China mission year book

Material Information

China mission year book
Added title page title:
China Christian Year Book
MacGillivray, D ( Donald ), 1862-
Christian Literature Society for China
National Christian Council of China
Place of Publication:
Christian Literature Society
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Missionaries -- Training of -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missions -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missions, Medical -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Directories -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Training of -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- China
亚洲 -- 中国
亞洲 -- 中國
35 x 103 ( China )


Inc. indices.
General Note:
Issues for 1920-1922, 1927, 1930, 1933/4, 1935/6 were not published. After 1925 continues as "China Christian year book".
General Note:
Editors: 1910-1915 D. MacGillivray;

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
353641 ( aleph )
X192075321 ( oclc )


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THE CHINA CHRISTIAN YEAR BOOK 1931 (SEVENTEENTH ISSUE OF THE CHINA "MISSION" YEAR BOOK) Issued under arrangement between the Christian Literature Society for China and the National Christian Council of China under the Direction of the following Editorial Board appointed by the National Christian Council: Rev. A. C. Allan Dr. Herman C. E. Liu Mr. E. E. Barnett Rev. E. C.Lobenstine Rev. T. C. Brown Rev. Edwin Marx Rev. L. D. Cio Dr. J. L. Maxwell Miss Margaret Frame Rev. F. R. Millican Miss Eleanor Hinder Dr, Frank Rawlinson Dr. C. L. Hsia Rev. C. Stanley Smith Rev, Frederick Lee Mr. T. H. Sun Rev. Z. K. Zia EDITOR Rev. Frank Rawlinson, D. D. Editor, The Chinese Recorder. CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY SHANGHAI J93J


PREFACE h is nearly two years since the last issue of this YEAR Boox appeared. This lapse of a year is due primarily to the fact that while change is going on almost everywhere in China the results of the change did not reveal themselves quite fast enough to warrant an issue last year. It was hoped to have this volume off the press early this spring. But the number and complexity of their tasks made it difficult for the writers to do their work as promptly as the Editor ventured to suggest. In a few cases only the utmost pressure produced the particular chapter requested. This pressure of respon sibilities and difficulty of gathering the data involved hitve prevented us securing as planned chapters on "Governmen,t Education in China," "Mission Medical Work," and "Private Universities." Along each of these three lines interestirig developments have taken place. We hope that the next issue will co:r~ect these lacks in one. It sli.ould be noted, also, this volume says very little about the problem of self-support. This is due to tli.e absence of little concerted attention to the problem. Of tli.e forty writers wli.o 11.ave contributed voluntarily to this volume nearly half are Chinese. The volume represents, therefore, a fairly good cross-section of present-day tli.inking, problems, and efforts towards future progress in China. Since only tli.ose wli.o are busy have the necessary insight into conditions to qualify as writers for YEAR Boox, tli.e Editor and tli.e Editorial Board wish herewith to express their heartfelt appreciation of all tli.e 11.elp so generously given in .producing it. It contains the fruits of much toil under heavy pressure. '1'1.i.ough this YEAR Boox is full of facts these are mainly 11.istorical and psychological. Among tli.e 11.istorical data are many whicli. have to "do with both tli.e present and future making of history. In general tli.e psychological data reveal much less of tension and strain than have marked the two previous YBAR Booxs. Some interesting educational and missionary statistics are, how ever, found in this issue. At its meeting in April, 1931, the


lV PREFACE National Christian Council decided to attempt to measure again the statistical strength of the Christian Movement in China with I\ view to ascertaining its present statistical position. The results of this projected study may be available for use in the next issue of the YEAR BOOK. Five of the present characteristics of the Christian Movement. in China stand out in this volume. First, the curve of Christian activity as comp:ued with that apparent in the last issue has risen. All the losses recorded a few years since have not, of course, been made up. There are still centers where the bacl,set of revolutionary attacks dominates the situation. In most centere, however, work is again moving forward, havi~g in some rnses advanced beyond any previous position. It is especially true that the spirit of violent antagonfam to Christianity has notably subsided. :Most of the writers in this issue show awareness of new and challenging opportunities. Second, in many centers and organizations workers are getting down to bed-rock conditions and needs. Many

PREl!'AOE v ment is a case in point. T:b.ese central pla~s are permeating China, It is true, also, that in various localities experiments are under way wliich are due to local initiative. That these movements have two foci of origin shows that the spirit of social and spiritual reconstruction is taking root in China. Rebuilding is going on at both the top and bottom. Local groups are responding in their own ways to headquarters' suggestions. Fifth, one notes also, that the Christian :Movement iR passing from the mood of thinking in terms of imported and superimposed programs and is searching for programs built up to meet actual conditions and needs. None of the experiments and programs are as yet commensurate with the national needs of China. But seed programs are being created-programs that may serve as stimuli to reproduction in many others than the centers in which they originate. While, therefore, experimental beginnings are the order of the day these are of the type that can spread and so serve to speed up the process of spiritual and social rehabilitation now going on, As usual the Editor has not found the task of proof-reading exhilirating. Special thanks are due to Mr. C. L. Boynton and Rev. C. W. Allan for help in checking UP. on typographical errors and attempting to bring some uniformity into spelling and punctuation. Every page has been read at least four times. In spite of this many nationalistic quirks in spelling and punctuation have escaped notice until too late to alter them. So far as possible we have tried to have the titles of paragrapli.s unifor_m also. Had the chaptera been printed as they originally came to hand this YEAR BooK would have been a fearful and wonderful sight. Nevertheless once in a while the printer got hold of copy before the Editor noticed that paragraphs and titles were arranged somewhat individualistically. For all such oversights he can only throw himself on the mercy of readers. Not the least difficult task of the Editor is that of making somewhat uniform material written b;y representatives of different cultlll"09. He Jaas done the best he could.


PREFACE CONTE1'1'TS CONTRIBUTORS PRINCIPAL EVENTS INTRODUCTION CONTENTS PART I, NATIONAL LIFE CHAP'l'ER l'AGl!l iii vi ix xv I. The National Government, M. S. Bates.................. 13 II. Reconstmctive Measures, Edwin Marx ... ... ......... ... 22 III. Trends in Nat.ional Thinking, T. Z. Koo................. 30 IV. Evolution of China'R Modern Revolution, L. T. Chen 43 V. The Struggle for Civil Rights in China, Lin Yutang 51. PART II. RELIGIOUS LIFE VI. Religious Situation, 1931), T. C. Chao....................... 63 VII. The Kuomingtang and Religion, W. P. Mills.......... 77 PART III. CHURCH LIFE VI~L Problems and Needs of the Church, C. Y. Cheng..... 92. IX. Present-Day Evangelism, Editor............................. 103 .X. National Christian Council, 1930 .. Ortha May. Lane 117 :x;r. Five Year Movement, L. D. Cio ...................... ,.... ... 126 XII. Catholic Church in China, 1930. G. de Jonghe........ 130 XIII.. Church an_d Unity, A. R. Kepler ............ ;................ 143 PART IV. MISSIONS AND MISSIONARIES XIV. Present Services of Missionaries, J. Leighton Stuart 161 XV. Mission Forces and Distribution, C. L. Boynton...... 172


CONTENTS vii CHAPTER PAGE PART V. EDUCATION XVI. National Educational Pr_ogrnm, Herman C. E. Liu 175 XVII. Progress in Municipal Education, Wallace H. C. Kiang.............................................................. 182 XVIII. Christian Colleges and Universities, Francis C. :M. Wei ................................................................. 106 XIX. Outlook of l\finisterinl Training, C. W. Allan........ 204 XX. Mass Education and Phonetic Character, Herman C. E. Liu ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 213 XXI. New Program of Religious Education, Ronald Rees ............................................................... 219 XXII. Bible Training School for Women, Anna E. Moffet 22S XXIII. Status of Registration, C. S. Miao ......... ... ... ... ... ... 237 PART VI. SOCIAL LIFE XXIV. Changes in Family Life, Mies T. C. Kuan.............. 253 XXV. Movements Among Chinese Students, Y. T. Wu... 259 XXVI. Philanthropic Movements, Andrew V. Wu........... 275 XXVII. Famine Relief and Prevention, Y. S. Djang ....... ... 290 John Earl Baker... 293 G. Findlay Andrew 301 XXVIII. Labor in China, Fang Fu-an................................. 307 XXIX. China's New Factory Law, Eleanor M. Hinder...... 318 XXX. China's Struggle Against Narcotics. Wang King-ky 335 XXXI. Rural Reconstructive Efforts, Phillip W. Obeng... 342 XXXII. Christian Industrial and Rural Reconstruction, J. B. Tayler..................................................... 349 PART VII, MEDICAL WORK XXXID. Medical Education, R. T. Shields......................... 355 XXXIV. Medical Research, James L. Maxwell .................. 372 PART VIII, LITERATURE XXXV. Current Chinese Literature, F. R. Millican............ 382


viii CONTENTS XXXVI. Best Books in English on China, J.B. Powell and Frank Oliver.................................................... 401 XXXVII. Distribution of Christian Literature, George A. Clayton............................................................ 410 PART IX. APPENDIX Annotated Bibliography of "Best Books in English on China"........................................................ 418


CONTRIBUTORS (FIGURES IN PARENTHESIS INDICATE DATES OF FIRST ARRIVAL OF MISSIONRRIES IN CHINA) PAGE Allan, C. W. (1895) OUTLOOK 01, Mmrs.rERIAL TRAINING, XIX. Wesleyan Methodist. Executive Secretary, Christian Literature Society, Shanghai, China 204 Andrew, G. Findlay, O. B. E. (1905). FAMINE RELIEF AND PREVENTION, XXVII. China Inland Mission 301 Baker, John Earl, Ph.B., M. A., (1916). FAMINE RELIEF AND PREVENTION, XXVII. Adviser, Ministry of Railways ... 293: Bates, M. S., M.A., (HJ20). THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT, I. United Christian Missionary Society. Professor of History University of Nanking. China Council on Christian Higher Education ... Boynton, C. L., B. A., (1906). MISSION FORCES AND DnlTRIBUrmN, XV. Baptist. Business Secretary, N. C. C., Editor "Directory 13 of Protestant Missions in China" 172 Chao, T. C., M.A., B. D., D. Litt., RELIGIOU8 SITUATION, 1930, VI. Dean of School of Religion, Yenching University. Pro fessor of Philosophy of Religion. Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Yenta Christian Fellowship, Chaplain. Soochow University, B. A., Vanderbilt University, M. A., B. D., National Christian Council of C:hina. National Committee of Y. M. C. As. of China ... 63


x CONTRIBUTORS Chen, L. T., B. A., EVOLUTION OF CHINA'S MODERN REVOLU'l'ION, IV. Methodist. Yale University. General Secretary, Shanghai Y. M. C. A. Institute of Pacific Relations. Chinese Social and Political Science Association. Cheng, C. Y., D. D., PROBLEMS AND NEEDS OF THI~ CHURCH, VIII. General Secretary, National Christian Council. l\Iederntor, PAGE 43 Church of Christ in China. 92 Cheng, Philiip W., B. S., M. A,, RURAL RECONSTRUCTIVE EFFORTS, XXXI. Tsing Hua College. University of Pennsylvania. Colum bia University. Rural Work Secretary, National Com-mittee Y. JVC. C. As of China 342 Cfo, L. D., FIVE YEAR MOVEMENT, XI. Chung Hua S:b.eng Kung Hui. Foochow College. Associa~e General Secretary of the National Christian Council of China ... 126 Clayton, George A., (1895) DISTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIAN LITERA TURE, xxxvn. wesleyan Methodist. General Secretary of the Religious Tract Society for C:b.ina 410 Djang, (T) Y. S., B. A., FAMINE RELIEF AND PREVENTION, XXVII. Cornell University. Executive Secretary, China InternationalFamine Relief Commission. National Association of Sociology (Chinese). Chinese Co-operators' Associa tion. Science Society of China. Chinese Agricultural Association ... 290 Fang, Fu-an, M.A., LABOR IN CHINA, XXVIII. Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui. Yenching University, Bureau of Industrial and Commercial Information, Minis~ try of Industries 80'1


CONTRIBUTORS Hinder, Eleanor M., B. Sc., (1926) CHI~u's NEW FACTORY LAW, XXIX. xi PAGE Industrial Secretary, National Committee of Y. W. C. As. 318 Jongh~G. de, M. E., (1911) CATHOLIC CnuRCH IN CHINA, 1930, XII. Viscount, Officier d'Academie (France). Chevalier de la Couronne de Belgique. Foreign Missions of Paris Society. College of Namnr and Seminary of Paris. Secretary to the Synodal Commission in Peking and General Director of the Young Men's Catholic Association. 180 Kepler, A. R., A. B., D. D., (1901) CauncH AND UNl'.rY, XIII. Presbyterian. General Secretary, General .Assembly, Church of Christ in China. National Christian Council. Board of Directors, Christian Literature Society... 143 Klang, Wallace, H. C., M.A., Ph.D., PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL EnuCA'rION, XVI!. Methodist University of Nanking, 1919. State University of Wisionsin, 1924. State University of Iowa, 1920. Director of Edurational Research of the City Government of Greater Shanghai. Member of Kuomingtang. Member Y.M.C .A. lM Koo, T. Z., B. A., TRENDS IN NATIONAL THINKING, III. Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui. St. John's University. Honorary Degree Colgate University. Now visiting Uni versities in Australia and New Zealand under the auspices of the W. S. C. F. ... '30 Kuan, Miss T. C., CHANGES IN FAMILY LIFE, XXIV. Kung Li Hui. Secretary, National Christian Council. 253 Lane, Ortha May., B. R. S., M.A., (1919) NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL, 1930, X. Elder, Methodist Episcopal Church. Secretary, National Christian Council. ... 117


xii CONTRIBUTRoS Lin Yutang, A. M., Ph.D., THE STRUGGLE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS IN CHINA, v. Harvard, A. M.,LeipzigUniversity, Ph, D. St. John's University. Foreign Editor and Research Fellow, Academia P ... GE Sinica. Editor, "The China Critic." ... ... 54 Liu, Herman C. E., M.A., Ph.D., LL. D., NATTONAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM, XVI. MASS EDUCATfON AND PHONETIC CHARACTER, XX. Baptist. Soochow University. University of Chicago. Columbia University. President, Shanghai College. Chair man of Executive Committee, China Christian Educational Association. Director of Vocational Guidance National Vocational Education Association of China ... 175, 213 Marx, Edwin, A. B., B. D., (1918) RECONSTRUCTIVE MEASURES, II. Secretary and Treasurer of China Mission, United Christian Missionary Society .. 22 Maxwell, James L., M. D., B. S., (1~01) MEDICAL RESEARCH, XXXIV. English Presbyterian. Department of Field Research, Henry Lester Institute, Shanghai. Editor, "China Medi cal Journal." Honorary Medical Adviser to International and Chinese Missions to Lepers ... 372 Miao, C. S., M. A., B. D., Ph.D., STATUS OF REGISTRATION, XXIII. Baptist. Sec-retary of Religious Education and Acting General Secretary of China Christian Educational Association. National Christian Council. 237 Millican, F. R., M.A., (1907) CURRENT CHINESE LITERATURE, xxxv. Presbyterian. Christian Literature Society, Shanghai. ... 382 Mills, W. P., M.A., B. D., (1912) THE KuoMIXG'rANG AND RELI gion, VII. Y M, C. A., Nanking. 77


CONTRIHU':t'ORS Mottet, Anna E., Ph. B., (1920) BIBLE TRAINING SCHOOLS FOR WOMEN, XXII. SecretRry Mission, Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A, xiii PAGE Secretary-TreRsurer of Nanking Station 228 Oliver, Frank, BEST BOOKS IN ENGLISH ON CHINA, XXXVI. Journalist, Renter's Limited 401 Powell, John B., (1917) BEST BooKs IN ENGLISH ON CHINA, XXXVI. Community Church, ShRnghai. School of Journalism, University of Missouri. Editor, "China Weekly Review." Correspondent, "The Clticago Tribune." Contributor, "Manchester Guardian," Etc., National Press Club, Washington, D. C. American Academy, PoliticRl and Social Science 401 Rawlinson, Frank, M. A., D. D. (1902) TRENDS IN REORGANIZA TION, INTRODUCTION, PRESENT-DAY EVANGELISM, IX. American Board, editor "Chinese Recorder" and "China Christian Year Book." National Christian Council ... 1, 103 Rees, Ronald, M.A. (192~) NEW PROGRAM OF RELIGIOUS EoucA TION, XXI. Wesleyan Methodist. Secretary of the National Christian Council. 219 Shields, R. T., A. B., M. D. (1905) MEDICAL EDUCATION, xxxnr. Presbyterian. Histology and Embryology and Dean School of Medicine, Cheeloo University. NationRl Medical Association of China. American Medical Association. American Association of Anatomists. American Associa-tion of Parasitologists 356 Stuart, J. Leighton, D. D., Litt. D., PRESENT SERVICE OF MISSION ARIES, XIV. Presbyterian. President, Yenching University. Institute of Pacific Relations... 161


xiv CONTR~BU'rOll.S Tayler, J. B., (1905) CHRISTIAN INDUSTRIAL AND RURAL RECONSTRUCTION, X,~Il. PAGE Lon<;l.on Mission, Secretary, National Christian Council ... 349 Wang, Klng-kv, CmNA's STRUGGLE AGAINST NARCOTICS, :X:XX. Doctor Honoris Causa, University Louvan, 1029. Ecole Libre des Sciences Politiques, Paris. President of National Labor University, Shanghai. Chairman, National AntiOpium Association of China 335 Wei, Francis C. M., A. M., Pb. D., D. C. L., CHRISTIAN CoLLEGE AND UNIVERSITIES, XVIII. Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui. Boone college. A. M. Harvard University. P:b.. D., University of London. Acting President of Central China College, Wuc:b.ang 196 Wu, Andrew V, PHILANTHROPIC MOVEMENTS, XXVI. Genera.I Secretary, National Child Welfare Association of China. ... Wu, Y. T., M. A. MovEMENTS AMONG CHINESE STUDENTS, xxv. Chinese Independent C:b.urc:b.. M.A. (Philosophy), Colum bia. University. Chinese Customs College. Executive Secretary, Student Division, National Committee, Y. M. C. 27,5 As. in China ... 259


PRINCIPAL EVENTS July tst t929 to June 30th :1930 1929-1930 Great F1imine -in Kamm and Shensi Continnes 1929 July ,, August ,, Septeml:;er ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, Octo')er ,, Nove:nber ,, 16. 20. E'. 22. an. 31. 7. 1" 17. 18. 24. 28. 2. 22. 15. 23, 15. 24. 28. Contract for American loan of $1,000,000 signed by Mr. Sun Fo and Dr. G. Sellet. First Chinese member, Mr. Tsai Mo-clrnng, elected to t:he Shanghai Stock Exchange. Sale of tlteShanghai MunicipalCouncil Electricity Department to an American Co. for $81,000,000. U. S.~eply on the abolition of exterritoriality published. Resignation of Mr. Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei as President of Control Yuan. Treaty signed between China and Belgium for rendition of Belgian Concession in Tientsin. British reply on abolition of exterritorinlity pu blislted. R:1.tification of Sino-Danish treaty, concluded on September 12, 1928 .Mandate issued abolishing Press Censorship. Sino-Polish treaty signed. Censorslaip of mails established. Revolt and aivan~e into Hunan of Chang Faku'ei nnd his Ironsides. Clainese-Soviet clnsla at Manchuli. Shanghai-Hankow air mail"service inaugurated. Marslaal Yen Hsi-shan detains Marsltal Feng Yii hsiang. Hostilities break out in Honan. British Concession in Chinkillng formally banded over to China. Civil war in Hupeh said to be ended. l\tukden accepts Moscow's terms.


x vi December 1980 February March April ,, May ,, June July PRINCIPAL EVENTS 8. Serious mutiny at Pukow. 4. Serious mutiny at Anking. 4. 8. 17. 26. 1. 25. 26. 80. 1. 7. 18. 15. 80. 20. Judge Feetham appointed expert adviser to Shang hai Muncipal Council. Nanyang Bros. close down works. Three Finnish ladies murdered. American vessel fired on, 46 miles about Ichang Goal reform outlined. First Chinese Consul-General for India sails for Calcutta. Draft agreement of the disposal of the British Boxer Indemnity fund published. Dr. H. H. Kung issues instructions on Child Welfare. British Naval Instructors for the Chinese Navy are engaged. Miss Nettleton and Miss Harrison were captured' by bandits during t:bis month. Chinese Envoys under Mo Te-hui leave Harbin for Moscow. Northern offensive opened. Rendition oi Weihaiwei treaty signed by Dr. Wang and the British Minister. Legislative Yuan passes regulations for control of doctors. Ban on export of gold issued. Dr. Clifford Stubbs murdered in Chengtu. Harbour piracy in Shanghai: Mr. J. R. Harder murdered. Seizure of Tientsin Customs by command of Yen Hsi-shen. Mr. Lenox Simpson takes charge. Sino-F.renc:b treaty signed. Public temples erected to the memory of Marquis Tseng Kuo-fan and Marquis Chu Tsung-taug con fiscated by government mandate. 29. Petitio1i of twelve missionary bodies for t:be repeal of recent legislation forbidding the teaching of religion in schools denied.


August 7. 15. 26. September 9. 15. 17. October 31. November s. 2,3. December 28. 30. PRINCIPAL EVENTS Communists capture Cha:ngte. Tsinan taken by Nanking. xvii Regulation passed that foreigners entering China must present passports. General Yen assumes office in Peking. Miss Nettleton and Miss Harrison beheaded. Rendition of Amoy agreement signed. Closing of Chefoo Municipal Council. S. M. C. decides to abolish dog racing in Shanghai. Order issued prohibiting the exportation of Chinese books of historical value. Order issued prohibiting Chinese ships to fly foreign flags. President Chiang orders the abolition of likin on .January lst, 1931. Chinese Customs new tariff promulgated General amnesty proclaimed to all who had taken part in the civil war, except Ch'en Cbiung-ming and Yen Civil war continued for most of the year. Communism rife.


INTRODUCTION TRENDS IN REORGANIZATION Editor Present Situation The situation of China in general and the Christian Movement in particular is marked, on the one hand, by certain conditions adverse to progress and, on the other hand, by certain trends in reorganization which promote and promise progress. In this volume the adversities are a minor note; reorganization trends its major note. The writers therein do not minimize the adversities but they all look below surface conditions. No problem facing either China or Christianity has lessened in complexity; rather the reverse. These problems are, however, becoming more clearly outlined. This volume reveals, also, development in articulation of attempts to meet them. Theories as such are not prominent in this YEAR BooK. It reveals, it is true, no plans in themselves commensurate with the clamant needs of China. But it does suggest movements which if foUowed up will in time create such plans. Its major note is beginnings in reorganization. China in General Economic Adversities Like the rest of the world China is suffering from economic depression. The low price of silver affects both the scale of living and the international trade. Just how far, however, this depression increases China's already heavy load of unemployment cannot be said. It has been estimated that about 39 % of China's total population are unemployed and that 70% thereof live on and below the poverty line.1 In Shanghai, for instance, about two-thirds of the silk lChinese Labor, Fang Fu-an, pages 20 and 106.


2 CIVIL WAR filatures have been forced to close thus throwing some thirty-thousand laborers out of work. Growing economic pressure is one of China's major adversities. Changing Civilization In some parts of China civilization has altogtther broken down. There law and order no longer exist. Such a breakdown is evident in parts of Fukien and Kiangsi. Life is almost impossible. People are utterly desperate. At the present juncture no government can so distribute its forces as to control such situations for -long. Happily many parts of China are not so terribly affected. Rumours of serious disagreement between Southern China and the Government appear. Civil War Whether actual civil war will recommence cannot at this moment be said. That a serious break between former allies has occurred is all too evident. The causes are partly personal. But they also inhere in different political views. In general it is the Leftists again registering disapproval of the Rightists who are in control. The question of whether or not ,the Provisional Constitution should have been adopted at the National People's Conven tion, (May, 1931) is one issue. Embedded in the struggle one can also see signs of competition between the Government as emerging and the Kuumingtang Party. China, therefore, while trying to run a one-party government finds itself actually involved in a struggle between two groups or what may become two parties. China's chief political difficulties are found in the fact that certain elements of political thought are at present kept out of the Government. A working political unit.y is still unachieved. This hinders general reconstruction. There are, however, trends headed in a Trends in more hopeful direction. The National Gov-Reorganizahon ernment has been compelled to defend its existence by force of arms several times. Yet in spite of this it has held its own. It has also consolidated somewhat its control. To this the alliance between Nankirigand :Moukden contributed. In view of the Government's


NATIONAL REHABILITATION 3 attempt to set up a new political structure one marvels that it has held on so well. One noticeable feature is its recurring attempt to reorganize itself. The aim is to erect a political order built up on the suffrage, recall, initiative and referendum of the people and on the basis of five powers, executive, legislative, judicial, examinaLion and supervisory. All this is in an experimental stage. So that coupled with the Government's problem of maintaining control is that of finding itself. Truly a colossal problem. The Three Principles The Three People's Principles enunciated by Dr. Sun Yat-sen furnish the guiding maxims for this colossal political experiment. The recently adopted Provisional Constitution states that these Three Principles shall be the fundamentals of the country's education. They provide the nation with a reorganizational ideology. They aim to link government to life. Christian schools tend to fall in with this political ruling. The General Assembly of the Church of Christ in China in its last session voted to carry it out in the schools under its control. These Three Principles are a key to the reorganization going on in the mind of China. The international rehabilitation of China ~:~b~iltation is also going forward slowly. This heads up at present in steady pressure against the "unequal treaties." In issuing a statement urging the final abolition of these treaties the recent National People's Convention registered its peak ent.husiasm. It is significant to note that while here anc1 there a lone voice urges military preparation to the point where such demands can be pushed through, China still expects to win this important step in national reha bi]itation by moral pressure alone. That. a nation the size of China, unable to exert military pressure is yet able to advance its policies by moral means mainly provides a significant exhibition of international diplomacy based on moral insistence. If China achieves her. rehabilitation on these .lines she will


4 PROVISIONAL CONSTITUTION be an influence for the substitution of moral for military pressure in international relationships. Ideals of Provisional Constitution Whether or not the Provisional Constitu tion actually becomes the basis of law i;n, China in the near future it sets up ideals which in themselves are one of the present tr_ends in reorganization. Only a few of these can be mentioned. Chinese citizens are to be equal before the Law, irre:;ipective of sex, race, religion or caste. Their liberty, their houses and property are not to be touched except in accordance with Law. Liberty of conscience, assembly, formation of associations, speech and publica tions are recognized. These rights and liberties may, however, be restricted in accordance with Law in the "maintenance of local peace and order." All shall. moreover, "have the duty to undertake military service in accordance with Law." Employment bureaux and un employment insurance are to be inaugurated by the Government. These ideals are difficult of realization. The inclusion of the continuance of the Period of Political Tutelage in the Provisional Constitution and the retention of political control by Kuomingtang delegates leaves the Constitution without full-fledged prestige. Nevertheless, its reorganizational hleals are significant. 'l'he introductory chapter in the last issue Labor Laws of the YEAR BooK referred to labor laws then being promulgated. Among them was the Factory Law then in the making. This Law, dealt with at length in this volume, is to go into effect in August, 1931. This Law sets up comparatively high standards. Some deem the Government too ambitious in expecting its immediate application. In view of complex conditions this ma.y beexpected to move forward quite slowly. In the meantime the question of its application is challenging industrial interests to ascertain what that entails for both employers and employees. Both Chinese ancl foreign interests in and around Shanghai are studying it. In February, 1931, a conference was held under the auspices of the National Christian Council to consider industrial and economic-


EDUCATION 5 problems.1 This conference found this Factory Law a chii.llenge also to Christians interested in improving labor and living co:1ditions. As a result the National Christian Council's Committee on Christianizing Economic Relation ships appointed a small committee to study how the Christian forces might assist in applying this new Law. With this Committee is working Dr. Chen Ta, a well known Chinese student of such problems. The New Law is a moral challenge to existing unsatisfactory industrial conditions. In the 1928 edition of the CHINA CHRISTIAN Education YEAR BooK (page 235) "The Village Education Movement" was outlined. This promising experiment became involved politically and has been suspended. It will undoubtedly be resumed. The Provisional Constitu tion calls for elementary education for all of school age. While in general public education i;iuffers from the set backs of recent years close and careful study is being made of educational problems as this issue shows. (page 182). Such experiments indicate the trend towards reorganization in eduoation. This attention to education includes provision for the needs of adults. In this way the Maes Education Movement, started as a private enterprise, is being worked into public education. The need to keep public education free from political interference is also noted in the Provisional Constitution. In general, also, students are much less disturbed by agitation and are concentrating their attention on their immediate task. ln contrast to the centers where civilization i~:::n1~t.ition has broken do,vn th~re are equa~ly .apparent efforts at commumty reorgamzation. At Tinghsien, Hopei, the Mass Education Movement is studying the needs of a well-rounded rural community. In the chapter on "Rural Reconstructive Efforts" (page 342) several such experiments are noted. At its last meeting lSee "Christiane Confer on People's ~Livelihood" Chinese Recordel', .April, 1931, page 242.


CHRISTIANITY IN CHINA (April, 1931) the National Christian Council adopted a program of building up rural community-parishes. This program some Christian bodies in the north of China have adopted enthusiastically. In this way ideals of a new civilization are being built into actual experiments in social reorganization. In the places cited this rebuilding process has got the start of dei'tructive forces. Thus in spite of political and economic uncertainties civilization rebuilding is actually starting in China. Finally research and surveys are becoming Research the order of the day. These are too numerous to outline. China's intellectual and aesthetic heritage is being mined. For the first time studies in labor problems are appearing which indicate, at least, some of the fields needing to be surveyed. In some parts agricultural data are being gathered. Not a few of China's intellectuals are thus thinking ahead and building up material which will become available as time goes on. In this search for facts the Christian Movement is also participating as will be noted later. Construction Versus Destruction Every disaster, evil and burden known to humanity is found in tremendous measre in China today. But that is not all the story. The constructive spirit is challenging the destructive mood. Experiment.s that will produce the foundations of a better political and social order are under way. It may be Jong ere the destructive mood will be exorcised. But even now it is being ringed about by constructive research and experiment. China's tide of life is turning. Continuing Difficulties Christianity in China Compared with the ad v-ersities affecting China in general thm1e still hindering Christian work show more decided ciiminishment. The missionary force suffers from a lack of personnel. Though there is no doubt that Chinese Christians welcome them, uncertainty as to their function still bothers many


.MISSION ARIES 7 1111ss10narics. Cuts in both personnel and funds are frequently noted. Here a!ld there missionarie" have voluntarily reduced their personal allowances. The lessening of western financial support is, however, somewhat offset by the high rate of exchange which keeps up funds for support of Chinei'e work anri sometimes enables a board to reduce the amount paid in golcl to misl:!ionaries. It is interesting to note, also, that while the Y. M. C. A. finds its support in the West decreasing, in China many of its financial campaigns have realized considern bly more than the goals set for them. 'rhe missionary force is stronger by about 652 compared with the situation about a year ago. Th us the statistical strength of the missionaries is slowly rising. Crnters Unoccupied In the disturbed part of Fukien the London :Mission has retired foreign workers from Tingchow. The American Board missionaries have also left two of their stations. Other missions have had to follow suit. Of its 297 central stations the C. I. M. reported in March, 1931, forty unoccupied by missionaries of which twenty-five are in Kiangsi. In most of the evacuated stations Chinese workerE' are carrying on. rn general, however, there were about 47 % more mission centers occupied in 1930 than in 1929. Here again the curve of Christian activity is rising. No complete list of missionaries captured Attacks on Missionari,s or killed is in hand. But during the eighteen months following Jtrnnary 1, 1930, a con si

8 CHRISTIAN REORGANIZATION other than feelings against Christianity. Bandits rebels, and in one case vengeful servants were the depredatoril. Divided Attitudes There is a clear cut division of theological thinking among the Christians, evident mainly among the missionaries. While a certain amount of open discussion is going on in this connection the situation cannot be labelled as an aggressive theological controversy. It does, however, prevent that cooperation between all the Christian forces commensurate with their strength. There are also two contingents of thought along another line. One contingent believes that evangelif:1m in the "narrow sense" should be the sole concern of the Church and its workers. The other holds that evangelistic effort shonld include participation in actual social rebuilding. These latter stand for social evangelism. These two contingents do not, however, actively oppose each other. Each works in its own way. 1'his divergence of thought does, nevertheless, hinder the Christian Movement from becoming as dynamic factor as it might in helping rebuild China and prevents the creation of a comprehensive and united program of Christian literature. In spite of these divergencies of thought generally speaking the Church in China links social effort of all kinds more closely in its program than is true of churches in the United States. Some uncertainty still exists as to the relation of school registration to the Christian program. This is offset by an emerging feeling that the Christian school may, if it wishes, become an agent in the truly significant effort of the Chinese Government to rebuild Chinese civilization on new models, an aim which makes it necessary for them to control educa tion so far as possible. The above paragraphs show that the CRhdstia~ tf adversities affecting Christianity in China eorganiza on b t d b 1 t" are emg coun ere y a growmg rea 1za 10n that existing conditions confronting it present a new and larger opportunity. This is proved by the reorganizational trends within Christianity.


Renewal of Spirit EV AN<:lELIS!\f 9 The general attack on Christianity in evidence in China a few years since has changed into isolated and sporadic attacks. The Chinese people are not, as a whole, at present inimical to Christianity though their challenge to Christian workers to make their religion work in all phases of life is gaining in strength. "The Christian institutions in China have been jarred but are not broken." A rising agressiveness marks the Chinese Christian forces. This heads up in the Five Year Movement. This spirit does not show itself in idealistic elogans as to any immediate winning of China as a whole. On the contrary in many places there is concentration upon specific problems in relatively restricted areas with a view to finding working solutions thereto. "l\fake ideals work," seems to be the keynote of this new and agressive spirit. Evangelism in the older and ''narrower Evangelism sense" is going on in many places. In Szechuan, for instance, evangelistic workers never met greater readiness to listen. In Shantung and Manchuria evangelistic movements of the older type are much in evidence. 'fhese are quite individualistic and in some cases tend to object to the "social gospel." They are also local and intensive. In many cases the effects are pro found though no thoroughgoing evaluation of them has come to hand. In these movements Chinese leadership is quite prominent. Students are, in varions centers, responding encouragingly to special presentations of the meaning and obligations of religion. These have little relation to the question of whether a school is registered or not. This evangelistic emphasis constitutes the major interest of the Five Year Movement. To promote it, the National Christian Council at its meeting in April, 1931, decided to call in 1932 a conference for special considera tion of evangelistic problems. Social Evangelism At its last meeting the National Christian Council adopted, also, a progam of social evangelism. This recognized the compre hensiveness of the aim of the Christian Movement in China.


10 SOCIAL EVANGELISM It is assumed to he a part of the Five Year Movement. It includes an att~mpt to rebuild the home on Christian principles. In March, 1931, there was held for the first time in China a conference on "Christianizing the Home.' Christian Parenthood, Child N urturo, Family Relation ships, l\larriage, and the Relation of Church to Home were all discussed. It was, also, realized that Christianity must lrnlp create Christian economic conditions in the home and carry Chri~tian principles into the relationship of home and community. A Christian home cannot be built up apart from the life of its community. In con sequence there was arlopted also a program for the Christian ization of economic and industrial relationships. This looks not only to p1otesting against wrong industrial conrlitions, it aims ulso at going into selected localities and helping set up cooperlltion in production, distribution of goods and the fairer sharing of the profits therefrom. Its ultimate aim is a cooperative commonwealth. This program has in it the seeds of a new social order that may be realized without violence and on the basis of China's own v.ital needs. This Christian social program goes one step further. lt aims to select certain rural communities and rebuild them into community-parishes with a central church and activities looking to the creation of all-round intellectual, economic and spiritual development. All this is linked up with an emerging program of religious education the ideal of which was rleclared to be :-"To develop in growing per,;ons the ability and disposition to participate in and contribute constructively to the building up of a social order embodying the ideal of the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man." Here, then, is the present Christian program of social evangelism. Through it the Christian forces will participate in the building of the New China. The problems of factory la borers will receive attention particularly in the study being made under Christian auspices of the application of the New Factory Law. As a matter of fact, however, -this social program concentrates mainly on the needs of rural communities and homes.


CH~ISTIAN RESEA~9H Ll Back of this emerging program is much research and many experiments. Dr. J. L. Research Corley has, under the auspices of the World's Sunday School Association, headed a survey of problems and conditions of religious education. The reorganization trend here is seen in the decision to create a Council of Religious Education to articulate the experience and efforts of those seeking to reconstruct their religious education. Dr. Kenyon Butterfield, has, on behalf of the International Missionary Council, studied rural conditions and set going the community-parish idea. Dr. Paul H. Douglass has, under the auspices of the Institute of Social and Religious Research, headed an Inquiry Commission on behalf of western Christian laymen, Such a comprehensive and determined effort to ascertain the needs and conditions of Christian work in Chiun, has never before been made. In the main it indicates that the ideals of Jerusalem are being realized in China. It is interesting to note that while at the last meeting of the National Christian Council most of the administrative work and the speaking was done by Chinese yet the above-mentioned three experts each made a contribution to its thinking and planning. In addition to this research work definite Experiments experiments are under way both within and outside the Christian .Movement. Only one or two can be mentioned. These show how truly practical modern leaders in China have become. In connection with the Jijxtension Department of the Kiangsu Provincial Education Bureau there has been set up experiment stations for both rural and industrial workers. There are, also, 1000 cooperatives in Kiangsu, of which are financed by the Agricultural Bank of Kiangsu. These have registered little loss from misappropriation. In a silk filature in Wusih a graduate of Ginling College and of the New York School of Social Work is experimenting with methods of recruiting and employment, the opportunities of training workers, conditions of work and housing, health and education problems. Both the Y. W. C. A. and the Y. 111. C. A. are experimenting with schools and methods


12 CHRISTIAN PROGRAllI of workers' education. Much agricultural experimental work has been done at Nanking University. Other instances are too numerous to mention. It is the emerging resuHs of such rese>1rch and experiments that are making the program of social evangelism practical and promise its enlargement in the future. Spiritual idealism, social effort and scientific methods are being woven together into the Christian program. ldea[s and Life It is evident that a process of weaving ideals into life is going on. Christianity is becoming indigenous along several lines. Its program is being built 011 understanding of needs in China. More emphasis is being laid 011 educational conditions that train workers for life in China on the basis of actual experience in working there. There are also some signs of the indigenization of the thought of Chinese Christians. A minority of these are beginning to question some Christian dogmas. Books have recently appeared in which others of them have stated their faith in their own terms. Numerous theses have been written by Chinese Atudents in which they try to evaluate Christianity and China's philosophical and religious heritage in its light. On the one hand this minority of Chinese Christian intelligentsia tends to lay aside the creedal and theological elements in Christianity as not of the most significance therein. This is due partly to their limited knowledge of their historical background, and partly to the lack of emphasis on such systematization of religious thought in their own past. On the other hand they tend just as definitely to link religion with ethics and look for Christianity to participate in social rebuilding. This follows the emphasis in their own inherited thought which always }inked philosophy with the social order and related religion thereto when it was mentioned. Christianity is thus weaving itself into the deeper consciousness of China and beginning also to link itself with all of China's needs.


PART I NATIONAL LIFE CHAPTER I THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT M. S. Bates This article is primarily an account of the National Government as actually at work in the ypar 1930. Nationalist Party In form the National Government is the agent of the Nationalist Party {Kuomintang), without status or authority in its own right. The Party now has a nominal membership of some 270,000, supposahg to be extended after a long period of exclusive ness; 70ro of its strength is in Kwan;:,:tung, Hunan, Hupeh, Kiangsi, Kiangsu, and Hopei (the former Chihli). It is a common view in political circles that the Party has little vitality except at the top and among certain groups of salaried place-holders. Local units of the Party through closely controlled indirect elections 1:end delegates to a National Congress of the Party, which passes resolutions on general policy and chooses the Central Execntive Committee and Central Supervisory Committee to carry on and to direct the Party enterprises. From the membership of the two Central Party and Committees is namerl a Central Political Government Council which appoints the highest officers of the National Government and lays down guiding in structions for it. Actuaily there is much repetition of personnel in these highest units of Party and Government, so that the political subjection of the Government is not fully real; moreover, the soldiers and the revenue immediately in the hands of the Government, which indeed finances its nominal superior-the Party. Obviously what has happened is this: the leaders of the Nationalist


14 ORGANIZATION OF GOVERNMENT Movement built up their power through the Party as a means of revolution; with success, they find the normal functions of government become more important than the functions of the Party, though for various reasons they have not abolished the older organization. General Frame of Government Under the Central Political Council is es tablished the National Government, in the main according to the Organic Law of Octo ber, 1928. 'fhis Law outlines the governmental forms of Dr. Sun's "Five-Power Constitution" as they are to be exercised during the "Period of Political Tutelage" (officially till 1935); meanwhile popular control ~nd local self-government are gradually to be developed. The general organ of the National Government (note section below on "Current Changes'') is a State Council the Chairman of whom is sometimes called President of the National Government. Among the Sta.te Councillors are the Presidents and Vice-Presidents of the Five Yuan (Councils) which are distinctive in the Nationalist ideology: Executive, Legislative, Judicial, Examination, Control. The State Council adjusts relations among the Yuan, and is responsible for the promulgation of general laws and mandates as well as for the ratification of important appointments in and under the Yuan. Executive Organs The Executive Yuan establishes Ministries and Commissions as its agents in administrative duties. For each Ministry the Yuan appoints a Minister, a Political Vice-Minister (to be mentioned later) and an Administrative Vice.Minister. Of the various Ministries, those of Finance, Railways, and CommunicaUons have been most significant in substantive work; Foreign Affairs, (Industry) Commerce and Labor, and Education, are important though with small effect upon present conditions within the country; Interior; Military Affairs, Agriculture and Mining, and Health, have for varying reasons been nominal. Of .the. Commis sions, those on Opium Suppression and on Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs have received most publicity in the Chinese press, though .they. have elight hold upon their


LEGISLATION AND JUS'fICE 15 vast fields of work. The General Staff Office under Chiang Kai-shek (who has been at the same time Chairman of the State Council and Commander-in-Chief, now also President of the Executive Yuan) has had a free hand in directing the enormous effort and expenditure in the civil wars. The Legislative Yuan has handled various Legislation draft projects submitted by the other Yuan, and through its bureaus and committees has initiated a stupefying bulk of legislation. This legislation is of two main types: first, many laws regarding the organization of various units in the government system, regulating powers; procedure, and personnel; second, caries and sections of codes covering broad fields of jurisprudence, part of which. is relatively new and hasty work, though considerable portions are based upon years of careful preparations undertaken by the old Peking Government.. The Legisla tive Yuan further has in its hands the ratification of treaties and other important decisions in foreign relations. The Judicial Yuan includes the Ministry Justice of Justice; which is an administrative unit like the other Ministrie::i, dealing with the organization, personnel, and procedure of Justice. It also comprises the Supreme Court, and is instructed to organize administrative courts and a commi!ision for the disciplinary punishment of officials. Some effort is made in the difficult task of improving courts and J>risous, but the Judicial Ynan has seemed rather lethargic. The Examination Yuan is supposed to Examination conduct a civil service system and to direct and Control personnel administration. It has thus far held no examinations, and has influenced .. no personnel beyond its own considerable body. The Control Yuan is intended to have functions of impeachment and audit; to date it has existed only on paper. Thus the Five-Power Constitution begins rather as an old fashioned tricycle than as Dr. Sun's mechanical whirl of "our antomobile, our submarine, and our aeroplane/' Nevertheless, his conceptions are strongly heldj :and. it is


16 FINANCE probable that the near future will sec the other two Yuan in motion; though a friendly observer from the West can scarcely expect them to acquire independent authority. With the vast untrained population of Bureaucracy China, the old traditions of a governing class, the ideology of the Party, the eelf-interest of those in power, the desire of the reformers to modernize quickly according to their own ideas, it is absolutely inevitable that bureaucracy will rule supreme for many a year. Forms are secondary, and those who control the troops and the money will govern China. Fortunately military, financial, and political leadership a;re now combined in a moderately effective group, which gives a chance for peace and unity if not for the luxuries of constitutional refinement. Rest from Civil War Until September, 1930, the National Government has lived only in war, concerned chiefly with its own preservation, and finding no truce long enough or sectll'e enough to permit the facing of national problems. The civil wars have continued so many years and are so well known that they need not be catalogued here. Their mark is upon every province and upon every interest mentioned in this article and in this volume. At present there is no open opposition apart from the Communists, who are scattered and unable to hold any large center. Generals Yen Hsi-shan and Feng Yn-hsiang have lost their grip upon the north and northwest, ancl General Chang Hsueh-liang of Manchuria is liquidating their regime in fairly good co-operation with the National Government. The country has a sense of rest from long struggle, and feels fairly confident of peace for the immediate future, whatever the longer reaches may bring. Enormous military costs plus a heavy debt Finance service have absorbed nine-tenths of the national revenue from all sources; the remainder has gone mainly into salaries and expenses for offices of the Government and Party, with a trifle for direct construction or


COMMUNICATIONS 17 iinprovement. The customs duties, now increased and collected on a gold basis, are by far the largest source of income; short-term domestic loans have been raised under pressure. Payments on loans have been kept up with remarkable fidelity, even on heavy charges due in gold, which have represented distressing amounts of depreciated silver. The Kemmerer Commission has completed its valuable studies for the Ministry of Finance, dealing especially with currency and banking as to their various relations with public finance. The Ministry has been energetic and reasonably clean, paying for war costs from reduced revenues in a small area, and lrneping the general confidence of bankers and merchants. At no time has the Government resorted to inflation of the currency. rari:ff autonomy is in operation with the moderate experimental schedules of the first year, which are to be considerably adva.nced early in 1931. Serious administrative and financial preparations have been made for the abolition of likin, and definite orders are issued for this long-desired relief. The plight of the railways after the long Railways civil wars is pitiable. Some lines have lost much rolling-stock; all have been crippled in revenue while losing much by abnormal repairs and direct pillage; several are hopelessly in debt and without independent credit. Yet for the most part the official administrations have carried on admirably, and have made things go whenever and wherever the armies gave them a fraction of a chance. The Manchurian lines are prosperously extending their services to compete with the Japanese and to develop riew regions; and the Shanghai area is in good condition. Communlactions The China Merchants' Navigation Company has been the battered toy of generals, and a period of government management has continued bad admini8tration with huge staffs; there is hope of revival from bankruptcy, but no realization. The post office and telegraph systems have been remark!!,bly weli.


18 FOREIGN RELATIONS maintained under great strain, often functioning in and through the military lines; they have been a real help to the unity of the nation. Air mail service is flourishing from Shanghai to Ichang, and is in process of extension. Satisfactory wireless telegraph equipment is in use in all important cities and for international service. Longdistance telephone connections are spreading, and automatic systems have been installed in several centers. Government's Foreign Relations British concessions in Chinkiang and Amoy, and the territory of Weihaiwei, have been restored to. China. The Provisional Court in Shanghai has been reorganized as an integral part of the Chinese judicial system. Many other points in regard to concessions and jurisdiction are in process of negotiation; so the National Government may rightly claim that real progress has been made by active but peaceful methods in clearing up the problems of the old treaties. Negotiations with RnsFiia over the Chinese Eastern Railway and the recent border trouble are proving dif ficult. Throughout the wars, the Government has Government and Ecfucat' maintained the budget of the Ministry of rnn Education, including appropriations for the "national" universities; and there has been a. real recovery from the chaos of the revolutionary years. Yet the central educational authorities have been weak, and the quality of work actually done in the government institutions is usually low, despite much good intention among certain well-trained leaders. The old maps of China listed eighteen New Political provinces to which the earlier Republican Map years added three in l\fanchuria-Fengtien (now Liaoning), Kirin, and Heilungkiang, plus one in the northwest-Sinkiang. Recently various extensive but sparsely settled areas have had separate administrations and now possess the rank of provinces-Sik'ang (Tibetan border), Jehol, Chahar, Suiyuan (all three in the north), Ninghsia and Oh'inghai (parts of Kansu, the second often


CURRENT CHANGES 19 known as Kokonor). Thus the present total ot provinces is twenty-eight. Some rudiments of factory inspection have Government been engendered the grading of commodities and Commerce for export has begun; and a sensible system of standard weights and measures is gradually being made known; this system sets the varying Chinese shen at one liter, the kin at half a kilogram, the ch'ih at one-third of a meter. Exhibitions of native goods attract a fair amount of business, and reveal considerable progress in light manufacturing. Statistical reports of commerce, markets, banking, and population are growing in quantity and tend to rise in accuracy as much hard work goes into them. Current Change_s After this rongh sketch of the Government's activities, we turn to note the changes in process at the close of 1930, following the Fourth Plenary Session of the Central Executive Committee in November. The Central Political Council will now have a portion of its members appointed from among Government officials of high rank (out.side of the Central Party Committee's personnel), and the Political Vice Ministers will act as its secretaries; thus there will be closer co-ordination of administration with policy-forming. Similarly, the former State Council will now include the Ministers with the heads of the Yuan, and will be called the Government Council. The old nnme of State Council is transferred to the meeting of Ministers in the Executive Yuan. '.l'hese changes are the dictates of experience in the direction of efficiency, and indicate the growing importance of the men who do the actual work of government. The Ministry of Health becomes a section of the Ministry of the Interior, and the Ministry of Agriculture and Mining is absorbed by the Ministry of (Industry) Commerce and Labor, which now bears the comprehensive name Ministry of Industry. This change in departmental organization is of no great importance at present, but it


20 GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY might prejudice futme development of the absorbed interests. A People's Convention is announced for May 1931, with powers and composition yet to be determined. It may be regarded as an effort to make good on promises and programs, though it can hardly count for much under present conditions. The preparations for the Convention are receiving considerable attention within Government circles. Realistic Views There i,; much more of realism and less of bomba8t as the difficnities and responsibilities of actual government are more clearly felt.. No unfriendly critic could make stronger denunciations of military abuses, Party vices, opium corruption, and official uselessness, than have come from the highest personages to their own followers and in their own press; indeed, it may be feared that with the bombast have also disappeared some needed elements of enthusiasm and idealism. The authority of the National Government has now more extensive scope than even before, and there is no alternative program or leadership in sight. The foregoing survey of activities reveals many items of promise. They are seen from the center, and it must be remembered that there are several provinces in which the Centi-al Government is barely a name, including the entire west. It is not necessary to point out the difficulties in the way of general success for any government in China at the present time. The armies are as large as ever, the local and personal ambitions are deep-seated, the political and economic frontiers with Russia and Japan are drawn with bayonets. It is less obvious, but no less a reality, that the tremendous economic and social pressures of the country will sooner or later strike the Government, and the more directly because its program promises "Livelihood." Every phase of reform and modernization clevelopR wants far beyond the means to satisfy them, multiplying discontents as cultural, social, and political ideas race ahead


NATIONAL GOVEJ?,NMENT 21 of the economic tortoise with four hundred millions on his back. Yet to-day there is peace. And if the measure of hope is not large, it is sounder than recent decades have known.


CHAPTER II RECONSTRUCTIVE MEASURES Edwin Marx Since the establishment of the National regime in China; much attention hns been paid to the economic reconstruction of the country, and notwithstanding the widespread and constant turmoil which has existed, a vast amount of constructive work has gone on. By this is meant concrete rmmlts that have been accomplisher!, not mere plans on paper. In this article an attempt will be made to give enough examples to indicate the nature of the activities that are in progress, and some idea of the extent of them. A list of Chinese Govemment Railways Railways published by the Ministry of Railways shows twenty-seven lines with a total length of 7,660 miles. Another list issued by the Central Bureau of Statistics includes private lines and concession lines, and brings the total to 15,300 kilometres. The task facing the govem ment in relation to railways is the two-fold one of rehabilitating the existing lines and constructing new ones. For the past decade, and more, the existing railway lines and equipment have suffered beyond computation from military interference. According to a recent official report of the Ministry of Railways, the total debts of Chinese railways amount to Mex. $1,100,000,000, and on four lines alone in the past two years military operations have cost Mex. $80,000,000 in loss of revenue and Mex. $50,000,000 in property losses. Notwithstanding these staggering blows, the railways show a wonderful power of recovery. The lines in protected areas maintain their service in creditHble fashion even while other sections of the country are disrupted; and where service is interrupted, normal traffic is usually resumed promptly after the interference ceases. This has been seen recently in the resumption of


HIGHWAYS 23 through traffic on the Kiaochow-Tsinan, 'fientsin-Pnkow and Peiping-Hankow lines within a few weeks after the cessation of military operations. The Ministry of Rail ways over a year ngo announced definite plans for the rehabilitation of all existing lines, and the plans are being steadfastly adhered to under the able leadership of Minister Sun Fo. The plans for new lines provide for 6,000 miles to be constructed within five years ending in 1933, and the work is under way. The new Tsitsihar-Koshan line was finished and traffic opened in the Spring of 1930, and the TaonanSolun line is being pushed to completion by the Mukden authorities. Every exertion is being made to close the gaps in the through line from Wuhan to Canton, and it is expected that through traffic will be opened by March, 1931, from Canton to Lochang, near the Kwangtung-Hunan border. At Nanking a ferry is to be constructed capable of transporting a complete express of twelve cars across the Yangtze River _and work has begun on the approach bridges. The project will cost Mex. $4,000,000. It will greatly facilitate the through traffic between the Nanking Shangbai and the Tientsin-Pukow lines. Hi h The development of good roads and motor g ways bus consciousness during the past three years cannot have escaped the notice of anybody living or travel ing in inland China. The year 1929 especially marked a turning point in this connection. In February of that year a conference of delegates from all provinces met in Nanking. As a result of their three months' delibera tions, plans were made for a system of twelve national highways, which plans were later approved by the State Council, and laws were passed relating to finances, labor, use of the roads and similar regulations. Encouraged by the National Government, the various provinces also set up boards to carry out plans within their respective borders. During the year 1929 Kiangsu and Chekiang completed the 200 miles of road connecting Nanking and


24 AVIATION Hangchow; Anhwei in the season 1929-30 spent Mex. $8,400,000 for road building; Hmrnn is working at a four-year plan for 1,270 miles of road to cost Mex. $13,680,000. At the beginning of 1930 Kiangsu reported .'52 roads under construction aggregating over 1,000 miles. Kwang'3i province constructed 1,.500 miles of roads from 1927 to 1929. The work was suspended during the Nanking-Kwangsi war in 1929, but with the settlement of that trouble, attention was again turned to the road construction program. Estimates of the amount of motor road mileage in China vary greatly, but all agree on the rapid increases of recent years. The largest estimate for 1921 (the year the National Good Roads' Association was formed) gave 2,000 1i (600-700 miles) as the maximum, while other figures are as low as 100 miles. At the beginning of 1929 in a report compiled by Miss A. Viola Smith for the United States Department of Commerce after exhaustive eirnmination of sources, the following figures are given: Roads constructed, 34,810 miles; under construction 5,055 miles; projected, 31,099 miles. The existing highways in China are almost exclusively available for use by government officials and government operated bus services; or by private companies that have either built the roads or purchased from the government the rights to use them. There is little desire or opportunity as yet for private persons to operate cars on: the roads. But the construction of the roads and the maintenance of public transportation is a real advantage to all the people. The plans for the twelve national highways referred to above extend through a period of twenty years and contemplate 22,500 miles of roads at a cost of more than Mex. $360,000,000. Aviation Spectacular and significant has been the development of aviation in recent years. A decade or so ago rudimentary beginnings of aviation were


AVIATION 25 made for military purposes. Progress and popular interest both were negligible until late in 1928 when General Chang Wei-ehang made a trip in his plane to most of the important cities of the country. Since then interest and achievements have curved rapidly upward. Over 100 planes of newest types arrived in the country during 1929; and further additions have come during 1930. The largest aeroplane yet to come to China is a Ford tri-motored transport, which arrived in the Fall of 1930. After successful exhibition flights at Shanghai, Nanking, Tientsin and Mukden, this machine flew from Tientsin to Shanghai in eight hours, including a stop of one hour at Tsinanfu. Early in 1930 a joint stock company of Chinese and German interests was formed for development of an aviation service from Nanking to Berlin, and a contract for --the same was signed by n,presentatives of the National Government at Nanking and of the German interests. In March, 1930 a National Air Mail Bureau was established under the Ministry of Communications. Its functions will include the determining of mail service, establishing of international air mail and passenger service, developing of commercial aviation, and the training and engaging of aviators. In June, 1930, announcement was made of a contract signed, providing for air mail and passenger service to be developed along three routes,-Shangbai via Hankow to Chengtu; Hankow to Canton; and Nanking to Peiping. Daily air mail and passenger service between Shanghai and Nanking was inaugurated in June, 1929, and has been continued ever since with a high degree of satisfaction. The extension of the line from Hankow to Chengtu has been surveyed and was expected to begin in the Fall of 1930. It is temporarily in abeyance owing to practical difficulties encountered, but it is only a matter of time till it will be in operation. In October, 1930, announcement wa~ made that the KwangtungGovernment had signed a contract for six planes to be purchased abroad at a price of about Mex. $300,000.


28 CAPITAL items: railway improvements; wireless station; long dis. tance telephones; an electrfo tram syHtem aml waterworks for Hangcbow; irrigation ancl drainage systems for certain agricuHural lands; one unit of a 15,000 K. W. electrical generating plant, that will be designed to distribute power to Hangchow, and to the neighboring cities of Kashing, Yuhang and Huchow. EI t 1 t The electric light plant of Nanking dUl'ing ec rrc pans the past two years has been completely reorganized and over-hauled, and put on an efficient basis. The entire country now has 575 electric plants, with total productive capacity of more than a half million kilowatts. Waterworks A waterworks system costing approxi-mately $2,000,000 local currency is nearing completion in Chungking, Szechwan, as the yeai 1930 closes, and another plant in Kirin, capital of the province of Kirin. In Kwangtung, the district of Chungshan, Model Com-birth place of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, is being munity developed as a model district, with good roads, modern utilities and facilities for trade. This is being clone under the leadership of the veteran Rtatesman, Mr. Tang Shao-yi. Rebuilding Capital The rebuilding of the National capital, Nanking, is proceeding steadily, with erection of buildings, reconstruction of streets, installment of water works and other improvements. The com plete plans of the City Planning Commission extend through a period of ten years, and involve estimates that vary, according -to reports, from $100,000,000 to $300,000,000 local currency. In conclusion, the writer wishes to repeat and em phasize the fact that this article makes no attempt to give a complete resume of the type of activities with which it deals. The statements given are based either on personal knowledge or on reliable sources of information. They


RECONSTRUCTIVE MEASURES 29 are typical of the kind of thing that has been going on all over China since the beginning of the National regime, and this during a period when the attention of the govern ment and the people was largely preoccupied with political and military affairs. The results augur well for the future, when the advantages of peace and a stable government allow the population to turn their amazing energy and resources normally into constructive channels.


CHAPTER III TRENDS IN NATIONAL THINKING T. Z. Koo To know something of the thought life of a people is to gain an almost prophetic insight into the evolution of that people. The purpose of this article is to set forth in a concise form the different trends of thought which are current among the Chinese people today. I. Political Trends First, in the sphere of political thought, a variety of ideas are at work. Only a brief summary of the principal trends will be atternpied here. A. The Kiwinintang trend. The basis of Kuomintang political thought in this group is, of comse, the "San Min Chu I" or Dr. Snn Yat Sen's "Three Principles of the People'' and his "Five Power Constitution." The main points in the political program of the Kuomintang are: 1. To help in the solntion of the livelihood problem of the Chinese people. This problem involves food, cloth ing, housing and transportation. Therefore, the Government and the people should cooperate in the development of agriculture, the fostering of textile industries, the construction of standard houses on a large scale, and the improvement of means of communication. 2. To train the people in the exercise of their polit.ical rights. These rights are defined by Dr. Sun Ya.t Sen as the right of selection, the right of recall, the right of initiative, and the right of referendum. 3. To create a new sense of nationalism among the people of China through the assertion of complete national


REORGANIZATION OF KUOMINTANG 31 autonomy. Hence, foreign encroachments must be re sisted and the unequal treaties a.brogaterl. The chief exponents of thought in this group are Messrs. Hu Han-Hing, Tai Chi-tao, and Chow Jt'n-hai. As the Kuomintang is the ruling party at this mo ment, the teaching of the "Three Principles of the People" is made compulsory in Chinese elementary and secondary schools. In this sense, we may consider this influence to be a very wide-spread one: but in maturer circles, this is more apparent than real. B The 1eo1gcmization i?'end. This trend is Reorganization thu~ named because its leaders desire the reorganization of the present Kuomintang in order to eliminate its undesirable features. Their political program contains the following points: 1. The reorganization of the Kuomintang. 2. The severance of all connection with the "Third Internationale" and the creation in its place of a union of oppressed peoples in the Far East to be known as the ''Fourth International e.'' 3. The adoption of a vigorous and positive foreign policy. 4. The unification of China's financial, military and communications' administration. Mr. Chen Kung Poh is the avowed leader of this party and the party organ is known as the "Revolutionary Critic." Leftists C. The Third Pa1ty 01 Leftist ti-end. The name '.'Third Party" is adopted in contradis tinction to the Kuomintang and the Communistic Party. This party stands for: 1. The overth1ow of the Central Government establish ed by the Kuomintang and the creation in its place of a


32 CHINESE YOUTH government founded upon a democracy of the "petite bourgeoisie.'.' 2. Cooperation with Soviet Russia. 3. Hastening of the advent of the agrarian revolution. 4. Cooperation with the Communist party in China. This group was once known as the "Social Democrats." Its leaders today are Madame Sun Yat Sen, Eugene Chen and Teng Yen Tah. The "Lighthouse" and "Assault" are the recognized organs published by this group. Nationalistic D. The "natio11alistic" yoiilh trend. This group is a new development of the former "Young China Society,'' now defunct. Their political program embraces eight points: 1. Representation by vocation and not by locality. All citizens, male or female, after reaching a certain age, are entitled to the right of vote and election through their vocational or professional groupings. 2. Direct election of the President by the people. 3. Federal union of self-governing provinces as the future type of government for China. 4. Women as well as men shall be eligible to become government employees and to sit in legislatures. 1>. The initiation of negotiations with foreign governments for the better treatment of Chinese residents abroad. 6. The institution of a system of civil service examina tions for the selection of government employees. 7. The encouragement of the migration of the people to the outlying territories of China. 8. The establishment of municipal self-government and the improvement of village life. The leaders in this group arfl Pai Yui Yuan, Li Hwang, and Cheng Chi. The official organ of the p11,rty is known as the "Awakening Lion."


COMMUNISM. 33 E. 'fhe Communistic trend. Communists Communistic in China have proclaimed a political creed which has the following points: 1. The abolition of private ownership of land. 2. The adoption of a heavy but graduated income tax. 3. The abolition of the right of inheritance. 4. The confiscation of the wealth and property of foreign residents and reactionary nationals. 5. The establishment of national banks with state capital and the concentration of banking and trust facilities in the hands of the government. 6. All means of communication and transportation to be centralized in the government. 7. The development of state factories and other state-owned 01gans of production, the promotion of land reclamation projects and the equitable regulation of the land tax. 8. The creation of an army of producers so that every citizen is obliged to labor. 9. The linking up of the agricultural and manufacturing industries so as to equalize the distribution of population and gradually eliminate the distinction between rural and city areas. 10. The establishment of schools to give free primary education to children and the abolishment of child labor. The leaders of thought in this group are Chow En Lai and Li Wehan, both returned students from France. Their official organs are known as the "Red Flag," the "Bolshevik," "Leninist Youth," and the "Shanghai Daily." All these papers are, of counie, publi::,hed and circulated in secret.


34 INTELLECTUAL MOVEMENTS Of the trends described above in the field of political thinking, the two most vital ones are the Kuomintang and the Communist Party. Particularly among youth today the Marxian philosophy and program of the latter have a great appeal. II. fotellectual Movements Secondly, by a study of yet another field, Chinese namely, the intellectual movements of the Renaissance day, we can detect trends in national think. ing. In order to gain an adequate understanding of the trends in this field, we shall have to go back to the first beginnings of the intellectual revolution. A bout 1916, an intellectual revolution took place in China known as the "Chinese Renaissance." In the West, this revolution was variously known as the "New Thought Movement," the "New Culture Movement," etc. Its best known leader is Dr. Hu Shih, who was then a professor in Peking University. In essence, this revolution was a protest against the over-emphasis on tradition in China's thought life and a recognition of the fact that a revolution in ideas rnm;t precede a revolution in the political or social structure of a nation. Within a decade the mental outlook of China, which had been mainly metaphysical and ethical, was completeiy changed. The revolution emphasized the natural sciences and the democratic ideal, and popularized the idea of scientific method in thinking. The movement reached its height between 1920 and 1924. A description of the leading intellectual groups during those years will give us some idea of what the intellectual revolution stands for. Realistic Writers First, there is the "Yu Sze'' Group. The name "Yu Sze" has no particular meaning. It was adopted by the group at random. The most prominent writers in this group were Lu Hsin and Chow Tso-ren. Their recognised literary organ was known by the same name "Yu Sze." Much of their writing is


MODERN LITERA'.['URE 35 satirical in nature. For instance, the "Cry," a collection of short stories written by Lu Hsin, is a portrayal, in a satirical vein, of contemporary life in China, showing up its crudity, backwardness and outworn conventions. One story especially, entitled the "Biography of Ah Q," is widely known in China and has since been translated into English. Through their writings, one can see the purpose of the "Yu Sze" group which is to attack and break up the traditional thought life of China, its processes and content. Second, we come to another powerful group Emancipation known as the "Hain Yueh" or "New Moon." Writers Its leaders are mostly returned students from Great Britain and the United States of America, the best known among them being Hu Suh, Hsu Tsmoh, and Liang Chi Chiu. This group looks at life as a whole and its avowed purpose is to emancipate and transform life through right thinking. It attacks with severity those who worship ouly beauty or gold in life and those lvho are inclined to be pessimistic or dogmatic. Robustness of thought and dignity of life are its two main emphases. Fiction Writers Third, we have the "H:;iao Sho" or fiction writers' group. This group expresses itself almost entirely through the medium of the "Short Story Magazine"; hence its name. Its chief characteristic is its profound dissatisfaction with existing conditions, especially the political. Through stories and translated works, mostly from contemporary Russian post-revolution literature, it seeks to express in a realistic way some of this dissatisfaction. Fourth, there is the "Chwang Tsao" group. This term "Chwang Tsao11 means "to CTeate." The purpose of this group is to create through propaganda the conception of class warfare; to overturn the present social order and set np in its place a PTO letarian society. Its philosophy is materialistic and its point of view proletarian. In its publications are portrayed Creative Writers


36 PROLETARIAN MOVEMENT the actual life, attitudes, emotions and spirit of the common people of China. The official organs of the group were called the "Sun,'' the "Literary Critic," and the "Chwang Tsao Weekly." This group is akin to the Communists in its thinking. New Forces 'l'he above mentioned groups flourished until we come to the period 1926 to 1928. Thereafter, new forces began to emerge in the intellectual field preceded by a period of confusion and apparent aimlessness. But in 1930, a new tendency began to emerge from this confusion thus indicating that the intellectual forces of China are once more beginning to find themselves and to enter a period of new endeavor. The work done by Hu Shih and his colleagues freed the intellectual life of China from the domination and stagnation of an unscien tific past. Having won this freedom, the new intelligentsia are now turning their attention to fields outside of their own immediate concern. It is a fact of great significance for the future that the field chosen should be in the realm of the life and problems of the common people, the sub merged classes of China. If one is familiar with the spirit and traditional attit.udes of the old literati of China with their proud aloofness from the common herd he can realize the radical nature of the step now taken by so many of the thinkers and writers of the day. Proletarian Culture Movement The new trend, which is now discernible in the intellectual field, is known in China by the name of "Pu Lu Wen Sho,1' (~ :,c *) or the Proletarian Culture Movement. Its avowed purpose is to champion the cause of the exploited classes, that is, the industrial and farm workers, who fo1m more than eighty per cent of the entire population of China. The first definite step in this movement came in February of last year. A group of fifty-one thinkers and writers came together in Shanghai and organized the "Liberty League." Here is their declaration of purpose: "We, the undersigned, are living under a political regime in which our fundamental rights as citizens are


FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS 37 being ruthlessly circumscribed. The censorship on books and periodicals clP.prives us of the right of free thought. The censorship on the press 1 imits our right of free speech. The forcible closing down of educational institutions takes nway our initiative in education. The interference of the Nationalist Party in people's organizations denies us the right of free association. These, together with the policy of strict repression of all popular movements on the part of workers and farmers to better their own living condi tions, have practically nullified the constitutional safeguards of our fnnrlamental rights as citizens of this Republic. We have, therefore, pledged ourselves as charter members of this 'Liberty League' to throw in our lot with our oppressed brethren and together with them to tight for the maintenance of our rights." This declaration was issued on Febrnary 15th, 1930, and signed by fifty-one persons, three of whom are women and one a Christian pastor. Among the signatures are to be found those of Lu Hsi and Tien Han, leaders respec tively of the "Yu Sze': and "Nationalistic Youth" groups mentioned above. Federation of Leftists Writers" follows: A few weeks later another organization rose to carry on a similar type of work. On March 2nd, 1930, the "Federation of Leftist was formed. Its statement of purpose is as "In a society where revolution and change are going on, the true mission of art and literature is to champion the cause of freedom and emancipation. 1f it is true that poets are seers and artists guides to truth, then they must come to the forefront and do battle with the forces of conservatism and reaction which are all the time seeking to retard the progress of mankind. Imperialism has developed a capitalistic system of society which is today fettering and enslaving millions of human beings. These, like the proverbial worm, are at lal't turning to engage in: a great social war-the war of the classes-a war which will achieve the final liberation of the human race. Let


38 RESEARCH PROJECTS us then stand shoulder to shoulder with them in their struggle. Let us help them to destroy the forces of capitalism and feudalism and to create the new conditions under which t.hey can live aR normal human beings. "Art and literature in all ages have taken the joys and sorrows of man as their principal theme. We who are artists and writers of this generation cannot do better than to take as our subject the throbbing heart of the oppressed masses now straining and groaning under its burdens. Let us then join hands and create a proletarfan culture movement which shall be our contribution to the cause of freedom in this country. Such a movement, negatively speaking, will be opposed to the forces of reaction and capitalism and the pretem:ions of the 'petite bourgeoisie'; positively, the movement will propagate and expand the philosophy of the proletarian cause. In our program, we shall strive to be creative, to discover the problems in the life of the common people and to find a solution for them." Research Projects Since the formation of this Federation it has already established wide contacts with literary societies in many universities and among the workingmen. It has organized four research groups to study; (a) the theory and practice of the Marxian philosophy and economics; (b) the cultures of the world; (c) the popularization of culture for the masses; (d) the art of caricature and freehand drawing. The Federation also published a magazine for prnpaganda purpose called the "i!!: :,c it" or "World Culture." From the above description of these two groups, we can easily see that they are bound to come into conflict with the Government. Their writings, speeches, plays and paintings express sentiments which the authorities naturally class as "dangerous." Therefore, the Government has already put a number of them into prison. But their popularity and influence among the students are steadily growing. Publications announced by these groups in Shanghai are generally sold out in a few days.


LITERATURE AND. ART 39 III. Literature and Art Now I will explain briefly the signilicance of this new tendency which has arisen in the field of literature and art in China. Proletarian Culture First, it means that the various groups mentioned with the exception of the "New Moon Group," have joined forces under the banner of the proletarian culture movement. New Intellectual Revolution Second, it signifie3 the close of the first period of the intellectual revolution led by Dr. Hu Shih. In this fh-st period, the gcholars of China fought for their own emancipation from the domination of the traditional intellectual life of China. Third, it foreshadows the beginning of a new period in the intellectual revolution. In this new period, the scholars will be fighting for the emancipation of the masses. Fourth, it is an indication that a definite Lite;a~y and change is coming over the literary and artistic Artistic Change world 111 Chma today. In the first per10d of the intellectual revolution, democracy was worshipped: now it is dictatorship. Formerly, natural science was emphasized; now the social sciences are pushed to the front. Beauty and delicacy in art and literature were demanded in the first period; now strength and virility are the first considerations. Individualism characterized Dr. Hu Shih's period; now it is collectivism. Fifth, the method of approach to problems New Scholarly will also be different in this new period. Methods and Th 1 h d 'Jl l h l RelaUon e cnt1ca met o WI rep ace t e pure y analytical. The objective study of the environment and facts will take the place of subjective inferences. The social organism will be treated as a whole and not merely as a series of isolated problems.


40 CHRISTIAN THOUGHT Sixth, it means a complete reversal of the traditional attitude of proud aloofness on the part of the scholar class in China. The sympathies of the new literati will be definitely with the proletariat. During the next decade, this new trend in the intellectual field is destined to play an import.ant part in the development of the Chinese people. It means that in the realm of ideas, the nature of the revolution in China is already changing from political to social reconstruction. Church Opinion Divided IV, Christian Trends of Thought In conclusion, let us note the impact of all these trends of thought upon the thinking of Chinese Christians. In respect of these de velopments, the Church in general may be said to fall into two groups. One group is hardly aware of these new movements. Its chief interest in religion is still predominantly other-worldly. The other group, which is much smaller in numbers, is cognizant of these new developments and is deeply concerned about the future. It is about the reactions of this second group that I wish to say a few words. Growing Social Conscience First, the emphasis of the New Literature Movement on the weal and woe of the com mon people finds an answering chord in the hearts of many Chinese Christians, especially of the younger generation. The spirit of the Master is so distinctly of the people and for the people that a true disciple of His must needs burn with the same passion. More and more, the emphasis in the work of the Church is shifting to the industrial and rural fields of China. This summer some sixty students in our North China Student Conference decided to spend six weeks at their own ex pense in the villages a1ound Peiping in order to acquire a first-hand knowledge of the living conditions of the farmers. All these are indications that a growing social conscience is developing in the Chinese Church. Those Christians in whom this social conscience is sthring will naturally react sympathetically to the same urge in others.


Changed Religious Attitude RELIGIOUS ATTITUDE 41 Second, the emphasis on objective facts as over against subjective inferences in the New Movement is causing some Chinese Christians to lose their perspective of thingf'. The New Movement looks upon religion as a subjective inference. As such it has no right to exist. I have seen Christians who are so affected by this line of thought that they have ceased to speak about inspiration, repentance, salvation, etc. To them, these are mere subjective states and have no real value. To study objective facts in our social environment is the great need of the day because it is the necessary first step to social reconstruction. Chinese Christians whose minds have come under this line of reasoning will often show a great deal of impatience when you talk to them about the love of God or the need for personal redemption. They no longer have the heart for personal evangelism although the best among them have developed a passion for social reconstruction. Of course, the fallacy which is inherent in this line of thought becomes at once apparent if one asks; "What constitutes an objective fact?" The followers of the New Movement will only admit one set of facts as objecthre; all at.hers are mere subjective inferences. As Ch1istians, does not our experience tell us that spiritual values are as much objective facts as material values? It is proper to emphasize the study of facts and that particularly in China, but it is arbitrnry beyond reason to be dogmatic about what constitutes an objective fact. 1 1 Third, the most serious challenge of the ~:dt~1 ~0s:ia1 ~ew l\!ovement to th~ t:iinkin~ _Christian is Order its claim that the Chr1st,ian rehg1011 as prac-ticed today is the champion and upholder of a social order which is entirely built upon un-Christian values. The Christian religion sanctions a capitalistic system under which the poor and weak are ruthlessly exploited for the benefit of the few. Why not join those who are trying to create a new Rocial order in which the oppressed and the downtrodden will come into their own? This kind of appeal comes with a tremendous force to the


42 SOCIAL REVOLUTION youthful Christian who is confronted, on the one hand, with the social injustices going on all around him and, on the other hand, with the bigotry and indifference of the Church. So yon will find among the ianks of the Communists in China today many who have had a Christian background. Social Revolution But apart from those who desert to the other side, there are Christians who genuinely seeking for light on a Christian system of social ethics. They realize that a social revolution of some kind is inevitable in China but they refuse to admit that t.he Communistic brand is the only one in sight. As a Christian group have we not a social reconstruction program to which we can commit ourselves whole-heartedly?


CHAPTER IV EVOLUTION OF CHINA'S MODERN REVOLUTION China at end of Nineteenth Century L. T. Ch~n In 1894 Liang Chi-chao wrote as follows: "China is a vast country bnt because of the lack of development it seems overpopulated. In the northern provinces thousands of people die of hunger and want even when there is a good crop. When there is a drought or a flood the situation becomes worse. Due to the difficulties of transportation no effective relief is possible for famine districts. People are left to die and nine houses out of ten become empty. Those who live on the sea coast would seek escape in America or the South Sea Islands but there they are denied an opportunity for livelihood even if willing to sell themselves as slaves. So at home the old die and the young become robbers! Bandits are rampant-always on the watch for their prey. Industry and commerce are at a low ebb and native products decrease daily while imported goods made to suit our likes flood the market. Such a drain on China's resources will bleed China to death. Education is not encouraged and many young people are left to their own devices. Even those who have had an education know nothing except how to write useless and ornate poems. When you tell them about conditions abroad they stand For these there is no way of earning a living because the road to government office is difficult and they are not trained for any special profession. In time they lose all ambition. There is no regular training course for military affairs but the old and incapable, rogues and opium smokers are all thrown together to constitute an army. When a war is undertaken indiscriminate drafting becomes necessary. And what the Government gets is nothing more than riff-raff, unable to read a single word and knowing nothing of military training." In these words China's leading scholar of modern times described China's


44 FALL OF MANCHUS situation toward the end of the century. It is evident t.hat 1elief was nece,;sary. No wonder that the younger element became disRatisfied with the Government a.nd conditions in general. Fall of Manchu China seemed committed to a radical change soon after her first contact with foreign countries. Before 1840, when the Empire met defeat at the hands of the British Government, China had been self-contained, prosperous and proud. She hart achieved a complete civilization of her own and even as late as the 18th century, when European countries sent their repre,entatives to 1wgotiate opportunities for trarle, China's cultural development and geueral state of prosperity were sufficient to command admiration. .But with the death of Chien Lung the Tsing Dynasty began to degenerate. This process was accelerated by two factors. On the one hand occurred the Taiping rebellion which sapped the resources of the country from within. On the other China came into conflict with western powers and was compelled to recognize their superior strength. Caught between these two forces it became evident that the ruling dynasty was incapable of coping with the situation, and when the treaty of Nanking was signed, the Manchu regime really signed its own death warrant. In this situation two schools of thought Constitutional developed the one lerl by Kang Yu-wei and Revolution .' Liang Cln-chao, the other by Sun Yat-sen. Both were dissatisfied with conditions and advocate :l a change, but their means of attaining this differed widely. Kang and his colleagues proposed constitutional development. Memorials were made to the Throne suggesting the adoption of a constitutional government, urging the Emperor to follow the example of Peter the Great, visit in person European countries, and take the lead in ushering in a new regime. 'fhis group went even further and actually suggested a bloodleIJs revolut-ion. A constitution was to be promulgated and the Emperor Kuang Hsii was to be restored to power; the modernists were to be put in


HEVOLUTIONARY POLICIES 45 office and the consenatives relegated to the background. All of this culminated in what is known as the Coup d'Etat of 1898. Because of Yuan Shih-kai's treachery the plans were revealed and the conservatives stole a march on the modern conspirators with the resu:t that the constitutional reforms were made abortive and their protagonists driven out of the country. Six of the more important leaders met capital punishment and Kang and Liang sought refuge abroad. Many still delight in imagining what would have happened to China if this movement had not _been frustrated and modern reforms had then been given a fair start! Complete Revolution The group under the leadership of Sun Yat-sen took an entirely different view of the situation. 'l'hey held that to try to bring about reforms with the ruling dynasty in power would be tantamount to "requesting the tiger for his ski11." Nothing short of a complete revolution would produce any appreciable result. To begin with, the Manchus were a foreign race who had exploited the Chinese for nearly three cen turies. They ruled not as a government but as the masters of four hundred million slaves. They could inspire no sense of patriotism but compelled allegiance through oppression. The only way to real reform lay in the direction of revolution. The ruling dynasty must be deprived of office and the Chinese must be restored to power. A ha.sty attempt was made in 1895 in South China. It failed miserably and Dr. Sun Yat-sen had to embark on his life of .political refugee from country to country till the Revolution broke out in 1911. Partltionment Thus. before the end of the century Chi~a's revolut10n had had a try under both parties. When the Boxer Rebellion occurred in 1900 a new stimulus was injected into the veins of China's patriotic sons. Up to that time China had suffered in three military en counters, first at the hands of the British Government, then through the joint undertaking of England and France and lastly at the hands of Japan. Furthermore between the years 1895 and 1900 occurred the "battle of concessions."


46 CHINA REVOLTS J Germany seized Tsingtao; Russia, Dairen; and England, Wei-hai-wei: while .France asked for non-alienation of Kwangchaowan. To further entrench themselves, England reserved the Yangtze Yalley; Germany asked for Shantung; Russia for the territory north of the Great Wall, and France the great province of Yunnan, as their respective spheres of influence. The combined effect of all this was to awaken the Chinese people to the dangers which menaced China on all sides. The fear of being partitioned became very real when the allied armies marched into Peking and drove the Empress Dowager in flight for safety. During the next few years a period of Education in intense agitation or education in revolution-Revolutionary k l I th' b th th Activities ary act1v1ties too pace. n 1s o e group favoring constitutional reform and those advocating revolution had a share. Since his flight to Japan, Liang Chi-chao had been flooding (infiltrating) the country with his writings, openly denouncing the weakness and corruptions of the ruling dynasty and effec tively educating the people as to what a government should be and what the western countries had accomplished through education and democratic rule. Not only did he arouse Chinese youth to a national consciousness but he also fired his generation with patriotic zeal. Pari pnssu with the process, Dr. Sun Yat-sen capitalized his opportunities as an exile in Europe by studying social conditions and formulating his politico-social theories now known as the "Three Peoples' Principles." Moreover he enlisted the financial help of Chinese merchants abroad and his followers definitely organized themselves into a political party. Chi R It Meanwhile the government continued in na evo s its degradation. Internally the reins of gov-ernment were tightened, resulting in greater discrimination against the Chinese as distinct from the Manchus. Externally, Japan :tnrl Russia became more aggressive in the North and France and others in the South. Korea was annexed by Japan on the Manchurian border and Mongolia was rapidly passing under Russian tutelage.


REACTIONARY MOVEMENT 47 The people were terror stricken, thoroughly convinced of the necessity of drastic change. The ruling house also finally awakened to the situation. Important reforms were promiHed, some of which were even half begun, but all.too late to stem the tide of revolt in China. The first shot was fired in Wuchang in 19il and within the short space of one hundred days the tottering empire collapsed and a Republic took its place. Yuan Shih-kai, the traitor of the revolutionary cause in 1898, was nominated first president, and the Manchu emperor, who was i:;till a child, issued an edict formally closing a reign which had long since become defunct. Yuan started well and for a while it seemed Reactionary that Snn Yat-sen was justified in entrusting Movements the task of reconstructing a great nation to one who had played false once before. Out of chaos and disorder a unified state seemed to emerge. But Yuan's strength was at the same time his weakness. He united the country by a military system, putting his lieutenants in power in different sections of the country. This bred selfish ambition on his part and deceit and intrigue on the part of his subordinates. In 1915 rumors were put in circulation that there was a demand for Yuan to become Emperor. Special newspapers were manufactured to Jeceive him, and petitions by designing polHicians were presented urging that he should discard the republican government and declare himself Emperor. Both by reason of these machinations and his personal desires, a restoration of the monarchy was staged. It ended in a fiasco and his own death, and introduced into China a period of ince,>sant warfare, the baneful influence of which is still torturing the Chinese people. So long as Yuan held the reins of government his lieutenants remained subordinate to one supreme head. But as soon as he was out of the way a struggle for supremacy among the lesser chiefs developed and after him a train of ambitious aspirants appeared in quick succesi:iion. To mention a few, Tuan Chi-jui, Tsao Kun and Wu Pei-fu all had their turn. So in the main the history of China for the next


48 REAL REVOLUTION few years was just a scramble for supremacy within the ranks of Yt1an's lieutenants known as the Pei Yang clique and later a i;truggle for power between them and Chang Tso-lin who led the Mukden group. There were varied fortunes for all groups until 1925 when ostensibly -the Mukden group won out and Chang Tso-Jin finally assumed the post of Generalissimo, before he met death in his retreat. The Real Revolution Looking back, this period may be considered as a period of preparation for the real revolution. When the cries for reform first started the object was very simple, namely the ousting of the Manchu regime, Gradually the objective shifted and the founding of a republic occupied the minds of the leaders. This was all political. Nothing of a social nature was envisaged. But during the world war a great change took place. In 1917 Hu Shih returned from his studies abroad and made articulate a new movement in Chine8e literature, commonly referred to as the Renais sance. Dh,carding the classical forms which had held China in bondage for thousands of years he led in the moveme11t which advocated the use of the common lan guage for literary purposes. Literally this meant an open breach with China's past. What had been upheld as inviolable was now condemned as unfit for practical use. What had been the monopoly of a chosen few was now within the reach of the common mass. Traditional authOl'ity was overthrown. A critical attitude characterized the approach to .everything. Revolt Becomes General Such wholes:i.Ie renunciation of old standards could not but have a revolutionary effect on the temperament of the generation. There seemed to be an open revolt in every phase of life. Students rebelled against teacher;:, children against their parents an

IMPERIALIS}I AND MILl'fARISI\[ 49 force was so potent that China's plenipotentiaries thousands of miles away from the capital of China had to stay their hands from that important document. Such demonstra tions were repeated on other occasions and excesses were not wanting. But the day of democracy was at band; the whole country bad broken loose from tradition and authority. The ideas of liberty and equality which stirred the soul of France during the eignteenth centmy asserted their influence on the sleeping miJiions of the Chinese Re public. A new spirit was engendered and a new attitude introduced. The real revolution had begun. In social and industrial as woll as political l'elations China sought a new life. The directing influence in this socio-politilmper,al_ism. cal revolution was personified in Dr. Sun and Militarism Yat-sen who had his headquarters m Canton. Soon after he yielded the presidency of the Republic to Yuan Shib-kai, when the Manchu emperor was overthrown, be realized that his trust had been misplaced. After repeated attempts he finally established himself in Canton in 1923. This time he followed two courses of action. On the one hand he emphasized the training of his followers in revolutionary doctrines; on the other hand he laid emphasis on making a demonstration of efficient government. Young men of talent and patriotism were drawn to him from all parts of the country. Their zeal was strengthened by an increased understanding of the objectives of the Revolution. They recognized two specific enemies of revolutionary China-imperialism and militarism. The importance of this discovery cannot be overestimated. It gave objectivity to the principles which had inspired the people. By imperialism was meant all the unequal treaties imposed upon China through her military defeats. By militarism was meant the curses which China had suffered since the demise of Yuan Shihkai. These two forces, one from within and one from without, have been responsible for China's present condition. This is easy to understand. For who has not known by personal experience the effects of both these


50 SOVIET RUSSIA forces. Thus the meaning of the Revolution was brought home and everyone realized what must be combatted in order to give meaning to the words "liberty and equality." The full force of this Revolution is now upon China. Starting with the object of freeing China from the Manchu regime the movement now aims at nothing less than claiming for China liberty and equality among its own people and in the family of nations. China must neither be oppressed by militarists in domestic affairs nor by imperialists in foreign relations. Soviet Russia Enters But another factor came in. Dr. Sun Yat-sen realized that to carry his mission to a successful conclusion it was not sufficient to depend on his own resources. Foreign help was needed, so he made overtures through the Government of Hankow first to England, then to the Government of the United States, and lastly to Japan, asking support for his plans. At every turn he met with failure until finally came Soviet Russia freely offering her assistance in the carrying out of China's Revolution. Dr. Sun himself was not inclined to deal with Russia but the help offered him was too tempting to turn down. Furthermore Soviet Russia adopted a new strategy. Following her own revol ution she took the initiative in relinquishing her special rights in China which hnd beP.n opposed by the Chinese as the "unequal treaties.;, By deliberately renouncing what the other powers were enforcing as legitimate claims, she won the wholehearted friendship of the Chinese people. Her offer of help was naturally never questioned and a friend in need became a friend indeed! Whatever may be said in the light of later events, it is undeniable that this alliance with Russia meant much for the revolutionary movement. Soviet technique and organization were introduced, thus making the Kuomintang much more coherent and effective. It is questionable whether the phenomenal success which attended the northern expedi tion would have been possible had it not been for Russfan help. This is especially true of the events up to the occupation of Hankow.


SPLIT WITH COMMUNISM 51 On the other hand China also paid heavily t~::!";!tsm for the 1:1ervice which she received. Not only was the Party itself split by the subterranean influence of the Communists but the whole country is still seriously harassed by their secret agents. When the revolutionary forces captured Nanking the treachery of the Communists caused a catastrophe which almost suc ceeded in completely discrediting the revolutionary cause. Had it not been for the cool-headed policy of the Powers it is difficult to tell what calamity would have happened. But that experience was an object lesson which demonstrated to the whole of China that the Communists were destructive and capable of the worst kind of perfidy. Heretofore young China hncl been enamoured with the idealistic appeal of Communism, but she then learned what its practice meant and turned her face squarely away from it. The northern expedition finally reached h?i!;it:ation Peking in the spring of 1928. But before this was accomplished a new complication arose. 80 long as the revolutionary forces were confined to the southern bank of the Yellow River, Japan remained an interested observer, but once they swept over. Shantung and began to penetrate the rolling plains of North China, she had to take a different course. A large contingent of the Japanese army was thrown into Shantung and a crisis was precipitated when the revolutionary army marched into Tsinan. Much to the credit of the men in power in both countries, a serious development was averted. NeYer theless the progress of the expedition was checked and a.fte1 it reached Peking, following the retreat of Chang 'fso-lin's forces, it became clear that the military movement could go no further. Japan clearly stated her attitude in the following language: 1 11\:Iemorandmn from Japan to the Muk

52 CENTRAL GOV~RNMENT "The Japanese Government attach the utmost importance to the maintenance of peace and order in Manchuria., and are prepared to do all they can, in order to prevent the occurrence of any such state of affairs as may disturb that peace and order, or constitute a probable cause of such disturbance. "Under the!'le circumstances, should the dis turbances develop further in the direction of Peking and Tientsin and the situation become so menacing as to threaten the peace and order of Manchuria, the Japanese government, on their part, may possibly be constrained to take app1opriate and effective steps for the maintenance of peace and order in Manchuria." So it was not until the beginning of 1929 that the Northeastern provinces were finally brought under the government of Nationalist China. From the inception of the expedition in 1926, fully three years had passed. The first episode which culminated in the capture of Hankow was a spectacular achievement. It took less than four months' time. Then came the Communist split and prog ress was delayed so that the march between the capture of Hankow and Tsinan took almost a year. Then Japanese intervention came in and the final episode took several more months. Strength of Central Government When the military expedition was brought to a finish naturally no one was so sanguine as to suppose that China was united under one rule. The country was then under the governance of at least four groups who could contest the power of the central government. Them were the Kwangsi group under Li Tsung-jen, the Shansi group under Yen Hsi-shan, the Northwestern group under Feng Yii-hsiang, and the North-eastern group under Chang Hsueh-Jiang. A balance of power was the desire of these chieftains. In spite of repeated conferences at which schemes of disbandment of troops were agreed upon, no real union was


PROSPEC'l' OF UNIB'ICA'l'ION 53 possible. Jealousies, suspicions an

CHAPTER V THE STRUGGLE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS IN CHINA Lin Yutang Officials and People The existence of civil rights in any country presupposes that there is a government by law, or at least, some form of constitutional government. Where a govemment by law dues not exist, the phrase "civil rights" must necessarily be devoid of meaning. It will be seen that, since China's cultural contact with the West and since efforts were first made to secure in a certain measure protection for the people's rights of private liberty and property, the real obstacle to progress along this line is not dne to the want of any drafted and signed constitution, but to the existence of a system of ideas which is inimical to the very notion of civil rights. It should be pointed out at the wry beginning that the kind of civil rights the ChineEe people are interested in today n,re not so much rights of election and participation in the government of the nation, as the essential rights of protection for personal liberty and property. In other words, the rights the Chinese people will appreciate most at this stage nre negative rather than positive. It should be further pointed out that while every such right won means protection for the people, it must also mean a, corresponding curtailment of official privilege. It is here that the conflict between Eastern and Western ideas lies. Unless the official1:1 are educatec1 enough to be willing to bow to the authority of the law and have their privileges curtailed, the civil rights of the people can neve1 br.come a reality. To say that the people are not yet ready for the exerciEe of their democratic rights is merely to put the cart before the horse. The fact is, any time the officials are ready for democracy, the people are, or will very soon learn to be, equally ready. It remains to be proved that there exist,:3 a country where officials are willing to bow to the authority of law, with t.he people resisting it.



56 BASIS 011' LAW privileges curtailed, which we have visualized as the supreme obstacle in the way of development of the people's rights, has, however, a philosophical, as well as a social basis. It goes back to a system of ideas, and it is this system of ideas which will have to be conquered before the people's rights can be truly protected. The question may then be asked: Why bas China failed to develop government by law? Old Basis of Law First, law in China, has a philosophical basis, which is half Taoistic and half Con fucianistic. Dr. John C. Wu, former President of the Shanghai Provisional Court, once pointed out in a paper on "Distinctions between Eastern and Western Conceptions of Law" that the western conception is based on the ideas of individualism and conflict of interests, whereas the Chinese conception is based on the idea of social harmony. The very notion of people's "rights" presupposes a limitation on the power of the ruler, whose "natural depravity" (to use Hume's phrase) needs to be checked. The Magna Oharta was wrung from King John by the English people, and constituted a "victory" of the people in their "struggle" with the king. The Confucianist philosophy regards the ruler as a moral gentle man, a "parent" of the people, and never conceives of such a struggle. It has been said that western people assume every ruler to be a crook, and proceed to prevent him from carrying out his crooked intentions. The Chinese people assume every ruler to be a gentleman, and even actually treat him as such. We allow our diplomats to negotiate treaties without our knowledge, our finance ministers to apportion the national funds without rendering public ac'counts, and our local military chiefs to tax us according to their conscience. And if they fall victim to the temptations we thus put in their way, we do not send them to prison. Han Fei, the greatest political philosopher of the Chou dynasty, long ago pointed out the danger of this form of government, and advocated a government by law, but his warning went unheeded, because every ruler found it more convenient to be treated as a gentleman than as a crook. In so far as this


EQUALI'l'Y 57 proposed change repre:,;ented a substit.ution of government by law for government by moralization, we may say it was Confucianistic. In so far as the Chinese people have a supreme contempt for law and the law-co1uts, they are Taoistic. With Herbert Spencer, they believe that that government governs best which governs least. The much vaunted Chinese local self-government really means no government, or laiaser-faire on the part of the authorities. Idea of Equality In the second place, it was due to the lack of the idea of equality. Unless law is so applied that it touches both high and low, and includes the officials as well as the people, there can be no government by law. The Confucianists, however, long ago pronounced the dictum that "ceremony should not be extended to t.he common people, and punishment should not be awarded to the nobles" (rrt ;;i:; r }jf. A, ff1J .;;i:; J: *). There are, I believe, only two social classes in China-oppressors and oppressed! And they take turns. For those who happen to be oppreseed, there is the Con fucianist philosophy of fatalism ("Trust Heaven and Fate" Ii!!~ m fir), which, no doubt, enables a man to swallow insults and find himself in harmony with the universe. 'l'his phase of Chinese morality, ennobled by the name of patience (jen iz), has been developed to a higher degree than in any other country in the world. On the other hand, when it comes to one's turn to be "up," let the other fellows look out! As we say, "every dog must have his day!" That is the time when he can ignore all the laws of the country. There is some sort of rough justice in this. And so, between the fatalism of the unfortunate and the indifferent attitude of thoee favoured by Heaven, the wheel of government keeps turning. Fa ii S t In the third place, it was clue to the family m Y ys em Th Oh" f "I t h system. e mese am1 y sys em as so developed as to override and overshadow a man's obliga tions to society and to the state. As it has worked out, the doctrine of family loyalty is nothing but magnified individualism, and, I may add, magnified selfishness.


58 COUU'l'ESY This has gone so far that a ma.n may complacently regarrl all mem hers of society outside his personal relations as enemies, and all property outside the family circle as legitimate loot. A point in illustration of this is the much vaunted Chinese courtesy. Now this courtesy is a highly limited code, confined to those one knows. While the Chinese are extremely courteous to those known and related, one must admit that western people have developed a finer code of courtesy in public. I believe that the attitude of a Chinese towards his neighbour in a street car or before a theater ticket office is definitely hostile. That Chi1rnse farmers are extremely polite to strangers is became, in villages, all strangers move more or leils in a happy patriarchal system. This philosophy of magnified selfishness has brought it about that, when law and family interests conflict, the latter invariably win. There can be no doubt that the Chinese hn,ve a "family mind," but no "social mind." Instead of being governed by law, the Chinese people are governed by the three Oriental Mm,ei;: Face, Favour and Privilege. When a man is wrongly put in prison without trial, tlie obvious remedy the Chinese people think of is to find some illustrious acquaintance or relative, who knows the magistrate personally, and ask him to beg for "favour." The district magistrate, in order to give "face" to the illustrious friend, concedes the "privilege'' and orders the release of the prisoner. As "face and "favour" and "privilege" are not at the disposal of every one, there are times when "law" will be maintained and "justice" squarely meted out. Happiness of People The;:;e social and psychological difficulties are, therefore, at the back of all obstruction to a new development of government by law which upholds this people's civil rights. It may be aeked, "How were the Chinese people's interests actually protected in the past; and if so, by what method?" Were those rulers, indeed, whom we agreed to regard as gentlemen, worthy of our trust or not? Has China's history justified that assumption? The only fair assumption is that there are as many political crooks and


UNWRIT'fEN CODE 59 gentlemen in China as in any western country. He would be a brave man who said that the Chinese are a less happy people than those of any western nation. This is so, not because the Chinese political crooks, having all the immunity of the law, did not like to carry out their crooked intentions to the fullest extent, but because of the working of the simple universal law that when the people are made too unhappy, the government concerned collapses. This natural check, I believe, was all the check the Chinese people have ever had, legally speaking. There have been many truly benevolent rulers and there have been as many tyrants whose only limit to their despotism and greed was the people's "endurance" or "patience." As this particular form of virtue is highly cultivated in the Chinese people, one may af:.:;ume that the standard of "endurability" was also set rather high. The degree of suffering, in other words, corresponded to one1s capacity for sufferance. One might, therefore, assume, that, although the people's interests were fail'ly protected by their limit for enrlurance, there were personal and communal sufferings which could have been avoided or lessened, if the people had cho;;en to rely on their "rights" rather than on the supposed gentleman-ruler's conscience! Unwritten Code Actually, therefo1e, the people's rights or interests were not protected by the officials' conscience, as Confucius so naively assumed, but only by what I may call the people's pain-reaction on the one hand, and on the other, by a system of unwritten code, which we may here call "convention." This "convention" is partly moral and partly legal, and has been officially and technically called "Precedent" (Ii 1J). Under efficient rulers, these conventions were regularly ma.intained. Official violations of these conventions which passed the limit of the people's "patience," would at once arouse popular protests in the form of municipal "strikes'' (pa-shih nm). These strikes would be reported eventually to the emperor, and an official investigation ordered and, if necessary, the official punished. Under inefficient rulers, protests having no avail, the people's


60 MORAL CONVEN'l'IONS pain-reaction would ,register higher anJ higher, banditry would develop, and there would be general turmoil for half a century or a century and half until some brigand, mightier than the rest, settled his claim to the throne by defeating the others, thus restoring peace to the Chinese universe. It is true, therefore, that China in a way Moral ] d d Conventions was ru e by moral an social convent10ns. But moral conventions were not articulate. It is interesting to note, also, that the task of defending these moral conventions, which is the equivalent of the western struggle for civil rights, fell on the shoulders of the literary class. It would be interesting to review the history of this defense of the people's rights, but space forbids our going into it in detail. Suffice it to say, that this work of upholding the moral conventions took two forms, unofficially as "political criticism" of the scholars (ch'ing-i tt ~). and officially as the Imperial Censorship (yu-shih ifllJ ,II!.). Historically, both met failure at the hands of the eunuchs. These struggles invariably ended up in the so-called "party incidents" (tcmg-yii f.~), when two or three hundred scholars and their students and, in some cases, their whole families, were sentenced to prison or killed. Political criticism of the scholars was at its height in the later Han Dynasty, when the University students (:Jc*!), numbering 30,000 persons, were often embroiled over political questions. Tu Wu < wt), Chen Fan (~ ::ji), Liu Shu (Ill ;flt) were some of the leaders of this movemm1t. But this ended simply in the wholeHale conviction of the "party people" (tang-jen jWi A) to imprisonment, exile and death. This occurred in A. D. 166-167, under Han Huanti (f,)' ffl: ), and again in 168-169. In the absence of any constitutional protection, the power of the eunuchs easily deflected the mighty tide of the scholars' criticism. CrfUcism of Government inevitable Here we have a striking illustration of the effect of the lack of legal protection on popular criticism of the government and its defeat. What is more, it illustrates in a


CRITICISM OF GOVERNMENT 61 remarkable manner the effect of the absence of a govern ment by law on the people1s character. The well-known Chinese "indifference" is nothing but the artificial product of a system of society, where it is dangerous to take too much interest in political affairs. After the massacre of the tang-jen, some of the wiser fellows went to live in a forest and built around themselves a mud-house without a door, the inmates receiving their food through a window until their death. Others disguised themselves and worked in secluded hills as common people, begging their relatives to save them from recognition. This accounts for the popularity of Taoism in the following Wei and 'l'sin Dynasties, when it wa8 fashionable for all scholars to affect drunkenness or madness. This took the form of extreme sensuality, extreme naturalism or extreme super ficiality. Among the best known drunkard-scholars was probably Liu Ling (;1] ff,-), who could go on a drunken fit for months, it is alleged, and who used to travel with a jar of wine and a grave-digger, with the order "Bury me when I am dead; anywhere; any time." There was Yuan Hsien (1% lilt), the nephew of Yuan Tsi (!!ii; ff}, another great drunkard and poet, who had illicit relations with Ms maid-servants. When Yuan Hsien was drinking at a feast with his scholar friends, and found that the maid-servant had been dismissed by her mistress, he borrowed a friend's horse immediately and dashed off at a devilish speed until he found the maid and lugged her home on horseback. These were the kind of people who constituted the Pleiade of the Ba.mboo Grove (chulin ch'i h.~ien r -b" Jt), and who received universal acknowledgement of being "clever" (:;R -F' :m )t). A similar fashion for political criticism again prevailed in the latter part of the Ming Dynasty, cluring the reign of Shen-chung (1573-1619 ffil1' *). This second fight for Rcholars' criticism, in which the Tung-linparty (:iii~> made its voice heard, again ended up with the complete crushing of the scholars by the eunuchs. Liberty of Speec:h Revolution, Such, very briefly, has been the history of the fight of Chinese intellectuals for liberty of speech in the past. Since the Nationalist Dr. Hu Shih has headed a movement for


62 LIBERTY OF SPEECH signed and responsible criticism of political affairs, chiefly through the medium of the Crescent Moon Montily. In 1930, Dr. Hu Shih received an official warning from the Ministry of Education, prompted by the tangpu. This movement culminated in the dismissal of Professor Lo Lung-chi Cm ~) from the Kwanghua University, editor of the 01escent Moon Monthly, by ordM of the Ministry of Education. There is no reason to believe that the movement will, for the present, end up more brightly than all such movements in the past. There is this difference, however, namely, that the new movement, instead of confining itself to criticism of political acts of the government, is fighting for the principle of liberty of speech itself under a constHutional guarantee, and one cannot doubt that this principle will eventu11.lly win.


Uncertainty About Religion PART II RELIGIOUS LIFE CHAPTER VI RELIGIOUS SITUATION, !930 T. C. Chao The year 1930 was a year in which religion occupied a confusing status among the Chinese people. On the one hand, there was an iconoclastic aml anti-Christian movement,'the sponsors of which felt absolutely certain that religion had come to the end of its trail, and that in New China it should occupy no place. On the other hand, there was a medley of superstition. It has often been said that the Chinese people are a pragmatic, hard-headed and level-minded people, bent upon the pursuance of mundane interests, and going to the gods only at times when they need these myst,erious beings to conserve for them what it is beyond human power to conserve. It has al ways been true that among such there have been some devoutly religious people, for instance, the T'ang Dynasty Buddhist monks who had the courage and devotion to traverse vast areas of tracklesR lands and unknown countries to India for a religion of their soul felt the need. Earnest souls have often withdrawn from the tumult, distress and unrealities of the superficial world into solitude nunnerie8 and monasteries-to cultivate the spiritual life: to face the unseen, and often the unknown. In between these two classes of people we find a vast population following religion as a custom, and abandoning it also as a custom, while in the depth of their heart there has always been an inartiC'Jlate yearning for some terra firma whereon they may stand to find the meaning of their lives. These, together with all the other classes today, live fettered by various types and brands of superstition.


64 SUPERSTl'l'IOUS RELIGION The present seems to be a time for t.he Persistence of d l Superstition eve opment of, rather than the abolition of, superstition. Ancient and popular religions indeed have been crumbling to pieces, but new forms of idolatry have at times imperceptibly come to take their place. The desolation of temples, the corrosion of the statues in them by wind and rain, and the conversion of temples into other than religious uses, do not indicate the disappearance of deep-seated religions needs. It is true that much popular resthetics as expressed in incense processions, idol para.des, dramatic religious activities, especially in the country, have been reduced, but this situation was not created on account of the growth of knowledge on the part of the people, but on account of the poverty and suffering of the people cauf'ed by war, Communistic uprisingf'l, nnd natural calamities. Under such circumstances, one regrets to see popular religious celebrations disappear, although indeed, superstition should not be allowed to sap the life of the multitude. The trouble is not the disappearance of these things, but the lack of better things to take their places, both to comfort their hearts and elevate the lives of poor, ignorant folk. Superstition Widespread Superstition is not the private property of the poor and ignorant. It would be more appropriate to say that it is the commor possession of the nation. When one reads the Shanghai newspapers, he finds that the theatrical advertisements work on the superstitious psychology of the vast pleasure seeking population of thut commercial center. Among the recent dramas we find such as "'l'he Opening Up of Heaven and Earth," based on ancienL cosmogony; "The Deification of Heroes;" "The Magical Conflict Between Sun and Pang;" "The Life of the White Snake," etc. It is pathetic to find people thus seeking after the gratification of their sense of the mysterious. These are not the superstitious only, but quite a number of others also who classify themselves among the minority of those who clamor that. they are the lovers of science. A desire for radical iconoclasm there has been. Now if the breaking down of idols is the breaking down of superstition, then the worship of idols


ANTI-RELIGIOUS A'l"l'ITUDE 65 must be immersion in superstition. Are those who are clamorous to be scientific free from new forms of idolatry? Are they thoroughly analytic and critical, both in the study of nature and in the search for the hidden truths of human nature and relations? This we shall leave to the reader as matter for reflection. Of course supersti tion or knowledge, religion or atheism, depend much upon the spirit of the times and the personnel of the leadership. Among the leaders today, there has been either the fixed idea that all religion is superstition, that science is all there is to know concerning the physical and the spiritual world, or indecision as to whether religion is needed or not. The tendency among these people has seemed to be a sort of Bohemian intellectual life. In regard to the great realities of life there has been total lack of conviction. Under such circumstances, the religious thirst and passion of the young generation being unsatisfied, and confronting a difficult social and economic situation, turns into dangerous channeli,. Fed by wind, they become whirlwinds! The first half of 1930 records some revival An~f-Religious of the anti-religion and anti-Christian atAttdude titude. Enthusiasm led some to rush blindly into the destruction of idols in temples. Official orders ,,were issued to restrict the manufacture of paper money, and other objects of superstition. Discussions were carried on hotly by non-Christian and anti-religious educators in regard to the taking possession of the Young Men's Christian Associations by China, and proposals were passed in the National Educational Conference at Nanking for more rigid control of Christian primary schools. The Ministry of Education prohibited elementary schools, and also junior middle schools, from having any religious teach ing or ceremonies. The Party organization in Shanghai, and in several other places also, issued statements concern ing the restriction of the liberty of Christians to carry on evangelistic activities. It was even thought that street preaching should be strictly prohibited, and presentation of the Christian message to young people should be for bidden. All these things seem to have some intimate connection with the political unrest, the war between the


66 RELIGIONISTS PROTEST Northern factions and the Central Government, and ag gressive Communist agitation. When these things abated somewhat, anti-religion and anti-Christian activities seemed to become quiescent also. Religionists Stirred Into Action These anti-religious activities on the part of various classes of Chinese people aroused counter-activiUes on the part of those who had an iutere:;it in upholding religion. The dealers in paper money got together to conserve the rice bowl of thousands and tens of thousands of workers. They petitioned the Goyernment to deal with them leniently and with circumspection. The monks in and around Peiping agitated for the protection of their temple property and curios against the local opportunist party members. All met ,vith a measure of success. A group of churches, sent in a petition to the Government, asking for religious freedom for the primary schools. The pet.ition was turned down. The Y.M.C.A. and Government authorities got together also, and as a result the Y.l\I.C.A. was enabled to go on as it had been, and under special circumstances a representative of the Government will participate in the meetings of the association. At the same time Christian institutions and churches held numerous local conferences to discuss the religious education prob lems of the Christian Movement. .A great deal of thinking has been stirred up in this way, and on the whole the difficulties that Christians face have done a great deal of good, as they have started much heart-searching, and much seeking after new ways of conveying Christian truths and experiences. What are some of the reasons for the antireligion and anti-Christian agitation in China? First, people vie with each other in their Why AntiRellgious Movementl ability to out-radical ultra-radicalism. New and untried theories blow from one continent to another, and it is the fragile and untried sails that catch them first. Prejudices against tradition, dogmatic and untried scientific hypotheses, credulity in regard to psychological theories,


CAUSES OF ANTI-RELIGIOUS AT'.rI'fUDE 67 anxiety and enthusiasm for radical social thought, together with social, political and economic unrest within the nation, and intellectual pride, as well as bluffing, all enter into the make-up of the anti-religious and anti-Christian agitations. Second, anti-religion means anti-foreignism and anti. imperialism. Buddhism, indeed, was introduced from another country, but it is fortunate not to be entangled in the meshes of politics. Christianity, on the other hand, is entangled with gun-boa.ts, foreign military expeditions and unequal treaties. It is a "foreign" religion! Con sequently, the echo of the nation-wide cry against unequal treaties and imperialism becomes "Down with Chris-tianity." Third, there are a number of minor reasons which at times swell up into incalculable forces. Such are: personal grudges against missionaries and mission schools by people who have attended Christian educational institutions, who have gone through a period of rigid and involuntary training in religious education and Bible study, or who have been dismissed from these institutions for some reason or other. From several sources it 1vas reported that Chinese intellectual leaders of today, when they were students in America, were made very uncomfortable by missionaries' talks on the social evils in China, magnifying local ugliness into national failures. These people, after coming hack to China, and securing important positions in the Government or in society, transformed their dislike of missionary talks into hatred of the Christian religion. Fourth, it is neither science nor anti-foreignism that gives real strength. to Lhe anti-Christian movement. It is the example of Soviet Russia, a blind adoption by many youth of the so-called "dialectic materialism," that has made the troubled waters still more turbulent and tem pestuous for religious people, and especially for Christians. It was something of a radical religious faith against an older but just as rational a religion as Communism.


68 CONFUCIANISM Under such circumstances, the ancient re Confucianism ligions naturally suffered. Of the three traditional religions in China-Confucianism,Buddhism and Taoism-only Buddhism may be said to have conserved some of its values for people today. Since 1917, when Chen Tu-sin and his associates subjected Confucianism to a thorough-going criticism in the "Journal La Jeunesse," Confucianism has undergone many vicissitudes. V P-ry few young people now pay much attention to it either as an ethical culture or as a religious cult. Those who are inclined to take Marx as their guide, and reform their country by bloody revolution and terror, are by logical necessity absolutely opposed to the teachings of Confucius and to Chinese culture at large. For many others Con fucius seems to have been an advocate of imperialism, of inequality between men and women, of the abominable old family system, and of the obnoxious doctrine of filial piety. Confucius, at any rate, will have to wait for a better day. Two years ago the Ministry of Education ordered the cessation of the annual sacrifices to Confucius, but more than a year ago the Minist,ry a.gain authorized the 27th of August as a day for offe1ing sacrifices to the sage. It has been reported that the Government will preserve the Confucian Temple in N anking and make it into a memorial hall for Confucius. It is to be under the administration of the Ministry of Education of the Central Government, with the stipulation that it shall not be used for other purposes. Thus Confucius will receive at least the same kind of respect as the two other gods, Kuan Yii and Yo Fei. As a result of the emphasis on educational reforms, and the victory for the Kuomintang over its enemies, especially the Communists, Dr. Sun's doctrines might become more popular. With the spread of Dr. Sun's doctrines, Confucianism might secure another lease of life in China, inasmuch as Dr. Sun advocated that knowledge, benevolence and courage should be the founda tion of the nation, and that the aim of the nation should be to absorb the teachings of Confuciuf:'l. What possibilities there are for Confucianism to become a religion may be left to the imagination of the reader! Very few


BUDDHISM 69 people who have formed small families still offer sacrifices to their ancestors; still less to heaven and earth, or to Confucius as a sage. In the last few years Confucian temples have been deserted, and even if the customary sacrifices are still carried on, they are attended by very few people who show very little religious spirit. Con fucianism may more easily become a sort of secularism, which may either borrow from Christianity and Buddhism a dynamic for its own existence, or ignore its allies by identifying itself with a sort of bottomless humanism, different from that which China possessed in the past, viz., cosmic humanism. Buddhism seems to be undergoing a moveBuddhism ment in thought. Its most prominent advocates are the militarist'! like Tuan Ch:-jui and Tang Shen chi, who are now back-numbers in the political stituation. Its great exponents are men like Ao-Yang Chin Wu and his followers, who study teachings of Buddhism in an esoteric school in Nanking; T'ai Shii., the ambitions monk, who was written many books in recent years. and is supposed to be well-versed in western philoeophy as well as Bnddhistic classics; and Ta Yfi and his followers, who advocate living the life of another type of Buddhism. Among T'ai Shfi's writings are such works as "The Science of the Philosophy of Life;" "Introduction to the Mahayana Buddhism," etc. 'fhe Buddhists have published a number of journals, among which the "Hai Chao Yin" has regularly appeared for a period of over ten years. But while there are a few people who take Buddhism and live it in a religious way, many who study Buddhism do not take it so seriously, but look upon it as a system of interesting philosophy. It appeals to people who have failed in political life, in commercial activities, and in social relations. It has an influence upon the more conservative element of the nation, for such people have time to spend in it, sins to atone for, Scriptures to learn, minds to pacify, and the world to flee from. 'l'he mystical appeal of Buddhism to such, both aesthetically and religiously, is very strong! In addition to such an appeal, Buddhism employs a method of propagation which should be very suggestive to thoughtful


70 TAOISM Chri9tiun evungeli

CHRISTIANI'fY 71 more e:l.l'nest, and all the time there could be clearly seen the religious yearning of the multitude. The Apostolic l!'aith Mission, which devotes its time to "speaking in tongues", or so-called divine healing, casting out devils, and the confusing activity which they regard as prayer; the Pentecostal Mir:;sion, which makes the bodily coming of Jesus its chief message; the True Mission of God; the True Church of God; and the like, together with innumerable types of fundamentalists, who regard as the found ations of their belief miracles and the mysterious, reap not an inconsiderable harvest. They somehow meet the needs of the times. There are reasons for this. "First, people find emptiness in their hearts and disturbance in their lives and look for some tangible object of belief. Second, these sects have the audacity to be dogmatic on points on which thoughtful people hesitate to make a final pronouncement. Third, these offer to some people a kind of 'mystical fellowship' which a:ff0l'd8 satisfaction in their social and s;piritual life. Fourth, there is among their followers a minority of those who, although superstitious, are yet sincere and loving, whose loving kindness moves people in spite of their superstition." 1 Whether the quiet growth of such missions in China will be a blessing to Cbina in the long run, is a question which deserves consideration. :Situation of Christian Church Many of the large churches suffer because of the financial depression in America, and from the hesitation of liberal-minded mis siona.ries on the question as to whether or not they are wanted in China. Many churches have cut down their expenditures and decreased the number of mission aries, and at the same time increased the responsibilities of Chinese Christians. Such rapid transition is faced with the danger lurking in the utter lack of capable Chinese lSee artic'.e on "Religious Situation in China," The Chinese Recorder, November, 1930.


72 srArus Olf RELIGION leadership. The strange phenomenon has been seen of the more open-minded missionaries listening attentively to man, while the fundamentalists listen to God. The situation would be relieved if each of these classes of people could do what the other class has been doing with a great deal of earnestness. The issue between fundamentalism and modernism, for Chinese Christians, is only a meaning less one, transposed from America to China, and under the present circumstances it complicates matters to a very great extent. One sometimes wonders what true Christianity is, and how true Christians could, in the present situation, continue to be interested in the breach between modernism and fundamentalism. Yet, in spite of these difficulties, the Christian Movement is not losing its hold upon the Chinese people. Toward the end of 1930 two important events happened in the religious life of the Chinese nation. One is within the Christian Movement, and the other within Buddhism in China. President Chiang Kai-shek was converted and received into the Methodist Episcopal Church South on October 23rd. He identified himself with the Christian faith after his victory over his enemies, and in the face of anti-Christian agitation. Neither the newspapers nor the Christian churches made any fuss about this conversion. It may be, after all, a very insignificant fact. A very short time afterwards Mr. Tai Chi-tao, head of the Examination Yuan, was reported t.o have been initiated into .Buddhism, in the midst of a great deal of Buddhistic pomp and ceremony. Thus two of the most important Government officials, who have to face personal dangers, political difficulties, intellectual and moral problems, have felt the need of help from a spiritual source. The conversions of these men are without political significance, but must be considered important as indicative of the spiritual needs of the Chinese people, who are today seriously facing national, international, social and moral problems. Student Life But there are more significant things that can be noticed by those who have eyes to see. In the summer of 1930 there were held


STUDEN'r RELIGIOUS LIFE 73 eleven student summer conferences. In quite a number of then,. the initiative was taken entirely by Christian students. They chose the subjects for discussion, invited the leaders to lecture to them on topics that they selected, and managed the whole affair, from transportation to meals, sleeping hours, athletics, and devotional periods. There was an earnestness rarely seen in other types of conference-an earnestness that was expressed in intimate and idealistic friendship, in intellectual quest, in the passion for social service, in unbounded sympathy for the poor and downtrodden, and in earnest desire to know fundamental reality. In several of the Christian colleges quite a number of students, men and women, were converted and received into the church. Soochow University reports that sixteen students joined the church. The writer himself saw eight men and women receive immersion in Shanghai College. Two young people were received into the Christian Fellowship at Yenching, while a number of non-Christians signed pledges to learn to know more of our Lord Jesus Christ and to follow his steps. No pressure was brought upon them. Many of these conver sions came naturally as a result of the friendship between Christians and non-Christians, and of the prayers that nothing could prevent. In Peiping there has been formed a society of young people called "The Dawn". The Christians of nine Government colleges in Peiping or ganized themselves into nine College Christian Student Fellowships. 'fhey have their particular problems, and they keep their faith under a great many handicaps and difficulties. The little Y. l\L C. A. group in Tsing Hua College has to face anti-Christian attacks, but it has kept its enthusiasm, morning devotions, religious services, and social service, in a spirit that should call forth the admiration of fellowbelievers. The Christian Student Association of Hopei is a living factor. It is closer to the Church than other student groups, and is exerting a vital force on the student population of the province. On such student organizations and activities the future of Christia1~ity


74 CHURCH AND SCHOOL will depend for its expansion and victory in Chinn. There are also a number of young men, grndnates from college, who are sincerely and earnestly working, not for money but to meet the needs of the people in country village.'!. Small thi'l number may be, yet is not true Christianity a little earnest flock which is motivated by the impoB.'3ible ambition to move the world, and often does it.? Dissatisfaction With Organized Christianity We do not need to hide the fact that quite a number of yoong Christians, especially among the student clas.q, have felt very much dissat i'lfied with organized Christianity. On the other hand, they have felt, also, the need of some kind of organization for the carrying on of community religiom-1 experience and activities. Throughout Christian collegc8 and schools small fellowships have been organized for the purpose of studying the Christian faith, of cultivating the spiritual life, and of propagating and sharing the spiritual message. It seems that the Church should he, by this time, wide awake to the importance of student religious life, especially since the Gornrnment has put restrictions on educational institutions in the teaching of religion, worship and preaching. A special effort must be put forth by the churches to conserve the younger element within its fold, to guide and utilize the expansive forces-of these somewhat radical, profoundly re ligious, and socially passionate youth. Church and School There is at pre.c;ient, also, an urgent need of understanding between the leaders of the Church and the teachers in educational institutions. It may be that conferences will be needed for Christian teachers and Christian pastors and ministers to face with each other the religious issues of the day. The fact cannot be hidden that those who are actively engaged in pastoral and clerical work do not hold the same point of view as those who are teaching in educational institutions. They should understand each other l They should find means, of helping each other in the work of religious education, in the under standing of the problems of youth, and in the creation of an inspiring program of service for them.


Dearth of Chinese Leadership. CHINESE LRA DERSHIP 75 It ought to be realized by now that there is a dearth of Chinese 1eadership in the Christian Movement. Evidences are not lacking. In the field of Chr:i.<:itian literature, which is very much needed by the youth of today, very little haci been done. This indicates, at least on the surface, a lack of capable Christian writers and of active, energetic agencies for the promotion of creative Chinese Christian literature. There i'l also a lack of first-class educated, devout, eloquent, interesting preachers, people to carry the Christian message in modern terms, with modern applications. Wherever there is such a preacher, youth flock to him! The fields are indeed white to harvest, but laborers are few! While it is true that money is needed to carry on the Chri'ltian Movement in China, it i'l more true that man-power is of primary impor tance. One might feel hopeful in thinking that among the Chinese Christians there ma.y now be seen a thirst for scientific knowledge, a desire to know and interpret the fundamental realities of the Christian faith, and the attempt to think and to write about Christianity in terms of modern thought, of Chinese religious experience, and of the essential Chri'ltian sphit. 'fhe need is that as many as can do these things should be released from the burden of administra tion, secreta1ial work-a very necessary, but life-crushing, routine. From the student class we may think beyond ~::0;::smers to the class of people that are laboring in indust1ial cenfors and on va.'!t tracts of agricul tural land. There the field i'l also 1ipe for evangelistic activities. What message in terms of thought as well as of practical life has the Christian Church for these who are most urgently waiting for light? A great deal of attention indeed has been brought to bear on the rural and industiial situation. One ought to turn one's mind to the findings and reports of the various committees of the National Ch1istian Council and of many of the active churches to find how much has been done for the country folk and the laborer in


7G LA BORERS the city, nnd also how much more needs to be done in the immediate future. Altogether, those who have eyes to see and ears to hear should know that the country is waiting in spiritual thil'st and hunger for Christ and for the Spirit of God, which gives peace to the heart and hope in this life.


CHAPTER VII THE KUOMINTANG AND RELIGION W. P, MUls Religious Freedom The basic attitude of the Kuomintang in the matter of religious freedom is contained in the declaration put forth by the First Party Congress in January, 1924. This declaration contained a statement of the foreign policy of the Party and a statement also of it.q policy in internal matters. Article 6 of the .9econd section reads as follows: "To establish the right of the people to complete freedom of misembly, organization, speech, press, residence, and belief." It was only natural that freedom of belief should Le included in the above list of "rights," for the Kuomintang tradition was essentially a liberal tradition. Whatever its practice may have been at different times, owing to the stress of circumstances, 1 its tradition is liberal, and this is a fact of great importance for the future whose significance will be pointed out later on. As every one knows, Dr. Sun Yat Sen, the leader and founder of the Party, was himself a Christian. In his religious life, as in his political life, he represented a break with the past; he was open to new ideas and stood for freedom. Hence any program in which he had a part, was naturally a liberal program. Dr. Sun was also deeply influenced by the political thought of the Wei:it, especially by it':l liberal elements, wherever he found them. Religious freedom was one of these elements, so it was incorporated readily into his own thinking, and through him into the ideals of his followers. Of course at the time thi':l First Party Congress met, Russian influence had already become 1 No one has stated this contrast, so far as it exists, between the Party's profesEion and its practice, more strongly than President Chiang Kai-shek himself in certain of his recent utterances.


78 CHRISTIANITY AND IMPERIALISM strong in China, and especially so in the Kuomintang. It iq doubtless true, therefore, that so far as the Communist element in the Party was concerned, the inclusion of religious freedom among the people's rights meant no more and no less than it meant in Russia at the time. Religion was tolerated indeed, but only as a necesgary evil, to be eradicated as soon ac:i a new system of education could tr::Lin up a new generation. The e:'lsential difference between thiq view and that of the mme moderate members of the Partv did not become clear until later. Both the right and th~ left wingi! could unite on the principle of freedom of belief, but they held it from widely varying pogtulates, so it WM not surpri

THREE PAR'rY AT'l.'ITUDES 79 history of the West and of the Orient, and much in the present condition of countries like India or Turkey, could Le cited in support of this view. It seemed, therefore, to those who held this opinion that, in a country which needed unity so desperately as China did, no disruptive element should be allowed. Religion was not merely a useless superstition, it was, or might become, a positively pernicious influence, and as such had better be rooted out. Thus from various directions the currents of opposition converged. Varying Attitudes To Religion With thiq introduction we may now proceed to cfaitinguish the three stages through which the Party has passed in recent years in its attitude towards religion. It will be recalled that Dr. Snn died in March, 1925, and that his death was followed shortly after l>y the May 30th incident. From that time the opposition to foreign encroachment.'3 upon China grew stronger and stronger, and in so fn1 ag Chri9tianity seemed to be identified with such encroachments it came in for its full share of attack. When the Northern e.,;:pedition started from Canton in the summer of 1926, its course was marked in many places Ly the occupation of church and misgion property, schools, residences, and hospitals. In some instances there wM violence, notably in Nanking in March, 1927, just two years after Dr. Sun's death. Everywhere contumely and abuse were heaped upon the Christians. They were the "rt1nning dogs of the imperialist'!," and religion itself was denounced in the Russian style as the "opiate of the people." Communist influence was at its height. However, as the tenible consequences attendant upon the Communist policy became clearer and clearer, the more moderate element in the Party a99erted itself and the move ment known ag "the purging of the Party" was begun. From that time to the pregent, in those sections of the country where the Government has been able to make its influence felt, the Communists have been able to work only under ground. fn other parts, however, they have done pretty much a9 they pleased, and their anti-religious attitude has been shown time and again in their attacks upon churches, missionaries, and Chinese Christians. The last few years have thus plainly revealed the essential contradiction


80 OPPOSITION TO RELIGION that existed between the views of the more moderate members of the Party and the Communists in regard to religious freedom. They used the same language, but they meant different things. In spite, however, of the purging of the Opposition Communists from the Party, and in spite of the To Religion Party's declaration in favor of religious freedom already referred to, the opposition to religion still continued. This was due to several reasons. Jn the first place, though the Party had been "purged", nevertheless the old Communist leaven was still at work; it could not be at once eradicated. .-\ gain the identification of Christianity with imperialism pe1'8isted in the minds of many, as also the view that religion was but outworn superstition. These reasons were sufficient to make the opposition determined anrl aggressive, though fortunately it was la<:IS violent than before. The anti-religious mo,ement was now carded on chiefly in two ways. The first was to press for the registration of Christian schools, while at the same time efforts were made to have the regulations governing religious activities in such schools made stricter and stricter. 1 The second was to throw difficulties in the way of Chri

PROHIBITION OF RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 81 too, sentiment was fairly united in favor of the prohibition against religious instruction of. any kind in junior middle schools 01 primary schools. The fact that religious instruction was not permitted in the public schools in many of the States in America was frequently quoted in this connection. In other words, so for as the regulations promulgated regarding education are concerned, Party sentiment is probably at the moment fairly unanimous in favor of them. It is on the attempt to enforce additional restrictions that opinion has been most divided. A good example of this is the regulation proposed by the 'fangpu (Party Headquarters) of Greater Shanghai and the Provincial Party Committee of Shantung to the effect that religious organizations should not be permitted "to gather Chinese youth and give them religious instruction''. The Chekiang Provincial Department of Education also presented a communication to the Ministry of Education along somewhat similar lines. The answer of the Ministry was clear cut. '' That all children under the age of thirteen should be expressly prohibited from attending any religious service, is a measure contrary to the principle of religious toleration as well as to China's commitments to foreign states." It is true, the Ministry went on to say, that "Parent':! should, however, be urged to send their children below the age of thirteen to registered or Government schools to receive an education free from religious bias." However, as Dr. Kepler points out, "The Christian Movement in China can be very thankful for this recognition by the Hovernment of the right of Christians to give religions instruction to their children." In this critical respect the liberal tradition of the Kuomintang was preserved.' Attitude to Christian Literature schools. Another example of a proposed measure that caused some difference of opinion within the Party and the Government was that relating to religious pictures, books, and periodicals in the In some quarters it had been suggested that the.'3e l On this section see Rev. A.R. Kepler's article "The Kuomintang and Religion", Chinese Recorcle1, October, 1930, page 622, To this article the present writer is much indebted,

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82 CHRISTIAN LITERATURE should be banned entirely. The matter finally came to the attention of the Central Party Headquarters and was by them refened to the Ministry of Education. The order of the Ministry to the different Commissioners of Education on this subject read, in part, as foll01vs: "The Central Party Committee has found that Christian schools in various places exhibit in their libraries Christian literature for students to read. This necessarily affects the minds of the students in school The Ministry of Education considers therefore that religious books, papers, magazines and pictures in the Christian school librarie.'l calculated to stupefy the minds of youth, should be strictly forbidden, excepting those which have to do with elective courses related to the study of philosophy in senior middle schools and universities. All others have to be forbidden.111 The saving clause here is of course the words "excepting those which have to do with elective courses related to the study of philosophy in senior middle schools and universities." The Ministry of Education saw clearly that the adoption and enforcement of the proposed regulation regarding Christian literature would cut across both the letter and the spirit of the regulations already promulgated regarding the registration of Christian school'l, which among other things, distinctly granted to snch schools, of senior middle school grade and above, the right to offer elective courses in religion. It, therefore, put in the above clause, which doeg in effect safeguard the liberty of the schools on the point in question. The regulation as finally promulgated was thus a compromise between the extremist and the moderate views in the Party and the Ministry of Education. Extreme Views The popular view of the matters under dis cussion is well expre.
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AN'rI-OHRISTIAN CARTOONS 83 student. "The opiate of the people" was thus being forcibly administered I The second cartoon, which was published as recently as July, 1930, was labelled "Je.'3us Christ returns to his own country." A figure clad in a long trailing gown was represented as going up into the sky among the stars and the chernbs. Under the arm of this figure was tucked a volume labelled ''the New Testament." The end of the robe which the figure wore, was just passing through a gateway surmounted by a tower. This tower was called "Church School." The point of the cartoon was evident. Jesus Christ was being driven out of his en.rthly abiding place-the Christian school, hack to his own home-in heaven. For a time it did seem as if .Jesus Christ would be driven out of the schools back to his own country, and there were many who felt that dark days ,vere ahead for the whole Christian Movement in China. And indeed there was much evidence that extreme views were likely to prevail in the counsels of the Party. There was for example the agitation in Cheloo University, Tsinan, largely fostered by the local Tangpu. There was the "fixed policy" of the Ministry of Education to refuse passports to students who wished to go abroad to study religion.1 Moreover the same :Ministry insisted that schools must not have "departments of religion;" elective courses could be given in religious subjects, but there could be no departments of religion as snch.2 Furthermore the Nanking 5 Kepler. op. cit. pp. 620. Students could of course obtain passports by signifying their intention to study other subjects. Courses in religion might then be included among their studies while abroad, but religion could not be listed as a subject of study when applying for a passport. The Ministry of Education took this stand because it did not recognize religion as a field of study that came within its proper scope. 6This was because according to the regnlations of the Ministry of Education a ",iepartment" is a field of study in which a student can take certain of his principal courses while in school. Indeed a student who chooses a certain department must, naturally, take some of his courses in that department. The element of compulsion thus enters in. This, however, is contrary to the fundamental provision that there must be no compulsory religious instruction. Hence there can be no departments of religion. Religion may be taught in optional courses scattered through other departments, but it cannot be 11, department by itself with any required courses.

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84 RELIGIOUS FREEDOM City Government issued a regulation prohibiting street preaching ''in crowded places." This regulation could be construed perhaps in the interests of public order and the free movement of traffic, but was probably really aimed at the propagation of Christianity. Again there was the attack on the Young .Men's and the Young Women's Christian Associations at the National Education Conference, which was defeated there, but later renewed by the Shanghai Tangpu. Further more there was the manifesto of the Propaganda Department of the local Nanking Kuomintang against imperialism and cultural penetration in which the Y. 1II. C. A. and Christian schools were again attacked. Finally there was the movement against imperialism and cultural penetration, but also against religion, organized by the Kiangsu Party Headquarters. That thi'3 movement was definitely anti-religious can be Reen from the fact that Chu Chih-hsin's pamphlet, "\\'hat Sort of Thing is Jesus?", which was published some years ago, was reprinted and circulated under the authority of the Provincial Party Committee. For a time also, ns a part of the prop aganda put out by this movement, this legend was hung over one of the gates of Chinkiang, "Jesus Christ is an obstacle to hun1an progress and an evil spirit not consonant with the spirit of this generation!" Religious Freedom Fundamental However, while these things were going on, the writer had the opportunity one day of discussing the issue of religious freedom with one of the very highest officials of the N anking Government. This oflicial made at the time this interesting and significant statement. He said that not long before he had been at a gathering where several of the chief figures in the Government and the Party were present. The matter of religious freedom came up at that time for informal discussion. He said it was unanimously agreed by those present that religious freedom was and must remain a fundamental principle of Kuomintang policy. A conversation like this leads one to feel that, no matter how much the more radical element may urge its extreme views, there i'l nevertheless at the heart of things, a group of broad-minded men, who see this issue of religious freedom in a true per spective, and who are prepared, if necessary, some day to

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CHRISTIANS IN GOVERNl\IEN'.r 85 make a final and effective stand on its behalf. It i'l interesting in this connection to recall the fact that the message which President Chiang Kai-shek wrote for the National Convention of the Y .l\LC. A. in October, 1929 was "Religious Freedom." No more Aigniticant words could have been chosen. It is fitting, also, to remind ourselves of the large number of Chri'!tians who in one capacity or another have always been conneckd both with the Party and the Government. This fact is a further proof of the essential liberality of the Kuo mintang tradition. It is also a proof that religious belief is no bar either to Party membership or to Government office. No doubt some of the Christian members of the Party or the Governrn.ent have at times felt their position to be a difficult one, as the tides of popular opposition to Chri'ltianity arose, nevertheless the very difficulty of these men has sometimes made it possible for them to render a unique service. It is a gratifying fact that there has al ways been a group of men, in close touch with affairs, who could mediate in hours of bittermss and mi
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86 INCREASED TOLERANCE beginning of this paper, is still vjgorously alive, and that any one, even though he be in the highest position, can none the less be really free in matters of belief. This demonstration of personal freedom in regard to religious belief is a great gain, since freedom in this respect tends to insure freedom in other respects as well. We must not forget that in the Party's first declaration, religious freedom or ''liberty of conscience," as it is elsewhere translated,1 was coupled also with other great liberties, namely the freedom of assembly, organization, speech, press, and residence. A people who has these liberties is free indeed. Increased Tolerance We have thus noted the three periods through which the Party has passed up to the time in its attitude towards religion. The first was that of violent opposition, due largely to the presence of the Communists within the Party, to the popular identifica tion of Christianity with imperialism, to the conviction that religion was outworn superstition, and to the feeling that it was also a divisive factor in the nation's life. After the Communists were expelled from. the Party, the opposition was less violent, nevertheless it was still active. This period was marked by increasing restrictions concerning religious activities in schools, as well as various attempts to limit the freedom of the church and allied bodies, in other respects as well. Now we seem to have come at last into a period of greater understanding, tolerance, and respect. The action of the President himself in embracing Christianity is a striking reassertion of the Party's decluration that religious freedom is one of the inalienable rights of the people. Civil Rights of Religious Representa tives However we must not conclude from the above that all questions are now solved. Important matters still remain which will have to be thought through patiently and carefully and dealt with in a constructive manner. There is for example l"Two Years of Nationalist Ohina." Edited by Dr. M.T.Z. Tyau, page 32.

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RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES 87 the question of the civil rights of professional representative.r,i of religiowi bodies, such as prirsts, monks, and ministers. Under the provisional constitution promulgated towards the close of the Manchu Dynasty, this group of people, the professional repre.r,ientative.g of religion, could neither vote nor hold office.1 This same disability existed under the Re public. Of course in view of the disturbed condition of the country and the lack of development of constitutional govern ment and so of elections, the digability in question had little practical significance, nevertheless it existed. It has been proposed recently that this disability be. made permanent. Whether this will be done or whether a more liberal policy will prevail remains to be seen. Investigation of Religious Societies In this connection the following questions from "Two Years of Nationalist China" will be of interest. They show the steps which the Ministry of the Interior has already taken or plans to take in regii,rd to various important matters in the field of religion. "The provinces have been instructed to furnish ex haustive information on the customs and habits of the people within their jurisdiction. In the meanwhile, superstitions and other perverted forms of religion as well as fortune telling and allied activities are prohibited. "Similar information concerning the religious life of the people is being sought, and the provincial as well as municipal governments have been ordered to supply such data on specially prepared forms. In the meanwhile, greater care is being taken in the examination of religious societies prior to their registration. 1 As Bevan has pointed out, this fact was "no stigma." This group was disfranchised along with certain other groups simply because their occupations rendered it "inexpedient that th!lY should enjoy these political pridleges." Other groups also dis franchised were officials and their secretaries, members of the police and military forces, and students in schools, colleges, a11d universities. Bevan. China M1'.ssion Yeai Book, 1911, page 68.

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88 REGIS'fRATION OF SOCIE'l'IES "The diver;;ity of temples and monasterief! haf! made their supervision a difficult task. With the aid of ~pecially prepared forms, the registration of these religious institutionH is being enforced. It is hoped that the resultant information will assist greatly in their reorganization. Upon the sale of sacrificial articles used in these temples and monasteries depends the livelihood of a good number of people. In order not to entail too great a hardship, the matter is being carefully studied before any drastic action will be taken. "Tables have been prepared for the investigation of inegular temples and the rituah1 of worship connected there with. When the provincial governments report on their investigations, steps will be taken to close these ne'er-do well institutions within definite time limits, while the vendors of sacrificial articles will be allowed a similar grace period within which to wind up their business. The line of demarcation between religion and superstition is, to the uneducated, hard to define. The Minicitry of Interior is studying the quesLion and intelligent legislation thereon will be enacted. "The registration of temples and monasteries being already in force, comparisons will be made between the property belonging to the Buddhicit and the Taoist temples. Inquiries will be undertaken to find out the number of Christian converts and the property bdonging to Christian churches and missions. Similar investig,1tions will be extended to embrace all superstitions and the trade in sacrificial articles, so that appropriate restrictions may be enforced in the interests of public protection.m Superstitions The wording of the last paragraph might seem to imply that, in the view of the writer of this section of the volume quoted, all religious are re garded as "superstitions." However a comparison of this paragraph with those preceding would indicate that this is 1 "Two Years of Nationalist China." Edited by Dr. M.T.Z. Tyau, pages 83, 87, 89.

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RELIGIOUS PROBLEllfS 89 not after all the meaning intended. 1-i'or example in the fiTst paragraph, the writer speaks of "super..;titions and other perverted forms of religions,'' thus implying tha.t there are some forms of religion which are not perverted. Again he speaks of a "line of demarcation between religion and superatition," which implies clearly that there is a difference between the two. Whether this line of demarcation can be established by legal enactments, as this writer seems to think, is of course open to question, but that !.here is need for "intelligent legislation,: on various matters affecting religion no one will doubt. It is fortunate that the guiding principle for such future legislation is already laid down in the Party's declaration of freedom of belief. Unsolved Religious Problems As an example of the kind of problems concerning religion, with which the statesmen of China will have to deal, certain proposals made at the recent Conference on Civil Affairs may be cited. Thi'! conference was held in Nanking in January of this year under the auspices of the Ministry of the Interior. The proposals refe1Ted to are as follows, (1) to convert various temples and monasteries into buildings beneficial to the public; (2) to train the monks in useful occupations; ( 3) to curb the political activities of religious organizations by prohibiting churches and clergymen from taking part in political movement'!; ( 4) to restrict the number of school'! to be established by religious organizations. None of these proposals have as yet reached the stage of law, and indeed may never do so. However the very fact that they were brought forward shows the wide range of prob lems affecting religion which still await solution in China.1 In this connection it should be noted that the proposal to convert temples and monasteries into "buildings beneficial to the public" rai'!es the whole question of the security of property which is devoted to religious uses against confieca tion. The fact that public officials have often in the past 1 The Centml Daily News, Nan king, January 21, HJ31. The Shanghai Times, January 22, 1931.

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PART III CHURCH LIFE CHAPTER VIII PROBLEMS AND NEEDS OF THE CHURCH Troublous Times C. Y. Cheng The Christian Church in China has been unrlergoing severe trials. These trials have been more severe than in previous years. Religious persecution is not a new thing in China. Many Christian people in China, for instance, still remember the troublous days of 1900, when determined a.nd drastic measures were taken to stamp Christianity out of China, A large number of missionaries and a much larger number of Chinese laid down their lives for their faith. The trials of recent years, however, are different in nature from those arising in the Boxer Movement. Broadly speaking, the persecution of 1900 was based upon ignorance; people practically knew nothing about Christianity; they acted on hatred and prejudice. But the troubles that. the Church has been facing in recent years may, in more senses than one, be said to be due to the fact that people know too much of the Christian Church. This is far removed from the blind attack of thirty years ago. Present opposition to Christianity is largely based upon intelligent understanding of some of the positions the Christian Church holds. China Sharing World Problems What are some of the causes of this period of difficulty and trial. The first cam:e is that this is all part of the world problems which China is sharing. The Great War and its after-effects, the materialistic tendency of the modern world, its secularism and irreligiousness, political and social upheavals, intellectual awakening, the revolt of

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REVOLUTIONS 93 youth-these are problems not confined to China. A revolutionary spirit is disturbing all nations. A share in this China cannot expect to escape. Through scientific advancement, better means of communication, the nations of the world are brought closer and closer together and there is hardly a nation whose action does not, in some way, affect the lives of other nations. Thus while China has problems of her own, she also shares in those of the world. China's Revolution China he1self, through the national and Rocial development of the past twenty years, is discarding the monarchical form of government and has adopte(l a republican one. Vast changes have developed therefrom. During this period, indeed, China has been passing through at least five revolutions. These revolutions have penetrated all phases of her life, political, social, economic, intellectual, as well as religious. Many of China's friends in the West are Uncertainty puzzled about China's situation and not a few About China have become quite impatient. The Chinese people, they sometimes assert, cannot work together, cannot put their house in order, nor keep pace with the rest of the civilized world. In a word, they deem them incapable of becoming a strong and great nation. China's troubles during recent years invite such criticisms. Political strife, civil war, banditry, undisciplined soldiery, together with severe famineR and other calamities-how can the Chinese avoid open revolt under such circumstances? But our friends must think twice before passing final judgment upon China. How can China be other than distraught with so many concurrent and interdependent revolutions going on? In addition to these there is also the glaring fact that at least eighty-five percent of the Chinese people are still illiterate. Christian Church Upset All these events have naturally direct or indirect effects upon the Christian Church. For instance, nationalism, the desire to realize as speedily as possible a proper and

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94 CRITICAL ATTITUDE rightful place in the family of nations, affects Christians as well as other cit.izens of China. Then the renaissance movement among students, which leads them to think critically and scientifically about all phases of life, also affects religion. If they are to take nothing for granted without examination and study, why except religion? Students are putting a question mark opposite China's old traditions, the teachings of her sages, social customs and ethical teachings. Naturally the same question mark is affix:ed to Christianity. They want to find out the why and wherefore of everything, including the religion of Christ. While inevitably this involves a good many thinga that are undesirable and even objectionable, yet on the whole it is a healthy development. May 30th. Incident Note also the unhappy affair of May 30th, 1925, when the East and the West clashed on Nanking Road, Shanghai, where foreign policemen fired upon unarmed students. The news spread like wild fire and aroused the indignation of the whole Chinese nation. The incident assumed grave dimensions and passed from being a local incident to a matter affecting China's relation with many western nations. Consequently it greatly affected the Christian religion also. The nonChristian world critically asked the question, "Where does Christianity stand in a matter of this kind? Can the principles of Christ be applied to such a practical issue?" The incident happened on l\Jay 30th. The Executive Committee of the National Christian Council met to con sider this matter on the 3lst, realizing that it was so serious that, while it had nothing to do directly with reHgion, it was bound to affect the Christian Movement in no small way: subsequent occurrences have confirmed this judgment of the Council. Communism Furthermore it is no secret that Com-munism has been for sometime trying to gain a foothold in China. In certain cities, particularly in Changsha and Swatow, terrible massacres of people and wanton destruction of property have taken place. More

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CRITICISMS 95 than once people have had to flee for their lives. Fields were deserted, business paralyzecl, schools closed, property confiscated, lives lost. Fundamentally Communists are opposed to the Christian religion. We cannot expect any mercy or sympathy from them. Wherever Communism flourishes, the Christian Church suffers severely. A RU I Then there is the anti-religious movement. M~~~X:e 1 ous The anti-Christian aspect of this is directly n opposed to the religion of Christ. Since the issuance of its first manifesto in 1922, declaring opposition to Christianity, this movement has spread throughout the length and breadth of the land. Through it the Church has been called upon to suffer for what it believes. Out bursts thereof are even now heard of. Criticism of Church Now just what has all this meant for the Christian Church! First, Christianity has been criticized for everything it has done. Anything wrong with the Church is also magnified: its good deeds are ascribed to wrong motives. Second, there have been accusations arising in misunderstanding. Much that has been said against the Church comes under this head. Third, there are accusations based on facts. Christians do not claim perfection either for themselves or the Church. The Church has not been blameless or faultless. If we are honest we have, therefore, to admit the truth of some of the charges made against Christianity. Most of the criticisms made of Christianity Criticism of are aimed at its organizational life. Many Organizational Christianity m fact, while they oppose the orgamzed Church, its theology and its people, are quite willing to acknowledge their faith in Jesus Christ. One of the outstanding early anti-Christian leaders, who later become an out!'tanding Communist, and spared neither energy nor talent to denounce Christianity, was yet quite ready to acknowledge the supreme contribution th!l,t Christ has made to m!l,nkind, In one of his articles,

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96 CHRISTIAN CRITICS after severely criticizing the Oh ristian Church, its denominational divisions, its ritualistic formality, its inconsistent dogma8, and its unhealthy members, he finally appealed to his readers to eat the flesh and drink the blood of Jesus so as to receive from Him a new life that would save China from the dark and chilly pit into which she has fallen. He said that we need not study Christian theology, we need not affiliate ourselves with this and that denomination, because we can knock at the door of Jesus and ask directly for His love to be imparted to us. Then he made special mention of two great attractions he had found in Jesus Christ, namely His great and lofty per sonality and his rich and warm affection. These great qualities of Christ, he said, are se1m first in His spirit of 8acrifice, His spirit of forgiveness and His love of all men. He asserted that these things have never been discredited by science in the past nor will they be in the future. There are, however, criticisms of the ChrisChr~st.ian Ideas tian religion that are more fundamental. Crihcised C Oh . b ertam rrstlan pos1t10ns are emg questioned, for instance, science versus revelation, evolution versus creation, the power of man versus the power of God. This shows that people are standing on different platforms and viewing life's problems from different viewpoints. Some of the teachings of Christ are regarded by some as being idealistic and impractical. The idea of love for one's enemies, for instance, is regarded as an unattainable ideal and one that has not yet been practised even by Christians. So it has been asserted that religion has, after all, very little effect upon human life. Christian Criticisms This critical attitude of the people of China today, more especially of the intelligent and educated classes, finds a place in the hearts not only of non-Christian students but of Christians as well. They have begun to apply it to their study of the Bible and the affairs of the Church. It is sometimes embarrassing for Christian teachers and ministers to try to meet adequately this religious inquiry and consequently

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CHURCH LOSSES 97 many are looking upon the Church with doubt and indif ference. Some are very out-spoken in their criticisms of the Church. Such deem the Church extremely conserva tive, a back-number in present-day thinking and unable to meet the needs of the present situation! Then they aver that Christian theology and dogma have greatly disfigured the face of Christ instead of making him clearer to men, that the teaching of the Church has been more individualistic than social, that it has no program for the betterment of society, and does not think of life in terms of all its departments; it is, in other worde, a glorified form of selfishness; it is also other-worldly, fixing its gaze more upon the heaven after death than the desire of making a heaven on earth. "Under such circumstances," they ask, "what message has the Church, what program for meeting the requirements of today?" This situation has affected the Church Church Work. materially in more ways than one. A good Decreased deal of Christian work has been at least par-tially paralyzed. Church buildings have been destroyed, school work suspended, Christian workers ridiculed imprisoned or even killed. Certain educational policies the Chinese government has adopted have also made things difficult for Christian educational workers. Religious sub jects must be given as elective courses, religious exercises must be voluntary in senior high schools, colleges and universities. For elementary and junior high schools no religious teaching and religious worship are permitted. All educational institutions must register with the government and, in doing so, these restrictions and limitations must be accepted and adopted. Foreign Mission arks Decreas~d Owing to these and other reasons, the number of foreign missionaries in China and members of the churches has, in many instance, decreased. No census has been made with regard to the status of the Christian membership at the present time, but it is not far wrong to say that certainly there is no marked increase in recent years.

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98 OHUROH GAINS This need not, of course, necessarily create alarm: it may even prove to be a blessing in disguise. A small number of more faithful believers may be better than a large number of merely nominal Christians. The influence and power of Christianity does not depend upon numbers. While this is true, it is equally true that it is far more desirable if the Church is gaining both in number and faithfulness. We are happy to report that most of God's people have stood firm, unmovable in their faith in God and loyalty to Christ, though some have wayered and a few have renounced their religion. Spirit of Humility To give a general view of the situation, it may be said that this period of trial has not been without its blessings; blessings that mean a great deal to the life of the Church. In the first place we may mention the fact that there has developed a new spirit of humility and a desire for self-examination, willingness and readiness to humble oneself before God because of the ineffective services that have been rendered. This attitude naturally leads to another, Desire ior namely, the desire and determination to Improvement achieve improvement in the work of the Church. There is in evidence an earnest desire and effort to improve the situation, to turn over a new leaf, to amend and to change. This has been seen in many ways, notably the search for improvement in mission and church methods, the development of a Christian Movement that is more congenial to Chinese life, the shift from a mission-centric to a church-centric ideal, the transfer of responsibility to native leaders, the application of Christian principles and ideals to all phases of life, the presentation of a Christian message that affects the entirety of life, international, national,, family and personal. Furthermore the many new problems conEssen tials of f Christianft ranting the Christian religion that have been Y created by the situation have led not a few of God's people to ask the questio11s, "What, after all, is

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OHRISTIAN ESSENTIALS 99 the essential thing in Christianity? If it is not organiza tion, tradition, ritual, dogma, what is it?" 'l'hese are fundamental questions which must be squarely faced and answered. More has been written against Christianity during the past ten or fifteen years than, perhaps, all that has been written since Protestant Christianity was first introduced into China over one. hundred years ago. In seeking the answer to these questions, people are eventually but inevitably led to the one central figure, namely, Jesus Christ. There has thus been a growing desire on the part of not a few Christian people in China to re-study the teaching and life of our Master and Lord himself. No matter, then, what the form of service, the denominational or theological position, there is one point on which all Christian people agree, namely that Christianity in China is facing a new and serious situation. This involves certain outstanding needs of the Christian Church. Need of Study First, there is need to re-study the met.hods pursued in the past to see how far they are workable in the China of today. The methods of presenting the Christian message to non-Christians, conducting mission and church work, inducing people to affiliate themselves with the churches, the training of workers-all require study and investigation. To be sure this is more easily said than done. In missions and churches, with their well-ordered organizations, it is an exceedingly difficult task to effect any radical change. United Front Christian forces, for instance, are divided into numerous independent and autonomous bodie:i, each interested in its special sphere of labour. At a time such as the present Christian bodies should consolidate their forces and present a united front. 'fhe0logical disagreements, denominational bias, have kept many from team work. Apart from other considerations, the sheer necessity of the situation demands consolidation,

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100 CONCEPTION OF CHRISTIANITY though we are not blind to the pitfalls and even dangers in such cooperation and union. One of the most common expressions in t.he Conception of Christian Chnrch in China is to regard Christianity Ch t" th th" 1 ns 1an1ty as, more an any mg e se, a doctrine. Evangelism is called Pu Tao ( il'ff ): spreading the doctrine: the preacher is named Chuan Tao (ttf, ~): proclaimer of doctrine: a Christian is called Hsiu Tao (m ~): believer in the doctrine. Herein lies an inadequate conception of Christ.ianity. Allied with this is the open criticism made of organized Christianity that it is not in touch with actual life. Religion is in watertight compartments, does not penetrate into all the departments of life. If the appeal of Christianity is to meet with ready re;iponse, it must be made on the basis of the word of our Lord, '' I come that ye may have life and have it abundantly. The presentation of the Christian religion as a way of life is a great need in China today. Christianity Still "Foreign" Christianity in China is still stigmatized as "foreign." One task before the Christian Church is the removal of this stigma. The indigenization or naturalization of the Christian Church in China becomes an immediate problem wl:tich furnishes much food for thought and requires much energy and a daring spirit to effect. If Christianity is to succeed in the mission field, it must be made more con genial to the people. Mission In the early days of the Christian Movement in China it was, of necessity, the mission that dominated all phases of the work. Missions have founded churches and the churches grew. The time is fast approaching for the mission to make way for the Church. The sooner the missions realize this fact, the better it will be for the Christian Movement in China. At the ,Jerusalem Meeting in 1928, this Church-centric ideal wa;; clearly recognized and definitely advocated. It is hoped that increiased earnest efforts will be made to translate this ideal into actual

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LEADERSHIP 101 practice. This ideal does not necessarily mean the cessation of missionary work or the disappearance of the missionary. On the contrary both are greatly desired, not apart from, but within the Church. Inadequate Leadership So far as the China field is concerned, we can boast that there are no fower than 30,000 paid workers engaged in various forms of Christian service, as pastors, preachers, teachers, doctors, nurses and so on. Yet we just as certainly cannot boast that the Christian Church has an adequate leadership. This constitutes a great need and an acute problem. How to secnre, train, use and keep leaders are matte1s that require very close attention. Few are preparing themselves for the ministry. Few are ready to offer their services for the Christian Church after they have received training. Few are equal to the leadership that one seeks in the nation. Missionary Leadership These is also the need of missionary leadership. There is no question that the services of foreign missionaries are needed and desired. Again and again statements have been made to. make clear the need of such missionary help, nevertheless the number of missionaries to China has decreased. Several reasons can be given for this state of affairs, some of which a1ise in conditions abroad, and some in conditions in China. But at this critical juncture help from the Older Churches in suitable personnel is more needed today than before. Revival Needed There are some of the practical needs of the Christian Church in China today. But there is one need greater than all the others. The Church in China needs an outpouring of the Spirit of God, so that the dry bones may live and the dead may rise again. Her supreme need is, after all, a spiritual one. When many believe in Christ in a half-hearted way, when religion is not a matter of life-and-death importance, when compromise with the world is regarded more

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102 REVIVAL NEEDED expedient, when worship is merely form, when organiza tion occupies more attention than prayer, when Christ does not have in everything the preeminence, when the Church is a tree with plenty of leaves but no fruit, living yet dead; certainly a spiritual revival, not merely in the emotional sense, is surely needed in China today. Above all, China is in need of Christ. '{/ed Supreme While Christianity has been attacked and ee opposed, while organized religion has been challenged and criticised, the Christ that is the same yester day, today and forerer, is still the one that China needs both within as well as without the Christian Church. The Church has suffered much in recent years. Christianity has never been so intelligently attacked before. It is equally true to say that there are now more people in China who are favorably inclined towards the Christian religion than ever before. The officials, t.he gen try, the merchants, the business men, the farmers are more friendly towards Jesus Chriclt than in the past, notwithstanding the noise that has been made by those who are in deadly opposition to the religion of Christ.

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CHAPTER IX PRESENT DAY EVANGELISM The Editor Difficult to Summarize For four rea!lons it is difficult to give a satisfactory survey of evangelistic effort in China at the present time. First, no statistics are available on the basis of which conclusions might be drawn. Second, it is impossible to secure a sufficient number of evangelistic reports on which to generalize. Third, evangelism pervades every aspect of Christian work. Fourth, the concept of evangelism is undoubtedly enlarg ing. Nevertheless this comprehensive aspect of the Christian Movement in China may be treated along five lines. First, its present general situation: second, some special compaigns: third, some immediate problems: four, changes in evangelistic methods: five, the broadening of the concept of evangelism. Gains or losses in church membership are ~~':~~rshlp usually taken as one important index of the efficiency of evangelistic effort. No generali zation thereon iH possible. 'fhat in many centers, and perhaps in general, church membership has decreased, seems fairly generally accepted though there are quite divergent views as to the percentage of decrease. Here and there one hears of 1ecantations. In centers affected by violent outbreaks or revolutionary movements migra tion, death or recantation have affected church membership adversely. While mere numbers are not the main test of evangelistic virility yet the present numerical strength of the church gives ground for disquietude. Of Kwangtung, the oldest center of Christian effort, it is reported that for the past ten years the membership of the churches has been decreasing. Many churches have disappeared and others are moribund. Early in the year the Kwangtung

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104 EV ANC~ELISTIC SPIRIT Syn0d of the Church of Christ in China reported that whereas two years previous its church membership totalled 18,000 it then numbered scarcely 15,000. Furthermore membership rolls in Canton contain the names of many who cannot be located. This inflated condition of church rolls seems fairly prevalent. In Shanghai, for instance, a study of church rolls disclosed the fact that only about fifty percent of those registered thereon could be located. From the viewpoint of available statistics, therefore, the evangelistic movement in China gives much food for thought and study. 'fhis retrocessive moverrwnt, however, seems less in evidence in north than south and central China. Whether a statistical survey would reveal it as worse or better than the above few facts suggest cannot be said. In some cases the condition of church membership is not even known. Evangelistic Spirit of Church Members As to the evangelistic aggressiveness of church mem hers in general reports in hand disagree. In some cases this appears to be all that could be desired or expected. In others (perhaps more) spiritual aggressiveness is low. One report states that the older mem ber;;i in that particular field seem torpid while the younger are more aggressive. Many Christian students have slipped into a quietistic self-nurture which does not eventuate in much, if any, evangelistic effort. Nevertheless in the summer 1,tudent conferences much real evangelistic activity of an indirect type was in evidence. A missionary reports that the spirit of his church members is torpid. "It takes an endless amount of cranking to keep our men active," he said. The Kiangsi Annual Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church, remarks:-"Many of our people have suffered spiritually as well as t-imporally. We need an increase in church me"llbership, but even more we need a deepening of the spiritual life." The !'ame report states that of 3,625 church members only 244 pledged themselves to do personal work. Furthermore of 227 Christian families only eighty-eight have family ,vorship. The Yuankiang station of the Yunnan Presbyterian Misilion

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ElVANGELISTIC AGGRESSIVENESS 105 reports, howevel', that for the first time since the mission aries evacu:.i,ted this station three years since they have been able to visit their entire field. 'rhey found conditions exceedingly encouraging. The only conclusion is that as to the state of church members conditions vary consider ably. From this we may conclude that far from the full strength of the Christian Church has been available in evangelistic effort during the last year. Willingness to Listen And yet in spite of the somewhat conflict ing hints given above and viewing the Chris tian Church as a whole there are signs of renewed evangelistic aggressiveness. There seems little evidence of direct obstruction to the giving of the Christian Message though the China Inland Mis~ion reports some "Communist" activity in this regard. From a number of sources come reports of :i:eady willingness to listen. "Everywhere the witness of the Gospel," said a missionary in North China, "was well received." "The Szechwanese are, at present," said Mr. Torrance, agent of the American Bible Society in West China, "most ready to listen to the Gospel; missionaries never were so popular in this prov ince as now." Pastor Wang of Ichowfu, Shantung, reported that in his field the country people are friendly and at present there are about five hundred inquirers. At Mao Chia Ling, near Tsingtao, crowds attended meetings and manifested unusual interest. Rev. Leonard J. Christian (American Board), Foochow, reports "the door of opportunity is wide open wherever we have gone." In his field "the intense anti-Christian and anti-foreign movements had a direct effect on the statistics of learners and even church-members, and it is only now," he flays, "that we are recovering from the setback for which these movements were responsible." Rev. Edward H. Smith of the same mission reporting for Ingtai, Fukien says also, "there was never a time when the Christian Message found as ready acceptance as today." This attitude of willingness to listen to the message seems fairly general.

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106 EVANGELISTIC CAMPAIGNS Evidence of results from evangeliAtic cam Evangelistic paigns is plentiful. Some of this will be Results given as concretely as possible. The Feihsien district, Shantung (Presbyterian) reports an addition of 196 new members to a church which a year previous numbered only 176, thus more than doubling the member ship of one church in one year. The Yihsien station of the same province and mission reported that in meetings held at seven places 500 people publicly testified to their desire to study Christianity and enter the church. Rev. J. W. Findlay, Liaoyang, Manchuria, stated that in his field some five hundred inquirers have been registered since the beginning of the Five Year Movement about eighteen months a.go. On one Sunday sixty-six adults were baptized in the city church of Liaoyang. That means 118 added to that church in one year. Other congregations also report gains. In this and the neighboring field (circuit) more people have been added to the church this year than in any one of the previous twenty years. At Mao Chia Ling, mentioned above, a great number wanted to register their names as inquirers though only twenty were allowed to do so. One man who had persecuted his wife, a Christian, became converted and though not rich planned to sell land to buy prope1ty for the church. Even the local Buddhist priest studied the New Testament and eecretly professed belief. At Ichowfu, Shantung, a "spiritual advance" is in evidence. An eight-day period of Revival and Bible Study meetings, with emphasis on intensive study rather than on preaching indicated real spiritual gaimi. It is assumed that ''perhaps the tearing down or closing of temples may have turned the minds of some to what the Christians have to proclaim." "During the past year," reports Rev. L. J. ~ome ai Christian, Foochow, "the small group with amp gns which I worked visited and preached in over seventy villages." Since, however, workers are few and only an hour could be given to each village these limitations coupled with illiteracy prevented any noticeable harvest. As a result more intensive work is planned for the future.

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EVANGELISTIC OAMPAIGNS 107 During the Spring small preaching bands composed of regular workers sometimes accompanied by lay Christians visited market towns in South China. Several tens of thousands of tracts were distributed. Two small groups in one district sold nearly 2,000 Scripture portions. Reports from about one-third of the centers visited showed a total of 13,939 hearers, 124 decisions and 236 enrolled for Bible study. In very few places was opposition noted though in one place while meetings for women went by unnoticed those for men were interfered with by the beating of drums and gongs in an attempt to drown out the preacher's voice. In most places a revival of witness ing for Christ was noticed. During the year the Seventh Day Adventists reported baptisms numbering at least 1,200. Rev. Frederick Lee, of Shanghai, reports, also, that he quite recently conducted evangelistic services in Hankow for nineteen nights. An average of 550 people attended each night. "I have never," he said, "seen greater interest on the part of the Chinese to listen to the Gospel." In and around Dai-ho, Fukien, long-term evangelistic effort by the Methodists has affected superstitious practices. In one case thirty families, ninety people, were received into the church. A young Chinese preacher in Fukien, in reporting on a tour of two weeks through villages said, "The opportunities presented us for preach ing were better than I have ever known. Old attitudes of subserviency are gone. The people are seeking the Gospel for its own sake." Commenting on this report Rev. E. H. Smith, Foochow, said, "During the past year my most striking example of this new attitude was when a group of four government school teachers asked for baptism and at eight o'clock one morning brought with them a group of older students t.o witness their examination." Furthermore he notes that in his own church school the boys and girls are asking for baptism as they have not for a long time. This is, he thinks, in part due to reaction from disillusionment and frustrated hopes of a speedy realiza tion of economic and political utopia. At William Nast Academy, Kiukiang, Kiangsi, an evangelist held meetings among the students as a result of which the students

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108 FOREIGN EVANGELISTS organized prayer groups themselves-. At one place in Ftikien the church must needs be cleaned ere service could be held. F11rniture, doors and windows had also been removed by depredators. Most of the villagers had only 1ecently returned from enforced sojourn elsewhere and few of them dared to bring out their hidden furniture lest it be stolen. Yet to the church, when cleaned up as best it might be, people came from all over the neighborhood for an evening service. The China Inland Mission has been carrying on a Forward :\fovement during the last year. In this they plan to reach as yet unevangelized portions of their present field. This effort they hope to extend also to the far northwest in Sinkiang, Mongolia and Manchmia. In Kiangsi during the year thirty of their inland stations were evacuated by missionaries. In most places their work goes on as usual. Here and there reference is made by other groups to plans to go into the "regions beyond." The ChinesPHome Missionary Society, established thirteen years ago, still has eight missionaries in Yunnan though its receipts for 19:-30 dropped slightly below those for 1929 its banner year. 'l'he Christian Movement among Chinese Students has recently in some sections planned and carried out evangelistic work among students and conducted preaching bands in the country. They aim to create fellowships among students, such as the Twelve, for the perfecting of character and the emancipation and development of the life of the people. Three foreigners have assisted in this ~orelgnU t aggressive evangelistic movement. Early in vange s 8 the year Dr. Sherwood Eddy visited Canton and was able to arouse "a new interest in religion" by linking it to social as well as individual problems. Admis sion to the meetings for the ten days they lasted was by ticket. The hall they were held in seats 1,300: five thousand or more actually wanted to get in each evening. Several hundred entered investigation classes. Special meetings for officials were held. Mention must be made of Dr. Kagawa's visit to a retreat in Shanghai quite recently. He also visited other places, holding meetings

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EV ANGELISTIO PROBLEMS 109 for Japanese among others. While his message is largely concerned with social problems it is also strongly evangeli stic. He also held a conference at Weihsien, Shantung with about one hundred present. Rev. Kim, a Korean evangelist, also held a conference for Christian leaders at Laiyang, Shantung, ancl later a week's meetings at Chefoo. A Korean missionary to China served as his translator. Four times a day people came in large numbers to hear him. Regained Evangelistic Momemtum It is evident, from the above scattered data that while in many places evangelistic activity is quiescent yet in many others it has regained momentum during the past year. From sections as widely separated as Kwaugtung, Fukien, Szechuan and Manchuria come encouraging reports. Viewed as a whole, therefore, the Christian Church is showing signs of the beginnings of an evangelistic revival. This appears to be due in considerable measure to the Five Year Movement and the fairly general subsidence of antiChristian effort. Among other things the conversion of President Ch'iang has been a good influence in this regard. Some Old Problems Problems connected with evangelistic work there are, of course, both old and new. Of workers endowed with evangelistic zeal and ability the supply is wofully low in many centers. The enlargement of opportunities makes this lack loom unusually prominent. At the moment, indeed, no Chinese Christian stands out as preminently fitted to lead the church forward evangelistica.lly, at least in the 01dinary sense of that term. One underlying problem is how far the old evangelistic method can be made effective in modern China though no small proportion of prei:ient-day evangelistic effort is being carried on qllite as usual, and, as we have noted, in many centers with success. At the moment, however, no Chinesfl worker jg leading in the amalgamation of the social with the evangelistic message as, for instance, Dr. Kagawa is doing in Japan. This dif ficulty in the lack of specifically evangelistic leadership is augmented by the widespread illiteracy which inhibits the

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110 RELIGION AND EDUCATION understanding of the message when it is given. The difficulty -of training workers to fit into rural needs while by no means ignored is still far from solved. There is, however, some promising interest among Christian students in going to the country to help. Some New Problems There are, in addition, evangelistic prob lems that may be classed as modern. One prominent Chinese Christian recently said in print, for instance, "It is, indeed, most difficult for us to preach Christianity at this time because we have to defend and explain a good many doubtful points before we can present it." That situation is due to the fairly general critical attitude to everything religions. Closely as sociated therewith is a decided tendency among Chinese Christian intelligentsia to focus attention on Christian dogmas as containing much difficult for them to understand and, for some, hard to believe. This tendency concerns only a minorit.y of Chinese Christians but that minority is influential. While, therefore, some are inclined to turn to Christianity because they are disillusioned as to China's own ability to improve conditions in general, many others are disillusioned about religion and sceptical as to its power to do the things that non-religious forces are attempting unsuccessfully. Such a eituation increases the diffi.cuHy of either formulating the evangelistic message or of obtaining an hearing for it. Perhaps it is true to say that those whose minds are more simple, less burdened with critical questioning, find it easier to accept the message when given in the old terms. The problem of the relation of religion to Religion and education tends, also, to increase the diffi. Education culties of direct evangelistic work. In general, however, the Church is not affected much by this issue. In the churches, therefore, direct evangelistic work goes on much as usual where desired. The above issue does, however, tend to widen the separation between Christian education and church work and effort. And 'there is

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EVANGELISTIC METHODS 111 growing Christian recognition that these two arms of service need to be brought into much closer coordination than they enjoy at present. This is, of course, a problem that concerns evangelistic work very intimately. Emotional Excesses Occasionally one hears of schism in the Church though just what type one fails to discover. In South Shantung, particularly in Tenghsien, Yihsien and !chow, there have been quite "old-fashioned revivals." These, while to some extent devotional, have run to emotional excesses which have been described by some as "holy rollerism" and have been mixed up with the "gift of tongues." Four workers, for instance, went to Feihsien to get the "spirit" and on their return to Weihsien caused some disturbance. It should be noted that in some of the places thus affected the people have suffered long and terribly from war and banditry. There are also smaller and long-established Christian groups which tend to indulge in such emotional excesses but of these nothing special has been heard recently. Since t.he above-mentioned movement has disturbed some old and long established work it constitutes a real problem therefor. On the one hand, therefore, simple folk are being disturbed by emotional evangelistic effort while the intelligentsia are inclined to examine critically the dogmas of Christianity. 'fhis goes to show that evangelistic work in China faces most of the problems it faces elsewhere, Old Methods But it is evident that in many places new evangelistic methods are being developed though in perhaps the majority of churches the old, simple appeal still holds. Tents are still extensively used. One missionary in :eeiping reports that one hundred and twenty-three tent meetings were held in which the stere opticon lantern was used, parables in a Chinese setting prepared by distinguished artists being shown among other pictures. Among the Seventh Day Adventists missionary societies are organized in all "churches and companies."

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112 NEW PLANS These societies sell Bible portions, magazines, and tracts, engage in letter-writing, home visitation and street preach ing. Their membership is made up of lay Christians. Such societies have been developed rapidly during the fast three years. The territory around every church is divided into sections for this systematic work. Bible classes are also established in the homes of interested people and in chapels and churches. 'l'his type of work is being carried on in every province except Kansu. Some work has been started among the tribes' people of Kweichow also. One hears much of the ''new plans" also. New Methods A brief outline of such as are known is given below. Quite prominent among such "new plans" is the use of evangelistic bands. The Hengshen Band, (Hunan), for instance, consisted of at least three evangelists, with several women to assist in work for women and sometimes lay workers. At the end of 19~9 this band reported having visited fifteen market towns, sold 4,000 Scripture portions, with 10,000 people in the audiences, about forty enquirers enrolled and five families who had abolished idol worship. In October, 1930, three bands were reported as having worked in the same section for a month and a half. Each band had a fairly full schedule of work. They visited sixty market towns, called on 3,000 families, preached to 30,000 people, distributed 10,000 tracts, sold 6,000 Scripture portions, enrolled 100 inquirers and "healed hy prayer about thirty persons either sick or demon-possessed". (Such healing of demon-possessed people is, by the way, fairly frequently mentioned as occurring elsewhere.) These bands vary in size and no statistics exist as to either their number or success. One that went out from Tsingtao had four members, a recently ordained preacher, a seminary student, and elder and an evangelist. They went to an hitherto un-entered district and preached at markets and in villages. Such bands are at present fairly prominent as a method of evangelistic work. A somewhat similar plan was used in North China in which the unevangelized areas were covered with a view to establishing groups of worshippers

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NURTURE AND TRAINING 113 in or near market towns. These groups will later send leaders to classes for instruction. Allied with the above is work done at County Fairs set up by Christian interests. One such, as an example, is reported from Peiping. It was visited by fifteen thousand people and held in the City Moat Temple, a privilege grnnted by the authorities. A tent was pitched just outside the gate of this temple and crowded from morning to night. Among other things Bible dramas were given. A radio set brought music and speeches from Ja.pan, Manila, Korea, Shanghai, Tientsin, Peiping and Nanking. Village classes are also in evidence. The v1mage Presbytery at Shunteh, North China, reports C asses during the fall twenty seven classes in five out-stations and twenty-two villages. The attendance thereon was very satisfactory. Volunteer Bands Something is being done with volunteer bands also. A notable instance is the organiza tion by Chin1::se lay women of an Evangelical Society in Wenchow. This has a membership of about eighty. The members belong to the China Inland Mission, the United Methodist Mission and Independent Church, with which the president is connected. They bear their own expenses and engage in various activities, among them short evangelical tours. Bible schools have also been conducted by this society. There is in evidence, also, a movement to Nurture and combine evangelistic activity with nurtnre Training and training. During the past winter in connection with the Yenping Mission (Fukien) of the Methodist Church there were held five ten-day training conferences combined with evangelistic meetingfl, the first occupying the day, the second the evening. From Showchow, Anhwei, comes report of a, ''Travelling Seminary". This was made up of fourteen men, all of whom could read but only two write, who were trying to prepare for leadership in village groups. They visited six market

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114 EDUCATIVE EVANGELISM towns spending a week in each. They assayed the ordinary types of evangelistic effort and in addition studied during the day, in connection with which they sought to improve themselves in writing. A nurse who went along treated simple diseases also. Evangelistic work is being likewise linked closely with the Mass Education Movement. The most notable instance of this occurred at Paotingf'u, North China, where 30,000 students were taught to read with 7 ,OOO graduating from the full course. During the period church member,:hip increased 70 percent. Other missions are following suit in this regard. The Shantung Mi~sion (Presbyterian) reports a large num her of religious con ferences and Bible classes which included attempts to teach Christians to read. Evangelism is thus becoming educational. The above educational evangelism is made considerably more intensive in connection with "Round Table Study" groups which have been conducted for a year and a half by Rev. Gardner Tewksbury of the Presbyterian Mission (North). Here the ordinary Bible Class becomes a group meeting for at least an hour a day, and never lasting less than two weeks, for conference and cooperative thinking. The groups are small and attention is focussed on a few carefully selected passages of Scripture. All types of Christians find stimulation in this creative group thinking. In these groups latent abilities for leadership are a.ought and cultivated. What is given is "vital and practical" and not "theoretical speculation and argument". The classes are spoken of as "spiritual clinics". Their aim is to help the members to learn more in detail of Chrfat's principles and methods of work. This intensive study haB brought direct and most Batisfactory results. Intensive Bible Study Educative Evangelism It may with justice be said that the above methods are not as new as some of their users seem to think. Yet it would be true to say that more attention, amounting to a new emphasis, is being given to the necessity of making evangelistic

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LARGER EVANGELISM 115 work educative as well as inspirational. Preaching is by no means less valued than before but some at least feel that the somewhat slower and perhaps less spectacular method of steady training is needed in China today alongside of it. So prominent is this educative evangelism becoming that one may assert that the increasing emphasis thereon amounts to a new development. Enlarged Evangelistfc Appeal A new or enlarged evangelistic challenge is also emerging. "The old one," says a village worker, "has lost its challenge for the modern mind." That one who works among vil lagers where the older sanctions and notions are assumed still to hold sway, says this makes it especially significant. It means that the concept of evangelism is being broad ened. Only brief reference to the main aspects of this broadening process is possible. To most of them detailed reference is made in other parts of this volume. One element in this enlargement is the recognition and use of Chinese theistic ideas in presenting the evangelistic appeal. Much more prominent, however, is the growing attempt to link evangelism up with practical community and economic problems. A village worker, for instance, declares that in addition to aiming to set up attitudes Christianity must help to rnlve actual life problems. This suggests a "problemsolving evangelism." The campaign against illiteracy, is now viewed by many as evangelistic strategy. Again promoting cooperative village life has for some become an evangelistic aim. This is part of an emerging ideal of rural evangelism that includes rural reconstruction. Some also speak of national and social reconstruction in the same terms. This year, again, the problem of home betterment looms large in the Christian campaign. Workers interested therein held during the year the first conference ever held in China on that subject. Home betterment evangelism thus stands out in the year's records. All these points could be expanded indefinitely and others added. But enough has been said to show that the concept of evangelism is broadening.

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116 Main Evan~eHstic Trends EVANGELISTIC TRENDS Three aspects of evangelism stand out in the above statement. First, the Christian forces show signs of a reassertion of evangelistic aggressiveness. Second, there is evidence that thoughtful Christians are facing carefully both the religious and social implications of Christianity-a new psychological approach. Third, the process of socializing evangelism has gained momentum. All of which indicates that there is going on in Christianity a process of re construction which affects the strictly evangelistic aspect of its message as well as all others.

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CHAPTER X NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL, 1930 Ortha May Lane Field Service That the churches of China are confidently looking to the National Christian Council for guidance and that they are anxious to cooperate in its undertakings has been increasingly evident during 1930. Reqtrnsts for secretaries to help with conferences and institutes, especially in connection with the Five Year Movement, are steadily comiiig from all parts of China and the Council is constantly embarrassed by its inability to meet them adequately. There has been an unprecedented increase in the amount of literature ordered from the office; figures show that during November as much material was mailed out to the churches as the total for 1929. The missions have shown their confidence in the Council by granting certain of their missionaries as secretaries for a period of a year or more. Such secretaries as released this year by the missions for council work are Rev. R. D. Rees, Wesleyan Methodist Mission, for Religious Education: Rev. H. W. Hubbard, American Board Mission, for the Literacy Movement; Miss Ortha M. Lane, Methodist Episcopal Mission, for the Christianizing the Home Move ment; and Mr. J. B. Tayler, London mission, for the Christianizing Economic Relations' Department. Five Year Movement Almost without exception the church bodies are members of the National Christian Council have either in part or in whole signified their interest and cooperation in the Five Year Movement. Other church bodies that are not yet members of the Council have also shown their willingness to take part in the Movement which has the two-fold objective of deepening the spiritual life of the Church and

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118 STEWARDSHIP the spreading of the Christian Message. A regional con ference on the Five Year Movement was held in Canton in November with a la.rge group of church leaders present. Three of the Council's secretaries were in attendance, as well as three mern bers of the Religious Education Deputation. Forward Program The Movement is gradually garnrng momentum and power and in most of the churches the whole program of evangelism is centered about the Movement. At a time when Communistic propaganda and party policy have created real problems for the Christian Church and have tended to produce an attitude of discouragement, the Five Year Movement has met a vital need in focusing the attention of the Church on a positive, forward program. There is evidenced a deep spiritual emphasis, rather than an emphasis upon numbers, and churches are realizing that evangelism takes in the whole of Christian life and character, and that Evangelism and Religious Education go hand in hand in this Forward Movement to build up a Christ-like, Christ-centered church membership. Stewardship Christian Stewardship is being given its rightful place as the foundation principle of the Five Year Movement. Stewardship books, pamphlets, enlistment cards, and posters are being circulated, and articles on stewardship are appearing in church papers. Institutes and conferences are giving a place in the courses and discussion groups to the stewardship theme. It is recognized that unless each Christian individually acknowl edges that his life, time, talents, prayer, and possessions belong to God and that they are a sacred trust to be used for the advancement of His Kingdom, the Five Year Movement, no matter how efficiently planned and how enthusiastically promoted, is bound to fail. The Five Year Movement goal is not to produce more nominal Christians but to win those who will be faithful stewards for a lifetime, giving their all, even life itself, to the Giver of Life.

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RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 119 The National Christian Council Committee Evangelism on Retreats and Evangelism bas heen seeking during this year to emphasize the importanr.e of individual or personal evangelism. Several very inspiring pamphlets have been written by such outstanding workers as Bishop Roots, Rev. Marcus Cheng and Rev. W. MacNaughton and have been widely circulated. In June a special three days' Retreat Conference in Soochow was attended by a small group of church leaders representing ten denominations and Christian organizations. Much attention was given to the deepening of the spiritual life of each individual Christian, the deepening of the spiritual life collectively of the church as a body, and the methods of evangelistic outreach. The Associate General Secretary of the Council, Mr. L. D. Cio, has prepared much literature for use in evangelistic work especially during the Week of Evangelism, and has given much time and thought to planning conferences on Evangelism to be held early in 1931. Arrangements have been made for the visit of Dr. Stanley Jones, the noted evangelist of India, during the coming summer. Religious Education During the spring and early summer, after Mr. Lobenstine's departure for America, Mr. Henry Welles of the American Presbyterian Mission took charge of the Religious Education work of the Council. His observations and study of the. religious education work of the churches on his trip up the Yangtze and to other parts of China have proved most enlightening. His plans for conferences on Religious Education at the summer resorts were largely frustrated on account of political conditions. Mr. Welles left on furlough in the summer and Rev. R. D. Rees took up this work. A Conference on Religious Education, with leaders representing Christian universities and colleges was held in Shanghai the first week of July. In October, a meeting of the reconstituted Committee on Religious Education of the Council was held in Shanghai to make definite plans for cooperation with Dr. J. L. Corley representing the World's Sunday School Association in a study of religious education

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120 CHRIS'l'IANIZING THE HOME in China. Rev. S. S. Ding, Miss Alice Gregg, and Dr. C. S. Miao were invited to become members of the Deputation. Miss T. C. Kuan and Miss Ortha Lane of the Council were asked to cooperate with the group in the study of Religious Education in the Home. The Deputation .has already visited Canton, Hangchow, Shaohing, Ningpo, and Nanking and have met with groups of religious education leaders and made an intensive study of local situations. A number of training conferences for religious education workers have been planned for coming months. The Religious Education and JJ;vangelistic Exhibit Exhibit held in Peiping in May has been conserved in a Trnveling Exhibit under the dil-ect.ion of the Council. It has already visited a number of cities and is helping to arouse interest in the use of available materials and in the production of new materials for religious education. Mr. T. H. Sun of the Council assisted with the Meth odist Religions Education Standard Training Conference held at Yenching University the last part of August, as well as with summer conferences held in Shansi. The outstanding feature of the ChristianizChrishanlzmg ing the Home Movement was the observance TheHome 11 Oh" f Ch . h H a over ma o r1st1a111zrng t e omc Week the last week of October. The Committee under the direction of Miss T. C. Kuan spent months in the preparation of material and in publicity work. The ex" pectation of the Committee was more than realized, for not only was the first edition of 10,000 sets of the pamphlets, pictures, posters, and songs disposed of but there was such a demand that about 5,000 more were printed. Now requests are coming for the observance of the Week again next year and there is increasing evidence that our Christian leaders are aroused to t,he dire need for Christian nurture in the home. Since September, Miss Orth a Lane has been assisting Miss Kuan in this growing department of the Five Year Movement. In

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LITimACY l\IOVEMEN'l' 121 December, the East China Conference for Leaders of the Christianizing the Home Movement was held in Huchow, in connection with the Memorial Mother-Craft School there. Ninety delegates and leaders from twenty-seven different denominations and Christian organizations of five provinces spent ten days in this epoch-making conference. It was the first conference on Christianizing the Home ever held in China.! Definite resolutions and plans were formulated in the Conference for encouraging the churches to have training classes in Christian Parenthood and The Christian Nurture of Children, and for our schools to have Christian Home-Making courses, in order that our Christians may be prepared to meet the vital neecis of the homes of China to-day. Literacy Movement The Literacy Institute held at Tfoghsien in April gave a nation-wide impetus to the attempt to eradicate illiteracy from the Christian Church. Ninety delegates from eleven provinces received instruction in the teaching of illiterates and in the organization and methods of conducting classes, and returned with enthusiasm to their homes to promote the literacy campaign throughout their fields of ref
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122 Christianizing Economic Relations PEOPLE'S LIVELIHOOD One of the immediate tasks of the Com mittee on Christianizing Economic Relations is to arouse the consciousness of the Church to this phase of the Christian life which thus far has not been widely recognized. Under the leadership of the Secretary, Mr. J. B. Tayler, formerly of Ycnching University, the Committee has been carefully studying those projects that are already being carried on under Christian auspices, and have been inwstigating all phases of the question of the people's livelihood in order that they may know how to apply Christian principles to this complex problem. The National Conference on the People's Livelihood which was held in Shanghai in February led to various new emphases and a deeper nn derstanciing of the Christian responsibility to help mett the economic needs of Christians; from it Christian groups will learn how they can best play their part and bear their full share in the challenging enterprise of reconstruction on lines of justice and mutual aid which embody the Chl'is tian viewpoint. R 11 f It is significant that the Council was ~:tne e e requested by the churches in America to help in the famine relief work for the suffer ing millions in the northwestern part of China. The Council was instrumental in forming a committee of seven' prominent Americans in Shanghai to administer the special famine relief-fund which was contributed by the churches in the United States. A total of $525,000 Gold was handled by this committee during the year. $500,000 Mexican of this amount was sent to Kansu province and most of the remainder went to the province of Shanei. The Council has also acted as a clearing house, forwarding contributions in exce~s of l\J. $100,000 to proper organiza tions for famine relief work. Gifts from churches in China, Europe, Canada, India, South Africa and elsewhere have been remitted largely through the treasurers of the China Inland Mission and Engli:;h Baptist Mission for

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RURAL REOONSTRUOTION 123 relief bythe missionaries, but specially designated items were received for other place's and forwarded in accordance with the wishes of the donors. The Council has been glad to be of practical service in this connection, thus helping to alleviate the suffering of hundreds of thousands. The Council has had this year the coopera~r~:'lbroad tion of a number of visitors from abroad in the study of the problems of the Christian Church of China. Dr. Robert M. Hopkins; representing the World's Sunday School Association, made a study of religious education, giving special attention to the problems of Sunday School work in China. Mr. Hurry T. Silcock of the Friends' Service Council of London and a group of co-workers visited the West China field and together with a number of Christian workers gave careful thought to the general situation of the Christian Movement and the future work of the Friends in China. In connection with the World Survey of the Y.1\:1.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. Dr. Ernest Best and Miss E. Voorhees Jones, visited China to consider Association problems here and to make certain adjust ments and improvements. Dr. Sherwood Eddy made his seventh visit to China this spring and the wide response to his evangelistic services in various parts of China was most encouraging and proved that there is an open door for the Message at the present time. Dr. R. H. Tawney is conducting studies in Uhina for the Institute of Pacific Relations. The China delegates who met him at the Jerusalem Meeting in 1928 are more than happy that he has come to make a study of conditions in China. Dr. Kenyon L. Butterfield, under the auspices of the International Missionary Council, is making a study of rural problems in China. .Mr. F. L. Chang, the Council's Rural Secretary, is accompanying him in his travels. The visit of this specialist in rural problems will mean much in the future to the development of rural life in China., especially in its Christian aspects. Dr. A. L. Warnshuis,

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124 LAYMEN'S COMMISSION formerly a missionary in Amoy, then in the China Continuation Committee, and now a secretary of the International Missionary Council is on an extended vii;iit to China, making a careful study of cooperative activities of Christian missions and churches. The Laymen's Fact-finding Commission from America is spending this year in China making a special study of the American Presbyterian Mission, the Methodist ~::;piscopal l\1ission, American Board Mission, American Baptist Mission, the Mis5ion of the Reformed Church in America, and the American Church Mission. It is very significant that Christian Laymen are taking such a deP.p interest in the work of foreign missions and it iR to be hoped that through their study, investigation, findings, and reports the foreign mission enterprise may be greatly improved and strengthened. Dr. J. L. Corley, representing the world's Sunday School Association, is spending a year in China conducting a thorough study of Religious Education in Church and Home, assisted by a Deputation of Chinese and missionary religious education leaders. Secretaries Abroad From April 5th to September 21st, the General Secretary, Dr. C. Y. Cheng, was away from China visiting Great Britain and the Dominion of Canada. During his travels in many parts of those two countries, he met with Christian leaders and church members, interesting them in the general situation of the Christian Church and the work of the Council. The making of such a contact with the older churches of the West will help in many ways the work in China. He came back feeling greatly encouraged that friends in those countries are deeply interested in the work of foreign missions and the development of the work in China .. Rev. E. C. Lobenstine left China in April and he has spent several months in Europe and America where he has had opportunities to meet important leaders in the interest

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JAPAN CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 125 of the work of the Council. He arrived back in China in January, 1931. In October Mr. L. D. Cio made a trip to Japan to attend the Annual Meeting of the National Christian Coun" cil held in Tokyo. He was able to meet with members of the Japan Council and also had opportunities of conferring with Japanese leaders concerning Christian work there, especially the Kingdom of God Movement under Kagawa's leadership.

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CHAPTER XI FIVE YEAR MOVEMENT L. D. Clo The Five Year Move1mnt is a prociuct of Origin the time. It is a movement of the Christian Church of China. Though officially voted for at the eeventh annual meeting of the National Christian Council, in Hangchow in May, 1929, it came through recommendations and resolutions of regional conferences held in Canton, 1\Ianchnria, Peiping, Hankow, and Shanghai. These con ferences represented the various Christian Churches, in most of the provinces. Since its inauguration on January lst, Participating 1930, the Christian Church throughout the Churches country has taken hold of the idea enthusias-tically and sympathetically. Almost everywhere throughout the country, we find some work in connection with the Five Year Movement going on. Nothing we know of has been so heartily accepted by all Christian churches in the country as this movement. Not only the churches which are members of the National Christian Council but other churches, such as those connected with the China Inland Mission and the Christian and Missionary Alliance, and many others are participating. Sufferings of Church The Christian Church in China has suffered a great deal during the past few years, through the opposition of the anti-Christian movement and through persecutions of the Bolshevik (Red) movement. Christians in general, and pastors and preachers in particular, were very much disappointed and discouraged for a time. Fear and pessimism ruled the minds of Christian leaders. They were at a, loss to know

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EMPHASES 127 what to do and how to do it. But the inspiring thought of the Five Year Movement came to some Christian leaders, and was generally accepted by all churches. This saved the situation. Christian leaders forgot their fear and pessimi~m in the midst of the various activities proposed for them. To the great surprise of the writer, during the year not one single letter came with any intimation of depression, rathe1 suggestions were sought how to do this work and that work, for literature, for information and advice on many phases of work in connection with the .Five Year Movement. Aim The aim of this Movement is twofold: 1. "The cultivation among Christians of a deeper knowledge of Christ, of a more intimate fellowship with Him, and of a more courageous following of Him in all the relationships of life." 2. "The carrying out of a vigorous evangelistic program in the hope that within the next five years the number of Christians will at least be doubled." Yet most attention has been given to the deepening of the spiritual life, in other words, the movement seeks for quality rather than quantity in Christian Church membership in Chinn. Six emphases have been proposed for the Emphases first period, namely, Evangelism, Religious Education, Literacy, Christianizing the Home, Stewardship, Church, and Youth. A special committee has been appointed for each of the six emphases, both in the National Christian Council, and in the various other church organizations. Some undertake these tasks under their own church committees, and some organize interchurch district and provincial committees. In most of the larger cities like Peiping, Hankow, Canton, Shanghai, etc., there are such inter-church organizations. I do not mean to say that every church has taken up all these tasks, though some of them have, but most of the churches

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128 RELIGIOUS EDUCATION take the one or two of the six emphases they feel are most urgently needed in their districts. For instance, some cities give more time to literacy work, others to the home, while in still other~ more attention has been given to evangelistic work. Methods of Promotion Various ways and means have been used for the promotion of different lines of work. The most effective are retreats, conferences and institutes. Many retreats have been held, since the Five Year Movement was started, and Christian leaders as well as laymPn have found great help in attending them. They tend to deepen the spiritual life, as well as to give a better understanding of the teaching and life of Jesus Christ. The tendency in China is year by year toward the holding of more retreats for laymen. Special con ferences have been arranged such as those for evangelistic work, religious education, Christianizing the home, and literature. Some of these national; some regional. Several institutes have already been conducted under the leadership of the most experienced and well-known Christian workers on evangeli!'m, literacy, home, stewardship and youth. Religious Education As religious edu0ation is still in an experimental period, it has been thought that a more thorough study of the field is needed, and therefore a special commission was organized at the request of some leading Christian churches, consisting of Dr. J. L. Corley, a representative of the World Sunday School Association; Dr. C. S. Miao, General Secretary of the China Christian Educational Association; Miss Alice H. Gregg, of t,he Committee on Religious Education of the General Synod of the Chung Hwa Sheng Kung Hwei; Rev. S. S. Ding, of the Religious Education Department of the Methodist Church for conferences in Fukien; and Rev. R. D. Rees, a Secretary of Religious Education of the National Christian Council. Several cities have been visited, and by next August when this deputation hopes to complete its study, a national conference on this subject will be calleq,

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LITERATUHE 129 Rural Work Christian leaders have been finding the most fruitful field for the Five Year Movement in rural districts. It woukl be a great pity if methods for the work in urban centers were used also in rural districts without discrimination. Therefore, Dr. K. L. Butterfield was especially invited to come to China to study rural conditions, and to give suggestions based upon his rich experience in America and in India. He and Mr. Chang Fu-Jiang, secretary on rural work of the National Christian Council, are making special studies along this line in several provinces, in the hope that definite recommendations may evolve from their combined study and investigation. Supreme Need The above work will be quite futile unless the life of each Christian really becomes Christlike. Consequently great attention has been given to the empha8izing of the Christian viewpoint, and to the development of the Christian life of each individual person professing to be a Christian. Such emphasis may be seen in the prayer adopted for the Five Year Movement., namely, "Revive Thy Church, Oh Lord, beginning with me." Through the enrichment of individual life, its expression will be seen in the betterment of home-life and church-life, and possibly Christian school life as well. The Nat.ional Christian Council is trying to Literature render help through literature prepared for the promotion of different emphases, through bulletins which try to give information regarding the work of various center1:1, and through visitations of its secretaries to important points. It is very encouraging to note that the National Christian Council has never been so busy in meeting calls from the churches as it has found itself dming the past year. This signifies sound health.

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CHAPTER XII CATHOLIC CHURCH IN CHINA, 1930 G, de Jonghe Beginnings in China The Catholic Chmch, the Kingdom of God in this world, although not of the world, is like a ve1y small seed which cast in the field takes root and grows up until it becomes a tree. In July, 1246, John de Plano Carpini, Franciscan, arrived at Karakarum, sent by the Pope to sow the seed of the Divine Word among the Tartars in accordance with the command of Our Lord; "Go teach all nations.'' The seed sown in China has grown into a tree, it is the life and growth of this tree during 1930 which we are going to study in this article. The Catholic Church has always for its :aiive motto: "Due in Altum." We can testify 5 ops that during the course of this year, in spite of persecution, wars, and fa.mine she has again lived np to her motto, seeing that six new missions we1e founded, three of which have been entrusted to the care of the Native Clergy, Wanshien, Shunking and Yachow, making a total of thirteen missions under the care of Chinese Pastors. The founding of native missions iR the natural evolution of the missionary work. It would be erroneous to believe that these missions were established through necessity. No, the native missions of Szechwan, for example, were ready three years ago, and only awaited the nomination of their Titulars. Unity of Doctrine These missions, although governed by Chinese, remain in constant relation with the Apostolic Delegate, and through him with the Holy See on which depend all the churches of the world. These missions, then, do not run.the risk of losing the unity of doctrine and of going astray, for the Pastors "'ere

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OHINESE OATHOLIOS ABROAD 131 named by the Pope, and the Delegate exe1cises the same vigilance over these churches as he does over those which are still entrusted to foreigners. Experience has shown that missions _well can be governed by Chinese Bishops and priests, and the Church will continue to do what is done in every country. Even in missions still directed by foreign Bishops, the Chinese priests occupy important posts, such as, directors of colleges and superiors of small seminaries. The ecclesiastical seminaries never theless will remain for a long time under the care of foreigners. Intellectual Life The intellectual movement has this year been extremely intense. Ten catholic students returned from abroad with diplomas of European and American universities. 'l'hey will give new impulse to the aRsociations of Catholic Action and of Catholic Youth. Some of them are teaching in our univer sities and colleges. The Catholic publishers of China have been very active and some very valuable works have come from their presses. The publishing press of Zikawei has published works of theology, philosophy, and sociology. Amongst these works let us mention the second edition of the "San Min Chu I" by Father D'Elia. Of this the Chinese Government has ordered 5,000 copies for propaganda purposes. This work has been translated into 1nglish and will be published at the Catholic Press, Wuchang. The whole exposition of the subject was made in the light of Catholic Doctrine without taking sides; with sincerity but also without making any compromise whatever with error. The Social Code has likewise been translated into Chinese and published at Zikawei. In the scientific sphere we may also mention a geography of Father Joiion and a large map which shows the Catholic missions of China. Nearly all these works are due to the Sinological Bureau of Zikawei. The printing press of Tsinanfu has published an apologetic written in the modern style, and at the

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132 OA'fHOLIC EDUOA'fION Wuchang printing press the "Hierarchia Franciscana in Sinis," which relates the history of the ll,ranciscans in China during the period from 1307 to 1928. The Nazareth printing press at Hongkong from January lst to June 30th printed 136,540 volumes. The Synodal Comission has continued to publish with the same success, the Digest of the Synodal Commission, a monthly review published in Chinese. This rnme Com mission has just re-edited the Summa Theologica of St. Thomas, which was translated into Chinese by Father Buglio (1606-Hi82) ; four volumes have already appeared. 'l'his work comes at a favorable time, and China during the period of its renaissance will find in it a sure guide, as "After the Apostles and the first doctors none spread more light than St. Thomas.'' In the sphere of education the Catholic Education Church has preserved her whole position intact and, in some place;;, has even progressed in an appreciable manner. The "L' Aurore" University has given instruction to 520 students, The Catholic University of Peiping, which has just been barely organized, with its three faculties of letters, sciences, and pedagogy, and its secondary school, had, in October, 1930, 699 students. 'l'he Tientsin University had, as in previous years, from 120 to 130 students. In Shantung the Catholic schools did not suffer so much, in spite of the anti-Christian campaign against educational establishments. In the south, except the provinces where the Communists are the masters, the schools are developing normally. In Mongolia they are encouraged by the local authorities, and in Manchuria parents have continued to send their children to Catholic schools. The decrees issued by Nanking concerning Educational education, instead of discouraging Catholics, Regulations have only enlivened the apostolic spirit amongst the forces of Catholic Action and Catholic Youth. This latter Association has not been afraid to issue a

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RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 133 pamphlet to the whole of Qhina, denouncing these decrees as being contrary to the natural law, the constitution, and the principles of Dr. Sun Wen. The young men of China want religious instruction in Catholic schools, and the liberty of assisting at ceremonies in the educational establishments. This same association has also issued two pamphlets against Communism, and Catholic Action during the past months has distributed pamphlets on the necessity of liberty of education, and the necessity of studying religion. Voluntary Religious fostruction That clause of the decrees which requires that the study of religion be optional in the secondary and higher schools, and that it be given outtiide the hours for class, does not frighten U8, because this manner of acting has already been introduced into a good number oi Catholic schools and that for several years. Our Catholic students know their duty, and if there is a religioufi course, their con science tells them that they must study it in order to get instruction on all that has regard to the salvation of their souls. This voice of conscience is better than any rule or regulation. The same thing may be said concerning assistance at religious ceremonies; no one has ever been forced to attend. The Encyclical of Pope Pius XI on educaEncyclical on tion which appeared in January was transEducation lated into Chinese. It is the charter of Christian education. It recalls the great principles of education; the rights of parents which come before those of the state; the rights of the Church which are divine; and last the good resnlts which are produced by .a harmonious collaboration between the Church and State. Catholic Teaching On the quest.ion of teaching the Church will show herself uncompromising. It is not a Sino-foreign question, but solely one which concerns the faith of 2,500,000 Catholics and the future of the Church in China. Chinese Catholics are desirous of

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134 INDIGENIZATION submitting to registration, to inspection, and will act in accordance wHh the government program, provided they are left the liberty to practise religion, and to have instruction in this branch of human knowledge which is a true science, and the science par excellence. The governments who attack the Catholic schools forget that it is thfa same Church which has from early centuries given to society the most of its learned men, and that formerly the Chinese emperors had recourse to the Jesuit Fathers in order to be instructed in western sciences. 'L'he real establishments of euperior learning are the original work of the Church and without parallel outside of herself. For irnitance, we may mention the school of Alexandria which_ was founded before the third century. At the fall of the Roman Empire it was the Catholic monks who preserved the treasures of ancient literature; the Benedictine Abbeys were "the homes of sacred and classical culture, the peaceful oases of the spirit, planted in the West, whilst the exterior world resounded with the sound of arms and returned to barbarism.'' Study of Classics The Apostolic Delegate, in order to continue the t.radition of the Church, sent out, in August of the present year, a circular to all the Bishops of China, instructing them to follow the directions of the government in all matters dealing with the study of the modern language, but he insisted also on the study of the classics. Artistic Life The Catholic Church faithful to its artistic tradition, in the places where the cadre is favourable, endeavors always to construct her churches in keeping with the style of the country, at the same time introducing all the adaptations which are essential to the disposal of the interior. The Peking Catholic University is a masterpiece in Chinese style, planned by 'the Benedictine artist, Dom Gresnigt. A seminary at Hongkong and another at Kaifeng are in the course of construction; they will be built in the Chinese sty le. As to religious imagery a

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OATHOLIO CHARITY 135 formula has been found to reconcile the doctrine with the Rtyle of the comitry, and thus we possess a collection of images, which whilst recalling religious truths also please the Chinese Christians, and remove the prejudice that Catholicism is a foreign religion. The first churches of Rome at the peace of Constantine were nothing but pagan temples from which superstition had been driven out. Cht1rch and Charity Works of charity, without noise, have done much in relieving every kind of misery. These have been in imitation of Our Lord who, before preaching, healed the sick. In the regions oppressed by war, the Sisters and even the Missioners were able to aid thousands of wounded. At Chengchow (Honan alone) thousands of wounded soldiers were cared for and some hundreds even received the Sacrament of Baptism. The communists of Kiangsi had their wounded looked after by the Fathers and Sisters taken as hostages from Kianfu. The Catholic Church has organized in China all the works of charity which em brace absolutely every kind of human misery. Each mission possesses some of these works. We believe, nevertheless, that the best and most complete is St. Joseph's Hospice, Shanghai, founded and directed by a well-known Catholic, Mr. Lo Pah Hong. There are to be found, in fact, more than 1500 miserable being,, from every walk of life. The spiritual good done is fully in keeping with the amount of exertion expended, and God alone knows the number of souls saved as a result of this work. We may point out also the lazar-house of Shek-lung (Canton) which since 1913 has given hospitality to 3864 lepers, and at the present moment has 685 under its care. Although within it there is complete freedom of conscience all the inmates die baptized, In general charitable institutions have been the most respected whether by

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136 l\IARTYRS soldiers, bandits, or Communists, and it is these works which have given the most spiritual fruit.s. During the present year the Catholic Martyrs Church has had to deplore the massacre of Mgr. Versiglia, Apostolic Vicar, and Bishop of Shiucbow, Kwangtung, of Mgr. Soggiu, Apostolic Prefect of Hinganfu, Shensi. One foreign missioner and two Chinese priests have also been murdered by brigands and Communists. Thirt_y-six missioners and ten sisters were taken by the brigands and held for a more or less long period of time. In December the1e still remained ten missioners and five sisters in the hands of the brigands. On October 4th, Mgr. Mignani, coadjutor Bi~hop of Kianfu, was taken by the Communists, led bound through the town, and cruelly beaten. After several days of captivity he was released in order to go to Shanghai to obtain the price of the ransom of the other missioners held in captivity. The Church weeps with her children who are rn suffering, but at the same time she hopes that these sufferings will fertilize the soil of China which for centuries has already been watered with the blood of martyrs. The future harvest will be the fruit and reward of the missioners' many sacrifices, because during all the time of sacrifice there was sent forth the light: and perhaps we are not far distant from the day when the Chinese people will at last understand our object and willingly respond to the love we show them. The Divine Master inaugurated the Catholic Apostolate with suffering, and the whole history of the Church is a continued series of combats followed by triumphs. This nevertheless is how Father Crocq of the Paris Foreign Mission, missioner in Kwangsi who was captured by the bandits It,ebruary 2nd, bound, cruelly beaten, and made to m:.dergo the torture of the wooden horse, then condemned to death and afterwards released March 18th, considers his case in a. letter sent to the Apostolic Delegate:

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PERSECUTION 137 "What joy for a son after his suffcringa, to receive the encouragement and especially the benediction of his affectionate Father! It is indeed to receive here below the hundredfold promised by Our Lord to his apostles. The death sentences, the tortures endnrcd, the long months of painful captivity before my nnhoped for liberation, all that is already forgotten and it will all serve, I have no doubt, for the greater glory of God and the spread of his kingdom in this immense country of China, which I love with my whole heart, and which I love still more now that I have suffered for her. After having sown in tears others more numerous will come to work in the vineyard of the Lord and reap the harvest in joy. During the turmoil I have lost everything, absolutely everything. My enemies left me nothing but my life and my good will with shattered health ....... We could give passages just as touching from other letters; a bo.Jk would not suffice for the purpose. The Catholic missioners have a tradition which does not change, as a mi~sioner justly stated in 1927: "They wish to continue to write the history of the Chinese missions always in the same style." It is the style of the first missioners, the apostles and all their successors. Property D~stroyed We could besides draw up a catalogue, of the residences broken into and looted, of churches destroyed, of schools robbed of all their belongings, and we have not the least hesitation in ad
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138 CHINESE CATHOLIC ORGANIZATIONS during the recent troubles, charges your Lordship, in His August Name, to bestow on all, the praise they have so well merited, and convey to them his Apostolic benediction, with special mention for Mgr. O'Shea C. M. ancl Father Keng (Signed: Pacelli)." Fa i R II f The Pope having learned that the locusts m n-e e had destroyed the crops in the region of Sianfu, sent to the Vicar Apostolic of the same region, the sum of 60,000 lire for the relief of the unfortunate people. In spite of this general disorder in China, ~:;nizations new works have been founded, and others already prospering have advancefl into a new stage of development. Amongst the former we may mention the congregation of the rnsciples of the Lord, a new congregation specially for natives whose first ten novices have taken their vows in religion. 'l'he Associations of Catholic Action, and of Catholic Young Men, are being organized with appropriate methods. We desire, in fact, that these associations Rhall not stray from the end in view which is purely apostolic and reli gious, that is why the bishops will only permit foundations where pious, instructed, and devoted elements can be found, as they alo'ne can be useful to us. It is absolutely forbidden to introduce politics into the associations, although the Church leaves each one the fullest freedom in his private opinions. Six religious Sisters of the Order of St. Benedict arrived in Peiping in September, in order to prepare the foundation of a university for girls, which will be attached to the Catholic University directed by the American Bene dictine monks. Seminaries Vocations to the religious and ecclesiastical state have become more and more numerous, which means that the religious life is becoming more intensified among the old Christians. Four new regional

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CHINESE STUDENTS IN ROME 139 seminaries were founded thjs year; Hongkong, Hankow, Tayuanfu and Chengtu. This la:'lt, which was opened iu September, has eighty-Lhree philosophers and theologians. Fifteen seminaristA and three priests have gone to Rome in order to secure
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140 RELATIONS WITH AUTHORITIES In other parts of China, civil war, and the Obstacles Communists have not ceased to bring de,.iola tion on the people, resulting in a ces~ation of the work of evangPlization. In Shantung, however, in the vicariate of Yenchowfu alone, the number of baptisms of adults was 2107, not counting 903 adults baptized on their deathbeds. In the missions oppressed by the Communists the Christians in general have shown themselves courageous and defections are few. They have been supported by prayer and the sacraments, and the example, given by the priests and bishops has been for them a great source of strength and comfort. Relations between the Government and the Relations with Church have been cordial. Last January l\Igr. Authorities C S h ostantm1 went to zec wan to consl'crate the Chinese Bishops. He met with a wonderful reception and was treated with honor by the Chinese authorities at every place. On the occasion of the festivities celebrated in Nanking in November, the Apostolic Delegation was officially invited. On November 20th Mgr. Costantini consecrated the successor of Mgr. Versiglia. at Shiuchow CK wangtung). The Government did everything that was neceseary to secure the protection of the representative of the Pope during his journey. The conversations which were exchanged on this occasion showed good-will and even sympathy towards the Catholic Church. In one big center the Governor notified the Bishop to continue to develop his scholastic works just as in the past, brgging him not to be alarmed at the official letters which must be written according to the law ... Conclusion Christ. The missioners have suffered greatly, in that they have imitated Our Lord Jeeus This portion of suffering is the pledge of future

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CATHOLIC S'l'ATISTICS 141 conquest. The Church has, as in the pas1, been sustained, aided, enlightened and consoled by her Divine Founder who has promised to be with her to the end of time. The Pastors and faithful have, in praye1 and the sacraments, found the strength and the courage to continue their meritorious work, which whilst opening Paradise to a great number of souls, helps in the moral and intellectual uplift of the Chinese people. Missioners, in large numbers, have come to replace those who have succumbed : these numbered in 1929, 2,010; there are today 2,088; the number of conversions, which last year was only 47,000 will this year amount to 50,000. What St. Hilary said in the fourth century is verified once more; "The Church counts her victories by her wounds, is better understood in attack, and asserts her empil-e when she is abandoned." STATISTICS OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN CHINA, 1930 Personnel Missions Bishops, Vic. Apont.. Bishops, Coadjutors Prefects Apost. Superiors Priests Brothers, For. cong. Brothers Native Congr. Religious sisters Foreign Con gr. Native Congr. Seminarists. Theolog. ,, in Roma ,, Philos Little-seminarists Catechists, Men ,, Women Catholics Con versions and baptisms Foreign 86 61 8 14 11 2,088 314 1,327 ) ) (1930) Chinese 13 9 4 1,417 332 92 687 1,fl54 446 30 310 4,135 6,254 4,192 2,502,979 50,086 Total 99 70 8 18 1l 4,922 646 92 2,014 1,954: 446 30 310

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142 EDUCATION AND PHILANTHROPY \V ORKS OF EDUCATION Schools Students Catechetical 8,943 168,232 Lower primary 4,218 76,919 Higher primary 297 20,760 Middle 74 15,913 For training catechists 38 1,361 Teachers' training 24 1,578 Universities 3 1,349 Printing Presses 9 Digests and newspapers in Chinese 22 WoRKS OF MERCY Hospitals or Hospices Dispensaries 0 { Boys rphanages Girls Lazar houses Holy Childhood Establishments 217 738 347 7 Guests 66,823 6,126,041 { 1,997 17,454 778 60,024

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CHAPTER XIII CHURCH AND UNITY A. R. Kepler Present Status Three years have gone by since the subject of Christian Unity was given consideration in THE CHINA CHRIS'rIAN YEAR BooK. In the 1928 volume there was an article on ''Movements for Chri'!tian Unity," in which the progress of Christian Unity was traced from the beginning of Protestant mission work in China up to 1928. The scope of this article, therefore, is to outline what ha.'! been accompli'lhed in realizing Christian Unity since 1928, and brie!ly outline the present status of church unity within the Christian l\f ovement in China. China Baptist Alliance In August, 1930, after careful preliminary consideration among the constituent parts there was organized, at a meeting held in Shanghai, the China Baptist Alliance. This Alliance, as the name suggests, is not a bringing together of the widely scattered regional Baptist conventions into one organic united Chinese Baptist Church. It is a loose federation of these regional conventions consisting almost wholly of the churches affiliated with the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society and the Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention. Twelve annual Baptist conventions constitute the members of this Alliance. Its constitution provides for a biennial meeting, with an Ad Interim Committee which is to meet annually. The publication of the Trite Li,,qht llfagrizine, the China Baptist Publication Society, Shanghai College and a projected joint home mission effort in West China con stitute the major projects and activities in which the constituent conventions of the Alliance unitedly participate. 8 t' t C The China Baptist Council, which consists of a!a (S OUnCfl representatives from three COnVentiOnS Of the Church Unity Baptist churches in China affiliated with the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society

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144 BAP'l'ISTS AND UNITY (North), met in Swatow in November, 1930. In his address to this Council on the "Relation of Chinese Baptists to other Denominations and Union Movements," Dr. T. C. Bau, Executive Secretary of the East China Convention, said: "Union is very important, particularly in China today. The Chinese Chmch is badly divided into groups and denominations. For the sake of the Church itgelf it ought to be united, because Chri'lt told us that we are to be one. \Ve agree on many things where we can really unite and Christ is much stronger than any dividing force. The whole of China needs one Christian force to fight the battle and win the Chinese people to Christ.'' . "Whenever the time r.omes in the future (for some form of organic union) it may be in the very near future, I want to see the Chine9e Church and her leaders loyal to Christ and the Baptist missionaries serving the Church loyal to l hrist rather than to their denominational constituencies. We ought rather to listen to God for His guidance than to any group in China or in an:r other country.'' This Council adopted the following findings on coopera tion and union: "We rejoice in the spirit of cooperation and sense of unity in Christ which obtains generally among Christians in China. One of the best by-products of the distresges of the past few years and the anti-Christian movement has been the essential unity which has developed among Christians with out regard to their denominational affiliaiions. Outside opposition ha.s driven U.'3 closer together. For this we are thankful. ''We declare ourselves ready to cooperate with any and all forces working for righteousness, and especially those who witness for our common Lord. We will not sacrifice the truth as we see it, but we do not fear contact and cooperation with other Chri.'ltian bodies, who may see things differently from ourselve.'3. We deeply deplore anything which savors of

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CHURCH OF CHRIST 145 factional or sectarian competition between different branches of the Church of Christ, for in this time of trial and opposition such a course is doubly unthinkable. '' As to organic union with others we feel that the essential thing is spfritual unity whose fruit is love, con fidence, and cooperation. But we do not now deem it wise to-enter any organic union as yet projected. For the future we are striving in humbleness of spirit to keep our minds open and to await the guidance of the Spirit of God as He leads us and others." Canadian f\lkthodist Church Since the 1928 report was written, the l\fei Dao Huei in Szechwan, which is the fruit of the missionary efforts of the Canadian Methodist Church, now of the United C 'hurch of Canada, has voted to unite with the Church of Chri'lt in China. This Church consi'lts of ten district as.'lociations and two conferences with over 7,000 commtmicants. L, rvl. s. Churches; North China In October, 1930, the churches in North China affiliated with the London Missionary Society likewise voted to become one with the United Church of Christ in China. This brings into the united fellowship four District Associations with a total communicant membership of over 4,000. Negotiations are now in process to make effective these resolutions which were passed by these two above-named Communions. Church of Christ Since the previous report on church unity in China appeared in the YEAR BooK, the General Assembly of the Church of Christ in China is the only one of the so-called national churches in China, which has met and thus had opportunity to declaw her position with regard to church unity. The address of its General Secretary, which was read to the Second General Assembly and unanimously adopted by that body, contains the following statements on church unity, which may be

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146 CORPORATE UNITY taken to express the position of the Church of Christ in China with regard to the still fuller realization of church unity in this country. "Our Church was born through our common conviction that nothing short of a United Church could satisfy the will of God, could adequately witness to the truth of the Gospel of Jesus Chri'lt, our Lord, or would be sufficient for the task of the Church in China in this day of national reconstruction. "Let us not forget that the Chinese Church in the National Conference in 1922 declared itself as follows: 'Denominationalism, instead of being a source of inspiration, has been and is a source of confugion, bewilder ment and inefficiency. We recognize most vividly the crying need of the Christian salvation for China today, and we firmly believe that it is only the United Church that can save China, for our task is great and enough strength can only be attained through solid unity. '' 'We believe that there is an essential unit.y among all Chinese Christians, and that we are voicing the sentiment of the whole C;hinese Christian body in claiming that we have the desire and the possibility to effect a speedy realization of corporate unity.' "The Church of Christ in China is an effort to realize the aspirations of Chinese Christians as above expressed. "When the General Assembly was organized in 1927, it st:ined mightily the hearts of Christian men and women in the West. There was deep rejoicing everywhere in the fact that such a large body of Christians was able actually to realize organic Christian unity. But we must remember that our objective has not yet been achieved; that our work is not nearly completed; that it is our task to pray and to plan and to work until all the different denominational groups within the Christian Movement in China have made their contri bution to a natiqn-wide United Church. If we cannot achieve

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PRINCIPLES OF UNITY 147 more unity than has already_been achieved, we shall have to acknowledge in deep sonow that this great promise of prac tical church unity has been impossible of realization. Guiding Principles "The road which we mapped out for U'3 to travel toward the achievement of church unity has these characteristics: .. "The unity is to be achieved not on minimurn.'3, but on maximums. Denominational groups are to become con stituent parts of the Church of Christ in China, not by being obliged to discard those distinctive teachings and practices which have been their treasured heritage in the past and which God through his Spirit has blessed, but on the othrn: hand, we are to seek to have each enter into this United Church, bringing their distinctive contribution for the enrich ment of all, each also being enriched by the distinctive con tribution which all the other:3 rn.ake. "To make this first principle effective, there is a second principle which has contributed to the measure of church unity which we have already attained, and which principle we must continue to observe, --the recognition of each other's faith and order and ordinances as being mutually Christian and bearing the seal of God's approval and power. "The third principle which we have employed to guide us on this untrodden way toward church unity is the prin ciple of unity without uniformity, demanding only such uniformity as is necessary for orderly administration, per mitting such elasticity in administration and organization as to permit experimentation and spontaneity on the part of our Chinese Church, to discover ultimately a form of church organization which ,vill at the same time embody those features which have been the eBBe of the Church throughout these 1900 years, combined with such bene eBBe as will make it truly indigenous and expressive of Chinese life and culture. By following this principle, the Church of Christ in China will ultimately achieve a uniformity, but it will be a spontaneous, living uniformity of belief and organization and worship, instead of being mechanical, lifeless and superimposed.

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148 CREEDAL STATEMENTS Practical Problems "There are some denominational groups which are he.'litant about becoming members of the Chmch of Christ in China because formal creed subscription is required of office bearers in the local churches and district associations, while the historic position cf their own denomination has been averse to such formal creed subscription. There i'l no doubt that such denomina tional groups are just as loyr.l to the religion of Jesus and have retained true doctrine just as successfully as those who hi'ltori.cally have practi'led creedal subscription. Would not the three principles above enumerated lead us to admit such denominational groups as constituent parts of the Church of Christ in China, permitting them to make formal creedal subscription an optional procedure? This would enable such churches and district as.goci.9.tions ecs feel the importance of creedal subscription, still to observe such a practice, while those who do not recognize the value in such a procedure could refrain from having their officers conform to thi'l practice; and finally, out of the friendly interchange of their mutual experiences under the guidance of the Spirit of Truth, there would ultimately emerge a common practice. Statement of Faith ''Likewise, there are churches who feel very strongly that the Church of Christ in China should express its Christian faith somewhat more at length than fa now contained in the brief Bond of Union. To meet. the desire of this group it has been suggested to adopt as an expression of the faith and message of the United Chmch the Statement of Faith, which was formulated by the World Conference on Faith and Order which met at La~anne and was later on embodied in the Message by the enlarged meeting of the International ~Ti'lsionary Council at Jerusalem. "Then, there are other denominational groups in China which desire very much to become constituent parts of the Church of Christ in China but wish to continue to maintain intimate :fraternal relationships with their mother churches of the West. Would it not be possible for the General Assembly to declare itself favorable to the admission of such

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AD'.\IINIS'rRATIVE UNITY 149 communions to the Church of Christ in China, while per mitting them still to maintain all the refationships with their mother churches of the \, short of administrative control and organization, respecting which they should be an integral part of the Church of Christ? In fact, if the older churchts of the West should still de.gire to have their younger churches participate in their ecclesiastical councils without requiring reciprocal courtesies, would there be any cogent reasons why such an arrangement should not be permissible? "There are denominational groups who are Admi,.H~tl'ative hesitant about becoming a part of the Church of lnteg1ahoa Ch h" b th d" ffi l'. th rist 111 (' ma ecause 01 e 1 cu cies 111 e we.y of immediate administrative integration with district associations and synods in regions where such churche.g and our churches are both found. lt will readily be seen that complete integration can very likely be achieved most success fully not through an immediate merging of the two organiza tions, but by a gradual process of integration along some such line.g as these: "(1) The respective councils might agree to hold their annual meetings at the same time and place, arranging for joint sessions of devotional and inspirational nature. "(2) A1Tangements might be made for each to have one or two ex-officio members without vote on their respective executive or administrative committee. "(3) A co-ordinating council might be organizr.d, to which gradually more and more of the activities of the two separate councils could be refe1Ted until circumstances make possible the realization of complete administrative unity." Resolutions: Church of Christ As a further indication of the readiness and desire of the Church of Christ in China to negotiate with other communions in China with a view to still fuller realization of church unity, the following resolutions from the Report of the Committee on Church Unity adopted by the General

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150 ORGANIO UNITY Assembly at its second triennial meeting in Canton in October, 1930, a1e worthy of record: "We believe that nothing short of the complete organic unity of the disciples of Christ will satisfy the desire of our Lord who prayed that we might all be one, that the world might believe. We believe that the chal lenge of the present situation in China calls for a faring together of the great task of winning China for Christ. Yet confronting such overwhelming responsibility and a task of such magnitude, we find ourselves not yet fully united. Therefore, resolved that this General Assembly send greetings to such churches as have expressed a desire for unity and al~o to such as have 1,ent greetings and fraternal delegates to this General Assembly and that we reaffirm the action of the last General Assembly as follows: "(a) The Church of Christ in China unequivocably affirms its loyalty to Jesus Christ, its Lord, and faithfully conserves the fundamental doctrines of Evangelical Chris tia.nity. ''(b) Although the Church of Christ in China has a commonly accepted bond of union, nevertheless it has the sincerest respect for the freedom of the local church in matters of belief. ( c) The Church of Christ in China solemnly accepts Christ's holy teachings concerning the unity of His dis ciples and in order also to fulfil the aspirations of the Chinese Church, we are ready and willing to enter into negotiations to achieve organic union with all other evangelical churches who are of a like mind concerning unity. We extend a heartfelt invitation to all who share this desire with us." Following these resolutions the General Council of the Church of Christ in China is directed to approach certain particular denominations because of earlier negotiations

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CHURCH COOPERATION 151 with them in regard to church unity, urging further negotiations with the desire that unity with them may be achieved. "To the North China Kung Li Hui, we send special greetings and reaffirm our readiness to discuss with them any difficulties that may exist in uniting with us with a view to overcoming the same and thus make it possible for the United Church to be enriched through their integration with our fellowship. "ro the Methodist Episcopal Church, this Assembly sends special greetings and welcomes the already expressed desire on the part of both our own Church and the Methodist Church to cooperate in the matter of religious education. We firmly believe that a closer union would be to the mutual benefit of both churches. We, therefore, instruct the General Council to take up with that body the matter of closer union. "To the churches affiliated with the Swedish Mission ary Union (Hupeh), we send special greetings and hope that they may soon see their way clear to become a corporate part of t.he Church of Christ in China. ''To the independent churches in various cities in China, such as Harbin, Peiping, Tientsin, Chefoo, Ts"inan, Tsingtao, Taiyua.n, we send hearty greetings. We covet for them and for ourselves closer fellowship in order that we may be mutually helpful to each other. Furthermore, the General Council is asked to take up with these independent churches the matter of a closer relationship and also to urge the synods, within whose bounds these churches !Lre located, to make closer contact with them in order to create better understanding and foster a desire for union. "To the churches affiliated with the English Baptist Missions in Shansi and Shensi, we send fraternal greetings. We have already had the privilege of welcoming the

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152 CHURCH FELLOWSHIP Baptist Churches of Shansi and Shensi as full members of the Church of Christ in China. ''To the American Baptist Churches we also send fraternal greetings and author:ze the General Council to take up with this communion the rnn.tter of closer fellowship in church work and, if possible, nnion. "To the Chinese churches scattered abroad and in the South Seas, especially those in Australia, New Zealand, United States, and Canada, the Church of Christ in China sends greetings. We thank them for their helpful cooperation, especially the churches connected with the Kwangtung Synod, and we pray with and for them that they may be kept strong in the faith and together work for the salvation of China." There has been no meeting of the General Anglicans Synod of the Chung Hwa Sheng Kung Hui (The Anglican Communion) since 1928. The meeting of the General Synod was held in April of 1931, which was too late to make it possible to include within this purview such act.ions as this communion took with regard to church unity. Lambeth Conference That definite action will be taken by the General Synod looking toward organic union with other churches in China may be expected in view of the pronouncements by the recent Lambeth Conference on this question of the unity of the Church. The Lambeth Conference, in giving consideration to this question, had before them definite proposals from the Anglican churches in India, Burma and Ceylon. These proposals took the form of a scheme for a union in South-India between the members of the South India United Church, The v\'esleyan Methodist Church and The Anglican Church in South-India. Since the pronouncements of the Lambeth Conference on the unity of the Church will largely determine the attitude the Chung Hwa Sheng Kung Hui will take toward any scheme for church

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UNION IN SOUTH INDIA 1.53 unity in China, in which that communion might parti cipate, we will insert pertinent pronouncements by the Lambeth Conference on this question: ( 1) Resolution re union in South India: "The Conference notes with warm sympathy that the project embodied in the proposed Scheme for Church Union in South India is not the formation of any fresh Church or Province of the Anglican Communion under new conditions, but seeks rather to bring together the distinctive elements of different Christian Communions, on a basig of sound doctrine and episcopal order, in a distinct Province of the Universal Church, in such a way as to give the Indian expression of the spirit, the thought and the life of the Church Universal. "We observe, further, as a novel featme in the South Indian Scheme, that a complete agreement between the uniting churches on certain points of doctrine and practice is not expected to be reached before the inauguration of the union; but the promoters of the scheme believe that unity will be reached gradually and more securely by the interaction of the different elements of the United Church upon one another. It jg only when the unification resulting from that inter action is complete that a final judgment can be pronounced bn the effect of the present proposals. Without attempting, therefore, to pronounce such judgment now, we express to our brethren in India our strong desire that, as soon as the negotiations are succe.g;;fully completed, the venture should be made and the union inaugurated. We hope that it will lead to the emergence of a part of the Body of Christ which will possesss a new combination of the riches that are His. In this hope we ask the churches of our communion to stand by our brethren in India, while they make this experiment, with generous good-will." (2) From the Encyclical Letter: "The general conception of the scheme is that these different elements will come together in one body, possessing

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154 ANGLICAN COMMUNION the traditional framework of faith and order which charuc terized the whole Church for so many centuries. Within this one body the constant intercourse of the different members will, it is hoped, gradually bring about a unity, in which all those things that are of God in their several traditions will be not only preserved but enriched by happy combination. This process cannot be initiated without sacrifices, and must, in its early stuge.g, involve anomalies and irregularities-a prospect which gives rise to seriou.g misgivings in many minds. But mi~gi.vings are outweighed by hope and by our trust in God's will to perfect His work of reconciliation. "We rejoice that one part of the Anglican Communion should be found ready to make this venture for a corporate union with certain non-Episcopal churches. We feel that in a sense our brethren in South endia are making this experi ment on behalf of the whole body of the Anglican churches. They are our pioneers in this direction of the movement for unity. The whole Communion will surely stand by them with earnest prayer and generous loyalty. But we are well aware that the constituency which we represent is not universally convinced about all the provisions of the Scheme, and wishes to see how it works out, before committing itself to definite approval. To meet this situation we have recommended to the churches concerned certain arrange ments which we desire to explain to our people in the clearest terms. "'rhe Anglican Communion is a group of churches bound together by very close tieil of history and tradition, doctrine and practice. After the union in South India, Anglicans who will be included in the United Church will not give up the use of the Prayer Book or discard any of the doctrines held in the Anglican churches. Yet the United Church in South India will not itself be an Anglican Church: it will be a distinct province of the Universal Church. It will have a very real intercommunion with the churches of the Anglican Communion, though for a time that intercommunion will be limited in certain directions by

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THE EPISCOPATE 155 their rulec1. Its Bishops will. be received as Bishops by thei:e churches. Its episcopally ordained ministers-a con tinually increa~ing number-will be entitled under the usual rule3 to administer the Communion in the churches of the Anglican Communion. Its communicants will be entitled to communicate with the churches of the Anglican Com munion, except in cases forbidden by the rules of these churches. On the other hand no right to minister in the churches of that Communion will be acquired by those ministers who have not been episcopally ordained. We will here in;,ert some of the pertinent features in the scheme for union in India to acquaint the churchmen and those interested in practical church unity in ( "hina between Anglican and non-conformists with the proposals which seem to satisfy conformi~ts and non-conformists in Sout.h India and to which the Lambeth Conference has given approval: The Episcopate ''The uniting churches, recognizing that the Episcopate, the councils of the presbyters and the congregation of the faithful must all have their appropriate places in the order of life of the United Church, accept in particular the h',:toric episcopate in a con stitutional form as part of their basis of union. But this acceptance does not bind the United Church to the acceptance of any particular theory concerning episcopacy, either as a qualification for the ministry, or as a determining factor in its relations with other churches. "The meaning in which the uniting churches thus accept a historic and constitutional episcopacy is that in the United Church: "(1) The bishops shall perform their functions in accordance with the customs of the Church, those functions being named and defined in the written constitution of the United Church: "(2) The bishops shall be elected, both the diocese concerned in each particular case and the authorities of the

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156 CONSTITUTIONAL EPISCOPATE United Church as a whole having an effective voice in their appointment; "(3) Continuity with the historic episcopate shall both initially and thereafter be effectively maintained, it being under,,tood that no particular interpretation of the fact of the historic epi;,copate is thereby implied or shall be demanded from any mini,,ter or member of the United Church; and "(4) Every ordination of presbyters shall be per formed by the laying on of hands of the bishop and presbyters, and all consecrations of bishops shall be per formed by bishop3, not less than three taking part in each con-ecration. 'rhe uniting churche3 declare that in making this provision it is their intention and determination in this manner to secure the unification of the ministry, but that the acceptance of this provision does not involve the denial of the validity or regularity of any other form of the ministry.'' ''The uniting churches agree: "(1) That the bishops of the dfoceses of the Initial Ministry Church of India, Burma and Ceylon which to be included in the United Church shall be accepted as bishops of the United Church, provided that they assent to the Basis of Union and accept the Constitution of the United Church; '' And that all the other ordained ministers oJ' the uniting churches in the area of the union shall be acknowl edged as ministers of the Word and of the Sacraments in the United Church, each retaining the standing (whether as a minister authorised to celebrate the Holy Communion, or as a deacon or a probationer) which he had before union in his own church, provided similarly that such minh1ters assent to the Basis of Union and accept the Constitution of the United Church; and "(2) Such bishop3 and other ministers shall, subject only to nece3sary restrictions in certain directions, retain (f'o far as the United Church is concerned) all rights and

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SPIRITUAL UNITY 157 liberties which t.hey previously posseased in the several uniting Churches. "(3) These bishops and other ministers, together with the bishops who will be com;ecrated at the inauguration of the union shall form the initial ministry of the United Church." "(1) The complete sphitual unity within Ministers and the Church in South India which is the aim of M~mbers the uniting churches will not be altained till all the members of the United Church are willing and wish ful to receive communion equally in all of its churches, and it is the resolve of the uniting churches to do all in theii power to that end. ''They recognise that the act of union will initiate a process of growing toget.her into one life and of advance towards that complete .spiritual unity. If during this process difficulties and anomalies arise, the United Church will be careful not to allow any over-riding of conscience by church authorities or by majorities; nor will it in its administrative acts knowingly tram.gre;,s the long-established t.raditions of any of the united churches. ''They believe that these ends can rightly be attained not by the framing of detailed regulations, but by as.
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158 EPISCOPAL ORDINATION a permanent ministry in the united churches will be an episcopally ordained '' For the thirty years succeeding the inauguration of the union, the ministers of any church whose missions have founded the originally separate parts of the United Church may be received a,, ministers of the United Church, if they are willing to give the same assent to the Basis of Union and the same promise to accept the Constitution of the United Church as will be required from persons about to be ordained or employed for t.he fir.,t time in that Church. After this period of thirt,y year.'l, the United Church will consider and decide the question of any further temporary exceptions to the general principle of an episcopally ordained ministry, provided that the iotatrni of those already received as ministers shall not thereby be affected." Joint Committee on Union The Joint Committee on Union has also proposed the consideration by the uniting churches of incorporating the following state ment in the Scheme of Union: "In view of the common desire to ca1Ty over from the uniting churches into the United Church all elements which may in any way contribute to the fullest expression of truths which have been valued in the Christian Church, it shall be permissible for Presbyters to join with the Bishops in the laying on of hand;; at the consecration of a Bio:hop; provided that it always be remembered and taught that the true Consecrator is God to whom prayer is made." "I. Of communicants and ministers in the United Church. "(a) Any communicant member of the United Church is at liberty to communicate in any church of the United Church: and any minister of the United Church is at liberty to minister and to celebrate the Holy Communion in any church of the United Church, subject only to the terms of the pledge.

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INTEROOMMUNION 159 "(b) Any communicant member of any church which is in fellowship with any of" the uniting churches is at liberty to communicate in any church of the United Church. "(c) Any minister of the United Church is at liberty to minister and to celebrate the Communion in any church of a Church with which any of the unith1g churches enjoys relations of fellowship, if he is invited to do so. "(d) Any minister of a Church with which the United Church has relations of fellowship, is at liberty to minister-. or to celebrate the Holy Communion in any church of the United Church, if he is invited to do so, subject to the provisions of the pledge for the protection of conscientious scruples." Intercommunlon "II. Of intercommunion with other churches. "(a) It is understood that the fellowship which exists between the uniting churches and other churches at present is not intended to be merely temporary but is to be a permanent fellowship, leading, it is hoped, to a worldwide union of the Church. "(b) It is expected that all the churches with which the United Church has relations of communion and fellowship will be willing to receive any communicant member of the United Church to communion as a visitor in any of their churches. "(c) It is understood that any member of the United Cnurch proposing to acquire permanent membership in any other church will be expected to comply with the rules of that church (e. g. as regards confirmation in churches which require it). "(d) It is understood that any minister of the United Church proposing to celebrate the Holy Communion or to

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160 CAUSES OF DIE1UNITY minister in any church of a Church with which the United Church is in communion and fellowship, will be bound by the regulations of that Church in regard to his ministra tions, in the same way as the ministers of that Church are bound." Causes of Disunity Where there is a lack of enthusiasm among certain denominations for church unity, we find it is not due to those forces which have created and maintained denominationalism in the West; such as (a) conviction regarding the historic creeds and confessions; (b) the observance of definite rites such as immersion vs. sprinkling in baptism; (c) a definite type of church polity as having exclusively New Testament and therefore divine sanction. 'I'hese are not thfl motivating causes that are keeping the Chinese churches from be coming one. Far more potent obstacles are: (a) a deep sense of loyalty to the mother church of the West who might not gladly consent to the separation from her by the younger church; (b) the fiscal dependance of the younger church upon the older church with the fear that the subsidy might be greatly diminished, if not terminated, should union with other church groups in China be effected; (c) satisfaction with the administrative status quo of the existing organization inhibiting any attempt to adventure in new administrative relationships which union would entail. Nevertheless the problems and tasks con fronting the Christian Movement in China are becoming increasingly of such a nature as to make possible successful solution and adequate achievement only by means of church unity.

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PART IV. MISSIONS AND MISSIONARIES CHAPTER XIV PRESENT SERVICES OF MISSIONARIES J, Leighton Stuart New Questions Whether missionaries have ever rendered any real service to China has from the beginning been disputed or denied by ciitics among our fellow-nationals resident here or in our home lands, and always for reasons varying with the times have we been objects of hostility or suspicion among Chinese of all types. But during the past three or four years there has been, perhaps for the first time, a general questioning among ourselves as to our function and future in this land. The political upheavals which, in 1927, led to such widespread evacuation and retirement from the country pro duced also a mental reaction among missionaries and their most loyal supporters which has been more disturbing to our cause than civil war and banditry. Not only so but in the western supporting constituencies there is a growing distrust as to the whole enterprise revealing itself, for instance, in the falling receipts of many mission boards. Chinese Leaders This question of our service a.sserts itself in another searching form when we contrast our present circumstances with those which led our predecessors to these and other unevangelized regions. The answer was very simple then. There was literally no other wn.y in which such peoples could receive the Christian Message except by foreign missionaries settling among them; learning their language and manner

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162 WHY MISSIONARIES? of life; preaching, teaching, healing, orgamzrng, superintending, and otherwise mediating the Gospel as tidings to those who otherwise could not have heard it. Following this stage came all the varied institutional activities of a developing movement which again depended on us, more absorbingly as it grew in size and became more complex. But now! New inventions and increasing ease of intercourse have long since enabled the Chinese to appropriate whatever knowledge possessed by others they regard as having interest or value for themselves. They have also proven their capacity to communicate such knowledge and to organize into agencies for preserving or applying it to human need. Why then missionaries any longer? If the vehicles we have constructed for maintaining and extending Christian truth are not by this time able to carry on independently of us, when will they be? If enough Chinese inJividuals have not yet been sufficiently inspired and trained to take over the task, is there any likelihood that our continued presence among them will ever result in such an outcome, or would this follow all the more effectively if we gave them a chance by withdrawing entirely? Is this not to be expected in the surging nationalism of recent years and its quite reasonable insistence on a personnel and a perva
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PLACE OF MISSIONARIES 163 1. "What effect have recent changes in China had upon the work or setvice of missionaries? 2. "How far, if at all, have missionaries been freed from purely administrative work? 3. "Upon what special type of work do m1ss10naries now tend to concentrate their efforts? 4. "Is the. service that the missionaries are now rendering mainly in connection with the church, the school, or some other institution. 5. ''What aspects of present missionary service might, in your judgment, appeal most to missionary recruits at the home base? Confused Situation Replies liave at time of writing been received from over one-third of the number, but even among these few the wide variation of opinion and experience gives tantalizing evidence of how confused the situation is. Three executives of important groups, all centering in Shanghai but mutually most dissimilar, agree in general that their relations with Chinese Christian workers and believers continue about as hitherto except that there is a gradual assumption of more responsibilit,y by Chinese with fullest encouragement from missionaries, that the latter are carrying on, with this one desirable reservation, very much as in the past and will continue to be needed, that in short matters as regards the place of missionaries are very much as they have been and should be. Others testify to the disturbing anxieties in the minds of many mis:3ionaries as to the outlook for their own usefulness, especially among those in evangelistic work, not the older workers nor the very new arrivals, so much as those who are nearing the close of their first term of service. Turning to the answers to 1:1pecific questions the same divergence rernals it~elf.

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164 NU]l,[BER OF MISSIONARIES (1) The most obvious and easily caculable Number of ff f i:. h k f Missionaries e ect o recent cuanges upon t e wor o missionaries has been in their numbers. An editorial in the Chinese Recorder estimated that in 1930 there were 82% of the number normally in China at any one time before 1927, and that the records indicated a steady increase during these three years. The only correspondent, however, who gave figures for his mission quoted 64 in 192t:i as against 40 for 1930. But the more serious consequence has been that among those who either becau,e of external conditions or inward discouragement have prematurely retired from service are included not a few of the choicest personalities and most experienced workers among us. Even when their places can be filled by new recruits there is at least a temporary loss. 'fhere seems to be a general a.greement that approximately the number maintained before the recent disruption can be mefully employed, but this would require a replacement each year of not Jess than 500 new arrivals. Entirely apart from local factors, it is a question whether the mission boards can continne to finance their operations on this scale, especially in view of the mounting claims of institutional activitieA increasingly staffed by Chinese. It might be pertinent to inquire also as to the indirect effect of recent happenings in this country upon the types of young people who are being selected and sent as foreign missionaries. Statistics are not available but the impres sion is unavoidable that there are fewer of the earnest, often highly gifted, evangelists who came with standard collegiate and professional training and deliberate con secration to a career for life, and that those who come here now are chiefly composed of two extremes, one of which is fervently fundamentalist but not infrequently wanting in intellectual calibre, and the other technically trained for some special task but without the engrossing devotion and evangelistic conviction of an earlier generation. Mental Attitudes The replies disclose also an effect upon the minds and spirits of many missionaries which cannot be ignored. Naturally most of those

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MIND OF MISSIONARIES 165 in whom this perplexity or depression is more pronounced will already have retired from active service. But an undercurrent to this effect may be sensed in replies from all sections of the country. It is referred to as an unsettled feeling as to the permanency of one's task; as uncertainty regarding government policy in matters of church property, taxation, religious teaching in schools, etc.; as the lack of steady and specified duties under the direction of Chinese leadei-s who have not yet acquired the imagination and experience to utilize their foreign colleagues to best ad vantage and thus-no doubt unwillingly-provoke in them a sense of futility or restiveness. It may well be, however, that such mental readjustment will often prove best for the cause and the individual, and that the necessity for finding new ex pressions of the missionary urge will achieve results more fruitful than would ever have been possible through activities rooted mainly in the Nordic temper and technique. (2) There is a clear recognition of the fact LAedss i f"t tf that missionaries have been in general freed m n ra ve f d k h b fi f 11 Work rom a m1111strat1ve wor to t e ene to a concerned, though such release is felt by some to be more apparent than real and to have pi-oduced burdensome complications, especially for Chinese workers. The question is also rai:;ed as to whether it ought not to be that Chinese are freed from such tasks for those they are better qualified than we to perform, while foreigners relieve them in matters of organizational detail. The maladjustment seems to be primarily in what is usually described as evangelistic work but what had become for many missionaries little more than the management of church affairs and Chinese workers. In any case, the last few years have gloriously confirmed all previous indications as to the capacity and reliability of Chinese for conducting viTtually all forms of established activity. Whether it be in the pastorate, in medical, educational or literary work, in business management, Chinese are carrying on what missionaries began with an ability and faithfulness which augms hopefully for the future.

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166 INSTITUTION AL MISSION ARIES (3) Most of the answers imply that the Little Change nature of the tasks with which missionaries now occupy themselves continues very much as hitherto, despite the enlarging share ta.ken over by ( hinese. This may be partly acc,rnnted for by the reduction in numbers and consequent accumulation of responsibilities for those remaining, partly by increasing complexity in all institutional work, partly by individual or racia.l tempemment. One correspondent reveals alluring opportunities for Ufl all by describing how he himself is utilizing his new leisure by forming personal contacts with official and other influential classes, writing for the local papers, opening his home for vi::;itors and social gatherings of varied sorts, and thus interpreting his message through friendship, hospitality, interchange or stimulation of ideas, encouragement to Chinese workers, etc. Instltotfonal Work Foremost (4) The impression is unavoidable that the drift is toward institutional, especially the educational, service and away from evangelis tic. There are, however, notable exceptions, and again the distinction must be insisted upon between real evangelism and the supervision of a Rystem of preach ing points or local congregations. In the reply to this as to the other questions there is a curiously recurrent hint that in evangelistic work will be found the source of greatest uneasiness as well as the impelling challenge of the present situation. (5) The replies are especially full and Recruits forward-looking in the comments on aspects which would appeal to recruits. There is a strong con sensus of opinion that more, many more, are needed, but that they should be given a realistic understanding of conditions now obtaining in China, and called to specific tasks rather than to vaguely general missionary service. The summons to press on into relatively unreached areas is rightly urged. The welcome from Chinese Christians and the chance to work with, for and under them is set forth in attractive terms. The need for better acquaintance

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MISSIONARIES NEEDED 167 with Chinese literature and life, the cultural heritage of this people and their present-day currents of thought, is felt to be accentuated by recent changes. Sympathy and insight with a view to mutual comprehension, breadth of outlook and the capacity for winning the affection and respect of a race which yields these generously but with discriminating hesitancy, are emphasized. The international significance of such service is an aspect that should appeal to modern youth in all lands. Concrete suggestions include: mass education, agricultural and village improvement, sociological research and reforms, attention to inclmtrial and other economic problems, public health, a search for the true basis of cooperation between foreigners and Chinese in the application of western nioney or technical skill to Chinese needs, getting into touch with bandit clans through hunting or naturalist exploration etc, etc. Evidently the glint of romance and adventure has not faded out of the vision of seasoned missionaries! And always there remain the incentives that spring forever fresh from the abiding realities of vital religious experience and the conviction of their value for a nation in so revolutionary and formative a state as is China now. Are Missionaries Needed? Passing on from the gleanings of this questionnaire to one's own more limited observation and even more irresponsible theorizing, the occurrences of the past few years have indubitably led not a few missionaries to baffled searchings of heart as to whether there was any longer a suitable place of service here and if so in what form. This seems to have been chiefly among evangel istic" and Y. M:. CA. workers, in other words those whose activities were within a framework based on concepts foreign to Chinese life or at least no longer clearly related to its conscious needs. Among both classes men of sterling worth have left China for this reason or have stayed on here in an unsettled mental or occupational state from other than subjective causes and contrary to their own natural dispositions. In more permanently standardized

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168 MAIN MISSIONARY TASK tasks, such as in schools or hospitals, the adjustment has been on the whole much easier. One wonders what differences in method explain why Roman Catholic results seem relatively so slightly affected. The elderly people who occupy only a fraction of the space in each of the Protestant churches in Peiping are a feeble contrast to those who crowd the ancient cathedral, anrl the effective ness of the programs for rural improvement being carried out by Catholic fathers all over Hopei Province have attracted the attention of thoughtful Protestant Chinese. Similar conclusions have been recently published by more than one western traveller whose natural sympathies would be the other way. However one may account for such phenomena or puzzle over the weaknesses of our missionary enterprise, the present writer as a missionary and the son of missionaries, but one comparatively unmolested by all that has been taking place, cannot resist testifying to the impression made on him by the patient courage, readiness to yield positions or change policies, high-minded fidelity to accepted ideals and principles, and other admirable qualities which have beell' repeatedly revealed by his colleagues during the recent upheavals. Whatever we may think about superficial appearances, a movement that has continued to attract such persons to its service and holds them despite all discouragements, cannot but make its appeal to a nation as specifically interested in the springs of human behavior and as competent to appraise moral conduct as the Chinese have ever been. Reveal Human Values of Religious Faith Does not this point the way to a completely satisfactory answer as to the present service of missionaries? The need for foreigners to continue as heralds of a Gospel of Salvation that this people could not otherwise hear may be questioned. The occasion to supervise the organ ized activities begun under differing conditions may be passing. The churches thus built up may prove only a scaffolding for some as yet unfashioned expression of Chinese corporate Christian life, and as such disintegrate or provide for only a few special constituencies, with no

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COO PERA TJfJN WITH CHINESE 1U9 essential illjury to the cause.. But what is of superlative value is that we work a way at something which allows us to demonstrate the spiritual beauty anrl social benefits that follow from practising the Christian Way of Life. It matters not grPatly what the concrete undertaking, which ma.y well vary according to individual aptitudes or es tablished commitments. But if under any of the recognized categories of mission work or new conceptions of what can be usefully attempted we manifest those traits of character which the Chinese public are already learning to describe as Chriet-like-because even for them no other term fitsthen we can be sure of bearing witness that will not be in vain, and of releasing dynamic energies which will organize, as life always does, into forms adapted to their environment. This is the irn bstance of our present service, whatever may be the formal occupation. It challenges the utmost of our capacity and thrills us with its enlarging potentialities. The Chinese have misunderstood us in the past because we seemed much more concerned with winning converts and gathering them into strange, foreign controlled societies than with seeking the welfare of their people. Whatever projects we maintain hereafter should be, in our own intention as well as in their practical consequences, primarily for the good of those whom they reach rather than vehicles of propaganda. So conceived the church or school or hospital or any other agency becomes the 11.pparatns with which we reveal the practical human values of religious faith. 'l'he part.icular activity may or may not survive according to circumstances, but it ought to generate convictions and processes for conserving them which will survive and thus realize the essence of our best desires. Of scarcely less importance is the service Cooperation we can render, regardless of official status, to with Chinese onr Chinese colleagues. They have their personal or racial shortcomings which need the infusion of such stiength or vision as may have come to us because of longer practise at enterprises of this sort or our spiritual heritage from the past, just as we can receive from them

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170 MISSIONARY PROBLEMS influences that counteract or supplement sundry mis placed emphases of ours. Dndng this transition stage such service, humbly, tactfully, unobtrusively and unselfishly rendered, can be of superlative benefit, and is freely sought by intelHgent Chinese. In conclusion, missionaries are continuing Future h f H f 1 in very much t e same types o act1v1ty as m ope 11 the past, except that to an increasing extent administr,1tive responsibilities are being assumed by Chinese. This release from routine duties has in many instances made possible a personal and spiritual as against official and monetary influence which is eagerly welcomed and is being beneficially utilized. Others, however, find themselves caugM in the mechanics of organized effort under new forms and with an unhappy sense of being more or less frustrated by the altered conditions. Still others, because of political disorders in the area or maladjustments created by the play of new forces upon their own organizations, are being sorely puzzled as to how they can most fruitfully employ themselves in a new situation and with an unpredictable future. The interest, however, lies not in whether or not conventional forms of activity are being maintained, so much as in the present attitudes and objectives. These appear to have lost nothing of that which had abiding value in the earlier incentives, but to have gained in a steadily augmenting consciousness of the service to be rendered the Repn blic of China and its people in this their supreme crisis of national reconstruction, through whatever in our efforts ministers to their welfare, in the assurance that such a purpose-disinterested even from the standpoint of statistical results-springs from religious faith and cannot fail, somehow, sometime, to carry this message to those who, while they may still speak against us as evil-doers or as futile intruders, may by our good works, which as almost never before they are now attentively watching, glorify God in the day of visitation. That this day is coming there have been substantial evidences in many quarters during the tumultuous year now drawing to its close, and there remains the calm con fidence that rests on the capacity of Chinese to respond to

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RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE 171 the love of God in Christ when once truly understood and on the reality of the religious experience which follows therefrom.

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CHAPTER XV MISSION FORCES AND DISTRIBUTION C. L, Boynton The data for this chapter have been derived Sources from the information given in the Dfrectoty of Protestant Mission1 in China for 1930, which appeared on August 1 of that year. The information for this directory was largely collected before April 1, 1930, but changes occurring during printing were incorporated as they came to the attention of the editor. This directory is probably the most accurate which has been issued in recent years, as it represents not simply the replies of the mission secretaries, but. direct responses from missionaries themselves, giving postcard information regarding their location and their dates of arrival rn China. To secure this information, nearly 7 ,OOO enquiries were sent out. The alphabetical index of societies lists Societies 194 societies, of which only 138, so far as we have been informed, represent church bodies as such, many of which are combined into larger church units, as indicated in previous surveys. It is probable that the total number of separate denominations or church organizations now in China is less than 100, except for the groups which must be considered as completely independent. At the time of writing, statistics are in the process of collection regarding the present communicant church membership. The total number of names of missionaries in Missionaries the 1930 directory is 6,346, as compared with approximately 8,250 on January 1, 1927. Of these 5,396 are reported as in China, and 950 as absent on furlough,

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DJSTRIBU'.l'ION 01<' Mif:SIONARIES 173 making a net incl'ease of 652 in China as compal'ed with the corresponding date in 1929, and 1,125 as compared with 1928. Distribution The following table indicates the approxi-mate geographical distribution of these missionaries. 'l'be three columns are not exactly comparable, as the 1928 analysis included only 3,133 of the 4,375 names in the directory; that of 1929 includes 4, 728 of the 4, 7 44 reported; and the 1930 figmes included not only those who were not actually in China, but those who were reported to be on furlough but assigned to stations in the provinces indicated, consequently for comparision with the 1929 figures, those for 1928 should be increased by one-third, and those for 1930 decreased by approximately one-fifth. 1990 1929 1928 Anhwei 152 106 33 Chekiang 253 178 130 Fnkien 373 340 279 Honan 258 126 27 Hopei 618 493 394 Hunan 300 191 125 Hupeh 311 230 121 Kansu 95 72 11 Kiangsi 188 146 67 Kiangsn 1018 820 709 Kwangsi 63 40 9 Kwangtung 632 ,505 262 Kweichow 61 43 18 Shansi 270 201 112 Shantung 537 459 417 Shensi 92 86 23 Szechwan 462 294 86 Yunnan 129 98 53 Manchuria 224 201 183 Mongolia, Sinkiang etc. 76 70 21 Far Ea8t 29 53 6112 4728 3133

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174 MISSIONARY TENURE The 1930 directory shows m1ss10naries in Stations 765 cities as compared with 518 cities in 1929, and 313 in 1928. In addition, 63 other cities are marked in the directory as being vacant, indicating that they have formerly been subject to missionary occupation. Missionary Tenure The following analysis of the list indicates the length of service of missionaries in China, dating from the time of their first arrival in missionary service: Arriving 1866 to 1870 inclusive 2 1871 to 1875 4 1876 to 1880 6 1881 to 1885 42 1886 to 1890 110 1891 to 1895 253 1896 to 1900 289 1901 to 1905 468 1906 to 1910 744 1911 to 1915 827 1916 to 1920 1031 1921 to 1925 1412 1926 262 1927 99 1928 211 1929 305 1930 16 It is apparent from these figures that the medial period is 1910 to 1920, and that the average of those now in service in China is 13 year;,.

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PART V EDUCATION CHAPTER XVI NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM Herman C. E. Liu National Conterence China has adopted an ambitious national educational program for the next twenty years. This worthy program was drafted by educational experts and commissions under the direction of the Ministry of Education. H was studied carefully and officially adopted by the National Educational Conference held in Nanking, April 15-23, 1930. There were 106 delegates, representing Delegates twenty-one provinces, and six special municipalities. The membership was composed of Com missioners of Education, representatives from different Ministries of the Nationalist Government, and about twenty-six co-opted educational specialists. Significant Conference It is especially significant that such a conference should be held at this time. In spite of the disturbances and threatening civil war, the educators are united and are one. It indicates the real desire of the people for the cultural union of China. A II the statesmen and officials of the Government attached great importance to the conference. The delegates were entertained practically every noon and evening by the officials, for an exchange of views regarding educational policies and ideals. President Chiang Kaishek emphasized the importance of student discipline. He deplored the student strikes and urged the educators to do everything possible to bring up the younger generation

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176 NATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM under strict discipline. He also emphasized the importance of attacking illiteracy with the aid of the phonetic signs, and the development of agricultural education for the rural districts of China. President Tai Chi-tao emphasized the importance of linking up education closely with the government; that all must work together for the same goal. He pointed out the necessity for educators to have a sacrificial Apirit. He also advocated strict discipline for students. Dr. H. H. Kung, Minister of Industry, addressed the conference on the importance of practical vocational education, that will link up more closely with life. The program drafted by the specialists Educational was first referred to the sectional meetings Program for careful study, and then came up to the plena1y session for adoption. A summary of the program may be stated as follows: 1. Four years of free education for all children of China, to be completed in twenty years. There are 40,000,000 children of school age, and it will require 1,400,000 teachers and 1,000,000 school rooms, and a budget of $280,000,000. 2. Adult education, emphasizing literacy training, citizenship training, and vocational training, for ages sixteen to sixty, to be completed in twenty years. It is estimated that there are about 200,000,000 adults. It is proposed to carry this out with the free education program, so that some of the school buildings and teachers ma.y also be used for adult education. It is suggested that all elementary echool teachers be also teachers for the adult classes. There will be need for 130,000 teachers. It is also estimated that all the elementary schools will be used for adult classes, but about 112,470 additional classrooms will be required. According to this estimate, $283,400,000 will be required for the budget. Teacher Training 3. Teacher training. a. There will be rural normal schools with the following three classes of students: two

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TEACHER TRAINING 177 years training for graduates of junior middle schools; three years training for higher primary school graduates; three years training for elementary school teachers who have the equivalent of junior middle school training. b. Normal schools and normal department of middle schools may admit graduates from junior middle schools for three years training. .,, c. Rural higher normal training institutes may enroll graduates from senior middle schools, from the educational department of senior middle schools, from the normal school, or graduates of the rural normal school, for two years special training. d. Higher normal schools may enroll students from senior middle schools. e. Teacher's colleges and schools of education in universities may enroll graduates of senior middle schools for four years training to become teachers for middle schools. f. Graduate schools may admit graduates of colleges for training for college teachers. 4. Elementary education, including kindergarten and nursery schools. Special attention will be given to the interior ancl t.he rural districts. All public elementary schools are to be established by the local govemment with the assistance of the Provincial and Central Governments. Every possible means will be used to encourage private elementary education. A minimum standard will be adopted and strictly enforced. Non-Chinese or organiza tions which are not completely organized by Chinese will not be allowed to establish elementary schools and kindergartens. All te11.chers and officers of the elementary schools must be entirely Chinese.

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178 EDUCATIONAL REORGANIZATION Secondary Education ,5. Secondary education was reorganized to conform strictly to the nationalist educational aim, emphasizing genera.! education on the one hand and vocational training on the other hand. Special emphasis will be laid upon the importance of improving the existing institutions and reorganization of the curriculum. They also discussed the importance of linking up secondary education with elementary education and with higher education. Senior middle schools are to be established by the provincial and municipal gnvern ments. Junior middle schools and vocational schools may be established by the provincial, municipal, or district governments. All the secondary schools and vocational com;,es are to be emphasized during the next five years. '!'hose provinces having more than three senior middle schools may spend their fundA to establish vocational schools. In every city or district there should be at least one junior middle school and vocational school. There are about 1,900 districts, but there are only 900 junior middle schools, so there is still need of a thousand junior middle schools. Standards for the middle schools were adopted. Higher Education 6. Higher erlucation, including colleges, universities, and research institutes. 'fhe policy is to strengthen the existing institutions, emphasizing quality rather t,han quantity. A building program was adopted for the government institutions, special funds to be granter! for additional buildings and equipment. The universities must have at least three schools, and each school must have at least three departments. Students may choose their department by the major and minor system. All the government institutions will come up to this standard at once. College Teachers The treatment of the college teacheri' will be improved, and salaries will be increased. No college teacher will be allowed to teach in more than one institution at the same time. The tutor system is to be encouraged. The distribution of the

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SOCIAL EDUCATION 179 budget will be somewhat as follows: salaries, from fiftyfi ve to sixty-five per cent; teachers' salarieR, not less than forty-five per cent; officers' and staff salaries, not over ten per cent; equipment, from thirty-five to forty per cent; administration, from five to ten per cent; special fees, not more than five per cent. All the private institutions of higher learning are required to register. If they do not comply with this rule they will be closed. All those registered private institutions may receive financial assistance. University and extension work are to be encouraged. The policy for students going abroad is to be very strict. Special attention will be given to students who specialize in science and applied subjects. They will be limited to graduates of colleges and teachers. Special research institutes and graduate schools are to be en couraged. Social Education 7. Social education, emphasizing common knowledge, economic problems, citizenship training, museums, libraries, art galleries, recreation grou11d-, lecture ha.llf,, will be encouraged in all possible ways. The following will be especially emphasized in the National Capitol: people's theaters, with a budget of $400,000 initial fund, $10,000 annual fund, for the national theater; national athletic ground, $120,000 init.ial fund, $30,000 annual fund; people's library, $100,000 for the initial fund, $100,000 for the annual budget; museum, $400,000 for the initial fund, $100,000 for the annual budget. Local governments are to support similar local institutions. Chinese Abroad 8. Education for a special bureau is to be organized in the Ministry of Education. All the Consuls abroad are to help supervise

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180 EDUCATIONAL FUNDS education for Chinese abroad. There should be an educational expert in the Consulate. $500,000 annual budget should be appropriated. An endowment fund of $100,000,000 should be raised. Detailed standards were adopted, 9. Education for Mongolians and Tibetans. !~if~~=t:sns The government will do everything posilible to promote education in Mongolia and Tibet. Special educational committees will be organized. The government officials are to supervise it. Private citizens and people's organizations will be encouraged to promote education on the boun
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RECONSTRUCTION 181 On the whole, it was a very successful conference, and some very important actions were taken. It is now the task of the government and people to work together for this goal, which is the very foundation of the recon struction of China.

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CHAPTER XVII PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL EDUCATION W aIIace H. C. Kiang It is not extravagant to say that the speed Progress of the progress in municipal work in Greater Shanghai is evidently unsurpassed by that in any other modern municipality of the same size and age. With a history of less than four years, with a meager revenue of less than an average of $4,000,000 per annum, and with the initial rlifficulties that pertain to various establishments, the Municipality of Greater Shanghai has earned credit for high attainments which its mass of 1,600,000 people cannot deny. Though the municipal regime is still in a primitive stage, yet there are sufficient warrants to assure its future development. Of the various phases of municipal work, Policy education, which is a dynamic factor in genuine democracy, has received earnest attention. Various means and projects have been, in recent years, devised and carried out to attack the high percentage of illiteracy in Greater Shanghai. The policy has already been adopted that at least twenty per cent of the annual municipal revenue shall be appropriated to the maintenance of education. This proportion holds good also in relation to the gradual future increase of municipal income. lt is a matter of regret, however, that owing to the lack of funds, our huge educational task can be only achieved at a speed in keeping with our financial facilities. Bureau of Education The Bureau of Education, which is an official organ of the city government of Greater Shanghai, conducts education not only for youth but for adults as well. While we realize

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SCHOOL POPULATION 183 the importance on education for children of school age, we have not overlooked the value of attacking adult illiteracy. An order issued by the Ministry of Edue:ation is to the effect that at least twenty per cent of any municipal budget for eoucation should be alloted for adult education. Greater Shanghai has not been able to comply with that order yet, owing to the fact thl'lt its budget is exhausted almost entirely in the support of so many schools which, prior to the installation of the Greater Shanghai Muni cipal regime, were maintained by the Shanghai and Paoshan hsien governments. However, the Bureau of Education is figuring on a gradual increase of appropriations for adult education until the proportion of twenty per cent is reached. In spite of the inevitable difficulties which pertain to the allotment of sufficient funds for adult education, there are, nevertheless, evidences of remarkable i:;uccess both in quantitative and qualitative work. Shanghai School Populaticn. School population in Greater Shanghai, according to a recent school census, amounts to no less than 144,668 students, of whom 9,209 are enrolled in collegiate institutions, 21,742 in the secondary schools, 112,113 in the elementary schools and 1,604 in part-time adult schools. It must be noted that this school population is distributed in the. various grades as indicated a. hove and registered in the schools of both private and government-supported institutions. The number of students who come from the city government financed schools is 33,229 out of a total school population of 144,668 in the whole municipality. The main point in this connection is that the larger percentage of students, approximately 75 per cent, are educated in schools privately endowed. It is evident that private bodies, in cooperation with the city government, assume a very large share of the popularization of education in this municipality. Nevertheless, the Bureau of Education, by virtue of the educational code, exercises the rights and powers of supervision, guidance and control 9f private educational institutions.

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184 EDUCATIONAL BUDGET Three years ago, the Bureau of Education Budget was, when first organized in the summer of 1927 with an annual budget of $349,000, able to operate forty"two elementary schools and two middle schools, one for each sex. During the year 1928"1929, the annual educational budget increased to $640,000 which enabled us to support in addition some 130 rural schools, mostly of lower grades, in the rural districts of Greater Shanghai. 'l'he budget for 1929-1930 was again raised to $1,000,000 which was used for the maintenance of 182 elementary schools, more than two-thirds of which are lower grade rural schools; together with three middle schools and one rural normal school of secondary school standard. Dia" gram I shows the gradual rise of municipal funds appropriated for education since 1927 and diagram II shows the gradual growth of the number of schools since 1927 in correspondence with the increase in the educational buil" get. It may be noted that the municipal fund for education is annually expended with the utmost economy, yet maximum results of efficient work are secured. The characteristic difference between the Rural Versus rural and urban EZchools lies in their size. It Urban Schools has been found that the average enrollment in rural schools is 123 as compared with an average of 336 in urban schools. The average number of teachers in the rural schools is three as compared with an average number of twelve in urban schools. There are altogether 630 classrooms in both the urban and rural schools. Of the 630 classrooms, 377 are distributed in forty-eight urban schools with an average of eight classrooms per school; whereas in rural schools there are only 2,53 classrooms with an average of about two per school. In accordance with the difference of sizes between urban and rural schools, the municipal funds for education are proportionally distributed. Teachers With regard to the teaching force in the municipal elementary schools, there is a record of 425 .teachers employed in 1927" 1928; 968 teachers

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1927-1928 1928-1929 1929-1930 1927'-1928 1928-1929 1929-1930 Diagram I Gradual increase of funds for Education Diagram II Gradual increase of school~ 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 l~ 140 150 160 170 180 190 2oO > z t;j ....... 00 Ot

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186 TEACHERS in 1928-1929; and 1035 teachers in 1!)29-1930. Diagram III shows the numerical increase of teachers in city. supported elementary schools since 1927. Diagram III Numerical increase of teachers in elementary schools. 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 800 200 100 ---IOS!i 968 425 1927-1928 1t is a matter of fact that the increase of TQeac11h11er'stl numbers in the teaching personnel agrees ua ea ons h h f th t" f wit t e mcrease <> e propor 10n o teachers' qualifications. During the year 1927-1928, less than 40% of our elementary school teachers had been trained in normal schools. The following year, 1928-1929, by means of elimination and selection, the per cent of normal school trained teachers increaf'ed to 45 % and in the third year, 1929-1930, we had 56.2% of our elementary school teachers trained in normal schools prior to their entrance into the teaching profession. During the current scholastic year we have 65% of normal school trained

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TEACHER'S QUALIFICATIONS 187 teachers employed in our elementary schools. It is our policy further to emphasize teachers' qualifications until on~ hundre_d per cent of our teachers are adequately tramed. Diagram IV. shows the proportion of teachers' qualifications up to the current scholastic year 1930-Hl31. Diagram IV Proportion of teacher's qualifications. Classical ------.........1 training l...:~~----\ Special Training It is to be noted that while the number of our teachers grows year by year, there is a proportionate increase of qualified teachers in city-supported schools. In connection with teachers' qualifications, the Bureau of Education has made provisions to improve the teachers' knowledge while in service. These provisions may be summarized as follows. In the first place our elementary school teachers, numbering 1035, are divided bi-weekly into many classes~ wherein

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188 TEACHER'S CONFERENCE they are led by prominent educators; they usually last 2-3 hours on Saturday afternoon, and the agenda arranges for the discussion of practical classroom problems. These required conferences are held in different sections so that the assembly places may be readily accessible to the teachers. Comments from many teachers, regarding said conferences, indicate that they are most useful and bene ficial. In the second place, the Bureau of Education provides a summer school of three weeks' duration every year when subjects of practical pedagogy are taught by experts specially invited. All elementary school teachers particularly those of junior standing, are required to attend unless excused, In the third place, said Bureau selects every year two or more valuable books of modern pedagogy, accompanied with directions as to "How to Study," for junior teachers' self-study. These studies are subject to examinations which are given by the Bureau at the end of each scholastic term. Diversity of Criteria For many years no standardized curriculum has been adopted by city elementary schools. Hence we found a diversity of criteria applied by different schools in the evaluation of subjects. The preponderance of school subjects is evi denced in the allotment of time for various subjects by various schools with no special knowledge of their necessity. During the year 1928-1929, the Ministry of Education issued a pamphlet entitled "Standardized Elementary School Curriculum" which is now being experimented with in all elementary schools throughout the country. Likewise, said curriculum is also in experimental use in the elementary schools of Greater Shanghai. It may not be feasible for Greater Shanghai schools to adopt those standards owing to differences in environmental conditions between this municipality and others in the whole country. However, we have adopted the principles of standardization in the local school curriculum and on the basis of that the Bureau of Education endeavors to make a course of study for every elementary school subject which contains minimum essentials of

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EXHIBITIONS AND EQUIPMENT 189 teaching and learning materials. Indeed, the elementary school curriculum which is the foundation of citizenship training in a democratic society, is to be carefully observed and directed. The achievement of scholastic work parExhibitions ticularly on tool subjects, of city elementary school pupils, is evidenced in the "Exhibition of LanguageArithmetic Work'' which was held in two city schools in the same vicinity during the period of June 27-29. Lan guage work was di8played in Si-chen school and arithmetic work in Mei-ze school, both in the same street known as Pnn-lai road, Nantao. Owing to the limitation of space, we were able to ac,~ummoclate only selected l:'pecimens of pupils' language and arithmetic work in every grade of all citysupported elementary schools. It was reported that during tho1:1e three days of exhibition, there were more than three thoueand spectators who. came to the exhibition in spite of the hen.t and the distance. Judges were invited to study all specimens in the exhibition and prizes were awarded to more than thirty schools. Favorable comments were given by all judge~ concerning the superiority of our pupils' work which, according to them, is unequalled by the great majority of elementary schools in other municipalities in China. E i t Following the "Exhibition of Languagequ pmen Arithmetic Work," another exhibition, known as "School Property Exhibition," was held on July 24-27, at the same two schools as stated above. There were displayecl more than two thousand representative types of school properties classified as follows: 1. general Pchool furniture; 2. teaching instruments and apparatus; 3. classroom equipment; 4 equipment for recreation; 5. reference materials. It was recorded that item 2, "Teaching i nstrumentil and apparatus," which !Lmo1mted to 1005 pieces, represented about 50% of all the items in the exhibition. It is very satisfactory to see so many of our schools able to make such good use of these wonderful devices, especially in classroom work.

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190 INTELLIGENCE TESTS Intelligence Tests Municipal Education in Greater Shanghai is, perhitps, leading the whole country in the way of the extensive application of scientific methods in diagnosing and experimenting in educational work. Much experimental work has been done in the past two years with remarkable success. In the Spring of 1928, we conducted in the urban districts of the city elementary schools two forms of "Intelligence Tests" one of which was known as "Individual Intelligence Test" applied in the first two grades and the other ''Group Interngence Test" applied in the upper gradef!. Separate reports of each form of these Intelligence Tests were published by the Bureau and distributed to many educa tional institutions for l'eference use. In order to make good use of the results of these Intelligence Tests, we have established an experimental school in which 120 gifted children were taught in the most progressive way. The results of the tests also served to enlighten many school authorities in the understanding of pupil capacities and rates of scholastic improvement. In the Fall of 1929, the Bureau of Education again conducted three types of Standardized Educational Tests in the same schools where the IntelUgence Tests were given. These three types were 1. Silent Reading Test. 2. Spelling 'l'ef!t. 3. Arithmetic Test. All above-mentioned tests were given from Grade III to Grade VI inclusive in all city schools in the urban districts. Printed reports of such tests were published in the Spring of 1930; this report enlightened our school administra.tors so much as it discovered foundations upon which class reorganization could be based. In the winter of 1!329, we also gave four types of English Mastery rests in the city middle schools. These types were, 1, Silent Reading Test. 2, Vocabulary Opposite Tests. 3, Grammar Idiom Test. 4, Auditory Comprehension Test. The above tests were devised by experts a few years ago, with Professor W. A. McCall from America as their director. The published report of the same has also benefited teachers of English in middle schools. In the present year, we gave standardized educational tests to forty selected private elementary schools with a view to comparing the work of

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MIDDLE E'CHOOLS 191 the pupils in the private-endowed and the city-supported elementary schools. The compilation of resulti:i of the above is not yet complete. Middl~ Scbooh As the preponderance of our work rests on elementary education, we are unable yet to establish as many middle schools as we need in Greater Shanghai. Up to the present, we are operating three middle schools, one of which is for girls. However, the short history of only three and half years of these middle schools, records progress in all lines. As to the enrollrnent in thesA three 8chools, during the year ] 9271H28, there were 613 pupils: in 1918-1929, the number increased to 815: and in the year 1929-1930, the enroll ment reached the total of 1006 pupils. The size of the teaching personnel has also proportionately increased since 1927. There were 87 teachers in the first year, 131 Diagram V Increase of middle school pupils. 1200 llOO 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 800 200 100 o----~...___.___._--',..__._-L ....... --' 1927-1928-1929-1928 1929 1980

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192 TEACHERS in the second and 158 in the third year. Diagram V. shows the increase of middle school pupils anrl Diagram VI. the increase of teachers in middle schools since Hl27. Diagram VI Increase of teachers in middle schools. 20 10 0..1-..-1-.....1.--1~&.-..J.---I.-...J,......J.--I 1927-1928 19281929 1929-1930 Normal Training As to the locations of the three city-supported middle schools, one is a junior middle school for boys located in Woosung, two otlwr senior middle schools, one for each sex, are located in Nantao. There is a rural normal school located in Hsin Loh district near Pootung. This is a normal school of

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ADULT EDUCATION 193 secondary school standing which prepares teachers for use in a large number of rural schools. In the two senior middle schools in Nantao, there is also a normal training department which furnishes a small number of trained teachers every year for urban elementary schools. How ever, we are in need at present of three more secondary schools, one full standing middle school in Chapei, another in Pootnng and a separate normal training school in Nantao. It is hoped that these three secondary schools may be established by appropriation from next year's funds. Adult Education Jn order to attack the high percentage of illiteracy, our educational task is not con fined to school education for youth but includes adults as stated before. There are different types of schools organized by the Bureau of Education to meet the needs of adults of different ages and occupations. These schools are as follows: 1. "People's School" (li'. ~). which provides instruction in reading, writing, arithmetic and common knowledge. Pupils are received from the age of 18 to 55. The school hours are arranged between 7-9 every evening except Sunday. No fees of any sort are charged. The whole course of study in the "People's School" takes four months. The Bureau of Education has so far conducted five cycles of "People's School" with considerable success. Early in October, 1928, we started thirty "People's Schools" with an average of about fifty pupils per school. In March, 1929, we added another thirty such schools with a total enrollment of 1,550 pupils. The third cycle started in June, 1929, with about the same number of schools and pupils. The fourth cycle began in March, 1930 and ended in June. The fifth cycle, which began in October, 1930, has an addition of twenty more such schooli:l, plus two extra schools known as "Central People's School" which are operated on an experimental basis. It is hoped that these two experimental "People's Schools" will achieve results that may serve to enlighten other "People's Schools."

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194 MASS EDUCATION 2. "Part-time Continuation School" (lffl!i I ifi ~). This is a supplementary school for those who already have a foundation in "3 R" knowledge. This school differs from the "People's School" in having a richer content of studies and a longer duration of the school cycle. The school hours are arranged every evening from 7-9 and the cycle lasts one year. 'rhe pupils are mostly apprentices and employees from various industrial and commercial organizations. In October, 1927, the Bureau of Education opened seven such schools with an enrollment of 480 pupils. In the Spring of 11:J29, on the request of several labor unions, three additionals school were opened. The pupils came from three main sources as follows: 1. employees from factories; 2. apprentices and employees from shops: 3. adults from farms. Since the pupils come from different occupations and environments, their needs may not be the same. Hence, from July, 1929, "Part-time Continuation Schools" were divided into three classes, the distribution of which is in accord ance with the proportion of pupils from various sources. There were fourteen schools established in July, 1929, in which eight were for factory employees, two for shop apprentices and employees and four for farmers. The total number of pupils in these fourteen schools is 785. Jn March, 1930, one additional school for factory laborers and another one for shop apprentices were established. 3. "Abridged Mass Education Institution" (M Ji!. .Jx 1f ta'). This is an institution which aims to make worthy use of the people's leisure time. In November, 1928, there were some twenty-five "People's Tea Houses" established. People who are at leisure come here not only to take tea but also to enjoy good music and listen to wholesome stories and lectures, etc., which may bring to them fruitful results and benefits. It was not until a year later, that these tea houses were consolidated into four bigger institutions known as "Abridged Mass Education Institutions.'' The work in said institutions divides into four sections which are: 1. book and magazine reading; 2. recreation; 3. information; and, 4. lectures. The

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PHYSICAL TRAINING 195 average daily attendance in these institutions is about 120 people. It is hoped that such institutions may multiply in number as progress in future allotment of funds is attained. 4. "Mass Physical Training Fields" (Ji!;~ H 1' ;11,). It is also a policy of the Bureau of Education to arrange facilities for people's physical training. 'l'wo big athletic fields have been established, one in Nantao and the other in Chapei where people may come to take part, under direction, in almost any kind of game and sport. These games and sports are not confined to western types but many Chinef:'e exercises are also encouraged and directed by officers especially employed to perform work of that nature. In addition to these two big athletic fields, there are numerous minor physical training grounds in all the districts of Greater Shanghai Municipality. It is hoped that these grounds may gradually develop into athletic fields which will prove of great use and benefit to the physical advance of the Chinese people and race.

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CHAPTER XVIII CHRISTIAN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES Francis C. M. Wei Christian colleges in China have a history ~ginbings and of sixty-seven years. According to available um er records the first Christian College was established in 1864 in 'l'engchow, Shantung. The secornl, also in North China, was opened in 1882, and the third the fourth appeared in the nineties in East China.. In 1903 there were nine colleges with a total enrolment of 199 students. Five new institutions were started in 1909-1910, five more in t.he brief period of 1914-16, a.nd the last in the list made its appearance in 1923. Some of these colleges were later combined to form union institutionE', ~o that at present there are only the following colleges a.nd universities directly under Christian auspices: North China: Yenching University (Pei ping) Shantung Christian University (Tsinan) East China: University of Nanking (Nanking) Ginling College (Nanking) Soochow University (Soochow) St. John's University (Shanghai) Shanghai College (Shanghai) Hangchow Christian College (Hangchow) Central China: Hua Chung (Central China) College (Wuchang)

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GROWTH OF COLLEGES South China: Fukien Christian University (Foochow) Huanan College (Foochow) Lingnan University (Canton) West China: West China Union University (Chengtu) 197 Growth In the beginning things were on a modest scale. There were half a dozen students or so in each of the colleges with a few teachers giving mostly part time only to the work. A simple and uniform program of instruction was followed and nothing more was really pos:;iible. By 1900 there were only fifty-six students in Tengchow College, twenty-three in St. John's College, twenty-three in North China Union College, and twenty-ft ve in Hangchow College. In 1905, that memor~ able year when the national system of competitive literary examinations was abolished by Imperial Edict and modern schools established in the country, the total tnrolment in the seven Christian colleges then in existence was 278. In five years, however, this number was trebled. This last number, 834, was doubled in 1920, and in the Fall of 1\:J29, in spite of the political disturbances in the country which interfered seriou::;ly with the work of some of the colleges anrl hefore several of them were able to get in their full swing again, reports from twelve colleges showe
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198 EDUCATIONAL MOTIVES teachers and physicians. As the years go by and as Christian colleges become more and more populai: with the Chinese public in general, students from outside church circles also seek admission into these colleges quite as much for their good discipline as for their efficient teaching particularly in western subjects. Such students are admitted and welcomed, because Christian colleges desire to give the same opportunity of getting a good college education under Christian auspices to Christian and non~Christian students alike, Furthermore, this is one of the best ways to build up the New China along Christian lines by helping to train those who are most likely to play an active part in the great task of national and cultural reconstruction now being undertaken under our ,own eyes. 'l'o meet the new demands thus created, however, as well as to capitalize the opportunity for Chrii;tian service, the curriculum in the Christian colleges has been expanded and diversified. New departments have been ad
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WUHAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY 199 mean more capital outlay and more current expenditure. But above all, there is demand for a more highly trained and more definitely specialized staff. Not every graduate from America or England is now qualified to fill a chair in a Christian college in China. Since 1905, and particularly during the last decade, government colleges and universities have been improving every year. Political disturbances and instability in government finance have retarded their growth. But good work is steadily going on to the amazement of many. Wuhan National University It may be of interest to know that in the midst of all the distress and uncertainty and under the dark clouds of civil war and Communistic troubles, the Wuhan National University in the city of Wuchang has been, during the last three years, growing from strength to strength. It has at present four Faculties, viz. Letters, Science, Law, and Engineering, with altogether thirteen departments, one in the Faculty of Engineering, but four in each of the other three. Students may work towards a highly special izec1 degree in any of these departments. For the prese11t year the university haR a budget of $600,000. Chinese currency, and money is being paid into the university treasury by the Government regularly. This sum does not include building or other special funds. Future of Christian Cdleges Some people que!'ltion whether alongside of flourishing government institutions like this there is still room for Christian colleges which in most cases have to get along with a modest budget anrl small staff. No one doubts, however, the rightful place of private institutions in the educational system of any nation, China not excepted. They are less open to interference by political changes and in a better position to experiment with new ideas and new methods. There need be no fear of undue competition. Normally there is a good supply of students for all the colleges. Friendly rivalry is wholesome and ought to serve as mutual stim1.1lus for better work. The work in the one

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200 CHRISTIAN STAFF institution may even supplement that in the other. Furthermore, the government university supported by public revenue is naturally expected to provide room for as many students as possible. Things there will be on a large scale. The Christian institution, on the other hand, being private in character, can adopt a more selective process at admission and will in all probability retain its residential feature. A more intimate rela.tionship between teachn and student will be cultivated which is almost impossible in a large institution. Each has its own function and its own sphere of work. For the Christian college to compete or to imitate the government university would mean to defeat its o,vn end. For many years to come the Christian l\fovemeI\t in China will need the Christian colleges to work along present lines and to turn out men and women not only to staff the different departments of church activities but also to bear witness to the creative power of the Christian religion and to stand up intelligently for the Christian faith. A 1 ti Yet, at the same time, the da.y is gone for ma gama on II the single-program co ege, poorly equipped and feebly staffed. The Burton Commission in 1922 sounded a clarion note. It calls for fewer but more efficient Christian colli>ges, which are at the same time more Chinese nnd more Christian. To do this mif;sions must join their forces to maintain one adequate institution in each of the six regions into which the country is divided. But a Christian college however, fine its Christian Staff physical plant and ample its financial re Necessary sources, cannot be more efficient without being at the same time more Christian, and one of the factors in maintaining its Christian character is to secure for its staff a sufficient number of Christian Chinese. Reports of 1919 give 372 or 66% Chinese on the teaching staffs of the Christian colleges, of whom 226 were Christian, or about 61 % of the whole teaching force. This is indeed encouraging, although figures do not tell the whole truth.

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STANDARDS 201 Government regulations require the administrative head of each institution to be Chinese. In all the Christian collegt>s, but one, there if' at present a Chinese head, and people are watching with keen interest to see how well the Christian character of these colleges is maintained under Chinese administration. According to government regulations, a Standards university must have at least three of the following faculties: Arts, Science, Law, Education, Agriculture, Engineering, Commerce, Medicine; while a college may have two departments and be reckoned as a single college. One of the three faculties of a university must be either Science, Agriculture, Engineering, or Medicine. The annual budget for Medicine is fixed by regulations at a minimum of. t 200,000, that of Science, Agriculture, or Engineering, at a minimum of $150,000 and of the remaining four faculties, at a minimum of $80,000 each. Thus the minimum budget of a university is $310,000 a year. The capital outlay fo1 Engineering is fixed at a minimum of $300,000; that for Science or Medicine, $200,000; for Agricult.ure $150,000; and for the remaining faculties $100,000 each. All these regulations are intended to eliminate the mushroom universities that have been springing up during recent years and have, after a short while, gone out of existence, to the loss of both the money and the time of their students as well as to the detriment of the Chinese public in general. St th Judged by these standards, strictly applier!, reng most of our Christian colleges are well up in capital outlay, but not in current budget. Still Christian higher education in China is no longer an insignificant enterprise. The physical plants of fifteen colleges were estimated in 1927 to be $15,000,000 Chinese currency with laboratory equipment to the value of half a million dollars and library books approximately of the same amount. Eleven institutions reportecl 563 teachers actually at work in the Fall of 19:W, 288 of these had a postgraduate degree of Ph. D. or M. A. The total current budget of fifteen

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202 CURRICULA colleges in 1927 amounted to $1,620,506, which must have increased during the last three years. Besides 'rheology, Medicine, Agriculture, Courses and Law, ,vhich are taught in professional schools, the Christian colleges offer courses in Chinese, English, religion, philosophy, natural and social sciences, commerce and education. Taking the reports of eleven colleges in 1929, the total amount of work in ten departments with the largest number of teaching semester hours are as follows in the descending order: Chemistry, 523; Biology, 50:3; English, 429; Chinese, 361, Physics, 300; Mathematics, 209; Education, 198; History, 189; So ciology, 162; Physical Education, 157. According to the same reports, the amount of work called for in twelve of the largest departments m descending order is as follows: English, Chemistry, Biology, Chinese, Physics, Physical Education, History, Political Science, Economics, So ciology, Mathematics, and Education. But the departments in which students choose their majors are as follows in the order of popularity: Sociology, Pre-Medical, Politics, Economics, Education, Chemistry, Arts-General, Business, Physics, and Biology. The general tendency in the Christian Needs colleges in China has been to model their work after the American college. The 6-6-4 system bas now been adopted by the Government. Matriculation into college presupposes six years of primary school and six years of middle school. But while the government regula tions are intended definitely to discourage the credit system, i.e., to allow a student to graduate by accumulating credit9 which are earned by taking individual courses, largely of the nature of three lectures a week for a semester, the Christian colleges are still clinging tenaciously to this method of academic bookkeeping. There are, of course, various devices, such as departmental distribution, and the requirement of a major and one or two minors during the last two years in college which counteract to a certain extent the evil effect of the credit system, but it is

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NEW STANDARDS 203 still quite possible for a student to have studied from 12 to 20 different subjects in four years' time with rather short exposure to each one of them. Perhaps, while secondary education is at present inefficient, much that has been missed in the middle school has to be made up in the college. 'fhe consequence is that a student is graduated, when he has barely started to do university work. In other words, students study courses and not subjects, work for credits to get a parchment rather than to be properly initiated into a discipline of learning. "Here a little, there a little," and never very much anywhere! To remedy this the standard for college matriculation ought to be raised and the course of study leading to any university degree ought to be more correlated and more concentrated. The attention of the student ought to be directed more towards thinking and not just towards passing examinations set by his own teachers which usually mean little more than the careful study of the minds, likes and dislikes, of the examiners; and careful and systematic reading ought to be required at as early a time as possible in the college course. This would mean, of course, fewer students in the colleges, teaching to make the best use of leisure time which is one of the arts of life, and not filling up the time of the student with lectures and even "assigned reading" throughout the four years. By thus raising the standard of graduation and saving the time at present wasted in the undergraduate course, the need of a postgraduate department will not be so widely felt, for a man who has had three years of real university work ought to be able to stand on his own feet and carry on independent research along his own line. Fellowships, however, ought t0 be given to promising graduates, not for postgraduate work, but to carry on independent study and research, for which ~ollege work if properly done ought to have fitted them. There ought to be better equipment and more Ii brary and laboratory facilitie8, but the danger of over teaching is very great in any college.

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CHAPTER XIX OUTLOOK OF MINISTERIAL TRAINING C. W. Allan Types of Seminaries In the CHINA CHRISTIAN YEAR BooK for 1928 Dr. Djang Fang classified theological training under three general headings, viz; Regular Seminaries, Bible Training Schools and Religious Departments of Universities. That classification still holds gooci, but we might also add Short Term Bible Schools and Cor respondence Courses. During the last few years, however, the proportion has undergor.e considerable modification. Largely as the result of the politieal upheaval, institutions have closed down or have been amalgamated with others; unions have been dissolved, and the general result is that the theological training of the present clay is pre-eminently of the Seminary type, the students being graduates of middle school standing. No reliable statistics are available with regard to the number of higher grade college students, but it certainly is not a large one. In 1922 the China Educational Commission reported that about one quarter of the theologica.J students of that date were college graduates, but that can hardly be the case now. That Commission commented on the seriousness of the position at that time, but to those who in view of the greatness of the task today, looking for a highly trained ministry, the position now must be of an alarming nature. Dearth of College Students It is only too patent that there is a dearth of stndentK of collt>ge grade, but the ex periences of the past few years will snggest many explanations. The anti-Christian movement, the attiturle of the Government towards religion, economic conditions and political changes have all contributed to this unfortunate state of things, and the

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CURRICULA 205 result is that few have got the evangelistic vision of giving of their best to win men for Christ. 'l'here is a low estimate of the function of the ChriRtian Church. This is hardly to be wondered at, as similar conditions seem to prevail in Emope and perhaps America. It may be said that the same sort of conLower-Grade Students ditions militate against the supply of leAs highly trained men or Christian workers. That is true, with a difference. College graduates have so many other opportunities of employing their talents; their work is demanded in many branches of public service, and only those who really feel the burden of souls are likely to give their lives to the great work of preaching and of building up the Church. It may be said without detraction, however, that. students of lower grades have nut the same choice, and the ministry opens out to them, at present at least, as good a social and financjal position as that offered in any other branch of service. This may not, of course, be the case later on when the Chinese Church has become independent. University Courses of Study The course of study in the religious departments of the Universities is very com prehensive. It includes chiefly Old and New Testament Introduction and Exegesis, Old and New Testament History and Theology, Greek and Hebrew, Ancient and Modern Church History, Dogmatic Theology and History of Doctrine, Christian Philosophy and Ethics, Pastoral Theology, Apologetics, Religion and Philosophy, Religious Education, Logic, and Chinese Literature. The regular course occupies three years. Entrance requirements vary slightly. In the case of St John's University the student must have completed at least three years in the University. At Yenching, the applicant must be a graduate of a college of recognized standing; whilst at the Shantung Christian University and at Nanking one year of work in the University School of Arts will provide the necessary qualification. Students graduating from these institutions can obtain the Degree of Bachelor of Divinity.

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206 STANDARDS Seminary Standards A:1 we have indicated above, mo.;;t of the theological training of the present day is done in the seminaries. The courses in these institutions vary in character and also in standard. The Lutheran Seminary at Shekow has an" A" course for college grade students covering three years. Other seminaries snch as Nanking and Tenghsien have a three years' course, but also one year pre-theological. The entrance requirements are the senior middle school diplomas. 'l'he South Fukien Union Theological College, has a three years' course, but takes graduates of the middle and lower middle schools. The Shekow Seminary has also a "B" course of four or five years for junior middle school candidates. This is also the case at the Foochow Methodist Seminary. The C. M. 8. at Hangchow has a theological course of two years for trained school teachers who have served as schoolmasters for four or five years. The Moukden Theological Hall has a two and a half years' course for those of junior middle school standard. The Wenchow Methodist institution has also a two years' course. Seminary Degrees rwo seminaries, on the completion of the course of study grant degrees in Chinese; the Shekow Seminary giving the degree of "Shen Hsueh Hsneh Shih," and the Nanking Seminary that of "Tao Hsueh Shih.'' Students of other institutions, after graduation, are required by their respective churches to continue probationary study with examinations for various periods, before being accepted as suitable candidates for the ministry: The curricula of the seminaries includes most of the subjects taught in the religious departments of the universities, but the work may not be so intensive. Elementary Greek and Hebrew are taken by students of exceptional ability, and also certain studies in English. The teaching in all cases is in Chinese. Bible Schools There is a number of Bible schools, which, as their name imp!ies, concentrate largely on instruction in the Holy Scriptures, but have general

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THEOLOGICAL TRAINING 207 subjects also. The entrance requirements are not educa tionally stringent; students with higher primary school qualifications being eligible. Some of these, such as the Kingchow (Hupeh) School were of a higher grade prior to 1927, but political agitation and troubles have resulted in an alteration in their requirements. The courses are for two or three years. The Moukden Theological Hall has a junior or preparatory course, followed by practical work in the evangelistic field. The studentil are then allowed to enter for the senior course. The Mateer Memorial Institute however is a Bible and normal training school, where the scientific teaching in the pre-theological course of the North China Seminary is given. Keeping in view the work of the ministry, the seminaries and Bible schools above mentioned all lay special stress on religious character and experience, ability in speaking, and general fitness for the office of pastor or evangelist. Provision is made, so fo.1 as possible, during the courses for practical work in preaching and other departments of church and social service. With regard to the maintenance of all :~t:fetnance students training for the ministry, it is only too obvious that their support is drawn from mission boards and church funds, and very few of them are self-supporting. The question of the training of women is dealt with in a separate article, but we may mention that some of the seminaries referred to take in female students also. Oth~r Training Methods Other methods of training adopted are variously termed Station Classes, Leaders' Classes, Summer Schools etc, These are held for short terms for evangelists and church workers. The periods average about three weeks in duration. In addition, courses of a week's tuition are given at various stations during the meeting of the church courts. Individual missionaries also have their classes for training their own men. A movement of special interest

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208 RURAL TRAINING is that of the Short Term Bible School for ordinary members and voluntary workers in connection with the Church of Scotland in Manchuria. These schools are usually held during the vaca.tion periods in summer and winter, when school buildings are available. Graded courses of Biblical instruction are given, first in the form of lectures, and then by group discussion. The results are shown in a growing band of men and women who are ready to do voluntary preaching in their respective stations. The students generally pay for their own food, but a little help is given in the provision of a cook arrd fuel, and travel expenses if the distances are great. The Nanking Theological Seminary carries Correspond-on a Correspondence Course which has been ence Course in successful operation for some years. This course is designed to provide reading for a period of at least five years, and includes most of the subjects taught in the seminaries and Bible schools. The semi-annual examinations of the stuclents are held as far as possible under the supervision of a missionary or someone appointed by him. The Hunan Bible Institute has recently established a similar course of study, which is being widely used and greatly appreciated. Special Rural and Urbau Training There is a growing recognition of the fact that Chinese society is largely rural, and that the ordinary curriculum of the theological seminaries is not quite suitable, or at least is not adequate to the needs of the majority of students who will perforce have to work amongst rural populations. Thus there is a distinct tendency to expand the courses of the training institutions so that instruction can be given in general agriculture, poultry raising, beeculture and kindred subjects. This is the case notably at the Jefferson Academy, Tunghsien, Peking, which sends out men partially equipped in this direction. It would seem that the results of this method of training are giving

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CONCENTRATED TRAINING 209 satisfaction, and there is a growing number of evangelists who are in a position to interest anc.'! help the farmers amongst whom they live. There is also a desire, on the other hand, to give special courses of instruction in economics, industry, sociology, etc., to those students who are likely in the near future to be working in the cities. Concentrated Training Necessary No doubt there is much wisdom in this action, and as a temporary measure it is very commendable. But it will be a pity if men are drawn away too much from their stndy of the religious verities to concentrate on these things however necessary. The preacher needs to be a specialist in his own work, and that is the work of Biblical instruction and pastoral oversight. The average student has not yet grasped the idea that painstaking study of God's word is absolutely essential. Most theological tutors know how difficult it is to get students to consult any other book than their own special text book, and Bible references are shelved as of no use whatever. A two or three years' course in a seminary with a certificate or diploma at the end of it, sums up the general conception as to what is really necessary. Such students having "graduated" are evidently "completely equipped," and do not realize that with such superficial knowledge as they have absorbed, they have hardly touched the fringe of the wide domain of religious truth. The Education Report of 19221 speaks of Cooperation In "a surprising amount of inter-denominational Ministerial d l h" h h Training an 1nternat10na cooperation w 1c as been secured in the field of theological education, and considers it a "great tribute to the statesmanship of the missionary that he has seen the possibility of this movement." It is quite evident that on this point the mission field is considerably in advance of the home l Christian Education in China, 1922.

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210 UNION INSTITUTIONS churches, no doubt owing to the broader outlook on religious life that, as a whole, marks the foreign mission ary. This cooperation or union of work has not meant that sectarian differences are entirely shelved, for most of the institutions are willing to allow the students special denominational teaching if required. Thie is as it should be, for each branch of the Christian Church has its own contribution to make to religious truth and church wel fare, and a deadly uniformity, called by some enthusiasts "unity" is not the ideal. There is much nonsense talked about the different sectarian views and practices being a stumbling-block to the Chinese. This view does not give the Chineee sufficient credit for common sense. They are quite able to appreciate the fact that in religious matters, men do not always see eye to eye, and this state of things allows for some very sane and healthy instruction on the subject of Christian charity and toleration. DissoluHon of Union Institutions In the CHINA CHRISTIAN YEAR BoOI{ for 1928 it is Rtated that "there is the tendency among Christian educators to dissolve the union institutions ... and to go back to the de nominational Bible schools" This does not seem to be borne out by facts. Since better political conditions prevailed, union institutions have come into being, and the probabilities are that there will be still more in the future. Only missions that adopt the extreme Fundamentalist position are likely to withdraw, and of such there seem to be very few who are participating in union work. Number of Theological Students With regard to the number of students undergoing theological training the same YEAR BooK says ''that the enrollment in different seminaries, as well as in the departments of religion in the universities, with the exception of a very few, is gradually decreasing." This may be true in the case of higher grade students but it does not apply to the seminaries. Such a decrease was no doubt due to the political conditions and the anti-Christian agitation,

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MINISTERIAL SUPPORT 211 but now that the storm clouds seem to be passing away, the Church is reviving and candidates for the work of preaching are corning forward. They ma.y not be men of college education, hut they are of a type that is likely to be increasingly useful in the evangelization of this great country. Support of Ministers It is still held by many that the lack of college trained men is due to the low scale of remuneration made by most churches. This brings before us an old problem to which at present there seems to be no solution. To offer monetary inducements to highly trained men is to add to the burden of the churches and postpone indefinitely the attainment of self-support and a dignified independence. It is evident that even the present salaries given to many Chinese ministers exhaust the resources of the churches, even if they are not really burdensome, and are considerably higher than the majority of the churches would give if entirely dependent on their own efforts. It would seem as though there is no solution of the difficulty along this line. Other explanations are given as to the reason why the-re is such a lack of college grade men most of which seem to ignore the fact that the ministry is a vocation and not a profession, and therefore only likely to be accepted by men who feel the urge of the Holy Spirit and are filled with the love of Christ. The question of highly trained men for the Present Most ministry is a very important one, and cannot Urgent Need be set aside, but it may be at this juncture more vital for the Church to emphasize the need of the men trained in the seminaries. Just now there is the Five Year Movement ,vhich is laying special stress on evangelism and the reaching of rural and widely scattered populations. At any time the number of college grade ministers is likely to be comparatively small, bnt there is a great need for preachers and workers who, while their educational attainments may not be of the highest type, are yet sufficiently qualified to present worthily the truth

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212 SEMINARY TRAINING to needy souls. The educational standard of China as a whole is exceedingly low, and such men are quite equal to the task of making known the Gospel message and supplying the spiritual food for which the nation is hungering at the present time.

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CHAPTER XX MASS EDUCATION AND PHONETIC CHARACTER Herman C. E. Liu Origin The mass education movement has, in recent years, made rapid progress in China. It was started in a humble way by the Y. M. C. A. s, Y. W. C. A. s, and the churches. It has spread like wild fire all over China. Both Christians and non-Christians have promoted the movement with zeal. Now the government and the Party have adopterl it as a part of their program for the reconstruction of China. Revival of Phonetics One oi the most significant events of the past year in connection with the Mass Education movement is the revival of the phonetic movement as an aid to solving the problem of illiteracy. When our missionary friends first came to China yearA ago, they found out how difficult the Chinese characters are, and so introduced romanization systems in different parts of the country. These were most successful in Ningpo, Foochow, Amoy, and Swatow. Many Chinese converts were taught to read the Bible and sing hymns with their aid. Later on, a number of prominent Chinese scholars became interested in the problem. They also devised a shorthand method or phonetic system. Those who were especially noted for this work were Wang Hsiao hang, who worked out a Mandarin alphabet, and Lau Yu-tsou, who worked out a shorthand method, In 1912, the Minister of Education, Dr. Phonetic Alphabet Tsai Yuan-pei, called a conference to con sider the problem of preparing a phonetic alphabet for the Chinese language, in order that a standard pronunciation of the language might be adopted for the promotion of education. 'l'here were about seventy delegates present who represented different parts of China.

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214 SIMPLIFIED SCRIPT The conference agreed upon the standanl pronunciation of about eight thousand characters, and at the same time adopted thirty-nine signs as a phonetic alphabet with which to indicate this pronunciation. They considered more than forty different systerne, but finally came to the conclusion that the best way would be to adopt simple stroke characters from the Chinese dictionary as the phonetic signs. Simpliflid Script In the Fall of 1918, the China Continuation Committee called together a group of Christian leaders to consider the question of a system of simplified Chinese writing. The aim of the movement represented by this conference was stated thus: "The primary aim of the movement to adopt and promote the use of a system of simplified Chinese writing is to enable those who are now illiterate to read and write intelligently simple Mandarin. In so far as this concerns the Christian Church in China, the aim is e:-pecially to enable every member of the Church to read the Mandarin Bible." After careful consideration the conference decided unanimously to recommend for general use in teaching illiterates, the government sy,=tem. It was felt by linking up with the government in its effort to meet the needs of illiterates it would be possible to promote a campaign that would produce better results than under any other circumstances. A phonetic promotion committee was appointed and it was generously supported by the Stewart Evangelistic Fund. Mitos S. J. Garland, of the ('hina Inland Mission, served for three years as its Executive Secretary. Both Rev. E. G. Tewksbury and Rev. T. F. Pan of the China Sunday School Union have been most active in this movement. Through the years they have published many kinds of teaching material and literature. They have also published many Bible and Gospel posters, and 20,000 Scripture leaflets each 8unday, that have the phonetic signs at the side of the Chinese characters. The Bible Societies cooperate fully with this movement, and have published a phonetic character Bible.

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PHONETIC MOVEMENT 215 Decreased Interest During the last few years the phonetic movement almost died down. This was due to many reasons, which may be mentioned briefly as follows: 1. Many enthusiasts tried to use the system as a substitute for Chinese characters. This naturally caused objection everywhere. 2. The effective promotion of the Thousand Character Campaign gripped the interest of the people. 3. The number who could read the phonetics was small. Those who could read Chinese character found it too troublesome to learn the phonetics, and the few illiterates who learned it found that they could not use it, for the number was so small that there was no one to communicate with. 4. There was only a small amount of printed matter and literature in phonetic. All the books and newspapers were still printed in Chinese character, and not coupled with the phonetic, so there was no reading matter. 5. '!'here was no occasion to use it when one had learned the phonetic. It was easily forgotten since there was not much printed matter and very few people knew it. 6. It was difficult to promote the national language, for there are many dialects in the country. Since the Ma.ndarin pronunciation was insisted upon, it was difficult for the people to follow it. 7. There was no effective propaganda or promotion. Although there were people interested in the movement, they did not keep on long enough and hard enough, but became discouraged.

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216 Mass Education MASS EDUCATION When the National Committee of the Y. M. C. A. initiated the mass education movement under the leadership of Dr. Y. C. James Yen, the writer was privileged to be associated with him. From the very beginning was recognized the importance of phonetic signs as an aid to 1eading Chinese characters. During the past few years, the Thousand Character textbooks published by the Association Press included the phonetic signs. I have made a careful study of the question, and I am more convinced than ever before of the value of the phonetic signs, not as substitutes for the Chinese character, but as an auxilliary method to facilitate the study of Chinese characters, and so to help solve the illiteracy problem. When I met Mr. Wn Chihhwei, who was the President of the Standard Pronunciation Conference which promulgated the phonetic alphabet, I told him my conviction, and his interest was immediately revived. Then we talked over the matter with the dele gates who attended the National Educational Conference in Nanking last April. We also interviewed President Chiang Kai-shek, President Hu Han-ming, President Tai Chi-tai, anrl other prominent leader.3 of the govnnment and the Party. All of them were very enthusiastic about the phonetic signs as a means to attack illiteracy. Resolution ference: The following resolutions were unanimously adopted by the National li:ducational Con-"1. That all Chinese, literate or illiterate, must learn the phonetic signs. "2. That phonetic signs should be used for the standardization of the national language, bnt when ever it is necessary they may also be used to spell local dialects. "3. All printed matter for the masses should be both in Chinese characters and phonetic signs. "4. All educational institutions and organizations should organize a special committee and appoint personnel to promote the wide use of phonetic signs."

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GOVERNMENT AND PHONETIC 217 After the National Educational Conference ~~:Oi:~:;::~t had adjournetl, the Central Executive Com-mittee of the government adopted the follow ing resolutions proposed by a long list of prominent statesmen, headed by President Chiang Kai-shek, as follows: "1. That all branches of the Party should instruct their members to use thi.i phonetic system in order to facilita.te the propaganda of Party Principles. "2. That the Nationalist Government should notify all officials and employees that they must learn the phonetic signs so that they may easily realize and help the difficulties of the illiterate masses. "3. That the Ministry of Education be instructed to notify all the educational institutions that teachers and stn
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218 CHARACTER AND PHONETIC Nanking, practically all the sign boards of the government institutions are written with Chinese character coupled with phonetic signs. The station signs along the NankingShanghai Railway are also written in the same style. Various cities have carried on similar campaigns. In Shanghai, an Association for the Promotion of Phonetics has been organized by prominent educators such as Mr. Wu Chih-hwei, Dr. Tsai Yuan-pei, and others. There is every indication that this movement will make a great contribution to the advancement of mass education in China.

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CHAPTER XXI NEW PROGRAMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Ronald Rees There is nothing essentially new in "religious educa tion.11 It is concerned with the old, old story of Jesus and His love, and with the old, old story of how to share it with otherR, men, women, young people and children. In the making of Christians, two factors are necessary for securing the fullest response. Meaning One is the message and the warmth of conviction with which it is
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220 DEFINITION with His passion of love for God and for men, and to learn of Him the skill with which to share our experience with others. If God has put into our hands in these days any new understanding of education and what Jesus meant by it, that is something for which to be profoundly thankful. His methods are no "weak substitute for evangelism" in spite of the occasional extremist who imagines that some psychological technique will work wonders that only the power of the Spirit can do. On the contrary, the methods of the teacher-evangelist, taught by Jesus, give added power. To our shame we have not used that power to the full. We have been careless of, or even scorned, His skill ful ways of handling men. So religious education is not an alternative to preaching the Gospel of Christ. It means preaching that Gospel, by word and life, by all consecrated methods, old and new, to all sorts a.nd conditions of men. Jerusalem The Jerusalem Conference of Easter, 1928, drew fresh attention to this whole question. The paper prepared by Mr. J. H. Oldham and Dr. Luther Weigle describes the essence of the matter in the following terms: "Religious education in the Christian sense includes all efforts and procesr,es which help to bring children and adults into a vital and saving experience of God revealed in Christ; t.o quicken the sense of God as a living reality, so that communion with Him in prayer and worship becomes a natural habit and principle of life; to enable them to interpret the meaning of their growing experience of life in the light of ultimate values; to establish attitudes and habits of Christlike living in common life and in all human relations; and to enlarge and deepen the unuer standing of the historic facts on which Christianity rests, and of the rich content of Christian experience, belief and doctrine.' 11 !Jerusalem Conference Report, Vol. 2, P. 4.

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LAMBETH FINDINGS 221 Growing Interest In the volume from which this quotation is made will be found not only the findings of that conference, but of earlier national con ferences in .India, Ceylon and Japan. It is significant also that at Lambeth, where 307 bishops of the Church of England and of Episcopal churches in communion with her came from all parts of the world, there are frequent and emphatic references to the teaching work of the Church. One of the six commissions was devoted to Youth and its Vocation. It is said that "the witness of the Church to the truth about God must always be given in life and conduct. But such witness by life must be made more convincing, and its secret and power made intelligible and avilable, by the work of enlightened study and of effective teaching.'' The Conference urges upon Christian leaders "the paramount duty of thinking out the meaning of the faith for themselves, and of making it, by every kind of erlucational resource, intelligible to the great multitude of younger folk within the Church or on its fringes, who are in a state of mental confusion, combined with spiritual hunger."2 R t H t Previous editions of this YEAR BooK have ecen lS ory n d d th b f h 1n 1cate a stea y rise rn e nurn er o t ose who are concerned with these issues in China. In May, 1923, the N. C. C. at its first Annual Meeting referred the problem to its standing Committee on Retreats and Evangelism. A conference was called in March, 1924, which made certain proposals and recommended the appointment of a standing committee on Religious Educa tion. This proposal was only partly carried out by the formation in 1926 of a Council of Religious Education of the China Christian Educational Association. Its special field was to be schools and colleges. The field of church and home was not included. Meanwhile the China Sunday School Union continued work for Sunday Schools .. Local experiments, conferences and institutes were also carried on. In 1928 the China delegation to Jerusalem 2 Lambeth Conference Report, P. 33.

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222 METHODIST PROGRAM studied the whole situation in school, church and home, and in their findings recommended the appointment of a commission "to make a thorough study of the present problems .. and to carry inspiration and counsel from place to p]ace, in order that local and regional groups may be encouraged to undertake larger and more effective plans for providing religious culture in home, Sunday school, young people's societies, pulpit, school and college.m The scope of the work as they saw it was thus a good deal wider than anything which was being done at the .time. Methodist Church Early in 1929 the 1\Iethodist Episcopal Church, acting on instructions from the East Asia Central Conference in the previous year, produced a policy and program for that Church to be followed in the years 1928-31. It was more far-reaching and comprehensive than anything which had been attempted before in China. An account of it was given in the YEAR BooK for 1929 by Dr. Wade Crawford Barclay, ,vho assisted in the work. Then followed the Regional Conferences with Dr. Mott, and the meeting of the National Christian Council at which the Five Year Movement was resolved upon. The Canton Regional Conference had been especially emphatic that some radical change in materials was necessary and urged a thorough investigation. 4 The Five Year Movement which was launched in January, 1930, made religious education one of the principal subjects of emphasis. Meanwhile in the autumn of 1929 Dr. R. c. s. s. u. M. Hopkins, General Secretary of the World's Sunday School Association (American Section) visited ChinH.. He took up with the China Sunday School Union certain long outstanding questions of policy into which it is not possible to enter fully here.6 3 Jerusalem Conference Report, Vol. 2, P. 176. 4China Christian Year Book, 1929, P. 216. 5 See Chinese Recorder, 1930, page 60.

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CHINA SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION 223 The Committee of the China Sunday School Union expressed its unwillingness to. conform to the fundamental requirement of the World's Sunday School Association that the policies and work of the C. S. S. U. should be con trolled by a committee "directly representative of the cooperating churches and missions and fully responsible to them for the determination of policies," and decided by a bare majority of members present to continue to function with its Constitution and policies unchanged. The decision of the C. S. S. U. did not give Appeal to the satisfaction to certain churches. On Nov. 27, W. S.S. A. 1929, an informal meeting was called by leaders in the Church of Christ and the Methodist Episcopal Church. It was believed there were certain cooperative functions which should be promoted, especially "research, experimentation, regional institutes, summer schools, and conferences for correlation of activities of workers in religious education." Steps were taken to confer with other church groups, and it was proposed that they should join in a concurrent invitation to the W. S. S. A. to send some one who would help in studying the situation. This invitation was approved and sent in January, 1930, by administrative officials of the following church or mission groups: Church of Christ in China, Disciples, East China Baptist Convention, English Baptist Mission, Eng lish United Methodist, Methodist Episcopal, Methodist Episcopal (South), North-China Kung Li Hui (American Board) and North China London Missionary Society. At a meeting in Shanghai March 3-7, 1930, the respective com mittees on Religious Education of the Church of Christ in China and the Methodist Episcopal Church held a joint meeting. A favourable reply had been received from the W. S. S. A.; accordingly the following recommendations were passed, which we quote from the minutes of the joint meeting: (1) That the proposed survey (jointly to be under taken by the World's Sunday School Association and the

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224 RELIGIOUS EDUCATION COMMISSION Christian Movement in China) of the present status and needs in the field of religious education in China, is con sidered to be exceedingly desirable. (2) That the National Christian Counoil is the agency best fitted to represent the Christian Movement in China in this cooperative survey. (3) That we request the National Christian Council to undertake this project and continue further negotiations to that end with the World's Sunday School Association. (4) That we submit these resolutions to our respec tive church executive bodies for consideration with the request that said executive bodies after approval transmit the said resolutions to the National Christian Council. (5) That we ask other churches to unite with us in this request to the National Christian Council. This request was duly presented to the next meeting of the Executive Committee of the National Ch1istian Council held in Shanghai, March 25-27, 1930. It was a.greed that the N. C. C. should respond as soon as the request was formally ratified by official action of the authorities of the Church of Christ, Methodist Episcopal Church, or other churches desiring this help. This indorsement was subsequently given by the two churches named, and also by the North Chin11. Kung Li Hui, the Chekiang Shanghai Baptist Convention and the China Baptist Council, the United Christian Missionary Society, the Central Council of the Methodist Episcopal Church (South) in China, and the London Missionary Societ.y China Council. On the strength of this appeal, the W. S. S. Commission A. reported in July that a deputation would Appointed be sent out to China in the autumn of 1930. Accordingly the National Christian Council assumed responsibility for making the necessary arrangements. In

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RELIGIOUS EDUCATION SURVEY 225 October Dr. Jesse L. Corley arrived in Shanghai, and the N. C. C. Committee on Religious Education, together with other representatives of churches concerned, was convened to meet him and decide on the line of work to be followed. The commission was eonetituted as follows: Dr. Jesse L. Corley of Los Angeles, representing the W. S. S. A.: Miss Alice Gregg, Secretary of the Religious Education Committee of the Episcopal Church (Sheng Kung Hui); Rev. S. S. Ding of the Methodist Episcopal Council on Religious Education; Dr. C. S. Miao of the China Christian Educational Association; and Rev. R. D. Rees of t-he National Christian Council. In addition, Dr. S. H. Leger, representing the Religious Education Committee of the Church of Christ in China was asked to cooperate in this piece of work, which was to be carried on by visitation to important centers in China through the winter and spring. Purpose of Commission headings: The plan of work laid down for the Commission by the Committee which met last October may be stated under five (1) To find out the real situation, so that the needs of the churches may be understood and met by each denomination and through cooperative work; (2) To bring fresh vision as to the true meaning and possibilities of religious education, and inspiration to undertake it with new ardour; (3) To help in the training of workers to do their work more effectively; ( 4) To discover what is needed in the way of literature and other materials, and to find out what people are doing original work that might be used by others; (5) To secure the right organization, local, regional and national, within each denomination or by cooperation between denominations, which will most effectively meet the present situation.

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226 CHURCH AND HOME In this way the suggestions made m 1928 by the China delegation to Jerusalem are being fulfilled. Ref erence has already been made to them. The points they emphasized were a thorough study by a commission, which would carry inspiration from place to place and suggest larger plans affecting Christian work in church, home and school. The Commission organised in 1930 has .tr.iis purpose in view. The chief emphasis is placed on church and home. It has been felt increasingly that government restrictions on Christian schools were throwing a new responsibility upon the Church. For the most part the Christian l\Iovement in China has relied upon the schools to give instruction and training in the faith to the children and young people. If their work is going to be limite
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YOUNG CHINA 227 preach and teach our faith to the great farming com munities of China. Lastly, the pressing problem of youth, especially the students, is engaging the attention of religious educators, not only in the Christian schools and universities, but also in the Church from which youth is at present so largely estranged. How can we win the best mind of Young China, or even hold the graduates of our own Christian schools and the products of our Christian homes? All this stirring of thought and sense of need for new power and effectiveness to meet the Day of the Lord in which we live has made many turn again with new hope to Jesus as Teacher. They long for his spirit and his skill in dealing with the little ones whom he came to save, children and parents, young men and girls, merchants and farmers and workmen. There is a growing desire to find a better way and to do it together. There has been much inquiry and conference during the last few years. The time has come to take action, that the Lord may revive His Church.

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CHAPTER XXII BIBLE TRAINING SCHOOLS FOR WOMEN Anna E. Mofht This is the first time that the YEAR BooK Introduction has contained an article 8pecifically devoted to the Bible Training Schools for Women, although work along this line has sometimes been referred to in its pages. It was the original intention of both the editor and the writer that this article should confine itself to the women's Bible schools of higher academic grade, and not attempt to deal with the work done in the scores of lower grade schools conducted hy the missions in many places to meet the pressing need for some sort of training for Christian women who have not had educational opportunities during the years when they should have been in school, and who need some chance to fit themselves for volunteer service in the Church, for positions in which a high degree of education or training is not necessary, or just for happy, effective Christian living in their homes and communities. However, there are even yet so very few schools which might properly be called higher grade training schools that it has seemed desirable to broaden the scope of this article enough to make mention of a few of the more importa1~t schools whose standards are not yet those of senior middle school grade; and also to indicate briefly what opportunities for training for religions work are offered to women in the colleges and theological seminarie8. Low Academic Standards 'fhe writer was a little surprised to find that of the Bible training schools for women, only three are of the grade which requires graduation from senior middle school for entrance upon their regular course of stucly. One of these

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BIBLE TEACHERS' SCHOOL 229 opened its doors only in the fall of 1930. Prior to that time the Bible Teachers' Training School in Nanking and the North China Women's Bible School in Tenghsien seem to have been the only schools of their kind which could rank as schools of junior college grade. B [ T h The Bible Teachers' Training School was ib e eac ers d 1912 b f Training opene I? y a group o m1ss1onar1es School representmg the Northern and Southern Methodist Mi3sions, the Northern and Southern Presbyterian Missions, the United Christian Missionary Society, and the Ji'riends' Mission. From the beginning the regular "Bible Teachers' Course" has been designed to meet the demand of the graduates of lower grade Bible schools, high schools, or colleges. This is a two years course, the equivalent of junior college work. In addition the school offers a two years "General Bible Course," to which junior middle school graduates .are admitted. The curriculum in the higher course includes a thorough study of the entire Bible, Church History, Biblical Geography, Religious Education, Homiletics, Theology, Personal Work, Public Speaking and 'reaching, Chinese Composition, Drawing, Singing, and Practical Work. The lower course includes the study of the entire Bible, Biblical Doctrine, Sunday School Methods, Old Testament History, Comparative Religion, Chinese Composition, Practice Speaking and Teaching, Singing and Practical Work. Prior to 1927, when the school was disrupted by the anti-foreign and anti-religious outbreak which accompanied the capture of the city of Nanking by the Nationalist armies, the Bible Teachers' Training School had graduated 201 women, who were serving at the time in sixt.een different provinces in China as women evangelists, tea chers in Bible schools, or teachers in other girls' schools. After the troublous times of 1927, the school was closed for over a year, reopening again in January 1929, and graduating its 1927 class of twenty-four women about two

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230 BIBLE SEMINARIES years late. The 1930 class added eleven graduates to this total. Bible Seminaries for Wom?n The academic year 1929-30 witnessed a division in the Board of Managers of the school, which resulted in the opening in the fall of 1930 of a new school in Shanghai, the Bible Seminary for Women. This division in the school, with its attendant reorganization of the Board and faculty, has resulted in a greatly reduced student body in the Bible Teachers' Training School this year. But the school has moved back into its own property in Nanldng, after a little over a term's "refugee" experience in Shanghai; and the five or six missions cooperating in the school, together with the Church of Christ in China and the other churches co"nnected with the cooperating missions, are a1,sured that the school will not only overcome the difficulties of the past few years, but go on into an even larger service to the churches and the progress of the Kingdom in China than it has rendered in the past. The other school of highest academic standing is the newly opened Bible Seminary for Women in Shanghai. This school is an independent school, organized and administered by a self-perpetuating board of control, composed of missionaries and Chinese in equal numbers. Its support in addition to student fees comes from gifts by individuals. It offers a two-year higher course to graduates of senior middle schools and a two-year lower course to junior middle school graduates. In addition, it has recently joined forces with the Bible Correspondence School of China, which has now become a department of the Bible Seminary. About 450 students are enrolled in this correspondence department. The course of study offered in the school covers Bible, Church History, Personal Work, Teacher Training, Sunday School Methods, Theology ancl Homiletics. There are at present fifty-two students enrolled, thirty in the higher and twenty-two in the lower course.

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UNION BIBLE SOHOOL 231heh The North China Bible Women's Seminary Nort Ina 'f h 1 l t d "th th Bible Worn n' m eng sien IS c ose y connec e WI e Seminary e s North China Theological Seminary. It was opened in 1923, and is conducted by a Board of Directors chosen by the Synod of the North China Presbyterian Church. Students in the regular three years' course must be graduates of senior middle schools. Their courses are largely given by the faculty of the North China Theological Reminary. The school also offers a lower course, and gives opportunity for students who need preparatory work to get this in the Mateer Memorial Institute of the Presbyterian Mission at Tenghsien. Twenty-five students are enrolled this yt ar in the regular course, two in the lower course, and eight in the preparatory course. Forty women. have been graduated from the school and are for the most part engaged in Christian service. Next in line of academic standing comes Pelpiag Union the Peiping Union Bible School for Women, Bible School founded in 1907 by a union of the American Board of Foreign Missions, the Northern Methodist Mission, the Northern Presbyterian Mission, and the London Missionary Society. This school offers a three-year higher course to graduates of junior middle school and a threeyear lower course to graduates of primary schools. A year's experience in practical work is a pre-requisite to entrance in either course. This school was reorganized to bring it up to its present academic standard only two years ago; consequently, it has this year only the first two classes in each of its departments, ten students in the higher course and fourteen in the lower course. During the life of the school, it has graduated 144 students, and reports no unemployed graduates. Some graduates marry after a few years of service, but most are giving their lives to evangelistic work in the churches, a.nd to teaching of religion in schools. The demand for the graduates of the school al ways exceeds the supply.

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232 Canton Bible Training School BIBLE TRAINING SCHOOLS From South China comes the report of the Shung Kei Bible Training School in Canton, opened in 1927 by the K wangtung Synod of the Church of Christ in China. This school offers a three years1 course to junior middle school graduates. The curriculum includes Bible interpretation, Chinese, religious education, public speaking, public health, and music. The present enrolment is sixteen. One student has been graduated to date, and is working in the church. When one comes to list the schools in the next lower grade-those which require only primary school education as a preparation for the work they offer,-the list immedi ately becomes much longer than this article can undertake to discuss. One hesitates to mention any of these schools for fear of slighting others; but at the risk of appearing to show partiality, we shall mention a few of them. The Knowles Bible Training School of the Knowles Bible W omen1 ~ Foreign Missionary Society of the ih~~fng Methodist Episcopal Church, North, is one of the larger of these lower grade schools. It was founded over twenty years ago, and although it is not a union institution, its current expense budget of $16,000.00 Mexican, per year is about 60% larger than that of either the Bible Teachers1 Training School or the Bible Seminary. Its higher course is a six-year course, corresponrling to full junior and senior middle school work; and its lower course, which requires only two years primary school work as an entrance requirement, runs through four years, thus corresponding to regular primary school work. This year sees fifty-seven women enrolled in the higher course and twenty-eight in the lower. The higher course has graduated altogether 109 women, most of them now doing evangelistic work or Bible teaching. Some are directors of religious education in churches and schools, some have continued their studies in college in China or America, and at least one is occupying a very prominent position in one of the Christian national organizations of China.

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TRAINING SOHOOLS 233 The Hitt Training School in Nanking is Hitt Training another school of this lower grade conducted School by the Women's Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist Church. It is an old school dating back to 1893, and has graduated about sixty pupils. Baptist Bible Training School In South China the Baptist Bible Training School at Tangshan, Kwangtung, offers a three-year course to primary school graduates. Except as the missions employ the women trained in schools of this sort in South China, there is little opening for them, as the churches are unable to pay salaries for trained women evangelists. This fact acts as a deterrent to young women who would like to prepare for direct religious work, but who must be self-supporting. Recently the Baptist school has added some normal training to its course of study, with the idea of training women to teach in the country schools of the church and do church work at the same time, at a sa.Iary for these two kinds of work that the churches and schools can afford to pay. The Hunan Bible Institute at Changsha is Hunan Bible the China Department of the Bible Institute Institute of Los Angeles. It is open to both men and women. Its regular course is a three years' course. No specific academic requirements for entrance to this course are listed in the catalogue. Applicants must be church members with proper recommendations, and if they do not hold satisfactory diplomas showing graduation from mission middle schools, they must pass entrance examinations on their knowledge )f the Bible. There is also a preparatory course for those not qualified for the regular course; and beginning in 1929 the school added a special two years course for graduates of senior high schools. No women are taking this special course ; there are fifteen enrolled in the regular course and six in the preparatory course at present. No summary of the schools offering to women opport unities for training for religious work would be complete

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234 SCHOOLS OF RELIGION without mention of the work offered in the women's colleges and in certain of the theological seminaries. Yenchlng School of Religion The Yenching University School of Religion is open to men and women alike. 'fhe course is a three-year graduate course, requiring a college degree for entrance and leading to a B. D. degree. So far only one woman has graduated from the School of Religion. She is now serving as principal of the Peiping Union Bible School for Women. In addition to its regular course, the School of Religion is offering this year for the first time a one-year course in Religious Education. There are four women enrolled in this course. Three of them have definite posts awaiting them in church work in Moukden, Fenchow and Foochow. The fourth may continue and complete her work for the B. D. degree. Beginning with the academic year of 1927-28, the School of Religion has been responsible for a course in Religious Leadership offered to men and women who have had some years of experience in the church or some Christian organization. This venture has proved a success as far as the appreciation of students is concerned, though the numbers attending it have not been as large as the value of the course should warrant. Since the beginning of this course there have been twenty-five women students, and every one of these is now in some form of religious work. This year there are seven women taking t,he course. 'fhe course has as one of its aims the idea of helping to make religious workers social and social workers religious. Glnling c II In Ginling College at Nanking courses in O ege religion are offered in the Department of Philosophy. Students who elect these courses are pre pared to do religious education work in middle schools and elsewhere. There are also numerous extra-curriculum activities, which afford opportunity for those who wish to fit themselves for religious work to obtain practical experience. Many graduates of Ginling have taught religious courses in middle schools and other places, and in certain cases have taken the major responsibility for this work.

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Canton Union Theological Seminary TEACHERS OF RELIGION 285 Of the theological seminaries, Union 'l'he ological Seminary in Canton has graduated four women, and has three women among its student body at present. Most of the other seminaries admit women, but apparently few women have ta.ken advantage of the opportunities offered. Nanking Theological Seminary has one woman student at present, who will probably take the full course. North China Theological Seminary reports that its classes are open to women who have had the necessary pre-theological training, who have good health and of exceptional ability. Six women have received the diplomas of the Seminary in the past. There are none enrolled at present. Need for Teachers of Relfglon This summary is far from complete. All over the country there are women's schools ranging all the way from those which take in women with little or no previous education to some of middle school grade which perhaps deserve to be included in this list of such schools as much as some we have known about and mentioned. All of them have their contribution to make to the training so urgently needed to fit China's women to take the place which the last few years have opened to them. There is still ample need for the lower grade schools, though more and more of this elementary training is being done in regular primary schools, both church and government; and by the church in half-day schools, literacy classes, and short term courses and institutes. On the regular Bible schools there is constantly increasing pressure for higher academic standards. Middle schools are urgently asking where they can find qualified teacher8 of religious education, when the Bible schools for the most part are offering only middle school work, and the colleges and seminaries are not supplying nearly enough teachers to meet the need. And now, as the government regulations require registration of schools and the giving up of all religious education and exercises in the schools themselves, missions and churches are turning more and more attention to definite centers of religious education and to the teaching function

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236 WOMEN'S SCHOOLS of the church as such. Leaders and directors of this new type of work are going to be needed more and more, both in connection with Christian schools which must do extracurricular religious education work, and in the churches as the new interest grows in church schools for all ages of Christians. There is before all women's schools in China, from classes for illiteratPs, to the colleges and seminaries, "a door opened which none can shut."

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CHAPTER XXIII STATUS OF REGISTRATION C. S, Miao The purpose of this article is not to argue for any particular policy, but to state. so far as possible, the facts about the attitudes and activities of Christian institutions with regard to the problem of registration. Before doing that, however, it is desirable to view the whole problem in historical perspective so as to see more clearly the changes in government attitudes and regulations. "Mission Schools" Unrecognlzed Before the Revolution of 1911, the Government took a negative attitude toward Christian educational institutions. Christian schools were not classified as private (szu lih) schools but as "mission schools." "Private schools" in those days meant those im1titutions run and supported by Chinese citizens or Chinese legal bodies only. "Mission schools" were run and supported by foreigners. Their establishment was based upon special treaty privileges. The foreigner was, moreover, too powerful a personage to be dealt with, even when his participation in education did not follow government regulations. So it was the policy of the Manchu government neither to register "mission schools'' nor to recognize the graduates of "mission schools." Shortly after the Revolution, when the Statistics Ministry of Education wanted to make a statistical study of all schools in the country, it was felt that the old policy of ignorance was no longer workable. National educational statistics could not exclude "mission schools," without being incomplete and fragmentary. Unfortunately the standards and organization of "mission schools" were different from those of government and other private schools. To weave "mission school" statistics and

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238 FIRST REGULATIONS government school statistics into a uniform whole was an impossible task. For this reason the "mission school" statistics were not incorporated in t.he main body of the report but were put into the appendix. Aggressiv~ Policy So:>n after this statistical study, an aggres sive policy was adopted by the Ministry of Education. The first set of regulations pro mulgated was that concerning mission primary schools. They1 are as follows: 1. No name of mission or church should be attached to the name of the school. 2. The school ground should be separated from that of the mission or church. 3. 'l'he support of the sohool is not to be considered as coming from the mission or church. 4. The curriculum and regulations of the school should be in keeping with those of the Ministry of Education. 5. No religious teaching or ceremony should be required in the school. 6. Non-Christian children should be admitted into the school. 7. No distinction should be made in the treatmPnt of Christian and non-Christian children. S Cl [ 0 d In November 1920, the Ministry of Education pearer. d 1 d ... issue a spec1a or er concernmg m1ss10n colleges and universities. 'Ihe order contained three significant points. First, the Ministry regretted the fact that 1 China Mission Year Book, 1916, page 349.

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REGISTRATION REQUIRED 239 there existed a difference in standarrls and organization between government and mission colleges anrl universities. Second, the Ministry was anxious to see the graduates from mission colleges and those from government colleges receive eqmil treatment. Third, the Ministry permitted mission colleges and universities to register in accordance with the laws and regulations concerning the management of colleges and universities. In the following April, the Ministry issued Registration an order urging mission schools to register. Required At the same time, a set of regulations governing the registration of mission middle schools was promulgated. The regulations are as follows: 1. The word ''private" shall be appended to the name of the school. 2. A middle school shall follow the government laws and regulations concerning the management of middle schools, and an industrial school shall follow the laws and regulations concerning the management of industrial schools. 3. The curriculum and standards fixed by the government for middle schools shall both be followed. Whenever alterations are necessary, a report giving the reasons for alterations shall be submitted to the local Educational Authorities, in order that the approval of the Ministry of Education may he secured. However, no change shall be allowed concerning Chinese language and literature, Chinese history and geography. 4. The content of the curriculum and the methods of teaching shall include nothing in the nature of the propagation of religion. 5. The f'Chool shall treat Christian and non-Christian students alike.

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240 ANTI-OHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 6. No school violating the above regulations shall be permitted to register; and the registrntfon of those schools which make changes after their registration shall be cancelled. Anti-Christian Education Movement. Since April 1922, when the World Student Christian Federation held its conference in Peiping, the anti-Christian Education Movement has become very active. Various forces had been working behind the scenes ever since the Great War. The conference of the World Student Christian Federation simply furnished an occasion to launch the movement. These forces were "the New Culture Movement" that aimed at emancipation from traditional authorities, the Young China Society that started the nationalistic education (~ .:I:. Je "11) movement, the Communists who agitated behind the curtain of the Kuo mintang from the Bolshevic standpoint, the Kuomintang that advocated the cancellation of unequal treaties, and the "new nationalists" who advocated personal equality and freedom. Various open attacks on Christian schools were made in the Nanking Conference of the National Association fur the Advancement of Education, in the annual conferences of the Provincial Edcational Associations in Honan and Hupeh, and at the Eleventh Annual Conference of the Federation of Provincial Educational Associations. Regulations Revised In Nov<:>mher, 1925, the Ministry of Education deemed it necessary that there should be a revision of the former regulations and the promulgation of a uni form set 0 regulations for observance. These regulations stated that: 1. Any institution of whatever grade established by funds contributed from foreigners, if it carries on its work according to the regulation:;: governing various grades of institutions as promulgated by the Ministry of Education, will be allowed to make application for recognition at the office of the proper educational authorities of the Government according to the regulations as promulgated by the

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REGULATIONS REVISED 241 Ministry of Education concerning the application for recognition on the part of all educational institutions. 2. Such an institution should prefix to its official name the term "szu lih" (privately established). 3. The president or principal of snch an irnititution should be a Chinese. If the president or principal bas hitherto been a foreigner then there must be a Chinese vice-president, who shall represent the institution in applying for recognition. 4. If the institution has a board of manngers, more than half of the members of the board must be Chinese. 5. The institution shall not have as its purpose the propagation of 1eligion. 6. The curriculum of such an institution should conform to the standards set by the Ministry of Education. It shall not include religions courses among the required subjects. Canton Regulations In November, 1926, the Nationalist Govern ment in Canton issued a similar set of regulations for private schools. Articles 10 and 11 were as follows: 10. Except in the case of a special department (or school) of religion, a private school is not permitted to give religion as a required subject, nor is religious pro paganda permitted in cla,s instruction. 11. A private school is not allowed to compel students to participate in the religious exercises of the school, if there are any.

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242 NORTHERN REGULATIONS During the period of the Northern Expedition, particularly between 1926 a.nd 1928, various provinces1 added additional requirements or regulations; such as the weekly exercises for Dr. Sun Yat-sen, minimum capital funds and minimum qualifications for teachers. Northern Regulations The Northern Government in November, 1927, under the strong influence of the "Young China Society," promulgated a new set of regulations. These include the following drastic clauses against religious educati0n: 5. The institution shall 'not practi.e any religious rites 01 ceremonies, and shall not have as its purpose the pro pagation of religion. 6. The curriculum of the school shall conform to the standards set by the Ministry of Education and shall not includtt any religioi/,8 course. On February 6th, 1928, the National University at Nanking issued a set of revised regulations for private schools with no important changes from the Canton rPgulations except in phrasing. Regulations Revised The above regulations were again revised on March 5, 1929, by the Ministry of Education after it took the place of the National University as the central administrative office in Education. An important change was made in Article 1: "Any school founded by a private person or body is a 'private school.' 'fhis term applies also to schools founded by foreigners and "religious bodies" (instead of "mission"). The new definition is undoubtedly intended to include schools founded or controlled by Chinese church bodies. 1 Educational Review, January 1927, page 78-80; Edncational Quarterly, June 1927, page 68.

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VOLUNTARY RELIGIOUS STUDY 243 Latest Regulations In the latest regulations promulgated on August 29, 1929, there are added a few new features. Among these, the following are the most significant. 1. In Article 5, it is added that "if there are any religious exercises, students shall not be compelled or "ind ucecl" t,o participate, and "no religious exercises shall be allowed in primary schools." 2. In Article 12, it is added that "in case of his failure in his duties (president, principal or dean), the board of directors may, at any time, elect another person to take his place, and in case he is considered by the responsible educational authority as not qualified for his position, the latter may also order the board to elect another person. If the other person elected is also not qualified or the board ceases to function on account of troubles, the responsible educational authority may, for the time Leing, appoint a person to be the president, principal or dean." In Article 19, it is added that foreigners may be members of the board of directors but that "they shall not be more than one-third of the total number." Voluntary Religious Instrt1ctlo11 The Ministry further interprets the first sentence of Article 5 as prohibiting voluntary religious instruction in junior middle schools as well as in primary schools. The time limit for registration has been changed several times. The latest order of the Ministry is that private schools shall be registered not later than the summer of 1931 and that schools that do not register before this time limit shall be closed or shall not be allowed to take in new students. Attitude of Christfan lustltutions The question of registration was not taken very seriously by Christian institutions before 1925. The regulations promulgated on April 9, 1921, were indeed, discussed by the

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244 GOVERNMENT AND EDUCATION Advisory Council of the China Educational Association; however, no action was taken other than that of advising Christian Educators to cultivate and maintain friendly relations with local Educational Authorities and of urging the Christian teachers to join local Educational Associa tions.1 Christians Discuss Regulations Between Hl26 and 1927 there was a period of discussion and interchange of ideas on registration. Many special meetings-looal as well as national-were held during this period to discus5 the famous regulations of 1925. Even in ordinary school, church and mission meetings, no subject received more careful and prolonged consideration on the part of Chinese and missionary leaders than the bearing upon the future of Christian Educational institutions in China of the decision of the Chinese authorities to bring all private education under the control of the Government. Differing Definitions But in discussing Articles 5 and 6, there was a marked difference of opinion as to their Rpirit and intention, as well as to the advisability of accepting the conditions that they impose. With regard to Article 5, it was felt by many leaders that, as it stood, it contradicted the actual purpose of Christian schools and colleges; and that after registration an unfriendly im,pector might use the regulations to interfere very seriously with the religious life of a school. On the other hand, many Chinese leaders seemed to see no difficulty or inconsistency here, and they asked that consideration should be given to the government interpretation of the meaning of the regulations which were issued in their language. Other leaders frankly quesLioned the wisdom of the Ministry of Education conrerning itself with religious matters, which lie outside its province. Because of such wide differences of opinion, no unanimous lEducat:onal B.el'icw, July l!l!H, page ~3D-l40.

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VARIOUS POLICIES 245 resolution or uniform policy. was therefore found possible during this period. Nationalism The year 1927 marked a turning point in the problem of registration. With the rapid success of the Northern Expedition of the Revolntionary Army, there came a political cyclone. It was also a period of strong nationalism. Christian schools at once faced high pressnre from without (from government circles, public opinion and a section of the Chinese Christian church) as well as from within (attitude of the Chinese teachers and changing student psychology). As a result Christian schools were compelled to take expedient actions. Some schools have taken action freely and willingly; others have done so with great reluctance or against the strenuous opposition of those who believe that the very principle of religious freedom is surrendered thereby. Christian school boards, mission boards, No Uniform and church boards have adopted no uniform Policy policy on registra.tion. They have acted independently and even very differently in different situations. Methodist Policy The Methodist Episcopal Mission, North, has stated its educational policy as follows: "We recognize the right of the Government to control its educational institutions .... The building of Christ-like characLers fri the greatest contribution the Church can make to China and the world. We earnestly hope that in all regulations there may be no limitations placed upon the full development and use of these essential elements of culture. "We again state our willingness to meet the requirements of the Government so long as religious liberty is recognized. Therefore we recommend as the minimum of religious work offered in schools of middle school or college grade which justifies mission support, that.

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246 RELIGIOUS EDUCATION POLICIES 1. Elective courses in religious education be offered. 2. Voluntary attendance at religious exercises be permitted.'' Policy of Church of Christ The first general assembly of the Church of Christ in China, meeting in Shanghai in October 1927, recommended registration of all schools with the Government stating the aim of the Christian schools as follows: 1. The general educational aims set by the govern~ent education. 2. The development of Christian character for service to the nation, to society and to the Church. Policy of Lutheran Church The general assembly of the Lutheran Church meeting at Shekow, May 1928, voted: 1. That all schools supported by the Lutheran Church of China must have freedom of religious instruction as the fundamental principle. 2. 'fhat the Board of Education (of the Church) be requested to exert its influence with the Government in order to bring about freedom of religious instruction and thereby facilitate the registration of the schools. 3. That the Assembly earnestly pleads with the respective synods that the schools be opened again as soon as possible. Various Policies The Chekiang and Shanghai Baptist Con vention, the East China Synod and the Liang-Hu Synod Board of Education of the Church of Christ in China in 1928 agreed with the missions concerned to take over the control and responsibility for their schools.1 Several missions have either stopped their 1 Educational Review, July 1928, page 267-279.

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PETITIONS TO GOVERNMENT 247 educational work or have loaned their school buildings to local Christians who have conducted i.ndependent private schools in them. Other Chinese church bodies and missions, although having voted against registration under the existing regulations, still keep thei.r schools open. Anglican Petition The Sheng Kung Hui Synod which met in 1928 requested the Government to allow registered schools to require religious instruction and worship of children from Christian homes. This request was denied by the Government. R t A tf The government regulations of August, ecen c ons 1929, have created new problems for Chnstrn.n schools. Many Christian leaders were formerly ready to meet the government requirement of making religious instruction and. worship voluntary in schoolf'. But the new action of prohibiting even voluntary religious instruction in primary and junior middle schools is regarded by all as going to the extreme. It is natural that schools and churches should take new actions to cope with the new situation. We may briefly describe these as follows: 1. The Church of Christ in China, the Methodist Episcopal Church, 'fhe Baptists, The Chnng Hwa Sheng Kung Hwei, The Lutheran Church of China and ten o'ther churches have jointly submitted to the National Govern ment a petition for the repeal of the restrictions against religious education and worship in Church schools.1 Although this petition has failed, the churches have already decided to submit a second petition. 2. 'fhe Honan Diocese of the Anglican Church has closed all its existing educational institutions. In ex plaining its action, Bishop William C. White said: 1 The Chinese Recorder, September 1930, page 594-599.

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248 SCHOOLS CLOSED "Our middle schools were established to give a thorough general education in a Christian environment. 'l'hfl regulations for registration would eliminate the latter, if we were honestly to keep the spirit and letter of the Government's requirements. 'rn view of the fact that the buildings and grants for upkeep are provided for a Christian objective, it would be a breach of faith to use such for a solely educational work, without a direC't mandate from the donors. It would be difficult for any home mission board to give this. "It is increasingly apparent that the purpose of the Chinese Government is to eliminate the influence of the Christian Church from all educational institutions, and the last pronouncement from Nanking clearly intimates that further protests of Christian bodies will not. be heeded. However narrow and ill-advised and reactionary we may consider such a policy to be, ,ve must concede that the Government has a legal right to do what it considers proper in this matter." 3. At the meetings of the Department of Missions on October 7th and of the National Council (American Church) in Octobe1 8th, the following action was taken: "Resolved: That the whole question of registration or non~registration of our schools and colleges in China be left in the hands of the several Bishops of our Church in China, acting individually and under the resolution above quoted and in consultation with their Councils of Advice, with the confident belief that no one of the~e Bishops will ever compromise the great Christian purpoee for which thef'le schools were founded.111 4. The Board of Education of the General AsE?embly 1 Hankow Newsletter, December, 1930,

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REGISTRATION DELAYED 249 of the Church of Christ in China, which met in Shanghai, February 5-8, 1030, passed the following motion: It is recommended. 1. That all attempts to secure registration for schools of a primary or junior middle grade be suspended, except such of the latter as are run jointly with senior middle schools. 2. That when the outcome of negotiations with the Government for the modification of the present regulation is clear, the question of registration shall again be dis cussed by the General Assembly and the Board of Education. 3. That schools already registered in the meantime shall not seek to annul their registration. 4. The English Baptists in Shantung believed that it is impossible to keep up religious work among students under the present rnles, and that their Board would not sanction any seeming subterfuge in the carrying out of the Christian purpose of their schools. They closed their middle schools, therefore, and do not propose to reopen until the regulations against religious instruction are changed. 5. A few schools in Shantung h~ve used another method of meeting the situation. This is the changing of the name to Dao Yuan (m: !!.*), or, as it is Anglicized, ''Bible Institute." The provincial authorities complained that in these cases, although the name of the institution was changed, the curriculum remained the same as that of a regular school. 6. Several schools have tried church-center or re ligious-center ideas. Religious teaching and worship are

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250 REGISTERED SCHOOLS given off the school premises during, before, or after school hours. The students are free to attend.1 Schools Registered In April 1929, two Christian CollegesShanghai College and Nanking Universitywere actually registered. Now there are five more registered-Yenching, Ginling, Soochow, Fukien and Lingnan. In April 1929, it was calculated that seventy per cent of the two hundred middle schools opened that year were either registered, in process of registering, or preparing for it. Now it is safe to say that it has been increased to 80%. Effects of Regulations With regard to the schools and colleges that are now open, we see the following changes: First, practically all schools, whether registered or not, have Chinese as principals, presidents or deans. Second, with a few exceptions, all schools, whether registered or not, have a majority of Chinese on their board of Directors or managers. Third, there has been a change to the voluntary or elective system of religious instruction and worship. Fourth, a statement of purpose has been worked out under which several of the institution::i are registered with the Government. It is as follows: "This Board of Control (referring to the newly estab lii;hed hoard with a Chinese majority) hereby t.akes over full control of the institution known as which bas been founded by such and such churches in the United lEducational Review, January 1931, page.24-30.

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EFFECTS OF REGISTRATION 251 States of America (or other country), and takes as its purpose to continue to maintain their spirit of love, service and sacrifice .... Government and Registered Schools It is, of course, too early to appraise the total effects of registration upon Christian education in China or to make fair judge ments as to the wisdom of the various policies now advocated. But so far the following statements can be made on the basis of general observations: 1 So far the Government has not interfered with registered schools. 2. Many methods of applying the voluntary method of religious education are being earnestly tried. 3. Chinese Christian administrators and teachers, as they have undertaken greater rP.sponsibilities, have begun to consider the best ways of maintaining an
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252 CHRISTIAN INFLUENCE Where the school has a teacher of its own who is a Party member, many difficulties are avoided. 8. The Christian influence of registered schools seems to be dependent chiefly upon Christian personality. With a faculty which lives out Christ's way of love in daily contact with students and fellow-workers, the school is Ch1istian, whether registered or not.

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PART V SOCIAL LIFE CHAPTER XXIV CHANGES IN FAMILY LIFE Miss T. C. Kuan It is interesting to analyze the problem of ORtehlatfoCnhto, recent changes in family life in China, er aLges b h 1 1 l d I" ecause t ese are c ose y re ate to 1ts po 1hcs, culture, art an,! religion. I have neither expert knowledge nor sufficient time to analyze this problem adequately, but in offering my personal opinions I desire that this article may arouse other people to make a special study of the subject. We need to understand clearly the underOld Ideas lying causes for the past development of family life in China. 'fo do this we must study the background that causes the changes. One of these causes is the pressure and restriction of Chinese political despotism which, within the past four thousand years, extended its influence into the organization, tradition, educ11tion and religion of Chinese family life. The despotism of parents, family leaders and parents-in-law was so great that, acting in a ::1imilar way a.s rulers of a country, they had the legal right to grant death or life to their children. "A son cannot avoid death, if his father orders him to die," so runs a saying. 'fhe child's place in the family was one of submission and their personalities were suppressed. China's sages and scholars, in formulating family ethics, laid down the doctrine of "Three Rules and Five Commons:" "The Emperor," this claims, "is the emperor; the Father, the father; and the Son, the

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254 REVOLUTION AND FAMILY son." The father was compared to the sky, the mot.her to the earth, each contributing different natures as the result of the "Yin" and the "Yang;" and it was declared that the rigidness of man was the rule and the softness of woman the function. The strong man made up the value and the weakness of womn.n the real beauty. These doctrines developed in the Chinese family many defects, among them the idea that ignorance was the source of all the virtues of woman. Another saying reads, "The greatest unfilial piety is to have no descendants," the e:;;sence of which created a sort of religion based on ancestral worship. All ideas produced inequality and injustice in Chine;:;e family life. women's Movement Recent changes in Chinese family life began with the "Women's Movement" in 1899. The purpose of this movement was to give women an equal opportunity to acquire eJucation. li'ormerly, they had few rights in the family and no education. This moYement in the Chinese family started a fundame11tal change in China's educational system. Within the past nineteen years, since the beginning of the Chinese Revolution, the changes in Chinese family life have been varied and extensive. On the one hand, the Revolution overthrew the Ching dynasty, and on the other hand, its influence penetrated education, religion, civilization, art and lastly Chinese family life. The effects of the Revolution on the family are as follows: As a result of the success of the revolutionFreedom ary movement the Chinese people have sought strenuously for freedom, not only in politics but also in family life. This concept is especially influential among young people and particularly in regard to the relation of parents and children. Parents, hereafter, have no right to grant death or life or determine the marriage of their children. Their duty is to educate their children;

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FREEDOM IN FAMILY 255 home life is not to be a prison in which children suffer: parents-in-law must not treat their children-in-law in inhuman ways. These ideas are well recognized by young people today in their desire to get freedom in family life. Independence Under a Republican government, the citizens are independent and creative. A nation will be prosperous, if its people have the spirit of independence. Our Republic has been established only nineteen years, but the ideal of independence has already spread into the minds of many people and into their family life. The results of that conception can be illustrated by the attitude of those who in 1930 entered an essay contest on the subject, "A Healthy Family Life." About twenty persons entered the contest and all of them were opposed to the big family system. Among them were young and old, men and women, educators and pastors, so it is evident that the attitude of Chinese intelligentsia in regard to this problem tends strongly toward the creation of an independent spirit in the setting up of a small family system. Individualism One pre,ent-day idea is to put every per:;on in possession of the full qualifications of citizenship and also impose upon them its rights and obligations. It is realized that the happiness of family life and the betterment of society at large depend upon equality between the sexes. The Chinese intelligentsia apprehend the need of reforms though such reforms cannot be achieved except by publicity and propaganda. Superstition In emphasizing life on a scientific basis and abolishing superstitious doings, the Chinese Revolution has changed the traditional notion of filial piety also. In most families, the pa8sing of ancestral worship has become inevitable. Its old binding force is gone for the children and it no longer serves as a weapon for the parents. On the other hand, the standard of living in the small family life tends to be westernized. In Shanghai

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256 NEW SOCIALISM and Tientsin, and other large cities, one can see the frictions and irritations arising in China1s contact with western civilization and find there, also, the mixture of West and East in both its best and worst forms. Society is divided into two extremes-rich and poor, The old ethical codes such as thrift, filial piety, and faith are now out of elate. N S Ii It is a commonplace saying that the old ew oc1a sin Chrnese family has now became a mere kinsmenship. It is recognized that social improvements can never be achieved in connection with the old, deep~ rooted system of familism. It has been broken up since the coming of the Chinese Revolution. Dr. Sun's Three Principles have helped in this. Marxism or Communism iF! also concerned. All advocate the abolition of the old family system by providing social aesurance for children "s education. The above five points explain the comse and development of the changes in family life in China. Whether the change is beneficial or not is still a problem. Two different aspects are herewith given. The beneficial factors involved in the Gains changes of Chinese family life are: (a) the promotion of an independent spirit; (b) equality between the sexes, such as an equal opportunity in education, the enjoymenr, of the right of inheritance, the hope of finan cial independence, the chance of entering political life; (c) the abolition of superstitions cloings; and (d) a scientific standard of li vi 11g. Tu give precise proofs of the extent of these beneficial factors is very rlifficult, yet one may assert that they have not yet extended to all families in China. 'l'he bad factors involved are as follows: Losses (a) owing to the rapid rlevelopment of individualism the old ethical code has lost its influence. No new moral standards have been established yet, so the new. family system is very unstable, affecting badly bQtb the

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NEEDS OF FAMILY 257 family and society. (b) Regarding marriage, divorce not infrequently occurs in modern families; we often read of divorce cases in the daily newspaper. Whether divorce brings any benefit is a question not easy to answer; it certainly destroys happiness in the home. (c) As a result of advocating open social intercourse between the sexes oabarets have increased steadily in recent times. Many divorce cases are the direct result of that kind of social intercourse, particularly in big cities. (d) Since the standard of living is on the basis of western civilization, most families tend to luxury. The state of the family finances marks a distinction between poor and rich, resulting in bad habits of smoking and gambling. (e) After the western factory system has been introduced, our home industries die out. Since women and children are employed by manufacturers, most children cannot receive a proper kind of training and care at home. Needs In conclusion, during the coming of these changes in family life in China, we need: 1. Proper guidance in social intercourse. 2. The ideal that marriage should be sacred and happy. 3. Education in family life. 4. Training of parents and young people in home management. 5. Improvement of sanitation in the home. 6. Proper family recreations. 7. Creation of the habit of economic and home vocations. 8. Abolition of concubinage, the slave girl system and prostitution. 9. Promotion of the happiness of children and the setting up of a good family environment. 10. Religious education in the family.

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258 CHRISTIANIZING THE HOME The above ten needs are fundamental and require attention. The Committee of the N. C. C. on Christianizing the Home has adopted a definite plan and works in two directions. One is to use literature to suggest a proper kind of attitude and thought. Another is to train Christian leaders and experts who afterwards may work to improve the family.

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CHAPTER XXV MOVEMENTS AMONG CHINESE STUDENTS Y.T.Wu Revolution The past two or three yeara witnessed another revolution in the thought life of the youth of China. Some twelve years ago, Dr. llu Shih and a group of intellectual leaders started the Renaissance Movement in which the scientific method and the democratic spirit were emphasized. This did much to emancipate the people from the long established habit of loose thinking and blind acceptance of traditions, which are detrimental to real mental and material progress. The Renaissance Movement, however, is a movement, primarily, in the realm of the personal. I say primarily, not wholly, because out of the Renaissance Movement, which was intellectual and personal, emerged the May 4 and other movements which were practical and social in their attack on political corruption, foreign exploitation, and social injustices. Nevertheless, the Renaissance Movement as a movement, was more interested in the change of personal attitudes than in the facing of social problems. There is now a change in the atmosphere. The social aspect of our life has come to the forefront and now dominates the whole outlook of students. It is not such social problems as family and sex relations, illiteracy, narcotics, and the reform of certain time-worn customs, matters in which students were once intensely interested, but the pro bi em of the fundamental reconstruction of society. The lesser problems still occupy people's attention, but in quite a different setting. The emphasis is on the change of the whole social structure, rather than minor changes within the old frame-work.

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260 STUDENTS AND KUOMINTANG Environmental This changed outlook has been brought Influences about by the following influences:-1. The Renaissance Movement, with its fearless critical spirit, was bound to lead people, step by step, to disregard all traditions and go to the bottom of things. The present change is the inevitable result of the intellectual revolution brought about by the Renaissance Movement. ~. The political revolution of China, since the establishment of a central governmE'nt in Nanking in 1927, has turned people's attention to national reconstruction. This naturally leads to the question of how we should reconstruct. There have been a number of "proposed roads to freedom." 3. The influence of Russia is the most outstanding in the new atmosphere. Russia is the only country which has made a socialistic experiment on a national scale; and the idealil:'tic elements in that experiment, despite its faults, have attracted keen and widespread attention. A large part of this paper must be devoted to tracing the development of these influences among students in China today. Until 1927 the students were wildly Students and enthusiastic about the Kuomintang (the Kuomintang People's Party) and what it stood for. The Northern drive of this party and the later unification of the country were expedited by students who threw in their lot with the supporters of the Three People.'s principles. Then, the Kuomintang seemed to be the only hope of China, and to work for that party the royal way out for youth. Shortly after Nanking established its authority over the country, the situation suddenly changed. The policy

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COMMUNIST INFLUENCE 261 of the Government was to discourage, if not entirely prohibit, all youth movements. The reason for this is obvious. At that time the major obstacles to national unification had been removed and the Government felt that students should once more rlevote their time to study. The real motive, however, behind this was the fear of Communist influence among students. For a time the students voiced a strong opposition against this government policy. Thue the tenth national assembly of student representatives meeting, though with some difficulty, on September 2, 1928, in Nanking, had as one of its chief aims the reviving and strengthening of the Student Movement. In spite of the government attitude, that assembly was, on the whole, pro-Kuomintang, and so was its predecessor, the Ninth Assembly of 1927, which had to wrestle with the Communist elements in order to free itself from their grip. That the National Student Assembly did not succeed in meeting in 19:l9 and made no attempt at all in 1930, is pregnant with significance, viz, that the attitude of the Government had an alienating effect on the student's faith in the Kuomintang. Adel to this the corruption which began to creep into the ranks of important pai:ty members as the result of a once more stabilized regime, and you can readily see how the rosy picture which students had painted of the near future gradually faded before their eyes. Another factor contributed to the student's reaction against the Kuomintang. The party authoritie, in their eagerness over the expansion of the party, overdid their propaganda and mechanized the real vital elements of Dr. Sun's principles. ln::;tead of letting 'the Father of the Republic" win a place in the hearts of students, as he ought to be able to, he was almost made an idol to be worshipped. So far as the students are concerned, the forced growth of the party has meant its stunted growth.

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262 STUDENT COMMUNISTS Communist Invasion Since the split of the two parties in 1927, Communism has been regarded as the enemy of the Kuomintang, and any activities of the Communists have now to be carried on in secret, hence it is not easy to get at the actual facts as to the spread of Communism among students at the present time. But that Communist influence is growing among students seems to be borne out by intimate observations. Those who participate in Communist demonstrations in the larger cities are chiefly students. In at least some of the student strikes in various institutions during the past year or so, we can easily detect a directing hand that can only be that of the Communist Party. In spite of the strictly enforced ban, Communist literature still finds its way into the hands of student::; through clover devices of its distributors. One would, for example, come across a book with a cover entitled "Paul, the friend of youth"-published by "the Christian Literature Society, Shanghai, 1930," and would be surprised to find on the first page that it is really the "Communist International Monthly." Or one would be attracted by the title of a popular novel on another book cover and find propaganda in the form of a folk song intencled for the laboring class. The different forms of Communist literature have a unique style: the language is sharp, piercing, and stimulating: the facts presented are calculated to arouse the strongest emotional response; the remedies sugge~ted are always drastic, thoroughgoing, and full of appeal to the less privileged classes. Just what percentage of students who join ~t::t:~nists the Communist Party or Communist Youth groups are attracted by pecuniary or other ulterior considerations, it is hard to tell. There is no doubt, however, that a large number of them join because of conviction. Many of us perhaps know of cases where lovable young men "turned red" and changed their philosophy of life complPtely within a co'1lparatively short time. Occasionally, oue hears of mere children, yet in their teens, draggecl to the execution ground, shouting "down with the militarists; down with imperialism ..

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APPEAL OF COMMUNISM 263 in the most unperturbed manner. We have to face the fact that these tragedies arfl happening, poignantly dis tressing as they are. It is not a matter after all, of whether these children are in the right or in the wrong, but of the irreplaceable loss of life, young life nipped in the bud, and that by forces that are social rather than personal. And further we need not be surprised to find that the young women are not behind the young men in their courageous determination to stand in with the party, the members of which are liable at any time to imprisonment or death, besides being ready to undergo all sorts of hardships. What has been said in the preceding Influence of paragraphs may have already given us some Communism hint as to why such a state of things exists. It may not be out of place to give a brief recapitulation of the reasons why Communism has commended itself to a number of young people who are seeking a way out for themselves in particular and for society in general:-1. Disillusionment concerning what the Revolution would achieve: too much had been expected from the Kt'tomintang and too little time allowed for that Party to prove itself to the people. 2. 'l'he devastating effect of the civil war in China, in which the students are often personally involved, and the sight of the vast number of miserable, poverty-stricken people, particularly in war-ridden districts. 3. The need of an outlet for pent-up youthful energy at a time when channels for it-J expression are under strict surveillance. 4. 'l.'he appeal to youth of an organization that is radically revolutionary and severely disciplinary. 5. Resentment against the "imperialistic-capitalistic" aggression which has been considered the main source of trouble not only in China but all over the world.

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264 PROLETARIAN MOVEMENT 6. The world-wide unrest in which the foundations of old morals, ways of thinking, and institutions are shaken. If Communism is to be dealt with at all, it must be dealt with in such a way that the causes mentioned above, which have been responsible for its growth, will be con sidered and adequately attended to. Proletarian Movement When we speak of the interest of student:'! in questions relating to social reconstruction, we must not suppose that such students are necessarily Communists, or even remotely related to the Communist Party. The "Reorganizationists," the ''Thirty Party," the "Social Democrats,'l the Anarchists, or the AntH3talin group among the Communists, not to speak of the Kuomintang, nll claim to be devoted to social reconstruction in one form or another, aud all strive to win the allegiance of students. There are a large number of students who are affected by the distressing conditions mentioned above, and yet who are quite unprepared to accept Communism as the remedy to be applied to the situation. All that they feel is that the present social order is fundamentally wrong in many ways and that changes can and must be made in order to usher in the ideal order. Three or four years ago, the book market was flooded with literature dealing mainly with sex, marriage and family problems. Now, literature dealing with the social sciences comes to the forefront. Formerly, names like John Dewey, Bertrand Russell, G. B. Shaw, Tolstoy and Ta gore carried a good deal of weight among students; now students have turned their attention to men like Marx, Lenin, Trotsky. Gorky, Bukharin, Lunacharsky, Upton Sinclair, Sinclair Lewis, Scott Nearing and the like. Twelve years ago Bertrand Russell would have been regarded as very radical in his views about sexual matters; but, last year when a Chinese translation was

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PROLETARIAN LITERATURE 265 made of his "Marriage and Morals," it hardly attracted any a.ttention from college students. A social reformer like Kagawa would be regarded by many as too conserva tive, and hardly any of his voluminous works appear in Chinese. Even Gandhi evokes only mild admiration. Proletarian Culture Literature Here are a few facts about the Proletarian Culture Movement. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Between the Spring of 1928 and the Summer of 1930, some 400 new books were produced. Of these 80% were translations and 20% original works. Of the 400 boolrn 70 % were books on social sciences and 20 % hooks of general literary interest-novels, poetry, essays, etc. Of books on social science, five-sevenths deal with Marxian Socialism. Of the general books, three-fourths were devoted to the promotion of the proletarian consciousness. The translated books are mostly Japanese, includ ing Japanese translations of Rui,sian and other books. English books come second. The nationalities of authors whose bpoks were translated are in the following order of frequency: Russia, Japan, United StateA, Germany, Great Britain. When we add to the above the fact that from 80 to 90 per cent of the readers of the new books are students, we begin to see a significant dt-velopmcnt in the thought life of the students. Their interest is with the submerged class-the farmers and the industrial workers-and they want to see the betterment of their conditions come more by fundamental changes of the social structure than by slow ameliorative processes.

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266 STRUGGLE FOR LIBERTY "Liberty League" One of the first organized expressions of the P1oletarian Culture Movement was the "Liberty League" started in February, 1930, by a group of fifty-one persons to protest against restri ction!! laid down by the Government on freedom of speech, the press, and people's organizations. This was followed a month later by the formation of the "Federation of Leftist writers" in one of the private universities with the same purpose. According to this group, art and literature are not to be taken as luxuries for the leisured class, but should identify themeelves with the sweat and toil of the oppressed, and serve as their organ of expression in opposition to the privileged and ruling classes. Various kinds of study groups, magazines, and other literary projects were started in connection with the Federation. These organizations naturally had a good following among students in colleges. We are inevitably led to aRk how long the Government Government will tolerate this. The Prole Aclfvities tarian Culture Movement came into existence when the Nanking Government was in the heat of its campaign against the Northern rebels, Yen Hsi-shan and Feng Yu-hsiang, and while the Communists were taking advantage of the situation to play havoc in the interior of Kiitngsi, Hunan, and Hupeh. By the end of last October the victory of Nanking was assured. Since then the Government hag sent expeditionary forces against the Communists. It has also issued mandates to enforce strict school discipline, with a view to curbing Com munistic activities. Recently, raids were made in the book storeR in Shanghai for literature propagating Communism and several arrests made of store-owners, writers, etc. suspected to be related to the undertaking. Already news has reached us that the Leftist writers in Shanghai have found it undesirable to stay within such clorn range of the Central Government. It is not probable, however, that the Movement will die down l'O long as the world situation and conditions in China remain as they are.

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ANTI CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 267 The Anti-Christian Movement in recent Anti-Christian years has taken a different turn. One does Movement not hear so much about it, but what one does hear bears evidence that the former attack from the more or less intellectual angle is gradually giving place to an attack from the socialistic angle, that is from the standpoint of socialism and the materialistic interpretation of history. This new attack also centers on Christianity on the ground of its being superstition and the "running dog of imperialism," and so on, and the force of the a.ttaek is intensified by the clear-cut materialistic philosophy behind it. The following selections from recent antiChristian literature will illustrate this point:-"Gods are born of fear. The laboring clasc1, in their state of extreme poverty, instability and despair, found their burden too much for them, and, driven by the thirst for life and dread of death, they created out of their imagination an omnipotent and extra-mundane deity to be their protector-too much disgusted by their suffering in this life to look for a imvior in the realistic world." "The ruling class has used religion as their tool to prevent class conflict. They would blind the laborers to the understanding of the law of class consciousness and class struggle; t,hey would tell them to be patient, peaceful, and tu look for reward for their toil in this world rather than in the world to come. The Christians, supported by crumbs from the table of the bourgeoisie, have not only ignored the sufferings of the common people, but have actually encouraged the bourgeoisie to redouble their efforts to exploit the oppressed class." 'fhe above quotations are made from a special "antiChristian" number of a weekly of an important government university, a 1:l8-page book, which appeared in the Spring of 1930. Some of the titles of this issue "The Prolfitariat and Atheism," "Scientific Socialii
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268 STUDENT CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT Dialectic-Materialistic Philosophy,'' "The Faith of Modern Youth: Science, not Religion." There seem to be periodic outbursts of the antiChristian fever, especially around Christmas time but, on the whole, public demonstrations, or even literature of the kind just mentioned, are comparatively rare. In spite of this one must say that the anti-Christian feeling among a certain class of students is quite deep-seated. Moreover the emotional and rather blind attack of former years has given place to a cooler and more scholarly exposure of the weaknesses of religion. Student Christian Movement Side by side with the quietly working Anti-Christian Movement, we find thA growth of Christian influences among students along two lines: (a) a revival of interest in religious matters among certain non-Christian students; and, (b) a revitalized faith and a new life among Christian students. Revival of Interest Of the first, there is yet very little to be said. We notice the revival of some Bible classes for government school students; we find that scholarly Christian thinkers like Canon Streeter are able to get an intelligent and eager hearing from non-Christian students; we notice more openness of mind and less blind prejudice among the true seekers. That this should be the case in a time when Marxian atheism and scientific naturn.lism hold such sway ovP.r students' minds needs a word of explanation. As we have note
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NEW OHRISTIAN LIFE 269 pulling down. But man, much less youth, cannot live in a state of intellectual and spiritual chaos. The quest must go on, and when it goes on in earnest, it breaks the bounds of prejudice and welcomes light that may come in from any unexpected source. The Communistic way of social reform, with its method of violence and terrorism, its appeal to hatred rather than to love, is repelling to a certain type of mind and temperament. To this clasi; the way of life represented in the personality of Jesus-the combination of severity with tenderness, of radicalism with insight into human nature-seems to offer a more adequate solution to our eocial problems. Let us take up next the second line of growth in Christian influence, the revitalized faith and the new life among Christian students. Revitalized Faith The anti-Christian Movement and other new forces in the social and intellectual fields had a purging effect on Christian students. A certain number of them fell away, but those that have remained in the Christian fellowship have emerged with strength, vitality and a hardihood born of years of trials. The story of how handfuls of Christian students in nine government universities in a certain city fought their way through opposition and derision and succeeded in creating an intercollegiate Christian fellowship, is inspiring as well as thrilling. They had first to put up posters to find out just who were the Christians in each university. These were torn down immediately by the opposing students. Both sides repeated their respec tive acts once, twice, thrice ... until the Christians finally won out by sheer patience. The fellowship held their weekly service in a poorly-equipped room, but in excellent spirit. We can cite many other instances where Christian students have shown a new life.

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270 Awakening of Christian Students STUDENT FELLOWSHIPS The awakening of the Christian students may be described along three lines:-1. Reconstruction of religious faith. This has been going on for some years. While the process is a disturbing one, it cannot but have its wholesome effect. 'flie em phasis seems to be on the inductive and empirical approach rather than the deductive and authoritarian. It is the application of the scientific spirit in religion. Although the influence of Humanism has hardly been felt among Christian students, yet one would suspect certain of its tenets to fit in with the present trend. 2. Religion as a social force. The central emphasis of the secular movements, particularly the Communists, is on social reconstruction. A similar emphasis has been noticed among Christian students. The position of aloofness to social problems is no longer tenable. While former social activities of Christian students were more or less sporadic and philanthropic in nature, they have now taken the form of life-service and life-dedication. Many students have pledged themselves to improve the life of the rural people. Kagawa, the Japanese social reformer, has been received with great enthusiasm. The conviction is gaining that religion does not exist where it does not exhibit itself as a social force. Student Fellowships 3. The deepening of the religious life. In the past there were various kinds of student organizations. The most prominent of these was the student Y. M. C. A. It used to be a highly organized body with an elaborate program. Now the emphasis has been shifted to smaller groups, in the form of fellowships either within the larger organization or as separate bodies. The primary purpose of fellowships is the deepening of the spiritual life, an end more difficult of attainment in the larger organizations with their less intimate personalities. At present there seems to be a tendency to push the emphasis one step further and to

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B'l'UDENT CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 271 bring back to us what may be called personal religion. This is by no means an antithesis to the emphasis on 1eligion as a social force. It is felt that unless our life is firmly grounded in a religion that is nourished by communion with the object of our faith, thus producing vitality and poise, outward religious expressions are apt to be weak and superficial. Personal evangelism, once neglected, may be revived in a new form as one of the vital prerequisites for a program of social reconstru ction. Experience in recent student conferences Students and h 1 w r hi s ows that worship again occupies a centra O s P place. The rosthetic element is emphasized. Symbolism and the method of silence seem to have come as a new discovery and to have greatly enhanced the effectiveness of common worship. There is a place for both mysticism and the scientific attitude. National Student Christian Movement These various tendencies among Christian students are gathered up and embodied in the proposal for a National Student Christian Movement. Broadly speaking, the movement is already here. What is further neP-ded is an efficient central organization, local as well as national, whereby the present more or less inarticulate aspirations and the sense of solidarity may find an adequate expression. The Y. M. C. A. Convention in 1926, together with the National bodies of the Y. W. C. A. and the Student Volunteer Movement, appointed a Student Commission to study this problem. Another Commission was appointed in 1929 in a similar way. The purpose of the Student Christian Movement, as worked out by the Commission, is as follows:-"In the spirit of Jesus, to create fellowships of youth and to build souncl1 character, with a view to the emancipation and development of the life of the people/'

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272 NEW STUDENT ERA Here again we find the social emphasis at the center of the purpose. It is not probable that the Student Christian Movement will separate from the Y. M. C. A. Movement of which it has been an integral part for over thirty years. So long as student initiative and expression are given their proper place, it is most desirable that the two should share with each other their ideals, their struggles, and their resources. The consideration of organization will also involve due attention to the demand for the coming together of men and women in one Student Christian Movement. Separation of the two, at least in the functional sense, is no longer po~sible. New Era Among Students We have touched in the foregoing only the major movements among students. We have barely mentioned the "Reorganizationists," the Anarchists, etc., whose influences are waning. No reference has been made to the narrow "Nationalist" group, which is still fairly alive, and none to Dr. Hu Shih and the "Crescent Moon" group. Dr. Hu has pointed out China's five great enemies to be poverty, sickness, ignorance, corruption and disturbances, rather than the popularly denounced capitalism, imperialism, etc., and has advocated the use of scientific method in the necessarily !
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SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION 273 Chinese student movements. Let us see if this conclusion is justified. Rt1nning through the different movements, even in such opposite groups as the Communists and the Chris tians, we find the predominant emphasis on social reconstruction. The revolution in China began with the racial and found its expression in the political. Later, as we have already pointed out, it became an intellectual revolution in the Renaissance Movement. Now, we are entering the first stages of social reconstruction chiefly along economic lines. In each of these periods of revolution studrmts have played an important. role. No single group has yet presented any sP-heme that is acceptable to the people as a whole. The Kuomintang is now the ruling party in the country; but even the principle of the "People's Livelihood" has to be worked out with greater care and in greater detail before it can be applied to the present situation. This is a time of search, of experimenting, and of benefitting by the experiences of other peoples. In this search the students have already given hearty cooperation. In order to know how prevalent these movements are among students, one has to be in rather intimate touch with the life of students from the inside. A casual observer may be surprised in many instances to find no trace of their existence in any form whatsoever, especially in the case of the Communists at the present time when the Government is keeping such a close eye on them. There may be many students who do not think beyond their curriculum problems, or at best their campus or personal problems, and yet when the time comes, they may be among the first to respond to a call for mass action. Such movements as those of May 4th or May 30th amply show that this is the case.

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274 STUDENT PATRIOTISM Just how these movements will develop it is difficult to tell. At present they are mostly in a quiescent state, but at least some of them hold seeds that may give birth to another glorious chapter of the story of the student struggle for China's emancipation.

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Ancient FoundUng Home CHAPTER XXVI PHILANTHROPIC MOVEMENTS Andrew V. Wu Not Jong a.go I visited a foundling home for deserted infants in an interior city of a coastal province. I was informed that the institution began in the Sung Dynasty, seven centuries ago. Its equipment and book-keeping still follow practically the original models; and the resident officer in charge gave me the. impression that he expected it to continue in the eame way in the future. Philanthropy has been carried on in China lso!ated as an avenue for acquiring merit on the part Philanthropy of contributors as well as for the relief of the needy. It has been allowed to function just as those in charge saw fit with little or no intervention from the Government. This laissez faire governmental policy anent philanthropy has stimulated private initiative in humanitarian enterprises. But it has also, unfortunately, led people to regard their particular work as unrelated to the efforts of others and has, in addition, given opportunity for mismanagement and corruption. Little attention has been paid to local coordination and correlation. Lack of Statistics I do not have exact figures as to expendi tures for philanthropy in China, the number and kinds of institutions, and the aggregate number of people relieved in a given period of time. Such statistical data are not available. However, it is safe to say that a very huge inh~~nthh01r amount of money is thus spent annually in ang a China. Take, for example, philanthropy as it e:idsts in Shanghai. Available reports show that there

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276 PHILANTHROPY IN SHANGHAI are seventy-four philanthropic institutions in this city, exclusive of all foreign and church-supported institutions, which from July lst, 1929 to June 30th, 1930, used $2,328,526. This local philanthropy covers a wide range of types including homes for the aged, orphans, infants, the defective, the sick, as well as credit loans to small traders, homes for dependent women and street loafers, trade schools and charity coffins and burials. $1,564,220. 48 was spent for philanthropic programs in Shanghai: $369,360.93 was remitted for relief work outside of Shanghai, while rn67 ,940.02 waR spent for overhead, which overhead amounted to 15 % of the total disbursements. As to the number of people helped, the recoril shows 880,504 cases of clinical treatment: 673,377 prescriptions of Chine~e medicine dispensed free of charge, although it, is the usual custom that Chines.e medicine be obtained at native drug stores and paid for by patients, western medicine being provided free in clinics: 12,475 people were helped in the institutions: 26,219 pieces of clothing were distributed: and 3,106 piculR of rice consumed in making congee during the winter time: 20,007 coffins were also provided and 38,545 burials cared for. The average gift per capita per annum for Shanghai from rich and poor alike was eighty cents. I propose to treat the subject of this chapter under three headings;-I. Government enactments dealing with philanthropy. II. Government and social movements for the relief of slave girls. III. The National Child Welfare Association of China and Juvenile Philanthropy. I. Government enactments dealing with phiGovernment z d f Enactments anthropy. The present pos1t1ve att1tu e o the Government towards intervention and supervision of philanthropy constitutes a new movement.

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GOVERNMENT AND PHILANTHROPY 277 It is too early to 8ee the result of the new movement. Naturally, government intervention inconveniences some institutions, which have long been unaccustomed to outside supervision. But unless this move on the part of the Government chokes private initiative and cools social interest, which we do not expect, government and legisla tive action for supervision of philanthropy, which aims at setting up modern, scientific management thereof, will improve it as a whole. The National Government has left no Kuomintang shadow of doubt that it intends to take Policy a positive and aggressive attitude toward philanthropic institutions. Article 3 of the Kuomintang policy reads: "Land revenues, price increments of land, products of public lands, iHsues from mountains and waters, profits from mines and water power, these belong to the local governments and should be used for the promotion of local enterprises, and for baby orphanages, old people's homes, poor and famine relief, community health, and other public needs." Perhaps a word is needed by way of Government d 1 Promulgations mt~o uct10n to vahn_o1us gove~nm~nt pro~u gat10ns anent p 1 anthropic mstitut10ns. The National Government aims to carry out its policy of intervention and supervision through local controlling government offices in order to insure that each institution has a reliable, working board of directors, that it holds meetings at regular intervals and issues reports of its finance and work to the public. For the protection of the public, solicitation of public contributions must be first approved and the receipts therefrom must bear the seal of the government office. Encouragment is given philanthropists by a set of rules granting honorary commendations. Finally, the Government plans to establish relief yuans throughout the provinces, municipalities, and hsien cities with such existing public funds and government grants as are, or may be, at its disposal.

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278 Supervisory Regulations SUPERVISORY REGULATIONS On June 12th, 1929, the National Govemment promulgated the following supervisory regulations for philanthropic institutions:-"1. These Supervil:'ory Regulations apply to institutions for poor relief, famine relief, support of the aged, waifs, orphans and so forth. "2. Philanthropic organizations may not be used for religious propaganda or for personal gain. "3. Philanthropic organizations, excepting those founded by endowments, should have at least five persons as founders. "4. In addition to good reputation and reliable character, founders should have one of the following qualifications:-(a) successful experience in philanthropy; (b) zeal for public welfare and generous contribu tions made therefore; (c) knowledge 01 experience in the particular philanthropy concerned. "5. Those are disqualified from becoming founders who are guilty along any one of the following Hnes: (a) convicted local tyrants or corrupt gentry; (b) convicted of official corruption; (c) ant.i-revolutionists; (d) guilty of financial crimes; (e) declared bankrupt and not yet recovered; and (f) opium smokers. ''6. The controlling government office has the right to require change in the unacceptable constitution of a philanthropic organization before permission to found it is given. "7. Those disqualified under Article 5 shall not be admitted as members of a philanthropic organization. 118. Public philanthropic organizations shall hold two general meetings annually at which the directors shall make reports of finance and work.

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WORKING RULES 279 "9. Receipts and disbursements shall be recorded daily, the bills and vouchers to be preserved for a minimum period of ten years. "10. The controling government office may at any time inspect a philanthropic organization and its finance. "11. Should a philanthropic organization reject the inspection of the controlling government office or violate Article 2, the controlling government office may withdraw its permit or dissolve the organization. "12. In recognition of a philanthropic organization which has accomplished good results, the controlling government office may petition the National Government or the provincial government for commendations. "13. Philanthropic organizations shall abide by the civil and other laws, in addition to these promulgated regulations." Working Rules These supervisory regulations took effect by order of the Executive Yuan on Oct. 15, 1921), when there were promulgated simultaneously the following working rules for carrying out the supervisory regulations. 1. The supervisory regulations apply to both permanent and ternporary institutions. 2. During the process of organization, a philanthropic organization should secure the permission of the controlling government office. The registration shall be through the controlling government office or through the provincial or municipal governments, which shall forward the material with recommendations to the Ministry of the Interior who shall in turn forward them to the Executive Yuan or not according as to whether the property value of the institution is more than $5,000. 3. By controlling government office is meant: (a) the Commission of Civil Affairs in a provincial capital; (b) the Bureau of Social Affairs in a special municipality; (c) the hsien or municipal government in a hsien or city.

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280 PHILANTHROPIC CONTRIBUTORS 4. The controlling government office may require a prospective founder to produce evidence of qualification. 5. When a charitable Ol'ganization wants to raise money by public contributions the permission of the controlling office is required, which shall put its seal on the receipt book. 6. At the end of each month the charitable organization shall make a statement of receipts and expenditures and of actual work. 7. Charitable organiza tions shall make reports to the 0ontrolling office in June and December with regard to the following: (a} the appointment and dismissal of officers; (b) the record of the work of officers; (c) property and finance; (d} new and retired members; ( e) status of activities. 8. The controlling office may also require a philanthropic organization to make a budget and statement of accounts. Recognition of Philanthropists The National Government also promulgated regulations governing recognition of contributors to philanthropic institutions as follows: 1. (a) to one contributing $100.00 or more the municipal or hsien government in which the contributor lives Rhall give a commendatory insc1ibed acknowledgment; (b} to one contributing $500.00 or more, the Bureau of Civil Affairs of the province shall give an inscribed acknowledgment; (c) to one giving $1,000.00 or more, the Provincial Government shall give an inscribed acknowledgment; (d) to one giving $5,000.00 or more the National Government shall give an inscribed aclmowledgment. 2. The commendations as specified in (1) are applicable to organizations or groups as well as to individuals. 3. Any one, as a result of whose efforts contributions have been received five times the amount specified in (1), will receive special acknowledgment from the Government. 4. Any one contributing real estate or other property will receive commendation in accord with its market value. 5. If the recipient of a commendation contributes more than once he will receive further commendation according to the aggregate amount of

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RELIEF YUAN 281 money contributed. 6. Those having conducted philanthropic work for five years or more with definite accomplishments, may, on the recommendation of the highest government official of the locality concerned, receive special commendation from the Ministry of the Interior. 7. For Chinese abroad conducting philanthropic work for the relief of their fel1ow countrymen in a foreign land, upon the request of the Chinese minister or consul of the place, the Ministry of the Interior shall make special commendations. Relief Yuan While it supervises private philanthropy, the Government aims to establish a net work of philanthropic agencies throughout the country and group them in regional centers under a Relief Yuan. Relief yuans are to be established in provincial capitals, special municipalities and hsien cities, and, if desirable, in large rural towns. Temples and other public places may be appropriated for their headquarters. Their needs for eqnipment and endowment are to be met by grants from local government revenues a.nd public solicitations. There shall be a board for the control of the properties under the yuan, said board to be composed of representatives of local public organizations with the superintendent and the associate superintendent of the yuan as ex-officio mem hers. The endowment of the yuan shall not be applied for any other purpose and the current expenses of the yuan shall be from the interest from the endowment and special contributions. The Relief Yuan will usually have the following component institutions: (1) home for the aged; 0) orphanage; (3) home for defectives; ( 4} foundling home: (5) health clinic; and (6) money lending office. The Old People's Home is for those of sixty or more years of age, the Orphanage is for the care and education of chilrlren between six and fifteen years of age, the :B,oundling Home for deserted children under six years of age, and the Home for Defectives will care for those physically defective, blind o:r deaf. Provision is made in these homes for the inmates to earn what they can and enjoy life. The Health Clinic is established in order to

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282 SHANGHAI COMMISSION medical aid to the poor and sick and to prevent plague. Western medjcine is provided in the Clinic. Special Shanghai Commission In connection with this prn,itive government policy in regard to philanthropy, the Shanghai Municipality is at present in the midst of a very interesting project. Being aware that the properties of philanthropic institutions do not bring in the usual market values in rent, etc., a commission on financial rehabilitation of philanthropic institutions has been organized. There are eleven people in the commission: one representative from each of the five government bureaux, Social Affairs, Land, Finance, Police, and Education; four chosen by the Union of Philanthropic Organizations; two coopted specialists, one of these being a legal man and the other an experienced accountant. It is learned that from July lst, 1929 to June 30, 1930, seventy-four institutions in Shanghai received $456, 117.41 from their properties. As a result of this inve,tigation commission, t.he revenues from the propertie&i of the institutions will be considerably increased, much favoritif'm having been practised by tho~e r0.sponsible for the institutions. These earnest attempts of the Goverment and this enlistment of the best brains in the different constituencies cannot but inspire entln1siasm. Financial rehabilitation, says a responsible government oflicial, is fundamental to improvement of philanthropic enterpresis. II. Governrnent and social eff ort.s fo'1' relief of slave gfrls. It is taken for granted that child slavery is an abomination. It is the worst kind of cruel exploitation of the weak and innocent by the strong. It is admitted, also, that child slavery is still practised in China. The inertia of custom is i,o great that it seems almost impossible to eradicate the system. Definite figure as to the number of child slaves in China are not available. Two million is the figure given by Lord Cecil when he

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CHILD BLA VERY spoke at Central Hall, Westminster, London, last spring and referred to the slave traffic in China. Mr. Hsu Chen ts'ao, spokesman for the Society for the Relief of Slave Girls, estimates four million slave girls in China. As no nation-wide registration of slave girls has ever been attempted, it is impossible to know their exact number. Howevflr, it is without question that a horribly huge number of our lit.tle sisters are oppressed by bondage and misery. Against this colossal social evil and for the relief of the unfortunate ones enslaverl thereby, the efforts of the National Government and social bodies are being united. From the headqua1t,ers of the Military Child Slavery Government at Canton under the direction of Mandate the late Dr. Sun Yat-sen was promulgated on the 2Hh February, 1922, the following mandate for the prohibition of child slavery. This was reaffirmed and pn blislierl by the National Government in March, 1928. The order rnads:''The practice of keeping girls as slaves was pro claimed as forbidden at the end of the 'fs'ing Dynasty. Whoever engages in human traffic is punishable wit.h heavy penalty, according to the Criminal Code of the Republic of China. The equality of all persons is recorded in the Provisional Constitution. All that has to do with the system -of dividing the people of the country into grades and classes has been abolished. However, it is still found that private families keep slave girls; they even buy, sell or mortgage them as ordinary property. Slave girls are being accorded treatment worse than cattle. This is againi:;t humanity and violates the criminal laws. It is hereby explicitly prohibited. Henceforth, should anyone commit any act of human tr.ading or mortgaging, leading to a girl becoming a sla,e, or should one commit the act of holding a girl as a slave, he will be punished according to law as soon as attention is called to the case. '!'he Ministry of _the Interior and the Supreme Court are instructed to transmit this Order to those responsible for the administrative and judicial duties in the provinces

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284 LAW ON CHILD SLAVERY commanding them to instruct their subordinates accord ingly. The Ministry of the Interior is also to instruct the provinces to make plans for the founding of child welfare homes for dependent girls." Civil Order Against Child Slavery The Ministry of the Interior of the National Government on June 6th, 1928, issued civil order No. 353 to the provincial and municipal governments in regard to the child slavery situation. "The act of enslaving others has been forbidden. It is on record that the Military Government of Cant.on in the eleventh year of the Chinese Republic (1922) issued a mandate for its prohibition. 'l'he new Criminal Code recently promulgated has a special article relating to the penalties due to those enslaving others. But rich and influencial families still continue in the old practice of keeping slave girls. 'fhis is destructive of humanity and is very regrettable from the point of view of the welfare of the girls. Government officials in the various places are hereby instructed to make investigations of this matter and strictly to prohibit the further keeping of slave girls. Violators will be punished according to law. ''On being kidnapped girls are usually sold Kidnapping to distant places as prostitutes and slave girls. They are thus deprived of the happiness of life. Government officials in various localities should search for kidnappers and hand them over to the judicial courts to be punished. They should also quickly establi~h refuge homes to receive little dependent girls and to give them vocational training in order that when they become mature they may have ability to earn their livelihood .... "The above is in order to uphold humanitarian principles and to realize the protection of female rights."

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SAFEGUARDING GIRLS 285 In July, 1930, through the CommiRsion Safeguarding of Civil Affafrs of Cheldang Province, we Girls learned that the Ministry of Interior had further dealt with the child slavery situation and issued eleven specific articles for safeguarding girls. They are: "1. All who have slave girls should take them to the police station for registration and should record the girl's name, age, original home, physical condition, relatives and the price paid for her. The police should then issue a certificate of registration. "2. Those who do not register the slave girls they possess will be heavily punished. If a slave owner has no registration certificate, his landlord or neighbors are encouraged to report the case, or they will receive the penalty due to the slave owner. "3. When taking a census, care should be taken to record the facts regarding the place whence the slave girls came and the conditions of their life. ''5. On arriving at the proper age of maturity, registered girl slaveR should be permitted to select their own mates for marriage. They must not be sold. If they are maltreated or sold, it should be reported to the registration office which should immediately make an in vesligation. ''6. When a slave girl is married, she should report at the registration office and should have the registration certificate cancelled. ''7. Prior to their n1ar1iage, slave girls should have opportunities for education and for learning a trade. "8. After registration, the girl should retain her original name and may not be named afte.r her master. "9. Before arriving at the age of maturity, the slave girl should not be ordered to do heavy labor.

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286 ANTlMUI-TSAI SOCIETY "10. Local governments should establish training homes for poor girls and should encourage philanthropic organizations to establish as many such homes as possible so as to receive slave girls and. to make it impossible for human trading to be carried on. "11. Beginning from the date of this promulgation, no new cases of obtaining slave girls will be sanctioued. In case of violation, the offenrler will be severely punished according to the law dealing with the punishment of a human trader." Social Attitude to Child Slavery As to the attitude of society in regard to child slavery, while there are a few people who would argue for the continuance of an exceptional case on the ground that a slave girl in the good home of a kind-hearted master and mistress is better off than in her own home unprovided with the necessities of ]ife, yet no sensible person or organization will advocate the perpetuation of the system. Among the social efforts for the abolition Anh-Mui-Tsai of child slavery the Anti-Mui-Tsai Societv of Society Hongkong has played a leading role. Since 1922 it has conducted vigorous agitation against the keeping of mui-tsai ("mui-tsai," literally meaning "little sister," is a better sounding name than "~lave girl"). The society, under the leadership of a group of Christian men and women in Hongkong, has tried to arouse public sentiment against the existence of mui-tsai. Its first objective is the government requirement of registration of all slave girls in order that no new ones may be bought or sold and that inspection may be carried out in regard to their treatment. Society In Amoy The Society for the Relief of Chinese Slave Girls was launched in 1930 with headquarters in Kulangsu, Amoy. Its declared aim is to relieve Chinese slave girls, abolish the system of

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CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION 287 child slavery and secure a constitutional enactment for the prohibition of the custom of slave keeping. Since its organization in May, 1928, the Child Welfare National Child Welfare Association has found Association in child slavery a deadly obstacle to juvenile well-being. It is usually the lot of the slave girl to rise early in the morning and retire late at night. Jf her master or mistress engages in a game of sparrow or poker she must wait on them irrespective of the lateness of the hour. When she is sleepy the next day, as is usually the case for a child who needs plenty of sleep, she receives corpoml punishment. Again, she is often given a reduced ration of food and clothing. If a member of the family is irritated, he or she airs their temper on her. If the slave girl succeeds in enduring the maltreatment and becomes of age, she is usually sold out by her master as a concubine unless she is taken fo1 such by her own master. Most of my readers have probably heard the subdued wailing of slave girls or even seen maltreated girls on the street. Of such the National Child Welfare Association rescued thirty in 1930, a portion of whom were enabled to return to their own homes while the rest are being cared for and given education in the Shanghai Child Welfare Receiving Home until proper foster homes are found for them. The association has appealed to judicial and police authorities in behalf of such maltreated slave girls. It has tried to impress on the public that the act of enslaving others is punishable by la,v. Furthermore, it is advocating juvenile courts where children's cases will be specially considered. It is also drafting a Child Protection Law and a declaration of the rights of children for submission to the National Government. III. The National Ohild Welfare Association and juvenile philanthropy. Rights of Children The National Child Welfare Associatfon of China was launched as a social organization with the avowed purpose to "advocate,

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288 CARE OF CHILDREN protect and insure the rights of the children of China and promote in every possible way their well-being." According to an official statement of the Association, the organization "is a project in the practical application of the teaching3 of the Golden Rule and a patriotic attempt to serve the nation by helping iLs coming generation of citizens in whose hands rests the future of the largest and youngest democracy on the globe." During its short life of less than three years the Association has developed a program for the well-being of children along five lines: (1) child protection; the safeguarding, of legal rights: (2) welfare homes; the care of dependent children: (3) child health: ( 4) child study; the acquiring of better know ledge of the problems of Chinese children and the preparation of aids for parents and juvenile philanthropists: and (5) social education; the arousing of national sentiment for the rights of the child. Care of Children In the sphere of juvenile philanthropy the Association has assisted four thousand famine children and given assistance to fifteen children's institutions in the country. Convinced that the most desirable place for a little child next to the natural home is a substitute family home, the Association is making an experiment in chHd placing. 'fhe Shanghai Child Welfare Receiving Home began with six children in May, 1930. To date it has received sixty-four helpless orphans and maltreated little slaves, of whom thirty-two have already been placed out as foster children. Before this YEAR BooK comes off the press, a nursery school under the auspices of the Association will have started to operate. This school is an experiment for the relief and care of little children between two and five years of age whose mothers are physically unable to take care of them during their working hours in the factories. The Associa tion 'is in the midst of a rather exhaustive survey of children's institutions which when completed will furnish interesting information to sociological students so far as juvenile philanthropy is concerned. One of the projects ahead of the Association is the establishing 9f f.!, modern

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MEDICAL AID 289 child welfare home in N anking as a demonstration of the care of dependent children. Through its two clinics in Shanghai, the Child Welfare Association gave medical aid to eighteen thousand needy children in 1930. Prevention and AmelloraUon However, the National Child Welfare Association does not confine its activities to relief alone; its emphasis is on prevention rather than amelioration. The association has tried to provoke public sentiment over every maltreated child whose case it has investigated. The Shanghai Child Welfare Receiviug Home is a placing agency, whereby the Association hopes to serve as a go-between for childless homes and homeless children. The ambition of the nursery school is not only to relieve a very small number of children but to be a center of experiment for its Child Study Committee. What it learns from the snrvey and the experiences of the home in Nanking will be of value as it is asked for advice by philanthropic institutions. And in order that the child welfare movement may be truly national the National Child Welfare Associat.ion aims to cooperate with branch child welfare associations and other local agencies in order to stimulate a genuine public feeling for the right.s of children. It is justifiable to say, therefore, that while it is engaged in some juvenile philanthropy, the ultimate purpose of the National Child Welfare Association is the positive happiness of the whole being of the child.

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CHAPTER XXVII FAMINE RELIEF AND PREVENTION I. Ge1ieraI Survey T. S. Djang Since the winter of 1927, the Yellow River Yellow River basin has been the scene of bad times. Basin Drought has caused millionR to suffer and to die. Insect pests, and a host of other natural and human causes have made things worse. Hopei and Shantung were the first provinces that complained. Suiyuan, Shansi, Kansu, Shensi, Honan and Chahar closely followed with their famine cry. Number of Destitutes As early as December, 1927, the official estimate of "destitutes" was four millions. This increased to twelve millions in Novem ber, 1928, and to twenty millions in the early months of 1929. In 1930, after the wheat harvest, while the affected area was reduced by half, the number of destitutes remained unchanged owing to the intensity of famine in the remaining half being greatly enhanced by the continued drought. By the eud of the year, this figure was put down to two million because of the autumn harvest which was fair in almost all areas. A f N d The area of greatest need shifted from one rea o ee t h d"ff t 'fh region o anot er at 1 eren times. us: 1927-1928 1929 1930 Bopei and Shantung. Suiyuan, Chahar, Honan, Shansi, north Shensi and Kansu. Shensi, Kansu and Honan. As the year closes, famine conditions still obtain in at least fourteen hsien in central Shensi, and regions around

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RELIEF FUNDS 291 Lanchow, Kansu. Practically the whole of Honan is facing a severe winter on account of the effects of the recent civil war which was fought largely in that province. Relief Funds To extend relief to the famine sufferers in the affected areas was no simple task as can be easily imagined. However thanks to the kind hearted donors of funds, and a large number of devoted workers, the C.I.F.R.C. was able to send substantial aid to a good portion of the people in the worst conditions. While it is impossible to state the number of lives actually saved, it is safe to say that the death rnte was materially reduced because of the relief measures taken by the C.I. F .R.C. as well as by a number of other agencies. In terms of money, the C.I.F.R.C. has applied a total of over $3,540,000 distributed as follows: Shensi Suiyuan Kansu Honan Shantung Chahar Hopei Shansi Other areas Shantung-Hopei Various areas $1,186,700 811,100 661,300 293,000 115,100 90,600 52,600 50,100 58,000 187,95) (wells) 40,000 (seeds) $3,546,450 Fcs11ds ftom America More than 80% of this outlay was met with funds received from America through China Fiunine Relief U. S. A. Inc. This high percentage of American gifts as compared with 30 % of total funds administered by the C.I.F.R.C. being derived from that source since its founding in 1922, was due to the fact that custom surtaxes which formed the

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292 PUBLIC WORKS major portion of funds handled by the Famine Relief Commission in the past, were not imposed during the present campaign. Purchase of Grain Of the amounts applied during the 1927-30 operations, a little over a million dollars was devoted to the purchase of grain made outside of the famine areas, largely from Manchuria. For work in Kansu and in a few other cases, grain was available near the affected regions; so grain was bought "locally." The grain sent in from outside was distributed as follows: Free Labot Other Relief Relief Uses Total Cost Tons Tons Tons Tons Suiyuan 1,041.20 2,769.38 3,520,59 7,331.17 $555,3i0.75 Chahar 855.46 855.46 62,263.15 Shensi 1,974.41 124.98 897.08 2,996,47 266,287.U Shansi 695.13 695.13 4fl,591.85 Honan 117.00 1,006.16 1,123.l(i 76,786.43 Hopei 169.89 169.89 6,137.18 Shantung 100.43 100.43 18,303.95 Others 49.96 4U.47 99,43 7,946.90 ---4,038.03 2,89-1.36 6,438.75 13,371.14 1,042,686.85 Publ'c w k As it is generally known, the C.I.F.R.C. 1 or 5 has been interested in the prevention of famine. Whenever practical, therefore, relief was given in return for "service rendered" on some form of public works-such as roads, irrigation canals, etc. Recipients of charity have thus been turned into persons engaged in "gainful occupations.'' Although in the above list of grain only one-fifth of the grain was devoted to labor relief, much more labor relief was done than the amount of grain indicated for much labor was paid in cash. For instance, the 1930

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IRRIGATION AND ROADS 293 Kansu work was Lirgely labor relief though the fact is not apparent from a perusal of the list. Cash payment for labor was made on the Satochu in Suiyuan following the autumn harvests of 1929 and 1930. Also the relief work done in Shantung and Hopei consisted essentially in the einking of wells and building of roads and dikes. Labor on these projects was paid for either in cash or in grain locally r:;ecmed. Among the major public works that have Irrigation and been or are being constructed as the byRoads products of famine relief may be mentioned the Satoclm of Suiyuan (main 138 li; laterals 500 Ii; area irrigated 1,500,000 mu); roads stretching from Tungkwan across the province of Shensi to Fenghsiang, roads connecting various cities in Kansu and the Wei Pei irrigation canal (total length about 330 Ji, area irrigated 400,000 mu), recently started. These pieces of work at the time of construction provided livelihood to those engaged in the work and will for years to come yield economic benefit to the people and make famine less likely to recur or less severe in its <'ffect if one recurs. Difficulties II. Relfef in the Shensl Field John Earl Baker Relief in the Shensi fields was made difficult along five principal lines: 1. Tardy supply of funds, 2. Primitive transport conditions, 3. Dearth of personel for supervision, 4. Chaotic conditions of government, and 5. The appalling lethargy of the impoverished countryside. Lack of funds prevented any concrete planning of relief measures back in August or September, 1929, when it was perfectly evident to all competent observers that

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294 TRANSPORT DIFFICULTIES Shensi was doomed to a repetition and an extension of the famine which began in 1928. If the machinery of relief had been made to function in a timely fashion, the same amount of relief would have been administered before some of the situations mentioned later reached a condition of crisis. Poor Transport Facilities Those who have followed famine history in China will remember that in 1920-21 the railways delivered into the famine area an average of 2,000 tons of foodstuffs daily without interfering with the movement of other forms of traffic. But in 1930 the nearest railway terminated a hundred miles and more from the edge of the Shensi famine area; its track was in 11. dangerons condition, its rolling stock (what remained of it!), in a frightful state of disrepair and the little service it could render ,vas absorbed almost entirely by the armies which were moving toward the Honan battleground. Within the famine area itself, animal transport had dif'appeared-the army had commandeered what animals the starving people had not otherwise disposed of, Lack of Workers For reasons, which need not be enumerated to readers of this YEAR BooK mission stations in China are not so heavily staffed as in 1920. The hundreds of restless fortune-seekers who strayed this way after the World War, and were used in such large numbers in the 1920-21 famine work, were also gone. In Shensi, the Scandinavian missions were practically immobilized by typhus, and few members of the other missions trusted themselves outside the walls of their station cities, and then only infrequently and for pressing reasons. Such was the reputation of the province for both typhus and banditry that a scouring of both Tientsin and Shanghai for months found no adventurers willing to undertake the field work of supervision usually performed by local missionaries.

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CIVIL WAR AND BANDITS 29Ii Civil War and Bandits The movement of the Yen-Feng combination against the Nationalist Government forces on the Honan front, found its counterpart in the attempted organization of the larger bandit gangs into an army which strove to seize control of the Shensi capital, Sian. This attempt made such headway between February, when the first relief plans were definitely formulated, and April, when the first relief supplies were dispatched toward the province, that the Relief Committee in Sian thought it necessary to advise a complete change in plan. But by this time, a censorship had been established on telegrams between Sian and Peiping, causing such delays that an exchange of wires required about twenty days. As would be expected, complete understanding between provincial committees and Commission headquarters became impossible. Green Beans As a first step toward solving the famine problem of Shensi, the authorities of Shansi (Taiyuanfu) were induced to lift the embargo on the export of food stuffs to the ex.tent of 500 tons of green beans. This was conditioned upon the promise by the Commission to replace them with an equal tonnage of millet. These beans were purchased in the southern counties of Shansi, carted to the Yell ow River, towed up the Wei and other streams to the head of navigation, and were the first food supplies to reach Shensi from the outside. They were intended for seed, the idea being to form a sort of "Hindenburg line" for those who could manage to live through to the first harvest, rather than to keep alive for a few weeks those who could be reached immediately. It was known thnt, because of insufficient sowing, there wonld continue to be a serious food shortage in the fall of 1930, and in green beans there was offered a crop that not only was a qnick grower but also gave large returns upon the weight of seed planted. Despite the intention, not more than half of this seed ever got into the ground-hungry stomachs generally win such arguments. Nevertheless, the plan proved its worth, for when the plague of locusts swept across those same counties during

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296 MILITARY PERMITS August, green beans were the only food crop they left behind. The second step in the relief plan was to Millet order $100,000 worth of millet from Manchuria as soon as that many dollars were in hand (plus estimated transportation costs)-The Government had promised free freight over the railways, but there was the expensive tow from railhead up the Yellow and the Wei rivers. Even then, the food had arrived barely at the edge of the famine district; but local transport in Shensi was to be paid for (and for the most part was paid for) out of grain delivered at the head of navigation. But the "catch" in the situation was the inability of the railways to furnish cars-the armies had them. It had been thought that Yen Hsi-shan could be depended upon to bring about a rail movement as far as Taiyua.n 1 and that from there the grain could be motored to the Yellow River. All of $75,000 was earmarked for a fleet of trucks. But at this moment, Yen definitely committed himself to the war against Nanking, and an inspection of the route made it apparent that a $75,000 fleet of trucks could be expected to deliver no more than 400 tons before the rainy season would close the road. One 30-ton car per day would deliver four times as much; and if Yen Hsi-shan had the will and force to give us the rail hanl from Fengtai to Taiyuan, why not from Fengtai as far south as the Feng Yu-hsiang territory? Miiitary Permits The situation was laid before representa tives of both Governor Yen and Marshall Feng. They hesitated to give promises; I counterRd with the assertion that I would not require guarantees of perf~mance, merely an assurance of a willingness to ''try." "If you are willing to help I am willing to risk a little." After a few days of consultation, lThe shipment stopped at Yutze, about twenty miles east of Taiyuan.

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RELIEF AND BANDITS 297 such an assurance was given; but in order to assist in mu.king such assurances effective, with business manager, K. Z. Li, I called upon the division commanders all the way from Sinsiang to Loyang, inclusive, explained the plan, made the acquaintance of their transport officers, and secured "huchaos." The result was that two trains with an aggregate capacity of 750 tons were assigned for the transportation of our grain from Fengtai to Lingpao, and these two trains delivered approximately 2,000 tons1 Distribution Difficult By the time this grain arrived at the head of navigation, banditry had become loosely organized into a "Second Army'' threatening to wrest the control of the province from the Feng organization. They had succeeded so far that distribution could be carried out only in the counties on the eastern sis in counties further west sought to accomplish the same purpose by selling their quotas in Sian or Weinan, and, taking the money through the lines, use it in markets nearer home. But in several cases, after the grain had been sold, the county agents dared not face the perils of the homeward journey, and the funds had to be recovered from them. Certain of these counties were in such a condition that not a single responsible man could be found willing to undertake the distribution of either grain or money. It was plain enough that the "government" Danger could give no protection in these counties where its t-roops dared not appear. If we were to deliver relief it must be at our own risk and by our own hand. Two trucks were loaded with grain, plentifully be-flagged, and headed for "bandit" territory. We drove slowly, inquil'ed frequently, stopped on the slightest provocation. A half-mile from the gate of the nearest city held by lThe invaluable service of Gen. Chu Ching-Jan in conveying these shipments is due :fitting acknowledgment.

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298 BANDIT PROTECTION the "Er Chun" (Second Army), we left the cars and approached on foot, carrying a flag and a handkerchief (so as to demonstrate that both hands were innocently occupied). At two hundred yards we were challenged, stopped, called up one by one, searched, our cards were sent in to the commander-in-chief, and elicited an invitation to enter the city, via another gate. The walls were manned by a disorderly rabble who frequently halted us with a levelled rifie until we had repeated our explanations, but we finally entered the city, interviewed the com mand~r and delivered our grain to the local committee headed by a missionary. The commander approved the "work" Passports method of selecting the limited number of families to whom we could offer relief, gave us passports, a promise of "protection as far as possible," and of messages to "little brothers" in adjoining regions. That promise was kept faithfully; no "hold-ups'' occurred in bandit territory, but the "little brothers" in government territory, in a few cases, appear not to have received their "messages." On the next trip, $2,000 in silver coin was Employment carried. in addition to a load of grain, and the journey was extended almost to the western boundary of the province. Ten days later "work" was begun-reduction d an 18 per cent grarle on the trunk highway. In two months, 11ome 6,UOO families had been furnished relief through employment, nearly $150,000 in cold silver had been carried through the lines without lrn,is of a dollar, the remainder of the grain luui been distributed, the water supply of Sanyuan city had been restored, about 150 miles of highway had been reconstructed, fifty miles of new highway had been built, several large bridges had been repaired and eeveral new culverts completed. It would be incorrect to assume. that this entire experience involved no tense moments; but as soon as identities were established, we were free to go about our business.

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DROUGHT AND LOCUSTS 299 As the month of August ripened, it became Drought and certain that the foothill counties north of the Locusts Wei river would continue as famine territory; for, in addition to the continued scarcity of moisture, a plague of locusts swept clean (l:'xcept for cotton and green beans) a strip about twelve miles broad completely across the province. But in spite of this, the psychology of the countryside changed from despair to hope. The fact of being able to do something seemed to assure the people that the famine relief organization could do almost anything. There had been frequent suggestion of an irrigation project. At long length, an irrigation engineer1 of standing was conducted to the site. He pronounced it feasible to put about 100,000 acres "under water." JTiagerly, the local county governments promi!"ed the limit of their resources and in asrnciation with the Provincial government are to supply $400,000 to match an equal amount allocated to the same purpose by the American Advisory Committee in Shanghai acting for China Famine Relief, U. S. A. The combined sum is only a fraction of what the district requires for adequate relief purposes; jt will not complete the irrigation project, but it is sufficient to build the necesRary darn, cut a short tunnel, dig the main canal and carry the project to such a stage that local resources both of firnince and leadership, will be able to complete the work. Famine Fu11ds The actual amount of famine relief accom plished has not been large, compared with 1920-21 results, but Shensi has been aroused from the lethargy of de8pair into which she has been sinking during succeeding decades of progressive decay. Local initiative has been slightly stirred. Several incidents demonstrated this. Perhaps one may be recounted. 18. Eliarsen.

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300 IRRIGATION Near Ma Wei is a splendid spring which Irrigation formerly irrigated 2000 mow upon which a hundred families lived. A few years ago, a cloud-burst tore a gulley t.hrough the ridge above, poured the debris into the reservoir of the spring and f'O destroyed the irrigation system. The crops failed; the people starved. The local pastor petitioned for help. He estimated that $5,000 was needed to pay for new materials and labor. I coldly offered to impervise the reclamation work and loan at eight per cent interest whatever funds should be needed, provided that he bring me a schedule signed by each family benefitted by the restored water showing how much each would repay. This reply was a painful surprise; they had expected famine relief to be free. I asked why their lands should be made productive rather than those of the next. village? If they were to be made wealthy, why should they not repay? Why had they not done this work themselve3? His response wa.s that many years ago when a similar calamity had occurred, the magistrate had donated $2,000 and initiated the repair, but that during these black days, the magistrate was no longer the "father and mother of the people." I was more interested in moving them to organize sufficiently to keep the system in repair once it was restored than I was in driving any financial bargain; and I stood by my original proposition that I would advance nothing unless they would repay. I had to leaye the field before the details could be fixed up-a hundred families involves a good deal of talking it over-but I left a statement of terms in the hands of the nearest foreign missiona1y with the request that he take a.n interest in the matter. Some weeks ago I received a letter from him stating that the work was nearly completed, a fine flow of water had been recovered, and that the actual loan was $500 compared with the $5,000 originally solicited as a gift. These people could have done this work the year before the famine just as well as the year after. Nothing prevented them except the lethargy induced by the imperial form of government,

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RELIEF DIS'.rRIBUTION 301 intensified perhaps by the effects of opium. This experience should mark the "turning of the corner'' in Ma Wei. A little has been done to make more effective the lives which have been saved. III. Famine Relief in Kansu G. Findlay Andrew Signs of Distress The external appearances of distress evid enced in Kansu in 1930 differed very much from those seen in 1929. And in the central section of the province, which is the area with which this report will deal, the reason is not far to seek. Famine, sword and pestilence had claimed such a harvest during the two previous years that the very demand for food had been considerably lessened. Then again a partia;ly successful harvest reaped during the Autumn of 1929 had augmented the food supply of the province. Relief Distribution The task of relief distribution during 1930 was, nevertheless, one of considerable magnitude. The relief was made largely possible by a grant of half a million Mexican dollars donated from the United States and released to the China International Famine Relief Commission by an American Advisory Committee in Shanghai. The writer of this article was appointed the Director of the Kansu 1930 Relief work, under the auspices of the China International ]'amine Relief Commission, and accompanied by the Rev. W. N. Ruhl and Dr. J. Hillington Kao, managed to get through to Lanchow early in April. Our work was perfectly apparent, namely, :aJF:~v:de to support as large a population as our funds would permit, right through the summer months until the harvest was realized, and, incidentally, to do all_ that lay within our power to assure there being a harvest in those areas. In order to appreciate in some slight measure, the magnitude of the task, I would ask

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302 LABOR RELIEF you to try and think of a province with a large proportion of its population adrift, wandering aimlessly over the countryside, many of them by acts of violence preying upon their fellow men, and in a very literal sense of the word "without hope." Think of villages absolutely with every bit of wood missing from the buildings; of cities made desolate; of whole families which have simply ceased to exist; of village populations (in the slightly better off districts) decreased fo1ty, fifty and even sixty percent. Labor Relief Indiscriminate g1vmg of occasional meals or money to people who then have to be abandoned and left to starve, is, to say the least, unsrttisfac tory relief distribution. On the other hand, with limited funds and practically unlimited need, a selection of persons who are to be kept alive and an abandonment of others to death, becomes a painful necessity. rrhis to me _has been the hardest task of all. In order to make it easier of selection we decided upon the labor relief scheme, or in other words, that we would require people to work for the relief they received. At first glance this seems a strange method of distributing relief; to require that a person, reduced to abject destitution, and weak from a long period of insufficient food, should be forced to work for the food he receive! But when you have been through the experience yourself you may get a fresh angle of vision. By what principles or methods should you be guided when you select A as a recipient for your relief and you very definitely sentence B to death in withholding from him that aid which brings life to A? Labor relief very largely eliminates that painful necessity of selection. You offer, in selected districts an opportunity for all who are willing to enrol themselves as laborers, food in return for their work. It goes without saying that the question of the work accomplished is always secondary to the main purpose, that of getting the food to the deservingly needy. And it also has the distinct advantages of keeping away, to a large extent, those who are able to fend for themselves and yet who would not hesitate to come and cadge if

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RELIEF PRINCIPLES 303 the relief was to be obtained simply for the asking; of educating the people to help themselves; of keeping them mentally and physically employed; and of producing some effort of public utility. Relief Principles We were guided in our selection of the districts in which to operate by the following four principles: first, that relief operations should be undertaken in those districts where the causes of famine were primarily resultant on drought, second, where there was a reasonable absence of banditry, thfrd, districts into which it was possible to transport grain, fourth, where there were reasonable prospects of realizing a harvest. Guided by these four principles we eventually found ourselves operating in fourteen districts of Kansu. For the first few months of our efforts we remunerated the laborers with grain, giving at first three, and later four cat.ties of grain in return for a day's labor. This enabled a man to take his grain home and thus augment the family supply, and so represented indil'ectly aid given to the whole family. We managed to buy large stocks of grain from territory bordering on the Tibetan country, in the higher reaches of the Yellow River. These stocks were floated down the river in, and on, skin rafts to the nearest point on the river bank to that of distribution and from there they were either carried or wheeled by porte1s (later we had to use animal transport in some places) to the relief centers. The introduction of these food stocks into the needy areas had the double effect of relieving the needs of our own laborers and n.Iso lowering and holding down the prices of loral supplies, thus bene fitting the whole district. Projects The projects upon which we embarked were all of a sort which would result in public benefit. We built or reconditioned over four hundred English miles of road, built bridges and dykes. We filled in trenches which had been dug in time of war, thus reclaiming large tracts of good farm land and we excavated springs in the mountains, thus increasing in volume the

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304 GRAIN AND MONEY water which they fed <;lown t.o the village-scattered plains. We carefully avoided expenditure of our funds in the purchase of material and where bridges were built the usual arrangement was that the officials supply the materials and we provide the labor. Among our laborers we had Chinese, Moslems and Tibetans, and during the last six weeks of our operations we had a total daily roll of twenty thousand laborers. So much then for our labor schemes. R Ii f D t Apart from the labor scheme, we had free e e epo s l" f d th h re ie epots m ree mam centers w ere some ten thousand persons, largely women and children, received daily food rations. This was done in order to take care of some of the large numbers of homeless and destitute who had migrated to these towns and there constituted both a menace and a burden to the city populace. 'i'hus, through both the labor and free relief schemes, some thirty thousand persons were receiving direct daily assist ance and I think we may safely conjecture that this would represent indirect aid given to one hundred thousand people a day. Grain and Money In the later stages of the work, when the prospects of harvest were materializing, we changed the form of relief in the labor projects, from grain to money. This was to assist the people towards resettling in their districts and homes. In one instance we distributed a large amount of cloth, also as payment for labor. Every assistance was given in getting the land plantE:d for the autumn harvest. In a certain area we undertook a good deal of free seed grain distribution. In those districts where our [abor schemes were operating, the work was so regulated that the work of cultivating the fields was practically assisted and stocks of seed grain were held and supplied to the laborers in place of their ordinary grain ration if they so desired. In a few instances we supplied farming implements to the totally destitute. Everything we could undertake was done toward making the areas produce

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FAMINE FINANCES 305 the largest amount of grain in the autumn harvest. You must know that in the districts lying at a high altitude, and this was the case with most of the districts in which we operated, the summer harvest is not very large and it is autumn crops which supply the main food stocks of those parts. Without fear of contradiction I can say that the splendid promise for the autumn harvest in so many of the districts in which we worked, was largely due to the efforts described above. Famine Finances And now to deal with the financial side of the undertaking. Many persons have been interested to learn how we managed to get our funds up from Tientsin to Kansu. It is one thing to have half a million dollars lying in the Bank at Tientsin and another thing to get that half million two thousand miles inland without any of the banking facilities such as we understand them. Fortunately we were able to sell our cheques directly to the merchants, and sell them at a premium which resulted in a clear gain to us of some seventeen thousand dollars. This surplus covered all our overhead expenses so that the donors to the funds can be satisfied that every cash they donated went into the stomachs, or onto the backs, of the suffering poor in Kanfu. Despite the fact that we had to move very large sums of money in actual silver by pack mule, through many robber infested areas, not one single cash was lost. One pack mule will carry three thousand dollars. From all classes of society, official, busiCooperation ness, private, rebel and brigand we received considerate and sympathetic assistance. Whenever we came into touch with the brigand forces, once we were able to establish direct contact we received immunity from further molestation. When the city of Tsinchow fell to a large body of anti-government forces early in May, the whole city was looted clean and many thousands were killed. At that time we had the sum of five thousand three hundred dollars lying in the city, which to all intents seemed irrecoverably lost. However I sent a

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306 REHABILITATION personal letter to the Moslem leader of that horde, reminding him of the friendship which I had had with his father and brother and representing our loss of trust funds. That man personally exerted himself and was not content until he received from me the notification that the money had been refunded. When Anting was attacked and taken in August we lost one thousand one hundred dollars. This also was recovered within a week. Future Needs As harvest prospects were promising and we had no intention of instituting a permanent relief organization with possible panperizing effect, we closed down our relief canters on August 3lst. Our little expedition left Lanchow on September 8th, and floated down the Yellow River to Paotow on a raft. The future needs of Kansu in terms of relief will, of course, largely depend upon the spring and summer rains in the present year (1931). Should these fail there will be but little reserve stock of food in the province and many of the ghastly experiences of 1929 and 1930 will be repeated. Pray God they fail not! In any case there is still a problem of rehabilitation before the population can again be said to be clear through this terrible period of acute distress.

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CHAPTER XXVIII LABOR IN CHINA Fang Fu-an Awakening of Labor There was no labor problem in China, to speak of, two decades ago. However, at present things relating to labor are probably the weightiest concern of the Government as well as of people who have the welfare of mankind at heart. This change is commonly alleged to be the result of Communistic propaganda, but if one faces the facts of contemporary history, one finds that labor's awakening is caused not so much by any single external influence as by the complicated political, economic and intellectual developments in this country. The agitation of labor strikes, the organization of labor unions, the separation of labor and employer, and the welfare work of various institutions are by no means the result of one day. They are the outgrowth of the whole industrial era. In China labor was formerly considered an Strikes undignified profession ; only the poor were engaged in the daily round of the common task. Gradually, modern ideas of democracy; of social equality and the education of the masses have influenced both thinking and intelligent laborers. The return of laborers from France, after the Great War, who came into contact with laborers in J~uropean countries gave great impetus to the organization of labor unions in China. The Student Movement of 1919 also exerted influence on laborers. On June 5th, when the news of the arrest of nineteen studentg, who had attacked the residences of certain pro Japanese ministers at Peiping, appeared in the press of Shanghai, labor leaders of N antao and Chapei took the lead in declaring strikes. These strikes caused the Peking Govern ment to release the al'l'ested students. Hence it is evident

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308 LABOR AND KUOMINTANG that the labor movement :is closely connected with the development of new thought. The Chinese Renaissance in 1917, in simplifying Chinese script, made it possible for laborers to read and develop a group consciousness. In addition to the cultural factor as above i:a::~fn~~ng mentioned, the Chinese Labor Movement was furthered by the political propaganda of the Kuomintang. In the teachings of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the late leader of the Kuomintang, it :is strongly emphasized that the success of the Revolution depends on laborers and farmers. ln his lectures in South China in 1923 and 1924, he repeatedly exhorted la borers and farmers to join his party; in turn he promised to improve their economic and social status. In 1924 his views were more systematically expressed on the platform of the Kuomintang. Refe1~ing to domestic policies, the Party in Article 10, pledges to reform village organizations and to improve the living conditions of the agriculturists. In Article 11, the Party resolves to enact labor laws for the improvement of the life of workers, to protect labor organizations and to assist in their general develop ment. Many laborers and farmers responded enthusiastically to Dr. Sun's pleas and became loyal supporters of the Kuomingtang. During its expedition laborers actually fought on battle fields for the Party and in Shanghai (1927). Before the capture of the city, the Central Labor Union of Shanghai held a very important meeting on February 18th passing a resolution which declared a general strike in support of the Nationalists against the Northern Warlords. As a result the Nationalist Army captured Shanghai without much bloodshed, while as regards the laborers, a few of them were killed and injured ip the North Station of the Nanking Shanghai Railway. Before the success of the Nationalist Army, labor organization and activities were regarded as illegal. The figure.'! show that the power of the laborers developed and spread all over the country concm~ently with the success of the Nationalist Army. Industrialization In addition to the.'!e cultural and political factors, the indu.'!trialization of the country al'!o serves to articulate the masses. This develop-

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INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT 309 ment of industry has been very rapid. The first Chinese cotton mill was established in 1888 in Shanghai: at present there are no less than 127 mills. The rate of increase i'l easily discernable in the following table: Year 1896 1916 1925 1930 No. of Chinese mill'! 8 30 76 81 No. of Foreign mills 5 11 37 46 No. of No. of spindles in spindles in Chinese mills foreign mill'! 225,267 204,342 721,105 400,146 1,600,000 890,000 2,326,872 1,642,680 The industrialization of the count1y naturally increases the number of factory laborers. The characteristics of industry in eliminating the friendly relationship of laborers and employers, a.'! in the handicrafts, the low wages, etc. make the situation such that laborers have to organize themselves for self-protection in many respects. The increase of the cost of living in the last fe.w years and the rising standards of living of the workers ( because of their higher demands) constitute the major economic struggle of laborers. Between 1918 and 1926 there were 1,232 important strikes in all parts of China, about 47 % of which were due to economic pressure. This clearly shows the deplorable economic situation in which a large number of the Chinese laborers find them selves. The socio-economic situation of China therefore furnishes fertile soil in which to sow the seeds of labor unrest. Industrial Idealists These three factors, cultural, political, and socio-economic, appear to be the fundamental causes of the Chinese labor movement. The idealistic background was furnished by certain social thinkers who have enthusiastically advocated social changes as remedie.'l to economic and industrial problems of modern China. Then, the political propagandists wanted to broaden the foundation of the revolution by enlisting laborers and farmers as members of the revolutionary party. In that way they planned to

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310 INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS improve the living conditions of the common people. Mean time, industrialization has been going on in some sections of the country. This has increased the wages of groups of laborers, has raised their standards and moditied their habits of living. These in turn have forced the workers to become conscious of the importance of agitation and organization as means to improve their economic and social condition. As to the actual existing condition of the Surveys laborers, their wages, hours of work, unioniza tion and others, the Bureau of Social A ff airs of variou'! cities of China and different individualq and social research institutions have made studies from time to time. The most comprehensive of these was the survey of labor conditions made by the former Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Labor in the latter part of 1930. Thiq survey was made in accordance with the resolution of the Central Government for the purpose of formulating laws for the improvement of the welfare of the workers in the light of the general development of industry in thi'! country. Thi'! survey covered thirty-three cities. According to the official report of this survey, there are 1, 104,396 ls.borers. To thi'! figure we must add the laborers of Tientsin as the survey did not include this city because of the civil war then raging. According to the Bureau of Social Affairs of Tientsin, the labor population of Tientsin in 1928 was 36,634. This gives a total of 1,141,030 Chinese labor population. This figure is not far from the estimate of Mr. Ma in his book, "The Labor Problems of China" wherein he figured a total of 1,260, OOO. Distribution of Sexes As to the sex distribution of this labor population, we have the following table: Males............. .................... 359,001 Females ................................ 328, 960 Children................................ 53, 950 Unclas.'!ified ............................ 362, 485 Total. ................................ 1,104,396

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WAGES 311 Leaving out the unclassified workers, the total male workers make 48.3%; female workers, 44.3%; and children, 7% of the total classified workers. We thus see that China's labor problem is also a problem of women workers. As to the local distribution of the labor Local Distribution population Shanghai has the most with a total of 262,894 persons, Canton next with a total of 239,36-5 persons, then Hankow with 169,992 persons, Wusih with 70,685 persons and Tientsin 36,634 persons. From these figure,g we see that Shanghai, Canton and Hankow are by far the most important industrial centers of the country. Wages The amount of wages received by workers in different localities varies. According to the study of the Minigtry, Shanghai i'3 the place where the male workers have the highe::it rate amounting to $50 a month (this is the maximum of Shanghai wages) and the least is that of Anking at $3 a month. As to female workers, Soochow pays the most at $25 a month and N antung the least at $5 a month. It is in Shanghai, also, that child workers receive the highest rate, $21 a month, the least being paid in Chinking, Lihsin at $2 a month. In the study of the wage rate of different localities these were tabulated into maximun, minimum, and ordinary. In the following the ordinary rates of the several leading cities are reproduced: male Shanghai ............ $15 Canton . . . 10. 62 Hankow ............ 19.50 Wugih ............... 20.00 female $12.50 7.50 19.20 17.10 children $ 8.70 6.00* 4.50* 10.50 The ordinary rate of wages in all the localities is classified into the following wage-groups: *food is provided by the factory.

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312 WORKING PERIOD male female children (numbers of citie.'l) $0-5 0 0 4 $5.10-10 2 7 20 $10.10-15 11 13 2 $15.10-20 10 5 1 $20.10-25 5 0 0 $25.10-30 1 0 0 Number of cities 29 25 27 From the above table we see that most male workers receive a wage of from ten to twenty dollm-s a month, female workers from ten to fifteen dollars a month and child worke1-s from five to ten dollars a month. Working Period As to the working period, the Ministry studied the number of hom-s in a day and the number of days in a year when the labore1-s engaged in work. The longest working period is that of Amoy and Hsuteh, fifteen hours a day, and the shortest is that of Nantung, Foochow, six hours a day. The ordinary working period for a day is ten hours, which obtains in eleven cities, or 38 % of the total number of cities. Eight and nine hour-working days are the next with five cities each or 17%. There is no definite regulation as to the Rest-Days Sunday rest. In some places there are half day holidays; in some othe1-s there is full work with extra pay. As to the number of rest days, Shanghai has the most in a year, being 67 days. Lihsin, Hangchow, Fushan, Swatow and Hsuteh have the lea.'lt, being three days a year. Conditions in different cities are tabulated in the following table:

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FAMILY PROBLEMS 313 Days of rest Number of cities Percentage 1-10 10 34.48 11-20 10 34.48 21-30 1 3.45 31-40 4 13.79 41-50 1 3.45 51-60 1 3.45 61 above 2 6.90 Total 29 100.00 Size l Fa fly It is worked out as a tentative bosiq that O m one labor family has 3.5 adult male.'3. The average income per family according to the study is mostly in the income-group of $20-25 which accounts for 33%. One adult male requires an expenditure of $8. 20 per month according to the pre.qent study, which means $28.70 per month for a family of 3.5 adult males. There is considerable deficit in most of the labor families, even apart from the requirements of a reasonable standard of living, which would be far more expensive. Family The family expenditure of the labor families Expenditure covers the following items : Food ........................... 54.16% Clothing ...................... 7.16% House rent ................... 11.70% Fuel and Lighting ......... 9.57 % Miscellaneous ................ 17. 41 % Total. ........................ 100.00% It is not surprising to learn that the expenditure goes mostly for food among Chinese labor families since their wages are low. It is expected that a standard family budget can be worked out so as to set a minimum wage standard for the laborers in order to provide them a fair living.

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314 LABOR ORGANIZATION Labor organization in the modern sense is a Labor new thing in China. However, there has long Organization existed in China a kind of guild, a form of organization familiar to Occidental people and similar to the guilds of the Middle Ages in Europe. The first modern labor union in China was organized in Canton in 1919, through the agitation of students. The successful strike of the Mechanics' Union in Hongkong in 1920 gave it a fresh impetus and more than a hundred new unions sprang up within a few months. Labor unions were steadily organized in all parts of the country and in 1927 when the labor movement was at itci height, as reported by the All China Labor Federation, there were a total of 3,065,000 union members in the country (including non-factory workers). According to the present study made by the Ministry there were 741 labor unions in China with a. total of 574,766 union members in 1930. The affairs of the unions are very much complicated. It is said that there are three types of labor unions, the Red, the Yellow and the Green. The red are the Communistic labor unions, the yellow ones the Kuomintang unions and the green ones, the workers' unions. In the beginning of 1931, the Government pro mulgated regulations for the reorganization of labor unions. It was announced that a number of the existing unions in Shanghai and other are not organized according to the Labor Union Law promulgated by the National Government in October 21, 1929. Paragraph 2 of Article 1 of the Labor Union Law states that unions of occupational workei-s and other productive, i.e. those who are not strictly industrial and manual worke1-s-shall be governed by a separate law to be promulgated by the Government. If this provision is to be carried out, a number of the unions in Shanghai at present will have to be dissolved. At present there are four separate labor unions in the Commercial Press, the Shop Workers' Union, the Union of the Clerical Staff, the Sales' Department W orke1-s' Union and the Union of the Editorial Staff. According to the Labor Union Law now in force, however, only the fi1-st mentioned may be considered a properly recognized union. Until the Government promul gates another law governing the organization of occupational

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LABOR LAWS 315 workers' unions, the three others have no legal status. And yet, the clerical, sale.9' and editorial staffs of the Commercial Press have gone ahead and applied the law in their respective organs. As to the intention or rather justification of the separation of occupational workers from manual and factory laborers, no one is in a position to say. It is also stated in Article III that no Government Employees workers in Government admini9tmtive, communications, military, productive, educational or other public utility organs shall be affected by the present Law. Henceforth, the Post Office Union, the Seamen's Union, the Shanghai-Hangchow and Shanghai-Nanking Railway Workers' Unions and a number of others, (which may be said to be the unions in the country) have no legal status whatever. Again, Article VI state.9 that all workers of the same category within a, district may organize themselves into one union. As a matter of fact, we have in Shanghai, as well a.9 in other parts of the country, not only one single cotton mill workers' union or one single silk weavers' union, but scores of them. So again, when the Law is strictly enforced a large number of these unions will be emerged into a few big ones. Since 1928 after the "Purifica tion of the Party" and the reorganization of the unions at that time the labor unions came under the strict control of the Kuomintang Local Pa1i,y Headquarters. The Labor Union Law, Article IV, provides that the provincial, municipal or distdct government shall be the controlling and supervising organs of the labor unions in the territory within their respective jurisdiction. "In other words, the control of the workers is to be transfe1Ted from the obstrep erous and often irresponsible local party headquarters to the local civil administration."* Labor Laws The year 1929 was significant in the history of the labor movement in China because of the promulgation of Labor Laws by the National Government. *See Articles "Nanking and the Labor Unions," Shanghai Evening Post and Mercury, Jan. 20, 1931.

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316 CHRISTIAN INDUSTRIAL WORK In addition to the Labor Union Law, to which reference has already been made, there are the labor laws, the factory laws and the labor dispute laws. These laws give all the latest provisions for the protection of child and women laborers and also the inspection of factories and the general welfare of the working class. It was ordered that these Laws should be enforced on February 1, 1931; enforcement, however, was postponed to November 1, 1931. The administration and enforcement of these laws is regarded as an arduous task. Already great doubt of and opposition thereto have been expressed by numerouci individual leaders. Some have even said that the Factory Law is too advanced and is impossible of enforcement while others a..caisert that if it is enforced, they will be forced to close their factories, thus throwing thousands of workers out of employment. At the same time, the foreign papers have raised the question of China's ability to enforce the law in certain foreign-owned and managed factories, seeing that they still enjoy extraterrit01ial privileges. It will, of course, be unfair to enforce the law in Chinese foct01ies when it is not enforced in foreign-owned ones. However, it will serve as a challenge to the foreign interests in this country to see that justice is applied to their laborers. Private Efforts Outside of the labor legislation which a government can put forth for labor a great deal can be done by private institutions. Jt is the responsibility of Christians to see that industrial welfare work is car1ied out in an extensive way to alleviate the suffe1ings of the people. So far in China very little has been done for la.borers. The Y. M. C. A. has two industiial centers, one in Pootung and one in the West District of Shanghai. The Y. W. C. A. is doing some work in the interest of women workers at Wusih and Shanghai. The Sociology Department of Shanghai College has also its Yangtzepoo Social Center for working people. The National Ch1istian Council, with its department of Christianizing Economic Relations, is doing publicity work for the uplifting of the social status of the workers and also in setting up ways for the development of workers' welfare. It is hoped that workers' education can be developed a.nd that labor unions will be properly organized so as to put the labor movement on a healthful .basis.

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OVER-POPULATION 317 Oversupply of Labor Finally it may be said that one of the fundamental causes of the cheapness of labor in this country is the oversupply there of popula tion. Millions merely exist but do not live. Neither can they greatly improve their living, 1mless their number is drastically reduced. Through birth control may be realized the reduction of both birth and death rates, the increaHe of wages, the elevation of standard<1 of living as well as the general well-being of the great masses of this country.

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CHAPTER XXIX CHINA'S NEW FACTORY LAW Eleanor M, Hinder A t On December 30, 1929, the National Govern1111ou11ceme11 ment of the Republic of China published the text of the proposed Factory Law. The last two clauses stated that a date for the enforcement of the Law would be announced by order, and ordinances for its administration published separately. In the Chinese press of December 16, 1930, the announcement was made that February I 1931,1 had been fixed as the date upon which the law would come into operation. Administrative ordinances were published at the same time, these to become operative on the same date as the main act. Regulation Ne~d"d For some time, then, previous to enforce111.ent the text of the National Government's law had been in the hands of the general public arid of students of the situation. Some of the provisions of the law seemed so far-reaching to those with a knowledge of existing conditions that, in view of the existing economic situation, it appeared that it would be to court disa.citer to attempt to put them into effect at once. Accordingly the content of the "ordinances" was awaited with interest. Their publication in December, 1930, brought, it must be confessed, disappointment. They seem to take little account of the social and economic changes which will be involved in the enforcement of the law. There are few who would deny the fundamental need for the application of wise regulation of industrial employment. If it is possible to avoid it, the bitter history of the West as.ciociated with the coming of large scale industry must not be repeated in China. There does not seem to be any way for China to raise her standard of living except by industrialisation. If this be lSee page 316.

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LABOR LAWS 319 so, then there is the more need for the early application of the principle of regulation sanely conceived. Immediate Enforcement Difficult The law as it stands is a goal, the reaching of which within a space of five or seven years of steady progrEss might be regarded as a splendid achievement by any country. But to attempt to enforce it immediately is short-sighted. The regulations for the enforcement of the law had within them the opportunity to provide for gradual application.' But they have not so provided. Into the minds of those whose philosophy desires ultimate enforcement of good standards there creeps the lurking suspicion that the law, because of its too ambitious efforts, will defeat its own object. It may prove the means of suffering, not of safeguarding, to the workers whom it is designed to serve: there are also grave doubts as to the ability of industry to support the new law. The law which is now to be enforced Other Labor represents the second draft of a factory law Laws drawn up by the National Government. Two other national laws, one governing Labor Unions, the other Conciliation and Arbitration of Industrial Disputes have been promulgated. The last has been in operation for some months. Recently a new version of it has been issued, providing among other thing,, for voluntary rather than compulsory arbitration. In addition to the.r;ie three national laws, several provinces and some municipalities in China have drawn up factory laws and regult1tions for local use. F'ew of them, however, have been applied. The proposed enforce ment of the National I!'actory Law represents then the second national enforcement of a labor law. Factory Inspectors It may well be asked whether there has been any value in the drafting of regulations not hitherto enforced. Officials of the Bureau of Social Affairs of the Municipality of Gyeater Shanghai have stated that in questions involving dispute, the exir;itence of a standard has been of value. When upon them has devolved the responsibility of conciliation, since every dispute differs from every other one, a criterion has been essential. But what is needed for the application of thir;i law? Once the

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320 FACTORY INBPEOTORB date was set, the law became part of the legal codes of China, and mugt be applied if and when a case is brought into the court for infraction of any of its clauses. In England and other countries with a modern industrial code, while any person or group may bring an action into court-a workman or a trade union, for example-it is the duty of specially appointed officials of the government to see that the law is administered. These officials are called "factory inspectors." Their relation with employel'S is usually very cordial, and legal action for infraction of law is only resorted to when :frequent friendly warning has failed to achieve its purpose. But the factory inspector is required to institute proceedings if the act is being constantly infringed: in this way the courts become the instrument for the enforcement of the law. It is thus obvioug to students of industrial Implementing law that no mere declaration that the law the Law is in force in China will avail unlesg the instrument of an inspectorate is available also. It is not known whether a corps of inspectors is ready for service, though the Ministry has had the matter under consideration. But the ordinance.g make no mention of them. The main act lays upon the ''proper authority" the responsibility for the administration of the law. This, according to Article 2, means the municipal government in municipalities, and the district authority in "hsiens." It is presumed then, to localize the problem, that if an inspectorate were developed, it would be in relation to the Bureau of Social A:ffail'S of the Municipality of Greater Shanghai. In western countries inspectol'S are required to undergo specific training, for acts governing safety conditions, for example, have become technical and detailed. As yet China's original act is comparatively simple in form, and should not require long technical training to administer. Frankly it may be said that upon an inspectorate of an effective calibre rests the question whether this law shall be enforced or not. Gradual Enforcement There is historical precedent in other countries for providing for a period of adjugtment to new legiglative enactments affecting industry. In

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WOMEN AND CHILDREN 321 Japan when, following committment to the standards adopted at the Washington Conference of the International Labor Organization of the League of Nations in 1929, an act was passed in 1925 abolishing night work for women, a period of three years was provided to permit the industries involved to make the necessary changes. Even though the time was fully used, recent conversation with Mr. T. J. Funatsu of the Shanghai Japanese cotton Mill Owners' Association revealed that it had not proved sufficient to allow for the increase in the number of spindles to absorb all the women workers into day shifts. Neither in this nor in other far-reaching clauses of the new China law is there provision for gradual enforcement. Women and Children Workers To proceed to the examination of some of the more important aspects of the law. The second section deals specitically with child and women workers, though obviously many of the other clauses of the act cover questions of their employ ment also. According to Article 5:-"The employment of children under the age of fourteen shall be prohibited in all factories." "Children under the said age, but over twelve years of age, already employed in factories before the promulgation of this law, by the consent of the proper authority may be permitted to remain in employment." Other clauses in this section refer to children over fourteen and under sixteen as being "child workers," and define the processes on which they and women workers may not be employed. Child Workers This section represents a most far-reaching change. At the present time, except in isolated instances-for example, the Ewo Cotton Mills, the Japanese Cotton Mills, and the Commercial Press (all in Shanghai}, there has not been any limitation of the use of the labor of children from a_ very early age. In most silk filatures-except those which have adopted the system of a central boiling room-children are employed from the age of about seven or eight years. In cotton mills they are to be found from six in the morning to six at night, or on the

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322 CHILD WORKER'S AGE twelve-hour night shift. The habit of employing children has at once retarded the coming of machine processes, and reduced the amount of available employment for adults. The writer has seen men carrying food to children employed in factories at lunch time, the men the while being out of employment. A Moot Point There is no question that this state of affairs should be remedied, and at once. But is the law wise in setting at once a standard beyond which few of the most advanced industrial nations have yet been able to move? It is .a moot point! It may be said that the only cure for some social evils is surgical, and that the provision for the continued employment of children over the age of twelve yea1-s who are already employed represents the only necessary concession. How, however, and upon what basis shall Determination age be determined? There is no birth registra of Age tion in China. And is the age to be foreign or Chinese count? The ordinances take account of this difficulty and provide that:-"Before promulgation of the Law on Census and Birth Place, in case age of a worker is called in question, it shall be vouched for by the worker's legal representative." The new Civil Code, in the fh-st book on General Principles, states in Article 124:-"Age is to be reckoned from the day of birth. If it is not possible to ascertain the month of birth of a person, he is presumed to have been born on the first day of July. If the month of birth is known and it is not possible. to ascertain the day, he is presumed to have been born on the fifteenth day of the month." This would imply that from the point of view of the Chinese Government, the old habit of reckoning age by the Chinese New Year has no recognition in law. Accord ingly, when "fourteen yea1-s" is mentioned, it is presumed to be fourteen years "foreign" count. This standard represents a very high one for an attempt at immediate attainment. In 1924, the Child Labor Commission of the

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PROTECTION OF LABOR 823 Shanghai Municipal Council, recommended the drafting of a Child Labor Bye-Law, by which children under ten years, rising to twelve yea1'S within four years, should not be admitted to employment. A famous phrase accompanying this recommendation states that:-"The evidence given before this commission was such as to drive it to the conclusion that, if the continued existence of any industry in the Settlement were dependent upon the continuance of the employment of children under ten, then the disappearance of such industry from the Settlement could be regarded with equanimity." With regard to proof of age, the Commission recommended two methods-the adoption of a standard of height, or height and weight, or, providing as in the case of the Hongkong ordinances covering child labor, that ''in any prosecution, until the contrary is proved, the child, the subject matter of the charge, is to be assumed to be of the particular age he or she appea1'S to be to the sitting magistrate." What is really involved in the fourth article of the ordinance.'! covering the Factory Law is not quite clear; but it is assumed that some certification by a "workers' legal representative" will be required. Protection of Women and Children The other clauses of this section are reason able and logical, preventing women and young worke1'S from being employed in relation to "inflammable or poisonous substances," from working where they are exposed to dust or fumes from noxious fluids, from cleaning, oiling or repairing machines in motion, and so on. While they may involve adjustment, there is no large social issue involved as in the question of age. And even in the last named matter, if the law proves possible of enforcement at all, there are few who would not rather see the difficulties faced of achieving the age limit set, than see the continued perpetuation of so wrong a situation as exists to-day. Hours of Work This new Factory Law contains clauses in respect of hom'S of employment which represent a distinct departure from existing practice. Two clauses deal with the actual length of the working day.

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324 HOURS OF WORK Clause 8 reads:-"The regular working day for adults is eight hours; but in cases where there is necessity io extend it owing to various local conditions and the nature of the work, it may be fixed up to ten hours." With this must be taken Clause 10, which runs:-"Besides the provisions of section 8, in case of ''force majeure," working hours may be extended; but they shall not exceed a twelve-hour day and the total overtime work shall not exceed thirty-six hours a month": and Clause 23, which adds; "Wages for overtime work as provided in section 10 and 19 shall be paid at the rate of one and one-third times to one and two-third times the ordinary wages calculated according to the hour." Eight-Hour Day It is a little difficult to determine whether the law intends to attempt to enforce an eight-hour day. The possibility of exception to the rule seems to be well covered by "in cases where there is necessity to extend it" "owing to various local conditions and the nature of the work" it may be "fixed" up to ten hours. And again in case of ''force maieure'' working hours may be extended-presumably beyond the ten hour "fixture," to a length not exceeding twelve hours a day. The ordinances for the administration of the law which have been recently published state in Article 6 :-" If a factory wishes to extend working hours according to clauses 8 and 10 of the Law, it is required to present reasons in detail to the 'proper authority."' This would seem to imply that permission to work a ten-hour day for the reasons which article 8 outlines must be obtained, and would give color to the idea that the eight-hour day is intended to be put into effect. The provision, however, of so liberal an overtime allowance of thirty-six hours per month is sufficient to nullify the eight-hour principle for more than half the working days in the month. If two hours overtime is worked daily for eighteen days, working out the thirty-six hours allowed, there are only ten days in a twenty-eight day month worked at the shorter level.

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Actual Working Days WORKING DAY 325 There are 1nany who would be of op1mon that to attempt an immediate application of the eight or even the ten-hour day, would be to cauge serioug disruption. l\fony cotton mills have been accustomed to work a twelve-hour day and a twelve-hour night shift, though Japanese cotton mills have reduced the actual working time to ten hours anq. a half, with an addition hour for a meal. Silk filatures work a day which varies in length in summer and in winter: no night shift is worked, for the delicate silken thread needs daylight in order to obtain the evenness so desirable in it. The more modern tobacco factories work a nine-hour day. There is obviougly a great production problem raised by the intention to reduce at so short notice the hours of work of thousands of indugtrial workers. There are few who would deny the essential justice of the desire for shorter hours, if the attainmei1t of this end could be by gradual and well-thought out stages. What is lost sight of is that the hours' problem is really a wage problem! Is remuneration now upon a daily wage basis? Will it remain the same if the number of hours is materially reduced, with consequent reduction in output? Or is remuneration upon a piece work basis? Shortening the hours of work must mean greatly reduced earnings, for the rate is not likely to rise, but rather sink, in the period of adjustment which must be faced. Other Oriental countrie.g have come to the shortening of hours of work by reductions little by little, year by year. Had China been content to establish the principle of regulation of hours, and work gradually toward a goal, a sounder position would result. As it is, unless the "proper authority" exercises freely its prerogative of giving permission to extend the hours of work beyond eight in the cases mentioned, the economic results for industry generally will be serioug; and if such power is lodged with the ''proper authority" it would seem an undue responsibility ig placed upon it. Far better it would be to have attempted to enact a number of hours within the possibility of universal achievement. Overtime It is equally difficult to define what is meant by overtime. Is it to be beyond the eight hour, and up to the ten-hour day at which for certain reasons

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326 NIGHT WORK the length may be "fixed"? Overtime is only mentioned in the clause which refers to a twelve-hour limit. Here lies the possibility of considerable difficulty for employers during the period of adjustment which the application of the law muHt occasion. The principle of the payment of overtime is perfectly sound, as is that of the limitation of the leugth of the working day. But it should be clearly defined, and capable of but one interpretation. There are three other clauses governing the Night Work number of working hours which will have equal effect with those already examined, if the law ifl enforced. Article ll states: "The regular working hours of child workers shall under no circumstances exceed eight houm." Articles 12 and 13 forbid the working at night of both children and women-the former between 7 p.m. and 6 a.m., and the latter between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. Here then two principles are involved. Two Principles Child workers, defined in a previous section of the Law as between fourteen and sixteen years of age mugt not work longer than eight hours, and night work, at any rate the working of a night shift for both children and women is forbidden. It has always been advanced as an argument against the differential treatment of child and adult workers that their work interlocked, and it was impossible therefore to take children out of mills at night, for example, if and while women continued to be employed at that time. The new law proposes to cut across these ideas. It the work of women is related in its proccsse,i to that of children, it is not related to a particular child; shifts of child workers may change at other times than those of adults. The problem involved in changing the night shifts for children at other times than adult,i is ruled out, for night work is largely abolished. Threatened Unemploy ment It is here of course that the difficulty arises in connection with the immediate application of this law. Workers have been glad to pay the cost which night work exacts for the sake

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UNEMPLOYMENT 327 of the opportunity to earn money. Spindles working night and day have increased profits for mill owners, but they have provided additional employment also. Abolition of night work for women i<1 by every social and moral code justifiable and necessary. But a period of unemployment must follow for thou.'3ands of workers if, immediately, half the available work i<1 taken away from them. It took .Japan a period of more than three years to make the necessary adjustments, that is, to obtain the capital for increase in plants and in numbers of spindles in order to absorb as many as possible of the women previou_qly employed on night shifts. l~xtremely serious economic problems will face industry if this article is enforced: and in the first instance not the least of the sufferers will be the workers themselves. Let the principle be endorsed: then give every opportunity for its application with the least loss for all concerned! Rest and Holidays The section devoted to rest and holidays defines the amount of daily, weekly, and yea1ly respite from work. Its tenets are seemingly reasonable in the first two counts at least. "Workers after working continuously for five hours shall have a period of rest of half an hour." In some occupations five and a half hours elapse, or even six, between com mencing work in the morning and the taking of the noon day meal, which constitutes the first break. In cotton mills it is not usual for the machinery to stop for a midday or midnight meal, which is often taken by the worker still tending the machine. A half-hour break is little enough after five long hours. One rest day in seven is provided for by the new law. At present, while some industrial plants close on Sundays, others have holiday one day in ten, or twice in a month. The significance of the new enactment i<1 of course the wage i
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328 HOLIDAYS worker, to be forced, n.s is now sometimes the case, to take one day's rest in seven, without pay, is certainly to be given an Irishman's rest day. In a country attuned to a seven-day economy, six days' wages do not meet the ca.'!e. Hunce the provision in the new law is eminently a just one. What i'! to be doubted is whether industry can stand this additional operation cost together with the production adjustment'! occasioned by the hours' regulations already examined. Ann1:1aI Holidays In the matter of annual holidays a graduated scale is introduced. For over one, and under three years' service-one week's leave, for over three and under five-ten days' leave: for over five and under ten-two weeks' leave, with an additional day for each additional year of service. This enactment is in advance of the provisions ruling in many of the more advanced industrial codes of the world. In Australia, for example where Arbitration Court Awards have the force of law, and where the smallest and largest issues of employment are the subject of court decision, there has not yet been made statutory any amount of annual leave. Yet examined in the light of habit in China, it does not represent any great departure from the existing situation which, at Chinese New Year, has closed factories for periods varying from one week to two. The half or full month's wages which was expected by the workers has its counterpart in the proposed graduated scale. The law makes obligatory what habit has given as an act of grace. But the law carries penalty. To sum up, the two sections referring to hours and rest days, really constitute a wages' issue which must be taken in conjunction with the "Wages'" section which follows if the full results of the law are to be understood. 'l'he conditions outlined represent great gain for workers if they are applied, and if indwtry can survive the impact of their enforcement. For those who are intimately in touch with workers and know their hopes and desires, they represent freedom. But if freedom be bought at the price of employment, what does it benefit the worker?

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WAGES AND SAFEGUARDS 329 The section on wages, with the exception of the clause providing for ''time and a third" for overtime work will have less actual effect upon actual wage.c;i paid than the application of the previously analysed clause.c;i on hours and rest days. For to repeat, hours' issues are in reality wage and production issues. Article 20 of the section devoted to wages reads: "The fixing of the minimum wage rate for workers shall be based upon the conditions and standards of living in the different localitie.c;i where the factories are established." This, of course, in the present state of knowledge of the cost of living, must remain a very generalised clause incapable of effective operation. In very few localities are there figures which could be used as the basis for accurate fixing of wage rate.c;i. Within the last few years, some family budget studies have been made, and some isolated authoritative;i could be relied upon. But in most where studies have been instituted, the number of cases has not been sufficient to be a "scientific sample" and deductions are thus less valuable. But the price of rice has always been taken as the criterion which measures more accurately than anything else can, in the absence of more comprehensive tables, what it is costing the workers to live. Many wage agreements have involved the payment of a "rice allowance" to be paid if the price of rice should rise above a minimum. During last summer, before the rice crop was gathered, when rice reached an abnormally high p1ice, some firms allowed their regular workers a ''high cost of living allowance." Wages One other clause provides a safeguard for Safegt1ards for workers in respect of deduction of part of the Workers wages a.c;i a deposit for compensation of damages, or security for fines in case of breach of contract. This is a necessary clause. In some operations it is the custom for workers to work three days, and then to "deposit" the accruing wages with the employer-that is, it is not paid for these days. This is security for absence, and is an attempt to get a consistent working force. The writer has known cases where as high as two weeks' wages have been withheld. It is secmity against damaged material, and is drawn against

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330 CONTRACTS for fines. It is security against breach of contract, for it is not paid if the worker leaves. Wages of Women Another clause utters a pious principie which circumstances will make impossible of enforce ment. '' Ii'emale workers shall be paid at the same rate of wages as male workers when they perform the same kind of work with equal efficiency." In practice, men and women perform different proce.'!se.'3, and are now paid upon a differential scale. Women employed in the same factory with men will earn from one half to two-third'! the wages of men. Women spin silk thread while men do the work of supervision and di'!tribution of cocoons. The one operation requires much skill and experience but it is scarcely to be expected that under the new law, if it is applied, women will be rewarded as men are in the same organization. Perhaps in no feature of indust1ial employContracts ment has there been greater change in the pu.'!t few years than in the realm of agreements between employers and workers. The Bureau of Social Affairs of the Muni cipality of Greater Shanghai, in the performance of its ta.'!k of conciliation and arbitration, first under local regulation and then under the law of the National Government, has had occasion to suggest the drafting of many agreements. Though having jurisdiction only over disputes outside the Settlement and Concessions, the Bureau has been invited to serve in many other cases, and often with acceptance to both ~ides. Articles in the new law do not begin by demanding the conclusion of contract.'!, but apparently go on the assump tion that they will be drawn. From the gnglish translation it is not clear whether the "contract" referred to is a group agreement between the union and employers, or an individual contract between the worker and his employer. The most important question dealt with is Termination the condition governing termination of con-of Contracts tracts. Article 27 says: Employers desiring to cancel a contract for which no stipulation of time is made

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LOSS OF EMPLOYMENT 331 can only do so by serving the workers a notice in advance. Unles9 longer period is provided in the contract, the period of notice shall be as follows: to worke1-s who have worked in the factory for more than three months, but less than a year, the period of notice shall be ten days; to worke1-s who have worked in the factory continuously for more than one but less than three years, the period of notice shall be twenty days; to worke1-s who have worked continuouc;1ly for more than three yea1-s the period of notice shall be thirty days." And again in article 29: "If the employers de.'3ire to terminate the contract in accordance with Section 27, they shall give the workers, beside their regular wages, an extra sum amounting to one half of the regular wages for the pe1iod. If employers desire to terminate employment immediately regardless of the provisions of section 27, they shall give the workers an extra sum amounting to the regular wages for the notice pe1iod provided in the paid section.'' In China, loss of employment is se1ious i:~~yment indeed for any worker. There are always othe1-s ready and eager for his job. It is as.'lumed it is the desire that the law will keep the worker in employment to as great an extent as possible, making it financially unprofitable for factmies to "lay off" their workei-s. In few countries is there so liberal a ''notice" allowance. In countries where English Common Law operates, the old "l\faste1-s' and Servants' Act" which governs many contracts of employment still provides for "a moment's notice on either side." Where a week's notice is given, a week's wages are paid for the week worked-there is no question of an additional half wages for the period. Where wages are paid in lieu of notice, they are paid only for the period of the notice--not. at twice the rate. In adopting thi'l, which may well be regarded as necessary in a country where livelihood is difll.cult, China is setting new standards. In addition the Law lays certain obligations upon workers in the matter of termination of contracts. They are required to give one week's notice of their desire to terminate a contract for which no stipulated time is made.

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332 WORKER'S WELFARE Workers' Welfare While several clauses present standards which it would be desirable to attain, some of them are not made statutory. "Within the limits of possibility" employers should promote proper amusements for the workers, and should cooperate with workers in promoting workers' savings and cooperative enterprises. But three important clauses have the imperative "shall." Employers shall provide supplementary education of not less than ten hours per week for child workers and apprenticesthese, by former definitions, being between the ages of fourteen and sixteen years. For other employees, employers shall, within the means of possibility, provide educational facilities. An important phrase further states that time for educational work shall not be taken from working hours. The provision that "Female workers shall be given leave with full pay before and after childbirth, amounting altogether to eight weeks" has a peculiar significance for China. There are great numbers of women already engaged in industrial occupations, and although there is to be observed a tendency to delay the marriage age since the girl is an economic asset in the home; nevertheless it is still low. Many employed women are therefore married women. The enactment of this clam~e may thus have considerable financial effect. Provision for Working Mothers The principle ig sound. If the community ucie.g the work of its women it should provide for their maintenance during the period of childbirth. It is this conception which lies behind the standard adopted in this respect by the Washing ton Conference of the International Labour Organization of the League of Nations. Yet comparatively few of the more advanced indu':ltrial countries have been able to place this provision upon the statute book. Even where the number of married women is comparatively small, this additional charge upon industry has not yet been found possible. In China this issue is definitely in the workers' minds. In the agreement settling a long dispute in 1927, clauses providing for payment of women at the time of childbirth were included, though the original dispute wa.g far from being

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SAFETY AND HEALTH 333 concerned w:ith this matter. If the law operates this provision will be taken advantage of with frequency. A final clamie in the "Welfare" section Bonus provides for the payment of either a bonus or a share of the profits at the end of the working year. This in effect would not be materially different from the habit of paying a half month, or a 1ull month's wages at the old New Year. Safety and Health No more necessary regulation is provided in the whole of the proposed Law than that governing safety and health. The main Act speaks in very generalized terms: ''There shall be safety proVL'3lons against life and bodily riHks of the workers. Safety provisions in the structural details of the factory. Safety provisions regarding the proper installa tion and fencing of machines. Safety provisions regarding fire and flood prevention.'' "The factory shall also provide the following health provisions: pure drinking water supplies; suitable lavatories and toilet facilities; good light; prevention against poisoning.'' The ordinances for the administration of the Law define these requirements a little more closely. Plans for the building of a factory must be approved by a registered architect. Machines and boilers before UHe and after a period of use must be examined by an expert. Sufficient fire escapes must be provided in factory buildings and places attached thereto. Factory doors mUHt open outwards and muHt not be locked during work. Smoking, and the bringing into the factory of inflammable material are prohibited. A record of the industrial accidents in Shanghai

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334 REGULATION OF INDUSTRY in the year 1930 is sufficient proof of the necessity for safety provisions-collapse of a building; trapping of scores of women in a Chapei factory when fire occurred; scalping of a worker through hair being caught in a moving machine insufficiently guarded. But safety has become a very specialised study, and the mere enumeration of generali2'ed aspects of the situation will not prove sufficient. Space does not permit further examination of com pensation provisions, important though these are: nor of the effort to regulate employment of apprentices, than which no more needed reform exists. In closing what may seem to be a somewhat Conclusion critical examination of this new Law, the writer would make a personal statement. For five years she has worked in China by educational and other means, toward securing regulation of industrial conditions. She had not dared to hope that the principle of regulation might find application so early. It is a cause for much congratulation to the National Government that it has seen the necessity for handling so important a problem so early in its career. If, even yet, the authorities are content to crawl before they walk, and to begin with simple unassuming honest endea vors to work toward the goal outlined in the new Law, great good can accrue. Let the rehabilitation of China, ii it must come by the industrialization path, be accompanied by regulation. Let us hope that ten years from now will see the operation of a sound factory law, scientifically conceived in relation to actualities and, built upon a gradual process which will achieve worthy ends.

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CHAPTER XXX CHINA'S STRUGGLE AGAINST NARCOTICS Wang King-ky Little Progress If we except the existence of a strong, wellorganized and uncompromising public sentiment against the opium evil in China, her narcotic situation during 1930 would kindle little, if any, enthusiasm. 'l'he past twelve months formed but another of those long years which have slipped by without any tangible results in the effort to harness the drug menace, whether in China or the world. Startling discoveries and record seizures of Growing illicit drugs were made during the year. In Proportions 'November the Shanghai Customs seized within ten days approximately 800 lbs. of morphine and heroin and 19,000 lbs. of Persian opium. Less sensational seizures were continually reported from many parts of China. I~ven without the aid of statistical data, no observer can be blind to the growing proportions of the evil. It is penetrating into the depth and width of the country through all crevices; a fact to be little wondered at in view of the increased number of drug factories abroad-130 according to the latest figure and total output. It has been many times stressed that, in the International attempt to stop smuggling China is handling an Cooperation impossible task unless and until there is effective international action to limit strictly to legitimate requirements the world's output of dangerous drugs. 'l'hat long-needed action is yet to be realized, and the plea for international cooperation must be here stated more emphatically than before-if possible!

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336 ANTI-NARCOTIC POLICIES Policy of Suppression Two years have passed since the policy of absolute suppression was ordered by the National Government, prescribing severe pun iqhment for the manufacture or use of, and the traffic in, opium or its. derivatives. It would be unfair to judge that policy by its present results. Armed revolts one after another have denied it the chance of a fair trial, while many large districts notorious for their poppies have hitherto remained beyond the effective control of the Central Govern ment. Fortunately, the subjugation of the last rebellion is generally thought to have ended China's period of civil wars. With the attainment of lasting peace the most formidable obstacle to opium suppression should be removed. Towards the close of 1930, however, reports Government were current that arrangements had been com-lVlonopoly ,, pleted by the Government for the control of the national trade in opium.'' If true, these reports would indicate that before long the present policy of absolute suppression may be modified, which prohibits entirely and under all circumstances the trade in opium. At the time of writing much speculation is rife as regards whether the Government would set up some sort of monopoly with a view to eliminating gradually the cultivation of poppy and the consumption of prepared opium. T p u 1 There have been two distinct schools of wo O c es thought in China on the problem of opium suppression. One champions drastic action or the enactment of prohibitory measures to be enforced immediately and all at one time: the other espouses a gradual and progressive policy. Generally speaking, the Chinese anti-opium public is in favor of the first alternative, while the second school is largely 1epresented by government officials. To support the claim that absolute suppression is not impossible the former often pointq to China's success during 1907-1916, at the end of which period not a single poppy was seen throughout the country. Drastic action is demanded with a view to similar success. The present policy of the Government is a victory for the "absolute suppressionist." It remains to be seen

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IMPORTED DRUGS 337 whether or not the policy will unde1go any modification in the near future. Essentials of Success Whatever the plans of the Chinese Govern ment, success of opium suppression in China is of necessity dependent upon two"factors. First, the limitation of the native poppy by a strong central Gov ernment capable of giving effect to its authority. Second, effective WOl'ld-wide limitation of manufactured drugs. The absence of either of these two conditions has done incalculable damage to ( :hina. The evil of opium. smoking and the use of imported drugs are of equally serious proportions. They muHt be tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. If China were to succeed in her campaign against opium and the flood of drugs were still to continue to pour into her territory, the situation would be infinitely worse than what we have so far witnessed. In many large territmies manufactured drugs are already replacing opium, as for example in Shansi, Chekiang and Manchuria. Pharma.colo gically, I understand, abuse of the morphine group of alkaloids is a worse evil than opium smoking. National Agency Evidently, China can do little to check the spread of smuggled drugs in her tenitory so long as excessive and increasing quantities are manufactured abroad. As preventive measures, however, it is understood, the Chinese Government will soon e.<;itablish under the Ministry of Inte1ior a National Agency having the exclusive right for the importation and sale of narcotic drugs. The amount of narcotics to be imported will be determined each year by a meeting of the State Council. Pharmacies will be designated as the agencies for the distlibution of drugs, and the port of entry will be limited to Shanghai. These are all laudable preventive measures, but they cannot be expected to check smuggling to any appreciable extent. The only known effective way of dealing with the illicit traffic is to stop it at its source of supply. Smuggled Drugs toms seized Comprehensive data for 1930 are not yet available. The figures for the year previous are, however, as follows. In 1929, the Cus in round numbers 5,000 ounces of cocaine,

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388 SMUGGLED DRUGS 10,000 ounces of morphine, 3,000 ounces of heroin, 6,000 ounces of foreign opium, and 10,000 ounces of hypodermic needles. Preparations containing opium, morphine, etc., seized by the Customs were estimated at Hk. Tls. 2,647.21. The seizures reported by the Post Office amounted to approximately 10,600 Chinese taels of morphine and morphine pills. The nationals engaged in the traffic were Japanese, Austrians, Germans, Swiss, Russians, Hungarians, French, British and Koreans. A I I fl The amount of seizures will at once pale nnua n ow . 'f 'd l mto ms1gmficance r we cons1 er t 1e enormous quantity that is successfully smuggled into, and consumed in, China. According to the estimate of Dr. Wu Lien-teh, a well known Chinese medical authority, no less than thirty to forty tons of dangerous, habit-forming drug:3 pour into China annually. In the north an extensive drug traffic exists in the foreign-administered settlements and territories, with either official connivance or at least tolerance. In Tientsin, according to investigations made by the local branch of the National Anti-Opium Association, there are sixty-nine thinly digguised Japanese drug stores doing a combined business estimated at over Hk. Tls. 7,000,000 annually. In Tsinan another bianch of the Association has found 166 drug stores also 11111 by Japanese. Their combined sale of morphine and heroin pills every year is estimated at over $2,000,000. In Shihkiachuang, a strategic though small trading center, the traffic in the same pills is said to have exceeded $4,000,000 annually. In the numerous Japanese settlements in Manchuria any visitor can easily locate dozens of drug stores and morphine injection resorts. The interesting fact is that the poorer classes take more readily to morphine than to opium smoking. A few coppers for morphine injections will satisfy the addict's perverse desire, while he can scarcely be satisfied with less than forty to sixty cents' worth of opium. For the same reason morphine pills are rapidly replacing opium in Chekiang province, where it is said that one-third of the former opium smokers are now addicted to the use of morphine pills,

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DRUG TRADERS 839 Morphine and Heroin From its headquarters in the north the trade in morphine and heroin pills has successfully invaded the provinces of Shansi, Hopei, Shan tung, Honan, Anhwei, Chekiang and Manchuria-every day claiming new territory and adding to its human toll. If unchecked, the evil bids fair to spread to other provinces at present not so seriously affected. An ominous, though not entirely unexpected, portent is the seizure of "red" or morphine pills by the Customs at Shanghai in 1930, where no such seizures were made before. Having surfeited the demand in North China, the trade in narcotic pillq naturally looks to extend its market to the southern provinces. Drug Tradirs In this connection it must be remembered that the raw material for the enormous quantities of narcotic pills consumed every year are all manufactured abroad, and the illicit traffic is largely in the hands of extraterritorial foreigners, particularly Japanese and Koreans, and directed from foreign-administered tenitories in China. The damage done to China by the illicit traffic can scarcely be exaggerated. Ji'or many years China has been appealing for international cooperation to cope with the situation. The cooperation demanded jg of two varieties. First, the Powers concerned must take effective measures to curb over-production of dangerous drugs. Second, the Gov ernments having settlements, concessions or leased ten-itories in China must cooperate with her by making sincere efforts to reduce smuggling. Both measures were promised by the signatories to the Hague Opium Convention of 1912, but they are not yet realities. Bdef mention must be made of the growing Investigation interest in China in the matter of opium monopoly, and the Chinese attitude towards the question. Early in 1930 the commission appointed by the League of Nations to inquire into opium smoking in the Far East came to China but made no investigation in this country. It is because China had opposed the appointment of the commission as its scope of inquiry was confined to the opium

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340 CHINESE ADDICTS ABROAD problem excluding the allied subject or' opium derivatives. Our proposal at Geneva to extend the scope of inquiry was rejected by the League Foreign Colonies The Commission has already completed itci task. At the time of writing its report is about to be submitted to the League of Nations Opium Advisory Committee. The findings of the commis sion will be connected with the question whether a policy of progressive suppresgion of opium smoking, us promised in the Hague and Geneva Opium Conventions, should under present circumstances be introduced in the Powers' in the Far East, or whether it should be further postponed. Foreign colonial governments have hitherto been pleading smuggling as a "serious obstacle" to suppression. The unmistakable consensus of opinion in China, as among Chinese communities abroad, is that the foreign colonial authorities maintain opium taxation for the sake of sub stantial revenues and at the expense of unfortunate individualci who are not their own countrymen-Chinese immigrants. Chinese Immigrants The foreign public, everi including ardent anti-narcotic workers, has often resented such expressions from the Chinese. It is said that they had better confine all their effort to internal conditions. But it has to be remembered that the monopoly system in the Powers' Far Eastern possessions almost exclusively affects Chinese immigrants whose numbers are considerable. Jn British Malaya there are about 400;000 Chinese smokers from whom is collected the large opium revenue derived every year by the colonial authorities as estimated by Mr. Garfield Huang, General Secretary of the National Anti-Opium Association of China. According to the Malaya Opium Commission of 1908, seventy per cent of the smokers in British Malaya did not acquire their habit in China but became addicted locally. In the Dutch East Indies it has been estimated that fifteen percent of the Chinese population there are opium smokers. Chinese criticisms against opium monopoly in the Powers' colonies are not in the least

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CURTAILMENT OF PRODUCTION 341 prompted by any carping spirit. They are reluctantly expressed because the system practi
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Christian Rural Work CHAPTER XXXI RURAL RECONSTRUCTIVE EFFORTS Phillip W. Cheng In view of the fact that roughly eighty percent of the population live in rural communities and are miserably ignorant, poor, disen.sed and desperate, the Christians have long recognized the urgent need of rural service. Con sequently several agricultural schools have been established ,vith active extension departments to carry the message of hopefulness to the hopelessly struggling farmers. Some agricultural missionaries have also made praiseworthy efforts in rural betterment. Lately the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. also have started intensive programs for the reconstruction of rural life. These Chrit-1tian efforts in rural reconstrucNon-Chrlstian tion are fairly well known. But non-Christian Rural Effort ff t Id t' d th' e or s are se orn men Ione In 1s connection. The writer feels safe to say that the non-Christians have at least equal, if not deeper, realization of the need in rural communities and the latent power of the farmers. One can easily recall that a few years ago, when the Communists wanted to extend their influence, their main emphasis was laid on the farmers and the world remembers how much damage was done with the farmers' power as thus utilized. "Go to the People" Quite a.part from the Communist idea of utilizing the farmers as toolR for selfish ends, there has been also a general realization of responsibility on the part of thinking people. The popular slogan of "going to the people" has filled the air from border to border of the country during recent years. The phrase has rural communities largely in view. From the highest official to the young student in school, everybody

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RURAL RECONSTRUCTION 343 readily recognizes the n_eeds and possibilities of the villages. It is the purpose of this paper to bring out a few things within the limited knowledge of the writer which may serve as examples of the crystalization of popular enthusiasm for rural reconstruction. The Government is primarily interested ~ff::~nmentaI in ~he improvement of agriculture. Many agricultural schools have been established throughout the country. In the Government Universities the agricultural departments are among the best supported and most active. Numerous experimental stations are being operated throughout the country with varying success. The organization of cooperative societies under Government auspices is emphasized in some parts of the country, noticeably in Kiangsu and Chekiang, where, according to latest reports, more than 1000 societies have been organized. Farmers' Institutes But the efforts of the Government are not exclusively confined to the improvement of agriculture. General improvement of rural life is also undertaken. In the more progressive prov inces many "Farmers' Educational Institutes" are being organized. These institutes aim to improve every phase of the farmer's life mainly through education in the broad sense of the word. This movement is just beginning, so results are not yet apparent. At present it looks very prom1srng. If properly handled, these institutes will radiate very wholesome influences to the villages around. With regard to rural recreation and the formation of "Farmers' Associations" for general betterment of rural conditions the Government has made elaborate plans, although very little has actually been done. Rural Conference Last April the writer was invited by the Kiangsu Provincial Government to attend a "Rural Reconstruction Conference." About thirty delegates from different parts of the province worked hard to co-ordinate present efforts and plan new

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34:1 COOPERATIVE SOCIETIBS undertakings. The main emphasis was on general betterment of rural life. The writer was particularly impressed when the Chairman said: "The reconstruction of rural life is absolutely necessary and the only efficient way of reconstruction is to changa the hearts of the farmt\rs through love!" This illustrates the spirit of the conference and the writer believes that such a spirit is found outside of Kiangsu also. Besides the above-mentioned government Institutional efforts, there are many non-governmental Efforts institutions, actively carrying on the work of rural reconstruction. Only a few need be mentioned here:The Famine Relief Commission in North China started many years ago to organize rural cooperative societies as a means of enabling the farmers to fight famine. According to latest reports there are 184 full-fledged societies and 466 provisional societies, with a total member;;:hip of 16,000 people. It is true that no direct general reconstruction work is done, but these cooperative societies have very good effect in showing and erni.bling the farmers to live properly. The Nat-ional Mass Ediwcition Movement is another important agency for general rural betterment. This agency starts with the teaching of the thousand-character books and gradually leads the farmer to improve his whole life. The principal region of work is in Ting Hsien, where the farmers of numerous villages have been aroused from their slumbers and persuaded to st,rive for better things in life. The work of the foregoing two organizations is comparatively well-known, so the writer only makes a passing reference here. But the attention of the reader is

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RURAL RECONSTRUCTION PROGRAM 345 partieularly directed to the following pieces of work which t11't: very seldom reported in TCngli:-;h. The Hsu Kiing Chino Rural Reconstruction Society, sponsored by the Vocational Education Association of China, stands out as a concrete illustration of systematic efforts on the part of private organizations for rural betterment. It is a piece of work based on co-operative efforts between city people and village leaders. Started five years ago, it has been vigorously carried on in spite of many difficulties. The following main points in the program will show the general character of the work:-]. Educational classes for adults and children. 2. Experimental stations for improvement c,f farming. 3. Construction of roads. 4. Organization of cooperative societies. 5. Improvement of farming implements. 6. Construction of social centers. 7. Medical service to farmers. 8. Spreading health education. 9. Planting trees. 10. Establishing community tea-houses. 11. Establishing community bath-houses. 12. Developing local self-government. 13. Organizing farmers for self-protection. 14. Promoting community warehouses. 15. Establishing public cemeteries. 16. Establishing public parks. Most of the above-mentioned phases of work have already been started. Some are showing gratifying'results, especially in health education and in road-building. In order to hasten the progress of work a training class for rural workers has recently been started. These students in training are rendering valuable help to the original

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346 TRAINING RURAL TEACHERS staff of two men in carrying out the proposed program. It is a pit.y that in the program there is no emphasis on the development of the farmer's character, which is so essential to a happy life: otherwise, these efforts are admirable. Many prominent men visit the work. Indirectly it may also stimulate other places to start similar undertakings. 1-Iitang Hsu is another place where the Vocational Education Association has started a program of reconstruction in cooperation with some other organizations. The program here is less comprehensive and less intensive, but it reveals a good beginning. The main emphasis 1s on general education of farmers and the impruvement of farming. Hsiao Chuang is a familiar name to the educators and students of China. It is a normal school for the training of rural teachers. The thing that makes it different from other schools is the founder's conviction that a rural school should be the center of all activities in the community and a rural school teacher must be thoroughly ruralized himself. Accordingly every student was required to work with the farmers while studying and to teach the farmers while working, in order to cultivate in him a happy combination of the traits of a scholar, a teacher, and a farmer, so that he will be able to carry on the work of rural reconstruction successfully. During the past few years many good nll'al teachers have thus been developed. But, unfortunately, on account of some political com plication the school is now closed. It is hoped, however, that its influence in blazing a new path will go on and its beautiful vision not be lost. Individual Efforts As it is true in history, it is still true to-day that many prominent persons have come out of rural life. Happily many of them, while bearing larger responsibilities, still have the welfare of their native neighbors at heart. The writer often finds isolated pieces of work for rural betterment

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COMMUNITY RECONSTRUCTION 847 sponsored by prominent individuals of the localities concerned. The following two cases will Rerve as examples: Wii-tsiin is a farming village northeast of Kiating. Several years ago an educated member of that community held a fairly important position in Shanghai. One summer on his vacation he gathered his neighbors together and spoke to them on the nece!'sity of new life. At last he succeeded in organizing a society for local betterment. In an effort to find money for making improvements they decided to utilize the canals of the village to raise fish. With the money so derived they maintain a social center, provide amusements, open classes for illiterates, have established a community tea-house, and distributed simple drugs. Their future plans incluc1e the promotion of supplementary industries, an experimental farm, a public recreation ground, a public library, etc. Yii-tang, a village about 10 miles southwest of Shanghai, is the home of a former governor of Kiangsu. Having visited several good pieces of work for the improvement of rural conditions in other parts of the province, this official saw a vision for his native village and began to work for its realization. On the occasion of his father's birthday celebration year before last, he was the recipient of all kinds of giftR. He turned them all into cash, realizing quite a substantial sum, Together with what he himself could add, he used the money to start a service center to facilitate the flow of new knowledge, a new spirit, and a new hope in the farmers in nearby villages. The actual work was started only recently, so there is still no report of accomplishments. The present reference to it is simply to illustrate the attitude of certain prominent men. 1f more people in the favored clas~ would take this attitude, the welfare of the farming population would be considerable advanced. The few instances mentioned above are probably sufficient to correct the impression on the part of many people that only Christian organizations are doing work for

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348 INDIGENOUS RECONSTRUCTION farmers in China. On the whole it may be said that the non-Christians are probably doing more work, but their work is not so effective in producing permanent results. They cater largely for the material needs of the farmer and fail to emphasize the development of his personal character, which alone can serve as a dependable foundation for future prosperity and happiness.

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CHAPTER XXXII CHRISTIAN INDUSTRIAL AND RURAL RECONSTRUCTION J. B. Tayler Econornic Issues and Moral Law. A few years ago Prime Minister Baldwin rebuked the Bishops who ex pressed views on a coalstrike, for interfering in affairs outside their competence. It goes without saying that no one should attempt solution of such matters without taking steps to understand the economic problems involved, but it is even more emphatically true that business, like other spheres of human conduct, is subject to the moral law, and that the exponents of that law are justified in raising their voices when it is transgressed. Progress in harnessirig the growing power of the industrial machine to the furtherance of human ends can only be brought about by planning, which unites ethical and economic considerations. Christian Ethics and Econornics. Since Mr. Baldwin's intervention in. that particular dispute, a Chri~tian Social Union in his country has done an excellent work in combining Christian ethics with economics. We shall follow its divisions in describing what the Committee on Christianizing Economic Relations, of the National Christian Council, is attempting on similar lines in China. Protest Against Wrong Conditions Some years ago the Committee on Christianizing Economic Relations did very useful work in drawing attention to the evils of child labour, and the bad conditions obtaining in such manufactures as the textile industries and match factories. Good was undoubtedly done by that protest, since the evils of child labour in silk filatures and of phosphorous poisoning in the match factories have since been reduced.

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350 PEOPLE'S LIVELIHOOD The Conference on the People's Livelihood organized this year (1931) by the same Committee has in its finuings deplored the lack of many thing3 which go to make a good life; the lack of education which renders it so difficult for the working-classes to better their own conditions, the over-crowded conditions in the cities with the health problems and moral evils to which they give rise. In industry, this Conference directed attention to excessive hours of work, the evils of nightwork for women and children, and the bad working conditions, especially in the smaller undertakings. To call attention to evils of this kind may seem negative, and is certainly a thankless task, but it is a matter of fundamental importance to arouse not only the Christian conscience, but also public opinion, to a recognition of their existence and so of the need to remedy them. In discharging this duty, the Committee relies on careful, scientific re!'learch into actual conditions, and on social educatl.on. Thereby it is hoped to remove specific cases of injustice !},nd conditions which injure health, cramp personality, or deny a reasonably good life to sections of the community. The Committee is now engaged upon a research program, containing more than a dozen items. Alleviative Ejf01ts. Fortunately it is sometimes possible to go further and to promote plans for the amelioration of wrong conditions. Individual employers have been interested in bettering the lot of their own workers. Two cases in Peiping illustrate the fact that this is more easily done by those with some knowledge of industry. A Christian engineer has been successful in persuading a friendly employer to introduce a. number of improvements in the working conditions of his machine shop. On the other hand, a scheme for the improvement of conditions in a rug factory and for the education of the apprentices employed therein, failed because the manager did not feel that the would-be reformer had sufficient knowledge of the industry. There is a great field of social service open to those with technical qualifications. Social centers and nig4~ 9111,~fleS are bringing a better life to some of the

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CHRIS'fIAN INDUSTRIAL WORK 351 workers. Most of these are being conducted by the Y.W.C.A. and Y.M.C.A., but a few churches are also co-operating in this matter. The lot of apprentices is so drab and empty that this is a particularly important service to render. The Y.W.C.A. in its new social center in Shanghai is also making an interesting experiment in housing girl workers, on lines rather different from the well-known Pootung center of the Y.M.C.A. There is a great field in China for social legislation, and the Church can render real service at the present time by creating public opinion in favour of the chief provisions of the new Factory Act. A Committee has been appointed to make definite recommendation in regard to this matter. A Committee on Christianizing Economic Relations is seeking to improye industry from within by securing the training of industrial welfare workers and per,mnnel managers, and by drawing attention to the human side of industry. It is also interesting itself in the promotion of workers' education and in this connection is seeking the establishment in Shanghai of an institute, which would be a laboratory and training center for the whole Christian Movement in this matter of working out the methods and content of workers' education, and providing literature for it. Mass education, in the sense of imparting literacy through a knowledge of the 1000 characters, is now well organized. The next step is to build up a body of literature for the use of those who have acquired this tool. Oonst1uctive Ohr-istian Effort. (a) Cooperatives. Some of the activities just mentioned are sufficiently important to merit inclusion in this third category. Here, however, we propose to stress the pro motion of cooperation, on the one hand, and of rural and small scale industry on the other. Cooperation, including as it does, such diverse forms as consumers, producers, predit and agricultnre, is difficult to characterize in a

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852 RURAL INDUSTRIES sentence. Each form has its own qualities, and makes its own contribution to a better industrial order. They are all based on the principles of mutual aid, and democracy, and when entered upon in this spirit, have proved to possess moral value in addition to economic advantages. Rural credit cooperatives were started by Raffeisen, of whom it was widely said that he did more for the moral welfare of the German farmers than all the Protestant pastors and Catholic priests of his generation; while in Denmark agricultural cooperation was based on the educationa.l work inspired by Bishop Grundtvig. In China, the most successful examples of cooperation have been more or less directly associated with the Church, or at least with the Christian movement. Thus the village cooperative credit societies started by the China International Famine Relief Commission in Hopei owe a great deal to the leadership of workers connected with the Kung Li Hwei Church. The University of Nanking has pro moted cooperation in such matters as the supply of fertilisers, the digging out of ponds, the planting of mulberry trees, corn-shelling, marketing, etc. With the starting of farmers' and people's banks by the Government, which will make considerable funds available for cooperative purposes, it is desirable that the churches should educate their members in a knowledge of the possibilities of cooperation, and that provision should be made for the training of men able to assist in organizing and guiding such societies. (b) Ruml Industries. The needs of the village churches have recently caused attention to be directed to the possibilities of rural industries. These are desirable, especially in the North, because farming is but a part-time industry, and on account of the climate and uncertain support. If industry can be carried into the villages on a sound progressive basis, that is, one which induces scientific technique and cooperative organization, the evils of over-crowding in the cities, and the creation of a proletariat divorced from the land may perhaps be avoided. However, experience may decide this wider

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RURAL COMMUNITY PARISHES 353 issue, definite study is being made of the possibilities of certain industries, and it is hoped to arrange for local or regional studies in connection with Dr. Butterfield's rural parishes. (c) Riiral Coinnwnity Parishe.3. In order that the church may play its full part in rural reconstruction, experiment ia being begun with the organization of rural community parishes. A parish of this kind consists of a number of villages, centering in the same market town. All of these villages are nonna.lly within easy walking distance, that is, within a radius of three to five miles of the centre. The population of a parish would most conveniently be from 10,000 to 15,000 people. A group of such parishes are naturally organized into a larger unit. The parish itself forms a nntnral economic unit within which to develop a larger community life than that associated with the single village. Such a community may well take the lead in making roads to link village with village, and each with the market, to promote services of value to the farmers, such as means for the procE;>ssing of their crops-the ginning of cotton, the pressing of oilseed and so forth-and for cooperative marketing organisations. It is in such units that local government of a more developed type may arise. Rural Leadership. Rural reconstruction of this kind calls for experimentation, for education and leadership. Experimentation is being increasingly carried on in connection with Christian universities, such as Nanking, Cheloo, and Yenching, and by the Mass Education Movement. It is supplying a knowledge of what the villager needs. To meet those needs not only must new ideas be imparted, but new loyalties created; if the Church can build a new era of principles of mutual helpfulness and the common quest for a good life, it will to that extent be bringing in the Kingdom of God and saving its own soul. lt is good to know that the number of those cornmitterl to this task, especially ii1 North ChiRa., is rapidly multiplying.

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354 COOPERATIVE COMMONWEALTH Ohri,sti,an Challenge to Philosnphy of Industri,alism. In those parts of China where such a rural development is not hindered or complicated by extensive absentee landlordism, which is the counterpart of modern capitalism, there would seem to be the possibility of a sounder industrial development than that which is revealing its defects in the western world to-day, but it is no use hiding from ourselves the fact that this is only possible if those who undP-rtake it bring to the task moral enthusiasm and a great devotion. l\'Ien with expert knowledge must patiently explore the needs of the village people, and indicate the technical means of meeting them. Men and women with gifts of leadership must quicken and unite those who are ignorant, stolid or suspicions. 'l'he weak nesses of human nature will be encountered in full measure, but in these rural areas the ground is clear to build on. In modern industry, however, though the individuals concerned may be no greedier nor more covetous than the average villager, we are confronted with a system which is built on organized covetousness, many of the first principles of which are in dii'ect conflict with Christian principle. It is becoming iricrea8ingly clear that industry cannot be left to the blind working of the profit motive; that the competitive system has broken down and that there must be social control as the only alternative to private monopoly, that capital must be the servant, and not the master of the worker or group of workers, and that purposeful cooperation for the common good-the cooperative commonwealth-must be deliberately accented as the goal towards which we must consciously and continuously press.

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PART VII MEDICAL WORK CHAPTER XXXIII MEDICAL EDUCATION R, T. Shields Before taking up the present situation in regard to medical education, we shall do well to review briefly the history of the development of modern medical science in China. This article is not concerned with ancient Chinese medicine, nor with the early contacts of the Chinese with western medicine, such as the opening of the Jesuit Hospital in Macao in 1569, or the curing of the Emperor K'ang Hsi of malaria by cinchona bark possessed by the Jesuit missionaries. MEDICAL WORKS OF 'l'HE EAST INDIA COMPANY 'fhe first modern medical work of which we have any record is that of Dr. Pearson, of the East India Company, who introduced vaccination into Canton in 1805. He later opened the Ophthalmic Hospital in Macao in 1827. Morrison, the first missionary to China, and Dr. Living stone, of the East India Company, conducted a small dispensary in Macao in 1820. MEDICAL MISSIONARY PIONEERS Dr. Peter Parker was the first regular medical mission ary to come to China. He was sent out by the American Board Mission to Canton in 1834 and founded the Canton Hospital, and, with Bridgman, and Colledge, of the East

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356 MEDICAL PIONEERS India Company, started the Medical Missionary Society of China in 1838. He also opened a hospital in Macao and began the teaching of students. This hospital was after wards taken over by Dr. Lockhart of the London Mission, who, later, left it to Drs. Diver and Hobson, and, in 1844, opened a hospital in Shanghai. Later, when Dr. Lockhart was physician to the British Legation in Peking in 1861, he established a hospital in that city. Dr. Hobson, of the London Missionary Society, came out in 1839. He worked in Macao, Hongkong, Canton and Shanghai. He is known as the "first medical book-maker for China." His "Outline of Anatomy and Physiology," the first book of the kind, was published in 1850. Dr. John G. Kerr, of the American Presbyterian Mission, came to Canton in 1854. He took charge of the Canton Hospital and was connected with it for thirty years. He did a prodigious amount of work: over 500,000 patients passed through his, or his assistant's hands, and he is credited with having performed over 1000 operations on bladder stone. He had more than one hundred students, and translated or compiled twenty-seven books, most of them small volumes; but his "Manual of the Theory and Practice of Medicine" consisted of six volumes. When Dr. Parker was appointed American Minister to Peking, Kerr took over the Canton Hospital in 1855. He also founded the first "Refuge for Insane" in 1898. In 1870, Dr. Osgood, of the American Board, came to ll'oochow. He lived only ten years, but in that time, besides doing hospital work, he published the first large translation of Anatomy in four volumes. He was followed by Dr. Whitney, who revised and reedited this Anatomy. In addition to the men already mentioned who were leaders in medical education and translation, we should mention Dr. Dudgeon, who translated an "Anatomy and Physiology" and Dr. Fryer who, though not a medical man, translated many scientific and medical books and edited a scientific journal in Chinese. Drs. Atterbury,

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FIRST MEDICAL SCHOOLS 357 Douthwaite, Hunter an
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358 ]j)ARLY MEDIOAL CONDITIONS of medicine throughout the world at. the time when these early pioneers came to this country. Dr. Pearson first vaccinated Chinese nine years after Jenner's discovery of vaccination was made. l\Iorton firHt gave ether in Boston in 1846 and Simpson used chloroform in Edinburgh in 1847. The first record that we have of the use of ether in China was by Kuan, one of Dr. Parker's students, in 1847. Pasteur and Lister were not born until 1822 and 1827 respectively. In addition to the medical ignorance of the world, these pioneers were handicapped by superstition and prejudice and the lack of communications which made cooperation on a large Peale impossible. There was no literature in the Chinese language, ancl they had very poor equipment for their hospitals, no qualified assistants or nurses, and yet they not only accomplished a tre mendous amount of medical and surgical work, but they laid the foundation for the growth of modern medicine in China, and they had the vision of a more efficient system of education which was to be made possible by their pioneer efforts. The spirit of Chri,:tian faith and love which is shown by the papers they have written is an example for us to follow. l\fEIDIOAL EDUCATION The clecade from 1880 to 1890 is a rather remarkable one, as far as medical work in China is concerned. During the 53 years, 1834-1887, there had been 150 medical missionaries all told in China. Between 1887 and 1890, forty-six arrived. If one reads over the lists of names of the medical men and women who arrived in China during the decade 1880 to 1890, one cannot but be struck by the fact that practically all of those who were later to lead in medical education and to found most of the medical schools of China were among this number:Beebe, Boone, Browi'l, Christie, Couslancl, Fulton, Gillison, Gloss, Hodge, Hopkins, Ingram, Johnson, Macklin, Main, McClure, Neal, Niles, Park, Paterson, Reifsnyder, Stuart,

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EARLY MEDICAL EDUCATION 359 Swan, Thomson, Watson: The pages of the medical journal after this period are full of articles, mostly by the group who came out in the eighties, dealing with medical education. A much disputed question was whether Inglish or Chinese should be usld as the medium of instruction. Of course, the necessity for carrying on the translation work which had been begun by the early pioneers was emphasied, and the need of a uniform terminology and an English-Chinese dictionary was stressed. It is very interesting to note that, in all the discussions of which one can find records in the journal, though there were differences of opinion in other matters, yet all seemed to be unanimous that not only should they join in a medical association, but that the medical men and women should cooperate and unite in carrying out their plan for medical education without any regard to nationality or denomination. Some articles even advise the different missions to unite in hospital as well as in educat10nal work. Training of Chinese However, in spite of the attitude of the leading pioneers towards the value of the training of Chinese to be medical men and women, there was, 11pparently, not much interest shown by the missionary body in general in this phase of the work. (Note the Jack of emphasis on this subject in the .great missionary conferences in Edinburgh in 1890, and in 1890, and in Shanghai in 1907.) Indeed, most" of the medical missionaries seemed to regard the small, inefficient and understaffed training schools as sufficient for the needs of China. They were so engrossed with the immediat.e, pressing needs of their own work that they did not see far enough into the future. In 1890 Dr. Kerr wrote a paper in which he outlined the neEd for medical education. (1) to provide qualified physicians for the mass of the people; (2) to train assistants for mission hospitals; (3) to train teachers. He said :-''The education of physicians and surgeons for the people of this great empire is a subject of the utmost

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360 FIRST MEDICAL CONFERENCE importance, an1l one which may well engage the attention of the medical profession of the world," and he advocated that teaching should be carried on in the Chinese language. Medical Missionary Conference At the first conference of the Medical Missionary Association, in 1890, which was attended by thirty doctors, a Committee on Education was appointed, with Dr. Cousland as Chairman. From this time on, Dr. Cousland became one of the leaders in translation and the leader in the establishment of a standardized medical terminology in China. In spite of ill health, he persisted in this work for forty years, until his death, in Victoria, B. C., in June 1930. China owes a lasting debt of gratitude for the work which he did. Improved Medical Instruction At this 1890 Conference, a plea was made for more efficient teaching in place of the slipshod manner of instruction which had prevailed: "Unless it is done systematically, it would better not be done at all." "There should be a first class medical school in Shanghai or Nanking." Co-operation was urged, in order to put teaching in China on a higher plane. Stuart, in an editorial about the same time, wrote: "So little has been done in educational work," and he advocated that "a real school should be begun." Cousland urged the Educational Committee to arrange for textbooks and terms and also to organize a regular medical school. He thought that student training in hospitals would have to be continued as well. He soon submitted a long list of terms to be criticised. In an editorial in the Journal, in 1897, Neal, review-ing medical education, reported that there were about forty hospitals where students were being taught. Already 268 had been trained, and 194 were in training, of whom thirty-three were women. "Of the number of so-called

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TRAINING OF WOMEN 361 schools, sca1cely half a dozen can be considered medical schools." Training of Women Dr. Mary Brown, of Shantung, so far as we know, wrote the first article on the training of women, and referred to a class of four students whom she was teaching. Medical work was, of course, largely broken up during 1900, but shortly afterwards we find the Nomenclature Committee, composed of Whitney, Cousland, Stuart and Neal, asking for subscriptions to carry on their work. There was quite a discussion at this time in regard to whether there should be central medical schools, or a central examining board, to be appointed by the Medical Missionary Association. INCREASE OF ~IEDICAL SCHOOLS The Hackett Medical School, in Canton, was begun by Dr. Fulton in 1899, and the London Mission College in Hankow in 1902. In 1903 the South China School of Medicine was started and Dr. Neal announced the plan for a Union School in Tsinan. In 1906 the Union Medical College in Peking was opened and, by 1909, had a staff of fourteen foreign doctors. The Women's Union Medical College in Peking was founded in 1906, by Dr. Gloss, as well as a school for nurses, and the Boone Medical College in Hankow in 1907. In this year it was reported that there was a government medical school for women in Tientsin. The London Mission College in Hankow became the Union Medical College in 1908. The Nursing Schools in Anking and Nanking were opened in this year. The Kung Yee Medical School in Canton was started in 1909. 1910 saw the opening of the Tsinan Union Medical College and of the Medical Department of Nanking University. In 1911 Mukden Medical College was opened and steps were taken to organize the West China Medical School in Chengtu. The C. M. S. Medical School in Foochow and the Harvard

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362 UNION MEDICAL SCHOOLS Medical School, Shanghai, were started in 1912. The Pennsylvania Medical School joined St. John's in 1914, and the Hnnan-Ya.le Medica.l School was organized in the same year. At this time the nine leading mission medical schools in China had 300 students. It was reported that the French government had given 25,000 francs for a medical school in Shanghai. PUBLICATION COMMITTEE In 1904, the Publication Committee which had been formed in 1897, announced that they were preparing five new books. At the conference of the China Medical Missionary Association in 1905, a resolution was passed, advocating union medical schools in four centres. It was voted to give $400 surplus from the treasury of the Association to the Publication Committee, and a further subscription of S400 was taken up from the members. This was practically the beginning of the new work of this Publication Committee, which has gone on until, at present, it has about 1>40,000 worth of sales a year. UNION MEDICAL SCHOOLS At the J.905 Conference, Dr. Chrif:'tie, in his pre sidential address, advocated two or three union schools, and urged more translation and a journal in Chinese. At the 1910 Conference in Hankow, Dr. Cousland reported on schools, present nnd projected, including the proposed plans of the Rockefeller Foundation and of the Wuhan British i>cheme. In this report he spoke of "dissipated energies" in regard to medical education and said that "a wider outlook and more unselfish spirit is needed." At the Conference of 1913, Dr. Thomas Cochrane voiced the feelings of many of those interested in education when he said: "The1e is no really efficient medical college in China ... and further diffusion of effort is

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ROCKEFELLLER COMMISSION 363 likely to take place." As a result of discussion at this :1913 meeting, where the question practically before the conference was to advocate either twenty mission schools each manned by five doctors, or five mission i::chools each manned by twenty doctors, a compromise was effected, advocating eight schools manned by at least fifteen doctors each. At the Conference in Shanghai in 191.5 there were over 100 medical missionaries present and eeveral important events occurred during or following this meeting. JOINT TERMINOLOGY COMMITTEE A preliminary meeting arranged by the Kiangsu Educational Aesociation was held, :md, in February 1915, the Joint Terminology Committee was formed a.11d its first meeting arranged for August, Hi16. This was followed by a meeting in Jan nary, 1917, and these meetings continued thereafter annually, with one exception, until 1929, when the work of this committee was completEd and turned over to the Government. Much could be said in regard to the fundamental importance of the work of this committee which standardized medical terms for China. It was composed of representatives from the Kiangsu Educational Association, the China Medical Mis siona1y Association, the National Medical Association and the Medical Pharmaceutical Association (students returned from Japan) and Chemical Society, together with a representative of the Educational Department of the Government. ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION COMMISSION In 1914 a commission of the Rockefeller Foundation arrived to study the medical situation in China. In June, 1915 an agreement was made between the China Medical Board of the Rockefeller Foundation and the London Missionary Society in regard to the Union Medical College in Peking, and the C. M. B. formally took over this institution on July 1st. 1915.

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364 MEDICAL EDUCATION UNIFIED NArroNAL MEDICAL J\ssOCIATION 'I'he National Medical Association was forme
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MISSION MEDICAL SCHOOLS No. of Teaching Staff, 1929 No. of No. of Co-LanName. Students Gradueduca-guage Full Part ates tion Chinese Foreign Time Time Hackett Medical College, Canton ...... 20 14 25 9 67 187 No Chinese St. John's University School of Medicine, Shanghai .................... 14 11 5 20 37 99 No English Mukden Medical College .................. 17 12 27 2 95 164 Yes Chinese Shantung Christian University (Cheeloo) School of Medicine, 88 241 Tsinan ........................................ 16 16 32 0 (Phar-(Phar-Yes Chinese macyl3) macyll) West China Union University, Medical and Dental School, Med. 20 8 Med. 33 Med.37 Chinese Chengtu ...................................... 12 27 Dent. 8 3 Dent. 14 Dent. ,J Yes English Women's Christiall, Medical College, Shanghai (1930) ............ 16 14 12 18 so 8 Partly English

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366 Present Mission Medical Schools NON-MIS~ION SCHOOLS Other mission medical schools were closed at this time or before, and Hangchow and Hunan-Yale were forced to close in 1927. The latter reopened in 1929, taking in a pre-medical class. Up to date 55 students have graduated from the Hunan-Yale Medical School. At present the number of mission schools is represented by the following list. (see page 365). The difficulty of obtaining money and personnel to equip and carry on properly a modern medical school makes it extremely unlikely that any attempt will be made to increase this number. None of these six schools have at present an adequate staff or endowment to carry on the work which they should do, and some are far below the desired standard. Still further reduction, by amalgamation of certain of these schools would make for greater efficiency. NoN-MrssroN SCHOOLS Of the three foreign-supported non-mission schools, the P. U. M. C. is fully equipped and endowed, the Japanese school in Mukden is said to be adequately staffed and supported and the Hongkong University School of Medicine, with the recent grant from the British Indemnity Fund, is well provided for. PEKING UNION MEDICAL COLLEGE No. of No. of Students No. of Co-LanTeachers Graduates editcaguage tion Used Chinese .Foreign Regular Spe'.fal & Before Since Graduate 1924 i 19241-105 65 Yes --65 26 93 104 English j -(Grads. of classes of 1919, 1920, 1921 (43) also counted as graduates of Cheeloo)

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l!'OREIGN-SUPPORTl!lD SCHOOLS 367 HONGKONG UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE (British) Date of No. of No. of No. of Classes Language Founding Teacheis Students Graduated Used 1912 23 160 15 English MANCHURIA MEDICAL COLLEGE, MUKDEN (Japanese) Date of No. of No. of No. of Classes Language Founding Teacheis Students Graduated Used 1911 638 13 Japanese In regard to the purely Chinese-controlled Government schools, supported by central government, Schools provincial or private funds, it is very difficult to obtain at present exact data as to equipment and resources. The appended list* is from the 1930 official statement. Many of these schools are very far below par and most of them are inadequately equipped, but the National Central University Medical School at Woosung has a strong staff and high standards and, with the necessary financial assistance from the Government, should soon become a first class institution. As with mission *See pages 368, 369.

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368 GOVERNMENT MEDICAL SCHOOLS CHINESE GOVERNMENT MEDICAL SCHOOLS Date of No. of No. of No. of Language Name FoundTeachcis St-u-ClassP-8 Used ing 1929 dents Grad-1929 uated English Army Medical College, Japanese Tientsin. (MoYed to German Peking 1918) ............. 1901 26 320 13 Chinese Aurora University Medical School, Shanghai (private) .................. 1902 10 69 10 French Chekiang Provincial Chinese School of Medicine English and Pharmacy, Hang-German chow (closing 1931 ) ... 1911 24 83 19 Japanese Chungshan UniYersity Medical Department, Chinese Canton ..................... 1927 40 German Hopei University Med-ical College (Pro-Chinese vincial) ..................... 1921 19 94 3 German Kwang Wah Medical College, Canton (Pri-vate) ..................... 1909 B3 292 19 Chinese 70% Nan Yang Medical Colfull 1.ime lege, Shanghai.. ....... 1914 30% 400 10 Chinese part time National Central Uni-versity Medical Col-Chinese lege, Woosung 1927 30 53 English

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GOVERNMENT MEDICAL SCHOOLS 369 CHINESE GOVERNMENT MEDICAL SCHOOLS Date of No. of No. of No. of Classes LanName I/oiindTeachers Students Gra-r,uage ing 1929 1929 ditated Used -------Naval Medical College, Tientsin (originally Dr. Mackenzie's school. 1881, then Peiyang Medical College, 1893) ... 1915 12 12 15 English National Peking Uni-versity Medical College (reorganized 1912, over and 1927) ... ... ... 1903 30 240 9 Chinese Ttmg Chi University, Medical Department, Shanghai ... ... ... 1907 17 200 22 German Tung Nan Medical 120 graSchool, Shanghai ... 192(l 30 280 duates Chinese Tung Teh Medical School, Shanghai Chinese (private) ... ... .. 1918 16 150 10 German Yunnan Army Medical College .. ... ... ... 1920 24 56 1

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370 TRAINING OF NURSES medical schools, so it has been with the government schools, a great many have sprung into a nominal existence but have sooner or later died. The Rockefeller Foundation scholarships Research and the post-graduate instruction given by the P. U. M. C. are a great aid to young Chinese teache1s, and the Lester Institute will prove a valuable stimulus to advanced research. An important part in the proper training of medical men and women is being played by the increasing number of well equipped hospitals where young graduates may obtain competent instruction in the practice of their profession, TRAINING OF NURSES This report would not be complete without a statement of the remarkable progress made in nursing education in China. As is well known, it was difficult for the pioneers in the nurs'ing profession in the West to break down the prejudice and opposition they encountered. This prejudice was even stronger in China. The first regular School of Nursing was begun in Peking in 1905. The Nurses' Association of China was organized in 1914. At present the number of registered schools in the N .. A. C. is 136, all but nine of which are located in mission hospitals. There are over 2000 registered nurses besides, probably, several hundreds who are not registered. The N. A. C. has a Committee on Translation which has prepared a very complete list of necessary text-books. In recent years there has been awakened a great interest in the important work of training midwives, notably in Hangchow, Peking, Canton and other centres, PH~RMACISTS, HOSPITAL TECHNICIANS AND DENTISTS There is a School of Pharmacy in Shanghai, and ph11.rmac;v st"Q.dents are taught in Cheeloo and Hackett.

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HOSPITAL TECHNICIANS 371 There is also a School for Hospital Technicians connected with the Union Hospital at Hankow, and technicians are being trained in other centres. So far as we know, there is but one School of Dentistry at the present time, that at Chengtu. As we look back over the history of the development of educational work in medicine and the allied professions, though we could wish that more had been accomplished, we are bound to recognise that notable progress has been made, and we can look forward to the future with confidence that if, and when, peace and prosperity come, the teaching and the practice of medicine in China will be placed upon a high professional and ethical plane.

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CHAPTER XXXIV MEDICAL RESEARCH James L, MaxweU The subject of Medical Research in China is too great to be dealt with in any way exhaustively in the space allocated to this matter in the YEAR BooK and it is proposed here to deal but briefly with the need and the agencies that are dealing with it, and then to show more fully the place of the Mission Hospital in Research, what has been already accomplished and what may be reason~ ably hoped for from the hospitals in this line of work. Problems Numerous Each country has its medical and health problems and these differ in every land, but on their satisfactory solution depend not merely the immediate improvement of the people's health but the strength and vigour of future generations and the ability of the country to take its proper place in the comity of nations. The needs of China are perhaps greater than those of most other countries, in view of its huge population and the low economic conditions that prevail and which very seriously affect the bulk of the people. In consequence of these low economic conditions and the Jack of any developed health conscience, the problems in China are certainly greater and more numerous than in most other lands. These problems relate mainly to epidemic infectious diseases, endemic infectious diseases, parasitic diseases, avitaminosis and a miscellaneous group of general or local diseases. With these groups we shall deal briefly in turn. EPIDEMIO INFECTIOUS DISEASES Among these Cholera and Plague bulk the largest and take the greatest toll of h'qman life.

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INFECTIOUS DISEASES 373 Cholera has been known for many centuries as the most widespread and destructive to life of any of the epidemic diseases that affect this country and at times great waves of infection have spread over the whole land, with the solitary exception of the province of Kansn which would appear to be exempt from this infection. If any thing is to be done to prevent the spread of cholera it is evidently necessary to know the causes which favour that spread, the routes which the disease follows and the particular reasons w by it is tremendously prevalent in some years and absent or almost so in other years. Plague has two lines of advance into China, from the north and from the south and curiously enough these two never meet. More has been done to deal with this disease than any other in this country and to this reference will be made later. ENDEMIC INFECTIOUS DISEASES This is the largest and in many ways the most im portant group of all. Acute, subacute and chronic infections are included in this division and need not be separated here, but some of the more important should be enumerated. Smallpox is universal and very fatal in China. Its prevention is, however, so well defined and so easily carried out that no extensive investigations are here re quired. Malaria is also universal in the southern and central provinces and the cause not only of many deaths but of a vast amount of invalidism. Occasionally it occurs in the form of very fatal epidemics. Much is required in the way of reAearch to determine the distribution of its different varieties and the methods of combating its mosquito carrier in a land where expensive and extensive methods of prevention are still out of the question.

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374 FEVERS Typhus and relapsing fever, the famine fevers, are terribly prevalent at times, and the former probably the most serious cause of mortality among doctors in China. Yet our ignorance of the microbic cause of typhus and the lack of any advance in its treatment in the last half century are very disappointing. The typhoid fevers are another group of diseases which should be preventible and which have been prac tically eliminated from a country like England but which are probably spreading here. We are largely ignorant about them in China and this lack of knowledge hinders any advance. Kala-azar, a disease practically always fatal in the absence of skilled treatment, is appallingly common in certain districts, one hospital alone having dealt with over 2500 cases during 1930. There are rnme reasons to think that it is rapidly spreading but we are quite ignorant as regards the limits of its distribution in this country, and of its true prevalence in the endemic areas. The dysenteries are among the most prevalent diseases and among the greatest causes of chronic ill health in China, yet it is seldom that they are properly divided into their groups, and haphazard treatment is still the rule rather than the exception. Tuberculosis is most appallingly common and takes a terrible toll of the best educated and moet valuable of the citizens of this country, yet very little is done for it as a whole and neither prevention nor treatment are effectively used. Syphilis is a disease that has spread enormously in China from the ub:qtiity of undisciplined and unbridled troops, yet while there seems no doubt about the fact we are ignorant of its full extent or its implications for the future health of the people.

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PARASITIO DISEASES 37!5 LEPROSY China is reputed to be one of the countries having the largest number of lepers in the world. It is also the most backward of all the civilised countries in its care of them and in its measures for ridding the country of the disease. Happily, the situation though dark is also hopeful. Work for many years has been carried on by the Mission to Lepers. The Chinese Mission to Lepers is very awake to the needs and steady progress is being made. This is largely held back by the need of a survey of leprosy through the country, but the disease is mainly rural and surveys of rural areas are impossible till the prevailing brigandage is brought to an end. Despite this, very real progress is being made and the prospect of still more rapid progress in the future is very hopeful. p ARASITIC DISEASES China is very rich in animal parasites, blood, lung, liver and bowels having all their particular species. Our knowledge of these has perhaps been more rapid and more work has been done in connection with them than for any other class of disease. A little of the story of this will be told later but much remains still to be accomplished. AVITAMINOSIS Depre!'!sed economic conditions make deficiency diseases particularly common and they are found in China both in large numbers and in severe forms. Beri-beri is the chief of these in this land and it and similar diseases in the same group are found in large parts of the country. Osteomalacia, with its terrible results for pregnant women and their offspring, extends as a wide band across the north of China and plays havoc with the families in this region.

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376 MISCELLANEOUS DISEASES Serious eye conditions due to lack of essential elements of food are found everywhere and an appreciable amount of the blindness of China is due to this cause. Scurvy in a mild form is far from rare and goitre is extraordinarily common in some districts. The whole of this class of disease calls for active research into exact causation and methods of prevention. MISCELLANEOUS DISEASES A very large group remains of which the members are unclassified largely because of the lack of work on them, but together they form a very serious item in China's morbidity rate. One of the most important of these is a large group of unclassified fevers. Formerly many of these were known by place names, and though we have got beyond this absurdity we have got little nearer the explanation of most of these fevers. Another group is one about which our ignorance is absolutely profound, but it is a usually fatal disease characterized by enlargement of the spleen and terminal fibrotic contraction of the liver. It is very widespread though not as a rule very common in any one place. There are many other diseases about which our knowledge is small but nothing would be gained by enumerating them here. Beyond the actual diseases needing direct investigation there are many questions calling for explanation and problems needing solution, such as the limitation of the spread of certain diseases in certain regions and the general incidence of the most important diseases in China, without a proper knowledge of which our ability to help in their elimination is greatly hampered.

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378 NORMAL STANDARDS Research Committee The first definite attempt to organize medical research in China was made in 1907 when the China Medical Missionary Association appointed a Research Committee, of which the writer was the first Chairman. Worm Infections The preliminary work of this Committee was given to investigating the distribution of worm infections in China and was able to accomplish a good deal of valuable work. It showed what heretofore bad hardly been recognized, that hookworm is universally found in south and central China and that it is, in many cases, a serious menace to the health of the people; that the intestinal fluke, fasciolopsi,s buski, was practically confined to the Shaohing area and a serious infection in this region; that the blood fluke, schistosoma .foponicum, was common in the Yangtze valley and that many of the lakes and streams were infested by the intermediate hosts of the parasite. Tropical Ulcer The next effort of the Research Committee was to deal with the question of tropical ulcer in China and by a collective investigtion some three thousand cases of ulcer were studied and the results published. Normal Standards Following on this work a determined effort was made to arrive at normal physical and physiological standards among the Chinese as a basis for the investigation of diseased conditions. A large amount of study along these lines was conducted which not only was fruitful of immediate results but which formed a basis for further studies in this direction during the ensuing years. The work of the Committee on Normal Standards was continued for a number of years but other subjects were not entirely neglected and very interesting investigations on thrombo-angiitis obliterans, a disease heretofore be lieved to be confined to the Hebrew race but now shown

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MEDICAL RESEARCH 379 to he frequently met in China, and on Kala-azar also then but recently discovered in this country, were carried through. Council of Research In 1923 the Research Committee became a Council of Research of the Association and work was continued on physiological standards, the results being mainly published in the Chinese Journal of Physiology. Clinical research has been greatly hindered in these latter years by the prolonged period of unrest in China, causing temporary closing of the hospitals in many places and withdrawal of a proportion of the st'aff. An attempt has been made here to summarize briefly the research work carried on in the past through mission hospitals and the doctors attached to them. No exhaustive survey has been attempted nor has reference been made to the work of individuals, though there have been some very outstanding investigators in the ranks of medical missionaries in China. Future Research In conclusion an attempt should be made to outline the possible lines of research to which the mission hospitals can contribute and what progress may be looked for in the coming years. Political unrest is still disturbing the country and making much of such work impossible in rural areas but things are more hopeful in this direction than they have been for many years and with peace we trust that a new impulse will be given to such efforts. Mission Hospitals It. has to be remembered that the mission hospitals are, as far as any but a few of the largest cities al'e concerned, still the most. progressive and in many places the only hospital in China worthy of the name, and therefore on them devolves not only the opportunity but the responsibility of increasing the common stock of knowledge on disease conditions,

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380 RESEAROH IN HOSPITALS their frequency in certain areas and the methods best adapted for their prevention and relief. It is to be feared that this responsibility is not yet appreciated as it should be. In the earlier part of this paper an outline has been given of the medical needs of this country. We have th~re dealt almost entirely with the clinical and practical questions of which a solution is required if medicine is to progress in this country as it should do and if a brighter day is to dawn for the hundreds of thousands of men, women and children who suffer from preventible and what, with a little more research, should be curable diseases. There is little doubt that the hospitals should devote themselves more and more to the practical side of this problem of research, leaving the more abstruse scientific problems to be worked out by the laboratories of schools and other institutions where ample facilities for such work are provided. It is not suggested here that there should be any divorce between the strictly scientific and the practical sides, this is a danger which does exist and appears to be growing-that scientific research is taking a turn which divorces it from the clinical side of medicine. Both sides working in harmony will alone attain the goal of our desires. But on the mission hospitals falls the responsibility of elucidating the facts and of putting the theories to the test, and if they fail to set themselves to discover the fact about disease in China and give no expression to the practical results of the theories put to test, they will fail in one important side of their duties and responsibilities as mission hospitals. The writer of this paper would like to add one word of perso:qal appeal. The post which he now holds gives him

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RESEARCH WORK 381 the time and the opportunity of giving assistance along these practical lines and he will hold it as a privilege indeed to give any help in his power to individual hospitals or groups of hospitals in the organization and collaboration of such research work.

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PART Vlll LITERATURE CHAPTER XXXV. CURRENT CHINESE LITERATURE F. R. Milllcan Rapid Increase It is the purpose of this article to introduce the reader to some of the outstanding phases of Current Chinese Literature. Since books on all phases of life are multiplying at a surprising rate, it will be possible here to treat only of more significant writings. These are grouped under the following general heading,,; Historical Studies in Ancient Chinese Literature, Modern Expositions by Buddhist and Eclectic Writers, Books on the Philosophy of Life, Defense of Individual Rights, Books by Those Interested in Radical And Communistic Thought ("New Culture" Literature), Special Series or Collections of Writings, and Christian Literature by Chinese. This article might well be read in connection with the very illuminating summary of the literature situation given by Mr. E. R. Hughes in the International Review of Missions, October, 1920. It may also be thought of as a continuation of the articles on Best Books and on Religious and Philosophic Thought in the 1921, 1928, and 1929 issues of the CHINA CHRISTIAN YEAR BooK. China's Ancient Heritage Mr. Kuo Moh-roh (ifI vie :ff), prominent in the Hankow Government before its fall to Nanking, in his recent "Collection of Literary Essays" (:;'C !Ii 11111i Ml~) voices ~he modern awakening to the importance of a re-study of China's Ancient literature in the following words: "A thorough overha..uling of China's ancient writings, a critical and

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LITERARY RESEARCH 383 systematic study of their authenticity and accuracy, the addition of modern punctuation, a search into their deeper meaning, all this is very urgent. But I realize that in addition to this work we also must not neglect the translation of the ancient classics into modern language. I am sure that this tramilation work is going to flourish in the near future. With reference to the matter of translation, the Christians have been the most clever and active. The Bible has been translated into many dialects. We Chinese have the literary style, Mandarin, Ningpo dialect, Soochow dialect, and even the phonetics. The Christians are constantly seeking for new translations lest there be some who will not have the opportunity to read the Bible or lest they themselves may not be able to bring their teaching close to the people. The chief reason why Christianity has spread all over the world is because of this constant effort to modernize the presentation of its writings." Critical Research We have in this quotation a prophecy of two tasks. Research into, and critical study of, anciei;it Chinese literature and a translation of these valuable works into modern language. As the latter task has scarcely been begun we need not deal with it here. We do find, however, that a good start has been made on the research and the critical study of this literature, so we will summarize briefly a few of the works in this field. Ancient Literature The second volume of "Discussions on Ancient Literature" by Mr. Ku Chieh-kang (M iffi rlO, t!i 11!.. M! r =flf) was published in Peking in 1930. This work is in three parts, thfl first dealing with historical problems of ancient history, the second with problems in connection with Confucius and Confucianism, the third with recent publications on ancient history together with criticisms of the author's own first volume. Jn all, there are fifty three papers by different wd.ters,

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384 MARXIAN INFLUENCE g1vmg discussions which have gone on between them during the last six years.* In 1920 the first volume of another of Mr. Ku's works was published. This is his :Ii~~ ka iOt il~ #1 l1I If! J1!. (~ -Jllr) 'lfi ,!j ffl 1' -Wl r,.fi The fourth volume of a "History of China" History by Wang T'ong-ling (.:E ffil 1$, 1'11 liffl 11!.) was also published in Peking in 1929 by the Peking Cultural Association. This work is an outline of Chinese Dynastic History, but is more detailed and complete than most recent works. The work is distinguished by the comparative method and contains many tables and special charts which make it easy for the reader to get an understanding of the contents. It also has a bibliography at the end of each chapter. Marxian Influence In 1980 Mr. Kuo Moh-roh (II vie~) publish ed his ''Studies in Chinese Ancient Society, (tfl 1i 1t ilii: 11r Jiff 9t). This is a new and very provocative attempt to interpret the Yin and Chou Dynasty writers under the searchlight of modern scientific sinological study. It contains much source matarial but is written entirely under the influence of the Marxian philosophy of history. Chinese Civilization Another book that is thought by some to excel in its portrayal of the various periods and personalities of Chinese history is '' An Outline of the History of Chinese Civilization" (tfl :,C 11!. *-M) by Ku Shih (Jiffi '.lil'.). It is recommended as a suitable textbook for students. Historical Criticism In the "Critical Study of Ancient History" (i!i 11!. Jiff ~) by Wei Chii-hsien (~ JI:) published by the Cresent Moon Book Store in *The writer is greatly indebted to Mr. E. R. Hughes, Mr, Y. S. Shen, Mr. N. Z. Zia, and Mr, O. Y. Kuoh for IP.UQh of thij material in this :first section.

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PHILOSOPHIOAL CRITICISM 385 1928, we have the application of the critical and comparative method to the problems of date, authorship, structure, etc, of the Spring and Autumn Annals, the Tso Ch'uan and the Kuo Yii. The book is written in a vivid style and contains many explanatory charts and tables. It will be of great value to those wishing to get down to the concrete problems of historical criticism. Another book which tackles a concrete problem of historical criticism is "A Study of the Thinkers of the Chou and Ch 'in Dynasties", (J1ll lm =J-~) by Liu Ju-shuang (Id i'Ji: ~). This was published by the Peking Cultural Association in 1929. Confucianism In 1928 the Commercial Press published "A General Treatise on Confucianism" (1~ fnli) embodying some good Japanese work by Kitamura. This is a useful outline with a good amount of detail. Micius A "Study of Micius" (!I! =J-~illi) by Chen Kuei (~ tii) was issued by the Commercial Press in 1928. This is a good critical study in the field of Micius and his critics. A careful work on the Legalists called ili!t'. fa fi' !lJ by Chen Lieb (i!!li. r.!!), was recently published by the Hwa Tung Book Company (~ ii ff Ni,). In 1920 the Chung Hwa Book Company Wang Yang (If! :@f f.rr) issued a good book on Wang Ming Yang Ming and his school of philosophy by Hu Che-fu (i\1:1 fi' !Bx). The Chinese title of this work is Mt :1:. fi' ,fl\! m ii. Outline of Literature "A General Outline of Literature" (:Jt M) in four large volumes by Cheng Chen-to (l~ ffi &W.} covers the more outstanding authors of past and present, both Chinese and foreign. Because of the wide range of material in these volumes they hold high rank among Chinese works of scholarly merit. At

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886 HISTORY OF BUDDIDSM the end of each volume is a list of reference books. Each section is also followed by a chronological table which is very helpful to the reader. Phil h A new reference book on philosophy by osop Y Chang Tung-suen (si JR :/;.), published by the Commercial Press in 1929, is known as "New Philosophical Discussions" (iii' ff ill! B). In thirLeen chapters it presents the viewpoint of a modern Chinese student of philosophy. Buddhism A new "History of Chinese Buddhism'' has been written by ChiangChuh-chuang (if4i. 'r'r it!:). This is one of the few efforts by Chinese writers to make a systematic study of Buddhism. It is free from the uncritical praises of the works of former Buddhist devotees. It was partly the author's consciousness of this defect that led him to undertalrn this study. From this volume the reader will get a fair knowledge of the different sects of Buddhism, their rise and decline and other special features. Liang Chi-chao In this connection we ~ill mention t,~e third volume of the recent series known as Recent Collected Writings of Liang Chi-chao" (~ f:E ill.:&'~ 3. ~). The three volumes were issued one after the other, after Mr. Liang's return from abroad. The larger part of this third volume deals with matters relating to Buddhism, such as; the circumstances connected with the introduction of Buddhism into China, the translation of Buddhist Classics, the travels of famous monks, etc. This is a valuable contribution to the study of the relation of Buddhismto Chinese culture. A collection of Mr. Liang's writings, including all that have not been published in separate volumes (except a few still unpublished manuscripts) was put out in 1926 by the China Book Co. under the title of "Essays from the Ice Cream Parlor" (ix l1I* :5C 11! :H: m: ~). These writings have been one of the greatest factors in creating the thought tendencies of recent years. Of these writings perhaps the most

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CHINESE CULTURE 387 important are those that treat of Chinese literature and Buddhism. "The Philosophy of Beauty" (~ I\~ 'l1r *) by Hsu Ching-yu (~~I!), was published by the World Cultural Association ('I!! !If-,9!, fr) in 1928. This is a critical discussion of Aesthetics, Art and Beauty. The finest parts are those which deal with Confucius and Music, Confucius and the Odes, and the problem of whether or not Aesthetics may become a substitute for religion? These are topics which have not been given much attention by previous writers. Aesthetics Chinese Culture Two helpful volumes in this general field have been issued by the Association Press, in Shanghai. The first consists of a series of "Lectures on Chinese Culture and Philosophy." These lectures by various Chinese scholars were compiled and edited by Miss W. C. King. They furnish excellent material for those who want to make a brief study of Chinese civilization. The second volume is biographical in nature. Mr. M. R. Yii, the author, had previously published a volume known as "Lives of Chinese Great Men, Vol. I" {If! l~ IM fli A fi/J. 1113-~). which covered the period from Huang Ti to the end of the Ch'in. This new work, known as "Lives of Chinese Great Men, Vol. II," covers the period from Chou-Han to the end of Three Kingdom period. This interesting book of biography is recommended to be used as a textbook in ethics for middle school students. We will now ment.ion a book which, while ~hderht having a good knowledge of Chinese literature oug as its background, deals more specifically with modern and western thought. This is, "My Essays Since Thirty" (-ttt :,c ~) by Liang Sou-ming (m Mit *), published by the Commercial Press. Mr. Liang published his stimulating book on "Civilization and Philosophy of the Orient and Occident" in 1922 and later repudiated it as not expressing his latest views. These more recent

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388 VERNACULAR LITERATURE views are bound to be of interest in the light of the author and his extensive learning. This book is concerned primarily with modern education of which it is highly critical. The new types of western education seem to be unsuccessful, not being in harmony with either the true principles of education or t.he requirements of life. Modern educated people have none of the virtues of the old scholars. They are educated chiefly for city life and all that it stands for in luxury, etc. Thus they are of little value to the nation. Vernacular Literature A unique contribution to historical literature is a book by Dr. Hu Shih entitled "A History of Literature in the Vernacular" (a~ ,t ). Dr. Hu is well known as the father of the modern movement for the use of this simpler sty le. It was not until he wrote his "Outline History of Chinese Philosophy" in this style that the general prejudice against its use began to give away. This new book is written out of a real interest in literature for the common people, and shows a consistency of historical development. The chapter on the translation of Buddhist works presents much material of great practical interest. The monk T'ai Hsii. (:k ~) continues to Tai Hsu put forth extensiYe writingd with a view to expounding and adapting to modern times the teachings of Buddhism. His analysis of the various sects was men tioned in the article on "Modern Religious Tendencies" in the 1929 issue of the CHINA CHRISTIAN YEAR BooK. More recently he has been running a very thoughtful series of studies in the Sound of the Tide Magazine (m WI 'ff) on Lhe 'Realistic School of thought. Perhaps the most inter esting part of this series, so far as the interest of Christians is concerned, is that which so explains human nature and mind as to make impossible a belief in the permanence of individual personality and in an intelligent pnsonal God. This is a basic attack on the theistic position and. one that must be met in the field of psychology.

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WORLD PEACE 389 Idealistic School A very interesting example of some minor works is a statement of the tenets of the Idealistic (ff{; ru&) School of Buddhist Philosophy in poetic form, with comments and explanations in easy style on each line of the poem. This work, entitled Pfft .:::;: Ml and written by T'ang Ta-yuen (lllr ::k 00) in the form of the ancient Three Character Classic, was edited by T'ai Hsii (x ~). Instead of beginning, as the old classic did, with the statement that "Man by nature was originally good," it starts as follows; "Man's nature in the beginning is neither good nor bad." It goes on to explain, however, that the basic nature, or spiritual reality back of all things holds the seed of both good and evil. These are revealed when the immaterial reality becomes manifest in the phenomenal. This phemomenal universe, in turn, is a creation of mind and varies with the activities of mind. World Peace Before leaving this section we will refer briefly to the writings of Mr. Yang Shi chung (~ et, If!), head of a Society for Organized World Peace recently established in Shanghai. This organization was originally of the nature of an eclectic religious sect. Later, because of the attitude of the Nationalist Govern ment, the name was changed to World Philosophic Society. Finally the name was changed to '' A Society for Organized World Peace" (i!t !Ii-ffl .zis. *ii~ lil&). Mr. Yang is well versed in Chinese philosophical thought. For years, while in Peking, he wrote on his idea of God and other religious subjects. In these writings he shows that he had been influenced much by Christian teachings. In recent years, while carrying over the best in his former thought, he has come to the conviction that the religion of Christ is the only religion that can save the individual or society. His teachings, however, coming from one who has had such a varied background, do not fit into any sectarian groove. His latest work, entitled "The Great World" (:k Ht !Ii-Wl), sets forth an ''Ideal Plan for World Government" based on mutual love and cooperation and the strict observance of International Law. An English

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390 PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE Translation of the text is included for the benefit of western readers. Philosophy of Life A new type of book has sprung up in recent years under the title of "Philosophy of Life." So far only five or six such volumes have been published. Among these a few may be mentioned. In 1923 the China Book Co. published a "Philosophy of Life" by Hsii I-l!:iin"cheng (ff tJr :!!), who was a teacher in a government normal school. This work was built up quite scientifically, treating of the origin and nature of life, of man's place in the natural world, and of his physical, emotional, intellectual, social, and moral nature. The relation of ethics, religion, and art to life are discussed, and an effort is made to solve the question of the meaning of life and destiny. However, the author writes that ultimately religion will be unnecessary to human progress. In 1925 the Commercial Press published a. Chinese adaptation of a Columbia University Doctor's thesis by Feng You-Ian (ii b:. Iii) under the title of "Philosophy of Life." This was intended for a senior high school textbook. This work is a synthesis of the teachingi! of the various schools of thought of East and West, covering Romanticism, Idealism, Nihilism, Hedonism, Confucianism, Aristotelianism, Pragmatism, and New Realism. The author of this textbook is sympathetic to religion and to a spiritual interpretation of life, In 1928 a "Philosophy of Life" was put out by Li Shih-t'sen (* 1i ~). In this work Mr. Li sets forth in an objective and critical way the views of thinkers, ancient and modern, East and West. He shows the bearing of these on the good (or beautiful) life, which he considers to be the final goal for man. Confucianism, being a product of the genius of the Chinese race, receives high appreciation.

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HUMAN RIGHTS 391 In 1929 the Commercial Press issued another "Philosophy of Life" by Tu Ya-tsuan (tl: illt fsl). This volume treats of all phases of human life and the various theories of existence. In its discussions of philosophic thought it points out that the present tendency is away from the mechanistic theory of life to humanism. A special feature of this volume is a careful survey of the current socialistic and economic theories including, among others, Co:rr.. munism, Syndicalism, and the Three Principles of Sun Yat-sen. A new "Philosophy of Life," written from a distinctly Christian view-point and drawing largely from the best Christian writers in the West, e. g., Hocldng, Streeter, Pratt, Whitehead, together with such Christian men of science as Millikan and Eddington, is just being pubHshed by the Christian Literature Society in Shanghai. This volume ought to be a great contribution to Christian thinking in China. The Christian Literature Society has published another volume on this general subject but under the title of "A Short Study of Life's Practical Philornphy-How to Live" (1-if Jfl A fir ~lj WF ~). This is excellent for students. It was written by Z. K. Zia, and consists of two parts. Part one is an analysis of the human mind: part two deals with "Life's Attitudes." Both parts are written from the Christian standpoint. Human Rights When the so-called New Thought Movement was inaugerated in about 1916 the chief topics of interest were democracy, education, and science. The writings of Liang Chi-chao had had much to do with the bringing in of this movement. It has been carried on by Dr. Hu Shih and a group of writers now known as the "The Crescent Moon" Group. In this group are found such further names as Liang Shih-chiu (~ ill'. *), Loo Lung-chi (ml ), and Hsu Chih-moh (:f$. im 1*). In recent years this group have turned their attention more to the work of counteracting extremely radical

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392 NEW CULTURE theories, to interpreting the principles of Sun Yat-sen in a conservative way, and to a defense of constitutional rights and personal freedom. Dr. Hu and this group have felt that during the last few years the Nationalist Government has been rather severe in it.s censorship of Chinese publications. They have also felt that there has been an unnecessary disregard for the constitutional rights of the people on the part of the Government, so they wrote a series of articles for the Crescent Moon on "When Can We Have A Constitution?" and kindred subjects. These have been published in book form by The Crescent Moon Book Store, Shanghai, under the title. "Essays on Human Rights" (A ffi u~ :,C ). New Culture Dr. T. T. Lew is reported to have recently made the statement that of six hundred books printed in China during the first five months of 1930 two-thirds were on social and economic questions, and that of these books at least half were distinctly colored by Communism, if not thoroughly Communistic. Many of these works show signs of having been inspired by the Communist movement in Russia and are of the nature of crude propaganda. Others, however, set forth these theories either under the form of serious studies or of lighter literature. A survey of this type of literature was recently made by T. P. Yang and published in a Shanghai Weekly known as "The Chinese Nation" (Feb. 25, 1931). Mr. Yang, in making this survey eliminated such well-known book stores as the Commercial Press and The Chung Hwa Book Company and based his studies on twenty-four bookstores on Foochow Road, Shanghai, which sell so-called "New Culture" literature. After tabulating his results he summarizes as follows: "From the above table we can see that Current Study fiction occupies the maJ or part of the of Literature publications. Out of 1682 books, there are

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POPULAR LITERATURE 393 611 novels, with 379 originals and 232 translations, about 36.3 per cent of the total. Next to that comes literature with 114 books, that is about 6.7 per cent. Next to that we have poetry and songs and miscellaneous literature which claim 100 books each, and these two classes amount to ll.8 per cent. If we put these topics which have practically the same nature together, they will amount to 54.8 per cent, which is more than half the total. If we look further down in the table, we see that Sociology and Social Problems have 94 books (about 5.6 per cent); Socialism 65 books (a bout 3.8 per cent); Economics 78 books (about 4.6 per cent); Politics and Political Science 33 books (about 1.98 per cent) ; Cooperation 5 books (about .29 per cent); Peasant Movement 14 books (about .83 per cent). These topics can well be grouped under the topic "Social Sciences," and they will amount to 351 books, or 28.4 per cent of the total. These two great divisions already occupied almost all the shelves in the book stores."* On examining the novels Mr. Yang found Novels that they center around two themes. First there are the love stories which are in much demand by students of both sexes. The representative writer of this type of novel is Chang Tzu-ping (~ .iis) "whose stories are always vivid and naked on the sexual side." Another fascinating writer, "oftentimes pessimistic and delirious," is Yu Ta-fu (1i~ :le). His representative book is "Nine Diaries" ( 8 llB 7L lili). Social Conditions The second type of novel finds its background in social conditions. As typical of those which treat of present conditions of labor, poverty, and social unrest, he mentions "Triumph *Evidently a few other groups should have been included here. Probably, Capital and Labor 32 books, Proletariant Literature 4 books, etc. F. R. M.

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394 COMMUNISTIC THEORIES At Last" (!l Z. Jin lJJ) by Chou Yu-ying (llil ~). This picture~ prison life in the Shanghai International Settlement. As representative of books that treat of revolution he names "Rainbow" (!kl) and "Shaken" (m.lJ ~) by Mao Tun, "otherwise known as Shen Yen-bing (~t nm ~). formerly editor of "The Short Story Magazine" publisheJ by the Commercial Press. Uto ias Another prolific writer who may be taken P as an example of the large group of those who are looking for a Utopian solution of the present world situation along radical lines is Liu J-en-hang (ii] f::: IIDi:). Mr. Liu, when Commisi;,ioner of Education in Kwang Si, took special interest in rural problems and rural educa tion. He was formerly quite popular with literary groups in Shanghai, but his radical tendencies are not in favor with those at present in power. We will treat of two of his works. The first of these is called "Oriental Theories Regarding a Universal Commonwealth" {.if! 1J Ml ,!jl ~). In this we have a rather superficial historical and comparative study of the social and political teachings of Confucius and Mencius, of Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu, of Yang Tzu, of Micius, of Jesus, and of Buddha. Much use is also made of the works of such writers as Tolstoi, Kropotkin, Wells, and Russell. The author's own proposal is to build up a new type of city aud village social life based on the direct self-government plan of the small Hellenic states, the whole scheme to be tried out in the spirit of Kropotkin's theory of mutual aid. He desires to see practical experiments taking the form of rivalry in constructive good rather than in destructive war. In the first section we are given an extended Communistic exposition of the Socialistic and Communistic Theories theories of China's ancient Sages. And it is surprising how much is to be found in these ancient writings to bolster up modern socialistic theories. Mencius is declared to be a Communist., and Martin's "The Awakening of China" is quoted to the effect that in

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NEW PRINCIPLES 390 Ancient China there was "No private ownership of land." We are also given a very full treatise of that wonderful classic of Chinese literature from which the Nationalist Movement gets its motto. The opening phrase reads, "When the Great Way is followed all under heaven shall work for the common good."* What a dream it was that pictured a state dominated by this ideal I Provision was to be made for the well-being of the weak and unfortunate, and the front gate might be left unlocked at night! The author suggests that we should put in practice the idea of the "Organized and Regulated State," anil at the same time strive for an "Universal Commonwealth" where love instead of law and force would rule. New Principles As the author analyzes the writings of the sages he finds inspiration for what he calls the "Three Principles of the New Order" (~ 3 N. .3:. !&) These are a new spirit (of purity), new arts (scientific machinery, etc.), and a new organization (politi cal, social and economic). The section on Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu points out their opposition to organization and ceremonies and shows their emphasis on reliance on the cultivation of inner virtue and resignation. The third section discusses Yang Tzu's Enlightened the01y of enlightened self-interest as the best Self-Interest social theory. The author quotes from the Stoics: "Be virtuous, because you ought to be," "Be virtuous because virtue will bring you the greatest amount of happiness," and "Pleasure is the highest good." Altruism The fourth section elaborates Micius' doctrine of Universal Altruism. The world should be one great family. The attitudes and affections *See text in article on Modern Religious Thought in 1929 CHINA CHRISTIAN YEAR BooK. Page 131.

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396 FEMINISM of the home should be extended to all men. There should be mutual joy and sorrow, mutual advantage and dis advantage, mutuality in life and in death. Jesus The fifth section on the teachings of Jesus sets forth the message of the New Testament with a Lucian emphasis on sympathy with the poor and a benevolent use of wealth. Buddhist 'fhe sixth section elaborates the Buddhist teachings of universal compassion and escape from the burdens of family, state, and possessions. Ideal Society At the close of the book are two interesting tables giving a summary of the elements above that can be incorporated into a program for an ideal modern society. Such subjects as property, sex, class, material progress, spiritual progress, religion and govern ment, are included in the tables. Another interesting book published by Mr. Feminism Liu in 1927 is entitled "Peaceful World of Civilized Fair Sex" (5'1: :k: .zis. 'i!f) This Book is an open advocacy of Feminine World Government (* ff.I Mc 11itl). Man's world, it is claimed, is a world of strife. Men kill while women give life. Mixed in with this argument throughout the book we find a conglomeration of other theories, including vegetarianism, non-killing, non-marrying and free love. It is characteristic of the writer that he invariably inverts the Chinese order in speaking of heaven and earth, male and female, etc. On the first page is quoted in English a poem by a Mrs. Morris which begins; "Oh, Fair Sex the saviour of mankind; Since five thousand years to this present day The mania of wars made innocent souls blind, Regardless of loved ones, men were led astray,

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PROLETARIAN CULTURE Wake up deplorable daughters of courage Possessors of Peace and sons so greatSucceed women; and save mankind now, Lest redemption be too late:-" 397 There is more truth than poetry in this whole thesis but it ii'! unfortunately marred by the unhappy associations in the text. Proletarian Culture It is impossible to do more than touch on the field of radical literature. The writings of Lu Hsun (@ ill), the author of "The Life of Ah Q," the English translation of which was so popular with foreign readers, were mentioned by Mr. Zia in his article in the CHINA CHRISTIAN YEAR BooK for 1928. So we will content ourselves with a summary of the contents of one other book that may be taken as representative. This book is "An Outline of the New Culture" (i'Ni !il! ::iC ~ii~) by Ku Feng-cheng (M Ill, ~). The theme of the book is Proletarian Literature. Of the three parts of the book the first deals with The Nature of Culture, Culture and the Materialistic Interpretation of History, and The Definition of Proletarian Culture. The second part treats of the Inner Spirit and Outward Form of Proletarian Culture, Proletarian Realism, and CultUl'e for the Masses. The third part discusses the Standard for Criticism of Proletarian Culture and An Examination of Culture from the Standpoint of the Materialistic View of History. A supplement contains articles on the progress of the proletarian movement in China and throughout the world. Student Literature Another interesting development in recent Chinese literature is the la1ge number of special sets or collections of books for student and library use. Some time ago the Commercial Press issued what was known as a Comprehensive Library (~ "-1f :5C Mt). This, as

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398 CHRISTIAN LITERATURE the Chinese name suggests, was to cover all ranges of knowledge. The World Book Co. has several series of books especially for students and libraries. The first is known as the A. B. C. Series. .rt purports to furnish in easy style introductory studies in all the various branches of learning. Fourteen new titles under this series appear in their recent catalogue. The second is known as the Life Series. This consists not only of biographies of famous men in both East and West but also of books on animal and plant life as well as some books on life problems in general. It is interesting to note that among the forty-six recent volumes is to be found a Life of Christ written by a Chinese Christian. Besides these there are series on Economics, Rural Life, Sociology, Law, etc. By means of these special series the whole world of modern knowledge is opened up to Chinese students. Christian Literature A survey of the Christian Literature from the pens of Chinese Christian writers during the last two or three years does not reveal very many works of outstanding importance.* On the other hand, there has appeared much special literature in the ,form of tracts and small booklets intended to be used in connection with definite programs. Among books, we have already mentioned a "Philosophy of Life" by Peter Peng. Several volumes of the "Short Study" Series by Z. K. Zia have been published recently by the Christian Literature Society. We have become familiar with some of the earlier works in this series, such as, A Short Study of Civilization, A Short Study of Ethics, A Short Study of Life's Practical *Some helpful works of a slightly earlier period are mentioned in the articles in the YEAR BooK which were mentioned above.

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INTERPRETATIONS OF JESUS 399 Philosophy, A Short Study of Religions, and A Short Study of Religious Education. More recent titles added are A Short Study of Christian Thinking, A Short Study of Civics and Sociology, A Short Psychology of Religion, and A Short History of Education in the Christian Home. Some of the books in this series are either partial translations or adaptations from standard works in the West. Other are the result of original study and thought. It is to be noted that in producing these books Mr. Zia has had in mind primarily middle school students. He has deliberately refused to load the books either with a heavy style or difficult material. Several original works by Chinese Christian Interpretations writers have been published recently by the of Jesus Association Press. 'l'wo of these deal with the person and influence of Jesus. 'l'he first, "The Je;ius I Know," is a collection of testimonies by various Chinese Christian leaders to the meaning of Jesus in their lives. 'l'his collection was tran13lated into English and published serially in the CHINESE RECORDER. The other, "My Conception of Jesus," is an interpretative study of Jesus by T. M. Van. Among smaller booklets in connection with Booklets definite programs of Christian work may be mentioned those by F. L. Chang and others to be used by the National Christian Council in Rural Evangelism and the Five Year Movement. The Y. M. C. A. also has published some small books and pamphlets by Chinese writers along various lines. The list of translated works of a Christian Translations character is quite long. The Y. M. C. A. has put out, among other works, a series of books by Sherwood Eddy and another by Kirby Page. Among other topics these treat of sex, of war, and of the place of religion in modern thought and life. The Christian Literature Society has issued an ever increasing num her of translations or adaptations covering most phases of the Christian

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400 TRANSLATIONS Movement. Other societies also have added to the list of translated works. As an analysis of this material needs a separate chapter we shall not try to cover it in this one.

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CHAPTER XXXVI BEST BOOKS IN ENGLISH ON CHINA* J. B. Powell and Frank OUver Chinese Authors Year by year China looms as a larger and more important subject in the publishing business. Each year the number and variety of works on China and Chinese topics increases. Last year saw another flood of books from the publishing houses of America, England and China. Books dealing with China in English are now issued at an average rate of more than two a week. A significant feature of this welcome activity is connected with the authorship of these books. Formerly it was rare to see the name of a Chinese author upon a book in English. Now, one is glad to see, it is becoming more and more common. "Young China" Wrlt,s Young China is "feeling its feet'' in a foreign tongue and is beginning to express itself and to place its arguments, its appre ciations, its condemnations, its prop11ganda. and its "caee'' before the English-speaking world without the necessity for translation, never wholly satisfactory no matter how well done. It is gratifying to see that fiction and Types travel books /do not account for the greater proportion of books on China. Books that may be classified generally under history and politics are very numerous. Several in these classes last year were from the pens of Chinese. Politics accounted for about twenty five important books in 1930 while under Fiction and Descriptive this year is compiled a list of more than *See also Appendix

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402 GOVERN~ENT AND REVOLUTIO:N twenty books. Art and Religion lag some way behind in num hers and 1\Iiscellaneous accounts for nearly fifty per cent of the year's output. One of the most interesting books listed Government under Histor.Y is "Two Years of Nationalist Activities China," by Dr. l\I. 'I'. Z. Tyau. This is a record of the activities and achievements of the Nanking Government over the period mentioned. It opens with an historical sm11mary of the many, often exciting, events between July 1926 when the Nationafo,t Movement set out northwards from Canton, until April 1930, which proved to be a testing time for that governnwnt. This chapter is followed by a history of the Kuomintang and a description of the organization and functions of the National Govern ment. Dr. Tyau makes this, a complicated subject, remarkably clear. The various administration departments are carefully treated and the new systems of justice, legislation, local government etc. explained. He also gives a chapter to the planning of the new national capital and appends to the book a vast amount of statistics that are as valuable as they are interesting. The book is well illustrated and is invaluable to all officials, merchants and miesionaries. Chinese Revolution In "The Inner History of the Chinese Revolution," Mr. 'rang Leang-li gives a lengthy account of the revolution fron1, the Leftist point of view. It is interesting but Mr. Tang admits that he cannot be an impartial historian and therefore has given us partisan histo1y. Shanghai In "The Status of Shanghai," Mr. C. L. Hsia, himself a lawyer, sketches the status of this metropolis which has grown so rapidly upon the mud banks of the Whangpoo river. It should be read alongside the well-known "History of Shanghai" by Dr. Hawks Pott, issued in 1928.

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POLITICS 403 East India Company Mr. H. B. Morse, deservedly famous as a historian of events in the Far East, i.,:; an indefatigable worker. He has now produced a fifth volume to add to the four already written on "The Chronicles of the East India Company Trading to China." This brings his extraordinarily fascinating story down to the beginning of the last century. Every owner of the first four volumes will want this one. They make a remarkable collection of historical matter, the story of the foreign impact upon China from the sea, an enthralling story of the early relations bP-tween }Cast and West which formed the beginning of Ohina:s immense and growing oversea's commerce. Boxer Period Sir John Fortescue, well-known in ~::;ngland as a careful military historian, has ttuned his attention to the Orient and has produced an able book in "History of the British Army-Boxer Period." It is one of several YolumeR which will tell the history of the Rritish Army between 1889 and 1929. As usual Politics accounts for a large Politics number of books on China produced in various parts of the world~ In this section the outstanding book of the year has been Nathaniel Peffer's "China, the Collapse of a Civilisation." The title is a selling title and is a little misleading. The book tells the i;;tory and looks for causes of the collapse of the ancient regime, the monarchy, and dilates upon the building of New China. Mr. Peffer lived for a considerable period in this countiy, travelled widely in it and has revisited it. 'l'hen he went away in order to la.y down his analysis of what he saw here, taking a long distance view of the entire problem that is China. Mr. Peffer has a sense of history, which means that the kaleidoscopic changes in the Chinese political panorama of the past two decades leave his judgement unimpaired. He retains his sense of propor tion.

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406 ROMANCE death ~aw the publication of yeL another novel from his pen. The scene of this, "Port of Fragrance," is Hongkong, as is suggested by the title. It maintains the standard this writer set himself in fiction. Mr. Charles Pettit, who will be remembered for "Son of the Grand Eunuch," has given us another oriental romance, "The Petal of the Rose." It is in the style of Mr. Ernest Bramah's Kai Lung stories, suave, ironic and very entertaining. Mr. Rodney Gilbert, well-known for his writings on China, bursts into fiction with the "In:liscretions of Lin Mang," which duly lives up to its title. I t I In "Easl, Wind, West Wind," we.. have a n ermarr age h sympat et1c study of a problem that 1s very real, the impact of western ideas on the minds of China's "," who still are essentially Oriental, and the impact of Chinese returning to their native homes after a foreign education abroad. It is the story of a young Chinese girl and her marriage to a Chinese man who returns home after studying foreign medicine abroad. She is totally unprepared for his changed viewpoint. Then her brother, who also has been abroad, returns to the family hearth with a foreign wife and the complications and difficulties are easily imagined. The story is bandied skillfnlly by the author, Pearl Buck, with remarkable insight into the lives of the Uhinese. "Three Kingdoms" Mr. C. H. Brewitt-Taylor's translation of the "Romanre of Three King
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POETRY AND ART 407 Witter Byner has done more than anyone Poetry else perhaps to create in the West an appre ciation of Chinese culture, and has done more towards directing western writers' attention, particularly poets, to the rich stream of inspiration in the classical tradition of China. In "The Jad,~ Mountain," Mr. Byner, with his Chinese collaborator Kiang Kang-hu, has given us the poets' original thought with great fidelity. They are really excellent translations of poetry of the r'ang period. "Poetry of the Orient" is edited by Eunice 'l'ientjens. It is perhaps the first book to give a satisfactory anthology of poet.ry representative of all countries in the Orient. 'fhe selection of Chinese translations to represent this country is thorough and satisfactory. In the field of Art there was a remarkTheatre able production during 1930, "The Chinese Drama," by Mr. L. C. Arlington, a former postal official and one who has spent a long life in China and who has made a Jong and special study of this particular subject.' It is th-e finest thing that has yt been done about the Chinese theatre and the iJlustrations are magnificently done. It is possible for even the uninitiated to take this book, read it, and then go to a Chinese theatre and enjoy the presentations. It is at. once a history, a description and a guide. Professor H. A. Giles writes an introduction and the famous actor, Mei Lan-fang, contributes a Pien. Art The Studio, British Art Magazine, has produce
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408 INDUE'TRY tunes given in western notation with the English transla tions of the Chinese poems. It is a difficult task well done. This last year has seen another book from Festivals the pen of Juliet Bredon. It is an excellent and informative book, "Chinese New Year Festivals." It will be found to be on the same high plane as her other books, equally reliable, equally well written. It may confidently take a place alongside "Peking" and the "Moon Year" by this author. Industry produces two books about China, Industry "The Mineral Industry in the ~'ar East" by Mr. Boris Torgasheff and "The Mineral Resources of Manchuria," by Dr. E. E. Ahnert. The former deals with the mineral industry in an authoritative manner and has much to say upon the subject of foreign assistance in development of it, difficulties at present in the way of this and what may be done towards removing them. The other is a valuable contribution to knowledge about a large tract of country potentially rich which is now being gradually opened up by the many emigrants from China proper into Heilungkiang province. In "China to Chelsea" Captain MacCallum Events tells the story of his adventurous motor car journey overland from Peking to Europe and finally to Chelsea. Another English-Chinese dictionary has been added to the several already published. This is by P. Poletti. A handy summary of the events of the year, political and social, is the "China in 1930" put out by the Leader Press in Peiping. It is the bound volume of weekly summaries of news printed by the Leader, Peking, in its columns week by week. Those anxious to know something about the projected port of Hulatao which Mukden is seeking to build would do well to read "The Port of Hulatao" by Henan Chi. Silver Silver would be bound to find an author and in "Silver and China," Mr. A. W,

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MONl!.TARY PRDlOIPL.1!.B 409 Pinnick, gives the results of his investigation into the monetary principles governing the trade and prosperity of China. Altogether the year's publications show a widen ing interest in China on the part of the western world, an interest which doubtless will lead to 1931 eclipsing last year and setting a new high water mark for number, quality and variety of books on and concerning this vast country and its teeming people.

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CHAPTER XXXVII DISTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIAN LITERATURE George A. Clayton Statistics Uncertain Until such time as a satisfactory uniform method of tabulating and presenting the statistics of the various Christian publishing houses in China has been invented, any attempt to put down in figures the extent of the work accomplished will be vain. And there are not a few reasons for thinking that even jf the method were devised the resulting information would be useless because one year may witness a startling output of an ephemeral publication and for that reason create a record which a subsequent year of steady, upbuilding work cannot equal. In the same way the year in which advance orders for several thousand copies of a large dictionary are filled will show returns in dollars which cannot be equalled by the sale in another year of an equal number of less costly books. Neither a return of a million pages issued in one year nor a report of fifty thousand dollars in sales gives sufficient information to allow of any intelligent conclusions being drawn as to the progress of a Christian literature organization. Various Societies and Aims Further, the work of a society which exists to produce a wide range of books cannot be compared to any useful end with that of a society which aims to issue tracts. The only satisfactory test which can be applied is one embodying the question whether a given Society is accomplishing the work which it was established to do in a progressive and effective way. The Broadcast Tract Press, the Milton Stewart Evangelistic Funds, the tract work of the Religious Tract Societies and the extensive tract work of an individual like Mr. F. J. Hopkins of Nanchang, Ki., all make it their principal aim to bring the Message of the Gospet to the notice of the masses; but even so their methods are

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PROGRESS IN LITERATURE 411 radically different and their lines of work so distinct that they do not compete the one with the other. The book department of the R. 'f. S. has a totally distinct objective from that of the C. L. S. and to compare either the number of publications sold or the amount received from sales is futile; the former has a constituency which regards twenty cents as a large sum to spend on a book, the latter has no such limitation. But a thousand books at fifte~ cents offered to semi-literates may be just' as hard to sell as the same number at eight.y cents offered to the educated members of the church. And there are !'!ocieties like the China Baptist Publication Society, the Church Literature Committee and the Lutheran Board of Publications which would not accomplish their allotted task if they did not publish a. number of books which will sell no better in China than they do in England or the States. All honor to the publishers who ignore returns and produce in Chinese such books as the Didache, the Apocrypha., the Nicene Fathers and necessary manuals on Liturgies and like themes. Recent Progress It is for reasons of this sort that no attempt is made in this article to give the returns of Christian publishing in China even in the imperfect form which alone be possible when much of that work is done by individuals and agencies which are under no obligation to make public their returns. Partia.Ily complete statistics lead to false conclusions. But at the ~ame time it can be ddinitely claimed that the last two years have witnessed not only a recovery of the ground lost during 1927, but also marked progress. Take some instances. The C. L. f:l. shows sales amounting to $25.850 in 1929 as compared with the previous highest record of $22,192 in 1910, which is indeed a handsome increase if it he remembered that 1910 was a peaceful year before the Revolution and 1929 was a year of almost constant unrest when communications were seriomly interrupted. The R. T. S. lays stress on circulation rather then on eales values, as becomes a society which sells many of its tracts at fifteen cents a hundred sheets,

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412 BIBLE DISTRIBUTION and it records an advance of 333,594 issues, bringing its 1929-30 total to 11,505,802. From all sides the reports are similar, and though it may be that some of the needs of the churchea in the way of literature are not yet being met, it is abundantly clear that a useful and acceptable work is being done. It is true that the publications along conservative lines far exceed those of the more advanced school in numbers, but that is not due to the dictates of the publishers. All publishers naturally issue what their constituencies demand, and the Chinese Church constituency is still overwhelmingly conservative in out look. Apart from the definitely Fundamentalist School among the missionaries and Chinese Christian leader.ii, there is a very large body of conservatives ,vhich controls the thought of the Christian community and justifies the conservative attitude of most of the Christian Literature Agencies in China. Bible Distribution If one should attempt to find a body of statistics which may furnish a definite and accurate test of the extent to which literature is being used in Christian work in China, the best method of procedure is to analyse the statistics of the Bible societies. Could anything be more startling than these figures for the last whole year of each of the three societies at work in China? B. F. B. S. A. B. S. N. B. 8. S. Bibles 24,078 10,178 1,626 Testaments 58,640 32,121 44,115 Portions 5,223,309 5,282,994 3,224,401 However they are looked at, these figures indicate glorious progress in the task of making Christ known to needy millions and in the training of a Bible-reading Church. Regarding the output of Bibles alone for a moment, one sees the complete Word of God in the hands not merely of 36,000 purchasers but of their families as well. A hundred and thirty thousand Testaments have passed into the

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LJTERATURE DEMANDED 413 hands of seekers after truth, while over thirteen millio1i portions have been eold in the hope that they will influence the hearts of the purchasers. This is an advance of at least two millions over the previous year, and since it is almost entirely due to the work of volunteers it may be taken that the distribution has been accompanied by perilonal contacts between the distributors and the recipients. It is noteworthy that the three societies do not employ more than 200 paid colporteurs in all China, because this indicates to some extent the amount of work that is being done by the ordinary members of the churches. These Bible society figures not only confirm, but also deepen the impression that the distribution of Christian literature has assumed proportions since 1927 which were never even dreamt of in previous years. Types of Literature Demanded Similarly helpful information could be drawn from the returns of the Sunday School Union, the Christian Endeavour Movement and other such agencies which deal with specialised types of Christian literature needed by the churches. And it may he taken as a well-founded statement that the existing literature agencies are so busy meeting the needs of their respective constituencies for the particular types of literature which they have been established to produce, that there is a danger that the work may become stereotyped. In saying this, the question is not one of changing the essential content of what is being produced, but of embodying that content in newer and possibly more acceptable forms. To take the R. T. S. as an ~xarnple. When by a real act of faith it established its printing works it was with the hope that one day an output of five millions would be attained, but the output has reached double that amount, the press is unable to cope fully with the demand for existing styles of tracts, and there is therefore a danger that newer types of evangelistic propaganda may not be attempted. And it is quite useless for arm-chair critics to say that they ought to be attempted if the staff and plant of the Society can barely cope with the demand for the older types. Or

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414 VOLUNTEER DISTRIBUTION to put the matter in another way, may not the R. T. S. be led to question the necessity for the newer types which are suggested when the churches, which are surely the ulimate arhiters of what is needed, so steadily demand the old types? What has just been written refers of course V olunt.:er Distribution to the propaganda work of the churches, so it may be well to make one other observation about this type of literature and then pass on to the more limited question of the distribution of books. Grouping together evangelistic tracts and Gospel portions, it is interesting to note the general opinion of those engaged in this work that there has been an increasing readiness on the part of the Christian community to render active service in evangelism, even to the extent of purchasing the tracts that are to be distributed. An interesting study might be made of the various developments which have taken place of the idea of evangelistic bands, some consisting of paid workers, others of volunteers, some of men, others of women, some preaching in one section of a town, others undertaking to visit a group of village1,, but ii.II alike intent on making Christ known not merely by worrl of mouth but also through the tracts and Gospels And it is very remarkable that in the experience of the .R. T. S., which has probably had more to do with this work than any other society, only about one-tenth of its output of tracts goes forth as free grants and the rest is paid for. The distribution of Christian books, other Books than the Bible, hymnals, prayer-books and catechisme, presents a series of problems totally different from those already mentioned. Whilst the Bible and so on may naturally be distributed by every missionary and pastor as part of his routine work in caring for the churches, and whilst every member and enquirer will :naturally be exhorted to have at least a ;festament and a hymnal, it is not the business of the pastors to E'ee that ~ther Christian books are either advertised or sold. The

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BOOKSTORES 415 _Lutheran churches perhaps do more on these lines than any other as they have their own Board of Publications .and their own church magazine in which to ad-vertise its products. Publishers Difficulties Of the difficulties facing the Christian publisher two call for mention here. They are the most serious ones. The first is the fact that even today the Christian Church in China, though it has made more progress towards literacy than the ordinary masses of the people, is not a reading church. In the average Christian home there are very few Christian books, or for the matter of that very few books at all. The circulation returns of the various magazines and papers ,show that there must be many Christian homes into which even one of these does not penetrate. The pastor and the deacons perhaps subscribe for a few magazines and possibly buy a few books, but away up country the day's work is so long and the small lamp renders such an imperfect light that few of the people make a habit of reading, and those who do, find the newspaper or the monthly n;iagazine about all that they can get through. It is not a question of the style of the books, or the contents. It is still much less a question of being out of date or unscientific. It is simply a question of inertia, due to long hours in the fields or struggles with poverty. The creation of a reading public still remains one of the vital problems of the Church. The second difficulty is that bookstores in Book.stores the ordinary acceptation of the word are unknowi1 in inland China. Stationery can be bought, at some of the shops, and once in a while one finds a Rhop which carries a few of the school books most in vogue. But even in small towns there is no shop where books are displayed for sale, where fresh 1:mpplies constantly arrive and where orders can be placed for such books as a purchaser desires to have. These facts do not affect Christian publishers alone; the commercial publishing houses J1ave exactly the same difficult.y.

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416 ADVERTISING How are these difficu1ties to be overcome? Creating The student of Church History in the eigh-A Demand teenth century finds a hint as to how the problem can be partially solved in the story of the Methodist Church. John Wesley and his preachers realized that the men and women of the Revival must be taught not merely by word of mouth but also through books. And the itinerant Methodist preacher mentioned books to his flock and booked orders for them and remitted the cash and did all that hundreds of missionaries in China have been doing for many years to help the publishing houses. And it seems clear that much more will have to be done along these lines, not only by the missionaries, but also by the Chinese pastors. It is not a question of embarking on trade. It is a question of nurturing the Christian community, and it is. advisable for the Christian publisher to offer trade discounts to these men so that they may be encouraged to undertake this work and saved from the losses incurred in stamping letters, paying commission on money orders and receiving payments in small curreney. A pastor sending in an order should be al101ved at least fifteen per cent discount for these purposes and urged to sell to the purchasers at full catalogue price. To establish bookstores in inland places, Advertising other than large centres is all but impossible. 'fhe sale of Christian books cannot in the nature of things be large. Where a good man is already in business and can carry a stock of Bibles, hymnals and other books some progress may be made. But even so he will be hampered unless he can be allowed stocks on commission and long credit, and the average literature suciety in China is not in a position to act in this way. So one comes back to the method which is being followed with increasing success by the children of this world in their efforts to sell books of the baser sort. It is the method of advertising through the post and filling only such orders as are accompanied by cash. For the success of this method two things are essential. The one is strict honesty on the part of the publisher, and this honesty is certainly being exemplified

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DISTRIBUTION 417 by the non-Christian publishers who are using this method. One constantly hears in the large centres that money can be sent to such and such firms in Shanghai with every confidence that the books will come. The Christian publisher will have no trouble along this line, The other is the art of advertising the wares that the man in the street wishes to buy in a way which will attract his money. A perusal of the advertising matter shows that these publishers have little left to learn in the art of poJluting the minds of the young and rousing their baser curiosity. And the prosecutions which are reported from time to time in the Chinese courts show how far these publishers go in catering to the demand for the impure. The Christian publisher cannot follow such lines, but surely he can present the appeal to the highest and best in the minds of those to whom his advertising matter comes in an attractive way. And if his publications really live up to his advertisements he will establis'h good connections in many places. There is no simple way to solve this problem of distribution. It simply cannot be solved on western lines because conditions are so utterly different. For the present it will have to be solved mainly through the churches and in a steadily increasing way by advertising. The comfort is that despite all the difficulties the work is being done with increasing success. There is still ample scope for improvement, but no amount of improvement will secure the wide circulation of Christian literature till the Christian community becomes enthused with the desire for books which deal with the verities of our faith and every Christian home becomes the centre of a culture which is nourished on pure literature.

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PART IX APPENDIX ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF B'.)OKS Ll\J ENGLISH ON CHINA* ], B. Powel! and Frank Rawlinson I. History An Imide View of China's Revolution, by R. Y. Lo; Abingdon Press, N. Y. An optimistic picture of contemporary political nnd social movements in Chinn by n well-known Christian publicist. Ch1onicles of the East India Compcmy, Trading to China, 1635-1834. Vol. 5. hy H. B. Morse; Oxford University Press. The fifth volume of Mr. Morse's well-known history of early contact of China with western traders. The first four volumes were published in 1926. Eminwt Asians, by Josef ,vashington Hall; Appleton Co., N. Y. Biographies of outstanding Oriental characters, by the wellknown writer, Upton Close. It contains tbe story of Sun Yat-sen. Histo1 of the B1itish .frn~y, Boxer Period, by the Hon. J. W. Fortescue; Macmillan, London. This book deals with the Boxer period of a history of the British Army from 1899 to 192::J by this well-known British military historian. Inner Histo1'y of the Chinese Revolution, by Tang Leang-li; Routledge and Sons Ltd., London. A biased Leftist account of the Chinese revolution. J,[alcinJ a New China, by Ko Yong Park. Descriptive of Chinese Nationalism a.s viewed by a Chinese lecturer resident in the United States: dedicated to the Kuomintang and Democracy in China. Sho1"t Ilist01y of Chinese Civilization, by Richard Wilhelm, trans. from the German by Joan Joshua; Viking Press, N. Y. A careful study of Chinese civilization, going at length into the sources of all our knowledge of the Chinese. ,isee pa.~e 401.

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APPENDIX 419 The Status of Shanghai, by D1,. C. L. Hsia; Kelly and Walsh, Sbai1ghai. The Chinese case regarding the Atatus of Shanghai by one of the editors of the New Chinese CiYil Code, English translation. Ts"ingtao Unde1 Thiee Flags, by Wilson Leon Godshall; Commercial Press, Shanghai. An interesting history of this port under flags of three nations. Two Years of Nationalist China, by l\'[, T. Z. Tyau; Kelly and Walsh, Shanghai. An excellent compilation of material regarding the National Government, what it is and what it is trying to do. Confucianism.: Ethics-Philosoplvy-Religion, Frederick Starr; CoviciFriede, New York. A study of various aspects of the evolution of Confucianism. II. Politics China, the Collapse r({ lt C-ivilization, by Nathaniel Peffer; John Day, N. Y. A brilliant study of China's history showing how the mon:u-chy fell and why and a masterly analysis of China to-day by the author of "The White Man's Dilemma. The Pacific Area: An International ,r;;wvey. George H. Blakeslee; World Peace Foundation. A carefully documented survey of Pacific problems and relationships. The Chinese Dmm,a,, L. C. Arlington; Kelly and "\,Vu!sh, Shanghai. A history of the drama in China. China's How, by J. Nind Smith; Hopkins, London. Au analysis of China to-dny, her people, her psychology, her philosophy and her politics by the former Professor of Education at Hongkong University. China aiul Japan i-n Om Univel's:ty C-t111icula, Ed. by E. C. Carter; University of Chicago Press anu Cambridge University Press. Prepared for the Kyoto Conference of the Institute of Pacific Relations. Au analysis of conrsPS in Oriental subjects and languages in American Universities. The Chinese Opium Question in British Opinion and Action, by Wu Wen-tsao; Academy Press, N. Y. Prepared as a thesis for a doctornte. A general history and commentary on this subject, authoritative and compreheneive. Chinese Government Loan Issue and lt'ouign Oil-igntions. Compiled by the Bauk of China; Kelly and Walsh, Sllnughai. A useful hand book of information on this su hieet.

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420 APPENDIX The 8pfrit of the Chinese Remlution, by A. W. Holcombe; Knopf, N. Y. Reprinted lectures on events and personalities in tli.e Chinese Revolution. Delivered at Harvard by the Professor of Government there. The Chinese Revolution, by A. W. Holcombe; Harvard University Press. An interesting and clever analysis of the Chinese revolution by the Professor of Government at Harvard University. The Civil Code of the Republic of China, Book 1, General Principles. Ed. by Ching-lin Hsia and James L. B. Chow; Kelly and Walsh, Shanghai. A translatlon of tli.e general principles of Chinese law recently adopted and promulgated by the National Government. The Civil Code of the Republic of China, Book 1.. General Principles; Book 2. Obligations; Rook a. Rights over Things. Ed. by Hsia, James L. E. Chow, and Yukon Chang; Kelly and ,valsh, Shanghai. Tli.e English translation of the complete new civil code of China, recommended by the drafting committee of the code. The Fmeign Public Debt of China, by Arthur G. Coons; University of Penn. Press. This study confines itself to the contracted obligations of former Chinese governments and China's present capacity to pay. Glimpses into the Problems of China, by F. D. Zau; Kelly and Walsh, Shanghai. History of Chinese Political Thought, during the Early Tsin Period, by Liang Uhi-chao; Harcourt, N. Y., Routledge, London. A scholar's exposition of the political foundation of the oldest civilization in the world. International Relations of J.fancltuiia, by C. '\V. Young; University of Chicago Press and Cambridge University Press. A discussion of Manchuria's relations by n well-known American authority on that country. lnflue.nce of Communication..q, Internal and E-r:ternal, on the Economfo 1'1uture of China, by Ming-fu Cheng; Routledge, London. A timely book on a very interesting and far-reaching subject. International Aspect of the Missionary Movement in Cliina, by Chao Kwang-wu; Johns Hopkins Press. Deals with the political and legal status of missionaries in China. written with vision, fearlessness and charity. Imperialism and Nationalism in the Fm East, by David Edward Owen; Harry Holt Co., N. Y. Panoramic view of tli.o Far :!!:astern situation in three excellent chapters by a Yale University professor.

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APPENDIX 421 Kemmere1 Repo1t on Jt'inance_: Buieait of Economic Information, Ministry of Industry; Customs House, Shanghai. The report of the American "Money Doctor," on the visit of the Commission to China. The Legacy of Sun Yat-sen, by Gustav Amann. trnns. from the German by Philip Grove; Lewis Carron Co., New York and Montreal. A history of the Chinese revolution. The Nationalist Progmmmef01 China, by C. C. Wu; Yale University Press. Speeches delivered by China's Minister to America at the Institute of Politics, Williamstown. The Pacific Bctsin, by Gordon L. Wood; Clarendon Press, Oxford. A study of the Pacific and its problems by an Australian. Political Paities in China, by Jermyn Chi-Hung Lynn, intro. by Dr. J. C. Ferguson; French Bookstore, Peiping. A study of the various political parties in China and their leaders. The Restlesi Pacific, by Nicholas Roosevelt; Scribners, N. Y. It has for thesis the inescapable obligations of the United States in the Pacific zone. Sino-Fo1eign T1eaties of 1928 and Relative Papers, Intro. by Dr. C. T. Wang; Kelly and Walsh, Shanghai. A bandy record of all the new treaties of 1928 negotiated on a basis of equality. Treaties With and Concerning China, 1919-1929; Carnegie Endowment and the Oxford University Press. An excellent volume bringing Mnc:Murry's standard work down to 1929. To1tured China, by Hallett Abend; Ives Washburn, N. Y. An argument for foreign intervention in Chinn by the Shanghai correspondent of the New York Times. The Whington Confeience and After, by Yamato Ichibnsbi, Stanford University Press. Survey of the Washington Conference and results considered from the standpoint of Japan by n Japanese writer. Problems of the Pacific, 1929, Edited by J. B. Condliffe; Institute of Pacific Relations. Report of last session of Institute of Pacific Relations. Includes many research papers given to that Con ference. III. Fiction and General Description In the Chinese Custom,S Se1vice, by Paul King; Heath Cranton, London. A book of reminiscences by a former customs commissioner. China, The Land and the People, by L. D. Dudley Buxton; Clarendon Press, Oxford. A human geography with a chapter on the climate.

PAGE 440

422 APPENDIX Chips of China, by Bella Sidney Woolf; Kelly and Walsh, Shanghai. Papers by tli.e wife of Hongkong's Colonial Secretary. The Devil D
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APPENDIX 423 Wo1ks of No T~e, trans. by Yi Pao :Mei; Arthur Probsthain, London. A good translation of this classic. The Wind that Tl'amps the Wmld, by Frank R. Owen; Lantern Press, N. Y. After the rnme manner as "The Star Path." IV. Art The Chinese Dmma, by L. C. Arlington. Foreword by Prof. H. A. Giles; Kelly and Walsh, Shangllai. A comprehensive and authoritative book on Chinese drama, excellently illustrated. Chinese A1t, by William Cohn; "The Studio," London. A handbook on Chinese art prepared by London's foremost art magazine for their series "Great Periods in Art." New Stone Age Potte1y .from a Prehisto1ic Site at Hsi Yin-tsun, Shansi, by S. Y. Liang; University of California Press. Studies in the Chinese Dmma, by K. Buss; Cape, London. The Li Sao, Lim Boon Keng. Commercial Press, Shanghai. A critical treatment of a Chinese poem known before 300 n. c. V. Religion The International Aspect of the ltfissiona1-y Movement in China, by Chao Kwang-wu; Johns Hopkins Press. Deals with the legal and political status of the missionary movement in China. Written with vision, fearlessness and charity. The Lot-us of the Wondeiful Law, or the Lotus Gospel, by W. E. Soothill; Clarendon Press, Oxford. A briefer translation of this famous Oriental religious book. VI. Miscellaneous Bu1ied T1easuus of Tu1lcestan, by Albert Von le Cog; Allen and Un win. An interesting account of the activities and adventures of the second and third German Turfan expeditions. Beginning of Journalism in China, by H. J. Timperley, Peiping. Reprint of a lecture on this subject. Characters and Events, by John Dewey, Ed. by Joseph Ratner; Henry Holt, N. Y. Observation based on Dr. Dewey's visit to China some years ago. China and Japan in Ou1 MuseU'lns, by Ben. J. March; University of Chicago Press. A study of what is representative of these two countries in American museums.

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424 APPENDIX China, A New Aspect, by H. Stringer; Witherby, New York. Papers of China and her possible development by a former employee of the Chinese Eastern Railway. Chinese Social Origins, by H. F. Rudd; University of Chicago Press and Cambridge University Press. China Decorations, by D. Mabon; Pitman, London. China in Action, by W. Pinson; Cokesbury Press. China's Child1en, by J. R. Saunders; Revell. China to Chelsea, by D. MacCallum, Benn, London. Record of a journey from Peking to England by motor car. Chinese Cu1rency, by F. Schjoth; Luzac and Co. .An enquiry into China's monetary system. Chinese of Hawaii; Oversea's Penmans' Club, Honolulu. Chinese and English Dictionai-y, by P. Poletti; Caspar. CliinaticProvincesofChina, by C. C. Chu; Geological Survey, Peking. A scientific paper on China's climate. The Challenge of Central Asia, by Mildred Cable and Others; World Dominion Press. A very interesting survey of China's Northwest and adjacent areas by several missionaries. Chinese New Yem Festivals, by Juliet Bredon; Kelly and Walsh, Shanghai. An excellent descriptive account of these festivals by the author of "Peking." China in 1980, by E. B. S. Lee; Leader Press, Peiping. A bound volume of weekly summaries of events in China. Chinese Farm Economy, by John L'.>ssing Buck; Commercial Press, Shanghai and University of Chicago Press. A study of farm management on nearly 3,000 farms in seven provinces. Development of Chinese Cultuie; University of Hawaii. l!Jinerson and Asia, by Frederick Ives Carpenter; Harvard University Press. Influence of Asia upon the writings of Emerson. Folkways of China, by L. Hodous; Probsthain, London. Descriptions of China's folk customs and the habits of the people. History of the Shanghai Paper Hunt Club, by C. Noel Davis; Kelly and Walsh, Shanghai. A readable illustrated account of this Club's activities. Li, Sao, an El,egy on Encounter-ing Soriows, trans, by Lim Boon-keng; Commercial Press, Shanghai.

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APPENDIX 425 Minm,J, lndust:ry in the Far East, by Boris P. Torgasheff; Chali Co., Shanghai. A discnssion of the mineral industry of the Far East by an acknowledged authority. Mineral Resources of Noith Manchuiia, by Dr. E. E. Annert; Geological Survey, Peking. A study of a little known area. Old China Tmde, by F. R. Dallas; Houghton Mifflin, N. Y. China's trade and commerce in the old days. The Poit of Hulatao, by Henan Chi. A description of the new port Manchu"ria is seeking to create. The Shanghai Raw Silk Maiket, by Ralph E. Buchanan; Silk Association of America. A useful handbook of information for those interested in this market. Silve1 and China, by A. W. Pinnick; Kelly and Walsh, Shanghai. An investigation of the monetary principles governing China's trade and prosperity. Syllabus of Histoiy of Chinese Ciflilization and Cultuie, by L. C. Goodrich and H. 0. Fenn; China Association of America. Stiidies in China Dmma, by K. Buss. Interesting but slight papers on some elements of the Chinese theatre. Study of the Student Homes of China, by A. B. Milam; Teachers College. A Son of China, by Cheng Tsheng; Norton, N. Y. A stirring autobiography that reveals the soul of a people. Songs of Cathay, by T. Z. Koo; Kelly and Walsh, Shanghai. A collection of Chinese songs with Chinese tunes in western notation and with English translations of the words. Tong H'm, by E. Y. Gong and B. Grant; Brown, N. Y. A study of the Tong wars which so often break out among Chinese in America. The Chinese Law of Negotiable lnstrunumts, by Hao-Hsuan-Sun. Translation of the new law propagated July 1, 1930. Tea and Tea Dealing, by F. W. F. Stavecross; Isaac Pitman, London. The Tea volume in this firm's series of standard books about various trades. Tree C!'Ops, a Permanent Agriculture, by Prof. Russell Smith; -Harcourt Brace, N. Y. A Desceription of tree-less Chinese of the Northwest. Chinese Farm Economy. John Lossing Buck. Commercial Press, Shanghai. A study of farm conditions based on long continued research work.

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426 APPENDIX Sinisin: A Study of the Evolution of the Chinese Wo1ld-View, H. C. Creel; Open Court Publishing Company. An attempt to put together various views mostly based on second-hand information. Chinese Lab01, Fang Fu-an. Kelly and Walsh, Shanghai. Brings together available statistics on China's labor problems and discusses its various problems. The Old China, Tmde, Foster Rhea Dulles. Houghton, Mifflin Co. Boston. A study of the development of American trade with China. Village Families in the Vicinity of Peking, by F. C. H. Lee and T. Ching; French Bookstore, Peiping. A social study of village life in North China. Wholesale Prices and Price Index f01 N01th China, 1913 to 1929. F. L. Ho; French Bookstore, Peiping.

PAGE 445

INDEX (For Titles and Writers of Artfcies see pages VI-XIV) Adult Education Age of Child Workers Agriculture American College Influence ... A 193 322 343 202 Anglican Communion 154, 247 Annotated Bibliography of Books in English on China 418 Anti-Christian Movement 204, 240, 267, 268, 269 Anti-Mu-Tsai Society... 286 Anti-Religious Movement 67, 80, 95, 110, 267 Aviation ... 24 B Bands, Evangelistic .. 112 Bandits and Famine ... 205, 297 Baptists and Unity 143, 144 Best Books in English on China, J. B. Powell and Frank Oliver 401, 418 Bible Distribution 412 Bible Schools ... 206, 231, 233 Bible Study 114, 206 Bible Training Schools for Women, Anna E. Moffet 228 Birth Oontrol ... 317 Bishops, Native Boxers Buddhism Bureau of Education Bureaucracy 131 ... 92, 403 69, 72, 386 182 16

PAGE 446

428 INDEX c Campaigns, Evangelistic Capital .. Cartoons .. Catholic Church in China, 1930, G. de Jonghe ... Catholic Orders, Native Central Political Council 107 .. 28, 179 83 130, 168 138 13 Changes in Family Life, Miss T. C. Kuan 253 Chiang Kai-shek 15, 72, 77, 85, 90, 175, 216, 217 Child Welfare Association 287 Children, Care of China, Situation in China Sunday School Union 288, 321, 323, 326 1, 3 222 China's New Factory Law, Eleanor M. Hinder 31S China's Struggle Against Narcotic~, Wang King-ky 335 Chinese Church 40, 92, 95, 97, 415 Chinese Church and Unity ... 146 Chinese Home Mlssionary Society 108 Chinese Medical Schools 368 Cholera ... 373 Christian Colleges and Universities, Francis C. M. Wei Christian Industrial and Rural Reconstruction, J, B. Tayler 196 349 IV Christian Movement, Characteristics of, Christian Opinion Christian School Staffs Christian Social Conscience ... Christian Unity Christianity in China 8, 12, 40, 96 200 40 ... 99, 144 6 Churcli, Chinese, 71; and school 74; 110, 177; losses, 103; gains; 106; membership, 103; and Government, 140; faith, 168. 01rnrch, (the) Problems and Needs of, Church and Unity, A. R. Kepler ... Church of Christ City Schools 92 143 104, 145, 226 184

PAGE 447

INDEX Civil Rights, The Struggle for, in China ... Civil War Classicfl Code, Unwritten College Grad un tes Colleges and Universities, Christian Commission, Religious Education Communications 429 54, 86, 391 2, 16 134 59 205, 234 196 224 17 Communists 16, 32, 33, 51, 78, 79, 85, 90, 94, 105, 126, 135, 140, 261, 263-266, 273, 394. Community Reconstruction Conference, Medical Missionary Conference, National Educational Confucianism ... Congress, National Convention, People's ... Conversions Constitution Cooperation with C:b.inese Cooperative Commonwealth Cooperative Societies ... Courtesy, C:hinese Creeds Culture, New ... Current Chinese Literature, F. R. Millican Curricula D Denominationalism ... 5, 347, 353 360 175 56, 68, 385 13 20 139 4, 15, 44 169 354 343, 344, 351, 352 58 148 392 382 188 Distribution of Chinese Literature, George A. Clayton Disunity, Causes of ... 146 410 160 Economic Adversities Economic Relations ... E I 122, 349, 351

PAGE 448

430 INDEX Eddy, Sherwood 108 Educntion, 5, 18; and religion, 110; and evangelism, 113; 114; mass, 114, 115; Catholic 132, 134, 14.1; national, 175. Education in Shanghai Education, Medical ... Educational Beginnings Educational Budget ... Educational Conference, National... Educational Growth Educational Union Eight-Hour Day Electricity Emphases, Five Year Movement Episcopate Equality ... Equipment, Educational Essentials of Christianity Eunuehs Evangelism, Present-Day Evangelism, Social ... 182 355, 358 196 184, 185 .. 84, 217 197 200 324 28 127 155 57 201 93 61 .... 9, 103, 119, 166, Hl7 10 Evolution of China's Modern Revolution, L. T. Chen Exhibitions, School ... 43 189 :Factory Inspectors Family Life, Changes in Family Ethics ... Famine Funds .. Famine Relief ... Famine Relief and Prevention Farmer's Institutes .. Fellowships, Student ... Feminism Finance ... Five-Power Constitution Five Year Movement, L. D. Cio, F 319 253 2-53 291, 292, 299, 305 122, 133, 2!l0, 344 290 343 270 396 16 15, 30 126, 109, 117, 118, 211

PAGE 449

Freedom, Religious Foreign Relations INDEX G 431 .. 77, so, 84, 85 18 Gains; Losses, in Family 256 Government and Philanthropy 2711 Government, Frame of, 14; autho1ity of, 20, 52; nnd law, 54-56; and democracy 55; and Christians, 85. Government, '!'he National, lVI. S. Bates... 13 Heroin Highways Holidays ... Home Betterment Hospitals Humanism Illiteracy ... Immigrants Imperialism Individualism Industrial Ideals .Industrial ,vork Industrialism ... Industry, Ministry of Intellectual :\Jovements Intelligence Tests In tercomm union Irrigation Japanese iu China Jerusalem H I J 335, 33S, 339 23 312, 327 115, 120 135, 379 270 93 340 49, 78 255 309 316 308, 318, 408 19 34, 39 190 159 300 20, 51, 32-1, 338 100, 220

PAGE 450

432 INDEX K Kagawa ... 108, 109 Kala-azar 374 Kidnapping 284 Korean Evangelist 109 Kuomingtang 13, 30, 31, 50, 77, 84, 90, 260, 261, 263, 277, 308, 314, 315 Kuomingtang and Religion, W. P. Mills, 77 L Labor in China, Fang Fu-an Labor Laws 307 4, 315, 319 75, 307, 309, 314, 329, 333 152 .. 54, 404 318 124 III, 73, 101, 165, 353 339, 340 Laborers ... Lambeth Conference ... Law, Basis of ... Law, China's New Factory ... Laymen's Commission Leadership, Chinese .. League of Nations Leftist Trend ... Leprosy ... Liang Chi-chao Liberty League Liberty, Personal Literacy Movement Literature Livelihood, People's Malaria ... Manchus Marriage .. Martyrs .. Marxian Influence Mass Education .. 31, 37 135, 375 43, 46, 386 266 54, 55, 61 121, 176 34, 39, 81, 129, 131, 265, 382, 397, 398, 410 20, 30, 75 M 373 44, 45, 48, 49, 87 254 136 384 114, U5, 121, 193, 216, 226, 344, 351

PAGE 451

INDEX 483' Mass Education and I>honetic Character, Herman C. E. Liu, 213 -94 359 356 372 May, 30 ... Medical Chinese Medical Education, R. T. Shelds, ... Medical Research, James L. Maxwell Methodists and Religious Education Middle Schools Military ... Militarism Ministerial Training, Outlook of Ministry of Education Mission Forces and Distribution, C. L. Boynton Mission Schools 222, 245 191 13, 16 49, 53 204 82, 83 161 237 Missionaries ... 7, 92, 97, 100, 101, 141, 161 Missionaries, Number of Missionaries, Present Services of Missionary Societies Mongolians Moral Conventions Morphine Motives, Christian Educational Movements Among Chinese Students, Y. T. Wu, Municipal Education ... N Narcotics, China's Struggle .Against National Christian Council, 1930, 164, 172 161 172 180 60 385, 338, 339 197 259 182 335 Ortha May Lane,... 117; 94, 127, 221, 224, 258 National Educational Program, Heiman 0. E, Liu, 175 National (The) Government, M. S. Bates 13. National Thinking, Trends in 3.0 Nationalism 13, 30, 32,. 80, 93, 246 New Programs of Religious Education, Ronald Rees,. 219 Normal Training Nurses' Training ..... 187, 192' 370

PAGE 452

Officials and People ppium Suppression Ordination 0 Outlook of Ministerial Training, C. W. Allan ... p ... 54, 59 ... 14, 336 156~ 158 204 Partitionment ... 45 P~acie, World ... 389 People's Livelihood 273, 313, 350 Persecution 7, 7i, 79, 10:5, 140 Philai'itllropic Movements, Andrew V. Wu 276 Philosophy of Life 390 Phonetics 180, 213 Physical Training 196 Pioneers, Medical 355 Political Trends ... 30 Population 317 Population, Shanghai School 183 Present-Day Evangelism 103 Present Services of Missionaries,. J. Leighton Stuart... 161 Problems and Needs of the Church, C. Y. Cheng 92 Progress in Municipal Education, wallace H. C. Kiang 182 Proletarian Movement 36, 39, 264, 397 Protection of People ... 58, 60 Protests, Religious 66 Radio Railways Reactionary Movements Rebels, Northern Reconstruction of Family R Reconst:ructive Measures, Edwin .Marx ... 26 17, 22 47 266 22

PAGE 453

Registration, Status of Regulations, Educational Relief Yuan Religion Criticized Religious Bias ... Religious Education Religious Freedom Religious Societies INDEX 435 237 238 281 ... 63, 65, 66, 74 81 80, 81, 119, 128, 132, 219, 223, 235, 243 77, 80, 84, 85, 132, 133, 239 87, 89 Religious Situation, 1980, T. C. Chao Religion, The Kuomingtang and ... t33, 41 77 260, 268 I 37 6, 11, 377, 379, 383 43, 93, 259, 260 IOI, 111 363 353 Renaissance Movement Reorganization, Trends in Repression Research Revolution, Evolution of China's Modern Revival ... Rockefeller Commission Rural Industries Rural Reconstruction... 123, 129, 167, 177, 208, 226, 342 Rural Reconstructive Efforts, Phillip W. Cheng 342 Rural Schools .. 184 Russia, Inflnence of ... San Min Chu I ... Schools .. Schools, Medical Self-support Seminaries Seventh-Day Adventists Simplified Script Slave Girls Smuggled Drugs Social Education Social Reconstruction ... Soldiers ... 20, 32, 50, 67, 77, 85, 260, 265 s 131 80, 82, 185; clos_ed, 247; registered, 250 357 207, 211 138, 204, 206, 230 107 214 282, 283 337, 339 179 40, 41, 270, 393, 406 .. 13,

PAGE 454

436 South India, Union in Spirit, Evangelistic ... Standards, Educational Stations ... INDEX 153 104 201, 203, 228 174 Status of Registration, C. S. Miao ... 237 Stewardship 118 Strikes .. 48, 59, 307 Struggle (The) for Civil Rights in China, Lin Yutang 54 Student Ch~istian Movement 268, 271 Student Life 72, 104, 107, 260, 261, 262 269, 270, 307, 397 Students, Theological 210 Sun Yat Sen 30, 45, 46, 4.9, 50, 77, 78, 79, 131, 133, 256, Superstition Surveys .. Syphilis .. T'ai Hsii .. ;angpu .. Taoism .. Tariff Autonomy Teachers ... Telephones Theatres ... Three Principles Thousand Character Campaign Tibetans ... Tr~ining Christian Workers T Trends in National Thinking, T. Z. Koo Trends in Reorganization, Introduction., .. Toierance -. u Une.mployment Union Medical Schools 261, 308, 4.-05 64, 88, 255, 267 310 374 388 81, 83, 84 56, 61, 70. 17 184., 186, 192 26 64 3, 31, 260 215 180 207 30 1 86 1, 326, 331 362, 364

PAGE 455

INDEX 437 United Church ... 148, 156 Unity, Baptists, 143, 151; Methodists, 146, 151; L.M.S., 145; Chinese Church, 146; resolution on, 149; organic 150; Anglicans, 152; South India 153 143 Unity, Church and Unity, Educational Unity, Principles of Utopias ... v Vocational Educational Association Wages Women in Industry Women Medical Workers Women's Movement .. Women, Training of Workers' Education ... Working Day Writers Yuan Yuan S:b.i Kai w y 200, 209, 229, 231, 285 147 394 345, 346 311, 329, 333 .. SlO, 316, 321, 323, 330, 332, 361 254 228 351 325 34 14, 16, 19 .. 45, 47, 48, 49