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A Grammar of the Andamanese language

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Title:
A Grammar of the Andamanese language being chapter IV of part I of the census report on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, 1902
Creator:
Temple, R. C. (Richard Carnac), Sir, 1850-1931
Place of Publication:
Port Blair, India
Publisher:
Superintendent's Printing Press
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1902
Language:
English
Physical Description:
5 p. incl. diagrs. ; 35 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Andamanese language -- Grammar
Genre:
Grammars
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- India -- Andaman and Nicobar Islands -- South Andaman District -- Port Blair
Coordinates:
11.668333 x 92.737778

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Cover title
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"For private circulation only."

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SOAS University of London
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SOAS University of London
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
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L GN415 /233620 ( SOAS classmark )

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A
GRAMMAR

OF THE
ANDAMANESE LANGUAGES.
BEING
CHAPTER IV OP PART I
OF THE CENSUS REPORT
ON THE ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS,
1902.
by
Lieut. Col. Sir Richard C. TEMPLE, Bart., C. I. E.,
of the Indian State Corps,
"Chief Commissioner, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and
Superintendent of the Penal Settlement, Port Blair.

For private, circulation only.
Port Blair.
Superintendent's Printing Press.




PREFATORY NOTE.
As this pamphlet is only part of a Report, many matters requiring
elucidation are not explained in it, as they are dealt with in the other parts.
In the Introductory Chapter a full bibliography Is given, including the
books to which this Grammar refers and on which it is partly based.
Chapters I, II and III of Part I of the Report, "The Andamanese
contain respectively an account of the Census operations of 1901, a description
of the islands geographical, meteorological, geological and historical and the
ethnography of the inhabitants. So that no account of the people is included
in this Chapter.
It is, however, necessary to state that the Andamanese are divided into
twelve Tribes belonging to three Groups or -Divisions, as under from North
to South:
1. The Yerewa or Northern Division, consisting of the Chariar, Kora,
Tabo, Yere and Kede Tribes.
2. The Bojigngiji or Southern Division, consisting of the Juwai, Kol,
Bojigyab, Balawa and Bea Tribes.
3. The Onge-Jarawa or Outer Division, consisting of the Onge and
Jarawa Tribes.
Port Blair is situated in the Bea Territory, and that Tribe and its
language are consequently by far the best known and the Bojigngiji is the
best known Group or Division.
Every Tribe has its own set of names for itself and all the others, and
these names, have constant conventional prefixes and suffixes attached to
them, making the names long and unwieldy. In this Grammar and through-
out the Census Report, the Bea set of names has been adopted, and for conve-
nience of presentation they have been stripped of the habitual prefixes and
suffixes attached to them.
Also, except where otherwise specially stated, all examples and all
vernacular words quoted are taken from the Bea (aka-Bea-da ) speech.
Diacritical marks are not used except where unavoidable.
Lastly, it is necessary to note that Colebrookes' Jarawa Vocabulary
made in the XVIIIth Century was gathered from one individual of the Tribe
and not from several persons, as has been hitherto supposed.




THE ANDAMANESE.
CHAPTER IV.
THE LANGUAGES.
1. General Description. 2. Grammar. 3. Etymology. 4 Phonology.
5. Northern and Outer Groups.
1. General Description.
Philological value savage nature agglutinative samples of mi-
nuteness in detailed terms specimens of Andamanese method of speech.
2. Grammar
History of the studythe Theory of Universal Grammarthe position
of the Andamanese Languages in the general schemeexamples of sentences
of one wordelliptical speechPortman's Eire legend in the Bea version
dissected to illustrate Grammar subject and predicate principal and sub-
ordinate words functions of the words order of sentence order of con-
nected sentences interrogative sentencesmode of expressing the functions
and interrelations of wordsthe use of affixes-prefixes, infixes, suffixes
differentiation of classes of words indication of classes qualitative affix-
es composition of the words agglutinative principle identity of the five
languages of the Southern Group of Tribes.
3. Etymology.
The use of the roots anthropomorphism colours the whole linguis-
tic systemthe use of the prefixes to roots to words denoting the human
bodyto words referring to the human bodythe prefix of intimate
relation the prefix system prefixes to words relating to objects general
senses of the prefixes to roots the use of the "personal pronouns" limit-
ed pre-inflexion limited correlated variation (concord) expression of plu-
rality by radical prefixes qualitative prefixes functional suffixes are
lost roots attempt at recovery.
4. Phonology.
The voice of the Andamanese history of the reduction of the langu-
age to writing pecularities of speech,
5. The Northern and Outer Groups.
Proof of the.identity of the Northern and Southern Groups of langu-
ages The Outer Group (Onge-Jarawa) examined the limited knowledge
of it recovery of Colebrooke's Jarawa Vocabulary, 1790 proof of its iden-
tity with the other Group Derivation of Mincopie
Appendix A. The Theory of Universal Grammar.
Appendix B. An Onge Vocabulary.
Appendix 0. The Eire Legend in the Bojigngiji Group.




I. GENERAL DESCRIPTION.
Philological Value.The Andaman Languages are extremely interest-
ing from the philological standpoint, on account alone of their isolated develop-
ment, due to the very recent contact with the outer world on the part of the
speakers. Of the speech of the only peoples, who may be looked upon as
the physical congeners of the Andamanese,the Samangs of the Malay
Peninsula and the Aetas of the Phillipine Archipelago, no Vocabulary or
Grammar is available to me of the latter, and the only specimens of the
Samang tongue I have seen bear no resemblance or roots common to any
Andamanese Language,
The Andamanese Languages exhibit the expression only of the most
direct and simplest thought, show few signs of syntactical, though every
indication of a very long etymological, growth, are purely colloquial and
wanting in the modifications always necessary for communication by writing.
The Andamanese show, however, by the very frequent use of ellipsis and of
clipped and curtailed words, a long familiarity with their speech.
The sense of even Proper Names is usually immediately apparent and
the speakers invariably exhibit difficulty in getting out of the region of
concrete into that of abstract ideas, though none in expanding or in mentally
differentiating or classifying ideas, or in connecting several closely together.
Generic terms are usually wanting, and specific terms are numerous and
extremely detailed. Narration almost always concerns themselves and the
chase. Only the absolutely necessary is usually employed and the speech
is jerky, incomplete, elliptical and disjointed. Introductory words are not
much used and no forward references are made. Back references by means
of words for that purpose are not common, nor are conjunctions, adjectives,
adverbs and even pronouns. An Andamanese will manage to convey his
meaning without employing any of the subsidiary and connecting parts of
speech. He ekes out with a clever mimicry a great deal by manner, tone and
action; and this habit he abundantly exhibits in the form of his speech. His
narration is, nevertheless, clear, in proper consecutive order and not confused,
showing that he possesses powers of coordination.
Savage nature.The general indications that the Languages give of
representing the speech of undeveloped savages are confirmed by the in-
tense anthropomprphism exhibited therein. As will be seen later on, the
Andamanese regard not only all objects, but also every idea associated with
them, as connected with themselves and their necessities, or with the parts of
their bodies and their attributes. They have no means of expressing the ma-
jority of objects and ideas without such reference; e. g.9 they cannot say
'head" or "heads", but must say "my, your, his, or-this one's, or
that one's head or "our, your, their, or 's, or these ones', those ones'
heads".
But though they are "savage" languages, limited in range to the
requirements of a people capable of but few mental processes, the Andaman*
ese Languages are far from being "primitive In the evolution of a system
of pre-flexion in order to intimately connect words together, to build up com*
pounds and to indicate back references, and in a limited exhibition of the idea
of concord bjr means of post-inflexion of pronouns, they indicate a develop*
ment as complete and complicated as that of an advanced tongue, represent*
ing the speech of a highly intellectual peeple. These lowest of savages show
themselves to be, indeed, human beings immeasurably superior in mental
capacity to the highest of the brute beasts.
Agglutinative.The Andamanese Languages all belong to one Eamily,1
divided into three Groups, plainly closely connected generally to the eye on
paper, but mutually unintelligible to the ear. Tbey are agglutinative in na
ture, synthesis being present in rudiments only. They follow the general
grammar of agglutinative languages. All the affixes to roots are readily


2
Ram wai dol. Ram wai do on , B9-arloglen
Away indeed I Away indeed I come (go), Me-behind-in
otjoi .
roasted.
Bo
I
ka \ Wai do jalai-ke<
there. Indeed I go-away-do.
Wai lea eda
Indeed there they
doga. Bo ela l9igjit-ke.
big I pig-arrow sharpendo.
Bo~ng'~-igdele. B3okotelema ile
Iyou-hunt Mebefore take
lud-len, Tun roicha-leringa-ke.
hut-in Very ripegood do.
Wai eda ikkenawa.
Indeed they barked .
Reg-la Ram
Pig-little. Away
lilti
(in-the) early-morning
B9 -okanumu-kan.
wai
indeed
do
I
doga~
big-(pig)for.
ik
take
-I at.
on .
come.
Reg
Pig
1go-
-do
Raich
Come
on .
come.
fia
Now
Wai
Indeed
d'a-le
mefor
otjoi
cooking-
do
I
ikpagike
severaldo*
Ikre
Getting-
d'arolo.
meafter.
-ka
-were
ka
separable, and all analysis of words shows a very simple mental mechanism
and a low limit in range and richness of thought and in the development of
ideas. Suffixes and prefixes are largely used, and infixes also to build up
compound words. As with every other language, foreign words have lately
been fitted into the grammar with such changes of form as are necessary for
absorption into the general structure of Andamanese speech.
Samples of minuteness in detailed terms.The following are examples
of the extent to which the use of specific terms to describe details of im-
portance to the Andamanese is carried by them.
Stages in the growth of fruit: Otdereka9 small: chimiti, sour: putungaij, black :
chelada9 hard : ielehch, seed not formed : gad, seed forming : gama9 seed formed : tela, half-
ripe : munukely ripe.: roichada, fully ripe : otyolda9 soft: chorure, rotten.
Stages of the day : Waingala, first dawn 2 elawainga9 before sunrise: lodola floa-
ting a, sunrise : lilti ( dilma J, early morning : lodola kagalnga9 morning : lodola kagnga, full
morning : lodo chanag, forenoon ^ bodo chau, noon : lodola loringa9 afternoon : lodo Vardiya-
ngay full afternoon : elardiyanga9 evening : dila9 before sunsets lodola lotinga9 sunset 2 elaka-
dauya9 twilight: elaryitinga9 dark : gurug chau9 midnight.
Specimen of Andamanese method of speech.The following account of
a story, abstracted from Portman, ot an imaginary pig-hunt as told by a Bea
eremtaga (forest-man ) for the amusement of his friends, will go far to explain
the Andamanese mode of speech, and the form that its Grammar takes.
The narrator sits on the ground, facing a half circle of lounging Anda-
manese. After a short silence, he leans forward with his head bent down.
Suddenly he sits erect with brightening eyes and speaks in a quick, excited
way, acting as if carrying on a conversation with another person. After
how many days will you return ? 99 And then answering as if for himself: u I
will come hack tomorrow morning, I am off pig-hunting now A pause. I
am going'5. Very suddenly. You stay here Moving as if going away.
of shooting it. M It is only a little pig. I will take it to the hut99. Moving
his shoulders as if carrying. fC They roasted it there Wave of the hands sig-
nifying that the pig was of no account. Pause. "I started in the early
morning after a big one,-a big pig Motions of hands to show length and
breadth of pig. To an imaginary friend. I will sharpen pig arrows to take
with me. Come after me and we will hunt together 99. Imitation with the
hands of a pig running, shooting arrows, slap on the left breast, squeals of
several wounded pigs, and so on. A pause. c< You take them in front of me
Directions by pantomime to other persons as to the pigs. They were cook-
ing them for me in the hut, cooking them well99. Brightens up and begins
again. I will bring several more Pretends to listen, them. The dogs are harking And so on for hours,
The actual expressions for such a story" are 2
Ra kichika arlaVeate ngo on ? Wainga~~~len do on ffia do reg
How many daypast you come ? Morningin I come. Now I pig
dele
hunt,


Nufor, Dutch New Guinea.
Mofcu, British New Guinea,
Mortlock Ids, Caroline Group.
Micronesia,
Mota, Banks' Islands, Melanesia.1
Samoan, Polynesia,
Awabakal, Lake Macquarie, Australia.
Dakota, North America.
English.
Hungarian.
Latin,
Khasi, Hills o£ N. E. Bengal.
Anam, French Cochin China,
Ashanti, West Africa.
Kafir, South Africa.
Malagasy, Madagascar.
Olo Ngadju or Dayak,
South East Borneo,
With this brief history of the study of the Andamanese Languages, I
will now give an exposition of the Theory so closely* hound up with it as
briefly and clearly as I can, in order to explain the method employed for
exhibiting the peculiarities of Andamanese speech. A more detailed account,
specially developed to a considerable extent for the present purpose, will be
found in Appendix A.
Nothing could show more clearly how savage33 the speech is in reality,
how purely colloquial, how entirely it depends on concurrent action for com-
prehension. When the party, who were out with Mr. Vaux when he was
killed by the Jarawas in February, 1902, returned, they explained the occur-
rence to their friends at the Home in Port Blair by much action and pantomime
and few words. The manner of his death was explained by the narrator lying
down and following his movements on the ground.
2. GRAMMAR.
History of the study.I have taken so large a share in the develop-
ment of the knowledge of the Andamanese tongue that a brief personal expla-
nation is here necessary to make clear the mode of presenting it that now
follows.
The first person to seriously study the Andamanese Languages and
reduce them to writing was Mr. E. H. Man, and in this work I joined
him for a time soon after it was commenced, and in 1877 we jointly produced
a small book with an account of the speech of the Bojigngiji Group, or more
strictly, of the Bea Tribe. We then worked together on it, making such com-
parisons with the speech of the other Andaman Tribes as were then possible
and compiling voluminous notes for a Grammar and Vocabulary, which are
still in manuscript. In 1882 the late Mr. A. J. Ellis used these notes for an
account of the Bea Language in his Presidential Address to the Philological
Society.
In compiling our manuscript, Mr. Man and myself had used the accept-
ed grammatical terms, and these Mr. Ellis found to be so little suited for the
adequate representation for scientific readers of such a form of speech as the
Andamanese, that he stated in his Address that:
<(We require new terms and an entirely new set of grammatical conceptions, which
shall not bend an agglutinative language to our inflexional translation".
And in 1883 he asked me, in a letter, if it were not possible "to throw
over the inflexional treatment of an uninflected language33.
The Theory of Universal Grammar.Pondering, for the purpose of an
adequate presentation of Andamanese, on what was then a novel, though not
an unknown, idea, never put into practice, I gradually framed a Theory of
Universal Grammar, privately printed and circulated in that year. This
Theof y remained unused, until Mr. M. V. Portman compiled his notes for a
Comparative Grammar of the Bojigngiji (South Andaman) Languages in
1898, based avowedly, but not fully, on my Theory. These notes I examined
in a second article on the Theory of Universal Grammar in the Journal of
the Royal Asiatic Society in 1899, which again was subjected to the favour-
able criticism of Mr. Sidney Ray, who has since successfully applied it in out-
line to 16 languages, selected because unrelated and morphologically distinct,
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9,


All speech expresses a communication between man and man by talking or by signs*
Languages are varieties of speech* The unit of every language is the expression of a com-
plete communication, i. e.} the sentence. All sentences are divided into incomplete expres-
sions of communication, u e.9 words, and are as naturally multiplied into languages. Thus
there is a development both ways from the sentence.
The necessary primary division of every sentence made up of words is into the mattes?
rcommunicated |subject) and the communication made about it (predicate). The words in
each of these divisions are of necessity in the relation of principle and subordinate, which
involves the fulfilment of a function by every word.
The function of the principle word of the subject is obviously to indicate the matter
communicated and of the subordinate words to explain the indication and illustrate that ex-
planation. Similarly the principle word of the predicate indicates the communication made
and the subordinate words illustrate the indication or complete it,
Therefore, in every language the essential words in a sentence are sa
(1) indicator, indicating the subject or the complement*
( 2) explicator, explaining that indication,
(3) predicator, indicating the predicate,
(4) illustrators, illustrating the predicator or the explicator.
As all speech expresses a communication, it has a ^purpose, and the function of the sen-
tiences is to express one of the five following purposes :(1) affirmation, (2) denial, (3) in-
terrogation, ( 4) exhortation, ( 5 ) information. The methods adopted for indicating the pur-
pose of a sentence are (1) placing the components in a particular order, or (2 ) varying
their forms or the tones in which they are spoken, or (3) adding special introductory words.
When the purposes of speech are by their nature connected together, this connection is natur-
ally indicated by connected sentences in the relation of principal and subordinate, which is
expressed by methods similar to those above noted, viz., placing them in a particular order,
or varying the forms or tones of their components, or adding special referent words of two
kinds, (1) simple conjoining words, (2) words substituting themselves in the subordinate
sentence for the words in the principal sentence to which they refer.
The relation of the words composing the parts of a sentence is also expressed by the
similar methods of adding special connecting words, or of varying the forms or tones of the
words) and so, too, the intimate relation between indicator and predicator, indicator and ex*
plicator, illustrator and predicator, predicator and complement, referent substitute and prin-
cipal, is similarly expressed by special connecting words, by correlated variation of the words
in intimate relation, by their relative position, or by the tones used in severally expressing
them.
Complete communication, can he, and is habitually, in every language, made without a
,complete expression of it in speech, and so referent words are made to refer to words unex-
pressed and to be related or correlated to them, and referent substitutes are made to indicate
the unexpressed subject or complement of a sentence.
The function of the sentence and the inter-relation of the words composing it are'there*
fore in all speech expressed by three methods: position, variation, or addition of special words.
JSyery language adopts one or more or all of these methods*
Therefore, in every language the optional words in a sentence are : -
(5 ) connector, explaining the inter-relation or the components,
( 6) introducer, explaining its purpose,
( 7) referent con junctor, joining connected sentences,
( 8 ) referent substitutes, indicating the inter-relation of connected sentences or
unexpressed communications.
To the essentia;! and optional components" of the sentence must be added (9 ) the inte*
ger, or word that of necessity in every language expresses in itself a complete communication,
e.9 is a sentence.
Thus is explainable the natural resolution of the sentence into its component words,
but any word can be and habitually is extended to many words, used collectively to express
its meaning. Words thus used collectively form a phrase, which is substituted for its origi-
mil. When a phrase contains in itself a complete meaning, and thus is a sentence substituted
for a word, it becomes a clause. Therefore, clauses and phrases are merely expanded words,'
£ullfifling the functions and bearing the relations of the words for which they are substituted
in an expanded sentence or period. Therefore also, the period is a true sentenc_e^ in the sense
of being the expression of a complete meaning and so the unit of every language adopting it?


In all speech, words are made to indicate the functions they fulfil in a sentence by
their position in it, with or without using tones and with or without variation in form, and
this habit gives rise of necessity to classes of words according to function. And as any given
word can naturally fulfil more than one function, it becomes as naturally transferable from
its own class to another, the transfer being indicated by position in the sentence with or
without variation in form or tone. The class of a word thus indicates its function, and its
position, alone or combined with its form or tone, indicates its class.
So when a word is transferred from its original class, it necessarily fulfils a new func-
tion and becomes a new word, connected with the original word in the relation of parent and
offshoot, each equally of necessity assuming the form or tone of its own class*
The functions of words in a sentence, and consequently their classes, are therefore in all
speech expressed by two methods : position or position combined with variation. Every lan-
guage adopts one or other or both.
When in any language connected words differ in form, they are made to consist of
a principle part or stem and an additional part or functional affix. The stem is used for indi-
cating the meaning of the word and the functional affix for modifying that meaning accord-
ing to function, by indicating the class to which the word belongs or its relation or correla
tion to the other words in the sentence.
A simple stem necessarily indicates an original meaning, but a stem can be and habit-
ually is used for indicating a modification of an original meaning. It then naturally becomes
a compound stem, e. e.9 made up, by the same method as that above noted, of a principal part
or root and of additional parts or radical affixes, each with its own function, the root to indi-
cate the original meaning and the affix its modification into meaning of the stem.
As all words differing in form or tone of necessity fulfil functions and belong to
classes, they must possess a nature, i.e,9 qualities inherent in themselves, and these, in all lan-
guages using such words, are indicated by the addition of qualitative affixes or by the tones in
which they are spoken.
Every affix is of necessity fixed into the midst of, or prefixed or suffixed to, a root, stem
or word, the affixing being naturally effected in full or in a varied form. Whenever there is
variation of form amounting to material change, there is necessarily inflexion, or inseparability
of the affixes. Inflexion can therefore be made to fulfil all the functions of affixes, and in-
flected words to conform to particular kinds of inflexion, in order to indicate function and class :
and as tone can be equally made to indicate the functions and classes of words, it takes the
place of inflexion.
Words are therefore made to fulfil their functions merely by the tone in which they are
spoken, or by an external development effected by affixes, and to express modifications of their
original meaning by a similar use of tones or of internal development. In both cases the
affixes are prefixes, infixes or suffixes, affixed in full or varied form or by inflexion. All lan-
guages, using variation of form for causing the components of sentences, i. e,, words, to
fulfil their functions, adopt one or other or all the above methods of effecting the variation.
Therefore in all speech, communication expressed in a sentence is rendered complete by
the combination of the meaning of its components with their position, tones or forms, or with
position combined with form or tone.
The methods adopted in developing the sentence, i. e.9 the unit of speech itself, are found
to entirely govern those adopted in its further development into a language or variety of
speech.
Languages differ natually in the position of their words in the sentence, or in their forms
or tones, or in the combination of position with form or tone. Thus are set up naturally two
primary classes of languages : Syntactical Languages, which express complete communica-
tion by the position, and Formative Languages, which express it by the forms, of their words.
As position alone or combined with tone can fulfil all the functions of 6peech, the
Syntactical Languages employ one or both of these methods, and thus are created respec-
tively Analytical Languages and Tonic Languages.
Again, as in speech variety of form is secured by affixes attached to words in an
unaltered or an altered form, Formative Languages necessarily divide themselves into Agglutina-
tive Languages, attaching affixes in an unaltered form, and Synthetic Languages, attaching
them in an altered form. These two classes are both further' naturally divisible into (1)
Premutative, ( 2) Intromutative, (3) Postmutative Languages, according as they attach affixes
as prefixes, infixes or suffixes. ______]
In obedience to a fundamental Law of Nature, no language has ever developed along
a single line, and therefore every language belongs of-necessity primarily to one of the above
classes, and secondarily to others, by partial adoption of their methods.
Languages, varying the form, tones or position, without varying the meanings of their
words, form naturally Connected Languages in the relation of parent and offshoot. Con-
nected Languages, whose stems, i. the meanings of whose words, are common to all, form


a natural Group of Languages, and those Connected Languages, whose roots, i. e,} the origin*
al meanings of whose words, are common to all, form a natural Family of Languages.
Therefore also of necessity all Connected Languages belonging to a Group belong to the same
Family.
As the above method of expounding the Theoiy involves the use of unfamiliar terms,
it is as well to state that the new and the old terms of Grammar roughly, though not exactly,
correspond as follow; it being remembered that the old terms are themselves the outcome of
another tacit Theory, basei upon other observations of natural laws or phenomena.
TABLE OF COMPARATIVE GRAMMATICAL TERMS.
The two following Diagrams will serve to explain the lines upon which the Theory
works itself out;
DIAGRAM I.
Principle of the Development of the
Sentence out of its Components.
In all Speech the
meaning of words
(incomplete meanings)
combined
with their with their with their with their
position forms tones formshr:
tones and"
" position
completes the
Sentence -
(a complete meaning),
Old. New.
Noun. Indicator.
Adjective. Explicafcor.
Verb. Predicator.
Adverbs of different classes. f Illustrator, Introducer.
Preposition, ^ Postposition, > Conjunction. J Connector.
Interjection. Integer.
Pronoun, ^ Relative Adverb, > Relative Particle. J Referent Substitute.
Gender, Number, Case,"\ Declension; 1 Person, Mood, Tense, I Conjugation, J Inflexion of different kinds.
Concord, Agreement,"! Government J f Correlated Variation, 1 Intimate Relation.


DIAGRAM II.
Development of the Sentence or complete meaning, upwards into langnagesi
downwards into its components
Premutativb Intromutative PoStmutatiyb
Languages 1 Languages | Languages 1
1 Prefixes 1 1 Infixes 1 1 Suffixes 1
1 by
affixes 1
Tonic
Languages
with.
Analytical
Languages
without
tones
Agglutinative
Languages
unaltered
affixes
Syntactical
Languages
altered inflected
affixes affixes
Syntactical
Languages
Formative
Languages
position
of
words
form
of
words
form
and
position
Groups ob
Languages
I
by common
(roots plus affixes)
stems
I
FAMiLies
op
Languages
i
by
common
roots
Connected
Languages
in one
class
in several
classes
_I
Simple
Development
Multiple
Development
SENTENCE ( expression of a complete meaning J.
Expression
of
expanded
components
Expression
of
components
(words: in-
complete
meanings)
Expression
of
Function
of
Sentence
Expression
of
Functions
of
components
Phrases. Clauses. Essential Optional
( Words sub- ( Sentences
stituted col- substituted
lectively for for one word)
one word")
Integer
I
indi-
oator
Expli-
CATOR
I
PBEDIOATOB. CoMPIEJtENT CONNECTORS BeMHENTS INTRODUCERS.
by
position
of
words
Expression
of
Development
of'
components
by
addition
of special
r
by.
ositio
pot
of words
variation
of forms
of words
by
modification
of -
form
by
tone
by tones
of words
by variation
of form
of words
Complement- Complement- Complement- ConjunctobS Substitutes
ary indicator, ary explica- aiy illustra-
tor. tor
by tones
of words
I
qualitative
external
of STEM
_[
I
by
functional.
internal
of ROOT
by
radical
affix
by
ATTIXES
I
PRETIX
I_
I-
Imxxr
STJTVtX
mode of
affixing
1
Separably
Inseparably
r
in
full
form

in in
altered changed
form form
iNrLBXlOJb


Elliptical speech. Portman's Vocabulary shows that the habit of
speaking by integers, i. e., single words, or by extremely elliptical phrases is
carried very far in Andamanese, and the Fire Legends themselves give the
clearest instances of it, as these Legends have been recorded by Portman.
The Bea version winds up with (he enigmatic single word Tomolola which has to
be translated by "they, the ancestors, were the Tomolola". In the Kol version occurs the
single-word sentence Kfilotatke, lit. Kolotat-be which has to be translated Now
there was one K61otat". In the first instance, one word in the indicator (noun.) form com-
pletes the whole sense.; in the second, one word in the predicator (verb) form does so. Such
eliptical expressions as the above and as the term of abuse, "Ngabgdrob" (ng +ab+gdrob t
you + specialradicalprefix+spine), would be accompanied by tone, manner, or gesture to
explain its meaning to the listener. Thus, the latter would be made to convey You hump-
back '', or Break your spine by the accompanying manner.
Portman9 s Fire Legend in the Bea version dissected to illustrate
grammar.The Andamanese sentence, when it gets beyond an exclamation
or one word, is capable of clear division into subject and predicate, as can be
seen by an analysis of the sentences in a genuine specimen of the speech,
PortmanV Fire1 Legend in the five languages of the South Andaman
{ Bojigngiji) Group. In the Bea Language it runs thus
Bea Version oe the Fire Legend*
Tol-l'oko-timaden Puluga-la mamiJca Luratut-la chapa tap~nga omo~~re
^a Place)in God asleepwas. (a Bird) fire steal-ing bring-did.
chapaJa Puluga4a pugatia. Puluga-la loika. Puluga-la chapa
fire God burnings-was. God awakewas. God fire
Position of the Andamanese Languages in the general scheme.The next
point for consideration is: where do the Andamanese Languages come into the
general scheme ? This will be shown in the following general account of them,
and as the grammatical terms used will be novel to the reader, the correspon-
ding familiar terms will be inserted beside them in brackets, wherever necessary
to make the statements clear in a familiar manner. Diacritical marks will
only be used when necessary to the elucidation of the text.
Examples of sentences of one word.The Andamanese Languages are
rich in integer words, which are sentences in themselves, because they express
a complete meaning. The following examples are called from. Port man's lists :
TABLE OF INTEGER WORDS.
English. Bea Balawa Eojigyab Juwai
Hurrah. Yui Yui Yui Yui
J don't know. Uchin Maka Konkete Koien
Very well: go. |uchik Kobale Koi Koi
(with a lift of
the chin).
Humbug. Akanoiyadake Akanoiyadake Omkotichwake f Okamkoti- I chwachin
Oh : I say. (ironical) Betek ... Ya ... / Kalaiitata \ Kalat Yokokene
It's broken. Turushno Turuit Turush T'ruish
Back me up. Say yes \ ^Jeg6 J ego ... Jeklungi Atokwe
Not exactly. Kak Kak Kaka Alo
Nonsense. Cho Ya Aikot Kene
Yes (ironical)/, Wai (drawled) Wai (drawled) Kole K'le
What a stink. Chunya Chunye Chunyeno Chunye
.How sweet |pue Pue Pue Pue
(smell, with a puffing out of
the lips).
It hurts. Eyi Yi Yi (drawled) Eyo (indignantly)
Oh (shock). Yite (with a gasp) Yite Yite Jite
Don't worry. Ijiyonoaingata Idiyomaingata Iramyolano Remjolokae
What? Where? Ten? Tan? Ilekot ? Alech?
Is it 60 ? An wai ? An yatya ? En kole ? An k'le ?
Lor. Kakatek Kakate Keleba Alobai


[ 9 ]
Portman's rendering .God was sleeping at Tol-l'okotima. Luratut
came, stealing fire, The fire burnt God. God woke up. God seized tlie fire;
He took the fire and burnt Luratut with it. Then Luratut took (the fire ) ;
he burnt Tarcheker in Wota-Emi village, (where then) the Ancestors-lit
fires. ( The Ancestors referred to were ) the Tomolola.
Subject and Predicate.Taking this Legend sentence by sentence, the
subject and predicate come out clearly thus: (P=predicate : S=subject).
(1) Tollokotimalen (P)Pulugala (S) mamika (P).
( 2 ) Luratutla (S)chapatapnga \ S ) omore ( P),
13) Chapala ( S) Pulugala ( P) pugatka ( P).
( 4 ) Pulugala ( S ) boika ( P ).
(5 ) Pulugala, ( S ) chapa ( P) enika (P).
(6) A (S) ik (S) chapalik ( P) Luratut (P) lotpugarire (P).
( 7 ) Jek (P ) Luratutla ( S ) enika ( P).
( 8 j A ( S ) Itarcbeker ( P ) lotpugarire ( P ).
(9) Wota-Emi-baraijlen (P) Chauga-tabnga (S) okodalre ( P).
(10) Tomolola ( S) (P. unexpressed).
Principal and subordinate words. That the words in the above sen-
tences are in the relation of principal and subordinate is equally clear; thus:
(1) In the predicate, Tdllokotimalen is subordinate to the principal mamika.
(2) In the Subject, Luratutla is the principal with its subordinate chapa-
tapnga.
(5 ) In the Predicate, chapa is subordinate to the principal enika.
And so on, without presentation of any difficulties.
Functions of words.The next stage in analysis is to examine the func-
tions of the words used in the above sentences, and for this purpose the follow-
ing abbreviations will be used:
Abbreviations used.
In this view the sentences can be analysed thus :
(1) TfilFokotimalen (ill of P.) Pulugala (in) mamika (p).
(2) Luratutla (in) chapa-(c. in)-tapnga (p., the whole an e. phrase) omore
(p)
(3) Cbapala (in) Pulugala (c. in) pugatka (p).
(4) Pulugala (in) boika (p).
(5) Pulugala (in) chapa (c. in) enika (p.)
(6) A (r. s., in) ik (e) cbapalik (ill) Luratut (c. in) Potpugarire (p).
(7) Jek (r. c.) Luratutla (in) enika (p.)
(8) A (r. s., in) Itarcheke (c. in) Potpugarire (p).
(9) Wota-Emi-baraijlen (ill. phrase of P). chaugatabnga (in. phrase) oko-
dalre (p).
(10) Tomolola (in, P. unexpressed).
671 i -Ted a tic chapa-lilc Luratut I'ot'pugari-re. jelc Luratut-la
seizingwas. he taking fire-by (Bird) burn--1 at-once ( Bird)
eni--Jed * a iTarcheker V ot-pugan-re. Wota-Emi-baraijlen Chauga-iohanga
takingwas. he (a Bird) burnt . Wot a- Lmi- vil lag e-i n The---a ncesto rs
ohodil~re. Tomolola.
made-fires # Tomolola.
int integer
in indicator
e explicator
P predicator
ill illustrator
c connector
intd introducer
r. c. referent con junctor
r. s. referent substitute
c. in complementary indicator
c. e. complementary explicattor
c, ill complementary illustrator


[ 10 ]
Order of sentence.By this analysis we arrive at the following facts.
The purposes of all the sentences is information, and the Andamanese indicate
that purpose, which is perhaps the commonest of speech, by the order of the
"words in the sentence thus:
(1) Subject before Predicate:
Pulugala (S) boika (P).
( %) Subject, Complement (object), Predicate :
Pulugala (S) chapa (c. in) enika (P).
(3) Indicator (noun) before explicator (adjective):
Luratutla (in) chapa-tapnga (e. phrase) omore (p).
(4) Illustrator of Predicate (adverb) before Subject:
Tfill'okotimalen (ill of P.) Pulugala (in) manuka (p)
But illustrators can be placed elsewhere*, thus:
A (r. s. used as in) ik (p. of elliptic e. phrase, c. in unexpressed) chapa-
lik (ill) Luratut (c. in) bVpugarire (p).
(5) Referent con junctor (conjunction) commences sentence:
Jek (r. c.) Luratutla (in) enika (p).
(6) Referent substitutes (pronouns) follow position of the originals:
A (r. s.in) Itarcbeke (c. in) rotpugarire (p).
Trom these examples, which cover the whole of the kinds of words used
in the sentence, except the introducers and connectors, the absence of which
is remarkable, we get the following as the order of Andamanese speechs
A. (1) Subject (2) Predicate.
B. (1) Subject (2) Complement (object) (3) Predicate.
C. (1) Indicator (noun ) before its explicator (adjective).
D Illustrator (adverb) where convenient.
E. Referent conjunctors (conjunctions) before everything in
connected sentences.
We have also a fine example of an extremely elliptical form of speech
in the wind up o£ the story by the one word Tomolola as its last sentence,
in the sense (the ancestors who did this were the) Tomolola'1. Jek Lura-
tutla enika is also elliptic, as the complement is unexpressed.
Order of connected sentences.Connected sentences are used in the
order of principal and then subordinate :
Pulugala ckapa enika (principal sentence) and then a ik cliapalik Luratut Votpu-
garire (subordinate sentence), after which jek Luratutla enika (connected sentence joined
by "jek, at once"), and then a Itarcheker Votpugarire ( subordinate to the previous sentence. )
The sentences quoted show that the Andamanese mind works in its
speech steadily from point to point in a natural order of precedence in the
development of an information (story, tale ), and not in an inverted order, as
does that of the speakers of many languages.
Interrogative Sentences.It may also be noted here, though no inter-
rogatory phrases occur in the Eire Legend, that the Andamanese convey
interrogation by introducers (adverbs ) always placed at the commencement
of a sentence or connected sentences.
The introducers of interrogation in Bea are Pa? and An? And so, too, "Is........?
or ? are introduced by An-? an-- ? Either these introducers
are used, or an interrogative sentence begins with a special introducer, like "Ten? Where ?
Michiba ? What? Mijola, or Mija? Who?" and so on.
* We have this in English : suddenly John died ; John suddenly died ; J ohn died suddenly


The mode of expressing the functions and the inter-relation of words.
But the Andamanese do not rely entirely on position to express the function
of the sentence and the functions and inter-relation of its words. By varying
the ends of their words, they express the functions of such sentences as con-
vey information, and at the same time the functions of the words composing
them.
Thus, the final form of Pulugala, Luratutla, ckapala, Tomolola proclaim them to be
indicators (nouns) : of mamika, loika} pugatka, omore, okodalre, Votpugarire to be predi-
cators (verbs) : of chapa-tapnga ( phrase) to be an explicator ( adjective ) : of TolVokotimalen
(phrase), chapahk, Wota-Emi-baraijlen (phrase) to be illustrators (adverbs).
Expression of intimate relation. The intimate relation between words
is expressed by change of form at the commencement of the latter of them.
Thus in Luratut (c. in ) Votpugarire (p), where Luratut is the complement (object)
and Vol"pugartre is the predicator (verb), the intimate relation between them is expressed
by the P of Votpugarire. So again in Itarckeker Votpugarire.
In phrases, or words that are fundamentally phrases, the same method
of intimately joining them is adopted.
Thus Tdl-Voko-tima-len means in practice "in Tdil'okotima", a place so named, but
fundamentally
T61 1'-okotiraa-len
Tol (tree){its ) cornerin
means in (the encampment at, unexpressed) the corner of the Tol (trees, unexpressed)."
Here the intimate relation between tol and okotima is expressed by the intervening V.
The actual use of the phrases is precisely that of the words they repre-
sent. Thus,
WotaEmibaraij-len
Wota Emivillagein
Here a phrase, consisting of three indicators (nouns) placed in juxtaposition, is used
as one illustrator word (adverb).
JJse of the affixes, prefixes, infixes, suffixes.It follows from what has
been above said that the Andamanese partly make words fulfil their functions
by varying their forms by means of affixes.
Thus they use suffixes to indicate the class of a word. E. g., ka, re, to indicate pre-
dicators (verbs ) : la, da, for indicators (nouns) : nga for explicators (adj.) : left, lik for
illustrators (adverbs). They use prefixes, e. g., V, to indicate intimate relation, and infixes
for joining up phrases into compound words, based on the prefix l\
It also follows that their functional affixes are prefixes, infixes and
suffixes.
It is further clear that they effect the transfer of a word from class to
class by means of suffixes.
Thus, the compound indicator (noun) TSIVokotima is transferred to illustrator
(adverb) by suffixing len 2 indicator (noun) ehapa to illustrator (adverb) by suffixing lik:
indicator (noun) phrase WotaJSmibaraij to illustrator (adverb) by suffixing len: predi-
cator (verb) tap (-ke, -ka, -re) to explicator (adj.) by suffixing nga.
A very strong instance of the power of a suffix to transfer a word from one class to
another occurs in the Kol version of the Five Legend, where Kdlotat-ke occurs, Kolotat be-
ing a man's name and therefore an indicator (noun), transferred to the predicator (verb)
class by merely affixing the suffix of that class. The word Kolotat ke in the Kol version
of the Fire Legend occurs as a sentence by itself in the sense of "now, there was one Kolotat".
Differentiation of the meanings of connected words by radical prefixes.*
Fortunately in the sentences under examination, two words occur, which ex-
hibit the next point of analysis for elucidation. These are:
chapala Pulugala pugatka
fire God burning-was


[ 12 ]
Here is an instance of connected words, one of which is differentiated
in meaning from the other by the affix of, prefixed to that part which denotes
the original meaning or root (vugat, pugari) of both. Therefore in Anda-
manese the use of radical prefixes (prefixes to root) is to differentiate con-
nected words.
The simple stem in the above instances is pug at and the connected
compound stem otpugari. Similarly okotimay okodalre, occuring in the Eire
Legend, are compound stems, where the roots are tima and dal.
Indication of the classes of words qualitative suffixes.The last point
in this analysis is that the words are made to indicate their class, i. e.9 their
nature ( original idea conveyed by a word) by the Andamanese by affixing
qualitative suffixes, thus:
ha, re to indicate the predicator class (verbs) : nga, to indicate the explicator (adj.)
class: la9 da to indicate the indicator (noun) class: lih, len to indicate the illustrator (ad-
verb) class.
Composition of the words.The words in the sentences under considera-
tion can thus^be broken up into their constituents as follows;
Using the abbreviations R=Root : S=Stem: P. F.=prefix, functional: P. R.=
prefix, radical: I=Infix: S. F.=Sutfix, functional: S. Q.=suffix, qualitative.
The agglutinative principle.Words are therefore made to fulfil their
functions in the Andamanese Languages by an external development effected
by affixes and to express modifications of their original meanings by a similar
internal development. Also, the meaning of the sentences is rendered com-
plete by a combination of the meanings of their component words with their
position and form.
(1) Mami (S) ka (S. Q). So also pugat-ka, boi-ka, emi-ka. Sleeping was.
(*) Chapa (S). fire
(3) Tap (S) nga (S. Q). steal iug
(4) Omo (S)re (S. Q.). bring did.
(5) Chapa (S)~ la (S. Q.). fire (honorific guff.),
(> A(S). He.
(7) Ik (S). tak (ing).
(8) Chapa (S) lit (S. P.).
(9) Y (P. F).ot (P. R). pugari (R) re (S. Q.). (referent prefixes) burn t.
(10) Jek (S). At-once.
<"> Baraij (S) len (S. F.). village -in.
(12) Oko (P. R.) dal (R) re (S. Q.). fire - (light) did.
and then
a Itarcheker Potpugari-re
he ( a Bird) burn---1
a ik chapa-lik Luratut Potpugari-re
he taking fire-by ( Bird) burnt


Comparative Tables op Roots and Stems op
the same meaning occuring in
the Eire Legend.
Comparative Table op Affixes occurring in .
the Eire Legend,
The sentences analysed further show that the Languages express a
complete communication chiefly by the forms of their words, and so these
languages are Formative Languages; and because their affixes, as will have
been seen above, are attached to roots, stems and words mainly in an unaltered
form, the languages are Agglutinative Languages. It will be seen later on,
too, as a matter of great philological interest, that the Languages possess
premutation (principle of affixing prefixes) and postmutation (principle of affi-
xing suffixes) in almost equal development: intro-mutation (principle of affix-
ing infixes) being merely rudimentary.
Identity of the Five languages of the Southern Group of Tribes.The
above observations, being the outcome of the examination of the ten sentences
uoder analysis, are based only on the Bea speech, but in Appendix 0 will be
found a similar analysis of the sentences conveying the Fire Legend in the five
South Andaman Languages (Bojigngrji Group), which fully bears out all that
has been above said. And from this Appendix is here attached a series of
Tables, showing roughly how these Languages agree and differ in the essen-
tials of word-building, premising that they all agree in Syntax, or sentence-
building, exactly. An examination of the Tables goes far to show that the
Andamanese Languages must belong to one Family.
English Bea Balawa Bojigyab Juwai Kol
Indicators ( nouns J.
camp baraij baroij ... poroich
fire chapa choapa at at at
Predicators ( verbs J.
seize eni ena di, li Ml
take ik ik ik Ml.
light-a-fire dal dal kadak kodak kddak
sleep mami ... pat ema pat
steal tap ... ... top
bring omo omo lechi ...
bum pugat, pugan puguru ... ... t
wake boi konyi ... Ml
Referent Substitutes ( pronoicnsj.
he a i, ong ong a IM
(they) ... ongot n'ong n' a
ENGLISH^ ... Bea Balawa Bojigtab1- Juwai Kofi
Prefixes, functional, of intimate relation.
(hi-, it- )-s (hi-, it-)-s (their- )-s E- Ml E- Ml E- k'- n'- t 1'- k'- aV
Prefixes, radical.' -
- ..in------ Ml _ Otr. oko-* oto- atak ofeo- oto-* oka- atak- 6ko-, oko- otam-, ote* . oko
... Ml Ml ar- 0 IM Ml a-
Ml i- I- ... Ml
IM ong- Ml OOm


Pulled to pieces, Andamanese words of any Group of the Languages
jSeem to be practically the same, but this fact is not apparent inac tual speech,
when they are given in full with their appropriate affixes, thus.
Any one who has had practice in listening to a foreign and partially
understood tongue knows how a small difference in pronunciation, or even in
accentuation, will render unintelligible words philologically immediately
recognisable on paper.
Many further proofs of the existence of the Andamanese Languages
as a Family, subdivided into three main Groups, will be found later on in
considering that great difficulty of the Languages, the use of the prefixes, and
it will he sufficient here to further illustrate the differences and agreements
between those of the South Andaman Group by a comparison of the roots of
the words for the parts of the human body, a set of words which looms prepon-
deratingly before the Andamanese mental vision.
Comparative Table op Roots and Stems denoting Parts
op the Human Body.
Suffixes, functional.
by -Ilk' -te -ke 0. -lak
in -len -a -in, --an, -en -in -en
to 0 -len -lin -kete
Suffixes, qualitative.
was -ka -kate, -ia a -chike -ke
-ing -nga -nga -nga
did -ra -t, -te -ye, -an -t -an, -chine
(ton. of in.) -la, -ola -le 4a ... 4a
English Bea Balawa Bojxgyab Juwai Kol
head cheta chekta ta to toi
brains mun mun mine mine mine
neck longota longato longe longe longe
heart kuktabana kuktabana kapone pokto poktoi
hand koro koro kore bor6 k6ra
wrist tango tango to to to
knuckle kutur godla kutar kutar kutar
nail bodo bodo pnte pute pute
foot pag pog ta tok tok
ankle togur togar togar togar togar
mouth bang ad a boang pong pong pong
chin koada teri t'reye t'reye
tongue etal atal tatal tatal tatal
jawbone ekib toa ta tfl teip
lip pe pa pai paka pake
shoulder podikma pddiatoa bea bea bein
thigh paicba poaicho baichato boichatokan baichetokan
knee lo lo lu lu lu
shin chalta chalanta chalta cholto chaltd
belly jodo jfido cbute chute chute
navel er akar tar takar takar
armpit auwa okar korting korteng korteng
eye dal dal , kodak kodag kodak
eyebrow punur punu bein beakain beakifi
forehead mugu mugu mike mike mike
ear puku puku bo boko bok6
nose choronga choronga kote kofce kote
cbeek ab koab kap kap kap
arm gud gud kit kit kit
breast kam koam kome k6me kome
spine gdrob kategorob kinab kurup kurup
leg chag cbag cbok chok chok
buttocks dama doamo tome tome tome
arms tomur bang tomur kolang kolang
English Bea Balawa Boijigyab Juwai Kol
head otchetada otchekta otetada dtotolekile otetoiche
knee abloda ablo abluda alulekile oluche
forehead igmuguda idmugu irmikeda remilekile ermikeche


r ]
3. ETYMOLOGY.
The use of the roofs.As the Andamanese usually build up the full
words of their sentences by the simple agglutination of affixes on to roots
and stems, the word construction of their language would present no difficul-
ties, were it not for one peculiarity, most interesting in itself and easy of
general explanation, though difficult in the extreme to discover: experlo crede.
The Andamanese suffixes perform the ordinary functions of their kind
in all agglutinative languages, and the peculiarity of the infixed V occurring
in compound words depends on the prefixes. It is the prefixes and their use
that demand an extended examination.
Anthropomorphism colours the whole linguistic system.To Andama-
neso instinct or feeling, words as original meanings, i. e.> roots, divide them-
selves roughly into Eiye Groups, denoting,
(1) mankind and parts of his body (nouns) i
( 2 ) other natural objects (nouns) :
(3) ideas relating to objects (adj., verbs) :
( 4) reference to objects (pronouns):
(5) ideas relating to the ideas about objects (adv., connecting words,
Proper Names) :
The instinct of the Andamaneso next exhibits an intense anthropomor,
phism, as it leads them to differentiate the words in the Eirst Group, i. e.~
those relating directly to themselves, from all others, by adding special prefixes
through mere agglutination to their roots.
The use of the prefixes to the roots.These special radical prefixes, by
some process of reasoning forgotten by the people and now obscure, but not
at all in every case irrecoverable, divide the parts of the human body into
Six Classes j thus, without giving a full list of the words in each class.
Radical Peepixes in Woeds denoting Paets op the Human Body by Classes.
Class English Bea Balawa Boiigyab JUWAI Kol
I < r Head Brains ( 1 Neck ot- ot- ote-* dbom
11 Heart J rHatid 1 Wrist 1 Knuckle [ Nail - 011- ong- on g- on-
III < Foot ^Ankle ^ rMouth Chin Tongue Jawbone Lip u akan- aka- 6k6- aka- 6k6- 0 oko- 0-
* IY - "Shoulder"5 Thigh Knee Shin j Belly | Navel ^Armpit J ab- [ ab- ab- a- 0-
y X ( "Eye Eyebrow Forehead Ear Nose Cheek Arm ^Breech r Spine i- ik-, ig- i- id- ir- re-
VI j > Leg / Buttock I ^Arms J 2> ar- ar- ra^ a*


Prefixes to words referring to the human body. Next, in obedience to
their strong anthropomorphic instinct, the Andamanese extend their prefixes
to all words in the other Groups, when in relation to the human body, its
parts, attributes and necessities, and thus in practice refer all words, capable
of such reference, to themselves by means of prefixes added to their roots. In
an Andamanese Language one cannot, as a matter of fact, say head ff hand
"heart one can only say
l 16 ]
my your I his ( (so & so) 'b 1 (that one ) 's | (this one) 'sJ head, hand, heart.
The prefixes of intimate relation. It is thus that the otherwise ex-
tremely difficult secondary functional prefix (always prefixed to the radical
prefix, which is usually in Bojigngiji le- or la ~ (^but practically always
used in its curtailed form Z'-, or k' £5-in certain circumstances)
is clearly explainable. It is used to denote intimate relation between two
wcrds; and when between two indicators (nouns) it corresponds to the
English connector (of), the Persian izafat (- ir)> &ud so on, and to the
suffix denoting the genitive case99 in the inflected languages, d'fie Anda-
manese also use it to indicate intimate relation betwTeen predicator (verb) and
complement (object), when it corresponds to the suffix of the accusative
case" in the inflected languages, and indeed to cases generally.
The Prefix System.Starting with these general principles, the Anda-
manese have-developed a complicated system of prefixes, making their lan-
guage au intricate and difficult one for a foreigner to clearly apprehend when
spoken to, or to speak so as to be readily understood.
As examples of this, let us take the stem heri-nga good : thon-a-heri-ngoy good
(human.being); un-beri-nqa (good hand, on pref. of band), clever-; igrberi-nga (good eye,
ik pre£ of eyeb sharp-sighted; ghi-beri-nga ( good mouth or tongue^ J'fcq.pref. of: mouth, and
tongue), clever at (other Andamanese) languages; ot-beri-nga (good bead and heart, ot
pref of both bead and heart), virtuous; un-t'ig-beri-nga (good hand and eye, on pref.
of hand, typref. of eye, jbrnedrby-i^ ptef.rof intimate relatibn ); goodratl xoundr '
So, too, w\t\ijabag bad: aljalag9 bad (human being); un-fahag, stupid; igjabag9
dull-sighted; aka-jabag9 stupid at (other Andamanese) languages; ot-jabag, vicious; un-t'-ig-
jabag, a duffer.
So again with lama9 failing : un-lama (faffing hand or foot), missing to strike; ig~
lama (failing eye), failing to find ; oi-lama (failing head), wanting in sense ; aha-lama ( failing
toDgue ), using a wrong word.
Lastly, in the elliptic speech of the Andamanese, the root, when
evident, can be left unexpressed, if the prefix is sufficient to express the sense,
thus
i-beri'tiga'da may mean, u his-(face, pref. i-)-good-( is )". That is, ( he is good-look-
ing .
d'-aka-cJiam-ke may mean (< my-(mouth, pref. a&z-J-sore-is That is, my mouth
is sore V\
Prefixes to words relating to objects.The system of using radical pre-
fixes to express the relation of ideas to mankind and its body is extended to
express the relation of ideas to objects in general. ~ Thus
ad-beringa9 well (i. * not sick) : ad-jobaqy ill (i. e,9 not well) : oho-lama (applied
to a weapon), failing to penetrate the object struck through the fault of the striker. So
ig-btringa means pretty (of things) : aka,~betinga$ nice (to taste) : all in addition to the
senses above given.
This is carried, with more or less obvious reference, to origin, through-
out the language. Thus
In Bea: yop, pliable, soft. Then a cushion or sponge is ot-yop, soft: a cane is oto*yopf
pliable : a stick or pencil is aka-yop, or dko-yop9 pointed: the human bocly is ab*yopt soft s
Class II of its parts (hand, wrist, etc,,) are ong-yop} soft; fallen tree^s are yr-gop, rotten s an
adze is ig-yop, blunt.


THE "PERSONAL PRONOUNS ,
(1) the phenomena of man and parts of his body:
( 2 ) the phenomena of objects :
( 3) the relation of ideas to the human body and objects:
( 4) reference to self:
( 5) reference to other persons:
(6) ideas ; i. e., (a) actions of self, ( b) actions transferred to others,
(c) actions of others (agency ) : ^
I 71 reference to ideas.
The use of the "personal pronouns The habit of the Andamanese
of referring everything directly to themsleves makes the use of the referent
substitutes for their own names (personal pronouns) a prominent feature
in their speech. These are in full in the Bojigngiji Group as follow;
So again, in Bea : chorognga, tying up, (whence also that which is usually tied up
m a bundle, viz., a bundle of plantains, faggots). Then ot-chorognga, is tying up a pig's
carcase: aka-chorognga, tying up jack-fruit: ar-Mrognga, tying up birds: ong*ch6rognaa,
tying up the feet of sucking pigs. *
General 9ense of prefixes to roots.Possibly the feeling or instinct,
which prompts the use of the prefixes correctly, could be caught up by a for-
eigner, just as the Andamanese roots might be traced by a sufficiently patient
etymologist, but it would be very difficult and would require deep study. The
Andamaneso themselves, however, unerringly apply them without hesitation,
even in the case of such novel objects to them as cushions, sponges and pen-
cils ; using ot in the two former cases, because they are round and globular, and
aka in the latter, because they are rounded off to an end. In both these cases
one can detect an echo of the application of the prefixes to the body : ot of
head, neck, heart, etc.; aka of tongue, chin, etc.
Portman gives somewhat doubtfully the following as the concrete modifying references
of such prefixes to the names of things
ot- round things
6to- long, thin, pointed, or wooden things
aka-, 6ko- hard things
ar- upright things
ig- weapons, utensils, things manufactured
ad- speech (noises) of animals
With this habit may be compared the use of numeral coefficients in Burmese and
many other languages.
From Portman also may be abstracted, doubtfully again, the following modifying
abstract references of some of the radical prefixes:-
ot-, oto-, oto- special relation
ig-, ik-, i- reference in singular to another person
iji- reference in plural to another person
eb-, ep- reference to ideas
akan- reference to self
ar-, ara- plural reference to persons generally
ar-, ara- ( also ) agency
ad- action of self
ab- action or condition transferred to another in
singular
oiyo- action transferred to others in plural
The following preliminary statement of the function of the radical
prefixes can, therefore, be made out: viz., to modify the meanings of roots
by denoting
English Bea Balawa Bojigyab Juwai Kol
i d'ol-la d'ol t'u-le t'u-le la-t'u-Ie
Thou ng'ol-la ng'ol ng'u-le ng'a-kile la-ng'u-Ie
He, she, it ol-la ol u-le a-kile laka-u-le
We m'oloi-chik m'olo-chit m-u-le m'e-kile la-m'u-le
You ng'oloi-chik ng'olo'chit ng'uwe'l ngVl-kile la-ng'uwe'l
They oloi-chik olo-chit n'u-le n'e-kile kuehla-n'u-le


L is j
Limited pYe-inflexion In combination with and before the radical
prefixes the personal pronouns are abbreviated thus in all the languages
of the Bojigngiji Group
Abbreviated "Pronominal" Forms.
L my
Thou, thy
he, his, etc.
we, our
You, your
they, their
this, that one
that one
d' in Bea, Balawa
t'-in Bojigyab, Juwai, Koi
ng' in all the Group
not expressed in the Group
m'- in all the Group
ng'-in Bea, Balawa, Bojigyab
ng'---'1 in Juwai, Koi
not expressed in Bea, Balawa
n'-in Bojigyab, Juwai, Koi
k' in Bea, Balawa, Koi
not expressed in Bojigyab, Juwai
t' in all the Group
In this way it can be shown that there are no real singular posses-
sives53 in Andamanese, as the so-called "possessive pr mourns" are merely
the abbreviated forms of the personal pronouns plus icc ( -da J, etc belon-
ging to, (property): thus,
"Possessive Pronouns"
English Bea Balawa Bojigyab Juwai Kol
my, mine d'ia-da d'ege t'iya-da t'iyea-kile t'iyi-che
thy, thine ng'ia-da Dg'ege ng'iye-da ng'iyea-kile ng'iye-dele
his, her, its ia-da ege iye-da eyea-kile iye-dele
The plural possessives have been brought into line with the expression of plurality
by radical prefixes, as will be seen later on.
Now, it is easy enough to express on paper the true nature of the above
abbreviations by the use of the apostrophe, but in speech there is no distinction
made. Thus, one can write d'un-lama-re, I missed (my ) blow but one
must say dunlamare So one can write ng'ot-jabag-da, you ( are a ) vici-
ous (brute) but one must say ngotjabagda. So also one can write.
ar-tam
formerly
achitik
now
d? un-fig-jabag-da
I-h and-eye-ba d.
d'un-tf ig-bei i-nga.
I-h a n d-ey e-go od.
Veda-re.
exist-did
(once I was a duffer, now I am good all round.)
But one must say art am duntigjabag ledare, achitik duntigberinga 99. It would
therefore be correct to assert that, though Andamanese is an agglutinative
tongue, it possesses a very limited pre-inflexion, i. e inflexion at the com-
mencement of its words.
Lim ted correlated variation ( concord The Andamanese also express
the intimate relation of the "personal pronouns" with their predicators (verbs)
by a rudimentary correlated variation (post-inflexion iti the form of concord)
of forms :Thus,
mami-ke
sleeping-is
Then,
mamik-ka
sleeping-was
do mami-ke
da mami-ka
da mamire
dona maminga
ma mi-re
sleep-did
I am sleeping
I was sleeping
I slept
I (me) sleeping.
mami-nga
sleep-ing


19
tong
ngong
ong
mot
ngowel
nong
"In the Present Tense (he)
do do tuk
ngo ngo nguk
a ong uk
moicko mot mot
ngoieho ngongot nuk
eda ongob net
da do tong
nga ngo ngong
a ong ong
meda mongot mot
ngeda ngongot ngonget
eda ongob net
id-
aka-
idi
akan-
ong-
ar-, ara-
eb-
ad-
Sing,
ong-, on-
ar-, ara-
eb-
ad-
B e a
Plu.
oiot-
arat-
ebet-
ad-
In Balawa
Sing.
ig-, ik-, i-
aka-
iji-
akan-
Plu.
itig-
akat-
ijit-, ijet-
akan-
te
nge
a
me
ngel
te
nge
a
me
ngel
ton
ngon
on
mon
ngowel
ne
Thou
be, she, it
we
you
They
Thou
be, she, it
we
you
They
I
Thou
He, she, it
We
You
They
my diada dege
our met at matat
thy ngiada ngege
your bis ngetat iada ngatat ege
their etat atat
tiyeda
miyeda
ngiyeda
ngiyida
iyeda
niyeda
tiyeakile
miye
ngiyeakila
ngiyel
eyeakile
niye
tiyiche
miyedele
ngiyedela
ngiyil
iyedele
niyiche
Expression of plurality by radical prefixes.The examination of the
(plural) as well as things taken by themselves (singular). This in their
language generally is expressed by changing the forms of the radical prefixes,
in Hea and JBalawa habitually and in Eol and Juwai occasionally. Thus.
This peculiarity is shown in all the Bojigngiji Group, except Kol; thus
English Bea Balawa Bojigyab Juwai
ir- ir-
iram- irarn-
re- . ri-
rem- rim-
As has been already noted, the plural of the "personal pronouns" in
the possessive" form has been made to fall into line with the plan of
expressing plurality by means of the radical prefixes. Thus
Table of Singular and Plural "Possessives
English Bea Balawa Bojigyab J uwai Kol
ab-
in-
In Juwai
at-
in-
i n kol
a-
o-
in-
iche-
icbe-
eche-
icbe-
dona
ng6na
oda
moda
ngoda
oda
idifc-
akat-
idit-
akan-
ongot-
arat-
ebet-
ad-
Plu.
otot-
at-
dtot-
okot-
et-
otot-
at-
6tot-
6kot-
et-
Sing.
ot-
ab-
6to-
6ko-
en-
ot-
ap-
ftto-
oko^
en-
Smg.
Plu.
Sing.
Plu.
Sing.
Plu.


20 ]
Bojigyab
English
In, to, at
From
To, towards
Of
For
After
Juwai Kol
an -e, -lak an -e, -k
-late -late
-leye -liye
-lebe -lebe
-le -le
Balawa
-len, -a
-te, -le
-lat
-lege
-leb
-le
Lett, lean, a, an, "in, to, at seem to be clearly kyhthe root en, e, ik
" take, hold, carry, seize
Tek, te, le, e, lak, lake, kate, "from seem to be V-, k'f-the root ik, i,
eak, take away."
Lat, late. iC to, towards ", seem to be Vh the root at, ate, approach
Lia, lege, liye, leye, "of seem to be thoroot ia, ege, ii, eye, "belonging
to".
Lei, lebe, for" seem to be V- + a root not traced.
Lik, le,ffwith, after" seem to be Vbthe root ik, e, ak, "to go with, follow
The functional suffixes are lost rootsattempt at recovery,It may be
taken as certain that the functional suffixes are roots, now lost to Andamanese
recognition, agglutinated to the ends of words by the usual means in their lan-
guages, as exhibited in the prefixes ; viz., by prefixing to them V-, k9 in
the manner already explained. The roots of some of the suffixes can he fairly
made out thus, from the Vocabularies.
Qualitative Suffixes.The suffixes of Andamanese are (radical) qualita-
tive ( expressing the class of a word ), or functional (expressing its function
in the sentence). The radical qualitative suffixes usually employed are
Bea
Balawa
For Indicators (nouns)
Bcjigyab
Juwai
-lekile, -kile
-o
Kol
-che, Ia
-le
-da -da, -nga, -ke -da
-la, -ola -le -le
-la, -lo -o, -6 -o
ba
The first of these is usually dropped in Balawa, and in all the languages also unless
the word is used as an integer, or sentence in itself. The second is an honorific and is always
added in full. The tbird is vocative and is suffixed to the name called out. The fourth
is a negative : thus, abliga.da, a child ; abliga-ba, not a child, a boy or girl.
-da
-la
-re
-et, -ot, -t
The second is honorific:
For Fxplicators ( adjectives)
the third applies to attributes, etc., of human beings. Gener-
For Predicators ( verbs )
English Bea Balawa Bojigyab Juwai Kol
(kill) s -ke, -kan -ke, -ken -ke, -kan -che, -chine -ye
was (kill)ing -ka -ka, -te, -kate -ya, -ye -chike -ye, -k
(kill)ed -re -t, -et -nga, -nen -chikan -an, -wan,
don't (kill) -kok -ton -k -chik -k
(kill)ing -nga -t, -et, -na -ba -nga ... -in
(kill)s not -ba, -bo -na IM
(kill)ed not -ta Ml II t
The last two suffixes are added to the suffix -nga in Bea, thus :
dona
I
dona
mami-nga-bo
sleep--ing-not
karama
bow
(I am not asleep)
kopnga-ta
cutt-ing-(was)-not (I was not making j
bow}.
The Functional Suffixes.The usual functional suffixes in Andamanese are
Table op Suffixes.
-an
-e, -te, -le
-lat
-liye
-leb
-le
Bea
-len
-tek
-lat
-lia
-leb
-lik


alaba
ba, yaba
dake
jarawa
emej
akabeada
ela
igbadigre
yadi
English
English Bea
indolent boigoli
pole job
konig (Ger.) to
pot polike
aroful togo
influence bukura
pool pudre
bite daike
howse chopaua
haws (Ger.) chau
boil b&igoli
Peculiarities of Speech.Stress in Andamanese is placed on ereiy
long vowel, or on the first syllable of the root or stem. Peculiarities of
pronunciation in the South Andaman Languages are as follow :
Bea
Sibilants tend to become palatals, s to ci : o and 6 are interchangeable s final open d
and e tend to a and e: tf is an indistinct palato-dental.
Balawa
i is palato-dental and lisped, ef. Irish pronunciation of English t and d. The a vowels
tend to be drawn out: a to become o, and d to become od. There is also an incipient sandki
in words ending in gutturals: e. g., rdk, pig; tdg-ddmo, pig's flesh.
[ 21 ]
4 PHONOLOGY.
The voice of the Andamanese.The voice of the Andamanese, though
occasionally deep and hoarse, is usually pleasant and musical. The mode of
speech is gentle and slow; and among the women a shrill voice is used in speak-
ing; but though the tendency is towards a drawled pronunciation, they can
express their meaning quickly enough on occasion, too quickly, indeed, for a
foreigner to clearly follow the minutiae of pronunciation without very close
attention. The general tone of the voice in speaking is low.
On an examination of the prevalent vowels and vowel interchanges and
tendencies in the languages of the South Andaman ( Bojigngiji) Group of
Tribes, as described by Portman, it may be said that they relatively speak thus
from a close to an open mouth.
Juwai with closed lips
Bojigyab and Kol with flattened lips
Balawa with open lips
Bea with lips tending to open wide.*
It is interesting to note that the above results carry one straight from
North to South.
History of the reduction of the Language to writing.The Andamanese
speech, as it is now studied, was first committed to writing on a system
devised by myself, which was an adaptation of the system, invented by Sir
William Jones in 1794 for the Indian Languages, and afterwards adopted,
with some practical modifications introduced by Sir W. W. Hunter, by the
Government of India as the "Hunterian System". My method of writing
Andamanese was subsequently modified for scientific purposes by Mr. A. J.
Ellis in 1882, and having so highly trained and competent a guide, one cannot
do better than use here a modification of his system, adapted to the needs of
a general publication. Portman, unfortunately, has, in his publications, gone
his own way to the great puzzle of students.
In this view, there is no necessity to say anything of the consonants
used, and as to the vowels, the following table will sufficiently exhibit them
in the Bea Language,
The Vowels in Bea.
a idea, cu
a cur
a father
a fathom
e bod
£ fade
e pair
i lid
i police
... ...
... ...


[ 22
turtle
clam
grub
fish
bow (N.)
bow (S.)
wooden arrow
wooden pig a.
wooden a. head
harpoon string
bamboo bucket
shell-dish
shell-cup
adze
baby-sling
cord-ornament
leaf-wrapper
red-ochre
stone hammer
stone anvil
canoe
c. outrigged
reg
tau
chowai
butu
yat
chokio
karama
tirlech
peligma
cham
betmo
gob
chidi
odo
wolu
chip
ra
kapa
koiob
tailibana
rfirop
roko
charigma
ra
t6ro
chowai
pata
tajeu
cbokie
ku
tirleich
paligma
chom
betmo
kup
kar
kur
rarap
ro
charikma
ra
tor6
choa
pata
tajeu
chokwi
ku
tirleit
paligma
chom
luremo
kup
kar
kor
olo
chiba
iku
kobu
keip '
me6
rorop
rua
chorok
The same community of roots is to be seen in the names of the trees on
the islands, establishing beyond doubt the close common origin of the Anda-
man Tribes of the Yerewa and Bojigniji Groups, though it will, of course, be
understood that in full form, with prefixes and suffixes, very nearly related
words are in practice unintelligible to the ear. There are, equally of course,
a great number of words, the roots of which, while common to each other
in the Yerewa Group, differ entirely from those common to the Bojigngiji
Group; thus
Bojigyab
ch is palato-dental and tends to t} and the ch of Bea tends in Bojigyab to become
u e. palatals tend to become sibilants.
JlJWAI
Short vowels are not clearly marked : e and a are interchangeable : final ^ an ^ tend
to i. Vanishing short vowels are common and are shown thus, frongap: o is often drawled
to o: penultimate e is lengthened to e, and stressed e is drawled to ea. There is sandhi of
final and initial vowels in connected consecutive words. Dental, palatal and cerebral t all
exist: palatals tend to dentals, ch to t: p tends to soften toph and almost to/.
Kol.
a interchanges with o: d tends to ed, cf. old English pronunciation gyarden for gar-
den : e tends to e: final open vowels are uncertain.
5. THE NORTHERN AND OTJTER GROUPS.
Proofs of the identify of the Northern and Southern Groups of Langu*
ages. Of the Five Languages of the Northern ( Yerewa ) Group, two, Kora
and Tabo, are still quite unstudied, the knowledge of the existence of the
Tribes speaking them being of less than two years standing, and the Language
of the Yere Tribe is very little known. Port man has, however, preserved long
lists, unfortunately to be treated with much caution, of Kede and Chariar
words, together with many sentences, and it will be sufficient here to give a
series of roots and stems, showing where the hlorthern and Southern Languages
meet and how closely related they are by roots: premising that the syntax and
word-structure of the Northern Group is identical with that of the Southern
Group, and that affixes, notably the radical prefixes, are used precisely in the
same way in both Groups. It is in the names for common objects and things
that languages show their relationship, and the Bojigngiji and Yerewa Groups
form no exception to this rule.
Table of some Bojigngiji and Yebewa Roots
Showing a Common Origin.
English Bea Bojigyab Kedb Chariar
wo
cbipa
ro
kfibo
keip
mio
rorop
ro
chorok
re
tare
chowai
peti
taiye
chokio
ko
told
paligm
cham
kori
hire
kar
kor
wole
chepe
ra
kaba
keyep
me


C 23 1
Table of varying Bojigngiji and Yerewa Roots.
English Bea Bojigyab Kede Chariar
ornamental net rab rap cbirebale chirbaJe
jungle-cat baiyan beyen chau chau
belt, round bod bel t6t6 tets
b. flat, broad rugan rogan kuto kudu
iron fish, arrow tolbod pot rautul rautul
larvae in comb to to jotu joto
honey aja koi tumel tumel
black honey tubal tipal maro maro
cockles ula tale bun bun
It is to be observed that in the above list, the compound stem in Bea for iron-fish-ar-
row, tolbod, is made up apparently of the roots pot and tul in the other languages quoted :
while rautul seems to have become transferred from the pig, ra, to the fish, tajeu. A similar
transfer has taken place between tumel, t%mel the black honey" of the North and tubal,
tipal the "honey" of the South. All of which observations tend to confirm the close con-
nection between the Tribes and the Languages of both Groups.
The Outer Group ( Onge-Jarawa) examined.In turning to the Onge-
Jarawa Group, one finds that the hostility of the Jarawas, and the only recent
friendliness of the Onges combined with the inaccessibility of the island they
inhabit, has caused the knowledge of their language to be but slight. How-
ever, we have the careful Vocabulary of Oolebrooke made in 1790 and those
made by Portman just a century later. An examination of these affords suffi-
cient results for the present purpose: viz, proof of the fundamental identity
of the language of these people with, that of the rest of the Andaman Tribes,
and what is, perhaps, quite as interesting, proof that Colebrooke's informant
really was a Jarawa. *
The limited knolwedge of it.A comparison of such of Portman's words
as can be compared with Colebrooke's, when shown with roots and affixes
separated, and reduced to one system of transcription, produces the following
results; noting that in their actual lists, both enquirers fell into the natural
error of taking the prefixed inflected u personal pronouns to he essential
parts of the words to which they were attached.
A List of Onge-Jarawa Words.
English. Colebrookr's Jarawa. Postman's Onges
arm pi-li oni-bi-le
arrow batoi bartoi
bamboo o-ta-li o-da-le
basket tere-ngo to-le
bead tahi taiyi (stone)
beat ingo-taiya (b. a person) yokwo-be
belt oto-go-le are-kwa-ge
bite m-o-paka-be (b. me) oni-baga-be (b. a person)
black chigeu-ge be
blood koche-nge gache-nge
bone ng-i-to-nge (yourb.) ickin-da-ge
bow ta-nge (? wood), ta-hi (as aai
shown in ng-i-tahi) (your bow)
breast ka ng-a-ga-ge (your b.)
canoe lak-ke tate
cbin pi-to-nge ( c. bone) ibi-ta-nge (c. bone )
cold choma ugite-be (to be c.)
cough ingo-talie (? ta-be) udu-be
drink m-inggo-be (Id.) injo-be
ear kwa-ge ik-kwa-ge
earth totanga-ge tutano-nge
eat ingo-lolia (? imp.) oni-lokwale-be
elbow m-aha-lajebe (my e.) aha-lageboi
eye jebe oni-jeboi
finger m-ome (my f,) ome
fire m-ona (myf.) tu-ke
fish ng-a-bohi (your f.) cho-nge
hair ot-ti o-de
hand ng-oni (yourh.) ome
m-oni ( my h,)
head tebe oni-tolajiboi (mail's head)
honey lo-ke tanjai
house bede bedai


iron (adze-head)
jump
knee
laugh
nail
neck
Det
nose
paddle
path
pinch
plantain-tree
pot
pull
rain
run
scratch
sing
sit
sleep
sky
sneeze
spitting
star
stone
sun
swim
take up
teeth
tongue
walk
water
weep
wind
wood (tree)
da hi
i'to-le (aj.)
ingo-]e-ke (man's k.)
onke-me-be
m-o-bejeda-nga (my n.)
tohi
bato-li
m-e-li (myn.)
m-ekal (my p.)
echo-li
stwi
ingiginicha
body-pinch-don't
(don't pinch me)
chole-li
buchuhi
to to-be (+ tigikwa)
oye
ng-aha-bela-be (your.)
inga-bea-be
goko-be
ng-ong-tahi (s. you)
ng-omo-ka (s. you)
madamo
o-ehe-ke (as.)
inga-hwa-nge
chilo-be (? shines )
wu-le
ehe
kwa-be
ng-a-toha (you t. u.)
m-ahoi (my t.)
ta-li
bunijwa-be
m-igwe (my w.)
wana-be
tomjame
ta-nge
doii
akwa-tokwa-be (toj.)
o-la-ge
onge-ma-be
m-o-bedu-nge (my n.)
oni-ngito
chi-kwe
oni-nyuboi
taai
iche-le
kwi
oni-gini-be
yol6-Ie
buchu
toto-be (go)
gujo-nge
aha-bela-be
a-kwea-be
gogaba-be
onan-toko
omo-ka-be
be-nge-nge (flattened out)
e-chi-be (tos;)
ona-kwa-nge
chilome-be (moon: ? shines)
taiyi
eke
kwane-be
gengcbe
m-akwe (my t.)
alan-da-nge
bujio-be
i-nge
wana-be
totofce
da-nge
In addition to this list of words offering comparisons, the following from Colebrooke
can more or less clearly be made out on the same lines.
Colebrookb's Jarawa Words
English
(white) ant
bat
belly
bind
bird
bracelet
charcoal
crow
flesh
Jarawa
do-nge
witwi-le
ng-a-poi (your b.)
to-be, toto-be
lohe
a-le
wabi
nahe
wuhi
English
friend
leg
man
mouth
seed
smoke
swallow
thigh
wash (self)
Jarawa
padu
chi-ge
ng-amo-lan (you are a man ?)
m-ona (my m.)
kita-nge
bali-ngi
bi-be
poi
inga-doha-be
Portman is unfortunately always difficult to follow in his linguistic statements, as they
are so uncertain. His vocabularies are apt to differ frequently from the statements in his lists
of sentences, and where his vocabularies can be compared they are inconstant : but at p. 731,
Vol. II, of his History of our Relations with the Andamaneae, he gives a comparative list of
Jarawa and Onge words from his own observations.
Portman's Onge-Jarawa Words.
English Jarawa Onge
arrow bartoi bartoi
axe doii doii
bamboo oi ale 6dale
bow aaii aai
bucket uhu ukui
crab kagai kagaia
drink injowa injobe
eye in jamma unijeboi
fire tuhawe tuke
foot monge muge
hair enoide mdde
hand; mome momo


[ 25 ]
iron tanlii doii (iron adze )
leaf bebe bebe
nautilus gaai gaai
navel inkwa onikwale
net bortai cbikwe
nose inarna uningaiboi
road ischele ichele
run ahabelabe akwebelabe
sea etale detale (Passage Id,
an islet in the sea)
sit down aton unantokobe
sky baingala bengonge
sleep omohan omokabe
string etai ebe
stone uli taiyi
tooth anwai makwe
water enule inge
In some of the above wovds, where Colebrooke differs from Portman, it will be found
that Colebrooke's forms, when reduced to a common transcription are nearest the Onge.
Recovery of ColebrcoJce's Jarawa Vocabulary of 1790.By pulling the
words in the first list to pieces, the identity in race of Colebrooke's native
(Jarawa) with Portman's natives (Onges) will be at once evident. Many
roots and affixes are common, and the words are clearly built up precisely as
are all other Andamanese words by radical prefixes to roots relating funda-
mentally to the body, and its parts and by- qualitative suffixes. In addition
to this, the prefixes are joined to the "personal pronouns 39 by pre-inflexion
in the manner peculiar to the Andamanese languages. And although we
have nothing more on record of the Jarawa tongue than Colebrooke's list,
supplemented by Portman's, of any value, we have thus enough to establish
the relation of Jarawa and Onge as languages of the same Group, and the-
relation of both as languages of the' same Family' as the other Andamanese
tongues.
In Jarawa the k of Onge tends to interchange with and by inference the Jarawas-
appear to use ngg for the Ouge ng and to say i-nggo in place of o-nge.
Leaving the roots to explain themselves, the inflected forms of the
" pronouns show themselves, thus
Onge-Jarawa tPronouns "
English: Jarawa
I, my m'>
You, your Eg' -*
The qualitative suffixes appear to he as follow.
Qnge-Jarawa Qualitative Suffixes.
for nouns" -li,~le
for verbal nouns " -nga^, -ge, -ke
for verba " -be
The radical prefixes are given in a great variety of forms, which will
probably disappear on closer knowledge of the languages.
Onge-Jarawa Radical Prefixes.
Jarawa Ongb
ingo-, ingi-, inga-, onke~, bng-, o-
uni-
p, i-, 6fc-
i-
aha-, a-
omo-
OtOrr
Onge
m'-
ng' ~
-le
-nge, -ng, *>ge, -ke^
-be, -me
{oni-, oha-, onu-, ono-, onan-, ina-, me-, eng-
eni-, onge-.:
u-
6-, o, a-, e
eje-, ichin-, e-
ibi-, ebe-
akwa-, akwe-, ako-, ik-; ig-,; i
aha, a-
omo.
are-
alan-*-


witwi
choma
ap
che, chi
Uluga: ( oluge, thunder)
wot;, wat, wot.
choki (Bea)
bilap, upla
chi
chiba ( Bea, Balawa)
Puluga, Bilak (Bea, toul-nga9
storm)
chokbe (Kede, Chariar)
ina ^Bea, Balawa).
ta, toa ( Bea, Balawa )
ta, toa, to
turtle
water
bone
wood
oni-, a general prefix of the body and then,
oni- head, lip, neck, nose, navel, hip, testicles, stomach
ik-, ig-, i- cheek, ear
ibit? chin
o- fist, knee, nail, throat
alan teeth
Colebrooke showed all sorts of impossible things to his Jarawa to name, and one interes-
ting result is the following
English Jarawa Onge
cotton-cloth *) pa nge be be nge be
paper J flat become is flat become is
Of course, no Jarawa had ever seen before anything approaching to either object, and
this man's one expression for both means "it is (has been) flattened", which is what the
savage meant to convey, when asked anything so impossible as to name them.
In Appendix B will be found a further list of Onge words to aid in the study of
this interesting language.
Derivation of Mincopie.We are now in a position to solve a great
puzzle of ethnographists for a century and more : why were the Andamanese
called Mincopie by Europeans ? What word does this transcription represent ?
It can now he split up thus.
M~o--nge--be.
Iman-kind-am
(I am an Onge)
Or, as the Jarawas perhaps pronounce the expression even u M-injo-be I am an Inggo (Injo). rlhe name given by the Onges to
themselves is a verbal noun d-nge, man-being. So that when questioned as
to himself by Oolebrooke, his Jarawa replied M'inggobe", or something like
it, which compound expression by mistranscription and misapprehension has
become the well-known Mincopie of the general ethnological books in many
languages for an Andamanese. The Onges call their own home, the Little
Andaman, Gwabe-TOnge, Jarawa is a modern Bea term, possibly radically
identical with Yerewa, the Bea name for the Northern Group of Tribes.
That the relation between concrete words for the parts of the body and
those for ideas belonging to them is shown by the prefixes, comes out neatly in
iJc-kwa-ge, ear: ik-aibene, deaf. So, too, the words ichin-di-nge and i-to-nge
given for bone probably refer to a bone of Class II.
Proof of the indentity of Onge-Jarawa with the other Groups.Among
an untutored people, so long isolated even from the other Andamanase, one
would hardly look for many roots now in common with them, but the follow-
ing, which occur in such short lists as those available, sufficiently establish a
common origin for the Eamily.
Some Common Roots in thi
Andaman Languages
English Ongb-Jarawa Remaining Languages
t 26 ]
Of these, as prefixes relating to mankind and its body, the following
occur :
chobe
h ig
to
ta, da
bat
cold
red ochre
net
sneeze
"God"
Class I
Class II
Class III
Class IV
Class V


[ 27 J
It is just possible that Colebrooke's Jarawa misunderstood what was
wanted altogether and simply said, I am (will be, would be ) drinking ;
m-inggo-be, I-drink-do
I have now to record a great disappointment. The proof that the method herein
adopted for recovering the Jarawa Language was correct lay in the fact that the word i-nge
for u water" was ascertained from a little Jarawa boy captured in February, 1902, and the
identical word was quite independently unearthed from Colebrooke's and Portman's Vocabu-
laries as Onge-Jarawa for water". The only other word clearly ascertained from the boy
walu-ng for "pig", has not been gathered independently as yet. This little boy was the
lasrt of the prisoners left, who were captured on that occasion (vide Ch. Ill Appx, C.), as the
women and small children and girls were all returned and only two boys kept back for a
while, in order to get their language, etc., from them, Of these, the elder died of fever and on
the very day that their language was fairly recovered, and we were in a position to set to
work to learn quic&ly from him, the younger died very suddenly, without warning illness
of pneumonia.




r 29 ]
PART I- CHAPTER IV:
APPENDIX A.
Explanation of the
Theory of Universal Grammar used in Expounding the Andaman & Nicobar Languages.
In building up a theory of universal grammar it is necessary in order to work out
the argument logically, to commence where the accepted Grammars end, viz. at the sentence,
defining the sentence as the expression of a complete meaning, and making that the unit- of
language. Clearly, then, a sentence miy consist of one or more expressions of a meaning or
u words,' defined as single expressions of a meaning. It can also consist of two separate parts
the subject i.e., the matter to be discussed or communicated, and the predicate, i.e., the
discussion or communication. And when the subject or predicate consists of many words it
must contain principal and additional words.
This leads to the argument that the components of a sentence are words, placed jeither
in the subjective or predicative part of it, having a relation to each other iu that part of
principal and subordinate. Therefore, because of such relation, words fulfil functions. The
functions then must be of the principal words to indicate the subject or predicate, and of the
subordinate words in the predicative part of the sentence to illustrate the predicate, and in
the subjective part to explain the subject or to illustrate. that explanation. Again, as the
predicate is the discussion or communication on the subject, it is capable of extension or
completion by complementary words, which form that part of a sentence recognized in the
Grammars as 'the object.'
This completes the first stage of the argument leading to a direct and simple defini-
tion of grammatical terms; but speech obviously does not stop here, because mankind speaks
with a purpose, and the function of his sentences is to indicate that purpose, which must be
one of the following in any specified sentence: (1) affirmation, (2) denial, (3) interro-
gation, (4) exhortation, (5) information.
Now, purpose can only be indicated in a sentence by the position or tones of its com-
ponents, by variation of their forms, or by the addition of special introductory words. Also
it is obvious that when purposes are connected they can be indicated by connected sentences,
and that these sentences must be in the relation to each other of principal and subordinate.
This relation can only be expressed by the position of the sentences themselves, by variation
of the forms of their components, or by the addition of special words of reference. A word
of reference must act in one of two ways, either by merely joining sentences, or by substitu-
ting itself in the subordinate sentence for the word in the principal sentence to which it refers.
Further, as there is a necessary inter-relation between the words in a sentence, this can only
be expressed by the addition of special connecting words, or by variation or correlated varia-
tion of form.
These considerations complete what may be called the second stage of the argument
leading to clear definitions of grammatical terms. The argument thereafter becomes more
complicated, taking us into the explanation of elliptical, i. e. incompletely expressed, forms
of speech, and into those expansions of sentences known as phrases, clauses, and periods. But
to keep our minds fixed only on that part of it which leads to plain grammatical definitions,
it may be stated now that functionally a word must be either,inventing new terms for the
purpose;
(1) An integer, or a sentence in itself. £ imperatives, interjections, pronouns, nu-
merals .]
(2) An indicator^ or indicative of the subject or complement (object) of a sentence,
[ nouns 3-
(3) An explicatory or explanatory of its subject or complement. [ adjective ]
(4) A predicator, or indicative of its predicate, [verb ]
(5) An illustrator, or illustrative of its predicate or complement, or of the expla-
nation of its subject or complement, [advei-b, adjective 3
(6) A connector y or explanatory of the inter-relation of its components (words).
[ conj unction, preposition ]
(7 ) An introducer, or explanatory of its purpose, [conjunction, adverb]
(8) A referent conjunctor, or explanatory of the inter-relation of connected sen-
tences by joining them, [pronoun, conjunction]
(9) A referent substitute, or explanatory of the inter-relation of connected senten-
ces by substitution of itself in the subordinate sentence for the word in the
principal sentence to which it refers, [relative pronoun, conjunction]
These, then, were the terms proposed and the arguments out of which they grew.
Of course, grammarians will know that all this is syntax, and it must now be explained why
the Theory makes it necessary to consider it far more important to study function than form or
tone as essential to the correct apprehension of the nature of words, and that accidence
arises properly out of syntax and not the other way round, as we have all been taught.


[ 30 ]
It is obvious that any given word may fulfil one or more or all the functions oE words
and that therefore words may be collected into as many classes as there are functions, any
individual word being transferable from one class to another and belonging to as many class-
es as there are functions which it can fulfil. The functions a word fulfils in any particular
sentence can be indicated by its position therein without or with variation of form, or by its tone*
and, because of this, the form or tone which a word can be made to assume is capable of in-
dicating the class to which it belongs for the nonce. It is further obvious that words trans-
ferable from class to class belong primarily to a certain class and secondarily to the others
that a transfer involves the fulfilment of a new function, and that a word in its transfer-
red condition becomes a new word connected with the form fulfilling the primary function,
the relation between the forms or tones, i. e. the words, so connected being that of parent
and offshoot. Form and tone, therefore, can indicate the class to which a parent word and
its offshoots respectively belong.
This is the induction that leads to the argument that form grows out of function, or,
to put it in the familiar way, accidence grows out of syntax, because when connected words
differ in form they must consist of a principal part or stem, and an additional part or func-
tional affix. The function of the stem is to indicate the meaning of the word, and the func-
tion of the affix to modify that meaning with reference to the function of the word. This
modification can be expressed by indicating the class to which the word belongs, or by indi-
cating its relation or correlation to the other words in the sentence.
* But the stem itself may consist of an original meaning and thus be a simple stem, or
it may contain a modification of an original meaning and so be a compound stem. A com-
pound stem must consist of a principal part or root and additional parts or radical affixes,
the function of the root being to indicate the original meaning of the stem, and of the radical
affixes to indicate the modifications by which the meaning of the root has been changed into
the meaning of the stem.
Further, since words fulfil functions and belong to classes, they must possess inherent
qualities, which can he indicated by qualitative affixes and by tones.
Thus it is that the affixes determine the forms of words, briuging into existence what
is usually called etymology or derivation. They are attachable, separably or inseparably, to
roots and 6tems and words by the welkrecognized methods of prefixing, infixing, and suffixing
either in their full or in a varied form. It is the method of attaching them by variation of
form that brings about inflexion in all its variety of kind.
Such is the line inductive argument naturally takes in order to work out the grammar
of any given language or group of languages logically, starting from the base argument that
speech is a mode of communication between man and man, expressed through the ear by talk-
ing, through the eye by signs, or through the skin by touch, and taking a language to be a
variety or special mode of speech.
The grammar, i, e. the exposition of the laws, of any single language stops at this point,
and to carry the argument further, as one of course must, is to enter the region of Compara-
tive Grammar. In doing so one must start at the same point as before, viz., the sentence,
' hut progress on a different line, because hitherto the effort has been to resolve the unit of lan-
guage into its components, and now it has to be considered as being itself a component of some-
thing greater, i. e., of a language. _ .
To continue the argument. Since a sentence is composed of words placed in a parti-
cular order without or with variation of form, its meaning is clearly rendered complete by the
combination of the meaning of its components with their position and tones or forms or both.
Also, since sentences are the units of languages, words are the components of sentences, and
languages are varieties of speech, languages can vary in the forms and tone3 of their words,
or in the position in which their words are placed in the sentence, or in both. And thus are
created classes of languages. Again, since the meaning of a sentence may be rendered com-
plete either by the position of its words or by their tones and forms, languages are primarily
divisiable into syntactical languages or those that express complete meaning by the position
of their words; and into formative languages, or those that express complete meaning by the
forms of their words. Also since syntactial languages depend on position or on position
combined with tone to express complete meaning they are divisible into analytical and tonic
languages. Further, since words are varied in form by the addition of affixes, and since
affixes may be attached to words in an altered or unaltered form, formative languages are
divisible into agglutinative languages, or those that add affixes without alteration; and into
synthetic languages, or those that add affixes with alteration. And lastly, since affixes may
be prefixes, infixes, or suffixes, agglutinative and synthetic languages are each divisible into
(1) pre-mutative, or those that prefix their affixes; (2 ) intro-mutative, or those that infix
them; and (3) post-mutative, or those that suffix them.
Thus inductive argument can be carried onwards to a clear and definite apprehension
of the birth and growth of the phenomena presented by the varieties of human speech, i. e.,
by languages. But, as is the case with every other natural growth, no language can have ever
been left to develop itself alone, and thus do we get the phenomenon of connected languages,


[ 31 ]
which may be defined as those that differ from each other by varying the respective tone?
forms and position, but not the meanings, of their words. And since the variation of form is
effected by the addition of altered or unaltered affixes, connected languages can vary the
forms of the affixes without materially varying those of the roots and stems of their words.
In this way they become divisible into groups, or those whose stems are common, and into
families, or those whose roots are common.
It is also against natural conditions for any language to develop only in one direction,
or without subjection to outside influences, and so it is that we find languages developing on
more than one line and belonging strictly to more than one class, but in every such case
the language has what is commonly called its genius or peculiar constitution, i.e., it belongs
primarily to one class and secondarily to the others.
I have always thought, and I believed it can be proved, that every language must
conform to some part or other of the Theory above indicated in outline, and in that case the'
Theory would be truly what I have ventured to call it"A Theory of Universal Grammar.'
That such a Theory exists in nature and only awaits unearthing, I have no doubt whatever.
Mankind, when untrammelled by c teaching,' acts on an instinctive assumption of its exis-
tence, for children and adults alike always learn a language in the same way if left to them-
selves, They copy the enunciation of complete sentences from experts in it to start with,
learning to divide up and vary the sentences so acquired afterwards, and this is not only
the surest but also the quickest way of mastering a foreign tongue correctly. Its natural
laws, i.e., its rules of grammar, as stated in books about it, are mastered later on, and in every
case where they only are studied there comes about that book knowledge of the language,
which is everywhere by instinct acknowledged to be a matter apart from and in one sense
inferior to the practical or true knowledge. I use the term 'true/ here, because, unless
this is possessed, whatever knowledge may be acquired fails to fulfil its object of finding a
new mode of communicating with one's fellow man.
Book knowledge of a language is useful only for scientific and educational purposes,
but if the laws laid down in the set Grammars were to follow closely on the laws instinc-
tively obeyed by the untutored man, and to do no violence to what instinct teaches him
to be the logical sequence of ideas, the divorce between practical and linguistic knowledge
between knowledge by the ear and knowledge by the eye would not be so complete as
it is nowadays. And not only that, if the laws could be stated in the manner above sug-
gested, they could be more readily grasped and better retained in the memory, and languages
would consequently be more quickly, more thoroughly, and more easily learned, both by
children and adults, than is now practicable. Looked at thus, the matter becomes one of the
greatest practical importance.
This is what the Theory attempts to achieve: but, assuming it to be fundamentally right
and correctly worked out, it should explain the workings of the untutored mind of the And-
manese or Nicobarese as exhibited in his speech, although it reverses the accepted order of teaching,
alters many accepted definitions, and, while admitting much that is usually taught, it both adds
and omits, many details, and taken all round is a wide departure from orthordox teaching. How
wide the following observations will show. The familiar terminology has been changed in this
wise. The old noun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, and conjunction become indicator,
explicator, predicator, illustrator, connector, and referent conjunctor, while interjections and pro-
nouns become integers and referent substitutes. Certain classes also of the adverbs are
converted into introducers. Gender, number, person, tense, conjugation, and declension
all disappear in the general description of kinds of inflexion: the object becomes the
complement of the predicate, and concord becomes correlated variation.
The Theory is based on the one phenomenon, which must of necessity be constant in
every variety of speech, viz., the expression of a complete meaning, or, technically, the sentence.
Words are then considered as components of the sentence, firstly as to the functions performed
by them, and next as to the means whereby they can be made to fulfil their functions. Lastly,
languages are considered according to their methods of composing sentences and words.
Assuming this course of reasoning to be logically correct, it must, when properly worked out,
explain every phenomenon of speech; and when its dry bones have been clothed with the ne-
cessary flesh for every possible language by the process of direct natural development of detail,
a clear and fair explanation of all the phenomena of speech must be logically deducible from
the general principles enunciated therein.
THE SKELETON
A theory OF universal grammar.
Speech is a mode of communication between man and man by expression. Speech
may be communicated orally through the ear by talking, optically through the eye by signs,
tangibly through the skin by the touch. Languages are varieties of speech.
The units of languages are sentences. A sentence is the expression of a complete
meaning.


[ 32 ]
A sentence may consist of a single expression of a meaning. A single expression of a
meaning is a word. A sentence may also consist of many words. When it consists of more
than one word, it has two parts. These parts are the subject and the predicate. The sub-
ject of a sentence is the matter communicated or discussed in the sentence. The predicate of
a sentence is the communication or discussion of that matter in the sentence.
The subject may consist of one word. It may also consist of many words. When it
consists of more than one word, there is a principal word and additional words. The predicate
may consist of one word. It may also consist of many words. When it consists of more than
one word, there is a principal word and additional words. Therefore the components of a sen-
tence are words placed either in the subjective or predicative part of it, having a relation to
each other in that part. This relation is that of principal and subordinate-
Since the words composing the parts of a sentence are placed in a position of relation
to each other, they fulfil functions. The function of the principal word of the subject is to in-
dicate the matter communicated or discussed by expressing it. The function of the subordi-
nate words of the subject may be to explain that indication, or to illustrate the explanation of
it. The function of the principal word of the predicate is to indicate the communication or
discussion of the subject by expressing it. The function of the subordinate words of the predi-
cate may be to illustrate that indication, or to complete it. The predicate may be completed
by a word explanatory of the subject or indicative of the complement. Therefore, primarily,
the words composing a sentence are either
(1) Indicators, or indicative of the subject.
(2) Explicators, or explanatory of the subject.
{3) Predicators, or indicative of the predicate.
(4) Illustrators, or illustrative of the predicate, or of the explanation of the
subject.
(5) Complements, or complementary of the predicator.
And complements are either indicators or explicators. Therefore also complementary indica-
tors may be explained by explicators, and this explanation may be illustrated by illustrators.
And complementary explicators may be illustrated by illustrators.
But, since speech is a mode of communication between man and man, mankind speaks
with a purpose. The function of sentences is to indicate the purpose of speech. The purpose
of speech is either (1) affirmation, (2) denial, (3) interrogation, (4) exhortation, or (5)
information. Purpose may be indicated in a sentence by the position of its components, by
the tones of its component?, by variation of the forms of its components, are by the addition
of introductory words to express it or introducers.
Also, since the function of sentences is to indicate the purpose of speech, connected pur-
poses may be indicated by connected sentences. The relation of connected sentences to each
other is that of principal and subordinate. Tnis relation may be expressed by the position of
the connected sentences, by variation of the tones or forms of their components, or by the
addition of referent words expressing it or referents. A referent word may express the inter-
relation of connected sentences by conjoining them, or by substituting itself in the subordi-
nate sentence tor the word in the principal sentence to which it refers. Referents are there-
fore conjunctors or substitutes.
Also, since the words composing the parts of a sentence are placed in a position of
relation to each other, this relation may be expressed in the sentence by the addition of con-
necting words expressing it or connectors, or by variation of the forms of the words them-
selves.
Also, since predicators are specially connected with indicators; explicators with indicator;
illustrators and complements with predicators; and referent substitutes with their principals;
there is an intimate relation between predicator and indicator, indicator and explicator, illustrator
and predicator, predicator and complement, referent substitute and principal. This intimate
relation may be expressed by the addition of connecting words to express it, or by correlated
variation in the forms of tne specially connected words or by their relative position or by
their relative tones.
Since speech is a mode of communication between man and man by expression, that
communication may be made complete without complete expression. Speech may, therefore,
be partly expressed, or be partly left unexpressed. And since speech may be partly left un-
expressed, referent words may refer to the unexpressed portions, and words may be related to
unexpressed words or correlated to them, Referent substitutes may, therefore, indicate the
subject of a sentence.
Again, many words may be used collectively to express the meaning of one worth The
collective expression of a single meaning by two or more words is a phrase. The relation of
a phrase to the word it represents is that of original and substitute. A phrase, therefore, ful-
fils the function of its original.
Since a phrase is composed of words used collectively to represent a single expression
of a meaning, that meaning may be complete in itself. Therefore a phrase may be a sentence.
A sentence substituted for a word is a clause, A clause, therefore, fulfils the function of
its original.


An integer, or a sentence in itself.
An indicator, or indicative of the subject or complement of a sentence.
An explicator, or Explanatory of its subject or complemenfc.
A predicator, or indicative of its predicate.
An illustrator, or illustrative of its predicate or complement, or of the
explanation of its subject or complement.
A connector, or explanatory of the inter-relation of its components.
An introducer, or explanatory of its purpose.
A referent conjunctor, or explanatory of the inter-relation of connected
sentences by joining them.
A referent substitute, or explanatory of the inter-relation of connected sen-
tences by substitution of itself in the subordinate sentence for the word
in the principal sentence to which it refers.
A sentense in itself or an integer,
An essential component of a sentence or
An optional component of a sentence.
An individual word may fulfil all the functions of words, or it may fulfil only one
function, or it may fulfil many functions. "When a word can fulfil more than one function,
the function it fulfils in a particular sentence is indicated by its position in the sentence,
either without variation of form or with variation of form or by its tone. There are, therefore
classes of words,
Since a word may fulfil only one function, there are as many classes as there are
functions. Also since a word may fulfil more than one function, it may belong to as mahy
classes as there are functions which it can fulfil. A word may, therefore, be transferable
from one class to another; and this transfer may be effected by its position in the sentence
without variation of form, or with varation of form or by its tone. The class to which a
word belongs may, therefore, be indicated by its form or tone."
When a word is transferable from one class to another, it belongs primarily to a certain
class, and secondarily to other classes. But, since by transfer to another class from the class
to which it primarily belongs (with or without Variation of form) the word fulfils a new
function, it becomes a new word connected with the original word. The relation between
connected words is that of parent and offshoot. Since the form of a word may indicate
its class, both" parent and offshoot may assume the forms of the classes to which they
respectively belong.
When connected words differ in form, they consist of a principal part or stem,- and
an additional part or functional affix. The function of the stem is to indicate the meaning
of the word. The function of the functional affix is to modify;. that meaning with reference
to the function of the word. This modification may be effected by indicating the class to
which the word belongs, or by indicating its relation of correlation to the other words in,
the sentence.
A stem may be an original meaning or simple stem, or it may be a modification of an
original meaning or compound stem. A compound stein consists of a principal part or
root, and additional parts or radical affixes. The function of the root is to indicate the
original meaning of the stem. The function of the radical affixes is to indicate the
modification by which the meaning of the root has been changed into the meaning of the stem.
Since words fulfil functions and belong to classes, they possess inherent qualities.' The
inherent qualities of words may be indicated by qualitative affixes or by tones.
Affixes are, therefore, functional, or indicative of the function of the word to which
they are affixed, or of its relation or correlation to the other words in the sentence; radical%
or indicative of the modifications of meaning which its root has undergone; qualitative, or
indicative of its inherent qualities.
Affixes may be
(1) prefixes, or prefixed to the root, stem, or word;
( 2) infixes, or fixed into the root, stem or word;
(3) suffixes, or suffixed to the root, stem, or word.
The essential components of a sentence are (1) indicators, (2) explicators, (3) predica-
tors, (4) illustrators, (5) complements. And complements are either indicators or explicators.
The optional components of a sentence are (1) introducers, (2) referents, (3) connec-
tors. And referents are either referent cunjunctors or referent substitutes.
To recapitulate: Functionally a word is either
Since clauses represent words, a sentence may be composed of clauses, or partly of
clauses and partly of words. A sentence composed of clauses, or partly of clauses and partly
of words, is a period.
Therefore a word is functionally either
(i)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
1
2
8


[ ]
Affixes may be attached to roots, stems, or words in their full form, or in a varied form]
When there is variation of form, there is inflexion or inseparability of the affix from the root,
stem, or word. All the functions of affixes can, therefore, be fulfilled by inflexion; and
infected words may conform to particular kinds of inflexion.
Since a sentence is composed of words placed in a particular order, with or without
variation of form, the meaning of a sentence is rendered complete by the combination of the
meaning of its components with their position, with their tones, or with their forms, or partly
with their position and partly with their forms or tones.
Since sentences are the units of languages, and words are the components of sentences,
and since languages are varieties of speech, languages may vary in the forms of their words,
in the tones of their words or in the position in which their words are placed in the sentence,
or partly in the forms and tones and partly in the positiun of their words. There are, there-
fore, classes of languages.
Since the meaning of a sentence may be rendered complete by the position of its
words, by their tones or by their form, languages are primarily divisible into syntactical
languages, or those that express complete meaning by the position and tones of their words;
and into formative languages, or those that express complete meaning by the position and
forms of their words.
" Since syntactical languages use either position or position and tone, they are divisible
into analytical languages and tonic languages.
Since words are varied in form by the addition of affixes, and since affixes may be
attached to words in an unaltered or altered form, formative languages are divisible into
agglutinative languages, or those that add affixes without alteration; and into synthetic
languages, or those that add affixes with alteration.
Since affixes may be prefixes, infixes, or suffixes, agglutinative and synthetio lan-
guages are each divisible into (1) pae-mutativb languages or those that prefix their affixes;
(2) intro-mutative languages, or those that infix their affixes; (3) post-mutativc languages,
or those that suffix their affixes.
Languages are, therefore, by class either syntactical or formative. And syntactical
languages are either analytical or tonic and formative languages are either agglutinative or
synthetic. And agglutinative and synthetic languages are either pre-mutative, intro-mutative,
or post-inutative.
A language may belong entirely to one class, or it may belong to more than one class.
When a language belongs to more thaii one class, it belongs primarily to a particular class
^and secondarily to other classes.
Since the meaning of a sentence is rendered complete by the meaning of its words in
combination with their forms or position, languages may be connected languages, or those
that vary the forms, the tones or the position, without varying the meanings, of their words.
Since variation of form is effected by the addition of affixes in an unaltered or altered
form, connected languages may vary the affixes without variation of the roots or stems of their
words. Connected languages whose stems are common belong to a group. Connected lan-
guages whose roots are common belong to a family ; and, therefore, all connected languages
belonging to a group belong to the same family.
DIAGRAMS TO ILLUSTRATE THE THEORY
OF UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR.
Diagrams are now given illustrating the Theory, in order to make the explanation of
the Andaman and Nicobar Languages according to it the easier to understand. These Dia-
grams are as follow :
I The Sentence illustrated by its components
by the interrelation of its components
by its function
by its expanded components
by the interrelation of its expanded components
by the functions of its components
by the classes of its components
by the interrelation of the classes of its components
by the interrelation of the functions of its components
by the position, tone and form of its components
by general development into languages
by development into classes of languages
by development into interrelated classes of languages
II
XIII


DIAGRAMS OF DETAILS
Illustrating analysis of the sentence by its component words.
Notes.A Sentence is composed of Words*
A Word is the expression of a meaning.
A Sentence is -the expression of a complete meaning.
Words required to express the meaning of a sentence are (1) integers (2)
indicators (3) predicates (4) explicates, (5) illustrators.
Principal
indicator explicator
partly mates up
indicator
completes
Illustrators
partly make up
Explicatoe
partly makes up
explicator
completes
subordinate words
which
partly make up
illustrators
partly make up
explicators
partly make up
illustrators
paitly make up
complement (object)
which partly makes up
principal word indicator subordinate words principal word predicator subordinate words
(indicator) completes which (predicator) completes which
partly makes up partly make up partly makes up | partly makes up
The Subject integer The predicate
which completed which
partly makes up I partly makes up
THE SENTENCE.
Illustrating analysis of the sentence by the inter-relation and intimate
relation of its component words.
Notes.Inter-relation of component words is expressed by variation in form.
Intimate relation of component words is expressed by correlated variation in
form (agreement).
Words required to express the inter-relation of component words are (6)
connectors.
Correlated variation in porm
expresses
intimate relation between
. 1 indicator .1 indicator i illustrators 1 predicator
and and and
predicator explicator predicator complement
which form t which form 1 which from i which from 1
Component words
which
with variation
in form
partly make up Connectors
I partly make up
Connected words
which comolete


Ill
Illustrating analysis op the Sentence by its function.
Note,The function of a sentence is to express its purpose.
Words required to express the functiou of a sentence are (7) Introducers,
words varied
in tone indi-
cate
words varied
iu form indi-
cate
position of
words in a
sentence
indicates
introducer
indicates
function (purpose )
which is one of the
following
affirmation
which completes
denial
which completes
interrogation
which completes
exhortation
which completes
information
which completes
I
THE SENTENCE
IV
Illustrating analysis op the sentence expanded by the substitution of
phrases, clauses and sentences for words.
( periods )
Notes.A phrase is the substitute for a word by the collective expression of a
meaning by two or more words.
A clause is the substitute for a word by the collective expression of a com-
plete meaning by two or more words.
A period is a sentence expanded by clauses or words.
phrases
substituted
for words
partly make up
I_
clauses
substituted
for words
partly make up
J
clauses
substituted
for words
complete
words partly
make up
THE SENTENCE
( Expanded = PERIOD)
V-
Illustrating analysis of the Sentence when expanded by
inter-relation of its components.
the
Note.-Connected sentences express connected purposes. Words required to express
the inter-relation of connected sentences are (8) referent conjunetors (9)
referent substitutes. A tone is a point on a conventional scale of the voice:
in speaking.
(9) Referent substitute indicates

(8) Referent oonjunotor indicates
with
without
variation-
in form
I
with
correlated
variation
iu form.
with
without
tone
Subjective part of
the Sentence
Variation
in words of
I_
variation
in words of
tone form position tone form position
I
referent
nctors
indicates
coujunc
indical
indicates
with
without
variation-
in form
with
correlated
variation
in form
with without
tone
Unexpressed
communication
in
words sentences
The Principal Sentence
which partly makes up
Subordinate Sentences
which partly make up
Connected. Sentences
which comnlete


VI.
without;
yariation of form
and by
with without
tone
and by
Position
comoletea
I
THE SENTENCE,
Illustrating analysis of the Sentence by the
functions of its components.
(6) Connector
is an
(7) Introduces
is an
(8) Referent
conjunctor
is an
indicator
explicator indicator
completes
explicator
illustrator
partly makes up
__i
(2) indicator
(3) explicator
is an
(5)
is an
complement optional
which is an component
I for completing
(1) integer
completes.
esential component"
for completing
THE SENTENCE.
VII
Illustrating Analysis of the Sentence by
Classes of its Components.
Notes,Class indicates the nature of a word.
Form indicates the class of a word.
Component Word.
without
variation of form
by
with
with
without
I
tone
by

all functions
indicating
all functions
which produces
Position
fulfils
cany functions
indicating
Class
fulfilling
many functions
which produces
one function
indicating
one function
which producer
Transfer
of component words
from class to class
with
J


I 38
VIII.
Illustrating analysis of the sentence by the interrelation of the classes
of its components.
Note.Connected words indicate their transfer from one class to another.
Class
consists of
Primary Class
which forms
Secondary Classes
fulfilling new functions,
by transfer from
primary class and
r~-"i
I"-1 F 1
with without without with

I I
variation in form ton
l _!
of
I
Connected words
which assume
form of
)
I-1
Primary Secondary other
Class Classes Component words
| - | partly make up.
------------1
and partly make up
THE SENTENCE.
IX
Illustrating analysis of the sentence by the inter-relatiox
of the functions of its components.
Notes/

The root indicates the original meaning of a word.
Affixes comprise prefixes, infixes, suffixes.
Affixes modify the meaning of a word.
A radical affix modifies the-meaning of a root.
A simple stem is the principal part of a word indicating its meaning.
A functional affix modifies the meaning of a stem in relation to its function.
A compound stem comprises a root and its radical affix.
A qualitative affix modifies-a word by indicating its nature (inherent quail
ties) in relation to function or class.
Connected words comprise stems and their functional affixes.
Inflexion is caused by an alteration in the form of inseparable affixes.
Inflected words conform to particular kinds of inflexion.
Tone-ift-fr substitute for inflexion.


position
pletes
with form
completes
with position and
completes
I
the sentence..
XI.
Illustrating analysis of all Languages by General Development
from the Sentence.
Note. No language has ever developed along one line o£ development only.
the sentence
I
by
forms of its
qomponents.
qreates
by
position of its
components
creates
by
combined
with the position
of its components
creates
tones
with
com
Prefixes Infixes Suffixes
l ... I I
attached
separably
attached
inseparably by
inflation
( altered form )
I
I I
full form varied form
of one kind of many kinds
l i I
to to to
root btem worj>
1-h-1
form
Affixes
_I_
1 I I
Qualitative Functional Affixes - Radical
Affixes which modify Affixes
which indicate by indicating which modify
the inherent 1 - root
qualities of , 1-. into
class of J I
class of interrelation of correlation of
I___________ ______I____________ i
I
1 i
simple stems compound stems
which are which are
I
Connected Words other component
which partly make up words partly
make up
_l
the sentence
X
Illustrating analysis of the sentence by the position, tone and form
of its components.
Meaning
of compoubnts


[ 40 ]
XII.
Illustrating analysis of all Languages by development in classes
from the Sentence.
THE SENTENCE
by variation
in forms of
its component
creates
by variation
in position of
its components
creates
variation
of form
in its
components
by combining
variation
of position
in its
components
tones and
position
of its
components
I
creates
Classes op Languages
in which
position of components
of sentences
creates
in which
forms of components
of sentences
creates
Syntactical JjAngiages
Formative Languages
without
tones
with
in which
forms of components
varied by
unaltered a (fixes
creates
in which
forms of components
varied by
altered affixes
(inflexion )
creates
Agglutinative
Languages
Synthetic
Languages
Analytical Tonic
Languages Languages
with prefixed
Premutative
Languages
with infixed
affixes
or
I
Intromutative
Languages
with suffixed
affixes
postmutatlvr
Languages
which by nature
of one
Primary class
are
Parent
Languages
which by
partial adoption
of the nature of
Secondary Classes
are
Opfshoot Languages
and comprise
ALL LANGUAGES


41
XIII.
Illustrating analysis of all Languages
interrelation of classes from
BY development in the
the sentence.
THE SENTENCE.
with varied affixes
to the stems
of its components
without varied affixes
to the stems
of its components
creates
Groups op Languages
and with varied affixes
to the roots
of the stems
and without varied affixes
to the roots
of the stems
creates
Family op Languages
and by variation
of tone of its
comoonents
in Families
and by variation
of form of its
components
in Families
and by variation
of position of its
components
in Families
without variation in the
meaning of the components
creates
J
Connected Languages
which by conforming
to one primary
cla?s
which by conforming
partially to
secondary class
_I
comprise
ALL LANGUAGES




PART I. CHAPTER IV
APPENDIX B.
AN ONGE VOCABULARY.
The u Outer Group" of the Andamanese (Onges and Jarawas) bears the closest
resemblance in customs, etc., i, eassurr ing them to bear any at all, to the SamaDgs and
A etas, of all the Andamanese Tribes, and hence there is much interest exhibited in their
languages. In this Appendix, therefore, is gathered together as much of the Onge Voca-
bulary as can be with any degree of safety extracted fron Portman's Andamanese Manualf
the information in which ig not, however, unfortunately as clear as is desirable. In the
following Table the roots have been separated from the prefixes and suffixes.
Onge Vocabulary.
abundant
abuse (to )
ache (to)
acid
adze
ant
apron (women's)
armlet
arrow (iron)
arrow (wood)
arrow (fish)
anow (pig)
arrow-shaft
ashes
awake (to)
bag (of netting)
bale out (to)
bamboo
banana
bark
batb (arrow)
basket
beard
beat (to)
beetle
belt (round)
belt (broad, flat)
binder
bite (to)
black
blood
blow (to)
boh (to)
bone
bone (human)
bow
break (to )
breast
breothe (to)
broom
bucket (wood)
bucke' (bamboo)
butterfly
call (to)
cane
cane-necklace
canoe
cast away (to)
cheek
chin
clam
clap (to)
clay (white for
smearing)
cloud
coeoanut
gene
onu-kweba-be
oni-d a n g-wule-b 0
? bones a,)
a-noii
doii
chant ibo-de
ng-a-kwinyoga-Ie
(your a.)
ibi-kwe
bartoi
tota-le
tome
takoi
. takete- Ie
tongkute
loga-be
kumumwi, taugu-le
gaiye-boko-be
o-da-le
yolo-le
gangwi
tome
to-le
ongu-ho-de
yokwo-be
tcdanchu
m-are-kwa-ge (my b.)
m-ino-kwe (my b.)
tu-kwe
oni-baga-be
be
gache-nge
a-kwobo-be
tamboi- (be)
ichin-da-nge
uni-da-nge
a-ai
ng-i-kwa-be (you b.)
ng-a-ka-ge ( your b,)
kwaio-be
da-ge
ukwi
kubuda-nge
bebe-le
eng-yo-be, onai-waba
-be
tati
i-deda- le
da-nge
yobobine-be
ng-ig-boi (your c.)
ibi-da-nge
taga-le
ako-bana-bekwe-be
we
baije
da-ge (? wood* tree)
cold (to feel)
come (to)
copulate (to)
cough
crab
creek
cyrena-shell(scraper)
dance
dead (to be)
deaf
dish (wooden)
drink (to)
dugong
ear
earth
eat (to)
ebb tide
embrace
eye
fall (to)
fastening (a)
feather
fern
fever (to have)
fight (to)
finger
fire
fish
fist
flip (to)
flood tide
fly
food (to take )
foot
forbid (to)
glad (to be)
go (to)
" God"
good
grass
green
gun
hair
hand
head-dress (cane)
heavy to (be)
hip
hiss
hit (with arrow)
honey
hook (for fish)
hop (to)
hot (to be)
how much ?
ungi-te-be
inai-oba-be, onu-
kwauge-me
ng-d-t61o-be (youc.)
udu-ge
kagaia
kuai
totu-Ie
ono-la-ge
bechame-me
ik-aibene
da-nge-, (wood)
toba-nge
injo-be
twowe
ik-kwa-ge
tutano
eni-lokwale-be
ga-de
ku-ge
uni-jeboi
i-teka-be
gwi-kwe
go-de
tomojai, lakakai
ungi-te-be
onu-kwe-be
ome
tuke
cho-ge
0-beke
oni-totoge-be
kobakwe-le
ngonoi
ng-i-da-be (you t, f.)
m-uge ( my f,)
gobokwe-be
a-kioko-be
dni-toto-be (come),
bujio-be (walk)
Ulu-ge
1-wado
tokwongoye
totanda-nge
uni-nye
m-ode (my L)
m-ome (my h.)
ng-i-deda-le (your
h.d.)
ng-a-tukw6~be (you
are h.)
oni-boi
ng-ik-iki (you h.)
gai-ba
tanjai
tome
ichin-kw6Iebe
jonjome-be
chid?


bum (to)
hungry (to be )
hut,
If m7
Indian (an)
iguana
iron i knife)
jawbone (human )
ornament
jump (to)
kick (to)
kiss (to) (? smell)
knee
kneel
langh (to)
leaf
lick (to)
lie down (to )
hp
lizard
man
mangrove
mangrove fruit
marry (to)
mat ( sleeping)
micturate
moon
mouse
much
murder (to)
nail
nautilus-shell (cup)
navel
neck
necklace
net
nose
orchid
ornament (of sha-
vings)
outrigger
paddle
pandantis fruit
path
peel
FS r
pinch
prick
pot (cooking)
quick, be!
rain
red ochre
red wax
resin
ringworm
rope
rub (to)
run (to)
saline
saliva
salt
sand
scar
scratch (to)
sea
shampoo (to)
shark
sharp
sharpen (to)
go]ai
angi-ai-me
bedai
mi
i-nene
giti
lea
ang-bo-de
akwa-tokwa^be
oni-tekwome-be
nyonyo-be
m-ola-ge ( my k.)
bno-1 ak w buho-be
ng-eng-ema-be- (you 1.)
be-be (to be flat)
ng-i-tome-be ( you 1.)
ng-ainyi-be ( you 1. d. )
dngu-me
ko-ge
uni-agi-le (married m.)
tun-da-nge \ tun- tree)
kwea
in i-a-be
emai
0-c hold-be
cbile-me ( to be bright)
ala-nge
liwa-nga
ol61aji-be
m-obeda-nga (my n.)
gaai
oni-kwa-le
ona-ngito
m-a-ngitoke (myn.)
chi-kwe
uni-nyaiboi
koyo
kwibo-le
1-bedu-ge
taai
ba-le - -
iche-le
gangwi
kwi
oni-gini -be
oni-takwa-be
buchu (tO'le, its case )
ing-ko!
gujo-nge
alame
kwengane,
mone
jwichwi
kwola-ge
eh-ele-be
akwe-bele-be
ngie
ina-kwe- nge
inje
belai
_6ni-bare
akwe-o-be
i-nge (water)
ine- o-be
kadu
giechare
tot6kwe-be
shave ono-t ale-be
shell todand wi
shot (arrow) gai-be
sing (to) ng-o-gaba-be (you s.)
sit (to) unan-toko-be
skin gangwi (peel)
sky bengo-nge (what is flat)
sleep (to) omo-ka-be
sm ill baiai
smoke eno-taboi
snake tomogwi
snake (sea) tebu-le
sneeze e-chi-be
sore ( a ) dni-bai
spill (to) ng-i-bu-be (yon S.)
spine on >-noda-k\voi
spitting una-kwa-nge
sprinkle (to) una-nadi-be
squeak (to) gilako-be
squeeze (to) une-ge-be
stand d'bkabe
stomach onan-nga-nge
stone taiyi
stool (to) ~ oni-yu-be
stretch ( to ) ina-kwo nbwoke-be
stretch (ros. ng-i-goio-be ( you s.
oneself)- yourself)
strike (to) kwoke-be
string {to) e-be
stroke (to) sun una-03-be
eke
Surf balame
swallow (a ) tugede-le
sweep (to) tote-be
swim" (to) k wane-be
take away (to) ng-eakihgkd-be(you t. a.)
take hold (to) ng-enge~be~ (you t. h.)
tattoo (to) ng-ulukwone-be (you t.)
tear (to) ~ i-dokwo-be
testicles oni-kwo-ge
thorn tundankie
throat o-ngito
throw wo aikwo-be
thunder dlu-ge ( God )
tiptoe (tobe on) onu-j agaio-be
tongue alan-da-nge
tooth- m-a-kwe (my t.)
torch to-kwe
tray (for food ) toba-ge
tumble (to ) i-teka-be
turtle nadela-nge, takwatoai
turtle eggs - kwagane
tusk (pig) a- kwe
umbrella (leaf) o-tnoiu
urn ie (to ) i-lebube
vomit (to) d-buld-be
water- i-nge
wax (white bees') chileme
weep (to) wana-be
whetstone. tijio-be
whisk (for flies) tomo-ge
whistling oni-anga-le
white. tonkuto
wife uni-au-le
wind totote
wound dni-ba-le
yawn (to) dna-langoto-be
yes une-laije


45
PART I. CHAPTER IV-
APPENDIX C.
THE FIRE LEGEND IN THE BOJIGNIJI GROUP
(the Bea Version is already given in the Text.)
BALAWA VERSION.
Dim-Bora le rita Keri-l'ong-tdiver te Puluga Vi foago cloapa V-**omo
(a Man) long-ago (a Place) by God his platform fire bringing
. hate | ong ih ahat-pora puqnru tl' a re | Bolub ha Tarhor
was | he taking allmen bum t did j (a Man) and (a Man}
ha Bilic\au ongot oto iurugmu tia J ongot atyohat mo
and (a Man) they in-the-sea-wen t did [ they fish becom-
Rohwa-l'ar-ionga-baroij a oho dal
{ a Place ) -village in fire-mak-
nga J ongot oaro tichal-ena te
ing | they carry-taking by
nga V a re
ing di d
Portman's Rendering.Dim-D6ra, a very long time ago, at Keri-l'ong-t6wer, was
bringing fire from God's platform. He, taking the fire, burnt everybody with it, Bolub
and i arkfir and Bilichau fell into the sea aud became fish. They took the fire to Rokwa-1'
ar-tonga village and made fires there.
BOJIGYAB VERSION.
Tol-l'ohn-timan Bilih I'ong* pat ye J Luratui { Vong at ablecM nga |
(a Place) in God sleep-did | (a Bird) | he fire bring ing |
Luratut Vong di ye | hoti ong Bilih I'ab <
(a Bird) seized j then he God
'bihi ye | hot a Bilih I'ong honyi
burnt j then God awaken
Luratut Voto toi^chu nga |
(a Bird) (with) fire-hitt ing \
hota hoi ong e Tarchal Vote tn-chu ye [ Chatter Vong di ye |
-ye | Bilih | l9ong at li ye | ong e
- ed | God | he fire seiz ed | he then
hota hoi ong e larchat t ote tn-ctiu ye | Utatter long di ye |
then again he then (a Man) (with) fire-hit did | (a Bird) seiz ed |
ong Lau-Cham lendanga J Wota-Emi en ota Lau-Cham [ n'ong o hadah nga.
he ancestors to giv ing J Wota-Emi in then ancestors [ they fire-mak-ing.
Portman's R&ndering.-God was sleeping in T61-l'oko-tima. Luratut went to bring
fire. Luratut caught hold of the fire, then he burnt God. Then God woke up. God seized
the fire. He hit Luratufc with the fire. Then again he hit Tarchal with the fire. Chalfcer
caught hold of it. He gave it to the ancestors. Then the ancestors made fire at Wota-Emi.
JUWAI VERSION.
Kuro-t'on-mih a Mom Mirit la | Bilih I'dhoema t f peahar at lo top f
(a Place) in Mr. Pigeon j God slep t | wood firewith stealing [
chihe at laiehe Lech tin a | hotah a ohohodah chine at lo
was fire the-late (a Man) to he | then ho fire-make did fire-with
Karat-tatahemi in
(a Place )
-at
Luratuila Oho-Emi
(a Bird) (aPlace)-
t at hek -
-in fire too
-an
-k
Portman's Rendering.Mr. Pigeon stole a firebrand at Kuro-t'on-mika, while God was
deeping. He gave the brand to the late Lech, who then made fires at Karat-tatak-emi,
KOL VERSION.
Tol-Voho-iim en Bilih la pat he
(a Place) in God asleep^- was
Kolotat he | lin l'a~chol an Min-tong-tahete |
(a Man) was | by (he)wen t (a Place) to [
Vir-lil an | Kolotat Vir pin l'irdoh an
(it)out-went [ (a Man) charcoal breakdid
n'a n'otamlepuran | at he n'ote tepuran
they alive became [ fireby (they) alive became
in Jangil ] n'a I'ohohidah an |
in ancestors j they fire-makedid J
Portman's Rendering.dob was sleeping at T61-l'oko-tima. Luratut took away fire to
Oko-Emi. Kolotat went to Min-tong-ta, (taking fire with him from Oko-Emi). At
Min-tong-ta the fire went out. Kolotat broke up toe charred firewo >d and m ide fire again,
(by blowing up the embers). They (the people there) became alive. Owing to the fire
they became alive. The ancestors thus got fire in Min-tong-tok village.
Min~tong-ta hete Iah
( a Place) to -by
J h'irimhodah an J
| fire-make-did j
| Min-tongttoh+pdroich
j (a Place) village


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\:... .. / A .. \.'" O,Fv ANDAft1ANESE LANGUAG:ES. I ... ,, ,. EElNG. ;OF TI-l"E CENSUS. REPORT <. SIR C TEMP:ftE,. jl.\nT., I. E. ; I 1 .. P ,l:lly. i. I ;. I .,......, r\ ., Printiag :Press. ''f ,J. I ' I

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PREFATORY NOTE. As this pa.mphlet is only part of a Report, many matters requiring elucidation are not explained in it, as they are dealt with in the other parts. In the Introductory Chapter a full bibliography is given, including the books to which this Grammar refers and on which it is partly based. Chapters I, II and III of Part I of the Report, "The Andamanese respectively an of the Census operations of UOl, a of the tslands-geograplncal, meteorological, geological and historical-and the of the inhabitants. So that no account of the people is included m this Chapter. It is, however, necessary to state that the Andamanese are divided into twelve Tribes belonging to three Groups or lJivisions, as under from North to South: 1. The Yerewa or Northern Division, consisting of the Chariar, Kora, Ta bo, Y ere and Kede Tribes. 2. The Bojigngiji or Southern Division, consisting of the J uwai, Kol, .Bojigyab, Balawa and .Bea Tribes. 3. The Onge-Jarawa or Outer JJivision, consisting of the Onge and J ara wa Tribes. Port Blair is situated in the Bea Territory, and that Tribe and its language are consequently by far the best known and the Bojigngiji is the best known Group or Division. Every Tribe has its own set of names for itself and all the others, and these names have constant conventional prefixes and suffixes attached to them, making the names long and unwieldy. In this Grammar and through out the Census H.eport, the Hea set of names has been adopted, and for conve nience of presentation they have been stripped of the habitual prefixes and suffixes attached to them. Also, except where otherwise specially stated, all examples and all vernacular words quoted are taken f.rom the Bea ( aka-Bea-da) speech. Diacritical marks are not used except where unavoidable. Lastly, it is necessary to note that J:"rawa Vocabula:ry made in the X VIIIth Century was gathered from one md1vidual of the Tube and not from several persons1 as has been hitherto supposed.

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PART I. THE ANDAMANESE. CHAPTER IV. THE 1. General Description. 2. Grammar. 3. Etymology. 4. Phonology. 5. Northern and Outer Groups. 1. General Philological valuesa:vage naturesamples of mi nuteness in detailed terms-specimens of Andamanese method of speech. 2. Gramma'l' B istory of the Theory of Universal Grammar-the position of the Andamanese Languages in the general scheme-examples of sentences of one word-elliptical speech-Portman's :Fire legend in the Bea version dissected to illustrate Grammar-subject and predicate-principal and sub. ordinate words-functions of the words-order of sentenceorder of con nected sentences-interrogative sentences-mode oJ expressing the functions and interrelations of words-the use of affixes-prefixes, infixes, suffixesdifferentiation of classes of words-indication of classes-qualitative affix: es composition of the words-agglutinative principle-identity of the five languages of the Group of Tribes. 3. Etymology. The p.se of the roots-anthropomorphism colours the whole linguis tic system-the use of the prefixes to roots-to words denoting the human bcdy-to words referring to the human body-the prefix of intimate relation-the prefix system-prefixes to words relatin g to objects-general senses of the prefixes to roots-the use of the "pe rsonal pronouns" -limit ed pre-inflexion -limited correlated variation (concord)of plu rality by radical prefixes-qualitative prefixes-functional suffixes-are lost roots-attempt at recovery. 4. P hono7 ogy. The voice of the Antlamanesehistory of the reduction of the langu. age to writing-pecularities of speech. 5. The Nortke'!'n and Outer Groups. Proof of tbe.identity of the Northern and Southern Groups of langu agesThe Outer Group ( Onge-J arawa) examined-the limited knowledge o f it' -recovery of Colebrooke's J arawa Vocabulary, 1790 proof of its iden tity with the other Group-Derivation of" Mincopie ". Appendix .A, The Theory of Universal Grammar. Appendix B. An Onge Vocabulary. Appendix C. The Fire Legend in the Bojigngiji Group.

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I. GENERAL DESCRIPTION. Philological Value.-The Andaman Languages are extremely interesting from the philological standpoint, on account alone of their isolated develop ment, due to the very recent contact with the outer world on the part of the speakers. Of the speech of the only peoples, who may be looked upon as t he physical congeners of the Andamanese, -the Samangs of the Malay Peninsula and the Aetas of the Phillipine Archipelago, -no Voaabulary or Gmmmar is available to me of the latter, and the only specimens of the Samang tongue I have seen bear no resembiance or roots common to any Andamanese 'lhe Andamanese Languages exhibit the expression only of the most direct and simplest thought, show few signs of syntactical, though every indication of a very long etymological, growth, are purely colloquial and wanting in the modifications always necessary for communication by writing. The Andamanese show, however, by the very frequent use of ellipsis and of clipped and curtailed words, a long familiarity with their speech. The sense of even Proper Names is usually immediately apparent and the invariably exhibit difficulty in getting out of the region of concrete into that of abstract ideas, though none in expanding or in mentally differentiating or classifying ideas, or in connecting several closely together. (teneric terms are usually wanting, and specific terms are numerous and extremely detailed. Narration almost always concerns themselves and the chase. Only the absolutely necessary is usually employed and the speech is jerky, incomplete, elliptical and disjointed. Introductory words are not much used and no forward references are made. Back references by means of words for that purpose are not common, nor are conjunctions, adjectives, adverbs and even pronouns. An Andamanese will manage to convey his meaning without employing any of the subsidiary and connecting parts qf speech. He ekes out with a clever mimicry a great deal by m anner, tone and action; and this habit he abundantly exhibits in the form of his speech. His narration is, nevertheless, clear, in proper consecutive order and not confused, showing that he possesses powers of coordination. Savage nature.-The general indications that the Languages give of representing the speech of undeveloped savages are confirmed by the in tense anthropom?rpbism exhibi ted t}lerein. As will be seen later on, the Andamanese :regarq not only all objects, but also every idea associated with them, a s connected with themselves and their necessjties, with the parts of their bodies and their attributes. They no means of expressing the ma jority of objects and without such refereJ;J.ce; e. g., they cannot say "head" or "heads", butmust say" my, your, his, or 's, this one's, or that one's head or "our, your, or 's, or these ones' heads". But though they are "savage languages, 1i!Dited iu range to the requirements of a people capable of but few mental processes, the Andaman .. ese Languages are from being "primitive". In the evolution of a system of pre-flexion in order to intimately words together, to build up com .. pounds and indicate back references, and in a limited exhibition of the idea of concord bymeans of post-inflexion of pronouns, they indicate a develop .. ment as complete and complicated as that of an advanced tongue, represent ing the speech of a highly intellectual peeple. These lowest of savages show themselves to ]?e, in
PAGE 8

[ 2 ] separable, and all of words shows a very simple mental mechanism and a low limit in range and richness of thought and in the development of ideas. Suffixes and prefixes are largely used, and infi.xes also to build up compound words. As with every other language, foreign words have lately been fitted into the grammar with such changes of form as are necessary for absorption into the general structure of Andamanese speech. Samples of minuteness in detailed terms.-The following are examples of the extent to which the use of specific terms to describe details of im portance to the Andamanese is carried by them. Stages in the growth of fruit:Otderelca, small: cltimiti, sour: putungaij, black: chebada, bard : telebtch, seed not formed : gad, seed forming: gama, seed formed: tela, half ripe : munukel, ripe.: roiclMda, fully ripe : otyobda, soft : chorure, rotten, Stages of the day:Waingala, first dawn: elawainga, before sunrise: bodola floa tinga, &unrise : lilti ( ihtma ), early morning: bodola kagalnga, morning : bodola kagnga, fuil morning: bodo cha1zag, bodo chau, noou: bodota loringa, afternoon: bodo l 'a rdiya nga, full afternoon : elardi,yanga, evening : dila, before sunset--: bodola lotinga, sunset : etaka dauya, twilight: elaryitinga, dark: gurug chau, midnight, Specimen of Andamanese method of speech.-The following account of a story, abstracted from Portman, ot an imaginary pig-hunt as told by a Bea. eremta,qa (forest-man ) for the amusement of his friends, will go far to explain the Andamanese mode of speech, and the form that its Grammar takes. The narrator sits on the ground, facing a half circle of lounging Anda manese. After a short silence, he leans forward with his head bent down. Suddenly he sits erect with brighteningeyes and speaks in a quick, excited way, acting as if carrying on a conversation with another person. "After how many days will you return ? '' And then answering as if for himself : '' I will come back tomorrow morning., I am off pig-hunting now ". A pause. I am going". Very suddenly. "You stay here". Moving as if going away. I am going to another place ". Squeaking like a young pig with pantomime of shooting it. "It is only a little pig. I will take it to the hut''. Moving his shoulders as if carrying. "They roasted it there". Wave of the hands sig .. nifying that the pig was of no acconnt. Pause. "I started in the early morning after a big a big pig". Motions of hands to show length and breadth of pig. To an imaginary friend. "I will sharpen pig arrows to take with me. Come after me and we will hunt together,. Imitation with the hands of a pig running, shooting arrows, slap on the left breast, squeals of several wounded pigs, and so on. A pause. "You take them in front of me". Directions by pantomime to other persons as to the pigs. "They were cook ing them for me in the hut, cooking them well". Brightens up and begins again. "I will bring several more". Pretends to listen. "We have got them, The dogs are bar king ". And so on for hours. The actual expressions for such a storY are :Ea leicltika arZa-l'-"-eate ngo on ? Wainga--len do on How many day past you come? Morning---in I come. dele. Kam wai dol, Kam wai do on hunt, Away indeed I Away indeed I come (go), :&a Now ilo reg I pig D' -arlog-leT& Me-behind-in lea W'ai do jala---lee. Reg-ba Kam there. Indeed I go-away-do, Pig--little. Away w ai do ile on indeed I take come. Wai lea eda oijoi Do lilti Indee d there the y roast e d. I (in-the )-early-morning doga---lrJt, Reg big-( pig )-for Pig dog a. Do ela l'igjit---lee. D' -,()lcanumu-lean, big I pig-arrow sharpen-do, I--go-----do Kaica d'-arolo. Come Do-ng'--igdele. D'-olcotelema ilc on Wai d'a-be I----you-hunt Me--before take come. Indeed m e -for otjo i--lea cooking-were bud-len, but-in Tun Very roiclza-b e ringa-lee. ripe--good --do. W'ai eda ilckenawa. Indeed they barked :&a Now do I ikpag i-ke. several--do, Ilcr e lea Getting-were.

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[ 3 1 Nothing could show more clearly how "savaO'e" the speech is in reality how purely colloquial, how entirely it depends on action for com: prehension. When the party, who were out with Mr. Vaux when he was killed by the Jarawas in February, 1902, returned, they explained the occur rence to their friends at the Home in Port Blair by much action and pantomime and few words. The manner of his death was explained by the narrator lying down and following his movements on the ground. 2. GRAMMAR. History qf the study.-! have taken so large a share in the develop ment of the knowledge of the Andamanese tongue that a brief personal expla nation is here necessary to make deai: the mode of presenting it that now follows. The first person to seriously study the Andamanese Languages and reduce them to writing was Mr. E. H. Man, and in this work I joined him for a time soon after it was commenced, and in 1877 we jointly produced a small book with an account of the speech of the Boji g ngiji Group, or more strictly, of the Bea Tribe. We then worked together on it, making such com .. parisons with the speech of tbe other Andaman rrribes as were then possible and compiling voluminous notes for a Grammar and Vocabulary, which are still in manuscript. In 1882 the late Mr. A. J. Ellis used these notes for an account of the Bea Language in his Presidential Address to the Philological Society. In compiling our manuscript, Mr. Man and myself had used the accept ed grammatical terms, and thes e Mr. Ellis found to b e so little suit e d for the adequate repr e sentation for scientific readers of such a form of speech as the Andamanese, that he stated in his Address that:"We require new terms and an entirely new s e t of grammatical conceptions, which shall not bend an agglutinative language to our inflexional transla L ion ". And in 1883 he ask e d me, in a lette r, if it were not possible "to throw over the inflexional treatment of an uninflected language". The Theory of Universal Grammar.-Pondering, for the purpose of an adequate presentation of Andamanese, on what was then a novel, though not an unknown, idea, never put into practice, I gradually framed a Theory of Universal Grammar, privately printed and circulated in that year. This Theory remained unused, until Mr. M. V. Portman compiled his notes for a, Comparative Grammar of the Bojigngiji ( South Andaman) Languages in 1898, based avowedly, but not fully, on my Theory. Thes e notes I examined in a second article on the Theory of Universal Grammar in t he Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society in 1899, which again was subjected to the favour able criticism of Mr. Sidn e y Ray, who has since successfully applied it in out .. line to 16 languagesJ selected because unrelated and morphologically distinct, 1. English. 2. 3. Latin. 4. Khasi, Hills of N. E Bengal. 5, Anam, French Cochin China, 6. Ashanti, West Africa. 7. K afir, South Africa. 8. Mal a gasy, Mad ag ascar. 9, Olo Ngadju or Dayak, South East Borneo. 10. Nufor, Dutch New 11. Motu, British New Guinea. 12. Mortlock Ids, Caroline Micronesi a 13. M o ta, Banks' Islands, Melan esia.,' 14. Samoan, Polynesia 15. Awabak a l, L a k e M a cquarie, Australia. 16. Dakota, North America. With this brief history of the study of the Andamanese Languages, I will now give an exposition of the Theory so closelybound up with it as briefly and clearly as I can, in order to explain the method employed for exhibiting the peculiarities of Andamanese speech. A more detailed account, specially developed to a considerable extent for the present purpose, will be found in Appendix

PAGE 10

[ 4 J All speech a between man and by talking or by signs, Languages are vanetles of !?peeeb. 'I he un1t of every language 1s the eprassion of a coma P.lete i, e:' the sentence. All sentences are incomplete expres s1ons of commurucat10n, e., words, and are as nat1,1rally m1,1ltlplied Into languages. there is a development both ways from he sentence. The necessaty primary division of e:very sentence made up of words is into the mattel' communicated \(subject) and the communication made about it .(predicate). The words in each of these divisions are of necessity in the relation of principle and s1,1bordinate, which involvetS the fulfilment of a function by every word. The function of the .principle word of the subject is obviously to indicate the matter !Ilommunicated and of the subordinate words to explain the indication and il11,1st1ate that ex planation. Similarly the principle word of-the predicate indicates .the communication .m!l.de .and the sub->rdinate words ill us crate the indication or complete it. Therefore, in every language the essen t1al words in a sentence ( l) indicator, indicating the subject or the complement, ( 2 J explicator, explaining that indicatioq, {3) predicator, :indicating -the ( 4) illustrators, illustrating the predicator or the explicator. I As all speech expresses a communication, it has a 1'Ul'pose, and the function of the sen-o :tences is to express one of the five following purposes:-( 1) affirl)lation, ( 2) denial, ( 3) in terrogation, (.4) exhortation, ( 5J information. The method-s adopted for indicating the pur pose of a sentence are ( 1 ) :.Placing the in a ,Particular order, or ( 2) varying :their forms or .the tones in which they are spoken, or ( 3) adding specialint:roductory words. When.the purposes of speech are by their nature connected together, this connection is naturally indicated by connected sentences in the relation of principal and subordinate, which is expressed by methods similar to those above noted, vi.z., placing them in a particular order, or varying the forms or tones of' their components, or adding SP.ecial referent words of twe kinds, ( 1 ) simple conjoining ( 2) words substituting themselves in the subordinate sentence for the words in the principal sentence to which .they refer. --'Therelation. of the words composing -the parts of a sentence is also expressed by the similar methods of adding special connecting words, or of .varying the forms or tones of the words; and so, -toQ, the intimate relation between judicator and predicator, indicator and ex, ;plicator, illustrator and predicator, predicator and comJllement, referent substitute and prin eipal,.is by wo:rds, by variation of the in intimate relation, th1>1r relat1v:e :pos1t10n, or the :tones used In severally, expressmg them. Complete : commuiiication, can be, and is habitua:lly, in every language, made without a complete expression of it in speech, and so referent words are made to refer to words unex pressed an
PAGE 11

[ 5 J In all speech words are made to the fulfil a by their position in it, with or without usmg tones and or vanat10n m form, .and this habit gives rise of necessity to classes of accordmg to funct10n. And as any given word can naturally fulfil more than one 1t becomes na turally transferable. from its own class to another, the transfer bemg Indicated by m sentence with .or : without variation in form or tone. The class of a word thus md10ates 1ts function, and 1ts :position, alone or combined with its form or tone, indicates its class. So when a word is transferred from its original class, it necessarily fulfils a new func .. tion and becomes a new word, connected with the original word in the relation o parent and offshoot, each equally of necessity assuming the form or tone of its own class. The words in a sentence, and cop.seq nently their classes, are therefore in all speech expressed by two methods : position or position combined with variation. Every lan .. guage adopts one or other or both. Whe n in any language connected words differ in form, they are made to con s ist of a principle part or stem and an additional part or functional affix. 'l' he stem is used for eating the meaning of the word and the functional affix: for modifying that meaning ing to function, by indicating the class to which the word belonglir or its relation or correla. tion to the other words in the sentence. A simple stem necessarily indicates an original meaning, but a stem can be and ually is us e d for indicating a modification of an ori g inal meaning. lt then naturally b e comes a compound stem, f, e m a de up, by the s a me meth o d as that ab o v e noted, of a prin c ipal part or root and o f additional parts or r a dical affi xe s, ea ch w1th its o w n function, the root to indi cate the 01iginal meaning and the affix its modification into meaning of the stem. As all words differing in form or tone of necessity fulfil functions and belong to classes, they must possess a nature, i.e., qualiti e s inherent in themselves, and these, in all lan guages using such words, are indicated by the aJdition of qua litative affixes or by the ton e s in which they are spoken. Every affix: is of n e cessity fixed into the midst of, or prefixe d or s uffixed to, a root, s t e m or word, the afhxing bemg naturally eff e ct e d in full or in a varied form. When e ver there is variation of form :;.mounting to material change, there is necessarily infl e xion, or inseparability of the affixes. Inflexion can therafore be m a de to fulfil all the functions of affixes, and in .. flected words to conform to particu lar kinds of inflexi o n, in order to indicate function a nd class : and as tone can be equally made to indicate the functions and clasr:;es of words, it takes the place of inflexion. Words are the refore made to fulfil their functions merely by the tone in which they are spok e n, or by an ext e rnal develvpment effected by affixes, and to express Ot their original meaning by a similar use oE tones or of internal development. In both ca ses the affixes are prefixes, infixes or suffixes, affixed in full or varied form or by inflexion. All Jan .. guages, u s ing variation of form for causing the components of sent ences i. e., words, to fulfil their functions, adopt one or othet: or all the methods of effecting the variation. The refore in all spee ch, communication e xpr essed. in a sent ence is rendered compl e t e by the combination of the meaning of its compon ents with their position, tones or form s or with }JOSition combined with form or tone. The methods adopted in developing the sentence, i, e., the unit of speech itself, are found to entirely govern those adopted in its furthe1 development into a language or variety of speech. Langua g e s diff e r natually in the position of their words in the sentence, or in the ir forms or tones, or in the combination of position with form or tone. Thus are set up n atura lly two primary classes of l a ngu a g es:-Syntactical Lan g uages, which express compl ete tion by the position, and .Formative Langua ges which express it by the f o r ms, of their w ords. As position alone or combined with tone can fulfil all the functions of speech, the Syntactical Languages employ one or both of these methods, and thus are created respec tively Analytical Languages and Tonic Languages. Again, as in sp e echvari ety of form is secured by a ffixes attache d to word s in an unalt e r e d or an a lter e d form, Formative Lan g ua ges n e cessarily divid e the mselves into ,tiv e L anguage s attachin g a ffix e s in an un alte r e d form, and Sy nthe tic L anguages a t taching them in an alt e r e d form. These t w o clas ses a r e bot h furthe r naturally divisibl e i n to ( 1 ) Premutative, ( 2) Intromutative, ( 3) .Postmutative Languages, according as they attach affixes ali prefixes, in fixes suffixes. _ In obedience to a fundamental Law of Nature no langu a g e has ever developed along a. single line, and therefore ev ery language belongs of_ n e cessity p rim a rily to one of the above classes, and secondarily to others, by partial adoption of their m e thods. Languag e s, v a rying the f orni, to:iies or position,--without v a ryin g the m e anings of their words, form naturally Connected Languages in the r e l a tion of parent and offshoot. Con nected Laugua.ges, whose stems, i. q., the Dieauings of whoiie words, are cowm.ou to a.ll, form

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[ 6 ] a natural Group of Languages, and Languages, w4ose r.oots, i. t49 origin.; a.l meanings of whose words, are common to all, form a natUlal l1' amily of Therefore also of necessity all Connected Languages belongiug to a G1oup belong to tlie Family. As the above method of expounding the Theory involves t4e use of unfamiliar terms; it is as well to state that the new and the old terms of Gramn:tar roughly, tho-ugh not exactly, corre spond as follow; it rememb2red tha t the old terms are themselves the outcome of anotuer tacit Theory, basei upon other observations of natural laws or phenomena. TABLE OF COMPARATIVE GRAMMATICAL TERMS, OLD. Noun. Adjective. Verb. Ad verbs of different classes, Prepositi o n, } Post, position, Conjunctim. Interjection. Pronoun, } Relativ e Adverb, Relativ e P a rticle. Gender, Number, Case,} Declension; Person, Mood, Tense, Conjugation. Concord, } Government NEw. Indicator. E.lplicator. Predicator. { Illustrator, Introd-ucer. Connector. Integer. Ref e rent Substitute. Inflexion of different kinds. { Correlated Variation, Intimat e Relation. The two following Diagrams will serve to explain the lines upon which the Theory works itself out : I with their po!ton DIAGRAM I. Princ i ple of tlte Development of fhe .Sentence out of ita:Qomp:rmentB. In all Sp e ech the msaning -o words (inc ompl e t e meanings) combined I I I with their with their t .ones I t he S e ntenc e -(a comiJMe 1 with their to nes a;na -.positfon --l.

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r 7 J DIAGRAM II. Development of fhe Sentence or complete meaning., upwards into languages, drJwnwards into its components. P&EMUTATIVIII INTROMUTATlVE Pl>STMUTATIVIII LANGUAGES LANGUAGES LANGUAGEs I I I Prefix es In6xes Suffixes t ___ ---'r.---___ 1 I by affixes l I ToNIC LANGUAGES ANALYTICAL LANGUAGES I AGGLUTINAT IVE LANGUAGES SYNTACTICAL LANGUAGES I with tones I without tones I I I unaltered altered inflected affixes affixes affixes ---:--' f I SYNTACTICAL F(}R!Il!TIVE-LANGUAGES LANGUAGES I I I I po;ition form form of of and wortls wol'ds position I SIMPLE DEVELOPMENT I SENTENCE (express ion of a complete meaning). I I Expression of expanded-Expression of components (words: in complete meanings) I Expression of Function of Sentence Expression of Functions .of components I I -P:Ei::rr..i.sEs. (Words-sub stituted col l,ectively for one word ) I lNTEGIIIB I I CLAUSES. Essential (Sentences substituted for one word ) L Optional by position of words I I I by addition of special words by t onE's of words I I by position of words t I by variation o f forms of words by tones of words GROUPS 01' LANGUAGES I by common (roots plus affixes) stems I FAMILies 01' LANGUAGES I by co!llmon roots I CONNECTED LANGUAGES I I in one in several class classes f MULTIPLE DEVELOPMENT I I Expression of Develo pm-ent o( components I by b y modification tone of form I l I r extetna 1nterna of STEM of lfOO'l: I lNDI OATOB ExPLi CATOB I by variation of form of words ,,-_ ....-..--'i1 1 I PBIIIDlOATOR CoMPLElltENT CONNECTORS lNTBODtrOEBS. Complement ary indicator. -I I I 1 -Comp)ement Complement CONJUNCT.OI!S ary explica 1u y illustra t _or. tor S by by by qualitative functional radical affixaffix affix l I l--I by. APPIXBS -........ _l :P:s.Jt:Pxx :mm---Slll'PiZ I -:-. I '. -BepMsbly I in full form I / 1 mode of affixing I I }n. altered form J in ch!l.nged form !HJI'LBXIO:Io

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[ 8 ] Positiot;z qf 4ndamanese Languages in the generalscheme.-The next pomt for: consideration Is:-where do the Anda.manese Languages come into the general scheme? This will be shown in the following general account of them and as the grammatical terms used will be novel to the reader the correspon: ding famiUar terms will be inserted beside them in brackets, necessary to make the statements clear in a familiar manner. Diacritical marks will only be used when ne cessary to the elucidation of the text. Examples Q[ sentences of one word.-The Annamanese Languaooes are rich in integer W?rds, which are in themselves, been use they a complete meamng. The followmg examples are called from.Portman's lists: TABLE OF I!'JTEGER WORDS. ENGLISH. EE:A. EALA.WA EonGYAB J UWA.I Hurrah. Yui Yui Yui Yui I don't know. Uchin M aka. Konkete Koien Very well : go. } Uchik Kobale (with a lift of X.oi Koi the chin). Humbug. Alcanoi yadake AkanoiyadJ.ke Omkotichwake {Okam:koti chwacbm Oh: I say. } Betek Ya { Kalaiitata. Yokokene (ironical) Kalat It's broken. Turushno Turuit 'Iurush T'ruish Back me up. }Jego Jego ... Jeklung.i Atokwe :Say 'yes'. Not exactJy. Kak Kak Kaka Alo Nonsense. Cho Ya Aikut K .. ne Yes (ironical).: W ai (drawled) W ai (drawled) Kole K'le What a stink. Chunye Chunye Chunyeno 'Chunye .How sweet ( smell, with a Pue Pue Pue puffing out of the lips). :Yi It hurts. Eyi Yi (drawled.) Eyo (indignantly) Oh (shock). Yite (with a gasp) Yite Yite Jite Don't worry. Iji yomaingata. ldiyomaingata. Ira.myolano Remjolokne What? Where? 'l'en ? Tan? Ilekot? Alech ? Is oit so. ? An wai? An yatya? En ki:ile. ? An k'le-? Lor. Kakatek Kakate Keleba AlObai Elliptical speech.Port man's Yocabulary shows that the habit of speaking by integers, i. e single words, or by extremely elliptical phrases is carried very far in Andamanese, and the Fire Legends themselves give the cleaJ:est instances of it, as .these Legends have been recorded by Portman. The Bea version winds up with fhe enigmatic single word "Tomolola"', which has to : be translated by "they, the ancestors, were the Tomolola JJ. In the Kol version occurs the single-word sentence '' K6lotatke, tit 11 Kolotat-be n, t? be translated :-"Now there was one K8lotat ". In the first mstance, one word .m the : md10ator (noun:) form com pletes the whole sense ; in the secona, one word in the predicator (verb) form does so. Such eliptical expressions as the above and as the term of abuse, "Ngabgotob" ( ng +ab+ gdrob, ), would be accompanied by tone, manner, or gesture to explaiu 1ts meamng to the listener. Thus, the latter would be made to convey" You hump back __ _your spine", by the accompanying manner. Portman's Fire Legena in the Bea version dissected. to illustrate grammar.-The Andamanese sentence, when it gets beyond an exclamation or one word, is capable of clear division into subject and predicate, as oan be seen by an analysis of the sentences in a genuine specimen of the speech, Portman's-"Fire=Legend in the five languages of the South A.ndaman ( Bojigngiji ) Group. In the Bea Language it runs thus :BEA. VERSION OF THE FIRE LEGEND. Tdll'olcotimale PulugaZa mami-lca. ( a Place ) --in .God asleep-was. Luratut-la (a .Bird) ckapa fire eiapaltl Puluga-la pugat-!&a. Pulugala boi-lea. fire -G9d burningwa. God awake-was, tap--nga omo-re steal-ing bring-did. P uluga-ta cltapfl God fire

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l'lli--lc(J, seizing-wag. a ilc ckapalilc he taking fire-by [ 9 1 LMatut (Bird) f ot-pugari-re. burn--t. jelc at once Lmalut-la ( Bird) eni--lca taking-was. a i-Tarchelcer l' ot-puga1i-re, he (a Bird) burn--t Wota Emi-baraii--len Cha1tga-toban ga W ota-Emi-villag e-in The---ancestors olco---d 1 l-re. madt-fires Tomolola. Tomolola. Portman's rendering.-God was sleeping a.t Tol-l'okotima. 'Luratut came, stealing fire The fire burnt God. God woke up. God seized the fire; He took the fire and bur:nt Luratut with it. Then Lura.tut took ( the fire) he burnt Tarcheker in W ota-Emi village, ( where then) the Ancestors... lit fires. (The Ancestors referred to were) the Tomolola. Subject ond P1edieate.-Taking this Legend sentenoe by sentence, the subject and predicate come out clearly thus:-(P=predicate: S=subject ). (1) T8llokotimalen (P)Pulugala {8) mamika tP). ( 2 ) Luratutla ( S) cbapatapnga 1 S) omore ( P), l3) Chapala ( S) i'ulugala ( P} pugatka ( P). ( 4) Puluga la ( S) ( P ). { 5) Pulugala ( S) chapa ( P} enika ( P ), ( 6} A ( S) ik ( S) chapalik ( r' >. Lmatut ( P} lotpugarire ( P ). ( 7) Jek ( P} Luratutla ( S} emka ( P }. ( 8 J A ( S) Itarcueker ( P ) lotpugarire ( P). ( 9) Wota-Emi-baraijl11n ( P) Chaugatabnga ( S) okodalre ( P ). ( 10) 'l'omolola ( -;) l P. unexpressed). Principal and subordinate words.-That the words in the above sen tences are in the relation of principal and subordinate is equally clear; thus:-( 1} In the predicate, Tollokotimaleta is suborJinate to the principal mamika. ( 2) In the :Subject, Luratutla is the principal with its subordinate chapa tapnga. ( 5) In the Predicate, chapa is subordinate to the principal enika. And so on, without presentation of any difficulties. Functions Q/ words.-The next stage in analysis is to examine the func tions of the words used in the above sentences, and for this purpose the following abbreviations will be used:ABBREVIATIONS USED. int lD e p ill c intd r. c. r. s. c. in c. e. c. ill integer indicator explicator predioator illustrator connector introducer referent conjunctor referent substitute complementary indicator complementary complementary illustrator In this view the sentences can be analysed thus :-(1) (2) ( 3) (4) (5) (6) ('1) (8) (9) (10) Tllll'okotimalen (ill of P.) Pulugala (in) mamika (p). Luratutla (in) cbapa-( c. in )-tapnga ( p., the whole an e. phrase) omore ( p}. Chapala (in) Pulugala (c. in) pugatka. (p). Pulugala (in ) boika. ( p } Pulugala ( in) chapa. (c. in) enika ( P) A (r, s,, in) ik (e) cbapalik (ill} Luratut (c. in) l'otpugarue {p). J ek ( r. c. ) Luratutla ( in) enika ( p. ) A ( r s., in ) Itarche k e ( c in) 1' otpugarire ( p). W ota-Emi-baraijlen (ill. phrase of P ). chaugatabnga. ( 1n. phrase) oko dalre (p J. Tomolola. (in, P, unexpressed).

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[ 10 J Orde'1' of sente'floe.-By this analysis we arrive at the following facts. The purposes of all the sentences is information, and the Andamauese indicate that purpose, which is perhaps the com:rnonest of speech, by the order of the words in the sentence thus:-( 1 ) Subject before Predicate: Pulugala ( S) boika (P). Subject, Complement (object), Predicate: Pulugala ( 'S) cbapa ( c, in) enika ( P), (2) ( 3) Indicator (noun) before explicator (adjective): Luratutla (in) chapa-tapnga (e. phrase) omore ( p ). (4) Illustrator of Predicate (adverb) before Subject: Toll'okotimalen (ill o P.) Pulug ala (in) ma,uika ( p) .But illustrators can be placed elsewhere*, thus: (5) (6) A ( r. s. used as in) ik ( p. o f elliptic e. phrase, c. in unexpressed) chapa lik (ill) Luratut (c. in) l'o' pugarire (p ), Referent conjunct or (conjunction) commences sen tence: J e k (r. c.) Luratutla (in) enika (p). Referent substitutes (pronouns) follow position of Lbe originals: A ( r. s. in) Itarcheke l c, in ) l' otpugarire ( p). From these examples, which cover the whole of the kinds of words used in the except the introducers and connectors, the absence of which is remarkable, we get the fol19wing as the order of Andamanese speech :-A. ( 1 ) Subject ( 2 ) Predicate. B. ( 1) Subject ( 2) Complement (object) ( 3) Predicate. C. ( 1 ) Indicator (noun) before its explicator (adjective). D. Illustrator (adverb) where convenient. E. Referent conjunctors (conjunctions) before everything in connected sentences. We have also a fine example of an extremely elliptical form of speech in the wind up ot the story by the one word "Tomolola" as its last sentence, in the sense (the ancestors who did this were the) l'omolola ". Jek Lura tutla enika is also elliptic, as the complement is unexpressed. Order Q/ connected aentenoea.-Connected sentences are used in the order of principal and then subordinate : Pulugala c!tapa enilca (principal senience) and then a ik c!tapal ilc Luratut l' o tpu .. garire (subordinate sentence), a fter which j elc .Lu r at utla e nilca (connected sentence joined by "jelc, at once"), and then a Itarchelce r t'o t p u g ari r e ( s ubordinate to the previous sente nc e,) The sentences quoted show that the Andamanese mind works in its speech st e adily from point to point in a natural ord e r of precedence in the development of an information ( storyj tale), and not in an inverted as does that of the speakers of many languages. Interrogat i ve Senten o es.-It may also be noted here, though no inter rogatory phrases occur in the Fire Legend, tha t the Andamanese convey interro g ati o n by introduc e rs (adve rbs) alw ays pla ced at the commencement of a sentence or connected sentences. The introducers of interrogatio n in Bea are Ba? and An? And so, tooJ "Is ? or ? are intro d uced by ''An ? a n ? E i t h e r these intro du cers are used, or an i n t errog a 1 ive s ente nc e begins with a special introducer, like "Te n? Where? Mickiha? What? Mijola, or Mija ? Who?" and so on. We hav e this. in English:-" sudd enly John di ed ; J ohn su d d e uly d ieJ ; Joh n di e d sudd en ly

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[ 11 ] The mode of erpressing the functions and the inter-relation qf words.J3ut the Andarnanese do not rely entirely on position to express the function of the sentence and the functions and inter-relation of it3 words. By varying the ends of their words, they express the functions of such sentences as con vey information, and at the same time the functions of the words composing them. Thus, the final form of Pulugata, Luratutta, cnapala, Tomolota proclaim them to be indicators (nouns) : of mamilca, boika, pugatlca, omore, okodalre, t'otpugarire to be predi ca.tors (verbs) : of cltapa-tapnga l phrase) to be an exp l icator (adjec t ive) : of Totl'olcotimalen (phrase), ckapahlc, 1Yota-Emi-baraijlen (phrase) to be illustl'aturs (ad verbs). Expression Q/ intimate relation. The intimate relation between words is expressed by change of form at the commencement of the latter of them. Thus in Luratut (c. in) t'otpngarire ( p ), where .Luratut is the complement (object) and l' otpugan1e is the predicator (verb), the intimate relation btJtween them is expressed by the l' o l'otpugarire. So again in ItarcR.elcer l'otpugarire. In phrases, or words that are fundamentally phrases, the same method of intimately joining them is adopted. Thus Tol-l' olco-tima(en means in practice "in Toll'okotima. ", a. place so but fundamentally T6l----P---okotima.len Tol ( t1ee }-(its }----tcorner-in means "in (the encampment at, unex;pressed) the corner of the Tol ( trees, unexpressed ).11 Here the intimate relation between tot and oluJtima is expressed by the interveuing t'. The actual use of the phrases is precisely that of the words they repre sent. 'Ihus, Wota-Emi-baraij-:--len W ota-Emi-village--io Here a phrase, consisting of three indicators (nouns) placed in juxtaposiiion, is used as one illustrator word (adverb). Use of tl1e affixes, prefixes, infitzes, suffixes.It follows from what has been above said that the Andamanese partly make words fulfil their functions by varying their forms by means of affixes. Thus they use suffixes to indicate the class o a word. E. g., lea, re, to indicate pre dicators (verbs) : la, da, for indicators (nouns) : nga or explicators { adj.) : Zen., tile for illustrators (adverbs). They use prefixes, e. g., t', to indicate intimate relation, and infixes (or joining up phrases into compound words, based on the prefix l'. It also follows that their functional affixes are prefixes, infixes and suffixes. It is further clear that they effect the transfer of a word from class to class by means of suffixes. Thus, the compound indicator (noun) ToU'oltotima is transferred to illustrator (adverb) by suffixing len : indicator (noun) dapa to illustrator (ad verb) by suffixing tile: indicator (noun) phrase Wota-Emi-baraiJ to iilustrator (ad verb) by suffixing len: predi cator (verb) tap (-lee, -lea, -re) to explicator ( adj.) by suffixing nga. A very strong instance of the power of a. suffix to transf e r a word from one class to anoth e r occurs in the Kol versi>n o the Fire Legend, where KoZotat-lee occurs, Kolotat be ing a man's name and therefore an indicator (noun), transferred to the predicator {verb) class by merely affixing the suffix of that class. 'l'he word K ototatlee in the K o l version of the Fire Legend occurs as a sentence by itself in the sense of "now, there was one Kol o ta.t ". :Diffe r entiation of the meanings Q/ connected words by radical prefixes .-. Fortunately in the sentences under examination, two words occur, which exhibit the next point of analysis for elucidation. These are: chapa.la fire Pulugala God pugat-ka burning-was

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and then [ 12 ] a Itarcheker I' otpugari -re burn---t he (a Bird) a ik he taking chapa-lik Luratut fireby (Bird) l'otpugari-re burn---t Here is an instance of connected words, one of which is differentiated in meaning from the otuer by the affix ot, prefixed to that part which denotes the original meaning or root ( '/Jugat, pug ari) of both. Therefore in Anda manese the use of radical prefixes (prefixes to root) is to differentiate con nected words. 'lhe simple stem in the a.bove instances is pugat and the connected compound stem otpuga1'i. Similarly okotima, okodalre, occuring in the Eire Legend, are compound stems, where the roots are tima and dal. I ndication of the of words-qualitative suffixes.The Jast point in this anal y sis is that the words are made to indicate their class, i. e., their nature (original idea conveyed by a word) by the Andamanese by affixing qualitative suffixes, thus: lea, re to indicate the predicator class (verbs) : nga, to indicate the explicator ( adj.) class: la, da tl) indicate the indicator (noun) class: l i k, Zen to indicate the illustrator (ad verb ) class, Composition of the words.-The words in the sentences under considera tion can be broken up into their constituents as follows; Using the abbreviations R=Root : S=Stem: P. F.=prefix, functional: P, R.= prefix, radical: l=lnfix: S, F,=Sutfix, funJtional: s. Q.=suffix, qualitative. (1) Mami (S) -ka (8 Q ). So also pugat-ka, boi-ka, emi-ka. Sleeping-was, Chapa (S). fire (3) Tap (S) nge. {S. Q), steal-iug (4) Omo (S) :-re (S. Q.). bring--did. (5) Chapa (S) -la (S. Q ;). fire -( honorific suff.) (6) A (S), He. (7) Ik (S). tak-(ing). (8) Chapa (S) -lik ( S. F.). fire---by. (9) 1' (P. F).-ot (P. R).(R)-re (S, Q,). (referent prefixes)--bum---t. {10) Jek (S), At-once, (11) Baraij (S) -len (S. F.). villag e ---in. (12) Oko (P. R.) -d a l (R) -re (S. Q,). -firo ---(light) did, The agglutinative p rinciple.Words a.re therefore made to fulfil their functions in the Andamanese Languages by an external effected by affixes and to express modifications of their original m e anings by a similar i n ternal dev e lopm e nt, Al so, the meaning o f the sentences is r e ndered coma plete by a combination of the meanings of their component words with their position and form.

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[ 13 ] The further show that Languages express a complete commumcabon chiefly by the forms of their words, and so these languages are FormatlV6 Languages; and because their affixes, as will have been seen above, are attae hed to roots, stems and words mainly in an unaltered form, the languages are Agglutinative Languages. It will be seen later on too, as a matter of great philological interest, that the Languages posses; premutation (principle of affixing prefixes) and postmutation (principle of affi xing suffix e s) in almost equal development: intro-mutation (principle of affixing infixes) being merely rudimentary. Identity of the Five Languages qf the Southern Group qf Tribes ,...;_The a.bove observations, being the outcome of the examination of the ten sentences under analysis, are bas e d only on the Bea speech, but in Appendix C will be found a similar analysis of the sentences conveying the Fire Legend in the five South Andaman Languages (B o jign giji Group), which fully bears out all that has been above said. And from this Appendix is here attached a series of Tables, showing roughly these Languages agree and differ in the e ssentials of word-building, premising that they all agree in Syntax, or sentence building, exactly. An examination of the Tables goes far to show that the Andamanese Languages must belong to one Family. ENGliSH camp fire seize take light -a-fire sleep steal bring burn w ake he (they) (-hi-, it')-s (hi, it-) s (their)-.s :.._a.t,.L ___ .J ..... -... tU CoMPARATIVE TABLES OF RooTS AND STEMS 01 THE SAME MEANING OCCURING IN THE FIRE LEGEND. EEA EALAWA BoJIGYAB .Juwu ( notms baraij baroij cha pa cboap;L at at Predicators (verbs). em ena di, li ... ik ik ik dal dal kadak kodak m arm pat em a tap top omo omo l e e hi pugat, piigari boi puguru konyi a Eu-ot:-oko-i ReferentSubttituteB ( p1onoit1i1 ). i, ong ong a ongot n'ong COMPARATIVE TABLE OF AFFIXES OCCURRING IN. THE FiRE LEGEND. BoJIG't&: B -Pre.ftxea, /U?tctionaZ, of intimate reZatio1e. 1'-... 1' k'-n'Pr.eft:ces, radical. otooto atak.;. oko-oko--oar-... iong .. ... 1' -, t'.;;. ... a.tak-" ... KoL poroich "t .. k6dak pat n' a Kor.:. 1'.;; k'...;' ... : otam-, ot&e oko air-, iraiJl ... ..

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[ 14 ] Suffixes, functional, -lik -te -ke ... -lak ln -len -a -in, -an, -en -in -en to ... -len -I in -kete Suffixes, qualitative. was -ka -kate, -ia -chike -ke -mg -nga -nga -nga ... did -re -t, -te -ye,-an -t -an, -chine ( hon. of in.) -la, -ola -le -la ... ,..Ja M any further proofs of the existence of the .Andamanese Languages as a Family, subdivided into three main Groups, will be found later on in considering that great difficulty of the Languages, the use of the prefixes and it will be sufficient here to further illustrate the differences and between those Lof the South Andaman Group by a comparison of the roots of the words for the parts of the human body, a set of words which looms preron .. deratingly before the Andamanese mental vision. CoMPARATIVE TABLlll OF RooTs AND STEMS DENOTING PARTS OF THE HUMAN BODY. ENGLISH BEA B:A.LA.WA BoJIGYAB JuwAI KoL head cbeta chekta. ta tO toi brains mun mun mine mine m me neck longota longato 1onge longe longe heart kuktabana. kukt:?.bana kapone pokto poktoi hand koro koro kore kor6 kore wrist tango tango to to to knuckle kutur god la kutar kutar kutar nail bodo bOdo pnt e pute pute foot pag pog ta tok tok ankle togur t8gar togar togar togar mouth bang boang po n g pong pong chin ad a koada teri t'reye t'reye tongue etal a tal tatal tatal tiital j awbo ne ekib to a ta tB teip lip pe pa pai paka pake shoulder podikma. podiatoa bea bea bein thigh paicha poaicho baichato boichatokan ba.ichetokan knee lo lo lu lu lu shin chalta chalanta chalta cholto chalto belly jouo jodo chute chute chute navel er akar tar takar takar armpit auwa okar k&rting k&tteng k8rteng eye dal dal kOclak kodag kodak eyebrow punur punu be in beakaiii beaki:ii forehead mugu mugu mike mike mike ear puku vuku bo Mko bok6 nose choronga. choronga kote kote kote cheek ab koab kap kap kap arm gud gud kit kit kit breast kam koam kome M me kOme spine go rob kategorob kinab kurup kurup leg chag chag chok chok chok buttocks dam a. do a mo tome tome tome arms tomur bang tomur k8lang kolang Pulled to pieces, Andamanese words of any Group of the seem to be practically the same, but this fact is not apparent inac when they are given in full with their appropriate affixes, thus. Languages tual speech, ENGLISR :SEA BALAWA. BoiJIGYAB JuwAI KoL h ead otchetada otchekta otetada 6totol ekile 8tetoiche knee abloda ab lo ablud.J. alul e kile oluche for ehea d igmuguda idmugu irmikeda remilekile ermikeche Any one who has had practice in listening to a foreign and partially understood tongue knows how a small difference in pronunciation, or even in hccentuatiou, will render unintelligible words philologically immediately recognisable on paper.

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r u> J 3. ETYMOLOGY. The use of t'ke roofs.--As the Andamanese usually build up the full words of their sentences by the simple agglutination of affixes on to roots and stems, the word construction of their language would present no difficul. ties, were it not for one peculiarity, most interesting in itself and easy of general explanation, though difficult in the extreme to discover: experto orede. The Andamanese suffixes perform the ordinary functions of their kind in all agglutinative languages, and the peculiarity of the infixed l' occurring in compound words depends on the prefixes It is the prefixes and their use that demand an extended examination .Anthropomorphism colours the whole linguistic system.-To Andama nese instinct or feeling, words as original meanings, i. e., roots, divide them selves roughly into .Five G.coups. denoting, ( 1) mankind and parts of his body (nouns): ( 2) other natural objects (nouns) : ( 3) ideas relating to objects ( adj., verbs) : ( 4 ) reference to objects (pronouns ) : ( 5) ideas relating to the ideas about objects ( adv., connecting words, Proper Names ) : The instinct of the Andamanese next exhibits an intense anthropomor, phism, as it leads them to differentiate the words in the First Group. i e. those relating directly to themselves, from all others, by adding special prefixes through mere agglutination to their roots. The use of the prefixes to the roots.-These special radical prefixes, by some process of reasoning forgotten by the people and now obscure, but not a.t all in every case irrecoverable, divide the parts of the human body into Six Classes; without giving a full list of the words in each class. RADICAL PREFIXES IN WoRDS DENOTING PARTS OF THE HuMAN BoDY BY CLASSES. CLASS ENGLISH BBA ]3.\LA.WA BonGYAB JuwAr KoL roo J I Brains ot .. atote ... oto .. 6to ... Neck Heart (Hand I I Wl'ist I li i ouNail onon
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t 16 ] to rttferring to the htfma,n bod!! :._ e;t, in to their strong anthropomorphic instinct, the Andamanese extend prefixes to all words in the other Groups, when in relation to the body, its parts, attributes and and thus in practice refer all words, capable of such reference, to thEmselves by means of prefixes added to tQ.eir roots. In an Andamanese Language one cannot, as a matter of fact, say "heart"; one can only say-my "l your I his I ( & ) hand, heart. so so -s (that one)'s (this one)',;J The prr>fixes of intimate relation. -It is thus that -the .otherwise ex treme1y difficult secondary functional prefix (always pref?:xed tb e radical prefix, which is usually in Bojigngiji le-or la:-. practically always used in its curtailed form l' -, or k'-, n' -, t' -in ceda_ig_ is clearly explainable. It is used to den9te intimate relation betyveen two w e rds; and when between two indicators (nouns) it corresponds to the English connector (of), the izafat (i), and a,o Q-11, to the sptti_x denoting the ''ge nitive case" in the inflected l&nguages. 'fhe Anda riianese aiso use it to indicate intimate relation betweenr>redicator (verb) and complement (object), when it corresponds to the suffix of the "accusative in indeed to : -,-' The Prefix System.-Starting with these prinCiples, the And-a manese have-developed a complicat e d system of prefixes, making their language an intricate and difficult one for a foreigner to clearly apprehend when or to speak so as to be readily understoml. As examples of this, let us ta]re the stem beringa good : then good ( llJJma.n_ being) ; un-beri. nqa (good band, on pref of hand), clev:er; {-good eye ik pref. }la;rp-:?igl!t ed; ak'];:_ beti:n!lf!-I gvoJ. o r :of: m o uth_ and tongu e)' cl e v e r at (other And amauese) lan g u ages ; ot-be ringa ( I[OOdhead and he art, ot pref, of both h ea d and h eart), virtuous; u _1H'ig-b eringa { a nd on .. pref. of Haw; f.g pm. ef eye, ptef {O iii:timate relatibn h goOd-alhorml:t _. So, too, withjabag-barl: ab-ja'Oag, bad (human being); un-jaaag, stupid; ig.jabag, dull-sighted; aka-jabag, stupid at ( othe1 Andamanes e ) languages; ot ,jabag, vicious; unt' -igjabag, a duffer. So again with la>1ta, f a iling ; un-lama ( f ai Hng hand or foot) 1 missing to strike; iglama (failing eye), failing to find; of-lama ( f a iliug bead), w anting in sense; aka-lama ( fa iling tongu e), u sing a wro ng word. Lastly, in the elliptic speech of the Andaman. ese, the roqt, when evident, can be left unexpre ssed, if the prefix is sufficient to express the sense, thus i-beri-nga-rJa I ma!J mean," his( face, pref. i-)-good-(i11 )". That is, tt is good-look .. ing!". rJ'-alca-cltam-lce I may mean '' mr ( pref. ". That is, "my mouth is sore I". Prefixes to words relating to objects.-The system ,of using radical pre .. to expressthe relation of ideas to!Dankind a:pd its body is to express the relation of ide as to objects m general. -Thus:-adberinga, well ( i not sick ) : arlj(lba!J, ill ( i e ., n o t : oleo-lama (applied to a weapon)' failing to the object the fault oJ the ig-bu inga means pretty o thwgs) : alcabetznga, n1ce \to taste) al1ID: add1twn to the senses above given. 'Ihis is carried, w1th more or less obvious to through ... out the language. Thus :In B ea: y otJ, pliabl e soft. The n a c u s hion or sponge is ot-yo,p, a can e is otoyop, pliable: a slick or pencil is alca -yop, or oleo-ya p, p(linted: the humari, bogy is ,ab yop, soft: II of its parts (hand, w1is t1 etc,1 ) ate onu-yop1 soft; fallen are ].'9jteu: au adze is iuyop1 blan t.

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[ 17 ] So in 'Bea: cMrf)g'llga, up, (whence also that whieh is usually tied up In a bundle, VtZ"J a bundle. of .faggots). A Then is tying up a pig's alcrcchorognga, trmg :UP Jack-fruit: ar-chorognga, tywg up b1rds : ong .. tymg up the feet of suckwg p1gs. General of prefixes to roots.Possibly the feeling or instinct, which prompts the use of the prefixes correctly, could be caught up by a for eigner, just as the Andamanese roots might be traced by a sufficiently patient etymologist, but it would be very dHfieult and would require deep study. The Andamaneso themselves, however, unerringly apply them without hesitation, even in the of such novel objects to them as cushions, sponges and pen cils ; using ot in the two former oases, because they are round and globular, and aka in the latter, because they are rounded off to an end. In both these cases one can detect an echo of the application of the prefixes to the body : ot of head, neck, heart, etc.; aka of tongue, chin, etc. Portman gives somewh11t doubtfully the following as the concrete modifying references of such prefixes to the names of things:ot otoaka-, okoar-igad-round things long, thin, pointed, or wooden things hard things upright things weapons, utensils, things manufactured speech ( noises ) of animals With this habit may be compared the use of numeral coefficients in Burmese and many other languages. From Portman also may be abstracted, doubtfully again, the following modifying abstract references of some of the radical prefixes :-ot-, oto-, oto ig-, ik-, iiji-eh-, epakana.r-1 ara-ar-, a::-a-a.d-aboiyospecial relation reference in Ringular to another person reference in plural to another person reference to ideas reference to self plural reference to persons generally ( also ) agency action of self action or condition transferred to another in singular action transferred to others m plural l'he following preliminary statement of the. function of. the radical prefixes can, therefore, be made out: viz. to modify the meanmgs of roots by denoting ( 1) the phenomena of man and parts of his body: ( 2) the phenomena of objects : ( 3) the relation of ideas to the human body and objects: ( 4 ) reference to self : { 5 ) reference to other persons: ( 6) ideas ; i. e., (a) actions of self, (b) actions transferred to at (c) actions of others ( agency ) : ( 7) reference to ideas. 'I'ke use Q/ the "personal pronouns''.-The habit of the Andamanese of referring everything directly to themsleves makes the use o! the substitutes for their own names (personal pronouns) a promment feature in their speech. 'lhese are in full in the .Bojigngiji Group as THE "PERSONAL ENGLISB Bu BALA.WA BonGYAB JuwA.r KoL I d'ol-Ia d'ol t'ule t'u-le la-t'u-Ie Thou ng'ol-la ng'ol n g 'u-Ie n g 'a-kile I a -n g 'u-le He, she, it ol-la ol ul e aki l e l a ka-u-le We m'oloi-cbik m'olo-chit mu-le m'e kil e la m u le You ng' oloi-chik ng'olochit ng'uw e'l ng'e 'l-kile la-ng'uwe'l They oloi.cbik olochit n'ule n'e-kile kuchla-n'ule

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l 18 J Limited pre-injlexion -:-In combination with and befot'e the radical prefixes tue "personal pronouns" are abbreviated thus in :dl the languages of the Bojigngiji Group :I, my Thou, thy he, his, etc. we, our You, your they, their that one that one ABBREVIATED rr PRONOMINAL" FoRMs. d' in Bea, Balawa t' -in Bojigyab, Juwai, Kol ng'-in all the Group not expressed in the Group m'-in all the Group ng'-iu Bea, Balawa, Bojigyab ng' 1 in Juwai, Kol not expressed in Bea, Balawa n'-in Bojigyab, Juwai, Kol k'-in Bea, Balawa, Kol not expressed in Bojigyab, JuwJi t'-in all the Group ,, this way it can be shown th'l.t there are .no re"tl "singular posse_s s1ves m Andamanese, as the so-called "possessive pr 1nouns" are merely the abbreviated forms of the" personal pronouns" plus b ( -da), etc =belon. ging to1 (property) : thus, "PossESSIVE PRoNOUNS" ENGLISH :BEA. BALAWA BoJrGYAB Juwu Kor, my, mine d'ia-cla d'ege t'iya-da t'iyea-kile t'iyi-che thy, thine ng ia-da ng'ege ng'iye-da ng'iyea-k1le ng' iye-dele his, her, its ia-da ege iye'-da eyea-kile iye-dele 'The" plural possessives" have been brought into Ene with the expression of plurality by radical prefixes, as will be seen later on. Now, it is easy enough to express on paper the true nature of the above abbreviations by the use of the apostrophe, but in sp ee ch there is no distinction made. one can write "d'un-lama-re, I missed (my) blow", but one must say" dunlamare ". iSo one can write nJ'ot-Jabag-da, you (are a) vici ous (brute) ", but one must say ngotJabagda. So aho oue can write. artam formerly aahztik now d' un-t' ig-J a bag -da I-band-eye-bad. d'un-t'ig-beJ i-nga. I-haDd-cye-good. ( once I was a duffer, now I am good all round. ) l'eda-re. exist-did, But one must say" a rtam duntiqJaba p ledare, achitik dun tigberinga 'l. It would therefore b e correct to assert that, though Andamanese is an tongue, it posses,.es a very limited pre-inflexion, i. e infl e xion at the corn mencement of its words. _[;im ted aoPrelated variation (concord ) .-The Andamanese also express the intimate relation of the "personal pronouns" with their predicators (ve rbs) by a rudimentary correlated variation (post-infl e xion in the form of concord) of forms :-Thus, mami-ke sleeping-is Then, mamik-ka sleeping-was do da da don a mami k e mami ka mamll'e maminga. mam1-re sleep-did I am sleepin g I was s l eeping I s lept I (me) sleeping. m a mi nga sleep-ing

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[ 19 ) This peculiarity is shown in all the Bojigngiji Group, except Kol; thus ENGI.ISH :Bu :BA.LA.WA. :BonoYA.B Juwn "In the Ptesent Tense" (lee) I do do tuk te Thou ngo ngo nguk nge he, she, it a ong uk a we moicho root mot me you ngoicho ngongot nuk ngel '!'hey eda on got net a "In the Past Tense" (lea re) I da do tong te Thou nga ngo ngong nge he, she, it a ong ong a we meda mongot mot me you ngeda ngongot ngonget ngel 'l'hey eda ongot net ne u In the Present Part iciple" ( nga) I dona ... tong t8n. Thou ngona ngong ngon He, she, it oda ong-on We mod a mot m on You ngoda ngowel ngowel They oda nong ne Expression of plurality by radical prefixes.-Tbe examination of the "pronouns" shows that the Andamanese can express things taken together (plural) as well as things taken by themselves (singular). Tbis in their language generally is expressed by changing the forms of the radical prefixes, in :Hea and Balawa habitually and in Kol and Juwai occasionally. SING. ot-abotoen8tapetoenll'iram-reremPLU. SING. otot-. ong,onat-ar-, araototebokotad-etotot-ongat-ar-, araebokotad-etIrab-iramm. 1'1anmenIN BE A. PLU. oiot-arat-ebet-adIN BA.t..A.WA. on got-arat-ebet-adIN Juw.n atmIN Kor.. omSING. ig, ik-, i-. akajji akan-id aka idiakan .... ich e echs-. PLu. itig akatijit-, ijet akan ... iditakatidit akan .. iche-iche-As has been already noted, the plural of the ''personal pronouns" m the ''possessive form has been made to fall into liue with the plan of expressing plurality by means of the radical prefixes. 1'hus TABLE oF SINGULAR AND PLURAL "PossFJsSIVliiS ". ENGLISH :BEA. BA.LAW.A. BOJIGYA.B Juw.&.r KoL Sing. my diad a dege tiyeda tiyeakile tiyiche Plu. our m e tat matat miyeda miye miye dele Sing. thy ngiada .ngege ngiyeda. n g iyeakile ngiyedela Piu. your ngetat nga.tat ngiyida. ngiyel ngiyil Sing. his iada. ege iyeda e:yeakila iyedele l?lu. their et at a tat niyeda. ::nye niyiche

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[ 20 J Suffia:es.-The suffixes of are (radical) qualita t1ve ( expressmg the class of a word ), or functional ( expressmg its function in the sentence). The radical qualitative suffixes usually employed are -da -la, ola. -la, lo -ba For Indicator& ( noun1) BALAWA. -da, nga, -ke ... le -o,-o BCJIGYAB -da -le -o JuwAI KoL -lekile, -kile -che, la -le -o The first of these is usuaUy dropped in Balawa, and in all the languages also unless tl1e word is used as an integer, or sentence in itself. The second is an h o norific and is always added in full. The tuird is ''vocative 11 and is to the name called out. The fourth. is a negative: thus, abliga.da, a child ; abligaba, not a child, a boy or girl. -da For E:rplicatora ( adjectiveJ) -la -re -et, -ot, -t The second is honorific: the third applies to attributes, etc., of human beings ally, these affixes follow the rule for tl10se of the indicators (nouns). For Predicatora ( fJerba) ENGLISH BEA BALAWA. BonGYAB JUWA.I KoL (kill)s -ke, kan -ke,-ken -ke, -kan -che, -chine -ye was (kill)ing -ka -ka, -te, -bte -ya,-ye -chike -ye, k (kill)ed -re -t, -et -nga, -nen -chik a n -an, -wan, nen don't (kill) -kok -ton -k -ch1k -k (kill)ing -nga -t, et, :iia. -nga -in (kill)s not -ba, -bo -ba -na (kill)ed not -ta. The last two suflix.es are added to the suffix -nga in Bea, thus: dona I dona. I kara:Qla bow (I am not asleep) kopnga-ta cutt-ing-( wai) -not (I waa not making a. bow). Functional Suffixes.-Th.e usual functional suffixes in Andamanese are TABLE 01!' SuFFIXES. ENGLISH BEA BALAWA. J30JIGYAB JuwA.I KoL In, to, at -len -len, a -an -an -an From -tek -te, -le -e, te, le -e, -lak -e, -lake, kate To, towards -I at -I at -lat -late -late Of -lia. -lege -liye -I eye -liye For -leb -leb -leb -le be -le be After -lik -le -le -le -le Phefunctional suffixes are lost roots-attempt at reooverg,-It may be taken as certain that the functional suffixes are roots, now lost to Andamanese recognition, agglutinated to the ends of words by the usual means in their lan guages, as exhibited in the prefixes; viz., by to them l'-, t'-, k'in the manner explained. 'rhe roots of some of the suffixes can be fairly made out thus, from the ( 1) (Z) ( 3) ( 5) (6) lean, a, an, "io, to, at", seem to be clearly t'-, k'-+the root en, e, ik "take, hold, carry, s eize". Tek, te, le, e, lak,lalce, leate, "from" seem to bet'-, 1/-, k'-+the root ik, i, eak, "take away." La f.; late. "to, tow a rds ", seem to be l -+ the root at, a te "approach ". Lia, l e ge, l i ye, l eye "of" seem to b e t'-+ tharoot ia, ege, ii, ey e "belonging to''. Leb, l e be, '' for" to be l'+_ a root not traced. Lik, le, "witb, after" see m to be l'-+the root ile, e, ale, rrto go with, follow on",

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[ 21 ] 4. PHONOLOGY. Pke voice of the Andamanese.-The voice of the Andama.ri.ese, thouooii occasionally deep and hoarse, is usually pleasant and musical. rhe mode speech is gentle and slow; and among the women a shrill voice is used in speaking; but though the tendency is towards a drawled pronunciatiOn, they can express their meaning quickly enough on occasion, too quickly, indeed, for a foreigner to clearly follow the minutire of pronunciation without very close attention. The general tone of the voice in speaking is low. On an examination of the prevalent vowels and vowel interchanges and tendencies in the languages of the South Andaman ( Bojigngiji) Group of Tribes, as described by Portman, it may he said that they relatively speak thus a close to an open mouth. Juwai Eojigyab and Kol :Balawa Eea with closed lips with flattened lips whh open lips with lips tending to open wide: It is interesting to note that the above results carry one straight from North to South. History of tke reduction qf the Lanl}uage to writing.-The A.ndamanese speech, as it is now studied, was first committed to writing on a system devised by myself, which was an adaptation of the system, invented by Sir William J ones in 1794 for the Indian Languages, and afterwards adopted, with some practical modifications introduced by Sir W. W. Huntert by the Government of 1ndia as the "Hunterian System". My method of writing .Andaruanese was subsequently modified for scientific purposes by Mr. A. J. :hllis in 1882, and having so highly trained and competent a guide, one cannot do better than use here a modification of his system, adapted to the needs of a general publication. Portman, unfortunately, has, in his publications, gone his own way to the great puzzle of students. In this view, there is no necessity to say anything of the consonants used, and as to the vowels, the following bble will sufficiently exhibit them in the Bea Language. THz VowELs l:H Bu. ENGLISH BE4. ENGLISH BEA a idea, cut alaba 0 indolent boigoli ii. cur ha, yaba 0 pole job a. father dake 0 konig ( Ger ) to a fathom jii.rawa. 0 pot polike e bed emej 0 awful tO go fade u inilr&e nce biikura e pair ela ii pool piidre i lid igbadigre ai bite daike i police yadi au hou s e chopaua ... ... au haus (Ger,} chau '. boil boigoli 01 Peculiarities of Speeck.-Stress in Andamanese is placed .evel'y long vowel, or on the first syllable of the root or stem. Pecuhar1tles of pronunctation in the South Andaman Languages are as follow : BEA. Sioilants tend to become palatals, a to CM : 0 and a are interchangeable : final open a and e a and e : t is an indistinct palatodental. EALA.WA 1 is palata-dental and lisped, cf. Irish pronunciation of English t and d. The a vow e ls tend to be drawn out: a to become o, and d. to become od.. There is also an incipi ent u11a,ii in words ending in gutturals; e, 9 1 rak, pig; rag-rioam(), pig's flesh,

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l 22 ] BoJIGYAB cl is palafo-dental and tenas to t, and the ci of Bea. tends m Bojigyab to become 8 "; i. e. 1 palatals tend to become sibilants. JuwAr Short vowels are not clearly marked: e and a are interchangeable : final e an tend to i, Vanisbing short vowels are and are thus, o is to 0 : penultimate e is lengthened toe, and st:essed e 1s drawled to ea. There 1s sandlu of final and initial vowels in connected cousecnhve words. Dental, palatal and cerebral t all exist: palatals tend to dentals, eh tot: p tends to soften to ph and almost to/. KoL. ii interchanges with iJ: d tends to et!, cf. old English pronunciation gyard1n for gar. den : e tends to e: final open vowels are uncertain. 5. THE NORTHERN AND OUTER GROUPS. Prorrfs rrf the ;,aenttty of the Northern and Southern Groups qf Langu .. Of the Five Languages of the Northern ( Yerewa) Group, two, Kora and Tabo, are still quite unstudied, the knowledge of the existence of the T ribes speaking them being of less than two years standing, and the Language of the Y ere Tribe is very little known. Port man has, however, long lists, unfortunately to be treate d with much caution, of Kede and Cbariar words, together with many sentences, and it will be sufficient here to give a series of roots and stems, showing where the and Southern Languages meet and how closely related they are by roots : premising that the syntax and word-structure of the Northern Group is identical with that of the Southern Group, and that affixes, notably the radical prefixes, are used precisely in the same way in both Group s It is in the names for common objects and things that languages show their relationship, and the Bojigngiji and Yerewa Groups form no exception to this rule. TABLE oF soME BoJIGNGUI AND YJCREWA RooTs SHOWING A COMMON 0RIG1N, ENGLISH :BEA :BQJIGYAB KEDE CHARUB pig reg re ra ra turtle tau tare toro toro clam chowai chowai chowai choa grub butu peti pata pata. fish yat taiye tajeu tajeu bow (N,) chokio chokio cbokie chokwi bow ( S,) karama ko ku ku wooden arrow tirlech to!O tirleich tirleit wooden pig a, peligma -palig-ma paligma paligma wooden a. head cham cham cbOm chom harpoon string betmo k8ri betmo lure:ino bamboo bucket gob bire kup kup shell-dish chidi kar kar kar shell-cup odo kor kur kor adze wolu wole WO olo baby-sling chip chepe cbipa chiba. cord-ornament ra ra ro iku leaf-wrapper kapa kaba kObo kObn red-ochre koiob keyep keip keip. stone hammer tailibana me mio me6 stone anvil rorop rarap A r8rop rorop canoe roko ro ro rua c. outrigged cbarigma charikma chorok chorok The same community of roots is to be seen in the names of the trees on the islanns, establishing beyond doubt the close common origin of the Anda man 'l : ribes of the Yerewa and Bojigniji Groups, though it will, of course, be understood that in full form, with prefixes and suffixes, very nearly words are in practice unintelligible to the ear. There are, equally of course, a great number of words, the roots of which, while common to each other in the Yerewa Group, differ entirely from those common to the Dojigngiji Group: thus

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[ 23 ] 'fABL'& oF vARYING BonaNGI1I AND YEB.EWA RooTs, ENGLISH BEA BonGYAB KEDE CHARIA.R ornamental net rab rap chirebale chirbale jungle-cat baiyan beyeu chau chau belt, round hod bel tat& tat& b. flat, broad rugan roga.n kuto kudu iron fish, arrow t8lbod pot rautul rautul la.rvre in comb tO to jotu joto honey aja koi tumel tumel black honey tubal tipal maro ma.ro cockles ula tale bun bun It is to be observed. that in the above list, the compound stem in Bea. for iron-fish-nr row, tolbod, is made up apparently ot the Nots pot and tut in the other languages quoted: while rautul seems to have become transferred from the pig, ra, to the fish, tajeu. A similar transfer has taken place between tume&, tutel the "black hon ey" of the North and tubal tipal the "honey" of the South. All of which observations tend to confirm the close coO: nection between the Tribes and the Languages of both Groups. The Outer Group (Onge-Jarawa) e.xamined.-In turning to the Onge Jarawa Group, one..finds that the hostility of the Jarawas, and the only recent friendliness of the Onges combined with thb inaccessibility of the island they inhabit, has caused the knowledge of their language to be but slight. How ever, we have the careful J7o:Jabulary of Colebrooke made in 1790 and those made by Portman just a century later. An examination of these affords suffi .. cient results for the present purpose: viz, proof of the fundamental identity of the language of these people with that of the rest of the Andam3.n Tribes, and what is, perhaps, quite as interesting, proof that Colebrooke's informant really was a Jarawa. "' The limited knolwedge qf it.-A comparison of such of Portman's words as can be compared with Colebrooke's, when shown with roots and affixes separated, and reduced to one system of transcription, produces the following results; noting that in their actual lists, both enquirers fell into .the error of taking the prefixed inflected "personal pronouns" to be essential parts of the words to which they were attached. A LIST OF ONGE-JARAWA. WoRDS, ENGLISH, COLEBROOKE 's J .A RAW A, PORTM:AN'S ONGES arm pi-li oni-bi-le arrow batoi bartoi bamboo o-ta-li o-da-le basket tere-nge to-l e b ead tahi taiyi (stone ) beat ingo-taiya (b. a person) yokwo-be belt otogo-le are-kwage bite mo-pa.ka-be ( b, me) oni-baga-be (b. a person) black chigeu-ge be blood ko c henge gache-nge bone ng-i-to-ng-e (your b.) ichin-da-ge how ta-nge {?wood), ta-hi (as a.ai shown in ng-i-tahi) (your how) breast ka ngagage (your b.) canoe la.k-ke tate chin pi-to-nge ( c, bone ) ibi-ta-nge (c. bone) cold choma ugite-be (to be c.) cough ingo-talie (? ta-be ) udu-be drink minggo-be (I d.) injo -be ear kwa-ge ik-kwa-ge earth totangage tutanonge eat ingo-lolia (? imp.) oni-lokwale-be elbow m-aha-lajebe (my e.) aba-lageboi eye jebe oni-jeboi finger m-ome (my f.) ome fire m-ona (my f.) tu-ke fish ng-a-bohi (your.) cbo-nge hair ot-ti o-de hand ngoni (your ome m-oni (my h,) oni-tolajiboi (man's head) head tebe honey lo-ke tanjai house bede bedai

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hon ( adze head) jump knee laugh nail neck net nose paddle }lath pig :pinch plantain-tree p0t ram run sing sit sleep sky sneeze spitting star stone sun swim take up teeth tongu9 walk water weep wind wood (tree) r 2:L l ciahi ito-le (a j.) ingole-ke (man's k.) onkeme-be mo-bejeda-nga (my n,) to hi bato-li meli (my n. ) m-ekal (my p. ) echo-li stwi body-pinch-don't (don't pinch me ) choleli buchuhi toto-be ( + tigikwa) oye ng-aha-bela-be (you r.) inga-bea-be goko-be ng-ong-tahi (s. you) ng-omo-ka. ( s. you) madam.o o-ehe-ke (a s.) ioga-hwa-nge chilo-be (? shines ) wu-le ehe kwa-be ( y_ou t. u ) m-ahoi {my t, ) ta.-li bunijwa-be m-igwe {my w. ) wana-be tomjame ta-nge doii akwa-tokwa-be (to J) o-la-ge onge-ma-be m-o-bedunge (my n,) oni-ngito chi-kwe oni-nyuboi taai iche-le kwi oni-gini-be J olo-Ie buchu toto-be (go ) gujo-nge aha-bela-be a-kwea-be gogaba-be onan-toko omo-ka-be bengoe-nge ( fbtte ned o ut) e-chi-be (to s ) onakwange chilome-be {moon:? shines) taiyi eke kwane-be geugebe m-akwe ( my t. ) alan-da-nge bujio-be i-nge wan a-be totote da-nge In addition to this list of words offering comparisons1 the following from Col ebrooke can more or less clearly be made out on the same lines. ENGLISH (white) ant bat belly bind bird bracelet charcoal crow flesh COLEB.ROOKE,.S J..&.RA.WA WORDS J..&.RA.W..&. do-nge witwi-le ng-a-poi (your b. ) to-be1 toto-be lobe a-le wahi nahe wuhi ENGLISH friend leg man mouth seed smoke swallow thigh wash (self) J..&.B...&.W..&. padu chi-ge ng-amo-Ian (you are a man?} mona (my m } kita-nge balingi hi-be poi inga-doha-be Portman is unfortunately always difficult fo follow in his linguistic statements as they are so uncertain. His vocabular'ies are apt to differ ftequently from the statements in his lists of sentences, and where his vocabularies can be compared they are inconstant : but at p. 7:31, Vol. II, of his History Df our Relations with tke A.ndamane1e, he gives a comrarative list of J arawa and Onge words his own observations. Poll.TMAN's 0NGE-JA.RA.WA. WoRDs. ENGLISH J..&.RAW..&. ONGE arrowbartoi bartoi axe doii doii bamboo otale 8dale bow aaii .aai bucket uhu ukui crab kagaia drink lDJOWa injobe eye injamma unijeboi fire tuhawe tuke foot monge muge hair enoi1le .made hand mome momc

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[ 25 ] iron tan hi doii ( iron adze ) leaf be be nantilus gaai gaai navel inkwa onikwale net bortai chikwe nose 1nama uningaiboi road ischele icbele run ahabela.be akwebelabe sea etale det a le ( Passage Td, an i slet in the sea ) sit down at
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[ 26 ] Of these, as prefixes relating to mankind and its body, the following occur: Class I Class II Class III Class IV Class V oni-, a general prefix of the body and then, onihead, lip, neck, nose, navel, hip, testicles, stomach ik-, ig-, icheek, ear ibi,.. chin o.. fist, knee, nail, throat alan teeth That the relation between concrete words for the parts of the bo::ly anrl those for ideas belonging to them is shown by the prefixes, comes out neatly in ik-kwa-ge, ear: ik-aibene, deaf. So, too, the words ickEn-dlnge and i-to-nge given for bone" probably refer to a bone of Class II. Proqf of the indentity of Onqe-Ja,.awa with the othe'r Groups.-Among an untutored people, so long isolated even from the other Andamanese, one would hardly look for many roots now in common with them, but the follow ing, which occur in such short lists as those available, sufficiently establish a common origin for the Family. ENGLISH bat cold red ochre net sneeze turtle water bone wood 80JIIE CoMMON RouT;; IN TH ANDAMAN LANGUAGES 0NGZJ4ll..AWA witwi choma. gyalap ehi che, chi Uluga: ( oluge, thunder) cbobe i, ig to ta, da REM.AINING LA.NGU.AQES w8t, wa.t, wot. choki ( Bea) bilap, upla. chi chiba ( Bea, Balawa) Puluga, Bilak ( Bea., fiJUlnga1 storm) cbokbe ( Kede, ina \ Bea, Bala wa ). ta, toa ( Bea, Ba.lawa ) ta, toa., to Colebrooke showed all sorts of impossible things to his Jarawa to name, and one interes ting result is the following ENGLTSH cotton-cloth} par. er JA.ll.A.WJ. pa-nge-be flat become is ONGE be-nge-be fla t become -is course, no Jarawa had ever seen before anything approaching to either objeat, and this man's one expression for both means "it is (has been) :fl.atteneJ ", whicll is wba.t the savage meant to convey, when asked anything so imp J ssible as to name them. In Appendix B will be found a further list of Onge words to aid in the study of this interesting language. Derivation of Mincopie.-We are now in a position to solve a great puzzle of ethnographists for a century and more : why were the Andamanese called Mincopie by Europeans? What word does this transcription represent ? It can now be split up thus. M-0-----nge--he. I-man-kind-am ( I am an Onge) Or, as the Jara.was perhaps pronounce the "M-inggo-be ", or even" M-injo-be ",I am an Ingg o (Injo ). 'lhe name given by the Onges to themselves is a "verbal noun o-nge, manbeing. So that when questi o ned as to himself by Oolebrooke, his Jarawa replied "M'inggobe", or something like it, which compound expression by mistranscription and misapprehension has become the well-known Mincopie of the general e thnol ogica l books in many langua ge s for an Andaman e se. The Ong e s call their own home, the Little Jarawa is a modern Bea term, possibly radically ldentiCal wHh Yerewa, the Bea name for the Northern Group of rribes.

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[ 27 J It is just possible that Colebrooke's Jarawa. misunderstood. wha.t wa.s wanted altogether and simply said, "I am (will be, would be) drinking : m-inqgo-be, I-drink-do ". I have now to record a great disappointment, The proof that the method herein adopted for recovering the Jarawa Language was correct lay in the fact that the word i-nge for "water" was ascertained from a little Ja.rawa boy captured in February, 19021 and the identical word was quite independently unearthed from Colebrooke's and Portman's Vocabu .. laries as Onge-J arawa for ''water". 'l'he only other word clearly ascertained from the boy walu-ng for pig", has not been gathered independently as yet, This little boy was the Ia,t of the prisoners left, who were capturc1d on that occasion (vide Ch. Ill Appx. C.), as the women and small children and girls were all returned and only two boys kept back for a while, in order to get their language, etc., from them, 0 these, the elder died of fever and on the very day that their language was fairly recovered, and we were in a position to set to to learn quickly frorn bim1 the younger died very suddenly, without wa.roing illness o pneumonia.

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r 29 J PART I CHAPTER IV: APPENDIX A. EXPLANA'riON OF THE THEORY oF UNIVERSAl. GnAMMAR usED IN ExPOUNDING THE AND.A.MAN & NrcOBAR LANGUAGES, In building up a theory of universal grammar it is necessary in order to work out the argument logically, to commence where the accepted Grammats end, viz, at the sentence, defining the sentence as the expression o a complete meaning, and makiug that the unit of language. Clearly, then, a sentence m1y consist of one or more expressions or a meaning or "words,' defined as single of a meaning, It can also consist of two separate parts -the subject i.e., the matter to be discussed or communicated, and the predicate, i.e., the discussion or communication. And when the subject or predicate consists of many words it must contain principal and additional words, This leads to the argument that the components o a sentence are words, placed .either in the subjective or predicative part of it, having a relation to each other in that part of principal and subordinate. Therefore, because of such relation, words fulfil functions, The functions then must be of the principal words to indicate the subject or predicate, and of the subordinate words in the predicative part of the sentence to illustrate the predicate, and in the subjective part to explain the subject or to illustrate that explanation. Again, as the prediP.ate is the discussicn or communication on the subject, it is capable o extenl'ion or completiOn by complementary words, which form that part of a sentence recognized in the Gram mars as 'the object,' This completes the first stage o the argument leading to a direct and simple defini tion of grammatical terms; but speech obviously does not stop here, btJcause mankind .speaks with a pmpoo:e, and the function of his sentences is to indbate that purpose, which must be one of the following in any specified sentence:-( l) affirmation, ( 2) denial, ( :3) interro gation1 ( 4) exhortation, ( 5) information. Now, purpose can only be indicated in a sentence by the position or tones of its com ponents, by variation o their forms, or by the addition o special introductory words. Also it is obvious that when purposes are connected they can be indicated by co11nected sentences, and that these sentences must be in the relation to each other of principal and subordinate, This relation can only be expressed by the position of the sentences themselves, by variation of the forms of their components, or oy the addition of special words of reftJrence. A word of reference must act in one o two ways, either by merely joining sentences, or by substitu ting itself in the subordinate sentence for tLe word in the principal sentence to which it refers. Further, as there is a necessary inter-relation between the words in a sentence, this oan only be expressel by the addition of special connecting words, Ol' by variation 01' correlated varia tion of form, These considerations complete what may be called the second stage of the argument leading to clear definitions of grammatical terms, The argument thereafter becomes more complicated, taking us into the explanation of elliptical, i. e. incompletely expressed, forms of speech, and into those expansions of sentences known as phrases, clauses, and periods. But to keep our minds fixed only on that part of it which leads to plain grammatical definitions, it may be stated now that functionally a word must be either,-inventing new terms for the purpose: ( l) An integer, or a sentence in itself. [imperatives, interjections, pron-ouns, merals.] ( 2) An indicator, or indicative of the subject or complement (object) of a sentence. [nouns]. ( 3) An e:cpltcat01, or explanatory of its subject or complement, [adjective] ( 4) A pred;cator, or indicative o its predicate. [verb ] ( 5) An or of its predicate-ot or of the explanatiOn of 1ts subJect or complement. [ advel b, adJ ective] ( 6) A conn!r.tor or of the inter-1e!ation of its components (words). [conJunctiOn, prepos1t10n] ( 7) An inttoducer, or explanatory of its purpose. [conjunction, adverb J ( 8) A referent conjwnctor, or explanatory of the inter-relation of connected sen tences by joining them. [ pronouo, conjunction] ( 9) A referqnt substitute, or explanatory of the inter-relation of connected ces by substitution of itself io the subordinate sentenc e for the word in the principal sentence to which it refers. Lrelative pronoun, conjunction) These, then, .were terms proposed. a!ld the out of which they grew. Of course, grammarians wlll know that all this 1s syntax1 and 1t must now be explained why the Theory makes it necessary to consider it far more important to study function than form or tone as essential to the correct apprehension of the nature of words, and that accidence arises properly out o.f syutax and not the othe1 way rou11d1 as we have al! been taught.

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[ 30 ] It is obvious that any given word may fulfil one or mote or all the functions oF words and that therefore words may be collected into as many classes as the .re are function s individual word being transferable from one class to another and belonging to as many 'class es as there are whi?h it fulfil, Tb. e functions.a !ulfils in any partioular sentence can be by 1ts postbon without or w1th variatiOn o form, or by its and, because of th1s, the form or tone whiCh. a word can be made to assume is capable of in dicating the class to which it belongs for the nonce. It is fmther obvious that wOt"ds trans ferable from class to class belong primarily to a class and secondarily to the others that a transfer involves the fulfilment of a new function, and that a word in its transfer! red condition becomes a new word connected with the form fulfilling the primary function the relation the forms or tones, i .. e words, so connected being that of parent' and ofi.shoot. .Form and tone, therefore, can 1odtcate the class to wilicll a parent word and its offshoots respectively belong. This is the induction that leads to the argument that form grows out of function, or, to put it in the familiar way, accidence grows out of syntax, because when connected words differ in form they must consist of a principal part or stem, and an additional part or func tional affix. The function of the stem is to indicate the meaning of the word, and the func tion of the atlix to modify that meaning with reference to the function of the word. This modification can be expressed by indicating the class to which the word belongs, or by eating its relation or correlation to tbe other words in the sentence, .But the stem itself may consist of an original meaning and thus be a simple stem, or it may contain a modification of an original meaning and so be a compound stem. A com :pound stem mus t consist of a. principal part or root and additional parts or radi c al affixes, the function of the root being to indicate the original meaning of the stem, and of the radical affixes to indicate the modifications by which the meaning of the root has been changed into the meaning of the stem. }'urther, since words fulfil functions and belong to classes, they must possess inherent qualities, which can be indicated by qualitative affixes and by tones, Thus it is that the affixes determine the forms of words, bringing into existence what is usually called etymology or derivation. 'rhey are attachable, separa.bly or inseparably, to roots and stems and words by the well..recognized methods of prefixing, infix:ing, and suffixing either in their full c;r in a varied form. It is the method of attaching them by variation of form that brings about inflexion in all its variety of kind. Such is the line inductive argument naturally takes in order to work ont the grammar of any given language or group of lan g uages Jogically, starting ftom the base arg ument that speech is a mode of communication between man and man, expressed through the ear by talk ing, through the eye by signs, or through the skin by touch, and taking a language to be a variety or special mode of speech. The grammar, i.e. the exposition of the laws, of any single language stops at this p o int, and to carry the argument further, as one of cours e must, is to enter the region of Compara tive Grammar. In doing so one must start at the s ame point as b e fore, viz., the s e ntence., but progress on a differ ent line, because hith e rto the effort has b een to resolve the unit of !an-: guage into its components, and now it has to be considered as being itself a of thing greater, i. e., of a language. To continue the argument. Since a sentence is composed of words placed in a. parti cular order without or with variation of form, its meaning is clearly rendered compl ete by the combination of the meaning of its components with their position and tones or forms or bcth. Also, since sentei:ICes are the units of languages, words the components of sent ences. and languages are varieties of sp e ech, can vary in the forms and tones of their words, or in the position in which their words are placed itl the sentence, or in both, And thus are created classes of languages. Again, since the meaning of a. sentence may be rendered comp1ete either by the position of its words or by their tones and forms, languages are primarily divisiable into syntactical languages or those that e x pre s s complete meaning by the posi t ion of their words; and into formative languages, or those that express complete meaning by the forms of their words. Also since syntactial languages depend on position or on position combined with tone to e xp r ess complete meaning they are divisibll' into analytical and tonic languages. since words are varied in form by the of. and since affix e s may be attached to words 1D an altered or unaltered form, format1 v e languag e s are divisible into agglutinative langti a ges, or those that add affixes without alteration; a. nd into synthetic lan(J'ua(J'es, or tho.3e that add affixes with alteration. And lastly, since affixes may be prefixes, or suffixes, agglutinative and syn t hetic langu11gtJs are e ach divisible into ( 1) pre-mutative, or those that prefix their affixes; ( 2) intra-mutativ e or tha t infix them; and (3) post-mutative, or those that suffix them. Thus i nductive a rgument can be carri e d onwards to a cl ear and d e finite a p p r e hen s ion of the -oirth and growth of the phenomena presented by the varieti e s o f human sp eech, i e., by languages. But, as is the case with every other natural growth, no language eau have eve1 been left to develop iteeU alone, and thus do we get the phenomenon of connected languages

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[ 31 ] which may be defined as those that differ from each other by varyinothe respective forms and po:>ition, but not the meaningH, of their words. And since the variation of form effected by the of altered. or affixes, connected languages can vary the forms of the affixes w1thout matenally varymg those of the roots and stems of their wot ds. In this way they become divisible into groups, or those whose stems are common and into families, or those whose roots are common. 1 It is also against natllral conditions for any language to develop only in one direction, or without subjection to outside influences, and so it is that we find languages developing 011 more than one line and belonging strictly to m 0 re than one class, but in every such case 1he language has what is commonly called its genius Ol' peculiar consti L utivn, i.e., it belongs primatily to one class and secondarily to the others. I have always thought, and I believed it can be proved, th1t every language must conform to some part or other of the Theory above indicated in outltne, and in that case the' Theory would be truly what I have ventured to call it-" A Theory of Universal Grammar.' 'l'hat such a Theory exists in nature and only awaits unearthing, I have no doubt whatever. Mankind, when untrammelled by 'teaching,' acts on an instin c tive assumption of its ex is tence, for children and adults alike always learn a language in the same way if left to themselves. They copy the enunciation of complete sentences from experts in it to start with, learning to divide up and vary the sentences so acquired afterwards, and this is not only the surest but also the qui.!kest way of mastering a foreign tongue correctly. Its natural laws, its rules of grammar, as stated in books about it, are mastered later on, and in every case where they only are studied there comes about that book knowledge of the language, which is everywhere by instinct acknowledged to be a matteL' apart from and in one sense inferior to the practical or true knowledge, I use the term 'true. here, beClmse, unless this is possessed. whatever knowledge may be acquired fails to fulfil its object of finding a new mode of communicating with one's fellow man. Eook knowledge of a langllage is useful only for scientific and educational purposes, but if the laws laid down in the set Grammars were to follow closely ou the laws instinc tively obeyed by the untutored man, and to do no violenoe to wha.t instinct teaches him, to be the logical sequence of ideas, the divorce betweea practical and linguistic knowledge -between knowledge by the ear and knowledge by the eye-would not be so complete as it is nowadays. And not only tha.t, if the laws could be stated in the manner above sug gested, they could be more readily grasped and better retained in the memory, and languages would consequently be more quickly, more thoroughly, and more ea:;ily learned, both by children and adults, than is now practicable. Looked at thus, the matter becomes one of the greatest practical importance, This is what the Theory attempts to achieve: but, assuming it to be fundamentally right; and correctly worked out, it should explain the workings of the untutored mind of the And manese or Nicobarese as exhibited in his speech, although it reverses the accepted order of teaching, alters many accepted definitions, and, while admitting much that is usually taught, it both adds and omits, many details, and taken all round is a wide departure from orthordox teaching. How wide the following observations will show. The familiar terminology has been changed in this wise. The old noun, adjective, verb, ad verb, preposition, and conjunction become indicator, explicator, predicator, illustrator, connector, and referent conjunctor, while interj e ctions and pro nouns become integers and referent substitutes. Certain classes also of the ad verbs are converted into introducers. Gender, number, person, tense, conjugation, and declension all disappear in the general description of kinds of inflexion:-the object becomes the complement of the predicate, and concord becomes cprrelated variation, The Theory is based on the one phenomenon, which must of necessity be constant in every variety of speech, viz., the expression of a complete meaning, or, technically, the sentence. Words are then considered as components of the sentence, firstly as to the functions performed by them, and next as to the means whereby they can be made to fulfil their functions. Lastly, languages are considered according to their methods of composing sentences and words. Assuming this course of reasoning to be logicallJ:" correct, it must, when properly out, explain every of speech; and when 1ts dry bones have been clothed wtth the ne cessary flesh for every possible language by the process of direct nl!>tural development o detail, a clear and fair explanation of all the phenomena. of speech must be logically deducible frow. the general principles enunciated therein. THE SKELETON 0]' A THEORY OF GRAMMAR. SPEECll is a mode of communication betwe en man and man by expression. Speech may be communicated orally through the ear by talking, optically through the e y e by 2igos, tangibly through the skin by the touch. LANGUAGES are varieties o speech. The unit& of languages are SIN'l.'BNOES. A sentence is the expression of a. complete meaning.

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[ 32 ] A_ sentence may consist of a single ex_pression of a meaning. A single expression of a meamng IS a WORD. A sentence may also consist of many words. When it consists of more than one word, it has two parts. 'l'hese parts are the SUBJECT and the PREDICATE. The sub ject of a sentence is the matter communicated or discussed in the sentence. The predicate of a sentence is the communication or discussion of that matter in the sentence. The subject may consist of one word. It may also consist of many words. When it consists more than one word, there is a word and predicate may consrst of one word. It may also consist of many words. When rt consrsts of more than one word, there is a principal word and additional words. Therefore the components of a sen tence are words placed either in the subjective or predicative part of it, having a relation to each other in that part. 1'his relation is tllat of principal and subordinate. Since the words composing the parts of a sentence are placed in a position of relation to each other, they fulfil functions, 'l'he function of the principal word of the subject is to in dicate the matter communi:Jated or discussed by expressing it. Tb.e function of the subordi nate words o the subject may be to explain that mdication, or to illustrate the explana t ion of it. 'l' he function of the principal word of the predicate is to indicate the commuuicatiou or discussion of the subject by expressing it. 'l'he function of the subordinate words of the predi. cate may be to illustrate that indicatiJn, or to complete it. The predicate may be completed by a word explanatory of the subject or indicative of the COMPLEM.ENT, Therefore primarily the words composing a sentence are either: 1 ( 1 ) INDICATORS, or indicative of the subject. ( 2) .ExPLICATORs, or explanatory of the \3) PREDICATORS, or indicative of the predicate. ( 4) lLLUSTRATOB.S1 or illllstrative of the predicate, or of the explan&.tion of tha subject. ( 5) COMPLEMENTS, or complementary of the predicator. And complements are either indicators or explicators. Therefore also complementary indica tora_may be explained by explicators, and this explanation may be illustrated by illustratol'S, And e:epticator& may be illustrated by iHustrators. :But, since speech is a mode of communication between man and man, mankind speaks with a purpose. The function of sentences is to indicate the purpose of speech. Tile puqJose of speech is either ( 1 ) affirmation, ( 2) denial, ( 3 ) interrogation; ( 4) exhortation, or ( 5 ) iQform:ttion. l'urpose may be indicated in 3 sentence by the PCSITION of its compon;;n ts, by the TONES of its componentii', by VARIATION of the forms of its are by the addition of introductory words to express it or INTRODUOKRS. Also, since the function of se1;1tences is to indicate the purpose of speech, connected purpose& may be indicated by CONNJ!;CTBD sENTENCEs. The relation of connected sentences to each other is that of principal and subordinate. Tnis relation may be expressed by the position of the connected sentences, by variation of the tones or forms of their components, or by the addition of referent words expressing it or REI!ERENTS, A referent word may express the inter relation of connected sentences by conjoilling them, or by substitutmg itself in the subordi D!tte sentence tor the word io the principal sentence to which it refers. Referents are there fore CONJ'UNCTORS or SUBSTITUTBS, Also, since the words composing the pares of a sentence are placed in a position of relatiou to {lach other, this relation may be expressed in the sentence by the o con necting words expressing it or COIIINECTORS, or by variation of the forms of the WOl'ds selves. Aim, since predicators are specially connected with indicators; explicators with Indicator; illustrators and complements with predicators; and referent substitutes with their principals; there is an intimate relation between predicator and indicator, indicator a.nd explicator, illustrator and predicator, predicator and complement, referent substitute and principal. This intimate relation may be expressed by the addition of connecting words to express it, or by correlated variation in the forms of tue specially connected words or by their rela.tive position or by tht:>ir relative tones. Since is a mode o"fcoJil.muri.ication between man and man by that communication may be made complete without complete expression. Speech may, therefore, be partly expressed, or be partly left unexpress e d. And sinc e sp e ech may be partly left un expressed, referent words may r e fer to the un.expressed portions, and words m a y to unexpressed words or correlated. to them. .H.eterent substiLutes may, therefore, md10ate the subject of a sentence. Again, many words may be used collectively to express meaning of one word The collective expression of a single meaning by two or more words rs a PH&ASB. 'l'he relatwn of a phrase to the WOl'd it represents is of original and substitut e A phrase, therefor e ful fils the function of its original. Since a is composed of words used collectively to represent a single expression of a meaning, that meaning may be complete in itself. Therefore a phrase may be a sentenc e A sentence substituted for a wo1d is a CLAUSE, A clause, therefor e fulfils the function of its original, -

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[ 33 ] Since clauses represent words, a sentence may be eompo!led of claus e s, or p.artly of clauses and partly of words. A sentence composed Of clauses, o1 partly of clauses and partly of words, is a :rE &rOD, Theref"re a word is functionally either-( 1) A, sentense iti itself or ail INTEGER, (2) An essential component of a sentence or ( 8) An optional component of a sentence, The essential components of a sentence are UCER1 or explanatory of its purpose, A REFERENT CONJUNCTo'a, or explanatory of the interelatiori of connected sentences by joining them. A REFERENT sUBSTITUTE, or explanatory of the inter-relation of connected sen tences by substitution of itself in the subordinat e sentence for the word. in the principal to which. it refers An individual word may fulfil all the functions of words, or it fulfil only one tinction, or it may fulfil many functi
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[ 34 ] Affixes may be attached to roots, stems, or words in their /ull/orm, or in a varieilform; When there is variation of form, there is INFLEXION or inseparabilit.y of the affix from the root, stem, or word. All the functions of affixes can, therefore, be fulfilled by inflexion; and inflected wotdB may conform to particular XINDS OF INFLEXION. Since a sentence is composed of words placed in a particular order, with or without variation of form, the meaning of a sentence is rendered complete by the combination of the meaning of its components with their position, with their tones, or with their forms, or partly with their position and partly with their forms or tones. Since sentences are the. units of languages, and words are the components of sentences, and since languages are varieties of speech, languages may vary in the forms of their words, in thP tones of their words or in the position in which their words are plactld in the sentence, or partly in the forms and tones and partly in the positivn of their words. There are, there fore, CLASSES OF LANGUAGES, Since the meaning of a sentence may be rendered complete by the position of its words, by their tones or by their fmm, are primarily divisible into SYNTACTICAL LANGUAGEs, or those that express complete meaning by the position and tones of their words; and into -FORMATIVE LANGUAGEs, or those that express complete meaning by the position and forms of their words, Since syntactical languages use either position or position and tone, they are divisible into ANALYTICAL LANGUAGES and TONIC 'LANGUAGES; _ words are varied in form by the addition of affixes, and since affixes may be attached to words in an unaltered or altered form, formative languages are divisible into AGGLUTINATIVE LANGUAGES, or those that add affixes without alteration j and into SYNTHETIC i.&NGU.AGEs, .or those that atld affixes with al1eration. ----. Since affixes may be prefixes, infixet<, or suffixes, agglutinative and synthetic laD guages are each divisible into (ll PREMUTATlVI!: LANGUAGES or those that prefix their affixes; (2) INTBo-MUTA.TIVE LANGUAGES, or those that infix their affixes j (3) POSTMUTAT!Ve LANGUAGES1 or those that suffix their affixes, Languages are, therefore, byclass either syntactical or formative. And syntactical languages are either analytical or tonic and formative languages are either agglutinative or synthetic. And agglutinative and synthetic languages are either pre-mutative, intro-mutative, -err postmlifative. A language may belong entirely to one class, or it may belong to more than one class. -When a language belongs to more tbatn)nf! class, it belongs primarily to a.particular class -andseoonaarily to other classes, Since the meaning of a sentence is rendered complete by the meaning of its words in combination with their forms or position, languages may be CONNBCTBD LANGUAGEs, or those 'tha.t vary the forms, the tones or the position, without varying the meanings, of their words. Since variation of form is effected by the addition o affixes in an unaltered or altered form, connected languages may vary affixes Without variation of the roots Gr stems of their words. Connected languagetl whose stema are common belong to a GRouP. Connected lan guages whose roots are common belong to a FAlllLY j and, therefore, all connected languages balouging to a group belong to the same family. DIAGRAMS TO ILLUSTRATE THE THEORY OF UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR. Diagrams are now given illustrating the Th?ory, in or.der to make the explanation of the Andaman and Nicobar Languages accordmg to 1t the easrer to understand. These Dia. grams are as follow : I The Sentence illustrated II Ill IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Xlll by its components by the interrelation of its components by its function by its expanded components by the interrelation of its expanded components by the functions of its components by the classes of its components by the interrelation of the cl a sses of its components by the of the of its components by the pos1t10n, tone and form of 1ts components -by general development into languages by development into claeses of languages by development into interrelated classes of la.Dguages

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[ 35 ] DIAGRAMS OF DETAILS I ILLU3TRA.TING ANALYSIS OF THE SENTENCE BY ITS COMPONENT WOUDS, NoTEs.-A Sentence is composed o Words.. A Word is the expression of a meaning. A Sentence is -the expression of a complete meaning-. Words required to express the meaning of a sentence are (l) inte gers indic ators ( 3) predicators ( 4) explicators, ( 5) illustrators. FRINCIPAL WORD I I I In!lleator explicator l._-,--_1 I lLLUsTllATORs ExPLICATOR partly make up partly makes up .I_ --,.----1 partly makes np indicator explicator subordinate words illustrators explicators I compl ete s completes which I j partly make up -----'------:' I partly make up partly make up .I_ --.,------'--1 illustrators complement ( pattly make up whic h partly makes up I .1_ --1 principal word indicator subordin ate words (indicator) completes which principal word predicator subordinate words ( preclicator) compl ete s which partly makes up j partly make up par tly llltes up I partly iakes up I I THE SUBJECT which partly makes up integer compl etes' I TilE PRE DICATE whic h partly ma kes up I I --I THE SENTENCE. II ILLUSTRATING ANALYSIS OF THBSENTI'NCEBY THE INTEit-iiELA.TION AND INTIMATE RELATION OF ITS COMPONENT W0RDS, NoTEs.-Inter -r e lation o compon ent words is expressed by variation in form. Intimate r e lation o component words is expressed by correlat e d variation in form (agreement). Words r equired to express the inter-r e lation of component words arc ( 6) cunnect.r).rs. CORRELATED VARIATION IN FORM expresses intimate relation b e tween I I indicator indicator illustrntorli predicato r and D.nct and and predirator explirator pre dfcn.tor com pl e m ent which form which form which f rom which fLu m t ___ _;l:__----:____ 1 C o MP ONENT WORDs which with variation in f orm partly make up CONNECTORS I partly make up _______ / I CONNECTED WORDS ---------------------:B'llic' h comol ete

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[ 36 ] Ill ILLUSTRATING ANALYSIS OF THE SENTENCE BY ITS li' UNCTION. NoTE,-The function of a sentencu is to express its pnrpose. Words required to express the functiou of a. sentence are ( 7) I ut roducers. words varied in tone indi cate worcls varied iu form indi cate I I positi on of words in a sentence indicates I fun et ion ( purpose ) which is one of the following I introduce r indicates I I J I affirmation denial inlerro;!a.tion exhortation information which completes which completes which completes which completes which I THE SENTENCE IV ILLUSTRATING ANALYSIS OP THE SENTENCE EXPANDED BY THE SUBSTITUTION OF l'HRASES, CLAUSES AND SENTENCflJS FOR WORDS, (PERIODS) NoTEs.-A pbrasP is the substitute for a word by t.he collective expressil}n o a meaning by two or more words. A clause is the sub stitute for a word by the collec t ive of a com plete meaning by two or more words. A period is a sentence expanded by clauses or words phraee substituted for worJ.s partly make up I clauses substituted for wotds partly make up J clause s substituted for words complete I THE SENTENCE ( =PERIOD ) v. words partly make up J ILLUSTRATING ANALYSIS OF THE SENTEN-CE WHEN EXPANDED BY THE. INTER-RELATION OF ITS TS. N OTE.-Connected express connec ted purposes. Words req ui to express : the inter-relation of connect e d sentences are ( 8) referent conJunetors ( 9 ) r eferen t substitutes. A tone is a point on a convent iona l scale of the voice : in speaking. ( 9 ) BEJIBRli:NT SUBSTIT'I!TE INDICATES' ( 8 ) REPBREN'T OON'JUNCTOR INDICA.TB!I I I I I I I with without with correlated varia tion inform. with without I I with without I witb c orre lated variation i n form I I with without I l I I I vnria.tio n in form l I SUBJECTIVE PART OF THB b!lNTENCil Variation in words of I tone variation in word s of I ----"''------too e form position 1 I I tone form position 1._--!,-1 _I __ _,_,.I l referent conj11nctors indicat e s i nuica.te '----:--' I TRE PRJNClPAJ, SJi:NTENCE which partl y ma ke s up I I indicates '--,--__:______..! I SUBORDIN'ATJI SENTENCES which partly make up I CONNECTRD.SENT ENCES whic h corno l ete 1_1 I vari ntion in form UNEXPRESSED COli:l[UNIOAT I ON IN r word s sentences l_l I t o ne

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[ 37 ] VI. ILLUSTRATING A.NA.LYSIS OF l'HE SENTENCE BY THE FUNCTIONS OF ITS COMPONENTS. (6) CONNECTOR is an (7) !NTRODll'OEB is an (8) REFERENT CONJUNCTOK is an I indica.tor explicator I I indicator explicator illustrator 1 _.;_1 __ ----:---, ---completes I partly makes up I I (9} REFERI!l'f'l.T BUBSTITll'TB: is an (2) INDICATOR is an t3) lliXPLICA'I!OR is an ( 4) l'll.I!DICATOB is au (i>) ILLUsTRA.TOB is an COM:l'LE:M:l!NT Ol'TIONAL Which is an COMPONENT (1) INTEGER completes. I I I I EBENTIAL OOMP ONEN'l' for compl eting I I J THE I:!ENTENCE. VII lLLUSTRA. TING ANALYSIS OF THE SENTENCE BY CLASSES OF ITS COMl'ONEHTS. NoTEs,-Class indicates the nature of a word. Form indicates the class of a word. CQMl'ONENT WORD, I I I I without with with r---" I I I variation of form tone by by I POSITION f fulfils I I l I all functioDB many functions one function J indicating indicatiug indicating I I I CLAS S fulfilling I I I all functions many functions one func tion which produces which produces which produceS' I I I I TaANSPBR of compon ent word s from clllss to c l ass I I I I withouft I withou t with with without I I I I r I vnriation of for m tone and by and by I I I PoSITION compl e tes I THE SENTENC E for comp let ing

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l ss ] VI_! I. JLLUSTBA.TING ANALYSIS OF THE SENTENCE BY THE INTERRELATION 01!' THE CLA.S SES 01!' ITS COMPONENTS, words indioo.te their transfer from one class to another. CLA!!B consists of I I I PBtlUBY C:t.Ass which forma SEcONDARY CLASSES fulfilling new functions, by transfer from primary class and I I I I I with without without with -=L ----:---1, I variation in form tono l' .uml'!T WOU form of OPP!!liOOT WOBDS I l'rimary Class I I CoNll'ECTED wo&Iis which assume form of r --1 -----and partly make up l Secondary Classes I other Component words partly make up '-----.-----' I THE SENTENCE. IX I ILLUSTRATING ANALYSIS OF THE SENTENCE BY THE OF THI!l F-UNCTIONS OF ITS CGMPONENTS. NoTEs.-The root indicates the original meaning of a word. Affixes comprise prefixes, infixes, suffixes. Affixes mod1fy the meaning of a word. A radical affix modifies the-me aning of a root. A simple stem is the principal part of a word indicating its meaning. A functional affix modifies the m e anin g of a ste m in relation to its function. A compound stem comprises a i'oot and its radical affix. A qualitative affix word by indicating its natu1e(inherent q ualities) in relation to unction or class. Connected words comprise stems and their functional affixe s. Inflexion is caus e d by an alterati o n in the form of ins e parable affix:es, Inflected words conform to particular kinds of inflexion, Ton&-ift-a-aubf!titute for inflexio n;

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J [ 39 ] PRRPIJ:li!S INPIXBS 8'17Pri:Z:Z:tJ ____________ 1 I I attached attached separably inseparably by in inllxtion ( altered form ) I I I I full form varied form of one kind o many kind1 '----:-----1 1 ____ --:--_____ J I I I ROOT ITEM: WOBD '------;-------' form AFl'IXES I I I QUALITATIVI!l Al'l'IXES wbit'h indicate the inherent q na.litiea of cluu of FUNCTIONAL .A.Pl'IXI!lS which modify RADICAL by indicating I AI!'I!'IXES which modify root I claea of interrelation of I correlation of I I I &imple stems compound stems which are which are I CoN:NKrms of its c omponents. c;reates r I by position of its. coin ponents creates I by I into forms tones I combined with th" position of its components creates

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[ 40 J XII. ILLUSTRATING ANALYSIS OF ALL t&NGUAGES BY DEVELOPMENT IN CLASSES I by variat.ion in forms of its component creates in which position of components of sentences creates I SYN'l:Acn'ICAL )JANGWAGEB I withont tones I I with tones PROM THE SEN1!NCE, THE SRNTENCE I I by variation in position of ita companents creates I I variation of form in its components I I by combining I 1. varmt10n of position in its components I I creates tones and position of its components I CLASSJIS Ol!' LANGUAGJIS I in which forms of components of een tence creates I FOBMATIVJI LANGUAG'ES I I I in which in which lorms of components forme of components varied by varie:l by unaltered affixes altere :i affixes creates (inflexion ) /--creres AGGLUTINATIVE SYNTHETIC LANGUAGES LANGUAGJIS I I I I I with prefixed affixes with infixed affixes with suffixed affixes or or or ANALYTICAL TONIC PBEMUTATIVll lNTROMUTATIVE PosrMUTATIV.B: LANGUAIUS LANGUAGIIB LANGUAGES LANGUAGES LANGUAGBS !_I ---T-1 ___ I I I which by nature by of one partial PRIMARY CLASS of the nature of a.re PABEJ!M! LANGUAGES I a.nd comprise ALL SECONDARY Cx...a.asBS are OnsBOOT LANGUAGES I

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[ 41 1 XIII. ILLUSTRATING ANALYSIS OF ALL DY D EV ELOPMENT IN TRill INTERRELATION OF CLASSES FROM THE SENTENC.I!l. THE SENTENCE I l I wit.h varied affixes without varied affixes to the stems to the stems of its components of its components I creates GROUPS Oll' LANGUJ.GIIis I I an.t with varied affixes and without varied at!ixes to the roots to the roots of the stems of the stems aud by varlaLLon of tu ne cf its in Famili es I create s F A1>1ILY Oll' I I and by variation of f or m of i t s c ompo nents in Familie s I I without variatio n in lhB meaning of the c ompo ner;.ts cr
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[ 43 1 J PART I. CHAPTER IV APPENDIX B. AN ONGE VOCABULARY. The tt Ouier Group" of the Andamane'le ( Onges and J ara.was) bea.rs the closest resembl ance in customs, etc., i, e assun ing them to bear any at all, to the Samangs and Aetas, of all the Andamanese Tribes, and h e nce there is much interest exhibited in their In this Appenclix, therefor e is gath"'rert togethel' as much of the Onge Voca bubry as can be with any degree of snfety extrac 1 ed fron Port man's Andamanese Manuat, the information in which is not, howeve1, unfortunately as clear as is desirable. In the following Table the roots have been separated fro;n the prefixes and suffixes, abundant abuse (to) ache (to) acid adze ant apron (women's) armlet arrow (iron) arrow (wood) arrow (fish ) ar1 ow ( vig) av.ake (to) bag (of netting) bale out (to) bum boo hlllaua bark ba1 b (arrow) basket beard bc>at (to) beetle belt (round) belt (broad, flat) binder bite (to) black blood blow (to) boi l (to) bone bone (human) bow break {to) brea> t bre:1the (to} broom bucket (wood) bucke1 ( bamboo) butterfly eall l to l cane cane-necklace canoe cast away {to) cbeek chin clam clap (to) clay (white f or su eariug) cloud cocvanut 0NGE VocABULARY. gene onu-kweba-be oni-dang-wule-be ? bones a,) a-iioii doii cha ntibo-de ng-a -kwinyoga-le (your a.) ibi-l>we bartoi to t a-le tome l;akoi t akete-le tongkute loga-be kumumwi, taugu-le ga.iye-boko-be o-da-le yolOle g-angwi tome tfi-le i:ingu-1,o-de yokwo-be t cdanchu m-are-kwa-g e (my b. ) m ino-kwe (my b.) tu-:kwe be gache-nge tamiJoi(be ) icbin-da-nge uni-da-nge a-ai ng-i-kwa-be (you b.) nga ka-ge (your b.) kwuio-be da-ge ukwi kubuda-nge be be-le eng-yi:i-be, onai-waba -be tati i-deda-le da-nge yobobine-be ngig-boi (your c.)' ibi-da-nge taga-le ako-bana-bekwe-be we baije da-ge {? wood,. tree) cold (toeel) come {to) ungi-te-be inai-oba-be, onukwange-me copulate {to) ng-o-tolo-be (you c.) cough udu-ge crab kagaia. creek kuai cyrena-shell(scraper) totu-le dance ono-la-ge dead (to be) bechame-me deaf ik-aibene dish ( wooden) da-nge-, ( wood ) drink (to) dugong ear earth eat (to) ebb tide embrace eye fall (to) fastening (a) feathe r f e rn fever (to have) fight t to) finger fire fish fist flip (to ) floo d tide fly fo o d (to take) foo t f o rbid (to) glad (to be) go (to ) "God" goo d gra:ss green gun hair hand h e ad-dress (can e ) heavy to (be) hip hiss Lit (with arrow) honey hook ( for fish), hop (to) hotttobe). how much H:iba.-nge injo-be twowe ik-kwa.-ge tutano eni-lokwale-be ga-de ku-ge uni-jeboi i-teka-be gwi-kwe go-de tomojai1 lakakai unai-te-be on;-kwe-be ome tuke cbo-ge o-beke oni-totoge-be kobakwe-le ngonoi ng-i-da-be ( you t, f.) m-uge (my,) gobokwe be a-kioko -be oni-toto-b e ( come) bujio-be ( wa.lk) Ulu-ge i-wado tokwongoye tot?'nda-nge um-nye m-od e (my b.) m-ome (my h.) ng-i-de da-le (your h. d.) (you are h.) oni-boi ng-ik-iki (you h.): gai-be tanjai tome ichin-kwolebe jonjowe ... be hio?. -

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bntn (to) hung-ry (to be ) hut I, my lnd ian ( an) iguana iron 1 knife} jawbone (human) ornament jum11. (to) kick 1 to) kiss (to} (? smell) knee kneel laugh (to) leaf lick (to) lie uown (to) lip lizard man mangrove mangrove fruit. marry (to) mat (sleeping) micmrate moon mouse much murder (to) nail nautilus-shell (cup) navel neck necklace net nose orchid ornament (of sha vings) outrigger paddle pandanus fruit path peel pig pinch prick pot ( cooking) quick, be I rain red ochre red wax resin I'ingworm rope rub (to) run (to) saline saliva salt sand scar scratch (to) sea shampoo (to) shark sharp sh':l.l'pen (to) r 44 J gojai an"'i-ai--me bedai IDl i-nene giti lea ang-bo-de orii-tekwome-be nyonyo-be m-ola-g-e (my k.) ono-lakwouho-be {you L) be-be {to be flat) ng-i-tome-be ( you I.) ng-ainyt-be (you l. d.) ko-ge uni-agi-le (married m.) tun-da-nge tun'-tree) kw ea ini-a-be ema1 o--cbolo-be chile--me (to be bright) aTa-nge -liwa-ng-a ololaji-be m-obeda-nga (my n.) gaai oni-kwa-le ona-no ito m-a-;gitok e (my n.) chi-kwe uni-nyaiboi koyo kwibo-le i-Ledu-ge taai ba-le ich e-le gangwi kwi oni-gini -be oni-takwa-be buchu ( to-te, its case } ing-ko! gujo-nge ala me kwengane m one jwichwi kwola-ge eb:..ele-be akwe-bele-be ngie ina-kwenge in.je b e lai oni-bare akwe-o-be i ... nge (water) ine.-o-4e kadu giechare totokwe -be shave "'beU s ho t (arrow) s ing. (to) sit (to) skin !'ky sle e p (to) sm a ll smoke r;:nake snake (sea) sore ( a ) spill ( to) spine spitting spr i nkle (to) sq nea.k (to ) squeeze ( to) stan-d stomach stone stool (to) stretch { to ) strebcti ( ;os, oneseif) strike (to) string i to) stroke (to) sun SUI'f swallow (a) I to) swi m (to ) take away (to) take bold (to) tattoo (to) te!Jr (to) testicles thorn throat throw thunder tiptoe (to be on) tongue tooth. torch tra y (for food ) tumble (to) tur tle turtle eggs tusk (pig ) umbr ella. (lea) untie (to) vomiL (to) waterwax (wbitebees') weep (to' whe t s tone whisk (for flies) whistliug white wife wind wound y a.v n (to) yes ono-tale-be tod a ndwi gfti-be ng-o-gaba-be (you s.) unan-toko-be gangwi ( pe -nnda-kwoi una-kwa-n"'e gil a ko-be une-ge-be d u ka-be on an-nga-nge taiyi -oni-yu-be ina-kwo nbwoke-be ng-i-golo-be (yous, ynur:;elf) kwoke-be e-be una-oe-be eke balame tugede-le t ote-be kwau e-be ng-ea kin gko-be (yon t. a.) ng-imge-be-(you t, h. ) (you t,) i-d.okwo-be oni-kwo-ge tundankie o-ngito wo aikw&-be Blu-ge { God" ) onu-ji1g aii::i-be al a n -da-nge rn.-a-kwe (my t.) to-kwe toba-ge i-teka-be nadela-nge, takwatoai kwagane a-. kwe o-tnodu i-lebu-be o-blo-be i-nge chil e me wana-be tijt o-be to m o-ge on\ -anga-le tonknte uni-au-le tot6te oni-ba-le ona-lan g otO-be une-la.ije

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[ 45 ] PART I CHAPTER IV APPENDIX C. THE FIRE LEGEND IN THE BOJIGNIJI GROUP (t!e Bea is already given in the Tezt.) BALA W A VERSION. Dor l Ze rita Keri-l' ong-tower-te Puluga l' i fof1go choapa l'...;;;. omo (a M an) long-ago { a Plare) ,__by God his platform fire bringing kate 1 ong ik akal-pora puqurut l'a-re I Bolub ka Tarkdr -was 1 he taking all-men bum -t di-d I (a Man) and. (a Man) ka ongot oto-i uru,qmu -t-ia 1 ongot at-yokae fish m.o becom and (a Man) they in-the-sea-wen -t-did I they n .IJa I on got ortro-tickaZ-entJ, te -ing I they carry-taking-by nga l'-a -re -ing di-d Rolcwa-l'ar-tonga-barf}ij -a ( a Place ) village .... in oko-dal firemak-Portman'& .Rendering.-Dim-Ddra, a very long time ago, at Keri-l'ong-tawer, wa.s bringing fire from God's platform. He, taking the fire, burnt everybody witll it. Bolub and i arkcr and Bilichau fell into the sea aud became fish. They took the fire to Rokwal' ar-tonga village and made fi:es there. BOJIGYAB VERSION. Tol-l'okll-timan Bililc l'ongprrt -ye I Lzerrztut I l'ong at ao-lec!i n.qa I (a Place) -in God. sleep-did I (a .Bird) I he fire bring-ing 1 Luratut l'ongdi -ye I kotz ong Biliic l'ab-biki -ye I kota Bilile l' ong -lc()nyi (a Bird) seiz -ed I then he God bumt J then God awa.ken -ye I Bilile I l'ong at li -ye I ong e Luratut l'oto -toi-c1zunga (, -ed I God I he fire seiz -ed I he then {a Bird) (with) fire. hitt-ing 1 kota kol ong e Tarcltal l'otet ?i-cku-ye I l'ongdi -ye 1 then again he then (a. Man) (with) fire-hit -did I (a Hird) seiz-ed 1 ong Lau-C!wm -lt'/1-d_a ng"t I ota Lau-Ckam I n'ong 0 -lcadak -nga. he ancestors -to g1v-wg I Wota-Em1-1u then ancestors l they fire-mak-ing. Portman'& R&ndering.-God was sleeping in TC>l-l'oko-tima. Luratut went to bring fire. Luratut caught hold of the fire, then he burnt God. Th3 n God woke up. God seiZJd the fire. He hit Luratut with the fire. Then again he hit 'l'archal with the fire. Chaltel' caught hold of it. He gave it to the ancestors. 'Jhen the ancestors made fire at Wota.Eini. JUW .AI VERSION. Kurot'on-milc -a Mom Mirit -la I BiliJc t'dko-emll-t J pealear at -lo top 1 (a .Place)-in Mr. Pigaon 1 God slep-t I wood fire-with stealing [ -chilce at lai che Leek -lin a 1 kotd a o!c'J-koda!c -chine at-to -was fire (a Man) -to he 1 then ha fire-make dtcL firewi 6 b. Karat-tatak-emi -in (a. Place ) -at Portman'sllendering .-Mr. Pigeon stole a firebrand at Kuro-t'on-mika, while God was eleeping. He gave the brand to the late Lech, who then made fires at Karat-tatak-emi, Tdt-l'oko-fim Bililc (a Place) -in Gol Kdlotat -ke I lin (a Man) -was I by l' -ir--bil -an I (it) --out-wen-t I KOL VERSION. -za pat -k1 I Lur1tut-la Olco-Emi -e at leek zn I asleep-was I (a Bird) (a Place) -in fim too-k I l'-a-chol-an Min-tong-ta-kete I (he)-wen-t (aPlace)-to f Min-tong-ta kets -Zak ( a Place ) to by Kototat l'i1-pin l'ir-dolc -an I k'i1im-lcorla!c -an f (a Man) charcoal break-dil I fire-make-did n'a n'otam-repur-an I at -ke n'ote -tepur-a"' they alive -became I fire-by (they) -alive --became Min.-tong-tdkporoick (a Place) village in Jangil r n' a t' oko-!toaak an I in ancestors 1 they fire-make-did I Portman's Renilering.-God was sleeping at TC>I-l'oko-tima. Luratut took fire to Qko-Emi. KC>lotat went to 1\fintong-ta, (taking fire w1th h1m from OkoE.rru ). :Min-tong-ta the fire went out, Kolotat broke up tn e charred firewo and fire agatn, (by blowing up the embers). They (the p e 'lple 01v10g to fire they became alive. The a.ncestora thus got fire 1n Mm-toog-tok v1llage.