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A Vocabulary of the Tromowa dialect of Tibetan spoken in the Chumbi Valley (so far as it differs from standard Tibetan)

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Title:
A Vocabulary of the Tromowa dialect of Tibetan spoken in the Chumbi Valley (so far as it differs from standard Tibetan) together with a corresponding vocabulary of Sikhimese and of Central (standard) Tibetan (Given for the purpose pf comparison)
Creator:
Walsh, E. H. C. (Ernest Herbert Cooper), 1865-1952
Laden La, Sonam Wangfel, sardar bahadur, 1876-1936? ( contributor )
Place of Publication:
Calcutta
Publisher:
Bengal Secretariat Book Depot
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1905
Language:
Tibetan
Physical Description:
1 v.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Tibetan language
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- China -- Tibet
Coordinates:
31.2 x 88.8

Notes

General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Walsh, E. H. C. (Ernest Herbert Cooper), 1865-1952 : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/223845/
General Note:
Title page: "Corresponding Sikhimese words supplied by Sub-Inspector, S.W. Laden LA, Bengal Police."

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SOAS, University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
396877 ( ALEPH )
x192685456 ( OCLC )
CM495.47 /34570 ( SOAS classmark )

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Full Text
A VOCABULARY

OF THE

TROMOWA DIALECT OF TIBETAN

SPOKEN IN THE CHUMBI VALLEY

BY E. H. C. WALSH


A Vocabulary of the Tromowa Dialect of Tibetan

SPOKEN IN THE CHUMBI VALLEY

(So far as it differs from Standard Tibetan),

TOGETHER WITH

A CORRESPONDING VOCABULARY OP

SIKHIMESE AND OF CENTRAL (STANDARD) TIBETAN

(Given for the purpose of comparison).

Compiled by E. H. C. WALSH, I.C.S.

(The corresponding Sikhimese words supplied by Sub-Inspector S. W. LADEN LA, Bengal Police.)

CALCUTTA:

THE BENGAL SECRETARIAT BOOK DEPOT.

1905,

[Price Indian, Rs. 2-4; English, 3s. 4d.]


Published at the Bengal Secretariat Book Depot,

Writers Buildings, Calcutta.

---

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o 2

:I






INTRODUCTION.

The Tromowa dialect of Tibetan is the language spoken by the people of
Tromo gro-mo), which is the name given to the portion of Tibet lying
south of the Tibetan table-land, and which projects southwards like a wedge
between Sikkim on the west and Bhutan on the east, from which it is
separated on either side by high ranges of mountains. This area, which
consists of deep narrow valleys and high ranges of mountains, is generally
known to Europeans as the Chumbi Valley though it comprises two main
valleysthat of the Ammo-Chhu (the Chumbi Valley), and that of the
Khambu-Chhu, which unites with the Ammo-Chhu at Chumbi. The
Tibetans consider the people of this area as distinct from themselves and
do not call them Tibetans (^5 I bod-pa), nor do the Tromowas ever
speak of themselves as Tibetans. Except for the through-carrying
trade, which has grown up in recent times and which from Phari down-
wards is mostly in their own hands, they have never had much inter-
course with the people of Central Tibet, and until recent years very
little interference has been exercised over them even by Tibetan officials.
They have thus been left to themselves in their own valleys, and their
language differs in many respects from that of Central Tibet.

This difference is chiefly in the use of different words or idioms,
in different form of the particles used with the same word, and in
differences of pronunciation. The present vocabulary does not profess to
be a complete vocabulary of the Tromowa dialect, but only of such
words in it as differ in the above respects from Central Tibetan. In
this respect it has been made complete, as far as I have been able to
do so, for words in general use. For any word not given in the vocabulary
the Central Tibetan word is current, and the vocabulary must therefore
be used in connection with a Tibetan vocabulary for any words which do
not occur in it.

Not only does the Tromowa dialect differ from Central Tibetan but
the dialect of the Upper Tromowas, or people living in the upper portion
of the valley, differs in some cases from that of the Lower Tromowas.


E ii ]

To account for this latter difference, which seems strange in the case
of persons brought into continual contact with one another, it must be
borne in mind that the Upper and Lower Tromowas claim a different
origin, and have always had and still have an entirely separate local
administration. The difference between them is marked in many other
ways which show that their origin is distinct; and that while the Upper
Tromowas are an immigration in early times from Tibet, the Lower Tromo-
was have chiefly immigrated from Bhutan.

To show how these two peoples living in intercourse with one another
have maintained their distinction in other respects than in dialect, it is
only necessary to mention one or two points of difference. Many of the
Upper Tromowas are of the old Bon-pa religion, which was the religion
of Tibet before the introduction of Buddhism, whereas none of the Lower
Tromowas are. The Upper Tromowa men wear the pigtail, whereas the
Lower Tromowas wear tne hair cut short like the Bhutanese. The Upper
Tromowa women wear the hair in two plaits, which are united down the
back. The Lower Tromowa women, while making the hair in two plaits,
tie these separately round the head and do not let them hang down. In
the matter of the mens dress too there was a difference until recent years,
as the Lower Tromowas wore the Bhutanese form and material of clothing;
and though all except the older men have now given this up and wear the
Tibetan form of dress worn by the Upper Tromowas, a few of the older
men still wear the Bhutanese form of dress.

I have thought it necessary to mention these facts to show how it is
that the dialects of the Upper and Lower Tromowas have remained distinct
in the use of words or pronunciation in cases where they differ.

As to their respective origins. The tradition of the Upper Tromowas
is that there were certain original inhabitants who have always lived in
the valley from pre-historic times. These are known as Khyim-ser-Rawa-
nang-pa, Those within the fence of the golden house. Next after these
came the Chi-pon Tsang-khor who immigrated here from the Khams province
of Tibet. This is said to have been a very long while ago, and there
is no history of their coming. A second immigration known as Nam-
khen pa, the 11 sby-knowers, are said to have come from Sakya, subse-
quently to the Chi-pons, though the date of their arrival is also not known.
These three classes have all intermarried and become one people.


[ Hi ]

The Lower Tromowas say that the original inhabitants were called
Sa-kya-pas, namely men of Sakya, who were probably an offshoot of
that second immigration into Upper Tromo. Subsequently the Ha-pas,
people of the province of Ha in Bhutan, came in about 400 years ago
with a chieftain named Shah-dang Leha-Rinpochhe who held possession
of the valley for a time, and they subsequently remained and settled
down there.

The above difference of origin sufficiently accounts for the differen-
ces in pronunciation or use of different words in the two dialects.

The Vocabulary.

As already stated the present vocabulary is not intended to furnish a
full vocabulary of Tromowa words but only such words as differ from the
word in use in standard Tibetan, either in the word used or in its form
or pronunciation. In the case of any word or its equivalent not found in
the vocabulary, the word in use is the same as that in standard Tibetan
subject to certain general rules as the modification of affixes noted here-
after. The vocabulary must therefore be used in conjunction with a
vocabulary of standard Tibetan such as Mr. V. C. Hendersons which is
the best vocabulary of colloquial Tibetan up to date or Mr. C. A. Bells
fuller one, which is now in the Press. The word should first be looked
for in the present vocabulary, and if not found it shows that there is
no distinctive Tromowa word in use, but that the ordinary Tibetan word
is used which will then be found in a Tibetan vocabulary.

Whenever the word in use in Upper Tromowa differs from that in
Lower Tromowa I have given both words indicating them by the letters
U. T. and L. T., respectively.

I have given in each case in column 4 the corresponding word in
Sikhimese, which has been furnished by Sub-Inspector S. W. Laden-La of
the Bengal Police, who is a native of Sikhim, and who was my clerk
while I was on the Tibet Mission. I believe that the vocabulary will
thus also be found to be a more complete vocabulary of Sikhimese than
hitherto exists and will therefore be of use to officers engaged in Sikhim
as well as in the Chumbi Valley.

It will be seen that there is very close affinity between the Tromowa
and Sikhimese languages, especially the Lower Tromowa dialect in which
the word is generally the same as the Sikhimese.


C iv 0

The method by which the vocabulary has been compiled is as follows:

The Tromowa 'words have all been obtained from the collected kong-
dus (local officials) and village headmen whom I used to have collected
at my tent, and every word has therefore been given by, and has the
assent of, the leading villagers of both the upper and lower valley and may
be accepted as correct. The method on which I proceeded in its com-
pilation was to take Mr. V. C. Hendersons vocabulary given in his Tibetan
Manual and work through it asking in each case what was the Tromowa
for the corresponding Tibetan word and noting it down in all cases
where it differed in form or pronunciation. The Tromowa and Sikhimese
words are spelt phonetically. As it may be alleged that a foreigners ear
is often defective in shades of pronunciation in another language, I
checked the pronunciation recorded in each case with Sub-Inspector S. W.
Laden-La, my clerk, who is a Sikhimese, who transcribed the words given;
and the pronunciation as given may be accepted as correct. The Tibetan
words in the fourth column are given for purposes of comparison only and
are the words in general use, though in many cases there may be other
words used as well.

Grammar.

As Tromowa is merely a dialect of Tibetan, its grammar is the same
as Tibetan, and it is therefore only necessary to note the points in which
it differs.

The main point of difference is the verb, which differs in its formation
in several of the tenses. I therefore give an example of the form of the
various tenses, as used in Tromowa, below:

Present Tense.
Past Tense.
Past Participle.

Present Tense.
Imperfect.

Future.

Perfect.
Pluperfect.
Future Perfect.
Preterite.

Infinitive Mood.

To say.

To have said.
Having said.

Indicative Mood.

I am saying, I say,
I was saying.

I shall say.

I have said.

I had said.

I shall have said.
I said.

Lab-po;
Lab-po-be;
Lab-ti;

Nga-lab-to ;
Nga-lab-pe-gang; Nga-

lab-po-gang;

Nga lab-she;

Nga lab-po-yin;

Nga lab-tsha-wo-yin;
Nga labpo-she;

Nga lab-tsha-wo; or

Nga lab-che;


Present.

Imperfect.

Perfect.

Pluperfect.

Imperative.

C v ]

Conditional Mood.

I may say.

I might say. -
I may have said.

I might have said.
Say!

Let us say.

Nga lab-tshu-she;
Nga lah-tshu-kam;
Nga lab-tshu-she yin;
Nga lah-tshu-she-yin-

kam;

Lab-po;

Nga-cha lab-ke;

The chief difference of formation will be seen to be (in. order of their
practical importance)

(1) The use of she for the future tense, and for the compound

tenses formed from the future. (The future of the verb to be,
however, is ong, as in Tibetan,)

(2) The use of gang, occasion, in the imperfect tense.

(3) The use of tshu in place of tsha in the formation of the

perfect tenses of the conditional or subjunctive mood.

(4) The use of he to form the past infinitive.

In some cases there is a difference in the pronouns and adverbs used.
Where they differ, they are given in the vocabulary.

The main differences between the Tromowa dialect and standard
Tibetan are

(1) The use of words peculiar to Tromowa.

(2) The use of Tibetan words in a different meaning to that with

which they are generally used in Tibetan.

(3) The use of a different form of the particle affix.

(4) Pronunciation.

Examples of the first and second will be found in the vocabulary.
An example of the second is the word lompo which is used in Tibetan
for thick, stout, bulky &c., but not as the general word for large or
great which is chhen-po. In Tromowa however hom-po is used as chhengpo
is used in Tibetan, both for the word itself and in words formed from it.
Thus homchhung is size and not chhe-chhung as in Tibetan.

The particle pa and wa in Tibetan become po and wo in Tromowa.
Where this is the only difference I have not given the words in the
vocabulary as it did not seem necessary, they are really the same words;
and it need merely, be borne in mind that pa and wa in Tibetan are po
and wo in Tromowa. Thus sam-pa a bridge is in Tromowa sam-po. They
also frequently assimilate to the last consonant of the word, e.g., lak-ko


[ Vi ].

for lak-po for Tibetan lag-pa hand, and in this assimilation the conso-
nant is transferred in pronunciation from the end of the preceding syllable
to the affix so that lak-ko is pronounced la-ko hand. In a similar way
we have chi-ku for Tibetan chik-po alone. In other words the affix is
suppressed and combined with the word itself, e.g., kyum in Upper Tromowa,
for Tibetan skyur-mo acid, or bum for bu-mo, a daughter, gyem a
queen, and many other words.

In some cases the affix used is different, as in the case of the word just
mentioned, which in Lower Tromowa is kyu-pu instead of skyur-mo in Tibetan.

The main differences of pronunciation are

(1) In giving an 0 sound to the inherent a sound of the letters,

e.g., long li a bull for lang (glanq). This is more pronounced
in Lower Tromowa than in Upper.

(2) The Ya-tas (compound letters with the letter y subscribed) pya,

phya, bya pronounced in Tibetan cha, chha, or ja are pronounc-
ed in Tromowa, as spelt, pya, phya, or bya and often the y
sound is scarcely audible. Thus the verb to fe in Tromowa
is bya-uio in place of the Tibetan che-pa (byed-pa).

(3) The Ra-tas (compound letters with r subscribed) are also differently

pronounced. Thus kra ; khra ; qra; pronounced in Tibetan tra;
thra; and tra or dra; respectively, with the r sound more or
less perceptible, are in Tromowa pronounced kya, khya, and
gya, e.g., gyi a sword for the Tibetan tri (sgri). In many
cases the y is not sounded at all, thus khral a tax is pro-
nounced khe in Tromowa. There are, however, one or two
words in which the Tibetan pronunciation is followed, though
in these cases the r sound is scarcely perceptible, eg., nye-
thi a bed (Tibetan nyal-khri) similarly pra; phra; and
bra; pronounced in Tibetan tra; thra; and tra or dra;
respectively are in Tromowa pya, phya, or bya.

Thus the Tibetan dre rice (abras) is in Tromowa bya and is pro-
nounced the same as bya a fowl which in Tibetan is pronounced ja.

To this rule, again there are one or two exceptions as $ul grain.
Ra-tas sounded as t or d are shown in the vocabulary with a dot under

the letter, thus t or


C vii 3

(4) The interchange of gutturals for labials, e.g., phug a shield for

the Tibetan pM.

(5) The final r is generally not pronounced. Thus ma-pu or map a red

for Tibetan dmar-po.

(6) s does not generally modify the a of the preceding letter into

e as in Tibetan. Thus na barley not ne (nas) as in
Tibtean.

I, however, does modify the vowel sound of the preceding letter as in
Tibetan, e.g., gyemo or gyern a queen (rgyal-mo).

(7) Superscribed s gives a strong aspirated sound in Tromowaas

Lheb-po to come for bep-pa (sleb-pa) in Tibetan.

(8) Throughout the vocabulary 6 and ii are to be pronounced as in

German, or as eu and u in French.

THE PHILOLOGICAL USE OP THE VOCABULARY.

(Explanation of the Transliteration of Tibetan words given for comparison.)

The present vocabulary is intended in the first place for the practical
use of officers requiring to learn the dialect of the Chumbi Valley or of
Sikhim, and as the necessity for an elementary knowledge of the Tibetan
language and grammar is presupposed in either case, I had not originally
intended to transliterate the Tibetan words given for comparison.

It seemed, however, that it might add to the value of the vocabulary
for the use of Philologists in Europe interested in the study of the phonetic
differences between the various dialects and offshoots of Tibetan if the
corresponding Tibetan words were transliterated to make them easier for
general comparison, and I have therefore done so.

The transliteration is literal. I have made use of no special signs. To
those accustomed to work in the Tibetan character this will present no
difficulty, but as various special signs have been adopted to designate
certain letters in different dictionaries, and also by the Congress of Oriental-
ists and the Royal Asiatic Society, I therefore give below a comparative
table of the various special signs that have been used to designate the
letters mentioned in case they should be required for the purpose of
reference to corresponding or other words mentioned in any of those
sources.


[ viii ]

Tibetan letter. J as dikes Dictionary. Sarat Chan- dra Dass Dictionary. Asiatic Society, Bengal, formerly.* Royal Asiatic Society. Transliteration followed in the present vocabulary.
n n 9 h ng
' ny n n n ny
z' sh s s zh
o h ... ... a
c c c s sh
a a a

* The Asiatic Society of Bengal has now adopted the system of the Royal Asiatic
Society (viz., that of the Oriental Congress of 1894).

In the above tables and have been left blank under the Asiatic
Society of Bengal, and the Royal Asiatic Society, as no transliteration
appears to be prescribed, and the transliteration followed in any parti-
cular case would therefore be that followed by the contributor.

I would note that there is no ambiguity in the transliteration given,
since in Tibetan g never follows n; y never follows 3j w; and k never
follows a st or s. So there can be no ambiguity as regards the com-
binations ng, ny, sh and sh used in the vocabulary, since they can each
of them only possibly represent one Tibetan letter, and not two; as
those two letters never follow each other. And these combinations have the
advantage of representing the sound of the letters to transliterate

Translation.

c is transliterated by ... ... ... ng

ditto by ... ... ... ny

ditto by

As regards zha, it is true that in Lhasa and through Central Tibet,
as noted by Jaschke, the difference in pronunciation between it and ska
is one of tone rather than pronunciation. But the Lhasa man, though he
will himself pronounce ska in a low tone and not ska, is accustomed to hear
those from other parts pronounce it ska and understands it. And in many
outlying dialects it has the sound of ska. For the western dialects Jaschke
gives it as ska, and states that it has the sounds of s in leisure. For


C ix ]

the southern dialects Lewin gives it as sha and says it is pronounced like
z in azure. Desgodins for the eastern dialects also gives it this sound and,
writing in French, says it is pronnunced as ja which is exactly the same.

In Tromowa the pronunciation of this letter follows that of Central
Tibet and the letter is pronunced sha, but less sharply than *, sha.

For the purpose of reading the transliterated Tibetan words phonetically
a knowledge of the rules of pronunciation of Central Tibetan is supposed.
These are very fully given by Jaschke in column 5 (Tsang U) of the
Phonetic Table which he gives in the preface to his dictionary. The main
rules for pronunciation may however be briefly summarised as follows:

(1) The prefixes g ; 5', d; b; *1, m; and % a, are silent except

in the case of 3, b; m; and % a, where they come before
the second word of a compound word, the first word of which
ends in a vowel when 3 b is pronounced as 5, and *1, m and
% a, each have the sound of n.

Thus, bshi is pronounced shi and 3$', bchu ten is pronounced
chu, but bchu-bshi fourteen is pronounced chub shi, and

bshi-bchu, forty is pronounced shibchu.

Similarly me-mda a gun is pronounced menda and

di-adra thus is pronounced dindra.

The prefixes have been transliterated by italics in the vocabulary.

(2) Similarly the letters r I and s when superscribed over

another letter, viz,, in the transliteration, when preceding other
consonants, are not sounded except in the case of r when
commencing the second word of a compound word as noted
in the preceding rule, e.g., rdorje, which is pronounced

dorje.

3. The pronunciation of the letter y subscribed in compound letters,
viz, (in the transliteration) when following another consonant is as
follows:

kya

khya

gya

3

0

3

9

9

3

pronounced as written.

bya pronounced ja, or cha.
pya ,, cha.

phya ,, chha.

4.


E x 3

5. Where s r is subscribed, namely where, in the transliteration, it
follows another consonant the combination is pronounced as follows:

0 kra ; 5 tha ; 5J pra are pronounced tra,

0 khra; thra ; phra are pronounced thra, and

5J gra; \ dra; 3 bra are pronounced tra, when not preceded by a

prefix and dra when preceded by a prefix.

6. In § nra ; mra; and -0 shra. The r is hardly sounded at all.

7. sra is pronounced either sa, sra, or hr a.

8. Where l is subscribed namely, where, in the transliteration, it
follows another consonant, the preceding consonant is not sounded. Thus
o! kla; 3J gin ; § bla; % rla ; and 3} sla are all pronounced la (the first letter
not being sounded).

9. sla is pronounced da.

10. In compounds of three letters the first consonant is silent and
the pronunciation of the combination therefore follows that of the last two,
e.y., skra hairis pronounced tra or ta.

11. ^3 dhga is pronounced ya.

The above Rules of Pronunciation must be borne in mind in making any
phonetic comparison between the Tibetan word given in column 4 and the
corresponding Tromowa or Sikhimese word in the Vocabulary.

Conclusion.

In conclusion my thanks are due to Sub-Inspector S. W. Laden La of the
Bengal Police who was my clerk in Tibet for the assistance he has given me in
the compilation of the Vocabulary and for the list of corresponding Sikhimese
words, which he has furnished.

The Vocabulary, as the first attempt to record a new dialect, does not profess
to be complete. There are doubtless many other words peculiar to the
Tromowa dialect, and it no doubt contains mistakes. But I have tried to
make it as accurate as possible, and where I have failed I must ask the
indulgence granted to a first attempt, and trust that a successor will amplify
and complete it.


A VOCABULARY OP THE TROMOWA DIALECT OP TIBETAN

SPOKEN IN THE CHUMBI TALLEY,

So far as it differs from Central (Standard) Tibetan.

Note.Throughout the Vocabulary 6 and u are to be pronounced as in German or as eu and u respectively
in French.

In cases where d (with a line underneath) occurs at the end of a word it is not sounded, but causes the
preceding vowel to be pronounced very short, and when the preceding vowel is o, causes it to be pronounced as
a very short o.

English. | Tromowa. | Sikhimese. Tibetan.
A Abdomen Pho; Su-pa; Su-po; 5'q' | Grong-pa ; Pho-wa.
Ability Num-po; Num-po; 1 | Thub-pa; Nus-pa.
Able Oho-ka ; Tshu-po ; Cho-po; 1 gqjq Thub-pa; Lchog-
Abominable Kham-log-ke; Kham-log sing-sing; pa. I Skyur-bro-po.
About (of quan- De; Dzd; 1 Tsam,
tity) Abcve About this = De-chig; Teng; About ZA/s=Di-dzo; Teng-kha; Teng-lo; Steng-la ; Skor-la.
Abscess Shu-gag; Shu-gag; I Shu-wa.
Absolutely u.t., Tso-le; Ma-tsa-le; 1 Etsa-nas.
Abundant l.t., Ki-cheu; u.t., Mang-ku ; Nyog-kyi; wcj | Mang-po.
Abuse l.t., Mong-pu; Kha-ngan; Kha-nge; Kha- 1 1 6?shi-(/sh i;
Accompany, to Kha-phog; Nyam-pu gyu-wo; phog; Nyam-pu gyu-wo ; Smad-pa. 1 J/nyam-du agro-
Accustom u.t., Gom-gom-po; l.t., Jong-jong-po u.t., Kyu-pu; Gom-po ; wa. | Goms-pa.
Acid Kyum ; g^^ | Skyur-mo.
Adopt, to l.t., Kyum; So-wo; So-wo; v> | Gfcos-pa.
Advice Ko; Ko; f 6?dains-ngag;
Affection Jam-po; To give advice = Ko- kyab-po; J am-po; Grains. gwni | Byams-pa.


C 2 3

English. Tromowa. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
Afraid u.t., Ji-pe ; l.t., Ju-po; Ju-po; c^sprqj -4jigs-pa.
After u.t., Je-le; l.t., Shu-le ; Shu-le; gyab-le; 1^1 Rjes-eu; 6rzhug-la.
Afterwards Da-le-pha; Phan-che: 1 Phyin-chhad.
Again Log-ti; Log-ti; K'g* | Yang-skyar.
Ahead Hon-le ; Ngon-mo; Ngomle; I 1 Gdong-la ; Sngon-la.
Aid Ro; Ro; Xqjsj I Rogs.
Alike Yer-med; Chig-ko; Yer-med; Chig-ko; Da-wo; i ^'q | (xchig-pa ; -4dra- pa.
Alive Som-pu; Som-pu; A-som; Som-pu; | Alone Chi-ku; Chig-ku; 1 6rchig-po.
Alter Ji-u ; Ji-wo; | Sgyur-wa.
Always A-tang; A-tang; Ten-ja; 1 Rgy un-dn.
Amidst Bu; Bu-nang; I ^1 Pkyil-du ; nang-la.
Amusement u.t., Tsi-mu; l.t,, Tsem; Tsim; | Rtsed-mo.
Anger Tsi-ko; She-dang; Khong-tha; Tsi-ko; She-dang; Khong-tha; 1 . Tshag-pa; Dgongs-pa.
Angry, to be Tshi-ko za-wo; Tshi-k za-wo; i Tshig-pa-za-wa.
Annoy, to Khong-tha long-go; Khong-tha lhong- bo; 1 Khong-khro- tfkrug-pa.
Another Shen; Sho-mo; i Gzhan.
Antique u.t., Nyeng-ko; l.t., Nye-po; Nyeng-ku; t*q 1 Rnyeng-pa.
Anybody Ga-y in-rung; Ka-yin-rung ; Ka- yang; $K | Su-zhig; Su- yang.
Ape Pi-u; Pi-u; § I Spre.
Apparel Go; Nam-zo ; Go, Go-la; Nam-za; aj'qs^ I Gos; Dug-lo; Na-6za.
Arise Ya-long-po; Ya-long-po; | Yar-lang-wa.
Arm La-ko; La-ko; I Lag-pa.
Arm-pit Chhen-kog; Chhen-kong ; I J/chhan-khung.
Around Pha-tshu ; Pha-tshu, 1 Phan-tshun.
Arouse {from sleep) Nyid-se-po; Mig-sed-po; 1 Arrest She-bo, zung-bo; She-bo, Zung-bo; q||c/q | q | C?zung-pa; ^4dzin-pa.
Arrive Lheb-po; Lheb-po; Sjerq | | Sleb-pa; Jtbyor-wa.


C 3 ]

English. Tromowa. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
As Dem, dra-wo; Dem; Tsam; Nang- 6zhin.
Ascend, to Dzeg-ko ; Dzeg-ko; | ^tdzeg-pa.
Assist Bo-bya-wo; Bo-by a-wo ; I Bogs-byed' pa.
Astray u.t., Biyang-bo; l.t., Biyong-bo ; Biyang-bo; I Nor-wa.
At La; Tsa; Tsa-kha; La; Tsa'; Tsa-kha; (| La.
Aunt A-nyi; A-nyi (both in pater- nal and maternal aunt); bm 351 J-ne.
Authorise, to Ka-nang-go; Ka-pim-bo; Ka- nang-bo; | 7?ka-Crnang-wa.
Avoid Zu-u Zu-bo; **115*11 Crzung-wa.
Awake, to Nyid-se-po ; Mig-sed-po; I 6?nyid-sad-pa.
B
Baby Po-tso; Po-tso; O I 1 Phru-gu; Pu-gu.
Bachelor Pho-kyang; Pho-rang ; Pho- kyang ; 5 | Pho-rang-nga.
Bad u.t., Nyen-po; l.t., Kyo-kyo; Ma-le-po; Kyo- kyo; qyq 1 Ngan-pa.
Bag u.t., Pha-tsa; l.t., Phe-tsa; Phed-tsa; Tsang- khug-; *5 13*1 I Phad; khug.
Bamboo Pa-shing; Pa-ram; Pa-yum; Mhi-mo; Pa-shing; Pa-ram; Pa-yum; 0 Smyug-ma.
Bark, to u.t., Ab-po; l.t., Hab-po; Hab-po ; Hab-pa.
Barley Na; Na; W Nas.
Basin Ka-to; Don; 1 Ka-to-ra (Hindi).
Basket Tse-wo; Tse-wo ; 2q| Sle-po; Tse-po.
Bat (animal) Pho-Ion g-da; Phyo-long-da; *r^ I Pha-wang.
Bath Shong-po; Shong-po; I Chhu-pzhong.
Bathe Ohhu-she; Ohhu-she; -4khru-wa.
Be Yim-be; Be; Yim-ba ; Yim-be ; Be; o)yq| ^-q, ajyq | Yin-pa; Bed-pa; Yod-pa.
Beam Dung; Dung-ma ; I £dung-ma.
Bean Se-ma; Tig-bi; 1 Sran-ma.
Beast Bod-tsong; Jol-song; Dun-do; Chen-zen; Bod- tsong; I I Dud- agro; Byol-song. Crchan- gzan.


L 4 ]

English. Tromoioa. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
Beastly Kham-lo-ke; Kham-log sing-sing; 1 Skyug-bro-po.
Beautiful u.t., Le-po; Gethag; Yiga-ong-bo; l.t., Ge-thag; Ghang chhi-chhi; Lem; | J/dzes-po.
Because Don-da-le; Don-dag lo; 25'^ 1 Don-du; Phyir-du.
Become, to u.t., Ong-go-be; l.t., Ong-bo-be; Ong-bo; Thon-bo; Yong-pa; u4byor-wa; Rgynr-wa.
Bed Nye-thi; Nye-thi; Nye-so; 1 3*1'^ 1 Nyal-khri; Nyal-sa.
Bedding Me-chha; Me-chha; | Mal-zan.
Bee u.t., Byam; l.t., Se-byom; Byam ; Se-byam; ^3 I Sp*| Sbrang-bu; Sbrang-ma.
Beef u.t., Long-sha; l.t., Lang-sha; Lang-sha; No-sha; 31^ *1 1 1 Glang-sha; Ba-sha.
Before or formerly Hon-le ; Nga-ma; Ngon-mo; Dang-pu; | | Snga-ma; Sngon-la.
Beget, to Kyi-u; Kyi-wa; | Skje-wa.
Beggar Byang long; Pyang long; | Sprang-po.
Beginning Hon-le bon-le; Go; Go-thog; Ngon-mo-le; Dang-po-le; | Tbog-ma. J/go-nas.
Behead Ke-che-po; Ke-tog- ko ; Ke-che-po; Ke-tog- ko; 1 Ske-^chod-pa.
Behind u.t., Je-le ; l.t., Shu-le; Shu-le; 1 i** 1 6?zhug-la; Rje-la.
Bell Di-pu; Di-pu; Di-bu; ^i31 Dril-bu.
Belly Pho; Khog-ko; Su-pa; Ehog-po; 1 r5^ I Grod-pa ; Khog-pa.
Bend, to Kyog-ko; Gu-gu; Kyog-ko; Kug-gu; I 1 Kyog-pa; Kug.
Bent Kyog-ku; Kyog-ku; Kyog- kyg; ! Kyog; Kyog.
Beside Bo-lo; Bo-lo; 1 ^gram-la; Rtsa-la.
Best Le-ta; Le-sho; Le-sho; Le-thag- chod; Betel-nut u.t., Ga-ye; l.t., Go-he; Go-he; ^<3 1 Go-yu,
Better Le-pe; Le-pe; uraj-nj | Yag-ga.
Bhutan Lho; Lho-yii; Lho; Lho-yii; I -4brug-yul.
Bhutia Lho-po; Lho-po; | ^4brug-pa.
Big Bompu; Bompu; | Chhen-po; Sbom- po.
Bird Bya; Byi-chung; Bya; Byi-chung; 31 | Bya ; Byiu.


C 5 ]

English. Tromowa. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
Birth Kyi-u, Kyi-u; g'^ l Skye-pa.
Bitch Mo-khyi, Mo-khyi; 0'^ 1 Khyi-mo.
Bite So-tab-po, So-tab-po; | q i Rmug-pa; 8o-rgyab-pa.
Bit (horses) Sab-kyi Kharu; Hrap-chag; Srab-lchags, kha-isdam.
Black Nag-ku; Nag-ku; W51 Nag-po.
Blade Nho; Nho; 1 Ldo.
Blame Kon; Kon; l Skyon.
Blanket Me-chha; Ma-chhe; Me-chha; Mal-zan; Nyal- zan.
Blaze u.t., Mi-dang; l.t., Mi-dong; Mi-dang; *>*5 1 i Me-od ; Me-dwangs.
Bleed Khyag-thon-bo ; Khyag-thon-bo; 03 q | Khrag-thon-pa;
Blind Sha-o; Sha-o; Mig-sha-o; qc/q | | Zhar-wa ; Mig-zhar-wa.
Block Kag-ko; Kag-ko; q | pwjq i Z?kab-pa ; Khag- pa.
Blood Khyag; Khyag; 031 Khrag.
Blossom Mi-tog; Min-tog; I Me-tog.
Blow, to (as the wind) Kyab-po; Kyab-po; JAb | Rgyab-pa.
Blow, to (with the mouth) Phu-tab-po; Phu-tab-po; 9g^l Jbudpa; Phu-rgyab-pa.
Blow (fist) Dzog; Dzog; i Rdzog-rang.
Blunder Dzo-wa; No-bo; Dzo-wo; 1 Nor-wa.
Blunt No-me-po; No-me-po; | Rno-po-med-pa.
Body Dzu; Lii; Dzu, Lii; 313*J | i Gzugs; Lus.
Bold Kho-ko bom-pu; Do-nyi bom-pu; | Blo-khog-chhen-po.
Bolt, to Go-cha kyab-po; Go-cha kyab-po; q i Sgo-lchage-rgyab- pa.
Bone Bu-tog; Ru-tog; | 3f | Rus-pa; Rus-go.
Boot Lham; Lham; I Lham.
(Tromouas boot with leather soles and warm cloth on top) Kyu-lham; Gyu-lham; 3^ | Gro-lham.
Bore, to (holes) Buga-ton-bo; Bu-ba ton-bo; Stygt'qY'ci | Mig-khung-teo-wa.
Bom, to be Kyi-u; Kyi-u; g q I Skye-wa.
Borrow, to Nya-wo; Ki-wo; Nya-wo; Ki-wo; 1 g I

E 6 3

English, Tromowz. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
Borrow, to (money) Bo-lon len-bo; Bo-lon nya-wo; Bo-lonlen-bo; q | Bu-lon-yyar-wa.
Bosom u.t.. Phang-ko; l.t., Phong-po; Phang-po; i Bang-pa.
Both Nyi-pu; Nyi-pu; Nyi-gar; 1 C^nyis-ka.
Bottle She-dam; She-bum; | Shel-bum.
Bough Sha-lang; Sha-ka; Sha-gang; Sha-ka; i Tal-ga.
Bow {in salutation) Phyag-tshe-bo; Phyag-tshe-wo; guj-^q-q Phyag-atshal-wa.
Bowl u.t., Pho-po; l.t., Phop; Pho-po; Wvl | Phor-pa.
Box u.t,, Gam; l.t., Dom; Dom; 5p 1 Sgam.
Boy Bo-tso; O-nges; Bo-tso; 0-ngeg; 1 S* I Bu-gu; Pu-tsha.
Bya-bu; Bya-bu;
Bracelet Di-u; Di-u; a'II^I Sgrog- firdung; Lag-pdub.
Brain Le-po; Le-po; SlS'f 1 Glad-pa.
Branch Sha-lang; Sha-ka; She-ga ; Sha-gang; Sha-ka; WJ|1 Tal-ga.
Brave Kho-ko bompu; Do-nyi bompu; | Blo-khog-ohhen-po.
Bread Khu-leb; Ba-leb; Khu; Khu-leb; , Bag-leb.
Breadth Sheng-kha; Shen; Sheng-kha; ^c/| Cfeheng; Zhang.
Break Chag-ko; Cha-ko; Ohag-ko; apfafci | Gtshog-pa.
Breakfast Nga-ru zam-mo ; Nga-ru zamo; | Zhogs-gas-ka-lag.
Breast u.t., Byang-gok; l.t., Byong; Byang-gog; Byang; gc. | Bang-go ; brang.
Breath U; Bu ; U; Bu; SSI 1 -Dbus.
Breathe, to U-ton-bo; Bu-ton- bo; U-ton-bo; Bu-ton- bo; £q|q-q5E.-q | Dbus-&dang-pa.
Breathless U-med; Bu-med; U-med ; Bu med; ^^5 1 Dbus-med.
Bribe Pha-no; Kha-sub; Tsib-do; Kha-sub; 1 PS 1 Phag-sub; Kha- sub.
Bride N ha-mo; Nha-ma; Nha-mo; Bag-mo; | qn| ) | Jfua-ma; Bag- ma.
Bridegroom Mag-ko; Mag-ko; #wp i Mag-pa.
Bridle Hrap; Sap; Hrap ; gq I Srab.
Brigand A-o; Kun-chen; A-khen; Jag-ko; Kun-ohen; wp 1 Jag-pa.
Bring, to Ba-ong-bo; Ba-ong-bo; | .Jkhyer-yong-wa.


C 7 ]

English, Tromowa. Sikkimese, Tibetan,
Brink, Ohhu-kha; Chhu-tsa; Chhu-i- I i -4gram; Ohhu-
Chhu-i-bo-lo; ho-lo; ffgram.
Bristle Pha-zi; Phag-zi; 3 I Phag-zi.
Broad Yang-trag; Gy a- Yang-yang; yang- I 5q Yangs-pa ;
chhenpo; trag; Rgya-chhen-po.
Broom u.t Tshe-phya; Tshe-phyag; 1 Phyag-ma.
l.t., Tshe-phya; Phyam; Phyam;

Brother Pun; Pun; 1 /Spun.
(elder) A-chu; A-chu; w 1 A-jo.
(younger) Pun-lo; Pun-lo; Nu; i Nu-wa.
Brown Gya-mug; Gya-mug; 5^ 1 Rgya-mo; Rgya-
smug.^
Brush Pha-zi; Phag-zi; 1 Phag-zi.
Bubble Chhum-bu ; Chhum-bur; Chhu- hu; Chhum-bu; $'9* I Chhu-bur.
Build, to Kyab-po; Zo-wo; Kyab-po; qfq 1 ftrq | 2?zo-wa; Zos-pa.
Bulky Bom-pu; Bom-pu; iprq i Sbom-po.
Bundle Tum-tum-bo; Tum-tum-bo; Thum; | Thums; Phon.
Burden Do; Do; I 1 Dos ; Khal.
Bury tt.t., Sa-bo ; l.t., Sa-ba-o; Sa-ba-o; | Sa-la-sbas-pa. wq , | ^Ibar-wa;
Bum, to Ba-o ; Sun-bo; Ba-wo; Sunbo;
Atshag-pa.
Tshig-ko; Seg-ko ; Tshig-ko; Seg-ko; I Sreg-pa.
But On; O-no; On; O-na; I O-na.
Butcher Shen-po ; Shen-po; I Shan-pa.
Butt (of gun) Jap-shug; Jap-shug; Khung- 1 I Nya-shug; Ja-
shing; shug.
Butter Ma; Ma; w I Mar.
Butterfly u.t., Phi-ma-lag; l.t., Pim-lab; Byam-lap; gjrata | (col. W£*<) | Phye- ma-leb (col. Chhem chhem-
ma).
0
Cage Ohag-tha; Dra-mig; Ta-mig; | I Lchags-khra ;
Elung-rtse
Calf Bo; Bo-sa; Bo- Bo; Bo-sa; I q-g| i Beu; Ba-phrug.
Call, to chung; Bo-po; Bo-po; ifaq 1 i Bos; Jbod-pa.
q^-q^k-q | Skad-jrtong-wa.


E 8 3

English, Tromotca. | Sikkimese. Tibetan,
Cambric Da-ra; Da-re; | Dar-ras.
Camel A-mo; Nga-bong; tM* | Rnga-bong.
Camp Ga; Ga; 1 Sgar.
Can (verb) u.t., Num-po; Num-po; Nu-po; I gqq | $^q | Thub-pa;
l.t., Nu-po; Thub-po.; Lchog-pa; Nus-pa.
Candid u.t., Tang-ku; l.t., Dong-pu; Dang-po; Dang-pu; I Drang-po.
Cane Tsem-tsha; Tsen-tsham; Si I Sba.
Cannibal Sin-pu; Sin-pu; Sim-pu; ifa5 | Srin-po.
Cap Sham-bu; Sham-bu; Q35 i Zhwa-mo.
Capable, to be u.t., Num-po; Num-po; Nu-po; §q*q 1 Thub-pa; Nus-pa.
l.t., Nu-po; Thub-po;
Captain Gyag-pon; Gyag-pon; | Rrgya-dpon.
Capture, to u.t., Zung-go; Zung-bo; She-bo; | ^q | Gzung-wa ; Zin-
l.t., Zung-bo; pa.
Care (to take care) u.t., Ri-ko-gyim-bo; Rika-gyim-bo; ^qpqljsrq | Rig-pa sgrim-pa.
l.t., Ri-ko-bya-wo; Ri-ko bya-wo; Rrtan-po; Byed-
Za-u; pa.
Carpenter Shing-zob; | Zheng-bzo-wa.
Carrier Do-po; Do-bak- Dopo; Do-bak-khen; W 1 l
khen; Khu-chha -4khyer-mkhan; Dos-bu-
1 £ akhyer-wkhan.
Carrot Gong-la-phup; Gong-la-pup; 1 Gung-la-phug.
Carry Bak-ko; Bak-ko; 1 ^4khur-wa.
Carve, to Td-kyab-bo; To- ko-o; Td-kyab-bo; Shing- ko-o; jf*rgAq i Sbrol-rgyab-pa.
Case (law case) Kham-chhu; Lap- Kham-chhu; 1 Kha-mchhu.
shi;.
Cast, to u.t., Bi-ko; l.t., Ko-wo; Ko-bo; Bi-ko; 1 Dbyug-pa.
Caste Ri; Gyud-po; Ri; Rii-po; Gyud- 5*1 ^*| Rus; Rigs.
Cat po;
A-iu; A-lii; | Zhi-mi.
Catch She-o; Zung-wo; She-bo; Zung-bo; l -4dzin-pa.
Cattle Bo-tsong; Dun-do; Dun-do; Bo-tsong; 1 Dud-flgro.
J ol-song; Jol-song;
Cave u.t., Bya-bu; l.t., Bya-kuk; Bya-kuk; g*rsl 1 Brag-phug.
Ceiling Cham-khep; Cham-kheb; I Thog-kha.
Centre Bu; Bu-mo; Bu; Bu-mo; <*|. Dkyil; Bar;
Dbus.


C 9 3

English, Tromowa. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
Certain Ten-ten; ,Tig-tig; Ten-ten; Tig-tig; Nge-po; 1 l Eten-ldan ; Nges-pa.
Chamber Khyim-mig; Khyim-mig; | Khang-mig.
Change, to Ji-u; Ji-u; l*l ^gyur-wa; Eje- wa.
Chapel Lha-khang; Lha-khang; |
Charcoal So-mog; 8d-nag; *^1 * | So-la; Sol-wa.
Chase, to xj.t., Do-o ; l.t., Da-u; Da-u; 1 Ded-pa ;
Chatter, to Khap-dung-kyab- po; Khap-dung-kyab- po; Kha las-rdung-wa.
Cheap Khe-tag; Gong- chhung-chhung; Khempu; Khe- tag ; Gong- chhung-chhung; l l Gong-chhung- chhung; Khe-po.
Cheek (of face) Dem-po; Dem-po; 1 -^gram-pa.
Cheeky Ke-tsa-tum-pho; Tsi-u thang-dok; Ke-tsa turn-pho ; Ke-tsa bom-pu; i ^jing-pa-sbom-po.
Cheese u.t., Chhu-wo; l.t., Chu-u; Chhu-u ; I Chhur-ra.
Chest (of body) u.t., Byang-gok; l.t., Byong; Byang-gok; Pyang-gok; 9^*11 Brang-gog.
Chicken Bi-chung; Bi-chhung; Pi-chhung; 99*1 1 Bya-phrug.
Chief Go-po; Go-pon; Go-po; 1 .Ago-pa.
Chief (headman of village) Kong-du; Kyo-rni; ^3^1 Gong-thus; rgan-po.
Child Bo-tso; O-nges; Bya-bu; Bo-tso ; O-nges; Bya-bu; |3 1 1 5^ I Phrug-gu ; Pu-gu; Bu-tsha.
Chili u.t., Kha-tsha; l.t., Ye-mag; A-kar; I Sel-pan.
Chilly u.t.. Gyang-go; l.t., Gyong-bo; Gyang-bo; Khya-po; 5^ 1 Grang-mo.
Chin O-ku; O-ku; BWgj Os-ma; Os-sku.
Choose, to Dam-bo; Dam-bo; Se-bo; A dam -pa.
Chop, to, up Zam-bo ; Tub-po; Zam-bo; Tub-po; Tsab-po; Etsab-pa.
Chop, to, down Ched-po; Ched-po; Gchod-pa,
Churn Su-dung; Ja-dung; Su-dung; ^^351 J/dong-mc.
Churn (for tea) Su-dung; Ja-dung; **f*5 | Ja-mdong.
Circle Go go; Khor-lu ; Kor-kor; ^1 sfcl Kor; Skor: .Akhor-lo.


E 10 1

English. Tromoica. | Sikkimese. I Tibetan.
Clean (to icash) Khyu; Khyu-wo ; ^0 '9 1 ^khru-wa.
Clear Se-po; Se-bo; *|Wq | 1 Gsal-po; D wangs.
Clever Jon-trak; Chang- trak; Jhon-trak; Chan g- tiak; | *|wq | chang-pa ; J/khas-pa.
Climb, to Dze ko; Dzek-ko; 1 ^o|q| Ejig-pa; Jjeg- pa.
Cloak Go; Go-lag; Go; Go-lag ; § 31 Chhu-pa.
Close (near) Tha-nyim-pa; Nyi-tag ; Tha-nyim-pu; Nyi- tag ; Nyim-pu; | Thag-nye-po.
Cloth Ra ; Ee; 1 Eas.
Clothe, to Gon-bo ; G on-bo; 3^q 1 q 1 Gyon-pa ; Gon- c pa
Cloud Pin; Tin-po; Pin; ?Kq 1 Sprin-pa.
Cock Bya-po; Pya-pu; Pya-pu; Bya-pu; 3^ f Bya-po.
Cold u.t., Gyang-go; l.t., Gyong-bo; Gyang-bo; Khya- : po; 2PI Grang-mo.
Cold (noun) Lho-cham; Lo-cham; $rq f Chham-pa.
Comb, Kya-she; So-mo; So-ma; Eya-she, 1 Skra-^shad.
Come, to u.t., Ong-go; l.t., Ong-bo; Ong-bo ; Lheb-po; *^1 Sjqsrqf Yong- wa ; Ong-wa; Slebs-pa.
Commencement Hon-hon-le; Hon-le; Nga-ma; Ngon-mo; Dang-pu; W* I Thog-ma.
Companion Eo-o; Eo-o; Cha-ro; 3* I Zla-wo; Grogs- po.
Complain, to v.T., Shu-o ; Shu-jo ; Gong-kos; l.t., Shu-wo; Chhang-ke-kyab-po; Chhang-ke kyab-po; Shu-ke bya-wo; f Zhu-thug-byed-pa.
Complete u.t., Myong-ko; l.t., Myong-po ; Myong-po; A q | I Tshar-wa; Edzogs-pa.
Comrade u.t., To-tshang; Dok-ku; l.t., Eo-o; D.ok-ku ; To-tshang; Cha-ro; Dok-pu; I Grogs-po.
Concerning Don-dado; Don-da-lo; Eor-lo; I Skor-la.
Conclude, to Myo-po; Myo-po; I Tshar-wa.
Confess No-wo ngo-len; Ngo-leu; Ngo-wo ngo-len; X$ri Consider, to Nho- sam tang-bo; Nho-sam tang-bo; q^^-q^q-q f Esam-bWtang- wa. 1 Gros-byedpa.
Consult, to Gyo kyab-po; Gyo kyab'po;


C 11 3

English. Tromowa. Sikhimesr. | Tibetan,
Continually A-tang; A-tang; 1 5*1^ I Rgy un-du ; Rtag-par.
Conversation Lo; Lo; Gyo ; SuDg do; ^*1 Skad-okka;. : 6r8ung-gros.
Cook Tkap-yog; Tbap-yog; Ma- cke n ; 1 Ma-chken.
Cook, to Tso-po; Tso-o; Tso-wo; Tfc6-po; | Jtshod-pa.
Coolie TT-lag; Do po; Do-po; , Dos-po-akkyer- mkkan.
Count, to Kyang-kka kyab- po; Kyang-kka kyab- po; | Grangs-kha-rtse-wa.
Courage Domyi bom-pu; Do-nyi bom-pu; g | Blo-kkog-chhen-po.
Cover, to Sup-po; Kkap-cke- kyab po; Sup-po; Kkap cke- kyab-po; Kab-po; j | Bkab-pa ; ^gebs-pa.
Cover [noun) Kkap-cko 1; Kkap-ckod ; I 1 Kkabs; Aha- Crack (crmctf) u.t., Se-go; l.t., Se-ga; Se-ga ; | Ser-ga; Ser-ka.
Crazy Chhog-chho-o ; Ckkog-lang; Ckhog-okko-wo; Nyo-nyo-wo; Ckkog-lang; I?Yql Smyon-pa.
Cream Pi-kha; Pi-kha; O-pi; 1 | Spri-ma ; O-spri.:
Crimson Mha-po; Mka-po; Map; | Dmar-po.
Crooked Yo-yu; Kyog-ku; Yo-yu; Kyog-ku; I313 1 Kbyog-po Kyog- kyog.
Cross, to Ge-o; Ge-wo; Ge-bo; 1 Rgal-wa.
Crow u.t., Op-lag; l.t., O-lag; O-lag; (j5l Kkwa-ta; O-rog.
Cruel Dig-chhe me£/-po; Dig-ckhe med-po ; | Ny ing-r j e-med-pa.
Curtain Yol-la; Yol-lo; isfaq i Yol-wa.
Cut, to D Cbe-po; Tog-ko; Cked-po; T'og-ko; l 6rchod-wa. i j
Dagger Gar-sog; Ckken- gyi; Ckhen-gyi; Gar- sog; gj i trwgj1 Gri; Am-gri.
Damp u.t., Lon-pu; l.t., Jen-po; Jem-pu; 1 Elon-po.
Danger Nyen-kba; Nyen- chben; Nyen-kka; Nyen ; fa 1 Nyen.
Dangerous (in sickness). Tsbab-cbben-pu; Do-dog; To-dag; Tskab chken-po; ^aSaj-q | Nyen-ckken-po.


[ 12 ]

English. Tromowa. Sikkimese. Tibet Dark u.t., Nag-dong; l.t., Nag suk; Nag-ku; Nag- suk; q | | Mun-pa-nag- po; Mun-nag.
Daub, to u.t. Tang-go; l.t. Phyug-ko; Tong-bo ; Tang-bo; Phyug- ko; I Skus-pa.
Daughter Bum; Bum; Bu-mo; S*l 5|*v35i Bu-mo; Sres-rao.
Day after to- morrow. Nong; Nang-tshi; Nangs; Nangs- nyin.
Day before yes- terday. Kha-nub; Kha-nup or Kha- nub; 1 Khai-nyi-ma.
Day {three days She-nub; She-nub; l Crzhes.
ahead)
Day (three days She; She; She-tshi; 1 6rzhes-nyin.
after)
Deaf On-to; On-to; On-tog; 1 On-pa.
Death Shi-u; Shi-u; Shi-bo; ?|q I | Shi-wa; Achhi- wa. SqjSyq | Ske-^chog-pa.
Decapitate, to Ke-tog-ko; Ke-tog-ko; Ke- chod-po; Ke- chod-po;
Decay, to Rii-bo; Rii-u; Rii-po; Rii-wo; I liul-pa.
Deceased The-khen; The-khen; Shi- khen; Tshe-adas- mkban; Dam-pa.
Deceit Yho; Go-ko-o; Yho; Yho-gyu; Go-ko-bo; <7yo-sgyu; J/go-skor.
Deceive, to Yho-kyab-po; Go-ko-bo ; Yho-kyabrpo ; Go- kor-bo; I gp | J/go-skor- 6tang-wa; Slu-wa.
Decide Thag-chhod-po; Myong-po; Thag-ohhod-po; Myong-po; aqiqjtyq | Thag-^chod-pa.
Declivity Thu-ku; Thu; Thu-ku ; 3* I Thur.
Deep Ting-ring; Ting-ring-ku; Ting-ring; Ting-ring-ku; Ting ring-po; 1 6? ting-ring-po;
Depart, to Gyu-o ; Thon-bo; Pheb-po ; Gyu-o; Thon-bo; Pheb-po ; A%yq 1 i Jgro wa; -4thon-pa; Pheb-pa.
Desert, to Pang-po; Tang-bo ; Pang-po; Tang bo; Ifc| Sbong-pa.
Design (inten- Len-log; Len-log; 5*1^ i Log-lta.
tion)
Despatch, to U.T., Tang-go; l.t., Tong-bo ; Tang-bo; 1 Gtong-wa.
Determine, to Tha-chod-po ; Myong-po; Thak-chod-po; Myong-po; qqpqpfyq i Thag-^chod-pa.


t 13 ]

English. Tromoiva. Sikhimese. Tibetan.
Dew Zi-po; Zi-chhu; Si-po ; Zi-po; Si- chhu; Zi-chhu; 1 Zil-pa.
Diarrhoea u.t., Pho-ua-ti-dim- bo; l.t., Supa she-bo; Sup-she-bo; ^5^5 1 0shad-nad.
Differ, to Le-nye; Khe-bar; Le-nye; Khe-bar; Man-da-o ; 1 1 Me-adra* wa; Khyad-yod-pa.
Different Ma-chi-ko; Man-da-o ; Ma-chi-ko; . Ma- chik-po; Man- da-o ; | i Mi-6/chig-pa; So-so.
Difficult u.t., Ka-le-tsha-o; l.t., Gag-tak; Ka- le-tsha-tak; Gag-tak; Khag- tak; pqjq | i Khag-po Dka-las-khag-po.
Dimension Bom-chhung; Bom-chhung; | Chhe-chhung.
Dinner (evening Phi-ru-to; Phi-ru-sa- Phi-ru-to; Phi-ru- , Dgong-moi-kha-
meal) mo; Phi-ru-sa-o; zam; Phi-ru-se- lag.
Dirt (of cloths and body) De-ka; Te-ka ; wu De-ka ; Te-kag ; Spprq | q&pq Grags-pa; -Btsog-pa.
Dirty Ma-tsang-bo; Teog-tag; Ma-tsang-bo ; Tsog-tag ; | q&qq | Mi-^tsang- wa; 2?tsog-pa.
Disbelieve Yik-ma chhe-po; Den-di ma-ri-wo; Yik-ma chhe-po; Den-di ma-ri-bo; | Yid-mi-chhas-pa.
Discuss, to Gyo-kyab-po ; Ka-mo nang-bo; Gyo-kyab-po; Kyo-kyab-po; Ka- mo-nang-bo; Gros-byed-pa; 2?kamol ^nang-wa.
Disdain Mhe-do; Me-to; Mhe-do; Jod-po ; 1 Smad-pa.
Disgrace Nga-tsha ; Shab-den; Shen-sho-bo; Ngo-tsha ; Sham-den; Shen-sho-o; 1 ^q Dish (wood) De-mo; Shing-de; 1 Shing-sde.
Dish Le-de; So-de; Le-de; Tha-li; So-de; | Sder-ma.
Dislike, to u.t., Ma-ga-wo; l.t., Mang-go-wo; Mang-ga-wo; | Mi- Dismiss, to Gong-po pyim-bo; Gong-po pyim-bo; Ka-ma-tsi-bo; S^q^q i Dgong-pa-ster-wa.
Dispute Tsod-leng; Thab- tsod ; Thab-tsod; Tham; f Sq 1 i Tsod-pa ; athab-pa.
Dispute Kham-chhu; Kham-chhu; | Lab-gzhi.
Distress Sem-pham; Lho-phain; Sem-pham; Lho-pham; | Sems-pham.


[ 14 ]

English. Tromowa. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
Distribute, to u.t., Go-shi kyab- po; l.t., Gob-sha kyab- po; Go-o; Gob-shak kyab-po; Go-wo; | Rgwd | 5god-pa Disturbance Za-ngi Zi-ngi; A-ri u-ri; Tham; i Zang-zing; or Sang-sing; A-ri u- ri; Tham ; 3^-^^ | Zang-zing; (col. 1 l)
Divers Lo-shi; So-so; So-so; I So-so.
Divide, to Gob-shak; Go-wo; Go; Ye-phi-u; Go-wo; Gob shak= Kyab-po; Ye-phi- bo; 1 i 5t* S* ^god-pa; Bsko-wa; dbye-wa, phye-wa.
Do, to Bya; Bya-u; Dzed-po; Nang- bo; Bya; Bya-wo; Dzed-po; Nang-bo; §51 *^1 Byadpa; -3/dzod-pa; 6nang-wa.
Dog Ri-khyi; Dom-bu; Dom-khyi; Dom-bu; Dom-khyi; 13 1 Khyi {dog) dom {bear).
Dove u.t., Phu-den; l.t., Phu-don; Phu-don; Phug-don; ^3 1 1 TJng-ga ; Phugron.
Down u.t., Bos; l.t., Mo-u; Mo-u; O-te; W | Mar.
Down yonder u.t., Bo-di; l.t., Mo-kho-di; Mi-di; Mo-kho-di; i Ma-gi.
Down-bill Thu-ku; Thu-ku ; 1 Thur.
Down there Mo-u; Mo-u; Mo-gi; *$! Ma-ru.
Drain on roof u.t., Ti-tsak; l.t,, Ti-za ; Ti-za; **1$ 1 Og-chhu.
Drain on the Ohhu-yu; Chhu-yu; | ground. 1 1 gos; dor-ma.
Drawers {gar- ment) Do-mo; Do-mo; Dor-mo; Dom;
Drip, to Dza-ko; Dzag-ko; Thik- dzag-ko; ^*1*1 ^-q^q|'qj ^dzag-pa; thigs-pa adzag-pa.
Drive, to chase Da-wo; Da-wo; Da-bo; | Ded-pa;
Drop {of water) Ti-po; Thig; q^qjq 1 3qj*rq| 2?tig-pa; tbigs- pa.
Drum {a hand Nga-chung; Nga-chung; Da-ma-ru.
drum)
Dumb She-po; Shem-po; Shem-po; | Skugs-pa.
Dung {yak) Ju-ga; Ju-ga; |*l Lchi-wa.
{horse) Te-bang; Te-bang; g^ll Shang-lchi.
{sheep, goat, deer) Rumak; Ru-mak; Ra-kyag; Lug-kyag; I Ril-ma.


C 15 ]

English. Tromowa. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
Dusk u.t., Ngon-po nag- Ngon-po nag-ko; 1 Sa-hrib.
ko; l.t., Nam-so-po; Nam-so-po;
Dust The-o; The-o ; Thal-la; Rdul.
Duty, tax Khe; Khe; 0*11 Khral.
Dwarf Gum-thung; Ti-pu; Gum-thung; | Te-po.
E
Each Ge-ta; Re-re; Chi-ku; Ge-ta; Re-re; I 1 Re; Re-re.
Kyang-ku; Chik- ku;

Ear Nham-chog; Nam-chog; 1 1 Na; Na-chhog.
Nhen; or Nyen ; Nyen;
Early Hang-ru ; To-le; Hang-ru; To-le; gsj | g'<^ | Sngapo; Snga-
nas.
Earthquake Sang-gu; Sa-yo; Sang-gu; Sa-yo; *<1** 1 * 1 Sa-^yo; Sa-
^yom.
Earthenware Dza-mo; Dzam; Dza-mo; Dzam ; gr* i gr'pfoj i (coi. q
Rdzam; Rdza-khog (col. Khog-ma).
Easily Le-jam-tag; Le-jam-tag; WST5 | Las-sla-po.
Le-jam-pu;
Echo Pyak-cha; Bak-chha; 0T* 1 Brag-chha.
Pak-chha;
Edible Za-tub-po; Za-tub-po; 1 Za-rung-wa.
Egg Gong-do; Gong-do; Gong- dok; 1 Sgo-nga.
(to lay eggs) Gong-do kyi-bo; Gong-do kyi-bo; Gong-do kyi-wo; | Sgo-nga-Mang-wa. 5S | 3)^ | Gru-mo; gre-tog.
Elbow Ki-ling; Ki-ling;
Elect, to Dam-kha; Dam-kha; i ^dam-pa.
Dam-bo ; Dam-bo;
Employ, to Ku-bo ; Ku-bo; Tsug-ku; I Spyod-pa.
Encounter, to Phe-po; Phe-po; Thug-ko; | 1 Thug-pa ; ^tphrad-pa.
End Zu; Zu; Sha; sm i J/tha.
End, to Myong-po; Myong-po; 1 | Tshar-wa; Rdzogs-pa.
Enormous Bom-den; Bom-thag-chhod; | Ohhe-thag-ohhod.


E 16 3

English. Tromowa. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
Enough, to be " tt.t., Ong-ko; Lang- Ong-bo; Langpo; ifcq | | j Yong-wa;
po; Dik-ko; Chhog-pa; ldang-wa.
Enter, to l.t., Long-po; Ong- bo; Dzu-bo; Dzu-bo; 1 1 -4 jug-pa
zldzug-pa.
Entice, to Khab-lhu-kyab-po; Lhn-bo ; Slu-wa.
Lhu-wo ; Khab-lhu kyab-po;
Envious ) Envy j Tha-dok; Thum-se; Tha-dok; Thum-se; 5!Vl 1 Phra-dog.
Err, to ) Error , Dzo-bo; Dzo-bo; No-bo; ! Nor-wa.
Escape, to Byo-po; Tha-wo; Byo-po; Pyo-po ; i i ^lbros-pa;
Sho-bo, Tha-bo; Shor-wa.
Especially In-chi men-chi; In-chi men-chi; | Lhag-par-du.
Evening Phi-tsham; Phi-tsham; | Dgong-mo.
Phi-kha;
Everybody Mi-ga-yod; Mi- Mi-ga-yod; Mi- I 1 Mi-gang-
tham-che; tham-che; ga; Mi-thams ched.
Every kind u.t., Pe-ri ma-chi- ko; Pe-ri ma-chi-ko ; | Sna-tshog (Ma-^ohig-
pa).
l.t., Nha-tsho ; Nha-tsho ma-ehi-
ko ;
Everywhere Gra-na-sa; Gra-kha-lo ; qpsrqfGi | Gra-sa-ga-la.
Evil Ngen-po; Ngen-po ; Kyo-kyo-wo; i Ngan-pa.
o o 1 o & %5l Shin-tu;
Exceedingly Nyo-ki; Nyo-ki; or Nyog-
ki; J/chhog-tu.
Excellent Kyi-chen; Kyi-chen; | Yag-thag-chhod.
Le-thag-chhod; Le-thag chhod; S^qj Ma-^togs;
Except Men-che; Men-che;
Min-pa.
Exhausted, to be > u.t., Thang-chhe-po; Thang-chhe-po'; qc/fcyq | Thang-chhad-pa.
U-du-po; l.t., Thong-chhe- U-du-po;
po; U-du-po;
Expect, to Ki-u-bya-o ; Eewa bya-wo; 1 re-wa-byed-pa.
Expensive Ri-chhi ke-ko; Kon-bo; Pham-po; Pi-chi-bya-wo; Kon-bo ; Kon-tag; 1 1 Dkon-po ;
Kon-tag; Grus-po.


L 17 3

English. Tromowa. Sikhimese, Tibetan.
p
Fair, beautiful Ge-thag; Chong- tag; Chang-tag; Dze-ta; | J/dzes-po.
Fall, to u.t., Pu-wo; Lhum- bo; l.t., Pu-u; Lhum- bo; Pu-bo; Bu-bo.; Lhum-bo; I Lhung-wa.
False u.t., Ang; l.t., Ong; Ang; 1 Rdzun.
Fan Lung-heb; Lung-heb; | Rlung-t/yab; ^yab
Farther Pha-tsa ; Pha-tsa; I I Phar-tsas; Bar- tse.
Fast Ma-lag; Ma-lag; Ma-la; sigqjsrq 1 J/gyogs-po.
Fasten, to u.t., Dak-ko; l.t., Ching-bo; Ching-bo; 1 l&rq | RX/iprq | ^4chhing- wa ; sdom-pa, adogs pa.
Fat Tshi-lu; Bo-gok; Tshi-lu; 1 Tshil.
Fear, to u.t., Ji-po ; Gen-po; l.t., Ju-po ; Do-po; Gen-po; Ju-po; Do-po; Gen-po; I ^q | XflSTq | ^jigS-pa; Shed-pa; dogs-pa.
Feeble Fence Bek-thok; u.t., Roh; l.t., Ra-u; Be-ku; Bye-ku; Ra-u; $5^ | Bgud-po. | Ra-wa.
Ferocious Thu-tak; Ngen-tag; Tshub-tak ; Ngen-tag; 1 Gnyan-pa.
Fight, to Dzing-bo ; Dzing-bo; 1 ^q*q 1 I ^khrug- ^pa; Athab-pa ; dzing-wa.
Fill, to u.t., Gang-go; l.t., Gong-bo; Gang-bo; | qjqq | Jgengs-pa; Gang-pa.
Finger Finish Dzu-mu; u.t., Myong-ko; l.t., Myong-po; Dzu-mu; Myong-po; | J/dzug-gu. i Tshar-wa.
Fire Mi; Shu-mi; Mi; Shug-mi; 1 Me; Rzbugs-me.
Fire, to light Mi-sum-bo; Mi-ba-bo; Mi-sun-bo; Mi-ba-bo; | Me-sbar-wa.
Fit Bab-po; O-po; Paw-bo; Bap-po; Q-po; Pam-bo ; | Xsrq Bung-wa ; Os-pa.
Flee, to Byo-po; Byo-po; | ^bros-pa.
Flexible Jam-tag; Jam-po; Jam-tag; Jam-po ; A jam-po.
Fling Kya-po; Ko-bo; Ko-o-bo; Kyab-po; Dbyug-pa; Rgyab- pa.


C is 3

English. Tromoiva. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
Fluid Khu-wak; Khak; I Khu-wa.
Fly u.t., Bya-mo; Byam; Bya-mo; | gc/g | Sbrang- ma ?
l.t., Byo-mo; Sbrang-bu.
Fog u.t., Mhungko; Ba-mug; l.t., Hung-po; Hung-po; | Rmugs-pa.
Follow, to Da-u; Da-wo; 1 ^dbrang-wa.
Foolish Shem-po; Ri-ko me* Shem-po; Ri-ko me- 1 1 Glen-pa ; Lkugs-
po; po; pa.
Foreigner {Eng- u.t., Phi-ling-ko; Phi-ling-bo; | Phyi-gling-pa.
lishman) l.t., Phi-ling-bo;
Forest Na-tseng; Nang-tse, 1 | | Nags ;
Shin-na; Nang-tseng; Shing-nags; Nags*tshal.
Forget, to Je-po; Deng-ma- Je-po; Jep-po; Rjed-pa;
zin-bo; Don-ma-zing-bo; Dr an mi-^so-wa.
Formerly u.t., Dang-ku; l.t., Dong-pu; Dang-pu; 1 1 Sngar ; Sngon-la.
Forward Hon-le; Ngon-le; Hon-le; Ngon-le; ifY** ! Sngon-la.
Foundation Byam; Byam; ! ffzhi.
Fowl Bya; Pya; Domestic fowl 1
Khyim-ki-bya; Wild birds = Nang- j>Bya; Pya ; SI S? 1 Bya; Bya-te.
tse-bya; J
Fox u.t., Am; A-mu; l.t., Am; Am; 1 Wa-mo.
Free, to u.t., Tha-ye; l.t., Tha-wo; Tha-bo; Tba-o; 1 Thar-wa.
Freeze, to u.t., Khek-ko; l.t., Khe-ko; Khek-ko; | .Jkhyags-pa.
Friend Do-ku; Do-ko; To-ko; | Grogs-po.
Do-ku; To-ku;
Frighten, to u.t., Tog-ko; Ji- ten-bo; Ju-ton-bo; i Skrag-pa.
l.t., Tog-ko; Ju- ten-bo; Tog-ko; Ju-ton-bo;
Front Dun-kha; Dun-kha; l J/dun-du.
Frost u.t., Khek-ko ; l.t., Khe-ko; Khek-ko | Khags-pa.
Furrow Ro; Ko; | | Rol; Sul.


C 19 3

English. Tromcwa. Sikhimese. Tibetan.
G Gallop, to Sham-be; Sham-be I Rgyag-pa.
Gap Gyuk-ko; Se-ga; Gyug-ko; Se-ka; Se-ga; ^'*1 1 Ser-ga.
Generally Phe-chhi; A-tang; j | Pal-chher ; Dus-
Generous A-tang; Ba-gi sha-gi; Ba-ga-sha-ga; rgyun. | Sbag-ge sha-ge.
Gentle Ha-ri ho-ri; Ten-po; Lho-po; Ten-po; Lho-po; ^'3 1 Ching-bu
Gimlet So-o; So-o; 1 Sor.
Give Byim-bo; or Byim-bo; or q f Ster-wa ; Spyin-pa.
Go, to Pyim-bo; Gyu-u; Jon-bo; Pyim-bo; Gyu-u; Jon-bo ; 1 1 -4gro-wo; Phyin-
Good Le-mu; Lem ; Kyi- Le-mu; Le-mo; pa. Yag-pO ;
chen; Lem; Legs-pa; /?zang-po.
Grain Du; Du; *31 ^dbru. xa
Grain {parched) Bya-su ; Bya-su; | ^dbras-sus.
Grain {fried) Sen-yo; Bya-ngo-o; Sen-yo; *9^5 1 J.bras-rngod.
Grandson Tsha-u; Tsha- Tsho-u; Tsha- I Tsha-po.
Granddaughter phyuk; Tsham; Tsba-mu; phyuk; Tsham; Tsha-mu; I Tsha-mo,
Grandfather A-jo-o; A-jo-o; 3 1 Po.
Grandmother u.t., A-mo; A-nyo; i Mo.
Grant, to l.t., A-na; A-nha ; Bim-bo; Pim-bo; Bim-bo; Pim-bo; f 1 §*i 1 Ster-wa; Spyin-
Great Bom-pu; Bom-pu; pa. Chhen-po (ipw f sbom-
Grow, to Ki-u; Ki-bo; Ki-u; pa = thick, stout.) 1 Skye-wa.
Guest Gon-pu; Gon-pu; | J/gron-po.
Guide, to Khyi-ko; Lam-ton- Khyik-ko; 1 -4khrid-pa.
bo ; Lam-ton-bo;


C 20 3

English. Tromoiva. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
H Hail u.t., So; Se; Se-wo ; Se-o; | Ser-wa.
Hair l.t., Se-wo ; Kya; Kya; SJ 1 Skra.
Half Phed; Phe-ka; Phed; Phe-ka; SSI 1 Phyed; Phyed-ka.
Hand La-ko; Chhag; La-ko; Chhag; §5|| Lag-pa; Phyag.
Handkerchief To-ra; To-re; To-ra; To-re; 1 (col. wT |) Lag-aphyi.
Handsome Ge-thag; Yi-ga- Ge-tag ; Chang-bo; (col. A-cho.) Mdzes-po.
Hang, to ong-ta; u.t., Pyaug-go ; Chang-tag; Pyang-bo; | Skyon-pa.
Happy l.t., Pyong-bo; Ki-pn; Ki-po; Ki-pn; Ki-po; | | Skyid-po ; Rde-
Hare Him-po; Dim-pu; Ri-gong; Dim-pu; Dim-po; Ri-gong; po. | Ri-bong; Yos.
Haste Bye-o; Be-o ; Pe-o; Bye-o; To make haste = By e- wo-kyab-po ; Yd-chum; Brel-wa. To make haste.
Hawk Be-o; Pe-o; To make haste=Bye- wo-kyah-po; Yd-chum; = I J/gyogs-po- byed-pa. 0! Khra.
Heart Do-nyi; Do-nyi; I Snying.
Heat Tshe-po ; Tshe-po; 1 Tsba-wa.
Heavy Chi-tak; Chi-tak; I | Lehi-po; Gi-po.
Height Hen Thom-po; Thom-pu; Tho-me; Byam; Bya-mu; Thom-pu; Thom-po; Tho-me; Byam; Bya-mu; 1 J/tho-r/man. & 1 1 Bya; Bya-mo.
Hence Di-le-pha ; Di-le-pha; 1 -4di-nas.
Herdsman Byo-ko; Nha-zi; Dok-ko; Abrcg-pa.
Here Na; Tshu; Di-kha ; Na; Tshu ; BS 1 1 |
Hide {skin) Kom-pu; Kom-pu; fjS 1 l Ko-wa; Lpags-pa
Hire, to Pa-ko; u.t., Lo-o; Pa-ko ; La-u; I Gla-wa.
Hit, to l.t., La-u; Kyab-ho ; Kya-bo ; Kya-bo; Kyap-po; |8$ | Hog Pha-ko; Pha-ko; Phag-ko; pa. snip | Phag-pa.
Hold, to She-wo; Znng-bo She-bo; Zung-bo; 1 Adzin-pa.
Hole Bu-ga; Bu-ga; Bu-ba; |^ | 9*! 1 Khung ; bu-ga.
Honey Byang ; Byang; 1 Sbrang-rtse.
Horn Ro-jo ; Ro-jo ; Ra ; Rwa-cho; Rwa.
Host Jf. Nha-pu; M. Nhe-pu; Jf. qj^'q F.
F. Nha-mu; F. Nhe-mu;


E 21 ]

English, Tromowa, Sikkimese, Tibetan,
How Ga-te; Gam-mo; Ga-te; Gam-mo ; I Gang-rtdra.
However Yin-rung ; Yin-rung; , Yin-na-yang.
Hunt, to Sha-da-o Sha-da-o; Sha-da-bo; 0*gq'q| Khyi-ra; Rgyab-pa.
Hunter Sha-rab-bo; Sha-da-khen; Sha-rab-bo; Sha-da-khen; 0*q 1 Khyi-ra-pa.
Hurricane Lung-chha; Lhung-chha; Lung-chha; | Chhar-rlung.
Hurry, to Be-o kyab-po ; or Pe-o kyab-po; Be-o kyab-po; or Pe-o kyab-po; wjqprergyq i J/grogs-po byed-pa.
Husband Pho-gya; Pho-gya; 1 Khyo-ka.
I Ice Khe; Khek; Khe- da; Khe; Khek; (gqj^q i Khyags-pa.
If Ge-si; Ne; Ge-si; Ne; l Na; Gal-srid.
Immense Bom-thag-chhod; Bom-pu; Bom-thag-chhod; Bom-pu; | & | Chhen-po ; Chhe-th ag-chhod.
In Nang; Nang-sha; Nang; Nang-sha; | ( Nang ; Nang-la.
Inch So-o; So-o; 1 Sor
Incorrect u.t., Mi-da-ko; l.t., Ma-dag-ko; Man-da-ko; Ma-da- ko; Min-da-ko; q | Ma-dag-pa.
Increase, to Pha-po; Phar-po; Pha-po; Phar-po; wq | -Jphar-pa.
Indefatigable Nge-she med-po; U-du-she-med-po; Nge-she med-po; U-du-she med-po; | Ngal-wa-med-pa.
Inferior (m quality) Kyo-kyo-o; Kyo-wo; Kyo-kyo-o; Kyo- wo ; I Sdug-pa.
Injure, to Nhod-po; Nhod-po ke-wo; Nhod-po; Nhod-po ke-wo; ^1 Snod-pa; tfnor-wa-byed-pa.
Insane Chho-chha-u; Chho-lang; Chho-chha-u; Ohho-lang; 1 Smyon-pa.
Insert, to Nang-sha chu-ko; Nang-sha-tsu-ko; Nang-sha de-ko; Nang-sha chu-ko; Nang-sha tsu-ko; Nang-sha de-ko; q 1 Ajug-pa. q q | Nang-la; adzug-pa.
Inside Nang-sha; Nang Jo; Nang-sha; Nang- lo | i Nang; Nang-la,
Insult Kha-ngan; Kha- phog; Kha-ngan; Kha- phog; *PPPl 1 8V* 1 Itch, to Yha-u; Yha-u; *q| Za-wa; J bun-pa.


[ 22 ]

English, Tromowa. Sikkimese, Tibetan.
J
Jackal G-ya-Amu; Amu; 0'F' 1 Khyi-spyang.
Join, to Bam-bo; Ja-bo; Bya-wo; Bam-bo; Ja-bo; Bya-bo; l Sbrel-wa.
Just now Da-to; Dato; 5'? 1 Da-lta.
Just so u.t., De-ra-be; De-ra-yin; l.t., De-ra-yin; De-ra-be; Di-rayin-be; De-ra-yin; l Da-ga-red.
K
Keep, to (>., to take care of) u.t., Da-ku bya wo; Nya-tsa bya wo; l.t., Nyer-bya wo; Nyer-bya wo; 9^,£> l Nyang-wa.
Kick u.t., Dok-tbu; l.t., Dok-thum; Dok-thum; ^1 Rdog-tho; Rdong-rgyab.
Kind {sort) Dang; De; Nha-tshang; Dang; De; Nha-tshang; Nha- tshog; 91 1 1 If 1 1 Gras ; Rigs; Sna; Sna-obhogs.
Kiss, to u.t., Kba-ke-bo; l.t., Kha-ke-bo; U-bya-o; Kha-ke-bo; U-bya-o; P'l*1'1 1 Kha-skyel-wa.
Kitten A-lii phi-guk; A-lii-phi-guk; ^3I l Zhim-phrug.
Knife Gyi; Gyi; 911 Qri.
L
Laborious Kale kha-ta; Kale tsha-ta; Kale kha-ta; or Ka-le kheta; Kha-le tsha-ta; q I Dka-las-khag-po.
Labour Yhog; Yhog; Yog; | Las-ka (cf. Oyog-^Q = servant).
Labour, to Yhog bya-wo; Yhog bya-wo; WTlV l Las-ka-byed-pa.
Ladder u.t., Kya-ko; l.t., Kya-kha; Kya-kha; 51V1 (col. uMl) Skas- dza; Skrad-pa (col. Skan- dza).

/


C 23 ]

English. Tromowa. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
Lamp, a u.t., Shu-ma; l.t., Shu-ma; Ong- gu; Shu-ma; Ba-zi; 9W l Zhu-inar.
Large Bom-pu ; Bom-pu ; ^51 Chhen-po.
Last Jug ju-lo; Jug ju-lo; | #zhug-£zhug-la.
Last evening Dang-phi-ru ; Dang-phi-ru; 1 J/dang -dgong
Last year Na-nyi; Na-nyi ; Na-ning.
Late Phi-po; Phi-po; B 1 Phyi-po.
Laugh Go-o; Ge-mu; Ga-u; I Gad-mo.
Laugh, to Ge-mu go-o; Ge-mu-kyab-po; Gau ; Gog-do gau; | Gad-mo gad-pa.
Lead, to Khyi-ko; Khyig-ko; Khyi-ko; Khyig-ko; ^05^ 1 -4khrid-pa.
Leather Kom-pu; Kom-pu; I Ko-wa.
Lend, to Nya-wo; Ki-wo; To lend money= Bo-lon-len-bo; Nya-wo; Ki-wo; To lend money = Bo-lon-len-bo; <1^1 Gyar-wa; Skyi- wa. To lend money = 9 | Bu-lon-^yar-wa.
Liar Ang-khen; Ang-kyab-khen; Ang-khen ; Ang-kyab-khen; l Rdzun-mkhan. >
Lid (cover) Kha-lep; Pho-chos; Kha-lep; Khap-che; 1 Kha^chod.
Lift, to Ya-thu-o; Ya-thu-o; Ya-thu-bo; 1 | Yar- 0gyogs-pa; -4thogs-pa.
Like {similar) u.t., Do-wo; Chi- ko ; l.t., Da-o ; Chi-ko ; Da-wo; Chi-ko; i . i -4dra-wa ; 6?chig-pa.
Likely Yin-gyu; Yin-gyu; Yin-to; i Yin-gro.
Linen Ba; Re; 1 Ras.
Little Ohhung-chhung; Nyung-nyung; A-tsim; Shu-chi; Chhung-chhung; Nyung-nyung; A-tsim; Shu-chi; 1 W1 Chhung- chhung ; Nyung-nyung; Tog- tso.
Long Ring-ku; Ring-ku; 1 Ring-po.
Lot, much Nyo-ki; Nyo-ki; 1 Mang-po,
Love, to Jam-pu bya-wo; Nyi-ta bya-wo; Jam-pu bya-wo; Nyi-ta bya-wo; SwSrgyq | Byams-po-byed-pa.
Lovely u.t., Ge-thag; Le- po; l.t., Ge-thag; Chang-bo; Chang chhi-chhi; Jfdzes-po.
Lunatic Chho-chha-u; Chho-lang; Chho-chha-u; Chho-lang; i Smyon-pa.


C 24 ]

English. Tromouw. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
M Mad Chho-chha u; Chho-lang; Ken-tnshog; Chho-chha-u; | Smyon-pa.
Maize Chho-lang; Ken tshong; Is not a central Tibetan crop.
Manifest Se-tag; Se-tag; flpwn i Gsal-po.
Many u.t., Yo-lang; Nyo-ki; Yo-lang; W5 i Mang-po.
March, to Mang-ku; l.t., Nyo-ki; Yo-lang; Mong-pu; Gyu-o; lVl ang-pu; Gyu-o; Gyu-bo; 1 Jgro-wa.
Meet, to Phe-po; Phe-po; Pheb-po; 1 3^1 Jphrad-pa;
Middle Bu; Bu-na; Bu; Bu-na; Thug-pa.
Mince, to Dzam-bo ; Tsap-po; Dbus; Bar ; dkyil; gung; q^AM | Etsab-pa.
Mingle, to Tub-po; Bam-bo; La-si-o; Tub-po; Bam-bo; ^'3 I JLdre-wa.
Mist u.t., Mhung-po ; La-si-wo; Hung-po ; Mug-ko; 1 Emugs-pa.
Mistake, to l.t., Hung-po ; Dzos-o; No-o; Dzos-bo; No-bo; | qgqq | Nor-wa; -4khul-
Mix Bam-bo; La-si-o; Bam-bo ; wa. 1 .Jdre-wa.
Moist Lon-po; La-si-wo; Lon-pu; SpV'J l Elon-pa.
Monkey Jen-po; Pi-u; J en-pu; Pi-u ; §9 1 Sbreu.
Morning Ngha-ru; Ngha-ru; To-le; gT 1 1 Snga-dro; Zhogs.
Morrow Tho-rang; Tho-rang; | , Sang; Sang-
Mother u.t., Ayi; Am ; A-mo; nyin. w* | si i J.-ma ; Ma.
Mouse l.t., Am; A-mo ; Bi-tsi; Bi-tsi; 1 B*l Etsi-rtsi; Byi-wa.
Moustache Gyo-rok; Gya-rok; Kha-pu; Pg i Kha-spu.
Move, to Pa-bo; Pa-bo; Gyu-bo ; gar* i Sgul-wa.
Much Hap-le; Hap-le; Jag-ki; sic/q | Mang po.
Mustard oil Pe-gang-nhum ; Pe-gang nhum ; | Pe-snum.


C 25 3

English. Tromowa. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
N
Naked Gye-mu; Gye-mu; Mha-rhang; | jfaS 1 Dmar-hrang- wa; Sgren-mo.
Nasty Kham-log-ke; Khamdog sing-sing | Skyag-bro-po.
Naughty Ngen-po; Ti-duk; Ngen-po; Ti-duk; | Ngan-pa.
Near Nyim-pu; Tha-nyim-pu; Bol-lo; Nyim-pu; Tha-nyim-pu; Bol-lo; | | , Nye-po ; Thag-nye-po; Rtsar.
New Sa-pu; Sa-pu; | 0sar-pa.
New year Lo-sung; Lo-sar; Lo-sung; Lo-sar; | Lo-^sar.
Night Phi-ru; Nu-mu; Phi-ru; Nu-mu; | | Nam ; J/tshan.
Nose Nha; Nha; Nha-guk; $ 1 Sna.
Nostrils Nhe-buk; Nhe-buk; | Sna-khung.
Not Min; Me ; Mem; Min; Me; Mem; Men; * 1 1 Ma; Mi; Med ;
Now Da-to; Da-to; Da; Sg 1 Si Da-lta; Da.
Nowhere (with Ga-kha; Ga-kha; 1 *1$ 1 Ga-wa; Ga-ru.
negative} o
Occasion Gang do; Tshi; Gang-lo; Tshi; V*l U|W| Dus; Skabs.
Old u.t., Nyen-ko; l.t., Nye-po; Nyeng-ku; 1*^1 Rnying-pa.
Onion O-tsong; O-tsong ; i JStsong.
Only i Tsang-teang; Tsang-tsang; 5*Hl Sha-stag; Gchig- pa.
Opulence Phyug-ku; Phyug-ku ; 1 Phyug-po.
Orphan Do-o; Do-ruk; Do-o; Do-ruk; 1 Dwa-phrug.
Over u.t., Yo; l.t., Yo-u; Yo-u; l Yar-ru.
Owl Ug-ko; Ug-ko; 1 Ug-pa,
Owner Dag-ku; Dag-ku; I Z?dag-po.


[ 26 ]

English. Tromoica. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
p
Parsimonious Deb-shi; Deb-shi; Tep-shi; | Lag-pa-dam-po.
La-ko dam-ta; La-ko dam-tag;
Part Ke-o; Ke-o; | Skal-wa.
Passenger Du-po; Du-po; 1 Abrul-pa.
Peacock Map-ja; Map-ja; ftSl Rma-bya.
Peg (wooden) Phu-po; Phu-po; 1 Phur.
Perhaps Chig-bya-ne; Chig-bya-ne; 1 1 Crohig-byed-
Yin-po-da; Yin-po-da; na; Yin-Pa-^ldra.
Perspire Ngo-nag; Ngo-nag; ^5^1 Rngul-wa;
Tshe-po-thon-bo; Rngul-nag-afchon-wa.
Pestle Tshom-phyug; Tshom-phyug; 1 Ya-rgyug.
Petticoat Dom ; Dom; Do-mo; 1 Dor-ma.
Physician Am-ji; Am-ji; 1 Em-chhe.
Picture Deb-ri; Ri-mog; Deb-ri; Ri-mog ; ^35 | Ri-mo.
Piece Dum-tag; Do-dog; Dum-tag; Dog-dog; | i Dum-po; Rdog-
rdog.
Pig Phag-ko; Phag-ko ; 1 Phag-pa.
Pigeon Phu-don; Phu-don; 1 ^3 l Phugron ;
Ong-gu.
Pilgrim Ne-ko-bo; Ne-ko-bo ; i Gnas-skor-wa.
Pillow Ngha-bo ; Ngha; Ngha-bo; gsi 1 | Snags; Sngas- abol.
Pinch, to Si-mu tab-po ; Si-mu tab-po; | Sin-thog-rgyab-pa.
Sham-kyu kya-po; Sham-kyu kya-po; jqq 1
Plank An-ta; En-ta; An-ta; En-ta; I Spang-leb.
Plate Dem; Le-de; Le-de; De-ma; Sder-ma.
Plentiful Bo-pu; Bo-tag ; Bo-tag; | <4bol-po.
Plough Kha-mig; Khamig; I Gshol.
Ploughman Mhon-po ; Mhon-po; I Rmon-pa.
Plunder Phyog-ko ; Phyog-ko; i -4phrog-pa.
Pockmark Bug-tshag; Bart- Bug-tshag; Bar- | Jbar-tsag.
shag; tshag;
Pocket Nam-phe; Nam-phe; Am- phe; ww| | Am-pag.
Poor Mep-chen; Mep-chan; 53^^ -Dbul-po.
Pi-yang-ka ; Pi-yang-ka ; | Nyams-chhung.


C 27 ]

English. Tromowa. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
Possible, to be Num-num ; Tshu-tshu ; Num; Tshu; Numpo; Tshupo; $^1 Nus-pa; Thub-pa.
Potato Ki-u; Ki-u; 4*^1 Shogog.
Prepare, to Da-di bya-wo ; Dadi bya-wo ; gprgjqjg^'q i Phral-grig-byed- pa.
Pretty u.t., Le-po; Ge- tag ; Yi-ga ong- Chang chhi-chhi; Be-la-lem; Lem; i J/dzes-po.

bo;

Previous l.t., Ge-tag; u.t,, Dang-ku; Hon- Dang-pu; Hon-le; g* 1 g^ 1 gV** 1 Sngar; Sngon ; Sngon-la. (V^l dang-po, first.)
le; Ngon-le; l.t., Dong-pu; Hon- le ; Ngon-le;
Pride Nyam ; Gen-thang Nyam; Gen-thang; 1 1 Gdam-adod; Nyam.
Principal Bom-sho; Bom-sho ; | Chhe-shos.
Private u.t., Sang-go ; l.t. Sang-cha; Sang-bo; Sang-bo; q|^c/q | Gsangs-wa.
Proper Ho-po; Bab-po; Ho-po; Bab-po; Pam-bo ; | | Os-pa; Rung-wa.
Prostrate, to Phyag-tshe-bo ; Phyag tshe-wo; | Phyag-atshal-wa.
Provisions Gya-ke; Se-go; Gya-ke; Se-go; | | Lto-chhas ; Rgyags.
Public Mha-po; Chi-po; Mha-po; Chi-po; fPl Spyi-pa.
Puppy Ja-gug; Khyi-gug; Ja-gug; Khyi-gug5 Bl4! 1 Khyi-phrug.
Pure Tsam; Tsang-tag; Tsam; Tsang-tag; | <^|'q Gtsang-ma; Dag- pa.
Purse Bo-khug; Bo-khug; Ngul- khug; 1 Dngul-khug.
Pursue, to, Da-wo; Da-u; Dawo; Dau; 1 Ded-pa.
Q
Quarrel, to Tham kyab-po; Tham; Tham kyab-po ; Tham; I -4krug-pa.
Queen Gyem; Gyem; jq S, Rgyal-mo.
Quite so De-ra-be; De-ra-be ; \ 1 da-ga-re.


C 28 ]

English. Tromowa. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
R Rabbit Ri-gong ; Ri-gong; | | Ri-bong; Os.
Ragged Du-ku; Du-ku ; | Hrul-po.
Eage Tsi-ko ; She-dang ; Tsi-ko ; She-dang; | | Tshig-pa ; She-
Bain Cbha-po ; Chha-po; sdang. I Chhar-pa.
Bare Kon-tag ; Kon-tag ; I Dkon-po
Eat Bi-tsi; Bi-tsi; I 1 Etsi-rtsi; Byi-wa.
Eaven u.t., Op-lag; e.t., O-lag; O-lag; | | O-rog; Khwa-ta,
Eaw Lon-po ; Jen-po ; J en-po; 1 R jen-po.
Razor Kya-gyi; Kya-gyi ; O 1 Skra-gri.
Eead, to Dogko; Dogko; 1 GHog-pa.
Bed Ma-pu; Map ; Map; Ma-pu ; 1 Dmar-po.
Reflect, to Nho-sam tang-bo; Nho-sam tang-bo; i Bsams-Wo-
Eelation Nyi-u; Nyen- Nyi-u; Nyen- gtang-wa. 1 Gnyen.
Eelease, to tshen; Ton-bo; Khyo-bo; tshen; Ton-bo; Tang-bo; 1 1 ^ldon-pa;
Eemainder Tang-bo; Lham; Lha-mag; Lham; Lha-mag; Cr tong-wa. l Lhag-ma.
Eemember Denso; Den-ba- Den-sun-bo; i Dren-080-wa.
Eepulsive sun-bo; Kham-lo-ke; Kham-log sing-sing; §*19^ I Skyug-hro-po.
Eetreat, to Phyi-shu log-ko; Phyi-shu log-ko; 1 Phyir-log-rgyab-pa.
Eetum, to Log-ko; Log-ko; I Log-pa.
Eeverse, to La-log gyu-o; La>log gyu-o; wHjqjjqq ^4-log-rgyab-pa.
Eib u.t., Tsing-mo; Tsim; Tsi-mag; 1 Rtsib-ma.
Eice l.t., Tsim; Tsi-mo; u.t., Bya ; Ohhum; J bras.
Eicb l.t., Chhum; Phyug-ku; Phyug-ku; 1 Phyug-po.
Eigid Sa-tag; Zang-tag; Sa-tag; Zang-tag; 1 Khrag-po.
Bock Byag; Byag; 1 Brag.
Boll, to Di; Di-u; Di; Di-u ; i Esgril-wa.
Book O-lag; O-lag; w | | O-rog ; Kgwa-ta.
Eotten Eu-ru-o; Eu-ru-o; I Eul-wa.
Rouse to (from Mig-se-po; Mig-se-po ; , ffnyid-sed-pa.
sleep) Rubbish The-nyi; The-nyi; The-nyig; | Gal-snyigs.


C. 29 3

English. Tromowa. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
s Safe Ten-tag; Tson-tag; Ten-tag; Tson-tag; | 7?rton-po.
Same Chig-ko; Khe-me; Chig-ko; Khe-me; I 1 Gchig-pa-khyed
med.
Sand Byem; Bye-mo; Byem ; Bye-mo; I Bye-ma.
Scabbard Shu; Shu; Shng; | Shubs.
Scatter, to To.-bo; To-bo; | Gtor-wa.
Scissors Gyim-tsi; Gyim-tsi; | col. ij*? I Tshem-rtse,
Tshem-tse; col. Grim-rtse.
Scold, to She-dang long-ko; Gyur-gyang-tang- bo; She-dang-long-po; 1 Crshe-^she- ^tong-wa.
Gyur-gyang-tang-bo;
Seize, to She-wo ; Dzung-bo; She-wo; Dzung-bo ; | | Gzung-wa ;
Jtdzin-pa.
Separate, to Yhe^o phi-u; Yhe-o phi-u; Yhe- phi-wo; 'AgS 1 Dye-wa phye-wa.
Serpent u.t., Du ; Bu ; Bi-u; 1 Sbrul.
lt., Bi-u;
Servant Yhog-ku; Yhog-pu; Yhog-ku; Yhog-pu; | Gyog-po.
Shabchhi; Shabchhi; | Zhabs-cbi.
Several u.t., Yo-lang; Hab- Nyo-ki; Mang-pu; | Mang-po.
le; l.t., Nyo-ki; Yo- Shob-le;
lang ; Hab-le;
Sharpen, to Da-o; Da-o ; 1 2?dar-wa.
Shave, to Kya-shu-o; Kya-shu-o; Shu-bo; | Skra-bzhar-wa.
Shelf Lhang-kha; Lhang-kha; | Bang-ga.
Shield Phug; Da-li; Phug; Da-li; 1 Phub.
Shirt To.go; To-go; To-go; 1 Og-ajug.
Shovel Hem; Hem; Khem; I col. ^35 | Khem, col.
Aja-mo.
Similar Chi-ko; Yer-me; Chi-ko; Yer-me; 1 | | Gchig-pa ;
Ehe-me; Thum-bo; Khe-me; Thum-bo; Khyad-med; W2thun-pa.
Sister (elder) A-yi; A-zi; A-yi; A-zi; | wg | ^-chhe; ^4-lche,
(younger) Num; Bu-sim; Num; Bu-sim; $35 i Nu-mo.
Size Bom-chhung; Bom-chhung; 1 ^3 1 Chhe-chhung;
Sbom-phra.


[ 30 ]

English, Tromoiva. Sikhimese. Tibetan.
Slave Kho; Kho ; | Tshe-^yog.
Sleeve Phu-lung ; Phu-lung; 9^ 1 Phu-dung.
Slender Phyim-tim; Phya-tag ; Phyim-tim ; Phya-tag; g 1 | Phra-po; Srab-po,
Slice Sap-sap; Sap-sap; l Bra-po.
Slip, to Gye-ko; Gye-ko; 1 A dred-pa.
Slow Gu-lu gu-lu; Gu-lu; Gu-lu gu-lu ; *1 1 Ga-le.
Smash, to Gha^ko; Cha-ko; 'pfop | Crchog-pa.
Smear, to Pkyug-ko; Phyug-ko; qgq i | 2faku-wa; Abyug-pa.
Smell, to Nhum-bo; Nhum-bo; I Snom-pa.
Smile, to Dzum seg-seg; Dzum; Dzum; Dzum-seg; i RgfcWn i Mul-wa; ^4dzum-mul-wa.
Smith Ga-o; Ga-o; *W|Vq | Jfgar-wa.
Snake u.t., Du ; Bu ; l.t., Bi-u; Bi-u; l Sbrul. AS
Sneeze, to Bip-sha-bo; Nhe-bi kyab-po; Bip-sha-po; Nhe-bi kyab-po; | He-chhu-rgyab-pa.
Snow u.t., Kho-o ; l.t., Khau; Khau; prq | | Kha-wa; Gangs.
Some (a little) A-tsi; Dum-tag; Shu-chig; A-tsi-chig; Dum- tag ; Shu-chig; | | Tog-tso; Tog-tse.
Some one Ka-a; iGaa \ I Su-shig.
Soon Ma-lag; Ma-lag; snpprq | J/gyogs-po.
Speech Lo ; Lo; 1 Skad-chha.
Speed Ma-lag; Ma-lag; | Tsha-drag.
Spider u.t., Be-ba-rag; l.t., Bab-rag; Bakh-rag ; 1 -4dom.
Spiders web u.t., Be-ba-rag shang-thag ; l,t., Bab-rag shen- thag; Bakh-rag shang- thag ; Bakh-rag-tshang; | ^dom-thag.
Spill, to To-o; To-o; To-bo; | Crshos-pa.
Spin, to Khe-o; Khe-o; Khe-bo; Rpwrq | ^(khal-wa.
Spoon Thum; Thu-mo; Thum; Thu-mo; gv* i Thur-ma.
Spring (season) u.t., So-ko; l.t.., So-ka; So-ka; l Dpyid-ka.
Squeeze, to Tsi-u; Tsi-u; Tsi-bo; , R^q j ^dzir-wa; .Jtshir-wa.


E 31 ]

English. Tromoica. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
Stairs Steam u.t., Kya-ko; l.t., Kya-kha; u.t., Lang-ko; l.t., Long-pa; Kya-kha; Lang-pa; 1 SpH I Ken-dza ; Skas- ka. | Rlangs-pa.
Steel Kha-ke; Kha-ke-chag; PWl Kha-lchags.
Stick, a Te-tag; Khau-o; Kha-tog; Te-tag; Kha-o; Kha-tog; I | Rgyug-pa ; Dbyug-pa
Stiff Sa-tag; Sa-tag; 3^ I Gyong-po.
Stomach Pho; Su-pa; Su-po; 1 1 1 Grod-pa; Khog-pa; Pho-pa.
Straw u.t., So-mo ; l.t., So-mag; So-mag; I Sog-ma.
Stray, to Sho-o ; 8ho-o ; Sho-bo; l Shor-wa.
Strong Khe-ko chhi-tag; Khe-ka chhi-tag ; She-chhi-tag ; JpSyq | Shed-chhen-po.
Summer Sweat, to Bya; u.t., Ngo-nag-thon- bo; l.t., Ngo-nag-thon- bo; Tshe-po thon-bo; Bya; Ngog-nag-thon-bo ; Tshe-po thon-bo; 1 Dbyar-ka. tarn i f | Rngul-wa, rngul-nag athon-pa.
Sweep, to The-o phyag-ko; The-o phyag-ko; ^1gqq l Ge-rgyab-pa.
Swift Gyo-po; Ma-lag; Gyo-po; Ma-lag; f J/gyogS-pa.
Swim, to u.t., Ke-kyab-po; l.t., Je-kyab-po; Je-kyab-po; jargqq | Rgyal-rgyab-pa,
Sword Gyi-ring ; Gyi-ring; w? | Ral-gn.
T
Tail Ju-mag ; Ju-mag; W3 | (7zhug-gu.
Tailor Om-dze; Om-dze; Stop's i 1 Tshem-bu-wa; Dbu-mdzad.
Take, to, by force Phyog-ko; Phyog-ko; 1 -^phrog-pa.
Tall Thom-pu; Ring-ku; Thom-pu; Ring-ku; siXq | , J/tho-po; Ring- po.
Talon De-mu; Bern; De-mu; I Sder-mo.
Target Mhag; Ba; Ba; Tsha; | .Jben.
Task Yhog; Yhog; I l Las-ka.
Taste Byog-ko; Bhyog- lag; Byo-ko; Byog-ko; Bhyog-lag; 9^ l Bro-wa.


[ 32 ]

English. Tromowa. Sikkimese.
Taste, to Bhyog-la tao; Bhyog-la tao;
Tax Khe; Khe;
Teapot D.T., Kho-ti; Jam-bi; Jam-bim;
l.t., Kho-ti; Jam-
bi;
Tear, to Re-o; Re-o; Re-bo;
Terror u.t., Ji-po; Ju-po;
l.t., Ju-po;
That Di; Di;
That down there u.t., Bo-di; Mo-kho-di;
l.t., Ma-u-di;
That over there u.t., Pho-di; Pho-kho-di;
l.t., Pha-u-di;
That up there u.t., Ya-di; Yo-kho-di;
l.t., Yo-di;
Thigh Le-dum; Le-dum;
Thin Phyam-tim; Phyam-thim;
Think, to Sam-bo; Sambo:
Nho-sam tang-bo; Nho-sam tang-bo ;
Thread Ku-po; Kyu-po; Ki-mi;
Throw-, to Ko-o; Ko-o ; Kobo ;
Thumb Thep-chen; Thep-chen;
Tobacco Tang-khu; Tang-khu;
Together Nyam-pu; Nyam-pu; <
Tomorrow Nam-pa; j
Tho-rang; Tho-rang;
Too Hap-le; Hap-le; <
Nyo-ki;
Towards Hong-le; Hong-le; =
Trousers Dom; Dom; i
True u.t., Dang-ku; Dang-pu; 5
Nghomne; Nghon-ne; .
l.t., Dong-pu;
Turnip Yung-do; Yung-do; 3
Tusk Chhi-u; i 1 Chhi-u;

Tibetan.

g*r^q i Bro-la-lta-wa.

0*1 | Khral.

f&q^q j 1 | Khog-

tib; Ja-flbing ; Tib-ril.

wn | g*rq | Ral-wa; Dral-wa.

| Jjigs-pa.

De.

*r*f| i Ma-gi.

*r*rj | Pha-gi.

i Ya-gi.

q§-<, I 2?rla-sha.

g-q | Sp I Phra-po ; Sra-po.

awp | Bsams-pa.

I Skud-pa.

I 5*^1 Dbyug-pa;
Rgyab-pa.

bong.

po; J/fche-

I Ha-chang.


C 33 3

English. Tromowa. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
u
Undo, to Khyo-o; Khyo-o ; 3prq 1 Grol-wa.
(unfasten)
Until Ba-pu; Ba-pu; Sang-te; q^l Bar-du,
Untruth Ang; Ang; OT 1 Kyag-rdzun.
Up Ya; Ya; Yar.
Upon Teng-kha; Teng-kha; | | Steng-la ; Sgang- la.
Urgent Ma-lag; Gyop-po; Ma-lag; Gyo-po; £ VI 1 Dza-drag.
V
Vanish, to Yhe-o; Yhe-o; Yhe-bo ; W | Yal-wa.
Very Ha-sir; Ha-chang; Nyo-ki; Ha-sir; Ha-chang; Nyo-ki; 1 V** 1 Shin-tu ; Ha- chang.
Vigour She. Khe-ka; Shug; She; Khe-ka; Shug; ^5 1 I 1 Shad, stobs, ehugs.
Village Yu-dong; Yu-tshen; Yu; Gyong; | Grong-seb; Yul-tshe.
Visit, to Phe-po; Je-o; Phe-po; Jeo; gqprq | | Thugs-pa; J/jal-wa.
w
Wait, to Gu-po; Gu-po; 1 Sgug-pa.
Wake, to Mig-se-po; Mig-se-po; 1 Gnyid-sad-pa.
Walk, to Gyu-u; Gyu-u; ^q 1 ^4gro-wa.
Wall Tsi-ko; Tsi-ko; Tse-ko; S'qp | Rtsig-pa.
Wash, to Khyu-u; Khyu-u; qjftq | -4khru-wa.
Wave Ba-log; Ba-log; 1 Dba-rlabs,
Weigh, to Ge-o; Ge-bo; Je-o; Ge-o; Ge-bo; Je-bo ; c(gq|^q | ^rq | gyogS-pa ; jjal-wa.
What Gam-mo; Gam; Gam-mo ; Gar; qpv | S | *| 'K | Gang; Tsi; Ga-re.


C 34 ]

English. Tromoiva. Sikkimese. Tibetan.
Wheat Gyo; Wheat flour=Gyo- phi; Gyo; Wheat flour = Gyo- phi; 51 Gro. Wheat flour - i Gro-zhib.
Whence Ga-le; Ga-le ; Ga-na-le; | i Gang-nas; Ga- nas
Where Ga; Ga-kha; Ga; Ga-kha; Ga-na; qj 1 up | uj§ | Ga-na ; Ga wa ; Ga-iu.
Which Ka; Ga-di ; Ka-di; Ga-di; l Ga-gi.
Whistle, to Bip-kya-po; Bip-kya-po; | Si-rgyab-pa>
White Ka-pu; Ka*pu; 1 -4kar-po.
Who Ka; Ka; $ 1 Su.
Whole Ga-yo; Tham-che ; wos 1 1 Thams-chad ; Tshang-ma.
Why Gam-bya-ti; Gam-bya-ti; | | Gang-la ; Chi-la.
Widow u.t., Yu-so-mo; l.t., Mo-rem; Mo-rem; Yug-sam ; gup si | Yug-za-ma.
Wife Mo-bii; Mo-bu; 1 1 Skyes-dman ; chhang-ma.
Wing Sho-ko; Sho-ko, Wish, to Lo-gyu-u; Dog-pa gyu-u; Logyu ; Dos-pa gyu; Jdod-pa.
With Nyam-pu; Nyam-pu; l ,3/nyam-du.
Within Nang-sha; Nang-sha,'; ^i| Nang-na; Nang- la.
Woman Ngo-ngug; Bum; ^51 Bud-med Skyes-dman.
Work Yhog; Yhog; w*| | Las-ka.
Wrap, to Di-o; Di-bo; I -4sgril-wa.
Write, to Di-u; Bi-n; Bi-u; Di-u; | -4bri-wa.
Y
Yak {female) Bi; Bi; ^g | ^g2$ | ^bri; -4bri-mo.
{wild) Dong ; Pong; ^g^ 1 throng.
Yellow Se-pu; Sep; Se-pu ; | Ser-bu.
Yonder u.t., Pho; l.t., Pha-u; Pha-u; 1 I Pha-ru ; Pha-gi.

B. s. PRESS5066-19211-12-1905.






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