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- History of Burma, A.D. 1300-1400
- Than Tun, 1923-2005
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- Burma -- History ( lcsh )
Myanmar -- History
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- "Read at the History Session held on the occasion of the Sixth Anniversary of the Kanthasanelai Group on 20 September 1959 with Professor G. H. Luce in the Chair."
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HISTORY OF BURHAg A.N.4500-1400
by Than Tun
SINCE JAUNARY 1959? three of us Nr Yi Yi, U Tin Hla Thaw and myself have been
working on the inscriptions of Burma belonging to the period A.N.1 300 to 1600 and
the object evidently is to write the history of medieval Burma and as a prelimi-
nary report we expected that each of us would be able to write a paper towards
the end of the year. Roughly the early part 1300 to 1400 was assigned to
Nr Yi Yi and the middle part 1400 to 1 500 to U Tin Hla Thaw and the last part
-1 500 to 1600 to me. Unfortunately in July Nr Yi Yi was called upon to do no
less an important task of collecting material on the Anglo-Burmese relations at
London and therefore 1 have to do the reporting on her behalf and I shall have
to warn you all that what I said just now is subject to correction by her latter.
Some of you would remember that at one of the Kanthasanelai G-eatherings I read
a paper on the History of Burma A.N.1000-1300 and next week U Tin Hla Thaw
will read the History of Burma, A.N. 1400-1500. So for the 3ake of continuity
I have to take up I3OOI4OO. The Burma Historical Commission has almost all the
rubbings of the inscriptions we used and had it not been for the good and kind
help rendered to us by the staff of that institute and the permission to use the
rubbings, our researches in the medieval history of Burma would have been impossi-
ble. On behalf of my colleagues and myself, I would like to express our thanks
to the Commission and its staff. I have a microfilm copy of the readings made
by Professor G. H. Luce of the inscriptions of Burma and when decipharing the
inscriptions we have to use it wherever we are in doubt and that is fairly frequ-
ent. Por all that and for being our teacher in Burmese epigraphy, we owe him
It is from the fall of Pagan that we are to begin our story now. Pagan ci-
vilization broke up under attacks from without and centrifugal ism within and
the details of this tragic scene are most admirably told by Professor G. H. Luce
* Read at the History Session held cup the occasion of the Sixth Anniversary of
the Kanthasanelai Group on 20 Setember 1959 with Professor G. H. Luce in the
in several of his papers* but alloy/ no to repeat very briefly some important
parts of the story. A npminal kingship was revived at Pagan in the person of
KlawcwS who was anointed king on Monday 30 128% He was formerly Tala Sukri
- the Headman of Bala (Twante) and as king he was known as Rhuynansyan^- the Lord
of the Golden Palace... His regnal title was Siri Tribhawanaditya^pawarapandita
dhammaraja.. To make himself secure op the throne he was in great need of help
and so early in 12-97 he sent his son and heir Singhapati to Peking. On 20 larch
. 1297 the Mongol Emperor granted sji official appointment to? Klawcwa as the king
of Burma. In spite of that, by 17 Bsc 1297? he was mentioned as Nankla Man
-the dethroned king. Professor Luce- pointed out that according to the Chinese
his dethronement and removal to Myinzaing occured only in June-July of 1298
Perhaps the reason of this contradiction of statements is that the usurpers took
special care to delay all information of a vassalage in reaching the ears of the
suzerain as long as possible and in the meantime- to do all mischief in the name
of the unfortunate vassal so that the wverlord would be only too glad to hear
his fall. This also explains why the Mon envoys to China were arrested in
Klawcwa1 s name in March-April 1298. The Burmese account given in an inscription
1. See Go H. Luces The Early Syan in Burmas History JSS, XLVIL,ii, August
1950, pp.137 fllg. j G. H. Luces Pagan Dynasty IL, A.B.1174-1301 mimeographed and
privately circulated by BSHRI, Sept. 19565 etc.
2. Pl. 580a>, S.655
5. Pl. 282 f Sakarac 651 khu Cay rihac Mlwayta 1-chan 12 ryak 2 niyt phurhalon
apisip khaa ruy...
4. Pl. 3921 6, S. 663.
4 9 10 1
5o Pl. 287a y ,S.659,P1.394 S.664-, Pl. 4172, s, 650.
6. Pl. 276a5, s. 654.
7. B. Huber s nEa fin de la Bynasti de Pagan, BEFBO, IX, p. 67O? G. H. Luces "The
Early Syam in Burma's History, JSS, XLVI, ii, p. "155.
8. Pl. 2862, 3.659.
9. Luces "Sydm. JSS XLVI. ii, p. 1p6.
from the Thatyapyissi monastery. Myinzaing, leaves no room for any doubt. It
// Sakrac 659 khu Mruikkasuiw rihac Plasuiw l-chan 15 ryak 5 niy Uryan Nankla
Man Kwan Prok Kri Thwak taw mu so man mat Satyapican pan raka Krohnan Kra
**' 4*. '
rihan riy can taw khla e1 man mat kri Asankhya le pan pa ruy riy can taw
khla pa e
On 17 December 1297 the Dethroned King came to the Great Variegated Hall
and as the minister Satyapican had requested, he poured the royal pure
water from a krohnan Jar. The great minister Asankhya had his permis-
sion also to pour the royal pure water.
This pouring of water by a king or an ex-king or a king-to-be, in recognition
of somebody giving certain lands to the Religion, should not, I think, be taken
as a religious function attached to the kingly estate. The growing increase of
$he religious lands was a serious threat to the royal treasury as the king could
not collect revenue from these lands. So starting with Klacwct, it was the policy
of late Pagan kings to check this growth. A confiscation of monastic land might
cause an uneasiness in the relation between king and monks. So very tactfully,
the kings had evolved a system which requires their prior knowledge of all dedica-
tions or their presence in all dedication ceremonies so that they could withhold
some good lands from becoming tax-free while at the same time they would be seen
pouring the libation water and announcing publicly anuaodana the appreciation.
One might also have noticed that on such occasions more of mliy cim^^ waste land/
15 16 17
taw cim mle forest waste land$ to ruin mle forest wild land? tau mrun
10. Pl. 2861"4, S. 659.
11. Luces "Syam", JS3, XLVI, Ii, p. 156.
12. Pl. 90 , s.597; Pl. 29611-16, S.689; Pl.5211, S. 72O; U647'24, S. 748.
1J. Pl. 4172, S. 650.
14. Pl. 416b2. ,>4t3.6n-, Pl.4748, S.7O6.
15. Pl.51840, S.7I8, Pl.'519ag S.718J List 68212, s. 737; 873a14, TJ73b11 ,S.76O.
16. 887a2, 887b5, s. 769.
17. Pl. 472 s. 705.
- forest ? barren land,and mily khrok dry land, were dedicated than some good
cultibable land. This also gave the monks a useful work of claiming waste lands
under crop and quicken the economic development of the country after many years
of war. At the same time checkings were made as to the authenticity of the reli-
gious lands from time to time. Thus, I believe, Klawcwa continued attending
a dedication ceremony at Myinzaing together with Asarikhya the eldest of the
three brothers who were in real power then. They put him to death on 10 May 1299*
The three brothers were mentioned in an inscription dated 13 February 1289
as Asankhya Ra.jasan kram Sihasu/amat kri sum yok the three great ministers
Asankhya, Ra.jasankram and Sihasura2? But it is interesting to note that they were
not present at Klawcwa!s coronation in May of that year. From the time when the
Mongols threatened invasion to the time when Klawcwa became king there was a
period of nearly five years and it seems that these three brothers had taken advan
tage of the disturbances happening in those #ears, in consolidating their hold on
the Eleven Kharuin area of Kyaukse, which was the chief granary of the Pagan
kingdom. Perhaps Klawcwa had the control over the six Kharuin area of Minbu,
which was of course, of less importance than Kyaukse. Thus a king at Pagan found
it necessary to try and get the friendship of the masters of Kyaukse in such a
troubled time and he had to pay a high price for this friendship. He became a
noBWllja 1 ruler. Because in an inscription dated 16 Feb 1293? the three brothers
claimed themselves t-~ bethe equals of the Sagan king and also the generals who
had defeated the Taruk army They were now the actual rulers of the Central
Burma. Although they were of Shan origin, unlike the Northern Shans, they were
Buddhists and as they left all their inscriptions in Burmese, it seems that they
were thoroughly Burmanised. They got help from Chieng Mai in the occupation of
Kyaukse and on the strength of an inscription of the Kudwetawya- monastery^ near
Hpaloppedaw and Singun villages, Sama, Paukmyaing, Kyaukse?^ Professor Luce *
18. Pl. 4759
19. Pl. 5211, s. 720.
20. Pl. 41725, S. 650.
21. Pl. 276a45
22. Luces Syam,JSS, XLVI, ii, p. 153.
23. Pl. 293 S. 661.
suggests that after Klawcwas dethronement, one Siriraja, probably a.member of
the old Burmese aristocracy, made a stand against the Shan occupation of Kyaukse
with some temporary success on the.west side of the Panlaung in about the later
half of the year. 1299
Siri Tribhavana^dittryaxpawaradhaaBara.ja Man Lulan (Tsou Nieh) was the next
king at Pagan^5 and ^e gave his first audience on 8 May 1299 He had the
support of the three brothers together with other important ministers like
Sinkasu, Takkhana, Gatur ankapican, Akkapatiy, intapaccara, Punna, Supharac,
Phyakkasu and Mahasamanf His rival claimant, another son of Klawcwa known as
Kumarakassapa27 escaped into Yunnan, in September 1299 to invoke the help of the
Mongols. But it was the three brothers who started the hostilities. In January
1300 Asankhya invaded Cheng-mien i.e. Burma north of Mandalay and took Nga Singu
and Male. On 22 June 1300, Kumara Kassapa was declared by the Mongol Emperor as
the rightful king of Burma. It was only on 15 January 1301 that the invading
army reached Male. The enemy under the command of Mangu Turumish was not
1,200,000 strong as maintained in an inscription of A.D.1334* It had less than
12,000 soldiers?9 While the army marched to Kyaukse, KumSra Kassapa went to
Pagan. He came to be known as Taruk pran la so Taktaumu mankri^S the king who
caae from the land of the Turks and ascended the throne. He entered Pagan
without difficulty but he went back with the Mongols when they retreated. The
invaders reached Myinzaing on 25 January 1 301 but were persuaded to go back and
so the retreat begun on 6 April 1301. To avoid further invasions, envoys were
sent with tributes to China?1 On 4 April 1303? the province of Cheng-mien was 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
24. Luce: "Syaro", JSS, XLVI, ii, pp.153 and 158.
25. P1.290b2-\ P1.39O5,1617, S.661
27. See Y.S. ch.20j Luces "Syam', JSS, XLVI, ii, pp.158-9.
28. Pl.454a9 and Pl.454b7
29. Luces "Syam", JSS, XLVI, ii, p.161.
30. Pl.396a4, Pl.396b1, 8.664*
31. Envoys sent on 27 July 1301, 16 September 1301, 4 November 1301, 6 October
1303, 1 February 1308, 3 August 1308, 27 December 1312, 31 July 1315 and
20 July 1319. See Luces "Syan", JSS, XLVI, ii, pp.163-4.
Of the three brothers the youngest Sihasura I was the most ambitious. He
assumed the title of Chanphlusyan the Lord of the White ElephantJ2 by 1295 and
mahkri-^ the great king, by 1296. He was not to be confused with Man Lulan of
Pagan who also had the title of Chanphlusyan54 As a matter of fact he was the
direct opposite of Pagan Chanphlusyan who very meekly submitted to the foreign
suzerainty. He and his brothers led the resistance movementand claimed that
they fought and conquered the Taruk army. In 1506 he was no longer a simple
Sihasura. He became Ananiasihasurajeyyadeva?5 On 20 Oct 1 309 he had had his
coronation with the regnal title of Siri Trilhawaiiadityapawarasihasuradhaamaraj'a^
and as usual with the kings he gave away lands to various religious establish-
ments^ It seems that he never failed to seize the opportunity of making public
the fact that it was they who saved the country from the foreigners. When the
eldest brother died, it was recorded ass
Sakarac 672 khu Phussa nhac Kachun la plan niy lwai 25 phlwa 2 la niy
Asahkhaya Raj A Sinkasu. man 5 yok ma khlok ma khlya pran tuin ka kuiw matun
ma lhup up sa rhaw kha akuiw mlat cwa Asahkhaya nat(rwa la)khay Raja Sin-
ka^su atu pran kri up rac e ft
On 13 April 1310, when the exalted Asankhaya, the elder (brother) of the
three kings Asahkhaya Raja and Sihzkasu who had firmly controlled the
country and capital without being timid and frightened died, Raja and
Sinxkasu together continued to control the great capital.
Here I would like to point out that the version given in the Hmannan5 9 as RAja
died in 1305 and Asahkhaya was poisoned by Sihasura in 1310 is wrong. According
to the above inscription, Asahkhaya died in 1310 and the two younger brothers
continued to rule the country firmly to the advantage of the people in general.
He built a new capital at Pinya in 1 3124^ and called it Wijayapura^1 He was also 32 33 34 35 36 38 39 40 41
32. Pl.389c8 S.657, Pl.4O6a19, S.669^ Pl.42815, S.662
33. Pl.2855, S.658.
34. Pl.3905, S.66I0
35. Pl.403a5 S.668.
37- Pl.5011, S.67I0
38. Pl.412a2, S.610.
39. The Hmannan Yazawin, I, p.407.
40. L.4464 S.674? Hmannan I. p.407.
41. Pl.4877, Pl.488b4.
- 7 -
known as Tacisyan^2- the Lord of One or Chanphlu taci asyan^5- the Lord of One
Y/hite Elephant. His chief queen was Ratanapum^
Taci syan was succeeded by his son Uccana^ pn -j 324^ This Uccana was
contemporary with dccana^7 the governor of Pagan. There was a great flood in
1331 that must have done great demage to the cultivation of the country. He
built one big pagoda at Manklantim^^ another one at Santon in 133250 and still
another at Mrankhuntuin in 1 555- Lastly he built a big ku in T34O at the place
whore he lived before he became king; Apart from these meritorious deeds we
know nothing else about him. Next ruler was Hrancuin Cansu who became king on
1 September 1340. There is no mention of this king in the chronicles. His
queen was Caw Thwat5^ with whom he got two daughters, viz. Caw Kri and Caw Lm
Kri San. Caw Kri was married to his nephew the next king Sihasura II.
Sihasura II or Chanphlu 5 ciaskhi the Lord of Five White Elephants,succeeded
his uncle and father-in-law on 29 March 1344. He was popularly known as
NaciasyarP7 and his regnal title was Pawarapanditasihagur adhammarÂ£,ia?8 Aplontau*
Co man Nai v/ag ono of his concubines. W< know by name a few of his children.
They were s Uccana^0 who was married to Co Cala^* * 1 daughter of Klacwa the King of
Cakuing Cansu Natonmyakri^2 whose sister gave birth to Muiwnan Satuiw^ who
became king in Aya later? Man Pulai&L Klaucwa I^5, Sinkasu^. and Sihasura III^7
Of these Klaucwa I succeeded hin on 12 December 135O^8 as King Sri Tribhawana-
dityapawar adhammar a,jaf 9 One remarkable thing done during his reign was that on
43 U 34a1, S.739? U 73a1, S.76O? U 87a1, S.769.
44. Pl.436b5, Pl.445b827.
45. U 87a1, S.769.
46. H 87a says he was Sihasura1 s younger brother.
47. Pl.4511? S.696. 57. L0696b9.
48. L.608b1, S.729. 58o L.4464-5, L 5961. 67. L.6O610.
49. Pl.445a1, S.692. 59. L.696b1"2. 68. Pl.486a15, S.712.
50. Pl.446a1, S.694. 60. Pl.49421. 69. Pl.4879? S.712.
51. Pl.455a', S.697- 61 . L.688 \
52. Pl.459a1, S.7O2. 62. Uo200b2\
53. Pl.461a5, S.7O2. 63. Ul6la2.
54. Pl.483b2. 64. Pl.507a16.
55. Pl.488b2, S.712. 65. Pl.4945.
56. Pl.470a1, S.7O5. 66. Pl.49421.
41. Pl.4511? S.696. 57. 1.696b9.
48. 1.608b1, S.729. 58. L.44645, L 59610. 67. L.6O610.
49. Pl.445a1, S.692. 59. L.696b12. 68. Pl.486a1*"5, S.712.
50. Pl.446a1, S.694. 60. Pl.49421. 69. P1.4879? S.712.
51. Pl.455a1, S.697- 61. L.6881
52. Pl.459a1, S.702. 62. IJo200b2\
53. Pl.461a5, S.702. 63. U.l6la2.
54 Pl.483b2. 64. Pl.507a16.
55. Pl.488b2, S.712. 65. Pl.4945.
56. Pl.470a1, S.705. 66. Pl.49421.
- 0 ~
12 March 1559? some lithic inscriptions were collected to make a check on the
religions lands. Perhaps it was done on a similar line with what King
Bodawpaya had done on 24 July 1795 and one could imagine that a certain amount
of demage must have been done to the inscription stones. It was also during the
last, year of his reign i.e. 1559 that the Syam came and destroyed much of his
land?2 pG died on 19 March 1 5597^ and was succeeded by his brother Sihasura III
This Sihasupa is also not mentioned in the Chronicles. We know two of his
queens, viz. Kanmamay and Acawmlat'D In 1562 the Syam cane again to disturb the
country. 77 I think he was never able to subdue them and with him ended the
Panya line of kings. He probably died in 15607^ and the disturvances in his
land remained unchecked until 1568. It was recorded ass
70. P1.5211, S.72O0
71. Koribaungzet, 1905? p.662
75. L.6421"2, S.72I$ 7P1.55O1, S.722.
78. Lo800a6~7? S.762.
- 9 -
/'/ phura mlat mwan nlbban lwan prl sasana 1912 nhac Sihasu nat rwa la ka amva
Ma khvan*kway khran nhac phak ruk rak pran thal sai gal trya Asanghayya
rolok bhak rwa kuiw up lha cl nhan man mu lhyan'7
.. After the death'of Sihasura III, in A.B. 1912, (A.D.1368), families were
broken up on both sides as there was much disturbances within the capital,
(a descendent of) the..just Asanfehavya conquered the northern villages
and became king.
When the country was restored to normal conditions again the grandaughter of
Asanghayyau the Queen of Trvaphya III of A_ya started a sort of religious and
literary movement in about 1373 by inviting both Brahman and Sinhalese teachers
to the country
Sagaing was also a contemporary capital and its kings were the descendants
of Pinya Tacisvan. A comprehensive list of its kings is given in an inscription
dated 1408 and it is best to reproduce it here.
/ Sakarac 770 Phalakuin nhac Tanoh 1-chan tac, chai na rvak Sokkra ne Ihvan
rhwe lak rum tau a phlan Mramma pran Tanluin pran Kula pran alumm akun
oumm kuiw acuiw ra so Sri Trlbhawanadltvanawavaoanditadhammaraja hu so re mle
asvah phlac so phura rhan Anoratfhamancau e* mvoksa tau nhlac so ton miphura
cau san ka miphura man ga ma hut phuiw Ion tau mahkri Taciasvah // Taci-
asvan Iwan lhvah Taciasvah sa Cackuih Mahkri Asankhayya / Asankhvya Iwan
lhvan mahkri Trvaphya kri / Tryaphyakrl lwan lhvah Mankri Rhwetontak /
Rhwetontak lwan Ihvan Mankri Klacwa / Klacwa Iwan Ihvan Manraitauthwak /
Manraitauthwak lwan lhvan Mahkri Tryaphyanai / Tryaphvanaj Iwan lhvan Mahkri
Man Plan man nhlac eJ / Man Plan lak dhak Phwatau Ouiw Man Kuiw Tau Kri
miphura mlok e minhura ka nhac pa ma hi Cuiw Man Kulw Tau Kri sate / Man
Plan lwan Ihvan satau Satuiw Manphvn, ga mi ml e' rhwe lak rumm tau a phlan
Mramma pran thak tu phak kan ruy rai khran alwan khwan a dhan ruv ran man
khapoim kuiw ... c 3 nhac te nhim nan nuin pri so nat rwa la khai / Tryaphva
kri man mlok e* Tryaphya kri lak thak phwatau nima acma ton miphura mlok
miphura. mlok e! nan thak 35 nhac tie e1 / Trvaphya kri Iwan lhvan sa tau
79. L. 698a9-11, S. 739.
80. L. 698a24"26, S. 739.
Trvanhva man mlok e1 /. Trvanhva hat rwa Iwan Ihvan Trvanhva kri sa Anirattha-
cau pian phlac e
On 28 February 14.09, the living lord Anoratthaman^cau who by the golden
might of the hand ruled all of the lands of 'Mramma. Tanluin. Shvam and Kula
and who was called Sri Tribhawanaditvanawarananditadhammara.la had as a con-
sort the South Queen Can who was not a mere queen. (She was) a descendant of
Taciasvan. After the death of Taciasvah. his son Asahkhawa the great king
of Sagaing, after Asankhawa the great king Trvanhvakri.: after Trvanhvaxkri
the great king Klacwa: after Klacwa (there was) Manraitauthwak: after Mahrai-
tauthwak the great king Trvanhvahai: during the time of Man Flan, the royal
grand mother Ouiwroan Kuiw tau krl wqs made queen and as queen there was no
one else except Cuiwman Kuiw tau kri. After the death of Man rlan, his son
Satuiw Mannhva by his own golden might of the hands became unrivaled in the
land of Mramma in respect of bravery and strength. In 3 years (time) he
was able to crush all opposition. Then he died. Trvanhvakri became king.
Trvanhva made my grandmothers the two sisters, north queen and south
queen and lived on the throne for 35 years. When Trvanhva kri died,
Trvanhvakris royal son Aniratthacau became king.
- 11 -
Now, in this list of kings from Cakuiri, Asankhvan ruled from ?1315 to 1327 and
this CaJaiii house as
he was a junior son of Sihasura I of Pariya. Therefore I would like to call/:
the junior branch of the Sihasura dynasty. Asarikhyya s queen was Kuiw Taw Kri
When he died he wqs succeeded by his brother called Tryaehya I^who became king on
5 February 1327 His mother was Queen Ratarianum and she left an interesting
inscription recording repairs at the Krakyak ceti said to be famous throughout
the land from Taruk kingdom in the north to Muttama in the south.The same
inscription mentions her sons accession to the Cakuin throne as:
/ Sakkarac 688 khu Tapori la plan 5 niy lhvari / khrarisey kham sa rhuv tori
.nan thak tak kha, pri sa Sihapura hu aman than sa (Chanphlu)-^asyah man
(khransiy) e.(^kri).nhlac tha so Cackuin marikri Tryaphya....
se ni or
Tryaphya the great king of Gackuin.who was the/son of the Lion King called
Sihasura. the Lord of the W-hite Elephant, ascended the lion throne on $
The date in the Chronicles is four years earlier. He became king when his step
brother Asarikhayya died. The Thamantaza Pagoda inscription dated 1343 give us
another interesting detail in connefetion with the next two kings of fiakuiri, viz.
Rhwetonhak (1335-1339) and Klacwa (1339-1348). The inscription begins with Cansu II
of Pukam. King Cansu personally came to this place in Ljyson in A.D. 1194 to make
a dam and ordered one thousand Lawa to look after it. When the works on the dam
failed one Marika la Sirikha was sent by the king to build a baddasima on the site.
Then in 1255 a rich man from Macchimadesa known by the name of Smancata came and
settled there. He built a brick mohastery to the east of King Cansus sima. He
also made a big image of Buddha sitting under the hood of the King of Serpents.
In addition to this a large estate was given to this establishment. Various do-
nors appeared to add more land to this estate. Then:
Sakarac 705 khu Klacwa Maritum twari nun so marikri Rhuytoritak thuiw ruy sum yu
kha e / Samancata nhura atham tau nhuik taitan mu ruy / yoknha Satuiw kri /
Klacwa roai Kuiwtaukri Klacwa man khriy tau aria hi ruy nhura tham tau suiw ma
82. Pl. 47215
83. Pl. 436b1
84. Pl. 436b'4'-5, .S.688.
van tat raka sa tau e* phyan tau le phura kuiv lhwagi e* / na sa Klacwa asak
le ma sly ana le pyo ruv markphlac rok mu ka / kri cwa go konmhu mu am hu
pan nak e* / ton so chu atuin mahkri mlok e /
In 1343 Klacwa was hldding at Mantum when the great king Rhuvtonlak attacked
and took hin captive. On the way, they stopped at the pagoda. His brother-
in-law Satuiwkri and his mother Kulw Taw Kri went to the pagoda and spread
his cloth on his behalf and his mother said: Because of bad legs Klacwa
could not appear before the Presence. But his cloth is ppread here. If
KlacwaTs live long and his legs cured and became king, we promise to bring
about a big dedication. As it was asked, he became king.
The chronicles give the other part of this interesting story. Rhuvtontak or
Anoratha I imppisoned his father Trvaphva I and made himself king. Klacwa
and his brother and brother-in-law fled to Mindon. But they were captured by
Rhuvtontak and brought back to Sagaing. In the meanwhile Trvaphva I organised
a conspiracy and got Rhuvtontak killed. But Trvaphva I was also killed and thus
Klacwa, being the next heir to the throne, became king without taking part in any
of these conspiracies. One of his queens was Cau Fa Ulw daughter of King Ucca-
na (l32$-1340) of Panva. From this union/, Co Gala' who was married to Uccana.
the son of King Sihnsura II (Naci^asvtn). Klacwa was succeeded by his brother
Manrai Tauthwak or Anoratha II In 1340. He was again succeeded by a brother
8Q * 90
Trvaphva II in 1350. Their sister Qulw Man Kuiw Taw Kri married twice.
91 * 92
With her first husband Satuiw Kri she gave birth to Satuiw ManphygT who later
became the founder of Awa in I364. Satuiw two sisters became the South
Queen and the North Queen of his successor Trvaphva III at Awa. Quiw Nan. Kulw Taw
Kri s second husband known as Man Plan^ became the successor of .Trvaphva II on
85. Pl. 47219.
86. I. 696b .
87. L 6881Q I> 696b* 3 *11, IW610, U87a23.
88. U92a55, U95412.
89. Pl. 507a27,U 92a55-6. '
90. U 92a67 * *
91. Pl. 47215
92. U 92a7.
93. U 94b1.
4 94 - '95
2.3 February 1352 He Is also known as Sihanati and he reigned until 1364
when his capital Cakuin was destroyed by the northern Svam.
i . 96 91
Satuiw mahohva became king in 1364 and he was the first founder of Awa
and his regal title was Sir! TiribhawanatlttvanawaradhammarhJa He was a warrior
king and in an inscription dated 1365 we have one reference to his coming back
from war. It saysi
// feU.lgmr.,claa., .Sawj*, ^.s,j q.,
XteUL^C ..tay.,ta.K.inu.^a akha.,.ahuik flya.ta,,k&i
wak ta khu krakpon 5 khu ...se, p,klo^ ta. ch^y3ha^p apforan.ta chai.an
/* . ' 99
When the great king Satuiw returned from subduing Caku, he stopped at a
sima of the General Asahkhva at a place called Kukhan. He was given one
ox, one pig, a total of 5 fowls, ten jars of liquorten pots of rice and
ten pots of curry.
Satuiw Mahnhvh was succeeded by his brother-in-law Irvanhva HI. He became king
on 5 September 1367 . He was Ramansan Man''0'' before he became king and popu-
larly he was known as ^ankricwa the iiixalted Great King. He ruled until 1400,
i.e, for 33 years As it was a period of trouble and most of the kings ruled
for only short periods,his long reign was exceptional and therefore he was also
known as Saktawrhan^0^the Long Life. Although there were some disturbances05
94. U 92a* * * 6-7
95. Pl. 49728.
96. Pl. 543b1, 3.726, Pl.544a12, Pl.544b6.
97. 0 60a2 3. 746 and Pl. 543b1'89 *9-l, 3.726.
98. 0 332-3, S. 729.
99. L. 630a18"21, 3. 727.
100. L. 7705, L. 64726.
101. Pl. 499b14, L. 698b4.
102. U 5821419.
103. U 92a says 35 years. .
104. 0 6311-12.
105. L. 7051.
- 14 -
he managed to.have a fairly quiet reign since 1386 , enjoying life with many
, .. Von ~
queens.. We know a few of them* They were: feu Nanda daughter of feu Gala;
Ton Minhura Caw'^the South ^ueen Caw; Ml ok Minhura few^^-~- the North Wueen
Caw; feu feet on Kuiw Taw^^: Caw Ummff and Svan Rhuv^^. The last mentioned one
was a wife he married at the age of 22 when he -wan a petty chief of Talup. He
took the titles of AgsanatinaranatibhawanatitvarawaradhammaraJa^^ and Siri Tj,ri-
nawanaditdvanawarananitadhammaraja1-^. During his reign, a great earthquake was
recorded to have done much havoc on 28 November 1372. In 1400 he was succeeded
by his eldest son Trvanhva IV. His reign was short. His stepbrother-Man Khon I
or ftnoratha III or Trvanhva V became king an 25 November 1400.
It was indeed a period of war. Due to foreign invasions cultivable lands
were left untended and soon they relapsed into jungle. One inscription dated
1386 gives the following account.
Mahamatima dhan a / Ucoana Mankrl san sansara chanrav kuiw kpok ewa so kron
Fankley tuik-.twan_.-cu.cam lat, ruv Sa^arqp, 6^7fnkhu Cissa nhao. TanQn.l~cha.n -lI. r
r.vak -5 ne mle 1500 Cawasatthiv. tuj-lc twan lhu.taw...mL-.e / akha tanA,Taruk
nhvak ruv tau ati nhlac khai / akhlulw ka: skhln tuiw a naccan nhlac. e1
Great King Uccaria? being afraid of the miseries of the Samsara made enquiries
in Fankley tuik and on 8 February 1256, gave 1500 (nay) of land from fewasat'
thiy tuik to Mahamatimathera. Because the Tarftk onee plundered (the said
lands) became full of jungle. Of these lands,some relapsed into jungle and
some remained in support of the Lords.
This extract referred to the Mongol invasions and how they effected agriculture of
those days. Nearly a century had passed but the effect of the war was still felt
in some parts of the country. We find here that the field abandoned at the time
of the invasions were left untouched until 1386. After the Taruk. there came the 111
106. U 6414>
107. U 34a56710
108. L. 682Li
109. 1. 6821818
110. U 55a4, U 5S214
111. L. 800a19
112. L. 7703
113. D 58114
114. L. 6823-4
115. U 647"11, 3.748
- 15 ~
Syam. A record of 134-2 mentions that the Lord of the Elephant had to wage wars
against the Syam and he won. D In another record we find:
/ Sakarac 718 khu Kratuik nhac Man Slnkapatiy / man mu so kha Ihvan
Khanmwan sukri kuiw Khyantwan cac thulw le ce e* cac on khlyiy ra ka nhac
ftak lan, cwa lhvan mu ruv Maw, .kuiw wan sj chu ne e1 ...
In 1356 when Prince Slnkapatiy was in control, he let the headman of Khan-
mwan to fight the battle of Khvantwan. As he won the battle, (the Prince)
was pleased. Maw was besieged. (I am not sure of the translation here).
Rewards were given.
The widow cf Tonhu Man in 1375 said:
ha Ian nat rwa la pri ^wa mahkri cac 3 krlA tak lac so rahan numna lu taka
tuiw san mwat so akha.nhuik wak kyak 37 na acim ana 200 na ne ra e* lu tuiw
mwat ruy se so kha lu mya kuiw na kuiw nhan than tu Ihvan sana cwa ruy Ihu
so thaman ka ta ne go akhwak na chai 2 ha nak ma prat lhu ra e* cac mak phlac
so skhin tuiw kvan mivn sah hi so le ma kvan a rak paccan, A na cum on lhu
Ea-.S1 . ............
After the death of my husband, when the great king of Aw. marched thrice to
do battle, all men, monks and Brahman starved. Then I gave alms to 200.
monks with 37 varieties of food including pnrk, fowl, etc. When men died of
starvation, I had a compassion on them as I had on myself, (and therefore)
I had 50 khwak of rice cooked twice night and day, daily and gave them
away. When the Lords (of the Religion) became uncomfortable due to the wars,
I madq/comfortable by giving them complete sets of the four requisites.
This clearly indicates that war evacuees found their way to Taungoo which was late:
to become a rival of Awp.
Another inscription dated 1375 make a comparison of the Syam ravages in Burma to
that of the Cola attacks at Ceylon11? It says:
/ nhura sikhan ninnan lwan nri sasana 1918 nhac so akha nhuik / Sakarac
736 khu Pjsvak nhac Tanoh 1-chan 8 rvak satan 2 niv a / 900,000 so Khan
116. Pl, 465b16, S, 703.
117. Pl.,519a1'3, S. 718.
118. List.686b810, S. .737.
119. Luce: Syam" JSS, .XLVI, ,ii, p.198, n. 199.
- 16 -
mankrl e .cap san tuiw kuiw lak rumm tau a phlah on lac ruy Mranma, pran Syam
a lum cum kuiw acuiw ra so Slhasura man go Chanphlu Sikhan trya mahkri e*
mle tau phlac tha .so / Siritiriphawanaditdyapawarapanitadharomara ja phun tap
khuiw_kyak_ sariy ne la kai sulw tok pa cwa tha so / Mahadhammaraja rhr^y klon
e1 tayaka alwan trya sattha cwa tha so / Chanphlu Skhin mahkri Tryaphva san
phura-. sasana tok ra gw& fe sc / Sinkhulw klwan kuiw micchadifrhi ZLan ti
nak 2 nhyak phi pri so thulw klwan Simkhuiw Sikri Rruhma Catulokapala /
Phumroarukkha / a^kasanhan yakkha dewa / con ma pa ruv ta kyak ta phan phura
mwan e sasana kuiw tok ra ce tat ova tha so / phura mlat cwa. Mitrva el lakya
ram hu pyatlt kham ra so Aphayaduthakamani mahkri kai suiw / Camputit thak
phura. gas ana tok pa ova go / Mranma pran kuiw dithi %vam mya thwa 2 nak 2
phyak phi san kuiw lak rum prana tau a phlan Syam dithi kuiw nhip nan nulh
ruy rhe so thak chÂ£e thak amwan sasana tok pa ce lyak dana sila ne ha ma kwan
alvah con ruy rahan pumna rnlua yokva sumya tuiw e1 a cl aphwa khvamsa tuiw
kuiw rha pe tat ova tha so / Mranma pran alum kun on cum kuiw acuiw ra san
phlac ruy Tawatinsa nat e1 pran nhan tu lha kyan tha so / Awa pran
Just as in^Island of Ceylon where the Religion shone, (and where also) the
heretics Kian had completely destroyed the land, that Island Ceylon revived
and the Religion shone again through the blessings of Sakra, Irahma, and all
the deva and through the effort done by the great king Dutthagamani who was
the repepient of the prophecy that he would become the right hand disciple
of Maitrya, on the Jambudipa where the Religion shone bright, the country of
Mranma was also completely destroyed by the heretic Syam and yet through the
mi^ht and wisdom of Siri Tjrlphawana ditdvapawaranainitadhammara5a. who is
powerful, majestic and shines like sun and moon, who is a great just king, the
donor of the golden monastery and who has a great faith in the Religion,
(also known as) the great king Tryaphya, Lord of the white Elephant, the
120. L. 682110, S. 737,,
- n -
grandson of the great just king Sihasura, Lord of the White Elephant who
ruled over all frfranma and Syam lands after conquering the 900,000 Khan
soldiers, the heretic Svam were suppressed and the Religion shone again
so that the monks, the Brahmans and the laity both men and women could
observe restraint and charity and work for their own prosperity so that
Aya capital of the Hranma land became as pleasant as the Tavatimsa
(7 Feb 1375).
Although Surma had experienced a century of unrest and war featured ty foreign
invasions and warring chiefs of petty states, there was some pleasantness
coming tack as alluded to in the above inscription. Towards the end of the
century, with the growth of Ava, the kings shew more concern to restore
peace and encourage agriculture.^ also find that the monks
- 18 -
too took a major port in this endeavour to restore peace end grow more food. The monks
of the iorest monasteries took the lord in claiming wast> lends under crop.
k few months ego I rood o paper on,Idah.akossapa and His Tradition at an ordinary
meeting of the Burna Research Society and that was on one of tho important aspects
of tho period under syjtvey. So leaving the details, I would like to repeat sone of
the salient points I discussed then.
The 14-th century was tho tine when tho Buddhist sect offorest dwellers were most
active in Burna. Their leader Mahakassapa was born in A.U. 1169 end his original
none was &a Pon. Lon, San. He was the native of Parimma in Myaung township, Sagging
district. He was extremely well in tho knowledge of the Pit oka and his moral
conduct was exemplary. He established a. forest monastery firstly at Kyaukyit. He then
extended his monastic establishments to Parim. Amr an and Anin. By A.D.12J5 he came to
Pagan. His name first appeared in tho Pagan inscriptions in A.D.122 5. He had his
lieutenants chosen from the choicest of tho monkhood and such persons like Anatakundan
\ or Hahama.tirqa& Â£n hÂ£S following helped much the propagation of his sect. Such
lea/ders of the sect came to be known as So ng her a 3 a. They had the power to control
tho monks and they exercised much influence over the kings of the Aw a period. Tho
kings gave them the authority to use the Kanakkatan White Umbrella. Some of thorn like
ys,c-nPk-rarp 1 and Pitu Sangharaja^9 became quite famous. It is remarkable to note
th-t there was one female leader called Rho klon Sangharaja In Ton Ruiwj-30 Their
power declined only after 1500,
During the Pagan period they had their rivals in the person of Dhsmmasiri and
Subhuticanday but they did not have any rival worthy of noto during the period
under survey, as a matter of fact, they wore the most popular of tho Buddhist sects
current then. Although they were staying at Arannawasi tax; klon^|^ most of them never
121. List 8919-2\s .791.
122. U 199a9,S.750.
125. U 45a5?S.733.
126. U S46\S.748.
12 7. List 8919,S,791, etc.
128. List 8452,S.774.
129. List 891U,S.791.
130. List 8342?S.77O.
132. P1.465a3,P1.583a20, etc.
- 19 -
lived "lone in the forest to observe the Srannsngsn as their none suggests. They lived
in great monastic establishments, owned vast estates and allowed certain lapses in the
observance of the Vinaya.
They also got lands in gifts but they greatly enlarged their estates by purchase.
Most of their purchases were na.de at the outlying districts where the price of land
was cheap. in such land transactions, it was usual to give grand feasts to gain the
public recognition of the new ownership}24 Officials in connection with the land v/ere
given cloths of various kinds as gifts}25 The price of land nearly always included
^X.Â£kuiw sa phuiwx the price of liquor and neat, and both nen and nonks were
invited to enjoy pri siy pri sa127- the finishing liquor and the finishing neat. One
could imagine how nuch people would cone to a feast where one big bull, one big pig,
and over 30 pots of liquor were consumed.128 Sonetines the nonks would Mention their
fcn.st as sanghika cit_ to. khu se thanan nhan nay ca pe efl29~ one goat cormonly owned
by the nonks was eaten with liquor-rice and meat.. Of the neat eaten, boef was the most
popular and pork was the next favourite. Of the liquor there were than ran140 or
japfoy " the toddy pain juice, pe ran the palmyra pain juice, and
Â£Â£Â£k - the distilled or foreign liquor. We find the mention of one Queen Cow
dedicating one ponkan of arak in 137^^ Special pavilions were sometimes built for
holding these feasts.133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 But usually a feast would be held at any convenient place
nit excepting a nahathera's residence}46 A copy of an inscription found at Nandamanna
in Ajjagoga enclosure ofi llinnanthu, Pagan, mentions that provisions were left to
cook rice and curry for the morning and evening meals of the nonks. This practice
of feasting and passing gifts in connection with land transactions began to appear
by A.D,1200 and it continued beyond A,D.1500.
135. List 682258,S.737.
136. P1.231a5,S.632, etc.
138. U 5812,S,745,
139. U 125b6,S.802.
140. List 952b8,S.852.
142. U 71b29,S.76O.
143. List 8915?S.791,
144. Waklak Thitseingyi Kyaung Inscription
145. list 63617,S.732.
146. List 671a ,S.735.
147. List 277201>S.610. See also G.E.
Harveys History of Burna, p 60.
- 20 -
With tho exception of drinking liquor, eoting evening meals and encouraging the
slaughter of cattle, etc. these monks were very much the sane with other nonks. As
stated above they had among then quite venerable nonks. Apart from their religious
duties, these monks took the lead in claiming more land under cultivation and thus
they must have been quite useful to the community in those days.
In conclusion we find this period as the most troubled period of the Burmese
history. Yet thanks to theforest dwellers and the kings of the later period, we
find that the foundations were laid for the political and cultural progress that
Burma made in the 15th and 16th centuries.
20 IX 19 59
ID, Four Unit Quarters,
Thaton Road, University Estate, Rangoon.
TK/KM/TT 3 X 1959
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