Citation
India

Material Information

Title:
India
Creator:
India Newspaper Company ( Author, Primary )
Donor:
John Harrison
Place of Publication:
London
Bombay
Poona City
Publisher:
India News Agency
Manufacturer:
Bonner & Co.
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. ; 33 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
India -- Newspapers ( lcsh )
भारत -- वृत्तपत्र
भारत -- समाचारपत्र
Genre:
newspaper ( marcgt )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
वृत्तपत्र
समाचारपत्र
Temporal Coverage:
1850 -
Spatial Coverage:
Europe -- United Kingdom -- England -- Greater London -- London -- Palace of Westminster
Asia -- India -- Maharashtra -- Mumbai -- Ravelin Street
Asia -- India -- Maharashtra -- Pune -- Budhwar Peth
युरोप - युनायटेड किंगडम - इंग्लंड - ग्रेटर लंडन - लंडन - वेस्टमिन्स्टर पॅलेस
आशिया - भारत - महाराष्ट्र - मुंबई - रावेल स्ट्रीट
आशिया - भारत - महाराष्ट्र - पुणे - बुधवार पेठ
यूरोप - यूनाइटेड किंगडम - इंग्लैंड - ग्रेटर लंदन - लंदन - वेस्टमिंस्टर के पैलेस
एशिया - भारत - महाराष्ट्र - मुंबई - रावेलिन स्ट्रीट
एशिया - भारत - महाराष्ट्र - पुणे - बुधवार पेठ
Coordinates:
18.93801 x 72.832207
18.517 x 73.858
51.499167 x -0.124722

Notes

General Note:
Description based on Vol. LXVI, No. 1.
General Note:
"Printed by Bonner & Co., The Chancery Lane Press, 1, 2 & 3, Rolls Passage, and 38 Cursitor Street, London, E.C. and Published for the Proprietors, The "India" Newspaper Company, Limited, at 85, Palace Chambers, Westminster, S.W.
General Note:
The India Newspaper Company is alternately called the India News Agency.
General Note:
Offices in India were located in Ravelin Street, Bombay (Mumbai) and in Budhawar Peth (Budhwar Peth) area of Poona City (Pune), both in Maharashtra State.

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
644385146 ( OCLC )

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Full Text
India

No. 1,061 Old Series.'
No. 967. New Series,

FRIDAY, JULY 14, 1916.

f Registered at the G.P.O. > Price.

L as a Newspaper. ) By Post ;

Notes and News ................ 9

The Heavy Hand...................12

Some American Opinions on

India.......................12

Letter to the Editor:

Municipal Trading Licences in
the Transvaal .............. ... 13

The Times on Mismanagement
in Mesopotamia ................14

Sir Pertab Singh on India and the -
War ...........................14

Indian War Finance: The Question
of a Special Loan .............15

The New Way to India : A Pan-
German Dream....................15

Overcrowded Jails in Bengal and
the Punjab........ .......... ... 15

Woman Suffragists and India :
Speeches by Lady Muir-Mac-

kenzie, Sir Krishna Gupta, Sir
Mancherjee Bhownaggree, and
others (Special Report) .....16

The Education of Women in
India: A Record of Existing
Agencies .......................17

Indian Affairs in Parliament:

(Special Report) .......... ... 18

NOTES. AND NEWS.

ELEGRAMS from Bombay announce the holding in
that city of a great meeting of protest against the

India Consolidation Act Amendment Bill. Sir Dinshaw
Petit, Bart., presided, ancf was supported (says the
Times correspondent)^ the leading representatives
of all communities. A resolution was carried urging
the Government to abandon this retrograde and highly
controversial measure, and condemning the manner
in which it was introduced in the House of Lords with-
out the previous knowledge of the people of India,
whose rights are deeply affected. Similar meetings
have been held in other centres.

Many of the clauses of the Bill arouse strong pro-
tests (observes the Times), and the maftner of its
introduction at a time when controversial measures are
eschewed is greatly resented, but the opposition centres
on the provision empowering the Provincial Legislatures
to abrogate the established right of*citizens to sue the
Secretary of State. An attempt, in fact, is being made
to get behind the interpretation by the Privy Council
in what is known as the Moment case of 1912 (L.R.
Indian Appeals, Vol. 40, p. 48) of a phrase in the
Government of India Act of 1858 to the effect that every
person has the same remedies against the Secretary
of State in Council as he might have had against the
East India Company.

The point (says the Manchester Guardian) is of
undoubted importance to subjects of the Crown in
India, as a communique issued by the Government at
Simla a month ago implicitly acknowledged. No less
important from the Imperial point of view (it continues)
is the Indian objection to the procedure adopted. A
bad impression has been created by the introduction of
the Bill in the Lords at a time when public attention
is absorbed in issues of tremendous moment, and with-
out the preliminary discussion' in India which is held
to be a right under the great Act of 1858. These are
considerations (the Guardian concludes)which affect
the peace and contentment of India, and we Jiave no
doubt that they are present to the'minds of Mr. Austen
Chamberlain and his colleagues. *

The public has quickly learned how far they are
present to the minds in question. Mr. Chamberlain,
received on Tuesday last (July 11) a deputation from
the Indian Section of the London Chamber of Com-
merce, which urged him not to proceed further with the.
obnoxious clause. Pie was told that numerous repre-
sentations on the subject had been received from the
Chambers of Commerce in India : but all he had to say
by way of reply was that he was unable to withdraw
the clause. We regret the decision, which betrays an
unhappy ignorance of Indian questions. It is seldom
that the Anglo-Indian community is united with Indian

No. 2. Vol. XLVI.

opinion upon any particular question, and when it is
the Secretary of J?tate will be wise to take the hint..

The Council of the Bombay Presidency Association
has resolved that, having regard to the,arbitrary cha-
racter of the provisions *of the. Press Act of 1910,. and
to th public dissatisfaction and discontent occasioned
by the manner in which* it has been enforced in the case
of several newspapers, and recently in the case
of New India, a representation should be submitted
to the Government by the Association pointing out the
oppressive character of the Act and its administration
and asking for its repeal. A committee, consisting of
_Sir Narayan Chandavarkar, Mr. B. G. Horniman, Mr.

D. N. Bahadurji, Mr. M. A. Jinnah, and the honorary
secretaries, has been appointed to draft the memorial.

Dewan Bahadur Sir S. Subramania Aiyar presided
over a large meeting which was held at the Victoria
Public Hall in Madras on June 1-2, to protest against
the action of the Government in demanding security
from New India. Mr. L. A. Govindaraghava Aiyar
in moving a resolution demanding the repeal of the
Press Act said that many of them, might not agree with
Mrs. Besant in her views on politics, or with the vehe-
ment language used by her in New India, but the
two ideals which she always placed before her readers
were the maintenance of the British connexion under
any circumstances, and the avoidance of all attempts
at unconstitutional agitation.

The Press Association of India have resolved to ask
the Viceroy to receive a deputation consisting ef Indian*
journalists from all provinces in order to demand the
repeal of the Press Act. Among the members of the
deputation are Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Mr.
Surendranath Banerjea, Mr. G. A. Natesan, Mr. Sach-
chidananda Sinha, and several Mahomedan journalists.

The Amrita Bazar Patrika, of Calcutta, has re- .
called how, in May, 1913, an order was served, without
previous warning, upon the keeper of its printing works
to deposit the maximum security of Rs. 5,000. No
reason was given, but the order, which emanated from
the Government of Bengal, stated that it was issued
in connexion with an article which discussed an Assam
police case. The article, says the Patrika, was con-
sidered by some eminent lawyers who held it to be
entirely Jree from anything which could be construed
into hatred or contempt of any Government established
by law. Upon enquiry, it was elicited that the Govern-
ment of Bengal had had no hand in the matter, but that
the action was taker; by the Government of India on
the motion of the Government of Assam. The
Patrika is* inclined to think that in Mrs. Besants
case also the initiative has come from the supreme and
not from the local Government.

A telegram has been received announcing in the
briefest language that Mrs. Besant has been prohibited
from entering the Bombay Presidency under the provi-
sions of .the Defence of India Act.

News of the recent English, French, and Russian
successes has been received with the utmost pleasure
in India (telegraphed Reuters correspondent at Simla
on July 8). Both princes and people continue their
generous war gifts.

The Nawab of Maier Kotla has lent his house in Simla, where




INDIA.

July 14, 1916

IO

the Government will accommodate iilty convalescent officers in a
nursing home. The Raja of Dhar has offered to pay all expenses
for six wounded officers in the Roberts Home at Indore. The
Maharaja of Benares has given the Mint House, in Benare's, to
house 150 patients, and will bear all expenses. He .has also given
a petrol launch for use in Mesopotamia. The Raja of Faridkot
recently collected 18,000 rupees to purchase motor-ambulances for
Indian troops. The Durbars of Baroda, Bahawalpur, Faridkot,
and Kharsia, have all presented a number of horses as tree gifts.
The Maharaja of Patiala recently contributed 21,000 rupees to
the Red Gross Council of the St. John Ambulance Association,
which has also received a splendid collection of comforts from.the
people of New Zealand. From Rady Chelmsford and the wives
of the provincial Governors downwards the women of India con-
tinue their splendid efforts in aid of the war hospitals in the
provision of comforts for the troops.

At the suggestion of the Maharaj Rana of Dholpur
a number of Indian princes, including the Maharajas
of Gwalior; Patiala, Kashmir, Jaipur, Bikanir, Kotah,
Panna, and Jind, the Rao of Cutch, and the Begum of
Bhopal, have issued an appeal to the ruling princes and
chiefs for contributions to a Lord Kitchener Memorial
Fund, to be devoted to some permanent and useful
object to be decided on by the Viceroy in consultation
with the Indian Relief Fund Committee. The Maha-
rajas of Jaipur and Gwalior have given twenty thousand
and ten thousand rupees, respectively, and donations
have now reached 42,000 rupees.

It will be seen from our Parliamentary columns that
the management of the campaign in Mesopotamia is
exciting consideiable attention in both Houses : and
that statements by the Prime Minister and Lord Crewe
are promised-for Tuesday next (July 18). Meanwhile
the Times has been conducting a vigorous agitation.
We reproduce elsewhere portions of an article which
appeared in the early part of the week. This (Friday)
morning a second article has been published which says
that the correct lines of enquiry are twofold :

The first and greatest, because it is the .most serious, is that
of the degree to which the Home Government participated in,
and possibly even urged, the decision to advance to Bagdad. The ,
second is that of the errors of judgment of the generals on the
spot and of the Army Department of India. The second question
appears to be confined to the Indian generals, a number of whom
are concerned. . The evifs of ovef seriously hampered us in this country during the first year'oFthe-
war, find their prototype in the Indian system ; but in India the
mischief has been greatly accentuated by the most unwise destruc-
tion of the Supply Department. Instead of commanding a great
army, Sir Beauchamp Duff has led the life of a hermit clerk ; yet
he cannot be relieved from the responsibility which he shares with
Sir John Nixon and Mr. Asquiths Government for the advance
to Bagdad. The failure of it should have been foreseen by all
three.

Meanwhile the news from the Tigris continues to
be of the scantiest character. A message published
this (Friday) morning states that the troops who are
facing the Turkish defences of Sanna-i-Yat were at-
tacked by machine-gun fire on July 9 and 10, and on the
following day Turkish artillery and aircraft bombarded
our trenches ineffectually. It is clear that operations on
a large scale are almost impossible, for we are told that
on July 12 the temperature was 117 degrees. On the
Euphrates line a British detachment blew up "on July 10
the towers of a brigand who had been implicated in the
theft of bellums (country, boats). It is -added that at
2 a.m. on the nth marauders in boats attacked a boat
convoy crossing the Hammar Lake, which lies between
Nasariyeh and Basra. The escort drove off the assail-
ants, who suffered some casualties.

How comes it (asks Truth-) that the Commander-
in-Chief in India has made no application to his Govern-
ment for the issue of a medal to the men of the 2nd
Rajputs who were employed in the Persian Gulf in 1913
in suppressing gun-running by the Arabs? In answer
ro Mr. Fletcher last week Mr. Chamberlain stated,
what, of course, everyone knew, that the medal issued
to the Navy was for naval, not military, services, but
the Rajputs have done much hard and risky work on
land, and they are as much entitled to a medal as the
sailors, who had easier and less dangerous work on
board their ships.

The Government of India have sanctioned the recruit-
ment of one company of Dekhani and Konkani Brah-
mins for the Indian Army. It will be attached to the
116th Mahrattas, which has hitherto been composed of
four companies of Konkani Mahrattas, and two com-
panies eac£i of Dekhani Mahrattas and Dekhani Mussul-

mans.

General Smuts telegraphed on July 9 that Tanga was
occupied by his troops on the morning of July 7. The
enemy offered only slight resistance and evacuated the
town after destroying the waterworks. The work of
clearing the Germans from the north-east corner of
their protectorate is now completed, Tanga being the
coast terminus of the railway from Moshi, in the Usam-
bara highlands, and the rival to Dar-es-Salaam for
premier place among the ports of German East Africa.

In November, 1914, an attack on Tanga was made from the
sea. On the evening of the 2nd one and a half battalions, con-
sisting of British and Indian Regular troops and Imperial Service
troops, were landed within two miles of the town, which was
incorrectly reported to be weakly held. The force at once became
heavily engaged, and was compelled to fall back. On Novem-
ber 4 the British again advanced to the attack, to be met with
heavy fire within 800 yards the enemy position. The 101st
Grenadiers pushed gallantly forward, entered the town, and
crossed bayonets with the enemy. The Loyal North Lancashire
Regiment and the Kashmir Rifles in support also reached Tanga,
but found themselves opposed by tiers of fire from the houses, and
were obliged to fall back to cover, 500 yards in the rear. The
losses were very heavy, and ro further reinforcements being
available the British force re-embarked and returned to Mombasa.
The total casualties in this unsuccessful operation were 795,
including 141 British officers and men.

The King received the overseas Parliamentary dele-
gates at Buckingham Palace on Friday afternoon last
(July 7). There were no representatives of India in the
deputation,xrbut His Majesty did not forget India in
his speech, for he said

I congratulate members of the Union of South Africa, justly
proud of "'the successes achieved both under the leadership of
General Botha, and more recently by a force comprising British
Regulars, South Africans, Rhodesians, East African Settlers, and
native troops from my Indian Empire, in the offensive so vigor-
ously conducted by General Smuts.

Another tribute to the troops in this theatre of war
has been paid by the Bishop of Pretoria, who has con-
tributed to the Johannesburg Star his impressions
of a two months visit to German East Africa. Dr.
Furse has nothing but praise for the work of the Im-
perial troops, the Indian Army, the East African
settlers, and the Rhodesians.

The Hindu effectively replies to the complaint re-
cently made by Professor Foxwell that no attempt was
being made to tap the large hoards of money in India
for the purposes of the war. The following quotation
from an article by Mr. H. J. Jennings in the Fort-
nightly Review, entitled England, India and the Cost
of the War, will (it hopes) help the learned Professor
to know the reason why :

Those whG complain of Indias alleged inadequate contribution
conveniently forget that this country is probably the poorest in
the world in spite of nearly a century of British rule and the
peaceful progress accomplished under it, and that her contribution
is to be judged by the standard of her extreme poverty and noL
by that of wealthy England. Relatively to her means India is
already" very heaviiy taxed, but the advocates of extra and heavier
taxation, acquainted with fndian conditions as they are expected
and supposed to be, probably lack the sympathy which alone can
enable them fully and truly to appreciate the noble contribution
of India to the war, as has been warm-heartedly acknowledged
by Sir William Meyer. The fact appears to be that there is a
class of interested Englishmen who are jealous of Indias good
name, and who consider it a part of their political duty to belittle
the services rendered by this country to the cause of the Empire,
and to create wrong impressions' about the attitude and sentiments
of the people of India at a time when such high encomiums have
been poured upon her for the willing and signal assistance ren-
dered by her princes and people towards the successful prosecution
of the war. If India had been as rich as Englandit is not
wholly or solely her fault if she is notshe would have contri-
buted still more, much as she has already given for the success
of the British and Allied caMse. But, unfortunately, she is a
cripple economically, and she ris rendering the ^most help which
a cripple can.


July 14, 1916

INDIA

JI

Mr. Montagu, who has succeeded Mr. Lloyd George
as Minister of Munitions, and Lord Curzon, as Presi-
dent of the Air Board, have been added to the War
Committee of the Cabinet. The other members are Mt.
Asquith,. Mr. Bonar Lav/, Mr. Lloyd George, Mr. Bal-
four, and Mr. McKenna.

The Southern India Chamber of Commerce has in-
formed the Government of Madras that in its opinion
official and non-official members of the commercial depu
tation to Russia should be financed as such, and that
therefore, non-official members should not be required
to bear their own expenses. The Chamber is prepared
however, to contribute a sum of Rs. 5,000 towards the
cost of the whole deputation, and will be glad to nomi-
nate an Indian non-official member on hearing from
the Government.

A report on emigration and immigration has been
submitted to the Government of Madras by the Board
of Revenue in that Presidency. Under the head of re-
gulated emigration we read that emigration to Fiji
continued till July, 1915, tlfe number desgatch^d ,from
Madras being 1,115, and recruitment for British

Guiana began on July 7, 1915, and continued till the
end of September, 1915, during which period two ship-
ments were made from Calcutta and Madras jointly, 737
persons being despatched ffom Madras. The due pro-
portion of women was maintained in both cases by the
process of making good in Calcutta the deficiency in
respect of Madras shipments. Recruitment for .Trinidad
began in October, 1915, and continued till the end of
the year, but there were no shipments to Mauritius, the
Seychelles, or the French colonies.

-------------*

The Protector of Emigrants declares that the. utmost
care and supervision is bestowed upon the process of
medical inspection, the cooking arrangements? the food
and clothing, and the bathing arrangements and the
latrines at the depots; and that the emigrants generally
appear happy and cheerful, and are allowed the greatest
latitude to go away if they are disinclined after further
consideration to emigrate. Everything, in fact, is for
the best in this best of worlds. 3,217 emigrants re-
turned from Natal, 73 from Fiji, and 207 from Mauri-
tius. Under the head of non-regulated emigration,
an increase is reported in the number proceeding to the
Straits Settlements, and this is attributed to the .revival
of the demand for labour in the Malay rubber estates.
Similarly, the decrease in the arrivals from Burma and
the Straits Settlements is ascribed to the increased de-
mand for labour on good wages in those places.

The Foundation Day anniversary of the Servants of
India Society was celebrated on June 12 at the central
headquarters of the Society at Poona. Mr. V. S. Srini-
vasa Sastri presided, and there was a large gathering of
members from different provinces. Three new members
were admitted to the Society, of whom one was Rao
Bahadur Narayan Rao Kelkar, an elected member of the
Legislative Council in the Central Provinces.

Sir C. Sankaran Nair, the Member for Education, is
making his first tour ^Kis. month, and is first visiting
Calcutta and Dacca. Mr. Surendranath Banerjeas re-
solution on the Calcutta University will no doubt occupy
his attention.. It is said that Indian opinion in Ben-
gal is by.no means unanimous on Mr. Banerjeas pro-
posal, and Sir Sankaran Nair will probably afford oppor-
tunities to the opponents of the proposal to place their
views before him. There is also the question of the
Dacca University to be considered. The malaria prob-
lem again calls loudly for more effective measures than
have yet been adopted.

We do not know if the statement is correct that Sir
Stephen Sale, the legal adviser to the India Office,
has intimated his wish to retire towards the end of the
year. But if so we hope the opportunity will be taken
of appointing an Indian lawyer as his successor.

Mr. N. W. Kemp, Chief Judge of the Bombay Court
of Small Cases, has been appointed to act as a judge
of the High Court during the absence on three months
sick leave of Sir Dinshav/ Davar. The. appointment has
not met with the approval of the Bombay Chronicle,
which points out that the Indian community have there-
by been deprived of one of the two out of the seven judge-
ships which it has-hitherto possessed. There are quite
a number of Indian lawyers at least as well qualified in
every respect as Mr. Kemp. Mr, D. N. Bahadurji, for
instance, was considered not long ago to be capable
enough to act as wdvocate-General for six months.
Why is he now passed over? Lord Islington was,
only the other day, proclaiming adhesion to the propo-
sition that Indians should be employed in the higher
offices of the State wherever opportunity occurs. Whaf
is to be said, then, when*a Government, .as here, not
merely fails to talfe advantage of a new opportunity,
but actually declines to appoint an Indian to succeed an
Indian, though there is no sort of doubt as to the avail-
ability of not only one but several Indians?,

By way of compensation, Mr. K. M. .Jhaveri,
second Judge of the Small Causes Court, has been
appointed to- act as Chief Judge in the place of Mr.
Kemp? All the five judges are now Indian : Mr.
Hosain Tyabji acting as second Judge, Mr. S. F. Billi-
moria as third, Mr. M. D. Kanga as fourth, and Mr.
A. A. Chatre, advocate of.the High Court, being intro-
duced to officiate as fifth Judge.

Few provisions of the Criminal Procedure Code in
India are more abused than Section 107, which em-
powers magistrates to bind individuals over to keep
the peace. In a case which has just come before the
Allahabad Fligh Court there bad been a series of dis-
putes and litigation with regard to certain lands, and
feeling ran high.- The magistrate bound over one of
the parties, and the question was whether action under
Section 107 was justified on the mere gratuitous as-
sumption that, on the one thand, the. person against
whom a complaint was made was likely to break out
into physical disorder, or that, on the other hand, in-
asmuch as the law had provided a section and remedy,
it was his business to find a victim. Mi. Justice Walsh
observed that it was not the business of magistrates to
act like spiritual fathers whose duty it was to keep
the flock in control, and in the absence of anything
better to find a scapegoat. Unfortunately, so long as
the pernicious system of the combination of judicial and
executive functions continues to exist, such delusions
will flourish.

Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery. We see
that the Government of the United Provinces has pro-
scribed under the Press Act a leaflet in English headed
From the office of the Director-General, Indian Revo-
lution Vigilance Department, Bengal Branch, to (a)
Paymasters of Districts and Divisional Pleads; (b) The
public in general.

The Times
double an

of Saturday*last? (July 8) contained a
announcement of the death of Sir Edward Buck,
K.C.SM., who was from 1882 to 1896 secretary to the
Government of *India in the departrrient of Revenue and
Agriculture. In one/part of the issue it is stated that
Sir Edward Buck, wh*o was seventy-eight years of age,
died at Rome, where K" had gone in the capacity of
Indian delegate to the International Institute of Agri-
culture. Elsewhere it is reported that a Simla tele-
gram has brought the news of his death at that place

The death is unofficially reported from disease, while
a prisoner of war at Bagdad, of Major H. J. Cotton,
of the 99th Deccan Infantry. Major Cotton, who was
a nephew of the late Sir Henry Cotton, arrived in
Mesopotamia in October, 1915, with a draft to re-
inforce another regiment, and took part in the battle
of Ctesiphon. He was subsequently with General
Townshend through the siege of Kut.


12

INDIA.

July 14, 1916

THE HEAVY HAND.

ON Monday last (July 10) the Westminster Gazette
found its Thought for the Day in the following
lines by Sir Rabindranath Tagore

Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high ;
Where knowledge is free ;

Where the world has not been broken up into fragments by
narrow domestic walls;

Where words come out from the depth of truth ;

Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection ;
Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way into the

dreary desert sand of de^d habit;"'

Where the mind is led forward by Thee into ever-widening
thought and action

Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake.
The quotation was made without any sort of com-
mentary, and the particular purpose for which it was
chosen is not apparent. But those who know India
will be well aware of the thoughts which were in the
poets mind when he committed the lines to paper. And
just now, with public opinion deeply agitated over
two such diverse matters as the 'New India case
and the controversial measure known as the Government
of India (Amendment) Bill, it is difficult to banish some
of those thoughts.

How can the mind be without fear so long as the
Press Act remains upon the Statute-book? Still less
can knowledge be free so long as the present restric-
tions upon education remain in force. The spread of
education alone can restore the fragments broken up
by narrow domestic walls. By its means alone can
we ensure that words shall come out of the depth of
truth. It is a favourite commonplace with the re-
actionary that the Indian Press possesses no sense of
responsibility and must therefore be held in leading-
strings. These purblind critics cannotor is it that
they will pot?perceive the wisdom of Mr. Gladstones
famous aphorism that liberty alone fits men for liberty.
So prejudiced, moreover, are they that the shackles
which they place upon the Indian journalist are regarded"
by them as wholly unnecessary for the Anglo-Indian
scribbler of a certain type whose pen is habitually
steeped in gall.

There can be no denying the fact that the action
taken by the Government of Madras against Mrs.
Besant has profoundly stirred public opinion in India.
It has rallied to her side men who are ordinarily out of
sympathy with her advanced views and with the argu-
ments by which she enforces them. Meetings have
been held all over the country, and the volume of pro-
test increases daily. Mrs. Besant herself, in a recent
issue of New India, has shown how one-sided the
operation of the Press Act has become. She has pub-
lished an appeal to the Viceroy which is partly a prayer
for justice to herself and partly a protest against the
immunity enjoyed by Anglo-Indian newspapers. The
Madras Mail, which has constituted itself as the
chief apologist of Government, recently printed an
article in which the bitter memories of 1857 were re-
called and the statement was made that the British
could not allow Indians to volunteer or to?carry arms
lest they should turn those arms against them. Mrs.
Besant points out that if the Press in India had been
free a wanton and offensive suggestion of that kind
could do no harm, because the Indian newspapers would
promptly have hit back. But this they cannot do.
How, then, are Indians to protect themselves against
these attacks upon them?

The same complaint of racial discrimination underlies
the protests which are made" from time to time with
regard to the administration of the Arms Act itself.
The Mahratta recalls the following defence of the
Act which was attempted by Sir Harold Stuart
in the course of a speech in the Madras Legislative
Council :

They all knew that there were defects in the Arms Act, and
there was no doubt that in due course the Act would be amended.
But he could say with confidence that in the administration of
the Act the Government did endeavour to interpret its provision in
as liberal a manner as possible.

Contrast with this (says the Poona newspaper) the
utterance of the Raja of Kollengode, the Chairman of

the Reception Committee of the Malabar District
Conference :

The worst aspect of this Act is the racial discrimination which
it makes. I may give you an instance. The officer-in-charge of
?any forests cannot possess a gun without licence, because he is
an Indian, but one of his subordinates is free to possess firearms
without any licence, because he happens to be a Eurasian. Thus
the privilege enjoyed by the subordinate is denied to his superior,
while both are equally liable to be attacked by wild beasts which
seem to make no such racial discrimination.

The Raja of Ramnad, who was the Chairman of the
Reception Committee of the Madura Provincial Con-
ference, has also emphatically said that

All invidious distinctions which are galling to the self-respect of
Indians should be abolished, and the officers entrusted with the
power of issuing licences should be more liberal.

A couple of sentences in a leading article in the
Times of yesterday (July 13) would seem to be re-
markably applicable to the situation as it presents itself
in India. The Magyar magnates of Hungary, we are
told, unlike the Prussian Junkers, do lip-service to
Liberal and constitutional doctines, but in practice they
rigidly restrict the application of these theories to the
dominant race. Naturally, therefore, as the numbers
and the national consciousness of the other races have
grown, they become alarmed. American opinion and,
through it, British opinion has been repeatedly assured
that there is no danger of trouble of India. The
latest to emphasise thisffias been Maharaja Sir Pertab
Singh. We believe the statement to be perfectly cor-
rect. Indians are too sensible of the value of the
British connexion to desire to cause any sort of em-
barrassment in a time of Imperial crisis. But there is
surely a corresponding obligation. If there is no cause
for anxiety in India, why cannot the Government relax
its heavy hand?

Xfvf ' -;' - ==

SOME AMERICAN OPINIONS ON INDIA.

UNDER the title of Some American Opinions on
the Indian Empire/ Mr. T. Fisher Unwin has
published a twopenny pamphlet which would appear
to be intended ''primarily for American consumption.
For we read in the preface :

Great Britains methods of rule in India are fully understood
and greatly admired by the vast majority of Americans. By the
latter the publication of this small volume, presenting the con-
sidered and favourable opinions of representative Americans who
have actual knowledge of conditions in India or have studied
these and similar problems of government, will be welcomed as a
striking confirmation of their own views. No case can gain by
being overstated, and it is no small advantage that in such re-
markable tributes of impartial critics to British fair dealing in
India the presence of overstatement can hardly be suspected. The
opinions, which have been compiled from the most disinterested
sources, include those of two living ex-Presidents of the United
States.

Let us see by an examination of the contents how far
these assumptions are justified. The two ex-Presidents
are, of course, Mr. Roosevelt and Mr. Taft. Mr.
Roosevelts testimony is taken from a speech delivered
on January 18, 1909, at an African Diamond Jubilee
Mass Meeting held in a Methodist Episcopal Church
at Washington. He describes the administration of
India by the British as the greatest feat of the kind
which has been performed since the break-up of the
Roman Empire. Unquestionably mistakes have
been made, and it is easy enough to point out short-
comings. He admits even that suffering has been
caused in particular cases and at particular times, but
ascribes the cause to well-intentioned ignorance or
bad judgment rather than to any moral obliquity.
At the same time, he holds that a resolute effort has
been made to secure fair treatment for the humble and
the oppressed. No reflecting Indian will disagree,
although he will certainly wonder what Mr. Roosevelt
exactly means by his statement that not one penny
is drawn from India for English purposes.

Mr. Taft might have been expected from his experi-
ence in the Philippines to have added something of
value to the symposium? But the extract given from
his address to the Toronto Empire Club on January 14,
1914, is of the most disappointing character. Most of


July 14, 19x6

INDIA.

13

it deals with the self-governing dominions : and the
small portion which is concerned with India merely
alludes in vague terms of praise to the establishment o£
what is known as the Pax Britannica. *

A rapid descent is now made from the illustrious to
the obscure. We are not ashamed to say that we have
not heard before of Mr. Sherwood Eddy or the book on
'India Awakening, which he published in 1910 : and
the passage provided reads so much like an official ad-
ministration report that we cannot plead guilty to any
desire for closer acquaintance. Three extracts follow
from American missionary year-books and comptes
rendus. These are quite out of date : going back as
far as 1912, 1909, and even 1908. A number of indi-
vidual missionaries are then put into the witness-box :
and here, again, the same complaint has to be made.

We come next to Admiral Goodrich, of the United
States Navy. Writing to the New York Nation
from Bombay, on May 18, 1911, this officer observes:

Every American must wish that Indians may, sooner or later,
enjoy real self-government, although the failure of true republics
within the tropics should make him doubtful of immediate^success.

Why should Admiral Goodrich confine hfe outlook to
true republics within the tropics? Who are the real
rulers of the United States under a professedly demo-
cratic system of government :ethe political bosses
and the plutocrats, or the congeries of people (to
use the Admirals own phrase) which divides itself so
obediently into Democrats and Republicans at their
bidding ?

It is absurd, too, as well as mischievous, we suggest,
to defend the aloofness of British officials by picturing
the educated Indian as a man who looks upon them as
unclean, their very touch pollution, who cannot eat with
them, who regards their wives and daug*hte^ as lost to
all shame, and characterises them in words that may
not be translated. The statement is as stupidly false
as the other that the cry of India for the tlindus
does not mean individual freedom, the equality of all,
the opening of all avenues of progress to all natives of
every creed, race, and caste indifferently, but that it
denotes the handing over to the Hinclus of the reins
of government that they may rule in their own fashion,
the upper castes having all offices, handling all public
moneys, dispensing their ancient substitute for
justice.

The amazing Admiral is followed by Mr. James
Mascarene Habbard, who appears to have written on
The English in India in the Atlantic Monthly for
June, 1908. Indians also hold commissions in the

British Army, says this panegyrist. By the side of
this miracle of accuracy such authoritative expositions
as those of Mr. Theodore H. Boggs and Miss Winifred
Heaton, of Kolhapur, fade into insignificance. But a
word must be kept for the Rev. J. P. Jones, who, being
a missionary of the Christian gospel in India, writes
thus of the people among whom he labours :

T!he way the Brahman and the higher Sudras, who are clamour-
ing for what they regard as God-given. rights from the British
Government, deny in principle and practice to their fellow-citizens,
the so-called outcasts and other members of the community, the
most elementary principle of liberty and privilege which they
themselves here enjoy, is a significant comment upon their political
sanity and sense of congruity.

Even the most rabid Hindu, continues this Chris-
tian missionary, cannot dream that India is ripe for
self-government, and could maintain it for a month if
the British were to leave the country.

This pamphlet has been issued with the best of inten-
tions : but, in view of the language displayed by some of
those whose opinions it embodies, the writer of the pre-
face will be well advised, if a second edition is ever
called for, to modify his extravagant assertion that
the presence of overstatement can hardly be sus-
pected. *

It is anticipated (writes the Indian Planters
Gazette, of all papers in the world) that before many
months are past a Bengali regiment is likely to come
into the realm of practical politics. Lord Chelms-
ford, if he sanctioned such a step, would at once
endear himself to Bengal more than any other Viceroy
has ever been able to do.

BRITISH INDIANS IN THE TRANSVAAL.

THE TRADING LICENCE QUESTION.

To the Editor of India.

Sir,I have to thank you for your note 011 the position
of Indians in the Transvaal, in the matter of obtaining
municipal trading licences, in your issue of May 12.

The Municipal Ordinance, giving municipalities the
power to issue or refuse certain classes of licence, was
passed in the Transvaal Provincial Council in 1913, at
a time when the Indian community was already antici-
pating a revival of the passive resistance struggle that
eventually took the form of the great Indian strike in
Natal. It will readily be recognised that Transvaal
Indians were not in a position to deal effectively with a
measure of this nature, having regard to the tremendous
crisis tht then faced them. The Ordinance gives to
municipalities the power tfi issue licences for occupations,
in which foodstuffs are sold, and the municipalities
have the power to refuse to grant such licences to
applicants on the ground that the applicants are un-
desirable persons to receive these. Provision is also
made for appeal to the local magistrate, who, how-
ever, ; sits not in a judicial but in an administrative
capacity. It has already been decided by the Supreme
Court. that no appeal lies against the decision of a
municipality to refuse a licence that it is entitled to issue
if it can be shown that the application was considered,
and that the licence was refused on the ground that the
applicant was not, in its opinion, a fit and proper person
to receive one. Therefore, the question as to whether the
applicant was, in fact, a fit and proper person cannot
come before the magistrate, unless, of course, gross
irregularity or bias be proved, which, in the nature of
things, is. a practical impossibility. A further Supreme
Court decision holds that, from the magistrates decision,
no appeal lies to that Court, and that such decision is
therefore final.

Two grave anomalies have occurred finder the present
administration of the Ordinance, It has been held that
a Multani pedlar, who sells silk-stuffs and fancy goods
.alone, may justly be refused a licence on the ground
that, though he confines himself to such sales, the issue
to him of a pedlars licence will enable him to sell food-
stuffs, and that therefore a pedlars licence is a food
licence. Again, although in certain cases an Indian
storekeeper has been held to be a fit and proper person
to hold a grocers licence for one of his stores, he has been
refused a further grocers licence for another store, on
the ground that he is not a fit and proper person to hold
such a licence. I make no attempt to reconcile these
peculiarly Colonial contradictions.

The net effect of these decisions is to prevent any new
licences being issued in any of the countiy towns of the
Transvaal, where foodstuffs can be sold, even to Indians
who are born in South Africa. The Municipality of
Roodepoort, however, has gone further. Acting upon a
decision that an application for a licence for the sale of
foodstuffs has to be made each year, it has declared that
the renewal of these licences is, in fact, the granting of
a new licence each year, and it has, in a number of
cases, refused to renew the licences of a number of Indians
who have been trading in that municipality for many
years. Recently it has reconsidered its action and has
renewed the licences, but the potentialities of the
situation have been tried beyond a doubt, and unfortu-
nately there is no legal redress should Transvaal
municipalities refuse to renew existing licences.

The result will be to deprive Indiqjis in this province of
one of the most lucrative branches of their business in
which they have invested large sums of money, and to
ruin those who are established in the country towns,
where it is impossible to carry on the business of general
dealers or hawkers apaTt from the sale of foodstuffs.

This legislation, if rigorously enforced, will deprive
Transvaal" Indians of whatsis practically their only means
of livelihood, and the only possible consequence will be
their disappearance from this province. Steps are being
taken here, by representation to the local administration
and to the Union Government, to prevent this
catastrophe, but every possible help will be needed by
agitation on your side and in India, and I venture to
hope that you and other friends in England will use your
utmost endeavours to protect this community, in spite
of the many other claims upon your energies.

Henry S. L. Polak.

P.O. Box 6522, Johannesburg, June 14.

[Mr. Polak may rest assured that the grievance of which
he complains will receive every attention in India. The
whole question was discussed at length in an article
entitled The Right to Live, which appeared in our
issue of June 23.-Ed. India.]


14

INDIA.

July 14, 1916

MISMANAGEMENT IN MESOPOTAMIA. j INDIA AND THE WAR.

A FORGOTTEN FORCE.

* AN INTERVIEW WITH SIR PERTAB SINGH.

The absorbing interest of the great battles on. the
Somme and at Verdun, and of the Russian offensives,
should not lead us to forget that we have a large force
of British and Indian troops grilling on the plains of
the Tigris at the worst season of the year. Sometimes
we think that the existence of the unfortunate Meso-
potamian Expedition is almost overlooked in these
stirring times by those in authority. Streams of com-
plaints continue to reach us from the troops themselves,
from their relatives at home, from correspondents in
India, and from persons who have returned to this coun-
try from OheeTigris, regarding the condition of the force
and its frequent lack of necessaries. Both the quality
and the quantity of the provision^ are bitterly con-
demned. The men would put up with rations of any sort
if they got them regularly in sufficient bulk, but we gather
that the work of the commissariat on the Tigris is
uncertain and irregular, and we receive frequent allega-
tions of scanty food. There has been a good deal of
sickness, which in such a climate might have been fore-
seen; yet the medical equipment of the Expedition is
still believed, to be insufficient. At the back of all the
other shortcomings lies the inadequacy of the transport
on a river which must now be falling. Failure of the
transport arrangements is at the root of all our difficulties
in Mesopotamia, and there is absolutely no excuse for the
want of foresight which was shown.

The whole subject of the Mesopotamian Expedition
calls for searching enquiry of a kind which the Govern-
ment seem peculiarly reluctant to face. More light
ought to be thrown upon its inception, the unwarrantable
enlargement of its objects, the obscurities of the de-
cision to advance from Kut to Bagdad, the mishandling
of the relief columns, the deplorable failure to save
General Townshend, and the continued use of the force.
The Government do not appear to have made up their
minds about what they hope to achieve in Mesopotamia
any more than they made up their minds about the
Dardanelles. They have promised again and again to
publish papers clearing up the mystery of General
Townshends ill-fated march to Ctesiphon. Week after
week goes by and the papers do not appear, though the
military objections mentioned yesterday by Lord Crewe
might surely have been settled long ago.

Even" the flow of conventional information through
despatches has ceased. It is now common knowledge
that Kut might have been relieved, and ought to have
been'relieved, on March 8, when General Aylmers force
found itself at daybreak on an unopposed front two or
three hours march from the beleaguered town. No
despatches regarding the doings of the relief column
since January 17 have been published. It was stated in
the House of Commons on Monday (July 10) that these
despatches, and especially those relating to the action
fought under General Aylmer on March 8, have not
yet reached the War Office. Many weeks have passed
since General Aylmer was transferred from Mesopotamia
to the finest divisional command in India, and we think
the demand for further intelligence is not unreasonable.
We trust that the despatch, when it comes, will deal
more frankly with the official suggestion that the troops
were compelled to withdraw from Es-Sinn through lack
of water. The right way to water was the way to Kut,
and when the force turned it had, in fact, to face a long
and waterless march. There are many other phases
of these military operations about which -the truth has
still to be told, not excepting the actions fought early in
January.

We shall not endeavour here to apportion blame for
the terrible muddle of Mesopotamia, but will point out
considerations which must be remembered in examining
the question. The whole trophic began when it was
unwisely decided to advance beyond the deltaic region
at the head of the Persian Gulf, and the confusion was
rapidly accentuated after the rash determination to.
attempt the capture of Bagdad. The Army of India had?
been primarily organised for frontier defence, and it had
already been heavily drawn upon for the campaigns in
Europe and elsewhere. When Turkey entered the war
new demands were made to which the Indian organisa-
tion soon proved unequal; and the decision to essay the
conquest of Mesopotamia with a fragment of the Indian
Army was as unwise a resolve as was ever reached by
soldiers and statesmen. Only the papers which are still
denied us can show the relative responsibility resting
upon the Home Government, upon the Commander-in-
; Chief in India (Sir Beauchamp Duff) and upon the
General then on the spot, Sir John Nixon, in matters of
broad policy. Times. (July 12.)

Maharaja Sir Pertab Singh of Jodhpur was Captured
by an American interviewer when he came over to
London from France in order to attend the memorial
service to Lord Kitchener. The following is the result,
as published in the New York Sun -

I hope, said the Maharaja, that the time is soon
coming when at the head of my men I will die fighting.
That is how every Rajput wants to die. If I die fighting
straight to God. If I die in bed with a doctor
ng on I take a long time.to get to God. I have not

yet had my chance, but soon I hope to charge the
Germans at the head of my Lancers and die for the King-
Emperor. His Highness has been fighting since he
could handle a sword. In appearance he is short, stocky,
but as erect as a ramrod, and shows no signs of his
seventy years. He is as active as* a man of forty, and
as a horseman he has for years been the admiration of
all who have known him in India/

His Highness has a soft spot in his heart for Americans
and America. During the campaign in China, he told
the co?respondent, we treated the Russians as
Russians, the Germans as Germans, and the Japanese
as Japanese, but when American officers came into our
mess they were not foreigners, but were received and
treated as our English brothers. Those were the orders.

Asked what were the feelings of the ruling Princes in
India towards the war, Sir Pertab said : Every chief
in India would serve as a private soldier without pay
and without rank. All his subjects look to their chief
as second God, and all chiefs look to the King-Emperor
as second God, not first God, second God, and if His
Majesty needs their services they would serve him even
in the ranks if necessary. And they would send not only
themselves but their sons.

Just then>wo/handsome boys in khaki came into the
room and were introduced. They were Sir Pertabs two
sons, Sagat Singh, fourteen, and Hanont Singh, fifteen
years of age. They are very young to be fighting,
observed the journalist. The Prince of Wales is
fighting. He is not so very much older. Why should
not my sons fight, as the son of the King-Emperor and
my future King-Emperor fights? quickly retorted the
Maharaja. o

His Highness has been disappointed up to now that
the war has not given the Lancers an opportunity to
charge. But the Indian troops have done well, he
said. Unused to trench warfare, nevertheless they have
proved "their worth in infantry fighting, and over a
hundred of my own clan in the Poona Horse of the
Regular Indian. Army, of which I am honorary Colonel,
have given their lives. But we are all looking for the
great day when we Rajputs can charge, and that I may
have my wish of going to my God as a Rajput fighting
at the head of my men. Let it be soon!

Reverting to conditions in India, Sir Pertab waxed
indignant at the stories of sedition and impending revo-
lution so assiduously circulated. I am told, he said,
that in America people think there is great discontent
and disloyalty in India. That is untrue. Only low
caste people, who have no responsibility, preach,
sedition. Chiefs have a stake in the country. They
belong to the land. They are bound to the soil. They
inherit the land from their fathers, and their sons look
to them to hand on what they have inherited. Under
the British Government they are secure and prosperous.
So the chiefs, are loyal and fight for the King. No;
there is no danger of trouble in India.

By Way ok Commentary.

For some time past (writCvS the Manchester
Guardian ) very little has been heard-of the work of the
various Indian contingents, although we know that they
are serving gallantly in nearly all the theatres of war.
A few days ago Mr. Austen Chamberlain, referring to
the fact that Indian troops had fought by the side 61
those of the British Dominions from France to Mesopo-
tamia, said that a full share of the honours of the field
had fallen to them. The Victoria Cross had been won
in seven cases by Indians, while over 1,300 other
decorations had gone to the Indian army*

If further evidence wTere needed of the spirit in which
the Indian soldier is playing his part, we have it in the
highly characteristic interview which Maharaja Sir
Pertab Singh of Jodhpur has just given to a corre-
spondent of the New York Sun. The veteran chief,
who on the occasion of the Kings birthday last ffionth
was raised to the rank of honorary lieutenant-general,
has his own heightened and telling way of expressing
the true Rajputs joy in battle, and certainly he has been


July 14, 1916

INDIA.

able to ensure for himself a sufficiency of experience in
warfare on the Indian frontier and in the Far Fast as
well as on the European front. Every chief in India,
says the Maharaja, would serve as a prjwate sol die?
without pay and without rank a sentimeiit which, we
may be sure, would have sounded like a mere absurdity
if the security of the Native States to-clay were not the
standing proof of the wisdom which inspired the settle-
ment of India after the Mutiny.

Sir Pertabs emphatic statement as to the internal
condition of the country is avowedly meant to dispose
of the stories of disaffection which continue to be spread
over the neutral world. It is only, he says, people who
stake i

have no responsibility and no

m

country who

______________-bry ,w.

preach sedition; there is no danger of trouble in India.
That declaration is satisfactory in itself; and it is
happily borne out in several useful contributions made
to the A

American Press during the past few weeks by one
of the most widely known of Indian reformers, Mr.
Taj pat Rai, who is now in the United States.

INDIAN WAR FINANCE.

THE QUESTION OF A SPECIAL



LOAN.

There has been from time to time in India since the
beginning of the war a certain amount of agitation on the
question of the countrys contribution to the Empires
financial effort (writes the Botnbay correspondent of the
Birmingham Daily Post,4 under date of June 9). It
is argued by a small but active party that what has
already been done is good, but not good enough, and that
if India were asked to lend money for the war through
the medium of a special war loan it would be heartily
supported.

At first sight there seems something rather odd in the
spectacle of this wealthy country being apparently alone
among the Dominions in making no special war con-
tribution. Canada, Australia, South Africans ew Zealand
have all done their part, and done it well. Why, then,
should not India, with its 315,000,000 loyal subjects, be
given a chance to add to the monetary resource which is
helping to crush the Germans ? The particular centre of*
this propaganda is Karachi, where the Hon. M. P. de
Webb, a member of the Bombay Legislative Council, has
for months been busily trying to thrash public opinion
into some semblance of interest on the question. He has
organised a War League, and publishes a journal devoted
to the principles of that organisation, in the pages of
which periodical the suggested war loan is always
hovering. " .

Mr. de Webb is not without support, and he advocates
his cause in season and out of season with a vigour and
pertinacity which recognise no rebuff. The Government
of India is, however, heavily against him. The last
official pronouncement on this subject was by Sir William
Meyer, the Financial Member of the Viceroys Council,
who pointed out that it was erroneous to say that Indias
assistance to Great Britain was limited to the gifts of
the chiefs and to occasional investments in British war
loans. India had helped liberally by sending her troops
to fight for the Empire, and she was maintaining them
herself. In addition there was substantial aid in the
matter of munitions. The idea of an Indian war loan
he absolutely scouted. As he remarked, the financial
position of this country is undoubtedly peculiar. The
Government have in the past largely depended on
borrowings from London for large financial operations.
I11 view of the tremendous absorptions by the British war
loans and monetary aid for our Allies, that source is now
practically closed, and the Government of India must look
to sources within its own borders for the furtherance of
its many productive \wrks; and, even so, the programme

will have to be considerably curtailed
It might be contended that productive work could stand

over for a while if a large sum of money could be lent
for war purposes. But there is the further difficulty that
Indias lending capacity, in spite of the countrys wealth,
is very limited. A matter of a few millions would be of
no great value to the Imperial Government, and it might
seriously upset Indian domestic finance. Another funda-
mental difficulty is that the Indian investor would be
tempted to taka up war loan only by a high rate of interest.
Five per cent, is suggested, but not improbably six would
have to be offered before much result was achieved.

The consequence of this would be that all Indian
municipal, port trust, railway, and other gilt-edged
securities would suffer depreciation, which certainly would
not help to popularise the wAr loan or the war. Such a
high rate of interest, too, would have to be met by
additional and rather heavy taxes, and the Indian popula-
tion would certainly not care for that. Since Europeans in

India hold only a minute proportion of the countrys
wealth, the money would perforce be raised from among
the wealthier Indians, but where money matters are con-
cerned they are a difficult set of people to deal with.
However, the matter is virtually disposed of now by the
Governments issue of particulars of a new four cent,
conversion loan of six crores of rupees (^4,000,000) for
general purposes. The interesting feature is the provision
by which old 3^ per cent, or 3 per cent, loan 'may be
converted to the new issue at the rate of Rs. 96 of the
new loan for each Rs. 100 of 3 per c£nt. securities. With
this issue 011 the market the prospect of a special war
loan is now of course practically nil.

THE NEW WAY TO INDIA.

A PAN-GERMAN DREAM.

Roumania, by declining the Austro-German invitation
to the Danube Conference, has spoilt a Pan-German
dream of the new way to India. The new way is
to be mainly a waterway with a railway link. The rail-
way is to be the Bagdad Railway, the water section is to
begin at Antwerp and will consist of the Rhine, a Rhine-
Danube ship canal, the Black Sea, the Tigris and Shatt-
el-Arab, and the Persian Gulf. The Danube Con-
ference, which the Roumanian Government refuses to
have anything to do with, is to take place at Vienna,
and the burgomasters of all German, Austrian, and
Plungarian towns on the Danube have been summoned
to attend. The business of the Conference is to be the
linking-up of the North Sea and the Black Sea by a
system of canals and waterways navigable by vessels of1
large tonnage. That would link up tlfe Rhine, Elbe,
Oder, Vistula, and Danube into a giant network.

Some weeks ago an enthusiastic article appeared on
the subject in the semi-official Berlin Lokalanzeiger.
The new way to India was compared in importance
with Vasco di Gamas discovery of the route round the
Cape of Good Hope and with the opening of the Suez
Canal route forty-seven years ago. Theoretically (ex-
claimed the writer) the route from the North Sea to the
Persian Gulf was already free. All thaLwas needed was
for the concentration of events signified under the names
of Antwerp, Belgrade, Gallipoli, Kut-el-Amara to work
itself out. Gibraltar, Malta, and Suez would be strong-
holds without a purpose and out of date. The
thousandfold fruit of German industry will spe^i down
the Danube to the distant East without the eye of a
single spying enemy being able to count the ships.
Also, a mighty navy of the Danube Powers

Roumania, it will be seen, was thus semi-officially
includedwould hold command of the Black Sea. Some
day perhaps a Black Sea-Euphrates canal might be
made. Manchester Guardian.

OVERCROWDED JAILS IN BENGAL.

The Government resolution 011 jail administration in
the Beng-al Presidency for the year 1915 discloses a very
grave state of affairs. The outstanding fact is the extra-
ordinary increase in the number of prisoners in all jails.
The admissions rose from 69,204 in 1914 to 81,801, repre-
senting an increase of nearly 18 per cent., and the daily
population averaged 14,473 as against 12,496. The result,
as the resolution says, was that nearly all the jails
were in consequence seriously overcrowded at various
times, and ihe reason is thjus stated :

The increase in the jail population is probably due, at any rate
in part, to special causes which will cease to operate when normal
conditions are restored. It is clear, however, that additional jail
accommodation is required, and will have to be provided when
funds are available.

Whatever the causes of this increase, it was obviously
the duty of the authorities to see that the evil effects of
the overcrowding were reduced to a minimum. That this
duty was not adequately performed is evident from the
fact that the daily average number of prisoners in hos-
pitals increased from 582 in the previous year to 765, or
by about 30 per cent. There was, again, a serious out-
break of dysentery at two important jails. The only re-
deeming feature about the statement of these facts is. the
candid criticism by the Government of the shortcomings
of the staff of the jails .concerned. The absence of ex-
perienced jail superintendents temporarily recalled to
military duty no doubt considerably contributed to pro-
duce unsatisfactory conditions, but this is a cause of
complaint not confined to Bengal.

The. death-rate among prisoners was 20.6 per mille, or
one per mille less than in 1914. The penalty of whipping


i6

INDIA.

July 14, 1916



was inflicted in 48 cases as compared with 60 in the
previous year.

Similar Conditions in the Punjab.

The report from the Punjab is equally unsatisfactory.
We read that the number of prisoners admitted into jails
rose during the year 1915 by more than 10,000, and the
average daily population by nearly 2,000. With admis-
sions exceeding 50,000 and a daily population of nearly
17,000 prisoners it would not have been shrprising if
there had been somy falling off in the standard of
efficiency. Existing jails are designed to hold 14,729
prisoners, but the average number-to be provided for
throughout the year was nearly 2,000 in excess of that
figure. The situation was to some extent met by con-
fining prisoners at night in tents and workshops.

The nuipber of prisoners admitted to hospital rose from
9,119 to 12,301, and the average number of sick from
486 to 661. This appears to have been mainly ^due to
the unhealthiness of the summer, caused by the'failure
of the monsoon rains, but in "the case of the jails at
Rawalpindi and Jhang temporary and unavoidable over-
crowding is said to have been a contributing cause.

The number of under-trial prisoners admitted during
the year reached the unprecedentedly high figure of
25,530, or 7,187 more than in the previous year. This
is accounted for by the conspiracy cases in the Central
Punjab and the outbreak of dacoity in the south-western
districts, where, over 4,000 under-trial prisoners had to
be provided for in the early summer months. In spite
of the creation of two Special Tribunals, the pressure
of work on the ordinary criminal courts was severe,, and
in the circumstances it is no matter for surprise that
the average period of detention rose from 23 (the 1913
figure) to 25 days.

THE DOMINIONS WOMAN SUFFRAGE UNION.

AN EVENING CONFERENCE ON INDIA.



(Special Report for India.)

The second biennial conference of the British

Dominions Woman Suffrage Union was held on Thurs-
day evening (July 6), at the Central Hall, West-
minster, under the presidency of Lady Muir Mackenzie,
when a discussion took place on the subject of India.
The speeches were followed with much interest by an
appreciative audience which included a number of Indian
ladies.

Lady Muir Mackenzie;.



L-' -1

-

Iii opening the proceedings, Lady Muir Mackenzie
expressed her pleasure with the fact that the British
Dominions Woman Suffrage Union were taking an in-
terest in India. As one who had lived in India for eight
years, she had the utmost desire to help the men and
women of that country. To do that it was necessary to
approach the subject with sympathy and understanding.
Their thoughts went especially to India in consequence
of what Indians had done and were doing ill connexion
with the war. They realised how willingly the men had
come forward and offered their lives, and how loyally
the Princes had offered all kinds of assistance, even to
the provision of wonderful aeroplanes and motor-cars.
India could not have done more for us, and in return
it was for England and the English people to think what
they could do for India. Perhaps they could best help
India by helping the women. Out of 150 millions of
women in India probably not more than two millions
could read or write, whilst atT the present time there were
only 400 or 500 women doctors. There was tremendous
suffering among the women, yet they would not see a
man doctor. One of the most hopeful sign5^ was that the
women of India were studying to become doctors, and
were becoming really proficient in both surgery and
medicine.

Sir Krishna Gupta.

Sir Krishna Gupta was gratified to find that the women
of the British Dominions were beginning to take an in-
terest in Indian affairs. The question of the suffrage of
women did not arise at all in India, because, unfortu-
nately, the men themselves had not got the suffrage;
but he felt confident that, if the franchise ever went to
India, it would be shared by both men and women.
(Hear, hear.) In the matter of education, no difference
was made between men and women, degrees in all
Indian Universities being just as open and available to
women as to men. In that, he contended, they were a
little in advance of this country. Indian women were
very anxious to study the question of the suffrage, and
the few who had been to England were, without excep-

tion, ardent suffragettes. He noticed two Indian ladies
there present who never missed a procession of the suffra-
gettes. That was a very hopeful sign, and would, he
Cas convinced, bear abundant fruit in proper time. India
was a very oig country, with a population of, in round
figures, 315,000,000, against Canadas 6,000,000 and Aus-
tralias 4,000,000. Its great population was made up of
the followers of a few especial religious faiths. The
dominant faith in India was Hinduism, whose followers
numbered over 200,000,000. Next in numbers came the
followers of Islam, known as Mahomedans, and who
numbered about 70,000,000. Then there were representa-
tives of other religions, such as Christians, and there
was a large number of Buddhists. Also, there was one
small community, very small in number, but with regard
to education, social position, and enterprise second to
none in India. He referred, of course, to the Parsees.
The Hindus were the original settlers in the country;
they had been there, not for 200 or 300 years, but for
4,000 years, and Hindu civilisation was perhaps the oldest
civilisation, in the world. There had been others, such
as Egypt, Assyria, Greece, Rome, and Babylon, but they
were all dead; whilst the Hindu civilisation had survived
all centuries and was as living now as it was 4,000 years
ago. It had undergone changes, but there was the fact
that Hiniitt civilisation had Survived all thevicissitudes
of time and all the invasions that had come upon India..
Why was that ? It was because there were great spiritual
ideals which were dear not only to the Hindus but had in-

fluenced the minds and thoughts of people in every part
ad always been spii

of the world. Hindus had always been spiritually great.
They had devoted more time and attention to the study
of the unseen and to the great problem of spiritual life
than perhaps had any other nation in the world. Their
ideals as regarded women were very high, although at
present they were not only not followed, but were in
some cases deliberately disobeyed and disregarded. In
olden days the wives of great sages in India discussed
on equal terms with their husbands the most abstruse
problems. ~H?ndft ladies had written books on mathe-
matics and other subjects. The seclusion of women
which was observed in some parts, of India to-day had
come with^some invaders from the West, and in some
instances had been aggravated by the insecure state of
the country. In Madras and Bombay there was little
seclusion of women, and they went about just as freely
as they did in this country. A very unique and typical
example of the great freedom enjoyed by women in India
was to be found on the Western Coast in Malabar. There
the matriarchal system prevailed. The woman was the
head of the family, and it was her children, and not the
husband's, children, who succeeded to the inheritance.
There the women were perfectly free; there was no
regular system of marriage, but the union between man
and woman was almost permanent, although it could be
put an end to by either party at any time. Hindu women
would deny themselves anything in order to be of service
to their relatives and friends. There were certainly a good
many defects to which no one ought to be blind, but he
wanted to emphasise the fact that Indian men and women
especially women{were not the mere uncivilised
coolies they were sometimes represented to be. That
idea would, he hoped, disappear with the growth of better
and freer intercourse between the Colonies and the people
of India. They had nothing to fear in comparing their
ideals and institutions with those of other countries.
India was not only ready to receive a great deal from the
West, but also to give a good deal to the West. When
women began to take an interest in India, there would
be a better and clearer understanding between the people
of India and the other parts of the Empire ; and when
there was a better understanding in this country of the
men and women of India, the British Empire would be
in fact the brightest and proudest Empire that the world
ha4, ever seen. (Applause.)

Sir Mancherjee Bi-iownaggree.

Sir Mancherjee Bhownaggree observed that his in-

terest in the suffrage question was of a long date and very
keen. (Hear, hear.) The education of women had for
many years received attention in Bombay, where there
Were no hide-bound regulations to fetter their freedom,
and they consequently came into more immediate touch
with the European settlers. Further, the* Government
were beginning to take an interest and to give them a
lead in the matter of education. The young women and
girls of India were anxious to receive and take full ad-
vantage of the opportunities placed in their way; To-
day, 111 Bombay, women were admitted to the highest
University examinations. Many of them were most in-
telligent and scholarly, and all that was required was
encouragement of the right kind. He had been asked
whether Indian women suffered from disabilities. The









MM



Ju y 14,

INDIA.

17

broadening of civilisation depended upon the basis of
education, and in such degree as the authorities, the
Government, and the leaders of communities m India gave
encouragement their example would be followed to a
larger and larger extent by the population of India. Tjjat
encouragement was not always forthcoming when women
had be&n educated and able to take their part socially
and intellectually in public movements. Education natu-
rally produced a sense of self-respect and independence,
that sense was not countenanced by the authorities,
although 111 Bombay that phase had gradually dis-
appeared. the ideals of the women of India were com-
mon to humanity, and were of a high order. If the
women of India were treated in a fair and English spirit
it would be found that the efforts for the ultimate solid-
arity of the British Empire would not have been made
in vain.

Mr. Yusuf Au.

Mr. A. Yusuf Au thought it was not sympathy that
was needed for the women of India so much as co-operation
and a friendly helping hand. It was necessary lor the
English to understand Indian women from the Indian
point of view, and then to do what they could to enable
them to achieve their own salvation. The womens move-
ment was not so backward in India as some people
imagined; the suffrage question was not entirely unknown
to the girls and women of India. The v^omefl of India
had had great ideals during all time, and it had to be
realised that those ideals were the same as obtained with
the women of England and its Dominions. The British
Empire could not do without 4,he people of India any more
than India could do without the English. India formed
a very large integral part of the Kings Dominions, and
the Empire would be very much pooler if it were not for
the assistance and equal co-operatiofi of Indian men and
women. It was necessary that India should have a
larger and larger measure of opportunities and facilities
for the education of its girls. There was a grand future
lor the women of India. Already some of the papers
were being edited by women. There was a woman ruler
in India who held in her hands all the striS^SLattached to
questions of State; she read and wrote great books; and
she was one whose influence and surroundings were of
the most defined character. He was told that a
Womens University in India had already been organised1?
In innumerable ways the women of the present day were
bearing their part in all great movements affecting the
future. One of Indias greatest modern poets was a
woman. He did not despair of tfie future of Indian
women, in spite of the discouragements and obstacles
placed in the path of progress, and he looked forward to
the time when they would come into line and get their
lair share of opportunities to mould the intellectual,
social, and political life of the nation.

Mr. Syud Hossain.

Mr. Syud Hossain emphasised the fact that self-
government as enjoyed by the Colonies had not yet been
extended to India. This limitation was utterly inexpli-
cable to all thinking people. Much had been said regard-
ing the services rendered by the people of India to the
cause of the Allies during this great war, but was it
rally known that under the system of British rule
obtained in India no Indian was allowed to rise to

the position of an officer in his own army? (Shame.)
He did not think there was any man or woman, no matter
whether they belonged to England or the Colonies, who,
if the facts regarding the Indian claim to self-government
were put before them, would not be prepared to do justice
to India. It was and had always been most difficult to
place the real facts before the English public, but those
who were sincerely anxious to bring about a better
understanding between this country and India should
see that the disabilities wand fetters that had been imposed
were swept away. It was absolutely necessary that the
British democracy on the one side, and the Indian people
011 the other, should be able to exchange ideas freely.
The women of India who were educated, and possessed
influence or consequence, were all staunch nationalists.
To a very large extent the hopes of emancipation and
national salvation were built on the part that women of*
India were rapidly taking in the national affairs of the
country. In a country like India, anything in the way
of individual efforts towards education must be of a very
limited and spasmodic character, and undoubtedly, in
order to organise an adequate and effective system of
education, the initiative must proceed from the State, and
the cost must be met out of the revenues of the country.
At present the people of India had no voice in the ex-
penditure of their own revenues, or in the extent and
progress of education and the'facilities to be provided. It
followed, therefore, that the fault of the lack of education
must not be laid on the people, but on the Government

of India. He was glad to think that the British Dominions
Woman Suffrage Union was willing to help forward the
people of India, and he was confident that in the near
future the women of India would be seen on the same
platform with the women of England.

Cordial votes of thanks were passed to the various
speakers and to Lady Muir Mackenzie.

THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN IN INDIA.

A RECORD OF EXISTING AGENCIES.

[COMMUNICAIED.]

When Mrs. Fawcetts deputation waited upon Mr.

Chamberlain to urge the development of educational
facilities for Indian women and girls, they w^re told that
the initiative in this matter should com£ from within
India itself. The following brief resume has accordingly
been Compiled, inVrder that English friends may learn
exactly what are the existing agencies. It is drawn
partly from the letters of correspondents in India, and
partly from information derived from the Indian Press.
The Bombay Presidency.

In Bombay City there is an institution for married

Hindu ladies, where they are taught English and domestic
arts, the care of children, etc. A missionary settlement
for University women provides-a hostel for students. The
workers in this settlement spend their time in getting
into touch with the women among whom they live,
irrespective of caste or creed, and classes are held for the
education of adult women. The Gujarati Hindu Strec
Mandal is a society for the social uplifting of Gujarati
women by means of education, social intercourse, and the
like. In connexion with one of the*High Schools a
Students Scientific and Literary Society has been formed
and in connexion with another the Chanda Ranji Girls
School Committee. The object of the Seva Sadan and
Social Service League is to render social, educational,
and medical service through Indian sisters, both regular
and lay. It supports a home for the homeless, where
destitute women and children are received and trained
to be self-supporting. Educational classes for married
women are held, outside the home, and the sisters visit
the hospitals and other institutions, making house-to-
house visits in many cases. There is a branch of this
organisation at Poona. Th£ Women Graduates Union in
Bombay is doing good work in promoting social inter-
course between women of all communities. Tlqp Vanita
Vishram supports a school for girls and an orphanage, as
well as a small home for widows, and holds classes for
married women. It has branches at Surat and Ahmeda-
bad. Mention must also be made of the Jain Mahila
Shala, an association for the uplift of Jain women.

At Poona, Professor Karve has a Hindu Widows Home,
a Mahila Vidyalaya (school for unmarried girls), and a
society known as the Nishkama Karma Math, of which
the members pledge themselves to work for the cause of
Indian women.

The Chimnabai Stree Samaj works in Baroda for the
improvement of women.

The Madras Presidency.

At Bangalore, work is earned on by the Mahila Seva
Saniaja, or Womens Service League, the principal objects
of which are the training of Indian women for educational,
medical, and philanthropic work, and the organisation of
such work by women for women. Classes have been
started, "and arrangements made for the inspection of
girls schools and factories employing women. Lectures
on useful subjects are given.to girls schools and ladies
clubs, and propaganda work is also carried on by means
of a ^periodical magazine and tracts. A home is to be
established for residents who wish to work for the objects
of the society.*

In Madras City a Missionary Arts College for Women
has just been established., a.nd also a Government College
for Women. *

The Bengal Presidency.

Educational work among women in Calcutta is done by
the Bharat Stree Mandal. It provides scholarships to
train women as teachers, and has branches all over India.
The Mahila Shilpasram maintains a Home for Widows,
where they are trained to earn their own living. The
Mahila Samiti consists of a committee of ladies, who are
engaged, in co-operation with the Indian Womens Educa-
tion Association in England, in raising money for the
training of Indian girls as teachers, so that on their return
to India they can introduce improved methods of teaching
and organisation. The Association of University Women
is another body whose work is sufficiently indicated by its
title.


i8

INDIA.

July 14, 1916

The Punjab and Central Provinces.

At Jullundur is a school for girlsthe Kanya Maha
Vidyalayathe ideal of which is social reform and
educational religious training. Instruction is given in
the vernacular, English being optional. The same
organisation supports a Widows Home, where the in-
mates are trained to be self-supporting. Several branches
are to be found in other centres in the Punjab.

At Lahore the Womens Section of the Society for Pro-
moting Scientific Knowledge holds classes for women,
dealing with, such subjects as home nursing and the rear-
ing of children. Lantern lectures are given to children,
the whole of the instruction being in the vernacular.
Hospitals and other institutions are "visited, and infants
welcome classes have been formed.

At Amraoti, in Berar, a High School for Girls is being
carried on by private effort.

Public Meetings and Addresses.

In addition to the societies" and organisations for the
promotion of the education of womeiwof which an "account
has been given, the following pltblic meetings have been
convened by women in order to stimulate the interest of
the Government of India in the cause :

The women of Bombay held a public meeting at the end
of December to adopt a memorial to the Viceroy. A meet-
ing of Indian women of the Punjab was held at Lahore
in January to consider the present condition of womens
education and to suggest means for improvement. The
Nawab Begum of Janjira presided over a Moslem Ladies
Conference which was held at Meerut for the discussion
of the home education for children. At a meeting of ladies
held in Calcutta on April 22, it was resolved to help to
supply the want of trained women teachers in the pro-
posed high schools and training colleges by selecting a
suitable candidate and bearing the expenses of her pas-
sage to England.

The whole question of the education of women was taken
as the subject of his address by the President of the Indian
Social Conference which was held at Bombay in Christmas
week in connexion with the Indian National Congress.
The conference passed a resolution urging upon the
Government-and the public the great necessity for provid-
ing larger grants and endowments for the higher and
secondary education of women. The President of the All-

India Kayastha Conference, which was held at Lahore in
,-also d

January,.also devoted a large portion of his address to the
subject. At an Educational^Conference held in Lucknow
in the same month, an Indian lady appealed to the
audience not to neglect their duties to the women and
girls oLlndia. Finally, during the various meetings held
at Benares in February, in connexion with the laying of
the foundation-stone of the new Hindu University, a
lecture was delivered by an Indian lady, in the course
of which she begged that the broad view might be taken
of womens education and that special attention should
be paid to the upbringing and home education of children.

Impmal ^adtamntl.

SPECIAL REPORT FOR "INDIA" OF ALL PARLIAMENTARY
PROCEEDINGS RELATING TO INDIA.

Wednesday, July 5.

HOUSE OF COMMONS.

TEA EXPORT DUTY IN TRAVANCOKE.

Sir J. D. Rees asked the Secretary of State for India whether
the Government of India had arrived at any conclusion regarding
the levy of double export cftity upon tea planters in Travancore.

Mr. Chamberlain : I have ascertained that negotiations are in
progress with the Travancore State for remedying the grievance
of which the planters complain.

THE CULTIVATION OF NATURAI? INDIGO IN INDIA.

Sir J. D. Rees asked the Secretary of State for India whether
the Government of India and the p^pvincial Governments were
able to guarantee that natural indigo should not again be
swamped by German synthetic indigo after the war; and whether
great increase in production was assured if such guarantee'could
be given.

Mr. Chamberlain : My hon. friend, as in duty bound, attributes
unlimited power to the Government of India, but this power is, in
fact, limited to their own sphere of action. The future of natural
indigo depends mainly upon two factorsimprovements in the
methods of cultivation and of preparation of the dye for the
market, and a settled and secured demand. The former may help
to secure the latter, and the Government of India are doing all
in their power to stimulate and assist the planters to place the
industry on a sound commercial basis. I have already communi-
cated with the other Departments of the Home Government which
use indigo. I hope that after the war they will give favourable

consideration to the claims of an Indian industry, but I cannot too
strongly impress upon my hon. friend, and through him on all
concerned, that the planters themselves must co-operate to ensure
more scientific cultivation, better preparation for the market and
better marketing arrangements if durable results are to be secured.

POSTAL RATES TO MESOPOTAMIA.,

Sir Henry Craik asked the Postmaster-General whether the
postal rates of letters and parcels for the forces in Mesopotamia
had been increased.

Mr. Pike Pease : The postage rates for parcels sent from the
United Kingdom, to the Indian troops forming part of the Meso-
potamian Expeditionary Force have been recently assimilated to
those which have always been in force for the rest of the Mesopo-
tamian Expeditionary Force, namely, is., 2s., and 3s. for parcels
weighing 3 lb., 7.1b., and 11 lb. respectively. There have been
no other changes in rates of postage.

Thursday, July 6.
HOUSE OF COMMONS.

INDIAN INDENTURED LABOUR IN THE COLONIES.

Sir John Jardine asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies
whether imprisonment of Indian labourers had been abolished in
the Fiji Colony, and whether any similar action was being taken
by the Governments of Jamaica, British Guiana, Trinidad, or any
other colonies.

Mr. Bonar Law : Imprisonment as a punishment for offences
against The laws relating to ^Indian immigration has been
abolished in Fiji, and the Governors of the three West Indian
Colonies have under consideration a similar amendment of the
laws of their Colonies.



Monday, July 10.
HOUSE OF COMMONS.



RAILWAYS IN SOUTHERN PERSIA.

Colonel Yate asked the Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs
why, considering that the Russian railway from Julfa to Tabreez,
in the North of Persia, had been completed despite the war and
disturbed local conditions, no progress had been made with the
British concession for the Mohammerah-Khoramabad railway in
South Persia .flfllictQ at any rate, could have been laid as far as
Dizful; ancl^ if the British Government were too much engaged
to take the matter up, would the Secretary of State for Foreign
Affairs hand over the political control of Southern Persia to the
Government of India, and permit them to take the matter in
hand.

Lord Robert Cecil : The military situation in South-Western
Persia has rendered impossible for the time being any further
development of the scheme for a railway from Mohammerah to
Khoramabad, but when the local situation has improved further
steps will be taken in consultation with the Government of India.

THE KUT DESPATCHES.

Mr. Peto asked the Secretary of State for War when the de-

spatches relating to the expedition for the relief of Kut, and
particularly the action fought under General Aylmer on March 8,
would be published.

Mr. Forster (for Mr. Lloyd George) : These despatches have
not yet reached the War Office.

Tuesday, July 11.
HOUSE OF LORDS.

THE MESOPOTAMIA PAPERS.

Viscount Midleton asked the Lord President of the Council

when the papers relating to Mesopotamia would he published.
The Marquess of Crewe said that he was given to understand

that further examination of the papers which it was proposed to
publish had led to the belief that the military objections to cer-
tain portions which had been put forward for publication were
stronger than were at first supposed, and he understood that the
delay was due to that cause only. He would communicate further
with the India Office to see if they could state the date when the
papers would be published.



HOUSE OF COMMONS.

THE MEDICAL- SERVICES IN MESOPOTAMIA.

Colonel Yate asked the Secretary of State for India from-what
dates prior to June, 1915, Surgeon-General Sir William Bab tie
was absent from his appointment as Director of Medical Services
in India; where was he employed during that time; and who
was the officer responsible in regard to the medical provision for
the expedition to Mesopotamia during his absence...

Mr. Chamberlain : Surgeon-General Sir William Babtie left
India for Egypt on February 6 and returned on March 19. He
was deputed to Egypt at the instance of the War Office to report
on the Indian medical arrangements there. During his absence
the routine duties of the office were carried on by the Deputy-
Director of Medical Services.' The Government of India report
that the latter dealt with no questions of policy.



RAW COTTON EXPORTS FROM INDIA.

Sir George Tout,min asked" the Secretary of State for India
what were the exports of raw cotton from India during the last
pre-war year and the principal purchasing countries ; what were



INDIA.

19

the exports in tihe most recent recorded period and the purchasing,
countries; and what endeavours were being made to secure the
growth in India of cotton of a staple suitable for Lancashire mills.

Mr. Chamberlain : Efforts are being made to increase the culti-
vation of long stapled cotton where this is possible, and I shall
be glad to place at the disposal of the hon. member papers shew-
ing what is being done. The exports of raw cotton from British
India in 1913-14 and. 1915-16 were as follows, the year in each
case ending on March 31

1913-14 Cwts. 1915-16 Cwts.
United Kingdom 384,914 823,502
Germany 1,688,070 Nil
Belgium 1,133,083 Nil
France 524,264 203,707
Spain 166,933 237,061
Italy 848,576 ... 1,097,138
Austria-Hungary 747,041 Nil
China ... 194,288 381,074
Japan 4,817,560 ... 5,913,981
Other Countries 121,583 149,853

Wednesday, July 12.

HOUSE OF COMMONS.

THE CAMPAIGN IN MESOPOTAMIA.

Colonel Aubrey Herbert asked the Prime Minister whether he
would give a day for the discussion of the conduct of the cam-
paign in Mesopotamia.

Mr. Asquiti-i : I do not think that the present moment is
opportune for such a discussion, but I will, of course, bear my
hon. friends question in mind.

Sir Edward Carson : May I ask the right hon. gentleman is
this House and the country neve* to get, from time to time, any
kind of reports of what is g^in-g on in Mesopotamia? (Hear,
hear.) May I also ask if these reports are being purposely kept
back, and whether the right hon. gentleman does not know that
there is amongst a considerable portion of people, who have had
communications from that country, the very gravest anxiety as
to the negligence that has taken place in reference to the whole
of the operations in Mesopotamia? (Hear, hear.)

Sir Arthur Markham : Worse than the Dardanelles I

Mr. Asquith: There is no desire, 1 need hardly say, to keep
back anything. (Hon. Members: Oh, ah.ii^Why should
there be? The House is entitled to -have, andjMiope it will
have, the fullest possible information given to it. No one is more
desirous than the Government(Hon. Members : Oh !)that
the matter should be thoroughly discussed, but I this is a particularly opportune moment for it. (Hon. Members
Why?) For reasons which I cannot properly disclose. The
other suggestion that we are burking the matter, or desire to
avoid discussion, is entirely unfounded.. In regard to what Sir
Edward Carson has said as to the condition of the troops in
Mesopotamia, that is a matter which is engaging our daily atten-
tion, and most careful steps are being taken to remedy the defects
which have been proved to exist and to supply immediate neces-
sities. No one is more alive to the need- of doing that than is
His Majestys Government itself, but I do not think the present
the proper moment for discussion.

Sir Edward Carson : I shall put a question to the right hon.
gentleman early next week, and, in the event of not getting a
satisfactory answer, I shall ask leave to move the adjournment
of the House. (Cheers.)

Sir Henry Dalziel : Will the right hon. gentleman be good
enough to see whether it would not be possible to give tire
additional papers promised as early as possible?

Mr. Asquith ; I will deal with that to-morrow.

Colonel Aubrey Herbert : May I ask if the right hon. gentleman
does not consider that it would be in the national interest now
to fix the responsibility for the economy that has governed and
hampered the whole of the Mesopotamia campaign from its
initiation until a few months ago upon individuals?

The Speaker : That is the same question as has already been
asked.

. Th tin day, July 13.

HOUSE OF LORDS.

THE CAMPAIGN IN MESOPOTAMIA.

On the motion of the adjournment of the House,

Viscount Midleton again called attention to the question qI

Mesopotamia. He asked whether, even if they could go no
further, the Government could not lay on the table such portion
of the papers as referred to the failure of the supply of transport,
hospitals, and the like, leaving out the question of policy or
military questions. He hoped that Lord Crewe would not next
week ask members again to defer their observations to a later
date. They desired to have the opportunity not of putting the
Government in a difficulty, but of controlling what was going on
at this moment and endeavouring to see that the supplies which
ought to have been given to the troops were now given. They

, were in a position to bring forward evidence that much was going
on of which as Englishmen they were heartily ashamed, in view
of the climatic conditions and the difficulties under which our
troops laboured. If the Government could not issue papers he
hoped they would at all events saywhether there could not be at
oncehe asked it in the public interestan enquiry which might
satisfy the public.

Serious Statements.

The Duke of Somerset said he had that morning had the
opportunity of reading three or four letters from officers who had
been serving in Mesopotamia. The cruelties our men had suffered
through the utter incompetence of the authorities in India and
here was simply too disgraceful. They all knew what our men
had suffered when taken prisoners by the GermansGermans
were savages and nothing else was to be expected from them
but our men had suffered even worse from the way things had
been mismanaged in Mesopotamia. In one case a thousand
wounded soldiers were sent down in a ship with only one medical
officer and one orderly to look after them. They were all mixed
up together, officers, men, and native #ien with dysentery and-
men with shattered limbs, and there was not a drop of morphia
or a bit of chloroform, in the whole ship. One officer neVer had
his wound dressed' from the time he was picked up until he got
to Bombay. It was the most disgraceful thing he had ever read.
Who was to blame? God knew. There must be somebody to
blame here, and he thought the officer in command of the troops
in India was also terribly to blame. - *

The Marquess of Crewe s?lid that since the subject was last
before t^ie House he ffiid been in consultation with in ore than one
of his colleagues in regard 1,0 it. He thanked Lord Midleton for
acquitting him of any desire for or toleration of undue procrastina-
tion and delay in this most important matter. It was evident from
the remarks made by the Duke of Somerset that feeling was
deeply stirred by what had happened. The only announcement
he could make was that as a result of his conversation with his
colleagues, the Prime Minister in the House of Commons, and he
in the House of Lords, would make a statement on Mesopotamia
and also on the Dardanelles. He noted the point as.to the possi-
bility of drawing a distinction between papers dealing with military
operations which it might be regarded as dangerous to publish,
more especially in cases where operations in the neighbourhood
were not entirely concluded, and papers dealing with supplies,
transport, and medical services. He would enquire whether it
was possible to draw such a distinction.

The Marquess of Salisbury thought it right to say that even
if papers were presented he could hold out no* hope that debate
would be avoided. Public feeling had been roused to such an
extent that debate was inevitable. The speech of the Duke of
Somerset showed the things that were being said all over the
country. One of the circumstances took place not later than
May 7. So it was not old history, but a continuing evil. Those
things might turn out to be untrue; but they would continue to
be said until there was a full statement from thS Government.,
and if they were true serious measures would have to be dealt
out to those responsible and steps taken to secure that they should
not recur.

HOUSE OF. COMMONS.

THE DARDANELLES AND MESOPOTAMIA.

Sir Henry Dalziel asked the Prime Minister whether 4ie coiiid
see his way ter inform the House of the reason for the delay in
the publication of the Dardanelles Papers, in regard to which a
definite pledge had been given to the House; whether the papers
in question were fully examined before such pledge was given and
all necessary authorities consulted; and whether he could now
undertake that the publication would take place before the House
adjourned for tire summer recess.

Sir Edward Carson had a question on the paper in similar,
terms.

Mr. Bonar Law (who replied) said: The Prime Minister has
asked me to say that he will make a full statement on these and
the Mesopotamian questions on Tuesday next.

Sir Edward Carson : Will the House have an opportunity of
discussing the statement? (Hear, hear.) What we really want
is opportunity for discussion in the House. We never get it.
(Hear, hear.)

Mr. Bonar Law : I shall put the representation of my irighb
hon, friend to the Prime Minister, andI am quite sure that if the
House desires to discuss the statement an opportunity will be
given.

Sir Henry Dalziel : May I ask the right hon. gentleman
whether his position is exactly the same as when he said, six
weeks ago, that, the Dardanelles papers, could now be published
with due regard to the public interest, as the book was now
closed?

Mr. Bonar Law : So far as 1 know, my position is exactly the'
same as it was thoflK

Mr. Churchill : Then iay we take it that the papers are going
to be published? .

Mr. Bonar Law : If I could give that answer it would not be
necessary to postpone the question till Tuesday.

Mr. Pringle : Then, are we to understand that the papers
.cannot be published? (Cries of Wait and See.)

Mr. Butcher : Can we have any papers relating to Mesopo-
tamia before the Prime Minister makes his statement?

Mr. Bonar Law : It is in regard toT those papers that the Prime
Minister says he will make a statement on Tuesday,

The next meeting of the East India Association will be held at
Caxton Hall, Westminster, on Monday afternoon next (July 17),
when Sir Guilford Molesworth, K.C.I.E., will read a paper on
Indian Railway Policy. Sir Stephen Finney, late President
of the Indian Railway Board, will take the chair at a quarter-past
four oclock.


* <

20

INDIA.

July 14, 1916

INDIAN NATIONAL EVOLUTION:

A Brief Survey of the Origin arid Progress
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The Surat Imbroglio and the Allahabad Convention. The Work in England
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Partition of Bengal. The Indian Unrest and its Remedy. The Depression.
The Reorganisation of the Congress. The Reconstruction of the Indian CiviV
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Full Text

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