Judge, Fuhkien, absolved from audience. Aug. 19, June 20.

Liu Ping-chang, vacates Governorship of Kiangsi .... Aug. 20, Sept. 3.

Ma Ju-lung, Commander-in-chief, Hunan, retires Sept. 5.

Mao Lin, Comptroller Imperial Household, dismissed... May 9.

Mu Tu-sliaeGovernor of Chahar, penalties inflicted." Sept. 1.

Ng^n Ch^ng, on special mission to SzechVan.......... Oct. 21.

Pao Ying, Military Assistant Governor at K^lbdo, 3

months cong6 ........................ June 6.

Do. Leave to retire ............................. Aug. 3.

Pao H^ng, Gives over charge of acting governorship ... Sept. 15.

Pan Ki-ylin, Renewed recommendation for appointment

to Ilwai-ngan Intendency ............ Nov. 9.

Pei Kin-tsiian, Commodore Fuhkien, goes into mourning July 14,

P^ng Kiu-yii, Vice-President Board of Civil Office,

retires ................................. Nov. 7.

P^n Wei, Acting Governor of Hupeh .................. Nov. 12.

Sh6n Pao-cli6ng, Report on state of health ......... April 11.

Do. On corpse examiners, and constables... Jan. 3.

Do. Renewed application for retirement... Jan. 3, Feb. 23.

Do. Censured for proposing abolition of

military examinations......... March 28.

Do. Resigns seals to Governor during

absence ...................... May 5, June 4.

Do. Resumes office .................... July 15.

Sliao Ki, Carelessness in forwarding memorials ....... Jan. 30, Feb. 11, Mar. 1.

Shen Pao-king, Taotai of Kiukiang had audience..... June 2.


Shao Show, Prefect in Feng-tien province, charges

against dismissed........................

She Liu, Brigade-General, Chapu, takes office........

Sh^ng Jung, Commissary, Tibet, renewed term of office

Sh§ng Siian-hwai, Report on cajpacity................

Sliao H§ng-yti, Governor of Honan, takes office .....

Siao Shih-p§n, Transferred to most important district,

Chihli............................"...

Sun K^i-hwa, Presents from Emperor ...................

Sun Kwan-shan, Summoued to Peking ...................

Sung Lin, Acts as Customs Taotai, Newchwang, &c....

Erh-ts^ng, had audience...........................

Teng YtL-t§, Brigade-General, Yunnan, retires........

Ting Pao-ch§ng, Censured for improper recommendation

Do. Penalties inflicted .................

Do. Punished for careless memorial ......

Tu Hing-ah, Posthumous honors bestowed ..............

Tsao Pao, Retires from Board of Punishments .........

Ts^n Yti-ying, Mourns for his grandmotlier...........

Tsing An, Military Assistant Governor, Kobdo

audience of leave........................

Ts'ing Lin, Warden of Parks and Hunting Grounds,

dismissed ...............................

Tso Tsung-fang, Honors conferred ....................

Do. do. declined ........................

Do. Penalties inflicted for carelessness.

Tauan Tsing, Permission to attend at graduates ban-
quet for the second time ..........................

T*uh Tsung-ying, Enters on duties of Governor of Honan
Tuh Fu-lung,Captain of Ts§ Hai, Hecommendation of

Ting Jih-ch^ng, Granted permission to retire ........

Do. Allowed to memorialise.....................

Ts6ng Kwoh-ts^an, Censured for requesting that a body

may enter the city gates.................

To Ko-Jui, Military Deputy Lieutenant-Governor,

Tsitsihar, returns to duty ..............

Yun, Permitted to ride in forbidden city..........

Ts6ng Chang-che, Magistrate Ling District Shantung,

temporarily retained for judicial work...

Ting Show-ch^ng, Judge, Chihli, absolved from audience
Tsai Jun, Name conferred on son of Prince of Hwei......

Ts^ng Ki-tseh, Peacock^ feather bestowed upon........

Do. Had audience of leave......................

Ting Pao-cheng, Censured for improper recommendation

Tung Hlin, Denunciation of ..........................

Tung Hwah, On special mission to SzechVan ..........

Wei Ying-kwangMother dies ..........................

Wen Kw^i, Supt. Impl. Manufactory, Hangchow

Returns to duty .........................

W^n Pao-sh6n completes 60th anniversary of taking
degree.............................................

July 3.

Nov. 28.

Aug. 21

Oct. 3.

Aug. 28,

Nov. 15,

JSTov. 17.

March 30.

Oct. 28.

Sept. 30, Nov. 12.
Sept. 19.

Feb. 23.

March 9.

Nov. 4, 20.

April 7.

April 15.

Oct. 19.

Sept. 24.

May 9.

March 16.

April 22, May 9, 30.
Sept. 9,

Oct. 20, Nov. 2.
June 4.

Oct. 22.

May 7, 27.

July 3.

June 19.

June 21.

Nov. 11.

Aug. 7.

Aug. 16.

Aug. 25.

Aug. 26.

Sept. 24.

Feb. 23.

April 2, 17.

Oct. 21.

Dec. 2.

Sept. 2.

Nov. 6.


XV

Weng Tung-ho, censured for expressing contradictory

views ............................

Do, Pcrraitted to ride in Forbidden City.,.

Wang Wcn-shao, hands over soal of oifice in Hunan

Do, ien,ve of absence to meet his Mother,,

Wu Ta^cliengHonorable mention of services...........

Wu Tsan-cli6ngActs as Governor of Fuhkien ..........

Do. Superseded at his own request.........

Wu Yuan PingActing Gov. -General of Liang-luang.,

Do. Resigns ..............................

Wu CliaoTaotai, Honan, summoned to Peking ..........

Yang Cliang-ktinThanks for appointment..............

Yang Yli-koHad audience............................

Yen King-mingThree months* conge ...................

Ying Han-Posthumous honors bestowed.................

Do. Official biography ............................

Do. Libations to...................................

Ying KweiTwo months cong6 .........................

Do. Permitted to retire ..........................

Do. Agent at Urga, audience of leave..............

Ying LienMilitary Assista.nt Governor at Tarbugatai

hands over seals of office............

Do. Arrives in Peking and has audience............

Yuan Pao-h§ngSecretaries of return to Peking........

Yang Chang-ktinServices applied for................

Yang Lien-kweiContract for copper, breach of........

Yeh Ting-chimSuperintendent C, M. S. N. Co........

Yll LuhExtension of conge ..........................

Yu ShihImperial Agent Si-ning, retires..............

Public Service.

Economy, etc. Recommended by Censor.................

Public ExpenditureProtest against extravagance......

Official ExtravaganceDecree on .....................

AdministrationPapers on ..............................

Work on Famine administration........................

Heads of DepartmentAttendance at office .....;......

Officials denounced in Shansi .......................

Do. do. Honan ....................................

Malpractices of Official Clerks .....................

Extortion at TientsinPolice officer cashiered.......

Enquiry respecting malpractices in Honan ............

Malpractices in issue of certificates of office, etc.

Officials cashiered Nganhwei and Honan ..............

Malversation in KiangsuDep. Magistrate cashiered...

Frauds in issue of Government NotesShensi...........

Official defalcations, Kiangsu ......................

Salt collector cashiered, SzechVan ..................

Encroachment on Government Temple Lands .............

Malpractices of officers distributing relief ........

Acts of tyranny on part of Military Officer .........

Feb. 24.

Nov. 11.

Feb, 27.

May 26, June 10.
Oct, 16.

Sept. 15.

Nov. 16.

June 4.

July 15.

June 8,

Oct. 15,

Sept, 17, 29.

NOV. Sr

Feb. 23,

May 13,

Nov. 12.

March 3=

April 30.

June 10.

May 29.

Aug. 14.

June 24.

July 1.

July 10.

Sept. 7.

Sept. 1.

Nov. 13.

Feb. 19.

March 12, Dec. 9.

March 30.

Apr. 2, 5, 6, May 6, June 16,
19, Aug. 2, 3, Dec. 17.
Oct. 30.

Nov. 9.

Jan. 10.

Jan. 13.

Jan. 24.

Jan. 24.

Jan. 26.

Jan. 28, Feb. 17.

Feb. 14.

Feb. 21.

Jan. 26, Feb, 22.

March 7.

March 8.

Apr. 7, May 2, 9.

April 3.

April 14.


XVI

Magistrates dismissed, Chihli ....................

Imperial Banqueting Courtcharges against Secretary.
Fraudulent assumption of rank by persons of mean

Official defalcations, Szechwan....................

Illegal arrest of traders, Ninguta..................

Officials denounced for peculation, Shansi..........

Magistrate cashiered and placed on trial for extortion

and connivance at murder...............

Police Magistrate Peking, cashiered ................

Magistrate cashiered for extortion, Kansu...........

Secretary dismissed at Monkden .....................

Magistrate cashiered for extortion, Shensi..........

Charges against Manclm CaptainMonk den.............

Officials denounced for mal-administration of famine

relief, Shansi..........................

Colonel of Battalion cashiered, Kaiisuh ............

Corruption in Honan ................................

Sub-prefect cashiered for execution of innocent j>ersons.

Colonel cashiered for unauthorised execution........

Magistrates proceeded against for arrears of land tax ...

Mongolian 8uperintendencyerrors in memorial........

Magistrate cashiered for incapacity, etc., Kiangsu .

Francis by Magistrates in Shantung..................

Captain dismissed for threatening the life of his Colonel.

Error in MemorialPenalties for.....................

Gambling by Military Officers ......................

Officer cashiered for selling a wreck...............

Secretary of BoardSuspicious conduct...............

Error in MemorialPenalty for ......................

ShansiMalpractices in..............................

Fraudulent assumption of rank.......................

KirinCharges against Governor......................

Do. Malicious arrest of innocent persons...........

HonanIrregularity in famine distribution ..........

Purchase of rankCensor on abuses in ...............

Magistrates cashiered in Honan .....................

Do. do. Shantung.....................

Do. do. Anhwei........................

Sub-prefect cashired in Shansi......................

Fire in Peking Granary..............................

Magistrate dismissed for beating a man to death.....

Provincial Treasurers_Malpractices of ..............

Arrogation of judicial functions by low officials ..

Law of respectful withdrawalInfraction of..........

Officials applied for by Governor-General Tso ......

Brigade-General allowed to retire on full pay ......

Purchase of land by official under assumed name ....

Officials applied for by Governor-General of Fengfien...

Interchange of posls by District Magistrates........

Shanghai Taotai finds his father^ bones.............

April 20.

April 28.

April 30.

April 30, May 17, Sep. 23.
May 4.

May 25.

May 30.
May 31.
June 2.
June 1.
June 10.
June 7, 15.

June 27.
July 4.
July 16.
July 21.
Aug. 6.
Aug. 7.
Sept. 4.
Sept. 13.
Nov. 22.
Nov. 24.
Nov. 25.
Nov. 26.
Nov. 27.
Dec. 3.
Dec. 4.
Dec. 12.
Sept. 14.
Sept. 15.
Sept. 25.
Sept. 22.
Sept. 28.
Oct. 7.
Oct. 27.
Oct. 28.
Nov. 4.
Nov. 13.
Dec. 5.
Dec. 10.
Dec. 17.
Dec. 20.
Jan. 10.
Mar. 1.
Mar. 7.
Mar. 11.
Mar. 14.

March 22.


xvii

0 cial underlingsStricter supervision ordered..... March 24.

Officials specially recommendedLimit of time for

examination ........................... March 25.

Black Dragon TempleChange of officers on duty ... March 28.

Lieut. -Governor Chihli ordered to Peking........... March 28.

Penalties inflicted on Members of Grand Council..... March 29, April 7, 8, 23.

Rewards to officers of Hankow Customs............... April 7.

Commander-in-chief changes hia name ................ April 22.

District MagistratePosthumous appointment of ...... May 2, 15.

Lieut.-Governor of Yeh-ho applies for Secretary with

knowledge of Mongolian..../............ May 6.

Metropolitan Officials employed on famine workAppli-
cation for pay ..................................... May 7.

Prefect recommended for Ta-li Fu ................... May 22.

Police Magistrate PekingRestoration of rank applied

for ................................... May 26.

Rewards to officials in connection with famine relief ... June 3.

Magistrates removed on account of physical infirmity... June 3.

Officials rewarded for capturing salt smugglers..... June 7.

Manchu captain degraded for mistake in the arrest of

burglars .............................. June 13.

Magistrate applies for exchange into educational de-
partment ........................................... June 24.

Superintendent of Court of Imperial Entertainment de-
prived of appointment............................... June 28, July 12.

KansuhCommander-in-chieftitle of nobility altered. July 4.

UliasufaiRewards to officers....................... July 6.

Do. Military Governor retires................ July 7.

Do. Ch^m Fu assumes office .................. July 7.

Officers deputed for special service in Shantung ... July 20.

Officers prohibited from going on special missions to

their native provinces................. July 21.

Magistrate in Anhwei appeals against denunciation... July 22, Aug. 6.

Officers selected for appointments in the provinces, etc.

(with note)............................ July 24.

HupehMagistrate rewarded for diligence in collection

of land tax............................ July 26.

ShansiSalt Inspector rewarded for diligence and zeal. July 28.

Cashiered Officer retained on river duty............ July 31, Aug. 16.

Superintendents of Live Stock and House DutyPenal-
ties remitted....................................... Aug. 16.

Sub-prefects, &c., on probationObjection by Censor to

their acting as Magistrates............ Aug. 18.

Rewards to Military Officers, Canton................ Aug. 30.

Rewards to Military Officers, Kirin................. Oct. 17.

ChekiangSurfeit of expectants for office........... Oct 20.

Rewards to Military Officers, Hupeh ................ Oct. 26.

Rewards to Officers engaged in compilation of Grand

Council Registers...................... Oct. 27.

Cashiered 0cers reinstated, Chihli ................ Nov. 11.

Omission of a character in translation from Mancha.. Jan. 2.


xviii

Sale of TitlesProposal by Censor .................. Jan. 10.

Character used for Imperial nameMode of writing ... Jan. IS, Feb. 17

Attempt to bribe Governor of FuhkienEnquiry ....... Jan. 18.

A ppointment to Han Lin Offices .................... Jan. 20.

Loss of life by burning of Relief Shed at Tientsin Jan. 20, Feb. 4, Apl, 2

Change of an Officials name ....................... Feb. 11.

Publication of lists of nominees for appointments

solicited.............................. Feb. 22.

Destruction by fire of draft office................. April 3.

Encroachment on Government Temple lands............. April 7, May 2, 9.

Kequest for bestowal of hereditary title on the son of

Officer from whom it had been taken .. May 29.

Payment of Salaries in grainAbuses in connection with. June 4.

Application for sanction to assumption of hereditariy

title by nephew of deceased Officer ... June 7.

HarasharNomination of Acting Agent postponed...... June 27.

Grand SecretariatSub-cliancellors insufficient.... Aug. 1.

Hwang Ti Fang on presents to officials ........... Aug. 2, 17.

Fire in Treasurers Yamn ShansiPenalty inflicted ... Aug. 2.

Statutes of the BoardsEevision of................. Aug. 4, 19.

Surfeit of expectants for office in Hupeh.......... Aug. 10.

Precedence of expectants for officeProposed revision of

rules .................................. Aug. 14, 31.

Expectants for officeExamination of ................ Aug. 29.

Applications for honorary rewards to contributors to be

made direct to the Emperor.............. Aug. 24.

Prohibition against slaughter of plough oxen ...... Aug. 28, Sept. 10.

Ting Pao-ch^ngCarelessness in wording of Memorial.. Nov. 4.

Sale of rankIncreased facilities for, Shansi...... Nov. 7.

Historiographers DepartmentExtra pay to officials ... Nov. 13.

Civil SuitsAssistant Magistrates forbidden to hear ... Dec. 4.

Execution of robbersMagistrates must apply for

sanction................................ Dec. 24.

Drought and Famine.

Chih-liDistillingProposals for temporary prohibition.

Removal of prohibition ....................

Opening of Wells.............................

Re-establishment of Relief Agencies at Paoting

and Tientsin ...........................

Dismissal of Magistrate for fraud and extortion.

Appropriations for Famine Districts .......

Report on rain-fall .......................

Officers cashiered for mal-administration .

Provision of seed corn for afflicted districts ...

Plough oxen contributed from Chaliar......

Horses from do...........

Magistrate acquitted of charge of extortion ...

Ch§kiang silk taxed for famine fund .......

.Floods at Kai-chow ......................

Frauds in distribution of relief...........

Officers recommended for promotion ......

Jan. 22,24, Feb. 14, Apl.3,20.
Oct. 13.

March 29,

April 1.

April 20.

April 25.

June 10.

June 18.

July 2.

Sept. 8.

Oct. 15.

Sept. 14.

Oct. 29.

Nov. 6.

Dec. 2.

Dec. 4.


XIX

Jan. 4, 21.

PekingProposal respecting sale of grain ............

Decree in answer to representations of Han-lin

expositor...............................

Refugees to be sent back ....................

Do. Proposed arrangements for sending

back....................................

Report on sale of grain .....................

Do. do. and close of agencies

Officials dying while engaged on Famine work

Record of services ....................

BannermenExtra rations to ..................

Beggars in, and allowance to Lamas ..........

ShansiRenewed entreaty for supply of grain..........

Second report on the state of tlie province......

Remission of land tax for coming half year ...

Scheme for raising contributions ............

Contributions from FSngfien..................

Application for escort for grain.............

Contributions from Szech'wan ................

Abuses in connection with distribution of relief.

Execution of granary clerks for peculation...

Officials denounced for malpractices.........

Keport on rain-fall .........................

Contributions from Ch^luang..................

Do. do. Kweichow .......................

Difficulties of transport and proposed loan..

Issue of relief to cease in Sth moon............

Suggestions for extension of sale of office system.

Reorganisation, &c.&c.......................

Rain-fall and distribution of seed corn......

Extension of period for issue of relief .....

Government grain shops and banksExtension

of period for maintenance of ...........

Burial of corpses ...........................

Occupation of deserted lands and reorganisation.

Keturn of prices and rate of exchange........

Contributions from FSngfien...................

Do. do. Fuhkien ........................

Keport on condition of province and remission

of taxes ...............................

Refuge for destitute orphans.................

Appropriations of grain120,000 piculs and

Tls. 200,000 ...........................

Honors to officials .........................

Taxes on oxen remitted ......................

Ping-yang FuEnquiry into alleged mis-
management .................................

Plough oxenSubscriptions for purchase of ...

Charges of corruption........................

Transport of grainTaotai rewarded for
services ...................................

March 5.

May 28.

June 23.

July 2.

Oct. 13.

Nov. 3*

Dec. 17.

Dec. 17*

Jdiii 8

Jan. IS.

Jan. 22-
Feb. 25.

March 11.
March 13*

April 16.

May 8.

May 9.

May 25.

May 16, June 6^
Jime 12..

June 14.

June 16.

June 30.

J uly 4.

July 5.

July 7.

July 9.

July 19.

July 19.

July 21.

July 28.

Aug. Ik
Sept. 2

Sept. 11.

Sept. 29.

Oct. 13.

Nov. 14.

Nov. 8.

Nov. 29.

Dec. 7.

Dec. 9.

Dec. 15.


XX

ShensiExhaustion of Exchequer ....................

Report on rain-fall .......................

Damage from hail storms ...................

Assistance rendered by Chu Ch^ng-lin ......

HonanRemission of Land Tax for coining half-year ...
Exemption from purchase of grain for storage..

Establishment of office for contributions..

Financial measures proposed (acts of cannibalism

reported)..............................

Rewards to contributors....................

Proposals for re-payment of loans..........

Report on relief measures .................

Governor of Kiangsu unable to lend grain...

Purchase of supplies by the Governor en route

to his post ...........................

Report on rain-fall .......................

Appropriations from Kiangsu ...............

Contributions from Shantung................

Do. do. Nanking .......................

Honorary distinctions for deserving magistrates.
Rations for districts on outskirts of famine

regions ...............................

Application for extension of regulations govern-
ing offices for sale of titles.............

Application for temporary cessation of period-
ical examinations .........................

Corruption inMemorial by Chang Pei-lun

Report on rain-fall .......................

Contributions from Chekiang ...............

Contributions from SzecliVan .............

Contributions from Shanghai, and liberality of

native residents ......................

Modifications sanctioned in contribution agency-

system.................................

Contributions of anti-extortion allowances.

Contributions from Feng-fien ..............

Appropriation of proceeds of Yunnan Agencies
for the sale of titles-Extension of period.
Magistrate cashiered for mis-management ......

Taxes remitted..........................*.

Han-lin compiler, special duties cease....

M alpractices in connection with public granaries.

ShansiReport respecting rice imported for.........

HonanReport respecting rice imported for..........

ShantungDiversion of tribute grain ...............

Report on condition of province .........

Floods at Pu-fan and Shon-yang ...............

FulikienE-eport on condition of...................

ChihliLocusts in .................................

PekingRefugees sent back to their homes ..........

Taiwan FixHurricane at..........................

Feb. 19.

June 12.

Nov. 6.

Nov. 18.

Jan. 22.

March 6.

March 6.

March 15.

March 18.

March 30.

April 3.

April 10.

April 25.

April 29, May 12.
May 10.

May 13.

May 19.

May 19.

May 19.

May 23.

June 5.

June 11.

June 11.

June 12.

July 24.

Aug. 9.

Aug. 10.

Aug. 10.

Aug. 11.

Aug. 12.

Sept. 10, 22.

Sept. 13.

Sept, 22.

Nov. 22.

Jan. 26.

Jan. 26.

March 14.

Sept. 14.

Nov. 6.

June 4.

July 23.

June 10.

July 15.


xxi

P^ng She-chiangScheme of..........................

Li Hung-changTribute rice sent to Famine Districts,

Report........................

Marks of approbation for acts of devotion..........

Water suppliesRenovation of.......................

Scrutiny of conduct of lower of&cials .............

Measures for ReliefSuggestions of Tutor ..........

Refugees to be sent back with seed corn............

Economy and administrative reformDecree on .......

Palace Expenditure Economy in .....................

Malpractices of officers distributing relief ......

Storage of grain as a provision against famineCensors

memorial .....................................

Appropriations for Famine districts ...............

Penalties inflicted on members of Grand Council....

Burial of corpses .................................

Inducements to merchants to import grain into famine

districts ....................................

Deputy Supervisor on famine administration ........

Censor_Decree in answer to.........................

Secretary of BoardDecree in answer to ............

Memorial.......................

Imperial Exchequer Appropriations from............

Scheme of Tutor of Imperial Academy for raising

Funds.........................................

Metropolitan Officers on Famine WorkApplication

for pay ......................................

Decree on cultivation of tea shrub and mulberry tree ...
Exhortation of Censor on maintenance of reverential

attitude .....................................

Importation of foreign grain pronounced inadvisable ...
Officers placed on their trial for appropriation of relief

funds ........................................

Remission of taxes in Famine Districts ............

Penalties suggested by Censor against fraud........

Work on famine administration .....................

Famine RefugeesRelief in Anhwei stopped...........

Number relieved in Anhwei........

Floods in the South................................

in Chekiang ..................................

9, in Shantung..................................

May 31.

July 15.

May 11.

March 6, 25.

March 14.

March 21, April 5.

March 21.

March 22.

March 2930April 914,
26, 27.

April 3.

April 10.

April 17.

March 29, April 7, 23.
March 30.

April 1.

April 2, 17.

April 2.

April 6.

April 18.

May 2. r

May 3, 26.

May 7.

June 1.

May 25, June 8.

July 3.

July 22, Aug. 7.

July 23.

Aug. 7.

Oct. 30.

Dec. 15.

Dec. 15.

April 18, May 6, Oct 7.

Aug. 17, Sept. 2.

Nov. 25.

Deceases.

CMngPrince of .............................

Ch§ng MingBrigade-General of a Banner ....

Cliang YingLate Lieut.-Governor of Shansi .

Chow Che-p6nProvincial Commander-in-chief ..
Chang Shuli-fanTaotai on Famine Work Shansi

Feng Klin-kwang-Taotai of Shanghai ........

Han Chao, late Acting-Governor of Kweichow..

Kiang Ning-hio, late Judge of Sliensi.......

March 21.

Feb. 19.

May 5.

June 4.

June 19.

June 5, July 18, Aug. 2.
Sept. 17, Oct. 3.

Sept. 14.


xxii

Kwei Ling, formerly President Board of Revenue ....

Li Hwei-wuExpectant Ti-tai in Kansu .............

Li Ming-hwei, General, Lin Yuan Brigade, Yiinnan ...

Liu l^ing, Provincial Commander-in-chief, Honan ...

Lin Tien-ling, Literary Chancellor Kiangsu ........

Ngen Sih, late Lieut. Governor of Kiangsu .........

Pao Shan, Assistant Chamberlain....................

Pao H^ng, Imperial Agent, Hami.....................

King Fuh, Superintendent of Customs, Shanhai Kwan..

Si-m§ng-k,o-si-k,o, Deputy Lieut.-General..........

Sung Kwoh-yung, in charge of Brigade at Foochow ...

Suicide of expectant Prefect Shansi................

Wu Ta-fing, Naval Instructor.......................

Ying HanMilitary Lieut.-Governor at Urumtsi ......

Yuan Pao-h^ng, Famine Commissioner in Honan........

Ying KiFinancial Commissioner, Shansi ...........

Yi Shan, Retired Captain General ..................

Yi Ts'ing, Deputy Lieut.-General ..................

Dec. 13.

May 31, June 15

Sept. 19.

Aug. 30.

JDec. 11, 2G.

Jan. 30.

May 24.

Sept. 28,

Oct. 5.

April 19.

Aug. 10, Oct. 10*

Sept. 4.

April 9.

Feb. 13, Maroh 26May 13,
Nov. 12.

May 14, June 119Oct. 7,
Nov. 14.

July 5.

July 1.

Oct. 16.

MILITARY AFFAIRS.

Poh ChangTi-tuh at UrumtsiDeparture of...... Jan. 19.

Yang Yti-koExchange of posts with, vetoed..... Jan. 19.

Ytt SheActing Military Lieut. -Governor at Urumtsi... Feb. 13.

Fu Chu-liBrigade-General, allowed to retire ... March 1.

Troops at MansoleaInsufficiency of grain ...... March 11.

Troops retained at Kien-chJang for suppression of brig-
andage........................................... March II.

Military recordPreparation of ................. April 1.

Abolition of Military ExaminationsProposal by Sh^n-

pao-chdng .......................... May 5, 23.

ShensiArrears owing to troops ................. May 13, 23, Sept. 15.

KobcloApplication for permission to dispense with

services of garrison .................. June 6.

Tso Tsung-fang on German breech-loading guns'... June 13.

Governor-General of Min Chch returns abruptly from

tour of military inspection......... June 21.

HangchowWant of supervision over Banncrmen .... June 30.

Ulia-sufaiMeasures for protection ............. July 6.

ShensiMutiny of troops ........................ July 22.

CantonEstablishment of irregular force ........ July 26.

ChihliPurchase of cavalry horses .............. Aug. 13.

Unauthorized employment of the militaryDecree on... Aug. 28, Sept. 10.
T^ng-ylieh, Brig. Genl. ordered to take up his apj)t. ... Sept. 19.

Passage of troops through KiangsuExpenses...... Oct. 1.

Difference of opinion between Tartar General and

Manchu Brigade-General at Hangchow ... Sept. 26Oct. 10.
Si-ningArrears of payclaim abandoned by troops ... Nov. 3.

KokonorDisbandment of troops and popularity of

Controller General ..................

YangtszeTour of inspection .....................

Nov. 6.

Nov. 22, Dec. 11.


xxiii

Furs for soldiers beyond the AVall .............

Irregulars disbandedKwang-tung.................

Pensions to children of military officers.......

Officers excused from drill.....................

Appointments to steam-vessels...................

ShantungTour of inspection ....................

Brigade-General Pa-li-kim, superseded for incompetency.
Bannermen in PekingExtra rations to............

Military Appointments.

Che HohLieut.-General, Plain Yellow Banner ....

Chang ShuDeputy Lieut. -General ..............

Chang Shu-p^ngGeneral Tai-Yuan Brigade, Shansi ...

Fu-erh. SunDeputy Tartar General, Hangchow.....

Jung KweiDeputy Lieut.-General.................

Ki KoDeputy Lieut.-Gen. Bordered Red Banner ...

Ki HtinBrigade General, T6ng-chow ............

Ki LingWarden of Hunting Grounds ..............

Ko Hing-ahCaptain General, Guards Division....

Kwang Tartar General, Hangchow ............

Ko M6ng NgoTartar General, Si-an .............

Kw^n KangDeputy Lieut.-Gen. Bord. White Banner.
Liao Chang-mingBrig. Gen. of Yung-chow, Hunan...
Li Chao-pinNaval instructor to Kiangnan steam fleet.

Lo Ta-chimCommander-in-chief, Hunan ..........

Li Wen-yihBrigadier-General, T^ng-ylieh........

Ngen LinLieut.-Gen., Plain Yellow Banner ......

Shang Ch^ng-mowMancliu Brigade-Gen., Canton ...

Shang Tsung-juiCapt. General, guards division .

Shan Ts^ngTartar General, Ning Hia.............

She LuhTartar General, Ohap^o....................

T§ FullLieu fc.-General, Plain Yellow Banner .

Do. do. Plain White Banner......

To YiinDeputy Lieut.-General..................

Tsung AnMilitary Assistant Governor at K^bdo...

W^n YliLieut.-General, Bord. White Bamier .....

W6n HiuDeputy Lieut. -General .................

Yang Chang-chimGenl. Lin Yuan Brigade, Yiinnan.

Yang Fang-kweiBrig. General, Honan ............

Yi MoDeputy Lieut. General ..................

Yi PliangCaptain General, Bord. E,ed Banner ...

Prison Affairs.

Long detention of criminals awaiting trial......

ChihliRe-capture of escaped prisoners..........

HonanEscape of Prisoner .......................

Ch'aharEscape of ex-officials in servitude on post

roads..............................

Escape of criminal under sentence of banish-
ment .........................,........

Return of criminal to place of banishment ...
Szcch VanEscape of criminals under sentence of death.

Nov. 23.

Nov. 24.

Nov. 26.

Nov. 2S.

Nov. 29,

Dec. 12.

Dec. 13.

Dec. 17.

April 19.

June 3.

June 9.

July 11.

June 3.

Oct. 18.

Oct. 27.

April 4.

June 3.

July 11.

July 11.

Aug 5.

Jan. 9.

April #9.

Sept. 6.

Nov. 6.

April 16.

March 2.

June 3.

July 11.

July 14.

April 16.

April 19.

June 3.

Aug. 4.

March 21.

June 3.

Sept. 19.

Jan. 12.

June 3.

June 15.

Feb. 17, March 17.

Feb. 19, March 4.

March 5, Aug. 27.

April 1, 25.

June 29, July 14,19, Sept. 30.
Nov. 2.

May 1,


XXIV

KiangsiMurder of prisoner by his comrade.......

YunnanEscape of prisoners at Amichow. Jail master

dismissed..........................

Death of Criminal in Board of PunishmentsInvestiga-
tion ordered ....................................

Military Post RoadConvict released on payment of

station expenses .....

Jail Warden punished for escape of prisoners ...

Turnkey murdered by prisoners ..................

Lo Ping-hien, KiangsiEscape of prisoners ......

July 25.

Aug. 11.

Aug. 19, Sept. 4, 16, Oct. 1.

Oct. 30.

Dec. 1.

Dec. 3.

Dec. 15.

INSTRUCTIONWORSHIP AND USAGES.
Public Instruction.

FuhkienHonors to President of College ...... April 29.

NankingOfficial Biography of President of College

sanctioned....................... May 19.

YunnanSchools and Colleges in.............. Sept. 28.

FuhkienSchools in Tai-pei Fu .............. Dec. 3.

YtinnanDearth of books, establishment of shop for

sale of ......................... Dec. 29.

Examinations, &c.

Literary examinations held in Manchuria ..........

Examination of officers recommended for special merit...

Commutation of penalty for fraud by candidate ....

Kiangsi Enquiry into supposed fraud at provincial

examination...........................

Military examinationsAbolition proposed by Sh^n

Pao-ch^ng ....................................

Triennial test examinationsTemporary cessation in

portions of Honan recommended ................

Szech-VanApplication for additional degrees......

ManchuriaModifications in rules for granting degrees

FormosaChange in Direction of Examinations ......

Sixtieth anniversary of obtaining kii-jin degree..

Tai-tsi-harExaminations in.......................

KirinExpenses of examinations....................

Triennial examinationsPublication of regulations.

ChekiangList of places at which examinations have

been held .........................

KwantungAdditional leu-jen degree ...............

Worship.

Prayers for snow or rain at Peking ...............

Thanks-givings for rain ..................

General Prayers for rain..................

Thanks-giving for rain ...................

Prayers for rain in Shansi ...............

Thanks-giving for rain....................

Worship at Tai-shan mountain .............

Sticks of incense offered at Tai-shan mountain

Feb. 21.

March 25.

April 15.

April 20.

May 5, 23.

June 5.

July 31.

Aug. 18.

Sept. 22.

Oct. 23, Nov. 2, 6, 26, 23.
Dec, 10.

Nov. 23.

Dec. 9.

Dec. 12.

Dec. 31.

Jan. 4, 14, 24, Feb. 19,
March 2, 71011, 22,
April 3, 8, May 3, July 18.
July 24.

April 15.

April 22.

May 3, 14.

May 23.

May 24.

May 25.


XXV

Sticks of incense for Hiver God........................

Winter SolsticeSacrifices on occasion of .............

Sacrifices to Prince Baclsajarna ......................

Tablets, Temples, &c.
Memorial tablets granted ..............................

Temple to Ying Han ...............................

Do. do. .......................................

Do. for victims of rebellion in Honan in 1863..

Do. do. do. 1862....

Do. to members of Wu Wei force at P^ng-liang in

Kanauh ................................

Do. at T}ai Shan partially destroyed by lightning...
Title for Temple, Wu-shih-shan, Foochow, applied for.

Do. to God of Locusts................

Yuan Pao-hengTemple to ..........................

Do. do. .............................

Lung Sh^n Temple, JdholSacrifices ordered .......

Temple to Dragon God .............................

Females.

Nov. 10.

Nov. 28.

Nov. 30.

Feb. 17, A pi. 25, May 2, 12,
20, 23, tfune 25, July 13,
ep. 11, 23, Nov. 12, 15,
30, Dec. 2, 10, 19, 22.
May 13.

May 31.

May 11.

June 8.

June 20.

July 8.

Aug. 23.

Aug. 28.

Oct. 7.

Oct. 21.

Nov. 12.

Nov. 30.

Memorial structure to filial daughter, Kwang-tung. March 14.

Reward of conjugal devotion....................... April 26.

Reward to concubine who committed suicide on the

death of her master.................. June 20.

Widow mutilates herself for the benefit of her husbands

aunt................................. June 25.

Reward to young lady who died of grief on the death of

her betrothed ....................... July 31.

Honors bestowed on centenarian ................... Aug. 14.

Honors bestowed on girl who committed suicide upon

the death of her mother.............. Aug. 31.

Do. do. do. do. Sept. 10.

KansuCanonization of the Angel Girl.............. Nov. 14.

Honors bestowed on devoted widow ................. Nov. 14.

Honors to virtuous and filial maiden, Chihli...... Nov. 17.

Honors to widow who committed suicide ............ Dec. 27.

Superstition.

Alleged interposition of deity in Kwang-tung ..... Feb. 17.

Announcement of success in Turkestan to Emperor

Tung-chili.......................... March 17.

Iron TabletArrival in Peking..................... March 28.

Officer sent for..................... April 8.

Keturned to Han-tan ................. June 19.

Title and Memorial Board for Dragon Spirit........ May 23.

Dragon SpiritEfficacy of......................... May 25.

Intermption of pulse of rain Dragon .......... April 3, 7.

Decree on signs in the sun and moon .............. June 11.

Board of Astronomy on the sun and moon............ June 25.

"Exorcism of girl possessed l)y evil spirits ..... Aug. 20.

Gocl of WindToken of gratitude applied for ...... Nov. 28.


xxvi

Meteorology.

Direction of Wind on New-Years day .............. Feb, 2.

Fall of Snow, Peking ............................. elan, 30, Fob. 25, Nov. 12,

Fall of Eain, Peking ............................. April .19, 22; 27, May 11, 30,

^ June 10, 15, July 23,

Kain in Honan ..................................... May 12, June 1L

Do. Shansi ..................................... May 16, 22, June 6,

Do. Shonsi ....................................... May 21, June 12.

Do. Chihli .......................................... June 10.

Decree on alleged signs in sun and moon ............ June 11.

Board of Astronomy on meteorological phenomena.... June 25.

EXTERNAL RELATIONS.

Foreign Affairs.

CliSn Lan-pinHad audience of leave ............. March 12,

Tsung-li YamenRecommendation of Secretaries for

services in connection with the Treaty revision, &c. May 26.

German breech-loading gunsTso Tsung-t^ng^ opin-
ion of ............................................ June 13.

Tseng Ki-tsehAudience of leave ................... Sept. 24.

Foreign contributions to famine fund ............. Nov. 7.

Foreigners at Wenchow............................. Dec. 12.

Cokea and Japan.

Shipwrecked Coreans at Ohusan .................... July 23.

Do. do. Foochow....................... Aug. 20.

Patrol of Corean Frontier ........................ Sept. 5.

Liu-chiu.

Shipwrecked natives sent off from Foochow ........ Jan. 8, Aug. 19.

Do. arrived at Foochow ............. Sept. 20.

Annam and Aborigines.

Capture of Chinese Brigands in Annamese territory ... March 17.

Arrival of Annamese Mission in Kwangsi ........... March 31.

Tibet.

Officials proceeding to Lassa via Szechwan ...... Jan. 13.

Tribute-bearing Mission........................... March 23, April 6

Dalai Lama, Presents to........................... July 5.

Sh^ng Jung, CommissaryTerm of Office extended ... Aug. 21.

Commissary at Chamdo dismissed ................... Sept. 15.

Arsenals, Steam Vessels, -&c.

China MerchantsSteam Navigation Co. Freight for... March 2,

Do. do. do. Yeh Ting_chuii

appointed Superintendent .................... Sept. 7.

Sungari a and Kashgaria.

Aksu and Urh capturedDecree announcing .......... Jan. 3.

UliasutaiRelief of troops for.................... Jan. 9.

Precautions against rebels............. July 6.

Ngo-lo-ho-pu retires .................. July 7.

Chim Fu takes Office.................. July 7.

UrgaAgent granted two months congd .............. March 7.

Horses for cavalry ........................ July 12.


UrumtsiYii She named Acting Military Lieut.-

Governor.......................... Feb. 13.

IIamiEescue of Mongolian Princess.............. Marcli 9, May 22.

HiBrigade-General permitted to retire ......... March L

Kemains of former governors recovered....... Sept. 7, 20.

Charges against Mu Tung-ah.................. Nov. 26.

KharasharActing AgentAppointment postponed June 27-

Kurkara UsaCommandant retires.................. March 7.

KashgarCapture of ............................ March 16,

Eewarda conferred ..................... March 17.

Announcement to late Emperor........... March 17^

Rewards conferred ..................... March 18,

Title of Commander-in-chief altered.... July 4.

TurfanRecommendation of successor to order of Daldji. March 13,

Reward to Mongol Chieftain.............. Marcli 18.

New DominionLoan from Shantung for expenses of

re-organization...................... June 9.

Division of the country into prefectures and districts ... July 1.

TarbagataiOperations against rebelsRewards con-
ferred ..........................................Dec. 13.

MANOHUHIA, MONGOLIA AND PROVINCES.
Manchuhia (Kirin and Amur.)

KirinFu Ho appointed Brigade-General at Altcliuk^. Jan. 2*6.

Expedition in search of banditti ......... May 23.

Charges against Manchu captain............ June 7.

Capture of mounted banditti .............. July 17.

Memorial on taxation .................... Sept. 7.

Winter HuntPermission to forego ......... Oct. 19.

Capture of notorious brigand ............. Oct. 31.

Keorganisation of civil administration ... Nov. 8,

Governor sent on special mission to the Amur... Nov. 16.

Tsi-tsi-harRetention of force for suppression of brig-
andage ..........................................March 8.

Extra allowance for cavalry ......... March 8.

Rape by son of bafmerman............. July 29.

Conviction of horse stealers......... Aug. 5.

Province of Sheng King.

MoukdenImperial Library examined .............. Feb. 21,

Purchase of land by official under assumed

name ............................. Marcli 7, July 11.

Forgery of official seals ............ March 7.

Posthumous title for Tu Hing-ah....... March 10.

Appeal by daughter of Grand Secretary

Wensiang.......................... June 15, July 11.

F6ng-tienOfficial complicity with brigands ... Jan. 6.

Officials applied for ................ March 11.

Immigration of Imperial clansmenScheme

abandoned ....................:.July 3.

Ching-tu Fu Charges against prefect dismissed July 3.

Proposed system of land tenurs ................. Nov. 23.


xxviii

Mongolia.

Dzassak deprived of seals ......................... March 17.

Peacock^ feather for Daidji ...................... March 18.

Jeh-hoLieut.-Governor applies for Secretary convers-
ant with Mongolian................................ May 6.

Administrators of Mongol tribe dismissed. July 14.

Taxation of land in Imperial Reserves ... July 15.

Judicial administrationUnsatisfactory con-

dition of............................ Dec. 18.

Uliasu-faiMongolian prince returns thanks for per-
mission to succeed to title ...................... June 30.

Inspection of Kalka tribe............ Dec. 11.

Ulan CJliap League Case of disputed succession.. July 13.

Kharachin TabunangOppression by................. July 18.

Postal route, Alashan territory, abandoned ....... Aug. 1.

KoMoPao Ying, Military Assist. Governor has leave

to retire ......................... Aug. 3.

Tsing An Military Assist. Governor ..... Aug. 4.

UrgaObservations en route by Imperial Agent...... Sept. 26.

Disposition of troops ..................... Sept. 26.

UrumtsiKung T^ng, Commandant of Forces, assumes

office .... ....................... Oct. 6.

Kung TJang acts as Lieut. -General ...... Nov. 13.

CjEIIH-LI.

Famine refugees at Tientsin burnt to death ........ Jan. 20, Eeb. 14, April 1.

Return of Judicial cases........................... April 8.

Establishment of house of detention for \711168863 at

Pao-ting Fu .......................... July 15.

Financial Commissioner assumes office ............. Sept. 4.

Governor-General returns to Pao-ting............... Dec. 8.

PekingBurglaries at............................... March 14.

Destruction by fire of Draft Office ...... April 3.

Commercial panic .......................... June 2, July 8.

Manufacture of spurious cash ............. July 11.

Fire at Granary .......................... Nov. 13, Dec. 1.

BurglariesRewards to gentry for aicl in arrests... May 5,

Sha-hoDiscovery of buried treasure................ May 8, 28.

Shantung.

Contributions to Honan and Shansi.................. May 13.

Loan for re-organization of Kashgaria.............. June 9.

Loss of grain junk ................................ June 11.

Partial destruction of temble on Tai Shan ......... July 8.

Report on condition of province ................... Sept. 14.

Report on Spirit Trade ............................ Nov. 13.

Escape of Captain who killed two civilians......... Dec. 13.

Shansi.

Renewed entreaty for supply of grain............... Jan. 8.

Memorial Boards for parents of Yang Yoh-yun late

Governor-General Shensi, &c........... July 11.

Remission of taxes ................................ Sept. 11.

Suicide of district Magistrate and his wife........ Oct. 17.

Hieh Ylin-shengAssumes office..................... Nov. 29.


XXIX

Honan.

Officials denounced by Censor ...................... Jan. 13.

Li Hoh-nien took Seal of Office..................... Feb. 11.

T^ih Tsung-ying taUes Seals of Office............... June 4.

Chang Pei-hm on corruption ........................ June 11.

Censor KJung Hien-ki on corruption ................. July 16.

Clieng Fu appointed Financial Commissioner ........ Nov. 17.

Te Sin appointed Judge ............................. Nov. 17.

Shensi.

Governor denounced by Gensor........................ Jan. 5.

Governor again denounced ; explanation called for... Feb. 22.

Arrears to Troops................................... May 13.

Victims of Eebellion, 1862, Marks of compassion

applied for..................................... June 8.

Treasurer Kiang Ning-hio retires.................... July 31, Aug. 15.

Kansuh.

Services of Wu Ta-cli^ng, Cl^ang Shun, &c., applied for Jan. 10.

Mutiny of irregular Troops ......................... Mar. 23.

Suppression of poppy cultivation ................... Aug. 18.

Kiangsi.

Liu Ping-cliang, Governor, retires.................. Aug. 20.

Li Wen-min appointed Governor....................... Aug. 21.

Foundling Hospital for female infants............... Aug. 26.

Kevision of Topography................................ Sept. 3.

Shun Pao-king Acting Judge............................ Sept. 3.

Nganhwei.

Defalcations in Lancl-tax.............................. Aug. 7.

Marks of Imperial compassion for Victims of Rebellion Aug. 14.

Governor makes tour of Military inspection ......... Aug. 31.

Stockades, gradual demolition ...................... Nov. 12.

Repudiation of Signature by Taotai.................. Nov. 12.

Kiangsu.

Deficienbies in "balance of seven ocials .......... Mar. 7.

Appropriation of funds for capture of Locusts ...... May 1.

Funds lent to Honan ................................ May 10.

Shanghai, official biography of late Taotai sanctioued ... July 18.

Return of Governor-General to office, &c............ July 24.

Locusts, Temple to God of........................... Aug. 28,

Sii Ying-yung appointed Judge....................... Nov. 17.

Tsung-ming district vacancy ........................ Nov. 24.

Tao-slian do. do................................... Nov. 24.

Chekiang.

Publication of libellous pamphlet .....

Assault on shopkeeper by Mancliu soldier

Shipwrecked Coreans at Chusan .........

Floods in three prefectures............

Kising in KHl-shan.....................

Silk tax for famine fund ..............

Unrulincss of the soldiery ............

May 11.

June 16, Sej)t. 3, Oct. 24.
July 23.

Aug. 17.

Sept. IS.

Oct. 29.

ISTov. 27.


XXX

Fuhkien.

Enquiry respecting attempt to bribe Governor .......

Excessive rainresults of ..........................

One month's conge to Governor-General ..............

Do. do. Expiry of ....

Wu Tsan-ch^ng, acts as Governor.....................

Formosa.

Charges in Military administration .................

Hurricane at Taiwan Fu..............................

Examinations at Taiwan..............................

Submission of savages ..............................

Travelling expenses for Governor of Fulikien........

KwAiNGTUNG AND KWANG,SI.

I'cli^ng, accidental homicide at ...................

Yang-yil-k^, Brigade-General, exchange proposed ....

Liu Kwim-yiOne months conge ......................

Oiling FuJudl. Comm. Kwangtung, takes office ......

Kin Kwoh-shen appointed Judicial Commissioner ......

Hu Kwang.

HupeliLawless conduct at Fan-k^w ..................

Governor Shao Heng-yil takes office .......

Suspicious death of old man in Chu-Ui district.

Persons killed in mistake for banditti.....

HunanGovernor Shao Heng-yli takes office ..........

Ma Ju-lungCoimnander-in-chief, retires.............

SzechVan.

Proposals respecting salt trade.....................

Do. do. (and Note)..............

P^eward of filial devotion .........................

Defalcations of subordinate officials...............

Denunciation of district Magistrate.................

Ojperations against salt smugglers and banditti ....

Kewards of filial devotion .........................

High officers sent on special mission from Peking...

Tour of inspection by Governor-General..............

Kweichow.

Imperial favors bestowed on centenarians............

Robberies at Tu-shan-chow ..........................

Yunnan.

PJan Ting-sin hands over seal of office.............

Tu Jui-lien takes seal as Acting Governor...........

Lekin collectorateDefective supervision ...........

Salt smugglersRewards to officials for cai^ture of.

Governor-GeneralCharges against....................

Contract for copper Major fails to execute ........

Report on agricultural condition of province........

T^ng-yiichBrigade-General ordered to ..............

Li IG-wu, judge, takes office.....................

Waste landsCultivation of, &c......................

Jan. 18.
April 15..
June 21.
Aug. 9.
Sept. 15.

March 6.
July 15, 30.
Sopt. 22.
Nov. 17.
Dec. 2.

Jan. 6.

Jan. 19.
Aug. 8.
Nov. 9.
Nov. 17.

Feb. 7.

Fek 22.
July 19.
July 21.
Aug. 2S.
Sept. 5.

March 30.
April 9.
April 26.
May 17.
May 17.

June 22.
Oct. 11.

Oct. 21.
Dec. 26.

Aug. 14.
Dec. 'J.

Feb. 3.

Feb. 3.
March 24.
June 7.

July 10.
July 10.
Aug. 25.
Sept. 19.
Dec. 7.

Dec. 10.


ABSTRACT OF PEKING GAZETTE.

18V8

Jan. 1st. A decree acknowledging the
presentation of a report by the Board of
Punishments, on a case of adultery and
murder reported from the Han-cliVan dis-
trict in Hupeh. A prisoner named Cliu
Kung-yun has been tried on the charge of
murdering his cousin, Cliu Kung-ying, at
the instigation of the latters wife, liis
paramour. The sentence submitted is
con firmed, viz., that the guilty woman be
forthwith executed by the ling-ch'e -process
(slicing to death), and Chu Kung-ylin be
forthwith decapitated. In the Boards
niemorial the name of the Governor-General
of Hupeh, Li Han-chang, is written errone-
ously as Li Hoh-nien. This is a gross act
of carelessness. Let the name of the Secre-
tary in charge of this report be ascertained
and handed to the Board of Civil Office
for the adjudication of a penalty. Penal-
ties are furthermore to be adjudged
against the superior officers at tlie head of
the department.

Jan. 2nd. (1) A decree. Let Li Yiian-
hwa vacate his office as Lieutenant-Governor
of Shantung, and come to Peking to await
other employment. Let Yii feze-shu

(at present Judicial Commis-
sioner in Kweichow) succeed to the office
thus vacated ; and let Wu Teli-p^u (at
present Grain Intenclant in Kweichow)
succeed him.

(2) A Decree. The Prince of Tun and his
colleagues report, on the completion of tlie
[new recension of the] Imperial Genealogical
boll, tliat the binding of the copy destined to
be reverently transported to Moukden and
preserved with clue respect in the archives
there, is now completed. Inasmuch as the
Annals of the reign of his late Majesty and
tlie Compendium of his Majestys decrees
are now in process of compilation, We com-
mand that on the accomplishment of this-
task tlie whole of the records above-named
be forwarded at one time to Moukden.

(3) A decree taking to task the responsible
officials of the Grand Secretariat for the
omission of a word ill the translation (froin
tlie Mancliu) of a slip containing the Im-
perial rescript to a report presented by

Tseng Kwoii-tsHi.an, Governor of Shansi,
with reference to a case of murder at
Kwei-hwa Ch^ng.

Jan. 3rd. (1) A decree. Let Sung Ch^ng
-^c succeed to the post of Grain In-
tenclant of the province of Kweichow.

(2) A decree acknowledging the receipt
of a memorial in which Tso Tsung-fang,
Governor-General of Kansuh, etc reports
that the government troops have pursued
and victoriously engaged tlie rebellious
Mohammedans, and have recovered posses-
sion, successively, of the cities of Aksu
and Usli. In the campaign for the recovery
of the region of Turkestan (or Kashgaria,
Sin Kiang Nan Lu) upon which the army
lias been engaged, since the recapture of
Karashar, Knche, and the adjacent cities,
the Taotai Liu Kin-fang has advanced at
the head of the forces under his command,
making a rapid march toward the west,
and during the period from the 21st to the
26th October he followed lip the bands
respectively headed by the Kokandian and
by Bayen Hu, which were pursued and
victoriously engaged, repeated successes
crowning his arms, with losses inflicted
upon tlie rebels to the number of several
thousands. The two cities of Aksu and
Usli were successively recovered, and
the Mussulman population tendered their
allegiance in numbers beyond computa-
tion. The movements of the army have
been alike rapid and successful, and
they have exalted in a high degree the
prowess of Our military forces. Let Tso
Tsung-fang continue to lay injunctions
upon Liu Kin-fang and the other com-
manders with him, that they proceed with
all prudent care to effect the remainder of
the work of conquest, and that they bring
their great achievement without delay to a
successful conclusion by the capture of
Bayen Hu ancl the rest [of the rebel leaders.]
Whereas, on the present occasion^ Our forces
that liave been arrayed for the campaign
in^ tlie West, whose path has lain amid the
boundless waste and under the rigours of an
icy season, have within the space of a single
month acoomplishecl a march of upwards of


2

[Jan. 3.

one thousand miles in length, recovering
possession of the four cities of Kamsliar,
Kuche, Aksu, and Ush, thus restoring
already to Our rule the half of the southern
portion of the New Dominion, it behoves
Us to lhete out appropriate tokens of Oar
bounty, in reward for the zeal displayed
by Our forces in the execution of tlieir
duty. We command that Liu Kin-fang
do vacate his post as a Taotai and become
expectant of appointment to office in the
rank of sub-Director of a minor metro-
politan department of the third grade.
(Here follows a long list of promotions and
honours conferred upon the principal mili-
tary leaders, beginning with General T^n
Pa-tsui.) Posthumous honours are farther
decreed on behalf of the officers killed in
action, who are enumerated as follows,
viz :1 Brigade-General, 2 Colonels, 1
Lieutenant-Colonel, 1 first Captain, 2
second Captains, 1 brevet second Captain,
3 lieutenants, 2 sergeants. (With reference
to this list of officers killed, it is desirable
to bear in mind that the superior grades of
the military service are lavishly conferred,
under the system of recommendations
which takes, in a great measure, the
place of pay in the Chinese army, and
that sucli a case as that of a Sergeant and
General by brevetv is not without pre-
cedent.)

(3) Shen Pao-clieng, Governor-General
of the Two Kiangin a postscript memorial,
represents with reference to his liability to
suffer regularly at the approach of winter
from an attack of bronchitis, that during
tlie present season he has been more than
ever sensitive to cold, and scarcely able to
go out of doors. His lower limbs refuse to
support their burden, and he has difficulty-
in both kneeling and making obeisances.
He breathes with difficulty at night, and is
unable to sleep. It constantly occurs that
after 3 a.m. he is obliged to sit up to look
for the dawn of day. He sees his subor-
dinates on business in his slee^^ing apart-
ment, and with the exception of such
matters the decision upon which is given in
his own hand, he is unable to attend per-
sonally to affairs. He is now constrained
to ask a cong^ of one month, to enable him
to devote himself to the care of his health.
Granted by rescript.

(4) Shen Pao-clieng, Governor-General of
the Two-kiang, memorializes soliciting an
alteration in the mode of treatment at
present extended by law to the two
classes of persons known as Wu-tso
(corpse examiners) and ma-h\vai
(constables, or thief-takers), as a matter of

importance to the interests of good govern-
ment. He represents the impossibility of
securing either honesty or efficiency from
these classes of employes, whose functions
are nevertheless extremely important, so
long as they are treated as vile in degree
and unworthy of advancement. That the
offspring of courtesans and players should
be debarred from honourable careers is
a condition from wliich those exposed to it
ha\e no recourse ; but in the case of
individuals employed in the service of
public departments, however much their
occux^ations may be of a sordid and labori-
ous nature, yet the business in which their
daily lives are spent is, after all, the service
either of the state or of the people. It is
an impossibility to dispense with their
presence in any part of the Empire ; and
under these circumstances is it not a con-
tradiction to the endeavour to obtain purity
of government that such individuals should
be cut off from the privileges of their fellow-
men even before they have committed a
wrongful act ? Moreover, the fact should
be considered that no uneducated person
can fulfil the functions of a corpse-examiner,
and that.no one who is not qualified to
serve in the profession of arms can dis-
charge the duties of a police constable. In
respect of the former class, the decision in
cases of murder wholly depends upon the
report as to the wounds upon the body
under view. If any mis-statement be made
in this respect, Rliadamanthus himself
would be at fault. The 'manual of the
corpse-examiner (Si Yuan Lull) ia a work
of a very profound nature, and its
contents are not indiscriminately to be
relied upon. It requires to be construed
with intelligence. Where men who have
taken high literary degrees, and official
writers of respectable position after toiling
over the work by day and night, may well
ishrink back affrighted by its difficulties, if
a corpse-examiner, devoid of all feeling of
self-respect, falsifies evidence and makes
right into wrong, where shall the injured
party look for redress ?On the other
hand, as regards the class of police-con-
stables, the risks they are called upon to
run in the execution of warrants of arrest
are on a par with those "which a soldier
faces in battle. If such men be weak and
timid, it were folly to expect them to per-
sonify the terror of the law, or to hope
that the streets and market-places will be
otherwise than dens of thieves. It has
been observed that, since the corpse-
examiner traffics in his inquest, and the
constable in matters of judicial process,
were openings of advancement now to be


Jan. 35.]

3

afforded to such menit would be tant-
amount to encouraging the breed of tigers
and adding the means of flight to their
powers. In answer to this objection, it
may be urged that the opportunities of the
literary career are not abolished because
litigcation is undeniably fomented here and
there by graduates, nor are the soldiery
debarred from promotion because outrages
are committed from time to time by the
military. The memorialist would there-
fore urge tliat the class of corpse-examiners
may be admitted to an equal status with
that of the clerksshu-li ^em-

ployed in the judicial department of tlie
magistracies, as regards the opportunity of
obtaining official advancement, and that
police-constribles be similarly placed on tlio
footing enjoyed in this respect by the
soldiery. By so doing, the inborn sense
of right may be awalcened 'vithin tlieni
and they may be lecl by a sentiment, of self
respect to develiDe a regard for honourable
conducfc, such as must prove conducive to
the interests of reform in the miinner of
dealing with cases of homicide and of
robbery and brigandage. Rescript: Let the
Boards concerned consider and report to Us.

Jan. 4th.(1) A decree referring for
immediate consideration on the part of the
high authorities of the capital a proposi-
tion sabmited by Li Hung-cliang Avitli
reference to the supply of grain to the
population of the capital. Ho suggests that
either official agencies be established, as
originally proposed, outside tlie East and
South-east gates, for the sale of grain at
reduced prices, or else that private dealers
be allowed to purchase supplies from Gov-
ernment for the purposes of resale.

(2) A rescript appointing Chang Ylin-k^ng
(at present Governor of Sliun-
tJien Fu) to the vacant post of Yice-Director
of the Imperial Clan Court.

(3) A decree ordaining a farther series
of intercessory services in supplication for
a fall of snow, to be held on the Gfch
instant, in view of tlie protracted absence
of moisture. His Majesty will liiinself
offer incense at the Ta Kao-tien.

(4) The Court of Censors memorialize for-
warding the text of an appeal lodged by an
agent representing tlie widow Lin Tai-she,
of Fuhkien, once more entreating justice for
the murder of her son, which lias remained
for eight years nnreclressed. The complain-
ant, who is 87 years of age and the mother of
a former General-in-chief of the land forces
in Fuhkien, who lost his life in the oper-
ations against the rebels at Changchow in
1864, repeats the wording of her previous

allegations, as published in the Gazette of
30th March, 1876. Her complaint is to
the effect that lier second son, Lin Wen-
miiig was murdered in 18(39 by the then
Prefect, Ling TiiTg-kwoh, in combination
with the Magistrate of the Chang-hwa
district, Wang Wen-k,i by name, after an
ineffectual attempt on the part of Ling
Ting-kwoh to squeeze him of a sum of
8,000 with which intent a document
hearing the seal of the then Taotai of
FormosaLi Clmo-tang (at present Taotai
at Tientsin), threatening him with death,
was produced. Alter a succession of
abortive attempts to obtain justice from
tlie provincial government, appeal was
lodged at Peldng in 1876, and upon this
a decree was issued commanding the Gov-
ernor, Ting Jih-ch^ng, to investigate
tlie case. The appellant having made
repeated application, in consequence, for a
hearing, the officer appointed to deal with

the case, Chung Hung-kw^i

by name, lms sat for the purpose of

taking the evidence; but he has not
allowed a word to be said about the Tao-
taiJs proclamations or about the treacherous
act of murder committed. All he has done
has been to endeavour to persuade the
appellant to consent to a dismissal of the
charge. Appellant hereupon personally
saw the Prefect of Foochow, and exposed
her griefs to that authority, who gave ifc as
liis opinion that the matter was. of too grave
a nature to be disposed of by the Commis-
sioner aiDpointecl to take evidence ; and he
applied to the Governor to hear the case
himself. The Governor ordered the Com-
missioners of Finance and Justice to look
into the matter, and these authorities passed
the instructions on to the Prefect once
more. Referred in this manner from pillar
to post, the case has dragged on intermin-
ably, with no j)rospect of redress ; and,
once more inveighing againsb Ling Ting-
le \v oh as the murderer of her son, and
declaring tliat irrefragable proofs of the
fact are forthcoming, the appellant lodges
a renewed entreaty for justice in the hands
of tlie Censorate.Hescriptagaincom-
mantling tlie high authorities of Fulikien
to investigate the case, already published.
(Note. The accused, Ling Ting-kwoh, is
the official already dismissed the public
service for peculation in connection with
the expenditure on the fortifications erected
a,t A_n-ping'_See Gazette of 7th May, 1876).

Jan. 5th. (1) A decree. Let P^ng
Tsu-hien jj}icceecl to tlie post
of Governor of Shun-fieii Fu.


4

[Jan. 56.

(2) Chang P^i-lun, Assistant Reader of
the Hanlin College, memorializes accusing
the Governor of Shensi, T^m Climig-lin, of
making use of unwarrantable and insubor-
dinate language in the explanation he has
submitted to the Throne with reference to
the condition of affairs in liis province ;
and it is solicited that he be, at the least,
sternly reprimanded for his disrespectful
conduct.For decree in reply see Gazette
of Dec. 17th 1877.

(3) Wen Pin, Director-General of the
Grain Transportation system, begs leave
to add, in a postscript memorial, that
Lin Hien, Taotai of the Hwai-ngan and
Yang-chow Intendency, holding brevet
rank as a Financial Commissioner, is an
officer who has long been employed on the
southern division of the Grand Canal, and
who is thoroughly versed in the questions
of policy which relate thereto. In all mat-
ters connected witli the requirements of
annual repair or of protection against de-
struction of the embankments in times of
sudden danger, he has shewn himself careful
in the direction of labour and economical in
outlay. His proceedings have b6en in all
respects commendable, and in addition to
this, he has not failed in the duty of attend-
ing to the instruction of the troops employed
in the service nor in that of rectifying abuses
of long standing.(Here follows the com-
mendation, in similar terms, of another
official.)It is humbly requested that sanc-
tion may be given to the proposal now
Bubmitted for the bestowal of a distinguished
form of reward upon the j3icers in ques-
tion, by way of encouragement to farther
exertions. RescriptPerused. (Note.
The official thus highly commended by
Wen Pin is the same who was lately de-
nounced by the Governor-General Shen
.Pao-cheng, and dismissed in consequence
from the public service, as a notorious
smoker of opium. See Gazettes of 2nd and
20th Dec., 1877).

Jan. 6th.(1) A decree in answer to a
memorial from Ch5ung How, Governor-
General of Feng-fien, who has denounced
two Manchu subalterns for complicity with
the mounted brigands infesting that prov-
ince. One of the delinquents, being
related by marriage to a cousin of one of
these depredators, on the latter being cap-
tured and imprisoned, had the audacity to
stand security for tlie criminals release ;
and in the second case, a captain named
Min Teh-fuh allowed his brother to har-
bour a certain notorious brigand chief, be-
sides which he entertained the project of
furnishing( supplies of firearms to tlie
robbers. The two incriminated ocers are

hereupon cashiered and sentenced to trans-
portatiijn into servitude upon the military
pustroads.

(2) The Governor-General of the Two
Kwang and tlie Governor of Kiangsu
memorialize reporting the sentence pro-
nounced in tlie case of a military officer
charged with an unintentional act of
homicide in the discharge of his official
functions. The case occurred at the city
of I-ch^ng, where, in July last, a certain
inclivichml named Tsien Teh-kwei raised
an uproar in connection with the employ-
ment of a band of musicians for a procession
intended to do honour to a departing district
Magistrate. The man TsJien interfered with
the musicians engaged, and a tumiTlt ensued
in consequence of his clamour and violence,
to quell which the officers in command of
the detachment of braves at the place, a
brevet Brigade-General named Wang Sien-
clien, and a brevet captain named Chao
Wen-kao, came forward. Both these
officers struck the man with their whips,
and continued beating him for some time
until, yielding to the entreaty of the
musicians, they let him go; but as he
stumbled away his trowsers caught the
point of Chao Wen-kao5s boot, and Chao,
raising his foot, unintentionally gave him a
kick. The man was assisted to his home,
and he died on the following day from the
effect of the injuries received. The statute
law comprises three forms of penalty-ap-
plicable to this case, as regards the various
individuals concerned. The first runs to
the effect that u whosoever shall cause the
death of any man by blows inflicted in a
broil, whether the same be dealt with the
hand, foot, or any other object^ or with a
weapon of metal or a sword, shall suffer
death by strangling after imprisonment to
await confirmation of the sentence.n The
second form provides the penalty of
20 stripes in the case of any one who
shall strike another with hand or foot with-
out inflicting an actual wound ;n and the
third is the proviso according to which 80
blows are made the penalty for general
wrongdoing of an aggravated description.
The severest form of penalty has now been
pronounced upon the offending military-
officer found guilty of causing the death of
Ts^en Teh-kwei, and he is sentenced to
suffer strangulation in despite of his appeal
for a more lenient sentence, on the ground
that he is almost the only son of aged
parents. This is rejected on the ground
that the deceased man was himself an
only son, and that his parents are left with
no one to attend upon them. A minor
penalty is denounced against a petty civilian


Jan. 68.]

5

functionary who took part in the affair ;
and it is solicited that the Brigade-General,
whose duty it was to have been more*care-
ful, be stripped of his rank. The judicial
sentences are referred by rescript to the
Board of Punishments for consideration.
The Brigade-General Wang Sien-chen is
stripped of his rank but left in office.

(3) Li Hung-cliang, Governor-General
of Chihli, etc., memorializes with reference
to the collection of contributions on belialf
of the requirements of famine-relief in the
province of Shansi, to assist ill the manage-
ment of which lie lias been commissioned
by decree. The extent of country afflicted,
lie represents, is so vast and the length of
time to be provided for so protracted, that
unless subscriptions be encouraged on an
extensive scale the funds provided can
scarcely be more than a drop in tlie bucket.
AVithout referring more minutely at pres-
ent to the results obtained at tlie ports of
Tientsin, Slianghai, Hankow, and Ningpo,
to the authorities of which, as important
trading centres, requisitions have been sent
for tlie establishment of collecting agencies,
and by the officials and notables of which
places sums have already been raised,
though to no considerable Eimount as yet,
it has now particularly to be reported
that, in vieAV of the character for liberality
and public spirit ^11111 has always dis-
tinguished the notables ancl mercantile
class of Oh^o-cliow Fu, on the coast of
Kwangtung, the memorialist wrote some
time ago to Ting Jih-ch^ng, Governor of
Fuhkien (a native of that prefecture and
now residing there), requesting him to
exhort the authorities and notables of his
own locality to unite their efforts in the
cause. The Taotai of that Intendancy,
Chang Sien, has now reported to the
memorialist that on receipt of liis despatch
on this subject, he had proceeded at once to
Swatow (tlie port of Cliao-chow Fu), where
an official committee formed under his
direction succeeded by dint of active eiforts
in raising contributions to the sum of

20,000 dollars, equivalent to Taels 14,000.
In addition to tliis, subscriptions were
farther to be solicited at Ampu, Cl^eng-
hai, and the other tAvns in the neighbour-
hood. At Hongkong, Singapore, and in
Annan and Siam, moreover, the number of
Chao-cliow (Tiecliiu) traders is notably
great ; and two officials, the expectant

Prefect KJo Chen-tsien and the
expectant snb-Prefect Kao Ting-kiei
are named as especially con-
versant with the localities in ques-
tion. It is proposed that they should

nominate trustworthy official agents to
proceed thither for the purjDose of solicit-
ing contributions, and it is requested tliat
certificates of rank and office may be for-
warded to Cl^ao-chovv Fu for issue to sub-
scribers, in redemption of the pledge held
forth in this respect. On receipt of this
communication from the Taotai Ohang-
sien, to whose popularity in Ch^o-cliow Fu^
where he has held liis present office for
upwards of ten years past, the results now
obtained are ascribed, the memorialist sub-
mits a report of wliat has already been
accomplished, and he will liereafter solicit
rewards on a distinguished scale on belialf
of the officials -who have exerted themselves
in this matter. He writes also to the Gov-
ernor of Shansi desiring him to send for-
ward a supply of the required certificates
to be offered for sale to contributors.

Jan. 7th_A decree. Let Hwang Yiili-
gnen succeed to the post of

Prefect of Kwei-cliow in Sze-cliwan.

Jan. 8th.(1) A decree making the
following administrative changes :

a. Leh Fang-ki to be trans-
ferred from the appointment lately con-
ferred upon him, as Lieutenant-Governor
(Fant'ai) of Kwangsi, to fill the same office
in Kiangsu; b. Fan Liang to be pro-

moted to the post of Lieutenant-Governor of

Kwangsi; and c. Li Chao-tang

at present Taotai Superintendent of Cus-
toms at Tientsin, to become Judicial Com-
missioner of Chihli in his stead.

(2) The Governor of Shansi, Tseng Kwoh-
tsHian, and the special High Commissioner
for the inspection of famine relief, Yen
Kin-ming, jointly memorialize reiterating
the request preferred some time since for
the appropriation of 60,000 piculs of the
grain tribute prospectively clue from the
provinces of Kiangai and Hupeh to Peking
for the year 1878, in consideration of the
urgent need prevailing in the province of
Shansi. Upwards of 80 districts are
actually famine-stricken, and some 5,000,000
to 6,000,000 of the population are depend-
ent upon public assistance. The proposal
submitted for the additional supply of
grain referred to above having been con-
sidered by tlie Board of Revenue, in con-
formity with the Imperial Decree (see
Gazette of Nov. 22nd), the Board has
negatived it on the ground that the supply
of grain to furnish the proper quota for the
granaries of the capital is a question of
paramount importance. The Boards
oi^inion lias received the Imperial sanction^


6

[Jan, 8-*10.

and haa been commimicated to the memo-
rialists, who with reluctance submit, under
the pressure of overpowering necessity, an
entreaty for its reconsideration. The
special High Commissioner, after a journey
of some 700 to 1000 miles throughout
various parts of the province, draws a
moving picture of the signs and sounds of
woe which met him at every turn, and lie
states that he is within the mark in adding
that a thousand deaths from starvation
occur each day. With reference to the
observation that has been made to the
effect that the remission of the likin tax on
grain might be depended upon to attract
private enterprise, it is pointed out that
the difficulties of transport are so great that
at the best of times supplies for this prov-
ince are only furnished by the adjacent
provinces of Shensi and Honan ; ancl that
to the proclamations that have been issued
urging merchants to come forward, there
has been not a single response. The means
of the wealthiest inhabitants of the j^rov-
ince have been drained by the calamity
experienced for the last three years, and
for hundreds of li at a stretch the entire
population is dependent upon official aid.
In reply, the relief asked for is granted by
rescript. The Board of Revenue is desired
to take note.

(3) The high authorities at Foocliow re-
port tlie departure for their own country
of two batches of distressed Liu-ch^uans,
30 all told, who had been drifted in tlieir
junks to the coast of China.

(4) K^ng Ling-i ^ the suc-

cessor to the Confucian dukedom," with,
the title Yen Sheng Kung

(first conferred in A.D. 1233) memorializes
reporting liis accession to the title. He
received on the 7th October last, a despatch
from the Board of Ceremonies, iiiforining
him that having submitted liis name in due
course to the Throne in a report dated the
8th Septembera rescript had been received
on the 10th September in the words : Be
it as is proposed. On receipt of the
despatch to this effect the memorialist,
having reverently prepared an altar,
had faced himself toward the Imperial
residence and had prostrated himself to re-
turn thanks for the Imperial bounty ; and
thereupon, on the 7th November, he took
charge of liis official seal ancl assumed the
functions incumbent upon him. He proceeds
to testify tlie devotion with which he is in-
spired toward his Imjperial Sovereign, whose
bounty lias been so conspicuously manifested
toward liini.(See Gazette of Dec. 10th,
1876.)

Jan. 9th. (1) A Decree. Let Liao Ch5ang-
ming succeed to the post of
Brigade-General of Yung-chow, in Hunan.

(2) The Military Governor of Uliasufai
memorializes with reference to the relief,
in ordinary course, of the force of Chinese
troops of the regular army stationed at that
point. According to rule, the two Brigade
commands of Suan-hwa and Ta-fung, in
Chihli, should detail for the purpose of
garrisoning Uliasufai a force -composed of
two second-captains, two lieutenants, three
sergeants, one corporal, and 245 privates,
including a proportion of mounted men, to
be relieved once in five years. At tlie ap-
plication of the former acting Military
Governor dicing Sliun, in 1873, a force of
500 men was ordered to be detailed from
Chihli. A portion of the men and officers
who were detached in obedience to these
instrii/.tions have qualified themselves in
the knowledge of the Mongol tongue, and
it is now requested tliat the remainder may
be relieved according to regulation.

Jan.0th. (1) A decree based upon a
memorial from l^an Chung-lin, Governor
of Shensi, denouncing certain officials who
have failed in the due discharge of their
duty in the distribution of famine relief.
The Magistrate of the Fu-p'ing district is
charged with having disregarded the in-
structions given him to issue a pro raid
allowance of food individually, and to liave
established relief-centres instead at tlie
advice of certain of the notables. Owing
to the large extent of the district and the
distances to be traversed, the population
was unable to obtain supplies of food, and
crowds of complainants came to the pro-
vincial capital to represent thwir case.
They stated, additioniillj7, that the notables
were in league with the Magistrate,s re-
tainers with dishonest intent, in connection
with tlie levy of supplies of wheat. Again,
the acting Magistrate of the Kao-Jing
district is accused of having made false
returns of the number of distressed in-
dividuals and of grain issued. The clis-
clistrict notable Liu Jui-ylih, a member of
the local coinnufctee of management, and a
military licentiate naml Keng She-kw'ei,
are also charged with having mutually
transferred to each other a quantity of
the grain in store, their conducfc in tliis
respect exposing them to suspicion of
dishonest practices. The Magistrate had
failed to detect these proceedings, ancl had
shewn himself to all intents and purposes
blind and deaf. Again, on a personal visit
being paid by the Governor himself to the
relief agency in the southern suburb of the


Jan. 10.]

7

provincial capital, he .found that a number
of famine-stricken persons were still seeking
a supply of food ; and on asking an explana-
tion from the officer in charge he was told
that these people, although still asking for
food, liad already been given allowances of
grain, for which reason they had not been
entered on the lists. The same agency, how-
ever, subsequently reported its supplies as
inadequate, the numbers of individuals to be
provided for being augmented in two days
by upwards of 700 souls. From this it was
plain that either present overstatement or
past omission was chargeable against the
agency. It was reported, moreover, that
the attendants had conspired with the
flour-dealers to make out false statements
of the quantities they received. After
dwelling upon the enormity of the offence
of neglect of duty under circumstances
such as the present, the Imperial decree
ordains that the two district Magistrates
impeached be forthwith stripped of their
rank and brought to trial in conjunc-
tion with all the notables concerned in
the matter. Should evidence of actual
dishonesty be elicited they are to be farther
stringently denounced, and the minor
offenders referred to are also to be pro-
ceeded against.

(2) The Supervising Censor KwohTs^mg-
kii memoritalizes urging the necessity of
making provision on a large scale for the
necessities of the province of Shansi, the
financial exigencies of which are pressing in
the extreme. Referring to the appropria-
tions already allotted toward the needs of
this province, he proceeds to observe
that the winter being already far advanced
without snow having fallen, it is impossible
to forecast witli certainty tlie prospect, of
the crops in the coming year, whilst, *it tlie
same time, the issue of relief for tlie present
season is itself no easy matter. According
to report, the amount hitherto raised by
tlie agencies established by tlie provincial
government of Shansi for tlie raising of
contributions, amounts to no more than
from 500,000 to 600,000 taels ; and this
sum, if divided among the 4,000,000 souls
wlio were lately reported by the Governor
of Shansi as in need of relief, gives but
about Tl. 0.1.4 per head, or say from one
to two hundred cash. This amount would
represent no more than a pint or two of
rice apiecea quantity wholly dispropor-
tionate to the actual jieeds. At the open-
ing of Spring, moreover, the old stocks of
rice will be exhausted and new supplies
will not yet have been received; and the
utmost endeavours of the provincial
Governor to obtain financial assistance from

tlie neighbouring provinces can scarcely be
depended upon to be of much service in
the emergency. The memorialist conse-
quently solicits that sanction be given to the
issue of certificates of the peacock feather
decorationthe sale of which was put an
end to in 1875 as a means of supplying
the requisite funds. Rescript- referring
the proposal for consideration, already-
published.

(3) Tso Tsung-fang, Governor-General
of Kansuh, etc., etc., in a postscript memo-
rial, dwells upon the desolated condition of
tlie province under his government, and
the corrupt condition into wMch the ser-
vices, both civil and military, have lapsed.
He is grieved at heart by the prevalence of
dishonesty and incompetent and unworthy-
employes. A region so distant and abound-
ing in hardships is slmnned by the majority
of capable functionaries, whilst the persona
of disreputable character and needy ante-
cedents who are ready to flock thither are
such as should not be employed. On more
than one occasion, when the memorialist
lias applied for the services of individuals
whom he thought likely to be useful, and
who at the same .time would be put in a
position to gain experience fitting them for
future duty, his request has failed of
acceptance on the score of incompatibility
with some standing regulation or other.
At the present juncture, when the prosecu-
tion of the campaign for the recovery of
Kashgaria is daily widening the field of
action, increased urgency is felt in the need
of capable subordinates ; and the memori-
alist, whilst admitting that there is no lack
of brave and honest men among those who
are under his own eye, must confess that
the number of individuals gifted with
broad perceptions and the capacity for
dealing with large questions of an ad-
ministrative nature, is most .limited. He
asks, therefore, that the following officials
may be detailed to serve under his orders.
He lias heard that Lii Yao-tow
a Compiler of the Han Lin College, is a
person of sterling uprightness and Uevoted
to study of the true art of government;
and although personally unknown to, he is
higlily esteemed by the memorialist from
wliat he has learnt concerning him. An-
other official of the same degree, Wu Ta-
ch^ng ^ attracted his notice

whilst filling the office of Literary Chancel-
lor of the provinces of Shensi and Kansuh,
and as in addition to an unusual degree of
ability he adds the qualification of being
a good horseman and. capable of endur-
ing physical exertion, beside having


8

[Jan. 1016.

devoted his attention to frontier affairs ;
he is indeed one in a thousand. If
these two officials be sent to serve with
the army and thus gain experience, they
are certain to prove useful men here-
after. A third individual is Cliang

Shun >|I@, who acted some time ago as
Military Governor of Uliasufai, a man of
nmch bodily strength and martial capacity.
Owing to want of proper experience he was
misled by bad advice and thus incurred
censure. The memorialist is unaware, at
present, to wliicli of tlie Banners Chang
Slmn may be attached ; but if lie be sent
to serve under the memorialist, lie will
train him with care.Rescript ordering
two of the three officials above-named to
proceed forthwith to Kansuli, and Wu
Ta-cli'eng to do the same after fulfilment
of his present mission in Honan, already
published.

Jan. lltli. No documents of importance.

Jan. 12th.(1) A decree appointing
Yang Fang-kwei to the post of
Brigade-General of the Nan-yang command
in Honan.

(2) A decree allotting a farther grant of
200 piculs of millet to the relief agency
established in the west division of Peking,
on the representation of the Censors in
charge, the former grant of 300 iDiculs being
insufficient in consequence of the influx of
destitute persons from remote parts of the
country.

(3) A decree awarding honours and pro-
motion to a long list of officials whose names
have been submitted by the Prince of Tun
and his colleagues of the Commission for
revising the Imperial Genealogical Register,
on the completion of this task.

Jan. 13th.(1) A decree based upon a
farther memorial on the part of the Censor
Li Kia-yoh, who has dwelt upon tlie
charges of illegal imposition of taxes and
practices of extortion with which certain
district Magistrates in the province of
Honan have been charged, and demanding
that commands be issued for the stringent
impeachment of all such offenders. The
conduct exposed by tlie Censor is severely-
reprobated, and any instances of its oc-
cmTenceare, it is commanded, to be reported
without fail by the high authorities con-
cerned.

(2) Li Han-cliang, Governor-General of
Hu Kwang, memorializes reporting a case
of adultery and murder, the victims being
the husband of the guilty woman, whose
paramour, the instigator to the commission
of tho crime^ was a cousin of her husband.

On trial being held and the facts of the case
established, sentence has been pronounced
as follows :The woman, without taking
into account tlie lesser crime of adultery
with a relative witliin a certain degree of
kinship, is condemned to suffer death by
the lingering or slicing process
c/te) ; and her paramour to decapitation
without awaiting the period of revision.
For rescript referring these sentences to
the Board of Punishments for consideration,
see Gazette of 1st instant.

(3) Suii-kwei, resident at Lassa, memo-
rializes with reference to the mission of
two officers of the Imperial guards, who
were despatched with a party of lfimas to
present a tribute of Imperial respect in
Tibet. The officers in question set out from
Ch5eng-tu Fu, the capital of Sze-ch^^n,
on the 23rcl of June ; and a report lias
been received from the sub-Prefect stationed
at Ta-tsien Lu to the elfect that they arrived
at that point on the 19th July and the
19tli August respectively. On the 14th
and 19th September they proceeded to
cross the frontier, carrying with them tlie
Imperial gifts with which they are charged.
They had been supplied with all that
was needful in the way of coolies, pack-
horses, etc.

Jan. 14th(1) A decree referring to the
intercessory services that have already been
held, on the 28th December and on the
8th instant, for the pnrj)se of entreating,
but without result, tlie fall of snow wliich
is so anxiously looked for. It is now com-
manded that a special service be held on
the 16 th instant by a party of Taoist
priests from the members attached to the
Kwang Ming Tien. Incense is at the same
time to be offered at the principal State
temples, by the Imperial princes.

Jan. 15tliA decree in -answer to a
memorial from the Imperial Household,
reporting that Wen-kwei, Superintendent
of the Imperial manufactory at Hangcliow,
has been j)laced in mourning by the death
of a parent, and soliciting instructions.
It is commanded hereupon that Wen-kwei
return to Peking to wear the 100 clays5
mourning (prescribed by Manchu custom),
after which he is to go back to his post.
During his absence, the Governor of Clieh-
kiang, Mei Ki-c]ui, will act in his stead.

No other documents of importance.

Jan. lGth(1) A decree in answer to a
memorial from Li Han-chaiig, Governor-
General of Hn-kw{ing, who has denounced
two officials for misconduct in connection
witli the levy of the lekin tax. In the
one case an expectant Prefect named
Wang Sili-kang is accused of having


Jan. 16.]

9

entrusted a relative named Wang Yiian-
k^iei, with the functions of examiner of
merchandize and of controller of receipts,
in which capacity he perpetrated numerous
acts of abuse, entailing public dissatisfac-
tion. In the other, an expectant sub-As-
sistant District Magistrate, named Kin
Hioh-min, is charged with having neglected
his duties and beliaved in a loose and
flighty manner. The first of the two officials
under iinpeaclimeiit is handed to the Board
for adjudication of a penalty. The other
is dismissed from his rank in the public
service.

(2) Yen King-ming, special High Com-
missioner for the superintendence of the
aiTangements for famine-relief in Shansi,
submits a farther report of his proceedings
and investigations, having now traversed
the eastern division of the province, and
reached the district city of Yun-cli'eng.
He received on the 8th December, at Kao-
p^ng, the Imperial rescript acknowledging
the receipt of his earlier report on the
western section of the province ; lout pre-
viously to this, on the 29th November, he
had set out fromT^i-yiian Fa, the provincial
capital, on his journey eastward. In the
Wu-liiang and Tsin Cliow districts lie found
that the soil of the uplands was baked to
the consistency of brick, and that there had
been no autumn crop. The relief agency
had but lately been set in operation, and
the distressed population had gathered
avouncl it awaiting succour. The country
lying west of Ts^n Chow was in the same
condition. Turning southwards tIii.oug.li
Lu-ngan Fu, he found that the winter wheat
had not been planted, and that the country,
its own provisions of grain exhausted, was
depending upon the importations from
Kwang-p^ng Fu in Chihli, by way of Tung-
yang Kwan. Flour was selling at GO or 70
cash per catty, which is three or four times
the ordinary price. In Li-cl^eug, Lu-
cli^ng, and Ch^ug-tsze, the snlfering from
drought had been somewhafc less but the
price of provisions wfas not diminished,
and tlie population was suffering in an
extraor.dinary degree. Passing through
the south-eastern border districts of the
province, the memorialist proceeded west-
wards to Yang-cli'eng, Tsin-slmietc.,
in Avliich districts the suflering was found
to be still more intense than in Tsin
Chow and Lu-ngan. At Feng-fai it was
found that 250,000 was the number of .
applicants for relief, and at Yang-cli'eng

180,000 individuals were in the same
category. These two points are the centres
at which the largest numbers ure collected,
(generally speaking, the comitvy embraced |

within TsJin Chow, Lu-ngan Fu, and Tseh
Chow is for the most part hilly and
cultivated to a comparatively small extent.
Tlie population is principally engaged in the
iron industry ; and as the furnaces suspend
their operations on all sides during a season
of distress, the working classes find it all
the harder to obtain means of subsistence.
There are but few wealthy residents, more-
over, in these districts, and local contribu-
tions are not easily obtained. For tlie
issue of relief, the principal source of sup-
ply is the public granaries, but with such a
multitude of mouths to feed, the small store
of grain is exhausted in the twinkling of
an eye. In Tseli Chow, as this deparbinent
borders on Honan, supplies of grain
have been received through the agency
of the famine commissioner Wii Ta-
cli^ng ; but the amount thus obtained
is limited and cannot suffice for all
wants. The district authorities are per-
forming their dixies in obedience to tlie
Imperial commands, and are not entrusting
their functions to tlie class of underlings.
Although some may be more gifted with
ability than others, no complaints are
forthcoming of malversation or other mal-
practices. A salutary warning has been
afforded by the Governor's impoiichinent of
some 20 or more of the provincial officials.
In conclusion, the memorialist dwells once
more upon the painful scenes lie has wit-
nessed at every stage of his journey,
in the course of Avhich his chair lias con-
tinually been surronncled by crowds of the
famine-stricken population imploring relief,
to whom he has administered comfort in
soothing words, assuring them of tlie
Imperial sympathy. The roads are lined
with corpses, in sucli numbers as to distance
all efforts for their interment; whilst -women
and children, starving and in rags, know
not where to look for, the means of keeping
body and soul together. The distinctions
drawn a short time ago, in respect of the
degree of impoverishment in individual
cases, has now clisapiDeared. All are equally-
reduced to utter destitution. The memori-
alist, his heart wrung with despairing pity,
cannot but ask why has a calamity so awful
as this been visited upon the people. He
can only ascribe it to his own failure in the
due discharge of liis dirty and he feels that
his shortcoming admits of no excuse. In
reply, the Grand Council lias received a
rescript expressing profound sjanpathy Avith
the sufferings of tlie people as reported in
this memorial, and directing that all that
is possible for their relief be done in
consultation with tlie Governor of the
province.


10

[Jan. 1720.

Jan. 17th. No documents of importance.

Jan. 18th.-(1) A decree based upon a
memorial from Wang Kia-pih, Civil Vice-
governor and Literary Chancellor of Feng-
tien, who has requested that commands
may be issued throughout the Empire, in
consequence of misapprehensions found to
prevail among candidates for the literary
examinations, respecting tlie personal name
of his late Majesty, which it is forbidden
to write, and the characters having com-
ponent parts similar to those in the per-
sonal name of the present Sovereign. With
reference to the character forming the
second in the combination Tsai Ch'un, the
personal name of his late Majesty, a decree
was heretofore issued altering tlie form of

W (instead of the use of

which is tabooed); and with reference to the
second character in tlie present Emperors
name, (Tsai Tiensee Gazette of Jan.
13th, 1875), commands have also heretofore
been given for its alteration by omitting
tlie last stroke of which it is composed.
There is no necessity, however, for avoiding,
as sacred, other characters formed with simi-
lar component parts. The Board of Cere-
monies is commanded to issue circular
instructions on this subject for the guidance
of candidates at the literary examinations.

(2) Pao Heng, acting Governor of Fah-
kien, memorializes reporting the result of an
enquiry held in the case of the expectant
Prefect Tsiang Feng-tsao, who was accused
last year of an indirect attempt to bribe the
Governor, Ting Jih-ch5ang, by forwarding to
him confidentially a draft for Taels 1,000,
which he requested might be employed at the
Governors discretion in relieving distress.
(See Gazette of Jan. 15th, 1877.) The
suspected official having been subjected to
examination, gives the following account of
the transaction :He was at Shanghai last
year when contributions were solicited by
the Relief Committee at Foochow on account
of the distress caused by floods, and as his
own means were inadequate to the fulfilment
of his wishes on the occasion, lie wrote to
his kinsfolk and persuaded them to allot
the sum of Tls. 1,000 from the income of
the family graveyard estate. As it hap-
pened, an official named Kin Teh-hung,
employed at the Foochow Arsenal, was
just leaving by steamer for Foochow, and
Tsiang gave him the draft to be handed
over on his arrival there. The letter
which he intended to send with the money,
however, missed the steamer; and Kin,
on his arrival, having no knowledge of any
of the members of the Committee, for-
warded the draft to the Governor direct in

tlie suspicious manner already recorded.
The statements made by the accused are
found to tally witli those contained in
Kins original letter to the Governor, but,
altliongli lio may be acquitted of the
charge of attempting to make interest with
the Governor, it is nevertheless plain that
lie acted in a culpably heedless manner.
In compliance with the recommendation
with which tlie memorial concludes, the
name of Tsiang Feng-tsao is handed to the
Board for adjudication of a penalty; and
Kin Teh-hung is dismissed from his rank
in the public service.

Jail. 19 th. (Courb Circular.) Poll

Chang jGeneral commanding the

Chinese forces at Urumts,i, had audience
of leave.)

(1) A decree. Let Cliang Ylin-k'ing suc-
ceeded to tlie post of Assistant President of
the Court of Censors. (See Gazette of 4th
inst. for previous appointment.)

(2) Liu Kwen-yih, Governor-General of
the Two Kwang, memorializes soliciting
that the Brigade-Generals Cliang Teh-luh
and YangYu-k5o may be allowed to exchange
the commands to which tliey have recently
been appointed, tlie former remaining in
Kwangtung, where his services are emin-
ently useful, and Yang Yiirk^ being per-
mitted to assume the command of the Ku
Chow division in the province of Kweichow
in his stead. For decree vetoing this j)ro-
posal, see Gazette of Dec. 31st, 1877.

Jan. 20th(1) A decree appointing K'i Siu
to the post of Reader of the Hanlin,

and Hing Lien to that of Expositor.

(2) A decree based upon a memorial from
Li Hung-chang, Governor-General of
Chihli, in which, report is made of the
destruction by fire of one of the buildings
occupied by the famine refugees. The
building in question, situated outside the
east Gate of the city of Tientsin, took fire
on the 8th inst., through want of precaution,
with a consequent loss of a great number
of lives. The conduct of the officials in
charge, in respect both of the carelessness
they had allowed themselves to indulge
in before the event, and their failure
when the disaster occurred to provide
efficient means of rescue, thus involving
in so lamentable a fate the victims who had
been saved from the suffering of starvation,
is most truly deserving of reprehension.
We command that the expectant inspector
of the salt department Ld Wei-cliang, and
the expectant Police Master Ting T^ng-
hwang be dismissed from the public service


Jan. 2021.]

11

under sentence of perpetual exclusion.
The Customs5 Taotai Li Chao-fang, the
Salt Comptroller Ju Shan, and the Taotai
of Tientsin, Liu Ping-lin, who failed to
take note betimes of the sliortcomings of
tlieir subordinates, are to be handed to
the Board of Civil Office for the adjudica-
tion of the penalties respectively incurred.
The same proceeding is to be taken with
reference to the Governor-General Li
Hung-cliang. Orders are subjoined for the
bestowal of all needful relief upon the
survivors of this calamity, and the proper
interment of the remains of the victims
destroyed.

(3) Yii Lull, Governor of Nganhwei, in a
postscript memorialrefers to the regula-
tions drawn up in 1859 by the Board of
E,evenue, and sanctioned by rescript, with
reference to the duties to be collected from
opium. It was ordained that these should
be kept under a separate heading in the
Castoms1 accounts, and should be transmit-
ted quarterly acconipaiiied by detailed
statements to the Board. The Custom
House at Wuhu having been closed for
some twenty years and upwards in con-
sequence of the ravages of the rebellion, it
was reestablished only on the 22nd July,
1876, and the receipts on account of ojjium
duty during the first few months after its
opening were extremely limited. The
Superintendent now reports that having
placed the collection in the hands of a
special officer, on a system based upon that
in force at Kiukiang, some improvement
has been Experienced as compared with the
earlier period ; and the total receipts for
the twelve months, from July 22nd, 1876,
to July 10th, 1877, under this head, have
been Tls. 1,498. This report is accordingly
submitted in obedience to regulation, and
the amount collected is placed as a separate
fund to await transmission.

Jan. 21st.(1 and 2) Decrees based upon
memorials from the Censors superintend-
ing the western and southern divisions of
Peking, respectively, with reference to cases
of robbery with violence that have taken
place in the suburbs. In. one instance a
pawnshop situated at some distance from
the West Gate was attacked, oil the niglit
of the 21st November last, by a band of
armed men, who pillaged it of its contents
and wounded three of the men employed
there. In the other case, a pawnshop
situated' outside the southwest gate of the
Chinese city was similarly attacked, on the
9th November. In neither instance have
the perpetrators of the crime been dis-
covered and brought to justice. The police
officials concerned are handed, as a pre-

liminary measureto the Board for ad judica-
tion of a penalty ; and stringent orders are
given for active measures toward tlie capture
of the offenders.

(3) A decree awarding 600 piculs of
millet for division between two of the
extra relief agencies set on foot in the
Chinese city of Peking by private subscrip-
tion, the amount of grain available being
reported by the Censors of the division as
unequal to the demands upon these dis-
tributing agencies.

(4) The Prince of Tun and his colleagues
of the committee of revision memorialize
reporting that on completion of the new
edition of the Imperial Genealogical Register,
the copy, in 44 volumeswhich isdestinedfor
preservation in the archives at Moukden, has
been finally collated and bound. Instruc-
tions respecting its transmission are solicited.
See Gazette of 2nd inst.

(5) Li Hung-chang, Governor-General
of Chihli, memorializes with reference to
the supply of grain which he had been
called upon to provide for issue at reduced
rates at Peking, and respecting the method
to be followed in offering it for sale. He had
previously submitted for sanction his plan
of instructing the Taotai Chu lii-ngang,
and his colleagues in the management of the
China Merchants5 Steamship Company to
raise the requisite funds and to purchase
supplies of rice in the South, on the arrival
of which agencies should be established at
selected points to carry out the system,
experimentally, of selling at reduced rates ;
and he had received a rescript in reply, to
the effect that further consideration should
be given to the question on the arrival of
the supplies. There was barely a month
left, at this time, before the closing of the
Tientsin river ; and, under his orders, steps
were immediately taken by Chu K^-ngang
and his colleagues for the shipment of
cargoes by steamer in quick succession from
the South. Before the close of navigation
there had been landed, inclusive of the
amounts required for the relief of distress
in the provinces of Chihli and Shansi, up-
wards of 100,000 piculs of rice, every grain
of which came from the South. (N.JB.
Reference is here apparently made to the
accusations levelled against the Governor-
General5 s agents, of buying up rice near
Peking, which appeared in the Gazette of
22nd November, 1877.) Of this amount it
was proposed to allot 30,000 piculs for sale
at reduced rates at Peking,an incon-
siderable amount, it is true, but time pressed.
As the officials of- the Company are all
southerners and unfamiliar with the condi-
tion of affairs at Peking, the memorialist


12

[Jan. 2125.

had appointed two officials of tlie Chihli
staff to undertake the management of
matters on the spot. He submits for deci-
sion the question whether sales shall be
made by official agency, or whether private
dealers shall be encouraged to buy from
Government for purposes of resalewith
permission to make a small profit by the
transactionbut under prescribed limits as
to price. This, in tlie memorialists opinion,
would be the simplest and most economical
plan, and it would obviate also such a
danger as previous experience shews to
exist, of robbery of the grain depots by-
armed bands. For rescript, referring this
question for deliberation, see Gazette of
4th inst.

Jan. 22nd-23rd. (N.B.During the
month of the Chinese New Yeai^s holidays,
the Gazette appears, as usual, on alternate
days only).

(1) A decree referring to the state of
suffering to which the provinces of Shansi
and Honan have been reduced by drought
and famine, and to the scanty fall of snow
which has thus far taken i^lace in both these
provinces. Even though a sufficiency of
moisture should be experienced later, which
would enable the sowing of the spring
wheat to be made good, the period for the
collection of the first half-year^ land tax
would be quickly reached, and there is
every reason to apprehend that the popula-
tion would be unable to meet the demands
upon it. It is consequently ordained that,
in the two provinces of Shansi and
Honan, the first half-years collection
of the land and grain taxes ofall
descriptions be entirely remitted in all the
distressed districts for the coming season.
The provincial authorities are required to
issue a proclamation of this Act of Indul-
genceand to punish at once and severely
any attempts at concealment or malpractice
of any kind on the part of the official
underlings.

(2) A decree, referring for consideration
on the part of the Board of Revenue, a
memorial submitted by the Censor Hu
Ping-che, who requests that a rigorous
prohibition be enforced against distilling,
in order to obviate a waste [of foocl-stiiffs]
and to contribute toward enlarging the
means of subsistence available for the
population.

(3) A decree, sanctioning a request sub-
mitted by the Governor of Shun-tien Fu,
who has asked that two additional relief
agencies be opened in tlie neiglibourhoocl
of Peking. From the beginning of the
approaching first moon (February), the
allowance of 120 piculs of millet is to be

made to each of these agencies, in addition
to the four previously set on foot.

(4) A decree remitting- for consideration
by the Board of Revenue a memorial in
which the Censor Teng King-lin rej^resents
that the issue of Government sal' for con-
sumption in tlie province of Shansi has
been greatly checked and that smuggling
is extremely rife, for which reasons he
recommends that a return to the old system
of conducting the salt trade through official
agencies, both for transportation and sale,
be made.

Jan. 24tli-25th. (1) A decree based upon
a memorial from Wang Kia-pili, Vice-
Governor of Feng-fien, who, with reference
to the case of Lin Show-fu, recently dis-
missed from his office of Lieutenant-Gov-
ernor of Shansi on the charge of -violating
the regulations affecting the remittance of
supplies to the army chest of Tso Tsung-
fang, has requested that the Governor
of Shansi be commanded to institute an
enquiry for the purpose of ascertaining
whether, in reality, the clerks employed
under the disgraced official had not pur-
posely kept back documents from his notice
with, intent to precipitate him into ruin.
It is enjoined, hereupon, that knavery of
the kind referred to by the niemorialisi)
can on no account be suffered to flourish ;
and all the provincial Governments are
commanded to take stringent measures
for its prevention. These orders must
nothoweverbe suffered to be made use of
by Lin Show-fu as a means of annulling
the sentence of dismissal from the public
service already pronounced in his case ; and
the request preferred for a reexamination
of the question is vetoed.

(2) A decree remitting for consideration
by the Board of Revenue conjointly with
the memorial submitted to the same effect
by the Censor Hu Ping-che (see yesterdays
Gazette), a proposition on the part of the
Governor-General Li Hung-chang for the
suspension of all distilling operations in
Chihli for the time being.

(3) A decree based upon a memorial from
the Governor General Li Hung-cliaiigwho
has denounced an Expectant Magistrate
named Cliu Lili-lian, employed in superin-
tending the police of the streets of
Tientsin, for the offence of extorting a
sum of ransom-money under pretext
of having to apprehend certain women of
ill-fame. The delinquent is cashiered, with
sentence of perpetual exclusion from
further employment.

(4) A decree ordaining a further series of
supplicatory services to be held on the 26th
iiist., when his Majesty will olfer incense in


Jan. 2527.]

13

person at the Ta Kao Tien, in consequence
of the protracted drought in and around
Peking.

Jan. 26Ui-27tli.(l) A Decree. Let Siu
Ki come to Peking and await other

employment. Let Fu Ho hereto-
fore stripped of his rank as a Manchu
Brigade-General, be invested with the
insignia of the third rank, and become acting
Brigade-General of Altchuk5a. (N.B.Fu
Ho, the official thus reinstated in office,
was cashiered a year or two ago in con-
sequence of a disagreement, resulting in an
exchange of blows, between himself and
his superior officerYung Tsiian, then
Military Governor of Hi.)

(2) Li Hung-chang, Governor-General of
Chihli, and Li Hoh-nien, acting-Governor
of Honan, jointly memorialize reporting
the result of an enquiry into the charges
brought by the Censor Li Kwei-lin some
months ago against the Magistrate of the
Ngan-yang district, in Honan, with
reference to exactions alleged to be
levied without stint upon the salt con-
tractors for the Ch^ng-lu delivery area.
The report of the official appointed to
enquire into this affair exculpates the
Magistrate, who is shewn to have merely
called upon tlie salt contractors to advance
a sum of money required for completing
the repairs of a bridge, which tli^ inhabit-
ants of the district had not the means of
providing immediately. The amount thus
provided was Tls. 7,333, out of which a
sumof .Tls. 2;666 was given as a subscrip-
tion toward the undertaking, and the
balance has been re]paid to the lenders^ with
the exception of a sum of Tls. 200 which
it is found was surreptitiously deducted by
one of the Magistrates personal retainers.
For his failure to discover this act of dis-
honesty, it is requested that the Magistrate
be handed to the Board for adjudication of
a penalty ; and the delinquent himself is to
be proceeded against witlL all the rigour
of the law by the Prefect of Kai-fSng:

(3) The Governor of Shensi memorializes
reporting the discovery of extensive frauds
in connection with the issue of Govern-
ment notes througli the money-shops in
that province, Tinder official supervision.
After the province became in 1862 the
scene of warfare, he states, the Governor
then in office, Ying K5i, under the pressure
of financial exigencies, siibmitted proposals
for the establishment of Government cash-
shops, whence notes were to be issued
which were to be used in part payment of
the Mancliu soldiery and tlie Chinese gar-
rison troops at Si-ngan Fu. This ex-

pedient, originally introduced with a view
to husbanding the resources of the Ex-
chequer and to provide a medium of
circulation, has been in force for 12 or 15
years, and in consequence of tlie numerous
abuses that have arisen in connection with
it, the memorialist reported some time ago
liis intention to cease, from the beginning
of 1876, the farther printing of Government
notes, and to issue a sum of Tls. 6,000 or

7,000 per mensem to the cai'/i-shops for the
redemption of the old notes outstanding. In
the course of last summer he learnt that
malversations had been committed by
the official appointed to superintend the
cas/i-sliops, in the way of misappropri-
ation of the notes, indebtedness in run-
ning accounts with private money-shops,
and overpayments of wages to the
clerks employed in the ccts-shops, etc.
An expectant Magistrate was appointed
hereiijjon to enquire into the matter, when
it was discovered that enuring the 10 or 15
years of his service in tlie above-named
capacity, the incriminated official, Fang
Yen-hi by name, was chargeable with a
deficit of 23,600 and odd strings of cash in
the accounts under his charge, beside 3,426
strings overpaid under tlie head of wages,
Sic. Fang Yen-hi has meanwhile died ; but
it is requested tliat orders may be given, in
tlie first place, for liis deprivation of the
rank he held as District Slagistrate, and
secondly for tlie sequestration and escheat-
ment of liis property on behalf of the
exchequer.Sanctioned by rescript.

Li Hung-chang, Governor-General
of Cliihli, reports, with reference to
the decree received by him on the 10th
October last, sanctioning his proposals for
a modified course of action with reference
to the provision of grain on behalf of the
provinces of Shansi and Honan, that lie
had caused the Taotai Chu K^-ngang to
be furnished with the funds required for
tlie purchase of piculs 30,000 of rice at
Shanghai, ancl for the freight of the same
to Tientsin before the close of navigation,
as an advance on account of the province
of Kiangsi, whence this quantity of grain
was ordered to be diverted to purposes of
relief.

(5) Shen Pao-clieng, Governor-General
of the Two Kiang, etc., referring to his
memorial (see Gazette of December 20tli,
1877) impeaching Liu Hien, Taotai of the
Hwai-Yang Intendancy, for the vic6 of
opium-smoking, reports that lie has provi-
sionally appointed a Taotai named Pang

Tsi-ytin to act in his stead,
pending a further appointment.,


14

[Jan. 28Feb. 1.

Jan. 28th-29tli.(1) A decree based
upon a memorial from the Censor Chang
Tao-yiian, who has solicited the issue of
stringent commands against the practice of
numerous abuses in connection with the
purchase of official titles in the provinces,
lately sanctioned [in aid of the famine
expenses.] The raising of contributions
in the provinces is an expedient undertaken
simply with the view of meeting the
exigency of the moment; and it is urgently
needful, if the statements advanced by the
memorialist are true, to prohibit the mal-
practices that have arisen in consequence.
The Censor alleges that the various pro-
vincial governments have placed the blank
certificates issued to them in the hands of
official deputies, who have proceeded to
impose them compulsorily upon the differ-
ent village communities, with the result
that some scores of householders take
out a single certificate of rank, and
some hundreds join together to purchase a
single title to office. The certificate
is then made out in the name of the
most influential person among them,
with the result that, dishonest acts are per-
petrated by evil-minded persons of the
licentiate or graduate class, who get the
management of the transaction into their
hands. This system, which is termed joint-
purchaseling hiian causes detri-
ment in a high degree to the peoples
interest. Injunctions are consequently laid
upon the provincial Goyernments concerned
to allow no certificates to be issued
to purchasers under the circumstances
herein referred to, and to be given to none
but individuals themselves possessed of
means who come forward in response to
the call for contributions. Any notables
or elders who may be found setting up a
monopoly of the management of the trans-
action, and acting dishonestly in collusion
with officials or their underlings, are to be
impeached and punished with all rigour.

(2) A decree, referring for consideration
on the iart of the Board of Punishments,
a memorial from the Censor Chang Tao-
yuan urging that pending judicial cases in
which witnesses are detained in custody
may be taken in hand and disposed of ; as
also that regulations on the subject be
drawn up for issue to tlie various provincial
governments.

Jan. 30th-31st.(Court Circular). The
Governor of Sliun-t5ien Fu reports a fall
of snow at Peking to the depth of two
inches.Prince Peh-yen-na-mo-hu had
audience, on his return to Peking.

(1) A decree. In submitting certain
memorials received this day from Shao-kJi

(Brigade-General of the Tai-ning com-
mand), and ex-officio Comptroller of the
Household, he states, in his despatch for-
warding them to the Privy Cabinet Office,
that there were among them three addresses
of compliment (i.e., to the two Empresses
Regent and the Emperoron occasion of the
New Year), and one memorial relating to
affairs of business. The envelope is found,
notwithstanding, to contain two addresses
of compliment, one address of congratula-
tion, and no document relating to public
affairs. Great negligence is thus shewn to
have occurred. Let the name of Shao-ki
be handed to the Board of Civil Office for
the adjudication of a penalty ; and let him
ascertain and report to Us the explanation
of the mistake committed. (N.B.Shao-ki
is the high officer whose promotion
downwards from a Yice-Presidentship of
the Board of Punisliments to his present
position as a Brigade-General commanding
the guards of the Western Mausolea, was
announced in the Gazette of Dec. 8th,
1877).

(2) Li Hung-changin a postscript memo-
rial, reports that he received some little
time ago a letter from Ngen Sih, the
Lieutenant-Governor of Kiangsu, stating
that whilst on his way to Peking for
audience he had taken cold on his journey,
and was lying ill at the district city of
Ngan-sul^ in Chihli, beyond which point he
had been unable to move. He solicited
that a con might be applied for on his
behalf. Before the memorialist had taken
action in the matter, he received a report
from the Lieutenant-Governor^ family to
the efifect that he had died at Ngan-suh
from the effects of illness, on the 4th
January last. This it is the memorialists
duty to report, and in doing this he adds a
brief sketch of the deceaseds official career,
with an expression of regret at his decease.
(N.B.The above memorial was probably
received at Peking on the 7th January, as
the 6teee of the 8th contained the decree
based upon it, in which Leh Fang-k5i was
appointed to the vacancy occurring in the
Lieutenant-Governorship of Kiangsu. The
present is therefore a means of judging of
the length of time which elapses between
the receipt of a memorial at Peking and its
publication in the Gazette).

Feb. lst-4th (including the Chinese New
Years day, on Feb. 2nd.)The Court Gir-
cular contains the following notices :

Feb. 1st. The Princes of Tun and others
returned thanks for gifts of birds-nest and
embroidered purses. K'vei Tsing returned
thanks for tlie gift of a purse. To-morrow,
at 4 a.m., his Majesty will proceed by way


Feb. 18.]

15

of the K^en-ts^ng Gate and tlie King-yiin
Gate to the Ancestral Temple, after worship-
ping at wliicli, the same route will be taken
in returning to the Palace. At J to 5 his
Majesty will proceed to offer incense at tlie
Hall of Confucius and the shrine of the God
of Healing, after which his Majesty will
take his seat on the Throne in the Kien-
ts^ng Hall, where tea will be served. After
partaking of this refection, and bestowing
refreshment [oil the Ministers in attendance],
his Majesty will return to the Palace. At
7 a.m., his Majesty will proceed (by certain
gateways named) to the Tsze Ning Kung,
and after offering here his obeisance [to tlie
Empresses Regent] will return by the same
route to the Imperial apartments. At half-
past 8 liis Majesty will take his seat in
the Chung Ho Throne Hall to receive the
obeisances [of the Ministers of the Presence
and others in immediate personal at-
tendance], and in the Grand Throne Hall
the T}ai Ho Tiento receive the homage of
his Court, returning after this to the
Imperial apartments. At 9 a.m., liis
Majesty will proceed to the Tai Kao Tien
to offer incense, and thencef, entering the
Palace Park, to tlie SIioav Hwang Tien to
make obeisance [before the portraits of his
ancestors there preserved], returning thence
by the North Gateway to the Imperial
apartments.

Feb. 2nd. The Prince of Tun^ as Pres-
ident of the Astronomical Office, reported
that the wind set this day (Chinese New
Year) from the henNorth-eastquarter,
presaging longevity and plenteous harvests.
(N.B.This is a formality invariably ob-
served at the Chinese New Year. The
presage conveyed in terms identical with
the above on the 26th January, 1877, has
been strangely belied by the result; but
this" in no wise affects the continuance of a
time-honoured custom.)

A Decree. The beileh Tsai Ying-ying
is granted permission of the Impe-
rial grace to have the privilege of entree at
Court.

Feb. 3rd-4th. (1) Tu Jui-lien, acting
Governor of Yunnan, memorializes report-
ing his having taken over the seal of office
on the 10th November last, on the depar-
ture of P5an Ting-sin, summoned to Peking
to await other employment by decree of
the 6th October. A copy of this decree,
enclosed in a Council despatch, was received
at Yiinnan Fu on the 30tli of the same
month.

(2) PJan Ting-sin, late Governor of Yiin-
nan, memorializes reporting his having
handed over the se^il of office, and states

that he proposed leaving Yunnan Fu on the
13fcli November, travelling by way of Hupeh
to his native province, Nganhwei, in which
it was liis intention to visit l;is family
burial-place and perform tlie obligations of
filial duty. So soon as this has been accom-
plished, he will proceed on his way to
Peking, there to prostrate himself in the
dust before the Palace portals and to
await the bestowal of further employment.
His age being barely 50, he cannot for a
moment tliink of seeking only his personal
ease.Rescript : It is noted.

Feb. 7tli-8fch.Li Han-chang, Gov-
ernor-General of Hu Kwang, memorializes
reporting the proceedings taken in con-
nection with an unauthorized act on the
part of certain notables and others of Fan

K'ow in the Wu-cliang district,
above Hankow, in erecting a dam to cut
off communication between the waters of

tlie Y^angtsze and the Liang-tsze
and other lakes and lagoons. With reference
to this matter, application had been made
by the district notables at intervals during
fclie last fifteen years for permission to effect
this work, on the ground that without it
the land under cultivation in that neigh-
bourhood is liable to periodical inundation ;
but their requests had been negatived in
view of the fact that to shut out the
Yangtsze waters in flood time from access
to the large inland basins which now serve
as temporary receivers would be to entail
peril upon a very large region of the
province for the advantage of a single
district. The Prefect of Wu-cl^ang Fu,
when deputed to investigate the matter,
had reported against it on this grotind, and
also in consideration of the impediment it
would tlirow in the way of water communi-
cation with several inland districts, thus
interfering with both the public food
supply and with the collection of the
lekin taxes. The objections urged against
the scheme were reiterated last year, when
the late Governor received letters from
notables of the district residing at Peking,
once more urging the request. Notwith-
standing this, however, a literary licentiate
of the Wu-cli5ang district, with some other
petty titular officials of the neighbouring
districts, were lately reported to have set
law and authority at defiance, and to have
forcibly collected funds and set to work to
build a dam at Fan K^w. They closed up
tlie entrance to the river, and established a
tax-office of their own, at which they levied
a likin duty upon passing vessels. As this
self-appointed body had refused obedience
to the demand addressed to them for the


16

[Feb. 814

immediate removal of the clam, the Gov-
ernor-General at length ordered General
Sung Teh-hung, in command of the foreign
drilled corps at Han-yang, to proceed with
a detachment of his men and some river
gunboats, accompanied by the Prefect of
Wu-changto the spot. On arrival at
Fan K5ow, this force set to work to pull
down the dam/'which was effected on the
12th or 13th December. The offending
principals in the affair had taken to flight;
but gunboats were left on the sj)t to assist
the local authorities in effecting their arrest.

Feb. 9th-10th. (1) A decree awarding a
farther supply of 2,000 piculs of rice to the
relief-agency at T^mgchow, in addition to
the like amount heretofore bestowed in the
same quarter, on the application of the
authorities concerned, who have repre-
sented that the original amount is inade-
quate to the needs of the establishment.

(2) Mei Ki-chao, Governor of Clieh-
kiang, reports uioon the prices of raw silk
required for the supply of the Imperial
manufactories at Hangchow. The im-
possibility of obtaining materials at the
tariff of purchasing prices fixed by the
Board of Revenue has already more than
once been represented, and sanction was
obtained to an extension of the system of
buying at current market rates for another
year. The Magistrate of the Th-tsing
district reports that the price per tael-
weiglit of first-quality white silk used for

warp-throwing ^ two mace

nine candareens five cash of sycee silver;
Treasury weight, and of white cross-thread

silk two candareens less

per tael weight. Silk has been so scarce
this year that no reduction below these
rates can be obtained.

Feb. llth-12tli(1) A decree based upon
a memorial from Shao-ki, the official lately-
found fault with for an irregularity in the
presentation of addresses of congratulation,
&c at the New Year (see 6?ee of Jan-
uary 30th He has now stated in explan-
ation that lie forwarded two covers on the
same day, and that it was by direction of
tlie Privy Cabinet Office itself that the con-
tents were presented to the Throne on
successive days instead of at the same time.
He begs to submit himself to the penalty-
incurred by the offence, and solicits that
enquiry into the circumstances be ordered.
The decree ordains that, as Shao-ki^ name
has already been handed to the Board for
the adjudication of a penalty, his present
request to that end need not be taken into
consideration ; and also that enquiry be

made as to the action of the Privy Cabinet
Office.

(2) A decree in reply to a memorial from
Liu Kw^n-yili, Governor-General of the
Two Kwang, who has solicited on behalf of
a military officer in Kwangsi, promoted to
the rank of captain, that he may vacate
his substantive appointment as lieutenant
in the Yeo-kiang command, and further
that he may change his present name,

which is P^n Yih-htin br

substituting the character Ch^ng for

Yih. The request is granted, but a mis-
conception on the Governor-Generars part,
to the effect that the character Yih, as
forming one of the series appropriated for
use as the cognomina of Imperial princes,
ought not to be commonly used, i3 cor-
rected by reference to a decree issued in
1846. The commands therein lain down,

declaring that the pei fen tsze
or cognominal characters prescribed for
use in serial order by successive genera-
tions of the Imperial lineage, need not be
held subject fo taboo, are now repeated
for general information.

(3) Li Hoh-nien, Director-General of
the Yellow River, memorializes reporting
having taken the seal of office as acting
Governor of Honan, on the 30th December.

Feb. 13th-14tli.(1) A decree giving
utterance to the Imperial sorrow on receipt
of intelligence of the decease of Ying Han,
Military Lieutenant-Goyernor of Uramtsi.
The deceased is eulogized as an officer of
ability and wisdom, and distinguished by
conspicuous services. Having risen from
the rank of District Magistrate and per-
formed signal military exploits in the cam-
paign against the Nien-fei lie was advanced
by his late Majesty to the office of Governor
of Nganwhei, in which capacity he rendered
most efficient support to the State in the
task of extirpating the last vestiges of the
rebellion and in restoring order to the
province. Having at a subsequent period
been dismissed from the public service
owing to a fault committed as Governor-
General of the Two Kwang, he "was after-
wards appointed, in consideration of his
earlier deserts, to the post of Military
Lieutenant-Governor of Urumtsi, in which
capacity he evinced great judgment in the
measures instituted by him. t)n receipt of
intelligence of his decease, at a moment
when the hope was entertained of his long
continuing to enjoy the Imperial favour,
profound regret is experienced. He is
posthumously invested with the title of
Grand Guardian of ^tlie Heir Apparent,


Feb. 1415.]

17

and other honours are decreed on his
behalf. A donation of Taels 2,000 from
the Privy Purse, and a present of six
taels5 weight of ginseng, are bestowed
upon his mother, who is now upwards
of seventy years of age. (N.B.Ying-han
received the substantive appointment of
Military Lieutenant-Governor of Urumtsi
only on the 5th November last. He was
about fifty years of age.)

(2) A Decree. Let Yii She (at

present Imperial Controller-General at
Kokonor) become acting Military Lieut-
enant-Governor of Urumtsi, and let him
proceed thither without delay. Until he
arrives at his post, let Kin Ylin-chang (the
commandant of the Chinese division) take
temporary charge of the office.

(3) The Censor Teng K^ng-lin memo-
rializes representing that the distribution
of Government salt in the province of
Shansi is unduly checked, and that smug-
gling is rife, and he solicits that the ancient
rule of management by official agency be
restored in respect of this article. Owing
to the drought with which the province of
Shansi has been afflicted, the levy of the
land tax has been wholly remitted by the
Imperial grace, and tlie sole remaining
resource of the provincial exchequer to any
considerable extent is the revenue derived
from the salt gabelle. The system pursued
in the various districts of the province is
nothowever, uniformly tlie same. In
some, consumption is active, in others it
labours under disadvantages, such as the
prevalence of smuggling, which, in certain
parts, obstructs the demand for the duty-
paid article ; and in other cases the fact
that salt upon which no duty has been paid
is carried as an accompaniment to the con-
signments conveyed under licenses, in
quantities so excessive as to interfere with
the demand for duty-paid salt. The evils
of the present system are in a great measure
clue to tlie unpriiTcipled conduct of the
licensed salt traders. The rule is that to
each yin of 30,000 catties a proportion of
surplus (non-dutiable) salt to the amount
of 3,000 catties is allowed to be carried,
under the head of waste-allowance ; but by
trickery on the part of the salt traders they
manage to increase this amount to 7,000 or

8,000 catties, thus reducing to a very detri-
mental extent tlie area of demand for the
duty-paid article. Whilst the interests of
the Government are made to suffer in tliis
wise, the people, on the other hand, are
exposed to injury by fraudulent practices
of another description. The selling-price
per catty is 35 copper cash, of tho regular

currency; but the scales used in the salt
trade make 14 taels (instead of sixteen) go
to the catty^ or even, of late, no more than
12 taels, whilst, by the admixture of earth,
and the damping to which the salt is sub-
jected, the real quantity obtained is not
more than 6 or 7 taels per catty. In order
to guard against these multiplied abuses,
the Censor would propose that the sale of
salt be replaced under the management of
official agencies.Referred far delibera-
tion and report by rescript in Gazette of
22nd January.

Feb. 14th-15th.(1) A decree cashiering
several district Magistrates and assistant
Magistrates in Nganhwei on impeachment
by the Governor, Yii Lull.

(2) A decree to the same effect with
reference to district officials in the province
of Honan, on impeachment by the acting
Governor, Li Hoh-nien.

(3) Li Hung-chang, Governor-General of
Chihli, memorializes reporting the destrnc-
tion by fire on tlie 6tli D^aiiuary of a relief
shed at Tientsin, with the consequent de-
struction of a great number of the inmates.
Since 1871, he observes, the sufFeiing
caused alternately by floods and drought
in the province of Chihli, year after year,
lias caused great numbers of the afflicted
population to flock to Tientsin, as a central
point, in search of the means of subsistence,
and during the present season the number
of refugees thus collected at the port is not
far from 60,000 soula. Twelve relief-centres
have been established on their behalf by
the local authorities, and as the number of
temples available as lodging places is in-
sufficient, sheds have been built upon pieces
of waste ground, in which straw has been
littered down for the accommodation of the
refugees. The local authorities, viz., the
Salt Comptroller and the Customs and
Territorial Taotais, have now made report
that, owing to want of precaution, a fire
broke out at 9 a.m. on the 6 th January, in
the N.W. angle of the women^ shed out-
side the East gate ; and although the Salt
Comptroller and the Customs Taotai
hurried at once to the spot, accompanied
by the local civil and military functionaries
and the fire brigade, the inflammable
materials of the shed burnt with such
rapidity, tlie weatlier being extremely dry
and the wind high at the time, that the build-
ing was in a blaze in a moment. A great
niunber of the inmates, both children and
grown-up persons, were rescued, but not
a few perialied, notwithstanding, in conse-
quence of the conflagration. An accurate
return of the numbers could not, in the
lnirry of the moment, be sent in. On


18

[Feb. 1517.

receipt of this report the memorialist, who
was shocked beyond expression by the re-
ceipt of intelligence of the disaster, pro-
ceeds to observe tliat in the severely cold
weather now prevailing it is quite probable
that a fire may have been lighted for the
sake of warmth by the poor people in the
shed, and have escaped observation on the
part of the persons in charge, but that the
negligence of the superintenclentsnotwith-
standing his own repeated warnings, is
inexcusable; and he solicits the dismissal
in perpetuity from the public service of the
two civilian functionaries directly responsi-
ble. The higher authorities, and himself
also, are answerable, likewise, for the short-
comings of their subordinates, and he re-
quests that the names of all may be sub-
mitted to the Board for the adjudication of
a penalty. For rescript, assenting to these
propositions, see Gazette of Jan. 20fcli. (It
is understood that upwards of 2,000 women
and children perished on the occasion in
question.)

Li Hung-chang, in a postscript
memorial, draws attention to the heavy
consumption of foodstuffs which is entailed
by the distillation of spirits, carried on, as
this industry is, to a large extent in the
province of Chihli. Taking the entire
province together, he points out, there are
about 1,000 distillers, consuming a daily-
total of upwards of 20,000 piculs of kao-
liang millet, or say 60 to 70,000 piculs per
mensem. Taking one person^ daily con-
sumption as food at 1 sMng (about one
pint) per head, it follows that in the process
of distillation between two and three million
of individuals daily food is taken away.
The grain locally produced or imported from
a distance is bought up by the distilleries,
an artificial scarcity and dearth being thus
occasioned, whilst the advantage accruing
to the State, in the levy of little more than
some Tls. 30,000 by way of excise, is after
all not great. Precedent is in favour of
the stoppage of distillation as a famine-
relief measure, and a decree has lately been
issued, indeed, prohibiting the continuance
of the industry in Shansi. The memorialist
recommends that, with the exception of
Jeh-ho and Ch^ng-teh Hien, where the
harvest has been abundant, distilling be
suspended throughout the whole of Chihli
from the beginning of the New-Year, until
the time when the return of an abundant
harvest shall permit its resumption.
(Referred for deliberation by rescript dated
22nd January.)

(5) The Censor Hu Ping-che presents a
memorial to the same effect with the fore-
going.

Feb. 16tli-17th.(1) A decree sanction-
ing the commencement of repairs at the Mu
Tung Ling (Mausoleum of the Empress of
Tao Kvvang), on application by the Com-
missioners in charge.

(2) A decree, in answer to a memorial
from tlie high au,tlionties of the province
of Kwangtung, commanding that a tablet
be prepared and forwarded to the memo-
rialists, in recognition of the deserts of the
deity worshipped in Tien Kung temple at
Fo j&ang in tfiat provinceliis interposition
in response to prayers in time of flood
having been most efficacious.

(3) The Censor Chang Tao-yiian memo-
rializes calling attention to the suffering
entailed upon prisoners who are kept in
durance, according to law, pending the
apprehension of principals in the cases in
which they are involved, the law requiring
that accessories to a crime be kept impri-
soned until the principal can be arraigned
at the same time with them and sentences
be pronounced according to the share
respectively assigned to each criminal.
The memorialist points out the likelihood
of all prisoners declaring themselves to be
accessories rather than principals in an
offence committed, and of their falsely-
accusing other persons as the really guilty
parties ; whilst the consequences of the
system now pursued are seen in the pro-
tracted imprisonment of suspected in-
dividuals awaiting trial, with all its attend-
ant evils. The prisons necessarily become
overcrowded, and justice is liable to be
either perverted or cheated of its due. To
this overcrowding of the prisons may,
he thinks, be attributed the frequency
with which escapes have been effected of
late years. He would suggest a modifica-
tion of tlie law, to be effected by the issue
of commands directing the Board of
Punishments to draw up regulations, to be
circulated to all the provincial governments,
fixing a limit of say on or two years as the
maximum of preliminary imprisonment in
the case of accessories. If, at the expiry of
the time prescribed, the declared principals
in a case of crime should not have been
apprehended, the prisoners in the case in
question should be arraigned and sentenced
according to the provisions applicable to
the offence. At any future time, in the
event of the parties remaining at large
being at length apprehended, the sentences
pronounced upon them to be aggravated by
one degree, whether as principals or as
accessories. Rescript referring the pro-
posals for consideration by the Board of
Punishments, already published.


Feb. 1720.]

19

(4) In a postcript memorial, the same
Censor draws attention to the abuses which
are being perpetrated in connection with
the sale of certificates of rank and office at
present being conducted in aid of the funds
required for famine relief. The provincial
authoritieshe represents, are in the habit
of placing the blank certificates which are
issued to them, in the hands of their
subordinates for sale, on the ground that
it would be no easy matter otherwise to
find contributors; and the subordinate
officials, alleging similar excuses, impose
the certificates compulsorily upon the
village communities. Where no indi-
vidual sufficiently wealthy to purchase on
his own account is forthcomingan entire
village is perhaps laid under contributions,
and the most influential man of the local-
ity is the person whose name figures in
the document. Embezzlement and falsi-
fication of the returns are also not unknown
among the malpractices prevailing. The
Censor urges that stringent measures be
taken to put a stop to these irregularities.
For rescriiDt see Gazette of January 28th.

(5) The Censor She Tai memorializes
drawing attention to a source of unproductive
expenditure in connection with the Imperial
manufactories, which he requests may be
obviated by reverting to tlie ancient system.
Of late years, he observes, manifestations
have repeatedly been made of the Imperial
bounty in the bestowal of patents of rank
upon the progenitors of functionaries of
the public service, a form of distinction
which is not lightly to be obtained. On
making application, however, for the scrolls
upon which the patents are inscribed, the
material of which these are composed is
in general found to be of the most inferior
description, coarse and loosely woven, and
made up with a minimum of silk, the
greater portion being merely e( solidified

dye The difference in

quality, as compared with the scrolls here-
tofore issued, is most notable. On making
enquiry, it has been found that, under the
system heretofore prevailing, the silks
used for the manufacture of patent scrolls
and for consumption as sacrificial offerings
were fabricated at Nanking, under the
direction of an officer appointed by the
Board of Works. A special department,
called the Shen Pih T'ancj or Sacrificial-Silk
factory, was maintained, the weavers in
which were employed from father to son,
in consequence of which dishonest work-
manship and peculation of material were
undreamt of. After the rebellion broke
out, however, the silk manufactory was

moved in the first instance to Soochow and
Chengchow, and at a later period, owing to
the dispersion of the artizans employed in
this industry, the work was temporarily-
placed in the hands of the Hangchow
establishment. At this place, the manu-
facture appears to be effected by contract,
with unsatisfactory results, whilst at the
same time, at Nanking, the old Sacrificial
Silk Factory has been restored, so far
as the buildings and working staff are
concerned, but with nothing to do. The
Censor requests that, in order to check mal-
practices and useless expenditure of public
money, and to improve the quality of the
materials furnished, the manufacture be
placed once more under the Nanking
establishment.Referred by rescript, al-
ready published, for consideration.

(6) Wang Kia-pih, Civil Governor and
ex-officio Literary Examiner of the prov-
ince of Feng-tien, memorializes stating
that in the course of perusal of the
examination essays handed in by candidates
in that province, he has repeatedly found
characters having the same primitive
with that (viz., or $)forming

part of the personal name of his late
Majesty (the Emperor Muh Tsung or
T^ng-clie), altered by the writers in con-
formity with the rule applying to the
tabooed character itself. Thus for tun

the form ^ is written, and so forth.

Such an extension of the principle of
respect for the Imperial name is, however,
uncalled for by any regulation, and the
memorialist remembers having seen a
similar practice found fault with by
decree during the late reign. He solicits
that general instructions may be issued,
laying down a rule on this subject. For
rescript see Gazette of Jan. 18th.

Feb. 19th20th.(1) A decree refer-
ring to the protracted afcsence of moisture
in and around Peking, and to the urgent
need of a fertilizing downpour at present
in the interest of agriculture. It is
ordained that a fresh series of intercessory
services shall be instituted at the Tai Kao
Tien, beginning on the 22nd inst., and that
offerings of incense be made on that day
at the various State Temples in the usual
manner.

(2) A decree acknowledging the receipt
of a memorial from the Supervising Censor
Li Hang-mo, who has urged that injunc-
tions to observe economy in expenditure
be laid uj)n the various provincial govern-
ments, and the different amounts due by-
way of subsidy from one province to


20

[Feb. 2021.

another be revised, in order to effect reduc-
tions consistently -with the amount and
urgency of the existing demands. The
Board of Revenue is commanded to con-
sider and report hereupon.

(3) A decree expressing the Imperial re-
gret on receipt of intelligence of the death
of Cli5eng Ming, Brigade-General of one of
the Mongolian Banners at Peking, and
heretofore distinguished by long and merit-
orious service with the army in the opera-
tions against the insurgents in Kiangsu, &c.

(4) Li Hnng-chang, Governor-General of
Chihli, memorializes with reference to the
recapture of the four prisoners whose escaj)e
from the jail of the Hing-fang district was
reported last year (see Gazette of May 10th,
1877), and the trial of the individuals
responsible in the case. One of the prisoners
named Wang Siieh-tsai, was apprehended a
few days after the escape, and within the
next montli or two, Chang Po-tsze and Tan
Sze were separately captured. Wang and
Chang died in confinement from the effects
of illness after tlieir examination had been
concluded ; and as Tan Sze was guilty of
causing the death of two of his fellow pris-
oners, beside wounding the turnkeys in
effecting his escape, he was sentenced to
summary execution. The remaining pris-
oner, Kwoh Heh-tsze, was met by the
police who were searching for him in August
last, and was captured after a desperate re-
sistance, in the course of which lie inflicted
a wound upon himself with a sword, from
the effect of which lie shortly afterwards
died. The jailers answerable on the occa-
sion have been brought to trial and sentenced
to penalties of bambooing, dismissal, and
two years banishment, according to law.
The jailwarden is exempted from further
personal punishment, having already been
dismissed from liis rank ; and the district
Magistrate, having meanwhile been dis-
missed in connection with other sliortcom-
ings, is also condoned his share of the
punisliment incurred in this case.

(5) The Governor of Shensi, in a post-
script memorial, represents that Aving to
the postponements of revenue collection
accorded in that province, the receipts into
the provincial exchequer shew a falling-ofF
of some 600,000 to 700,000 taels, whilst
tlie likin revenue, also, is not within fifty
per cent, of last years amount. Every
penny available is applied to the require-
ments of famine relief, and all the regular
payments on other accounts are stopped.
The pay of tlie troops of tlie various field-
forces is issued at a reduction of tliree-
tenths ;whilst, as regards the regular
soldiery, Mancliu and Climese, who receive

so much per head, and in whose case it is
absolutely impossible to suspend payments,
exchequer notes have been printed and
issued, as an unavoidable measure, by the
provincial treasury. The subsidy due in
monthly payments to the military chest of
Hi has been customarily sent forward in
advance, but this year two months, subsidy
is owing, and there are no means forth-
coming to make the remittance. Not aca7i
has been sent to General Sii Chan-piao, on
account of his seven battalions in the field
beyond the frontier. All that has gone in that
direction lias been advanced by the Governor-
General Tso. In the region north of the
Yellow River the autumn wheat crop has
not been sown, and no revenue collection
can be made in the coming half-year. The
exchequer will have no receipts whatever,
and unless the arrears due by other prov-
inces be sent. forward unintermittingly it
is impossible to say what is to be done. As
Tls. 200,000 are at present owing from
Szecli?vvan, the memorialist has written to
request the Governor-General of that prov-
ince to let him have one-half of this amount
to begin with, and a reply has been received
to the effect that he will do all in his power,
and that he has ordered offices for the
collection of contributions to be opened by
his subordinates. The sum of Tls. 20,000
raised in this manner has now been received,
and the memorialist feels confident thai
the Governor-General Ting will do all that
in him lies to afford assistance. He con-
cludes by soliciting Imperial sanction to the
establishment of offices for the raising of
contributions (i. e., tlie sale of titles) in
SzecliwanHupeh and Honan, Cliehkiang
and Kwangtung, in all of which provinces
natives of Shensi are settled in large
numbers. Sanctioned by receipt.

Feb. 21st.(1) A decree, based upon a
memorial from Wu Ytian-ping, Governor
of Kiangsu, who has denounced the de-
partment Magistrate Kin Kwei-yung for
malversation of public funds. The delin-
quent is accused of having misappropriated
the sum of Tls. 1,600 and odd, from the
receipts on account of sales of titles on
behalf of the provinces of Kansuh, Kwei-
chow, and ISTganhwei, which amount lie
only made good in instalments on pressure
being applied to him by the memorialist.
Such conduct is proof positive of dishonesty ;
and the incriminated official is dismissed
from his rank with sentence of perpetual
exclusion from reemployment.

(2) Wang Kia-pih, Civil Vice-Governor
and ex-officio Literary Chancellor of the
province of Feng-fien, memorializes re-
porting his having terminated his tour of


Feb. 2123.]

21

examination in tlie Mancliiirian provinces.
On his return to Moukclen at the end of
October lastafter concluding the local
examinations in the province of Kirin, he
proceeded, as the regulations require, in
conjunction with the officers of tlie Imperial
Household, to supervise the airing of the
library preserved in the Wen So Koh, con-
sisting in the chronicles of the successive
reigns of the present dynasty, the abstracts
of Imperial decrees, the collections of Im-
perial i^oems, and the works forming the
Sze K'u Tsilan Shu (library of works formed
by order of the Emperor KJien Lung, one
complete set of wliich is preserved at
Monkden.) After this, he proceeded to
hold the examinations in the prefecture of
Kin Chow.

Feb. 22nd.(1) A decree based upon a
memorial from the supervising Censor
"VYen Ming, who has submitted observations
upon the report presented by the Governor
of Shensi respecting defalcations on the
part of a district Magistrate now deceased,
named Fang Yen-hi (see Gazette of 26th
Jan.) The Censor asks liow it happens
that, as tlie Governor declares the defal-
cations to have continued during a long
period of years, it should only after such
delay as this have come to his knowledge?
Moreover, the Governors statement that
he had appointed an official to investigate
the matter is barely made before it is fol-
lo wed by the observation that the delinquent
had departed this life. It is quite plain
that the Governor had stood in dread of
pressure being put uxdoii him by the in-
dividual in question, and for tliis reason
had waited until after death had removed
the delinquent from tlie scene to put for-
ward an emi^ty pretext, in order to rid him-
sef of the responsibility of so serious an
amount as that in question. The Censor
therefore asks that the Governor be called
upon for an explanation. Tan Chung-lin,
the Governor of the province referred to,
is commanded accordingly to report in ex-
planation of the points adverted to.

(2) A decree referring for report on the
part of the Board of Civil Office a memorial
in which the Censor Wen Ming proposes
that a list be published, monthly, of the
officials of all ranks from that of Taotai and
Prefect downward, whose turn it is, accord-
ing to the roster, to receive appointments.

(3) A decree in reply to a memorial in
which KJing Clie, the Prince of Cheng, has
applied for leave to resign his State functions
on the score of continued ill-lieal fcli. A-
conge of two months is granted to the
Prince, in lieu of acceptance of liis resigna-
tion.

(4) Sliao Heng-yli, newly appointed
Governor of Hupeh, reports his arrival at
Wu-ch^ng, the provincial capital, on the
24tli December last, after accomplishing
the mission of tlie enquiry in Honan with
which he had been charged conjointly with
Tsung Ki. He received and took over
from the Governor-General, on the day-
after his arrival, the seal of his office; and,
fully conscious of the importance of the
duties incumbent upon him, he will
endeavour to carry into effect the instruc-
tions he has received from their Majesties,
desiring him to institute scrutiny and take
counsel with the Governor-General Li
Han-chang respecting the conduct of the
oflicials acting under his orders, and the
measures which may be necessary for the
improvement of the administration of
affairs.

Feb. 23rd. (1) A decree based upon a
memorial from Tso Tsung-fang, Governor-
General of Kansuh, etc.who has dwelt
upon the eminent public services rendered
by Ying Han, lately deceased, whilst
holding tlie office of Military Lieutenant-
Governor of Urumts5!, and requesting that
posthumous honours be bestowed upon liis
memory. The request is acceded to, and
commands are given for the grant of a title
of canonization to the deceased, and for the
erection of a memorial temple in liis honour
at the provincial capital of NganliAvei, where
he long held office as Governor.

(2) A decree referring to a memorial
heretofore received from Ting Pao-cheng,
Governor-General of SzecliSvan, who liad
asked that an official heretofore cashiered
and dismissed from the rank of Taotai
miglrfc be reinstated in possession of the
button of liis rank and attached to the
memorialists staff for service. This appli-
cation having been remitted to tlie Board
of Civil Office for consideration, it is now
reported by tlie Board tlmt the ex-official
in question, Li Yao-nan by name, was dis-
missed under sentence of perpetual exclu-
sion from reemployment, on impeacliment
by Tso Tsung-fang, who liad accused him
of maladministration in the forwarding of
army supplies, of profuse habits, frivolous
conduct, and self-willed misbeliavionr. A
decree issued in 1862 expressly forbids the
extension of patronage to officials who
have been dismissed for ever from the
public service ; and the application sub-
mitted in the present instance by Ting Pao-
cheng is rejected. For suppressing in liis
memorial all mention of the fact that
such a proviso had been appended to the
sentence imposed upon tlie individual in
question, the name of Ting Pao-cheng is


22

[Feb. 2324.

handed to the Board for the adjudication
of a penalty.

(3) Shen Pao-clieng, Governor-General
of the Two Kiang, Wen Pin, Director-
General of the Grain Transport system,
and Wu Ylian-ping, Goyernor of Kiangsu,
memorialize representing that whereas Liu
Hien, Intendant of the Hwai-Yang circuit,
has been dismissed from the public service
in consequence of liis impeachment for
contamination with the vice [of opium-
smoliing] it is necessary to appoint another
officer to fill his place. The decree cash-
iering him having borne date the 1st De-
cember, 1877, and five days being the period
allowed within which the despatch con-
veying this announcement should be sent

the 25 days to be further allowed
delivery in the case of the province
of Kiangsu bring up the time to the
31st December, on which date, accordingly,
the late incumbent was bound to vacate
his office. An officer named Pang Tsi-ytin
a native of Chihli, aged 54, an expectant
Taotai and brevet Judicial Commissioner
by rank, has been named to act in the post
until further orders, and his confirmation
therein, as an officer eminently qualified to
discharge its duties, is requested. Referred
for consideration by the Board of Civil
Office.

(4) Slien Pao-cheng, Governor-General
of the Two Kiang, referring to his previous
applications for leave to resign his office
and the periods of cong successively
granted him, presents a farther lajuentable
picture of his state of health, and protests
against the insinuations of those who sug-
gest that he is solicitous only of his own
personal comfort. He earnestly entreats,
on the contrary, permission to retire from
the occupancy of a post which his enfeebled
condition no longer allows him to occupy
without injury to the public cause.Re-
script, in replygranting two additional
months7 cong^, but withholding the per-
mission asked for.

Feb. 24th. (1) A decree based upon a
memorial presented by the Board of Re-
venue, in reporting upon the application
submitted by Li Hoh-nien, acting Governor
of Honan, for the diversion of the entire
balance of the grain supply due to Peking
by the provinces of Kiangsi and Nganhwei,
for the coming year, to supply the needs
occasioned fey the famine in Honan. The
Board objects to the proposed arrangement,
which would strip the Peking granaries of
their supplies ; and the proposal, therefore,
that 90,000 piculs of grain be furnished to
Honan from the source indicated is nega-

tived. In lieu of this, the province of
Chihli is to supply 30,000 piculs of rice,
being a balance of the stock accimmlated
for issue at reduced rates, and this is to be
sent forward at once by Li Hnng-chang.
The Governor of Kiangsu is fart]ier to con-
sider and take action upon the question
whether supplies can be advanced from the
charitable granaries in that province. As
regards the amount of $500,000 in foreign
currency, being tlie sum raised by contri-
tution on account of Formosa (? for defence
purposes in 1874?), the Governor-General
and Governor (of Fuhkien ?) are to see
whether the amount in question lias been
as yet expended and whether it is possible to
apply it as a loan on behalf of Honan. Fur-
thermore, it is to be noted that a memorial
lias tliis day been presented by Weng
Tung-lio, (a junior Vice-President of the
Board of Revenue, and one of the two
Imperial tutors), soliciting tlmt the grain
revenue from Kiangsi and Nganliwei be
diverted to the supply of tlie province
of Honan. It was open to the Yice-
President in question, as a matter of
course, if he differed in opinion from his
colleagues in reporting upon any subject,
to submit a separate report in his own
name; but an absolute contradiction is
involved in appending his name to the
memorial of the Board of Revenue, in
which the proposal is negatived, and then
separately recommending it on his own
part. In memorials henceforward submit-
ted, let all officers of government refrain,
as the system of public business requires,
from expressing mutually contradictory
opinions.

(2) The Governor of Kweichow memo-
rializes reporting the result of a trial
in which an expectant Department Magis-
trate named Chang Hing-wen had been
accused of intermarrying with the wife of a
certain man named Wang-Sheng. From
the evidence taken it has appeared that
Wang Sheng had been used to live with
his wife at her mother^ house at Kwei-
yang Fu, until, in 1873, he went away as
servant to an official, and owing to the
distance to which he was taken from liia
home, sent no news of himself to liis
family. Hearing nothing of her husband,
and being reduced to great straits on the
death of £er motherthe wifeWang Ku-
she, allowed herself to be persuaded by
reports she heard of her husband having
died, and entered into an engagement
through a marriage-broker named Tang
Ylih-sheng to become the wife of Chang
Hing-wen. No presents, marriage-cer-
tificate, or brokers5 fees were given. In the


Feb. 2426.]

23

autumn of 1875, Wang Seng returned to
liis home, and having traced his wifes
whereabouts, claimed her from Chang
Hing-wen. The latter, however, believing
the claim advanced to be a fictitious one,
refused to listen to it, and the husband
hereupon lodged a complaint against him
at the district magistracy. On a trial
being held, Chang JEJing-wen obstinately
sought to denj^ the evidence adduced, and
refused to obey the judgment of the court,
upon which a decree stripping him of liis
rank and ordering him to be proceeded
against criminally ,was applied for and
obtained. The facts of the case having
now been established on trial, it is ruled
that altliougli in taking Wang Ku-she to
wife, the accused was not aware that the
woman had already a husband in. existence,
yet, as no marriage presents were given,
nor any application made for official
authority to contract the union, tlie case
cannot be regarded in the light of actual
wedlock, and the offence committed must
be treated as one of seduction. Under the
statute relating to casesthereforeiu
officials shall be found guilty of debauching
the wives of members of the population,
Cliang Hing-wen is sentenced to be stripped
of his rank, and to receive one hundred
blows, the penalty of blows being com-
muted according to law. The woman is
sentenced to wear the cangue for one
month, and to receive one liundred blows,
the latter part of the sentence, only, to be
inflicted. The woman is to be given back
to her lawful lmsband, who may keep her
as his wife or put her away, as he pleases.
The marriage broker is sentenced to a
penalty mitigated by one degree less than
that inflicted upon Wang Kn-she, and is
sentenced accordingly to 25 days cangue
and 90 blows, for effecting a marriage
without the concomitants which give the
union its legal validity. Referred for con-
sideration and report by the Board of
Punishments. .

(3j The Governor of Kweichow further
memorializes respecting a case in which an
expectant Sub-Prefect has been accused
by authority of having cruelly beaten a
concubine of his, named Wan Siao Mei,
and murdered her by burying her alive.
Enquiry having been instituted, complaint
to the foregoing effect has been received
from the deceased womans sister ; and an
inquest liaving been held, which has estab-
lished the fact of death having been caused
by violence, it is now requested that the
accused, She Tsimg-ping, be stripped of
his rank ancl placed on trial. Granted by-
rescript.

Feb. 25th. (Court Circular.) The Gov-
ernor of Shun-fien Fu reports a fall of
snow at Peking (on the night of the
23rd) to the depth of one inch and
upwards.

(1) The special High Commissioner for
famine relief in the province of Shansi, Yen
King ming, ancl Tseng Kwoh-ts^an, Go-
vernor of the province, jointly memorialize
submitting a scheme for the better organi-
zation of the system of raising contributions
throughout the Empire in aid of tlie afflicted
province. They begin by acknowledging
in warm terms the activity displayed at
Tientsin by the Customs and territorial
Taotais acting under the orders of the
Governor-General Li Hung-chang, and at
Shanghai by the ex Lieutenant-Governor of
Shensi, Wang Ch^ng-ki and the expectant
Taotais Hu Kwang-yung, Chu K^-ngang
Slieng-Siian-hwai, Tang Ting-chuan3
Sti-jun (the last four constituting the man-
aging board of the China Merchants5 Com-
pany.) In ready response to their appeals,
the mercantile community had subscribed
within less than a month the sum of nearly
Taels 100,000; and in addition to this, sup-
plie of grain were sent forward by tfie
same ofl&cials, acting in the most indefatig-
able and efficient manner under the in-
structions of Li Hung-chang. Imperial
sanction has furthermore been obtained
for the raising of funds by the sale
of offices and titles in all the Southern
provinces, and the Governor, Ts^ng Kwoh-
tstianhas received letters, expressive of
the utmost sympathy for the affliction which
lias befallen his province, from Shen Pao-
cheng, Li Han-cliang, Ch,ung How, Liu
KHven-yih, Ting Pao-clieng, Wu Yuan-ping,
Mei K^-chao, Liu Ping-chang, Wang Wen-
shao, Yii Lull, Chang Chao-tung, and Tu
Tsung-ying. Ting Jih-chang, the Governor
of Fulikien, moreover, whilst residing on
leave of absence at his* native place in
Kwangtung, has taken the lead with the
Intendant of the Hwei-ch?ao-kia Circuit,
Chang Sien, acting under his direction, in
raising subscriptions among the Cantonese
traders. What the memorialists have now
to suggest is that the voluntary efforts of
individnal officers need to be supplemented
by direct Imperial authority, and they
submit the names of various individuals, in
the provinces referred to above, for whom
they request commissions by Decree, ap-
pointing them special agents for the raising
of funds by contribution on behalf of Shan-
si, all accounting to a central office at
Tientsin.Granted by rescript.

Feb. 26th.No documents of import-
ance.


24

[Feb. 27Mar. 2.

Feb. 27th. Wang Wen-aliao, Governor
of Hunan, memorializes reporting liis de-
parture for Peking to have audience, in
obedience to the decree dated the 23rd
November last, which lie received, as com-
municated in a despatch from the
Board of Civil Office, on the 15tli De-
cember. He gives, in customary terms,
outline of liis past official career,
ing tliat he was appointed in 1864,
when filling the office of a Secretary
of the Board of Revenue at Peking, to tlie
post of Taotai of Siang-yang in Hupeh,
whence lie rose through the higher ranks of
Judicial and Financial Commissioner to liis
present Governorship. He handed over
the seal of liis office on the 17th December
to his locum tenens, Ts^mg Full, and con-
templated setting out on his journey nortli-
warSs on the 23rd of January.

The remainder of this clay5s Gazette is
occupied, for the lAost part, with reports of
changes contingent upon the Governors
departure, as recorded above.

Feb. 28fch.No documents of import-
ance. /

March 1st(1) A decree based upon a
memorial from Kin Shun, Military
Governor, etc., of Hi, transmitting an ap-
plication for leave to retire on behalf of
one of liis subordinate commanders. The

applicant, Fu-chu-li whose
substantive office is that of Manchu Brigade-
General at Canton, had been employed on
active service for uj)wards of twenty years
in the operations carried on against
the insurgents in the provinces of
Shantung, Hupeh, Nganliwei, Shensi, and
Kansuh, in the course of which he had
many times been wounded. His wounds
have of late broken out afresh, and lie has
little prospect of a speedy recovery. His
prayer for permission to vacate his post is
acceded to, and he is authorized to return
to his Banner and devote himself to the
care of his health ; retirement on full pay
being granted him as a special boon.

(2) Sliao Brigade-General command-
ing at the Eastern Mausolea, memorializes
in obedience to command, submitting his
explanation respecting the transmission of
documents to be laid before tlie Throne
which were received in an irregular man-
ner. He states that on his assumption of
office he drew up a memorial reporting this
fact, which, with three addresses of com-
pliment to their Majesties, was enclosed in
one sealed package, whilst in another like
packet there were enclosed a memorial of
congratulation to His Majesty on the New
Year and two addresses of compliment (for

the Empresses Regent.) Accompanying
these two packets were sent two despatches
addressed to the Privy Cabinet Olticeboth
dated the ?8th Januaiy, and on the same
clay a petty officer named Wang Ch^ng-
cliang was despatched with this mail to
Peking. On the 3rd February the memori-
alist received back his memorials (in the
usual course), accompanied by the Decree
taking him to task for the irregular manner
in -vyhicli they had been delivered. Over-
whelmed with treiDiclation and shame, the
liiemorialist made immediate enquiry of
his messenger who stated that on handing
in his charge to the Privy Cabinet Office on
the 29th January, he was directed to pre-
sent the documents on successive days
instead of simultaneously. This he did,
but by an unfortunate interchange of the
accompanying despatches, tlie contents of
the packets were found not to correspond
with the statement set forth in the covering
letter. The memorialist acknowledges that
the carelessness displayed by his messenger
was beyond all excuse, and he has written
to the Board of War for the man5s depriva-
tion of his rank, as a preliminary to the
infliction of punishment; in addition to
wliich lie now submits himself to the
penalty to which he is conscious of being
exposed. For rescript see Gazette of
February 11th.

March 2nd.(1) A decree once more
referring to the protracted drouglit ex-
perienced in the neiglibourhood of Peking,
notwithstanding the supplications that have
been made on repeated occasions. The sea-
son being now already so far advanced, the
necessity for rain in the interest of the
tillage of the soil has become more than
ever urgent, and the Imj)erial anxieties in-
crease in like measure. It belioves that
reverent entreaties be once more offered
up, to the end that a downpour of the
moisture vouchsafed in manifestation of the
harmonious accord of the powers of nature
may be obtained. A further series of in-
tercessory services is consequently orclered
to be held on the 3rd inst., His Majesty
offering incense in person at the Tai Kao
Tien. A long list of the Imperial princes is
named for a like duty at the various shrines
elsewhere.

(2) A Decree. Let Shang Ch^ng-mow
succeed the post of Manclm
Brigade-General at Canton.

(3) The Governor of Clielikiang memo-
rializes referring to tlie receipt some time
ago of a Council despatch enclosing copy of
an Imperial decree, dated December 31st,


IMar. 23.J

25

1877, to the effect that, as the freight-re-
ceipts of the China Merchants, Steamship
C(jnipany are insufficient to meet tlie expen-
diture entailed, the Company cannot go on
for any length of time without an increase
in the quantity of Government rice freights,
to serve by way of subsidy. On receipt of
these commands, the memorialist instructed
the provincial Grain Intend ant to take
action accordingly ; and lie has now to sub-
mit that in ,the month of September last lie
was waited upon by a deputation of tlie
Ningpo junk-owners, who laid a statement
before him to the following effect:Upwards
of 360 junks were formerly owned at Ningpo,
but their numbers liave gradually fallen
off, since tlie competition of steamers and
foreign sailing vessels in the carrying trade
was intruduced, until now there remain but
120 sail or thereabouts. The sole resource
they have to rely upon is the freight to be
earned by the carriage [ of rice ] on behalf
of Government; and tlie applicants would
entreat that at the next shipping season
full cargoes might in the first place be
allotted to the local jnnk trade. The me-
morialist lias pointed out in reply the tenor
of tlie commands he has had laid upon him
by decree, enjoining that a large propor-
tion of the rice freights be given to the
steamers, in support of the general public
interest, and that, as the China MerchantsJ
Company has greatly enlarged its fleet, an
increased quantity must naturally be placed
in its hands. In consideration, however,
of the appeal addressed to him by the de-
putation, lie would consent that the same
amount should be allotted to them for
carriage as in tlie previous shipping season.
The Grain Intendant, Hu Ylili-ylin; has
now reported that for the coming year the
amount of rice for transmission to Peking
which is leviable in the province of Clieli-
kinng is 418,000 and odd piculs, and, after
deduction made of the waste allowances,
e(c., tlie total quantity to be delivered at
the granaries is 377,000 and odd piculs. It
is proposed that 200,500 and odd piculs
shall be allowed to the C. M. S. 1ST. Company
for carriage, or more than 50 per cent, of
tlie entire amount. The memorialist, on
consideration of this report, finds nothing
to object to; and, in addition to giving to
the C. M. S. N. Company, exclusively, the
carriage of all freights on 6ehalf of Govern-
ment he lias now to submit the foregoing
report of the quantity of rice which he lias
decided upon allotting to its steamers for
the approaching season.Rescript: Noted.

(4) Tlie Governor-General of the Two
Kiang and the Governor of Kiangsu me-
morialize reporting tlie amount of grain to

be forwarded to Peking by the sea-route in
tlie coming season, find the arrangements
made for its shipment and delivery at
Tientsin. Tlie five Prefectures and Depart-
ments of Soocliow, Sung-kiang, Cliang-
chow, Cliinkiang, and Tai-tsaiig are re-
quired to yield, as usual.a collection of
tribute rice of the ordinary and
superior qualities, whilst the t'vo districts
of Tan-yang and Kin-fan in Chen-kiang Fu
are assessed with amounts payable in com-
mutation of the rice-tax. The amount levi-
able in kind is 658,068 piculs, in addition to
Avliich 20,000 piculs have been purchased with
the commutation mone}^ levied in the districts
above named. Includiiig the allowance of
71,85G piculs, which is added by way of supple-
ment to the statutory amount, in order to
provide for waste in transhipment at
Tientsin and T^ing Chow, the allowances to
the junkmen, etc., a total is shewn of
749,924 piculs. Although less by 14,400
picuj^than last seasonthe amount now to
be smpped exceeds by 19,600 piculs the
quantity sent forward in 1875. Arrange-
ments have been made for shipping the
grain at Shanghai by junk and steamer
some 40 or 50 per cent, of tlie total amount
being placed in the hands of the China
Merchants5 Steamship Company.

March 3rd.(Court Circular.) The Prince
of Li has been deputed to conduct the
ceremonies to be observed upon the com-
pletion of the term of three years from the
date of the death of the late Empress.

(1) A decree based upon a memorial from
the Censor Hu Yen-kw^i complaining of
the delays that habitually occur in judicial
investigations. The liabit of allowing
arrears to accumulate appears to be pre-
valent amongst the lower provincial autho-
rities, causing much distress and incon-
venience. Governors-General and Governors
are hereby called upon to issue peremptory
orders to their subordinates to conclude all
trials with which they may be entrusted,
by the time allotted. Monthly reports of
cases are to be forwarded by Intendants of
Circuit and Prefects, and Courts of Judica-
ture are to conclude all trials within a given
time.

(2) Ying Kwei, Grand Secretary, and
Supervisor General of the Mongolian
Superintendencyis granted two montlis
congd to recruit his health. He need not
vacate liis post.

(3) Ming-an, Vice-President of the Board
of Punishments at Slieng King (Moukden),
reports tlie capture at different periods, and
summary execution, of two hundred and
two mounted banditti. Their heads were
exposed on tlie public highways as a


26

35.

salutory warning, and the, body of one of
the number who died in prison was de-
capitated after death.

(4) Ming-siln, Superintendent of the
Imperial Manufactory at Nanking, reports
having taken over the cash balance, books
of patterns, etc., from his predecessor. He
has found them all in order.

March 4th.(1) Li Hung-chtang reports
the recapture of two criminals who had
escaped from prison, and the trial and
punishment of a gang of burglars of which
they formed a part. The acts of burglary
with which they were charged were com-
mitted in the year 1874, but as no plunder
had been recovered, and the statements of
the accused were very contradictory, they
were remanded until further evidence
could be obtained. On the night of the
7th of January, 1877, while the watchmen
on duty were temporarily absentthe two
prisoners Avrenched off their manacles, and
made a hole in the cage in which they were
confined large enough to get out of. They
then twisted off the lock of the prison
door, and, climbing over the outer wall,
made their escape irr different directions.
One of them was recaptured in a few days,
but the other remained at large for three
months before he could be taken. Suffi-
cient evidence being eventually forthcoming,
sentence has been awarded to each offender
in proportion to his guilt, and the careless-
ness of the officers in charge of the crimi-
nals who escaped has been duly punished.

(2) Pao Ying, Military Assistant-Gov-
ernor commanding at K5obdo, applies for
sanction to the expenditure of Tls. 840 for
repairs of standards and tents belonging to
the force of Mongolian cavalry stationed at
Kobdo. The force numbers eight hundred
and twenty, rank and file, and according to
the regulations a certain sum should be
allotted to them anmially, out of the funds
for military purposes, for repairs to tents
and flags. A portion of the force has
recently joined, and these, as is the rule,
must be provided with tents by the Banner
from which they are drafted. The cost of
repairs to tents of original members of the
force is estimated at Tls. 600, and that of
fifty large standards, with eighty-seven
smaller ones, is computed at Tls. 200
odd.

March 5th. (1) A decree in answer to a
memorial from Chang P^i-lun, sub-expositor
of the Han-lin Collegewlio makes certain
propositions in accordance with the j>reced-
ents established in times of calamity by-
former memorialists. The four propositions
submiuted by tlie expositor with regard to
-prayers to be offered up, deliberations to be

held, compassionate measures to be taken,
and the mitigation of punishments, are not
devoid of perspicacity, while his suggestions
as to the retrenchment of the luxuries of
the table, with a view to ensuring the
efficacy of prayers for rain in the northern
provinces, entirely coincide with Our views.
Their Majesties the Empresses have never
failed in times of drought to offer up earn-
est prayers for rain within the Palace, but
it is not for a Minister, however reverently,
to undertake in Our stead to proceed on
foot to the place of prayer. All that
remains for Us to do is by self-examination
and the cultivation of virtue, silently to im-
plore Heaven in its mercy to bestow abund-
ant and fertilising rain, that Our afflicted
people in the three provinces may be pre-
served from the jaws of death. In bringing
forward certain charges, the expositor dis-
plays his ignorance. It is true that the offer-
ings of the Mongolian Princes and X)akes
were accepted; this is in accordance with
law. But all banquets were suspended, and
no exhibitions whatever of fireworks were
held. The proposals of the expositor with
regard to the attendance of all Ministers
of the Court at deliberations of the Council
are made, ro doubt, on the assumption that
in a multitude of opinions there is ad-
vantage, but it is to be feared that the good
would be merely nominal. It is much
better that those who have the right to
speak should submit their views to Us.
We have not, as intimated by the expositor,
been entirely influenced in Our actions and
decisions by the Board, or been entirely
powerless in their hands. The mitigation
of punishments is an important factor in
the administration during times of famine,
and the Governors of the suffering prov-
inces are hereby called upon to give
careful attention to judicial matters with a
view to securing prosperity and peace. Let
Ting Pao-clien once more investigate the
case in SzechVan, for which the expositor
requests a re-hearing. In these times of
terrible famine and dearth, the Sovereign
and his Ministers must be actuated by one
and the same desire, and, early and late
be unwearying in their efforts for the rescue
of the sufferers. As regards the Prince of
Kung, lie, being so closely allied to the
Imperial House, is more particularly identi-
fied with the interests of the Empire, and
is under the stronger obligation to exert
himself loyally for the good of his country,
making it his special charge to maintain
peace and avert danger.

(2) A decree. Let Kiin-ki resume
charge of the Superintendency of Customs
at Canton.


Mar. 57.]

27

(3) Ho-king, Governor-General of Min
Cheh, and Pao-heng, Governor of Fuli-
kien, request sanction for the reduction of
the taxes on salt in certain districts in the
Fuli-kien province which have suffered from
floods. Two successive years of floods and
wet weather have caused much damage to
the salt establishments, and done great
injury to the trade. No sooner had the
damages occasioned by one flood been
repaired, and losses by deterioration made
good, than a second and more disastrous
flood occurred. The result is that the salt
traders have sustained great losses, and it
will be impossible to collect the usual
duties. The memorialists therefore propose
to remit one-half of the taxes in those dis-
tricts that have suffered from the floods,
and to distribute the payment of the
moiety over a period of five years. Those
localities that have escaped the visitation
of the floods will be called upon to pay
duties as usual. Referred tr the Board of
Hevenue.

(4) Li Ho-nien, Director-General of the
Yellow River, and acting-Governor of Ho-
nan, reports the escape from the Clien-chov^
prison of a criminal charged with offences
punishable by strangulation. The escape
was effected during the absence of the
Department Magistrate at a military inspec-
tion. The jail warden has been cashiered
and committed for trial, and orders have
been given for the re-capture of the
prisoner' within a limited period.

March 6th. (1) A decree. Some time
since the supervising Censor Hia Hien-
slieng called attention to the necessity of
taking steps for keeping in order the water
supplies of the Empire, with a view to
securing means of subsistence to the people.
Provincial authorities were then called
upon to give their attention to measures to
this end. Tlie Censor P^ng Slie-cli^ng
now points out that the commencement of
operations for the maintenance of water
supplies in the northern provinces is of
paramount importance. The provinces in
the North have suffered from a succession
of drouglrfcs and faminesto such an extent
that supplies of food have entirely failed.
Every effort should therefore be made to ob-
tain proper water supplies, and Governors-
General, Governors, and others, are hereby-
called uiDn, in reverent obedience to Our
earlier decree, with all despatch to depute
high officers to co-operate with the local
authorities and gentry, and, giving due
consideration to the requirements of parti-
cular localities, to take efficient steps to
accomplish the object in view. Those who
are successful must be recommended for

distinction, while dilatoriness willcor-
responclingly; meet with punisliment.

(2) A decree granting permission to

Hiao-slmn ? Commandant of forces

at Kurkara-usu, to vacate his post on
account of ill-health.

(3) Postscript memorial by Ho-king,
Governor-General of Min-clieli, giving
further details as to changes in the mili-
tary administration in Formosa, that had'
earlier been suggested by Shen Pao-cheng.
The changes consist, for the most part, of a
re-distribution of the higher military posts,
and the transfer of the control of the forces
from the Brigadier-General to tlie Governor.

(4) Kin Sliun-cli^ng, acting-Commander-
in-chief at Urumtsi, reports that, in conse-
quence of the death of the Lient.-Governor,
he has taken temporary charge of the seals
of office. Ying-kan, Lieut.-Governor of
Urumtsi, was suffering from abscess in the
early i^art of the winter, followed by an
attack of dysentery which defied all
remedies. On the lOfch of January, he rever-
ently prepared liis testamentary memorial,
giving orders that it should be sent to
memorialist for tran3miss^>n to Peking,
and died on tlie evening of tlie same day.
His seals of office were immediately for-
warded to memorialist, who retains them
until the Governor-General Tso Tsung-
fang, to whom he lias written, shall send
an officer to take charge of them. (For
Decree see Gazette of 13th Feb.)

(5) Postscript memorial by Li Ho-nien,
Governor of Honan, requesting exemption
from the obligation to purchase grain for
provision against dearth, and for govern-
ment purposes. Any deficiencies in the
quantity of grain to be kept in store for
the above objects, should be made good
each autumn, but in the face of such
widespread dearth and scarcity, when
all the grain obtainable is required
for the relief of the people, it would
obviously be an injury to them to apply
it to other purposes. Rescript: Noted.

(6) The same officer reports the arrival
of an official from Kwei-chow, to open a
branch, office for raising contributions.
This arrangement lias been made in accord-
ance with a proposal, which received the
Imperial sanction, to divert the proceeds of
the Kwei-chow collectorate for six months
to the relief of the sufferers by the
famine.

March 7th. (1) A decree ordering that
Chang Kw^i-slieng, an expectant second-
class Secretary f one of the Boards at
Moukden, be cashiered and placed on his
trial for purchasing land under an assumed


28

[Mar. 78.

name, and refusing to pay the tax thereon.
"When smnmonecl to explain liis neglect to
do solie had the audacity to tie up the
runners and beat them.

(2) A decree once more deploring the
continued absence of rain in Peking and
the provinces adjoining. His Majesty lias
twice offered prayers in person at the Ta
Kao Tien, and tlie Imperial Princes have
burnt incense at the She Ying Kung and
other state Temples, without success. Let
the Prince of Chwang proceed on the 11th
inst. to tlie Black Dragon Temple, there
to offer incense and reside. Let the Tung
Khor (Hutulditu also repair to the
same Temple, to cliant services and offer
up earnest prayers.

(3) Shen Pao-cheng reports deficiencies
in the Treasury balances of seven officials,
Magistrates and otherssome of whom are
dead, and some still retaining official rank.
He proposes to recover the amount of the
deficiencies of the deceased officers from
their surviving relatives, and requests that
the others may be cashiered with a view
to being proceeded against. Granted by
rescript.

(4) dicing H^ow reports tlie result of an
investigation into a case of forgery, in
which two Government clerks conspired
together some years ago to forge the
Military Governors seal and the stamp of
the Secretary of the Board of He venue.
They purloined a number of blank registra-
tion forms, and affixed them, when stamped
with the spurious seals, to title deeds, thus
obtaining fees which should have gone to
the Government. One of tlie clerks having
been killed in action, the seals fell into the
hands of a widow residing in the same house
with whom he had formed an illicit con-
nection. His confederate then borrowed
them occasionally from her, till, in course
of time, she also died. Her boxes were made
over to her daughter, a married woman,
and in them were found the sptlrious
seals. The danghter, whose husband was
absent with his regiment, not being able
to read, could not of course tell that
the seals were forgeries. The confederate
having traced them into her possession,
persuaded her to lend them to him, and
certain deeds to which he affixed them
having been detected to be forgeriesen-
quiry was institufcecl which led to the
above discoveries. Sentence commensurate
with the gravity of tliLe offence will be
passed upon tlie surviving clerk, ancl the
spurious seals immediately destroyed. A
proclamation will also be issued calling
in all deeds to which he affixed the
stamp.

(5) Che-kang, Imperial Agent at K^irun

(Urgci,) prays for an additional conge of
two months to recruit liis health. The
two months conge already granted him has
just expired, and he still suffers from pains
in tlie head and dizziness. There are
Mongolian doctors at Kumn, it is true, but
he is afraid to place himself in their hands.
Rescript : Let Che-kang be granted

a further conge of two months.

(6) PJuli Feng, Kvvei-ying, and Shao-k^,
request that money may be advanced for
the construction of outer buildings and
repairs to the Mu Tung-Ling (Mausoleum
of Empress of Tao-kwang,) and some
auspicious day in the first moon be selected
by the Imperial Board of Astronomy for
tlie commencement of operations. (See
Gazette of Feb. 17th.)

March 8th. (1) A Decree. Let Wang
Wen-shao ^ act as Senior "Vice-
President of the Board of War. Tmig
Hwa need not act in that capacity.

(2) A decree. Let Wang Wen-sliao be
admitted to the Grand Council as a ^pro-
bationer. 5, (See Gazette of 23rd Nov. 187T,
and 27th Feb., 1878.)

(3) A Decree ordering the immediate
dismissal of Tso'v Tsmig-hao ),
officer in charge of the establishment for
the collection of leJcin on salt at Ch^ing-
king, who had the audacity to detain cer-
tain junlcsand extort Tls. *700 from the
salt merchants. He must be sent to the
capital of the province, and be placed on
liis trial.

(4) Feng-slien, Military Governor of
Tsitsihar, requests permission to delay the
disbandment of the force organised for the
suppression of brigandage. At the end
of last year he reported that the force
under the command of the Military De-
puty Lieutenant-Governor at Merguen

had succeeded in suppressing
brigandage in the province and the country
adjoining, and suggested therefore that
this force should be disbanded, and its
members sent back to their respective
companies. After the memorial had been
despatched pews was received of an exten-
sive rising of brigands to the south of the
Amur river, in the provinpe of Kirin.
The Deputy Lieutenant-Governor of Heh-
Lung-Kiang was at once instructed to dis-
pose his forces in such a manner as to
secure the safety of the province, and check
the advance of the brigands northwards.
Troops were accordingly stationed at
Pa-yen-su-su, and other important points.


IVJar. 89.]

29

New8 being subsequently received of the
dispersion of these brigands by the Kirin
forces, the outlying troops were called in.
The Deputy Lieutenant-Governor was,
however, afraid to leave the more im-
portant out-posts unprotected, and retained
detachments at Pa-yen-su-su and other
places, in readiness for immediate action,
and available, in case of urgency, for service
across the border. The memorialist now
considers it inadvisable to disband the
force above referred to until matters look
more settled in the districts on the other
side of the river. Rescript : Noted.

(5) Postscript memorial by the same officer
representing the inadequacy of the daily-
allowance granted to members of the cavalry-
forces above ref erred to. Both men and horses
have been very hard worked, and at least
half of the latter are quite jaded. If proper
work is to be got out of them they must
be better fed. With the present high
prices of grain and fodder, the amount
allowed for rations and fodder is insuflicient
to keej) either men or horses in good condi-
tion. Repeated representations have been
made to the Board on the subject, but
they have vouchsafed no reply. Memo-
rialist therefore addresses himself to His
Majesty, and prays that sanction may be
granted to the issue of daily allowances on
anjncreased scale, varying from one hundred
and fifty to fifty cash. The old scale of
allowances will be resumed as soon as prices
are reduced. Granted by rescript.

March 9th. (1) A Decree. Yen King-
ming (specialHigh Commissioner for famine
relief) and Tseng Kwoh-tsHian (Governor
oftlie province of Shansi) have memorialized
Us recommending that the prohibition en-
acted in time past against tlie cultivation
of the poppy be enunciated afresh. The
growth of the poppy plant on the part
of tlie population of the Empire,
militating notably, as it does, against the
agricultural food supply, has time after
time been stringently forbidden ; but not-
witlistanding this, the longstanding prac-
tice has continued to prevail, and the
appetite for gain lias caused injurious
consequences to be left disregarded. Thus,
in the province of Shansi, where a full
moiety of the soil is stony and unproductive,
whilst the yield of grain under any cir-
cumstances is inconsiderable, the efforts
which should be diligently bestowed upon
the tillage of every rood of ground are
neglected, and the poppy plaiit is
instead, unlawfully grown. The popula-
tion, having but scanty stores of grain laid
by, fall victims to the scourge of famine at
tlie first occurrence of a time of deficient ,

harvest. In the grievous chastisement
under which, unhappily, the province is
now labouring, as the result of a season of
drought, it should recognize the signal
given [by Nature] for a change [in the order
of events. ] For the futurelet it be re-'
garded as a bounden duty to devote every
effort to the pursuits of agricultureto tlie
end that the yield of grain be full to over-
flowing, and a store be provided against
the evil time of scarcity. Yen King-ming
and Tseng Kwoh-ts^an have issued pro-
clamations embodying their commands
on the subject for general information, *
and We ordain that all which they
propose be carried into effectin the
matter of enjoining upon the local head-
men of families and villages to require
that the poppy-plants be rooted up and
the land converted to the cultivation of
cereal cropsthat any proprietors of land
who fail to obey these commands be re-
ported to the local authorities to be brought
to justicethat all persons who connive at
acts of disobedience shall be held liable
to punishmentand that any Magistrates
or official underlings who, in surreptitious
violation of the laws, are found levying
taxes upon the cultivation of the poppy,
shall be subject to instant impeachment
and deprivation of office. We farther
command that in all the provinces there be
instituted a stringent perquisition and pro-
hibition in conformity with these present
rules, so that beneficial results may be
encouraged and a source of injury be
removed, and that the people may enjoy in
unison the blessings of abundant harvests,
without relapsing into the courses in wliicli
evil has heretofore overwhelmed them.
Let this be promulgated for public informa-
tion.

(2) A Decree. The Board of Civil Office
report tlmt they liave considered the penalty
that should be inflicted on Ting Pao-clieng,
Governor-General of Sze-cliwan who
most carelessly requested sanction lo tlie
employment of a cashiered Intendant of
circuit on special service ; quite neglecting
to acid that he was under sentence of per-
petual exclusion from employment. The
Board request that, in accordance with the
law against grave a6ts of personal impro-
priety, Ting Pao-cheng may be degraded
three stej)s and transferred elsewhere.As
a special act of grace We commute the
penalty to deprivation of rank with leave
to remain at his post. (See Gazette of 23rd
Feb.)

(3) A decree ordering that the name of
Full Slieng, Deputy Lieutenant-General at
Nanking, be handed over to tlie Buarcl for


30

[Mar. 910.

the infliction of a penalty. The views of
Full Sheng on the subject of expenditure
for defence purposes were not in accordance
with those of Mu l^eng-ah, General-in-
chief, and others of his colleagues. He
refused to subscribe to tlieir memorial, and
failed to adopt the alternative measure of
sending in a separate representation on his
own account. In this lie was guilty of
serious neglect of duty.

(4) Postscript memorial by Ming Cliun
Imperial Agent at Hami, reporting his
return from his visit to Suli-chow, and the
steps he has taken, after consultation with
the Governor-General Tso, to secure proper
communication along the route in rear of
the advancing army. Now that the western
army has gone forward, Hami is one of the
most important points in their rear, form-
ing, as it does, the throat-gate of the road
to Turkestan, and arrangements have been
made to secure the safety and protection of
this and other important places along the
route by which supplies must travel. The
scarcity of provisions and high prices that
have prevailed for a succession of years,
with the deficiencies in the money contri-
butions from various provinces, were also
brought to the notice of the Governor-
General, who undertook to write to the high
authorities of the provinces from which con-
tributions were due, and urge them to send
forward supplies without delay. The
Governor-General and memorialist are per-
fectly agreed as to the arrangements to be
made, and memorialist will use his utmost
endeavours to carry them out efficiently,
and to give the attention which such im-
portant interests demand.

(5) Postscript memorial by the same
officer reporting that the period of mourn-
ing for his step-mother has expired. In
view of the importance of the operations
in which he was engaged at the time of her
death, lie was not allowed to vacate his post.

(6) Postscript memorial by the same
officer. The princess Pesir, Mairibanu by
name, mother of Mahommecl, prince of the
Mussulman tribe of Hami, was carried
away southwards some years since, by
the Shensi rebels, and a decree was
issued ordering steps to be taken for the
rescue of the princess and her restora-
tion to Hami. During the years that have
elapsed since her abduction, repeated en-
quiries have been made. She was heard of
at Kuche and other places, and was said to
be safe and unhurt. At length, in the
11th moon of last year, a communication
was received from Tso Tsmig-fang stating
that he had news from Liu Kin-t^ng to the
effect that, on the recapture of Aksu on

the 24tli October last, the enemy were pur-
sued as far as Humanako
and several hundred Mussulm.an prisoners
of both sexes that had been taken away by
force from Hami were rescued ; amongst
their number was the princess Pesir, mother
of the prince of Hami. The princess and
the di.stressecl Mussulinen had been liancled
over to Chang-yeo, with instructions to
send them back to Hami under escort.
The memorialist at once communicated
with Tekeldna, Assistant Agent at Hami
and a company was detached to meet them.
A letter was at the same time written to
the prince, instructing him to depute a
competent chief to go forward and receive
his mother.

March 10th.(A decree ordering
renewed supplications for rain in con-
sequence of the long protracted drought.
The period at which nature awakes from
the torpor of winter has now gone by, and
the northern provinces have not yet been
visited with fertilising rain, insomuch that
the land is sorely thirsting for moisture.
His Majesty will proceed in jperson, on the
15tli inst., to the Tai Kao Tien to prostrate
himself in earnest prayer, and will after-
wards visit the She Ying Kung to burn
incense. A number of the Imperial Princes
are appointed to perform similar ceremonies
on the same occasion at the various State

Temples.

(2) A decree in answer to a memorial
from Cliung Ho'v, conferring upon Tuh
Hing-ah, late Commander-in-chief at
Moukden, a posthumous title, in addition
to honors already bestowed, as a special act
of grace.

(3) A decree conferring the following
appointments :Jen Tao-jung f

to be Financial Commissioner of Che-
kiang ;Kwoli Ying to be Judicial
Commissioner of Kiangsi; Cheng Fuh
to be Judicial Commissioner of

Kwangtung.

(4) A memorial from Pao Heng, acting
Governor of Fukien, reporting tlie result
of an investigation into a case of extortion
on the part of an official underling, which
resulted in the suicide of the victim. The
following are the parties in the case :Liu
Ch^n-yi, the suicide ; Teng Hung-kwang,
tijpeto ; Wuh Tsung-yeo, and Chang Yeo-
tsHian, all natives of adjoining villages in
the Kien-an district. Chang Yeo-ts^ng, a
brother of Chang Yeo-ts^an, in the month
of November, 1875, was going on business
from the place in which he lived, to a dis-
tant district town, the road to which led


Mar. 1011.]

31

through the Kien-an district. He had
with liim sixty dollars in cash, and an
account book. On the second day of his
journey he slipped while walking, fell
heavily to the ground, and so injured
himself that lie lay insensible. Liu Cli^n-
yi happened to be passing by, recognised
Chang Yeo-tsing as the brother of his
friend Chang Yeo-ts^ian, hired a chair,
and took him to the brother^ house, first
relieving him of the dollars and account
book. On arrival at the brother^ liouse, he
gave Chang Yeo-ts5mg into the sister-in-
law^ care, to whom he also handed the
account book and thirty of the dollars;
the other thirty lie took away with him.
When Chang Yeo-ts5ing came to his senses
aiul was told by the sister-in-law of the
money that had been left, he declared that
he had been robbed by Liu Cli^n-yi, but,
in consideration of the service he had
rendered liim, decided to say no more
about the matter. His brother Cliang Yeo-
tsiian was present when this remark was
made, and, a few days after, having met
Teng Hung-kwang ancl Wu Tsung-yeo,
told them what had happened to his
brother. They tried to persuade liim to
recover the money on his own account, but
this he declined to do. It was, however,
eventually agreed that they should get the
money and pay him twenty dollars, keep-
ing the rest as a reward for their trouble.
In accordance with this arrangement the
two went a fe'v days later to Liu Chen-yis
house, and invited him in the name of
Chang Yeo-tsirig to a feast which they
pretended he was about to give to his
relations and friends to celebrate his reco-
very. Liu Chen-yi accepted the invitation,
and the three started off to the feast.
The road lay past the house of Teng
Hung-kwang the tipcio, who invited them
in to rest. When they were seated, Liu
Ch^n-yi was asked where the money was
he had stolen from Chang Yeo-ts^ng. He
denied having stolen any, whereupon tliey
fastened him up with an iron chain, and
kept him there for several days, till at
last, under pressure of a threat of prosecu-
tion, he agreed to pay twenty dollars.
They then demanded sixteen more, and,
although they loosened his bonds, refused
to let him go till these were paid. Where-
upon Liu Ch'en-yi, oppressed beyond en-
durance, and knowing not which way to
turn, swallowed some opium that had been
left on tlie table, and died the next day in
spite of the efforts of his iDersecutors to resus-
citate him. They then got a man to carry
the body to tlie house of Chang Yeo-tsing
and leave it there. Chang Yeo-tsing.

was about to report the uii accountable
arrival of the dead body to the authorities,
when Ting Hung-kwang, the tipao, came
and ofFered to square the matter for him
for forty dollars. The money was paid,
and the tipao took his departure. The case
in clue course of time was brought to the
notice of the authorities, and the Governor
Ting being dissatisfied with the report
that was sent up to him, denounced the
magistrate, and sent a special officer to en-
quire into the matter, when the above facts
Avere elicited. Teng Hung-kwang and his
confederate were arrested, and confined in
the prison at Foochow, from whence the
former managed to escape, but was im-
mediately recaptured. The punishment to
which Teng Hung-kwang rendered himself
liable in the first instance was strangulation
after the usual term of incarceration, but
as he dared to try to escape, the penalty
sliould; in accordance with tlie law, be
changed to summary execution. WuTsung-
yeo, his confederate, has been sentenced to
banishment to a distance of four thousand li,

(5) Wan Shun, superintendent of the
Imperial Silk Manufactory at Soochow,
sends in a return pf receipts and disburse-
ments for the year ending April 1877.
Taels 32,500 were received from the pro-
vincial treasury, which, added to a balance
in hand of Taels 15,895, gives a total income
Taels 48,395. The expenditure for the
year was Taels 37,218, leaving balance in
hand of Taels 11,177, which will be devoted
to the manufacture of Court robes of woven
embroidery, and other articles already
ordered for Imperial use.

March 11th. (1) A decree appointing Ho
Chao-ying to the pQSt of Salt

Comptroller of Kwangtung, and Fang
Ting-jui to that of Intendant of
the Hang-Hia-Hu circuit in Chekiang.

(2) A decree once more referring to the
prolonged absence of rain, and directing
Wen-koh to proceed at once to the TJai-
Shan (a sacred mountain in Shan-
tung) to offer up prayers for rain.

(3) A decree in answer to a represent-
ation from the Board of Revenue com-
plaining of the insufficiency of tlie contri-
butions in grain forwarded for the support
of tlie troops stationed at the Imperial
Mausolea. Owing to the pressing demand
for supplies in Shansi and Honan, the con-
tributions from Shantung have fallen greatly
into arrear, but there has been such a drain
upon the resources of this province that it
is unable to meet its engagements. The
Board of Revenue at Moukden, which ia


32

[Mar. 1112.

also greatly behindhand with its contribu-
tions, is ordered to send forward supplies
at once, and the Governor of Shantung is
directed to take steps for contributing his
share as soon as possible.

(4) ChJung-how, Governor-General of
Fengtien, reports the result of sub-
scriptions set on foot for the relief of
the sufferers by famine in Shansi. Over
twenty thousand piculs of millet have been
collected amongst the resident officials,
merchants, and traders from the West,
which will be sent to Tientsin as soon as
the frost breaks up. Subscribers have been
rewarded with buttons or medals in accord-
ance with the amount of tlieir contribu-
tions, and the names of those who have
subscribed largely with a hope of obtaining
official rank will be submitted to the proper
Board for consideration.

(5) Postscript memorial by tlie same
officer asking for permission to retain under
his orders seven officials from the province
of Chihli, for whose services he had ap-
plied. The Board decided that they should
be sent back, as the application for them was
contrary to regulation. The memorialist
points out that the transfer was made and
reported before the regulation referred to
was drawn up or approved. In considera-
tion of this circumstance, and the fact that
their services are urgently required, he
hopes that the transfer may be sanctioned.
--Granted by rescript.

(6) Yen-hii, military Governor of Jeli-
ho, requests permission to leave a company
of cavalry, numbering fifty men, at Kien-
chang-hien, as a protection against ban-
ditti. A force of a hundred and fifty men
had been sent up into this region for the
dispersion of the mounted banditti, of
whom they succeeded in capturing sixty.
The rest have disappeared, but the memo-
rialist does not consider it prudent to with-
draw the whole of this force as the move-
ments of these brigands are rapid in the
extreme. They assemble and disperse at
very short notice, and on the arrival of the
military are nowhere to be seen, while their
departure is the signal for a fresh uprising,
and wholesale robbery of the peaceable
inhabitants.Rescript:noted.

March 12th. (Court Circular.) Ch^n
Lan-pin (Minister to the United

States, &c.), had audience of leave before
going abroad.

(1) A decree based upon a memorial from
the Censor Liu En-po, who represents that
the Department Magistrates anA Magistrates
along the line of route between Sliensi and
Kansuh, wliose duty it is to supply funds

for the entertainment and expenses of high
officers and others travelling by this route
on public service, provide for expenditure
under this head by increased taxation of
the people in their respective jurisdictions.
If this really be the case, the proceeding is
most improper, and must at once be put
a stop to. The Governors-General and
Governors concerned are peremptorily to
prohibit Department Magistrates and
Magistrates from laying the burden of ex-
penditure for entertainment and travelling
.arrangements upon the people, and high
officers making use of the postal stage are
called upon to keep their retinue and attend-
ants in check, and not permit them to be
exacting in their demands for entertainment
which has to be provided at the public cost.

(3) A decree appointihg Wen Chung-lian
to the post of Intendant of the
Wen (Wenchow) Ch7u circuit.

(4) Li Hung-mo, a Censor of the Super-
visorate, etc., etc., kneeling presents a
memorial upon the condition of -jeopardy
in which the interests of the State are now
involved, and upon the exhaustion of the
financial resources of the Empire, in view
of which he solicits the issue of a decree
enjoining in stringent terms the reduction
of expenditure on the part of the various
Provincial Governments, both as regards
the outlay within their own several juris-
dictions and also the subsidies allotted from
tlieir exchequers in aid of other [provinces
and commands], to the end that a waste of
public money may be checked and a safe-
guard provided for the welfare of the
State.

He would humbly premise by observing
that, at the present moment, among all the
disasters [that have befallen, or that
threaten] the Middle Kingdom, there is
none greater than impoverishment; whilst
of impoverishment the cause is not the
insufficient extent of the wealth-producing
field, but the excessive multiplication of
outlets for expenditure. Since hostilities
first became precipitated in consequence of
the Rebellion, the Custom House duties
and merchandize-tax (lekin) have been con-
tinually on the increase, bringing in
annually an addition to the revenue of
many millions; but although the entire
Empire lias long since been restored to a
state of peace, and although the mer-
cliandize-taxes and Custom3, duties have
not been entirely done away with, financial
straits are more pressing than they have
ever been in past years, for the reason that
the provincial governments have failed, on
their part, to stop by stringent measures


Mae. 12.]

33

the wasteful overflow of income in their
various forms of expenditure.

The established revenue of the State is
in its essence so adjusted as to provide for
the regular needs of provincial administra-
tion ;but, of late years, owing to the
severity with which the three provinces of
Shansi, Honan, and Shensi have been
stricken with drought, the necessities
entailed by way of expenditure for famine
relief have brought about the highest
imaginable degree of financial exigency.
Your servant has been informed that the
late Governor of Honan, Li King-ngao,
proposed to raise money by means of
a European loan, and that the Special
High Commissioner Yiian Pao-lieng (de-
tailed from his post as Vice-President
of the Board of Punishments), pro-
posed that money should be borrowed
from the mercantile associations trading
under Government authority, both agreeing,
however, in suggesting the land revenue as
the security to be offered. Both, indeed,
were themselves eyewitnesses of the calam-
itous visitation which has reduced the
land to a desolate condition, and this last
desperate expedient was proposed in despair
of finding any other resource. Yet, how
little -were the need for anxiety as to the
possibility of achieving the object in view,
if the treasuries of the capital and the
several provincial Governments had but a
reserve of three or four years5 expenditure
in hand Your Majesties, the Empresses
Hegent and the Emperor, practice in your
Imperial persons the virtue of frugality,
and are oppressed, by day and night,
with feelings of anxious solicitude; but
the high provincial authoritiesit may-
be from failure to appreciate rightly the
Sovereign's desire for retrenchment of out-
lay, shew tliemselves intent upon objects
which are not of the first importance, with
the result that millions and tens of millions
of the resources of tlie State are wasted
yearly. At the first pressure of distress
owing to flood or drought, men are conse-
quently driven to gaze about them impo-
tently in despair, and to fold their hands,
knowing not what to do.

It remains to be observed that the most
important of the departments of outlay to
which the provincial administrations are
liable are three in number, to wit: the
army, the provision against breach of the
Yellow River embankments, and the relief
of distress in times of famine. Apart from
these, there are few items of expenditure
which cannot be postponed. As regards
the current expenditure of the provincial
administrations^ it is scarcely necessary to

remark that the heaviest outlay is that wliich
is occasioned by the campaign beyond the
Wall. The exigency of military affairs is
too pressing to admit of the subject being
rashly discussed ; but, apart from this, the
number of forms of outlay which might be
deferred for the present is by no means
inconsiderable. Your servant cannot pre-
tend to a thorough acquaintance with all
the details of expenditure, multifarious as-
these are, throughout the Empire; but
what he feels to be the most pressing subject
of anxiety at this moment is the fact that not-
withstanding the greatness of the Empire,
there should not be a reserve in hand for
so much as half a years expenditure,
whilst, in a time of famine, commotions
and revolt are so liable to occur ; and,
were a state of warfare once more to arise,
it is impossible to say where means could
be found to provide for the necessities that
would ensue.

After anxious reflection, Your servant
would entreat that a decree be issued
enjoining upon the high authorities of all
the provinces the duty of bestirring them-
selves actively on behalf of the imperilled
public interest, and uniting their efforts
toward relief of the difficulties which now
beset the State. In all questions of ex-
penditure within their own jurisdictions,
or of subsidies allotted on their behalf from
other provinces, they should point out, in
reports to the Throne, whatever forms of
outlay are not of pressing importance, and
are open to considerations of postponement.

This humble expression of his views is
accordingly submitted.

Rescript, referring the above for the
consideration of the Board of Revenue,
already published.

(5) A joint memorial from Slien Pao-
cheng, Governor-General of the Liang
Kiang, and Wu Yuan-ping, Governor of
Kiangsu; recommending for honorary dis-
tinction a number of persons who have
been particularly energetic in affording
relief to the refugees from the North at
Soochow, Yangchow, and other places, or
have been active in promoting subscriptions,
or contributing personally, at Shanghai.

(6) The Governor-General, in a postscript
memorial, reports the measures taken for
the relief of the refugees above referred to.
Last year no less than twenty thousand of
these collected at Soocliow, and in spite of
local endeavours to provide for them, com-
bined witli monetary aid from Shanghai it
was extremely difficult to minister to the
wants of so large a number. The local
authorities came forward gallantly with


assistance, and the joint- efforts of tlie Fi-
nancial Commissioner of Hupeli and a Sec-
retary of the Grand Council who happened
to be on a visit to tlieir native place, are
particularly deserving of commendation.
These two officers were most energetic in
raising subscriptions, and opened a relief
agency at tlieir own expense, which main-
tained over five thousand nine hundred
refugees. From November, 1876, to the
end of May, 1877, when the refugees were
provided with funds and sent back, twenty-
eight thousand and ninety-five strings of
cash (about Taels 20,000) were exjDendecl
on the purchase of food, wadded clothes,
medicines, coffins, &c. A list is submitted
of persons who are entitled to honorary
distinction.

March 13th. (1) A decree based upon a
memorial from Yen King-ming, special
comniissioner for famine relief in Shansi,
and Tseng Kwo-tsiian, Governor of that
province/ requesting that troops may be
sent from Honan to escort the tribute rice
from Shantung diverted for the relief of
sufferers in Shansi, and requesting that
orders may be given for the speedy despatch
of this rice from Shantung. The sufferers
in Shansi are in urgent need of relief, and
the Governor of Shantung is instructed to
cause the balance of the Shantung tribute
rice set aside for this purpose, amounting
to seventy thousand piculs, at once to be
sent forward by water to the- town of

Tao-kow in Honan, and there

handed over to an officer from Sliansi who
will be sent to receive it, and forward it to
Sliansi by instalments. The Governor of
Honan is called upon to send a body of
active troops to escort it into Shansi, and
these are to be aided by detachments sup-
plied by the authorities along the line of
route. ,

(2) A decree ordering the Court of Cen-
sors and the Board of Punishments to
investigate a charge of theft brouglit
against a Secretary of the Board of
Punishments. T^ng Hwa-kwoh, Assistant
Second Secretary in the Board of Punish-
ments, charges Liu Cheng-pin, Senior
Secretary in the same Board, with having
purloined certain security bonds which, he,
Tung Hwa-k'voh, had prepared for the
purj)se of supplying guarantees for fellow-
provincials. One of these bonds, he states,
was sold by Liu Cheng-p5in to a money-shop
for four hundred taels, and was used by
an individual called C^en Jen-si, who,
falsely representing himself to be a Hwai-an
salt merchant, presented himself at the
Board of Revenue, armed with this guarantee

34 [Mar. 1214

of respectability, and volunteered to con-
tribute to the famine relief fund on con-
dition that a certain number of salt permits
were allotted to him. In answer to this
charge, an explanation is offered by two
Senior Secretaries of tlie Board of Revenue,
natives of the same province (Szechuen) as
the complainant. They state that it is the
practice of all Assistant Second Secretaries
to give these guarantees, which are deposited
in a head-office, ready for use. Cl^en Jen-
si having offered to contribute to the Sliansi
famine relief fund, went to the Board of
Revenue to get a bond, and they,
after some consideration, filled in for him
one of T^ng Hwa-kwohJs stamped securi-
ties, but they heard afterwards that tlie
Board had declined his terms. 01^en Jen-
si dicl subscribe four hundred taels for
repairs to a club founded by his native
town, but T^ng Hwa-kwoh had been mis-
informed as to money having been raised
on his security bond. These statements
are greatly at variance, and enquiry is
therefore directed to be made.

(3) A memorial from the supervising
Censor Wen-ming, commenting on the
report by the Governor of Shensi of defal-
cations on the part of a District Magistrate
named Fang Yen-hi. (See Gazettes of 26th
January and 22nd February.)

(4) Postscript memorial by Tso Tsnng-
fang. He reports that the Dcti i, or nobles
under the domination of the Prince of the
Kochin Mahommedans at Turfan, have
hitherto been selected by that Prince for
merit or ability, and recommended to the
Commandant of the forces at Turfan, who, in
turn, memorialises the Throne for sanction
to their succession to the order. On the
capture of Turfan last year, the Mahom-
medan Prince had long been dead, and
there was not a Daidji alive ; consequently
there was no one to administer Mahom-
medan affairs, which was most inconvenient.
The turban-wearing Mussulmans of Tur-
fan have now elected by common consent
a Bayen to perform the duties of Daidji,
and have requested that the necessary au-
thority be granted him. The memorialist
has accordingly given him credentials, au-
thorising him temporarily to perform the
duties of the office, that he may test his
ability before recommending him for per-
manent succession.

March 14th. (1) A decree in answer to
a representation from the supervising
Censor Ma Hiang-ju, calling attention to
the frequency of burglaries and robberies
in the capital of late. The office of gen-
darmerie and various metropolitan author-
ities are called upon to exert themselves


Mar. 1415.]

35

and arrest the perpetrators of these rob-
beries.

(2) A decree based on a memorial from
the same Censor, calling on the high
authorities of the provinces afflicted
by famine to make careful enquiry into
the conduct and ability of Department
Magistrates and Magistrates in the famine
districts. Those w]io perform their duties
efficiently are to be specially recommended,
and all incompetent and careless officers
are to be unsparingly denounced.

(3) A decree appointing Sun Yih-king

to the post of sub-Chancellor
of the Grand Secretariat, with brevet rank
as Vice-President of tlie Board of Ceremo-
nies.

(3) Decree appointing Tsiian-lin |

chief Supervisor in the Imperial Super-
visorate of Instruction.

(4) Liu Kuen-yi, Governor-General of
the Liang-kwang, and Chang Cliao-tung,
Governor of Kwantung, represent a merit-
orious case of filial devotion on the part of
a young girl twenty-one years of age, the
daughter of an exj>ectant Magistrate in the
province of Kwangtung. She had been
with her father from childhood, was well
educated, and bore a deserved reputation
for virtue and intelligence. Her father fell
ill in the spring of last year, and she
devoted herself to nursing him. At the
end of six months his malady increased,
and the daughter then cut a piece of flesh
from her arm and mixed it with his
medicine. The remedy however proved in-
effectual, so she vowed to sacrifice her life
to his, and poisoned herself on the day that
her father died.' The memorialists apply
for sanction to the erection of a memorial
structure in honour of her devotion.
Granted by rescript.

(5) The Governor of Shantung requests
sanction to the exchange of posts by two
District Magistrates, one of whom has been
appointed to a district within the pre-
scribed limit of five liundred li from his
native place. Referred to the Board of
Civil Office.

(6) Postscript memorial by the same
officer, regretting that the obstinate ad-
herence to old custom on the part of -the
people of Shantung renders it impossible
to deliver the annual quota of tribute rice
within the appointed time. A portion of
the winter instalment for the year 1877,
amounting to 250,000 piculs, still remains
to be collected, but there is more than
sufficient in store to supply the provinces
of Honan and Shansi with the 1G, 000
X)iculs that have been ordered to be diverted

for the relief of the sufferers by famine.
Orders have been given for this amount to
be weighed out and placed in boats, which
will leave as soon as the frost breaks up.
(See Gazette of 13th March.)

March 15th. A memorial from Li Ho-
nien, acting Governor of Honan, and Yuan
Pao-lieng, special High Commissioner for
famine relief in the same provinceappealing
earnestly for assistance in the relief of the
sufferers by famine. The drought with
which the province has been visited for
several years in succession has resulted in
a famine, the like of which for intensity
and extent has never yet been known. As
autumn advanced into winter, the number
of those in need of relief was daily on the
increase, until they could at last be counted
by millions. The lower classes were first
afrectedand soon disappearedor dis-
persed in search of subsistence elsewhere.
Now, the famine has attacked the ealthy
and well-to-do, who find themselves reduced
to greater straits as each day goes by, and
tliey in their turn are dying off, or follow-
ing those who have already disappeared.
In the earlier j>eriod of distress the living
fed upon the bodies of the dead ; next, the
strong devoured "the weak ; and now, the
general destitution has arrived at such a
climax that men devour those of their own
flesh and blood. History contains no record
of so terrible and distressing a state of tilings,
and if prompt measures of relief be not
instituted, the whole region must become
depopulated. ( With so terrible a spectacle
before their eyes, tlie memorialists are
filled with burning impatience and intense
vexation of spirit. Local sources of supply
are entirely exhausted ; tlie granaries are
empty, the treasury drained dry ; taxation
has ceased, and not a cash of revenue is
coming in, while the few wealthy people the
province contains have helped with contri-
butions and loans till they are utterly im-
poverished.J 7 It only remains, therefore, to
turn to other sources for aid. The Governor,
in a recent memorial detailing the straits to
which he was reduced for want of funds, sug-
gested that a foreign loan of one million taels
should be raised. The immediate wants
of the province are, however, too niimer-
ous to admit of more than a portion
of this sum being devoted to the relief
of the more urgent cases of distress.
After careful consideration, therefore,
the memorialists submit the following
proposals First, that the entire supply
of grain due from Kiangsi and Ngan-
hwei to Peking for the coming year,
amounting to 90,000 piculs, be diverted to
Honan. Second, that Li Hiuig-cliang,


36

[Mar. 1516.

Governor-General of Chihli, who has
volunteered to supply 30,000 piculs of rice,
tlie balance of the, stock accumulated at
Tientsin for sale at reduced rates, be
authorised to remit this amount. Third,
that two-thircls of the stock in the charit-
able granaries in Kiangsu, which they
estimate at one million piculs, may be
supplied on loan. It shall be repaid in
instalments, commencing after the gather-
ing of the autumn harvest, and shall not
fail to be sent forward irrespective of the
crops being plentiful or the reverse.
Fourth, that the sum of $500,000 in foreign
currency, being the amount of contribu-
tions raised by Ting Jih-cliang, Governor
of Fuhkien, for the construction of the
railway in Formosa, may also be lent to
the province of Honan, this expedient has
been suggested by the Governor-General
Li Hung-cliang and others, who inform the
memorialists that the amount contributed
is insufficient to carry out the operations
contemplated; and that, as these have not
yet been commenced, there can be no ob-
jection to diverting the money temporarily
to a more urgent want. The memorialists
hope that the commencement of operations
will not be delayed by the diversion of this
fund, whicli will be a substantial aid towards
the relief so urgently called for at the
present moment. They feel assured that
the Governor-General Ho Tsing-kung, who
so loyally identifies himself with the in-
terests of his country, and the Governor
Ting Jih-chang, who is so determined in
his efforts for the relief of suffering, will
show due consideration for the homeless
and the wanderer, and consent to a tem-
porary loan of the fund applied for. (For
decree see Gazette of 24fcli February.)

March 10th.(1) A Decree. A memorial
has this day been received from Tso
Tsung-fang, Kin Shun, and Liu Tien,
forwarded by express at the rate of
600 li a day under the <£red flag,55 *
reporting the recovery of the four western
cities of the Nan lu (Kashgaria), and the
complete subjugation of the New Dominion.
After the recapture of the four eastern
cities of Kashgaria by the Imperial army-
last year, Liu Kin-fang organised plans for
the systematic recovery of the four western
towns of the same region. He directed
Yiih Hu-ngen, General-in-chief, to advance
by way of Akau and Barchuk Maralbaslii
with the main army, while Hwang Wan-
p^ng and others were directed to proceed
with the reserves by way of Ush. It was

[* Note. The Red flag is borne by couriora carrying
Momorials announcing groat victories.]

understood that they should first assail
Kashgar, and the date of attack was agreed
upon, Liu Kin-fang in the meanwhile
occupying Barchuk Maralb^shi in order to
retain possession of tlie principal lino of
communication. He set out from thence
on the 19th December, and advanced by
forced marches on Yarkand, which he took
possession of on the 21st. On the 24th,
he again pushed forward at double the
ordinary rate of speed, and occupied
Yingishar, after which he resumed his
march and arrived before Kashgar on tlie
26th. Yiih Hu-ngen and his colleague had
reached the city nine days before him,
and attacked it from different points.
The rebels under the soi-disant Gener-
alissimo Wang Yuan-lin were first
exterminated, and a force of from three to
four thousand cavalry and infantry who
came to their rescue were vigorously
engaged by Yiih Hu-ngen. In the mean-
time the city gates were opened by the
rebels, and tliey fled pell-mell, hotly pur-
sued by Yiih Hu-ngen and Hwang Wan-
peng, who followed them in different
directions. The enemy were completely
disorganised, and one of their leaders,

Kan Siao-hn was captured

alive, while others were beheaded on the
field of battle, and the whole force exter-
minated. The General-in-Cliief Siao Yuan-
lieng having joined forces with Hwang
Wan-p^ng, followed up the pursuit, and
succeeded in capturing alive the soi-disant
Generalissimo Ma Yuan, and beheading his
second in command, their force being
also exterminated. Kan Siao-hu and Kin
Siang-yin, a rebel leader, with his son,
were put to death by Liu Kin-fang and
their heads exposed, and over eleven
hundred of the rebels at Kashgar were
executed ; the remainder disapx>eared en-
tirely. The General-in-cliief TtmgFuh-
siang advanced rapidly upon Khoten, and
on the 2nd of January and the following
clays occupied himself in the destruction of
the rebels and the pacification of the people,
bringing this town also under complete
subjugation. Since the revolt of the Buruts
(Black Kirghis) in 18G4, under the Mahom-
medan rebel Kin Siang-yin and others,
Kashgar and seven other towns in the
Soutli fell into their handsand, subse-
quently, Turfan and Urumtsi. For more
than ten years has the Court been reverently
undergoing the chastisement of Heaven.
Tso Tsung-^ang was specially invested with
the title of Imperial Commissioner, and
called upon to take the management of
military operations in tlie Now Dominion ;


Mar. 1617.]

37

and this hi^li officer, intent at once upon
the work of extermination and pacification,
first devised and carried out measures for
tlie subjugation of fche Peh Ln (Smigaria.)
He commenced with the recapture of
Urumtsi, that lie might hold command of a
strong position ; then Manas was recovered,
and, advancing by several routes simulta-
neously, he took in siiccession Turfan and
other strongholds. The important places
in Eastern Kashgaria bein,^ wrested from
the insurgents, lie marshalled his army and
advanced Westwards. By a series of rapid
movements, accomplished as easily as the
splitting of a bamboo, lie secured possession
of the eight towns of Southern Kashgaria,
all of which are now in his hands. Prayer-
ful reliance on a iniglity Providence, and
trust in the fostering aid of an illustrious
ancestry, has enabled their Majesties the
Empresses, unceasing in their solicitude
and unwearying in their efforts, to discover
a skilful an capable agent actuated by the
same spirit in the treatment of the stranger
and those of his own race ; a leader who
has executed his commands with a brilliant
success that will afford solace tu the spirit of
tliedepartedEmperor that reigns in Heaven,
and has realised the hopes of oflicials and
people. Our consolation and joy are indeed
profound, and it becomes our duty to
endow the leader of our army, battered by
wind and rain, and exposed to every hard-
ship, with the highest mark of Imperial
grace, as a reward for liia exertions. We
command that Tso Tsuug-fang, Imperial
Commissioner, Grand Secretary, Governor-
General of Shensi and Kansuh, who has
shown a capacity for military administra-
tion in every particular, and lias been
mindful to report to Us with promptitude,
shall be advanced*from the dignity of a
Peh (third order (^yiereditary nobility) of
the first grade, to tliat of Iloiu (second
order of hereditary nobility) of the second
grade. We command that Liu kin-fang,
expectant sub-director of a minor metro-
politan department of the third grade, who
lias displayed bravery and prudence in a
great degree, and shown an aptitude in the
device of expedients to secure victory, car-
rying his success to the most distant re-
gions, be advanced from the distinction of
ICi Tn M (seventh order of hereditary nobil-
ity), to that of Nan (fiftli order) of the
second grade, and be placed first on the list
for promotion to the substantive post of
sub-director of a minor metropolitan de-
partment uf the third grade. Here follows
a list of distinctions to be conferred on
other officers, occupying thirty pages of the
Gazette.

(2) Memorial from the Board of Revenue
in answer to the memorial from tlie

Governor nf Honan and tlie Special High
Conimissinijer for famine relief, jaiblished
in tlie Gazdta of the 15th. They negative

the proposal for the diversion of tlie grain
due from Kiaiigsi and Nganliwei for
the coming year, as it would strip the
Peking granaries of their supplies, which
have already been largely drawn upon for
the relief uf Honan. The Board, ^liile
fully alive to tlie imiiiensit)^ of the distress
in Honan, are obliged, as custodians of the
public exchequer, to consider general
interests. They liave sanctioned loans to
this province tu the amount of upwards of
489,000 Taels in cuiTency and 100,000
piculs of tribute rice. The Poking
granaries do not now C(mtain more than a
fifth of their ordinary stock. From Honan
alone is owing not less than 3,000,000
piculs, irrespective of Joans from otlier
provinces that have to be repaid. They
recomniend the adaption uf the other pro-

posals put forward by tlie memorialists.
(See Gazettes of 24t,h Feb. and 15th March.)

March 17th.(1) 'A decree conferring
rewards on tlie # officers in charge of the
Privy Cabinet Office and tlie Council
Messengers Oflice, 'vho received and for-
warded the memorial from Tso Tsung-fang
announcing the subjugcation of Turkestan.

(2) A decree based upon a memorial from
the Censor Jmig Lu on prison reform. It'
is the duty of all criminal courts to expedite
cases that come before them, and not, as
frequently happens, allow them to drag on
for an interminable period, till the accused
dies from emaciation before he is con-
demned. Orders on this subject have
already been issued to tlie provinces. Tlie
Board of Punishments, Prefect of Shun-
tien, and otheimetropolitan authorities,
are now called upon to clear off outstanding
cases. All witnesses now in custody are to
be examined without delay and released on
bail.

(3) A decree again referring to the vic-
tories in the New Dominion. This region,
Avhicli lias been in a state of revolt for more

than ten years and Avas the cause of un-
ceasing anxiety to the late Emperor, having
been subjugated by Tso Tsuug-fang, the
spirit of liis late Majesty now in Heaven will
be mucli solaced at the intelligence. The
Prince of Li is directed to go to the Lung
Full Sze temple, and after having performed
the usual cerenioi;ies before the sacriticial
table in front of the late Emperor's tablet,
he is to offer a libation and inform the

spirit of liis departed Majesty of the success
that lias been cidiievecl. ThcHan-lin College


38

[Mar. 1718.

are to prepare tlie anliouiicement to be read
by the Prince of Li.

(4) A further decree on the same subject,
recognising tlie propriety of rewarding the
members of the Grand Council, who have
been unwearying in their efforts to promote
the success of the campaign. The Imperial
Clan Court is directed to determine a dis-
tinguished form of reward for the Prince
of Kung, and the Grand Secretary Pao-
yiin, the Assistant Grand Secretary Shen
Kwei-fen, and King-lien, President of
the Board of War, are commended to the
Board for the determination of special
forms of distinction; Wang Wen-shao
(lately admitted to the Council on prob-
ation) is to receive an ordinary mark of
distinction.

(5) TJu Tsung-ying, Governor of Kwang-
si, reports the capture of an ex-military
officer who has been guilty of acts of
brigandage in Annam, which were made
the subject of complaint by the King of
Annam. He is to be beheaded in a public
place, and his head sent to the Annamese
frontier for exposure.

(6) Teng Oh^ng-lin denounces a dzassalc,
or chieftain, of the Kliorcli^n tribe of the
Inner Mongols,whom he charges with
acts of oppression, wrongdoing, and un-
bridled license, and requests that his seal
f office may be taken away from him.

March 18th.(1) A Decree. Tso Tsungr
fang having reported to us the recapture of
the towns in Kashgaria, and'the subjuga-
tion of the New Dominion, We have already
bestowed special marks of Oar favour
upon this high officer and other leaders of
our armies. Since the revolt of the Ma-
hommedans in the New Dominion, now more
than ten years since, there have been various
officers who have displayed energy in the
extirpation of the rebels, sacrificing their
lives on the field of battle, or in the defence
of strongholds whichin obedience to orders,
they have maintained in the face of danger.
Now that order is firmly established in this
region, and meritorious services are being
proclaimed, it behoves Us to recall to
remembrance the merits of those of earlier
days, for whom Our pity and compassion
are profound. Let Tso Tsung-fang care-
fully ascertain the names of all officers that
have been killed in action beyond the
frontier during the years that this campaign
has lasted, and let him rej)rt these to Us,
and await the manifestation of Our favour.

(2) A decree on the same subject, recog-
nising the propriety of adding the name of
Kin-shun, Military Governor of Hi, to the
number of those that should be rewarded
for tlie successes lately achieved. This

officer greatly distinguished himsolf in the
combined attack on Urumfcsi and other
places, and has shown care and vigilance in
the maintenance of order in the region over
which he has been placed in command. He
is to be advanced three steps and placed
first on the list for promotion to any vacancy
to wliicli lie can be appointed.

(3) Li Ho-nien, Governor of Honan,
requests that rewards may be conferred on
a General and Brigade-General who re-
spectively contributed Taels 1,000 and

1,000 wadded coats for the sufferers by
famine.

(4) Liu Ping-chang, Governor of Kiangsi,
in a postscript memorial forwards a report
from the Taotai of Kiukiang to the effect
that, it being customary to draw up on
yellow paper a list of tlie ((polished n and
u round n porcelain prepared annually in
bulk for the Imperial use under the direc-
tion of the Kiukiang Custom House, lie
submits the list for transmission. In the
course of last year, eighty pieces of superior
u polished porcelain were prepared, and
twelve Imndred and four pieces round
porcelain. This does not include porcelain
lamps and other utensils for use in the Show-
Hwang-tien and other Halls, for which orders
have repeatedly been given. The articles
will be sent to Peking by steamer under the
charge of a special officer. Of the annual
grant of Taels 10,000, Taels 4,535 have
been spent, leaving a balance of Taels 5,465,
which should be returned to the Office of
Imperial Manufactories.

(6)-Tso Tsung-fang memorialises re-
questing that a peacock5s feather may be
bestowed on a daidjior noble, of the
second-class chieftains of the Khoshoit
tribe, galled Cha-pu-te-lo-
kJo, who has render^jj great assistance to
the Imperial troops. Ilis tribe, and that
of the Turguts, nomad Mongols of Kokonor,
had taken up their abode in the country
adjoining that peopled by the Mahom-
medans, and were located there at the
coriimencement of the revolt of these tribes.
They were much harassed by the u turban
wearing5 Mussulmans, and, subsequently,
by the Andijani, who profited by the con-
fusion they were in to make an onslaught
upon them, dispersing the Turguts and
destroying more than half of the other tribe.
The daidji referred to collected the scattered
remnants of these tribes, and removed with
them to a place called G^rh^u-shan, which
he defended with great tenacity. On the
capture of T^ksun last year, he came to
the camp and h.ad an interview with Liu
Kin-fang, who ordered liim to return and


Mar. 1820.]

keep a watch over the movements of the
rebels, supplying Liu Kin-fang from time
to time with information he might obtain.
On the advance of the troops in Sej^tember,
he and his tribe went forward too, and were
most useful as pioneers, giving valuable
information as to the depths of water to be
crossed, the safety of certain routes, etc.,
etc., and vvlien the army had crossed the
Kaidu river, he followed and pitched his
camp to the eastward of the stream, taking
up a position of observation and defence.
Granted by rescript.

March 19th.Tlie greater portion of
this day^ Gazette is occupied by a memo-
rial from tlie Censor Chang Kwan-chun,
advocating on behalf of thirteen salt mer-
chants from Hwai-ngan ^ in Kiang-

su, the extension of the number of salt
licenses issued for that area. These
merchants are willing to subscribe Taels

400,000 towards the Shansi Famine Relief
Fund, in return for a concessiou of licenses
for ten thousand yin, being at the rate of
Taels 4 per yin. The memorialist discusses
the subject at great length, first entering
into a consideration of the extent and area
of the famine in the north, and the neces-
sity of instituting prompt measures for
relief. To carry these out efficiently large
sums are required, and no opportunities
of obtaining them should be neglected.
He then dwells upon the claims these mer-
chants have to consideration. By an
enactment of the Board of Revenue a year
or more ago, the Hwai-ngan salt trade,
which had fallen into decay, was resus-
citated, and the SzechVan salt trade was
put a stop to. The issue of licenses for
the Hvvai-ngan trade was, however, limited
to those merchants who had originally
engaged in it, and the consequence is that
tlie merchants referred to find their busi-
ness at an end. The Hwai-ngan salt trade
is capable of great extension, the number
of licenses at present issued being only
three-tentlis of the original number. As
an increase in the number of licenses issued
would augment the revenue, and at the
same time be the means of obtaining a sub-
stantial addition to the Famine Relief Fund,
the memorialist urges tlie acceptance of the
proposals submitted by the merchants.
The decree in answer to this memorial has
already been published.

March 20fch. A decree consenting to a
proposal from Wan Tsiiig-li Governor
adjoint of the Imperial Prefecture of
Sliun-fien, that tlie soap kitchens in and
around Peking may be kept open for a
further period of two months, and an

^39

additional grant of money and rice issued
for their rnaintonance.

(2) Feng Slien, Military Governor of
Hen Lung-kiang, memorialises with refer-
ence to an appeal lodged by one Wang
King-tien, accusing certain persons of
having caused the death of his brother,
Wang King-shun, who hanged himself some
years ago in consequence of an altercation
lie had with some neighbours, agriculturists,
and died by his own hand. The body was
inspected by a corpse examiner, and no
marks of violence other than the self-
inflicted one having been discovered,
the usual guarantee was given, and it was
handed over to the relatives of the de-
ceased for interment. Wang King-tien, the
brother, then went to Peking and lodged
an appeal, which was referred in the usual
manner to memorialist. A second examina-
tion of the corpse was made with the same
result, and the appellant, who had been
sent with the corpse examiner to be pre-
sent at tlie inquest, having made liis escape
while being escorted back to prison, once
more found his to Peking, and again
a[>poal-. d. Memorialist was rofervecl to a
second lime, anil seeing how persistently
Wang King-tien* asserted that the body
showed other marks of violence than those
reported, began to think that an injustice
might possibly have been done through
the incompetence of the local corpse
examiner. He accordingly applied for the
services of a secretary and an experienced
corpse examiner from Moukden. Sanction
was granted by decree dated 17th March,
1877, and in due course of time the secretary
and examiner arrived. After inspecting
the records of the case, and putting a few-
general questions to the plaintiff and
defendant, they proceeded, with the parties
to the suit and their witnesses, to the
place where the body was deposited, to
make an inspection of it. They found the
coffin moved from its original position, and
tlie seals that had been placed upon it
injured. At this juncture the examiners
who had originally inspected the corps
informed the secretary that on that occasion
the appellant and his father had consented
to the test by u steaming n on the sole con-
dition that the flesh had entirely decayed,
stipulating that if any flesh remained the
pai-kiang process (test by the application
of lime, the lees of wine, salt, and vinegar)
should be resorted to. To this stipulation
they adhered on the present occasion,
obstinately refusing to listen to persuasion
from the secretary, showing by the absur-
dity of their demand that there was trickery
somewhere. Before proceeding further


40

[Mar. 2021.

with thu in([uesb, the seorelary a.[>i)licd to
the memoi'ialist for insfiuctions, and lie
referred him to the u Coroners5 Miinu:il,M
which clearly ]ays down the course to bo
imrsued, adding th.at Wang King-tien conic!
exercise no choice in the matter. The
coffin was then opened in tlie presence uf
the parties and a nuinher of witnesses.
The body was swathed in bine cotton ciotli,
and the examiners who had in spec ho cl it
before declared that it was then wrapped
in white cotton cloth, a most significant
fact in tlie opinion of the secretary. They
found that the skin had turned black, and
dried on to the bones, spots of mildew
appearing in different places, and tlie
bones sliowing through where the body
hacl been eaten by worms. The skin was
hard, and would not yield tu the touch, and
the examiners declared that it would be
impossible to verify the statements of tlie
appellant by the pai-klaw/ process, so they
must have recourse to steaming which
necessitated disintegration of the body.
Before this can be dune, a deed of authori-
sation must be signed by a near relative of
the deceased, whose duty it also is himself
to raise tlie head of the corpse. Wang
King-tien persistently declined to sign this
authorisation, so tlie examination carne to a
standstill. The Secretary suggested that an
Imperial Warrant should be applied for
compelling the man to authorise the test.
The memorialist thought he would first try
liis powers of persuasion and had Wang
King-tien brought before him; but the man
was obstinate, and persisted in his refusal.
In view of the fact that two appeals have
been made to Peking, three inquests held,
and Wang King-tien's charges, extending
over a period of six years, still remain un-
refuted or substantiated, the memorialist
thinks the matter ought now to be
thoroughly cleared up, and he therefore
prays that the Board of Punishments may
be instructed to indicate to him the course
he should pursue under the present
circumstances.

March 21st.(Court Circular) The Prince
of Cheng lias presented his testamentary
memorial.

(1) A decree based upon a memorial from
Pao-fing, Tutor of the Imperial Academy

submitting for the immediate

consideration of the proper Board certain
proposals for the better execution of
measures for famine relief. He first c(alls
attention to tlie rapacity of the subordinate
ofS.cials in the famine districts, who by
their extortionate conduct deter many mer-
chants from sending forward sux)plies of

lice fur sale. The high authorities c cenied are called upon to look into this
matter, and put an immediate stop tu Hie
malpractices complained of.He next sug-
gests tlie advisability of utilising the bean
cake produced in the South, which is per-
fectly capable of supporting life, as an
article of food. The prohibition against
the sale of this article north of tlie Hvvai-
ugan barrier in Kiangsu is accordingly
removed. He suggests, in the third
place, that instead of drawing sup-
plies of rice from the southern provinces
and raising the price locally, foreign rice
be purchased. The superintendents of
foreign trade are directed to consider the
practicability of this scheme, and, if possible,
to give effect to it. Fourthly, the Metro-
politan authorities and the Governor-General
of Cliilili are called upon to consider a pro-
posal of the memorialist that a portion of
the tribute rice forwarded to Peking shall
be sold in tlie capital at reduced rates, and
the China Merchants Co. be directed to
purchase more rice with the proceeds to
supply the deficiency in the Peking
Granaries.A proposal by the same officer
in a postscript memorial, that officials who
are not entitled to memorialise shall be
allowed to make representations through
the Court of Censors, as well as tlirough
their immediate superiors, is also sanctioned,
though the necessity for this mode of
procedure is not recognised.

(2) A decree in answer to a suggestion
from the censor Tien Han-che directing
the various provincial authorities to supply
the famine refugees with seed wlien
practicable, and send them back to their
homes, that they may not miss the season
for tilling tlieir fields.

(3) A decree expressing regret on tho
death of the Prince of Cheng. During the
reign of the late Emperor he succeeded to
tlie title, and was decorated by His
Majesty with a tliree-eyed peacock^ feather.
In the performance ol liis duties as Lieut-
enant-General of a Banner corps, high
officer for military inspection ancl comp-
troller of the active forces, he displayed
assiduity and diligence, endeavouring
to acquit himself with sedulous attention.
When he fell sick some time ago, We
granted him leave of absence in the hoj)
that by taking care of liis health he might
be spared to enjoy the Imperial favour.
We have received the intelligence of liis
decease with deep regret, and command
that a also direct the beiUh Tsai Ying at once to
proceed with ten officers of onr guard to
offer a funeral libation, and, as a special


Mar. 2122.] 41

grace, we ordain that in addition to the
donations appointed by law, Taels 2,000
shall be granted from the Privy Purse for
the expenses of his obsequies. All official
penalties recorded against his name are
hereby remitted. The proper Yamen are
to ascertain the particular ceremonies to be
performed at his obsequies, and memorialise
thereon.

(4) Ch^ng Shen is permitted to

vacate his post of-junior Yice-president of
the Board of E-evenue, on account of ill-
health.

(5) Decrees conferring the following ap-
pointments vacant by the death of the
Prince of Clieng. Inspector of forces, Lang

Tsin I ;Lieutenant-General of the
Bordered White Han Kiin Banner, Wen Yli

;Comptroller of the forces on active

service, Po-y^n-na-mo-hu f.

March 22nd.(1) A decree again deplor-
ing the absence of rain, and ordering a
renewed series of services at the various
State temples. His Majesty will visit the
Ta-kao-tien and the Silan-jen-miao.

(2) A Decree. The snows of winter have
been scarce in the provinces that were last
year visited by famine, and the rains of
spring have failed in their season. We
have again and again erected altars and
offered up earnest supplications, praying
for the lives of Onr people ; but day after
day has the sun risen bright and clear, to
be followed by storms of wind. The season
of spring has now arrived, and still not a
drop of moisture has fallen. Tlie land for
a thousand li is bare, and agriculture can-
not be carried on ; while tlie dead exceed
the living in number. How can these
things be borne ? We, whose duty it is to
watch over the millions of Our people with
fostering care, feel that the loss of one of
Our subjects is tlie result of Our misdoing.
How much more intense must tliis feeling be
when a drought prevails so extensive as
this, when the starving people are as many
as this Some consider that rain is with-
held because of the prevalence of idleness,
self-indulgence, inactivity, and sloth, re-
sulting in degeneration and neglect of duty ;
or that the system of Government, though
(complete in form, is a name and not
a reality ; or, again, that punishinents
do not reach their object, and tlmt the
people are silently enduring wrongs they
cannot complain of. Failure in one of
tliese particulars would be sufficient to pro-
A^oke the wrath of Heaven. Their Majes-
ties the Eiupreasea liave repeatedly admon-

ished Us, saying wliat liave the people done
that tliey should suflor this Ccilamitous
want ? If Heaven sends down puniylimeiits,
why may they not be transferred to the
Courb and the people spared this misery ?
When Tso Tyung-t^mg recently reported
his victories, We were again exhorted by
tlieir Majesties that, though military oper-
ations in tlie New Dominion were at ail
end, drought in Our immediate neigbour-
hoocl still prevailed, and the afflicted prov-
inces luid not regained their wontod cuii-
dition. It was, therefore, still necessary to
give heed to Oar ways witli reverence and
fear, and not suffer the slightest appear-
ance of complacency or content. We have
this day again been commanded by their
Majesties that with tlie distress prevail-
ing in Shansi and Honan before them,
those in high place should not suffer
indulgence in the slightest extravagance.
They accordingly direct the High Officer
of the Imperial Household to instruct
the secretaries of departments to exercise
retrenchment in the various branches of
palace expenditure. He is to report to
their Majesties without delay the amount
of the economies,that can be effected, for
if one candareen only can be saved there i8
one c.indareen the more to be distributed
in relief. In reverent obedience to their
Majesties, exhorhatiuns, who so graciously
have at heart the welfare of people, We
can but repent of Our faults, and examine
into Our shortcomings, administering a
government which is more than nominal
with full sincerity of purpose ; and tlius,
perhaps, Heaven may be moved to send
down refreshing rain, and rescue Our people
from the u ditches and water channels n
(quotation from 'Mencius.) Itisfurtliei-
niore the duty of all officials, liigh and
low, in the capital or in tlie provinces,
to identify themselves with tlie unceas-
ing solicitude and unwearying exertions <;f
the Court ; they must examine thernselve3
with fear and trembling, and all unite to
relieve the distress that now prevails. The
starving people are crying out for food, and
relief is uj-gently needed. Let the Board
of Revenue again issue Taels 200,000 from
tlie Treasury, and forward it in detachments
to Hunan and SI i an si. Lot 16,000 piculs of
tlie gi.ain on its way to Peking be detained at
Tientsin, and also sent to these provinces.
Let a further grant uf one picul of rice
per diem be issued to the various relief
agencies in Peking. Let officers charged
with the investigation of crime speedily
terminate tlie cases before them, tliat iu-
otfensive people may not be allowed to
languiali in priaon. We liave lately heard


42

[Mar. 2224.

that drought also prevails in tlie prefecture
of Ho-kien in Chihli. Let Li Hung-chang
promptly ascertain to what extent the
taxes in this district can be remitted, and
let him devise measures of relief, and
report the same to Us.

(3) Decrees conferring the following ap-
pointments :Junior Yice-President of the
Board of Revenue and Superintendent of

the Coinage Department, Lin-shuh
Senior Vice-President of the Board of
Punishments, Che-hoh Junior

Vice-President of the Board of Ceremonies,
Kwun-kang

(4) A postscript memorial from Tso
Tsung-tang covering a report from tlie
Taotai of Shanghai who had obtained a
years leave of absence to recover the re-
mains of his father, who died in the year
1861, and ascertain the fate of his step-
mother and brother. On arrival at Hi,
where his father died, he placed himself in
communication with a man from his native
place, who told him that he had buried his
father with his own hand before the cap-
ture of the town by the insurgents, and
pointed out to him the place where the
remains had been laid. The Taotai suc-
ceeded in finding twenty-eiglit bones,
which he placed in a fresh coffin to be
borne sorrowfully back to his native place.
He learned from the wife of a soldier
who had been his step-mothers serving
woman, that on the capture of Hi, his step-
mother had poisoned herself, and that his
brother, who had joined the staff of Ch^mg-
hi, late Imperial Agent at Ili, was killed
in action on the 10th March, 1866. The
Governor-General suggests the propriety
of bestowing on the step-mother a mark of
Imperial approbation, and a token of pity
on the brother who was killed in action.
Granted by rescript.

March 23rd. (1) (Abstract Memorial.)
Sung-kwei, Resident at Lassa, reports the
departure of an abbot (Kan-pu) from
Anterior Tibet oil a tribute mission

to Peking. Rescript:The K'an-^m need
not come to Peking. Let the articles of
tribute and list accompanying them be for-
warded by the Governor-General of Sze-
chwan and the Tartar General.

(2) A decree in answer to a representa-
tion from the Court of Censors ordering
the provincial authorities to exercise
more discrimination in the granting or
withholding of bail to parties in appeal
suits. This representation has been evoked
by the recent action of the authorities in

Hupeh, who actually kept the complainant
in an appeal suit in custody and allowed
bail to the defendants.

(3) Memorial by Censor Hu Yen-kvvei on
abuses in judicial system. (For decree see
Gazette of 3rd March.)

(4) Li Ho-nien, Governor-General of tlie
Yellow River, and acting-Governor of
Honan, reports that the period of the s[)ring
freshets has passed without mishap. The
unprecedented cold of the past wintuL1 caused
the upper waters to freeze, and for moro t han
a month all traffic was suspended, letters
having to be forwarded overland by cir-
cuitous routes, a necessity that has not
arisen for many yeaxs. The pressure of tlie
ice in the upper waters caused a rise of one
or two feet lower down, but timely pre-
cautions were taken, and no accidents
occurred. The various river works are
reported in good order, but certain mis-
cellaneous repairs will be needed. Debts
contracted for last years repairs are still
unpaid, and there will be great difficulty in
raising funds, but the memorialist will do
his best.

(5) Tso Tsung-fang reports a mutiny
among some irregular troops at Hwa-pJing-
chwan in Kansuhto whom four months
pay was due. The mutiny was checked
before any violence or robbery was com-
mitted, and the ringleaders were executed
after trial by the Governor-General. The
General in command, to whom the memo-
rialist gives a good character, is degraded
to the rank of colonel, but allowed to
retain liis command.

March 24th. (1) A decree in answer to
a representation from the Supervising
Censor Tsui Mu-che ordering stricter
supervision over all classes of oflicial under-
lings, who, the Censor alleges, are often
guilty of corrupt and extortionate practices.

(2) A decree appointing Ch^ng Lan-pin
(Minister to the United States,
etc.) a Yice-Director of the Imperial Clan
Court.)

(3) A memorial from the Governor-Gen-
eral of Yunnan and Kwei-chow, reporting
the result of enquiries into a charge of want
of supervision brought against an officer in
charge of a leldn collectorate, whose subor-
dinate had embezzled a portion of the duties
levied by his office. The oflScer, Yih Chao-
tung by name, pleaded in extenuation that
the embezzlements for which he was re-
sponsible occurred during his absence on
duty at a branch office under his charge. He
had left nine blank duty receipts with, his
subordinate for use while he was away. On
his return the subordinate informed him


Mar. 2425.]

43

that they had all been issued and handed
him the amount of the duty which he said
had been collected. It was not until the
head-office had brought the matter to light
that he was aware that a fraud had been
committed. The subordinate having con-
fessed liis guilt, memorialist will inflict the
legal penalty upon him. He considers that
the negligence of the superior officer will be
adequately punished by a fine of a years
salary.

March 25th. (1) A decree in answer to a
memorial from the supervising Censor
Kwoh Ts'ung-kii, requesting that the Board
entrusted with the direction of the exami-
nation of officers recommended for special
merit may be allowed discretionary powers
in instances where the candidates have,
whether from want of means or ignorance
of the new regulations, been unable to
present themselves for examination within
the specified time. In accordance with the
Censors representations permission is
granted for the examination of certain
officers in this category who have failed to
present themselves within the time pre-
scribed.

(2) A memorial from the supervising
Censor Peng She-chang, calling attention
to the necessity of adopting measures to
secure an efficient water supply in the
Northem districts simultaneously with the
issue of relief. He begs that the high
authorities of the Northern provinces may-
be instructed to draw up stringent regula-
tions under which operations to this end
may be completed within a given time.
Thus will the root of the evil be attacked,
and better security be afforded for the
lives of the people. The memorialist re-
grets that the decree on this subject issued
last September has not been given better
effect to. While feeling assured that the
high authorities to whom it was particular-
ly addressed have not been wanting in their
endeavours to carry out tlieir instructions,
it appears to him that in their constant
anxiety to relieve the distress tlmt was
prominently before them, they have ne-
glected the opportunity that presented itself
of combining measures of relief with the
equally important duty of securing a pro-
per water supply. It would have been
perfectly feasible to have demanded from
the recipients of relief a certain amount of
labor in return for their maintenance, and
works of the nature required might have
been carried out without extra cost; thus, as
it were, two ends would have been ser\ ed by
one means. No land can do without proper
supplies of water, and noAvhere is this more
true than of the ISf or them x^ro vinces, where

land that suffers from inundation is in
comparison with, that which is liable to
drought as two to seven. Of late years the
sources of water supply in the provinces of
Honan and Shansi have been much ne-
glected, and the result was that when
dearth and famine did arrive it was impos-
sible to cope with them. Meteorological
conditions cannot be fathomed. Last winter
very little snow fell, and in the early spring
there was still a lamentable deficiency of
moisture. If by any chance a famine should
again occur, tv ill the Court, however
unsparing in its liberality, be able to prevent
dispersion of the people ? Instead, then, of
meeting famine when it does arrive by relief
and remission of taxes simultaneously, why
not devise beforehand means for securing to
countless generations the fertility afforded
by proper supplies of water ? The memo-
rialist therefore prays his Majesty again
positively to direct the high authorities of
the Northern provinces that they must
make the repair of existing sources of sup-
ply, or the construction of others where
they are needed, a first and essential
duty. They should select from among
the Commissioners or Intendants of Circuit,
some one who h^s distinguished himself
in the execution of relief measures or
has performed his duties with zeal and
attention, and constitute him general super-
visor with full power of action. The
Department Magistrates and Magistrates
should be instructed to select from among
the gentry and elders in their respective
jurisdictions men of public spirit who
are universally trusted, and make them
supervisors of the works required. The
special requirements of high-lying and
low-lying lands should not be lost sight of.
In the neighbourhood of hills, springs
should be deepened and watercourses
cleared out. In the neighbourhood of rivers,
canals should be cut, and the water led by
them in different directions. Where neither
hills nor rivers exist, wells should be dug ;
or, where these would require to be made
so deep as to render the operation costly, let
reservoirs be constructed. The memorialist
is a native of the South, where in the vicinity
of every village a reservoir may be seen to
every five or six.moiv of land; and although
droughts may occur, an absolute failure of
the harvest has never been known. If a
similar system be adopted in the North,
irrigation will at least be facilitated. To
sum up. It is in the power of man by
adaptation to make the most of natural
advantages, but it is the nature of man to
delight in tlie prospect of accomplished
results ratlier than to take tho\ight for tho


44

[Mar. 2527.

initiation of the measures that produce tliem.
Let periodical reports l>e made by Dei>arb-
J\r?igistraifts and Magistrates to the
supervisor in chief, and by him, in turn, to
the high authorities, who should from time
to time report progress to his Majesty re-
questing rewards for genuine exertion, and,
similarly, tlie correction of dilatoriness or
ineflicieiicy. Tims, by a simultaneous exer-
cise of encouragement and correction will
men be stimulated to vie with each other
in aiding tliis work, and the spectacle sliall
be presented of barrenness turned into
luxiirirince. (For decree see Gazette of
Gfch March.)

March 2Gfch. Tlie Governor of Sliun-
tien Fu reports a fall of rain ill liis district
varying from one inch to a-tentli of an inch
in different places.

(1) A memorial by Tso Tsnng-fang re-
porting the death of Ying-han, military
Lieutenant-Governor of Urunitsi. After
recording the particulars of his death, and
describing his complaint witli great minute-
ness, the memorialist concludes with a
lengthy eulogy on the merits of the de-
ceased officer. (For decree see Gazette of
13Ui February.)

(2) Li Hung-chang reports the receipt nf
a donation of Taels 10,000 from Klin-k,i,
Superintendent of Customs at Canton, in
aid of the sufferers by famine. He re-
quested memorialist to distribute this
amount on his behalf, and begged that a
mark of Imperial favor might not be applied
for. The memorialist having heard tli-at
tliere were a number of lioineless people in
Peking, and that the soup kitchens were
in need of aid, sent Tls 4,000 to tlie Gov-
ernor of Slmn-fien Fu for distribution,
after consultation with the Police Censors.
Taels 3,000 liave been expended in payment
of the cost of transport of grain to Shansi,
and a like Bum has been sent to Honan for
distribution. Not'vitlistancling the request
of the Superintendent that no reward
should be applied for on liis behalf, it
would not be right to keep from the know-
ledge of His Majesty so munificent a dona-
tion.Rescript : Let the Board of Iteveinie
determine a distinguished form of reward
to be conferred upon him.

March 27tli. (1) A memorial from Yen
King-ming, special High Commissioner for
famine relief in Shansi, and Tseng Kwoh-
ts^an, Governor of the same province, re-
questing that the existing prohibition
against the cultivation of the pi>py may be
enunciated afresh, in order that tlie food
supply of the people may be enriched, and
provision made against the scourge of
famine. They humbly submit that, in

former days, families were provided a.gainst
by accmimlation of supplies during times
of ordiiuu'y harvests. Hence arose tlie
system of laying by a third of the yield of
each year, by which means, in spite of
drought and flood, tlie people were never
reduced to actual suffering or want. Never
was sucli a thing heard of as the cultivation
of a crop that was injurious to man, and
disseminated its poison through the ham-
lets and villages. The failure of the har-
vests, and consequent famine tliat now pre-
vails in Shansi, may be calJed a visitation
from Heaven, but it is in reality the work
of man. Ever since the poppy began
to be cultivated on a large scale, the
supplies laid by as a provision against
times of scarcity have been gradually
drawn upon, until fit last there was scarcely
grain enough in store for half a year^ con-
sumption. When, therefore, the people
are suddenly confronted with so deadly a
famine as the present, they are reduced to
a condition of utter helplessness. There
are three conditions upon which the people
rely for sufficiency of food ; weather, pro-
ductiveness of soil, and human labour.
Now, the productiveness of the cultivable
area of tlie province of Shansi, estimated
by the memorialists a,t something over
30 fiOO l^ing (one/c,mf/=15.13 square acres),
is at the best limited, and every rood that
is devoted to tlie cultivation of the poppy
means a corresponding diminution in the
yield of grain. The profits to be gained by
the cultivation of the poppy being compar-
atively large, it frequently happens that
the whole of tlie rich and marshy land is
devoted to its growth, and the cereal crops
are relegated to the stony and thinner upland
soil. In earlier days, before the poppy was
grown, foreign opium was never consumed
by the substantial farmers and the better
class of agricultural labourers, its use
was confined solely to the vagrant and
vagabond cLass. Now that the poppy has
been brought under cultivation, a taste for
opium has been created, and every house-
hold has lerarned to consume it, until the
vice prevails in the villages to a greater
extent than in towns or centres of trade.
The result has been that the better class of
agriculturists have become idle and dissi-
pated, and in many instances have been
reduced to beggary or have taken to thieving.
So much for the question of soil. To turn to
the consideration of the labour question :
the period at which the sap of the poppy is
collected is the husbandman^ busiest season.
He devotes all his energies to the poppy,
and neglects his cereal crop -vvlnch in con-
sequence deteriorates and becomes worthless.


Mar. 2728.]

45

Hence, the yield being unproductiye, and
labour diverted to other objects, the
people are dependent on the will of Heaven
for a moderate harvest at the best, while an
unfavorable season reduces them to a con-
dition of prostration and weakness from
which no remedy can rescue them. The
memorialists then proceed to explain at
great length the geographical conditions
of the province, and tlieir bearing upon the
agricultural question, and point out the
different centres from which the various
portions of the province have in former times
drawn tlieir supplies of grain. The area
embraced by the poppy having increased
year by year, it follows that the source of
these suj^plies has diminished proportion-
ately, and the result is now being witnessed.
The only way that a recurrence of the
present suffering can be prevented is by
enunciating afresh the prohibition against
the cultivation of the poppy. The practice
has now, however, taken such deep root,
that it has grown beyond the power of local
authorities to check it unaided. The memo-
rialists, after much correspondence with the
local authorities, and after careful considera-
tion, have come to the conclusion that tlie best
plan will be issue proclamations enjoining
upon the heads of villages, clans, families,
and guilds, the duty of exercising a check
one upon the other, thus doing a^vay with
the necessity of employing official nncler-
lings and giving them a handle for extor-
tion and malpractices. The head of each
clan will be directed to call upon any mem-
ber of liis clan who cultivates tlie poppy
to root up tlie plants, and heads of tithings
will be called upon to exercise the s£ame
authority over the constituents of tlieir
respective titliingsajid insist upon the land
being converted to the cultivation of cereal
crops. Any proprietor failing to obey these
commands will be reported to the local
authorities and brought to justice ; those
who connive at acts of disobedience will be
held liable to i>unisliment; and any magis-
trates or official underlings who are found
surreptitiously levying taxes upon the
cultivation of the poppy will be instantly
denounced and deprived of office. A pro-
clamation in this sense has already been
printed and distributed for general im-
formatiou throughout the province. The
memorialists further proj^ose to send mem-
bers of the literate class from time to time
to see that the proclamation is given effect
to. (For decree see Gazette of March
9th.)

March 28tli.(Court Circular.) The Gov-
ernor of Sliun-^ien Fu reports that the
iron tablet has arrived.

(1) A Decree. Some time since we
despatched the Prince of Chwang and the
bei-leh Wang to the Black Dragon Temple
to pray for rain. Let the bei-leh Yi-kvv5un
now be sent in tlieir stead to offer incense
and reside there.

(2) A Decree. Slien Pao-clieng memo-
rialises that his malady is beyond recovery,
and begs that he may be allowed to vacate
his post. We grant him a further conge of
three months that lie may devote himself
to the care of his health. He need not
vacate his post. Let Wu Yuran-ping act as
Governor-General of the Liang Kiang
during this period, and let Lo Fang-tsl act
in the stead of tlie latter as Governor of
Kiangsu.

(3) Li Ting-liiao is ap-

pointed Police Censor of the nortliern
division of the metropolis.

(4) A decree in answer to a suggestion
from the office of Gendarmerie that ad-
ditional agencies for the relief and accom-
lnoclation of the refugees from other parts
may be opened in ?ekingthe number at
present established being insufficient to
supply their wants, as they are daily in-
creasing in lminbe^r. Authority is granted
for the establishment of five additional
agencies outside the seven gates of the
Chinese city, and the Board of R-evenue is
directed to supply the 2,000 piculs of grain
and Taels 3,000 required for this purpose.
Soldiers are to be put on guard at eacli
agency to prevent crowding or disturbance,
and certain officials are nominated who are
to be in constant attendance.

The remainder of tliis clays Gazette is
occupied with a series of memorials by
Chang P^i-lun, Adviser to his Majesty,
and Reader of tlie Hctn-lin college,
who urges the adoption of precedents
afforded by former Emperors in times
of national calamity, supporting his
exhortations by references of various
kinds. In his first memorial he deals
with the general principles by which the
court should be guided in its administra-
tion daring these troubled times. First on
the list he places the invitation of expres-
sions of opinioii from various sources;
next, the issue of relief, and, third, the
mitigation of punishments. In his second
memorial lie inculcates the duty of economy
in expenditure, commenting on the fact
that at the very time that a decree had
been issued ordering supplications for
rain, a display of fire-works was ex-
hibited within the precincts of the

palace. In his third memorial lie de-
monstrates the necessity of encouraging


46

[Mah. 2829.

expressions of opinion from those who are
in a position to ofter advice, and recom-
mends that the high officers of state be
directed to form themselves into a sort of
committee to consult as to the best means
of meeting the present calamity. In his
fourth memorial he commonts strongly on
the obstructiveness displayed by the Eoards
in vetoing one after another suggestions
for the supply of funds ofterecl by various
authorities, intimating that their Majesties
are influenced too much by the advice of
tliese Boards. He quotes a decree of the
Emperor K^ng Hi, who during a time of
drought, when informed by the chief of
the Board of E-evenue that the whole of
the present years grain in store had been
expended, answered that he cared not if
the supply for the year after that were
expended too, administering the following
rebuke to the officer who demurred to
the issue of further relief :u We consider
the lives of the people to be of paramount
importance ; the issue of the contents of
the granaries for their relief is entirely a
matter of Imperial prerogative. Who are
the Board of Revenue that they should
control this matter ? If funds from the
Imperial exchequer are applied for, the
Board veto the request; if grain is applied
for, the Board veto the request. Corres-
pondence passes backwards and forwards,
and excuses are made on this side and on
that ; meanwhile the people in the afflicted
provinces are allowed to die off and dis-
appear. Do ye not perceive that these
millions of suffering people are dying, not
from dearth, but from the arts and machi-
nations of the Ministers of the Boards ?
Suppose the granaries be empty, measures
can be devised for procuring further sup-
plies. If the peoj)le die they cannot be
brought to life again ; if their confidence in
Us is destroyed it cannot be recovered. Give
heed to the root of the matterand ask
yourselves are the people to be first con-
sidered, or is the exchequer to be the first
consideration ? In his fifth and last
memorial he inculcates the necessity of
judicial reform. In the 9tli year of KJang-
Hi, when drought prevailed, high officers
were sent by the Emperor to visit the
Board of Punishments and ascertain by-
personal interrogation of the prisoners
whether any were wrongfully confined.
And again in the 18th year of the same
reign, upon a recurrence of drought, a
general inspection of the same kind was
held in the provinces. The memorialist
suggests that similar inspections be in-
stituted now, and that greater attention
be paid to judicial investigations, many

of which caiTied out in a manner that
is not calculated to satisfy tlie ends of
justice. (For decree see Gazette of 5th

March 29th. (1) A Decree. The Yice-
President Hia Tuiig-slian memorialises
requesting that funds may be supplied for
the opening of wells in the districts in the
province of Cliihli that have been stricken
with drought. The opening of wells for
the irrigation of the fields serves as a pro-
vision in times of drought, as water can be
drawn from them and led over the land.
Li Hung-cliang lias already instructed liis
subordinates to urge the people to under-
take this work. Tlie Vice-President now
states that the whole of the country in the
Ho-kien prefecture is in need of wells ; that
if these be constructed with a lining of
bricks in the lower and simple earth

walls at the top, they will last for several
years and can be made at a cost of five or
six thousand cash. If tlie upper portion be
bricked at a later date they "will be in every
respect similar to bricked wells. He sug-
gests therefore that a sum of Tls. -40,000
may be supplied for this purpose, which
should be converted into cash; thus, at the
rate of 5,000 cas/t for each well constructed,

12,000 wells can be made. Let Li Hung-
chang at once issue Tls. 40,000 from what-
ever-fund lie chooses, and send it to the
famine stricken districts in the Ho-kien
prefecture to be issued to the people, tliat
they may commence operations immediately.
Let the local authorities and gentry care-
fully superintend its distribution, that
peculation on the part of official underlings
may be guarded against.

(2) A Decree. Some time since We were
commanded by their Majesties the em-
presses to instruct tlie officers of the
Imperial household to exercise strict
economy in the various branches of palace
expenditure, and at once to send in an
estimate in round numbers of the amount
of the economies that could be effected.
They now report that for the last few years
none of the necessary works or repairs
within the palace have been put in hand,
nor have any additions been made to the
articles now in use, while there has been
no lavislmess whatever in ciirrent ex-
penditure ; it is impossible therefore to
effect any retrenchment.Last year the
people in the provinces stricken by famine
were reduced to a condition of great distress,
and the rains have now again failed in their
season. Their Majesties, unwearying in
their exertions and unceasing in their
solicitude, have twice instructed Us to
I reduce Oar morning and evening meal


Mar. 2930.]

47

to half its ordinary quantity, and
have exhorted Us to partake of u lent-
en n fare. Their Majesties being thus
sincere in their commiseration for the
sufferings of the people, it naturally be-
hoves the office in question, in reverent
obedience to their Majesties5 commands, to
scrutinise with energy and care the various
items of expenditure. We have now perused
their memorial, and find tliafc they offer
a bare statement to the effect that the
headings of expenditure are numerous
and complicated, but that if any items can
be dispensed with or reduced, it shall be
their care from time to time, as occasion
admits, to give the matter tlieir attention
and take action in the direction indicated.
Should the economies thus effected amount
to an appreciable sum they will again
memorialise. They submit no statement of
tlie various items of expenditure. Let
the Comptroller of the Imperial Household
at once make accurate and careful enquiry
into the items of i>ala,ce expenditure, and
submit for Our inspection a detailed list
thereof under each separate heading,
withou reservation or evasion.

(3) A Decree. Ho Kin-sliow, Compiler
of the Han-lin College, submits that in
times of dearth reforms should be instituted
and self-examination practised, and prays
that the high officers of state may" be
cautioned and reproved. In view of the
widespread calamity that has visited the
provinces in the vicinity of the capital, and
tlie failure of the rains at their appointed
season, We have already issued a decree
expressing Our conbrition for faults com-
mitted, and undertaking to examine into
Our shortcomings, in the hope that
thereby Heaven might be moved speedily to
pour down refreshing rain. Ho King-show
now represents that although in conse-
quence of Our youth and inexperience the
government is administered by their Ma-
jesties the Empresses, and the reins of power
are thus held by those in the highest place,
the affairs of the nation are conducted
through the agency of the Ministers of
State. He i^rays therefore that they may
be admonished to be forgetful of self, and
oblivious of family ties, and set to work
in earnest to amend their faults. At this
period, when a succession of seasons of
dearth has brought about a famine of such
magnitude; with festering misery and want
so prominently before our eyes [We must
acknowledge], that this calamity is a visita-
tion from Heaven, in consequence of faults
and omissions in the administration of
Government. The members of the Grand
Council, whose duty it is to assist Us in the

direction and control of important affairs
of state, are most certainly to blame both
for tlieir failure in the suggestion of re-
medies to Us, as well as in their neglect
to adopt tliem on Our behalf. We imagine
that no one would presume, while acknow-
ledging this calamity to be a visitation
from Heaven, to attribute the short-
comings that provoked it [entirely to Ua
as] tlie head of the state. Be this how-
ever as it may, at a time like the present,
when the. calamity is so widely spread and
has endured for so long a time, when the
Court is so unwearying in its efforts and so
miceasing in its solicitude, the Prince and
Ministers [who are charged with the control
of the affairs of the Empire] in that in the
presence of this visitation they have failed
to devise any means whatsoever for the
rescue of the sufferers, have been guilty of
shortcomings for which they cannot easily
find an excuse. We command therefore
that the Prince of Kung be committed to
the Imperial Clan Court for the adjudication
of the severest form of penalty, and that
the Ministers Pao Ylin, Shen Kwei-fen,
King Lien and Wang Wen-shao be similarly
committed to the Yamen whose business it
is, for the adjindication of the severest
penalties.

March 30th.(1) A decree based on a
memorial from the supervising Censor Hia
Hien-tsing. The Imperial heart has been
moved to pity at the thought of the num-
bers that have died from famine in Shansi
and Honan, and have been left exposed in
the ditches and water-channels. The Gov-
ernors of these provinces are directed to
issue money to the officers engaged in the
distribution of relief, for the purpose of
burying the corpses that are thus exposed.
The leaders of the army in Turkestan are
also to take measures for the burial of the
bones of those who have died during the
campaign, whether they be soldiers or
common people. The Metropolitan author-
ities are likewise directed to afford burial
to the numbers of corpses that are now to
be seen lying by the side of the roads in the
capital. Thus will the Imperial pity be made
manifest, and restless spirits find repose.

(2) A decree conferring the following
appointments :Financial Commissioner of

Chihlimng-ki Financial Com-
missioner of Fuhkien, Li Ming-chd
Judicial Commissioner of Full-
kienLu She-kieh Judicial

Commissioner of Shansi, Sieh Yun-sheng



48

[Mar. 30.

(3) A Decree. Let Sim Kwan-slian,
Financial Commissioner of Chihli and
Ying-k^, Financial Commissioner of Shansi,
come to the capital to await other employ-
ment.

(4) A decree based upon a memorial from
Hwang Tsze-fang, Deputy Supervisor of
instruction, commenting on the general
tone of the official class, who in these times
of national calamity, when the Court is
exercised day and night with self-examin-
ation and self-reform, do not display a
becoming reverence, or abstain from tlie
pursuit of pleasure or the gratification of
personal comfort. Constant applications
are made for leave, and extensions of the
same when it has expired, and it is much to
be feared that in many instances they are
only a pretext for indulgence in idleness
and sloth. In future more energy (and con-
scientiousness must be displayed by officers
of every grade ; levity of conduct or care-
lessness in the performance of official
duties will be punished b}7 prompt dismissal.
The same decree refutes a charge of extra-
vageance in palace expenditure, bronglit by
the Deputy Supervisorand concludes with
an order that no eunuchs are to allowed
outside the palace grounds except those
who may be sent out on business. Any
who may be found wandering about the
streets, or purchasing curiosities and valu-
ables, are to be severely punished by the
officers of the Imperial Household. The
Captains-General 1 and Commandants in
charge of the palace gates are instructed to
enforce the prohibition against the entry
of unauthorised persons into the palace
grounds ; and all workmen and official
underlings^ whose duty calls them within
the precincts of the forbidden city, are
to be carefully searched on their entry
and exit, that tradesmen and pedlars may
be prevented from introducing articles
for sale. While such strict economy is
being exercised by the Court, it behoves all
officialsin the capital and the provinces
to eschew feasting and company, and be
rigidly economical in their personal ex-
penditure.

(4) A memorial from Yuan Pao-heng,
special high commissioner for famine relief
in Honan, submitting a proposal for the
raising of money to meet present wants.
Ever since the arrival of tlie memorialist
in the province, he has repeatedly sub-
mitted the necessity of borrowing from
the various provincial exchequers, as well
as from wealthy merchants at a fixed rate
of interest, which loans he proposed should
be repaid from the land tax of the province.
The proposal was referred to the Board of

Revenuewho gave their consent, subject
to a condition that the necessary funds for
repairs to river works, support of the pro-
vincial army, and annual subsidy to Peking,
sliould first te set aside. This practically
amounts to a refusal, for the revenue from
land tax, estimated at Taels 3,000,000, but
in reality amounting to no more than Taels
2,000,000 in the best seasons, is barely
sufficient to meet the headings of expendi-
ture indicated by the Board. Unless, there-
fore, the subsidy for Peking, which is the
largest item of the three, be remitted for
at least ten years, it will be impossible to
extricate the province from its financial
embarrassments. Money is being rapidly
paid out, and must continue to be paid
out, while none is coming in. Each day
that passes sees an increase of distress.
There are at present between five and six
million people to be fed, and nothing short
of two or three million taels will rescue
them from the jaws of death. Money must
be got, and tlie memorialist can think of no
otlier way of getting it but by borrowing.
The provincial authorities will, however,
be loth to part with their funds unless
hopes can be held out of these being repaid
within two or three years ; nor will wealthy
merchants come forward with their money
unless they have reasonable security. After
much thought, the memorialist has, lie
thinks, hit upon a plan. It is well known
that there is a strong competition between
the merchants engaged in the Szecli Van and
Hwai-ngan salt trades respectively. In
consequence of the cessation of the latter
trade during the rebellion, licenses were
granted to Szechwan traders to sell their
salt in the Hukwang provinces, which pro-
perly belonged to the Hwai-ngan area.
Now that tlie trade of the latter place has
been revived, Szecliwan merchants are
prohibited from continuing to sell their
salt in the provinces above-mentioned.
They are, however, naturally unwilling to
relinquish so lucrative a business, and the
consequence is that smuggling is rife,
the Hwai-ngan trade is injured, and
the revenue suffers materially. The memo-
rialist now proposes that the prohi-
bition against the sale of SzecliVan salt in
the Hukwang portion of the Hwai-ngan
area shall be removed, and in lieu thereof
double the present leldn duty shall be
levied on all SzechVan salt in these pro-
vinces. This will lead to one of two results.
Either the prohibitive tariff will drive
Szech3 wan salt out of this market, or, as he
thinks most probable, an immense gain to
the revenue will be obtained. This increase
he proposes to devote to the liquidation


Mar. 30April 1.]

49

of debts contracted by Honan. With
the security afforded by this arrangement,
there will be no difficulty in borrowing
money for immediate wants. The plan
should be tried for a year, and extended
for a longer period if it succeeds. When
the Honan debt is paid off, a portion of the
revenue derived from this source should be
applied to the reimbursement of the Hwai-
ngan traders, whose profits have been cur-
tailed.Referred, by rescript, for the
immediate consideration of the Board of
Kevenue.

March 31st. (1) A decree referring to
an appeal case from Heh Lung-kiang, in
which the appellant declared that his bro-
ther, who was said to have hanged him-
self, met his death by foul play. The case
was twice referred to the Military Governor,
and, as reported by him, corpse examiners
from Moukden had arrived to hold an
inquest, but matters were brought to a
standstill on account of the obstinate
refusal of the relatives of the deceased to
consent to the steaming process. The
Court of Censors now report that one
Wang Fang-lien has again appealed, com-
plaining that the Secretary and corpse
examiners sent from Moukclen to conduct
the inquest, in insisting upon the relatives
of the deceased giving their written con-
sent to the steaming process, intended, by
disintegration of the body, to obliterate all
traces of violence used. He declares that
when the coffin was opened by the Secre-
tary, the body was not decayed at all.
The Military Governor of Kirin is now
directed to hear the case ; the coffin and
parties to the suit are to be removed to the
city of Kirin, and the matter carefully
and thoroughly gone into. (See Gazette of
20th March.)

(2) The following appointment is notified:
Intendant of Salt Revenue, Fuhkien, Weng

Hio-pen .

(3) A decree granting permission to Yii
Ling-cMn $Commissioner of
the Office of Transmission, to vacate his
post on account of ill-health.

(4) TJu Tsung-ying, Governor of Kiangsi,
returns thanks for his appointment to the
Governorship of Honan, and begs per-
mission to be allowed to comq to Peking
to have audience. Granted by rescript.

(5) The same officer reports the arrival
of the Annamese tribute mission on tlieir
way back to Annam. They expressed
themselves profoundly grateful for the
generous and liberal treatment they had
received at the hands of His Majesty the
Emperor, who, they informed the memo-

rialist, had been graciously pleased to grant
them an audience, and bestow upon them
some complimentary scrolls. His Majesty-
had also given them an Imperial Letter for
the Kling of Annam, with presents of silks,
satins, and other articles. After resting a
few days at the provincial capital, they
were sent on under escort to their own
country.

April 1st.(1) A decree i^i answer to a
memorial from a Deputy Supervisor of
Instruction referring for the consideration
of the Governors of Shansi and Honan a
suggestion that inducements should be
offered to merchants to import grain into
the famine districts. The memorialist pro-
poses tlmt for every hundred piculs of grain
imp\)rted, a reduction f several tens of
taels on the duties leviable on other goods
shall be granted, in addition to exemption
from lekin and other taxes on the grain
itself. In compliance with a suggestion
from the same memorialist, Li Hung-chang
is directed to rebpen an investigation into
the circumstances of tlie burning of the
relief establishment at Tientsin, with a
view to ascertaining the truth of certain
charges brouglit against the officers on duty
at the time. The same memorialist points
out that the result of the abolition of relief
agencies at Tientsin and Pao-ting-fu lias
been a great influx of refugees into the
capitaland suggests the re-establishment
of relief agencies outside Peking. The cor-
rectness of liis views is admitted, and Li
Hung-chang is called upon to re-establish
the agencies that were abolished. Tlie
Governor-General is also directed, in com-
pliance with a third and last suggestion
from the memorialist, to see that relief is
afforded to all sufferers from the famine in
Chihli, which it is stated is not confined to
the Ho-kien prefecture as earlier reported.

(2) A Decree. Let Sun Kia-nai, Expect-
ant Reader of the Han-lin College, officiate
as i^robationer in the Yii ICing Rung.

(3) The Prince of Kung ancl members of
the Grand Council memorialise to the effect
that it was the custom in earlier days to
apply every five years for permission to
draw up a record in Chinese of military
events, Wo copies being made ; one for ref-
erence and the other for preservation.
In the 4th year of Hien Feng, when the
papers relatiiig to military affairs were very
numerous, permission was applied for and
granted to reduce the term from five years
to three. A period of three years, dating
from the 1st day of the 1st moon of the 1st
year of Kwang Sii, having now elapsed, it
becomes the duty of tlie memorialists to
request that Secretaries of the Grand


50

[Aphil 12.

Secretariat may be told off to make copies
of the records in the Military Archive
Office, witli instructions to comiDare the
copies carefully with the originals. Two
Chinese Secretaries (Ghang-hlng) should be
deputed to superintend the work, and
the Military Archive Office should be called
upon to supply the pens, ink and pa^Der
required.Rescript: Noted.

(4) Hii Sliang-hwa, Censor of the Che-
kiang circuit, suggests that a portion of the
rice at present stored in the Tungchow
granai*ies for issue in part payment of

official salaries (f shall be sold at

once, and fresh rice purchased with the
proceeds, as the present stock is not likely
to keep good for any length of time. Hav-
ing been honored last winter with commands
to superintend the transfer to Peking of
the grain stored at Tungchow for issue in
part payment of official salaries, lie found
that the aggregate of the spring and autumn
stocks was about 40;000 piculs. There are
20;000 piculs at present in store, which will
be doubled on the arrival of the spring
instalment for the present year, showing that
the amount in stock is double that required
for issue. Now, the varieties of tribute rice
forwarded for storage in the Peking gran-
aries, known as heng or sien (dry or unglu-
tinous rice) by reason of its rough kernel,
combined with firmness and substance,
will keep for a long time, differing in
this respect from the variety known as pai-
Hang (husked rice), the tender kernel of
wliicli will not stand tlie same amount of
rubbing or bruising, and is apt to turn red
or spoil if kept too long. As rice is so
much needed at the present moment by
the poor people in Peking, and the price of
grain is likely to remain high for some
time, even if the present years harvest
should promise well, the memorialist con-
siders that it would be better that they
should have the use of this pcd-liang
than that it should be allowed to rot in
store. It might either be distributed gra-
tuitously, or sold at a reduced rate and
the proceeds applied to the piirchase of
new rice. He has heard that there is a
surplus of yellow millet in the Peking
granaries ; this, in past years, has been
used to fatten sheep and cattle. Yellow
millet is also liable to deterioration, and he
is told tliat some of the millet supplied to
the relief agencies is rotten or spoiled. He
suggests therefore that the Board of Re-
venue would do well to enquire into the
matter, and take steps for the disposal of
this stock in the same manner as the Tung-
chow rice. The decree in answer to this
memorial has already been published.

April 2nd. A decree condemning seria-
tim a number of propositions of the stereo-
typed nature ofiered by a Deputy Supervisor
of Instruction on the question of famine
relief and administrative reform. The
memorialist has apparently been more
vehement in his denunciations than many
that have gone before him, and every
suggestion that he makes is set aside as
unnecessary or impracticable. He takes
exception in the first instance to the raising
of funds by foreign loans. The decree an-
swers his objection with tlie following
remarks :u Setting aside the consideration
that the interest on a foreign loan would be
an useless drain on the resources of the
Imperial exchequer, the length of time that
must elapse before negotiations can be
completed would render it impossible to
obtain the necessary funds witJi sufficient
promptitude to rescue the victims of this
Avide-spread calamity, who are liovering on
the brink of death. There is no need
therefore to consider his request.A sug-
gestion that the sufferers by famine should
be induced by offers of a supj)ly of seed to
migrate to the waste lands on the frontier,
is negatived on the ground that it is impos-
sible to supply the seed required, and it
would not "Ge fair to let a number of desti-
tute people loose upon the present inhabit-
ants of the district indicated. A fierce
attack upon Tung-slin, President of the
Board of Revenuewho has persistently-
negatived all proposals for expenditure in
aid of the sufferers, and has obstructed the
flow of the Imperial bounty, and should
therefore be dismissed from the public
service, meets with a stern rebuke. In
refusing to endorse certain proposals for the
diversion of tribute grain, etc Tung-siin
has been actuated by a desire to give due
heed to radical interests, while his decisions
have been arrived at after consultation with
his colleagues, who have appended their
signatures to the memorials submitting their
views. Timg-sun has not the power to
assume sole responsibility in these matters.
The memorialist has been guilty of a serious
dereliction of duty in allowing himself to
be blinded by prejudiceand in giving
credence to idle rumours which he would
not be at the pains to verify. He is to be
handed over to the Board for the adjudica-
tion of a penalty.

(2) A decree of the same nature rebuk-
ing a Censor who has ventured to express
an opinion on the conduct of the officers of
the Imperial Household, who, in answer to
a decree ordering economies to be effected
in palace expenditure, replied that no re-
t^^Tichments were possible. It is not within


April 23.]

51

the province of persons outside the palace
to concern themselves with palace matters,
of which they should know nothing. The
Censor states that, at a recent audience, the
Vice-President Kien-fuh was in complete
ignorance on a subject upon which his own
office had memorialised. It is highly im-
proper that any officer outside the palace
should have any knowledge of conversation
that takes place at an audience. Let the
Censor be sent for and reprimanded.

(3) Postscript memorial by the Censor
Ma Hiang-ju, calling attention to the
frequency of burglaries and highway rob-
beries in the immediate vicinity of the
capital. These have become so numerous
of late that people are afraid to travel along
the public highways in broad daylight.
Strangers and others coming to the capital
from the Lu-ko'v-kiao (a bridge on the
main road to the west and south about 7
miles from Peking) are afraid to travel
without a large escort from the villages
around. From this fact alone it is possible
to form an estimate of the dangers to which
solitary travellers on the less frequented
roads are constantly exposed. It is easy
to distinguish between beggars and high-
waymen. The former are accompanied by
their aged parents and their little ones,
and cry aloud for food. Their emaciated
and sickly condition would in itself deter
them from acts of brigandage and burglary.
It requires more strength and energy than
tliey possess to burn, pillage and wound,
or to despoil the graves of their hidden
treasures. The memorialist requests that
the office of Gendarmerie and the Governor
of Slmn-tien may be called upon to post a
number of soldiers and runners in different
places, with instructions to seize all
burglars and highwaymen and inflict sum-
mary justice upon them. Decree already
published. (

April 3rd. (Court Circular.) The office
of Gendarmerie reports tlie destruction by-
fire of 7 1dm of the office in which drafts
of oflicial documents are deposited.

(1) A decree in answer to a jnemorial
presented by the Han-lin College, on be-
half of a graduate of that institution, calling
attention to the frequent pillage by des-
titute people of shops for the sale of
eatables in Peking. The metropolitan
authorities are to consider and give effect
to the best means for suppressing the evil
complained of.

(2 & 3) Decrees ordering a fresh series of
intercessory prayers for rain on the 8th
inst. A fast is ordered to be held, com-
mencing three days previous to the instita-

tion of the services, and the Prince of
Cliun is directed to officiate on behalf of
His Majesty.

(4) A decree referring to an objection on
the part of the Board of Revenue, lately
made public, to sanction the prohibition of
distilling operations, as suggested by the
Grand Secretary Li Hung-chang. Hwang
Ti-fang, Deputy Supervisor of Instruc-
tion, liad taken exception to the finding
of tlie Board, who, he insinuated, were
reluctant to lose the large fees, appro-
priated by them for rice money
which the sale of licences for this
brancli of industry brought in. The Board
having been called upon to answer this
charge, now explain tliat their refusal to
consent to tlie cessation of distilling opera-
tions arose from a reluctance to throw the
thousand and more families to whom this
industry gives employment entirely out of
work, coupled with a desire to avoid afford-
ing unprincipled underlings a handle for
extortion and oppression. They accordingly-
proposed to limit the trade to the present
holders of licences. They were in no way
influenced by a desire to retain the fees
derived from tlie issue' of these licences, a
portion of which/ they might add, were
surrendered to the Grand Secretariat and
other offices to defray working expenses.
Tlie above explanation being considered
satisfactory, the Deputy Supervisor^ charges
are dismissed.

(5) A decree ordering an immediate en-
quiry into malpractices in the distribution
of relief in the famine districts, with which
cerain department Magistrates, Magis-
trates, and others, are charged by a Tutor
of the Imperial Academy. One officer is
said to have forwarded tlie whole of a
grant of Tls. 3,000, issued for the purchase
of grain, to his family in Kiangsu ; another
to have sold grain, and supx)lied the suf-
ferers for whose relief it was issued with
half the proceeds; others to have allowed
their domestics or followers to appropriate
portions of the grain or funds that should
have been issued to the people.

(6) A decree based on a memorial from
the Censor Hii Shang-hwa, who represents
that the land adjacent to a temple called
the Kio-sheng-sze, in -whicli it has been
the custom to offer up prayers for rain, has
been appropriated by Mao-lin, Comptroller
of tlie Imperial Household, and his brother
Tsing-lin, as a burial ground. The
upulse of the Dragon has thus been
interrupted, and supplications for rain have
this year been offered in another place,
which accounts foi. their inefficacy. Olficeis
are directed to proceed to the temple in


52

[April 3.

question, and ascertain whether the facts
be as represented.

(7) The remainder of this dayJs Gazette
is occupied with a memorial from Li
Hoh-nien, acting Governor of Honan,
and Yuan Pao-heng, special high Com-
missioner for famine relief in the same
province detailing at great length
the measures they have adopted for the
administration of relief. They commence
by the assertion that agriculture is the only
industrial pursuit in the province, and that
the taxes, amounting to something over
Taels 3,000,000, are all derived from land.
Hence it follows that the important essen-
tial in famine relief is the preservation of
the people from death or dispersion, as
everyone so preserved forms an integer in
the aggregate, of taxpayers. A system of
relief, therefore, which fails to reach all
cases of destitution, while in the im-
mediate present it entails loss of life,
must in the end affect the Imperial
economy. Their endeavour therefore has
been to pursue a system that shall secure
to the utmost the preservation of human
life. After summarising the steps taken by
the former Governor, which have already
been reported, they go on to state that on
their succession to the control of the relief
measures, the first difficulty with which
they had to contend was insufficiency
of meansas lias already been submitted
in repeated memorials. It became at the
same time their duty to organise a basis
upon which charity should be dispensed.
After careful thought, they decided tliat it
would be right, while attending more
particularly to urgent cases of distress, not
to neglect those localities where the suffer-
ing was only partial, and instructions were
issued calling for careful reports as to the
actual condition of the varioiis localities,
supported by guarantees from the gentry
and elders resident in each district. A
list of the original number of families in
eacli districtwith the number at present
remaining, was also called for, and a corps
of private individuals for the issue of relief
was organised, in addition to the properly
constituted staff of authorities, care being-
taken to exclude all hangers-on of Govern-
meirfc offices, and disreputable gentry given
to dabbling in public matters. A set of
rules, 22 in number, were printed and dis-
tributed, that publicity and uniformity
might be secured. It lias been found im-
possible, however, owing to want of money
and supplies, to adhere rigidly to these rules.
The supplies at the disposal of each district
did not average more than 2,000 to 3,000
piculs of grain, and Tls. 2,000 to Tls. 3,000

in money, while the applicants for relief
amounted on an average to about 100,000
in each districtso that provision could not
be made for more than two issues of sup-
plies, each person receiving on either
occasion a few sheng of grain and a
few score of cash hardly enough to
support life for a fortnight. Thus the people
were soon reduced to their original condi-
tion of destitution, and it only remained to
issue peremptory orders for their reception
into the relief agencies, in order to save
them from immediate death from starvation.
More relief agencies were opened at a
number of places which are enumerated by
the memorialiststhat the people might be
enabled to obtain food within easy distance
of their homes. Hereupon the want of
supplies immediately made itself felt. One
by one the relief agencies originally estab-
lished reported that their stock was
exhausted, until very few remained open.
Difficulties were augmented by the unpre-
cedented cold. The Yellow River and Wei
River were frozen for more than fifty days,
so that neither the tribute rice nor consign-
ments from private merchants could be sent
forward, and all communication between
districts to the north and soutli of the great
river (Hwang Ho) was suspended, and rescue
became for the time impossible. Upon the
breaking up of the ice, entreaties for grain
and for money came pouring in like rain,
moving the memorialists to groans of despair
and bitter tears, for they had no answer to
give. Overwhelmed witmortification and
harassed with perplexity, while the memo-
rialists were regarding each other and
wondering what they should do, they were
informed that large numbers of those who
had escaped being frozen to death on the
banks of tlie river were migrating by thous-
ands daily, travelling in bands of ten on a
liundred, supporting their aged and bear-
ing their little ones upon their backs. The
numbers that have now reached the
provincial capital are too numerous for
disposal in the existing relief agencies, and
others continue to flock in faster than
arrangerents can be made for their re-
ception, while it is quite impossible to
provide them with funds and send them
back to their homes. Meanwhile a constant
stream of refugees continues to make its
way southwards, and orders have been
given to the local authorities to provide
subsistence and shelter for them, sending
in lists of the numbers that are relieved.
A decree having been issued last year call-
ing on all the provincial authorities to make
provision for the maintenance of famine
refugees, the memorialists have written in


April 35.]

53

their joint names to the GovemorsTGeBJ
or Governors of the provinces of Hukwng,
Kiangsu, Anhwei, Chihli, and Sh^nti^ng,
to request them to giv§ effect to this decree
and provide for the refugees Tsrha are now
finding their way into their respective prov-
inces, as the meworialisit? are unable to
invite them to return. They iiaye ^dded,
that these refuge should be supplied vU
means to return a? soon as rain

shall have fallen, or the autumn ha^ve^t
have beei^ gathered. They haYe a,lso in-,
yoked the charitably assistance of the
gentry and notables ir\ tlies^e pyoyinoes^
and avail therxiaelves oif the opportunity
now presented to repord their appreciation
of the spontaneous efforts of certain i the
above class whose names they enupaerate.

As the syateiu of ireli^f pursued in the
provincia,! capital will he carefully scruti-
tinised and followed by the aurro\mdi,g
districts, pa,rtiQul9r care has been ta^en ta
discriminate between cases of actual and
simulated distress, lists being made out
of the number of families resident in
each section, ward, or division o| tl^e
city. The refugees ]pLave been <^eait
with separately, relief being forded to
over 100,000 daily, and shelter given ta
about one-£fth. of that number. The
local authorities, have reported $, fall of
one or two inches, of snow, and hopes
are entertained that spring wheat and
vegetable aeeds may be sown in time in the
south-east of the province. Unfortunately
the Governnaent are not in a position t.o.
provide seed, and none is to be bought.

A proclamation has .been issued inviting
donations or loans of seed from th(?
wealthier classes, and asi soon as finappes
will permit, the provincial government will
purchase stacks for issue. The people
now keenly alive to the necessity of in^
creasing the supply of wells for purposes
of irrigation, ^nd officers acquainted with
the science of agriculture have b,een told off
to go about everywhere and urge them to
commence digging wells at once, Thes.e
officera have been provided with printed
charts explanatory of the system of agricul-
ture by the division of the land ii^to
squares to facilitate irrigation, whioh tl>ey
have been (iireptecl to distribute freely,
The memorial conoludes with an expression
of regret that amongst the agents employed
there are not a few who are vicious or idle,
looking upon the ent^stec^ to them

?ts an ordinary task to be executed in a
matter of course sort of way; or, much
T^orse, blind to the suffering and misery
before them, themselves indulging in pecula-
tion and dishonesty or allowing it to be prac- I

tisecl unchecked b.y othera. Careful and
secret enquiry will be i^ade for such
peysons, wha will be i^nsp^iQgly denounced
TApoaa; discoyery.Rescript. The system
for the provision of relief herein reported
is complete and satisfactory. L,et the
memorialists supervise its operation with
energy aUention. We ha,Y^ retained
the reg^l^tio^s |or pemaal.

April 4th,(i) A decree appointing Ki-
Ung, ofiGioer of the Imperil Guards of the
first rai^k, tQ t^ie post o| Ohi^f Comptroller
of the Hunting Grounds.

(2) Postscyipt metnofial by Li Kuen-yi,
Qovernor-Gfeneral oi the Liang-kwang, re-
porting the capture and trial of the leaders
of an affiliated society in Canton. The
n^en, fo.iir in number, were called respec-
tively Liang Ah-kiu, Wu Ah-kwaag, Feng
Ah^sho, a,n3 Hwang TJeng-fli-kwei. Liang
Ah-kiu deposed he and others, some
of them not in custody, had founded a so-
ciety called the beggars society, but
having picked vip one day an iron seal with
the three characters She- An Ta/ng engraved
upon it, they adopted these characters aa
tSe style of the brotherhaod and discarded
old name. They heated the iron atamp
red hot, and h^rnt a number of impressiona
upon slips of ban^boa, one of which they
gave to each member of the society as a
secret tol^en of membersliip. The aim of
the society was to extort money, and when-,
ever the person practised upon refused 1q
CQTp,ly with their demanda, they either
proceeded to direct acts of violence or.
awaited an opportunity to do him an injury.
They admitted that they had traded in girla
and woraen, and on two occasions had sold
them to go a,bxo.ad ; that they had kidnap-,
ped girls ^nd women ^nd sold them into
prostitution on two occasions ; that they
had once kidnapped a woman as sh^ei was
walking along the ro,a4 and held her to
ransom; and, finally, had waumied the
police authorities during a s\cce^sful at-
tempt to rescue one of their fraternity who
had been arrested for gambling. Liang Ah-
kiu, the promoter of the society, has been
summarily executed, and t^e remaining
three reserved for the custQmary rerhearing.
A free pardon has been offered to ^ny mem-
bers of the society, not the Oiriginal promo-
ters, who will give up their tokens.

April 5th. The whole of this days
Gazette is occupied with a memorial from
F-ao-fing, Tutor of the Imperial Academy,
suggesting a number of measures for the
better administration of famine relief.
These have already been summarised in a
decree of March 21st. He enlarges at great
length on the advantage of forcing ownd


54

[April 56.

the price of grain by persistent importation
of foreign grain, which should be imported
by the Government, and sold at cost price.
If the process is continued long enough it
must succeed in the end.

April 6th. (1) A decree based upon a
memorial transmitted by the Han-lin Col-
lege on behalf of a compiler of that institu-
tion. The memorial, like so many that
have recently appeared in the Gazette, is on
the subject of administrative reform, and is
answered categorically in the decree. The
abuses in connection with the Canton and
Foochow Customs have evidently been the
object for a pointed attack. A proposal
for the transfer of the control of these
establishments from independent superin-
tendents to the Governor-General and Gov-
ernor is negatived in the following terms :
The Canton Customs establisliment was
originally under the management of the
provincial Government, but in the year
1751 a superintendent was appointed. At
the instance of Tso Tsnng-fang some years
ago, the question of restoration of the
control to the Governor-General was raised,
and Jui-lien, who was Governor-General
at Canton at the time, reported, on the
matter being referred to him, that there
were three obstacles, which rendered transfer
inadvisable. A decree was thereiipon issued,
ordering that the existing system be con-
tinued. It is therefore unnecessary to
consider the memorialists application.

(2) A decree in answer to a memorial
transmitted by the Board of Punishments
on behalf of a second-class Assistant-Secret-
ary, also on the subject of administrative
reform and its bearing upon the question of
national calamities. The remarks of the
memorialist with regard to genuine admin-
istration of relief, improvement of the
sources of food supply, the enforcement of
the prohibitions against opium, the purity
of the official career, etc., are, each and all of
them, not incapable of application. Of late,
all suggestions that have reached Us from
officers high or low, have, when practicable,
been ordered to be adopted, and it is the
common duty of all officials, metropolitan
and provincial, to identify themselves with
Our endeavours to secure their genuine
application. Something more is wanted
than nominal obedience, or a compliance
that is merely formal. With regard to the
Secretarys suggestion that a sum of three
or four millions he borrowed from a foreign
firm (or firms), We have already pointed
out that the measure is attended with draw-
backs and inconveniences, and cannot be
carried out. His proposal need not there-
fore be considered. Opium is a source of

injury to the people and is a most abomin-
able thing. (5f late the cultivation of the
poppy and the diffusion of its poison has
increased more and more. Let Governors-
General and Governors stringently pro-
hibit its growth, and let it be clearly
proclaimed that neglect of the prohibition
will meet with certain punishment. The
purity of the official career is of the highest
importance ; and at a time like the present,
when applicants for the purchase of rank
are more than usually numerous, officers
supplying applicants with the necessary
guarantees must "be particularly careful in
their scrutiny of each person^ antecedents.
In future the guaranteeing officer will be
punished in the event of a person of mean
origin fraudulently obtaining rank by pur-
chase. A more active police surveillance
is ordered to be maintained in the metro-
polis, and enquiry is ordered to be made
into various abuses suggested by the memo-
rialist.

(3) A series of memorials from Metro-
politan officers requesting the prolongation
of the period for which the relief agencies
in and around Peking were originally
opened. There are at present eleven of these
establishments, each of which supplies
gruel to one or two thousand people daily.
(For decree see Gazette of March 20th.)

(4) Sung-kwei, Resident at Lassa, reports

the receipt of the following communication
from the e Huttfukhtfu in charge of the
Tibetan Treasury There are stated
seasons for the (iespatcli of an abbot with
a complimentary letter and articles of
tribute for Peking from Anterior and
Ulterior Tibet alternately. In the year
1873, the late Dalai Lama despatched
an abbot with a suite of clerics and
laity to offer tribute^ and in 1868, a
similar mission was despatched, which,
proceeded to Peking by way of SzechVan.
The period having now arrived for the
despatch of a fresh mission, it devolves
upon Anterior Tibet on this occasion to
send forward an abbot and suite with
articles of tribute similar to those pre-
pared in 1873, and a complimentary
address wishing His Majesty long life
and happiness. The articles of tribute
having now been reverently prepared,
an abbot has been selected to bear them
to Peking, accompanied by a suite num-
bering 40 persons. The secretary, there-
forerequests that arrangements may
be made for them to proceed by the
Szec]iVan, route. The Resident ob-

serves hereupon that the Imperial sanction
has been granted on successive occasions to
the visit to Peking at stated intervals of a


Apiul 67.]

55

tribute-bearing mission from Tibet, to
which a certain number of commercial
agents have been permitted to attach them-
selves with a view to engaging in barter.
Thus has the Imperial courtesy been dis-
playecl to the Dalai Lama who comes
nearly empty-handed, and goes back richly
laden. Officers have been deputed to
inspect packages containing tribute, and
take note of the contents and weight
of each, taking care to re-fasten them
securely, and an escort of six men will
accompany the mission to Cl^eng-tu, where
the Governor-General will make arrange-
ments for their advance to Peking. (For
Rescript see Gazette of 23rdMarqli.)

April 7th. (1) A Decree. The Censor
Yii Shang-hwa having recently asserted
that a portion of the land belonging to the
Kio-slieng temple, in which there is an
altar for sacrifices in connection with sup-
plications for rain, had been appropriated
for use as a burial ground by Mao-lin,
Comptroller of the Imperial fiouseliolcl
and his brother Tsing'-lin, We directed
Tsiian-tsing and Htl-tmig to investigate
the matter. They now report that the
ground appropriated by Mao-lin for a
burial place is, in effectGovernment
property, and although the priest in
charge of the temple affirms that the
fabric of the altar has not been re-
moved [as was alleged], the structure
abuts upon tlie burial ground, and is much
circumscribed thereby. A plan is submib-
ted with the report. Let Tsuan-tsing
and Hli-fung ascertain liow it cam to
pass that Mao-lin appropriated Government
land without authority to do so, and why
the priest in cliarge of tlie temple permitted
this unauthorised appropriation. Ts Ang-
lin, Director of the office for the control
of the Imperial Parks, in making his way
into the temple when the investigation was
proceeding, and endeavouring to exculpate
himself by specious explanations, has dis-
played gross ignorance of the obligation lie
was under to avoid affording opportunity
for remark. Let him, as a first step, be
handed over to the Board for the infliction
of a penalty. (See Gazette of 3rd April.)

(2) A Decree. The Imperial Clan Court,
Board of Civil Office, and Court of Censors^
submit the penalties that they have deter-
mined should be inflicted on the members
of the Grand Council. As an act of special
grace, We ordain that the penalty f dis-
missal which should be suffered by the
Prince of Kung, Pao-yiin, Slien Kwei-feng,
King-lien, and Wang Wen-sliao, be com-
muted to deprivation of rank with permis-
sion to retail! their posts.

(3) A decree handing over to the Board
tlie name of T5n Tsung-ying, Governor of
Honan, for the determination of a dis-
tinguislied form of reward, in consideration
of a donation of Tls. 12,000 offered by him
in aid of the sufferers by famine in the
province under his controL

(4) Memorial by Ch^mg-how and others,
requesting that a posthumous title may be
conferred on the late Manchu General-in-
chief Tuh Hing-ali, a sketch of. whose
career is given. (For Decree see Gazette
of 10th March.)

(5) Li Han-cliang, Governor-General of
Hu-kvvang, reports a substantial increase
in the receipts of the foreign Customs
establishment at Hankow, andat the
instance of the Financial Commissioner of
Hupeh and the Taotai of Hankow, solicits
the bestowal of honorary rewards upon the
subordinate officers employed at the Han-
kow Customs Office. The collection of
import and transit duties by the foreign
CiistomsestablishmentatHankoWjtliepire-
ventive service in connection therewith^ and
the conduct of foreign relations, are each,
ancl all duties of paramount importance,
requiring diligence and care on the part of
the subordinate officers entrusted with their
performance, if delays and errors are to be
avoided. During the period of three years,
counting from the month of January, 1872,
to the month of January, 1875, the import
and transit duties collected at Hankow
amounted to Taels 4,400,000 odd, and as
the records will testify, on reporting this
fact, tlie memorialist forwarded a list of
officials whom he recommended for honor-
ary distinction, which His Majesty was
pleased to approve. During the period
of three years, counting from the 1st
January, 1875, to the 1st January1878
which has now elapsed, it is found that
the receipts on account of import ancl
transit duties amount to Tls. 5,300,000
odd. The memorialist would submit that
since the establishment of the Hankow
Customs, the receipts for the successive
periods of three years have never, until
now, exceeded Tls. 4,000,000 odd. During
the period now under revision an excess of
Tls. 900,000 has been collected, showing a
very great improvement in the revenue.
The contributions due to the capital have
been forwarded punctually and in full by
the officers under the orders of the Taotai,
as lias been -reported on successive occa-
sions ;and the flourishing condition of the
revenue, as well tlie promptitude with
which the instalments due to Peking have
been forwarded, are entirely attributable


to the zeal and watchfulness of the subor-
dinate officials entrusted with the working
of the Customs establishment. They have,
moreover, displayed -a capacity for dealing
with international Questions with a spitit
of fairness and equity, abiding at th^ same
time by treaty and regulations, and thus
.gaining the approval and good will of
Chinese and loteigAets alike, ft Would
hot be right tlrerefare to suppress all
'mention of tlie inieritorious services, sHght
though they may be, of the oncers in the
'Custom Holise who have specially dis-
tinguished themselves, while 'the secretaries
in the same establishment, and the clerks
in the memorialises Yarn^n, who lhave dis-
played diligence and fairness in the conduct
Xjf affairs of an international nature, would
;alao appear to have a elainl to rewards of an
honorary description. A list of the names
of these officers is accordingly drawn lip for
His Majesty's perusal, in the hope that He
taiay be pleased to confer upon them honor-
ary distinctions, in order that zeal may be
encouraged.Granted by rescript.

April*8tb.{Court Circular-.) The Prince
of Kung fend other inembers of the Grand
Council retut& thanks for the penalty that
tias been inflicted ^pon them.

(1) A decree m answer to a representa-
lion from th6 officers in change of the
Imperial granariesand the OoVnor of
Shun-fien, ordering a relief agency to be
opened at Ohangukia-wan (the first of the
^our staged Mto which the journey from
Peking to l^entsin is usually divided), in
order to lieVe the strain upon t^e Tung-
*chow agencies. 2,(G0O piculs of riee a^e to
be appropriated from the Tung^chow
giranaiies Ifo? the support of the establisli-
fnents isi thSit town and at Chang^kia-wan.

<2) A d'eo^e i.answer to a meiftorial
^rom M*ia. T!ti-shan-, -Military Lieutenant-
Governofr'of ChJahar, who reports tteit two
er-officiafe condemned to service on the
ttiilitary post Toads have *wiade theit escape.
Ab there is reafecfla to believe that they have
p^litan authorities are instraofced to keep
tth ;acti*ve idok^out for them.

Li Sung-chang forwards a "PeiturTi of
ial cftses thalt have been disposed of in
theiproViifice of Chihli during the paart th-ree
years. In th^.year 1869 a code of *regula-
tions for tho more effectual Control of
litigation were put into operation. JihaTmg
the ^st period of three years since their
enacitment 'inoTe than 200,000 cases, 'long-
standing aind redent, were disposed of, and
on two occasion's since this date returns of
cases have bebrtiitted, accompanied by
a list of officers recommended for honorary

[April 78.

distinction. With so wide an area as that
which the province of Chihli embraces,
added to tlie turbulent and domineering
temper of its inhabitants, it would not be
fair to draw a parallel between the statistics
of this and other provinces, while it must
also be borne in mind that a succession of
bad years has caused a large amount of
misery and distress, and augmented the
returns of orime, more particularly under
the heading of brigandage and theft. This
lass of criminals has a tendency to im-
plicate as many persons as possible, and it
becomes doubly necessary to dispose of
cases of this description with promptitude,
in order to save many innocent persons
much inconvenience and suffering. The
memorialist has from time to time issued
orders to has subordinates, directing them
to adhere faithfully to the regulations above
referred to^ and to send in a monthly list of
outstanding cases^ with a return of the
number of criminals detained in custody, or
under surveillance, awaiting the settlement
'of pending eases^ as well as those who hay
escaped from justice. He has also deputed
trustworthy officers to hold occasional in-
spections, and has made promptitude or dila-
toriness in the settlement of these cases a
test of diligence or the reverse on the part of
the officials concerned. He has been careful
to fix a limit within which all appeal cases
referred from Peking^ or -coming from the
lower provincial courts, shall be settled ;
and in all cases that have come before him
personally he has insisted upon being
supplied with -copious minutes., scrutinising
these with minuteness in order to determine
whether decisions given have been just
and equitable. He has also given orera
that witnesses in any suit shall be carefully
protected from molestation by clerks and
official underlings, trying by every means
that lay in hia power to lighteoi the burdens
that litigation so often imposes upon the
people. BBe now begs to report that from the
1st day of the 1st moon of the 1st year of
-Kwang-sii, to the last day of the past year,
a period oi 3 .73"348 oases of different
descriptions were disposed of*, leaving only

1,000 'odd still to be settled, or less than
half the average amount of caaeB that pre-
sent themselves each month-. The memo-
rial concludes with a list of officers whoso
'exertions are particularly de'serving of eom-
mendation.

(5) The same officer reports that he has
^despartch-ed an official to Han-tan-hien to
escort the *4 iron tablet^ to Peking. On the
7th March he was honouTedwitk instructions
from His Majesty to the following effect :
4 £ Rain in the neighbourhood of the capital


April 89.]

57

having been exceeding scarce, prayers and
supplications have been repeatedly offered,
but as yet no fertilising downpour has been
vouchsafed. The fields are thirsting for
moisture, and We are looking for rain with
anxious longing. Let Li Hung-chang at
once despatch an officer to Han-tan-hien,
reverently to u invitev the tablet in the
Lung-shen Temple, and escort it to Peking,
there to be placed in the Kwang^-ming-
tien to await the arrival of fertilising rain.
On receipt of these instructions, the memo-
rialist was filled with admiration beyond
expression for the solicitude so unceasingly-
displayed by His Majesty for the welfare
of His people. He at once directed an
expectant Taotai to proceed to Han-tan
and bring back the tablet. Since the
month of June last year, the memo-
rialist continues, the northern pro-
vinces have suffered from drought, re-
sulting in an almost total failure of the
autumn crop, and rendering the sowing of
the spring wheat impossible to any extent.
On the 8th and 9th of February, and the
6th and 7th March, snow fell to a varying
depth of from 1 to 6 inches^ insufficient,
however, to moisten tke upper crust, which
has now so long been dry that the spring
wheat cannot be sown with any hope of
being in time to produce a crop. Numbers
have wandered from their homes, and
those who have not perished are waiting
to get back to their fields, so that rain
ia earnestly longed for to put an end
to all their trouble and misery. The
memorialist and his staff of subordinates
have again offered up prayers for rain,
proceeding on foot to the sacrificial altars;
and he has further directed the local

authorities to consider to what extent taxes may be
remitted, devising at th Bame time satis-
factory measures of relief, that so Heaven
may be moved to answer his prayers. Han-
tan-hien being over 1,000 li from Peking,
it will take tb officer about twenty^fcmr
days to go and return. In the (meantime the
memorialist has written Ceremonies and th^'Grovemot of Shun-t^ien
to make the usual arrangements for the
reception of the tablet. He conchides with
the expression of an earnest hope that the
desired rain may soon arrive, and pour ite
blessings on all both far and near. Then
will the Imperial heart fee solaced, and the
farmers hopes be realised. (For notice of
the arrival of the iron tablet, see Gazette
of 28tli March.)

April 9th. (Court Circular.) A number
of high officials present their respects upon
their return from the Eastern and Western

Mausoleawhere they have been to offer the
customary sacrifices at the ts^ing-ming-tdehy
or the 5th of the 24 solar terms into which
the Chinese year is divided.

(1) A Decree. Some time since the of-
ficers of the Imperial Household having
reported that it was impossible to effect
retrenchment in any of the various branches
of palace expenditure, omitting, however,
to submit a detailed list of the present
items of expenditure, We called upon them
to repair this omission, and they have now
submitted a return of the various headings
of expenditure, with a list of monies that
have still to be paid. We now command
the Grand -Secretaries and nine Chief
Ministries of State to scrutinise these lists
with care, and consider in what particulars
economies oan be effected. They will report
to Us the result of their deliberations.

{2) A Decree. The Censor Chow Sheng-
chu suggests for consideration the advis-
ability of continuing the permission for tliQ
sale of Szech,wan salt beyond the original area
allotted to the establishments of that pro-
vince simultaneously with the restoration of
th H wai-ngan trade, with a view to increasing
the funds for the relief of distress caused
by the famine. He also recommends
the distribution of honorary distinctions
amongst the salt merchants of Hunan,
Eliangsi, Anhwei, and Hupeh, who have
come forward with subscriptions in aid of
famine relief. Let the Board of Revenue
consider the proposals contained in the
memorial and postscript memorial of this
officer simultaneously with the memorial
from Siien Pao-'cheng, of March. 13th.
((See Gazette of 30th March.)

^Note.The arrangements under which,
the sali Gabelh is 'carried on in China has
always been somewhat of a piizzle to the
student of the Chinese #soal system. It
may not b therefore out of place to ap-
pend here a brief explanation of the manner
in 'which the taxes on salt, which form
so important; an iterii in the Imperial
Revenue, are derived. There are three
great salt .producing regions in China,

toown as the (in Kiangsu), the

in Chekiang, and the SzechVan
area respectively, which supply the greater
portion of the salt that is consumed in the
Empire. To each of these region^ an area
is assigned within which a monopoly of
the sale of salt is granted to contractors,
who purchase licenses entitling them to
sell in different portions of each area.
There is no restriction on the quantity
of salt produced, but only licensed con-
tractors are allowed to purchase it for


58

[April 910.

sale. Much jealousy has of late years
existed between the SzecliVan and
HVai-ngan monopolists, and the cause
of their disagreement has formed the
subject of numerous memorials and
decrees. In the early years of the T}aiping
rebellionwlieiitlTLeimvigationoftheYang-
tsze was interrupted, the province of Hu-
peh, wliich formerly belonged to the area
of consumption allotted to the Hwai-ngan
region, could no longer be supplied from
this source, and an arrangement was ac-
cordingly sanctioned under which the salt
consumed in tliat province was allowed to
be brought from Szech'vail. Since the
year 1808, attempts have been made to re-
suscitate the Hwai-ngan trade, and as it
was found impossible to drive the Sze-
cli,wan traders altogether out of Hnpeh, a
prohibitive tariff was laid on Szecli5wan salh,
with a view to encouraging the importation
of supplies from tlie eastward again. Tlie
authorities of Hupeh, on the other hand,
did all in their power to support the Sze-
ch,wan trade, which yielded them a large
income, and succeeded so well that they
managed to shut out the eastern depots
from a demand extending to upwards of

200,000 yina yin averaging about GOO
cattiesin addition to which a large con-
traband trade was being carried on. At
the present moment the situation is some-
what anomalous, for, while on the one
hand the HVai-ngan region claims the
monopoly of the Hupeh area, and the
justice of their claim is recognised by the
Government, .this province continues to
be fed from Szechwan in spite of protest
and prohibition. Censor after Censor
attacks the question, first from this point
and then from that; all of them, it is
reasonable to suppose, prompted, and it
may be bribed, by merchants interested on
the one side or the other, for the monetary
interests involved are immense, and the
exclusion of either party from the field
would involve large numbers in ruin. Tlie
Board of Revenue are apparently content
to let the question remain in abeyance, so
long as the revenue from this source remains
unaltered.

(3) Shen Pao-cheng, in a postscript
memorial, reports the death of Wu Ta-t5ing,
formerly Taotai of TaiAvan, who was ap-
pointed in the year 1870 to the post of
general supervisor of naval drill to the
Kiang-nan steam fleet. So important a
a post needs a competent officer to fill it,
possessed of technical knowledge and
experience. Tlie memorialist imagines that
he has found such a one in Li Chao-pin
a provincial commander-in-

cliief, at present stationed at Sung-kiang,
whom he requests may be appointed to the
post on probation, retaining at the same
time his present office. Rescript: Noted,
April 10tli. (1) A memorial from Tsni
Mu-chekeeper of the seals, and supervising
Censor, advocating the revival of the old
system of laying by a proportion of the
yield of each years harvest, as a provision
against times of scarcity. A law exists
under which each province is bound to
maintain a certain number of granaries for

the storage of surplus grain

capable of supplying each department or
district at any given time witfi a stock of
grain varying from several thousand to
several tens of thousands of piculs. The
funds for the purchase of this grain are to
be drawn from the exchequer, and the
sale of old stock for the purchase of fresh
snpj)lies is entrusted to the local authorities,
fraud and peculation being guarded against
by stringent and special regulations. By
this admirable and perfect system thorough
provision is secured, not only against times
of dearth or want, but also against unfore-
seen emergencies. Unfortunately, as time
Avent on, abuses sprung up, until dishonesty
and peculation prevailed to a painful degree.
At last, in the year 1864, a decree was
issued enunciating these regulations afresh,
and calling upon the provincial high autho-
rities to restore all granaries, whether under
Government auspices or private patronage,
that had fallen into disuse or decay, and to
see that they were furnished with their
proper supplies of grain. Had these
instructions been faithfully carried out
during the past ten years, tranquillity
would have prevailed tlironghout the
Empire, and tlie plea of devastation and
desolation cou]d never Lave been offered as
an excuse for failure in their execution, nor,
while each year\s harvest was not an utter
failure, could there be a reason for empty
granaries. Granted even that the public
funds would not admit of keeping supplies
up to the legal standard, had even half this
quantity been kept in stock, every district
would have been able to relieve its own dis-
tress, and never would it have come to pass
that directly this supply was drawn upon
operations would be brought to a standstill
for want of stock. Of late years, not only
lmve these graiifiries stood emptybut in
many instances they have eveai fallen into
decay or disappeared altogether. To refer

now to the application lately mad^ by Li

Hoh-nien for a loan from the Kiangiittn
public granaries. In the answer of the
Board of Revenue to this applicatioD, they


April 1011.]

59

stated that in the year 1876 there should
have been 954,000 piculs of grain stored in
the Honan granaries, and they were at a loss
to understand why the Governor should
neglect to make mention of this amount
and, apparently loth to part with his own
stock, should apply for assistance from a
distance. ItbeingapparenttliatLiHoli-
nien could not be guilty of such conduct,
it stands to reason tliat the supplies tlie
Board had reason to suppose were in stock
did not exist, nor is it likely that any other
province is in a better position. The whole
of the provincial governments are to blame
for this state of things, from Governors-
General downwards. It is the duty of
Department and District Magistrates iu the
first instance to report the condition of
their granaries, and for their superiors to
see that tlieir reports are correct. The
famine that has devastated Shansi and
Honan lias taxed the Imperial exchequer
very severely ; what would be the result
were other provinces to be visited with a
like infliction ? Is the Government, the
memorialist asks, to sit clown quietly and
tolerate this state of tilings ? Surely not.
He concludes, therefore, with a request that
a gradual return to the old system may
be insisted upon, that tlie existing
granaries may be repaired and set in order,
and provincial governments warned that
strict adherence to the regulations will be
required of them.

(2) A postscript memorial by Li Hoh-
nien reporting the receipt of a donation of
Tls. 1,000 each from three ladies, wives of
officials in the Canton province, all bearing
the name of Lungin aid of the suffering
in Honan. The < memorialist refers to a
standing regulation to the effect that in the
event of any person, not an official, whe-
ther of the literate or common class, con-
tributing a sum for charitable purposes
amounting to Tls. 1,000, the Imperial
sanction may be applied for to the erection
of a complimentary tablet in honor of such
person, upon which shall be inscribed the
wordsBy Imperial authority. One
that deliglitetli in good works and loveth
to dispense charity.The tablet is to be
constructed by the individual himself, but
the local authorities are to provide him
with Tls. 30 for the purpose. These ladies
having now each subscribed Tls. 1,000 to-
wards the relief of distress in Honan,
thereby evincing a thorough appreciation
of the duty of philanthropy, the memo-
rialist prays His Majesty, in accordance
with the law above quoted, to bestow upon
them individually a complimentary tablet
as a mark of Imperial approbation.

(3) In a Jengthy memorial the Governor
of Kiangsu, Wu Ynan-ping, declares his
inability to comply with the request of tlie
Governor of Honan for a loan from the
charitable granaries in the province of
Kiangsu, for the simple reason that these
granaries are empty, it having been found
impossible to carry out the standing regula-
tions with respect to the storage of grain
since the devastation of the province by
rebels.Rescript : Noted.

April 11th.(1) A decree appointing
Shao Heng-yii Governor of
Hunan. P£an-wei is to act provisionally as
Governor of Hupeh, from which post the
former officer is transferred.

(2) A decree granting permission to Che-
kang (one of the co-envoys of the Burlin-
game mission) to vacate his post as Imperial
Agent at Kcurun on the ground of ill-health.

(3) The Governor of Kiangsu memo-
rialises reporting the despatch of the first
detachment of junks laden with tribute
grain for conveyance to Tientsin by sea.
The memorialist has already reported
the measures adopted for the forwarding
of the first and second quality rice due
on account of tbe 1876 collection from
tlie prefectures of Soochow, Sung-kiang,
Ch^ng-choWj Clin-kiang and Tai-tsang
including the rice purchased from the
amount collected in money in the two
districts of Tan-yang and Kin-fan in the
Chen-kiang prefecture. He has also on
different occasions reported the amount
of the additional freights with which, in
obedience to orders, he had supplied the
China Merchants Companys steamers. The
Lieut. -Governor, the Financial Commis-
sioner, and Grain Intendant, now jointly
report that they are informed by the Wei-
yitan in charge of the grain transport office
at Shanghai that, having been instructed
to pusli forward the preparations for tlie
transport of the tribute grain, his first
step was to hire vessels, and, having taken
bonds from the owners guaranteeing the
emplojmient of their vessels on this ser-
vice, to advance moneyfortheirrepair.
In course of time the rice from different
portions of the iDrovince arrived by detach-
ments in Shanghai. The whole of the
second quality rice was shipped on board
the China Merclianta, Company^ steamers,
and the first quality rice was weighed
into the junks, as it arrived. The first
detachment lias now been shipped. It
occupies 100 junks, carrying a total
lading of 195,920 piculs, in addition
to 'vTiich other vessels have been laden
with an extra waste allowance of 15,673


60

[April 1112.

piculs. The freight and porterage have
been paid, and the master of each junk
has been called upon to sign a receipt for
the amount of cargo he carries. Einally,
the crews haying been inspected and a cer-
tificate granted for the arms they carried,
the fleet left Shanghai in detachments for
Woosung on the 2nd March, there to
await a favourable wind before putting
out to sea. The Governor has ordered
steam gunboat from the Shanghai arsenal
to be detailed to convoy the squadron and
expedite its xxioyemetifcs,

(4) The Gavernor of Chekiang similarly
reports the despatch of the first detachirxent
of tribute rice from his province, amounting
to 158,210 piculs, of which 87,390 were
forwarded by steainer.

(5) In a postscript memorial the same
officer reports that the Grain Intendant
Hu Yii-yUn left for Tientsin on the Tth
March to await the arrival of the above
instalment, stopping at Shanghai for a short
time en route. During his absence the
prefect of Hang-ehow will transact the
business connected with this office.

April 12th. (1) A Decree. Tseng Kwoh^
tsiian, Governor of Shansi, reports the
suppression of various gangs of local ban-
ditti within his province. Some five or six
hundred disbanded irregulars having risen
in revolt at a place called Tung-kung-k^,
situated at the back of a range of hills
known as the Ta-ts^ng-shan, gave them-
selves np to promiscuous pillage and rob-
bery. Ma-sheng, General of the Ta-t5ung
Brigadesent troops against them, who
succeeded, during successive engagements,
in capturing the leader of the revolt and
many others, all of whom were put to
death, A gang of mounted banditti to the
south of this range were also exterminated,
together with numbers of rebels who had
escaped into the mountains. Another rising
had also taken plaoe on the borders of the
Suh-chow and Ning-wu districts fermented
by one Hiung-liu and other disreputable
characters, who incited more than two
thousand of the starving people to assist in
plundering and burning the surrounding
Ullages. The Brigadier-GeneralKoli-^ts'ing-
fai and others went out against them
with a body of troops, whereupon they
had the audacity to entrench themselves
in their mountain fastnesses and offer
resistance. Our troops attacked them with
vigour, and sucoeeded in capturing alive
Hiung-liu and other leaders of the emeute,
besides killing several hundred of the
rebels. The well-disposed people who had
been forced to join the rising were released,
upon security being offered for their future

good behaviour, and quiet has now been
restored. After enumerating the names
of certain commissioned and non-commis-
sioned of&cers upon whom honorary rewards
are to be bestowed for gallantry displayed
in these operations, the decree concludes
with an expression of pity for the unfor-
tunate people whose sufferings have led
them to be persuaded into these acts of
violence, and the Governor Tseng Kwoh-
ts^an ia directed to secure the issue to
them of adequate relief, that they may
not be obliged to leaye their homes and be-
come vagrants.

(2) A decree censuring the officers in
charge of the Tsing-yun gate of the palace,
who report that the seal for use at this
gate haa been lost, and requesting that
another may be supplied. The Board of
Ceremonies is directed to. have another one
prepared, but the officers responsible for
the custody of the former seal are to be
handed over to the Board for the adjudica-
tion of a penalty, and the ocial in whose
immediate charge it was is to be placed on
his trial.

(3) A decree appointing Ying-kVei,
Imperial Agent at KNirun (Urga),
with brevet rank of Deputy Lieutenant-
General, (For decree permitting Che-kang,
the late Ageist, to vacate this post, see
Gazette of 11th April.)

(4) Sen Pao-cheng/Governor-General of
the tiang-kiang, represents in a postscript
memorial the impossibility of complying
with a suggestion of the Board of Revenue
that he should be called upon to provide
funds for the manufacture of silk fabrics
for palace use,, which shoulcl have been sent
forward last year, one of the periods of
delivery on a large scale. Haying been
directed by decree t give effect to the
Boards suggestion, he referred the matter
to the Finanqial Commissioner, who reports
that the n?inc?e3 his disposal are at an
unprecedentedly low ebb, the receipts for
the pfist year being insufficient eyeii to
provide for pay to the Manchu and Chinese
troops. The amounts owing n last yeftrs
delivery were as follows :

On the ordinary fabrics supplied on

periods of delivery on the large

scale .................Tls. 30,000

Miscellaneous articles........... 5,000

Additional white calico ......... 5,000

For Kansuh s^tin 3,500

B,right yellow satin............ 1^,500

Gauze (estimated value).......... 40,000

Wide satin....................... 60,000

Total, Taels... 160,000


April 12 13.]

61

Of the above sums, Tls. 30,000 have already
been paid on account of the first and second
headings, and Tls. 10,000 on account of
bright yellow satin, with Tls. 3,500 for
Kansuh satin. The balance due on account
of bright yellow satin will be made up out
of the surplus remaining over the estimates
of the late Superintendent of the Imperial
manufactory. In addition to the balance
still due, there still remains to be executed
an order for yellow satin damask from the
State Historiographers Officethe estimates
for which have not yet been made out.
So large a sum cannot possibly be produced
by the Commissioner, who has exhausted
every expedient and device for raising
funds. In view, however, of the persistent
and repeated demands of the Board, which
cannot be disregarded, the Commissioner
will do his utmost to pay Tls. 10,000 on
account, and hopes that he may subse-
quently be enabled to raise Tls. 20,000
more. This is the utmost he can possibly
do, and he begs the Governor-General to
represent the Condition of his finances to His
Majesty. The memorialist, in endorsing
the statement of the Commissioner, adds
that the support of famine refugees, and
the cost of catching locusts have been a
severe drain on an already impoverislied ex-
chequer. Applications for arrears of pay
to the troops are coming in from every
quarter, and in undertaking to furnish the
sums above-mentioned the Commissioner
has done the utmost it is possible for him
to do. Rescript : It is noted.

April 13th. (1) A Decree. The Board
of Civil Office report that they have consi-
dered the penalty which should be inflicted
on Hwang Ti-fang, Deputy Supervisor of
Instruction. Hwang T^-fang, in wrongfully
accusing Tung-stin of depravity and want
of principle on the faith of mere rumour
devoid of foundation, has exceeded the
right of speech to which he is entitled ; and
it would be only proper that the penalty
adjudicated should be inflicted upon him.
In consideration, however, of the fact that it
is the duty f the Supervisor to lay his
views before Us, and that he was actuated
by a desire to serve the public interestsas
a special act of grace We exercise the
Imperial prerogative and decree that the
penalty of deprivation of two steps of
honorary rank with permission to retain
his post, to which lie has been adjudicated,
shall be remitted. Let all officers whose
duty it is continue as heretofore freely to
offer suggestions and remarks, but, while
they should not remain silent from a desire
to gratify a love of peace and quiet, it be-
hoves them, on the other hand, to be careful

not to intrude upon the Imperial ear any
floating gossip they may pick up. (For
decree in answer to the memorial calling
forth this rebuke see Gazette of 2nd April.)

(2-3) Decrees sanctioning the prolongation
of the periods during which the establish-
ments Jor the issue of ruel in the southern
part of the Tartar division of the city of
Peking, and the fifteen agencies for the issue
of rice at the gates of the Chinese division
of the city, were severally to be kept
open.

(4) The Board of Ceremonies memorialise
with respect to tlie honors to be conferred
in a case of meritorious charity. The
Governor of Kiangsu having lately requested
that a mark of Imperial favour might be
bestowed upon P^ng Tsu-liien, ex-Governor
of Shun-fien, who had contributed lands
towards a fund for affording aid to the
indigent members of his clan, the question
was referred to the Board, who applied to
the Governor of Kiangsu for the necessary
particulars and guarantees. These have
been furnished after some delay, and the
Board now find that the circumstances are
as follows :P5eng Tsu-hien^ great great
grandfather, who was President of the
Board of War, and his great great uncle,
a metropolitan graduate, subscribed during
the reign of the Emperor Kien-Lung 300
mow of land, the rent derhed from which
was to be devoted to the assistance of any
indigent widows, orphans, aged, or sick
members of his clan, who were in need of
aid, and to supplement expenses on account
of funerals, burials, or weddings. This
land was called jun-tsv,-fien} or u clan
benefit land. In course of time, as the
numbers of the clan increased, it was found
that the fund was insufficient to meet the
object for which it was originally raised, and
PJeng Tsu-hieiVs father, a Grand Secre-
tary, determined to augment the capital.
It so happened, howevertliat at that time
tlie Taiping rebellion was at its height,
and he was unable to carry out his inten-
tion. His son, therefore, in reverent fulfil-
ment of his father^ wishes, has prevailed
upon different members of the clan to join
with him in subscribing 1,000 moiu of
land as a provision against dearth, and a
sum of Tls. 1000 in money, which has
been put out to interest. A public hall
for purposes of meeting and discussing
matters connected with the clan has been
erected, and a code of regulations has been
drawn up on the basis of those promul-
gated by Fan Chung-yen, a noted scholar
and functionary or the Sung dynasty.
A few of the older and most respectable
members of the clan have been constituted


62

[April 1314.

trustees for the distribution of the fund,
the surplus of which, after providing
for the objects already enumerated, is to
go towards the establishment of free schools
for the education of sons of the more
indigent members, in which a course of
education is to be pursued that will .
inculcate principles of propriety and
magnanimity. For those who cannot af-
ford to purchase a burial ground a free
cemetery is provided wherein their dead
may repose in peace. Fearing lest, in course
of years, the regulations now in force
would fall into disuse, and the fund would
thus fail to meet the objects for which it
was organised, PJeng Tsu-hien requested
that the matter might be brought to the
notice of His Majesty, and a record of the
objects of the institution be thus established.
The Board, after searching the records,
find that no regulations exist precisely
applicable to the present case, but they
quote a similar instance in wliicli the donor
was presented with an Imperial tablet as a
mark of approbation and encouragement.
Without venturing, in the absence of law or
regulation, to determine the precise form of
reward that should be conferred on P^ng
Tsu-hien, they beg to draw His Majestys
attention to the precedent above quoted.
(Decree already issued.)

April 14tli. (Court Circular) Hwang
T^-fang returns thanks for the remission of
the penalties to which he had rendered
himself liable. (See yesterday^ Gazette).

(1) A memorial from the Comptrollers of
the Imperial Household on the subject of
economy in palace expenditure. On the
9th March the office had the honor to
receive a message from Their Majesties the
Empresses ordering that thenceforward the
morning and evening meal be reduced to
half its ordinary quantity. Again, on the
19th March, the Grand Secretariat forwarded
copy of a decree from Their Majesties to the
effect that in view of the suffering and
misery that the people of Shansi and
Honan were undergoing, causing them to
desert their homes and wander elsewhere
in search of food, those in high, places
should not endure the slightest approach to
extravagance or waste. The Comptrollers
of the Imperial Household were therefore
to direct their secretaries of department to
exercise rigid economy in palace expenditure,
and submit estimates of the probable amount
of the retrenchments that could be effected,
remembering that every fraction of super-
fluous expenditure that could be dispensed
with would enrich by that amount the
funds to be distributed in relief. On the
name day a further decree was received

from Their Majesties commanding that
from that date the use of flesh should be
discontinued, and only vegetable food par-
taken of until rain had fallen. The
spectacle of reverent [submission to the
will of] Heaven and pity for the sufferings
of the people presented by Their Majesties
the Empresses and Emperor, who carry
rectification of self even to the exercise of
bodily abasement, will not fail to call forth
the respect and gratitude of each one of
Their Majestys servants and subjects,
whose manifest duty it will be to
identify themselves with the sacred com-
passion, and strive to exercise economy
and care, in the hope that Heaven may be
moved to pour down grateful rain. In
obedience to command, the memorialists
instructed their secretaries of department
reverently to scrutinise the various items
of palace expenditure, and they now find
that these have hitherto been in accord-
ance with law and regulation. Of late
years, owing to the impoverishment of the
Imperial exchequer in consequence of the
continuance of military operations in the
New Dominion, none of the necessary-
repairs within the palace have been executed,
nor has a single addition been made
to the articles now in use. This in itself
was dictated by imperati' e necessity, and
the hardness of the times has been so con-
stantly borne in mind that there has not
been the slightest extravagance. The
various meals served up to Their Majesties
each day have been reverently prepared in
strict accordance with law and regulation ;
but now that Their Majesties are pleased to
order the discontinuance of meat diet, a
saving of from Tls. 30 to Tls. 40 per diem
can be effected. Tlie meals furnished to
other inmates of the palace (? concubines
of the late Emperor and his father), are
served according to regulation, and being by
no means extensive are incapable of further
reduction. Beyond this there really re-
mains nothing upon which economies can
be effected. Inasmuch, however, as the
requirements of the Imperial household are
numerous and varied, if from time to time
it is found possible to reduce or dispense
with any items it shall not fail to be done,
and as soon as the economies thus effected
amount to an appreciable sum the memo-
rialists will again report. (For decree see
Gazette of 29th March).

(2) Li Pfei-king, Governor of Kweichow,
in a postscript memorial, reports the result
of an investigation into certain charges of
tyranny and extortion brought against a
captain in the army, Liu Hiung-jui
by name. Thi officer, who had been


A-Piiiii 14 1G.

63

promoted to his present rank for services
in connection with the organisation and
command of a company of militia, was
charged in the first place with extorting a
sum of Tls 40 from the residents of his
native town for the repair of a theatrical
stage in the temple to the tutelary deity.
The fact that the money was extorted is
established, but it was also found that the
whole of it was devoted to the object for
which it had been raised. Subsequent to this,
the same officer was amusing himself one
day with a display of dragon lamps in
his garden. A soldier who was passing by
looked in, and remarked that the display
was a i^oor one, whereupon Liu Hiung-jui,
displeased at his criticism, seized him and
began to beat and abuse him, insisting
upon liis performing the 2To_ of apology. This the soldier stoutly
refused to do, and Liu Hiung-jui then
unloosed his girdle, bound the soldier^
hands, and, seizing a bill-hook that was
lying handy, hacked away at the soldierJs
arms. Some passers-by who saw the
occurrence, remonstrated and begged the
captain to let the man go. He refused
to do so, whereupon they ran to
the Prefects Yamen and laid informa-
tion against him. Runners were then
sent to let the man go, and arrest the
captain, who was put on his trial. The
circumstances here narrated occurred so far
back as February, 1874, but owing to a
difficulty in getting the witnesses together
the hearing of the case has had to be
frequently postponed. The prisoner, when
he was eventually brought to trial, admitted
his guilt, and nothing remained but to
pass sentence upon him. This, under
ordinary circumstances, would have been
banishment for 3 years with 100 blows, but
as the offence was committed prior to the
Act of Grace of December, 1874, the penalty
is remitted. The charge of extortion was
too trivial to be entertained.

April 15th. (1-2) Decrees ordering a
renewed succession of prayers for rain to
be held on tlie 18th instant, and allotting to
the princes and other high officers of State
the different temples at which they are to
burn incense.

(3) A decree announcing the following
appointments and transfers :President of
the Board of Punishments, TsUan-tsing

(late President of the Court of
Censors.) President of the Court of Cen-
sors, Ngen-ch^ng (^a^e Vice-Pres-

ident Board of Civil Office.) Senior Vice-
President of the Board of Civil Office,

Ch^ng-how /(transferred from the

Board of War.) Cli'eng-lin |y|^ to act
during his absence. Senior Vice-President
of the Board of War, Kwim-kang

(transferred from the Vice-Presidentship of
the Board of Ceremonies, to which he was
appointed on the 22nd March. Junior
Vice-President of the Board of Ceremonies,

Sung Shen .

(4) A Decree. Yesterday, when inter-
viewing Tsao-pao, President of the Board
of Punishments, We observed that he was
weak and depressed, and it is to be feared
that he is not in a condition to give that
complete attention to the onerous duties of
his office that these require. Let him
therefore vacate the Presidentship of the
Board of Punishments. He will retain the
Lieutenant-Generalship of the Mongolian
division of the Plain Red Banner.

(5) A memorial from the Governor-Gen-
eral of Min-ch^h, submitting an application
from an aged widow for permission to
commute by a monetary payment a sen-
tence of banishment into military servitude
that has been passed upon her only-
son, for employing a substitute at the
provincial examination. The woman ofiers
Tls. 10,000, and as precedents liave already
been afforded for the commutation of
penalties for a like ofience, the memorialist
urges that the application may be sanc-
tioned. 'I'hey are sorely in need of money
at Foochow. Floods and rains have injured
the river embankments to an extent that
will necessitate costly repairs, and great
expense has been gone to in the purchase
of a foreign dredger, the construction of
vessels, &c.Referred to the Board of
Punishments.

April 16th.Xl-2) Decrees announcing
the following appointments : Lieutenant-
General of the Manchu division of the
plain yellow Banner, Ngen-lin
Lieutenant-General of the Han Kiln divi-
sion of the same Banner, Te-fuli jjfg.
Intendant of the T^ng-shang circuit in
Shensi, Stin Lwan-wei .

(3) The Court of Censors memorialise
forwarding an appeal by one Wang Fang-
lien, holding brevet rank as u Probationern
of the Han-lin College, who petitions as
follows :UI come from Hu-lan-fing in the
Heli-lung-kiang province. My uncle King-
slum was defrauded of his money and done
to death by one Ts^i Ohen-f uh with the as-
sistance of a iDetty official called T^o-shan, and
it waa given out that he committed suicide


64

[April 1617.

by hanging himself. King-tien, another of
my uncles, having appealed to the Court of
Censors in 1875, a second inquest was
ordered to be held. On this occasion the
sub-prefect who presided was bribed with

4,000 easily and a false verdict was again
returned. My uncle appealed a second
time, and as before was sent back to be
present at a fresh inquest. This time, a
Secretary from Slieng-king called Si-chang
was sent to hold the inquest. He came to
my house and opened the coffin. The
flesh on the corpse had not decayed, and
after rubbing the body with paper, and
washing it, the skin was restored to its
normal condition, when livid spots were to
be seen on the lower part of the abdomen ;
there were no marks round the neck to
indicate death by strangulation. The
Secretary refused to proceed further with
the inspection and insisted on the relatives
of the deceased signing an authorisation
for the application of the steaming test.
The Secretarys reason for acting in this
manner is perfectly clear. He had spent a
month previous to the inquest with the
sub-prefect who conducted the first enquiry,
and who is a connection of his own. Should
a finding be now entered different from
that reported in the first instance by the
sub-Prefect, he would get into trouble;
there is no doubt therefore that an under-
standing has been come to between the
two. The corpse examiners also have been
suborned by the parties who compassed my
uncles death, and there is no hope of
being able to get justice done. I am,
therefore, constrained to lodge this appeal
and pray for redress. The Military Governor
of Kirin, Ming-an, is one who loves the
people as his children, and if my case may
be brought before him, I will be willing to
take the coffin to Kirin at my own expense.
I humbly pray, therefore, that your honour-
able Court will apply, to His Majesty for
the necessary permission. (For decree see
Gazette of 31st March.)

Postscript memorialbyTingPao-
cheng, Governor of SzechVan. Some time
since he received instructions to supply the
province of Shansi with Tls. 60,000 on loan.
This amount has already been forwarded
as earlier reported. He has now received
a private letter from Yen King-ming,
special commissioner for famine relief
in that province, appealing earnestly for
further aid, and drawing a picture of
the desolation and misery that prevailed
which, stirred the hearts of memorialist
and his subordinates. In view of the
urgency of the circumstances, memorialist
haa felt it his duty to appropriate a

a further sum of Tls. 50,000 from the
provincial treasury, to which he has added
a personal subscription of Tls. 2,000, the
Lieutenant-Governor Tls. 5,000, and the
Financial Commissioner and Salt Intendant
together Tls. 2,000, besides subscriptions
from other officials amounting in all to Tls.
1,600, making a grand total of Tls. 60,600,
which was forwarded to Shansi on the 22nd
February last. Rescript : Let the Board
take note.

April 17th.(1) A Decree. Liu Hai-ngao,
compiler of the jETctn-Kn College, and others,
request that orders may be given for the
temporary levy of an additional lehin on
Hwai-ngan and Szech/wan salt to be applied
to famine relief. Let the Board of Revenue
consider their memorial simultaneously
with those of Shen Pao-cheng and Chow
Sheng-chu.

(2) A decree appointing Tsai-ling
Director General of the Mongolian depart-
ment of the Veritable Record Office.

(3) A decree lamenting the continuance
of the distress in the provinces of
Honan and Shansi, which still remains
unabated, while no reports have arrived
of rain having fallen in any quantity. The
provinces of KiangsuAnhwei, Kiangsi,
Chekiang, Fulikien, Hupeh, Hunan,
Shantung, SzechVan and Kwangtung are
each immediately to provide some tens of
thousands of taels, which are to be for-
warded to the famine provinces without
delay.

(4) The remainder of this day^ Gazette
is occupied with a memorial from Hwang
TJi-fang, Deputy Supervisor of Instruction,
which has already been summarised in a
decree of the 2nd April, and his attack
upon Tung-siin, President of the Board of
Revenue, severely censured. He divides
his subject into numerous headings, com-
mencing with an exposition of his views
on the question of foreign loans in the
following terms :During the past year
the metropolitan and provincial authorities
have exhausted every device ; voluntary
contributions and exhortations to charity-
have been pushed to their utmost limit,
and all that is now obtainable in the way
of funds are miscellaneous driblets of no
material advantage, or the execution of
schemes the maturing of which will take
too long to meet the urgency of present
needs. While plans are thus being turned
over, and assistance delayed, the dying are
already dead, and brewing tumult has
burst into activity. To obtain the large
sums that are immediately required, loans
must be contracted with foreign merchants,


April 1718.]

65

from whom five to six million (taels ?) can
be procured, with which foreign rice should
be purchaaed. If telegraphic instructions
were sent froii^ Shanghai to foreign coun-
tries to purchase anS/ send forward grain
or rice of any description, it could be laid
down in Shanghai in two months, and at once
distributed in the provinces of Shansi, Ho-
nan, and Chihli. If it be argued that the
magnitude of the amounts suggests appre-
hensions as to the possibility of repayment,
it may be asked what, if brigandage or
revolt arise and military operations are
once set in motion, will be the outlay in a
single year ? In ancient days a precedent
was afforded for contracting foreign loans ;
Tsin borrowed from Tsin, and Lu from
Tsi; and in the straits to which the Govern-
ment is now reduced there is no alternative
but to have recourse to this method. The
supervisor next attacks the question of
distilling. He estimates the amount of
grain yearly consumed in the production of
spirits within the province of Chihli alone
at from five to six million piculs. The
furnaces employed are as large as an
ordinary room, and the volumes of smoke
they emit can be seen for miles, and appear
at a distance as if they proceeded from
the funnel of a steamer. The Board of
Revenue have negatived the suggestion for
the temporary prohibition of this industry,
as submitted by Li Hung-chang; and why?
simply because they will thereby lose some
Tls. 30,00G subsistence money that
they have hitheit-D derived from the sale
of licences for this manufacture. The
staff of officers employed by this particular
Board is comparatively large, and surely
the small amount which would be re-
alised by each individual from the dis-
tribution of this sum is insufficient to
warrant its retention at the expense of the
people at large. He then discusses in turn
various measures for the better provision
of relief ; urges the necessity of affording
greater facilities for expression of opinion
on the part of subordinate officers, who,
from their immediate contact with the
people, are often able to give more sound
advice than those who are higher in the
official scale; and the advisability of
granting more frequent audiences to civil
authorities, who of late have often
been excluded from the presence by tlie
number of military officials that are re-
ceived, men for the most part devoid of
any experience beyond the narrow sphere
of their official duties, in whom an arrogant
and overbearing spirit is fostered by the
honor that is thus conferred upon them.
He then makes the furious onslaught

upon Tung-siin, President of the Board of
Revenue, whom he stigmatises as vicious
and devoid of principle, a man who during
the past year has persistently negatived
every suggestion connected with famine
relief, and thus checked the flow of the
Imperial bounty, ignorant apparently of
the fact that the pulse of the stateand
the essence of good government consist in
the maintenance and preservation of the
people. He negatives appropriations of
tribute grain because, forsooth, he must
have regard for radical interests he
negatives the issue of grain for sale at
reduced rates, the* very measure tliat
should be adopted in the interests of
the metropolitan population for whose
tv elf are he professes such solicitude. The
character of the man in other respects
is plainly evident from his refusal, in
his grasping avarice, to acquiesce in the
cessation of distilling operations. The
head of the Board of Revenue, the comp-
troller of the finances of the Empire, is un-
able in a time of dearth like this, when the
Imperial heart is exercised day and night,
to offer a single remark or devise a single
plan. Surely he. cannot escape from the
penalties attaching to incompetence. Add
to this a covetous and despicable spirit,
a heart full of deceit and fraud, calling
forth the execration of his colleagues in
the Tsung-li Yamen and the curses of
the entire nation. Can such a man be
entrusted with the control of affairs of
the State or the welfare of its people ?
The memorialist earnestly hopes -that His
Majesty will cut short his official career.
The memorial concludes with a criticism
on the laxity of the judicial system illus-
trated by several examples. (For decrees
see Gazettes of 2nd and 13th April.)

April 18th. (1) A decree in answer to a
suggestion from the Censor Ts^o Ping-che,
requesting that the agencies for the issue of
rice gruel within the Tartar city of Peking
may be removed to places outside the cit>
walls. Care should of course be taken to
discriminate between the really indigent
and bad characters who are sure to be
found amongst the thousands that apply
daily for relief, and any charitable persons
wishing hereafter to establish agencies of,
this description must place them without
the city walls, but the removal of those
already in existence involves too great and
sudden changes to warrant the step being
taken.

(2) A Decree. The Censor Ts^o Ping-che
represents that the fall of rain in the
southern provinces has been excessive, and
begs that attention may be directed towards


66

[April 18 19.

provision against pending calamity. When
has such a thing before been known as uni-
versal desolation from floods and drought ?
It is the duty of all provincial high
authorities in ordinary times to devise and
plan measures of precaution, that when
calamity does arise there may be provin-
sion to meet it. If, as Tsao Ping-che
declares, in the provinces of Kiangsu,
Chekiang, Kiangsi, Falikien and. Kwang-
tung the frosts and snows of Winter
have been followed by incessant rain for
days in succession, insomuch that agricul-
tural operations could not be carried on at
their proper season, and seed rotted in the
ground, then it is greatly to be feared that
the harvest will be a bad one, and the people
will look forward with anxiety to the distress
that awaits them. Let the provincial high
authorities concerned carefully investigate
the condition of the various districts under
their charge, and make timely provision for
threatening distress. Inspection should be
lield of the stores of grain in hand, and
where these are deficient, monies should be
appropriated for the purchase of further
supplies. Their subordinates must be
strictly enjoined to take steps duly to
secure the object in view, and bare state-
ments or nominal compliance must in no
wise be accepted.

(3) A decree of the stereotyped nature,
on purity of official administration.

(4) A memorial by Kiang Yuan-tsieh,
secretary in the office of registration for
military storesa sub-department of the
Board of Warand second class assistant
secretary on probation, who submits at
great length his views on different subjects,
which have already been noticed in a decree.
The chief topic of interest upon which
he touches is that of foreign loans. He
states that there are more than ten
million sufferers from want in the four
provinces of Shansi, Honan, Shansi, and
Chihli, who have been reduced to such,
extremities that they feed on dead bodies,
or, even worse, eat one another^ children.
The recital of such horrors makes one
shudder with disgust. To meet misery of
such magnitude large funds are required,
and local resources being exhausted, the
memorialist begs to propose that three or
four millions of taels in foreign currency
be borrowed from foreigners, to be applied
to the purchase of any grain fit for con-
sumption in the northern provinces, which
should be shipped by steamer to Chefoo
and Tientsin for transmission inland.
Should there not be sufficient grain in
the South or the islands to the South,
negotiations might be entered into with

foreign and native merchants for the pur-
chase of supplies from Manila. Lew-chew,
Japan, or Corea. Now that milita^v opera-
tions are at an end, no appreliei.sions n >ed
be entertained as to the difficulty t repay-
ment of any loans, however large ; the land
tax can well be appropriated to the payment
of all such by instalment. (For decree see
Gazette of 6th April.)

April 19th. (Court Circular.) The Gov-
ernor of Shun-tien reports a rainfall of
two inches and upwards of saturation. Si-
meng-k^-si-k^ has tendered his testament-
ary memorial.

(1) A decree remitting the penalties
which Li Hung-chang has requested may
be inflicted upon himself for his inability to
combat successfully the suffering and want
in the Ho-kien and other prefectures of his
province. The Governor-General has been
most zealous and energetic in rendering
assistance to Shansi and Honan, and in the
face of the present calamity, with festering
want so prominently before them, it only-
remains for the Sovereign and his Ministers
mutually to examine into their shortcomings
with reverence and fear, and to hope that by
amendment of their ways and the cultiva-
tion of virtue, the present calamity may be
taUen away and peace given unto the people.
Let Li Hung-chang, then, identify himself
with the unceasing care and solicitude dis-
played by Us, and put forth all his energies
in the devising and execution of measures
that shall meet actual suffering in a com-
plete and satisfactory manner, and so show
himself worthy of the confidence that has
been reposed in him. As a special act of
grace, We command that the penalties that
Li Hung-chang has requested may be in-
flicted upon himself shall be remitted.

(2) A decree expressing the Imperial
regrets on receipt of intelligence of the
death of Si-meng-k,o-si-k,o, Deputy Lieut-
enant-General of the Han-Tdin division of
the plain white banner corps, who rose
from the rank of a common soldier to his
present position, and has on many occa-
sions distinguished himself on the field
of battle. The customary honors are to be
paid him, and all official penalties recorded
against his name are to be remitted.

(3) A decree conferring the appointment
of Lieutenant-General, that has fallen
vacant through the death of the above

officer, upon Te-fuh (transferred

from the yellow banner corps to which he
was appointed two days previously.) The
post vacated by the former is conferred upon

Che-lidi


Full Text

PAGE 1

TRANSLATION OF THE PEKING GAZETTE FOR 18 7 8. SHANGHAI: REPRINTED FROM THE "NORTH-CHINA HERALD AND SUPREME COURT AND CONSULAR GAZET'rE." 18 79.

PAGE 2

PREFACE. THE year 1878 has been one of great anxiety for the Government of China. One of the most disastrous and terrible famines that history has to reoord has afflicted a large portion of the Empire, and the memorials reporting the progress and extent of this famine are full of the deepest interest. The eloquent and touching appeals for aid from the high authorities of the provinces directly interested, the exhortations to economy, and outcries for administrative reform that have been submitted by Censor after Censor, with the decrees that these have called forth, show that the "heart of the Empire" has been deeply moved. However temporary the excitement may be, there has undoubtedly been a genuine desire on the part of many energetic and earnest men to direct the attention of their rulers to the numberless abuses that are sapping the foundations of Empire, and the memorials on this subject are exceptionally numerous and interesting. The conquest of Kashgaria has put an end to a costly war, the maintenance of which for the past sixteen years has been a heavy drain on the Exchequer. The triumphant decrees that follow the announcement of the victories of the successful general Tso Tsung-t'ang show what importance is attached to the completion of an enterprise that was at one time regarded by the European world as perfectly hopeless. The usual copious index will be found at the commencement of the volume, the usefulness of which will, it is hoped, be incteased by the record it contains of all promotions and official transfers, which have been noted during the past year with special care. Owing to unavoidable circumstances, the translations for the last six weeks of the year were prepared by a different hand, which will account for a lack of uniformity in the orthography of proper names. SBANGIUI, 1879.

PAGE 4

INDEX TO THE PEKING GAZETTE FOR 18 7 8. For purposes of classification, with a. view to ready reference, the contents of the Peking Gazette, a.s translated in this volume, have been indexed under six principal headings, viz :-Court Affairs, Judicial and Revenue Administration, Civil and Military Administration, Instruction, Worship, and Usages, External Relations, and the Provinces. Under each Qf these main divisions, the subjects are still further arranged in approp1iate categories. I.-COURT AFFAIRS. Imperial Genealogical roll completed ....................... Prince Peh-yenna-mo-hu had audience ................... Court Ceremonial New-Year's Day .... : ................... .. Beililh Tsai Ying admitted to entree ...................... .. Prince of Cheng granted conge ............................... .. Death of Empress of Tung Chih-Ceremonies on com pletion of three years' mourning .......... Pottery for Palace from Kiukia.ng .......................... Palace economies .................... ............................. Do. do. .. ............................................... Do. do. .. ................................................. Palace Gate-Loss of Seal ..................................... .. Imperial Banqueting Court-Charges against Secretary. Portrait of late Emperor-Arrival of ...................... .. Do. do. Installation of ................. Reverential attitude of Court and Ministers .............. Presents of Crape to Prince of Tun .......................... Do. Bird's nests do. do. .. ....................... .. Yuan Ming-yiia.n, Colonel, steals materials .............. Decree on meteorological portents, popular superstition, &c ................................................... Ja.n. 2, 12, 21. Jan. 30. Feb. I. Feb. I. Feb. 22. March 3. March 18. March 29, 30. April 2, 9, I4, 26, 27. Mayl4. Aprill2, 30. April28. May4. May I4, 29. May 25, June 8. May 27. Sept. 9. June 11. June 11, 24. Imperial Clansmen-Scheme for removal to Filng-t'ien abandoned.......................................... July 3, 20. Do. do. do. Two months' pay July ll.

PAGE 5

Birthday of Senior Empress Dowager (Aug. lOth) July IZ. Do. do. Mistake of Financial Commissioner..................... July 16. Do. Emperor-Ceremonies to be observed ...... July 20. Winter hats-commenced to be woFn "'' ....... ,, ... Sept. 22. Prince of Fow, adopted successor.............................. Sept. 23, Oct. 9. Imperial Equipage Department-Arrears owing to ... Oct. 4, 19. Do. Osequies-date of....................................... Oct. 15, 29. Prince of Kung-Present of silk ..... .. ... .. .. ..... ... .... Dec. 4.. Ta CMng-tien-Date fOT commencing repairs ............ Dec. 26. MAUSOLEA. Repairs at Mu Tung.-Iing sanctioned ........................ Feb. 17, Mar. 7. Do. do. P'u-to-yii ............................ May 23. Troops at Mausolea-Insnfficiency of supplies for ...... March 11, April23, May 28. Return of Officers from Spring Sacrifices .................. April 9. Officers appointed to vacancies in Buttery Offices......... July 28. M iug Tombs-Sacrifice at .. .. .... .. ..... .. .. ... Sept. 3. Survey of repairs ordered ........................... "''.... ... Sept. 7. Fittings, etc., for Buddhistic room at Tung-ling ......... Sept. 16 Sums owing to Shantung for of Mausolea... Nov. 12. Expenses of guard-houses a_t Mausolea repudiated by Governor-General
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iii Provincial Courts-Delay in hearing of cases Sept. 6. Appeal Cases-Re-hearing of by Provincial Judges-Question to be considered ...... ...... ...... ... Dec. 14. Summonses in Civil Suits-Peking-Sea.ls affixed to ... Dec. 21. Formosa--Lin Tai-she's renewed appeal-re murder of her son ......... ................................... Jan. 4. Shantung-Murder case .. .... ...... ...... .... .. ...... ...... ...... May 3. Disputed right to water privilege ............ July 25. Burglaries in Tan District........................ Aug. 27. Kiangsu-Murder of father by uncles of appellant ...... June 2. Hupeh -Murder by proprietors of manufactory ......... June 16. Murder and robbery by local bullies ... _...... Sept. 13, 30. Son appeals against murder of father .. .... .. .. .. Oct. 28. Huna.n -Murder of husband by his father-in-law ...... Aug. 6. Shopma.n poisoned by his partner ............... Aug. 6. Robbery of official ...... .. .... ...... .... .... .. .. .. ... Sept. 5. Fuhkien-Murder of father and falsification of evi dence ............ ..................... ............ ... July 10. Two men gouged by relatives .............. .... Sept. 13. Mongolia-Extortion and murder by Kharach'in Tabunang .......................................... July 18. Jehhoh-Murder of eight persons ...... .................... Sept. 6. Anhwei-Ma.gistrate appeals against dismissal ......... ... July 22, Aug. 6. Szech'wa.n-Old woman trodden to death ...... .. ...... ... Aug. 3. Suspicious death .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. Aug. 3. Robbery of widow................................. Sept. 5. Magistrate appeals against dismissal...... ... Sept. 8. Mother beaten to death ...... .................. .Nov. 24. Hona.n-Son appeals against murder of his father by burglars ..................... ........................ Aug. 27. Lungkiang-Appeals against finding at inquest ... April 16. Kirin, burglary and murder-Charges against Governor Sept. 15. Do. attempted seduction and suieide .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. Oct. IS. T'ung Chow-Illegal imprisonment and death of pri soners .. .. ... .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... Sept. 30. CMkiang-Appea.l against official extortion ............... Nov. 2. REHBARINGS. Heh Lungkiang-Inquest on body of suicide............... Mar. 20, 31, Apr. 16, Aug.12, Oct. 9. Hu Kwa.ng-Suspicious death of old man .................. July 19. Shengking-Homicide... ... .. .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... ... Oct. 30. Kiangsu-Suicide of widow taken away from her second husband ............................................. June 28. CRIME, Hupeh-Adultery and murder-Woman executed by ling-ch'e ............ ............ ..................... Jan. 1, 13, July 27. Incest and murder-W oma.n executed by ling-ch'e .......................... ,_............... April27. Burglary in Ching-siang district.................. July 29. Execution of official for forging seals, &c....... Nov. ll.

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iv Kiangsu-Parricide of ill-tempered mother ... ......... ... Aug. 22. Peking-Burglaries committed................................. Jan. 21, April2. Theft by Secretary of Board ......... ...... ... ... March 13. Burglaries-Orders to authorities ............... March 14. Pillage of food shops .... .. .. .. .......... ...... ... ... April 3. Fraudulent assumption of official rank ... .. .... April 30. Robbery of gra.vee ...... ... ...... ... ......... ... .. ... May 18. Gambling in-Prohibition against ............... Dec. 4, 17. Kweichow-Felonious intermarriage of official............ Feb. 24. Official's c
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V Ch'a-har-Capture of banditti, &c., in neighbourhood of Great Wall ................... ;...................... June 29. Kwangtung-Occupation of Fo-kang T'ing by banditti. Sept. 12. Kwangsi-Banditti at Rwai-yuan ... ......... ............... Oct. 31, Nov. 15. CM-kiang-Rising in K'ti-shan................................. Sept. 18, Oct. 4. Arrest of lelcin rioters.............................. Nov. 16. Kirim-Outlaws exterminated ................................. Nov. 4. Hu-kwang-Capture and execution of marauders......... Nov. ll. OPIUM. Ngan-hwei-Duties on opium ............................... .. Taotai Liu Hien--Suspended for opium smoking ........ Cultivation of Poppy-Prohibition .......................... Reference to .......................... Efforts at suppression in Kansuh. Penalties in Shansi ................ .. District Magistrate in Kiang-su-Protest against dismissal ............................................... Lelcin on Foreign Opium (note) ................................ : Duty on do. Peking .......... ,, ................ Poppy Cultivation-,.-Officer degraded for neglecting to enforce prohibition .. .. .. ........ .. Do. do. Sht\nsi-Effects of prohibition, &c ... Do. do. Shansi-Further prohibition .......... .. LEKIN. Malpractices by collector irr Hupeh ......................... .. Unauthorized levy by notables at Fank'ow ............. .. Carelessness of Superintendent of Collectorate Proposals for additional lekin on salt ...................... .. Censor Tung Tsung-han on lekin .................. : ......... .. Lekin on silk-Chllkiang ....... ................................ Do. from Kiang-su for .................................. .. GRAIN TRIBUTE. Chllkiang-Freights for C. M. S .. N. Co. .. .............. .. Kiangsu-Tribute forwarded ................................ GRAIN TRANSPORT. Kiangsu-First instalment despatched ................... .. Seoond arid last do. .. .................. Economies proposed ............................... .. CMkiang-First instalment proposed ....................... Last do. Shantung-Loss of grain junk ................................ Hukwang-Co=utation of tribute ....................... RIVERS AND CANALS. Preservation of water supplies ................................ Yellow River-Spring freshets ................................ Do. "Peach" freshets ............................ .. Do. Repairs to embankment ..... .' .. .......... .. Do. Dangers averted .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Chih-li-Suggestion that law of "respectft
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Shantung-Report on condition of Grand Canal July 24. Grand Canal-Summer freshets ...... ....................... Sept. 17. Embankments, &c., at Fan-k'ou Hupeh ..................... Oct. 26, Nov. 9, 30. Grand Canal-Memorial from Superintendent of Peking Ganaries . .. .. Oct. 31. Do. Officers sent to inspect........................ Nov. 18. Yungting River-Overflow and rewards to officials ..... Nov. 21. Repairs to Canal near Yang-chow Fu ........................ Nov. 25. Yellow River-Repairs to banks .................... ......... Nov. 27. Ts'in River-Overflow of .. . .. Dec. 1, 2. Yellow River-Overflow at K'ai-chow. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. Dec. 20. Grand Canal-Repairs to upper portion..................... Dec. 4. Yellow River-Continued safety, &c.................. ...... Dec. 6. Do. Tour of inspection ........................... Dec. 17. Grand Canal do. do. ... ... ... .. .. ... ... .. Dec. 18. Embankments at Fan-kow-Difference of opinion be tween Admiral and Gov. Gen. .. ... ... ... Dec. 30. REVENUE AND CUSTOMS, Shansi-Salt revenue-Censor's proposals.................. Jan. 22, Feb. 13. Grain tax remitted .................................... Sept. 11. Hwaingan-Extension of salt licenses ..................... March 19. Do. do. objections by Shen Pao-cheng................................. ... Aug. 2. Fuhkien-Salt taxes in-Proposals for remission in flooded districts .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. March 5. Szech'wan-Proposals for permission to sell salt in Hwai-ngan area (note)........................... March 30, April 9, 17, 28. Kiangsi-Unauthorized levy of land and grain tax ...... April29, May 16, Hankow Customs-Flourishing condition of............... April 7. Shantung-Arrears of interest due from..................... May 17. Yiinnan-Salt smuggling in ........................... ......... June 7. Peking-Live stock and house duty ......... ........... ... July 22, Aug. 8, 9, 29, 31. Customs and Octroi .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Sept. 1. Hupeh-Official rewarded for collecting full amount of duty assessed....................................... July 26. Sha Hu K'ow-Superintendent of Customs applies for to defer pr!lsentation of accounts...... Aug. 31, Sept. 28. Kirin-Memorial on Taxation ................................. Sept. 7. Tientsin-Return of Duties collected by Native Customs. Sept. 8. Kwangtung-Salt arrears-Payment deferred ............ Sept. 10. Honan-Grain tax remitted ............. .. .. .... ...... .. ... Sept. 13. Kalgan-Superintendent of Customs applied to be allowed to make good a portion of his deficit .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. Oct. 8, 23. Hupeh-Superintendent of duties on bamboo furniture -appointment renewed .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ...... ... Oct. 10. Chihli-Fresh import on Ch'ang-lu salt ..................... Oct. 12. Wuhu-Return of duties collected ........................... Oct. 27. Customs Station established near to............... Nov. 29. Chihli-Statements on revenue of province ....... ........ Nov. 18. Shantung-Arrears from ... .................................... Nov. 29.

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vii Salt in Chekiang-Accumulation of............ .............. Dec. 10. Hui-an Customs-Return of receipts ........................ Dec. 11. Huai-an Salt-Tls. 40,000 for Peking Gendarmerie ...... Dec. 13. Salt in Shansi-Excess of supply .............................. Dec. 110. OFFICIAL CHARITIES, Peking-Millet, etc. to relief agencies at ...... ... ...... ... Jan. 12, 21, June 10, Sept. 21, 23, 30. Two additional relief agencies at .................. Jan. 22. Relief agencies at-Extension of period ......... March 20, April 6, 13, 28, June 15, 18. Agencies-Suggestions for removal ............... April18, May 6. Tls. 20,000 for sending home refugees............ June 10. Refugees in-Proposed arrangements for sending back ....................... .................. ... June 23. Issue of rations reduced to one per diem at relief agencies at ................................. June 24. Wadded jackets for paupers .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Sept. 30. Tientsin and Paoting-Relief agencies at .................. Aprill. Do. Sale of surplus rice at reduced rates........... ...... ............ April 1. Chang-k'ia Wan-Agency at ................... ,................ April 8. Tung-chow-Rice for agencies ................................. Feb. 9, AprilS, Nov. 25. Ho-kien Fu-Contributions for................................. Nov. 7. Shansi-Orphanage at T'ai-yuan Fu ......... ...... ......... Sept. 29. CoNTRIBUTIONS AND CHARITIES. for Shansi ...... ...... ..... ...... March 11. Return of contributions from ... ...... .. .... .. Aug. 11. Kiang-su-Rewards for contributions in aid of refugees. March 12. Relief of refugees at Soochow .. .... ...... .. .. .. March 12. Contributions ofland for charitable granaries. May 9. Do. for Honan-Modes of raising, &c. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Sept. 24. Szech'wan-Contributions for Shansi ........................ April 16. Do. do. Honan ........................ July 24. for Shan-si and Honan ..... .... June 12. Kweichow-Contributions for Shansi ........................ June 14. Shantung-Contributions for Shansi Tls. ll,OOO ......... July 28. Bequest by official-Rewards applied for ... Oct. 2. Ch'iln Kieh-k'i-Remarkable benevolenee ... Oct. 2. Fuhkien-C.mtributions from .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ..... ... .. Sept. 2. Do. to sufferers by flood ............ Nov. 2, 4. Do. for Honan ........................... Nov. 6. Swatow-Amount raised on behalf of Shansi............... Jan. 6. Hongkong, Singapore, &c.-1:-lubscriptions raised......... Jan. 6. Canton-Superintendent of Customs Tls. 10,000 ......... March 26. Taiwan.. Tls. 13,600 ............................................. July 4. Shanghai-Liberality of native residents .................. Aug. 9. Ch'ahar-Contributions of oxen ..... .. .. .. .... .. .. Sept. 8. Tu Ts'ung-ying-Tls. 12,000 ......... .......................... April 7. Hu Kwang-jung-Sums contributed by ..................... June 13. Do. Contlibutions to famine fund in SMnsi June 26.

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viii Li Ying-Testameutary bequest __ .................... June 26. Hia Kia-kao-Tls. 3,000 to Shansi fnnrl ...... ............ ... July 3. wang Ts'eng-Tls. 2,000-Tablet gmnted.................. July 4. Hilt Hieu-lun-Taotai of Tai'w:m and others, $3,000 ... July 4. Liu King-fen-Tls. 1,000-Tablet granted; with other donations amounting to Tls. 5,000 ......... July 4. Chu K'i-ang and Brothe1-Tls. 3,125 ........................ July 6. Ying Kwei-Tls. 5,400 .......................................... Sept. H. Mao Lin and Ts'ing Lin-'l'ls. 4,000 to military postal service................................................ Oct. 5. Do. do. mitigation of penalties .. -...... Oct. 5. Ni Wen-wei and 6,220 ........................ Nov. 17. Yuan Pao-lin-Tls. 3,000 for Honan ........................ Dec. 4. Su-ch'engmei, Anhwei-Tls. 1,200 ........................... Dec. 13. The Lady Ko-Memorial arch ................................. Dec. 13. Szech'wan-Charitahle bequest by widow......... ... ... June 10. Honan-M odifications of contribution agencies for, sanctioned ........................................ Aug. 10. Contributionsfromanti-extortionallowances for Aug. 10. Do. do. Palace, 'l'ls. 10,000 Sept. 23. Contributions by ladies ......................................... April10. Subscriptions in aid of ancestral charities ...... ... ......... April 13. Offices for sale of titles-"pplications for reward to contributors to be made direct to the Throne ...... .... ................................. Aug. 24. Kweichow office in Shantung-Time for opening extended................................................ Aug. 24. Anhwei-Mother of official sells her ornaments ... ...... Sept. 19. Ting Jih-ch'ang-Summary of contribution and application for rewards .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Oct. 8. Deceased relief distributors-Record of services to be made ................................................ Oct. 20. Contributions from benevolent societies .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Dec. 2: Rewards to contributors solicited by Governor of Shansi Dec. 14. Chihli-Tablets for contributors .............................. Dec. 18. Governor of Hupeh-Tls. 2,000-Tablet granted......... Dec. 21. Lit. Chancellor Szech'wan-Tls. 1,200........................ Dec. 28. CIVIL APPOINTMENTS. Chang YUn-k'ing, Vice-Director of Impl. Clan Court .. Do. do. Assist. President of Censorate ........ Che Hoh, Vice-President Board of Punishments ........ Do. do. do. Revenue ............. .. Ch'en Lan-pin, Vice-Director Imperial Clan Court .... .. CMng Ts-ao-ju, Customs Taotai, Tientsin ................. Ch'eng Fuh, Judl. Commissioner, Kwangtung .......... Do. Financial Commr., Honan .................. .. Ch'eng Lin, Comptr. Imperial Household ................ .. Do. Acting Vice-President Bd. of Civil Office .. Chow Jui-ts'ing, Commissioner, Office of Transmission. Jan. 4. Jan. 19. March 22. June 2. March24. Dec. 24. March 10. Nov. 17. May 10. Sept. 10.

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ix Chow Kia-mei, Governor of Shun-t'ien ... ...... ...... ...... Aug. 21. Do. do. Minister Tsung-li Yam
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X Li Chao-tung, Judicial Commissioner of Chihli............ Jan. 8. Li Jeh-ngo, Lieutenant-Governor, Yiinnim ...... ......... May 29. Li Ming-ch'e, Lieutenant-Governor, Fuhkien ............ March 30. Li Wen-min, Governor of Kwangsi ........................... Aug. 21. Liang Kwei, Junior Assistant Secretary, Supervisorate of Instruction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. June 30. Lin Shuh, Vice-President, Board of Revenue .. .. .. .. .. .. March 22. Ling Kwei, President, Board of Civil Office ............... June 2. Liu Jui-f@n, Taotai at Shanghai ...... ......... ............... May 21. Liu Kin-t'ang, Director, Court of Sacrificial Worship... May 5. Do. Commissioner, office of transmission ... Aug. 6. Lu She-sieh, Judicial Commissioner, Fuhkien ............ March 30. Lung I-sin, Inspector of Forces ...... ....................... March 21. Mien Yi, Vice-President Board of War, Moukden ...... June 2. Ming Siin, Superintendent, Imperial Manufacturies, appointment renewed._..... .................... Sept. 17. Ngan Te, Superintendent Live Stock, Peking ...... ...... July 9. Ngen President Court of Censors .................. April15. Do. do. Board of Ceremonies .. .. .. .. .. .. June 2. Do. Assistant Secretary, Imperial Supervisorate .............................. ............ June 30. P'an Tsu-yin, Senior Vice-President, Board of Revenue June 19. Do. Director General varitable, Record Office Aug. I. P'an Wei, novernor of Hupeh .............................. .. Sept. 29. Pao T'ing, Junior Deputy Supervisor of Instruction ... June 30. Do. Senior do. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Sept. 25. Peng Tsu-hien, Governor of Shun-t'ien Fu.................. Jan. 5. Do. Financial Commissioner, Kiangsi......... Aug. 21. Poyen-na-me-hu, Comptroller of Troops onactiveservice March 21. Do. Custodian, Imperial Armoury......... June 21. Sang Ch'un-jung, President of Wu Ying Tien ............ June 20. Shao Governor of Hunan ........................... Aprilll. She Junior High Commissioner, Peking Customs Aug. 23. Shen T'ai, Financial Commissioner, Yiinnan......... .... .. Aug. 2. Show Ch'ang, Director Court of State Ceremonial ...... Nov. 30. Si Ch'ang, Imperial Agent, Si-ning........................... Nov. 14. Si CMn, Vice-President, Court of Censora.te............... July 11. Do. Assistant, resident in Tibet ........................ Nov. 5. Si Tze-hung, Vice-President, Board of Ceremonies...... Sept. 23. Sieh Ylin-sMng, Judicial Commissioner, Shansi ......... March 30. Sii Oh'ang, Intendant, Kin Shan Hai Circuit ............ Sept. 19. Sii Ying-jung, Judge, Honan... ................................ Oct. 30. Do. do. Kiangsu ................................. Nov. 17. Sun Yi-king, sub-Chancellor, Grand Secretariat ......... March 14. Sung Ch'ang, Grain Intendant, Kwei-chow ............... Jan. 3. Sung K'iian, Warden of Imperial Parks..................... May 13. Sung SMn, Vice-President, Board of Ceremonies......... April15. Hing, Financial Commissioner, Kiangsu ............... July 16. Do. Judge, Honan .......................................... Nov. 17. Rub-Director, Court of Sacrificial Worship Oct. 31. Tseng Show, J uclge, Cbekiang .. .... .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Aug. 2.

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xi Tsai Ling, Director-General, Veritable Record Office... Aprill7. Do. Grand Secretary, T'i Jen-koh .................. July 5. Do. High Commissioner, Peking Customs......... Aug. 23. Tsing An, Military Assistant Governor, Kobdo .... ... Aug. 4. Tsing Lien, Deputy Supervisor of Instruction ............ June 14. Tsiian Lin, Chief Supervisor.................................... March 14. Do. Sub-Chancellor, Grand Secretariat .. .. ... ... May 28. Tsiian T'sing President Board of Punishments .... .... .. April 15. Tu Jui-lien, Governor of Yiinnan ........................... Aug. I. Tung Hiin, Director-General, Veritable Record Office... June 20. Tung Hwa., Director-General State Historiographer's Office ............................................. June 20. Do. Vice-President, Board of Civil Office .. .... Sept. 23. Wan Shun, Superintendent Imperial Manufactory, Soochow............ ... ... ..... ...................... July 13. Wan Ts'ing-li, President Board of Revenue ............... June 19. Wang Che-han, Sub-Chancellor, Urand Secretariat...... Aug. 2. Wang Sze-yi, Financial Commissioner, Shensi ............ July 31. Wang Ta-king, Financial Commissioner, Hupeh ......... Aug. 2. W ang W0n-shao, Vice-President, Board of Ceremonies May 15. Do. Probationer, Grand Council .. .... .. ... Mar. 8. Do. Acting Vice-President, Board of War Mar. 8. Do. Appointed to Tsung-li Yamen ......... Aug. 21. Chung-han, Intendant, Wen-ch'u Circuit ...... ... Mar.. Wen Yii, President, Court of Censors........................ June 15. Weng Hi o-pen, Grain Intendant, Fuh-kien ... ... ...... ... March 31. Weng T'ung-ho, President, Court of Censors ............ June 19. Wu Tsan-ch'eng, Acting Governor of Fuh-kien ...... ... May 8. Do, President of Banqueting Court ...... Nov. 8. Yang Ch'ang-kiin, Assistant to Tso Tsung-t'ang ......... June 16, July 1. Do. Decree....................................... July 1. Yao Kin-yuan, Judge, Hupeh ................................. Aug. 2. Yeh Ta-cho, Groom of the Library........................... June 25; Yi Tsing, Sub-Chancellor, Grand Secretariat .. .. .. .. .. April 22. Ying Kwei, Imperial agent at K'urun........................ April12. Yii Kw'an, Governor of Fuh-kien ........................... Nov. 16. Yii Sze-shu, Lieutenant-Governor, Shantung ............ Jan. 2. PUBLIC SERVICE. Chang Ts'ung-lung, retained for service in Kiangnan ... Nov. 6. Ch'ang Shun, Acting Commandant, Barkul ............... Nov. 18. Ch'en Lan-pin, Audience of Leave ........................... March 12. Che Kang, Imperial Agent, Urga, retires .................. April11. Ch'ung How, summoned to Peking........................... June 22. Do. arrives and has audience ..................... Aug. 14, Sept. 11, Oct. 6. Ch'en Ts'a.o-ju, services applied for by Li Hung-chang... Aug. 13. Ch'eng Lin, permitted to ride in forbidden city ......... Nov. 11. Chow Heng-ki, Financial Commissioner, Chibli, ab solved from Audience .. ....... ... .... ... .. Aug. 16. Ch'ing Ch'un, Tartar General, Foochow, penalties inflicted .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Sept. 1.

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xii Ch'en To' -fu, Brigadier-General, Tang-chow-Report on capacity ... ... ... ...... ... ... ... ... ...... ... ... Nov. 11. Ch'eng Fu, Judicial Commissioner, Kwantung, takes office .............. ................................. Nov. 9. Chow Hilng-k'i, Financial Commissioner, Chihli, assumes office .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Sept. 4. Fuh Shilng, Lieutenant-General, penalties inflicted...... March 9. Fuh Show-tang, Judge of Honan, resumes charge of his original post ...... ;....................... June 5. Do. Lieutenant-Governor of Honan, re sumes his original duties ............ June 5. Do. Punished and removed..................... Oct. 29, Nov. 16. Fu-erh-sun, Deputy Lieutenant-General at Cha P'n, goes to Peking .;......................... ...... June 27. Do. Charges against, explanation demanded... Sept; 26. Do. Assumes duties of Brigadier-General at Hangchow .. .. .. .. .... ...... .. .. ... .. ... ... Oct. 10. Do. Penalties to be inflicted........................ Nov. 28. Do. Difference with Tartar General ... .. ... ... Dec. 13. H wang T'i-fang, Penalties remitted........................... April 13. Do. Thanks from .. ....... ...... ............ ... ... April14, 30. Hu Kwang-jung, Yellow riding jacket bestowed upon... May 31, June 13. Hiieh Shu-ch'ang acts as Judge of Kiangsu ... ........... June 4. Ho King, Governor-General, MincMh, one month cong6 June 21. Hia Kia-kao, Given Button of Second Rank............... July 3. Hieh Yiin-sMng assumes office a.s judge of Shansl ... ... Nov. 29. Hu Chung-ho, Co=ander-in-chief, deprived of Yellow Riding, Jacket, &c............................... July 10. Hwang Ping-yiin, late Brigade-General, T'a.i-yuan, granted sick leave .... .. ... ... .. .... .. .... .... .. Oct. 1. J ung Yii, Investigation of charges against .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. May 24. Jung Hi.i, Assistant Chamberlain, dismissed............... April19. Jen Tao-jung, Financial Commissioner, Hangchow, takes office.......................................... Aug. 18. Kung T'ang, Co=andant of forces at U rumtsi, assumes office .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. Oct. 4. K'ung Ling-i succeeds to Confucian dukedom, (and note) ............................................. .. Jan. 8. Kiin Ki to resume charge of Canton Customli .. .. .. .. .. .. March 5. Do. Reward for contribution of Tls. 10,000......... Oct. 3. Kwei Filng, Resident Tibet, recalled ......... Nov. 5. Kw'ei Ling, President Board of Revenue, retires......... June 14. Kw'ei Filng censured for error in memorial ............... July 5. Kiang Ning-hio, Treasurer Shilnsi, retires.................. July 31. Do. Permission solicited .... .. .. .. .. .. .... ... ... Aug. Hi. Li Chao-yuan, Acting Governor, Kweichow ............... Nov. 21. Li Ch'eng-mow, Co=ander-in-chief, Naval Forces, mourning ceased .. ...... ...... .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. Dec. 31. Li Siian-hwa recalled from Shantung... .................... Jan. 2. Li Hoh-nien took seals of office................................. Feb. 11. Do. Resigns acting governorship of Honan ... June 4.

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xiii Li P'ei-king, goes to Peking ................... .............. Liu Hien, Taotai, Commended by Pin, (see also opium) ............................................ Liu Show-t'u, Memorial on his behalf ...................... .. Li Huug-chang, Penalties requested and remitted .... .. Do. do. inflicted for breach in Grand Canal ......................... ................. Do. Goes to Paoting ............................ .. Li Lieu hiu, compilation of officia l biography sanctioned Liu Jui-fen, Taotai of Shanghai, had audience .......... .. Lo Fang-k'i, Acting Governor of Kiangsu ................ .. Do. Goes into mourning ............................. Liu Tien, Permitted to retire .............................. .. Li Ming-ch'e, Financial Commissioner, Fuhkien, returns thanks for appointment ................ ... .. Li Chao-t'ang, Judge of Chihli, retires ................... .. Li Wei-shu, General in Kwangsi, audience of leave .... .. Liu Ch'ang-yeo, &c., censured for want of supervision over his subordinates ......................... .. Liu Ping-chang, retires ..................................... .... Li Prefect in Kiangsu, charge of mean origin not proved ......................................... Li Acting Governor, Kiangsi ................ .. Liu Kw'un-yi, One month's conge ......................... .. Do. Resumes duties .............................. Lu Shih-kieh, Judge, Fuhkien, absolved from audience. Liu Ping-chang, vacates Governorship of Kiangsi ..... Ma Ju-lung, Commander-in-chief, Hunan, retires ..... Mao Lin, Comptroller Imperial Household, dismissed .. M'u T'u-shae, Governor of Ch'ahar, penalties inflicted .. Ch'ling, on special mission to Szech'wan ........... Pao Ying, Military Assistant Governor at K'obdo, 3 months' conge .................................. Do. Leave to retire ................................... Pao Gives over charge of acting governorship .. Pan Ki-ytln, Renewecl recommendation for appointment to Hwai-ngan lntendency .................. .. Pei Kin-tsi.ian, Commodore Fuhkien, goes into mourning P'eng Kiu-yii, Vice-President Board of Civil Office, retires ............................................. P'an Wei, Acting Governor of Hupeh .................... SMn Pao-chmg, Report on state of health ............. .. Do. On corpse examiners, and constables .. Do. Renewed application for retirement .. Do. Censured for proposing abolition of military examinations .............. Do. Resigns seals to Governor during absence ............................... .. Do. Resumes office .............................. Nov. 21. Jan. 5. Jan. 24. Aprill9. Aug 30 Dec. 8. May 19. June 3. June 4. Aug. 1. June 16, July I. June 20. July 3. Oct. 3. July 10. Nov. 21. July 18. Nov. 21. Aug. 8. Sept. 10. Aug. 19, June 20. Aug. 20, Sept. 3. Sept. 5. May9. Sept. 1. Oct. 21. June 6. Aug. 3. Sept. 15. Nov. 9. July 14. Nov. 7. Nov. 12. Aprilll. Jan. 3. J an, 3, Feb. 23. March 28. May 5, June 4. July 15. Shao K'i, Carelessness in forwarding memorials ......... Jan. 30, Feb. 11, Mar. 1. Shen Pao-king, Taotai of Kiukiang had audience......... June 2,

PAGE 17

xiv Shao Show, Prefect in Feng-tien province, charges against dismissed................................. July 3 She Liu, Brigade-General, Chapu, takes office ............ Nov. 28. Shi3ng Jung, Commissary, Tibet, renewed term of office Aug. 21. SMng Siian-hwai, Report on capacity........................ Oct. 3. Shao Governor of Honan, takes office :... .. Aug. 28. Siao Shih-pi3n, Transferred to most important district, Chihli .......................................... : ..... Nov. 15. Sun K'ai-hwa, Presents from Emperor ...................... Nov. 17. Sun Kwan-shan, Summoned to Peking ..................... March 30. Sung Lin, Acts as Customs Taotai, Newchwang, &c. ... Oct. 28. Erh-ts'ing, had audience.......................... ......... Sept. 30, Nov. 12. Teng Yti-M, Brigade-General, Yt\nnan, retires............ Sept. 19. Ting Pao-cMng, Censured for improper recommendation Feb. 23. Do. Penalties inflicted ........................... March 9. Do. Punished for careless memorial ......... Nov. 4, 20. Tu Hing-ah, Posthumous honors bestowed ............... April7. Tsao Pao, Retires from'Board of Punishments ............ April15. Ts'iln Yii-ying, Mourns for his grandmother ............... Oct.19. Ts'ing An, Military Assistant Governor, K'obclo, audience of leave ................................. Sept. 24. Ts'ing Lin, Warden of Parks and Hunting Grounds, dismissed .......................................... May 9. Tso Tsung-t'ang, Honors conferred ........................... March 16. Do, do. declined ........................... .April22, May 9, 30. Do. Penalties inflicted for carelessness...... Sept. 9. Ts'iian Ts'ing, Permission to attend at graduate:s banquet for the second time........................ Oct. 20, Nov. 2, T'uh Tsung-ying, Enters on duties of Governor of Honan June 4. T'uh Fu-lung, Captain of ''Ts'i3 Hai," Recommendation of. Oct. 22. Ting Jih-ch'ang, Granted permission to retire ............ May 7, 27. Do. Allowed to memorialise..................... July 3. Ts@ng Kwoh-ts'iian, Censured for requesting that a body may enter the city gates........................ June 19. T'o K'o-1ui, Military Deputy Lieutenant-Governor, Tsitsihar, returns to duty ..................... June 21. T'o Ytin, Permitted to ride in forbidden city............... Nov. 11. Ts@ng Chang-che, Magistrate Ling District Shantung, temporarily retained for judicial work...... Aug. 7. TingShow-ch'ang, Judge, Chihli, absolved from audience Aug. 16. Tsai Jun, Name conferred on son of Prince of Hwei...... Aug. 25. Tsi3ng Ki-tseh, Peacock's feather bestowed upon ... .... .. Aug. 26. Do. Had audience of leave........................ Sept. 24. Ting Pao-cheng, Censured for improper recommendation Feb. 23. Tung Hiin, Denunciation of .......................... ......... April 2, 17 T'ung Hwah, On special mission to Szech'wan ............ Oct. 21. Wei Ying-kwang-Mother dies .............................. Dec. 2. Wen Kw'ei, Supt. Impl. Manufactory, Hangchow-Returns to duty .. .. .. .. .. .. .... ... .. .. .. .. .. .. Sept. 2. W@n Pao-sMn completes 60th anniversary of taking degree........................... .................... Nov. 6.

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X \Veng T'ung-ho, censured for expressing contmdictory views .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Feb. 24. Do. Permitted to ride in Forbidden City... .Nov. 11. "Wang 'Vcn.-shao, l'P"nds over soal of office in Hunan ... Feb. 27. Do. leave of absence to meet his Mothe1.. May 26, June 10. '\Vu Ta-cheng-Honorable mention of services......... .. Oct. 16. Wu Tsan-cMng-Acts as Governor of Fuhkien ... ...... Sept. 15. Do. Superseded at his own request ......... Nov. 16. Wu Yuan Ping-Acting Gov.-Gencral of Liang-kiang.. June 4. Do. Resigns .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .... July 15. Wu Ch'ao-Taotai, Honan, summoned to Peking ...... June 8. Yang Ch'ang-kiin-Thanks for appointment............... Oct. !5. Yang Yii-k'o-Had audience.................................... Sept. 17, 29. Yiln King-ming-Three months' eonge ..................... Nov. 3. Ying Ran-Posthumous honors bestowed .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Feb. 23. Do. Official biography .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. May 13. Do. Libations to............ .. .. .. .. ...... ...... ......... Nov. 12. Ying Kwei-Two months' conge .............................. March 3. Do. Permitted to retire ... ........... ;............ April30. Do. Agent at Urga, audience of leave............ June 10. Ying Lien-Military Assistant Governor at Tarbugatai hands over seals of office ................. Do. Arrives in Peking and has audience ........ Yuan Pao-Mng-Secretaries of return to Peking ........ Yang Ch'ang-kiin-Services applied for ................... .. Yang Lien-kwei-Contract for copper, breach of ....... .. Yeh T'ing-ch'un-Superintendent C. M,'S. N. Co ..... .. Yti Luh-Extension of conga ............................... .. Yii Shih-Imperial Agent Si-ning, retires ................ .. PUBLIC SERVICE. Economy, etc.-Reco=ended by Censor ................ .. Public Expenditure-Protest against extravagance .... .. Official Extravagance-Decree on .......................... Administration-Papers on ....................... ...... .. Work on Famine administration ............................. Heads ofDepartment-Attendance at office ......... ; .. ,, Officials denounced in Shansi .. ............................ .. Do. do. Honan ................................ Malpractices of Official Clerks ............................. .. Extortion at Tientsin-Police officer cashlered .......... .. Enquiry respecting malpractices in Honan ............. .. Malpractices in issue of certificates of office, etc ........ .. Officials cashiered Nganhwei and Honan ................ .. Malversation in Kiangsu-Dep. Magistrate cashiered .. Frauds in issue of Government N otes-SMnsi .......... .. Official defalcations, Kiangsu ............................... .. Salt collector cashiered, Szech'wan .......................... Encroachment on Government Temple Lands ........... Malpractices of officers distributing relief ................. Acts of tyranny on part of Military Officer ............. .. May 29. Aug. 14. June 24. July 1. July 10. Sept. 7. Sept. 1. Nov. la. Feb. 19. March 12, Dec. 9. March 30. Apr. 2, 5, 6, May6, June 16, 19, Aug. 2, 3, Dec. 17. Oct. 30. Nov.-9. Jan. 10. Jan. 13. Jan. 24. Jan. 24. Jan. 26. Jan. 28, Feb. 17. Feb. 14. Feb. 21. Jan. 26, Feb. 22. March 7. March 8. Apr. 7, May 2, 9. April3. April14.

PAGE 19

xvi Magistrates dismissed, Chihli ............................... Imperial Banqueting Court-charges against Secretary. Fraudulent assumption of rank by persons of mean origin ............................................. Official defalcations, Szech'wan.... ......................... .. Illegal arrest of traders, N ingu ta ............................. Officials denounced for peculation, Shansi ................. Magistrate cashiered and placed on trial for extortion and connivance at murder ..... ............. Police Magistrate Peking, cashiered .................... .. Magistrate cashiered for extortion, Kansu ................ .. Secretary dismissed at Moukden ............................ .. Magistrate cashiered for extortion, Shensi ................. Charges against Manchu Captain, Moukden .............. Officials denounced for mal-administration of famine relief, Sh@nsi ...................................... Colonel of Battalion cashiered, Kansuh .................... Corruption in Honan ............................................ Sub-prefect cashiered for execution of innocent persons. Colonel cashiered for unauthorised execution ............. Magistrates proceeded against for arrears of land tax .. Mongolian i'luperintendency-errors in memorial ........ Magistrate cashiered for incapacity, etc., Kiangsu .... .. Frauds by Magistrates in Shantung ......................... .. Captain dismissed for threatening the life of his Colonel. Error in Memorial-Penalties for ........................... .. Gambling by Military Officers ..................... .' ......... .. Officer cashiered for selling a wreck .......................... Secretary of Board-Suspicious conduct .................... ElTOr in Memorial-Penalty for ............................. Shansi-Malpractices in ......................................... Fraudulent assumption of rank .............................. .. Kirin-Charges against Governor ............................ .. Do. Malicious arrest of innocent persons .............. Honan-Irregularity in famine distribution .............. Purchase of rank-Censor on abuses in .................... Magistrates cashiered in Honan ............................ .. Do. do. ......................... .. Do. do. Anhwei ............................ Sub-prefect cashired in Shansi ................................. Fire in Peking Granary ......................................... Magistrate dismissed for beating a man to death ....... .. Provincial Treasurers-Malpractices of ................... .. Arrogation of judicial functions by low officials ....... .. Law of respectful withdrawal-Infraction of .............. Officials applied for by Governor-General Tso ......... .. Brigade-General allowed to retire on full pay ........... Purchase of land by official under assumed name ....... .. Officials applied for by Governor-General of F@ngt'ien ... Interchange of posts by District Magistrates .............. Shanghai Taotai finds his father's bones : .................. .. April 20. April28. Aprll30. April30, May 17, Sep. 23. May4. May 25. May30. May 31. June 2. June 1. June 10. Jtme 7, 15. June 27. July 4. July 16. July21. Aug. 6. Aug. 7. Sept. 4. Sept. 13. Nov. 22. Nov. 24. Nov. 25. Nov. 26. Nov. 27. Dec. 3. Dec. 4. Dec. 12. Sept. 14. Sept. 15. Sept. 25. Sept. 22. Sept. 28. Oct. 7. Oct. 27. Oct. 28. Nov. 4. Nov.13. Dec. 5. Dec. 10. Dec. 17. Dec. 20. Jan. 10. Ms.r. 1. Mar. 7. Mar. 11. Mar. 14. March 22.

PAGE 20

xvii Official underlings-Stricter supervision ordered .. .. .. March 24. Officials specially recommended-Limit of time for examination .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. March 25. Black Dragon Temple-Change of officers on duty ...... March 28. Lieut.-Governor Chihli ordered to Peking.................. March 28. Penalties inflicted on Members of Grand Council......... March 29, April 7, 8, 23. Rewards to officers of Hankow Customs..................... April 7. Commander-in-chief changes his name ..... .. .. .. .. ... .. April 22. District Magistrate-Posthumous appointment of .. .. .. May 2, 15. Lieut.-Governor of Yeh-ho applies for Secretary with knowledge of Mongolian .... :................... May 6. Metropolitan Officials employed on famine work-A ppli cation for pay .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... May 7. Prefect recommended for Ta-li Fu .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. May 22. Police Magistrate Peking-Restoration of rank applied for ................................................... May 26. Rewards to officials in connection with famine relief .. June 3. Magistrates removed on account of physical infirmity... June 3. Officials rewarded for capturing salt smugglers............ June 7. Manchu captain degraded for mistake in the arrest of burglars ......... .................................... June 13. Magistrate applies for exchange into educational de-partment ............................................ June 24. Superintendent of Court of Imperial Entertainment deprived of appointment........................... June 28, July 12. Kansuh-Commander-in-chief-title of nobility altered. July 4. Uliasut'ai-Rewards to officers ......... ...... ...... ......... ... July 6. Do. Military Governor retires........................ July 7. Do. Ch'un Fu assumes office ........................ July 7. Officers deputed for special service in Shantung _,.... July 20. Officers prohibited from going on special missions to their native provinces........................... July 21. Magistrate in Anhwei appeals against denunciation...... July 22, Aug. 6. Officers selected for appointments in the provinces, etc. (with note).......................................... July 24. Hupeh-Magistrate rewarded for cliligence in collection of land tax.......................................... July 26. Shansi-Salt Inspector rewarded for diligence and zeal. July 28, Cashiered Officer retained on river duty..................... J11ly 31, Aug. 16. Superintendents of Live Stock and House Duty-Penal-ties remitted........ .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Aug. 16. Sub-prefects, &c., on probation-Objection by Censor to their acting as Magistrates..................... Aug. 18. Rewards to Military Officers, Canton............... ........ Aug. 30. Rewards to Military Officers, Kirin... ...... .................. Oct. 17. Chllkiang-Surfeit of expectants for office .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... Oct 20. Rewards to Military Officers, Hupeh ...... .................. Oct. 26. Rewards to Officers engaged in compilation of Grand Council Registers................................. Oct. 27. Cashiered Officers reinstated, Chihli .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Nov. 11. Omission of a character in translation from Manchu...... Jan. 2.

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xviii Sale of Titles-Proposal by Censor ......................... .. Characii_er used for Imperial name-Mode of writing .. Attempt to bribe Governor of Fuhkien-Enquiry ..... Appointment to Han Lin Offices ............................. Loss of life by burning of Relief Shed at Tientsin Change of an Official's name .................................. Publication of lists of nominees for appointments solicited ........................................... .. Destruction by fire of draft office .................. .......... .. Encroachment on Government Temple lands ............ .. Request for bestowal of hereditary title on the son of Officer from whom it ha.d been taken ..... Payment of' Salaries in grain-Abuses in connection with. Application for sanction to assumption of hereditary title by nephew of deceased Officer ....... .. Harashar-Nomination of Acting Agent postponed .... .. Grand Secretariat-Sub-chancellors insufficient ........... Hwang T'i Fang on presents to officials ................... .. Fire in Treasurer's Ya.m@n Sha.nsi-Penalty inflicted .. Statutes of the Boards-Revision of.. ....................... : Surfeit of expectants for office in Hupeh .................... Precedence of expectants for office-Proposed revision of rules ............................................... Expectants for office-Examination of .................... .. Applications for honorary rewards to contributors to be made direct to the Emperor ................ .. Prohibition against slaughter of plough oxen ...... .... Ting Pa.o-cheng-Carelessness in wording of Memorial Sale of rank-Increased facilities for, Shansi. ........... .. Historiographer's Department-Extra pay to officials ... Civil Suits-Assistant Magistrates forbidden to hear ... Execution of robbers-Magistrates must apply for sanction ........................................... .. DROUGHT AND FAMINE. Chih-li-Distilling-Propoiials fortemporaryprohibitiou. Removal of prohibition .. .. .. .. .. .. ........ Opening of Wells ..................................... .. -Re-establishment of Relief Agencies at Paoting and Tientsin ...................................... Dismissal of Magistrate for fraud arul extortion. Appropriations for Famine Districts ........... Report on rain-fall ................................. .. Officers cashierecl for mal-administration ..... Provision of seed corn for afflicted districts .. Plough oxen cont1-ibutecl from Ch'ahar ....... Horses from do. Magistrate acquitted of charge of extortion ... Chekiang silk taxed for famine fund ........... Floods at K'ai-chow ................................ Frauds in distribution of relief.. ................. .. Officers recommended for promotion ...... ; .... Jan. 10. Jan. 18, Fell. 17. Jan. 18. Ja.n. 20. Jan. 20, Feb. 4, Apl. 1. Feb. 11. Feb. 22. April3. April 7, May 2, 9. May29. J11ne 4. June 7. June 27. Aug. I. Aug. 2, 17. Aug. 2. Aug. 4, 19. Aug: 10. Aug. 14, 31. Aug. 29. Aug. 24. Aug. 28, Sept. 10. Nov. 4. Nov. 7. Nov. 13. Dec. 4. Dec. 24. Ja.n. 22, 24, Feb.14, Apl.3,20. Oct. 13. March 29. April!. April20. April25. June 10. .Tune 18. July 2. Sept. 8. Oct. 15. Sept. 14. Oct. 29. Nov. 6 Dec. 2. Dec. 4.

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xix Peking-Proposal respecting sale of grain ................. Decree in answer to representations of Han-lin expositor .......................................... .. Refugees to be sent back .......................... Do. Proposed arrangements for sending back .................................................. Report on sale of grain ............................. Do.. do. and close of agencies .. Officials dying while engaged on Famine work -Record of services ......................... .. Bannermen-Extra rations to ................... .. Beggars in, and allowance to Lamas .......... .. Shansi-Renewed entreaty for supply of grain .......... .. Second report on the state of the pr03ince .... .. Remission of land tax for coming half year. .. Scheme for raising contributions ............... .. Contributions from Fengt'ien ....................... Application for escort for grain ................... .. Contributions from Szech'wan .................... A buses in connection with distribution of relief. Execution of granary clerks for peculation .... .. Officials denounced for malpraetices ............. .. lleport on rain-fall .................................. .. Contributions from Chekiang ...... ................ Do. do. K weichow ................... .. Difficulties of transport and proposed loan .... .. Issue of relief to cease in 8th moon .............. Suggestions for extension of sale of office system. Reorganisation, &c., &c, ............................. Rain-fall and distribution of seed corn ........... Extension of period for issue of relief ........... Government grain shops and banks-Extension of period for maintenance of ................. of corpses ..................................... .. Occupation of deserted lands and reorganisation. Return of prices and rate of exchange ......... .. Contributions from Fengt'ien ...................... .. Do. do. Fuhkien ...................... .. Report on condition of province and remission of taxes ........................................... .. Refuge for destitute orphans ...................... .. Appropriations of grain-120,000 piculs and Tls. 200,000 ...................................... Honors to officials .................................. .. Taxes on oxen remitted ............................ .. P'ing-yang Fu-Enquiry into alleged mismanagement ...................................... Plough oxen-Subscriptions for purchase of .. Charges of corruption .............................. .. Transport of grain-Taotai rewarded for services ..... ... .................................. Jan. 4, 21. March 5. May 28. June 23. July 2. Oct. 13. Nov. 3. Dec. 17. Dec. 17. Jan. 8. Jan. 16. Jan. 22. Feb. 25. March 11. March 13. April16. May8. May9. May 25. May 16, June G. Jvne'.l2 .. J1me 14. June 16. June 30. July 4. July 5. July 7. July 9. July 19. July 19. July 21. July 28. Aug. 11. Sept. 2. Sept. 11. Sept. 29. Oct. 13. Nov. 14. Nov. 8. Nov. 29. Dec. 7. Dec. 9. Dec. 15.

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XX. SMnsi-Exhaustion of Exchequer ................. ,, .. Feb. 19. Report on rain-fall .................................... June 12. Damage from hail stonns ........................... Nov. 6. Assistanee rendered by Chu Ch'ang-lin ......... Nov. 18. Honan-Remission of Land Tax for coming half-year... Jan. 22. Exemption from purchase of grain for storage.. March 6 Establishment of office for contributions......... March 6. Financial measures proposed (acts of cannibalism reported)............................................. March 15. Rewards to contributors .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. March 18. Proposals for re-payment of loans.................. March 30. Report on relief measures .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. April 3. Governor of Kiangsu unable to lend grain .. ... April 10, Purchase of supplies by the Governor en route to his post .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. April 25. Report on rain-fall .. .. .. .... .... .. .. .... ...... .. ... April29, May 12, Appropriations from Kiangsu ... .. .. .... ...... ... May 10. Contributions from Shantung........................ May 13. Do. do. Nanking ..... .... ......... ... ... May 19. Honorary distinctions for deserving magistrates. May 19. Rations for districts on outskirts of famine regions ..... 00.. ... .. .. .... .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. May 19. Application for extension of regulations govern ing offices for sale of titles .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. May 23. Application for temporary cessation of period. ical examinations .. 00............................. June 5. Corruption in-Memorial by Chang P'ei-lun ... June 11. Report on rain-fall ............ ........................ June 11. Contributions from CMkiang .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. June 12. Contributions from Szech'wan .............. :...... July 24. Contributions from Shanghai, and liberality of native residents ... .......... ... ... ......... ...... Aug. 9. Modifications sanctioned in contribution agency system................................................ Aug. 10, Contributions of anti-extortion allowances .... .. Aug. 10. Contributions from .. .... .. .... .. .... .. Aug. 11. Appropriation of proceeds of Ytinnan Agencies for the sale of titles-Extension of period. Aug. 12. Magistrate ca.shiered for mis-management .. .. Sept. 10, 22. Taxes remitted .................................. : ....... Sept. 13. Han-lin compiler, special duties cease........ ... Sept. 22, Malpractices in connection with public granaries. Nov. 22. Shansi-Report respecting rice imported for ........ 00..... Jan. 26. Honan-Report respecting rice imported for............... Jan. 26. Shantung-Diversion of tribute grain ................... 00... March 14. Report on condition of province .. 00........... Sept. 14. Floods at P'u-fan and Shon-yang ..... ......... Nov. 6. Fuhkien-Report on condition of .............................. June 4. ciuhli-Locusts in ...... .. .... ...... ...... ...... ... ...... ...... ... July 23. PekingRefugees sent back to their homes ............ ... June 10. T'a.iwan Fu-Hurricane at.......................... ............ July 15.

PAGE 24

xxi Peng She-chiang-Scheme of ............................ :...... May 31. Li Hung-chang-Tribute rice sent to Famine Districts, Report .................................... July15. Marks of approbation for acts of devotion .................. May 11. Water supplies-Renovation of.. ...... :........................ March 6, 25. Scrutiny of conduct of lower officials .... .. .... .. .. .. .. .... .. March 14. Measures for Relief-Suggestions of Tutor ............... March 21, April 5. Refugees to be sent back with seed corn..................... March 21. Economy and administrative reform-Decree on .. .. .. ... March 22. Palace Expenditure Economy in .............................. March 29, 30, April 9, 14, Malpractices of officers distributing relief .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. April 3. Storage of grain as a provision against famine-Censor's memorial ...................................................... April10. Appropriations for Famine districts .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. April 17. 26, 27. Penalties inflicted on members of Grand Council......... March 29, April7, 23. Burial of corpses .................................. ................ March 30. Inducements to merchants to import grain into famine districts .......................................................... April I. Deputy Supervisor on famine administration ............ April2, 17. Censor-Decree in answer to.................................... April2. Secretary of Board-Decree in answer to ............ ...... April 6. Memorial................................. April18. Imperial Exchequer-Appropriations from.................. May z. Scheme of Tutor of Imperial Academy for raising Funds............................................................ May 3, 26. Metropolitan Officers on Famine Work-Application for pay ......................................................... May 7. Decree on cultivation of tea shrub and mulberry tree... June 1. Exhortation of Censor on maintenance of reverential attitude ......................................................... May 25, June 8. Importation of foreign grain pronounced inadvisable ... July 3. Officers placec]. on their trial for appropriation of relief funds ........................................................... Remission of taxes in Famine Districts ................... .. Penalties suggested by Censor against fraud .............. Work on famine administration ............ ................ Famine Refugees-Relief in Anhwei stopped .............. Number relieved in Anhwei ........... Floods in the South .............................................. .. in Chekiang ............................................... in Shantung .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...................... .. DECEASES. July 22, Aug. 7. July 23. Aug. 7. Oct. 30. Dec. 15. Dec. 15. April 18, May 6, Oct 7. Aug. 17, Sept. 2. Nov. 25. of .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ... March 21. Ming-Brigade-General of a Banner ............... Feb. 19, Chang Ying-Late Lieut.-Governor of Shansi ............ May 5. Chow Che-plln-Provincial Commander-in-chief ......... June 4. Chang Shuh-t'an-'l'aotai on Famine 'Vork Shansi ... ,.. June 19. Feng Ki.in-kwang-'l'aotai of Shanghai ..................... June 5, July 18, Aug. 2. Han Chao, late Acting-Governor of Kweichow ... ... ... ... Sept. 17, Oct. 3. Kiang Ning-hio, late Judge of ShGnsi ........................ Sept. 14.

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xxii Kwei Ling, formerly President Board of Revenue Li Rwei-wu-Expectant T'i-tai in Kansu ................. Li Ming-hwei, General, Lin Yuan Brigade, Yiinnan .,. Liu 'f'ing, Provincial Commander-in-chief, Honan .... .. Lin Tien-ling, Literary Chancellor Kiangsu .............. Ng@n Sih, late Lieut. Governor of Kiangsu ............. .. Pao Shan, Assistant Chamberlain ............................ Pao Heng, Imperial Agent, Hami ............................ .. King Fuh, Superintendent of Customs, Shanhai Kwan .. Si-ml!ng-k'o-si-k'o, Deputy Lieut.-General ................ .. Sung Kwoh-yung, in charge of Brigade at Foochow .. Suicide of expectant Prefect Shansi.. ....................... Wu Ta-t'ing, Naval Instructor ............................... .. Ying Ran-Military Lieut.-Governor at Urumtsi .... .. Yuan Pao-h@ng, Famine Connnissioner in Honan ....... .. Ying K'i-Financial Commissioner, Shansi .............. Yi Shan, Retired Captain General ......................... .. Yi Ts'ing, Deputy Lieut.-General ......................... .. MILITARY AFFAIRS. Poh Ch'ang, T'i-tuh at Urumtsi-Departure of. .......... Yang Yti-k'o-Exchange of posts with, vetoed ........... Yii She-Acting Military Lieut. -Governor at Urumtsi .. Fu Chu-li-Brigaclc-General, allowed to retire .... ... ... .. Troops at Mansolea-Insuffi.ciency of grain .............. Troops retained at Kien-ch'ang for suppression of brigandage ............... ; ............................... Military record-Preparation of ........................... .. Abolition of Military Examinations-Proposal by SMn-pao-cheng ......................................... Elhensi-Arrears owing to troops ........................... .. K'obclo--Application for permission to dispense with services of garrison .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ....... .. Tso Tsung-t'ang on German breech-loading guns ....... .. Governor-General of M in Cheh returns abruptly from tour of military inspection .................. .. Hangchow-Want of supervision over Banncrmcn ..... Ulia-sut'ai-Measures for protection ...................... .. Shllnsi-Mutiny of troops ..................................... Canton-Establishment of irregular force ................. Chihli-Purchase of cavalry horses ........................ .. Unauthorized employment of the military-Decree on .. T'ilng-yiieh, Brig. Genl. ordered to take up his appt ... Passage of troops through Kiangsu-Expenses .......... .. Difference of opinion between Tartar General and Manchu Brigade-General at Hangehow Si-ning-Arrears of pay, claim abandoned by troops ... Kokonor-Disbandment of troops and popularity of Controller General ............................. Dec. 13. May 31, June 15-. Sept. 19. Aug. 30. ,Dec. 11, 26. Jan. 30. May 24. Sept. 28. Oct. 5. April19. Aug. 10, Oct. 10. Sept. 4. Apri19. Feb. 13, March 26, May 13. Nov. 12. May 14, June 1, 19, Oct. 7, Nov. 14. July 5. July 1. Oct. 16. Jan. 19. Jan. 19. Feb. 13. March I. March 11. March 11. Aprill. May 5, 23. May 13, 23, Sept. 15. June 6. June 13. June 2I. June 30. July 6. July 22. July 26. Au!l. 13. Aug. 28, Sept. 10. Sept. 19. Oet. 1. Sept. 26, Oct. 10. Nov. 3. Nov. 6. Yangtsze-Tour of inspection ................................. Nov. 22, Dec. 11.

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xxiii Furs for soldiers beyond the wall .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Nov. 23. Irregulars disbanded-Kwang-tung ..................... ... ... :s-ov. 24. Pensions to children of military officers .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. Nov. 26. Officers excused from drill....................................... Nov. 28. Appointments to steam-vessels................................. Nov. 29. Shantung-Tour of inspection ........................... ...... Dec. 12. Brigade-General Pa-li-kun, superseded for incompetency. Dec. 13. Bannermen inPeking-Extra rations to..................... Dec. 17. MILITARY APPOINTMENTS. Che Hoh-Lieut.-General, Plain Yellow Banner ......... Aprill9. Ch'ang Shu-Deputy Lieut.-General ........................ June 3. Chang Shu-p'ing-General Tai-Yuan Brigade, Shl!ollsi ... June 9. Fu-erh Sun-Deputy Tartar General, Hangchow ...... ... July ll. Jung Kwei-Deputy Lieut.-Gcneral .......................... June 3. Ki Ko-Deputy Lieut Gen. Bordered Red Banner ...... Oct. IS. K'i Hi.i.n-Brigade General, .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. Oct. 27. Ki Ling-Warden of Hunting Grounds ..................... April4. K'o Hing-ah-Captain General, Guards Division .... .. ... June 3. Kwang K'e-Tartar General, Hangchow ................. July 11. K'o M!mg Ngo-Tartar General, Si-an ...... ...... .. .... ... July ll. Kw'un Kang-Deputy Lieut.-Gen. Bord. White Banner. Aug 5. Liao Ch'ang-ming-Brig. Gen. ofYung-chow, Hunan ... Jan. 9. Li Chao-pin-Naval instructor to Kiangnan steam fleet. April,9. Lo Ta-oh'un-Commander-in-chief, Hunan ............... Sept. 6. Li Wen-yih-Brigadier-General, T'eng-yi.i.eh ... ..... .... ... Nov. 6. Ngen Lin-Lieut.-Gen., Plain Yellow Banner ............ Aprill6. Shang Ch'ang-mow-Manchu Brigade-Gen., Canton ... March 2. Shang Tsung-jui-Capt. General, guard's division ...... June 3. Shan Ts'ing-Tartar General, Ning Hia..................... July ll. She Luh-Tartar General, Chap'oo ......................... :. July 14. T'e Fuh-Lieut.-General, Plain Yellow Banner ......... Aprill6. Do. do. Plain White Banner............ Aprill9. T'o Yi.i.n-Deputy Lieut.-General ....................... :...... June 3. Tsung An-Military Assistant Governor at K'obdo... ... Aug. 4. Wen Yi.i.-Lieut.-General, Bord. White Banner ......... March 21. Wen Hiu-Deputy Lieut.-General ..................... ..... June 3. Yang Ch'ang-ch'un-Genl. L'in Yuan Brigade, Yitnnan. Sept. 19. Yang Fang-kwei-Brig. General, Honan .................. Jan. 12. Yi Mo.:_Deputy Lieut. General ...... ...... .. ....... ......... June 3. Yi I'liang-Captain General, Bord. Red Banner ......... June 15, PRISON AFFAIRS. Long detention of criminals awaiting trial.................. Feb. l'i, March 17. Chihli-Re-capture of escaped prisoners..................... Feb. 19, March 4, Honan-Escape of PriBoner .................................... March 5, Aug .. 27. Ch'aha.r-Escape of ex-officials in servitude on post roads .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .... .. April I, 25. Escape of criminal under sentence of banishment ...... .......................................... June29,Julyl4, 19, Sept. 30. Return of criminal to place Qf banishment ... Nov. 2. Sllcch'wan-Escape of criminals under sentence of death. May 1,

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xxiv Kiangsi-Murder of prisoner by his comrade............... July 25. Yi.i.nnan-Escape of prisoners at Amichow. Jail master dismissed .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Aug. 11. Death of Criminal in Board of Punishments-Investiga-tion ordered ... .................. .............................. Aug. 19, Sept. 4, 16, Oct. 1. Military Post Road-Convict released on payment of station expenses .. .. .. .. .. Oct. 30. J a.il Warden punished for escape of prisoners .. .. .. .. .. Dec. 1. Turnkey murdered by prisoners .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Dec. 3. Lo Ping-hien, Kiangsi-Esca.pe of prisoners ......... ...... Dec. 15. INSTRUCTION, WORSHIP AND USAGES. PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. Fuhkien-Honors to President of College ............... .. Nanking-Official Biography of President of College sanctioned ..................................... Yiinnan-Schools and Colleges in ............................. Fuhkien-Schools in T'ai-pei Fu ............................. Yiinnan-Dearth of books, establishment of shop for sale of ............................................ EXAMINATIONS, &c. Literary examinations held in Manchuria ................ .. Examination of officers recommended for special merit .. Co=utation of penalty for fraud by candidate ........ Kiangsi-Enquiry into supposed fraud at provincial examination ......................................... Military examinations-Abolition proposed by SMn ..................................................... Triennial test examinations-Temporary cessation in portions of Honan reco=ended ....................... Szech'wan-Application for additional degrees ........... Manchuria.-Modifications in rules for granting degrees Formosa-Change in Direetion of Examinations ........ Sixtieth anniversary of obtaining degree .......... .. Tsi-tsi-har-Examinations in .................................... Kirin-Expenses of examinations ............................ .. Triennial examinations-Publication of regulations .... .. CMkiang-List of places at which examinations have been held ...................................... K wantung-Additional kU-j8n degree ......... : ............ .. WORSHIP. Prayers for snow or rain at Peking ......................... .. Thanks-givings for rain ........................................ General Prayers for rain ......................................... Thanks-giving for rain ........................................ .. Prayers for rain in Shansi ..................................... .. Thanks-giving for rain ............................................ Worship at Tai-shan mountain .............................. .. Sticks of incense offered at Tai-shan mountain ........... April29. May 19. Sept. 28. Dec. 3. Dec. 29. Feb. 21. March 25. .April15. April20. May 5, 23. June 5. July 31. Aug. 18. Sept. 22. Oct. 23, Nov. 2, 6, 26, 23. Dec. 10. Nov. 23. Dec. 9. Dec. 12. Dec. 31. Jan. 4, 14, 24, Feb. 19, March 2, 7, 10, 11, 22, April3, 8, May 3, July 18. July 24. April15. April22. May 3, 14. May 23. May 24. May 25.

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XXV Sticks of incense for River God ................................ Winter Solstice-Sacrifices on occasion of .' .... ........... Sacrifices to Prince Badsajarna ........................... .... TABLETS, TEMPLES, &c. Memorial tablets granted ..................................... .. Temple to Ying Ran .............. ............................ .. Do. do. .......................................... .. Do. for victims of rebellion in Honan in 1863 ........ Do. do. do. 1862 ........ Do. to members of Wu Wei force at P'ing-liang in Kansuh .......................................... .. Do. at T'ai Shan partially destroyed by lightning ... Title for Temple, Wu-shih-shan, Foochow, applied for. Do. to God of Locusts .......................... Yuan Pao-hl!ng-Temple to .................................. .. Do. do. .. ................................ Nov. 10. Nov. 28. Nov. 30. Feb. 17, Apl. 25, May 2, 12, 20, 23, June 25, July 13, Sep. ll, 23, Nov. 12, 15, 30, Dec. 2, 10, 19, 22. May 13. May 31. May 11. June 8. June 20. July 8. Aug. 23. Aug. 28. Oct. 7. Oct. 21. Lung Shl!n Temple, Jl!hol-Sacrifices ordered ............ Nov. 12. Temple to Dragon God .......................................... Nov. 30. FEMALES. Memorial structure to filial daughter, Kwang-tung ...... March 14. Reward of conjugal devotion.................................... April Reward to concubine who committed suicide on the death of her master.............................. June 20. Widow mutilates herself for the benefit of her husband's aunt................................................... June 25. Reward to young lady who died of grief on the death of her betrothed .................. ... ...... ......... July 31. Honors bestowed on centenarian .............................. Aug. 14. Honors bestowed on girl who committed suicide upon the death of her mother ....................... Do. do. do. do. Kansu-Canoriization of the Angel Girl ................... .. Honors bestowed on devoted widow ....................... Honors to virtuous and filial maiden, Chihli .............. Honors to widow who committed suicide ................ .'. SUPERSTITION. Alleged interposition of deity in Kwang-tung .......... .. Announcement of success in Turkestan to Emperor T'ung-chih .................... .................... Iron Tablet-Arrival in Peking ............................... .. Officer sent for ................................... Returned to Han-tan .................. .... .. Title and Memorial Board for Dragon Spirit .............. Dragon Spirit-Efficacy of ............................ : ....... .. Interruption of "pulse" of rain Dragon ................ .. Decree on signs in the sun ancl moon ....................... .. Boarcl of Astronomy on the sun ancl moon ................. Exorcism of girl possessed by evil spirits ................. God of Wind-Token of gratitude applied for ........... Aug. 31. Sept. 10. Nov. 14. Nov. 14. Nov. 17. Dec. 27. Feb. 17. March 17. March 28. April 8. June 19. May 23. May 25. April3, 7. June ll. June 25. Aug. 20. Nov. 28.

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xxvi Mlll'EOROLOOY. Direction of wind on New-Year's day ................... Fall of Snow, Peking ........................ .... .. .... ... ...... Fa11 of Peking ............................................ Rain in Honan ........ : ........................................... Do. Shansi .................................................... .. Do. Shensi ..................................................... Do. Chihli ..................................................... Decree on alleged signs in sun and moon ................ .. Board of Astronomy on meteorological phenomena ..... EXTERNAL RELATIONS. FoREIGN AFFAIRS. Feb. 2. Jan. :30, Feb. 25_, Nov. 12. April Hl, 22, 27, M ay 11, 30, June 10, 15, July 23. May 12, June ll. May 16, 22, June 6. May 21, June 12. June 10. J1ine ll. June 25. Lan-pin-Had audience of leave ..................... March 12. Tsuug-li Yamen-Recommeudation of Secretaries for services in connection with the Treaty revision, &c. May 26. German breech-loading guns-Tso Tsung-t'ang's opinion of ...... ... ... .. .. .. .. .... ...... .. ...... .. .... .. .... ...... ... June 13. Tseng Ki-tseh-Audience of leave .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. Sept. 24. Foreign contributions to famine fund ........................ Nov. 7. Foreigners at Wenchow .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Dec. 12. ConEA AND JAPAN. Shipwrecked Coreans at Chusan ........................ ...... July 23. Do. do. Foochow.............................. Aug. 20. Patrol of Corean Frontier .. .. .... .. .. .. .. ... ... ...... Sept. 5. LIUCH'Iu. Shipwrecked natives sent off from Foochow .. ...... ...... Jan. 8, Aug. l!l. Do. arrived -at Foochow .... .. .. ..... .. .. Sept. 20. ANNAM AND ABORIGINES, Capture of Chinese Brigands in Annamese territory ... March 17. Arrival of Annamese Mission in Kwangsi ...... ...... ...... March 31. TIBET. Officials proceeding to Lassa via Szech'wan ............... Jan. 13. Tribute-bearing Mission.......................................... March 23, April6. Dalai Lama, Presents to ......................................... July 5. SMug Jung, Commissary-Term of Office extended ... Aug. 21. Commissary at Chamdo dismissed ................... :....... Sept. 15. ARSENALS, STEAM VESSELS, -&c. China Merchants' Steam Navigation Co.-Freight for... March 2. Do. do. do. Y eh Ting-ch'un appointed Superintendent ..................... ............ Sept. 7. SuNGARIA AND KASRGARIA. Aksu and Urh captured-Decree announcing ............ Jan. 3. Uliasutai-Relief of troops .for .......... ,...................... Jan. 9. Precautions against rebels........................ July 6. Ngo-lo-ho-pu retires ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... July 7. Ch'un Fu takes Office.............................. July 7. Urga-Agent granted two months' conge March 7. Horses for cavalry .... .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. ... July 12.

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xxvii Urumtsi-Yii She named Acting Military Lieut.Governor...... ......... ... ... ...... ............... Feb. 13. IIami-Rescuc of Mongolian Princess........................ March !J; May 22. Ili-Brigade-General permitted to retire ......... ......... March 1. Remains of former governors recovered ............... Sept. 7, 20. Charges against Mu Tung-ah..................... ......... Nov. 26. Kharashar-Acting Agent-Appointment postponed ... June 27. Kurkara Usa-Co=andant retires....................... .... March 7. Kashgar-Capture of .............. : .............................. March 16. Rewards confened ............ ...... ............... March 17. Announcement to late Emperor.................. March 17. Rewards conferred ................ :............... March 18. Title of Commander-in-chief altered............ July 4. Turfan-Recommendation of successor to order of Dwidji. M arch 13. Reward to Mongol Chieftrun........................ March 18. New Dominion-Loan from Shantung for expenses of re-organization .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. June 9. Division of the country into prefectures o.nd districts July l. Tarbagatai-Operations against rebcls-Rewo.rds conferred .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Dec. 13. MANCHURIA, .MONGOLIA AND PROVINCES. MANCHURIA (KIRIN AND AMUR.) Kirin-Fu Ho appointed Brigade-General at Altchuk'a. Jan. 26. Expedition in search of banditti .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. May 23. Charges against :r.ianchu captain..................... June 7. Capture of mounted banditti ... ... ...... ............ July 17. Memorial on taxation ............................. :... Sept. 7. Winter Hunt-Permission to forego ............... Oct. 19. Capture of notorious brigand .. .... .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. Oct. 31. Reorganisation of civil administration ............ Nov. 8. Governor sent on special mission to the Amur... Nov. 16. Tsi-tsi-har-Retention of force for suppression of brigandage .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. March 8. Extra allowance for cavalry ... ............... March 8. Rape by son of bannerman .. .. .. ... ... .... .. .. July 29. Conviction of horse stealers..... ... .. ... .. ... .. Aug. 5. PROVINCE OF SHENG KING, Moukden-Imperial Library examined .... ..... ... .. .. ... Feb. 21, Purchase of land by official under assumed name ............................................. March 7, July ll. Forgery of official seals ........................... March 7. Posthumous title for 'fu Hing-ah............... March 10. Appeal by daughter of Grand Secretary Wensiang ........... :........................... Jtme 15, July 11, F8ng-t'ien-Ofiicial complicity with brigands ............ Jan. 6. Officials applied for .......... :................... March ll. Immigration of Imperial clansmen-Scheme abandoned ............................... ;.... July 3. Ching-tu Fu--Chargea against prefect dismissed .:....... July 3. Proposed system of land tonurs .............................. Nov. 23.

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xxviii MoNGOLIA. Dzassak deprived of seals .................................... ,. Peacock's feather for Daidji ................................... J eh-ho-Lieut. -Governor applies for Secretary convers ant witb Mongolian ............................. Administrators of Mongol tribe dismissed .... .. Taxation of land in Imperial Reserves ........ Judicial administration-Unsatisfactory con clition of ........................................... .. Uliasu-t'ai-Mongolian prince returns thanks for per mission to succeed to title ............ .. Inspection of Kalka tribe ....................... Ulan Ch'ap League-Case of disputed succession ........ Kharach'in Tabunang-Oppression by ....................... Postal route, Alashan territory, abandoned ............. .. K'obdo-Pao Ying, Military Assist. Governor has leave to retire ........................................ Ts'ing An Military Assist. Governor .......... .. Urga-Observations en route by Imperial Agent ........ Disposition of troops ................................... Urumtsi-Kung T'a.ng, Commandant of Forces, assumes office .......................................... .. Kung T'ang acts as Lieut.-General .......... .. CnrH-Lr. Famine refugees at Tientsin burnt to death .. .. .. ..... Return of Judicial cases ........................................ .. Establishment of house of detention for witnesses at Pao-ting Fu ...................................... Financial Commissioner assumes office .................... Governor-General returns to Pao-ting ....................... Peking-Burglaries at ............................................ Destruction by fire of Draft Office .............. Co=ercial panic ................................. .. Manufacture of spurious cash ................... .. Fire at Granary ...................................... .. Burglaries-Rewards to gentry for aid in arrests ....... .. Sha-ho-Discovery of buried treasure ...................... .. SHANTUNG, Contributions to Honan and Shansi ......................... .. Loan for re-organization of Kashgaria ...................... .. Loss of grain junk .. .. ......................................... .. Partial destruction of temble on Tai Shan ................ .. Report on condition of province ............................ .. Report on Spirit Trade ............................. : .......... .. Escape of Captain who killed two civilians ................. SHANSI. Renewed entreaty for supply of grain ...................... .. Memorial Boards for parents of Yang Yoh-ytin late Governor-General Shensi, &c. .. ........... .. Remission of taxes .............................................. .. Suicide of district Magistrate and his wife ................ .. Hieh Yi.m-sheng-Assumes office ............................ .. I I /Vn..Jk la. .J L ..... .,..(' March 17. March 18. May6. July 14. July 15. Dec. 18. June 30. Dec. 11. July 13. July 18. Aug. 1. Aug. 3. Aug. 4. Sept. 26. Sept. 26. Oct. 6. Nov. 13. Jan. 20, Feb. 14, April 1. April8. July 15. Sept. 4. Dec. 8. March I'. April3. June 2, July 8. July 11. Nov. 13, Dec. 1. May5. May 8, 28. May 13. June 9. June 11. July 8. Sept. 14. Nov. 13. Dec. 13. Jan. 8. July 11. Sept. 11. Oct. 17. Nov. 29.

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: xxix HoNAN. Officials denounced by Censor .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Jan. 13. Li Hoh-nien took Seal of Office.. .. .... .................. ..... Feb. 11. T'uh Tsung-ying takes Seals of Office .............. :......... June 4. Chang P'ei-lun on colTuption ... .. .. .... ... .. ....... ......... June 11. Censor K'ung Hien-ki on con-uption .. .. .. .... ..... ... ...... July 16. Ch eng Fu appointed Fina.ncial Commissioner ............ Nov. 17. Te Sin appointed Judge .... ................. ...................... Nov. 17. SHBNSI. Governor denounced by Censor................... ............. Ja.n 5. Governor again denounced ; explanation called for .. .. Feb. 2'2. Arrears to Troops. .. .................................. .. .......... May 13. Victims of Rebellion, 1862, M arks of compassion applied for .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. June 8. Treasurer !Gang Ning-hio retires .................. ............ July 31, Aug. 15. KANSUH, Services of Wu Ta-ch'eng, Ch'ang Shun, &c., for Ja.n. 10. Mutiny of irregular Troops ... ...... .. ...................... ... Mar. 23. Suppression of poppy cultivation .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... Aug. 18. KIANGSI. Liu Ping-chang, Governor, retires .... .. ..................... Aug. 20. Li W en min appointed Gov e rnor ... .. .... ... .. ... .... ...... Aug. 21. Foundling Hospital for female infants .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Aug. 26. Revision of Topography .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Sept. 3. ShGn. Pao-king Acting Judge............ ........................ Sept. 3. NGANHWEI. Defalcations in Land-tax......... .. ... .. .... ...................... Aug. 7. Marks of Imperial compassion for Victims of Rebellion Aug. 14. Governor makes tour of Military inspection ......... ...... Aug. 31. Stockades, gradual demolition .. ......... ..................... Nov. 12. Repudiation of Signature by 'l'a.otai.. ......................... Nov. 12. KIANGSU. DeficienCies in balance of seven officials .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. Mar. 7. Appropriation of funds for captur e of Locusts .. :...... .. Ma.y I. Funds l ent to Honan ...................... :..... .. ... .... .. .. ... May 10. official biography of late Taotai sanctioned... July 18. Return of Govemor-General to office, &c. .... .. .... .. ...... July 24. Locusts, Temple to God of.. .. ..................... .............. Aug 28, 'Stt Ying-yung appointed Judge............ .............. ...... Nov. 17. Tsung-ming district vacancy .. .......... .. ..................... Nov. 24. T'a.o-shan do. do. ... ................................. Nov. 24. CHEKIANG. Publication of libellous pamphlet ..... ....... ... ...... ......... May 11. Assault on shopkeeper by Man c hu soldier ......... .... .... June 16, S ept. 3, Oct. 24. Shipwr e cked Corea.ns at Chusan ...... ............. .... .... .. July 23. Floods in three prefectures ..... ......... .. .. ................ Aug. 17. Rising in K'i.t-sha.n...... ... ... .. .... ......... ... .. .. .. ...... ..... .. .. Sept. 18. :;lilk tax for famine ftmd .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...... Oct 29. Um: nlincss of the soldiery .... ........... ; .............. : ..... ... Nov.

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XXX FUHKIEN. Enquiry respecting attempt to bribe Governor ........... Excessive rain-results of .................................... .. One month's couge to Governor-General .................... Do. do. Expil'y of .... Wu: Tsan-ch'eng, acts as Governor ............................ .. FoRMOSA. Charges in Military administration ......................... Hurricane at 'l"aiwan Fu ......................................... Examinations at T'aiwan ...... :, ................................. Submission of savages ........................................... .. Travelling expenses for Governor of Fuhkien .............. KwAISGTUNG AND Jan. 18. April 15 June 21. .Aug. 9. Sept. 15. March 6. July 15, 30. Sept. 22. Nov. 17. Dec. 2. I'ch'eng, accidental homicide at ............... :........ ...... Jan. 6. Yang-yii-k'o, Brigade-General, exchange proposed ...... Jan. 19. Liu Kw'un-yi-One month's conge ........................... Aug. 8. Ch'eng Fu-Jlllli. Comm. Kwangtung, takes otlice ...... Nov. 9. Kiu Kwoh-shen appointed Judicial Commissioner Nov. 17. Hu KwANG. Hupeh-Lawless conduct at Fan-k'ow .................... Feb. 7. Governor Shao Heng-yii takes office .......... .. Feb. 22. Suspicious death of old man in Chu-ld district. July 19. Persons killed in mistake for banditti ......... .. July 21. Hunan-Governor Shao Heng-yii takes office .......... .. Aug. 28. M a Ju-lung-Commander-in-chief, retires ................. Sept. 5. SZECH'WAN. Proposals respecting salt trade ............................... .. March 30. Do. do. (and Note) .................. April 9. Reward of filial devotion ..................................... .. April 26. Defalcations of subordinate officials ........................ .. May 17. Demmciation of district Magistrate ......................... .. May 17. Operations against salt smugglers anu banditti ........... June 22. Rewards of filial
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ABSTRACT OF PEKING GAZETTE. 1.878. Jan. lst.-A decree acknowledging the presentation of a report by the Board of Punishments, on a case of adultery and mmder reported from the Han-ch'wan district in Hnpeh. A prisoner named Chu Knng-yiin has been tried on the charge of llllU"dering his cousin, Clm Kung-ying, at the instig[\tion of the latter's wife, his paramour. The sentence submitted is confirmed, viz., that the guilty woman be forthwith executed by the ling-ch'e.process (slicing to death), and Chu Kung-yi.i.n be forthwith decapitated. In the Board's memorit\l the name of the Governor-General of Hupeh, Li Han-chang, is written errone ously as Li Hoh-nien. This is a gross act of carelessness. Let the name of the SeCl"e tary in charge of this report be ascertained and handed to the Board of Civil Office for the adjudication of a penalty. Penalties are furthermore to be adjudged against the superior officers at the head of the department. Jan. 2nd.-(1) A decree. Let Li Yi.i.anhwa vacate his oflice as Lieutenant-Governor of Shantung, and come to Peking to await other employment. Let Yii Sze-shu *' ,m,fl@. (at present Judicial Commis sioner in Kweichow) succeed to the office thus vacated ; and let Wu Teh-p'u (at present Grain lntendant in K weichow) succeed him. (2) A Decree. The Prince of Tun and his colleagues report, on the completion of the [new recension of the] Imperial Genealogical H.oll, that the binding of the copy destined to be reverently transported to Moukden .and preserved with due respect in the archives there, is now completed. Inasmuch as the Annals of the reign of his late Majesty and the Compendium of his Majesty's decrees are now in process of compilation, V{ e cmn mand that o1i the accomplishment of this task the whole of the records above-named be forwarded ;it one time to Moukden. (3) A decree taking to task the responsible officials of the Grand Secretariat for the omission of a word in the translation (from the 1\'Ianchu) of a slip containing the Imperial rescript to a report IJresented Ly Tseng Kwoh-ts\i.an, Governor of Shansi, with reference to a case of murder at Kwei-hwa Ch'eng. Jan. 3td.-(1) A decree. Let Sung Ch'ang succeed to the post of Grain Intendant of the province of Kweichow. (2) A decree acknowledging the receipt of a memorial in which Tso Tsung-t'ang, Governor-General of Kansuh, etc., reports that the government troops have pursued and victoriously engaged the rebellious Mohammedans, and have recovered posses sion, successively, of the cities of Aksu and Ush. In the campaign for the recovery of the region of Turkestan (or Kashgaria, Sin Kicmg Nan Lu) upon which the army has been engaged, since the recapture of Karashar, Kuche, and the adjacent cities, the Taotai Liu Kin-t'ang has advanced at the head of the forces under his com1nand, making a rapid march toward the west, and during the period from the 21st to the 26th October he followed up the bands respectively headed by the Kokandian and by Bayen Hu, which were pursued and victoriously engaged, repeated successes crowning his arms, with losses inflicted upon the rebels to the number of several thousands. The two cities of Aksu and Ush were successively recovered, and the Mussulman population tendered their allegiance in numbers beyond computa tion. The movements of the army have been alike rapid and successful, and they have exalted in a high degree the prowess of Our military for.ces. Let Tso Tsung-t'ang continue to lay injunctions upon Liu Kin-t'ang and the other commanders with him, that they proceed with all prudent care to effect the remainder of the \Vork of conquest, and that they bring their great achievement without delay to a successful conclusion by the capture of BayenHu and the rest'[ of the rebel leaders.] whereas, on the present occasion, Our forces that have been arrayed for the campaign in-the west, whose path has lain amid the boundless waste and under the rigours of an icy season, have within the space of a single mmth accomplished a march of upwards of

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one thousand miles in length, recovering possession of the four cities of Karashar, Kuche, Aksu, and Ush, thus restoring already to Our rule the half of the southern portion of the New Dominion, it behoves Us to Ihete out appropriate tokens of Our bounty, in reward for the zeal displayed by Our forces in the execution of their duty. 'Ye command that Liu Kin-t'aug do vacate his post as a Taotai and become expectant of appointment to office in the rank of sub-Director of a minor metro politan department of the third grade. (Here follows a long list of promotions and honours conferred upon the principal mili tary leaders, beginning with General T'an Pa-ts'ui.) Posthumous honours are farther decreed on behalf of the officers killed in action, who are enumerated as follows, viz :-1 Brigade-General, 2 Colonels, 1 Lieutenant-Colonel, 1 first Captain, 2 second Captairul, 1 brevet second Captain 3 lieutenants, 2 sergeants. (With reference to this list of officers killed, it is desirable to bear in mind that the superior grades of the military service are lavishly conferred, under the system of "recommendations which takes, in a great measure, the place of pay in the Chinese army, and that such a case as that of a Sergeant and General by brevet" is not without pre cedent.) (3) Shen Pao-cheng, Governor-General of the Two Kiang, in a postscript memorial, represents with reference to his liability to suffer regularly at the approach of winter from an attack of bronchitis, that during the present season he has been more than ever sensitive to cold, and scarcely able to go out of doors. His lower limbs refuse to support their burden, and he has difficulty in both kneeling and making obeisances. He breathes with difficulty at night, and is unable to sleep. It constantly occurs that after 3 a.m. he is obliged to sit up to look for the dawn of day. He sees his subor dinates on business in his sleeping apart ment and with the exception of such the decision upon which is given in his own hand, he is unable to attend per sonally to affairs. He is now constrained to ask a conga of one month, to enable him to devote himself to the care of his health. -Granted by rescript. ( 4) SMn Pao-cMng, of the Two-kiang, memorializes sohCitmg an alteration in the mode of treatment at present extended by law to the two classes of persons known as Wu-tso f-f1'f (corpse examiners) and ma-k'toai (constables, or thief-takers), as a matter of 2 [JAN. 3. importance to the interests of good govern ment. He represents the impossibility of securing either honesty or efficiency from these classes of employee, whose functions are nevertheless extremely important, so long as they are treated as vile in degree and unworthy of advancement. That the offspring of courtesans and players should be debarred from honourable careers is a condition from which those exposed to it have no recourse ; but in the case of individuals employed in the serYice of public departments, however much their occupations may be of a sordid and labori ous nature, yet the business in which their daily lives are spent is, after all, the service either of the state or of the people. It is an impossibility to dispense with their presence in any part of the Em1)ire ; and under these circumstances is it not a con tradiction to the endeavour to obtain purity of government that such individuals should be cut off from the privileges of their fellow men even before they have committed a wrongful act 1 Moreover, the fact should be considered that no uneducated person can fulfil the functions of a corpse-examiner, and that. no one who is not qualified to eerve in the profession of arms can dis charge the duties of a police constable. In respect of the former class, the decision in. cases of murder wholly depends upon the report as to the wounds upon the body under view. If any mis-statement be made in this respect, Rhadamanthus himself would be at fault. The manual of the corpse-examiner (Si Yiian Ltth) is a work of a very profound nature, and its contents are not indiscriminately to be relied upon. It requires to be construed with intelligence. Where men who have taken high literary degrees, and official writers of respectable position after toiling over the work by day and night, may well ehrink back affrighted by its difficulties, if a corpse-examiner, devoid of all feeling of self-respect, falsifies evidence and makes right into wrong, where shall the injured party look for redress 1-0n the other hand, as regards the class of police-con staLles, the risks they are called upon to run in the execution of warrants of arrest are on a par with those which a soldier faces in battle. If such men be weak and timid, it were folly to expect them to per sonify the terror of the law, or to hope that the streets and market-places will be otherwise than dens of thieves. It has been observed that, since the corpse examiner traffics in his inquest, and the constable in matters of judicial process, were openings of adva.ilcement now to be

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JAN. 3-5.] afforded to such men, it would be tant amount to encouraging the breed of tigers and adding the means of flight to their powers. In answer to this objection, it may be urged that the opportunities of the literary career are not abolished because litigntion is undeniably fomented here and there by graduates, nor are the soldiery debarred from promotion because outrages are committed from time to time by the military. The memorialist would therefore urge that the class of corpse-examiners may be admitted to an equal status with that of the if ployed in the judicinl department of the mngistrncies, regards the opportunity of obtnining oflicinl ad vancemeut, and that be similarly placed on the footing enjoyed in this respect by the soldiery. By so doing, the iuboru sense of right may be awnlmned within thelll, and they may be led by a sentiment. of self respect to develope a regard for honourable conduct, such as must prove conducive to the interests of reform in the uumner of dealing with cases of homicide nnd of robbery and brigandage .-Rescript: Let the Boards concerned consider and report to Us. Jan. 4th.-(!) A decree referring for immediate consideration on the part of the high authorities of the cnpital a proposition snbmittJd by Li Hnug-chaug with reference to the supply of gmin to the population of the Ho suggests that either official ag!']ncies be as originnlly proposed, outside the East and South-east gates, for the sale of grain at reduced prices, or else that private dealers be allowed to purchase supplies from Government for the purposes of resale. (2) A rescript appointing Chang Yiin-k'ing (at present Governor of Shunt'ien Fn) to the vacant post of Vice-Director of the Imperial Chm Court. (3) A decree ordaining a farther series of intercessory services in supplication for a fall of snow, to be held on the 6th instnnt, in view of the protracted absence of moisture. His Majesty will himself offer incense at the Ta Kao-tien. (4) The Court of Censors memorinlize for warding the text of an appeal lodged by an agent representing the widow Lin Tai-she, of Fuhkien, once more entreating justice for the murder of her son, which has reruu.ined for eight years unredressed. The complainant, who is 87 years of age and the mother of a. fanner General-in-chief of the land forces in Fuhkien, who lost his life in the oper ations against the rebels at Changchow in 1864, repeats the wording of her previous 3 allegations, as published in the Gazette of 30th March, 1876. Her complaint is to the efl'tJct that her second son, Lin Wen miug was murdered in 1809 by the then Prefect, Ling Ting-kwoh, in combination with the Magistrate of the Chaug-hwa. district, 'Vang Wen-k'i by name, after an ineffectual attempt on the part of Ling 'fing-kwoh to squeeze him of a sum of $8,000, with which intent a document bearing the seal of the then Taotai of Fonnosa, Li Chao-t'a.ng (at present Taotai at 1'ieutsin), threatening him with death, was produced. Aiter a succession of abortive attempts to obtnin justice from the government, appeal was lodged at Peking in 1876, and upon this a decree was iRsued commanding the Gov emor, 'l'iug Jih-ch'ang, to investigate the The appellant having made repeated application, in consequence, for a hearing, the officer appointed to deal with the case, Chung Hung-kw'ei by name; has twice sat for the purpose of taking the evidence ; but he has not allowed a word to be said about the Tao tai's proclamations or about the treacherous act of murdtJr committed. All he has done has been to endeavour to persuade the nppella.nt to consent to a dismissal of the charge. Appellant hereupon personally snw the Prefect of Foochow, and exposed her griefs to that authority, who gave it as his opinion that the matter was' of too grave a nature to be disposed of by the Commis sioner appointed to take evidence ; and he applied to the Governor to hear the case himself. The Governor ordered the Com missioners of Finance and Justice to look into the matter, and these authorities passed the instructions on to the Prefect once more. Referred in this manner from pillar to post, the case has dragged on interminably, with no prospect of redress; and, once more inveighing against Ling Ting kwoh as the murderer of her son, and declaring tl1at irrefragable proofs of the fact are forthcoming, the appellant lodges a renewed entreaty for justice in the hands of the Censorate. -Rescript again com manclin" the high authorities of Fnhkien to investig-ate the case, already published. (Note. The accused, Ling Ting-kwoh, is the official already dismissed the pul;>lic service for peculation in connection with the expenditure on the fot;tifications erected at An-p'ing.-See Gazette of 7th l\fay, 1876). Jan. 5th.-(I) A decree. Let. P'eng Tsu-hien "Je jftf! Jf &ncceed to the post of Governor of Shun-t'ieu Fu.

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(2) Clmng P'ei-lnn, ARsist:tnt Reader of the Hanlin College, a.ccusi11g the Governor of Shensi, 1"an Clumg-lin, of making use of tmwMTantable and insubor dinate language in the explanation he has submitted to the Throne with reference to the condition of affairs in his province ; and it is solicited that he be, at the least, sternly reprimanded for his disrespectful conduct.-For decree in reply see Gazette of Dec. 17th 1877. (3) Wen Pin, Director-General of the Grain Transportation system, begs leave to add, in a postscript memorial, that Liu Hien, Taotai of the Hwai-ngan and Yang-chow Intendency, holding brevet rank as a Financial Commissioner, is an officer who has long been employed on the southern division of the Grand Canal, and who is thoroughly versed in the questions of policy which relate thereto. In all mat ters connected with the requirements of annual repair or of protection against de struction of the embankments in times of sudden danger, he has shewn himself careful in the direction of labour and economical in outlay. His proceedings have bi'ien in all respects commendable, and in addition to this, he has not failed in the duty of attend ing to the instruction of the troops employed in the service nor in that of rectifying abuses of long standing.-(Here follows the com mendation, in similar terms, of another official. )-It is humbly requested that sanc tion may be given to the proposal now 11ubmitted for the bestowal of a distinguished form of reward upon the officers in ques tion, by way of encouragement to farther exertions. Rescript ; "Perused." (Note.The official thus highly co'rnmended by Wen Pin is the same who was lately de nounced by the Governor-General Shen _Pao-cheng, and dismissed in consequence from the public service, as a notorious smoker of opium. See G"zettes of 2nd and 20th Dec., 1877). Jan. 6th.-(1) A decree in answer to a memorial from Ch'ung How, Governor General of Feng-t'ien, who has denounced two Manchu subalterns for complicity with the mounted brigands infesting that prov ince. One of the delinquents, being related by marriage to a cousin of one of these depredators, on the latter being cap tured and imprisoned, had the audacity to stand security for the criminal's release; and in the second case, a captain named Min Teh-fuh allowed his brother to har bour a certain notorious brigand chief, be sides which he entertained the project of furnishing supplies of firearms to the robbers, The two incriminated officers are 4 [JAN. 5-6. hereupon cashiered 1md sentenced to trans portation into servitude upon the military pnstroads. (2) The Governor-General of the Two Kwang and the Governor of Kiangsu memorialize reporting the sentence pro nounced in the case Qf a military officer char11ed with an unintentional act of homicide iu the discharge of his official functions. The case occurred at the city of I-ch'eng, where, in July last, a certain individual named Ts'ien Teh-kwei raised an uproar in connection with the employ ment of a band of musicians for a procession intended to do honour to a departing district Magistrate. The man Ts'ien interfered with the musicians engaged, and a tumult ensued in consequence of his clamour and violence, to quell which the officers in command of the detachment of braves at the place, a brevet Brigade-General named Wang Sien chen, and a brevet captain named Chao \Yen-kao, came forward. Both these officers struck the man with their whips, and continued beating him for some time until, yielding to the entreaty of the musicians, they let him go; but as he stumbled away his trowsers caught the point of Chao Wen-kao's boot, and Chao, raising his foot, unintentionally gave him a kick. The man was assisted to his home, and he died on the following day from the effect of the injuries received. 'fhe statute law comprises three forms of penalty. ap plicable to this case, as regards the various individuals concerned. 1'he first runs to the effect that whosoever shall ea use the death of any man by blows inflicted in a broil, whether the same be dealt with the hand, foot, or any other object, or with a weapon of metal or a sword, shall suffer death by strangling after imprisonment to await confirmation of the sentence." The second form provides the penalty of 20 stripes in the case of any one who shall strike another with hand or foot with out inflicting an actual wound ; and the third is the proviso according to which 80 blows are made the penalty for general wrongdoing of an aggravated description. The severest form of penalty has now been pronounced upon the offending military officer found guilty of causing the death of Ts'ien Teh-kwei, and he is sentenced to suffer strangulation in despite of his appeal for a more lenient sentence, on the ground that he is almost the only son of aged parents. This is rejected on the ground that the deceased man was himself an only son, and that his parents are left with no one to attend upon them. A minor penalty is denounced against a petty civilian

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JAN. 6-8.] functionary who took part in the affair; and it is solicited that the Brigade-General, whose duty it was to have been morecare ful, be stripped of his rank.-The judicial sentences are referred by rescript to the Board of Punishments for consideration. The Brigade-General Wang Sien-chen is stripped of his rank but left in office. (3) Li Hung-chang, Governor-General of Chihli, etc., memorializes with reference to the collection of contributions on behalf of the requirements of famine-relief in the province of Shansi, to assist in the management of which he has been commissioned by decree. The extent of country afflicted, he represents, is so vast and the length of time to be provided for so protracted, that unless subscriptions be encouraged on an extensive the funds provided C!I.Il be more than a drop in the bucket. Without referring more minutely at present to the results obtained at the ports of Tientsin, Shanghai, Hankow, and Ningpo, to the authorities of which, as important trading centres, requisitions have been sent for the establishment of collecting agencies, and by the officials and notables of which places sums have already been raised, though to no considerable amount as yet, it has now particularly to be reported that, in view of the character for liberality and public spirit which has always distinguished the notables and mercantile class of Ch'ao-chow Fu, on the coast of Kwangtung, the memorialist wrote some time ago to Ting Jih-ch'ang, Governor of Fuhkien (a native of that prefecture and now residing there), requesting him to exhort the authorities and notables of his own locality to unite their efforts in the cause. The Taotai of that Intendancy, Chang Sien, has now reported to the memorialist that on receipt of his despatch on this subject, he had proceeded at once to Swatow (the port of Ch'ao-chow Fu), where an official committee formed 11nder his direction succeeded by dint of active oJforts in raising contributions to the snm of 20,000 dollars, equivalent to 'faels 14,000. In addition to this, subscriptions were farther to be solicited a.t Ampu, Ch'eng ha.i, and the other towns in the neighbour hood. At Hongkong, Singapore, and in Annan and Siu.u1, moreover, the number of Ch'ao-chow (Tiechiu) traders is notably great ; and two oflicials, the expectant Prefect K'o Chen-tsien tP.Jtl&tJ! and the expectant sub-Prefect Kao 'l"ing-k'iei are named as especially conversant with the localities in q ues tion. It is proposed that they should 5 nominate trustworthy official agents to proceed thither for the puipose of soliciting contributions, and it is requested thu.t certificates of rank and office may be for warded to Ch'a.o-chow Fu for issue to subscribers, in redemption of the pledge held forth in this respect. On receipt of this communication from the Ta.otai Chang sien, to whose popularity in Ch'ao-chow Fu, where he has held his present office for upwards of ten years past, the results now obtained are ascribed, the memorialist submits a report of what has already been accomplished, and he will hereafter solicit rewards on a distinguished scale on behalf of the officials who have exerted themselves in this matter. He writes also to the Governor of Shansi desiring him to send for ward a. supply of the required certificates to be offered for sale to contributors. Jan. 7th-A decree. Let Hwang Yiih gnen Jt.,m, succeed to the post of Prefect of Kw'ei-chow Fu in Sze-ch'wau. Jan. 8th.-(1) A decree making the following administrative changes :a. Leh Fang-k'i 1iUJ to be transferred from the a.ppoilitment lately con ferred upon him, as Lieutenant-Governor (Fant'ai) of Kwangsi, to fill the same office in Kiangsu; b. Fan to be promoted to the post of Lieutenant-Governor of Kwangsi; and c. Li Chao-t'ang at present Taotai Superintendent of Cus toms a.t Tientsin, to become Judicial Com missioner of Chihli in his stead. (2) The Governor ofShansi, Tseng Kwohts'iian, and the special High Commissioner for the inspection of famine relief, Yen Kin-ming, jointly memorialize reiterating the request preferred some time since for the appropriation of 60,000 piculs of the grain tribute prospectively due from the provinces of Kiangsi and Hupeh to Peking for the 1878, in consid_eration of the urgent need prevailing in the province of Shansi. Upwards of 80 districts are actually famine-stricken, and some 5,000,000 to 6,000,000 of the population are dependent upon public assistance. The proposal submitted for the additional supply of grain referred to above having been con sidered by the Board of Revenue, in con formity with the Imperial Decree (see Gazette of Nov. 22nd), the .Board has negatived it on the ground that the supply of grain to furnish the proper quota for the granaries of the capital is a question of paramount importance. The Board's opinion has received the Imperial sanction,

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and has been communicated to the memo rialists, who with reluctance submit, under the pressure of overpowering necessity, an entreaty for its reconsideration. The special High Commissioner, after a journey of some 700 to 1,000 miles throughout various parts of the province, draws a moving pictur.e of the signs and sounds of woe which met him at every turn, and he states that he is within the mark in adding that a thousand deaths from starvation occur each day. With reference to the observation that has been made to the effect that the remission of the likin tax on grain might be depended upon to attract private enterprise, it is pointed out that the difficulties of transport are so great that at the best of times supplies for this prov ince are only furnished by the adjacent provinces of Shensi and Honan ; and that to the proclan1ations that have been issued urging merchants to come forward, there has been not a single response. The means of the wealthiest inhabitants of the prov ince have been drained by the calamity experienced for the last three years, and for hundreds of li at a stretch the entire population is dependent upon official aid.In reply, the relief asked for is granted by rescript. The Board of Revenue is desired to take note. (3) The high authorities at Foochow report the departure for their own country of two batches of distressed Liu-ch'iuans, 30 all told, who had been drifted in then junks to the coast of China. (4) K'ung Ling-i :fL 1} the suc cessor to the Confucian "dukedom," with the title Yen K ung (first conferred in A.D. 1233) memorializes reporting his accession to the title. He received on the 7th October bat, a despatch from the Board of Ceremonies, informing him that having submitted his name in due course to the Throne in a report dated the 8th September, a rescript had been received on the lOth September in the words : '' Be it as is proposed." On receipt of the despatch to this effect the memorialist, having reverently prepared an altar, had faced himself toward the Imperial residence and had prostrated himself to return thanks for the Imperial bounty ; and thereupon, on the 7th November, he took charge of his official seal and assumed the functions incumbent upon him. He proceeds to testify the devotion with which he is in-. spired toward his Imperial Sovereign, whose bounty has been so conspicuously manifested toward him.-(See Gazette of Dec. lOth, 1876.) 6 [JAN. 8-10. Jan. 9th.-(1) A Decree. LetLiao Ch'angming }J. -&; succeed to the post of Brigade-General of Yung-chow, in Hunan. (2) The Military Governor of Uliasut'ai with reference to the relief, m ordmary course, of the force of Chiuese troops of the regular army stationed at that point. According to rule, the two Brigade commands of Si.i.an-hwa and Ta-t'ung, in Chihli, should detail for the purpose of garrisoning Uliasut'ai a force composed of two second-captains, two lieutenants, three sergeants, one corporal, and 245 privates, includiug a proportion of mounted men, to be relieved once in five years. At the ap plication of the former acting Milittny Governor Ch'ang Slum, in 1873, a force of 500 meu was ordered tu be detrtiled from Chihli. A portion of the men and officers who were detached in obedience to these have qualified themselves in the kn,wledge of the Mongol tongue, aud it is now requested that the remainder may be relieved according to regulation. Jan. !Oth.-(1) A decree based upon a memorial from 'f'an Chung-lin, Governor of Shensi, denouncing certain officials who have failed in the due discharge of their duty in the distribution of famine relief. The Magistrate of the Fu-p"ing district is charged with having disregarded the instructions given him to issue a pro ndd. allowance of food individually, and to have estaulished relief-centres instead at the it.d vice of certain of the notables. Owing to the large extent of the district and the distances to be traversed, the population was unable to obtain supplies of food, and crowds of complainants came to the pro vincial capital to represent t.lwir case. 'l'hey stated, additionally, that the notttules were in leagne with the Mngistrate's re tainers with dishonest intent, in connection with the levy of supplies of whertt. Ag!Lin, the acting Magistrate of the Kao-ling district is accused of having made false returns of the number of distressed in dividuals and of grain issued. The disdistrict notable Liu Jui-yi.ih, a member of the loca.J. committee of management, and a military liceutiate named Keng 8lw-k11''ei, are also clnuged with having mutually transferred to each other a quantity of the grain in store, their conduct in this respect exposing them t.o suspicion of dishonest practices. '!'he Magistrate had failed to detect proceedings, and had shewn himself to all intents and purposes blind and deaf. Again, on a personal visit being paid by the Governor himself to the relief agency in southern of the

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JA.N. 10.] provincial capital, he .found that a number of famine-stricken persons were still seeking a supply of food ; and on asking an explanation from the officer in charge he was told that these people, although still asking for food, had already been given allowances of grain, for which reason they had not been entered on the lists. The same agency, how ever, subsequently reported its supplies as inadequate, the numbers of individuals to be provided for being augmented in two days by upwards of 700 souls. From this it was plain that either present overstatement or past omission was chargeable against the agency. It was reported, moreover, that the attendants had conspired with the flour-dealers to make-out false statements of the quantities they received. After dwelling upon the enormity of the offence of neglect of duty under circumstances such is the present, the Imperial decr;ee ordains that the two district Magistrates impeached be forthwith stripped of their rank and brought to trial in conjunction with all the notables concerned in the matter. Should evidence of actual dishonesty be elicited they are to be farther stringently denounced, and the minor offenders referred to are also to be pro ceeded against. (2) The Supervising Censor K woh Ts'ung kii memorializes urging the necessity of making provision on a large scale for the necessities of the province of Shansi, the financial exigencies of which are pressing in the extreme. Referring to the appropriations already allotted toward the needs of this province, he proceeds to observe that the winter being already far advanced without snow having fallen, it is impossible to forecast with cert.1\inty the prospect of the crops in the comingyear, whilst, at the same time, the issue of relief for the present season is itself no easy matter. According to report, the amount hitherto raised by the agencies established by the provinci11l government of Shansi for the raising of contributions, anwnnts to no more than from 500,000 to 600,000 taels ; and this sum, if divided among the 4,000,000 souls who were lately reported by the Governor of Shansi as in need of relief, gives but abo1,1t '1'1. 0.1.4 per head, or say from one to two hundred cash. This amount would represent no more than a pint or two of rice apiece-:-a quantity wholly disproportionate to the actual_needs. At the opening of Spring, moreover, the old stocks of rice will be exhausted and new supplies will not yet have been received; and the utmost endeavours of the provincial Governor to obtain financial assistance from 7 the neighbouring provinces can scarcely be depended upon to be of much service in the emergency. The memorialist consequently solicits that sanction be given to the issue of certificates of the peacock feather decoration-the sale of which was put an end to in a means of supplying the requisite funds.-Rescript,refen-ing the proposal for consideration, already published. (3) Tso Tsung-t'ang, Governor-General of Kansuh, etc., etc., in a postscript memo rial, dwells upon the desolated condition of the province under his government, and the corrupt condition into which the ser vices, both civil and military, have lapsed. He is grieved at heart by the prevalence of dishonesty and incompetent and unworthy employes. A region so distant and abounding in hardships is shunned by the majority of-capable functionaries, whilst the persons of disreputable character and needy ante cedents who are ready to flock thithP.r are such as should not be employed. On more than one occasion, when the memorialist has applied for the services of individuals whom he thought likely to be useful, and who at the same ,time would be put in a position to gain experience fitting them for future duty, his request has failed of acceptance on the score _of incompatibility with some atanding regulation or other. At the present juncture, when the prosecution of the campaign for the recovery of Kashgaria is daily widening the field of action, increased urgency is felt in the need of capable subordinates ; and the memori alist, whilst admitting that there is no lack of brave and honest men among those who are under his own eye, must confess that the number of individuals gifteu with bron.d perceptions and the capacity for dealing with large questions of an ad ministrative nature, is most .limited. He asks, therefore, that the following officials may be detailed to serve under his orders. He has heard tlmt Lii Yao-tow a Compiler of the Han Lin College, is a person of sterling uprightness and devoted to s;tudy of the true art of government ; and although personally unknown to, he is highly esteemed by the memorialist from what he has learnt concerning him. Another official of the same degree, Wu Tach'eng -attracted his notice whilst filling the office of Literary Chancellor of the provinces of Shensi and Kansuh, and as in addition to an unusual deg1ee of ability he adds the qualification of being a good horseman and_ capable of enduring physical exertion, beside having

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devoted his attention to frontier affltirs ; he is indeed one in a thousand. If these two officials be sent to serve with the army and thus gain experience, they are certain to prove useful men here after. A third individual is Ch'ang Shun who acted some time ago as Military Governor of Uliasut'ai, a man of much bodily strength and martial capacity. Owing to want of proper experience he was misled by bad advice and thus incurred censure. The memorialist is unaware, at present, to which of the Banners Ch'ang Shun may be attached ; but if he be sent to serve under the memorialist, he will train him with care.-Rescript ordering two of the three officials above-named to proceed forthwith to Kansuh, and wu 'l'a-ch'eng to do the same after fulfilment of his present mission in Honan, already published. Jan. llth.-N o documents of importance. Jan. 12th.-(1) A decree appointing Yang Fang-kwei mJJ:tt to the post of Brigade-General of the Nan-yang command in Honan. (2) A decree allotting a farther grant of 200 piculs of millet to the relief agency established in the west division of Peking, on the representation of the Censors in charge, the former grant of 300 piculs being insufficient in consequence of the influx of destitute persons from remote parts of the country. (3) A decree awarding honours and promotion to a long list of officials whose names have been submitted by the Prince of Tun and his colleagues of the Commission for revising the Imperial Genealogical Register, on the completion of this t11sk. Jan. 13th.-(1) A decree based upon a farther memorinl on the part of the Censor Li Kia-yoh, who has dwelt upon the charges of illegal imposition of taxes and practices of extortion with which certain district Magistrates in the province of Honan have been charged, and demandiug that commands be issued for the stringent impeachment of all such offenders. The conduct exposed by the Censor is severely reprobated, and any instances of its oc currence are, it is commanded, to be reported without fail by the high authorities con cerned. (2) Li Han-chang, Governor-General of Ht, Kwang, memorializes reporting a case of adultery and murder, the victims being the husband of the guilty woman, whose paramour, the instigator to the commission of the crimeJ was a cousin of her husband. 8 (JAN. 10-16. On trial being held and the facts of the case established, sentence has been pronounced as follows :-The woman, without taking into account the lesser crime of adultery with a relative within a certain degree of kinship, is condemned to suffer death by the lingering or "slicing" process (ling ch'e) ; and her paramour to decapitation without awaiting the period of revision.For rescript referring these sentences to the Board of Punishments for consideration, see Gazette of 1st instant. (3) Sun-kwei, resident at Lassa, memo rializes with reference to the mission of two officers of the Imperial guards, who were despatched with a party of lamn.s to present a tribute of Imperial respect in Tibet. The officers in question set out from Ch'eng-tn Fu, the cnpit11l of Sze-ch'wnn, on the 23rd of J nnc ; nml a report has been received from the snb-Prefectstntioned at 'fa-tsien Lu to the effect that they nrrived at that point on the 19th July and the 19th August respectively. On the 14th and 19th September they proceeded to cross the frontier, cal'l'ying with them the Imperial gifts with which they are charged. They had been supplied with all that was needful in the way of coolies, pack horses, etc. Jan. 14th-(1) A decree referring to the intercessory services that have already been held, on the 28th December and on the 8th instant, for the purpose of entreating, but with
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JAN. 16.) entrusterl a relative named Wang Yiian k'iei, the functions of examiner of merchandize and of controller of receipts in which capacity he perpetrated acts of abuse, entailing public dissatisfac tion. In the other, an expectant sub-Assistant District Magistrate, named Kin Hioh-min, is charged with having necrlected his duties and behaved in a and flighty manner. 'L'he first of the two officials under impeachment is handed to the Board for adjudication of a penalty. The other is dismissed from his rank in the public service. (2) Yen King-ming, special High Com missioner for the superintendence of the arrangements for famine-relief in Shausi, submits a farther report of his proceedings and in vestig!\t.ions, having now traversed the eastern division of the province, and reached the district city of Yiin-ch'eng. He received on the 8th December, at Kaop'ing, the Imperial rescript aclmowledging the receipt of his earlier report on the western section of the province ; but previously to this, on the 20th :November, he had set out from T'ai-yiian Fu, the provincial capital, on his jouruey eastward. In the Wu-hiang and TB'in Chow districts he found that the soil of the uplands was baked to the consistency of brick, and tlmt there had been no autumn crop. The relief agency had but lately been set in operation, and the distressed population had gathered around it awaiting succour. 'fhe country lying west of Ts'in Chow was in the same condition. Turning southwards through Lu-ngan Fu, he found that the winter wheat had not been planted, and that the country, its own provisions of grain exhausted, was depending upon the importations from Kwang-p'ing Fn in Chihli, by way of Tung yang Kwan. Flour was selli)Ig at GO or 70 cash per wtty, which is three or four times the ordinary price. In Li-ch'eng, Luch'eng, and Ch'ang-tsze, the snlferiug from drought had been somewhat less; but the price of provisions was not diminished, and the population was suffering in an extraor.dinary /degree. Passing through the south-eastern border dist.licts of the province, the memor.it\list proceeded west wards tu Yang-ch'ong, 'l's'in-shui, etc., in w hi eh districts the su!t'ering was found to be still more intense than in Ts'in Chow and Lu-ngan. At Feng-t'ai it was found that 250,000 was the number of applicants for relief, and at Yang-ch'eng 180,000 individuals were in the same category. These two points are the cent,res at which the hugest numbers are colleeted. Generally speaking, the couutry mubraeed 9 within Ts'in Chow, Lu-ngan Fu, and Tseh Chow is for the most part hilly and cultivated to a comparatively small extent. The population is principally engaged in the iron industry ; and as the furnaces suspend their operations on all sides during a season of distress, the working classes find it all the harder to obtain means of subsistence. There are but few wealt.hy residents, more over, in these districts, and local contributions are not easily obtained. For the issue of relief, the principal source of supply is the public granaries, but with such a multitude of mouths to feed, the sm:1ll store of grain is exhausted. in the twinkling of an eye. In Tseh Chow, as this department borders on Honan, supplies of grain have been received through the agency of the famine commissioner Wu Ta ch'eng ; but the amount thus obtained is limited and cannot suffice for all wants. The dist:-ict authorities are performing their duilies in obedience to the Imperial commands, and are not entrusting their functions to the class of underlings. Although some may be more gifted with ability than others, no complai_nts are forthcoq1ing of malversation or other nml practices. A salutary wamiug has been afforded by the Governor's impeachment of some 20 or more of the provincial otlicials. In conclusion, the memorialist dwells once more upon: the painful scenes he has wit nessed at every stage of his joun1ey, in the course of w hi eh his chair lms continually been surrounded by crowds of the famine-stricken population imploring relief, to w horn he has administered comfort in soothing words, assuring them of the Imperitd sympathy. 'fhe roads are lined with corpses, in such numbers as to dist!\nce all efforts for their interment ; whilst women and children, starving and in ra.gs, know not where to look for. the means of keeping body and soul together. The distinctions drawn a short time ago, in respect of the degree of impoverishment in individual cases, has now disappeared. All are equally reduced to utter destitution. The memori alist, his heart wrung with despairing pity, cannot but ask why has a calmuity so awful as this been visited upon the people. He can only ascribe it to his own f!\iluro in the due discharge of his duty ftml he feels that his shortcoming admits of no excuse.-In reply, the Grand Council has received a rescript expressing profound symp!\thy with the sufl:'erings of the people as reported in this memorial, and directing that all that is possible for their relief be done in consultation with the Governor of the 1 province.

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Jan. l1tl1.-No documents of importance. Jan. 18th.-{1) A decree based upon a memorial from Wang Kia-pih, Civil ViceGovernor and Literary Chancellor of Feng t'ien, who has requested that commands may be issued throughout the Empire, in consequence of misapprehensions found Lo prevail among candidates for the literary examinations, respecting the personal name of his late Majesty, which it is forbidden to write, and the characters having component parts similar to those in the per sonal name of the present Sovereign. With reference to the character forming the second in the combination Tsai Ch "un, the personal name of his late Majesty, a decree was heretofore issued altering the form of 10 this into (instead of #, the use of which is tabooed); and with reference to the second character in the present Emperor's name, (Tsai T'ien,-see Gazette of Jan. 13th, 1875), connnauds have also heretofore been given for its alteration by omitting the last stroke of which it is composed. There is no necessity, however, for avoiding, as sacred, other characters formed with similar component parts. The Board of Cere monies is commanded to issue circular instmctions on tllis subject for the guidance of candidates at the literary examinations. (2) Pao Heng, acting Governor of Fuh memorializes reporting the result of an enquiry held in the case of the expectant Prefect Tsiang Fmg-tsao, who was accused last year of an indirect attempt to bribe the Governor, Ting Jih-ch'ang, by forwarding to him confidentially a draft for Taels 1,000, whichherequest.ed might be employed at the Governor's discretion in relieving distress. (See Gazette of Jan. 15th, 1877.) The suspected official having been subjected to examiuation, gives the following acco\mt of the transaction :-He was at Shanghai last year when contributions were solicited by the Relief Committee at Foochow on account of the distress caused by floods, and as his own means were inadequate to the fulfilment of his wishes on the occasion, he wrote to his kinsfolk and persuaded them to allot the sum of Tls. 1,000 from the income of the family graveyard estate. As it happened, an official named Kin Teh-hung, employed at the Foochow Arsenal, was just leaving by steamer for Foochow, and Tsiang gave llim the draft to be handed over on his arrival there. The letter which he intended to send with the money, however, missed the steamer; and Kin, on his arrival, having no knowledge of any of the members of the Committee, for warded the draft to the Governor direct in [JAN. 17-20. the suspiCIOUS manner already recorded. 'l'he statemeuts made by the accused are found to tally with tlwse contfliued in Kin's original letter to the Governor, but, although he may be acquitted of the charge of attempting to make interest with the Governor, it is nevertheless plain that he acted in a culpably heedless manner. Iu compliance with the recommend!1tion with which the memorial concludes, the name of Tsiang Feng-tsao is handed to the Board for adjudication of a penalty; and Kin 'l'eh-hw1g is dismissed from his rank iu the public service Jan. 19th.(Coud Circular.) Poh Ch'ang HIJ General commanding the Chinese forces at Urumts'i, had audience of leave.) (1) A decree. Let Chang Yi.iu-k'ing suc ceeded to the post of President of the Court of Censors.-(See Gttzette of 4th inst. for previous appointment.) (2) Liu Kwen-yih, Governor-General of the Two Kwang, memorializes soliciting that the BrigadtJ-Generals Chang Teh-luh and Yang Yi.i-k'o may be allowed to exchange the commands to which they have recently been appointed, the former remaining in Kwangtung, where his services are eminently useful, and Yang being per mitted to assume the command of the Ku Chow division in the province of Kweichow in his stead.-For decree vetoing this pro posal, see Gc1zette of Dec. 31st, 1877. Jan. 20th-(1) A decree appointing K'i Sin .Q1{ ':f to the post of Rer.der of the Hanlin, and Hing Lien :!}\ Jft to that of Expositor. (2) A decree based upon a memorial from Li Hung-chang, Governor-General of Chihli, in which report is made of the destruction by fire of one of the buildings occupied by the famine refugees. The building in question, situated outside the east Gate of the city of 'l'ientsin, took fire on the 8th inst., through want of precaution, with a consequent loss of a great number of lives. The conduct of the officials in charge, in respect both of the carelessness they had allowed themselves to indulge in before the event, and their failure when the disaster occurred to provide efficient means of rescue, thus involving in so lamentable a fate the victims who had been saved from the suffering of starvation, is most truly deserving of reprehension. We command that the expectant inspector of the salt department Lii Wei-chang, and the expectant Police Master Ting 'r'ing hwa?-g bil dismissed from the public service

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JAN. 20-21.} under sentence of perpetnH.l exclusion. '!'he Customs' Tnotai Li Chao-t'H.ng, the Salt Comptroller Jn Shrm, and the Taotai of Tientsin, Liu Ping-lin, who failed to take note betimes of the shortcomings of their subonlim\tes, are to be ha1itled to the Board of Civil Oftice for the adjudica tion of the penalties respectively incurred. The same proceeding is to be t.a;{e!l with reference to the Governor-General Li Hung-chang. Orders are subjoined for the bestowal of all needful relief upon the survivors of this calamity, and the proper interment of the remains of the victims destroyed. 11 (3) Yti Luh, Governor of Nganhwei, in a postscript memorial, refers to the regula tions drawn up in 1859 by the Board of Revenue, and sanctioned by rescript, with reference to the duti(IS to be collected from opium. It was ordained that these should be kept under a separate he11.ding in the Customs' accounts, and should be transmit ted quarterly accompanied by detailed statements to the Bo:.1.rd. The Custom House at 'Vuhu having been closed for some twenty years and upwards in con sequence of the ravages of the rebellion, it was reestablished only on the 22nd July, 1876, and the receipts on account of opium duty during the first few months after its Qpening were extremely limited. The Superintendent now reports tlmt having placed the collection in the hands of a special officer, on a system based upon that in force at Kiukiang, some improvement has been experienced as compared with the earlier period ; and the total receipts for the twelve months, from July 22nd, 1876, to July lOth, 1877, under this head, have been Tls. 1,498. This report is accordingly submitted in obedience to regulation, and the amount collected is placed as a separate fund to await transmission. Jan. 21st.-(1 and 2) Decrees based upon memorials from the Censors superintend ing the western and southern divisions of Peking, respectively, with reference to cases of robbery with violence that have taken place in the suburbs. In one instance a pawnshop situated at some distance from the West Gate was attacked, on the night of the 21st November last, by a band of armed men, who pillaged it of its contents and wounded three of the men employe,d there. In the pthu case, a pawnshop situated outside the southwest gate of the Chinese city was similarly attacked, on the 9th November. In neither instance have the perpetrators of the crime been dis covered and brought to justice. The police officials concerned are handed, as a preliminary measure, to the Board for adj udica tion of a penalty ; and stringent orders are given for acti,e measures toward the capture of the offenders. (3) A decree awarding 600 piculs of millet for division between two of the extra relief agencies set on foot in the Chinese city of Peking by private subscrip tion, the amount of grain available being reported by the Censors of the division as unequal to the demands upon these dis tributing agencies. (4) The Prince of Tun and his colleagues of the committee of revision memorialize reporting that on completion of the new edition of the Imperial Genealogical Register, the copy, in 44 volumes, which is destined for preservation in the archives at Moukden, has been finally collated and bound. Instruc tions respecting its transmission are solicited. -See Gazette of 2nd inst. (5) Li Hung-c}lang, Governor-General of Chihli, memorializes with reference to the supply of grain which he had been called upon to provide for issue at reduced rates at Peking, and respecting the method to be followed in offering it for sale. He had previously submitted for sanction his plan of instructing the Taotai Clm K'i-ngang, and his in the management of the China Merchants' Steamship Company to raise the requisite funds and to purchase supplies of rice in the South, on the arrival of which agencies should be established at selected points to carry out the system, experimentally, of selling at reduced rates; and he had received a rescript in reply, to the effect that further consideration should be given to the question ou the arrival of the supplies. There was barely a month left, at this time, before the closing of the Tientsin river ; and, under his orders, steps were immediately taken by Chu K'i-ngang and his colleagues for the shipment of cargoes by steamer in quick succession from the South. Before the close of navigation there had been landed, inclusive of the amounts required for the relief of distress in the provinces of Chihli and Shansi, up wards of 100,000 piouls of rice, every grain of which came from the South. (N.B.Reference is here apparently made to the accusations levelled against the Governor General's agents, of buying up rice near Peking, which appeared in the Gazette of 22nd November, 1877.) Of this amount it was proposed to allot 30,000 piculs for sale at reduced rates at Peking,-an incon siderable amount, it is true, but time pressed. As the officials of the Company are all southerners and unfamiliar with the condi tion of affairs at Peking, the men10riali11t

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had appointed two officials of the Chihli staff to undertake the management of matters on the spot. He submits for deci sion the question whether sales shall be made by official agency, or whether private dealers shall be encouraged to buy from Government for purposes of resale, with permission to make a small profit by the transaction, but under prescribed limits as to price. This, in the memorialist's opinion, would be the simplest and most economical plan, and it would obviate also such a danger as previous experience shews to exist, of robbery of the grain depots by armed bands.-For rescript, referring this question for deliberation; see Gazette of 4th inst. Jan. 22nd-23rd.-(N.B.-Dnring the month of the Chinese New Year's holidays, the Gctzette appears, as usual, on alternate days only). 12 (1) A decree referring to the state of suffering to which the provinces of Shansi and Honan have been reduced by drought and famine, and to the scanty fall of snow which has thus far taken place in both these provinces. Even though a sufficiency of moisture should be experienced later, which would enable the sowing of the 'spring wheat to be made good, the period for the collection of the first half-year's land tax would be quickly reached, and there is every reason to apprehend that the population would be unable to meet the demands upon it. It is consequently ordained that, in the two provinces of Shansi and Honan, the first half-years' collection of the land and grain taxes o, all descriptions be entirely remitted in all the distressed districts for the coming season. The provincial authorities are required to issue a proclamation of this Act of Indulgence, and to punish at once and severely any attempts at concealment or malpractice of any kind on the part of the official underlings. (2) A decree, referring for consideration on the part of the Board of Revenue, a memorial submitted by the Censor Hu Ping-che, who requests t.hat a rigorous prohibition be enforced against distilling,in order to obviate a waste [of food-st11ffs] and to contribute toward enlarging the means of subsistence available for the population. (3) A decree, sanctioning a request submitted by the Governor of Shun-tien Fu, who has asked that two ndditional relief agencies be opened in the neighbourhood of Peking. From the beginning of the approaching first moon (February), the allowance of 120 piculs of millet is to be [JAN. 21-25. made to each of these agencies, in addition to the four previously set on foot. (4) A decree remitting for consideration by the Bon.rd of Reveune a memori11.l in which the Censor Teng King-lin represents that the issue of Government saiL for consumption in the province of Shansi has been greatly checked and that smuggling is extremely rife, for which reasons he recommends that a return to the old system of conducting the salt trade through official agencies, both for transportation and sale, be made. Jan. 24th-25th.-(1) A decree based upon a memorial from Wang Kia-pih, Vice Governor of Feng-t'ien, who, with reference to the case of Lin Show-t'u, recently rlis missed from his office of Lieutenant-Governor of Shansi on the charge of violating the regulations affecting the remittance of supplies to the army chest of 'rso Tsungt'ang, has requested that the Governor of Shansi be commanded to institute an enquiry for the purpose of ascertaining whether, in reality, the clerks employed under the disgraced official had not purposely kept back documents frmn his notice with intent-to precipitate him into ruin. It is enjoined, hereupon, that knavery of the kind referred to by the memorialist can on no account be suffered to flourish ; and all the provincial Governments are commanded to take atringent measures for its prevention. These orders must not, however, be suffered to be made use of by Lin Show-t'u as a means of annulling the sentence of dismissal from the public service already pronounced in his case ; and the request preferred for a reexamination of the question is vetoed. (2) A decree remitting for consideration by the Board of Revenue conjointly with the memorial submitted to the same effect by the Censor Hu Ping-che (see yesterdt\y's Gctzette ), a proposition on the part of the Governor-General Li Hung-chang for the suspension of all distilling operations in Chihli for the time being. (3) A decree based upon a memorial from the Governor General Li Hnng-chang, who has denounced an Expectant Magistrate nnmed Chu Lih-han, employed in superintending the police of the streets of Tientsin, for the offence of extorting a sum of ransom-money under pretext of having to apprehend certain women of ill-fame. The delinquent is cashiered, with sentence of perpetual exclusion from further employment. (4) A decree ordaining a further series of supplicatory services to be held on the 26th inst., when his Majesty will offer incense in

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JAN. 25-27.] 13 person at the Ta Kao Tien, in consequence of the protracted drought in and around Peking. Jan. 26th-27th.-(1) A Decree. Let Siu Ki ?/a come to Peking and await other employment. Let Fu Ho lf5FtJ, hereto fore stripped of his rank as a Manchu Brigade-General, be invested with the insignia of the third rank, and become acting Brigade-General of Altchuk'a. (N.B.-Fu Ho, the official thus reinstated in office, was cashiered a year or two ago in con sequence of a disagreement, resulting in an exchange of blows, between himself and his superior officer, Yung Ts'iian, then Military Governor of lli.) (2) Li Hung-chang, Governor-General of Chihli, and Li Hoh-nien, acting-Governor of Honan, jointly memorialize reporting the result of an enquiry into the charges brought by the Censor Li Kwei-lin some months ago against the Magistrate of the Ngan-yang district, in Honan, with reference to exactions alleged to be levied without stint upon the salt contractors for the Ch'ang-lu delivery area. The report of the official appointed to e1iquire into this affair exculpates the Magistrate, who is shewn to have merely called upon the salt contractors to advance a sum of money required for completing the repairs of a bridge, which iuhabitants of the district had not the means of providing immediately. 'l'he amount thus provided was Tls. 7,333, out of which a sum of _Tls. 2,666 was given as a subscription toward the nndertaldng, and the balance has been repaid to the lenders, with the exception of a sum of Tls. 200 which it is found was surreptitiously deducted by one of the Magistrate's personal retainers. For his failure to discover this act of dis honesty, it is requested that the Magistrate be handed to the Board for adjudication of a penalty ; and the delinquent himself is to be proceeded against with all the rigour of the law by the Prefect of K'ai-fi\ng Fu. (3) Governor of Shensi memorializes reporting the discovery of extensive frauds in connection with the issue of Government notes through the money-shops in that under official supervision. After the province became in 1862 the scene of warfare, he states, the Governor then in office, Ying K'i, under the pressure of financial exigencies, submitted proposals for the establishment of Government cashshops, whence notes were to be issued which were to be used in part payment of the Manchu soldiery and the Chinese garrison troo11s at Si-ngan Fu. Tlus ex-pedient, originally introduced with a view to husbanding the resources of the Exchequer and to provide a medium of circulation, has been in force for 12 or 15 years, and in consequence of the numerous abuses that have' arisen in connection with it, the memorialist report.ed some time ago his intention to cease, frorri the beginning of 1876, the farther printing of Government notes, and to issue a sum of Tls. 6,000 or 7,000 per mensem to the cash-shops for the redemption of the old notes outstanding. In the course of last summer he learnt that malversations had been committed by the official appointed to superintend the cash-shops, in the way of misappropriation of the notes, indebtedness in running accounts with private money-shops, and overpayments of wages to the clerks employed in the cctsh-shops, etc. An expectant Magistrate was appointed hereupon to enquire into the matter, when it was discovered that (luring the 10 or 15 years of his service in the above-named capacity, the incriminated official, Fang Yen-hi by name, was chargeable with a deficit of 23,600 and odd strings of cash in the accounts under his charge, beside 3,426 strings overpaid under the head of wages, &c. Fang Yen-hi has meanwhile died; but it is requested that orders may be given, in the first place, for Ius deprivation of the rank he held as District Magistrate, and secondly for the se
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14 Jan. 28th-29th.-(1) A decree based upon a memorial from the Censor Chang Tao-yiian, who has solicited the issue of stringent commands against the practice of numerous abuses in connection with the purchase of official titles in the provinces, lately sanctioned [in aid of the famine expenses.] The raising of contributions in the provinces is an expedient undertaken simply with the view of meeting the exigency of the moment ; and it is urgently needful, if the statements advanced by the memorialist are true, to prohibit the mal practices that have arisen in consequenQe. The Censor alleges that the various pro vincial governments have placed the blank certificates issued to them in the hands of official deputies, who have proceeded to impose them compulsorily upon the differ ent village communities, with the result that some scores of householders take out a single certificate of rank, and some hundreds join together to purchase a single title to office. The certificate is then made out in the name of the most influential person among them, with the result that. dishonest acts are perpetrated by evil-minded persons of the licentiate or 'graduate class, who g!;)t the management of the transaction into their hands. This system, which is 'termed joint-purchase-ling kiian detri ment in a high degree to the people's interest. Injunctions are consequently laid upon the provincial Governments concen1ed to allow no certificates to be issued to purchasers under the circumstances herein referred to, and to be given to none but individuals themselves possessed of means who come forward in response to the call for contributions. Any notables or elders who may be found setting up a monopoly of the management of the trans action, and acting dishonestly in collusion with officials or their underlings, are to be impeached and punished with all rigour. (2) A decree, referring for consideration on the part of the Board of Punishments, a memorial from the Censor Chang Tao yiian urging that pending judicial cases in which witnesses are detained in custody may be taken in hand and disposed of ; as also that regulations on the subject be drawn up for issue to the various provincial governments. Jan. 30th-31st.-(Court Circular). The Governor of Shun-t'ien Fu reports a fall of snow at Peking to the depth of two inches.-Prince Peh-yen-na-mo-hu had audience, on his return to Peking. (1) A decree. In submitting certain memorials received this day from Shao-k'i [JAN. 28-FEB. 1. (Brigade-General of the T'ai-ning com mand), and ex-officio Comptroller of the Household, he states, i n his despatch for warding them to the Privy Cabinet Office, that there were among them three addresses of compliment (i.e., to the two Empresses Regent and the Emperor, on occasion of the New Year), and one memorial relating to affairs of business. The envelope is found, notwithstanding, to contain two addresses of compliment, one address of congratula tion, and no document relating to public affairs. Great negligence is thus shewn to have occurred. Let the name of Shao-k'i be handed to the Board of Civil Office for the adjudication of a penalty ; and let him ascertain and report to Us the explanation of the mistake committed. (N.B.-Shao-k'i is the high officer whose promotion downwards" from a Vice-Presidentship of the Board of Punishments to his present position as a Brigade-General commanding the guards of the Western Mausolea, was announced in the Gazette of Dec. 8th, 1877). (2) Li Hung-chang, in a postscript memo rial, reports that he received some little time ago a letter from N gen Sih, the Lieutenant-Governor of Kiangsu, stating that whilst on his way to Peking for audience he had taken cold on his journey, and was lying ill at the district city of Ngan-suh, in Chihli, beyond which point he had been unable to move. He solicited that a conge might be applied for on his behalf. Before the memorialist had taken action in the matter, he received a report from the Lieutenant-Governor's family to the effect that he had died at Ngan-suh from the effects of illness, on the 4th January last. This it is the memorialist's duty to report, and in doing this he adds a brief sketch of the deceased's official career, with an expression of regret at his decease. (N.B.-The above memorial was probably received at Peking on the 7th January, as the Gazette of the 8th contained the decree based upon it, in which Leh Fang-k'i was appointed to the vacancy occurring in the Lieutenant-Governorship of Kiangsu. The present is therefore a means of judging of the length of time which elapses between the receipt of a memorial at Peking and its publication in the Gazette). Feb. 1st-4th (including the Chinese New Year's day, on Feb. 2nd.)-The Court Oi1culm contains the following notices :-Feb. lst.-ThePrincesofTun and others returned thanks for gifts of birda'-nest and embroidered purses.-Kwei Ts'ingreturned thanks for the gift of apurse.-To-morrow, at 4 a. m., his Majesty will proceed by way

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FEB. 1-8.] 15 ---------------.----------------------------of the K'ien-ts'ing Gate and the King-yitn Gate to the .Ancestral Temple, after worship ping at which, the same route will be taken in returning to the Palace. .At to 5 his Majesty will proceed to offer incense at the Hall of Confucius and the shrine of the God of Healing, after which his Majesty will take his seat on the Throne in the K'ien ts'ing Hall, where tea will be served .After partaking of this refection, and bestowing refreshment [on the Ministers in attendance], his Majesty will return to the Palace. .At 7 a.m., his Majesty will proce!id (by certain gateways named) to the Ts'ze Ning Kung, and after offering here his obeisance [to the Empresses Regent] will return by the same route to the Imperial apartments. .AL halfpast 8 his Majesty will take his seat in the Chung Ho Throne Hall to receive the obeisances (of the Ministers of the Presence and others in immediate personal at tendance], and in the Grand Throne Hallthe T'ai Ho Tien-to receive the homage of his Court, returning after this to the Imperial apartments. .At 9 a.m., his Majesty will proceed to the Tai Kao Tien to offer incense, and thence, entering the Palace Park, to the Show Hwang Tien to make obeisance [before the portraits of his ancestors there preserved], returning thence by the North Gateway to the Imperial apartments. Feb. 2nd.-The Prince of Tun, Pres ident of the .Astronomical Office, reported that the wind set this day (Chinese New Year) from the k1i?1r-North-east-quarter, presaging longevity and plenteous harvests. (N.B.-This is a formality invariably ob served at the Chinese New Year. The presage conveyed in terms identical with the above on the 26th January, 1877, has been strangely belied by the result ; but thiE!' in no wise affects the continuance of a time-honoured custom.) .A Decree. The beileh Tsai Ying-ying .jf is granted permission of the Impe rial grace to have the privilege of ent?ee at Court. Feb. 3rd-4th.-(1) Tu Jui-lien, acting Governorof Yiinnan, memorializes report ing his having taken over the seal of office on the lOth November last, on the depar ture of P'an Ting-sin, summoned to Peking to await other employment" by decree of the 6th October. .A copy of this decree, enclosed in a Council despatch, was received at Yiinnan Fu on the 30th of the same month. (2) P'an Ting-sin, late Governor of Yiin nan, memorializes reporting his having handed over the se{ll of office, and states that he proposed leaving Yiirinan Fu on the 13th November, travelling by way of Hupeh to his native province, Nganhwei, in which it was his intention to visit his family burial-place and perform the o blig a tions of filial duty. So soon as this has been accom plished, he will proceed on his way to Peking, there to prostrate himself in the dust before the Palace portals and to await the bestowal of further employment. His age being barely 50, he cannot for a moment think of seeking only his personal ease.-Rescript : It is noted. Feb. 7th-8th.-Li Han-chang, Gov ernor-General of Hu Kwang, memorializes reporting the proceedings taken in con nection with an unauthorized act on the part of certain notables and others of Fan K'ow I::::J, in the Wu-ch'ang district, above Hankow, in erecting a dam to cut off communication between the waters of the Yangtsze and the Liang-tsze '7-, and other lakes and lagoons. With reference to this matter, application had been made by the district notables at intervals during the last fifteen years for permission to effect this work, on the ground that without it the land under cultivation in that neigh bourhood is liable to periodical inundation; but their requests had been negatived in view of the fact that to shut out the Y angtsze waters in flood time from access to the large inland basins which now serve as temporary receivers would be to entail peril upon a very large region of the province for the advantage of a single district. The Prefect of Wu-ch'ang Fu, when deputed to investigate the matter, had reported against it on this ground, and also in consideration of the impediment it would throw in the way of water communication with several inland districts, thus interfering with both the public food supply and with the collection of the lekin taxes. The objections urged against the scheme were reiterated last year, when the late Governor received letters from notabliB of the district residing at Peking, once more urging the request. Notwith standing this, however, a literary licentiate of the Wu-ch'ang district, with some other petty titular officials of the neighbouring districts, were lately reported to have set law and authority at defiance, and to have forcibly collected funds and set to work to build a dam at Fan K'ow. They closed up the entrance to the river, and established a tax-office of their own, at which they levied a likin duty upon pa_ssing vessels. .As this self-appointed body had refused obedience to the demand addressed to them for the

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immediate removal of the clam, the Gov ernor-General at length ordered General Sung Teh-hung, in command of the foreign drilled corps at Han-yang, to proceed with a detachment of his men and some river gunboats, accompanied by the Prefect of Wu-ch'ang, to the spot. On arrival at Fan K'ow, this force set to work to pull down the dam,'which was effected on the 12th or ,13th December. The offending principals in the affair had taken to flight; but gunboats were left on the spot to assist the local authorities in effecting their arrest. 16 Feb. 9th-10th.-(!) A decree awarding a farther supply of 2,000 piculs of rice to the relief-agency at T'ungchow, in addition to the like amount her'etofore bestowed in the same quarter, on -the application of the authorities concerned, who have represented that the original amount is inadequate to the needs of the establishment. (2) 1\iei Ki-chao, Governor of Chehkiang, reports upon the prices of raw silk required for the supply of the Imperial manufactories at Hangchow. The im possibility of obtaining materials at 'the tariff of purchasing prices fixed by the Board of Revenue has already more than once been represented, and sanction was obtained to an extension of the system of buying at_ current market rates for another year. The Magistrate of the Teh-ts'ing district reports that the price per tael weight of first-quality white silk used for warp-throwing e a is two mace nine candmeens five cash of sycee silver; Treasury weight, and of white cross-thread silk B two candm eens less per tael weight. Silk has been so scarce this year that no reduction below these rates can be obtained. Feb. 11th-12th-(!) A decree based upon 11. memorial from Shao-ki, the official lately found fault with for an irregularity in the presentation of addresses of congratulation, &c., attheNewYear (see Gazette of January 30th.) He has now stated in explan ation that he forwarded two covers on the same day, and that it was by direction of the Privy Cabinet Office itself that the contents were presented to the Throne on successive days instead of at the same time. He begs to submit himself to the penalty incurred by the offence, and solicits that enquiry into the circumstances be ordered. The decree ordains that, as Shao-ki's name has already been handed to the Board for the adjudication of a penalty, his present request to that end need not be taken into consideration ; and also that enquiry be [FEB. 8-14. made as to the action of the Privy Cabinet Office. (2) A decree in reply to a memorial from Liu Kw'en-yih, Governor-General of the Two Kwang, who has solieited on behalf of a military officer in Kwangsi, promoted to the rank of captain, that he may vacate his substantive appointment as lieutenant in the Yeo-kiang command, and further that he may change his present name, which is P'an Yih-hiin fit 1/J, by substituting the character Ch'eng for Yih. The request is granted, but a mis conception on the Governor-General's part, to the effect that the character Yih, as forming one of the series appropriated for use as the cognomina of Imperial princes, ought not to be commonly used, is cor rected by reference to a decree issued in 1846. The commands therein lain down, declaring that_ the pei fen ts:t.e Jt .7f *' or cognominal characters prescribed for use in serial order by successive genera tions of the Imperial lineage, need not be held subject to taboo, are now repeated for general information. (3) Li Hoh-nien, Director-General of the Yellow River, memorializes reporting having taken the seal of office as acting Governor of Honan, on the 30th December. Feb. 13th-14th.-(:l) A decree giving utterance to the Imperial sorrow on receipt of intelligence of the decease of Ying Han, Military Lieutenant-Governor of Urumtsi. The deceased is eulogized as an officer of ability and wisdom, and distinguished by conspicuous services. Having risen from the rank of District Magistrate and performed signal military exploits in the cam paign against the Nien-fei, he was advanced by his late Majesty to the office of Governor of Nganwhei, in which capacity he rendered most efficient support to the State .in the task of extirpating the last vestiges of the rebellion and in restoring order to the province. Having at a subsequent period been dismissed from the public service owing to a fault committed as Governor General of the Two K'vang, he was afterwards appointed, in consideration of his earlier deserts, to the post of Military Lieutenant-Uovernor of Urumtsi; in which capacity he evinced great judgment in the measures instituted by him. On receipt of intelligence of his decease, at a moment when the hope was entertained of his long continuing to enjoy the Imperial favour, profound regret is experienced. He is posthumously invested with the title of Grand Guardian of .the Heir Apparent,

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FEB. 14-15.] and other honours are decreed on his behalf. A donation of Taels 2,000 from the Privy Purse, and a present of six taels' weight of ginseng, are bestowed upon his mother, who is now upwards of seventy years of age. (N.B.-Ying-han received the substantive appointment of Military Lieutenant-Governor of Urumtsi only on the 5th November last. He was about fifty years of age.) (2) A Decree. Let Yi.i She gffi (at present Imperial Controller-General at Kokonor) become acting Military Lieutenant-Governor of U rmntsi, and let him proceed thither without delay. Until he arrives at his post, let Kin Yiin-ch'ang (the commandant of the Chinese division) take temporary charge of the office. 17 (3) The Censor Tang K'ing-lin memo rializes representing that the distribution of Government salt in the province of Shansi is unduly checked, and that smug gling is rife, and he solicits that the ancient rule of management by official agency be restored in respect of this article. Owing to the drought with which the province of Shansi has been afflicted, the levy of the land tax has been wholly remitted by the Imperial grace, and the sole remaining resource of the provincial exchequer to any considerable extent is the revenue derived from the salt gabelle. The system pursued. in the various districts of the province is not, however, riniformly the same. In some, consumption is active,-in others it labours under disadvantages, such as the prevalence of smuggling, which, in certain parts, obstructs the demand for the dutypaid article ; and in other cases the fact that salt upon which no duty has been paid is carried as an accompaniment to the consignments conveyed under licenses, in quantities so excessive as to interfere with the demand for duty-paid salt. The evils of the present system are in a great measure clue to the unpri:t!cip1ed conduct of the licensed salt traders. The rule is that to each yin of 30,000 catties a proportion of surplus (non-dutiable) salt to the amount of 3,000 catties is allowed to 'be carried, under the head of waste-allowance ; but by trickery on the part of the salt traders they manage to increase this amount to 7,000 or 8,000 catties, thus reducing to a very detrimental extent the area of demand for the duty-paid article. Whilst the interests of the Government are made to suffer in this wise, the people, on the other hand, are exposed to injury by fraudulent practices of another description. The selling-price per catty is 35 coppor cash, of tho regular currency ; but the scales used in the salt trade make 14 taels (instead of sixteen) go to the catty, or even, of late, no more than 12 taels, whilst, by the admixture of earth and the damping to which the salt is subjected, the real quantity obtained is not more than 6 or 7 tctels per catty. In order to guard against these multiplied abuses, the CellSor would propose that the sale of salt be replaced under the management of official agencies.-Referred for deliberation and report by rescript in Gazette of 22nd January. Feb. 14th-15th.-(1) A decree cashiering several district Magistrates and assistant Magistrates in Nganhwei on impeachment by the Governor, Yii Luh. (2) A decree to the same effect with reference to district officials in the province of Honan, on impeachment by the acting Governor, Li Hoh-nien. (3) Li Hung-chang, Governor-General of Chihli, memorializes reporting the destruction by fire on the 6th January of a relief shed at Tientsin, with the consequent destruction of a great number of the inmates. Since 18'71, he observes, the suffezing caused alternately by floods and drought in the province of Chihli, year after year, has caused great numbers of the afflicted population to flock to Tientsin, as a central point, in search of the means of subsi!tence, and during the present season the number of refugees thus collected at the port is not far from 60,000 souls. Twelve relief-centres have been established on their behalf by the local authorities, and as the number of temples available as lodging places is insufficient, sheds have been built upon pieces of waste ground, in which straw has been littered down for the accommodation of the refugees. The local authorities, viz., the Salt Comptroller and the Customs' and Territorial Taotais, have now made report that, owing to want of precaution, !to fire broke out at 9 a.m. on the 6th January, in the N.vV. angle of the women's shed outside the East gate ; and although the Salt Comptroller and the Customs' Taota.i hun-ied at once to the spot, accompanied by the local civil and military functionaries and the fire brignde, the inflauima.ble mnterials of the shed burnt with such rapidity, the weather being extremely dry and the wind high at the time, that the building was in a blaze in a moment. A great number of the inmates, both children and grown-up persons, were rescued, but not a few perished, notwithstanding, in conse quence of the conflagration. An accurate return of the numbers could not, in tho hurry of the moment, be sent in, On

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receipt of this report the memorialist, who was shocked beyond expression by the re ceipt of intelligence of the disaster, procee
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_FED. 17-20.] (4) In a postcript memorial, the same Censor draws attention to the abuses which are being perpetrated in connection with the sale of certificates of rank and office at present being conducted in aid of the funds required for famine relief. The provincial authorities, he represents, are in the habit of placing the blank certificates which are issued to them, in the hands of their subordinates for sale, on the ground that it would be no easy matter otherwise to find contributors ; and the subordinate officials, alleging similar excuses, impose the certificates compulsorily upon the village communities. Where no indi vidual sufficiently wealthy to purchase on his own account is forthcoming, an entire village is perhaps laid under contributions, and the most influential man of the local ity is the person whose name figures in the document. Embezzlement and falsi fication of the returns are also not unknown among the malpractices prevailing. The Censor urges that stringent measures be taken to put a stop to these irregularities. -For rescript see Ga.zette of January 28th. (5) The Censor She T'ai memorializes drawing attention to a source of unproductive expenditure in connection with the Imperial manufactories, which he requests may be obviated by reverting to the ancient system. Of late years, he observes, manifestations ha,ve repeatedly been made of the Imperial bounty in the bestowal of patents of rank upon the progenitors of functionaries of the public service, a form of distinction which is not lightly to be obtained. On making application, however, for the scrolls upon which the patents are inscribed, the material of which these are composed is in general found to be of the most inferior description, coarse and loosely woven, and made up with a minimum of silk, the greater portion being merely solidified dye" The difference in quality, as compared with the scrolls here tofore issued, is most notable. On making enquiry, it has been found that, under the system heretofore prevailing, the silks used for the manufacture of patent scrolls and for consumption as sacrificial offerings were fabricated at Nanking, under the direction of an offi.cer appointed by the Board of Vorks. A special department, called the Shiin Pih 1."ang or Sacrificial-Silk factory, was maintained, the weavers in which were employed from father to son, in consequence of which dishonest work manship and peculation of material were undreamt of. After the rebellion broke out, however, the silk manufactory was 19 moved in the first instance to Soochow and Ch'angchow, and at a later period, owing to the dispersion of the artizans employed in this industry, the work was temporarily placed in the hands of the Hangchow establishment. At this place, the manu facture appears to be effected by contract, with unsatisfactory results, whilst at the same time, at Nanking, the old Sacrificial Silk Factory has been restored, so far as the buildings and working staff are concerned, but with nothing to do. The Censor requests that, in order to check mal practices and useless expenditure of public money, and to improve the quality of the materials furnished, the manufacture be placed once more under the Nanking establishment.-Referred by rescript, al ready published, for consideration. (6) Wang Kia-pih, Civil Governor and ex-officio Literary Examiner of the prov ince of Feng-t'ien, memorializes stating that in the course of perusal of the examination essays handed in by candidates in that province, he has repeatedly found characters having the same "primitive" with that (viz., t$ or forming part of the personal name of his late Majesty (the Emperor Muh Tsung or T'ung-che), altered by the writers in con formity with the rule applying to the tabooed character itself. Thus for tun f!c the form is written, and so forth. Such an extension of the principle of respect for the Imperial name is, however, uncalled for by any regulation, and the memorialist remembers having seen a similar practice found fault with by decree during the late reign. He solicits that general instructions may be issued, laying down a rule on this subject.-For rescript see Gazette of Jan. 18th. Feb. 19th-20th.-(1) A decree refer ring to the protracted absence of moisture in and around Peking, and to the urgent need of a fertilizing downpour at present in the interest of agriculture. It is ordained that a fresh series of intercessory services shall be instituted at the Tai Kao Tien, beginning on the 22nd inst., and that offerings of incense be made on that day at the various State Temples in the usual manner. (2) A decree acknow !edging the receipt of a memorial from the Supervising Censor Li Hung-mo, who has urged that injunc tions to observe economy in expenditure be laid upon the various provincial govern ments, and the different amounts due by way of snbsidy from. one province to

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another be revised, in order to effect reductions consistently with tl1e amount and urgency of the existing demands. The Board of Revenue is commanded to con sider and report hereupon. (3) A decree expressing the Imperial regret on receipt of intelligmce of the death of Ch'eng Ming, Brigade-General of one of the Mongolian Banners at Peking, and heretofore distinguished by long and meritorious service with the army in the operations against the insurgents in Kiangsu, &c. (4) Li Hung-chang, Governor-General of Chihli; memorializes with reference to the recapture of the four prisoners whose escape from the jail of the Hing-t'ang district was reported last year (see Gazette of May lOth, 1877), and the trial of the individuals responsible in the case. One of the prisoners, named Wang Siieh-tsai, was apprehended a few days after the escape, and within the 'next month or two, Chaug Po-tsze and Tan Sze were separately captured. Wang and Ohang died in confinement from the effects of illness after their examination had been concluded ; and as Tan Sze was guilty of causing the death of two of his fellow pris oners, beside wounding the turnkeys in effecting his escape, he was sentenced to summary execution. The remaining pris oner, Kwoh Heh-tsze, was met by the police who were searching for him in August and was captured after a desperate re sistance, in the course of which he inflicted a wound upon himself with a sword, from the effect of which he shortly afterwards died. The jailers answerable on the occa sion have been brought to trial and sentenced to penalties of bambooing, dismissal, and two years' banishment, according to law. The jailwarden is exempted from further personal punishment, having already been dismissed from his rank ; and the district Magistrate, having meanwhile been dis missed in connection with other shortcom ings, is also condoned his share of the punishment incurred in this case. (5) The Governor of Shensi, in a postscript memorial, represents that owing to the postponements of revenue collection accorded in that province, the receipts into the provincial exchequer shew a falling-off of some 600,000 to 700,000 taels, whilst the liki.n revenue, also, is not within fifty per cent. of last year's amount. Every penny available is applied to the requirements of famine relief, and all the regnlar 1ntyments on other accounts are stopped. pay of the troops of the various field forces is issued at a reduction of threetenths ; whilst, as regards the regular soldiery, Manchu and Chu1ese, who receive 20 [FEB. 20-21. so much per head, and in whose case it is absolutely impossible to suspend payments, exchequer notes luwe been printed and issued, as an unavoidable measure, by the provincial treasury. The subsidy due in monthly payments to the military chest of Ili has been customarily sent forward in advance, but this year two months' subsidy is owing, and there are no means forthcoming to make the remittance. Not a wsh has been sent to General Sit Chan-piao, on account of his seven battalions in the field beyond the frontier. All that has gone in that direction has been advanced by the Governor General Tso. In the region north of the Yellow River the autumn wheat crop has not been sown, and no revenue collection can be made in the coming half-year. The exchequer will have no receipts whatever, and unless the arrears due by other prov. inces be sent. forward unintermittingly it is impossible to say what is to be done. As Tls. 200,000 are at present owii1g from Szech'wan, the memorialist has written to request the Governor-General of that prov ince to let him have one-half of this amount to begin with, and a reply has been received to the effect that he will do all in his power, and that he has ordered offices for the collection of contributions to be opened by his subordinates. The sum of Tls. 20,000 raised in this manner has now been received, and the memorialist feels confident that the Governor-General Ting will do all that in him lies to afford assistance. He con cludes by soliciting Imperial sanction to the establishment of offices for the raising of contributions (i. e., the sale of titles) in Szech'wan, Hupeh and Honan, Chehkiang and Kwangtung, in all of which provinces natives of Shensi are settled in largo numbers. Sanctioned by receipt. Feb. 21st.-(1) A decree, based upon a memorial from wu Yi.tan-ping, Governor of Kiangsu, who has denounced the department Magistrate Kin Kwei-yung for malversation of public funds. The delinquent is accused of having misappropriated the sum of Tls. 1, 600 and odd, from the receipts on account of sales of titles on behalf of the provinces of Kansuh, Kwei chow, and Nganhwei, which amount he only made good in instalments on pressure being applied to him by the memorialist. Such conduct is proof positive of dishonesty ; and the incriminated official is dismissed from his rank with sentence of perpetual exclusion from reemployment. (2) Wang Kia-pih, Civil Vice-Governor and ex-officio Literary Chancellor of the province of Feng-t'ien, memorializes reporting his having terminated his tour of

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FEB. 21-23.] 21 examination in th.e Manchurian provinces. On his return to Moukden at the end of October last, after concluding the local examinations in the province of Kirin, he proceeded, as the regulations require, in conjunction with the officers of the Imperial Household, to supervise the airing of the library preserved in the Wen So Koh, con sisting in the chronicles of the successive reigns of the present dynasty, the abstracts of Imperial decrees, the collections of Imperial poems, and the works forming the Sze 'l's'iian Shn (library of works formed by order of the Emperor K'ien Lung, one complete set of which is preserved at Moukden.) After this, he proceeded to hold the examinations in the prefecture of Kin Chow. Feb. 22nd.-(1) A decree based upon a memorial from the -supervising Censor Wen Ming, who has submitted observations upon the report presented by the Governor of Shensi respecting defalcations on the part of a district Magistrate now deceased, named Fang Yen-hi (see o 26th Jan.) The Censor asks how it happens that, as the Governor declares the defal cations to have continued during a long period of years, it should only after such delay as this have come to his knowledge 1 Moreover, the Governor's statement that he had appointed an official to investigate the matter is barely made before it is fol lowed by the observation that the delinquent had departed this life. It is quite plain that the Governor had stood in dread of pressure being put upon him by the in dividual in question, and for this reason had waited until after death had removed the delinquent from the scene to put forward an empty pretext, in order to rid himse of the responsibility of so serious an amount as that in question. The Censor therefore asks that the Governor be called upon for an explanation. T'an Chung-lin, the Governor of the province referred to, is commanded accordingly to report in ex planation of the points adverted to. (2) A decree referring for report on the part of the Board of Civil Ofllce a memorial in which the Censor Wen Ming proposes that a list be published, monthly, of the officials of all ranks from that of l'aotai and Prefect downward, whose turn it is, according to the roster, to receive appointments. (3) A decree in reply to a memorial in which K'ing Che, the Prince of Cheng, has applied for leave to resign his State functions on the score of continued ill-heaHh. A conge of two months is granted to the Prince, in lieu of acceptance of his resigna tion. (4) Shao Heng-yii, newly appointed Governor of Hupeh, reports his arrival at 'Vu-ch'ang, the provincial capital, on the 24th December last, after accomplishing the mission of the enquiry in Honan with which he had been charged conjointly with Ts'ung K'i. He received and took over from the Governor-General, on the day after his arrival, the seal of his office; and, fully conscious of the importance of the duties incmnbent upon him, he will endeavour to carry into effect the instructions he has received from their Majesties, desiring him to institute scrutiny and take counsel with the Governor-General Li Han-chang respecting the conduct of the ofiicials acting under his orders, and the measures which may be necessary for the improvement of the administration of afi'airs. Feb. 23rd.-(1) A decree based upon a memorial from Tso Tsung-t'ang, Governor General of Kansuh, etc., who has dwelt upon the eminent public services rendered by Ying Ran, lately deceased, whilst holding the office of Military LieutenantGovernor of Urumts'i, and requesting that posthumous honours be bestowed upon his memory. The request is acceded to, and commands are given for the grant of a title of canonization to the deceased, and for the erection of a memorial temple in his honour at the provincial capital of Nganhwei, where he long held office as Governor. (2) A decree referring to a memorial heretofore received from Ting Pao-cheng, Governor-General of Szech'wan, who had asked that an official heretofore cashiered and dismissed from the rank of Taotai might be reinstated in possession of the button of his rank and attached to the memorialist's staff for service. This appli cation having been remitted to the Board of Civil Oflice for consideration, it is now reported by the Board that the ex-official in question, Li Yao-nan by name, was dis missed under sentence of perpetual exclu sion from reemployment, on impeachment by Tso Tsung-t'aug, who had accused him of maladministration iu the forwarding of army supplies, of profuse habits, frivolous conduct, and self-willed misbehaviour. A decree issued in 1862 expressly forbids the extension of patronage to officials who have been dismissed for ever from the public service ; and the application sub mitted in the present instance by Ting Paocheng is rejected. For suppressing in his memorial all mention of the fact that such a proviso had been appended to the sentence imposed upon the individual in question, the name of Ting Pao-cheng is

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handed to the Board for the adjudication of a penalty. (3) SMn Pao-cMng, Governor-General of the Two Kiang, 'Ven Pin, Director General of the Grain Transport system, and Wu Yi.tan-ping, Governor of Kiangsu, memorialize representing that whereas Liu Hien, Intendant of the Hwai-Yang circuit, has been dismissed from the public service in consequence of his impeachment for contamination with the vice [of opium smoking], it is necessary to appoint another officer to fill his place. The decree cash iering him having borne date the 1st De cember, 1877, and five days being the period allowed within which the despatch con veying this announcement should be sent off, the 25 days to be further allowed for delivery in the case of the province of Kiangsu bring up the time to the 31st December, on which date, accordin()'ly, the late incumbent was bound k> his office. An officer named P'an()' ':Csi-yi.tn, a native of Chihli, aged 54, an "'expectant Taotai and brevet Judicial Commissioner by rank, has been named to act in the post until further orders, and his confirmation therein, as an officer eminently qualified to discharge its duties, is requested.-Referred for consideration by the Board of Civil Office. 22 (4) Shen Pao-cMng, Governor-General of the Two Kiang, referring to his previeus applications for leave to resign his office and the periods of conga successively granted him, presents a farther la,mentable picture of his state of health, and protests against the insinuations of those who sug gest that he is solicitous only of his own personal comfort. He earnestly entreats, on the contrary, permission to retire from the occupancy of a post which his enfeebled condition no longer allows him to occupy without injury to the public cause.-Reecript, in reply, granting two additional months' conga, but withholding the per mission asked for. Feb. 24th.-(1) A decree based upon a memorial presented by the Board of Re venue, in reporting upon the application submitted by Li Hoh-nien, acting Governor of Honan, for the diversion of the entire balance of the grain supply due to Peking by the provinces of Kiangsi and Nganhwei, for the coming year, to supply the needs occasioned liy the famine in Honan. The Board objects to the proposed arrangement, which would strip the Peking granaries of their supplies ; and the proposal, therefore, that 90,000 piculs of grain be furnished to Honan from the source indicated is nega-[FED. 23-24. tived. In lieu of this, the province of Chihli is to supply 30,000 piculs of rice, being a balance of the stock accumulated for issue at reduced rates, and this is to be sent forward at once by Li Huug-chang. The Governor of Kiangsu is further to con sider and take action upon the question whether supplies can be advanced from the charitable granaries in that province. As regards the amount of $500,000 in foreign currency, being the sum raised by contritution on account of Formosa (1 for defence purposes in 1874 ?), the Governor-General and Governor (of Fuhkien 1) are to see whether the amount in question has been as yet expended and whether it is possible to apply it as a loan on behalf of Honan. ]'nr thermore, it is to be noted that a memorial has this day been presented by Weng T'ung-ho, (a junior Vice-President of the Board of Revenue, and one of the two Imperial tutors), soliciting that the gra.in revenue from Kiangsi and Nganhwei be diverted to the supply of the province of Honan. It was open to the VicePresident in question, as a matter of course, if he differed ia opinion from his colleagues in reporting upon any subject, to submit a separate report in his own name ; but an absolute contradiction is involved in appending his name to the memorial of the Board of Revenue, in which the proposal is negatived, and then separately recommending it on his own part. In memorials henceforward submitted, let all officers of government refrain, as the system of public business requires, from expressing mutually contradictory opinions. (2) The Governor of Kweichow memo rializes reporting the result of a trial in which an expectant Department Magistrate named Chang Ring-wen had been accused of intermarrying with the wife of a certain man named Wang-SMng. From the evidence taken it has appeared that Wang SMng had been used to live with his wife at her mother's house at K wei yang Fu, until, in 1873, he went away as servant to an official, and owing to the distance to which he was taken from his home, sent no news of himself to his family. Hearing nothing of her husbaud, and being reduced to great straits on the death of her mother, the wife, Wang Kushe, allowed herself to be persuaded by reports she heard of her husband having died, and entered into an engagement through a marriage-broker named T'ang Yi.ih-sMng to become the wife of Chang Ring-wen. No presents, marriage-cer tificate, or brokers' fees were given. In the

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FEB. 24-26. J autumn of 1875, Wang Silng returned to his home, and having traced his wife's whereabouts, claimed her from Chang Hiug-wen. 'fhe latter, however, believing the claim advanced to be a fictitious one, refused to listen to it, and the husband hereupon lodged a complaint against him at the district magistracy. On a trial being held, Chang Hing-wen obsti11ately sought to deny the evidence adduced, and refused to obey the judgment of the court, upon which a decree stripping him of his rank and ordering him to be proceeded against criminally ,was applied for and obtained. The facts of the case having !lOW been established on trial, it is ruled that although in taking Wang Ku-she to wife, the accused was not awa1e that.the woman had already a husband in. existence, yet, as no marriage presents were given, nor any application made for official authority to contract the union, the case cannot be regarded in the light .of actual wedlock, and the offence committed must be treated as one of seduction. Under the statute relating to cases, therefore, h1 which officials shall be found guilty of debauching the wives of members of the population, Chang Ring-wen is sentenced to be stripped of his rank, and to receive one hundred blows, the penalty of blows being com muted according to law. The woman is sentenced to wear the cangue for one month, and to receive one hundred blows, the latter part of the sentence, only, to be inflicted. The woman is to be given back to her lawful husbmid, who may keep her as his wife or put her away, as he pleases. The marriage broker is sentenced to a penalty mitigated by one degree less than that inflicted upon Wang Ku-she, and is sentenced accordingly to 25 days' cangue and 90 blows, for effecting a marriage without the concomitants which give the union its legal validity. Referred for con sideration and report by the Board of Punishments. (3) The Governor of K weichow further memorializes respecting a case in which an expectant Sub-Prefect has been accused by authority of having cruelly beaten a concubine of his, named 'Van Siao Mei, and murdered her by burying her alive. Enquiry having been instituted, complaint to the foregoing effect has been received from the deceased woman's sister; and an inquest having been held, which has estab lished the fact of death having been caused by violence, it is now requested that the accused, She Ts'ung-ping, be stripped of his rank ancl placed on triaL-Granted by rescript. 23 Feb. 25th.-(Court Circular.) The Gov ernor of Shun-t'ien Fu reports a fall of snow at Peking (on the night of the 23rd) to the depth of one inch and upwards. (1) The special High Commissioner f<'r famine relief in the province of Shansi, Yen King ming, and Tseng Kwoh-ts'iian, Go vernor of the province, jointly memorialize submitting a scheme for the better organi zation of the system of raising contributions throughout the Empire in aid of the af:Hicted province. They begin by acknowledging in warm terms the activity displayed at Tientsin by the Customs' and territorial Taotais acting under the orders of the Li Hung-chang, and at Shanghrli by the ex Lieutenant-Governor of Shensi, Wang Ch'eng-ki and the expectant Taotais Hu Kwang-yung, Chu K'i-ngang Sheng-Si.i.an-hwai, T'ang T'ing-ch'u, and Si.i-jun (the last four constituting the man aging board of the China Merchants' Com pany.) In ready response to their appeals, the mercantile community had subscribed within less than a month the sum of nearly 100,000; and in addition to this, supplie& of grain w.ere sent forward by the same officials, acting in the most indefatig able and efficient manner under the in structions of Li Hung-chang. Imperial sanction has furthermore been obtained for the raising of funds by the sale of offices and titles in all the Southern provinces, and the Governor, Tsilng K woh t'siian, has received letters, expressive of the utmost sympathy for the afHiction which has befallen his province, from Shen PaocMng, Li Han-chang, Ch'ung How, Liu K'wen-yih, Ting Pao-cheng, Wu Yiian-ping, Mei K'i-chao, Liu Ping-chang, Wang Wen shao, Yii Luh, Chang Chao-tung, and T'u Ts1ing-ying. Ting Jih-chang, the Governor of Fuhkien, moreover, whilst residing on leave of absence at his' native place in K wangtung, has taken the lead with the Intendant of the Hwei-ch'ao-kia Circuit, Chang Sien, acting under his direction, in raising subscriptions among the Cantonese traders. What the memorialists have now to suggest is that the voluntary efforts of individual officers need to be supplemented by direct Imperial authority, and they submit the names of various individuals, in the provinces referred to above, for whom they request commissions by Decree, ap pointing them special agents for the raising of funds by contribution on behalf of Shan si, all accounting to a central office at Tientsin.-Granted by rescript. Feb. 26th.-No documents of import ance.

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Feb. 27th. -'Vang Wen-shao, Governor of Hunan, memorializes reporting his de parture for Peking to have audience, in obedience to the decree dated the 23rd November last, which he received, as com municated in a despatch from the Board of Civil Office, on the 15th De cember. He gives, in customary terms, an outline of his past official career, stating that he was appointed in 1864, when filling the office of a Secretary of the Board of Revenue at Peking, to the post of Taotai of Siang-yang in Hupeh, whence he rose through the higher ranks of Judicial and Financial Commissioner to his present Governorship. He handed over the seal of his office on the 17th December to his locum tenens, Ts'ung Fuh, and con templated setting out on his journey north wards on the 23rd of January. The remainder of this day's Gazette is occupied, for the lftost part, with reports of changes contingent upon the Governor's departure, as recorded above. Feb. 28th.-No documents of import ance. March 1st--(1) A decree based up,on a memorial from Kin Shun, Military Governor, etc., of Ili, transmitting an ap plication for leave to retire on behalf of one of his subordinate commanders. The applicant, Fu-chu-li itiM f.* P.JI!, whose substantive office is that of Manchu Brigade General at Canton, had been employed on active service for upwards of twenty years in the operations calTied on against the insurgents in the provinces of Shantung, Hupeh, Nganhwei, Shensi, and Kansuh, in the course of which he had many times been wounded. His wounds have of late broken out afresh, and he has little prospect of a speedy recovery. His prayer for permission to vacate his post is acceded to, and he is authorized to return to his Banner and devote himself to the care of his health ; retirement on full pay being granted him as a special boon. (2) Shao K'i, Brigade-General command ing at the Eastern Mausolea, memorializes in obedience to command, submitting his explanation respecting the transmission of documents to be laid before the Throne which were received in an inegular man ner. He states that on his assumption of office he drew up a memorial reporting this fact, which, with three addresses of com pliment to their Majesties, was enclosed in one sealed package, whilst in another like packet there were enclosed a memorial of congratulation to His lVbjesty on the New Year, and two addresses of compliment (for 24 [FEB. 27-l\iAR. 2. the Empiesses Regent.) Accompanying these two packets were sent two despatches addressed to the Pri,y Cabinet Ollice, both dated the \l8th January, and on the same day a petty' officer named Wang Ch'eng chang was despatched with this mail to Peking. On the 3rd February the memori alist received back his memorials (in the usual course), accompanied by the_ Decree taking him to task for the irregular manner in which they had been delivered. Over whelmed with trepidation and shame, the memorialist made immediate enquiry of his messenger, who statecfthat on handing in his charge to the Privy Cabinet Office on the 29th .T anuary, he was directed to present the documents on successive days instead of simultane.ously. This he did, but by an unfortunate interchange of the accompanying despatches, the contents of the packets were found not to correspond with the statement set forth in the covering letter. The memorialist acknowledges that the carelessness displayed by his messenger was beyond all excuse, and he has written to the Board of War for the man's deprivation of his rank1 as a preliminary to the infliction of punishment ; in addition to which he now submits himself to the penalty to which he is conscious of being exposed. -For rescript see Gctzette of February 11th. March 2nd.-(1) A decree once more refer:dng to the protracted drought experienced in the neighbourhood of Peking, notwithstanding the supplications that have been made on repeated occasions. The sea son being now already so far advanced, the necessity for rain in the interest of the tillage of the soil has become more than ever urgent, and the Imperial anxieties increase in like measure. It behoves that reverent entreaties be once more offerfd up, to the end that a downpour of the moisture vouchsafed in manifestation of the harmonious accord of the powers of nature may be obtained. A further series of intercessory services is consequently oraered to be held on the 3rd inst., His Majesty offering incense in person at the Tai Kao Tien. A long list of the Imperial princes is named for a like duty at the various shrines elsewhere. (2) A Decree. Let Shang Ch'ang-mow (tit to the post of Manchu Brigade-General at Cant<;m. (3) The Governor of Chehkiang memo rializes referring to the receipt some time ago of a Council despatch enclosing copy of an Imperial decree, dated December 31st,

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MAR. 2-3.] 1877, to the effect that, as the freight-re ceipts of the Chimt Merchants' Steamship Company are insufl:icieut to meet the expen diture entailed, the Company cannot go on for any length of time without an increase in the quantity of Government rice freights, to serve by way of subsidy. On receipt of these commands, the memorialist instructed the provincial Grain lntendant to take action accordingly ; and he Juts now to submit that in ,the month of September last he was waited upon by a deputation of the Ningpo junk-owners, who laid a statement before him to the following effect:-Upwards of 360 junks were formerly owned at Ningpo, bnt their numbers have gradually fallen oft', since the competition of steamers and foreign sailing vessels in the carrying trade was intruduced, until now there remain but 120 sail or thereabouts. The sole resource they have to rely upon is the freight to be earned by the carriage [of rice] on behalf of Government; and the applicants would entreat that at the next shipping season full cargoes might in the first place be allotted to the local junk trade. The nle morialist has pointed out in reply the tenor of the commands he has had laid upon him by decree, enjoining that a large proportion of the rice freights be given to the steamers, in support of the general public interest, and that, a s the China Merchants' Company has greatly enlarged its fleet, an increased quantity must naturally be placed in its hands. In consideration, however, of the appeal addressed to him by the deputation, he would consent that the same amount should be allotted to them for carriage as in the previous shipping season. The Grain lntendant, Hu Yiih-yi.tn, has now reported that for the coming year the amount of rice for transmission to Peking which is leviable in the province of Cheh kinng is 418,000 and odd piculs, and, after cluduction made of the waste allowances, etc., the total quantity to be delivered at the granaries is 377,000 and odd piculs. It is proposed that 200,500 and odd piculs shall be allowed to the C. M. S. N. Company for carriage, or more than 50 per cent. of the entire amount.The memorialist, on consideration of this report, finds nothing to object to; and, in addition to giving to the C. M. S. N. Company, exclusively, the carriage of all freights on behalf of Government, he has now to submit the foregoing report of the quantity of rice which he has decided upon allotting to its steamers for the approaching season.-Rescript: Noted. (4) The Governor-General of the Two Kiang and the Governor of Kiangsu me morialize reporting the amount of grain to 25 be forwarded to Peking by the sea-route in the coming season, mHl the arrangemenb made for its shipment and delivery at Tientsin. '!'he five Prefectures and Departments of Sooclww, Sung-kiang, Ch'ang chow, Chinkiang, and T'ai-ts'>tng are required to yield, as usual, a collection of "tribute" rice of the "ordinary" and "superior" qualities, whilst the two districts of Tan-yang and Kin-t'an in Chen-kiang Fn are assessed with amounts payable in commutation of the rice-tax. The amount levi able in kind is 658,068 piculs, in addition to which 20,000 piculs have been purchased with the commutation money levied in the districts above named. lncludiug the allowance of 71,856 piculs, w hichis added by way of supplement to the statutoiy amount, in order to provide for waste in transhipment at Tientsin and T'ung Chow, the allowances to the junkmen, etc., a total is shewn of 749,924 piculs. Although less by 14,400 than last season, the amount now to be Bmpped exceeds by 19,600 piculs the quantity sent forward in 1875. Arrangements have been made for shipping the grain at Shanghai by junk and stean1er, some 40 or 50 per cent. of the total amount being placed in hands of the China Merchants' Steamship Company. March 3rd.-(Court Circular.) The Prince of Li has been deputed to conduct the ceremonies to be observed upon the completion of the term of three years from the date of the death of the late Empress. (1) A decree based upon a memorial from the Censor Hu Yen-kw'ei complaining of the delays that habitually occur in judicial investigations. The habit of all.owing ar-rears to accumulate appears to be prevalent amongst the lower provincial authorities, causing much distress and incon venience. Governors-General and Governors are hereby called upon to issue peremptory orders to their subordinates to conclude all trials with which they may be entrusted, by the time allotted. Monthly reports of cases are to be forwarded by Intendants of Circuit and Prefects, and Courts of Judicature are to conclude all trials within a given time. (2) Ying Kwei, Grand Secretary, and Supervisor General of the Mongolian Superintendency, is granted two months' conge to recruit his health. He need not vacate his post. (3) Ming-an, Vice-President of the Board of Punishments at SMug King (Moukden), reports the capture at different periods, and summary execution, of two hundred and two mounted banditti. Their heads were exposed on the public highways as a

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salutory warning, and the. body of one of the number who died in prison was de capitated after death. (4) lVIing-siin, Superintendent of the Imperial Manufactory at Nanking, reports having taken over the cash balance, books of patterns, etc., from his predecessor. He has found them all in order. March 4th.-(1) Li Hung-chaug reports the recapture of two criminals who had escaped from prison, and the trial and punishment of a gang of burglars of which they formed a part. The acts of burglary with which they were charged were com mitted in the year 1874, but as no plunder had been recovered, and the statements of the accused were very contradictory, they were remanded until further evidence could be obtained. On the night of the 7th of January, 1877, while the watchmen on duty were temporarily absent, the two prisoners wrenched off their manacles, and made a hole in the cage in which they were confined large enough to get out of. They then twisted off the lock of the prison door, and, climbing over the outer wall, made their escape in dill'erent directions. One of them was recaptured in a few days, but the other remained at large for three months before he could be taken. Suffi cient evidence being eventually forthcoming, sentence has been awarded to each offender in proportion to his guilt, and the careless ness of the officers in charge of the crimi nals who escaped has been duly punished. (2) Pao Ying, Military Assistant-Governor commanding at K'obdo, applies for sanction to the expenditure of Tls. 840 for repairs of standards and tents belonging to the force of Mongolian cavalry stationed at K'obdo. The force numbers eight hundred and twenty, rank and file, and according to the regulations a certain sum should be allotted to them annually, out of the funds for military purposes, for repairs to tents and flags. A portion of the force has recently joined, and these, as is the rule, must be provided with tents by the Banner from which they are drafted. The cost of repairs to tents of original members of the force is estimated at Tls. 600, and that of fifty large standards, with eighty-seven smaller ones, is computed at Tls. 200 odd. 26 March 5th.-(1) A decree in answer to a memorial from Chang P'ei-lun, sub-expositor of the Han-lin College, who makes certain propositions in accordance with the preced ents established in times of calamity by former memorialists. The four propositions sui:nnhted by the exposito:r with regard to prayers to be offered up, deliberations to be [MAR. 3-5. held, compassionate measures to be taken, and the mitigation of punishments, are not devoid of perspicacity, while his suggestions as to the retrenchment of the luxuries of the table, with a view to ensuring the efficacy of prayers for rain in the northern provinces, entirely coincide with Our views. Their Majesties the Empresses have never failed in times of drought to offer up earn est prayers for rain within the Palace, but it is not for a Minister, however reverently, to undertake in Our stead to proceed on foot to the place of prayer. All that remains for Us to do is by self-examination and the cnlti vation of virtue, silently to im plore Heaven in its mercy to bestow abund ant and fertilising rain, that Our affiicted people in the three provinces may be pre served from the jaws of death. In bringing forward certain charges, the expositor dis plays his ignorance. It is true that the offer ings of the Mongolian Princes and Dukes were accepted ; this is in accordance with law. But all banquets were suspended, and no exhibitions whatever of fireworks were held. The proposals of the expositor with regard to the attendance of all Ministers of the Court at deliberations of the Council are made, no doubt, on the assumption that in a multitude of opinions there is ad vantage, but it is to be feared that the good would be merely nominal. It is much better that those who have the right to speak should submit their views to Us. We have not, as intimated by the expositor, been entirely influenced in Our actions and decisions by the Board, or been entirely powerless in their hands. The mitigation of punishments is an important factor in t.he administration during times of famine, and the Governors of the suffering prov inces are hereby called upon to give careful attention to judicial matters with a view to securing prosperity and peace. Let Ting Pao-cMn once more investigate the case in Szech'wan, for which the expositor requests a re-hearing. In these times of terrible famine and dearth, the Sovereign and his Ministers must be actuated by one and the same desire; and, early and late, be un wearying in their efforts for the rescue of the sufferers. As regards the Prince of Kung, he, being so closely allied to the Imperial House, is more particularly identi fied with the interests of the Empire, and is under the stronger obligation to exert himself loyally for the good of his country, making it his special charge to maintain peace and avert danger. (2) A decree. Let Kiin-k'i resume charge of the Superintendency of Customs at Canton.

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MAR. 5-7.] 27 (3) Ho-king, Governor-General of Min Cheh, and Pao-heng, Governor of Fuhlden, request s:mction for the reduction of the taxes on salt in certain districts in the Fuh-kien province which have suffered from floods. Two successive years of floods and wet weather have caused much damaO'e to the salt establishments, :md done great injury to the trade. No sooner had the damages occasioned by one flood been repaired, and losses by deterioration made good, than a second and more disastrous flood occurred. The result is that the salt trn.ders have sustained great losses, and it will be impossible to collect the usual duties. The memorin.Iists therefore propose to rrmit one-half of the taxes in those districts that have suffered from the floods, and to distribute the payment of the moiety over a period of five years. Those localities that have escaped the visitation of the flooda will be called upon to pay duties as usuaL-Referred to' the Board of Revenue. (4) Li Ho-nien, Director-General of the Yellow River, and acting-Govemor of Bonan, reports the escape from the Chen-chow prison of a criminal charged with offences punishable by strangulation. The escape was effected during the absence of the Department Magistrate at a military inspec tion. The jail warden has been cashiered and committed for trial, and orders have been given for the re-capture of the prisoner within a limited period. March 6th.-(1) A decree. Some time since the supervising Censor Hia Hien sheng called attention to the necessity of taking steps for keeping in order the water supplies of the Empire, with a view to securing means of subsistence to the people. Provincial authorities were then mi.lled upon to give their attention to measures to this end. The Censor P'eng She-ch'ang now points out that the commencement of operations for the maintenance of water supplies in the northern provinces is of paramount importance. The provinces in the North have suffered from a succession of droughts and famines, to such an extent that supplies of food have entirely failed. Every effort should therefore be made to obtain proper water supplies, and Governors General, Governors, and others, are hereby called upon, in reverent obedience to Our earlier decree, with all despatch to depute high officers to co-operate with the local authorities and gentry, and, giving due consideration to the requirements of parti cular localities, to take efficient steps to accomplish the object in view. Those who are successful must be recommended for distinction, while dilatoriness will, eor respondingly, meet with puni.shment. A decree gra.ntirig to Hiao-shun "Jij:. )ll(l, Commandant of forces at Kurkara-usu, to vacate his post on account of ill-health. (3) Postscript memorial by Ho-king, Governor-General of Min-cheh, giving further details as to changes in the military administration in Formosa, that had earlier been suggested by Shen Pao-cheng. The changes consist, for the most part, of a re-distribution of the higher military posts, and the transfer of the control of the forces from the Brigadier-General to the Governor. (4) Kin Shun-ch'ang, acting-Commandel1 in-chief at Urumtsi, reports that, in conse quence of the death of the Lieut.-Governor, he has taken temporary charge of the seals of office. Ying-kan, Lieut.-Governor of Urumtsi, was suffering from abscess in the early part of the winter, followed by an attack of dysentery which defied all remedies. On the lOth of January, he reverently prepared his testan1entary memorial, giving orders that it should be sent to memorialist for transmissi,pn to Peking, and died on the evening of the s:m1e day. His seals of office were immediately for warded to memorialist, who retains them until the Governor-General Tso Tsung t'ang, to whom he has written, shall send an officer to take charge of them. (For Decree see Gazette of 13th Feb.) (5) Postscript memorial by Li Ho-nien, Governor of Honan, requesting exemption from the obligation to purchase grain for provision against dearth, and for government purposes. Any deficiencies in the quantity of grain to be kept in store for the above objects, should be made good each autumn, but in the face of such widespread dearth and scarcity, when all the grain obtainable is required for the relief of the people, it would obviously be an injury to them to apply it to other purposes.-Rescript: Noted. (6) The same officer reports the arrival of an official from Kwei-chow, to open a branch office for raising contributions. This arrangement has been made in accord ance with a proposal, which received the Imperial sanction, to divert the proceeds of the Kwei-chow collectorate for six: months to the relief of the sufferers by the famine. March 7th.-(1) A decree ordering that Chang an expectant second class Secretary of one of the Boards at Moukden, be cashiered and placed on his trial for purchasing land under an assumed

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name, and refusing to pay the tax thereon. \Vhen summoned to explain his neglect to do so, he had the audacity to tie up the runners aud beat them. (2) A decree once more deploring the continued absence of rain in Pekiug and the provinces adjoining. His Majesty has twice offered pmyers in person at the Ta Kao Tien, and the Imperial Princes have burnt incense at the She Ying Kung and other state Temples, without success. Let the Prince of Chwang proceed on the 11th inst. to the Black Dragon Temple, there to offer incense and reside. Let the Tung Khor 'Hut'ukht'u also repair to the same Temple, to chant sArvices and offer up earnest prayers. (3) Sheu Pao-cheng reports deficiencies in the Treasury balances of seven officials, Magistrates and others,, some of whom are dead, and some still retaining official rank. He proposes to recover the amount of the deficiencies of the deceased officers from their surviving relatives, and requests that the others may be cashiered with a view to being proceeded against.-Granted by rescript. (4) Ch'ung How reports the result of an investigation into a case of forgery, in which two Government clerks conspired together some years ago to forge the Military Governor's seal and the stamp of the Secretary of the Board of Revenue. They purloined a number of blank registration forms, and affixed them, when stamped with the spurious seals, to title deeds, thus obtaining fees which should have gone to the Government. One of the clerks having been killed in action, the seals fell into the hands of a widow residing in the same house with whom he had fonned an illicit con nection. His confederat.e then borrowed them occasionally from her, till, in course of time, she also died. Her boxes were made over to her daughter, a married woman, and in them were foui.1d the spurious seals. The daughter, whose husband was absent with his regiment, not being able to read, could not of course tell that the seals were forgeries. The confederate having traced them into her possession, persuaded her to lend them to him, and certain deeds to which he affixed them having been detected to be forgeries, enquiry was instituted which led to the above discoveries. Sentence commensurate with the gravity of the offence will be passed upon the surviving clerk, and the spurious seals immediately destroyed. A proclamation will also be issued calling in all deeds to which he affixed the stamp. 28 [JviAR. 7-8. (5) Che-kang, Imperial Agent at K'urun (Urga,) prays for an additional congG of two months to recruit his health. 'l'he two months conge already granted him has just expired, and he still suffers from pains in the head and dizziness. There are Mongolian doctors at K'urun, it is true, but he is afraid to place himself in their hands. -Rescript : Let Che-kang be granted a further conge of two months. (6) P'uh Feng, Kwei-ying, and Shao-k'i, request that money may be advanced for the construction of outer buildings and repairs to the Mu Tung-Ling (Mausoleum of Empress of Tao-kwang,) and some auspicious day in the first moon be selected by the Imperial Board of Astronomy for the commencement of operations. (See Gazette of Feb. 17th.) March 8th.-(1) A Decree. Let Wang \Ven-shao X 3t 'ff8 act as Senior VicePresident of the Board of vVar. T'ung H wa m need not act in capacity. (2) A decree. Let Wang Wen-shao be admitted to the Grand Council as a "probationer." (See Gazette of 23rd Nov., 1877, and 27th Feb., 1878.) (3) A Decree ordering the immediate dismissal of Tsow Tsung-hao )Jj, officer in charge of the establishment for the collection of lekin on salt at Ch'ung king, who had the audacity to detain certain junks, and extort Tls. 700 from the salt merchants. He must be sent to the capital of the province, and be placed on his trial. (4) Feng-shen, Military Governor of Tsitsihar, requests permission to delay the disbandment of the force organised for the suppression of brigandage. At the end of last year he reported that the force under the command of the Military De puty Lieutenant-Governor at Merguen m rmi fR:, had succeeded in suppressing brigandage in the province and the country adjoining, and suggested therefore that this force should be disbanded, and its members sent back to their respective companies. After the memorial had been despatched news was received of an extensive rising of brigands to the south of the Amur river, in the provinile of Kirin. The Deputy Lieutenant-Governor of Heh Lung-Kiang was at once instructed to dis pose his forces in such a manner as to secure the safety of the province, and check the advance of the brigands northwards. Troops were a:ccordingly stationed at Pa-yen-su-su, and other important points.

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MAR. 8-9.] News being subsequently received of the dispersion of these brigands by the Kirin foroes, the outlying troops were called in. The Deputy Lieutenant-Governor was, however, afraid to leave the more im portant out-posts unprotected, and retained detachments at Pa-yen-su-su and other places, in readiness for immediate action, and available, in case of urgency, for service across the border. The memorialist now considers it inadvisable to disband the force above referred to until matters look more settled in the districts on the other side of the river.-Rescript: Noted. (5) Postscript memorial by the same officer representing the inadequacy of the daily allowance granted to members of the cavalry forces above referred to. Both men and horses have been very hard worked, and at least half of the latter are quite jaded. If proper work is to be got out of them they must be better fed. With the present high prices of grain and fodder, the amount allowed for rations and fodder is insuflicient to keep either men or horses in good condi tion. Repeated representations have been made to the Board on the subject, but they have vouchsafed no reply. Memo rialist therefore addresses himself to His Majesty, and prays that sanction may be granted to the issue of daily allowances on an,increased scale, varying from one hundred and fifty to fifty cash. The old scale of allowances will be resumed as soon as prices are reduced.-Granted by rescript. March 9th.-(1) A Decree. Yen King ming (special High Commissioner for famine relief) and Tseng Kwoh-ts'i.i.an (Governor of the province of Shansi) have memorialized Us recommending that the prohibition en acted in time past against the cultivation of the poppy be enunciated afresh. The growth of the poppy plant on the part of the population of the Empire, militating notably, as it does, against the agricultural food supply, has time after time been stringently forbidden ; but not withstanding this, the longstanding prac tice has continued to prevail, and the appetite for gain has caused injurious consequences to be left disregarded. Thus, in the province of Shansi, where a full moiety of the soil is stony and unproductive, whilst the yield of grain under any cir cumstances is inconsiderable, the efforts which should be diligently bestowed upon the tillage of every rood of ground are neglected, and the poppy plant is, instead, unlawfully grown. The popula tion, having but scanty stores of grain laid by, fall victims to the scourge of famine at the fust occurrence of a time of deficient 29 harvest. In the grievous chastisement under which, unhappily, the province is now labouring, as the result of a season of drought, it should recognize the signal given [by Nature] for a change [in the order of events.] For the future, let it be regarded as a bounden duty to devote every effort to the pursuits of agriculture, to the end that the yield of grain be full to over flowing, and a store be provided against the evil time of scarcity. Yen King-ming and Tseng Kwoh-ts'iian have issued pro clamations embodying their commands on the subject for general information, and We ordain that all which they propose be carried into effect, in the matter of enjoining upon the local head men of families and villages to require that the poppy-plants be rooted up and the land converted to the cultivation of cereal crops-that any proprietors of laud who fail to obey these commands be re ported tu the local authorities to be brought to justice-that all persons who connive at acts of disobedience shall be held liable to punishment-and that any Magistrates or official underlings who, in surreptitious violation of the laws, are found levying taxes upon the cultivation of the poppy, shall be subject to instant impeachment and dcpri vation of office. We farther command that in all the provinces there be instituted a stringent perqnisition and pro hibition in conformity with these present rules, so that beneficial results may be encouraged and a source of injury be removed, and that the people may enjoy in unison the blessings of abundant harvests, without relapsing into the courses in which evil has heretofore overwhelmed them. Let this be promulgated for public informa tion. (2) A Decree. The Board of Civil Office rP-port that they have considered the penalty that should be inflicted on Ting Pao-cheng, Governor-General of Sze-ch'wan, who most carelessly requested sanction Lo the employment of a cashiered Intendant of circuit on special service ; quite neglecting to add that he was under sentence of per petual exclusion from employment. The Board request that, in accordance with the law against grave acts of personal impro priety, Ting Pao-cheng may be degraded three steps and transferred elsewhere.-As a special act of grace We commute the penalty to deprivation of rank with leave to remain at his post. (See Gazette of 23rd Feb.) (3) A decree ordering that the name of Fuh SMng, Deputy Lieutenant-General at Nanking, be handed over tu the Board for

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the infliction of a penalty. The views of Fuh Sheng on the subject of expenditure for defence purposes were not in accordance those of Mu T'eng-ah, General-in chief, and others of his collea()'ucs. He refused to subscribe to their mm;orial and failed to adopt the altenmtive of sending in a separate representation on his account. In this he was guilty of serwus neglect of duty. (4) memorial byMing Ch'un, Impel'lal Agent at Hami, reporting his return from his visit to Suh-chow, and the steps he has taken, after consultation with the Governor-General Tso, to secure proper communication along the route in rear of the advancing army. Now that the western army has gone forward, Hami is one of the most important points in t!1eir rear, form ing, as it does, the throat-gate of the road to Turkestan, and arrangements have been made to secure the safety and protection of this and other important places along the route by which supplies must travel. The scarcity of provisions and high prices that have prevailed for a succession of years, with the deficiencies in the money contributions from various provinces, were also brought to the notice of the Governor General, who undertook to write to the high authorities of the provinces from which contributions were due, and urge them to send forward supplies without delay. The Governor-General and memorialist are per fectly agreed as to the arrangements to be made, and memorialist will use his utmost endeavours to carry them out efficiently, and to give the attention which such important interests demand. (5) Postscript memorial by the same ?fficer the period of mourn mg for h1s step-mother has expired. In view of the importance of the operations in which he was engaged at the time of her death, he was not allowed to vacate his post. (6) Postscript memorial by the same officer. The princess Pesir, Mairibanu by name, mother of Mahommed, prince of the Mussulman tribe of Hami, was carried away southwards some years since, by the Shensi rebels, and a decree was issued ordering steps to be taken for the rescue of the princess and her restoration to Hami. During the years that have elapsed since her abduction, repeated en quiries have been made. She was heard of at Kuche and other places, and was said to be safe and unhurt. At length, in the 11th moon of last year, a communication was received from Tso Tsung-t'ang stating that he had news from Liu Kin-t'ang to the effect that, on the recapture of Aksu on 30 [MAR. 9-10. the 24th October last, the enemy wore pursued as far as Hnmanako 't;] :EI\WJ and several hundred Mnssnlman prisoners of both sexes that had been taken away hy force from Hami were rescued ; amongst their number was the princess Pesir, mother of the prince of Rami. The princess and the distressed Mnssulmen lmd been handed over to Chang-yeo, with instructions to send them back to Rami under escort. The memorialist at once communicated with Tek'ekina, Assistant Agent at Rami, and a company was detached to meet them. A letter was at the same time written to the prince, instructing him to depute a competent chief to go forward and receive his mother. March lOth.-(1) A decree ordering renewed supplications for min in con sequence of the long protracted drought. The period at which nature awakes from the torpor of winter has now gone by, and the northern provinces have not yet been visited with fertilising rain, insomuch that the land is sorely thirsting for moisture. His Majesty will proceed in person, on the 15th inst., to the Tai K8.o Tien to prostrate himself in earnest prayer, and will after wards visit the She Ying Kung to burn incense. A number of the Imperial Princes are appointed to perform similar ceremonies on the same occasion at the various State Temples. (2) A decree in answer to a memorial from Ch'ung How, conferring upon Tuh Hing-ah, late Commander-in-chief at Moukden, a posthumous title, in addition to honors already bestowed, as a special act of grace. (3) A decree conferring the following appointments :-Jen Tao-jung f:f: iti to be Financial Commissioner of Che kiang; Kwoh Ying liJ9t to be Judicial Commissioner of Kiangsi ; Cheng Fuh to be Judicial Commissioner of Kwangtung. (4) A memorial from Pao Heng, acting Governor of Fukien, reporting tl'Le result of an investigation into a case of extortion on the part of an official underling, which resulted in the suicide of the victim. The following are the parties in the case :-Liu Ch'en-yi, the suicide; Teng Hung-kwang, tipcto; Wuh Tsung-yeo, and Chang Yeo ts'iian, all natives of adjoining villages in the Kien-an district. Chang Yeo-ts'ing, a brother of Chang Yeo-ts'iian, in the month of November, 1875, was going on business from the place in which he lived, to a distant district town, the road to which led

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MAR. 10-11.] through the Kien-an district. He had with him sixty dollars in cash, and an account book. On the second day of his journey he slipped while walking, fell hetwily to the ground, and so inju:ed himself that he lay insensible. Liu Ch'en yi happened to be passing by, recognised Chang Yeo-ts'ing as the brother of his friend Chang Yeo-ts'iian, hired a chair, and took him to the brother's house, first relieving him of the dollars and account book. On anival at the brother's house, he gave Clmng Yeo-ts'ing into the sister-in law's care, to whom he also handed the account book and thirty of the dollars; the other thirty he took away with him. \Vhen Chang Yeo-ts'ing came to his senses was told by the sister-in-law of the money that had been left, he declared that he had been robbed by Liu Ch'en-yi, but, in conside-ration of the service he had rendered him, decided to say no more about the matter. His brother Chang Yeo ts'iian was present when this remark was made, and, a few days after, having met Teng Hung-kwang and Wu Tsung-yeo, told them what had happened to his brother. They tried to persuade him to recover the money on his own account, but this he declined to do. It was, however, eventually agreed that they should get the money and pay him twenty dollars, keep ing the rest as a reward for their trouble. In accordance with this arrangement the two went a few days later to Liu Ch'en-yi's house, and invited him in the name of Chang Yeo-ts'irtg to a feast which they pretended he was about to give to his relations and friends to celebrate his reco very. Liu Ch'en-yi accepted the invitation, and the three started off to the feast. The road lay past the house of Teng Hung-kwang the tipao, who invited them in to rest. When they were seated, Liu Ch'on-yi was asked where the money was he had stolen from Chang Yeo-ts'ing. He denied having stolen any, whereupon they fastened him up with an iron chain, and kept him there for several days, till at last, under pressure of a threat of prosecu tion, he agreed to pay twenty dollars. They then demanded sixteen more, and, although they loosened his bonds, refused to let him go till these were paid. Where upon Liu Ch'en-yi, oppressed beyond en durance, and knowing not which way to turn, swallowed some opium that had been left on the table, and died the next day in spite of the efforts of his persecutors to resuscitate him. They then got a man to carry the body to the house of Chang Yeo-ts'ing and leave it there. Chang Yoo-ts'ing 31 was about to report the unaccountable arrival of the dead body to the authorities, when Ting Hung-kwang, the tipcto, came and offered to square the matter for him for for!.y dollars. The money was paid, and the Upcto took his departure. The case in due course of "time was brought to the notice of the authorities, and the Governor Ting being dissatisfied with the report that was sent up to him, denounced the magistrate, and sent a special officer to en quire into the matter, when the above facts were elicited. Teng Hung-kwang and his confederate were arrested, and confined in the prison at Foochow, from whence the former managed to escape, but was im mediately recaptured. The punishment to which Teng Hung-kwang rendered himself liable in the first instance was strangulation after the usual term of incarceration, but as he dared to try to escape, the penalty should; in accordance with the law, be changed to summary execution. Wu Tsung yoo, his confederate, has been sentenced to banishment to a distance of four thousand li. (5) Wan Shun, superintendent of the Imperial Silk Manufactory at Soochow, sends in a return 9f receipts and disburse ments for the year ending April 1877. Taols 32,500 were received from the pro vincial treasury, which, added to a balance in hand of Taels 15,895, gives a total income Taels 48,395. The expenditure for the year was Taels 37,218, leaving balance in hand of Taels 11,177, which will be devoted to the manufacture of Court robes of woven embroidery, and other articles already ordered for Imperial use. March llth.-(1) A decree appointing Ho Chao-ying iiiJ 41sml to the post of Salt Comptroller of Kwangtung, and Fang Ting-jui 1J to that of Intendant of the Hang-Hia-Hu circuit in CMkiang. (2) A decree once more refe1Ting to the prolonged absence of rain, and directing Wen-koh to proceed at. once to the T'ai-shan LlJ (a sacred mountain in Shml tung) to offer up prayers for rain. (3) A decree in answer to a represent ation froin the Board of Revenue com plaining of the insufficiency of the contri butions in grain forwarded for the support of the troops stationed at the Imperial Mausolea. Owing to the pressing demand for supplies in Shansi and Honan, the con tributions from Shantung have fallen greatly into arrear, but there has been such a drain upon the resources of this province that it is unable to meet its engagements. The Board of Revenue at Moukden, which is

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also greatly behindhand with its contribu tions, is ordered to send forward supplies once, and the Governor of Shantung is directed to take steps for cont.ributinohis share as soon as possible. "' (4) Ch'ung-how, Governor-General of Fengt'ien, reports the result of sub scriptions set on foot for the relief of the sufferers by famine in Shansi. Over twenty thousand piculs of millet have been collected amongst the resident officials, merchants, and traders from the West which will be sent to Tientsin as soon the frost breaks up. Subscribers have been rewarded with buttons or medals in accord ance with the amount of their contribu tions, and the names of those who have subscribed largely with a hope of obtaining official rank will be submitted to the proper Board for consideration. 32 (5) Postscript memorial by the same officer asking for permission to retain under his orders seven officials from the province of Chihli, for whose services he had ap plied. The Board decided that they should be sent back, as the application for them was contrary to regulation. The memorialist points out that the transfer was made and reported before the regulation referred to was drawn up or approved. In consideration of this circumstance, and the fact that their services are urgently required, he hopes that the transfer may be sanctioned. --Granted by rescript. (6) Yen-hii, military Governor of Jeh ho, requests permission to leave a company of cavalry, numbering fifty men, at Kien ch'ang-hien, as a protection against ban ditti. A force of a hundrM and fifty men hacl been sent up into this region for the dispersion of the mounted banditti, of whom they succeeded in capturing sixty. The rest have disappeared, but the memo rialist does not consider it prudent to with draw the whole of this force, as the move ments of these brigands are rapid in the extrome. They assemble and disperse at very short notice, and on the arrival of the military are nowhere to be seen, while their departure is the signal for a fresh uprising, and wholesale robbery of the peaceable inhabitants.-Rescript : noted. March 12th.-(Court Circular.) Ch'en Lan-pin (Minister to the United States, &c.), had audience of leave before going abroad. (1) A decree based upon a memorial from the Censor Liu En-po, who represents that the Department Magistrates and Magistrates along the line of route between Shensi and Kansuh, whose duty it is to supply funds (MAR. 11-12. for the entertainment and expenses of high officers and others travelling by this route on public service, provide for expenditure under this head by increased taxation of the people in their respective jurisdictions. If this really be the case, the proceeding is most improper, and must at once be put a stop to. The Governors-General and Governors concerned are peremptorily to prohibit Department Magistrates and Magistrate's from laying the burden of ex penditure for entertainment and travelling .arrangements upon the people, and high officers making of the postal stage are called upon to keep their retinue and attend ants in check, and not permit them to be exacting in their demands for entertainment which has to be provided at the public cost. (3) A decree appointing Wen Chung-han to the post of Intendant of the Wen (Wenchow) Ch'u circuit. (4) Li Hung-mo, a Censor of the Super visorate, etc., etc., kneeling presents a memorial upon the condition of 1eopardy in which the interests of the State are now involved, and upon the exhaustion of the financial resources of the Empire, in view of which he solicits the issue of a decree enjoining in stringent terms the reduction of expenditure on the part of the various Provincial Governments, both as regards the outlay within their own several juris dictions and also the subsidies allotted from their exchequers in aid of other (provinces and commands], to the end that a waste of public money may be checked and a safe guard provided for the welfare of the State. He would humbly premise by observing that, at the present moment, among all the disasters [that-have befallen, or that threaten] the Middle Kingdom, there is none greater than impoverishment ; whilst of impoverishment the cause is not the insufficient extent of the wealth-producing field, but the excessive multiplication of outlets for expenditure. Since hostilities first became precipitated in consequence of the Rebellion, the Custom House duties and m13rchanclize-tax (lekin) have been con tinually on the increase, bringing in annually an addition to the revenue of many millions ; but although the entire Empire has long since been restored to a state of peace, and although the mer chandize-taxes and Customs' duties have not been entirely clone away with, financial straits are more pressing than they have ever been in past years, for the reason that the provincial governments have failed, on their part, to stop by stringent measures

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12.] the wasteful overflow of income in their various forms of expenditure. 'fhe established revenue of the State is in its essence so adjusted as to provide for the regular needs of provincial administration ; but, of late years, owing to the severity with which the three provinces of Shansi, Honan, and Shensi have been stricken with drought, the necessities entailed by way of expenditure for famine relief have brought about the highest imaginable degree of financial exigency. Your servant has been informed that the late Governor of Honan, Li K'ing-ngao, proposed to raise money by means of a European loan, and that the Special High Commissioner Yiian Pao-heng (de tailed from his post as Vice-President of the Board of Punishmeuts), pro posed that money should be borrowed from the mercantile associations trading under Government authority, both agreeing, however, in suggesting the land revenue as the security to be offered. Both, indeed, were themselves eyewitnesses of the calam itous visitation which has reduced the land to a desolate condition, and this last desperate expedient was proposed in despair of finding any other resource. Yet, how little were the need for anxiety as to the possibility of achieving the object in view, if the treasuries of the capital and the several provincial Governments had but a reserve of three or four years' expenditure in hand Your Majesties, the Empresses Regent and the Emperor, practice in your Imperial persons the virtue of frugality, and are oppressed, by day and night, with feelings of anxious solicitude ; but the high provinilial authorities-it may be from failure to appreciate rightly the Sovereign's desire for retrenchment of out lay, shew themselves intent upon objects which are not of the first importance, with the result that millions and tens of millions of the resources of the State are wasted yearly. At the first pressure of distress owing to flood or drought, men are consequently driven tu gaze about them impotently in despair, and to fold their hands, knowing not what to do. It remains to be observed that the most important of the departments of outlay to which the provincial administrations are liable are three in number, to wit : the army, the provision against breach of the Yellow River embankments, and the relief of distress in times of famine. Apart from these, there are few items of expenditure which cannot be postponed. As regards the current expenditure of the provincial administrations, it is scarcely necessary to 33 remark that the heaviest outlay is that which is occasioned by the campaign beyond the Wall. The exigency of military affairs is too pressing to admit of the subject being rashly discussed ; but, apart from this, the number of forms of outlay which might be deferred for the present is by no means inconsiderable. Your servant cannot pretend to a thorough acquaintance with all the details of expenditure, multifarious as these are, throughout the Empire ; but what he feels to be the most pressing subject of anxiety at this moment is the fact that not withstanding the greatness of the Empire, there should not be a reserve in hand for so much as half a year's expenditure, whilst, in a time of famine, commotions and revolt are so liable to occur ; and, were a state of warfare once more to arise, it is impossible to say where means could be found to provide for the necessities that would ensue. After anxious reflection, Your servant would entreat that a decree be issued enjoining upon the high authorities of all the provinces the duty of bestirring themselves actively on behalf of the imperilled public interest, and uniting their efforts toward relief of the difficulties which now beset the State. In all questions of expenditure within their own jurisdictions, or of subsidies allotted on their behalf from other provinces, they should point out, in reports to the Throne, whatever forms of outlay are not of pressing importance, and are open to considerations of postponement. This humble expression of his views is accordingly submitted. Rlilscript, referring the above for the consideration of the Board of Revenue, already published. (5) A joint memorial from Shen Pao cheng, Governor-General of the Liang Kiang, and Wu Yuan-ping, Governor of Kiangsu, recommending for honorary diii! tiuction a number of persons who have been particularly energetic in affording relief to the refugees from the North at Soochow, Yangchow, and other places, or have been active in promoting subscriptions, or contributing personally, at Shanghai. (6) The Governor-General, in a postscript memorial, reports the measures taken for the relief of the refugees above referred to. Last year no less than twenty thousand of these collected at Soochow, and in spite of local endeavours to provide for them, com bined with monetary aid from Shanghai, it was extremely difficult to minister to the wants of so large a number. The local authorities came forward gallantly with

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34 [MAR. 12-14. assistance, and the joint efforts cl, the Fin::mcittl Commissioner of Hupeh and a Sec retary of the Grand Council who happened to be on a visit to their native place, are particularly deserving of commendation. These two ofticers were most energetic in raising subscriptions, aud opened a relief agency at their own expense, which main tained over five thousand nine hundred refugees. From November, 1876, to the end of May, 1877, when the refugees were provided with funds and sent back, twenty eight thousand and ninety-five strings of wsh (about Taels 20,000) were expended on the purchase of food, wadded medicines, coffins, &c. A list is submitted of persons who are entitled to honorary distinction. March 13th.-(1) A decree based upon a memorial from Yen King-ming, special commissioner for famine relief in Shansi, and Tseng Kwo-ts'iian, Governor of that province, requesting that troops may be sent from Honan to escort the tribute rice from Shantung diverted for the relief of sufferers in Shansi, and requesting that orders may be given for the speedy despatch of this rice from Shantung. The sufferers in Shansi are in urgent need of relief, and the Governor of Shantung is instructed to cause the balance of the Shantung tribute rice set aside for this purpose, amounting to seventy thousand piculs, at once to be sent forward by water to the, town of Tao-k'ow ;i1 l=f in Honan, and there handed over to an officer from Shansi who will be sent to receive it, and forward it to Shansi by instalments. The Governor of Honan is called upon to send a body of active troops to escort it into Shansi, and these are to be aided by detachments sup plied by the authorities along the line of route. (2) A decree ordering the Court of Cen sors and the Board of. Punishments to investigate a charge of theft brought against a Secretary of the Board of Punishments. T'ung H wa-kwoh, Assistant Second Secretary in the Board of Punish ments, charges Liu Cheng-p'in, Senior Secretary in the same Board, with having purloined certain security bonds which he, T'ung H wa-kwoh, had prepared for the purpose of supplying guarantees for fellow provincials. One of these bonds, he states, was sold byLiu Cheng-p'in to a money-shop for four hundred .taels, and was used by an individual called Ch'en Jen-si, who, falsely representing himself to be a H wai-an salt merchant, presented himself !Lt the Board of Revenue, armed with this guarantee of respectability, and volunteered to con tribute to the famine relief fund on con dition that a certain nuri1ber of salt permits were allotted to him. In answer to this charge, an explanation is offered by two Renior Secretaries of the Board of Revenue, natives of the same province (Szechuen) as the complainant. They state that it is the practice of all Assistant Second Secretaries to give these guarantees, which are deposited in a head-office, ready for use. Ch'en Jen si having offered to contribute to the Shansi famine relief fund, went to the Board of Revenue to get a bond, and they, after some consideration, filled in for him one of T'ung Hwa-kwoh's stamped securi ties, but they heard afterwards that the Board had declined his terms. Ch'en Jen si did subscribe four hundred taels for repairs to a club founded by his native town, but T'ung Hwa-kwoh had been mis informed as to money having been raised on his security bond. These statements are greatly at variance, and enquiry is therefore directed to be made. (3) A memorial from tlle supervising Censor Wen-ming, commenting on the report by the Governor of Shensi of defal cations on the part of a District Magistrate named Fang Yen-hi. (See Gazettes of 26th January and 22nd February.) (4) Postscript memorial by Tso Tsung t 'ang. He reports that the Daidji, or no bles under the domination of the. Prince of the K'och'in Mahommedans at Turfan, have hitherto been selected by that Prince for merit or ability, and recommended to the Commandant of the forces at Turfan, who, in turn, memorialises the Throne for sanction to their succession to the order. On the capture of Turfan last year, the Malwm medan Prince had long been dead, and there was not a Daidji alive; consequently there was no one to administer Mahom medan afi'airs, which was most inconvenient. The "turban-wearing" Mussulmans of Tur fan lilave now elected by common consent a Bciyen to perform the duties of Daidji, and have requested that the necessary au thority be granted him. The memorialist has accordingly given him credentials, au thorising him temporarily to perform tlle duties of the office, that he may test his ability before recommending him for per manent succession. March 14th.-(1) A decree in answer to a representation from the supervising Censor Ma Hiang-ju, calling attention to the frequency of burglaries and robberies in the capital of late. The office of gen darmerie and various. metropolitan author ities are called upon to exert themselves

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MAR. 14-15.] and arrest the perpetrators of these rob beries. (2) A decree based on a memorial from the same Censor, calling on the high authorities of the provinces affiicted by famine to make careful enquiry into the conduct and ability of Department Magistrates and Magistrates in the famine districts. Those who perform their duties efficiently are to be specially recommended, and all incompetent and careless officers are to be unsparingly denounced. (3) A decree appointing Sun Yih-king -f* to the post of sub-Chancellor of the Grand Secretariat, with brevet rank as Vice-President of the Board of Ceremo nies. (3) Decree appointing Ts'iian-lin f>t\ chief Supervisor in the Imperial Super visorate of Instruction. 35 (4) Liu Kuen-yi, Governor-General of the Liang-kwang, and Chang Chao-tung, Governor of Kwantung, represent a merit orious case of filial devotion on the part of a young girl twenty-one years of age, the daughter of an expectant Magistrate in the province of Kwangtung. She had been with her father from childhood, was well educated, and bore a deserved reputation for virtue and intelligence. Her father fell ill in the spring of last year, and she devoted herself to nursing him. At the end of six months his malady increased, and the daughter then cut a piece of flesh from her arm and mixed it with his medicine. The remedy however proved in effectual, so she vowed to sacrifice her life to his, and poisoned herself on the day that her father died. The memorialists apply for sanction to the erection of a memorial structure in honour of her devotion.Granted by rescript. (5) The Governor of Shantung requests sanction to the exchange of posts by two District Magistrates, one of whom has been appointed to a district within the pre scribed limit of five hundred li from his native place.-Referred to the Board of Civil Office. (6) Postscript memorial by the same officer, regretting that the obstinate ad herence to old custom on the part of --the people of Shantung renders it impossible to deliver the a1mual quota of tribute rice lll'ithin the appointed time. A portion of the winter instalment for the year 1877, amounting to 250,000 piculs, still remains to be collected, but there is more than sufficient in store to supply the provinces of Honan and Shansi with the 16,000 piculs that have been orderell to be divertutl for the relief of the sufferers by famine. Orders have been given for this amount to be weighed out and placed in boats, which will leave as soon as the frost breaks up. (See Gazette of 13th March.) March 15th.-A memorial from Li Ho nien, acting Governor of Honan, and Yuan Pao-hong, special High Commissioner for famine relief in the same province, appealing earnestly for assistance in the relief of the sufferers by famine. The drought with which the province has been visited for several years in succession has resulted in a famine, the like of which for intensity and extent has never yet been known. As autumn advanced into winter, the number of those in need of relief was daily on the increase, until they could at last be counted by millions. The lower classes were first affected, and soon disappeared, or dis persed in search of subsistence elsewhere. Now, the famine has attacked the wealthy and well-to-do, who find themselves reduced to greater straits as each day goes by, and they in their turn are dying off, or follow ing those who have already disappeared. In the earlier period of distress the living fed upon the bodies of the dead ; next, the strong devoured the weak; and now, the general destitution has arrived at such a climax that men devour those of their own flesh and blood. History contains no record of so terrible and distressing a state of thiugs, and if prompt measures of relief be not instituted, the whole region must become depopulated. With so terrible a spectacle before their eyes, the memorialists are filled with burning impatience and intense vexation of spirit. Local sources of supply are entirely exhausted ; the granaries are empty, the treasury drained dry; taxation has ceased, and not a cash of revenue is coming in, while the few wealthy people the province contains have helped with contri butions and loans till they are utterly impoverished." It only remains, therefore, .to turn to other sources for aid. The Governor, in a recent memorial detailing the straits to which he was reduced for want of funds, sug gested that a foreign loan of one million taels should be raised. The immediate wants of the province are, however, too numer ous to admit of more than a portion of this sum being devoted to the relief of the more urgent cases of distress. After careful consideration, therefore, the memorialists submit the following proposals :-First, that the entire supply of grain due from Kiangsi and Ngan hwei to Peking for the coming year, amounting to 90,000 piculs, be diverted to Honmt. SocouJ, that Li Hung-chaug,

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Governor-General of Chihli, who has volunteered to supply 30,000 piculs of rice, the balance of the, stock accumulated at Tientsin for sale at reduced rates, be authorised to remit this amount. Third, that two-thirds of the stock in the charit able granaries in Kiangsu, which they estimate at one million piculs, may be supplied on loan. It shall be repaid in instalments, commencing after the gathering of the autumn harvest, and shall not fail to be sent forward irrespective of the crops being plentiful or the reverse. Fourth, that the sum of $500,000 in foreign currency, being the amount of contribu tions raised by Ting Jih-chang, Governor of Fuhkien, for the construction of the railway in Formosa, may also be lent to the province of Honan. This expedient has been suggested by the Governor-General Li Hung-chang and others, who inform the memorialists that the amount contributed is insufficient to carry out the operations contemplated; and that, as these have not yet been commenced, there can be no ob jection to diverting the money temporarily to a more urgent want. The memorialists hope that the commencement of operations will not be delayed by the diversion of this fund, which will be a substantial aid towards the relief so urgently called for at the present moment. They feel assured that the Governor-General Ho Tsing-kung, who so loyally identifies himself with the in terests of his country, and the Governor Ting Jih-ch'ang, who is so determined in his efforts for the relief of suffering, will show due consideration for the homeless and the wanderer, and consent to a temporary loan of the fund applied for. (For decree see Gazette of 24th February.) March 1Gth.-(1) A Decree. A memorial has this day been received from Tso Tsung-t'ang, Kin Shun, and Liu Tien, forwarded by express at the rate of 600 li a day under the "red flag,"* reporting the recovery of the four western cities of the Nan (Kashgaria), and the complete subjugation of the New Dominion. After the recapture of the four eastern cities of Kashgaria by the Imperial army -last year, LiuKin-t'ang organised plans for the systematic recovery of the four western towns of the same region. He directed Yiih Hu-ngen, General-in-chief, to advance by way of Aksu and Barchuk Maralb'ashi with the main army, while Hwang Wan p'eng and others were directed to proceed with the reserves by way of Ush. It was [* Note. Tho ll.e
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MAR. 16-17.] 37 --------------------------------------------------------and this high officer, intent at once upon the work of extermination and pRcilicat.ion, first devised and carried out measures for the subjug>Ltion of the Peh LAt. (Sungaria.) He cm11menced with the recapture of Urmntsi, that he might hold comnmnd of a stroll!( position ; then Manas was recovered, and, advancing by several routes simulta neously, _he took in succession Turfan and other strongholds. The impqrtant places in Eastern Kashgaria being wrested from the insurgents, he marshalled his army and advauced Westwards. By a series of rapid movement.s, accomplished as easily as the SlJiitting of a bamboo, he secured possession of the eight towns of Southern Kashgaria, all of which are now in his hands. Prayer ful reliance on a mighty Providence, and trust in the fostering aiel of an illustrious ancestry, has enabled their Majesties the _Empresses, unceasing in their solicitude and unwearying in their efforts, to discover a skilful and capable agent actuated by the same spirit in the treatment of the stranger and those of his own race; a leader who has executed his commands with lL brilliant SUCCeSS that will afJ:'orcl SOhLce to t.he spirit of the departed Emperor tlmt reigns in Heaven, aud has relLlised the hopes of officials and people. Our consohttion and joy are indeed profound, and it becomes our duty to tmdow the leader of our army, battered by wind and rain, and exposed to every hard ship, with the highest nmrk o{ Imperial grace, as a reward for his exertions. vVe command that Tso 'l'sung-t'ang, Imperial Commissioner, Grand SecretMy, GovernorGeneral of Shmsi and Kansuh, who has shown a capacity for military administm tion in every particular, and has been mindful to report to Us with promptitude, shall be advancedfrom the dig11ity of a Peh (third order nobility) of the first grade, to that of Iluw (second order of hereditary nobility) of the second grfl.de. We commlLnd that Liu kin-t'ang, expectant sub-director of a minor metropolitan depMtment of the third grade, who has displayed bravery and prudence in a g1eat degree, and shown an aptitude in the device of expedients to secure victory, car rying his success to the most dist;mt re gions, be advanced from the distinction of lCi Yii(seventh order of hereditary nobil ity), to that of Ncm (fifLh order) of the second grade, and be phtced first on the list for promotion to the substantive post of sub-director (f a minor metropolitan department of the third grade. Here follows a list of distinctions to be confe'Ted on other officers, occupying thirty pages of the Gazette. (2) l\f,,mnrial from the Board of Revenne in anHwer tci the memnrhd from the Governor nf Huu;m aml the Specifl.l High Commissiomlr for fnmine relief, published in the Gttzelte of t.he 15th. 'l'hey negative t.he propos;Ll for the diversion of the grain due from Ki>mgsi aiHl Nganhwei for the comiug year, as it wunld strip the Peking granaries of their supplies, which have already heen largely drawn npon for the relief uf Honan. The Board, while fully alive to the immensity of the dist.ress in Honan, aro obliged, lts cnstodiaus of the public exchequer, to consider general interests. They !awe sanctioued loans to this province tu the amount of upwards of 489,000 'l'aels in cmrency and 100,000 piculs of tribut.e rice. 'l'he Peking granaries do not now contain more than a fifth of their ordinfLry stock. From Hunan alone is owiug not less than 3,000,000 piculs, irrespecti l'e of lrmns -from other provinces that luwe to be repaid. 'l'hey recommend the n(]option of the other proposals pnt forward by the memorituists. (See Gct:;etfe,q of 24t.h Feb. and 15th March.) 11-hrch 17th.-(1) 'A decree conferring rewttrds on the oflicers in charge of the Pri I'Y C>tbinet Office and the Council Messenger's Oflice, who received and for warded the memorial from 'l'so Tsung-t'aug announcing the subjugation of Tmkestan. (2) A decree based uvon a memorial fron). the Censor J nng Lu on prison reform. It is the duty of all criminal courts to expedite ctLses that come before them, and not, as frequently happens, allow them to drag on for an intermilmble period, till the accused dies from ennLciation before he is con demned. Orders on this subject have already bee:i:t issued to the provinces. The Board of Punishments, Prefect of Shnn t'ien, and other metropolitan authorities, are now cruled upon to clear off outstanding cases. All witnesses now in custody are to be examined without delay and released on bail. (3) A decree again referring to the vic tories in the New Dominion. This region, which has been in a state of revolt for more than ten years and Wt\8 the cause of un ceasing anxiety to the hLte Emperor, having been subjugated by Tso 'l'sung-t'ang, the spirit of his late MtLjesty now in Heaven will be much solaced ttt the intelligence. 'l'he Prince of Li is direct.ecl to go to the Lung Fnh Sze temple, tmd after lmviug performecl the usmtl cetemm)ies before the StLcriticial table in front of the late Emperor's tablet, he is to offer a libtttion and inform the spirit of his departed lVIajcsty of the succuBs tha_ t has been achieveu. '!'he Han-lin College

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are to prepare the announcement to be read by the Prince of Li. (4) A further decree on the same subject, recognising the propriety of rewarding the members of the Grand Council, who have been unwearying in their eft"orts to promote the success of the campaign. The Clan Court is directed to determine a distinguished form of reward for the Prince of Kung, and the Grand Secretary Pao ylin, the Assistant Grand Secretary Shen Kwei-fen, and King-lien, President of the Board of War, are conunended to the Board for the determination of special forms of distinction; Wang "\Yen-shao (lately admitted to the Council ou probation) is to receive an ordinary mark of distinction. (5) T'u Tsung-ying, Governor of Kwang si, reports the capture of an ex-military officer who has been guilty of acts of brigandage in Annam, which were made the subject of complaint by the King of Annam. He is to be beheaded in a public place, and his head sent to the Anuamese frontier for exposure. (6) Teng Ch'ing-lin denounces a d z assak, or chieftain, of the Khorch'in tribe of the "Inner Mongols," whom he charges with acts of oppression, wrongdoing, and unbridled license, and requests that his seal of office may be taken away from him. 38 March lSth.-(1) A Decree. Tso tang having reported to us the recapture of the towns in Kashgaria, and'the subjugation of the New Dominion, We have already bestowed special marks of Our favour upon this high officer and other leaders of our armies. Since the revolt of the Mabommedans in theN ew Dominion, now more than ten years since, there have been various officers who have displayed energy in the extirpation of the rebels, sacrificing their lives on the field of battle, orin the defence of strongholds which, in obedience to orders, they have maintained in the face of danger. Now that order is firmly established in this region, and meritorious services are being proclaimed, it behoves Us to recall to remembrance the merits of those of earlier days, for whom Our pity and compassion are profound. Let Tso Tsung-t'ang care fully ascertain the names of all officers that have been killed in action beyond the frontier during the years that this campaign has lasted, and let him report these to Us, and await the manifestation of Our favour. (2) A decree on the same subject, recog nising the propriety of adding the name of Kin-shun, Military Governor of Ili, to the number of those that should be rewarcletl for the successes lately achieved. This [MAR. 1 7--'18. officer greatly distinguished himself iu the combined attack ou Urnmt.si aud other places, and has shown care and vigilance in the maintenance of order in the region over which he has been placed in command. He is to be advanced three ste ps and plR.ced first on the list for promotion to any vacancy to which he can be appointed. (3) Li Ho-nien, Governor of Honan, requests that rewards may be conferred on a General and Brigade-General who re spectively contributed 'faels 1,000 aud 1 000 wadded coats for the sufferers by famine (4) Liu Ping-chang, Governor of Kiangsi, in a postscript memorial a report from the Taotai of Kiuldang to the effect that, it beiug customary to draw up on yellow paper a list of the polished aud "round porcelain prepared annually in bulk for the Imperial use under ihe direction of the Kiukiaug Custom House, he submits the list for transmission. Ill the conrse of last year, eighty pieces of superior polished porcelain were prepared, and twelve hundred and four pieces "round" porcelain. This does not include porcelain lamps and other utensils for use in the Show Hwang-tienandother Halls, for which orders have repeatedly been given. The articles will be sent to Peking by steamer under the charge of a special officer. Of the annual grant of Taels 10,000, Taels 4,535 have been spent, leaving a balance of Taels 5,465, which should be returned to the Office of Imperial Manufactories. (6)--Tso Tsung-t'ang memorialises re questing that a peacock's feather may be bestowed on a daidji, or noble, of the second-class chieftains of the Khmihoit :t:t1 ljfili -t:J;. tribe, aaJled Cha-pu-te-lo:,.;.oo" 11T' k'o, who has render-great assistance to the Imperial troops. !lis tribe, and that of the Turguts, nomad Mongols of Kokonor, had taken up their abode in the country adjoining that peopled by the Mahommedans, and were located there at the commencement of the revolt of these tribes. They were much harassed by the "turban wearing" Mussulmans, and, subsequently, by the Andijani, who profited by the con fusion they were in to make an onslaught upon them, dispersing the Tmoguts and destroying more than half of the other tribe. The dC!idji referred to collected the scattered remnants of these tribes, and removed with them to a place called G'orht' u-shan, which he defended with great tenacity. On the capture of T'oksun last year, he came to the camp and had an interview wit.h Liu Kin-t'tmg, who ordered him tu return aud

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MAR. 18-20.] -39 keep a Wrialises with refer ence to an appeal lodged by one vVang King-tien, accusing certain persons of having caused the death of his brother, Wang King-shun, who hanged himself some years ago in consequence of an altercation he had with some neighbours, agriculturists, awl died by his own hand. The body was inspected by a corpse examiner, and no marks of violence other than the self inflicted one having been discovered, the usual guarantee was given, and it was handed over to the relatives of the de ceased for interment. 'Vang King-tien, the brother, then went to Peking and lodged an appeal, which was referred in the usual manner to memorialist. A second examina tion of the corpse was made with the same result, and the appellant, who had been sent with the corpse examiner tu be pre sent at the inquest, having made his escape while being escorted back to prison, once more found hiR way to Peking, and again app
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40 [MAR. 20-2'1. ------------..,----------------with the i!J(ptest, the seerelnry a.tr;fied t.o the memnrinlist for iustnwt.iu!ls, 1utd he referred him to the "Olrouers' l\Im11::d," which clearly lnys down thu course to he pursued, fl
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:M:A.R. 21-22.] 41. grace, we ordain tlmt in addition to t.he donations appointed by htw, 'l'aels 1,000 shall be granted from the Privy Purse for the expenses of his obsequies. All oflicial penalties recorded against his name are hereby remitted. The proper Yamen are to ascertain the particular ceremonies to Le performed at his obsequies, and menwrialise there on. (4) Ch'ing SMn is permitted to vacate his post of-junior Vice-president of the Board of Revenue, on account of illhealth. (5) Decrees conferring the rtp pointments vacant by the death of the Prince of Cheng. Inspector of forces, Lung 'l's'in lfi' ; Lieutenant-General of the Bordered White Ban Kun Banner, Wen Yii 5{ ; Comptroller of the forces on active service, Po-yen-na-mo-hu fEJ March 22nd.-(1) A decree again deploring the absence of rain, and ordering a renewed series of services at the various State temples. His Majesty will visit the Ta-kao-tien and the Slian-jen-rniao. (2) A Decree. The snows of winter have been scarce in the provinces that were last year visited by famine, and the rains of spring have failed in their season. 'Ne have again and again erected alt!U'S and offered up earnest supplications, praying for the lives of Onr people ; but day after day has the sun risen bright and clear, to be followed by storms of wind. The season of spring has now arrived, and still not a drop of moisture has fft!len. The land for a thousand li is bare, and agriculture can not be carried on ; while the dead exceed the living in number. How can these things be borne 1 We, whose cl uty it is to watch over the millions of Our people with fostering care, feel that the loss of one of Our subjects is the result of Our misdning. How much more intense must this feeling be when a drought prevails so extensive as this, when the starviug people are as many as this Some consider that rain is withheld because of the prevalence of idleness, self-indulgence, inactivity, and sloth, resulting in degeneration and neglect of dut.y ; or that the system of Goverument, though complete in form, is a name and not a reality ; or, agr.tin, tlmt pnuislunents do not re!tch their object, and tlHtt the people are silently enduring wrongs they cannot complain of. F!tilure in one of these particuhtrs would be sufficient to pro voke the wrath of Heaven. Their Majes ties the Emvresses have rev!)atedly aduwn-ihed Us, saying whftt loa1e the people done that they should snft"er this mdmuitoous want I If Heaven sends down punishments, why may they not be trausfcrred to the Court and the people spared this misery 'I When 'l'so Tsnng-t'ang recently reported his victories, We were again exhorted hy their Majesties that, though military oper !ttious in the New Dominion were at an end, drought in Our immedi,tte neigbonr hood still prevailed, aud the afflicteLl pruv inees lmd not regaineLl their wonted cooudition. It was, therefore, still necessary to give heed to Our ways with reverence and fear, and not suffer the slightest appear ance of complacency or content. We have this day again been connn:mded by their Majesties that with the distress prentil ing in Shansi and Honan before them, those in high place should not suffer indulgence in the slightest extravagance. They accordingly direct the High Officer of the Imperial Household to instruct the secretaries of departments to exercise retrenchment in the various branches of palace expenditure. He is to report to their Majesties without delay the amount of the economies. that can be effected, for if one cftndareen only can be saved there is one candareen the more to be distributed in relief. In rel'erent obedience to their l'IItjesties' exhortatious, who so graciously have at heart the welfare of people, We can but repent of Our faults, aud examine into Our shortcomings, administering a goverument which is moie than nominal with full siucerity of purpose ; and thus, perhaps, He
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that drought also prevails in the prefecture of Ho-kien in Chihli. Let Li Huug-chang promptly ascertain to what extent the taxes in this district can be remitted, and let him devise measures of relief, and report the same to Us. (3) Decrees conferring the following ap pointments :-Junior Vice-President of the Board of Revenue and Superintendent of the Coinage Department, Lin-shuh !$1l\i.lf. Senior Vice-President of the Board of Plmishments, Che-hoh Junior Vice-President of the Board of Ceremonies, Kw'un-kang (4) A postscript memorial from Tso Tsung-t'ang covering a report from the Taotai of Shanghai who had obtained a year's leave of absence to recover the re mains of his father, who died in the year 1861, and ascertain the fate of his step mother and brother. On arrival at lli, where his father died, he placed himself in communication with a man from his native place, who told him that he had buried his father with his own hand before the cap ture of the town by the insurgents, and pointed out to him the place where the remains had been laid. The Taotai suc ceeded in finding twenty-eight bones, which he placed in a fresh coffin to be borne sorrowfully back to his native place. He learned from the wife of a soldier who had been his step-mother's serving woman, that on the capture of lli, his step mother had poisoned herself, and. that his brother, who had joined the staff of Ch'ung hi, late Imperial Agent at Ili, was killed in action on the lOth March, 1866. The Governor-General suggests the propriety of bestowing on the step-mother a mark of Imperial approbation, and a token of pity on the brother who was killed in action. -Granted by rescript. March 23rd.-(1) (Abstract Memorial.) Sung-kwei, Resident at Lassa, reports the departure of an abbot from Anterior Tibet rolJ on a tribute mission to Peking. Rescript :-The K'an-pu need not come to Peking. Let the articles of tribute and list accompanying them be for warded by the Governor-General of Sze chw'an and the Tartar General. (2) A decree in answer to a representation from the Court of Censors ordering the provincial authorities to exercise more discrimination in the granting or withholding of bail to parties in appeal suits. This representation has been evoked by the recent action of the authorities in 42 (MAR. 22-24. Hupeh, who actually kept the compl:tinant in an appeal suit in custody aud allowed bail to the defendants. (3) Memorial by Censor Hu Yen-kwei on abuses in judicial system. (For decree see Gazette of 3rd March.) (4) Li Ho-nien, Governor-General of the Yellow River, and acting-Governor of Honan, reports that the period of the spring freshets has passed without mishap. The unprecedented cold of -the past winter caused the upper waters to freeze, and for moru than a month all traffic was suspemleLl, luLters having to be forwarded overland by cir cuitous routes, a necessity that has not arisen for many years. The pressure of the ice in the upper waters caused a rise of one or two feet lower down, but timely pre cautions were taken, and no accidents occurred. The various river works are reported in good order, but certain mis cellaneous repairs will be needed. Debts contracted for last year's repairs are still unpaid, and there will be great difficulty in raising funds, but the memorialist will do his best. (5) Tso Tsung-t'ang reports a mutiny among some irregular troops at Hwa-p'ingchw'an in Kansuh, to whom four months' pay was due. The mutiny was checked before any violence or robbery was com mitted, and the ringleaders were executed after trial by the Governor-General. The General in command, to whom the memo rialist gives a good character, is degraded to the rank of colonel, but allowed to retain his command. March 24th.-(l) A decree in answer to a representation from the Supervising Censor Ts'ui Mu-che, ordering stricter supervision over all classes of official under lings, who, the Censor alleges, are often guilty of corrupt and extortionate practices. (2) A decree appointing Ch'eng Lan-pin IDft liJ ,m (Minister to the United States, etc.) a Vice-Director of the Imperial Clan Court.) (3) A memorial from the Governor-General of Yiinnan and Kwei-chow, reporting the result of enquiries into a charge of want of supervision brought against anofficer in charge of a lelcin collectorate, whose subor dinate had embezzled a portion of the duties levied by his office. The officer, Yih Chao tung by name, pleaded in extenuation that the embezzlements for which he was re sponsible occurred during his absence on duty at a branch office under his charge. He had left nine blank duty receipts with his subordinate for use while he was away. On his return the subordinate informed him

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MAR. 24-25.] that they had all been issued and handed him the amount of the duty which he said had been collected. It was not until the head-office had brought the matter to light that he was aware that a fraud had been committed. The subordinate having con fessed his guilt, memorialist will inflict the legal penalty upon him. He considers that the negligence of the superior officer will be adequately punished by a fine of a year's salary. March 25th.-(1) A decree in answer to a memorial from the supervising Censor Kwoh Ts'ung-kii, requesting that the Board entrusted with the direction of the examination of officers recommended for special merit may be allowed discretionary powers in instances where the candidates have, whether from want of means or ignorance of the new regulations, been unable to present themselves for examination within the specified time. In accordance with the Censor's representations perm1ss10n is granted for the examination of certain officers in this category who have failed to present themael vea within the time pre scribed. (2) A memorial from the supervising Censor P'eng She-ch'ang, calling attention to the necessity of adopting measures to secure an efficient water supply in the Norther1;1 districts simultaneously with the issue of relief. He begs that the high authorities of the Northern provinces may be instructed to draw up stringent regulations under which operations to this end may be completed within a given time. T1ms will the root of the evil be attacked, and better security be afforded for the lives of the people. The memorialist regrets that the decree on this subject issued last September has not been given better effect to. While feeling assured that the high authorities to whom it was particularly addressed have not been wanting in their end ea vonra to carry out their instructions, it appears to him that in their constant anxiety to reheve the distress that was prominently before them, they have ne glected the opportunity that presented itself of combining measures of relief with the equally important duty of securing a proper water supply. It would have been perfectly feasible to have demanded from the recipients. of relief a certain amount of labor in return for their maintenance, and works of the nature required might have been carried out without extra coat ; thus, as it were, two ends would have been sen ed by one means. No land can do without proper supplies of water, and nowhere is this more thte than of the N ortlwrn provinces, where 43 land that suffers from inundation is in comparison with that which is liable to drought as two to seven. Of late years the sources of water supply in the provinces of Honan and Shansi have been much ne glected, and the result was that when dearth and famine did arrive it was impos sible to cope with them. Meteorological conditions cannot be fathomed. Last winter very little snow fell, and in the early spring there was still a lamentable deficiency of moisture. If by any chance a famine should again occur, will the Court, however unsparing in Ha liberality, be able to prevent dispersion of the people 1 Instead, then, of meeting famine when it does arrive by relief and remission of taxes simultaneously, why not devise beforehand means for securing to countless generations the fertility afforded by proper supplies of water1 The memo rialist therefore prays his Majesty again positively to direct the high authorities of the Northern provinces that they must make the repair of existing sources of supply, or the construction of others where they are needed, a first and essential duty. They should .select from among the Commissioners or Intendants of Circuit, some one who ha:a distinguished himself in the execution of relief measures or has performed his duties with zeal and attention, and constitute him general super visor with full power of action. The Department Magistrates and Magistrates should be instructed to select from among the gentry and elders in their respective jurisdictions men of public spirit who are universally trusted, and make them supervisors of the works required. The special requirements of high-lying and low-lying lands should not be lost sight of. In the neighbourhood of hills, springs should be deepened and watercourses cleared out. In the neighbourhood of rivers, canals should be cut, and the water led by them in different directions. Where neithe.r hills nor rivers exist, wells should be dug; or, where these would require to be made so deep as to render the operation costly, let reservoirs be constntcted. The memorialist is a nati>'e of the South, where in the vicinity of every village a reservoir may be seen to every five or six.mow of land; and although droughts may occur, an absolute failure of the harvest has never been known. If a similar system be adopted in the North, irrigation will at least be facilitated. To sum up. It is in the power gf man by adaptation to make the most of natural advantages, but it is the natme of man to delight in the prospect of accomplished results rather than to take thought for the

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initiation oftl1e me:tsures that produce them. Let periodical rt!ports he nuule by De[':trt mcnt JHagistrates and l\Iagistrat.es tu the snpenisur in chief, aucl by him, in turn, t.
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MAR. 2'7-28.] 45 Hence, the yield being unproductive, and labour diverted to other objects, the people are dependent on the will of Heaven for a moderate hM'vest at the best, while an unfavomble season reduces them to a con dition of prostration and weakness from which no remeuy can rescue them.-The memorialists then proceed to explain at great length the geographical conditions of the province, and their bearing upon the agricultural question, and point out the different centres from which the various portions of the province have in former times drawn their supplies of grain. The area embraced by the poppy having increased year by year, it follows that the source of these supplies has diminished proportion ately, and the result is now being witnessed. The only way that a recurrence of the present suffering can be prevented is by enunciating afresh the prohibition against the cultivation of the poppy. The practice has now, however, taken such deep root, that it has grown beyond the power of local authorities to check it unaided. 'l'he memo rialists, after much correspondence with the local authorities, and after careful considera tion, have come to the conclusion that the best plan will be issue proclamations enjoining upon the heads of villages, clans, families, and guilds, the dnty of exercising a check one upon the other, thus doing away with the necessity of employing official under lings and giving them a handle for extor tion and malpractices. The head of each clan will be directed to call upon any mem ber of his clan who cultivates the poppy to root up the plants, and heads of tithings will be called upon to exercise the same authority over the. constituents of their respective tithings, and insist upon -the land being converted to the cultivation of cereal crops. Any proprietor failing to obey these commands will be reported to the local authorities and brought to justice; those who connive at acts of disobedience will be held liable to punishment ; and any magis trates or official underlings who are found surreptitiously levying taxes upon the cultivation of the poppy will be instantly denouncfld and deprived of office. A pro clamation in this sense has already been printed and distributed for general im formation throughout the province. The memorialists further propose to send mem bers of the literate class from time to time to see that the 'proclamation is given effect to. (For decree see Gazette of March 9th.) March 28th.-(Oourt Circular.) The Gov ernor of Shun-t'ien Fu reports that the iron tablet has arrived. (1) A Decree. Some time since we despatched the Prince of Chwang and the bei-Uh "\Vang to the Black Dragon Temple to pray for rain. Let the bei-Uh Yi-kw'un now be sent in their stead to offer incense and reside there. (2) A Decree. Shen Pao-cheng memo rialises that his malady is beyond recovery, and begs that he be allowed to his post. Vve grant him a further conge of three months that he may devote himself to the care of his health. He need not vacate his post. Let Wu Ytum-ping act as Governor-General of the Liang Kiang during this period, anu let Lo Fang-ts'i act in the stead of the latter as Governor of Kiangsu. (3) Li T'iug-hiao If is ap pointed Police Censor of the northern division of the metropolis. (4) A decree in answer to a suggestion from the office of Gendmmerie that ad ditional agencies for the relief and accom of the refugees from other parts may be opened in Peking, the number at present established being insufficient to supply their wants, as they are daily in creasing in numbe'r. Authority is granted for the establishment of five additional agencies outsiue the seven gates of the Chinese city, and the Board of Revenue is directed to supply the. 2,000 piculs of grain and Taels 3,000 required for this purpose. Soldiers are to be put on guard at each agency to prevent crowding or disturbance, and certain officials are nominated who are to be in constant attendance. The remainder of this clay's Gazette is occupied with a series of memorials by Chang P'ei-lun, Adviser to his Majesty, and Reader of the Hcm-lin college, who urges the adoption of precedents afforded by former Emperors in times of 11atioual calamity, supporting his exhortations by references of various kinds. In his first memorial he deals with the general principles by which the court should be guided in its administration during these troLtbled times. First on the list he places the invitation of expres sions of opinion from various sources ; next, the issue of relief, and, third, the mitigation of punishments. In his second memorial he inculcates the duty of economy in expenditure, commenting on the fact that at the very time that a decree had been issued ordering supplications for rain, a display of fire-works was ex hibited within the precincts of Lhe palace. In his third memorial he de monstrates the necessity of encouraging

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46 expressions of opinion from those who are in a position to oft"er advice, and recommends that the high officers of state be directed to form themselves into a sort of committee to consult as to the best means of meeting the present calamity. In his fourth memorial he comments strongly on the obstructiveness displayed by the Boards in vetoing oue after another suggestions_ for the supply of funds offered by various authorities, intimating that their lVIajesties are influenced too much by the advice of these Boards. He quotes a decree of the Emperor K'ang Hi, who during a time of drought, when informed by the chief of the Board of Revenue that the whole of the present year's grain in store had been expended, answered that he cared not if the supply for the year after that were expended too, administering the following rebuke to the officer who demurred to the issue of further relief :-" 'vV e consider the lives of the people to be of paramount importance ; the issue of the contents of the granaries for their relief is entirely a matter of Imperial prerogative. Who are the Board of Revenue that they should control this matter 1 If funds from the Imperial exchequer are applied for, the Board veto the request ; if grain is applied for, the Board veto the request. Corres pondence passes backwards and forwards, and excuses are made on this side and on that ; meanwhile the people in the a:ffiicted provinces are allowed to die off and dis appear. Do ye not perceive that these millions of suffering people are dying, not from dearth, but from the arts and machinations of the lVIinisters of the Boards 1 Suppose the granaries be empty, measures can be devised for procuring further sup plies. If the people die they cannot be brought to life again ; if their confidence in Us is destroyed it cannot be recovered. Give heed to the root of the matter, and ask yourselves are the people to be first con sidered, or is the exchequer to be the first consideration 1 In his fifth and last memorial he inculcates the necessity of judicial reform. In the 9th year of K'angHi, when drought prevailed, high officers were sent by the Emperor to visit the Board of Punishments and ascertain by personal interrogation of the prisoners whether any were wrongfully confined. And again in the 18th year of the same reign, upon a recurrence of drought, a general inspection of the same kind was held in the provinces. The memorialist suggests that similar inspections be instituted now, and that greater attention be paid to judicial investigations, many [MAR. 28--29. of which are carried out in a manner that is not calculated to satisfy the ends of justice. (For decree see Gazette of 5th lVIarch.) lVIarch 29th.-(1) A Decree. The VicePresident Hia T'ung-shan memorialises requesting that funds may be supplieu for the opening of wells in the districts in the province of Chihli that have been stricken with drought. The opening of wells for the irrigation of the fields serves as a pro vision in times of drought, as water can be drawn from them and led over the land. Li Hung-chang has already instructed his subordinates to urge the people to undertake this work. The Vice-President now states the whole of the country in the Ho-l
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MAR. 29-30.] to half its ordinary quantity, and have exhorted Us to part,ke of "lentan" fare. '!'heir Majesties being thus sincere iu their commiseration for the sufferings of the people, it naturally be hoves the office in question, iu reverent obedience to their Mll be their care from time to time, :.>..s occasion admits, to give the matter their attention and take action in the direction indicated. Should the economies thus effected amCiunt to an appreciable sum they will again memorialise. They submit no statement of the various items of expenditure. Let the Comptroller of the lmperi::\1 Household at once m:J.ke accurate and careful enquiry into the items of palace expenditure, and submit for Our inspection a detailed list thereof under each separate heading, without reservation or evH .. (3) A Decree. Ho Kin-show, Compiler of the J[(m-lin College, submits that in times of dearth reformB should be instituted and self-examination practised, and prays that the high officers of state may be cautioned and reproved. In view of the widespread calamity that has visited the provinces in the vicinity of the capital, and the failure of the rains at their appointed season, We have already issued a decree expressing Our contrition for faults committed, and undertaking to examine into Our shortcomings, in the hope that thereby Heaven might be moved speedily to pour down refreshing rain. Ho King-show now represents that although in conse quence of Our youth and inexperience the government is administered by their Ma jesties the Empresses, and the reins of power are thus helc.l by those in the highest place1 the affairs of the nation are conducted through the agency of the Ministers of State. He prays therefore that they may be ac.ln10nished to be forgetful of self, and oblivious of family ties, and set to work in earnest to amend their faults. At this period, when a succession of seasons of dearth has brought about a famine of such magnitude; with festering misery and want so prominently before our eyes [We must acknowledge], that this calamity is a. visita tion from Heaven, in col18eqntlnce of faults and omissions in the administration of Government. The members of the Grand Council, whose duty it is to assist Us in the 47 direction and control of important affairs state, are most certainly to blame both for their failure in the suggestion of remedies tu Us, as well as in their neglect to adopt them on Our behalf. We imagine that no one would presume, while acknow ledging this calamity to be a visitation from Heaven, to attribute the shortcomings tlmt provoked it [entirely to Us as] the head uf the state. Be this however as it may, at a time like the present, when the calamity is so widely spread and has endured for so long a time, when the Court is so unwearying in its efforts and so unceasing in its solicitlde, the Prince and 1\llinisters [who are charged with the control of the affairs of the Empire] in that in the presence of this visitation they have failed to devise any means whatsoever for the rescue of the sufferers, have been guilty of shortcomings for which they cannot easily find an excuse. We command therefore that the Prince of Kung be committed to the Imperial Clan Court for the adjudication of the severest form of penalty, and that the Ministers Pao Yiin, Shen Kwei-fen, King Lien and Wang Wen-shao be shnilarly committed to the Yamen whose business it is, for the adju1lication of the severest penalties. March 30th.-(1) A decree based on a memorial from the supervising Censor Bia Hien-ts'ing. The Imperial heart has been moved to pity at the thought of the numbers that have died from famine in Shansi and Honan, and have been left exposed in the ditches and water-channels. The Governors of these provinces are directed to issue money to the officers engaged in the distribution of relief, for the purpose of burying the corpses that are thus exposed. The leaders of the army in Turkestan are also to take measures for the burial of the bones of those who have died during the campaign, whether they be soldiers or common people. The Metropolitan author ities are likewise directed to afford burial to the numbers of corpses that are now to be seen lying by the side of the roads in the capital. Thus will the Imperial pity be made manifest, and restless spirits find repose. (2) A decree conferring the following appointments :-Financial Commissioner of Chihli, Heng-k'i 'l'fl@t. Financial Com missioner of Fuhkien, Li Ming-cM $ Judicial Commissioner of Fuhkien, Lu She-kieh !1: 11.'t, Judicial Commissioner of Shansi, Sieh Yun-sheng

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(3) A Decree. Let Sun K\van-shrm, Financial Commissioner of Chihli, and Ying-k'i, Financial Commissioner of Shansi, come to the capital to awtlit other employ ment. (4) A decree based upon a memorial from Hwang Tsze-fang, Deputy Supervisor of instruction, commenting on the general tone of the official class, who in these times of national calamity, when the Court is exercised day and night with self-examin ation and self-reform, do not display a becoming reverence, or abstain from the pursuit of pleasure or the gratification of personal comfort. Constant applications are made for leave, and extensions of the same when it has expired, and it is much to be feared that in many instances they are only a pretext for indulgence in idleness and sloth. In future more energy and con scientiousness must be by officers of every grade ; levity of conduct or care lessness in the performance of official duties will be punished by prompt dismissal. The same decree refutes a charge of extra vagance in palace expenditure, brought by the Deputy Supervisor, and concludes with an order that no eunuchs are to allowed outside the palace grounds except those who may be sent out on business. Any who may be found wandering about the streets, or purchasing curiosities and valu ables, are to be severely punished by the officers of the Imperial Household. The Captains-General and Commandants in charge of_ the palace gates are instructed to enforce the prohibition against the entry of unauthorised persons into the palace grounds ; and all workmen and official underlings, whose duty calls them within the precincts of the forbidden city, are to be carefully searched on their entry and exit, that tradesmen and pedlars may be prevented from introducing articles for sale. While such strict economy is being exercised by the Court, it behoves all officials, in the capital and the provinces, to eschew feasting and company, and be rigidly economical in their personal ex penditure. 48 (4) A memorial from Yuan Pao-heng, special high commissioner for famine relief in Honan, submitting a proposal for the raising of money to meet present wants. Ever since the arrival of the memorialist in the province, he has repeatedly sub mitted the necessity of borrowing from the various provincial exchequers, as well as from wealthy merchants at a fixed rate of interest, which loans he proposed should be repaid from the land tax of the province. The proposal was referred to the Board of [MAR. 30. Revenue, who gave their consent, subject to a condition that the necessary funds for repairs to river works, support of the pro vincial army, and annual subsidy to Peking, should first be set aside. This practically amounts to a refusal, for the revenue from land tax, estimated at Taels 3,000,000, but in reality amounting to no more than Taels 2,000,000 in the best seasons, is barely sufficient to meet the headings of expendi ture indicated by the Board. U uless, there fore, the subsidy for Peking, which is the largest item of the three, be remitted for at least ten years, it will be impossible to extricate the province from its financial embarrassments. Money is being rapidly out, and must continue to be paid out, while none is coming in. Each day that passes sees an increase of distress. There are at present between five and six million people to be fed, and nothing short of two or three million taels will rescue them from the jaws of death. Money must be got, and the memorialist can think of no other way of getting it but by borrowing. The provincial authorities will, however, be loth to part with their funds unless hopes can be held out of these being repaid within two or three years ; nor will wealthy merchants come forward with their money unless they have reasonable security. After much thought, the memorialist has, he thinks, hit upon a plan. It is well known there is a strong competition between the merchants engaged in theSzech'wan and Hwai-ngan salt trades respectively. In consequence of the cessation of the latter trade during the rebellion, licenses were granted to Szech'wan traders to sell their salt in the Hukwang provinces, which pro perly belonged to the Hwai-ngan area. Now that the trade of the latter place has been revived, Szech'wan merchants are prohibited from continuing to sell their salt in the provinces above-mentioned. They are, however, naturally unwilling to relinquish so lucrative a business, and the consequence is that smuggling is rife, the Hwai-ngan trade is injured, and the revenue suffers materially. The memo rialist now proposes that the prohi bition against the sale of Szech'wan salt in the Hukwang portion of the Hwai-ngan area shall be removed, and in lieu thereof double the present lekin duty shall be levied on all Szech'wan salt in these pro vinces. This will lead to one of two results. Either the prohibitive tariff will drive Szech'wan salt out of this market, or, as he thinks most probable, an immense gain to the revenue will be obtained. This increase he proposes to devote to the liquidation

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MAR. 30-APRIL 1.] of debts contracted by Honan. With the security afforded by this armngement, there will be nu difllculty in borrowing money for immediate wants. The plan should be tried for a year, and extended for a longer period if it succeeds. When the Honan debt is paid off, a portion of the revenue derived from this source should be applied to the reimbursement of the Hwaingan traders, whose profits have been curtailed.-Referred, by rescript, for the immediate consideration of the Board of Revenue. 49 March 31st.-(1) A decree referring to an appeal case from Heh Lung-kiang, in which the appellant declared that his brother, who was said to have hanged him self, met his death by foul play. The case was twice referred to the Military Governor, and, as reported by him, corpse examiners frorn Moukden had arrived to hold an inquest, but matters were brought to a standstill on account of the obstinate refusal of the relatives of the deceased to consent to the "steaming" process. The Court of Censors now report that one Wang Fang-lien has again appealed, com plaining that the Secretary and corpse examiners sent from Moukden to conduct the inquest, in insisting upon the relatives of the deceased giving their written consent to the steaming process, intended, by disintegration of the body, to obliterate all traces of violence used. He declares that when the coflln was opened by the Secre" tary, the. body was not deca:Y:-d .at all. The Mihtary Governor of K1rm 1s now directed to hear the case ; the coffin and parties to the suit are to be removed to the city of Kirin, and the matter carefully and thoroughly gone into. (See Gczette of 20th March.) (2) Thefollowingappointmentis notified:Intendant of Salt Revenue, Fuhkien, Weng Hio-pen (3) A decree granting permission to Yii Ling-chen T }Pi, Commissioner of the Office of Transmission, to vacate his post on account of ill-health. (4) T'u Tsung-ying, Governor of Kiangsi, returns thanks for his appointment to the Governorship of Honan, and begs per mission to be allowed to to Peking to have audience.-Granted by rescript. (5) The same ofllcer reports the arrival of the Annamese tribute mission on their way back to Annam. They expressed themselves profoundly grateful for the generous and liberal had received at the hands of H1s MaJesty the Emperor, who, they informed the memorialist, lmd been graciously pleased to grant theni an audience, and bestow upon them some complimentary scrolls. His Majesty had also given them an Imperial Letter for the King of Annam, with presents of silks, satins, and other articles. After resting a few days at the provincial capital, they were sent on under escort to their own country. April 1st.-(1) A decree i;n answer to a memorin.l from a Deputy Supervisor of Instruction referring for the consideration of the Governors of Shansi and Honan a suggestion that inducements should be offered to merchants to import grain into the famine districts. The memorialist pro poses tlu\t for every hundred piculs of grain imp'orted, a reduction 0f several tens of taels on the duties leviable on other goods shall be granted, in addition to exemption from lekin and other taxes on the grain itself. _In compliance with a suggestion from the same memorialist, Li Hung-chang is directed to rebpen an investigation into the circumstances of the burning of the relief establishment at Tientsin, with a view to ascertaining the truth of certain charges brought against the officers on duty at the time. The same memorialist points out that the result of the abolition of relief agencies at Tientsin and Pao-ting-fu has been a great influx of refugees into the capital, and suggests the re-establishment of relief agencies outside Peking. The cor rectness of his views is admitted, and Li Hung-chang is called upon to re-establish the agencies that were abolished. The Governor-General is also directed, in com pliance with a third and last suggestion from the memorialist, to see that relief is afforded to all sufferers from the famine in Chihli, which it is stated is not confined to the Ho-kien prefecture as earlier reported. (2) A Decree. Let Sun Kia-nai, Expectant Reader of the Han-lin College, officiate as probationer in the Yib ICing K1tng. (3) The Prince of Kung and members of the Grand Council memorialise to the effect that it was the custom in earlier days to apply every five years for permission to draw up a record in Chinese of military events, two copies being made ; one for ref erence and the other for preservation. In the 4th year of Hi en Feng, when the papers relatin$ to military affairs were very numerous, permission was applied for and granted to reduce the term from five years to three. A period of three years, dating from the 1st day of the 1st moon of the 1st year of Kwang Sii, having now elapsed, it becomes the duty of the memorialists to request th,tt Secretaries of the Grand

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Secretariat may told uff to make copies of the m Military Archive Offi?e, w1th to compare the carefully w1th the originals. Two Secretaries (Chcmg-king) should be deputed to superintend the work and the Military Archive Office should be 'called upoll: to supply .the pens, ink and J!aper reqmred.-Rescnpt: Noted. (4) Hii Shang-hwa, Censor of the CMk.inug circuit, suggest.s that a portion of the riCe at present stored in the TunO'chow granaries for issue in part paym:nt of official salaries ( f::710, shall be sold at once, and fresh rice with the proceeds, as the present stock is not likely keep good fur any length of time. Havmg been honoredlast winter with commands to the transfer to Peking of the grmn stored at Tungchow for issue in part payment of official salaries, he found that the aggregate of the spring and autumn stocks about 40,000 piculs. There me 20,000 p!Culs at present in store, which will ?e doubled on the arrival of the spring mstalment f?r the pn;sent year, showing that the .amount m stock 18 double that required fonssue. Now, the varieties of tribute rice for sto;age in the Peking grankn?wn as keng or sien (dry or unglutmous nee) by reason of its rough kernel combined with firmness and substance' wi!l keep for a long time, differing th1s respect from the variety known as pailiang (husked rice), the tender kernel of which will not stmlCl the same amount of rubbing or bruisi:n.g, and is apt to turn reu or spoil if kept too long. As rice is so much needed at the present moment by the.po?r in Peking, and the price of gram Is hkely to remain high for some time, even if the present year's harvest should promise well, the memorialist con siders that it would be better that they should ha:ve the of this pai-liang than that It should be allowed to rot in store. It might either be distributed gra tuitously, or sold at a reduced rate and the P.roceeds applied to the purchase of new nee. He has heard that there is a surplus of yellow millet in the Peking granaries ; this, in past years, has been used to fatten sheep and cattle. Yellow is also liable to deterioration, and he 1s told that some of the millet supplied to the relief agencies is rotten or spoiled. He suggests therefore that the Board of Revenue would do well to enquire into the matter, and take steps for the disposal of this stock in the same manner as the Tungchow rice. The decree in answer to this memorial has already been published. 50 [ APit!L 1-2. April 2nd.-A decree condemning seriatim a number of propositions of the stereo typed ofl'ered by a Deputy Supervisor of lllstructwn on the question of famine relief and administrative reform. The memorialist has been more vehement in his denunciations than many that have gone before him, and every suggestion that he makes is set aside as unnecessary or impracticable. He takes excet.ition in the first instance to the raising of funds by foreign loans. The decree answers his objection with the following remarks :-"Setting aside the consideration that the interest on a foreign loan would be an useless drain on the resources of the Imperial exchequer, the length of time that must elapse before negotiations can be completed would render it impossible to obtain the necessary funds with sufficient promptitude to rescue the victims of this wide-spread calamity, who are hovering on the brink of death. There is no need therefore to consider his request." A sug gestion that the sufferers by famine should be. induced by offers of a supply of seed to migrate to the waste lands on the frontier negatived on the ground that it is s1ble to supply the seed required, and it would not be fair to let a number of destitute people loose upon the present inhabitants of the district indicated. A fierce attack upon Tung-siin, President of the of Revenue, who has persistently negatived all proposals for expenditure in aid of the sufferers, and has obstructed the flow of the Imperial bounty, and should therefore be dismissed from the public service, meets with a stern rebuke. In refusing to endorse certain proposals for the diversion of tribute grain, etc., Tung-siin has been actuated by a desire to give due heed to radical interests, while his decisions have been arrived at after consultation with his colleagues, who have appended their to the memorials submitting their views. Tung-siin has not the power to assume sole responsibility in these matters. The memorialist has been guilty of a serious dereliction of duty in allowing himself to be blinded by prejudice, and in giving credence to idle rumours which he would not be at the pains to verify. He is to be handed over to the Board for the adjudication of a penalty. (2) A decree of the same nature rebuking a Censor who has ventured to express an opinion on the conduct of the officers of the Imperial Household, who, in answer to a decree ordering economies to be effected in palace expenditure, replied that no re-' t<>uchments were possible. It is not within

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APRIL 2--'3. J the province of persons outside the palace to concern themselves with palace matters, of which they should know nothing. The Censor states that, at a recent audience, the Vice-President Kien-fuh was in complete ignorance on a subject upon which his own office had memorialised. It is highly improper that any officer outside the palace should -have any knowledge of conversation that takes place at an audience.-Let the Censor be sent for and reprimanded. (3) Postscript memorial by the Censor Ma Hiang-ju, calling attention to the frequency of burglaries and highway rob beries in the immediate vicinity of the capital. These have become so numerous of late that people are afraid to travel along the public highways in broad daylight. Strangers and others coming to the capital from the Lu-kow-k'iao (a bridge on the main road to the west and south about 7 miles from Peking) are afraid to travel without a large escort from the villages around. From this fact alone it is possible to form an estimate of the dangers to which solitary travellers on the less frequented roads are constantly exposed. It is easy to distinguish between beggars and high waymen. The former are accompanied by their aged parents and their little ones, and cry aloud for food. Their emaciated and sickly condition would in itself deter them from acts of brigandage and burglary. It requires more strength and energy than they possess to burn, pillage and wound, or to despoil the graves of their hidden treasures.' The memorialist requests that the office of Gendarmerie and the Governor of Shun-tien may be called upon to post a number of soldiers and runners in different places, with instructions to seize all burglars and highwaymen and inflict sum mfl.l'y justice upon them.-Decree already published. April 3rd.-(Court Circular.) The office of Gendarmerie reports the destruction by fire of 7 k:ien of the ofl:lce in which drafts of oflicial documents are deposited. 51 (1) A decree in answer to a Jllemorial presented by the Han-lin College, on behalf of a graduate of that institution, calling attention to the frequent pillage by destitute people of shops for the sale of eatables in Peking. The metropolitan authorities are to consider and give effect to the best means for suppressing the evil complained of. (2 & 3) Decrees ordering a fresh series of intercessory prayers for rain on the 8th inst. A fast is ordered to be held, com mencing three days previous to the institLl-tion of the services, and the Prince of Ch'un is directed to officiate on behalf of His Majesty. (4) A decree referring to an objection on the part of the Board of Revenue, lately made public, to sanction the prohibition of distilling operations, as suggested by the Grand Secretary Li Hung-chang. Hwang T'i-fang, Deputy Supervisor of Instruction, had taken exception to the finding of the Board, who, he insinuated, were reluctant to lose the large fees, appropriated by them for "rice money," which the sale of licences for this branch of industry brought in. The Board having been called upon to answer this charge, now explain that their refusal to consent to the cessation of distilling opera tions arose from a reluctance to throw the thousand and more families to whom this industry gives employment entirely out of work, coupled with a deire to avoid affording unprincipled underlings a handle for extortion and oppression. They accordingly proposed to limit the trade to the present holders of licences. They were in no way influenced by a desire to retain the fees derived from the issue of these licences, a portion of which; they might add, were surrendered to the Grand Secretariat and other offices to defray working expenses. The above explanation being considered satisfactory, the Deputy Supervisor's charges are dismissed. (5) A decree ordering an immediate enquiry into malpractices in the distribution of relief in the famine districts, with which certain department Magistrates, Magistrates, and others, are charged by a 'l'utor of the Imperial Academy. One officer is said to have forwarded the whole of a grant of Tls. 3,000, issued for the purchase of grain, to his family in Kiangsu ; another to have sold grain, and supplied the suf ferers for whose relief it was issued with half the proceeds ; others to have allowed their domestics or followers to appropriate portions of the grain or funds that should have been issued to the people. (6) A decree_ based on a memorial from the Censor Hu Shang-hwa, who represents that 'the land adjacent to a temple called the Kio-sheng-sze, in which it has been the custom to offer up prayers for rain, has been appropriated by Mao-lin, Comptroller of the Imperial Household, and his brother Ts'ing-lin, as a burial ground. The "pulse of the Dragon" has thus been interrupted, and supplications for rain have this year been offered in another place, which accounts for their inefficacy. Officers arc directed to proceed to the temple in

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question, and ascertain whether the facts be as represented. 52 (7) The remainder of this day's Gazette is occupied with a memorial from Li Hoh-nien, acting Governor of Honan, and Yuan Pao-heng, special high Com missioner for famine relief in the same province, detailing at great length the measures they have adopted for the administration of relief. They commence by the assertion that agriculture is the only industrial pursuit in the province, and that the taxes, amounting to something over Taels 3,000,000, are all derived from land. Hence it follows that the important essen tial in famine relief is the preservation of the people from death or dispersion, as everyone so preserved forms an integer in the aggregate, of taxpayers. A system of relief, therefore, which fails to reach all cases of destitution, while in the im mediate present it entails loss of life, must in the end affect the Imperial economy. Their endeavour therefore has been to pursue a system that shall secure to the utmost the preservation of human life. After summarising the steps taken by the former Governor, which have already been reported, they go on to state that on their succession to the control of the relief measures, the first difficulty with which they had to contend was insufficiency of means, as has already been submitted in repeated memorials. It became at the same time their duty to organise a basis upon which charity should be dispensed. After careful thought, they decided that it would be right, while attending more particularly to urgent cases of distress, not to neglect those localities where the suffer ing was only partial, and instructions were issued calling for careful reports as to the actual condition of the various localities, supported by guarantees from the gentry and elders resident in each district. A list of the original number of families in each district, with the number at present remaining, was. also called for, and a corps of private individuals for the issue of relief was organised, in addition to the properly constituted staff of authorities, care being taken to exclude all hangers-on of Govern ment offices, and disreputable gentry given to dabbling in public matters. A set of rules, 22 in number, were printed and dis tributed, that publicity and uniformity might be secured. It has been found im possible, however, owing to want of money and supplies, to adhere rigidly to these rules. The supplies at the disposal of each district did not average more than 2,000 to 3,000 piculs of grain, and Tls. 2,000 to Tls. 3,000 [APRIL 3. in money, while the applicants for relief amounted on an average to about 100,000 in each district, so that provision could not be made for more than two issues of sup plies, each person receiving on either occasion a few sheng of grain and a few score of cash, hardly enough to support life for a fortnight. Thus the people were soon reduced to their original condi tion of destitution, and it only remained to issue peremptory orders for their reception into the relief agencies, in order to save them from immediate death from starvation. More relief agencies were opened at a number of places which are enumerated by the memorialists, that the people might be enabled to obtain food within easy distance of their homes. Hereupon the want of supplies immediately made itself felt. One by one the relief agencies originally estab lished reported that their stock was exhausted, until very few remained open. Difficulties were augmented by the unpre cedented cold. The Yellow River and \Vei River were frozen for more than fifty days, so that neith'er the tribute rice nor consign ments from private merchants could be sent forward, and all communication between districts to the north and south of the great river (Hwang Ho) was suspended, and rescue became for the time impossible. Upon the breaking up of the ice, entreaties for grain and for money came pouring in like rain, moving the memorialists to groans of despair and bitter tears, for they had no answer to give. Overwhelmed with mortification and harassed with perplexity, while the memo rialists were regarding each other and wondering what they should do, they were informed that large numbers of those who had escaped being frozen to death on the banks of the river were migrating by thous ands daily, travelling in bands of ten on a hundred, supporting their aged and bear ing their little ones upon their backs. The numbers that have now reached the provincial capital are too numerous for disposal in the existing relief agencies, and others continue to flock in faster than arrangements can be made for their re ception, while it is quite impossible to provide them with funds and send them bacl< to their homes. Meanwhile a constant stream of refugees continues to make its way southwards, and orders have been given to the local authorities to provide subsistence and shelter for them, sending in lists of the numbers that are relieved. A decree having been issued last year call ing on all the provincial authorities to make p,rovision for the maintenance of famine refugees, the memo.rialists have written in

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APRIL 3-5.) 53 their joint names to the or Governors of the provinces. of llukWIU\g, Kiangsu, Anhwei, Qhihli, and Shant\lng, to request them, to givli.l effect to this decree and provide for the who. are now finding their way into their respective prov inces, as the memorialis.tlil are unable to invite them to return, They have that these refugeelil should be supplied means to return alii. soon as s.uffi,cieut shall have {a.llen, or the autumn h3.l'Ve&t have been ga:t_hered. They have aJso in, voked the charitable of the gentry and notables in thes.e p:rovince!il, and avail them,s.elves o.{ the now presented to record their a.ppreciatio.n of the sponta.ueot\s efforts of certain of the above class whose names they enum.erate. As the sys.tem, of J,'elie{ pursued in the provincial ca.pita.l will be carefully scruti" tinised and followed py the s.ur1'o.undi.Qg districts, particula.r care has been to. discriminate between cases of actual and simulated distress, being made out of the number of fam,ilies J;esident in each section, wa.rd, or division of the city. The refugees have been dealt with separately, relief being afforded to over lOO,QOO daily, and shelter given to. about one-.fifth of that number. The local authorities. have l.'eported a fall of one or two inches. o.{ snow, and ho,pes are entertained that s,pring wheat and vegetable seeds may b.e sown in time in the south-east of the province, Unfortunately the Gover-nment are not in a position t.o provide seed, and none is to be bought. A proclamation has been issued inviting donations or loans of seed from, wealthier classes, and as soon as will permit, the provincial government. will purchase stocks for issue, The peo.ple are now keenly alive to the necessity of in, creasing the supply of wells for purposes of irrigation, and officers acquainted. with the science of agriculture have been told off to go a.bout everywhere and \trge them to commenc(l digging wells at once, Thes.e officers have bee.n provided with printed charts e:ll:planatory of the system o.f agt'icul ture by the division of the land ii\tO l!quares to facilitat.e irrigation, which they have been directed to distribute freely, The memorial conch1des with an of regret that amongst the agents employed there are not a few who are vicious or idle, looking upon th!l entrnsted to them an ordinary task to be executed in a matter of course sort of way; or, much worse, blind to the suffering and misery before them, themselves indulging in pecula tion and dishonesty or allowing it to be prac\lnchecked by others. Careful and s.ecret enquiry wm he n;mde for such who will be denounced diii!covery.-Rescript. '!l'JJ.e system for the provision of relief herein reported is complete and satisfactory. L,et the memori.alists Sl\pervise its operation with energy and. attention. We haV\l! retained tl,J,e :{or .. .1\pril .. -(l) A decree appointing Ki-. offi,cer. of the Imperial Guards of the first rauk, to. tl1e post of Ohief Comptroller of the (2) Postsc.-ipt memorial by Li Kuea-yi, Governor-General o.f the re porting the e&pture and trial of the leaders of an affiliated society in Canton. The men, four in number, were ca.UE\d respec tively L.iang Wu Ah-kwaDg, Feng .Ah,sho, and Hwang T'eng-si-kwei. Liang .Ah-kiu deposed that he and some of them, in had founded a ciety called the '\beggar's society, but having picked up one day an iron seal with the three char3.!lters She, An Ta;ng engraved upon it, they adopted these characters as the style of the brotherho.o.d and discarded the old name. They heated the iron s.tamp red hot, and a number of impressions upon, slips of bamboo., one of which they gave to ea..ch member of the society as a secret to&en of membership. The a.im of the society was to extort money, and ever the person practised upon refused to comply with their demands., they either proceeded. to direct acts of violence or. awaited an opportunity to do him an injury. They admitt.ed that they had traded in girls and women, and on two o.ccasiom1 had sold them to go ab.ro.ad ; that they had ped girls and women and sold them into prostitution on two occasions ; that they had once kidnapped a woman as sloe. was walking along the ro.ad aud held he,r to ransom ; and, finally, had wounded the police !\Uthor.ities during a at tempt to rescue one of their fraternity who had been for. gambling. ldang Ah kiu, the promoter of the society, has been summarily executed, and the remaining three r(lser:ved for. the customary re" hearing. A free pardon has been offered to any mem bers of the society, not the original promo ters, who will.give up their tokens. April 5th.-The whole of this day's Gazette is occupied with a memorial fwm P-ao-t'ing, Tutor of the Imperial Academy, suggesting a number of m(lasures for the better administration of famine relief. These have already been summarised in a decree of March 21st. He enlarges at great length on the advantage of forcing ownd

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the price of grain by persistent importation of foreign grain, which should be imported by the Government, and sold at cost price. If the process is continued long enough it must succeed in the end. .April 6th.-(1) .A decree based upon a memorial transmitted by the Hau-lin Col lege on behi!.lf of a compiler of that institu tion. The memorial, like so many that have recently appeared in the Gazette, is on the subject of administrative reform, and is answered categorically in the decree. The abuses in c01mection with the Canton and Foochow Customs have evidently been the object for a pointed attack. .A proposal for the transfer of the control of these establishments from independent superin tendents to the Governor-General and Gov ernor is negatived in the following terms : The Canton Customs establishment was originally under the management of the provincial Government, but in the year 1751 a superintendent was appointed. .At the instance of Tso Tsung-t'ang some years ago, the question of restoration of the control to the Governor-General was raised, and Jui-lien, who was Governor-General at Canton at the time, reported, on the matter being referred to him, that there were three obstacles, which rendered transfer inadvisable. .A decree was thereupon issued, ordering that the existing system be con tinued. It is therefore unnecessary to consider the memorialist's application." (2) .A decree in answer to a memorial transmitted by the Board of Punishments on behalf of a second-class .Assistant-Secret ary, also on the subject of administrative reform and its bearing upon the question of national calamities. The remarks of the memorialist with regard to genuine admin istration of relief, improvement of the sources of food supply, the enforcement of the prohibitions against opium, the purity of the official career, etc., are, each and all of them, not incapable of application. Of late, all suggestions that have reached Us from officers high or low, have, when practicable, been ordered to be adopted, and it is the common duty of all officials, metropolitan and provincial, to identify themselves with Our endeavours to secure their genuine application. Something more is wanted than nominal obedience, or a compliance that is merely formal. With regard to the Secretary's suggestion that a sum of three or four millions he borrowed from a foreign firm (or firms), We have already pointed out that the measure is attended with draw backs and inconveniences, and ca.Imot be carried out. His proposal need not there fore be_con_sidered, Opium is a source of 54 [APRIL 5-6. injury to the people, and is a most abomin able thing. Of late the cultivation of the poppy and the diffusion of its poison has increased more and more. Let Governors General and Governors stringently pro hibit its growth, and let it be clearly proclaimed that neglect of the prohibition will meet with certain punishment. The purity of the official career is of the highest importance ; and at a time like the present, when applicants for the purchase of rank are more than usually numerous, officers supplying applicants with the necessary guarantees must be particularly careful in their scrutiny of each person's antecedents. In future the guaranteeing officer will be punished in the event of a person of mean origin fraudulently obtaining rank by pur chase. .A more active police surveillance is ordered to be maintained in the metro polis, and enquiry is ordered to be made into various abuses suggested by the memo rialist. (3) .A series of memorials from Metro politan officers requesting the prolongation of the period for which the relief agencies in and around Peking were originally opened. There are at present eleven of these establishments, each of which supplies gruel to one or two thousand people daily. (For decree see Gazette of March 20th.) (4) Sung-kwei, Resident at Lassa, reports the receipt of the following communication from the 'Hut'ukht'u in charge of the 'fibetan Treasury :-"There a.I'e stated s!)asons for the despatch of an abbot with a complimentary letter and articles of tribute for Peking from .Anterior and Ulterior Tibet alternately. In the year 1873, the late Dalai Lama despatched an abbot with a suite of clerics and laity to offer tribute, and in 1868, a similar mission was despatched, which proceeded to Peking by way of Szech 'wan. The period having now arrived for the despatch of a fresh mission, it devolves upon Aliterior Tibet on this occasion to send forward an abbot and suite with articles of tribute similar to those pre pared in 1873, and a complimentary address wishilig His Majesty long life and happiness. The articles of tribute having now been reverently prepared, an abbot has been selected to bear them to Peking, accompa11ied by a suite num bering 40 persons. The secretary, there fore, requests that arrangements may be made for them to proceed by the Szech'wan route." The Resident ob serves hereupon that the Imperial sa11ction has been granted on su<;cessive occasions to the visit to Pekmg at stated intervals of a

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APIUL 6-7.] tribute-bearing mission from Tibet, to which a certain number of commercial agents have been permitted to attach themselves with a view to engaging in barter. Thus has the Imperial courtesy been dis played to the Dalai Lama who comes nearly empty-handed, and goes back richly laden. Officers have been deputed to inspect packages containing tribute, and take note of the contents and weight of each, taking care to re-fasten them securely, and an escort of six men will accompany the mission to Ch'eng-tu, where the Governor-General will make arrange ments for their advance to Peking. (For Rescript aee Gazette of 23rdMarch.) April 7th.-(1) A Decree. The Censor Yii Shang-hwa having recently asserted that a portion of the land belonging to the Kio-sheng temple, in which there is an altar for sacrifices in connection with sup plications for rain, had been approprinted for use as a burial ground by Mao-lin, Comptroller of the Imperial Household, and his brother Ts'ing-lin, We directed Ts'iian-ts'ing and Hii-t'ung to investigate the matter. They now report that the ground appropriated by Mao-lin for a burial place is, in effect, Government property, and although the priest in charge of the temple affirms that the fabric of the altar has not been re moved [as was alleged], the structure abuts upon the burial ground, and is much circumscribed thereby. A plan is submit ted with the report. Let Ts'iian-ts'ing and Hii-t'ung ascertain how it came to pass that Mao-lin appropriated Government land without authority to do so, and why the priest in charge of the temple pern1itted this unauthorised appropriation. Ts'iug lin, Director of the office for the control of the Imperial Parks, in maldng his way into the temple when the investigation was proceeding, and endeavouring to exculpate himself by specious explanations, has dis played gross ignorance of the obligation he was under to avoid affording opportunity for remark. Let him, as a first step, be handed over to the Board for the infliction of a penalty. (See Gazette of 3rd April.) (2) A Decree. The Imperial Clan Court, Board of Civil Office, and Court of Censors, submit the penalties that they have deter mined should be inflicted on the members of the Grand Council. As an act of special grace, We ordain that the penalty of dis missal which should be suffered by the Prince of Kung, Pao-yi.fn, SMn Kwei-fiing, King-lien, and \Vang Wen-shao, be com muted to deprivation of rank with permis sion to retain their posts. 55 (3) A decree handing over to the Board the name of T'u Tsnng-ying, Governor of Honan, for the detern1ination of a dis tinguished form of reward, in consideration of a donation of Tls. 12,000 offered by him in aid of the sufferers by famine in the province under his control. (4) Memorial by Ch'ung-how and others, requesting that a posthumous title may be conferred on the late Manchu General-in chief Tuh Hing-ah, a sketch of. whose career is given. (For Decree see Gctzette of lOth March.) (5) Li Han-chang, Governor-General of Hu-kwang, reports a substantial increase in the receipts of the foreign Customs establishment at Hankow, and, at the instance of the Financial Commissioner of Hupeh and the Taotai of Hankow, solicits the bestowal of honorary rewards upon the subordinate officers employed at the Han kow Customs Office. The collection of import and transit duties by the foreign Customs establishment at Hankow, the pre ventive service in connection therewith, and the conduct of foreign relations, are each and all duties of paramount importance, requiring diligence and care on the part of the subordinate officers entrusted with their performance, if delays and errors are to be avoided. During the period of three years, counting from the month of January, 1872, to t.he mouth of January, 1875, the import and transit duties collected at Hankow amounted to Taels 4,400,000 odd, and as the records will testify, on reporting this fact, the memorialist forwarded a list of officials whom he recommended for honor ary distinction, which His Majesty was pleased to approve. During the period of three years, counting from the 1st January, 1875, to the lst January, 1878, which has now elapsed, it is found that the receipts on account of import and transit duties amount to Tls. 5,300,000 odd. The memorialist would submit that since the establishment of the Hankow Customs, the receipts for the successive periods of three years have never, until now, exceeded Tls. 4,000,000 odd. During the period now under revision an excess of Tls. 900,000 has been collected, showing a very great improvement in the revenue. The contributions due to the capital have been forwarded punctually and in full by the officers under the orders of the Taotai, as has been ,reported on successive occa sions ; and the flourishing condition of the revenue, as well the promptitude with which the instalments due to Peking have been forwarded, are entirely attributable

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to the zeal and of the suboruinate offi-cials entrusted with the working "Of the Customs establishmel'lt. They have, moreover, displayed -a for -dealing with international questions with a spirit of fairness an.d equity, abiding at the same lime by treaty and -regulations, and thus :gaining the and good will of Chinese and foreigi\ers alike. tt would not be right therefore to suppress all 'mention of the ft'l.etitorious service&, slight though they may be, of t-l!re oflicers il\ the 'Custom House who have specially dis tinguished themselves, while 'the secretaries !n the same establishment, and the clerks in the who !have dis played diligence and fairness in the conduct "Of affairs of an intematiO'!'ial nature, would also appea.t to have a clain'l to rewaltds of an honorary description. A list of the names "Of these officers is aooordingly -drawn 'lip for His Majesty's perusal-, in the hope 'that He 'may be pleaaed to confer upon them honor 'ary distinctions, in order that zeal may be 'tmcouraged.-Grad'lted by rescript. April th.--{Ocmrt Circular-.) The Prince of Kung -and other members of the Grand 'Council retlll'!'l thanks for the penalty that has been inflicted 'Upon them. (1) A decree m answer to a representa 'llion from the officers in charg-e of the Imperial granaries, and th-e Governor of Shun-t'ien, ordering a -relleJ agency to be 'Opened a;t Changwkiawan (the first of the '.four stage'S Mto which the journey from Peking to Tientsin is usually divided), in order to 'l'elieve the sbrain ttpol'l the T'ung 'Chow agencies. :z,ooo piduls of riee -are to be appropriated from the T'ung-chow granal'ies l!: the support of the establishments m that town and at Chang-kiawan. A clooree ito keep ltll active lookout for them. Li B!nng-chang forwa'i'cl:s a 'l'e'turn of .!futiicia.l cuses tha:t have been disposed of in the;pro'9iflce of Chihli during the past three yearil. In the.year 1869 a code of regula tious for the more effectual eonlJrol of litigation were put into operation. Daring the !first period of three years since their enaCtment mdre than 200,000 cases, 'long standing and recent, were disposed of, :and on two occasionssince this date returns of cases h111ve bMft itttbmitted, a;ccompaliied by a list of officers -recommended for honorary (APRIL 7-8. distinction. With so wide an area as that which the province of Chihli embraces, added to t-he turbulent and domineering tempel' of its inha;bitants, it would not be fa.iT to draw a parallel between the statistics this and other provinces, while it must also be borne in mind that a succession of ba;d years has caused a large amount of misery and distress, and augmented the returns of 'Crime, more particularly under the heading of brigaadage p.nd theft. This elass of criminals has a tendency to im plicate as many persons as possible, and it becomes doubly necessary to dispose of cases of this description with promptitude, in order to save many innocent persons much inconvenience and suffering. The memorialist has from time to time issued orders to his subordinates, directing them to adhere faithfully to the regulations above referred to; and to send in a monthly list of outstanding cases, with a return of the number of criminals detained in custody, or tu1der sarveillance, awaiting the settlement of peRding cases, as well as those who have esca.ped from justice. He has also deputed trustworthy officers to hold occasional in spections, and ha;s m3ide promptitude or dila toriness in the settlement of these cases a test of diligence or the reverse on the part of the officials He has been careful -to fix a limit within which all appeal cases referred from Peking) or -coming from the lower ;provincial courts) shall be settled ; and in al:l cases that have come before him personally he has insisted upon being supplied with -copious scrutinising these with minuteness in order to determine whetheT the dech>ions given ha'l'e been just and He has also given orders that witnesses in any suit shaJl be carefully protected from molestation by derks and official underlings, trying by every means -that lay in his power to 1ighten the burdens that litigation so often imposes upon the opeople. He now begs to report that from the lst day of the lst moon of the lst year of K wang-sii, to the last day of the past year, a period of 3yea.rs, 13.,348 eases o.f different descriptions \V'ere disposed o:t;, leaving only 1,(100 odd still to be settled, or less than half the average amount of case'S that pre sent themselves each month. The memo rial concludes with a l-ist of officers whose exertions are .pa.rticularly de'Sei'v-ing of eommendation. (5? The sa:me officer repcrrrts that he has despM;ched an officirul to Han-tan-hien to escort the "iron tablet" to Peking. On the thMa.rch he was honoured witm.instructions from His Majesty to the following effect.;"Rain in the neighbourhoud of the capital

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APRIL 8-9.] 57 having been exceeding scarce, prayers and supplications have been repeatedly offered, but as yet no fertilising downpour has been vouchsafed. The fields are thirsting for moisture, and We are looking for rain with anxious longing. Let Li Hung-chang at once despatch an officer to Han-tan-hien, reverently to "invite" the tablet in the Lung-sMn Temple, and escort it to Peking, there to be placed in the Kwangming tien to await the arrival of fertilising rain." On receipt of these instructions, the memo rialist was filled with admiration beyond expression for the solicitude so unceasingly displayed by His Majesty for the welfare of His people. He at once directed an expectant Taotai to proceed to Han-tan and bring back the tablet. Since the month of June last year, the memo rialist continues, the northern pro vinces have suffered from drought, re sulting in an almost total failure of the autumn crop, and rendering the sowing of the spring wheat impossible to any extent. On the 8th and 9th of February, and the 6th and 7th March, snow fell to a varying depth of from 1 to 6 inches, insufficient, however, to moisten the up.per crust, which has now so long been dry that the spring wheat cannot be sown witl1 any hope of being in time to produce a crop. Numbers have wandered from their homes, and those who have nqt perished are waiting to get back to their fields, so that rain is earnestly longed for to put an end to all their trouble and misery. The memorialist and his staff of subordinates have again offered up prayers -for ra,in) proceeding on foot to the saerificial alta,rs -; and he has fwihoc directed the looal authorities to dear off pending oases, and consider to what extent taxes may be remitted, devising at the BMne time satis factory measures of relief) that so Heaven may be moved to a,nswer his prayers. Hantan-hien being over l,OOO -li rom Peking, it will take the officer about twenty-fOl!lr days to go and return. In the meantime the memorialist has writbe11 to the Board of Ceremonies and theGoYet'l'l'O''l" of Shun-t'ien to make the 'Usual arrangements for the reception of the tablet. He concludes with the expression of llln earnest ho.pe that the desired rain may soon art'ive, and pour its blessings on all both far -and :near. Then will the Imperial hea,rt be -solaced) and :the .farmers' hopes be realised. (For notice of :the arrival of the iron t111blet, see Gazette of 28th March.) April 9th.-(Court Circular.) A number of high officials present their respects upon their return from the Eastern and Western Mausolea, where they have been to offer the customary sacrifices at the ts' in.g-ming-t;ieh, or the 5th of the 24 solar terms into which the Chinese year is divided. (1) A Decree. Some time since the of ficers of the Imperial Household having reported that it was impossible to effect rettenchment in any of the various branches of palace expenditure, omitting, however, to submit a detailed list of the present items of expenditure, We called upon them to repair this omission, and they have now s11bmitted a return of the various headings of expenditure, with a list of monies that have :still to be paid. We now command the Grand Secretaries and nine Chief Ministries of State to scrutinise these lists with care, and consider in what particulars economies oan be effected. They will report to Us the result of their deliberations. {2) A Decree. The Censor Chow Sheng chu suggests for consideration the advis ability of continuing the permission for the -sale of Szech'wan salt beyond the original area allotted to the establishments of that pro vince, simultaneoosly with the restoration of theH wai-ngan trade, with a view to increasing the funds for the relief of diatress caused by the famine. He also recommends the distribution of honorary distinctions amongst the salt merchants of Hunan, Kiangsi, Anhwei, and Hupeh) who have come forward with subscriptions in aid of Jiamine relief. Let the Board of Revenue -eonsiden in China has always been somewhat of -a p1:12izle to the student of the Chinese &oal system. It may not be therefore out of place to ap pend -here -a brief -explanation of the manner in whie!h the taxes on salt, which form so important an iteli1 in the Imperial Revenue, are derived. There are three 'great salt ,producing regions in China, known as the Wj ff{ (in Kiangsii), the iifij in Chekiang, and the Szech'wan area respectively, which supply the greater portion of the saU that is consumed in the Empire. To each of these regions an area is assigned within which a monopoly of the sale of salt is granted to contractors, who purchase licenses entitling them to sell in different portions of each area. There is no restriction on the quantity of salt p::-oduced, but only licensed con tractors are allowed to purchase it for

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sale. Much jealousy has of late years existed between the Szech'wan and H'wai-ngan monopolists, and the cause of their disagreement has formed the subject of numerous memorials and decrees. In the early years of the T'aiping rebellion, when the navigation of the Yang tsze was intenupted, the province of Hupeh, which formerly belonged to the area of consumption allotted to the H wai-nga.n region, could no longer be supplied from tlus source, and an arrangement was ac cordingly sanctioned under which the salt consumed in that prmince was allowed to be brought from Szech'wan. Since the year 18GB, attempts luwe been made to re suscitate the Hwai-ngan trade, and as it was found impossible to drive the Sze ch'wan traders altogether ont of Hnpeh, a prohibitive tariff wtts laid on Szech'wn.n Sl\lt, with a view to encouraging the importation of supplies from the eastward again. The authorities of Hupeh, on the other haud, did all in their power to support the Szech'wan trade, which yielded them a large income, and succeeded so well that they managed to shut out the eastern depots from a demand extending to upwards of 200,000 yi-111-a yin averaging about GOO catties-in addition to which a large contraband trade was being carried on. At the present moment the situation is some what anomalous, for, while on the one hand the H'wai-ngan region claims the monopoly of the Hupeh area, and the justice of their claim is recognised by the Government, .this province continues to be fed from Szech'wau in spite of protest and prohibition. Cen8or after. attacks the question, first from th1s pomt and then from that; all of them, it is reasonable to suppose, prompted, and it may be bribed, by merchants interested on the one side or the other, for the monetary interests involved are immense, and the exclusion of either pttrty from ihe field would involve large numbers in ruin. 'rhe Board of Revenue are apparently content to let the question remain in abeyance, so long as the revenue from this som:ce remains unaltered. (3) Shiin Pao-ch&ng, in a memorial reports the death of Wu Ta-t mg, formerly 'Taotai of Taiwan, who was ap pointed in the year 1870 to the post of general supervisor of naval drill to the Kia.ng-nan steam fleet. So important a a post neeus a competent ofticer to fill it, possessed of tecruucal. and experience. The memor1ahst 1magmes that he has found such a one in Li Chao-pin iWJ a provincial commander-in-58 (APRIL 9-10. chief, at present stationed at Sung-kiang, w horn he requests may be appointed to the post on probation, retaining. a.t the same time his present office.-Rescr1pt: Noted. April10th.-(1) A memorial from Ts'ui Mu-che, keeper of the seals, and supervising Censor, advocating the revival of the old system of laying by a. proportion of. yield of each year's harvest, as a against times of scarcity. A law ensts under which each province is bound to maintain a. certain number of granaries for the storage of surplus grain m 2f:::a-' capable of supplying each department or uistrict a.t any given time with a stock of grain varying from several thousand to several tens of thousands of piculs. The funds for the purchase of this grain are to be drawn from the exchequer, and the sale of old stock for the purchase of fresh supplies is entrusted to the local authorities, fraud and peculation being guarded against by stringent and special regulations. By this adnillable and perfect system thorough provision is secured, not only against times of dearth or want, but also against unfore seen emergencies. Unfortunately, as time went on, abuses sprung up, until dishonesty and peculation prevailed to a painful degree. At last, in the year 1864, a decree was issued enunciating these regulations afresh, and calling upon the provincial high authorities to restore all whether under Government auspices or private patronage, that had fallen into disuse or decay, and to see that they were furnished with their proper supplies of grain. Had these instructions been faithfully carried out during the p<\St ten years, tranquillity would have prevailed throughout the Empire, and the ple11. of devastation and desolation conhluevcr have heen offered as an excuse for failure in their execution, nor, while each year's harvest was not an utter failure, could there be n reason for granaries. Granted even that the pubhc funds would not adnut of keeping supplies up to the legal had even quantity been kept m would have been able to reheve 1ts own ellstress, and never would it have come to that directly this supply was drawn operations would be brought to a standstill for want of stock. Of late years, not only have these granaries stood empty, in many instances they have even fallen mto decay or disappeareu altogether. To now to the application lately by Li Hoh-nien for a loan from the K1angnan public gran:1ries. In of _the Board of Revenue to tlus they

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APRIL 10-11.] stated that in the year 1876 there should have been 954,000 piculs of grain stored in the Honan granaries, and they were at a loss to understand why the Governor should neglect to make mention of this amount and, apparently loth to part with his own stock, should apply for assistance from a distance. It being apparent that Li Hoh nien could not be guilty of such conduct, it stands to reason that the supplies the Board had reason to suppose were in stock did not exist, nor is it likely that any other province is in a better position. The whole of the provincial governments are to blame for this state of things, from Governors General downwards. It is the duty of Department and District Magistrates in the first instance to report the condition of their granaries, and for their superiors to see that their reports are correct. The famine that has devastated Shansi and Honan has taxed the Imperial exchequer very severely ; what would be the result were other provinces to he visited with a like infliction 1 Is the Government, the memorialist asks, to sit down quietly and tolerate this state of things 1 Surely not. He concludes, therefore, with a request that a gradual return to the old system may be insisted upon, that the existing granaries may bo repaired and set in order, and provincial goven1ments warned that strict adherence to the regulations will be required of them. 59 (2) A postscript memorial by Li Hoh nien reporting the receipt of a donation of Tls. 1,000 each from three ladies, wives of officials in the Canton province, all bearing the name of Lung, in aid of the suffering in Honan. The' memorialist refers to a standing regulation to the effect that in the event of any person, not an official, whe ther of the literate or common class, con tributing a sum for charitable purposes amounting to Tls. 1,000, the Imperial sanction may be applied for to the erection of a complimentary tablet in honor of such person, upon which shall be inscribed the words-" By Imperial authority. One that delighteth in good works and loveth to dispense The tablet is to be constructed by the individual himself, but the local authorities are to provide him_ with Tls. 30 for the purpose. These ladies having now each subscribed Tls. 1,000 to wards the relief of distress in Honan, thereby evincing a thorough appreciation of the duty of philanthropy, the memo rialist prays His Majesty, in accordance with the law above quoted, to bestow upon them individually a complimentary tablet as a mark of Imperial approbation. (3) In a lengthy memorial the Governor of Kiangsu, Wu Yuai1-ping, declares his inability to comply with the request of the Governor of Honan for a loan from the charitable granaries in the province of Kiangsu, for the simple reason that these granaries are empty, it having been found impossible to carry out the standing regula tions with respect to the storage of grain since the devastation of the province by rebels.-Rescript : Noted. April llth.-(1) A decree appointing Shao Heng-yii {Jp.,. Governor of Htman. P'an-wei is to act provisionally as Govemor of Hnpeh, from which post the fonner officer is transferred. (2) A decree granting permission to Che kang (one of the eo-envoys of the Burlingame mission) to vacate his post as Imperial Agent at K 'urun on the ground of ill-health. (3) The Governor of Kiangsu memo rialises, reporting the despatch of the first detachment of junks laden with tribute grain for conveyance to Tientsin by sea. Tlle memorialist has already reported the measures adopted for the forwarding of the first and second quality rice due on account of the 1876 collection from the prefectures of Soochow, Sung-kiang, Ch'ang-chow, Chen-kiang and T'ai-ts'ang, including the rice purchased from the amount collected in money in the two districts of-Tan-yang and Kin-t'an in the Chen-kiang prefecture. He has also on different occasions reported the amount of the additional freights with which, in obedience to orders, he had. supplied the China Merchants' Company's steamers. The Lieut.-Governor, the Financial Commis sioner, and Grain Intendant, now jointly report that they are informed by the W ei yuan in charge of the grain transport office at Shaughai that, having been instructed to push forward the preparations for the transport of the tribute grain, his first step was to hire vessels, and, having talren bonds from the owners guaranteeing the employment of their vessels on this ser vice, to advm1ce money for their repair. In course of time the rice from different portions of the province arrived by detach ments in Shanghai. The whole of the second quality rice was shipped on board the China Merchants' Company's steamers, and the first quality rice was weighed into the j\mks, as it arrived. The first detachment has now been shipped. It occupies 100 junks, carrying a total lading of 195,920 piculs, in addition to \vhich other vessels have been laden with an extra waste allowance of 15,673

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piculs. The freight and porterage have been paid, and the master of each junk has been called upon to sign a receipt for the amount of cargo he carries. F-inally, the crews having been inspected and a cer tificate granted for the arms they carried, the fleet left Shanghai in detachments for Woosung on the 2nd March, there to await a favourable wind before puiting out to sea. The Governor has ordered steam gunboat from the Shanghai arsenal to be detailed to convoy the sqt\adron ::\nd expedite its (4) The Governor of CMkiang similarly reports the des:pl\tch of the flrat detachrn.ent of tribute rice from his province, to 158,210 piculs, of which 87,390 were forwarded by steamer. (5) In a postscript memorial the same officer reports that the Grain Intendant Hu Yii-yUn left for Tient&in on the 7th March to await the arriv-al o. the above instalment, stopping at Shanghai for a short time en route. During his abaence the prefect of Hang-ehow will transact l.he business connected with this office. 60 A Decree. TsengKwoh ts'lian, Governor of Shansi, reports the suppression of v-arious gangs of local ban ditti within his province. Some five or six hundred disbanded irregulars having risen in revolt at a place called Tungkung-k'i, situated at the back of a range of hills known as the Ta-ts'ing-shan, gave them selves up to promiscuous pillage and rob bery. Ma-shCng, General of the Tat ung Brigade, sent troops against them, who succeeded, during successive engagements, in capturing the leader of the revolt and many others, all of whom were put to death. A gang of mounted banditti to the south of this range were also exterminated, together with numbers of rebels who had escaped into the mountains. Another rising had also taken place on the borders of the Suh-chow and Ning-wu districts fermented by one Hiung-liu and other disreputable characters, who incited more than two thousand of the starving people to assist in plund e ring ancl burning the surrounding villo.ges The Brigadier-GeneraiKoh ts'ing t'ai and others went out against them with a body of troops, whereupon they had the audacity to entrench themselves in their mountain fastnessea and offer Our troops attacked them with vigour, and succeeded in capturing alive Hiung-liu and other leaders of the emeute, besides killing several hundred of the rebels. The well-disposed people who had been forced to join the rising were released, upon security being offered for their future (APRIL 11-12. good behaviour, and quiet has now been restored. .After enumerating the names of certain commissioned and non-commis sioned officers upon whom honorary rewards are to be bestowed for gallantry displayed in these operations, the decree concludes with an expression of pity for the unfor tunate people whose sufferinge have led them to be persuaded into these acts of v-iolence, and the Governor Tseng Kwoh ts'iian is directed to secure the issue to them of adequate relief, that they may not be obliged to their homes and be come vagrants. A decree censuring the officers in charge of the Tsing-yiin gate of the palace, who report that the seal for use at this gate has been lost, and requesting that another may be supplied. The Board of Ceremonies is directed to have another one prepared, but the officers responsible for the custody of the former seal are to be handed over to the Board for the adjudica tion of a. penalty, and the official in whose immediate charge it waa is to be placed on his trial. (3) A decree appointing Ying-k'wei, Imperial Agent at K'urun (Urga), with brevet rank of J)ep1.1ty General, (For decree perm\tt\ng Che-kang, the late Age11t, to this post, see Gazette of llth April } ( 4) Sen Pao-cheng, Goveruor-General of the Lia11g-k\ang, repre11ents in a postscript memorial the impossibility of complying with a suggestion of the of :Revenue that he should be upon to provide funds for the manufacture of silk; fabrics for palace use,, which should have peen sent forward last year, one of the periods of delivery on a large, scale. Having been directed by decree to give effec.t to the Board's suggestion, he referred the matter to the Financial Oommiss\oner, who reports that the tinances at his d,isposal are at an unprecedented,ly low ebb, the receipts for the past ye11r being insufficient even to provide for pay to the Manchq and Chinese troops. The amonnta owing on last year's delivery were as follows ; On the ordinary fabrics supplied on periods of delivery on the large scale ....... .... ... ....... .. ,.,Tis. Mis cellaneous articles .. .. ........... Additional white calico ..... ..... .. For Kansuh satin ,.., .. ............ Bright yellow satin ........... ....... .. Gauze (estimated value) .. .......... ,. 'Vide satin ............ ,., ................ 30,000 5,,000 5,000 3,500 lli,500 40,000 60,000 Total, Taels .. 160,000

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APRIL 12-13.] Of the above sums, Tls. 30,000 have already been paid on account of the first and second headings, and Tls. 10,000 on account of bright yellow satin, with Tls. 3,500 for Kansuh satin. The balance due on account of bright yellow satin will be made up out of the surplus remaining over the estimates of the late Superintendent of the Imperial manufactory. In addition to the balance still due, there still remains to be executed an order for yellow satin damask from the State Historiographer's Office, the estimates for which have not yet been made out. So large a sum cannot possibly be produced by the Commissioner, who has exhausted every expedient and device for raising funds. In view, however, of the persistent and repeated demands of the Board, which cannot be disregarded, the CommissionP.r will do his utmost to pay Tls. 10,000 on account, and hopes that he may subsequently be enabled to raise Tls. 20,000 more. This is the utmost he can possibly do, and he begs the Governor-General to represent the condition of his finances t.o His Majesty. The memorialist, in endorsing the statement of the Commissioner, adds that the support of famine refngees, and the cost of catching locusts have been a severe drain on an already impoverished ex chequer. Applications for arrears of pay to the troops are coming in from every quarter, and in undertaking to furnish the sums above-mentioned the Commissioner has done the utmost it is possible for him to do.-Rescript : It is noted. April 13th.-(1) A Decree. The Board of Civil Office report that they have considered the penalty which should be inflicted on Hwang T'i-fang, Deputy Supervisor of Instruction. H waug T'i-fang, in wrongfully accusing Tung-siin of depravity and want of principle on the faith of mere nmwur devoid of foundation, has exceeded the right of speech to which he is entitled; and it would be only proper that the penalty adjudicated should be infliQted upon him. In consideration, however, of the fact that it is the duty of the Supervisor to lay his views before Us, and that he was actuated by a desire to serve the public interests, as a special act of grace We exercise the Imperial prerogative and decree that the penalty of deprivation of two steps of honorary rank with permission to retain his post, to which he has been adjudicated, shall be remitted. Let all officers whose duty it is continue as heretofore to offer suggestions and remarks, but, while they should not remain silent from a desire to gratify a love of peace quiet, it be hoves them, on the other hand, to be careful 61 not to intrude upon the Imperial ear any floating gossip they may pick up. (For decree in answer to the memorial calling forth this rebuke see Gazette of 2nd April.) (2-3) Decrees sanctioning the prolongation of the periods during which the establish ments for the issue of gruel in the southern part of the Tartar division of the city of Peking, and the fifteen agencies for the issue of rice at the gates of the Chinese division of the city, were severally to be kept open. (4) The Board of Ceremonies memorialise with respect to the honors to be conferred in a case of meritorious charity. The Governor of Kiangsu having lately requested that a mark of Imperial favour might be bestowed upon P'eng Tsu-hien, ex-Governor of Shun-t'ien, who had contributed lands towards a fund for affording aid to the indigent members of his clan, the question was referred to the Board, who applied to the Governor of Kiangsu for the necessary particulars and guarantees. These have been furnished after some delay, and the Board now find that the circumstances are as follows :-P'eng Tsu-hien's great great grandfather, who was President of the Board of War, and his great great uncle, a metropolitan graduate, subscribed during the reign of the Emperor Kien-Lung 300 mow of land, the rent derhed from which was to be devoted to the assistance of any indigent widows, orphans, aged, or sick members of his clan, who were in need of aid, and to supplement expenses on account of funerals, burials, or weddings. This land was called jtiA1-tsu-t' ien, or clan benefit land." In course of time, as the numbers of the clan increased, it was found that the fund was insufficient to meet the object for which it was originally raised, and P'eng Tsu-hien's father, a Grand Secretary, determined to augment the capital. It so happened, however, that at that time the T'aip'ing rebellion was at its height, and he was unable to carry out his intention. His son, therefore, in reverent fulfilment of his father's wishes, has prevailed upon different members of the clan to join with him in subscribing 1,000 mow of land as a provision against dearth, and a sum of Tls. 1,000 in money, which has been put out to interest. A public hall for purposes of meeting and discussing matters connected with the clan has been erected, and a code of regulations has been drawn up on the basis of those promulgated by Fan Chung-yen, a noted scholar and functionary of the Sung dynasty. A few of the older and most respectable members of the clan have been constituted

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trustees for the distribution of the fund, the surplus of which, after providing for the objects already enumerated, is to go towards the establishment of free schools for the education of sons of the more indigent member!, in which a course of education is to be pursued that will inculcate principles of propriety and magnanimity. For those who cannot af ford to purchase a burial ground a free cemetery is provided wherein their dead may repose in peace. Fearing lest, in course of years, the regulations now in force would fall into disuse, and the fund would thus fail to meet the objects for which it was organised, P'eng Tsu-hien requested that the matter might be brought to the notice of His Majesty, and a record of the objects of the institution be thus established. The Board, after searching the records, find that no regulations exist precisely applicable to the present case, but they quote a similar instance in which the donor was presented with an Imperial tablet as a mark of approbation and encouragement. Without venturing, in the absence of law or regulation, to determine the precise form of reward that should be conferred on P'eng Tsn-hien, they beg to draw His Majesty's attention to the precedent above quoted. (Decree already issued.) 62 April 14th.-(Court Circular) Rwang T'i-fang returns thanks for the remission of the penalties to which he had rendered himself liable. (See yesterday's Gazette). (1) A memorial from the Comptrollers of the Imperial Household on the subject of economy in palace expenditure. On the 9th March the office had the honor to receive a message from Their Majesties the Empresses ordering that thenceforward the morning and evening meal be reduced to half its ordinary quantity. Again, on the 19th March, the Grand Secretariat forwarded copy of a decree from Their Majesties to the effect that in view of the suffering and misery that the people of Shansi and Honan were undergoing, causing them to desert their homes and wander elsewhere in search of food, those in high places should not endure the slightest approach to extravagance or waste. The Comptrollers of the Imperial Household were therefore to direct their secretaries of department to exercise rigid economy in palace expenditure, and submit estimates of the probable amount of the retrenchments that could be effected, remembering that every fraction of superfluous expenditure that could be dispensed with would enrich by that amount the funds to be distributed in relief. On the 1ame day a further decree was received [APRIL 13-14. from Their Majesties comml.nding that from that date the use of flesh should be discontinued, and only vegetable food par tal
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At>I?Ir. 14-lG. promoted to his present rank for services in connection with the organisation and of a company of militia, was charged m the first place with extorting a sum of Tls 40 from the residents of his native. town for the repair of a theatrical stage m the temple to the tutelary deity. The fact that the money was extorted is established, but it was also found that the wh?le .of it was to the object for w hlCh 1t had been raised. S nbseq uen t to this the of!!icer was amusing himself With a display "dragon lamps" in his A soldier who was passing by looked m, and remarked that the display w.as a poor one1 L.iu Hiung-jui, dtspleased at Ius crrtrmsm, serzed him and began beat a:nd abuse him, insisting upon hts performmg the K'o-t'ow in token of apology. This the soldier stoutly refused to .do, and Liu Hiung-jui then unloosed hrs girdle, bound the soldier's ha:nds, and, seizing a bill-hook that was lymg handy, hacked away at the soldier's arms. Some passers-by who saw the remonstrated and begged the captam to let the man go. He refused to do so, whereupon they ran to the Prefect's Yamen and laid informa tion against him. Runners were then sent .to let the man go, and arrest the who was put on his trial. The crrcumstances here narrated occurred so far as 1874, but owing to a drfficulty m getting the witnesses together the hearing of the case has had to be frequently postponed. The prisoner, when h? was .eventually brought to trial, admitted hrs gurlt, and nothing remained but to pass sentence upon him. This under circumstances, would been bamshment for 3 years with 100 blows but as the offence was committed prior td the ;Act of .Grace of December, 187 4, the penalty 1s The charge of extortion was too trivml to be entertained. April 15th.-(1-2) Decrees ordering a renewed successwn of prayers for rain to be on the 18th instant, and allotting to the and other high officers of State the dr.fferent temples at which they are to burn mcense. (3). A decree announcing the following appomtments and transfers :-President of the Board of Punishments, Ts'iian-tsing (late President of the Court of -censors.) President of the Court of Cen sors, Ngen-ch'eng jJ'kJHl. (late Vice-Pres Board of Civil Office.) Seni9r Vice Prestdent of the Board of Civil Office, 63 Ch'ung-how *''(transferred from the War.) Ch'eng-lin JVt to act durmg his absence. Senior Vice-President of the Board of War, Kw'un-kang ,i INiJ (transferred from the of the of Ceremonies, to which he was appomted on the 22nd March. Junior Vice-President of the Board of Ceremonies, Sung Shen (4). A J?ecree. Yesterday, when inter VIewmg 'Isao-pao, President of the Board of Punishments, We observed that he was weak and depressed, and it is to be feared that he is not in a condition to give that complete attention to the onerous duties of his office that these require. Let him therefore. the Presidentship of the Board of Pumshments. He will retain the of the Mongolian drvrsion of the Plain Red Banner. (5) A memorial from the Governor-General of Min-cMh, submitting an application from an aged widow for permission to commute by a monetary payment a sen tence of banishment into military servitude that has beeri passed upon her only son, for employing a substitute at the provincial examination. The woman offers Tls. 10,000, and as precedents have already been afforded for the commutation of penalties for a like offence, the memorialist that the application may be sanc twned. They are sorely in need of money at Foochow. Floods and rains have injured the river embankments to an extent that will necessitate costly repairs, and great expense has been gone to in the purchase of a foreign dredger, the construction of vessels, &c.-Referred to the Board of Punishments. April 16th.-'(1-2) Decrees announcing the following appointments :-LieutenantGeneral of the Manchu division of the pl.ain yellow Banner, Ngen-lin m Lreutenant-General of the Han divi sion of the same Banner, Te-fuh fj ijl;. Intendant of the T'ung-shang circuit in SMnsi, Siin Lwan-wei (3) The Court of Censors memorialise an appeal by one Wang Fang hen, holdmg brevet rank as "Probationer" of the Han-lin College, who petitions as follows fr?m Hu-lan-t'ing in the Heh-lung-kmng provmce. My uncle King shun was defrauded of his money and done to death by one Ts'ui CMn-fuh with the as sistance of a petty official called T'o-sha.n and it was given out that he committed suicide

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64 by hanging himself. King-tien, another of my uncles, having appealed to the Court of Censors in 1875, a second inquest was ordered to be held. On this occasion the sub-prefect who presided was bribed with 4,000 cash, and a false verdict was again returned. My uncle appealed a second time, and as before was sent back to be present at a fresh inquest. This time, a Secretary from Sheng-king called Si-chang was sent to hold the inquest. He came to my house and opened the coffin. The flesh on the corpse had not decayed, and after rubbing the body with paper, and washing it, the skin was restored to its normal condition, when livid spots were to be seen on the lower part of the abdomen ; there were no marks round the neck to indicate death by strangulation. The Secretary refused to proceed further with the inspection and insisted on the relatives of the deceased signing an authorisation for the application of the steaming test. The Secretary's reason for acting in this manner is perfectly clear. He had spent a month previous to the inquest with the sub-prefect who conducted the first enquiry, and who is a connection of his own. Should a finding be now entered different from that reported in the first instance by the sub-Prefect, he would get into trouble ; there is no doubt therefore that an understanding has been come to between the two. The corpse examiners also have been suborned by the parties who compassed my uncle's death, and there is no hope of being able to get justice done. I am, therefore, constrained to lodge this appeal, and pray for redress. The Military Governor of Kirin, Ming-an, is one who loves the people as his children, ancl if my case may be brought before him, I will be willing to take the coffin to Kirin at my own expense. I humbly pray, therefore, that your honour able Court will apply to His Majeaty for the necessary permission." (For decree see Gazette of 31st March.) (4) Postscript memorial by Ting Paocheng, Governor of Szech'wan. Some time since he received instructions to supply the province of Shansi with Tls. 60,000 on loan. This amount has already been forwarded as earlier reported. He has now received a private letter from Yen King-ming, special commissioner for famine relief in that province, appealing earnestly for further aid, and drawing a picture of the desolation and misery that prevailed which stirred the hearts of memorialist and his subordinates. In view of the urgency of the circumstances, memorialist has felt it his duty to appropriate a [APRIL 16-17. a further sum of Tls. 50,000 from the provincial treasury, to which he has added a personal subscription of Tls. 2,000, the Lieutenant-Governor Tls. 5,000, and the Financial Commissioner and Salt Intendant together Tls. 2,000, besides subscriptions from other officials amounting in all to Tls. 1,600, making a grand total of Tls. 60,600, which was forwarded to Shansi on the 22nd February last.-Rescript: Let the Board take note. April17th.-(1) A Decree. Liu Hai-ngao, compiler of the Han-lin College, and others, request that orders may be given for the temporary levy of an additional lekin on Hwai-ngan and Szech'wan salt to be applied to famine relief. Let the Board of Revenue consider their memorial simultaneously with those of Shen Pao-cheng and Chow SMng-chu. (2) A decree appointing Tsai-ling Director General of the Mongolian department of the Veritable Record Office. (3) A decree lamenting the continuance of the distress in the provinces of Honan and Shansi, which still remains unabated, while no reports have arrived of rain having fallen in any quantity. The provinces of Kiangsu, Anh wei, Kiangsi, Chekiang, Fuhkien, Hupeh, Hunan, Shantung, Szech'wan and Kwangtung are each immediately to provide some tens of thousands of taels, which are to be for warded to the famine provinces without delay. (4) The remainder of this day's Gazette is occupied with a memorial from Hwang T'i-fang, Deputy Supervisor of Instruction, which has already been summarised in a decree of the 2nd April, and his attack upon Tung-siin, President of the Board of Revenue, severely censured. He divides his subject into numerous headings, com mencing with an exposition of his views on the question of foreign loans in the following terms :-During the past year the metropolitan and provincial authorities have exhausted every device ; voluntary contributions and exhortations to charity have been pushed to their utmost limit, and all that is now obtainable in the way of funds are miscellaneous driblets of no material advantage, or the execution of schemes the maturing of which will take too long to meet the urgency of present needs. While plans are thus being turned over, and assistance delayed, the dying are already dead, and brewing tumult has burst into activity. To obtain the large sums that are immediately required, loans must be contracted with foreign merchants,

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APRIL 17-18.) from whom five to six million ( taels 1) can be procured, with which foreign rice should be purchased. If telegraphic instructions were sent froiQ. Shanghai to foreign coun tries to purchase and' send forward grain or rice of any description, it could be laid down in Shanghai in two months, and at once distributed in the provinces of Shansi, Ho nan, and Chihli. If it be argued that the magnitude of the amounts suggests appre hensions as to the possibility of repayment, it may be asked what, if brigandage or revolt arise and military operations are once set in motion, will be the outlay in a single year 1 In ancient days a precedent was afforded for contracting foreign loans ; Ts'in borrowed from Tsin, and Lu from Ts'i; and in the straits to which the Govern ment is now reduced there is no alternative but to have recourse to this method. The supervisor next attacks the question of distilling. He estimates the amount of grain yearly consumed in the production of spirits within the province of Chihli alone at from five to six million piculs. The furnaces employed are as large as an ordinary room, and the volumes of smoke they emit can be seen for miles, and appear at a distance as if they proceeded from the ftmnel of a steamer. The Board of Revenue have negatived the suggestion for the temporary prohibition of this industry, as submitted by Li Hung-chang; and why? simply because they will thereby lose some Tls. 30,000 "ijUbsistence money" that they have hithetb derived from the sale of licences for this manufacture. The staff of officers employed by this particular Board is comparatively large, and surely the small amount which would be re alised by each individual from the dis tribution of this sum is insufficient to warrant its retention at the expense of the people at large.. He then discusses in turn various measures for the better provision of relief ; urges the necessity of affording greater facilities for expression of opinion on the part of subordinate officers, who, from their immediate contact with the people, are often able to give more sound advice than those who are higher in the official scale ; and the advisability of granting more frequent audiences to civil authorities, who of late have often been excluded from the presence by the number of military officials that are re ceived, men for the most part devoid of any experience beyond the narrow sphere of their official duties, in whom an arrogant and overbearing spirit is fostered by the honor that is thus conferred upon them. He then makes the furious onslaught 65 upon Tung-siin, President of the Board of Revenue, whom he stigmatises as vicious and devoid of principle, a man who during the past year has persistently negatived every suggestion connected with famine relief, and thus checked the flow of the Imperial bounty, ignorant apparently of the fact that the pulse of the state and the essence of good government consist in the maintenance and preservation of the people. He negatives appropriations of tribute grain because, forsooth, he must have regard for "radical interests"; he negatives the issue of grain for sale at reduced rates, the very measure that should be adopted in the interests of the metropolitan population for whose welfare he professes such solicitude. The character of the man in other respects is plainly evident from his refusal, in his grasping avarice, to acquiesce in the cessation of distilling operations. The head of the Board of Revenue, the comp troller of the finances of the Empire, is un able in a time of dearth like this, when the Imperial heart is exercised day and night, to offer a single remark or devise a single plan. Surely hi\ cannot escape from the penalties attaching to incompetence. Add to this a covetous and despicable spirit a heart full of deceit and fraud, calling forth the execration of his colleagues in the Tsung-li Yamen and the curses of the entire nation. Can such a man be entrusted with the control of affairs of the State ?r. the welfare of its people 1 The memcmahst earnestly hopes {hat His Majesty will cut short his official career. The memorial concludes with a criticism on the laxity of the judicial system illus trated by several examples. (For decrees see Gazettes of 2nd and 13th April.) April18th.-(1) A decree in answer to a suggestion from the Censor Ts' ao Ping-che, requesting that the agencies for the issue of rice gruel within the Tartar city of Peking may be removed to places outside the city walls. Care should of course be taken to discriminate between the really indigent and bad characters who are sure to be found amongst the thousands that apply daily for relief, and any charitable persons wishing hereafter to establish agencies of this description must place them without' the city walls, but the removal of those already in existence involves too great and sudden changes to warrant the step being taken. (2) A ])ecree. The Censor Ts'ao Ping-che represents that the fall of rain in the southern provinces has been excessive, and begs that attention may be directed towards

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provision against pending calamity. When has such a thing before been known as uni versal desolation from floods and drought 1 It is the duty of all provincial high authorities in ordinary times to devise and plan measures of precaution, that when calamity does arise there may be provin sion to meet it. If, as T'sao Ping-che declares, in the provinces of Kiangsu, (Jhekiang, Kiangsi, Fuhkien and Kwang tung the frosts and snows of Winter have been followed by incessant rain for days in succession, insomuch that agricultural operations could not be carried on at their proper season, and seed rotted in the ground, then it is greatly to be feared that the harvest will be a bad one, and the people will look forward with anxiety to the distress that awaits them. Let the provincial high authorities concerned carefully investigate the condition of the various districts under their charge, and make timely provision for threatening distress. Inspection should be l1eld of the stores of grain in hand, and where these are deficient, monies should be appropriated for the purchase of further 11upplies. Their subordinates must be strictly enjoined to take steps duly to secure the object in view, and bare state ments or nominal compliance must in no wise be accepted. 66 (3) A decree of the stereotyped nature, on purity of official administration. (4) A memorial by Kiang Yuan-tsieh, secretary in the office of registration for military stores-a sub-department of the Board of War-and second class assistant secretary on probation, who submits at great length his views on subjects, which have already been noticed m a decree. The chief topic of interest upon which he touches is that of foreign loans. He states that there are more than ten million sufferers from want in the four provinces of Shansi, Honan, Shensi, and Chihli, who have been reduced to such extremities that they feed on dead bodies, or, even worse, eat one another's children. The recital of such horrors makes one shudder with disgust. To meet misery of such magnitude large funds are required, and local resources being exhausted, the memorialist begs to propose that three or four millions of taels in foreign currency be borrowed from foreigners, to be applied to the purchase of any grain .fit for c?n sumption in the northern provmces, whiCh should be shipped by steamer to Chefoo and Tientsin for transmission inland. Should there not be sufficient grain in the South or the islands to the South, negotiations might be entered into with [APRIL 18-19. foreign and native merchants for the pur chase of supplies from .. Lew-chew, Japan or Corea. Now that milita."v opera tions at an end, no apprehtLSions n ed be entertained as to the difficulty ot repay ment of any loans, however large ; the land tax can well be appropriated to the payment of all such by instalment. (For decree see Gazette of 6th April.) April19th.-(Court Circular.) The Gov ernor of Shun-tien reports a rainfall of two inches and upwards of saturation. Si meng-k'o-si-k'o has tendered his testamentary memorial. (1) A decree remitting the penalties which Li Hung-chang has requested may be inflicted upon himself for his inability to combat successfully the suffering and want in the Ho-kien and other prefectures of his province. The has most zealous and energetic m rendermg assistance to Shansi and Honan, and in the face of the present calaiRity, with festering want so prominently before them, it only remains for the Sovereign and his Ministers mutually to examine into their shortcomings with reverence and fear, and to hope that by amendment of their ways" and the cultivation of virtue, the present calamity may be tal< en away and peace given unto the people. Let Li Hung-chang, then, identify himself with the unceasing care and solicitude dis played by Us, and put forth all his energies in the devising and execution of measures that shall meet actual suffering in a com plete and satisfactory manner, and so show himself worthy of the confidence that has been reposed in him. As a special act of grace, We command that the penalties Li Hung-chang has requested may be m flicted upon himself shall be remitted. (2) A decree expressing the Imperial regrets on receipt of intelligence of the death of Si-meng-k'o-si-k'o, Deputy Lieut enant-General of the Han-kiin division of the plain white banner corps, who rose from the rank of a common soldier to his present position, and has on many occa sions distinguished himself on the field of battle. The customary honors are to be paid him, and all official penalties recorded against his name are to be remitted. (3) A decree conferring the appointment of Lieutenant-General, that has fallen vacant through the death of the above officer, upon Te-fuh :fj liJ (transferred from the yellow banner corps to which he was appointed two days previously.) The post vacated by the former is conferred upon Che-hoh *"

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APRIL 19-20.] 67 (4) A Decree. Yung-hii, Assistant Cham berlain, has repeatedly applied for leave, and shown negligence and idleness in the per formance of his official duties. W ecommand that he vacate this office,' and that a fine of three years' salary be inflicted upon him. (5) Postscript memorial by Ho-king, Gov ernor-General of Min-cheh, reporting on the condition of the province of Fuhkien. Since the commencement of the year the province has been visited by a succession of steady and heavy rains, with hardly a day's intermission. When spring came on and the snows in the region drained by the upper waters of the rivers began to melt, there was a sudden and dangerous rise lower down, which threatened to cause disastrous floods. Fortunately the river channels were clear, and the pressure gradually subsided. Officers were sent to Kiangsi and Chekiang to get down rice with a view to lowering the price of grain, which was very high; 28,000 piculs have been obtained, and a slight diminution in the market rate has been effected, but prices are still far above the average, and a steady import will be required to affect them to any extent. One disastrous effect of the rainy weather has been the stoppage of the salt trade. While there is no sun, evaporation in the pans cannot go on, and every day that the rain continues adds to the distress of producers and consumers. One class that is seriously affected by the failure of the salt supply are the fishermen, who depend largely upon it for curing their fish. When they can get neither salt to cure, nor sun to dry the fish that they bring in, tkeir trade is gone, and they will probably turn pirates for want of something better to do. The tea crop is likely to suffer materially ; as the young shoots are injured by the continued rain. The hills and valleys in the four prefectures of Yen p'ing, Kien-ning, Ting-chow, and Shao-wu, up the river, are covered with the shrub, and the picking of the leaves affords employment to over ten thousand indigent people. If the market fails, they will all come down to Foochow in search of food, and, if they cannot get it, will probably rise in revolt. Thus has the memorialist to contend, not only with the elements, but also with the victims of their ravages, a task that will tax his energies to the utmost. He hopes, however, by fasting and self-examination, coupled with vigilance in the execution of provisionary measures, to secure quiet amongst the people, and relieve the Imperial anxiety. April 20th.-(1) A decree ordering the dismi11sal of two District Magistrates in Chihli. One, for laxity in the supervisiOn of relief measures whereby his underlings were enabled falsely to return certain households as in need of relief, and to embezzle a portion of the funds allotted to them. The other, for maltreatment of appellants against the extortion of his underlings, and continued acts of oppres sion. They are to be placed on their trial with the underlings implicated, and the originator of the false return of households in need of relief is to be summarily executed, irrespective of the amount obtained by the fraud. (2) A memorial by the Board of Revenue in answer to a charge of the Supervisor Hwan T'i-fang, who accuses them of having withheld their consent to the cessation of distilling operations, because they would thereby lose a large amount of "subsist ence money." They explain that in the year 1853, at the recommendation of the Board, licenses were granted to distillers of spirits in the province of Chihli, and the system has worked well for twenty years and more. Were distilleries suddenly to be put a stop to, not only would over a thousand establishments be thrown out of employment, but, in all probability, would be subjected to extortion and annoyance from preventive officers; so that, before enjoying the benefits of a reduced market, they would have to lose their means of livelihood and be subjected to tyranny and extortion. While admitting, therefore, the fact that distilleries are a drain upon the grain supply, the Board considered that it would be more just to proceed gradually, and proposed to restrict the issue of licences to those already in possession of them. As some ten or more establishments close every year, if no fresh licences are given out, the numbers will soon be reduced. By this com promise the Board considered they had to a certain extent met the views of Li Hnngchang and the Censor Hu-p'in. Stupid and incompetent as the Board may be, they could not carry their stupidity to the extent Of being actuated by a desire to retain the "subsistence money," with which Hwang T'i-fangcredits them. They beg to offer an explanation of the origin o.f this so-called subsistence money" ( (tJ ). In the year 1853, the license fee for each establishment was fixed at Tls. 60, which was paid into the nearest Magistracy, and forwarded to Peking at the end of the year. Licenses could also be procured direct from the Board. In the year 1860 an alteration was sanctioned, under which

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68 all licenses were to be obtained direct from the Board, when the fees amounted in all to something over Tls. 10,000, which were at different times allotted to the office of the Imperial Household, the Granaries, the coinage department, &c., &c., for payments on account of wages and food. Careful accounts of the manner in which these sums were distributed are on record, and can be referred to in verification of the statements of the Board. In 1862 a tax of Tls. 32 was levied on each shop, which brought in an annual revenue of from twenty to thirty thousand taels, and, with the Imperial sanction, this sum was temporarily used to supplement deficiencies in the fund for payment of subsistence money and wages referred to above. They repeat, in conclusion, that they were actuated in their decision solely from a wish to avoid throwing so many people suddenly out of employment, and in no wise from a reluctance to part with the" subsistence money." (For decree see Gazette of 3rd April.) April 21st.-The greater portion of this day's Gazette is occupied with a long and uninteresting memorial from Ting Paocheng, Governor General of Szech'wan, describing with tedious minuteness a series of engagements with local insurgents at, and in the neighbourhnod of, Lo-kiang Hien, resulting in the complete extermination of the latter. There are no other documents of im portance. April 22nd.-{Court Circular). The Governor of Shun-t'ien reports a fall of rain in the capital, to the extent of 4 inches and upwards of saturation. (1) A decree in answer to a memorial from Tso Tsung-t'ang requesting permission to be allowed to decline the honor that has lately been conferred upon him. Now that peace and order have been restored upon the frontier, it is right that this high officer should be endued with the highest marks of Imperial favour, in order to manifest Our appreciation of his many acts of gallantry. In disclaiming all merit for the services he has done, Tso Tsung-t'ang has displayed a proper feeling of single-minded sincerity, but in exercising Our undoubted right to reward his merits by the bestowal of a patent of nobility, We have followed the dictates of propriety. Let him then strive to repay Our favours [by a continul!"nce of his exertions], and no longer dechne the honour bestowed upon him. (2) A decree conferring the following appointment : Sub-Chancellor of the Grand Secretariat, Yi Ts 'ing ,1! with rank (APRIL 20-23. of of the Board of Cere mmnes. (3) A decree ordering a series of thanksgiving services at the various State temples for the rain that was vouchsafed to the capital on the 15th and 18th inst. The Prince of Tun is to officiate on behalf of His Majesty. (4) Postscript memorial from Kin-shun, Military Governor of Ili, forwarding a representation from Lung Te-sheng, an expectant commander-in-chief in charge of memorialist's mounted body guard, to the following effect :-"My original name was K'in, my father's designation being Ch'eng k'un, and my mother's maiden name Ngon yang. Her elder sister, my aunt, was married to a man called Lung, my aunt had many children, but none of them survived, and she longed earnestly for a son. As my parents had two sons, my brother and myself, my aunt besought them with tears to allow her to adopt one of us, and my parents consented to give me to them on the understanding that if they afterwards had a son, I was to -be returned. During a long military career I have been honorably mentioned on several occasions and promoted to my present rank. Last year I received two letters from my paternal uncles informing me that my father had long since died, and that my brother had now followed him, leaving no one to perform the customary sacrificial rites. The Lung family having now two sons and the K'in family being extinct with the exception of myself, they called upon me to return at once, in order to prolong the succession and minister to my ancestry. This intelli gence has greatly affected me, and I feel compelled piteously to entreat the Governor to memorialise His Majesty on my behalf, and obtain permission for me to return, that pure and proper sacrifices may be offered to the manes of my ancestry." Referred to the Board of War. April 23rd.-A decree in answer to a memorial from the officer in charge of the Western Mausolea, representing that the troops there stationed are in urgent want of supplies. The Governor of Shantung is directed to forward at once the 6,900 piculs due by him on last years's contribution, and Ch'ung-how is called upon to send on as soon as possible the amount for the present year, which, it has been arranged, is to be supplied from Feng-t'ien instead of from Shantung. (2) A Decree. The Court of Censors memorialise that a cashiered district magistrate from Kiangsu, Ts'eng Shao-hiin by name, has lodged a petition representing

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APRIL 23-24.] that he has been the victim of an unjust denunciation. When interrogated by the Court, he declared that he had not been infected with a craving for opium as ac cused by Shen Pao-cheng, and for which he had been dismissed from office. He challenges an investigation, that he may clear himself from the charge. Let the proper Board send the cashiered officer to Kiangsn, where the Governor wu Yuan ping will ascertain whether he really is infected with the vice of opium-smoking or not, and will report to Us the true state of the case. This without delay. 69 (3) A memorial from the Imperial Clan Court in answer to a decree calling upon them to determine the penalties to which the Prince of Kung, as a member of the Grand Council, has rendered himself liable for inability to suggest measures for successfully combating the famine that is now raging. The memorialists having searched in vain the statutes regulating the penalties to be inflicted on princes and nobility for a special clause indicating the precise nature of the severe punish ment they are now called upon to determine, and having no precedent on record by which they could be guided, applied for assistance to the Board of Civil Office. The Board replied that they had experienced a similar difficulty in deter mining the penalties to be inflicted on the other members of the Council. After con sultation, however, they had decided to suggest that these should be punished in the same manner as Governors-General or Governors, who on occasions of distress or suffering in their respective jurisdictions, have, from an utter want of administrative ability,.failed to prevent dispersion of the people; that is, by dismissal from the public service. It would of course be for the Imperial Clan Court themselves to deter mine the particular penalty to be inflicted on the Prince of Kung. The memorialists have to submit that, in the face of this calamity and terrible suffering that has visited the northern provinces, it was undoubtedly the duty of the prince, in his capacity of agent for the regulation of affairs of State, to have been ready with suggestions and remedies, and although, no doubt, his case differs somewhat from that of Governors-General and Governors in charge of definite areas, still, in view of his entire inability to repair the ravages caused by the famine, or to rescue its victims, and having regard to the decree ordering the determination of a severe penalty, they beg to submit the following remarks :They find that in the statutes of their office it is laid down that when a prince or any member of the Imperial nobility commits a public offence in the discharge of a public duty, if the penalty be dismissal, such dismissal shall refer only to the particular office in the discharge of the duties of which the offence was committed, and shall not affect the tenure of any other offices held by such prince or nobleman, but a fine of half the salary attaching to the offender's rank of nobility shall be inflicted for the space of four years. There being no special clause laying down the penalties to which the Prince of Kung has now rendered him self liable, the memorialists do not venture to determine what these should be. They content themselves, as the Board of Civil Office have done, with indicating the letter of the law, and reverently await Their Ma jesties' decision thereupon. They have to add that the Prince of Kung has not ap pended his name to the present memorial, as he is, under the circumstances, debarred from doing so. (See Gctzette of 29th March and April 7th and 8th.) (4) A memorial from the Board of Civil Office, in the same strain as the above, dealing with the other members of the Grand Council. April 24th.-(1) The greater portion of this day's Gazette is occupied with a memo rial from the Governor of Kiangsi giving a detailed explanation of some suspicious circumstances in connection with the pro vincial examinations for the year 1873. The papers having as usual been sent at the conclusion of the examination to Peking for scrutiny, it was discovered by the officer engaged in this task that the papers of one of the successful candidates did not agree with the copy in red ink upon which the decision is formed, and that there was a suspicious mark in the corner of one of the originals, which looked like a private signal. The Governor was therefore called upon for an explanation. This was sent some time ago, but as it was considered unsatisfactory, a fresh enquiry was ordered to be held. After much trouble, owing to the difficulty of finding the copyists employed at the time, a true history of the case has been arrived at, which is, briefly, as follows :-Hiung Bung-sheng entered as a candidate at the Kiangsi provincial examination for 1873. Fan Kung-k'wan and Ch'en Kwang-hwei were employed, amongst others, as copyists, after having passed the usual test. In the first set of papers given out for copying, No. 22, under the distinguishing character W fell to Ch'en Kwang-hwei. Two of the characters in the verses seemed to him

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inappropriate, anclashereacl the composition through, the spirit of poetry was aroused within him, causing him, almost unwit tingly, to substitute two other characters for the obnoxious ones. The papers under the same number and distinguishing character fell to Fan Kung-k'wan in the third series, and after he had copied them and was comparing his copy with the original, it occurred to him that one of the questions was, by a clerical error, an swered incorrectly, and he therefore altered fourteen characters. The name of the candidate being pasted down, it was quite impossible for him to know whose essay it was. With regard to the characters at the edge of the paper that aroused the suspicions of the scrutiuising officer, Hitmg Hung-sheng, the graduate, explained some time ago that having several times been posted" at previous examinations for mistakes in the copyiug of his composi tions, such as the omission of a page, writing upside down, etc., he had, at the advice of his preceptor, adopted t.he expedient of writing two charact.ers at tle top and bottom of the side of the 1m.ge, io guide him and prevent mistakes. One of the copyists being dead, no more need be said regarding his offence. The other, through a pardonable piece of stupidity, has rendered himself liable to 100 blows and banishment for three years, but as the offence was committed prior to the Act of Grace of 1875, and comes within the provisions of that Act, the penalty should be remitted.-Referred to the Board. April 25th.-(1) A decree in answer to a memorial from Li Ho-nien and Yuan Pao heng soliciting the bestowal of a memorial Lablet upon a temple in Honan, the pre siding deity of which has manifested itself lately in a most marked manner. The Lung SMn-sze in the Hiu-wu District is noted for the frequency of the divine interposition displayed in answer to prayers there offered, and on the present occasion, when an officer was sent to pray for rain, a plenteous and universal fall was vouchsafed a few days afterwards, insomuch that it is now possible to proceed with the sowing of the autumn crops. Our gratitude is indeed profound, and We command the officers of the Imperial Studio and the Han-linyuan to prepare a tablet with a memorial inscription, which is to be sent to Li Honien to be reverently suspended in Lungshen-sze as a recognition of the divine protection. 70 (2) A decree referring to the extent of the famine in Chihli, which in spite of the efforts of Li Hung-chang to combat it, is, ( tl!'RIL 24-25. it is to be feared, almost beyond the reach of his resources. Rain to the extent of 4 or 5 inches of saturation is reported to have fallen, but not sufficient thoroughly to moisten. the ground, and too late to rescue the spring crops. As some time must elapse before the gathering of the antumn harvest, unless immediate relief can be afforded them, the people will be driven to leave their homes in search of food. A further appropriation of 120,000 piculs of tribute grain from Kiangsu, and 40,000 from the portion of the same province north of the Yangtze, is ordered to be made from supplies en 1'ott.te to Peking, and forwarded by Li Hung-chang to the famine districts in question. (3) A memorial from T'uh Tsnng-ying, Governor of Honan, who reports that; having handed over his seals of office as Governor of Kwangsi, he started for Peking on the 9th February. Filled with a sense of the urgen{)y of the need of the sufferers in Honan, he had applied for per mission to devote Tls. 12,000 of his antiextortion allowance to the purchase of grain, and, subsequently, he received a communication from the Board of Revenue informing him that the Imperial sanction had been given to the negotiation of loans with other provinces by Honan. The memorialist thereupon took counsel with the newly appointed Governor of Kwangsi, and obtained from him a loan of Tls. 20,000. Passing through Ch'ang-sha on his way North, he obtained a promise from the Acting Governor of Hunan of a loan of Tls. 20,000, and he at once despatched officers to expend this and the .other sums collected in the purchase of grain, of the speedy despatch of which he advised the Honan authorities. Having completed these arrangements he proceeded on his journey, and in due course reached Hupeh, where he was met by an Imperial decree ordering him to proceed direct to his post without visiting Peking. He will accordingly drop down the river to Yangchow, from whence he will proceed northwards. In the meantime he considers it his duty to report the steps he has taken for the purchase of grain, etc. He has borrowed the seal of the Governor of Hupeh to append to this memorial. (4) Mu-t'u-shan and Kwei-ch'ang, Military Lieutenant-Governor and deputy Lieutenant-Governor of Ch'ahar respec tively, report the escape of two ex-officials condemned to service on the military post roads in expiation of offences committed by them. One Shen She-yuan formerly an expectant second class

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APlm 25-26. J -------------assistant Secretary in the Board of Revenue, had been guilty of causing a tumult resulting in loss of life by the purchase of a woman for a concubine, and wn.s posted at station No. 11, where he has been for the last three yAars. 'fhe other, posted at station No. 18, was a Lieutenant in the army, and was convicted of employ ing illegal modes of puuishmen t and arrest ing innocent persons ; he arrived on the station last year. Search has been made everywhere for the fugitives, without suc cess, and information of their escape has been sent to the Governor-General of Chihli, the Governor of Shansi, and others. The memorialists have further to request that the metropolitan authorities may be directed to look out for them. April 26th.-(1) A second memorial from the Comptrollers of the Imperial House hold in answer to a decree censuring the vagueness of their earlier report on palace expenditure, and calling for a detailed list of items. After quoting at length the decrees on the subject already issued, the memorialists go on to say tlutt the sincerity of the love and unwearying solicitude for the welfare of Their subjects which prompts Their Majesties to be so determined in the exercise of economy, has filled the hearts of Their servants with gratitude and reverence. They have now to report that, with the exception of necessary repairs within the palace, and special orders for additional articles, for which special grants have to be obtained, all expenditure by memorialists' yamen is regulated by laws which have been strictly adhered to for many years. Of late, owing to want of funds, no repairs having been executed within the palace, or additional articles called for, there has been no necessity for applying for special grants. The declara tion of memorialists in their earlier report that no extravagance or waste had been indulged in, was based upon careful enquiry and actual observation, and is literally and absolutely true. 'l'he items of imperative expenditure for several years past may be summarised under the follow ing headings :-a.-Sacrificial observances at Altars f!l!l., State Temples, and Mausolea. b.-Expenditure within the palace. c.-Food and maintenance for officers of the Imperial guard in charge of the For bidden precincts ; rations for troops, funds or account of expenditure by the various departments of memorialists' yam en, presents to envoys from tributary states, allowances to the Board of Music, the Palace Stud, the Imperial Armoury, Parks, Hunting Grounds, the Grand Com1eil, the Board of Ceremonies, the Court of Censors, the Office of 'Gendarmerie, the Governor of Slnm-t'ien, the Banner Corps, Establish ments at Jehol and Mi-yun, &c. Under this last heading many items have from time to time been reduced, and sums at one time paid in silver are now in some cases paid in cash. The memorialists would not of course venture to contemplate the reduction of expenditure involving such important considerations as the perform ance of sacrificial ri tea or ceremonies ; all then that it is in their power to deal with are miscellaneous and separate items which, as already re ported, they will make it their care to scrutinise as they present themselves, and as soon as the economies thus effected amOtmt to an appreciable sum they will again address His Ma.jesty. Having now reverently received Their Majesties' com mands to draw up a list of all items of expenditure, they have, in obedience thereto, carefully scrutinised the accounts, and beg to submit a return of the same for Their Majesties' pemsal. From the year 1858 to the year 1874, the funds at the disposal of memorialists being insufficient to meet the calls that were made upon them, repeated appropriations were sanctioned from the various Boards, and now, in addition to expenditure under the heading of sacrificial rites, more than Tls. 9,180,000 have been appropriated in this manner. For the past three years the income at their disposal has been so small that it behoved them to be more than ever economical, and no extraordinary expenditure has been indulged in. In spite of this they still have old debts hanging over them to the extent of more than Tls. 1,300,000, which they hope to pay off as soon as the funds in the Treasury of the Privy Purse shall show a surplus. In thus arrang ing to meet their engagements from funds tha.t do not yet exist, they have en deavoured to fend off their obligations, but they are still harassed by debts of more recent standing. Hence it may be seen that so far from indulging in extravagance or waate, the memorialists are trying to shut their eyes to their embarrassments and patch up their difficulties as best they can, economising where, practically, there is no room for economy, and that their difficulties arise from a daily diminution of income. (See Gazettes of March 29th and 30th, and April 2nd, 9th, and 14th.) (2) Ting Pao-cheng, Governor-General of Szech'wan, reports three cases of filial and

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72 conjugal devotion, and solicits the bestowal of marks, Imperial approbation upon the persons 1Vho have thus distinguished them selves. The first case is that of a poor man in the P'eng-ki district, whose parents were both over seventy years of age. His father was stricken with paralysis, and for five years had not risen from his bed, during which time his son had tended him with the utmost devotion. One day the old man expressed a wish to have some liver for his dinner, but there was none to be procured in the village in which they lived, so the son, anxious to display the sincerity of his affection, made an incision in his stomach about three inches long, and cut a piece off his own liver, which he served up to his father, who promptly recovered from his sickness. The bowel protruded from the inmswn in the son's stomach, but the wound has now healed, leaving a sc&r to testify to his devo tion which calls forth the admiration of all who see it. The second case is that of a poor man, also in the same district, whose widowed mother was dangerously ill. The medicines she took being of no avail, after silent and earnest prayer, he cut a piece of flesh three inches long from his breast and mixed it with her medicine, when a cure was immediately effected, an illness which had prostrated her for several years being thus cured in a single day. In the third case a woman, whose husband and only son had died when she was but nineteen years of age, devoted the rest of her life to the care of her husband's parents, ministering to them tenderly for more than ten ylilars. One day, her mother-in-law, who had been suffering from an affection of the stomach for several years, had a sudden craving for meat, and as at the time there happened to be a prohibition in force against the slaughter of animals, the daughter having heard that human flesh was occasionally efficacious in the curing of disease, surreptitiously cut a piece of flesh from her ribs, five inches in length,-after burning incense and praying to Heaven-which she cooked and served up to her mother-in-law, whose malady gradually disappeared. The daughter said nothing about her self-mutilation, but it was discovered by another woman who noticed marks of blood upon her clothes.-Rescript: We sanction the bestowal of marks of appro bation upon each of the persons in question. Let the Board of Ceremonies take note. .A.pril27th.-(Court Circular.) The Gov ernor of Shun-tien reports a fall of rain throughout his jurisdiction varying from a tenth of an inch to an inch of saturation. [APRIL 26-27. (1) A further decree on palace expendi ture. The list of items sent in by the Comptrollers of the Imperial Household having been referred to the Grand Secre taries and nine Chief Ministries of State for inspection and remarks, they now sub mit that it would be unbecoming in them to venture to consider economy or reduction in expenditure appertaining to rites or ceremonies. With regard to receipts and payments on account of expenditure within the palace and by the various departments outside, they recommend that the officers of the Imperial Household shall be in structed to persevere in the practice of the economies they have already been exercising. This they are now commanded in emphatic language to do, and reference is made to the charges of a Censor who declares that all payments by this office are subjected to a discount of twenty or thirty per cent., which has of late been increased to a still larger amount ; and that Secretaries of Department who have obtained their rank by purchase scheme to be placed on special commissions which bring them in annually some tens of thousands of taels. Every fraction expended in the palace or by the Government, is the property of the State, and no discount, appropriation, or fraud of any kind can be allowed in its distribution. The Comptrollers of the Imperial Household are at once to investigate the charges of the Censor, and severely punish anyone found guilty of the practices com plained of. The Censor deprecates the system of placing more than one Secretary of Department in charge of works, or vest ing the control of expenditure in several individuals, as the practice not only leads to increased peculation, but also to strife and wrangling. It would be inexpedient to alter the present system, but care must in fnture be taken in the selection of these officers, and they must not make the title of coadjutor" a handle for peculation and malpractices of a like nature. (2) .A memorial from Shao Heng-yi.i, Governor of H up eh, reporting the trial of a case of murder in which a brother and sister compassed the death of the latter's affianced husband. The facts are as fol lows :-Ki.ieh Ch'un-sheng and Ki.ieh Wu ying are brother and sister ; and the latter was affianced to one Ch'en Hai-sheng, a fisherman by trade, who lived on the op posite side of the Tunting lake. Her ex pectant mother-in-law took the girl to live with her before the marriage came off, but in January, 1876, she went home to see her mother, who kept her to spend the new year. One night, her brother, who was

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APRIL 27-29.] very drunk,., went into her bedroom and committed incest with her, repeating the offence on several subsequent occasions. The mother knew nothing about this, and in the month of April sent the girl back to her future home. The mother-in-law being old and unable to go out in the boat with her son, it was arranged that Kiieh Ch'unsheng should help his sister's fiancee, and have a share in the profits of the fishing. In the meantime the girl had had improper relations with her betrothed, unbeknown to the mother, and became with child by him. In the month of June the brother and sister, and Ch'en Hai-sheng, her be trothed, went out on the lake to fish. Towards night-time Ch'en Hai-sheng laid down in the boat and fell sound asleep. Kiieh Ch'un-sheng, thinking to himself that his incestuous intercourse with his sister must in the end be discovered, and would certainly be objected to by Ch'en Hai-sheng, resolved to kill him. He im parted his plan to his sister, and proposed that after they had killed him they should escape to some distant part of the country, where he would find her another husband in a respectable family. The sister having consented, they poled the boat to a secluded spot, and having looked around to see that no one was near, they got a piece of rope and tied the hands of the sleeping man, who woke in alarm and struggled to free himself, shouting the while for help, and cursing his assailants. Kiieh Ch'un-sheng then struck him on the head with an oar, and 'took two turns round his neck with a piece of rope, which he pulled with either hand in different directions and throttled his victim. The two then undid the cords from the throat and hands of the murdered man, threw him overboard, and sailed away. the end of five days, the old mother, wondering what had become of her son and his companions, sent out to look for them, when the corpse of her son was found floating in the lake with a wound on the temple and bruises on the throat and wrists. The condition of the body and the suspicious absence of the boat and its remaining occupants caused search to be made for them, and they were caught and placed upon their trial, when the above facts were elicited. During her incarceration the woman gave birth to a son which she fathered on the mur dered man. The woman has been sentenced to death by a slow and disgraceful process (ling-ch'e), as the law recognises no dif ference between murder of an actual and of an affianced husband. _The man, who in the first instance has incurred the penalty 73 of death by the crime of incest, has been sentenced on the second and graver count of murder, to decapitation, with the addition of exposure of the head, to mark the double crime. The murdered man would have been liable to punishment for im prolJer intercourse with his future wife, but as he is dead there is no occasion to consider his offence. The child has been handed over to the mother of the murdered man, that the family succession may be maintained.-Referred to the Board of Punishments. April 28th.-(1) A decree re-appointing Kwang-lin Jl to the post of superin tendent of the Hwai-ngan customs. (2) A decree ordering an investigation to be held into certain charges brought by the Censor Teng Ts'ing-lin against a Secretary in the Imperial Banqueting Court, whom he charges with usurpation of authority, peculation, and misappropriation of public funds. Also, with having neglected to report the loss of monies from the treasury of his department and keys under his charge, and, finally, with imposing a" weight allowance on all monies possing through his hands over and above that officially re cognised. With the exception of one or two documents of minor importance, the remainder of this day's Gazette is occupied with a memorial from Chow Sheng-chu, Su1Jervising Censor of the Board of Revenue, on the subject of the competition between H wai-ngan and Szech'wan salt. His memorial, which in a decree of .the 17th inst. was referred to the Board of Revenue for consideration with those of Shen Paocheng and Li Ho-nien on the same subject, contains little more than a repetition of the argumehts that have already been sum marised in earlier decrees. While endorsing more particularly the proposal for the admission of both Hwai-ngan and Szech'wan salt to the Hu-kwang area, submitted by Li Ho-nien, he urges the adoption of a longer period than was assigned by that officer to test the merits of his scheme. The memo rialist confidently expects that the proposed increase of taxation will result in an annual addition to the revenue of one million strings of cash. April 29th.-(Abstracts of memorials.) Li Ho-nien reports on the rainfall through out his province. Rescript : We are in deed consoled and gratified at the intelli gence. Let him continue to exert himself in the execution of measures of relief, that compassion may be shown for Our suffering people."

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(1) A decree referring to a representation from the Censor Ngow Yang-yiin, who, some time since, requested that a stop might be put to the practice of levying fees over and above the authorised amounts of land and grain tax in Kiangsu, to pro vide for the customary presents to the high officials at the four seasons, and on the occasion of their respective birthdays. The charge having been refeiTed to the Governor of the province, he declares that p1o mta contributions and illegal exactions were put a stop to during the incumbency of Tseng Kwoh-fan in 1862, and at the same time the amount of contributions that were to be paid towards office and working expenses were determined. Later on, in 1873, in consequence of the rise in the value of silver, the scale of cash payments was revised by Liu Kwen-yi, then Governor of the province, but no practices of the kind referred to are permitted. The present system has worked well and to the satisfaction of every one, and any sudden change would probably be the signal for a revival of old abuses. In consideration of the fact that the present system is working so satisfactorily, it is decreed that no departure need be made from the rates laid down in 1873, but care must be taken to prevent the acceptance or offering of presents by the official class. (2) A memorial by the Governor-General, Governor, and Literary Chancellor of Fuhkien, requesting the bestowal of a mark of honorary distinction upon the principal of an educational institution, whose teaching has been attended with the most satis factory results. In the year 1867, Y ang Ts'ing-shen, late Director of the Court of Imperial entertainments, and Shen Pao-cheng, now Governor-General of the Liang Kiang, converted an establishment at Foochow, for the publication and sale of standard works at wholesale prices (.m})* into an educational institution, to which they gave the name of the CMng I Shu Yuan, having for its object the higher edi.tcation of provin cial graduates and licentiates. Lin Hoh-nien, formerly Governor of Yiinnan, was invited to accept the post of principal or director of studies with a salary, and he has now performed these functions for a period of twelve years with the most unqualified success ; the names of successful candidates that he .has turned out at the provincial and metropolitan competitions filling several sheets. No less than sixteen of his pupils are now holding office in the Han-lin College, 74 [APRIL 29. the Supervisorate of Instruction, and the various Boards, or acting as district magistrates, all of whom owe their advancement to his teaching and guidance. A representation has lately been made to the memorialists, signed by Fan Ping-nien, Compiler of the Han-lin, and others, to the effect that in the province of Fuhkien students of the canonical books have hitherto been divided into two factions, ranging themselves amongst those who accept the expositions of the Sung schoolmen, or adhering to the interpretations of scholars of the Han dynasty. Lin Hoh-nien has steered a middle course, accepting the best teachings of either school, and refusing to declare himself an adherent of either party. In addition to the supervision and criticism of verse composition and other literary ex ercises, he gives monthly expositions of the canonical books, and superintends the production of essys thereon, endeavouring to advance sound learning and to give pro minence to the importance of establishing knowledge upon sure foundations. He has now been engaged for twelve years in this task, and the compiler begs that application may be made to His Majesty for the bestowal of an honorary distinction upon him. The memorialists, after quoting a statute to the effect that in the event of the principal of an educational establishment giving tangible results of a capacity for teaching, application shall be made to the Throne at the end of six years for the bestowal of a mark of honorary distinction, go on to state that in the present instance the person for whom this distinction is solicited has extended his labours over twice that period, and to a thorough knowledge of the subjects he teaches, adds a wonderful knack of imparting it to others, thus advancing the cause of learning, directing study in the right channel, and preventing any straying into the paths of heterodoxy. They feel it their duty, therefore, not to be silent on the subject of his merits, and beg His Majesty to confer upon him a distinguished form of reward, that due honor may be paid to literature and instruction and a stimulus given to aged scholars. Rescript. Let Li Hoh-nien he handed over to the Board for the bestowal of the highest marks of honorary distinction. NoTE.-The Shuh-kii 11= }ffl were established in three or four of the provin cial cities at the close of the T'aip'ing rebellion for the purpose of offering to the

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APRIL 29-MAY 1.] public at nominally wholesale prices educational and other works of a standard nature, which.were rapidly becoming scarce owing to the destruction of copies and type during the progress of the rebellion. The capital was in the first instance raised by public subscription, and the establishments are under official supervision, a tariff of prices being published which are not allowed to be exceeded. The type as a rule is excellent, and the prices of the books sold are much lower than those charged at the ordinary book shops. For the information of those who may feel inclined to avail themselves of these estab lishments, it may be added that they are to be found, amongst other places, at Wuch'ang, Nanking, and Hangchow. 75 April 30th.-(1) A decree in answer to a memorial from the Censor Li-fan, who states that a man called Chwang T'ing-hwa, a native of the Wan-p'ing district of the Shun-t'ien prefecture, who was formerly a gate-keeper in the Tartar General's Yamen at Foochow, is now wearing a button of the fifth grade. That his eldest son, Chwang Wei-kiin, has purchased the rank of second class Assistant Secretary of the Board of Revenue ; and that the second son has changed his name to Hwei-ch'ang, and under this name has fraudulently enrolled himself in the Manchu division of the Bordered Blue Banner corps, besides serving as Assistant Secretary on probation in the Board of Revenue. In addition to this, the last-named individual continued to perform his official duties after his mother's death, and wore no mourning for her. The father and sons are to be handed over to the Board of Punishments to be examined on the charge of assuming rank to which, from the mean origin of the former, they were not entitled. (2) A decree ordering that a number of officials, chiefly substantive or expectant department and district Magistrates, who are denounced by Ting Pao-cheng for persistently neglecting to refund arrears of public monies due from them, be deprived of rank and criminally proceeded against. Any family property they may possess is to be sequestered to the amount of their defalcations. (3) A Decree. Ying-kwei (Grand Secre tary and Supervisor-General of the Mongolian Superintendency), reports that his malady continues unabated, and requests permission to reti.re. As a special act of grace, and a mark of our particular regard, We permit him to retire upon his full salary, and to retain the title of Grand Secretary. (4) Memorial by the Board of Civil Office determining, in obedience to decree, the penalty that should be inflicted on Hwang T'i-fang, Supervisor of Instruction, for having intruded upon His Majesty accusations against the President of the Board of Revenue based upon no founda tion. They consider that this offence would be adequately punished by degradation to the extent of two steps of honorary official rank with leave to retain his post As the fault was one connected with his official duties, they beg to point out that the penalty of degradation can be commuted by a monetary payment. (See Gazettes of April 13th, 14th and 16th.) (5) King-teh reports the loss of the silver seal in use at the King-yiin gate of the palace. This seal is deposited in the office of the Secretary on duty in charge of the keys. It is placed in a box, the key of which is kept by the high officer whose turn it is for duty at the palace. There are, besides, duplicate keys to the press in which this box is deposited, and these are in the custody of the .Assistant Secretary and writer on duty. On the lOth of last month the secretary and writer on duty applied to memorialist for the key of the seal box, as the seal was required for use. They shortly returned in a state of conster nation to say that the seal had disappeared. The lock on the outer cupboard they found in proper order, but when they came to open the box they found that the lock had been wrenched off and the contents abstracted. The memorialist, as usual, solicits the infliction of a penalty upon himself, and requests that the secretary and writer on duty on the last occasion upon which the seal was used, may, with the two who reported its loss, be sent to the Board of Punishments for trial. (See Gazette of 12th April.) May lst.-(Abstracts of memorials.) SMn Pao-cheng reports that he proposes to devote the balance of the ftmds in hand for relief purposes to the expenses consequent upon the capture of locusts.-Rescript: It is noted. The locusts in Kiangnan have not yet been extirpated; let the Govemor-General direct his subordinates carefully to dig out and capture the grub, that it may not again come to maturity. (1) A decree referring to instructions issued in the Gazette of the 20th April to Li Hung-chang directing him to investigate a charge brought against two district magistrates and their subordinates of malpractices in connection with the distribution of famine relief. These charges having been reiterated by the Censor

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Li-fan, who requests that if they be proven the delinquents may be sentenced to capital pupishment, irrespective of the amount of their illicit gains, the Governor-General is directed to place them on their trial, and, if the accusations are substantiated, to apply to the Throne for sanction to the infliction of capital punishment upon them. The Censor further charges several officials in the provinces of Chihli, Shansi, Honan and SMnsi, with the suppression of facts relating to the distress in their respective jurisdictions, and mal-administration of famine relief. Reports are called for from the high authorities concerned, who are to denounce the offenders if the facts alleged be true. The Censor further states that in the prefecture of P'ing-yang in Shansi, great numbers have died from want, whilst large stores were actually lying in the granaries ready for distribution. This and other charges are to be enquired into by the Governor and famine Commissioner, and a careful report submitted. (2) A decree in answer to a memorial from SMn Pao-cMng, directing that the name of the late Li Lien-hiu, formerly Director of the Grand Court of Revision, and subsequently Literary Chancellor of Fuhkien and K.iangsu, who died in the reign of the Emperor Hien Feng, be enrolled in the list of literary worthies kept by the State Historiographer's Office, and that an account of his life and literary achievements be supplied to the same office, for the compilation of his official biography. 76 (3) A memorial by Ting Pao-cMng Governor-General of Szech'wan, reporting the result of an enquiry into the circumstances of the escape of two criminals under sentence of death from the provincial prison. After careful enquiry it has been ascertained that the escape was effected under cover of a dark and stormy night; while the watchmen on duty were asleep; the prisoners having wrenched off their manacles and employed them as levers to force asunder the wooden bars of their prison ; they then dug a hole at the foqt of the inner wall through which they crawled, and climbed by means of a tree on to the top of the outer wall, from which they jumped down and decamped. It was established beyond doubt that neither the jail warden nor the lower prison officers aided or abetted them in their escape, but, be that as it may, that they did manage to get away was owing to a temporary want of supervision on the part of the two gaolers, with whom the law must take its course. They have accordingly been sentenced to [MAY 1-2. 100 blows and banishment for three years. The watchmen on duty are to receive '80 blows and wear the ca.ngue for two months, and the jail warden, who has already been cashiered, is to be detained for the purpose of assisting in the capture of the escaped criminals. If at the end of five years they still remain at large the question of further punishment will be taken into considera tion. May 2nd.-(1) A Decree. Inasmuch as, while the capital had been visited with successive falls of refreshing rain, the provinces of Sha.nsi and Honan were still in urgent need thereof, on the 24th ult. We again offered up earnest prayers for rain. Li Ho-nien now reports that universal and soaking rain has fallen throughout his jurisdiction, but We are still without news of a. similar downpour in Shansi, and Our anxiety for the sufferings of the people continues to be intense. We have now been honored with Their Majesties' commands to the effect that although the Comptrollers of the Imperial Household are under orders to exercise economy and retrenchment, time will be required before results can be shown, and in the meantime the people are crying aloud for food and the alleviation of their distress will admit of no delay. The office of the Imperial Household is therefore called upon, as a preliminary step, to provide several tens of thousands of taels, no matter how difficult a task this may be, for distribution in the provinces of Honan and Shansi. Though well aware of the enor mous sums that are required for the efficient administration of relief, Their Majesties cannot relax Their energies or cease to concern Themselves abput the sufferings of the people [because They are unable fully to cope with the disaster] that has befallen Their people. Let the comptrollers of the Imperial Household, in reverent obedience to Their Majesties' commands, at once devise measures for the appropriation of the sums required. (2) A decree sanctioning the erection of a. memorial temple in Anhwei to the late .Kiang Ch'ang-kwei, provincial commander in-chief, who did great service against the rebels in Kwangsi, CMkiang, Kiangsu, and Anhwei. (3) A decree orcleringMao-lin, Comptroller of the Imperial Household, and his brother Ts'ing-lin, Warden of the Imperial Parks, to be handed over to the Board for the adjudication of a penalty, the cl1arge of unauthorised appropriation of Government temple lands having been fully proven against them. The priest who sanctioned the appropriation, with a Yamen clerk who

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MAY 2-3. has been induced by Mao-lin to come forward in the matter, are also to be punished. (See Gazette of 3rd and 7th April.) (4) A memorial by Chu Yi-tseng, Censor of the Kiangsi circuit, who points out that a district Magistrate was lately gazetted to a post after his death, and requests that the clerks responsible for the fraud may be severely punished. It is well known to everyone that candidates awaiting selection for appointments in the provinces are obliged to present themselves in person at the Board on the first day of the month, with their credentials, and that the name of anyone biling to do so is struck off the list, although his turn has arrived for taking up an appointment. In the list of selections gazetted for the second moon of the present year, memorialist was astonished to see that Liang-cMn, a lianlciin of the inner division of the White Banner, had drawn an appointment as district Magistrate in Szech'wan. Now, Liang-chen had obtained the degree of metrop::>litan graduate at the same time as memorialist, who knows for a fact that he died on the 29th day of the first moon of the present year ; how then could he have presented himself at the Board on the first of the second moon 1 If he had not so presented himself, he had no right to draw lots for the province to which he was to be assigned ; if he did present himself, it must naturally have been in the person of a substitute. That there has been underhand work somewhere is evident, and the memorialist prays that a searching enquiry may be made, and the offending clerks, to whose machinations he attributes the fraud, immediately brought to book. 77 May 3rd.-(1) A decree ordering a further series of intercessory prayers for rain on the 7th inst. Although reports have been received from Honan of a plenteous and universal downpour, news of a similar nature has not arrived from Shansi, and for many days past the rain that earlier fell in the capital has not been succeeded by further showers. His Majesty will proceed in person to the T'ai Kao Tien. (2) A Decree. Pao-t'ing, Tutor of the Imperial Academy, submits a scheme for raising funds to meet expenditure on account of famine relief by the issue of Government bonds. We have already sanctioned a proposal submitted by the Governor and Famine Commissioner of Honan that money shall be borrowed at interest from the wealthier people and repaid within three years out of the land tax. The bonds which the Tutor now proposes to issue _are to be of the value of Tls. 10,000, Tls. 1,000, and Tls. 100 respectively. The scrip is to be stamped with the seal of the Lieut.-Governor, and to bear an endorsement to the effect that it is redeemable in ten years without interest. Bonds are to be supplied to the various district Magistrates for issue to purchasers, who will be entitled to the bestowal of memorial boards or honorary distinction in proportion to the amount of stock they hold. Persons securing a large sale of bonds by persuasion and exhortation, should also, on the recommendation of officials or gentry, be rewarded with honorary distinctions. Committees of respectable gentry are to be entrusted with the management of all matters connected with the receipt and payment of money, that it may not have to pass through the hands of clerks and official underlings. When the time comes for the redemption of these bonds, holders of scrip are to apply at the various magis tracies in person for the money, provision for the repayment of which is to be made beforehand out of the land tax. Grain will also be accepted, and scrip issued in accordance with its monetary value. Let Li Hung-chang, Yen King-ming, Tseng Kwoh-ts'iian, Li Hoh-nien, T'uh Tsung yi:ng, and Yuan Pao-Mng consider this scheme and report on its practicability without delay. Let it also be communicated by the Board of Revenue to the other provincial governments, that they also may consider its application. (3) The Court of Censors report the presentation of the following petition by one Sun Tsung-mei, a native of the T'an district in Shantung :-"My age is 60 years, and I live at a village called in the T'an district, where I follow the calling of a farmer. One day in the beginning of last year, a man called Wang-twan, with whom my cousin was constantly quarrelling, applied to him for the loan of some money, and on my cousin refusing to accommodate him, he killed him and robbed the house of ten strings of cash. My cousin's son applied at the magistracy for the arrest of the murderer, but the underlings had already been bribed, and instead of listen ing to his appeal, locked him up and gave orders (or the funeral to be proceeded with. Some months later, my son, having heard that the murderer was concealed in the house of a man called Ni, laid information at the magistracy. Instead of arresting the man, as he expected, they were very indignant with my son, and gave him two hundred blows with the whip. I then complained at the Prefect's Yamen, with the result that my house was surrounded by a body of soldiers from the

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Magistrate's Yamen, who searched my ])remiscs and cruelly beat my wife with the backs of their carrying off my own brother to the l\iagistrate's Yamen. I then appealed again to the Prefect, and, subsequently, to the Lieutenant-Governor, but on each occasion I was referred to the Magistrate, until, driven to desperation, I have come to Peking to lay my plaint." After summarising the statements of the petitioner in the stereotyped manner, the memorialists ])Oint out that he l1as neglected to take his case to the Governor of the province. The decree has already been published. May 4th.-(Court Circular.) Ts'ing-lin ]mys his respects on his return to Peking wit.h the sacred portrait. (Probably that of the late Emperor.) 78 (1) Postscript memorial by Ming-an, VicePresident of the Board of Punishments at Moukden, re])Orting the receipt of a joint communication from the Deputy Lieut.Govervors of Ninguta and .Altch'uka, informing him that a Manchu captain had been guilty of arresting innocent persons, and extorting from them a confession of guilt by unlawful modes of punishment. This officer, Pao-ch'eng by nrune, l1ad, at the instigation of one of his soldiers, arrested a party of eight traders, who had with them the sum of $400 and three large carts, which he forced them to confess they had stolen. On the case being sent on to Nih guta for re-hearing by the Lieut.-Governor, it was found that the men were traders from Hwun-ch'un on the borders of Corea, in the employ of Russians, and were on their way to Hai-shen-wei ru1d other places to trade and bring back goods. .At the end of last year they made up a party, and having hired carts from a Manclm, at H wun-ch'un, called Fuh, were on their way to Ningut4 when they were seized. They had not been guilty of robbery or any lawless acts, and the confession they were made to sign was proved to be false, as the establishment from which the carts were said to be stolen declrued that they had lost none. Their respectability having been guaranteed by shopkeepers at Hwun-ch'un ru1d Ninguta, they were set at liberty on their own re oognisances, ru1d the $400 returned to them, the captain being at the srune time placed on his trial. .As he has once before been convicted of an offence of a similar nature, it is recommended that he be dismissed and for ever debarred from future employment in an official capacity. May 5th.-(1) .A Decree. Shen Pao-chilng memorialises reqilcsting that, in, theinterests of economy, 01dcrs may be given for [MAY 3-5. the cessation of the provincial examinations for military degrees. The institution of military examinations has existed from time immemorial, and has never failed to draw forth talent, whether in the direction of defence or protection against intrusion, and Shen Pao-cheng in suddenly proposing, as a measure of economy, so swee11ing a change of ancient regulations as the aboli tion of military examinations, assuredly displays an ignorance of the essentials of good GoYernment. Let him therefore be censured forthwith. His proposal need not be considered. (2) .A decree appointing Liu Kin-t'ang to the post of Director of the Court of Sacrificial Worship. (Liu Kin-t'ang, in the decree of March 16th, announcing the Kashgarian successes, was ])laced first on his list for promotion.) (3) Memorial by T'an Clmng-lin, Governor of Shensi, reporting the death of Chang-ying, late Lieut.cGovernor of Shansi, who last year received His Majesty's com mands to assist in the administration of famine relief in his native province. .After he had personally consulted with the me morialist as to the ,best system to be fol lowed, it was decided that in view of the comparative magnitude of the distress in T'ung Chow ])refecture, he should go there and establish an agency in the prefectural town, superintending in person the forwarding and distribution of supplies. He accordingly made a tour in the eastern por-tion of the province, visiting each departmental and district town to ascertain the amount of distress, and on his arrival at T'ung Chow established the agency in question, after which he returned to the capital. He then proceeded to inspect the western portions of the ])rovince, but caught cold on the journey, and was laid up, seriously ill, at Fu-p'ing. Memo rialist sent persons to see him and insist on his remaining quiet, officers being at the same time deputed to carry on his work, that he might feel at liberty to return for a season to his native ])lace, and take the repose he needed. Chang-ying, however, refused to do so, on the ground that as soon as he was better it was l1is duty to continue his tour of inspection. Sad to relate, he died at Fu-p'ing on the 21st March. The Magistrate, who had several times been directed to visit l1im, reports that as his end approached his last words were an expression. of regret that he had been unable to show his gratitude for the sacred bounty of which he had been the re cipient, and had failed in carrying through

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MAY 5-G. J to the end the distribution of relief. His elder son had hastened to minister to his as soon as he heard of his illness ; there is another son, at home, quite a youth, and the family will be left in great poverty. The memorialist prays that, in accordance with precedents which he quotes, His Majesty will be to recognise the merits of the deceased by the bestowal of posthumous honors. (Granted by decree earlier published.) 6th.-(1) A decree in answ .er to a memorial from Chang P'ei-lun, Expositor of the Han-lin College, who submits that one of the first principles of good Government consists in the selection of proper agent.s for its administration. At the present time, either the Court, while re cognising talent, has failed to employ it to the best advantage, or the Ministers of State, aware where it is to be found, are not altogether open in pointing it out. He complains that the decree on this subject issued on the 17th April was too concise, and requests further enunciation of the prohibition against hindering the advance of capable men, or the acceptance of bribes in return for recommendations. The State is in need of talented men to assist in the administration of Government, and We are unceasingly on the watch for it on every side. Whenever it becomes necessary to select an officer for a post, care and discretion are unfailingly exercised, with the object of employing talent in the direction in which it will best find scope. In many instances officers of tried experi ence and ability apply for permission to vacate their posts, that they may minister to their aged parents, or on account of sickness and ill-health. We cannot refuse their applications, and as competent men l1ave to be selected to take their place, decrees are promulgated from time to time inviting them to come forward, that We may have around us officers on whom We can rely. The promulgation of these de crees is a prerogative to w l1ich Our Ministers are not entitled, but it is none the less a part of their duty to select men to serve their Sovereign, and if among their sub ordinates there be any of more than average talent and probity, who are worthy of being employed in any special capacity, let them, in reverent obedience to Our earlier decree, fairly and honestly recommend them, irrespective of personal likes or dislikes. In complaining of the conciseness of the decree in question, the Tutor displays the narrowness of his views. Some decrees are designed to convey an iuj unction in minute and definite terms, others to ex7() press general ideas ; they are not formed after one particular pattern. 'l'here is no occasion for a fresh ennnciation of the decree, which is already sufficiently explicit. (2) Memorial by the Censor Ts'ao Pingche, suggesting the removal of the agencies for dispensing rice gruel in Peking to the outer, or Chinese, city. (For decree see Gcw.ette of April 18th.) (3) Postscript memorial by the same officer suggesting that precautionary mea sures be taken against threatened distress from floods in the South. He com mences with the assertion that one of the essentials of good government is an appreciation of dangers and misfortunes particularly to be guarded against, and the value of precautions taken depends on their completion before the advent of the particular evil they are destined to meet. Last year, the ravages of the unprecedented famine which destroyed so many millions of souls in Shansi and Honan were due entirely to an utter absence of precautionary measures. He has now heard that in the provinces of Kiangsu, Chekiaug, Kiangsi, Fuhkien, and Kwangtung, agricultnre has in many instances been suspended in con sequence of unceasing rain, or the seed, having been planted) has rotted in the ground, giving cause for serious apprehen sions of a failure of food supplies. If then, out of abundance, provision has not been made against want, what response can be made when relief is claimed 1 The memo rialist, therefore, begs His Majesty to instruct the high provincial authorities con cerned to consider well wl1at steps tl1ey can take for the supply of deficiencies and the rescue of possible victims. They should, in the first place, see that their granaries for the storage of surplus grain are fully stocked, and then they might encourage local contributionS of money to be expended in the purchase of foreign grain. The conditions of the various pro vinces are so dissimilar that the memorialist does not venture to indicate the preciSe manner in which these contributions should be set on foot, that being a matter best left to the individnal discretion of the high authorities in each province. (For decree see Gazette of April 18th.) (4) Postscript memorial by Yen-hti, Military Lieutenant-Governor of J eh-ho, to the effect that all reports and documents connected with the various Mongol Banner corps under his command l1.ave to be sent in in Mongolian, the use of Chinese characters being prohibited. Of late years, these reports have increased four fold, and although there are one or two translators specially

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told off for the rendering of them into Chinese, their Chinese itself is so unintelligible that almost every translation has to be queried some three or four times before any sense can be got out of it. It may justly be inferred, therefore, that their rendering of the Mongolian text is very confused. The memorialist does not speak or read Mongolian himself, and is entirely dependent on his Mongolian secretaries for aid. He trusts, therefore, that the place of Ch'un-ling, whose time of service has expired, may be taken by an officer thoroughly conversant with Mongolian. Upon his arrival, the memorialist will carefully scrutinise his attainments in the Mongol tongue, and if these should appear to him to come short of thorough know ledge, he shall request the appointment of another in his stead. May 'ith.-(1) A decree granting Ting Jih-ch'ang, Governor of Fuhkien, leave to retire on account of ill-health. (2) Postscript memorial by the Censor Chang Kwan-chun, requesting that the numerous officials holding metropolitan appointments whose services have been applied for in the famine provinces, or who have been retained in their native provinces to assist in relief work, may be allowed to draw their salaries. Memorialist understands that the Board of Civil Office, under some regulation or other, is stopping their salaries, and he thinks it unfair that men who are engaged in so good and useful a work, and are employed in the public service just as much as if they were in the capital, should be made to suffer for their zeal. Such treatment is not calculated to induce others to come forward. (Sanctioned by decree earlier issued.) The remainder of this day's Gazette is occupied with memorials which have already been summarised in decrees. 80 May 8th. -(1) A Decree. Some time since the Censor Ying-ktin reported that a retired eunuch called Su had purchased a house and plot of land at the town of Sha huh, in which last year some of the troops stationed in the town had dug up over Tls. 10,000. The officers, in their greed and avarice, had endeavoured to get the money from the soldiers, and thereby nearly caused a serious tumult. This year, more than Tls. 100,000 have been dug out, and. a vault full of silver was subsequently dts covered. The Censor had been informed that the eunuch had reported this dis covery to Their Majesties, who had been pleased to allow him to keep the money. We thereupon despatched officers to Sha hoh to make and they now .... [MAY 6-8. report that altogether Tls. 16,600 have been excavated from the garden or court-yard attached to the house purchased by the eunuch, and not, as was stated, over Tls. 100,000. The eunuch Su-teh deposed that, not daring to touch the money without authority, he had reported its discovery to Their Majesties, who were graciously pleased to bestow it upon him ; as for the vault, no such had been found. He was perfectly willing to surrender the money, and begged the officers once more to memorialise His Majesty on his behalf, praying Him graciously to accept it. With regard to the Censor's story of the money being forced from the soldiers by torture, they find that a soldier and a representative of the eunuch both went to the subPrefect's to report that certain soldiers, whose names were given, had dis covered money and secreted it. The sub Prefect, after hearing the case, decided that the money was to be restored to the owner of the land, and punished the soldiers who had secreted it. The eunuch Su-teh having dug up money on his land, reported the discovery to Their Majesties, but did not tell the truth about the amount dis covered, and Their Majesties were pleased to bestow it upon him. The officers sent to investigate the matter, having now submitted their report, We have received Their Majesties' commands that Tls. 14,000 of the money shall be handed over to the Governor of Shun-t'ien, to be expended in sending back famine refugees to their homes. The balance, Tls. 2,600, is -to be given to the eunuch. (2) A decree in answer to a memorial from the Governor and Famine Commissioner of Shansi, ordering the dismissal and trial of a department magistrate and others, charged with appropriation of relief funds, or carelessness in the distribution of the same. (3) A decree appointing Wu Jt Acting Governor of Fuhkien. (Wu ... is superintendent of the Foochow Arsenal.) (4) Memorial by Li Hoh-nien, Acting Governor of Honan, reporting the trial of a. woman for the murder of her mother-in law and her execution by the ling ch'e A woman called Su lived with her husband and mother-in-law in the Hwai-ning district. Su Man-t'ang, a. near kinsman and neighbour, was on terms with the husband Su Hw-h, to whose house he often went, and on many of these occasions the wife was present. In the middle of last year, Su Hio-li went

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MAY 8-10.] away t.o look for work, and soon after his departure u Man-t'ang went to see his wife and began to sport with her, the result being an illicit connection which was often resumed unbeknown to the mother in-law. One day, however, when she had returned rather suddenly from a chat with a neighbour, she caught the pair, beat the girl, and soundly rated the man, forbidding him the house and promis ing to let the husband know of their doings on his return. This she did, and the consequence was that the wife got a second beating. The husband again went away to work, and one day, shortly after his depar ture, the wife was standing in the doorway when Su Man-t'ang passed by. She told him how she had fared, and in reply to an invitation from the man to make an as signation with him, declared that her mother-in-law kept so strict a watch over her that it was impossible to evade her vigilance. Irritated, and fired with lust, Su Man-t'ang resolved to compass the old woman's death, that he might come and go to the house without restraint. He im parted his plans to the woman, and she agreed to aid him in his crime. Accord ingly, one night while the husband was still absent, he came stealthily to the house about the third watch, and learn ing from his paramour that the old woman was fast sleep, went into her room and battered in her head with a cudgel, killing her then and there, after which he went back to his house leaving the woman be hind. She was seized with fear and dared not stay, so she ran away and hid herself. The neighbours soon discovered the crime that had been committed, and sent for the son, who immediately-returned and gave information to the authorities, resulting in the arrest of the guilty parties. The wife was sentenced to death by the slicing pro cess, and the sentence was immediately carried out in a public place in the pro vincial city, the scene of the crime being beyond the limit to which criminals con demned to be executed at the scene of their crime are required to be sent. Su Man-t'ang would have been sentenced to decapitation, but he died before the con clusion of the trial, as did also the husband of the woman, upon whom also a penalty would have been inflicted for neglecting to keep his wife under proper restraint. May 9th.-(1) A Decree. The Board of Civil Office submit the penalties which, ill obedience to decree, they have determined should be inflicted on Mao-lin, Comptroller of the Imperial Household, and 'l's'ing-lin his brother. The penalty of dismissal ad-81 judicated by the Board is inadequate for so serious an offence as appropriation of Government temple land on which is an altar w hereon sacrifices are offered for rain. Let Mao-lin and Ts'ing-lin be dismissed and sent to serve on the military post roads, in expiration of their misconduct. Let the clerks be dealt with as the Board propose. (2) A decree approving the action of Tseng Kwoh-ts'iian, Governor of Shansi, who has summarily executed two granary clerks entrusted with the issue of supplies to relief agencies, who appropriated fifty piculs of grain in tmnsit11. The summary ex ecution of these clerks should be a sufficient warning to others, but the Governor is directed to be on the watch for offences of a similar nature, and to treat them with equal se-verity. (3) A memorial from Tso Tsung-t'ang re questing His Majesty to recall the patent of nobility confened upon him in the decree of March 15th. On receipt of this decree, which reached him on the 26th March, having been forwarded express by the Board of War, he was moved to tears of gratitude for the honor that had been con ferred upon him. After referring in grateful terms to the coniidence 11.nd favors which have been bestowed upon him during three successive reigns, raising him from obscurity to his present position, he disclaims any merit for the successes he has achieved, which he attributes solely to the wise counsels of the Court. (For decree see Gazette of April 22nd.) (4) The Governor of Kiangsu requests the bestowal of honorary rewards upon certain households who have come forward with additional contributions of land in aid of the charitable granaries in the provincial capital. The land, amounting in all to over 8,000 nww, and valued at Tls 20 per mow, was subscribed long since, but, from differ ent causes, many of the individuals failed to obtain the customary distinctions. A list of those still alive, amounting to fifty six in number, is submitted for approval.Referred to the Board of Civil Office. May lOth.-(1) A decree appointing Kwang-show JJf ljandCh'eng-lin,Comp trollers of the Imperial Household. (2-3) Decree appointing Kwoh-hiu (i 1 and Shu-nan W fij to the posts of Supervising Censor of the Board of Works, and Censor of the Eastern division of the capital, respectively. (4) A memorial from the Governor General of the Liang-kiang, and the Governor of Kiangsu, with reference to an

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application from the Governor of Honan, made some time since, that the Ti-cheng, or money paid in commutation of the taxes in kind, due to Peking from the two districts of Tan-yang and Kin-t'an, inclusive of the 20 per cent. reduction for local military purposes, should be applied to the purchase of grain for his province. The Board of Revenue refused to sanction the appropriation of the Peking subsidy, on the ground of the impoverished condition of the Imperial exchequer, but referred the question of the appropriation of the 20 per cent. reduction to the Kiangsu Governor ment. The Governor-General and Governor accordingly applied to the Financial Commissioner, who now states that the money demanded forms a portion of the regular income of the province, the funds of which are at a terribly low ebb. He has a fixed expenditure of one million several hundred thousand taels to provide for annually, exclusive of special and extra items, and, to meet this, only Tls. 940,000 of revenue were colleCted last year, to which is to be added Tls. 92,000 monetary com mutation of taxes in kind. Hence it may be seen that there is a large discrepancy between the income and expenditure of the province, which is not in a position to lend a single candmeen. The condition of affairs, however, in Honan being so distressing, the people not knowing each morning where they shall turn for their evening meal-the Board having, moreover, requested His Majesty to order the appropriation of the sums in question-the Commissioner dare not but make an effort to contribute some thing, however trifling, in aid of the sufferers, and at least prevent their utter extermination. He proposes, therefore, that the sum of Tls. 18,000 odd, the equivalent of the 20 per cent. reduction of the monetary com mutation due from the district in question, be lent to Honan, with the proviso that when taxation recommences in that prov ince this shall be the first debt to be paid. The memorialists support the proposal of the Commissioner, and have advised the Governor of Honan of the amount with which they are prepared to supply him.Rescript: Noted. (5) Postscript memorial by the same officers, consenting to a demand from the Governor of Hon!l.n for the use of the balance of a fund for the relief of refugees, amounting to some Tls. 36,000. It was the intention of memorialists to retain this sum as a reserve upon which to draw in the event of any widespread want, or to meet the expenses attendant upon the capture of locusts. These, it 82 [MAY 10-11. appears from reports received, have been in the grub stage in various portions of the province, and orders have been given to encourage the extirpation of the grub, by purchasing it when produced in sufficient quantity. The sums expended in this manner have hitherto been advanced by the local officials, who have sent in their accounts later on, so, as there is no immediate demand for the money, itshall be lent to Honan, where so many millions are clamour ing for food, and know not each day from whence their next meal will come. It is only right that the relative magnitude of the two evils should be weighed one against the other, and that which admits of delay be made to give place to the more urgent need. Tls. 6,000 shall be kept back .to pay for the capture of locusts, but the remainder shall be sent forward, with the proviso that this shall be one of the first sums to be repaid upon the resumption of taxation in Honan. May llth.-(Court Circular.) The Gov ernor of Shun-t'ien reports a fall of rain in the capital of upwards of three inches of saturation. (1) A decree in answer to a memorial from the Censor Li Kia-loh, craving sanc tion for the erection of a memorial temple to the gentry, common people, and women who met their deaths on the occasion of the occupation of the An-yang district in Honan by rebels in 1863. That these people should have sold their lives in self defence, or parted with them as the only means of preserving their chastity, is highly deserving of commiseration. The Censor, being a native of Honan, has parti cular facilities for obtaining information which is doubtless accurate. We command the proper Board, therefore, to bestow posthumous marks of approbation upon all whom they shall find upon enquiry have not so been honored. They will also sanction the erection of a memorial temple by private subscription. (2) A decree in answer to a second memorial from the same Censor, calling attention to the permission which is granted to high provincial authorities, to crave a special mark of approbation from His Majesty in the case of commendable exam ples of filial piety, conjugal devotion, or chastity, and requesting that special orders may be given to the authorities of the famine provinces, in which many noble acts of devotion and filial piety must have been called forth by the sufl"ering that has been endured, to report all such to His Majesty, and request the bestowal of marks of ap probation. The request is granted, and the

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MAY 11-12.] high authorities concerned are instructed to take note. (3) The Governor of CMkiang reports the result of an investigation into the circumstances of the publication of a libel lous pamphlet, accusing the LieutenantGovernor, Literary Chancellor, Salt Com missioner, and others, of receiving bribes and indulging in various other malpractices, issued by one Ts'ao-lin, an ex-graduate deprived of his degree for persistent nonattendance at the periodical examinations. These officials had incurred his enmity in consequence of decisions adverse to his interests in lawsuits in which he was im plicated. The man has since died, and the pamphlet has been suppressed. (4) Memorial by the Court of Censors forwarding an appeal lodged by Tseng Shao hti.n, a cashiered magistrate, who states that he is 40 years of age, and is a native of K wangsi, where he distinguished himself in operations against the rebels, and was recommended for appointment to a magistracy. He was sent to Kiangsu to await his turn for employment, and served in that province for over twenty years, being employed on special duty at Soochow, during which time he had never had anything against him. In October last, the Lieutenant-Governor sent him an intimation that the Kii-jung Magistracy was vacant, and as his turn had come for em ployment, the appointment should fall to him. He then went to Nanking to pay his respects to the Governor-General, having first seen the Lieutenant-Governor, after which he returned to Soochow. Two months afterwards he read in the Gazette that the Governor-General had applied for his dismissal on the ground that he was infected with the vice of opium smoking. He immediately petitioned the Governor General, and applied to be put to the test, following up his application by a second one a few days later, but it was only at the expira ';ion of a month that a reply was vouchsafed. It was to the following effect: If the officer considers himself aggrieved, he should lodge an appeal at the Court of Censorate. If the Governor-General has not Rdhered to the truth in his denunciation, it is his duty quietly to await the penalties that will be inflicted upon him. He cannot take back what he has said." The appellant, therefore, as he was not an opium-smoker, felt it his duty, in conformity with the Governor-General's reply, to appeal against his denunciation. (For decree see Gczettc of 22nd Apr_il.) May 12th.-(1) Memorial by Li Hohnien, acting-Governor of Honan, and Y uan 83 Pao-heng, Famine Commissioner, reporting on the rainfall throughout the province. They commence with the remark that the terrible distress that has prevailed in the province in consequence of successive years of drought has long been known and appre ciated by the sacred intelligence, and the efforts made by Their Majesties the Empresses and the Emperor, by curtailment of food and earnest prayer, to entreat for the lives of millions of their subjects, has implanted in the memorialists a deep sense of respectful awe. Since the commencement of Spring they have on repeated occa sions offered up prayers for rain, and although here and there were places in which a little fell, the quantity was quite insuf ficient to secure thorough moisture of the ground. After the middle of March, altars were prepared for continuous services to which the memorialists used to repair on foot both morning and evening, accompanied by their colleagues and subordinates, as well as the gentry and elders, to offer up earnest and heartfelt prayers. They also sent an officer to bring water from the Ts'ing Lung Ttmg, or Blue Dragon's cave, in the Hiu-wu district, to be offered in liba tions. On the I'tth April and following days heavy clouds overspread the sky, and a little rain fell, till, on the 20th, about three inches of saturation had been obtained in the capital, and during the 22nd, 23rd and 24th, more than another four inches fell. Reports were received of a similar nature from the surrounding departments and districts. Those in the southern portion of the -province had announced, at different times last month, that showers had fallen, and they now send word that a fall has been obtained varying from five inches to complete saturation. From the pre fecture and districts to the North of the river, rain is reported to have fallen after the 21st April to a saturation of from one to three while the weather continues gloomy and overcast. In the Ho-an prefecture the fall varies from two inches to complete saturation, and only Shan chow remains with a fall of two inches. The whole province may therefore be said to have obtained some moisture, the arrhal of which after so long a drought will enable the sowing of the autumn crop, sooner or later, to be proceeded with, as well as the second sowing of wheat. All relief work must continue to be prosecuted with vigour, and then the people will have some hopes of obtaining food hereafter, and the general anxiety will be to a certain extent allayed. Several millions of souls on either side of the -great river are dopendaut on this

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refreshing downpour for a turn in the tide of their fortunes, which is entirely attributable to the unceasing solicitude and exertions of the Sacred Master, who has moved [the pity of Heaven], and caused th.e whole provin?e, officials and people alike, to clap the1r hands for joy. The memorialists have given orders that any further downpour shall be announced by the officers of the districts so favoured and on receipt of intelligence of nature they will report the same to His Majesty. (For rescript see Gazette of .April 29th.) 84 (2) In a postscript memorial the same officers report that on perusal of the annals of the Hiu-wu and Wu-tui districts with a view to revision, they find that the .the Blue Dragon cave mamfested 1ts d1vme powers in the latter district during the reign of the Emperor Yung-loh of the Ming dynasty, after which it responded frequently to prayers for rain. .Again, in the 17th year of Kia-k'ing, when the region to the north of the river was visited by drought, the magistrate of the above-mentioned district we.nt to the cave of the village in wh1eh 1t 1s s1tuated to pray for rain, which came down simultaneously with the arrival of his cart ; whereupon the people raised a temple in honor of the Dragon God, whereat they worship in the spring and autumn. Many times since has the deity manifested itself in answer to prayer, and on this last occasion when an officer was sent there to pray, rain was ohtained a few days afterwards. The memorialists therefore pray his Majesty to sanction the preseuLation of a memorial board to the temple, in recognition of the divine interposition manifested by the presiding deity. May 13th.-(1) .A decree in answer to a representation from the Censor Yii Lu, sanctioning the compilation of the official biography of Ying Han, late military Lieutenant-Governor of Urumtsi, by the State Historiographer's Office, and the erection of memorial temples to him at Fllng-yaug, Show-chow, Suh-chow, Fu-yang, Meng ch'eng, and Wo-yang. Ying Han for many years exhibited his energy in the province of .Anh'wei, and in his various successful operations against the nienfei in the years 1868 and 1869 acquired a fame and reputation that was assuredly well deserved. We grant the Censor's request.-Let the proper Board take note. (2) .A decree conferring the appointment of Warden of the Imperial parks, recently vacated by Ts'ing Lin, who was sent into (MAY 12-14. servitude on the military post roads, upon Sung Kiian if"& 33l. (3) Memorial from Kwang K'eh, Tartar General of SMnsi, reporting the receipt the provincial treasury of Tls. 5,000 m s1lver and government bills for 12 715 strings of cash as an instalment of 'the arrears due to the troops under his com mand. This sum has been obtained in con sequence of the urgent representations made to His Majesty by memorialist on the debilitated condition of the Manchu troops under his command, owing to want of the means of sustenance, which called forth a decree that had the desired effect though the Govenwr declared himself sorely put to it to find funds in the present exhausted condition of the J?rovincial ex chequer. Including widows, orphans and soldiers in receipt of pensions, 7 1991 per sons have to be provided for, ar:d the receipt of these funds was like a new lease of life to them, for which they have to thank I.mperial The money has been d1str1buted, and w11l help them to tide over their difficulties for a time. With so much distress and poverty prevailing amongst the troops, extra care and vigilance is required ?n the part of their officers, who have been mstructed to keep them well in hand. The memorialist has written to the Governor to try and devise some means by which the trool?s. may be from their present cond1t10n of d1stress aud supplies be for warded the that the importance of the mterests mvolved require. The present scale of pay is perfectly inadequate a:nd really not for the troops hve upon, but the questwn of augmentation must be left for better times. (4) .Wen Ko, ?f Shantung, reports m a postscnpt memonal that he and his colleagues have raised by subscription the sums of Tls. 10,000 which has been sent to Honan, and a further contribution of Tls. 7,120 for Shansi, to which proVince and SMnsi they had before sent Tls. 32,880. May 14th.-(.Abstracts of Memorials) Yen-hii reports the completion of tl;e ceremonies attendant upon the restoration of the portraits of the Sacred .Ancestry to the_ir position in the Hall, and the in sta:llatwn of the portrait of His late Majesty. (1) .A Decree. Yuan Pao-heng, VicePresident of the Board of Punishments commenced his official career in the lin College, and, some years since, gave repeat?d instances of his military prowess in operatl?ns against the in Kiangsu, .Anhwe1, and other provmces. .After this he was employed in the grain transport

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MAY 14.] service in Shensi, where his duties were conducted in an efficient and satisfactory manner. He had now been despatched to Honan to assist in the organisation of measures of relief, and had displayed a particular capacity for patient endurance, and conscientiousness in the performance of his work. The unexpected intelligence that he has passed away has moved Us with feelings of the profoundest pity, and We command that the highest marks of posthumous distinction that the law allots to Vice-Presidents of Boards be conferred upon him, and that all official penalties recorded against his name be withdrawn. The proper Yamen will ascer tain what these honors should be and report to Us, and the Board of Civil Office will present his son Yuan She-hiung to Us at the expiration of his term of moun1ing. (2) A decree conferring the following appointments :-Reader of the Han-lin College, Hing Lien lf{t. Expositor of the Han-lin College, Kwei Nga.ng (3) A decree ordering a fresh series of intercessory services for rain, at the various State Temples, in which His Majesty will take a part. Copic;ms and universal rain has been vouchsafed in the neighbourhood of the capital in answer to prayers offered on the 7th inst., but as yet no reports have arrived of rain having fallen in any quantity in Shansi, where the people are in such dire need of it. (4) A memorial by the Censor Hit Shang hwa, on abuses in connection with palR.ce expenditure, suggested by the decrees tlmt have lately appeared on the subject. The efforts that '!'heir Majesties are making to reduce expenditure within the palace, by reduction of meals and other means, have called forth the gratitude and respect of all Their Majesties' servants and subjects, from whom, on the other hand, the declaration by the Comptrollers of the-Imperial House hold of their inability to effect any econ omies, has provoked exclamation of regret ful surprise. Since the commencement of the reign of T'ung-chih, when the enormous expenditure in connection with Yuan-ming yuan (the Summer Palace) ceased to exist, it was the universal opinion that the ex penses of the Imperial Household would be reduced by at least one-half. Instead-of this being the case, however, the memo rialist hears that the present annual expenditure is several times greater than that of the reigns of Tao-kwang and Hienfeng. Careful enquiry as to the cause of 85 this increase favours the supposition that it arises from an increase in the number of orders for special undertakings, but these, as shown in the reply of the officers of the Imperial Household, have not been in dulged in for several years past. There can, therefore, be no doubt that it is to the officers of the Imperial Household them-selves that the increase is attributable, and in spite of the second decree calling upon them to fumish a list of items, it is much to be feared that their greed and avarice will tempt them to suppress many and exaggerate others. Having aheady pointed out that the present annual expenditure exceeds that of the reign of Tao-kwang, the memorialist proceeds to discover the cause, and thinks he finds it in the exorbi tant prices charged, which are greatly in exeess of what they used to be. In addition to this, there is the so-called 20 or 30 per cent. discount on all transactions effected by this office, which, though denounced and prohibited some years since, is pro secuted with greater vigour than ever, in spite of the bonds the officers and others are called upon to sign. As an instance of the extent to whic,h this system of discount is carried, the memorialist may state that he has heard that it is the practice to issue to persons calling for payment of money due by this department only Tls. 520 per Tls. 1,000. From this alone may be estimated the enormity of their illicit g
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86 members of which, by a judicious expendi ture of a thousand tales or so, can obtain employment that will bring them in annually many tens of thousands. It is impos sible to say 'vhat those make who are lucky enough to be appointed to the Canton Customs, or the control of the Imperial manufactories. These appointments are not obtained for learning or scholarship, and what do the holders know of the duties of a Minister to his Sovereign ? Thus it comes about that men worm their way up wards by base means, and have no idea beyond their private gain. Laws there are, no doubt, against appropriation of Imperial monies, but they