Citation
A Burmese-English dictionary

Material Information

Title:
A Burmese-English dictionary
Creator:
Stewart, J. A. (John Alexander), 1882-1948
Dunn, C. W. (Charles William), 1877-
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
Published under the auspices of the University of Rangoon by Luzac [later, SOAS]
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1981
Language:
English
Burmese
Physical Description:
6 pts. ; 32 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Burmese language -- Dictionaries -- English ( lcsh )
Genre:
dictionary ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Myanmar
Coordinates:
19.75 x 96.1

Notes

General Note:
Editors vary.
General Note:
Addenda et corrigenda sheet inserted.
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Stewart, J. A. (John Alexander), 1882-1948 : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/44350649
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Dunn, C. W. (Charles William), 1877- : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/76369199
Statement of Responsibility:
compiled by J.A. Stewart ... and C.W. Dunn ...

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
Copyright, SOAS University of London
Resource Identifier:
526681 ( aleph )
OCM17904568 ( oclc )
52040787 ( lccn )
GPC.413 / 232784 ( soas classmark )
GPC.413 / 234115 ( soas classmark )
GPC.413 / 51567 ( soas classmark )
Classification:
PL3957 .S8 ( lcc )

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Full Text
A

BURMESE ENGLISH
DICTIONARY




A

BURMESE-ENGLISH
DICTIONARY

Compiled by

J. A. STEWART, CLE., M.C., M.A., LL.D.

and

C. W. DUNN, C.I.E., M.A.

FROM MATERIAL SUPPLIED BY A LARGE
NUMBER OF CONTRIBUTORS

published under the
university of
1940

auspices of
rangoon

the


Printed by
Stephen Austin and Sons Limited
Oriental and General Printers
Hertford England


PREFACE

A SUGGESTION that the revision of the existing Burmese-English DictionaryStevenson's 1893
edition of Judson's Dictionarybe undertaken was made by Mr. C. W. Dunn at a meeting
of persons attending the Co-operative Conference in Mandalay in 1913, and was commended by them
to the Burma Research Society without success. In 1924, a scheme for the preparation of a new
Dictionary was put before the Society by Messrs. Dunn, Chas Duroiselle, H. F. Searle, and J. A. Stewart.
The Society received the scheme favourably ; while seeking the financial support of the Government of
Burma, it provided from its own resources funds for the first year's work, and appointed the four
promoters of the scheme to act as a Dictionary Sub-Committee.

Collection of materials began in the end of 1925 under the supervision of Mr. Searle and
later of Mr. Stewart, as Secretaries of the Dictionary Sub-Committee, with the assistance of a
clerk. Books, with necessary instructionsrevised from time to time in the light of experience
were issued to a number of persons who had undertaken to read for the dictionary, and they were
requested to send their slips to the Dictionary Office monthly. There was from the first a steady
receipt of slips from a few readers and others were gradually enlisted. From 1926 to 1928, short
articles entitled Dictionary Jottings were published in the daily Press, in English in the Rangoon
Daily News, and in Burmese in the Sun. These articles, particularly those in Burmese, brought the
dictionary project to the notice of many persons who became most valued contributors. Small honoraria
were paid to some contributors, so long as the finances of the Sub-Committee permitted.

The work of collection continued till the end of 1931, or a little later. About 400 books had been
read, and collections had also been made from newspapers and magazines. A Government contribu-
tion of Rs. 2,500 per annum ended with the financial year 1930-1931, and it was impossible for
the Society to provide for the continuance of the work. It succeeded, however, in interesting the
University of Rangoon ; and after satisfying itself that the slips on which words in their contexts
had been recordedamounting at the end of 1931 to 420,976were in proper form and had been
collected from sufficiently representative sources, the University decided to take over the project.

It was with funds provided by the University that the alphabetical arrangement of slips was
completed. On completion, the University appointed us to be editors, and the material was taken
by us to England on our retirement from Government service. In 1935 Mr. Stewart was awarded a
Leverhulme Research Fellowship, the proceeds of which he expended in bringing U Kin Maung Lat,
A.T.M., to England to assist in the work of compilation. Otherwise, the funds required for incidental
expensespurchase of reference books, etc.and for printing and publication, are being provided
by the University.

The personnel of the Dictionary Sub-Committee, enlarged from time to time by co-option, included
Mr. J. S. Furnivall, M.A., Professor Pe Maung Tin, M.A., B.Litt., U Tin, K.S.M., A.T.M., M.A.,
U Kyi 0, K.S.M., A.T.M., B.A., the Rev. A. C. Hanna, Mr. Chas. Duroiselle, M.A., Mr. H. F. Searle, B. A.
The progress made during the six years of collection of materials was largely due to their sustained
zeal and resourcefulness in dealing with problems as they arose. The Sub-Committee was well served
by a loyal and efficient clerk, Maung Sein, formerly of No. Ill Revenue Settlement Party.

A list of readers and contributors is subjoined. It includes the names of all readers who finished
their allotted tasks, and of persons who contributed records of colloquial expressions. The standard
of accuracy in copying extracts and in entering references was very high, and useful suggestions as to the
meaning of rare words were often given. This valuable material forms almost the sole basis of our work.

Grateful acknowledgements are due to the late Right Rev. E. Foulquier, Vicar Apostolic of
Northern Burma, for the loan of Burmese-English and English-Burmese dictionaries in MS. and
other lexicographical material compiled by various members of the Northern Burma Mission,
including FF. Faure, Leconte, Accarion and Fornelli, at Ava and other places in Upper Burma
during the nineteenth century; to the Rev. M. H. Russell, formerly of the Wesleyan Methodist
Mission, Mandalay, for the loan of his copy of Stevenson's edition of Judson's dictionary with many

Y


VI

PREFACE

MS. additions by himself; to the School of Oriental (now Oriental and African) Studies, University
of London, for presentation of lexicographical material collected by the late Mr. A. L. Hough, Lecturer
in Burmese at the School; to the Royal Danish Academy for presentation of the fascicles of the Critical
Pali Dictionary as they appear, and to Mrs. C. A. Rhys Davids, M.A., D.Lit., through whose good
offices this munificent gift was obtained ; and to the Secretary of State for India for presentation
of the Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, by Dr. G. P. Malalasekera.

Professor John Fraser, Oxford ; U Pe, K.S.M., A.T.M. ; Maung Hla Pe, M.A. ; U Po Sein, A.T.M.,
retired Deputy Inspector of Schools ; Mr. W. Stede, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer in Sanskrit and Pali,
School of Oriental and African Studies ; Professor R. L. Turner, M.C., M.A., Litt.D., Director of the
School; Mrs. J. A. Stewart and Maung Wun, M.A., B.Litt., have assisted us by replies to queries
and by suggestions. Our proofs have been read by Maung Maung Bya, C.I.E., M.B.E., A.T.M. ; Mr. G. H.
Luce, M.A., Lecturer in Far Eastern History, University College, Rangoon ; U Ba Maung, Government
High School, Taungdwingyi; U Po Sa, A.T.M., B.A. ; U Pe Maung Tin, M.A., B.Litt., Principal of
University College, Rangoon ; and U Khin Zaw, B.A., F.L.A., University Librarian, Rangoon ; and
by their criticisms many of our articles have benefited greatly. Mr. R. T. Butlin, B.A., now of the
Institute of English Studies in Athens, helped us to prepare the Key to Pronunciation.

We have had the advantage of consultation with U Kin Maung Lat, A.T.M., B.A., in revising the
material contained in the first three parts and of his help in preparation of material for later parts.

The vocabulary of this Dictionary has been drawn from Burmese literature of all periods from its
beginning in the fifteenth century, a.d., to the present day, including technical works on medicine,
astrology, magic, etc., and from spoken Burmese. Articles have not been allotted to words or forms of
words which occur only in the Inscriptions, though such are frequently referred to in the etymological
notes at the head of the articles.

We have defined in English the meanings of words as accurately as we could and have also given
Burmese synonyms. But for apprehension of the full range of meaning, reference should be made
to the illustrative passages quoted, to the more obscure of which we have appended translations and
explanationssometimes with an indication of dubiety.

It had not been our intention to deal with the etymology of Burmese words. We were advised,
however, that etymological notes would add to the usefulness of the Dictionary. For various reasons,
elaborate treatment could not be contemplated. Our notes, which are for the most part based on very
full information generously supplied by Mr. Luce, exhibit affinities in the more important Tibeto-
Chinese languages only.

The Dictionary opens with the letter oa. The words beginning with this letter include a large
number of verbal nouns formed by prefixing 33 to the verb ; we have not attempted to deal with all
of these, but ordinarily only with those which, by themselves or in combinations, have developed
meanings which could hardly be inferred from the verb. In addition to the meanings of verbal nouns
recorded by us the reader may safely assume that a verbal noun in oa may possess meanings corresponding
to all the senses in which the verb is capable of being used.

In the matter of Burmese spelling, we have followed what we take to be the best modern usage.
In quoting from works of any standing, we retain the spelling of the edition used and make necessary
corrections in round brackets. In quotations from other works, wrong spellings have been summarily
corrected.

The script employed for the representation of Burmese sounds is in accordance with a system
devised by Mr. J. R. Firth, M.A., Senior Lecturer in Linguistics and Indian Phonetics, School of Oriental
and African Studies. Words from other languages are usually quoted in the form in which they appear
in the dictionaries or vocabularies used.

J. A. Stewart
C. W. Dunn

Bishop's Stortford
April, 1940


LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Akyab . MinbyaU Kyaw U.
Bassein . Rev. U Nandadhaza.

Hanthawaddy KayanRev. U Pyinnyawara.
Henzada U Khin Maung.

Insein . Rev. A. C. Hanna, Rev. J. C. Richardson, Ph.D.

HmawbiSaya Thein. KyaikkasanMa Khin
Gyan, U Hla Maung.

Kyaukse YamongyiMa Nyi Ma Gale, U Ba Han, U Ba Shin

Magwe . U Tun Maung, Rev. U Narada, Ma Khin Nyun,

Ma Saw Nyun, U Pe, K.S.M., A.T.M., U On Pe,
U Than Pe, B.A., U Sein, Ma Than Sein, U Po
Sein, Mrs. J. A. Stewart, Ma Than Tin, U Ba
Yi, B.A. LeyaRev. U Awbatha. Natmauk
U Min Zin. TaungdwingyiU Hla, U Kyaw.

Mandalay U Hla Aung, Mr. Chas. Duroiselle, M.A., Rev. U
Eindawbatha, Saya U Thet Htun, U Shwe Kyu,
U Sin, U Tin Swe, U Ba Thein, Rev. U Yazeinda.

Maubin . DanubyuRev. U Aggalinkara, U Su Han, Rev.

U Kethareinda, Mr. B. M. Sein Kho, Ma Tin Kyi,
U Ba Maung, U San Maung, Rev. U Nyanadhaza,
Rev. U Oktama, Rev. U Pyinnyalawka, Rev.
U Pyinnyathiri, Rev. U Sandayanthi, Mr. M.
Sultan, Mr. S. Ba Tan, U Hla Tin. Pantanaw
U On Maung. YandoonRev. U Alawka,
Ma Mya Mya, Rev. U Thankissa.

Meiktila Rev. H. E. Dudley, M.A.

Mergui . Mrs. Ba E (Ma Than Tin).

Minbu . U Hla, A.T.M., B.A., U Kin Maung Lat, A.T.M.,
B.A., U Ba Win, B.A., B.L. PwinbyuU Thet
She. SalinU La Ba, U San Hla Baw, U Po Sa,
A.T.M.,B.A.,Mrs. Po Sa (Kin Kin Lay),Mr. W.I. J.
Wallace, B.A. SinbyugyunSaya Ta. Tubauk
U Thet Tin.

Moulmein Rev. C. E. Garrad, M.A., Rev. R. HaJliday, D.Litt.,
U Sein Tin, B.A.

Myingyan U Kywe. SameikJchon'Rev. U Nandamedha.
TaungthaRev. U Asara.

Myitkyina Mr. W. R. Head. MogoungU Ba Hein.

Pakokku . Rev. U Pandita. PaukU On Shwe. Saw
U Tin Latt.

Pegtj . U Pein, K.S.M., A.T.M., U Pu, A.T.M., U Tun Ya.

PenwegonU San Tin.

Pyapon . U Tha Kin.

Rangoon Mr. J. S. Furnivall, M.A., U Tun Hlaing, Ma Hnin,
Rev. B. M. Jones, U On Myint, Rev. U Nyana-
wuntha, Saya Nyun, U Thein Pe, Mr. H. 0.
Reynolds, B.A., U Hla Thaw, Saya Thin, Pagan
U Tin, K.S.M., A.T.M., M.A., Ma Tin U, U Tha
Zan. Government Translation DepartmentU San
Aung, UE Cho, T.D.M., Saya Hlaing, Saya Htun,
U Khant, U Ba Lwin, Saya Maung, Saya Ngwe,
U Tun Nyun, Saya Saing, Saj^a San, Saya Saw (1),
Saya Saw (2), U Ba Sein, Saya .Sein, U Chit Swe,
U Ba Tin, U Sein Win, Saya Yeik, U Tun Yit.
University CollegeU Tun Hla, B.A., Mr. G. H.
Luce, M.A., U Ba Maung, B.A., U E Maung,
M.A., Ma Mya Mu, M.A., U Nyun, M.A., U Ba
Nyun, B.A., Ma Mya Than, M.A., U Pe Maung
Tin, M.A., B.Litt., U Kyaw Win, M.A., U Lu
Pe Win, M.A.

Sagaing . ChaunguU Bo, Rev. A. Dhammaratana, Rev. P.

Nanda, U Nyantha, Saya Htwe, Rev. U
Wimalabuddhiwunthabi, U Su Ya.

Shwebo KanbaluMr. A. C. D. Pain.

Southern Shan LoilemU Ba Aung. TaunggyiMr. John Shaw.
States.

Tavoy . U Hnin Hlaing, T.P.S.

Tharrawaddy GyobingaukMr. Q. Htean Hoe, B.A. Letpadan
U Shwe Din, U Tin Sein.

Thaton . U Ba Ba, U On Gaing, B.A., Ma Kin Lay Hla,
Mr. B. P. Kelly, Ma Ama Khin, Saya Kyaw, Ma
Kyi Kyi, Saya Maung, U Thein Maung, U Kyi
0, K.S.M., A.T.M., B.A., U Shwe Oh, B.Sc.,
Ma San, Saya Tint, U Myat Tun, Miss Willis,
Ma Hla Yin. KywegyanU Chit Pe.

Thayetmyo AllanmyoU Aung Nyun.

Toungoo Mr. R. M. MacDougall, C.I.E., M.A., Mr. G. C.
Tew, B.A.

United Mr. W. A. Hertz, C.S.I., Mr. A. J. M. Lander.

Kingdom M.C., B.A.

Yamethin PyinmanaRev. U Athapa, A.M.P., Ma Khin
Myint, Rev. U Thuzata. ShwemyoSaya Sein.

vii




ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA

p. xi. Insert

Bein Yaza Py.Z c8£sg6pc?oooSs6coQo(q To-Press, Rangoon, 1936. DramaProse and poetry. U Pok Ni, U San Thu, U

coc£>i' Saing. 19 0.4th quarter.

p. xxiv. Insert

Shwemyet.Py.Z. gqqI(£q§Iq(?ocSooS ii Burma Herald Press, Ran- DramaProse and poetry. II Kyaw Ya. 19 C.4th

yra goon, 1877. " quarter.

p. 30. s.v. obg^o A. For jpesi read pesi.


LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Particulars of publication.
Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages.

(1) (2) (3)

Subject or nature of work.

(4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.

(5)

Abid.N.
Abir.P.

Adik.Dwad.K.

Aaik.K.
Ah.D.K.

Ahmed Ali.

OSc8Ql^OLj|

Thudhammawadi Press, Ran-
goon, 1936. (1-506.)



com

(o) 33o8 co 9g1o6po§^>

ogcSocjSsii (J ) glocSSoqjSs

Q$SG3008c£ll

oaoBooyoo^o^sc^Ssii

930000S| § OI oq| Ss^i 8 oS

8^000C||Ssil

Students' English-
Burmese and Bur-
mese-English Dic-
tionary of Useful
Plants.

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1900. (1-116.)

Lawkasara Press, Rangoon,
1925. (1-175.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1925. (11-426.)

Ratanadipan Press, Manda-
lay, 1909. (1-161.)

New Burma Press, Rangoon,
1926. (1-77.)

Pali synonyms with Burmese
equivalents.

Birth Story No. 132Poetry

Astrological and medical
treatisesPoetry.

Burmese cosmology, astro-
logy and astronomy
Prose.

Religious discourses on Food
and the Precepts of
MoralityProse.

BotanyGlossary.

Kyaw Aung San Ta Sayadaw
(UNyanawara). 18 C. Index
of Pali words by Saya
Nyan. 20 C.

Nakhandawgyi Minhlaraza-
kyawhtin (U Shwe Chi).
a.d. 1849

(1) Atula or Taungdwin Saya-
daw Khingyi Byaw. 18 C.

(2) do. or his pupils. 18 C.

(3) Rev. U Asara of Kyonsha
(probably 19 C.).

U Shwe Naw, E.A.C. (Re-
tired.) a.d. 1901.

Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P.,
D.Litt. a.d. 1901.

Ahmed Ali alias U Aung
Hmat. a.d. 1926.

Ak.An.S.

Alamb.K.

oasSsaa^osooooS s ii

Al.Ayeb.

AlinK.
Alink N.
Anag.W.K.

Anap.D.K.
Anthol. .

Hanthawaddy Press,
goon, 1913. (1-45.)

Ratanadipan Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1909. (1-152.)

Ran- Record of King George V's
Coronation celebrations at
Moulmeingyun, Myaung-
mya DistrictProse and
verse.

Treatise on methods of treat-
ing people bitten by snakes
and other reptiles, together
with treatises on medicine
and astrologyProse and
verse.

Officers and residents of
Moulmeingyun. a.d. 1912.

(o) 03CO^|[OOOq|Ss
(j ) 33^0Go1c8oq|Ss
(p)oasl6osGr)jSs
(9) 93Oa^3lu00rj|Ss§S

(o) 33Gcoo8so8soo6ps(o^s Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
33GC|8G0d5$ii goon, 1900. (5-169.)

o8cSgqSo2§ S §8(p)pc?c>5 II

03Co8$oiSss8o8300o1§33 Ratanadipan Pitakat Press, Religious discoursesProse Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P.
cq]§sn Mandalay, 1911. (1-103.) and poetry. 20 C.

History of King Alaungpaya,
King Bodawpaya's Corona-
tion and various em-
bassiesProse and poetry.

(1), (2), and (3) Anonymous.
(4) Manle Sayadaw, A.M.P.
Born a.d. 1841, died a.d.
1919. (5) U Warathanbodi
of Yesagyo. a.d. 1904.

(1) and (3) Anonymous. (2)
Atwinwun Razabalakyaw-
htin alias Thetpan Ywasa.
18 C.

19/

33f>ooooo8oqjSsn

oaof>oo1f>§o|oq|Ssii

§§QOog^Go18soq]Ss
(Anthology of Burmese
Literature.)

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1925. (1-395.)

Ratanadipan Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1927. (1-26.)

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1900. (119-160.)
Government Printing Press,
Rangoon, 1922, 1927, and
1929. Vol. I (1-338); Vol.
II (1-412); Vol. Ill (1-
336).

Burmese prose commentary
on Sangharakkhita's Subo-
dhalankaraa Pali work
on the art of poetry.

Burmese translation of Ana-
gatavamsa in which is
mentioned the waning of
the Buddhist faith, the end
of the world and the
coming of the future
BuddhaProse.

Religious discoursesProse.

Extracts from various authors
Prose and poetry.

Yaw Atwinwun (U Po Hlaing)
Magwe Myosa Mingyi. a.d.
1880.

Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P.,

D.Litt. a.d. 1903.
Edited by U Kyaw Dun,
K.S.M., Retired Deputy
Commissioner.


xxii

LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Particulars of publication.
Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages.

(!) (2) (3)

Subject or nature of work.

(4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.

(5)

Ant.Ind.
Arith. .
Athanna.K. .

Ath.D.K.
Atithon.K.

Att.Dham.L. .
Attok.

Att.Thal.N. .
Att.Van.Dham.
Ayud.Sh.
Ayus.K. .

Bam6 Let Twe K.

Band.Kam.Py.Z.
Band.Mag.
Banl.P. .

Bass.Yaz. .
Bawa Mawg. .

Bawd.W.W. .
Bed.Alin K. .
Bedawun.K. .

Antiquities of India.

Modern Text Books on
Arithmetic.

D30QL)|o1^o88^oooqjSs

Philip Lee Warner, London. AntiquitiesProse.
(1-261.)

Mawrawadi Press, Rangoon, Questions and answers on
1925. (1-78.) religious subjectsProse.

3ac8cXJ§6|OCflSsil

ooo88ogoocScoo6oii

oagoooc8|33gooooo^oqjn

The Attasankhepa Van-

nana Dhammathat
oa^coG3oocrofooq]Ssii

oaojGooSoftcooGc^jocSo^ t
§ Sgooo oo 8 ooo 6| gj coo

OCySsil

(o) 930U}8jk,00q|Ss§8
oocoooooos|oc^^oq|ii

OQOS^aOGpGOoScO cS GOg
oq|Ssii

00§[0Qg[GOo8§G|y
e|[coog8§n

COfgOc8
9 c8 S Gp C?o8 5 8 §S0g §

Ratana Theikdi Press, Man-
dalay, 1910. (1-96.)

Thathana Linkara Pitakat
Press, Rangoon, 1910. (1-
403.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1908. (1-72.)

Ma Mya and Son Press, Man-
dalay. (1-47.)

Zabu Meitswe Pitakat Press,
Rangoon, 1914. (Vol. I
(1-511); Vol. II (1-453);
Vol. Ill (1-431.)

Government Printing Press,
Rangoon, 1907. (1-148.)

Veterinary ScienceProse.

Commentary on Abhidham-
matthavibhavani: reli-
gious, controversial
Prose.

Law (Criminal and Civil)
Poetry.

Historical anecdotesProse.

Word for word translation of
Atthasalini of Buddha-
ghosaProse.

Civil LawProse and poetry.

L. D. Barnett, M.A., Litt.D.

Thaddhammazawtikarama
Sayadaw, A.M.P. of Danu-
byu. a.d. 1922.
U Saw, Clerk, Office of the
Deputy Commissioner,
Myingyan. a.d. 1910.
"UNatTha." 20 C.

Legaing Myosa Mingyi alias
Kinwun Mingyi U Gaung,
C.S.I. 19 C.

Pye Sayadaw. a.d. 1863.

Legaing Myosa Mingyi alias
Kinwun Mingyi U Gaung,
C.S.I, a.d. 1869.

Mingala Zeyyon Press, Ran- Life and wise sayings of U Aung. a.d. 1909.
goon, 1915. (1-200.) Ayudaw MingalaProse.

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- AstrologyPoetry,
goon, 1913. (1-63.)

(1) Author not known.

(2) Mahasithu.

Kaweindathiri Press, Ran- Burmese translation of Bala- Shin Alawka of Nyaungu.
goon, 1900. (3-402.) vataraa Pali Grammar a.d. 1864.

by Vacissara of Ceylon
Prose.

Zabupati Press, Mandalay, MagicProse. Edited by Than-hlyet-hmaw

1926. (1-163.) Sayadaw. 20 C.

Bengalee Job-Printing Press, Dramamainly verse.
Rangoon, 1880. I (3-123).

Magazine.

Maung Po Saing. a.d. 1880.

ooo^cosog £?§8gcodoo8

Gt)080C§C0§0|c7^jSs II

o ol $ § o I nq| 8 §
olon o^oqjSso£)ii

National Printing Works,
Rangoon, 1928. (1-53.)

National Printing Works, Ran-
goon, 1933. (1-196.)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1911. (1-98.)

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1928. (1-156.)

GOO'

Ge>383aco8s(yoqjSsii
goqood^ogooo^OqjSsil

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1930. (1-126.)
National Printing Works,
Rangoon, 1924. (1-117.)
Mg. Kyi Maung Engraving
Press, Rangoon, 1927. (1-
108.)

Birth Story No. 504Poetry.

History of Bassein and a short
biographical sketch of U
Tun SheinProse.

Panegyrics on Bavari the
Brahmin and on the virtues
of BuddhaPoetry (Story
of Bavari appears in Vat-
thugatha of Sutta Nipata).

Religious discourses, viz.:
the Way to Arahatship,
treatise on Meditation and
Book of Instruction
Prose.

History of the sacred Bodhi
treeProse.

AstrologyProse.

AstrologyProse.

Twinthin-taik-wun Mahasithu
Mahathinkhaya (U Tun
Nyo) alias Shin Lingathara.
a.d. 1792.
U Po Kya. a.d. 1933.

Wetmasut Myosa (U Nu) alias
Nawadenge. a.d. 1832.

Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. a.d.
1904.

P. G. Nair. a.d. 1924.
Saya Thin. a.d. 1885


xxii LIST OF BOOKS CITED



Particulars of publication.
Abbreviated tide. Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages.

(1) (2) (3)

Subject or nature of work.

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.

(5)

Bed.Let.T. (o) gooScoc88sso^|ooo Myanma-wuntha Press, Man- AstrologyProse and poetry. (1) Shwegu Sayadaw. a.d.

M8cS8o(p)raf&roK dalay, 1926. (5-88.) 1857. (2) Bakaya Saya-

cq s c / \ i dttw- a.d. 1796. (3)Kyigan

c0cb^!c0(0§fc (
coo^oooooSG§6o98cgc8 Unknown authors.

Bed.S.N. ooq1ccS§aqicgooSc^ ll Kawi Myethman Press, Ran- Burmese translation of five Bakaya Sayadaw. 18/19 C.

goon, 1923. (1-170.) Pali works on Grammar-

Prose.

Bed.Thag.K. cooooooqoQiSs ll (o) §8 () Kawi Myethman Press, Ran- AstrologyProse. Saya Hmat Gyi. a.d. 1928.

1 ^ goon, 1932. Vol. I (1-

330); Vol. II (1-150).

Bed.Thin.K. . GwoScoSoSslcSsoacoSslq Mayurawadi Press, Danubyu, Astrology-Mainly prose. Bhaddanta Ashin Eindaw-
cqjSs ii (o) 1936> (i-159-) batha. 20 C.

Bed.Wiz.K. . goo8gogGCoSc^oqjSsn

B.Haw Bon .
Bhumi Sal.K.
Boddh.W.

Boyc.

B.Thaik K. .

Bur.J.W.
Bur.L.G.
Burm.Comp. .

Bur.Py.Z.
Bur.Sp.

Bur.Z.P.

Bur.Z.P.Com.

Byad.Sud.Khan.

Chweta
Coll.B. .

Oj80CO^9l^Snq|Ssil

Og^SsGODOC^IoOOll

o}go§c£oq|ssii §|8go8c£ii
ajSjoc8c?ocSGOoS^sogg[ii

ooqjoooosjggoo^cSii
(Manual of Burmese
Composition.)

Or$3cS@OcSll (o)
oo8fc}jc8^^oocS^ocj|8sii

OJ^3cS(?0cSG0l8sc|jll

OJ^3C8(?^CSGO18sc|33G§II

cxj) gtjol 8 §50 cflo 8 cssssil
ODG008QGpajG0008ss8sil

g§|000§8sil

Introduction to Collo-
quial Burmese.

Ma E Tin's Press, Meiktila,
1931. (17-239.)

Knowledge Printing Works,

Nattalin. (1-123.)
Rangoon Stores Press, Ran-
goon. (1-169.)
Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1925. (5-156.)

National Press, Rangoon,
1927. (1-314.)

Ratanadlpan Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1913. (1-109.)

AstrologyProse and poetry. Edited by Rev. U Nigyawda.

a.d. 1907. Includes works
by Nyaunggan Sayadaw,
Kinwun Mingyi U Gaung,
Monywe Zetawun Sayadaw
Ariyawuntha Adissayanthl,
U Ponnya (all 19 C.) and
others probably same
period.

AstrologyProse. U Po Htein. a.d. 1931.

Treatise regarding earth-
quakesProse.

Burmese translation of a Pali
prose work Buddhavamsa.
Contentsshort accounts
of previous Buddhas and
the life of Gautama
generally similar to those
of NidanakathaProse.

A literary commentary on
the Rangoon University
boycott movement of 1920
Prose and poetry.

Cryptic indications for find- Compiled by Ratanadlpan
ing treasure, medicinal Pitakat Press, a.d. 1913.
plants, etc.Prose.

Rev. U Thlrikumara of Thig-
win village, a.d. 1911.

" Mr. Maung Hmine." 20 C.

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- Birth Story No. 543Prose.

goon, 1911. (1-82.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- Birth Story No. 543Poetry.

goon, 1908. (1-158.)

Sun Press, Rangoon, 1931. Burmese syntax and versifi-

(1-267.) cationProse with verse
illustrations.

Bengalee Job-Printing Press,
Rangoon, 1879. (3-106.)

Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat
Press, Rangoon, 1908. (1-
332.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1914. (1-66.)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Rangoon, 1930. (1-339.)

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1921. (1-68.)

Drama on Birth Story No.

543Verse and prose.
Burmese Spelling.

Pyinsarupan Press, Prome,

1931. (1-198.)
British Burma Press, Ran-
goon, 1936. (1-192.)

Birth Story No. 543Poetry.

CommentaryProse.

Burmese word for word trans-
lation of part of Nidana-
katha and part of Therl
ApadanaProse.

Guide to Domestic Economy
Prose.

Grammar.

Nandameda Sayadaw. a.d.
1786.

Shin Maharathathara. a.d.
1484.

Saya Lun. a.d. 1910.

U Ku alias Saya Ku. 19 C.

4th quarter.
Saya UKyaw Dun. 20 C.

Shin Maharathathara. a.d.
1493.

Shwe-on-hmin Sayadaw. 19 C.

Thitchataung Sayadaw U
Tilawka. 20 C.

UKha. a.d. 1927.

J. A. Stewart, C.I.E., M.C.,
M.A., LL.D.


xii

LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Abbreviated title.
(i)

Full title.
(2)

Particulars of publication,
in ( ) = No. of pages.

(3)

Subject or nature of work.

(4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.

(5)

Cottage Industries

C.P.

Dag.Mag.
Dana.D.K.
Dat.Dhat.W. .

Daung G.
Daung T.

D.B.B.L.

De.Se K.

Devag.Py.Z .
Dham.D.K. .

Dhammawza Mawg.

Dham.M.W. .
Dhanun.K.

Dh.Link.K. .
Dh.Pada W. .

Dh.Pala P.

Dh.Ya.P.

Din.Ayeb.

§ $ o o (y gS g oq| sco cSii cocS
^OgDOCOcS^II (o)

Compendium of Bud-
dhist Philosophy.

3cj§0(?Ssil
o1^oB§q^oq]Ss ii
o1goQoa}oSogg|ii

GolSso^H
GOISS^OOOOOSII

Digest of the Burmese
Buddhist Law con-
cerning Inheritance
and Marriage. Vol. I,
Inheritance.

G3C>(og0000G30S0r)jSsil
G300},£§(cj(20cSll

g§o|(T)jSsil

Sun Press, Rangoon, 1912.
(1-27.)

Oxford University Press,
Warehouse, 1910. (1-285).

Dagon Press, Rangoon.

Gunawadi Press, Mandalay,

1916. (3-55.)
Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1910. (1-156.)

Sun Press, Rangoon, 1931.

(1-169.)
Sun Press, Rangoon, 1929.
(1-266.)
Government Press, Rangoon,
1899. (1-839.)

Descriptive Economics
Prose.

English translation of Abhi-
dhammattha-sangaha.
Prose.

Magazine.

Religious instructionProse.

Distribution and present loca-
tion of relics of Buddha
Prose.

Explanatory notes on Daung.
T.Mainly prose.

Pohtics and religionProse
and poetry.

Burmese Buddhist Law.

" Linka." 20 C.

U Shwe Zan Aung, B.A.
a.d. 1910.

Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. 20 C.

" Mr. Maung Hmine." a.d.
1929.

" Mr. Maung Hmine." 20 C.

Legaing Myosa Mingyi alias
Kinwun Mingyi U Gaung,
C.S.I. 19 C.

Myanmapyi Saponhneik MedicalProse.
Alokthamya Athin Press,
Rangoon, 1925. (185-187.)
Aungzeyyatu Press, Ran- DramaPoetry.

goon, 1924. (1-41.)
Kawi Myethman Press, Ran- Religious instructionProse,
goon, 1908. (1-129.)

ggo(?g<

gGc88sOgg[ll

1 § I oqi Ss 8s @ s ^S&OGO
1o8oq)Ssil G3o(o^00C0G30S

OqjSsil SOpG|GOO
GopcSo^soqiSsii

gOCOO?)OS|Gq]Ssil

0030gg[G00S(c§8ll
00

(q), (go), (oo§8 (opj
q8s^8i0c8cgG00gg[ii

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1895. (1-22.)

Dagon Press, Rangoon. (1-
186.)

Myanmapyi Saponhneik
Alokthamya Athin Press,
Rangoon, 1925. (1-207.)

Panegyrics on religious life
and on Ratananadia
canal in Mandalay District
Poetry.

Historical NovelProse and
verse.

MedicalProse. (Transla-
tion from Sanskrit and
Pali works.)

U Kyin U. 19 C.

Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. a.d.
1901.

Legaing Myosa Mingyi alias
Kinwun Mingyi U Gaung,
C.S.I. 19 C.

" Mr. Maung Hmine." 20 C.

Ratanabon Pitakat Press, Religious observances and
Mandalay, 1929. (1-395.) instructionProse.

Razamantika Dhammathura
alias U San Hla. a.d. 1911.

3go1coc|ll

01

.spcS^ii

gOc8a3GS|SG00S^II

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1925. Vol. I (1-394).

Dhammasethya Taya Tha-
dinza Press, Rangoon. Vol.
II (1-539). Swezonkyaw-
din Pitakat Press, Ran-
goon, 1928. Vol. Ill (1-
476). Zabu Meitswe Pita-
kat Press, Rangoon, 1932.
Vol. IV (1-452). Vol. V
(1-457).

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1899. (1-78.)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1929. (1-175.)

Thudhammawadi Press,
Rangoon, 1923. (1-147.)

Burmese translation of
Dhammapada Atthakatha
Prose.

Vol. I by Saya Tin. 20 C.
Vols. II, III, IV, and V
by Rev. Ashin Sandima,
A.M.P. Probably 20 C.

Birth Story No. 447Poetry

An account of Buddha's
attainment of Buddha-
hood, his virtues, dis-
courses, meditation, advice
to kings, etc.Poetry.

History of ArakanProse.

Shin Thilawuntha. (N.B.
Work left unfinished at
time of death in a.d. 1520,
and finished by another
writer in a.d. 1549.)

Shin Kumara Katthapa of
Pakhangyi. a.d. 1625.

Dwayawadi Sayadaw. a.d.
1787.


LIST OF BOOKS CITED

xiii

Abbreviated title.
(i)

Particulars of publication.
Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages.

(2) (3)

Subject or nature of work.
(4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.
(5)

Dir.Astrol.

D.P.P.N.

Dur.P.G.
Duwun J.
Dwada Th.K.

Dwegyo K.
Dweme.Z.

E.

E.H.
Eind.Z. ..

Ek.D.Y.K.
Epig.Birm.

Etadeg.W.

For.Prod.
Gambith.P. .

Gamb.Kab.K.

Gata.P.

Gihi.K.

Git.With.K. .
Gwes.Se K. .

Hanth.Ayeb. .

Hitop.K.

Directional Astrology of
the Hindus.

Dictionary of Pali Proper
Names.

Pali Grammar.

^oqp^oSn

gl3o8Soq|Ssil (includes
also oaoSoogglospcS^ogcS
OCflSs II C7^][c9^Ggc8oq|8s ll)

Gg S s|s G6|S(j)£g§Gol8§<£

oqjSsii

GgSQcSc^S GO? OJ 0 ^eo O5
GOoSlc&l

D. B. Taraporevala Sons &
Co., Bombay, 1935. (1-
128.)

John Murray, London, 1937. Dictionary.
Vol. I (1-1163). 1938. Vol.
11(1-1370).
British Burma Press, Ran-
goon, 1921. (1-345.)

Lawkapala Pitakat Press,
Rangoon, 1933. (72-136.)

Kawi Meitswe Press, Ran-
goon. (1-88.)

Amyotha Press, Rangoon.
(1-260.)

The Judson Burmese
English Dictionary.

Grammar.
Weekly newspaper.
AstrologyPoetry.

Burmese versification.

Said to have been translated
from a Pali workZinme
Pannatha Nipat. Appears
in Divyavadana, Ch.
xxx.Mainly prose.

Dictionary.

Dr. V. G. Rele, L.M. & S.,
F.C.P.S. A.D. 1934.

G. P. Malalasekera, M.A.,
Ph.D. (Lond.). a.d. 1937.

Charles Duroiselle, M.A. a.d.
1906.

Atula or Taungdwin Sayadaw
Khingyi Byaw or his dis-
ciples. 18 C.

Saya Kyaw of Kemmendine.
20 C.

Rev. Mandala U Kelatha.
20 C.

American Baptist Mission
Press, Rangoon, 1914. (1-

<§3]S 8 GOOqSs OJ -Go8c£il Ranmapura Press, Moulmein, Old Historical Ballads.

1912. (1-287.)

£3§o6oof>§ s ogS s ocSgoo S
gsn (o)$S (jj)

Epigraphia Birmanica:
being lithic and
other inscriptions of
Burma.

eoo3gogg[ ii

Handbook of Forest
Products of Burma.

Indian Press, Mandalay, 1914. DramaProse and poetry.
Vol. I (5-374), 1902. Vol.
II (1-467).
Pyigyi Mandaing Press, Ran-
goon, 1930. (1-219.)

Government Printing, Burma,
Rangoon, 1919.

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1929. (1-209.)

Government Printing, Burma,
Rangoon, 1921. (1-117.)

Burmese Materia Medica
Glossary.

Texts and translations of in-
scriptions.

Rev. F. H. Eveleth, D.D.
a.d. 1913.

Ed. U May Oung, M.A., LL.B.,
Bar.-at-law. a.d. 1912.

Princess Hlaing-teik-hkaung-
tin. 19 C.

U Saing, Pleader, Daiku.
20 C.

Ed. Chas. Duroiselle, M.A.,
U My a.

Short accounts of special
attainments of 30 distin-
guished disciples of Buddha
(14th chapter of Eka Ni-
pata of the Anguttara
Nikaya)Prose.

BotanyGlossary.

33^00000 ^sqsoooGoTo^ Kawi Meitswe Press, Ran-
odoqSW Soon. (2-57.)

0 J^ODtp(7}]Ssil (o)
o1oooG§ocSsodSc| II
8e8o%g§ooooqjSsn
8oo8goooq| oqjSsooS n

GgSGSOoS SO 6p (c§8GCq|00§S

g30s0r|jSsil

00 000 o c8 so 8 § |[ §| Soa G |S

G00S(j)ll

c8 g 00 o o g o 00 0c)| s § 0 11

(includes aog^so8o8sogg[
and four other works).

National Press, Rangoon,
1911. (1-162.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1928. (1-60.)

Burma Herald Steam Press,
Rangoon. (3-154.)

Mandalabhumi Press, Man-
dalay, 1923. (1-194.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1910. (3-67.)

Sun Press, Rangoon, 1918.
(1-122.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1902. (14-84.)

Religious and moral instruc-
tion in verse and notes in
prose.

Religious instructionProse
and poetry.

Poem based on Apadana-
atthakatha.

Religious and moral instruc-
tionProse.

Collection of songs.

MedicalProse.

History of King Bayinnaung
Prose.

Burmese translation of San-
skrit HitopadesaProse.

Sir Alex. Rodger, I.F.S.
a.d. 1921.

Shin Maharathathara. 15 C.
Notes and paraphrases by
Saya Kyaw. 20 C.

Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. 20 C.

Shin On Nyo. a.d. 1517.

Rev. U Pandeiksa. a.d. 1918.

Ed. Mg Maung Lat. 20 C.

Gwesaung Sayagyi U Myat
Tun. 18 C.

Rev. U Raweinda of Bingala
Kyaung. a.d. 1887.


xxii

LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Particulars of publication.
Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs. in( ) = No. of pages.

(1) (2) (3)

Subject or nature of work.
(4)

Author's name and do
work or floruit.
(5)

of

H.Gaz. .
Hl.Rec. .

Hmaing Hma

Hmaing W.

Hmaing We W.
Hm. Yaz.

Inaung Z.
Ind.Sa.T.
Irwin B.&A.Cal.

Ish.Mawg.
It.Sh.K..
J.

J.B.R.S.
J.S.

K.

Kab.Band.K.

Kab.N.B.

Kab.Th.Th.K.
Kabya Kyem.

Kabya Yeni .

Headmen's Gazette.

Selections from the
Records of the Hlut-
taw.

goooGo8§[8s^oGOoS

TOl11 ()> !>£ M

go8§8sogg[ii (0) §8 (00)

§8sGOGOOgg[ll (o)

9^^sep
(9) M

og8s ocSgooS

@so83l

f5§o^oo^ooooqjSsn

The Burmese and Araka-
nese Calendars.

SgMcoo^GianSsii

Judson's Burmese -
English Dictionary.
(This edition indicates
sources of material
whether Judson or
subsequent editors.)

Journal of the Burma
Research Society.

Stevenson's edition of
Judson's Burmese-
English Dictionary.

Analytic Dictionary of
Chinese and Sino-
Japanese.

00t||00|000s|0qi6sil

O0qpg^Gol8sil (o)

rotpoogoo&oooq|Ssii

OOfcflOGja^ II 8QODC86^2

^11 (o)

ooqpG6|S^s§cq|£Ssii

Government Printing Works, Newspaper.

Rangoon.
British Burma Press, Ran-
goon, 1914. (1-259.)

Royal orders, official corre-
spondence, etc.Prose.

Sun Press, Rangoon. 1925.
Vol. I (1-226). 1928. Vol.
II (17-168). Myanma Kyet-
thaye Press, Rangoon,
1921. Vol. Ill (1-207.)
Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1904. Vol. I (1-200)
Kaweindathiri Press, Ran-
goon, 1905. Vol. Ill (4-
193.)

Burmese Favourite Co.,
Rangoon. Vol. I (2-207).
Ratana Theikdi Pitakat
Press, Mandalay, 1921.
Vol. I (17-536). Tampa-
dlpa Times Press, Manda-
lay, 1908. Vol. II (9-
458). Mandalay Times
Press, Mandalay, 1907.
Vol. Ill (1-408.)
Dagon Magazine Press.
Vol. I.

Myanmapyi Saponhneik
Alokthamya Athin Press,
Rangoon, 1923. (1-32.)
Hanthawaddy Printing
Works, Rangoon, 1909.
(1-92.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1900. (1-17.)
Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1907. (5-80.)
American Baptist Mission Dictionary.
Press, Rangoon, 1883.
(1-782.)

Burma Research Society, Journal.
Rangoon, beginning June,
1911.

Government Printing Press, Dictionary.
Rangoon, 1893. (1-1188.)

MiscellanyProse and
poetry.

FictionProse.

FictionProse.

History (The Glass Palace
Chronicle)Prose

DramaProse and verse.
AlchemyProse and verse.

Dynastic history to end of

Pagan periodPoetry.
PhysiognomyProse.

Librairie Orientaliste, Paul
Geuthner, Paris, 1923.
(§§ 1-1350.)

National Press, Rangoon. (1-
282.) Appendices (283-
672.)

Rangoon Stores Press, Ran-
goon, 1924. (1-113.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1898. (3-132.)
Maung Sin's Press, Mandalay,
1928. (12-240.)

Dagon Press, Rangoon, 1933.
(1-116.)

Burmese Prosody.

Compiled by Mr Taw Sein
Kho, C.I.E., with Appendix
and notes by U Tin, K.S.M.
a.d. 1914.
" Mr. Maung Hmine." 20 C.

Wunsaye U Kyi. 20 C.

Maung Kin Maung of Manda-
lay. 20 C.
Compilers appointed by King
Bagyidaw.

Mr. Maung Hmaing. a.d.
1916.

Eindasariya. a.d. 1922.

A. M. B. Irwin, C.S.I., I.C.S.
20 C.1st quarter.

Wetmasut Myosa (U Nu)

alias Nawadenge. 19 C.
U Taing. a.d. 1896.

Edited by Edward O. Stevens.
a.d. 1883.

Revised and enlarged by
R. C. Stevenson of the
Burma Commission, a.d.
1893.

Bernhard Karlgren.

U Tin, K.S.M., A.T.M., M.A.
a.d. 1892 and a.d. 1929.

Collection of classical Bur- Edited by Saya Shwe of

mese poems. Knowledge Newspaper
Press, a.d. 1924.

Pali Grammar in verse with Sayadaw U Bok. 19 C.
notes in prose.

Burmese prosody with illus- Rev. U. Nigyawda. a.d. 1900.
trations.

Do.

U Po Thit. a.d. 1921.


xxii LIST OF BOOKS CITED



Particulars of publication.

Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages. Subject or nature of work.

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.
(5)

Kala M.Py.Z.
Kala Yaz.

Kalid.K.
Kam.D.K.

Kandaw M.Com.

Kan Nyan.
Kap.Link.K. .

Kat.S. .
Kawe Th.K.Gyi.

Kawi L.D.
Kawi L.Th. .

Kawi M.Mag. .
Kawi M.M.K.

Kawi Then.K.

Kawi Yat.K. .

Kawth.Py. Z.
Kayanu.K.

K.B.Z. .
Ke.Thi.Z

ojcoosgo8§§(?ocSii
o0o6po8(c§sii (o) 58 (q)

ooocsoloooqjssn
ooggof.§o|oq|ssii

oo§goo5 08 s Goqp8 sgo 0§8q8s03g§ ii

^uooacqjcScocS
^OCflSsil

aDg1coo^o6|octDfoiiGsT
ogoag8oq|ss|c§sii (o)
ooc8$oooSsii

oqgoooos|oq|s s c^i^i9(jj8s£j>c8c0 ii
oo8cx)ogcid§o|cr||8sii
008000300000 csi^ll

ao8o£pf>gg3foq|8sil

(o)

oo8g§ooo 11 opjpoooqjssii

Rah Myin Nyah Tyne Press,
Rangoon, 1881. (3-111.)

Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat
Press, Rangoon, 1926. Vol.
I (1-457). 1932. Vol. II
(1-451).

See under Nayaw M.

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1908. (1-150.)

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1925. (1-145.)

Zeyyapurain Press, Ran-
goon, 1933. (1-245.)

DramaMainly verse.
History of BurmaProse.

ReligiousProse.

Religious and moral instruc-
tion in verse with com-
mentary in prose.

Religious and moral instruc-
tionProse.

Deedok Press, Rangoon. Vol. MagicProse.
I (1-182).

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1907. (1-32.)

Zabu Myethman Press, Man-
dalay, 1926. Vol. I (11-
174). 1927. Vol. II (7-
134).

Thudhammawadi Press, Ran-
goon, 1930. (1-432.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1900. (3-100.)

Treatise on Kathina offerings

Prose.
Magic (including witchcraft)
Prose and verse.

Saya Maung Hpu. 19 C.

4th quarter.
U Kala. 18 C.

Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. a.d.
1908.

Verse by Kandaw Minkyaung
Sayadaw. 15 C. Com-
mentary by Minkyaung
Pongyi. 19 C.
Sangyaung Sayadaw of Yan-
doon. a.d. 1916.

Deedok U Ba Cho, B.A.
a.d. 1934.

U Thaw Da. a.d. 1900.

Atula or Taungdwin Sayadaw
Khingyi Byaw (U Hpyaw).
18 C.

Explanation of Kawi Lek-
khana ThatponProse.

Mingyi Thlrizeyyathu (U
Chein). a.d. 1865.
Guide to Burmese spelling Seinda-kyawthu alias Shwe-
Verse. daung-raza-kyaw (U Aw).

a.d. 1796.

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran- Magazine,
goon.

Ratana Theikdi Pitakat
Press, Mandalay. 1907.
(8-568.)

Religious instructionVerse Si-ban-ni Sayadaw. 19 C.
and prose.

oo8ooo6|oq|8sii (o) §,8

(9)

00 8 g 00 $ h q||| 000 oqj ss

god8oc||oos sii oodsosii 00

GpJoSc^SSClSsil)

oo8s|c)of.ooq|Ssii

600000 co (ycocsii

Brahmawadi Press, Rangoon.
(1-204.)

Mandalay Times Press, Man-
dalay, 1913. Vol. I (1-
442.) Vol. II (1-386).
Myanmapyi Saponhneik
Alokthamya Athin Press,
Rangoon, 1921. (13-236.)

Questions and answers on Questions by Yaw Atwin-wun
religion, civil law, etc. (U Po Hlaing) alias Magwe
Mainly prose. Myosa Mingyi and Answers

by Hti-hlaing Myosa Wun-
gyi Yuzana. a.d. 1869.
Burmese translation of Sutta Kanbyu-taik-thit Sayadaw U
NipataVerse and prose. Nemeindara. a.d. 1896.

BiographyProse.

Mawrawadi Press, Rangoon,
1927. (3-117.)

Collection of songs.

U Aung. a.d. 1911.

Various authors including U
Kyin U, Myawadi Mingyi,
and Kinwun Mingyi (all of
19 C.).

Sale Saya U Ponnya. 19 C

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- DramaPoetry,
goon, 1921. (5-43.)

oooooo^oooof.ooq|0sii Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- Religious (Philosophical) Yaw Atwinwun (U Po Hlaing)

goon, 1911. (1-304.) Prose. " ""

History of Burma from a.d.
1752 to a.d. 1885Prose.

or}§SGOOo8aoc8oooo6p Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
oSonSgai (o) (a) Mandalay, 1922. Vol. I (1-
U \ ;> W 575). 1922. Vol.II(l-622).
fvW 1923. Vol. Ill (1-762).

g 00 00008 o SscSsf. §sog 82 Lawkathara Electric Press, DramaPoetry.
ocSgoo$(c§sii Rangoon. (13-167.)

alias Magwe Myosa Mingyi.
a.d. 1875.

Court Chroniclers from King
Bagyidaw's reign to King
Mindon's reign and there-
after U Tin (1), K.S.M.,
A.T.M.

" Mr. Maung Hmine." 20 C.


XVI

LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Particulars of publication.
Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs, in ( ) =No. of pages.

(1) (2) (3)

Subject or nature of work.

(4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.

(5)

Khitsan Pon. .

Kh.M.G.W. .

K.Hmu.Th. .
Kh.P.S.

Khud.N.
Kinkha.N.

Kinw.M.
K.K.Th.
Kogan P.
Kogan P.T. .

K.P.Sagab.

Kum.Py.Z. .
Kutha P.

K.W.F. .

Kyabin Taya.

Kyon.N.K.
Kyigan M.
L. & R.

G3c8Ss6lqS]05ii (o) s8 (o) Pyigyi Mundyne Pitakat Short storiesProse.
Press, 1934. Vol. I (1-
173). 1938. Vol. II (1-212).

S)8G8(o8soqoi ii fo)sS(q) Dagon Press, Rangoon. 1931. FictionProse.

o.lj ^ Vol. I (1-200). 1926. Vol.

II (1-207).

goooEsogooSgRSIcIooSSsii Indian Press, Mandalay,

* ^ 1903. (1-32.)

3 8 [c^ s g (s|8 eii oa ooiocS00 Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-

odS-7 goon, 1906. (1-23.)

Vol. I by U Sein Tin, U E
Maung, U Thein Han,
U Wun and U Toe Aung.
Vol. II by Theikpan
Maung Wa ". 20 C.
Maung Kin Maung of Man-
dalay. a.d. 1914.

History of Kaunghmu-daw Rev. U Adeiksawuntha of

PagodaProse and verse. Meiktila. 20 C.
BiographyProse. Kandaw Minkyaung Sayadaw.

a.d. 1905.

^gcSc^o^oooooooSn

Thounglonhteiktin Press,
Kyaiklat, 1929. (1-215.)

ool)18oosioBoacooooo§oq|ii Zabu Meitswe Pitakat Press,
a Rangoon, 1919. (1-585).

ooSsii (o) §|8 (^)-q8s§8§8
oo£ |j cgosG^o^cSooooSsii

0Q8s0^08@SGGg501ll

c^ss^Soo^Ssn

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1908. Vol. I (1-304).
Vol. II (305-572).

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1913. (1-55.)

Chanea Press, Mandalay. (1-
60.)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1923. (1-122.)

Shwe-hton-nagara Press,
Thaton, 1927. (1-550).

Pali-Burmese word-for-word
translation of Khuddasik-
kha dealing with the disci-
pline of monksProse.

Pali-Burmese word-for-word
translation of commentary
on PatimokkhaCode for
monks and nunsProse.

Diary of journey to Europe
Prose.

Poetical Epistles.

Account of irrigation in
Kyaukse DistrictProse.
Birth Story No. 509Epic
Poem.

Epic poem and commentary
in prose (Birth Story No.
509).

rqipSsoD£Go1c8ro£oooo6ii Zabu Myethman Press, Man- Advice on conductPoetry.
^ r dalay, 1921. (26-38.)

ooyooGoc8il British Burma News Press,

Rangoon, 1879. (1-160.)

CTDaociffn Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,

i Mandalay, 1920. (1-280.)

Word Families in Chinese. Museum of Far Eastern Anti-
quities, Bulletin No. 5,
Stockholm, 1933. (1-120.)

oq]o8sc^^SGOo8|^soc!Spsooii Myanma Buddha Thatha-
' v ~ * napyu Press, Rangoon,

1921. Vol. I (6-191).
L.P.P. Electric Press,
Rangoon, 1927. Vol. II
(1-176).
Lawkapala Pitakat Press,
Rangoon, 1933. (137-175).

oq|cSsoo£g|8(^sgoodooo ll Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1932. (1-87.)

DramaMainly verse.
Birth Story No. 531Poetry.

Pyitsimayon Sayadaw of
Kyaiklat. a.d. 1911.

Shin Baddanta-zawta-yanta
of Yin-myo. a.d. 1749.

Legaing Myosa Mingyi alias
Rinwun Mingyi U Gaung,
C.S.I. 19 C.

Do.

U Ba Thein, Pleader, Kyaukse.

a.d. 1910.
Shin Maharathathara. a.d.
1526.

Shin Maharathathara. a.d.
1526. Commentary by U.
Kyaw Dun, K.S.M. a.d.
1904.

Kyigan Shingyi (U Nu) alias
Kyigan Koyingyi alias
Shin Nandadhaza. 18/19 C.
and Maung Cho. 19 C.
Maung Pok Ni. 19 C.^th

quarter.
Monywe Zetawun Sayadaw
Ariyawuntha Adissayanthi.
a.d. 1827.
Bernhard Karlgren.



. oq|[a^ogc8oqjSsn

Religious discoursesMainly Kyabin Sayadaw. 18/19 C.
poetry.

List of Trees, Shrubs,
and Principal Climb-
ers, etc., recorded
from Burma with
Vernacular Names.

Government Printing, Ran-
goon, 1922. (1-347.)

Treatise on alchemy, astro-
nomy, and medicine
Poetry.

Poetical Epistles.

BotanyGlossary.

Rev. U Asara of Kyonsha
village, Bassein District
probably 19 C.

Kyigan Shingyi (U Nu) alias
Kyigan Koyingyi alias Shin
Nandadhaza. 18/19 C.

J. H. Lace as revised by Sir
Alexander Rodger, O.B.E.
a.d. 1912.


LIST OF BOOKS CITED

xxiii

Particulars of publication. Author's name and ia\

Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages. Subject or nature of work. work or floruit.

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Lawkath. News
Lawki Th.L.K.

Ledi Kein
L.1I.G.K.

L.H.R.K.

L.I.Mand.K. .

L.I.S.K.
L.M.T.T.K. .

L.Ni.P.
Lok.Sonma

L.P.B.K.

L.P.P.D.
L.Thip.T.
Lubyo .

Luwun Py.Z.

L.Wid.Mawg.
Mag.

Magh.Dev.L.Th.
Maha Git.B. .

ecooooooos|00oo8so n
GCDOc8c8ycOoSoS|OqiSsil

codSc^gooocs^sooGpsooii
ecoooocSooo^GjoqiSsn

GCOOOOc8o36pO§Oqj8oll

c8g8oooof.ooq|Ss§8 gcoo

^oa^ggj^o^oqiSsn

Gcooc^oa^ggj^GsosoqiSsii

6 coo c$ooc>oc8cSo$ oq]Ss§S
gcoo c8 cSgc^ Sggoo oo ^o
GooSoqiSsn

Mingala Times Press, Ran-
goon, 1926. (1-208.)

National Printing Works,
Rangoon. (1-209.)

Myanmapyi Saponhneik
Alokthamya Athin Press,
Rangoon, 1924. (1-360.)

Aung-myan-ma Newspaper
and Zeyyanagara Press,
Rangoon, 1927. (1-293.)

Mandalawadi Press, Man-
dalay, 1925. (1-192.)

Ma E Tin Pitakat Press,
Meiktila, 1932. (1-200.)

Ratana Theikdi Pitakat
Press, Mandalay, 1914.
(9-108.)

Newspaper.

Miscellany : astrological, Maung Ba Thin of Mandalay.
medical, veterinary, and 20 C.
agriculturalProse and
poetry.

Religious discoursesProse. Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. 20 C.

Astrological and medical Maung Ba Thin of Mandalay.
treatisesProse and verse. 20 C.

Gcoooolc8o18£oqis86coo Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat

Lawkasara Press, Rangoon,
1924. (1-74.)

gcooooooogjsqsooo ii

o1§33c8ol^sjl[8ll
gcooc8c8y|adoc7^lSsil
c^^(js8gsdo8 ii

Ledi Taya Thadinza Press,

Rangoon. (1-622.)
Gunawadi Press, Mandalay,

1927. (1-112.)
Pyinyun Ratana Press, Man-
dalay, 1932. (1-118.)

c^6goo8§8ooc8ii
(q) (oo)

gcoo008^g80g^sii

GCOOc8op30Gol8:ai|8oc86 Lawkapala Pitakat Press,
q|S:n Rangoon, 1928. (1-111.)

Miscellany (astrological,
medical, botanical, etc.)
Prose and verse.

Magic (recitation of man-
tras and sacred scriptural
passages)Prose.

MedicalProse.

Miscellany (dreams and
their meanings, propitia-
tion of guardian spirits
when infants are ill, omens
and their significance,
astrology, and recipes for
some medicines)Mainly
prose.

Burmese translation in
prose and verse of
Lokaniti.

Moral instructionPoetry
with notes in prose.

Miscellany (dreams and their
meanings, propitiation of
guardian spirits when in-
fants are ill, physiognomy,
significance of omens,
astrology, veterinary sci-
ence, recipes for some
medicines, etc.) Prose
and verse.

Pali-Burmese Dictionary.

AlchemyMainly verse.

Maung Po Myit alias Saya
Myit of Kado. a.d. 1912.

Ed. Rev. U Nigyawda. a.d.
1932.

Mahawithokdarama Sayadaw.
a.d. 1909.

Attributed to Kandaw Min-
gyaung Sayadaw. 15 C.
Notes by Yeo Wun Sin.
a.d. 1924.
Edited by Saya Thwin. 20 C.

Ledi Pandita (U Maung Gyi).

a.d.1908.
Le-dat Sayadaw. 18 C.

(o), British Burma News Press,
Rangoon, 1876. Vol. I
(1-125). 1877. Vol. II (1-
136). 1878. Vol. Ill (1-
139).

See under Bawa Mawg.

Advice to young men on the U Taing Lon Kyaw. 20 C.
art of making love and
on matrimonial matters
Prose.

DramaMainly verse. U Ku alias Saya Ku. a.d.

1876.

Magazines other than
those for which there
are special abbrevia-
tions.

oooo 00 00 ooo §g00 goo co Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat Birth Story No. 9Poetry. Manle Sayadaw, A.M.P. a.d.

J^SL Press, Rangoon, 1932. Vol. 1904.

00003011 1,1-266; Vol. II, 267-483.

oooo8ooGol8sq|[5(o^ii Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat Collection of classical Bur- Edited by U Pyon Cho. 20 C.

Press, Rangoon, 1931. mese songs.

(1-266.)


xviii

LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Particulars of publication.
Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages.

(1) (2) (3)

Subject or nature of work.

(4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.

(5)

Maha San.Pyaz.
Maha Thuz.K.
Maha Up.E. .

Mahawin W. .
Mahaw.Py.Z. .

Mahawth J.W.

Mala Link.W.
Manawh.P.

Man.Dh.W. .
Mand.Mawg. .

Mani Khet Z.

ooooao§sj|8cfl§(?oc8ii
ooooo^cooooooqjSsn
oooogoGpoes||8sii

oooooi

oGooSjcjeocSii
ogooo 00 oc8 gooses

ocoocoosos|ogg[ goos(c§sii
GGf>600^(JjG0008sil

Pyigyi Mandaing Press, Ran-
goon, 1934. (1-108.)

Ratana Theikdi Pitakat
Press, Mandalay, 1923.
(1-279.)

Ranmapura Press, Moulmein,
1912. (112-152.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1911. (1-320.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1928. (1-51.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1922. Vol. I (1-248).
1908. Vol. II (1-242).

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1929. (1-406.)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1929. (1-96.)

Adaptation of Moliere's Le
Bourgeois Gentilhomme
Prose.
AstrologyProse.

U Thein Han, M.A. a.d. 1931.

Old Historical Ballad on
Maha Uparaja, son of
Nandabayin.
Translation of Mahavamsa
Prose.

Birth Story No. 546 : Drama
Poetry.

Birth Story No. 546Prose.

Yaw Atwinwun (U Po Hlaing)
alias Magwe Myosa Mingyi.
a.d. 1881.
Talok Myosa Thinkhaya.
16 C.

Sale Saya U Ponnya. Born
a.d. 1812 ; executed a.d.
1867.

Rev. U Awbatha. a.d. 1784.

o6Soq1cSoqo[|o§sii (o) Theikpan Akyaw Press,

Okpo, 1923. (1-162.)
ojigco % c£>goSoo£sii Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-

goon, 1921. (3-56.)

GCiBscS^scgSse'OcSGOoS Lawkasara Electric Press,
ga, Rangoon, 1917. (7-144.)

Life of Gautama Buddha and
propagation of his doc-
trineProse.

Burmese translation of Thu-
dhanu-kumara Jataka, one
of the 50 apocryphal birth
stories contained in Zinme
Pannatha NipatPoetry.

Drama on early history of
PromeProse and verse.

In praise of the river Irra-
waddy, the conquest of
Zinme, and King Mindon
Poetry.

Drama based on Wungyi
Padetharaza's epic poem.

Kawi-wunthabidhazamaha-
dhammarazaguru Saya-
daw. a.d. 1798.

Nawade-gyi alias Taungthin-
hmu. a.d. 1579.

Saya Kyaw. 20 C.

Sale Saya U Ponnya. a.d.
1862.

' Mr. Maung Hmine." a.d.
1918.

Manik.W.
Manir.K.
Manu

Matow. Sonma

Maul. Yaz. Py. Z.
Mawg.B.
Medaw E.

Meg.D.K.
Meik Mawg. .

M.Gand.PyZ. .

a8o}£pcoogg[ii Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,

Mandalay, 1912. (1-654.)

oaB^OO^o^ii Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-

goon, 1901. (1-641.)

The Damathat or The Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
Laws of Menoo. goon, 1896. (1-389.)

00G0D00l3S0S0ii Toe Press, Rangoon, 1935.

(1-157.)

Birth Story No. 537 with Warabhithanghanatha Saya-

illustrations from other daw. a.d. 1629.
Jatakas, etc.Prose.

Historical anecdotesProse. Shin Sanda-linka. a.d. 1781.

Civil Law, with English
translationProse.

D. Richardson. 19 C.

GGSco§8speo8G(?oc8i! Friend of Maulmein Press,
Maulmein. 1879 (1-232.)

§S9go<^GSog^SGo18s^[5n Sun Press, Rangoon, 1919. As in Mand.Mawg.
(1-53.)

o8soopsodSGOo5eai8sii Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1899. (1-40.)

ooft§oloq|6sn Gunawadi Press, Mandalay,

1919. (1-84.)

(o) 8g§ODOOO§GOoSc£GoS Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
C2$s-?-#$S goon, 1929. (1-25.)

y ooo o £0 o c8 G ooS (0^(9 Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- DramaPoetry.
ocSii goon, 1896. (1-55.)

A mother's advice to a son Verse by Shwegyaung Saya-
Verse and prose notes. dawU Pyinnya. 18 C. Notes

by U Po Sein, A.T.M.
a.d. 1933.

DramaMainly verse. Maung So. 19 C4th quarter.

Old Historical Ballad on
Princess Mintayamedaw,
wife of Nandabayin.

Religious treatise on Eight-
fold Noble PathProse.

Panegyrics on Meiktila Lake
and Pyu LakePoetry.

U Ponnya.

Nawade-gyi alias Taungthin-
hmu. 16 C.

Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. 20 C.

(la) Shin Thilawuntha. 15 C.
(16) Balananthu. a.d. 1795.
(lc) Twinthintaik-wun (U
Tun Nyo) 18/19 C.

(2) Nemyo Mahakyawhtin.
a.d. 1770.

The Deputy Commissioner,
Sagaing. a.d. 1895.


xxii LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Particulars of publication.
Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs, in ( )= No. of pages.

(1) (2) (3)

Subject or nature of work.
(4)

Author's name and dale of
work or floruit.
(5)

M. Hl.Th.K. .

Ming.E.

Ming.Y.

Minye D.E. .

Minye K.E. .

Minye N.E. .

M.M.M. .

M.M.O.S.

M.Muni Th.P.

Mod.Bot.
Mot.Yaz.

M.P.

M.Sanda Py.Z.
M.T.T.K.

Mud.B.Mawg.
Mud.Lek.P. .

Mun Yaz.
Myan. Abid. .

|^GOCgc8GOoSo$;oocS(j>§8 Toe Press, Rangoon. (1-121.)

(tj^oooog'lf.gSsii

OqjSsil

yftcooea|8siieoo8eoo8-oqi||s Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,

q|8s-3-G008<^.. Mandalay, 1926. (1-165.)

oftcoosiooGo18sai[5 n Thuwunnawadi Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1924. (1-147.)

o8sfc|8oes||8sii Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,

Rangoon, 1930. (1-31.)
8s$|Goq|Sgceq;8sii Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,

Rangoon, 1900. (1-52.)
8s^spes|;8sii Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,

Rangoon, 1908. (1-28.)

£oo oooo b coo 8ss S; Star of Burma Press, Manda-

Burmese spelling and rules of U Po Sein, A.T.M. a.d. 1935.
grammarProse.

gooSii

lay, 1905. (1-252.)

§ § GOO 8s 3^8 ^ 00 00 Ss Government Printing, Burma,
^S^GOoSo^spsgs^epc? Soon, 1931. Vol. I

oocSgsTgooo 03 8 ^ goo8
ooSsgsii (o), (0, (oo),

ooooGcSoSooSSsdijii

^ogGoooaG§§oqjSsn

^ggoGpcoSc o18ss(|[ 5 §18
(^GoSooSs COGOOo8soq|8sil

8c8|0g1ii
goo8o§§(?oc8ii
oocc8c8cqoqjSs|o^i,

<^g1c8d8c8GSog^sii
<^coogciD(J}ii

g§6po8ll

(1-271). 1932. Vol II

(1-312). 1932. Vol. Ill

(1-209). 1933. Vol. IV

(1-318). 1933. Vol. V
(1-258).

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1921. (1-101.)

U Po Han Co., Rangoon,
1932. (1-90.)

Thuwunnawadi Press, Tha-
ton, 1927. (1-70.)

Five songs composed on the
occasion of the cradle cere-
monies of King Thibaw's
sons and daughters.

Seven Birth Stories Nos. 181,
261, 485, 510, 519, 531,
and 545, and short accounts
of Porithada, King Udena,
Sawa, and the birth of
GautamaPoetry.

Old Historical Ballad on son
of Anaukpet-lun-min.

Old Historical Ballad on
son of King Nandabayin.

Old Historical Ballad on
grandson of King Nanda-
bayin.

Ceremonial procedure on oc-
casions such as coronation
of Burmese Kings, wed-
dings of princes and prin-
cesses, royal funerals, to-
gether with a short ac-
count of the kings of
Alaungpaya dynasty
Prose.

Administration of Burma
under the Burmese Kings
Prose.

Legaing Myosa Mingyi alias
Kinwun Mingyi U Gaung,
C.S.I., and Wetmasut Wun-
dauk Minhtin Mahaslthu.
a.d. 1879-1883.

Manle Sayadaw, A.M.P. Born
a.d. 1841. Died a.d. 1919.

Shin Thankho alias Letsaung-

yu-hmu. a.d. 1628.
Talok-min Thinkhaya alias

Razabahu. 16 C.
Zeyya-yandameik alias Kaung-
sit-hle-hmu. 17 C.

U Ya Gyaw. a.d. 1904.

Pagan Wundauk U Tin (2),
K.S.M., A.T.M., M.A. a.d.
1931-3.

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1924. (1-704.)

Bengalee Job-Printing Press,
Rangoon, 1880. (3-131.)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Rangoon, 1908. (1-301.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1928. (1-19.)

Myanmapyi Saponhneik
Alokthamya Athin Press,
Rangoon, 1922. (1-92.)

Myanmapyi Saponhneik
Alokthamya Athin Press,
Rangoon, 1922. (1-107.)

Sanda Thirein Press, Hen-
zada, 1930. (1-187.)

An account in verse of the Saya Taing. a.d. 1903.
2nd casting of Mahamyat-
muni Image at Mandalay.

BotanyProse. U Hla Tun, Burma Agricul-
tural Service, a.d. 1932.

History of the 32 towns of Rev. U Pyinnya. a.d. 1927.
Martaban with special
reference to revenue ad-
ministrationProse.

Translation of the Questions Rev. U Gunalinkara. a.d.

of King MilindaProse. 1765.

DramaMainly verse. U Hpe. 19 C.4th quarter.

Miscellany (Omens, dreams
and their significance,
propitiation of guardian
spirits, etc.)Prose.

Poem on the occasion of
King Bodawpaya's Corona-
tion.

Birth Story No. 66Poetry.

History of the Mon King-
doms down to a.d. 1539
Prose.

Edited by Saya Taing. 20 C.

Atwinwun Razabalakyawdin
alias Thetpan Ywasa. 18 C.

Twinthintaikwun (U Tun Nyo)
Mahasithu Mahathinkhaya
alias Shin Lingathara. a.d.
1751.

Dictionary of archaic words. U Ba Tun. a.d. 1930.


xxii

LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Particulars of publication.
Abbreviated tide. Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages.

(1) (2) (3)

Subject or nature of work,

(4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.

(5)

Nayaw.M.

Newsp.

Nemi Bon P. .
Nemi.J.W.
Nemi Meg.P. .

§£oo0 33QQIQc8o3oq|^s Sun Press, Rangoon, 1932.
SfllSn f1"201')

Burma Union Press, Ran-
goon, 1935. (1-157.)

£ooo£(o?sqs(o3sqiosC0QO| Myanma Gonyi Press, Ran-
r tljxljt. goon> 1937> (1_120.)

Dagon Magazine Press, Ran-
goon, 1922. (1-282.)

National Press, Rangoon,
1930. (1-160.)

Friend of Burma Press, Ran-
goon, 1904. (1-287.)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1920. (1-105.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1915. (1-168.)

Outline of Burmese Litera- U Tun Pe (The Sun),

ture (from Pagan to Ava 1932.
period)Mainly prose.

An introduction to Burmese U Tun Pe (The Sun).

Literature (from Pagan to 1932.
Ava period)Verse and
prose.

Biographical sketches Hmawbi Saya Thein

Prose. a.d. 1937.

Gyi.

cqjoc8^oooii

cflao^G^oggoggiii

GooS6jSGoSoaSoogg[!i

r^soii"

f06p will

Literary and political mis-
cellanyProse.

FictionProse.

"Mr. Maung Hmine." a.d.
1922.

" Mingala Khin Khin." 20 C.

Adaptation of Count of Monte James Hla Gyaw. 20 C.
CristoProse.

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1911. (1-49.)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Rangoon, 1929. (1-186.)

f.ac1scfeooSsGS050q|Ss@sii Ratanadipan Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1930. (1-229.)

^ cS co Ss^g ^ 93 g ^ ooo Myanmapyi Saponhneik
oxgall Alokthamya Athin Press,

Rangoon, 1925. (1-201.)

^c5§|8GdSG00Ses(|8sii RammapuraPress.Moulmein,

1912. (94-111.)

o^6psc8sajgy(? Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
^Ss^gylooaD^ol^ao gon' 1928- d"200-)

(joii

^OGOsa8siooGol8sai8n Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1929. (1-260.)

f) oo 00 coo ll f>ooGpo§Gaoi Byahmawadi Press, Ran-

oqj SS^SG30O8C£ 580000^0 gon- (5"243-)
f|ng^0gs0s0q|Ssii

(o) qjoBcSeooSo^cS 11 Ma E Tin's Press, Meiktila,

(j) arc&bxqSajS 1933- d"183-)

(p) ^G6p0l0G0g500 II

Birth Story No. 289Poetry.

Questions and answers on
various religious and ec-
clesiastical mattersProse.

Birth Story No. 544 (Maha-
naradakassapa Jataka)
Prose.

Birth Story No. 544 (Maha-
naradakassapa Jataka)
Poetry.

Medical treatisesPoetry.

Alchemy and attainment of
supernatural powers there-
byProse.

Old Historical Ballad on
grand-daughter of Bayin-

oooo8sooii

gf.8cocS60o5(c§sog5[ ii

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1894. (1-471.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1911. (1-182.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1900. (1-105.)

Monywe Zetawun Sayadaw
Ariyawuntha Adissayan-
thi. a.d. 1826.

Questions by King Alaung-
paya and answers by Atula
or Taungdwin Sayadaw
Khingyi Byaw. a.d. 1768.

Rev. U Awbatha. a.d. 1784.

Monywe Zetawun Sayadaw
Ariyawuntha Adissayanthi.

a.d. 1821.
Wunsaye U Kaung 18/19 C.)
and Shwekin Khon-min.
a.d. 1836.

U Po San of Monywa. a.d.
1913.

Sigaingza of Kyidaung. 17 C.

Ritual of Nava Buddha Pu-
jana and word-for-word
translation of Pali Up-
patasantiProse and verse.

Poems on miscellaneous sub-
jects.

Symptoms of diseases, medi-
cal prescriptions, and pre-
scriptions according to as-
trological indications
Prose and verse.

Burmese translation of Birth
Story No. 77 (Mahasupina
Jataka); anecdotes of Kali-
datha, adviser of King of
Benares; letter conveying
moral instructionPoetry
and prose.

Newspapers.

Part of Birth Story No. 541
(Nimi Jataka)Poetry.

Birth Story No. 541 (Nimi-
Jataka)Prose.

Part of Birth Story No. 541
(Nimi Jataka) Poetry.

Author of 1st part not known.
2nd part by Sayadaw U
Bok. Born a.d. 1787.
Died a.d. 1842.
Nawade-gyi alias Taungthin-

hmu. 16 C.
1st two parts by Wunsaye
U Kaung (18/19 C.) and
last part by Kinsaye U
Shunprobably 19 C.

(1) Kozaung Sayadaw, A.M.P.
of Myingyan. a.d. 1925.
(2) Rev. U Wiseittasara.
a.d. 1740. (3) Sayadaw U
Wunnadhazaprobably
19 C.

Shin Aggathamadi (Mg. No).

a.d. 1542.
Rev. U Awbatha. a.d. 1786.

Shin Aggathamadi (Mg No).
a.d. 1535.


xxii LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Particulars of publication.

Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs. in ( ) = No. of pages. Subject or nature of work.

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.
(5)

Nemi Ngaye P.
Nemi Yag.

Nepali D.
NeYiYiW. .
Nib.Pak.K. .

Nib.With.K. .
Nip.

Nom.Dis.
Nov.

Ok.Mal.K.

Ok.Mal.M.

Ok.Yaz.Py.Z.

Ok.Tawl.

Ommad.P.

Owad.P.

Pad.Thi.

Padum.Py.Z. .

Pak.M. .
Pak.With.K. .

Paleik E.

Pand.Wed.D.K.

Pap.Py.Z.

G$8c£|SsaSs<||ii Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press, Part of Birth Story No. 541

Mandalay, 1920. (1-109.) (Nimi Jataka)Poetry.
Gf>86|OQ$n Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- Birth Story No. 541 (Nimi

goon, 1899. (1-73.) Jataka)Poetry.

A Comparative and Ety-
mological Dictionary of
the Nepali Language.

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trub- Dictionary,
ner & Co., London, 1931.
(1-935.)

Lower Burma Stationery & FictionProse.
Crown Press, Rangoon.
(1-272.)

Thuwunnawadi Pitakat Press, Exposition of the meaning
Thaton, 1926. (1) 1-85, of NirvanaProse.
(2) 1-43, (3) 1-298.

(o) feo^ggoooooofoqiSsii

0) feo?8oo6icnn§8

(?) ?§o$gg8aDg^o-p-
OC||SSC£II

(o) §gOf>8ooog:$oq|Ss§8 Kawi Myethman Press, Ran- Do.
( j ) OSaoloDegOTOOOD? Soon' 1919- ( W0

(XjjSsil

$o1cSc?oc8ogg[ii

Shin Aggathamadi (Mg No).

a.d. 1538.
Legaing Myosa Mingyi alias
Kinwun Mingyi U Gaung,
C.S.I. Born a.d. 1821.
Died a.d. 1908.
R. L. Turner, M.C., M.A.,
Litt.D. a.d. 1930.

P. Monin. 20 C.

(1) Taik-ok Sayadaw Rev. U
Medhavi. a.d. 1923. (2)
and (3) Rev. U Kundinnya
of Thaton. a.d. 1924-5.

Nomenclature of

in Burmese.
Novel.

(o) g£gooocoooq|Ss§8
(j ) C?Oof)OOOq|8sil

OS 0918 gf£ 00 OO COO GOg^O
Oil

gqgcoooGpcoSyeocSn

§|Sgg5GOq|SGOOOCOO SII

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1906. Vol. I (1-706).
Ratana Theikdi Pitakat
Press, Mandalay, 1927.
Vol. II (1-741). 1925.
Vol. Ill (1-694). 1927.
Vol. IV (1-680). 1928.
Vol. V (1-649).
Government Printing, Burma,
Rangoon, 1922. (1-54.)

Birth Stories of Gautama
Buddha (Minor Jatakas
Nos. 1 to 537).

(1) Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P.
a.d. 1917. (2) Rev. U
Pyinnyathiha of Salin.
19 C.

Nyaunggan Sayadaw. 18-
19 C.

MedicalProse.

Lieut.-Col. R. H. Castor,
I.M.S. a.d. 1919.

Myanma Thukhakayi Press. Religious discourses, pole-
lst part (1-200); 2nd part mics and anecdotes
(1-107). Prose.

Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat
Press, Rangoon, 1933. (1-
81.)

British Burma Press, Ran-
goon, 1881. (1-176.)

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1929. (101-110.)

Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat
Press, Rangoon, 1925. (1-
68.)

Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat
Press, Rangoon, 1931. (1-
39.)

Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat
Press, Rangoon, 1930. (1-
19.)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Rangoon, 1927. (1-28.)

ocBgdcogwqoooo 11 Lawkapala Pitakat Press,

W Rangoon, 1923. (1-34.)

Gc8oDOo8oossooq|Ssii (s) Chanea Press, Mandalay,
fc? 1 V^ 19n (1_602 ) vol. II.

goloarfn

OGoooodSsySs^josn
o^oo8sooos@eocS 11

(1) "U Nat Tha" (probably
20C.); (2) Shwegyin Saya-
daw. a.d. 1911.

Poetical epistles. Ashin Okkanthamala (prob-

ably early 19 C.).

DramaMainly verse. Sadainghmut Saya Ku. 19 C.

4th quarter.

Nature and country life Shin Oktamagyaw. 15 C.
Poetry.

Birth Story No. 527Poetry. Mahaminhla-mingaung (U
Shun) Simi-khon Ywasa
and Pagan Wun. a.d. 1848.
Advice on conduct and Seinda-kyaw-thu (U Aw) alias

oc85oose^|8i
o^ooogoo!
o!oc8£§ocS 11

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1899. (1-47.)

Thudhammawadi Press, Ran-
goon, 1907. (1-558.)

Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat
Press, Rangoon, 1928. (1-
28.)

etiquettePoetry.

Birth Story No. 193Poetry.

Poetical epistles in her own
name and for others.

Answers to questions on
religion, cosmology, etc.
Prose.

Dynastic historyPoetry.

Religion, cosmology, etc.
Prose.

DramaPoetry.

Shwedaungrazakyaw. a.d.
1760.
UKyinU. 19 C.

Sale Saya U Ponnya. Born
a.d. 1812. Executed a.d.
1867.

Myook-kadaw Ma Mi. Born
a.d. 1866. Died a.d. 1889.
Lon-taw Sayadaw. a.d.
1877.

Minyeraza alias Paleik Ywasa

UHpyaw. 18/19 C.
Rev. U Tilawka of Thitcha-

taung, Thaton. a.d. 1905.
UKyinU. 19 C.


xxii

LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Particulars of publication.
Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages.

(1) (2) (3)

Subject or nature of work.

(4)

Author's name and, date of
work or floruit.
(5)

Parami P.Com.
Par.P.Th.

Pathi Pon

Patimauk
Pato.Th.
Paya Anek.K.
Paya.N.W. .

Paya Shiko. .
P.E.D. .

Pit.Th.S.D. .

Pohtin.Py.Z. .
Pol.Econ.

Por.Abid.
Por.d.K.
Por.Kat.K. .

P.P.

P.P.K. .
P.P.Yag.
Prov.Phr.

Pub.Win.K. .
Pyatih.P.

O1GJ§goo53OSS^|II

)s33g§ii

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1914. (1-120.)

Hanthawaddy Press,
eoon. 1932. Q-255.

nanwiawauuy jrress,
goon, 1932. (1-255.)

o1s|§gooss§st|oo£ ii ^

. oc8^§8og§@sn

Ran-
goon, 1932. (1-255.)
Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1922. (1-119.)

British Burma Press, Ran-
goon, 1899. (1-310.)

o!c8goooqe69S33g|3oo|Ssii Zabu Meitswe Pitakat Press,

1932. (1-206.)
oc£>sgoo5(c§sx88sii Zabu-tazaung Press, Manda-

lay, 1902. (1-16.)
O^sps 33 <3$ 00 OOO Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-

oaooa, goon, 1926. (1-28.)

Sun Press, Rangoon, 1914.
(1-192.)

£copSsospGOo5ooGps^s8 Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
^goooc^^i, g0n' 1929' d"103")

The Pali Text Society's The Pali Text Society, Dictionary.
Pali-English Dictionary. Chipstead, Surrey. 1921.

Epic poem in praise of the Shin Thilawuntha. a.d. 1491.
virtues of Buddha based
on the story of Sumedha
as contained in Nidana-
katha.

Commentary on part of
Paramigan PyoProse.

Epic poem in praise of the
virtues of Buddha based
on the story of Sumedha
as contained in Nidana-
katha.

Burmese translation of
Arabian Nights Tales
Prose.

Questions and Answers on
VinayaProse.

History of pagoda at Amara-
puraPoetry.

Consecration of a pagoda:
Pali-BurmeseProse.

Moral instruction based on
stories in Dhammapada
and Ariguttara Commen-
taries, etc.Prose.

Adoration of Buddha. Pali- Manle Sayadaw, A.M.P. Born
BurmeseProse. a.d. 1841. Died a.d. 1919.

Maung Ba On. a.d. 1921.

S. A. Rahman. 4th quarter
of 19 C.

Rev. U Zawtipala. a.d.
1932.

Rev. U Tilawka of Thitcha-
taung, Thaton. a.d. 1901.

Shin Thilawuntha. a.d. 1511.

. 8g>oocSoo§8soooSsn

. GooSdjisooS §8n oesS §
cocSn

. 93G$OcS^8cG00O0GO3
OCflSsil

. GolspaoycooocoococB
90$ ii

. GolGpar)§o|oc||Ssii (o)

Golepci8oo-ooooooc{|Ss

§8qoo$ooc8oii
. The Path of Purity.

(^goc8cidoooc|jSjll
okoissjoo^ii

English Proverbs and Pro-
verbial Phrases with
Burmese Equivalents.
See under Athanna.K.
gogooo^scji

Thudhammawadi Press, Ran-
goon, 1915. (1-246.)

Burma Herald Steam Press,
Rangoon, 1880. (3-108.)

Aka Press, Kemmendine,
1933. (1-548.)

Pitakat Press, Rangoon,
1892. (15-239.)

Myanma Pitakat Press, Ran-
goon, 1930. Vol. I. (1-546).

Zabu Meitswe Pitakat Press,
Rangoon. (1-157.)

Oxford University Press,
1923. Vol. 1 (1-95). 1929.
Vol. II (96-504). 1931.
Vol. Ill (505-882).

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1893. (1-310.)

Aungzeyyatu Press, Ran-
goon, 1928. (1-50.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1899. (1-50.)

An account of literary works
in Burma and their authors
Prose.

DramaMainly verse.
EconomicsProse.

Ed. T. W. Rhys Davids,
F.B.A., D.Sc., Ph.D.,
LL.D., D.Litt., and W.
Stede, Ph.D.
Maingkhaing Atwinwun
Pitakattawok Mingyi Maha-
thlrizeyyathu. a.d. 1888.
UKyeU. 19 C.4th quarter.

Dictionary of poetical Bur-
mese words.

Literary miscellanyPoetry
and prose.

Moral anecdotesMainly
prose.

English translation of Visud-
dhi-maggaProse.

U Hla Pe, ex-Director of
Publicity, Burma, a.d.
1933.

Saya Hpye. a.d. 1892.

aya Thein Gyi of Hmawbi.
a.d. 1896.

Kyi-the-le-dat Sayadaw of
Shwedaung. a.d. 1880.

U Pe Maung Tin, M.A.,
B.Litt.

Miscellaneous information Lon-taw Sayadaw. Probably

Prose. 19 C.

Birth Story No. 536Poetry. Nakhandawgyi U Shwe Ni.

19 C.

Proverbs.

U Po Saung. 19 C.

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1929. (1-72.)

Display of miraculous powers. Shin Tezawthaya. a.d. 1536.
Story based on introduc-
tion to Birth Story No.
483, cf. Mala Link. W.
Chapters 80-2Poetry.


LIST OF BOOKS CITED

xxiii

Particulars of publication.

Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs. in ( ) = No. of pages. Subject or nature of work.

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.
(5)

Pyaz. .
Pye Th.

Pyinsawu.P. .

Pyinth.P.K. .

Pyo Khet Sit.

Raz.Ayeb.

Razad.Th.K. .
Rup. D.K.

Rup.Kal.Py.Z.
Rup.W.

S. .

Sabebin W. .
Sadaw K.

Sagab .
Sagab.B.

Sagad.W.

Sama K.

Sanda Kum.J.W.

San Kein.P. .

SanN. .

San Thu Hma
Saung Ba

Saw Pe Py.Z.

@c?oc8q|osii

§t§iGasG:)5o,?6Ps

OO^Ssil

03090^11

§8ooS^o8oog;f.ooq|8sii§!8

OOOCOOO 95059 £08 00 g f>0

0q|8§ll

c§ ooqpscS so8 cooocS § c8
qcSn

epeoSsp&oaesjSGOoS^ 11

sp(?0oooftoooq|5sil

^So^cSol^GooSqpsii

^ooocvq|oy8soo8sQoc8ii
^§0881"

Stevenson's edition of
Judson's Burmese-
English Dictionary.

0(jSo8og§[ii
0?GOoSs||cSoq|Ssil

ooosc^Sgcoo8 ii
000?9G018SS||[5|I

ooosGooo8osogg[ii

ooy1coo*>06jogn$on GSTO-
o-oag8ocj|Ss^sii

§ajos|oc8GOoS^!ogg[ii

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1907. (1-33.)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1920. (1-162.)

(1-22.)

Minor plays.

History of Shwesandaw pa-
goda at PromeProse.

Birth Story No. 55Poetry.
ReligiousProse.

U Thfe, Retired E.A.C. 20 C.

Monywe Zetawun Sayadaw
Ariyawuntha Adissayanthi.
a.d. 1821.
Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P.,
D.Litt. a.d. 1913.

Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat
Press, Rangoon, 1913. (3-
168.)

Thumingala Electric Press,
Mandalay, 1922. (1-298.)

Sun Press, Rangoon, 1915.

(1-179.)

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1908. (1-165.)

British Burma News Press,
Rangoon, 1880. (1-118.)

Sun Press, Rangoon, 2nd
edition, 1930. (1-208.)

Vocabulary of Burmese
poetical words.

History of King Razadirit,
translation of medieval
Mon workProse.

Advice on conduct of kings
and othersProse.

ReligiousProse.

DramaMainly verse.

Novel (adaptation of Rider
Haggard's She)Prose.

Maung San Ba. 20 C.

Edited by Rev. U Niroda of
Siban-ni Kyaungdaik. 20 C.

WetmasutWungyi. a.d. 1878.

Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P.,
D.Litt. a.d. 1893.

Maung Chan My a. 19 C.

4th quarter.
" Shwe-u-daung." 20 C.

Government Printing Press, Dictionary.
Rangoon, 1893. (1-1188.)

FictionProse.
CookeryProse.

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1931. (1-275.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1899. (1-64.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- Proverbs.

goon, 1910. (5-141.)
Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1902. (1-48.)

ao^s $oq|ftoo8§8ao§scoo?>oii

G080tfS§9000S;il
ogoooGoo8 §8s^Gaoo8so1s

gogoo§8Goggc§(y
Myanmapyi Saponhneik
Alokthamya Athin Press,
Rangoon. (1-183.)

Didok Press, Rangoon. Vol. I
(1-182).

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1910. (1-48.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1899. (1-127.)

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1923. (1-124.)

Zabu Myethman Press, Man-
dalay. (1-60.)

Mg. Maung and Bros. Press,
Pyu, 1924. (1-264.)

Bengalee Job-Printing Press,
Rangoon, 1880. Vol. I
(3-81).

Advice on conduct with ex-
planatory notes on figures
of speechVerse and prose.
NovelProse.

Dr. Judson and R. C. Steven-
son. a.d. 1893.

U Lat. a.d. 1913.

Shin Wiseikta and Shin Kawi-
thara, pupils of Shin Ok-
ganthamala (probably 19 C.)
UTaing. 20 C.

Kyigan Shingyi. 18 C.

Atula Sayadaw. 18 C.

Shin Thilawuntha. 15 C.
U Kyi. 20C.

Magic symbolism of letters. Didok UBaCho. 20 C.

Birth Story No. 542 (Khan-
dahala Jataka)Prose.

Birth Story No. 485 (Canda-
Kirmara-Jataka)Poetry.

Word-for-word translation of
VuttodayaProse and
poetry.

Imaginary love letters
Poetry.

Miscellany Prose and
poetry.

DramaMainly verse.

Rev. U Awbatha. a.d. 1782.

Sawhla Myosa Nakhandawgyi
Minhlarazakyaw-din.
a.d. 1850.
Sayadaw U Bok. a.d. 1830.

Maung San Thu. 19 C.
" Mr. Maung Hmine." 20 C.

USuTha. 19 C.4th quarter.


xxii

LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Abbreviated title.
(1)

Particulars of publication.
Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages.

(2) (3)

Author's name and date of
Subject or nature of work. work or floruit.

(4) (5)

Saw.W. .

Sa-wyer .

Sayawun.

S.D.Kh.P.

Se Abhid.K. .

Sed.Pak.K.

Sehnit.Ya.

Seikhnyo K.
Sel.Anthol.

Se.Kk. .
Shin Kyin.
Shin Thi.Ame.

Shweb.Nid. .

Shwedg.Th. .
Shwedi E.Th..
Shwegyin T.S.

Shwehin.P. .

. gogoooSsgs18§8^os|
Goy8sGf.o8c§ogg[ii

. A Classified List of the
Plants of Burma.

so6po§o!cb@(?oc8ii

3qG00o8s8§SC§ll

. gsdsd3c8o1^0qj85ll
. gc8oooooooofoq|Ssil

8c8^o1c8^c8oq|Ssil

§^000g^g0l8sc)q|Ss
§00011

. GS0S0q|Ss33fc|sfc|sil

. §|Sor[|8oc8oo8^sii

. §|8o8cOOOO§|8s|gOOOS|99GGS
33G@II

. g§jc8q8o0^8sgoo5oo8ll
. o8sooGpsG§jo8se^j85oo8ii
. g§ioq|8aospgooso^ps@

Mandalay Times Press, Man-
dalay, 1906. (1-146.)

Government Printing Press,
Rangoon, 1927. (1-47.)

The Burma Book Club, Ltd.,
Rangoon, 1928. (1-50.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1922. (1-108.)

Mingala Times Press, Ran-
goon, 1920. (1-124.)

Irrawaddy Press, Ranoon,
1906. (1-432.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1907. (1-56.)

Shwepyinyun Press, Ran-
goon. (1-57.)

Dagon Press, Rangoon, 1925.
(1-157.)

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1911. (1-252.)

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1928. (1-85.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1924. (1-39.)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1920. (1-84.)

NovelProse and poetry. Saya E. a.d. 1906.

Botany: Glossary.

A. M. Sawyer and Daw Nyun.
a.d. 1926.

Adaptation of Moliere's Le
M'edecin Malgr'e Lai
Prose.

Prayer of Sumedha based
on story contained in
NidanakathaPoetry.

Medical (Burmese Pharmaco-
poeia)Prose.

History of various pagodas
and shrinesProse.

Poems on months and seasons.

The art of winning affection

Prose.
Selections from Anthology of
Burmese Literature with
notesVerse and prose.

Medical 1

Rules of conduct for monks
based on VinayaProse.
Biographywitticisms
Prose and verse.

Maung Ba Thaung. a.d. 1928.
Shin Thilawuntha. a.d. 1483.

Nemyo-thurein-yan-aung U
Tun Aung. a.d. 1905.

Compiled by Saya Thein Gyi
of Hmawbi. a.d. 1907.

USeinda. 20 C.

U Chit Saya. a.d. 1924.

Aletawya Sayadaw. a.d.
1872.

Maha-withokdayon Sayadaw.

a.d. 1909.
Shin Thilawuntha and Shin
Maharathathara. 15/16 C.

Zeyyathinkhaya. a.d. 1783.

g§jooa5oq8sc|ii

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Rangoon, 1923. (1-147.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1900. (3-27.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1899. (3-142.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1929. (1-73.)

Explanation of technical
terms relating to the royal
palace, army, navy, etc.
Prose.

History of Shwedagon pa-
godaProse.

Old Historical Ballad on
Tabinshwe-hti and his an-
cestry.

Biography of Shwegyin Saya-
daw and history of Bud-
dhism in BurmaProse.

Birth Story No. 502Poetry. Shin Tezawthara. a.d. 1509.

Shwe-hlan-taung_ Sayadaw
Ariyawuntha Adissayanthi.
a.d. 1893.
Razabala alias Razadewa alias
Razabahu alias Hlawga
Thon-htaung-hmu. 16 C.
Moungdaung Sayadaw. a.d.
1891.

Shwemaw.Th.
Shwemaw.Th.A.

Shwe Min Mawg.

Shwenand

Shwenan Hma
Shwep.W.

G§|GoSG1oOtjj8s330q!§S £j|[Sll

g§|o8so^sso8gooSggS
gg$ai

g§lf.^s6008^s33g^c8s§8
gc8oo^c?oooo8sii

GQo80fls£j>G
GSlB^§S08Sl"

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1917. (1-272.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1917. (1-78.)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1920. (25-36.)

Ratana Theikdi Pitakat
Press, Mandalay, 1926.
(1-66.)

Sun Press, Rangoon, 1913.

(1-176.)
Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1929. (1-310.)

History of Shwe-maw-daw Saya Ku of Pegu (probably

pagoda at PeguProse. 20 C.).

Short account of Shwe-maw- Kamma-tan-kyaung Sayadaw

daw pagoda at Pegu (probably 20 C.).
Prose.

In praise of Royal elephant Atwinwun U Nyo. 18 C.
Poetry.

Guide to Mandalay Palace Prince Yin Kh6 Teik Tin.

and an account of famous 20 C.
pagodasProse.

Imaginary love letters Maung San Thu. 19 C.
Poetry.

FictionProse. U Lat. a.d. 1914.


LIST OF BOOKS CITED

xxiii

Particulars of publication.
Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs. in{ ) = No. of pages.

(1) (2) (3)

or nature of work.
(4)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1911. (1-119.)

gsioocBSsoSgooSgwSodE :ii Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
21 1 6T Mandalay, 1920. (1-13.)

gqc8goo8oo88sooS ii Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
21 T goon, 1922. (1-63.)

Selections from the In- British Burma Press, Ran-
scriptions of Pagan. gon> 1928- (1-165.)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.
(5)

Shwep.W.W.

Shwe Sa.Mawg.
Shwes.Th.

S.I.P. .

S.Kyaw Y.

Sonma.P.
S.Th.D.K.

Star
Sun.

Sund.S. .

Surya Sid.
S.W.

Swed.Y.Com. .

Swes.K.D.

Tabin.W.
Tad.Mawg. .

Tad.T.Mawg. .
Tanaw W.

Taung M.Y. .

Burmese translation of part
of Maha Parinibbana Sutta
and the commentary, and
also translations of part of
Dhammapada comment-
ary regarding the deaths
of Sariputta and Mog-
gallanaProse.

In praise of Royal elephant Shin Htwe Nyo. 16 C.
Poetry.

History of sacred footprints Shwe-hlan-taung Sayadaw

at Shwezettaw,
DistrictProse.
12th-14th century inscrip-
tions.

S&GttflSajs^ 6) ajqp slices
gooS §|8e^|8s§ 8 h coo c^s
ooosii

S^soOGO18SS{H8^SII
ctjoog§o|oq|Ssil

§£ooooo6poooo8son

ofl£joooooo8so ii

ooooo $0 g c^jo cS § 8 sg Ss
goos|o^sooos sll

Surya Siddhanta

00g^^|g0l8s0q|Ssil

g0sg00sg09j08s|0^ ii |ooo % ii
q8s33G§

gciS^Goq|8oo8oq|Ssii (o)

(r)

Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat Miscellaneous poems.
Press, Rangoon, 1929. (1-
74.)

Minbu Ariyawuntha Adissayanthi.
a.d. 1894.
Messrs. Pe Maung Tin and
G. H. Luce. a.d. 1928.

Seinda-kyaw-thu (U Aw) alias
Shwedaungrazakyaw. 18 C.

Sun Press, Rangoon, 1926. Advice on conductPoetry. Various authors. 15 C. to 19 C.
(1-286.)

Gunawadi Press, Mandalay, Religious discourses regard- Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. a.d.
1921. (1-45.) ing the Four Sublime 1903.

TruthsProse.
Star of Burma Press, Manda- Newspaper.

Sun Press, Rangoon.

Newspaper.

Aungzeyyatu Press, Ran- Poem embodying an imagi- Sale f

goon. (1-31.)

nary request by nats to
King Mindon to propagate
Buddhism and another
poem on history of Sun-
dawgyi offering.

AstronomyEnglish trans-
lation of Sanskrit work with
notes.

Ghost storiesProse.

, U Ponnya. Born

a.d. 1812. Executed a.d.
1867.

Rev. E. Burgess, a.d. ]

Calcutta University Press,
Calcutta, 1935. (1-409.)

Pyinsayupan Press, Prome,
1934. (1-372.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- Pilgrimages to the Tooth Okpo Sayadaw. 19 C.

U Kha of Prome. a.d. 1934.

goon, 1900. (1-104.)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1914. Vol. I
(1-415); Vol. II (1-467).

relic at Kandy and the
Bodhi tree at Budh Gaya
Poetry with notes in
prose.

General information mainly
on religious and historical
subjectsProse (Questions
and answers).

oooc __ _

(o),(q.),(oo) $8(00?)

oo§ooos§sg6coogc8gS
ng^sii

ooooos§soo^g5og^sn

GOo8oOOGf>OOgg[ II (o) §(8
(.0

g00o8qio8ss§6j0} ii

is, Rangoon. Vol I Historical NovelProse.
(1-212); Vol. II (1-224);
Vol. Ill (1-243); Vol. IV
(1-336.)
Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1924. (1-29.)

In praise of Mingalaceti
pagoda at Tada-uPoetry.

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon. (2-11.)
Mingala Times Press, Ran-
goon. Vol. I (1-140); Vol.
II (1-196.)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Rangoon, 1920. (1-67.)

History of Tada-uPoetry.
FictionProse.

Miscellaneous poems.

Questions by Nandadhaza
alias KyiganShingyi (U Nu)
and answers by Kyithe
Ledat Sayadaw U Mu-
neindabidhaza. a.d. 1865.

Ledi Pandita U Maung Gyi.
20 C.

Shin Maharathathara. a.d.
1480.

Shin Thilawuntha. a.d. ]

3aya Thin alias Maung Ba
Thin. a.d. 1906.

King Mahadhammaraza alias
Natshin-naung of Toungoo.
16/17 C.

d


xxii

LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Particulars of publication.
Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages,

(1) (2) (3)

Subject or nature of work.
(4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.

(5)

Taung.M.Y.Com.

Tav.Yaz.

Taz.D.K.
Tdg.La P.

G000Sq[Sss£jSG|0qij>5§ (agcS
cflagoScoaoSp) 03g§ii

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- Commentary in prose on a 3- Thandawzin U To. a.d. 1789.
goon, 1899. (1-48.) stanza poem of King Mah-

adhammaraza (Natshin-
cre naung).

. ooosodSepcotGOOOgsil (o) Trading Press, Tavoy, 1922. History of TavoyProse.
Vol. I (1-330).

ooggg§oa8oq|Ssii

GODoScgSscoo cjjj ^ 8 g 000 8
Og8sCOO (jjo3g§ll

Star of Burma Press, Manda-
lay. 1906. (1-161.)
Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1899. (1-55.)

GcooScg8c=(r§sp(?o8ooSii

goosoo5go18s£)j[5(c§$ll

cS^oocfii

g00800cc8g00s^s0gg[ll

60ofp00000§§ll

ooc8oq|Ssii

00c80^s(c§sil

§c0o60c(|8^0qj0q|Ssil

oo8ooSs8oggpi

Burma Union Press, Ran-
goon, 1936. (1-274.)

Sun Press, Rangoon, 1923.
(1-206.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1895. (1-58.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1906. (1-226.)

Dagon Press, Rangoon,
1926. (1-202.)

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1910. (1-414.)

New Light of Burma Press,
Rangoon, 1937. (1-230.)

Mohamedan Press, Mandalay,
1907. (1-731.)

Stories of ghosts and other
spiritsProse.

Poem describing Shin Thila-
wuntha's journey from
Taung-dwingyi to Ava and
commentary thereon in
prose.

History of Taung-dwingyi
Prose.

Book of short poems.

Birth Story No. 520 (Ganda-
tindu-Jataka)Poetry.

Birth Story No. 538 (Muga-
Pakkha-Jataka)Prose.

Burmese translation of Therl-
gathaProse.

LogicProse.

FictionProse.

Word-for-word translation of
Abhidhammattha-vibha-
viDi-tika with commentary
Prose.

FictionProse.

Myanma Kyetthaye Thadinza
Press, Rangoon, 1920. (1-
107.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- Birth Story No. 494Poetry.

goon, 1900. (1-56.)
Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat
Press, Rangoon, 1923. (1-
572.)

Thahaya Press, Rangoon. (1-
200.)

ooooGClOGOq|SGCOSo1soQgiii Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1916. (1-118.)

oogf c8o3gocoo§ oqjn
c&c8oogotog§|gcgsogg[ll

Burmese translation of Sad-
danlti, a Pali Grammar
Prose.
FictionProse.

DDO&OOglSofoqiSsil (o)

oooc£§oooq]Ssii

oo 8 g oojtfj §coc8 ^soq| Ss§8
oo|^cocS§sgf>cc8socSc£ii

ooa^SspcoSocuSsii

OD^SOD^Offilll (9), (OD)

(00?)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1925. Vol. I
(1-432); Vol. II (1-391).

Biography of four renowned
novices, being translations
from Dhammapada com-
mentaryProse.

Miscellany, chiefly scriptural
subjects. (Questions and
answers)Prose.

Mayanbin Sayadaw. a.d.
1759 ; and Bongyaw Saya-
daw. a.d. 1764.
Mingyi Mahazeyya-thinkhaya
Hlethin Atwin-wun. 19 C.
Shin Thilawuntha. 15 C.
Commentary by Hsalin
Sayadaw. a.d. 1735.

Rev. U Nyana. a.d. 1936.

Various authors. Compiled by

Sun Press. 20 C.
Minhla-theinkhathu. a.d.
1856.

Rev. U Awbatha. a.d. 1786.

Ledi Pandita U Maung Gyi.

a.d. 1926.
U Shwe Zan Aung, K.S.M.,

A.T.M., B.A. a.d. 1908.
Maung Thein Pe. a.d. 1937.

Ariyalinkara Neyin Sayadaw.
a.d. 1723.

" Mandalay Ne La." 20 C.

Thare-thinkhara. a.d. 1683.
Sayadaw U Bok. a.d. 1832.

" Met-ma-pye." 20 C.

Nyanabiwuntha Dhamma-
thenapati Sayadaw. a.d.
1807.

Monywe Zetawun Sayadaw
Ariyawuntha Adissayanthi.
a.d. 1811.

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- PhysiognomyPoetry.

goon, 1908. (1-33.)

Ratanadipan Pitakat Press, AstronomyProse.
Mandalay, 1928. (1-47.)

Bhaddanta Thilawuntha. a.d.
1925.

Truth Press, Rangoon, 1925.
(1-52.)

Knowledge Press, Rangoon,
1920. Vol. II (1-200);
Vol. Ill (1-199); Vol. IV
(1-184).
Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1923. (1-60.)
Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1912. (1-37.)

History of SyriamProse. Anonymous, a.d. 1843.

FictionProse.

Birth Story No. 462-

Maung Kin Maung of Man-
dalay. a.d. 1920-1921.

-Poetry. Shin Maharathathara. a.d.
1529.

Realization of misery of life Shin Thilawuntha. a.d. 1491.
from story of Buddha's
lifePoetry.


LIST OF BOOKS CITED

xxiii

Particulars of publication. Author 's name and date of

Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages. Subject or nature of work. work or floruit

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

TharapuK. . oos|Ojoq|Ss-g-c£ 11

Thathana Sh.
Thath.Bahu. .

Thath.Link. .

Thath.Tham.D.K.
Thath.Wi.K. .

That.Pad.Pok.K.

That.Th.
That.Yaz.B. .

Thein.W.

Thet.H.

Thet.S.
Thing. Sag.

Th.K.E..
Thok.M.N. .

Thokthil.N. .
Thokthil.T. .
Th.T.E.
Thud.Py.
Thu.Na Se K.

See under Sund.S.
ooooo^oo^oojooyoooool n

00000$0c00&0s|000§5ll

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000 00 f. 8 G 000 Ss 11

() (9)

(o) oooou8oo(^go3G§oqjS:
(j) OOOCTOO^O II OOyC1DOO§

0000011

ooo^ggloosjo^gps^soo^ssil

00 09 Gp C O 8Go18s^[8oqi Ss
glll

08 ^sci^c8GsT^GOooc8Gyo8
§psogjiii

^s^^ooocsgspcsgoooii

oocSGo8opc8sn

000S 030 GpG005 o^sps^s
<^>OOOS$ 11(0), (£jj), (00) §8

(009)

oos8^se^|8sn

oqcSy oooolrogooooo^ oqpi
(o)

ajc8o8coog^o1^goo8^oq|ii

o^cS oScoq^ |ooooo S olgn
(o) §8 (,)
oosSccgse^Ssii

oq o go^y8sc§SGooooS§c8
09a

o^o £>oftcdS f. o cq ousels

g08c^gs0s0t)j8sil

Irrawaddy Press, Mandalay, Magic or acquisition of super- Rev. U Oktamathiri (probably
1914. Vol. II (1-248); natural powersProse. 19 C.).
1908. Vol. Ill (1-261).

Deedok Newspaper Press,
Rangoon, 1928. (1-337.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1928. (1-250.)

Gunawadi Press, Mandalay,
1926. (1-394.)

Knowledge Press, Rangoon,
1919. Vol. I (1-276).
Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat
Press, Rangoon, 1924. Vol.
II (1-233).
Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1908. (1-215.)

History of Buddhism, its Payabyu Sayadaw. a.d. 1926.
arrival in Burma and its
propagation by Kings, etc.,
up to 1926Prose.

History of Buddhism, from Mahadhamma-thin-kyan. a.d.
the earliest times in India 1831.
to its state in Burma in 1831
Prose.

Translation of a Pali religious Ledi Pandita U Maung Gyi.
work by Ledi Sayadaw a.d. 1914.
Prose.

Religious discoursesProse. Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. a.d.

1919.

Religious miscellany. (Ques-
tions and answers)Prose
and verse.

History of Shwesayan pagoda
at ThatonProse.

(1) Questions by Mingun
Aletawya Sayadaw and
answers by Manle Myoma
Sayadaw and vice versa.
(2) Manle Myoma Sayadaw.
a.d. 1881.

Shwe-hton Nagara Press,

Thaton, 1925. (1-53.)
Thuwunnawadi Pitakat History of ThatonProse. Rev. U Pyinnya. a.d. ]
Press, Thaton, 1927. (1-
125.)

Sun Press, Rangoon, 1926. FictionProse.
(1-186.)

" Shwe-u-daung." 20 C.

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran- AstrologyPoetry,
goon, 1929. (111-131.)

Sale Saya U Ponnya. Born
a.d. 1812 ; executed a.d.
1867.

E. M. de Souza and Co., Ran- Medical,
goon.

Zeyyapurein Press, Poozun- Sermons and illustrative anec- Thingaza Sayadaw. Bom
daung. 1911. Vol. I (1- dotesProse. a.d. 1815 ; died a.d. 1886.

319). 1915. Vol.11 (1-200).

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1900. (1-28.)

Zabu Meitswe Pitakat Press,
Rangoon, 1918. Vol. I
(1-445).

Zabu Meitswe Pitakat Press,
Rangoon, 1911. (1-378.)

Thudhammawadi Press, Ran-
goon, 1915. Vol. I (1-479).
Vol. 11(1-406).

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1900. (1-18.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1924. (1-43.)

Myanmapyi Saponhneik MedicalProse.
Alokthamya Athin Press,
Rangoon. (1-146.)

Old Historical Ballad on
grand-daughter of Bayin-
naung.

Burmese word for word
translation of commen-
tary on part of Digha
NikayaProse.

Burmese word-for-word trans-
lation of part of Digha
NikayaProse.

ReligiousPali.

Pethungesa Shin Myat
Khaung. 16 C.

Rev. U Pyinnyazawta Bhad-
danta alias Bakaya Saya-
daw II. 19 C.

Rev. U Ariyalinkara alias
Neyin Sayadaw. 18 C.

Maungdaung Sayadaw I
(probably 18 C.).

Old Historical Ballad on Shin Thuye. 15/16 C.
grand-daughter of Maha-
thlhathura.
LawProse.

Edited by Saya Tun. 20 C.


xxviii

LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Particulars of publication.
Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages.

(1) (2) (3)

Author's name and date of
Subject or nature of work, work or floruit.

(4) (5)

Thur.Theid.K.
Thut.Pak.
Thuta.P.
Thuw.J.W.

Thuw.Mya.P.
Thuw.Thissa.P.
Thuw.Thut.P.
Thwe.S.K.

T.N.

T.N.Id.Sp.
U.B.G. .

U.P.D.K.
Up.Kam.N.

Up.Muh.K.

U Pon.M.

U Pon.M.Com.
UPon. Taya. .

o^uocSgj^Ssgsii
?8?8Soor:>oco?11

O^OOGOOOOc|ll

a^ocroooooeocSGOoSgs
088111

o^omoq(§osoSsCTSsc| n

c^ocwo^oogosaBs^j n
11

8^odccgsSsoq|5s§8
gco G0§8s^03G^08s33Gpll Gp
ol^odogf.011

The Student's English -
Burmese Dictionary.

Idiomatic (English and
Burmese) Speaker.

Coronation Press, Mandalay
1933. (1-137.)

Zabu Meitswe Pitakat Press
Rangoon, 1919. (1-451.;

Sun Press, Rangoon, 1928
(1-123.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran
goon, 1910. (1-88.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran
goon, 1901. (1-87.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran
goon, 1901. (1-110.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran
goon, 1900. (1-56.)

Ratana Theikdi Press, Man
dalay. (9-92).

AstronomyProse.

Nemyo-minhlakyaw-thu.
19 C.

Pali GrammarProse. Baddanta Aggawuntha Khe-

mathiwun Sayadaw,
A.M.P. a.d. 1917.

Birth Story No. 537Poetry. Mahaminhlamingaung (U
Shun) Simi-khon Ywasa
and Pagan Wun. a.d. 1839.

Birth Story No. 540. (Sama- Rev U Pyinnyateikkha. a.d.

Jataka)Prose. 1826.

Birth Story No. 540 (Part of Shin Aggathamadi. a.d. 1527.

Sama-Jataka)Poetry.

Do. Do.

British Burma Press, Ran-
goon, 1917. (1-991.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1904. (1-456.)

Do.

MedicalProse.

Dictionary.
Book of idioms.

Gazetteer of Upper Burma Government Printing, Burma,
and the Shan States in Rangoon, 1900. Part I,
5 volumes. Vol. I (1-727), Vol. II (1-

560). 1901. Part II, Vol. I
(1-549), Vol. II (1-802),
Vol. 111(1-437).
Hanthawaddy Printing
Works, Rangoon, 1927.
(1-226.)

Do.

Bhathudewa. 19 C.

U Tun Nyein. a.d. 1906.
U Tun Nyein. a.d. 1904.

(Sir) J. G. Scott, C.I.E.,
M.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., Bar.-
at-Law, and J. P. Hardi-
raan, I.C.S. 19-20 C.

Story of King Udena from
Dhammapada commen-
taryPoetry.

Monywe Zetawun Sayadaw
Ariyawuntha Adissayanthi.
a.d. 1793.

roocSgs^SGoT^SGogpcqs Ratanathlri Pitakat Book- Wit and HumourProse. U Aung. 20 C.

^GODoa^GaD^ogipo 6hP' ^ngoon. (1-342.)

OqjSjII

gg59^co§o|oq|Ssii

6|00§sgcoo8ssqss§s§|8

gooog90qoo1ool6$oq|iior>

o8$33gos93g§^8oqcggo1co

Goooo1ong^ooq|8snc85
GOoSGoSog^SII

goooco^oo8sj^5goq|Ssii

(o)> (q)> H (?)

§E3G0g3003aG§n

gs^oospsgooooo ii

National Press, Rangoon,

1926. (1-187.)
Gunawadi Press, Mandalay,
1920. (1-91.)

Religious discoursesProse.

Religious miscellany contain-
ing advice to monks on
ordination, questions and
answers at kathina cere-
mony, advice to laity
(Upasakovada), etc.
Prose and verse.

Wizaya Press, Rangoon. Vol. Wit and HumourProse.
I (17-300). Myanmapyi,
Saponhneik Alokthamya
Athin Press, Rangoon.
Vol. II (19-371.)
Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- Poetical epistles,
goon, 1899. (1-108.)

Myanma Union Press, Ran- Poetical epistles with com-

goon, 1932. (1-188.) mentary in prose.

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- Religious discourses and

goon, 1924. (1-130.) anecdotesmainly poetry.

Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. a.d.
1900.

Various authors including
Kanni Sayadaw and Bakaya
Sayadaw, the latter's work
being revised by the 1st
Sagu Sayadaw. 19 C.

Thingaza, Khinmagan, Salin,
Moungdaung, Bhamo, Paya-
gyi and Thitsein Sayadaws.
19 C.

Sale Saya U Ponnya. Born
a.d. 1812; executed a.d.
1867.

U Po Sein, A.T.M. a.d'. 1932.

Sale Saya U Ponnya. Born
a.d. 1812; executed a.d.
1867.


LIST OF BOOKS CITED

xxiii

Particulars of publication.
Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages,

(1) (2) (3)

Subject or nature of work.
(4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.
(5)

§S(£D08g[G0lSsq|[S33G§ll

gooooo6ooof.rgoq|Ssn
(o), (q), (oo) §S (a?)

gO^GOOOC^aoAoOoqjSs II

^SOCDGCGOggOOO II
8^s|oc8GOo8(^sogg|ii
Minor works of fiction.
06|GOOOo8^3O8GOO8GQ5

O^SII
C^SO^II

9G85OOU03D^S^aqj00Sll

8gOGG|Ogc8coSsgGoS
c£

(o)o1oqjcgosD3^{s33G§oq|8s
(j)

(9) 00gG00fj0l§§|8

(9) 0l0q]G0QD000l00|0Cj|Ssil

GO000(^)pC?Oc8G005^S

85l"

GOOXI&Gpclll

Myanma Union Press, Ran-
goon. (1-348.)

Lawkapala Pitakat Press,
Rangoon. Vol. I (1-200).
Lawkasara Electric Press,
Rangoon. Vol. II (1-192).

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1914. (1-247.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1917. (1-40.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1906. (1-114.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1928. (1-8.)

Amyotha Press, Rangoon,

1932. (1-280.)
Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat
Press, Mandalay, 1923.
(1-197.)
Ratanadlpan Press, Manda-
lay, 1907. (1-254.)

Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat
Press, Rangoon, 1928.
(1-163.)

Commentary on above
Prose.

Religion, wit, and humour
mainly prose.

MedicalProse

Poetical epistles.

Birth Story No. 545 (Vidhu-
rapandita Jataka)Prose.

U Po Sein, A.T.M. a.d. 1929.

Thingaza Sayadaw and 12
other Sayadaws. 19 C.

Yaw Atwinwun (U Po Hlaing)
alias Magwe Myosa Mingyi.
a.d. 1880.
Rev U Wunnadhaza. 19 C.

Rev. U Awbatha. a.d. 1783.

In praise of Royal elephant
Poetry.

BiographyProse and

poetry.
Pali versification (transla-
tion of Vuttodaya.)

AlchemyProse and verse.

Twinthin-taik-wun (U Tun
Nyo) Mahasithu Mahathin-
khaya alias Shin Linga-
thara. 18 C.

" Mahaswe." a.d. 1932.

Shin Thangharakkhita.
12C. Translated by Shin
Thlrikumara. a.d. 1921.

Shin Uttamathiri and other
authors.

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1911. (1-186.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1890. (1-114.)

Poetical Pali Grammar with (1) Rev. U Eindawbatha.
prose commentary. a.d. 1915. (2) and (3)

Talaingkon Sayadaw. a.d.
1900. (4) Khinmagan Saya-
daw. 19 C.

Birth Story No. 547. (Ves- Rev. U Awbatha. a.d. 1782.
santara Jataka)Prose.

Birth Story No. 547. (Ves-
santara-Jataka)Poetry.

8cooo8|GO5O2§SII

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1915. (3-117.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1929. (1-86.)

Lawkapala Pitakat Press,
Rangoon, 1925. (1-152.)

Twinthintaikwun (U Tun
Nyo) Mahasithu Mahathin-
khaya. alias Shin Linga-
thara. a.d. 1798.
Do. a.d. 1790.

8f.oooo88cocS^ II
8f>oooo8SoqjSsn

88^ocoo6osjooos^s

gooii

88g5S|GolspaDOOOOS^33G§
OCflSsil

G0g30033fejjjs<|[s§8 8 8
ooos^go18s^)[5 ii

Sun Press, Rangoon, 1926.
(1-63.)

Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1926. (1-100.)
Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-
goon, 1908. (1-185.)

U Tha Hto, Rangoon, 1919.
(1-170.)

Myanmapyi Saponhneik
Alokthamya Athin Press,
Rangoon, 1922. (1-183.)
Zabu Myethman Press, Man-
dalay, 1921. (5-104.)

Birth Story No. 545 (Vidhu-
rapandita Jataka)
Poetry.

In praise of King Bodawpaya
and the Royal elephant
Poetry.

Translation of Vimana Vut-
thustories of good deeds
and their reward in
heavenProse.

Adaptation of Marie Corelli's
" Vendetta "Prose.

ReligiousPoetry.

Religious instruction in verse Do.
with explanatory notes in
prose.

Moral instruction, proverbs Saya U Tha Hto. a.d. 1914.
and their originProse
and verse.

Proverbs and their origin
Prose and poetry.

Anecdotes, model letters, in- Compiled by Mg. Tok of
terpretation of dreams, Myamna-thlrein Pitakat
etc.Prose and verse. Bookshop, Mandalay. 20 C.

Wetmasut Myosa (U Nu) alias
Nawade-nge. a.d. 1806.

Edited by Saya Tun. 20 C.

" Shwe-u-daung." 20 C.

Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. a.d.
1907.


xxii

LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Particulars of publication.
Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages. Subject or nature of work.

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.

(5)

Wisit.Th.D.K.

Wis.Py.Z.

With. At.N. .

With.Haw.

W.L.D.K.
W.M.D.K.

W.M.Th.K.
W.O.B. .

Woh.Pak.K. .

Wunzin W. .
Yak.Kywe Bed.K.

Yak.M.E.

Yak.N.Mawg.
Yama W.

Yama Yag.
Yatana.N.Mawg.

Yath.Khan.P.
Yat.Kyem.Z. .
Yat.Sin Mawg.

88qqoo06)G330SO ii (o^ S 8 Ratana Theikdi Pitakat
/ \ c pc e Press, Mandalay, 1927.

qfe!|gba3?&cicn3o? Vol j (9_288) Ratan5di.

oqjosii pan Pitakat Press, Man-

dalay, 1924. Vol. II (1-
187.)

8(?ooIu(50cSii Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-

0 goon, 1902. (1-59.)

. (3 £oo80080033000oooii Myanma Pitakat Press, Ran-

(o) (-)§8 (oof gon'1932- VoL 1 (1"384).

\P)> W 59 VOT>> 1935. yd. n (1-470).

1935. Vol. Ill (1-613).
. 8oooo8oacooooo£oqiii (o), Zabu Meitswe Pitakat Press,
(V) (oof (oco) §8 Cos) ^ngoon, 1914. Vol. I(1-
mj 99 485) ;VoL n (1-497); Vol.

Ill (1-528). Thudhamma-
wadi Press, Rangoon, 1929.
Vol. IV (1-634); Vol. V
(1-535.)
M.B.T. Press, Mandalay.
(1-107.)

Religious discoursesProse. Rev. U Sareitta. a.d. 1906
and 1914.

Historical DramaPoetry.

8ooos1gooosc8sii

Go1ooos|c8f.gg§o|oq|Ssn

8goooBo|oc)|Ss§8ooogaD§
ofoCflSsil

8gooaoc8§-6|-oq|Ssu

World of Books
o^gcoooo ii

go! ooo G|ggo ooo oo^oqjSsii
(o) fS (q)
0§8s08s6p SJO§[8GOgjOGOo8oCj|Ssil

g|^8o8so§sesj]8sn

s|^8^8go8o2^sii

6P0088l11
p06|00£ll (o) §8

QGOOCGoSog ^s§8s|00f)0f.§
gosog^sii

OOGOoSoSpOOGOOOsSoll

6|OO^OG^S^SOg 8s(50c8
goo5(c§sogg[ii

6|00$OG@o8 ^SDSGOOSGOS
Ggfcll

Star of Burma Press, Man-
dalay, 1899. (1-357.)

Gunawadi Press, Mandalay,
1925. (1-132.)

Ratanadlpan Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1926. (1-226.)

Burma Education Extension
Association.

Toe Press, Rangoon. Vol. I
(1-260), Vol. II (261-508).

Wunthanu Press, Rangoon,
1924. (1-200.)

Zabu Mingala Thadinza
Press, Bassein, 1911. (1-
132.)

Ranmapura Press, Moulmein,
1912. (1-13.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1929. (1-26.)

The Toe Press, Rangoon,
1935. (1-140.)

Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat
Press, Rangoon, 1933.
Vol. I (1-197); Vol. II
(1-118).

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1895. (1-22.)

Sale Saya U Ponnya. Born
a.d. 1812; executed a.d.

1867.

Burmese translation of Payathonzu-taung Sayadaw
Buddhaghosa's commen- U Nandamala. a.d. 1935.
tary on Visuddhi Magga
Prose.

Burmese word-for-word trans- Pye Sayadaw. a.d. 1854.
lation of Buddhaghosa's
commentary on Visuddhi
i,Prose.

Mingyi Mahazeyyathinkhaya
Hlethin Atwinwun. a.d.
1830.

Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. a.d.
1894.

Drama based on life of
Withakha, one of
Buddha's female disciples
Prose.
EtymologyProse.

Religious treatisesProse.

AlchemyProse and verse. Various authors.
Monthly Magazine.

Burmese spellingProse.

BiographyProse.
Fortune-tellingProse.

U Po Sein, A.T.M. a.d. 1936.

Saya U Maung Maung, Prome.
a.d. 1911.

Ratanapon Press, Mandalay,
1901. (1-104.)

Tainglon Zabu Press, Ran-
goon. (1-169.)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1920. (15-23.)

Old Historical Ballad on Adu-min-nyo. a.d. 1430.
daughter of King Basaw-
pyu.

Historical poem concerning Wetmasut Myosa (U Nu)

the conquest of Arakan. alias Nawade-nge. a.d. 1821.

Narrative based on Ramayana U Tin Hla. a.d. 1935.
Prose with some poems
and songs.

Discursive epic. U To. Born a.d. 1751 ; died

a.d. 1796.

In praise of King Mindon and Legaing Myosa Mingyi alias

the river Ratananadi Kinwun Mingyi. U Gaung,

Poetry. C.S.I. Bom a.d. 1821 ;

died a.d. 1908.

Religious narrative of the Shin Sandamyizu. a.d. 1722.
obeisance of Queen Ya-
thawdharaPoetry.

FictionProse. Shwedaung Thlhathu. 18 C.

In praise of Royal elephant Shin Thankho alias Letsaung-
Poetry. yu-hmu. 17 C.


LIST OF BOOKS CITED

xxxi

Particulars of publication.
Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages. Subject or nature of work.

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.

(5)

6pOOll See Al. Ayeb.
epGCooloo^Ssn

SpffoScoqiSlI

6p000600s00cfl0ll
GG|^6Sj|o8s§00Gl)OOO00Ssil

GG|^GOoS§cSa$;n

gsjoo^S§(?OcSll

(J^s3(joos8o5spses)j8sii

ooooc^OOCOCSGOOS^S
8SI"

oooe^oot|ii

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press, Moral instruction for kings,
Mandalay, 1926. (1-557.) monks and laymenProse.

History from the early kings
in India to Kings in Burma
up to 15 C.Prose.

Dynastic historyPoetry.

History of the oil-bearing
tract near Yenangyaung
Prose.

Judicial decisions of Yesag-
yo KhondawminProse.

Monywe Zetawun Sayadaw
Ariyawuntha Adissayanthi.
a.d. 1832.
Shin Thilawuntha. a.d. 1520.

Wuntha Rakkha Pitakat
Press, Rangoon. (1-87.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1899. (1-84.)

Sun Press, Rangoon, 1913.
(1-25.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon, 1927. (1-112.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- DramaPoetry,
goon, 1922. (5-31.)

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- Old Historical Ballad on

goon, 1900. (1-26.) Queen of Ayuthia.

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- Birth Story No. 539. (Maha- Rev. U Awbatha. a.d. 1785.

goon, 1911. (1-124.) janaka Jataka)Prose.

UHpyaw. 19 C.
U Yoe Pe. a.d. 1913.

Yesagyo Khondawmin U
Hmaing. 18/19 C.

Sale Saya U Ponnya. Born
a.d. 1812; executed a.d.
1867.

Nawade-gyi alias Taung-thin-
hmu. 16 C.

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran- Birth Story No. 539. (Maha-
goon, 1890. (1-115.) janaka Jataka)Poetry.

oooooolSffOOOOOlSsloSsil Bethonlone Press, Prome, AstrologyProse.
1932. (1-153.)

gooooooo(q(?oc8ii Burma Herald Press, Ran- DramaMainly verse,
goon, 1880. (1-149.)

(o) 08 s g(?00s|jk 8c8s8 6100 Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press, Collection of panegyrics

Mandalay, 1920. (3-28.) Poetry.

(j)

Zinme P.N.W. c?8 s yoSocroooo $ ol c8coc8 Wuntha Rakkha Pitakat

GQoSgsii (o)

Zin.Pak.K.
Ziwaka H.
Ziwaka K.
Zpd.ms.



§00060000011

See under Dhanun K.

0|lo§0g6soo8s0q|Ssil

Press, Rangoon. (1-321.)

Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press,
Mandalay, 1923. (1-760.)
Taingchit Myanma Thadinza
Press, Mandalay. (1-83.)

Apocryphal birth stories
said to have been trans-
lated from a Pali work
Zinme Pannatha Nipat
Prose.

Questions and answers on
religious subjectsProse.

Novel based on life of
ZiwakaProse.

GeographicalProse.

Twinthin-taik-wun (U Tun
Nyo) Mahasithu-Maha-
thinkhaya alias Shin Lin-
gathara. a.d. 1806.

U San Nyunt of Prome. a.d.
1932.

U Kyaw Ya. a.d. 1879.

(1) Zeyyayandameik alias
Kaungsithle-hmu. 17 C. (2)
Shin Thankho alias Let-
saungyu-hmu. 17 C.

Rev. Mandala U Kelatha.
20 C.

Kyith6 Le-dat Sayadaw of
Shwedaung. 19 C.




LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE TEXT

A.C. = Ancient Chinese. lit. = literally.
absol. = absolute, absolutely. masc. = masculine.
acc. to = according to. metaph. = metaphorically, metaphorical.
ad loc. = ad locum (on the passage). metri gr. = metii gratia (for metrical reasons]
adj. = adjectival/ly.
adv. = adverbial/ly. N.B. = nota bene (note well).
advt. = advertisement. n. = noun.
apptly. apparently. n.pr. = nomen proprium (proper noun).
augmn. = augmentation neg. = negative.
B. = Burmese. O.B. = Old Burmese.
B.E. = Burmese Era. = opposed to.
opp.
C. = Century. orig. = originally.
Cant. = Cantonese.
cf. = confer, conferatur (compare). P. = Pah.
ch. = chapter. p., pp. = page, pages.
col. = column. pron. = pronoun.
Colloq. = Colloquial, general. A place-name following a quota- prond. = pronounced.
tion indicates that it is a colloquial record from that perh. = perhaps.
locality. pi. = plural.
com. = common. prob. = probably, probable.
combn. = combination. prov. = proverbially, proverbial, proverb.
compd. = compound.
q.v. = quod vide (which see).
o-g- = exempli gratia (for example).
Ed. = Edited by. Rem. = remarks.
esp. = especially.
etym. = etymology, etymologically. s.v. = sub voce (under the word . .).
euph. = euphonic. sc. = scilicet (to wit).
exc. = except. shd. = should.
exclm. = exclamation. Skt. = Sanskrit.
expln. = explanation. sup. = supra (above).
fem. syl., syll. = syllable, syllables.
= feminine. syn., synn. = synonym, synonyms.
folld. = followed.
follg. = following. Tib. = Tibetan.
freq. = frequent, frequently. trans. = transitive.
fut. = future. transl. = translated, translation.
i.e. = id est (that is). U.B. = Upper Burma.
ibid. = ibidem (in the same book). usu. = usually.
imit. = imitative.
imper. = imperative. v. = vide (see).
inf. = infra (below). vb. = verb.
interrog. = interrogative. Vol. = Volume.
intr. = intransitive.
Kch. = Kachin.
L.B. Signs.
= Lower Burma.

I.e., U.cc. = loco citato, locis citatis (in the passage(s) referred to). = equal or equivalent to, the same as.

l.w. = loan word. [ ] Between these brackets stand the etymological remarks.




KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION

Vowels

a in open syllables, palm ; elsewhere the same sound shortened,
i in open syllables, eager ; elsewhere pin.
u in open syllables, too ; elsewhere pwt.
e Fr. eleve.

e in open syllables. Fr. eleve ; elsewhere well,
o law.
o Fr. eau.
ei eight,
ou bolt,
an down, sownd.
ai fine.
9 above.

Consonants

b, d, g (as in go), h, j, k, 1, m, n, ny (as gn in Fr. digne), p, r, s, t, w, y (as in you), z approximately as in English;
but aspiration of k, s, t, and p must be avoided.

c an intimate combination of t and y, resembling the initial
consonantal sound in tulip or the ch of cheese made with
tip of tongue touching lower teeth.

5 when initial as ng in singer ; when final, a nasalization of the

preceding vowel.

6 ZAin.
& then.

J shake, (no rounding of lips).

h following a consonant indicates aspiration of that consonant,
as in kh, sh, th, ph, ch. Preceding a consonant, it indicates
that that consonant is a breathed consonant; thus y, n,
m, I are voiced consonants while hy, hn, hm, hi are breathed
consonantshi being = the 11 in Llandudno.
? is a throat consonant as in the Cockney or the Glasgow pro-
nunciation of water as wa^er. For convenience this is
further dealt with under Tones.
Note.Assimilation of final nasals before certain consonants is not indicated in the phonetic transcription, e.g. ^payna
" asthma ", and xpaydaiy winning-post", which should be pronounced Kpan na and span daiy.

Tones.

The term tone is here used to describe four of the five categories of sound found in Burmese, the fifth, the neutral
a (as in above) being regarded as non-tonal.

The level tone.A syllable in this tone is low-pitched relatively to adjacent syllables. No fall of pitch is permissible.
Lightly stressed in comparison with syllables in other tones belonging to the same combination. Level tones are left unmarked
in the phonetic transcription, as sauy blanket

The heavy falUna tone.This is high-pitched at the start and falls steeply. Pronounced in a breathy voice ending
in a fade-out". Heavily stressed. Marked by v preceding the syllable, as s sauy harp ".

The creaky tone.Pronounced with an intermittent voice, falling from a relatively high initial pitch and ending in a
weak closure of the glottis. Marked by 1 following the syllable, as saurf to wait ".

The abrupt tone.Rather higher in pitch than the creaky tone. Terminates in a throat consonant produced by an abrupt
closure of the glottis. Accompanied by much greater effort and constriction of the larynx than the creaky tone. Marked
by ? following the syllable as sau> "to be steep ".

XXXV


THE BURMESE ALPHABET

in the order followed in the Dictionary

Vowels: 33, n, ^j, g, g,

Consonants: 00, 3, o, 00,

on; 00,

00, |, cd, o;

e, g, gS.

c; , so, cr, eg, g, 9--)

00, 3, 0, o, o, o,

co, 00; g.


BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

3 A 1. symbol of the vowel sounds a and 9. In old
inscriptions the indentations in the first half of the character
are not so marked as in the modern form, and the second half
resembles a T lying on its side H ; the complete character
often resembles a flattened H. 2. Symbol of the creaky
tone. Usually written subscript as 8| = meiy' or
sometimes postscript as oooIsS = oool moya. When
so used known as os-@8, checking os." The middle
bar of the H being omitted, two strokes, and later two dots,
became the symbol of the creaky tone and the dropping
of one of these dots gave the modern symbol of the creaky
tone. Epig. Birm. I, i, 10; Por. D. K. i, 245. 3. Support
for an initial vowel, as in osl a, c8 i', 03 u\ etc. In old
epigraphs initial vowels are usually represented by special
symbols.

In the Spelling Book (ooSc^sjo^s) os besides being
shown as a vowel, is included among the consonants, of
which it is the last. This order is sometimes followed in
the arrangement of indices and vocabularies, etc., 93 and the
other vowels coming at the end: e.g. in Sagab. and in
Myanma Abhidhan by U Ba Tun, Henzada, 1930.

03 and the other vowels are the letters appropriate to
Sunday and the Sun considered as a planet. Children are
commonly given names, and monks are always given their
religious names, according to the day of the week on
which they were born (^cSooS^ooS q.v. Thus a child
born on Sunday might be called Maung An. With
special conventions for representing 9 and 0, the letters
appropriated to the eight planets are taken as having
numerical values and used in mnemonics for dates, etc.,
03 or any other vowel representing the number 1.

According to another system, that of the scriptural
numbers "8§ooo8oolp q.v.the vowels represent zero.
V.s.v. osogepii.

B 9 1. Prefix forming verbal nouns. Such nouns have a
great range of meaning. The same noun may express,
according to context, an action, the actor, and sometimes
the result of an action; a state or quality and the thing
or person in such a state or endowed with such a quality.
Some have meanings more extended than those possessed
by the verbs from which they are formed. Thus, osoo
(from oooogS to dance) may = dancing, or a dancer;
os5 (from 5oo£§ to be pungent) may = pungency,
or food having a pungent taste ; os|cgosos§8 (from jcgosoogS
to hear and §8oo£§ to see) = the intelligence derived from
years and experience. 03 (from oo£§ to begin) may =
beginning but also has the meanings of scraps, mani-
festations.

In forming verbal nouns from verb couplets, it is usual
to prefix 03 to each member, as osGcgo3§8 experience,
o3^o3goo respectful behaviour. But sometimesapparently

when the second member is felt to be a mere expletive
the verbal noun is formed by prefixing os to the first
member only, as o3§sos consideration, 03^8cS
oppression, os^^S^ reverence.

The syntactical uses of verbal nouns in os are many and
varied. They may be subordinated to nouns, which they
either precede or follow ; as, osg§so3<^), a coat for warmth,
a warm coat; oscSoocSgoo, a witness having personal know-
ledge, a person attesting a document; ooosos^s the elder
of two sons ; gsISsgoISsos^ a head-dress of white material.
In the latter two cases it will be observed that 03(0^ and oa^
take the positions which the verbal forms and |j
would have occupied. ooos(c§s and gs18sgo18s§ would usually
mean a grown-up son and a court head-dress.

In subordination to verbs, verbal nouns in os may have
the force of adverbs, as os§§§ol send quickly, o3ooof.osGooo8o1
listen quietly; or they may indicate the purpose or
result of an action, as osjc^SogcSoo-S sent someone to look,
os§gSco^oogS filled it full.

The suffixing of various elements modifies the meaning
and use of verbal nouns in os, as 03§S(c§s a great height,
oscgosa^sySs the horse which is the best goer, osfsooecos
or osfsooosob quite near, oscSooos^S in spite of knowing,
though you know quite well. A development of this con-
struction, probably confined to colloq. B., is seen in o3G§oojs
ooosob, I have already told you; here g§oojs (the verb
with its past particle) is apparently taken as the verb and
a verbal noun formed from it.

2. First syllable of many nouns not demonstrably formed
from verbs, some of which are also found without osn
The forms with 03 prefixed occur more commonly in Old
and Medieval than in modern B.; as, os5 measure of land,
osc^S post, oscocS hand, which appear in modern B. as
ouS, crJS and cocSn But the prefixing of 03 to nouns in O.B.
was never so common as in some allied languages, e.g. Sema
Naga, where nearly every noun, in its complete form, begins
with the syllable adropped when the noun is enclitic;
thus, atsa word, hiu'tsa what word ?

The follg. phenomena of modern B. may be noted: (a) The
forms with and without os, are sometimes differentiated in
meaning, as osoocS limb of a tree and cocS hand; osgo18
frame and go18 thigh; osc88 sheath and c88 house, (b) In
numerical expressions when the unit of measurement
precedes the number, the form with os tends to be used,
as g§|osoq|SooGp one hundred ticals of gold, §ososgooo8§6sooS
twenty cattle, (c) 03 is prefixed to some P. words, as
ossjooo = P. rasa taste ; B. os$8 puppet (but form)
P. rupa form, (d) In the demonstratives os| this and 03(038
that, o3 is always retained. Among the interrogatives
oscodS and axS, 0308 and c8 are alternative forms. The Old
and Medieval B. osog, together, is now represented by ooogn

b


2

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

3. Formative prefix in regular reduplications, whether
derived from nouns or verbs, and in other augmentations,
as 33§p§p, villages in general, 03008008 repeatedly, ssjcgSsoooS;
rude, rough behaviour. Not all disyllables can be re-
duplicated; 93§8§8c (from §8c) kingdoms in general, is
common and the following are also met with: oaoolpsp
(from 00^0 number) very numerous, oa00^0000 (from cngp)
a succession of worlds, 3a(gopooo (from @(£)o) various grades
of Brahmas. Longer words are sometimes, by main force,
reduplicated, as otSg^goo (from osSc^oqi incomprehensible)
numerous incomprehensibles, i.e. Buddhas.

33 C, a. Neg. prefix in P. words. Form before vowels an,
as an-aggha 33^ immeasurable. Pronunciation follows the
general usage governing pronunciation of Pali words in
Burmese. When a stress accent falls on the 33 syllable, it is
generally pronounced a', but if it be followed by a kk, or
kkh, and sometimes if followed by h the vowel sound
changes to e; e.g. oao^c^cS a'ku'do demerit, 33^0 a'rwpa'
incorporeal, osoo^g ePkdnePtha' not youngest, supreme,
osG^goo e^koda' freedom from anger. When the 33 syllable
is unstressed, it is pronounced 9 : e.g. 33$$ dnePsa' im-
permanence, 33Gco dsela one who is not clothed, naked
ascetic. Rem. 33 occurs in O.B. as neg. particle with verbs,
as 33$6j8uS may he not behold. This is not a borrowing
from Pali; a as neg. particle is found in allied languages,
e.g. Atsi and Lashi.

33 D a' y. [Kch. maa be speechless, incapable of uttering dis-
tinct sounds. A.C. ''a, dumb (K. 209); Shan a, dumb], to be
deficient, defective in any respect; to have a defect in speech, be
dumb; to be dull, stupidsgoo^S 11 c§8soo£§ii P. ^o dumb.

ooi&fiS^sogpooocooSGog 33 ot^ooocrbii carry a poor crop. Colloq.
Sagaing. g§o8s33oo^ be a poor crop. ibid. §8s 33 oo^Sn dew
is deficient. Colloq. L.B. ggjosoo^ there is not enough water
in the fields, ibid. oscGpSsssooS 33 c^cScj) oc(yo^8o^Gpsii trade
is bad. Colloq. U.B. ec^c8cboooii 33c^c8db33gooo8n c^oo^SgcoocS
cSjG§p8o3|8iic^Gooo8c§ 33cooooscb cgcScoooogSii such an easy-
going life such a dull fellow If he was so afraid of hell
(as to be unable to make a success in business) it was no
use leaving the priesthood. Up. Muh. K. i, 103. ojq|8s
ojj33ii oo^g§sc8ii 8^oooo8s6ii Tav. Yaz. i, 232. 33Ggoosooos
2|]8sc§33f.c8ii oo§s§si c§| oqji sgi 331 ii puny, emaciated,
dumb or defective in speech. Att. Van. Dham. 25.
ysg33co£ssn sg33 o8sgooo8ii 33oo£gsoo8§|8ii Mogh. Dev. L. Th. i,
259. 1g c£j> ssg 005 co £§s0§ 8s dumb. Tem. J. W. 43. 33 e£8oc8 gooo8sgosooc^ii like a
dumb man having a good dream (which he is unable to
communicate) Sagab. 107. oGgoo^glt^oo^Gcooojgjspogc^QcS
C^OoSfjj GCDo|8or^ II 33GOOOOfl§8ri8GOOO!$Syc£obc§ . 00£§S II

ThamSek. D. K. ii, 130. ^ogooo8iajj33C§c^icooosos^Gcoo33oq|8
goooii practice (P. vata) of silence. Khud. N. 110. 3o51?oo~S
Ggooos^^ii33ooc^8s33§i the coin rang short. Thing Sag. ii,
93. So, 3(Sls3300^SllGsl8sGCol8s3300^Sll Colloq. 33 00£§ ^ 00£§
oo8s)|8oo8^o1gii golooc^330?gos^l)c^c8^c8§8sc^g|y338epii a'na'
simple, stupid, without initiative. Mag. oo£§c{j> 3300£§
f>oo£§ c^sgcgoo 33gooo8s33£§so^ooc8cbn Tet. P. W. 219. gcoc^s

Gspc8s1. . 00OSGCOSCOH3300 33 oo ii a'ta'. With imperfect
enunciation. Nayamal. Sek. 24. Cf. Nara Sek. 16. ^sc^sc^s
33 oo 00 a'ta'ta' rather stupid, dull. Dag. Mag. s^gcooo^Ssii
sSf,SsGogso^ii 33 oo c^j ooosn a'ddlu. Halting in speechdue
to not being in the habit of reciting and having to resort
to his own wild speculations. Yazaw. K. 348. oo1ss|8o8iio§oooii
33 0oo^o^n a'tdlulu with imperfect utterance. Kogan
P. T. 135. So 33000^ a'tdlour) and 33 c^s 330011 a' yti a'ta'
ibid. 367; and 33000^11 a'tdlouy SDKh. P. 84. c^0qjG000
330000 ^0000 gsc^8Gf.§,8 11 a'ta'ta' na'ta'ta' like a dullard,
simpleton. Kawi M. Mag. Rem. In ooos33^c8^| at
Ok. Mai. M. 11 U Tin explains 000233 as = o^gooooooosii
falsehood. But perh. 33^08 may be a v.n. from ^c8 in
sense of oo^c8n

3333 da' n. [3300£§ to be dumb.] defective utterance, a
person having such utterance, a bad coin.ooos33§8snoj33ii

3300c£j>G0003&1sil-" CGol 33cS" CO£§SII CGol33oS3333

ooos6|oo£§i!§|Ssc§33o^f.oo§8§i If the name Nga Paw S "
be translated into Burmese, it is found to be a Shan name for
a person who speaks with a defective utterance. (Saya
Pwa, however, in his note appears to take 3333 as = a'a',
a reduplication of the verb ; this would give the same
meaning but seems less consonant with the style of the
passage. Paw £ prob. = Shan S Po "an appellation
given to a person of very ordinary abilities Cashing,
s.v.) Yesag Kh. Py. 41. oo^Scgoob^o 3333 qpsoloocooai
Sayawun 35.

33 E a' n. [imit. cf. 33! C] the sound made by a crow.

33^GOOOO^S^jOSOOOSII £S8oO^SOOc8c6338^8so833C^8sC§|f.OSGf.§SC^|8

,'33-33-33" §,8Gcosc^g1gs§|[(go^s9j)G^go^^ii Tet P. W. 166.

33 S deP n. [e88oo£§, to sleep] sleep ; position (of heavenly

bodies)-s88c8§8?ll 3300£§33G$ II P. 330?§i&33s88c^000

330?0qc8|j 11 Thing. Sag. i, 209. §|8c§c^33s88c^q^oc8o1o3sii
Sagad. W. 147. aaSS j ^|sooosiigoooc8Sooo8c85 j t|so8ooj£sii
Heavy sleep, torpor; and the sleep of unconscious life
(bhavanga), of obscure perception not amounting to
consciousness. U Tin's note at Ok Mai. M. 24. 3300533
gooocS 33iSS33^ e^so8§8o1ii dePdne sleepnight's rest (the
sense is mind you look after yourself"). Hmaing W. i, 72.

f.§S££SGSOOcS6pG§C^____f.o1s33jS533G^330g§8GglSS||cS§8sil position

The site for a palace is chosen according to the position
of the Naga. (The directions in which the head, back or tail
lie are unsuitable : the belly gives the best location. The
Naga seems to correspond exactly to the constellation Scorpio
of western astronomy and to include the three asterisms
Anuradha ((3, 8, and 7r) Jyeshtha (ccga, a, and t) Mula
(f> t, k, A, fx, v Scorpionis). Anuradha is the neck

of the Naga (dragon), Jyeshtha its navel, and Mula its tail.
Barnett Ant. Ind 191 and WLDK. 42-4.) Tav. Yaz. 26.
00^SG33oc8oq|^8n 33 3§ S 33 & 0011 depdde uninfluential (lit. dead)
positions (of the planets) which would bring one's fortunes
below the line. (The line is a horizontal line in the
Adhipati pillarand other astrological figuresbelow
which are compartments indicating misfortune.) Paya


3 BURMESE -ENGLISH

Shiko 10. oo£§oogcos oasSSjcgSs c\^c8cooiigf>c8s§a3]8go8oooo£s
deP'cay be a restless sleeper, toss in one's sleep. Colloq.
oa:£S(o^s Goooofl .... GcooocSSoaos^soo^ ii dePKci be a
heavy sleeper. ThweS.K.82. oac8Soq|||s ((o^s) §8si e88
yc£§8s§33 ii dei^cu over-indulgence in sleep. Dhanun.
K. 15. oocS oaiSSaocS oogSc^n a^3a^osG§qiosGOOOc8cgosooo
goooS^soo^Sii deftsha? be a light sleeper. Colloq.: oa cSSa^s
oo^S dei^sho has ordinarily the same meaning as 33588(0381
oogS ii but in a3s88a^s^GS|oo^sc^a3o8a3£jj£isjoo^S the meaning
intended is apparently be a heavy sleeper MYMW.
151 read with G88^Gqj8Gf>oo^S ibid. 92. G^aSo^oo^S n oaeSS
tjjc8 oss| ii deP pyeP to have less than one's requirement
of sleep, to suffer loss of sleep. HI. Rec. Notes, 23.
oadBScg^ 01^90 i g§|OcSgs| c^oo§soqjc£§8goooc8 ii aeip luy

over-indulge in sleep, need too many hours sleep.
Dwadath. K. 172.
cocSS geiy n. house, dwelling-place] dwelling-place,

covering, sheath, receptacle.33§n p. oosjii tj:^cq|c5yo . .

dwelling-place, mud tube made by solitary
wasps for their larvae. Nemi Yag.15. GoejpeS oasoSsooosii
o^so^sc^sc^s£ras88f8^n^Goo8Goo8330oosc6c§^ii matrix sur-
rounding the stone. LHGK. 133. ooog§gosao£§ .. g§oo^£s
cocSoo^Ss^o . ot£5S§S<$s<§oodc8@8c§goTii sheath into
which the claws are retracted. Adik. K. 103. oo§oq]c8c^
oasSS^ $c8<§ii sheath, scabbard. Zin. Pak. K. 476. saSocfl^S
33GGo8o36oOOS^OOgSo8GCOOGGSOO^C^II OaSoO^cS
goos i 93588000 oj>s^oo§8 ii (where oaSoqj^S = needle case and
09^8 is a sheath containing a fine needle). Manik.
W. 590. cS^soo^a^s . oaaooco^SscSSii oacSS f>osoc8n c§s§cS
oag^s . ooo^s^oSoogSsn ^ogdSbs3a8n it was difficult to
make loin-cloths worth a lakh like a priest's robe with
frayed edge hidden, worn with a surrounding border and
with uneven ends cut off. (It is conjectured that this
passage has reference to Mahavagga viii, 21, and that
33s8S is intended to = P. paribhanda, translated by Rhys
Davids and Oldenberg a binding round (the edge)".
Uneven ends, which had to be removed or cut off, and
frayed threads are also mentioned in the same section.)
SDKh. P. 48. oasSScoS cell (in plants) Mod. Bot. 82.

0flG00o8sC§ 33GsTo3GoT . G£pG§|0Cvq]c8 . G0000093s8 S § c8ll

os||§§gooooooii not tasty and pleasant in the ear-cavity, i.e.
readers are repelled by the number of obsolete words.
Bawd. W. W. Pref. coos oaeaoocSoaiSS g^ooosS^sii vshav?-
deir) scabbard. KBZ. ii, 80.
oaa^ diL n. tuberous root. v. 93g 11

oao^s gov? n. [o^soo^s to cover, control.] 1. control, a
person in control, a guardian. 93(0^5930} ii 6}8§8cjic£ ii 93808$?
3ft II II 8o0^8o^^g§oc8gcoo8cg8oooog8sajg8sg3l8f 8g^§SGU0
Gcrj|Sojjc§c^8cbii ooosGOo5ooc^s8sGoc^9a3^Ss|GOo8^oo^ii to the
supreme command, as army commander. KBZ. ii, 1.
8oo 33^Sc$33c8 ii with the knowledge of parents or guardians.
Manu 250. 938330 oao^Soa^S 11 dovPdchou? arrangements
and control. Kawi M. Mag. oao^soa&oos §Gooq|cS vou?
guardians, protectors (of a woman). Manu 168. oao^s

DICTIONARY

oacS^s dovP 9* their) and 3308^33338 guardian, ibid. Sgje^jSi
gO^C^jS II 93O00OGJ^8c§G^00gSo00c8^^ (f G|8sOOo8930Gc8§GOOO
^5qjosoc^c8go7^ii ^8oD^)8939^5o3c8^s§Gooo^5q|osoo9c8gc^^ ii the
material qualities born of mind, of temperature, or of food
have no original life in themselves. They are not material
qualities which have the control and guardianship of
the material quality, vitality. Thath. W. K. ii, 68. c§o^8c£

s §oo9|^ad0o93go893sjj[s939^593o8^ s930s$£§ 5 00g§93cgc8ggosll

the guarding and controlling force of the laws of conduct for
worthy men is weak in him. Dham. D. K. 71. 2. a united
body, herd, flock (prob. as being under single control)
93qo8sii 93811 oas^ssaooss §8 6$ooo8gooooc833§g3oo cqoco
Gjooosfejjjs 11 douPd'diy in herds, gregarious. Utub. II. 174.
008ojj93sj|8scjj8s939^8930080^8 gf.gco§ oogSn Dag. Mag. oa ps
oao^S ^Goo8iio^Goqjo8syqjc8^Goo8ii dsido-u? if there is bustle and
a crowd, i.e. if the monastery is inhabited. (Cf. 9380^00^
be in a bustle.) Manu 242. 3. a closure, a metrical
verse, phrase, words or word answering to or completing
a preceding verse, phrase, etc. (known as 93s) ; an
appropriate continuation in metre, or sometimes in prose.
£33SJJ[5 II ooq|o8g8s^osjj[8^^soot|sii Ggs^jss^oogS^o-roa^Soas)
00OS|^93^{593OS^8^|500OSGG)S00Os8o3SGaDOG00S08^|8st|sC^GaT00gSll a
dwegyo is a poem consisting of two rhyming sections
93936 and 939 (i.e. in metrical correspondence). Dwegyo
K. 1. The first section is called the 33933^? the second
the 9393893^511 ibid. 3. ^siSsGgs^jsogSgss^SogSQc^s 11 33938
^890 ooc^soooooosgj 11 in the original dwegyo there were
seven syllables in the 933 verse and ten in the 93938
verse. Kab. Band. K. 474. oogS j 09 cg8 11 11 0811 tflosoogS 11
93Soo£Ssn qc8oo 3333SoogSsn In these two lines

((^goo^GoggS 11 ogoci8gsc8^s) nyi and ni are rhymes ; hnon
is the second closing rhyme (i.e. it rhymed with words at
the end of the two preceding sections of a tedat gooscos) .
ibid. 511. ^ossgod 11 f>c8G(y (§gS) 930811 The prizewinning
93938 to this was Gfoc8oo8ojj6yo8oooGf.oii6ooooooo^n the merit
of which consisted in its following the train of thought in
the 939 and going one better. When the Commissary
dies, he will reach the Devas' heaven." The next man,
Maung Ta Naw, will enter the streamis heading for
Nirvana." Tanaw W. i, 123. ooGo18s^oq||[sc§ 11 oo^s
^gG^§Gcoiiy§8sdbG?n (said by a mad priest) was capped
by o^sgogo 11 oo89c8c^930oo4|so1c§ 11 oIgooogoo 11 11333308
(33338) 333(^c8g33o8 q333^c8§^os^ ii o^sjo^sooooo^oooqa} ii
Up. Muh. K. ii, 79. 33958 33338 c^gcg33o8s^s|o1

G^C^G^§^GOo5oOS|^^c8oOGOgjOc8(3^30^GGpc8Go1c8^S§ II 33^05

33§833Cg^o8fejJOSGOoSoD^S-O^GOOOOOOS329C^33Sc8SsGOOOOOOSC^

Gs§8GOoocgo8 whereas he ought to have expressed both
339 and 33338 (completed his sentence) he only said,
" Although owing to my travels I have much knowledge
of the world," and did not add words to cap this 33911
U. Pon. M. Com. 56.
oao^ 90U7) n. [33 swarm, cluster, shelter. 3300^8 to swarm,
assemble. 3333 and 33^ B (found as expletive to 33gsooc8
q.v.) are prob. different forms of the same word.] a bunch,
cluster, compact structure and (following oao^cS) nest, lair,


4

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

group. 3s|gc8 ii 93$j> ii ii oo8s8§c83lso$sc8ooo^5 ii 33038s
cSo^so30gSsgcSiio3^c^cooso^sii'? on the body of the palanquin
a fascia with circles, in the inside circles and stars, the
dome having a foreign flower pattern. KBZ. Hi, 177.
333^0^8308 ii the dome having two rows of small
lilies, ibid. 180. so8go!8so^c8 ii 339^g§|g6|sii ibid, ii, 55.
ct^|8s j qjcs oaogcScigi ii 33o^a3g|cSo3^o3|oLjo8 ii the spokes of an
umbrella considered collectively (oSso?). MMOS.iv, 141.
3380^509?.. caq|833os§8ii333?g8i^iii because of the earth-
quake the fabric of pots burst open. Parami P. 117.
9<£c§oo£S uao^cSirao^ o(yc5Gf.Gooooo£u ddaPdouy nest.
Tav. Yaz. i, 60. oog5o1($q^o£q|os88c§^9£sG33o8s6pgo8c^ciS
gs18s33o^c893o|gooo^|{§o||so8g^^ ii lair. Adik. K. 106. 88
c^jS3|oo3og8s^Sa3o^c5a3£4f.o8o9o^c8o9£4n aggregates or
groups of matter and of immaterial factors. (oaciijjcSoao^ =
P. kkandha) WMDK. 10. v. oso^cS n

333^ or oa^ (less com.) 9U n. [og the intestines, the form in
general use.] the intestines, bowels; inner parts. 3g ii P.
oajk, ii era93 oaoo(&s§o}sc§oo£S33C£§yi^i 11 bowels, liver, and
heart. Dhanun. K. 17. o§goooo33osGg>6p9 sosgc§oogSogc8
09^ 11 from the place where the bull was gored the
entrails came out. Nip. Hi, 267. oo8c§@^oo8s^g^sgooo
aaoo§833oo(£s930flco(co§)y^ turned (in pity). Sanda Kum. J. W. 20. 33^c§@8oGgoo8oS
§e|8^gcgscoc8c1sgs}|o8sspgos§8sc§c^^§c9^jra 11 surround the tree
with entrails and give it the bloody mark of the five fingers
(lohita-pancangulika). Nip. Hi, 10. 3303 go1cSoo^£}|^Sc§
like tangled thread (said of an obscure prophetic saying,
oaoft or 3gGo1c8oogS prob. meant originally that the
threads in the inside of the skein come out). Anthol. ii,
129.

:33s, oae or roes ie n. [g33?oo£§ to be cold.] 1. cold,
sensation of cold, something that is cold. g33?^ ii 33£flS?ii

P. 0800II -00£§GCOOC8£>§$C8G33O8 33G338S>G^Ob II GslSsGC^cS

c^g^oIgooosii stay out in the cold, expose oneself to cold.
Hmaing We W. i, 54. 33G33s§jsp 1 33^00011 heat comes to
a cold place (the glow following immersion of the body
in cold water). Sagabl25. oo§coooo£§§8 GcgsGo&ii oo£§33G33?
00911 11 Gg3^ooG§s^c8 11 cannot keep the cold out: my teeth
are chattering. Anthol. ii, 171. fjcooo33oc8 . oyoes§£
11 33es33<^ooos§8^8^i 11 Utub. K. 28. o8cocS|ssp| 33^33
esf.j£s§§sSsjjpoo§fcpsoo£S n extremes of temperature.
ibid. 12. 33ooc833Si5^033^33G33sg^jo^sii temperature is not
even, there are extremes of heat and cold. Colloq. oo^S
($6CO00033(^333^("833(|)8qOc8(o^oGC2C^o8 . 33G33SOOc833GgSQO<£
(c§so9 330o8^os§sii wrongly thinking the hot and stinking
humours of lust cool and fragrant humours. Ledi Kein
36. 33yc^Goso9)8Gooo8s(^i ii 33esf^Gosaj8Gooo8s(^iii whether to
administer heating or cooling medicine. Gwes. Se K. 67.
Gaosc^or|§SGooo 33 oa s a ooojii 9e khay let stand till cool.
Colloq. 33 ro s 8 §sc\3]8Gf>oGooo8s@8Gf.GoooG(rgo8 9e mi' catch
cold. WOB. 33e8§,OGsGSjio8ss^soD^So8s?8n Advt. 2. tran-
quillity ; soothing treatment §8ooc8§8s goo88Sooo^5§]5
cboo1s||8ojs ii oociS 33G33S§jc8oo£§ ii likes a quiet life. Colloq.

OtjjoO§OgO!C^oSjoOodSOOOS§8 33 33 8 00 cS (^SGf.OcS II 9e dd?

mollify (lit. restrain with coolness33G338§8ooc8oo£S is used
colloquially in this sense). Tabin W. ii, 184.

33 90 n. [^>oo£§ be old, show signs of age, be no longer
virgin.] a woman who is no longer a virgin, an aged and
decrepit person, an old, worn, dilapidated article. e88

G000800^S II JSSgOOOSO^ II OD8G^O^SO^ II 3300c£(c§Sj§33§|cS0q|G0000fl II

33gooo8sii 33cjjjoo333^ gooo8gsoo8§sii a maiden pretending
to be a married woman. Advt. 8ooc§oo88s§osd ii goooc^os
oools^S ^oscg8scoooG^o8 ii ii if a woman not given

in marriage by her parents has had an intrigue with
a man and lost her virginity. Maha Thuz K. 206. %

§8OD§8 II §§CC(£6|(|j^8G000GCO6p 33£^OJGOOOGoloOOS)OOgSc^C^8s
qc8o§i8ooc8cb ii the name, style of 33^ (here used of a
woman whose marriage has been a failure, or who is
neither maid nor wife). Lvhyo 91. 33c|33^ 0089080^58 11
oo§ooc£j> 11 maids and matrons with offerings of flowers, their
dress in disarray. Kyigan M. 1. o^so^scv^d^s an old
crock like His Reverence. Tet. P. W. 75. 0^0908(900^

330c833OSGOgOOO 333^33Ss GOgOOogSoO^SlI 90$ milf) old,

much the worse for wear. Colloq.

33 g rarely 333^ 9u' n. [goo^S to lay an egg, form a tuberous
root, g an egg, tuberous root.] an egg, a tuberous root.
g gc8o^33g§8(^ II 33g^OOOO^gc8§8§^ II MP. 79.
33g^on Ggoodn o8scrbf,^Ssorj ii a hen or duck's egg (is valued
at) of a tical of silver. Manu 31. sjSooo^S 33gc^go8ooobc§
Nip. Hi, 263.33gc§oo^S G|8 09^ coc860oS jo^coSc^joo^S go1c8o9^ 11
ibid. 27. £j|33gOOOS II 33g^S0^000009c8 II §c8G00033g00£S? II gjj
33g^Go1c^ogosGoooo^oo^o9^?ogDocoogciDo^scdS§l8§^S9cog5 II (of
the birth of King Pyusawti, which, according to one
account, was oviparous). Hm. Yaz. i, 217. ^coooogooo8ooos
. . gsoso833o8s33g833§833g§gooogoq|s(js^ ii medicinal fruits,
blossoms, roots, and tuberous roots. Adik. K. 64. §^s^og8ii
03g33§811 Gsq|8soc8cgoS prob. roots so thick (numerous)
as to interlace. (It seems impossible to take Gsq|S here
as = thicket, its ordinary meaning in poetry.) TJdein P. 88.
333? 33fe§st§sii 33g^oc8 33t$s# 11 WMDK. 37.

33 § A 9u n. intestines, v. 3333 11

33 ^ B 9u n. prob. = structure ; expletive to 33caooc8 11 v.
etym. note s.v. 333? 11

33§s A 9yu n. [gs head, front, §soo£§, to be beforehand.] 1.
tip, point, top, front, most excellent place. 33qpsn 08811 oo§
og|c8cgos§89c8ojoogSc^ 1 33^s^8o^s§8sooo^Sooos i 33090 800G06
ooy^S^i 11 stabbing with the point and other ways of
manipulating, instead of cutting with the blade, are called
want of agreement as to the weapon. Kinkha. N. 98.
cssigoosojoo^sooosii §8sso§oo£sc^5§8gooooooco§ i 880fl00£§§g005
@^sg^S33§sc^^8§aI?§8siajooolsc^Gosoo^§GooS33GaoooDaqi8g^Gi
33§s§c8<§gos§8soo£§sii "breaking the top" means, at the
time of measuring sessamum, rice, etc., when one is
receiving, taking it gently after pressing down the top
(pyramid of grain): and when one is giving to others,
a giving after hurried filling and breaking off the top,
ibid. 88. q8s9c8^33^sooc8c§09S|8o8s§c8c§mc8§,o^G^oo^ 11
the King sat facing the front side of the audience-hall.
Shwenand. 31. 33Gf.oc8c§ . 33§sooos§jj 11 fronting (the


42 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

building) to the west, ibid. 37. gf.gpc1ss|8og83a§c83aajsda§s
|gsgooogf.6p§gf.i^ ii the seat of honour. Mahawth. J. W. i, 97.
g$gp33^s§gf.gado(^osoo£sii Etodeg. W. 15. go8sgoo5gsoo8
00£§ . 9§^sg00si^33g§|00j£00£s ot^goacss oocoosoo£§ "
du dtheP head and top, the front endthe crown-room was
due east of and at the head end of the glass palace.
Shwenand. 24. co^gcogos oag^oagcsc^c^gooooaoolf,!! d'u
iphya aggadana = prior gift of the best. Dana D.
K. 6. 2. porch; frontal projection from a main building,
with separate roof-structure. s8S i Goq|o8soo£Sq|os^iq|c8
^'spegimcSfoaiiGODOoaGsooSdSsgoai Gccp8sGooS§ai GoqpSsgsGaooSii
oa§sg§oc8^§oo§s ii co8o£s§8oftgooo ^ss88oo£§ ii f>§0000|
ii noa^sorjoo^ooos ii bcossegssocooo oacsoosoo^ss ii a palace
which, having six projecting halls, is like a peri-
winkle flower, is called auspicious ". the word oa^s
means the bcoss, reception hall, etc. Tav. Yaz. 63.
but u tin says that the bscoss a frontal projection
having a roof which was a continuation of the main
roof, was distinguished from gaqpssgoos^s i.e. was not an
ii MMOS. v, 55. oga?§ ii sp^soagolsscgo^

ii the front room, public room. Manik W.
220. goqpssqcogs §sg8ii o?gcosso8oo8ii sragsgaooso^s ao8q|os§8n
the main building of the monastery with two towers
of four storeys and front hall with a spire of seven
storeys (with co^s "neck", "tower", cf. similar uses
of shan kho). Up. Muh. K. ii, 245. oalgg i oagscg ii
(ooalsc^scgco^ssoj) ii o8c8ogoi o8<§n entering the front hall
(or, the archway of the door). Thoh. Thil. N. 151. 3.
the first, the beginning. ogonoaon cSs^ScgSn §c8ggooonoa^s
goo^ii ocoooc8n pabhavati, called the first twig, the excellent
eldest daughter. Kutha P. 97. oooocjjgoo^s 33§ssq;@s<§
aj 33coc8 oogo1c8gooo^gy§)goosn the very first. That'll. Wi.
K. ii,83 (quotation). ^joos|c8o8sc^3a§j8c§03osoa§ssoc8|§s§o^oac^
. . osjo^gcoa^eiiii as first presentation had been
made to your highnesses, they ate the rest.
Zanek J. W. 63. c|sgs§s§c^^iii ols^sn Goooc8Sjc8

ii coooc8sqS§s ii Goood8c§8s^s ii goooc8$(jSooc\o8s§s ii ooco8sog8s
§:n o^cgssgs ii ^cgoa§sc^so1scg§c^sgs qjesn the beginning,
start of various stages in the growth and winning of
grainsowing, when the ear begins to fill, when the first
bread is made (of grain still immature), when reaping begins,
when the first handful of reaped grain is grasped, when
the first sheaf is made, when the sheaves reach the
threshing floor, when the first heap of grain is made on the
threshing floor, when the first grain is put in the granary.
Etadeg W. 14. Cf. Dh. PadaW.i,144,v,71. cq|sseii rogs33
du dsa' beginning, early partof book. Alink N. 3, PPK.
208, Burm. Comp. 3. rogsrocyos os<§co8<^> d3^8sgos§8sii
d'u Jphya first, before her husband. Manu 341. Cf. Zin.
Pak. K. 288. o^osraooj^qnjgopo^oo^i c ro g % §8§i dsa'du the
beginning, foundationmoral behaviour is the f. of the
religious life. Win. Th. 2.
oa b dsu n. prob. oags a 2, used as expletive to oacaoocs q.v.

c du n. [gs numerative for human beings, spirits, etc.,
and occasionally for abstractions.] an individual, a unit,

an item. oaolsn §sgs| ii ols]§go§----oagso^saodSn cflsso^goS

ooosn (c^scoSc^gjii aouS^Scfyi Knowledge of the perfections,
thirty in number, in higher (middle and) lower degrees, ten
in each degree. Parami P. 113.

sags d 9u n. name of a race or tribe, probably of Shans.

codsooogoqj0^8gg|sgsoo8ooongjssoq|8gooo^- ggf-o 33^8 6(030

--sflcoosGooSflboo^ii (referring to Anawrahta's

irrigation and settlement of peopleof whom and ejcgo
are known to be from the shan countryin kyaukse.)
Shwegyin T. S. 35. but what is evidently the same tribe
is referred to as 0033 s pMu or bdyu in an account of the
dispersal of the people of tagaung, one section of which
settles among the 6(ego 11 coogsg§o 11 Yaz. Te Kab 5. and
among the shan tribes mentioned in the list of 101 races
of mankind is a tribe called o^og yu u. LHRK. 253. ooofts
recalls 02^8 pa-o the name by which the taungthus (karens)
call themselves. TJBG. ii, 554.

j m dka' n. [oooogS to dance.] dancing, a dancer. §8s
P. 11 ooGSj|oo£§ 11 P. $$0011 d^s3a}osoaooc^oo8@£osoqo8Gco
§ooo3£§sii dancing in the Siamese style. TJp.Muh.K.ii, 77.
03ooggooo8si qjoqjn the bad dancer blames the mat: a bad
workman blames his tools. Prov. o3co^os|oooosgs| (the pea-
cock lost his bride by exposing himself in dancing). Wisit.
Por. Sagab. i, 39. Cf. Nacca-Jataka, and Herodotus vi,
129, where Hippoclides danced away his marriage. go18s
c^o30oigo8sc^o i.e. the beauty of the peacock can be
appreciated only when he dances, and that of harp music
only at night. Sagab. 63. oaoo 8c8S 011 asm 8§c8gcos o
dancers. MMM.65. era 00 era ^ 3308239^08 dka' dkhour)
dancing. Maha. Thuz. K. 5. o3S§o8s(oaGq|o8s)3ag|i iraooroo§
3ac8s3a£cS dka'ddi dancing and singing (among accomplish-
ments of palace ladies). Boddh. W. 77. era a^ era 00 oshodka'
singing and dancing. Tanaw W. ii, 143. §§oo tocSsotooii
g§33c8s33O0ii a^gSsoacSsoaoo 11 dtidka! musicians and dancers
(among the people taken from Pegu by Alaungpaya).
KBZ. i, 263.

era(£ a £? n. [old pronunciation ak. prob. an imit. word
expressing a sharp, cracking sound. apptly. a constituent
of b. oocs in oocsoocs split, broken open, chin kek to
crack, shan hak to break across, crack (the knuckles),
tib. bzag to burst, crack, a.c. k'ivk fissure, crack (k. 341),
maru gaiv and kch. ga, to crack. the two last may have
dropped final kcf. b. oc£ pig, maru waw, kch. wa.~\ 1.
to squawk, to be noisy, to resound. 11 oosoo^s 11

t|8sgc033c8ii o^cSoogsoSii squawk (the sound would
be imitated by coaocs, ewp, in modern b.) Naicade Y. 84.

§|SoSGg0^^!IIODS|;i|!5||[^O3^ll^8^!CG00S OOgSsil £P£?.

the glory of the buddha (filled the land) like the sound of
thunder and his fame resounded loudly. Anthol. ii, 365.
3^cso^c6a^csoq|cs 11 gspc8s|c8g§sgsoo ii gooogodocgsscgs: 11 gooosj&s
33<£ii 33c)jcso3gsjjs ii oogcTgcT^8 ii yi & to laugh noisily
(one of the things forbidden to the troops). Anthol. ii,
332. jooc$§8ii oo^woacs 11 md ouy m& &

(paraphrased in com. : ^csosso^soac&oaoo 11 ooosggsoogfcado
G§oa$S§.n no expln. of go^yoacs is given but it may


6

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

mean without either a resonant or a cracking sound ",
(hence) mumblingly. Kogan P.T. 367. 2. to crack (intr.),
be split, perh. to be full to bursting point. oSoogSn oaooo^Sn
oo^Siic|s38sg§ocsoo5iicocxd8s^8iio5^osa3c8|o3oii seed-beds dry,
flaking surface, cracks in the ground. Kawi L. Th. I. 1361.
$osco833c8o}G33o8 .... gs1c8 ii rapped (his head) till his
temples nearly cracked. Band. Mag. gc9c8§^§c8iigs|c^s
oacS^j ii boats so numerous as almost to crack the volume
of water. Anthol. ii, 273. cSogoco^sqjcSii o8co33c8|j n pre-
cepts abandoned, the commandments broken, ibid. 12.
Gf.GODo8so^scD8oo^iioaooo3c8oogSiico^GS(|o8s^ooocoosii your voice
is cracked. Have you a sore throat ? Colloq. ^So8 ii oso
oooc8§ic\gjos8 33 c8 33 c8 ii §c8qgc8§,8ii £p£p the uvula splitting
with the violence of appetite. Abir. P. 55. c§sgoo8c8§.
aac£aac£0q|00§ ii falling into the wheel of life in the three
states of existence so as to split it {i.e. in great numbers).
SDKh.P.18. c§cgo oa <& oao ii §ogoooc8 n s?a be split.
Udein P. 7. 5c8Gqpofts(r§soo£S 33C£^8oooo@8oo<§oo6p9| 33 c8
§8so§ii s^hwe cracking. Shwemaw Th. 39. GoqpcSoo^Ss sacSj^ii
ePcha' be split, crack. Yatana N. Mawg. 14. Cf. Teind. P. 41.
g@@sg0008cgcs ii f>c8c8soo8sn oacSgSs (§c£sii eschar) gape
mountain tops and fairies' precipices cracked and gaped.
Ommad.P.26. g@c£s oacSoSii e^pa? cracked and fissured.
Anthol. ii, 362. g§@sc§oo£§ c^oacS oj^ii skw& e? was
cracked. Manir. K. 421.

oa c8 B n. [English act.] a legal enactment, code.goGoii
co8c^G^oc8oooogoSGS)ss^dboac858oc8s^oo^iG^^ocb ii click! he
would be straight in the line of the Anti-boycott Act.
Boyc. 14. OOq6^S|I§§O^8c6008 (G030c8(^8s) G§6p§i8o3§$6008
oscSgoeo e?u'pdde. The (Lower) Burma Land and
Revenue Act, 1876. £S8Gsooc8c^8GS|so3c8goG3^!s|^SgiuS^|c8ii
Act, law. Sun. 33c8ofts e^tu. The Habitual Offenders
Restriction Act (Act II of 1919). Colloq.

33008 dkiy n. [oo8oogS to roast without contact with fire,
to toast.] roast food, something subjected to torrefying
action, roasting. 8soo8Goooo36p n§soo8§8siioo8s£^ssqcx)]8
oaoo8sS if the (water in the) currypot is boiling, add the
roasted meat. Anthol. ii, 2. oas8|oaGoq)8(oa6g8)oacD893cjcS
§8@S(oS)go put in nutty-flavoured food and various kinds
of roast (in prescription for ridding a person of bilu's
bane). Lawki Th. L. K. 177. Gorpc£o30o8§o0t&ii6oq|oc8o3so8s
ooosii6&c^sc^?^n^GooSii|l|8soooscbc§^)oo^ii stone which has been
subjected to igneous action. LHGK. 136. 33^8336^811
0300833c}]c8ii roasting and other methods of cooking.
Sadaw K. 15.

33008 s dkiy n. [oo8soogS to set (of fruit), to begin to de-
velop after fertilization of the flower.] 1. fruit in its
earliest stages of development. o8soo8s oocSspo8og8sii
^o30o8s§i8ii^o8sg8iioouSeoc86|c8Sii Dwadath. K. 94. exposal
(s8s) gs|^gooooos|c8o30o8soogcosooc^so8s6^o1§i Sun. Ssoq|
es|gog33820^1103903oo8so8c^8s^oii flower buds and fruit just
forming. Than. W. in, 3. oaojjjsosooSsn oacoS8sc§ young
scions of princely race. Dh. Poila. P. 40. oo^SosgoooS
000S oaooSso^ oogSiitj|c8^8^c§^f.osyco^o^sii d'hiy thu dull,

thick-headed. Colloq. 33 00 8 sols eooooluo 00003^020^0011
^S8o1§o^Gpsoj§i ikiifpa quick-witted (as opp. to
qiGosf.oiGosGoooo1oooooc§). OJc. Mai. K. 58, cf. ibid. 177.

^§8SOO£8OOOSII c8g066|s§08<§030o8so'ls GOOOC^§8G00003C^8s . .

§^ojj(SGc8ogDO§c§^lo38c|8o3c^85o8c§r8f.o| King Khon Hmaing
was no fool. Tabin W. iv, 60. c]oflyo30o8so3o1s{c§scrb
(she had held her own in a discussion). Nov.
G^6p0000033oo8so1sjj8(j)ii Gcoooo^sooo30oc85iooo^Gf.c§ You need
to have all your wits about you to get a livelihood in the
world. Nov. f.os330o8so1sGooo§SGgo8olsoo ... co^soooii quick
of hearing (prob. a neologism). Nov. 2. tendency to generate
heat, exhalation, tumescence, morbid condition. (Mon 03008
dkang, rash, eruption, is prob. l.w., with meaning derived
from this sense of 33008s) oa^ii oa^sn gg)^os§sii o1c88s
03oo8siisj]cS§8sc^5o&ii the exhalation of natural heat is turned
inwards. NaraSe. K. 15. osooSssocSolsGaosf.^Ss ten treatments
of 03008s 's. LISK. 140. d^o3osooc8g03ooggssq|osooos
go3o8o3oo8sooc8§sc9]8ii putting an end to the morbid con-
dition so that the causes of itchiness may not operate.
Kawi. M. Mag. o30o8;goo§ morbid condition no longer
exists. Colloq. oo£Sg3os§i6$£§soo£§ii Goqpc8oc8ooc8o3oo8s . .
ooc8ooo§§8oloofSn gives relief to the morbid, inflamed con-
dition (of the skin) in smallpox and measles. Thu. Na. Se.
K. 138. GGJOJGOOOOSOCDOGIOO^ . o1c8 33 00 8 S 33 ^S
§8g^ii d'Tdr) dkho heatcan check tendency to generate
heat. Eh. D.Y.K. 175. So 3333to8s ibid. 108.

330008s dJcdyziy n. [? co§oo8s Jcdziy an embankment round a
field. 330008s belongs to popular language and is prob.
always so written.] restraint. j^SsooSsoSsoooosclyooo^osdl
o3008s§j og@oo1§8ii og§ooo8oooG§o8c88ogSn don't talk with-
out restraint (be restrained in your talk) or you will be
apt to say something better left unsaid. Colloq.

33 00 cS 11 (less correctly) 33008 dka? n. [oocSoo^S to be difficult
to deal with.] an obstacle, opposition.o3Sc8o3bn ooc8k(y§8sn
3ogooo§)o8soc8ii 6|§03ooc8c^ii ^6ooc8§1^|sii hostile opposition. An-
thol. ii, 391. Gl^oocSoSoocSiioogSoosl^osoocSc^ii this time
I really am in a fix. Ok. Yaz. Py. Z. 61. osooc8(n§(gjs
meeting with great difficulties. Pyaz. oo^Sc^ 33 00 c8 33 00 cS
^osd5o3cgoSoo(^s|G33o8Gsoo8§ic8^8ocgSii dka? 90a? difficulties-
can easily overcome d. Colloq. yroo3G|8G§o(cj(X}j8ii ^oeaosoocogS;

^0D^33C^8s6§O§SJ00OGo1ll GOOOIl 33 00c8c^8 Gf>(tj£§ll fezM?

A. You speak first: I will speak after you. B. There She
is holding (the weapon of) opposition, being obstructive.
Than. W. iv, 80. c^s8sio^s^|8og8ii^8s||Sooo^coosii 00^80090600011
33008 (330008) c^ cry 6^60)1 c9Ss|Oooodbo3sc8oooso1oocon dka?
caf to be in difficultiesat the game of ko-mi, I have two
picture cards, but the other puts me in a difficulty; it is
awkward having to expose it. Kum. Py. Z. 38. o^sps^8

OO^Sc^6§OS^Sp . 09oO30gc8§800O0^yb00^So^G§OS^G00OO3005
(33ooc8)ooosii dka? Od'ma one who argues or objects
perversely. Atithon. K. 112. 33^33000811 030580300811
rjjGoooosoGoooii a^coocv^Sii dywe' dka? obstruction one
meets with obstructiveness, evasion, deceit, and shiftiness.
U Pon. M. Com. 47 and note at j>. 183.


BUKMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONAKY
3300^ dkar) n. in combns. 33^3300^11 33^53300^11 and

33 G-ocjpcS 3300^11
33 oo ooo dkddo' n. [oo^gooooo^S to ask pardon, pay respects.]
the act of asking pardon, paying respects. gooo8so§§8sii
§Gooooft(y§Ssii ocDoscoo$GOOoc^aD8coos)§s^ii Yesag. Kh. Py.
49. 8a000d300$g00003c0csd30c8c00oig00g^5 Pyaz.
33 oo ^ dkarf n. [oo^oogS to place transversely.] 1. cross-
mark, cross-piece, cross-measurement, spoke, radius, par-
tition, (loosely) compartment between partitions. oo§co§

3300 II GolcSlI 33S>§ Sll -COC80000SC§6C^800^II 0300|9^cSgSs§8 II

three cross-pieces or battens (holding the boards together).
MMM. 185. oSscooSoscqoocgoii osoo^oocgon the waist one
span from back to front and one span transversely (in
dimensions for construction of statues of Buddha). Tham.
Sek. D. K. i, 426. o^o^os|Oo^ooo^a3oo|^josgooo8^§s|8oa5Gooo
c9^sc&oo^o§oQ(£sii the cakra weapon (of a universal mon-
arch) is like a cart-wheel with many spokes, ibid. 215.
C^CDo1sGOoS33§8§goo8s(^(^^GOOo8sS)00^0goOO^O$c6c§ ... 00
6coo8g0003300§ ii g§|333o8s^ gooo^gooo8s§|8|y ^g00o(£co0gcid0gs

oo£§ . oo^S^n radii, marks on Buddha's foot resembling
the spokes, etc., of the cakra. Thaih. Tham. D. K. 210. Cf.
Dat. Dhat. W. 84, Shwes. Th. 31. ooooGpc8^io3oo|c^q|cS^s
gooS^oocSgoooii the spokes of the wheel of samsdra. LISK.
183. Cf. With. At. 329. o8^sgo1c£ii 330d§gcoocS§i
ooGspcSsflosspsn co^SoqicScgosoogSn sjoooso^SoSsii cSoj^Ssc&o^ii
Nemi Meg. P. 26. g1ooSccSo3oo|n coc8oo§cfb^S§Sii f>|ooooocS
ogf cSScgSn in the circle of twelve divisions in the calm Patrii
house opposite where the Ascendant is situated. Tedat.
B. 122. q8soaoo|c^oosjoo8GsTGoToo^c8Gcooo^n This partition
(dividing a chamber in the palace) is called maraphin. Sun
Mag. Gsoo83aoo|aj}oGf.s8S^ii from his house with its chambers
and partitions. Waziya 133. oggoqsbog§oc8oo§cg8ii oaoo|
ogon 03§se|cv^c8ii o-oo^g$oc8ii o<^go1c£<§ ... ^.cSo^ocp go8g^sooo;ii
G$<|[s^otfii ofloogSoso^Sn the name Ne-myo-si-thu, protected
and governed by the Bhonmazo nat, in which a long
syllable appears following a molossus, the first seat"
in (certain kinds of verse consisting of) 16 syllabic instants
in the prastdra (table of all possible combinations in metre.
For Yetaliya verse v. WDSN. 72 and Bur. P.G. 344. For
the ^ct8s feet consisting of three long syllables v.s.v. craogsp
4 (6). The nat presiding over this foot is Bhonmazo. Kab.
Band. K. 221). Mawgun in Kawi MMK. i, 222. olSoc^o

G000938c8(||sc§c^s883$sc6c§ 33 00^33 00^ ^330o8ogc8^jcSoOOS
Gooooo^^iG§OGj$i§c8s|$GooooaD$s^|sd5s$5c^s^oo^ii dkar)' dkarf
compartments, squares for entering various units of time
a bizana being = of a Burmese hour or ir-jnnr a
24-hour day and a pat = 16 bizana. U Pon. M. Com. 92.
ocjSgSSo^sii dss^ss^sii (crafts) go330o|oo|oo^sii in their several
compartments. conjectured by MgWun.) Nemi Yag.53.

IOOc8c9gOGOOOO^C§C^5G30o8c8oOcbc§ll 33 00 §II33 Og & II

330§sn 335|c8c§oo^S§oo^Sii dkay' dkwe? partitions and compart-
ments. Newsp. o5xispc8i^o30o|o3c2c8c§c^ . ^cSqicSeooS
^038sco§ii spokes (o3cgdS picturing the spaces between).
With. At. i, 330. D3ogc89aogc89aoo|3aoo^ii oo|oo|§os§osn the
sections being divided off from each other (d3oo| becoming

expletive to craogcS). Kinkha N. Pref. 33 a ^ 1 33 m | a* khay
dkar)' compartments (in a horoscope). Kutha P. 68. oos|ao8
03 a§ s era 00 dshi dkay' partition. Sun Mag. 2. A
measure of land, o^soo^BcSajcS being supposed = 1 acre.
CoUoq. Salin. The 3300$ varies in different localities, but
is invariably a square of so many paces or cubits each side.
The original 3300^ is said to have been a square of 75
cubits or about -29 of an acre; six oaoo§ were = 1 00S11
The 33oo§ at present in use in Pwinbyu Tp. is 60 cubits
square, in Sagu 70, and in Salin 80. Information supplied by
U Mg. Gale, T.D.M., Agricl. Dept. $0811 cjscrflii ooSsgi o$cSn
ooSc£ii 3aooSjsso8ii ogc8csjogc8^c8ii $8o8oa^8s33§osii <^qps§8ii oocS
^c8^Gog|oc8ooosGy^Sn (o3oo| is prob. the local Minbu
measure, the meaning being helped out by o3os). HI. Rec.
36. 3. In combn. 33 00 ^33 eg c£ dkar)' dkwz> obstacle,
hindrance. oo^oospo3G§o8oa§|c8oaoo^3aogc8o§|crbii coc8oo5ofiooo
gsoo8§8s§8s§|@goooo£Sii Winkan. W. 5. 4. restriction,
definition, fixation. §8s§os§8s ooo$33c8oogooo2<§ . .
eooog1oaoo^o1oq|c8s^o1oo^ii saying kammam pana atitam eva
karma, moreover, derived from the past only, he used
the restricting word eva (only, exclusively). Swes. K. B.
ii, 34. c8o^$S330o|ii ooooc8c^sog8n coc8^s§8co^sjii . d^8sgs§)8
o^Gpsii king of a great country who, within the limits of
your power, are feared throughout your life for the
might of your arm. M. Sanda Py. Z. 7. §Sran sjcS
33 00 ^33 00 & 11 olo8o1ogcSn 6ic8330o§33ooc8qjosii dkay' dQa?
determinationof the days of the years and months
and of the days on which lent began and ended.
Kab. Band. K. 350. GroS^c^s^rooso^oDc^ii
§8 . GosoaSoo^Sn a committee with unrestricted power to
add to its numbers. Didok. o3C^Ss33§|^9aoo|3aooc8oooos^crbii
without any restriction as to size. Sun.
osoo^s sometimes 3300008? d'kay n. [oo^soo^S to be blind,
be ineffective.] a blind person, blindness, failure to function,
the last square in the game of backgammon. qc8o§8
Gooooflii q|c8y§8§8sn or^s8s§8sn 330f^{sfi83300$s the halt and
the blind (favourite subject in Burmese folklore). Colloq.
33oo^odg^og^oc8ii the blind don't fear ghosts. Prov.
33(d^ss)]Ss^c8s^ii the blind leading the blind. Prov. oacqjj;
gog3aoo$sgogda§gog33^gogn Thath. Wi. K. ii, 75. otooociSs
ibid. 90. 330o$sooc8oog88c§Goo5oo^Soo8s|oo^Sn he managed to
make a lucky shot on his blind side, so one gave him credit
for skill. Prov. Phr. 37. oo^GG|Cg8sGogsocSc§3ao^|so§jo^;ii
OTOD^gSsobn wells of which the water supply has failed.
Colloq. 330o$soq|^GoSco8so^ii I will wait and catch him
when he is on the last square before getting home (in
the game of osoS or backgammon. While lying in the
last square oaoo^s a piece § or oqps is liable to
be killed by an opposing player whose piece lands in
a square level with it and who, having all his pieces on
the board, throws a one, known as oosociS, or a five,
338c£). Colloq. g3|Ssc^c8oooii 33oo$s33oSs ooo^|o§8ojsii JJcay
iti blind as a bat. [3308? intensifies oaoo^sii Its meaning is
uncertain: possibly c8s is a modification of c8 in oo§s
c8od$soo§s gropingly.] Colloq. G30oo$oooc88sj§ . 33c£c£


8

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

32 co ^ g to ^s o3cx)8suoSs33gcoo8guoo8§8§|Ogco^!ii dkay xkay in a
confused manner. Sabebin W. 259.

ssoo^g e?gdneiHha' adj. [P. akanittha not the youngest,
the greatest, supreme. V. P.E.D. s.v. kanittha.] 33oo$go§
is the highest of the pure abodessuddhdvasain the
highest plane of Rupaloka. PPK. 170. Cf. CP. 139.
Form crarg^gl Parami P. Th. 19 and cog^S Pyatih. P. 59.

oaroS A dlca? n. [oo8oo£§ to adhere to, to approach.] contact,
approaching, adherence, what adheres, currying favour.
§§8sn §§§S:n ooSg^gooo336Pii oqiosogsc^iiSsSooScJoaooSyos
oo^iosoocoSodgcosc^ii mistakenly attached itself. Than. W.

149. 8^oo^C8O9C8§SC^8C^5II oaooSoGoooSsogjSoodSGooo^ogs
^osorjsii flattering attentions. Sun. q^o 33008330^8 §)C§ccgs
oocSg^oo^Sii dka? d'ko someone on whom to rely, backing.
Colloq. ^sooos^fiSojSiooSsGoooSss^oo^qios^oco^sii 33 00 S 33^
§gc6|ii goso38s|o^h a7cap dkho adherencelet there be no
adherence ; i.e. no one should be allowed to harbour them.
Iil. Rec. 57. ^goj£;(o;5ii 3300833^ o§n g|c8Gsoo8§8soo£§
ooooogS^iii shirking a task, sparing oneself (i.e. the sense
of 33^33co8 q.v., the order of words being here inverted
probably for rhyme with gS). Tav. Yaz. i, 180. 8g§33S|5
90... 3300^33S|8ii 33ooSo3g1 dlwP dkhwa approach and with-
drawal, advance and retreat. LPBK. 109. sog8s^c8c8sii oo8c8

O^SOO^§c8GOq)Oc8 (G000c8) C§§q8sil 33s8336S33g833G^S 33 0oS

oa (§ o§)Gs|G33o8ii dka? dnyi' adherence of filth, etc. Win.
Th.K.33. 8^§||coc8s|^sn gc8^)Ss^8s|8ooc8ii 3300833:811 33^8
33o8g^o8ii 00c^d^ooc^ii 33^33^11 dka? dphi' contact and
pressurecrumpled owing to c. and p. of their soft breasts
against the half-round pillars of the window railing. Yama
Yog. i, 67. 33 00833 (go S GOoo8sc§otfqpsGoooc833(ySGS>6}05sii
dka? dhmyauy' approaching and laying one's self alongside,
getting the soft side as of a schoolmaster or person in
authority. Colbq. 09 3300833008 gooo8sc§§3^8§8oo^Sii
dka? dya? currying favour. Colloq. 08^0690 3300833008
ooscosooooqi^oo^iiooSoo^^^s^n dka? dda? small quantity
sticking (to the pot), remaining. Colloq. Tavoy. 33 ^33 00 S
dJcho dka? shirking. Chweta 25. 331233 00 S 9sni dka?
proximity. Thath. Wi. K. i, 21.

33008 B dka? n. [possibly first syl. of P. kappiya, "proper
for Bhikkhus," in sense "to make proper", by formal
presentation.] the act of offering respectfully to a monk.
-c0c8cspc8c^§8s ooo^g^ooii 330083338(§sgoooii ogsgsosooo^s

HI. Rec. 234. 88^oc8coggoc^yoseooo£api33ococo(yc8^ii
coc8oocgc8^33oo5qjc8oo^Sn the effect of the offering is lost (and
it would now be improper for the monk to eat the food).
Up. Kam. N. 21.

33008 C dka? n. obstacle, v.s.v. 3soocS.

3300800 a'ka?pi'ya' adj. [P. akappiija improper.] not lawful
for a Bhikkhu to do, eat, etc. ooosssSGooossooyoossooosja^
sooSolsn flesh not to be eaten by Bhikkhus (including
human, dog, horse flesh). Win. Th. K. 34. 33oo§oo33sp§n
ojooooGcooc§c^Gsooc8oo^GGao5ii (the work was soggoft bar-
ber's work). Thath. Link. 14.

3300Sg ikay n. [ooSsoo^S to hand to, pass to] a gift, presenta-
tion of gifts. COc8G30o8llGOSOo8s§8sil -§SCg^S§|8§^O00O33008s

o1ooribii330o8s33ajSsooo^o^oftsiicoc8 ooc8s|^Sc^c8cgc^c^c8cx)odbii
presents (to guests attending the reception). Colloq. c8c8oo
c^ao^sa|j|olc§s^ooosgooogoo8goos 33 00 s 8 33 cv^ s s §8gogosoosoo
33oso1soo6|§jc88y£§ii d'kay 9 May gifts (to persons attending the
function). Sun. ssooj&racogjsn 33 os 33008 s 11 goosSs^SsSsii
cv|jc§oo8sc^ii g33s338s^8gcgn GcooooocSc^cogSsii o8ooc8gii dspe Jkay
giving (guests their requirements). Anthol. i, 104. 33Gos
3300$56jcSGGp00£Sn lavish in giving, generous. Colloq.

3300^0000 dkdbaba n. [oo^o world. For reduplication v.s.v.
33 C.] a succession of aeons. oo^o33soc8soc8 33003,0030

00l)]oadglljogs)g0gc8^8g33o8cg^gco§o % goosco£§ % oogocrj8 s c§§d}6p s

gScooSyflo^ii Boddh. W. 5. Spelled 330000 j in Inscription
at Anthol. i, 39.

33 00 cS A dke n. (? oocSoo^S to exist in full measure, to exceed.
The dp, formerly written oocSo, of obcg, like as, may be a
modification of 330ocS in the sense of actuality. If so, 6bc§
or oocSec§ would = like the actuality of.] 1. fullness,
excess, pre-eminence. §^§8sii oscfr 330^11 oo^SgsosooooS
33oot533Q^ g 0008200 ^Sii dke dpye' fullnessthis medicine
is good for f., distention of the stomach. Colloq.

000033c8o3GODf>l 330g^3300cS 330s(g8ll 33^Ggll GCCflSgOcSssS

§11 dluy dke pre-eminently (translating P. atisayena).
With. At. N. ii, 112. 2. in assertions and questions,
actual fact, truth, reality. 339^11 88n oooouS ^8goooc^|os

O}c8^SG00Sll f.8OSGOOOC)Oj(6orjs)§l8(^^OSGOOOJ§8|GOoS^(^ll CS|0^
ooo$scoj&sii 32oocSgoooo^gos^ii do you really mean it ? Hm.
Yaz. i, 302. . o^ao^a^baoocScoSijjii believing what was
said to be the truth. Manik. W. 321. oaoooScSSoodbcgii
as if really asleep. Manir. K. 596. 33CocS§8spo8G9igSii
in order to learn the real facts. Bur. L. G. 126. Goocgoscv^
33 00 (£33 00 uS 3301080^^08^08 . go8§i8cSoooii dke
assuredlyif we die, a. through all the hells, it will always
be you and I. Tedat. B. 13. gsooSgcooo^o^ii o^^^ooogdSn
33 00 eS 00 c£ c^ngo^ooS^cSq^oooogSsii dke ge realityshowed
in a dream a man carrying (her arm) off, just like r. (as
vividly as if it were actually happening). Bur. L. G. 88.
Cf. Gambith P. 28, Nemi Ngaye P. 68. ssootSoo^j
oo§Goc|]SGoooa^soo£S dke taydu in very trutha race which
is truly civilized. [oo^[, apptly. P. tantu, is com. in
classical Burmese in many of the senses of Skt. tantra
string, cord, warp, underlying principle, truth, model.
Here oo^[ = truth, in which sense 00P. tanti is also
found.] Sun. Goq|o8s goo5c^c8couSii 33 0000 0011 Gogsolcqii
qaSyioosSn cco8oq|8oojo5ii dke tay' day' actuallywith the full
intention of receiving visitors, (ooco firmly being taken as
strengthening ssoocSn 3300oS0606 dke tay day is given in
spelling books, e.g. Kawi L. Th. 15, but has not been
recorded from literature.) Kawi M.M.K. i, 169. c^oogloogSii
c8oogn 33oocScScSi dks ti'di' verily (translating P.

hi). WekyaA.A.K. 19. 33oocSoS c1oo^s^sooooso^c8gcooo
goooii c1338<^Sc1gos§833n dke biy in truth, really. Zanek. J. W.
22. 3. In conditional clauses, 33oooS being immediately


9 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



followed by <§ or some other word, and the conditional clause
ending with 03)811 3311 y, etc. If, if indeed. cooooSoo^S . .
03§8oo^ooGpG§oogdS§)Oo^Ss^G§sii dkedi'. Sun. 33oo<£oo§c8
Gg(cg8co£§solooii dke taydi' if money is really tight [P.
tanti, string, v. note on above]. Sun. aaoodSoo^
gooo8sgc^o1^ii dhe tarjdu' if. Sun. 33oo o1ooco£§sgos<§ooo8ii dice tdmouy' even if we could give the
answer, it were not fit we should do so [oo'^o particle, usu.
final, v.s.v.] Wunzin W. 13. 33oooS<| G^oftcspcScooojSii
dTceywe' Dat. Dhat. W. 15. 33oodS<§ . Ggoo£§ggq|8s . .
coooogS^GaoSii Pol. Econ. 369. c1oogSD3oooS^G§so|ii oooo£
cooOTGOoo9loooc8Gooo8soogS§8cog5n suppose I run away.
Nip. i, 609. oanooS^ogDo^S^ii c1d3osoo^oo^gooo336^o8s
c^s^coggji ZaneJc. J. W. 113. 33 oociSjjoo& 11 ycoociii
a^26c§Gf.§^ogj8ii dkeywe' tdze. M. Sanda Py. Z. 118. toodoSc^ii
o^ob^8|c^]8ii dkelo' [apptly. a compromise between literary
o3obdS| and colloq. oooooScg]. Tanaw. W. ii, 141.

rooo<5 B dice n. [oooSoo^S, to save, salve] a screen to
prevent fish going into another fishery. Fishery Manual.

33coccos dkd'le n. [oogcoioocoos childish behaviour, oogcos
which is sometimes used as a verb = to be childish, oogcos
in the sense of little, young, and oogcos, sgcos or 03 oogcos
in the sense of child seem to be recent developments in the
language. They have largely displaced cdS and otfcuSn]
a child, a young person oogcos (more common). o^ccSn
EoooGcoscdS§ii c^Ss§8o8oon Saw Pe Py. Z. 5. 88c$33oogcos
aj}ccSq|osc^|osGoq|ocSGO§sogii dare not have their children
inoculated with cow-pox. H. Gaz.

33 roc dlcarj ya' n. [of obscure origin. Occurs once in fifteenth
century Parami P. and in eighteenth century Wid. P.;
otherwise recorded only in vocabularies.] a ruffian.
c\^c8iio^sii coosc9gooo8§iog§|18o8^iid3o6cc§ii ruffians who
brandish weapons and jostle people. (Text has 082(0311
03@cc§n Por. Abid. reads 08(0311 oaoocc^n) Parami P. 89.
^B^s^SSsJco^iiDaooc^&ioo^ojoSiio^gDSo^qicSii thieves, robbers,
ruffians, disgusting base fellows, dirty depraved men.
Wid. P. 97. The following definitions from various
vocabularies oflo}o8ooiia^<£iic8$a}cSGOiiocoii are quoted at
Por. Abid. 16.

33000 dha n. [ooooogS to fence.] 1. a fence, wall, barrier.

GooSqSsn q|§Gooo8oaooo§oo<§G^GOOo . G$pn a chink in
the wooden partition. W. qBsecyscgS 3300033^ o^joo^Soooooon
dka dyay enclosing walls. Sun. Go5Ge1§|8o^Gps§c8go^ii
oaroooc|^a£sii o6c^8so3og8sn dha pwdwavq boundary wall
(of sacred place). TJp. Muh. K. ii, 68. oaooocorS^n
ooobcaosolsn ooSc^oSqjosii §,coos<§oooii ogoTcooii dka lePphwe'
preventive charm your non-appearance can only
be due to your having had a p.c., potent drugs,
administered to you (which resists my magic). Kola
M. Py. Z. 84. 33^833000 qjc8|G^GoooGoqjo8sn d'mo
dka roof and walls. Win. Th. K. 39. 2. Sapwood,
matrix, white of an egg, outer covering. Opp. to 335811
Cf. 0000 boards of timber with bark on one side. 33cg8s
§08335811 §8^0833000^0005 . ooSoSogSo^^iii (description

of trees as opposed to grasses which have the 3358 on the
outside and the 33000 inside). WLDK. 161. 33§8go1ii
33oooc^^jii^oos|GOoo5c8Gqjoo^s(^s§8orjGoooii S. Th. D. K. 3.
§c8g33oooc^gG03o8^of.odGcooc8ii beat up white of egg. MS.
Cookery receipt. 33^{GOOo§Goq|ocS(^s^)osoo^33GoTs|y8o|3300o
<$53^8 330g8s§(£oOOS33C^S33^d^c£oO§G000336|^33GCgS§j ^ II

matrix. Dana D. K. 35. oSsc^oqjSspiioocooc^iioaoooogSogSii
33<3|8o8oSii 33§,8ajjajii 8§60oS^ii preached so as to penetrate
the shell or skin, reject the fibrous matter and take the core
or kernel. Udein P. 127. Cf. ibid. 95. s|uo§sc^ooosoo£Sn

OJC§i^OOOSOt)C§ll OS^SoO^gSsil 33000S8S<|| 33S)jgSs|s^j^Ss ... §8

|o1gooSii Ok. Mai. K. 124. 33f.ggo8n 330233800^11 o^ooon
33 000 33 g 11 33cg§330$s(3309§s)n 33^s33q|8sn @£o1cv3;8sa)]c£ii dka
dkhwy huskin spite of the fact that the not-self is husk
on which no reliance can be placed. Bawd. D. K. 153.

33 OOO 33 (g % g8G^5OflSll8^c888ll335800c£00c£ll33f>c£@c8§8(y£S

^Gooooospsii dka d'hme integument, unessential matter. Tern.
J. W. Introd. 1. 33^33000 dkhuy dka = osoooosg sup. Bawd.
D. K. 151, 153. 3. protection, obstacle, opposition. 33311

3300033CgdS II- 33O0c8§|^G^o8;@8GOOOU0OGGg3O33OOOGOo5(c§SII

MTTK. 283. c^uSog833oooG3oo8G3osooosn co8|n ^ankjS etc.
to be carried as an amulet. Tharapu K. Hi, 232. 33^333
33roo33ogdS 33§8§8Gf>c^8§8^^oogSii dka dkwe a buffer
(between the Chins and Burmans). WOB. oo1sc^8s|8ii 9080^8
Gooo333lii§j8^jcS§oc^ii 33ooo33eoS gSsqii dka dsauy' a pro-
tectiondraw a line all round to exclude (hostile influences).
Tharapu Ii. Hi, 19. §c838;GOoSf.8^888c^8n saoocStJsojoo^ii
33 000 33 s8 s 33G^|oc833^s(33§8s)o20c^|G3§Sii dka d'shi ob-
stacles, obstruction. LISK. 50. 3sooo33^Gg dka dyay
reserve fund. Term used in Co-operative Dept. gcoso8c\j>c^s
3300cSt|s^ii 03§s33§s 33 eg ciS 33 000 c\}§[^iii dkwe dka self-
defencehe is skilled in all the uses of the bow and the
spear, and is an absolute master of s.-d. Al. Ayeb 14.
c^GOOo8c§oo^iiy8s^o 33 33000 oo^Ssn dyay dka which
surround Mt. Meru (33000 being largely expletive). Nemi
Bon P. 98.

33 000 co a'kala' n. [P. akala a wrong time, too early or too
late.] unseasonable time. os^ogooSii oog|ooos33oooco§8§ii
$c£@^c£9(yo}S(o3o^33ii It is too late to-day. Zin. Pak. K. 19.
33^G6|i 3300OCOH oodSoo^(sojo1c88ii whence comes this dove
that coos so late. Saw Pe Py. Z. 14. 330oood33^6§8gooog^o8ii
SScg^Scgg^osgo^H Dat. Dhat. W. 13. Cf. Hmaing Hma,
Hi, 84. G§333l§33oooco^aSsoo^Sg|ooo^§GooSii unseasonable rain.
Nip. i, 653.

33 000 %dskarx. [ooosoo^S to be expanded, to be wide apart.] 1.
splay, exaggeration. oooss)|c8ii33|[|ii oo^S^GlGooocSoaooos^^Ss
oo^Sii too little splayed. Colloq. oo^ojooos3300os^o§8oooooo^s
cbng8s§sc^c88@8G33o8G@oOT<£oo£Sii Colloq. 2. As expletive.
33c^ s 33 000 % d'ko d'ka facts on which one relies, authorities ;

V.S.V. 33f^sii-33c|cgo88330rjj(sil33§s3300§ll 33^^33 000 811 33^0s

33§8iiooo$o8oq|c8ii3o8§8f,c8GCos dhnafj d'ka the truth, the
actual facts (33000s probably inserted metri gr.). Tad.
Mawg. 6.

33c8§s d'keir) n. [c8$s a number.] number, aggregate.


10

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

ocid^sii oog|g§oc£c8£sii 33c8§2tj>csgf>ii caused

gifts to be made to people numbering 600,000 each day.
Weth. P. 7. o§oocSsc8$!ii §Sd8$jcW>o8ai Boyc 73. Cf.
Nemi Meg. P. 38, Kawi MMK. 37, San. Kein P. 45.
iracS^soas^sii ociD^sQGpii ggolc^ii d'keirj d'khay numbersthe
boundless universe (lit. to which ns. do not apply.cB^sd^s
q.v. is more common). Mand. Mawg. 22. ooooooooo^nspjy^
cS^sgf>ii §8iioo^SgG|S8Sii d'keiy je numberto

endure for hundreds and myriads of aeons (c8£sg§ q.v. is more
common). Wila Mawg. 14.

33 aj dku' n. [o^oo^S to treat medically.] remedial treatment.

-o^co§8sil 00^SsoepO^330^GO0o8s00^Sll Colloq. GSOSGJ^SpS

33 33 OO O dku' dka treatment and protection by medicine
and spells. Tem. J. W. 46. o3(,j93S||8soo^Sc§c^£)|gc8§8
c8ooo<§ 33093300 scSoloo^Sn dku' dOa' treatment. Gwes. Se.
K. 27.

oso^^ dkdde n. (P. Jcoti, a very high number. The usu. form
in B. is orj>Gg; the 33 prefix is analogous to 33 in 336pn
3300008, etc.] ten millions. aooSoo^sn 33o^g§^gooo^cS
g§o1gco^ii a company of 10 millions were in attendance.
Boddh. W. 14. Cf. Ah. D. K. 4. Yaz. Kyaw 53.

oao^cS dJcou? n. [c^cSoo^S to subtract arithmetically.]
subtraction.o3§c8n33Gyoc83a§c8iiD3o^c8oaosii the various
arithmetical processes. L. Wid. Mawg. 52. Cf. Bawa
Mawg. 55.

33 o^ c£ 00 o cS dkouHdba? augmn. [o^c8oc8oo^S to exert oneself.
Augmn. also takes form of 3300800090811] with strenuous
endeavour.^s^soosoosiiGigyo^cSiic^coo^cScvqicBiiaso^cSooocSii
sos|oo6oo8§i^c8ooosoo8^os(^!ii Zin. Pah. K. 578.

33o^ dkouy n. [o^^oo^S to be used up, to be spent.] 1.
Consumption, expenditure. crao^aaoqjii 336|<^ji^<§cgc8@209j8ii
oao^^Go^o^ogcSoocS^nfj^ii underestimate expenditure.
Kan Nyan 225. GgG(crpo3a^s>(§sii Maha San Pyaz. 56.
o3^c=psgoo3tt^o3s|crbii expenditure of time. Chweta 25.
Gg 33 o^^ 33o^j o^gg|ii dhoufj dca' expenditure. Yesag. Kh.
Py. 71. cgsGgsraa^ 33oq)ii Thath. Bahu. 112. 3309§33oq|q)o2oooo
D3Gorc8mosc^insoooGoosGoos|^ajSe|^ii Chweta 78. 2. the whole,
all, in full. 330209211 oagoocoooooosfejjosc^oao^^orjs^ooo^^Sii
Atithon K. 371. §^8cD3o^£raSo£Sii Kabya Kyem. 182.
ooooc8c^s^s|iooy|iioo§8(ooc?§8)oqj3l^93a^^GoTii everything that
was hid throughout life shall be discovered at the
burying-place. Sagab. 54. 33a^§[|(^c§G3oo3a$>1ii when one
takes a comprehensive view. Alin K. 27.
ocjj^cooGs|^ii Tanaw W. i, 125. c^o8Gooos^§sog]8§Ssc^3ao}£
cgc8<§n put his horse to the gallop. Taz. D. K. 101. oo^Ss
0318903309 (3309^)^)800006^082 with my whole heart. Kala
M. Py. Z. 99. S|82g02§8q8c^ 330^3308 ogc8S<§3oSoii a&ow??
dsiy the whole amountprincipal and interest. Kawi L. D.
189. oo8d§23g82c§c^a309^338o9§2g02goos^o1o96p2ii Tav. Yaz.,
1st page of Thamaing. oo.£033Gsooc833^2Gog ... 330^0^8
qjcba^jlo^ goo8co£§2ii dhouT) "louy the whole, totally. Thath.
Wi. IL i, 126. Cf. Alin. K. 34.

330^8 dhouy n. [09^200^ to bend the back, to bulge.]
the act of bending the back, a hunch-backed person, something

in the shape of an arch. c^Ss^c8§8sii P. hump-backed.
33 0^833 0033 09^233 og^o^ooo^Sn It hurts when I sit, rise,
bend, or straddle the legs. Colloq. Sense of hunchback
possible where context has prepared for it. 33odcScoc8^ii ...
33092(3309^2)0308^11 . 336|coc8otyi ? the middle portion, the
arched portion and the surrounding portion of the writing
on a charm (the 335) being written in a complete circle, and
the 3309^2 like two eyebrows above and below the writing
in the centre. For 336) cf. 33S)o1ooo Kawe Th. K. Gyi. ii,
15. LISK. 144.
330^0000 a'ku'ddla' n. and adj. [P. ahusala] evil deed,
demerit, sinful. Gooo82ftiiooogoGooon 3309000011^8200820908
oiiGGroo82goo^!ic1oogSocS 090000001133^00000000011 good, bad, and indifferent qualities.
MP. 22. Cf. Thanweg P. 19; Up. Muh. K. i, 134; Atithon.
K. 25, 169.

33o^d^cS a'ku'cSo n. [Burmanized form of preceding.] evil
deed, demerit. 0000082^11 0^09911 000^8008211 ^ooSsaqjcSii
000820^1133 09 d^cSc^iic^o^cg8c^c8ii . G6p&§c8§)8c9ii the radiant
lord, perfectly pure, essentially fragrant, free of blemish,
not stained, driving away demerit in all directions. Mud.
Lek. P. 3. 3309o5cSo6oool2Ggo833olcSc^c§orj|GGpc8§i Thath.
Wi. K. 12. 0^8000633800003309o^cSoosp2c^^oo^8u evil actions,
conduct. Mahawth. J. W. i, 178. ooc8§82G§o8c£§8233§gooo
3309d^csq^c8c§^00s200gsii Zanek. J. W. 67. gcooooc8c8iigo1
ooc8c8iiGooooc8c8oj|3309d5cSc8cSo92ol2ii the three causes of sin.
PPK. 202.

33 o^ dku n. [orjoo^S to help.] aid, assistance.gcooc8o§82iioo8
0(38211ojjoGpc8s833orj§|o§8qGoo8oo8^ii Al. Ayeb. 20. 00000^.0

GS|200000^>0^ . 082^33009 33 0^33^8 33G00Oc833OO^G|0000^S2ll

dku dnyi assistance, support. Thath. Bahu. 17. ^o2goooc8
6^.0^^)023302 330^330 6|gs^ii dku dpay' assistance. Sun.
S^ocooootfii 330^33011 (^003)8200011 dku dma! only if the evil
spirits give help (i.e. refrain from hostile action). Bed.
Wiz. K. 133. c82QcS(|c^O2G00OG82O0^2S))gS2O0O@O£SG0o8ll33G^o8
330^33^ co(£s§y^oo8o1oo£§ii dku dyay "rallying round",
help. Hanth. Ayeb. 69. Spelt 330^33^ Manir. K. 93.

GOOOc8oaj^go9i8ll C^§02092G0008C^2000II OTttj^g 6|COOOII dku

ywe cash contributions made by guests, as at a penny-
wedding. Thing. Sag. i, 165. 330^00^ dku skje an
apprentice clerk. Colloq. 336)330002330192330 33 coocS
330^11 dthau? dku help, support. Ledi Kein i, 97.
33o^s dsku n. [o^oofS to cross over.] crossing over, transition, mi-
gration, copying.-33G§082II330J23300^2IIG6|50J2§82IICOgSoOOOOcSll

330^23c8§ioogc8§86pii difficult to cross. Thanweg. P. 5. oo£g6p&
goj 933ojj2og8n at the new year of 912. Hanth. Ayeb. 4. Ggoooaop
at the change to the hot season. Anthol. ii, 148. s88oc8
oodbGooo^o^oG^.33o^2co!i Thami L. W. 54. 0^0330J2^0200^H
he made a mistake in copying a document. Colloq. ^.of.o

OOOOII 8^0000011 0OO0080OOGO008l33Cg^006p 33 Oj^ 8 33 Q O 8 8 t^JOS

opo1oocoo2ii d'ku d^pyauy transmigrations. Than. W. iv, 161.
82c§c^c88oo^c88goo8gooS 33 o^8 33 oo ^ s ojgGf.Sii Jku d" day
goings and comings. Colloq. §8cog8oj33ogc833o833aj233oo^2
^|ooGf.§82ii migration in and out of the country. Sun. 09^00^


(o^SCoS . C§IIO30fJSD3CXD$SO3GSp8soaO0SllO38930SC^S00cSll§S^1s§80g$S
s|j8sooooo§8ii journeying in the way of trade, commercial dealings.

HI. Rec. 15. ocSogcScocScoSss^ooonaa^cSoBaocSDaorjjsoaoo^soooii

dSs cSs ooos ooosii gooo8ggpc8e§oc8g6pc8ll oooggdoog^|Scr)§jc8GejS 00c8

^811 the connection between and transition from scene to
scene. Pyaz.

zacb A dks n. [cfboo^S to add an ingredient to a mixture.] 1.
An added ingredient, an addition of baser metal, alloy,
degree of fineness of silver. o3gc8:iD3S|^iiDasj^oacbii33oosii
The most important senses are alloy, degree of fineness ".
Up to the introduction of coinage by King Mindon in 1861,
and probably later, the medium of exchange was for
small payments lead, and for larger payments silver
rarely goldof varying degrees of fineness. Before accep-
tance, silver had to be weighed and, in all transactions
involving considerable sums, assayed. Assaying was done
through the agency of a broker but the actual assayer
seems to have been called GgscS (also written sS) ywe ga?.
Yesag. Kh. Py. 61, note. The quality of silver was to some
extent indicated by its form. §|c8| ywePni or flowered
silver was in round discs weighmg from 5 to 10 tolas and
contained from 10 to 15% copper to 90 or 85% of goo8 bo,
the purest silver current in Burma. The flowers were
made by blowing on the metal, after the addition of a little
lead, in a mould before the liquidity was gone, and could
not be produced if there was too great a mixture of alloy.
Purer grades of silver in use were ^8 daiy, with 19 parts
of gco8 to one of copper, and a^oc8 Tchdyu'ba?, with 19£ parts
of gooS to half a part of copper, both of which were
cast in large discs, weighing twenty tolas and upwards.
The exact degree of fineness was usually expressed by
reference to the percentage of alloy, e.g. ooobGg had
10 parts of alloy to 90 of gooSii oaScSob had 25 parts of alloy
to 75 of gooSii Yule, Embassy to Ava, 260; Craufurd,
Embassy to Ava, 433; Hall, Early English Intercourse with
Burma, 90, 204; U Pon Taya Com. 165; Yesag. Kh.
Py. 61, 75. Gaosoo^Sliioacbf^oii the medicine with the
added ingredient of plumbago rosa. Nayamal S.K. 33.
fooaociSoaosii 33si8sooosgn $£§sq|Os8c£sii oacbsogo6(ogoc8)n

take ten tolas §|c8| and, in terms of the greater or less
admixture of copper, ascertain the alloy. Quotation at
MMOS. iv, 94. Ggo3c5o$sabo8s§ooc$i let the cobbler stick
to his last. Sagab. 33. G§)d^o^ig8spaas|8!io3§c8o309cSiio3so8so3
Gsp8n aaaboa cos cgt^S... @§solii Jke £le qualities, grades
of gold (with reference to the increased purity obtainable
by successive smeltings). oaGcos weight" is merely ex-
pletive. Tav. Yaz. 78. GgoogSygS^ oac^Soaob §00^0711
s^GaDooftc^GgdS(acS)GsToo£SiiGgc6s8ojjajjc^ii &yi dke alloy,
composition. Yesag. Kh. Py. 61, note. 2. excess, value,
character, external indications of character or condition, symp-
toms (originating in metaphorical use of oacfb with modern
extensions after the literal meaning had been forgotten).
oac^sn oasj^So3§8sn coogctoon oo9oq|8coc8o^£Sscrbii ccys^^soaab
go1c8^ooii if there is a market price of not less than Rs.
115. Star. oo^§Gooooo8ogc8oo^iic1aaogc8$8c8§ooocba3 :ab
§8$8c8c^oSc^8ooc8§so3|8ii J he oyeP hinton this h.

BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

he read the omens,

11

Kh.MGW. ii, 55. c^cg oa ob oa co s

__[6000H d'he 9sle appearancesto judge them by a. Dag.

Mag. oac6oaGcoisS(3c8)§sD30383|ii make the appointment
after sizing him up. Tanaw W. i, 72. oaabc^S 33ijco8c§ii
oc^s)]8oos§8g§o8sc88o£Sii dice hair) hold out for a high priceif
you hold out, make yourself so hard to win. Zawta Kum. Py.
Z. 62. c^o^i coobj^^S cgjcgo^cqsjoooGolii tike ci' study
the symptoms. Tanaw W.i, 71. ooocoooS^olcSSiigS^o^Sa^
o1c8nc1^s oacrbscS c§iigc8sj8§sossj^sgc^ii 9s ke klwP judge
by appearance, size up. Kola M. Py. Z. 46. Cf. Than. W.
Hi, 10. cl3acbsc8^oscgosoo^iioft^scgoft^sco88oo^ii I misjudged
him. Colloq. oadbsc8c^GOoii^33G^o8so6GOOo8sc§yGooooc^ii mis-
judged, under-estimated. Kola M. Py. Z. 49. o§o8o8gcooosoj;ii
aarcb socS c^!c800911 dke sha? terribly touchy (? lit. brittle in
composition). Colloq. GoTu^ocSs^QciScg oaobooS cqjcSn d'ke
tirj setting a high value on. Dag. Mag. oaab §oS 00^
c^c8GcoGyo8s|dS 9 he tar) to be of poor appearancewhat a
sorry sight you are, lad. Kum. Py. Z.76. oacrboo^ oo^Sii
[oo^oo^S to be worth] and oa ob c£ oo^S dice thai? used in
modern popular literature = oac^soo^oogS "to be valuable"
when an e rhyme is required. yooooc8oo oacrb^cS goc§ .. .
3a8o^§8c^3a^SG§o8so^Go1n £ke nou? your elder brother, to
the lessening of his value, has become the buffalo Maheintha
(has been degraded). Pyaz. cjj)oD3§guS8(?6pscgii ooosg^S
oaobgSs y^Sn 9*ke ynuy value will wiltif I keep on this
revolting queen, my dignity will be impaired. Zawta Kum.
Py. Z. 23. o§8gcooc8oogcos§8 oacrbol c^c8ooon 9ske pa make
a fuss about nothing, exaggerate the importance of e.g. a
slight injury. Colloq. oaobQ o1qGii£6|Ga3o8ap1y£Sii 9ske pya'
show my mettle, skill. Ziwaka H. 71. §8§c8gojoo^Sc£s(c§sc^
oa ab u^ cS g3908119'ke you? to be lowered in esteem, depreci-
ated. Sun. g£^8oo£§ oaab^ ogjS 9s he ya get the impression.
Newsp. c^ao6p^osc^ oaobys) §1 not forming a high opinion
of. Tanaw W. i, 72. ^cSsjcoooocSoaobysioysii didn't like the
looks of him, thought him unlikely to recover. Colloq.
ooaoo8ic6ooo^c§oo^S ... Oattbpc£ O^G00S(^ill§G300ftGo'lq|0S
o^Goos^iii d'ke yau> are esteemed. Thath. Bahu. 221. 008
G§or8(Gqjoc8)c§5jOOOC^iiso8yooocSGq)c8aooSooii oaabycv^S o1§8n
9ke lou? make a fuss. Mahaw Pya. Z. 46. yGq|Soo§9c8§|c£
§|c8§8ll fejjc8§0c^03000c^§s03|8ll O3c6G00o8sG00o8sa388s£j|8c900(jSll
pretending not to look for him, turning my face rather
shyly aside I want to assume a good appearancemake
a proper show of maidenly reserve. Kum. Py. Z. 28.
o^cSo^cSslal... oaobcv^ ^ocrbn 9yke hla' will look fine.
Dag. Mag.

oaab B 9ke n. [oboo^S to excel, overtop.] 1. Chief, superior
oagsOTft? oaobsJjiiGGposSii superior's due ticals,
clerk's due 1 tical. Sittan in MMOS. iv, 309. obsdjoo^S

^OllOftScgcrbSII G0OOCbsG0OOO3rbsmoS00^Sll §SGpSOc8l>^8GOOOII obSOJGODO
Go1oOOG|Cg8o1o8oO^Sll C§SpOg8oo8£^Cg8o1o8GOOOC^OOGCOo8c6oT^O
038^[8qGOOOGOOo8c^S8c^GCDOC^S^OS^OII^5GpGpOJSSOc8si^8a^^|OSOg8

o1o830£§yo}c8ii (misprints corrected) oaob's such as superiors
of ferries or of cultivated lands might be hereditary officers.


12

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

Commanders of 1,000 men in the army GoooSob or Sob
were not hereditary officers. MMOS. ii, 174. (For coooob
v. HI. Rec. Notes 32.) eraobera^s Gsposolo^j $ke d'mo
superior, person in charge. Zdp.MS. gj5§)o era(c^seraobs
dci dke head of a village, headman. MMOS. ii, 173. Cf.
ibid. 185. oo^GCDSc^cogSsiioaGooSoaG^oajo^so^S oaogSiracrbs
§8oocg3§ooos<§i dku9 9yke superior officers. Kawi L.D. 381.
era^jeracrb dchi dke clerk and headman. Bassein Sittan at
MMOS. iv, 312. era^seraob dhmu dke officers of state
(vaguely : there were in this case 1,000 of them under each
oaocS minister). Pay a N.W. 167. 2. excess, extravagance.
ooo§8siic£§§8s gg5gi33abg^goooiioogoo8ii than which there
is no excess, nothing more perfect, the highest wisdom.
KawiM.M.K.33. oDGooouft§o§jcg$:G33oS eocxboacg^ s£jooj£n
d'ke dlur) exaggerated (of a statement that a hunter killed
a very large number of deer each day). Tkam. Sek. D.K. ii,
182. sacg^eraob d luYj dke unusual, in a high degree,
roob^ dke'ye' n. [ob^oo^S to disparage.] disparagement, detrac-
tion. 5jj5^i§8s qa8gc8ooGS|^iia3ob|i9QC^c8gSooo8^!ii Mahawth
J.W. i, 123. 33ob^8o3%Ss 'Than. W. Hi, 48.
zaemo dko n. [gooooo^S to rise, swell up.] elevated, high-

lying land. -09§SIID3§8ll-ODcjSGgc^SsSsilO^Sa^S^SGOOOIIOaGOOO

9398siigooo8oo8so^8ii308s£^8sogsg§o8sii Anthol. ii, 327. o3gooo
oo|s a high strip or row of paddy-fields. Colloq. oacooo
§Ss high part of irrigated holding. Colloq. Minbu. c!soc8(c§s
c1sg§|S@sii c^oacotSqicSoaGooo^oii gc8gooooo§s^oocSii the fish
love to haunt the swampy high land in the middle (perh. a
partly submerged island). M. Sanda Py. Z. 70.
eracr>o a^koda', also era ego e^koda' n. [P. akkodha]
freedom from anger, mildness. 8c8oo§ogc8§8s y8s^oosps
SO oS olsog 8 036000 G0^G0000l§ GCoS§ Soa^SoaqjcftGOoS C^ S|][8g00S fl |ll
Em. Yaz. ii, 381. Cf. PPK. 47. o3Gffloe LPPD. 8.
eraeooocS A dkau9 n. [goooc8oo£§ to be crooked.] bend, turn,
crookedness, deceitfulness, indirect or figurative mode of
expression, equivocal remark, ambiguous action. oaGcg>i

o3go00c8930q)8llg0o008os§8sil Opp. 03g@o8ll-03gooqc800g0008

6S|s85oosp§GoooGGjoo^gs bends (in the bank). Mahawth J.W.
i, 15. o3gooocSoogooo8^Js<§o&ooo (0060I) ^oo^S§sgooSii Yat.
Kyem. Z. 74. . 038§io3Gcoo8io3G§o8o3Grooc£c^o§8obii
Zanek. J.W. 114. ($c8c§) oaGooocScgos§8siioa§03c^8so3Goooc8
cgos§8siiGoocc8ooocjj£cgos§8sii crooked, continuously crooked,
somewhat crooked (ambiguous) motion of the planets.
(o3Goooc8noa§o3c^8soaGoooc8 and GooocSoocqjS are intended to
translate Skt. vakra retrograde, anuvakra, somewhat retro-
grade and kutila transverse, in Surya-Siddhanta Ch. ii.)
Thur. Theik. K. 32. oospSG§o8oq|c8c^iio3Goooc8o9oo8Gogioo§8ii
thinking ambiguous, finding apparent contradictions where
there were none. Thing. Sag. i, 218. c^Bcg^iooGcooc^goocS
GoooooosoogSooooooq£§G£S<^ii ooGooooac^8sc^>oa^<§n ^aooaScooo-
oac8oooo-gooo-^ooo-GoooooGoooo9s^oa8Goooo3Goooc8(^iooGoooc^(g
ooc8GOOoooosoo^Soo^9^y^S^iii sabhavavutti, Skt. svabhdvukti,
statement of the exact nature (vivid description); vanka-
vutti, Skt. vakrakti, indirect mode of expression, figurative
speech. (adcmocS = P. vanka, Skt. vakra, bent crooked.

Both sabhdvavutti and vankavutti are modes of alankara
oaooosos] or adornment. In s. the effect is gained by epi-
thets, etc.; an example of v. is, they drank in the
comeliness of Buddha and their thirst could not be slaked."
Alink N. 207.) Bur. Z.P. Com. 51. Cf. U Pon. M. Com.
43. oaggoag§oc8!i o3ooorSrocxySn oc88coSdn8c8cbG§o&gii
dkau? dci9 deceitfulness. Sonma P. 63. oa$8o3f>8so3§oaGyoc8
caoooc£craog gooo oaspoa goooS googooooo qno oftsoacogn
dkau9 dkioe' bends, angles. Ledi Kein 47. oSsGosoo^S^Sc^scr)
gat dkau9 d'kwe crooked shape (of some-
thing one would expect to be straight) Colloq. og§o8o^
eraoooc£[cg agii dkau? car) form treacherous schemes.
Mahawth J.W. i, 188. 33oooc£goa£ §8ggooSooogpsgsjs
ooosgoooii dkau9 nyarj guile, ulterior motives. Sun. oooscjj

D3 gooo cs oo o^j

S G§OOOc8GOOOOa6COOaCOOfeUOSgO^II dkau9 tdjP
equivocal. (Thus, he said coSsoo^sGcgoo^^^cooooc^s and then
explained that by 008200 he meant not vultures but those who
seek the light, priests.) Thing. Sag. ii, 169.
oogooo8§goooo6ooo(ooSo1)|§ii dkwe' dkau9 angles (in the walls).
Yat. Kyem Z.78. erac8Seraoooc£ gleiy dkau9 deceitfulness.
era 000 cS B dkau9 n. [goooc8oo£§ to pick up, collect, form
an opinion, dkok = customs duty, in Mon and Shan is
l.w. from B.] 1. a due, toll (for permission to pass or
on some transaction), royalty, customs duty. oag^n
03g0d0cs030!0aftii noagooocsctjoo^ooosigqsg00oc8ioo£§goooc8i008;
goooc8c§oo^ioog|9gaooc88^gf.oc89gcooc8gooslgoooc8os^8ood5
Giioacg§Goooc8aj8co£Sso6n Matters connected with collection
of dues. If bazaar dues, customs dues, or dues at the
outposts are not taken on the day, there is no right to
take them later and a claim should be dismissed. If too
much has been taken, a claim (for refund of the excess
amount) should be dismissed. Manu 187. o8seoo6p&33Goooc8i
O30c8^S03G000c8ll9c8Gqj000GC9O9j800c8s . q|O86|gSo36|c8s8c^GC900
8so58oo^sg^c8^8oo^c8goooc8^sii As dues of the king or of
the governor, the custom is to take from every banana
boat one bunch, from every boat carrying honey, liquor
or oil one fill of a cup made from a toddy-seed. Shwe-
daung Sittan at MMOS. iv, 310. oogo^oo3goooc8goo8^oii
§83^8oo8sooosc§ooisD^ooc8aDc8oo^sii customs duties were regu-
larly sent (to Bassein) by the men of the Pyin Khayaing
outpost. (^ of each class of goods in the cargo was usu.
collected.) Sittan {a.d. 1784) at Bass. Yaz. 86. j9gof>crjsps£)
o3Goooc8§8no96ps£g§ . ^c8c88s60o8floo£Sn abolished revenue
on pagoda festivals with the exception of the dues on (the
bazaars at) the festivals of 24 (important) pagodas. Royal
order dated 1884 at HI. Rec. 16. GooooqpGoooc&i dues on
wax, cutch, etc., brought in from the Yaw country (in
Pakokku district), ibid. 9^oo£gooo33goooc8gooSii royal dues
on timber brought to the four towns (Mandalay, Amara-
pura, Ava, and Sagaing). ibid. 82. o1c8Goog5[q|o?oaGoTog8
o3goooc8goo5. Royalties on mineralsclay, laterite, gypsum,
etc. Land Revenue Manual. oooooGooG^sloaslooii^gioG^ojc^
oogossj(§s eraoooc£rog^ oac^oa^goosqps^oii dkau9 dkhuy
state dues. MMOS. iv, 307. oaa3oc£oao8 ^ dkau9 d^sa


13 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



matters connected with collection of dues. Manu 187.
336oTo§33GooocSoaosii the governor's share of collections,
commission. (Out of every Rs. 100 collected in cash Rs.
92/8 had to be sent to the royal treasuryoogooo8sg§o8s
c^cS Rs. 7/8 was shared between those concerned in or
responsible for collection. MMOS. Hi, 54.) Sinbyugyun Sittan
MS. o3Goooc8oaos commission (to headmen on revenue
collections). Commonly known as §8 or ^8cgn Land Revenue
Manual. oa&ooocSiocp^ ^josoaosGOOggoGcgc^gS ... (c^oogSii
dkau? dyafi' customs officers. WOB. oaoooc£coooS dkau?
tauy, name of hill overlooking Irrawaddy at N. end of
Henzada Dist. LHGK. 138. ro&ooocS^s dkau? Kyouy
Customs Office. Pol. Econ. 513. oaoooc£o^ ecgdS dJcau?
wuy Collector of Customs (R. S. Edwards C. of C. at Ran-
goon. 7. Dalhousie-PhayTe Correspondence 50). KBZ.
Hi, 281. GaToooogSsooQ3GOOoc8o$dbii G^o8sjyooomos|)c^c8oooii
my very name is alcaukwun and I hate anything that
is to be straight (with pun on 93goooc8 A). Ok. Yaz. Py.
Z. 108. Rem. The revenue in Burmese times consisted
mainly of tolls of various kinds and oacooocS was used
more widely than in modern B. At HI. Rec. 16, e.g., (oa)
gooocS and (aa)§§ are used almost indifferently, prob. acc.
to convention. 2. Expletive in i^soaoooc£ d'ywe
dkau? election. &S||g§|sgoooc8§8s o3Gg|!33Goooc8sG|§iin2)$GOoS
^f.oogSoo8cg8s§8sc^iio2]$GOoSoococ8o8§8sodS|Ggo8sii to stand
for election. Star. 3. interpretation, decision. goooc8
ofl§8ai aqs@c8§8sii 330^333011 33s8s§,S§oiya8ooo60oSioo£§336pc^i
ogDo§jooi33GooocSsolGG|oii if unable to make out the distinction,
took the decision of wise men. Yama Yag. i, 5. ooj^cS
oaGoooc8iia3c8oy^oo8s§cSa3Goooc8cq|8s titles of books" ana-
lytical works entitled Akauk, all more or less modern."
C.P. Pref. x. These are Burmese explanations of the
Abhidhammattha-sangaha, Compendium of Philosophy. 8cS
^oyGgoc8iicGoooc8oo^c8iico8ss^y§cSii (aaecooS preceding oo$cS
for metrical reasons). Tanaw W. ii, 34. co8s§j^scg8 . .
oaffooorSoao^ oaoii c8S;g§p8cgcSG@sii cgcsgoos^ooooocso^
go^joc8oooo dkau? dyu a legal decision. HI. Rec. 97. o£oogo!c8
gcc^ii oacooocSoaajjii ooosgooS^godSco^Ssii interpretations, ex-
planations (on subject of alchemy). W.M.Th.K. 3. cg§ooc8
ooc8s|8GiioaGoooc8o3ajjGS|Sf.^soc8^gS; the interpretation, method
of writing and reading the climbing perch's ascent and
descent, ending in the middle (an acrostic, of which a
specimen is given). Por. D. K. i, 223; cf. Kab. Band. K.
265-7.

co&oooS dkauy n. [A.C. kiuy (K. 471), body, person. Maru
gaung body. Lashi go body. B. gooo8 q.v.] 1. the body,
the material substance of any person, animal or thing, corpse,
carcase.C^dSll03G(X)o8sil93CO^II 08scfb§8GllgcS§£Gll03GC7D08
cut the throat of a whole duck or hen (in
directions for cooking oSsab§5 or gcS§8 curry for which
the entire animal must be placed in the pot). Tanaw
W. ii, 22. G^8j§GooGrocD^§|Ssc§OTGOoo8 corpses of drowned
Shans. Raz. Ayeb. 176. ^j33Gooo8^5oo^ogyoa§)oS§)Goooa3Gooo8
03|q8siiy^yoa§|uS§GOoo£raGooo8oj|q8s... ^cSoaS^ii (in directions
how to meditate on dead bodiesasubha-karrmatthdna).

With. At. 299. c^y8s^3aGooo8o^c8Gooooayii cremation of the
king's body. Bur. J.W. 6. oaGooo8sj]§8sc%i burial. Tham.
Sek. D.K. ii, 49. TOScspol. . cgc^ . ^s^dSolscgga^
§S00£Sa} . TO000s 0300cS (otoo^s) y§8g00£§33cgc8
. . oaa^ra^c^ycS^Sgoo^Sii dkauy dthe corporeal substance
(of the evil spirits). Thath. Wi. K. i, 153. craGoooSoaoogS
^ycqjocSoo^S only if the substance exists can one say it
has not disappeared. Sagab 125. oaGoooScraoogSd^g^Gc^ocS
coossj^ii pointing to the material object petitioned about.
Kawi Mag. G3lSsicoc8iG§oog§o5cSo3^oa8c8oa§8sc§c^Go18s5|
@c\g;8ii "oj" orjG00003GOOo8oaoo^§8^roooo^Sn the material
substance which is called man". Chweta Pref. note.
Freq. in form oooS q.v. in combns.; g§sgooo8c^gooo8
Gooo33£>833Ggsn Por. Kat. K. 143. Also as numerative :
c^uSs|ooogooo8c^s the whole body. Bawd. D.K. 35. 2.
animal, fellow (of human beings in more or less derogatory
sense) cSsj^o^nooosiiooggoln od8so (co8soo) ^6036000811 the
creature called a vulture. Ledi Kein 109. cs^oo^o3gooo8ii
the fellow called Nga San. Up. Muh. K. i, 200. 03gooo8
oogcos boy. oagooosyoogcos girl. Colloq. oaoooSoac^o£
GogGol^oobn dkauy dhlauy game will be plentiful. Rup. W.
37. c1s8§) crae-oooSe-oooSn 33^33Gf>o8G^o8n dkauy gauy
if there is fish paste there will be all sorts of animals
(maggots); if there is a beginning there will be all sorts
of after events (i.e. beware of some act which may lead
to formation of a habit). Sagab 32. Form g-oooS q.v.
in combns., as oqpscoooS tiger. Up. Muh. K. i, 199. ooos
gooo8 game. Hitop. K. 32. u^sgoooS witch, wizard. That.
Pad. Pok. K. 105. gcSygsgcoooS the egg-layer. Up. Muh.
K. ii, 343. coSgooo8 husband. LHGK. 33. Also as
numerative for animals, evil spirits and, derogatorily,
human beings ; 03&oogooo8ii Thing. Sag. i, 32. ooos^gsoo
gooo8ii a demon, ibid. 45.
oaeoooSs dkauy n. [gooo8soo£§ to be good.] something which
is good, in good order or of good quality; good fortune, good
intentions. opp. oas^sn oagii oggpg^soao^soaGsooSc^oogS
co£§sii33a5sio3gio3G00o8so^§iD^st|s09sos§§§8GOD00^ii Chweta 88.
33GODo8s33Gcr)o8sii^gGo18s§i30c5G^o8s^cq|c8ii^sd88ooc8agj8ii hav-
ing assembled all sorts of good things, their ten fingers
brought together above their heads (holding between clasped
hands flowers, streamers, etc.). Gata P. 47. oooocqgoooSs
oa^Ggisoo^c^GooocSGcoii good and bad dasa periods (in which
favourable or unfavourable planets rule). Maha Thuz.
K. 130. OTGOoo8s£oqjc8c^G§)Sf.^sii^cooog5Sp&oo£Siic^?^Gyoc8ii^f,8
^osii oo^icls^io^gDgSs^ii ^g33o8gooo8sos^ii Gcos^g8sGooSccSoo
Gooo8sos§igsGooSt||c8ooc8^ii method of ascertaining prosperity
or ruin. LHGK. 225. oooyooapogss§oo(£aDosiiq|c£833qooo33
Gooo8sgc8^ggooo1sn^os33s|00o o3GoooSs(oj|c£ ^gsoools etc.
d'kauy cap fond of good things which delight the eye, etc.
Ledi Kein 94. oo^5c§ogs|(c^§og|^) otsoooSsoos c^oo^Sfjjii
dkauy sza good qualityChinese fish-paste sauce of g. q.
Tanaw W.ii,22. yg^ooo3ooy^Ssyooof8§8iis$socoo1n otg-oooSs
co 8 gsi!OGo1&sq|Sc§coosqjii d'kauy thiy think goodthinking
haughtiness a good thing, proper behaviour for you. ibid, i,


14

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

128. cloo oooologon oSsooooc^ooScJoooooSsi

oo^Sii dKkauy spyo speak with good intentions, for the
other's good. Colloq. ajooa5S3a6^o8siio3Gooo8sogj8oooiiG§ooo^
sp^in speak well, speak no evil, of others. Common saying.
c^Scf) oaoooSooo8ii rocgos^o^s^soSs^aDc^ii d'kaur) vda
in a good statesitting, he seemed to be a hale man, but
when he got up he was seen to be a cripple. (He would have
been wiser not to expose himself.) Sagab 62. oas^sira
tooSs ooosc^cgSii dsho d'kaur) good or badamong the
words (overheard) whether g. or b. Tanaw W. i, 116.
otctoS dko n. [coo8oogS to lift up, prize up.] 1. prizing up,
dislodgment, exposure. ooGco8§8sii33or|jso^c8Goao8G§o§8sii
c1s^sq]c8coc8cfyi GOO8C\9J8I 03GOQ8SC8^8^III S8SGOOO8OOC8GCO8C£>O£II
the trouble with a wife, as bad as the difficulty of dis-
lodging a fish-bone (that has stuck in the throat) with
a finger that is too short to reach it. Tedat B. 184. o^oools
o9goo8g3sjg§8ii Don't act so as to give others a chance of
showing you up, don't give yourself away. Colloq. Baunbyu.
oo^gscsoo^s to e to5 cd to <5 go^c8o3§8osgoa8cqc8oo£§333l
@8§i dko dka? prob. opposition, obstruction (the combn.
taking its meaning principally from oscocS). Sun. 2.
a lift up a piece of good fortune, a win at long odds.
3acflSGaoo8sos§8sii o8c^S6|00^030gcSo^0^c8oD^SS|OO^II o§6olc8
G3l8co^s33GooScbii a great piece of luck. Sun. cIcooooaGooS
crbc§cgc8ooosooo ii ^so^sooclyoc^cS^ h 8c8q|osqjc8cgoscoocrbii I
thought I was going to have a special treat (the princess
had said she was coming ecoo bringing nothing, which
the speaker interpreted as meaning naked). W. §8200338
oooosGogooGOOoii33Goo8obco^ooosoo^ii put the horse in the high
field, among the outsiders. Sun Mag. Gooooo'loSfuoaGooSjog
s|cfe^6^ss|00cS0ii a kept woman, who succeeds in her gambling
against heavy odds. Saungba 92. oogS§8s33Gcos33q|os(c§sG08
roosGo^8^8co^33G§§joo^iid§83aGro8sycDoc6ii though this horse
has been given a lot of weight he is capable of winning. I
am backing him as a hopeful outsider. Colloq. osgoo8
oooos a gambler who takes big risks, a person who plays
for high stakes. Colloq.
33c^ A dko n. popular spelling of oaSc^ elder brother q.v.

B dko n. body, v.s.v. toc^cSii
coc^cS A dkaP n. [c^c8oo£§ to bite.] 1. the act of biting,
a bite, an ache. d^c8^§88iioo^Sg§8338goo^33c^c8gooo88oo^ii
a good biter. Colloq. g2do8s33c^c£go1c£§8c§iiodgcoooogoo8§!8$o1ii
aches. Rup. Kal. Py. Z. 92. 33G£do8833£>o oac^cSoa^
33S|j^33^oii dkai? d'khe aches and pains (generally rheumatic).
Ek.DYK. 153. Form oJcS in combns. as in GslSsdjcS^o
headache; and as numerative, as oooc^c8 a MS. about in.
thick, which can just be taken between the upper and lower
teeth. 2. An exact correspondence, agreement of quan-
tities etc. g8g2c8§8s ^SGOOoSyonc^cSssGOOoSfiSc^oSoac^cS
^jiogcSo^&i... OD^co^scbc^oSGoo^o§i8c^(jS3ac^r8sjj^olcfbii
(as the monkey said to the elephant, our wounds) are
exactly the same size (as being measured) by each of us
with his own cubit." So in the present case each of us
has it exactly to his own liking. Up. Muh. K. ii, 28.

oac^cs B dkm? n. [prob. etym. connected with 33<^>8s q.v.]
a sprout, shoot. 33g£)oc8ii 33§ii oa^n 33c^sc8gco8gco8ii
goTgoo8ii§|8goc||8godo^8^8c88god2ii when four sprouts appear from
the earth, four renowned monks will pluck them. Kawi
Then. K. 28. 8goooc8o§sgooS . 3ac^c8og|ooo8ii ssg^sjjjjsii
San Kein. P. 32. oac^csao^oooiicssi^gooo^ii bright mosaic
with gorgeous representations of sprouts. Abir. P. 88.

. . G§ocSsooSooo§ig^sc900^Sii3ac^c8^8ooSi;(!jco8cg^8cg^8ii
. . op0flG6|8008n wrote 61 stanzas, sprouts and fresh
buds, tapering pinnacles (of song). Udein P. 154. oac^cS
oag^ii dkaP dnyuy/ sprouts and twigs. Dhammawza
Mawg. 4. oac^cSoacggocSii dkai? dhnyau? sprouts.
Dh. Pala P. 60. Form in poetry chiefly in

combns., as first or second member, as c^cS^ii^sc^icS
young prince.

roc^S dkaiy n. [c^8oogS to hold.] 1. the act of holding,

handling. 33c^833cgoSii $§oo^c^8c§ii3ao^8oo(&8goiio§s||S83oo
§8noooGGqjoc8|ii sinful luxury, like a shaky post, to which one
holds fast, and the bird-lime of lust. Parami P. 66. 33^8(0382
oogSii to be rough in handling. 33c^8go]oo^ to handle care-
lessly. Colloq. 8soo£§ oao^SoacguS 330008330^08800090!
9q]c8^c8^Goooo3^^S2cd5^jGcooa3c^c§c^c8olGsp8^ii dkaiy dtwe
handlingonly if h. be skilful does fire seem to comply with
petty requirements, as in cooking. Kam. D.K. 130. o§soo§
§c8GUOoc8fe||08c^o3c^83aogdSooc8ooo8^89^c8o^^ooc8oDOGgSii Col-
loq. Tavoy. 2. a registrar or secretary to a headman in
Burmese times. ogj8sc^8iiogg|8ii gcgsjo^raocsoocogssiicoos
GOOOc8§8GGOOc8o008GCO§jo0^ll OOGOOOc8c^3a8q8ll 006000c8o^33C^So^
gsTgco^oo^Sii ... sac^S^onoosjSssaSssa^cSsaooosfiSs^Soo^iraSsj^oii
oospKpocSa9!§c6s|^qp!|8oDc6s§5oo^ii MMOS. ii, 159. 33ofj8

08g@s§oojdso008ll §§sgii §|0§8gii 33c^8^c^sg^oo^|oooodii Sfl000808

goooc8^8gooog§c^s^c^oo^ii ibid, v, 29. V. also ibid, ii, 185.
Form o^S in combns., as §c^S§ioc^8 ibid. 33gsoo8c^8
superior servant in the house of an official or in the palace.
U Paw U, 100, Thath. W.K. ii, 189.

oac^SoaTO^ dkaiy dkay n. [c^8oo§ calculation q.v.] number,
quantity. ^8GGjiiGS|ogc8§88ii 0080000^11330^83900^11^089^08
o1iiojoooooc§ii people in general, of common race, whose
numbers are very great. Att. Van. Dham. 3.

oaojss dkaiy n. [crjssoo^s to be bent, curved.] a bough, branch
(larger than 33308), a bent object or attitude. 33308113330833
coc8ii 33gog8ii osocvbiosd^soossqsi^iii when the tree falls the
branches become fuel. Sagab 75. Used to translate P.
khandha trunk, or stem of a tree. Kinkha N. 460. But
khandha is translated o8£§ at With. At. N. v, 422. goo8
o8^8q|c888gooc8g000^8g08^g00033c^88s^8333c8s^8^|08ll Thath. Wi.
K. ii, 169. 33g5§§ irac^SsoascS Gogoooiioo^Gooo8s^88|ii
dkaiy dkhe? the boughs and branchesof false belief in the
existence of the soul. Ledi Kein 36. gjoo$oo$8ol833§33goo
oao^Ssoag^cS 33god833§c8o( reverence. Zdp. MS. 33§33goo oac^sgoajjjss f^ssgssn
dkaiy dKfaiy truckling, subservience. Sun. Form r^ss
*kaiy or sgaiy in combns. as 0080^82 6i? skaiy branch of a
tree, gcoocsgcosc^ss lau? Kle sgaiy the bend of the bow, the


52 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

bow; and also as independent word (prond. xgairj) a
handle, etc. v.s.v. c^Ss
33tt^oS rarely oac^ dko n. [c^oS the body. This word
appears as cr^S in O.B., so that the modern form
should be cJJ. The oS in cfJcS and oac^oS has been added
under the impression that the word is derived from P.
Jcayct.] body, substance, main part as opp. to extremities.
c^uSiioooooiiogoii^jc5|,of,os§icSiiG§cocSo3c^oSii Anthol. ii,307.
c^sosgoos^oco^ss ... 03(^c^c^no3d^osoo^soo^ii33co^saocssoc8ii930dc8
gooossgoooss . oo8c^8k)c8§6 on his royal body a blouse,
constituted of a body-part, joined at the neck, with short
sleeves. (Prob. describes upper garment as worn by some
Chin tribes which is made as follows. Take two strips
of cloth 12 in. more or less in width and rather more than
4 ft. in length. Lay over shoulders one on each side of
neck. Make lower ends even. Stitch from bottom (1) at
sides, leaving about 6 in. unstitched at top as armholes
and (2) at front and back leaving about 6 in. unstitched at
top as neck-hole. When worn, cloth falls away from either
side of neck giving effect of short sleeves.) Thuw. Mya.
P. 35. ooosGoqjocSc^SsgdS^cSdbii $oS33qSG§oac^iioc^3a(o9osii
body, expansethe central point of the expanse of terri-
tory within the boundary pillars. Rup. Kal. Py. Z. 13.
otc^oSg§oc8g§ccSii j^s§SsGoq|oc8ooosn go1cSgo1c8oog£j|8ii a pot-
sherd of dry substance. (Spelling oac^ at Anthol. i,
158.) Shwehin. P. 21. $osgooo8s^oo3c^ (oI-obc^oS) (ol
oa§s) j ^SsoloogSiioa^cogSsGolSs^SoaSso^GoT^oogSii ear-ornaments
consisting of two portions known as body and tail (or by
some, head and tail). U Pon. M. Com. 170.
eoc^s Jlco n. [c^soogS to rely on.] something on which one relies,
an authority, one who relies on. oaGooocSoaooosii so^cSsScS
oss^i, c8^S030q|03^^00gSll goaS^og(jSj§i 8c8§03c^sc^

gsoosooosii as if getting rid of hair and beard would end
trouble, there are new ideas according to the fashion.
Native sense being in abeyance, they cherish Milinda
as an authority (referring to the 16 jragSocScooo or impedi-
ments in the wearing of hair and beard. M.P. 20 and
Rhys Davids' translation, i, 19). Tanaw W. i, 138.
go$93c^Ssii olot§sn wicked race who rely on violence. Zawta
Kum. Py. Z. 78. ebc^scbooos ^gooooq|ssofcps33ogsii iko
flea authorities. JBRS. x, 120. oac^sDaooosiioaGoooc^oaooosii
o3g§ocSo3§oso1goooo^S^ Kab. Band. K. 4. §cSgoo^GpsooGps
GooS^jos§8ooogo3§osogg[ooc8GOooooooo9ac^soaooosc§§S . 09^8
G§os§goo£n Sun. 03ooc^o1oac^s3aooos^oso^Goooc8oo§8§c8^oo^ii
c^soooos^8cobog83aolDao8||oo|§8Ggo8s^c8o^o38(^iii Sun Mag.
c\}t|soospooolsog8 cDc^soacgcS sjjSsyo^go^s dko dkwe worship,
religious belief. Colloq. Tavoy. oooooo1§n ro^roojsn oq|Ss§s
03c8ii G^cfragjSn dhmi dkc without true-speaking books as
authorities. Ay us. It. 56.
oag^ocS eVgdba? n.pr. [? Imphal, which is also perh. the
origin of c8Soc8, one of the 101 races of men in list at
MMOS. ii, 36.] name of a town in Manipur, and some-
times of the whole country. In the Hmannan account of
the submission of Manipur to Bayinnaung, the people are
referred to as oooogSs kd 6i or M 6s and neither Manipura nor

15

oa^gocS is used. Hm. Yaz. ii, 352. oargocS occurs in two
documents of whose authenticity we cannot be certain:
an account of an embassy sent by Bayinnaung to Manipur
(Al. Ayeb. 155) and a royal order of King ThaluncgoriSc^
coosgoo8GS|GoT8si:c^os(^so3rgoc8oooo^Ssii Anthol. ii, 89. oagg
oc8 is not used in accounts of Alaungpaya's campaigns
(KBZ. i, 289), but there are references under later reigns.
oooo^s§8sc1soo8no3g5oc8§8sc1soo8ii Manipur cavalry and
? Imphal cavalry, ibid, ii, 96. For strength of these corps
622 and 961 respectivelyu. MMOS. iv, 267. oa8ys||c§
008.. o8cocSc8Soooo^S3afgoc8§c§G§scgojGCOGOOo6go8ii did not
enter Manipura but fled, via the shallow sea, to Eggabat.
(From this passage it appears that the shallow sea "
? Loktak lakelay between Manipura and Eggabat, the
former being probably south of the lake ; oargoc8 would
be, or be near, Imphal.) KBZ. ii, 195. oargocSoSs king
or ruling prince of Manipur. ibid. 351. Cf. also Tharapu K. ii,
76, Nayaw M. 101, MMM. 51, Kutha P. 113.
jogp s^khdya n. [P. akkhara, a syllable.] 1. a syllable,
a monosyllabic word, (very rarely) a word of more than one
syllable. ooo §^GOooooooq8soocSooc8^o^ooosiio3o^SGo1oooG)
oo^oo^c^ii93009aogepoDc^sooc^s8ooo§jooc8§8sii the fact that native
Burmese words are generally monosyllabic. WLDK. Pref.
ggo|^5^c8ii GoojGooooaooac^spooc^sii the first syllable "me".
ibid. 11. ogicSojcooosraogspoogSii the syllable cu? ". Thing.
Sagab i, 39. Cf. U Pon. M. 40, Kutha P. 22. g^Go^S
Gooo8sso6pGooo8soaogspii the syllable "om" (used in incan-
tations). L.I. Mand. K. 97. §jSo^i§|Scv^siigcossoSo^sooosiio^s
sb§8§oiis?f^Gp§8iio1oooooooosn four lines (pada) each containing
8 syllables, making a stanza of 32 syllables in all. Anthol. ii,
15. Cjjgiooiooeooaa^siio^so^oaogGp the three words Buddha,
Dhamma, Sangha. Thamud K. 1. 2. a letter of the
alphabet, the sound it represents, writing, script. oc^snooii
^§D3Ggspc§oo^o1goooaoo§iioaio30ini^j . ooiooigio!or><§ . .
GcossocSooc^sc^cogS in the Pali alphabet there are 41 letters.
Kogan P.T. 128. o3ogsp§SspS|8iico^SG^o8sno30Goc8iioaoG3l8ii
cgosn§c838sn§oGsl8sojGooog1^o1sc§ the seven "places" in which
sounds represented by letters are formed. (Usu. fives|8
and §ogo18s being omittedgiving gutturals, palatals,
linguals, dentals, and labials. Bur. P.G. 2, Kogan P.T.
130.) Thath. Wi. K. Hi, 122. mog^oeooo ojoogSooos
. .. 93ogspc§(^!3a(!jc^^GOGgo8s§8GOOoo8ogooq|Ssii ccooc8oog1oq)Ssc§
oo^Ssn e^khdyaPpa'beda'. Akkharappabheda is the method
of analysing groups of letters, constituting the books of
phonology and grammar. PPK. 112. o?oocS roogsps^S
djjd^sjygB e^khdya jou? you must inscribe the above-
mentioned letters which are contractions (which represent
words, or have mystic meanings). Tharapu K. Hi, 94.
3aogsp§ ooc8ooo ePkhdya ziy table of contents in
alphabetical order, index. PPK. 1. aaqjScooS osogspoo
odS ePkhdya za epistlein my royal friend's e. Hm.
Yaz. Hi, 224. ^ogcp^Soo rocgspaoS GC009S11 fPlchdya
shir)' superscribe letters. Kawi L.D. 348. g$oc8spo8uooosoJ
<^t>cSii§gSc^qic8cocSc§ii 3a in writing, in the pages of history. Wiz. Py. Z. 7. GoqpcS


16

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

oocSoaogGpgSo^oooftloo^oooSoloo^Sii Up. Th. W.K. i, 15. ooos
o3c^s^o3C2Gpooo8cqic8^cSooos§ooos(^i Mahaw J.W. i, 199.
33 cgsp cx> s8 8. c^c^u^o... o30oc8D3ogepsj|[8c^c^ss|ogSii s?khdya
tdzei? mark consisting of letters, inscription. Tharapu K.
Hi, 94. Cf. |§c£oos8c£ a letter representing a planet, as §
for Saturn, oo for Venus. Nat. Lan. T.K. 81. 03035906388
sc8^86G|so^s|oo^coos followed by some ten Pali words consti-
tuting the dedication. Sed. Pah K. 51. 33ogspo">c£ 00
&>Jchdya tap to administer magic letters (as by writing on
a betel leaf or paper and giving the leaf, or ashes of the
paper in liquid to be eaten or drunk). Tharapu K. Hi, 208.
c^c£si936o18sc§f^co^s... coc8Gyo8scg8y&Gooesos§,8iicoc8bcoc8aDoc§|
g^oc8 33cgcpd^s ^cSspojoOii e?khdya" tho tattoo letters (indi-
cating their units). Hm. Yaz. Hi, 99. ooc8^ooc8s|8^^
ssogepos oq|^^oo^go^c8^8ooos§8sn tfkhdya pdda' letters
and words, script, printed character. Star. 8sio8s8^spsc§
o^sgsooSosSgooo ... 3sogcp^ cooooo^sooosajp e?khdya
bouy an ornament worn by kings and queens (not mentioned
elsewhere : nature unascertained). Kawi L.D. 349. a^oocS
oo^Scvp^oi 33ogcp^o1ooo(y|ii e^khsya byay gatha byay
apptly. repetitions many times over of written stanzas. (Cf.
o1ooo§^§|8cgdSc^GS|salso written o1oooq|§|8cgcS on same page
a gatha written out eight times. Tharapu K. Hi, 90.)
Yama Yag. i, 5. 33 ogep 6-^811 e?khdya hmo a spell
utilising written characters (in this case two magic
squares, the material on which they were written to be
burnt and drunk in liquid), ibid. 87. ssogcpooooo e?khdya
ydmdka' repetition of letters, alliteration. In 8s^oso8s§o8ii
the same letter is repeated throughout (osogep
eooooooo). Repetition may be in pairs, threes, etc., as
6|8S3^S938S1I ^8so8s OT OgcSoOOSGOOO^OII 6p66pOo8oodSll CqgoSGGjgSlI
Kab. Band. K. 252. oc^o3iiooc^§ooonoo^o^j|8 .. gjjoooscloon
33og6poc8n e^khdya woli'ma, ha with symbol of length,
6a with 1 .. this is my row of letters (P. avail, row),
spelling my name (Maha Thilawuntha). Tdg. La. P. 7.
Also 93c^S|o| (from P. vali, line, row). Teind P. 38. osogspocS
seems also to be used loosely as = alphabetic order. Private
letter. 33 ogep 80^000 G6|^gSs e^khzya weftpaylada' a sub-
stitution cipher. Lawki Th. L. K. 191. osogfcjooi saogsp^cfc
oooos§8sii e'khdya hwe? P. akkarika, a game, possibly
guessing at letters traced in the air or on a playfellow's
back (v. Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, p. 108). Thokthil
N.24. c^ggoo^ii 33cg6poo^jon &>khdya diycha algebra
geometry and a. (from the use in the latter of letters corre-
sponding to x and y). Duwun. ooioigiooioi^ga^oofS ago
cgsp o^S^iii pdthame^khdya first letters, first members of
each group of five. So, qicSoo, ooc8oo-, o^gg- and ogoog6p
Kab. Th. Th. K. 130. ^Ssscgcpii 330oc8o86|8g6|S§sgg|8c$s
ooq|n pou? e?khaya the letters of words, the spelling of words.
Kab. Band. K. 362. ^co33ogspiio^oo33ogGp mula'
buta' e^khdya are mentioned Tharapu K. Hi, 236. The
original (yco) letter appears to be o, and the derived
(ojoo) letters o and 011 Nat. Lan. T.K. 72,153. Rem. In

this sense, in combinations sp khaya is sometimes
substituted for osogsp; as g8soo3GpnabG§oc8^oii Burm.
Comp. 45. o}cog1c£)36p§8 with the written style, title of
Subadda. Wisit Sagab 98. 3. arithmetical figure.
ocoo^s OD^sosogGpn ociD^ooliioosogGpii letters and figures.
Adik. K. 11. o-jp9-3G-^-o-g00 oofSosogspsooSc^sii
Mun. Yaz. 85. ^oooosa^cSolGoooosogspooosn ocid§8G§o3Soj
Gooo33ogGpooc^8c^6sjsc^c8^iii (The signature was app. the
figure 1 which was interpreted as Mon (soothsayers'
language) oik. oik by expansion was read as oik hu phoa,
which was thought to stand for oa hu phoik skoococS
I am not afraid. The letter was from the King of Siam
to Bayinnaung refusing a white elephant. Hm. Yaz. ii,
364. 4. Symbolical uses. (1) SgoocSoolp scriptural
reckoning, by which the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet
are given numerical significance :

0 J ? 9 3 6 Q 0 e 00
00 9 0 00 c 30 q 6
Q s 3 0 CD 00 00 0 e *
00 CO 0 0 0 00 00 s £33 and
the other
0 <3 0 00 0 vowels

used mainly in mnemonics. Lawki Th. L. K. i, 192, and
Burm. Comp. 40. Referred to as ooGo&oooolp at Kab. Th.
Th. K. 138, but this is not the usual meaning of that
phrase. (2) o3og6p£oo8 letters appropriate to the name-
giving planets ; hence to the days of the week.

0-G| j-^0 9-0I 9-055 3-GOOS Ggo G| epo?
03 and 00, 3, , 30, 00, CO, 0, 0, 00, S'
other 0, 00, S O, 00, 00 c, coo,
vowels
C e 0 00, 00,
0, 0, f.

6pocj> represents Wednesday afternoon. LMTTK. 64,
LHGK. 222. (But WDTLK. 10 gives oo and gj to Wednes-
day forenoon and co and 0 to Rahu, which is prob. more in
acc. with popular belief.) Used in naming children. Bedin.
Alin. K. 89. Used with numerical significance, as in
mnemonics for dates, the first six columns giving the
numbers 1 to 6, the last the number 8, and 00, 0 and $
usu. indicating 7, 9, and zero respectively. JBRS. v, 47.
Used in calculating whether trade in certain goods will
be profitable, the goods, acc. to initial letter of name,
being regarded as under influence of the planets. Bed.
Thin. K. i, 68. In the case of inanimate things, if the
names have more than one syllable, the first letter of the
final syllable is taken by some as deciding their planet.
U Pon Taya Com. 176, Bed. Thin. K. i, 70. Rhyme giving
distribution of letters as in table above at LMTTK. 65.
(3) Nationalities in and near Burma are under the pro-
tection of the several planetsg|8s (Cambodian) Shan,
Talaing, Kadu, Burman, Thet, Kala, Chinese, in order


17 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



of the columns in the table. JBRS. v, 47, MTTK. 2.
But if oo and s| are placed in 4th column and co and o in
the 8th, Kadu and Chinese change places. WDTLK. 10.
(4) 8c8ooc8 general sympathy or fitness, c88gcoo88c8coc8
fitness for alliance in marriage, and o1c8ooc8 elemental sym-
pathy supposed to exist between planets possessing the
same element in male and female (? positive and negative)
form, and hence between persons or things born on or
belonging to the days of those planets. There are corre-
sponding antipathies or unfitnesses. g1c8^ and o1c8o for
pairs of planets given at WDTLK. 10. For mnemonic
formulae v. LPBK. 83. The following table is from
Bed. Thin. K. i, 49.

8c8ooc8 H e88gooo8 8cSg| o1c8ooc8 6j£00c8 g| s88gooo8 0-3 o-G o-9 ! o-9
J-9 ?-3 J-3 J-3 G-j ?-J
?-6 7-9 9-0 0-9 0-3
7-0 j-o 1 9-6 9-0 0-9 7-6

Burm. Comp. 36, Dur. P.G. 334. Disyllabic feet are

designated : w ^ by coco,--by oo, by coo,

by oco, co being the initial syllable of coorj light and
o of o(jj heavy. Dur. P.G. 334. (7) ecosooosreogcp letters
appropriate to the four castesthe 8 vowels; oo, c, go,
oo (and apptly. intervening letters s, o, eon so, qn
g, q, on) to Brahmans ; oo, o, o, oo, e| (and intervening
letters) to Khattiyas ; co and o to the third caste, and oo,
oo, and g to the fourth caste. U Pon. M. Com. 145. The
opening verse of Paramidaw Gan PyoGeo8y$8[8of
which the words begin with and o, letters appropriate
to a prince, is considered to be in keeping with the subject,
as referring to a prince not yet a Buddha ; as a Buddha
the Brahmin letters would have been appropriate. V. also
Burm. Comp. 45. Different ooooaogep are given at Kab.
~ d. K. 212.

Applications are various, the general object being to
secure good fortune. One way to do so is to give appropriate
names. Thus, the four central gates in the fort at Mandalay
were o1c8oos1s and the initial letters of the two syllables
of their official names are in the o1c8ooc8 relation, e.g. GoqjStjfe
the central south gate. The other eight gates were 8c8o6s1s
and the initial letters of seven of them are in the 8c8ooc8
relation, as g^^Ss the western gate on the south face.
The south gate on the west side was named cjo^ooals and
the syllables are in antipathetic relation gj§ooc8, this being
apparently considered appropriate to the gate by which
corpses were removed from the fort. KBZ. Hi, 273. On
the occasion of a visit by King Thibaw to the Mahamuni
pagoda the six regiments preceding and following the King
were to be $oooo (i.e. 8c8)oocS and g1c8ooc8 respectively with
the King. HI. Rec. 19. U Tin's note ad loc. implies that
this was secured by the formation adopted but does not
explain how. In arranging marriages s88gooo88c8ooc8 is the
most desirable relation between the parties. (5) olcScraogsp
letters representing the elements. Various groups of four
are given in books but the best known group is ooo,
commonly called the o, or oo^ocoii These represent
googco fire, o 0I6000 air, o eoogo! water, o 0008
earth ; which significances are variously explained. L.
Thip. T. 85. Much used in charms intended to confer in-
vulnerability. The forms are derived, from markings on
the tail of a c1s6|o (ophiocephalus striatus), o from a peacock's
tail, e> from the back of the crab, and o from the shape
of the sun and moon. Sama K. 99. o is also apptly.
derived from some marking on an orang-outang's body.
Tharapu K. Hi, 135, Yama Yag. ii, 28. (6) Trisyllabic

metrical feetgana, £ja8sare designated :---by o,

^ ^ ^ by ^ ^ by co, ^--by oo,

by
b cry dea' n. [oqp^S to fall.] 1. downward motion, something
which falls, failure. oasoSsnosooc8iiGc^ooq|§8sii qjcS^oooStooS
GG|33oq|Go8^sosG^Gco(^iii awaiting the fall of the royal face-
water, i.e. till the King had performed his ablutions. U
Paw. U. 100. o^mos3soq|Goooc8c^o1oof,oyo1orjsii other people's
leavings. Colloq. oo8ooo}§ooG6po ... c^c8a§§c^8<^qg8s§c8jfl
^cSs|G^SiiG§c§c^8£?30q|580030g6p§8Gs|0^8ii the falling, grounding
of the post must be simultaneous with the ma sound at
the end of ooGGpoii Win. Th. 42. . . o3oo^ooc^c5ii

8ggooo6pi^8sp^iii... G^8c^03oq|d^8sc98so3j8Gsosc^sooooc8^ooooc8^
@8ooc8oo£Sii as they happen to fall. Dhanun K. 98. goooS
oooocSo3oq|l)ooloocSii falling into jail, imprisonment. Sabeb.
W. 96. ^soo3aoq|ii |8scvq|oq)ii you who have fallen from
your royal state. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 26. oayoaesii
§eS?Gco93or)|ii gorjs|crjc§^c8ooos§soj8sosol2orjoo6|G^£ii must give
medical treatment having noted the heat or cold, the fall
of rain or wind, and the seasons. (oq| is regularly used
of wind, as if it dropped out of the sky.) Utub. K. 3.
330q|G|oag8(oagcS)G|O300c8G| (the three days of the Thing-
yan, properly the difference in time between the entry
of the apparent sun and that of the mean sun into the
sign Meiktha (Mesha, Aries); the Burmese New Year's
day and the two preceding days. v. Irwin B. & A. Calen-
dars 14. For the story of the descent (oaoqj) and reascent
of Thagya v. Bed. Wiz. K. 22. Another explanation of
oaorji is that it refers to the incidence of the responsibility
93ooofor holding Brahma's head. JBRS. vii, 167).
Kawe Th. K. i, 77. 93oqp8sg§ the Thingyan of the descent,
the first day. LHGK. 322. oGos£3aoq|q|osooj&ii there were
many failures at the examination. Colloq. oa crjj ot ^ is prob -
ably sometimes used, under the influence of o393$ scraps ",
in the sense of something dropped; but the proper use of this
combn. would appear to be sense 2. 2. nice adaptation,
appropriate apportionment, accordance. oo8gpiigooj)|o§8siid33o8
00811 gg$o3aoq|ooGcooooGooooooogoGoc§ a life that suits your
wishes like that of Ghosaka-setthi (DPPN. i, 828).
Bedawun K. 17. oo^Sc^S J900 o3oq|ii by annual instalments
of Rs. 2,400. HI. Rec. 86. 3^cSs8c£cS8sg9iig8s<^c§iic8£5
£o^oa|o3§oo£Sii as if getting rid of hair and beard would
end trouble, new ideas arise fitting the time (when the


18

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

time is ripe). Tanaw. W. i, 138. oSo^sooo^aaoq) according
to the likeness of weariness, labour in vain. U Pon. M.

101. gO^IOO^aSsiOOOc8c9So1s33§0300 33 0Cy33^ OTCg^CVpgO^II

dca dna' exactness and accurate adaptationas to place
(position of tongue, etc.), means of production and enuncia-
tion of sounds. Win. Th. K. 119. c^t£oo§c\oc8oo$33oqpf,cra spc^oii 33&c88b8o8so§oo£§n rather English in the niceties
of deportment and in demeanour (a vague journalistic use
of 330q]33^). Sun. obsO^GOaoS 33 Cry COO 8 c&GOOO^sli 9 CO,'
careful adaptationplays with c. a. so as to enjoy royal
patronage. Anthol. ii, 133. ocSsoSsj^ooo^oco^Ss. .. c^eoo?
oooSoo(jSo§)G|G9ao8ii OTcSoao^jii 9ti' dca' exactly to require-
ments. Tanaw. W. ii, 38. 3. literal meaning, meaning.

oaByluSn oooosoaoq|c^o8G3osoj8i!^oc5|oc§ .. 3^c8go3o8g^o
Goco$8oii8o833cgosc^S6aosa3j8 . c^cSooggolc^cScog^ii if you
investigate the literal meaning, the reference is to the
body. If you investigate the tendency of the (speaker's)
mind, the reference is to the living being. Thath. Wi. K.
ii, 36. ^ooooo8ooooso3oq|Goooc8oo^oii Atithon. K. 37. ooos
o3c^8s3aoq|Goooc8^ajjogj8 .. ooos.. G§|G$oc8o£8ii if one takes
the literal meaning, there is an inconsistency. Nib. Pak.
K. 40. ooooc8o^^iooosoaoqjc6oo8s|GQos^§8so3Gpog8cg^gooqj8§^

qoooil oozjsc^sojii OOSpSD9SC9§8G93o8o30C||Oo8s^G§0§8oO^^§S09j8ll
Goo8oqjoo8soj|j. .. oto^S .. (gSoooogSsn seize on the literal
meaning of an opponent's words (and turn them against
him). Kawithen K. 89. oooscoo8(^Gq|oc8q)c8Goo^orj^cgos
c§oooos3aoq|iD3S|^oo^oo9c8Gcoon that they enjoin the destruc-
tion of your son is the sense of the literal meaning of the
Brahmins' words (or 03cq| may be taken, as in the passages
following = in accordance with, taking the words at their
face value "). Tem. J.W. 92. ejjoo|§c8oooso3oq|ii according
to this passage in the Thingyo. Atithon. K. 73. c§sgooo8s
sraoqi . ocid^goosii W.M.Th.K. 69. 4. Expenses, legal
costs, or expenses in connection with litigation.33or^33oq|ii£jc8ii

o2j£(^33S^ii3aoq|c^oooii by merely giving up the slave and
bearing the expenses. Manu 218. Cf. SIP. 108. oospsoo^saoo
330C)|c^0000ft0fl0q|s>Gii let the person who took (the woman)
bear the cost of the case. ibid. 168. §jso^oooos^sooGoq)8Gii
co cry 33 (cj S r^co^8ssGii dca' dpyi? the detriment of expenses,
legal costs, ibid. 176. 33 cry 33808 dca' dpheP expenses and
loss incurred, ibid. 225. oo6psog8sc^5 33 cry 33^
£racg§os>Go^8ii dca' 9ya' costslet no excess exaction of law
dues and c. be made. MM0S.v,245. 33 0^33 cry dkouy
9ca' expenditure of any kind. 5. Arrival, reaching, lying
towards. s§c866pc8§8sn oo£§§§8s o^sgoooSgooocSgoocSob^
(o3oqj)^oii on reaching a depth of about 3 cubits. M. Sanda
Py. Z. 51. 9c8itijos|(^|ooo)ios|aDgoG^is88^c8Ggs^33oqjii the arrival
of one's natal planet in the places Puti, Byaya (Skt. vyaya),
and Marana, i.e. certain "aspects" of it. Bedawun K. 8.
cv^330oc8oo8soo£S.. .oaooclyoqj^s^cB^oaoDoooGoooBooSsc^oBoqicgSii
when the span of human life reaches 1,000 years. Pand.
Wed. D.K. 187. Gp(£^sD3a^ii9<#c#$ooS^[8c^c8ii on arrival
at the latter end (at the end of life) comes disappearance.
Atithon. K. 151. 8^oooaoii^§s|(? $|oo)n ^Daoqjn when the reviled
season of Tabaung comes. Zawta Kurn. Py. Z. 30. 3309

. . Ij^ll G00o8c§030qjll G000C$93008ll 93§8|^gg5S|B000i: O^Salc^cSgSlI
lying about a yuzana (yojana) to the south of Alon and
three gawdks (gavuta) north of Amyin. Anthol. ii, 357.

sscrycS 9C£? n. [oqjc8oo^S to be cooked, to memorize.] cooked
food, state of being cooked, the act of memorizing, a person
with whom one is acquainted. sj|c8§soooso9oiiqjc8§so3G§aaef1ii
ooq|c8§8sii33o88c8Gagn 3388s§8gii o3oqjc8§8Gii oo^;g§§^ocs
60oo8;ii it is not good to eat (meat) whether raw or cooked
without removing the gall-bladder. Sadaw K. 45. oaoqjcS
ocg$G§8n don't let it be over-cooked, ibid. 30. o .. .
03oq|c8q|8s|s||c8§6sogc8sjiSoocoosii do you wish to leave the
Order because memorizing of the books bores you ? Tanaw
W. ii, 34. 3388si33oq|c8io3|?ioaGOsioG§iscbro9scoo§c^8s6p9a8Gos
Goooiooooooog^n making no distinction between stranger
and friend. Yazaw K. 514. 33cos3crycS die' 9ce?
practices, custom, habit, v. 33gcoii

33 o^j S dciy n. Expletive in 33 ^033 cry 8 9na dciy, pain.

33 0^8330^18 dciy dlyiy n. [oq|8cq|8oo^S to be conversant with,
experienced in.] familiarity with, skill in using. oaooc8n
00cS0g|8s§8sil -§^OOC§Cg8GC9^SC9G00o8sO§jll GC900r8330q|C03CC|j8

cogSsclc^c^ooo^ii skill in handling boats and oars. KBZ. i, 96.

33 cry 8 9ciy' n. [oqjSoo^S to practise.] practice, performance,
habit, conduct, right conduct. D3GcoiiS|ooiio£jg3ii33oo6|ii
qc88o3oq|8i!o8s33S|]8ii in the case of the eyes, habit; in the
case of the stomach estimate (of its requirements, i.e. self-
discipline as to amount of sleep or food taken). Owad. P.
12. o^c^33g8iiojc^o3oqj8n (judge) a plant by its blossom, a
man by his conduct. Sagab. 76. Goooc8oqj8sooo33oq|8i!
Nip. i, 476. Gooo8sGoooo3oq|8n Kabya Kyem. 24. aoS^fcgSs
QcSGOOooaoqjS^ooo^c^o^go^oo^cSoo^ii sordid and boorish way
of life (of the Sudra, or 4th caste). AdiJc. K. 286. qrg6j£jooo
33oqj8c^oc(|8oo^Sii austerities. Zin. Pak. K. 63. (jj}SGooo33oq|8ii
pure, blameless conduct. Weth. J. W. 99. o^cSoosooooaoqjSdJ
oq|SGOOoqoo§:ii PPK. 189. 0008000800^ 33 cry 8 33 (eg qpsc^c^S
oo^c^GoooogosGjGoosojs dciy' 9cay (perh. physical and mental
conduct) conduct. Than. W. iv, 13. 000000000058 33 cry 8 33^11
03a^o8cooj^|oogSii dciy' 9mu practices. Daung G. 19. o^egs
cSt^oayoasp 33 ay 8 33 co c%so8§8c{joo@8ii 9ciy' die' habits.
Mahawth. J. W. i, 141. 33^d3S|8ii 33 cry 8 33 00 § 11 03^
otgoo8ii . o8§8g8so?n dciy' dhay habit and appearance (but
the meaning intended is prob. to judge of his habits from
external manifestations "). SonmaP.55. 330^833000^11
9ciy' asara' religious practices. Win. Th. 5. coooosoooiioooS
oao^sn 33 cry 8 a^ s §8iif>8^scooii dciy' zo wrong-doing. Pohtin
Py.Z.71. ooo8cdSgn 33 cry 8 00^ oo^ScBc^scoSoon 9ciy' tay
be depraved in conduct (of the pretended hermit Dathaglri,
who plays a part corresponding to that of Ravana in the
Ramayana). Pon. Yama Py. Z. 198. 33o^8s|cSoo£iiyooS6p
33§8oo^c8oooi! disreputable (nun) with keen sight for what
you should not see. Up. Muh. K. i, 222. o^sico^c^Daoo^
33 ay 8 00 p s (^joo£(crjor>£o3ii dciy' tdya right behaviour.
Nip. i, 486. qc£)Go8jc§so|a3£§§8ii 33 cry 8 ol c88ogSn dciy
pa contract a habit. Colloq. sscryScyrS cocqw 9ciy' pys?


19 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



one who has discontinued his religious practices. Zin.
Pak. K. 64. oosps^S 33 cry 8 cS ^ueGpc8ooc8spGpGyo^
olo^jSii dciy' phau? breaking through, away from, lawful
practices, acting improperly. Up. Th. W. K. ii, 76. So
9ciy' pJiaup pyay more com. in colloq.
coGSsoos§soo$soq]cSosooo 33 cry 8(^8 Gf.§n 9ciy' phyp has
become a habit. Colloq. o3cry8Qc8ii dciy' my a? righteous
conduct (tr. P. sila patipatti). Tliaih. Tham. D. Ii. 2.
oscryS^os dciy' "hma commit sin. TJianweg. P. 28.
o^|8y|6sn 33 cry 8 ^8 s dbncg8s(^8s)oooyii ociy' Kyaiy manners
are uncouth. Pohtin Py. Z. 74. o3o^8c^j8goTii yeoooc8
yccgsiiGfe}|oc8coGooscgii dcirj' hlya^po conduct is wanton, (cogoos
? = gojslike a worthless monkey), ibid. 63. c^oS@8oq|8
otSgooo 33cry8oc£ii dciy' wu? services to be performed.
Mala Link. W. 49. o3cry8dSco §§8siiG§o8y<£oo£8ggS
gooooooo8§§8si! sciy' Oila' practice of morality. Mahawth.
J. W. i, 192. 03^ 03 0^8 . $0$>c8sp<^ll 9CaY)

9ciy' conduct, doings. Udein. P. 124. coo8c^Sd8s)|8ii
03^33 cry 8 rfjggjii dmu 9ciy" conduct, actions. Sagab.
48. 33co33cry8 die 9ciy' habit. Thokthil. N. 14.

33 cry 8 s A dciy n. [ocgSsoogB to arrange, display.] As
expletive in oaogrScoorjjSs dkwt? dciy a spot, defined
space; oasSsoaojjSi dkhiy dciy arrangements, equip-
ment.

oacrySs B dciy n. [oq|8s a hollow place, pit.] Perh. used
occasionally as expletive in 33 gcS 33 cry 8 s dkhwe? dciy
concavity, hollow places.

os cry 8 A dcP n. [oq|£oo^S to frizzle, fry, or grill with a sputter.]
the act of frizzling, meat cooked by frizzling. oas^Snc^rjS
§8:n a3nq|8a36^Sa3(Xi8600o<33S|OOocgii Manir. K. 457. cl:
oogooo8oj|8 . cosj)ss(§8s)oooi03go1ssiioosj|8s(§8s)ooosa3nqj8n (of
Bavinnaung's wonderful cooks.) Hm. Yaz. Hi, 67. oaeja^S
03GG^8o3Go18o330cj]8ooc8oooftii (among Anoratha's captives from
Thaton.) ibid, i, 251.

i cry S B 9cP n. [oq|8oogS to twist. oq|8co8oo^S to be nice,
exact.] anything hard and close in the grain ; (in combns.)
economy; refinement. a88Goooiy^Gooo336pogg[ii3ao$SEg>G5
§8snoo§Gaq]s§8sii c^ooo3aa^8ooGCosoac2§oooo£Sii He is a tough
little fellow. Colloq. ^so3oq|8c^8iio3oq]8GoocSoo^ii used
tightly-spun silk for both warp and woof. Colloq.
330^833008 ^ggooogSoogSn 9cP dip carefulness, economy.
Anthol. Hi, 146. o3oq|8aaco8^o8^o8SsoogSii Sagab. 124.
ooosGOoo8osqa8GOCj|S(jsc^noosiic8q§iioao^8D3a^)8c^o8s)|8oog8ii re -
finement (in this case refined table manners). Hm.
Yaz. ii, 167. Manir. K. 463 in corresponding passage
has oa oo£)9^Soo§8o?§§o3cSSo3S^§8:ii avoiding clear language
and applying figures of speech so that an effect of
pleasing refinement is gained. (One of the qualities
of style known as oc^yocoooo Skt. sukumarata gentleness.
In a later passage the writer uses oaoqjSoacoS rather as
if he felt that craoqjS had the meaning of oacooocS
indirect, figurative, but it seems preferable to take the

combn. oaoq|8oaoq|8 in the sense of refinement.) Bur. Z.
P. Com. 46.

oscryg A dciy n. [S. Chin, k'liiy lump. Tib. gon-pa,
gon-bu lump, clod.] a lump, a mass, a solid body.

030^siia3^>u3a^8iio3O^sii0300gSnPerh. only in combns. gcdo8
coSg, o^OTqgn 33 cry § oa b s 11 o$c\)s (cj^Ss) ooaosn ^gosy^8n
dciy d'khe massgoods in quantities like little mountains,
with which baggage-carts could not cope and which were
impossible to lift. S.D.Kh.P. 9. o3c8goa8G§|cgos^iia)spsco8!
03oq|§oa^oyc^yc88sG§o8yc8^8GpG^oogSii the solid structure of
the road of the law will be straight (referring prob. to the
highway along which those having good discernment are said
to travel. PP. 478). Tem. J. W. 80. tfsco^spiiogsoooojii
joodococS^i8|gcoS^coii 33^33 cry £11 g6|eraoo§cr).. 8so8gjooo:ii
dkhe dcirj mass, volumethe Mu instead of following its
natural course had to flow (into the canals) with a mighty
volume of water. Paleik.E.41. 3333^0508211 33 <^§333 cry §11
coSsyo^Goooii^oqc^o^cSyoii dphyiy dciy moon-calves and
lumpsdumb and deaf, with no share of enlightenment.
Paya Shiko 18.

33 cry § B dciy n. [oqj§cogS to be numb.] As expletive in
33 0^33 cry £ numbness.

33 cry sometimes oscry8s dciy n. [cr^soo^S to be
narrow, confined.] 1. narrowness, short distance apart.

|;oo8§8sn gooo8c§ 33 cry § ? 33 cry oS ro(o§s33cosq|oscfy:
dciy see narrowness and width, i.e. extent. Adik. K.
Contents item 58. 88cg8§[oo oscry^gosogo ooo^8oogSs
co§8soo^go$33GS|Scgg ii c§co§Sspsflc8s§8Gp30gS ii oc^§(oc^)oasi|c8
ygS^iii d'ciy dkwa distancefrom each point describe
arcs of the same nearness and distance, i.e. with the
same radius. The intersection of these three is the
centre. (A way of finding, by trial and error, the centre
of a circle whose circumference will pass through the
apices of a triangle.) Thur. Theid. K. 65. 2. brevity,
conciseness, an abridgment, a few, a slight extent. sad^n
ooeltoiiaB^gSsii ^jo3sp§oaaq|§?ooosoogS?na3oq|cScg^ooosii Etadeg.
W. 175. o8ooo<^33<7^(ya3ii Udein. P. 32. c^S|8sooc8c^sj8s
03cry§s33^j[S oo^SooGcootjjosii d'ciy dchou? summary. Thath.
Wi.K.ii,25. 33 cry £ % 33 [g c8 (ejSGOooosSylcSocoosii dciy dmywe0
in synopsis. Thing. Sag. i, 192. 33 cry § s [8 oS^cSg^ooojii
d ciy jou? in brief. Athanna.K.45. o^oaSyldSc^ooo 33crygs^j[s
^§gooS^c^goooh 9sciy "chouy to summarize, compress. Ati-
thon. K. 211. Than. W. iv, 42. gcg
oo^gSsn 33cry^so^g <|i £ ciy xsi giving a concise exposition.
(£§s to tie, bind, prob. used for rhyme.) Bed. Wiz. K.
149. 3scry§s^s §Qc8^8c8aqjc8iicoc8Gsoo8aoc8OTii 9 ciy syouy
collecting into a narrow space, i.e. abridgingand closing
the lid of the casket, I will make a present (I will give
you a short account). Nemi. Bon. P. 88. oscry^scoc^o
dciy Qiykhepa' summary, abridgment. Atithon K. 236.
33 ^gS s 33 cry o^cqSo^sfeflosooosG^iiaVfa ciy small quantity
a few articles of luggage. Sun Mag. o^gSsoaoqi^sc^c^oGsooS

""sy(yyo}8 did not make the slightest attempt to carry


20

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

out. Sun. 3. confinement, custody, restriction, obstacles,
adversity. 33sy[5ii333cSo3biiso8s^.Tgii o8s@so8s63lSc^33oqj§j
g§6|8s6ooSc§§coogii under arrest. KBZ. Hi, 21. gcoo8iig§o8
£S8no3oq|8s(o9oq|§s)ooslso^oo^|c^c8sco^!ii you are free of, cannot
be confined by doors of gaols, lock-ups, or any place of
detention. Tharapu II. in, 67. oacry^soafcgS o3g§o8d3c£
3S|o§ii d'ciy dca? confinement, imprisonment. Mdha. Thuz.
K. 273. Cf. Bawd. D. K. 76. o3crj|g;3sg8c^G98yia3Gcoo30c||6
c^dSs|CXDgSii difficulties, troubles, adversity. Sagab. 125.

oa cry § s oa Qo S 8 ooosoo^on d'ciy dmyauy in confine-
ment. Zanek. J. W. 11. gooo8oo^s oacry^ss gf>6pj}ii
d'ciy khay undergo imprisonment, be confined. KBZ.
Hi, 21. oarry^s^j d'cir) cha' imprison. Star. ooS^s^c^
to cry §sooo s n d'cir) Hha imprison. Al. Ayeb. 30. o^sgoS
oacry§scooS §c8n aaoq|§ss|]ooosGooooc8§ii d'cir) dauy gaol.
Star, ot cry oos ^ogc8c^GooSii dyciy *be the misfortune of
imprisonment. L1SK.45. g$(o^)ocg8s'i coq|8s (oao^gs)
oogooo (ooooo)n g[c8(y[8)00o33qjo8i! d'cir) Qd'bo ? strict
conditionsburied treasure which I was straitly required
by oath (to guard). M. Sanda Py. Z. 110. oacry^soouos
mosGcooSEraogSscragSoo^^oqjiisc^^ii d'cir) dd ma prisoners, con-
victs. Sun. oacry §sooos d'cir) yda prisoners. Colloq. 4.
the private parts. oafrlcocS Goof,c£§,8oSc^c8oooo3oq|§;
cf^ooj&ii Colloq. Magwe.

oacrygS A dci n. [cqj^S bar, pointed stick, o^^Scc^ pestle.
oooq(8 rod. oos1?oq|8 bolt of door. oq|gSs bolt of door.
oqK&sooos tip-cat. ^oooqj^Ss shin. Kch. grang, hting-grang,
bolt of door. Maru kyawng, to bolt, fasten. A.C. 'g'ivn
(K. 373) bolt of a lock. It is an extraordinary coincidence
that P. ghatika, stick, bolt, and P. ghatika small bowl
closely correspond in meaning to oaoqjgS A and oaoqj^S B
respectively.] a pin for operating the bar of a door.
oogoodc8 ySs^c^co^Gpsoaoqj^gSogSGooSiigSs^ioSsogSs^ooos. .
olcSGOoSos^c^oSsgsgSajjSii opened the figure of the horse
with a mechanical (or magic) pin. (P. original not
tracedperh. sucika or kunciJcd.) Mahawin W. 68.

oarcygS B dci n. [O.B. oggS Man, cgj^S Men a tube.
oq|c§Goooc8 hollow cylinder, quiver. oaSoqi^S needle case.
Ssoqi^S rocket. Tib. gan-[zdg] tobacco-pipe. A.C. g'ieng
(K/VV.F. 63, No. A 261) soup-tureen.] a jar. d^sno^
goooc8ii s8^?n gooooc8c^8ii oaoq^sn pots and jars

of oil, pots and jars of butter. (P. original not traced.)
PPK. 160.

co cry ^S C dci n. [Kch. hgor) the foot. Pwo Karen khay the
foot. Tib. rkan-pa the foot, foundation. oqjgS, of combn.
^SoqjgS to be firm, perh. connected with this or
with oaoqj^S A.] a substructure, pedestal, platform.

GOTOcSsi^ll-§^00^8s§80008C^Oaoq|^(^3200c8§IIO^c8GOq|Oc8G§§8

gc^SS^oaS^ii the fortifications should be built of masonry
on top of the oacqi^Sii (craoq|£§ is explained as = P. vappa, a
ridge made of the earth obtained from the moat. Vappa,
not found in PED., is Skt. vapra, mound, rampart.) Kawi
L. D. 233. 9?§Goq|oc8c§§8833Soo^§£^ogg[D30C)j^Soo^SGpc^^ii
pedestal (on which to place relics). (ogg[ P. vatthu, founda-

tion, and oo^6p are both = jraoqj^S). MP. 155. coc^jocooo8

c^soo8ooosg<|i Bawd. W. W. 61. g3ao(£craa^:£c^8a}5goo(g8
g8sG3l8sy|GcoorSg8Goooc3lii the lower part, lower courses (of
the pagoda). Sed. Pak. K. 31. 3^ooo^iieoc8§<£oo£Sj§i
030q|^^s^8ii8^sc^8c§ii(j88sd^866sii established in excellence,
upright as a diamond-studded pillar (?) firmly fixed
(bs§8) to its footing. Wila. Mawg. 15. o8so8sggSaqjc8ii
93oq|gSGyoc8oo8ii6§8§,Sii with a brightly-gleaming ambulatory
on a raised platform. Ming. E. 36.
oao^j^Ss d'ci n. [Use aim. confined to combn oaoqjgSsoo^oo^S
to be (repulsively) ugly. It is probable that oo§ in this
combn. = to be mean, inferior, as in oaoqjSoo^oo^ to be
depraved, sraao8 and e3o8soo§oo£§ to be ugly. oaoqi^Ss
should .'. = appearance. It may be connected with oq|gSs
bar, bolt, which appears in names of bones and muscles
£$oooqj£Ss shin, cooqj^Ss rectus abdominalis muscles, og^oS
ooqj^Ss heel-bone, oaoqj^s may have come to be used com-
prehensively = lines, external appearance as depending on
internal framework. Some would write 93g^s d'ci scales
of fish, etc., to which they would give the further
sense, appearance.] form, appearance oa^SnoasoSsn
|oSGs18sGcoo8sgSio3oq|^S8§i8d^ioo(?8f.^S8S)i The Nwe-Khaung-
laung blossom, in appearance like an orchid. Yama
Yag. i, 3. 8c8a?S§8(q|8)o^sii oacry^Sso^jgSs gj d'ci sci
of various forms, kinds. Nemi Meg. P. 39. oacrygSs
oo^i dci tay to be ugly, repulsive-looking. The

ugly person is fond of the mirror. Prov. go8c^sgoo8iio8
^OG^ooco^scra^Ss^siiojjooco^soaoqi^soo^ oogSii Mr. Knobby,
your name is ugly and your person is repulsive.
Rup. W. 118. OTG@s(3aa^£S;)oo$iooosoo§cgc8ii From an
uncomely person come uncomely words. Sagab. 125.
^^^(jraoqigSsJoo^ojSoooosoo^ogc^oocSoo^ii Sagad. W. 114.
Spelling sragj^oo^ has been observed in recent popular
literature.

era balance. oag8s Divide (or subtract

repeatedly) and the remainder is the epact or moon's age
at midnight of solar new year's day. Adik. K. 291.
oDg333^i:6|cSo3oq|§ . dj>8sc6ooSft§so£Sn will wait exactly the
remaining seven days (but £oq|§ in nearly superfluous).
Maul. Yaz. Py. Z. 101. o^c^oaoq^ocoosootssii left nothing
over, concealed nothing. Weth. P. 3. oa^^soacry^
eogooss||8ojsii dcwiy dcay the leavings. Colloq.
oacryS A dca? n. [O.B. aklyap. v. oq|S A.] a tola (now 180
grains, the weight of an Indian rupee). of>1siioocq|5coosn
Gg|a30qj6006p6a^SG0ii Manu 11. ^Ssg^S^cooGoooGggrSo^GsT
Goooiiego^smos^ooosiioogcSo^SiioaocjiSooaocS^ooc^^ii weigh ten tolas
each. Pol. Econ. 524. ooSfOGOoa^ooiio^oooaoqiSjcJi ? mix
pewter, lead, and silver, take a tola weight of mercury
(33oq|5g perh. a variation on oq|S$>§, an exact tola, in other
passages). Tharapu K. Hi, 174.
oacryS B dca? n. difficulties, v. oaJcgS C.
oao^jcS dee n. [oq|cSo3^ to be wide.] 1. width, extent,


58 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

scope. oa^^iiaaoqicjSoBO^siioa^cSoaolii oacx^fcS . GjSoajjc^o
^,8spo3oq|cS§^ii PPK. 298. yG§p8q)^(£ii330^(jSg(£c\q|c8 the
latitude (open to the sinner). Magh. Dev. L. Th. 260.
c§8sc^o8aDcSii33oq|(jSc^GOOo8soo8ii for waves the sea, for expanse
the heavens. Yama Yag. i, 144. gla8o3oq|uSooii|y§c9oS
co8s||c8ii with wide intellectual grasp. Zawta Kum. Py.
Z. 7. GGo8ajooooo^Goq|o8s^ooaoq|dSooGcoscfbii of wide activi-
ties, meddlesome. CoUoq. o3goc8330s§8oogooo8c1ssouSii
33 cry cS 33g^ o30sg8ooGooo8oospn dee dpyay' width. Zin. Pah.
It. 401. . . oatxytSroe^o §Gooooacg8soo^§oii

gee dpyo width. Adik. It. 85. ^goooooo^dSouS roo^jdS
33o^sn 9ce 9 wuy extent. Thath. Wi. It. i,149. ^cSooS^i
rotryuSoajSs o^n oce ihuy extent (? journalese for
preceding). Sun. sscryuS^S 9Csjoup confinement other
than close, e.g. confinement to barracks. Colloq. ooootiS
o^c§§]8s(cg8s)o9|8cogSsiiGgsoo8s^l8s ro plenty of room. Maul. Yaz. Py.Z.54. 33 o^j § s 33 & dciy
9ce narrownesswidth, i.e. extent. oaeQoroo^joS dpyo
9ce width, measurement across. 2. unabridged form,
expanded form, fullness, excessive extent. §|j£§8:ii§jj£c£$s§8:ii
P. Sggoffiiaaoq|cSGG|SooosGi^GC^olGoii Atithon. K.340. oaocjuS
s§o1§sgcooii Manir. K.445. 33 G§^8gSsc\q]c8ii 9CE dciy in unabridged or abridged form.
Kutha P. 4. oacryciScoaydS §SscgcS crbiie§|sgSGf.ocS
gooossgqgc^ii(?oc8go18s§sgfgo1§8ii dee 9ce endless talk, raking
up old scores. Hmaing Hma ii, 45. Cf. Than. W. ii, 1.

333SS33$OSOOO8S^O?C^ . 33@gS33<$ 33 O^J (£ 33 gO 8 qjOSgOCqcS

g3oo88o^^§g|^gooo^ii dee dpwa at great length. MMM.
19. ao8s^5oooso2)^GOo5t|{sc§iio3oq|oS33gosG§8GS|ii let there be
no extension of the original dispute (no subsequent litiga-
tion). Yesag. Kh. Py. 100. o3f^joS||j . .
6osa3ii 9cs chef expand, speak at great length. Zinme P. N.
W.12. oacguScgoScfyi rocryoSooSs <§§8|i§ii bcs Hay have
many regrets, longings. Anthol. ii, 239. cocryoSoooS
fO!co^G£33o8G§o§GCO(^ii dee ddwiy' fully, at length. Dagon
Mag. oqj(jseo^soo§8ii3aoq(csooo8g8§^96gjsii Up. Th. W. K. ii,
136. §§000:11 coo^joSgos y^SegoSn oooosc^C^§C8O1C§II
dee "pwa be unduly profuse. Kabya Kyem. 66. oatrycS

8

83!

8§Gooo^§GOooGOoSy^ii dee weiHhara''. P.

vitthdra, extension, detailed explanation. Bawd. D. K. 1.
oarcycS y ^Ssn 3cooS§8s|jii dee *waiy be unduly verbose,
waste words. M. Sanda Py. Z. 103.

oayo8 9ca n. [oqpsoojf) to be striped.] stripes, something of
striped appearance, (usually as second member of combns.)

oa8?G^o833c8^r8Goooc^c8s^s§ii33^oz| 33 jtgo 8 33 C^jO 8

33§Goooogg|oogS§co8ooos . 330085. . §o1ynco8§8sc§GSpc8^8
c8^iii dcauy 9 ca speckled and striped, variegated in colour.
Kawi L. D. 355. c^oScooogSoao^soaGo'lcS ose-JyocSoacryos
9oo8s§|8sGooogS§GooSn dpyau? dca spots and stripes (here,
moral blemishes). Bawd. D. K. 56.

33 A 9ci' n. [o^oo^S be slimy.] slime, slimy substance,
(prob. only in combns.) 33Gsii33^|ii coy8soo8ss§oooiioo§

33 O^ 33^| . c8sqc8c§OOOII 9CI d chwt

slimy stuff. Hmaing W. Hi, 4. Gsjc^cgs) ... 03§g .. 8Ss
co5sGoooD3g(o3o^)oa^|cgcbc§GCgs)(^ii Some of the algse are
like green slime. Mod. Bot. 40.

oarejj B dci' n. [038, oa^, a great quantity, o^ and ^ = to
be in great quantity.] a great quantity, large number.
osqps |^o^6oo8§ii^sGosoo^iiajja3o^D3osii a large crowd of
people congregated in the capital of Yunnan. Anthol. ii,
365. 33c§^cMic§8syo8ooosii33o^G§ocftii (as quoted in Kogan
P. T. 362. But text of pyo reads o^ii). Weth. P. 18.
c8s§)c8g8g . 33 cx^j 33 b 11 9ci' dkhe large quantity,
abundance. Kutha P. 22. Cf. Bur. Z. P. 62. goooScuS§§ii
33 0^33 eg 11 ^86§cocoosnog^?030s§8n 9ci' 9tive great mass
wealth, including lands in his ownership, in g. m.,
as big as a small mountain, (coooos and coooos mean
" serfsbut this author is fond of euphonic co's,
and possibly co is euphonic here and 000s = held, owned.)
Nemi Meg. P. 12. oo8s33d^iio3oqoc8ii 330^33 jcS 11 dci'
dhne? large numbersof troops belonging to various
regiments. (oscqocS expresses the same idea as 330^33§c8ii
33cq = mass, quantity, multitude; oc8 rare intensive suffix
v.s.v.) Kutha P. 20. oo§8^oocSc§§iio3a85o3^ii 330^33(^811
33c^so3^5ooosc^§8sii 9ci dyhyo great quantitykeeping
(produce) in his bins pressed down and in g. q. till it rotted.
(o3§8 from §jsoogS to be full, to swell up, prob. for rhyme with
osoEJs.) Bur. Z. P. Com. 83. oa^roa^ dkhs 9ci a large
quantity. Woh. Pak. K. ii, 312.

oaorjjcS freq. dcei? n. [o^cSoo^S to be hard,

indurated.] a hard lump, tumour, bubo, a coherent mass; a
feeling, emotion of any kind. oa^iioabnoaSjSS 33f>ooyGo$iiG6p8j§
oagc8§Goo5 a tumour which does not come to a head.
Alamb. K. 84. oao^cSGoTt^Saao^cSGoT^oiiooG^slSsl^Ssolii
Advt. ^G§0O(^ao^cogS8O7G§o8^ssoooS8Go18sc^^os|ooa^yoo^po^

00^§8 33 <7^ C^ rob 33Gf>§So0033§30(£cOc8<§OT(£Gf>^8^ill dCCp
dkhe lumpsthe earth element can endure only in the form
of lumps (coherent masses) of many very small particles.
Rup. D. K. 106. Cf. Ledi Kein i, 52. dJcgoSsgGooSco^sii
oogoo8cSi 330^cS33bc^l |8c8g0^|| 33s|g(Xj]8spy008^ll 33§SyGjgll
feelingdid not succeed in analysing and understanding the
feeling of fear of sin in his mind. Tem. J. W. 64. ajyo8Gsjj8
oo^oooc^ajo8G33o8c^SoogSs^§833o^c8a3bgse^ooo^sii a, hard
lump in the mind, feeling of soreness, grievance. Thein
W. 135. Form o^cSosb affectionate feelings, love. Kum.
Py.Z.9. 33 b 33^08 (ojcrjjcS) Jkhe, 9ce%> solid particle.
Alin. It. 23.

33 o^ dceiy n. [O.B. 33c8§iio^oo£6 to curse, swear.] curse,
oath. 338go^§8sn P. sapatha. c1c8^6ooo33c8^ii the
curse which I invoke. SIP. 62. egSiicrao^oo^oof&i
yo^c8cboo^Gcooc8iio^^§8yG6pr8oo^sii She swears roundly;
it must be true. Ok. Yaz. Py. Z. 14.

330^8 dceiy n. [c8§siio^sii33c8£sii number.] number. ssgsj
33cgc£ ^0233o5^sii6§)00c8^ii 100,000 gold nikkha pieces
(nikkha = a coin of varying weight and value). Shwehin.
P. 51.


22

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

ioo^S dcei? n. [O.B. c85 kip ten. Shan dS5 sep ten. A.C.
zidp ten men, ten (K. 876).] ten, half a score (used only
of rational beings). oosocS 33o^8§|8gooo8iio8so^Sg33o8c^ii
80,000 princes. Dh. Pala. P. 11.
saocjjg d'ci n. [§so^js a glowing coal, ember. Maru mi gyoi,
charcoal, a live coal. A.C. cyuai ashes (K. 109).] a glowing,
burning mass.8sSwGoooc£§s§scvg]8iio3o^syGooo8siiGooc£oSG§|o8s
c§ii just as a straw fire dies quickly because the burning mass
is not good (not lasting). Nemi Meg. P. 27. oo^s^s^sn
93o^sogoo . co8s@sco8soogSn with never-failing lustre (of
the site of a celestial mansion), ibid. 49.

ro cr^ dcu' n. [oqipogS to be filthy.] filth. osgSoaGjcgsii
(prob. only as second member in combn.) s]3looao8ii
TO^Srooryjn QGooo8syc^ii^Gco^Goo5y^n dnyi? 9cu' metaph.
sinful acts. Thath. Bahu. 6.
33<*jj[g d'couy n. [oqfsoogS to gather up.] category, sphere.
cog$ .. gcosBoc^sii obo^s^^ (o?t§oj^)n cv^aq|c8
c^cqjc&i the sun and moon moving round all the four
islands and their whole sphere (prob. the 2,000 smaller
islands are meant). Bawa Maivg. 66. ooo^8§,8goooc8gooo
ooosoa§osc§ og8oool sol s § 33 o 8 goooo^ooo1sc§ ^goooiii
d'courj iviy included inone or other of the categories of
wives. Vidh. J. W. 47. ^goooo£Siio3C§io33|§io331sio38io3^(i

030^l93s88o^G000^8o1sGD0003S|OOOC§Og8oaOq|j8o8GOOO. . 036|OOOGO

oogSsn Manik. W. 33. (oaoqfis) oSspiiogooGGp

8s^osgg|sii education and economics which form part of the
business of government. WOB. Spelling 03(035 also found
in a heading at HI. Rec. 238. q^c£oo6psc§§ii$8g8ooooii
33 CT^g OO O S Gq|5§l8oqjc8OSOOc8GOOO . 03G0l8s03G(sSc§ll scour)
ddiviy within the sphere ofcompanions who are self-
indulgent, belonging to the category of the sphere
of devotion to sin (where oaoq|[s repeats the sense
of P. 80000 sphere). Kawi Th. K. i, 87. Rem. There
is some confusion between o3oqj[so8oo^S and craogiSsoSoo^S
to be intimate with. Thus o3oq|[so8Goooo3os§8y§c8o8o8aq|c£
Raz. Ayeb. 41 means on account of their intimacy
regularly invited him", as the Mon original p. 161
shows. And oajcgSs(oacgjSs) oSoo^S is given as equivalent
of P. §8c in Ledi Pandita's P.D., which suggests oaogjS;
0008 as a possible alternative to <330^0008 above.

o'cu n. [oq|||;oo^S to go beyond, surpass.] something
that goes beyond or above ; a crossing over; a high
degree of any quality. oaa^iioscg^osoqipiosajsosoo^sii
oa§c8c§coc8ii§c8^jc8o3oq||(sii excellence which surpasses any
other. Nana S. P. 1. §iOooo3oq|||sii^5GooScoc8ii on his brow
above his nose. ibid. 31. oo^GaooSsG§o^iigorjo3^||s (a3oqj|[s) 11
: GpcSorjscgSii rainy season, winter and summer, the change
from season to season. Nara Se K. 15. G$oc8§s&joldboii
oa o^g ro ocyS 11 cgosor^;o!soc§sii33cg8s^s§8 Jcu 9co in a
high degreetoothless and ugly beyond words. Saw Pe
Py.Z.47. oaao^soaoftsn 3aocy||833^gii ^oo^(|[sog8iiogc8^s§o8§8ii
9ycu 9'mo the highest degreeof delicacy. Anthol. Hi, 43.

03^60q|S(JSC§§8ll 3ft 0^8 33 Cg^ II 030^503§|^CO^S§8G6C)OS

ycoGooon dcu dluy surpassing anything. Ok. Mai. K. 2.

G^o8oOOL)SpllC^dSGOgOOO^Sll ll^ogo 33 oqj^33 00£§5 9C0

icu the best of all. Nana S. P. 49. ossl 33^330^5
co^SsGoq|s that will be no good within a measurable period. Tem. J.
W. 103. 33Cg§33o^|[g 9lur)9ycu excess, exceedingly.

33 9~ce n. [cr^joo^ to be wide apart.] distance apart, an
article of open texture. Opp. 03808 og§,8iio8s§8o3cr^gsii
Don't try that: it is far from you (far beyond your
capacity). Colloq. Minbu. o38c8ooc8sjocoosiio3cr^ooc8s|yooosii
shall I weave close or open in texture ? Colloq.

33n^p 9"co n. [Goqpoo^S to be superior to, gain advantage
over.] outdoing, over-reaching. oo88s§8s oo8sc§o3Gorp
clysn... c1ooooo§5G03o8Goqjoy^ii I will not submit to their
attempts at over-reaching (here, gaining advantage by
trickery or deception). Sagad. W. 24.

33crjjoSg 9scaur) n. [Goq|o8soogS to feed, tend.] a keeper,
CUStodian. 0308^503038 O38s^8a0j£G(fe)o8sO3GOq|O&5O3c8£sil
Anthol. ii, 127.

33ay5 A sometimes saej^S dco n. [P. akalu, agalu,
agaru ; Skt. aguru ; o3coq|S prob. from the -lu, and oae^S
from the -ru form. Does not apptly. occur in O.B.] 1.
Aloes wood, eagle wood, agalloch or lignum aloes ; the
fragrant resin infiltrated wood produced by diseased
condition in trees of the genus Aquilaria, Lam. The tree
which yields this fragrant wood in N.E. India is the
species A. Agallocha, Roub. g ^ooo^|o3Goq|Soosjyc8Goooo3Gg5(|[sii Hm. Yaz. ii, 252. osocvj-
03gocj|So8ii Weth. J. W. 95. yg^oooiiy^oooSiio30^i03gg5
o8iioooc8iioogcoso8II WLDK. 148. goosggsiiggs^sgoosoo^ssii
Anthol. ii, 377. 2. The core or heart-wood of the Tayok-
saga tree, Chinese champak, Plumeria acutifolia, Poir.
Ground in water and applied inside the mouth in treatment
of sore-throat, pimples on the tongue, etc., and on the fore-
head for headaches. Brown in colour, scented, bitter taste.

oo^8ooo5o8^o3§,8ii o3Goq|Sc885ooSiioo8o3Soc8osii Kogan
P. T. 153. 00S|G0500sjyc8iio3G0q|8f>c800ii00G|0g^8ii laurel, bastard
sandal, dark-coloured Chinese champak heart-wood, and
pure saragandha. Banl. P. 17. o308o3c§8iio3oo8so3gcTii
33 o^S 33^11 G smellssweet-scented varieties (of flowers. Prob. a quite
vague use.) Adik. K. 46.

33o^j5 B 9Co n.pr. a region or people between Chiengmai
and Wienchan (Linzin). Hm. Yaz. Hi, 58. LHRK. 253.

33 oqjS C 9co n. [go^Soo^S to step over, pass over.]
what surpasses, the act of passing over (prob. only in combns.)
G^oSoOoSGpllf^oSyOgOOO^II ll&jogo 3&0^J^330^J||g 00£§5II 9C9
Jcu the best of all(the effect of good deeds) which
never leaves the self, the best of all provender. Nana
S. P. 49. 33^33or}j$ dkhouy 9co the act of jumping
over.

03 or^jS D 9co n. [O.B. aklaw. go^Soo^S to be famous.] fame,
a famous person or thing. 00008511 o3oo8o3§psn osGoqjSosGooii

o3Goq|Soooo8s§(^iiy§ii He has fame, notoriety, but it won't
last. Sagab 125. c^craoso3Goq|$iiG§i§GaT§i Nemi. Meg. P. 26.


23 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



Cf. Po Htin Py. Z. 87. a^oo^Sgp^ooaGocflSabii He is very
well known in this village. Colloq. ^cocoooo§i93eoq|Sclso1s
ojgoooooosii (times and circumstances) of birth which
indicate attainment of fame. Bedawun K. 56. yjk0^33Goq|8n
oIooogoSc^ii a famous, mighty spell. Maul. Yaz. Py. Z. 107.
soecrySoa^osii ooGooSqpsogSn deo ica fame, distinction
among distinguished ladies. M. Muni Th. P. 78.
otfGgsooGooSn sa&crjjSo&^sii 9co id great and famous.
ibid. c^GoooSoofjjjyGooool^oogSii dco iso

fame, reputation. Dana D. K. 17. 88oaGoqj5o3Goo6§8
ogS^s^8o^s§8s . yjyii fearing to be without fame,
fearing the disgrace (of defeat). Mahawth J. W. i,
176. G08|OS^OOOI00^09GPS§|8COC800C8G008^0I OdG^^OTCttS
GoTs|db8^sy§c8oo^sGOGo1ii dco &mo an eminent, distin-
guished person. Teri. Pyan. 65; and freq. in popular
literature. cog-o^-Sg-o^ c^c^gooo8c8§8 9C0 zeyaf fame (the
whole phrase being = P. yasakamata, desire of fame.
TJPDK. 14. oaG-cry^G-oon Gs18^o^Gqao8n^G00aj)cbii dco zewa'
fame, distinctiondestitute in a pre-eminent degree.
Yethe Pyaz. 9. Cf. Kinw. M. 9. Variations such, as
o3G-ory^6'ooiicoG'rtjj^G'sa^ii dco zeya', dco* zeya' also found.
ojjGooSa^ycSc^coogaooclsolsojGooSooos .. cocoqj^oocoo c^8
G33o8^ooc8§8sco^sooo1sii dco tizo fame, distinction. Hitop.
K. 27. c^8sGoT§gSGoT^oa3Goq|8ooGoo^cbqaSn Than. W. ii, 2.
Cf. ibid, iv, 175. oaecrjj^oo^ @8g$goooii

dco ddya' notorious. Sun.

so aj|S s icaiy n. [ocjjSsoogS to be well-grown, well-developed.]
something of full figure, of good physical development. ogos
0^8sg00033c^s[s)8g§js8oqf.os^8silgq|ocyoogsoaor|8s^oii^8s93gooos
cvpoooanii as regards the front division (looked at from
in front) her smooth well-filled figure was like a ball
of cotton. Yama Yag. i, 16. c^s§sgooo (goo) ^SaijcScqpoft
03cr^Ssc^n like a rounded section of cork or like the pith of a
well-grown banana tree. ibid. 51.

A ico n. [O.B. usu. akluiw. Also 33g§S aJcliw,

39cg[8 alcluw, 3sr§[ aklui (with other variants) good result,
profit. Maru yuk case, feud, matter. Tib. rgyu matter,
cause, reason. Shan 33oq|[8 alcyo result and Kch.
akyu favour, result are prob. l.ww. from B.] 1.

result, consequences, effect. 8o1c8iiocoii opp. oacjcgoSs
cause gs^sSogjSn^jcg88s^oSspDobcg n 330$s c^gSc^jS
o3Ggo8sc^ogo§8so8§8^o8spoogSii Kawi L.D. 270. sooSols
oo£t§aiD3o||syG§8ii (evil) effects. Udein P. 9. c1§sgSscc8Gooo
oaor|sc^oocG|Gooo(^!ii Thing. Sag. i, 184.
O3cx|soo^oat|st|s^ Pyinth. P.K. 5. oGooo8sGoooo3or|sGooo8s
gooo (crjep^ii ico khayza bear the consequences.

Thath. Wi. K. i, 119. o^cSg^GoooooggoloogSooapoGoooo^
va ao c£ oogSsn i co zs9 results. Zin. Pak. K. 45. 88c§c^
oaScooo oao^s oocps

§|c8Gsoo8gs|^i ico tiy a resultstry to find means of
producing the results we want, i.e. of attaining our ends.
Saung Ba 23. oaa^osSGOoo oacrjftseos ^8§8si93$ogyg
go!i ico "be results given (by fate), results, c

Kabya Kyem. 126. za s s oa (rjjfs c^scv}|c8g§os§gooo
ooosii icaur) ico cause and effect. Mahawth. J. W. i,
64. 2. beneficial result, benefit, profit. GoooSsocJsiiGa^s^sii
opp. 03(98 detriment, fault ooSgoSGooog^cSoo^Scoosoao^j;
ogsn U Pon. Taya. 22. ^^i^Sosaf igc^aDglig8?o
^oofiosn if you hate a man, his actions seem injurious
(blameworthy); if you love him, beneficial; if you esteem
him, you are disposed to be generous towards him ; if you
love him, you pity him. Sagab 93. gso8330t|sooosiio1c8gco8o1sc^
og£sogooc8i^i Se.Kk.81. c^88o^(y£sooo8<$33c^8ooooofogoo8§c8
(g§S) §i Ledi Kein3. gooo8^ogooo8s^ cocq|s
oaQS (^0080^80^^11 ico dpyp good and evil results. Ma-
hawth. J. W. 115. cogcg<^ oacrjflgoao^ooS <^gcdo88§o§8
^8goooo(x>oii ico ani'Oiy profit, advantage. Bawd. D. K.
50. Also co crjjjs oao^00 a> ico ani'Qar)da' (P. anisamsa).
ibid. 99. C^3l§8§8s30£§ 33 0cj|80^8^8 gls^OSOg^sodosgogooo
Gooo8s^o^a§cS^o8ii ico ycezu benefit, blessing. Chweta 75.

GOq(o88(^Ga)OC^C^8c^3l^§00^CX)C^I00^aD^8ol8GSOOc8o0^G|§8800^

^ d C0 benefit is great. Dana D.

K. 26. 33 0^8 3 GjGpoospsoo^Ssii i co khay receive benefit
conduct from which one will receive benefit. Paya N.
W. 158. OGOOo8sG000330^jsGOOo8oGOOO S^pi"

ico kharfza receive benefit or bear consequences. Thath.
Wi. K. i, 119. soos oaojjgjl gpegegoseii ico hya for the
sake of, the benefit ofin order to get salt. Nip. i, 538.
f,gSsd^sjo^G§8s33or|89lii Zinme PNW. Pref. cleft oaa^jjgSs
gos ico sbwa benefit (followed by 6 the

combn. = action to one's detriment v. oao^ below).
Mahawth. J. W. i, 202. c^eps^sSyS^gcSGOoo edo^ssocS
cgo&i ico ze? coimected, derived benefit. Zin. Pak. IC. 411.
(This combn. is spelt 030c|8c8 at DBBL. 28.) £crjj|8aooS
o^ajjiiioGsoo8og§o^ii ico shauy to serve one's interests. Ma-
hawth. J. W. i, 134. i(rj|8aooS 00^ Ggo8^s osj8s8
ico zauy Honorary SecretaryTreasurerAuditor. Advt.
^aflscftg ico sdu extraordinary advantage. Zanek.

J.W.28. ro oqjjs ^ cS goo8ii ico ne? the advantage being great,
derive great advantage. Dh. Pala. P. 23. o^Gcsgscr^ooos
. . oooooogs . s)00^8ggod§0^go8o3|8^jc§gg^ll3|00^833g800gs8
8 oa or^|s ^ gS s oogS§8cii i co' ne the profit is littleif the
rich man's son will be acting against his interests in be-
coming a monk. Zin. Pak. K. 87. oa§jc8c^§8ii3ao^j8f.^s
so8o1c§n on top of disgrace comes disadvantage. Zawta
Kum. Py. Z. 21. oa&c88oooGco8. . cuc£q|os330o88s£9§8ii33§|c8
ooc£33or|8$£§8§8$ooon if the English girl insists on shaking
hands with me it will put me in an awkward and
disadvantageous position (because if his sweetheart sees
this she will misinterpret it). Than. W. iv, 77. gjcoooocSoogS
osocjfs o ^S crbyo^oo8o1n ico na"> the benefit is properly
cooked, made fully availablethis butter should not be used
without fall advantage being derived from its use. Zin. Pak.
K. 581. 3a5ooGC\D80ooooGC08c§c8§|o^crbiiGOOocogSoDgSo3o|8$8ygSii
full advantage will be derived. Pyaz. G§|8Qorj8GaDoo?o§c5o5a>£S
jcrj|8G>o8 ico spe show results, bear fruit. Swes.


24

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

K. D. ii, 97. a)8oo8s^Gf.o1o9j8ii^^s§s§8ii33cr|sGosoo^c8So^
ou^c8Gej|ii one's fortunes will not flourish (oo being prob.
understoodlit. the giving of benefits by fate will not be
strong). Chweta Pref. g§couSoo^§i8£33(t|sgosooc8(^ii he will
usually derive prosperity from land, etc. Bed. Thag. K.
i, 212. 88c§ooo3osGtx)i8gooooo3cr|sGoso1oo^ii they flourish just
according to their deserts. Thing. Sag. i, 249. Go8f>£s§js
cogSsiioacx|sGosG3ii your luck is feeble, you are unfortunate.
Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 64. o^^SscoSgooo oao^j|soco
^jc^os|goooo1^ii Jco phdla' fruition, blessing (P. phala).
Dana D. K. 32. ^jgoq|s^sc^a89iiog[yo^o5ooepn§8§ogooo
roajjjsgS ooj£n 9 co phyi? benefit accrues. Kawe Th.
K. Gyi 12. (Distinguish from oaoc§s@Sooj£ = is the
result of"; 3aoc§s 1.) Goooooosc^is^Goooe|oo$sc§ii

£co me,' profitless (they had been talking tiracchdnakatha =
animal or childish talk). Pay a N. W. 21. ecoggGoloo . .
33a^Goooo3$c8oo8§8sii redundancy of language. U Pon. M.
Com. 80. ooGpsGOTSc^G^CG|§iic^spso§S89aor|s^GooGjo^ii without
advantage (without having lived long enough to see
Gautama as Buddha). Zin Pah. K. 14. jrao^Goooooggol
c§(^930r|i§£33o^s6c^d8G008^§i what is disadvantageous, detri-
mental. With. At. i, 335. o§soocSo8c§c^ . o3or||s6Ggooo8s
o:goooc8g^od^ii so as to cause damage. Thing. Sag. i,
174. 00^0^C8@SC§C^330r|S&COOOS@8qjO%gO^8c8g§03§§ 8Og]8ll
damaging, depreciatory. Shwemaw. Th. 76. (c§soq|dSgoGooo
o3or|s6)gsq|osc^co^sGogg8ooc8^i misfortunes. Ledi Kein 143.
ooc8c^s8s^osii o3ocj|sfejjo5 c88ii d"co "mya the benefit will be
much. Anthol. i, 35. cloooc^jS sp^e^jogSu &co

you? benefit decreases, one suffers disadvantage. Tanaw.
W.i,31. tjgoosjadiiguoo8oo8sc7do^|n 33 0^8^ oo^sajgoooooos^ii
9 co ya' derive benefit. Wisit Link Sagab. 93. o^sjcgoo
03gcq|cc8 oa arrivesthinking that their rewards were by this time
pretty well assured. Paya N. W. 157. ^G^ocSoBo^c^jespcS
cosii Thing. Sag. i, 36. 33c^8o^>s<§ go3o8§|c8

Gsoo8^Goc88ot§n 9~co fi benefit existsthey will work
(harder) so as to derive more benefit. Pol. Econ. 191. oo^c^
c^8c§3scr|so§jorjisii there is no profit in doing that, that scheme
is no good. Colloq. v. also sraorjsk above. oSgosg^S^n 33cxj|8c^
§iGo18d^§(8G(5ii§£o^s3$c§ii 9xco lo desire one's benefit, be
favourably disposed. Padum. Z. 12. o3(r|sc^c§GgDo8GqGCoo85ii
oc8oo8?eogn being well-disposed I poured holy water and only
got the job of carrying the drum; i.e. got into trouble
from trying to help someone. Sagab. 126. c^o^c§g§ogcoo
aoos(Doso3a^<^roos@8GooOt£ii well-intended words, spoken
with a view to my advantage. Mahawth. J. W. i, 157.
& o3 Py. Z. 29. 3. the good and bad, merits and demerits,
pros and cons. cs^so3gooo8;ii GOT033a^sa^o8io^D2or$s
gooooSii (usu. said of friends who know each other's
good and bad points so that it is no use attempting
to speak ill of one to the other). Sagab. 55. oo8s
c69iooo8sD3or|sd^o8ii when there is a change of governors
you know the merits of the old one. ibid. 51.
oas^soaGoooSsc^ii 33crjjjscra(tt^oSs §8ooc^ii5(y8sqsG§|ii £co

Jcauy pros and consgives him reasoned instruction
as to right and wrong (oac^oSs prob. being an
expletive to 33oqj[s). Shwep. W. 59. o3cr|s33Ggo8i!i
^scoooSsg^giicSgoapoogSi Pon. Yama Py. Z. 48. o3c§s
(t§soogoooc8 . gcoscogoooco8sfssmosc^oo8sooo .. .
Goo8(jjo3|8iiGsTo^8Gsosiio3or|so3G^o8sd^Gys§^sGoo8^6pii asked him
for an account of himself. Chweta 187. qc8§os||8ss^8
Gcga^^ajsoaegoSssiSicoSsG^fijo^^cqi&i the pros and cons
of the matter. Sun.
roo^s B 9 co n. [rcjjsoo^S to be broken.] something broken, a

cripple. nr|sG00003SpllC^a^2liqC§00 -030^S33G0C|j (o3G^) IIOBGOg

03bn things broken or pulverized, or solid lumps. Kutha P.
74. o9oooa8sGogaaa|sGcgoa^6cga3^ecgii the blind, the halt, etc.
Thath. Wi. II. ii, 90. 9C0 dnuy perh. =

deferential behaviour (oc|sgoo£§ to be deferential). Kawi
L. Th. 15. o3GG|8^ojscgosols 33 broken onesemaciated and toothless. Paya N.W. 96.
odja^S A dciy n. [gSoD^iigS^ooo^Sii to have kindly feelings
towards.] kindly feelings. (a^^jgSsnoo^oDo
Da^|8iiaa§8§993o8ii only if there are kindly feelings is there
love; only if there is a root will there be a tree. Wisit
Sagab. 27. ooc8ooo^co8guooc^]oso^ .. osja^osGcobii whom
I foolishly loved (and married). Ok. Yaz. Py. Z. 18.
rojcgSroogjSsii o3C^8so3S}|8ii 9ciy 9 cuy love and intimacy
(between husband and wife). Manawh. P. 30. 33(^833^0
oospsaoo^|ajo90G§iojs dciy 9na kindliness, kindly disposition.
Colloq. 3|8c^>c8f>c£^9§]ii 33 (eg 8^0 Go]Gaq|ooqjc8 dciy na
kindly feeling, regard. Pyaz. oaooc£oa(cgS dphe? ddy
loved companion, wife. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 40.
33(038 B ociy n., used mostly as correlative pronoun or
adj., or otiose. [O.B. akran or akran (03(0308). Perh.
originally an interrogative; cf. Kch. kddai who ? gara which ?,
Maru kayauk who 1 kalam which ?] who, which and
in combns. wherefore, when, as much as, etc. (usu. in trans-
lation = P. yo and derivatives). 93g8o8soo^c8sGOD8o5o^^n
c^o8s§8ScijjscT}§Dlii we will make war against whatever king
marries the royal daughter. Manir. K. 406. 3ag88^oc§
00^ro8G^0rjS§Co8G00G008llCo802OG008ll0§8^SO§800cSG000C^§8G0008
Gf,oj8n if a woman who has lost or divorced her husband
marries the man of her choice. Manu 169. 9ag8sooSo1s
GooooospsGoo8oo^n the ten laws (apptly. otiose). Em. Yaz. i,
18. o3g8c1ooosiiooooooo^n^coooGoooc^8siioa^8;Gcgii I according
to my power will not relax (otiose). Zanek. P. 23. 33(098

33(^8 s^oa8o)§sGoooqa8GoqjS(fS9aGo18s58§gS^Goo8^Goooii 9ciy
9ciy whatever, as many asthe various qualities men-
tioned. Hm. Yaz. i, 21. 33^8oa|^888<$^iggoii the property
of each (P. 000000000 each his own). Atithon. K. 252.
33(^8 [ego 8 . . 9ciy' jauy' . tho' jaur}'=

yasmd . tasmd, because . therefore (in word for word
translations from P.). Ok. Mai. K. 5, Anthol. ii, 174.

33 (o^ 8 GCOOC^OGOOoSs^OOfSsOjGOOOO^OO^Gy^GOOSII C^ tfl

gcooc£ooocooc8o$s . . 9ciy hmya' . tho

hmya' so long as . for so long (P. yava . lava).
Narada' J. W. 21. So, 33(038^ gcooc8ii Kinkha N. 57.


25 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



rogSofl cd^S . c^cogoo^gSosn c^afl oo^S . ob|j@8s
. . ys>s|ii 9ciy du . tho du the man who exerts himself
will not have to endure contumely. Zanek. J. W. 29.
roj^Sc^ Gooo990oSs£(cp oGSjSocSaoo dciy do' any kind
of dogmatic pundit. Sun. Rem. co(^Sco8ooos ddy
My miya appears to be used by some speakers in sense
of loving couple cf. 03(038 A. This use, not recorded
from literature, may be a reminiscence of Manu, in which
O3^8co£oooos in sense whatsoever husband and wife"
occurs as opening words of paragraphs, e.g. Manu 140,
142, 145.

ro^^S dci n. [^gSoo^ to be bright, translucent,
pleasant]. 1. something that gives pleasure, pleasurable
feelings, cordial relations. o^snqjSsoooiioSsoooc^osG^oSsiioaooS
o3co8§§Sai |oooq^§8ii asg^gcSajjn 6gooSco^sgooo8sii if one
rubs it with scent so as to give pleasure, lovingly. Parami
P. 91. oD8(oo^)co^gSc^iiDa^gScgoGS|sc§soc8oo^oii I write
and present a friendly letter to my elegant and learned
lady. (The letter contains a mnemonic for the
selection of metrical feet suitable to the subject.) Kabya
Iiyem. 145. gSs88oogSoq|c8ii ot^jSco^ii oao^ajSii dci
dnyo reverencehis position will be assured and people will
voluntarily revere him. Parami P. 54. (tjcSgoo^epsoo^S
CT3 (^^S G30o8§t8sGOoSft|>GOOOGe>o8oO§OOOg33GgGOoSll dd

9phyu cordial approvalthe inheritance consisting of the
qualities contributing to enlightenment which Buddha gave
(to the Order) with his cordial approval. Bawd. D. K. 94.
eooGp&o8ss||8so3C§s3asoc8 jrajtggSoacoSs 8c838g^s§8go^Sn
9ci d'Urj cordial relationsthe kings will be friends in
cordial relations with each other. Raz. Ayeb. 151. §pcy

Oo8sC^D3^8o300c8yOjJOO^(^930^SOOOSII gpOflC^Sa^GCOOS rojcggS
33 ooo GGg5o8c8§8§8@8|cgoooo£Ssii dci dda feelings of cordi-
ahty. Yaz. Kyaw 36. cocSgooocS . aa^gSa30oo§,8G|G33o8
godo8sgoso1ii without any unpleasantness. Sagad W. 160.
y8soooogS6po^ss|c§ ro^gSs^cS Gf,oooGo1n dci shaP arrive at
pleasure, be delighted. Colloq. §c8Goq|o;c^iic]3aosajoo^iiGog
£ooo^ooosii33^^oo^s^c8s^c8oo^sii I am now delighted at the
prospect of meeting the Buddha. S. D. Kh. P. 85. oa^sSS;
oo^Siioq|[8c^o^ ssjcggS^a^s 9ci nyo yzouy who reveres us
most. Saung Ba 38. oajcggSoo^ 9ci t9byu with cordial
approval (appearing in some texts instead of oa^gSoa^).
Bawd.D.K.94. oaj^gSoocooii c^c5oflgo§8G03o8o1y£§Gcooii
ggo3o8gcooii 9ci tdda with ease, without encountering
opposition (in his negotiations). Ayud. Sh. 49. osggos^cS
c^Gp^ii oa^^S^cS gcoi^ii 9ci yap strike on joyhis
distress was turned to joy. Sabeb. W. 23. cSsoogcosc^cS^sii
oajcg^sc^s s§c£g?o1go1coohi 9ci "louy a lump of pleasure
he has had the happiness of recovering his daughter.
Hmaing We W. 152. ^c8§,o(y2^§,Soa^£Sc^2Gosoooii giving
her a ball of pleasure, creating a feeling of pleasure
in her mind. Teri Pyan 75. 2. a friend, your
grace, his grace. ScSGsgiioaqjSGooSn 33oo8G3gf>£Sii8cS
33^j£iiGqoc£oo£§fl9oii the loss of your friend (in this case,
wife). Devag. Py. Z. 32. oag^ySsgiiGspcSGooS^ron I, your

friend, will return (used by a king talking to his queen).
Mud. Lek. P. 31. ccgsGooorSosg^S . c1ssp33s|§oooo^s friends
who were united by the blood-bond. Boyc 73. co8sGqd§;
c^ny8s^sDa^^iicoc8ooooo^oqjc8n his grace the king setting
gently in its place the water-pot he had brought. Thuw.
Thissa P. 26. o3(o3t§Goo5Gi§|^; the Emperor of China). KBZ. ii, 47. oag^GcoSoa^cSSg
Gcq6|8ooGotfy£Sc8o$8n Mistarl (Henry) Brooke, sent by my
royal friend the King of England, ibid, i, 171. 3. the
open doors of the senses. ooolsnglein gl^s^oo^ooosoaGolcS
oo8sco8sc^s^oooogSsn iic^glqoogSco^Ssoaooooooglsjii ?pgl6|02<§§S<||;
oajyos^n. . 03Go1(^o6o1soot||iii3a6y1c8ooosy^ii^dS^j8oo8^ooosGooo
33^^oo3ls33co8so6slsoo(|{sii A door is an open hole. There
are two kinds of doors, the door of space and the door of
brightnessthe door which is an opening and the door
which has no opening but which is fitted with sheets of
glass and is a door of brightness and light, (y^p in the
sense of brightness, an accepted meaning in Burma, is
equated to oag^Sn It is later said that the oajoggBooals
par excellence is the mindyG^oosfr^S.) WMDK. 26. tycSS
osjcggSn. . ... §0Gsl8s33^gSn... cvposjcggSii... 000

oooag^ii the door of the eyes, the ears, the nose, the tongue,
the body (the senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch).
Pand. Wed. D. K. 291. d^£§o5oD(£ .. ogi^GooS^Gooooo
3a^gSog8o8Gpc8a§c8oo6coo^!ii door of the ear. WOB. 4.
33 gS ol cS 9ci daP protoplasm. 33 (eg ol cS o c£ so 9ci da?
wu? shay nucleus (apptly. formed from oococogsi^^S the
foetus in the first stage of its formation). Mod. Bot. 81.

33^^ dci' n. [Ja^cSoogB to look.] a look, glance.

33$}ll-y8sc^>0r>j§ll 335jj33QJ)^ll 33^^33^11 03000300cSll . 0^G0§8

don't imitate the King's way of looking round, his glance,
his schemes, his voice. (The exigencies of rhyme prob.
account for 03(03, schemes, following 03(03^.) Owad P. 14.
33^g§s|j8s39oo£Sii their glances met. Tet P. W. 190. ao^sGooo
33^^ a strange look in his eyes. W.

33^cS A 9ca? n. [(cgcSoogS to eclipse, from Skt. grasta, seized,
eclipsed.] an eclipse. ^o8§8si@8§8s gpa}G^conoouo3G$ii
^goso^iio§[33^c8ii the circular spot of an eclipse whether
total or partial caused by Rahu on the sun and moon.
Kutha P. 73. (§L8sj|8s33^c833oo8sogc8^^sc^co^siiG^co§,8y1s^c8
ooobc§cgc8<§otfGcon the method of interpretation in the case
of an eclipse of one planet by another is the same as that
followed in the case of eclipses of the sun and moon. Maha
Thuz. K. 199.

3s(cgc£ B often 39 ( 33(0305 space between. No explanation or etymology is
given by writers on the calendar.] the day or days
preceding Burmese New Year's day. v.s.v. oaooon

Oog^33CodSsic8-Oog^G|OOOSG|C§S(§^01ICog^33gc8G|c8§ll . §!

Gsosy&coo(yo^poo£Sii people born on the day of the week on
which the Thingyan period begins should perform the
ceremonial washing of the head on the day preceding
New Year's day. (The Thingyan period" the difference in
time between the entry of the apparent sun and that of
the mean sun into the sign Meiktha "is fixed at 2 days

e


26

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

4 hours 1 minute and 12 seconds. If, therefore, the
period begin a little before midnight, there will be two
oagcS days.) Thand. Let. K. 31, Irwin B. and A. Calendars
14. §8oo8o3G§o8scg83aoq|G|03g5G|030ocSG|^|osc^ajsii dig on
the first, middle, and last days of the Thingyan period.
Iiawe Thara K. i, 77. gcS . oog^oagc8G^iiG^-cogc8
oo(£nggc8ii (list of words spelt krat). Bur. Sp. 39.

aa^S A acap n. [gSoo^S to superintend.] person in charge,
corporal, or functionary of similar rank ; supervisory capacity.

gsgSojn@sg6fi|Goc>ooj@!09§Sii coSooosc^coTcgBc^ScS^
G£§ofld^soos(c§s3ii d^soosgsj 33GoTog83ag5on ssjcgSgsseoTcgBecgs
GooocSgson over four privates one head of the mess (lit.
eaters from one pot), over two heads of mess one corporal,
over five corporals one platoon commander. MMOS. iv, 263.
GC9GOoS6f.8scG^5Gcgoc8@s6^5 (^c8) 33g8ooc8^3a^oo8sc§ii Nga
Hmaw commander of the royal boat, with second-in-
command, stroke, leading hands and rowers. Sinbyugyun
Sittan MS. c^o3c|gooSoogooo8c§§ii oospoospo^SooSGooocSoags
grggooosGn c^gflgg6330cS . ogsjsoo8goooc8ii c§og6|soo8guooc8
G3aoc8;i3acKGOoSsocSGcooc8cvg|8iiGs18sGSoo833g5ooS6oooc8ii Tav.
Yaz. i, 77. g§]goo53§s33g3o8§833g8og6|scoc8§c^oj ii forerunners
and criers with corporals and writers, twelve (taken from)
those on duty. MMM. 65. sscgBsoflcgc^oo^jsnS^soSjsspsqooc^
oag8ooos§i person in charge. Hm. Yaz. Hi, 295. (JsgjSsaocfjsjS
^ooBsgo^ocgj gooocS oa(^So3o c^c8gi^ii dcaP dma' in supreme
command. Anthol. i, 295. oajcgSoaocS oejyoos^n

ac are good, but he omits to communicate them. Wisit Sagab.
28. oa&ooSoaJcgS cr^86o8g8§8s^o3]c5§oo£Sii 9sauy'9ca?
guards, warders. Thein. W. 4.

oa(cgS B sometimes oacryS acap n. [gSoo^S to tighten, to
be taut, to be difficult.] tightness, strictness, insistence,
stringency, difficulty. oo8s§8sii o6oq]o§8sn 33ar8oabii
oaftlo^sGjSc^oagSGsoocSoo^ccjicSii putting the three members
(eyes, ear, and tongue) under a strict discipline. Temi
J. W. 165. o3C7^c8(oagS)3mos(s§o)iioooc8oooc§^oii the
unfortunate creatures. M. Sanda Py. Z. 36. 0000
00 0908338^09331^860008500 08600811 making an insistent de-
mand. With. At. N. Hi, 340. oajcgSoaooSsii (yoocSsSs^oii
dca? dtiy severity, cruel treatment. Oh. Yaz. Py. Z. 35.
6|j60o8c^cg8s6|o^S 338^6008908 00^811 oaJcgSoaoogSs esT^
. . cgSibepn dca? dte insistently, strictly. Up. Muh.
K. i, 219. Gg?6g33ogc833g833oo^Ss§86oToDooo^33s1ii time
of financial stringency. Sun. ^coscocc8a3g8oac^oqjGspc8
6f>6o]oocbii Gooc\o^sGoosjj8sp6oc6n difficulties, troubles (caused
by oppressive action of others). Than. W. iv, 50.
33gS33cb§,85j|gSs6cig60ooooodbii Dag. Mag. 33^3330833(^8
3300£§sn Band. Mag. 008000s ...00... oa(cgSc^S
c§oooso3)8§8iiocgos§8ocoo§8oocS§8ii 9ca? Icaiy apply strictness
if their husbands restrict their movements. Daung T. 69.
§c8s6§8aos|919 g$Gooo8c§§§8o£§i c§oo9c8o9;810^8093^^00889008038
oajcgSoaoo^Ssc^S olcgoSsn sea? 9~te hair) do a hold-up.
Sun. o^Ggs(r§soo oa(egScry §i8sooS^dSoooogc8s)cbii 9ca? ca'
be in a difficult position. Than. W. iv, 47. oocSo^oo^cB

030c8crb . 6fg9@8ll 3a(cgS(c^ §SII33cj>(o§S3o8b6^00bll 9C0?
couy meet with difficulties, here be in an awkward position.
ibid. 76. 6G|Co8oo@8ii oa(cgSgg go^oooo^ssn dca? twe' be
in difficulties, distress. Up. Muh. K. i, 99. ^oooo^Godb
0090809^(9000001 02(^80002 oocrbn 9ca?v da a real difficulty
if, though we brought the right (medicinal plant) you were
to say that's not it ", we should be properly in the soup.
Ziwaka II. 75. oacry^soaJcgS c^GOg9i336co33oq|8c^o8s)oogSn
9ciy dca? trouble, a tight place. Cf. amicus certus in re
incerta cernitur. Sagab 125. Rem. oscqjS occurs in a difficult
passage at Thuw. Thut. P. 5433q|o8^Siic{j>o8c88oco8ii33oq|8
336pii§pco£SsoG|ii For 330cjjS perh. 33^8 should be read.
?transl. They followed persistently after semblance of
fault but could not find the circumstances of his difficulty.
(They blamed him for giving away his alms but did not
know why he had to do this, viz. to support his parents.)

aajegSs icay n. [g8soo£§ to be rough, to be violent.] 1.
a rough state, coarse condition, a draft, a roughing out.

960000908600S600033G§33G$II Opp. 336^01133^11 33^8560008;
6ooo36o18s6Gjg^S6ii coarsely pounded. Utub. It. 104.
33g8snoq|Ss§s^sii epilogue on completing the first draft of
the book. MMOS. v, 237. oagSs §8s (cySs) 33osg8
GcsSjyoo^n 9 cay "byiy (qjSsoo^S to hew off the rough) rough-
ing outgive a rough explanation. Kawi Mag. oagSs
qj8s330sg8ogc8g^Goooii on making a rough calculation.
Colloq. 2. Force, violence. 330^1133008211 Opp. 33^3300^11
3oSoGooS6og[oc8c^33g8sc8§sf.^soo8ol6Gpii forcibly made her
queen. Daung T. 32. aa^oeqiocS^og&iosao^o^iissgSso^n
336go8so^ol§8n provided the disease be cured, don't bother
as to whether the treatment be rough or gentle. Ziwaha
H. 56. sajcgSssaooSs c^ao8§8o1 £ cay dtay rough
methodsbe sparing in the use of r.m. Sun. zajcgSs
oa^Ss 330o8s33oo398o<§o2]c8G^oflc§ii 9ycay dpyiy harsh and
severe methods. Manir. K. 335. oajcgSso^oouS sboo^S
d'cay ddrdbe roughly, coarsely. Colloq. L.B. coos(tjc^c8§8sii
oo§scfyoo§s aajcgSsoooSs 9caV ^day violence.

Sun. C0o8c8sc0o860o8s00§s§s03j8ll 33g8s00008sil 33s|8s6g8sg9g
ccooogSn Hmaing Hma. i, 15. oBsooGCos^c^cS^gSsagSsoosSs
s)]gSscbiiooc8ooc8ooooooooGco5|8so1ii You always hold the baby
roughly. Do hold it very gently. Colloq. Toungoo. So
spelled at Daung T. 69. 000S oajcgSsoooSs^S oo^ojii
9s cay bo1 day naiy habitually violent. Colloq. oa(cgSs
crbc^gS (? o^SsoS) osoo^S 9 cay xbezi wolfishly. Colloq.
L.B. oSolsoSooGooGooSsSsoagSscrbff^oodSogcSoo^ii coarse, ob-
scene language. Colloq. L.B. 00^80911 oajcgSsfl ofyi
33^g8ooo633o8[G]spoo^Sn 9* cay hmu' forcea soft answer
turneth away wrath. Anthol. ii, 128. oa^oafcgSs 9nu
cay matters which require delicate or rough handling.
Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 59.

oa(cg 9cay n. [|rcjoo(£ to plan, intend.] plan, design, intention,
thought, idea. 8c8op qgSg|(jSsyc8n gjc§33g§S<^ii gjjGoqpBs
Oo48sOO^OOGOOOc86000S|00^5^6f.Spg8o^Sll C^OO^SO^OBSS^JO^II
intention (but seems to include the thought in his mind


27 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



before the stage of intention). Bur. J. W. 4. sgSsscgosGooo
. . 33j^suSsajG^|cgcx>£§ii of the same mind, purpose (each
intended to eat the choicest food received). Up. Muh.
K. i, 288. 9agc8ooi!$c8j§oB|gcSii Iiaivth. Pyaz. 14. cSgo
o3^n§s6G§o^sn§^c88ogj^sooc8ii^sg^soof.8siiG8icofSs§,£ooc8ii It was
Sakka's plan, and it was approved by the supreme ruler
over the island, the noble country of Burma, who is like
an emerald flower of coiled hair. Anthol. ii, 33. ooc^8sc§
oo^go1uSooogSos^§8ooc^8^c8§i Thanl. Yaz. 2. o^eps
O3GCOo8sG00S00gS . Gg0^8c^llS>8G8GOOoSoO§8so(cjc8ll . 8
c#$§GSj|Goosoo(£c^D3g@£Qoo£Sii they thought to themselves,
the embryo Buddha still hankers after the gold throne ; but
there is still the business of the path. Zin. Pak. K. 50.
Goo8a3gro(£so3oo£@sGoc£>ii That's not a bad idea of yours.
Kh. M. G. W. ii, 37. o^q8s>s|j[5 oagoao^S Gosoo^ocraooS
go^cSg^ii dear) a si plan, advice. Sun. wgDosocoo3^oa8(o3^S)
§Soo£§ii scheme, plot. Hm. Yaz. Hi, 6. olf.oSco^So'lsoogS . .
oflGooScoooSsq^i oafrejoaeaooSn oaGroo3oq|c8oogS§8§i dear)
d shauy aim and endeavour. Nemi J. W. 40. oa^oaeogs
D3GSjSoaspn dear) dtwe plans (oacogs prob. metri gratia).
LPBK. 109. oodS§cSdbiicogS§,8 oa(rcjoau^ ooGcostjjosGf.sp
oq(||coosii dear) dphay schemes, undertakings. Colloq. Thara-
waddy. 88oDc8§gSs88g$03a@o3oo^goa88^ooc§ii Rupa D. K. 69.
qo^c^ic^dSc^oq|8ii oagi^i Gcoc^cg8iio8so§8y^8s^ooc^n dcay o
one's schemes are belated. Sagab 49. gsos§8?c85^s1§8
oagd^cS oo£§coogcino§i8ii dear) aip perplexed. Sun Mag.
^OGjcSoo^^sloqinsajSI&i^^o oag c^solcjii gs s^^oi
dear) forestallif we overstay our time Duseinda will
forestall us with some treacherous plan. Pohtin Py. Z.41.
oaosc^sGp^ oagooS <§g$gcoi^ii dear) ka? be at a loss, on
the horns of a dilemma (he was on the back of a must
elephantshould he risk jumping off or be borne into the
forest). Tabin W. iv, 91. oajrcjo^i og^soossjjcSii dcay
kouy be at the end of his resources. Sagab 125. (Story
at Wisit. Link Sagab 132.) g^ooosGgoocSii . o^oooouS
oa (eg og cS ^g8n§,c8c88o(TguSii dear) kws? one's state of mind
suddenly changes (for the worse)she may play her
husband false and make away with the plate. Ok. Yaz.
Py. Z. 11. oajrcjc dear) ya' variant reading for oaooc
q.v. at Parami P. 89. oajcrj gooS gos sjg^oii dcay *eha try
another plan. Ok. Mai. K. 168. 8$soqosoof£Gcwoc£psq|osooc£
oaggociS 9og§oc8soooooo£§ dcay nyay ingenuity. Lubyo
82. o3gSso3Gos@scg8 oa^goaSos cgo.Ggo8sii dcay
nyay Kpe suggest, propose a resolution. Sun. ooosc^ggon
oj6coo1§iGG85o6cg^ii oagoo§ §8n . oSoooG§saD£§n dcay day
base design taking the accumulated property,
callously and faithlessly deserted and absconded. Thuw.
Thut. P. 25. cg£ngSsgcgG§8ajsiiogDo§^oss8oo oagcoooSs
@§s§ dcay Hauy ask advice. Colloq. Tavoy. oajcgajcS
s^oooofSc^olii dcay thou? evolve, form a plan. Than. W. iv,
44. g$oo8^s§|o?s9Gsoo8s4oaGS|Scg§ii oa(cgog goc^Gosnoaos
gosco8s^^§i dcay spe give advice, suggest a line of action.
Advt. oa^GosooosGG|SooosGoo8§c^c8o1oogSii Star. oo8sc§sosp

ooo£§§£goooc8ii oajcgeolcS gooSco^Ssii dcay pau? think of
a plan. Up. Muh. i 288. gjcg oagg gsjGODOTcgEa^
so8s(X)|c8ii dcay pyu' form a plan. Bur. J. W. 51. c^odgcos
B(41)f'§goscoc§u?03@B@scSi^ 8soooso6od8gii saying to her-
self "the child is born with a horn like a young
buffalo's ", she formed a plan and addressed the prince.
(The plan was to persuade him that he was not the
father.) Band. Kam. Py. Z. 96. oSsoo^aaDsciD oa g go S s
03)811 ooc8od8s^33oog§oc8^ogo9c8c^sii dcay spyauy change one's
plans. Colloq. cIcgobcgsioD^ooo^cSco^SooooD^sa^ oaggS
^ dcay phyi? reflect, infer. Zin. Pak. K. 92. ^cidoscSS
oa(cg&(gocS dcay myau? succeed in one's plan. Mahaiv.
Py. Z. 38. oooSco8soocgos6|Gooo8soyc\bc§ ... oa g ojj c^c8c8s
00000cbii dcay yu take thought, try to form a plan. M. Sanda
Py. Z. 17. s8c8g8Gpoas)5§G^(X)jc8 oagfi[ <§ . clc\o£§sg$o
^gli^056!^11 G00G00S^Cgc8G|9|G00OO3Ggo8sC^O3j8llc1§|OO3ll
dcay ya' reflect, realize (the notion of form a resolution
being perh. inherent). Paya N. W. 4.
Gf,oc8^oags)ii hit upon a planwise after the event. Prov.
clc^s^oo^oco^c^os^oo^ oafgj dCaV reAect,
think to oneself. Mala Link. W. 21. t|s8^o oajcg^jS
olo^n 00^00^5 G0ssj5g)0ii GjysGoooo^Solii dcay fou? have
difficulty in making up one's mindI have no difficulty
in deciding; I will not stand on my dignity but elope,
(o suppressed before gS). Tedat P. 107. oag rf c^cSii
@c8s§co^Ss^c8olGoooo^ii dcay lap follow advice, fall in with
a plan. Pohtin Py. Z. 20. gSooos§8s§cSh oagoo^Ssii
oogoct8so^sajn dcay Odyay be audacious, plan (and behave) in
an outrageous way. Saw Pe Py. Z. 38. oacv^Soajcg
dloup dcay scheme, enterprise. 8c£ajjsoa|cg sei^ku dcay
a plan. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 82.
ago dca n. [jcgooogS to be of long duration.] a long time.
ooo§|£§ c1cg^jo3s|5cgSa3goyG^G(7Do8sii Manir. K. 501.
09^s§8sgooSo3^o5|Oc§ii you repulse me and seek (excuses for)
delay. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 112. oaSscouSyoc^SeooosI . .
crajcgoGGOoS . GoTapoS^ii dived and did not reappear within
a reasonable time. M. Sanda Py. Z. 87. oagooaooS
G6j8oo£§ii . G(tjs6coo9§^ii dca dtiy a long time, for long.
Tem. J. W. 77. oagooa^S Gf.§i dca dmyiy' long, for a
long time. Hm. Yaz. ii, 41. oajcgooaflfS rj^sGoo5§£jj
8sooos§joog8ii dca dfe long, permanently. Tem. J. W. 81.
So, oa^^Soajcgo dfe dca ibid.
gos A dca n. [^os space between, gosoogSu to separate.]
interval of space or of time, gap, narrow place, between.

Sjcgosil 030DcSll P. 8oS|ll-. . OO^GOOogSocS^OSC^

G6pc8GCo<^iii in the course of the journey. Mahawth J. W.

i, 35. 8oo^c§oo£S§S@oc£<§3a|cgosc^Gosa^^iii the soldiers
divided and left a gap, the line broke. Tham. Sek. D. K.

ii, 173. oajcgS^oc^ 00 oa^osn GcgsGooor8^syo 30 oa^osn be-
tween each (group of) ten men a corporal, between each
50 a platoon commander (of the order of march of a
regiment). MMOS. iv, 296. oo9^o§£§8ooGpaDo8§gSaagosn
Bur. J. W. 11. o^jooc8oagos§ . oaScfJ . . among,


28

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

in the crowd. Bur. J. W. 53. £|§os§3|5<§gos6|£gsosooosii in
the intervals (between doses of the other medicine). Gwes.
Se. K. 60. Gf,oogcSGoooo3go?gD§333l§ii in the interval before
sunrise. Yaz. Kyaiu 61. ooqogo^SGooy^go^oajapsii between
autumn and winter. Utub.K.ll. ^oo^ys^oajapsn Athanna
K. 46. ^g5yoscgoa^osG^^Goo8n remain neutral. Manir. II.
427. a3^scgc8a3$scguSoa^osooosyjooo§£o1oo^ii of a third
party (in the way of mischief-making between two others).
Al. Ayeb. 94. oo8§)8c1§i8oago?cg . .
making Kavalamanta arbitrator between us. Bed. Wiz. K.
22. ooSs§§ (oo§§) (c^scgi^i coj^oioaj^os ^c8$:oSGqpo8$i>oSii
dca dca the intervals between (successive flags). MMM. 9.
ooSscoStgSGooo aa^osroe-olcS s^oo^Sctooscoc8^osi g§^osi
o8sog8soaG3l8si f.oscg8sGo1c8 i ^jcgo3^Goooo36o1c8aa^oso3G3l8soaos
§8908338^11 d ca 9paut? apertures, interstices (in the body, ex-
plaining P. vivara. Also referred to as oo8sco8s33gos) With.
At.301,294. OTCgc&ps^ii oajcgosooegii ggogs|^ii dcatophwe
searching in cornerswonders were many, if one were
to count them all exhaustively (prob. based on expression
^osggo3o8 so as to complete the corners, i.e. omit none).
Tad. Mawg. 16. y8soooscdScgii GgjcgcSrocoosi Gsoo8oogos^8ii
oaja^osoog-^osn g$oc838gs))o8ooii ^c8g§|08^c8§|0Sii dca td
myauy sheltering in the cornersput the younger princes
in front and swaggeringly, in the shelter of retired places,
in the obscurity of the rear, kept aloof like poultry. Weth. P.
2. oaQoagos dco dca narrow, retired places. Thath.
Bahu 143.

rojcgos B dca n. [gosoogS to hear ; to communicate, inform.]
the process of hearing, what is heard, report ; in combn.,
instruction. $os|ops§8sii ooooSsn P. 070011 oo8^os§8s 000s
o7s^josooi33^osoo8noo1so7smosooi33osoo8ii If words are many,
hearing is unpleasant; if paddy-grains are many, eating
is unpleasant. Sagab. 35. Glyooboooosiicl^os^oaa^osscSc^su^ii
unpleasant, irksome to hear. Mahaw Py. Z. 3. oo^oo8cg§8
G|§8s^ooos33^os§i8g^ogcc)i8ii does not accord with the report of
you. MahawthJ.W.i,69. f>gSsGooo oajt^osoaQS ^oqjoSii
dca dmyiy hearing and seeing, what has been heard and
seen, experience, acquired knowledge (in transl. of P.
appassuta uneducated, ignorant.) Zin. Pak. K. 283.
c8 ... G6pr8Go1c8(^s^3aQos3a§8mosGooSco^sii U Pon. M. Com.
56. oa^osira^Swc^aDooo §,8§^gooos|oo$s9C^osc§ dca
dmyirj bdhu Bu'ta learning. Narada J. W. 7. oaoooSoagicS
co(£sccSoogS . eu7ao}oo3^os3a@8co(£s^s30£§ii experience.
Tham. Sek. D. K. ii, 19. oaooSoagos ^cSooosSaogSn
ddiy dca instruction. LPBK. 107.

oa(c§c£ A dceip n. [|c§cSoo£§ to grind.] (In combn., usu.
with 33f.cS, from f,oSoogS to thresh) a hard struggle, great
exertion. 3300800070811 00086^080^ . .

oagcSoa^tS oftoooc8clc^uoc83l§iGf.^Goo(^ii deep me strug-
gled hard for possession of the dagger. Winkan
W. 60. §sooGo§8Gyo8ggSc§aogS ... ooos33§C833^CSG§O|G^
gcco^n having a fierce argument. Sun Mag. ggo8§|os§,8
q8ssoGpc§33@c833^dSoftoo§$c1ooc9g§ggSg7fej|os(^ii Kawi M.
Mag. OftgsGOOo8lOO§SGOq|8§Gf.|o7sgGgo8sil33gc833f.cS33GglSS)g

c8§ygSo7^oso8s|G^o8s keenly contest the election. Star.

33$ % G|GOq|o8 S GOOOO7 S 333o8s§8 33S|8oOO i §,8 coco 8 ^6p33S|8 0008 qjOSOO

oagcSoa^S oooss|§|ooogS deep dhneP with great exertion
(§8ooj£ = to press down). Colloq. Prome. ysjS|G33o833^c8
33§|S(rgoot§ hard, doggedly, to obtain. Colloq.

oagcS B deep n. a tumour. V. oao^cSii
oa^S dceiy n. [(o^SoogS to coincide in time.] an occasion, time.

-330$ll333lll -^Jc8GOOo8o03c8c^j8oO§c833Cg8s90o833(^8oOSpyOO

cq|oc8^8qic8^8ooobc§ii more than 100 times in the space
of a wink or a flash of lightning. WMDK. 17. cooy£
33@$(33@8)iiGf.oo$((S$)s|8$iico8sooc8$ii in the winter time the
crystal sun takes an outer course. Pon. Yama Py. Z. 51.
oa^Soais^ fepsgocv}]8 . 3307833^cgqic8§i dceiy opharj
timesmany times over, over and over again. Anthol. i, 256.
33^833aD$mosgoo78^GooS^oo^ii Hm. Yaz. ii, 282. ojjf.cS
cg^ogSsSScfJ oagSgS sos|is|§i dceiy jeiy repeatedly.
Zin. Pak. K. 262. oa^S^SoaooSooS . GcvpcSolcooS
cogSsn dceiy jeiy dthaHha? repeatedly. Zanek J. W. 47.
oa^SgSoao^o^ G00oSso$o1c\q|cSii dceiy jeiy dphay bay
repeatedly. Pyaz.
oaf^Ss dceiy n. [gSsoogS to be terrified, to scold, rate.]
terror, scolding, threats. 33ggocs330§)ii§8sgsj|ocs§8sii g§s8
cgaSGOoSii (o^scoSsSoSSsii 33^8sooooii g^ocSco^^ii when the
edible earth was exhausted, young and old, crying out in
terror, being alarmed (L. Wid. Mawg. 39 has oooo). Bawa
Mawg. 41. ySsooosccosooSssgSs the scolding (combined
with vaunts) of the prince as he strings the bow. Zawta
Kum. Py. Z. 123. sosp^33@8syl)siG33oSod5@sos§sGoooi9cSo1ii
scolding. Colloq. Danubyu. Gog^cg oajo^Ssoa&ooSs
sbGjolj^cjjii dceiy dmauy threatening language. Nov. sajo^Ss
cools Gog^osc^$sc§o733f.osycgoss|j8o7sii dceiy dwa ranting,
raging. Colloq.

sag? dci n. [(c^soo^S to be big, old ; to rule over.] a big
thing, the elder or eldest; a chief, superior. gsGooo33Gp

083[ll33§lcS33^SS7SG0000ftll33Ot)llgg5gll-33GOOOcScg§SII ss^scgspt^ll

33^ygorS'.i for a blazing thing take fire, for a big thing
Rahu, for fine things powdery dust. Yama Yag. i, 144.
cg§8olsog8ooosGooS33^s§8Gooo33^g(?f.ooii the elder son. Zanek
J. W. 4. G§|533s1o0ll807GpS . fc|jOS901!0$33^S33cbOGS|S^OOgSll . .
So^GpScdSqjOS . Og8llO$33|^S33(^SOGS|SfejjOsd8s§OSs|oOOS§8sf.gSso1s
oo^n In former times queens had their ministers, comp-
trollers, and clerks. For the lesser queens separate appoint-
ments of minister, comptroller, and comptroller's clerk
were rarely made. MMOS. iv, 47. coGj8oa(^;iiGcgsGooocS(^s
GSobGoooG33ocSoo$s33(c§s3332S... qpsii superior of the Karens
(appointed by local authorities over Karen communities in
a Burmese area), ibid. 122. oajc^soao^S ^gSoocSoogSn
dci doup supervisor, person in control. Wisit. Sagab. 34.
63300800^533^533338 chiefs (prob. of rank of subordinate
headmen). MMOS. iv, 47. qSgp oagsoack . §33@833cbii
dci dke superior (village, or circle, headman). MMOS. ii,
173. ((yooooi^336p) oa(^8oacrycS 008908^11 d ci dee a thing,
position of importance. Up. Muh. K. ii, 95. ooosss^s
33oq|oS6§os$oogSog^oso8| . oo8ss8sGspn talk big, i.e.


29 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



disloyally, seditiously. KBZ. Hi, 207. 88coo§gSoac^s
c3i§8^8s8oo^<£oVgof.8 33 (o§ s 3a (eg s 3§ooos§i dd dca?
superior, commanding officers. Mdhawih J. W. i, 236.
33(0^8 338 s cgc^oos^ . gosgooog§ii d'ci 9* si superiors, chiefs
(338s from Ssoo^S to dominate). Manu 228. o8soci8
33(0^833008 ooSsc£cSgii 9ci dma what is greata major
punishment. Manu 387. 33G£S3a|o^33oosiic£iic8s. . cg^Goslii
if he be superior in distinction, title, or (official) umbrella.
ibid. 153. 33(0^833^8 o^So^Gc^o^sGsTcogSii 9ci ihmu
principal officer, captain. Atithon K. 254. y8s^so8soc8iiGs18s
33 (^ 8 33 5 ^ s oogocooSGosoo^Sii £ ci $ hurj persons in

authority, superior officials. Hm. Yaz. Hi, 164. 3*@86o3S
£ ci ou?kdiha president (of a society). Colloq. 33 Q s o s & (tj
s£j>00£§CD08 . . . . OSGOOOcSlji&GOOOGyil

d'ci *za mye land of which the fruits were enjoyed by head-
men, etc., as official emolument. MMOS. v, 29. £§gcoS
(D6$o8y8sooos§8 33 (o^ s 00*8 cs|^gosc§ii 9y ci do comptroller
of the householdof the Kanaung prince. (This man was
afterwards a minister of state, the Pakhan Wungyi.
Yule Mission to the Court of Ava, 245.) KBZ. Hi, 112.
33^8G-ooS33cS 9 ci household (in attendance on the king). Kawi Th. K.
i, 40. G§|(£8^6p290CflGoo5ft<§ s(<§s(ft ^ci pyu'
act as chiefthe king having dedicated him to the
Shwezigon pagoda, he had to take charge of it.
Kala. Yaz. i, 209. y8sooos336ol8sc§cg8o90oGoooGy8sooosoo£S
33gsgoc£ §i3ac^s^gooo3300csogdoc^y§838ooc8o3j8n dS ci
myau? become distinguished, excelexcelling the other
princes, quickly learned. Manik. W. 18. 3008^833(0^8
c§oogSy8sooosc^GsosGgoc^c8oo8§^§i d"their) d'ci nurses. Tern.
J. W. 70. 33 Gj>330^8 GaTSsssgs eg sgaur) 9s ci officers of
the service classes (apptly. officers corresponding in rank
to village headmen are referred to). Royal order at MMOS.
Hi, 49.

33 Q 9C0U7) n. to meet with opportunely.]

coincidence, meeting. g8§8sig^c8§8sii G^yo^sssgogSii
8syojsi|8oocrbc§ii as one does not wish to warm oneself at
the fire when the sun happens to be hot. P. P. Yog.
14. y^ooog5iioogS§j8^ii33^S8ii^Gooo8ooooos(? o8ooos)n the 8
requisites, including existence as a human being, verily
coincided and were firmly established (human existence
is one of the qt^gcoooGps things difficult of attainment. There
are usually said to be four of these. PPK. 130, 186).
Anthol. Hi, 106. ^a^oo^So^Ssc^con the misfortunes
which I now encounter. Kum. Py. Z. 149. oae-og oa^
9twe' dcourj contacts, experience.

33^8 d'eour) n. category. V. 330^811

33(0^8 dcu n. [g|po^> to be self-indulgent, commit excess.]
self-indulgence, excess. oo6pso^oq|8§8sii gcoSgo§8sii (03^00
(ttj&llj ^8s§8ll60g§88§8^0ll 1000§0rjsil 33^|[SOOG|Gc8ll §800c8c§6pll If
Cancer and (the lord of) the first or second third (in the
sign which was ascendant at one's birth) are in aspecting
relation, there will be over-indulgence in scents and

sandal-wood and fondness for bastard sandal-wood.
Ayus. II. 6.

33eg dee n. [O.B. oa(r§dS akriy, os^oS dkriy, and (once
each) 33G^gS akren, akre, downstream, lower Burma,
and (once, in form 33@dS) under, subordinate to. Maru
gyit under, Kch. grit to be decreased, reduced; below (as in
rank). If, cf. form ssgJc^S, the B. word originally had a
final nasal, it is perh. connected with Tib. gyin-mo, gently
sloping, gradually descending or subsiding.] lower position,
downward direction ; direction downstream, a place situated
downstream, the lower country; down-wind. gosoc&igosocS
6|8ll P. Oa^GODOOO = 33Ggc§ G(JOo8sGOOOGS|OOgSll33GgyOOcSll
33Gf>sc£Goo6ii if the old water does not descend (if the patient
is unable to pass urine). Nayamal. Se. K. 93. 336^o3S)]|(
downwards extraction, giving an enema, ibid. 96. cgcSoo^
GGlC^|Sll33Gg^COOIl8sO^^SpOO^II33gOOSO^II TJlUta P. 19. £8sp
33G@c§88cgos§ii Lek. D. K. 120. 33530388 sacgsSSn
upstream, downstream landing-places. Parami P. 15.
33G^ooy8nc§G330c8g8odSii the lower country. Ratu at
Anthol. ii, 227. GooocSGoc8Ggo8G§|ii33Gg^c88ii Yatsauk,
Yawnghwe, and Bassein in the lower country. Yod. E. 2.
^soogc^joc8 33 (eg 33£3on dee dnya downstream and
upstream. KBZ. i, 52. y||§ol6goD§8o^8yc£3361y§ii33Gg
33gDog8co8soooooo§i (vaguely) over the whole country.
Adik. K. 184. . osGjcrjosgDOGoqjSGoo^Ssii famethe
being well-known up and down the country. With. At.
N. i, 25. 33 go d3 (eg 6||c$sgogooo .. |ooofe$sn 9nya
9ce up and down wind (preceded by expln. of P. o^oIgcd
as gcogdo§ and os^oIgoo as gcog^§). ibid. 24. 33gg and
33530 occur in village names, e.g. to distinguish the two
Kadin's in Pakokku district. Rem. 33^c8o36gcg8clsgsco^
oo8|§)CoooogSn Manir K. 421 is represented by osc^Soscg
cg8. . Goocoo^i in Shwemaw Th. 131; and by ka hnok lop
tu, ap'doa krung ayauk (QSnosojcSbut the full-stop should
be after oso^cS) a big fish entered as far as into the Ayauk
creek, in |o1$qggc8ooooo 108. It is clear that these three
passages have the same origin and that 33908 or 330^8336(03
= either the downstream place named 33908 or 330^8 or,
downstream of that place. V. also Yazaw K. 419.

sse-^s d'ci, but in certain combns. dee [Maru shd-grit,
grit the skin. Shan kit scales. Tib. skyi outward
side of a skin or hide, scales (of fish, snakes, etc.),
outer covering; (in combn.) refuse, filth. 33§ii33§c8
oo^[ajjGogoo33GgsG^oo^Sc1scgyoso^sii some people will not eat
scale-less fish. Colloq. ^sgDc8G§oc8coc8coc8§1|33Ggsoo8§8
^ooosn three tolas' weight of dry Alexandrian laurel, very
fresh, separated (from the twig) and with the outer
covering (? calyx) removed. Sun. sae^so^ Gooo33f.o
dee thu ichthyosis. Norn. Dis. 43. 3a e-^ 8 0^8 oo^S d'ci Hho
to remove scales, scale (fish). Colloq. 33(cg8ooS d'ci diy
is prob. used in same sense ; cf. clsajscoSg|8g|8iiG(o3syoo8ii
Anthol. ii, 184. ScapEsc^ sagoac^sn dkhur) d'ci
scutes and scales of crocodiles. Adik. K. 101. g^
33£dS33&(<28 c^cqc8oonbc§ii 9nyv> dee impurities, dross.


30

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

Yazaw It. 10. oao^cgoiuo&oa^oScracg^ii filth, impurities.
Thokthil N. 160. spoGo1ooioo^s|8G§sigD£oaegs^ioo8sGosoo|o8n
WDSN. 26. Rem. In 33Ggsoo$iooosoo$ogc8 from an un-
comely person, uncomely words, Sagab 125, 33cgs has
prob. been substituted for 33oq|£§s as a supposedly more
correct spelling ; on the theory that the meaning outward
appearance developed from that of scales.

33go A Jco n. [Maru kyaw road. Tib. Ogro-ba to walk.]
vessels, blood vessel, duct, canal, tissue (in the body) (apptly.
including the ligaments and vessels of Hindu medicine ;
v. Wise, Hindu System of Medicine, 57, and in some modern
uses perh. = muscles, nerves); vein (of a leaf), vascular
bundle. GcgsGgoiiGcoGgoii33Ggo33§8nc\jc§^330oc8oo£Ss|]c£§

the navel is covered (surrounded) by vessels called sird (Skt.
sird, i.e. vessels conveying blood, air, bile, and phlegm).
LHGK. 22. 0o|o^Goao§i8^)GODSGS)]o8sGoooo3Ggogsc§oo^iic85
(? o^s§33SGooooooq|j£s§£a^<^iii The 24 dhamanl
vessels, in the shape of a turtle, form the oooqj^Ss,
which is called the kumma (turtle, junction of vessels
at the navel; called o^g pot" at Kayanu It. 139).
LHGK. 28. §o$o£Sgooo33g§oii ligaments, known as
hndru (P. nahdru, Skt. sndyu). ibid. 23. c§Gsoo8Gaooo3Ggo
P. rasaharani prob. = chyle-vessels. (Wise op. cit. 49)
Nip. v, 564. Rem. Muscles, Skt. pesi are oaoooso^s or
330005008 "lumps of flesh". Itayanu It. 132. With.
At. N. ii, 178. oacgo vascular bundle. Mod. Bot.
81. oa^soo^oii 33£go§Gccpii oscgocS mi flourishing

shoots, stalks coral-coloured, leaf-stalks like emerald,
ribs like gold. Anthol. ii, 385. ooc^uSc^s 33 go 33 (^8
oo£§goo§8(9^S§i dco ochirj, vessels and tendons. Se Kk. 24.
33Ggo33§8og|Goooc^5ii derangement (of the humours)
accompanied by tremors. Dhanun It. 24. 33 (0303330 8
GGp8G6po1n dco dshi'> vessels and jointsswelling of the v.
and j., rheumatism. Nom. Dis. 49. 33 go 0^8 cogSn
dco kaiy to suffer from locomotor ataxia. Gives. Se. It. 84.
gooSgooS 33gogs oo£§ooGcoscrbn o co *ci to be stubborn,
determined. Colloq. Magwe. 33go tissue is sunk or depressed (? so that the masseur cannot
reach it). Colloq. a3gooSs oo^S dco xsay to feel for
the tissues. ZiwakaH.59. 33 go a^ 8 s ooj£ dco^shaiy
to have contraction of the tissues, feel stiff. Colloq. So,
33 goa^ 8 s eg 11 c§c8bojo1n dco Sshaiy twa'. Divada Th. It.
122. 33gos£ oogS dco xshwe to suffer from twitching,
chorea, St. Vitus's dance. Nom. Dis. 37. 33 go 00 <£
oo^S dco te? to have fits (for which the usu. expression is
ooc8oogS alone), ibid. 41. 33go 008 oo£§n dco tiy to suffer
from sprain. ZiwakaH.59. 33 go 00 8 8 oo^S dco Hiy to
suffer from strain. Ek.D.Y.K. 119. Cf. Nom. Dis. 51.
33 go eg oogS dco tuy' to suffer from tremors. Gwes. Se.
K. 84. Nom. Dis. 52. 33go §8s§8s 00 coooofjdS dco tha
the vessels and tissues are prominent. Thuw. J. W. 14.
oagoc^ oogS dco thouy to suffer from numbness. Gwes.

Se. It. 84. 33goo^s oogSii dco "thouy the tissues are in
a knot. Colloq. 33§sc£§i33cr§sf>£Ss 33go(yc£ c§ dcopya?
tissues are severed, torn. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 85.
33 goj oo£§n dco phu' the tissues are in a bunch.
Gwes. Se. It. 84. 33go (more transient than sscgoooSoo^S). Ath. D. It. 86.
33go^os oo^S dco Kmya there is a lot of gristle (in the
meat). Colloq. o3gop8c|Ss E§ 9 00 VauV *yay to
have rheumatism. Ek.D.Y.K. 112. 33gocvyo goooc8
oogS dco yo' (cause) tissues to relax, ibid. 114. So,
33goc\}jo dco fo'. LHGK. 27. 33goc£ oo£§n dco
%lwe a tendon is out of place. Colloq. 33goc^jocS (often
G§pc8) fo dco fau> na neuralgia. Nom. Dis. 46. Cf.
Ek.D.Y.K. 114. o3goc\}joc£

o8so1 dco fau>
"zauy "go glanders, apptly. that form of it in which the
abscesses are joined to one another by hard inflamed
cords. Ath. D. K. 49. 33 go S oogS dco 61 to know the
position of tissues, vessels. Ziwaka H. 59. 0^336^0
o8c§a^§8^c§ooo§igSGo18s^8oooGo1ii know a person's dis-
position. Colloq. 33go00 oo£§ dco Qe to be paralysed.
Advt.

33go B dco n. outdoing. V. osGocpn

03 go 8 A ocauy n. [Ggo8oo£§ to be mixed in colour] a
composite colour, in which the prevailing colour is thickly
interspersed with others, roan, a roan. G6pG§oGf>Gooo
336p8G^o833c8§c8GOOOC§c8a^S§ll33^33|33Ggo8330q(0833^GOOO
ogg[oo£S§jcoSoooos. .. 33008s... ^o1^noo8§8sc§Gpc8^8c8^iii Kawi
L. D. 355. |OSGyor8|OSOq|OSCbc§33Ggo8330ruosOOO§8(§OOgSsil
Win. Th. It. 5.

33 go 8 B ocauy n. [Ggo8oo£§ to have the eyes wide open,
stare.] a state of staring, stupefaction. q|i£>a}SGgo8600o8

GO0o8gc§§8silGCSGOOO33^33Sp-OOc8aOc8& 33 go 8 ^cS gjj^;

oo£s§8sq|@8^iii dcauy yaip (perh., to attack with wide-open
eyes, with an assured expression) to behave with
effronterythis is absolute brazen lying. Sun. oo^Sobc^oo
oo8sO^G^^G§O8c§C8(§S ii33Ggo8^c86oo^c§fej)08gojrag8Gaoooqjii
(where 33cgo8§c8 seems merely to repeat the sense of
c(yo8c§c8) I wonder he dares display such effrontery in the
newspapers. Didok. e^Soo^SooGcosc^ 33go8coos
Gf.o1§,S ocauy "da a staring lookdon't gape, goggle at the
visitor. Than. W. Hi, 188. o8oooqjc8o3Ggo8ooosGcs§c8Goo^ii
Sun Mag. 33c§s^ooGooor8^ooGys^8^33Ggo8ooosoq|^G^oogSii
dumbfounded, not knowing what to do. Sun.

33go8 g dcauy' ja' n. [cgoSgoogS to be concerned,
anxious.] anxiety, concern. goooooii§5^S§8s (33^00^0)
33§oo^os§8ss§oo^sooosii §c8gO0^Sp5^33Ggo8gG008gsS§C§00gSll
compassion means the Buddha's great concern (for his
disciples). Thath. Wi. K. i, 49. so8o£roGoo5o3G(apSg
go}c8ii It's nothing the elephant-master's lady need worry
aboutno need for you to worry. Sagab 45. ao8o§oocooS
336^08(03000811 aoSoo^S^e^fjjii c§oqjoq|c8cgosoogSc§iiao8o^ooGOoSoo
oo£9c8^8oc^c8^r§§s^8Ggo8googSo^s§§^r;O^^GOO^ii U Pon.
M. Com. 186.


31 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



oagoSs s'cauy n. [6go8soo^S to draw a line.] 1. line,
mark, route. q§sGgoSsiioG(opSsiicoSsii o^oopc^rpSsogSogo
otg^oSs^oo^og^^dg^ii of the three lines of writing, the
first line (contained the words) elephant's tusk and not
elephants' tusk. Thing. Sag. i, 231. 33goSsgoS8
03CgoScgc£llO^ODOuSG098OO^g8ll§c8OTc8GaDOO^IIODC^OO(^GCOOa5liC^
o3go!8sc§oo£Sii ^s88ggo§Goooa^(^io30oc§Gepc8Gcooo^Sii s'cauy
sjauy by various routeseach along his own route, the
wise are brought by devices and expedients into the
power of the rich (as its tributaries are merged in
the Ganges). Mahawth J. W. i, 121. 2. cause, origin,
fate, occasion, conditions, means. used as = follg. P.
terms; oogiiooosjcioii^o1^ii^8g5iiogooiiao3)oiioo^gl^ and gooo^ii
These philosophic uses may have been arrived at by
extension of the meaning route, way ; cf. the two exx.
next follg. oo8oouSGaq|oc8oc8£OGooo9aGgo8siiGooo8sgooo^|§s^s
c^aSs^n they laid down their tapes carefully, a way of its
being, so that it should be, magnificent. Mahawth J. W.
i, 14. ^^sp§|8sco8se|o1o^o3Ggo8s ... ^so5GOoS§soo8o1oo^o^spsn
I petition the way that, so that, the truth may be made
manifest. III. Rec. 92. c\jjoo8§^o1o^o3Ggo8s§SGc^|oc8ooosspii
on his petitioning that reinforcements should be given.
KBZ. Hi, 358. . . §s|gSogc8GEso9§Sigoo3oso9c8^8

ol0^G00SoDtSsil§S^|sigSd^Cgc8G§8s9lo00c8^800cbc§ . 33G^o8S
u}c8a^33o^so(y^) results will not be satisfactory. Mahawth J. W. i, 169.
q|c8§8soo^S§8§8s(^03Ggo8s88^^GoooGgo8ii33Ggo8sq|c8§8sd5£§
oogSn as decay is truly the cause of becoming, we speak of
" decay the cause ". Atithon K. 100. ^§|8o1sgooooooooc8

C§00^§c8GOOOOOggJOOg1ci8(^9aGgo8sG09c8G£)jll 096go8sC%jOGCg§S
5>g8^]8oj£ii these eight attainments are not a cause of
omniscience (do not suffice to produce it). Zin. Pak. II.
36. Cf. Mala Link. W. 48. y8sc§^jc8Go8soaGgo8soG§)sn^o1s
c§mr8Go8s£Ggo8so^solsn kings do not choose occasions for
their wrath (it may flare up at any time); there are
three classes of occasions for Nagas' wrath. Sagab 88.
Goq|s§|o^oo3Ggo8s§|§ . §pc§g$cgos§c8ii occasion requiring
my attention, business. Yesag. Ilh. Py. 75. cjksScDj&SS

. . C^OOGODOc8GOOOc8oO§8GIIOaGgo8sOO^OO§SGll
§s38c^S@^8sg@o8sc^o^)ii The meaning of the words Po
Khin had to go home is that some person or some cause en-
joined his going home. (A bold use of £c£go8s as subject
with trans, verb.) U Pon. M. Com. 28. oaG^o8st|sjo1s the
two kinds of fate, explained as follows : (gcDoj^sGooo^jSoo^s
fgSoocSoo^iiro^^^fe'3@#ooc8ooe§n When Brahma
dies he becomes a tick ; when a tick dies it becomes Brahma.
U Pon. Com. 95. 33goSs33 0^j|8 c^S ooosii s"cauy sco causes and effectswords referring c. to
e. Mahawth J. W. i, 64. o9G@o8s£raocjjs^s§^s§osGCo§|Gooo
oaqjc&ii the essential points of the distinctions (in form of
address) which they habitually made having regard to
causes (the rank of the person addressed) and con-
sequences (the degree of respect which followed from such
rank). MMOS. v, 78. 33goSs33^c£ ygcooSao^Ss
g§soj}s|^ooc8obc§a3sj8s6^c^8ooc8^iii scaur) dche? occasion,

justification. Than. W. ii, 71. gSaacoDo sa go 8 s 33^0
c§g8si|8§8sc^§8GO0o8^ii s'cauy dcha causes which could
produce, meanswith means of abatement satisfied her
longing, (ossp perh. = the important thing, the essential.
Combn. more com. in form cgo8s^|o.) Yaz. Kyaw. 59. osoluS

GODSo1sCOOSGCOc8GOOOOaO^C$c8oOSpSCo8sOO^SOJGOOO 33 go S 8

so 11 s'cauy d'ye cause. A cause which is the path of
demerit. Anthol. ii, 174. Geooo$Gaoo8;§oosloo!| 33 go S 8
*o8cv^j5go cgc^GooSftGcooogSii s'cauy va lyo zwa as occasion
required. Shwenand. 4. GooooooocoooSsolbii 33goSs
f>cS c^r8Gco§8sGf.Sii scaur) 0 fates are grim. Band.
Kam. Py. Z. 81. s^sc^cScboGoooSsoo^ii to go Ss 00 co6psn
s'cauy kay past deeds as the cause (of misfortunes).
Tedat P. 23. ssegoSscSj 33<^cg5^ occasions, business. Sagad W. 25. o^c§jgoooc8 33 go S 8
o^ ol§n§§Go!8sc§y§Sor)sii scauy kouy the causes (which
brought them together as husband and wife) are exhausted,
they have parted for good and all. Colloq. oa§jcoos6§|s
TO go S 8 y 000 8 8 §88Ggo8§[§8§8s§gGco(^iii £cauy Icauy
causes are good, (in popular use) one is lucky. Patimauk 12.
yGooo8s93^c8n oago8sngr8 c^ji 2 cauy kwep fortune
frowns. M. Sanda Py. Z. 27. co^o8s|63ao8 . .
33goSss c^oa8|§Goo8^ootSii scauy gay the underlying
cause, the origin (of the saying). Up. Muh. II. ii, 95.
§|^§8g093059Gol8s6|OyCOOSII go 8 8 §(jS 3 C^cSgCO§SoII
s cauy khe causes, one's fortunes are feeble. Bandu Kam.
Py. Z. 77. 33goSsjy||^o cjigjosslo^ii scauy chuja
causes were weak, i.e. their strength insufficient to keep
her alive. That. Pad. Pok. K. 92. 33goSsc^ §§8§Ssii
s'cauy go Kswe adhere to a causein expln. of P. paticca-
samuppada, happening by way of cause. LPPD. 365.
G§lsg083 33 go 8 s ao c£ c§oo8iigo18^c%}§,i s'cauy shep
join the causes, bring two persons together. Tedat P. 107.
^8c8siicy|c§8ajccs . GJ^Oc8o8cgc8ll33G@o8830c8c§GOOOSO|§8cOO
GGpcSS^olagjSn marry; hence, with c£j> added, to wish to
marry, to woo. Up. Muh. K. i, 139. o3^ggyico^ic^c8?oo|
§o?§ioo^S§8OT^SaDgSo^§iys^olooaoo8iio3GgoSsaoc8§oa^ooo8
ooogSoo^Sn connect causes (and effects). Atithon K. 126.

33gco^gooos^oo^o^C(jSoogcos§S 33goSsa^ § q|c88ssqs

gjSoogSn s'cauy shouy causes coincided, were brought together
(in marriage). Than. W. iv, 37. §S;oqjc§c^8sooc§iio3G^o8s
sqoocSn causes combineto produce misery and hopeless
longing. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 103. osegoSsa^ogSs
olG^oooisqGOOo8s6|Goooooodbii s'cauy shouy yzi be married
to each other. Than. W. in, 10. oo8yGCos§,8 33 goSsa^S
9§8ii gooo88yc^8c^5s|cb5sysj88(^ii 3d8sdb3d8iobc§s88oo§i8^|sis|^ocbii
s'cauy shaiy marry. If you marry Tinmale, your sister,
who wields the stirring-spoon will be told to go. ibid. 14.
33goSs^^c£ s'cauy nyi nyu? conditions being
favourable. Atithon K. 100. j^sjoc8c^i . osg^oSs
marry. Thing. Sag. i, 187. ao8ss|
oo6coo8s^j 33 go S s oo ^s ooiif>c8@gS6|j§n axcauy ti establish


32

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

a cause, do a meritorious act which will be a cause
of future good fortune. Nemi Bon. P. 59. gSsSS
godoSsc^oSii 33(cgo88^8oco§n gosoocSoo£§ dcauy hniy'
md tay not in accordance with conditions, disproportionately
great. Nayaw M. 134. So g§o8g§s§8sii

dcauy mo tay excessive. H. Gaz. g;c833Go18sc§iio3G^oSsooo^ii
yooooooooo§c§ surprisinglybecause their calls were in
the Maghada language. Maul. Yaz. Py. Z. 81. oo-8c8-
ga^-03oooo6|(jr>Gooo as| (P. samutthdna)the four origins (of material phenomena)
karma, mind, season (or physical nature), and food.
Alin. Ii. 42. Cf. MP. 459. ua&goSs&ooSn godo8goT
gg|8soo^8ii dscauy to conditions are favourable. Sagab 126.
soc8coc8go18s§i 33 (ego 8 soft 9gsnajgosggaq|8nmosgoo8g£||ajsii
9 cauy thu to set up causes, apptly. to live as man and wife.
Bandu Kam. Py. Z. 104. o^c§jgoooc8 oasjcgoss^fss
c^c8oooiicooSo8cs8y6s8ooc^sjOogSn dcauy *ne causes are
scanty, insufficient to produce good fortuneThey are
very unlucky. They were separated before the bottom
of the little pot was black. Colloq. ooo^gooGolSssSoon
833GgoSs$(£sGco§Ssc£o M. Sanda Py. Z. 99. oacgoSs
§(i^^S(^f^o1c8iis^S|jc§GOL)c^cS£)i8GoooodSec^cScdSii How unlucky
I am! I want to hang my little self. Kum. Py. Z. 32.
33 (ego 8 8 ^S OOOOOH33c^s^sogooo8so!j8ooog^o8ii dcauy nou?
to be unlucky. Pyaz. os (ego 8 sol oo£§oo£>oqos

o'cauy pa to marry, be married to. Kh.M.G.W. ii, 81.
^3]9390scr$c8ii ii 33(ego8s(cj 6poooso30ftso^n 9~cauy pya' to
prove, justify a statement. Atithon K. 65. Cf. Than. W.
ii, 112. gSoo^o3ogc8oGosa3So5c8oo^c^cooGepc8o3Ggo8s§G|y^ii
show cause (before a court, etc.). Legal. o£doo1g|8goo8c^
33 (ego 8 8^ <§ . ^oc8goo8c^gooogoo8'^ii dcauy pyu'
speak with reference to, make one's theme. Mahawth J.
W. i, 3. oooc^o3Ggo8sgc§o^Goooc8og88§ioc§G3Toodbii making
what the cause, what was the origin (of the village name).
Colloq. ^aSsc88c^G^|8GOoS(jJSp§cS833^833^G^OO^C^93Ggo8s^^oS8
<$2c\^or}p80o(&Goo8yoo£Sii Pye Th. 14. cjpl^otf . c$00£§

CO^Ss . 88^S|00^SOg8smO2C^33G(^o8s(y^§c8gO0^GpS^GSgG008G|8s
i|[8Goo8g|88 . oa^Sc^GcpcSja^Gcoorj^ii on account of, by
reason of. Ledi Kein 64. Cf. ibid. 67, Shweb. Nid. 73.
Than. W. ii, 110. 82Gcgsb<^o3G[^o8s^ycooo1§8iio9s^c^33G^o8?
(<2<§coobolii Don't make the charcoal the occasion of your
coming, but the white lime ; (interpreted as an invitation
to come on a moonlight night). Tanaw W. i, 54. ooooc8o^
Gol8sGj^i 33(ego8so§ oooc^j . GGOoocSaocbii dcauy
phay causes create, fate decideshaving no regard to
fate's design of a life-long union. Kum. Py. Z. 34. Cf.
M. Sanda Py. Z. 62. o^Goo8o8c§ii^o8f.8c§ 33 (ego 8 sg 8
oo£§ d cauy phyi? be a cause, be enough to(the language)
was enough to choke, shock, the ears of decent people. Thing.
Sag. i, 117. Goqjo8sooosc§cfj 33(ego8st> §c8§c8n dcauy
me' without cause, justification, ibid. 109. 33(ego8st^s
c^gojoc8ooosc^§i o'cauy ymyo the nature of his reasons (in
reply to a question as to why he had acted in a certain
way). Mahawth J. W.i,207. osgoISsgoooSsodii 33(ego8s^j

oo^si! o'cauy hmya' conditions are favourable, opportunities
offer. Wisit. Sagab. 35. gooo&^o^S 33 (ego 8 s ty c c\q|c8
9 cauy hmya' ta' marry. Thing. Sag. i, 61. yoqj^8§8s^i
33(ego8sa^g^ c^Sii c^gcooc£go(tjs^86|§g§jgsi|ii d cauy youHi'
explanation which would account for. Thath. Wi. K. i, 188.
0308^930S^§£GJOO^O . qg^cSa^O^oSoO^SoS 33(ego8s^8s
gooo^Ssii 9 cauy "yiy origin, sourcethe source of strength or
weakness is good or ill conduct. Rup. D. K. 45. cogs^oGpn
33 (ego 8 s c^ jjo c^c8goooii d cauy fa search for causes
speculate as to how it happened. M. Sanda Py.
Z. 88. 8c8ysp oasjcgoSsJ 038 dcauy $i' there is
cause for (com. with 6p, etc.). Than. W. ii, 127.
£qc8o^c8qic888S|^D3G^o88ooo§jGooooo^ii there is only cause
for, there is nothing to be expected but. Cott. Ind. 1.
C^dSG88C^oSq)88£^SsD[8G^SC^ . G^SOO^OHOOOGOOOSS 33( 007 oo6}8o8@£gcooo£Sii dcauy mo hla' bad luck, a mis-
fortune. Sun Mag. 33(ego8sa>8 oo^gjgiig33o8sgggo1
gcoii dcauy diy' appropriate causeslet the a. c., i.e.
fate, decide. Tedat B. 13. oooGoooSsosG^oSsyooSs^ooc^ii
Sagab. 70. GooocftoSSosGj^oSsooSG^ooocfbii are on good
terms. Colloq. yy8sGoo8§8 33(ego8sao8Qc8 gjjoo§8slji
go§spn dcauy diy' my a? be married. Tanaw W. i,
70. 33 (ego 8 8 00 §11 ^cSo^c^GosqoogSii dcauy day one's luck
is in. Kawth. Py. Z. 30. 33(cgo8sc8 c8ii§8coc8c8|n
dcauy 6i' understand causes, get to the root of the matter.
Udein P. 29. spo$8c8ii 33(cgo8sc8c£ cjogo&i cause (triple
redundancynimitta, hetu, and oacgoSs all being =
"cause"). Kabya Kyem. 155. S3(ego88o^c8
93Gpoo^c8Gp§qjcoc^^oq|c8ii dcauy mohou? without proper
justification, frivolously (translating P. akarana). Nip.
i, 266. ngo1Go1ncog80O3c8gDO§(^ roegoagSroe^oSs^con
oche ornyi? dcauy mula' basis (explaining P. iddhi-pdda,
the basis of psychic power). Atithon K. 340. Form
(ego 8 s in combns., as sjGjagoSs^ooogSii seek a means of
obtaining, ggo^s88q|c888Ggo886§oc8ol8ii causes of, evil
conduct which leads to, loss of wealth. 3. fact, matter,
business; and when follg. a n. or n. clause, about, concern-
ing. 03SJ|C8|I33S8SII03GG|8II Oo8800£§03G(r§o88fcp8C^ §08080008

09)811 when the king learned these facts. KBZ. Hi, 339.
y88^goqj8god3ggo88ii facts about Minye Kyawzwa. gSs^s
^G33o8G|oo^8^oo^33Ggo8sii how Mingyi Yanaung became
a monk. Em. Yaz. ii, contents. 33 (ego 8 833(3 8 s 11
o8oo8sgo8oo§ ... s£j>o1|cgo8o}ii dcauy dchiy factstell us the
facts, the manner of keeping fast. Dh. Pala P. 23.
ua{<30S s oagS c^|y8yGaosflj§i dcauy okhwiy' facts, cir-
cumstances. Mahawth J. W. i, 157. o^cooIsc^ososoSg
§8s$n 33 (^o S s 33 cjp c^Gys§i dcauy oya the facts
putting questions as to the facts for the information of
other people. Mahawth J. W. i, 29. yooo8^ 33 [<308 8
33coSs dcauy dlay facts, facts about.

Kalid. K. 125. 33 (ego 83330 8 cv^js go ggj8ooosgod8§c^c8
oloogSii dcauy 'a lyo zwa in accordance with the facts (or,
perh. sometimes as the occasion requires). Freq. ending of


33 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



leading articles. oac^s^oagoao^c^^ogjSiingi^eooSaaos ebg-^oSs
@os o1no2]^GOo8oooocScraosooy|Gaoo8g]c8o1gSii icauy^cainform,
communicate the facts. Tanaw W. i, 59. Gosspcg8n
ssg^oss^jssoo c^so8oo@8ii icauy "chiy da' the facts,
the truth. Mala. Link. W. 31. 33Golc8oooo£§Gooo|cj£Soo£
sooo^i d^S . cS§8gco<^ii icauy ^chirj ya

facts, facts about. Zin. Pak. K. 575. oae^oSs oools
eaooS ^GgG3ao8G^|s§^8olo^oc8ii i cauy shauy produce a
fact, instance. Mahawth J. W. i, 126. cJc§cg§Gco§sG3oo
33G(go8so^Gsoo8Go<§ . . quoted historical facts as

illustrations. Bur. J. W. 66. o^GgsoSsoo 33 (op S softs
o^|ojsc§G(yoooo^8ao8scoo|is|3lc6ii icauy \lu matter, occurrence
of special importance. Than. W. iv, 74. 33o^338gosd8c§
oloogS EDG^oSs^S GOOo8sO^G09)Oc8cOOsgG00033s1^liaVmZ(^
hnirj' to the effect that (following the words of a request.
Apptly. a later development of constructions like §|8sco8ss|o1
ogSoaGgoSs. V. 2 sup.). Thing. Sag. i, 112. cgc8GOo8o£c§
33 S s (y ^ oo§Sn icauy pyay make a report (in a matter
with which theWun was already dealing). Kawi M.M.Ii. i, 72.
GooSsy8oooD3Go18sc§Daosii 33[cgoS? (^(o^s <§i icauy
pyar) sca inform, pass on information. Bat. Bhat. W. 32.
o3oq|s33G^oS?n ico icauy pros and cons. V. sso^jjs A. 3.

33G-(cg A dco n. Aloes-wood. V. ssgctjj^ A.

33 B 9C9 n. Name of a region or people. V. 33GcxyS B.

33g(c^S C 9C0 n. [cg8aD^ to fry.] fried food. 33s8§33Goq|8
(936g8)o3oo8o3cjc8ii Lawki Th. L.K. 177. sSSoocSS^sooosn
33s8S3a££So3G(^93G<^Sc^>oooosoo£Sii Kawe Th. K. i, 18.
Cf. 0k. Yaz. Py. Z. 123.

33 D 9cd n. [Gg8oo£§ to shout.] raucous call of certain
birds, such as crows and partridges ; shouting, loud sing-
ing. 33c8£si33G030c8l33Cg§l3aGg$l33G3a5l3aooSl Calls of IVlld
animals and birds. Adik. K. 82. (y^a^aoosc os (^^33(50 s§@£§or^ooj£ii 9co 9nya in loud voices.
KBZ. i, 19.

33 (oj 9co n. [£§oo£§ to meet, anticipate.] meeting on arrival,
one who meets; the eve (of a fast or feast.) jc§s§§8sii£§s{j>
ojiio3c8c8g|ii c1c^dSGoo8c^8o8oa|c§cgc8G£Sii will go forth to
meet. Hanth. Ayeb. 119. d3^gooSco8gs|^ ... soSs^oqjcSii to
wait in readiness to receive. Tanaw. W. i, 55. o^GooSoogS
dSGooor8s|00oSiid^sG3lc8^Go1ii sent nine times to meet. An-
thol. ii, 169. oa|r§G§ii the day before the first day (oaoq|G§)
of the Burmese Thingyan. Colloq. 33^s|c8o3^s|:^c§^go8
c8^sGoooo§(?oos|g^cSii patijagara fasting which consists in
keeping fast on the day before (33^) and the day after
(oa^) the recognized fast day. Bana B.K. 30. oojy^S
33c8c83a^coy^Goqj8oosjc8G|33^§,8ooogo9SS|c8ii three days, viz.
the full moon day, the day before (oacScSsag) and the day
after. Wima W. 65.

33^33[ego? 9co ica n. [more com. in forms and gos
each preceded by a n.may be an anticipatory re-
duplication of |ogos, sagos interval v. oagos A.] out of the
way place, recess. gggosgosiicspSii <^8sg§§£§f>osii39|c§
o3goK§iiG@scgo:^!Goao8s§Gf6|aj^ii Thath. Bahu. 143.

A 9cav> n. [gjcScogS to like.] liking, approval, that

which is to one's liking. sacfyiooGooon oflcdSsagcSisac^cS
G^OGoogsg8t§83ao^c^g§i Tern. J.W. 53. ^ooocoGscSsagjcS^&i
o3l(o§1)^ooGco8 in the style of Patacari such as the present age likes. M.
Sanda Py. Z. 76. d8^siGo8^c§o3crj|cS(a3@cS)93cg^cSGoooa9cS
ooSooocooo^Ssii a wicked decadent age such as Senaka and
Devinda (the worldly-minded sages in Mahawth. J.W.)
would like. Thing. Sag. i, 209. 6^so^Gcg6^sooosGog33gc8c^
33(^c£)oo833ao8oo8G3ao8iio(|cg8ooo86joooii so as to please. Ledi
Kein 105. Cf. ibid. 41. 3ao|c8(33go8)^s^gsaq|8ii3a^,^;@;
c^sgc^cSGcoii has cracked the pot of liking and stirred the pot
of flummery, i.e. has declared himself and is making
violent love. Sagad. W. 47. 03cgc§cgc8§sc^j8 oagcSocy
qjosGep8s(§osGooo8s)§i 9caP ca' to their liking. Up. Muh. K.
ii, 125. cjjc$$5008^sc§ sajojjcS^S gsjjii dcaP nyi agree, be
unanimous, in approving. KBZ. i, 128.

33 B 9caP n. [gc8oo£§ to meet with.] 1. proximity of
the moon to one or other of the twenty-seven asterisms.

--^5588o003>02d53ag(^cg8os0^so1sc§^33cgc8o?

6ps33§8c§Gpc860o8floo£Sii when the moon was in the mansion
of Visakha. Kawi L.B. 254. oosq§co@£§G§8ooo3'l$ogc8
3sgc8cg8ii (where mention of the moon is omitted).
Mahawin W. 249. 2. time. goc8iioooodii33s1ii 335)8000
at the time when. Tham. L.P.W.
66. c^c§3aooc£§£Gooo8sooSs3agc8§ii period, age. ibid. 47.
ooc8iio^33^c8^c8o3)8ii at that time (or, peril, in those circum-
stances). Paya N.W. 104. c^330c8§98s... cgoso^oooogSs
at that time. ibid. 49.

33 gco' n. [gjoo^ to be submissive.] deference.Goaoc8
@§8si!c^sc4s§8s 08^00(080800) ... 390833^11 winning over (an
opponent) by deference. M. Muni Th. P. 12.

33(0^8 A ico n. [gsoo,£ to try hard, strive hard.] In augmns.
with great effort. gsgsoosoo? 33 (o^s 00 o 8 oq|c8s)§s
^ooGGS^oqjooo^ooogS ico tiza. It's sickening to fail in the
examinations after having had to study so hard. Colloq.
6|(j>Gg6|§j6|§ 33 [o^s co o S s oogloosps|sGso8n ico tibay try hard
to stimulate generosity. Sun.

33(0^8 B ico n. benefit. V. 33crjJ[8 A.

33 og 9kwa' n. and n. affix. [O.B. oaog SIP. 5, 27. og in oftog to
be together. Maru t9ga along with. A.C. (yud (K. 70) har-
monious, together with.] association, similarity, to-
gether. 330^11330^00 Cgll OOCgll 00OSGOo8oj[|8ll GolSsGOoSoSCgil

who, when at play, associate together. Bur. Z.P. 57.
8soogS@8oiioaog§8§8ii just like a great flowing river. Pyatih.
P. 41. 6ioo£033cS^S330gGpc£cooor^ii together with. Paya
N.W.5. yd5G6j338§8nc8$S330gii shoes together with water dipper
and needle (^c8gs| for gs|^c8 and sracg separated from §8
metri gr.). Bh. Pala. P. 42. o^oocS^Sooagg^^cb^cSGocbn
accomplished not only in scriptural learning but also in
other respects. Colloq. Myingyan. c!§8 eoog^cS oacyjcos
ooc8^|gSs§8g§i dhva' nz> together, jointly. Paya N.W. 108.

oacgcS 9hve? n. [ogc8oogS to be spotted, be sporadic.] 1.
a spot, a discoloration. 3aoc8i!33g^sn ooo8sic8§83aogc83a^ii


34

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

^oo9gn£>§8sooosu white spots due to cutaneous disease,
leprosy, etc. Nara Se It. 22. oaogcSojjsGaos^^sn LISK. 140.
330gcS330gcS§!8ggf|£raao8s§iGoo5 ibid. 136. 039800X9008808
c§nooGo8o9sqspo§GD3o8 oaogcSoaogS? 00300809^11 dkwe?
dhwiy spots and circles, blots. Colloq. Tavoy. 2. a
square (as on a chessboard), a check (on cloth), a facet
(on a cut stone), a defined area, a compartment, a section of
a book, a space. 3300^11333^51133308511 8096183300089011330308
qo8so1oocrbn I am (like) a king in an attack in chess who has
got a (good) square. Kum. Py. Z. 32. osogcBcgosfosco^Soo^Sii
understands the moves (at chess). Colloq. qc8c^Goooo3so8
c^33cgc8Go8|33c^8s{|£Sc^§Gooo9§8oo^ii (in explanation of sjSoo)
a pattern showing the checks and indicating the threads
of the warp, i.e. indicating the arrangement of the colours
in the warp necessary to produce the check. U Pon M.
Com. 65. Cf. Cott. Ind. 9 and U Pon Taya Com. 79. c^s
olSSgSiiepcSasogcSii signs or parts of the zodiac each
measuring nine pads, or 2 J- asterisms. Udein P. 91. q8s
(i.e. S^sraogcBG^o^sabG^cSolsii arrangement of facets, ways of
cutting diamonds. LHRK. 93. oo8GOOogs^8sc^g8Gosoo^
33ogc8qpsii blocks, compartments in a reserved forest. Sun
Mag. o1soq|^GOOoc8^33og8s§!i9^g8sGcgcSGcoo8s§iooc8Gsi|o8s|8
f,c8oocbc§ii33ogc8oco8iigosg86po§8ii space, room to hold.
Up. Muh. K. i, 267. cooIsgooB^o . oaogcSoaoo^ii ^8s
§osoo|<§n dkwe? dkar)' divisions, compartments (on Buddha's
foot). Sagab B. 3. |jo§q|osoo§i336|S39S oaogcSo^S qps
33d8ll33c9^0ri|g|go§oyc8llc7d8soc8oo8soc8aj^sco^goc8(go8)g^oc8
6|00£§n dkwe? ou? subordinate headman in a town. MMOS.
iv, 33. Cf. Up. Muh. K. i, 110. cocgcSogcS 330o|oo|noo|
Oo|§OS§OSI1000SOOOSf.O?^OSI1090SOo8oo8ligC^8s§8G33o8 . 8sod£§
og8iic89^Sc§c8o1oo^ii dkwe? kwe? in sections, paragraphs.
Kinkha N. Pref. osoo^issogcS dkarj' dkwe? compartments,
subdivisions of a figure ; obstacles. V. 33oo§n For oaogSs
oaogcS dkwir) dkwe? v. 33038211 630o8oft6oo8^6oooo^sofl3o833§
GOOOO£OOO^33Go18s0§0^33c8s33c8s 33^33<£cS dSu'

dkwe? categories and localitiesthey were regimented and
allotted a part of the town for their residence. Hm. Yaz.
i, 252. Cf. ibid. Hi, 222. Form ogcS kwe?, gwe? com. in
combns. as cooosogcS ziya gwe? space enclosed by lines
in a form or statement, o^crygSg&oogcS mi'jizi'gwe? a
small check, as in shepherd's tartan, hmarj gu

gwe? a panel, cocSogcS le gwe? a rice-field. Rem. 33ogc£
33 cry 8 s* dkwe? d~cir) in sense of rice-field has not been
recorded, but appears possible : cf. ooSgcosgoooBsc^co^Ss
ooogc&oocry 8 8 oco8c8cg8§i td gwe? id sjiy one field, plot
he brought 40,000 pe under cultivation, not a plot, not
a field being uncultivated. KBZ. ii, 58. [330^8? prob.
from oqjSsoogS to spread ; hence, like 3338s, = a cleared,
defined piece of ground. Cf. codSoqjSs rice-fields, ooo8c oq|8s an area which grows thatch, 39080^85 a brick-field.] 3.
favourable position of affairs, conditions, occasion, ground,
and other metaphorical uses derived from meanings under 2,
mostly rather slangy. 33^|c8iiGf.6poooq|ii33§8ii ^sgpo^BoaogoS
olcfcii if it rains, it will be just what we want. Colloq.

Salin. 3303080^0^5833^8§|oc§ 1 goojqpsogo8ocoosii finding fault
without any justification. Kum. Py. Z. 47. c^gs^ioooos
5833(^5000533 03080^ 00 co 08 cv^]89osc88o£Sii you will be wrong to
come mucking in on the arrangements made by the old folks.
(330308 having prob. some suggestion of 0080308 scene in
a play", hence situation as arranged".) ibid. 23.
33ouSgcosiiog33scd33030811 unfortunate turn of affairs. M.
Sanda Py. Z. 95. §8sc§3303o8co^so§goo9sii no possible ground
for refusing. Than. W. Hi, 21. o8sooooooS3gcooScocS^8oo^
33Gooo8iioocSG^6p9 33 og cS 33 cry 8 s ooqpjsn dkwe? dcir) the
"spot"a muddleheaded person, never on the spot, never
doing the right thing (33oq|8s expletive. V. Rem. above).
Colloq. Danubyu. o^ooo1s§8ooo8g33o8ii saogcSoasp oaoscc^jS
goi!gooogo60oojooosc§(g8 . GooogosGoo8<^^8oo^ii dkwe? dya
place and conditions, special occasionhe could use
illustrations which were to the point. Up. Muh. K. ii, 49.
33 og cS 33 co rS oqjG33o8oo(gGC06pii dkwe? die? sections and
limbsgave a performance in which the component parts
fell into their proper places, a competent performance. Sun.
33ogr8ooo8s 09)800000811 dkwe? *kaur) the opportunity is
good, one gets a favourable opportunity. Sagad W. 66.
3303o8gooo8sgoto5)8goo8o9^9^oo^gc88o^n Hmaing Hma ii,
67. ^(8o^s§8s)o95(|{so9so^3309s^o8 ssogcSocy Goooogo8n
33G6iso9ooj&336ptpsoo£Sii dkwe? ca' fall in place, be unerring.
MMOS. i, 70. ^o1§(^33f.o8o^3303o8oq|ooo8i!c1o§8GoooGgo8ii
do not perfectly understand the meaning. Up. Muh. It. i,
292. 3303o8oq|^^sc§^oiio89S58o8sj9§Si! thoroughly pulverizing
him and befooling him by my machinations. Kum. Py. Z.
52. ^8cGS|533§833q|08c§0^ 33 0gcScrycry dS^OSCOgSg^SOjB
dkwe? ca ja' thoroughly. Sun. o^ooocgoS ssogcSjcg^S
^Gf.G|00dSn dkwe? ci' look for a chance (of benefiting oneself).
Pyaz. goaSg8s33Gcc|po8ii oosyoBooo^ii 33Cgo8o^g£S§so9j8ii 08^08
633080388609008^11 to the best of my ability, in various ways,
looking to the possibilities, I put in and mix (my materials)
so as to impress (the audience). M. Sanda Py. Z. 83.
o^oo^s§c8soo8o5)8§S339gs 33ogc8a^c8 900611 dkwe? shai?
affairs reach a favourable positionif she were to speak
to me first, it would suit my book. Than. W. iv, 76. 0008
000003303083^0803308^0980005080006^603^(^11 just as if we
had arranged it to suit ourselves. Sun. 6^58395113339500
gjo8goooc1 33ogrSe-oT cSSogSn dkwe? po favourable con-
ditions will appear, my turn will come. Up. Muh. K.
ii, 359. Cf. Hmaing W. i, 39. osogcS (c§s o^SgooBii
o663oo8c§oo9osii dkwe? yai? be luckyyou are going to be
very lucky but you don't believe in fate's help. M.
Sanda Py. Z. 58. 60o8§8s(qj8s)9o osogcS codS (cogS)
G33o8go8oodS^ooooss|00^n dkwe? le (? one goes round the
squares, achieves completeness) things are working well for
one. Up. Muh. K. ii, 228. oflf>oo$DooosSolii . csosc^solss ..
589 9 §5009 .. £GOSG£§ii . 330308000^38 ... coggo^Gosolo^ii
you tout for me and I will give you half my fees. Mean-
while, before our scheme is working properly, I will give
you free treatment. Ok. Mai. K. 67. o^c^Goga^oooco^Ssn
^fgOOOOSpsgs§8o1o0^113303c8cod8cOcS(cO^CO^S)ffOc838s6)G33o8ll it


35 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



was difficult to get a meeting like this. Let's get the play
going (i.e. let us take advantage of the opportunity). Kh.
M.G.W. ii, 1. uoG|s8§8gs£SSc§cgosc§o30gcSco^§ii conditions
have now become favourable for a visit to K's house.
ibid. 81. o3Cgc8cocS(co^)G3ao8f.osGooo8o1ii listen till the
matter is fully dealt with. Kum. Py. Z. 33. cg^s

(^Cg§lls1o3^0llf.0^o1c8so8ll8§(c8o8)G|c8^0ll 33 0gC& 08 00 8 GGJO

00811 the time is ripeat this full moon, on this lunar day,
of successive hours and quarters, the time seems to be ripe
(i.e. for an eclipse), ibid. 32. 33og8s33ogc£ dkwiy dkwe?
clearly, so as to be perfectly comprehended. V. 33 og 8 s 11
00 d^ a£ s as og cS GoTG3ao8ii(gc8Goo8§oooqjcS kd v daiy dkwe? the
spot used as an aid to concentration (usu. ooc§o8sogc8).
Inaung Z. 2.

33eg 8 s d'kwiy n. [og8soo^S to make a circle.] 1. curved
line, circle, cleared space; clear comprehension. §c8§8sn
33§c8nog8s[y8ii3300833(jjosn G||G^oc8og8s|ii330g8s33G§o8ii pene-
trating forwards and backwards, sometimes circling,
sometimes going straight. Kutha P. 80. G33c^sgs330g8s

^c8ll(,>8330G0006000000033333333$ll0T>3§33S600O330g6pcdSc§Cg08cg8s

sjy^Sn within the encircling line of each of the sa-ma's
(Gt>o), written large, insert in small letters pu, di, a, etc.
Bame Let Twe K. 155. sfl^Sc^oaogSsc^Sn make the yarn
into a coil. LISK. 118. olg8sot>c§33og8s6|ii you can't make
a silk purse out of a sow's ear. Sagah. 111. oooooo88
c§6cgs§ic^s6|§os^oc^8sag]8iic^s66|00^S330g8sc§c8§c80q|00gSii drops
out as a circle ; i.e. the circular piece within the marking
drops out. U Pon. M. Com. 166. ( ) gjjcgosogSs
oo^Ss§c8n brackets. (og8s is more com. in this sense.) Tanaw
W. i, 133. 338§86o1codSnc§sooS330g8siioo^Goo8g8scog&sii so
numerous that a space of 9 pe, or 18 acres, would not hold
them. Nemi Bon. P. 28. 33o^(^o?c8goo5<§o§gooSco£S; . .
6o8c8^mc8§oc§ooc85jisj8s330g8sa3cg8s§i8§8g6co(^ii though the
name was not mentioned, people, as they read, clearly saw
K's face (and knew that he was referred to). Shwep. W.
213. 33oaooggn8fpggoo8s33s(|c8c§c§oooii 3aog8s33cgcS 6oTospn
GisSooo§6ooog5n d'kwiy dkwe? clearly, so that perfect com-
prehension results. Boyc. 2. §iioo8iic§oo£§@o8goor}Gps<^igoa8
60oS§ 33og8sog8s33ogc8ogcS oo8§|Osgoo^ii d'kwiy sgwiy
dkwe? kwe? development and dissolution were perfectly
comprehensible to the Buddha's intellect. Nib. Pak. K. 123.
ggocgSsc^n 33og8sc^c8 gsjgSSoloooSii d'kwiy lap clearly
see it c. (in my mind's eye). Shwep. W. 295. §§033s||8s
3|8s338o^o8s§8g5c§ 33og 8 s ooos §88gooooo^Sii d'kwir) sda
clearly, plainly. Sun. clSoooooosc^GoooiPsogSsooosgl
Goooyoooobc^ii ? openlyo. reject your father's advice.
Ok. Yaz. Py. Z. 87. Rem. 33og8sg^s dkwiy "zuy
translates P. pasanta and perh. = a hanging end consisting
of a bight or fold of cloth (in description of maccha-valaka
or fish-tail garment worn by the Chabbaggi heretical monks).
Kinkha N. 442. 2, 33og8s33^jfS d'kwir) dchi n. [q^S
oo^S to fasten.] jewellery. coc8oc8coc8osii aofos60o8§c8
ssjoo^ii33028s33S||^Sii330o^S33c85stjGoo8q|osc§ii HI. Rec. 162. ggo
COcSg§II 6§|6gll 330g8s33^j^Sll 3300£§33c8oil gos^osc^oo^Ssil ibid. 93.

6§)Gg33og8sa3§^(33^)ii330o^o3c85ii Att. Van. Dham. 123.
8sg8g§833500^|G00S . 6§|0lc86gQlc8c§OO^ajSaO^S6OOO33Og8;
33S))^330o^33(|[sfe|s33§8c§6Gpc8go9^ii Ledi Kein 129. So,
33^S33og8s dchi d'kwir).

ssog^ okuy' n. [og|oo^ to be luxuriant.] a long, lush shoot,
luxuriance, joyousness, expansiveness. ssooc&ias^iiGOGoaoo
300§8§8sil^3l^;CgoS§8sil 6§|6g0o8o8g^ll330g§|§js§i;il lusty shoots.
Anthol. Hi, 19. 33^Sood8ii6§coc8oodS^|ii33C^|^§oii if the
middle toes and fingers on both sides are long shoots, i.e.
are long. Thamud K. 6. ^ols§ii3l33og|ocS^ii in the joyous
season of Wazo. Sehnit. Ya. 15. §c^c§soo|§8ii33og|ooq|dSii
ooo^o3|cS88ii I will compose my poem in nine stanzas
without undue expansion. Wid. P. 49. 33og^oog| 03811
33^33c§c8nog|^c8ooosii dkuy' guy' with profuse shoots.
Ming. E. 64. cSS330g|og|ii33^§|86ooo8sii with many spirals
(of cloud). Nemi Yag. 53. 33c833c§c8ii33§c8330o|n 33og^
335^11 co£Sao£§oc8oc8n dkuy' dfi luxuriant, expansive
eloquence. Parami P. 97. o^c§ooc8oo 33og^oocS c§c8
ooonoo^oospsoocSeooo^so^ooSojsii dkuy' Is? put out shoots,
resort to all sorts of expedients for prolonging litigation.
Colloq.

33 og 8 dku> n. [og5oo^S to secure by a binding or edging.] 1.
an edging, a binding, felloe of a wheel. oafosiiooo^ii 60008;
330g5ic^33oc8n clothes are to a man what the edging is to a
basket. Sagab. 58. gospc?oo§o3|833og5^oo^Sg8sc6c§§G^|oo^Sii
like boards without an edging or frame (to keep them
in place). Hm. Yaz. Hi, 98. Cf. Manir. K. 120, Razad. Th.
K. 44. Ggoooo8sy^oo^soo^o8ii33ngc8(o3q28)633oc8og8ooo§jol6o
ooj&n there was not a full bushel of silver; it came just
up to the lower edge of the binding. Wisit. Por. Sagab.
96. 330odSoo8ao^iG^8oooisjooos330gS330s. . §8§>oof>p8sn felloe
of a wheel. Nip. iv, 88. ogg)c^§1^ .. 3sog8o^sc§sjSoogS^Goo8
330g5oofSco^Ss33Cg^8oo^S§£coooii surround the circular felloe
with hide. ibid. 90. 330g5o3oo^600o8s§8ooogc8c9^Ssc8sii
felloe and spokes. KBZ. i, 281. 33cSooI>1g|00^so^6ooo
33oo|iK?spoGjcBooj60oo330g8ii the spokesaccumulation of merit
or demerit, the felloedecay and death (in the wheel of
samsara). With. At. 325. Cf. Paya Shiko 23, Thuw. Thissa
P. 56, Anthol. ii, 372. c8^33s^;330g5n the circumference
of the wheel or circle on Buddha's foot. MTTK. 210.
6cos^o2)^sooongogl33og5ii the four islands within the ambit
of the Cakkavala system. Thuw. Thut. P. 27. Cf. Nemi
Ngaye P. 6. 2. agency securing cohesion; control,
discipline, punishment.333^533^|[5iis^so§8sii (o)§|c8§8soj6ooo
c8Sj(j) Ggoc8§8so^Gooogggoii^ooeps§£o1soogSn GODOOOO^GCOSG^OCS
cS^iaSSso^^iieooooo^saogS^So^^ii controlling, restraining
influence. Razad. Th. K. 44. gsgoGooo33og5eoo8c§sisjogSii
punishment. HI. Rec. 31. 33 og 8330b (y8s§ooj£$8 .. c£j>c8
§c8jgspn dku> dke enforcement of authority. KBZ. Hi,
125. 33Go8336f.33gs33g5330g833C7b^8oocgs|ooos§i superior
officers. Kawi L. D. 381. §cS^s8obiif>osooS6^sii saogS
33(03811 6s18sil33gsil§8s63l8sil§8s8s00(^c^j§^;6§s)g&0^c8§8ll dku9
dca9 officers (prob. not of very high rank, as an oajcxjS was
in command of ten men). King Pagan's order of 1851


36

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

at HI. Rec. 31. gosg33§iogdosgoq|§c§ oaogSiragjjS goooSs
ajGoooG^oSii^l^jsSg^oogii dku? dhnya? control, ability to
keep their men in hand. KBZ. i, 94. Goo8so8oooqjj>c^ii33ogS
33g5a3^c8oa§c8g8s(yGoooG(^oSii discipline, severity. Attok.
29. a30g593g8i33ooc8a3Gooo8sn Pap. Py. Z. 7. gSs^o^gooS
y^GoooG^oS oaogSoatycS ss|Goooso8cbn dku? dm/ye? disci-
plinary action and wrath, severe punishment, usu. execution.
Kawi L. D. 133. 33 3|S33ogS dou? dku? command (in
the army). MMOS. i, 15.

oaogiS A dkwe n. [ogoSiic£oiiogoii used in familiar address,
approximately = old man old girl ".] thou, you.
Go8o8sii s8t)]0sil 030goSc§OOOSII 8s0ls^ssj8sil O30g8sG008ll(tj8G00S
oogSn§^^8c^8sGSjSiioo§Ggso9ii you, worthy to be employed in
royal courts on internal or external affairs, bred to be
ambassadors on state business. Kutha P. 93.

33ogoS B dkwe n. [ogoSoogS to screen.] 1. a position of
concealment, obstacle to the view, protection, protective
measures. ogoSspiioasSsoaooosii oo^cgSs^ogdSiiosSsDacouS^on
in the middle of the mere, hidden (or cut off) from here
by the fields. M. Sanda Py. Z. 70. oos1sg)c83aogcSG^o8^S§
in the shadow behind the door. W. Gc8o3ogoS^GS||oSsG§o8s
g^G^oo§8ii SJF. 256. coc8Gg)3ac^soo^§s£ocguSgbo^is weak in
defence(inboxing).CoZZo5,.o^ooG|(^io3<^(GpuSo^G§8s9lii3aoi33og8si

8tC§ 33 Og oS 33 00O § 8GOOo8sg033Go833G§jOc8oOOSGOi^ill

dkwe dka protective measures. Tem. J.W. 29. oaogcSoacoon
03§sii03£j|8gsdsc§ii protection by charms, drugs, etc. U Pon. M.
Com. 147. 33 con oa og uS dka dkwe means of protection. 2,
denial, refusal to admit. @8s§8siiog@o8§8sii j §sg§o8g
oguSoog8ii35ogdS^oo .. j^[Sgi@goo8oo£Sii if there is denial
(if each party refuses to accept the other's version) each
should be made to state his case and produce evidence.
Yesag. Kh. Py. 15. eraogcSoaoo^ ^xjs|(yGoo6ii dkwe dkar)
denial, ibid. 83.

33 ogo dkwa n. [ogooogS to be separated in space, to divorce.]
interval of space, incongruity, divorce. 330982110300233ogon
0ggq|0c80c8§80.ll OgO g§oc8ii multiply by six (the number of) houses in the interval
separating the house of exaltation and the house of debility.
Maha Thuz. II. 60. G£o8Gg§o3G§|j §8Goq|5o3CgoogSii at a
distance of over two miles from Yawnghwe. U Pon. M. Com.
132. Cf. Adik. K. 119. o^sgjfSc&nosogogai a monk
has no concern with a comb (because he has a shaven crown).
Sagab. 81. oocSooooaSosogo^ii relief is far away. Zawta
Kum. Py. Z. 23. ooos^g33cgo^8sc§oooos|^sogoc^c8ooggpii
tells him to divorce his wedded wife. Pyaz. co8G|§ii
GiGooocoSoo^Sosogo^josroii either won't get a husband, or the
husbands she does get will be apt to divorce her.
LHGK.32. s^S 33ogo33C\jSs qpsc^cjs^cSii dkwa dhlar)
distance. Thath. Wi. K. i, 196. Cf Adik. K. 119. groecoo
cxjssj? 33 0g0 330 cgc8§sodSo^a^a9j8n dkwa d\ve distance
length of the journey. Sun. o^oa^osogoosGos^cSosS
eSiii Adik. K. 121.

33 og dkwe' n. [cogoo^S to be curved.] a bend, curve, corner.
GOOo8Gcgsiiooao8^jsno3600oc8ii co8s^oso3Gggiis|8s^86Cigoo§8ii

a turning in a lane. Thut. Pak. 62. GS|Oo^ooobgSn... oacogoo
goooSii tank with 1,000 bends (in the bank. Cf. Mahawth.
J.W. i, 15). Anthol. ii, 374. a^oS^o^GoooSoos^osogcSiicocS
6ooc8o3Gg|Gooo8o3Gogog8ii§Sg8G|9iio39038^8siithe saZ-grove which
lies to the left as you issue from the south gate of Kusinara,
at the south-east corner. Pak. With. K. ii, 544. os^sc^
c88Ggoiio3Gogc^oo^o1n for vapour the cloud-drift, for
curves Winkaba. Yama Yag. i, 144. 33 eg 33 000 c8
ooGOOoS§Gooooo6ooogn dkwe' dkau? twists and turnings. Yat.
Kyem. Z. 78. ooc^)8s^c8oogoS 33og33g3oSs gs|2^2c^j8
dkwe' d^nyauy curly and (?) elongated (of the appearance
of the letter q). Woh. Pak. K. i, 163. oooSc^cogSsoGogn

33 Og 33 CO II (fijS) ojs (gjs) 00!<£$8§0S0^G0D0G@0&I

dkwe' dli turns and circuits, devious routes. Kalid. K. 26.
o8ojcS8c§ii 33c88o3ogii o3g^o3gdc8n dleir) dkwe' curves
and angles. Thuw. Thissa P. 79.

oaeegs d'kwe n. [eogsoo^S to bend.] an incurved form, attitude

or article.-C^S8sG00OO36pllO3G00Oc8o3GC]gSII-OJOGOGOSGCOcgllOSaj}

ooGpGSgso1oocSiio3GogS58Gf.o9^ii in deep grief beyond others I
lie huddled up. Shwenan Hma. 70. oo8sc^^giiGgc8o3Gogsn
go8gosco§osgsjs§ii curved circles = cakkaviddhi pierced circles,
shooting an arrow with a thread attached to it so as to
pierce four objects at the corners of a square and return
to the starting point (v. Jataka No. 522, transl. Francis,
v, 68). Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 124. Gcgsc^oj^s . (y^cslcS
oo^o3Gogsooc8^no3c^8so9S9ogc8§i from the side of the curve
where the large blood vessel turns back (i.e. from the
convex side of the bend). LHGK. 30. Gcos§[o(^)ooogciSc98
ooosGoooosGogsii a bent article made like a bow-string (the
writer apptly. means bow "). Cottage Industries, 6. els
8o3G§sii9g^o3Gogsii (cook) ngapi till it is warm, and prawns
till they take a curved form. Sagab. 32. 33 fOO cS 33 Cg S
dkau? d'kwe a curved, usu. misshapen, article.

33c^ d'kwe n. [c£oo(& to crack (intr.), to be broken in pieces,
separated.] 1. a cracked or broken article, fragment,
breakage. 0303c8ii03^8s03ii o3C^GcgGoooc8o8c^c8o1 pick up
and remove the broken fragments. Colloq. o^ooo^soo^gsds
G3)8o3(^psooos}]t&sabii breakage. Colloq. o3dbsooc8f>£§siio3c£soocS
fighting (wrestling) the object of which was to get
the opponent down ; fighting the object of which was
to draw blood. MMOS. iv. 222. ggoo3Gq|oc8o3qjc8
33 33 o $8§i d'kwe dfa' damage by breakage. Manu
386. 00GoSo^GSjf.s§G00g5o^|oss|jsp33c^o3§|G§c6§8ii Sun. 2.
separation, division, distinction. oosoc8oo£&sogf§8siioo§os8§8

§8sil-33G00S33^ll33C^33C^oll33^33G^o8sr 33G0008S33S^SII ^jS^SC^S^SlI

could make figures of all kindssmall, in separate pieces,
of one piece, pliant, good and evil. Kutha P. 74. s^8sp^si
33c^33^o§ o^iiooooo(£s3oSs^oo8s§|c8o16|G33o8ii d'kwe d'pya
distinctionthat I may have authority over all the civil
officers alike. HI. Rec. 208. o3g§GcoSGgu}c8Ga3]oc^sooc8e£
G§o8s£jjooosii33c^33§oso§ii without divisionwithout attempt-
ing, as by subletting, to divide his responsibility for
payment to the state, ibid. 89. (Cf. ibid. 85, 87, 88, where
this expression, which is a stock phrase in contracts and
applications therefor, seems to have the same meaning.)


37 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



c1so1s§|£o1saocSo1so§coc^^!a3oys3a§os33c^o3§oscgo8c^o1oogSii dis-
tinction between. Pak. With. K. ii, 51. coc^c^ g^^gco
dkwe xgive in different directions. Hanth. Ayeb. 73.
33c£o£|)g§i by different routes. Hm. Yaz. Hi, 17. oooo^
feps33c£c£§8oo§sn divided into factions, disunited. Sun.
c£j>8s@£§og8 @£6f>Gooo33c£q|os§S330o8sq|080oii

d'kive "gwe dspya "bya independent, disunited. Sun.
Dac^sc^scooo . tpsc^GooooooocSc^ii d'kioe ygioe dwa' wa'
various. Ok. Mai. M. 53.
coogjcS dcu? n. [O.B. aklwat, SIP. 23, 95. ngic8oogS to come
off, be released, be without remainder.] 1. state of being
left out, release, dissociation from the things of the world,
Arahantship. og|c8cgc8§8sii8Gooogii o8c88Gogn§|^§|gS^siiGo
c8s§(8oqjGGJOII£OODOOOOOO . ^OCOOII030000cS§|OSII330g]c8aq|OllgcSoOO

c§c^ncgc8spc7Dooos§so9)8nthe long lottery tickets coincided (were
drawn coincidently with) the talipot seeds. The useless
white blanks are just put aside. The unfortunate ones
which are left out (don't win a prize), iguana-like (in
wretchedness), having been set apart. M. Sanda Py. Z.
23. D3(^c8s|go9^G0003a^CDOf.cSc§00^00903s1§^c8§^SG§OcSooS^O
the deva heavens are now full of
good devas who obtained release (the meaning must be "who
entered the stream, became Sotapannas "). Ledi Kein 79.
Cf. SIP. 23. oaogjcSa^ (c§sc^o§so8coo|oooii acu? shu' the
boon of Arahantship. Teri Pyan 68. coogjcSoocps s|gco
o^oo^Sii dcu? td'ya the condition of Arahantship. Zin. Pak.
Ii. 64. Cf. SIP. 104, Dham. D. K. 129. ctfo^336jc8oGoooc8
Goooajsii3ao2jc8cospss|cgo?§ii is a reformed character. Colloq.
oacgjcSogo go2ooooooc^j8iiooyoooo[gi:s|^o3y^Sn acwp pyiynya
the highest knowledge leading to Arahantship. W. M. Th.
K. 82. 2. without remainder, the whole.jrafgSs&iEBa^ii
qj c8gooo8 ooscS 93038 s 900833(0^ 8oospooGooo8ooococ^ oS o} 8 33 eg) c8
ogoSsqs^ii the whole body utterly perishes a hundred, a
thousand times in the duration of a wink of the eye.
WMDK. 51. c^c£qosgoqps§8iioD.£oo^3302|c8ii over the whole
world with its many continents. Kinw. M. 9.

A dcuy n. [og|£ slave, servant.] your servant, I.

0gJ§Sll0g)§GII-330c88^00gSll^COc8GSOo8oang|^GOS09)8330g)^G|G33o8

Gap(£olGt&flj§3^Cvg|8 . 0^8^2000^11 G^OcS600Scr^6pSII 00gScoc8
6oooc8ooo33og)|cor8Goooc8^^o^s^(^iii I (used first by a man
and then by a woman). Anthol. i, 317. ^sG00SGS|8nyGc?S
330g)£no§|ior^ii Your servant, I. Hm. Yaz. i, 347. Cf. Than-
waya P. 38,40. 33ogi^c§£^8cooocogSojscoosii woman speaking.
Pdkokku. 33og)^(r3oso^^osoGooo8ojsii woman speaking, ibid.
^8o5^sc§G§0933c^8s33og|^Ggooo§Sii§8s§SG|dSGoog^ii laughed
because, Arakan fashion, she used 33ogi§ (as 1st person
pron.). Sun Mag.
saegj^ B dcuy n. [ogj^oogS to pass beyond, exceed.] passing
by, excess, great quantity. 33cg§n (ygSooGc^ooSosng)^
ogcS|c^c8oo^ii§t^oo6c^aj8qjcSG03(^ii attacked the Prome fleet
after it had passedtook it in the rear. Taz. D. K. 108,
Hm. Yaz. ii, 207 (where the word is spelled oaogjii) o§st|s
GocStf[siio88fe|s dcuy dluy in profusion. Kinw.

M. 38. dluy dcuy (

oogj^S dcuy nou> pron. [og^8 Islave and ^8oo(& to be
insignificant.] your servant, I. ogi§8 osog^SoogSos^dj
gooood^ . 33og]^8s^Goooooooso7c8^^o1oo£Sg8o9)8ii (in form of
oath said to have been written by Bayin Naung). Anthol.
ii, 73, 74. 8ooSGooSco^siif>^sGoT^ss)|[Sii3Sog)^8cOtSsii§|c83^SGOGoii
G£oo8f.£sG^ooj£n my mother was a queen and I lived in a
leaf-covered banyan-palace (a prince speaking to equals).
Udein P. 113. Rem. Use in mouth of a woman not
recorded but apptly. possible,
oogj^s A d'euy n. total consumption by fire. V.

3n2J

Ss A.

saogj^s B 9scur/ n. intimacy. V. 3aogjSs B.



Ss A d'euy n. [og|8soo:S to be reduced to ashes.]

total

consumption by fire, reduction to ashes. (yo@8Gd3o8Gcoo8
og|8s§8sn ijS8ooGC9£Sc^8 [(pcS^c&ra] ngj8oG|00cfb0^8ii apptly. =
ashesjust as on burning a cart-load of cotton (^8s) you
get no ashes. SIP. 7. Cf. Kawi L. D. 19, and S. D. Kh.
P. 62. co8sooooGooo8c^sc^39og|88^c8nooGgs§iSf.dSii bake till re-
duced to ashes. LISK. 91. c8Gcoooot|sGd3Go18scgc^ . 8
g1a8oogsaj6ooo8s§8ii33§sooc833og)8sGcvj)8^o8338Gco§ii The seeds
of desire have been thoroughly fried to ashes in the fire
which is the insight of the Path. Teri Pyan 17. Spelled
33og]§s at Se Iik. 121 and Gives. Se K. 8. oscgSsoGjejnosc^Ss
Ggc6ii6goo^8c^n the troubled state of unalleviated distress
and ceaseless longing (dsogjSs prob. = osy heat, distress).
M. Sanda Py. Z. 105.
racgjSg B d'euy n. [ogj8soo^S to be on familiar terms.]
familiarity, intimacy, fondness. 33081180811 Recorded only
in combns. saogjSsrcjjSa^s obojSojgosii d'eur) ciy szony the
most familiar (with the work), skilled. Pol. Econ. 218.





oS cy§<§8oo£qosgooqsoo<£Gooooflc^aDgSs

(^sooc8^ii! d'euy dd wiy familarly, presuming on friendship.
Mahawth J. W. i, 186. oocoooc8§8ooGoooc833og)8sooo8§£oooii
on terms of intimacy. Kawi M. Mag. o£s6oo£§o8s§,8
33og|SsoS ^tu d'euy wiy be intimate with. Nip. Hi, 152.
Goo§833ogj8so8§s§S§i addicted to liquor. Hm. Yaz. H, 269.
o9coosc^d3og|8so8igc8GSjis^s^SGosoo^ii make friends with an
Indian, and he will foist off hen's dirt on you as asafoetida.
Sagab. 6. c8ojsG§oc8Gooo8c^c^33og|8so8|oo§8ii Yat. Kyem. Z.
78. 33Cgos33roo^33cg]8so8coj£ii Wisit. Sagab. 35. dj>ooc§
ooos^Goq|sog)^^8330g|8;o8goGo18so9§^n Yaz. Kyaw. 52. co &
33 ogj S s d6i' d'euy an intimate, a friend. Rem. 33 ogj S s o 8
is sometimes wrongly used instead of d3oqj[so8 "to be
included in the category of," "to pertain to." Gcooo^ggsp8c8
cgoo^Sn 00900^60000^^33og]8so8oo^8ii oq|8cogSooj£or)Gs§Gooo88Gooo

G^o8ll 6C0009g5SpOOGp8(^8o1s§330gj88o8GOOo8c8c§OJ^S^338o9^ll
transcendental forms of consciousness cannot properly be
said to pertain to any plane of existence and are therefore
called forms of consciousness pertaining to the transcen-
dental sphere (where 330g|8s seems intended to translate
P. samaha, for which 33oq||s would be a more appropriate
equivalent). Atithon K. 55. For oso^s used where 33^8?
is required, v. Raz. Ayeb 41, and s.v. 33oq|[sii
33ogj dcuy n. passing by, excess. V. B.


38

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

jo&ngjs dcwe n. [O.B. aklwan. cogjsoo^S to feed.] (In combns.)
feeding, provision of food, servants. craoostraooGoscTDSsgSsii

33g03ii 03c^3300^>s 33GTgj8 33G-g8 cogssobgoosgolqpsgo^ill

dcwe dmwe giving of feasts. Sun. oocg^oco^Ssoocrb^osijooos
Gf.o$8G§io3Ga2jS33Ggs£rag;oaj^8§i8G^GooogSii people to feed and
provide for them, servants. KBZ. ii, 41. ssoo^Sosergjs
dts dcwe offering and supplying food, serving at table.
Anthol. i, 104. oscv^Ssse-ogjs dlouP dcwe servants.
SIP. 38, Ledi Kein 44.

33 {ig dewa n. [(c^ootS to rise, to proceed (of a dignitary).]
a rising or bubbling up; movement of a dignitary. oaoon
cgoscoo§8sn oosl3a^ii§s3aooog8ii33ooo|ii on its bubbling up
again when the fire again blazes up, you get the ajatavarii
(sometimes ajatavani) quality of gold. Yazaw K. 17.
GoooGQOQcoof.iif.c8§^c§o3gcg8ii Maha Moggalana on a journey
to the deva heavens. Nayaiv M. 103. ggoS^s^cjSojc^cSgco
Goo3^§(8iiGo1oocgGg6S|oii the cooing of this dove of yours is
quite spirited and furious. Saw Pe Py. Z. 17. 330^8330011
co (eg oa ^ 11 00700611 scwa' dkhouy rising and leapingtheir
action in sitting and standing up, their manner of rising
and leaping was exactly alike. Yama. Yag. ii, 95. 030733011
cB^oa^sii GGGo^sj§ii dewa' dmyu excitement and pleasure,
fun and frolic. Gamb. Kab. K. 7.

osjjgSs dewiy n. [(cgSsoocS to remain over.] something left
over, remainder. osoc^iigooooii o3^88§8gooo§oo$86|oo^ocgii
U Pon Taya 7. aogo1BGoooo33C§iio3^o18Gooooo3c§aj^Gspc8oft7
B[cS^ioooo3^88§o§o30gc8§,8ooo^oo$§i8ol8§8G|GcooogSii we speak
of sa-upadisesa and anupadisesa Nirvana according as there
is or is not in persons reaching it residue of the sub-
stratum of being. Ledi Kein 20. 0309 ... c^s^SoosiiosjcgSs
g§c7§8^o886@oo$i there is no (arithmetical) remainder.
Than. W. iv, 133. oqgoSsii^So^gSsGooSnosl^soocSoqi^ii subtract
1 (represented by the Garula) from 8, and the remainder
is 7. Bed. Wiz. K. 198. sSSGoooSoo^^os^ojoo^cg 33 {(g&?
33ocj|^ o30o£o3Co8g^goo8ii dewiy dcay omission, default.
Manir. K. 214. a^os^osjcgSsoscqi^yoos^So^ii other people's
leavings. Colloq. 33 {cgS8 33(rjj^t> ggoujoog] . .
dewiy dear) me' without remainder, exhaustively. Yaz.
Kyaw 57. Goooooo^solscgn osJJgSso^ c8§8goo5^gooo . .
gcSgoo^spsu dewiy md fi having no remainder, complete.
Taz. D. K. 10. 33(2^8^ §£g@oc88q£ii dewiy me' without
reserve. Eind. Z. i, 244. coopooaG^oSsac^c^os^Ss^cSodS^ii
utterly. Zanek J. W. 67.

33 ^S dcu9 n. [g|c8 bismuth.] apptly. bismuth (os being prefixed
metri gratia). gcoooooo3^8iiooo$sS§i mixing iron, bismuth,
and pyrites. Nem. Meg. P. 12.

33 {(guS dcwe n. [gdSoogS to be abundant, to exist in plenty.]
abundance, great number. osqpsn 0fto33cgc8is$GpcgcSiiGSj',
G^oSosjc^eSn the numerous anxieties which I conceive (in
my mind) on his account. Anthol. ii, 152. oojyoocSny^dS
go8^ii33^33^dSajjoodS3308o1c8oodSn he does not help but just
to increase the extent of distress, with abundance of
superior airs, he has the heart to be stand-offish. Saw Pe

Py. Z. 91. sSsfosjo^soqiuSii 33((gcS33 0ii Qoo^cogSs dcwe
diva' profusionof ceremony and magnificence. Anthol.
ii, 327.

33{(gos dewa n. [(cgosooaS to boast.] boasting, ostentation;

a pre-eminent person. o8ol§88iioo£§8o§(o§8ii o^jSsoo^oooos
033(20 8 G^OcSoO^GOg C§ cgll cloool 8 G030cSs)] £§ 8 Cg8 8 oS c8yc£>G$Sll
empty boasting. Pyaz. GyScojySosoosii^c^osjc^osiiy^Goosoooosii
Moulmein for food, Rangoon for swank, Mandalay for
talk. Prov. G§|Gf.g1a8iiGGs|00$c§G(^8ii00$03^08ii the pleader's
intellect, not great at exhaustive treatment of a sub-
ject, just sham and pretentiousness. M. Sanda Py. Z.
128. 33 {ego 133 ol ooGoooc8§i8ooGaooc8qaS^8^ii dewa dwa
ostentation. Sun. osocSoscosiios^ososoliiS^sjOo^oGogoooSsoSs
^8no30o8sGooc8Gf,(^ooocbii ostentatious finery in dress. Kh.
M.G.W.ii,77. 3s{(go8 33o5 oscfosooGsTjcrjii... sospc§q|oii
dewa dmo pre-eminent and distinguished persons. Saw Pe
Py. Z. 79. 33§S33s^8fe|8ii 33 0^33 {(go s ^ dmo dewa
ostentatious pride. Thath. Wi. K. ii, 43.

33 {(g A dcwe n. [cjcgoo^S to drop off, as flowers or fruit.]
a dropping off. ogoo^)§8sii SgooocSo^sgooS . g8o1obooSn
7db^ii^37oa7ooogSiioc8^o33Ggn the padauk flower, at the falling
of its pollen which is like bunches of pearls or clusters of
beads in the yellow blossom. Anthol. ii, 385. s|$c8gcoc^ii
33Ggq|c8s8sn attack desire till it drops off. Thanweg. P. 17.

33 {(g B dcwe n. [? ejeg cowry shells.] small change.

33^SH^8GOOCSGII Ggs|§08ll GsTGOOCgSssSsOGpGgSSGjogG^OoIgS

Sun. oSs^Ot^cS30336^^)600830000811 IIc1o9OO3G^G§Oc8'1J8006^00^II
Colloq. Danubyu.

33{ slssSsocSiioacSsn osG^saSSsGoooo^aoosooGaoocSii who was
collecting debts. Sun. o^oo^syo^Sno^cogsosGjcgsGGos^&i
don't trust people and don't give goods on credit. Sagab.
105. 03GS|8G0008S03)88$8G01883C8|I 336^8G6p88O28c888Go8800c8ll
when one is avidly writing, dein daung strikes in ; if
one sells on credit, one is apt to be ruined. (The madman
Nga Hman Kan of Pagan used to declare the whereabouts
of buried treasure, but when he saw people noting down his
words, he would only say, Dein daung, dein daung."
Wisit. Por. Sagab. 7.) Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 38. oo^Scgo^
dS^josc^g^Gocg 33^8 33cSs ocSa^c^Sii dcwe dyay on
credit. KBZ. i, 429.

33 3 A dkha' n. [soogS to attend on, treat obsequiously],
attendance, obsequious treatment, an attendant. ossoosii
t^c£§88iio3(ljo3G|ii §c8ojo33iiooc8(^oooii on whom all excellent
things attend. Maul. Yaz. Py. Z. 195. gSsGcoossii
3o8sG§oq|c6iioooooocgii the patter of fruits, caressed by the
gentle wind, falling to earth. Shwemyet Py. Z. 100.
33 a 33 to S 8 §9^s§8oogSn dkha'd yay attendance, paying court.
Sagab 137. o^cSS^ooasoaooSsGcgGoloogS retinue, people
who can be set to tasks. Colloq. Magwe. g§]^sgooS(c§s;§
33soos oSgco^ii dkha' "za paying one's respects, entering
the royal presence. (doosoogS to pay court.) Up. Muh. K.
i, 30. Cf. Rup. W. Ill, Rup. Kal Py. Z. 69. Rem.
ooo8gooSg§8gooS . c$<^i§080330803 is quoted from a copy


39 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



of an inscription said to date from a.d. 1017. The text
cannot be relied on. But see etym. note s.v. oaa B; sos
might perh. = give each his due. Anthol. i, 37.

o33 B dkha' n. [form s in c^p§coc8s mason's hand-hire,
wages of masons. SIP. 51. Possibly same word as oas A,
the original meaning of soo^S having perh. been to divide
Kch. hka, Maru hawand hence to share, give what is due.
B. oascS bifurcation may be connected. Tib. skal-ba portion,
share, ration and k'ag part, division.] wages, remuneration.
sqii33C^sii P. QOcSiiGOOof. II ossgo s <§ofts<^8sooobc§ II Manu 249.
c$c8oiG00033dGg§SGc8G0S0^a^^9lsG0D^!ii Attok. 14. 0s6j8s(ajjs|8s)
9ls3li:o^cSoa3 ... gooo8s6|go3o8ii Kola M. Py. Z. 37. gsTc^oooc^cS
ejoo^n OTsoacjSs oo^oGjorjsii dkha' dyyarj remuneration.
Colloq. Magwe. 333 c^S dkha' ce na? se earn

ones' pay. Yazaw K. 130. sssoos c\?8oo§8doc86oc8Gooo
g$od^s<§i dkha' sza an eater of hire, hireling. Nip. Hi, 204.
o^s^lsoaaoosn Maha Thuz. K. 201. oS^aospcogSsooGcoooj
33 3 o s s fc)josd^G§os^§sii dkha' Ksa Kna fee, charge. (Apptly.
a recent combn. os = for his eating, use. ^os may
be a meaningless jingle, developed under influence of
other combinations with s word in first and n word in
second place, e.g. remnants, of>ooogS to be con-

siderate.) Sun. 333os^osq|osGoscfc ibid. 333^8 §80011
oogoSoo^(^so3c^soso^^8gii dkha' pair) be in receipt of re-
munerationif (the employee) has had his wages, let the
master of the ship take all the treasure. Manu 249.

c^8goso£§ii dkha' me' free of charge. Advt. So,
33 9c£c£ dkha' lu?. 33^533 a d'pho dkha' payment in
general, charges. ooo8s^|c8oo^sj c^sroa . sjcvjSoMii
"pho dkha' dues. Zinme P.N.W. 66.

33 3cS A dkhe? n. [sc8oogS to branch, bifurcate.] 1. a
bifurcation on a branch. §11 33g§Golc£<§D3^c8§8g|c8so8a3j8
o3§)c8D33c8^oogS339§8(^!ii from the bifurcation of two leaves,
the space between them. Thud. Py. 21. 2. twig, branch,
shoot, offspring. 03c^8sccSii P. oooosii 33^5^33sc8^[s^jsii
enjoying the shade and breaking the branches, biting the
hand that feeds one. Sagab. 131. o£joo3ac8§8coc^jOG§GOoS
oogSoogS^jGooSii his right foot was on a lotus shoot (which
had miraculously sprung up). Etadeg W. 6. o8g|8sooc8
333c8£Soooii the branch cannot be in better case than
the trunk, i.e. if the master of a run-away slave accepts
from him the price at which he was bought, the master is
thereby precluded from claiming the value of the labour
lost during the slave's absence. Manu 212. ooo8c^s§§(?o
c^ooS§|osooc5goooo38c8s§so3(^8ss5sii Thath. Wi. K. ii, 168.
GOqjSOOOSOOgS . 338g8so8^\333c8goSOg833§|c8§8%Cg8s6p33e|S
. . ^osg^gco^ii Mahawth. J.W. i, 221. oag^ScooSoSs

(^03sc833c0c8c$c^lic1c§ 33 3 C& 33 & q|OSOOIIc8o1sG§io8§|c8§8s

§8g§n dkhe? dmei? twigs and fringes, dependents (in this
case, followers of one of the king's grandsons). Ayud
Sh. 52. tj>goooaoo^33C^8s 33 3c£33c0c£ c§d*Sq|c8a8ss§s&n
dkhe? die? branches and arms of the tree of Buddhism
(i.e. Buddhists, by whose conversion to other religions
the tree is maimed). Ledi Kein i, 2. 8sG^§^o3ac833coc8

aDgdS§8GOOoGgo8ooosf.os|(Mi called Sakha-nagara because
it was a branch town or suburb. (P. sdkha branch.)
KLD. 233. §8goo5 33g^o33 3cS dnyuy' dkhe? twigs
remoter descendants. MMM. 12.
33 a cS B dkhe? n. [sc8oo£§ to be difficult.] difficulty, distress,
a difficult case or question. qognos^ii^sp^aoSn ooc^gjjcgos
GooSo33c893fe|s33Go18s§S(^,ii protected against all sorts of
difficulties, dangers. L.I. Mand. K. 97. ossc^nsioocSajii
burning distress and seething anxiety. Kala M. Py.
Z. 103. G3gs^og^sjco^iio^^oo3sc8s^sooo^oii^jc8c^sooGoos^|o;co^
in extreme distress, her eyes rolling upwards, ibid. 79.
eiogc8G^iiG6|S£03c8ooo^oiiGoosaoc8c§§oi§ii difficulties, misfortunes.
M. Sanda Py. Z. 26. Gos§^so3cgcSc^o3S)8G§§s^o3sc8c^Gf.oc8
^G§s|oogSn answer the easy questions first, the difficult ones
afterwards. Colloq. ^8cGS|S ssacSss^ gsc^Gg^SscvJcv^ii
dkhe? d^khe difficult problemsof policy. Sun. ^sg§oc8
6oooc8o8s|^ooo^Ss ssacSjo^g crbii dkhe? yci a matter of great
difficultyI cannot see my way to giving you financial
assistance. Kh. M.G.W. ii, 4. ^ScSsjSs^os^cScg
33acSooog cfrii dkhe? 'da real difficultyit is a hard
matter to know a person's real disposition. Than. W.
i, 13. Rem. In o3§soss|sc8ooosoocoos it appears that 33
has been dropped to avoid the awkward hiatus gj-oascSii
Tanaw W. i, 38.

33aS A dkhiy n. [? Tib. rkan stem, stalk. A.C. Jcieng warp
in a loom, nerves (K. 391).] a skein or hank of thread.

S||£Ss8ll OOOSOgc8c^8so8^8^a3s8^SOO§8§S^y^SGOOOGgo8ll

if I were to spin and draw out all the words that emerge
(from the subject) the skein would be too big. Zanek J.W.
Pref. 4.

33aS B dkhiy n. [? A.C. ywdng metal tongue in an organ pipe
(K. 106the character has bamboo radical.] an internal
movable part, valve, reed of a wind instrument. c^joiic88§o
gooo8ii d338o!oo£So8go1c8ii an entrance with a valve (in
description of the fish-trap known as ooo^sgs). Fishery
Manual. 0338s^oogS^oc1s^jos§[soboo§^oogc8^8G33o8^c^8ooo8
coooopii Danubyu. 33s8§goooo$oooii musical instruments
having reeds. (One of the five kinds of musical
instruments; but this does not appear in the canon of
pancangika turiya, cf. PPIi. 99.) Kala Yaz. i, 42.

33aS C dkhiy n. [sSoogS to love, feel affection for.] fondness.

03(^(^^C§^oII^C9000o8GOOOII0338GOo5q|c8llOC^OOOOOSIIO§0008GgoSll

c^o^epsosgiqicSc^ii ? your address has upset me and can only be
due to failing affection and malice. Your words have spoilt
my opium-smoking. Bein Yaza Py. Z. 26. ((£§)§ 33 a S 33 o S
d^oo8oc^c8§8ii dkhiy dmiy fondnessdon't indulge your f. for
cake. Tern. J.W. 51. 333833^0811 8c8^cSoguSGpiioooGqciSii
dkhiy dmu? objects of desire, ibid. 20. ooos33ooosooosiis8
33 3 S 3 811 §i833§i8§|8iico^so3oo^sco^8ii§8f.^sajodSc§c(jSii dkhiy khiy
all the darlings, or all the palace ladies who had s8 (and
oooj) in their names. Maul Yaz. Py. Z. 182.

3338s dskhiy n. [sSsoogS to spread.] 1. a covering for a floor
or bed ; carpet, rug ; a floor ; a plan, lay-out. gooSgcoii
s886ps8siig8sn$8iio^q3s6po|09§odS[ooocoo]oooogSc^33s8s5c^c8ii


40

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

Zin. Pak. K. 198. ooSooGgDoSGooSsGoT^ooaooSuooasSssSs^ii
putting a covering not allowable (to the Order) on a couch
which is allowable. M. Th. D. K. 58. For various tyjpes of
9338s mats, rugs, etc. for sleeping on v. Kinkha
N. 286. $08^80338; a mat to sit on. P. nisidana. Win.
Th. K. 7. Rem. P. katthatthara ragged mat (Rouse),
mat made of twigs (PED.) is translated qj^oasSs floor of
planks (Temi J. W. 181), and this, or ooSqj^ossSs appears
to be the regular Burmese rendering. ^oom§s(c§s33s8sooos
o2)^Sooc8oo^jogog8s§88sj8338GOoo3338so8§£olGooooo^S ii the
laying down of the line, the ground-plan of the building.
(P. original has pasaresim I laid out.) Mahawth. J. W.
i, 14. q|od^8oo8^s oasSscraps t|s dkhiy dhni floor
coverings. Dana D. IC. 11. 3338s3a|soo^sooc§c^s|oo^co^Ss
ooolsii (one of the rewards of making offerings of mattresses).
Tham. Sek. D. K. i, 342. G§oc£c§cgo8Gooo6go8<^8s(^c8@c8

6oooooocoh . g^§c8gooo 33s8s33^ l03§[0300^c§00£slcgc8

gjogoo^^ii dkhiy dyouy carpets and shawls (in goose-and-
golden-egg story). Kawi M. M. K. i, 249. 2. cleared or
cultivated ground, plot, expanse. 33ogc8nc^8§8n olssSs
d38sc§c^o}8<§coo s spiiooo s ooo8c^d^G§oc8c9|s|^03s8sc§i^o3couS§
Gcos^|os(§os)coc8f.c8c^8^ii in the middle of the cultivated areas,
holdings. Thath. Wi. K. ii, 45. ooGcos38s<^o3(&33^G06jjotfo
oasSscloasSsoloa^Ssoa^sooojgGcoc^^ii Pand. Wed. D. K.
181. 0338soooooogoooo3si8c§^>|j6^goo8flgcoi^ii (cf. g§s8scoc8
38scoooooq|cSo^sGoooo3S|S supra) a place where the expanse
was seemly, a piece of open country. Hanth. Ayed. 14.
ossIgooocSsI 11 §j8|yss1§(8 11 oooospoasSsnoloScoo s §8 s qp s c^ 11 with
feasting and jollity they go to hell in the realm (i.e. in the
course) of samsara. Nayaiv M. 136. o^33q8og8soS§8s
9338soooo^§8f.osc§G§o8s§oo^oogSii the terrain was not suitable
for elephants and horses. Manir K. 18. 3. arrangement,
array, display (only in combn.). o38o3S|8iio338so3f>osii ^s
oc8c§00£So3O}S6000 33s8s33 dciy arrangements (for a king's journey). Narada W. 8.
g§lg§oc8oosg^oc8g§oc8oos3a388930q|8s§8 . o8g0q8^00^s ii
ceremonial escort. KBZ. Hi, 23. oo^S^cS^s . qjjiossSs
oaoq|8sDaGoo8o3oo8^8coogoogSii in some state. KBZ. i, 480.
ooSoouSgoGaool^cosSsoaoqiSs^Sco^s^^ii all the equipment
of a fine city. Zanek. J. W. 70. ^0g00lsj8c§c^§^G008^§8s
£38so3oq|8siiD3Sj8soac^0GgoSsoQOs§S(^ii exposition, story
here ends the setting forth of the beginning of the story of
the renunciations. Tern. J. W. 48. 4. Business, concern,
matter of importance. c8giio3£iio3G6}8ii cl^ooosoo^SogSossSs
^oigoosoo^Sii Kola Yaz. i, 171. o^spsorj2s|8sic8sa5ssj8sooc8iio338s
c^§c8§scgdSG008n spun out their business. Yama Yag. i, 22.
GolGoo8coosc§c^oooogS^|c8GOo8^oogSiio23os9co9oo338sG§|ii in the
case of B.D. there was no concernno action was taken.
Hm. Yaz. Hi, 7. ooolsogS coaSsros^ ^ogSooolsc^ioools
ojfSo^Sii dkhiy dkhay' businesshere occasion on which he
required help. Hm. Yaz. ii, 297. jaaSscospii aj>Gooo
siccus . ojGsisojsp8c9Gn dkhir) oya businessshould there
be anything for them to do, let them attain to the qualities
of menlet them show themselves able to handle the
situation. Anthol. i, 105. osaS.so^ 60308 .. 063008<§i

dkhir) kouy business is completed, nothing is left undone
look after him in all matters. Kawth. Py. Z. 30. 3338s
oj^c8gGS{|odbG33o8 Rup. Kal. Py. Z. 19. v. also 6 infra.
roaSs^sctSn upslouSn dkhiy yci ye business, occasions
of greater or less importance. Anthol. i, 103. §£§(? o)§£§
cgSsn 339SsdSs c^iiocg8ssj^n|§sGD3o8Qoo^Sii dkhiy Kgiy various
affairs (of state). Ommad P. 41. ooooooc8cg8oo^co^Gooo

33 9 8 8 Cg <& 05|8cl^ep330qi8GSpc8GOJ^y8s33GOOOc8oOOSGOD8

^oo^Sii dkhiy thwe9 an affair emerges, trouble arises. Hm.
Yaz. Hi, 194. §8s3c@£§c^> . c]s88Goo8cg8ii3338scgcSo5|8iicx)j8
ojgcii ibid, i, 344. c^tSoooss|8sooii33d8sogc8o^ii§Scoc8oogSGgo8i!
foresaw that the person's own son would cause him trouble.
Pyinsawu P. 18. ol^sGoliioaol^solc^iiaguSolGcooiioSsoocgSoooi!
33s8sol 6000811 dkhiy pa be zealousyou exaggerate
beyond measure (in praise of Sita). Is it credible ? It
seems to be just your zeal, eagerness to make the most
of your case. Yama Yag. i, 24. 33s8sa^c8ii g^sj8c8s
§c8gs§c8c§ii dkhiy md shaP prematurely. Kawth. Py.
Z.29. c^oo^sossofyl 33 s 8 8 o coo sii g8o00800^llo88§8c1^gooasll
dkhiy mdtlia pay no regard to, show contempt
for. Pon. Yama Py. Z. 58. cc8gc8GG|a8S§8sc^ 333850(^11
dkhiy md pyu' make light of. Tem. J. W. 46. g§c^8oS^oii
333 8 s cvjS11 ngj^c8o^c8§8o^Sc^oii dkhiy loup make one's
business, take action. Devag. Py. Z. 29. 33s8segos
Gc§clso8scoospii dkhiy "6wa answer a call of nature. Sabeb.
W.150. oasSsgsaasSsccScgosc^oacgcSoasc^^gii the greaterand
lesser calls. Sun. 33^33385 dhmu'dkhiy, 33^s33s8s
dye dkhiy an affair, business. 5. a quarrel, dispute.

s|^ll03§8sm08§88ll-OOOOOfiSaDGpllOO^SsgOOO^SsilOasSs^SyO^OO^II

TJp. Muh. K. i, 55. O$86|c8o00c8o3388^0soqic£ll03si|8s(03§88)q]08
Gco^jgo^oooocSii ibid, ii, 67. Cf. Thud. Py. 1 and passim.
jolsjgo^oocooo 3338 s osqjSs (33(^83) ^c8s|^ngcSoo^c8
j dkhiy dchiy a quarrel. Yesag. Kh. Py. 20.

6. State, state of affairs, circumstances, fact. o3G§o3Gf>n
osGgoSsosspii . . §^§§9003388^00860006^0811

did not know the state of affairs in Prome. Kala Yaz. ii,
198. (But Hm. Yaz. has §£§§9 which would = facts, news
from Prome. Hm. Yaz. ii, 224.) 00^890058000000811^50069;
cboasSsn no (lover) comes to memy brow-writing is in a
state of weakness. Anthol. ii, 171. 0^00^800088901103382
8c8^c88n ordinary people will form a state of familiarity
with amberwill habitually affect amber (and will ignore
the less showy pearl). Anthol. ii, 133. ^eoosjjoocgSsnjogolo^S
o3s8sc^ . Gcv9ioc8c^c8oloo^S requested him to be good
enough to come without fail. (Rare and doubtfully
legitimate use, perh. due to equation of 0338s to oscgoS;
2.) U Pon.M.2. o^^SojcoSsiiossSs^Solsii . o^600o8so3o8n
sensible people know the two states of dull man and bright
mancan distinguish between them. Yama Yag. i, 9.

C§8 GSpcfyl 03§s GOpC^II of 8 G00003s8s f 811 000008s 603o8ll0g05|8s c^c8
sjoodosii shall I finally cast off your beautiful daughter and
divorce her so that she be unprotected in a state of not
being near, i.e. in a state of severed relations. Pon Yama
Py. Z. 60. 6Gjsspc8ooc8ii 3as8so^ o^iiooooSso^ojii dkhiy






BURMESE-ENGLISH
DICTIONARY

PART II

oasS 8 o^8oo
Compiled under the direction of

J. A. STEWART, CLE., M.C7 M.A., LL.D.

/ FROM MATERIAL SUPPLIED BY A LARGE

NUMBER OF CONTRIBUTORS

Revised and edited

W

C. W. DUNN, C.I E., M.A.,

and

HLA PE, PkD. (Lond ), M. A. (Rang ).

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF RANGOON

by

LUZAC & COMPANY LTD,
LONDON

1950


m


A

BURMESE-ENGLISH
DICTIONARY

PART II

Compiled under tlie direction of

J. A. STEWART, C.I.E., M.C., M.A., LL.D.

FROM MATERIAL SUPPLIED BY A LARGE
NUMBER OF CONTRIBUTORS

Revised and edited

ty

C. W. DUNN, C.I.E., M.A.,

and

HLA PE, PkD. (Lond.), M.A. (Rang.).

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF RANGOON

by

LUZAC & COMPANY LTD.
LONDON

1950


Printed by
Stephen Austin and Sons Limited
Oriental and General Printers
Hertford England


EDITORIAL NOTE

TEN years have elapsed since the completion of Part I. The second world war gave the editors and
the printers pre-occupations which interrupted the progress of the Dictionary. Then, in 1944,
the Government of Burma in exile in India offered a grant of £10,000 to enable the work to be speeded
up with the help of three Burmese assistants. The trustees of the University of Rangoon Endowment
Fund agreed to continue to pay the cost of printing. Dr. J. A. Stewart thereupon built an office in
his garden at Bishop's Stortford to enable the compilers to work all together under one roof with the
word-slips and the reference books. The building was ready at the end of August, 1945, and in it the
two editors resumed their work. Burmese assistants were not available until April, 1946, when
U Hla Pe, who had previously assisted Dr. Stewart in this work, took up one of the posts. The Rev.
U Thitthila accepted another post and joined at the beginning of May. A Burmese scholar was not
then available for the third paid post: but from July, 1946, U Tet Htoot attended the office for some
periods, usually three days a week, till February, 1948, as an unpaid volunteer. By the end of 1947
with this increased staff material (as far as goloo^oS) estimated to be sufficient for three Parts of
eighty pages each had been compiled, subject to revision, under the general direction of Dr. Stewart.
The printers, however, for various reasons, some of which were consequences of the war, were unable
at first to resume the printing of our manuscript and the first proof-sheets of Part II were not received
till June, 1947.

Meanwhile, in December, 1946, the Editors were informed that the Council of the University of
Rangoon had resolved that the preparation of the Dictionary could best be expedited if the work were
transferred to Burma after publication of the Parts in hand. This plan was not carried out: but
inquiries to recruit the third paid assistant were stopped, and, when the Rev. U Thitthila resigned
his post at the end of August, 1947, in order to give his whole time to the service of Buddhists in the
United Kingdom, his post also was not filled. U Hla Pe (who had taken the degree of Ph.D. of London
University) has continued his work in the Dictionary office. The Government of the Union of Burma
has generously continued to give financial assistance in pursuance of the intention of the grant originally
made by the late British Government of Burma by paying rent for the Dictionary office and (until
Dr. Hla Pe's stipend ceased in September, 1949) the stipends of the Burmese assistants.

About Christmas, 1947, Dr. Stewart took ill, and on the 1st May, 1948, he died. Dr. Hla Pe has
since been appointed by the University of Rangoon to be joint editor. The workers on the Dictionary
have thus been reduced again to two, without, moreover, the great advantage of Dr. Stewart's erudition
and guidance. Dr. Hla Pe has been appointed to be a lecturer on the staff of the School of Oriental
and African Studies, and by the wise and generous practice of the School he is able to continue his
work on the Dictionary in addition to his duties as a lecturer.

The Dictionary articles as originally compiled from the word-slips require revision, and generally
rewriting, before being sent to the printers. Only a few proof-sheets of Part II had been received before
Dr. Stewart's death, and the revision has had to be made without his supervision. The MS. material
for this and some subsequent Parts includes, however, some articles drafted by him.

The proofs continue to be sent to correspondents in Burma, but in consequence of death and
other causes most of the correspondents mentioned in the Preface of April, 1940, in Part I are no longer
available. U Ba Maung, of Taungdwingyi, in Upper Burma, who was mentioned in Part I, after
returning some sheets of Part II with his comments, has since been cut off by civil war and rebellions.
It is hoped that he will again give us his help when communications are restored. Another of our
former correspondents, U Wun, M.A., B.Litt., who received the title of Vanna Kyawdin from the
Government of the Union of Burma among the Independence Day honours of 1950, has continued to
read the proofs and to make corrections and reasoned suggestions which have the authority of a

iii


EDITORIAL NOTE

distinguished scholar and are highly appreciated. We have been fortunate in receiving the generous
help of new correspondents : U Lu Pe Win, M.A., Superintendent of the Archaeological Survey, and
more recently Professor E. Maung, M.A. (another recipient of the title Vanna Kyawdin), Professor of
Burmese in the University of Rangoon, and U Tin Maung, B.A., who is at present in England in the
employ of the British Broadcasting Corporation.

The preparation in Burma of a new Burmese-Burmese Dictionary has since the end of the war
been undertaken by the University of Rangoon under the editorship of U Wun; and the University
of Rangoon has agreed with the School of Oriental and African Studies of London University on the
transfer of the future preparation and publication of our Burmese-English Dictionary to the School
with the condition that the University of Rangoon will retain some connection with this Dictionary
in recognition of the financial support hitherto given. This arrangement offers evidently a prospect
of fruitful co-operation between these two academic bodies.

C. W. Dunn
Hla Pe

Bishop's Stortford
June, 1950


SUPPLEMENTARY LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Particulars of publication.

Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages. Subject or nature of work.

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.
(5)

Ahtauk. W. .
Anu W.

Bama Pyath. .
Batha M. S. .
Bayin Naung .

Bur. Sp. Hla .
Bur. J. W. At. N.

33c800§ ^ 000 $ 00000II (o)
oacooocSeooSu

oococ£cSs(tjooof>oii
coooooc^ogcSooos^ji

(The Burmese Heroes No.
3.) o^SG^OSII

The Student's Guide to

Burmese Spelling,
o^ogg cooooo oacooooo
ol§-§oooooii

Kawi Myethman Press,
Rangoon, Vol. I (1-567),
1910; Vol. II (1-598),
1911.

Sun Press, Rangoon, 1936.

(5-177.)
Khit Thit Press, Rangoon.
Undated. (3-138.)

Khit Thit Press, Rangoon,

1945. (1-92.)
Bama Kbit Thadinsa Taik,

Rangoon, 1946. (1-60.)
Daw Ohn Thin & Sons, Kem-
mendine, 1933. (1-225.)

A.B.M. Press, Rangoon, 1912.

(1-244.)
Kawi Myethman Press,
Rangoon, 1924. (1-264.)

History of Burmese Lit- Thudhammawadi Press,
erature. GEoocogo Rangoon, 1947. (1-371.)

Commentary on Abid. N.
Pali, with verbatim Bur-
mese translation.

Historical novelProse.

Detective Story. Appendix
on atomic scienceProse.

Political pamphletProse.

Anti-Communist pamphlet
Prose.

BiographyProse.

Burmese spelling.

Birth Story No. 543Pah
text and commentary with
Burmese verbatim transla-
tion of the commentary.

History of Burmese Litera-
tureProse.

Maungdaung Sayadaw Pyin-
nya Thami. a.d. 1849.
Edited with notes by Pah
Saya Maung Lin. 20 C.
' Shwe Set-kya.' 20 C.4th
decade.

'DagonShwe Hmya'. Appen-
dix by Didok Ba Cho. 20 C.
(5th decade).
U Tin, B.A., I.C.S. (retired).

a.d. 1945.
Anonymous, a.d. 1946.

U Thein Maung, Editor of
' Sun Magazine. a.d.
1933.

U Po Hla, E.A.C. a.d. 1912.

Shin Guna Linkara: Dan-
daing Saya-daw. 18-19 C.

U Pe Maung Tin, M.A.,
B.Litt. 20 C.

Chauk Saung Dw6 g§oc£gooSc£ii

Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-
goon. Undated. (1-97.)

Chit Th. B. .

Chit Y. Th. .
Do Phuza

Hindu Med. .

Inaung Z. Hla
Inaung Z. Mya

Jataka Fausb.

Jataka Transl.

K. G. S.

Khit Thit S.P.W.

qSaj^ii
sjjSqSecgsii

Commentary on the Hin-
du System of Medicine.

Inscriptions of Burma.

G^oS f cgSs c?o cS

GOoSjo^SII (o)

The Jataka together with
its commentary.

The Jataka or Stories of
the Buddha's former
births.

Grammata serica.Script
and Phonetics in Chin-
ese and Sino-Japanese.

gscSoo8sd§s§ii

Nantheingi Press, Rangoon,

1945. (3-162.)
Thudhamma-wadi Press,

Rangoon, 1945. (1-34.)
Pye Nyun Yatana Press, NovelProse.
Mandalay. Undated. (1-

Collection used for religious
instruction ; Pah with ver-
batim Burmese translation.
(1) Mingala th6k; (2) Apy-
in Aung-gyin ; (3) Atwin
Aung-gyin; (4) Yadana
Shwe Gyaing; (5) Nama-
kara; (6) Lawka-nldi.

Fiction (Japanese occupa-
tion)Prose.

Advice to parentsProse.

' Maha Swe.' a.d. 1943.
On Myin. a.d. 1945.
' Mya Myo Lwin.' 20 C.

16.)

Thacker & Co., Calcutta, and
Smith Elder & Co., Corn-
hill, London, 1845. (1-
431.)

University of Rangoon, Ori-
ental Studies Publication.
Portfolios No. I. Undated.
No. II and No. III. 1939.

Tenasserim Press, Maulmain,
1880. Vol. II. (125-217.)

Myanma Awba Press, Ran-
goon, 1905. Vol. I. (1-
246.)

Triibner & Co., London,
1877-1897. Vols. I-VI
and Vol. VII Index.

Cambridge University Press.
Vols. I-VI, 1895-1907,
and Vol. VII Index, 1913.

Museum of Far Eastern
Antiquities, Stockholm,
1940. (1-471.)

Aung Press, Rangoon, 1945.
(1-78.)

Hindu Medicine.

T. A. Wise, M.D., Bengal
Medical Service, a.d. 1845.

Facsimiles of inscriptions. Edited by G. H. Luce and
Pe Maung Tin. 20 C.

DramaProse.

Maung Chit Hla. 19 C.

DramaProse and verse. Mya-wadi Wungyi (U Sa).

(a.d. 1766-1853.)

Pah Text of Birth Stories. Edited by V. Fausboll.

English translation of Pah Edited by E. B. Cowell.
Birth Stories.

Chinese Language.

Bernhard Karlgren. a.d. 1940.

Topical fictionProse. Tet Pon-gyi Thein Pe. a.d.

1945.


SUPPLEMENTARY LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Particulars of publication.
Abbreviated title. Full title. Figs, in ( )= No. of pages.

(1) (2) (3)

Subject or nature of work.

(4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.
(5)

L. Buddh. Thomas ,
Leba

LuHmaW. .

Lun Attok. .
Maha Thil. P.

Mahawa

Mason .

Maung Pye M6 P. W.

Mwe Nun Yag.
Narada J. W. At. N.

Nauk Bawa W.
Nga Hnit

P. B. Py.Z. .
P. D. Ch.

P. D. Dan .

Ph. B. M. Y. W.
Pon. Yama Py. Z.
Por. Kat. T. .

P. Shene W. .
P. Th. D. K. .
Pwin L. G. W.
P. W. That Hnyun
Pyinnya Shi .

Rev. Man.
SanThuW. .

The Life of Buddha, as
Legend and History.

gcocooii

DSoTooSlI

oj^osop

aospcg^a3g[g^n

ouoooScoocjjjn

ooooo1o1§goo5ii (o) §8 (sj)

Burmah ; its People and
National Resources.

Go8cgg^GcSc§gt§ll

$06p eooooo oagooooo
ol£j-§oooaoii

g$oc8cooii

ogooocojc]eoc8ii

A Dictionary of the Pali
Language.

A Critical Pali Dictionary.

9GOo8pycOc8ll
Go1s|ctoooco|cjooii

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trub-
ner & Co., Ltd., London,
1927. (1-288.)

Calcutta Press, Rangoon.
Undated. (1-60.)

Baho Pyan Chi Ye Aphwe,
(Central Publishing House),
Rangoon. Undated. (3-
110.)

Lawkadan Press, Rangoon,
1937. (1-284.)

Sun Press, Rangoon, 1931.
(1-117.)

Myanma Pitakat Press, Ran-
goon, 1931. Vol. I (1-
450); Vol. II (1-348).

Thos. Stowe Ranney, Ran-
goon, 1860. Trubner &
Co., London. (1-913.)

Nantheingi Press, Sang-
vaung, Rangoon. Un-
dated. (5-165.)

Zabu Meikswe Press, Ran-
goon, 1933. (1-72.)

Kawi Myet-hman Press,
Rangoon, 1936. (1-189.)

Shwe Daung Nyo, Rangoon,

Undated. (1-112.)
Myanma Alin Newspaper
Press, Rangoon, 1945. (1-

Buddhist history.

FictionProse.
FictionProse.

Lun

Edward J. Thomas, M.A.,
D.Litt. (St. Andrews).

' Myo Ma Maung.' 20 C.

(5th decade.)
'Maha Swe.' 20 C. (5th
decade.)

U Thein Pe. a.d. 1937.

Biography of
Prose.

Birth Story No. 51Poetry. Monywe Zetawun Saya-daw
Shin Ariyawuntha Adissa-
yanthi. a.d. 1825.
Translation into Burmese of General Editor U Myo. 20 C.

Ethnology and natural his- Rev. F. Mason, D.D.,
tory. M.R.A.S. a.d. 1860.

8.)

British Burma News Press,
Rangoon, 1880. (5-207.)

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trub-
ner & Co., Ltd., London,
1909. (1-623.)

The Royal Danish Academy.
Vol. I, 1924-1948. (1-561
with Prolegomena 39 pp.
and Epilogomena 99 pp.)

Letyon Press, Sangyaung,
Rangoon, 1945-6. (3-88.)

Bengalee Job Printing Press,
Rangoon, 1880. (1-200).

Thudhamma-wadi Press,
Rangoon, 1904. (1-362.)

FictionProse.

Discursive epic, based on
Mon legend.

Birth Story No. 544.Pali
text and commentary with
verbatim Burmese transla-
tion of the commentary
Prose.

NovelProse.

Memoirs. (Japanese occupa-
tion).

DramaMainly verse.

Pali-English Dictionary.

Pali-English Dictionary.

' Maha Swe.' a.d. 1945.

Shwedaung Nandathu. 18 C.

Shin Guna Linkara: Dan-
daing Saya-daw. 18-19 C.

' Mya Myo Lwin.' a.d. 1935.
Thakin Nu. a.d. 1945.

Maung Chan Mya. a.d. 1880.
Robert Caesar Childers. 19 C.

o§8oo^l3§o?a}jSsii

g88sGOOOOII

OOo68G300ofoOc8g§SII

o8s c§coc8ooc8 0900
C§|o§SqpS33Ggo88ll
Lower Burma Land Rev-
enue Manual, 1903.
G§§§GOo8cOc8£>gOG3ll
GGo8Oft-GOgO 8 c£j>c8<9
oggl-ooooc^n

Kawi Meitswe Press, Manda-
lay. Undated. (1-220.)

Kawi Myethman Press,
Rangoon, 1906. (1-220.)

Zw6 Sa Pe Yeikmyon, Ran-
goon, 1945. (3-112.)

Mandalay Times Press, 1917.
(1-219.)

Knowledge Printing Works,
Nattalin. Undated. (1-
216.)

Government Printing, Bur-
ma, 1903. (1-488." Index
491-630.)

Kawi Mandaing Pitakat
Press, Rangoon, 1917. (1-
169.)

FictionProse.

DramaMainly verse.

List of Burmese poetical
words with commentaries
Prose and verse.

FictionProse and some

verse.
ReligiousProse.

FictionProse.

V. Trenckner, Dines Ander-
sen, Helmer Smith and
Hans Hendriksen. 20 C.

U Nyana. a.d. 1945.

U Ku alias Saya Ku of

Sadaing-hmut. 1880.
Twinthin Min-gyi. 18 C.;
Shin Thila-wuntha. 15/
16 C.; Maung daung Saya-
daw II. 19 C.; U Mani.
19 C.; and others. Edited
by Thitsein Sayadaw. 19 C.
' Manli Lu-byan-daw.' 20 C.

4th decade.
Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P., D.Lit.

a.d. 1906.
'Maha Swe.' 1945.

Burmese SpellingProse. U Tin, A.T.M., K.S.M. a.d.

1917.

Biographical notes on Bur- Hmawbi Saya Thein Gyi. a.d.
mese poets and writers 1937.
Prose.

Revenue Acts, Rules and
Directions. Burmese ver-
sion.

FictionProse. Saya Saw. a.d. 1917.


SUPPLEMENTARY LIST OF BOOKS CITED

Particulars of publication.

Abbreviated tide. Full title. Figs, in ( ) = No. of pages. Subject or nature of work.

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Author's name and date of
work or floruit.

(5)

Shwemyet. Py. Z. Ggqc^geocSooSii

Six Texts
Skt. Diet. M. W.

Tayok Th. Mawg.

Thanweg. P. Com.
Thath. Wi. K. Ill

Thuth. Yaz. .

U Pon. W. B.
Vidh. J. W. At. N.

Zegyo W.
Z. W. N. Mag.

See Chauk Saung Dw6.
A Sanskrit-English Dic-
tionary.

00^800GSpc8G50g^SII

05G00SCl8sC00?)033g§ll
ooooo^8goooq|c7^|s;ii (oo)

o^GoooSooyooospcoSfc^sii

8$S| cooooo sragooaoo

$000OOII

Gqssja^ii

Burma Herald Press, Ran- DramaMainly verse,
goon, 1877. (1-117.)

U Kyaw Ya. a.d. 1877.

Clarendon Press, Oxford,
1899. (1-1333.)

Zambu Meitswe Pitakat
Press, Rangoon, 1933.
(Pref. 20 pp. and 1-38.)

Shwehtonnagara Press, Tha-
ton. 1924. (1-95.)

Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat
Press, Rangoon. Vol. Ill,
1924. (1-240.)

Thudhammawadi Press,
Rangoon. Vols. I, II, III,
and IV, 1922. Vol. V,
1923.

To Press, Rangoon, 1935.
(25-197.)

Kawi Myethman Press,
Rangoon, 1926. (1-350.)

Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Sir M. Monier Williams,

K.C.I.E. 19 C.
Panegyric poem on the com- Nawade II. a.d. 1823.
ing of envoys from China
Verse.

Commentary on Thanwega U Yan. a.d. 1924.
Pyo.

Religious discoursesProse. Ledi Saya-daw, A.M.P. a.d.

1919.

Burmese historyProse.

Saya Pi, Saya Thein, Saya
PoBaGyaw. 20 C.

Sun Press, Mandalay. Vol. I.
(1-233); Vol. II (1-231);
Vol. Ill (1-226). Undated.
Zawana Journal Office, 51st Magazine.
Street, Rangoon. From
Feb., 1946.

Anecdotes.Mainly verse. Sale Saya U Ponnya. a.d.

[This is the text referred to 1867. Edited by U Po Sein,

in U Pon Taya Com.] a.d. 1929.

Birth Story No. 545.Pali Shin Guna Linakara: Dan-

text and commentary with daing Saya-daw. a.d. 1783.
Burmese verbatim transla-
tion of the commentary.

FictionProse. MahaSwe.' 20 C. (Vol. HI,
a.d. 1937.)

Various writers. 20 C.
decade.)

(5th


SUPPLEMENTARY LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
USED IN THE TEXT

astrol. = astrology, astrological.

astron. = astronomy, astronomical.

ct = contrast.

dist. = distinguish.

Eng. = English.

ex., exx. = example, examples.

int. = interjection.

loc. cit. = loco citato (in the place cited).

med. = medicine, medical.

num. = numeral.

op. cit. = opere citato (in the work cited).

redupl. = reduplicated, reduplication.

ref. = referring to, reference.

sing. = singular.

sp. = spelling, spelt.

sq., sqq. = and the next following (sing, and pi.)

translit. = transliteration.

var. = variant.

viz. = videlicet (namely, that is to say, in other words).

Signs.

[ ]. Square bracket, where they do not enclose etymological remarks,
are used sometimes to indicate interpolations (by the editors).


41 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



kouv) all circumstances, in all respects, ibid. 5. eooocgSsggon
o8so7SoogS kwa differ in statusthe country article and the royal
umbrella differ in degree of magnificence. Anthol. ii, 134.
o^Gooa}c§cgosGpbo 33 3 8s(o| Gf,o1o1c6 d'khiy eouy meet with
circumstances, find oneself in such and such a position.
Than. W. iv, 103. cv)8ooc8Goog|8iiolGcoG|§8sii 33382381
g£t]oSii d'khiy sgiy various facts (but only one factthe
loss of her husbandwas mentioned). Udein. P. 97.
33s8s^c8 c\jg§ . ooo^ogSii d'khiy khai? circumstances
and time (§c8 prob. for 33§cS time). Kum. Py. Z. 154.
ocgSsoG^ii 333Sscoii ooG|cg8go;ogSG^o8 dkhiy se' cir-
cumstances are complete, the time is ripe. Zawta Kum.
Py. Z. 60. 33 s S s oo 8 ii d'khiy ddzi' as for one thing ...;
anyhow...; (don't worry about...) M. Sanda Py.
Z. 109. 33aSsccg^ CDiigo^@§^osiiGc\pcSooos3a8Gooo
ooosn d'khiy twe' couy meet circumstances, find an
opportunity. Ayud. Sh. 78. 333 8sc§c8 oog§ d'khir) thai? circumstances were suitablethey took a
favourable opportunity of consultation. Mahaw Py. Z. 22.
Ggo8§80g8s0g8ll 33d8soc£o1ll G§|58G^Oc8^oIIGGq(Oc8oOOIIG§SpOqj
GGpcSoogSooooosn d'khir) pe?pa the facts confronting onethe
tracks led into the forest, I followed close behind and the
evidence was plain. Devag. Py. Z. 29. googcogIo^gooii^googcSii
ooc8oooo8sn 333820008 sn oo^go8s^|iiG^o;s|ii d'khir) biliy facts,
news [oco8s ? Mon o§8parang news]. Yama Yag. ii, 64. ooc£
ooc8q8suqjcSGsy5cg8sd1^ii 33385^0^ ygStjU d'khir) bouy hla' the
shape of the situation is pretty, the situation is favourable.
Kum. Py. Z. 89. ooSGcocoiiGoc^c^i&o^SogSsooc^ii 113338 s
11 ooo(o!j^8odbii d'khir) md shaiy the circumstances
do not suit. It would be like setting a ruby in lead. How
can I contemplate such an unsuitable act (as to marry my
master's daughter). Anthol. ii, 14. £§g$oSg|&sc$ii 3338s
o cy c£ 11 o7§gooSooS§so3]8ii d'khir) md pye? state not disturbed,
successfully. Ok. Yaz. Py. Z. 3. ooooo$og&siioo^soo8s
cogSsn oasSs0^11 co8sco8sc8^G3ao8ii d~khiy md hmeiy state
has not fadedthough there is no longer a Buddhist king
the glory (of the pagoda) is as great as ever. M. Muni.
Th. P. 58. 333 8 s ogcooc8 07^0811 d'khiy md lau?
insignificant. Kawth. Py. Z. 10. 3338s gooS 00711
oajcgGOoSs^scgii d'khiy md hla' the situation does not look
well, things did not go well. Sun. 33 3 8sa>c8ii co&^gooosii
ajjooolscgiiooGoooooosoogc8oo8o1ojoii d'khir) md 6 s? having no
concern. Rup. Kal. Py. Z. 53. 333 8 c^GOoSoqp£§
Goao8ii d'khir) hmay the true facts, the truththe truth in
palatable form. ibid. 4. cocS§8geg(ceg)
o3G^o8ss|8sogooon 33385000 ooosn d'khir) la the chain of
facts, reasonthe natural cause and reason for their
despondency was. U Paw U 144. ^c8s|^sgo9o8iigo|s
csoooSfSs^ii 3338 sccv^j'S ogSooSoloogSii dkhiy lyo be suitable,
fitting. Kawi M.M.K. i,63. 33385^0 00 ^11 (ngS;ooq|§G33oSn
d'khir) we phay make known the facts. Ok. Yaz. Py. Z. 42.

3338s008 goiicgcS^SsoooGoaoSiigoooGooSGii d'khir) 6iy cir-
cumstances are to one's mindassist me to get fairly quit
of my troubles. Pon. Yama Py. Z. 67. oo8c§ySs§8ii 3338 s
000 00011 G§oc^ol^iii d'khiy da ya in pleasant circumstances,
in a friendly way. Thuta P. 98. 3338seas^jo 11 ooSscSooo
g330811 . 78sGS)|S|GgSii d'khiy Qe ja certain factsgo and
find out the exact truth. Pon. Yama Py. Z. 58. sosp
GOoSo^Gps^sco^sii 3338sc^os cgooSn ikhiy vdwa course of
eventsdid not know the history of the case. Up. Muh.
K. ii, 152. 00700gS33s8scgosc^GOOoc8c$c8GOoSii when one looks
at what has happened. Ok. Mai. K. 183.

33300 s dkha' vza n. the act of paying court, homage. V.
333 A.

33 3 ct8 s d'khay n. [P. khanda, fragment, rag, kanda section,
which two words are often confused.] a section, a chapter,

333$:ii33ijS8sii f.§800gSG30O3a3CiSs§si^ii chapter on the
founding of the palace. Tav. Yaz. i, 2. ao6p&oooc^6o:
G00O3asciSscgs§go3§ii episode. Ziwaka K. 162. tosctsssctssii
coo6oso§scfyi dskhay Kgay a wonderful poem in many cantos.
Nara. Se K. 195. 333aSssciSs33§cS(gcS3aSSG0003a0cSii
patchwork. Zin. Pak. K. 486. 33^85333085 d"paiy
d'khay section (of a book). Up. Muh. K. i, 28.

333c8 d'kha? n. [scSoogS to strike, beat.] a beating, shooting.

33^c8iio8§8sii o8soci£(c§S33S)|cSooGCOo8ii3a9cSs>Gii whipping.
Manu 191. 330833308 dpyi? dkha? shooting. KBZ. Hi,
237. 33<^c8 33308 dpou? dkha? beating, buffeting. Kawi
L. Th. 959.

33 31 dkhay' n. [a|oogS to estimate.] 1. measure, extent,
duration. oac^Ssiioyocoi §|Os8s3as|iiG$cgoo§G33oS . c8§c8$
^s^|iiG§|d8?ii to the measure of gold umbrellas as bright
as a fire of cutch-wood, terrifying (outshining) the sun.
Udein. P. 204. |c§oc8mc8§oiiooooospGcooc83a9|og8ii at a
measure, distance of about 100 fathom on the north side
of the city. Yama Yag. ii, 111. oo§|g§g§8iiGooo8soo8o9s|n
cgdScgcSg|ooosiiGoosogj^ocgii (Mt. Meru) centre of the four
islands, to which no rival appears, towering to the
measure of the heavens. Thuw. Thissa P. 27. 333^070811
o^solqcScSn three full leagues. Pyatih. P. 5. gjjo83aiooo:n
3as|rgs^o5j8ii the extent of the foul smell. Temi. J.W. 70.
33os§8333|iiooc8^sso|ooii to the measure of his strength, with
all his strength. Thuw. Mya P. 10. 3a£6|oo8ooooS^333§ooo
gdooosii durationthe d. of an intermediate cycle. Shwedg.
Th. 4. §8Gooo8G§oc8sbGoos§,£ooooo3a3|^|ii Thath. Link. 65.
G$y8soo^iif,o^378sooS3as!c9g§|ii a period of 30 hours (the
daytime hours of the Burmese clock). Hm. Yaz. i, 29.
33s|^o8s8o3|8 for some considerable time. Attok. 13. gooo
§8oo^c8 .... g3ao8soo^c8oo|iio$3a3^og8 . 6os§sg|s|i
during the period of my dwelling in the forest, do you stay
behind and keep guard. Banl. P. 8. s8g^s8S||go3o8
333^000^ cg^ooobc^n dkhay' mdtay not in accordance with
measure, unstintingly. Temi. J. W. 106. s3s§yoo§ . .
Gooooo(c§sgo§jox)ii unmeasured, ibid. 31. Rem. In $,c£s}ooo;
cgf.^sGooS3ao1s33s|ooGGpc8o3j8iiG^oc8ooo|iGOoooo8s ... at Nemi
J. W. 53, 3as| may perhaps be taken in sense of gcoocs


42

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

" about somewhere in the vicinity of the palace. Or
oo§ may be read for oo and o33§oo§ taken as a "fair distance"
when he brought the carriage fairly near the palace. 2.
occasion, circumstances. gacjopSsii oagSiioaesp 0338211
(mostly in combns.) oo§so33|§o3]8oo§soj^s|ogSii Manir. K.403.
oogS^|033|c^o8smos||go^^ooecooii are you afraid on an occasion
of such (little) importance ? (Or o3s| may=Gcooc£ about",
and be a mere redundancy after ^11.) Hm. Yaz.
ii,384. oaa^oo^ ^GooocSG^spoor£Gap8sc\q]o£)ii

dkhay' day be suitable to circumstances, fitting, seemly.
Temi.J.W.26. 033§oo§9iio3coooc&<^6§io^G(g<^o8SsoyG^iii when
the occasion was suitable, when an opportunity offered, ibid.
60. ^ojOLjcSyo^mcS^ocgoj^ oaa^e-coS oo§SG^|8gc§8Gpog8ii
dkhay' to the occasion is fair when I had an opportunity to
look in the vile man's face. Mahawth. J. W. i, 89. 333§gooS<§
cqoc8oooc§G6pcS . GooScogSsii by good hap. Bawd. D.K. 9.

oas^eoy^ii oogSos^c^iiosogc-SGoSfJii dkhay' lyo the
occasion is properwhen, on the turn (of events) and
occasion being proper, I disclose the matter. Band. Kam
Py. Z. 97. ojcSoc8cgo5coos|8s ros^ooS Gog§8oo£Sn dkhay'
Siy' by fortunate accident. Eind. Z. i, 351. Goqp8sc£j!(g§
coooo£S§8333§oo86cg§8Gcocvg]8ii Zin. Pak. K. 106. ^sj^scoo
cdo^o02)§gcd5g^5gf.000^oo33§008crbll Colloq. L. B. osj|[Sc^>333§
oo86bofl§,8cqcSoflG9ii dlchay' diy' to be convenientcause the
documents to be withdrawn by whichever person happens
to be at hand. Than. W. iv, 62. 8cSooo?o33^ooo8§if>8
03Go^c§6bii^So3§iGyj£§oSu}i! circumstances are not right,
normalhe was feeling upset at the time. Up. Muh. K. ii, 294.
ooosg§oo33|ooo8§ioo^s§8oo§s . 8c8s^scc)]cSii did not hit it
off in conversation (o3s| being apptly. superfluous), ibid.
296. 3. assumption of superiority, swagger, arrogance.0088s
§8siio1§£siigco§8§8siioo^c^8§8sii o2)£goo5i^§osooos . co8s3§]s
cfyl 03(j)(c§s G^c88ooo§|8 ii Co8s o8G33o8o3|300(£c^333§|3j§G@o(9§00dbn
in a superior way (as brushing aside all criticisms). Ok.
Mai. K. 171. clsGooo8osoo^Sco3^s§i8o33|G^o^c§oofSii people
on high pay who live in style. Sun. ofceSu§£@£§cg8o33
(o3s|) . G6|G the best in Burma. Tedat B. 206. OToSc^od^obii^^gs
oaa^oos G^c§ii03GOspi^o^iiG3oiGoosG§)s^ooc^n dkhay' sza in
good styleas people of means and position. Than. W. iv, 71.
^8c§osa}oci8g|8(c§sGcg333§osG^8ii Dag. Mag. o^cooso^8oo^og8
^cSaD$o1o1§8o33§osd^8Gco(c^ii with an air of importance.
Sun.

sas^i dkhay n. [Tib. k'an-pa house, room. Kch. hkan
room. A.C. Jean' space between (K. 375).] 1. a room, a bay,
a compartment. oscaooS 11 c88c^>8ooc^8§8ooc^8o3go s osogo 11
330gc8n o33^soo^sc§9o1o8Gspc8ojjG^^ii a room, enclosed part
of the house, as opp. to the guest-room. Shwep. W. 123.
333^033^ sG|dS$8iiG3oo8^so&j8oodSii the palace with its many
rooms or bays. Anthol. ii, 152. Gaooc^joscx)cS§8iisjj8cgc8s]£S^sii
8£so§scv3]8ii ots^sotoo^ii o^soo|§osGogiiGCosoo|Gf. dkay' compartments, houses in a horoscopeif the rising
sign at the man's birth and the moon at the woman's birth
are separated by three compartments, i.e. are in trine.
Kutha P. 68. c88s§os<§§s§!i oaa^s goooS saS §11 d'khay

o? bestow couple in marriage chamber. Hmaing W. i,
139. §cSgoor}Gp800^Gcooooo$;ols^ oao^soaol ^S^i d'khay
dwa area, ambit. (This is a comment on the opening words
Goo8ofp8ii3^so1^8oo, where s^sol is a translation of fp8, P.
mandala, circle space.) Parami P. Com. 7. oas^ssSs
dkhay zi a partition, party wall (one such in the palace had
the specific name oogjooS, i.e. P. mara-bhanj- destroying
death), a curtain, window curtain. Colloq. oaa^scQoSs
oo^S d'khay Kpyauy to move (a sick person) to another
room. (Usu. from the idea that he will not get well
where he is, cf. oooo8gQo8soo^ii So, a hale person may
change his room or residence, or a new palace might
be built for some superstitious reason.) Colloq.
oarS^s oas^s d"keiy dlchay arithmetical number. (More
com. in form c8^s3^sii iioss^s perh. =the compartments made
for insertion of numbers in astrological calculations and hence
the numbers themselves.) Mand. Mawg. 22. 2. an act in
a play, an episode, a chapter. o3^8siio33ci8s (preferred to
933§s as = chapter in religious books) (qSGoosaosp) c88cq|S
cgosspn88o33^2c§GSpc8^ .. oodj^soogosiisSSGpoooo^sa^Sii when the
act in which he was to play was reached. Thing. Sag. ii, 26.

^033§5§03§|8o3^g1(^osgoosc^8o8ooosc^|g8 s £)|§<§s£j>goosftgco 00 ii

episode, instance. Atithon. II. 318. ooc§oo§8<^iii33^]sogcS6pii
oooodogoooo33§soo£Si:g§sos$s^S topic. Daung T. 112. o^sps
^$ooo8jy8o33§sn chapter, section. Yama Yag. i, 1. Gjoo^o
^S|og8iior5Gpsojoo^jf^iiq]c8goo^o33^scgo8 ii episode, incident.
Yazaw. K. 464. oas^ss^s c^cfbiioo8co8scg8ii d'khay xgay
the several acts. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 149. 3. category, class,
sphere. 3391133^811 8§soo£Sao§siio38oq|£soo§s(? (038500^)11033$:
Gcosy^Gogn category. Kawi L. Th. 756. 08903382(033^2)11
c^oo^|d^iiooooo^sg8soo^^8n sphereeverything necessary in
the sphere of magical power. Band. Kam. Py. Z. 9.
c£jjs)|8ogcS d'khay sgay of various kinds. U

Paw U Pref. (^820300^00 ^Sn§^So3^i:|o33^23^2ii various.
Udein. P. 9. GcgsccSsp^os^&icoogaDOOBS^ss^siiGoo^GooSao^sop^ii
Wisit. Sagab. 98. So often = o3Gj8s|8 for variety or where
rhyme is required.
sasSs d'khay n. [O.B. 03303f>0 an equipage indicating
distinction. sSs^os magnificence, to be magnificent.]
ornaments, appurtenances, a ceremony o3Gsoo8o3Gooo8ii£ii
0000811oo§g5^oooo8u|3o8G^o3388iiog8s§8^o1$2og8ii ceremony
of ordination to the priesthood. U Pon M. 1. o338so8§8s
gcos85oog8s6|ooosii ceremonial occasionceremonial state
carriage with four horses. Kinw. Di. i. 114. qpsgoGoooogS:
88s)]8?ooo oaaS83a^o8 c§c^G0SG005fti^ 11 d'khay d*na
distinctions, ornaments. Manir. K. 49. sSSg^sgooS^gooo
3338203^0211 ceremonyof installation as crown prince.
MMM. 1. gc,>3o8GooSoo8G6cooo338803$o8og8ii Ming. E. 1.
oassp A dkhdya n. [sspoo^ to wheedle.] wheedling, wheedling
ways.oaocSn03^o1oliio33Spo3^ooGCos^oii Maul. Yaz. Py. Z.
181. o3^c8o3Sj)||03§||03G^oo3|o33sp§8co^2§^9i^!ii she is good
at extracting favours, coaxing by flattery and winsome
wheedling. Sagad. W. 36. o3oc8o3ocoono336po3G$ono3GS||o

03||gc2§S Kh. M.G.W. ii, 62.
oassp B dkhdya n. [Skt. gurv-akshara a long syllable, ten of


43 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



which = 1 prana or respirationa period of four seconds.
Surya-SiddhdntaBurgess 5. Ant. Ind. 219. asp is more
com. form in B.] two-fifths of a second. oooe-fo^ Go 001311

^o^s§oc8aooSe§ocSii f.ooocS ii g§oc8sooSeyoc8ii oaaspoocSii
ogo:Gooooasl3asGpGo18s§8(^!ii multiply the nari (hours of 24
minutes) to bring them to bijanas, multiply the bijanas
by 60 to bring them to akhayas (khayas). So you get the
total of khayas at the time of birth. Adik. K. 222.

ssssp C dkhdya n. [Apptly. by-form of q.v.] the

decisive factor.ycono3S||[8o3§oiiog1f>ii ^o3q]o£|c8§ooo3S|8aq|[5
(o§soo£§D3asp§8Gropii Sun. a^ooooaGolSsoaooSsooossGpgScjii
association is the essential thing. Than. W. Hi, 153.

ros dkhay n. [aoo^S to receive, endure.] 1. the act of
receiving, enduring, protecting oneself. s|Ojj§S?i^a§8sn yojoj
o33oo8(ooc8)go3o8ii hard for a lone woman to endure. Tedat. B.
140. ,aaooSo8si03asjooS(ooc8)ii930oc8^So1c8ii ZawtaKum.Py.Z.
113. ooSoaoo^oiioqjdSgogooogSiif.os^ooaaacSoo^ii Anthol. ii, 140.
§]8oooc8o1^8i!00oso^o^93aac8c9G|j|ii Rup. Kal. Py. Z. 25.
oaaooo^oo8f.o^|c8f.^SG^oogSii if they know how to protect
themselves. Yama Yag. i, 8. clc^c^: 33333^ §8oo^cgc8
Gyss|GcooogSn dkhay dkhu' ? resentment, ill-feeling (not
in P. original). Mahawth. J.W. i, 162. 33^333
3300003ngoS dkhu' dkhay a protection and barrier. W.O.B.
us ao cS 33 s ooo;GOo56ysGooSco£Ssy^ii dshe? dkhay successor
and inheritor. Hm. Yaz. Hi, 296. o3§oso3^osc^ 330^33 3
ojyii dtaP dkhay attack and defence, opposition. Sun.
2. something underlying, support, starting point. GoaocSan
03a8sii03g|8s03ii gs|(? g^^S&^ii^osa^oiiosog^oo^dSn as the
blaze catches wild cotton placed under a burning-glass
and the sun's heat. Yama Yag. i, 92. coqpc8|G03oc8oo
GGpSjyososf 33a^33G6p8eoooc8oo£Sii The placing of a piece of
red foil under a ruby gives the stone a lustre. (This
is perh. only necessary in the case of inferior stones.)
Colloq. 33ao^fejjjso}oo£Sooos (o) 03^83 (j) o^sa (9) oo8?G^oan
ground on which the decoration (oscjyocS) was
imposedeither carved figures, flowers, or a plain
surface. MMOS. v, 65. o3 3§o(jjjo|§j§8sii surface,
skin. LHGK. 33. ooooooo^iiG^o1o^c§ii33a§saji!a8soo£So^ii
mattress. San. Kein. P. 41. o1sj833aoo8noo§8cbD3^ii
supportthe support given by one's virtues is effective
and one's luck is in. Tedat B. 3. ogoooscg^ossjj^iioS^
Gcocoopn Lawki Th. L. K. 88. 3j^o33§oogSo3ogc8ii ZJPDK.
21. ologSc^a^GooScogSsn oIc^uSoogco s 0336|go3o8 11 Ggc^ooog|oo1n
though you may intend to swank, get money so that the
substance of your swank may have something to support
it (prob. w. ref. to c^dSsGg money in the pocket). Kum.
Py. Z. 12. G030c8s^s33aii|0c6c^i!§sc9^0^03|8i!f.0G|a8cg8§8s^!ii
that with which one startsif you refine niphalan gold
you get narani gold. Yazaw Ii. 12. 330^8333 dtaiy
dkhay sureties. Manu 248. 33 000 0833 3 dthau? dkhay
assistance. Hmaing W. i, 146. 3. the first of a series of
corresponding verses, stanzas, clauses, etc. 33ijSSiio3G§3ooosii

33333038 . go1oO^Ct8oOOSII G0cg8cg8ll Gg00C?8(^o8§8s800ll
Gcooo86pG instance of 333 and 03338 (the answering line). From that

tall tree with rich foliage the silver orchid scents the
breeze. But as it is in another person's garden the bright
thing is difficult to take ; though near it is far. (Model
for composition of a cgssjjjs or epigram. The 033 ends at g^sii
The remainder is 03038 whose last word rhymes with the
last word of the 033) Burm. Comp. 262. sgc^yjcguScosoSn
^ . SjO300^IIO33S|09ilG|G5o8sS|c8o9j8|s|O500^O3C^c8s)0^g800gSll
oasjj[ooos 03ooyo^6000G^o8n 03303c^c8s|03oj^ooo8Qi the ode
beginning sgdSyjOguSGosoS is the 033 ode ; the ode
beginning G|G§o8ss|c8og|8 is the osc^c8 or following ode.
But some, because the sounds are not alike (because the
opening phrases contain no rhymes), do not consider them
to be 033 and osc^c8 odes (odes written as a pair. The
writer goes on to contend that there may be logical as well
as metrical correspondence). Taung. M.Y. Com. 3.
033^803038c^GG0308s£jS6|0lygSc^> . oa^oso3§8o3cg^o8mo:
GooScogSsojcooooooos 0330^038088? goooooos c^os^n instead of
expressing the oas> and 03038 (the two clauses) fully,
the first clause although I have much knowledge of the
world is not followed by any closing or capping words.
(The apodosis is not I never heard of such a thing "
but no such thing is mentioned in books ".) U Pon.
M. Com. 56.

ossi dkha n. [l.w. si in Mon, 15 C. = time, season, year.]
time, occasion, season, the proper time, festival time, time
when. oooconooyooi'03^c8iio3^iispo8iigo^ii^s|c8ii g$o8o331§c8ii
I.B. Hi, 250, I. 12. §8g$o8ooco8o331 in times to come, here-
after. ibid. 272, I. 22. ossIsSoSSoo^SgiSScjSii may it last per-
manently. ibid. 272, I. 21. oo^oaslclo^epsoo^o^Siic^oaslap^S;
03§oogS(g8(§ii Nip. Hi, 61 and passim. o^0OG|O33ln time of
entering on a new existence. Thath. Wi. K. ii, 151 oaalo^s
<3110326103038 the three seasons of the year. Udein. P. 69. osooo
Gaoio33lyo3c8oogS§ii at the wrong, an improper time. Kinkha.
N. 59. o33lGOo5G^S|c8nogc8q)c8G§|s^joSGii an auspicious day.
Mani Khet Z. 41. oaalcooSoln a written note of the auspicious
time. MMM. 94. osslo^cjc&oscgSsii the three days of the New
Year festival. KBZ. 2, Hi, 376. oaoc^o9a1|oooo8scg]c8c^qj^y^o2
§^ydScoosii in time for the festival at the end of Lent.
Colloq. Shiuemyo. cg^Gco^sGOooosslii in times past. Nip. i,
476. c1o^ipoo§oflGOo5floo£§G$oc833§i8 op(s §(S§goooo331ii when 136
years had elapsed since I attained Nirvana. Thanl. Yaz. 1.
33 3133^ goso1g|goii dkha dcheiy time, proper time (for
the commencement of a work). Attok. 2. 33 si 33 g 8 (o^
QGSgsGis^Goosooooii dkha dkhwiy' opportune time. Sun. 33 si
000 S 8 9Goq|o8?6aoocS@8oc<>H dkha skauy time is favourable,
auspicious. Saw. W. 109. 33s1gs gjc8|^s dkha'ji great,
sacred occasion (generally the days of the new year: v.
osslo^cs sup.) Colloq. 33 si s 8 ds s s gc^oso3s§8sc^^ii
dkha khap "deiy always, regularly. P. sadciNarada J. W.
13, cf. Zinme P. N. W. i, 46. Sense permanently occurs
in Inscriptions, e.g., IB. Hi, 272, I. 21, quoted above.
GolspciDoocooc^ii 33 si si gooS^c^ii dkhaga repeatedly. Tedat
B. 1. 33s1s1oa^ dkha ga dkhu'gu' repeatedly, v.s.v. oa^
A. 33si c^ ^8 §igoo8goooo331ii dkha chiy form a


44

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

judgment as to the timewhether suitable for a certain
action or not. Zin. Pak.K.503. 3385308330000 3ss1oo^ 03)8
dkha tay the time is suitable, it is time. ibid. 542. coslooolsn
6|oo§sfe)psc§ dkha dd "ba on one occasion. Kogan. P. 1. 333!
000ls8cS£3g0^C0S^]8sC§00^S . .s8S;$33CO£&330c8cOOG6pc£g<|
on one occasion. Thing. Sag. i, 164. This is the regular
meaning but in oaslooolsoocSsoooSgoG^jy^Gol from a Pyaz, the
meaning seems to be on other occasions ". 33si0008 s
oogSogS . cS^cogSsooosooBcfj!. . qiaooygS . 03 . 33^C§
gogcos^ii dkha Hauy ask for indications of the favourable
time. Attok2 ols§c^cS^cgS§sc§soo 33s1osg8sn s38sj^8cocS
^gos§8s^oo^ii dkha spe indicate the auspicious time. Thami
L. W. 10. 33s1^ §eSs6googSog8ii dkha me' unseasonable.
Zin. Pak. K. 53. Goqj5oGpco^saas1^g§ ? a time when
there was nothingno cash in the treasury wherewith
to pay compensation. Ayud. Sh. 50. 33s1cpcS oo^c8
Goo8co^so§sg8go^^n dkha yadi the season (for fruit
and flowers). Boddh. W. 57. coalc-spcs goo8g§oc8oo§^
g§oc8oo^c1ssio33§|8c§^ii dkha yav? when it comes to the
auspicious moment. Attok. 38. oo^gsIS^ooSii 33s1co8 §1 dkha
liy' wait for the time. Nara Se K. 51. c§8sgcoii33s1coSg6joocSii
noo§scgos60oon time will slip away. With. Haw. 78. oaalycoS
gsoosolii without waiting for the time, constantly. Ayud.
Sh. 26. 33 si co gS Goo5GgoGos^8n dkha Is the season comes
round, the year expires. Manu 78. osslco^ScSs a daughter
a year old. Pyaz. asslcocS (co^S) 11 twenty-four hours. Kab.
Band. K. 487. 300800scf.spc§ 33s1ocoS g§SccSgcsc$s
c$g§8s dkha mdla? without intermission. Sun. 33 si co s Q 8
c^cgoscocS^gs§8so^^ii dkha xle myiy' time slow and long-
after a considerable time. Yaz. Kyaw 55. 33 si as S dkha
diy' the time is suitable, v. oaslsflS supra. 33s1oooix>
ooocoGoo8o^SiiGGOo8y^ dkha ddmdya' time, conditions. Nana
S.P. 75. and freq. in journalese.

33si? dkha n. [alsoogS to be bitter.] bitter taste, food with
bitter flavour.33spooooi§siisjfla8Si33st|§i33c§i333lsi335i33o§
oj^?|aooo^G§oc8(|{s§j(^iii (the six tastes, the sweet and nutty
flavours being counted as one). TJtuh. K. 49. Cf. Adik
K. 46 where seven flavours are enumerated and the sum
wrongly given as nine.

338 dkhi' n. [by-form of 33^ A q.v.V. also 330^11] a large
quantity or number. 33qpsii336§oc833§o8ii s)£g00533811
§8c8c8oqjc8ii Pyinsawu. P. 2. g^oc8oo8oo8so8s ... ^cScaooGog:
ogoSi@ccS338ii large numbers of young and old attendants,
who might be mistaken for devas. Narada P. 148. o1sj8
338ii6|8yoc8ooosn Nana S. P. 68.

33^ A dkhu' n. unit, item, used where no more specific
numerative is appropriate.] unit, item, individual thing.
33§SII33£)jc8ll O^cSoOOO^IIO^SOO^y 00 cb II09 ^1103 ^1133^ 00 p
00G000800000||iiG00000000^ii3300Go||00jGpc800£Sii not one benefit
nor fourteen or fifteen, or a hundred or a thousand benefits,
but immense numbers follow every good deed. Nayaw M.
45. Gooo^ooogS ... ssslsl 33^ cspc8oogSii dkhu'gu' one after
another, repeatedlythe wish keeps recurring to my mind.
Mahawth. J. W. i, 44.

33^ B dkhu' n. [popular form of 003 q.v.] the present time,

now. OOSODIiqjcSG^OcSllOg^ll 0000^0§Sj] 8 G 000 000II33 ^011
oo^gocdSiioo^cir)o§jcg^sc§Gcogii I wish to devote myself to
meditation right now; but I have too much pity. Tedat. B.
34. 33^ooSab ogc8cg'oso1oo^Sii dkhu' diy Sbs a moment ago.
Colloq. 33^00 GyGyo^GpsGsTa^soocSsy^oloDcoosii dkhu' naga'
a moment ago. Dag. Mag. Both 33^008 and 33^f>oo prob.
from 00^0080011 q.v.

33^ C dkhu' n. [^ooj£ to prop up.] a prop, support; resistance.
generally in combn. with 33311 333ii33Goooc8iiog^soj^§Ssii

-GOSC^8sG§8SGQOOO^C§9S§S33^§8G3l8sOOc833§38o8Ssglc8 Cvqj c8 O 8

g$gooo8s^ii should carry the one, who answers every
question, on the head with a loin cloth as cushion. Paya

N. W. 27. 33 ^ 33 s 330gcjs330osoogoos^)os . ogosh jgosii
dkhu' dkhay supportslittle supports affixed, viz., frogs
and bullocks (i.e., kinds of cleats or seatings in timber
structures). MMOS. v, 53. 333333^1 g^sooSo^ii a bought
slave with some support, backing. Manu. 70. 33^33333000
330goS33§S§8Gf.c§8§8^goo^ii allowed them to settle there
as defence, buffer (against the Chins.) W.O.B. 33333^
dkhay dkhu' v.s.v. 33 s 11

33dkhouy n. [^oo^S to jump.] jumping, a transition.

-^§CgOs(g8silGoq]S§8sil-00^§8c§GG8^ll33^^0g8c3S|l^00C§33C§c8ll

next, passing from the scene in Mawyon forest to the
fight between Nga Khaya and Dutha. Yama Yag. i, 196.
33 ^ ^ 33 o^j'S 33008330080^11 dkhouy dco omissions, gaps.
Anap. D. K. 16. cgosoooo}ooosc^8sG6|S 33^^33^ ooc8oooflc$i
dkhouy dpyay jumping and flying, acrobaticsmen skilled
in spear, sword and various kinds of shield-dancing
(co8c§8g8 play at swords and jumping in Mon original
p. 316) Raz. Ayeb. 178. 33c8s33^c8 330033^ $c8c8go§8s
dka' dkhouy dancing. Maha Thuz. K. 40.

33^ dkhouy n. expletive in 33(58533^ dnyiy dkhouy dispute.

33^0008 dkhouy tdmiy augmn. [^y8oog§ to be fond of.]
eagerness, eagerly8c833oscoc8oo§goiiooSyc8goiiGgGoo5o1c8
33^c§ii33^ooo8iic§sogdSs||8GoooGgo8ii being eagerly desirous of
worshipping the relics. Kawi M. M. K. 61. ggooo[ii33c^s^c§ii
33^ooy8iiG5io8oo38oo^ii^cSoo8^oc§ii impatient for instruction in
the Law. ibid. 86.

33 b A dkhe n. [Soo£§ to be hard.] 1. a lump, a coagulation,
a quantity; a feeling of anger or grudge. 33o^sh33§8ii33c^sii

3360gll330^ll330q|§ll-c88sc88soq|Oq|IIGgSG33o8^llG§|^00033^ll a lump

or ball of scent. Kawi L. Th. 15. §sooosc§33byc£§ii mass of
clouds. NOV. ^sfe00ol5G00O33S|^39^33^|33GSC§00^Sll33OGo1lGG|
33djc§Gooo^sii these fluids, coagulations, phlegms and sticky
substances (in the body) belong to the water element.
WMDK. 79. c1so1sogdSii5|8cSg9oSnoo^c8ycg^ii§c8ajjg^c§iioo8sg^
cdcS^ii33^g|09j8ii if he gets the Silas, the pennant and possession
of good men, as a solid acquisition. Thanweg. P. 5.
00^co5c§ Gooocfyo s GOg 0006^08^)800 cSoodS 3^000330^1 s c§c8ll 33^c§c8
c§8§ooosgoooii (a book) which shows by concrete instances
why men are attracted to women who have been married
before. Advt. in Nov. g)8336oT^oiio6^^8oo^33b(^s§)6^oogSii
have a great grievance against you. Than. W. iv, 127.


45 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



flSCO£§SC§6pll8sOOO . . G6|3300§0$ . §so8s|000sil

dkhe dcirj volumethe Mu could not follow its natural
course but with voluminous flow had to enter (the canal).
PaleiJcE.41. oa^soarcj| ojoo^ooos^osoo^Sii^^oo^c^s^oogS
d'khe dci' a large quantity, v. 330^ B. Woh. Pak. K. ii, 312.
33ar^oo^ii3a8cSooo8§s8c8<§oo8cSo9|ii oa^oao^jcS ot so §33 00
33oo^§5orj|o§n d'khe dcev* lump, solid particle. Alin K. 23.
o1s@sG6p8§SGooo33^3ao^o8(^s@8G$oogSii lump, swelling. Colloq.
Danubyu. §c\}scbooii oa^oa^S ... . . g§g3o$co£§sii

d'khe dsaiy feeling of anger. Udein. P. 196. oa^oaaocSii
8sc8$8oo8 d'khe dsha? in a testy manner. Kogan P. 67.
ggO£S8Gooo8 ... oabco^cS Gol§gSsc^|c8o9)8ii dkhe due? assets
and possessions. Daung T. 85. oaboac^ dkhe dpyiy a lump,
mass. Woh. Pah. K. i. 134. c^@ss)|8s oabsocS gsjjooo8§j
GODOGgSii dkhe sha? be touchy. (This appears to be an
alternative to the more com. 33obsoc8n oa^socS occurs at
Kawi L. Th. 43 but Bur. Sp. 99 recognizes only cracbsocSn)
Tham. Sek. D. K. ii, 14. cgoodbn oa b o Goq| ( ( g$§8ii dkhe md ce be dissatisfied, grudgeI can't stay because
of the half anna which I grudge. Yethe Pyaz 21. co b

oosgcSn oQ ooc8§i d'khe md pye feeling of resentment was
not resolved(the King) was not reconciled (to the loss of
Yidhura). Wid. P. 42. o8sooosn(g8c§ooo||G6|Oii oa^ooos
oloocoosii dkhe sda actually solidyour words are thick and
unctuous, nay more, a. s. Pon. YamaPy.Z. 140. oaojaab
dci' d'khe great quantity. Kutha P. 22. oa^oab dsu
d'khe a group, (translating P. kaldpa). Dham. D. K. 150.
oa^Soab dsaiy d'khe massas of earth, masonry, etc.
Kawin M. K. 59. oasSoa^ dshi dkhe unctuous matter.
Tharapu K. iii 194. 33 g'og 33 ^ dtwe d'khe a solid mass.
Kutha P. 74. 330^133^ d'louy d'khe a hard lump, tumour.
Ek.D. Y.K. 103. 2. difficulty, oasc^oa^noaoocSiiaagSoaoD^sii
333c8ob^o,33b(^o^33GG|soo^§Sii a complication of difficulties.
Than. W. iv, 77. G^8o8so3ooc8oo8soo£Siif1^^G6pcSo^ooos33^ii
it will be difficult for Nemi to live long enough to get back
to his palace. Nemi J. W. 95. osjogg oa^oaoocS cr^ocflcS^cS
od8@0S§8^0S801i. dkhe dlca? difficulties of philosophical
truth. Up. Muh. K. ii, 35. oa^oascSii o|[9cSgooo938§i1
d'khe dkhe? a problem, contained in cryptic words.
Mahawth. J. W. i, 51.
sab B d'khe n. [S>oo£§ to bite, to be pertinacious.] pertinacity,
resolute endeavour. ^soos§8sho9^c8o3^oSii ycS£jSa8ooi[
Gs18s^c8c§orjn ^oajo^cS ^o§8^oo8c8olobn dkhe deep (33 of 33b
being omitted as freq. in dramatic style) biting and
grinding, persistencefrom the shadow of the jasmine, I
bob my head and coo. As for persistence, all my heart
is in it. Saw Pe Py. Z. i, 14. c£c\D&crbiiq|cS§oc£§i oa ^ oa o 11
goococSsyn dkhe dwurj' resolute couragewithout effort,
heedless, putting off the exertion of r.c., and abandoning
the attempt. Pcurami P. 83.
oa si c£ A dkhau? n. [Tib. kog-pa, shell, bark ; A.C. k'ak,
shell, husk, K.506.] 1. bark of a tree 33G^snoo8G3lc8iioa§ii

33o8so3^So9g8a3G3lc8c§c^lsGoooc8cq|8ii Adik. K. 49. sp^scg
33OS33Gs1c8s^SSJ^S§Da00cSo^SG00O33Gs1c8s^SS|^O3S00f.^SII IIG 00 O c£
6J 8 G 3 1 cS I jo^ ^&G3lcS(jp00o1oll33O^>S^)G G0003G3lc8s^SS|^SoO^D35

oIoooo^sh PPK. 236. So frequent in form 1c£ following
names of trees, as oo^831sg31c8iiodog31c8ii Colloq. 33G3lc8c^>s}|c8<§
asafoetida got from the bark. Ek.D.
Y.K. 180. 93Gs1c8^g8GOOOc8^soo^|Gooo[raso8s§(^ii ibid. 152
(But acc. to known methods asafoetida is obtained from the
root of the plant and opium from the poppy capsule.)
GOODC^II aas1c£ojj co^Ssnc^§8so8GSsiiGj^ooc8^8scbc§iisj|c8§8soogii
ooqp s oooo£§i§ ii cg|o^ s c^c^8oq|c8n §c8o^So^ooc8goo8co^s IIOOOc8^8gS||II
dkhau? thu stupidthe silly, stupid hunter got up im-
mediately as if the elephant king were his enemy, and
he even danced holding a big saw and tried to climb
up with the intention of cutting (the tusks), but in vain.
U Pon. Taya. 17. oaG3lc8aj=ajj8^s=ajG^5=oj}Gc8^oii nco^oasl
oogSojoaooSsolsoo^S 1133008 s oftoogSa}33o§ s q|osoo£§n G^soasl^ooaGslcS
o^c^33o^s^oscr)^aj^iiio^og§o8of.8§|oiia3ga1c8o^§isiigooo89^§ 8 % o ds
cgo;o^o^no^Gooo8sc§ooos^oo^ii U Pon. Taya Com. 212.
Form s1c£ in ^jcSgsIcSoqoo^S to have a dull, heavy
witted appearance. Colloq.

aao1c£ B dkhau? n. [gs1c8oo^S to fold, double.] 1. a fold,
layer (as of cloth) oacgonoaooSn oaGslc8oospiioog^o1§Sii
. . oc^Goosc^nesc^ooG^Sii Anthol. ii, 125. 2. a time, a turn.
oa^Siio3oo^ii33sln gjj^Solooooo^Sii. .. 03Gs1cSqpsg0 ... §|cS
GjOogSn Thath. Wi. K. i, 186. 8soo aas1c£a1cS o8<§n
dkhau? gaw> repeatedly. Kandaw M. Com. 87. 33gs1cSgs1cS
333ls1iioospsGOo5^josf^^oo^sc9GCo§ii Ok. Mai. K. 161. Form
in oogs1c8§8gs1c8^8so1g|G^sii let me gallop him once
or twice more. Thing. Sag. i, 299. q|c8§oo$sGs1c8s|sii to have
the face distorted with passion. Colloq.

33 6-slS dkhauy n. [gs18oo^S to be at the top, to be remote, out
of the way.) 1. the top, summit, acme of rank, power,
etc.o88ii3aogc8ii33q|osiioogc8iieo9COGOoo8nc88aaGs18^oii Nana
S. P. 22. G(glGOq|o8sGSDo8o^ll3aG3l8cgcScgcSll33CodSs^8ss^&SII§8s§8s
5>§)ii|cgos£ojc^ii a monastery tapering at the top, in the middle
ornate, concave (in profile) embellished with lilies. Thuw.
Thut. P. 28. gGDl8sG3oo8ribsii3aGs18oo£§oc8ii the mansion of the
sun being right at the zenith. Anthol. ii, 211. goo^so^sso&i
§|Ooo§8cv3)Si@s§833G9l8ii03Gooo8G§oc8aooSiio5i8 s cq] 8 s oo cS ^ ii the
three showers of deadly rain flooded to a maximum height
of 60 cubits. Kawi MMK. i, 71. §c8go33Gs18iicg$sG@o8Gt>o8ii
^oooqiiiGoloooo^ii the acme of excellence, the Buddha. Th. T.
E. 1. ogocq]8so§ii3ags18g§88n so as to make them thoroughly
accomplished in the scriptures. Thuw. Thut. P. 12. clc§ooo
c8o8fc§2cg8 33siscramps §8gooo ... cqeps^Sii dkhauy dphya
the highest, most distinguished. Mun Yaz. 14. oaGslSoaqps
cyoc8os^soS^iii made her So^spsGslSgs or chief queen. Zin.
Pak. K. 425. gdc8o^sg|OO^oiiooc8oooooooSii oaa1SoocS ODgS n
dkhauy ke to surpass the bestof Pancapapa's hand with its
thrilling touch. P. P. Yog. 10. oaa1Sg^sii 8§j8s^ii
dkhauy cdyay the highest (perh. eastern) postthe most noble
eightfold path. Thanweg.P.6. GsgtfsGcoo8§ oaa18 co^Ss
sSSc^s^scqicSii dkhauy 'cho break the top, be better than the


46

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

best. S. D. Kh. P. 11. ro&alS^s §Ss dkhaur)v so to be supreme
ruler. Udein.P.49. 1Sagc£ c^iioogcS6£§c^ o5god5§:
ooSgooog^oSii dkhauy shuP pluck the best, be pre-eminent
you represented the matter to me, the excellent king, of
the highest attributes. Maul. Yaz. Py. Z. 3. oac-alS
oogcSn o3og^o9g;iiG§i^o§|8ii dkhaur) tdrrvuP the highest and
most excellentthe King. ibid. 192. cp3@sc§Sn
<|ii dkhaur) taiy reach the highest excellence. Kaive Th.
K. Gyi 151. o3G3l8d58ooosiiGoq)5c§8oo8^oin Mud. Lek. P. 15.
goc£ cocsIS c8 ii ogo§jc§ii dkhauy thi' touch the summit,
be supreme. Wisit. Th.D.K. i. 258. clcoojoGjcgoSiiG^olGGpSgSsii
oj1S^8ii §^^2008^110938^11 dkhauy xni be near the
topwise ministers, who because of my power shine with
the radiance of the sun and are very distinguished. Maul.
Yaz. Py. Z. 48. 2. remote time, ancient times. oogs18ii
D30oc8Goq)ScooooiioGooofii oo^oo3go188ii§|8gooo8sgco:gooo8ii
33G3l8§jgScg§IIOOOCOO§@Sll S. D. Kh. P. 83. p(?o833G3l8liOOGo18
G^soo8nog^ssp§8oogS . G£|o(tjgS(o^ii Ava, famous in prophetic
sayings since early ages. Anthol. ii, 10. o3G318@8gooog§ij
333looiiGoT^GolcS^GCo^i Band. Mag.
oac-sISs A d'khauy n. [gsISs a cavity. Tib. k'un cavity, aa
of the nose. A.C. k'ung hollow, K. 476. Kch. nhkun hollow.]
a hollow, cavity, a hollow thing, a coffin. G3l8sgiiG3l8s8c8

09cSG00O336pllO3GCOo8800£§G00OG00g5OII 93G3l8s§GOOOg§000 5 II

s^ooSsii^oSsii^iiGyiisspiioo^sooo^c^oo^sii instruments which have
a hollow interior. PPK. 99. ooyoo8o3G3l8s§G^Gco^GoooG^o8ii
Thing. Sag. i, 241. osgsISs^goooooSoSh ibid. ^Ss^c^osgsISs
^§i3aog8s§oo^oo^c^c^oog§§i making the steel-yard hollow.
Kinkha N. 89. oo^8oaG3l8sooGco?c£§8c§ajaodSGoooc8Gooo&oo8:
6|00£§ii a Chinese coffin is so heavy that it takes ten men to
carry it. Colloq. c^c^8g330c8g§^08^0 oaeslSsoaoocS §oogS
dkhauy dde? a hollow. Colloq.
roc-sIS 8 B dkhauy n. [gsISs head, round tuber.] tuberous
root. gii S^soGooSspoaGslSsoiiGsuidSsoii fragrant arum
root ^ tical, marking-nut ^ tical.in a recipe for making
pure silver. W. M. Th. K. 191.
oa1oooS o'khoboni, oassTooctS dkhobdni, and oasTc#a8
dkhobi'ni n. [P. akkhobhani more correctly aklchohini a
complete army, v.s.v. in P. D. Dan. and Skt. Akshauhini.] A
complete army of all arms, a very large number. Soaftloa^
93co8olGOOo8ooS(^8iio3G(tpc833§o8ii The composition of an
akkhobhani army is given at MMOS. iv, 253. The total
personnel amounts to 765450. As a number the word
expresses 1 followed by 42 ciphers. Adik. K. 149. Cf.
Minye N. E. 12, Sed. Pak. K. 22, and Kawi M. M. K. 210.
Form G-sloocS in same senses.
oa&sT dkho n. [gsToo^S to call.] calling, designation, pronun-
ciation. G3T§8siloq^o8§8silgoloooqil-oSsO^SoSsOO^GsTgOoS

§SG6pcScoo6jjn with a summons from King Mindon. Shwep.
W. 261. s|8o3G3T^c8g^5o38ooii from the place whose name
is the Nathmaw estuary. Maul. Yaz. Py. Z. 145.
3o^co^so3oc8g8sii iio3G3Togosojs|]g§ii Sir Minister Shambashu
Why this high-flown address! Bein Yaza Py. Z. 42,
g§|;o^gooo8sc§g3TgoT ... 3380000 isT*oTii dkho owo pro-

nunciation. Kabya Kyem 163. oar>§8oo§|oogDo§S8aq|§8Gooo
oaG3T33GoTq|osn terminology. Sun. oaooosaasgooa^saao^Gooo
98[cSooggo1c§^!oo^o^§i8s^8Goooo3G3T33GoTogDc8sj)c8c§ii names
of different parts of the body, terminology. Thath. Wi.
K. ii, 26. ^ooajt^smos^i oasTo1ooos^ ooossjSsoo^cSGsjjii
dkho xwohara' word, expression. Kawi M. Mag. rocogs
cracsT dtwe dkho anticipation. Devag. Py. Z. 2. ot&Q^
oa&sT omyo dkho foresight. Kandaw M. Com. 45.
oacsT dhmyu dkho, endearments designed to amuse a child.
Temi J. W. 105.
oa^cS dkhaip n. [^c8aogS to impinge.] 1. Impingement,
injury. oao8ii3ac8aa^c8iioa§|33^ii GoqjocS^GsicgcSGJjjoSs
ooa^c8n as far as (for the more com. 3308) Zpd. MS. o$soo£
t|ajGooGOOOGoiio1c8ooGooo33^c8^8oocbii If he swallowed a plate
a man would dievery injurious to the constitution. Ziwaka
H. 21. oa&aooSoa^cS dshauy dkhai? what supports and
what injures. Tanaw. W. i, 71. oac^cSaa^cS dtai? dkhaip
an attack, aggression. HI. Rec. 182. Rem. oa^cSoao^
§)GoooogDOGOo5n dkhai? time injury and blot, flawin
Gunawadi Press Edn. 1914, of Vidh. J. W. Pref. is an
emendation of 33^803^11 q.v. 2. a moment of time, a
particular occasion, a coincidence. 3cidii3331o3§8iio3@c8ii

gSc8§8sil c1c§8c8gOC900^09|sg8800^So3^c8llGOOOc8og8s

8;§ogc8ooc^n Just as I was extolling my daughter's discretion,
out she comes ride-a-cock-horse on the spattle. Sagab
30. 000000080^098(03 gooo33^c8@8 <§11 Hm. Yaz. Hi, 123.
^090ooooooooog1oooso1oq|33^c8^oooo9sp8goqjo8;c^ g ooo 00 gS II the
word means the Buddha's monastery in the particular
context of the sentence (elsewhere it would mean an
ordinary monastery). Abid. N. 311. ooocogooo ot^cS
oa^cs 03(^0803^83360233 g ge oo 8 oo 8 s sp § 8 <§ dkhai'y dcaip
coincidencethe time and place, and the coincidence were
not free from probability and indications (of guilt, v.
33c£j>c8oo8ii). Manu 190. aa^cSsaa^ ooS ogjSn j s|c8oo^oogSii
9 S)c8oo^oo^oqj^(g|) gc§g8oo^n dkhai? dkhay' diy' circum-
stances suit. M. Y. M. W. 199. oacg^oaGGjsgsGooo
oa^cSoasTn dkhai? dkha timea very critical time. Sun.
33^c8oocSa33l(^oo . 038gos£olc88ii when the time comes
ignorance will carry him away. Maul. Yaz. Py. Z. 20.
ro^cSoaoo^ ooodoo^sn dkhai? dtay' the moment (perh.
originally "a pause for the moment")a temporary
palace. KBZ. Hi, 48. gqo8s|oSiio9c^cSoogo8oo^o3^c8330o|
oogc\os^ogooo8 s ^ooGp s ^jj s o 2 330 8 09 cS ol u in the short time
allowed you by fate, exert yourself in good works. Colloq.
goo^>c8oogSo1oq|33^c8a30o^oooGOOoc8a|j)^GOOoo3^c8§SoogSii the
figurative meaning is a meaning which may be taken
in the particular context of a sentence (and a word does
not always bear that figurative meaning. U Pon. M.
Com. 28 and cf. Alink. N. 197, 198, etc. 93c8o3c^c8ii33^c8o30o|ii
a90g|a3§j^iicogScogSocSoc8n^gc8 g aqp c8 cvqp s n ooo s ^ o n 9 g oso 8
sj complaisance, words adapted to the passing moment, words
of expansive eloquence. ParamiP. 97. oa^cSoac^jS o3os§8ii
33G^o88§8ooSspGa|5Gp dkhai? dhh' when their turn comes, in


47 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



due coursefrom time to time as conditions are favour-
able. Ledi Kein. 27. Cf. Meg. D. K. 13. qcSgos cd^cSJ^S 911 dkhai? ceiy meet with the time, encoun-
ter. Sun Mag. ol£§8s^o8n oo^Sn dkhai? couy
meet in time, coincide. U Pon. M. 16. 33^c£g8
90§oiio3C^o8oo&ooo5o^c^o8oodSii dkhai? khwiy the occasion
I just spoke words to suit the o. Kum. Py. Z, 16. coooo^oj
03q|osii8cSofts§o8o^ oa^cSooS (ogosGooootiSii dkhai? diy' if the
moment is favourableI may be lucky enough to hear the
foolish thoughts of all who come. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 62.

33^8 dkhaiy n. [§8oo£§ to be firm, and in ^>8j§soo£§ to be
many, be abundant.] 1. a bunch (e.g. of bananas
consisting of several combs), a fruit-bearing branch.

- 00^0811038211 C^C§gOOo|y^00 ^§9003^80900 ^SOsSsOJ^ 9008

00 eS 00 £§11 a fine branch should have fine combs.
Manir. K. 95. Applied to bunches of toddy fruit
and fruit-bearing branches of coco palms. Colloq.
008 5 §8§so9|8o3^8o3o^8^|os§ 8(cg<^ii In pines special leaves,
which cannot properly be called blossoms, unite to
form cones, of which there are male and female sexes.
(Use of 03^8 = cone is perh. scientifically correct; but
oo8s 03^8 are given as = P. goI^oo or c^oo gucchaka bunch,
cluster. LPPD. s.v. Cf. Abid. N. 213. o3o8o$8o§8io3§|c£
03Coc8oosio3^Sc38o3§smosGOOo9c8Gqjoo3^t|[sii male plantains
which have many combs in a bunch (the writer also
mentions female and ^s or hermaphrodite plantains
distinctions unknown to botanists). Ek. D. Y. K. 70.

G030c8c§£gc8GOOO ! ^ S 09 (g cS 00£§SUJG0000308SO^GOOOOOS

o8§n dkhairj dpyu? clusters. M. P. 170. 03^803(308(30811 many
clusters. Than. W. Hi. 108. c^8sGooso^8sGio^(cg£gc8§8i 33^8
oa (go 1 dkhaiy dmwa branches heavy with fruit (osjgo
multiple, prob. reinforcing os^8) boughs small and
large cross one another and fruit-laden branches droop.
Lawki Th. L. K. 200. 33^80^ dkhaiy ddye is given
as = P. pindadayika, soldiers who can cut off the
enemies' heads like toddy fruit; but P E.D. has form
pinda-dayika, one who deals out food, camp-follower;
though another translation, vorkampfer [fighter in the van,
champion] is also mentioned. The interpretation will
depend on a choice between pinda-d. from ddyika, distrib-
uting, and pind-ad. from adaya, seizing, receiving ; and on
the meaning to be given to pinda, lump. Kawi L.D. 132. Cf.
Thokthil. N. 90. 2. strength, validity. 0300II0300£§H030}H
clooGsTGoo£§c^!ocooo3^8Gf>oo£§ii instead of coming to my
summons, has taken up a strong position, surrounded
himself with a strong force. Hm. Yaz. i, 413. ooc£!jo^o3§8
Gf.Gco^iii has taken up a position in Sandoway, put it
into a state of defence (the name of the place is regularly
followed by c^S). ibid, ii, 15. oc||8so£o3§8ogc3ii we find no
authoritative scriptures. Swes. K. D. ii, 198. (0^09908308
. . o^GOooooqpc^ 33§8(cj§i taking the poem as
an authority, on the strength of the poem. Hm. Yaz. i, 214.
03^8q^6|G£§ must take as authoritative, must accept.

WLDK. 98. 33 ^ 8 33 cry gS 11 GOTo8gsoo£§c§ii9^(£cg8cg8iiGgoS
000080^11 dkhaiy dd strong and firmfull-grown male
elephants, exuding temporal juice, strong and firm as a
mountain. Mawg B. 13. qpsgoGoooosc^sossiSs^S 33^8339
3<§oq|8so§&GCo^iii dkhaiy dkhay' strength and security
disposed his large army in strong defensible array. Zanek.
J. W. 13. clsGpc1sSOdS(?Oc8G008038olG00O00OS0^O3^8o33|(o33)
ojjfjii authoritative. Tham. Sek. D. K. i, 160. ro^Soagj
o§38o^iiGg^$soo38^GCo8^o1ii dkhaiy dphyi strength and
numbersbefore he has a large following, has consolidated
his position. (As expletive to os§8 in this sense always
03§; not 03§sn) Hm. Yaz. i, 460. o8s^$s|go3^8o3§s
00£§G00088GS!|(§II KBZ. i, 75. 030^S33000S TO ^S 33 00 0§j||
dkhaiy dma things firm and hard, reliableno r. authority,
text. Thath. Bahu. 98. o^Sos^Sosoo^SosSGoscJJoog&i valid,
binding deed. Sagad W. 71. Gap8sc§jg§uooo8o933§8
03ooG§os^oq|o8 positively. Sun. ooc(jS8s . c§o3^8o3oo
Gf-cjogoSsii in strength, prepared to fight. Al. Ayeb. 21. Cf.
Pon. Yama Py. Z. 56. 33^833^0^ dkhaiy dmyiy md fi'
(recorded only in translations from Pali) (1) = P. nibbi-
sevana not self-indulgent; self-denying, meek. 03^803^
o^oo^o^fjjs^socog^ii will admonish him and cure him of
his indulgence (in cannibalism). Manik. W. 71. (trans-
lating Jataka v. 474, Fausboll). Cf. ibid. 488. (Note.
Another edition of Manik. W. Zeduwadi Press, 1910reads
33 ^ S 33 (^ and 33 ^ S 33 ^ s in these two passages respectively.
Translation at Nip. v. 588 is o3s88o§joo^c^^ taking away
his venom). (2)=P. nibbedhaka penetrating, discriminating.
03§8o3qj§o§Goooo£30Goo8 penetrating wisdom. Vidh. J. W.
Pref. (Edition approved by Text Book Committee.) 1906.
(Note. The translation o3§8o3qj§o§ is prob. a mistake due
to confusion of nibbedhaka with nibbisevana. Other editions
of Vidh. J. W. have ss^cSsso^S? dkhai? ime. This is
an ingenious emendation which unfortunately has nothing
corresponding to it in the Pali. A variant spelling from
(2) is found in 33^Ss33^j§o^ G0000900 as translation of P.
nibbedhika at Por. Kat. T. 38). ^o8$8oo£§cog§scoooo8o95
0000009s 33^833^ 00900£§so3(<^85800£§g^>00£§11 dkhaiy d'mye
what is firm and lastingthe individuality persists as one
and the same throughout life. Ah. D. K. 10. o^sog 33 ^ 8 33 c^
g^oo£§ii . I|<§o9S(o36|goo8gooo8so£§gcooii dkhaiy dlouy a posi-
tion of strength and securityhave put themselves in
a state of defence. Attok. 6. oqj8so§o3§8o3C9o§j§ii reliable
authorities in scripture. Atithon. K. 280. c^>oS8c^>cS|j
g^gco^ii dkhaiy "ji all in a state of defence
without exception put their towns in a s. of d.
KBZ. i, 319. (where older edition, p. 317, reads os§8
03s||t§sii) iiojooef^oSc^8ooii 33^8000* 9oc^o8oo^s|o8g|ii dkhaiy
"da definitelythe day on which her father d. asked us
to come. Kum. Py. Z. 71.

33^8? d'khaiy n. [§8soo£§ to employ.] injunction, employ-
ment; person employed. osgoii goo^oojs 33^8*a cgii
dkhaiy gay employees, workmenemployed to dig into relic
chambers. Up. Th. W. K. ii, 61. §j£§^o§Scoii 33^8333on


48

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

oaGcgGcgc^SiisG^oo^S^oii dkhaiy dse employment, servitude.
Pohtin Py. Z. 12. OO^a^<£^^GOOOI33^8833GGCg§&G^8oOO
coin servants. Colloq. to ^ S s to § dkhaiy dmyiy a variant
spelling of q.v.

to^s A dkho n. [^soo^S to emit smoke, vapour.] smoke, blast
of hot air, vapour, gas, exhalation, effluence.oaegjioaooSsn
P. dhuma. Utub. K. 105.

8s^o^3a^sGgo8c8ii no smoke without fire. Sagab. 87.
33^sd^c88Ggeiio3Gngc^ocAcooii for vapour the vapour of
clouds, for crookedness a maze. Yama Yag. i, 144.
cSSsGcoGgstlsiioa^soa^iic^oSc^so^^ii scenther whole body fra-
grant with all kinds of cosmetics and scents. Kawi
M. M. K. i, 163. c8^so3^sc^oooc^oDosGco8(jjGoooGgo8ii the smoke
of opium. Sabebin W. 153. o3^s§8§sGooooa^SGoooc8G3Dsooc^q8i
. . 3^oo8s§8§sgooooa^sgoooc8gsosooc^q8sc1or2spsg8§goo8^(^!ii I,
Buddha, permit pipes for smoking vapour made of bone
and of shell (v. oa^soo inf. The reference is to dhumanetta,
smoke-tube used for medicinal purposes). Mahawa ii, 11.
c^c8ogs|8§8s33^s Hydrogen gas. Utub. K. 108. j^coooggo
93§s§<§n effluence from the buried treasurewhich had a bad
effect on a person sitting over it. Manir. K. 452. o^cooo
olcSc^ to ^ s to oo S s d kho d kiy morbid heatof elements
present in excess. Ek. D. Y. K. 108. to^stoo^ c§§8c8S;
oqpc8q|§8j§ii dkho dthouy scentssmeared and sprayed with
s. Zin. Pak. K. 16. o§8oa|n to^sto^ c§§§c$oa8ao£§§S§ii
d'kho may' scents. Mala Link. W. 13. gcooo^s . gg|c§c^>
to^8to^[ §8Gocq]c8n 9skho dhmouy fine particles, vapour.
Adik. K. 136. ^o1sco^83aq|c8cgc8§i to^stoc^j c^cgcS^iii
dkho 9hlyay smoke and flame, (not traced.) o8go6}c^iiooof|ii
to^ss gcooii dkho khay endure fumigationexpose the
parts unflinchingly to the heat (from a fire of medicinal
herbs). Nara Se K. 74. G|oaocc5§0iieooy8!§^ii TO^scgoss
QoSsii ^8§8Gcoo88oqjc8ii d'kho ^chauy "jauy with intense
radiationin the beginning of the hot season the heat is
parching and blazes violently with intense radiation. Pon.
Yama Py. Z. 97. to^8 c^s ^ooogq^soj&i dkho you?
the heat dives, fails to come to the surface of the bodyif
one bathes in the ordinary way so as merely to cause the
heat to recede inwards. Ek. D. Y. K. 175. to^soo goooc8ii
ooGoq|oc888§£iiGsoo8co£ooooooii dkho day a pipe for smoking
tobacco or other herbsalways smoking his pipe and carry-
ing flint and steel. Teind. P. 38. On the merit gained by
an offering of a pipe, v. PPK. 164. g^gooooooco . .
ot^sooto^SCSS godoc8^§8S . . . oooj§Sso8a§gs|0£Sii
d'kho day dkho lei? pipes and cheroots. El. Rec. 243.
oogo&oSs^s to^scJJS c^co^soaooySsg^cgScgcSgoo^ii dkhodaiy
funnel or (?) steam whistle. Kinw. Di. i, 28. o3cg8so1c88;
TO^sogcS Goc^jSn dkho thwe? the heat emerges, comes to
the surfacemaking the skin glow. Ek.D. Y.K. 175. gcSooy8
Gp8n TO^scg^scoocSn §cS8g§9OG00oc8§i dkho 'thuy maup
with a bright gleamas of a star on the horizon. (A doubtful
use of 33^8ii) M. Sanda Py. Z. 94. to ^ 8 ol cS dkho ban? chim-
ney (translating P. dhuma-chidda.) Kinkha N. 126. G^ogcS

coogooo to ^ 8 cog [ijuS or^ooocrb d'kho pye exhalations are
dissipated. Colloq. to^scQ Ga3o8gc8oo8s3ls§]c8s|^§Sc8Ss d'kho
pye inflammation is resolved, reduced. Colloq. v. also next
ex. TO^SftcS §lggOOOOIIOOc8oj)0^c8liq|c88^^llc8a8GOGOII^OGOgGCgC^||
Gqjoc8Ggo8goSiic^c8oo88C^dS(^ii dkho hmoup heat blows, there is
a movement of hot airwith m. of h.a. upwards the eyes
become dim and other ills result; this is dissipated (by
drinking hot water). Nara Se K. 126. (It is believed that
walking on hot sand will cause an upward movement of
heat and consequent eye trouble.) gggoooc&ngdSg;
TO^scgcS oogSqjos^oii dkho hlu? send out vapour, form a
halometeors roaring and the big star with its halo.
M. Sanda Py. Z. 3. o3o8o§8S>§8sii§!S$oS§88ii to^scooocS
§8sii dkho QaiP inhaling vapour, smoking (not necessarily
tobacco but perh. other medicinal herbs)violent exercise,
massage and i.v.(among prescriptions for health in
the months of Tabaung and Tagu.) Utub. K. 10. toooSsto^i
dkiy dkho morbid heat in the body. Ek. D. 7. K. 175.
o1c8o3oo8so3^c§d^§c8^8(^ii can check m. h. ibid. cScSto^s
ken? dkho a comet. (Skt. dhuma-ketu.) Bhumi Sal. K. 148.
oog^TO^s tdguy dkho = (cgeSoog^ comet. Tav. Yaz. i, 27.

to^j B dkho n. [^soogS to steal.] stealing, theft.^sgcSgSsn
P. cori^o33Goooc8oooc8oa^8§8oo^ii33^8coc8ooo3Goooc8§8oo^ii
if you are unskilful in picking up, it is theft; if
you are skilful in theft, it is picking up. Prov. o^so^s
3s|§8sil0008^33c^c8s)s|§88 . GOOOG00809G018S§!8C8§88C§II Kan
Nyan 73. gpGoT^o to^stos^s o^cysii dkho dsho theft and
wickedness, crime. Colloq. goaSG^o^^sooosy to^stoc^cS
S6|oo£§ii dkho dtaip theft and gang-robbery. Kan Nyan. Con-
tents. to^stojcS agsjoloo^Sn dkho dhwe? or dphws? theft
and concealing, theft. Than. W. Hi, 4.

to ddha' n. [sfloogS to put down, drop; put in place, instruct.]
the act of putting down, putting in place ; concluding
part ; instruction. G3aoc8qj§88iiGf.sp£j|§8sii iioas^siioaqiosiioa^Sii
oo8§§8siiGq|o88q|§88ii9^soasi|Og8iiGgo^gOGOooc8^Gi^ii pitching
of campas he is pitching camp (or perh., as the scene
ends), let Z. begin to weep. Maul. Yaz. Py. Z. 214.
38gs|G0a08llgSC^C9£llG0t3s1(aD0)33qill6gsl(000)0§SllG0C00000£oi0gSll
throwing down (one's cards)for your information I give
you a glimpse of my hand; you will discard and throw
away. I will mark you down as a cipher and a mere etcetera.
Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 38. t^gSs pp oaogspc§§iaaoocSio3c8io30o8i
O3sflio3o8ioas£)i (various symbols added to the con-
sonants ; oasjj being the cs^ssy or symbol of the vowel
a in combination with a consonant.) Adik. K. 253.
GCOG§cos||0g8G008008s^^^80008Gii conclusionat the c. of
the incidental music, let him sing a sonnet and draw a
line (for purposes of magic). Pon. Yama Py. Z. 176.
oo§^ao^8c^iioo§8sooos|iiG^oc8o3Sj)o^iiGG|c§ooc8ii just because he
knew only half of the new-style canzonet, and not the
conclusion(he did not know the q.v., which had

to be similar in metrical structure to the first section
and have its final syllables in rhyme with the final syllables
of the first section.) P. P. Yag. 10.


49 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



ro^oa^j gojii dchi dcha' beginnings and endings. Kawi
L.D. 151. The following examples shows the rhyming
opening and concluding phrases of a ^S^o}!! 1st stanza
goi§]£s§o . g^^ScbcgS olcSSo^Sn 2nd stanza gf>o§so§(yo
. . G6|(cg£SoL)|yS oooc88g£§ii 3rd stanza Ggog^soo^ol . .
g§|co£Ss£shS §|oc8S$i Kabya Yeni 116. c^8g§gf.6§ . .
aa go s oa . soyc$n £ pe dcha' allotmentpeople who have
received an a. of land for cultivation or residence. MMOS.
v, 258. 09 ^ so dpo' dcha' teaching, instruction, v.
33§ii cttcyosrosjjii raggcqpai Jphya dcha'the end as
opp. to 33^s the beginningin an obscure passage apptly
referring to some system of indexing in which the opening
and closing words of documents were recorded. Kinw. M. 1.
goggoocooiio^c^goaosc^ 8 3a^j ^SsoIgsjoii *na dcha' per-
suasiontold (his sister) to persuade me to give him a
share of my love. Rup. Kal. Py. Z. 114.
aa cS dche? n. | ? onomatopoeic = the sound of a slight
blow, as in sycSsycS or q|c8qjc8 used of the ticking of a
watch.] 1. stroke, beat, blow, wound, mark.
33^Sii33spii3ciSGpii33^c8ii 33^]c8oogooo8^c83c8§88ii a thousand
lashes. Nip. Hi, 31. o}|8oo(yc£c^33S|]c8q|08goo8ljj8Gooo . .
Gcosooosii could shoot many shots in a moment of time.
Kawi L.D. 132. ^o^Goo8oo[c9$]G(g)§c8ooii33S)|cSGOo8oq|ooii strokes
of the time-gong. M. Sanda Py. Z. 5. (<<1000^009113^0^0^
3asiic8ooo8c§^oiiyc8go8GooSyoo^88olGOooii make a marktell
me outright white or brown, and make a definite statement
instantly. Rup. Kal. Py. Z. 22. oa^jcSsasp ^josgooog^oS
33ooo8C§oo^8 Yaz. ii, 213. 2. signal, cue, preconcerted arrangement,
the right moment ; moment, time. 33^c8oogoGos§8sii
oaogc8ii3ar)ii333lii Ggsd8;ooii^^8G08Gooo3308ii33£|jc8ooosoo^8^oii in-
structed (his wife) and gave her her cue. Tip. Muh. K. i,
62. 333|c8§8o8g^8g<§ caused them to enter the town
having arranged that on a preconcerted signal (they
should open the gates). Hm. Yaz. ii, 181. oo^Soo^ojjj
d8Gs|$8s§33^|c8ooc8Gooooo8(^iii a fire signal. Adik. K. 14.
CV^80ys§8q|0800IIOOj£oOOo88C^(rgOsgGOOOII C!C§33S}|c8@SGOTGOOO
ojiSii" our chance, the time for us to act is coming.
Teri Pyan 143. Cf. Kh.M.G.W. ii, 81. g$o8gooo33S||c8§ii
G^c£d3d888q|[8§i§8S986ooS sun set. Kaioi Th. II. i, 177. 33s)]c8ooo833c^8sii according
to preconcerted arrangement. Kum. Py. Z. 137. ssg^oSs
33^JcS y^GOoScO^Ss . Gj§coc£obc§336|88^c\}8ooc8(^ill £CaUT)
dche? cause and occasion, provocation. Than. W. ii, 71.
33sjj^>833sycS d'cheirj dche? appointed day. Hanth. Ayeb 75.
3. Important point or place, points of an animal, object
aimed at, (vaguely) fact, state. og1^iiGogii3aft1iic^oc8ii33Ggo88
3aspiioaG§33g$ii c^g|8s3aq|cS§8gooo8^^s|oon the essence of
emancipation which is the important point. Nib. With.
K. 1. $CO0q8§c8Gg8Cg08G0000fl00£S . 33ftc8gC^c8c88G^GOOO
3a£)|c8c^o8oocS§8oocS(^iii persons born under the conjunction
of planets called the reed (nala) apprehend the finer
points of any subject. Maha Thuz. K. 143. gsgo^oo^ii
3aq|c8c^8ii aiming at the attainment of Nirvana.
M. Sanda Py. Z. 126. 00G$cfl830§800£§33S||c8009cgG

a peculiar circumstance. Than. W. iv, 23. ao8sc§(g8s
S)j$ooo8GOoo33^|c8c^§8a3j8ii when he saw the omission
(= (gSssjj^^jcSii such uses show the origin of the verbal
noun formative ^jc8n) Atithon. K. 222. o^So^oiico^saqjcS^s
G|Oo^S^cjSiio1oy8s33£)]c8ii I, King Papa, am like the Karen when
he got a pot of jaggery. (Here oasycS seems to stand for
@8sflc8 state, position.) Shivemyet. Py. Z. 106. Cf. Pon.
YamaPy.Z. 191. aSheoDo 33^33308 c^g8ooc8eSii dchs?
9shP knotty points. Maha. Thuz. K. 148. gooogoooSs^s
3^811 . OjJSOO^SCgOoCOO^O^llcS00800^JII33^|c833SoSmOJC^CO^Ssii . .
9og8oo^ScgSs^c8ooo8§GS|o^Sii particulars, details (of roads
and communications.) HI. Rec. 59. ^og 3a^jcS33^cS
gcosoIsii dche? dne? facts, truthsthe four Facts about
Dukkha. (v. P.E.D. s.v. The truths are in P. saccdni. P.sacca
is usu. transliterated, not translated, in B. Perh. oa^jcS
33$cS = the points or facts and the explanations of them.)
Alin K. 85. 33oq|oSs£j>|i(§8Gooo 33^jcS33p 330^29(^11 dVa
matters, subjects. Thath. Wi. K.ii,108. §os sa^jcSsscocS
ogooo8so^8ii dche? die? the bullock has not got good
points. Colloq. Toungoo. G§c§33§0833^0833^(£33c0c£s£j>§2a3]8ll
the points relating to the boundaries. Hm. Yaz. i, 512.
00(9c8ooso8silooocsooo$8ll 33^jcso^j G33o8 . (y§8^c8o1
c8goooii dche? ca' to hit the mark, be just as it ought to be.
Maid. Yaz. Py. Z. 165. G3soc8coc8bgoSQlo8c^ . oo8s
c^33ooc8^333jc8oq|o8oycoo§i carefully, reverently. Dat. Dhat.
W. 103. 33q]c8oq|iiooooc8oii330oc8ooGgo8?co88§i in due form
having previously made advances in due form with
a view to make her my lifelong partner. Pohtin
Py. Z. 72. 33Sjjc8ocj|oc)|o8s|G33o8 so as to have exact
knowledge, be free from doubt on any point. Zanek. J. W.
12. 33crJsoo$sooc8i33q|c8Goqiii The lame man trying to
climb a toddy-palm does not make a job of ithe has
bitten off more than he can chew. Sagab. 23. oasycS
ooqioocbsidSogoSiissogcSycvjoodbydSyoSii ridiculous from their
amateurishness and feeble from their uncouth delivery.
Bein Yaza. Py. Z. 21. oa^jc8ooqjiio1scgc6c^s|jGooos1ii when I
make a faux pas and they hit me on the jaw. (o1scgc8 for
olscgdS metri gr.). Shwemyet. Py. Z. 106. s^s|8sooo8ii
33^|cSooos 6p^on dche? Hha lay down conditions(what was
to be the reward of the victor in the contest). Yama Yag. i,
58. oo£Scvj}ooo8G(yoooo ss^jcS^S c^c8ooo dche? pair) to grasp
points, be to the point. Colloq. Goooc£j|osc§ 33^]cScagn g§)8
GCDoc8ogc8GS|ii dchep bwe distinguishing markswhen I pick
out and con over the manly qualities (he has them all). Tedat
B. 3. yooc8yooon 33^jcS^oii G§itj)c8§o^^of8ii^c§ii dche? fa search
for points, grievances. ZawtaKum.Py.Z.9. oos|cSyG02ii sa^jcS
51g @8ii§c£gsp<£gooog£Sii dche? sfe former stateevery day
according to my former practice I will sweep. (A strained
use of 33^|c8ii) ibid. 34. 4. the centre point, the pivot, pericarp,
a boss, sheaf.oc^n33cocS^c8iigo§c8i[33^8iio^SsgooS9
silc8ii33§833§ic8fii335i|o8Gigi8$8ii 4 umbrellas with red handle
and cover and boss of plain gold. MMM. 73. GeoojygS
. . G33o8G§§(£@s33S)|c£oogS8ii the city Jetuttara, capital of
the conquering kingdom (of Sivi). Weth. P. 29. c§o^gog8^i.. .
g8sn8c§OO^G(<2C7^§l OcSg^00£§e§eSlE39S||cSg|tX>^O3OO9|8^6!^S


50

BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY

only the pericarp is left standing. Nip. i. 139. Cf. Swehin. P.
4. o§(cgog8c§oo£S... oo^Goooo3§s§oooog]8iiooc^oooogo^i33^|c8§8c^
3a8o^oo£§ ... §8<§n the lily blossoms were united in a sheaf on
one stalk. Swes.K. D. ii, 19. ooo^
o^og58(^io3§8§o^3a38ss8s§i3aooc8^co^so^so3^|c8c§§8§cS co oS § |

Sakkas' throne was floored with flowers and over-
head had a decorative roof of sheaves of flowers.
Nemi J. W. 46. oog8oc^8:y 33^0833^01 o3os|ys)oooo^oG|§
oogS§i dche? dcha the mid-point, capital of the
Kingdom. KBZ. ii, 94. <^c86ooSoo^§£yo@£§§ii33(c§:sqs
3a^|cS93^jo§8^iioosjooslG8seoo6pS,c§c^oSc§8ogc8Goo8^oo^ii perh.
intended to mean the Hluttaw being the pivot (of the
administration) in Burma, the King sometimes visited
it. Shwenand. 4.

cb^jS dchir) measuring, v. oa§8 B.

rosy8 dchiy' n. [sy8oogS to estimate.] measure (of capacity),
measurement, period, estimate, judgment. 33^1133^8:
33§|^SiioooaoiiGooo8sooS:c§§ 8^0gcS§8sil SO ^ 33 Sjj 8 00 sp 100
measures, baskets of rice. KBZ. Hi, 171. o1so^§oo8s
GOOo8s33^833GG|33ogc8§8cg8:ooo:33SGoooo1:ii with reckoning
of the number of basket measures. Mahawth. J. W. i,
128. qjc8833oq|8iio8s33S)j8o^iioo38Go1oooiioo8§|o:go§8ii the old
saying that with the eyes it is a matter of training and
with the stomach a matter of estimate or discretion in
eating. Owad. P. 12. o£:<^33g8iic\^33a}8ii^8c^>330o8iicgos
o^a§o^833co8iio£)oc§333]8ii Sagab. 76. g§oc8^833£)i8ii§:co8^ii
a period of six years. Wila. Mawg. 5. §aSs6§33Sj|8iic\}86aoo8
§8oo^noa8oj:ii acting judiciously according to the seasons,
he never put off his task. Thuw. Thissa P. 34. Gg|Ggc§^i
33^833^ 336|8c§<^o8c§<§ii dchirf dcheiy measure and
weight. Tham. Sek. D. K. i, 194. 33^j833cgcSii oc8sp
(? eol)iiogDo^oflii dchirj' dtwe? judgment, discretion. Anthol.
ii, 129. 33Sfl8330gc8u§!qpsgoGoooii incalculable, immeasurable.
Mahawth. J. W.i, 81. c^oocSgooSc^ 33^|8ooocto ooosioosb
G§oc8og8:o:ioosbG§oc8y^ooo§oo^ii dchiy' pdmana measure,
volume16 half-gallon measures (for ogSsoos or og^soos
generally taken as= a salvor pint, v. Kogan P. T. 501). Thath.
Bahu. 305. Rem. In the following passages 33Sfl8 appears
to be used in the sense of 33^8: a diameter. c8f>S33G0008n
33S)|8Gsoo8 §8Gooo8iiG§oc8spGaoo8(^iii the diameter of the plinth was 4,200
cubits and the circumference 12,600. Sed. Pak. K. 85.
d§330§:coc8oo8Go!8:c^o§:^08iico 6 000 S335J|8COC8OO£GO18S§8^!I
Swes. K. D. ii, 116.

3ssjj8s A dchiy n. [sySsoogS to pierce, go through.] penetration,
transverse measurement, diameter, axis. 6isoc8og8:§8:iioqii

c85oil-G0Cg8(o3cS33S||§: (33Slj8:) q|OSGOoSll(y£S§]OGOOOUOOGOOO§8c£

oogSsn if many stars go through the moon (i.e. appear to
go through). MTTK. 126 and v. Kogan P. T. 173. 33^8:
ajj$oc1:so(£i330§:o^c^ooo6|oc1:sods§jgooo . g$o8:oo£Sii Manu
5. o§G§|q|§:oo^:i330^:f^sGOOo8ii33§8c1:GOOo8ii33Si|8:c^:GOOo8ii Tham.
Sek. D. K. ii, 4. G3l8:Goo8330o§ooogoii33Sj|8:oocgoii where
3300| is app. the measurement from side to side and
33Sfl8: from front to back. ibid, i, 423. 00^033^8:^:
ogc^GpgSGooGoooii throughout the duration of the world.

Hanth. Ayeb. 19. ooc8sj8o8^oo^^ogoGOoo833o8 33^j8
33 (cjo Q^(?^oooo:iioooo|s§i8c8|:c1:Gooo8oosjo^f.£3bc1:33 og o 11
dchiy dpyo distance between. Adik.K.121. (cgogo 33G-(yo
3>^J8 ooosn . o^(?f>oiioooo^8c8|:o^sGoooSGcoss|ocl:sooS ^ (^ill
sso^c^wcSooosiiojc^oo^^^g^ocSoS^oogoooS::^ : gjo cl s ao dS giiii
ibid. q.v. is sometimes used for 33^8:11

33^j8s B dchir) n. [freq. in O.B., esp. in form ^8, in senses 1,
3, and 4. Maru chawng to be near. Yawyin hchaw4 hpdh
a follower.] 1. an attendant on, companion of a royal
or other distinguished person. cocSo1sGiiGoq|:ogj^iiooo^n
33goo5ii 6}ggoio8s<^nc$goooi33sn8:goooc%):oo{&ii Thut. Pak.
186. gooioo8g8@:^!ii^oooi33S)]8:c§oo^Sii Thokthil. N. 108.
regularly used to translate P. purisa in this sense of
" attendant". 3o88:Goooo^§iSGoooc8c§cg8iiG^ajjooo:33q8:iiGgS
ajooo:o8:o^ii33cqi8so8:gf.oc8ooc8c§ . [a^^g . gooo33s1ii
watch who got off the elephant first so as to discover which
was the prince and which the attendant. Kawi M. M. K.
366. o^ggt3^iic]ooos:58ii33s)i8:338ii3go^§8ooo: 11 (eg 8 sfl 8 § cS g 00:11
c1oo6cg:^ii6|8ecg:@Sapoii33o$§oooosii Ananda, son of my uncle
who was true companion of Thuddhawdana, my father,
and born of the same womb. Shwehin. P. 70. 08^0:08:00^:11
33 8 s 33 6^8 s §8gooo^c8c§33o:33g^'o8:c§§^os§i dchiy dyiy
companions and entourage. Zin. Pak. K. 418. yooogp&§ .. .
GgSGOOO(^GGpc8c8ll . 8:C900000fl02G00033GcSc§ll33SpoOOGOOO

33^8:336|8:d^8ooogGs§GooSft6jjii KBZ. ii, 340. og|§5og8co£Ss
33Sjj8:33G|8:oo8:o8:mo:goo1oo^ii (rich man speaking). Swes.
K. D. ii, 340. 33G^S33G0g|S33S||8s33S|8:§£G00oaj}c§ii attendants
(on embryo Buddha). Mala Link. W. 32. §|8o8@o:<^n
cooScoos33^j8sii ogj^Gooo8oo82§iSii le^ da dchiy attendants.
Thuw. Thissa. P. 61. 2. a familiar term of address,
usu. to inferiors or equals, used to translate P. bho, samma,
are 33oo8ii8c8cagii ^cDo:^:c^GsT60oSft|jii33Sj|8:6jCOo:$j{:ii Zin.
Pak. K. 27. 33^8:600000011 (one nat addressing another).
ibid. 69. yo£j$c8oogS . 88^iq|o:go6ooo8oo^§cSolc§c§^j
c§a§(^!ii33S|i8sc§iiD3oodSt^o8 . 6jS§6f1c8oo$£§sii Dat. Dhat. W.
50. $nsocS|9t§oft§t§CDos33eo1&:c§oo£S!i woGoqjc8^33ocS^s
c§GsT§§:cv3)8ii33Sj)8:33yc8(^:ii . |g86ooo$8c833C^8:iioo8GG3]oc8
olgcocqiid^cg^slcgo^i^ii Tav. Yaz. 6. goooi33S||8:c§ii Yaz.
Kyaw. 45. oog 1 oas(|8s§8sooii Nip. ii, 25. 33GS|i33Sj|8:c^ii Anthol.
ii, 174. 6gjgs|I33^8:33^|8:c§ii ibid. 3. he, they.ajn
oflc§n cooqjdS33£)]8o§8o^G|oooii came and asked some-
thing for them to eat, for a tip. SIP. 109. In this sense
more com. inform sy8:ii 4. one with another, mutual, mutually.
33^|8:s)]8:iioogoooc858oo6aooc8iioo^8oo^ii §ggp8og6pll0^000
Goooooosiioj6yo33sji8:n there was no mixture with the emerald ;
between that and his stateappearancethere was exact
resemblance. Anthol. i, 15. But usu. reduplicated.
33^j8g^j8s G3gs6§s65@§s6co§§8:ii dchiy xjiy TemiJ. W. 79.
g000§8g060(x||33sji8sc|j8:yaj0c^c8ii the second part of the
comparison (taking gooo as = upamana) and the first
part of the comparison have no resemblance to each
other. Up. Muh. ii, 22. 03^|8ssj|8s§8ogjSiiooosc1sc6c§oo8oo£Sii
when they saw each other. Kala Yaz. i, 17. Gooo8oflcodSc\}S
C§33^|8:S||8s00GpS§£gl:633o833O:GOSSpll Sun. 33S|]8:Sj)8:33C0dSc0cS
(33Co^ScogS)8oc8§£^o^sS|8§8:6^o8ii Sun.


51 BURMESE -ENGLISH DICTIONARY



33 5(jSs C dchiy n. [? specialized use of erases B.] the after-
birth, placenta. ccgssSSn coSsoogoooSh^cSgoooSii 5 c£ ;
gooo6iiojo3^|8sii (in a receipt for casting out evil spirits).
Kawe Th. K. Gyi. i, 74. 33g88^soc§ii§sogos^8^33^8sooq|cfbG^
G3oSiiG086j$Gaosooosn Gwes. Se K. 18. oo^Sc^iag^GooSoasdSscos
^Golc8c^|oldbii whose afterbirth I ate, born in my own
pen. S. oDc^cSo3Sjj8s(^5f.£Ssii directions as to where the placenta
should be buried according to the month of birth. LPBK.
30. 3a^|8s§SooGcosiiGcgsolGogsc§ii Shwemyet. Py. Z. 49.

oa^jSs D ochiy n. [Maru lakyawng; A.C.jiwang\ hum, sing.
K. 261; giwang to sing. K. G. S. 764. G.] a song
o8sj)8sii G03o8sooGODS^8ii6cysGc)joCo^|iio3ejj8?s^o^c8ii singing songs
in a soft and sweet voice to the accompaniment of little
drums. Gata. P. 36. 33S)jSs(0^G3TG0D0d^8s odes which are
classified as longer songs. Kab. Band. K. 545. oasjjSscoS
33o83aolGgs^s60oo8s3a^st|sSdj>(j>ii lesser or shorter songs, ibid.
468. GolGpciDo^cgScogSsii ii3asji8ssiiia3|^89acdSojoogSooosiiG§|Gcgc8
§Gf.oc8sjoo8oogSc^oosi58^iio8£)]8soj^coooogSii In Porana Ganthi
also greater and less preliminary songs are defined as
preliminary songs to be sung by the musicians before the
dancers come on. ibid. 515.

oasjjSs E. ochiy a variant spelling of oagSsn q.v.

cosjjS dchi? n. [sySoogS to love.] love, affection; a beloved
person. Goggoiioajcgf&ii o8s§8o1sooos . .
became friends. Paya N. W. 167. ooc^SsySsc^oasflSi^SoS
otj^gooS^§i regarded him as a friend and second self.
Hm. Yaz. ii, 81. aa^ScooSoaSs magic square forming part
of love charm. Bame Let Twe K. 105. 33^8o§siiao$8(^scibc8s
ccSc^n noble daughter for whom affection is never stale.
Bein YazaPy. Z.53. 33^83338 go1§o§8^crbc^]8£os||8§8^(^iii
dchi? dkhiy lovesent friendly messages. Paya N. W. 167.
cuS^ooo8^j8s8coo|GOob oa^jS^i oo6cosoo8oo8n dchi? 'u first
love. Kawi M. Mag. jo^jSgsi 33qjc8(c§sii dchi? yci to
have strong affectionthe more violent the love, the more
violent the anger. Sagab. 126. §8oooo^Ssooii8oooo8sj8ii
03^|8@8g'0ii Udein. P. 31. 33^8 oj Ss cg§on ochP 'say
try, test one's love. Bein Yarn Py. Z. 46. eb^jSg-ooS
ooiio8sGooo^Gcgc8c^cS^ii ochP to my royal friend (King to
King). Hm. Yaz. Hi, 203. oasuSsooSroSii my dear husband.
Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 139. so6po33S||8gooSii the master's
favourite. Kawi M. Mag. rosyScycS olcepii dchi? pye?
friendship ceases. Than. W. iv, 89. 33^]Stjfls c\q]c8 . c^s
jlsjjSjcgGcooogSii dchi? "pyo foster one's lovefostering their
love, were more in love than ever. Thami L. W. 184.
ro^jS c^o tjflcSS gScgn ochi? myo dei? swallow, suppress
love. Saw Pe Py. Z. i, 72. gooo8^1so88gs18ccSc^ sa^J&j^
oo^Sii dchi? phwe' unite love, make a friend of. Hm. Yaz. ii,
101. rosySoo! coo§ii dchv> Bay love is, becomes strong,
increases. Than. W. iv, 109. £sqSu$co$cg$sc§ii Tahin. W.
ii, 130.

rosjj^ dehin n. to be sour.] sourness, what is

sour a36|ooooo(f|8iisj]§Gooo336|oooii 33sj}oas||§ii Hitop. K. 57.
33S|)§oo§oo£Sii is moderately sour, sour enough. Raz. Ayeb.
99.

33^ §s dchiy n. [q§:oo£§ to approach.] the act of approaching,
proximity, reconciliation. 33oo8ii§§go18s§8s 11
3G)GOo5oo8^Gcoons8s^^d^c8s|Goo5oo8ogSGCooii Raz. Ayeb. 156.
co8GOD080gogooooooSGS(:^c9iiGf.oc8^03^j§sG|3c8ooc8aj)Oo^ii Colloq.
Tavoy.

A* 9chi n- to fasten.] 1. the act of tying,

fastening by lashing, etc. 3a6§oSiia3a?Sii33§ii c8c^scoj£o8;
c^3asugSsi§s§ii supposing the ogre lets you bind his neck. Maul.
Yaz. Py. Z. 58. <^sc4§8co8:^s^G§o8ao^gsc^33^c§
GaToo^Sn the lashing which fastens the yoke of a cart to the
pole. Colloq. Kayan. os^ogSoo^iios^^SocgcSojGooooooosc^ii
business of all kinds is a tie. Sagah. 124. 2. a ring or
bangle 33038811 coc8Goooc8oc8Goo8iimcSGoq|8sioogSiia3Sj)^8
socSn (where oasflgS is the classifier for coc8goooc8 a bangle).
Th. T. E.110. s|oof.ooogSii3asj|^So^sqiiooGoSo 003)811 a large
ship containing treasures and (ossjjgSoso^s) jewellery.
Parami P. 84. og5§os8^§ ro^jfSoaogSs 8s0$slii>sGS008q|0Sii
dchi okwiy rings and bangles, jewellery. KBZ. i, 249.
33 og S s 33 sfj 11 330o^33c85^josii okwiy ochi Manu. 72.

33^jgS B ochi n. v. 33§£§ shred, ray, etc.

sa^jgSs d'chi n. [O.B. khlan., Tib. rkyah-pa simple, single;
A.C. g'ien' barely, scarcely. K. 389.] mere, by itself,
what is bare, without belongings, without consequences.

ooonooc8ooc8i!33or|s6ii c^jraGjgSsco^snossjjgSsgiS^^siiGjoo^soSooii
if, meditating robbery, they know he is a monk having
no property. S.D.Kh. P. 44. c8o8s|cS^i[Oo(y§^Ss§^Ssi!a3Sj]^Ss
ocgosnotfoooc8osj§ii the days succeeding each other do not
pass without effect but bring death nearer. Kogan P. T. 467.
s^c^8soGoscfb§8c8^ooosii§coo|oss|oo^c^ooo;c8ii33Gj8soogSo8s^sc^^|
oosG)crb33S)|^s§8^8oooo^sii I shall get nothing out of it.
Paya N. W. 43. sc^|8ygDc8iio^jsc8ooo8ii33S)|§s(33S[|gSs)§|iii
vainly without the prospect of effecting anything.
Zanek. P. 17. ^ogowgSajjiiiajGcooooSiioasy^soS^ii no one is
seen to take provision with him, they are without belongings
(sc. at death). Bur. Z. P. Com. 46. gg|o§J ss^j^SsofSs
gooo3^c§§ii d'chi szi empty. Tham. L. P. W. 64. oaooSossfl^Ss
o^g^cgcfy&xjSgga^n naked. Taz. D. IC. 38. (^sooc8
cbo3^s£§soq|8Goooii Hm. Yaz. i, 107. . c^sogdS

ftm0800(£oo<300^33oiisc^06jg^8g300g(c^o811 § j g§ 00 33 gs 8 | 8

c$ooo§Sor)^ii ochi 'hni useless, of no avail. Thath. Tham.
D. K. 271. 0300g2doi^.^sgoooogo§j(^ill^g5^6l33^^ss|sgooooogooo^
goooii empty, frivolous disposition. Nip. Hi, 132. o36oooo
oG$oi33£fl^sfsGoooooosc^s£j>60o5o^ooc8ii does not talk idly.
Thad. Mai. N. 155. 03^0001 035)]^s|s(^33§8oo^sii the state
of being empty, deserted, ibid. 150. Goc||o8s33osD3S}|gSs|s§8^
the monastery being unoccupied and empty. Up. Muh.
K. i, 108. GS|o^Gooo§8oo^33Sj|^Ss|soo^sno8so^Gooo|ygSc^8sooos
oo^os^&sfsoogSsii useless, worthless. Manir. K. 219.
^QSjoooi330c8oso^si33S)]gSs|soq|8Gooo33oq|8§8ii the austerity of
going naked (for the more usual ossjjgSsogSs). Zin. Pak.
K. 98. ooosf.£Ssc§ii 33^j^So00c800c811 o^jsc8oco8ii dchi de?6e?
unprofitable unedifying games. Kawi M. M. K. i, 80.
33SH^SS|S00C800C8G|GICSC73^G^ . 3300c8oOSp§|gSolGOo5cO^S
spending one's days unprofitably. Tham. Sek. D. K. i, 90.


Full Text

PAGE 1

A BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

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A BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY Compiled by J. A. STEW ART, C.I.E., M.C., M.A., LL.D. AND C. W. DUNN, C.I.E., M.A. FROM MATERIAL SUPPLIED BY A LARGE NUMBER OF CONTRIBUTORS PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF RANGOON 1940

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PRINTED BY STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS LIMITED ORIENTAL AND GENERAL PRINTERS HERTF0RD ENGLAND

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PREFACE A SUGGESTION that the revision of the existing Burmese-English Dictionary-Stevenson's 1898 edition of Judson's Dictionary-be undertaken was made by Mr. C. W. Dunn at a meeting of persons attending the Co-operative Conference in Mandalay in 1918, and was commended by them to the Burma Research Society without success. In 1924, a scheme for the preparation of a new Dictionary was put before the Society by Messrs. Dunn, Chas Duroiselle, H. F. Searle, and J. A. Stewart. The Society received the scheme favourably ; while seeking the financial support of the Government of Burma, it provided from its own resources funds for the 'first year's work, and appointed the four promoters of the scheme to act as a Dictionary Sub-Committee. Collection of materials began in the end of 1925 under the supervision of Mr. Searle and later of Mr. Stewart, as Secretaries of the Dictionary Sub-Committee, with the assistance of a clerk. Books, with necessary instructions-revised from time to time in the light of experiencewere issued to a number of persons who had undertaken to read for the dictionary, and they were requested to send their slips to the Dictionary Office monthly. There was from the first a steady receipt of slips from a few readers and others were gradually enlisted. From 1926 to 1928, short articles entitled "Dictionary Jottings" were published in the daily Press, in English in the Rangoon Daily News, and in Burmese in the Sun. These articles, particularly those in Burmese, brought the dictionary project to the notice of many persons who became most valued contributors. Small honoraria were paid to some contributors, so long as the finances of the Sub-Committee permitted. The work of collection continued till the end of 1931, or a little later. About 400 books had been read, and collections had also been made from newspapers and magazines. A Government contribution of Rs. 2,500 per annum ended with the financial year 1930-1931, and it was impossible for the Society to provide for the continuance of the work. It succeeded, however, in interesting the University of Rangoon; and after satisfying itself that the slips on which words in their contexts had been recorded-amounting at the end of 1931 to 420,976-were in proper form and had been collected from sufficiently representative sources, the University decided to take over the project. It was with funds provided by the University that the alphabetical arrangement of slips was completed. On completion, the University appointed us to be editors, and the material was taken by us to England on our retirement from Government service. In 1935 Mr. Stewart was awarded a Leverhulme Research Fellowship, the proceeds of which he expended in bringing U Kin Maung Lat, A.T.M., to England to assist in the work of compilation. Otherwise, the funds required for incidental expenses-purchase of reference books, etc.-and for printing and publication, are being provided by the University. The personnel of the Dictionary Sub-Committee, enlarged from time to time by co-option, included Mr. J. S. Furnivall, M.A., Professor Pe Maung Tin, M.A., B.Litt., U Tin, K.S.M., A.T.M., M.A., U Kyi 0, K.S.M., A.T.M., B.A., the Rev. A. C. Hanna, Mr. Chas. Duroiselle, M.A., Mr. H. F. Searle, B.A. The progress made during the six years of collection of materials was largely due to their sustained zeal and resourcefulness in dealing with problems as they arose. The Sub-Committee was well served by a loyal and efficient clerk, Maung Sein, formerly of No. III Revenue Settlement Party. A list of readers and contributors is subjoined. It includes the names of all readers who finished their allotted tasks, and of persons who contributed records of colloquial expressions. The standard of accuracy in copying extracts and in entering references was very high, and useful suggestions as to the meaning of rare words were often given. This valuable material forms almost the sole basis of our work. Grateful acknowledgements are due to the late Right Rev. E. Foulquier, Vicar Apostolic of Northern Burma, for the loan of Burmese-English and English-Burmese dictionaries in MS. and other lexicographical material compiled by various members of the Northern Burma Mission, including FF. Faure, Leconte, Accarion and Fornelli, at Ava and other places in Upper Burma during the nineteenth century; to the Rev. M. H. Russell, formerly of the Wesleyan Methodist Mission, Mandalay, for the loan of his copy of Stevenson's edition of Judson's dictionary with many V

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VI PREFACE MS. additions by himself; to the School of Oriental (now Oriental and African) Studies, University of London, for presentation of lexicographical material collected by the late Mr. A. L. Hough, Lecturer in Burmese at the School ; to the Royal Danish Academy for presentation of the fascicles of the Critical Pali Dictionary as they appear, and to Mrs. C. A. Rhys Davids, M.A., D.Lit., through whose good offices this munificent gift was obtained ; and to the Secretary of State for India for presentation of the Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, by Dr. G. P. Malalasekera. Professor John Fraser, Oxford; U Pe, K.S.M., A.T.M.; Maung Hla Pe, M.A.; U Po Sein, A.T.M., retired Deputy Inspector of Schools; Mr. W. Stede, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer in Sanskrit and Pali, School of Oriental and African Studies; Professor R. L. Turner, M.C., M.A., Litt.D., Director of the School; Mrs. J. A. Stewart and Maung Wun, M.A., B.Litt., have assisted us by replies to queries and by suggestions. Our proofs have been read by Maung Maung Bya, C.I.E., M.B.E., A.T.M. ; Mr. G. H. Luce, M.A., Lecturer in Far Eastern History, University College, Rangoon ; U Ba Maung, Government High School, Taungdwingyi; U Po Sa, A.T.M., B.A.; U Pe Maung Tin, M.A., B.Litt., Principal of University College, Rangoon ; and U Khin Zaw, B.A., F.L.A., University Librarian, Rangoon ; and by their criticis:ms many of our articles have benefited greatly. Mr. R. T. Butlin, B.A., now of the Institute of English Studies in Athens, helped us to prepare the Key to Pronunciation. We have had the advantage of consultation with U Kin Maung Lat, A.T.M., B.A., in revising the material contained in the first three parts and of his help in preparation of material for later parts. The vocabulary of this Dictionary has been drawn from Burmese literature of all periods from its beginning in the fifteenth century, A.D., to the present day, including technical works on medicine, astrology, magic, etc., and from spoken Burmese. Articles have not been allotted to words or forms of words which occur only in the Inscriptions, though such are frequently referred to in the etymological notes at the head of the articles. We have defined in English the meanings of words as accurately as we could and have also given Burmese synonyms. But for apprehension of the full range of meaning, reference should be made to the illustrative passages quoted, to the more obscure of which we have appended translations and explanations-sometimes with an indication of dubiety. It had not been our intention to deal with the etymology of Burmese words. We were advised, however, that etymological notes would add to the usefulness of the Dictionary. For various reasons, elaborate treatment could not be contemplated. Our notes, which are for the most part based on very full information generously supplied by Mr. Luce, exhibit affinities in the more important TibetoChinese languages only. The Dictionary opens with the letter oo. The words beginning with this letter include a large number of verbal nouns formed by prefixing oo to the verb; we have not attempted to deal with all of these, but ordinarily only with those which, by themselves or in combinations, have developed meanings which could hardly be inferred from the verb. In addition to the meanings of verbal nouns recorded by us the reader may safely assume that a verbal noun in oo may possess meanings corresponding to all the senses in which the verb is capable of being used. In the matter of Burmese spelling, we have followed what we take to be the best modern usage. In quoting from works of any standing, we retain the spelling of the edition used and make necessary corrections in round brackets. In quotations from other works, wrong spellings have been summarily corrected. The script employed for the representation of Burmese sounds is in accordance with a system devised by Mr. J. R. Firth, M.A., Senior Lecturer in Linguistics and Indian Phonetics, School of Oriental and African Studies. Words from other languages are usually quoted in the form in which they appear in the dictionaries or vocabularies used. J. A. STEWART c. w. DUNN Bishop's Stortford April, 1940

PAGE 7

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS AKYAB BASSEIN Minbya-U Kyaw U. Rev. U Nandadhaza. HANTHAWADDY Kayan-Rev. U Pyinnyawara. HENZADA U Khin Maung. INSEIN Rev. A. C. Hanna, Rev. J. C. Richardson, Ph.D. KYAUKSE MAGWE MANDALAY Hmawbi--Saya Thein. Kyaikkasan-Ma Khin Gyan, U Hla Maung. Y amongyi-Ma Nyi Ma Gale, U Ba Han, U Ba Shin U Tun Maung, Rev. U Narada, Ma Khin Nyun, Ma Saw Nyun, U Pe, K.S.M., A.T.M., U On Pe, U Than Pe, B.A., U Sein, Ma Than Sein, U Po Sein, Mrs. J. A. Stewart, Ma Than Tin, U Ba Yi, B.A. Leya-Rev. U Awbatha. NatmaukU Min Zin. Taungdwingyi-U Hla, U Kyaw. U Hla Aung, Mr. Chas. Duroiselle, M.A., Rev. U Eindawbatha, Saya U Thet Htun, U Shwe Kyu, U Sin, U Tin Swe, U Ba Thein, Rev. U Yazeinda. PEGU PYAPON RANGOON U Pein, K.S.M., A.T.M., U Pu, A.T.M., U Tun Ya. Penwegon-U San Tin. U Tha Kin. Mr. J. S. Furnivall, M.A., U Tun Hlaing, Ma Hnin, Rev. B. M. Jones, U On Myint, Rev. U Nyii.na wuntha, Saya Nyun, U Thein Pe, Mr. H. 0. Reynolds, B.A., U Hla Thaw, Saya Thin, Pagan U Tin, K.S.M., A.T.M., M.A., Ma Tin U, U Tha Zan. Government Translation Department-U San Aung, U E Cho, T.D.M., Saya Hlaing, Saya Htun, U Khant, U Ba Lwin, Saya Maung, Saya Ngwe, U Tun Nyun, Saya Saing, Saya San, Saya Saw (1), Saya Saw (2), U Ba Sein, Saya .Sein, U Chit Swe, U Ba Tin, U Sein Win, Saya Yeik, U Tun Yit. University College-U Tun Hla, B.A., Mr. G. H. Luce, M.A., U Ba Maung, B.A., U E Maung, M.A., Ma Mya Mu, M.A., U Nyun, M.A., U Ba Nyun, B.A., Ma Mya Than, M.A., U Pe Maung Tin, M.A., B.Litt., U Kyaw Win, M.A., U Lu Pe Win, M.A. MAUBIN Danubyu-Rev. U Aggalinkara, U Su Han, Rev. SAGAING Chaungu-U Bo, Rev. A. Dhammaratana, Rev. P. MEIKTILA MERGUI MINBU MOUi.MEIN MYINGYAN MYITKYINA PAKOKKU U Kethareinda, Mr. B. M. Sein Kho, Ma Tin Kyi, U Ba Maung, U San Maung, Rev. U Nyanadhaza, Rev. U Oktama, Rev. U Pyinnyalawka, Rev. U Pyinnyathiri, Rev. U Sandayanthi, Mr. M. Sultan, Mr. S. Ba Tan, U Hla Tin. PantanawU On Maung. Yandoon-Rev. U Alawka, Ma Mya Mya, Rev. U Thankissa. Rev. H. E. Dudley, M.A. Mrs. Ba E (Ma Than Tin). U Hla, A.T.M., B.A., U Kin Maung Lat, A.T.M., B.A., U Ba Win, B.A., B.L. Pwinbyu-U Thet She. Salin-U La Ba, U San Hla Baw, U Po Sa, A.T.M., B.A., Mrs. Po Sa (Kin Kin Lay), Mr. W.1. J. Wallace, B.A. Sinbyugyun-Saya Ta. TubaulcU Thet Tin. Rev. C. E. Garrad, M.A., Rev. R. Halliday, D.Litt., SHWEBO Nanda, U Nyantha, Saya Htwe, Rev. U Wimalabuddhiwunthabi, U Su Ya. Kanbalu-Mr. A. C. D. Pain. SOUTHERN SHAN Loilem-U Ba Aung. Taunggyi-Mr. John Shaw. STATES. TAVOY U Hnin Hlaing, T.P.S. THARRAWADDY Gyobingauk-Mr. Q. Htean Hoe, B.A. LetpadanU Shwe Din, U Tin Sein. THATON THAYETMYO U Ba Ba, U On Gaing, B.A., Ma Kin Lay Hla, Mr. B. P. Kelly, Ma Ama Khin, Saya Kyaw, Ma Kyi Kyi, Saya Maung, U Thein Maung, U Kyi 0, K.S.M., A.T.M., B.A., U Shwe Oh, B.Sc., Ma San, Saya Tint, U Myat Tun, Miss Willis, Ma Hla Yin. Kywegyan-U Chit Pe. .Allanmyo-U Aung Nyun. U Sein Tin, B.A. TouNooo Mr. R. M. MacDougall, C.I.E., M.A., Mr. G. C. U Kywe. Sameikkhon-Rev. U Nandamedha. Taungtha-Rev. U .Asara. Mr. W. R. Head. Mogoung-U Ba Hein. Rev. U Pandita. Pauk-U On Shwe. SawU Tin Latt. vii UNITED KINGDOM YAMETHIN Tew, B.A. Mr. W. A. Hertz, C.S.I., Mr. A. J. M. Lander. M.C.,B.A. Pyinmana-Rev. U Athapa, A.M.P., Ma Khin Myint, Rev. U Thuzata. Shwemyo-Saya Sein.

PAGE 9

ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA p. xi. Insert Bein Yaza Py.Z. p. xxiv. Insert Shwemyet.Py.Z. p. 30. s.v. 83G0') A. For pesi read pesi. To Press, Rangoon, 1936. Drama-Prose and poetry. Burma Herald Press, Ran-Drama-Prose and poetry. goon, 1877. U Pok Ni, U San Thu, U Saing. 19 C.-4th quarter. U Kyaw Ya. 19C.-4th quarter.

PAGE 10

Abbreviated title. (1) Abid.N. Abir.P. Adik.Dwad.K. Aaik.K. Ah.D.K. Ahmed Ali. Ak.An.S. Alamb.K. Al.Ayeb. AlinK. A1ink N. Anag.W.K. Anap.D.K. Anthol. LIST OF BOOKS CITED Full title. (2) (o) 00')8 ro gg1!:!&p~;, ~oSa:ii6:11 (J) ghB6a:ii6: (?) ~[ug;,~oSa:ii6:11 O?: GOO')C~ II rr.l')8mgm '):a:ii6:11 00')00')E.)_ u a:ii 6:, ro8~A1,UJO'.l]6:11 Students' EnglishBurmese and Bur mese-English Dic tionary of Useful Plants. ( 0) OOCDl[0'.l0'.l]S: (J ) 00,fOGU 1c}30'.jjfo (?) oooi 1Gu: a:ii6 : ( 9) oo')'i!:! 1wCY.JJS:, (~) OO~::DCY.JIS:11 ( 0) OOGC\J')C:QC:OJ&p:~: rr.lG&):GOJS3~11 (J) 'ilg1d_3 d3cJ3ooi3('2~: ,(?)Gp')U 1;,~u,CY.J16:11 ~~Q')()')BsiGu 1c:a:ii6: (Anthology of Burmese Literature.) Kawi Myethman Press, Ran goon, 1925. (1-395.) Ratanadipan Pitakat Press, Mandalay, 1927. (1-26.) Kawi Myethman Press, Ran goon, 1900. (119-160.) Government Printing Press, Rangoon, 1922, 1927, and 1929. Vol. I (1-338); Vol. II (1-412); Vol. III (1-336). ix Burmese prose commentary on Sangharakkhita's Subo dhalankara--a. Pali work on the art of poetry. Burmese translation of Ana gata va:rhsa in which is mentioned the waning of the Buddhist faith, the end of the world and the coming of the future Buddha-Prose. Religious discourses-Prose. Yaw Atwinwun (U Po Hlaing) Magwe Myosa Mingyi. A.D. 1880. Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P., D.Litt. A.D. 1903. Extracts from various authors Edited by U Kyaw Dun, -Prose and poetry. K.S.M., Retired Deputy Commissioner.

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X Abbreviat,a liUe. Full litle. (!) (2) Ant.Ind. Antiquities of In.di&. Arith. Modem Text Books on Arithmetic. Athanna.K. OO'JO:,iiO '!f,-,8~&!, u,CY:ftS: i>9q11<>=as~&"'o-:n6"' Ath.D.K. 00:roBo;cr.iS:11 Atithon.K. oacf.b~!i'lcr.iS:11 Att.Dham.L .. ""Bo$S6Gijo:,o5oocm11 Attok. ""IBIH~"il"' Att.Thal.N. oag=c8;oogmro'J~"ll" Att.Van.Dham. The A~~asankhepa V "'-1 r;umi Dha.mma.tha.t oo~o$G~OOffif'>cr.iS Ayud.Sh. ""tlt""'i;..boo?oo,i'>cf.iai: flc<>=m8o:,')'lQi'.ll"-''> cr.iS:11 Ayus.K .. ( ") =~il~-,rqS,,9 (J) 6ooil~,o:,S Bala.N . ~')C\J')OO)'J')~'Jcfl~"ll" Bam~ Let Twe K . :n?:yroro!:ioo o5 <;>;l CY:ftS:11 Band.Kam.Py.Z. "'t[OOij[OO'JC,Qe-:,oSn( o) Baud.Mag. ~t100Qgc,co, Banl.P .. :n9,-,o'loo~11 B"'8.Yaz. q:i% 9e3 oh~:cr.iS:0311 Bawd.W.W. ~.,aoEOffi1" Bed.AlinK. G~oEooooE:o:;S:11 Bedawun.K. G~G0"1)t'JGOO'J~O:,S:11 LIST OF BOOKS CITED Parliculara of publicalion. Figs. in ( ) No. of pagea. 8-ubject or nol-ure of work. (3) (4) Philip Lee Warner, London. Antiquities-Prose. (1-261.) Mawrawadi Press, Rangoon, Questions and answers on 1925. (1-78.) religious subjec-Prose. Ra.ta.na Theikdi Press, ManVeterinary Science-Prose. dalay, 1910. (1-96.) Thithani Linkira Pitakat Commentary on Abhidham Preas, Rangoon, 1910. (Imatthavibhivani: reli403.) gious, controvereial Prose. Hanthawaddy Press, RanLaw (Criminal and Civil)-goon, 1908. (1-72.) Poetry. Ma Mya and Son Press, Man dalay. (1-47.) Historical anecdotes-Prose. Author's name and dale of work or jlorvit. (5) L. D. Barnett, M.A., Litt.D. Thaddhammazawtikirima Sayadaw, A.M.P. of Dauu byu. A.D. ]922. U Saw, Clerk, Office of the Deputy Commissioner, Myingyan. A.D. 1910. "U Nat Tha." 20 C. Legaing Myosa Mingyi alias Kinwun Mingyi U Gaung, C.S.I. !9C. Za.bu Meitswe Pit&kat Press, Rangoon, 1914. (Vol. I (I-oil); Vol. II (l-453); Vol. III (1-431.) Word for word trausl&tion of Pye Sayadaw. A.D. 1863. Atth .. ii.lini of Buddha ghosa--Prose. Government Printing Press, Rangoon, 1907. (l-148.) Civil Law-Prose and poetry. Legaing Myoea. Mingyi alias Kinwun Mingyi U Ga.ung, C.S.I. A.D. 1869. Mingala Zeyyon Press, RanLife aud wise sayings of U Aung. A.D. 1909. goon, 1915. (l-200.) Ayudaw Mingala-Prose. Hanthawaddy Preas, RanAstrology-Poetry. goon, 1913. (1-63.) Kaweindithiri Press, Ran goon, 1900. (3-402.) Zabupati Preea, Maudalay, 1926. (l-163.) Burmese translation of Bilivatira-a Pili Grammar by Viicissara of CeylonProse. Magic-Prose. Bengalee Job-Printing Press, Drama-mainly verse. Rangoon, 1880. I (3-123). Magazine. (I) Author not known. (2) Mahisithii. Shin Afawka of Nyaungu. A.D.1864. Edited by Thau-hlyet-hmaw Sayadaw. 20 C. Maung Po Saing. A.D. 1880. National Printing Works, Birth Story No. 504-Poetry. Twinthin-taik-wunMahisithii Rangoon, 1928. (1-53.) Mahithinkh&yii. (U Tun Nyu) alias Shin Lingathira. A.D. )792. NationalPrintingWorks,Ran-HistoryofBaeseinandashort U Po Kya. A.D. 1933. goon, 1933. (l-196.) biographical sketch of U Tun. Shejn-Prose. Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press, Pauegyrica on Ba.van the Wetm .. ut Myosa (U Nu) alia, Maudalay, 1911. (1-98.) Brahminandonthevirtuee Nawadenge. A.D.1832. of Buddha-Poetry (Story of Bivari appears in Vat-thugithi of Butta Nlpita). Ka.wiMyethmanPress,RanReligious discourses, viz.: Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. A.D. goon, 1928. (1-156.) the Way to Arahatship, 1904. treatise on Med.ita.tion and Hauthawaddy Pitakat Press, Mandalay, 1930. (1-126.) National Printing Works, Rangoon, 1924. (1-117.) Mg. Kyi Maung Engraving Preas, Rangoon, 1927. (l-108.) Book of InstructionProse. History of the sacred Bodhi tree-Prose. Astrology-Prose. Astrology-Prose. P. G. Nair. A.D. 1924. Saya Thin. A.n. 1885

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Abbreviated !ilk. (I) Bed.Let.T. Bed.S.N. Bed.Thag.K. Bed.Thin.K. Bed.Wiz.K. B.HawBon Bhumi Sa.l.K. Boddh.W. Boye. B.ThaikK. Bur.J.W. Bur.L.G. Burm.Comp. Bur.Py.Z. Bur.Sp. Bur.Z.P. Bur.Z.P.Com. Byad.Sud.Khan. Chweta Coll.B. Full !ilk. (2) LIST OF BOOKS CITED Parliculars of yublicalion. Figs. in ( ) No. of pagBB. (3) Bubjeet or nature of work. (4) Myanma-wunth& PreHS, ManAstrology-Prose and poetry. da.lay, 1926. (5-88.) Kawi Myethman Press, Rangoon, 1923. {l-170.) Burmese translation of five Pili works on Grammar Prose. xi AuUior's nome ant! date of work or jloruit. (5) (1) Shwegu Sayadaw. A.D. 1857. (2) Bakaya Saya daw. A.D. 1796. (3) Kyigan Shingyi (U Nu). 18 C. (4) Unknown authors. Bakaya Sayadaw. 18/19 C. S~O:ll?O"\cr.i6: II ( o) ,I? ( q) Kawi Myethman Press, Ran goon, 1932. Vol. I (1-330); Vol. II (1-150). Astrology-Prose. Saya Hmat Gyi. A.D. 1928. 0t>o6:,:,E qt@-.,,.000:@ "116:11--(0) 0t>o8g:~?6~"11S:11 0t>o6GOJ?~ft'3:?~"'!co:itS., \~sroE~n ~(\,,cf.i<>?cf.iscm@:08:ll" ~~ocf.ioocb:i~n oo~??cf.iso 16:~n ~ocf.i<>ocf.iso 1E:\ll,,.s911 "-l""Q1"-lSg,?~8cf.iQS:n oos:,:,5"'P"i!""'?E:oo:n sgJ,mBE:11 Introduction to Collo-quial Burmese. Mayurawadi Prees, Danubyu, Astrology--Mainly proee. 1936. (1-159.) Bhaddanta Ashin Eindaw bitha. 20 C. Ma E Tin's Press, Meiktila, 1931. (17-239.) Astrology-Prose and poetry. Edited by Rev. U Nigyawda. A.D. 1907. Includee worke by Nyaunggan Sayadaw, Kinwun Mingyi U Gaung, Monywe Zetawun Sayadaw Ariyiwuntha Adissayanthi, U Ponnya {all 19 C.) and others probably same period. Knowledge Printing Worke, Natta.lin. (1-123.) Rangoon Stores Press, Ran goon. (1-169.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1925. (5-156.) Astrology-Prose. U Po Htein. A.D. 1931. Treatise regarding earthRev. U Thirikumira of Thigquakes-Prose. win village. A.D. 1911. Burmese tra.nslation of a Pili prose work Buddh&v&Ip.S&. Contents-short accounts of previous Buddhas and the life of Ga.utam.a generally similar to those of Nidinakathi----Prose. National Presa, Rangoon, 1927. (1-314.) A literary commentary on II Mr. Ma.ung Hmine.11 20 C. the Rangoon University boycott movement of 1920 -Prose and poetry. Ratanidipan Pitakat Press, Cryptic indications for.findCompiled by R&tanidlpan Manda.lay, 1913. {l-!09.) ing treasure, medicinal Pitakat Pree,. A.D. 1913. plants, etc.-Prose. Hanthawaddy Press, RanBirth Story No. 543-Prose. Nandameda Sayadaw. A.D. goon, 1911. (1-82.) 1786. Hanthawaddy Press, RanBirth Story No. 543--Poetry. Shin Mahii.rathathiira. A.D. goon, 1908. (1-158.) 1484. Sun Press, Rangoon, 1931. Burmese syntax and versifiSa.ya Lun. A..D. 1910. (1-267.) cation-Proae with verse illustrations. Bonga.lee Job-Printing Press, Drama on Birth Story No. Rangoon, 1879. (3-106.) 543-Verae and prose. Pyjgy:i Mandaing Pitakat Burmeee Spelling. Press, Rangoon, 1908. (1-332.) U Ku alias Say Ku. 19 C.-4th quarter. Saya U Kyaw Dun. 20 C. Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1914. (1-66.) Birth Story No. 543-Poetry. Shin Mahira~athara. A.D. Ilanthawaddy Pitakat Press, Commentary-Prose. Rangoon, 1930. (1-339.) Kawi Myethman Press, Ran goon, 1921. (1-68.) Pyinsariipan Press, Promo, 1931. (1-198.) British Burma Presa, Ran goon, 1936. (1-192.) Burmese word for word transla.tion of part of Nidina.kathi and pa.rt of Theri Apadana-Prose. Guide to Domestic Economy -Prose. Grammar. 1493. Shwe-on-hmin Sayadaw. 19 C. Thitchataung Sayadaw U Tilawka. 20 C. U Kha. A.D. 1927. J. A. Stewart, C.I.E., M.C., M.A., LL.D.

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xii Abbreviated tiae. (1) Cottage Industries C.P. Dag.Mag. Dana.D.K. Dat.Dhat.W .. DaungG. DaungT. D.B.B.L. De.SeK. Devag.Py.Z Dham.D.K. Dhammawza Mawg. Dham.M.W. Dhanun.K. Dh.Link.K. Dh.Pada W. Dh.Pala P. Dh.Ya.P. Din.Ayeb. Full title. (2) Compendium of Buddhist Philosophy. oq~gg"'E:11 o 1;,-:i8Bu,CY.JIS: 11 o 1~-:>Q'Jto50~111 Go1t:o~II GO 1t:~OO-:>OJ~II Digest of the Burmese Buddhist Law con cerning Inheritance and Marriage. Vol. I, Inheritance. Gooo.:iroGoo:o:iiS:11 GDOt~SC!''.)0,11 QijBU,cr:JjQ:11 Q 1ii!ICY.JJS:&\fo~:,~8-om Q 1oS CY.JIQ:11 Gooo.:iroGoo: CY.JIQ:11 OO&p&'[Go;>-7-:~~ GOjj'JoSCX?:CY.JJS:11 Qij'JCOct.>'J&'[CY.JIQg11 QijUOOg?[GOOS~:11 (u) (q), (o:,), (i"t) ,~ (ue.,) c;fo[951urB~mo~111 LIST OF BOOKS CITED ParticularB of publication. FigB. in ( ) = No. of pageB. (3) Subject or nature of work. (4) Author'B name and date of work or floruit. (5) Sun Press, Rangoon, 1912. Descriptive Economics Linka." 20 C. (1-27.) Prose. Oxford University Press, English translation of AbhiU Shwe Zan Aung, B.A. Warehouse, 1910. (1-285). dhammattha-sa:ligaha.-A.D. 1910. Dagon Press, Rangoon. Gunawadi Press, Mandalay, 1916. (3-55.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1910. (1-156.) Sun Press, Rangoon, 1931. (1-169.) Sun Press, Rangoon, 1929. (1-266.) Government Press, Rangoon, 1899. (1-839.) Myanmapyi Saponhneik Alokthamya Athin Press, Rangoon, 1925. (185-187.) Aungzeyyatu Press, Ran goon, 1924. (1-41.) Kawi Myethman Press, Ran goon, 1908. (1-129.) Dagon Press, Rangoon. (1-186.) Myanmapyi Saponhneik Alokthamya Athin Press, Rangoon, 1925. (1-207.) Ratanabon Pitakat Press, Mandalay, 1929. (1-395.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1925. Vol. I (1-394). Dhammasethya Taya Tha dinza Press, Rangoon. Vol. II (1-539). Swezonkyaw din Pitakat Press, Ran goon, 1928. Vol. III (1-476). Zabu Meitswe Pitakat Press, Rangoon, 1932. Vol. IV (1-452). Vol. V (1-457). Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1899. (1-78.) Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press, Mandalay, 1929. (1-175.) Thudhammawadi Press, Rangoon, 1923. (1-147.) Prose. Magazine. Religiousinstruction-Prose. Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. 20 C. Distribution and present loca tion of relics of Buddha. Prose. Explanatory notes on Daung. T.-Mainly prose. Politics and religion-Prose and poetry. Burmese Buddhist Law. Medical-Prose. Drama-Poetry. Mr. Maung Hmine." A.D. 1929. "Mr. Maung Hmine." 20 C. Legaing Myosa Mingyi aliaB Kinwun Mingyi U Gaung, C.S.I. 19 C. U Kyin U. 19 C. Religious instruction-Prose. Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. 1901. A.D. Panegyrics on religious life and on Ratananadi-a canal in Mandalay District -Poetry. Historical Novel-Prose and verse. Medical-Prose. (Transla tion from Sanskrit and Pali works.) Legaing Myosa Mingyi aliaB Kinwun Mingyi U Gaung, C.S.I. 19 C. "Mr. Maung Hmine." 20 C. Religious observances and Razamantika Dhammathiira instruction-Prose. aliaB U San Hla. A.D. 1911. Burmese translation of Dhammapada Atthakatha -Prose. Birth Story No. 447-Poetry An account of Buddha's attainment of Buddha. hood, his virtues, dis courses, meditation, advice to kings, etc.-Poetry. History of Arakan-Prose. Vol. I by Saya Tin. 20 C. Vols. II, III, IV, and V by Rev. Ashin Sandima, A.M.P. Probably 20 C. Shin Thilawuntha. (N.B.Work left unfinished at time of death in A.D. 1520, and :finished by another writer in A.D. 1549.) Shin Kumara Katthapa of Pakhangyi. A.D. 1625. Dwayawadi Sayadaw. A.D. 1787.

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Abbreviated title. (I) Dir.Astrol. D.P.P.N. Dur.P.G. DuwunJ. DwadaTh.K. DwegyoK. Dweme.Z. E. E.H. Eind.Z .. Ek.D.Y.K. Epig.Birm. Etadeg.W. For.Prod. Gambith.P. Gamb.Kab.K. Gata.P. Gihi.K. Git.With.K. Gwes.SeK. Hanth.Ayeb. Hitop.K. LIST OF BOOKS CITED :X:lll Particulars of publication. Full title. (2) Figs. in ( ) = No. of pages. (3) Subject or nature of work. (4) Author's name and date of work or flomit. (5) Directional Astrology of the Hindus. Dictionary of Pali Proper Names. Pali Grammar. (jlOCp;,oS11 g 1ri::S6cr.ii6: II (includes also rn-:J8m8ghpo3;,qio5 cr.ii6: 11 cr.iit Cljl;,qioScr.iiS: 11) Gg: :;fil: Gli\:~t?,siGo 1c:~ cr.iiS:11 Gg: goS G,j>S3 GQ T 't Q ~e-:,oS GOOS3~:II The Judson Burmese-English Dictionary. ~~c: G(J)'JC:-o J-Ga>'JCCl211 ~e'JOOJ,j>~: CJ.2C: e-:,oSGoo S3 ~:11 ( 0) ( ~) ~oa6PaiQ 1t610Ja:i;6:11 Epigraphia Birmanica: being Iithic and other inscriptions of Burma. ~oorigog;,111 Handbook of Forest Products of Burma. D. B. Taraporevala Sons & Co., Bombay, 1935. (1-128.) John Murray, London, 1937. Dictionary. Vol. I (1-1163). 1938. Vol. II (1-1370). British Burma Press, RanGrammar. goon, 1921. (1-345.) Weekly newspaper. Lawkapala Pitakat Press, Astrology-Poetry. Rangoon, 1933. (72-136.) Kawi Meitswe Press, Rangoon. (1-88.) Amyotha Press, Rangoon. (1-260.) American Baptist Mission Press, Rangoon, 1914. (1-1123.) Ranmapiira Press, Moulmein, 1912. (1-287.) Burmese versification. Said to have been translated from a Pali work-Zinme Pannatha Nipat. Appears in Divyavadana, Ch. xxx.-Mainly prose. Dictionary. Old Historical Ballads. Dr. V. G. Rele, L.l\i. & S., F.C.P.S. A.D. 1934. G. P. Malalasekera, M.A., Ph.D. (Lond.). A.D. 1937. Charles Duroiselle, M.A. A.D. 1906. Atula or Taungdwin Sayadaw Khingyi Byaw or his dis ciples. 18 C. Saya Kyaw of Kemmendine. 20C. Rev. Mandala U Kelatha. 20 c. Rev. F. H. Eveleth, D.D. A.D. 1913. Ed. U May Oung, M.A., LL.B., Bar.-at-law. A.D. 1912. Indian Press, Mandalay, 1914. Drama-Prose and poetry. Princess Hlaing-teik-hkaungVol. I (5-374), 1902. Vol. tin. 19 C. II (1-467). Pyigyi Mandaing Press, Ran-Burmese Materia Medica-U Saing, Pleader, Daiku. goon, 1930. (1-219.) Glossary. 20 C. Government Printing, Burma, Texts and translations of in-Ed. Chas. Duroiselle, M.A., Rangoon, 1919. scriptions. U Mya. Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1929. (1-209.) Government Printing, Burma, Rangoon, 1921. (1-117.) Short accounts of special attainments of 30 distin guished disciples of Buddha (14th chapter of Eka Ni pata of the Anguttara Nikaya)-Prose. Botany-Glossary. Sir Alex. Rodger, A.D. 1921. I.F.S. rr.i~OJ".lOJ,j>~:gai-:,G;;iTo1 Kawi Meitswe Press, RanReligious and moral instrucShin Maharathathara. 15 C. O:>".l6l~II goon. (2-57.) tion in verse and notes in Notes and paraphrases by ol6lm1:~pcr.ii6:11 ( o) 01oo'JG8".lrD;:;oo)~ II 8J3ai".l~ffi~omo:i;6:11 ~008GOJ'JQ,C'-ljQ:OJ~ II Gg:G;:;o'JC ;:;o 6P ~:Gcgj'JCI:?: G;:;o:CY:l]Q:11 (DO)".) od3;:;oc@nlC8o G6l: GOOS3~11 J3 GOO'JO G80J O'.l] Q :a, 'J II (includes ;:;og~;:;oCQC:Offi[ and four other works). National Press, Rangoon, 1911. (1-1.62.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1928. (1-60.) Burma Herald Steam Press, Rangoon. (3-154.) Mandalabhiimi Press, Man dalay, 1923. (1-194.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1910. (3-67.) Sun Press, Rangoon, 1918. (1-122.) prose. Saya Kyaw. 20 C. Religious instruction-Prose Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. 20 C. and poetry. Poem based on ApadanaShin On Nyo. A.D. 1517. atthakatha. Religious and moral instrucRev. U Pandeiksa. A.D. 1918. tion-Prose. Collection of songs. Ed. Mg Maung Lat. 20 C. Medical-Prose. History of King Bayinnaung -Prose. Gwesaung Sayagyi U Myat Tun. 18 C. Hanthawaddy Press, RanBurmese translation of SanRev. U Raweinda of Bingala goon, 1902. (14-84.) skrit Hitopadesa-Prose. Kyaung. A.D. 1887.

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xiv Abbreviated title. (I) H.Gaz .. HI.Ree .. HmaingHma HmaingW. HmaingWeW. Hm. Yaz. InaungZ. Ind.Sa.T. Irwin B.&A.CaJ. Ish.Mawg. It.Sh.K.. J. J.B.R.S. J.S. K. Kab.Band.K. Kab.N.B. Kab.Th.Tb.K. KabyaKyem. Kabya Yeni Full title. (2) Headmen's Gazette. ("i/~oecf.i) Selections from the Records of the Hlut taw. <>~O'.l'.l o<>'.lC~[ 5:y'.lorol:i ~Oll:I[" (o), (1 ) ,~ (ro) ~E,000001!:ll" ( o) 9~;;~"1.'"oEom~,11 (o), (,) ,~ (ro) The Burmese and Ara.ka nese Calendars. 1z.:'31~..l5o..~II .,~q~"'"ll~'l"ls,11 Judson's Burmese Englisb Dictionary. (This edition indicates sources of materia.l whether Judson or subsequent editors.) Journal of the Burm.a Research Society. Stevenson's edition of Judson's Burmese English Dictionary. Analytic Dictionary of Chinese and Sino Japanese. O'.l'f'~ijo.J'.l')OlQOI oo,1poogooioo01S:11 OOtf?:~ 11 S~oocf.io: ~II (o) O'.ltf>0'):;;.~"11. LIST OF BOOKS CITED Particulars of publicatwn. Figs.in( ) = No.ofpagea. (3) Government Printing Works, Rangoon. British Burma Press, Ran goon, 1914. (1-259.) Sun Press, Rangoon. 1925. Vol. I (1-226). 1928. Vol. II (17-168). MyanmaKyet thaye Preas, Rangoon, 1921. Vol. III (1-207.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1904. Vol. I {l-200) Kaweindithiri Press, Ran goon, 1905. Vol. III (4193.) Burmese Favourite Co., Rangoon. Vol. I (2-207). Ratana Tbeikdi Pitakat Press, Mandalay, 1921. Vol. I (17-536). Tampa.dipa Times Preas, Manda lay, 1908. Vol. II (9-458). Mandalay Times Press, Mandalay, 1907. Vol.IIl(l-408.) Dagon Magazine Press. Vol.I. Myanmipyi Siponhneik Alokthamya Athin Press, Rangoon, 1923. (1-32.) Hanthawaddy Printing Works, Rangoon, 1909. (1-92.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1900. (1-17.) Hanthawaddy Preas, Ran goon, 1907. (5-80.) American. Baptist Mission Press, Rangoon, 1883. (1-782.) Subject or ,.,,,,,,.. of work. (4) Newspaper. Royal orders, official corre. spondence, etc.-Prose. Miscellany-Prose and poetry. Fiction-Prose. Fiction-Prose. Author' a name and dale of work or floruit. (5) Compiled by Mr Taw Sein Kho, 0.1.E., with Appendix and notes by U Tin, K.S.M. A.D. 1914. "Mr. Mamig Hmine." 200. Wunsaye U Kyi. 20 C. Maung Kin Mamig of Mandalay. 200. History {The Glass Palace Compilers appointed by King Chroniole)-Prose Bagyidaw. Drama-Prose and verse. Mr. Maung Hmaing. A,D, 1916. Alchemy-Prose and verse. Eindisariya. A.D. 1922. A. M. B. Irwin, C.S.I., I.O.S. 20 0.-lst quarter. Dyilaatic history to end of Wetmasut Myosa {U Nu) Pagan period-Poetry. alias Nawadenge. 19 0. Physiognomy-Prose. U Taing. A.D. 1896. Dictionary. Edited by Edward 0. Stevens, A.D.1883. Burma Researeh Society, Journal. Rangoon, beginoing June, 1911. Government Printing Press, Dictionary. Revised and enlarged by R. C. Stevenson of the Burm.a. Commission. A.D. 1893. Rangoon, 1893. (1-1188.) Libra.irie Orientaliste, Paul Geuthner, Paris, 1923. (ff 1-1350.) National Press, Rangoon. (1-282.) Appendices (283672.) Rangoon Stores Press, Ran goon, 1924. (1-113.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1898. (3-132.) Maung Sin's Press, Manda.lay, 1928. (12-240.) Dagon Press, Rangoon, 1933. (1-116.) Bernhard Karlgren. Burmese Prosody. U Tin, K.S.M., A.T.M., M.A. A.D. 1892 and A.D. 1929. Collection of olaesical BurEdited by Saya Shwe of mese poems. Knowledge Newspaper Press. A.D. 1924. Pili Grammar in verse with S.yadaw U Bok. 19 0. notes in prose. Burmese prosody with illusRev. U. Nigyawda. A.D. 1900. trations. Do. U Po '!'hit. A.D. 1921.

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.A.bln-svialed tiUe. (I) KalaM.Py.Z. Ka.la Yaz. Kalid.K. Kam.D.K. Kandaw M.Com. KanNyan. Kap.Link.K. Kat.S. Kawe Th.K.Gyi. KawiL.D. KawiL.Th. KawiM.Mag .. KawiM.M.K. Kawin.M.K. KawiTh.K. Kawi Then.K. Kawi Yat.K . Kawth.Py. Z. Kayanu.K. IC.B.Z . Ke.Thi.Z F,dl title. (2) oi==5,Ql9..-:,cf.i11 QO'Y.lo6~11 ( o) ,~ ( q) =c&h"'liS"' me~~,!!o,o,ilio, LIST OF BOOKS CITED Parti"'11ar, of publication. Fig,. in ( ) = No. of pages (3) Subject or nature of work. (4) Bah Myin Nyah Tyne Press, Drama-Mainly verse. Rangoon, 1881. (3-111.) Pyigyi Mandaing Pitak&t History of Burma-Prose. Press, Rangoon, 1926. Vol. I (1-457). 1932. Vol. II (1-451). Bee U1UUI' Nayaw M. Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-ReligioU&-Prose. goon, 1908. (1-150.) xv Author's name and date of work or jloruit. (5) Saya Maung Hpu. 19 0.4th quarter. U Kala. 18 C. Lodi Sayadaw, A.M.P. A.D. 1908. m\i=l:iQfogo:ii~5,oolB~ Kawi Myethman Press, RanReligious and moral instrucO'JJ~5..,.ge11 goon, 1925. (1-145.) tion in verse with com mentary in prose. Verse by Ko.ndaw Minkyaung Sayadaw. 15 0. Com-mentary by Minkyaung Pongyi. 19 0. m623mllljmaa01u'icoo5 Zeyyii.piirain Press, RanReligious and moral instruc-~o:iiSi goon, 1933. (1-245.) tion-Prose. Sa.ngyaung Saya.da.w of Yan doon. A.D. 1916. mg 1co~'loll?;;~11g~ T o-G-5o, ro8Q11,;;ooo~S:11 (o) m8"-'~'lo,ili"' ( o) ,~ (q) m8G"-'t0'111[
PAGE 17

xvi Abbreviated title. (I) Khitsan Pon. Kh.M.G.W. K.Hmu.Th. Kh.P.S. Khud.N. Kinkha.N. Kinw.Di. Kinw.M. K.K.Th. KoganP. KoganP.T. K.P.Sagab. Kum.Py.Z. Kutha P. K.W.F .. Kyabin Taya.. Kyon.N.K. KyiganM. L. & R. FuU title. (2) LIST OF BOOKS CITED Particulars of publication. Autkor'a name and date of Figs. in ( ) =No. of P4fle8, (3) Sirhject or nature of work. work or floruit. (4) (5) G~o5oS-i!lS'll~"'(o);~ (q) Pyigyi Mundyne Pitakat Press, 1934. Vol. I (1-173). 1938. Vol. II (1-212). Short stories-Prose. Vol. I by U Sein Tin, U E Maung, U Thein Han, U Wun and U Toe Aung. Vol. II by Theikpan Maung Wa ". 20 C. GrooE:~Gmo-S'b,ljc:i, ~c0:Gqp ,fi 0082[8o50~ ooQ:11 CO~D~~:ig~Gtoyo5o~ roS., ( o) ;~ ( qhc:c!Jc :,.:,b :ig~:G1oyo5o~ooS mc:~wc:@:oog,~o 111 dl=~~bljS., "<9~""~'ldl*li" cJl,~afi:\i~m~a:is,0,11 Dagon Press, Rangoon. 1931. Fiction-Prose. Maung Kin Maung of Man dalay. A.D. 1914. Vol. I (1-200). 1926. Vol. II (1-207). Indian Press, Mandalay, History of Kaunghmu-daw Rev. U Adeiksawuntha of 1903. (1-32.) Pagoda-Prose and verse. Meiktila. 20 C. Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-Biography-Prose. KandawMinkyaungSayadaw. goon, 1906. (1-23.) A.D. 1905. Thounglonhteiktin Press, Kyaiklat, 1929. (1-215.) Zabu Meitswe Pita.kat Press, Rangoon, 1919. (1-585). Kawi Myethman Press, Ran goon, 1908. Vol. I (1-304). Vol. II (305-572). Pili-Burmese word-for-word translation of Khuddasikkhi dealing with the disci pline of monks-Prose. Pi.Ii-Burmese word-for-word: transla.tion of commentary on Pitim.okkha.--Code for monks and nuns-Prose. Diary of journey to Europe -Prose. Hauthawaddy Press, RanPoetie&! Epistles. goon, 1913. (1-55.) Chanea Press, Mandalay. (1-60.) Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press, Mandalay, 1923. (1-122.) Shwe-hton-nagara Press, Thaton, 1927. (1-550). Account of irrigation in Kyaukse District-Prose. Birth Story No. 509-Epic Poem. Epic poem and commentary in prose (Birth Story No. 509). Pyitsimiyon Sa.yadaw of Kyaiklat. A.D. 1911. Shin Baddanta-zawta-yauta of Yin-myo. A.D. 1749. Legaing Myosa Mingyi alia., Kinwun Mingyi U Gaung, C.S.I. 190. Do. UBa. Thein, Plea.der, Kya.ukse. A.D.1910. Shin Mahiira~thira. 1526. A.D. Shin Mahiira~athiira. A.D. 1526. Commentary by U. Kyaw Dun, K.S.M. A,D. 1904. ~E:ro~Go 1coo~OCYY):~11 Zabu Myethman Press, ManAdvice on conduct-Poetry. dalay, 1921. (26-38.) Kyigan Shingyi (U Nu) alias Kyiga.n Koyingyi alias Shin Nandadhaza. 18/19 C. and Maung Cho. 19 C. "l~~'l0"~o511 "l""li" Word Families in Chinese. List of Trees, Shrubs, and Principal Climb ers, etc., recorded from Burma. with Vernacular Names. British Burma News Press, Rangoon, 1879. (1-160.) Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press, Mandalay, 1920. (1-280.) Museum of Fa.r Ea.stern Anti quities, Bulletin No. 5, Stockholm, 1933. (1-120.) Myanmi Buddha Thithanfi.pyu Press, Rangoon, 1921. Vol. I (6-191). L.P.P. Electrio Press, Rangoon, 1927. Vol. II (1-176). Lawkapa.Ia. Pita.ka.t Press, Rangoon, 1933. (137-175). Drama-Mainly verse. Birth Story No. 531-Poetry. Maung Pok Ni. 19 C.--4th quarter. Monywe Zeta.won Saye.claw Ariyiwuntha Adissayanthi. A.D. 1827. Bernhard Karlgren. Religious discourses-Mainly Kyabin Sayadaw. 18/19 C. poetry. Treatise on alchemy, astro-Rev. U Asara of Kyonsha nomy, and medicinevilla.ge, Bassein District--Poetry. probably 19 C. Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-Poetical Epistles. goon, 1932. (1-87.) Kyigan Shingyi (U Nu) alias Kyigan Koyingyi alias Shin Nandadhaza. 18/19 C. Government Printing, Ran-Botany-Glossary. goon, 1922. (1-347.) J. H. Lace as revised by Sir Alexander Rodger, 0.B.E. A,D, 1912.

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Abbreviated litle. (!) Lawk&th. News Lawki Th.L.K. LediKein L.11.G.K. L.H.R.K. L.I.Mand.K. L.I.S.K. L.M.T.T.K. L.Ni.P. Lok.Sonma L.P.B.K. L.P.P.D. L.Thip.T. Lubyo LuwunPy.Z. L.Wid.Mawg. Mag. Magh.Dev.L.Th. MahaGit.B. FuU title. (2) rouSd3Goo0c/l~:cr.,1S:,;9 Gro? ~"" q85lq11,~,Jcr.iS:11 Gro0&q85iqGoOIDl!QOII Gro?~ll
PAGE 19

xviii Abbreviated title. (!) Maha San.Pyaz. M&haThuz.K. Me.ha Up.E. M&hawinW. M&haw.Py.Z .. M&hawth J.W. Maia Link.W. Manawh.P. M&n.Dh.W. Mand.Mawg. Mani KhetZ. Manik.W. Manir.K. Manu Ma tow. Sonma :Maul. Yaz. Py. Z. Mawg.B. MedawE. Meg.D.K. MeilcMawg. M.Gand.PyZ .. Full lit!e. (2) ga,~oEog:i[n gsa,l;c,~0011 LIST OF BOOKS CITED Particulars of publication. Fig,. in ( ) -No. of page,. Bubjecl or nature of work. (3) (4) Author' a name and date of work or floruit. (5) Pyigyi Mandaing Press, RanAdaptation of Moliere', Le V Thein Han, M.A. A.D. 1931. goon, 1934. (1-108.) Bourgeois Gentillu,mmeProse. Ratanii Theikdi Pitakat Pre.,, Mandalay, 1923. (1-279.) Ranmipfira Press, Moulmein, 1912. (112-152.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1911. (1-320.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1928. (1--lil.) Astrology-Prose. Old llistorical Ballad on Mahi Upariji, son of Nandabayin. Translation of Ma.hivaip.sa. Prose. Birth Story No. 546 : Drama -Poetry. Yaw Atwinwun (U Po Hlaing) aliaa Magwe Myosa Mingyi. A.D. 1881. Talok Myoea Thinkhayii. 160. Sale Say& U Ponnya. Born A.D. 1812; executed A.D. 1867. QS~oosooli@: Hanthawaddy Press, RanBirth Story No. 546-Prose. Rev. U Awbitha. A.D. 1784. "ffil'' (oh~ ( ,) goon, 1922. Vol. I (1-248). 1908. Vol. II (1-242). g~ro~rocb:i'\08:/l sm@:11 Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press, Mandalay, 1929. (1-406.) Life of Gautama Buddha and propagation of his doctrine-Prose. Kawi.wunthi.bidhazamahi. dhammarizaguru Sayadaw. A.D. 1798. QSf~Q 1000ffi[~OI ( O) g~sro:~ooli"il~"' Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press, Mandalay, 1929. (1-96.) Theikpan Akyaw Press, Okpo, 1923. (1-162.) Hantha.waddy Press, Rangoon, 1921. (3-56.) Burmese translation of Thu dhanu-kumira Ji.take., one of the 50 apocryphal birth stories contained in Zinme Panniitha Nipat-Poetry. Drama on early history of Prome--Prose and verse. Nawade-gyi alias Taungthin hmu. A.D. 1579. Saya Kyaw. 20 C. Sale Saya U Ponnya. A.D. 1862. Q cf.lQ cf.it~= o;iE: .. ~oosooli Lawkasara Electric Press, @,11 Rangoon, 1917. (7-144.) In praise of the river Irra waddy, the conquest of Zimne, and King MindonPoetry. Drama based on Wungyi Padethariza's epic poem. 11 Mr. Maung Hmine." .a..n. 1918. The Dame.that or The Laws of Menoo. gg/i!lohS., ( o) Sgjro~m~=li~sgli "il~:--;,-~oosm@: Hanthawaddy Pre", RanDrama-Poetry. A.D, 1770. The Deputy Commissioner, Sagaing. A.D. 1895. c,~0011 goon, 1896. (1--55.)

PAGE 20

Abbreiiated tiUe. (I) M.Hl.Tb.K. Ming.E. Ming.Y. Minye D.E. MinyeK.E. MinyeN,E. M.M.M . M.M.O.S. M.Muni Th.P. Mod.Bot. Mot.Yaz. M.P. M.Sanda Py.Z. M.T.T.K. Mud.B.Mawg. Mud.Lek.P. MunYaz. Myan. Abid. LIST OF BOOKS CITED xix FuUtille. (2) Particulars of publication. Figs. in ( ) No. of pages. (3) Subject or nature of work. (4) Author's name a.nd date of work or floruit. (5) ~-:,~cf.iG8~'!j5:11 wE:~t'P'l:6 tw-:>woo-:,woco-:,w5:aS, Gw5:~6'11t6ciroooS: GovernmentPrinting,Burma, s5..sl:GOJ~cn ooStGObGo1fa'II[ 6~ ~9t"'lS:11 Sc8~a111 GW-:>5V~e>-:>cf.i11 woo~dloScqcr.iS:~:r. goon, 1921. (I-IOI.) 2nd caeting of Mabiimyat muni Image at Mand&!&y. U Po Han Co., Rangoon, 1932. (1-90.) Thuwunnawadi Press, Tha ton, 1927. (1-70.) Hanthaw&ddy Pit&k&t Press, Mandalay, 1924. (1-704.) Bengalee Job-Printing Press, Rangoon, 1880. (3-131.) Hanthawaddy Pit&k&t Pres,, Rangoon, 1908. (1-301.) Hanthawaddy Pres,, Ran goon, 1928. (1-19.) Myanmiipyi Siiponhneik Alokthamya Athin Press, Rangoon, 1922. (1-92.) Myanmipyi Siponhneik Aloktha.mya Athin Press, Rangoon, 1922. (1-107.) Sanda Thirein Pres,, Hen z&da, 1930. (1-187.) Botany-Prose. U Hla Tun, Burma Agricul-tural Service. A.D. 1932. History of the 32 towns of Rev. U Pyinnya. A.D. 1927. Mart&ban with special reference to revenue administration-Prose. Translation of the Questions Rev. U Gunilinlmra. A.D, of King Milinda-Prose. 1765. Drama-Mainlyverse. U Hpe. 19 C.---4th quarter. Miecellany (Omen,, dream, Edited by Saya Taing. 20 C. and their significance, propitiation of guardian spirite, etc.)-Prose. Poem on the occasion of Atwinwun Rizab&la.kyawdin King Bodawpaya.'s Corona.alias Thetpa.n Ywasa.. 18 C. tion. Birth Story No. 66-Poet,y. Twinthint&ikwun (U Tun Nyo) Mabiisitbii Mahitbinkhayii aliaa Shin Linga.thira.. A.D. 1751. History of the Mon Kingdoms down to A.D. 1539-Prose. Dictionary of archaic words. U Ba. Tun. A.D. 1930.

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XX Abbreviated !itle. (I) Mya,n. Attok. G. Myim. S&.Nid. Mya,n. W.Attok. MyaukTi. Mya.W. M.Y.M.W. Nima S.P. Nan.S.P.K. Nar&da.J.W. Nar&da.P. Nara SeK. NatLanT.K. NatehinE. Nav.Bud.K. Naw&deY. NayamaJ. S.K. Nayaw.M. Newsp. NemiBonP. Nemi.J.W. NemiMeg.P. LIST OF BOOKS CITED Particular, of publication. Full title. (2) Fig,. in ( ) = No, of pagea. (3) Subject or nature of work. (4) 9~".lO':l!laffil8~""01 '11[611 9~~~,,,.,,, 9w".lo@ll:ot:i:oo1131 8~" G',f>".lWjijjll Friend of Burma Press, RanAdaptation of Count of Monte James HI& Gyaw. 20 0. goon, 1904. (1-287.) Cristo-Prose. Hanthaw&ddy Pitak&tPress, Birth Story No. 289-Poetry. Mand&!&y, 1920. (1-105.) Ha.ntha.waddy Preas, RanQuestions and answers on goon, 1915. (1-168.) various religioue a,nd ecclesiastical matters-Prose. Hanthaw&ddy Press, Ran goon, 1911. (1-49.) Ha,nthaw&ddy Pit&kat Press, Rangoon, 1929. (1-186.) f'IC 1:~~'lfaro:~:@01 Rat&nidip&n Pit&kat Press, Mand&!&y, 1930. (1-229.) Birth Story No. 544 (Mahiiniir&dak&ea&p& Jiit&ka) Prose. Birth Story No. 544 (Mahiiniir&dak&esapa Jit&ka) Poetry. Medical treatises-Poetry. Monywe Zeta.wun Sayadaw Ariyawuntha Adissayan thi, A,D. 1826, Questions by King Alaungpaya a,nd &DSwers by Atula or Taungdwin Sayadaw Khingyi Byaw. A.D. 1768. Rev. U Awbiitha. A.D. 1784. Monywe Zetswun Say&daw Ariyiiwuntha Adissayanthi. A.D. 1821. WUDBaye U Kaung 18/19 0.) and Shwekin Khon-min. A.D. 1836, ;,oSroS:e,itooGfl~m".l 015:11 Mya,nmipyi Siponhneik Alchemy and attainment of U Po San of Monywa, A,D, ;,oSsfQuSGOY.i~'llE:11 ;,oGs:.Jl'l~Go 1E,'llt611 ;,mw".lo:>".lll ;,m"P:>'!Gro: CJ1 Q:,CGro".lC~ ,~tm;,".l ~~'IJ".lGW"'1!S"' ( ::>) 1".l8o5oof.i II (J) m".lclb h>01S:11 ,~ (?) ,f>G"!'O 1sGQffi".l0".l II G,f>S~~=j11 Gf8<>".lo5GO'.lS@:Offil 11 G;,Swa,~:~ab:\i II Alokthamya Athio Press, supernatura.I powers there1913. Rangoon, 1925. (1-201.) by-Prose, Rammipiira.Press,Moulmein, 1912. (94-lll.) Kawi Myethman Preas, Ran goon, 1928. (1-200.) Hanthaw&ddy Pit&kat Press, M&nd&!&y, 1929. (1-260.) By&hmaw&d.i Press, Ran goon. (5-243.) M& E Tin's Press, Meiktila, 1933. (l-183.) Hanthaw&ddy Press, Ran goon, 1894. (1-471.) Hanthaw&ddy Press, Ran goon, 1911. (1-182.) Himthaw&ddy Press, Ran goon, 1900. (1-105.) Old Historica.l Ba.ll&d on grand-daughter of Bayio naung. Ritua.l of Nava Buddha Pu ja.ni and word-for-word translation of Piili Uppitasa.nti-Prose a.nd verse. Poems on miscellaneous sub jects. Symptoms of dise&ses, medi cal prescriptions, a.nd pre scriptions according to astrologfoa.I indications Prose and verse. Burmese tr&DSlation of Birth Story No. 77 (Mahiisupioii Jii.t&ka); a,necdotes of Kiilldii.tha, adviser of King of Bena.res ; letter conveying moral instruction-Poetry and prose. Newspapers. P&rt of Birth Story No. 541 (Nimi Jiit&ka)-Poetry. Birth Story No. 541 (Nimi Jat&ka)-Prose. Part of Birth Story No. 541 (Nimi Jit&ka)-Poetry. Sigaiogza of Kyid&ung. 17 0. Author of 1st part not known. 2nd part by Say&daw U Bok. Born A,D, 1787. Died A.n. 1842. Naw&de-gyi alias Taungthin hmu. 160. 1st two parts by Wuna&ye U Kaung (18/19 0.) and last part by Kinsaye U Shun-probably 19 0. (1) Kozaung Say&daw, A.M.P. of Myingyan. A.D. 1925. (2) Rev. U Wiseittasara. A.D. 1740. (3) Say&daw U Wunna.dha.za-probably 190. Shin Aggathamiidi (Mg. No). A,D. 1542, Rev. U Awbiitha. A.n. 1786. Shio Aggathamiidi (Mg No). A.D. 1535.

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Abbreviated litle. (1) Nemi Ngaye P. Nemi Yag. Nepali D. NeYiYiW. Nib.P&k.K. Nib.With.K. Nip. Nom.Dis. Nov. Ok.Mal.K. Ok.Mal.M. Ok.Yaz.Py.Z. Ok.Tawl. Ommad.P. Owad.P. Pad.Thi. Padum.Py.Z .. Pak.M .. P&k.With.K. PaJeikE. Pand.Wod.D.K. Pap.Py.Z. Full litl<. (2) "tSc~:~cf.i:li/ 11 "~"lmt11 A Comparative and Ety mologic&l Dictionary of the Nepali Language. "t~~8?l11 ( 0) ~~"tffiOOO".l::O,CT.jJS,11 (J) ~~"fffi80'J"\CID II j~ (?) h".>tffi8::oi;t".l-?"'ls:qi11 c") ~~"tB=i;p,11s,,~ (J) ..,o:,QmQijOm".l::o; CT.jJQOII ~O 1oSc>".>oSOffi[ II Nomenclature of Diseases in Burmese. Novel. (::,) 8ffi::OW'X\J".>CT.jJQ~~ (J) <>".>0$,mo:iS:11 O'('c>Occ>".)oSII 'i)C88l"ooi-i"cmco".l I II e~o\ll11 o1oc>;10\il11 OG!J::O".l:B'IJC"lJ".>OI O'/"WC:Ol".>OB<>".l 11 orll~m@gpO'J 11 o~m8::oi;t".>CT.jJQ:11 ( q) oc860".l:e'llc,11 o~oo"oo~m8oi"11S o1odlt9<>".loS11 LIST OF BOOKS CITED Parlimdara of publication, Figa. in ( ) = No. of pagea. Subjeet or nature of work. (3) (4) Ha.ntbawaddy Pit&kat Presa, M,mdaJay, 1920. (1-109.) Hantbawaddy Pross, Ran goon, 1899. (1-73.) Part of Birth Story No. 541 (Nimi Jiit&ka)-Pootry. Birth Story No. 541 (Nimi Jiit&ka)-Poetry. K.eg&n Paul, Trench, Trnb Dictionary. ner & Co., London, 1931. (1-935.) Lower Burma Stationery & Fiction-Prose. Crown Press, Rangoon. (1-272.) Thuwunna.wadi Pita.ka.t Press, Exposition of the meaning Thaton, 1926. (1) 1-85, of Nirviina,-Proeo. (2) 1-43, (3) 1-298. Kawi Myetbman Pross, Ran goon, 1919. (1-92.) Do. xxi A ulhor 'a name and dat. of work or floruil. (5) Shin Aggathamiidi (Mg No). A.D. 1538. Leg&ing Myoea Ilfingyi a!iaa Kinwun Ilfingyi U Gaung, C.S.I. Born A.D. 1821. Died A.D. 1908. R. L. Turner, M.C., M.A., Litt.D. A.D. 1930. P. Monin. 20 C. (1) Taik-ok Sayadaw Rev. U Medbivi. A.D. 1923. (2) and (3) Rev. U Kundinnya of Tbaton. A.D. 1924-5. (1) Lodi Sayadaw, A.M.P. A.D. 1917. (2) Rev. U Pyinnyatbiba of SaJin. 190. Hanthawaddy Pross, Ran goon, 1906. Vol. I (1-706). Ratana Tbeikdi Pit&kat Pross, MandaJay, 1927. Vol. II (1-741). 1925. Birth Stories of Gautam& Nyaunggan Sayadaw. Buddha (Ilfinor Jit&kae 19 C. 18Nos. 1 to 537). Vol. III (1-694). 1927. Vol. IV (l-680). 1928. Vol. V (1-649). Government Printing, Burma, Medical-Prose. Rangoon, 1922. (1-54.) Lieut.-Col. R. H. Castor, I.M.S. A.D. 1919. Myanma Thukb&kiyi Press. Religiou, discourse,, pole-(I) "U Nat Tb&" (probably 1st part (1-200); 2ndpart mioa and anecdote,20 C.); (2) Shwogyin Saya(1-107). Proeo. daw. A.D. 1911. Pyigyi Mand&ing Pit&kat Presa, Rangoon, 1933. (1-81.) British Burma Press, Ran goon, 1881. (1-176.) Kawi Myetbman Presa, Ran goon, 1929. (101-110.) Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat Presa, Rangoon, 1925. (1-68.) Pyigyi Mandaing Pit&kat Presa, Rangoon, 1931. (139.) Pyigyi Mandaing Pit&kat Presa, Rangoon, 1930. (1-19.) Ha.ntbawaddy Pit&kat Press, Rangoon, 1927. (1-28.) Lawkapiila Pit&kat Presa, Rangoon, 1923. (1--34.) Cbanea Pross, Mand&lay, 1911. (1-602.) Vol. II. Hantbawaddy Pross, Ran goon, 1899. (1-47.) Thudhamma.wadi Press, Rangoon, 1907. (1-558.) Pyigyi Mand&ing Pit&kat Pross, Rangoon, 1928. (1-28.) PoetlcaJ epistles. Drama,-Ma.in.ly verse. Aehin Okkantbamiili (prob ably early 19 C.). Sadainghmut Say& Ku. 19 C. -4th quarter. Nature and country life-Shin Oktamagyaw. 15 C. Poetry. Birth Story No. 527-Poetry. Advice on conduct and etiquette-Poetry. Miscella.neous songs. Birth Story No. 193-Poetry. Poetical epistles in her own name and for others. Answers to questions on religion, cosmology, etc.Proee. Dynaetlc history-Poetry. Religion, cosmology, etc.Prose. Drama,-Poetry. Mahiiminbla-mingaung (U Shun) Simi-kbon Ywasa and Pagan Wun. A.D. 1848. Seinda-kyaw-tbu (U Aw) aliaa Shwodaungrilz&kyaw. A.D. 1760. U Kyin U. 19 C. SaJe Saya U Ponnya. Born A..D. 1812. Executed A.D. 1867. Myook-kadaw Ma. Mi. Born A.D. 1866. Died A.D. 1889. Lon-ta.w Saya.daw. A.D. 1877. Ilfinyerizi alias PaJeik Ywaea U Hpyaw. 18/19 C. Rev. U Tilawka of Tbitoha t&ung, Thaton. A.D. 1905. U Kyin U. 19 C.

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xxii Abbrei>iated tille. (1) Parami P. Para.mi P.Com. Par.P.Th. Pathi Pon Patimauk Pato.Th. Paya Anek.K. Paya.N.W. PayaShiko. P.E.D .. Pit.Th.S.D. Pohtin,Py.Z. Pol.Econ. Por.Abid. Por.D.K. Por.Kat.K. P.P. P.P.K. P.P.Yag. Prov.Phr. Pub.Win.K. Pyatih.P. Full title. (2) o 1'\SGroSQc:oaG 11 01'\SGroSQt:li!:i:,~ II o1cB""'.)"3""""'""G"11S:11 odl=S@:x~E:11 ~'l"""Gtm<>'.>ro6o1!j~ 00:,0011 01'POOtOIJl[ II LIST OF BOOKS CITED Particulars of publication. Figs. in ( ) -No, of pages. (3) Hanthawaddy Preas, Ran goon, 1914. (1-120.) Hanthawaddy Preas, Ran goon, 1932. (1-255.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1922. (1-119.) British Burma Preas, Ran goon, 1899. (1-310.) Za.bu Meitswe Pitaka.t Press, 1932. (1-206.) Zabu-t&zaung Press, Manda.lay, 1902. (1-16.) Subject or natu,,e of work. (4) Epic poem in praise of the virtues of Buddha baaed on the story of Sumedhi as contained in Nidinakathii. Commentary on pa.rt of Pi-ramiga.n Pyo-Prose. Epic poem in praise of the virtues of Buddha based on the story of Sumedha. as contained in Nidina.kathi. Burmese translation of Arabian Night., Tales Prose. Questions and Answers on Vina.ya-Prose. History of pagoda. at Amara piir&-Poetry. A'Uthor' a naW! and date of work "' jlon,,it. (5) Sbin Thilawuntha. A.D. 1491. Maung Ba On. A.D. 1921. S. A. Rahman. 4th quarter of 19 C. Rev. U Zawtipila. A,D, 1932. Kawi Myethma.n Press, Ra.nConsecration of a pagoda: Rev. U Tilawka of Thitcha-goon, 1926. (1-28.) Pa.Ii-Burmese-Prose. taung, Thaton. A.D. 1901. Sun Preas, Rangoon, 1914. (1-192.) Ka.wi Myethma.n Press, Rangoon, 1929. (1-103.) Moral instruction based on Shin Thilawuntha. A.D. 1511. stories in Dhamma.pada. a.nd An.gutta.re. Commentaries, etc.-Prose. Adoration of Buddha. PiliManie Sayadaw, A.M.P. Born Burmese-Prose. A.D. 1841. Died A.D. 1919. The Pa.Ji Text Society's The Pali Text Society, Dictionary. Ed. T. W. Rhys Davids, F.B.A., D.Sc., Ph.D., LL.D., D.Litt., and W. Stede, Ph.D. Pali-English Dictionary. Chipstead, Surrey. 1921. Gonfo~:roE '~" ~~QE e e'.>o5n oaGt'.>o5~6cG:r.>'.>OG~o "11S:n GO 1'Pm~co mro'.>oadl Q'.).11 GO 1'Pm!l<,,CT.jjQOI ( O) oo 1'Pa8m-m=o:iS: ,~QijOt:r.>o50".l II The Path of Purity. '/Slodl11smo::iS:11 oa,o1~'lmt11 English Proverbs and Pro verbial Phrases with Burmese Equivalent.,. See under Athanna.K. a'.)a=,,.~ Thudha.mma.wa.di Press, RanAn account of literary works goon, 1915. (1-246.) mBurmaand their authors -Prose. Burma Herald Steam Press, Drama-Mainly verse. Rangoon, 1880. (3-108.) Aki Press, Kemmendine, Economics-Prose. 1933. (1-548.) Maingkhaing Atwmwun Pitakattawok Mingyi Maha thirizeyyathii, A,D, 1888. UKyeU. 19C.-4thquarter. U Hla Pe, ex-Director of Publicity, Burma. A..D. 1933. Pitakat Preas, Rangoon, Dictionary of poetical BurSaya Hpye. A.D. 1892. 1892. (15-239.) mese words. Myanma Pita.kat Press, RanLiterary miscella.ny-Poetry Sa.ya Thein Gyi of Hmawbi. goon, 1930. Vol. I. (1-546), and prose. A.D. 1896. Za.bu Meitswe Pitaka.f; Press, Moral anecdotes-Ma.inly Kyi-the-le-dat Sayadaw of Shwedaung. A.D. 1880. Rangoon. (1-157.) prose. Oxford University Press, 1923. Vol. I (1-95). 1929. Vol. II (96-504). 1931. Vol. III (505-882), Hanthawaddy Preas, Ran goon, 1893. (1-310.) Aungzeyyatu Preas, Ran goon, 1928. (1-50.) Hanthawaddy Preas, Ran goon, 1899. (1-50.) Hanthawaddy Preas, Ran goon, 1929. (1-72.) English translation of ViBuddhi-magga-Prose. U Pe Maung Tin M.A., B.Litt. Miecella.neous information-Lon-taw Sa.yadaw. Probably Prose. 19 C. Birth Story No. 536-Poetry. Nakhaodawgyi U Shwe Ni. 19C. Proverbs. U Po Saung. 19 C. Display of miraculous powers. Shin Tezawthiya. A.D. 1536. Story based on introduc tion to Birth Story No. 483, cl. Mila Link. W. Chapters 80-2--Poetry.

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Abbrei-iatl title. (I) Pyaz . Pye Th. Pyinsawu.P. PyiDth.P.K. Pyo Khet Sit. Raz.Ayeb. Razad. Th.K. Rup.D.K. Rup.Kal.Py.Z. Rup.W. s .. Sabebin W. SadawK. Sagab Sagab.B. Sagad.W. SamaK. Sanda Kum.J.W. SanKein.P. S&nN. San ThuHma. Sa11I1g Ba Saw PePy.Z. Full, title. (2) 9<>-oc:O'IP' B~~Gi)QCIGOOS<>?'l" :,,~E:,, u~oqglij11 [c:l6:,,ii~&,-08:,,i;px1S:11,~ m-orom,~GO'OGwcllBc,-oc:611 Bengalee Job-Printing Prees, Drama--Mainly verse. Rangoon, 1880. Vol. I (3-81). U Su Th&. 19 C.--4th quarter,

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xxiv Abbreoiatl title. (I) Saw.W . Sawyer Sayawun. S.D.Kh.P. Se Abhid.K. Sed.Pak.K. Sebnit.Ya. SeikbnyoK. Sel.Anthol. Se.Kk. SbinKyin. Shin Thi.Amo. Shweb.Nid. Shwedg.Th. Shwedi E.Th .. Shwegyin T.S. Shwebin.P. Shwemaw.Th. Shwemaw.Th.A. Shwe Min Mawg. Shwenand ShwcnanHma Shwep.W. LIST OF BOOKS CITED Particulars of publication. Full tiUe. (2) Fig. in ( ) No. of pagea. (3) Subject or nature of work. (4) A utlwr' a name and date of work or .fl,:m,it. (5) Gll~GDO'l G~<>fa1p~EcJlog,[U Mandalay Times Press, ManNovel-P1ose and poetry. dalay, 1906. (1-146.) Saya E. A.D. 1906. A Classified List of the Government Printing Press, Botany: Glossary. A. M. Sawyer and Daw Nyun. Plants of Burma. Rangoon, 1927. (1-47.) A,D. 1926. Goo:cra:f.lGlt"lS"' Glld3uoocm:nf01S,11 ~;~'P::B~cra'i{,~,11 SoS.G loS~oS01Soi Bt~~t'il~Go1E:01S, ~0)')11 GOOIO:lS""'~..j(,11 'il~~ooS:n~~, 'ilE::Broii:nIE'lg"~'lD>G<>o ooi;;@u The Burma Book Club, Ltd., Rangoon, 1928. (1-50.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1922. (1-108.) Minga!a Times Press, Ran goon, 1920. (1-124,) Irrawaddy Press, Ra.noon, 1906. (1-432.) Adaptation of Moliere's Le Mkdeein Malgr8 LuiProse. Prayer of Sumedb& based on story cont&ined in Nida.na.ksthi-Poetry. Medico.I (Burmese Pharmacopcei&)-Prose. History of various pagodas and shrines-Prose. Maung Ba Thaung. A.D. 1928. Shin Thilawuntha. A.D. 1483. Nemyo-thiirein-yan-awig U Tun Aung. A.D. 1905. Haothawaddy P1ess, RanPoems on months and seseons. Compiled by Saya Thein Gyi goon, 1907. (1-66.) of Hmawbi. A.D. 1907. Shwepyinyun Prese, Ran goon. (1-67,) Dagon Press, Rangoon, 1925. (1-157.) Kawi Myethmao Press, Ran goon, 1911. (1-252.) The art of winning affection U Seinda. 20 C. -Prose. Selections from Anthology of U Chit Saya. A.D. 1924. Burmese Literature with notes-Verse and prose. Medice.! treatises-Prose. Aletawya Sayadaw, A.D. 1872. Kawi Myethman Press, RanRules of conduct for monks Mahi-withOkdiyon Sayadaw. goon, 1928. (1-85.) based on Vinaya--Proee. A.D, 1909. Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-Biography-witticismsgoon, 1924. (1-39.) Prose and verse. Hanthawaddy Pitakat Prese, Mandalay, 1920. (1-84.) Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press, Rangoon, 1923. (1-147.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1900. (3-27.) Explanation of technical terms relating to the roye.1 po.lace, army, navy, etc,Prose. History of Shwedagon pa goda-Prose. Shin Thilawuntha and Shin Mahi.rathathira. 15/16 C. Zeyyathinkhayii.. A.D. 1783, Shwe-hlan-taung Sayadaw Ariyii.wuntha Adisaayanthl. A.D. 1893. Gl'l'.IIEOO'[)GmSo,'Pffi' Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-GCOCT.!: ,J[OH Hanthawaddy Press, RanShort account of Shwe-mawKamma-tan-kyaung Sayadaw goon, 1917. (l-78.) daw pagoda at Pegu-(probably 20 C.). Gi)<>E,a,troEoo:,Sw., o.lt'" Gi)ttroS~,,...e:J~E,;~ GOlJ3m~c>~~c,,So, G~Eo"ilallGi!t~'~'!'O"'s,,, Gi)B8~':ll11 Prose. HanthawaddyPitakatPress, In praise of Roye.I elephant Atwinwun U Nyo. 18 C. Mandalay, 1920. (25-36.) -Poetry. Ratana Theikdi Pitakat Guide to Mandalay Po.lace Prince Yin Kb~ Teik Tin. Press, Mandalay, 1926. and an account of famous 20 C. (1-66.) pagodll&---Proee. Sun Prese, Rangoon, 1913. Imaginary love lettersMaung San Thu. 19 C. (1-176.) Poetry. Kawi Myethman Press, Ran-Fiction-Prose. goon, 1929. (1-310.) U Lat. A,D, 1914.

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Abbreviated litle. (I) Shwep.W.W .. Shwe &.Mawg. Shwee.Th. S.I.P. S.KyawY. Sonma.P. S.Th.D.K. Star Sun. Sund.S . Surya Sid. s.w. Swed.Y.Com . Swes.K.D. Tabin.W. Tad.Mawg. Tad.T.Mawg T&nawW. TaungM.Y. LIST OF BOOKS CITED XXV Full title. (2) Particular, of publicali07'. Figs. in ( ) = No. of pages, (3) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1911. (1-119.) --111: 6 SG Hanthawaddv Pitakat Press, GI0v<'-'" OOl ".2f'" Mandalay,"1920. (1-13.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1922. (1--63.) Selectiona from the Jn. British Burma. Press, R&nscriptiona of Pagan. goon, 1928. (1-165.) Subject or nature of work. (4) Burmese transla.tion of pa.rt of Maha Parinibbana Butta and the commentary, and also translations of pa.rt of Dhammapada comment ary regarding the deaths of Sii.riputta and Mogga.llina.-Prose. In praise of Royal elephant -Poetry. History of Ba<1red footpriots a.t Shwezetta.w, Minbu District-Prose. 12th-14th century inscriptions. Author' & name an.cl date. of work or ftoruit. (5) Shin Htwe Nyo. 16 C. Shwe-hlao-taung Sayadaw Ariyii.wuntha Adisaayanthi. A.D.1894, Messrs. Pe Maung Tin and G. H. Luce. A.D. 1928. Seinda-kyaw-thu (U Aw) alias Shwedaungrii.zakyaw.18 C. "'r-"~"" 16,,J[~'" oop:ip;"0603j0d:i;i?'!l5: 6m5~=m5:n Snrya Siddhanta (1-286.) Gunawadi Press, Mandalay, Religious discourses regardLedi Sayadaw, A.M.P. A,D. 1921. (1--45.) ing the Four Sublime 1903. Truth&---Prose. Star of Burma Press, MandaNewspaper. lay. Sun Press, Rangoon. Auogzeyyatu Press, Ran goon. (1-31.) Calcutta. University Press, Caloutta, 1935. (1--409.) Pyinsayiipan Press, Prome, 1934. (1-372.) Newspaper. Poem embodying an imaginary request by nats to King Mindon to propagate Buddhism and another poem on history of Sun dawgyi offering. Astronomy-English translation of Sanskrit work with notes. Ghost stories-Prose. Sale Saya U Ponnya. Born A.D. 1812. Executed A..D. 1867. Rev. E. Burgess. A,D, 1860. U Kha of Prome. A.D. 1934. ~oS~603PC'l"?"~co-:,:11 Hanthawaddy Press, Ran-GCm00lfl( 11 ( 0) ;9 (q) Hanthawaddy Pits.kat Press, Mandalay, 1914. Vol. I (1--415); Vol. II (1--467). Dagon Press, Rangoon. Vo! I (1-212); Vol. II (1-224); Vol. III (1-243); Vol. IV (1-336.) Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press, Mandalay, 1924. (1-29.) Hanthawaddy Press, R&n goon. (2-11.) Mingala Times Press, Ran goon. Vol. I (1-140); Vol. II (1-196.) General information mainly on religious and historical subjects-Prose (Questions and answers). Historical Novel-Prose. Questions by Nandadhaza o!ia&KyiganShingyi (UNu) and answers by Kyithe Ledat &yadaw U Mu neindiibidhaza. A.D. 1865. Ledi Pandit U Maung Gyi. 200. In praise of }Iingalaceti Shln Mahira~athira. A.D. pagodaatTada-u-Poetry. 1480. History of Tada-u-Poetry. Shin Thi!awuntha. A.D. 1483. Fiction-Prose. Sa.ya Thin aliaa Maung Ba Thin. A.D. 1906. Hanthawaddy Pitakat Press, Miscellaneous poems. King Ma.hidhamma.rizi aZiaa Natshin-na.ung of Toungoo. 16/17 c. Rangoon, 1920. (1--67.)

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xxvi Abbreviated title. (I) T&ung.M.Y.Com. Tav.Yaz. Taz.D.K. Tdg.LeP. Tdgyi Yaz. Ted&tB. Teind.P. Temi.J.W. TeriPyan TetK .. TetP.W. Tik.Kyaw N.K. T.Kh.W. Thadina P. Thad.MaJ.N. Tha.mi L.W. Tham.L.P.W. Tham.Sek.D.K. Thamud.K. Thand.Let.K. Than!.Yaz. Than.W. Thanwaya.P .. Thanweg.P. F,ill title. (2) LIST OF BOOKS CITED Particular& of publication. Fig,. in ( ) -No. of page,, Subject or noture of work. (3) (4) Author'& name and date of work or jloruit. (5) Gcm691wc:alj'l0,~6~ ( "2o5 HanthaW&ddy Press, R&n-i1".lo5Gon5-.,) saGn goon, 1899. (1-48.) Commentary in prose on a. 3. sta.nza poem of King Ma,h. idhamma.ri.zii. (Na.tshinn&ung). Thandawzin U To. A.D. 1789. cx,~:oo5opo,o5GOJ~~:n (o) Tr&ding Press, Tavoy, 1922. History of Tavoy-Prose. Mayanhin Sayadaw. A.D. Vol. I (1-330). St&r of Burm& Press, Manda lay. 1906. (1-161.) Stories of ghosts and other spirits-Prose. 1759; and Bongyaw Saya daw. A.D. 1764. Mingyi Mahazeyya-thinkh&ya Hlethin Atwin-wun. 19 C. =~5o;i5:ro~ll!'i>9GOY.l5 HanthaW&ddy Press, R&nPoem describing Shin Thilawuntha's journey from Taung-dwingyi to Ava and commentary thereon in prose. Shin Thilawunth&. 15 C. o;i5:ro~ ll!oaGn goon, 1899. (1-55.) Commentary by Hsalin Sayadaw, A.D. 1735. Gcm5o;i5,~:opo,ofo,bn GOJ:OJOGO 1E:'li160:,, d31l)[OOll!n GOJSw~o5aro~@:ollcll" aoo$,==Bt" roo5cr.i6:n roo5o;,t:@ ~m~acr.i~~"'11CY.ll6:11 roro~508cl[" :i:,~!3tli(n "'B;d3oow~co~~ :J:ill ~:ctl!P'OY.lGlG'IJ'ffi[II :i:,~wam~aco:o 1:ollcll" Burma Union Press, Ran goon, 1936. (1-274.) Sun Press, Rangoon, 1923. (1-206.) History of Taung-dwingyi Prose. Book of short poems. Rev. U Nyiin&. A.D. 1936. Various authors. Compiled by Sun Press. 20 C. Hanthawaddy Press, RanBirth Story No. 520 (G&l,l~&-Minhla-theinkh&thii. A.D. goon, 1895. (1-58.) tindu.Jii.tak&)-Poetry. 1856. Hanth&waddy Press, RanBirth Story No. 538 (MiigaRev. U Awbiitha. A.D. 1786. goon, 1906. (1-226.) Pakkha.Jii.tak&)-Prose. Dagon Press, Rangoon, Burmese translation of TheriLedi Pandit& U Maung Gyi. 1926. (1-202.) gii.thii.-Prose. A.D. 1926. Kawi Myethman Press, RanLogic-Prose. goon, 1910. (1-414.) New Light of Burm& Press, Fiction-Prose. Rangoon, 1937. (1-230.) U Shwe Zan Aung, K.S.M., A.T.M., B.A. A.D. 1908. Maung Thein Pe. A.D. 1937. Mohamedan Press, Mandalay, Word-for-word translation of Ariyalinkira Neyin Sa.ya.da.w. 1907. (1-731.) Abhidhamm&ttha-vibhii.A.D. 1723. viDi-tika. with commentary -Prose. Myanma Kyetthaye Thadinza Fiction-Prose. Press, Rangoon, 1920. (1-107.) "Manda.lay Ne Le." 20 C. H&nthaw&ddy Press, RanBirth Story No. 494-Poetry. Thare-thinkbarii.. A.D. 1683. goon, 1900. (1-56.) Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat Press, Rangoon, 1923. (1-572.) Thahii.yaPress, Rangoon. (1-200.) Hantha.wa.ddy Press, Ran goon, 1916. (1-118.) Burmese translation of Seddaniti, a Pali GrammarProse. Fiction-Prose. Biography of four renowned novices, being translations from Dhammapada. commentary-Prose. Sayadaw U Bok. A.D. 1832. "Met-ma-pye.11 200. Nyinibiwuntha Dhamma thenipati Saya.daw. A.D. 1807. :i:,w~co;i1~0,"116:11 (o) HanthawaddyPitak&tPress, 5 ( ) Manda.lay, 1925. Vol. I Miscellany, chiefly scriptural subjects. (Questions and &nswers)-Prose. Monywe Zet&wun Sayadaw Ariyii.wunth& Adiss&y&nthi. A.D.1811. ,. q (1-432); Vol. II (1-391). =~mcr.i6:n o$ 8~ :i:,~ tcoo5 ~'CY.ll 6:;~ "'~tcoo5~:at~o5~o5c:lln o;"115'P.,,o50'.ll6,11 :i:,t::i:,t:offi[ II ( q) (OJ) 'i>9 (co,) o$o'l~" o$ooo~tll!n HanthaW&ddy Press, Ran goon, 1908. (1-33.) Ratanii.dipan Pitak&t Press, Manda.lay, 1928. (1-47.) Physiognomy-Poetry. Astronomy-Prose. Bhaddant& Thilawunth&. A.D. 1925. Truth Press, Rangoon, 1925. History of Syriam-Prose. Anonymous. A.D. 1843. (1-52.) Knowledge Press, Rangoon, 1920. Vol. II (1-200); Vol. III (1-199); Vol. IV (1-184). Hanthawaddy Pitak&t Press, Manda.lay, 1923. (1-60.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1912. (1-37.) Fiction-Prose. Maung Kin Maung of Man da.lay. A.D. 1920-1921. Birth Story No. 462-Poetry. Shin Mahii.r&\;h&thii.ra.. A.D, 1529. Realization of misery of life Shin Thilawuntha. A.D. 1491. -from story of Buddha's life-Poetry.

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Abbreviated litle. (1) Tha.rapuK. Thathana Sb. Thath.Bahu. Thath.Link. FuU lille, (2) See under 8und.8. LIST OF BOOKS CITED Particulars of publication. Figs. in ( ) = No. of pages. (3) s .. bjecl or nature of work. (4) xxvii Author's name and date of work or floruit. (5) Irra.waddy Press, Manda.lay, Magic or acquisition of superRev. U Okta.ma.thiri (probably 1914. Vol. II (1-248); natural powers-Prose, 19 C.). 1908. Vol. III (1-261). 0.:,-00.:,;;~u,o.:,;ioogro-oo.:,; 11 Deedok Newspaper Press, Rangoon, 1928. (!-337.) History of Buddhism, it.a Payabyu Sayadaw. A.D. 1926. arrival in Burma and its Hantha.wa.ddy Press, Ran goon, 1928. (1-250.) propagation by Kings, etc., up to 1926-Prose. History of Buddhism, from l\fahii.dhamma.-thin-kyan. A.D. the earliest times in India. 1831. toitsstateinBurma.inl831 -Prose. Thath.Tham.D.K. o.:,-oo.:,;;o.:,8~Bo;01S:11 Gunawadi Press, Manda.lay, Translation of a Piili religious Ledi Pandit& U Maung Gyi. 1926. (1--394.) work by Ledi Sayadaw-A..D. 1914. Prose. Thath.Wi.K. 0.:,-00.:,;;8<>0.:,-og;"lS,11 Knowledge Press, Rangoon, Religious discourses-Prose. Ledi Sa.yadaw, A.M.P. A.D. 1919. Vol. I (1-276). 1919. (o) 'i9 (q) Pyigyi Mandaing Pitakat Press, Rangoon, 1924. Vol. II (1-233). That.Pad.Pok.K. (o) o.:,o,08ma T~=-ocf.icw-oE ~(j\'OOOffi[II @~e:io.:,cf.ic'Pcf.icm-011 OJcf.iGo-09wg<>E:11 o.:,,}, (>'):,) 'P"cd.i "l'P@ o\om-o:~11(0), (q), (o,) 'i9 (oo,) o.:,aE@,e'llE,11 Shwe-hton Nagara Press, History of Shwesiiyan pagoda Thaton, 1925. (1-53.) at Thaton-Prose. Thuwunnawadi Pitakat History of Thaton-Prose. Press, Thaton, 1927. (1-125.) Sun Press, Rangoon, 1926. Fiction-Prose. (1-186.) Kawi Myethman Press, RanAstrology-Poetry. goon, 1929. (111-131.) E. M. de Souza and Co., RanMedical. goon. Rev. U Pyinnya. A..D. 1926. "Shwe-u-da.ung." 20 C. Sale Saya U Ponnya.. Born A.D. 1812; executed A.D. 1867. Zeyyapiirein Press, PoozunSermons and illustrative a.nee-Thinga.za. Sa.yada.w. Born daung. 1911. Vol. I (!-dotes-Prose, A.D. 1815; died A.D. 1886. 319). 1915. Vol.II (!-200). Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1900. (1-28.) Old Historical B&!lad on Pethunges& Shin Myat grand-daughter of BayinKhaung. 16 C. na.ung. o:io5wm-oo 1oogoooo-o~~" Zabu Meil.awe Pitakat Press, (o) Rangoon, 1918. Vol. I (1-445). Burmese word for word translation of commen tary on pa.rt of Digha Nikiya.-Prose. Rev. U Pyinnyazawta. Bhad danta alias B&kaya Saya daw II. 190. o:io5d!ro~o 1<>cd.i~~" o:io5d!ro~~ro-oo.:,l>o 1 (o) 'i9 (q) o.:,aE<>og:e'lJE:11 "IQ ijO-O~wE,c:QijOJo5eo5 c:q:11 w-o-o8~\\"0"laic1: oo-oE~""'IO'.lS"' Za.bu Meitswe Pita.kat Press, Rangoon, 1911. (1--378.) Thudha.mmawadi Press, Ra.ngoon, 1915. Vol. I (1-479). Vol. II (1-406). Ha.nthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1900. (1-18.) Hanthawaddy Press, &n goon, 1924. (1-43.) Burmese word-for-word tra.ns-Rev. U Ariyilinkara. alias lation of pa.rt of Digha Neyin Sayadaw. 18 C. Nikiya.-Prose. Religious-Piili. Ma.ungda.ung Sayadaw (probably 18 C.). Old Historical Ballad on Shin Thuye. 15/16 C. grand-daughter of Mahithihathiira.. Law-Prose. Myamnipyi Siponhneik Medical-Prose. Edited by Say& Tun. 20 C. Alokthamya Athin Press, Rangoon. (1-146.)

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xxviii Abbreviated title. (1) Thur.Theid.K. Thut.Pak. Thuta.P. Thuw.J.W. Thuw.Mya.P. Thuw.Thissa.P. Thuw.Thut.P. Thwe.S.K. T.N. T.N.Id.Sp. U.B.G .. Udein.P. UPawU. U.P.D.K. Up.Kam.N. Up.Muh.K. UPon.M. U Pon.M.Com. U Pon. Taya .. F11l! title. (2) "'/O'ill0:,'0W<>'0006CJY.i~: 08:l[" "'IO'ill~[i}:,:oiiaafi:\ll 11 "'/Og/~:i:,r,aafi:~ II "'/O\V?aj~Gg:aafi:\ll 11 t-O~ 8 ~ 006o.J'" 6':;9 Gro~:(oo) ..\irooaan-01,rq~: w-oE:clioaia-of:oam-oo 1o'l<~'l[".l01}Qdl6 GmGWS"~"' eow-o:i:,~oo!l.il!l""16,11 (o), (q), (oo) ;9 (OO?) ~:q23GWffi'00>'0036@ II ~:q23oo'0 11 Ha.nthawaddy Press. RanBook of idioms. goon, 1904. (1-456.) Government Printing, Burma, Rangoon, 1900. Part I, Vol. I (1-727), Vol. II (1-660). 1901. Part II, Vol. I (1--549), Vol. II (1-802), Vol. III (1-437). U Tun Nyein. A.D. 1904. (Sir) J. G. Scott, C.I.E., M.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., Bar. at-Law, and J. P. Hardi man, I.C.S. 19-20 C. Hanth&waddy Printing Story of King Udena. from Monywe Zeta.won Sayadaw Dha.mmapada commenAriyiwuntha .Adissayanthi. Works, Rangoon, 1927. (1-226.) tary-Poetry. A.D. 1793. Ra.ta.ni.thi:ri Pitaka.t BookWit and Humour-Prose. shop, Rangoon. (1-342.) National Press, Rangoon, 1926. (1-187.) Gunawadi Press, Mandalay, 1920. (1-91.) Wizaya Presa, Rangoon. Vol. I (17--300). Myanmii.pyi, Siiponhncik Alokthamya Athin Press, Rangoon. Vol. II (19--371.) Hanthawaddy Presa, Ran goon, 1899. (1-108.) :Myanma Union Press, Ran goon, 1932. (1-188.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1924. (1-130.) Religious discourses-Prose. Religious miscellany conta.in. ing advice to monks on ordination, questions and answers at kathina ceremony, advice to laity (Upasakoviida), etc.Prose and verse. Wit and Humour-Prose. Poetical epistles. Poetical epistles with com mentary in prose. Religious discourses and anecdotes-mainly poetry. U Aung. 20C. Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. A.D. 1900. Various authors including Ka.nniSa.ya.daw and.Bakaya Saya.daw, the la.tter's work being revised by the 1st Sagu Sayadaw. 19 C. Thingaza, Khinmagan, Salin, Moungdaung, Bha.mo, Paya gyi and Thitaein Sayadaws. 19C. Sale Saya U Ponnya. Bom A.D. 1812 ; executed A.D. 1867. U Po Sein, A.T.M. A.D. 1932. Sa.le Saya. U Ponnya.. Bom A.D. 1812; executed A.D. 1867.

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Abbreviated tiele. {I) U Pon.Tay Com. Up.Th.W.K .. Utub.K. UWun.M. Vidh.J.W. w. Wara.th.Mawg. Wa.ziya. W.D.S.N. W.D.T.L.K. Wekya A.A.K. WethJ.W. Weth.P . Wid.P . Wiia:Mawg. WimaW. Winkan.W. Win.Th . Win.Th.K. Wisit.Link.Sagab. Wisit.Por.Sagab. Wisit.Sagab . Full title. (2) @:~2:3092100 'lc:~10oaG@11 ;@~a038218srG--lf'" dj:01 qGB?"'300-"~'~"1J::OC11 8i;-:,o'l'llo5roS=--e--<>o'.lC ~II (" )a 1"1:i,r->"":i'""GSO'.IIS: (J) a 10'.ll"W~ 1H"'ll (;>) ::ogGo,~o \,9 (9) a1"1=oooo1::o~S., Go:m.l&p<>'OOOG.11 8;;00:,jSorocfi~ II 8;;00:,jSo~:11 8S-:,rocbo'loo,-:,:q,ii: ~O'JII 8Sffi61cao 1
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XXX Abbreviated tiae. (1) Wisit.Th.D.K. Wis.Py.Z, With.At. With. At.N .. With.Haw. W.L.D.K. W.M.D.K. W.M.Th.K. W.O.B .. Woh.Pak.K. Wunzin W. Yak.Kywe Bed.K. Yak.M.E. Yak.N.Mawg. YamaW. Ya.ma Yag. Yat&na.N.Mawg. Yath.Khan.P. Yat.Kyem.Z . Yat.Sin Mawg. Full title. (2) 8:>J?Q 1soo?QcS, 11 GO 100?'1c8tffi80,"1Jb:11 8i;?Qg8o;cr:ns,,~o;im8 o;cr:ns,11 8~QOJ:8~-'1--J,CY:tS"' (o) (~) o~eE,Qfo'P=IBt" '11tEso;i;o?G~DE"1J6"' 'l~EQE,::@,~'11&," 'l~E~Es..So;i~,11 'PQOffil" 'PQ'I"'~" ( 0) ( ~) 9Glfl"'GQSo;it,~'1~?+8 s..So;i~,11 OJG:>JSQ'!'OJOO'.l7Qb:11 '100t?Ge3~t~",lE,~c GOOS~ 'Offi[" 'loo+?s-oEg~a:iEsooSs..S o;l~'" LIST OF BOOKS CITED Particulars of publication. Figs, in ( ) -No. of pages. Subject or nature of work. Author'& name and date of work or jloruit. (3) (4) (5) Ratana Theikdi Pit&kat Press, Mandalay, 1927. Vol. I (9-288). R&t&niidipan Pit&kat Press, Man dalay, 1924. Vol. II (1-187.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1902. (1-59.) Myanmi Pita.kat Press, Ran goon, 1932. Vol. I (1-384). 1935. Vol. II (1-470). 1935. Vol. III (1-613). Za.bu Meit.,we Pitakat Press, Rangoon, 1914. Vol. I (1-485) ;Vol. II (1-497); Vol. III (1-528). Thudhammii wadi Press, Rangoon, 1929. Vol. IV (I-634); Vol. V (1-535.) M.B.T. Press, Mandalay. (1-107.) Sta.r of Burma Press, Mandalay, 1899. (1-357.) Religious discourses-Prose. Rev. U Sireitt&. A.D. 1906 and 1914. Historical Drama-Poetry. Sale Sa.ya. U Ponnya, Bom Burmese translation of Buddha.ghosa.'s commen tary on Visuddhi Magga Prose. A.D. 1812; executed A.D. 1867. Payathonzu-t&ung Sayada.w U Nandamalii. A.D. 1935. Burmese word-for-word tra.nsPye Sayadaw. la.tion of Buddhaghosa's A.D.1854. commentary on Visuddhi Magga-Prose. Drama based on life of Withikhi, one of Buddha's female disciples -Prose. Etymology-Prose. Mingyi Mahiizeyyathinkhayii ffiethio. Atwinwun. A..D. 1830. Gunawadi Press, Mandalay, Religious treatises-Prose. 1925. (1-132.) Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P. A.D. 1894. Ratanidipa.n Pitaka.t Press, Alchemy-Prose and verse. Various authors. Mandalay, 1926. (1-226.) Burma Education Extension Monthly Magazine. Association. Toe Press, Ra.ngoon. Vol. I Burmese spelling-Prose. (1-260), Vol. II (261-508). U Po Sein, A.T.M. A.D. 1936. Wunthi.nu Press, Rangoon, Biography-Prose. 1924. (1-200.) Sa.ya U Maung Maung, Prome. A.D. !9ll. Zabu Minga.la. Thadinza Fortune-telling-Prose. Press, Bassein, 1911. (1-132.) Ranmi.piira Press, Moulmein, 1912. (1-13.) Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1929. (1-26.) The Toe Press, Rangoon, 1935. (1-140.) Pyigyi Mand&ing Pitakat Press, Rangoon, 1933. Vol. I (1-197); Vol. II (l-ll8). Hanthawaddy Press, Ran goon, 1895. (I-22.) Old Historical Ballad on Adu-min-nyo. A.D. 1430. daughter of King Basawpyu. Historica.l poem concerning Wetmasut Myosa. {U Nu) the conquest of Arakan. ali
PAGE 32

Abbreviated lillt. (I) Yazatha.n Yaze.w.K. Yaz.Kya.w. Yaz.Te.Kab. Yena.ng.S. Yesag.Kh.Py. Yethe Pyaz. Yod.E .. Za.nek.J.W. Za.nek.P. Zata.K.G. Zawte Kum.Py.Z. Zeya.Y. Zinme P.N.W. Zin.Pak.K. ZiwakaH. ZiwakaK. Zpd.ms. Full title. (2) 'P":,j" See Al. Ayeb. Jl:m.o~:S"l'P''llE,u QOJ~C,fO)C,~oSGoo50: Offi(II Q="t"'~" ~O)O)O 1~<>~cno:is:mo, ~~OO"lir-'B~oS11 (o) Qt:G"""]b,SoS.ll
PAGE 34

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE TEXT A.O. absol. &CC. to a.cl loo. a.clj. a.clv. a.clvt. apptly. a.ugmn. B. B.E. c. Cant. cl. eh. eel. Colloq. corn. combn. compd. e.g. Ed. esp. etym. euph. exc. exclm.. oxpln. fem. folld. follg. freq. fut. i.e. ibid. = Ancient Chinese. = absolute, absolutely. = according to. = ad locum (on the passage), = adjectivaJ/ly. = adverbial/ly. = advertisement. = apparently. = augmentation = Burmese. = Burmese Era.. = Century. = Cantonese. = confer, conferatur (compare). = chapter. =column. = Colloquial, general. A place-n&me following a quota tion indicates that it is a colloquial record from that locality. =common. = combination. = compound. = exempli gratia (for example), = Edited by. = especially. = etymology, etymologically. = euphonic. = except. = exclamation. = explanation. = feminine. = followed. = following. = frequent, frequently. = future. = id est (that is). = ibidem (in the same book). imit. = imitative. imper. = imperative. in!. = infra (below). interrog. = interrogative. intr. = intransitive. Keh. L.B. = Kachin. = Lower Burma. lit. masc. metaph, metrl gr. N.B. n. n.pr. neg. O.B. opp. orig. P. p., pp. pron. prond. perh. pl. prob. prov. = literally. = masculine. = metaphorically, metaphoricaJ. = metri gratia (for metrical reasons). = nota beno (note well). = noun. = nomen proprium (proper noun). = negative. = Old Burmese. = opposed to. = originally. =Piili. = page, psges. = pronoun. = pronounced. = perhaps. = pluraJ. = probably, probable. = proverbially, proverbial, proverb. q.v. = quod vide (which eee). Rem. s.v. eo. shd. Skt. sup. syl., syll. = remarks. = sub voce (under the word ... ). = scilicet (to wit). = should. = Sanskrit. = supra (above). = syllable, syllables. syn., synn. = synonym, synonyms. Tib. trans. transl. U.B. usu. v. vb. Vol. = Tibetan. = transitive. = translated, translation. = Upper Burma. = usually. = vide (see). = verb. = Volume. Signs. I.e., U.cc. l.w. = loco cltato, locis citatis (in the psssge(s) referred to). equal or equivaJent to, the mess. = loan word. [ ] Between these bracket.a stand the etymological remarks. xxxiii

PAGE 36

KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION VOWELS a in open syllables, palm ; elsewhere the same sound shortened. in open syllables, eager ; elsewhere pin. u in open syllables, too ; elsewhere put. e Fr. eleve. e in open syllables. Fr. eleve ; elsewhere well. o law. o Fr. eau. ei eight. OU bolt, au duwn, sound. ai fine. a above. CONSONANTS b, d, g (as in go), h, j, k, 1, m, n, ny (as gn in Fr. digne), p, r, s, t, w, y (as in you), z approximately as in English; but aspiration of k, s, t, and p must be a voided. c an intimate combination of t and y, resembling the initial consonantal sound in tul.ip or the eh of cheese made with tip of tongue touching lower teeth. g when initial as '11{/ in si'fl{/er; when final, a nasalization of the preceding vowel. 6 thin. II then. I shake (no rounding of lips). h following a consonant indicates aspiration of that consonant, as in kh, sh, th, ph, eh. Preceding a consonant, it indicates that that consonant is a breathed consonant ; thus '!1, n, m, l are voiced consonants while h'!), kn, km, kl are breathed consonants-kl being = the ll in Llandudno. is a throat consonant as in the Cockney or the Glasgow pro nunciation of water as wa?er. For convenience this is further dealt with under Tones. Note.-Assimilation of final nasals before certain consonants is not indicated in the phonetic transcription, e.g. 'pavna "asthma ", and 'pa11dair1 "winning-post ", which should be pronounced 'pan na and 'pan dair). TONES. The term tone is here used to describe four pf the five categories of sound found in Burmese, the fifth, the neutral a (as in above) being regarded as non-tonal. The !eve! tone.-A syllable in this tone is low-pitched relatively to adjacent syllables. No fall of pitch is permissible. Lightly stressed in comparison with syllables in other tones belonging to the same combination. Level tones are left unmarked in the phonetic transcription, as saUrJ blanket ". The heavy falli'fl{J tone.-This is high-pitched at the start and falls steeply. Pronounced in a "breathy" voice ending in a fade-out ". Heavily stressed. Marked by preceding the syllable, as 'saUrJ harp ". The IYfeaky tone.-Pronounced with an intermittent voice, falling from a relatively high initial pitch and ending in a weak closure of the glottis. Marked by following the syllable, as saur1' to wait ". The abrupt tone.-Rather higher in pitch than the creaky tone. Terminates in a throat consonant produced by an abrupt closure of the glottis. Accompanied by much greater effort and constriction of the larynx than the creaky tone. Marked by I following the syllable as sau? "to be steep".

PAGE 37

THE BURMESE ALPHABET in the order followed in the Dictionary Vowels: oo, >l ~. e, @, =, ..S. ConsO'flants : m, :;i, o, ro, c o, :;o, e, q, e, e-1; ~. M ::i, o, rn; oo, oo, (), g, ,,; o, <9, "'' :n, 11; m, &j, co, o :xi, OJ' ~-

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY m A 1. symbol of the vowel sounds a' and In old inscriptions the indentations in the first half of the character are not so marked as in the modern form, and the second half resembles a T lying on its side -I ; the complete character often resembles a flattened H. 2. Symbol of the creaky tone. Usually written subscript as Si = Si meiy' or sometimes postscript as Q. to see) = the intelligence derived from years and experience. """ (from o:xi. to begin) may= beginning but also has the meanings of scraps, mani festations. In forming verbal nouns from verb couplets, it is usual to prefix "" to each member, as "3G9.P-'9E experience, sa~saGoo respectful behaviour. But sometimes-apparently when the second member is felt to be a mere expletivethe verbal noun is formed by prefixing "" to the first member only, as o,ofi:oo: consideration, o,~6oo5 oppression, o,:{~~i: reverence. The syntactical uses of verbal nouns in"" are many and varied. They may be subordinated to nouns, which they either precede or follow ; as, o,G~:o,b'j, a coat for warmth, a warm coat ; o,o.'looo5Goo, a witness having personal know ledge, a person attesting a document ; :xio:o,~: the elder of two sons; GQ16,oo16:o,fi a head-dress of white material. In the latter two cases it will be observed that""~' and "'fi take the positions which the verbal forms and bi, would have occupied. 000:@: and GQ 1E:oo 16:b,l would usually mean a grown-up son and a court head-dress. In subordination to verbs, verbal nouns in "' may have the force of adverbs, as ,,,9~~01 send quickly, ""=to:oo,oco1 listen quietly ; or they may indicate the purpose or result of an action, as "'e3i2':lloS:xi. sent someone to look, "'B~oo('.:xi. filled it full. The suffixing of various elements modifies the meaning and use of verbal nouns in"'' as 0,99@: a great height, "'''il0'"?'9E: the horse which is the best goer, o,;:moco: or "'~:000::n quite near, "'o.'l=:;~ in spite of knowing, though you know quite well. A development of this con struction, probably confined to colloq. B., is seen in o,o@o"I: 000::n, I have already told you; here GBo"I: (the verb with its past particle) is apparently taken as the verb and a verbal noun formed from it. 2. First syllable of many nouns not demonstrably formed from verbs, some of which are also found without """ The forms with "' prefixed occur more commonly in Old and Medieval than in modern B. ; as, o,o measure of land, o,c/lE post, o,coo5 hand, which appear in modern B. as odi, c/lE and coo5n But the prefixing of "' to nouns in O.B. was never so common as in some allied languages, e.g. Serna Naga, where nearly every noun, in its complete form, begins with the syllable a---
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2 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 3. Formative prefix in regular reduplications, whether derived from nouns or verbs, and in other augmentations, as ""irir villages in general, .,.006006 repeatedly, .,.:0006: rude, rough behaviour. Not all diayllables can be re duplicated; ""~~Ee (from ~cc':) kingdoms in general, is common and the following are also met with : "":i:>~?'lJ? (from :i:>~? number) very numerous, """'?CD? (from ma1,?) a succession of worlds, ""a'li'?Q? (from a'li'?J various grades of Brahmiis.. Longer words are sometimes, by main force, reduplicated, as o,3Ge,Gro (from .,.3Ge,"'lJ incomprehensible) numerous incomprehensibles, i.e. Buddhas. m C, a. Neg. prefix in P. words. Form before vowels an, as an-aggha ""I'& immeasurable. Pronunciation follows the general usage governing pronunciation of Piili words in Burmese. When a stress accent falls on the "" syllable, it is generally pronounced a', but if it be followed by a kk, or kkh, and sometimes if followed by k the vowel sound changes to t; e.g. """1:llc6 a'ku'tfo demerit, ""lilo a'rupa' incorporeal, """'~!,; t~kanei~tha' not youngest, supreme, ""GIR')Q t'l' lcoda' freedom from anger. When the a, syllable is unstressed, it is pronounced : e.g. ""~ij anei~sa' impermanence, rr.,Goro asel,a' one who is not clothed, naked ascetic. Rem. "" occurs in O.B. as neg. particle with verbs, as ""~'1So5 may he not behold. This is not a borrowing from Piili ; a as neg. particle is found in allied languages, e.g. Atsi and Lashi. "" D a' v. [Keh. maa be speechless, incapable of uttering dis tinct sounds. A.C. 'a, dumb (K. 209); Shan a, dumb]. to be deficient, defective in any respect; to have a defect in speech, be dumb; to be dull, stupid-,ii:n, 11 cljc::i:,, P. ~o dumb.:n.,S~,Y~?O'.l?roo5G~"" "/t0'.l?o'.l11 carry a poor crop. Goll,oq. Sagair,g. G?E,.,.:n, be a poor crop. ibid. ,E, a, :n, dew is deficient. Golloq. L.B. G'lrr.,:n, there is not enough water in the fields. ibid. "3G?:Ycljc:G:nliro,:cljE,'il6"iirf.,"""G:i:>l:iro,: ""G:l:I? o,::gc11 dumb. Tem. J. W. 43. C\1 "" .f.l6go5 Gm?C:Go::ndl,1 like a dumb man having a good dream (which he is unable to communicate) Sagab. 107. o~m'1,1lqj:n,Gro?"18,'P9ijo'jo23rf., q'lro51] <>G=iE01~ 11 "3G:i:>?"jl~<>o5G:i:>?.f.l6.,o50?:.'l . roe, 11 Tham Sek. D. K. ii, 130. ~01iro?8',"il""cllcll1cm?:?:<>y~11.,.o;cljE,.,.1]11 the coin rang short. Thir,g Sag. ii, 93. So, ool,.,.:n,nGa le:= lE.,,.:n, Golloq. .,. :n, i' :n, OOC'lJCooto loo, GO l:no'j.,.?:Go:9'1~dlo5~o5@6:o'j<>~""6'Pn a'na' simple, stupid, without initiative. Mag. :n.cll rr.,:n. ;;:n; C\l~,G~m rr.,Gm?c:o,aJl:O>~t a'l,a/,ou'!) and mc8: !l>O> 11 a' 'ti a'ta' ibid. 367; and o,o,"l" a'1,al,ou'!I SDKh. P. 84. cJl0'.116007 mo,o, fO>O> ~C\'16<>Gt,9 11 a'ta'ta' na'ta'f,a,' like a dullard, simpleton. Kawi M. Mag. Rem. In om?:""<;p:i'll at Ok. Mai. M. 11 U Tin explains cm?"" as = "YG:i:>?Om?:11 falsehood. But perh. .,.~o5 may be a v.n. from ~rf., in sense of ""1]11 If the name Nga Paw ill be translated into Burmese, it is found tc be a Shan name for a person who speaks with a defective utterance. (Saya Pwa, however, in his note appears to take """" as = a'a', a reduplication of the verb; this would give the same meaning but seems less consonant with the style of the passage. Paw ill prob. = Shan ill Po an appellation given tc a person of very ordinary abilities ", Gushir,g, s.v.) Yesag Kh. Py. 41. :n,Gl,omy? """' 'lJ?:ol:nro?:11 Sayawun35. "" E a' n. [ imit. cf. ""1 C] the sound made by a crow. "",i!=?~"lP'"'?'II .f.l6ro~:~<>o5o lo;r,11 Sagad. w. 147 .,.,86 J ~lm?OIQ?ci3 ,,.,:86,,..,.i' o'jooEEol11 oei?ane sleep-night's rest (the sense is mind you look after yourself"). Hmair,g W. i, 72. ;;~:,BSGOO?o5opG~dj .... ;;o 1.,,.,86.,.Gt""?:~:'lloSsE., position -The site for a palace is chosen according tc the position of the Naga. (The directions in which the head, back or tail lie are unsuitable : the belly gives the best location. The N aga seems tc correspond exactly tc the constellation Scorpio of western astronomy and tc include the three asterisms Anuriidhii (/J, 6, and ,r) Jycshthii (G<>g-a, u, and .,-) Mula (,, t '), 0, ,, K, .:I,., v Scorpionis). Anuriidhii. is the neck of the Naga (dragon), Jyiishthii. its navel, and Miilii its tsil. Barnett Ant. Ind 191 and WLDK. 42--4.) Tav. Yaz. 26. O'.l~:G=m"'.Jl~II m,:860,G>O,II 9ei"?90e uninfl.uentia] (lit. dead) positions (of the planets) which would bring one's fortunes below the line. (The line is a horizontal line in the Adhipati pillar-and other astrological figures-below which are compartments indicating misfortune.) Paya

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 3 Shiko 10. :x,e'jooGco: md36S, cllo500-011"to5.Jl"3JEGo-oErooo. 'll"~"il:11 aei?'ca?J be a restless sleeper, toBS in one's sleep. Colloq. .,. ,8 6 ~, =-o"il . . Gco:x,c86,.,.,,~:x,e'j 11 .,,.,, ci be a heavy sleeper. Thwe S.K. 82. md36"'ln ([) E:, e\l6 .,oS@E,~"i II aei?'cu over-indulgence in sleep. Dhanun. K. 15. a:,:f, md36aoo5 :x,e'jC\111 "l""PGB'1!-0:Goo-oo5o,r->:ro-o GO')'OC~=. aei?sh# be a light sleeper. Colloq.: .,..as.11, 00. .. ~ sho has ordinarily the same meaning as ,.,,BliS: oo. 11 but in ,.,,BS.Jl,g"'!ooe'i::!l""oii""'IIQ'looe'i the meaning intended is apparently "be a heavy sleeper". MYMW. 151 read with ,BS~GqpGfOOe'i ibid. 92. GjQ"ilooe'i II md36 91cli "Q'l 11 ei' py& to have less than one's requirement of sleep, to suffer loss of sleep. Hl. Ree. Notes, 23. .,. d3 6 'll t "il'fl ~'OcbG') ( 'le'i) cJloo~:C9Jcb,~GOO'Ocb 11 ei' lu?J over-indulge in sleep, need too many hours sleep. Dwadath. K. 172. .,.,BS aei?J n. [e\l5 house, dwelling-place] dwelling-plaee, covering, sheath, receptacle.""~11 P. "''l II 11 not tasty and pleasant in the ear-cavity, i.e. readers are repelled by the number of obsolete words. Bawd. W.W. Pref. 00-0: mc,ao-,climd36 Gj=:8"' oshaw oei?} scabbard. KBZ. ii, 80. m "f ou' n. tuberous root. 11. me 11 """f6 am,? n. [OJ rr.i~cJloiim II oo-o:GroSoodj...S,oo-ocJl"""i'64oroSwoo. to the supreme command, as army commander. KBZ. i~, 1. S:n """i'6~,,.:B II with the knowledge of parents or guardians. Manu 250. ,,.$,,..; """f6m,n611 owchow arrangements and control. Kawi M. Mag. """f6.,.c,m-,~ ~GoC9Jo5 oow asau!J'guardians,protectors(ofawoman). Manu168. """!6 mc8t1 aou? 'thei?} and ""c8t:"""i'6 guardian, ibid. Sgi<>~011 ea;i<>~O 11 ""'00'.l'0'\<>~6~ .. .oo.omdlt~ (f~~) '\C:O'.lobooo5~GOO'O ~O't'J'""?o56'7lt" ~8ro~6"""i'6""c8t:s=~6,ip.,-oo5"il""'IIE,'IIE'"""i'"""'E'i~ GfG<:9~00. Dag. Mag. mei m "! 6 ~oooS11c/lG"'l-oE.,q
PAGE 41

4 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY group. rr.1~o5 11 ""'I 11 ooS:o68oSQ 1~:oo5:no:16 11 rr.1of: ooS0:rr.10,26,di11rr.1'*rqco'.l:0:111 on the body of the palanquin a fascia with circles, in the inside circles and stars, the dome having a foreign flower pattern. KBZ. iii, 177. """10'.l~ljCao~ 11 the dome having two rows of small lilies. ibid. 180. ao6Go16:o:toS 11 """l"l"'l'" ibi,J,. ii, 55. o:j!6: J 'lloS """2o5"l 11 """l""~fu~:rr.1;:xio5 11 the spokes of an umbrella considered collectively (a'l:e1i)MMOS. iv, 141. rr.16~~'"'?' ... cC\:iJ6==@~11rr.1e1ig~clii11 because of the earth quake the fabric of pots burst open. Parami P. 117. 9oSql:n. ""~~""~ .~ g9o5GtG:n'.l:nC11 o0ai?aour1 nest. Tav. Yaz. i, 60. :n~o1dl'l'.lt't'.J:8Sql;~~t"=5:'PeQ6cilafi GQ 16:rr.1::JloSrr.1*00'.l'lJi~":ilo6 .. toli II lair. Adik. K. 106. SS ~,foii'.l""CJ,26:~~6rr.1::JloSrr.1e1it'.lSrr.1::JloSrr.1'* 11 aggregates or groups of matter and of i=aterial factors. (rr.1::JloSrr.1e1i = P. khandha) WMDK. 10. v. rr.1::JloS 11 """R or ""~ (less com.) ou n. [ Di the intestines, the form in general use.] the intestines, bowels; inner parts. "ii II P. rr.19, 11 """ii rr.1:n.:;O?cil:n.rr.1og~~cli II bowels, liver, and heart. Dhanun. K. 17. a'le:n::nrr.1'.l:'-l/'P~ rr.19qj:n.C2oS rqtclii II from the place where the bull was gored the entrails came out. Nip. iii, 267. :n6ql~.ooS:~~:G= rr.1:i5@~"":n.:rr.1"i1ro(cot)ge2;di Q9QOJ'.) 11 one's stomach almost turned (in pity). Sanda Kum. J. W. 20. rr.1~ql@~o"2:l'.l6u6 ~'IC""il''oSc 1:G,J'.lt=Glj:~oS II cannot keep the cold out: my teeth are chattering. Antho!. ii, 171. ~GOJ'.lo 1'll5"i, 11 oodi """""@oS:n. 11 likes a quiet life. Oolloq. ::Jloot~=~o~=dioro'.l:@~ """"" : c,I; @:Gt'.loS II ie 0# mollify (lit. restrain with coolness-m=:;9:no5:n. is used colloquially in this sense). Tabin W. ii, 184. ""dl ao n. [ ~:n. be old, show signs of age, be no longer virgin.] a woman who is no longer a virgin, an aged and decrepit person, an old, worn, dilapidated article. o\lS GOJ'.lt:n. 11 o\lS,.=6"il II co6Gt"i1'"il II rr.1:noS@:rr.1fildi"11""''.l"il II rr.lG0)'.)6:11 "'ciro""~ GU)'.)6Gao'.l6~:i, a maiden pretending to be a married woman. Advt. S::ncil<>c:8S:-:,:o 11 =r/:p: 0001:;~ Y'.l',ltOGOJ'.l"e3'.l~ 11 rr.,~@C'* 11 if a woman not given in marriage by her parents has had an intrigue with a man and lost her virginity. Maha Tkuz K. 206. ~@: @c:n@~ II @co.~<>ci~tQO'.l7GCO'[' II ""~0/G:lJ'.lGO 10)'.)'}0J;C\ldlfa <>ffioS<>;c:noS:n II the name, style of "'~ (here used of a woman whose marriage has been a failure, or who is neither maid nor wife). Luhyo 91. ""ci""~ :n6qo50:;911 ro~rodl II maids and matrons with offerings of flowers, their dress in disarray. Kyigan M. 1. ~'"l~dlrr.1~@: an old crock like His Reverence. Tet. P. W. 75. "ilcx;>o5:ne2 o.,oo5""'.l0GCJ,20'.l'.l :D~.,. .. s, GCJ,20J'.l9C:n, ooo'mi') old, much the worse for wear. Oolloq. ""e rarely "'"t ou' n. [e:n. to lay an egg, form a tuberous root. e an egg, tuberous root.] an egg, a tuberous root. e -oS"Y""e@cclii II rr.1eyoo~oS .. @c9~.li II MP. 79. oSoli ""BY'.lll ~00011 oS::nt.oi11 a hen or duck's egg (is valued at)n ofa tical of silver. Manu 31. '}C<>:n, ""B~GO'.l~:no):jl Nip. iii, 263. ""B,@~~o5oi:n.~ 1 rr.1~:@9a'l:@6:o:n.ro'.l: 1 rr.1'.lqg 8:n....b oo<>,clii u stabbing with the point and other ways of manipulating, instead of cutting with the blade, are called want of agreement as to the weapon. Kinkha. N. 98. ::SQ1=o"1:n.=., ;S:ao~o:n.~@6,.==co~, 8S~:n.~ia:0.i @.:@.:rr.,@:~~"il@6:1::i,ooo1:~oo::ne~iao.fi.,,,,.=oo"116Bi'2" ""~:@o5900:@6:oo.:11 breaking the top means, at the time of measuring eessamum, rice, etc., when one is receiving, taking it gently after pressing down the top (pyramid of grain) : and when one is giving to others, a giving after hurried filling and breaking off the top, ibi,J,. 88. Gfa"'/o5cliirr.1@:::ncf.i:jl::r,>'}t<>t:o5qj'IJcf.ilj'.l~oGfOJ, II the King sat facing the front side of the audience-hall. Shwenand. 31. """f'.loS:jl ... rr.1@:00'.l: 11 fronting (the

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 5 building) to the west, ibid. 37. Gt'[>C 1:'l6"66oa@o5"""il'""@: b<>=Gt'[>~G;,oli II the seat of honour. Mahawth. J. W. i, 97. Gt'[>""@~G;,G=~11p::n.,1 Eta,J,eg, W. 15. ""-o6:Gro5Gro-o6 :n. . ~~t~:Go:il3o\ioa~oof2oof2 m ~: m c8 6 mco-o::n. 11 o'u othei~ head and top, the front end-the crown-room was due east of and at the head" end of the Glass Palace. Shwenand. 24. .,.~,,,.~.,, ""~t,.,~o5rfl'll=-ooagg1;,11 a'u a'phya Aggadana = prior gift of the best. Dana D. K. 6. 2. porch; frontal projection from a main building, with separate roof-structure. ,BS I GCT.l-oE,c:n.'lP'o\i'llo5 Pil'PG~'lJo5,-ocr.iG=Gro-o6"3:'9-o:11 G"1j-o6:Goo5@o, GCY:p6:@:Gro-o6" ""ll'GB-Oo5~~:n~ 11 cco6ot,~OjlG:D'O tt:eBS:n. 11 tfjOli g.o\i 11 1100@:"il:ne'i= 11 bco6:ef2QCG:D'O ""Gro-0600.: 11 a palace which, having six projecting halls, is like a periwinkle flower, is called "auspicious". The word ,.,@, means the bco6:, reception hall, etc. Tav. Y az. 63. But U Tin says that the b:co6: a frontal projection having a roof which was a continuation of the main roof, was distinguished from G"1j-o6:=5@: i.e. was not an oa@:11 MMOS. v, 55. 010,~ ""ll~GtGoo5w~ 11 ')O>~:oaGo16:qjoo5 ~~@:a3JE II the front room, public room. Manik W. 220. G"-1i-o6wco. ,!~1 ~Gco,ro~co611 ""@=J:m6~~;, '~'lf'O'j~II the main building of the monastery with two towers of four storeys and front hall with a spire of seven storeys (with roe neck", tower ", cf. similar uses of_ Shan klw). Up. Muh. K. ii, 245. ,.,1~a I oo@::jl11 (ooa 1:~S:jlro.:"il) 11 08:&;p1 06~ 11 entering the front hall (or, the archway of the door). Thok. Thil. N. 151. 3, the first, the beginning. og,,1100011 :::51"6611 Bo5Gegm-o,rn@: 2,l'O"?" o:mod311 Pabhavati, called the first twig, the excellent eldest daughter. Kutha P. 97. ocog~g:n. ""~:"i: vii oacoo5 mGo 1o5G:n-o~g9~g:n:11 the very first. Thal,h, Wi. K. ii, 83 ( quotation). ~:n'lo5o3:cJlrr.,516~-o""'@:roo59~:@"?""c/l ~c/l6: ... c-o:=o,~o\i11 as first presentation had been made to Your Highnesses, they ate the rest. Zanek J. W. 63. ci:@:@:~'llo\i" oo 1,~:@:11 ~iro~:@:11 GOO-oo5~ @: 11 Gm-oo5"16@: 11 Gm-oo5c:~: 11 GOO'Oo5tdiroco6'@, 11 o:,co6:"66: ~: 11 ~o,i6:~: 11 ~:jl,.,~:cfl:o 1:ql~cfl:ffili 'llo\i II the beginning, start of various stages in the growth and winning of grain-----owing, when the ear begins to fill, when the first bread is made (of grain still immature), when reaping begins, when the first handful of reaped grain is grasped, when the first sheaf is made, when the sheaves reach the threshing floor, when the first heap of grain is made on the threshing floor, when the first grain is put in the granary. EtadegW.14. Cf.Dh.PadaW.i,144,v,71. O'.IIS:o\i ""~'""" a'u asa' beginning, early part------Of book. LI.link N. 3, PPK. 208, Bumo. Comp. 3. ""~'""1'>' 0-0:9 co6cfl ""ffi6'oo:[s6., 'u a'phya first, before her husband. Manu 341. CJ. Zin. Pak. K.288. cllo3co:n~g[tl'ltc~o:,o\i ,raom~: j,asa'a'uthe beginning, foundation-moral behaviour is the f. of the religious life. Win. Th. 2. "'~' B a'u n. Prob. ,.,@,A 2, used as expletive to """"'-oo5q.v. "'~ C a'u n. [@: numerative for human beings, spirits, etc., and occasionally for abstractions.] an individual, a unit, an item. ""o 1., @G') II 01~Se-:, .... ,.,@,~,rot "ll'"'t:di = ~:cdicll~11 rodiy~cfl11 Knowledge of the perfections, thirty in number, in higher (middle and) lower degrees, ten in each degree. Parami P. 113. m~: D a'u n. name of a race or tribe, probably of Shans. codioo-oe<11J'08"lOS'):Gro-06=oji"Y.l6:n-oG'i-QGt? -,.,@, -, "ilo,JS:o,iS: 11 GOO,')li: 'lr.S.,.. ""'llo5""G'ljli II ooGcTGcT,911 yi ,~ to laugh noisi(! (one of the things forbidden to the troops). Anthol. ii, 332. tcf.iali:~t~tll 000'.l"ft,~11 <>"ft""". II ?ffa OUrJ e? (paraphrased in Com. : to5aS'i1,9""d3:ooro II cm-owg~o:,g~:n-o g@-o.ll~69 11 No expln. of ~~9ooo5 is given but it may

PAGE 43

6 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY mean without either a resonant or a cracking sound ", (hence) mumblingly. Kogan P.T. 367. 2. to crack (intr.), be split, perk. to be fall to bursting point. 06o:ie11 dl@~;o511G'l~' oaoS'Jl II boats so numerous as almost to crack the volume of water. Anthol. ii, 273. :Boa'.lcoe:qc,511 d:!cooao5 11 pre cepts abandoned, the commandments broken, ibid. 12. GfQGOJ'.lCl"j11CDCOJ811rr.!OOrr.!o5o:i.coe,1'.lE:t'.l='.)., your voice is cracked. Have you a sore throat OoUoq. ~~CQC II oa'.l OJ'.lCCIICIJl'.lac rmc 11 ~o5'lijo5'i~' e?e? the uvula splitting with the violence of appetite. Abi,. P. 55. O?'mSoo5~. oao5oao5C'91"'~ 11 falling into the wheel of life in the three states of existence so as to split it (i.e. in great numbers). SDJ(h. P. 18. G[ijG'.l ""&;.,..,,. ~'ll'.l90>o511 t?a be split. Udein P. 7. 9o5o'fl"il'@,o:ie oacg~~fo'.lo:i@~~'"P'll "". l9c:g e?'kwtcracking. Shwemaw Th.39. O'.ll'.lo5coe: "". e?cha' be split, crack. Y atana N. Mawg. 14. Of. Teind. P. 41. oa@:GOJ'.lCcgo511 toS:::mS:11 ""cS, ~~"' e?'char1 gapemountain tops and fairies' precipices cracked and gaped. Ommad. P. 26. o;~: ""c o 611 t?pa? cracked and fissured. Anthol. ii, 362. o;@,~e 1"". ~~o/i11 'kwt t? was cracked. Manir. K. 421. m c B t? n. [English act.] a legal enactment, code.-eoG!l--il o:i8o5o~'.lo5ro'.l'lloS'l'all~ooo5;~oo5atm~:Gfi''.lm II click he would be straight in the line of the Anti-boycott Act. Boye. 14. OO')b,i;Sn[il~o'.l~CGOJS (Goo'.lo5~6:) GB"!''i~""g~GmS ""ceo"" e?u'pade. The (Lower) Burma Land and Revenue Act, 1876. ..SSGro'.lo5"f6G'l'""o5eoG!loli'le~o5,Jo511 Act, law. Sun. ""&;R' e?'tu. The Habitual Offenders Restriction Act (Act II of 1919). Oolloq. ""m S kir1 n. [ mEo:ie to roast without contact with fire, to toast.] roast food, something subjected to torrefying action, roasting. -B:mEoo:i='P II B:mEl9E:11-ooE:~,"i103IE oamEa6 if the (water in the) currypot is boiling, add the roasted meat. Anthol. ii, 2. oa~oao~(oaoS)oomEoo~cf.i ;rnii(oC)Go put in nutty-flavoured food and various kinds of roast (in prescription for ridding a person of bilu's bane). Lawki Th. L. K. 177. 6C'91'.lo5oomE~o:ie11GC'91'.lo5ooroE: OJ'.l01~~~:~:~oli11~oo:iS11f~6:o:i'.l:o)~~o:ie11 stone which has been subjected to igneous action. LHGK. 136. ""'liS""oSn ,.,mE,.,,1oS11 roasting and other methods of cooking. Sadaw K. 15. ;lC -l""mE:;~11~~0E:g~11:,:,oSo'.loS'lc8~11 Dwadath. K. 94. OJ'l""Ql $: ( ~=) ~a\i~OOJ'.lOJ'lo5""mE:moco:m~:o':!:oto 1j, Sun. oS"'11 'l(>;l:,i:,iroE:~11""~""mE:0EcJlE:y'.l11 flower buds and fruit just forming. Than. W. iii, 3. oo,i:oomEo, aacoS11E:o;l young scions of princely race. Dh. Pak,. P. 40. a:,eaaom'.lE moS ""mS,'i "8'"1o5~6~y;mgroeo;i 'kir1 thu dull, thick-headed. Oolloq. .,.n:,6,o1, OOJ'.loloom'.l""'iP'cllmu ~6So 1@:>?'P~i, 'kir/pa quick-witted (as opp. to ~:oo:pGo:GOJ'.loloo=o;l). Ok. Mai. K. 58, cf. ibid. 177. "?'lE~E:o:iem'.llll c8ij'.JG'l'8~""mC:o 1: GOJ'.l::>;l~SGOJ'.laacJlE, . [il~'.lli:gcf.ioe3'.l~o;lo\""~"~""c/lE:0Edlo5t'.l\\l King Khon Hmaing was no fool. Tabin W. iv, 60. c1o;igaamE:oao 1:~::i'.) (she had held her own in a discussion). Nov. "t'P'OJ'.l""mE:o 1:jiEy11 oco'.lmt!'i:maao:ioSi)OJ'.l~t~ You need to have all your wits about you to get a livelihood in the world. Nov. t0:mmE:01:Go:i'.l@m'.l5o1:m ... coi~:m'.lll quick of hearing (prob. a neologism). Nov. 2. tendency to generate heat, exhalation, tumescence, morbid condition. (Mon ,,.mE ik'11n9, rash, eruption, is prob. l.w., with meaning derived from this sense of ,,.mE:) -00~~11 aa~:11 -o~,jl:y'.l:~:11 g 1o5B: ,,.mE:11,1oSE"i:60E11 the exhalation of natural heat is turned inwards. Nara Se. K.15 ... mE:rooSo1:Gro:te ten treatments of ,,.mE: 's. LISK. 140. dl=:mcf.ioo:i'.lo~e'll'.l:QOJ'.l: Gaa'.lEoomE:o:io5~:03IE,, putting an end to the morbid condition so that the causes of itchiness may not operate. Kawi. M. Mag. ,,.mE:oo.,~ morbid condition no longer exists. OoUoq. o:ieoro,,Steo:ien G"1J'.lo5ooSo:io5aamE, ... o:io5=~iio lo:ie11 gives relief to the morbid, inflamed condition (of the skin) in smallpox and measles. Thu. Na. Se. K. 138. G'\OjlGOJ'.)mc,S: ko'urJ n. [1 m~o:iE: ko'zirJ an embankment round a field. ""moE: belongs to popular language and is prob. always so written.] restraint. -oe:mS,-oE:om'.l:sfl'.lo:i~02Q1 ""moE:g~ gG(tl~u1,~11 S'.lOJ~CD'.lOfj'.lSc89Qe11 don't talk with out restraint (be restrained in your talk) or you will be apt to say something better left unsaid. Oolloq. md}11 (less correctly) .,.,,,& 9/r,a? n. [mcf.io:ie to be difficult to deal with.] an obstacle,opposition.-aaao5aaa11 mcf.i~~l9E:11-o.,o:,:,'.l~o5rocf.i11 'l""mcf.iclj11e2~o:io581~., hostile opposition. Anthol. ii, 391. 6'l9CJJ'.lcooaao5o:i'.l:o 1mco11 9/r,a? ea' to be in difficulties-at the game of ko-mi, I have two picture cards, but the other puts me in a difficulty ; it is awkward having to expose it. Kum. Py. Z. 38. "?'P'8~ "8"l"E'.lall"!' "il.""'llo5}~0J'.l::>;18~"8"l6B'.lalloo:i'J"30J0 (,,.n:,d})o,.,-,,11 9/r,a? 8o'ma one who argues or objects perversely. Atithon. K. 112. ""il.""md}u """3i6aauc811 g'joo:i~oa'.loo:i'.l11 o;,eco'.lcqE,, oywe' ka? obstruction -one meets with obstructiveness, evasion, deceit, and shiftiness. U Pon, M. Com. 47 and note at p. 183,

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 7 ,,>E:~ o:n-oii=-oE,,9B~~g:i:,-ooo5roo;im-o~: :n. ... oo.~oo\i11 radii, marks on Buddha's foot resembling the spokes, etc., of the cakra. Tkath. Tham. D. K. 210. Of. Dat. Dkat. W. 84, Shwes. Th. 31. :n""'Poo5oo\ioamicfl<11o5'8, OOJ5woooSo:no11 the spokes of the wheel of samsiira. LISK. 183. Of. With. At. 329. oE~=ttoolo511 oamiocmo5@11 '"'ll.,o5'11.,''lJ'001 ro.cqo5qp:n.n ')CO"O:Q.:B:11 oo5o;,.::ll:djn Nemi Meg. P. 26. gh:Bco5oamin roo5ooio'J~~Sn ti:ng:i:,o, ug;oS5o;iE11 in the circle of twelve divisions in the calm Patni house opposite where the Ascendant is situated. Tedat. B. 122. 9E:oamirfl9'1:nEo~TooT:n~oSoro:n. This partition (dividing a chamber in the palace) is called maraphin. Sun Mag. oao-ofoomi0i1.tdil6~11 from his house with its chambers and partitions. W aziya 133. Offi-O'l"""iJi" ro ol3-oo5ooio;iE11 oami og,,11 oa@"lcqo5n <>-OO'(GfOo511 O~GO 1o59 ... toS~ij~'" 00-090~= tron 'lo5 .,. mi.,.: oS II o 1oEo 1~o511 'lo5oamioa:noS,pn okay' o6a~ determination-of the days of the years and months and of the days on which lent began and ended. Kab. Band. K. 350. oooS~dldjdj:~mc,amioa:noSa c/l:~~5 89 ... 00:006:n. a committee with unrestricted power to add to its numbers. Didok. erac/lcm;i.oamioa:noSaro-0:EJd'.>11 without any restriction as to size. Sun. mmt sometimes oam-ocf.i: 'kay n. [m+::n. to be blind, be ineffective.] a blind person, blindness, failure to function, the last square in the game of backgammon. '11o5"BC o=Oil" 'lJo59QE@co, o,t~:l9Eo, oaci:;9oam+: the halt and the blind (favourite subject in Burmese folklore). Ool!oq. oom~:oooR,9oEJ-oo511 the blind don't fear ghosts. Prov. oam~:'IIE:qo'i'!l11 the blind leading the blind. Prov. ooci: oo;ieramtoo;ieratoo;ioa~oo;in Thath. Wi. K. ii, 75. eram-ocf.i: il,i,d, 90. oamt::no5m868cGoo5:n.roE'l"'el" he managed to make a lucky shot on his blind side, so one gave him credit for skill. Prov. Phr. 37. :ne'.)O')o;iE:oo;iaou'icoaci"il' oamt'lle'.ld'.>n wells of which the water supply has failed. OoUoq. oamtCT.JJ~oo-09:nS: or backgammon. While lying in the last square -eramt: -a piece or o:p: is liable to be killed by an opposing player whose piece lands in a square level with it and who, having all his pieces on the board, throws a one, known as ooaou'i, or a five, oaSoS). Oolloq. a3JS,djo5ro-011 mmt1mdl: :n-o'lJ9BC"i1'" 'kay o'ti blind as a bat. [oadl: intensifies oam~:11 Its meaning is uncertain : possibly dl: is a modification of d3 in m~: d3mt""t' gropingly.] Ool!oq. o=Qtoo,d38:@ .. oa~~

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8 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY '"""~'"'~' craOJS,OJS:craGUY.>6Gc.m6@1i11?Grooli11 'kar; 'kar; in a confused manner. Sahebin W. 259. """'~!l e?ganei?tha' adj. [P. akaniyha not the youngest, the greatest, supreme. V. P.E.D. s.v. kanittha.] cram~~~ is the highest of the pure abodes--suddMviisa---in the highest plane of Riipaloka. PPK. 170. Of. OP. 139. Form ""m~s1 Parami P. Th.19 and "'mH Pyatih. P. 59. ..,.,,6 A lea? n. [mfo,8 to adhere to, to approach.] contact, approaching, adherence, what adheres, currying favour, -~!36:11 ;~!36:11 m6o~Gro'>""'P" -"1J'>:Y~:c/l1i8~6006c,.,m6y-,, ro~proco'imoro:~11 mistakenly attached itself. Than. W. --~-~ 149. 8~0J~rl.iaio'i@:ai6ai611 cram6aGcn?c:cqc::no'iGro,~@.l 8'>'"2"' flattering attentions. Sun. 'Iii~'> ..,.,,s ... .ii, c!lG'li' mrl.iGtro811 ka? 'ko someone on whom to rely, backing. Oolloq. "i1~:oo?:~;!;CljlS:mS:Gm?C:.!lro8P~'>ro8 ""m 6.., aGo')" "'""6'1"8" ka? kho adherence-let there be no adherence ; i.e. no one should be allowed to harbour them. Hl. Ree. 57. ~'>08:e;611 ""m6cra~ a rl.iGaD?6i36,ro8 "'"9"8,/i" shirking a task, sparing oneself ( i.e. the sense of cra~cram6 q.v., the order of words being here inverted probably for rhyme with ). Tav. Y az. i, 180. oliG@""'l6 ~? ... ""o,8""'1611 ..,.,,S..,g1 ka?khwaapproach and with drawal, advance and retreat. LPBK.109. ao;i6irl.i96:11 ro8o'i o~,m~8rl.iGcxprl.i (GOJ?rl.i) ~~96:11 ,.,'8,.,Go:,.,alicraG: ..,.,,i; ""[ aGO')Gcra'>CII ka? nyi' adherence of filth, etc. Win. Th. K. 33. S~@1rorl.i'l~"' go'i'lJS:;!;')6::no'in ..,.,,S,,.dl11 cra~;!; crac:BG-, o\lro~~"'~" ""~~,.,~~" ka? phi' contact and pressure-rumpled owing to c. and p. of their soft breasts against the half-round pillars of the window railing. Yama Yag. i, 67. .., m 6.., ,.~., Gm?6:c"i1'f''GCIY.lrl.icra[glia~"'I'" ka? hmyaur;' approaching and laying one's self alongside, getting the soft side as of a schoolmaster or person in authority. Ooll,oq. "i1 ..,.,,S..,u,6 Gm-,6:c~!li'S@fo,811 ka? oya? currying favour. Ooll,oq. afa~:coy'> ..,.,,s..,""S maro,ro?"11~"'8"00600~:~11 ka? a? small quantity sticking (to the pot), remaining. Oolloq. Tavoy. ""~"'"'6 kho ka? shirking. Ohweta 25. ..,,,..,.,,6 'ni ka? proximity. Thath. Wi. K. i, 21. ..,.,,6 B ka? n. [possibly first syl. of P. kappiya, "proper for Bhikkhus," in sense "to make proper", by formal presentation.] the act of offering respeetful)y to a monk. -rorl.iG&prl.i9li36, -0Ja~Gtm11 ,.,m6acra6@:Gro?11 aj:G:;n:oro8 ~r/l11 Hl. Reo. 234. SS~gc8meij?c/la1Y.>:GOO?'J?"i''""')(\)OJ[go'iy11 roo'imC\lo'i~cram691rl.iro811 the effect of the offering is lost (and it would now be improper for the monk to eat the food). Up. Kam. N. 21. ..,.,,i; C ka? n. obstacle. v.s.v ..,.,,&;_ "'"'Su> a'ka?pi'ya' adj. [P. akappiya improper.] not lawful for a Bhikkhu to do, eat, etc. a1Y.>:cra6Gro-,,.,mOJ""ro?:@.l, :;no'io 1,11 flesh not to be eaten by Bhikkhus (including human, dog, horse flesh). Win. Th. K. 34. ""mOJ""'P~" C\1"''>"Gm~GaD?rl.im8GoGroSi., (the work was :;n~-,~ bar ber's work). Thath. Link. 14. ..,.,,S, 'kar; n. [mS:ro8 to hand to, pass to] a gift, presentation of gifts. -rorl.iGaD?CIIGO,mS:l36,11 -@C\l~~6~~'):r.,'),;.,O)s, o 1roro11,.,mS:craC\/S::n'>'l1"'1 '" rorl.i:nrl.i'18dlrl.i'i:lo'i~rl.i=:i'l11 presents (to guests attending the reception). Oolloq. :BoS.,,, c/lro8''-ll~o 1c.!loo?:Gro,oml.ioml.i .., m S,.., '9 S, ,!;0000:;n?QJ? ,.,-,:o 1:o:,'lcBa811 'kar; ' h/,a,r; gifts (to persons attending the function). Sun. ""o,8"'""21'" ..,,.o,..,mS,11 Groa6~6~,11 C\1~0,S:r/l11 G,.,s,.,s,~5Ga;lll Gro?moo'ic/lro8' :Bmo'ioo, 'pe 'kar; giving (guests their requirements). Anthol. i, 104. craGo: ,.,mS"lrl.iG world. For reduplication v.s.v. ""C.] a succession of ooons. -m,11,-,,.,:;nr/.i:;nr/.i -""00'>"->'> o:>~?roG~aG')l>03rl.i~6Gcra?6C\JtGroS'>' Go:>Sro8: m,11, -,cJl5 :~~"l'P: g!;oml.ia~"it" Boddh. W. 5. Spelled ,.,o5~-, J in Inscription at Anthol. i, 39. .,. m .S A k n. (1 mo'iro8 to exist in full measure, to exceed. The Cl}, formerly .written mo'i,, of o}qj, like as, may be a modification of cramo'i in the sense of actuality. If so, o}qj or mo'i, qj would = like the actuality of.] 1. fullness, excess, pre-eminence. -@~6,11 ""m""C\l~" -"'8G:;n,oo-,oS ""m .S"" Gm?C:ro811 k "PY' fullness-this medicine is good for f., distention of the stomach. Oolloq. OJ?o,.,d3ro~, ""11 mmo'i -f6GUY.>cfy.,: o;,o'i~:Grol.i11 t6o'J:Go:>?00j1(bo,:);!;~to?:Gro"i1 imli~oli11 C')"~ m'>tro8:11 oamo'iGro?o;>Ga,~11 do you really mean it! Hm. Yaz. i, 302 .... o;,.!lro8c/l"'mo'iooE1'i11 believing what was said to be the truth. Manik. W. 321. ,.,mo'io\l6roo}qj11 ~s if really asleep. Manir. K. 596. cramo'ii36:,;p:BG091@ m order to learn the real facts. Bur. L. G.126. Gro",i'>:cq6 ..,.,,,S..,.,,,S ""o1o'i"11t'lrl.it'lrl.i ... ..,,6;!;ao'iro-,11 k kt assuredly-if we die, a. through all the hells, it will always be you and I. Teilat. B. 13. GaD?6Groro8"i"' c.qro",l(-Ci1 .., m .Sm .S qj11~oo'ito'i~l90:,m8:11 k g reality-showed in a dream a man carrying (her arm) off, just like r. (as vividly as if it were actually happening). Bur. L. G. 88. OJ. Gambith P. 28, Nemi Ngaye P. 68. ..,.,,,So,~l ~=it:Gro'>C\1~'"'8 ke tar;du in very truth-a race which is truly civilized. [00~1, apptly. P. tantu, is com. in classical Burmese in many of the senses of Skt. tantrastring, cord, warp, underlying principle, truth, model. Here m~l = truth, in which sense m P. tanti is also found.] Sun. G0'.1?6: GmlicJlrl.iroo'i11 .., m .S "? "? 11 G9,l~"?"i'" qcSilJo:,a611 ?rocr.u6"'8" k tar;' dar;' actually-with the full intention of receiving visitors. ( "?"? ftrml,y being taken as strengthening ,.,mo'i11 ,.,mo'io5o5 k tar; dar; is given in spelling books, e.g. Kawi L. Th. 15, but has not been recorded from literature.) Kawi M.M.K. i, 169. djroglo:>811 Jlo:>1l11 ..,.,,,Sd3c8, y~m~oli11 k ti'di' verily (translating P. hi). WekyaA.A.K. 19 ..,.,,,Sol; c1ro8~.!l:a,l)')o;,o'iGroro Gro?II c 1,.,Sc/lc 100,?11 ke bir; in truth, really. Zanek. J. W. 22, 3. In conditional c/,a,uses, ,.,mo'i beir,g immediately

PAGE 46

BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 9 followed by "' some othM wtG"~""'l"1""""il~,.\in matrix. Dana D. K. 35. gc:qjCT.ll~'P"gijm~c/lnrr.,OY.>C,lEa;icn "3'JICOCoiin .,.,ii"il"w" 8i=li~o'i11 preached so as to penetrate the shell or skin, reject the fibrous matter and take the core or kernel. Udein P. 127. Of. ibid. 95. 'lmt:ql..liocm:ro. 0j1qll..liom~:o'):{l11 ,,.;iimte;:11 rr.,=:all:j, ""'lle1'~"lle1' , ii ~o1Goolin Ok. Mai. K. 124. ""t8l~sn =oacoo'lll Q~00.:,~11 ;,..,,,, ""g II rr.,:,gt"""-i'("""'l8')" ""Bt''""1tE:11 iio 1"3:C-1Jo5n oka okhu1J husk-in spite of the fact that the not-self is husk on which no reliance can be placed. Bawd. D. K. 153. ""(J)') ""~~' e;?CG0'9i)Sn8~o5oEoii,rn;iiroo5ooo5n""to5@o5;rn( ~G=m'P'" oka o'hme integument, unessential matter. Tem. J. W. Introd. 1. ""8"""'-, okhu1J oka = ,,.o:,~""R sup. Bawd. D. K. 151, 153. 3. protection, obstacle, opposition. """" ,,.o:,~"'C"J,2<-0" ooooo5'ile'.i~E:iiG=Q=008l~""O'.l~Gmli@:n MTTK. 283. c/luSo_.crr.,m~G;;o-,8=:=0t c,roo'n '1\1?~6 etc. to be carried as an amulet. Tharapu K. iii, 232. ""'I""" ,,..,,-,.,."i!oS rr.,ii~G~tgffi600. oka okwe a buffer (between the Chins and Burmans). WOB. os1:clj8'\En ~o5('{6 GOO~"'a1,"ilii'ljdi,-oc/ln .,..,.,-,.,.Qo-:,~ t>e'.i"f' oka osau1J' a protection-draw a line all round to exclude (hostile influences). Tharapu K. iii, 19. to5.5:oon;,ii~i,10jlOO'.l~""'m~:y~@ooog':-'t' :n110S:~:rljc86iiG=c~~mo5oo.n _Oolloq. _2. As ewp~(ive. m~1mm-:i1 9'ko a'ka facts on which one rehes, authorities; v.s.v. ,.,clj,11-""G0~E,rr.,cr.il:nrr.,~rr.,mtn ""Yt"""'-,'" ""0~' rr.,~11oocmoEC\1]o5naoE@Eto5,ro: ohma1J o'ka the truth, the actual facts (rr.,m~, probably inserted metri gr.). Tad. Mawg. 6. .,.,B,, o'kei1J n. L rllt: a number.] numbsr, aggregate. -0

PAGE 47

10 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY omt:i1 ~:G')II OOG~G-,cfo'l~:11 ,:r.,c/lt:~ct>Gtll 8ie'Jooclii11 caUBed gifts to be made to people numbering 600,000 each day. Weth. P. 7. o~::nd.i,:r.,c/l~:11 ;fo'l~:c1:G::n~"' Boye 73. Of. Nemi Meg. P. 38, Kawi MMK. 37, San. Kein P. 45. ,,.,8t'"""t"' omt"''P" o~o1cJl11 'keiy 'khay numbers-the boundless universe (!it. to which ns. do not apply.-cll~,* q.11. is more co=on). Mand. Mawg. 22. GO'Y.lmro?t"'PB~ :St"'t" ,,.r8t'"B g~1m;:Go')ii~911 'keiy je number-to endure for hundreds and myriads of ieons (cll~:ia q.v. is more co=on). Wila Mawg. 14. """l ku' n. ['71::n;: to treat medically.] remedial treatment. "'l::nE:11 ::ni'a:>"f'Ot"""i'G"'?c:::n;: Oolloq. ="'e.'P """l"""'., oku' ka treatment and protection by medicine and spells. Tem. J. W. 46. ""~""'llS:o::n;:~rll'l'llG:S~E G:i'l::n?l1j """l"" < .,d,o 1::n;: ku' a' treatment. Gwes. Se. K. 27. """l"S. ikade n. (P. ko#, a very high number. The usu. form in B. is "i'GS: ; the ,:r., prefix is analogous to ,:r., in ""'P" 03G=C, etc.] ten millions. -a:><.0:x>~OI -03'7l"Q'JIG:x>?~ct> iao 1=clii11 a company of 10 millions were in attendance. Boa,J,h. W.14. Of. Ah. D. K. 4. Yaz. Kyaw 53. """loS okou? n. [c,;,d.i::n;: to subtract arithmetically.] subtraction. ""lid.i" ,:r.,G@?o5oaiid.i11oa'7ld.ioa~:11 the various arithmetical processes. L. Wid. Mawg. 52. Of. Bawa Mawg. 55. """loSoouoS kou?t,,ba? augmn. ['7ld.iod.i::n;: to exert oneself. Augmn. also takes form of oaod.ioo'7ld.i11] with strenuous endeavonr.-@:g\:o?:o?:11-G~2,"'-'?d.i"'l?ro"ld.i"'llo5"""'7ld.ioood.iu ""'l?oooo611j11~d.i=:::nc?:cli11 Zin. Pak. K. 578. """l t kouy n. [ '71~::n;: to be used up, to be spent.] 1. Consumption, expenditure. """'lt""cr.iJ" ""'ldl~~".ilo5~:"llE" oac,;,~cJl0031?9".ilo5ood.i'7ltcli11 underestimate expenditure. Kan Nyan 225. "lsoG:o"""'l~~~'" Maha San Pyaz. 56. ,:r.,ij~'l]??""'7ltG~'):T.lll expenditure of time. Ohweta 25. "ls """lt"""'ll GGO')II kouy ea' expenditure. Yesag. Kh. Py. 71. g:Ggoa~ ""0'.11" Thath. Bahu.112. """i'~""cr.iJ'lJ?IG:x>? oaGO' o5'1P:cJl11~?~?Gro:Gro:@"?6'lt" Ohweta 78. 2. the whole, all, in full. oa?:~:11 ,:r.,goo=ooo?:'IP:cJl""'7l~'9"roe;i~E11 Atithon K. 371. 9;:~cc,:r.,"'lt""GG;: Kabya J(yem. 182. oo::no5~:~:~:x>'lfll ooo[gc( ooe[?G?E: with my whole heart. Kala M. Py.Z. 99. ')C'lf->o;ii'l6cJl """lt"'""!; ".ilo5oiil1ja:>6Glll1kour1 osiy the whole amount-principal and interest. Kawi L. D. 189. ::nii::ll,agS:~cJl,:r.,"'lt""oEo,~=Gm~o1o,'P" Tav. Yaz., 1st page of Thamaing. OO?""G=o5,:r.,~:G".2 . """lt"I' 91o5-'i'7l~ G:x>Sro;::11 kouy 'louy the whole, totally. Thath. Wi. K. i, 126. Of. Alin. K. 34. """lt' 'kouy n. ['71~:::n;: to bend the back, to bulge.] the aet of bending the back, a huneh-backed person, something in the shape of an arch. cJlE:a:ld.iEo, P. 'i'll: hump-backed. ""cllEoaro"""'lt'"""ij?G:x>?11 oac,;,::nro11S:roS:t>.?d.i G?IIQGOO?C:8?cJl!lc1::n;:otl3l?:II Shwes. Th. 19. '71:x>ro?Qlf->ll"""i' "-{ro?Qij?"""tf>OOOO?<>lj?II good, bad, and indifferent qualities. MP. 22. Of. Thanweg P. 19; Up. Muh. K. i, 134; Atithon. K. 25,169. """l~cS a'ku'tfo n. [Burmanized form of preceding.] evil deed, demerit. GGOO?C'l/11 o~"-?9" :x>?')~E::nb ~~ooE:"11o5" GroC:G~""""'ldlc6cJl11clldl~clloS11 . G"f'C~o5516"]11 the radiant lord, perfectly pure, essentially fragrant, free of blemish, not stained, driving away demerit in all directions. Mud. Lek. P. 3. ,:r.,c,;,dl"5mooo 1:G&~oao 1tl3c~~O'.IIG"f'o5!)1 Thath. Wi. K. 12. G,ii::no5,,.,6G:x>?,:r.,'7ldl"500"f':rlj~::n~~, evil actions, conduct. Mahawth. J. W. i, 178. ::nd.iE..,,?6,2:mo~G:x>? ""'7ldl"5qo\lcf.i~~mE:::n;: Zanek. J. W. 67. Ga:l?O?Jld.i11G~ 1 ::nJld.i11GG?mJld.i"l"""'l:i'loSJld.i:,i:o 1:11 the three causes of sin. PPK.202. """A ku n. [o;i::n;: to help.] aid, assistance.-soo?o5y.,oo?C Gi3C:11-o,GG"f'o5"E"""'ll?;~'lG:x>S::n~G;: Al. Ayeb. 20. =::nt? G')l=:x>t?~ GC:c/ii,:r.,oo~ """i\"" ,:r.,sa:,?m,:r.,ycJl')::nOO;::n ku onyi assistance, support. Thath. Bahu. 17. ;~o?:G:mo5 Gt"i1'1P'""?' "'"it,,.~ 'l""'l~" ku apay' assistance. Sun. S&?G00?",111 """it"""" ~oo'llS:=11 oku oma' only if the evil spirits give help (i.e. refrain from hostile action). Bed. Wiz. K. 133. <>C:Gt0~cJl.,.,;,.,:x>?GC:00@"11i':::n?e)G~GroC11oaG~~ """it"" 4 ro;::~;:roEo 1::n;: oku 9'!JarJ rallying round ", help. Hanth. Ayeb. 69. Spelt """i1""'l~ Manir. 1(. 93. Gro?o5gc,;i~Cl3]CII cll~?::,i:Gm?C:/j:GOOII """il."8 ')00"?11 oku ywe cash contributions made by guests, as at a penny wedding. Thing. Sag. i, 165. """ito-,c,'l' oku s/Jye an apprentice clerk. Oolloq. ,:r.,~,:r.,OO?:mGo:mG ,,..,a,-,J; """it" othau? ku help, support. Ledi Kein i, 97. """it, o'ku n. [o;i:::n;: to cross over.] crossing over, transition, migration, copying.-oaGB?C:11,:r.,o;i:oa::n~"'G'l'"i1'8Ei-roi'o$::n?oo511 ""<'"o5j1G~~E'P11 difficult to cross. Thanweg. P. 5. :x>~"f'& ~"J'i'"""i1'".2611atthenewyearof912.Hanth. Ayeb.4. Gw""o;r-11 at the change to the hot season. Anthol. ii, 148. eB6Go5 ooroG::n??toGt"""<'"?" Thami L. W. 54. o,o?oaO'/:~?:::n;: he made a mistake in copying a document. Oolloq. t?t? O'.l'.lOII 8t?O'.l?OII 0'.)0:x>CO'.l0GO'.>?C<03C\s~OO"f' """it."" <>B., i; I ,p "}O 10000?:11 a'ku 'pyauy transmigrations. Than. W. iv, 161. GC:~JleBS::n;:eBSoof.iGOY.i """it'"""'t' "i16GtS11 o'ku a'0ay goings and comings. Oolloq. ~Eco.2Ea,oa'llo5oaoE""<:oa::n~: 'lfOOGtE:i, migration in and out of the country. Sun. "'lt::ni'

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTION.ARY 11 0:coS . o!l,1"""il'""""~'"""'P6:oaooS11 oa6oa~:c/l,rocf.i11 ~,g 1:@~qi~, '116,:xi~:x,@~11 journeying in the way of trade, commercial dealings. HI. Rec.15. "~oSo;ic..-ooSco6,aJlro~11""~oS..,rocf.i"""i1,""""~"'YJ11 ~. dl, ,m, O'.J~OI go:,~5.'Pcf.i~cf.i6'Pcf.jl1 :x,~wam"'lf.imgJoSS bo, the purest silver current in Burma. The flowers" were made by blowing on the metal, after the addition of a little lead, in a mould before the liquidity was gone, and could not be produced if there was too great a mixture of alloy. Purer grades of silver in use were ij5 daiy, with 19 parts of o:n5 to one of copper, and a~ooS klwyu'ba?, with 19 parts of o:n5 to half a part of copper, both of which were cast in large discs, weighing twenty tolas and upwards. The exact degree of fineness was usually expressed by reference to the percentage of alloy, e.g. oomog had 10 parts of alloy to 90 of oo->S11 oaSoSm had 25 parts of alloy to 75 of o:n511 Yule, Embassy to Ava, 260 ; Oraufwrd, Embassy to Ava, 433; Hall, Early English Intercourse with Burma, 90, 204; U Pon Taya Oom. 165; Yesag. Kh. Py. 61, 75. oro,m~'llt6;11oam;~~11 the medicine with the added ingredient of plumbago rosa. Nayamal S.K. 33. 'oorooS..,~,11 """15,cxn,l11 te'i'll~o6qi,11 r/l~i1 oamma6(oaoS)11 take ten tolas ~m; and, in terms of the greater or less admixture of copper, ascertain the alloy. Quotation at MMOS. iv, 94. ogoamot:nw:BaJl:xiclj11 let the cobbler stick to his last. Sagab. 33. "il~.oli@~'P"""l6,..,oSoaCJ.?oS11oaro6:oa 6'!'611 """'""'"'" qjrlj ... 0~?11 o'ke o'l,e qualities, grades of gold (with reference to the increased purity obtainable by successive smeltings). ,.,gco, "weight" is merely ex pletive. Tav. Yaz. 78. og:xi.we'i'll ""'le"""" ~""e'i"l'' ./l="ilr/l"lsa6(aoS)oaT:xi.ogma60j1~clj,1 oyi 'ke alloy, composition. Y esag. Kh. Py. 61, note. 2. exeess, value, character, external indications of character or condition. symptoms (originating in metaphorical use of oam with modem extensions after the literal meaning had been forgotten). ""~"' """le'ioa@E:11 corgm~11 OO!JO'.Jl6rocf.iwte'i=:n11 "'l'i~'""m oo 1cf.i~m, if there is a market price of not less than Rs. 115. Star. oow=<>~oSo;icf.i:xi,,,c 1oao..cf.i~So5s=:n"? ""m .,.~6 ,~~SoSrljoS~E:noS~,cqf11 'ke 911ei? hint-on this h. hereadtheomens. Kh.MGW.ii,55. "il,~ cJl0~t"?~O'.J~oo111 'ke c;,' study the symptoms. Tanaw W. i, 71. :n~o=c,.,cJ; cJl11woS"l6o~"'~"'l@"'rlj,1 'ke k/,a? judge by appearance, size up. Ka/,a M. Py. Z. 46. Of. Than. W. iii, 10. c 1""maoS~"'.l~:xie'i11"il~'r/l"il~'ro6S:xi. I misjudged him. Oolwq. oamaoSqiooo11'1"""0~5m:,om~5,cJlwo:xi:xirlj,1 misjudged, under-estimated. Kala M. Py. Z.49. o':!o':!c8ooo,.,~"t'l1 ,iomaocb cljcf.i:xi~11 'ke sha? terribly touchy (1 lit. brittle in composition). OoZl,oq. oDTCJ.?~~~,o'iqaf.irlj .,.c,>,o,S "'IJcf.ill9'ke tiy setting a high value on. Dag. Mag. :i>m ,oS o,t cljcf.iocooo~E,~S, w. 'ke 'nuy value will wilt-if I keep on this revolting queen, my dignity will be impaired. Zawta Kum. Py.Z.23. w@oo=~cf.imooo,,9 """'"1 cljcf.iro~dkepamake a fuss about nothing, exaggerate the importance of e.g. a slight injury. Oolwq. .,. m o 1,~cJ; =0611 'ke you? to be lowered in esteem, depreci ated. Sun. @~5:xi. :i>"''l a,i5 'ke ya get the impression. Newsp. c/lro'Pm:Jj11""1,~'g" superior's due 2 ticals, clerk's due 1 tical. Sittan in MMOS. iv, 309. m,aJl:xie'i ~~'"'l'~m,11 =mo:xi~oam,'lJ~:xii', ~''P""c~~60:xio11 m<11= oo 1=
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12 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY Commanders of 1,000 men in the armyGrooEm or o5m -were not hereditary officers. MMOS. ii, 174. (For oonm v. HI. Ree. Notes 32.) .,.a,..,~, G<\ro:o1ojj o'ke o'mo superior, person in charge. Zdp.MS. "16:> m~1mm: o'ci 'ke head of a village, headman. MMOS. ii, 173. CJ. ibid, 185. ITT~Gtmdjco2'j:1100Gro~rr.iGtrr.i@:rr.ie36 mnz6mm1 ,~ooeJJairoo:j, oku? 'ke superior officers. Kawi L.D. 381. .,.~.,.a, ochi o'ke clerk and headman. Bassein Sittan at MMOS. iv, 312. "'Jd.'"'a, o'hmu o'ke officers of state (vaguely : there were in this case 1,000 of them under each rr.,gc,<; mm.ister). Paya N. W. 167. 2. excess, extravagance. rooE.ia,i~E:-88,"'""mQ~Gon11roG~8'11 than which there is no excess, nothing more perfect, the highest wisdom. J(awiM.M.K.33. roG::noo:i~Q~a,i~:GoooE mmm'l'lt aljro2'j11 o'ke l"11 exaggerated (of a statement that a hunter killed a very large number of deer each day). Tham. Sek. D.K. ii, 182. ""'l'lt""m lu!J 'ke unusual, in a high degree. m n} oke' yt! n. [ o)~ro2'j to disparage.] disparagement, detrae tion.!6,1E, -qcfie3o5ro'"'l~"""o)~yga,idi@5oodio'ii11 Mahawth J. W. i, 123. rr.io)~,ua~:~S, Than. W. iii, 48. """'., o'kv n. [G=ro2'i to rise, swell up.] elevated, highlying land. o;,~:1100 coc.!iGBai6aE:11o;,~:"1E,~E=o1100Gmo ua~:11GoooEmS:o~E11uaE,~Eao2'j~E:i1 .Anthol. ii, 327. rr.iGm:> oo~: a high strip or row of paddy-fields. CoUoq. rr.iG()')') ~E, high part of irrigated holding. Coll,oq. Minbu. c 1,odi@: C 1:Gl@oi djoococ.liqr/.irr.iG()')')~II Qo5G~()')');,e3ooc.611 the fish love to haunt the swampy high land in the middle (perh. a partly submerged island). M. Sanda Py. Z. 70. """'.," a"koda', also "'"RP" e?'koda' n. [P. akkodha] freedom from anger, mildness. ildig:,~gc:go5E: gc,,iiia,'P: "'c 01:CJJ Crr.lGITTO <>~G=o 1~ Gem, rr.i~rr.i'llo5=Sdl 'lll 6Gcm 911 Hm. Yaz. ii, 381. CJ. PPK. 47. WG{l:l'.l" LPPD. 8. .,.,.n,-,c/i A okau? n. [G=o5ro2'j to be crooked.] bend, turn, crookedness, deeeitlulness, indirect or figurative mode o! expression, equivocal remark, ambiguous aetion. WG'1J'' rr.iGmooSooO'.jJ611eoroooEro,E,11 Opp. uaG@o~11 WG()')')o5ooGCDoE G"}.8600'['~Gro:>G"}m~@, bends (in the bank). Mahawth J. W. i, 15. uaGmoo5ooGCDoE,'i:job= ( omo 1) ~oo2'j\lj,=511 y at. Kyem. Z. 74. B"'o'ii ... ua8~100GCD0uaG@orr.iGmoo5djQEo'.>11 Zanek. J. W. 114. (~oSqj) uaGmoo5o,r-,:E:11oooooc/lE:uaGmoo5 "i1,:@E:11Gmoo5oo0'.il5o,r-,:E:11 crooked, continuously crooked, somewhat crooked (ambiguous) motion of the planets. (uaGmoo511ooou,c/lE:uaGmoo5 and Gmoo5oo0'.jj5 are intended to translate Skt. vakra retrograde, anuvakra, somewhat retro grade and ku/ila transverse, in Surya-Siddhanta Oh. ii.) Thur. Theik. K. 32. OO'[':G@o~~dj11uaGmoo50,00EG92:ro@~11 thinking ambiguous, finding apparent contradictions where there were none. Thi"'1}, Sag. i, 218. ~6qjo'iiroG::nocf,!!Joodi GO:,:,O(Y)OIOJ2'jro::nooq~Q2'jo'ii11 O:,GO')'.)U,c/lE:cJlgallw1111 e:Jaorr.i6=rr.idlrom-eoQO-l!OITT-OGOJOO:,G=O,aljoo6GroOooG()')')o5o'iio:,=ocJl oodiGro:>om:,:ro2'jomq~g2'jo/ii11 sabhiivavutti, Skt. svabhavuldi, statement of the exact nature (vivid description); vanka vutti, Skt. vakrakti, indirect mode of expression, figurative speech. (rr.iGmoo5 = P. vanka, Skt. vakra, bent crooked. Both sabhavavutti and vankavutti are modes of alankara uacom:>"I or adornment. In s. the effect is gained by epithets, etc. ; an example of v. is, they drank in the comeliness of Buddha and their thirst could not be slaked." A.link N. 207.) Bur. Z.P. Com. 51. CJ. U Pon. M. Com. 43. rr.lGj!rr.lG;oo5,, "" .. O')., cli """'II Ii II QdlScobb,iildiroG@o~G .. I akau? oci? deceitfulness. Sonma P. 63. ""~9"'tE:oo~uaGQoo5 .,.,.O')., c/i ..... OGO:,OW'['rr.lGCD:>C QITTGonrow"""il'"'G<:g11 okau? okwe' bends, angles. Leil,i Kein 47. gC:oo:ro2'jffiSc-i:m ..... m.,c/im .. nz @ okau? 'kwe crooked shape (of some thing one would expect to be straight) Colloq. mc,m-,c/i@!l "ii" okau? ca1J form treacherous schemes. Mahawth J.W. i, 188 ...... m.,c/ie-,a6 ~=SQOO'[':G~ ="'"""" akau? nya'I} guile, ulterior motives. Sun. omo:dj ..... m.,c/io:,"'11!; "!30oob::no(omo1)~11 okwe' okau? angles (in the walls). Yat. Kyem Z. 78. mtSS.,.,.m-,cli ki!} okau? deceitfulness. ..,,.n,-,c/i B akau? n. [Gmoo5:n2'j to pick up, collect, form an opinion, akok = customs duty, in Mon and Shan is l.w. from B.] 1. a due, toll (for permission to pass or on some transaction), royalcy,, eostoms dub', "'s~" rr.lGm:,muaro:rr.,~11 11uaGmoo5u;iro2'jcin:1Gq:G()')')o51002'jG=o51mE: G()')')oSqjro2'j10.:,GtQGITT:>o58jGt:>o5yGmoo5Gro51 l>Gmoo5ro:ljEoco6 0011uaa,i=o5"i18co2'j:00011 Matters connected with collection of dues. If bazaar dues, customs dues, or dues at the outposts are not taken on the day, there is no right to take them later and a claim should be dismissed. If too much has been taken, a claim (for refund of the excess amount) shonld be dismissed. Manu 187. QC:~m'P&uaGmoo5, u,ga,@,uaGmoo5119o5G91:>ooG0j>03jCOOdl: ... 9P'"l21"'"1o5'8djGOj>oo oE,cqEro~,G~~oS,~oo~oSG=o5~:11 As dues of the king or of the governor, the custom is to take from every banana boat one bunch, from every boat carrying honey, liquor or oil one fill of a cup made from a toddy-seed. Shwedau'f111 Sittan at MMOS. i11, 310. o:,,d,,:,ooG()')')o5GOOSyo11 !]EaJmE:roo:qjm1ao~ooo5aoo5ro~ customs duties were regu larly sent (to Bassein) by the men of the Pyin Khayaing outpost. ( nr of each class of goods in the cargo was usu. collected.) Sittan (A.D. 1784) at Bass. Yaz. 86. J9\Pt"?'P~ OOGrooo5!lE11w~s~ . 1jdio'l6:Gcmwro2'i11 abolished revenue on pagoda festivals with the exception of the dues on (the bazaars at) the festivals of 24 (important) pagodas. Royal order dateiJ, 1884 at Hl. Ree. 16. Go.:>:>"1WG()')')o511 dues on wax, cutch, etc., brought in from the Yaw country (in Pakokku district). ibid. 9~ro5GOOouaGmoo5GOOS11 royal dues on timber brought to the four towns (Mandalay, Amars pura, Ava, and Sagaing). ibid. 82. g1oS=g,['fl".l'"'GoT92E uaGmoo5GooS. Royalties on minerals-clay, laterite, gypsum, etc. Land Revenue Manual. OJOJJGQQQ~:;uaa 1mH~l:>GfO,qj moo"}@ .,..,m-,climgt m:iJrr.,~Gtm
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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 13 matters connected with collection of dues. Manu 187. """ To~oaGm-,rl.ioarooi the governor's share of collections, commission. (Out of every Rs. 100 collected in cash Rs. 92/8 had to be sent to the royal treasury-mGro-,c:Gg-,E: djrl.i Rs. 7 /8 was shared between those concerned in or responsibleforcollection. MMOS. iii, 54.) Sirihyugyun Sittan MS. oaGrmrl.ioao-,: commission (to headmen on revenue collections). Commonly known as ~c or ~cGg11 Land Re1lenue Manual. mem?d.im'P 'lf'.'!!la'llG:>Jffi'lGO,ldjg~. 8'1"'23" kau? "'!Jafi' customs officers. WOB. mem.,,.,o,-,S kau? tau'!), name of hill overlooking Irrawaddy at N. end of Henzada Dist. LHGK. 138. m<>m?d.ii[: kau? 'you'!) Customs Office. Pol. Econ. 513. m<>m?d.ioi @O,lo5 kau? WU'!J Collector of Customs (R. S. Edwards C. of C. at Rangoon. V. Dalhousie-Phayre Correspondence 50). KBZ. iii, 281. G~Tmoo.:moaGm-,r/.i~a,11 G@.,~ormJC:~o5uaGrmrl.i"1JS: titles of books-" ana lytical works entitled Akauk, all more or less modern." C.P. Pref. :,;, These are Burmese explanations of the Abhmha,nmaUha-sangaha, Compendium of Philosophy. 2o5 \l')OG-,rl.i1"33Gm-,r/.iro~o5o,co6"Jloo511 (uaGrmrl.i preceding ~o5 for metrical reasons). Tanaw W. ii, 34. ococ:~~'O,lC ... m em? aS m 'i 00911 cllS:G)?C"2rl.iGB:11 ':\'lo5=l:i~:yooooorl.ia;,~ ooirrl.i=: kau? oyu a legal decision. HI. Reo. 97. oe3-,oo 7cl:i ooc eaGrmnSuao,i11 CXl'O:Gool:i~o:,:,l:,coe3:,1 interpretations, explanations (on subject of alchemy). W.M.Th.K. 3. cooorl.i rorl.i'lfo~11eaGmorl.iuao,iG')=te3=~o5,.: the interpretation, method of writing and reading the climbing perch's ascent and descent, ending in the middle (an acrostic, of which a specimen is given). P@iiG01rl.i@iiG01"33GITT'JC dlcl:iro.dj@o511 cut the throat of a whole duck or hen (in directions for cooking oo,d':>,6 or ri.i,6 curry for which the entire animal must be placed in the pot). Tanaw W. ii, 22. G')tiiGroGCOro~!i\S:cilea=.,c corpses of drowned Shans. Raz. Ayeb. 176. gjeaGrmcq6roe301;oealo5G=!JaGOO')C o,!)Gc:i"'~"""lo5Gro'leaGrm~99c, .. yo5ea6oli11 (in directions how to meditate on dead bodies-------asubha-kamma/lluina). With. At. 299. djoc:oliuaom:qo5=ea~11 cremation of the king's body. Bur. J. w. 6. eaGITT'JC'lJ@c:rBijll burial. Tham. Sek. D.K. ii, 49. m0G""Ge3"' Por. Ka1,. K. 143. Also as numerative: cJltfut-,ooGm'lca}: the whole body. Bawd. D.K. 35. 2. animal, fellow (of human beings in more or less derogatory sense) cll'l& -,~n=rog:Jo 711 roc:o ( roc:oo) ,lj~""GrmEn the creature called a vulture. Ledi J(eim, 109. eGrmc:"i1S' ~:Groro.= Chweta 88. oaGm'lC:rr.,Gm'lC:11~001c:!'inroo50,pc~C91'h1~:c86rocl:icg;c11 ha ving assembled all sorts of good things, their ten fingers brought together above their heads (holding between clasped :iands flowers, streamers, et.c.). Gata P. 47. o=eaGrmc: !latG~:roe3djGro'lcl:ioco11 good and bad dasa periods (in which favourable or unfavourable planets rule). Maha Thuz. K. 130. oaGm'lC:oaqcl:icJlGIDte3'"~corog:Jb :io.,,11 oo:i,c 7::i1:i:ieirnc:~11 ~GOO'lCGrmC:ro:oli11 Gco::irnc:Gmco5m Gm-,c:ro:911~Grol:i91cl:iooo5olin method of ascertaining prosperity or ruin. LHGK. 225. rmooo<9-,@:,ljroe3m-,,11'lrl.iSua'lro-,rr., om-,c:fficl:i51~0001o,pua')= "3G'123) mem?S:G?: djro~j, 'kau'!) 'za good quality-Chinese fish-paste sauce of g. q. Tanaw W. ii, 22. <>Gf'lOOOOJQ'ljQ:oro.,,ffi~"'Qt~roo 711 ""em? S, CX) !) ~:11000 7C:'lJCcJlC0')"'1!11 9' kaU'!) thi'!) think good-thinking haughtiness a good thing, proper behaviour for you. ibm. i,

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14 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 128. c1m """"'"'6,.,@., ono1o;r-,n gE:mro~roEcJlonooE'l 00, ' kau'I) 'pyo speak with good intentions, for the other's good. Colloq. o,ro0j1""a?E:11""Gm?E:cqE00?11G-:,ro~ SrxJ,51 oaGmliarliijE'Jj1, &.lSGOO?E:nrli"Gro:~0 the trouble with a wife, as bad as the dnliculty of dislodging a fish-bone (that has stuck in the throat) with a finger that is too short to reach it. Tedat B. 184. o;iroo 1, oaGmS90')GOlji~" Don't act so as to give others a chance of showing you up, don't give yourself away. Colloq. Daunbyu. u,qGacf.ioo, "3G>IO?l8'>afiaicf.ioo~"Q1 @!'in oko oka, prob. opposition, obstruction (the combn. taking its meaning principally from ""mcf.i). Sun. 2. a lift up ", a piece of good fortune, a win at long odds. """'i1'"m?E:.,.,,@E:n c:8a'j:'l"'~'2rliop'lc6ro,"'l:n.n c:8Go 1rli CIJIEro,:"""mSdln a great piece of luck. Sun. c 1"ro,"""mli dlcJlC2ro=:=11 @:~:,i:mG9?c/lrliy11 Bcf.i~:~r/i~:cx,?dln I thought I was going to have a special treat (the princess had said she was coming ~ro? -liringing nothing-, which the speaker interpreted as meaning naked). W. E:o?~O 009?1G(2m"ro,n"""mliooro~ro?::n,n put the horse in the high field, among the outsiders. Sun Mag. G:n?oo"l::S~,"""cnS@ 'l~"e3"'lrocf.ign a kept woman, who succeeds in her gambling against heavy odds. Saungba 92. :n,E,"""ro'""'lr-"~'"' ==oo~EijE:n~""..~:n,nc 1@~"""ms.iiondln though this horse has been given a lot of weight he is capable of winning. I am backing him as a hopeful outsider. Colloq. """mli :n~, a gambler who takes big risks, a person who plays for high stakes. Colloq. ,,.~ A oko n. popular spelling of ,,.i;_~ elder brother q.v. ,,.~ B oko n. body. v.s.11. ,,.~..Sn ,,. cli A okai, n. [ cljrli:n, to bite.] 1. the act of biting, a bite, an ache.cljrliaEo,:n,Gg:""59ro""rllro=?E::n,n a good biter. Colloq. G2,l?E:""cljrliGo 1C1JcJlnroGOO?Cl'.lGro:~6 ""'ll~""f.'' okai, o'khe aches and pains (generally rheumatic). Ek.DYK. 153. Form ~cli in combns. as in Ga1E:cljrli;s? headache ; and as numerative, as o?rocljrli a MS. about I in. thick, which can just be taken between the upper and lower teeth. 2. An exact correapondence, agreement of quantities etc. e'!fficf.iE, c!l;c=Ey?ncljtoa=?E;~dlo'ioacljrli '11~~.,.,ffirow~o 1;~11 ... mqro,:dlcljtGoro;s?lji~cljo'i""cljcb'lJ~O 1dln (as the monkey said to the elephant, "our wounds) are exactly the same size (as being measured) by each of us with his own cubit." So in the present case each of us has it exactly to his own liking. Up. Muh. K. ii, 28. ,,.~c/i B okai, n. [prob. etym. connected with oacljE, q.11.] a aprout, shoot. """2il?rlin ""~" ""ffi~" ""cljrl.iGOO:G:nSn "BY Go T G:nS1111E"O'.llS=:@:11:c8~="' when four sprouts appear from the earth, four renowned monks will pluck them. Kawi Then. K. 28. 8Go:>?rlio:Gmli ... oacljro~:n?:11 ""ffii@:~o, San Kein. P. 32. ""cljrlia4::n?nc!l'l~Gmo,,, bright mosaic with gorgeous representations of sprouts. Abir. P. 88. W~ . G?ro;,oo'i=j1~:o;,ro~611""cljrli~::nbi:~robo,i~o,i+:11 .. ~",G'\:roEn wrote 61 stanzas, sprouts and fresh buds, tapering pinnacles (of song). Udein P.154. ""1cli ""Elli" okai? onyu'I)' sprouts and twigs. Dharrvmawza Mawg. 4. ,,.1c/i,,..,~-,c/in okai, ohnyau? sprouts. Dh. Pala P. 60. Form ~cli in poetry chiefly in combns., as first or second member, as cljrliffi~"tc/lrl.i young prince. ""~ 6 okai'I) n. [ cljE:n, to hold.] 1. the act of holding, handling. oacljb(2o'in tio.:>EcJlEq'lu""cljE:n.'ll?no~'IIS::n? ,~nm?GGocf.iai:@oS'l~'ll?'IJi9"'rli.JlE:n,n MMOS. ii, 159. oacljE ro:G.Jl:n,m?:11 ~@bGoll li\?BbGOn oa:>?ro~EG:n?Gdl.Jldl:n. ibid. v, 29. v. a1so ibid. ii, 185. Form 16 in combns., as ~rllE!iPdlE ibid. ""G;,o?EcljE superior servant in the house of an official or in the palace. U Paw U, 100, Thath. W.K. ii, 189. ,,.16mm~ okai'I) oka'I) n. [c/lEm\s calculation q.v.] number, quantity. @G')IIG')(2rliE =d3:n?wfn""cljE""m~n'll?'9~c6 o 1na;irom?~I people in general, of common race, whose numbers are very great. Ag. Va!'. Dham. 3. ,,.~61 o'kai'I) n. [cljE::n, to be bent, curved.] a bough, braneb (larger than ""aro), a bent object or attitnde. ""arli,rnarli"" rorlin oaoo;i:i, 0Egro1oacljE:roE,@ii~11 when the tree falls the branches become fuel. Sagab 75. Used to translate P. khandha trunk, or stem of a tree. Kinkha N. 460. But khandha is translated oEo, at With. At. N. 11, 422. G~s oE@:qjo'i~:Gorocf.i=~ir>=?oacljE:.Jl:""arli.Jl"ll?'II Thath. Wi. K. ii, 169. ""8?8~ m~6,,,. .. cli G(20'.l?IIO:,rnG:n?E:e:JS,~n 'kai'I) okhe? the boughs and branches-of false belief in the existence of the soul. Ledi Kein 36. ')o:>p>i:o 1,""~""G"" ,,.~6,me?c oaGOO:""Bcf.iw~u o'kai'I) ohnyu, bowing before, reverence. Zdp. MS. ""~""GOO. ,,.16,mi61 ;;,,Eo, o'kai'I) 'Jai'I) truckling, subservience. Sun. Form ~6, 'kai'I) or 'gai'I) in combns. as :niidjE: 8i? 'kai'I) branch of a tree, Groorl.iGOO:cljE, /,au? 'le 'gai'I) the bend of the bow, the

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTION.ARY 16 bow ; and also as independent word (prond. 'gai-o) a handle, etc. v.s.v. djE: o:,1.6 rarely ,,.1 ko n. [djoS the body. Thls word appears as djo in 0.B., so that the modern form should be dj. The oS in djoS and ,,.djoS has been added under the impression that the word is derived from P. kiiya.] body, substance, main part as opp. to extremities. -djoS110Y.lOOIIOij?ll -'ljoS5op~oS11,arooS,.,djoS11 Anthol. ii, 307. djoSoo:,S~?ro,:, ""~djdj11,.,djoSO'.l,'.li""ro.aooSaooS,..,rooS OO'.l?6:oo:,?6: ... "'Ec/lE:ooS;,9 on his royal body a blouse, constituted of a body-part, joined at the neck, with short sleeves. (Prob. describes upper garment as worn by some Chln tribes whloh is made as follows. Take two strips of cloth 12 in. more or less in width and rather more than 4 ft. in length. Lay over shoulders one on each side of neck. Make lower ends even. Stitch from bottom (1) at sides, leaving about 6 in. unstitched at top as armholes and (2) at front and back leaving about 6 in. unstitched at top as neck-hole. When worn, cloth falls away from either side of neck giving effect of short sleeves.) Thuw. Mya. P. 35. "'?:ao1poSdjE:;goS~oS~11 toS""'\SG,.,djo\i11~~q""Ei3?01 body, expanse-the central point of the expanse of territory withln the boundary pillars. Rup. Kal. Py. Z. 13. ""dlo5al3?oSal3?oS11 ~'8G'""1'JoSOY.lol aa 1c/:i.,a 7d3.,,,.,'ls" a potsherd of dry substance. (Spelling ""dl at Anthol,. i, 158.) Shweliin. P. 21. t?:oonE:~""dl ( o 1-,,.djoS) ;,9oaB: ( o 1-~:) J ~E:o 1:xi.,.,jro,:<>a 16:;~""B:o,<>a 'f0"'8'' ear-ornaments consisting of two portions known as body and tail ( or by some, head and tail). U Pon. M. Com. 170. "'1 'ko n. [dj:"'. to rely on.) something on which one relies, an authority, one who relies on. -""<>ro?oS,.,ro?:11 ro~oS.BoS :85:~11 ~5,'l~~dj11 cfl~""'"1""0~"'i" e?cf.it~q".loS!in Sc8~""dj,cfj <>ao?60'.lo5n as if getting rid of ban, and beard would end trouble, there are new ideas according to the fashlon. Native sense being in abeyance, they cherish Milinda as an authority (referring to the 16 ""Bcoc8<>~?Q or impedi ments in the wearing of hair and beard. M.P. 20 and Rhys Davids' translation, i, 19). Tanaw W. i, 138. G?t""dl"' o 1o9?.Jl0"'i" Sun. ,.,cx,oSo hc/l:,.,=,p-cflaoo?oS"'@~~oS~"'i" ~"=~Ecc:o".lbo hoE~O'.lOOiia?E:yoSop.,So\in Sun Mag. C\l~'O'.l'[)O'.lo 1:".lE ,,. 1:,,. uS 'IE"'O'/e3"<' ' ko kw worshlp, religious belief. Colloq. Tavoy. ooro?o1811 "'~"'1"' o:i5:~: ,.,c13,, G~::i'J"3i611 hmi 'kc without true-speaking books as authorities. Ayus. I(. 56. 0>33odi ?goba? n.pr. [! Imphal, which is also perh. the origin of cl.lSooS, one of the 101 races of men in list at MMOS. ii, 36.] name of a town in Manipur, and some times of the whole country; In the Hmannan account of the submission of Manipur to Bayinnaung, the people are referred to as m:xi.: ko'Oi or ko'0 and neither Manipura nor ""83ooS is used. Hm. Y az. ii, 352. ""83uoS occurs in two documents of whose authenticity we cannot be certain : an account of an embassy sent by Bayinnaung to Manipur (Al. Ayeb. 155) and a royal order of King Thalun-<>?d:idj ro?:<>_"'S-<>')<>o TB:i7t?'~'""83ooSm"'i'" Anthol. ii, 89. ,.,83 ooS 1s 1;1-ot used m accounts of Alaungpaya's campaigns (l(BZ. i, 289), but there are references under later reigns. m"'.:E:c 1:0'.lSn""83ooSE:c 1:0'.l811 Manipur cavalry and 1 Imphal cavalry. ibid. ii, 96. For strength of these corps -622 and 961 respeotively-v. MMOS. iv, 267. gc,8~'\~ GoE ... oErooSd35m"'i""83ooS~'l<>:o;i?:GroG:x>?a?~n did not enter Manipura but fled, via the shallow sea, to Eggabat. (From this passage it appears that the shallow sea 1 Loktak lake-lay between Manipura and Eggabat, the former being probably south of the lake ; ""83ooS would . be, or be near, Imphal.) KBZ. ii, 195. ""83ooSGE: king or ruling prince of Manipur. ibid. 351. CJ. also Tharapu K. ii, 76, Nayaw M. 101, MMM. 51, Kutha P. 113. "'"a'P t?kkoya n. [P. akkhara, a syllable.) 1. a syllable, a monosyllabic word, (very rarely) a word of more than one sYllable. 0~ ~Q?O'.)?:))?')E,"'oS"'oS~?~O'.l?:il03G.GO 10'.l?'\ O'.l'fO'.l'ldl"""::,;""o;l'PO'.lai:cnai:8:xi?~oS@E., the fact that native Burmese words are generally monosyllabic. WLDK. Pref. GQa;~6ioSn <>G~G:x>?""""'WO'.lai:11 the first syllable me ". ibid. 11. ".li'~"=""cw:xi. the syllable "OU' ". Thi"fl. Sagab i, 39. CJ. U Pon. M. 40, l(utha P. 22. ei'l""e'ilS =?E:ao'['<>m?E:""'W" the syllable "om" (used in incan tations). L.I. Mand. K. 97. ICai'ISai:nGCO:ao~::x,?.,~: '9b@?11<1>cw~~1101ro~o$m?:11 four lines (pada) each containing 8 syllables, making a stanza of 32 syllables in all. Anthol. ii, 15. ~a1021o$ro,.,~01~:ai""ro:aotp0'.lai:~"'i in the Pali alphabet there are 41 letters. Kogan P.T. 128. """.l'P@S'P'lE11ro.a:pE.,,.,?GC?001"'3?Ga1En "il"'"'iioSa5o,;,?<>a 16:~<>"'?g 1f'lo 1:ctl the seven" places" in whloh sounds represented by letters are formed. (Usu. five7E and ;,?<>a 16: being omitted-giving gutturals, palatals, linguals, dentals, and labials. Dur. P.G. 2, Kogan P.T. 130.) Thath. Wi. ](. iii, 122. """a'l8"'"'' ~:)),'.l?O ... """.l'P:,J?:So;l?CT.Jlfoll GC\Y.X/hg 1~:ctl 00.:11 t?khoya?pa'beda'. Akkharappabheda is the method of analysing groups of letters, constituting the books of phonology and grammar. PPK. 112. ,.,rooS "'"a'P'lll6 cfldl"!G. e?khoya jou? you must inscribe the above mentioned letters whloh are contractions (whloh represent words, or have mystic meanings). Tharapu K. iii, 94. "'"a'Po~ .,,,cB= e?khoya zi.-o table of contents in alphabetical order, index. PPK. 1. ""'ISGO'.lS """a'Po-, ooS t?khoya za epistle-in my royal friend's e. Hm. Yaz. iii, 224. ;>""CW'~O'.l """a'P"'~ =?~611 e?khoya shi-o' superscribe letters. Kawi L.D. 348. Gt?oS'['<>oEn"'?:dj ~GoS11@.dl"lJd:iO'.loSc "'"a'PooS "')?Ge}II t~khoya ti'Q record in writing, in the pages of history. Wiz. Py. Z. 7. "CT.ll?rli

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16 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 00cfi,:rarg'[>~o.,<>o.:ib1oo;;~ooEo1o.:i.u Up. Th. W.K. i, 15. om~: ,:ra~:~r/loorg'[>o~ooEe1~~ ... ,:raoocfi,:rarg'[>~l6rJlcJl,'l"e1" e?khaya tazei? mark consisting of letters, inscription. Tharapu l(. iii, 94. OJ. ~J.ici,;;JloS a letter representing a planet, as for Saturn, o.:, for Venus. Nat. Lan. T.K. 81. ,:rarg'[>oo .,oS~6"'1:cJl:~o.:i.oo~: followed by some ten Pali words consti tuting the dedication. Sed. Pak. K. 51. ""CS'P~.i; o.:i. e?khaya tai? to administer magic letters (as by writing on a betel leaf or pa per and giving the leaf, or ashes of the paper in liquid to be eaten or drunk). Tharapu K. iii, 208. r/lo5~,:raoo 15:ci'lr~co.: ... cocfio~C'92CQCGo.:>Oa'.l:j~Ucocfibcorlicmoj\ o,pcfi ""CS'Pd! ~oS'lo.:i.ne?khaya 'tho tattoo letters (indi cating their units). Hm. Yaz. iii, 99. o.:>oSqo.:,oS'l~~o ""CS'P'"' ~w~mf~~~cfi~oo~:@S:n e?khaya pada' letters and words, script, printed character. Star. .,5.,.,5,S~'Pci'l o.i""~Eoo6=~ . ""CS'P~ ooo.:>~oo""~"""il"' e?khaya bouy an ornament worn by kings and queens (not mentioned elsewhere: nature unascertained). Kawi L.D. 349. slloooS o.:>~"3J'.'~~, ""CS'P@tn100,:,@t11 e?khaya byay gatha byay apptly. repetitions many times over of written stanzas. (0/. o 1oo~!J~'i\~'llo'ir/l"'l:-also written o 1cx,~91'i\~'llo'i on same page --& gatha written out eight times. Tharapu K. iii, 90.) Yama Yag. i, 5. ""CS'P"Yi;" e?khaya hmo a spell utilising written characters (in this case two magic squares, the material on which they were written to be burnt and drunk in liquid). ibid. 87. ""CS'P"""" e?khaya yamaka' repetition of letters, alliteration. In .. s,'11"'"'E:oSu <>C:'IJ~=~oS~ the same letter is repeated throughout (,:rarg'[> emOJ<>m). Repetition may be in pairs, threes, etc., as ~i= 'IS,~~:,:r,,S., ~5:oc: or qioSoo~='>'i\~11 'P"'l;o:,~ooo'i11 "l"o'i"o Kab. Band. K. 252. <>r/l,:rao,1o:icfl1lro~11o.:i~~gl,~ ... gl=:c 10~11 ""CS 'Po c8 11 e?khaya woli' -'Ina, ha with symbol of length, 8a with i ... this is my row of letters (P. ava~, row), spelling my name (Maha Thilawuntha). Tdg. La. P. 7. Also ""rr.l'loe (from P. val,i, line, row). Teind P. 38. ,:rarg'[>oc8 seems also to be used loosely as = alphabetic order. Private letter. ""CS'P8883""' "'l'te1 e?khaya wei?payla8a' a sub stitution cipher. Lawki Th. L. K.191. ,:rarg~ro, ""'9'P9.i; 000~:@E:11 e'khaya hwe? P. akkarikii., a game, possibly guessing at letters traced in the air or on a playfellow's back (v. Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, p. 108). Thokthu N. 24. 0:,~11 ""CS'P"'iu"" e?khaya 8iycha algebrageometry and a. (from the use in the latter of lettexs corre sponding to :,; and y). Duwun. OOIOIQIOOIOl~~:o.:,. 0 a" CS 'P <>,~11 pathame?khaya first letters, first members of each group of five. So, qcl:lro--, oocl:lOJ-, OO?gJand oe,<>rg'[> Kab. Th. Th. K. 130. 'i6""CS'P" ooo.:ioSo~'l~"'l'~'"'I'~' <>~11 pou? e?khaya the letters of words, the spelling of words. Kab. Band. I(. 362. !t"'""CS'P""ilo,""'9'P mula'buta' e?khaya are mentioned Tharapu K. iii, 236. The original (~ro) letter appears to be o, and the derived (",loo) letters o and 011 Nat. Lan. T.K. 72, 153. Rem. In this sense, in combinations "'P khaya is sometimes substituted for ""rg'(' ; as ij5:00<>'('1iai?ia~cfi~11 Burm. Comp. 45. O?o->B 1:i.l"'P'~ with the written style, title of Subadda. Wisit Sagab 98. 3. arithmetical figure, om~: o~~'""rg'('II om:o.:,~~""rr.l'P" letters and figures. Adik. K. 11. :>--J~'t"--e--oo o.:,.oorg'[>""o'i~ Mun. Yaz. 85. ~roooai:!\cfio1oo.:i~,:rarg'('= om:0'3,:r,,"il ~o.:,~,:rarg'[>oo~:c/;'1'dlcfi~11 (The signature waa app. the figure 1 which was interpreted as Mon (soothsayers' language) oik. oik by expansion was read as oik hu phoa, which was thought to stand for oa hu phoik ~o;i...,cfi I am not afraid. The letter was from the King of Siam to Bayinnaung refusing a white elephant. Hm. Y az. ii, 364. 4. SJmbolical uses. (1) S~moS:,.:,~~ scriptural reckoning, by which the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet are given numerical significance :" J ;> 9 :') Ii 'l 0 I e 00 0:, .. 0 ro C 0 "' q e Q 5 :/. 0 an 0:, CD 0 g \I OJ 'l a:, 0 (') Q 0.:, 0:, s oo e.nd the other 0 O') .. vowels used mainly in mnemonics. Lawki Th. L. K. i, 192, and Burm. Comp. 40. Referred to as o.:,od,o:,o.:,~~ at Kab. Th. Th. K. 138, but this is not the usual meaning of that phrase. (2) ""rg'[>f>""~ l,et,ters appropriate to the name giving planets ; hence to the days of the week. :,--0~ J--t~ ;,-o1 ~ :'.,000: G~ 0 'P"l oo and ro, ~, >, ro, OJ, co, 01 G, :,.:,, Q, 5, :/., 'l other o, ro, C!', q, o, s c:,, ::n, 0:, o, m, vowels C .. oo, oo, o, g, f 'P"l represents Wednesday afternoon. LMTTK. 64, LHGK. 222. (But WDTLK. 10 gives OJ and 'I to Wednesday forenoon and co and o to Rahu, which is prob. more in acc. with popular belief.) Used in naming children. Bedin. Alin. K. 89. Used with numerical significance, as in mnemonics for dates, the first six columns giving the numbers 1 to 6, the last the number 8, and oo, g and \I UBU. indicating 7, 9, and zexo respectively. JBRS. v, 47. Used in calculating whether trade in cextain goods will be profitable, the goods, acc. to initial letter of name, being regarded as under influence of the planets. Bed. Thin. K. i, 68. In the case of inanimate things, if the names have more than one syllable, the first letter of the final syllable is taken by some as deciding their planet. U Pon Taya Oom. 176, Bed. Thin. K. i, 70. Rhyme giving distribution of letters as in table above at LMTTK. 65. (3) Nationalities in and near Burma are under the pro tection of the several planets~S: (Cambodian) Shan, Talaing, Kadu, Burman, Thet, Kala, Chinese, in order

PAGE 54

BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 17 of the columns in the table. JBRS. v, 47, MTTK. 2. But if o, and 'I are placed in 4th column and ro and o in the 8th, Kadu and Chinese change places. WDTLK. 10. (4) So5:r.,o5 general sympathy or fitness, o\l5,,,mESo5:r.,o5 fitness for alliance in marriage, and g 1o5:r.,o5 elemental sympathy supposed to exist between planets possessing the same element in male and female (1 positive and negative) form, and hence between persons or things born on or belonging to the days of those planets. There are corre sponding antipathies or unfitnesses. g lcBj and g 1o5o for pairs of planets given at WDTLK. 10. For mnemonic formulre v. LPBK. 83. The following table is from Bed. Thin. K. i, 49. So5:r.,o5 I o\lSooo~E I g 1o5:r.,o5 So501 'I 'lf:r.,o5 'I I o\l61ooo~E 'l~'I Q1o5'1~ 'I :,--{i i I 0-'.) :,-~ O-? ')-'.) :>-<; J-:-<; ;>-'.) J-'.) J~ li-J ?-J ?--Ii ')-<; I ;,--o li4 I 0-9 ~-<) J-0 I <;-Ii <;-<> o--;> 7-li Applications arc various, the general object being to secure good fortune. One way to do so is to give appropriate names. Thus, the four central gates in the fort at Mandalay were g 1o5ooa 1, and the initial letters of the two syllables of their official names are in the glo5:r.,o5 relation, e.g. oof,~, the central south gate. The other eight gates were So5ooa i, and the initial letters of seven of them are in the So5:r.,o5 relation, as 'l~t23 the western gate on the south face. The south gate on the west side was named oe3:~ooa 1: and the syllables are in antipathetic relation '1:r.,o5, this being apparently considered appropriate to the gate by which corpses were removed from the fort. KBZ. iii, 273. On the occasion of a visit by King Thibaw to the Mahamuni pagoda the six regiments preceding and following the King were to be ,~on (i.e. So5J:r.,o5 and glo5:no5 respectively with the King. Hl. Ree. 19. U Tin's note ad loc. implies that this was secured by the formation adopted but does not explain how. In arranging marriages o\l5,aa,~ESo5:r.,o5 is the most desirable relation between the parties. (5) g lcfu>c,;i'[> letters representing the elements. Various groups of four are given in books but the best known group is ciatio, commonly called the oo, or m,11,~~11 These represent o loO'JGOO 1 water, o 0008 earth; which significances are variously explained. L. Thip. T. 85. Much used in charms intended to confer in vulnerability. The forms are derived, c from markings on th~ tail of a c 1,~. (ophiocephalus striatus), g from a peacock's ta,!, from the back of the crab, and o from the shape of the sun and moon. Sama K. 99. o is also apptly. derived from some marking on an orang-outang's body. Tliarapu K. iii, 135, Yama Y ag. ii, 28. (6) Trisyllabic metrical feet-gaoa, ~a6:-are designated : ---by a, ---~~---~~---~~-by .. -by "-', -by 'I -by O'). Burm. Comp. 36, Dur. P.G. 334. Disyllabic feet are designated : by roro, --by oo, -by roo, by oro, a, being the initial syllable of a,'11 light and o of o~ heavy. Dur. P.G. 334. (7) 1oro:o:,.:,rr.io;i'P letters appropriate to the four castes-the 8 vowels ; en, c, c, ,9, Q, m (and apptly. intervening letters a, o, 0011 oo, "" q11 5, ~ 011) to Brahmans ; ro, f, u, ~. oo, 'I (and intervening letters) to Khattiyas; a, and o to the third caste, and"-', u:,, and Oto the fourth caste. U Pon. M. Com. 145. The opening verse of Paramidaw Gan Pyo-~~Sal\61E-of which the words begin with and a, letters appropriate to a prince, is considered to be in keeping with the subject, as referring to a prince not yet a Buddha ; as a Buddha the Brahmin letters would have been appropriate. V. also Burm. Comp. 45. Different o:,.:,rr.io;i'P are given at J(ab. Band. K. 212 """'II 9ca,' n. [ "11"-'23 to fall. J 1. downward motion, something which falls, failure. rr.iooS:11rr.i:,.:,o511oa:ipCT.11@6.i-'llo5li~"-'iicm 'lrr.l"11=9~00~:otorooli11 awaiting the fall of the royal face water, i.e. till the King had performed his ablutions. U Paw. U. 100. "il'll~'rr.,"11om~o5cJlo l:,.:,t~ou 1"1'" other people's leavings. Colloq. mooo,~m,'F" ... rll@o5a'j9"'l5cJlo;iE~o5'11 ~o5'102311o:jldjErr.i"11li~rr.,cr,methimg dropped ; but the proper use of this combn. would appear to be sense 2. 2. nice adaptation, appropriate apportionment, accordance. :,.:,9~"'CT.IIO'>"=m="-'"'8""~~ a life that suits your wishes like that of Ghosaka-setthi (DPPN. i, 828). Bedawun K. 17. ro,6"31E J<;OO """11" by annual instalments of Rs. 2,400. Hl. Ree. 86. ,i,~o5o5o95Jy11"1~cidl11c!l~, 00"11"'0~"-'23" as if getting rid of hair and beard would end .trouble, new ideas arise fitting the time (when the D

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18 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY time is ripe). Tanaw. W. i, 138. o5ot:m~ii"""11 according to the likeness of weariness, labour in vain. U Pon. M. 101. 1,p~,m~cf.i:iooooS~,01,oo@oo:u """ll""t ""C\l~dl"IR~='i11 aca' ana' exactness and accurate adaptation-as to place (position of tongue, etc.), means of production and enuncia tion of sounds. Win. Th. K.119. djJiO)tcorf.i0)oo"1!oa;;oo~oo 'l'~Y~" oobc86~~.0:u. rather English in the niceties of deportment and in demeanour (a vague journalistic use of 000'.JIOOf)Sun. QE:~"\G""~s """110>?: d3,cao:u. a ca"il"a careful adaptation-plays with c. a. so as to enjoy royal patronage. Antlwl. ii, 133. ooS.oE'lt.llm~y~co;;, ... dlG:u: 00Ji:nJiQ~')GOO~C11 ,,. dl,,. "II II ati' aca' exactly to require ments. Tanaw. W. ii, 38. 3, literal mea.ning, mea.ning. oo8g 1Ji11 v=:00"11cflobG.0'fali)om~, oo~E:""O'.IIGm~rf.i~u,cqE ... vm~, ... Gfi!Gt~rf.iQ~II if one takes the literal meaning, there is an inconsistency. Nib. Pak. J(. 40. m:nrl:i0j1o'iflm~,00"11cfl:nS,9~~.ii@c,oo"""IIS ana aci'/1, pain. """116,,.~S aci'!I alyi'!I n. [o:iE"-11E:u, to be conversant with, experienced in.] familiarity with, skill in using. rr.,moSu moS~S:E:11 @~Q~~o;iEGa;>~a;,Gm~E"'~" Ga;,mrf.iooo:iEoo"'IIE co,:c 1~djQmt11 skill in handling boats and oars. KBZ. i, 96. ,,. "II~ aci'/)' n. [ "11~"', to practise. J practice, performance, habit, conduct, right conduct. 00Go;,11v~oo11ro~l!l''""~ro'l11 'lirf.iSooO'.ll~"oS:oo'II~" in the case of the eyes, habit ; in the case of the stomach estimate ( of its requirements, i.e. selfdiscipline as to amount of sleep or food taken). Owad. P. 12. o:cfloog~10j1d)ooo:i~11 (judge) a plant by its blossom, a man by his conduct. Sagab. 76. Gm-xf.i~=0'.11~" Nip. i, 476. Gm~E:G:u~ooo:i~11 Kabya Kye,n. 24. roE:1.\66: ~o5G:u="11~~"'0ilcfl~B"i"'~o5:u, sordid and boorish way of life (of the Sudra, or 4th caste). Adik. K. 286. q91')\= ""O'.ll~cflo:i~:u, austerities. Zin. Pak. K. 63. ~vEG:u~oo0'.11~" pure, blameless conduct. Weth. J. W. 99. O'/o5Q~s:u~oo"11~cfl O'.ll~G:U~')O)t:11 PPK.189. Q:U9Qo,~:u,ii """11~"" 'IJO:cfl~"l6 :u,cjlcm,x@~:'lG"'"'il' aci'/1' aca'/) (perh. physical and mental conduct) conduct. Than. W. iv, 13. Q=m=u;~ """li~""lt" """il~CO"i1'lJ"'e3" aci'/1' amu practices. Daung G. 19. Oi?GS' ~:o'ioo~oo


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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 19 one who has discontinued his religious practices. Zin. Pak. K. 64. O'.l'[):,~ """ll~"d-,c,I; ~""'Pcf.iooc'P'P"E?6 o 1cq;E11 ocir/ phau? breaking through, away from, lawful practices, acting improperly. Up. Th. W. K. ii, 76. So .,. "II~ ,.d., c t cir/ phau? pyarJ more corn. in coll,oq. ooE:o?:~:ootIDiJcf.io?:O'.l? .,. "II~ 8 Ii t@n ocit/ phyi? has become a habit. Colloq. """ll~oS11 cir1' mya? righteous conduct (tr. P. s,l,a pa?ipatti). Tl,ath. Tham. D. I(. 2. "'"Ii~'.!'-,' j, cir1' 'hma commit sin. Thanweg. P. 28. "-l!~iE:11 .,. "II~ i 6 o)11:f/c:(~E:)ro?QD ocir1' 'yair1 manners are uncouth. Poluin Py. Z. 74. """11~"316"" T11 oo:i?cf.i """'.l'""'lJ?cf.iroooo::Jl11 ociy' hlya?p, conduct is wanton. (roGOO: 1 = oa,:-like a worthless monkey). ibi,J,. 63. rljoS@~O'.li~ 0060::in ""ll~ooS11 ociy' wu? services to be performed. Mal,a Link. W. 49. """11~,Ba, ~E,11o?~cf.ioo,, GOJ?OJQ?S~E:11 ocirJ' Bila' practice of morality. Mahawth. J. W. i, 192. B23fil?~:nn ""@3"""11~ .. t?Ycf.i'Pdiu oeay aciy' conduct, doings. Udein. P. 124. 00J?OO'lOJ?ql,1 Manir. I(. 457. c 1: roooo?E('3!E ... ro,1S:(S:)m?:oaoolS:11ro'llS:(S:)=oa011ii11 (of Bayinnaung's wonderful cooks.) Hm. Yaz. iii, 67. oaer-i ~oa,5...oo 1E,oa"11iiroc:,:,"iln (among Anoratha's captives from Thaton.) ibi,J,. i, 251. oa "II 6 B oci? n. [ CY.JjiiOJ, to twist. o:niiroii:,:,, to be nice, exact.] anything hard and close in the grain; (in combns.) economy; refinement. o90GOJ?l<>gGOJ?oa'[)08,[IIO;,:i?:OOflG~00 E:11w"11=E,11 OjlOO?oaCJ'.lliimoro:oaog~?:,:,2311 He is a tough little fellow. Colloq. ~'"""11iidJE11oa"11iio..-:,oS:,:,, nsed tightly-spun silk for both warp and woof. Colloq. """11!;.,.a,6 !j\ye~?ro,:,:,2';11 r,ci? li? carefulness, economy. Antliol. iii, 146. ""O'.liiioaroii!j\yc8~dlS::,:,, SQ{Jah. 124. ocm:<:onEro:qab"CJ'.lltr/l=:11oS~11oao:niioaC9Jiicij:B.iiE:,:,e';11 re finement (in this case refined table manners). Hm. Yaz. ii, 167. Manir. K. 463 in corresponding passage has oa"11iioaroii1r-ooS~?GOJ?om?:rljooS~11oa"11ii""CqJiionw?'"~E11 aci'() 'kht mass-goods in quantities like little mountains, with which baggage-carts could not cope and which were impossible to lift. S.D.Kh.P. 9. oaoSB?cSfi}",J?'1'110:,'P:roS: ""CJ'.lloa~?'[)~""O'.Jl:==.oa"11oSr/l~m?:11 Etadeg. W. 175. :,S:,:,?~'fl"'O'.Jl:~11 Udein. P. 32. dl'lE:oocf.idl'lE: """11~'""'1Jl6 OJ~OOJGOY.J'l[?III 'ciy chou? summary. That!,. Wi.K.ii,25. """IJBm~c,I; iiGOJ?oaSg1o5000?:11'cir1 omywe in synopsis. Thi"{J. Sag. i, 192. """IIB''lll6 oS~cf.i~~m?:11 o'ciyjou?inbrief. Athanna.K.45. cJluaSg1oSrljon """IIB''llt' 9ro5~dlOJ?!I 'ciy 'chouy to summarize, compress. Ati thon. [(. 211. """11,1i~=dldlG?6~11 Than. w. iv, 42. ea "'t.a, """IJ~Dej, 911 'cir1 'si giving a concise exposition. (<>,: to tie, bind, prob. nsed for rhyme.) Bed. Wiz. K. 149. """li~'U' j1e,lc
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20 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY out. Sun. 3. confinement, custody, restriction, obstacles, adversity. ""'llt611oaarooa~11roc:~qcr.11 wE:@..,faa 1Edjoao:ie G8')C:i.o'.l~~=Go11 under arrest. KBZ. iii, 21. GOO?C11G,?C d3S11oao:ic:( oao:ie )ma 1:"i11l'3JC\lo5aroo'i11 you are free of, cannot be confined by doors of gaols, lock-ups, or any place of detention. Tharapu K. iii, 67. """llemS oae,?5oaii "'l~" 'ci'() oca~ confinement, imprisonment. Maha. Thuz. K. 273. CJ. Bawd. D. K. 76. oao:ieo.cJlG96Y'""G0,00"'ll9 dJdl'1:llf difficulties, troubles, adversity. Sagah. 125. c1dj """11em<>8.,61 CXl?l:llfy?11 'ci'(/ a'myauv in confine ment. Zanek. J. W. 11. GOO?coo: """IIB'" Gt'l"i1" a'ci'() kha'() undergo imprisonment, be confined. KBZ. iii, 21. """IIB''II a'civ cha' imprison. Star. 00651,~dj """IIB'oo-:,111 'cirJ 'tha imprison. Al. Ayeb. 30. "~:GWS """IIB'"oo-,6 io511 """'ile''lJOO?:G1J?oc8 'ci'() dau'() gaol. Star. """IIB'""'' ycgrocljG1JS11 'cirJ 'be the misfortune of imprisonment. LISK.45. ffit(a'ilt)o?~cri oao:iE: {m"IIB) O.JGOY.l { "'""'., )11 ~[o5(~[6)oo?oa23 klen a tube. o:i23, "'lle3GOO?m hollow cylinder, quiver. oa6o:i23 needle case. B"'1123 rocket. Tib. gan-[zag] tobacco-pipe. A.C. g'ie'fl{J (K.W.F. 63, No. A 261) soup-tureen.] a jar.-~""'123 GoJ?ro11-.8~:11 .8e323(o:i23);i GOO?Oo5~:11 OOCT.IJ23Hpots and jars of oil, pots and jars of butter. (P. original not traced.) PPK.160. """Iii C ci n. [Keh. !ago'() the foot. Pwo Karen kharJ the foot. Tib. rkan-pa the foot, foundation. "'1123, of combn. ~Eo:i23 to be firm, perh. connected with this or with """'1123 A.] a substructure, pedestal, platform. Goa?o5"11~11-~~ootc/lE:ll:OO?:djoao:i23o'ia;iooroa11"'1o5G"'ll?roBS9 ~<6&jcoa6o'i11 the fortifications should be built of masonry on top of the oao:i2311 ( """'llffi is explained as = P. vappa, a ridge made of the earth obtained from the moat. Vappa, not found in PED., is Skt. vapra, mound, rampart.) Kawi L. D. 233. "fG"'ll?roc!lf:l9~oaD:ll239b9ogi1oaCT.11230023"l'dJ~911 pedestal (on which to place relics). (ogi1 P. vatthu, foundation, and 0023"1' are both = oao:i23). MP. 155. roc-Jipoo?c djE:c8o,i'31G:ll?9a99"'"'1123dl~o
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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 21 scope. -oo::Ji11""o:ituSooo~:1100Qo5ooo 111"""l~ttoS '18oo,i<>t~ ,ii'l'""CT.JiuS~o!i11 PPK. ~8. -~~6~o~o5,..,o:iiuS~o5uiio5 the latitude (open to the smner). Magh. Dev. L. Th. 260. cE:4'fo:,uS11ooo:iiuScJlGro~6:ro611 for waves the sea, for expanse the heavens. Yama Yag. i, 144. e1ce'iooo:iiuSm11ta;,uS ro6,Jo511 with wide intellectual grasp. Zawta Kum. Py. z. 7. 00~6a;,=we'.iGCT.J1~6~=o:ituSmGcm:n11 of wide activi ties, meddlesome. Ooll,oq. ooao~o5oo~,e~:l)GO'.l~6c 1:aouS11 .,. "ll cl5.,. i oo~,@~:,ji.cm6ro'l'11 ace pyar/ width. Zin. Pale. K. 401. o,i<>;s~,ii:B~: . m "ll cl5 ""<>'> ~g:x,~ooo;i6::x,~~11 ce 'py, width. Adilc. K 85. ~a:mw~tuSuuS """llcl5 mot111 ce 'wu?} extent. Thath. Wi. K. i, 149. t"5uuSo!i """llc15,,.9s, e'.i'l111 ace 'hu?J extent (! journalese for preceding). Sun. """llcl5ill6 ace jou' confinement other than close, e.g. confinement to barracks. Ooll,oq. romuS ~tc,(o,i6,)0316ro,,11s8 ,w6,~6: """llcl5:,,-,, m:n ace 'IJa plenty of room. Maul. Yaz.Py.Z.54. """llem"l)cl5 'ci?J ace narrowness-width, i.e. extent. """""""llcl5 'PY" ce width, measurement across. 2. unabridged form, expanded form, fullness, excessive extent. -11e'.i@6e'.i"ll~'@6:11 P. 8gps,11-ooCT.JjuSG'l'"'~"'l~"dju10011 Atithon.I(.340. oao:iiuS alju1~:Gro711 Mani,.[(. 445. """llti)"""lle"' ~UJ8'"''ll ... e~68S:o.iio511 ace 'ci?J in unabridged or abridged form. Kutha P. 4. """"llcl5"""llcl5 aS:qiuS" o)11s11:@iist~o5 soo~6:sqicJl11e~oSsu 16:@tu 1,~11 ace ace endless talk, ra1?ng up old scores. Hmaing Hma ii, 45. OJ. Than. W. ii, 1. ooaS:oo;;~w.iroS"'IJ~cJl ""B~""~ """llcl5""8'>1 'll~'8~"'loS sao~6~oet0i~B'lt~uw. ace 'pwa at great length. MMM. 19. ao6,~=CQl~GO'.ls~.~""'"11uS""~~-@iiso'III let there be no extension of the original dispute (no subsequent litiga tion). Yesag. Kh. Py. 100. """llcl5~ @6:c/l~~ ""'!J?II ace eke' expand, speak at great length. Zinme P. N. W.12. ooo,iuSo,iuScJl11 """llcl5o,S, ~6~@11 ace 'ta?} have many regrets, longings. Anthol. ii, 239. """llcl5o,o~ t~:roe3soo~6.~oroo!i11 ace dowi?J' fully, at length. Dagon Mag. o:iiuS~,:x,@~11oao-:iuSroog~""'I"' Up. Th. W. K. ii, 136. !ll/o=:11 """llc158.,, e'.i~~11 o~:x,~:djcJloSu1c ace 'pwa be unduly profuse. Kahya l(yem. 66. """llcl5 88P'l oa~,@~o;iffi=~9soo~oroS~~11 ace wei'thara'. P. iitthiira, extension, detailed explanation. Bawd. D. I(. 1. """llcl5 ~S111 i>rouS~6: ace 'wai?J be unduly verbose, waste words. M. Sanda Py. Z. 103. """II.,, 'ea n. [o-:i~::De'.j to be striped.] stripes, something of striped appearance. (usually as second member of combns.) -0006:-~~foad3llo5o:D~cJlo5a~~11oaf.,,:r.,; ""c,-, S """l)'> mo~s:D~08:l("'e3~ro~mro: . oaro6: . ?Ju 1~uoo6@6:'!'ls'l'o5~6 :llo!i11 ocau?J 'ea speckled and striped, variegated in colour. Kawi L. D. 355. cJl::8row,oaairoasu1o5 .,..,-,di"""lJ'>' ~ro6~6,su:x,e3~.,,,,S11 opyau' 'ea spots and stripes (here, moral blemishes). Bawd. D. K. 56. ""~ A ci' n. [o'j:x,e'.j be slimy.] slime, slimy substance. (prob. only in combns.) -oaso:1100~11 -ooa6:006:aljro~1mij 116~"~:D~,:r.,~00~11 ""~""'81 ... oo5"lo5~:D~11 ci' 'chwe slimy stuff. Hmaing W. iii, 4. 'I~=(~) ... oo\j ... 2S, roS:o:D~aaffi(:rao'j}oa~~'!'l.l'lo!i11 Some of the algm are like green slime. Mod. Bot. 40. ""~ B aci' n. [ooS, oa~, a great quantity. d.j and~ = to be in great quantity.] a great quantity, large number. -""'ii~' -~u~=~11oe3:oo:ro~1C\1rr.,o'joo~:11 a large crowd of people congregated in the capital of Yiinnan. Anthol. ii, 365. oa~to5rll11cJl6:a:B:x,~11..,o'jG~"i111 (as quoted in l(ogan P. T. 362. But text of pyo reads 00~11). Weth. P. 18. ::8'Bl~fo ... ,,.~,,.011 aci' 'lehe large quantity, abundance. Kutha P. 22. Of. Bur. Z. P. 62. =~6cuSi11 ""~""""611 ~Brooo~:11u~e3:rr.,~,,~11 aci' twe great masswealth, including lands in his ownership, in g. m., as big as a small mountain. ( rooo~: and roro~, mean "serfs", but this author is fond of euphonio ro's, and possibly co is euphonic here and ro~, = held, owned.) Nemi Meg. P. 12. :x,6:rr.,~~110.,c:quc/311 ""~""S,d.111 ci' hne' large numbers-of troops belonging to various regiments. (ooc:quc/3 expresses the same idea as ooo'joo,c """'l = mass, quantity, multitude; uc/3 rare intensive suffixv.s.v.) Kutha P. 20. :D~6~oSmo5qj~1100:Booa,c ""~oa[\j_,11 oa"'l:oa~o="'l@6:11 aci' 'phyo great quantity-keeping (produce) in his bins pressed down and in g. q. till it rotted. (oa~: from ~::De'.j to be full, to swell up, prob. for rhyme with rr.,"'l-) Bur. Z. P. Com. 83. ,,.a,,,.~ 'khe aci' a large quantity. Wok. Pale. I(. ii, 312. ,,.~oS freq. ,,.~oS cei? n. [o'joS:De'.j to be hard, indurated.] a hard lump, tumour, bubo, a coherent mass; a feeling, emotion of any kind. -00~110.,~1100~6-oat?oaou:11s'l'69 oa@'JoSs:DS a tumour which does not come to a head. Alamb. K. 84. oad.jo5oo T "li6oao'joSoo T ~~11oost~a'!Ga 1c85:o 111 Advt. ~'.loS:De'.jroe'.j:o,sQ:B~:;:x,~6:ou 16:~~U'IG'.l"'l~"'IV~~ o:De'.i@~ .,.~c60110 """t,~=oaoo5rocf.roe'.iGt~6.i11 acei? 'khe lumps-the earth element can endure only in the form of lumps (coherent masses) of many very small particles. Rup. D. [(. 106. OJ. Ledi Kein i, 52. cJl'!'loS@smroe'.j:11 :,jsoo2oS, oad.joSoa~clj, !l2oSso@i1 rr.,aioaif.i't':D~ ""s~e, feeling-did not succeed in analysing and understanding the feeling of fear of sin in his mind. Tern. J. W. 64. C\1":BGo'lJ6 :x,~o,~cJlC\1:Booo-x:"16:De'.jalj@:oao'joSoa~~tro~,-/l a hard lump in the mind, feeling of soreness, grievance. Thein W. 135. Form d.jcf.ioa~ affectionate feelings, love. Kum. Py. Z. 9 .,.a, oaffio5 ( :ra~c6) 'lehe acei? solid particle. Alin. K. 23. ""~t cei?J n. [O.B. oarll~1,d.j~:x,, to curse, swear.] curse, oath. -0081,-)~~@6:11 P. sapatha. c 1rll~o:D~oarll~11 the curse which I invoke. SIP. 62. iaS,,oad.j~m~:D,~11 ao,oS:n:D~Gro~o511d.jta/ls~"G'l'o5ro~"i1'11 She swears roundly ; it must be true. Ole. Yaz. Py. Z. 14. ""~t 'cei?J n. [rll~:11o'jt"'""rll~ number.] number. -"""'I oao.io5 -~op,o'j~"'"il"':B~,11 100,000 gold nilelcha pie~es (nilelcha = a coin of varying weight and value). Sl,wehin. P. 51.

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22 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY .,.~6 acei~ n. [O.B. dl6 kip ten. Shan dl6 sep ten. A.C. zi,ap ten men, ten (K. 876).] ten, half a score (used only of rational beings). mooo5 -oon'.j611c=?cnaE:"l~"""-,Ecfl,, 80,000 princes. Dh. Pala. P. 11. ""'4J a'ci n. [8~: a glowing coal, ember. Marn mi gyoi, charcoal, a live coal. A.C. ,xuai ashes (K. 109).] a glowing, burning mass.8:~n scmcf.i~:8'E11oo~"'GO'.l?C:11sma,io5"l?C: :jln just as a straw fire dies quickly because the burning mass is not good (not lasting). Nemi Meg. P. 27. me'j:~:~:n ""~"'Gm ... roE,@:roE:m;: with never-failing lustre (of the site of a celestial mansion). ibid. 49. """'Ill acu' n. (o,um;: to be filthy.] filth. ""e3~"0'" -(prob. only as second member in combn.) ~a1moocn .,.~i;'"'"'lll" as=E:~cfl,~0<9~=S..~11 anyi~ acu' metaph. sinful acts. Thath. Bahu. 6. -"'!Ji a'oouv n. [rr.i{:m;: to gather up.] category, sphere. ""~""~' root .. =:Boai:11 oorr.iill~ll~ (o;>~o;>~)11 a;>e2"1Jo5 a;,~<91cf.i11 the sun and moon moving round all the four islands and their whole sphere (prob. the 2,000 smaller islands are meant). Bawa Mawg. 66. mn'.j6,cs=cf.ism? <>UY.l:oo-:,:~o;ifo,o 1:o 1:~ '"'n:iJi oS =o;imo 1:~ ..'iaoo?:11 a'oouv wiv included in-one or other of the categories of wives. Vidh. J. W. 47. g'jsmm;:""c"100~1ooa1:iooll0100~1 ooc.100.S~~G=ytfo 1:s=oo')m?~o,iEoorr.ii:oEs= ... ""'l=so m;::11 Manik. W. 33. djE:s'l:!9;:s'l:,.,g:(oorr.ii:}oE'P110ic3?6')'" 8:g?:G'l'" education and economics which form part of the business of government. WOB. Spelling 005: also found in a heading at Hl. 1/,ec. 238. q~ro'P~~11~8g8moo11 """'IJioooS "'1Pi\C"lo5"':roo5sm? ... 000016,ooooS~n a'couv dawiv within the sphere of--oompanions who are self indulgent, belonging to the category of the sphere of devotion to sin (where ooo:ii repeats the sense of P. 8mm sphere). Kawi Th. K. i, 87. Rem. There is some confusion between oorr.ii:oEm;: and oo~:oEm;: to be intimate with. Thus oorr.ii:oEs==:e~so5oEo~"11o5 Raz. Ayeb. 41 means on account of their intimacy regularly invited him ", as the Mon original p. 161 shows. And oo~S:(""".llS:}oEm;: is given as equivalent of P. in Ledi Pandita's P.D., which suggests """ills, rooE as a possible alternstive to oorr.ii:moE above. n:iJli""."'llll' m;:: """ a'cu the best of all. Nana S. P. 49. ooa1 """-~"""'Ill!' ro;::60'.l:~a~sm?oo?: afe a'cu long beyond measure-a son that will be no good within a measurable period. Tem. J. W. 103. '"''l"l~"""'llll' aluv a'cu excess, exceedingly. '"'"'II a'ce n. [o':iim;: to be wide apart.] distance apart, an article of open texture. -Opp. oollo5 a0;~,.,E,,~00"'1J@:11 Don't try that : it is far from you (far beyond your capacity). Coll,oq. Minbu. oollo5oocf.i'laro?:noo"'1Joocf.i'l""'?"' shall I weave close or open in texture Colloq. <<>n:iJ? a'cv n. [~m;: to be superior to, gain advantage over.] outdoing, over-reaching. roE8,@E: mE:~0060'.l? c 'k.~u ... c 1m=~:GOO?C=iJ?ae'.jn I will not submit to their attempts at over-reaching (here, gaining advantage by trickery or deception). Sagad,. W. 24. """"'ll.,g, a'cauv n. (srr.i?E:m;:. to feed, tend.] a keeper, custodian. ooc8.,oo~6 ooE:o~Eoo;:s~E,ooG'T.l?C:ooc8"' Anthol. ii, 127. """"'lli; A sometimes ,;.,.,Ji aco n. [P. akalu, agalu, agaru ; Skt. aguru ; ""~ prob. from the -lu, and ""~ from the -ru form. Does not apptly. occur in O.B.] 1. Aloes wood, eagle wood, agalloch or lignum aloes ; the fragrant resin infiltrated wood produced by diseased condition in trees of the genus Aquilaria, Lam. The tree which yields this fragrant wood in N.E. India is the species A. Agallocha, Raub. 02:ffiEs=mlim?:rom?:0E..'ioo;iit1 ""6"-lSc8S:m611ro~oo6oo5ro:n Kogan P. T.153. Cl'.l')Go:m'lacf.ii,oosrr.iStcf.imnm'lo;iocn laurel, bastard sandal, dark-coloured Chinese champak heart-wood, and pure saragandha. Banl. P. 17. ooffiEoocE11oomE=sc Tn """"'llli"",t," Gj!il[s=~:ro"9roo1:n aco anav' champak smells-sweet-sc.ented varieties (of flowers. Prob. a quite vague use.) Adik. K. 46. """"'lli; B aco n. pr. a region or people between Chiengmai and Wienchan (Linzin). Hm. Yaz. iii, 58. LHRK. 253. """"'!Ji; C """ n. [srr.iSm;: to step over, pass over.] what surpasses, the act of passing over (prob. only in combns.) Gf?Cm~'('lic/)oS..CJn:iJlin:iJli akhouv aco the act of jumping over. .,.,."'!Ji; D aco n. [O.B. akl,aw. srr.iSm;: to be famous.] fame, a famous person or thing. mroE:n =c""l)?OI ""60'.lSooG<>?II oosrr.iSmmE~~"'" He has fame, notoriety, but it won't last. Sagab 125. qg??""'G'T.lS.,~sgTj, Nemi. Meg. P. 26.

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 23 CJ. Po Htin Py. Z. 87. Oj/1le1ifJY?""""'P:T.IH He is very well known in this village. Coll,oq. ~CO<>?O'.l?~loooo:pc 1:o 1: ~G:ll?"IJJ;""'l cJlc/lG::i.n2oS@~ oro zeya' fame (the whole phrase being = P. yasakamata, desire of fame. UPDK. 14. <<>"'lJJ;<>o011 G~'lcy?!lGq,?C11~GO'.l"}o}II ooo zewa' fame, distinction-destitute in a pre-eminent degree. Yethe Pyaz. 9. CJ. Kinw. M. 9. Variations such as """"'lli;""'"lJ;.,.,.,"ll11 ooo zeya',co 'zeya' also found. Oj/GO'.l5"il@oSqllcoa.icmc 1:o 1:o;iG:llScm: ... """"'Iii; o> .,.,., dl@ii GOO?C~oooSc:co.:ooo 1:11 oco to'zo fame, distinction. Hitop. J(. 27. cJlc:oo'f's.GoTY?""G? """~J;o,'l 9iiG;;=11 oco doya' notorious. Sun. mco11 opp. OOG0?C: cause S, ~' dl@ca,icu ~"ES ,~..li"?:B"l:,:io)~ II ooo:jl' cJlBc~ "3G0?C:c/lo23?@roc@c!):B'P:lle111 J(awi L.D. 270. roe.So 1, ooii '[' I 9bC\l~:c/lGrr.>OG:ll? oa'i_, .. u, ~~Sc,irr.,;;-oew Go11 'co 'be results given (by fate), results, consequences. J(abya Kyern. 126. m<>-:,S:m6oiicf.iGf:l-,.ljG=o m?!IJ 'caur1 'cc cause and effect. Mahawth. J. W. i, 64. 2. beneficial result, benefit, profit. Gm?c:o:jj:11GCY.ll'1 opp. oo@ii detriment, fault aoc6cca:,:i?ec,di:,:i,m?:ooci: y@:11 U Pon. Taya. 22. ~too0ii1,1Sooo:jj,iBoS~::,:ial16c;;? y:,:i;;?:11 if you hate a man, his actions seem injurious (blameworthy); if you love him, beneficial; if you esteem him, you are disposed to be generous towards him ; if you love him, yon pity him. Sagal, 93. Gro,ooo:jj:m?OJQ 1oSGCO:o 1:cJl "llt:oGoo:,oSc/i Se. Kk. 81. cJlc:"i1Be11l?:qllooo:jj::,:i?:ll;>?Goo5@oS @:cliiooo:i:cJlG'JIS(oS)j, Ledi Kein3. Gm?C,1!YGO'.l?C:1!~ m?0?:c\Jlcgji~fficlii11~ootoo@ii:,:i.oc oii m'i_tf :,:i.fo}11 'co 'ne the profit is little-:if the rich man's son will be acting against his interests m becoming a monk. Zin. Pak. I(. 87. ""llcf.irr,i8rr.,a:jj:tc rocu 1cn on top of disgrace comes disadvantage. Zawta J(~m." Py. Z. 21. uabc86GmGCO: ... cocf.i'l!'):rr.>O'.lc:~y@~1rr.>11cf.i oorr,irr.,o:jj:;;;:ii~am11 if the English girl insists on shaking hands with me it will put me in an awkward and disadvantageous position (because if his sweetheart sees this she will misinterpret it). Than. W. iv, 77. ~GCO'.l00,1le1 m
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24 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY ](. D. ii, 97. roiiooc:~G;,u 'lcqc111ili~~,~imo:i!ooo:,~~wa woio5a'll" one's fortunes will not flourish (m being prob. understood-lit. the giving of benefits by fate will not be strong). Chweta Pref. arouS.,o:,.:,~.,.o:j!,oo,rooSo'i11 he will usually derive prosperity from land, etc. Bed. Thag. K. i, 212. 88o!lm.,.?PR?=>!J3o:j!:oo:uhe11 they flourish just according to their deserts. Thing. Sag. i, 249. GW?C;,t~ ro.,n.,.o:j!,oo,Gan your luck is feeble, you are unfortunate. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 64. rr.,;,.:,co'i= .,.ollt<>ro 'l"lj'"l""'?o1;,11 'co phol,a' fruition, blessing (P. phala). Dana D. K. 32. g'ja"11''l'cfl::8~11ullllr-'~:,j=p11,ii@?G=> .,.nllt,(3S 0:,, 'co phyi~ benefit accrues. Kawe Th. J(. Gyi 12. (Distinguish from '"'o:j!,lio:,.: ="is the result of"; .,.o:j!, 1.) 'ocm,cfl:;ll=?'looto!l11 'co me' profitless (they had been talking tiracchii,nakaiha = animal or childish talk). Paya N. W. 21. emffiGDh .. .,.o:j!,~ao:,?""fcf.ico6co, redundancy of language. U Pon. M. Com. 80. m"JS: ,~OO(,llil)i9caii:wi1 'co 'caur1 pros and cons-gives him reasoned instruction as to right and wrong (rr.,a?c: prob. being au expletive to .,.rr.i,), Shwep. W. 59. .,.rr.imoc?co, :;ll,am?C:ffiti9i:c:B~CS'"'S~" Pon. Yama Py. Z. 48. ooolj, ~,a:)GUJ?cf.i ... GOO:COGOl?COC:o.:,'lPcflcoS,cm ... 'lr-''"',cfl@c =C13JCIIGO T u,ioliG;oo1ooo:j:03c@?c,cfloo,@t:coo5w'P" asked him for an account of himself. Ghweta 187. 'llcf.i,?'lJC::;llc a92aii@,.,.cr.j!,.,.c?C'!C:roc,aicNJ'1w.:;llcqc11 the pros and cons of the matter. Sun. .,.nllt, B 'con. [rr.i:o:,.: to be broken.] something broken, a cripple. -rr.i=?""'P''".,~ ... &/.<>.,~ cir1' jauy' ... tho' jaur1'= yasma ... tasma, because ... therefore (in word for word translations from P.). Ok. Mal. K. 5, Anthol. ii, 174. .,. B s ':II =mwacmc:~oo."'ila=ot"'aw~ao:,OI .&I ':II oco-x/icmrooo5('?, . g'jcflo'ioo@iicfl'lo'i" ocir1 hmya' . tho hmya' so long as ... for so long (P. yava ... lava). Narada' J. W. 21. So, .,.S",11 Gro?cf.i,1 Kinkha N. 57.

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 25 "" C ,I oo, , cliroQoo,c~11 di ,I oo, , '"9~@E: ... "~'l" oci'!} {Ju . tho {Ju the man who exerts himself will not have to endure contumely. Zanek. J. W. 29. ... c~ G00-0000'.lE:G!)') "ou>'>I oci'!} lirJ ma'ya appears to be used by some speakers in sense of loving couple ", cf. oaE A. This use, not recorded from literature, may be a reminiscence of Manu, in which rnErofom.,, in sense whatsoever husband and wife" occurs as opening words of paragraphs, e.g. Manu 140, 142, 145. .., oci n. [,oo, to be bright, translucent, pleasant]. 1. something that gives pleasure, pleasurable feelings, cordial relations. "l""'iP'oo.,110S,oo.,~o,Ge3.,E.,,.,009 rr.,ro9~@E:11 i='l. oat9llo5oil'' wG:d.iro,,Goo')E., if one rubs it with scent so as to give pleasure, lovingly. Parami P. 91. mE(m~)=,e'icJl11oae'i<:IP"'l'c!l""o500, I write and present a friendly letter to my elegant and learned lady. (The letter contains a mnemonic for the selection of metrical feet suitable to the subject.) Kahya Kyem. 145. o,.llSro~"'llo5" ""~""e'l" rndldl"l:E" ci onyo reverence-his position will be assured and people will voluntarily revere him. Parami P. 54. 19o5~.,"?'P'oo, ... ~,,. i G=E~oGmw~=')Gt,')8o1mQijCJa<>gGOY)II oci ophyu cordial approval-the inheritance consisting of the qualities contributing to enlightenment which Buddha gave (to the Order) with his cordial approval. Bawd. D. K. 94. omi;pli<>E:aijE,rn(J?""""o5 ""~"" ro 6: 8o50E1M1~"8" oci o'li'!} cordial relations-the kings will be friends in cordial relations with each other. Raz. Ayeb. 151. ir'"il ooB,cJloa~Eoaooo5<>"i1008cli""~'O'.)')II ir''\1'!\l;ccq ... oo'): ,,. !D "'" G<>g:r:,So5;E;Ecooro,,11 fJCi .ea feelings of cordi ality. Yaz. Kyaw 36. roo5Goo')o5 ... oa.oa=;i?')G=E Gro.,E:Go:o 111 without any unpleasantness. SO{!ad W. 160. ..E:mooe'i'P"il"lc!l ,,.~.l!.S "'=Go]11 ci shai~ arrive at pleasure, be delighted. Oolloq. i9o5G00~:~1c},a.,,o;?O'.l8""93 ~e'i=rr.>e'im'la/lo5a/lo5ro,,11 I am now delighted at the prospect of meeting the Buddha. S. D. Kh. P. 85. rr.,~:SS: 00."1116'!\lcJl ... ~e'l""i oci nyo 'zour1 who reveres us most. Saung Ba 38. ...~o,i ci tobyu with cordial approval (appearing in some texts instead of rn,rr.,@). Bawd. D. K. 94. ,,.~'"'"" C1Jcfu.~.,,~G=Eo1<>,GCO')II <>o=EG=11 oci to0a with ease, without encountering opposition (in his negotiations). Ayud. Sh. 49. oa=a/lo5 "t'P~" ,,.~~&; Groo'i11 oci yai~ strike on joy-his distress was turned to joy. Saheb. W. 23. ~:m=:80cllo~611 Miatari (Henry) Brooke, sent by my royal friend the King of England. ibid. i, 171. 3. the open doors of the senses. o5o 1,11g 1'1" g 1'la/loo,m.,:oaGo 1o5 ooE=E:cJla/looro,:11 11djg 1'looe'iroe'i==g 1q11 <>11Jg 1')<1,19,cGo 1000001:ro,1rpi,ioroo9CJO'l:GOO') rr.ae'iooQ 1:oaroE:o5o 1:roE:cJlO?~" ""ll"""I~' oa6e\i""0" rn:ooaooo511 ... "M";~ don't imitate the King's way of looking round, his glance, his schemes, his voice. (The exigencies of rhyme prob. account for ""0 schemes, following oa.=.) Owad P. 14. aa.='lJE:si'ioo. their glances met. Tet P. W.190. ""t:Goo') rr.,.= a strange look in his eyes. W ,,. cli A oca~ n. [e3o5oo, to eclipse, from Sk t. grasta, seized, eclipsed.] an eclipse. o5E:i@~E, 'P
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26 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 4 hours 1 minute and 12 seconds. If, therefore, the period begin a little before midnight, there will be two rr.,e3o5 days.) Thand. Let. K. 31, Irwin B. and A. Calendars 14. ,;iiooiirr.,oJoE:o;iErr.,O'.Jlgi""00gtrr.,rocg~'iP'cJlOi1"' dig on the first, middle, and last days of the Thingyan period. Kawe Tliara K. i, 77. 6o5 ... o.:iffi~rr.,e3oSgi11gt--ro6o5 00ee3oS11 (list of words spelt krat). Bur. Sp. 39. m A aca? n. [e3600[ to superintend.] person in charge, corporal, or functionary of similar rank; supervisory capacity. @; 6"il11@66'l=C\l@,,,.@~, ccti=:9rr.,go T o;iE~oc:B~, "~"ii :oo:@:011 ~:oo:@:JGO'Y.i~tE:c~s:_;g~@:i)~6 (~o5) rr.,e36rooS~rr.,~ccS:c:!l11 Nga Hmaw commander of the royal boat, with second-in command, stroke, leading hands and rowers. Sinhyugyun Sittan MS. dlrr.,cigo:,s:_;o:,gccoEc:!l~11 o:>'('o:>'['cqEroiiG=oS,,.@: e\B~cco:0011 dle1BgG=oS ... OOG'):roiioooooS11 dlooG'):o:>CGUl".)oS grr.,ooS;.,.~go:,s;roctiooooo5cqE11Ga 1E:GrooEooe36roii=oS11 Tav. Y az. i, 77. g31Gros:_;a,,,.GroS,;9,,.'.l~:rooS~C\l" J II forerunners and criers with corporals and writers, twelve (taken from) those on duty. MMM. 65. ooo;iE:"ilc:!lcJlro[:i,8~..,~:'P"~o:,cJl rr.,e36cco: person in charge. Hm. Y az. iii, 295. ~=2,iE,o.:idj.,9 ~011E:eotoc:!lJ GcmoS m 6 6 m" cljoSG0i11 aca? ama' in supreme command. Anthol. i, 295. m.,. .. c ycli1111.."'111 oca? ama? superintendence-his plans as the man in charge are good, but he omits to communicate them. Wisit Sagab. 28. m<>O'>~m c:!l'i9G0'.>900~E:'/:'l6cJl,,.66groooSro.C\1]o511 putting the three members (eyes, ear, and tongue) under a strict discipline. Temi J. w. 165. ""O'.JloS(rr.,o)a'ifO:(a@:,)11110:,oSo.:ioct11 the unfortunate creatures. M. Sanda Py. Z. 36. o.:,og m"lo5006\iop,65=0E:rooSG~1 making an insistent de mand. With. At. N. iii, 340. mSmo,6:11 ~o.:i~aE:yo11 oca? o'tir1 severity, cruel treatment. Ok. Yaz. Py. Z. 35. G31Gros;::ll'llE"l"E""ij=oSo.:i@911 m 6 m a,f, Ga T . 'llE:~'P" oca? o'te insistently, strictly. Up. Muh. [(. i, 219. Ge:):Ggooo;ioSooe36,,.ro[:iiooTrooo.:i~ooa111 time of financial stringency. Sun. ::llmGro::cf.oo65,,.o'>O'.]jG'('oS gtgo1m:n11 =ro[:go.:,'lJEO'['QOOOII difficulties, troubles (caused by oppressive action of others). Than. W. iv, 50. rr.,65,,.cn,;9'11:G<;.l=,roo:nu Dag. Mag. ""~rr.,aoS""66 ooro[o, Band. Mag. roEo.:io: ... m . m ccco:4@~"''1lo:~E11rooiimcfi,;911 oca? kairJ apply strictnessif their husbands restrict their movements. Daung T. 69. ~oS;,n,;iia'.l')y1~g-~GccoE::ll~~E11[~0,o5c'lf '"~~E"l.11roS:p6o;iE mma,f:16 o1Ge30Eo, aca? 'te kair1 do a hold-up. Sun. Ojlgg:@:m m"ll j, .. E..,3.io.:i[ o'cir1 aca? trouble, a tight place. CJ. amicus certus in re incerta cernitur. Sagab 125. Rem. ;>11 on making a rough calculation. Colloq. 2. Force, violence. c,.f (! o[::i'l) O'.l:::,.:,[ o'car1 'bezi wolfishly. Colloq. L.B. 11901:o6moooGIY.)8:8,,,.e3S::n<>,rocti'lloS"'i" coarse, obscene language. Colloq. L.B. 11ot~E"l11 m:l! cJl11 ""'i@9=G""oE[oo]'['::,.:,[ o'car1 hmu' force-a soft answer turneth away wrath. Anthol. ii, 128. ""'1!"", onu' ' car1 matters which require delicate or rough handling. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 59. m E3 acar1 n. [e3::,.:,[ to plan, intend. J plan, design, intention, thought, idea. -lloSo,:11 'l~cti'lloS" ~::lloalii3@iicli11 ~aa:ipE: ::,.:,~S:::,.:,[roa=oS""-""'lm:cliGt'Peii"[" dl'lm.,cJl~mS:~o,e3cli11 intention (but seems to include the thought in his mind

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 27 before the stage of intention). Bur. J. W. 4. aigS:a'lr':r.oo, . ""0'lJC:C7/Gfe3:xi, of the same mind, purpose ( each intended to eat the choicest food received). Up. Muh. [(. i, 288. ""0c:BIP''!io5ai:,;(ilrl311 J(awth. Pyaz. 14. :B6, ""0'1B.OGgOt:11~tc88o;iit:com11@,Rt=:n;;E:119C:co,:;ii:xim11 It was Sakka's plan, and it was approved by the supreme_ ru_ler over the island, the noble country of Burma, who 1s hke an emerald flower of coiled hair. Anthol. ii, 33. rocl/6:c:!j :xi.eo 1u5ro9,,.,e3;~:ndjErJl1o5~11 Thanl. Y az. 2. "l"P' ""GC00C:r.oo5:xi, . Gi]01J:1CrJll'11aC9CG=~ro'96:9o511 . gh clltiG'IJG:xi::x,~"1""0Biie:J:xi, they thought to themselves, the embryo Buddha still hankers after the gold throne ; but there is still the business of the path. Zin. Pak. K. 50. 000~""e3ro,:""oot~:Go::nu That's not a bad idea of yours. Kh. M. G. W. ii, 37. "l'lca'llt8 m@mt>f 00:m'll,'0"":xiii 9"1o5G'IJ, oca!J a si plan, advice. Sun. ~epmro""0""8(,.,o,) @ii:xi, scheme, plot. Hm. Y az. iii, 6. o 1p'lro;iio 1::xi, ... o,ir.oo5GcmC:c:!j..\i m@m c,;o-, s II ""G0,"""'1Jm:xi,b~II ca!J shau!J aim and endeavour. Nemi J. W. 40. m@m"'l!' ""G'l""'"PII ca!J a'twe plans (oaG",1: prob. metri grati.a). LPBK. 109. ::ocfi;u5ron:xi,;ii m@m~t m=,ip:Gt

:l0:Ggcou511 .. o,iromu5 m@nz. y@~11;mc:B~9(',ldj11 OCa!J kwe? one's state of mind suddenly changes (for the worse)--1!he may play her husband false and make away with the plate. Ok. Yaz. Py. z. 11. m@c aea!J !Ja' variant reading for oamc q.v. at Parami P. 89. m@r.oo5 S.,, ')9,'(", aea!) 'cha try another plan. Ok. Ma!. K. 168. 8t"''P"".Goo0c!ii0:c,ip:oom m@e.,c,J; ~G~ro;;o:x,0:xi, OCa!) nya!) ingenuity. Lubyo 82. cr.m,:oaGo:@:"ilE m@e.,c,/;c,o: 'lr''..:,6,,, OCa!) nya!) 'pe suggest, propose a resolution. Sun. co0dlaij011 o,JGCOo1j,oog:p~a;lt11 m@oot ;~11 ... oiim0G::xi~11 ocay da!J base design taking the accumulated property, callously and faithlessly deserted and absconded. Thuw. Thut. P. 25. c:!j,1,:e3u 1 < G::o5ro,o, OCa!) pau? think of a plan. Up. Muh. i 288. g)~ m@[il ~G:xi0oao,ibt ;;oC:Cl:JloS.1 oca!) J'YU' form a plan. Bur. J. W. 51. ~m=: ~( ~);~g0::xi."1""0~~:"3iE ... 9C:=:coro6oon saying to herself the child is born with a horn like a young buffalo's ", she formed a plan and addressed the prince. (The plan was to persuade him that he was not the father.) Band. Kam. Py. Z. 96. gc::xi.cl/amam m@c,@-,S: 03jC11 ::ou5:xi6:yoaco~my0a"1o5"il:11 oea!) 'pyau!) change one's plans. Col!oq. c1c:!jo)~')oo~0a"1o5:xi,:xi0ro,:"1 m@B~ ..Ii ea!J phyi? reflect, infer. Zin. Pak. K. 92. ~~0:c:BS m@<>G.,< ell ea!/ ,nya11? succeed in one's plan. MaJ,aw. Py. z. 38. ::ou5roS:m'\r'"\Gm0E:oaro< . ""B "11 cl/mcS: onm::nn aca!J yu take thought, try to form a plan. M. Sanda Py. z. 17. :SoS@S:lG::r.>:yago5'l*='"6oE:r!l"3iE11c 1w< oca!J ya' reflect, realize (the notion of form a resolution being perh. inherent). Paya N. W. 4. aa:io5c8y,,.,Sroi:o,~o5 Gf0r/3y""0'lll hit upon a plan-wise after the event. Prov. c 1c:!j@:~::xi,aa~:~r!jaaljrot"1 m@! 9Ca!) Ji' reflect, think to oneself. Maia Link. W. 21. cia6y0 m@11.6 o 1"111 mt9"t0 Go:'l8ir" o:r.oo79~0111 ea!) Jou~ have difficulty in making up one's mind-I have no difficulty in deciding ; I will not stand on my dignity but elope. (a suppressed before ~8). Tedat P. 107. m@ rJl c/lrli11 @;lr/3.ljro,:@;lmo hro,9,;1 ca!J !ai? follow advice, fall in with a plan. Pohtin Py. Z. 20. oo5m0:~6:~o<.i11 m@:'16,11 ooe0afirot:a;rn call 8a'ya!) be audacious, plan (and behave) in an outrageous way. Saw Pe Py. Z. 38. """i6m@ alou? aca!) scheme, enterprise. !!c:6"il1m@ sei''ku ea!) a plan. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 82. m., ea n. [e30:xi, to be of long duration.] a long time. 0,0~, c1c:!jg'j""'l8"il6""&9Gi'Gm0COI Manir. K. 501. "lt::GOJS,.,~0< you repulse me and seek (excuses for) delay. Zawta !Cum. Py. Z. 112. ,,.,E:rou5y0,8c:xi0a1 ... ""&aGro5 ... oo T a;,0~~11 dived and did not reappear within a reasonable time. M. Sanda Py. Z. 87. m.,mooS "'loro, . GB=o,t..li11 oca oti!J a long time, for long. Tem. J. W. 77. m.,mG~ Gt oca omyiv' long, for a long time. Hm. Yaz. ii, 41. m.,mnf gJttGO>S~gj a6::xi0::xi@~11 ea afe long, permanently. Tem. J. W. 81. So, mnfm., Je ea ibid. m.,, A a'ca n. (e30: space between, '90::xi, to separate.] interval of space or of time, gap, narrow place, between. 00&:11 ,.,rou511 P. 80'\11 ... ro'lG=~iicu5p~ G
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28 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY in the crowd. Bur. J. W. 53. oa,:~'lJ0")~6.o:m?:11 in the intervals (between doses of the other medicine). Gwes. Se. I(. 60. 6fYqjo56:,noa?:~oaa1~11 in the interval before sunrise. Yaz. Kyaw 61. :xiqoe"?i960'.lY~8"?""0?:11 between autumn and winter. Utub. 1(. 11. ~ij?~Y&)S"","' Athanna I(. 46. ~9'YO'.>:c/loa6?:6fY:x>~11 remain neutral. Manir. 1(. 427. "l~:cflo5"l~'"ilo5oa?:cm?:'!J:x>?@fu 1:xi. of a third party (in the way of mischief-making between two others). Al. Ayeb. 94. :xic;~c1;9oa,:cJl . mo1co~6,cJl'l~(~)~g,, making Kaviilamanta arbitrator between us. Bed. Wiz. 1(. 22. mS:8 ~ (oo8t) ~:~o'ii m">1m.,, j!o59o56cp,~o511 o'ea o'ea the intervals between (successive flags). MMM. 9. o:,c:coc,~96= m_,,.,..,u1di .ll:xi.m?:coo5,:i o:,:i oS:a.lC:""6a 16:ip"?C so as to complete the corners, i.e. omit none). Tad. Mawg. 16. QC::m:co5cll,, 6fi1:l,Jo5mco?:II 6=~mrn?,~II m">10>c,-,S11 6f?o5a66,1?Cm11 oS,"'o5a;>'ll~" unpleasant, irksome to hear. Mahaw Py. Z. 3. u:,'l:xi9cfl "1:11cm:oa,,,~Y~Y6cq511 does not accord with the report of you. MahawthJ. W.i,69. te'.i:6:x>? m">:mS ~o5u o'ca omyi'Y) hearing and seeing, what has been heard and seen, experience, acquired knowledge (in transl. of P. appassuta uneducated, ignorant.) Zin. Pak. K. 283. "lt"l~ c8 ... 6S[lo56o 1o5~:l'joa,:oac,p6mco.:11 u Pon. M. Com. 56. m">mS""l"'l. 0> ;~~~6="100~:~g;..-:,:~ 'ea o,nyi'Y) bohu' 8u'ta' learning. Narada J. W. 7. oa:xio5""filo5 co.:co5:xi. ... "'-'t"-'10'.>0>,:oacco.:ta:xi. experience. Tham. Sek. D. 1(. ii, 19. m:lim.,, ~~~o5:xi?:8:xi. Bi'YJ o'ea instruction. LPBI(. 107. mEoS A ocei? n. [ffio5:xi. to grind.] (In combn., usu. with oato5, from to'i:xi. to thresh) a hard struggle, great exertion. ffi:ffi:o~:0~!11 O>Od)O'.>O'/d)II C0?:6@?ccJl . m E oS m 'I' .6 o,. coo5c 1"?ooo5a 1~6tEJ=o'iiu acei? me strug gled hard for possession of the dagger. Winkan W. 60. ~I0'.)60'.>GY?Ca~:x,. 0Cn?!O>ffio5oato56E?f cooli11 having a fierce argument. Sun Mag. 6Y?C~'i\-o:;~ 96:.o'm mEoSm~6 mO'.>"'l~-o:x,. ocei? oh,iei? with great exertion (~o:xi. = to press down). Oolloq. Prome. Y")")GO>?cooffio5 oa~6e3:xi. tried hard, doggedly, to obtain. Ooll,oq. mEoS B ocei? n. a tumour. V. m1oS11 03 E 6 ocei'Y) n. [ffiS:xi. to coincide in time.] an occasion, time. oao>t11oaa 111 'llo5=-ocroao5"ll8rof:Jo5ooo.i6:~-oucoaffiSrot)"18coS:,,-0Jl in the winter time the crystal sun takes an outer course. Pon. Yama Py. Z. 51. m E Sm,. t ~'ll-ocqf . """?6oae3cJl<11'?" ocei'Y) ~phar.1 times-manyt1mes over, over and over agam. Anthol. i, 256. oaffiSoao:,~'lr'll-0"?6e36on~:xi. Hm. Y az. ii, 282. "ilto5 ~o'iio.,~Sr/l mESES ac?:~"l" ocei'Y) jei'Y) repeatedly. Zin. Pak. K. 262. mESEGma,Oa,O ... oo,ro5u16m co.:11 acei'Y) jei'Y) otha?tka? repeatedly. Zanek J. W. 47. mEGESmo>to>t =-oc:u~o1cqJo5i1 acei'Y) jei'Y) opha'Y) ba'Y) repeatedly. Pyaz. mES, o'cei'YJ n. [ffiS::xi. to be terrified, to scold, rate.] terror, scolding, threats. 0>6ofu,i111S,6,J-oo5.i 6.8 cr,io'i.,:,}.;11 ~co5a6oSSoi oaffiS:roo:,11 6-ooS~j, ';hen t~e edible earth was exhausted, young and old, crymg out m terror, being alarmed (L. Wid. Mawg. 39 has coco). Bawa Mawg. 41. gc,:x,-o:6co:rocoaffiS: the scolding (combined with vaunts) of the prince as he strings the bow. Zawta Kum. Py. Z.123 .ocllffi:O'.>:~:=,,.o5ol1 scolding. Oolloq. Danubyu. ~~ell mEG,.,..,.,.,i;, "~"lu1~'ll""'eei'Y) o'mau'Y) threatening language. Nov ..,ES, mo1: 60,l~o'ioa~.q:6=0,110>("))118ffi~" -0>60'.>-omcJlB,11 oa@:rll-OOO~~"l'm11 the elder son. Zanek J. w. 4. 6'"""1m,i8"l' ... 'lJ?l~ll~oa@,oam0'.>6")~8" ... 8"l'Co'i6")!'lf)!"3:-o,~co-o:'96:t.:o 1: :xi. In former times queens had their ministers, comp trollers, and clerks. For the lesser queens separate appoint ments of minister, comptroller, and comptroller's clerk were rarely made. MMOS. iv, 47. ffi&)C~016:l,Jl6=o5@: oo5rlic6:,n6oa-oo5ro~,oa~oo8!8 ... 'lr"' superior of the Karens (appointed by local authorities over Karen communities in a Burmese area). ibid. 122. ""~'"""tS ~yS:xioS:x,. o'ci oou? supervisor, person in control. Wisit. Sagab. 34. GO>-oo5rot:oa@:oa8!6 chiefs (prob. of rank of subordinate headmen). MMOS. iv, 47. ')OID-o m~1mm .. -lll~.,.r,',11 o'ci o'ke superior (village, or circle, headman). MMOS. ii, 173. (-ocmolioa
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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 29 disloyally, seditiously. l(BZ. iii, 207. 88oo?B.oaClj: sandal-wood and fondness for bastard sandal-wood. cJl1~8:~E:ofo,.~010j1@'l:GaTo:i. 'ci 'hmu principal officer, captain. Ati,/,hon K. 254. YC:j;l:..C:Yo511Ga1E: ""~'""9t' ~o:i'llcJli, OJ~?GOY.loo:o:i. a'ci a'huy persons in authority, superior officials. Hm. Yaz. iii, 164. m~e!BS a'ci ou?katha' president (of a society). Golwq. m~1c,-:,:e[3 .Jlo:i,m?: . ~?~8dlt''l"i1~ . o?:Go:i?cf.i~6Go:i?g ' ci 'za mye land of which the fruits were enjoyed by head men, etc., as official emolument. MMOS. v, 29. e'.jGOY.l mt?CYC:o:i?:,!; m~1eo:,-S C')tGo:511 if the old water does not descend (if the patient is unable to pass nrine). Nayamal. Se. K. 93. rr.,orr.,,11 downwards extraction, giving an enema. ibid. 96. qicf.io:i~ G')031ClioaG6:.'lo:i?118:oit'1'0Ja1""'e:J?"'t" Thula P. 19. ~~'l' rr.,gq'l8::i,p~11 -Lek. D. K. 120. oae:3?-rr.,g upstream, downstream landing-places. Parami P. 15. rr.,ooo!]CH~Grr.,?cf.igEoc.611 the lower country. Ratu at Anthol. ii, 227. 00:>?00G~OOGe:J?CGl1""'o~:BS11 Yatsauk, Yawnghwe, and Bassein in the lower country. Yod. E. 2. ~:~100003!"00 me m a'J II ace any a downstream and npstream. 1rnz. i, 52. "~ll~o1GooEClj:oii..fuo1"~"""o ""e:J?g~E:o:i?=" (vaguely) over the whole country. Adik. 1(. 184. cBgj ... rr.,orr.,e:poof.ig~@E:11 fame-the being well-known np and down the country. With. At. N. ;, 25. dl:.'l ma'>me 'licEooGOJ? ... i=~" anya ace np and down wind (preceded by expln. of P. o~o 1Goo as =e:p~ and ""'io1GOO as GOO~). ibi.d. 24. rr.,o and ""e:J? occux in village names, e.g. to distinguish the two Kadin's in Pakokku district. Rem. ""'lo5""o"6Ec1:@:oo:i roE~=o:i.n Manir K. 421 is represented by ""O?Orr.,o <>;lC ... GOJoo?oli in Shwemaw Th. 131; and by ka hnok lop tii ap'doa k,-u'fl{J ayauk (e;i611rr.,~but the full-stop should be after """'lcf.i) a big fish entered as far as into the Ayank creek, in ,~ \eGocBmcxn 108. It is clear that these three passages have the same origin and that rr.,~cf.i or ""0?8""o = either the downstream place named rr.,~d.i or ""0?8 or, downstream of that place. V. also Yazaw K. 419. ~c;,: a'ci, but in certain combns. a'ce [Marn sJifl,-grit, gri,t the skin. Shan kit scales. Tib. skyi outward side of a skin or hide. scales (of fish, snakes, etc.), outer covering; ( in combn.) refuse, filth. rr.,~11rr.,cf.i oo,il'IIG",l"'""o"'~oo;;c 1:cJl..ro:"il'" some people will not eat scale-less fish. Golwq. C/t'e:JOO~?cf.ioocf.ioocf.i81~,.,o:o:iE@: ~= three tolas' weight of dry Alexandrian lauxel, very fresh, separated (from the twig) and with the outer covering (1 calyx) removed. Sun. ...e,91 GOJ?""f? a'ce thu ichthyosis. Nom. Dis. 43 .,.ed! o:i. a'ci 'tho to remove scales, scale (fish). Golloq. .,.e,o,S a'ci 8iy is pro b. used in same sense ; ef. c 1:'llocc.S'll'!IE"ia:"o:iE11 Anthol. ii, 184. 8Ga1pE:
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30 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY Yazaw I(, 10. """IS:ia?1goC""2:J~"""e3'~11 filth, impurities. Thokt,hi! N. 160. :>.""o:,cf.i~~11,IJ(gj)o3=~c:s=""~~:~o:,2'311c86 ~:>:>~?"18 (1 "lij) u,~6s:>:>?:>:>"1J8'B~"l.~II The 24 dhamani vessels, in the shape of a turtle, form the """118', which is called the kumma (turtle, junction of vessels at the navel; called "lM "pot" at Kayanu I{. 139). LHGK. 28. ,?l)Q8=ep1 ligaments, known as hnaru (P. naharu, Skt. snayu). ibid. 23. c/ls.o?Cs:>:>?!J>Ge3? P. rasaharar},i prob. = chyle-vessels. (Wise op. cit. 49) Nip. v, 564. Rem. Muscles, Skt. peii are """"?:'4: or ,,.=,oo~ "lumps of flesh". Kayanu I(. 132. Will,. At. N. ii, 178. ""~ vascular bundle. Mod. Bot. 81. ""ffi~@,~:11 ""~'"".?11 ""2:2?B<>011?11 ""~o.'J't,911 flourishing shoots, stalks coral-coloured, leaf-stalks like emerald, ribs like gold. Anthol. ii, 385. roc/lJi"i: mc,@3-,ml36 o:,2'300:,@ffii: o'CJ achi1J, vessels and tendons. Se Kk. 24. ""Ge3?""6Eo;ii=c~:11 derangement (of the humours) accompanied by tremors. Dhanun ]{. 24. mc,@3-,moo!i G'>~ o:,f:msro:0011 o'CJ 'ci to be stubborn, determined. Colloq. Magwe. m<>'>'i6 o:,2'311 'CJ 1JOU? a tissue is sunk or depressed (1 so that the masseur cannot reach it). Colloq. ,mc,-,oS: o:,f 'CJ 'sa1J to feel for the tissues. Ziwaka H. 59. ..,.,.,~6: o:,f 'CJ 'shai1J to have contraction of the tissues, feel stiff. Colloq. So, ..,.,.,~6,aa11 c/lcf.i~a;,0111 'CJ 'shai1J twa'. Dwada Th. I(. 122. ..,.,.,'8 o:,f 'CJ 'shwe to suffer from twitching, chorea, St. Vitus's dance. Nom. Dis. 37. mc,-,o,cli o:,f 'CJ te? to have fits (for which the usu. expression is oocf.io:,. alone). ibid. 41. mc,-,o,6 o:,2'311 'CJ ti'Y) to suffer from sprain. Ziwaka H. 59. ..,.,-,o,6, o:,f 'CJ 'ti1) to suffer from strain. Ek.D.Y.K. 119. CJ. No,n. Dis. 51. ..... B.,aai o:,f 'CJ tu1)' to suffer from tremors. Gwes. Se. K. 84. Nom. Dis. 52. m<>'> ~E:~E: 00 G:>:>?c/lJi 'CJ tl,a' the vessels and tissues are prominent. Thuw. J. W. 14. ..,.,.,"l o:,f o'CJ thou') to suffer from numbness. Gwes. Se. l{. 84. mc,-,"l 0:,.,1 'CJ 'thou'r, the tissues are in a knot. Colloq. ""~'~911""rr.i!:;,e'3, mc,@3-,o'; c 'copya? tissues are severed, torn. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 85. mc,-,'t 0:,. 'ro phu' the tissues are in a bunch. Gwes. Se.]{. 84. ..,.,.,'!lcli o:,f 'CJ mye? to be sprained (more transient than """E3?00C:>:>e'3). Ath. D. K. 86. m<>'>'IJ'>' o:,f o'co 'mya there is a lot of gristle (in the meat). Colloq. "3<>'><><><'If'? oooooS o:,f o'co yo' (cause) tissues to relax. ibid. 114. So, "3<>'><><':317 'ro Ja'. LHGK. 27. m<>'><& 0:,.,1 o'c, 'lwe a tendon is out of place. Colloq ..,.,.,.,~.,.i; (often Gl?cf.i) f'> 'co fau? na neuralgia. Nom. Dis. 46. CJ. Ek.D.Y.J{. 114. mc,@3-,c,~-,.i; .,.,-,6,c,n1 'co fau? 'zau'Y) 'go glanders, apptly. that form of it in which the abscesses are joined to one another by hard inflamed cords. Atl,. D. K. 49. ..,.,-,::.8 o:,f 'ro Oi' to know the position of tissues, vessels. Ziwaka H. 59. "l""G? o3co;i,~'lc/loo?'i18"o lE:~Eoo?so 1,1 know a person's dis position. Colloq. ..,.,.,.,< o:,. 'co Oe to be paralysed. Advt. me,-, B 'ro n. outdoing. V. """"1J?II mc,-,6 A ocau'Y) n. [s?co:,. to be mixed in colour] a composite colour, in which the prevailing colour is thickly interspersed with others, roan, a roan. G:>?~cf.i~~:~11""~""'"""e3?C"""1J?""o~so:,? 08:1[""8~ro~mo?: ... earoE: ... ~o l~11roEl3E::llGi L. D. 355. ps?cf.i~?:"1J?:o):ll"""e3?c""O'.ll?'""?Biiloo."' Win. Th. K. 5. ..,.,-,6 B ocau'Y) n. [~co:,. to have the eyes wide open, stare.] a state of staring, stupefaction. 'li'""iG?CGOO?C GOO?C~l3Eo,sc:s=""~"""l'-o:,cf.i:,.:,cf.iy ..,.,-,6ic!i ~et ""t'BE''IIB~~11 acaU1J yai? (perl,., to attack with wide-open eyes, with an assured expression) to behave with effrontery-this is absolute brazen lying. Sun. :,.:,fo):ll:,.:, ooc,o?ys;,!'js?c~cf.i~:11""~E~o:,.c/l'lr?~Ssroo:,'1" (where ""s?c~cf.i seems merely to repeat the sense of s@:,E~cf.i) I wonder he dares display such effrontery in the newspapers. Didok. of:o:,fmoo:,:c/l mc,-,6 :'>: WGfo 1,~ 9caU'YJ 'oa a staring look-don't gape, goggle at the visitor. Than. W. iii, 188. oo60001icf.i""s?c:,.:,?:sc~cf.ioo:,.,\i,1 Sun M ag. ,,,.:i'j,~oosOl?~?ws,~E9""~E=:"11"f""811 dumbfounded, not knowing what to do. Sun. .,..,.,~ acau'Y)' ja' n. [~~:,:,. to be concerned, anxious.] anxiety, concern. s:,.:,?m1~:~Sl3E,-(""ljmij?) eaoe""t?:@c,a'l"-'am?:11 BoSg:,o,:>8'/~~ o.'lCY.ll"'llcf.io,J?::>:>.c/l1,;;oco.mscd.iro o:,~qoS,~C\loSge'3~:tl5~~""8"ta'lo/i~~""l~rot11 U Pon M. Com. 186.

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 31 m<>-,6, 'cau'f) n. [oSG=",JIIOj1 OOQO 1E:c:llmeu o,:llSeR?G:x>?",J.lirr.>cii~O<(_:)mGCIJo:>811 'cau'f) 'jau'f) by various routes-each along his own route, the wise are brought by devices and expedients into the power of the rich (as its tributaries are merged in the Ganges). Mahawth J. W. i, 121. 2. cause, origin, fate, occasion, conditions, meana. used as = foll g. P. terms ; OOijll='l"'"~o 1t11~89,11oij0JH:x>OH:x>~~ \ and Gooo;,11 These philosophic uses may have been arrived at by extension of the meaning route, way ; cf. the two exx. next follg. -ro9rooSocqpd:iooSi=oof.iro,o,@:~~i'l8~'lld300'9E=, 1wrooS~E:xio)~ ... oaoS03JEoao:i:w~~'P" if the conditions are not right, the results will not be satisfactory. Mahawth J. W. i, 169. qmE,:xi,@ii@E,ciioa?:x>w?ooS c:ll:xieBoS=ije;iroe 1cciioaG6?E:c/lsi?G".<@: ~@~9w, these eight attainments are not a cause of omniscience (do not suffice to produoe it). Zin. Pak. [{. 36. CJ. Mala Link. w. 48. wE:c:ll'llmOO?E,ooo?E:w"i):Hto1, c:ll'l!moo?E:oao?E:"?:o 1., kings do not choose occasions for their wrath (it may flare up at any time); there are three classes of occasions for Niigas' wrath. SO{lab 88. GO'.l'l"~?oaG?E: . ~?ffi\i"il?:~r/311 occasion requiring my attention, business. YesO{I. Kh. Py. 75. ~,~E:xia,BS ~9\i'lcli"''P~ ... 0j10>GOJ'Jd:iQOJ?d:iro@iioo11oaG6?E:m,>ro@iioo11 ~,~Ecflal3S\i~E,-,6,,,.~, cfloocw/-iG?~Q:X,? ~OJ'J:11 f>'caur1 a'co causes and effects-words referring c. to e. Maltawth J. w. i, 64. oaG?E,,.,ci,cflwi1~:@?:Qo,Q:x,? ""'llr/3" the essential points of the distinctions (in form of address) which they habitually made having regard to causes (the rank of the person addressed) and consequences (the degree of respect which followed from such rank). MMOS. v, 78. m<>-,6,.,.'llcS wg:>f.iro,: e\l"i1'l\i"'d:io)~""'lS:~~"ISrooS.li11 'cau'f) ache~ occasion, justification. Than. W. ii, 71. ~S,*= m<>-,6,.,.'II., c:ll@~fE:~Goa?E~c/in 'caU'f) cha causes which could produce, means-with means of abatement satisfied her longing. (rr.>'lJ? perh. = the important thing, the essential. Combn. more com. in form ,a?E:'lJ?-) Yaz. Kyaw. 59. oao1oS GCIJ:o 1:ro?:oorooSG:x>?-:, S, m<>'l'" 'cau'f) 'ye cause. A cause which is the path of demerit. Anthol. ii, 174. gc,roo\iGax,?E~ro~1ro~ mc,-,6, m?:C>cq)J51!-, '\lmwnw=:xie311 'caU'f) 'a lyo zwa as occasion required. Shwenand. 4. G:x>O>?OOGC"IY)E:o 1~11 m <>? 6, toS ~Gro@E,Gtli11 ' cau'fJ o fates are grim. Band. Kam. Py. z. 81. ~dlmo?wGro?E:oo\i11 m<>B?S:ro O>-,6,clla ""llf!:l,coS~cq;En 'cauy kei?sa' occasions, business. SO{lad W. 25. "ilc:llJ GOJ?r/3 .,..,B., 6, "li o1~n\iGo1E,~<>JE~., a'cau'f) kouy the causes (which brought them together as husband and wife) are exhausted, they have parted for good and all. Colloq. "".jlm?:~, m<>B?61 w <>m?S: E:i.?~EE:=c,\11 'cau'f) 'kauy causes are good, (in popular use) one is lucky. Patimauk 12. ~=?E:oa,Jd:in mc,-,6,'"2&; ~~-" 'cauy kwe? fortune frowns. M. Sanda Py. Z. 27. oaa}:~:B'\G!laoE ... m<>-,6,a cf)oaSi=li~:x,2311 a'cau'f) ga'f) the underlying cause, the origin (of the saying). Up. Muh. K. ii, 95. ~a@~R?!laOjlyG01E"lowro?:II ,,. .. s.,s, ,oS .... c1jo5groE,11 ' cau'f) kl,e causes, one's fortunes are feeble. Bandu /(am. Py. Z. 77. ,,..,-,6,'llll'II"> ~11g'joaa1",JW a'cauy chuja causes were weak, i.e. their strength insufficient to keep her alive. That. Pad. Pok. K. 92. m<>-,6",n ~iiE,n a'cau'f) go 'swe adhere to a cause-in expln. of P. pa#iccasamuppiida, happening by way of cause. LPPD. 365. ~1008,? m<>?61QOcS ~CO~HG016:oom'\'IJ~II 'caU'f) she~ join the causes, bring two persons together. Tedat P. 107. 'lJb~:110j1@:c-.co5 ... a;>~ooSoE'lld3""""6?6:ax,r/3c1jg:xi?ax,~,~? "'!"mo 1cq;E11 marry ; ltence, with c1j added, to wish to marry, to woo. Up. Muli. [(. i, 139. ""'i!J3Wloo:>t1cfl::ll::xii 6?''""'i''llS@:ro'i''llS:xii~~11w~o 1rom?:n ?~Ol~0j1CoSroGro,,~ ,,. <>B? 6, "i . qm~axi il:xien 'cau'f) shou'f) causes coincided, were brought together (in marriage). Than. W. iv, 37. ~S"'ll~'llS,ro~11""Q6?E: 3irooS11 causes combine-to produce misery and hopeless longing. Zawta [{u,n. Py. Z. 103. ,,..,-,6,"i.,i o 1oo~O>?IQ'./GO>?E:'lGOJ70>?oln 'cau'f) slwu'f) 'zi be married to each other. Than. W. iii, 10. roEwGro:,~ m<>-,Sul!S y@~11 Q())')E:wcflEa:iS'lo?,iiw'lE,cf)11 .,,s,0.,,fao)~'8Sro,E'llil'l~dl11 'cau'f) sl,ai'f) marry. If you marry Tinmale, your sister, who wields the stirring-spoon will be told to go. ibul. 14. m<>-,S,eje3di 91 a'cau'f) nyi nyu? conditions being favourable. Atithon K. 100. J@J~d:ioa}, . ""o@:,E, ~a.oS6grorq\i..lin marry. Thing. SO{/. i, 187. ooE::,j! ... O>OGro?E:'11 m<>-,6,ooi 0011,oSa'l" 'caU'f) ti establish

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32 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY a cause, do a meritorious act which will be a cause of future good fortune. Nemi Bon. P. 59. <>,,SS c,cm6:cflo611 mo-,S,s,~"o,tn oo,mo5"', 'cauy hniy' m tay not in accordance with conditions, disproportionately great. Nayaw M. 134. So mo-,S,.,oot o;-090;,,11 'cauy m tay excessive. H. Gaz. 9cooou16,ctl11ooo-06"'ro+11 cnog:,:,-00:,:,~c surprisingly-because their calls were in the Maghada language. Maul. Y az. Py. Z. 81. m-So5-e"I-OO"OUY.l'l6ooT "'l!b:i, 'cau11 to conditions are favourable. S09ah 126. rocfucf.ioo 16:~11 ,,..,.,S, "ll <;>@~1'\16-o..,=(i11'l]-o:1>ocd.i~""I'" a'cau11 thu to set up causes, ap;ptly. to live as man and wife. Bandu Kam. Py. Z. 104. "ilrotliofo6.,w~6m~'l"'a" 'cau11 'ne causes are scanty, insufficient to produce good fortune-They are very unlucky. They were separated before the bottom of the little pot was black. Oolwq. ro-051E-0"001b6m11 <>9ooG-o6:taoroE:~. M. Sanda Py. z. 99. ooo-06: ;t!i,E:djcf.iu 1dl11all'IJcG:lldjcf.i'll600071>tli. cJlt!ictli11 How unlucky I am! I want to hang my little self. Kum. Py. Z. 32. mo.,S,'i!S =m1100:i?:@'l"'"m-06,cq6=G6-0911 'cau11 nou? to be unlucky. Pyaz. "il'i9 ,,..,.,S,u1 :ll~mer-,-oo511 11 mo-,S, <> a'cau11 pya' to prove, justify a statement. Atithon K. 65. OJ. Than. W. ii, 112. <>a:ll~ooqicf.i<>Go:005dlcf.i:ll,cJlro-o"Pcf.ioo4i}.,6,g'l"a" show cause (before a court, etc.). Legal. ue3-ou 1&\SGcd.icJl mo-,S,[il l'j ... ~c,-oo5=13cJloo:,-0Gcd.i~o'i11 'cau11 pyu' speak with reference to, make one's theme. Mahawth J. W. i, 3. :,:,-ocJloo"6-o6,~co+=-ocf.io;ic:!l""c"~ T :llro11 making what the cause, what was the origin (of the village name). Ooll,oq. ~a'i:dlScJl<,"?'P'o'i"-llgc,:,Si'lE, ,i,=13'16, ... ,:r.,@ii~"Pcf.i6Gro"1~o'i11 on account of, by reason of. Ledi Kein 64. Of. ibi,d. 67, Shweb. Nii!. 73. Than. w. ii, 110. B,o~:acJl,:r.,G@,6,Ell'!<>ro-ou1,;911aio@cJl,:r.,G&6, ~~ro~u 111 Don't make the charcoal the occasion of your coming, but the white lime ; (interpreted as an invitation to come on a moonlight night). Tanaw W. i, 54. ro:llcf.iai, 0016"1+" mo-,S,$t =o'l ... <>Gcn-ocf.iro:i'.,11 'cau11 pha11 causes create, fate decides-having no regard to fate's design of a life-long union. Kum. Py. Z. 34. OJ. M. Sanda Py. Z. 62. "ilGcd.i<>6ctl11p,6~ ,,..,.,S,86 "'a 'cau11 phyi? be a cause, be enough to-(the language) was enough to choke, shock, the ears of decent people. Thing. 809. i, 117. ~==9 mo-,S:'Jlo, cqoS 'cau11 hmya' ta' marry. Thing. Sag. i, 61. "0'.11~6...\i ,,..,.,S,~~ cJlu aioro-ocf.i8-oB./l~6'l+""'II" 'cau11 you?ti' explanation which would account for. Thath. Wi. K. i, 188. =:,:r.,-o:~@ii'l"'a<;>"O ... q~~"'l"~cf.i"', mo-,S,'l.S: 0000,:11 'cau11 'yi11 origin, source-the source of strength or weakness is good or ill conduct. Rup. D. 1(. 45. "o;l'll"'P" ,,..,.,S, cJl ft'> dlcf.i=711 'cau11 fa search for causesspeculate as to how it happened. M. Sanda Py. Z. 88. So5~'P ,,..,.,S, ~6 'cau11 Ji' there is cause for (corn. with "'P etc.). Tlian. W. ii, 127. "lo56.cJlt!i'116,~6'1ll6"'l,cJl ... "'l~b,<;>"011ro1>Gm-06: mo-,S, "'9 ro'l6u6@iiGro:ll, 'cau11 ma hla' bad luck, a misfortune. Sun M09. ,,..,E3-,S10,~ :,:,~G<>H<>=6:G~Gu] oro11 'cau11 8i11' appropriate causes-let the a. c., i.e. fate, decide. Teil,at B. 13. m<>Gm-06:,:r.,G@,6,a:ll9./l"'dl" S09ab. 70. "il::011 are on good terms. Oolwq. aa6:G:,:,l3,;9 mo-,S:o,rnJ; OO;ii4 -o'P'' 'cau11 8i11' mya? be married. Tanaw W. i, 70. ,,..,.,S,""t" to5~+coo'l"'a"'cau11 8a11 one's luck is in. Kawth. Py. Z. 30. ,,..,-,S,:S ::B11roo5dll'j11 a'cau11 8i' understand causes, get to the root of the matter. Udein P. 29. 'Po~o511 mo-,S,J3J; g-0~11 cause (triple redundancy----nimitta, hetu, and ,:r.,"6-oc: all being = "cause"). Kabya Kyem. 155. ,,..,.,S,.,~J; "'B9 '"''P""to5'P~ciiro~"llcf.i11 'cau11 mahou? without proper justification, frivolously (translating P. akiirar_,a). Nip. i, 266. ri6u1~111.ig8g~dlaio'i "'"B"'G!i,,..,.,S:,troll eke amyi? 'cau11 mula' basis (explaining P. iddhi-piida, the basis of psychic power). Atithon [{. 340. Form o-,S, in combns., as &\G6-o6~-o"'," seek a means of obtaining, e~-o<>,:2Sqcf.i8:G@,6:G-ocf.io 1:11 causes of, evil conduct which leads to, loss of wealth. 3. fact, matter, business; and when foll,g. a n. <>r n. clause, about, concerning. -,:r.,'11cf.i11,:r.,~6.,rr.,G')ZH-m6::ll~'"'"0"'.>6,'ll-ocJl ... @,.::BGroS ~"31611 when the king learned these facts. KBZ. iii, 339. .,5~"crf.>8-o,:r.,G@,6:11 facts about Minye Kyawzwa. 1>6@ 'l+"'"'.,6'lo,+'~"'~'"'"@,6., how Mingyi Yanaung became a monk. Hm. Yaz. ii, contents. mo-,S,,,.S,11 dlcr.,6:00-090,+ ... ./lo 1-o,"t" 'cau11 'chi11 facts-tell us the facts, the manner of keeping fast. Dh. Pala P. 23. mo-,S,,,.i!~ cJl'lJ<><>ii..oro,~j, 'cau11 khwi11' facts, cir cumstances. Mahawth J. W. i, 157. "ilrou1:~-o,::BG :91 .,..,.,S,mcp cJlGa:~11 'cau11 aya the factsputting questions as to the facts for the information of other people. Mahawth J. W. i, 29. <>un...li mo.,S, mroS, cJl~:.,S:~~~''" 'cau11 'la11 facts, facts about. Kaliil. [(. 125. ,,..,.,i;,,,..,,.,~;8., "'l=G:,:,Sdjcf.i 01:ll, a'cau11 'a ly, zwa in accordance with the facts (<>r, perk. sometimes as the occasion requires). Freq. ending of

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 33 l,ead,ing articles. """i~""e3"""e'.ic!l~"llc""ill~=5,,.~, ,,. <>'> 8, -,, o 111rgJ~=limroo5""~':x,'IG""~ca1o5o 'k,,. o'eauy'eainform, communicate the facts. Tanaw W. i, 59. ""''P"llc" ,,..,-,8,'118,oo dj::S:x,9 o'cauy 'chiy da' the facts, the truth. Mala. Link. W. 31. ""ijo1c8cmw.=.oo~ a,:i~w..li mc,-,8,up dl ... ::ScGCO..lill 'eauy 'chiy ya facts, facts about. Zin. Pak. K. 575. ,,..,-,8, 0001: .,..,,, 8 "e3G""~CGeiall~co 'k,,.w::811 ' cauy shauy produce a fact, instance. Mahawth J. W. i, 126. ~'IC\l~GCO@:G:x,~ ""Ga~c:cJlGall~CGO . alli91s..li11 quoted historical facts as illustrations. B,w. J. w. 66. OjlG~:wc,m ..... ,,8,"i!, w~o,:qlG[g~oo~;a,:ic:ro~~'lo 1d'.>11 o'cauy 'du matter, occurrence of special importance. Than. W. iv, 74. """l~""ocB:,::&ll 0 7:x,. "3 <>'> 8 IS,~ GO:l~C:olsG"31~o5CXYJ:6G:X,~""~ '1y11 o' eatt17 hni17' to the effect that (following the words of a request. Apptly. a later development of constructions like IC:roc:qo 1 w;ooG:,c:. V. 2 sttp.). Thing. Sag. i, 112. ':1Jo5Goo5o~'I ,,..,-,8,~ :x,9~1o'eatty pyay make a report (in a matter with which the Wun wasalreadydealing).KawiM.M.K. i, 72. ... ~c:w8odi ... oo1c~= ,,..,-,8, dl ~,,, 'catty pyay 'ea inform, pass on information. Dat. Dhat. W. 32. ,,.o:ilt,,,..,-,8111 'co o'eauy pros and cons. V. ""o:ilt' A. 3. ,,.., A oc, n. Aloes-wood. V. """"'li5 A. m<> B oco n. Name of a region or people. V. """"'ll5 B. .,.., C oc, n. [G:x,. to fry.] fried food. ,,._a~""G"1J5 (oo~),,.mc""~o511 Lawki Th. L.K. 177. o\l~ooc8~~ls= oo.8~,,.,f.l~oo~Ga;>licJl:x,~o~::x,. ]{awe Th. K. i, 18. Of. Ok. Yaz. Py. Z. 123. m<> D oco n. [<:,:,e'.i to shout.] raucous call of certain birds, such as crows and partridges ; shouting, loud sing ing. ooJ31s:i,,.G=o51ooo.2ls100"65100"""510000~1 calls of wil.d, animals and birds. Adik. J(. 82. [ge'.i"i/=:coSc!jroG:J'.l~C,JC: mc,,,.[s-, aljliJ.cr,,~:x,. = onya in loud voices. KBZ. i, 19. m@ oco n. [ffi:x,; to meet, anticipate.] meeting on arrival, one who meets; the eve ( of a fast or feast.) -ffialjc:11ffialj OjllQ:q@:oo:,7woS11 a little bit of weeping in the style of Patjicari such as the present age likes. M. Sanda Py. Z. 76. ::S~:iGo8~,c!j""o:io5(.,,,e;jcf.i)OOC)l~~o5Go.n"lo5 006m~rooo.:11 a wicked decadent age such as Senaka and Devinda (the worldly-minded sages in Mahawth. J.W.) would like. Thing. Sag. i, 209. b 1:0j1G('.2b\l::x,~:G('.200ffio5dj ""cljc:x,9.,,,a,:ic:,:,9G=C11lit"!lCOO~:q=11 SO as to please. Ledi Kein 105. OJ. ibid. 41. oo~o5(.,,,ffio5)~:~@"'1JC"""~~:@l: dl"!ldlo5GC011 has cracked the pot of liking and stirred the pot of fiummery, i.e. has declared himself and is making violent love. Sagad. W. 47. oodl'dlo5@m3JC ""@o5"'ll qp:G'l_'.>c:(~,=~c:)!'iu oeai ea' to their liking. Up. Muh. K. ii, 125. ~coli:oo6li:c!l ""@o5~ ocai? nyi agree, be nnanimons, in approving. KBZ. i, 128. ,,.@o5 B oeai n. [ffio5:x,, to meet with.] 1, proximity of the moon lo one or other of the twenty-seven asterisms. -@ffio5c, -o~,,~8:x,~~ 1taJO'.iooffio5o.2cC1?~' 1,c!j..lioo"llo5"< "f"""S~Gspo5Goo5~:x,. when the moon was in the mansion of Visakha. Kawi L.D. 254. m"l~"'B~Gt8=Q1to;io5 ooffio5o.2c11 (where mention of the moon is omitted). Mahawin W. 249. 2. time.-G~o511=ro1100Q111-""!ilc:x,~ ~q8':l'P~~:~[g~G:x,~ooffio511 at the time when. Tham. L.P. W. 66. Cl?c!l"":x,o5;cGm:ooS,.,,,ffio5~11 period, age. ibid. 47 ooJ3'11c/looffio5io5"3JCII at that time (or, perk. in those circum stances). Paya N.W. 104. c/looffio5~c;c, ... "ir'"'l~:x,ooe: at that time. ibid. 49. ""II oco' n. [ffi:x,; to be submissive.] deference. -=~o5 ffico,cfl:aj:c:-::S~ro(::Sc8ro) ... oocc""ffi" winning over (an opponent) by deference. M. Muni Th. P. 12. ,,.@, A 'con. [ffi::x,; to try hard, strive hard.] In augmns. with great effort. -ffi:@:ro:ro: -,,.@,a,.,,, "lo5'1@ ~ro"":ilo,;oo~~:x,; o'co ta'za. It's sickening to fail in the examinations after having had to study so hard. Colloq. ~~"ls'\')~ "3@:o,oQ: :x,0700,;p:i:Gm11 o'co to'bay try hard to stimulate generosity. Sun. oo@, B 'co n. benefit. V. "'o:ilt' A. ""~ akwa' n. and n. affix. [O.B. """& SIP. 5, 27. OJ in "ii& to be together. Maru taga along with. A.C. ,yu.Z (K. 70) har monious, together with.] association, similarity, to gether. -"""i1'""'"i100C1JII OOCJJII -ooro:~11 Go1c:G:l'.lli""C1J" who, when at play, associate together. Bur. Z.P. 57. $,:oe'.ilil~wllOOCJJ;c;c11 just like a great flowing river. Pyatih. P. 41. 'l"'~=::S~,,9""0JG'J.'.>o5=cr,,~clii11 together with. Paya N. W.5. 51oSG'1""6'~":f.lt6""C1J11 shoes together with water dipper and needle (jl05Gq for G'lllo5 and """& separated from ;9 metri gr.). Dh. Pala. P. 42. ofy,.:,o5,9"""6B~~o)ci!ltc6God'.>11 accomplished not only in scriptural ]earning but also in other respects. Oolloq. Myingyan. c1;9 "~i'o5 ""CJilGO' :l'.lo5:,J.:flc6" okwa' ne together, jointly. Paya N. W.108. ""~ o5 akwe? n. [ CJJc,5:x,. to be spotted, be sporadic.] l, a spot, a discoloration. -,,..,o5"""8~"' -:x,oc'lo5;9""0Jo5""~"

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34 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY t~~o,~11!lE:<>on:11 white spots due to cutaneous disease, leprosy, etc. Nara Se J(. 22. ""ClJcf.i"il:Gao:~23:11 LISI(. 140. ""ClJfuCJJcf.i,~~~;;oaaoE:~g:if.j ibid. 136. 0~'600 T ~~Gt8oS cCY.>Grot~"\ot:oooSG,1~E,;~ ;cf.i=9qj11oaCJJcf.iGC0611:,:226o11 if it rains, it will be just what we want. Oolloq. Salin. ""ClJroG~;~oac~~c,!r-'"il'lP'CRcf.iGro:,:11 finding fault without any justification. Kum. Py. Z. 47. "il@:o'io=, ;9oa,on:oaCJJcf.idjmrocf.iC131E~~,c8Ge'j11 you will be wrong to come mucking in on the arrangements made by the old folks. (oao;lcf.i having prob. some suggestion of <>~oSCJJcf.i "scene in a play", hence "situation as arranged".) ibid. 23. =u5=:11GGoa:o}oaCJJcf.i11 unfortunate turn of affairs. M. Sanda Py. Z. 95. l9E:q'loaCJJcf.iro23..,oo"i1"' no possible ground for refusing. Than. W. iii, 21. Gt:OY.>rouS"ilrouSrouS~Eoo~ oaGm~EmuSGt"~""6l'',P'"" akwe? ea' fall in place, be unerring. MMOS. i, 70. g'jo 1~o\ioatcf.ir/r-,ao;lcf.i"l!GCXlC11c 1G8CGonG:,~11 do not perfectly understand the meaning. Up. Muh. K. i, 292. ""'llcf.i"ll~~:ct11ocf.iq:,~0~~@~11 thoroughly pulverizing him and befooling him by my machinations. Kum. Py. Z. 52. ~EcG<\:oa@coa91~dj """ilcl;"IJ"IJ :B~t~ro236@'0JiE akwe? ea' ja' thoroughly. Sun. G~~G:,~ """6cl;~ Gt'lrouS11 akwe? ci' look for a chance (of benefiting oneself). Pyaz. e~cti8S'""""flcf.i11 ro,icf.iroa;,,,1 oa~dl0t2@'0JiE" a'l~cf.i soa~Eqic:ga;,~cf.i to the best of my ability, in various ways, looking to the possibilities, I put in and Jnix (my materials) so as to impress (the audience). M. Sanda Py. Z. 83. o,mo:1o5aocf.iOJ1E@9""q@: m "6 cl;~ cl; ~~:r.>11 akwe? shai? affairs reach a favourable position-if she were to speak to me first, it would suit my book. Than. W. iv, 76. roGC rom~oaCJJcf.i.Jlo5=E~cx;,6=:::8ooo)qjG_,i'lo\i" just as if we had arranged it to suit ourselves. Sun. Gt,~~:11oasxi:oo 'lcf.igro7c1 """ilcli"oT c8~G2311 akwe? po favourable con ditions will appear, my turn will come. Up. Muh. K. ii, 359. OJ. Hmaing W. i, 39. '"'"6.i; ~, ~cl; Q23GG~C11 o',g;;o~ccG~ro,11 akwe? yai? be lucky-you are going to be very lucky but you don't believe in fate's help. M. Sanda Py. Z. 58. G~E0E:(91c,)y~ '"'"ilcl; rouS (coe1) =Efilromu5G='l"" akwe? le (! one goes round the squares, achieves completeness) things are working well for one. Up.Muh.K.ii,228. ",f".ldjom-,...,6011 ... =:cll:o1:~ ... ,cciq:ooq .. -800"'23" ... ""ClJroGC023aE ... GG8?)~0,00:01G23n you tout for me and I will give you half my fees. Meanwhile, before our scheme is working properly, I will give you free treatment. Ok. Mal. K. 67. "''ldlg1,2"i:tl=ro;:n ~QJ:ncn'P'@:cu b;,""'CJJcf.irouSrouS( ro23ro,),.,,oS~E,'l=E11 it

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 35 was difficult to get a meeting like this. Let's get the play Gjlogoo'le3 to be luxuriant.] a long, lush shoot, B 1 ~--1oS E 88 cBcB ,s.:.,. Jj E S luxuriance, joyousness, expansiveness. rr.)OOcf5119;)~1100Go;o'J ~\:? "~""e,~~11t0iv "'" ( )')wy'.lll "''ll O "' "'l? ao0@iiE:n?oW:9;1uSE:n-Gjl"a0EoEas~1100~@,@o,lustyshoots. oo~n the time is ripe-at this full moon, on this lunar day, Anthol. iii, 19. ,,.~,S::no5n0:11 akur1' gur1' with profuse shoots. ,,.oa6: a'lcwir1 n. [<1<6::i:,. to make a circle.] 1. curved Ming. E. 64. d3S""~'l@0~11 pene"",ii 11 ro.ro.oo5oo5n akur1' afi luxuriant, expansive trating forwards and backwards, sometimes circling, eloquence. Parami P. 97. 'llcil::no5m ""'llt.a:>J.i c:llo5 sometimes going straight. Kutha P. 80. owrr.1aj:@:rr.,<1.oo'P:::nuS"oo?@:w;w:B"il., akur1' te? put out shoots, io5i1cr-!000o:mo:m:i:,:i:,rr.,rr.,oorr.,~11 "'1all""6":i:,-oo:,"3'PcuSqj9;1oS9;1E: resort to all sorts of expedients for prolonging litigation. qw.n within the encircling line of each of the sa-ma's Colloq. (og~o), written large, insert in small letters pu, di, a, etc. Bame Let Twe K. 155. 'lle'.ir/l""'lSro., ... GW06dl~'lloS,0rlj::noSi)qC:00<12311 a'lcwir1 'iJa clearly, plainly. Sun. c 1S::nom0:r/l"OO?'"'"'le3 to secure by a binding or edging.] 1. an edging, a binding, felloe of a wheel. -00;;0:n""'il" -<>0006: "''1<6'C\l""oo511 clothes are to a man what the edging is to a basket. Sagab. 58. eo'P<>0W~"lJ""'l<~~65:r,):~"'lJ0>. like boards without an edging or frame (to keep them in place). Hm. Yaz. iii, 98. CJ. Manir. [(.120, Razad. Th. K. 44. "l500ooc:~iw"'loS"""'lS:i:,.,.,;;8=1qoo0:00'1<: ... ~E~t.:11 felloe of a wheel. Nip. iv, 88. o"'lr/l 81!'j ... 00<1<60~:rll'lSo,.~"o.,S 00<1<60>.ro.:oo'll~~Eo,.@iiroCJ?H surround the circular felloe with hide. ibi,d. 90. 00<1<6oomi0 ""~""'PW'lm~"o,000<1<611 the spokes-accumulation of merit or demerit, the felloe-decay and death (in the wheel of sa'Tf',Sara). With. At. 325. CJ. Paya Shiko 23, Thuw. Thissa P. 56, Anthol. ii, 372. oo5~rr.1aq:00'1< the circumference of the wheel or circle on Buddha's foot. MTTK. 210. =t~=1oosl""<1<611 the four islands within the ambit of the Cakkavala system. Thuw. Thut. P. 27. CJ. Nemi Ngaye P. 6. 2. agency securing cohesion; control, discipline, punishment.-rr.,~6""'11161,aqwEJE,11( o)~oSE~"o,0 JJ~(J )~o5E""1"""'08l""glro'P;So b. =mr/l.,00~~0o5 c8~::BS:rq~"\u=m~oa<1<6@S~~11 controlling, restraining influence. Razad. Th. K. 44. @'!!0=-=>rr.1<1<6=Sr/jaqw. punishment. Hl. Ree. 31. ""'ll S ""m E:o,.;f ... c/lo5 ~'!'11 aku? a'ke enforcement of authority. KBZ. iii, 125. :J'a000~oo"trr.,@:rr.1<1<6""ril;~oo'1<~CXY.l:!'j11 superior officers. Kawi L. D. 381. ~cS11:oiiril11t0~006"'l'" ""'llS ,,. S 11 "~ 75.,..,gi.,'9E"'~ 1E:11'9E,~,oo~qjJ 8~:
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36 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY at Hl. Ree. 31. <>a-o,eoae,"~'""l8qj """i!6""ei6 em-ot: "1=4i3-0911~,@~,Ss~o:,. aku? ahnya? control, ability to keep theix men in hand. J(BZ. i, 94. GW-oc,..S:roqjc/l,,oaa;lO oa226,,.~cl.ioa~scs=,a:,911 discipline, severity. Attok. 29. """il6oa2261oao:,oSoaoo:,-oc,11 Pap. Py. Z. 7. ..c,@:~OOY.i <>11=-09 """i! S"" 'II .i; ~"leo:,-orocm11 aku? amye? disci plinary action and wrath, severe punishment, usu. execution. l(aui L. D. 133. """tS"""i!S aou? aku? command (in the army). MMOS. i, 15. """i! uS A akwe n. [ "iloS11o;i,11~11 used in fanriliar address, approximately=" old man", "old girl".] thou, you. ~C<>Clli ~c'lp,11-oa"iloSqj=,11 <>COO 1,il,"lc,11 """c""'o:,911i9Eeoo:,9 o:,..;9cJlc,G"!,11o'i~G)l'"t" you, worthy to be employed in royal courts on internal or external affairs, bred to be ambassadors on state business. K utha P. 93. """i!uS B akwe n. [a;loSo:,. to screen.] 1. a position of concealment, obstacle to the view, protection, protective ~easures .. ~&p11oa'8,oaoY.l111 o:,."ilE:"""iloS,rnE:oaroo'Jl1 111 the =ddle of the mere, hidden (or cut off) from here by the fields. M. Sanda Py. Z. 70. ci,~1~""~GY-oc~S~ in the shadow behind the door. W. eo~oao;ioS>G~-oE:ef:bc, 6.~to:,@911 SW. 256. rocl.ie~oacJl:o:,~~'"""iloS2,1::i:>. is weak in defence(in boxing).Colloq.o~o:JGjolioa~&poS.,~ooE,9111,iao1oao,.E:1 .. E,qj """i! uS"" =~"""il-o~E,c<>m-o:@:o;i-o~cl.imG&p11 tells him to divorce his wedded wife. Pyaz. roE""l~" <\Go:,-oroco:,.rr.1~-0,"?11 either won't get a husband, or the husbands she does get will be apt to divorce her. L!fGK. 32. Q~:l)E """i!.,""'9S' 'll-o,cfli9a/l~cl.i11 akwa a'hlar1 distance. Thath. Wi. K. i, 196. CJ. Adik. K.119. ~meo:,-o ~Q~, """i!.,"""o' ~cl.i@,ooS<>.a/l"31E, akwa a'we distance -length of the journey. Sun. "il"'t-o?.:l!')oa~oaGo''oSoa6 ~.ri11 Adik. K.121. """~ akwe' n. [G<;llo:,. to be curved.] a bend, curve, corner. eai-09eo;i,11o:iaoii~:11rr.1G=cl.i11 roS,6-o,rr.1G'7.llll,1Eal/Ee920:,e~11 a turning in a lane. Thul. Pak. 62. "lm~o:iro. .. """<:Ila:, Gai-oc11 tank with 1,000 bends (in the bank. CJ. Maha;,,th. J.W. i, 15). Anthol. ii, 374. oi:Et-o~=-oEcii~1,,,.a;icl.i,irocl.i b_:nc/.i,,.,e31eo:i-ocrr.1e'l.lo..?11~E8C<\cj11""~""E6Eoithe sal-grove which hes to the left as you issue from the south gate of Kusiniixa, at the south-east corner. Pak. With. K. ii, 544. ,,.~,dj d3Scag,11rr.1G'7.ldjorho 111 for vapour the cloud-drift, for curves Winkaba. Yama Yag. i, 144. """~""""'.,.i; o:i.ai-oEG=orho:,-o~n akwe' akau? twists and turnings. Y at. I(yem. z. 78. o'ia#,~oSo:,goS """~"""e.,S, G"!.l"31E akwe' 'nyaur1 curly and (1) elongated (of the appearance of the letter 1,). Woh. Pak. I(. i, 163. o:,aEdjro.,., ""G>~ "3 C\) II G8te'.i( fe'.i) ci(ffi:) O"OIC\J~:~oCO~'j1Go:J-OGe3-0~II akwe' li turns and circuits, devious routes. Kalid, K. 26. 09rq.:BS~11 ""t8 S"" "~ 11 ""'"li""acl.i11 aleir1 akwe' curves and angles. Thuw. Thissa P. 79. """"i!' 'kwe n. [.o;i10:,. to bend.] an incurved form, attitude or article. djE,eo:,-o"""P"""G=cl.i""""il'" o,o<>-oeo,=:{l,1rr.1"il '::'"PG"31U 1o:ioS,,,.,.,o;i,;9Gf"l~" in deep grief beyond others I he huddled up. Shwenan Hma. 70. mE,dj~11e8:llrr.1Ga;l' 00800:0,f:bG"!!Jn curved circles = cakkaviddhi pierced circles, shooting an arrow with a thread attached to it so as to pierce four objects at the corners of a square and return to the starting point (v. Joi.aka No. 522, transl. Francis, v, 68). Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 124. G::>g:Ge3-o~, ... B~G~1cl.i o:,i"3Go;l:ncl.i>11rr.1djE,"-?,~Oilcl.i~11 from the side of the curve where the large blood vessel turns back (i.e. from the convex side of the bend). LHGK. 30. ero~~(.)o:,:i;.oSC'{6 ai-:=""Go;l'" a bent article made like a bow-string (the writer apptly. means "bow"). Cottage Industries, 6. c1, 8,,.G~111qll"~""Go;l'" (cook) ngapi till it is warm, and prawns till they take a curved form. Sagal,. 32. ,,..,n,-,,1;,,..,"i!, akau? 'kwe a curved, usu. nrisshapen, article. ""~ a'kwt n. [o;io:,. to crack (intr.), to be broken in pieces, separated.] 1. a cracked or broken article, fragment, breakage. ,,.,,.c/.i,,,,.,~5,,,.~11 ,,.o;iGo,.=cl.ioii~cl.io 1 pick up and remove the broken fragments. Colloq. "j/O'Jo~,m~ero, "3ic""o;i'lr:on~,a.," breakage. Colloq. rr.1ro=oSt.,.,o;i=oS t. fighting (wrestling) the object of which was to get the opponent down ; fighting the object of which was to draw blood. MMOS. iv. 222. 81r'"""9Pfu'lcl.i ""~""ft (lloii~11 a'kwt afa' damage by breakage. Manu 386. o:,w.>-o>G<\~'8Go:J9l-O'lP'~"P""o;i""'il"ijct,;~11 Sun. 2. separation, division, distinction. o:iroo5;,,...,GtE-o,8!J~ E.,,-,,.=""~"""o;i""~"""~""Gf-OC:i rr.lGOO-OE.,,.a/l:11 'i)D~:"?6~611 could make figures of all kinds-,imall, in separate pieces, of one piece, pliant, good and evil. Kutl,a P. 74. al/E.:ro~a/laiS,~cl.io~G>Do-0611 a'kwe 'pya distinction-that I may have authority over all the civil officers alike. Hl. Ree. 208. ,,.,8~00Y.icag"'1oSGcqr.cJj:o-:,c/.i~ ~s-oE"il="'""o;i""S-0"'~' without division-without attempt mg, as by subletting, to divide his responsibility for payment to the state. ibid. 89. (CJ. ibid. 85, 87, 88, where this expression, which is a stock phrase in contracts and applications therefor, seems to have the same meaning.)

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 37 c 1:o 1:~iio 1,aoc.So 1:o'lroc:ll..'iioao;i:oa[9-:m,a~oa-:,:cJl:,'lcljo hi, dis tinction between. Pak. With. K. ii, 51. '""~~ o:=i o,~..'iin a'kwe 'gwe in different directions. Hanth. Ayeb. 73. oa~~~ooj, by different routes. Hm. Yaz. iii, 17. o~ ~~,,,.~~eiiomo@:n divided into factions, disunited. Sun. djE:,qiE ""~~,,.19.,,19.,, eii"t=oail~~,;~oa:i:>E"lJ~mn a'kwe 'gwe a'pya 'bya independent, disunited. Sun. ""~'~'""oo ... ~~:c9<=0gij:i:,o5rljn a'kwe 'gwe awa' wa' various. Ok. Mal. M. 53. """61, acu? n. [O.B. aklwat, SIP. 23, 95. '1llo5"', to come off, be released, be without remainder.] 1. state of being left out, release, dissociation from the things of the world, Arahantship. '1llo5cgo5[96o,8@~<,an dlc86GC!l1~,~,@o,oo o'l:;~"11'"'17""""""'?= . Mo=noa:i:>~oc.S~:i""''lllo5Q~~n8o5ow~ c:ll~1cgo5'P=~~"'31Enthe long lottery tickets coincided (were drawn coincidently with) the talipot seeds. The useless white blanks are just put aside. The unfortunate ones which are left out (don't win a prize), iguana-like (in wretchedness), having been set apart. M. Sanda Py. Z. 23. oa~c&][cr.l~G:i:>~oa~u:,~to5c:ll:i:,Eu:,:ioaQ ~to59,c,~c/i~~ cljclj;;o5023;f""B~~o,~..'iin the rleva heavens are now full of good devas who obtained release (the meaning must be "who entered the stream, became Sotiipannas "). Ledi Kein 79. CJ. SIP. 23. """61,"1 ~r/jo~aoc=~~n acu? shu' the boon of Arahantship. Teri Pyan 68. """61oSoocp1 'l""" o,~:i:>;Bn acu? ta'ya the condition of Arahantship. Zin. Pak. K. 64. CJ. SIP. 104, Dham. D. K. 129. "ilu:,'l""'lo5wc,:i:,~o5 OO'.l?"i'"""".lio50'.l'P''l::,g-:>:@n is a reformed character. Colloq. """61 oS "eP g-,:O'.lGm~C~:rlJO'ao:itS"lo5n:i:>"1l:;~~c.Sn bake till re duced to ashes. LISK. 91. o'laro:i:,~~'",:i;," 16:c:llrlJ ... wo e 1afiO'.l,:'-'i=B:@~noa~::i:,o5""'1llS:aof.i90iiO'a6aro~n The seeds of desire have been thoroughly fried to ashes in the fire which is the insight of the Path. Teri Pyan 17. SpeUed """.ll~' at Se Kk. 121 and Gwes. Se K. 8. O'a",lJS:wianoacgS: "8"?""R"'tiir1Jn the troubled state of unalleviated distress and ceaseless longing (O'an:lJS, p.-ob. = ,:ta~ heat, distress). M. Sanda Py. Z. 105. """61S, B a'cuv n. [o:itS::i:,, to be on familiar terms.] familiarity, intimacy, fondness. oa::SnSo5n -Recorded only in combns. """61S'"iJS~: oao:i6xw~, 'cuv civ 'zo1tv the most familiar (with the work), skilled. Pol. Econ. 218. etl~rll . """61 S, oo o S o,i~ffiSm~~~'ll~~:o:,o5a"'~"i1rlJro,, ~~:o:,o5..'ii11 a'cuv da wiv familarly, presuming on friendship. Mahawth J. W. i, 186. ooaondi;~O'.)au:,~di"""lllS''oEBiim~n on terms of intimacy. Ifawi M. Mag. o~:b:i:,,wc,,~ """616,oS "'" a'cuv wiv be intimate with. Nip. iii, 152. a:i:,;tO'a",lJS:oE@:@iin addicted to liquor. Hm. Yaz. ii, 269. o,ro~:~:061cf.i""1~~=~o:i600:x. make friends with an Indian, and he will foist off hen's dirt on you as asafrotida. SO{Jab. 6. :13"il:~di=~Ec:llcJloan:lJS:oc~:i:,@~n Y at. Kyem. Z. 78. oa::,g-:,:O'aro~~~O'aCJ,llS,oE:i:>,n Wisit. Sagab. 35. clj:i:,c:ll :i:,~:..'iiOO'.il"llltc:ll;~oa",llS:oE2~E'l~j, Yaz. Kyaw. 52. ""::8 """61S, a8i' a'cuv an intimate, a friend. Rem. """61S,oS is sometimes wrongly used instead of ""'O'.lli:oE to be included in the category of," "to pertain to." =~"t8l'PSo5 c:llo-1, O'.l~O'.l'l""'~o;>~""o:itS:ob,n rr.icroE:i:>Eaiw.Jl=~c::i:>~ ~~" =~"tBl'PO'.l'P:rlJ:o 1~=.iS:oE=~So5c:llo;i.Jl""6o,~..'iin transcendental forms of consciousness cannot properly be said to pertain to any plane of existence and are therefore called forms of consciousness pertaining to the transcen dental sphere (where oao:itS: seems intended to translate P. samiiha, for which oorr.ii would be a more appropriate equivalent). Atithon K. SS. For oarr.ii used where ""~' is required, v. &z. Ayeb 41, and s.v. ""O'.llin ""ii acuv n. passing by, excess. V. """61t B.

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38 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY .,..,~, 'ewe n. [O.B. aklwan. G<"1,lJ::ll23 to feed.] (In combns.) feeding, provision of food, servants. rr.,o-:,:rr.,o-:,ou:mS:'9S:11 """""" ""'li""oo!j,: m <>~:,,. "8: ro2'.j:rr.,oo:,5ou 1'jj'J:ouoliu a'ewe a'mwe giving of feasts. Sun. :nc:!?~-:,ro23::noo'11CD"J: tcJlS"""""00,:'"""8'""~'""06'i9,a;;oo:n2311 people to feed and provide for them, servants. l(BZ. ii, 41. ma,im<>~: ate a'ewe offering and supplying food, serving at table. Anthol. i, 104. m~6,.,.,~, alou~ a'cwe servants. SIP. 38, Ledi l(ein 44. mi aewa' n. [rn:ne'.i to rise, to proceed (of a dignitary).] a rising or bubbling up; movement of a dignitary. rr.,a,11 o,p:ro-:,'9S:11 oo~ 1rr.,ij1iS:rr.,ro'llS11rr.,eooo;11 on its bubbling up again when the fire again blazes up, you get the ajatavani (sometimes ajatavani) quality of gold. Yazaw I(. 17. "o,-:,wog~1,;,oS~""ffi'llS11 Maha Moggalii.na on a journey to the deva heavens. Nayaw M. 103. oo-:,9'!!:,oStr,1~cf.ioro Ge".lrr.!rnlj,9IIGD 1roc!l"!l'\711 the cooing of this dove of yours is quite spirited and furious. Saw Pe Py. Z. 17. rr.,cJlSrr.,rou mm""'tt" O'.lciO'.lou acwa' akhouy rising and leaping-their action in sitting and standing up, their manner of rising and leaping was exactly alike. Yama. Yag. ii, 95. """'t""o" !Da~fi111 6'gl~:j11 acwa' a'myu excitement and pleasure, fun and frolic. Gamb. l(ab. K. 7. mi6: a'ewiy n. [rnS::n. to remain over.] something left over, remainder. """11f"o:n:nu ""ffiS:@co:,:,-:,-:,u!j,:'lO'.lt"J'~" U Pon Taya 7. :neu 18o:n:nrr.,::!jurr.,~o 18o:n:noo::!j",l~GOjl:D'JI ~~""9'' a'ewi'!) acay me' without remainder, exhaustively. Yaz. [(yaw 57. =m~:01:r/j,1 .,.iS, .. i :S=5~o:,:,-:, ... oSR'J"t"P'" a'ewiy ma Ji' having no remainder, complete. Taz. D. K. 10. mi6:~ !j,o-:,c89"23'' a'ewiy me' without reserve. Eind. Z. i, 244. O'.l"7'Jl01j,'JS,.,~r/jrr.,ijS:~oSooS utterly. Zanek J. W. 67. .,.iS acu~n. [91oS bismuth.] apptly. bismuth(rr., being prefixed metri grat-ia). oro-:,00-:,rr.,rnSu~oo!j,:06 mixing iron, bismuth, and pyrites. Nem. Meg. P. 12. mi.S aewe n. [rno5:n. to be abundant, to exist in plenty.] abundance, great number. ""'lJ'J'" "il,""'llcf.i~!j,"''""'-:,:11 Moulmein for food, Rangoon for swank, Mandalay for talk. Prov. ,a;;e 1cf.iuo~'-'\:n~cjl"~"O)~rr.,rn'.):U the pleader's intellect, not great at exhaustive treatment of a sub ject, just sham and pretentiousness. M. Sanda Py. z. 128. ""m'>mo1 O'.lGUJ'Jcf.ilj,90'.lGOY.lcf.iqcf.i~Sj, 'ewa awa ostentation. Sun. rr.,oc,Srr.,o-:,o,rr.,rn-:,:rr.,o '\,S!j,'lO'.lt'JG(llO'.loS:oS: ;911rr.,00S:oo-:,cf.iot6ro-:,:n11 ostentatious finery in dress. Kh. M.G.W. ii, 77. mi-,,.,..,.,i; rr.,i,p:m~~'J'6u ... "'"Pc:!?'P.' a'ewa amo pre-eminent and distinguished persons. Saw Pe Py. Z. 79. naSrr.,aljS~., ..,.,.,i;,,.i.,, ~'" amo a'cwa ostentatious pride. Thath. Wi. I(_ ii, 43. """m A aewe n. [orn:n. to drop off, as :flowers or fruit.] a dropping off. O,l'J"11BS:u 800:,-:,cf.iu!j,:oo:,5 ... g901coouSu ~ooQ~1~s,;,.si;,,ro,oS~."""ffi" the padauk :flower, at the falling of its pollen which is like bunches of pearls or clusters of beads in the yellow blossom. Anthol. ii, 385. 'ltdlororlj,, """ffi"llcf.i.B:11 attack desire till it drops off. Thanweg. P. 17. m<>i B acwe n. [1 "rn cowry shells.] small change. ""i6"~'"~"oS"~" o,;-:,:11 on T ='llS,,.S:o'Jcf.iu who was collecting debts. Sun. C\1'"'~'i9""lf'iB'"""ffi"'"''i9" don't trust people and don't give goods on credit. SQ{Jab. 105. ""'\m-:,facgSB!j,:on 1S:aoSu naarn:a.pS:"llSdlS:oo-:,S:rooS11 when one is avidly writing, dein daung strikes in ; if one sells on credit, one is apt to be ruined. (The madman Nga Hman Kan of Pagan used to declare the whereabouts of buried treasure, but when he saw people noting down his words, he would only say, "Dein daung, dein daung." Wisit. Por. Sagab. 7.) Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 38. ro~Sc:!?oi!i, ooS'l!".':rll!i,u-:,c:!? .,..,i,mcS, oo5<4!:a#,11 a'ewe a'yay on credit. l(BZ. i, 429. """ A akha' n. [~:n. to attend on, treat obsequiously]. attendance, obsequious treatment, an attendant. rr.,~o-:,:a ;c;;i195.,""8""~" -oSC\i,.,~urooSsi:nou on whom all excellent things attend. Maul. Yaz. Py. Z. 195. e;ifaororr.,au aofao@"11"?""'':nr/l11 the patter of fruits, caressed by the gentle wind, falling to earth. Shwemyet Py. Z. 100. ,,. a ,,.u:,S, (~~:@9:n. akha' a'yay attendance, paying court. Sagab 137. "il~S~-:,,.,~rr.,u:,S:o(llGO 1:n. retinue, people who can be set to tasks. Oolloq. MQ{Jwe. ~!j,:oo:,5@:~ .,..,.,.,, 0Sorooli11 akha' 'za paying one's respects, entering the royal presence. (Qo-:,::,:,23 to pay court.) Up. Muh. K. i, 30. Of. Rup. W. 111, Rup. Kal Py. Z. 69. Rem. o:,-:,:oro5.:oro5 .. c:!?r/l!u9rr.,~o-:,:~ is quoted from a copy

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 39 of an inscription said to date from A.D. 1017. The text cannot be relied on. But see etym. note s.v. """ B; QI>?: might perh. = give each his due. Anthol. i, 37. ,,u B okha' n. [form in ~'P~coc-fo mason's hand-hire, wages of masons. SIP. 51. Possibly same word as""" A, the original meaning of Q:X,a having perh. been to divide Kch. hka, Maru kaw-and hence to share, give what is due. B. """o5 bifurcation may be connected. Tib. skal-ba portion, share, ration and k'ag part, division.] wages, remuneration."l"""~'" P. :ndl11Gom;;11-"3QGo!hl~~,:xi~11 Manu 249. ~o5?GOJ?rr.,Qag,gc,ge3.ll991"'coolii11 Attok.14. 1>?:~~ooo5ooo5s= e~cfl~~:j, kha' 'za an eater of hire, hireling. Nip. iii, 204. "il'lE:91:"3Q1>?:11 Maha Thuz. K. 201. o~:~:;o'Pco.::xis=Oil ooa,e-,,i'.,, 'lJ"'.'cflG@-,.lltJ:11 kha"sa'nafee,charge. (Apptly. a recent combn. 1>?: = for his eating, use. ;;?: may be a meaningless jingle, developed under influence of other combinations with s word in first and n word in second place, e.g. """""t remnants, ro;;?:xi. to be con siderate.) Sun. """ro'f?''lJ"'.'"'oo::n ibi,iJ,. .,. o 6 @m11 :xidn~:rr.,c,}:o?:o,i~Eso11 kha' pairJ be in receipt of remuneration-if (the employee) has had his wages, let the master of the ship take all the treasure. Manu 249. """~ ~~6su:.,2311 kha' me' free of charge. Advt. So, """"ll&; kha' lu?. oo:i!""" 'pho kha' payment in general, charges. cx,gE:,1o5mo~'l :ii: oo" . ')~O 1olii11 'pho kha' dues. Zinme P.N.W. 66. .,..,,1; A okhe? n. ["o5:xi. to branch, bifurcate.] 1. a bifurcation on a branch. 811 ""ffiioo 1o5~""Blo5,~o5ro~E ,,.~o5,.,.,o5~:x,23rr.,q@o/ii11 from the bifurcation of two leaves, the space between them. Thud. Py. 21. 2. twig, branch, shoot, offspring. rr.,cflE:co511 P. o:xi~11 rr.,~6~~,.,..oS,jl:,i:11 enjoying the shade and breaking the branches, biting the hand that feeds one. Sagab. 131. o1grr.,ao5@fcoo'iJ?sl9cao:,S 0,23:xi.~s:xiS.1 his right foot was on a lotua shoot (which had miraculously sprnng up). Etadeg W. 6. o~E:ooo5 "3acgoe3:xi?11 the branch cannot be in better case than the trunk, i.e. if the master of a run-away slave accepts from him the price at which he was bought, the master is thereby precluded from claiming the value of the labour lost during the slave's absence. Manu 212. o,oECI}~..-, cflodi5p:o,oSs=""o5.ll.,..cflE:alj:11 Thath. Wi. K. ii, 168. ""11::xi-o::xi. wEE,uEcliw..oS?"'6E""~oS@f~:ci,S"P""'l6 . t?"'t=olii11 Mahawth. J. W. i, 221. ""02360'.lS"E' ,li,.,.,oS,.,cooS~cfj,,c 1~ oo o ,I; oo c op:m1icllo 1:G~~o5'9E: Slu okhe? omei? twigs and fringes, dependents (in this case, followers of one of the king's grandsons). Ayud Sh. 52. ~B=:xi?olii,.,cflE: ,,..,,l;,,.co,I; ~cfl<11o5.ll,,j!,~11 akhe? k' branches and arms of the tree of Buddhism (i.e. Buddhists, by whose conversion to other religions the tree is maimed). Ledi Kein i, 2. wE:s;;~o/ii,.,ao5,.,coo5 :xigdi@s:n?ae3?~:x>?a;;o'lg8o/ii11 called Siikha-nagara because it was a branch town or suburb. (P. siikhii branch.) KLD. 233. 9'.lS ""i2t.mo,I; anyur1' akhe? twigsremoter descendants. MMM. 12. ma,,/; B khe? n. ["o5:xi. to be difficult.] difficulty, distress, a difficult case or question. ,"a'""'ll"~'P~'" oo~jqp: s:x>Soaao5w~:,.,Go 1E:@:oliin protected against all sorts of difficulties, dangers. L.I. Mand. I(. 97. ,.,.,o511"'10'.lo5'1J11 burning distress and seething anxiety. Kala M. Py. Z: 103. ""2',"asi'l"'t""lcfl~?"3ao5aq:CJJ?~01111 khe? 'ci a matter of great difficulty-I cannot see my way to giving you financial assistance. Kh. M.G. W. ii, 4. ;;~q2oS'lE:cfl""~~::8~ """,I;:'>, :x,11 khe? '8a real difficulty-it is a hard matter to know a person's real disposition. Than. W. i, 13. Rem. In """8'?"1ao5:xi?:mco?: it appears that ,., has been dropped to avoid the awkward hiatus 'l-oo"o5" Tanaw W. i, 38. mo 6 A khirJ n. [1 Tib. rkan stem, stalk. A.O. Jder19 warp in a loom, nerves (K. 391).J a skein or hank of thread. ,1.aE 11 1>m?:q;oSc/lE:~~'JIE1t"""E~::x,@f~:~ge3~"'=60?f11 if I were to spin and draw out all the words that emerge (from the subject) the skein would be too big. Zanek J. W. Pref. 4. ,,..,i; B khirJ n. [! A.O. ,ymangmetal tongue in an organ pipe (K. 106-the character has bamboo radical. J an inlemal movable part, valve, reed of a wind instrument. cq-o11c86? s=E11 """Eo 1:xie:iofoo 1o511 an entrance with a valve (in description of the fish-trap known as mO?:~:). Fishery Manual. """Ealj:xi.~c 1,op:ij:com[g~~wq;o5~Eo,.,?E~"?6oo?, s:x>?"31?H Danubyu. """E~s:x>?"il~OY.lll musical instruments having reeds. (One of the five kinds of musical instruments ; but this does not appear in the canon of pancangika turiya, cf. PP!(. 99.) Ka/,a Yaz. i, 42. ,,..,i; C akhir1 n. [aE:xi. to love, feel affection for.] fondness. ""llcfl"2c1lt11 ,!la;,mo,EGOJ?'""'"Ecao:,S91o511g~o,m?01?n '80'['aE:nS:11ot-"l'P,.;'Po&c1.loc.o[ m~= Jo,oo.~aE:~a,io5n

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40 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY Zin. Pak. K. 198. mmga~Egrofaoo T ~=mmOJaaE..,E:1)1 putting a covering not allowable (to the Order) on a couch which is allowable. M. Th. D. K. 58. For varwus types of OJaaE: mats, rugs, etc. for sl,eeping on v. Kinklia N. 286. ~o.'l~E,,.aE: a mat to sit on. P. nisulana. Win. Th. K. 7. Rem. P. ka//hatthara ragged mat (Ro,.se), mat made of twigs (PED.) is translated 91,,.aE: floor of planks (Temi J. W. 181), and this, or OJC(jOJaaE: appears to be the regular Burmese rendering. ~'ll:ffi,,,.aE:m~, ~~8rooSo,'Jloa~~6:~'lErr.,S=~""aE:oEiio 1=>?"'. 11 the laying down of the line, the ground-plan of the building. (P. original has pasaresim I laid out.) Mahawth. J. W. i, 14. ~~Eo,Ef,i, ,,..s,,,.,, ~' 'khirJ 'hni floor coverings. Dana D. I(. 11. ooaE,,.,;:mt.o~~rll'l"'.ro;: roo1:11 (one of the rewards of making offerings of mattresses). Tham. Sek. D. K. i, 342. g9-:>cf.i~::,p:go,~ga~Er/lE:r/l~oSoS go,~(J)~Cl)li ... ~t@cf.iGOJO !J3&6:""u ,,,,,irr.,a,e'j~o,;qicf.i Clj>~GO"?~oli11 ' khi'Y) ayou'YJ carpets and shawls (in goose-and golden-egg story). Kawi M. M. K. i, 249. 2. cleared or cultivated ground, plol, expanse. rr.,~11C1JEE11 co 1:aE: oaE:~Qa:iS!'iro~: 'P''"'~: o,wE~r/lG@~cf.iCl}i'lt""E:~o\i,.,roc6~ =~(@~:)rocf.i;;cf.ir/lE~11 in the middle of the cultivated areas, holdings. Thath. Wi. K. ii, 45. o,gro:aE:rlj""~""'JIRgo9~. rr.,aE:c1,,,,aE:oba~E,,,,,~,ro~,=O?tcli11 Panri,. Wed. D. K. 181. ,,,,.E,o,~(l)~G='lo~~~G;;~mwgroc/i11 ( cf. gaE:cocf.i aE:ro=oiic6o~:G=""'l8 supra) a place where the expanse was seemly, a piece of open country. Hantl,. Ayed. 14. o~:a 1go,~cf.ia 111\E~:a 1~9 11 ""';o,; the terrain was not suitable for elephants and horses. Manir K. 18. 3. arrangement, array, display (only in combn.). -rr.,~rr.,'lE11,.,a6""';;~:11-lil: woS~"'b"i*"'~ ,,..s,,,."ll6, r/l~E"?tcli11 'khi'YJ 'ci'Y) arrangements (for a king's journey). Narada W. 8. G~G~cf.iroog;;~cf.ig~o5roS,,,,.E,,,,,"lE,,9 . oEGmwo,; 11 ceremonial escort. KBZ. iii, 23. ro~o~cSli: ... ~""aE: """IE,,.,Gmrr.,o,9,9ro~o,; in s~me state. KBZ. j, 480. ro9roc6R~go,~~.,'i,.,oE,,,.oiiE,,9ro.:a.:~='ii11 all the eqwpment of a fine city. Zanek. J. W. 70. ~"il"o1'lB~r/l.:=5~E: ,.,.5,,.,CY.JIE:11""'16,,.,ocll~~E,om~:~:oli11 exposition, story here ends the setting forth of the beginning of the story of the renunciations. Tem. J. W. 48. 4. Business, concern, matter of importance. cfln11""xll""G'l'II -c 1w="'a'2E""aE, ~o 1go,:o,; Kala Y az. i, 171. "?BC1j>G011 'khi'Y) ya busi11:ess--.shonld t~~re be anything for them to do, let them attarn to the qualities of men-let them show themselves able to handle the situation. Anthol. i, 105 ..... s,,"lt -~E ... WOG.O~E ' khi'Y) kou'YJ business is completed, nothing is left undonelook after him in all matters. Kawth. Py. Z. 30. ,.,.5, ~cflR~~~=~E Rup. Kai. Py. Z. 19. v. al.so 6 infra. .... s.~,cuS11 d]a1oc611 'khi'Y) 'ci 'Y)t business, occasions of greater or less importance. Antlwl. i, 103. @;w(1 o)@; '2E:11 ""o 6 ,o 6, r/l11w'-ll6''l~11@:G=6~0,i ' khi'Y) 'gi'Y) various affairs (of state). Ommad P. 41. m=od3'2Ero~ro~go,~ ,,. o 6 ''& di 031Ec 1~"""11EG<[>o5Goo,l\i@E,,,.=-:x=:Gro5 W"'. ' khi'YJ thwe? an affair emerges, trouble arises. Hm. Yaz. iii, 194. E~c@.:r/l ... c ]ef.l5=5'2E,,,,.QE:qio5~611"116 Clj>GOII ibid. i, 344. r/lcpo,~:'lE:m110JaQE:qioSw;Ero~o,e'jg~~,, foresaw that the person's own son would cause him trouble. Pyinsawu P. 18. o1~wo111,.,01~:o1~1102c6o1=ot1wE:w~'2E"'~" ,,..6,o1 0000911 a'khi'Y) pa be zealous-you exaggerate beyond measure (in praise of Sita). Is it credible 1 It seems to be just your zeal, eagerness to make the most of your case. Yama Yag. i, 24. ....s, .. ~&>11 Gji<)Ed3, ~oS~~cf.i~11 a'khi'Y) ,,,. shai? prematurely. Kawth. P!J. Z. 29. dlo,~wE,r/l11 ,,..i;,.,cx,-,,11 ool:i=:o,~11wE:;9c1Qroc611 ,'khir1 ma'tl,a pay no regard to, show contempt for. Pon. Yama Py. Z. 58. coS~oSG<):i'38i36,r/l .,.06,.,@11 'khirJ ma pyu' make light of. Tem. J. W. 46. GdjEw6:y~11 ....s."l&" ~tqoS01oS@iiw..11 'khi'Y) lou? make one's business, take action. Devag. Py. Z. 29. ,,..i;,~.,, w~c 1.oE:coo<['II ' khi'Y) '0wa answer a call of nature. Sabeb. W.150. ,.,.E~,,.,aE:cc6::,p::ijrr.,'2cf.i""ao5sii, thegreaterand lesser calls. Sun. ""lt""o6: ah'lllu' 'khi'Y), ""~'l'""o6: a'ye a'khi'Y) an affair, business. 5. a quarrel, dispute. 'l~'""'BE,~,E,11 rom~,9.0'311 sensible people know the two states of dull man and bright man-can distinguish between them. Yama Yag. i, 9. ~1G'lJ?r/l11 ~: ~~rn;, g=""aE: ,911 =ooE: g~11~6: ct)o5 ')WC0-0:11 shall I finally cast off your beautiful daughter and divorce her so that she be unprotected in a state of not being near, i.e. in a state of severed relations. Pon Yama Py. Z. 60. G<)"!':i'3rooSn ,,.. 6 "l t "?~110JroE:aiClj>H ' kliiy

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A BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY PART II Compiled under the direction of J: A. STEW ART, C.I.E., M.C., M.A, LL.D. / FROM MATERIAL SUPPLIED BY A LARGE .. NUMBER OF CONTRIBUTORS Revised anJ edited by C. W. DUNN, C.I.E., M.A., and HLA PE, Ph.D. (Lone!.), M.A. (Rang.) PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUS.PICES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF RANGOON BY LUZAC & COMPANY LTD, LONDON 1950

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A BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY PART II Compiled under the direction of J. A. STEW ART, CI.E., M.C., M.A., LLD. FROM MATERIAL SUPPLIED BY A LARGE NUMBER OF CONTRIBUTORS Revised and edited by C. W. DUNN, C.I.E., M.A., and HLA PE, Ph.D. (Lond.), M.A. (Rang.). PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF RANGOON BY LUZAC & COMPANY LTD. LONDON 1950

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PBDf'l'ED BY STEPHEN AUS'l'IN A.ND SONS Ll:JarED ORIENTAL AND GENERAL PBINTEBS HEBTF0RD ENGLAND

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EDITORIAL NOTE TEN yea~s have elapsed ~ce the ~om~letion of Part I. The second worl~ ~ar gave the editors and the pnnters pre-occupations which mterrupted the progress of the D10t10nary. Then, in 1944, the Government of Burma in exile in India offered a grant of ,000 to enable the work to be speeded up with the help of three Burmese assistants. The trustees of the University of Rangoon Endowment Fund agreed to continue to pay the cost of printing. Dr. J. A. Stewart thereupon built an office in his garden at Bishop's Stortford to enable the compilers to work all together under one roof with the word-slips and the reference books. The building was ready at the end of August, 1945, and in it the two editors resumed their work. Burmese assistants were not available until April, 1946, when U Hla Pe, who had previously assisted Dr. Stewart in this work, took up one of the posts. The Rev. U Thitthila accepted another post and joined at the beginning of May. A Burmese scholar was not then available for the third paid post: but from July, 1946, U Tet Htoot attended the office for some periods, usually three days a week, till February, 1948, as an unpaid volunteer. By the end of 1947 with this increased staff material (as far as eoloo~a6) estimated to be sufficient for three Parts of eighty pages each had been compiled, subject to revision, under the general direction of Dr. Stewart. The printers, however, for various reasons, some of which were consequences of the war, were unable at first to resume the printing of our manuscript and the first proof-sheets of Part II were not received till June, 1947. Meanwhile, in December, 1946, the Editors were informed that the Council of the University of Rangoon had resolved that the preparation of the Dictionary could best be expedited if the work were transferred to Burma after publication of the Parts in hand. This plan was not carried out : but inquiries to recruit the third paid assistant were stopped, and, when the Rev. U Thitthila resigned his post at the end of August, 1947, in order to give his whole time to the service of Buddhists in the United Kingdom, his post also was not filled. U Hla Pe (who had taken the degree of Ph.D. of London University) has continued his work in the Dictionary office. The Government of the Union of Burma has generously continued to give financial assistance in pursuance of the intention of the grant originally made by the late British Government of Burma by paying rent for the Dictionary office and (until Dr. Hla Pe's stipend ceased in September, 1949) the stipends of the Burmese assistants. About Christmas, 1947, Dr. Stewart took ill, and on the 1st May, 1948, he died. Dr. Hla Pe has since been appointed by the University of Rangoon to be joint editor. The workers on the Dictionary have thus been reduced again to two, without, moreover, the great advantage of Dr. Stewart's erudition and guidance. Dr. Hla Pe has been appointed to be a lecturer on the staff of the School of Oriental and African Studies, and by the wise and generous practice of the School he is able to continue his work on the Dictionary in addition to his duties as a lecturer. The Dictionary articles as originally compiled from the word-slips require revision, and generally rewriting, before being sent to the printers. Only a few proof-sheets of Part II had been received before Dr. Stewart's death, and the revision has had to be made without his supervision. The MS. material for this and some subsequent Parts includes, however, some articles drafted by him. The proofs continue to be sent to correspondents in Burma, but in consequence of death and other causes most of the correspondents mentioned in the Preface of April, 1940, in Part I are no longer available. U Ba Maung, of Taungdwingyi, in Upper Burma, who was mentioned in Part I, after returning some sheets of Part II with his comments, has since been cut off by civil war and rebellions. It is hoped that he will again give us his help when communications are restored. Another of our former correspondents, U Wun, M.A., B.Litt., who received the title of Vai;il).a Kyawdin fyom the Government of the Union of Burma among the Independence Day honours of 1950, has continued to read the proofs and to make corrections and reasoned suggestions which have the authority of a iii

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iv EDITORIAL NOTE distinguished scholar and are highly appreciated. We have been fortunate in receiving the generous help of new correspondents : U Lu Pe Win, M.A., Superintendent of the Archreological Survey, and more recently Professor E. Maung, M.A. (another recipient of the title Vai;t~a Kyawdin), Professor of Burmese in the University of Rangoon, and U Tin Maung, B.A., who is at present in England in the employ of the British Broadcasting Corporation. The preparation in Burma of a new Burmese-Burmese Dictionary has since the end of the war been undertaken by the University of Rangoon under the editorship of U Wun ; and the University of Rangoon has agreed with the School of Oriental and African Studies of London University on the transfer of the future preparation and publication of our Burmese-English Dictionary to the School with the condition that the University of Rangoon will retain some connection with this Dictionary in recognition of the financial support hitherto given. This arrangement offers evidently a prospect of frnitful co-operation between these two academic bodies. Bishop's Stortford JVfl8, 1950 c. w. DUNN HLAPE

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SUPPLEMENTARY LIST OF BOOKS CITED AbbrtvialeH(o) K&wi Myethman Press, Commentary on Abid. N.-C.(~) Rangoon, Vol. I (1-567), Pali, with verbatim Bur, 19IO; Vol. II (1-598), meae translation. 1911. ~?rociicf,:m;s-:,11 :m:n-:,c/laaol:im-:,:~,n (The Burmese Heroes No. 3.) "l'l~;s-:,cu The Student's Guide to Burmese Spelling. ~~"IB (Y.)0)0) 0,~0)CD') o1-~UJU Sun Press, Hangoon, 1936. (5-177.) Khit Thit Press, Rangoon. Undated. (3-138.) Khit Thit Press, Rangoon, 1945. (1-92.) Barna Khit Thadinsa Taik, Rangoon, 1946. (1-60.) Daw Ohn Thin & Sons, K.emmendine, 1933. (1-225.) A.B.M. Preas, Rangoon, 1912. (1-244.) K&wi Myethman Presa, Rangoon, 1924. (1-264.) History of Burmese LitThudh&mmaw&di Presa, erature. ~a'JO'JOO Rangoon, 1947. (1-371.) :n~C I GB".'oSOO'JC~II 'll~"il~t" ~'lca:,i:n ij,~:O'JII Commentary on the Hin du System of Medicine. Inscriptions of Burma. .Ba;s-:,ce-:,oS11 ( q) ,B a;s-:,c ;; qic, <>'J oS =~~:11(0) The Jit&ka together with its commentary. Hanthaw&ddy Presa, Ran goon. Undated. (1-97.) Na.ntheingi Press, Rangoon, 1945. (3-162.) Thudh&mma-wadi Presa, Rangoon, 1945. (1-34.) Pye Nyun Yat&oa Presa, Mandalay. Undated. (1-66.) Thacker & Co., Calcutta, and Smith Elder & Co., Com hill, London, 1845. (1-431.) University of Rangoon, Oriental Studies Publication. Portfolios No. I. Undated. No. II and No. III. 1939 Tenasserim Press, Maulmain, 1880. Vol. II. (125-217.) Myanma Awba Press, Ran goon, 1905. Vol. I. (1-246.) Triibner & Co., London, 1877-1897. Vola. I-VI and Vol. VII Index. Historical novel-Prose. Detective Story. Appendix on atomic science-Prose. Politicol pamphlet-Prose. Anti-Communist pamphlet Prose. Biography-Prose. Burmese spelling. Birth Story No. 543-Pali text and commentary with Burmese verbatim transla tion of the commentary. History of Burmese Litera ture-Prose. Collection used for religious instruction ; Pali with wrbalim Burmese translation. (1) Mingola th0k; (2) Apyin Aung-gyin ; (3) Atwin Aung-gyin; (4) Yad&na Shwe Gyaing; (5) Nama kiir&; (6) L&wka-nidi. Fiction (J&pe.nese occupa tion)-Prose. Advice to parents-Prose. Novel-Prose. Hindu Medicine. Facsimiles of inscriptions. Drama-Prose. Drama-Prose and verse. Pali Text of Birth Stories. Author's name and date of work or floruit. (5) Maungdaung Sayad&w Pyinnya Thiimi. A.D. 1849. Edited with notes by Pali Say& Mung Lin. 20 C. 'Shwe Set-kya.' 20 C.-4th decade. 'Da,gonShweHmyi'. Appen dix by Didok B& Cho. 20 C. (5th decade). U Tin, B.A., I.C.S. (retired). A.D.1945. Anonymous. A.D. 1946. U Th~ Maung! Editor of Sun Magazme. A.D. 1933. U Po Hla, E.A.C. A.D. 1912. Shin GLinkiir&: Dan daing Saya-daw. 18-19 C. U Pe Manog Tin, M.A., B.Litt. 20 C. 'Maha Swe.' A.D, 1943. On Myin. A.D. 1945. 'Mya Myo Lwin.' 20 C. T. A. Wise, M.D., Bengal Medical Service. A.D. 1845. Edited by G. H. Luce and Pe Mung Tin. 20 C. Maung Chit HI&. 19 C. Mya-wadi Wungyi (U Sa). (A,D. 1766-1853.) Edited by V. Fausb611. The Jitaka. or Stories of the Buddh.a.'s former births. Cambridge University Press. English translation of Pali Edited by E. B. Cowell. Gramme.ta serica.~pt and Phonetics iD Chinese and Sino-Ja.pa.nese. aaoS:n~a:it:!Jn Vols. I-VI, 1895-1907, and Vol. VII Index, 1913. Museum of F&r East.em Antiquities, Stockholm, 1940. (1-471.) Aung Press, Rangoon, 1945. (1-78.) Birth Stories.
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vi SUPPLEMENTARY LIST OF BOOKS CITED Abbrevialed title. (l) Fulltia,. (2) L. Buddh. Thomas The Life of Buddha, as Legend and History. Leba GC00')-00 Lu Tuna W. C\lY-O:o ']<,Jiu Lun Attok. ""'P'll~'"'~l8~" Maha Thi!. P. Q(])'Xl~coo\llu Mason Burmah ; its People and National Resources. Mwe Nun Yag. GlJ8~''lro~u Narada J. W. At. N. f"'.l')S ..-:iroro oa~roCD'J 01-~::mo,11 Nauk Bawa W. Gf-Ocf.iooou Nga HDit c 1,,ii'P:i'!-~Q-OB23" P. B. J!y. Z. o~-o~toB..-:io5u P. D. Ch. A Dictionary of the Pali Language. P. D. Da.n A Critical Pali Dictionary. Ph. B. M. Y. W. ~B"'.l~'P" Pon. Yama J!y. Z. 6l with Prolegomena 39 pp. and Epilogomena 99 pp.) Letyon Press, Sa.ngyaung, Rangoon, 1945-6. (3-88.) Bengalee Job Printing Frese, Rangoon, 1880. (1-200). Tbudhamma-wadi Press, Rangoon, 1904. (1-362.) Ka.wi Meitswe Press, Manda. Jay. Undated. (1-220.) Ka.wi Myethma.n Press, Rangoon, 1906. (1-220.) Zwe S& Pe Y eikmyon, Ran goon, 1945. (3-ll2.) Mandalay Times PreBB, 1917. (l-219.) Knowledge Printing Works, Nattalin. Undated. (1-216.) Government Printing, Bur m&, 1903. (1-488. Index 491-630.) Subject or nature of work. (4) Buddhist history. Fiction-Prose. Fiction-Prose. Author's name and date of work or floruit. (5) Edwa.1d J. Thomas, M.A., D.Litt. (St. Andrews). Myo Ma Maung.' 20 C. (5th decade.) 'Maha Swe.' 20 C. (5th decade.) Biography of S&ya Lun-U Thein Pe. A.D. 1937. Prose. Birth Story No. 51-Poetry. Translation into Burmese of Mahivagga. Monywe Zetawun Saia-da.w Shin Ariyii.wuntha Adiesa.ya.nthi. A,D. 1825. Gener&! Editor U Myo. 20 C. Ethnology and naturaJ. hisRev. F. Mason, D.D.1 tory. M.R.A.S. A.D. 1860. Fiction-Prose. 'Maha Swe.' A.D. 1945. Discursive epic, based on Shwedaung Nanda.thu. 18 C. Mon legend. Birth Story No. 544.-Pali Shin Gu])& Linkiira: Da.ntext and oommentary with da.ingS&ya-daw. 18-190. vubatim Burmese transla.tion of the comment&ry-Prose. Novel-Prose. 'Mya:MyoLwin.' A.D. 1935. Memoirs. (Japanese occupaTha.kin Nu. A.D. 1945. tion). Drama-Mainly verse. Pali-English Dictionary. Pali-English Dictionary. Fiction-Prose. Drama-Mainly verse. List of Burmese poetical words with commentaries -Prose and verse. Fiction-Prose and some verse. Religious-Prose. Fiction-Prose. Burmese Spelling-Prose. BiographicaJ notes on Burmese poets and writersProse. Revenue Acts, Rules and Directions. Burmese ver sion. Maung Chan Mya. A.D. 1880. Robert C&esar Childers. 19 C. V. Trenckner, Dines Andersen, Helmer Smith and Hans Hendrikson. 20 C. U Nyiina. A.D. 1945. U Ku alias Say& Ku of Sadaing-hmut. 1880. Twmthin Min-gyi. 18 c. ; Shin Thi!a-wuntha. 15/ 16 C. ; Maung daung Saya daw II. 19 C. ; U Mani. 19 C. ; and others. Edited by ThitseiD Sayadaw. 19 C. 'Man.Ii Lu-bya.n-da.w.' 20 C. 4th decade. Ledi Sayadaw, A.M.P., D.Lit. A.D. 1906. 'Maha Swe.' 1945. u Tin, A.T.M., K.S.M. A.D. 1917. Hma.wbi Sa.ya. Thein Gyi. A.D. 1937. Kawi Manda.ing Pit&k&t Fiction-Prose. S&ya Saw. A.D. 1917. Press, Rangoon, 1917. (1-169.)

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Abb>-wiated title. (1) Sh,.,,myet. Py. Z. Six Texte Skt. Diet. M. W. Tayok Th. Mawg. Th&n,.,,g. P. Com. Thath. Wi. K. III Thuth. Yaz. UPon. W.B. Vidh. J. W. At. N Zegyo w. Z. W.N.Mag. SUPPLEMENTARY LIST OF BOOKS CITED Particulars of publication. Full title. Figs. in ( ) -No. of pages. Subject OT nature of work. (2) (3) (4) Gi]'l]OO~m..,,o5:x,1;,, Burma. Herald Press, Ran-Drama-Ma.inly verse. goon, 1877. (1-117.) See Ch&uk Saung DW<\. A Sanakrit-English DieClarendon Press, Oxford, Sanskrit-English Dictionary. tionary. 1899. (1-1333.) ro~6o$e&pcf.isJ:i'l<~'" Zambu Meitswe Pitakat Panegyric poem on the comPress, Rangoon, 1933. ing of envoys from China (Pref. 20 pp. and 1-38.) -Verse. :)$goc,~cS,rocmoag@11 Shwehtonnaga.ra Press, Th&-Commentary on Tha.nwega ton. 1924. (1-95.) Pyo. :n~:ntB:n~~"' ( ro) Pyigyi Manda.ing Pitakat Religious discourses-Prose. Press, Rangoon. Vol. III, 1924. (1-240.) "l=~Bo,Qo,~"P"aEffi,n Thudhammawadi Press, Burmese history-Prose. Rangoon. Vols. I, II, III, and IV, 1922. Vol. V, 1923. @:~og;i10016:,11&,,,d)oS11 To Press, Rangoon, 1935. Anecdotes.-Ma.inly verse. (25-197.) [This is the text refem,d to in U Pon Taya Com.] Bi'\ ,.~a:,m oa~m= Kawf Myethman PreBB, Birth Story No. 545.-Pali ~:mu:,11 Rangoon, 1926. (1-350.) text and commentary with Burmese verbatim tranelation of the commentary. eq:,i"-11 Sun Press, Mandalay. Vol. I. Fiction-Prose. (1-233); Vol. II (1-231); Vol. III (1-226). Undated. 1'01"1 Zawana Journal Office, 51st Magazine. Street, Rangoon. From Feb., 1946. vii Author's name and date. of work OT jf,oruit. (5) U Kyaw Ya. A.D. 1877. Sir M. Monier Williams, K.C.I.E. 19 C. Nawade II. A.D. 1823. U Yan. A.D. 1924. Ledi Saya-da.w, A.M.P. .&.D. 1919. Saya Pi, Saya Thein, Saya Po Ba Gyaw. 20 C. Sa.le Sa.ya. U Ponnya. .&.D. 1867. Edited by U Po Sein, A.D. 1929. Shin Guna Linakira : Dandaing Saya-daw. A.D. 1783. Mah&S,.,,.' 200. (Vol.ill, A.D. 1937.) Various writers. 20 C. (5th decade.)

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SUPPLEMENTARY LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE TEXT astrol. = astrology, astrological. astron. = astronomy, astronomical. et = contrast. diet. = distinguish. Eng. = English. ex., en. = example, examples. int. = interjection. Zoe. cit. = loco citato (in the place cit.ed). med. = medicine, medical. num. op. cit. = numera1. = op.,. citato (in the work cit.ed). redupl. = reduplicat.ed, reduplication. ref. = referril;lg to, reference. Bing. = singula.r. sp. = spelling, spelt. sq., sqq. = and the next following (Bing. and pl.) tranelit. = transliteration. var. = variant. ,m, = videlicet (namely, that is to say, in other words). Bigna. [ ]. Square bra.oket, where they do not enclose etymological remarks, are used sometimes to indicate interpo!&tione (by the editors).

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 41 kouv all circumstances, in all respects. ibid. 5. =~".lE:er:,11 .. E:~::x,fo:jE:oroS;~,,.,~~=S'IE:moEn .,..,S,nz., :x,, 'khiv kwa differ in status-the country article and the royal umbrella differ in degree of magnificence. Anthol. ii, 134. "il"~~~W''lo':>, .,. .. s.~ .,,,101:n 'khiv COUrJ meet with circumstances, find oneself in such and such a position. Than. W. iv, 103. coE:x,o5oo"31E,.,1='18E,11 .,..,S,~S, G~~" 'khiv 'giv varioUB facts (but only one fact-the loss of her husband-was mentioned). Udein. P. 97. .,. .. s.~di a;>~ , co~~ .. 'khiv khai? circumstances and time (~o5 prob. for ,.,~o5 time). Kum. Py. Z. 154. .. ~E:YG. .,. .. s,.,~11 U)Gt(',IEg~: .. 1~ 'khiv se' cir cumstances are complete, the time is ripe. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 60 .,..,S,o,!!11 o'khiv dozi' as for one thing-... ; anyhow-... ; (don't worry about ... ) M. Sanda Py. z. 109 .,. .. s. "~ m11e:nim:&,11"31~o5oo~,,.,6o:x,~ 1>m~:11 'khiv twe' couv meet circumstances, find an opportunity. Ayud. Sh. 78 .,..,S,clldi :x,f~~ ... dlEoE11 'khiv thai? circumstances were suitable-they took a favourable opportunity of consultation. Mahaw Py. Z. 22. a~EE".lE:(',IEH .,. .. s. u di u, II ~;,~o5tn .. caq:,o5=ns'PO'.J 0>11GO~ffidl"~";C{lE:rodj11 11'3>a6, u.1!611 ::mgJ~E .. ron o'khiv mo shaiv the circumstances do not suit. It would be like setting a ruby in lead. How can I contemplate such an unsuitable act (as to marry my master's daughter). Anthol. ii, 14. e'.!t~E'IE:qjn """ S, u91di11 ~~oroSroE~:031E11 o'khi1J mo pye? state not disturbed, successfully. Ok. Yaz. Py. Z. 3. o:,~:x,t~"E:nrot~mE: coe:11 moS, .. ~t11 coE:coE:cBt=~En 'khiv mo hmeiv state has not faded-though there is no longer a Buddhist king the glory (of the pagoda) is as great as ever. M. Muni. Th. P. 58. .,..,S,uc,cu-,di ~djoEn o'kMv mo lau? insignificant. Kawth. Py. Z. 10. moS, oo.,S "~" rr.,e3oroSaq:11 whipping. Manu 191. ::,ao!i::,aacS opyi? okha~ shooting. KBZ. iii, 237. ""'lo\ mocS opou? oklia? beating, buffeting. Kawi L. TT,. 959. moi okhay' n. [~:x,e to estimate.] 1. measure, extent, duration. ~E:11oo~CIJ:lll -11~:s,,.,~ntdlooi=E .. c8~c81i e'.!'ll""ilcll:11 to the measure of gold umbrellas as bright as a fire of cutch-wood, terrifying (outshining) the sun. Udein. P. 204. ~-g~o5<,1cf.ip0>00>
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42 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY "about",-somewhere in the vicinity of the palace. Or o,~ may be readfor0 and ""~o,~ taken as a ''fair distance" ...'....when he brought the carriage fairly near the palace. 2. occasion, circumstances. """0.,6, 11 ""z9"""G'I'" ,,..E,11 (mostly in combns.) oo@,,,.i~"31Eoo@"i1i:!!'1wo Manir. K.403. "'23'll""icfJwE"lJ'.l'~0"l"'oco-011 are you afraid on an occasion of such (little) importance 1 (Or"""~ may=o=o5 "about", and be a mere redundancy after 'll") Hm. Yaz. ii, 384. "l''P~9"l''P~" mat."'t ~o:,,-:,oo5G!j"['CX>o5G"'lJ'.lC:"'1Jo5" ,Tchar/ d,a!YJ be suitable to circumstances, fitting, seemly. Temi.J.W.26. !Ja~ootY"""COij'.lo'icfJ~!i11djo(ilcfj::BS:o,ioo..li11 when the occasion was suitable, when an opportunity offered. ibid. 60. ~"i1"'1o5""..li'lo5locflo,,i mat.""'; :,,@9o~ mat."'91;" "'23""'llo5~,,,.0Jo5""5j, khar/ lyo the occasion is proper-when, on the turn (of events) and occasion being proper, I disclose the matter. Band. Kam Py. Z. 97. a;,,oo5:,,i-:,:co'.l'}C: mat.::~ 09o@E:,,, ,khay' tfiy' by fortnnate accident. Eind. Z. i, 351. =irE:dlt CO'.l"'23'i9"""~"'~"9o@EGco03JE11 Zin. Pak. K. 106. @== =t.'lll\ioooSGpG;;oo-:,t."""~"'9:i':>11 Coll,oq. L. B. O'O'lJ[Ocfj!laa~ "'9"?"i1'i9CI/o5o,iooy11 khay' 8iy' to be convenient-cause the documents to be withdrawn by whichever person happens to be at hand. Than. W. iv, 62. So500-:,,,,.~w:,,91'j11;;9 rr.,oww23~"i'9""'iw~;o'i"l11 circumstances are not right, normal-hewasfeelingupsetat the time. Up. Muh. K. ii,294. ocm:Gl9-:,rr.,aiw:,,9i100@:;9ro@: . So5:;/j:"11o5" did not hit it off in conversation (""~ being apptly. superfluous). ibid. 296. 3. assumption of superiority, swagger, arrogance.-0068: '96:1101E.i=~9E:11m\i"18E:11 'lllt""'5..li~-:,:m-:,: . coS:a~: cfj11 ""'.lCo-:,:o:,,,:coa~:;9rr.,ai"t"i1c:ll"'," people on high pay who live in style. Sun. ow~co'i11~\i[-:,rocoS:o;iE11 'khay 'gay the several acts. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 149. 3. category, class, sphere. ""~"""~"' 8:aa23ro~:11rr.,Eo:i~:o:,~:(1 e:JS:ro~:)11,.,ali: GC0"'23"'ll'' category. Kawi L. Th. 756. ::B]rr.,aS:(rr.,at:)11 dl"''lldl'IO'.loroi'llS::,,23,911 sphere--<>verything necessary in the sphere of magical power. Band. Kam. Py. Z. 9. dj~E:i;io'i matat: 'khay 'gay of various kinds. U, Paw U Pref. djE:oaro,oo,[
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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 43 which = 1 pvi(l,a or respiration-a period of four seconds. SO.rya-Siddhanta-Burgess 5. Ant. Ind. 219. "'P is more com. form in B.] two-llflhs of a second. o,~e,;;0~~ lio roci,1 t0~rljao5aooSo@oo511 8e,;;0roo5 11 Go5aooSG@oo511 """'Proo5n :1;p:G:i:i0oaa ha'[>GO 1E,9ii~11 multiply the nari (hours of 24 minutes) to bring them to bijanas, multiply the bijanas by 60 to bring them to akhayas (khayas). So you get the total of khayas at the time of birth. Adik. K. 222. ""''P C khya n. [Apptly. by-form of oa-, q.v.] the decisive factor.-wcono,'lll6""~''~ ltn -gjo,'llo5~'8~oo:ii'IE"'lll6 ~::i:,23,:,aa'P@iiGCO'[>II Sun. "i1'1lro00,Go lc:o,:i:iE:mo,aJn Rup. Kal. Py. Z. 25. o,a=ymfit0'llo5;;23:g23ro~11 if they know how to protect themselves. Yama YO{J. i, 8. c1r/l,c'i: """""t ,~oo'IC!lcf.i G~:'1=""23" okhar1 okhu' 1 resentment, ill-feeling (not in P. original). Mahawth. J.W. i, 162. oa1oao "3ffi0"3',lo5 okhu' okhar1 a protection and barrier. W.O.B. oa;;,:, .S oa a ===Sca@:GroSco23:w~11 oshe? okharJ successor and inheritor. Hm. Yaz. iii, 296. """"'~'lr'c/l oa~.SoaZ. w~n otai? okharJ attack and defence, opposition. Sun. 2. something underlying, support, starting point. =-=,cf_i,;,, oaaE:i,,,.'IE,,,.011-G'l(! G;s)~~,~,y~nto,ay011"3ail~"'~'oS" as the blaze catches wild cotton placed under a burning-glass and the sun's heat. Yama YO{J, i, 92. G"910cf.i,=~m G'PEJ0:""'"""~Y"""'P6Goo~cf.i:i:,2311 The placing of a piece of red foil under a ruby gives the stone a lustre. (This is perh. only necessary in the case of inferior stones.) Coll,oq. """~'"3lle"1"~'lo5" -Gt0Err.ia'ijo5n J.B. iii, 250, l. 12. eyoG,06:i5oofoaa1 in times to come, here after. ibid. 212, l. 22. oaa 1a6:BSro23'liiSoS11 may it last per manently. ibid. 272, l. 21. oo'lrr.,alc1:ii'P'"'23"31E11dlrr.iala;,;, "1~"'23Bb~n Nip. iii, 61 and passi,n. o@o.,Gi"""l' time of entering on a new existence. Thath. Wi. [(. ii, 151 =1~: ~"~''1"10..E the three seasons of the year. Udein. P. 69. "3m0 Gro1= 1w"lcf.i"'23~11 at the wrong, an improper time. Kinkha. N. 59. oaa1G0>5G~'lo5110,.cf.i'llcf.i"ID''lloSG011 an auspicious day. Mani l(het Z. 41. o,alGroSo 111 a written note of the auspicious time.MMM.94. ,,..,7~"lcf.ioao,.E thethreedaysoftheNew Year festival. KBZ. 2, iii, 376. o,wql,,.a 1~=En;iJcfir/l9Je"'P B~eJwoSro001 in time for the festival at the end of Lent. Colloq. Shwemyo. ~~Gro~:=0rr.ial11 in times past. Nip. i, 476. c1o~~~~o,JG0>5~:i:,~Gpfua,iio?li;ii~G:i:,0rr.i"1" when 136 years had elapsed since I attained Nirvana. Thanl. Yaz. 1. oa "1.,. GO:o 16\GOII lcha cheirJ time, proper time (for the commencement of a work). Attok. 2. oas1oag~ 6~ iG',lG~:eJG:i:,:000011 kha khwirJ' opportune time. Sun. .,. "1 S, YG"1106:Gao0cf.i9iixcp11 kha 'kauy time is favourable, auspicious. Saw. W. 109. oas1~, 'le~, okha 'ji great, sacred occasion (generally the days of the new year : 11. ,,..7~,'lcf.i sup.) Colloq. oa s1" 5 :8 6, e~o5~:@E,r/ltl~11 ikl,a kha? '8eirJ always, regularly. P. sadc'i-Narada J. W. 13, cf. Zinme P. N. W. i, 46. Sense" permanently" occurs in Inscriptions, e.g., IB. iii, 272, l. 21, quoted above. GO 1'PmmOO?r/jn ... ",.., e0mli!c!l" ikhO{Ja repeatedly. Tetlat B. 1. ms1a1oa11 kha ga khu'gu' repeatedly. v.s.v. ""'I A. oaa1 rlj 'll~ ~11wo.,~G="l11 kha chiy' form a

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44 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY judgment as to the time-whether suitable for a certain action or not. Zin. Pak. K. 503. "!lS,i,oc'*GOJ-:> """ 10>~ cg,c kha ta'!) the time is suitable,itistime. ibid. 542 .,..,1o,u1rn '\G'['o5e39 on one occasion. Thing. Sag. i, 164. This is the regular meaning but in ,:r.,a 1roo 1:roo5sro-:>Ee30Gt[tl~so 1 from a Pyaz, the meaning seems to be "on other occasions". ~a100)?S1 oo.a,iE ... :B~:~m.:oo-:,:a:,tr/l ... 'IJCO-:>w. ... CJ? oo~~ril Go:scooli11 kha 'tau'!) ask for indications of the favourable time. Attok 2 01:@rilCJ511o;ic~:~:ro .,. ", "'"' 13 i; 'II ooc:~ccoo5 ~G0:'3&,&00. kha 'pe indicate the auspicious time. Thami L. W. 10. ma 1~ ~.S:'"l!oo.o;ic11 akha me' unseasonable. Zin. Pak. K. 53. oof.io'!'co.:ooa1~e;il'j 1 a time when there was nothing-no cash in the treasury wherewith to pay compensation. Ayud. Sh. 50. ma1cp:8 w"?oS iaof.ico.::ls'llfeJ"l~Ji11 akha yaoi the season (for fruit and flowers). Bod,dh. W. 57. ma 1<>cp&i Go.nG9-:>o5ro11 g-:,o5oo.c 1:CI), ~gp:roo5~~:[tlc:"l~o\i11 akha 'le myir1' time slow and longafter a considerable time. Yaz. Kyaw 55. mah,~ akha 8ir1' the time is suitable. v. """1'll9 supra. """1""""' ro-:>coGroSw.wGroSw. akha 8amaya' time, conditions. Nana S.P. 75. and freq. in journalese. ma 1, 'khan. [.,1,oo. to be bitter.] bitter taste, food with bitter flavour.-""'l=ro~:11-,i:a891cras1crac~;craa1:icrao61000~ "il9s,:,:,oo.sl3-:>o5:,:r.,911 ~6oo5dlcqJo511 Pyinsawu. p. 2. Gf-:>o5ro6ooc:oE: ... toSGeo-:>Go;i: :7,2uS11~:cuS,:r.,S11 large numbers of young and old attendants, who might be mistaken for devas. Narada P. 148. o ~8 oo911qfw-:,dl:x>-:>:11 Nana S. P. 68. ""'t A ~khu' n. [q unit, item, used where no more specific numerative is appropriate.] unit, item, individual thing. -,:r.,~:ll,:r.,'1JCJ511 "l~cl,o',a:,tril II ci :a:, t Q Cl) o') II :,9 t II :>:J t II ,:r., t OJ6(> roGCD-:>crooo-:,911wu,-:,roro-:>t11"'0JG~'-91G'['o50J. not one benefit nor fourteen or fifteen, or a hundred or a thousand benefits, but immense numbers follow every good deed. Nayaw M. 45. sorot-:,:n. ... ""1a1 D>'f't G'['oS:,:,. khu'gu' one after another, repeatedly-the wish keeps recurring to my mind. Mahawth. J. W. i, 44. ""'t B akhu' n. [popular form of OJq q.v.] the present time, now. "'"m11<,Jo5,ay-:,o5t10El8t" =ot-:>@'lJCGOJ?OJ-:>nooqu11 :n~e;r-,cuS11ro,)m-:>~'li~'c=:11 I wish to devote myself to meditation right now; but I have too much pity. Tedat. B. 34. ""'ta,S:,>; qioS'lt':01:,:,. akhu' dirJ 'be a moment ago. OoUoq. ""'tf"' 00000,'[''G"To,t:ro::"'~o1roco-:,:11 kku' noga' a moment ago. Dag. Mag. Both ,:r.,qroc and "'ttm prob. from 0Jqrocro11 q.v. ""'t C khu' n. [q:,:,. to prop up.] a prop, support; resistance. generally in combn. with """" ,:r.,/,11,:r.,Gro-:>o511o;i~:a;>tBC"' oo:cJlc:s@8fis="ilril~"'l""t@~G" 1c:roo5oa@a6:BS,~o5CTjo5oc GfGOO-:>c:o\i11 should carry the one, who answers every question, on the head with a Join cloth as cushion. Paya N. W. 27. '1>'f""" ooo;iuS,:r.,ro6roGCO"lP'.. :>--19"'.J:11 J-~-:,:11 khu' khar1 supports-little supports affixed, viz., frogs and bullocks (i.e., kinds of cleats or seatings in timber structures). MMOS. v, 53. ""t"'~~1se3:ouS',lit" a bought slave with some support, backing. Manu. 70. "'t"'""'ro-:, "''lluSoo@ii@~GfdjCgme]OJ, allowed them to Settle there as defence, buffer (against the Chins.) W.O.B. .,.;, m't khO,rJ khu' v.s.v. man "''t~ khour1 n. [~~:na to jwnp.] jumping, a transition. -ttCJ?O:@E.is01Si3c:n -:n~[tlcr1lswS~11,:r.,qto;iEc"'\ ,~OJcjl,:r.,cJlo511 next, passing from the scene in Mawyon forest to the fight between Nga Khaya and Dutha. Yama Yag. i, 196. m 't m .,"Iii; ,oocoiiooco6w~11 klwurJ ro omissions, gaps. Anap. D. K. 16. c_g-:,:m-:,a}ro-:,:rilc:G'l, mttmSC ka' khourJ dancing. Maha Thuz. K. 40. mi khouy n. expletive in .,.,mi o'nyirJ khour1 dispute. mia><>li khour1 tomir1 augmn. [~wcoo. to be fond of.] eagerness, eagerJy-2oS=:roo5:nt11011ro6wo511011-~=Se 1oS ,:r.,~cfJl1,:r.,~rowCHril'lluS'llcGOJ-:>Ge3-:>~11 being eagerly desirous of worshipping the relics. Kawi M. M. K. 61. ese:m[11,:r.,c,i:~cfJI, ,:r.,~a:,gC11G~-:>Cro"ca:,~11~oS:ncp:lj11 impatient for instruction in the Law. ibid. 86. .,.~ A 'khe n. [a:n. to be hard.] 1. a lump, a coagulation, a quantity; a feeling of anger or grudge. "'~'""'~611,:r.,c,i., "'G"ce311sil~:n-:>ooa11 a lwnp or ball of scent. Kawi L. Th. 15. ~:=:cjl,:r.,awci,:l;11 mass of clouds. N01J. gj~roo1:GOJ-:>oo'l.,gtctl11roS:J coo5l!11000'\tgCH if he gets the Silas, the pennant and possession of good men, as a solid acquisition. Thanweg. P. 5. ro~co6r1lsOJ-:>cJii-:>:Go;i:rn,;e3-:,~,ii:no5rouS:;llro-:,oo~:c/lo511,:r.,ac/lo5 rllcro-:,:1;0,-:,11 (a book) which shows by concrete instances why men are attracted to women who have been married before. Advt. in N01J. ~9,:r.,00T~-:>11w1;icoo~,:r.,a~~Gt:n. have a great grievance against you. Than. W. iv, 127.

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 45 ~:ro23:~11c,8:on . D> am "lJ II G ooroe3J6o,~"~" 'lche ocei? lump, solid particle. Alin K. 23. ol:e}.,aspE@:~~aadi\o5@=aii"t:n2311 lump, swelling. Ooll,oq. Danubyu. ,"i:com11 ml:, m S . 'lloS"-,t . <>=500230, 'khe aiy feeling of anger. Udein. P. 196. aaa .,...,c,<;, c,6:c,c/:i1pE:nE 'lehe sha? in a testy manner. Kogan P. 67. eR-,,BSoo:i-,6 ... oo a "''i' c Go lJ23"'11oS031E,, ' lche one? assets and possessions. DaungT.85. oaaoa'U~ 'lcheapyiyalump, mass. Woh. Pak. K. i. 134. "il~''IIE, ma;ooS ~<>:n~ GOO:n2311 'lehe sha? be touchy. (This appears to be an alternative to the more corn. ooooooo511 -oo~ooo5 occurs at Kawi L. Th. 43 but Bur. Sp. 99 recognizes only aaooooo511) Tham.Sele.D.K.ii,14. ~O'.J0011ma .. ""I( <>)11oooSGgGe3'>~II ""t~E11 ' lche m ce be dissatisfied, grudge-Ican't stay because of the half annawhich I grudge. Yet,he Pyaz 21. ii"ico~11 ml, ro"ilo5" .,., roo5!'j11 'khe mo pye feeling of resentment was not resolved-(the King) was not reconciled (to the loss of Vidhura). Wid. P. 42. c,~:oo:,-,o,lgiic:n-,G<\7" mQo:,?1 o 10'.JCIJ'J:H ' lehe '/Ja actually solid-your words are thick and unctuous, nay more, a. s. Pon. YamaPy.Z.140 .,.~.,.l, ci' 'lche great quantity. Kutha P. 22. ""'1""l, su' 'lehe a group, (translating P. kaliipa). Dham. D. K. 150. ... ~s ... i:. saiy 'lehs mass-as of earth, masonry, etc. Kawin M. K. 59. m.l!ma ski 'lche unctuous matter. Tharapu K. iii f94. oa<>oamll twe 'khe a solid mass. Kutha P. 74. mc'imll '1,ouy 'lehe a hard lump, tumour. Ele.D.Y.K. 103. 2. difflculty,-ooaoSaa~11oamo511oaoaro23:11 -""aoSco~-,a~S!"~"""'l'O'.l'1@~11 a complication of difficulties. Than. W. iv, 77. "'PS"E:"":noSroS::n23111p~,aspoSc,230:,-,:oa~11 it will be difficult for Nemi to live long enough to get back to his palace. Nemi J. W. 95. o'l"IB mllmmoS cjldjrqoS~o5 :nE:,,:djc,~j!Eo 111 ' lche olca? difficulties of philosophical truth. Up. Muh. K. ii, 35. ml:imoc ~9oS":n=8in 'lche /che? a problem, contained in cryptic words. Mahawth. J. W. i, 51. ml:i B 'lche n. [~:n23 to bite, to be pertinacious.] pertinacity, resolute endeavour. -ffi,o-,:E:11,,.@cl:ioa1pdi11 -di~6.Bm11 Ga16:e'jo5c"i111 l:im~Ji 'f-'B~~ro3o5ol:,)11 'lche ocei? (oa of m~ being omitted as freq. in dramatic style) biting and grinding, persistence-from the shadow of the jasmine, I bob my head and coo. As for persistence, all my heart is in it. Saw Pe Py. Z. i, 14. c\iro~:r.ll1'floSp~!'j11 mam911 ~~rooS'IJH ' lehe owuy' resolute courage-without effort, heedless, putting off the exertion of r.c., and abandoning the attempt. Parami P. 83. m<>o1c A lehau? n. [Tib. lc6g-pa, shell, bark; A.O. k'lik, shell, husk, K.506. J 1. bark of a tree -"""11'":niiGa 1o5im211 -aa::ll:oa~~""@ii"""a]oScjldjol:G:n'JoS0Ji611 Adile. K. 49. 'lo:,~:cjl oa'J:,,,,Ga lc.Jl:'\23~oa:nJic,23G:JJ'J""Ga 1oS.Jl:'\23""6:n1p23:11 IIGO'.l ')c '\ 0 Ga']c I~~ Ga 1c~0'.l0 l:11oa"i:~G:lJ'JoaGalc.Jl:'\23:n23aao ol:nro23:11 PPK. 236. So frequent in form e>o1c following names of trees, as :n1p6a 1:Ga loS11<>9<>Ga loS11 Ooll,oq. """" loSdJ'lloS!! @ii"=~.:~:n23,micli11 asafretida got from the bark. Ele.D. Y.K. 180. ,,..,;\oS~@~G:JJ'J:f.lt::n23'"""')""""E,~..1i11 ibid. 152 (But acc. to known methods asafretida is obtained from the root of the plant and opium from the poppy capsule.) ~all Goroa;i11 .,. e>o 1 c "I! roe3:11"i1;~006c,6:,"lt"'oS'IIE""9~"'11oSE:roe;l11 O'.l'lj'J!O'.JO'.l~9"':ll@:djdjEcqoS11flo511230,:noSG:nSro23:1111rooS~6G'11II lehau? thu stupid-the silly, stupid hunter got up immediately as if the elephant king were his enemy, and he even danced holding a big saw and tried to climb up with the intention of cutting (the tusks), but in vain. U Pon. Taya.17. aaGaloS0j1=0,8t:=a;i<>1pS=a,<>c8ij'>II 11o:iyoaal :n230,oam6:u l::n2311,,.o:,6:"i1:n230,"""i''lJ'>l:JJ23HGS)!oaa 1~-,"""" loS "i1dl"""i"lJ'J'O'.lt"1cli11c:/l, "e3'>~<>ip01jj'JII"""" loSC\l;~IIGO'.l')~~ E: 0 di ",l'>'"il"<'"'il"o:,-,E,cjlom'J:q.Jl:n. U Pon. Taya Oom. 212. Form c,o1c in 'lJoSGaloS"i1:n23 to have a dull, heavy witted appearance. Oolloq. m .,., 1 c B alehau? n. [ "" loS:n23 to fold, double. J 1. a fold, layer (as of cloth) -""':ll'>"""o:,611 -oaGaloSro'l'11m~ol;~11 ... <>"iG:n:c:0y:nG1pS11 Anthol. ii, 125. 2. a time, a turn. ""@S""""'t"""" 111 -gj;to lro-,:n2311 ... """" 1oS'll,,'ll,, ... ~o5 'l""23" Thath. Wi. K. i, 186. c,E,o:, .,..,.,1c,1;.,.,1c,1; 0~911 alehau? gau? repeatedly. Kandaw M. Oom. 87. oaGaloSGaloS ""alal110'.l'[':=5'll'Jldjf'>"i1''9"ro~11 Ok. Mal. [(. 161. Form "" 1 c in O'.lGa loSjiiGa lo5!1E,u l'l"@:11 let me gallop him once or twice more. Thing. Sag. i, 299. 'lloSii'>:,icaloS,j!:11 to have the face distorted with passion. Ooll,oq. ,,..,.,1& alehauy n. [Ga1E:n23 to beatthetop,toberemote,out of the way.) 1. the top, summit, acme of rank, power, etc.-c8611""qio511""'11'>"0'.l8o511-~o,ro=-,Euc86"""" l~-,11 Nana s. P. 22. "il"O'.lJ'>E:G=&J?11""""lE:,,idi:,,idi11,,.rodi.JlE:.Jlc:11~:~E: 991o~a;ia;i11 a monastery tapering at the top, in the middle ornate, concave (in profile) embellished with lilies. Thuw. Thut. P. 28. 8"916:.,=Ero:11""""1Ero~c,o511 the mansion of the sun being right at the zenith. Anthol. ii, 211. G:n~::,i:00~11 ~'>:n9~"316i,e}.@~go"" 1611,,..,ro-,Eg-,oSoooS.1"316 'OJIS mdi 'll II the three showers of deadly rain flooded to a maximum height of 60 cubits. Kawi MMK. i, 71. o5~-,,,.oa l611qit"B,,5.,.,,,a,, ~~:JJ"1jHGO lro<>o,11 the acme of excellence, the Buddha. Th. T. E. 1. roGOrqQmt""""" 168t3911 so as to make them thoroughly accomplished in the scriptures. Thuw. Thut. P. 12. clcjl:n-, o'loE~"ilE .,. .. .,1s.,.,,J?, B~"= ... O'?'l'''ilE" olchauy 'phya the highes_t, most distinguished. Mun Yaz. 14. """alE""'fl ,a@-,c-,:~:u~cli11 made her 8"?'1''"" 16~, or chief queen. Zin Pale. K. 425. rooS0j1")0'.l{>'>HOOoSrom-,odi11 me>o1SmuS :,.:,2311 olchauy lee to surpass the best-of Paiicapiipii's hand with its thrilling touch. P. P. Yag. 10. m<>o1S~111 c,6'i\iiat:dJ11 alchaur1 oo'yay thehighest(perh. eastern) post-the most noble eightfold"path. Thanweg. P. 6. ""!l
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46 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY best. S.D.Kh.P.11 .,..,.,1s~, E, khau!)'soto be supreme ruler. Udein. P. 49 .,. .... ,s"8c o}noo~o5'laci? ... --the King. ibid. 192. qm~:cE11 .,..,., 1S ~S 911 khau!) taiy reach the highest excellence. Kawe Th. K. Gyi 151. oaGa1EdjE=:i:Gcr.il3cEcoElo"' Mud. Lek. P. 15. eodi .,..,.,1Sc811 0230~11 akhauy thi' touch the summit, be supreme. Wisit. Th.D.K. i. 258. c1=:>o~~IIGfo1GopE~:11 .,....,1s,.,, @,~:m8~11::iiaSt~11 akhau!1 'ni be near the top-wise ministers, who because of my power shine with the radiance of the sun and are very distinguished. Maul. Y az. Py. Z. 48. 2. remote time, ancient times. u,g;, 1En oacoo5Gr71PCO'.lco110G00.,;11 my, ooaGo 1E,11CG oooE: GCO: GcooE 11 oaGa1E51,C)l~11mocoot@~11 S. D. Kh. P. 83. op<>oCoaGa1Euoooo1E carn:o,ii1102t'P@iioo, ... 6i)O@fil,11 Ava, famous in prophetic sayings since early ages. Anthol. ii, 10. rr.,g;, 1E@iiG=Gl: oaa1mnooTGo1o5=di, Band. Mag. .,..,.,16, A 'khau!) n. [Ga1E: a cavity. Tib. k'un cavity, as of the nose. A.C. k'ung hollow, K. 476. Keh. nhkun hollow.] a hollow, cavity, a hollow thing, a coflln.-Ga1E,g11Ga1E,8o5 ao,o5GooooaopnoaGCOoE:co~G:l)')G0.,ll,'011 ,,.g., lE:G=a= II ;,~o.,E:11~aE,i,11G~11aop1100~:oo.,,~o:,,,11 instruments which have a hollow interior. PPK. 99. ooaooEoaGa1E~GfG<9Gooo~~1 Thing. Sag. i, 241. oaGa 1E~Go.,oo.,iioE11 ibid. oa,~t~cJ?oaGa 1E, ~9"""0..E,~:n~iooo.~cJ?co~" making the steel-yard hollow. Kinkha N. 89. o:,~6oaGalE,mGco:C\ltc!l"'i1'"5Gmoo5GoooEco5, 'l"e'i" a Chinese coffin is so heavy that it takes ten men to carry it. Colloq. djdjEG!J>oo5G@fo,yo m .,., 16, ma, cli oo, a'khau!) a8e? a hollow. Colloq. ,,....,16, B a'khau!) n. [G.,1E, head, round tuber.] tuberous root. 8" s~ ... GOJl:i'P""G" 1E:onG'I'~'~"' fragrant arum root tical, marking-nut t tical.-in a recipe for making pure silver. W. M. Th. K. 191. mc,a1o,al! a'khobmi, ,,..,.,To,al! akhobmi, and .,. .. .,T:llal! akhobi'ni n. [P. akkhobhani more correctly akkhohini a complete army. v.s.v. in P. D. Dan. and Skt. Akshauhini.] A complete army of all arms, a very large number.o!i,,.1,1,,.~ !J>COCU 1G=oiioo6~"'""Ggoo5oago,11 The composition of an akkhobhani army is given at MMOS. iv, 253. The total personnel amounts to 765450. As a number the word expresses 1 followed by 42 ciphers. Adik. K. 149. Of. Minye N. E. 12, Sed. Pal,. K. 22, and Kawi M. M. K. 210. Form c,a1o,al! in same senses. .,. .,., T akho n. [ G" Too, to call.] calling, designation, pronunciation. -Ga TE,noo~o5E:11GO ho'\11 -aE:o,t"'E:royoaGa T Gm ,~Gopo5coo9, with a summons from King Mindon. Shwep. W. 261. 'l6""G<>Tto5GYlio.!lm11 from the place whose name is the Nathmaw estuary. Maul. Yaz. Py. Z. 145. '~'il""'"o5aE,11 """G" T ~':l'I~" Sir Minister Shambashu Why this high-flown address! Bein Yaza Py. Z. 42. Gl"'i1GOJoE:~G<> T GOT ... ,,.6G= m c,;, Tm c,o T II akho awo pronunciation. Kabya Kyem 163. omtoo~ooe,:io,~06"11"'"" oasaT!J>GoTv:11 terminology. Sun. oaooo:oa&oa~:nao~=o ~o5oog,o 1~.,G<> T oaGo Toe3o5'1o5~11 names of different parts of the body, terminology. Thath. Wi. K. ii, 26. gt"""'il~''ll"'.,?'l omo,'lE:ao,o5G'lJII kho 'wohara' word, expression. Kawi M. Mag. """'li' """" T 'twe akho anticipation. Devag. Py. Z. 2. ,,..,9.s; .,..,.,T amyo akho foresight. Kandaw M. Com. 45. ""~11 ,,..,., T ahmyu akho, endearments designed to amuse a child. Temi J. W. 105. m~cli akhai? n. [~o5oo, to impinge.] 1. Impingement, injury. oadlnnacBoa~o511oalj\oa;,11 oo1po5QG'l"2o5G'l!OC: ona~o511 as far as (for the more com. nacB) Zpd. MS. o\lmt ~O,GOOG0>7ao11e 1o5ooG::oooa~o5~:mo'l11 If he swallowed a plate a man would die-very injurious to the constitution. Ziwaka H. 21. mc,ao?6m~c ashau!) akhai? what supports and what injures. Tanaw. W. i, 71. ,,.~ci;.,.~ci; atai? khai? an attack, aggression. HI. Ree. 182. Rem .,.~.,1;,,. .. e, a~o:,,ooe30Gm11 akhai? 'm injury and blot, flaw-in Gunawadi Press Edn. 1914, of Vidh. J. W. Pref. is an emendation of oa~E""'ll" q.v. 2. a moment of time, a particular occasion, a coincidence. ;,m,1oa;, 1oa8~11oaffio511 e;1gjoSE:11 c1:::c8ijOO;>:lJ,O,~'ll5,oo~oa~o511Gmoo5agE: 8:i'i02o5oodl11 Just as I was extolling my daughter's discretion, out she comes ride-a-cock-horse on the spattle. Sagab 30. o:,o.,oacl3r/l"l60G=!J>~o5@ii911 Ilm. Yaz. iii, 123. ~::iiom"JOJmoog l=:o 1rq,,.~cf.i~=o;>'P~E:cJ?Go,o 00, the word means the Buddha's monastery in the particular context of the sentence (elsewhere it would mean an ordinary monastery). Abid. N. 311. mocoGuo., m~d) m @;j_ d) ""dloSoa~oaG<,;l"" G g0 o., ~" m E op@ii 9 akhai? acai? coincidence-the time and place, and the coincidence were not free from probability and indications (of guilt, oadlo500~11). Manu 190. m~cmat," a,~ a,iE11 J 'lo5ootooe'in ;> '}o5ootooecr.iiC0\)0c@@iioo. khai? khay' 8iy' circum stances suit. M. Y. M. W. 199. ""'ll~"G'l~Gooo .,. ~cl;.,.., 111 akhai? akha time-a very critical time. Sun. ""~o5m"5oaa 1e;tm ... oa8i;o~o 1c8911 when the time comes ignorance will carry him away. Maul. Yaz. Py. Z. 20. m~climoot, moo'l~t'" akhai? ata!)' the moment (perh. originally a pause for the moment ")-a temporary palace. KBZ. iii, 48. GQOC'}"5,,rq:flo5roGO&O.,~oa~o5oa~ roGCOl
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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 47 due course-from time to time as conditions are favour able. Ledi Kein. 27. Of. Meg. D. K. 13. 91oSso:<>23:SS m~di~S ~" akhai? cei'I} meet with the time, encounter. Sun Mag. o1~;9allo511 m~diBi, ::02311 akhai? COU') meet in time, coincide. U Pon. M. 16. m~dig~ ~-ot11aadjoS::09<>m-o:cflalldlo5ro"511 akhai? khwiy the occasionI just spoke words to suit the o. Kum. Py. Z, 16. co?::o'Jlt,1 ""'lr'"So5"<:~o5cfl m~dio,~ -o:Gro?g. akhai? 0i1J' if the moment is favourable-I may be lucky enough to hear the foolish thoughts of all who come. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 62. m S akhaiy n. [~c::o; to be firm, and in ~c@:::023 to be many, be abundant.] 1. a bunch (e.g. of bananas consisting of several combs), a fruit-bearing branch. ,,.~o5,,..,s., o;1cileoQ?~6::o.~-oaa~CClj)COfB:aa8:a;,~~O'J9 ro.::02311 a fine branch should have fine combs. Manir. K. 95. Applied to bunches of toddy fruit and fruit-bearing branches of coco palms. OoUoq. CDC ''il: qj~,.,g~u,ai: ai rnGQ T aa6o;1' -o: G::O'J'1a 31o5 'lr'~oo lc:90>~c @ii~"'3JC'1a~~CaaQ~C'IJ?'B ii 6 ?!1'1a~Cqicaa8:'lj?:GOJ?yo5G<.j]?~.jl:11 male plantains which have many combs in a bunch (the writer also mentions female and t'I+ or hermaphrodite plantainsdistinctions unknown to botanists). Ek. D. Y. K. 70. Gaa-oo5'l')e;l00G::O'J m S .., .f, roe3ilo5~c, ... ~s .,.~.,, akhaiy amwa branches heavy with fruit (aa~? multiple, prob. reinforcing aa~c) boughs small and large cross one another and fruit-laden branches droop. Lawki Th. L. K. 200. m~S"i!lt akhai1) 0a'ye is given as = P. pi'1J,lf,iidayika, soldiers who can cut off the enemies' heads like toddy fruit ; but P.E.D. has form pirJ,i!,a-dayika, one who deals out food, camp-follower ; though another translation, oorkampfer [fighter in the van, champion] is also mentioned. The interpretation will depend on a choice between pill(ia-d. from dayika, distributing, and pi'TJ4,-ad. from ii,il,ii,ya, seizing, receiving ; and on the meaning to be given to pill(ia, lump. KawiL.D.132. Of. Thokthil. N. 90. 2. strength, validity. aag-011aaroe311,.,cq11-c lroGQ T G<>::023cflg=aa~CGf::OfB11 instead of coming to my summons, has taken up a strong position, surrounded himself with a strong force. Hm. Yaz. i, 413. ~~cflaa~c GfGCO.li11 has taken up a position in Sandoway, put it into a state of defence (the name of the place is regularly followed by cf)). ibid. ii, 15. "11S:o~aa~fog9211 we find no authoritative scriptures. Swes. K. D. ii, 198. ~:a;,9o5"'c ?C~:roe3'l')11~~'123",JCo,JC11g@oc g-orocdj,, khairJ aci strong and firm-full-grown male elephants, exuding temporal j nice, strong and firm as a mountain .. Mawg B. 13. 'lj'J&!l?GOJ?OOcq:oo'lc:;9 ... ~Sm ;;~'711C:U>9GCO.li11 akhairJ akha1)' strength and securitydisposed his large army in strong defensible array. Zanek. J. w. 13. c1:Sqicu1G::o?<>m?:cflaa~caaQi(aa~) o,it)11 authoritative. Tham. Sek. D. K. i, 160. .,.~Sm~, Q~Qccfl11GiJt~::oQC~oroS~u 111 akhai'I} 'phyi strength and numbers-before he has a large following, has consolidated his position. (As expletive to ,.,~S in this sense always ,.,@, -not w8:11) Hm. Yaz. i, 460. cll:t~iJrr.,~caa@: O'.>fBGCXY.>CSo'II~" KBZ. i, 75. wcfl:aam-o: ... ~s ..... ., Q~II khairJ ma things firm and hard, reliable-no r. authority, text. Thath. Bahu. 98. <>?,J[O,.,~CaaQ?ljifaaogu:dj::02311 valid, binding deed. Sagad w. 71. G"11'JC::!lB~QO'.)o5u,aa~c aaa-oo-oail"1Jo5 positively. Sun. rodjc: . qlaa~CWQ'J ot~S:11 in strength, prepared to fight. A!. Ayeb. 21. Of. Pon. Yama Py. Z. 56. m~Sm'!J~"i ldtai1J amyirJ mafi' (recorded only in translations from Pali) (1) = P. nibbi sevana not self-indulgent; self-denying, meek. ,.,~5..,'llli a::o;cfl~~"i!"'co~,11 will admonish him and cure him of his indulgence (in cannibalism). Manik. W. 71. (trans lating Jataka v. 474, Fausboll). Of. ibid. 488. (NOTE, Another edition of Manik. W. Zeduwadi Press, 1910-reads ... ~s ... and ... ~s ""'!J~' in these two passages respectively. Translation at Nip. 588 is ,.,g~::023cfl~9 taking away his venom). (2)=P. nibbedhaka penetrating, discriminating. aa~Saa'lJeQ=ua-oom penetrating wisdom. Vidh. J. W. Pref. (Edition approved by Text Book Committee.) 1906. (NOTE. The translation aa~C"''lf8g is prob. a mistake due to confusion of nibbedhaka with nibbisevana. Other editions of Vidh. J. W. have .,.~J;.,..,1, akhai? 'me. This is an ingenious emendation which unfortunately has nothing corresponding to it in the Pali. A variant spelling from (2)isfoundin ,,.~S,.,.'!J~" G::o-oua-o as translation of P. nibbedhika at Por. Kat. T. 38). t?S~6::023coe3:ro::oo5cq: ro:nocq: ... ~s ... O'.)'i'0'.)23'""Bii>~O'.>fBGf::OfB11 akliairJ 'mye what is firm and lasting-the individuality persists as one andthesamethroughoutlife. Ah.D.K.10. <>ffim~ m~S.,."1 Gt::02311 ~~"16@'1G::06Gmoc"'e30C0?11 akliairJ alourJ a position of strength and security-have put themselves in a state of defence. Attok. 6. ~:o~rr.,~cwcqg~~, reliable authorities in scripture. Atithon. J(. 280. cfl"58cfl.~ m~S'IJ! GtGCO..li11 khairJ 'ji all in a state of defence -without exception put their towns in a s. of d. KBZ. i, 319. (where older edition, p. 317, reads aa~c "''lJfB:11) 11~:D~cflJidjcmn m s :,:,,:, I y-odjro::o~'lro"i" akhai'r) 'iJa definitely-the day on which her father d. asked us to come. Kum. Py. Z. 71. ,,.~s. 'khairJ n. ~c:::023 to employ.] injunction, employment ; person employed. "'""''-g-:,uf?"i1' m S i ~" 'khai'I} garJ employees, workmen--<>mployed to dig into relic chambers. Up. Th. W. K. ii, 61. ~.-o,iico11 .,.~g,.,..,DH

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48 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY """a.l"a.lcJlti;;"f'l:lJ23'f-'II 'khai'Y) ose employment, servitude. Pohtin Py. Z. 12. OJ23"i1~o5aotall"ro,,,..~6,,.,.,o"'ll,~"f~6ro'.l 001,, servants. Oolloq. mS,.,.'lle o'khai'YJ omyiv a variant spelling of ,.,~6,..'llu q.11. m A 'klw n. [~::i,23 to emit smoke, vapour.] smoke, blast of hot air, vapour, gas, exhalation, effluence.-"""ls."""m6:u rr.,l-11 P. dhuma. rr.,~::i,23S:~:11G'l~'"il'b~~o'i11 Utub. K.105. S:wrr.,~:o:,~"911 no smoke without fire. Sagah. 87. ,.,~,r/jc,%"l5011""""6cJlocb:m11 for vapour the vapour of clouds, for crookedness a maze. Y ama Y ag. i, 144. c8S:="ll'~'11""~'""~11cJloSai:CJ?~11 scent-her whole body fragrant with all kinds of cosmetics and scents. Kawi M. M. K. i, 163. d3t,,.,~:~c/l=:Gaf.i~='.l"e3'.l911 the smoke of opium. Sahebin W. 153. ,..~,@~~:='.l""~'":i,'.)o5Gao:o5cJlG6: . ~~:i,6:@~~'":i,'.),.,~:=o5=:o5cJl96:c 1"?'P'il9~Gaf.i~o'i11 I, Buddha, permit pipes for smoking vapour made of bone and of shell (v. ,.,~,o5 inf. The reference is to dhii.manetta, smoke-tube used for medicinal purposes). Mahawa ii, 11, ~o5o"'l596,,.,~, Hydrogen gas. Utub. K. 108. ~6GOJ'.l81P ""~ effiuence from the buried treasure-which had a bad effect on a person sitting over it. Manir. K. 452. C\lt"OJ'.l "1oSqlo'i m,,.,.,,S, 'kho o'ki'Y) morbid heat-of elements present in excess. Ek. D. Y. K. 108. m'"'"l ql@~c8S: o:ioo5"11t'9" 'kho othoo'Y) scents-smeared and sprayed with e. Zin. Pak. K. 16. ot.,,.~11 m,m+. ql@~"?""6:i,23@ 'kho mav' scents. Ma.la lti,nk. W. 13. =:i,23 ... "'lo!ldl ""'"'Yi @bGoa:iio511 'kho hmou'Y) fine particles, vapour. A.dik. K. 136. to1:ro.,,.,~o5",lo5!}1 .,.,m"31 cJl92oSs'ii11 'kho hlya'Y) smoke and flame. (not traced.) <>b9'.l'lcJltmo<>lll .,.,~ =,11 'kho kha'Y) endure fumigation--<>xpose the parts unflinchingly to the heat (from a fire of medicinal herbs). Nara Se K. 74. "~""oco5t11Gro<>,t11 m<>-,S, c,-,S,n \li:~:Gro'.lC:cqJo511 'kho 'cho,u'Y) 'jauv with intense radiation-in the beginning of the hot season the heat is parching and blazes violently with intense radiation. Pon. Yama Py. Z. 97. m ""~ '16 ~OJ'.l<>e:J'1ilC11 'kho voo? the heat dives, fails to come to the surface of the body-if one bathes in the ordinary way so as merely to cause the heat to recede inwards. Ek. D. Y. K. 175. m,.,; "=o511 ::o=po5S:9b11Gao"J6robcn'.lCD'JII 'kho dav a pipe for smoking tobacco or other herbs-always smoking his pipe and carry ing flint and steel. Teind. P. 38. On the merit gained by an offering of a pipe, v. PPK. 164. <>">c ~o5,Ri~'JGOJ"Jo5 'kho 'thu'Y) mau? with a bright gleam-as of a star on the horizon. ( A doubtful use of,.,~.,) M.SandaPy.Z.94. m:<>o1c 'khobau?chim ney (translating P. dhuma-ohidda.) Kinkha N. 126. ~a.lo5 CO'.lGOJ'e m "'ll @Ji "ltro~:n 'kho pye exhalations are dissipated. Oolloq. m:<>!9 G ... 'JCo5oob1,~o5'1a,~c8S:'kho pye infla=ation is resolved, reduced. Oolloq. v. also next ex. m l! Ji egoo'.l0110Jo5o;,~d311'llo52~t~11:>'l:>'looG01,'.l"(',lG(',lcJln G9J'.lo5..fjo6o511C\loSmc:C\loSs'ii11 'kho hmou? heat blows, there is a movement of hot air-with m. of h.a. upwards the eyes become dim and other ills result; this is dissipated (by drinking hot water). Nara Se IC 126. (It is believed that walking on hot sand will cause an upward movement of heat and consequent eye trouble.) 8ffi'.l::OJlo5~: m:~Ji :i,.'lJ'.l"f-'11 'kho hlu? send out vapour, form a halo-meteors roaring and the big star with its halo. M. Sanda Py. Z. 3. mocot:ac.,~~o5c:11 msc,o,-,J; c., 'kho 8au? inhaling vapour, smoking (not necessarily tobacco but perh. other medicinal herbs)-violent exercise, massage and i.v.-(among prescriptions for health in themonthsofTabaungand Tagu.) Utub.K.10. ,,..,,S,m 'ki'IJ 'kho morbid heat in the body. Ek. D. Y. K. 175. "1oSmmcm~:o!lcJleoS~cs'iiu can check m. h. ibid. cB Jim, kei? 'kho a comet. (Skt. dhuma-ketu.) Bhumi Sal. K. 148. cgtm logu'Y) 'kho = o5o'>8t comet. Tav. Yaz. i, 27. m B 'kho n. [~::i,23 to steal.] stealing, theft.-~:9o5c:n P. oorikii-rr.,GO)'.)o5QrooS,.,~:b:i,2311oa~:moSmoaGCD'.lo5fuie311 if you are unskilful in picking up, it is theft ; if you are skilful in theft, it is picking up. Prov. "ii~,,.,~: "'16COICO'.l:oadjo5a'!BC' ... e311 throwing down (one's cards)-for your information I give you a glimpse of my hand ; you will discard and throw away. I will mark you down as a cipher and a mere etcetera. Zaw1,a, Kum. Py. Z. 38. 'lliB' ?? ""
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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 49 ""~ ""'ll "-" oohi cha' beginnings and endings. Kawi L.D .. 151. The fol!owing examples shows the rhyming opemng and concludmg phrases of a ~6~<\"?" 1st stanza "il~,o~') . -a;;e'.jcoo;ic 01dl~112'.j11 2nd stanza GfO~'GtS'> G<\02'.io>c -o.ndlij112'.j11 3rd stanza G~"J~::,:,~o 1 . ~coe'.j.g,1c-~-,dl~11,,1 Kabya Yeni 116. "?6-@-atsg ... """o'""'li ... ~"ilciJ" 'pe ooh.a' allotment-people who have received an a. of land for cultivation or residence. MMOS. v, 258. """" 'll apo' acha' teaching, instruction. v. oa~11-""'ll.,'""'ll" ""~''lr"' 'phya ooha'-the end as opp. to oa~:o the beginning-in an obscure passage apptly referring to some system of indexing in which the opening and closing words of documents were recorded. Ki,iw. M. 1. G~COOil"?c/l'lfGOnCo} f">'""'lJ ~C:o1G<\?II ',ia cha' persuasion-told (his sister) to persuade me to give him a share of my love. Rup. Kai. Py. Z. 114. .,. 'll < aohe? n. 11 onomatopceic = the sound of a slight blow, as in 'llo5'llo5 or qcf.i9J05 used of the ticking of a watch.] 1. stroke, beat, blow, wound, mark. oa@S11oa'P'"'a6'P''""~cfi11 ""'1Jo500GCX)')C~cfiacfico, a thousand lashes. Nip. iii, 31. "316oo!Jo5dl""'llcfi'lr:~')OC~c= ... =:ia-,:11 could shoot many shots in a moment of time. Kawi L.D. 132. f'>~oof.i::o[G~]Gi)gcfim11""'llo5-aooSo:ii:,j,, strokes of the time-gong. M. Sanda Py. Z. 5. f,loooEoo~11~~0?+ ""'lio5o.n:cflt11~o5&:-aoo51100,:01=,11 make a mark-tell me outright white or brown, and make a definite statement instantly. Rup. Kai. Py. Z. 22. ""'ll.S""cp 'lr=?" C 1ci)=i1cfi!J~-ao Tsoo, gE" our chance, the time for us to act is coming. Teri Pyan 143. CJ. Kh.M.G.W. ii, 81. oa'llo5~n gijoo5c/l:BS:,1[:~11@:"i!:-acm1100:ne'.j11 at the moment when the sun set. Kawi Th. I(. i, 177. ""'licfiom-,:,r.cf?c:11 according to preconcerted arrangem~nt. Kum. Py. Z. 137 .,..,-,6, "'lid} 11-ao.f.ico;: ... <\~:nc<9''j""<\S:~~"?6oocfio'i11 'cau'!) aohe? cause and occasion, provocation. Tha,i. W. ii, 71. ""~tGo.Y.>",l:ne'.j ... ,.,~cil~ci)icf.i:BSG!lso.n ""'llo5c/l:Boocfigcoocfio'i11 persons born under the conjunction of planets called the reed (nala) apprehend the finer points of any subject. Maha Thuz. K. 143. soo'>~g'>tn =i1cf.ic/l~t aiming at the attaimnent of Nirvana. M. Sanda Py. z. 126. UJSt"i1'"'t'""i""'llo5ooydjsv.l'lst@11 a peculiar circumstance. Than. W. iv, 23. mc'.''j~c: ,1tco-,,o:,:,-,,,.,1cf.ic/lgcCIJIC" when he saw the om1ss10n ( = ~C'IJt'lJOOII such uses show the origin of the verbal noun formative ,10011) Atithon. J(. 222. rqlc/lcoe'.j:11 .. '. ,o;iccot2o,ic:~cfi:n-,,~.o<\"2'.i" particulars, details ( of roads and communications.) H!. Ree. 59. 'l".l .,. 'll ,"" i' sco:o 101 che? me? facts, truths-the four Facts about Dukkha. (v. P.E.D. s.v. The truths areinP.sacca,ii. P. sacca is usu. kansliterated, not translated, in B. Perh. ""'lie ""l'o5 = the pomts or facts and the explanations of them.) Alin K. 85. ""CY.JloSalj~@:s:,:,-, ""'lldl""

'""l''>'""'IJOO""cocf.ialj@:"315" the points relating to the boundaries. Hm. Yaz. i, 512. O'.lGo5:nfo3:110'.lGOOmot01 .,. 'll d} "ll .,.,,,5 . fillc~o,cfio 1 :!300>711 che? ea' to hit the mark, be just as it ought to be. Maul. Yaz. Py. Z. 165. .,.,.,ccocf.ib8oSg1cfic/l ... coc: ~~""cocf.iy""'lJOOCY.Jlo~co-,~11 carefully, reverently. Dat. Dl,at. w. 103. ""'llOOCY.JIIIO'.l0.:,00011030'.lOOO)G&c:coS:~11 in due form -having previously made advances in due form with a view to make her my lifelong partner. Pohtin Py. Z. 72. ""'liOOCT.1"11:B<\"""'>C so as to have exact knowledge, be free from doubt on any point. Zanek. J. W. 12. "3o:j:oot:ooc=i1c"1JII The lame man trying to climb a toddy-palm does not make a job of it-he has bitten off more than he can chew. Sagab. 23. ""'llo5 CY.J1m&iII ooh,?'thalaydownconditions-(what was to be the reward of the victor in the contest). Yama Yag. i, 58. :n.C\1~m'>:"8'>0'.l'> .,. 'll < 6 ~o5= che? pair1 to grasp points, be to the point. OoUoq. ,au,-,cJip:ci) ""'ll.S""il" G~: sm-,o5o;icf.iGB'lE.,;911~c!l11oohe? /asearch for points, grievances. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 9. oo<\o5""'" ""'ll J; <>,t@91ijo5s'll:"cfi=,11. oohe? 'fe former state-every day according to my former practice I will sweep. (A strained use of ""'llc) ibid. 34. 4. the centre point, the pivot, pericarp, a boss, sheaf. edl11"3coo5,1cf.i11e:J-,8 o5,,,,.oe'.j:11-cic:soo~----<;'llc,.,~:,,a~c,11,.,,1cf.isi]St:11 4 umbrellas with red handle and cover and boss of plain gold. MMM. 73. sc>ooe'.j ... 0"3')c.m.~:oa'lj00002'.jo, the city J etuttara, capital of the conquering kingdom (of Sivi). Weth. P. 29. o'lo,~g9o'i ... g9'16cij:n.srnrqt~" ... ocfi~:n.srno'i11""'ilo5'll""2'.i"",,Cllicrnc:~ H

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50 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY only the pericarp is left standing. Nip. i.139. Of. Swehin. P. 4. a'l0'Jll~~"'23 ... OO'/GOO'.loa~:~:x>'.lC131E1100~00'.l~Q'.l~1oa'llcf.ifl~:;y ,.,5"'l~"'8 ... flS~11 the lily blossoms were united in a sheaf on one stalk. Swes. K. D. ii, 19. OOl\J"'f'.lUGomoooo:B6'.l:GE:ot'P :,iu.gEo'ioaE~u~:oaaE:aE:~11oarocf.i~co23:u~:oa,1cf.i~@~uS cou5fl!i ~:oli11 Sakkas' throne was :floored with :flowers and over head had a decorative roof of sheaves of :flowers. Nemi J. W. 46. OOijBua'lE"' ""il,l;"'"!J">I oaG'l~'l .. =tn'l~ 0023911 ache? acha the mid-point, capital of the Kingdom. KBZ. ii, 94. 9soSoof.i:,:,23@~ .. '.l[CID cm:ioo~ GS'Jo5o;iS:ro:,oo~o'.lo5:,:,'.loo2311 achiv' pa-mana' measure, volume-16 half-gallon measures (for o;iS:o'.l: or o;i~:o'.l: generallytakenas=asaleorpint,v. Kogan P. T. 501). Thath. Baku. 305. Rem. In the following passages ""'119 appears to be used in the sense of ""'IIE: a diameter. :flt6""GOO'.lE11 ""'119'.lE~11GCO:oro'.lEiS'P''""~'1''.lOO'.l:111ip'.lGOO'.lEou 1E,11000:,:,'.lE: ;Soro'.lEuo'.lcf.i'Pooo'.lEoli11 the diameter of the plinth was 4,200 cubits and the circumference 12,600. Sed. Pak. K. 85. a'loao~:coo'.i:,:,cGU 1E:cf)~:'lro"'co6 oo'.l:rr.,919co cf.i:,:, Sou 1E :@So/ii 1 Swes. K. D. ii, 116. ""il6, A 'chi'() n. ['IIE::,:,23 to pierce, go through.] penetration, transverse measurement, diameter, axis. oo'.lcf.i(',lE,E:11cq11 dl6o,, coo.;iE6u5ea'II~' (rr.,,16:) 'lJ'.l:oool:i.,[il23i]'.lG:x>'.lOO'.lo:,:,'.l~So5 0023:11 if many stars go through the moon (i.e. appear to go through). MTTK. 126 and v. Kogan P. T. 173. ""'116: '-ll"'f'.lc1:oou51rr.,o~:'-ll"'f'.lOO<)?C1:oou5ooo'.l ... GfGE:002311 Manu 5.a'l~:002311eaOf'cfl='.lE11oa~901:ooo'.lE11""'11E:~:ooo'.lE11 Tham. Sek. D. K. ii, 4. oa1E:oool3eaooioo'ol'.l"""'IIE:oo(',l'.lll where ""ml is app. the measurement from side to side and ""'IIE, from front to back. ibid. i, 423. oo,11,'.loa,1E:cfl: o;iuS'Pflc==11 throughout the duration of the world. Hanth. Ayeb. 19. ~.,Jl'l8dl~"'23000l,'JGOO'.lErr.,dl ""il6, .,. .. G., '-ll"f'.l00'.ll1100:l>!i:,S:B!i:c 1:GCD'.l900'lntS~c 1:oao;i'.) o\i II a'chiv 'pya distance between. Adik. K. 121. 0001,'.l .,.,.., O> ii 6 I O'.l'.l:11 . l\J"'f'.l1100:l>!i:;c:B!i:~:GCD'.l9GCOl')?C 1:.ou5 o/i11 oao~:<>j:oo50'.l'.lOll\J"'f'.l~::,:,i:o'.lo5:B!i:0000009:~: "l? c 1: ro u5 Jin ibid. ""ii~ q.v. is sometimes used for ea,1b ""il6, B 'chi'() n. [freq. in O.B., esp. in form 'IIE, in senses I, 3, and 4. Maru chawng to be near. Yawyin hchaw hpa' a follower. J 1. an attendant on, companion of a royal or other distinguished person. oocf.iu 1:001100'.Jl"'ill~"oou~11 eao:nl:i11 -<)G2,'.l1GE:olii1q~o:,:,'.l1oa'IIE:000'.lc/ip:002311 Thut. Pak. 186. 000100&.E,@:o'i,,q~:m1ea,1E:~002311 Thokthil. N. 108. regularly used to translate P. purisa in this sense of "attendant". ooE$:GOO'.l"i1CGW'.lo'.i~o.;iE, .. 23"il='""'IIE:11Q23 "ilm'.lmE:"?'""'"'11EooE,ot'.lcf.i:,:,d:icfl . 6~io . GOJ'.lrr.lQ 111 watch who got off the elephant first so as to discover which was the prince and which the attendant. Kawi M. M. K. 366. "?"9 T o;,,,c 1:00E:,911oa'IIE:""0Si,"il~6c=: ,,6 E 'II SQ o5 co: 11 c }:T.>G(',l:o'ii11')Eoog:Sap11=ti!'.lOO'.l:11 Ananda, son of my uncle who was true companion of Thuddhawdana, my father, and born of the same womb. Shwehin. P. 70. :B6'.l:GE:co23:11 ""il6,.,.'l6, flc='.lto5~,.,'.):oao~E,cf)['.l ""'IIE'""'lE:~900o;iooa\=l:i~ KBZ. ii, 340. o;iJ~So.;iEco23: ""'IIE:ea')E:ooE:0:'1'.J'll'.lU 1"'2311 (rich man speaking). Swes. K. D. ii, 340. """?6"""'lll'""'IIEoa')E:c='.l"il~" attendants (on embryo Buddha). Mala Link. W. 32. 51E:B6'.l:dl11 a,,l;o,-,,mil6"' 'lll=~E:,:,E~911 le?'8a 'chi'() attendants. Thuw. Thissa. P. 61. 2. a familiar term of address, usu. to inferiors or equals, used to translate P. bho, samma, are rr.,:,:,E11SoS.:,g11 'l=licfla T ool:iw"""'IIE'')CD'.l:li:11 Zin. Pak. K. 27. ""'IIE: (one nat addressing another). ibid. 69. Q'.l~cf.i:,:,23 . SSo'i'lj'.l:8'.lG:l>'.lOC:l>23~c6u 1~cflg'j ::llailo'i11ea,1E:~1:,a:T.>u5<6'.l9 ... 'l6~t:floot23'" Dat. Dhat. W. 50. li, .. o523"i1J23=,,,.GU 1E:~00811 ... Q()'.)'.)"o.i:at,., .. oS~, cfloa 'f6@'C131E11oa'IIE:rr.,gcf.iffi,11 . QEo:,:,'.l~o5,.,a'lE.iooECl3J'.lcf.i u 1oco0?11cJlcf.io.;i:6ois\i11 Tav. Y az. 6. <:T.>'.ll""'IIE,~, Y az. Kyaw. 45. "'ij'""'IIS,E.:,~11 Nip. ii, 25. """'l'""'IIE'~" Antho!. ii, 174. ""l"'l'""'IIE:rr.,,15:~11 ibid. 3. he, they. -"ii "ii~' tu'.l,lu5""'11Ero~6u~o')O'.l'.lll came and asked something for them to eat, for a tip. SIP. 109. In this sense more com. inform ,1E., 4. onewithanother,mutual,mutually. ""'IIE"IJE:ilOOGW'.ld:i,~OOGOO'.lcf.i.100'1;900'1" 9'!.' E .. "'P""il"' .:r.noo'.lcr,ioo'.lrr.l,JE:11 there was no mixture with the emerald ; between that and his state-appearance-there was exact resemblance. Antho!. i, 15. But usu. reduplicated. ""il6'il6, '!loo=Q~ocvE,n a'chiv 'jiv '('emiJ. w. 79. euQ'.l,980GQ<~oa,1E:'llE:G
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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 51 milE, C o'chiy n. [1 specialized use of ""'lie, B.] the after. birth, placenta. g:ig:,!;lS11 coc:oooo:i?c11rl:ioo:i?cu9cf.i@: g=cuo;irr.,'llc:11 (in a receipt for casting out evil spirits). Kawe Th. K. Gyi. i, 74. rr.,cSt"'~"S"'ir-''~c!1j""'llc"'"l:ngt gof.i11go"ltgro:cmoi Gwes. Se K. 18. "'8~".lltoo:i5rr.,'llc:ro: '9go 1cf.i~o 1:n11 whose afterbirth I ate, born in my own pen. s. codjcf.i,.,'llc,~6t8" directions as to where the placenta should be buried according to the month of birth. LPBK. 30. ""'llc,,oo=:11g:ig:olgqi:c Shwemyet. Py. Z. 49. milE, D o'chiy n. [Maru lakyaw'f'1]; A.C. jj"'ang', hum, sing. K. 261; gjwiing to sing. K. G. S. 764. G.] a song~'llc"'-=?c:oo=,,~1g'll'Q'lj':,j~"""'llc,a'lC9Jcf." s.inging songs in a soft and sweet voice to the accompaniment of little drums. Ga,ta. P. 36. ""'llc,~:ga T g=oli'IIC odes which are classified as longer songs. Kah. Band. K. 545. ""'llc:cc6 ""ocrr.,o 1gg:~:g<1Y.lc:rr.,~:'l(:o6a'lQ11 lesser or shorter songs. wid. 468. go 111gt?cf.i~,.,'118"l"cf.iooo5a;>"'8" Colwq. Tavoy. 8'"'t,co5,~ID1"118g,?C:n.ffi:dj""'ll8c ga T "'8" the lsshing which fastens the yoke of a cart to the pole. Colwq. Kayan. ""11"8"'8"""'118~o5<1,1g=ooo?:clj11 business of all kinds is a tie. Sagah. 124. 2. a ring or bangle """2C"' rocf.igoo?cf.ioo5Gmll'ljcf.ig"'5aoo8"""'11~~ rou5u (where ""'118 is the classifier for cocf.igOO?cf.i a bangle). Th. T. E.' 10. &)OOf>?008U""'1180t"l'""g:f.>?a031C11 a large ship containing treasures and (""'118""otl jewellery. Parami P. 84. og,@?:Bt ""'llcmnali, aC:O?~'g"'?C'lJ?I ochi 'kwiy rings and bangles, jewellery. KBZ. i, 249. mnalim'IJcn uaco8""dl6'll?"' 'kwiy chi Manu. 72. ""iii B ochi n. v. ""68 shred, ray, etc. ""'IJc 'chi n. [O.B. khl,aiii,., Tib. rkyan-pa s.imple, single; A.C. g'jen' barely, scarcely. K. 389.] mere, by itself, what is bare, withont belongings, without consequences.:i:,?11:i:,r/:i:i:,oS,,,.,o:j!:i)t, "?"?"l8""8"'""'118''i1C~t11"lOJt:o'3oou if, meditating robbery, they know he is a monk having no property. S.D.Kh. P. 44. d3c:8"lcf.i~uoo008B8"""''118' ""il?""'~.:i:,r/:iro:911 the days succeeding each other do not pass without effect but bring death nearer. Kogan P. T. 467. a'l~c,ago::n@ii:ilw=~ro?~ro,"l"'8dl=:il1""'"lc,:i:,.ac,@:djJu5 ll'IP'"'8oo~oo~~""o:j!,d)&)OO~Cg :n? ge3? 11~ "l lB oo m 'II c J ~:n?@iioit..li11 'chi 'hni useless, of no avail. Thath. Tham. D. K. 271. ""B"Q2,?lt8g=oe,?~oliu~Bl~"'""'ll8'~'g:n?:l)O:,)'J~ g:i:,?11 empty, frivolous disposition. Nip. iii, 132. """"?ro oogt?'""'ll8'~'=000?1d)a'lgoo5.wooo5u does not talk idly. Tha,d,. Mal. N. 155. "l&oo?1""'118'~'o'ioo@iioo8:11 the state of being empty, deserted. ibid. 150. ~c.,,n,,.,'118'~'@ii9 the monastery being unoccupied and empty. Up. Muh. J(. i, 108. ~-~g:n?ii"'8""'118'~:008'""c,.~=~C:OO?: "'8""'11.:;:008 useless, worthless. Manir. K. 219. t8.l\=1""oo5aro8"""'118''""'g=""Cllmu the austerity of going naked (for the more usual ""'118'') Zin. Pak. K. 98. 00GY.)!f>8'~' ""'IJco:,d)o:,d)II o:jj:ocf.iacocu 'chi /Je?/Je? unprofitable unedifying games. Kawi M. M. K. i, 80. ""'118,;,:i:,r/:i:i:,r/:ig)cf.i0'/tgo9 . rr.,:nr/:ioo
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52 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY ""'li6 ;,cha,? n. ['116"", to be flat and thin; to insert between.] something thin, petal, flake, layer, something inserted. S~G:>Y.)0 7:='.)""'P''""C\j'.>116:i;t_'.)",lo5GOJ'.)OJQoo'.)Eqio5o:,.""'ll6""'li6""C)j'.)'""C)j'.>'( 1 ""C)j'.) )o,p911 in flakes. Zin. Pak. K. 532. 8o5~0GOJ'.>600611~E""'ll6~'.>11 in a valley between continuous mountains. Bein Y aza Py. Z. 60. :DOJ"1'""'116'll611,.,006006-GW'.>E,~oS=11 through successive existences. Tedat B. 13. :,ao,S.,.'ll6 atir1 acha? (parts of a horse) which are full or which are flat. Udein. P. 43. ""'US, a'char1 n. ['IIS:o:,, to be cold.] cold. ,.,=,11-""'llS:""~-~oS-'llE@E)-ooE-=-<>f11-~-mE:-og=go:i:~1100 E: go: gol9E:9111 Pak. With. K. ii, 560. mgoo'.)EmooS:1111""'11S'i~" delirium with cold fits and hot fits. M. Sanda Py. Z. 27. 031E(o.f)o,g;;o'.)@~11rr.,gro'.>""'IIS"' sudden hot and cold fits. Nat. Lan. T. K. 61. m'llcS ache n. ['lloSo:,, to adorn, array.] adornment, beauty, a distinguished person; controlling factor. ""'9""011dl6g9 7E GOjl!l""'P'-il~rr.,'lloS:,o g'.) o5 me m 'll cS ma, cS @iigoo:,00. ache ale controller-as for the power of the four elements, the fire-element called the seasons is the dominant one. Thath. W i. K. i, 121. ""'ll., A acha n. ['11'.>0J, to be in the middle. Bur. Sp. prefers m'> in some senses but texts generally have ""'11'.>11] 1. the centre, the highest point, the tip, the most important person or thing. ""'iloS11~Jl11"""P'"""'lll611 G\!lllQOOJG9'17' ""'11'.>~ro,woo'.>G~'.>SoEGo 7oS:i:i, in the centre of the middle country. Zin. Pak. K. 12. <\'l""'P' in the middle of the forest. Rup. Ka!. Py. Z. 76. <)6Goa'11'.>HGOJ~OG<)ll"E'"?'Gf0J'.>a1 8GOoolloo~o5'.>0JIIOJo5a;,'.>C',1o;lll the devas' country high in the heavens. Weth. P. 7. "ilc!l"""ilo511to5c!l""'P' . "l"l''Bii~11 chief among men and devas. Nana S. P. 26. GOJ'.>6:3o1dj11""'11'.>@:~E11,.,g97EJlE"11oS" (Alaung-paya) central authority in the island, 10,000 yujanas in extent, who reaches the highest point (reading @:djE for ~:~611). Kah. N. B. 51. ""'lJ'.>gaT"ilEG:i:i'.>ilo5qd3:Ga7E:n the head (the few projecting beads) of a rosary which is called the oa:p, Bame Let Twe K. 40. og.,,,.dl~:11qdloooa'11'.>11 oodloo,,.dl~:~:i:i.=oiilo5qd3:Ga 7E:ai:G<\o.iai~OJ,"ilE11o~grr.,'.)oS oooaai:cJl11og"oadl~:ga T :i:i,,1qdl=rooSai:cJl11qdloooa 'II'.> Ga T :i:i, oodloorr.,oo T ai:cJl,10Jdl=dl~:ga T :i:i, of the three beads in the head of a rosary the first or lowest is called the first, guard ; the second or middle bead is called the second, central ; the third or topmost bead is called the third, guard. ibid. 31. ~'.>:,oS:i:i,:Gl9cn:{l:,,io5@~,oa'll"cJl f'Clf'.>0,:11 the tips, ducts of the gall-bladder. Tharapu K. ii, 182. oo7,~:'lloS.o1:i:i,:g'9oh'lj'.>~11 including the navel string of a python and the gall-bladder complete with tips. LHGK. 174. ""'ll'.>O<)OOIIGB"ilS<\o511Gjj@,o5dj11 central point, capital. Ban!. P. 42. f<\""'ll'.>11 chief of men, the king. Yazaw K. 230. ""'ll.,'lll6 or :,a-,,116 achachou? usu.=be the controlling authority : but the meaning varies according to the sense in which oa'lj'.> (or ""B'.>) is to be understood. o::rieG<\11 <>mli[li[11t J.@~611""B'.>'li[60011rooS~6o,i~::,,it:11" g = E: "l ~: o, 11 1 like as the earth trembles and crumbles they do him obeisance with outstretched hands and do not rebel when he holds the supreme authority. Nemi Meg. P. 75. """"'.> "ilE""'ll""ll[6~~a6:~6'l"." will be supreme among those who are superior. Nayaw M. 118. gilo;,"187->ll'10JP/J,1""'11'.>'IJ[600,o, ~:ono,::{j11 as when pearls are strung together and confined bythehead-(projectingbeads). Pyinsawu P. 42. ""'ll''ll[6'l11&1 :i:,~6'11"11:11 summarizing the main facts, and giving a abort exposition. Parami P. 50. m .. .,S,.,.'ll., a'caur1 acha means to an end. Yaz. Kyaw. 59. ""'lll6""'lJ'>, ""'lil6 m'> achou? acha the leading men, the decisive factor. v.s.11. ""'lit&, 2. what is real, certain, secnre often used adverbially. -""~E11,,.@11""~~11-9o5~:9"'.>0J'.>118~"'l~"!'OJ.,x,@:, ( ""'II" )em.11y~"1<\m'.>01 as it is the fact that your virtuous desires will certainly flourish, come to fruition. Parami P. 41. SQO'.j'.>E:o:i:i,~oS",g9 T 9'.>IIOJffiO 7dj11""'9'.>@='.>E110.:o:i6 (1 Jg,'.>CCl1]o5il binding securely the six animals-the internal sense-organs. Thuw. Thut. P. 17. "'ll'.>"iloS;;o11c7:m.11,7oooS11 ... @iio<\t~oS11 enmity which had first begun five reons ago by true count. Weth. P. 107. OJ'.>: m'lS,,,.'11., 'yirJ acha real-true born son. Yin Maung W. 82. """"'""'ll., e acha dead sure, with accuracy, full knowledge. "'" OOQ::011 ""'li'> B acha n. ['11'.>0J, to turn round, be unsteady.] a nonentity, worthless person or thing-oarom'.>:"il""""l'gg:O 12'.>:"""'11'.>0'.>:ooEGfe3o}g9o5m'.>ro11 an age which considers him a mere flea and of a worthless type. Kawi M. Mag. mtdi""'IJ'> asou? acka a rag, ragtag. ,ia't0Da'lJ'> anOU!) acha a worthless thing, person. a'phyirJ acha nonentities, trivial matter. m'lJ'> 'cha n. V.s.11. ""B"'"' m~Aachi'n. [~:i:i,andij:i:i, to beingreatquantity.] agreat nnmber or quantity. -""'I""' -,.,ao5~coS11~:@ErooS~1@oS OO!jl~ll'IJ'.>'""ijo,~11 as many as the stars in heaven. Kutka P. 16. e~'.)""ij11rnoSodl:i:i,~11 Antho!. ii, 13. G9il10~=5""ij" ""G'l'r/l~djoS<)EIIGQ:dl='.>Ee9cGc,;i:<)~GOJQtooS11 . Gto 1cJlC1JS: OJQCl'.)'.)oS11 if I were to compare my many anxieties to any thing, it is as if I were shivering all over in winter when one has to lie curled up, and longing for sunshine. Shwenan Hma. 68. oa~Goot11c:/lS:oooSC1J~='.)E1~g:,~""~oS,@~oSciiQo;l"' to an extent out of proportion, lavishly. Weth. P. 13. ""'.>m'.> e'.>dl11gao5rr.,~"ilE" the extensive fields of the authority and of the birth of a Buddha. Pa!eik. E. 5. ""t""dl'll,:,1""'9,: dt,G:i:i'.>E:119ilS:oo 7E:<>'l6C)j'.>Err.,'.>:ro,:11~'.>:ro'.>:Gl9-:oSgm'.>E II dj: QCJl'.>Edl.~""~"31611 of husked rice 90,000 carts, 9,000 carts packed with offerings, each drawn by six bulls, an immense consignment. Nemi Meg. P. 59. oo=oa~''GO:il6"'~ooo}11 whose immense power is widespread. Rup. Kai. Py. Z. 23.

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 53 .,.~ B ochi' n. (~:x,. to raise, elevate, bear.] a burden, load. ot11 ~ooc86ell11~:c86sa 1E:mr/.i11,:ra~~rl.i!1J11 carrying as a load on the head. Parami P. 40. ,:ra~oi11cl~cqr/.i11 I alone bearing the burden and responsibility. S.D.Kh.P. 106. .,. c ochei? n. sometimes spelt ua~611 [ ~o5:x,. to hook.] 1. a wavy line, a link, the act of hooking, connection. ~E:o;i~11uasQ,211uascn,11=rl.i11-o;iStj8o5;~11,:ra~o5ou5o;iu511 explained as '"llS:o:im=s:xi9ua8oS;ro~rl.i09ua~oScn::ll11 a Canton skirt with wavy pattern. Patkly plamV119 songs, J BRS. xxi, i, 18. uaci!11cu'irou'icJl11o.i:oou'i~oSso:11~~:o.i:oou'i11,:ramu'i=:rou'i11[ q~q'l '"'""] a wavy pattern made by using 30 shuttles. ibid. 20. ua~o5cn::ll;oc;oocn::ll11 SQ{Jad. W. 57. ~~'P=f-ioa~o511 made by more than 100 shuttles. Band. Kam. Py. Z. 8. ~:~6(~o5)~.ll:rlj,mu5m~:9a,9:x,t. Hmaing W. i, 14. GQ~o:,r/.is:x,9S"lcn9:mS..!ii:xi92u5cra~o5oorl.i::S:xio):jl~smn, Rup. W. 183. om9:s@om.:oa~oS;,i,o:io:i:m.:oa~oS;911 hooking, innuendo. Sagab. 36. This is the usu. meaning but in Seikhnyo I(. cra~o5 = fascination, mesmerism. cra~o5So5 g9d5 power of fascination ; oa~o5~o;id:l be willing to submit to fascination. op. cit. 23. So in oa~o5oaoorl.i11cra~o5 oa.{l11cra~o5crao;iu511 fascination. ibid,. SS, 12, and 14. f9~wE: ;wwE:s:nScrr.,s:proE11 m~d> .,..., rl.i s@o&l=om9:'lr:ell11 oSS~o5(~6)51rl.i92u'iwrorou'i9Wcn~d:jrl.i~11 achei? ashe? impli cations, allusions, (the remarks made by each of the two lovers.) Tanaw W. i, 63. So5'1ijrl.icao~1(,:ra)~oScraoorl.i; ~~rl.i11:xi.m&lro911 with allusiveness-i.e. trying to introduce the subject of love. Kum. Py. Z. 13. roTroT;~ ~C\l,9:Y.lu5d:joa~o5craoorl.i~e3:x,.ellcra~~"::S:n11 liaison, under standing. Hmaing W. i, 31. "o5'"1lrl.i"'o5mS:&lro911cra~o5craoorl.i """,1'"'""~'"c.13:cll:oo9:=: . "'l'roo5~;911 connection, coherence (from scene to scene). Pyaz. ~rl.im~:xi@9,.,m9: ~o5oaoorl.i..o}:nse3o\i11 coherence speak incoherently. Sun. r/lu'i"iellu'iso 1rl.i~oro90'.>u'is:x,9oa~6(~o5)craoorl.i figure. Anu W. 92 .,.,.,.,.,i;,.,.~di a'sau'!) achei? indirect allusiveness. m ,.,.,., rl.i m c a,nau? achei? arrogance and malicious allusions (a nonce-combn. ; v. oaoo9r/.i11). .,.~t A chei'!) n. [~~:,:,. to weigh, estimate.] weight-oasmo, Gjp'.)CXl9! 011oa~t oll!11 16 tolas in weight. MMM. 87. rotrl.i;~pd3Srlj11cra~\iw:xi~,""11''l1"'cra89w=~ Oil'o:, .,11 deep writings and shallow ears do not correspond in weight. Amhol. ii, 133. o:iS:o~o;iE'!lrl.i&ls:xi9 m~t""'II~ cllm9:achei'!) achi'!)' weights and measures. Tham. Sek. D. K. ii, 84. o:iOjlo\i m~t.,."6oS elloo:t"P~" chei'!) atwe weight. Ayud. Sh. 31. C\l=~c!l .,. t I!, 0j1::;lj:xid:j11 acheiv 'si to be weighty-he is a big, hefty fellow but has no weight-no solid qualities. Hmaing Hma iii, 139. mu5o:irl.imoo1~, .,.~t ~rl.i :xi. acheiv thwe? weight emerges, to weigh heavy-being paddy from mature land it weighs heavy for its bulk. Oolloq. m t B cheiv n. [per h. a specialized use of "'~~ A.] time past, present, or future ; time of day or night or life ; seasonable time. ma 111m9a,11:x,woo11 cra~~&ls=o=: ,Ii m8g 1u5:xi.,S11m9a,oa~E:,:ra@:>:ellsa T &l19E:0E9i>sm:xi. Ohweta 1. ,tr1.is'99~9~i~tell "t'llrlio:,~(sic)11" 11 51~9~aioa~ell "tcn~:o:,'119'" . ~""telloa~00JC11cra~.ell~~:yoS:x,9: sm:xi. ibid. 7. mnm-,a, rll~C9Jrl.i1188cll::llcoellooE@E911 G0'.>9o;lCt:xiro.:11 aohei'!) ka/,a' times, proper timesobserving times took thought for their moral practices. Pak. With. K. 105. om9:s'10:,9;9 .,.~t"lt ~9:cJl11 chei1J kouv time was taken up. Than. W. iv, 112. m~t"11 s:xiS acheiv ea' when the time came. Thi/,ek. D. K. 114. @t@~ w"6e:n .,. t "1'03JC acheiv 'shwe spin out the time, prolong the business. Sun. oaso:,~a!fi .,.~teep61! aohei1J 'nyauv time was long, some considerable time elapsed. WOB. :Y.lC1b~rl.iell:i,r,:oo:cqE,..,<>i:~::S'ly9oo1m~ ... toS:ol@:11 m ~to, t sro,~9:8tm~o lcSw. achei'!) tav the time is fitwhen the time is fit, the thin ox will kick-wait and see. Than. W. iii, 140. o~~8"'t~'1"?=9~o:,to1~, time is ripe. Zin. Pak. K. 613. m~t<>u: ~"''lll6olso; achei'!) 'p assign, fix a time. Kum. Py. Z. 67. mn ell @tdJ, 'P"'Prl.ism:xi,,, acheiv 'phyou'f) 'ti or 'di waste time. Ohweta 25. So ""~~@~::xii in Colloq. 23 m~t .,,.,o,J; m9co.: tl.lSscra9r/.io;iEc~,ell:Y.lS:8!1J11 acheiv mat, at an untimely hour. YesQ{J. Kh. Py. 25. So ""~~wsroS in colloq. c1ell .,.~H m@E,:xi. acheiv me' at an unusual hour---,,addling me at an unusual hour. Zin. Pak. K. 31 .,.~ta>~ 009110089519~911 achei'!) liv' wait on the time, look for opportunity. Udein. P. 30. a 1iaS0j1oa~tco9rou'i11 people hoping for the time are kept waiting. (Of. craa 1co:xi.) Kabya Kyem. 174. craij~co @E:icra"?6~E:cllellw9boo'lt letting time pass, wasting time. Ohweta. 13. 23~craa1'1EellooSj, mncg ... ~9K\J9G'[)rl.ioli11 ochei'!) '!we time is unusual-at a wrong time, an untimely hour. Manu 333. m~t a'ohei'!) n. [~t::xi. to appoint a time.] the lbing of a time, an appointed time. 'lrl.i~~:11 recorded only in combns. g'jcraw.~s:x,9m~co~~:scosco70,[ &lJs:xiS11 m t 1 D>'!)rl.i y11ws51mG;9E:11c;ll:Y.lw:,ell(cramu'i~o;i)O?II 'chei'!) ache? the concerted time-not earlier or later than the time fixed (by the instigator). Kinkha N. 87. "t'lrl.ioa~t'""'llrl.iso,go5 :x,~;so1:"?coEcll,, sent to fix a day. Bur. J. W. 17. oi>l)ro craijtoa'ljrl.iGo:~rl.i=;90'.>~E;srl.iob:x>9:'lj'):O E rl.i o 1G'[>11 signal, esp. preconcerted. Oolloq. m ,chi n. [ ~:x,. to lift, carry, begin.] 1. the act of carrying; bearing arms; marching; a bearer, nurse.:xiu5'9E,11oi>rorl.i@E,11crac:8t:=S11 s~o;i:xiu5~110'.lli~e3~1oa cra ~: u earthwork on moated towns and transport to granaries. Nana S. P. 73. ~cSros:xi9E:;911sm9Etj:jlcra~o;iE11 on the march to Kengtung with a force of 10,000. Anthol. ii, 131. oco,E:&Jellro:s:x>?m~~o.Ojl~CII bearer, attend ant on a prince. ibid,. 99. Of. Hm. Yaz. iii, 86 O'.>OC"iJcll:g9:s:x,9st~ ... ,,.c:B~:cra*".,oo,~wn, Attok. 43. oac:8t:Gmcra~=Scll;911i:xi.sm~ u5~ u5 G :x,: ell ell ll'lJU) G ~: cJl 11 choosing nurses and other attendants and slender foster mothers. Rup. Ka!. Py. Z. 5. m~mm, ua:fl ... i}-j11 ochi a' ke nurse and chief-apptly. a local term for the head of a township. Bassein Sutan at MMOS. iv, 302 .,.~.,."" r/lu5"?6sm,m
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M BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY are apptly. names of palace ladies. Yama Yag. i, 51. ic:BS,( c:8t1)60Y.ioa~60JSoa'\( 0,0,) l=S~. , ~acfi60Y.i~6'lE,n while the nurses were rocking the royal cradle. Y at. Kyem. Z. 24. 2. the beginning ; the opening line of a poem ; strophe ; one side in a controversy.-oao11oaa,1.,.o,E11-:Btcra~1idl1~6ll".lE3i~cll"'l11 like the fairy lovers in the beginning of Wagaung (who wept for 700 years because of one night's parting. v. Ballatiya Jataka, where the season of the year is indicated but not specified). Maul. Yaz. Py. Z. 231. rqS,~oo names of the poets and the opening lines. Kawi L. D. 93. '\"t m~m91 ,.,9001:11 ochi cha' beginning and end-the 41 ways of beginning and ending the stanzas of an ode. Burm. Comp. 170. oat:o,r-,:oa~oa'll&jo l~n in the course of the scene will sing alternately. Pyaz. oat,~~o lclloa~oa'll619'>.lj6'!l'6~1at:iioo. like the interchanges of repartee between a man of Pakhan and a man of Chiba (two clever rogues). Pyaz. 5160 lf!i.,.~ 0>'lJHYa>'lJE6oa"JC11e~a600E6a;,~Ec as Shin Papi (my wife) maliciously provokes me with her intolerable wrangling. Shwemyet. Py.Z. 9. Rarely m91m~ ooha' chi. 3. elevation and bulging, shapeliness, elegance, in combn. with oaoc T ?10, -oo~oS@E.,,~oS6B~00~6cqf.i6=En so that l may expound the subject intelligibly, fully, with elegance and attention to syntax, and with illustrations. Tham. Sek. D. K. i, 284. oa~o,6cT11Q86m5l/011ot1~6rqS6c1'\11 ... ~6~ ""'~E@:o,:n::IJ:11 'mya 'chi very numerous-prob. a nonce combn. for rhymes' sake. Nemi Meg. P. 26. ""9116 ochou~ n. ['111600. to r~strict, accuse, sew, terminate.] 1. constriction, closing, stoppage. oa&j0110,8oS,i-cS,'\EooE: , oE:a>911'l][O'\toS:moS11000,oSo,oS,~1.,.gfu:n11C\ltoooo cqJcfi11 . oc:\jEooc6!ll!S110,'lllS6a T ..li11 constipation. Dwadath. K. 121. ""'ll[Soo.,, a restricting screen to prevent fish leaving one's own waters. Oolloq. @t""B.~oa~:cJl m9116m91c6 Q~C\lcf.icoo~~""'~Efilcfi~E'lt" ochou~ ocht restriction-without restriction, unhampered. Mag. B"1"ilcJloS~, a;,oS'li~'""~"2E""'lll0""'11oS""te1:co5=:~~dloo. control, dis cipline. Suri ilrlag. ""'ii[O""'lloScJlC\lt!l0~=~"'6PC\lt"' re straint, repression (someone had attempted to prevent his writing for a new magazine). Lun AUok. 149. Rem. These usages are modern. ""'lloS may represent ""'11"1 binding, but '11[0 or 'll[cf.i'lloS in older writings = provoke, annoy, and the modern use of ""'lloS as expletive to ""'11[0 in the sense of restriction may derive from 'lltS'lloS in its older sense. m<1>\i;,>911611 'l[cfiiloE",'160=11 ha!1' ochou? a deterrentquivering of the eye as a deterrent warning. Yama Yag. i, 195. 2. confinement, imprisonment. o,rqo,-m9116e ocho-u? kha!) to endure confinement, be under arrest, imprisoned. Sagad. W. 25. ""9116"'~' and m9116.,cx,-,S ocho-u?'ta!),chou?thau'!1 both=alock-up. Thath. Wi. K. ii, 10. So ""9116"~' ochou? 'kha!). Oolloq. m9116,~cx,-,111 ochou? hni!)"tha place under confinement (pending trial). Kawi Then. K. 119. ""9116"'"'P&; '\'~" ochou? 'the yau~ be in confinement (pending trial). Nov. m9116<<1?1 cofuoo~:cll11 cho-u? 0'ma prisoners (under trial). Kawi Then. K. 121. 3. sewing, stitching. O>O'lJ[O@E:11 ""'lJ[Ococfiaoo:oot'llcfi,i-oo~"il~""~:rocfi!l66m~E:00'11.""'llls 60:911 (to make the arrangement binding, as earnest money. OJ. "'\~60:9 in account of same incident, Yazaw. K. 241). Manik. W. 498. 2cf.i@o,'11[06oo~11@cf.io 1 =00~111cllii@~:m118=6~IIQa>6o, the party concerned to establish and rebut respectively the ""'11[0 allegation. ibid. 9, 10. Da!i)E6@6mo.2Eoa'll1SroRSi11"'l@t26oo~cocoto.2c116@ 6 ooS cJloo.


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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 55 20. ~oio5oio5cra,n6cllg~os:o,p, Ilmaing Ilma. iii, 146. """11o5""'111Suo.:,~6,iio 1,u the explanation in e:vtenso and the abbreviated summary. Wila. Mawg. 23. 00:o'P'l~'"""'ll[SO~'IE,11 :7?di<;-JOjJE,11 enter in the book an abstract account of the debts. M. Sanda Py. Z. 53. '""lll6~'15:co511 Atithon. K. 89. cra'l][6w~d3cm shorter table of contents (opp. to """11o'iw~d3cm). MMOS. i, 7. rosBodjE""'lf~O'lbidlc:11cra'l]16@ii=f:itQ'.)s21c/l11 the country of Bw:ma which is a compendious name forconsists of-the two countries T. and Th. Y az. Kyaw 81. 6. the chief person, the chief thing, the highest authority. cra@,cramu-ro6wGOOSo,iE'P"""~c/lroSli,""'li[611;,~'.fl"i1c/loii m~=S~""21" commander-in-chief. Ilm. Yaz. ii, 255. ""'il[S''P:BooE,GW:clloS'lE::011 just when he was inquiring as to who was the very best teacher. Ziwaka H. 3. moo ""'IJ[DII supreme among savants. Rup. Kai. Py. Z. 35. 'il~'lwo}11G9o 1;,o5wE:11cra'll1Som~, ... ~Eo;;iE,roc.1loScll'il~'lwo5,, authori tative words, strict injunctions. ibid. 109. "!llO'lt"l''i>21"'lt ""'llt611cra~~oSc/l11 the eight square charm, the supreme magic whereatJambudipatrembles. Pon. YamaPy.Z.176. cll'IE: ""'litS,~ro"20lo5@o@:,:oo*' including the important points on which information is desired. UPDK. 5. ~~o5=S~""21" ',llt=S~,ii~u ""'llt6m~6 ~-roS~""21" achou? okaiv palace stewards. MMM. 37. "11[6=""21" Thath. Wi. K. i, 147. Rem. Spelling books prefer m ., in this combn. 7. cessation of being. 0091oS,,-cra~eo~es~'11""21m~,cra@i,,,.,'lll6c/lcraS:nS: 11000021:11 comprehension of impermanence enables us to capture becoming and cessation, i.e., to see them in the proper light. Ah.D.K. 63. oa "'II A ache n. [ "'11""21 to grind, erase, refute.] 1. retort, rejoinder, explanation. -sall'lloS11-""d3d5c:lliJE,"'iloO'l]Eo,11""""E djcf.io;;it:nallstffitl~II 11,bgtlcraG'l]WQO) 21 I II if you repeat your attempt by further hints to persuade me to marry her, I will not allow two words of explanation-(it will mean instant death for you.) Ommad. P. 48. ro'P,~"""'ll" the defendant's re joinder to the statements---@i>wo 111 ache !IOI// (1 grinding completely so as to leave no roughness), urbanity, suavity-failure to attain urbanity was not merely a matter of the language used ; there was a want of smoothness in the arrangement of the subject-matter. Sun. 'l1be3~oS621~1crap=,.,.'ll""c'!ffidici:~y11 Owad. P. 10. "lt ,i"""""'l""lltG'.la;Jc/l,1000'ljcrac11craocrao11'11@mj1 having first sung the King's renown in suave and graceful language. Wila. Mawg. 14. room~oSoro=~oS0@1; m "'II m o, 6 ;,Ero~:c1=,u~o5'1~8"'cqpi" ache otiv rejoinder and statement, dispute, altercation. Up. Muh. K. i, 56. om~'""G'lJ ""roEia@o~"11E:ow2111 will hold a debate. Sun. ;,~wE,,~wwE: o:nl:iJ>G'llcraroEcra~o5,,.,;;ooSo[mo,6 at Yesag. Kh. Py. 24. gj:Jl'1='i"~ """'ll""ci) s~oo~<>m~GOJ?'7l'P!Gro~E., oche o'le by turns in discussion, alternately. Temi. J. W. 161. om~:=Srou ""8"""'11" 'swe ocho challenge and retort, controversy. Kutha P.15. mo,S"""'II" otiv oche question and answer, catechizing. Anthol. ii, 31. """'1"""'11" eo,~"ll"BIE,911 othu' ache pounding and pulverizing, explanation, legal defence. M. Sanda Py. Z. 128. 2. striking oll, subtraction, division (i.e., repeated sub traction), the object being to get rid of some non-significant part of a number in astrological calculations.-cra'io5n~'Qt:crao'll"""~~o5cralj05"""i1" the striking off of numbers, their multiplication and subtraction. Adik. K. 293. """'II B oche n. incorrect spelling of """B q.v. """'11:Ao'chi n. ['l], usu.pron.'ji, is morecom.Jdirt,dross,im purities. ""2si,""Ge3'"""m" o:nS""~"'21'll"""@:,,crao'll'l~"'21 'JIO 1se3~E:o'j:BiE'1t""~dicrao.:,~,ro21:')~diu lo.:,2111 (The ingots) bear a mark showing how much pure silver and how much other impurity-alloy-they contain. Pol. Econ. 525. """'II' B 'chi n. ['11'""21 to lend, borrow.] lending, borrowing .. In combns. only. """'ll'""i1' 'chi o'hva lending, on loan: and """'ll'"""n o'chi oyu borrowing. Oolloq. """'II" a'ch:, n. ['l]~""21 to be smooth, make smooth.] what is smooth, of good finish; beauty, a good-looking person; a fair copy. we3S:o=""'l'""""l""l"""~Elil@E,11 ~:oro~E~""E ~'"""'lJ~OO'l]b110~:~11J 8110'['.lC")OJ;,1 a fine mat, of superior finish. Oolloq. Danubyu. "ii. """l"i1."""'ll~~@~11GG'.la;>cljwroEu 1'100,~000711 I despair of being able to describe to you her beauty. Pon. Yama Py. Z. 135. """'li~""'iw~w@~11""~""~rooro11100.:,:oo.:,: OjJo50jJo5n pretty and fresh neither tall nor short. U Pon. M. 8. """'lJ?Cl'.lOW')""""lm~EwooTu her beauty is peerless. Maul. Yaz. Py. Z, 9. OJ2101'l]t6crao'l]~'1:=ro21,11 fair copy of a document. Than. W. ii, 5. """'ll~@E10Ql91e@i>""21" 1 in trying to give a finish, you make it into a pulp. when workmen try to do better than well, they do confound their skill in covetousness." Sagal,. 137. """'ll"J; ochau? n. ['l]':lo50J21 to frighten.] terrorization, molestation, visitation by spirits. ---a;>1i@E"'"""~~~11wom0E:.il:o 1: ,~~oS@E,11 ""21ro~~QmQmcraovoS'1""21" in this jungle there are frequent manifestations by spirits. Oolloq. dlC\l: o.:,:ndi """'ll"J;""'IIS, 'ltQS::BS:o'j=~E.liu achau? 'chav (a'chav perh. a mere reduplication) molestation, haunting. Tharapu K. iii, 135. ""m~cra.8, ""'"'ll"J;""~S, "il""'J!Qaj!Eu achau? o'cheiv (spirits) which frighten and threaten, evil spirits. LISK. 50. """'ll~c,,.,~5'll~""E~:"'21Sb!}u (the elephant) had been taught how to frighten people. Temi. J. W.59. """lC m<9t,) """'ll"J; ohlOJ/)'achau?intim.idation. Din. Ayeb. 28. m "'II" 6 A achauv n. [ 'l]~E jauv a nook, secluded spot.] a secluded place, covert, a courtyard, a room. craroo5o.2c

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56 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY ,.,roo5~.,G'lJ?Ei, d5roi1'> Ii u ~G~?C~:~,n~"?'GQ?o5G?" ""'"'11'?""81 ""il'9 oclw' a'chwe petting and wheedling (between newly-wed couple) Kh. M. G. W. ii, 62. """'II'?""""'? '9""GQT~:'llo5cJln oclw' """'' endearments. Nov. "f?""~co:,70:,"il [""] "il'?""~ll Qo5o 1:Jln acho' ahmyu petting so as to put into good humour-maiden all contrary, comparable to the four great ladies (Amara, Maddi, Kinnari, Sambhiila) but how hard to please. Bein Yaza Py. Z. 95. """ii; acJw n. [c,Jl3:x,. to slip, to err.] error, foll:v, unsteadiness, buffooner:v.-~~=@c<10:,t9.E:i,,.,G:X,'.lll009lo5n -oaG:lJ?",1Cwo5wco,l3ncOY.lGOJG<>i3roo5G...S.1,.,G'lf.icro""Bo5Bo5 ( 'l[cf.i) 11 a very Mahosadha of ribaldry, look you, better than the best, in buffoonery, full of jokes. Pohtin Py. Z. 92. ""ilc,~oac,Ji3y?n""co:,l3ro:c@l3cfl~,o 1~11 enjoys pleasure and folly with considerable circumspection. Bein Yaza Py. Z. 21. 1>G,J<1i:1IO'.lCo,w=ii1311 """'ll;""i!IJ;" acJw achu? in the wrong way-if the manner of your address is uncouth, improper and faulty. Pon. Yama Py. Z. 49. c<(-ii]E~:~o, G:xl?o50?:!}1""~""'"i:;" ""'"'II; "3C>CO II acho ale sinful and loose conduct. Sonma. P. 145. "'"'ll;""tg ~Sii'llo5~: ~ct6olin acho o'lwe mistaken-there are mistaken charges, imputations (against the government). Thath. Wi. [(. i, 153. ""'IIJ;"""il; opyt? och:I buffoonery. Din. Ayeb. 5. m?,~G'},lll seeking sweets, one finds a basket of toddy-palm sugar. Prov. ae:qloa'lo:,?o:,t911"",l('""'ll8'""0611rr.,ot1""c;""Q 1:, ,.,. ~tfu 1: qj",ICII one of the seven flavours. U Paw U 132. But .,,,. is sometimes included in ""~ making six only. P.P.K. 98, M.P. 87. O?:Gm?C:Go:,?o5:,;io5c:,:,?:,:,b:>'l:11:,:,bg:,:,b~11 "",j!"" ii e ql:,:,.'t?"''ii" acho achiy sweet and sour things, delicacies. H itop. K. 57. '1J?l'l[OJ (Sa.it) qj ... coo?co,wn "",j!@;!J;u ?~ocjlocjln achocai?befond of sweet food,bees and humble-bees, lovers of sweetness, feasting in the lily-plots of the forest. Kai.a M. Py. Z. 34. !j!jGOO?S "",j! a t QCD')Qmoia0J:OY.J11 ~cho gav an under-layer of sweetness, ingratiation-he often tried to ingratiate himself with me. Chit Th. B. 155. ""iil! acho' n. [j:,:,, to be defective. ,l(,:x,. to break.] some, a part. -o:,jo:,oo5,IO'.lSo5ooco:,:,neither absol. or followed by another n. with or without connecting particle. "",ioo:j, "";irnE:djool'lJ?:~00..,, having paid a part (of the paddy borrowed) promises to pay the part remaining when paddy is plentiful. Manu 96. ,.,;jy?rot911,;?000,so5'-'1jl1oa,i'(mro. m?"'lt9~c:11djo5ct'lo5~c:n~c:a'loo'llo511 some had slender snouts, some had bodies abbreviated in length and round like shields. Maul. Y az. Py. Z. 61 ... jdjo?01!lajd)C)il'1"",idjc:,:,~ f?~i3.iy

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BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 57 dlwdlc,0011 Thatk. Wi. K. i, 19. cra,ij"=i=~H~i)~o5 cra.jl:8~::nooo~4Joc,t"11"''lli:c/lclic,crao5wGBo"'o5:,>;~c,ooJi, fl">W""''lliaeS!'icra.j(c,:infl:>J">~i(~) ~ii"l~cJlo5dl@iai<><>@: a.ccording to the conventional, old fashioned manner of c,:d.;11 part of the scented powder they offered to the speech. Dag. Mag. "'l"'&.,~-,::i!"'~~O'.l">~">""',11sq~~ Buddha; with part they sprinkled his chamber. Weth. :U"31C~m:incoEcra,i:"11olG:>J::>Jt3h most fitting, convenient. J. w. 10. ""ili"'"i1"Cljlq~O'.lllO'.lOmc:qc/i11"la~sE~,.\i'il~' some Tabin. w. iv, 131. oocq:~,,~s .... ,,,.,"""ilt"''P""J">')6cycli'lj">'r>" acho' acho' (same force as single ""Bi>allo;ioSw~G<>l">Cllcra4i:o,iH">0o5-,:a,too-,oo5UJoobc,o.n, cli perfectly-faultlessly turned out. Sun. "'"B"l"l""4i cra;-jl11) Sun. "'\O,lCG'lJ'.iol"i~"'~ ""j""o dl=B'l01<>-,E:11 "11"11"'mijE:ijdl6djo,-,:,';11 perh. well-arranged, more prob. in -.cho' owe~ a part and half, some portion. Sun. good style, in an accomplished manner. Tet P. W. 97 .,.,!!, 9'cho n. [,'[::>Je'.j to break, fold over.] 1. the act of .,.S A -.chifJ sometimes m,iS n. (Maru kyawng, Hake. breaking or foldipg over material or, in imagination, a Chin ktling rafter.] a common rafter usu. of bamboo. -linear distance upon itself, so as to divide it into a number ~E, principal rafter. 'l~oS channeled under-board of a of equal parts ; one of such divisions ; a section, verse, or roof_ """'iB""<\a;>6<>cqpclimi9Ea,~6 main posts, walls, tie stanza of certain poems. c,alo5'9E:11m~E:11--e3~=/06. beams, wall plates, rafters, roofs. I. B. ii, 194, !. """31E(o:itE)m~,i:'I~""'?" 119E:e:,a,jl:o,iE11 had to enter the 16. "i1~c,olo1tdl<>on1m02~cra'9Eqjdl11 ridge piece and sugar-cane clump and hastily break and cut the canes. As rafters. With. At. N. ii, 420. ms1E(,,.i96)0'.l=~"""2~" they were breaking ... Maul. Yaz. Py. Z.186. ""~"~E:11 crai>i=o,ico,-,oo-,~:>J">~Hamongrafterstheridge-piece,among """'!S":d.i9E:11""-'i'"'il5"'.,'l~"'~"''1~11-'i:<>:>J">OO">'l"'~"'~E, scent-giving roots fragrant benzoin (hold the highest place). dlcra,i:u;,<>a T "'iB" each of the two sections ( of a Dwegyo) whose W .L.D.K. 142. ooo5cll:ooEoE11ai:oo~~"""B'l~oS11Gj)oSai"""'l""".lroo-,, porch the rafters shone with the brilliance of golden stars. ~'lP""'tBw~11 the feet in the seven stanzas (of a Tedat) Anthol. i, 26. cra~.E.En~:o,iEicii, 1 ""Bfooo611E'i!'llS~11 1 in tb.e do not all contain the same number of syllables. white roof the rafters were placed close together, leaving Kab. Band. K. 509. ocf.>ol,,ac,m-,cooc,oo-,6~"'e30,jC .,.,!!, just space to see between them. ibid. ii, 319. ~"'iB""~' .,.tS& O'.lGOO")~O'.l<>OO">~~:llt:"B-,r~8c,o-,~c,;;<>08'i11 o'cho oleifj :>Jr6co59jc!3@:c,:ine,\lS~:eBScrai9co}~oGp~E~~,.\i11 his ribs a turning-Wingaba city had a thousand bends; at each were ridgy like the roof and rafters of a house whose thatch turning or corner he caused 60 ogres to keep guard. Yat. has been destroyed. Dat. Dhat. W. 37. cra@Eo 1:J~t<'i1'9E:i..,So5cra~E:Je'.j to i, 418 ooa8'icra~:cra.-,,,,.djr6,roa"lsY'l~'l"'.,\;11 deductions measure grain, etc.] the act of measuring (grain, etc.). proportionate to pay drawn. Chweta 15. dl02cli<>:>J">cra::B:m~~ 00 l"'"'iB'll">dl"'E:""'-,E:~So,ioSi9E., Expletive in ,,.005 .,.,!l,.,.e-,,~c/i <>cra">C11Goo:c,oo-,9~"'l:Yo5<'ckoo'sakai~to ,.,85 oshi'(J ockiy q.v. be in proportion-we shall describe a rectangular figure S rproportionate to the yield of the crop. Pol. Econ. 114. so ""S, 'ohir1 freq. written ""'ll n. [i:,E: particle used in m,!l:mD?o~ "'e3H-0>~"'e3'ckoo'sanyi,-te'tobeproforming verbal nn., as dl6@'9E-c/loS@='9E:-bigness of ~II -51 body. I. B. 250, l. 13.] l. manner, mode, manifestations, portional. T. N. ww6 ... 8iioo">",'" characteristics, quality, accomplishments, condition, aspect. 'cho ea' be well-proportioned. Teri Pyan 6. Cljl'l""dlrli -:>J,9'>~'""''liB""BE'""""B""Gt11te'.i=11otb11-...E,,,,19E11,E"'e'.isJE "",!l'"ll mi:>JoS'9E:11 o'cko ja'-proportionate to the G:>J">B~">II possessions, by whatever means he may seek to numberofmen. Sun. 3.Proll0riioninarithmeti0--ai:,1r6o,io5 secure them. I. B. 166b, l. 19. craooC:WCljli9C:~Je'.ji;9 te'.i:ii-9 cra~:,,.o-,, [, n~wo,d:i J craai:craE">: ?" as 4 is to 6, or as ef.l6.,\;11craE""BE:~ ... C1t~Clla1 he lay down having lost his 2 is to 3. (use not well established) Manual of Arithmetio. beauty. In this way-and so-he left the order. Tham. 4. Fitness, good appearance; attitude, behaviour. -Sek. D. K. ii, 159. In translation from Pali, ""E""BE, m~E:11cra~crac,cT,..,~""'P""""11~'-Journaleseandmodern. ~ .... dl""BE:~ represent yen' iiJrfrrena ... ten'akarena, ~'Cljl"",i""eit:GB">C:G"'?.,\;11 U Po Lu changed his behaviour, as ... so. With. At. N. iii, 129. clloScra"'">:~G:>J511om-,,all~ -(from having been pro-Japanese he became a patriot.) c,"'5,1o,p:'9E~c,:d.i11~""~"'rl,~-,~c,:d.i11gj~""BE:goo:o 1: Leba 12. 8cra,i:.j!:,jl:c,t"l1"11lSaEtp,allE~w"IS"l,11aE'11-,""'~:c/laE ~="i1m">:11Goncfip:o5"'e3:11 characteristics. L. H. G. K. 34. tf>'BEdjrlio 1, if you maintain this attitude I shan't work "'~gcn,~oS~o:itcli1e<>'9,~1 a con-in your shop. Change it-(change your tune.) ibid. 36. stellation having the semblance of a cock's foot. Bed. The combinations of m,!l or i:ra,!l,.,.e.,, with ~cli and "l) Wiz. K. 153. cral9E:all:e:ib11~::in:b!'j11 Nemi Ngaye. P. 51. often= be in accordance, be or look as it ought. ~w-, ,.,..,5:~=5coe'.j,,,.195..,~"'tBi>~11al~:""15"1oSffiagspdjrlit">') I

PAGE 107

58 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY caroo\iu pretty but without sterling qualities. Sagad. W. 36. roGoo,:,o5ue,,:,n:J?t"l~""'~o511'il601aC1j>IIOOGoo,:,o5mm,:,, 11 Clj> u oa ao E, n ue,,:,mC~11oaE,rg,:,:11gj,!iul,o;iE11 Kutka P. 53. rr.iS,o;io5,~rlj11 11 ~E,o;i5" we are following the authority of the books. In these conditions, this being so. Ok. Y az. Py. Z. 80. '?il""'llE, ~1191o5E:.ouS@-:,nG=E~,!i11cJlouSfo,u let the ten elements of failure exist in the conditions of others and the twelve elements of success in us. Zanek. P. 5. E,r/j11""'11E'"ttoE11 ll,",J~OJE911 teaching accomplishments, schooling a horse. Ommad. P. 18. qcfiooroE"~'""'!IE:Geq'Jo5Uo511CIJ~~eilo50Ja11 his character corresponded to his reputation. Pyinsawu. P. 12. ""BE'"""'" .j!,~uSo=:11 'chiy 91,a' (childish) ways. Th. T. E. 13. Jo5G!iGoo-xrlj:,:,o5oe'.i ,,.E,.,.

G=oaE"""Pc!l~i]E co~,a;r-ai~oo.,1 manifestations of joy. Ma/,a Link. W. 12. QC/io,:,1ro11:;i;loall"""""""U 1E:G'lr""""~~sau,t1r011g'jcaro:'l=""SE, ""'P""~""'P@m,:,ffi,ctjooaooG:l'YJCOap.>')=~ ... ,&.dl,oo CI ')' "t~clin the four manifeststions and functions ( of the elements) viz. sustaining, uniting, fomenting, and vibrating. W. M. D. K. 23 and passim. oaaoE,rlj~oSE,oa~goo,:,ro ;o. O')U 1,=,:,oaE""'P='S~~SoSrlj~oSE:o,aoa:,:,uSmo:jl:oote'.ii what is the advantage of considering the sign in these eleven modes, with reference to its colour, etc. W itk. At. i, 295. oaE""'P"""'='l=:!J~,iiaouSoa,:,~o\in ibul. 329 and passim, saE:oa

511 fact, incident. Taz. D. K. 83. ~,ooaac,m,:,:11 sa,iE:rou 1:11,:,,wu,oSo 111c lucoo,:,00~11 the ruling prince is no other than I. (oa,iE, perh. = entity. Of. similar uses of ""'f') Ban/,. P. 5. =GOOS.Ii .,.E,.,.cp """1~rll"""t~""oE 8~"''""3Po5=,"'1~.,'ii11 'chiy ,ya facts. Temi. J. W. 46. SSoliioagi1ggjoaE,03&p~r/jtG,:,c,08'.'.JlGroSw('i")"31S" radiance (of a star). Thuw. Mya. P. 70. oaawooCIIG~EroEroSe911 without a gleam in utter darkness (of ignorance). S. D. Kh. P. 85. aS,o\iao~,:,~~=ooa11 Thud. Py. 28. :ljlGglOJ')' ctj ... c ]oo,:,,..guno.:,g 1""ilm~oa<96m""6JO,cuSGO'.lS@iiGo~Gro711 Mahawtk. J. w. i, 12. gro,:,m~~o5.oGo 1a#oas""'l"SI"'' 1:i;i,qiuS11 Ool"loq. Danttbyu. E~~ (['iE,~~) Gro,:,caE,clim@rr.,~ii G=o:io&'\G=c11 hills which surround. Nat Lan T. K. 72. OJ')OO~U)fe'.i =:@msm~,~O'lo;l!3djo5u 1o\i11 those associated (with the words in question.-He was asked to explain ;,,:,Gm,:, and gave the meanings of OO':>05 where the essential part of the meaning is pierce ".) Thatk. W i. K. i, 71. aE.=,cfuoooo511 ""B"'eil. iiooS,9111c1"PG:D"Jmao5 = ctlr/l . oo,:,:ooo'i11 achay ywe attendants and companions, retinue. Temi. J. W. 45. SS :(311e'8'l li"'oSn u~oooSrljn achay chwe yay entourage. Kawi M. M. K. i, 220.

PAGE 108

BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 59 ""B., cha n. V .,.~., A. .,..,, 'cha n. @,,:i:,, to make separate, to be different.] 1. a dividing line, something which separates in space or time, boundary, intermission. -""mi11066:,:iitt60611 -oo5 rooScfl6clj 6,iE il oS ( ~oS) ""8~~ cgro~ c g:i:,~i.gr,oS cfl6 'ic::B~ oS 11 wishing to have the dedicated land, uprooted the stones erected on the boundaries. J.B. 31, l. 31 and cf. ll. 15, 17, 18, 19. :i:,~ao""B~'Jl"=~cgof.ioo~f'"?'cfl""B~Mll 9;:e~Eg11 saw the whole country beyond the ocean without anything between-as if he had been close to it. Y az. Kyaw. 61. '-'!cfl'lo5":i:,S..,s~<>E,, when you cut water you see no parting, ga.sh. ManiT. K. 428. cflE,,ii~Qi~E:=:;,~G""B~'"ilE" Antlwl. ii, 288. OOC~J'OO'.lO 1:11~:9cc!i,1GBOJoSOOcf.i line on sole of foot. Lok. Srmma. 72. """fil~""=m~, ... Of:G:i:,.-,ajoo~,:11 extreme limit. Hm. Yaz. i, 308. flii::B91cm~11,:r,,~lr-'"?.,, ~~cgoSoo~:0023:11 1 Nirvana is the bo_urne, where t~ere is freedom from the impermanence of eXJBtences. Ude,n. P. 95. Combns. occur chiefly in translations from Pali. ,.,S(8)S GQ;>II .,.-,,.,.a:,6 "~"""?~"~jooG01cooGQ1E:Gm~E:mE ==:i:,11 o'cha .ia, interval-holes without interval, every where penetrable (avici here= without interruption). Pand. Wed. D.K. 140. "'looS""l::i:,~o, ""B.,'"'ti" 'cha mo'kwe no division is apparent-when you draw a line in water, you make no mark. Udein. P. 17 .,.-,:<>! g:i:,~cflfuii~dla;i, ii~11 'cha mofi' nothing in between-in his last preceding existence. Manik. W.19 .,..,,~ ::oojfuo:i!:Go:G=..~ 'cha me' nothing between, the next-gives results in the next following existence (anantara bhava, existence with nothing in between). Atitlum. K. 47. """?*:i:,~ooi.=. ""@o:~ 1"lll~ffi~:i:,2311 uninterrupted, close-growing. Tham. Sek. D. K. ii, 129. "l'""~(~cfi)ooc:i:,23o\i..,-o,~~:i:,se300,:r,,eii ~e.J~o 1~~"0'.lt6~~~ ""l"'"I"' ... 11 don't look elsewhere ; the other day in our town. . Sun. Go;>",1~ ... SS ... "o;>:ll~:oo~~cf)"IY.l"l~oS ~:i!:o\i,,,.,@o:.,:i:,~"o;>'"a'jE11 other boats. Atithon. ~254. ""8~=:i:,~om~,,j!:ciJ11 other languages. Duwun J. "'I'""'~ ~dl ... ""B~,8~900~~JE11 separated them . Ma""_wth. ,~ W. i, 39. ~"'"''~gl:11 .,..,,.,, dj11Q~~'"?"o11 cha Ja various-the several forms of crime. Anthol. ii, 287. iiQE'lcf.i",1"? ~I" ooS W 11 ache omyi, roots, established position-had established them selves, taken root. K. B. Z. i, 50. ')O')OG;><;>"""8"',dl5~:i:,~ :i:,~""'-'1'11 military ba.se. Hl. Ree. 30. 1'lw~,[g~sE:i~:8"9E: ""'l!~:oli1101.,,, 1 '""GB""ii:i:,.'lo lea,:, 1,l'lo 16<>23..'i11 ( in explana tion of the four ha.sea of iddhi, psychic powers.) Bawd. D. K. 48. CJ. Atithrm. K. 340. YOGl023'~"l'P','~""il"O'W cr.i:i:,.a'jo:i:,~oon:n"""B""B&;.,~~E:;~'-'l'~'"o:cljr&jo:i:,::i:,, 11 no foundation for the report. Hmaing Hma. ii, 84. OQ~~ll"l~E::o5"lE""'"''W"' .,. "Ba djco,:11Go::o.~E:~,11""l,:i:,~, ~98u ache ga'!) origin, occasion. the circumstance which led up (to my writing this book) from the time of my practice of chemical reduction in the forest. Myauk Ti. 1. 11ooo~GBa:i:,g::0=8g loS11 ha.sic. Pol. Ecrm. pref. :i,ira@, :i:,~om~,"""B"ao,:11 have no foundation. Newsp. G~E:~ oE """B~~ @11cJloS~toS=~E:g<>=SGm~E:::0Qb~:~idl'il~e39 "w'\"31E, ache sai? fu: roots, be settled--"''"""B"11'(! 65:)ool- 1 Qfil=f,E11 in a rude, swaggering manner. Owad. P. 11. w~='!~'"""'"'~"""'"B~~i::110~;;~:rn""'?" i~ an elaborate manner, imitating U Ponnya s series of three Imes rhyming in every syllable. Kohya Kyem i, 66. cJl ... ""'P:i:,. 8So\i """B"""t" """'rr.,"''''9:i:,g:i:,~ "/S.."a:iS11 che one status, position in life. Chweta. 89. """?6""c/lE""G8 """~dj,E:11 ibid. pref. el!ooc8..,.,o T ... :i:,8o5"1'?'.'5~"'~cilai,9 ooS:i:,c~11w'l"t-,cf.iaxi=B"""t~~11 latest position, latest

PAGE 109

60 BURMESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY developments. Star. wfy,S"looo:o:xi?om?oSoo3,;'t'.),y? ... :i,~ oofi=crascra,wm?E,~t=?craol9""tcradl~oco:ioe'j11 W eek!y Orop Report in H. Gaz. """B"""t"",ico,~ ... :iod3oowtn e?a6omo;,o5n appt!y = conduct. Ma,gh. Dev. L. Th. 253. ~'~" ""e m 6 o 1cJln ache ka? adhere in position, be settled-was s. in Pegu. Ok. Yaz. Py. Z. 26. o:i~clj ""e "-II 0007 :D?'Jl~'~S:ijw~o 11~tt~e301011 ache ea' conditions are favourable. Kh. M. G. W. ii, 71. =B"'CY.il~o@E,9111 :io900~0"1PoSoo5o:xm;p,'iwoo=oS,~cooSro6dlS,s-o"lt""~t=S :i,~~11 to settle him in life. Wink. W. 4. oomo'J=oo?mn ..,.,13 o:, ~'" ache tir( position is seemly-it would be better if I died at once. Ok. Yaz. Py. Z. 75. m1,,?ol ,,..,13~~ GO:ij,1 ache 'thu'f) position is bright-be dis tinguished, famous. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 68. a;,,oS:io.,~ oo~EtoS .. "'~"?''i.'"B'i"a.l ,,..,13'11&; """f91oS"i16'i\?.l?' 9o,r-,,o:ie'j11 oohe pye? be clisintegrated. Ah. D. K. 114. o;ic:o?"'o;l""G8qoSo:il11"ltooSo;iE,mo;iQS11 mechanically worked wells, the ruin of the twinzas. Tedat B. 202. c 'l?ooo11craocoaa<\l~" ,,..,13,.~ "'loS11Qoo9006'P''CY.ll~"'o5g:,o:i? ache phi'f)' be unstable-worth less people, unstable, doers of improper acts (taking "~ a.s = c,c to be unsteady). M. Muni. Th. P. 47. """~9 (19D<>?(ro)w~.jj.,=c!3~:o1:i'.>n unshakable. Bei,n Yaz. Py. Z. 29. SSGf?Ojlll ,,..,El owu511 ache 'myt be constant. Zawta Kum. Py. Z. 63. oo:iooSo;iE ,,..,cl'' mE"''lle3:n~"''l!Ec/lE,o~,,, ache ya' get an assured position. Kh. M . G. W. ii, 58. 01:t18":i;p:,e'j11crasw"l11 the throne is damaged, does not look as usual (after an earthquake). M.Sa11d.Py.Z.8. ~...@Qioo:i? ,,..,13.,'P&; :il"lt" acheyau? get a permanent appointment. Sun. ,,.~6me ayei,? ache outward appearance---(com. in modern books.) v.s.v. ,.,~&, Besides the comhns. given abo