Citation

## Material Information

Title:
China mission year book
Added title page title:
China Christian Year Book
Creator:
MacGillivray, D ( Donald ), 1862-
Christian Literature Society for China
National Christian Council of China
Place of Publication:
Shanghai
Publisher:
Christian Literature Society
Publication Date:
Language:
English

## Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Missionaries -- Training of -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missions -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missions, Medical -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Directories -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Training of -- Periodicals -- China ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- China
äºšæ´² -- ä¸­å›½
äºžæ´² -- ä¸­åœ‹
Coordinates:
35 x 103 ( China )

## Notes

Bibliography:
Inc. indices.
General Note:
Issues for 1920-1922, 1927, 1930, 1933/4, 1935/6 were not published. After 1925 continues as "China Christian year book".
General Note:
Editors: 1910-1915 D. MacGillivray;

## Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
353641 ( aleph )
X192075321 ( oclc )

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Full Text

THE
CHINA CHRISTIAN
YEAR BOOK
1934=1935
(NINETEENTH ISSUE OF THE CHINA "MISSION"
YEAR BOOK)
Issued under arrangement between the Christian
Literature Society for China and the National Christian
Council of China under the direction of the following
Editorial Board appointed by the National Christian
Council.
Mr. E. E. Bamett Dr. Idabelle Main
Rev. A. Baxter Dr. James L. Maxwell
Rev. C. L. Boynton Dr. Chester S. Miao
Miss Margaret Frame Rt. Rev. J. W. Nichols
Miss T. A. Gerlach Rev. E. J. Ottewell
Rev. Carlefton Lacy Dr. Frank Rawlinson
Dr. Herman C. E. Liu Rev. D. E. Rebok
Rev. E. C. Lobenstine Rev. Ronald Rees
Mr. C. H. Lowe Rev. Myron E. Terry
Dr. Usang Ly Miss Ting Shu-ching
Dr. Y. Y. Tsu
EDITOR
Rev. Frank Rawlinson, D.D.
Editor, The Chinese Recorder
CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY
SHANGHAI
November 1935

PREFACE
This Year Book has settled down into a biennial
It appeared first in 1910. It takes, as a matter of fact,
just about a year to secure material and put it through
the press. Unfortunately at the time of writing this
preface some leading Christian journals have not yet
published a review of the previous issue. So perhaps it
is just as well that the Year Book comes out every other
year.
Securing material for this Year Book is never easy.
The contributors are all busy people and most of them are
in important executive positions. As in the previous1 is-
sue one-third of the contributors are Chinese. "With only
rare exceptions the chapters that deal with conditions in
China in general are written by Chinese. The writers
accepted their task willingly. For their share in producing
this Year Book the Editorial Board is profoundly grateful.
The Year Book goes out as another instance of cooperative
service in China-
One chapter arranged for"Rural Sendee Unions
and Community Parishes'' was not received. While such
enterprises are sometimes mentioned in other chapters
the absence of this particular chapter leaves a lack of
balance in the contents of this issue. It should be noted
that the chapter on "Home Mission Work""is incomplete as
well as the one on "Among the Tribes' People". Home
mission work, as defined in the chapter on that topic, is
work supported entirely by Chinese churches' and carried
on in more or less- distant centers. Even work within
the limits of this narrow definition is. not" all included
therein. In a sense the present-day Chinese evangelists
who travel far afield are home missionaries. In another
sense most work carried on by the churches, considering
the relative scarcity of Christians in China, is home'mis-

iv
PREFACE
sion work. But neither of the latter aspects of work
come within the scope of the Chinese Home Missionary
Society. This society carries on, therefore, only a small
part of home mission work in China. Likewise the chapter
on work among1 Tribes' People covers only a small part
of that work. Since the Editor was unable to secure more
than the two localized accounts1 included in this volume
he was at one time inclined to leave the topic out altogether.
However, arrangements have already been made for a
comprehensive chapter on the subject in the next issue of
the Year Book.
Two improvements appear in this Year Book.
First, a map has been included within the covers in-
dicating some of the most important places referred to in
the text, and appendix VII lists all the places named in
the text indicating not only their provincial location but
also all of the variant spellings adopted by the writers re-
ferring to them. Unfortunately most writers on China (even
those in China) seem unaware that the government stand-
ardized the Romanization of place names for postal and
telegraphic purposes as long ago as 1905 and we still have
such variants as, e.g., Yangtsze, Yangtse and Yangtze (last
official). The preparation of this map is due to the efforts
of Rev. C. L. Boynton and the staff of the National Chris-
tian Council. Second, the comprehensiveness of the necro-
logy is a new feature. This also was made possible by the
staff of the National Christian Council.
The prominent characteristics of the Christian Move-
ment in China may, at this time of writing, be put briefly
as follows.
First, Christians in China are boring in. Little
disturbed by environmental distractions the Christian mind
in China is set on deepening its own life, understanding
environmental needs and coordinating its resources. The
roots of Christian activity are steadily going deeper into
the soil of China's life. There is growth in the financial
support coming from Chinese sources. The driving force

PB-EFXCE
of Christian effort in China is : becoming..increasingly
Chinese.. ..In every sense..of the word Christianity in Chiila
is advancing in incUgenousness. .
Second, Christians in China/are reaching out. Tfnder
the increasing leadership of Chinese evangelists the delivery,
of the message is being extended. Then, too, Christians
are reaching out into all types of service. While the
ministerial leadership of the organized church is woefully
inadequate there is a constant passing of Christian leader-
ship into services which aim at rebuilding the life of
China in general. The influence of Christianity in China
is extending and Christian service therein is expanding.
Third, Christians in China are joining up. The
centrifugal tendencies of denominationalism are changing
into the centripetal desire to get together more and
coordinate the work more effectively.
Fourth. Christians in China are looking forward.
They envisage a new China and a more dynamic church.
They have set out to find a more adequate and better-
trained leadership. They foresee an extension of Christian
service in Chinese life. They are beginning to outline
the obligations that come with the permanence of Chris-
tianity in China.
Fifth, Christians in China are both hopeful and active.
The Editor and Editorial Board desire to thank
especially the Rev. C. L. Boynton, Rev. C. W. Allan and
Rev. Myron E. Terry for help in the arduous task of
proof-reading. Each chapter has been read at least six
times. Yet undoubtedly typographical errors and lack
of uniformity in spelling and names of places will be
noted by the critical reader. For these the indulgent mercy
of the reader is sought. One egregrious mistake on page
17.1, line 6 must be corrected here. The sentence reads:
"In view of rapid turnovers, a period of long training
could manifestly now be demanded. The "'now7'
should read "not". We apologize for this mistake, as in-
deed we do for the others which got by.

vi
PREFACE
When articles in this Year Book are an expression of
the policies ahd views of the National Christian Council
this fact will be made clear. In all other instances the
writer of the paper is alone responsible for the opinions
expressed.
Shanghai, September 1, 1935.

CONTENTS
CHINA CHRISTIAN YEAR BOOK, 1934^-1935.
Page
MAP.
PREFACE iii
CONTENTS. vii
CONTRIBUTORS x
PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN CHINA, 1934^35,
J. B. Powell................................................xvi
INTERPRETATIVE INTRODUCTION.
Current Trends Forward. Editor....... 1
PART I. NATIONAL LIFE.
CHAPTER:
I. The National Government. Y. S. Tsao. 5
II. China's Relations with Western Powers.
W. H. Ma........................ 18
III. Sino-Japanese Relations, 1933-35.
Shuhsi Hsli ...................... 31
IV. National Economic Council in 1934.
Chin Fan........................ 46
V. Economic Conditions in Rural China.
A. B. Lewis...................... 57
VI. Present-Day Thought Movements.
P. C. Hsu........................ 72
VII. Modernization of Chinese Women. Miss
Ah-Huna Tong (Mrs. A. H. T.
Young).......................... 80
VIII. The Chinese Communists.
George W. Shepherd.............. 89
PART II. RELIGIOUS LIFE.
IX. Modern Religious Movements.
(1) In Christianity.
C. Stanley Smith............. 97
(2) In Ntm-Christian Religions.
F. R, Millican ............,, t, HO

viii
CONTENTS
Page
X. The Roman Catholic Cliureh, 1934.
F. C. Dietz.................... 120, 399
XI. The Church of Christ in Manchuria.
F< W. S. O'Neill.................. 135
XII. Among the Tribes' People............
(1) In Szechwan. T. Torrance .. 148
(2) In Hainan. J. F. Steiner .... 152
XIII. Young Men's Christian Association in
1934. Eugene E. Barnett......... 154
XIV. Young Women's Christian Association.
Lily K. Haass..................... 166
XV. Christian Leadership Survey.
C. S. Miao ....................... 179
XVI. Reorganization of Bible Society Work.
Carleton Lacy ...................... 186
XVII. National Christian Council.
Ronald Rees...................... 192
XVIII. Home Mission Work. T. E. Tong .... 204
XIX. Salvation Army in China.
A. J. Benweli.................... 207
XX. Union Church Movements.
C. L. Boynton. .. ................. 212
PART III. MISSIONS AND MISSIONARIES.
XXI. Relation of Church and Mission.
C. E. Patton..................... 219
XXII. Missionary Situation in China.
Margaret Frame................. 223
PART IV. EDUCATION.
XXIII. Government Education.
Herman C. E. Liu................. 236
XXIV. Religious Education.
(1) Christian Religious Education
Committee. Alice Gregg ---- 247
(2) China Sunday School Union.
E. G. Tewksbury........... 252
XXV. Christian Education. E. H. Cressy. .. 264

CONTENTS
is
Page
XXVI. Foundations and Christian Higher
Education. J. Leighton Stuart..... 273
Part V. SOCIAL WORK.
XXVII. Flood, Drought and War Relief.
J. E. Baker ...................... 281.
XXVIII. China's Cooperative Movement.
C. F. Strickland ................. 296
XXIX. Labour Problems. Cora Deng....... 308
XXX. Child Welfare Movement. Jabin Hsu 327
XXXI. Reform of. Ricksha Business.
Lawrence Todnem................. 334
XXXII. Present-Day Opium Problem.
Garfield Huang................... 341
Part VI. MEDICAL WORK.
XXXIII. Medicine In China. Edward H. Hume. 355
XXXIV. China's Leposy Problem.
James L. Maxwell................ 364
Part VII. LITERATURE.
XXXV. A Year of Chinese Publication Work.
Tsao Liang....................... 368
XXXVI. Christian Literature and Thought-
Feng Hsueh-ping...............; 378
XXXVII. Literature Promotion and Distribution.
Myron E. Terry................385
XXXVIII. Some Books in English on China.
Mrs. R. R. Sendee. ...._____ 391, '409
Part VIII. APPENDICES.
I. Statistics of -the Roman Catholic Chu-rcli 399
- II. Five Year Plan for Child Welfare. .. 401
III. Program of National Children's Year.* 403
IVi Bibliography of Books:, in. English. "on .. 1
China. Mrs. R. R. Service.. ;........... 409
V.. List of Medical Colleges in China, ;19.35/ 424
. VL Necrology,. 1930-35., 0..,L.: Boynton. 425
TIL Index of Places in China C.rL.Boyiitou.. 447

CONTRIBUTORS
(.Figures in parenthesis indicate date of first
arrival in Chima)
Page
Baker, J. E, (1916). Flood, Drought and War
Relief, XXVII.
Community Church, Shanghai. Adviser, Central
Trust of China..........281
Barnett, Eugene E., (1910). Young Men's Christ-
ian Association in 1934, XIII.
M. E. Church South. Associate General Secret-
ary, National Committee Y.M.C.A. of China. .. 154
Benwell, A. J. (1932). Salvation Army in China,
XIX.
Territorial Commander for North China .. 207
Boynton, Rev. C, L., (1906). Union Church
Movements, XX.
Northern Baptist. Secretary, National Chris-
tian Council of China .. .. 212, 425, 447
Chin, Fan. National Economic Council in 1934,
IV.
Secretary General, National Economic Council,
Nanking .. .. .. .. .. .. 46
Cressy, E. H., (1910). Christian Education, XXV.
Northern Baptist, Secretary of Council of Higher
Education, C. C. E. A.........264
Deng, (Miss) Cora, B. A., Labour Problems, XXIX.
Episcopal. Industrial Secretary, National Com-
mittee. Y. W. C. A...... .. ..308
Pietz, F. C., M.M, (1920). The Roman Catholic
Church, 1934, X.
Roman Catholic Church. Secretary of the
Synodal Commission and Director of Luman
News'Service .. .. .. 120,399

CONTBIBTJTOES
xi
PAGB
Feng, Hsueh-ping, Christian Literature and
Thought, XXXVI.
Presbyterian, South. On staff of Christian Lit-
erature Society, Shanghai. Nanking Seminary. 378
Frame, (Miss) Margaret, M.A., Ph.B. (1910). Mis-
ionary Situation in China, XXII
Presbyterian Church, U.S.A. Secretary of the
China Council of the Presbyterian Church of
the U.S.A............223
Gregg, (Miss) Alice, (1,916). Religious Education
(1) Christian Religious Education Committee,
XXIV.
American Church Mission. One year Cooperat-
ing Secretary, National Committee for Christian
Religious Education .. .. .. .. 247
Haass, (Miss) Lily K., (1914). Young Women's
Christian Association, XIV.
Congregational. Associate General Secretary,
National Committee Young Women's Christian
Association .. .. .. .. .. .. 166
Hsu, Jabin, A.B. Child Welfare Movement, XXX.
Director General, Department of General Affairs,
Ministry of Finance. General Secretary, Na-
tional Child Welfare Association. University of
Michigan and Tsing Hua College .. .. 327
Hsu, P. C., Ph.D. Present-Day Thought Move-
ments, VI.
Mi-Shih Chinese Church, Peiping. General Sec-
retary of Kiangsi Christian Rural Service Union.
(Lichwan). Customs' College, Teachers' College,
and Columbia University, New York .. .. 72
Hsu, Shuhsi, Ph.D., M.A. Sino-Japanese Relations
.1933-35, III.
Presbyterian. Professor of Political Science,
Yenching University. Hongkong University and
Columbia University .. ......31

xii
CONTRIBUTORS
Page
Huang, Garfield. Present-Day Opium Problem,
XXXII.
Hungteh Tang Clmrch. General Secretary,
National Anti-Opium Association of China.
Fukien University...... .. .. 344
Hume, Edward H., M.A., M.D., LL,D (1905).
Medicine in China, XXXIII.
Formerly of Yale Mission, Changsha, Hunan.
Now connected with the Council on Medical Mis-
sions, China Medical Association .. .. .. 355
Lacy, Rev. Carleton, (1914). Reorganization of
Bible Society Work, XVI.
Methodist Episcopal. Agency Secretary (for
China) American Bible Society .. .. .. 186
Lewis, A. B., Ph.D., (1933). Economic Conditions
in Rural China, V.
Community Church. Nanking. Agricultural
Statistician, Department of Agricultural Econ-
omics, University of Nanking .. .. .. 57
Liu, Herman C. E., Government Education, XXIIl.
Baptist. President of the University of Shanghai.
Soochow University .. .. .. .. 236
Ma, Professor W. H. China's Relations with
Western Powers, II.
Christian Church. Head of Political Science De-
partment, University of Nanking. University
of Nanking and Columbia University .. 18
Maxwell, James L., M.D. (Lond.) (1901). China's
Leprosy Problem, XXXIV.
English Presbyterian. Librarian Henry Lester
Institute of Medical Research. Co-Editor Chi-
nese Medical Journal. Associate Editor, Inter-
national Journal of Leprosy. Secretary, Council
on Medical Missions, China Medical Association 364

CONTRIBUTORS
xiii
Page
Miao, C. S., B.A., M,Af, D,D Ph,D, Christian
Leadership Survey, XV.
Baptist. Executive Secretaiy, National Com-
mittee for Christian Religious Education. Uni-
versity of Shanghai and University of Chicago .. 179
Millican, F.R., .MA. (1907). Modern Religious
Movements: (2). In Non-Christian Relig-
ions, IX.
Presbyterian. Publications' Secretary, Chris-
tian Literature Society .. .. .. .. 110
O'Neill, F. W. S., M.A., D.D., (1897). The Church
of Christ in Manchuria, XI.
Presbyterian Church of Ireland Mission, Man-
churia .. .. .. .. .. .. 135
Patton, Rev. C. E., M.A., DJX, (1899). Relation
of Church and Mission, XXI.
Presbyterian. Vice-chairman and Secretary of
the China Council of the Presbyterian Church
in U.S.A............ 219
Powell, J. B. Principal Events in China, 1934^35
Editor, China Weekly Review. .. .. VII
Rawlinson, Rev. Frank, M.A D.D., (1902). Inter-
pretative Introduction Current Trends
Forward.
Editor, China Christian Year Book and Chinese
Recorder .. .. .. .. .. .. 1
Rees, Rev. Ronald, M.A., (1922). National Chris-
tian Council, XVII.
Wesley an Methodist Missionary Society. Sec-
retary, National Christian Council of China.
Secretary of National Commission Christian
Religious Education. Board of Christian Litera-
ture Society .. .. .. # .. .. 192
Service, Mrs. R. R., B.L. (1905). Some Books in
English on China, XXXVIII.
Community Church, Shanghai .. 391, 409

xiv
CONTRIBUTORS
Paob
Shepherd, George W., (1917). The Chinese Com-
munists, VIII.
American Board. Executive Secretary, Kiangsi
Christian Rural Service Union. Lichwan, Kiangsi. 89
Smith, Rev. C. Stanley, B.A., D.B, (1917). Modern
Religious Movements: (1) In Christianity,
IX.
Presbyterian North. Vice-President, Nanking
Theological Seminary .. ......97
Steiner, J. F., (1913). Among the Tribes' Peoples :
(2) In Hainan, XII.
Hainan Mission, American Presbyterian Mission,
North ............152
Strickland, C. F., C.I.E., B,Af China's Cooperative
Movement, XXVIII.
Church of England. Lecturer for Universities,
China Committee and Sino-Britisli Cultural
Association. .. ..........296
Stuart, J. Leighton, D.D. Litt.D. (1904). Founda-
tions and Christian Higher Education. XXVI.
Presbyterian Church in U. S. (South), President,
Yenching University .. .. .. .. 273
Terry, Myron E., B.A., B.D. (1925). Literature
Promotion and Distribution, XXXVII.
Presbyterian. Business Secretary, Christian
Literature Society..........385
Tewksbury, Rev. E. G., (1890). Religious Educa-
tion. (2) China Sunday School Union, XXIV.
American Congregational. General Secretary of
the China Sunday School Union......252
Todnem, Lawrence, B.A., (1915). Reform of Rick-
sha Business, XXXI.
Methodist Episcopal. American Bible Society .. 334 '

CONTRIBUTORS
xv
Page
Tong, (Mrs. A. H. T. Young) Miss Ah-Huna. Mod-
dernization of Chinese Women, VII.
Congregational Church, Honolulu. Woman's
Editor, China Press .. .. .. .. 80
Tong, T. E. Home Mission Work, XVIII.
Baptist. General Secretary, Chinese Home Mis-
sionary Society .. .. .. .. 204
Torrance, T. Among the Tribes' People: (1) In
Szechwan, XII.
Formerly Agent American Bible Society, Cheng-
tu, Szechwan. .. .. .. .. .. 148
Tsao, Liang. A. B. A Year of Chinese Publica-
tion Work, XXXV.
Presbyterian. Prof. Medhurst College, Shang-
hai. Yenching University, Peiping .. .. 368
Tsao, Y. S., B.A., M.B.A., The National Govern-
ment, i.
Episcopal. Secretary General, Red Cross Society
of China. St. John's University, Yale and
Harvard ............ 5

PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN CHINA, 1934-35
J. B. Powell
JANUARY, 1934
1.Hu Han-miii issued circular telegram declaring his opposition
to the Fukien Rebellion, appealing that both Nanking and
Fukien should suspend hostilities.
4.Liu Kwei-tang's Rebel Forces penetrated into Honan and
Shantung.
6.Yenping, important city in northern Fukien held by the
Fukien Secessionists, captured by the Nanking Forces.
7.General Slieng Shih-tsai, military leader in Sinkiang, tele-
graphed the Nanking Government, reporting on the cessation
of hostilities in Sinkiang.
8.National Government granted pardon to General Tang Yu-lin,
held responsible for the loss of Jehol to Japan, and cancelled
his order of arrest.
11.The Customs receipts for the year of 1933 were announced to
be Hk. Taels 339,522,000.
12.National Government appointed General Chen Yi, Vice-Minister
of War, as Chairman of the new Fukien Provincial Govern-
ment and General Chiang Ting-wen as Commander-in-Chief of
the Communist suppression Forces for the provinces of Kiang-
si, Fukien, Kwangtung, Hunan and Hupeh.
13.The 19th Route Army evacuated Foochow without resistance,
and the city was taken by the Nanking naval forces.
14.General Ho Ying-chin, Chairman of the Peiping Branch
Military Affairs Commission, telegraphed to General Sun Tien
ying and General Ma Hung-kwei (Chairman of Ninghsia),
instructing them to suspend hostilities.
M.Remnants of the 19th Route Army concentrated at Chuanchow
in southern Fukien, preparing to make further resistance
against the Government Forces.
1C.National Government appointed Dr. V. K. Wellington Koo,
Chinese Minister to France, as an assesor of the Hague Court
of Arbitration.
16.Japanese and 'i Manchukuo'' troops attacked and occupied
Chaochiangtse and further attacked \Lungmengsha in eastern
Chahar. The Chahar troops under conipiand of General Chang
Jien-chih fought against the invaders.
17.Eugene Chen, George Hsu Chien and other Fukien rebel leaders
arrived at Hongkong from Foochow after collapse of the so-
called People's Government.

PRINCIPAL EVENTS
xvii
18.Japanese troops invading Lungrnengsha in Chahar withdrew
and the situation in eastern Chahar became easier.
20.The 4th Plenary Session of the Central Executive Committee
opened at Nanking; Wang Ching-wei presided.
21.Changehow, last stronghold held by the 19th Koute Army in
Fuluen, captured by the Government troops.
24.The Panchen Lama arrived at Nanking to confer with the
Central Authorities on the Mongolian situation.
26.Lin Sen took oath of office as Chairman of the National
Government for the second term.
28.National Government appointed General Tiao-yuan as Com-
mander-in-Chief of the General Reserve Force of the Bandit-
Suppression Armies in Central China.
20.War between General Slieng Shih-tsai and General Ma Chung-
yin continued to be waged in the vicinity of Tihua, provincial
capital of Sinkiang, both sides suffering heavy casualties.
SO.Executive Yuan dismissed General Sun Tien-ying from his
concurrent post as Reclamation Commissioner of Chinghai
(Kokonor).
FEBRUARY
3.General Chiang Kai-shek held important conference with Dr.
H. H. Kung, T. V. Soong and General Chang Hsueh-liang at
Hangchow.
5.The Peiping Branch of the Military Affairs' Commission dis-
missed General Sun Tien-ying as Commander of the 41st Army
and ordered him to hand over the Army to two designated
commanders.
o.Dr. W. W. Yen arrived at Nanking to report to the Govern-
ment on Sino-Russian relations.
6.National Government approved the petition of the Tibetan
authorities and people to appoint Yeh-Cheng as Acting Chief
Governing Official of Tibet and Szu-Lun-Keh-Ytian as Com-
mander of the military forces.
7.National Government appointed General Chang Hsueh-liang as
Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Communist-Suppression
Forces for the Provinces of Hupeh, Honan and Anhwei.
8.Ministry of Finance concluded loan of $44,000,000 with Chinese banks in Shanghai secured on the Boxer Indemnity refunds from Italy. 10.Shanhaikuan formally taken over by the Chinese Authorities from Japanese control. The Pass was lost to Japanese military on January 3, 1933. 11.:General Chiang Kai-shek and Wang Ching-wei issued joint telegram, reiterating their policies concerning the suppression of the Communist-bandits and reconstruction of the country by production. xviii PRINCIPAL EVENTS 14.Nanking held memorial service for the late Dalai Lama. Wang Ching-wei officiated at ceremony. 18.General Lung Yun, Chairman of Yunnan, wired Nanking Government, reporting that a group of armed British nationals entered into the Yunnan border from Burma and explored mines on the border districts. 19.Japanese military completed construction of 38 aerodromes in Manchurian provinces and Jehol. 20.The Panchen Lama assumed office as member of the State Council of the National Government at Nanking. 22.Shansi-Suiyuan Expeditionary Forces started large scale opera- tions against the troops of General Sun Tien-ying's troops. 24.Remnants of General Ma Chung-ying's Army retreated in the direction of southern Sinkiang to assist the rebel force there. 25.Yunghsing, an important Red stronghold in Kiangsi, captured by Government Forces. 27.General Chiang Ting-wen, Fukien military leader, arrived at Canton by airplane from Fukien and conferred with General Chen Chi-tang on the Communist-suppression campaign. 27.Hsu Ming-hung, a prominent leader in the Fukien Indepen- dence Movement, shot at Swatow by order of General Chen Chi-tang. 28.The Central Political Council approved the Silver Agreement. 28.Central Political Council approved the eight principles of local self-government of Inner Mongolia. MARCH 1.Pu Yi assumed the imperial title as "Emperor of Manchu- kuo,'' at Changchun. Wang Ching-wei in his capacity as Minister of Foreign Affairs issued statement on the ques- tion. 1.General Chiang Kai-shek issued important statement, denying that he'was aiming at dictatorship of China or contemplating the restoration of the Tsungli system in the Kuomintang. 1.General Chang Hsueh-liang assumed office as Deputy Com- mander-in-Chief of the Communist-Suppression Forces for the provinces of Hupeh, Honan and Anhwei. 2.Liu Wen-lung, Chairman of Sinkiang, issued circular tele- gram, pledging to preserve the territorial integrity of Sin- kiang and to suppress the rebel forces of Ma Chung-ying. He petitioned the Central Government to appropriate money to finance rehabilitation of the province. 4.Chinese authorities formally took over control of Kupeikow from the Japanese. The Pass had been lost for 357 days. 6.Southwest Branch Committee of the Central Executive Com- mittee issued circular telegram, condemning Pu Yi for assum- ing imperial title in Manchuria. PRINCIPAL EVENTS xix 6.Nanking lodged formal protest with the British Legation in China against the exploration of mines in Yunnan border by- British nationals. 7.Nanking notified the American Legation in China proposing revision of the Chinese-American Commercial Treaty. 11.National Government issued official statement on the assump- tion of imperial title by Pu Yi at Changchun. 11.New Life Movement officially inaugurated at Nanchang. 12.Liu Kwei-tang's brigands penetrated into southern Shantung. 15.Japanese troops in eastern Chahar continued to be increased preparatory to further thrust into the province. 15.British Legation officials verbally replied to the Chinese protest against the exploration of mines in Yunnan border by British nationals. 16.New Life Movement Association at Nanking inaugurated with Wang Ching-wei and others as supervisors. 18.Administrative Conference of the various provinces summoned by General Chiang Kai-shek was opened at Nanchang. 19.Szechwan Army recovered Pachung in northern Szechwan from the Communists. 20.National Economic Council as its first general meeting at Nanking approved the measures for the distribution of the American Cotton and Wheat Loan. 29.National Government obtained consent of the American Govern- ment for the reduction of the Cotton and Wheat Loan from$50,000,000 to $20,000,000. 30.President Wang Ching-wei officially denied that the Govern- ment was contemplating any change of its fixed policy vis-a- vis Japan. 31.Japanese military in North China enlisted large number of Chinese coolies to go to Jehol as workers on road building. 31.Nanfeng, important Red stronghold in southern Kiangsi, captured by Government troops. APRIL 2.General Chen Chi-tang and Li Tsung decided to maintain status quo in Southwest China; the two Southwest Party and Administrative organs to be maintained for the time being. 3.Parties of natives of Burma penetrated into the Yunnan border in an attempt to exploit the gold mines there. 4.'Sino-Turkish Treaty of Amity signed at Angora, Capital of Turkey. 4.National Salt Administration Conference opened at Nanking. 6.Japanese increased troop garrison at Malanyu, a pass in the Great Wall region. 6.Ministry, of Finance stated enforcement of the silver export tax. xxii PRINCIPAL EVENTS 7.General Sung Chili-yuan summoned conference at Kalgan dis- cussing measures for coping with the Japanese aggression in eastern Chahar. 10.The League of Nations' technical expert, Dr. L. Rajchman left Shanghai for Europe. 12.General Tsai Ting-iai, accompanied by several other high com- manders of the former 19th Route Army, left Hongkong for a tour in Europe and America. 13.Serious situation prevailed in North China as Japanese insisted on their demand to resume through rail traffic service and postal communication with Manchuria. 17.Japanese Minister, Akira Ariyoshi, called on General Huang F.u at. Shanghai, discussing the Sino-Japanese situation in North China. 17.Communists under Lo Ping-hui attacked and occupied Yungan district in western Fukien. 22.Liu Kwei-tang's marauders in Shantung suppressed; Liu him- self having fled to Tientsin. 23.T. V. Soong left Nanking for inspection tour to the North- west. He issued a statement on the same day, saying that China would under no circumstances abandon her plan of technical cooperation with the League of Nations because of the opposition of Japan. 23.Monogolian Local Political Council inaugurated at Pai-ing- miao. 24.The Southwest Political Council held extraordinary meeting in connection with the t(Opposite Shore Conference" held by the Japanese officials in Formosa. 26.The Panchen Lama arrived at Hangeliow from Nanking to . lead world peace prayer meeting. Â£7.The Southwest Branch Committee of the Central Executive Committtee cabled to the League of Nations and the Signa- tories of the Nine-Power Treaty, condemning the Japanese declaration. Hu Han-min issued statement to the friendly Powers of China on the Far Eastern Question. 27.General Chiang Kai-shek issued circular telegram, ordering . the. enforcement of the New Life Movement. SS'.Government troops captured Kwangcharig, Red stronghold" in *" Kianggi.. 29:^General Iiiu Hsiang r6p captured by the 'Szechwan troops. 30National Economic. Council appropriated .$2,000,000 fox the
-Tehabilit'ation;-of the districts''recovered from the Reds in
Kiangsi.
: ^ /. vV MAY /.....
. Japanese Government notified. Chinese Government, demanding
readjustment of Japanese loans to China.

PRINCIPAL EVENTS
xxi
2.The Peiping Branch Military Affairs' Commission appointed
General Tang Yu-lin and General Sun Tien-ying as high coun-
sellors to the Commission.
6.Japanese military started construction of aerodrome at Pailitai
near the Nankai University in Tientsin.
8.Tientsin Municipal Government protested to Japanese authori-
ties against construction of the Pailitai aerodrome.
10.Report on technical co-operation between the League of Na-
tions and China by Dr. L. Rajchman published.
10.The Chinese Mission headed by General Hsu Ting-yao and
Vice-Minister of Communications Yu Fei-pang, to study military
communication abroad, departed from Shanghai for Europe.
31.Serious fighting between the Government troops and the Com-
munists in the vicinity of Yungan district, western Fukien.
1^.Dr. Wang Hsin-kung appointed President of the National
Wuhan University.
IS.Tientsin Municipal Government lodged second protest with the
Japanese Consular authorities at Tientsin against the con-
struction of the Pailitai aerodrome.
21.The Second National Finance Conference opened at Nanking.
21.General Huang Mu-sung, Special Envoy of the National Govern-
ment to Tibet, arrived at Tatsienlu en route' to Lhassa.
24.National Finance Conference passed resolution abolishing
miscellaneous taxes and exorbitant levies.
27.The. Second National Finance Conference closed at Nanking.
28.Ministry of Communications issued official statement, denying
that negotiations were under way for the resumption of
postal relations between North China and Manchuria. .
29.National Government issued mandate, prohibiting provincial
Governments to contract foreign loans without authorization
of the Central Authorities.
JUNE
I.-Liencheng, important Red stronghold in western Fukien, re-
covered by government forces.
4.Ministry of Communications took over the Great Northern and
Eastern Cables.
8.National Government issued mandate', ordering abolition of the
miscellaneous taxes and exorbitant levies.
8.Japan reported to have approached the Fukien authorities for
lease of Santuao, an island on the Fukien coast, as & naval
base. - f
8Japanese Vice-Consul, at Nanking, Kuramoto, reported missing,
8.-Ministry of Foreign Affairs released text of th6 Sino-Turkish
Treaty of Amity.

xxii
PRINCIPAL EVENTS
10.Kwangtung Provincial Government issued order for the arrest
of 103 people who participated in the Fukien independence
movement. General Huang Hsiang, former Chief of Staff of
the 19th Route Army, headed the list.
11.Nanking authorities offered cash reward of $100,000 for the discovery of the missing Japanese Vice-Consul, Kuramoto, and started a house-to-house search in the Capital. 12.Japanese Consul-General, Y. Suma, called at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, demanding the Chinese authorities to trace the whereabouts of the missing Japanese Vice-Consul Kuro- moto. On same day, a Japanese destroyer arrived at Nanking from Shanghai as a demonstration. 13.Kuramoto discovered in a self-dug cell near the Ming Tombs in Nanking. 14.Japanese Consul-General, Y. Suma, called at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to express thanks to the Chinese authorities for the search and discovery of Kuramoto. 14.Japanese troops surrounded the Chinese Magistrate's Office at Changlai in Luantung District, demanding the Magistrate to hand over the fines for opium-smoking and gambling to them. 15.American missionary, Dr. J. H. Ingram, murdered by bandits in the Western Hills, Peiping. 17.The S.S. Shuntien Butterfield and Swire, pirated near Chefoo; over twenty Chinese and foreign passengers and two ship officers carried off. 18.Sixteen Chinese deported by Japanese Government arrived at Shanghai. 19.Detailed arrangements for the resumption of through traffic of the Peiping-Liaoning Railway decided upon at Dairen Conference. 19.The Changlai incident settled: the opium-smoking and gambling fines forcibly taken away by the Japanese military returned to the Magistrate's Office. 20.Foreigners captured by the pirates of the S.S. Shuntien all res- cued. 22.Szechwan Government troops recovered Tungkiang from the Communists. 22.Nanchang military headquarters issued identic orders to Honan, Hupeh, Kiangsi and Anhwei provincial authorities, enjoining the complete suppression of opium evil within a fixed period of six years. 25.Definite arrangements made for the resumption of the through traffic service on the Peiping-Liaoning Railway; an agency to handle traffic matters under the name of "Eastern Tourist Bureau" to be jointly organized by the Chinese and Japanese authorities with head office at Shanhaikuan. 25.National Government issued mandate ordering abolition of illegal taxes and levies. PRINCIPAL EVENTS xxiii 26.Japanese Minister, Ariyoshi, called on Wang Ching-wei convey- ing the instructions of his Government regarding the revision of the new Chinese Customs import tariff. 29.The so-called 4'Eastern Tourist Bureau*' formally established at Shanhaikwan. 29.Control Yuan formally impeached Minister of Railways, Ku Meng-yu, charging him with irregularities in connection with the purchase of materials for Tatung-Tungkwan Railway from French interests. JULY 1.Through service on the Peiping-Liaoning Railway resumed today. First through train from Peiping was bombed at Chating near Tientsin, several passengers killed and many others injured. 4.The China Development Finance Corporation inaugurated. 5.Nanking established five customs stations in the Great Wall region. 12.Negotiations for revision of the Canton-Kowloon Railway Agreement opened at Hongkong. 12.The National Antiques Preservation Committee formed at Nanking. 15.General Ma Chung-ying disarmed and interned by Soviet Rus- sians together with his troops. They entered the Soviet terri- tory on the 10th inst. 18.Japanese summoned important conference in Formosa dis- cussing measures to extend Japanese influence into south China. The conference was popularly known as "The Opposite Shore Conference. *' 19.Central Political Council approved the national budget for the year. Income and expenditure balanced at$777,302,226.
20.Supreme Court ordered remission of the sentence of Chen Tu-
hsiu, the communist leader, from 15 years' imprisonment to
8 years.
23.Ying Tung arrived at Dairen to open discussions with Japanese
on outstanding Sino-Japanese questions.
27.Sun Fo, President of the Legislative Yuan, had an interview
with President Roosevelt at Honolulu.
28.New Agreement of Canton-Kowloon Railway signed at Hong-
kong.
AUGUST
3.Government troops in Fukien recaptured Shuikow from the
Communists. Foochow safe.
5.Government received reports, stating 11 provinces had been
affected by the drought. Loss estimated $2,300,000,000. 6.National Government appointed Minister. Quo Tai-chi, Wunsz King and T. Y. Lo as Chinese delegates to the 15th Assembly of the League of Nations. xxiv PRINCIPAL EVENTS 23.General Liu Hsiang, Commander-in-Chief of the Anti-Bandit Forces and the Rehabilitation Commissioner of Szechwan, left Chengtu and tendered resignation to the Central Government of his posts. 27.Today, being the anniversary of the birthday of China's Great Sage, Confucius, an elaborate sacrificial ceremony was held at Chufu, Shantung. Similar commemoration services were held at Nanking and other cities. SEPTEMBER 2.The Japanese aerodrome outside the Great Wall pass, Hsi- fengkou, was completed with an accommodation for over 100 planes. 15.Dr. H. H. Kung denied the report that the Cotton and Wheat Loan had been diverted for purchase of munitions. OCTOBER 1.General Huang Mu-sung offered sacrifice to the late Dalai Lama at a Temple in Lhassa. 8.General Chiang Kai-shek telegraphed to the chairman of ten provincial governments, ordering the enforcement of compul- sory labor. 14.The Anti-Red Army in Kiangsi captured Hsinkuo in Kiangsi. 14.The Ministry of Finance increased the silver export tax. 1(3.The Draft Constitution was passed by the Legislative Yuan on its third reading. 16.National Government accepted resignation of Liu Wen-lung, as Chairman of the Sinkiang Provincial Government, and appointed Li Yung, as his successor. 17.General Chiang Kai-shek flew to Lanchow on an inspection tour, accompanied by Madame Chiang and General Chang Hsueh-liang. 17.General Liu Wen-tao, Minister to Italy, promoted to the rank of ambassador. 17.-Chu Cheng, President of the Judicial Yuan, appointed con- currently Minister of Justice. 2;i.Chu Cheng, new Minister of Justice, assumed office. 25.Resolutions passed by the C.E.C. to the effect that (1) the 5th Kuomintang National Congress be postponed and (2) the 5th Plenary Session of the C.E.C. be held on December 10. 25.The spokesman of General Chiang Kai-shek's headquarters at Nancliang issued statement counteracting the statements made by General Tsai Ting-kai's in America with reference to the Sino-Japanese conflict at Shanghai in 1932. 2b.The 3rd Route Army captured Ningtu in Kiangsi from the Communist-bandits. PRINCIPAL EVENTS xxvii 28.The Communist-bandits in southern Kiangsi fled to Yutu and removed their capital to southwest of Juikin. NOVEMBER 1.The East Route Army captured Changting, important Red stronghold in Fukien, from the Communists. For six years since 1929 that city had been in the hands of the Reds. 6.Executive Yuan appointed Liu Wei-chih Political Vice-Minister, and Kuo Cheng-kan Administrative Vice-Minister, of Indus- tries. 9.Resolution passed by the Executive Yuan that the Provincial Government of Hopei be re-organized and that General Yu Hsueh-chung retain his chairmanship. 10.Juikin so-called "Red Capital", captured by the Eastern Route Government Forces. 12.General Chiang Kai-shek returned to Nanchang after inspec- tion tour to more than ten provinces in north and northwestern China. 13.National Government appointed General Ho Yao-tsu, Vice- Chief of General Staff, as first Chinese Minister to Turkey. 13.Sze Liang-tsai, publisher of the Shun Pao, and prominent citizen in Shanghai, assassinated on the Shanghai-Hangchow Highway while travelling to Shanghai from Hangchow in his own motor car. 16.Kweihua in Fukien captured by the government troops from the Communists. 17.Yuta in Kiangsi recovered by the government troops. 22.The period for the redemption of the Japanese loan to Nan- chang-Kiukiang Railway amounting to$17,000,000 extended
to two more years.
23.Hweichang in Kiangsi captured by the Government troops.
24.Chi Hung-chang, former subordinate of Marshal Feng Yu-
hsiang, and Jen Ying,-chi, formerly of the Shantung Army
under Chang Chung-chang, court-martialled and shot by the
Peiping Military authorities on charge of being engaged in
reactionary activities.
27.The Communist-Suppression Headquarters in Kiangsi, Kwang-
tung, Fukien, Hunan and Hupeh ordered to be abolished by
the National Government.
27.General Chiang Kai-shek and President Wang Ching-wei issued
joint message to nation, urging clear demarcation of powers
between Central and Local Governments and other administra-
tive reforms.
29.General Chiang Kai-shek in a press interview at Nanking
resolved to uproot Communism in China.

xxvi
PRINCIPAL EVENTS
DECEMBER
4.Nanking ordered removal of Hopei provincial capital from
Tientsin to Paoting.
5.Nanking appointed General Huang Fu concurrently Minister
of Interior, and General Huang Shao-hsiung, Chairman of the
Chekiang Provincial Government.
10.Fifth Plenary Session of the Central Executive Committer
opened at Nanking; Wang Cliing-wei presided.
10.General Liu Hsiang, the Szechwan Military Commander, left
Nanking for Szechwan after completing ^arrangements for
political and financial reorganization of 'Szechwan province.
14.National Economic Council fixed budget of 1934-35 at $12,- 000,000. 14.4th Meeting of C. E. C. Plenary Session fixed November 12 as date for 5th Kuomintang National Congress. 15.C. E. C. 5th Plenary Session closed with manifesto appealing - for peace and unity. 2.General Chiang Kai-shek circularized Kiangsu, Chekiang and fourteen other provinces, enjoining the enforcement of com- pulsory labor service to the state. 3.General Lu Ti-ping tendered resignation as Chairman of the Chekiang Provincial Government. 4.Executive Yuan appointed General Chu Pei-teh Acting Chief- of-staff of the General Staff Board, General Tang Sheng-chi, Inspector-General of Military Training, General Chen Tiao- yuan, Chairman of the Military Advisory Council. The resig- nation of General Huang 'Shao-hsiung as Minister of Interior was accepted and General Huang Fu, Chairman of the Peiping Political Council, was appointed concurrently Minister. 10.Japanese military aerodrome at Pailitai in Tientsin completed. 11.General Liu Wen-tao, first Chinese Ambassador to Italy, de- parted for Rome from Shanghai. 18.Finance Minister, H. H. Kung, denied reports of contemplated inflation of currency by the Government. 19.Central Political Council appointed Wang Yung-ping Minister of Justice and Chen Ta-chi Chairman of the Examination and Selection Committee of the Examination Yuan. 20.Executive Yuan decided upon reorganization of Szechwan Pro- vincial Government with General Liu Hsiang as Chairman. 26.Central Political Council confirmed the appointment of the 86 new members of the Legislative Yuan for the fourth term. 26.New Minister of Justice Wang Yung-ping assumed his office. 27.Akira Ariyoshi, Japanese Minister, called on Wang Ching-wei, President of the Executive Yuan, in connection with new pilotage regulations as affecting Japanese pilots. 29.The Staff Corps for Szechwan, organized by the Nanchang Pro- vincial Headquarters of the President of the Military Affairs PRINCIPAL EVENTS xxvii Commission and headed by General Ho Kuo-kwang, departed for Szechwan. 30.The question of resumption of postal relations between China Proper and the Northeast settled. Regular mail service to be resumed on January 10, 1935; parcel posts on February 1. JANUARY, 1935 1.The anniversary of the founding of the 24th Year of the Re- public celebrated in Nanking. 4.French Minister protested against the Chinese Government action restricting the activities of the International Saving,* Society. High officials of Japanese Kwantung Army Head- quarters held important meeting at Dairen to discuss policy towards China. 5.The main force of Communists under Chu Teh and Mao Tse- tung in Kweichow fled to Tsengyi, northern Kweichow, and captured the city. 5.Circular telegram by General Chiang Kai-shek to Kiangsu, Cliekiang and eight other provinces prohibiting poppy cultiva- tion in these provinces. Ministry of Foreign Affairs lodged third protest with Japanese Government against deportation of Chinese residents from Japan. 7.M. Lojacono, first Italian Ambassador to China, arrived at Shanghai. 10.Postal service between China Proper and the Northeast resumed today. 15.Ambassador Liu Wen-tao presented hts credentials to the Italian King and was received in audience. 16.Japanese troops in Jehol moved towards Dolonor and situation in eastern Chahar became tense. 17.Japanese Army Headquarters in Jehol announced that punitive measures would be taken against the Chinese troops in eastern Chahar. 17.General Ho Ying-ching returned to Peiping to resume his office as Chairman of the Peiping Branch Military Affairs Commission. 17.The Huai Tung Postal Transmission Office at Shanhaikwan bombed by Chinese students. No casualties. 18.Japanese Kwantung Army Headquarters issued communique announcing determination to suppress General Sung Chi-yuan's troops in eastern Chahar. 19.A mixed force of Japanese and Manchukuo troops moved to- wards Kuyuan, eastern Chahar. 10.Tscngyi, northern Kweichow, captured by the Communists on January 5. Recovered by Kweichow troops. 23.Japanese troops bombarded Tungshatze, eastern Chahar, claim- ing the district part of Manchukuo territory. xxviii PRINCIPAL EVENTS 24.Japanese troops air-bombed Kuyan and Tushihkow, eastern Chahar, and inflicted heavy casualties. 24.Japanese troops occupied Tungshatze, eastern Chahar. 24.Standing committee of Central Executive Committee of Kuo- mintang defined the principle of news' censorship as follows: all news and comments made in good faith can be freely published, but the propagation of principles contrary to the San Min Chu I will not be tolerated. 25.The first Italian Ambassador, J. Lojacono, presented his cre- dentials to President Lin Sen of the National Government. 26.Cliarhar affair to be dealt with as a local issue and settled by the Peiping Branch Military Affairs Commission with the Japanese Kwantung Army Headquarters. 28.Japanese troops withdrew from Tungshatze, but occupied two more villages of Kuyuan. 28.Revenue Department of Finance Ministry announced the abolition of 2,600 kinds of miscellaneous and exorbitant taxes. 29.Dr. Wang Chung-hui declared that Canton-Nanking rappro- chement is now only a matter of time. 30.Kan Nai-kwang, resigned from posts as Vice-Minister and Acting Minister of the Ministry of Interior. 31.Nanchang Provisional Headquarters of the President of the Military Affairs Commission officially abolished today. FEBRUARY, 1935 1.General Chiang JIai-shek issued important statement on China's foreign policy and the Sino-Japanese situation. 2.Sino-Japanese delegates held peace conference at Tatan, western Jehol, to discuss measures of settlement of the Chahar affair. 9. Szechwan Army recovered Tungkiang from the Communists. 10.New Szechwan Provincial Government inaugurated at Chung- king, Chairman Liu Hsiang issued statement on planned reforms, 10.Pachung in northern Szechwan recovered from the Reds. 10.Wireless service between China and Italy inaugurated. 12.Executive Yuan appointed Li Ping-heng, China's delegate to the International Labor Conference at Geneva. 13.Telegraphic communicatins between China Proper and the Northeast resumed. 14.General Chiang Kai-shek, interviewed by Japanese correspon- dents declared that there is necessity of Sino-Japanesje co- operation, but righteousness should be the principle in the adjustment of Sino-Japanese complications. 14.China Travel Service announced its disassociation with the Eastern Tourist Bureau which had been jointly organized by China and Japan to handle traffic matters on the Peiping- Liaoning Railway. PRINCIPAL EVENTS xxxi 16.-Currency Advisory Committee formed at Nanking with Finance Minister II. H. Kung as Chairman. 19.First anniversary of the New Life Movement observed through- out the country. Executive Yuan appointed General Hsueh Yo, Commander of the 4th Army (the famous "Ironsides"), Pacification Commissioner of Kweichow. 19.Dr. Sven Hedin, the famed Swedish explorer, decorated by the National Government. 20.Wang Ching-wei in speech at the Central Political Council declared that sincerity should be the guiding principle in the settlement and adjustment of all Sino-Japanese complications. 21.Major-General Doihara was entertained at dinner by President Wang Ching-wei of the Executive Yuan. 23.Dr. Sven Hedin received in audience by President Lin Sen of the National GGovernment. 23.Dr. Wang Chung-hui exchanged views with high officials of Japanese Navy and War Officers, including former War Minister Araki. 20.Executive Yuan appointed Tao Lu-chien and Hsu Hsiu-chih as Political and Administrative Vice-Ministers of the Ministry of Interior. 27.Cotton Mill No. 7 of Sung Sin Company owned by Yung Chung-chin, popularly known as China's Flour King, was auctioned by the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corpora- tion, first mortgagor. 27.Central Political Council passed resolution ordering protection of life and property of the people and their freedom of trade. MARCH, 1935 1.New Provisional Headquarters of the President of the Military Affairs Commission at Wuchang officially inaugurated. 2.General Chiang Kai-shek telegraphed to Nanking endorsing the speech of President Wang Ching-wei on February 20 on China's fundamental policy towards Japan. 4.Dr. Wang Chung-hui issued farewell statement expressing gratification that something has been accomplished by his visit to end the unfortunate estrangement between China and Japan during the past few years. A.Hu Han-min issued statement in connection with Major- General Doihara's visit to the South, stating that he agrees to the proposal for cooperation between China and Japan, but the cooperation must be based on the teaching of Dr. Sun Yat-sen '' to ally ourselves in a common struggle with the peoples of the world who treat us on the basis of equality." Solution of all trouble between China and Japan must precede any atempt at cooperation. 6British Legation at Peiping issued statement denying that Great Britain had proposed a loan to China. xxxii PRINCIPAL EVENTS 7.Japanese Minister Akira Ariyoshi called on Wang Ching-wei, expressing satisfaction over Mr. Wang's speech on the Sino- Japanese relations on February 20. 7.Finance Minister H. H. Kung declared that there had been discussions of an international loan to China, but the loan was far from being materialized. 12.10th anniversary of the death of Dr. Sun Yat-sen observed throughout the country. 12.Yellow River had sudden and abnormal rise and threatened to inundate all the southern districts in Hopei. 13.Central Political Council appointed General Huang Mu-sung Chairman of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission. 14.Sir Alexander Cadogan, the British Minister, called on Presi- dent Wang Ching-wei, expressing gratification at the improve- ment in Sino-Japanese relations. 16.China addressed identical notes to the Governments of Great Britain, France, Japan and the United States, defining China's stand in regard to the Chinese Eastern Railway and declaring that any unilateral action on the part of the Soviet Union in the disposal of the railway to any third party with- out China's consent is null and void. 16.-Japanese Kwantung Army Headquarters issued order prohibit- ing the entry of Chinese workers and peasants to the North- east. 17.General Chiang Kai-shek issued stern order prohibiting military interference in civil administration. 18.Ministry of Foreign Affairs released statement to the interested Powers in connection with the illegal sale of the Chinese Eastern Railway by the Soviet Union to Manchukuo, declaring that China fully reserves her rights over the Railway. 20Central Political Council sanctioned the issurance of the 24th fiscal year Financial Bonds to the amount of$100,000,000.
20.Yellow River in southern Hopei continued to rise and situa-
tion critical.
20.Good-will plane of Japanese Newspaper Asalii Sliiiribun arrived
at Nanking from Tokyo.
22.Changyuan city in southern Hopei in danger of being sub-
merged by Yellow River.
23.The agreement of sale of the Chinese Eastern Railway by the
Soviet Union to Manchukuo with Japan guaranteeing payment
of the purchase price signed at Tokyo.
23.Finance Minister H. H. Kung issued statement, denying that
China is seeking British loan of Â£10,000,000.
23.Faculty of the National Chungshan University at Canton issued
statement, opposing the action recently taken by Nanking and
Tokyo in bringing about Sino-Japanese rapprochement.

PRINCIPAL EVENTS
xx
27.Central Political Council appointed General Chiang Kai-shek
Full-General of the Special Grade who in that rank is Com-
mander-in-Chief of China's Land, Navy and Air Forces.
28.Chang Kai-ngau, General Manager of the Bank of China was
appointed Deputy Governor of the Central Bank.
30.Chow Lu, prominent member of Southwest Political Council
issued statement, denying Japanese press reports in connection
with Major-General Doihara's interview with him to the
effect "I am well-informed of the 'spirit' on which Manchukuo
is founded." Mr. Chow asserted what he actually said was
"If 'Sino-Japanese cooperation is desired, Japan should return
the four Northeastern Provinces and cease her military activi-
ties in China."
30.General Chiang Tso-ping, Chinese Minister to Japan, departed
from Tokyo for a tour of inspection to Formosa and Korea.
31.Major-General Doihara at a press interview at Shimonoseki
warned Japan against "blindly aiding" Nanking Government.
On same day, interviewed by the Asahi Shimbun, he declared:
"All China is turning pro-Japanese and the Chinese in general
appear to regard 'Manchukuo' as fait accompli.7*
APRIL, 1935
1.General Chiang Kai-shek at press interview in Kweiyang an-
nounced he is launching a new movement to be known as
"The People's Economic Reconstruction Movement" as an
adjunct to the "New Life Movement."
1.T. V. Soong elected President of the Bank of China in suc-
cession to Li Ming, resigned, at a meeting of the Board of
Directors.
2.Judicial Yuan and Ministry of Justice at Joint meeting decided
to create a special committee to study the end of the system
of extraterritoriality in China.
2.Pu Yi of "Manchukuo" departed from Changchun for Japan
on a visit to the Japanese Emperor.
2.Y. Suma, Japanese Consul-General at Nanking, in an interview
with the United Press, said that Sino-Japanese rapprochement
was far from being accomplished.
5.General Chin Shu-jen, former Chairman of the Sinkiang Pro-
vincial Government, was sentenced by Kiangsu High Court to
three and a half years' imprisonment and deprivation of
civil rights for five years on the charge of instigation of
foreign menace to the state by his illegal conclusion of the
Soviet-Sinkiang Commercial Treaty.
6.Chu Teh, Commander-in-Chief of the Communist Forces in
Kweichow, reported killed in action.
8.Japanese Diplomatic and Consular Conference opened at
Shanghai to remain in session for three days.

xxxii
PRINCIPAL EVENTS
9.Yungshun, Red stronghold in southwestern Hunan, captured
by Honan troops.
LO.Hu Han-min issued statement, offering eight measures for the
solution to the Far Eastern Problems.
10.Japanese Consular officials at their conference in Shanghai
expressed dissatisfaction with efforts of Chinese Government
in connection with suppression of anti-Japanese activities in
China.
17.Nanking observed 8th anniversary of founding of the National
Government.
38.General Chen Chi-tang unifies command of Kwangtung's Land,
Navy and Air forces with his assumption of the concurrent
post as Commander-in-Chief of the Kwangtung Fleet.
20.Akira Ariyoshi, Japanese Minister to China, left Shanghai for
Japan to report to Tokyo Foreign Office on Sino-Japanese
relations. There were persistent reports that Mr. Ariyoshi was
resigning.
22.American Economic Mission to China arrived at Shanghai.
24.Mongolian Local Autonomy Political Council held 2nd plenary
session.
17.Nanking officially announced the formation of the Sino-British
Boundary Commission for the readjustment of the Yunnan-
Burma Boarder.

INTERPRETATIVE INTRODUCTION
CURRENT TRENDS FORWARD
Editor
Progress China and Christianity therein are both
of China nncler external pressure; the first that of
military and political pressure particularly, and
both that.of depression pressure. Yet both are working
towards reconstruction. Neither is depending on outside
resources as much as formerly and both include inter-
national cooperation as a factor in achieving their aims.
Both are looking and, along certain lines, going forward.
Thus progress is discernable in China in spite of the
potent adverse factors so distressingly evident within and
around. To the progressive trends in the present situation
in China only brief mention can be made.
Growth of The steady growth of Chinese under-
Understanding standing of the country's danger and
needs is obvious. The danger to China's
political integrity is not minimized. There is frank and
public admission of China's inability to meet this danger
in any modern military way. Insight into China's econo-
mic, industrial, rural, educational, communication and
governmental needs is growing in clarity. Not only is
China's archeological and art history being studied but
researches into all kinds of social and economic situations
are under way. There are frequent reports in English
on many of these subjects. For the first time, also, the
Chinese have published a Year Book in English. All this
indicates that China's needs and potentialities are under-
going scientific scrutiny. The New China, led mainly by
those with an international educational experience, has
learned modern methods of study from the West and is

2
RECONSTRUCTION
applying them to the finding of suitable ways to meet
China's political, social and economic problems. China is
comprehending her own needs in modern terms and slowly
developing her own methods of meeting them.
Reconstruction The motivation and keynote of this
of Attitudes drive to understanding is reconstruction.
Of efforts to reconstruct mental attitudes
there are two. The general requirement for military
training of students aims, it is said, to build up loyalty
and readiness to meet the country's needs. This has not
yet issued in anything approaching compulsory military
service. With it runs the New Life Movement which
aims to revive old ideals of personal conduct and to
set up habits of cleanliness and useful activity.
Neither of these emphases has yet become a 4 4 mass
movement" in the full meaning of that term. A
large conference on military training in schools,
which was to have been attended by officials and heads
of schools this summer on Kuling, was called off. No
official reason for this action has been given.
Material The fruits of material reconstruction are
Reconstruction both more apparent and more tangible.
They were set forth under the editorship
of T'ang Leang-li in a book of 400 pagesReconstruc-
tion in Chinapublished August 1, 1935. It was re-
ported that 1934 registered an increased buying on the
part of China of foreign steel, iron, machinery and com-
munication supplies. This was taken as "an indication
of the great progress made in China's reconstruction pro-
gram".1 Efforts at rural rebuilding loom prominent.
The promotion of rural cooperatives, indeed, has become
almost a nation-wide movement. Chinese commercial
banks have shown a "remarkable readiness, unique in the
history of cooperation, to organize and finance (coopera-
tive) societies".2 Unfortunately no equal* attention is
1. China's Foreign Trade, Second half-year, 1934, page 104.
2. Page 297.

CHRISTIAN PROGRESS
3
being given to the needs of factory labor. In both wages
and employment factory workers have Jost gains won a
few years since. They are now set on the defence of
what was won formerly and is now being lost. There are
rigid laws to keep siudi iabor from causing trouble, but
little is being done to relieve their distress. Their needs
do not loom so urgent at those of rural workers. Pro-
gress in communications is relatively rapid. In fourteen
years, for instance, about 106,000 miles of all kinds of
roads have been constructed. In the social sphere the
steady growth of child welfare work is encouraging. The
above are a few of the peak efforts in reconstruction in
China.
Government China is putting her own house in order,
and Welfare Plagued though her leaders are by the
political situation they are not wasting
energy in futile resentment or ineffective military
attempts to repel the invader. One especially significant
aspect of the present situation is that China now has a
Government that is assuming responsibility for national
welfare. Inadequacies there are still aplenty, but New
China is trying to do what old China just talked about.
Among the provinces Kwangsi appears to be making the
best all-round progress in reconstruction.
Christian While the Christian Movement as a whole
Progress appears to move but slowly in some aspects it is
decidedly going forward. Its basis of support and
guidance is now rooted in China. Considerable sums of
money are being secured in China for schools and hospitals.
In spite of the depression church support is advancing
in some sections. Agitated discussion of decreased funds
from the West is little in evidence. There is a mounting
wave of indigenous evangelism. The number of inde-
pendent Chinese evangelists is increasing. This year's
(1935) Youth and Religion Movement, following that con-
ducted by Dr. Sherwood Eddy in 1934, will have Chinese
at its head interpreting Christianity to Chinese youth.
A book was published not long since with the title, "My

4
COOPERATION
Religious Experience" in which Chinese Christians set
forth religion as it grips them. A new union hymnal
will appear shortly which contains many new Chinese
tunes and hymns. In addition to this evangelism by word
we have evangelism by deed as seen in Christian participa-
tion in rural reconstruction. Of this the work of the
Kiangsi Christian Rural Service Union at Lichwan, Kiang-
si, is the spearhead. Chinese Christians are, however,
active in many other pieces of work not directly under
church direction.
Christian The trend in Christian circles to enlarged
Cooperation cooperation is definite and ongoing. There
is revived interest in church unity. Dr.
Edward H. Hume is to work with the Council on
Medical Missions to strengthen cooperation in medical
work between Christians and between them and com-
munity and national medical efforts. At its last biennial
meeting the National Christian Council3 invited the
Council of Medical Missions and the China Christian
Educational Association to become commissions of the
Council, both organizations concurring. This trend to
enlarged cooperation revealed itself clearly in the "Con-
ference on Education for Service in the Chinese Church"
held on Kuling this summer (1935). This conference
followed a survey and study made by Dr. Luther Weigle
and others. The survey is reported in this issue4 but
not the Conference. This conference recommended that
hereafter Bible Schools should train adults and lay
workers; but that schools for professional ministerial
training should require at least junior middle school
training. Here a concession was made to the general
feeling as this spring the National Christian Council re-
commended as a minimum general preparation for minis-
terial candidates graduation from a senior middle school.
Training standards were raised and clarified. Another
3. See Chapter XVII.
4. See Chapter XV.

TRAINING
4a
peg* in progress was driven down wlien the Conference
decided that:"The ordinary assumption that the rural
ministry requires a lower grade of ability and education
is false; it may require a higher grade." The Conference
recognized, too, that such a ministry cannot be supported
by villages acting alone or 011 the basis of the economic
standards usually obtaining therein.
Educational In a striking way the Conference showed
Cooperation its conviction that cooperation is essential
to effective education of Chinese Chris-
tians for service in the Chinese Church. In the Con-
ference itself thirty-five to forty denominations were re-
presented. It was a cooperative study. The National
Committee for Christian Eeligious Education was assigned
the task of developing a system of lay training. The ne-
cessary support of the type of rural ministers envisaged
is to be secured through the organization of church cir-
cuits and the establishment of a sustentation fund to
which churches and mission interests would subscribe,
including the churches needing help. Then Nanking
Theological Seminary, and the theological colleges at
Tsinan, Shantung, Canton and Chengtu, Szechwan, were
urged to take steps to unite. Finally a China Associa-
tion of Theological Colleges was organized which may in
time serve the whole field in various ways. This Con-
ference saw its problem as a whole better than it has
ever been seen and moved towards meeting it more united-
ly than was ever done before. It may open the door into
a new epoch!
Cooperative The cooperative spirit is fusing Christian
Experiment effort in China on a wider base than for-
merly. In addition there are cooperative
experiments going 011Tinghsien, for instancein which
Christians take their full share. Christian cooperation
in China is being built upon the basis of resources, forces
and needs in China. The planning therefor is both indi-
genous and international. Older and younger churches

4b
NEW OUTLOOK
are fusing in a common enterprise. Both, like China in
general, are deepening their understanding of their task
in China.
Community China is open to a remarkable degree for
Rebuilding the Christian message, to all kinds of Chris-
tian service and for cooperation between the
Christian forces themselves and other reconstructive
agencies rapidly increasing around them. Both national
and Christian forces are thinking more, than once used
to be the case, in terms of community needs and re-
building.
New Without ignoring the inadequacies in their
Outlook plans it may truly be said that both the Chinese
people and the Christian forces working among
them are marked by a new spirit, a daring determination
and a long look ahead. The long look sees, a stronger
China and a more effective church coming over the horizon.
Both nation and church are passing out of a period when
as separated entities they worked towards their own ends;
the nation is passing away from its former sectional
motivation and the church is actually shaking off the
inhibitions of denominationalism. Both are trying to co-
ordinate their forces. To this extent Christianity is
fitting into China's mood.

PART I
NATIONAL LIFE
CHAPTER I
TI-IE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT
Y. S. Tsao
Introduction Prior to the establishment of the Chinese
National Government in Nanking on October
4th, 1928, China had been experimenting with a republican
form of government for some seventeen years after the!
abdication of the Manchu or Ching Dynasty in 1911 as the
result of a revolution. During the first ten years there
was a semblance of a National Assembly and the chief
executive of the nation was elected to be President. With-
in the short period of seventeen years there were as many
as five presidents, one chief executive and a generalissimo
in Peking (Peiping) who endeavoured to' rule the country
from the old capital. The parliamentary foiin of govern-
ment, however, proved to be unwieldy and irksome, so
Yuan Shih-kai attempted a monarchical movement and
General Chang Hsun restored the Manchurian monarchy
for about a week by placing Henry Pu-yi on the dragon
throne. The monarchical movements were unpopular and
short-lived, yet there was no system of general election to
provide the nation with a legitimate president, so Marshal
Tuan Chi-jui assumed the title of chief executive while
Marshal Chang Tso-lin called himself a generalissimo. After
the death of Yuan Shih-kai, the authority of the Peking
regime dwindled rapidly, so that by the year 1925 and
afterwards, its authority hardly extended beyond the walls
of Peking. The time was ripe and the stage was set for
a great political reorganization of some kind.

6
NATIONALIST GOVERNMENT
Nationalist In the meantime, the Kuomintang, or
Government Nationalist Party, was gathering momentum
in Canton and established the Nationalist
Government in that city on July 1st, 1925. Within a
period of less than three years, the Nationalist army under
the Command of General Chiang Kai-shek succeeded in
conquering the whole country; for when General Yen Hsi-
shan took over Peiping and Tientsin on June 8th, 1928,
the nation was virtually unified. On October 4th, 1928,
the capital was removed to Nanking and the Organic Law
of the Government of the Republic was promulgated. The
title of "Nationalist Government'' was adopted, not so
mucfy as a designation for its national scope,, but more by
reason of its contradistinction from the earlier Peking
regime, and for its close affiliation with the "Nationalist
Party."
Organization As the National Government is the child
of the Nationalist Party, the power of the
Central Political Council is derived from the Central Ex-
ecutive Committee of the Kuomintang. The Central Pol-
itical Council is limited to discussion of and decision upon
the following general subjects:1. Fundamentals of Na-
tional Reconstruction; 2. Principles of Legislation; 3. Ad-
ministrative Policies; 4. General Plans for National De-
fence; 5. Financial Programs; 6. Selection of President and
Members of the State Council.
Periods of The program of reconstruction is based
Reconstruction upon the Three Principles and the Five-
Power Constitution of Dr. Sun Yat-sen;
Nationalism, Democracy and Livelihood are the three prin-
ciples; and Legislation, Administration, Judgment, Ex-
amination and Control are the five powers. The three
periods of reconstruction are; in order: 1. The Period of
Military Operations; 2. The Period of Political Tutelage;
and, 3. The Period of Constitutional Government.

THE YUAN
7
Organic Law According to tlie Organic Law, the Na-
tional Government is1 to be composed of the
following Yuans or Councils, namely, the Administrative
Yuan, the Legislative, Yuan, the Judicial Yuan, the Ex-
amination Yuan and the Control Yuan. The President of
the National Government shall represent the National Gov-
ernment in receiving diplomatic representatives and in
officiating or participating in State functions and shall be
the Chairman of the State Council. Each Yuan has a
President and a Vice-President, and each Yuan "m!ay, ac-
cording to law, issue orders."
Definition of 1. Tho Administrative Yuan is "the
The Yuan highest executive organ" of the National
Government. It is empowered to establish
ministries or appoint comfriissions. Each ministry is en-
titled to have a minister, a political vice-minister and an
administrative vice-minister, while each commission may
have a chairman and a vice-chairman. 2. The Legislative
Yuan is "the highest legislative organ of the National Gov-
ernment. '' 3. The Judicial Yuan is "the highest judicial
organ of the National Government.'' 4. The Examination
Yuan is "the highest examination organ of the National
Government and shall take charge of examinations and de-
termine the qualifications for public sendee." 5. The Con-
trol Yuan is "the highest supervisory organ of the National
Government and shall, according to laiw, exercise the power
of impeachment and auditing.''
For the transaction of the duties of the State Council
there are established within the National Headquarters, the
Department of Civil Affairs and the Department of Mili-
tary Affairs.
Status of According to the fundamental principles
The Yuan of modern government, the Legislative
Yuan takes the place of the legislative body
or parliament, the Judicial Yuan that of the courts of
justice and the Administrative Yuan that of the cabinet.
The Examination Yuan and the Control Yuan are the

8
LOOAL GOVERNMENT
special features of Dr. Sun Yat-sen's "Constitution of
Five Powers." Under the Administrative Yuan are at
present ten Ministries and four National Commissions:
1. Interior; 2. Foreign Affairs; 3. Military Affairs; 4. Navy;
5. Finance; 6. Agriculture and Mining; 7. Industry, Com-
merce and Labour; 8. Education; 9. Communications; 10.
Railways; and National Commissions on:11. Reconstruc-
tion; 12. Mongolia.n and Thibetan Affairs; 13. Opium Sup-
pression; and, 14. Famine Relief.
Adminstra- The Administrative Yuan consists of a
tive Yuan secretariat and a Bureau of Political Affairs.
The decisions of the Administrative Yuan are
submitted to the State Council for approval. If the State
Council be likened to a cabinet, according to the usual
sense of the Word, then the Administrative Yuan is tan-
tamount to a cabinet within a cabinet.
Ministries The organization of the various ministries
is similar in composition, namely, a minister,
two vice-ministers, four counsellors, four to eight secre-
taries, and four or more directors of departments. In the
commissions, the internal organization is more varied,
generally however, each has a chairman and a vice-chairman
with a number of divisions and technical committees. Con-
cerning the organization of the yuans and ministries, the
framework has been given here and inasmuch as the struc-
ture of them is very similar, there is no necessity to reiterate
them!.
Political Unit According to the "Fundamentals of Na-
tional Reconstruction," "The district is the
unit of self-government. The province links up and pro-
vides means of cooperation between the Central Govern-
ment and the local district governments." Since the
summer of 1928, steps have been taken to organize the hsien
(district) governments and to standardize the organization
of the various provinces. Six new provinces have been
created, namely, Hsikang, Ch'inghai, Ninghsia, Suiyuan,

SELF-GOVEKNMENT
9
Chahar and Jeliol. There are twenty-eight provinces, in-
cluding the four north-eastern provinces, but excluding
Mongolia and Thibet.
Municipalities Apart from the provincial and district
governments, there are also special muni-
cipalities and municipalities; the former are ranked with
the provincial governments so they come under the jurisdic-
tion of the National Government, while the latter come
under the provincial governments. There are seven special
municipalitiesNanking, Shanghai, Peiping, Tientsin,
Tsingtao, Hankow and Canton; and eight municipalities
Hangchow, Ningpo, Tsinan, Nanch'ang, K'aifeng, Cheng-
chow, Ch'engtu and Lanchow.
Provinces The provincial governments have pol-
itical councils, the chairman of which is
equivalent to a governor. In the municipalities the chair-
men are known as mayors. Under these governments, there
are a number of bureaus, such as the Bureau, of Finance,
Civil Affairs, Education, Social Affairs, Public Health,
Public Utilities Public Safety, Reconstruction, etc.
Districts To go farther down into the scale of local
governments, the district consists of a number
of ch'u or counties, each county consists of twenty to fifty
towns, each toKvn consists of one hundred families. The
smallest unit is a, lin consisting of five| families, while five
lin make a hi.
Election In order to introduce self-government to the
Rules people, the rights of election, recall, initiative
and referendum are conferred first on the lin
and lu, then on the town and finally on the districts. Time-
limits have been set for the organization of the local gov-
ernments, but the task is so gigantic, that only in a few
provinces are conditions ripe for the new system of govern-
ment.

10
GOVERNMENT FINANCES
Ministry The Ministry of Finance was one of the earli-
of Finance est departments to be established under the
Nationalist Government. The success of the
Kuomintang Party owes a heavy debt to the resourceful ex-
Minister of Finance, T. V. Soong, who built up a very credi-
table revenue-collecting machinery within a short period of
time. Since his resignation, Dr. H. H. Kung is keeping the
orga,nization intact and at the same time making steady
improvements. It can be readily understood that under
present conditions of world depression and when gigantic
efforts are being made at gold and silver regulation by
different countries, it is well-nigh impossible for China to
.undertake any great fundamental financial measures, such
as the adoption of a gold standard currency and the like,
in order to place China's financial system on a footing
equal to those of older and more permanently established
governments.
Finances In view of the importance of this government
department, it .might be well to recount here in
brief some of the outstanding features within the last few
years. In 1930, the Ministry submitted a comprehensive
report on the national receipts and expenditures for the
fiscal year of 1928-1929, which gave the total receipts at
$434,440,712.92, of which$209,536,969.49 went to military
expenditure and $121,318,007.57 for debt service. Revenues The three outstanding bulwarks of China's financial system are the Customs' Administra- tion, the Salt Gabelle and the Consolidated Tax (or Intern- al Revenue Administration). Since the conclusion of the tariff autonon^y treaties, a ;more scientific system of graduated tariff has been adopted in lieu of the 5% con- ventional tariff. The Salt Revenue Administration was disorganized for a time during the military campaign of the Nationalist Party, but with the restoration of better order the receipts have improved very appreciably. The so-called Consolidated Tax Administration started with the tax on rolled tobacco, at present it includes other items CENTRAL BANK AND MINT 11 such as matches, cement,, cotton, etc., so it is now called the Internal Revenue Administration which yields the Gov- ernment about$100,000,000 per annum.
National "With the three bulwarks of China's finance
Credit more centralized and more efficiently adminis-
trated, the Government has been able to abolish
the Ukin which had acted as a barrier for the free flow of
goods in domestic trade. The collection of import duties
on a gold basis by the introduction of the system of the
customs' gold unit has greatly stabilized the receipts of the
Government for the maintenance of the service of China's
foreign and domestic obligations which, in turn, directly
strengthens the creciit of thci country.
Central Bank The establishment of the Central Bank
is another outstanding feature, because
within the short space of a few years, it has become the
Government depository of revenues and departmental
funds.
Mint The Central Mint plays its part in currency
reform and, up to date, it has coined dollars and
bars to the value of $100,000,000 already. Time and again, the Ministry of Finance has endeavoured to enforce the budgetary system upon the Government and on many oc- casions, it has been defeated by the urgent demands made upon the Treasury for military expenses. With the return of more peaceful conditions in the country the budget system is gradually being adopted by the Government. National In May 1931,, the Chinese Government sent Economic a telegram to the Council of the League of Council Nations with reference to technical collabora- tion in the task of national reconstruction and China's decision to establish a National Economic Council in China to handle this work. On June 26tli, 1933, a com- munication outlining the measures regarding such collabo- ration was presented by the Chinese Government to the. Council, so on July 18th, 1933, the special committtee ap- pointed by the League Council met in Paris and adopted 12 NATIONAL ECONOMIC) COUNCIL some important resolutions concerning technical coopera- tion. The chief principle is that "the appointment of the technical agent requested by the Chinese Government is of a purely technical and entirely non-political character." He is to be the liaison officer between the National Econo- mic Council of China and the competent organs of the League of Nations. The Standing Committee of the Na- tional Economic Council consists of the Prime Minister, Mr. Wang Ching-wei; the President of the Legislative Yuan, Dr. Sun Fo; the Chairman of the Military Affairs Commission, General Chiang Kai-shek; the Minister of Finance, Dr. H. H. Kung; and thei ex-Minister of Finance, Dr. T. V. Soong. This very strong Standing Committee made a detailed study of the activities to be undertaken and financed during the year 1934, in addition to the work begun in 1931. Purpose of When the National Economic Council Council was inaugurated on Nov. 15th, 1931, the then Chairman of the National Govern- ment, General Chiang Kai-shek, described the purpose of the Council as follows: "The constitution of the National Economic Council clearly shows that it was the desire of the National Govern- ment to create an Advisory Council in which the principal Ministers of the Government may have the advantage of having associated with them private persons from outside, selected not because of the positions they hold, but because of their personal qualities and abilities, from amongst the leaders in the various forms of activities they perform. They are invited to help the Government in planning and executing an urgent development program. The Council as a whole is thus an advisory board, but as far as the ministerial members of the Council accept policies pro- posed, they will be, as members of the Government, in a position to give immediate executive effect to them. . In this respect the Council will have the most responsible duties to perform.'? RECONSTRUCTION 13 Foreign Since 1930, more than two dozen experts have Experts been sent by the League to China to make com- prehensive studies and surveys of conditions in China. There were( six men on hygiene and medicine, nine men on education, five men on transit and communications, four on agriculture and two on economics and finances. The expenditure of the Council as provided by the Na- tional Government, since 1931 to the end of September 1933, has totalled$4,550,000. For the year 1934, $15,000,- 000 were allotted in the following proportions: Roads ......................$ 6,800,000
Health ............................................500,000
Cotton............................................1,000,000
Silk ................................................750,000
Kiangsi..........................................1,900,000
North-West ..................................2,500,000
Coal Survey ..................................100,000
Economic Research......................300,000
Tea..................................................64,000
Administration and Experts ... 750,000
Reserve..........................................436,000
Total .... $.15,000,000 Reconstruction The scope of the work of the National Economic Council is so extensive and its importance so vital that the funds available are altogether inadequate. For the first time, the Chinese Government is attempting to make a plan for national reconstruction. The work already accomplished during the preparatory period 1930-1933 and the policy and prospect of the future cannot be adequately dealt with, but a few passages of the Report might be quoted to indicate somewhat the nature of the subjects that are being tackled by the Council. Cotton and In agriculture, it has been clearly indicated Silk that the fundamental factors i,n the situation are the low output, the very high cost of credit facilities, the heavy burden of taxation and the harsh 14 WATER CONSERVANCY and uneconomic system of land tenure. What more need be said, if the Government is m!ade to realize those vital factors which require immediate attention! In the cotton industry, China imported$233 million of raw cotton, but if
the Chinese cotton-growers used a better seed, no cotton im-
ports would be needed. What a stunning revelation to those
who are endeavouring to wipe out the unfavourable trade
balance of China! In the silk industry, the one potent
cause of irregular qualitiy is the failure to grade the co-
coons. Dr. Mari said, that the reconstruction of China's
sericultural industry is a task of great magnitude which
can only be accomplished by compulsory Government reg-
ulation. If the National Economic Council will realize
the importance of compulsory application of scientific
management to the chief industries of China, the adverse
trade balance might be wiped out within five to ten years.
Water In water conservancy, what China has
Conservancy done within the last three years must be
regarded as unprecedented in the history
of China. It was necessitated by the Yangtze and Yellow
Rivers' floods. It is, therefore, pleasing to record that
owing to that example set by the National Government,
the provincial government of Kiangsu has a comprehen-
sive engineering plan which will virtually eradicate the
terrors of flood and drought in Kiangsu and at the same
time reclaim one million mow of land for cotton cultivation.
The scheme will cost $20,000000 but the economic gain will be at least five-fold. Roads In the question of road building, the Council at itsi inception organized a Roads' Bureau in order to stimulate and control the) construction of roads. Road- builcling is very popular in China and before long there will be 80,000 kilometers of tolerably good roads through- out China. Health and In both health and educational questions, Education the League experts are also giving China valuable advice through the National Eco- nomic Council. Better health conduces to greater physical NATIONALIST GOVERNMENT 15 vigour, more universal education means a larger number of people will have more mental acumen. These are two vast mines of strength and power which the Chinese people must unearth as quickly as possible for the task of national reconstruction. "In this respect, the Council will have the most responsible duties to perform" said General Chiang Kai-shek in his inaugural address as Chairman of the Council. It is to be hoped that he has fully envisaged the vital problems that are being systematically tackled by the National Economic Council under the able leadership of Dr. T. V. Soong. A rather disproportionate amount of space seems to have been devoted to this section of work of the National Government, but as within the scope of its work lies the germinating seeds of national salvation, it must not be ignored, although this Council is neither a ministry, a commission nor a regular yuan of the Govern- ment. Central When the forces of the Nationalist Govem- Authority m^ent reached Peiping in the late summe,r of 1928, the territory directly under the control of the Central Government was only three provinces, name- ly, Kiangsu, Chekiang and Anliwei. The other provinces were still under the control of local military men or Com- munists. The process of unification went on apace, but some declared their independence or defied the Central Government. Under the circumstances, the authority of the Nationalist Government suffered great loss; and it was the Japanese attack upon the northeastern provinces that helped to iron out some of the differences. Even to- day, the southwest is still semi-independent, with Sze- chwan and Sinkiang being gradually brought under the full control of the Nanking Government. Nationalist The system of government set up by the Government Nationalist Party in Nanking and which has been called the "Nationalist" instead of "National" Government, is a most complicated one. The machinery is based upon the committee system and it 16 POWERS OF GOVERNMENT consists of wheels within wheels. Aside from the funda- mental difficulty of setting into motion a new and com- plex governmental machinery, the Government had to face the difficulties created by rebellious and disgruntled revolu- tionary heroes,, communistic uprisings, independent war- lords, idealistic politicians, and a large body of untrained and inexperienced officials. Over and above these obsta- cles, the constant conflict of authority which arose between the all-powerful party and the administrative officers re- quired the enactment of m#ny .government measures to define the demarcation betlween political and executive powers. While the Nationalist Government was engaged in the task of surmounting these difficulties, China's neigh- bours Russia and Japan, demonstrated their impatience in Sinkiang, Mongolia and Manchuria by making some hay. Had the new National Government been more simple and perhaps more dictatorial, tlie unification of the country would have been considerably hastened. And it may be claimed as almost certain that had the Nationalist Party as a party exercised less power and had Peiping continued to be the national capital, the Manchurian affair would not have developed into such dimensions. It is for the sake of certain intangible political principles, therefore, that the four northeastern provinces have been sacrificed. Bishop Blougram's "Apology" made a case for the achievements of the Christian Church, so likewise there are foreign and Chinese "bishops" who make pleas for the Chinese Nationalist Government, eminent among whom are Sir Frederick Maze, Prime Minister Wang Ching-wei and a number of responsible state ministers holding various portfolios. Nevertheless, observers are not blind to the fact that the Nationalist Government of China is lumbering along most heavily; and that a considerable amount of lubricant is still required to enable it to render the service that it is supposed to perform for its own preservation. Mr. Chen Kung-po, the" Minister of Industry, declares that there is too much over-lapping of duties in government depart- ments, which leads to wastage; too vague political demarc- EFFICIENCY OF GOVERNMENT 17 ation of powers, which produces conflict and confusion; and too low a standard of efficiency in the governmental personnel. "All these/' he says, "have reduced the ad- ministrative efficiency of the Chinese Government to practically nil.,, Although Mr. Chen's criticism holds a certain amount of truth, his concluding remark must be regarded as an overstatement, because despite the over- whelming difficulties of the Government considerable pro- gress has been made along many lines. CHAPTER II CHINA'S RELATIONS WITH WESTERN POWERS W. H. Ma As one reviews the international relations of China during the past year, one may not fail to see that diplo- matic developments in Eastern Asia tend to center around the Sino-Japanese dispute, the one issue which drew the attention of the world, during the past few years, to the Far East. Although the subject of the present chapter is "China's Relations with Western Powers," it' seems to be necessary to take Sino-Japanese relations also into consider- ation and view the one central fact which has been dom- inant during the past few years from three different angles: namely, the reactions of the Western Powers against:(1) Japanese territorial expansion in China; (2) the Japanese struggle for economic supremacy in Eastern Asia,, and (3) the Japanese nullification of the great peace treaties concluded since the Paris Peace Conference. I. Revival of the Activities of the Powers in the Preservation or Expansion of Territorial Influences in Eastern Asia. Mongolia The Japanese occupation, in a surprising- and ly short time, of China's Four Eastern Pro- Manchuria vinces, an area of 440,000 square miles, seems like a miracle to the Powers of the world. Since the conclusion of the Tangku Truce in 1932, Japan has practically created a second "South Man- churia" in North China where she is exerting import- ant influence, both economic and political, over the local governments at Peiping and Tientsin. In oc- cupying a few strategic points, including Dolonor in the northeast of Charhar province, Japan holds the key to Outer Mongolia and the two Inner Mongolian provinces of Chahar and Suiyuan. The autonomous movement of SOVIET INFLUENCE 19 the Mongolians in the northern districts of Chahar and Suiyuan received its inspiration from Japanese activities in Eastern or Manchnrian Mongoliawhere Japan has created for Mongolian tribes the province of Hsingan and also from Soviet activities in Outer Mongolia, where the Young Mongolians have been vigorously sovietizing the country and attempting to separate it from China. Eastern Asia While other powers have maintained a and Powers watchful attitude toward the territorial expansion of the Japanese in China, they themselves! have not been inactive in protecting, if not ac- tually extending, their territorial interests in Eastern Asia. It may be interesting to summarize the activities during the past few years of the three powersthe Soviet Union, Great Britain, and Francewhich previously had territorial interests in the border districts of China. Soviet Influence Since the establishment of the revolu- tionary Mongol People's Government at Urga on July 6, 1921, marking the termination of Chinese rule and the end of Japanese influence in Outer Mongolia, the Soviet Union has dominated the internal and external affairs of thei new state. Soviet advisers occupy important positions in the Mongolian government and have thus been enabled to introduce the Soviet system into that territory and actually to regard Outer Mongolia as a part of the Union. The Japanese expansion in Eastern and Inner Mongolia has simlply hastened the completion of Soviet control in this border territory, of China, by means of which the Red authorities hope to protect their territorial pos- sessions in Siberia and also to link up their interests in Sinkiang and Central Asia. Russia and The compaetion in 1930 of the Turk-Sib Sinkiang Railway, which runs hundreds of miles along the border of Sinkiang, brought the influence of the Russians close to that huge northwestern province of China. Through their organization of national trade organs, the Soviets have been able to dominate the 20 GREAT BRITAIN AND CHINA economic life of Sinkiang\ They have acquired a virtual monopoly of the import and export trade of Sinkiang, and their control of the currency has led them to dominate the finance of the province. Following the establishment of their supremacy in the economic life of Sinkiang, the Soviets played a vital part in the internecine struggles between the local warlords during 1933-4. The emergence, as the unquestioned ruler of Sinkiang of General Shen Shih-tsai, who has during1 the period of civil war received from the Soviets! supplies in money and in munitions, has tremendously increased the influence of the Soviets in the political life of the province. Soviet advisers, both political and military, are being employed to assist in the rehabilita- tion of that territory. While the expansion of the Soviet influence in Outer Mongolia! and Sinkiang may ultimately lead them into conflict with the westward expansion of Japanese influence in Mongolia, their dominance of Sin- kianer will also1 cause rivalry between them and the British in Tibet and southwestern Sinkiang. Great Britain It is not quite possible to prove that and China's British authorities in the East have become Far West active since the Japanese and the Soviets have resumed territorial expansion1 in Man- churia, the Mongolias and Sinkiang; but there is every indication of the! growth of British influence in Tibet and West China. Early in 1934, there was an independence movement in Kashgar in the southwest of Sinkiang which, according to an Anglo-B/ussian agreement, was recognized as a British sphere of influence. This movement for inde- pendence had its inspiration in the desire on the part of the natives and the British not only to overthrow Chinese rule but also to counter-balance the growing influence of the Soviet Union in northern Sinkiang. Through the British controlled railway from India to Kashmir, border- ing southwestern Sinkiang, the rebels were enabled to secure supplies of munitions from India and Afghanistan. TIBET AND BURMA 21 Great Britain In Tibet itself, British influence, follow- and Tibet ing the death of the pro-British Dalai Lama, has been strengthened, by the choice of a successor to the deceased spiritual ruler in a newly-born baby who can be utilized to bar the return to Lhassa of the pro-Chinese Panchan Lamia, now in exile. In 1934, the British-trained Tibetan troops invaded both Chinghai and Hsikong, which are now established as regular provinces of China. The border conflicts between Tibet and Hsikong proved so serious that the Central Government at Nanking had to accept a local agreement for peaceful settlement arrived at between the governor of Hsikong and the Tibetan authorities. As the British hold of that territory is so strong, the special mission sent in 1934 by Nanking to Lhassa for improving Sino-Tibetan relations did not achieve any fruitful results. Burma and Another border incident which took place Yunnan between British Burma and Yunnan pro- vince in the same year also aroused the suspicions of thei Chinese that Great Britain was expanding her territorial influence in West China. In April, a small band of Burmese troops invaded Yunnan and occupied Pan- hung* and Cheng-Kangtsai districts, which are known, for their wealth of gold and silver. Pending diplomatic neg- otiations between China and Great Britain for a peaceful settlement of the incident, the Burmese remain there min- ing the precious metals. France and The sudden announcement by the French Southwest in July 1933 of their occupation of the nine China small coral islands in the China Sea, not far from! Hainan Island, Chinese territory, gave rise to considerable suspicion on the part of the Chinese (and in this matter also the Japanese) in regard to French intentions in South China. In controlling the railway running between Haiphong (Annam) and Yunnanfu (Yunnan), the French have maintained a dominant in- fluence over the economic and political life not only of 22 FRANCE AND YUNNAN Yunnan province but also of the rest of the southwestern provinces, including Kwangsi, Kweichow and, to some ex- tent, Kwangtung. Through their manipulations of tariff duties, the French have made it practically impossible for the goods of other countries, including China, to compete with French goods on the Yunnan and Kweichofw market. Through their domination of the main artery of communica- tions in the Southwest, the French are in control of the great revenue-producing opium trade in Yunnan and Kwangsi provinces. Similarly, the French control of the railway gives tliemi a monopoly in selling to the local militarists the munitions which are essential to the success of the French-favored faction contending for military and political power in the southwestern provinces. The French grasp of Yunnan province has become so strong that they would reject any encroachment on their influence there by other powers, even including China. The China National Aviation Corporation contemplated in 1933-4 the establish- ment of a netw air route between Canton and Yunnanfu, but its plan was obstructed by the French, who are opposed to outside competition with their Haiphong-Yunnanfu Railway. So long as Japan confines her expansionist pro- gram! to northeastern China, conflicts between the French and Japanese over territorial advantages in China may be avoided. * II. The Japanese Struggle for Dominance in China Versus the International Struggle for Equality of Oppor- tunity. "Hands Off The announcement on April 17, 1934 of China" Policy the so-called Japanese "Monroe Doctrine in Eastern Asia" through a spokesman of the Tokyo Foreign Office was a cause of anxiety and opposition not only in Nanking but also in London, Washington and other political centers. In this statement, the Japanese declared that, "Owing4 to the special position of Japan in her relations with China, Japan is called upon to exert the utmost effort in carrying out her mission and in fulfilling her special responsibilities in JAPAN'S POSITION 23 Bast Asia." The Japanese further asserted that in order to keep peace and order in East Asia, a task which it is their duty to perform, they must ever act alone and on their own responsibility. Although Japan would not find it necessary to interfere with any foreign country negotiating individually with China on.questions of finance or trade, Japan did object, in the following terms, to foreign as- sistance to China: "We oppose therefore any attempt on the part of China to avail herself of the influence of any other country in order to resist Japan; we also oppose any action taken by China, calculated to play one power against another. Any joint operations under- taken by foreign powers even in the name of technical or financial assistance at this particular moment after the Manchurian and Shanghai Incidents are bound to acquire significance. Undertakings of such nature, if carried through to the end, must give rise to communications that might necessitate discussion of problems like fixing spheres of influence or even international control or division of China which would be the greatest possible misfortune for China and at the same time would have the most serious repercus- sions upon Japan and East Asia. Japan's In a word, Japan desired, through this Dominant statement, to assume a dominant position in Position Eastern Asia. This nxeant that Japan would be the only country which could lend financial and technical assistance to China. Other countries, in dealing with China, must secure Japan's approval before they proceed to act. Consequently, China would be re- garded as Japan's protectorate, while Japan would be re- spected as the protector of the "Asiatic Monroe Doctrine." Evidently the conditions included in this statement con- stitute a breach of the, Open Door Doctrine which was officially recognized in the Nine-Power Treaty of the Wash- ington Conference. The Powers, claiming the privilege of equality of opportunity in China, quickly rose to lodge protests with the Tokyo Government against the principles of the April Declaration. British and American ambass- adors in Tokyo were active in making representations of their governments' views to Koki Hirota, the Japanese Foreign Minister, asking him to clarify the Japanese posi- 24 CHINA AND LEAGUE tion and abandon the principle of monopolistic control in China. Confronted with world opposition and criticism, the Japanese Foreign Minister, on April 28, formally with- drew the statement and asked the foreign diplomats to regard it as "officially non-existent." Although the Powers emerged victorious in the April 1'934 struggle for equality of opportunity and maintenance of the Open Door Doctrine, they are far from being assured that Japan will not resort to equally effective rnieans to gain a dominant economic and political position in China. China and If the Powers, in order to maintain the League the principle of equality of opportunity, struggle to prevent Japan from closing the door of China against them, they must answer the Jap- anese protest that Japan should not be excluded from participation in any international effort in lending assist- ance of whatever nature to China. The publication in May 1934 of the report of Dr. Ludwig Rajchman, the League liaison officer in China, recommending more tech- nical and financial collaboration between China and the League, led the Japanese to launch an attack on the activi- ties of Dr. Rajchman in China and to insist on his dis- missal. Although the League did not openly comply with the Japanese objections, it, nevertheless, failed to send Dr. Rajchman back to China to finish his term of service. Moreover, the League is not prepared to raise an inter- national loan in order to relieve China's financial distress or to assist her in economic reconstruction. Finally, the few League experts who came to China before the Ra.jchman report and have not been withdrawn are not exerting- much influence upon China's progress. It may be inferred from these negative facts that the League, in the face of Japan- ese opposition, will refrain from giving any substantial help to China in the near future. Reports are persistent that the influential Japanese in Tokyo are pressing the Chinese Government to employ Japanese experts and ad- visers either in cooperation with League experts for China's reconstruction or as substitutes for them, Manchukuo 25 Oil Law of In October of 1934, the Japanese, through Manchukuo their puppet government at Changchun, issued a new law granting to themselves monopolistic control of the production and distribu- tion of oil in Manchukuo. They had formed in Feb- ruary, 1932, a Manchuria Petroleum Company which was designed to exploit the oil mines at Fushun, which contain some five billion tons of crude oil. The capital of the company, amounting to yen 5,000,000, was chiefly owned by the South Manchuria Railway Company and Manchukuo. The neiw monopoly law granted to this com- pany the control of all oil shales in Manchukuo, and the right to handle all imported oil. Foreign oil interests might stay as distributors or wholesalers subject to the restrictions of the mpnopoly law. Should they find it un- profitable to continue business in Manchukuo, they might leave the country, and their plants would be purchased by the Japanese oil company. Open Door In consequence of the operation of the and Manchukuo oil law in Manchukuo, it becomes in- evitable that the door of that territory will be gradually closed to other countries. So far as oil is concerned, the interests of the United States, Great Brit- ain, Russia and Holland are affected. The former two Powers have lodged vigorous protests with the Tokyo gov- ernment against the promulgation of the oil law. The Powers pointed out that the new law constituted an act directly violating article III of the Nine-Power Treaty pro- viding for the maintenance of the Open Door or equality of opportunity in China. The Japanese turned a deaf ear to these protests with the easy argument that since Man- churia is no longer a part of China and "Manchukuo is an independent state" the Powers should negotiate with the proper authorities at Changchun instead of Tokyo. Under such circumstances, very little progress could be achieved by the Powers in the struggle to maintain equality of opportunity in Eastern Asia. 26 TREATY REVISION Revision of Treaty According to their provisions, the Relations Sino-British and Sino-American commercial treaties of 1903-4 can be revised at the end of every ten years if one party demands their revision. The Sino-British commercial treaty was due for revision on July 28, 1933, the date marking the end of the third ten-year period; and the Sino-American treaty was due for revision on January 13, 1934. China served notice at the proper time to the British and American gov- ernments, demanding revision of these treaties. The most important question in connection with the revision is the abolition of extraterritoriality in China. Other stipulations touch the property and professional interests of the British and American nationals carrying on business and mission- ary enterprises in this country. The two governments did not show any enthusiasm] for the revision; on the other hand they ; took it for granted that the treaties should con- tinue in force for another ten-year period or some indefinite time. In face of the Japanese struggle for dominance in Eastern Asia, it is natural that the Western Powers should be reluctant to relinquish their special rights and privileges in this country. Consequently, the question of revising Sino-foreign commercial treaties constitutes another evi- dence of the struggle between the Japanese "Asiatic Monroe Doctrine" and the Western Open Door Doctrine in Eastern Asia. ; III. Failure of Peace Machineries in the Far East. "Non-Recognition While Dr. Stanley K. Hornbeck, Doctrine" Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs, Department of State, Washing- ton, reaffirmed on January 18, 1934 the Stimson doctrine of "Non-recognition of governments made by swords," the Japanese proceeded on March 1 to crown Henry Pu Yi as the Emperor of Manchukuo. Two days after the corona- tion of Pu Yi, Cordell Hull, Secretary of State of the United States, in reply to a friendly note of Koki Hirota, the Japanese Foreign Minister, dated February 21, ex- pressly said: "I believe that there are in fact no questions RECOGNITION OF MANCHUKUO 27 between our two countries which, if they be viewed in proper perspective in both countries, can with any warrant be regarded as not readily susceptible to adjustment by pacific processes." Although Secretary Hull took care to say that "it may be possible for all of thei countries which have interests in the Far East to approach every question existing or which may arise between or among them in such spirit and manner that these questions may be reg- ulated or resolved with injury to ,none and with definite and lasting advantage to all,'' his willingness to cooperate "in the fullest possible measure" with Hirota in amicably solving queistions between the two countries caused the Japanese to believe that the United States had tacitly accepted the fait accompli and would not, at least, do any- thing to disturb the situation created by the Japanese in Manchuria. Recognition of Other countries which are not bound Manchukuo by any unilateral declaration of non- recognition, as the United States is, have come, in a greater or lesser degree, into contact with Man- chukuo. The recognition accorded to Mancliukuo in 1933 by Salvador, a member of the League, placed the Geneva organization in an awkward position, for it had unani- mously adopted the resolution of non-recognition of Man- chukuo. The action of Salvador, however, produced no great effect because the country was so small as to be neg- ligible. British The sending by the Federation of British Industrial Industries, the most powerful organization of Mission its kind in Britain, of an Industrial Mission to Manchukuo in August of 1,934 greatly ex- cited the feelinigs and suspicions of the Chinese people as to the faithfulness of the British Government in observing the non-recognition principle. Although the Industrial Mission formally denied any political connections, its leader, Baron V. "W. Barnby, said to the Japanese that "no gain will be made by Great Britain or any other 28 league and manchukuo ; ; j; ; | 1 foreign power by further delaying the recognition of the government of Manchukuo.'' I-Ie would desire "to con- nect Great Britain, Japan, and Manchukuo with the chains of friendship." Soviet and The Soviet Union which is bound neither Manchukuo by any unilateral statement nor by a mul- tilateral resolution about non-recognition, has assumed full-fledged normal relations with Manchukuo. She has received Manchukuo consuls in her cities in the maritime provinces. She formally signed an agreement on navigation with the Manchukuo representatives. Most important of all her ambassador at Tokyo has carried on formal negotiations with the Manchukuo delegate for more than a year concerning the sale of the Chinese Eastern Railway. In signing on March 23 of this year a formal agreement to sell the C.E.R. to Mancliukuo, it can hardly be doubted that the Soviet Union lias accorded nothing short of de jure recognition to the puppet state. It is only fair to say that the Soviet Union, whose territories are contiguous to those of Manchukuo, could not have com- pletely avoided dealing with the Japanese or their agen- cies, the Manchukuo authorities; but her actions undoubt- edly destroyed the value of the non-recognition principle. League and As shown in the foregoing section, the Manchukuo League did not effectively prevent the na- tions, members or non-members, from ac- cording formjal recognition to or making substantial con- tacts with Manchukuo. Its special committee for imple- menting the League resolution regarding non-recognition has remained inactive since its organization. On the other hand the League, in a resolution, has relaxed the postal ban against Manchukuo by authorizing individual powers to devise, any sort of modus vivendi for carrying on postal communications with it. It has become a generally ac- cepted fact that the report unanimously adopted by the League denouncing- the Japanese action in Manchuria and Jehol has produced no effect whatever upon Sino- Japanese relations in the Far East. naval treaty 29 China and Under such circumstances, China alone Manchukuo could not stand against the threat of Japan- ese diplomacy and militarism in North China. She agreed to the resumption on July 1, 1934 of through railway traffic between Peiping and Mukden. At four passes in the Great Wall, China established cus- toms offices, thus accepting informally a temporary bound- aiy line between herself and the Japanese occupied ter- ritory. Later in the year, she agreed to the opening of postal communications between China proper and Man- chukuo. Early in tliis year, the telegraphic communica- tions between the two were resumed. Consequently, the League resolutions have failed to apply in relations be- tween China and Japan. Washington When the preliminary task at London Naval regarding the question of the reduction Treaty of naval armaments had failed, Japan on December 129, 1934 issued an official noti- fication denouncing the Washington Treaty of Naval Limitations. Both Great Britain and the United States expressed regret for the Japanese action, but they still maintained their former policy toward naval disarma- ment. The abrogation of the Washington Naval Treaty inevitably affects the status of the other treaties concluded at Washington in 1922, particularly the Four-Power Pact and the Nine-Power Treaty. The limitation of naval armament was the purpose of the Washington Conference and the treaty governing it was the backbone of the new international relations created in the Pacific since 1922. It is true that Japan had already violated the principles of the Nine-Power Treaty when her troops occupied the Four Eastern Provinces of China. The denunciation of the Naval Treaty simply increased Japan's freedom in carrying out her program in the Far East. China's The foregoing analysis' of international Dilemma events in China during the past few years must lead one to conclude that the Japanese activities and those of the western powers in Eastern Asia 30 china's difficulties have brought about a new phase of imperialism in this part of the world. Japan's occupation of Chinese ter- ritories has profoundly upset the normal order of inter- national relations in the Far East, and has put the great peace machineries of the world under severe strain. The ascendency of Japanese militarism in Eastern Asia has awakened the western powers to the fact that their inter- ests in the Far East, particularly in China, have been injuriously affected. Individual powers have to seek effective means to protect their acquired political and commercial interests. A new battle for territorial and economic influence in China, with Japan on the offensive and the western powers on the defensive, has opened. The old imperialism/ that dominated China from the Sino- Japanese war of 1894-5 to the Washington Conference of 1921-22 has revived, though in modified form, and is ex- ercising its sway over nationalist China. The latter, sand- wiched between the Powers of the East and of the West, finds herself in a difficult situation. China's In the first place, the attempt on the Difficulties part of Japan to dominate the economic and political life of China has bred resent- ment on the part not only of China but also of the West, a resentment which seriously interferes with the progress of Sino-Japanese rapprochement. In the second place, the inability of the western powers and Japan to agree on the form of technical collaboration and financial as- sistance has left China pessimistic about the prospects of international cooperation. Finally, the Japanese inter- ference and the lack of international agreement have tended to delay China's own program of reconstruction. CHAPTER III SINO-JAPANESE RELATIONS, 1933-35 Shuhsi Hsu Tangku The last issue of this Year Book witnessed Truce the conclusion of the Tangku Truce1 (May 31, 1933) which is as follows: 1. The Chinese troops are to withdraw to a line con- necting Yenching, Changping, Kaoliying, Shunyi, Tung- chow, Siangho, Paoti, Lintingchen, Ningho and Lutai. No Chinese troops from the south and west will crosS this line in the direction of the Great Wall and the Chi- nese troops will offer no provocation to the Japanese. 2. The Japanese troops, in order to ensure the per- formance of article 1 at any time may with airplanes or other means inspect this area, the Chinese troops giving all necessary protection and facilities. 3. "When the Japanese troops recognize the complete performance of article 1 the Japanese troops will not cross the line mentioned and will not pursue the Chinese troops and will withdraw to the Great Wall. 4. Between the line beyond which the Chinese troops may not go and the Great Wall the maintenance of peace and order will be in the hands of Chinese police. 5. The armistice agreement is effective from the day of signature. Passenger Since then two agreements have been Traffic entered into for the restoration of com- munication between the four Ja!panese-oc- cupied provinces and the rest of China on the understand- ing that they do not prejudice the legal status of those 1 Renter's translation of the Japanese version in The Shanghai Evening Post and Mercury, June 1, 1933. 32 postal and train service provinces. One of these agTeements which relates to through traffic on, the Peiping-Mukclen Railway2 (June 28, 1934) is in substance as follows: (1) Beginning Juty 1 direct passenger traffic between Peiping and Mukden shall be restored. The service shall be confined to one train from each end daily. (2) The China Travel Service and the Japan Tourist Bureau have been entrusted by the Chinese and the Jap- anese sides respectively, with the task of organizing an Oriental Travel Bureau at Shanliaikwan to handle all matters connected with such through traffic. (3) All such matters as the operation of trains, their schedules and composition and the sale of tickets shall be regulated by this administration separately. Postal The other agreement3 which relates to postal Service service (December 30, 1934) is as follows: Article 1.Following the restoration of postal com- munication between China Proper inside the Great Wall and the Northeastern Provinces, the handling of mail matter shall be entrusted to an agency to be jointly or- ganized by the Chinese and Japanese postal authorities. This agency shall establish mail transmitting offices at Shanhaikwan and Kupeikow, respectively, to undertake the work. Article 2.Postage stamps and covers of mail matter shall not bear the mark of "Manchoukuo." Article 3.In marking dates and years on stamps and covers of mails, the Western calendar shall be adopted. Article 4.The charges for mail matter shall be col- lected according to existing postal regulations of the re.- spective parties concerned. 2 Unofficial translation of the proclamation issued by Mr. Yin Tung, Managing. Director of the Peiping-Mukden Railway, which appeared in The Peiping Chronicle, June 29, 1934. 3 Given out by the Chekai Agency in the North-China Daily News, January 6, 1935. CHINA'S PACIFIC ATTITUDE 33 Article 5.In regard to stamps, the Japanese side shall issue a special kind of stamps for the purpose and the use of any other kind shall not be permitted. Article 6.Restoration of ordinary mails shall start from January 10, 1935, while postal money orders and parcel post shall be accepted from February 1. Article 7.Mails to Europe and America via Siberia shall be restored. Article 8.This agreement shall not be changed or altered without the concurrence of both the parties con- cerned. China's From the foregoing it is evident that for the Pacific present at least the Chinese Government has Attitude no intention of resorting to force for the re- covery of the occupied provinces. In fact they have not stopped at the measures already noted, but have gone out of their way, or practically so, wherever they can, to show the Japanese their pacific attitude. Be- sides many other acts they have suppressed all popular protests against the Japanese in the form either of boy- cotts or of propaganda and revised their tariff in favor of Japanese goods. The last measure took effect on July 1, 1934. Manchuria Japan, on the other hand, has shown no and Jehol sign that she would loosen her grip upon Manchuria and Jehol. On the contrary, she has even advanced a step further by making efforts on the one hand to establish a protectorate over China or what is left of her, and on the other, to compel the world to acquiesce in not only what she had done in the north- eastern provinces, but also at what she may do with China as a whole. It may be recalled that 1931, in which year troubles in Manchuria were started, was also the year in which the civil war which had characterized the Chinese history of the previous decade practically came to an end, and na- tional reconstruction along various lines was launched. 34 RECONSTRUCTION In order to carry out the latter mission effectively, col- laboration was sought from the League of Nations. On account of the event of September 18th and, still worse, of the extension of hostilities by the Japanese, nothing very substantial could, however, be achieved. Government In the middle part of 1933, about the and close of the Japanese operations inside the Reconstruction Great Wall, the National Government began to revive, or rather intensify, its activities along reconstructive lines. Financial ar- rangements were made with the Reconstruction Finance Corporation of the United States for certain financial assistance from them, consultations were held with several delegations to the Monetary and Economic Conference at London for possible cooperation in the field of economic development, and a request was sent to the League of Nations for more closer technical collaboration. The last resulted in the appointment by the League of a technical agent to act as a liaison officer between China and the competent organs of that body. In the meantime the National Governmleint, of! course, does not neglect the modernization of China's national defence, a process that was initiated in the Canton days of the Nationalist move- ment and that contributed significantly to the success of the Nationalist Revolution. Japan's Using the constructive efforts described in Mission the foregoing as a point of departure, the Ja- panese made the following "unofficial'' dec- aration4 on April 17, 1934: "Owing to the special position of Japan in its relations with China, doctrines advocated by Japan respecting mat- ters that concern China may not agree in every point with the ideas of foreign nations; but it must be realized that Japan is called upon to exert the utmost effort in carrying 4 Rengo's Japanese version in The Japan Advertiser, April 18, 1934. PEACE IN EAST ASIA 35 out its mission in East Asia and in fulfilling its respons- ibilities. Japan has been compelled to withdraw from the League of Nations because Japan and the League failed to agree in their opinions of Japan's position in East Asia, and although Japan's attitude toward China may at times differ from that of foreign countries, such differences cannot be avoided, clue to Japan's position and mission. Peace in "It goes without saying that Japan at all East Asia times is endeavoring to maintain and enhance its friendly relations with foreign nations^ but at the same time this country considers it only natural that, to keep peace and order in East Asia, it must act single-handed and upon its own responsibility. In order to be able to fulfill this obligation, Japan must expect its neighbor countries to share the responsibility of main- taining peace in East Asia, but Japan does not consider any other country except China to be in a position to share that responsibility with Japan. Unity of "Accordingly, preservation of the unity China of China, as well as restoration of order in that country, are two things ardently desired by Japan for the sake of peace in East Asia. History shows that unity and restoration of order in China can be attained through no other means than waking up China. China and "Japan will oppose any attempt of China the Powers to avail itself of the influence of some other country with the idea of repelling Japan, as this would jeopardize the peace in East Asia; and it will also oppose resort by China to any measure intended to "resist foreigners by bringing other foreigners to bear against them." Japan expects foreign nations to give consideration to the special situation created by the re- cent Manchurian and Shanghai incidents, and to realize that the undertaking of joint operations in regard to China, even if they be in regard to technical or financial assistance, must eventually attain political significance 36 JAPAN AND CHINA for China. Undertakings entailing such significance, if carried through to the end, must give rise to complications that might even necessitate discussion of problems like fixing zones of interest or even international control or division of China,, which would be the greatest possible misfortune for China and at the same time would have the most serious effects upon East Asia and, ultimately, Japan. Foreign Japan therefore must object to such under- Negotiations takings as a matter of principle, although it will not find it necessary to interfere with any foreign country negotiating individually with China in regard to propositions of finance or trade, so long as those propositions are beneficial to China and are not likely to threaten the maintenance of order in East Asia. If such negotiations are of a nature that might disturb peace and order in East Asia, Japan will be obliged to oppose them. Foreign "For example, supplying China with war Munitions planes, building aerodromes in China and detailing military instructors or military ad- visers to China, or contracting a loan to provide funds for political uses, would obviously tend to separate Japan and other countries from China and ultimately would prove prejudicial to the peace of East Asia. Japan will oppose such projects. Japan's "The foregoing attitude should be made clear Policies by the policies followed by Japan in the past. But, due to the fact that gestures for joint assis- tance to China and for other aggressive assistance, by foreign countries, are becoming too conspicuous, it is deemied advisable to make known the foregoing policies." China and On the 19th, the Kuo Min News' Agency International gave out from Nanking the following state- Peace ment of the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs5: 5 North-China Daily News, April 20, 1934. POLITICAL COOPERATION 37 "China is always of the opinion that international peace can be maintained only by the collective efforts of all members of the family of nations. Especially is it neces- sary for nations to cultivate a genuine spirit of mutual understanding and remove the fundamental causes of friction in order to establish durable peace among them. No State has the right to claim the exclusive responsibility for maintaining international peace in any designated part of the world. International "Being a member of the League of Nations, Cooperation China regards it as her duty to promote international cooperation and achieve inter- national peace and security. In her endeavor to attain these ends, she has never harboured any intention of injur- ing the interests of any particular country, far less caus- ing a disturbance of peace in the Far East. China's relations with other nations in this regard have always been of such a nature as should characterize the relations between independent and sovereign States. Non-Political "In particular, China desires to point out Cooperation that the collaboration between herself and other countries, whether in the form of loans or in the form of technical assistance, has been strictly limited to matters of a non-political character, and that the purchase of such military equipment as aeroplanes and the employment of military instructors and experts have been for no other purpose than national defence, which chiefly consists in the maintenance of peace and order in the country. 'Â£ No nation which does not harbour any ulterior motives against China need to entertain any fears concerning her policy of national reconstruction and security. Sino-Japanese "In regard to the situation now existing Relations between China and Japan, it should be emphasized that genuine and lasting peace between the two countriesas between any other coun- triesshould be built upon foundations of goodwill and 38 POLITICAL POLICIES mutual understanding'; and that it would go a long way towards the laying" of such foundations if the existing un- fortunate state of affairs could be rectified and the rela- tions between China and Japan could be made to rest on a new basis more in consonance with the mutual aspirations of the two countries." Attitude of Western Powers were no more ready The Powers to accept the position assumed by the Japanese. On the 27th Reuter report- ed6 : "The Times today states that it is understood from a report received by the Foreign Office from Sir Francis Linclley, the British Ambassador to Tokyo, that the Ambassador made it quite clear to Mr. Koki Hirota, Japanese Foreign Minister, in conversation with him on Wednesday that Britain maintained all her rights under the Treaties concluded with China and stood by all her obligations under multilateral Treaties concerning China. Open Door "The diplomatic correspondent of The Morn- Policy ing Post states that Sir Francis Lindley, British Amassador to Japan informed the Japanese Government that Britain fully adheres to the Open Door policy formulated in the Nine-Power Treaty whereby the British Government holds the opinion that Japanese interests in China are adequately protected. "Britain cannot recognize as legitimate any unilateral action tending to modify or depart from the Treaty." American The American attitude is even more stiff. On Policy the 30th the United Press gave out from Wash- ington the following7: "America's answer to Japan'g bid for an eastern Asiatic hegemony was made public here today when the State Department published a statement which Mr. Joseph C. 6 The Peiping Chronicle, April 28, 1934. 7 The Peiping Chronicle, May 2, 1934. "HANDS OFF CHINA'' POLICY 39 Grew, the United States Ambassador to Japan, delivered on Sunday to Mr. K. Hirota, the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs. "Hands1 off China" The statement, following upon Ja- Policy pan's declaration of a "Hands off China" policy, is generally considered as more far-reaching and more important than the Hoover- Stimson doctrine issued after Japan's military occupation of Manchuria. By refraining from specific mention of the Nine-Power Treaty Mr. Grew is considered to have uttered an American policy applying not only to Far Eastern events up to the present but extending to whatever may develop in the future from a Japanese expansion policy. Treaty In his statement to Mr. Hirota 011 Sunda}r, Obligation, according to the announcement of the State Department today, Mr. Grew emphasized the importance of observing treaty obligations relating to China. "Mr. Grew asserted to Hirota that the United States is duly considerate of the rights and obligations of other countries. 'On the part of other countries,' said the Ambassador, 'the United States expects due consideration of the rights, obligations and legitimate interests of the United States.' 'In the considered opinion of the American nation,' the Ambassador continued, 'the Gov- ernment of no nation can, without the assent of the other nations concerned, rightfully endeavour to make, conclusive its will in situations in which are involved the rights, obligations, and legitimate interests of other Sovereign States.' " Japan's But if the Japanese have failed to bluff the "Special world to acquiesce in her claim to a "special posi- Position" ion" in China, they are determined to compel it to the same. Japanese ambition is, of course, not confined to the domination of China. The goal at which they are driving is the conquest of East Asia, including' in the north the Far-Eastern Area of Soviet Russia and in the 40 JAPAN'S POLICY south the Indo-Chinese peninsula and the East Indies. There is also a fond hope that Australia, India and Siberia may be taken in next when these regions become "pro- pinquous"8 through the successful launching of the present plan. But either for this ambition, or for the more immedi- ate object of dominating China, or even merely for the strengthening of their hold upon Manchuria and Jehol as a step preliminary to the latter, it is necessary that they should first disarm the Western Powers in the Far East. This explains their denunciation of the Washington and1 London Naval Treaties and the reports which appeared recently in nelwspapers that they would demand the dis- mantlement of the fortifications at Singapore, the Hawaiian Islands, and the Russian possessions to as far west as Lake Baikal. Japan'sj As to im)mecliate Japanese steps concerning Immediate China, an idea may be gathered from the Policy following report9 given out by Reuter from Tokyo on January 29th, 1935: Mr. Hirota's China policy in 1935 is expected to be based on efforts to show China the necessity for throw- ing overboard her "age-old traditional policy of befriend- ing distant States and antagonizing her neighbours,'' ac- cording to the political correspondent of the Osaka Mainichi. This correspondent gives nine salient points which the Foreign Office is taking into consideration in the forma- tion of a China policy. 1. Maintenance of China's integrity. 2. Formal negotiations restoring Sino-Japanese rela- tions to normal. 3. Japan is prepared to extend political, economic, military or any other aid to any individuals or groups 8 The Japanese are in the habit of claiming a special position in a given region on the basis of territorial propinquity,' 9 The Peiping Chronicle, January 31, 1935. JAPAN'S CHINA POLICY 41 of sufficient calibre to assume full responsibility for a unified China. 4. Japan will gladly exchange ambassadors and will unhesitatingly enter into a Sino-Japanese pact similar to that existing betwjeen "Manchukuo" and Japan providing that China realizes the interdependence of China and Japan and recognizes her position as an important cog in the machinery of Fair-Eastern peace instead of leaning towards Europe and America. 5. Concerning Far-Eastern political questions Japan will prefer to enter into a separate pact with China. 6. Respecting military problems in the Far East, Japan desires that China be pledged not to appeal to the League of Nations and even that she withdraw from the League and in addition replace her European and American ad- visers with Japanese. 7. Japan considers the formation of a Japan-China- " Manchukuo" bloc as imperative in which connexion she is prepared to accord China extensive financial aid. 8. If China shows sufficient sincerity on all the above- mjentioned points Japan is prepared to make the North China truce a permanent treaty and establish a permanent neutral zone between China and "Manchukuo." 9. Regarding a possible bilateral Sino-Japanese treaty Japan considers it appropriate that negotiations should start six months after March 27, the date on which Japan's withdrawal from the League of Nations becomes effective. Popular The Chinese people have joined enthusiastic- Opinion ally in the reconstructive activities of the in China National Government, and for the time they express very little of their feeling. But this does not indicate that they are prepared to accept Japanese domination or even to forego the recovery of the occupied provinces. 42 MANCHURIA AND JEHOL Occupied The latter point needs further elucidation. Provinces Manchuria and Jehol are integral parts of China more than in the political sense. The Japanese have divided these areas into eleven provinces. With the exception of one known as Hsingan which is the land of the Mongols,10 ;all the rest are solidly Chinese in race, culture and sentiment. There are not lacking people who, either because of ignorance or of malice, have tried to persuade others to believe that Manchuria and Jehol are non-Chinese by playing upon the terms China Proper, Manchuria and Eastern Inner Mongolia, terms that do not correspond to facts. South Manchuria has been the land of the Chinese for over two thousand years. South Jehol was in history alternately the land of the Chinese and the land of the tribesmen in accordance with the ebb and flow of the tide of nomadism against civilization. The rest of Eastern Inner Mongolia and Northern Manchuria was, also so far as history goes, divided between the Mongolian nomads and Manchurian tribesmen with the boundary moving eastward or westward between the Hsingan range and the line formed by the Nonni and upper Sungari rivers in accordance with whether it was one or the other people that was in the ascendency. Dur- ing the Manchu dynasty, which lasted from 1644 to 1911, there was a constant stream of migration into China from both North Manchuria and Eastern Inner Mongolia in the form of recruits for the garrisons aml other kinds of military service inside the Great Wall. Chinese in As the process outlined above was working it- Manchuria self out, these northern areas which had always been rather sparsely populated became more and more empty, and in consequence Chinese from the inner provinces, especially Hopei and Shantung, gradually moved in, absorbing what remained of the tribes- men and pushing' back what remained of the nomads, until 10 Perhaps also so-caUed Chientao province where Koreans are in the majority. LIFE LINES 43 by the end of the dynasty the entire region under descrip- tion, outside what constitutes the so-called Hsingan prov- ince, had become an integral part of China racially as well as politically. Manchuria and Jehol have become Chinese not by conquest or any other form of seizure, but by the exchanging of abodes and amalgamation of races. The Chinese can with a clear conscience proclaim to the world on behalf of themselves and the assimilated tribesmen and nomads that the provinces now under Japanese military occupation are, in all senses of the word, theirs. "China's But Manchuria and Jehol are not merely Life Line" integral parts of China. There is no other border region that is so vital to the existence of the nation. That area not only overlooks the great Chinese plain, but is also well protected from it, and for these reasons has, since the fall of the T'ang dynasty, been repeatedly used as a base of operation against the inner provinces, resulting in conquests, in the case of the Ch'itans to a line formed by the inner Great "Wall of Shansi and its projection to the sea near Tientsin, in the case of the Nuchens to the Huai river, and in the case of the Manchus to the South China Sea. The only alien con- quest in the last ten centuries that was not started with an occupation of Manchuria and Jehol was that of the Mongol. But it may be remarked that, if not for the Ch'itan and Nuchen conquests which prepared the way, the Mongol conquest would not have been as easy as it was, or even at all possible. With this kind of experience the Chinese naturally cannot rest in peace when Manchuria and Jehol are again in hostile hands. "Life Line of There is another reason which makes it Civilization" impossible for the Chinese to acquiesce in what the Japanese have done. Reference is here made to the lack of good faith on the part of Japan and her readiness to destroy peace machinery when it does not happen to suit her purpose.. Peace and order will be maintained in the world only when the "life line of civilization" is not subject to cutting by malicious part- 44: JAPAN'S POLICIES ies and the sanctity of treaties is respected by members of the community of nations. International confidence will not be restored until the provisions of the Covenant of the League and the Pact of Paris are vindicated, and the territory adversely occupied by the Japanese is sur- rendered to its rightful ownerthe Chinese. On this point it is perhaps unnecessary to dwell at length. If the world cannot appreciate Chinese anxiety on other scores, it may be entrusted to share it on this account. Japan's In the process of encroaching upon China, Alternating which characterizes Japan's relations with Policies her continental neighbor in the last three score years*, the Japanese are in the habit of alternating a seemingly friendly policy with an out- and-out hostile one. Hence one sees them offer China assistance in her efforts to reconstruct the nation; once after the war to detach Korea and seize Formosa, the Pescadores, and the Liaotung peninsula; again after they had blocked all Sino-American efforts in the development of Manchuria and turned ;that area practically into a Jap- anese sphere of influence; and still again after they had occupied Shantung and forced the Twenty-one Demands upon the government of Yuan Shih-k'ai. In the last instance Peking happened to be in the hands of corrupt men, and they actually succeeded. Manchuria and Jehol are now in secure Japanese control. Before the next op- portunity comes for violence the Japanese will naturally occupy their time in peaceful overtures. Already a great deal of talk about "cooperation" between the two countries is in the air. Danger there will always be, especially at a. time when public men in China are dominated generally by a desire to achieve and are, therefore, in a way exposed to exploitation. It does not look likely, however, that the leaders will actually fall into the trap. SINO-JAPANESE PEOBLEM 45 Solution of On this point, referen.ee may be made to Sino-Japanese what one Chinese leader11 had to say re- Problem cently to correspondents of leading Jap- anese newspapers. He said: "I always take it that equity and justice are the funda- mental principles for the solution of the present difficult problem between China and Japan. Since you are journal- ists who wish that the two countries should cooperate, you ought first of all thoroughly to understand the true psychology of the Chinese people. To speak realistically, not only is there no anti-Japanese action and thought on the part of China, but there is no reason why she should necessarily be anti-Japanese. If the Chinese people uni- versally had a strong sentiment against the Ts 'ing dynasty, it was because they resented the domination of the Manchus. They struggled continuously for three centuries before they freed, themselves from the yoke of tyranny, and none in the country has yet lost that very painful memory. With the development of the northeastern question to the present pass, the wound is deepened. This sentiment may be said to be deep-rooted and absolutely impossible to dis- sipate. If the northeastern question remains as it stands, this kind of psychological reaction will become progressive- ly intensified.12 What has developed from the past no force of whatever nature can destroy. In exploiting the pos- sibility of Sino-Japanese cooperation it is well not to ignore the essential elements of this kind of national psy- chology.13" 11 General Chiang Kai-shek 12 Italics mine. 13 A translation from report given by the Central News Agency, in the Ta Kung Pao February, 17, 1935. CHAPTER IV NATIONAL ECONOMIC COUNCIL IN 1934* Chin Fen Guiding The work of the National Economic Council Principles for the year 1934 has been mainly directed to- ward meeting the most pressing need of China to-day. This need lies in the amelioration of the living conditions of the people through the development of trans- portation and communication facilities, rural rehabilita- tion, and improvement of productive industries. These three important phases of economic development constitute the nucleus of our endeavor. But in view of the limited funds placed at the disposal of the Council, some guiding principles were laid down in the formation of a program for the present year. These principles were: (1) con- centration of the funds on a few important and urgent activities only; (2) selection of certain regions in most urgent need of reconstruction; and (3) activities which may be important but beyond the financial resources of the Council should'not be taken up for the time being. In the light of these principles and on the basis of$15,000,000
appropriated by the National Government for 1934, the
Council's program of reconstruction was drawn up and
subsequently received thei approval of the Government.
In brief, the work of the Council may be divided into
six sections, namely, highway construction, hydraulic work,
rural rehabilitation, control of cotton industry, improve-
ment of sericulture, and public health.
I. Highway In the first stage of road development, the
Construction Council limited its effort to supervising
the construction of highways in the three
provinces of Kiangsu, Chekiang, and Anhwei. Six high-
ways have been completed under the Council's supervision.
They are: the Nanking-Hangchow, Shanghai-Hangchow,
*By courtesy of Che Kai Agency.

HIGHWAYS
47
Nanking-Wuhu, Soochow-Kashing, Snandieng-Changliing,
and Hangchow-Hweicliow highways, totalling over 983
km. On the initiative of the Council, an Inter-Provincial
Highway Traffic Commission has been organized, providing
man}'' facilities for inter-provincial highway traffic and re-
moving many inconveniences that stand in the way of the
free movement of motor vehicles.
Highway The Council's highway activities were
Extension later extended to four additional pro-
vinces, including Kiangsi, Hupeh, Hunan,
and Honan, forming a seven-province highway system of
a total length of about 22,000 Ion. Including 7,000 km. of
the existing road, the Council has up to October of this
year made it possible: to complete the construction of over
14,700 km. Subsequently, the building of over 1,100 km.
in Fukien Province was placed under the Council's
supervision. 570 km. of roads in that province have been
completed. The roads now available for traffic in both the
seven provinces and Fukien are over 15,270 km.
Highways in In the North West, two main trunk high-
North-West ways are under construction, the Sian-
Lanchow and the Sian-Banchung High-
ways. The former highway is 750 km. long and is the
main connecting line between Shensi and Kansu Provinces.
Up to October 1934, 150 km. of roadbed, 27 bridges and 40
culverts had been constructed. The Sian-Hanchung highway
is 390 km. long, forming an important trunk line between
the three provinces of Shensi, Kansu, and Szechwan. The
section between Sian and Paochi being already existent,
what remains to be constructed by the Council is the stretch
from Paochi to Hanchung, 220 km. long. The construc-
tion of this line is already under way. Apart from the
construction of highways, the question of highway trans-
port in the) North West has aOso engaged the attention of
the Council. A special office has been installed to look after
the questions of traffic control, building of bus stations,
business operation, highway patrol and maintenance.

48
WATER CONSERVANCY
Inter-Provincial In order to make plans for the inter-
Highways provincial highway systems and to im-
prove the building and maintenance of
highways, investigations have been made into the traffic
conditions and actual mileage of the various inter-provincial
highways, their building materials and places of produc-
tion, and petroleum possibilities in Szechwan Province.
Two experimental roads have been built in the vicinity of
Nanking, the first to test the use of various local materials
for building road surface, and the second to test the use of
bituminous materials for surface treatment.
Highway For the training of highway personnel and
Personnel automobile mechanics, the Council has asked
the Chiaotung University at Shanghai to offer
courses on automobile engineering, in addition to a training
school for automobile technique, conducted under the joint
auspices of the Council and the Inter-Provincial Traffic
Commission.
II. Hydraulic The great flood of 1931, which caused
Work depredations on the most colossal scale,
gave the Government a new impetus to
cope with river conservancy works. The National Flood
Relief Commission was created to deal with the effects of
the disaster brought about by the flood. After the Com-
mission wound up its work, the Council was called upon to
take over its program in connection with hydraulic re-
construction. Over 2,000 km. of the main dykes of the
Yangtze River on both banks from Hup eh downstream have
been strengthened and raised higher than the water mark
of 1931. Special efforts have been made to re-enforce bank
protection works with big stones at some parts of the dykes
in Hup eh Province which are liable to be washed away by
flood. Similar repairs have been done for the dykes of
the Hwai, the Han, and the Kan Rivers.
Irrigation In the North West, plans have been made
Projects for carrying out the Kinghuichu and
Lohuichu Irrigation Projects. Improve-
ment works on these two canals are already under way, and

KIVER CONTBOL
49
when completed, will greatly benefit the irrigation systems
in Shensi Province. The river conservancy work has been
extended as far as Suiyiian, Kansu and Ninghsia provinces.
In Suiyuan, the improvement of the Saratsi Canal has
engaged the attention of the Council. An attempt had been
made by the joint effort of the Suiyuan Provincial Govern-
ment and the C.I.F.R.C. to improve the canal, but the
work was suspended by reason of financial difficulties. The
Council has now begun a resurvey of the region, because
of the extremely flat topographical conditions that exist
in that part of the country. For the study of the soils of
the Saratsi Canal in relation to reclamation, the Council
has availed itself of the services of Mr. Thorpe, Chief Soil
Technologist of the National Geological Survey of China,
whose report is now under examination. For the canals
in Kansu and Ninghsia Provinces, surveys are being made
and improvement work is now under progress.
For the remedy of the land submerged every summer
by the Kinshui to the extent of about 1,000,000 mow, the
Kinshui Project has been undertaken under the Council's
auspices since March, 1933 for the construction of sluice
gates. The whole project is nearing completion and will
make possible the reclamation of many hundred thousand
mow of land for agricultural purposes.
River Control The Yangtze and the Han Rivers in
Hupeh Province are in imperative need
of fundamental regulation. As a preliminary measure,
surveys and investigations have been made; a levelling
party to survey the level of the two banks of the Yangtze,
and an investigation party to observe the hydraulic condit-
ions of the Yangtze tributaries have commenced opera-
tions. For irrigation works in the North "West and Kiang-
si, and the upper reaches of the Hwai River in Honan, the
Council commissioned surveying parties, and on the basis
of their reports, plans have been drawn up for their im-
provement.

50
REHABILITATION
Hydraulic Prof. Omodeo, the eminent hydraulic ex-
Projects pert of the League, was consulted by the
Council's representative at Geneva last sum-
mer concerning the feasibility of some hydraulic projects.
At the request of the League, Prof. Omodeo and a few
other hydraulic experts have come to China for a local
study and have placed their services at the disposal of the
Council. Likewise, Prof. Engels of Germany, a leading
authority o.n the Hwangho, has received a grant-in-aid from
the Council which will enable him to complete his Hwang-
ho experiments, so unfortunately interrupted and some-
times suspended by lack of funds.
It is commonly felt that the complexity and multi-
plicity of water conservancy organizations in the country
have greatly hampered the efficiency of the administration.
For this reason, the National Government has made the
Council a central organ for all hydraulic organizations in
order to accelerate the administrative efficiency and to
pursue a more systematic policy in connection with
hydraulic development.
III. Agricultural The Council has succeeded to the
Rehabilitation works of the National Flood Relief
Commission created in 1931 to cope
with the emergency relief measures, not only in water con-
servancy but also in rural rehabilitation. Loans have been
granted to the farmers in the provinces of Anhwei, Kiang-
si, Hunan and Hup eh on the working basis of the Mutual
Welfare Societies which have been gradually transformed
into Cooperatives. There are at present 2,361 Mutual
Welfare Societies and 3,809 Cooperative Societies, and
membership in these two groups of societies reaches a
grand total of 229,532. Of these cooperatives the most
popular kind is the credit society.
Rural Kiangsi Province, which has suffered
Rehabilitation most severely from the communist panic,
awaits urgent measures of rural rehabilita-
tion. The Council meets this need by:(1) the establish-
ment of ten rural welfare centres; (2) promotion of co-

RURAL COOPERATIVES
51
operatives; and (3) improvement of rural education and
agriculture. The rural welfare centres have as their object
the amelioration of the living conditions of the country
people by means of the operation of demonstration farms,
rural schools, mass education, and cooperatives. Co-
operative work had already taken root in Kiangsi but it is
now all the more necessary in districts which have been
recently recovered from the communists. For this work,
the Council has increased its appropriation and has set up
a Special Committee for the administration of this co-
operative fund. As to rural education and agriculture in
Kiangsi, there is the inherent defect of the lack of co-
ordination among various institutions. For this purpose,
the Council has cooperated with the Kiangsi Provincial
Government in the merging together of all rural organiza-
tions under the Kiangsi Agricultural Institute. This am-
algamation will make it possible to centralize the admini-
stration and pursue a systematic development of rural work
in the Province.
Rural In the North West, the Council tackled
Cooperatives the. problem of agricultural development
from two angles,improvement of animal
husbandry and extension of rural cooperatives. With thin
population, and vast areas of grazing land,, the North West
is rated very favorably for the rearing of sheep, cattle
and horses. But the poor and obsolete method used in
connection with animal husbandry leaves the industry in
a deteriorated state. Thei Council has established a North-
western Animal Improvement Station at Kanpingsze in
Chinghai Province. This station, if proved successful,
will have branch stations in other cattle raising regions.
Realizing that rural cooperatives will meet the urgent
need of the farmers in the North West, the Council has co-
operated with the Shensi Provincial Government in the
establishment of a Shensi Agricultural Cooperative Com-
mittee which has the control of all cooperative work in that
province. Over 200 cooperatives have been organized, and
the farmers have been greatly benefited by their existence.

52
COTTON INDUSTRY
Tea Industry The recuperation of the tea industry in
China also engages the attention of the
Council. In conjunction with the Ministry of Industries
and the Anhwei Provincial Government, the Council has
reorganized the Tea Experimental Station at Chimen, An-
hwei. This station is favorably situated and has already
over 760 mow of tea bushes under cultivation. Investiga-
tions of the tea industry are under wTay not only in dif-
ferent regions within the country but also in such tea
growing countries as India, Ceylon, Java, and Japan.
IV. Cotton For the purpose of improving cotton-
Industry growing and developing the cotton indus-
try, the Council has formed the Cotton In-
dustry Commission. It has purchased 30,000 piculs of
selected cotton seeds and freely distributed them to the
farmers in Kiangsu, Shensi, Iioiian, and Shansi Provinces.
At Nanking, a Cotton Improvement Centre has been formed
for the improvement of cotton quality and the extension
of cotton-growing, with branch bureaux in Kiangsu, Shen-
si, and Honan Provinces. There is also a Cotton Demon-
stration Station in Shensi primarily for cotton extension
work. For the training of personnel for cotton-grading,
cotton-growing and cotton-cooperatives, both the Central
University and the University of Nanking have been asked
to offer such courses with grants-in-aid from the Council.
Cotton The improvement of cotton spinning,
Industry weaving, and dyeing technique forms a
Commission part of the program of the Cotton Industry
Commission. In concert with the Acade-
mia Sinica, the Council has formed a special bureau with
two laboratories, one for spinning, weaving and dyeing,
and the other for research, both being temporarily housed
in the Engineering Institute of the Academia Sinica. Re-
cruitment of the personnel for cotton spinning, weaving,
and dyeing will be drawn from such institutes as the Nan-
tung Technical Institute, Tientsin Technical Institute of
Hopei Province, and Soochow Technical Institute of Kiang-
su Province, which have received financial aid from the

SERICULTURE
53
Council for personnel training. To exercise control over
the malpractice of cotton adulteration, a Central Bureau
for the Prohibition of Cotton Adulteration at Shanghai
with branch offices in the provinces has been formed under
the auspices of the Council. Investigations into the con-
ditions of cotton raw material, manufacture and marketing
have been miade by the staff of the Cotton Industry Com-
mission in the cotton-growing regions.
V. Sericulture The sericulture situation in China has
Improvement become so precarious that some remedial
measures are imperative. For this
reason, the Council has formed the Sericulture Improve-
ment Commission. In the last spring, over 518,000 seed-
lings were distributed freely to the farmers in Kiangsu,
Chekiang, and Anhwei Provinces. In the vicinities of Nan-
king and Hangchow, 2,000 mow each of barren hillsi have
been reclaimed for planting mulberry trees. Scientific
methods have been employed to demonstrate the cultivation
of mulberry trees to the farmers by the Chekiang Sericul-
ture Station and by the Hangchow and Kintan Sericulture
Demonstration Stations. With regard to seed selection,
the Council has established collective seed stations at Nan-
king and Hangchow. It is expected that in three years'
time, 2,000,000 sheets of superior seeds may be produced
for the immediate use of Kiangsu and Chekiang Provinces
and ultimate^ for the whole country. The Station at
Nanking has planted over 100,000 trees and that at Hang-
chow over 200,000 trees.
Silkworm The work of silkworm rearing has pro-
Rearing ceeded in two directions, namely, intensive
direction given in prosperous sericultural re-
gions such as the model stations in Hsiaoshan, Hangchow
and Kintan; and general supervision of a propaganda na-
ture exercised all over the country, such as the demonstra-
tion stations in Chungking and Tungchwan in Szechwan,
Ningchu in Shantung, Chuenchiao in Anhwei and Shunteh
in Kwangtung. For promoting autumn rearing and in-
creasing the farmers' output, 56 demonstration stations

54
PUBLIC HEALTH
for autumn rearing have been formed in Kiangsu, Che-
kiang and Shantung. In these demonstration stations, at-
tention has been given to such work as incubation, disin-
fection of rearing rooms and. implements, improvement of
rearing and mounting, and promotion of sericultural co-
operatives.
Cocoons With reference to the installation of modern
cocoon drying machines and modern reels, it
is urged that the sericultural districts should raise funds
to purchase such machines with loans, if necessary, from
the Council, to be returned by instalments. Preparations
have been m,ade for the establishment of union filatures
for the collective purchase of cocoons and for technical
cooperation, collaboration in management, and improve-
ment of machinery.
Sericultural The sericulture experimental work of
Expert the Council has been placed under the
supervision of Dr. Mari, an Italian sericult-
ural expert, who has engaged himself in the study of
cross breeding. Some good varieties have been produced
and, in another year's time, some more varieties of good
and superior quality will be available.
Personnel For the training of personnel in sericul-
ture, the Council has organized a training
school for sericulture field workers and also a sericulture
institute to give training to more advanced students in this
field.
VI. Public Under the Council's Central Field Health
Health Station, eleven different laboratories have
been equipped for the various departments.
Some of the important studies carried out by the station
concern the prevalence of malaria in and around Nanking,
fly control by the! use of cyanide, the activated-sludge
sewage-disposal plant, deilousing and fumigation methods,
the infestation of helminths among school children in Nan-
king, and the standardization of routine methods used
in public health laboratories. In the field, investigation

BUBAL HEALTH
55
units and research stations have been operated. Special
bodies started by the Council include the North West
Epidemic Prevention Bureau at Lanchow, Kansu; the
Ivala-azar Research Station at Tsingkiangpu, Kiangsu;
investigation units for schistosomiasis at Hangchow and
at Chuhsien; for paragonimus at Shaohsing, and for
fasciolopsis at Shiaoshan, Chekiang; and the vital statistics
projects in Nanking and in Chuyunghsien, Kiangsu.
Rural The first rural health demonstration work
Health was begun in 1931 with the creation of a station
at Tangshan, a district about 20 miles east of
Nanking. Medical clinics, control of communicable dis-
eases, maternity and infant welfare, school health, environ-
mental sanitation, health propaganda, and vital statistics
are the main activities of the station. In the autumn of
1933, a more systematic rural health demonstration pro-
gram was initiated at Kiangning hsien. The project for
this complete hsien health system consists of: (1) a prim-
ary health station served by a full-time nurse or specially
trained auxiliary health worker; (2) a secondary health
station staffed by a doctor, a midwife and nurses; and
(3) a hsien health center, as headquarters, which includes
a hospital of at least 25 beds.
Health Work Mention should also be made of the
in North West health work that the Council has been
doing for the North West and Kiangsi
Province. With the assistance of the Council, the health
stations in Kansu, Chinghai, and Ninghsia Provinces have
been organized. Special attention has been given to the
prevention^ of animal disease in the North West. Likewise
in Kiangsi, the Provincial Health Department was formed
with assistance rendered by the Council both in finance
and in personnel. This Department handles both muni-
cipal and rural health work in the Province.
Epidemics Immediate aid has been given in areas
where the local authorities alone were unable
to deal with actual or threatened epidemics. The Council
has participated in the control of bubonic plague in Shensi

56
HEALTH EDUCATION
and Shansi, cholera in Shanghai, and diphtheria in Nan-
king. It has also been in hearty cooperation with flood
and famine relief bodies for medical relief work; and special
health services have been established for the care of high-
way workmen and the protection of bus lines' employees
and passengers.
Health The rapid development of health work
Work during the past two or three years has created
Personnel a pressing demand for qualified personnel.
Consequently, the Council has undertaken rather actively
the task of personnel training in health activities. The
First National MidVifery School was established in Pei-
ping in 1929, and the Central Midwifery School was opened
in Nanking in 1932. A Central School of Nursing was
established at Nanking in 1932.
Health Besides the training of technical personnel,
Education the Council liasi also carried out a rather ex-
tensive program for popular health education.
Over 1,600 models, 700,000 copies of posters, and 3,000
lantern slides have been prepared and distributed. Thirty-
nine health exhibitions have been given in 23 cities.
Various health campaigns have also been conducted at
least three or four times a year in cooperation with local
authorities.

CHAPTER V
ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN RURAL CHINA
A. B. Lewis
Rural In "An Estimate of China's Farms and
Population Crops/' C. C. Chang, estimated that the
farm population of China is about 73 per-
cent of the total. From this fundamental, not easily
changeable relationship, certain important conclusions
may be drawn. The first is that economic conditions in
rural China, whatever they are, have a dominant influence
upon Chinese economic conditions as a whole.
Commercial Secondly, if 27 percent of the people
Population are not farmers, then at least 27 per cent
of the food produced in China must pass
through commercial channels of some sort before it is
consumed.
Wheat Not enough food is imported into China to
Imports change this conclusion, even if such food im-
ports were not partially offset by food exports.
In 1933, for instance, 17,716,289 piculs of wheat were
imported into China.1 Flour imports were 3,236,021
piculs, and would be equivalent to about 4,622,887 piculs
of wheat, if 70 of flour equals 100 of wheat. Total im-
ports of wheat; and wheat equivalent were therefore about
22,339,176 piculs, but domestic production was about
396,200,000 piculs.2 Imports were therefore only 5.6
percent as large as production.
Rice Imports Similar results are obtained for rice.
In 1933, 21,419,006 piculs were imported,
and 932,900,000 piculs were produced domestically. Im-
ports of rice were thus 2.3 percent as large as domestic
1 Chinese Maritime Customs, The Trade of China, 1933.
2 Department of Agricultural Economics, National Agric. Research
Bureau,, Ministry of Industries, Crop Reporting in China, 1933.

58
BUBAL TBADE
production, Ojther food imports were relatively unim-
portant. Generally speaking, the Chinese city food supply
is furnished by Chinese farmers. It is apparent, then,
that Chinese farmers must sell enough food to supply the
cities, not to mention the fibre and other materials which
they-also sell.
Crop Products The inference that Chinese farmers
Sold sell a substantial part of that which they
produce is reinforced by sample studies
of farms. According to preliminary data from a study
of land utilization conducted by the Department of Ag-
ricultural Economics, University of Nanking, Chinese farm-
ers sold about 23 percent by weight of their principal
crop products. This average summarizes data for 11,500
farmers in 115 localities in 23 provinces.
Farm Like farmers everywhere, the Chinese tend
Products to market the more valuable portion of their
Value produce and to keep the less valuable for
home consumption. Consequently, they sell
a greater percentage of the value than of the weight of
their products. In '' Chinese Farm Economy,'' J. L. Buck
states that} 54 percent of the valuei of the products of the
farms which he studied was sold for money.
Disbursement The money which is received for rice,
of Farm wheat, tea, and the dozens of other farm
Money products is disbursed by the farmers in a
great variety of ways. In a study of farm
price relationships in Wuchin, Kiangsu Province, L. L.
Chang reports the prices of 64 articles purchased by the
farmers. Of these articles 14 were farm products and 17
were other food products. Apparently the farmers not
only needed to buy salt, sugar, and the various cooking
oils and flavorings, but the individual farmer's larder
was sometimes low even with respect to rice, wheat, and
barley, produced on his own or neighboring farms. Of
the remaining articles, 18 were cloth or clothing mate-
rials, 4 were for fuel and light, 3 were metals and 8 were
miscellaneous.

RURAL FINANCES
59
Workers The purchase of goods is only a. part of the
on Farms use which the Chinese farmers make of money.
The average number of workers 011 Chinese
farms is 2.0, according to preliminary data from the Uni-
versity of Nanking Study of Land Utilization. Of these
workers, about 15 percent are hired laborers, the remain-
der being members of the farm family. According to
other preliminary data from the same source, about one-
half of the wages of farm laborers is paid in cash and
one-half is paid in board and other privileges.
Land Rent Cash is sometimes required for the pay-
ment of land rent. According to prelimin-
ary data from the University of Nanking Land Utilization
Study, about one-fourth of the farm area is rented, and
of that which is rented, about one-fourth is for cash rent.
About one-half of the rented land is under the cash crop
system, in which the tenant pays a specified amount of a
staple crop per mow of land. Sometimes, however, the
equivalent is paid in cash instead of in grain. The re-
maining fourth of the rented land is held under share
rent and less important systems of tenure.
Taxes Taxes also require cash payments by farmers.
In 1933, farm taxes in China were 2.67 percent
of the value of the paddy land, 2.74 percent of the value
of the level land, and 3.05 percent of the value of the
hilly land.3
Farmers' Since agriculture is a seasonal industry,
Debts there often are times when farmers must bor-
row money in advance of the harvest. Heavier
debts may be assumed by young farmers if there is a pro-
spect of paying off: the debt in later years. The repay-
ment of these 'loans plus the interest creates a further
need of selling farm products for cash. In December,
1933, 56 percent of the farmers were reported to be in
3 Department of Agricultural Economics, The National Agricul-
tural Research. Bureau, Ministry of Industries, Crop Reporting
in China, 1933.

60
population
debt for cash.4 The annual rate of interest averaged 34
percent. Indebtedness is not to be regarded as an un-
qualified evil. In normal times, a moderate amjount of
indebtedness may be only a convenient method of increas-
ing the supply of available farm capital, and may there-
fore be taken as a sign of enterprise.
Rural Apparently there is and normally
Commercial must be a large ajmount of commercial
Activity activity in rural China. Any traveller in
the rural districts will also have seen it
for himself. This commercial activity is necessary to the
ordinary economic life of the country, and any forces
which tend to prevent the exchange of goods cause un-
usual hardship and unrest.
Standards Standards of living, by and large, are
of Living determined by the quotient of the total sup-
ply of consumable goods divided by the total
number of people. The enjoyment of a standard of living
that is normal under any set of fundamental circum-
stances also depends upon freedom of exchange of goods.
Density of China is a densely populated country. It
Population has been tentatively estimated from one
source5 that in the country districts, with-
out calculating the city population, there are 1771 per-
sons per square mile of cultivated and uncultivated pro-
ductive land. From other data in the same study,5 the
number of persons per square kilometer of crop area is
estimated to be 603. These two figures,, while not quite
comparable, are near enough to be mutually supporting.
Another measure of population density is the size of the
farm. According to the source already quoted,5 the average
size of the farm; was 1.69 hectare, or less than 4.5 acres. The
4 Dept. of Agric. Economics, National Agricultural Research
Bureau, Ministry of Industries, Crop Beports, Vol. 2, No. 4,
April, 1934.
5 Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nanking,
Preliminary data from a study of land utilization in China.

RURAL FOOD SUPPLY
61
area in crops is somewhat greater, since more than one
crop may be grown on the same land at different seasons.
Population If the population were to remain stable,
the rural standard of living could be raised
by improvements in methods of production, in crop and
livestock varieties, in farm organization, and in other
ways. Nevertheless, a very high average standard 'of
living, with a population of the present density, is not
physically possible.
Food Supply Although the customary standard of
living may not be very high, yet under
ordinary conditions the Chinese farmers do not lack for
food. In some ways the quality of food might be im-
proved but the quantity seems sufficient for all needs
when measured by the accepted standards.6 Only when
production is cut off by calamitous floods or droughts or
by warfare are famine conditions to be expected.
Soil Standards of living vary in different
Productivity parts of the country, and especially with-
in each local district. The standard of
living is influenced very strongly by the productivity of
the soil on which the population lives. Within short dis-
tances, if the soil changes in character, great differences
in well-being are to be seen. This variation is to be seen
in the rural areas of other countries where there are local
variations in soil types.
Agricultural A few fundamental economic conditions
Depression have already been described in order to
show what the normal is. In the past
three years, an unusual economic depression has prevailed.
The origin of this depression seems to be monetary, and
it is different from, although in addition to, the other
limitations under which Chinese agriculture usually
6 This statement is based on detailed analyses of farm food
consumption made by the Dept. of Agr. Economics, Univ. of
Nanking, in connection with the China Land Utilization Study.
Movement of Silver in Shanghai. CircularMs. No. 4, November,

62
Currency
labors. If the depression is monetary, knowledge of the
type of currency used by the farmers is essential. Ac-
cording to preliminary data from the University of Nan-
king study of land utilization, previously mentioned, the
farmers received silver for products sold in 79 per cent
of the localities, and paid silver for goods purchased in
80 per cent. In 19 per cent of the localities coppers were
received for products sold and were paid for goods pur-
chased in 29 per cent. In 4 per cent of the localities,
farmers used local paper currency in buying and selling.
These percentages add to more than 100 because in some
localities, several kinds of currency were reported. In
general, silver is apparently of much greater importance
as a currency for buying and selling than are coppers.
Silver In Kiangsi and Hup eh, coppers were more
Currency important with relation to silver than else-
where, but even in these provinces, silver is
almost universalty required for the payment of debts. In
118 localities reported, in 20 provinces, farmers in 96 per
cent were required to pay debts in silver. In only 7 per
cent of the localities were debts due in coppers.
Taxes Taxes, also, are usually assessed in silver. The
fact that debts and taxes must be paid in silver
is a crucial point in deciding that the Chinese farmers are
really on the silver standard. Even though the farmers
do receive some part of their returns in coppers, some
of the coppers so received mjust be converted into silver
for periodical large payments. Generally speaking, cop-
pers in China are a subsidiary currency used in most areas
chiefly for small transactions.
Copper During the past ten years, coppers have
Currency depreciated rapidly in terms of silver. This
depreciation does not coincide with any
decline in the valuei of copper in terms of silver, nor may
it be explained entirely as due to reductions in the copper
content of coins. Apparently, the copper coins have de-
preciated because they have been issued in too large quan-
tities. Their original value must have been far above

EXCHANGE
63
the value of the metal which they contained. Such a
relationship would explain why they have depreciated
with over-issue, and also why they have been over-issued
by the governing authorities.
Exchange A curious variation of Gresham's law is
that when the dearer currency is required
for debts and taxes, the dearer drives out the cheaper cur-
rency. The constant depreciation of lcoppers with re-
spect to silver has therefore led to an increased use of
silver by the Chinese farmers, because silver could be saved
for future payments with no loss of value with respect to
payments required. Furthermore, the fluctuating rate
of exchange between coppers and silver works a hard-
ship to the farmers who receive coppers. When taxes
are assessed or debts fall due, the value of the necessary
silver suddenly rises when the farmers flock to the ex-
change shops to offer their coppers. Data from the Uni-
versity of Nanking land utilization study show that for-
merly many more localities were using coppers as the
medium of exchange than are now using them. It is also
known that before 1931, the interior of China was re-
ceiving a large annual net importation of silver from
Shanghai.7 Statements to the effect that Chinese farmers
are on a copper standard of currency are based on limited
observation or on data that are several years old.
Value of Since Chinese farmers aire not self-suf-
Silver ficient, and since their principal medium of
exchange is silver, changes in the value of
silver are of real importance to Chinese farmers. When
silver is high in value, Chinese farmers receive less silver
for their produce. When silver is low in value, prices
received by Chinese farmers are correspondingly high.
Understanding of the truth of this statement is based on
a clear distinction between the value of and the price of
silver. The price of silver is the number of dollars,
7 Directorate of Statistics, National Government, Nanking, China,
1934.

64 SILYEB
0 Wif
pounds, francs, gold units, or other currency units that is
required to buy one ounce of silver. The price of silver,
so reckoned, is not at all a measure of the value of silver,
as it appears to the Chinese farmer, because the value of
currency units and of gold itself is not stable but is
changing constantly. Nobody would try to measure dis-
tance with a flexible yardstick, but many persons have
tried to measure the value of silver by its price in terms
of the metal gold.
Commodity The Chinese farmer sells commodities
Value of to get silver, which is useful in buying
Siver other commodities and in discharging ob-
ligations. The Chinese farmer is there-
fore interested in the value of silver as measured in terms
of commodities. When average commodity prices, as ex-
pressed in silver, are rising, silver is declining in value,
because more silver is obtained when goods are sold.
Similarly, when average commodity prices are falling, as
expressed in Chinese silver currency, silver is rising in
value. According to indexes of the wholesale prices of
Chinese import-export commodities, compiled by Nankai
Institute of Economics of Nankai University, average
wholesale prices in China rose from an index of 47.8 in
1887 to 162.4 in 1931, if prices in the period 1910-14 are
called 100. In other words, the commodity value of silver
in China declined from 209.2 in 1887 to 61.6 in 1931. In
the same period, the value of silver in England, as ex-
pressed in terms of commodities, fell from 209.5 in 1887
to 55 in 1931.8 In the United States, the commodity
value of silver fell from 202 in 1887 to 48 in 1931.
8 The purchasing power of silver in England is the percentage
that an index of the price of silver in England is of the Board
of Trade index; of wholesale prices.
9 The purchasing power of silver in the United States is the
percentage that an index of the price of silver in the United
States is of the Bureau of Labor Statistics index of wholesale
prices.

Full Text

PAGE 1

<( UJ ARTHUR PROBSTHAIN Oriental Bookseller 41 Gt. Russell Street LONDON, W.C. I ; ...... ,_I ..J 0 z 0 ./ ( ,,. ,,. i f I ; ; ; f \ / .,.-"" Ul ,., \ ,. \I I i ,,. i i s N ,.--.,_j i \ i r-< /' ; ., j ( { i i ( ,.J .... ,i I ......... ~-/ I
PAGE 3

THE CHINA CHRISTIAN YEAR BOOK 1934=1935 (NINETEENTH ISSUE OF THE CHINA "MISSION" YEAR BOOK) Issued under arrangement between the Christian Literature Society for China and the National Christian Council of China under the direction of the following Editorial Board appointed by the National Christian Council. Mr. E E. Barnett Dr. Idabelle Main Rev. A. Baxter Dr. James L. Maxwell Rev. C. L. Boynton Dr. Chester S. Miao Miss Margaret Frame Rt. Rev. J. W. Nichols Miss T. A. Gerlach Rev. E. J. Otte.well Rev Carleton Lacy Dr. Frank Rawlinson Dr. Herman C E. Liu Rev D E. Rebok Rev. E. C Lobenstine Rev. Ronald Rees Mr. C. II. Lowe Rev. Myron E. Terry Dr. Usang Ly Miss Ting Shu-ching Dr. Y .Y. Tsu EDITOR Rev. Frank Rawlinson, D.D. Editor, The Chinese Recorder CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY SHANGHAI November 1935

PAGE 5

PREF.ACE 'l'his YEAR BooK has settled down into a biennial It appeared first in 1910. It takes, as a matter of fact, just about a year to secure material and put it through the press. Unfortunately at the time of writing this preface some leading Christian journals have not yet published a review of the previous issue. So perhaps it is just as well that the YEAR BooK comes out every other year. Securing material for this YEAR BooK is never easy. The contributors are all busy people and most of them are in important executive positions. .As in the previous is~ sue one-third of the contributors are Chinese. With only rare exceptions the chapters that deal with conditions iri China in general are written by Chinese. The writers accepted their task willingly. For their share in producing this YEAR BooK the Editorial Board is profoundly grateful. 'l'he YEAR BooK goes out as another instance of cooperative service in China. One chapter arranged for-"Rural Service Unions and Community Parishes'' was not received While such enterprises are sometimes mentioned in other chapters the absence of this particular chapter leaves a la~k of balance in the contents of this issue. It should be noted that the chapter on ''Home Mission Work" is incomplete as ,,.-ell as the one on "Among the Tribes' People". Home mission work, as defu1ecl in the chapter on that topic, is w01k supported entil-ely by Chinese dmrchei' an:d carried on in more or les.'5 distant centers. Even work within 11rn limits of this narrow definition is not all included tli8re.in. In: a sense the present-day Chinese evangelists who travel far afield are home missionaries. In another sense most work carried on by the churches, considering the rela.tive scarcity of Christians 'in China, fa home ';rnis-

PAGE 6

iv PREFACE sion work. But neither of the latter aspects of work come within the scope of the Chinese Home Missionary Society. This society carries on, therefore, only a small part of home mission work in China. Likewise the chapter on work among Tribes' People covers only a small part of that work. Since the Editor was unable to secure more than the two localized accounts included in this volume he was at one time inclined to leave the topic out altogether. However, arrangements have already been made for a comprehensive chapter on the subject in the next issue of the YEAR BooK. Two improvements appear in this YEAR BooK. First, a map has been included within the covers in dicating some of the most important places referred to in the text, and appendix VII lists all the places named in the text indicating not only their provincial location but also all of the variant spellings adopted by the writers referring to them Unfortunately most writers on China ( even those in China) seem unaware that the government stand ardized the Romanization of place names for postal and telegraphic purposes as long ago as 1905 and we still have such variants as, e.g., Y angtsze, Yangtse and Yangtze (last official). The preparation of this map is due to the efforts of Rev. C. L. Boynton and the staff of the National Chris tian Council. Second, the comprehensiveness of the necro logy is a new feature. This also was made possible by the staff of the National Christian Council. The prominent characteristics of the Christian Move ment in China may, at this time of writing, be put briefly as follows. First, Christians in China :ire boring in. Little disturbed by environmental distractions the Christian mind in China is st>.t on deepening its own life, understanding environmental needs and coordinating its resources. The roots of Christian activity are steadily going deeper into the soil of China's life. There is growth in the :financial support coming from Chinese sources. The driving force

PAGE 7

PREFACE of Christian effol't in China is : bl'.lconiing .. iMreiil;ingly Chinese .. In every sense of the word Christianity in Chiha is advancing in imugenousness. ; .... ; . ... ;-. :' Second, Chri'3tiatis in China 'ar~ re~ch.ing out. Uiia~r the increasing leadership of Chinese evangeli<;ts thedeliveij". of the message is being extended. Then, too, Christiaris are reaching out into all types of service While the ministerial leadership of the organized church is woefully inadequate there is a constant passing of Christian leader ship into services which aim at rebuilding the life of China in general. The influen c e of Christianity in China is extencling and Christian s e rvice therein i<; expanding 'l'hird, Christians in China are joining up. The centrifugal tendencies of denominationalism are changing into the centripetal desire to get together more and coordinate the work more effectively. Fourth. Christians in China are looking forward. They envisage a new China and a more, dynamic church. They have set out to find a more adequate and bettertrained leadership They foresee an extension of Christian service in Chinese life They are beginning to outline the obligations that come with the permanence of Chris tianity in China. Fifth, Christians in China are both hopeful and active The Editor and Editorial Board desire to thank especially the Rev. C. L Boynton, Rev. C. W Allan and Rev. Myron E. Terry for help in the arduous task of proof-reading. Each chapter has been read at least six times. Yet m1doubtedly typogTaphical errors and lack of uniformity in spelling and names of places will be noted by the critical reader. For these the indulgent mercy of the reader is sought One egregrious mistake on page 171, line 6 must be corrected here. The sentence reads:-" In vie,v of rapid turnovers, a period of long trnining could manifestly now be demande.d .... ". The "now" should read ''not''. ,v e apologize for this mistake, as in deed we do for the others which got by.

PAGE 8

vi PREFACE When articles in this Y oor Book are an expression of the policies ahd views of the National Christian Council this fact will be made clear. In all othe.r instances the writer of the pa.per is alone :responsible for the opinions expressed. Shanghai, September 1, 1935.

PAGE 9

\JONTENTS CHINA CHRISTIAN YEAR BOOK, 1934-1935. PAGI MAP. PREFACE iii CONTENTS vii CONTRIBUTORS x PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN CHINA, 1934-35, J. B. Powell. . . . . . xvi INTERPRETATIVE INTRODUCTION Current Trends lt.,orward. Editor. 1 PART I. NATIONAL LIFE. CHAPTER ; I. The National Government. Y. S Tsao 5 II. China's Relations with Western Powers. Vv. H. Ma........................ 18 III. S i no-Japanese Relations, 1933-35 Shuhsi Hsii . . . . . 31 IV. National Economic Co1mcil in 1934. Chin Fan . . . . . . 46 V. Economic Conditions in Rural China .A.. B Lewis. . . . . . 57 VI. Present-Day Thought Movements. P. C. Hsii. . . . . . 72 VII. Modernization of Chinese Women. Miss Ah-Huna Tong (Mrs. A. H T Young). . . . . . . 80 VIII. The Chinese Communists. George W Shepherd. . . . 89 PART II. RELIGIOUS LIFE. IX. Modern Religious Movements. (1) In Christianity. C. Stanley Smith. . . . 97 (2) In N~n-Christian Religions. F. R. Millican ... .... ., .. .. 110

PAGE 10

CONTENTS P.lGE X. The Roman Catholic Church, 1934. F. C. Dietz. . . . . 120, 399 XL The Church of Christ in Manchuria. F. ,v. S. O'Neill . . . . 135 XII. Among the Tribes' People ........... (1) In Szechwan. T Torrance 148 (2) In Hainan. J. F. Steiner . 152 XIII. Young Men's Christian Association in 1934. Eugene E Barnett . . 154 XIV. Young Women's Christian Association. Lily K. Haass . . . . . 166 XV. Christian Leadership Survey C. S Miao . . . . . 179 XVI. Reorganization of Bible Society Work. Ca.rleton Lacy . . . . . 18fi XVII. National Christian Council. Ronald Rees. . . . . . 19'). XVIII. Home Mission Work. T. E. Tong . 204 XIX. Salvation Army in China. A. J. Benwell. . . . . 207 XX. Union Church l\fonm1mts. C L. Boynton. . . . . 212 PART III. l\IISSIOl'~S AND : MISSIONARIES XXI. Relation of Church and Mission C E. Patton. . . . . . 219 XXII. Missionary Situation in China l\fargaret Frame. . . . . 228 PART IV. EDUCATION. XXIII. Government Education Hennai1 C. E. Liu . . . . 236 XXIV. Religious Education. (1) Christian Religious Education Committee. Alice Gregg . 247 (2) China Sunday School Union. E. G. Tewksbury. . . 252 XXV Christian Education. E H. Cressy. 264

PAGE 11

CONTENTS ix PAGE XXVI. F.oundations and Christian Higher Education. J. Leighton Stuart. 273 Part V. SOCIAL WORK. XXVII. Flood, Drought arid War Relief. ,T. E. Baker . . . . . 28.J. XXVIII. China's Cooperative Movement.. C. F. Strickl and . . . . 296 XXIX. L a bour Problems Cora Deng. . 308 XXX. Child Welfare Movement. J abin Hsii. 327 XXXI. Reform of Ricksha Business Lawrence 'l'odnem. . . . . 334 XXXII. Present-Day Opium Problem. Garfield Huang. . . . . 341 Part VI. MEDICAL VlORK. XXXIII. M e dicine In China. Edward H. Hume. 355 XXXIV. China's Leposy Problem. ,Ja.mes L. Maxwell. . . . 364 Part VII. LITERATURE. XXXV. A Y ear of Chinese Publication Work. Tsao Liang. . . . . . 368 XXXVI. Christian Literature and Thought. Feng Hsueh-ping. ............. .. 378 XXXVII. Literature Promotion and Distribution. Myron E. Terry. ............. .. 385 XXXVHI. Some Books in English on China. Mrs. R. R. Service. ; : : .... J91, -409 Part VIII. APPENDICES. J, Statistics ofthei Raman Catholic Church 399 -II. 'Five Year Plan for Child Welfare, .. -401 III. Program of National 0hildren-'s Year; 403 IV, .. BibliogTaphy of Books in. English. on China. Mrs. R. R. Ser.vice.: : ... '. ... ... 409 V. List of MedicaL Colleges in China, .19. 35. : 424 YJ:, Necrology '1930-35. C. .. L. : '.Boynton. 425 :VII. Inde40f Places in China C., IL Boyi1ron:. 4*7

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CONTRIBUTORS (Figmes in parenthesis itndicate date of first arriva.l 1 1 n Chma) Baker, J E. (1916). FLOOD, DROUGHT AND WAR RELIEF, XXVII. Community Church, Shanghai. Adviser, Central PAom Trust of China 281 Barnett, Eugene E., ( 1910). YouNG MEN s CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION IN 1934 XIII. M. E Church South. Associate General Secretary, National Committee Y.M.C.A. of China 154 Benwell, A. J. (1932). SALVATION ARMY IN CHINA, XIX. Territorial Commander for North China 207 Boynton,. Rev. c. L., (1906) UNION CHURCH MOVEI\IENTS, XX. Northern Baptist Secretary, National Chris-tian Council of China 212, 425, 447 Chin, Fan. NATIONAL EcoNOMIC CouNcIL IN 1934, IV. Secretary General, National Economic Council, Nanking 46 Cressy, E. H (1910). CHRISTIAN EDUCATION, XXV. Northern Baptist, Secretary of Council of Higher Education, C. C. E. A. 264 Deng, (Miss) Cora, B. A., LABOUR PROBLEMS, XXIX. Episcopal. Jndustrial Secretary, National Com-mittee. Y. W C. A 308 J)ietz, F: C., M.M. (1920) THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 1934, X. Roman CaJholic Church. Secretary of the Synodal Commission and Director of Luman News' Service 120, 399

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CONTRIBUTORS Feng, Hsueh-ping, CHRISTIAN LITERATURE AND THOUGHT, XXXVI. xi P.AGB Presbyterian, South. On staff of Christian Literature Society, Shanghai. Nanking Seminary. 378 Frame, (Miss) Margaret, M.A., Ph.B. (1910). MisIONARY SITUATION IN CHINA, XXII Presbyterian Church, U.S.A. Secretary of the China Council of the Presbyterian Church of the U S.A 223 Gregg, (Miss) Alice, (1 \ 916). RELIGIOUS EDUCATION (1) CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS EDUCATION COMMITTEE, XXIV. American Church Mission. One year Cooperating Secretary, National Commit.tee for Christian Religious Education 24 7 Haass, (Miss) Lily K., (1914). YouNo WoMEN's CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION, XIV. Congregational Associate General Secretary, National Committee Young Women's Christian Association 166 Hsii, Jabin, A.B. CHILD WELFARE MOVEMENT, XXX. Director General; Department of General Affair s, Ministry of Fina.nee. General Secretary, Na tional Child Welfare Association Universitv of Michigan and Tsing Hua College 327 Hsii, P. C., Ph.D. PRESENT-DAY THOUGHT lVloVEMENTs, VI. Mi-Shih Chinese Chm(:h, Peiping. G e neral See retary of Kiangsi Christian Rural Service Union. (Lich wan). Customs' CoUege, Teachers' College and Columbia. University, New York . 72 Hsii, Shuhsi, Ph.D., M.A. SINO-JAPANESE RELATlONS 1933-35, III. Pres byterian. Professor of Politi cal Science Yenching University. Hongkong University and Columbia Universit y :n

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xii CONTRIBUTORS Huang, Gar:field. PRESF.N'r-DAY OPIUM PROBLEM, XXXII. Hungteh Tang Church General Secretary, National Anti-Opium Ass-0ciation of China. PAGE Fukien University 344 Hume, Edward H., M A., M.D~, LL,D~, (1905). MEDICINE IN CHINA, XXXIII. F.ormerly of Yale Mission, Chaug'Sha, Hunan. Now connected with the Council on Medical Missions, China Medical Association 3f>G Lacy, Rev. Carleton, (1914). REORGANIZA'rION 01!' BIBLE SOCIETY WORK, XVI. Methodist Episcopal. Agency Secretary (for China) American Bible Society 186 Lewis, A. B., Ph.D., (1933). EcoNmnc GoNDI'l'IONs IN RURAL CHINA, v. Community Church. Nanking Agricultural Statistician, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nanking 57 Liu, Herman C. E., GOVERNMENT EDUCA'l'ION, XXIII. Baptist. President of the University of Shanghai. Soochow University 236 Ma, Professor W. H. CHINA 's RELATIONS WI'L'H \VESTERN POWERS, II. Christian Church. Head of Political Seience Department, University of Na1tldng. University of Nan.king and Columbia University 18 Maxwell,James L., M.D. (Lond.) (1901). CHINA'S LEPROSY PROBLEM, XXXIV. English Presbyterian. Librarian Henry Lester Institute of Medical Research. Co-Editor Chi nese Medical Journal. As.<;ociate Edit-Or, Inter national Journal of Leprosy. Secretary, Council on Medical Missions, China Medical Association 364

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CONTRIBUTORS Miao, C. S., B.A., M,A~, D D,, Ph~D, CHRIS'rIAN LEADERSHIP Su1tvEY, XV xiii PAGE Baptist. Executiw Secretary. National Committee for Christian Religiow,; Education. Uni versity of Shanghai anfl Ui1ive.rsity of Chicago 179 Millican, F.R., .MA. (1907). MODERN RELIGIOUS l\:IovEMENTS: (2). IN NON-CHRISTIAN RELIGIONS, IX. Presbyterian. Publications' Secretary, Chris-tian Literature Society 110 O'Neill, F. W. S., M.A D.D., (1897). 'l'HE CHURCH OF CHRIS'l' IN lVIANCHURIA, XL Presbyterian Church of Ireland Mission, Man-churia 135 Patton, Rev. C. E., M.A., D.D., (1899) RELA'l'ION OF CHURCH AND MISSION' XXI. Presbyterian. Vice-chairman and Secretary of the China Council of the Presbyterian Church in U.S.A 219 Powell, J. B. PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN CHINA, 1934-35 Editor, CMna Weekly Review. VII Rawlinson, Rev. Frank, M.A,, D.D., (1902). INTER PRETATIVE INTRODUCTION -CuRREN'r 'l'RENDS FORWARD. Editor, China Christian Year Book and Chinese Recordel' 1 Rees, Rev. Ronald, M.A., (1922) NAnoNAL CHRIS TIAN COUNCIL, XVII. Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society. Sec retary, Natio.nal Christian Council of China. Secretary of National Commission Christian Religious Ednc:a.tion. Boa.rd of Christian Litera-ture Society 192 Service, Mrs. R. R., B.L. ( 1905). So MI<~ BooKs IN ENGLISH ON CHINA, XXXVIII. Community Church, Shanghai 391, 409

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xiv CONTRIBUTORS Shepherd, George W., (1917). THE CHINESE CoMMUNISTs, VIII. PAGE American Board. Executive Secretary, Kiangsi Christian Rural Service Union. Liclnvan, Kiangsi. 89 Smith, Rev. C. Stanley, B.A., D.B, ( 1917). l\foDERN RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: (1) IN CHRISTIANITY, IX. Presbyte:rian North. Vice-President, Nanking Theological Seminary 97 Steiner, J. F., (1913). AMONG THE TRIBES' PEOPLES: (2) IN HAINAN, XII. Hainan Mission, American Presbyterian Mission, North 152 Strickland, C. F., C.I.E., B,A, CmNA's COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT, XXVIII. Church of England. Lecturer f:or Universities, China Committee and Sino-British Cultural Association. 296 Stuart, J. Leighton, D.D. Litt.D. (1904). FOUNDATIONS AND CHRISTIAN HIGHER EDUCATION. XXVI. Presbyterian Church in U. S. (South), President, Yenching University 273 Terry, Myron E., B.A., B.D. (1925). LITERATURE PROMOTION AND Dis'rRIBUTION, XXXVII. Presbyterian. Business Secretary, Christian Literature Society 385 Tewiksbury, Rev. E. G., (1890). RELIGIOUS EDUCATION. (2) CHINA SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION, XXIV. American Congregational. General Secretary of the China Sunday School Union 252 Todnem, Lawrence, B.A., (1915). REFORM OF RrcK-SHA BUSINESS, xxxr. Methodist Episcopal. American Bible Society 334

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CONTRIBUTORS Tong, (Mrs. A. H. T. Young) Miss Ah-Huna. Moo DERNIZATION OF CHINESE WOMEN, VII. Congregational Church, Honolulu. '\Voman 's xv PAGE Editor, China Press 80 Tong, T. E. HoME lVIIssION WORK, XVIII. Baptist. Genernl Secretary, Chinese Home Missionary Society 204 Torrance, T. AMONG THE TRIBES' PEOPLE: (1) IN SZECHWAN, XII. Pormerly Agent American Bible Society, Chengtu, Szechwan. 148 Tsao, Liang. A. B. A YEAR OF CHINESE PuBLICA'l'ION vYoaK, xxxv. Presbyterian. Prof. Medhurst College, Shanghai. Y en.ching University, Pei ping 368 Tsao, Y. S., B.A., M.B.Ai, THE NATIONAL GOVERN JVIENT, l. Episcopal. Secretary Gene.ral, Red Cross Society of China. St. John's University, Yale and Harvard 5

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PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN CHINA, 1934 .. 35 J.B. POWELL JANUARY, 1934 1.-Hu Han-min issued circular telegram declaring his opposition to the Fukien Rebellion, appealing that both Nanking and Fnkien should suspend hostilities 4.-Liu Kwei-tang 's Rebel Forees penetrated into Honan and Shantung. 6.-Yenping, important city in northern Fultien held by the Fukien Secessionists, captured by the Nanking Forces. 7.-General Sheng Shih-tsai, military leader in Sinkiang, telegraphed the Nanking Government, reporting on the cessation of hostilities in Sinkiang. 8.-National Government grantecl pardon to General Tang YuJiu, held responsib'le for the loss of Jehol to Japan, and cancelled hie order of arrest. 11.-The Customs receipts for the year of 1933 were announced fo be Hk. Taels 339,522,000. 12 .-National Government appointed General Chen Yi, Vice-Minister of War, as Chairman of the new Fukien Provincial Government and General Chiang Ting-wen as Commander-in-Chief of the Communist suppression Forces for the provinces of Kiangsi, Fukien, Kwangtung, Hunan and Hupeh. 13.-The 19th Route Army evacuated Foochow without resistance, and the city w:is taken l)y the Nanking naval forces. 14 .-General Ho Ying-chin, Chairman of the Peiping Branch Military Affairs' Commission, telegraphed to General Sun Tien ying and Genernl Ma Hung-kwei (Chairman of Ninghsia), instructing them to suspend hostilities. H .-Remnants of the 19th Route Army concentrated at Chuauchow in southern Fukien, preparing to make fmthcr resistance against the Government Forces. 16.-National Government appointed Dr. V. K Wellington Koo, Chinese Minister to Frnnce, as au assesor of the Hague Court of Arbitration. l6.-Japanese and '' Manchukuo'' troops at.tar.Iced :mcl oe. cupie
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PRINCIPAL EVENTS xvii 18.-J apanese troops invading Lungmengsha in Chahar withdrew and the situation in eastern Chahar became easier. :20.--The 4th Plenary Session of the Central Executive Committee opened at N anking; Wang Ching-wei presided. 21.-Changchow, last stronghold held by the 19th Route Army in Fukien, captured by the Government troops. ~4.-The Panchen Lama aniYed at Nanking to confer with the Central Authorities on the Mongolian situation. 26.-Lin Sen took oath of office as Chairman of the National Government for the second term. !d8.-National Government appointed General Tiao-yuan as Commander-in-Chief of the General Reserve Force of the Bandit-8uppression Armies in Central China. 2fl.-War between General Sheng Shih-tsai and General Ma Chung yin continued to be waged in the vicinity of Tihua, provincial capital of Sinkiang, both sides suffering heavy casualties. 30.--Executive Yuan dismissed General Sun Tien-ying from bis concurrent post :Hl Reclamation Commissioner of Chinghai (Kokonor). FEBRUARY 3.-General Chiang Kai-shek held important conference with Dr. H H. Kung, T. V. Soong and General Chang Hsueh-Jiang at Hangchow. 5.-The Pei ping Brauch of the Military Affairs' Commission dis missed General Sun Tien-ying as Commander of the 4lst Arm1_ and ordered him to hand over the Army to two designated commanders. 5.-Dr. W. W. Yen arrived at Nanldng to report to the Govern ment on Sino-Russian relations. 6.--National Government approved the petition of the Tibetan authorities and people to appoint Yeh-Cheng as Acting Chief Governing Official of Tibet and Szu-Lun-Keh-Ynan us Commander of the military forces. 7 .-National Government appointed General Chang Hsueh-liang as Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Communist-Suppression Forces for the Provinces of Hupeh, Honan and Anhwei. ll.-Ministry of Finance concluded loan of $44,000,000 with Chinese banks in Shanghai soeured on t.he Boxer Indemnity refunds from Italy. 10.--Shanhaikuan formally taken over by the Chinese Authorities from Japanese contl'Ol. The Pass was lost t.o Japanese military on January 3, 1933. lL-General Chiang Kai-shek anil Wang Ching-wei issued joint telegram, reiterating their policies concerning the suppression of the Communist-bandits and reconstruction of the country by production. PAGE 20 xviii PRINCIPAL EVENTS 14.-Nanking held memorial service for the late Dalai Lama. Wang Ching wei officiated at ceremony. 18.-General Lung Yun, Chairman of Yuunan, wired Nanking Government, reporting that a group of armed British nationals entered into the Yunnan border from Burma and explored mines on the border districts. 19.-Japanese military completed construction of 38 aerodromes in Manchurian provinces and Jehol. 20.-The Panchen Lama assumed office as member of the State Council of the National Government at Nanking. 22.-Shansi-Suiyuan Expeditionary Forces started large scale opera tions against the troops of General Sun Tien-ying's troops. 24.-Remnants of General Ma Chung-ying's Army retreated in the direction of southern Sinkiang to assist the rebel force there. 25.-Yunghsing, an important Red stronghold in Kiangsi, captured by Government Forces. 27.-General Chiang Ting-wen, Fukien military leader, arrived at Canton by airplane from Fukien and confened with General Chen Chi-tang on the Communist-suppression campaign. 27.-Hsu Ming-hung, a prominent leader in the Fukien Indepen dence Movement, shot at Swatow by order of General Chen Chi-tang. 28.-The Central Political Council approved the Silver Agreement. 28.-Central Political Council approved the eight principles of local self-government of Inner Mongolia. MARCH 1.-Pu Yi assumed the imperial title as '' Emperor of Manchu kuo," at Changchun Wang Ching-wei in his capacity as Minister of Foreign Affairs issued statement on the ques tion. 1.-General Chiang Kai-shek issued important statement, denying that he was aiming at dictatorship of China or contemplating the restoration of the Tsungli system in the Kuomintang. 1.-General Chang Hsueh-Hang assumed office as Deputy Com mander-in-Chief of the Communist-Suppression Forces for the provinces of Hupeh, Honan and Anhwei. 2.-Liu Wen-lung, Chairman of Sinkiang, issuecl circular tele gram, pledging to preserve the territorial integrity of Sinkiang and to suppress the rebel forces of Ma Chung-ying. He petitioned the Central Government to appropriate money to finance rehabilitation of the province. 4.-Chinese authorities formally took over control of Kupeikow from the Japanese. The Pass had been lost for 357 days. 6 .-Southwest Branch Committee of the Central Executive Com mittee issued circular telegram, condemning Pu Yi for assuming imperial title in Manchuria. PAGE 21 PRINCIPAL EVENTS xix 6 .-Nauking lodged formal protest with the British Legation in China against the exploration of mines in Yunnan border by British nationals. 7.-Nanking notified the American Legation in China proposing revision of the Chinese-American Commercial Treaty. 11.-National Government issued official statement on the assumption of imperial title by Pu Yi at Changchun. 11.-New Life Movement officially inaugurated at Nanchang. 12.-Liu Kwei-tang's brigands penetrated into southern Shantung. 15.-Japanese troops in eastern Chahar continued to be increased preparatory to further thrust into the province. 15.-British Legation officials verbally replied to the Chinese protest against the exploration of mines in Yunnan border by British nationals. 16.-New Life Movement Association at Nanking inaugurated with Wang Ching-wei and others as supervisors. 113.-Administrative Conference of the various provinces summoned by General Chiang Kai-shek was opened at Nanchang 19.-Szechwan Army recovered Pachung in no1-thern Szechwan from the Communists 26.-National Economic Council as its first general meeting at Nanking approved the measures for the distribution of the American Cotton and Wheat Loan. 29.-National Government obtained consent of the American Govern ment for the reduction of the Cotton and Wheat Loan from$50,000,000 to $20,000,000. 30.-President Wang Ching-wei officially denied that the Govern rnent was contemplating any change of its fixed policy vis-a vis Japan. 31.-Japanese military in North China enlisted large number of Chinese coolies to go to Jehol as workers on road building. 31.-Nanfeng, important Red strnnghold in southern Kiangsl, captured by Government troops APRIL 2.-General Chen Chi-tang and Li Tsung decided to maintain status quo in Southwest China; the two Southwest Party and Administrative organs to be maintained for the time being. 3.-Parties of natives of Burma penetrated into the Yunnan border in an attempt to exploit the gold mines there. 4.-ISino-Turkish Treaty of Amity signed at Angora, Capital of Turkey. 4.-National Salt Administration Conference opened at Nanking. 6.-Japanese increased troop garrison at Malanyu, a pass in the Great Wall region. 6.-Ministry of Finance stated enforcement of the silver export tax. PAGE 22 xx PRINCIPAL EVENTS 7.-General Sung Chih-yuan su=oned conference at Kalgan dis cussing measures for coping with the Japanese aggression in eastern Chahar. 10.-The League of Nations' technical expert, Dr. L. Rajchman left Shanghai for Europe. 12.-General Tsai Ting-iai, accompanied by several other high com manders of the former 19th Route Army, left Hongkong for a tour in Europe and America. 13.-Serious situation prevailed in Nort)l China as Japanese insisted on their demand to resume through rail traffic service and postal communication with Manchuria. 17.-Japanese Minister, Akil'a Ariyoshi, called on General Huang Fu at Shanghai, discussing the Sino-Japanese situation in North China. 17.-Communists under Lo Ping-hui attackecl and occupied Yungan district in western Fukien. 22.-Liu Kwei-tang's marauders in Shantung suppressed; Liu him self having fled to Tientsin. 23.-T. V. Soong left Nanking for inspection tour to the North weAt. He issueu. a statement on the same day, saying that 0hina. would under no circumstances abandon her plan of technical cooperation with the League of Nations because of the opposition of Japan. 23.-l\fonogolian Local Political Council inaugurated at Pai-ing miao : 2L-Thc Southwest Political Council held extraordinary meeting in connection with the '' Opposite Shore Conference'' held by the Japanese officials in Formosa. 20.--The Panchen Lama arrived at Hangehow from Nanking to lead world peace prayer meeting. 27.-The Southwest Branch Committee of the Central Executive .Committtee c:1bled to the League of Nations and the Signa tories of the Nine-Power Treaty, condemning the Japanese declaration. Hu Han-ruin issued statement to the friendly Powers of China on the Far Eastern Question. 27.-GeneraJ Chiang Kai-shek issued circular telegram, ordering tbe e1\forcemel).i of th. e New L\fe ovement.$$'.~Government tioops captured Kwangchang, Red stronghold. in Jnan:gs~. 29:-'-""Genirat .Liu Hsiang rep6tted over ten Red sttougholds captured by .t4e 1Szechwan troops. ~0. -,-N,~ tional Ec-('.inornic, Cou .11,cil apprcmri.ated$2,000,000 fox t'\le 'reha:bilifatiorr "of the district1r--ree6vered from t'\}e Relfs in ~ian..gsi. .. : MAY. : 2.":":"'J apan:ese Govtlrnment : notifted Chinese Go:vernment, demandin~ readjustment of Japanese loans to China.

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PRINCIPAL EVENTS xxi 2.-The Pei ping Branch Military Affairs' Commission appointed General Tang Yu-lin and General Sun Tien-ying as high coun sellors to the Commission. 6.-Japanese military started construction of aerodrome at Pailitai near the Nankai University in Tientsin. 8.-Tientsin Municipal Government protested to Japanese authori ties against construction of the Pailitai aerodrome. 10.-Report on technical co-operation between the League of Na tions and China by Dr. h Rajchman published. 10.-The Chinese Mission headed by General Hsu Ting-yao and Vice-Minister of Communications Yu Fei-pang, to study military eoJUlllunication abroad, departed from Shanghai for Europe. l L-Serious :fighting between the Government ttoops and the Communists in the vicinity of Yungan district, western Fukien. li.,.-Dr. Wang Hsin-lrnng appointed President of the National Wuhan University. S.-TientAin Municipal Government lodged second protest with th.;i ,Tapanese Consular authorities at Tientsin against the con struction of the Pailitai aerodrome. 21.-The Second National Finance Conferenc.e opened at Nanking. 21.-General Huang Mu-sung, Special Envoy of the National Govern ment to Tibet, arrived at Tatsienlu en rout~ to Lhassa. 24.-National Fiuance Conference passed resolution abolishing miscellaneous taxes ancl exorbitnnt levies. 27 ..-C...'l'he. Seconcl National ]'inance Conference closeif at Nanking. 28.-Ministry of Communications issued official statement, denying that negotiations were under way for the re.sumption of postal 1elations between North China and Manchuria. 29.-National Government issued mandate, prohibiting provincial Governments to contract foreign loans without authorization of the Central Authorities. JUNE .1.-Lionch~ng, important Red stronghold in western Fukien, re covered by government forces. 4.-Ministry of Communications took over the Great Northern and Eastern Cables. 8.-National Government issued mandate; ordering abolition of the miscellaneous taxes and exorbitant levies. 8.-Japan reported to have approached the Fukien authorities for lease of Santuao, an island on the Fukien coast, as a naval base. : 8.-Japanese Vice-Consul, at Nankirig, Kuramoto; i-eported mi~sing. 8.-Ministry of Foreign Affairs released text of thli Sino-Turkish Treaty of Amity.

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:xxi i PRINCIPAL EVENTS 10.-Kwangtung Provincial Government issued order for the arrest of 103 people who participated in the Fukien independence movement. General Huang Hsiang, former Chief of Staff of the 19th Route Army, headed the list. 11.-Nanking authorities offered cash reward of $100,000 for the discovery of the missing Japanese Vice-Consul, Kuramoto, and started a house-to-house search in the Capital. 12.--Japanese Consul-General, Y. Suma, called at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, demanding the Chinese authorities to trace the whereabouts of the missing Japanese Vice-Consul Kuro moto. On same day, a Japanese destroyer arrived at Nanking from Shanghai as a demonstration. 13.-Kuramoto discovered in a self-dug cell near the Ming Tombs in N anking. 14.-Japanese Consul-General, Y. Suma, called at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to express thanks to the Chinese authoritie1 for the search and discovery of Kuramoto. 14.-Japanese troops surrounded the Chinese Magistrate's Office at Changlai in Luantung District, demanding the Magistrate to hand over the fines for opium-smoking and gambling to them. 15.-American missionary, Dr. J. H. Ingram, murdered by bandit1 in the Western Hills, Peiping. 17.-The S.S. Shuntien Butterfield and Swire, pirated near Chefoo; over twenty Chinese and foreign passengers and two ship officers carried off. 18.-Si.xteen Chinese deported by Japanese Government arrived at Shanghai. 19.-Detailed arrangements for the resumption of through traffic of the Peiping-Liaoning Railway decided upon at Dairen Conference 19.-The Changlai incident settled: the opium-smoking and gambling :fines forcibly taken away by the Japanese military returned to the Magistrate's Office. 20.-Foreigners captured by the pirates of the S.S. Shuntien all res cued. 22.-Szechwan Government troops recovered Tungkiang from the Communists. 22.-Nanchang military headquarters issued identie orders to Honan, Hupeh, Kiangsi and Anhwei provincial authorities, enjoining the complete suppression of opium evil within a :fixed period of six years. 2;i.-De1inite arrangements made for the resumption of the through traffic service on the Peiping-Liaoning Railway; an agency to handle traffic matters under the name of "Eastern Tourist Bureau'' to be jointly organized by the Chinese and Japa_ neae authorities with head office at Shanhaikuan. 25.-National Government issued mandate ordering abolition of illegal taxes and levies. PAGE 25 PRINCIPAL EVENTS xxiii 26.-Japanese Minister, Ariyoshi, called on Wang Ching-wei convey ing the instructions of his Government regarding the revision of the new Chinese Customs import tariff, 29.-'fhe so-called '' Eastern Tourist Bureau'' formally established at Shanhaikwan 29.-Control Yuan formally impeached Minister of Railways, Ku Meng-yu, charging him with irregularities in connection with the purchase of materials for Tatuug-Tungkwan Railway from French interests. JULY }.-Through service on the PeipingLiaoning Railway resumed today. First through train from Peiping was bombed at Chating near Tientsin, several passengers killed and many others injured. 4.-The China Development Finance Corporation inaugurated. 5.-Na nking established five customs stations in the Great Wall region. lZ.-Negotiations for revision of the Canton-Kowloon Railway Agreement opened at Hongkong 12.-The National Antiques Preservation Committee formed at Nanking. 15.-General Ma Chung-ying disarmed and interned by Soviet Bus sians together with his troops. They entered the Soviet terri tory on the lOth inst. 18.-Japanese summoned important conference in Formosa dis cussing measures to extend Japanese influence into south China. The conference was popularly known as '' The Opposite Shore Conference.'' 19 .-Central Political Council approved the national budget for the year. Income and expenditure balanced at$777,302,226. 20.-Supreme Court ordered remission of the sentence of Chen Tu hsiu, the communist leader, from 15 years' imprisonment to 8 years. 23.-Ying Tung arrived at Dairen to open discussions with Japanese on outstanding Sino-Japanese questions. 27.-Sun Fo, President of the Legislative Yuan, had an interview with President Roosevelt at Honolulu 28.-New Agreement of Canton Kowloon Railway signed at Hong kong. AUGUST 3.-Government troops in Fukien recaptured Shuikow from the Communists. Foochow safe. 5.-Government received reports, stating 11 provinces had been affected hy the drought Loss estimated $2,300,000,000. 6.-National Government appointed Minister Quo Tai-chi, Wunsz King and T Y. Lo as Chinese delegates to the 15th Assembly of the League of Nations. PAGE 26 xxiv PRINCIPAL EVENTS ~3.-General Liu Hsiang, Commander-in-Chief of the Anti-Bandit Forces and the Rehabilitation Commissioner of Szechwan, left Chengtu and tendered resignation to the Central Government of his posts. 27.-Today, being the anniversary of the birthday of China's Great Sage, Confucius, an elaborate sacrificial ceremony was held at Chufu, Shantung. Similar commemoration services were held at Nanking and other cities. SEPTEMBER 2.-Thc Japanese aerodrome outside the Great Wall pass, Hal feugkou, was completed with an accommodation for over 100 planes. IG.-Dr. H. H. Kung denied the report that the Cotton and Wheat Loan had been diverted for purchase of munitions. OCTOBER !.-General Huang Mu-sung offered sacrifice to the late Dalai Lama at a Temple in Lhassa. 8.--General Chiang Kai-shek telegraphed to the chairman of ten provincial governments, ordering the enforcement of compul sory labor. 14.-The Anti-Red Army in Kiangsi captured Hsinkuo in Kiangsi. 14.-The Ministry of Finance increased the silver export tax. 16.-The Draft Constitution was passed by the Legislative Yuan on its third reading. 16.-National Government accepted resignation of Liu Wen-lung, as Chairman of the Sinkiang Provincial Government, and appointed Li Yung, as his successor. 17.-General Chiang Kai-shek flew to Lanchow on an inspection tour, accompanied by Madame Chiang and General Chang Hsueh-liang. 17.-General Liu Wi>n-tao, Minister to Italy, promoted to the rank of ambassador. 17.-'--Chu Cheng, President of the Judicial Yuan, appointed con currently Minister of Justice. 2;:;,-Chu Cheng, new Minister of Justice, assumed office. 25.-Resolutions passed by the C.E.C. to the effect that (1) the 5th Kuomintang National Congress be postponed and (2) the 5th Plenary Session of the C.E.C. be held on December 10. 25.-The spokesman of General Chiang Kai-shek 's headquarters at Nanehang issued statement counteracting the statements made by General Tsai Ting-kai 's in America with reference to the Sino Japanese conflict at Shanghai in 1932. 2ti.-Thc 3rd Route Army capturecl Ningtu in Kiangsi from the Communistbnnclita. PAGE 27 PRINCIPAL EVENTS 28.-The Communist-bandits in southern Kiangsi fled to Yutu nnd removed their capital to southwest of J uikin. NOVEMBER 1.-The East Route Army captured Changting, important Red stronghold in Fukien, from the Communists. For six years Hince 1929 that city had been in the hands of the Reds. 6.-Executive Yuan appointed Liu Wei-chih Political Vice-Minister, and Kuo Cheng-kan Administrative Vice-Minister, of Indus, tries. !!.-Resolution passed by the Executive Yuan that the Provincial Government of Hopei be re-organized and that General Yu Hsueh-chung retain his chairmanship. 10.-Juikin so-called "Red Capital", captured by the Eastern Route Government Forces 12.-Genernl Chiang Kai-shek returned to Nanchang after inspec tion tour to more than ten provinces in north and northwestern China. 13 .-National Govemmeut appointed General Ho Yao-tau, Vice Chief of General Staff, as first Chinese Minister to Turkey. 13.-Sze Liang-tsai, publisher of the Shun Pao, and prominent citizen in Shanghai, assassinated on the Shanghai-Hangchow Highway while tr:1Yelling to Shanghai from Hangchow in his own motor car. 16 .-Kweihua in Fukien captured by the government troops from the Communists. 17.-Yuta in Kiangsi recovered by the government troops. 2~.-The period for the redemption of the Japanese loan to Nanchang-Kiukiang Railway amounting to$17,000,000 extended to two more years. 23.-Hweichang in Kiangsi captured by the Government troops. 24.-Chi Hung-chang, former subordinate of Marshal Feng Yu hsiang, and Jen Ying,-chi, formerly of the Shantung Army under Chang Chung-chang, court-martialled and shot by the Peiping Military authorities on charge of being engaged in reactionary activities 27.-The Communist-Suppression Headquarters in Kiangsi, Kwang tung, Fukien, Hunan and Hupeh ordered to be abolished by the National Government. 27.-Genernl Chiang Kai-shek and President Wang Ching-wei issued joint message to nation, urging clear demarcation of powers between Central and Local Governments and other administra tive reforms. W.-General Chiang Kai-shek in a press interview at Nanking resolved to uproot Communism in China.

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xx.vi PRINCIPAL EVENTS DECEMBER 4.-Nanking ordered removal of Hopei provincial capital from Tientsin to Paoting. 5.-Nanking appointed General Huang Fu concurrently Minister of Interior, and General Huang Shao-hsiung, Chairman of the Chekiang Provincial Government. 10.-Fifth Plenary Session of the Central Executive Committee opened at N anking; Wang Ching-wei presided. 10.-General Liu Hsiang, the Szechwan Military Commander, left Nanking for Szechwan after completing '-arrangements for political and :financial reorganization of 'Szechwan province. 14.-National Economic Council :fixed budget of 1934-35 at $12, 000,000. 14.-4th Meeting of C E. C. Plenary Session :fixed November 12 as date for 5th Kuomintang National Congress. 15.-C. E. C. 5th Plenary Session closed with manifesto a.ppealing for peace and unity. 2 .--General Chiang Kai-shek circularized Kiangsu, Chekiang and fourteen other provinces, enjoining the enforcement of compulsory labor service to the state. 3.-General Lu Ti-ping tendered resignation as Chairman of the Chekiang Provincial Government 4.-Executive Yuan appointed General Chu Pei-teh Acting Chief of-staff of the General Staff Board, General Tang Sheng-chi, Inspector-General of Military Training, General Chen Tiao yuan, Chairman of the Military Advisory Council. The resig nation of General Huang \Shao-hsiung as Minister of Interior was accepted and General Huang Fu, Chairman of the Peiping Political Council, was appointed concurrently Minister. 10.-Japanese military aerodrome at Pailitai in Tientsin completed. 11.--General Liu Wen-tao, :first Chinese Ambassador to Italy, de parted for Rome from Shanghai. 18.-Finance Minister, H. H. Kung, denied reports of contemplated inflation of currency by the Government. 19.-Central Political Council appointed Wang Yung -ping Minister of .Justice and Chen Ta-chi Chairman of the Examination and Selection Committee of the Examination Yuan. 20.-Executive Yuan decided upon reorganization of Szechwan Pro vincial Government with General Liu Hsiang as Chairman. 26.-Central Political Council confirmed the appointment of the 86 new members of the Legislative Yuan for the fourth term. 26.-New Minister of Justice Wang Yung-ping assumed his office. 27.-Akira Ariyoshi, Japanese Minister, called on Wang Ching-wei, President of the Executive Yuan, in connection with new pilotage regulations as affecting Japanese pilots. 29.-The Staff Corps for Szechwan, organized by the Nanchang Pro ,incial Headquarters of the President of the Military Affairs PAGE 29 PRINCIPAL EVENTS x:x.vii Commission and headed by General Ho Kuo-kwang, departed for Szechwan. 30.-The question of resumption of postal relations between China Proper and the Northeast settled. Regular mail service to be resumed on January 10, 1935; parcel posts on February 1. JANUARY, 1935 1.-The anniversary of the founding of the 24th Year of the Re public celebrated in Nanking. 4.-French Minister protested against the Chinese Government action restricting the activities of the International Saving.i Society. High officials of Japanese Kwantnng Army Head quarters held important meeting at Dairen to discuss policy towards China 5.-The main force of Communists under Chu Teh and Mao Tsetung in Kweichow fled to Tsengyi, northern Kweichow, and captured the city. :3.-Cil'cular telegram by General Chiang Kai-shek to Kiangsu, Chckiang and eight other provinces prohibiting poppy cultiva tion in theRe provinces. Ministry of Foreign Affairs lodged third protest with Japanese Government against deportation of Chinese residents from Japan. 7.-M. Lojacono, first Italian Ambassador to China, arrived at Shanghai. 10.-Postal service between China Proper and the Northeast resumed today. 15.-Ambassador Liu Wen-tno presented hts credentials to the Italian King and was received in audience. 16.-Japanese trnops in Jehol moved towards Dolonor and situation in eastern Chahar became tense. l'/.-Japanese Army Headquarters in Jehol announced that punitive measures would be taken against the Chinese troops in eastern Chahar. 17 .-Genernl Ho Ying-ching returned to Pei ping to resume his office as Chairman of the Peiping Branch Military Affairs Commission. 17.-The Huai Tung Postal Transmission Office at Shanhaikwan bombed by Chinese students. No casualties. 18.-Japanese Kwantung Army Headquarters issued communique nnnouneing determination to suppress General Sung Chi-yuan 's trnops in eastern Chahar. 19.-A mixed force of Japanese and Manchukuo troops moved to wards Kuyuan, eastern Chahar. lft.-Tsengyi, northern Kweichow, captured by the Communists on January 5 Recovered by Kweichow troops. 23.-,Japanese troops bombarded Tungshatze, eastern Chahar, claim ing the district part of Manchukuo territory. PAGE 30 xxviii PRINCIPAL EVENTS 24.-Japanese troops air-bombed Kuyan and Tushihkow, eastern Chahar, and inflict.ed heavy casualties. 24.-Japanese troops occupied Tungshatze, eastern Chahar. 24.-Standing committee of Central Executive Committee of Kuo mintang defined the principle of news' censorship as follows: all news and comments made in good faith can be freely published, but the propagation of principles contrary to the San Min Chu I will not be tolerated. ~5.-The first Italian Ambassador, J. Lojacono, presented his cre dentials to President Lin Sen of the National Government. 26.-Charhar affair to be dealt with as a local issue and settled by the Peiping Branch Military Affairs Commission with the Japanese Kwantung Army Headquarters. 28.-Japanese troops withdrew from Tungshatze, but occupied two more villages of Kuyuan. 28.-Revenue Department of Finance Ministry announced the abolition of 2,600 kinds of miscellaneous and exorbitant taxes. 2~).-Dr. Wang Chung-hui declared that Canton-Nanking rappro chement is now only a matter of time. 30.-Kan Nai-kwang, resigned from posts as Vice-Minister and Acting Minister of the Ministry of Interior. :n.-Nanchang Provisional Headquarters of the President of the Milital'y Affairs Commission officially abolished today. FEBRUARY, 1935 1 .-General Chiang Jrai-shek issued important statement on China's foreign policy and the Sino-Japanese situation. 2.-Sino-Japanese delegates held peace conference at Tatan, wc>st.ern Jehol, to discuss measures of settlement of the Chahar affair. 9. Szechwan Army recovered Tungkiang from the Communists. 10.-New Szechwan Provincial Government inaugurated at Chungking, Chairman Liu Hsiang issued statement on planned roforwa. 10.-Pachung in northern Szechwan recovered from the Reds. 10.-Wireless service between China and Italy inaugurated. 12.-Executive Yuari appointed Li Ping-heng, China's delegate to the International Labor Conference at Geneva. J.3.-Telegraphic communicatins between China Proper and the Northeast resumed. H.-General Chiang Kai-shek, interviewed by Japanese correspoL dents declared that there is necessity of Sino-J apaUP.:::e co operation, but righteousness should be the principle in the adjustment of Sino-Japanese complications. H.-China Travel Service announced its disassociation with the Eastern Tourist Bureau which had been jointly organized by China and Japan to handle tra.ffic matters on the Peipinlit Liaoning :Railway PAGE 31 PlUNCIP AL EVENTS 16.-Cul'l'ency Advisory Committee formed at Nanking with Finance Minister H. H. Kung as Chairman. 10.-First anniversary of the New Life Movement observed through out the country. Executive Yuan appointed General Hsueh Yo, Uommauder of the 4th Army (the famous "Ironsides"), Pacification Commissioner of Kweichow. rn.-Dr. Sven Hedin, the famed Swedish explorer, decorated by the National Government. 20.-Wang Ching-wei in speech at the Central Political Council declared that sincerity should be the guiding principle in the settlement and adjustment of all Sino-Japanese complications. 21.-Major-General Doihara was entertained at dinner by Presideni Wang Ching-wei of the Executive Yuan ll3.-Dr. Sven Hedin received in audience by President Lin Sen of the National GGovernment. 23.___:Dr. Wang Chung-hui exchanged views with high officials of Japanese Navy and War Officers, including former W!U' Minfater Araki. 2ti.-Executive Yuan a ppointed Tao Lu-chien and Heu Hsiu-chih as Political and Administrative Vice-Ministers of the Ministry of Interior. 27.-Cotton Mill No 7 of Sung Sin Company owned by Yung Chung-chin, popularly known as China's Flour King, was auctioned by the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corpora tion, first mortgagor. 27.-Central Political Council passed resolution ordering protection of life and property of the people and their freedom of trade. MARCH, 1935 1.-New Provisional Headquarters of the President of the Military Affairs Commission at Wuchang officially inaugurated. 2.-General Chiang Kai-shek telegraphed to Nanking endorsing the speech of President Wang Ching-wei on February 20 on China's fundamental policy towards Ja pan. 4.-Dr. Wang Chung-hui issued farewell statement expressing gratification that something has been accomplished by his visit to end the unfortnnate estrangement between China and Japan during the past few years. 4.-Hu Han-min issued statement in connection with Major General Doihara 's visit to the South, stating that he agrees to the proposal for cooperation between China and Japan, but the cooperation must be based on the teaching of Dr. Sun Yat-sen "to ally ourselves in a common struggle with the peoples of the world who treat us on the basis of equality.'' Solution of all trouble between China and Japan must precede any atempt at cooperation e.-British Legation at Peiping issued statement denying that Great Britain had proposed a loan to China. PAGE 32 XXX PRINCIPAL EVENTS 1:-Japanese Minister Akira Ariyoshi called on Wang Ching-wei, expressing satisfaction over Mr. Wang's speech on the Sino Japanese relations on February 20. 7.--Finance Minister H. H. Kung declared that there had been discussions of an international loan to China, but the loan was far from being materialized. 12.-lOth anniversary of the death of Dr. Sun Yat-sen observed throughout the country. 12.-Yellow River had sudden and abnormal rise and threatened to inundate aii the southern districts in Hopei. _13.-Centrai Political Council appointed General Huang Mu-EUng Chairman of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission. 14.-Sir Alexander Cadogan, the British Minister, called on President Wang Ching-wei, expressing gratification at the improvement in Sino-Japanese relations. 16.-China addressed identical notes to the Governments of Great Britain, France, Japan and the United States, defining China's stand in regard to the Chinese Eastern Railway and declaring that any unilateral action on the part of the Soviet Union in the disposal of the railway to any third party with-.. out China's consent is null and void. '16:-Japanese Kwantung Army Headquarters issued order prohibit ing the entry of Chinese workers and peasants to the North east. :!.7.-Ge'neral Chiang Kai-shek issued stern order prohibiting military interference in civil administration. 18.-Ministry of Foreign Affairs released statement to the interested Powers in connection with the illegal sale of the Chinese Eastern Railway by the Soviet Union to Manchukuo, declaring that China fully reserves her rights over the Railway 20."--Central Political Council sanctioned the issurance of the 24th fiscal year Financial Bonds to the amount of$100,000,000. 20.-Yellow River in southern Hopei continued to rise and situation critical. 20.-Good-will plane of Japanese Newspaper .&sahi Shimbun a_rrived at Nanking from Tokyo. 22.-Changyuan city in southern Hopei in danger of being sub merged by Yellow River. 23.-The ag1 eement of sale of the Chinese Eastern Railway by the Soviet Union to Manchnkuo with Japan guaranteeing payment of the purchase price signed at Tokyo. 23.-Finance Minister H H Kung issued statement, denying that China is seeking British loan of ,000,000. 23.-Faculty of the National Chungshan University at Canton issued statement, opposing the action recently taken by Nanking and Tokyo in bringing about Sino-Japanese rapprochement.

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PRINCIPAL EVENTS 27.-Central Political Council appointed General Chiang Kaishek Full-General of the Special Grade who in that rank is Com mander-in-Chief of China's Land, Navy and Air Forces. 28.-Chang Kai-ngau, General Manager of the Bank of China was appointed Deputy Governor of the Central Bank. 30.-Chow Lu, prominent member of South,'l'est Political Council issued statement, denying Japanese press reports in connection with Major-General Doihara 's interview with him to the effect "I am well-informed of the 'spirit' on which Manchukuo is founded.'' Mr. Chow asserted what he actually said was "If 1Sino-Japaneso cooperation is desired, Japan should return the four N ortheastern Provinces and cease her military activi ties in China. 30.-General Chi ang Tso-ping, Chinese Minister to Japan, departed from Tokyo for a tour of inspection to Formosa and Korea. 31 .-Major-General Doihara at a press interview at Shimonoseki warned Japan against "blindly aiding" Nanking Government On same day, interviewed by the Asahi Sh-im.bun, he declared: "All China is turning pro-Japanese and the Chinese in general appear to regard 'Manchukuo' as fait accompli." APRIL, 1935 !.-General Chiang Kaishek at press interview in Kweiyang an nounced he is launching a new movement to be known as '' The People's Economic Reconstruction Movement'' as an adjunct to the "New Life Movement." 1.-T. V Soong elected President of the Bank of China in suc cession to Li Ming, resigned, at a meeting of the Board of Directors. 2.-Judicial Yuan and Ministry of Justice at Joint meeting decided to create a special committee to study the end of the system of extraterritoriality in China 2.-Pu Yi of "Manchukuo" departed from Changchun for Japan on a visit to the Japanese Emperor. 2 .-Y. Suma, Japanese Consul General at Nanking, in an interview with the United Press, said that Sino-Japanese rapprochement was far from being accomplished. 5 .-General Chin Shu-jen, former Chairman of the Sinkiang Provincial Government, was sentenced by Kiangsu High Court to three and a half years' imprisonment and deprivation of civil rights for five years on the charge of instigation of foreign menace to the state by his illegal conclusion of the Soviet-Sinkiang Commercial Treaty. 6.-Chu Teh, Commander-in-Chief of the Communist Forces in Kweichow, reported killed in action. 8.-Japanese Diplomatic and Consular Conference opened at Shanghai to remain in session for three days.

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xudi PRINCIPAL EVEN TB 9:-Yuugshun, Red stronghold in southwestern Hunan, captured by Honan troops. 10.-Hu Han-min issued statement, offering eight measures for the solution to the Far Eastern Problems. 10.-Japanese Consular officials at their conference in Shanghai expressed dissatisfaction with efforts of Chinese Government in connection with suppression of anti-Japanese activities in China. 17.-Nanking observed Sth anniversary of founding of the National Government. 18.-General Chen Chi-tang unifies comumnd of Kwangtung's Land, Navy and Air forces with his assumption of the concurrent post as Commander-in-Chief of the Kwangtung Fleet. 20.-Akira Ariyoshi, Japanese Minister to China, left Shanghai for Japan to report to Tokyo Foreign Office on Sino-Japanese relations. There we1e persistent reports that Mr. Ariyoshi was resigning. 22.-American Economic Mission to China arrived at Shanghai. 24.-Mongolian Local Autonomy Political Council held 2nd plenar7 session. 17.-Nanking officially announced the formation of the Sino-British Boundary Commission for the readjustment of the Yunnnn Burma Boarder.

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INTERPRETATIVE INTRODUCTION CURRENT TRENDS FORWARD EDITOR Progress China and Christianity therein are both of China under external pressure; the first that of military and political pressure particularly, and both that.of depression pressure. Yet. both are working towards reconstruction. Neither is depending on outside resources as much as formerly and both include inter national cooperation as a factor in achieving their aims. Both are looking and, along certain lines, going forward. 'fhus progress is discernable in China in spite of the potent adverse factors so distressingly evident within and around. '110 the progressive trends in the present situation in China only brief mention ca.n be made. Growth of The steady growth of Chinese under U nderstanding standing of the country's danger and needs is obvious. The danger to China's political integrity is not minimized. There is frank and public admission of China's inability to meet this danger in any modern military way. Insight into China's econo mic, industrial, rural, educational, communication and governmental needs is growing in clarity. Not only is China's archeological and art history being studied but researches into all kinds of social and economic situations are under way. There are frequent reports in English on many of these subjects. For the first time, also, the Chinese have published a YEAR BooK in English. All this indicates that China's needs and potentialities are under going scientific scrutiny. The New China, led mainly by those with an international educational eAperience, has learned modern methods of study from the West and is

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2 RECONSTRUCTION applying them to the :finding of suitable ways to meet China's political, social and economic problems. China is comprehending her own needs in modern terms and slowly developing her own methods of meeting them. Reconstruction of Attitudes The motivation and keynote of this drive to understanding is reconstruction. Of efforts to reconstruct mental attitudes .there are two. The general requirement for military training of students aims, it is said, to build up loyalty and readiness to meet the country's needs. This has not yet issued in anything approaching compulsory military service. With it runs the New Life Movement which aims to revive old ideals of per8onal conduct and to set up habits of cleanliness and useful activity. Neither of these emphases has yet become a "mass movement'' in the full meaning of that term. A large conference on military training in schools, which was to have been attended by officials and heads of schools this summer on Kuling, was called off No official reason for this action has been given. Material The fmits of material re.construction are Reconstruction both more apparent and more tangible. They were set forth under the editorship of T'ang Leang-li in a book of 400 pages-Reconstruction in China-published August 1, 1935. It was re ported that 1934 registered an increased buying on the part of China of foreign steel, iron, machinery and com mm1ication supplies This was taken as '' an indication of the great progress made in China's reconstruction program' '.1 Efforts at rural rebuilding loom prominent. The promotion of rural cooperatives, indeed, has become almost a nation-wide movement Chinese commercial banks have shown a '' remarkable readiness, unique in :he history of cooperation, to organize and finance ( coopera tive) societies".2 Unfortunately no equal" attention is 1. China's Foreign Trade, Second half-year, 1934, page 104. 2. Page 297.

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CHRISTIAN PROGRESS 3 being given to the needs of factory labor. In both wages and employment factory workers have Jost gains won a few years since They are now set on the defence of what was won formerly and is now being lost. There are rigid laws to keep sndi 1abor from causing troub~e, b1.1t little is being donP, to relieve their distres:.;. Their mieds (lo not loom so ur~P.nt at those of rural worker;,. Pro gress in communications is relatively rapid. In fourteen years, for instance, about 106,000 miles of all kinds of roads have been constructed. In the f ; o,,ial sphere the steady growth of child welfare work is encouraging. The above are a few of the peak efforts in reconstructil)n in China Government China is putting her own house in order. and Welfare Plagued though her leaders are by the political situation they are not wasting energy in futile resentment or ineffective military attempts to repel the invader. One especially significant aspect of the present situation is that China now has a Government that is assuming responsibility for national welfare. Inadequacies there are still aplenty, but New China is trying to do what old China just talked about Among the provinces Kwangsi appears to be making the best all round progress in reconstruction. Christian While the Christian Movement as a whole Progress appears to move but slowly in some aspects it is decidedly going forward. Its basis of support and guidance is now rooted in China. Considerable sums of money are being secured in China for schools and hospitals. In spite of the depression church support is advancing in some sections. Agitated discussion of decreased funds from the West is little in evidence. There is a mounting wave of indigenous evangelism. The number of inde pendent Chinese evangelists is increasing. This year's (1935) Youth and Religion Movement, following that con ducted by Dr. Sherwood Eddy in 1934, will have Chinese at its head interpreting Christianity to Chinese youth. A book was published not long since with the title, "My

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4 COOPERATION Religious Experience'' in which Chinese Christians set forth religion as it grips them A new union hymnal will appear shortly which contains many new Chinese tunes and hymns. In addition to this evangelism by word we have evangelism by deed as seen in Christian participa tion in rural reconstruction Of this the work of the Kiang-si Christian Rural Service Union at Lichwan, Kiang si, is the spearhead Chinese Christians are, however, active in many other pieces of work not directly under church direction. Christian Cooperation 'fhe trend in Christian circles to enlarged cooperation is definite aud ongoing There, is revived interest in church unity. Dr. Edward H Hume is to work with the Council on Medical Missions to strengthen cooperation in medical work between Christians and between them and com munity and national medical efforts At its last biennial meeting' the National Christian Council3 invited the Council of Medical Missions and the China Christian Educational Association to become commissions of the Council, both organizations concurring This trend to enlarged cooperation revealed itself clearly in the '' Con ference on Education for Service in the Chinese Church'' held on Kuling this summer (1935). This conference followed a survey and study made by Dr. Luther Weigle and others. The survey is reported in this issue4 but not the Conference. 'l'his conference recommended that hereafter Bible Schools should train adults and lay workers; but that schools for professional ministerial training should require at least junior middle school training. Here a concession was made to the general feeling as this spring the National Christian Council re commended as a minimum general preparation for minis terial candidates graduation from a senior middle school. Training standards were raised and clarified. Another 3. See Chapter XVI!. 4 See Chapter XV.

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TRAINING 4a peg in progress was driven down when the Conference decided that:~'' The ordinary assumption that the rural ministry requires a lower grade of ability and education is false; it may require a higher grade.'' The Conference recognized, too, that such a ministry cannot be supported by villages acting alone or on the basis of the economic standards usually obtaining therein. Educational Cooperation In a striking way the Conference showed its conviction that cooperation is essential to effective education of Chinese Chris tians for service in the Chinese Church. In the Con ference itself thirty-five to forty denominations were re presented. It was a cooperative study. The National Committee for Christian Religious Education was assigned tlie task of developing a system of lay training'. The ne cessary support of the type of rural ministers envisaged is to be secured through the organization of church cir cuits and the establishment of a sustentation fund to which churches and mission interests would subscribe, il1cluding the churches needing help. Then Nanking Theological Seminary, and the theological colleges at Tsinan, Shantung, Canton and Cheng-tu, Szechwan, were urged to take steps to unite. Finally a China Associa tion of Theological Colleges was organized which may in time serve the whole field in various ways. This Con ference saw its problem as a whole better than it has ever been seen and moved towards meeting it more united ly than was ever done before. It may open the door into a new epoch! Cooperative Experiment The cooperative spirit is fusing Christian effort in China on a wider base than for merly. In addition there are cooperative experiments going on-Tinghsien, for instance-in which Christians take their full share. Christian cooperation iu China is being built upon the basis of resources, forces and needs in China. 'rhe planning therefor is both indi genous ancl international. Older and younger churches

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4b NEW OUTLOOK are fusing in a common enterprise. Both, like China in general, are deepening their understanding of their task in China. Community China is open to a remarkable degree for Rebuilding the Christian message, to all kinds of Chris-tian service and for cooperation between the Christian forces themselves and other reconstructive agencies rapidly increasing around them Both national and Christian forces are thinking more, than once used to be the case, in terms of community needs and re building. New Without ignoring the inadequacies in their Outlook plans it may truly be said that both the Chinese people and the Christian forces working among them are marked by a new spirit, a daring determination and a long look ahead. The long look sees, a stronger China and a more effective church coming over the horizon. Both nation and church are passing out of a period when as separated entities they worked towards their own ends; the nation is passing away from its former sectional motivation and the church is actually shaking off the inhibitions of denominationalism. Both are trying to coordinate their forces. To this extent Christianity is fitting into China's mood.

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PART I NATIONAL LIFE C~APTER I TH:B} NA'l'IONAL GOVERNMENT Y. S TSAO Introduction Prior to the establishment of the Chinese National Government in Nanking on October 4th, 1928, China had been experimenting with a republican form of government for some seventeen years after the abdication of the Manchu or Ching Dynasty in 1911 as the result of a revolution. During the first ten years there was a semblance of a National Assembly and the chief executive of the nation was elected to be President. With. in the short period of seventeen years there were as many as five presidents, one chief executive and a generalissimo in Peking (Peiping) who endeavoured to' rule the country from the old capital. The parliamentary form of govern ment, however, proved to be unwieldy and irksome, so Yuan Shih-kai attempted a monarchical movement and General Chang Hsun restored the Manchurian monarchyfor about a week by placing Henry Pu-yi on the dragon throne The nionarchical movements were unpopular and short-lived, yet there was no system of general election to provide the nation with a legitimate president, so Marshal Tuan Chi-jui assumed the title of chief executive while Marshal Chang Tso-lin called himself a generalissimo. After the death of Yuan Shih-kai, the authority of the Peking regime dwindled rapidly, so that by the year 1925 and afterwards, its authority hardly extended beyond the walls of Peking. The time was ripe and the stage was set for a great political reorganization of some kind.

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6 NATIONALIST GOVERNMENT Nationalist In the meantime, the Kuomintang, or Government Nationalist Party, ,vas gathering momentum in Canton and established the Nationalist Government in that city on July lst, 1925. Within a period of less than throo years, the Nationalist army under the Command of General Chiang Kai-shek suceeeded in conquering the whole country; for when General Yen Hsishan took over Pei ping and Tientsin on June Sth 1928 the nation was virtually unified. On October 4th, 1928, the capital was removed to Nanking and the Organic Law of the Government of the Republic was promulgated. The title of "Nationalist Government" was adopted, not so mucbi as a designation for its national scope, but more by reason of its contradistinction from the earlier Pelting regime, and for its close affiliation with the "Nationalist Party." Organization As the Nationa1 Goverrnnent is the child of the Nationalist Party, the power of the Central Political Council is de.rived from the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang. The Central Pol itical Council is limited to discussion of and decision upon the follo,ving general subjects :-1. Fundamentals of Na tional Reconstruction; 2 Principles of Le.gislation; 3 Ad ministrative Policies; 4. General Plans for National De. fence; 5 Financial Programs; 6 Selection of President and Members of the State Council. Periods of The. prog-ra.m of reconstruction is based Reconstruction upon the Three Principles and the FivePower Constitution of Dr. Sun Yat-sen; Nationalism, Democracy and Livelihood are the three principles; and Legislation, Administration, Judg ment, Examination and Control are the five powers. The three periods of reconstruction are; in order: 1. The Period of Military Operations; 2. The. Period of Political Tutelage; and, 3. The Period of Constitutional Government.

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THE YUAN 7 Organic Law According to the Organic Law, the National Government isi to be composed of the following Yuans or Councils, namely, the Administrative Yuan, the Legislative. Yuan, the Judicial Yuan, the Exa mination Yuan and the Control Yuan. The President of the National Government shall represent the National Gov ernment in receiving diplomatic representatives and in officiating or participating in State functions and shall be the Chairman of the State Council. Each Yuan has a President and a Vice-President., and ea c h Yuan "may, ac cording to law, issue orders .'' Definition of The Yuan 1. The Administrative Yuan is '' the highest executive organ" of the National Government. It is empowered to establish ministries or appoint comrnissions. Each ministry is entitled to have a minister, a political vice-minister and an administrative vice-minister, while each commission may have a chairman and a vice chairman 2. The Legislative Yuan is "the highest legislative organ of the National Gov ernment 3 The Judicial Yuan is "the highest judicial organ of the National Governn~ent." 4 The Examination Yuan is "the highest examination organ of the National Government and shall take charge of examinations and de termine the qualifications for public service." 5 The Con trol Yuan is" the highest supervisory organ of the National Government and shall according to la;w, exercise the power of impeachment and auditing. For the transaction of the duties of the State Council there are established within the National Headquarters, the Department of Civil Affairs and the Department of Military Affairs Status of The Yuan According to the fundamental principles of modern government, the Legislative Yuan takes the place of the legislative body or parliament, the Judicial Yuan that of the courts of justice and the Administrative Yuan that of the cabinet The Examination Yuan and the Control Yuan are the

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8 LOOAL GOVERNMENT tpecial features of Dr. Sun Y at-sen 's '' Constitution of Five Powers." Under the Administrative Yuan are at pre-sent ten Ministries and four National Commissions: 1. Interior; 2. Foreign Affairs; 3. Military Affairs; 4. Navy; 5 Finance; 6. Agriculture and Mining; 7 Industry, Commerce and Labour; 8. Education; 9 Communications; 10. Railways; and National Commissions on :-11. Reconstruction; 12. l\:Iongolia.u and Thibetan Affairs; 13 Opium Sup pression; and, 14. Fa.mine Relief .Adminstra-'I'he Administrative Yuan consists of a tive Yuan secretariat and a Bureau of Political Affairs. The decisions of the Administrative Yuan are submitted to the State Council for approval. If the State Council be likened to a cabinet, according to the usual sense of the word, then the .Administrative Yuan is tan tamount to a cabinet within a cabinet. Ministries 'l'he organization of the various ministries is similar in composition, namely, a minister, two vice-ministers, four counsellors, four to eight secre taries, and four or more directors of departments In the commissions, the internal organization is more varied, generally however, each has a chairman and a vice-chairman with a number of divisions and technical committees. Con cerning the organization of the yuans and ministries, the framework has been given here and inasmuch as the structure of them is very similar, there is no necessity to reiterate them. Political Unit According to the "Fundamentals of Natiomil Reconstnrntion," "The district is the unit of self-government The province links up and pro vides means of cooperation between the Central Govern ment and the local district governments.'' Since the summer of 1928, steps have been taken to organize the hs1en (district) governments and to standardize the organization of the various provinces. Six new provinces have been created, namely, Hsikang, Oh 'inghai, Ninghsia, Suiyuan,

PAGE 45

SELF-GOVERNMENT 9 Chahar and J ehol. 'l'here are twenty-eight provinces, in cluding the four north-eastern provinces, but excluding Mongolia and Thibet. :M:unicipalities Apart from the provincial and district governments, there are also special muni cipalities and municipalities; the former are ranked with the provincial governments so they come under the jurisdic tion of the Natio .nal Government, while the latter come under the provincial gover11111: ents. There are seven special municipalities-Nanking, Shanghai, Peiping, '.rientsin, Tsingtao, Hankow and Canton; and eight municipalitiesHangchow, Ningpo, Tsinan, N anch 'ang, K 'aifeng, Cheng chow, Ch 'engtu and Lanchow. Provinces The provincial governments have pol: itical councils, the chairman of which is equivalent to a governor. In the municipalities the chair men are known as mayors Under these governments, there are a number of bureaus, such as the BureaUi of Fina.nee, Civil Affairs, Education, Social Affairs, Public Health, Public Utilities Public Safety, Recom;truction, etc. Districts To go farther down into the scale of local governments, the district consists of a number of eh 'u or counties each county consists of twenty to fifty towns, each to>wn consists of one hundred families. The smallest unit is a. Zin consisting of fivej families, while five Zin make a lit. Election Rules In order to introduce self-government to the people, the rig hts of election, recall, initiative and referendum are conferred first on the Zin and lu, then on the town and finally on the districts. Time limits have been set for the organization of the local gov ernments, but the task is so gigantic, that only in a few provinces are conditions ripe for the new system of govern ment.

PAGE 46

10 GOVERNMENT FINANCES Ministry The Ministry of Finance was one of the earliof Finance est departments to be established under the Nationalist Government. The success of the Kuomintang Party owes a heavy debt to the resourceful ex Minister of Finance, T.V. Soong, who built up a very credi table revenue-collecting machinery within a short period of time. Since his resignation, Dr. H. H. Kung is keeping the orga.nization intact and at the same time making steady improvements. It can be readily understood that under present conditions of world depression and when gigantic efforts are being made at gold and silver regulation by different countries, it is well-nigh impossible for China to undertake any great fundamental financial measures, such as the adoption of a gold standard currency and the like, in order to place China's fuiancial system on a footing equal to those of older and more permanently established governments. Finances In view of the importance of this government department, it might be well to recount here in brief some of the outstanding features within the last few years. In 1930, the Ministry submitted a comprehensive r eport on the national receipts and expenditures for the fiscal year of 1928-1929, which gave the total recejpts at $434,440,712.92, of which$209,536,969.49 went to military expenditure and $121,318,007.57 for debt service. Revenues The three outstanding bulwarks of China's financial system are the Customs' Administra tion the Salt. Gabelle and the Consolidated Tax ( or Internal Revenue Administration). Since the conclusion of the ta.riff autononzy treaties, a ;more scientific system of graduated tariff has been adopted in lieu of the 5% con ve.utional tariff. The Salt Revenue Administration was disorganized for a time during the military campaign of the Nationalist Party, but with the resto ration of better order the receipts have improved very appreciably. The so-calle.d Consolidated Tax Administration started with the tax on rolled tobacco, at present it includes other items PAGE 47 CENTRAL BANK AND MINT 11 such as matches, cemeni, cotton, etc so it is now called the Internal Revenue Administration which yields the Gov ernment about$100,000 000 per annum. National With the three bulwarks of China's :finauce Credit more centralized and more efficiently adminis-trated, the Government has been able to abolish the likin which had acted as a barrier for the free flow of goods in domestic trade. The collection of import duties on a gold basis by the introduction of the system of the customs' gold unit has greatly stabilized the receipts of the Government for tha maintenance of the service of China's foreign and domestic oblig ations which, in turn, directly strengthens the credit of tha country. Central Bank 'l'ho establishntcnt of the Central Bank is another outstanding feature, because within the short space of a few years, it has become the Government depository of revenues and departmental funds. Mint The Centra.l Mint plays its part in currency reform and, up to elate, it has coined dollars and bars to the value of $100,000,000 already. 'rime and again, the Ministry of Fina~1ce has endeavoured to enforce the budgetary system up~n the Governm;ent and on many occasions, it has been defeated by the urgent demands made upon the Treasury for military expenses With the return of more peaceful conditions in the country the budget system is gradually being adopted by the Government. National In May 1931, the Chinese Government sent Economic a telegram to the Council of the League of Council Nations with reference to technical collabora-tion in the task of national re.construction and China's decision to establish a Natio.nal Economic Council in China to handle this work. On June 26th 1933, a com munication outlining the measures regarding such collabo ration was presented by the Chinese Government to the Council, so on July 18th, 1933, the special committtee ap pointed by the League Council met in Paris and adopted PAGE 48 12 NATlONAL EOONOMIQ COUNCIL some important resolutions concerning technical coopera tion. The chief principle is that '' the appointment of the technical agent requested by the Chinese Government is of a purely technical and enti rely non-political character .'' He is to be the l:iai.son officer between the Nationa l Econo mic Council of China and the competent organs of the League of Nations. The Standing Comm i ttee of the Na tional Economic Council consists of the Prime Ministo?r Mr. Wang Ching-wei; the President of the Legislative Yuan, Dr. Sun Fo; the Chairman of the Military Affairs Commission, General Chiang Kai-shek; the Minister of Pinance, Dr. H. H Kung; and th~ ex-Minister of Finance, Dr. T. V. Soong This very strong Standing Committee made a detailed study of the activities to be undertaken and financed during the year 1934, in addition to the work begun in 1931. Purpose of Council when the National Economic Council was inaugurated on Nov 15th, 1931, the then Chairman of the National Govern ment, General Chiang Kai-shek, described the purpose of the Council as follows : "The constitution of the National Economic Council clearly shows that it was the desire o~ the National Govern ment to create an Advisory Council in which the principal Ministers of the Government may have the advantage of having associated with them private persons from outside, selected not because of the positions they hold, but because of their personal qualities and abilities, from amongst the leaders in the various forms of activities they perform. They are invited to help the Government in planning and executing an urgent development program. The Couucil as a whole is thus an advisory board, but as far as the ministerial membe1s of the Cotmcil accept policies pro posed, they will be, as members of the Government, in a position to give immediate executive effect to them . In this respect the Council will have the most responsible duties to perform.'' PAGE 49 RECONSTRUCTION 13 Foreign Since 1930, more than two dozen experts have Experts been sent by the League to China to malrn comprehensive studies and surveys of conditions in China. 'rhere were six men on hygiene and medicine, nine men on education, five men on transit and communications, four on agriculture and two on economics and finances. 'rhe expenditure of the Council as provided by the Na tional Gove.rnm:ent, since 1931 to the end of September 1933, has totalled$4,550,000. For the year 1934, $15,000,000 were allotted in the following proportions :Roads . . . . .$ 6,800,000 Health . . . . . 500,000 Cotton . . . . . 1,000,000 Silk . . . . . . 750,000 Kiangsi . . . . . 11900,000 North West . . . . 2,500,000 Coal Survey . . . . 100 000 Economic Research . . 200,000 Tea . . . ... . . 64,000 Administration and Experts 750,000 Reserve . . . . . 436,000 Total . $15,000,000 Reconstruction The scope of the work of the National Economic Council is so extensive and its importance so vital that the funds available are altogether inadequate For the first time, the Chinese Government is attempting to make a plan for national reconstruction. The work already accomplished during the preparatory period 1930-1933 and the policy and prospect of the future cannot be adequate.ly dealt with, but a few passages of the Report might be quoted to indicate somewhat the nature of the subjects that are being tackled by the Council. Cotton and In agriculture, it has been clearly indicated Silk that the fundamental factors i;n the situation are the low output, the very high cost of credit facilities, the heavy burden of taxation and the harsh PAGE 50 14 WATER CONSERVANCY and uneconomic system of land tenure. What more need be said, if the Government is made to realize those vital factors which require immediate attention! In the cotton industry, China impo1:ted$233 million of raw cotton, but if thei Chinese cotton-growers used a better seed, no cotton imports would be needed. what a stunning revelation to those who are endeavouring to wipe out the unfavourable trade balance of China! In the silk industry, the one potent cause of irregular qualitiy is the failure to grade the cocoons. Dr. Mari said, that the reconstruction of China's sericultural industry is a task of great magnitude wlLich can only be accomplished by compulsory Government reg ulation. If the National Economic Council will realize the importance of compulsory application of scientific management to the chief industries of China, the adverse trade balance might be wiped out within five to ten years Water In water conservancy, what China has Conservancy. clone within the last three years must be regarded as unprecedented in the history of China. It was necessitated by the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers' floods. It is, therefore, pleasing to record that owing to that examiple set by the National Government, the provincial government of Kiangsu has a comprehen sive engineering plan which will virtually eradicate the terrors of flood and drought in Kiangsu and at the same time reclaim one million mow of land for cotton cultivation. The scheme will cost $20,00Q,OOO but the economic gain will be at least five-fold. Roads In the question of road building, the Council at i~ inception organized a Roads' Bureau in order to stimulate and control thel construction of roads Road building is very popular in China and before long there will beJ 80,000 kilometers of tolerably good roads through out China Health and Education In both health and educational questions, the League experts are also giving China valuable advice through the National Eco nomic Council. Better health conduces to greater physical PAGE 51 NATIONALIST GOVERNMENT 15 vigour, more universal education means a larger number of people will have more mental acumen. These are two vast mines of strength and power which the Chinese people must unearth as quickly as possible for the task of national reconstruction. '' In this respect, the Council will have the niost responsible duties to perform'' said General Chiang Kai-shek in his inaugural address as Chairman of the Council. It is to be hoped that he has fully envisaged the vital problems that are being systematically tackled by the National Economic Colm.cil under the able leadership of Dr. T. V Soong. A rather displ'oportionate amount of space see ms to ha.ve been de;voted to this section of work of the National Government, but as within the scope of its work lies the germinating seeds of national salvation, it must not be ignore.cl, although this Council is neither a ministry, a commission nor a regular yuan of the Govern ment. Central When the forces of the Nationalist Govern. Authority m;ent reached Peiping in the late summe.r of 1928, the territory directly under the control of the Central Gove r nme.nt was only tlnee provinces, name ly, Kiangsu, Chekiang and Anhwei. The other provinces were still under the control of local military men or Com munists The process of unification went on apace, but some declared their independence or defied the Central Government. Under the circumstances, the authority of the Nationalist Government suffered great loss; and it was the Japanese attack upon the northeastern provinces that helped to iron out some of the differences. Even to day, the southwest is still semi-independent, with Sze chwan and Sinkiang being gradually brought under the full control of the Nanking Government. Nationalist Government The system of g overnment set up by the Nationalist Party in Nanking and which has been called the ''Nationalist'' instead of "National" Government, is a most complicated one. The machinery is based upon the committee system and it PAGE 52 16 POWERS OF GOVERNMENT consists of wheels within wheels. .Aside from the funda mental difficulty of setting into motion a' new and com plex governmental machinery, the Government had to face the difficulties created by rebellious and disgruntled revolutionary heroes., conununistic uprisings, independent war lords, ide.alistic politicians, and a large body of untrained and inexperienced officials. Over and above these obsta cles, the constant conflict of authority which arose between the all-powerful party and the v,dministrative officers required the enactment of rniany .govermnent measures to define the demarcation betJween political and executive powers. While the Nationalist Government vvas engaged in the task of surmounting these difficulties, China's neigh bours Russia and Ja pan, demonstrated their impatience in Sinkiang, Mongolia and Manchuria by making some hay. Had the new National Government been more simple and perhaps more dictatorial, the unification of the country would have been considerably hastened. .And it may be claimed as almost certain that had the Nationalist Party as a party exercised less power and had Peiping continued to be the national capital, the Manchurian affair would not have develop ed into such dimensions. It is for the sake of cei-tain intangible po~itical principles, therefore, that the four northeastern provinces have been sacrificed. Bishop Blougram 's ''.Apology'' made a case for the achievements of the Christian Church, so likewise there are foreign and Chinese ''bishops'' who make plea.c, for the Chinese Nationalist Gover.nment, eminent among whom are Sir Frederick Maze, Prime Minister Wang Ching-wei and a number of responsible state ministers holding various portfolios. Nevertheless, observers are not blind to the fact that the Nationalist Government of China is lumbering along most heavily; and that a considerable amount of lubricant is sti'll required to enable it to render the service that it is supposed to perform for its own preservation. Mr. Chen Kung-po, the Minister of Industry, declares that there is too much over-lapping of duties in government depart ments, which leads to wastage; too vague political demarc- PAGE 53 EFFICIENCY OF GOVERNMENT 17 ation of powers, which produces conflict and confusion; and too low a standard of efficiency in the governmental personnel. '' All these,'' he says, '' have reduced the ad ministrative efficiency of the Chinese Government to practically nil.'' Although Mr. Che.n 's criticism holds a certain amount of truth, his concluding remark must be regarded as an overstatement, because despite the over whelming difficulties of the Government considerable pro gress has been made along many lines. PAGE 54 CHAPTER II CHINA'S RELATIONS WITH WESTERN POWERS W. I-I. MA As one reviews the international relations of China during the past yea1, one may not fail to see that diplo matic developments in Eastern Asia tend to center around the Sino-Japanese dispute, the one issue which drew the attention of the world, during the past few years, to the Far East. Although the subject of the present chapter is ''China's Relations with Western Powers,'' it seems to be necessary to take Sino-Japanese relations also into consideration and view the one central fact which has been dominant during the past few years from three different angles: namely, the reactions of the "\V 0.stern Powers against:-(1) Japanese territorial expansion in China; (2) the Japanese stn1ggle for economic supremacy in Eastern Asia, and (3) the Japanese nullification of the great peace treaties concluded since the Paris Peace Conference I. Revival of the Actfot'.ties of the Power s in the Preservation or Expansion of Terrdorfrt! Infiuences i11 Eastern Asia. Mongolia and Manchuria 'rhe Japanese occupation, in a surprising ly short time, of China's Four Eastern Pro vinces a.n area of 440,000 square miles, seems like a miracle t-0 the Powers of the world Since the conclusion of the Tangku Truce in 1932, Japan has practically created a second "South Manchuria" in North China where she is exerting important influence, both economic and po1itical, over the local governments at P eiping and Tientsin. In occupying a few strategic points, including Dolonor in the northeast of Charhar province, Japan holds the key to Outer Mongolia and the two Inner Mongolian provinces of Chahar and Suiyuan. The autonomous movement of PAGE 55 SOVIET INFLUENCE 19 the Mongolians in the northern districts of Chahar and Suiyuan received its inspiration from Japanese activities in Eastern or Manchurian Mongollia-where Ja pan has created for Mon:golian tribes the province of Hsingan-and also from Soviet activities in Outer Mongolia, where the Young Mongolians have been vigorously sovietizing the country and attempting to separate it from China. Eastern Asia While other powers have maintained a and Powers watchful attitude toward the territorial expansion of the Japanese in China, they themselvesi have not been inactive in protecting, if not ac tually extending, their territorial interests in Eastern .Asia It may be interesting to summarize the activities during the past few years of the three powers-the Soviet Union, Great Britain., and France---which previously had territorial interests in the border districts of China. Soviet Influence Since the establishment of the revolu-tionary Mongol People's Govermnent at Urga on ,July 6, 1921, marking the termination of Chinese rule and the end of Japanese influence in Outer Mongolia, the Soviet Union has dominated the internal and external affairs of thei new state. Soviet advisers occupy important positions in the Mongolian government and have thus been enabled to introduce the Soviet system into that territory and actually to regard Outer Mongolia as a part of the Union. The Japa.nese expansion in Eastern and Inner Mongolia has simjply hastened the completion of Soviet control in this border territory of China, by means of which the Red authorities hope to protect their territorial pos sessions in Siberia and also to link up their interests in Sinkiang and Central Asia. Russia and The complletion in 1930 of the Turk-Sib Sinkiang Railway, which runs hundreds of miles along the border of Sinkiang, brought the mfl.uence of the Russians close to that huge northwestern province of China. Through their organization of national trade organs, the Soviets have been able to dominate the PAGE 56 20 GREAT BRITAIN AND CHINA economic life of Sinldang. They have acquired a virtual monopoly of the import and export trade of Sinkiang, and their control of the currency has led them to dominate, the :finance of the province. Follo,ving the establishment of their supremacy in the economic life of Sinkiang, the Soviets played a vital part in the internecine struggles between the local warlords during 1933-4. The emergence, as the unquestioned n1ler of Sinkiang of General Shen Shih-tsai, who has during the period of civil war received from the Soviets supplies in money and in munitions, has tremendously increased the, influence of the Soviets in the political life of the province. Soviet advisers both political and military are! being emnloyecl to assist in the rehahilita tion of that territory. While the expansion of the Soviet influence in Outer Mongolia and Sinkia.ng may ultimately lead them into conflict with the westward expansion of ,T apanese influence in l\fongolia.. their dominance of Sin kian~ will also ea.use, rivalry between them and the British in Tibet and southwestern Sinkiang. Great Britain and China's Far West It is not quite possible to prove that BritisH authorities in the East have become active since the J apa.nese and the Soviets have resumed territorial expansion' in Man chnria., the Mongolias and Sinkiang; but there is every indication of the! growth ofi British influence in Tibet and West China. Early in 1934, there was an independence movement in Kashgar in the southwest of Sinkiang which. according to an Anglo-Russian agreement, was recognized as a British sphere of influence. This movement for inde pendence had its inspiration in the desire on the part of the natives and the British not only to overthrow Chinese rule but also to colmter-balance the growing influence of the Soviet Union in northern Sinkiang. Through the British controlled railway from India to Kashmir, bordering southwestern Sinkiang, the rebels were enabled to secure supplies of munitions from India and Afghanistan. PAGE 57 TIBET AND BURMA 21 Great Britain and Tibet In Tibet itself, British influence, following the death of the pro-British Dalai Lama, has be, en strengthened by the choice of a successor to the deceased spiritual ruler in a newly-born babv who can be utilized to bar the return to Lhassa: of the pro:Chinese Panchan Lam1a, now in exile In 1934, the British-trained Tibetan troops invaded both Chinghai and Hsikong, which are now established as regular provinces of China. The border conflicts between Tibet and Hsikong proved so serious that the Central Government at Nanking had to accept a local agreement for peaceful settlement arrived at between the g ovemor of Hsikong and the Tibetan authorities. As the British hold of that territory is so strong, the special mission sent in 1934 by Nanking to Lhassa for improving Sino-Tibetan relations did not achieve any fruitful results. Burma and Yunnan Another border incident which took place between British Burma and. Yunnan pro vince in the same year also aroru;ed the suspicions of the Chinese that Great Britain was expanding her territorial influence in West China In April, a small band of Burmese troops invaded Yunnan and occupied Panhung and Cheng-Kangtsai districts, which are known for their wealth of gold and silver. Pending diplomatic neg otiations between China and Great Britain for a peaceful settlement of the incident, the Burmese remain there min ing the precious metals. France and Southwest China The sudden annotmcronent by the French in July 1933 of their occupation of the nine small coral islands in the China Sea, not far from Hai.nan Island, Chinese territory, gave rise to considerable suspicion on the, part of the Chinese (and in this matter ailso the, Japanese) in regard to French intentions in South China. In controlling the railway running betwe e n Ha.iphong (Annam) and Yunnanfu (Yunnan), the French have maintained a dominant in fluence over the economic and political life not only of PAGE 58 FRANCE AND YUNNAN Yunnan province but a.lso of the rest of the southwestern provinces, including Kwangsi, Kvi'eichow and, to some extent, IC wangtm1g. Through their manipulations of tariff duties, the French have made itJ practically impossible for the goods 0 other com1tries, including China, to compete with French goods o~ the Yunnan and Kweichoiw market. Through their domination of the main artery of commnnica tions in the Southwest, the French are in control of the great revenue-producing opium trade in Yurman and Kwan:gsi provinces. Similarly, the French control of the railway gives the.ll'.lj a monopoly in selling to the local militarists the munitions which are essential to the success of the French-favored faction contending for military and political power in the southwestern provinces. The Freinch grasp of Yurman. province has become so strong that they would rejec~ any encroachment on their influence the.re by other powers, even including China The China National Aviation. Corporation contemplated in 1933-4 the establish ment of a neiw air route between Canton and Yunnanfu, but its plan was obstructed by the French, who are opposed to outside competition with their Haiphong-Yunnanfu Railway. So long as Japan confines her expansionist pro gram to northeastern China, conflicts between the French and Japanese over territorial advantage,~ in China may be avoided. II. The Japanese Struggle for Dominance in China Versus the Internationa~ StriiggZe for Eq1iaZity of Opportunity. "Hands Off China'' Policy The announcement on April 17, 1934 of the so-called Japanese '' Monroe Doctrine in Eastern Asia'' through a spokesman of the Tokyo Foreign Office was a cause of anxiety and opposition 11ot only in Nanki.ng but aJso in London, W ashiogton and other political ceinters In this statement, the Japanese declared that, '' Owing' to the special position of Ja pan in her relations with China, Japan is called upon to exert the utmost effort in carrying out her mission and in fulfilling her special responsibilities in PAGE 59 JAPAN'S POSITION 23 East Asia.'' The Japanese further asserted that ~n o7d~r to keep peace and order in East Asia, a task which it !s their duty to perform, they must ewer act alone and on the~r own responsibility. Although Ja~an would not fi;11d. it necessary to interfere with any foreign country negotiatmg individually with China on ques~ions of finance or. trade, Japan did object, in the followmg terms, to foreign as sistance to China : "We oppose therefore any attempt on the part of China to avail herself of the influence of any other country in order to resist Japau; we also oppose any action taken by China, calculated to play one power against another. Any joint operations under taken by foreign powe1s even in the name of technical or :financial assistance at this particular moment after the Manchurian and Shanghai Incidents are bound to acquire significance. Undertakings of such nature, if carried through to the end, must give rise to communications that might necessitate discussion of problems like fixing spheres of influence or even international control or division of China which would be the greatest possible misfortune for China and at the same time would have the most serious repercus sions upon Japan and East Asia. Japan's Dominant Position In a word, Ja pan desired, through this statement, to assume a dominant position in Eastern Asia. This meant that Japan would be the only country which could lend financial and technical assistance to China. Other countries, in dealing with China, must secure Japan's approval before they proceed to act. Consequently, China would be re garded as Japan's protectorate, while Japan would be re spected as the protector of the '' Asiatic Monroe Doctrine.'' Evidently the conditions included in this statement constitute a breach of the. Open Door Doctrine which was officially recognized in the Nine-Power Treaty of the. Wash ington Conference. The Powers, claiming the privilege of equality of opportunity in China, quickly rose to lodge protests :with the Tokyo Government against the principles of the April Declaration. British and American ambass adors in Tokyo were active in making representations of their governments' views to Koki Hirota, the Japanese Foreign Minister, asking hini to clarify the Japanese posi- PAGE 60 24 CHINA AND LEAGUE tion and abandon the principle of monopolistic control in China. Confronted with world opposition and criticism, the Japanese Foreign Minister, on April 28, formally with drew the sta.tei.nent and asked the foreign diplomats to regard it as '' officially non-existent.'' Although the Powers emerged victorious in the April 1'934 struggle for equality of opportunity and maintenance of the Open Door Doctrine, they are far from being assured that Japan will not resort to equally effective ~eans to gain a dominant economic and political position in China. China and the League If the Powers, in order to maintain the principle of equality of opportunity, struggle to prevent Ja pan from closing the door of China against them, the~ must answer the J ap anese protest that Ja.pan should not be excluded from participation in any international effort in lending assist ance of whatever nature to China. The publication in May 1934 of the report of Dr. Ludwig Rajchman, the League liaison officer in China, recommending more tech nical and :financial collaboration between China and the League, led the Japanese to launch an attack on the activi ties of Dr. Rajchman in China and to insist on his dis missal. Although the League did not openly comply with the Japanese objections, it, nevertheless, faile.d to send Dr. Rajchman back to China to finish his tern1 of service. Moreover, the League is not prepared to raise an inter national loan in order to relieve China's :financial distress or to assist her in econo ,m.ic reconstruction. Finally, the few League experts who came to China before the Rajchman report and have not been withdrawn are not exerting much influence upon China's progress. It may be inferred from these negative facts that the League, in the face of Japanese opposition, will refrain from giving any substantial help to China in the near future. Reports are persistent that the influential J apa.nese in Tokyo are pressing the Chinese Government to employ Japanese experts and ad visers either in cooperation with Leag11e experts for China, 's reconstruction or 11s substitutes for the~, PAGE 61 MANCHUKUO 25 Oil law of Manchukuo In October of 1934, the J apanesc, through their puppet government at Changchun, issued a new law granting to thems e lves monopolistic control of the production and distribu tion of oil in l\fauchukuo. 'l'hey had formed in February, 1932, a Manchuria Petroleum Company which was designed to exploit the oil mines at Fushun, which contain some five billion tons of crude oil. The capital of the company, amounting to yen 5,000,000, was chiefly owned by the South Manchuria Railway Company and Ma.nchukuo. The neiw monopoly law grante d to this company the control of all oil shales in Manchukuo, and the right to handle all imported oil. Foreign oil intere sts might stay as distributors or wholesalers subject to the restrictions of the mpnopoly law Should they find it un profitable to continue business in Manchukuo, they might leave the country, and their plants would be purchased by the Japanese oil company. Open Door In consequence of the operation of the and Manchukuo oil law in Manchulmo, it becomes inevitable that the door of that territory will be gradually closed to other countries So far as oil is concerned, the interests of the United States, Great Britain, Russia and Holland are affected. The former two Powers have lodged vigorous protests with the, Tokyo gov ernment against the promulgation of the oil law. The Powers pointed out that the new law constituted an act directly violating article III of the Nine-Power Treaty pro viding for the maintenance of the Open Door or equality of opportunity in China. The Japanese turned a deaf ear to these protests with the easy argument that since Man churia is no longer a part of China and "Manchukuo is an independent state" the Powers should negotiate with the proper authorities at Chang chun instead of Tokyo Under such circumstances, very little progress could be achieved by the Powers in the struggle to maintain equality of opportunity in Eastern Asia. PAGE 62 26 TREATY REVISION Revision of Treaty Relations According to their provisions, the Sino-British and Sino-American commercial treaties of 1903-4 can be revised at the end of every ten years if one party demands their revision The Sino-British commercial treaty was due for revision on July 28, 1933, the date marking the end of the third ten-year period; and the Sino-American treaty was due for revision on January 13 1934. China served notice at the proper time to the British and American gov ernments, demanding revision of these treaties. The most important question in connection with the revision is the abolition of extraterritoriality in China. Other stipulations touch the property and professional interests of the British and American nationals carrying on business and missionary enterprises in this country. The two governments did not show any enthusiasm) for the revision; on the other hand they; took it for granted that the treaties should continue in force for another ten-year period or some indefinite time. In face of the Japanese struggle for dominance in Eastern Asia, it is natural that the Western Powers should be reluctant to relinquish their special rights and privileges in this country. Consequently, the question of revising Sino-foreign commercial treaties constitutes another evi dence of the struggle between the Japanese '' Asiatic Monroe Doctrine" and the Western Open Door Doctrine in Eastern Asia. III. Failitre of Peace Machirneries in the Far East "Non-Recognition While Dr. Stanley K. Hornbeck, Doctrine" Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs, Department of State, Washing ton, reaffirmed on January 18, 1934 the Stimson doctrinei of "Non-recognitio.n of governments made by swords," the Japanese proceeded on March 1 to cro,wn Henry Pu Yi as the Emperor of Manchulmo. Two days after the corona tion of Pu Yi, Cordell Hull, Secretary of State of the United States, in reply to a friendly note of Koki Hirota, the Japanese Foreign Minister, dated February 21, ex pressly said : '' I believe that there are in fact no questions PAGE 63 RECOGNITION OF MANCHUKUO 27 between our two countries which, if they be viewed in proper perspective in both countries, can with any warrant be regarded as not readily susceptible to adjustment by pacific processes." Although Secretary Hull took care to say that '' it may be possible for all of thei countries which have interests in the F'ar East to approach every question existing or which may arise between or among them in such spirit and manner that these questions may be reg ulated or resolved with injury to none and with definite and lasting advantage to a.11,'' his willingness to cooperate "in the fullest possible measure" with Hirota in amicably solving questions between the two countries caused the Japanese to believe that the United States had tacitly accepted the fait accompU and would not, at least, do any thin : g to disturb the situation created by the Japanese in Manchuria. Recognition of Manchukuo Other countries which are not bound hy any unilateral declaration of non recognition, as the United States is, have come, in a greater or lesser cleg1ee, into contact with Man chukuo. 'l'he recognition accorded to Manchukuo in 1933 by Salvador, a member of the League, placed the Geneva organization in an awkward position, for it had unani mously adopted the resolution of non-re.cognition of Man chukuo. The action of Salvador, however, produced no g-reat effect because the country was so small as to be neg ligible. British Industrial Mission 'l'he sending by the Federation of British Industries, the most powerful organization of its kind in Britain, of an Industrial Mission to Manchukuo in August of 1934 greatly ex cited the feelinigs and suspicions of the Chinese people as to the faithfulness of the British Government in observing the non-recognition principle. Although the Industrial Mission formally denied any political connections, its leader, Baron V. W. Barnby, said to the Japanese that '' no gain win be made by Great Britain or any other PAGE 64 28 LEAGUE AND MANCHUKUO 1-ri~,; j. : .L; ; : I : L foreign power by further delaying the recognition of the government of Manchukuo.'' He would desire '' to con nect Great Britain, Japan, and Manchukuo with thei chains of friend.ship.'' Soviet and The Soviet Union which is bound neither }fanchukuo by any unilateral statement nor by a mul-tilateral resolution about non-recognition, has assumed full-fledged norm.al relations with Manchukuo. ShEI has received Manchukuo consuls in her cities in the maritime provinces She formally signed an agreement on navigation with the Manchukuo representatives. Most important of all her ambassador at 'fokyo has carried on formal negotiations with the Manchukuo delegate for more than a year concerning the sale of the Chinese Eastern Railway. In siJg:ning on March 23 of this year a formal agreement to sell the C.E.R. to Manclrnkuo, it can hardly be. doubted that the Soviet Union has accorded nothing short of de jure recognition to the puppet state. It is only fair to say that the -Soviet Union, whose territories are contiguous to those of Manchukuo, could not have com pletely avoided dealing with the Japanese or their agen cies, the Manchukuo .authorities; but her actions undoubt edly destroyed the value of the non-recognition principle. League and As shown in the foregoing section, the Manchukuo League did not effectively prevent the nations, members or non-members, from ac cording for~l recognition to 01 making S1Ubstantial contacts with Manchulmo. Its special committeE1 for imple menting the League resolution regarding non-recognition has remained inactive since its organization On the other hand the League, in a resolution, has relaxed the postal ban against Manchukuo by authorizing individual powers to devise any sort of rnodus vivendi fo1 carrying on postal communications with it. It has become a generally ac cepted fact that the report unanimously adopted by the League denouncing the J aipanese action in Manchuria and J ehol has produced no effect whatever upon SinoJapanese relations in the Far East. PAGE 65 NA. V A.L TREA. TY 29 China and Under such circumstances, China alone Manchukuo could not stanu against the threat of Japan-ese diplomacy and militarism in North China. She agreed to the resumption on July 1, 1934 of through ra1lway trafiic between Peiping and Mukden. At four passes in the Great Wall, China established cus toms offices, thus acce,;pting informally a temporary boundary line between he1 sdf and the Japanese occupied ter ritory. Later in the year, she agreed to the opening of postal communications between China proper and Man chukuo. Early in this year, the telegraphic communica tions between the two were resumed. Consequently, the League resolutions have failed to apply in relations be tween China and Japan. Washington When the preliminary task at London Naval regarding the question of the reduction Treaty of naval armaments had failed, Ja pan on December 29, 1934 issued an ofiicial noti fication cle nom1cing the Washington Treaty of Naval Limitations. Both Great Britain and the United States expressed regret for the Japanese action, but they still maintained their former policy toward naval disarma m ent. The abrogation of the Washington Naval Treaty inevitably affects the status of the other treaties conclude.cl at Washington in 1922, particularly the Four-Power Pact and the Nine-Power Treaty. The limitation of naval armament was the purpose of the Washington Conference and the treaty governing it was the backbone of the new international relations created in the Pacific since 1922. It is true that Japan had already violated the principles of the Nine-Power Treaty when her troops occupied the Four Eastern Provinces of China The denunciation of the Naval Treaty simply increased Japan's freedom in carrying out her program in the Far East. China's The 'foregoing analysi~ of international Dilemma events in China during the past few years must lead one to conclude that the Japanese activities and those of the western powers in Eastern Asia PAGE 66 30 CHIN A 'S DIFFICULTIES have brought about a new phase of imperialism in this part of the world. Japan's occupation of Chinese ter ritories has profoundly upset the normal order of inter national relations in the Far East, and has put the great peace machineries of the world under severe strain. The ascendency of Japanese militarism in Eastern Asia has awalrnned the western powers to the fact that their inter ests in the Far East, particularly in China, have been injuriously affected. Individual powers have to seek effective means to protect their acquired political and commercial interests A neiw battle for territorial and economic influence in China, with Japan o:n the offensive and the western powers on the defensive, has opened. The old imperialism / that dominated China from the Sino J apanese war of 1894-5 to the Washingion Conference of 1921-22 has re.vived, though in modified form and is ex ercising its sway over nationalist China. The latter, sand wiched between the Powers of the East and of the west, finds herself in a difficult situation. China's Difficulties In the first place, the attempt on the part of Ja pan to dominate the economic and political life of China has bred resent ment on the part not only of China but also of the West, a resentment which seriously interferes with the progress of Sino-Japanese rapprochement. In the second place, the inability of the western powers and Ja.pan to agree on the form of technical collaboration and financial as sistance has left China pessimistic about the prospects of international cooperation. F1inallJ~, the Japanese. inter ference and the lack of international agreement have tended to delay China's own program of reconstruction PAGE 67 CHAPTER III SINO-JAPANESE RELA'l'IONS, 1933-35 Tangku Truce SauHs1 Hsu The last issue of this Year Book witnessed the conclusion of the Tangku Truce1 (May 31, 1933) which is as follows: 1. The Chinese troops are to withdraw to a line con necting Y enching, Changping, Kaoliying, Shunyi, Tung chow, Siangho, Paoti, Lintingchen, Ningho and Lutai. No Chinese troops from the south and west will cro~ this line in the dire,ction of the Great Wall and the Chi nese troops will offer no provocation to the Japanese. 2. 'rhe Japanese troops, in order to ensure the per formance of article 1 at any time may with airplan.es or other m ; eans inspect this area, the Chinese troops giving all necessary protectio u and facilities. 3 When the Japanese troops recognize the complete performance of article 1 the Japanese troops will not cross the line mentioned and will not pursue the ChinEISe troops and will withdraw to the Great Wall. 4 Between the line beyond which the Chinese troops may not go and the Great Wall the ma.i.ntenance of peace and order will be in the hands of Chinese police. 5. 'fhe armistice agreement is effective from the day of signature. Passenger Traffic Since then two agreements have been entered into for the restoration of commUDiicaitdon .beitweelll. the four J a:panese-oc cupied provinces and the rest of China on the understand ing that they do not prej\ndice the legal status of those 1 Reuter 's translation of the Japanese version in The Shanghai Evening Post and Mercury, June 1, 1933. PAGE 68 32 POSTAL AND TRAIN SERVICE provinces One of these agTeements which relates to through traffic ou the Peiping-Mukden Railway2 (June 28, 1934) is in substance as follows: ( 1) Beginning July 1 direct passenger traffic between Peiping and Mukden shall be restored. The service shall be confined to one train from each end daily. (2) The China Travel Service and the Japan Tourist Bureau have been entrusted by the Chinese and the J ap anese sides respectively, with the task of organizing an Oriental Travel Bureau at ShanJ1aikwan to handle all matters connected ,vith such through traffic. (3) All such matters as the operation of trains, th('oir schedules and composition and the sale of tickets shall be regulated by this admdnistration sepa.rately. Postal The other agreement3 which relates to postal Service service (December 30, 1934) is as follows: Article 1.-Following the restoration of postal com munication betw : een China Proper inside the, Great \Vall and the Nort.heastern Provinces, the ha.ndling of mail matter shall be entrusted to an agency to be jointly or ganized by the Chinese and Japanese postal authorities. 'rl1is agency shall establish mail transmitting offices at Shanhaikwan and Kupeikow, respectively, to undertake the work. Article 2.-Post.a:ge stamps and covers of mail matter shall not bear the mark of '' lVIanchoukuo .'' Article. 3 .-Iu marking dates and years on stamps and covers of mails, the vV estern calendar shall be adopted. Article 4.-The charges for mail matter shall be col lected according to existing postal regulations of the re~ spective parties concerned. 2 Unofficial translation of the proclamation issued by Mr. Yin Tung, Managing. Director of the Peiping-Mukden Railway, which appeared in The Peiping Chronicle, June 29, 1934. 3 Given out by the Chekai Agency in the North-China Daily News, January 6, 1935. PAGE 69 CHINA'S PACIFIC ATTITUDE 83 Article 5.-In regard to stamps, the Japanese side shall issue a specia.l kind of stamps for the purpose and the use of any other kind shall not be permitted. Article 6.-Res toration of ordinary mails shall start from J annary 10, 1935, while posta!l money orders and parcel post shall be accepted from February 1. Article 7.-Mails to Europe and America via Siberia shall be restored. Article 8.-This agreement shall not be changed or altered without the concurrence of both the parties con cerned. China's Pacific Attitude From the foregoing it is evident that for the piesent at least the Chinese Government has no intention of resorting to force for the re covery of the occupied provinces. In fact they have not stopped at the measures already noted, but have gone out of their Waif, or practically so, wherever they can, to shorw the Japanese their pacific attitude. Be sides many other act<; they have suppressed all popular protests against the Japanese in the form either of boy cotts or of propaganda and revised their tariff in favor of Japanese goods. The last measure took effect on July 1, 1934. Manchuria and Jehol J apau, on the other hand, has shown no sign that she would loosen her grip upon Manchuria and J ehol. On the cont'rary, she has even advanced a step further by making efforts on thei one hand to establish a protectorate over China or what is left of her, and on the other, to compel the world to acquiesce in not only what she had done in the north eastern provinces, but also at what she may do with China as a whole. It may be recalled that 1931, in which year troubles in Manchuria were started, was also the year in which the civil war which had characterized the Chinese history of the previous decade practically came to an encl, and na tional reconstrnction along various lines was launched, PAGE 70 34 RECONSTRUCTION In order to carry out the latter mission effectively, col laboration was sought from the League of Nations. On account of the event of September 18th and, still worse, of the extension of hostilities by the Japanese, nothing very substantial could, however, be achieved Government and Reconstruction In the middle part of 1933, about the close of the Japanese operations inside the Great Wall, the National Governme,nt began to revive, or rather intensify, its activities along reconstructive lines. Financia l ar raugements were made with the Reconstruction Finance Corporation of the United States for certain financial assistance from them, consultations were he,ld with several delegations to the Monetary and Economic Conference at London for possible cooperation in the field of e c onomic development, and a request was sent to the League of Nations for more closer technical c PAGE 71 PEACE IN EAST ASIA 35 out its mission in East Asia and in fulfilling its respons ibilities. Ja pan has been compelled to withdraw from the League of Nations because Japan and the League failed to agree in their opinions of Japan's position in East Asia, and although J a,pan 's attitude toward China may at times differ from that of foreign countries, such differences cannot be avoided, due to Japan's position and mission. Peace in "It goes without saying that Ja pan at all East Asia times is endeavoring to maintain and enhance its friendly relations with foreign nations, but at the same time this country considers it only natural that, to keep peace and order in East Asia, it must act single-handed and upon its o .wn responsibility. In order to be able to fulfill this obligation, Japan must expect its neighbor countries to share the responsibility of main taining peace in East Asia, but Japan does not consider any other country except China to be in a position to share that responsibility with Japan. Unity of China '' Accordingly, preservation of the unity of China, as well as restoration of order in that country, are two things ardently desired by Ja pan for the sake of peace in East Asia. History shows that unity and restoration of order in China can be attained through no other means than waking up China. China and the Powers ''Ja pan will oppose any attempt of China to avail itself of the influence of some other country with the idea of repelling Ja pan, as this would jeopardize the peace in East Asia; and it will also oppose resort by China to any measure intended to '' resist foreigners by bringing other foreigners to bear against them.'' Ja pan expects foreign nations to give consideration to the special situation created by the re cent Manchurian and Shanghai incidents, and to realize that the undertaking of joint operations in regard to China, even if they be in regard to technical or financial r.ssistance, must eventually attain political significance PAGE 72 36 JAPAN AND CHINA for China. Undertakings entailing such significance, if carried through to the end, must give rise to complications that might even necessitate discussion of problems like fixing zones of interest or even international control or division of Chin~ which would be the greatest possible misfortune for China and at the same time would have the most serious effects upon East Asia and, ultimately, Ja.pan. Foreign "Japan therefore must object to such underNegotiations takings as a matter of princip1e, although it will not find it necessary to interfere with any foreign country negotiating inclividually with China in regard to propositions of finance or trade, so long as those propositions are beneficial to China and are not likely to threaten the maintenance of order in East Asia. If such negotiations are of a nature that might disturb peace and order in East Asia, Japan will be oblig ed to oppose them. Foreign '' For example, supplying China with war Munitions planes, building aerodromes in China and detailing military instructors or military ad visers to China, or. contracting a loan to provide funds for political uses, would obviously tend to separate Ja pan and other colmtries from China and ultimately would prove prejudicial to the peace of East Asia. Japan will oppose such projects. Japan's "The foregoing attitude should be made clear Policies by the policies followed by Ja pan in the past. But, due to the fact that gestures for joint assis tance to China and for other aggressive assistance, by foreign countries, are becoming too conspicuous, it is de.ented advisable to make known the foregoing policies.'' China and On the 19th, the Kuo Min News' Agency International gave out from Nanking the following statePeace ment of the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs5 :5 NorthChina Daily News, April 20, 1934 : PAGE 73 POLITICAL COOPERATION 37 "China is always of the opinion that international peace can be maintained only by the collective efforts of all members of the family of nation s Especially is it neces sary for nations to cultivate a genuine spirit of mutual understanding and remove the fundamental causes of friction in order to establish durable peace among them. No State has the right to claim the. e x clusive responsibility for maintaining international pea.cc iu any designated part of the world. International "Being a member of the League of Nations, Cooperation China regards it as her duty to promote international cooperation and achieve inter national peace and security. In her endeavor to attain these ends, she has ne ver harboured any intention of injuring the interests of any particular country, far less caus ing a disturbance of peace in the Far East. China's relations with other nations in this regard have always b e en of such a nature as should characterize tlrn relations between independent and sove.reig n States. Non-Political "In particular, China desires to point out Cooperation that the collaboration be.tween herself and other countries, whether in the form of loans or in the form of technical assistance, has been strictly limited to matters of a non-political character, and that the purchase of such military e quipment as aeroplanes and the employment of military instructors and experts have been for no other purpose than national defence which chiefly consists in the, maintenance of peace and order in the country "No nation which does not harbour any u'lte.rior motives against China need to entertain any fears concerning her policy of national reconstruction and security. Sino-Japanese "In regard to the situation now existing Relations between China and Japan, it should be emphasized that genuine and lasting peace between the two countries-as between any other coun tries-shou:ld be built upon foundations of goodwill and PAGE 74 38 POLITICAL POLICIES mutual understancling; and that it would go a long way t o wards the laying of such foundations if the existing un for tunate, state of aff'aii-s could be rectified and the rela tions between China and Ja pan could be made to rest on a naw basis more in consonance with the mutual aspirations of the two countries .'' Attitude of The Powers ed6 : V{ estern Po,wers were no more ready to accept the position assumed by the J apanc se. On the 27th Reuter report"The Times today states that it is understood from a report received by the Foreign Office from Sir Francis Lindley, the British Ambassador to Tokyo, that the Ambassador made it quite. clear to Mr. Koki Hirota, Japanes e Foreign Minister, in conversation with him on V! eclnesday that Britain maintai ned all her rights under the Treaties concluded with China and stood by all her obligations under mu'Jtilateral 'l'reaties concerning China. Open Door "The diplomatic correspondent of The Mor-n Policy ing Post states that Sir Francis Lindley, British Amassador to Japan informed the Japanese Government that Britain fully adheres to the Open Door policy formulated in the Nine-Power Treaty whereby the British Government holds the opinion that Japanese interests i.n China are adequately protected '' Britain cannot recognize as legitimate any unilateral action tending to modify or depart from the Treaty.'' American The American attitude is even more stiff. On Policy the 30th the United Press gave out from Washington the following7 : ''America's answer to Japan's bid for an eastern Asiatic hegemony was made public here today when the State Department published a statement which Mr. Joseph G. 6 The Peip ing Chronicle, April 28, 1934. 7 The Peiping Chronicle, May 2, 1934. PAGE 75 "HANDS OFF CHINA" POLICY 39 Grew, the United States Ambassador to Japan, delivered on Sunday to Mr. K Hirota, the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs. "Hands off China" Policy 'l'he statement, following upon Japan 's declaration of a '' Hands off China" policy, is generally considered as more far-reaching and more important than the Hoover Stimson doctrine issued after Japan's military occupation of Manchuria. By refraining from specific mention of the Nine-Power Treaty Mr. Grew is considered to have uttered an American policy applying not only to Far Eastern events up to the present but extending to whatever may develop in the future from a Japanese expansion policy. Treaty In his statement to Mr. Hirota on Sunday, Obligation. according to the announcement of the State Department today, Mr. Grew emphasized the importance of observing treaty obligations relating to China. "Mr. Grew asserted to Hirota that the United States is duly considerate of the rights and obligations of other countries. 'On the part of other countries,' said the Ambassador, 'the United States expects due consideration of the rights, obligations and legitimate interests of the United States.' 'In the considered opinion of the American nation,' the Ambassador continued, 'the Gov ernment of no nation can, without the assent of the other nations concerned, rightfully endeavour to make conclusive it'! will in situations in which are involved the rights, obligations, and legitimate interests of other Sovereign States.' Japan's But if the Japanese have failed to bluff the "Special ,vorld to acquiesce in her claim to a '' special posiPosition" :ion'' in China, they are determined to compel it to the same. Japanese ambition is, of course, not confined to the domination of China.. The goal at which they are driving is the conquest of East Asia, including in the north the Far-Eastern Area of Soviet Russia and in th~ PAGE 76 40 J A.P A.N 'S POLICY south the IndoChinese peninsula and the East Indies. There is also a fond hope that Australia, India and Siberia may be taken in next when these regions become '' pro pinquous 118 through the successful launching of the present plan. But either for this ambition, or for the more immediate ob3ect of dominating China, or even merely for the strengthening of their hold upon Manchuria and J ehol as a step prelimina.ry to the latter, it is necessary that they shoufl.d first disarm the Western Powers in the Far East. This explains their denunciation of the Washington and London Naval Treaties and the reports which appeared recently in nelwspapers that they would demand the dis mantlement of the fortifications at Singapore, the Hawaiian Islands, and the Russian possessions fo as far west as Lake Baikal. Japan's, Immediate Policy As to irn)mediate Japanese steps concerning China, an idea may be gathered from the following report0 given out by Reuter from Tokyo on January 29th, 1935 : Mr. Hirota's China policy in 1935 is expected to be based on efforts to show China the necessity for throwing overboard her '' age-old traditional policy of befriending distant States and antagonizing her neighbours,'' ac cording to the political correspondent of the Osaka Mainichi. This correspondent gives nine salient points which the Foreign Office is taking into consideration in the formation of a China policy. 1. Maintenance of China's integrity. 2 Formal negotiations restoring Sino-Japanese rela tions to normal. 3 Japan is prepared to extend political, economic, military or any othe1 aid to any individuals or groups 8 The Japanese are in the habit of claiming a special position in a given region on the basis of territorial "propinquity." 9 The Peiping Chronicle, January. 31, 1935. PAGE 77 JAPAN'S CHINA POLICY 41 of sufiiciru1t calibre to assume full responsibility for a unified China. 4. Ja pan will gladly exchange ambassadors and will unhesitatingly enter into a Sino-Japanese pact similar to that existing bet,vie, en '' l\fanclmkuo'' and Ja pan providing that China realizes the interdependence of China and Japan and recognizes her position as an important cog in the machine.ry of Fa:r-Easteru peace instead of leaning towards Europe and America. 5. Concerning Far-Eastern political questions Japan will prefer to enter into a separate pact with China. 6. Respecting military problems in the Far East, Japan desires that China be pledged not to appeal to the League of Nations and even that she withdraw from the League and in addition replace her European and American ad visers with Japanese. 7. Japan considers the formation of a Japan-China"Mauchukuo" bloc as imperative in which connexion she is prepared to accord China extensive financial aid. 8. If China shows sufficient sincerity on all the above m;entioned points Japan is prepared to make the North China truce a permanent treaty and establish a permanent neutral zone between China and "Manchukuo." 9. Regarding a possible bilateral Sino-Japanese treaty Ja pan considers it appropriate that negotiations should start six months after March 27, the date on which Ja pan's withdrawal from the League of Nations becomes effective. Popular Opinion in China The Chinese people have joined enthusiastically in the reconstructive activities of the National Government, and for the time they express very little of their feeling. But this does not indicate that they are prepared to accept Japanese domination or even to forego the recovery of the occupied provinces. PAGE 78 MANCHURIA AND JEiIOL Occupied The latter point needs further elucidation. Provinces Manchuria and J ehol are integral parts of China more than in the political sense The Japanese have divided these areas into eleven provinces. With the exception of one known as Hsingan which is the land of the Mongols ,10 :all the rest are solidly Chinese in race, culture and sentiment There are not lacking people who, either because of ignorance or of malice, have tried to persuade others to believe that Manchuria and Jehol are non-Chinese by playing upon the terms China Proper, Manchuria and Eastern Inner Mongolia, terms that do not correspond to facts South Manchuria has been the land of the Chinese for over two thousand years. South J ehol was in history alternately the land of the Chin~e and the land of th~ tribesmen in accordance with the ebb and flow of the. tide of nomadism against civilization 'fhe rest of Eastern Inner Mongolia and Northern Manchuria was, also so far as history goes, divided between the Mongolian nomads and Manchurian tribesmen with the boundary moving eastward or westward between the Hsingan range and the line formed by the Nonni and upper Sungari rivers in accordance with whether it was one or the other people that was in the ascendency. During the Manchu dynasty, which lasted from 1644 to 1911, there was a constant stream of migration into China from both North Manchuria and Eastern Inner Mongolia in the form of recruits for the garrisons ar.1 other kinds of military service inside the Great Wall. Chinese in As the process outlined above was working itManchuria self out, these northern areas which had always been rather sparsely populated became more and more empty, and in consequence Chinese from the inner provinces, especially Hopei and Shantung, gradually moved in, absorbing what remained of the tribes men and pushing back what rErn;ainecl of the nomads, until 10 Perhaps also socalled Chientao province where Koreans are in the majority. PAGE 79 LIFE LI:NES 43 by the end of the dynasty the entire region under descrip tion, outside what constitutes the so-called Hsingan prov ince, had become an integral part of China racially as well as politically. lVIanchuria and J ehol have become Chinese not by conquest or any other form of seizure, but by the exchanging of abodes and amalgamation of races. The Chinese can with a clear conscience proclaim to the world on behalf of themselves and the assimilated tribesmen and nomads that the provinces now under Japanese military occupation are, in all senses of the word, theirs. "China's But lVIanchuria and J ehol are not merely Life Line" integral parts of China. There is no other border region that is so vital to the existence of the nation. That area not only overlooks the great Chinese plain, but is also well protected from it, and for these reasons has, since the fall of the T'ang dynasty, been repeatedly used as a base of operation against the inner provinces, resulting in conquests, in the case of the Ch'itans to a line formed by the inner Great Wall of Shansi and its projection to the sea near Tientsin, in the case of the Nuchens to the Huai river, and in the case of the Manchus to the South China Sea. The only alien con quest in the last ten centuries that was not started with an occupation of Manchuria and J ehol was that of the lVIongol. But it may be remarked that, ii' not for the Ch 'itan and Nuchen conquests which prepared the way, the Mongol conquest would not have been as easy as it was, or even at all possible. With this kind of experience the Chinese naturally caruiot rest in peace when lVIanclmria and J ehol are again in hostile hands. "Life Line of Civilization" There is another reason which makes it impossible for the Chinese to acquiesce in what the Japanese have done. Reference is here made to the lack of good faith on the part of Japan and her readiness to destroy peace, machinery when it does not happen to suit her purpose.. Peace and order will be maintained in the world only when. the '' life line of civilization'' is not subject to cutting by malicious part- PAGE 80 44 JAPAN'S POLICIES ies and the sanctity of treaties is respected by members of the community of nations. International confidence will not be restored until the provisions of the Covenant of the League and the Pact of Paris are vindicated, and the territory adversely occupied by the Japanese is surrendered to its rightful owner-the Chinese. On this point it is perhaps unnecessary to dwell at length. If the world cannot appreciate Chinese anxiety on other scores, it may be entrusted to share it on this account. Japan's Alternating Policies In the process of encroaching upon China, which characterizes Ja pan's relations with her continental neighbor in the last three score years,, the Japanese are in the habit of alternating a seemingly friendly policy v,rith an out and-out hostile one. Hence one sees them offer China assistance in her efforts to reconstruct the nation; once after the war to detach Korea and seize Formosa, the Pescadores, and the Liaotung peninsula; again after they had blocked all Sino-American efforts in the development of Manchuria and turned,that area practically into a Japanese sphere of influence; and still again after they had occupied Shantung and forced the 'rwenty-one Demands upon the govern1111tmt of Yuan Shih-k'ai. In the last instance Peking happened to be in the hands of corrupt men, and they actually succeeded. Manchuria and J ehol are now in secure Japanese control. Before the next opportunity comes for violence the Japanese will naturally occupy their time in peaceful overtures. Already a great deal of talk about ''cooperation'' between the two countries is in the air. Danger there will alw~ys be, especially at a time when public men in China are dominated generally by a desire to achieve and are, therefore, in a way exposed to exploitation. It does not look likely, however, that the leaders wi.11 actually fall into the trap. PAGE 81 Solution of Sino-Japanese Problem SINO-JAPANESE PROBLEM 45 On this point, reference may be made to what one Chinese leader11 had to say re cently to correspondents of leading J ap anese newspapers He said:-''I always take it that equity and justice are the funda mental principles for the solution of the present difficult problem between China and Japan. Since you are journal ists who wish that the two countries should cooperate, you ought first of all thoroughly to understand thei true psychology of the Chinese people To speak realistically not only is there no anti-Japanese action and thought on the part of China, but there is no reason why she should necessarily be anti-Japanese. If the Chinese people uni versally had a strong sentiment a gainst the Ts 'ing dynasty, it was because they resented the domination of the Manchus. 'l'hey strugJgled continuously for three centuries before they freed themselves from the yoke of tyranny, and none in the cotmtry has yet lost that very painful mron:ory. With the development of the northeastem question to the present pass, the wound is deepened. This sentiment may be said to be deep-rooted and absolutely impossible to dis sipate If the northea.stern question remains as it stands, this kind of psychological i eaction will become progressively intensified .12 What has developed from the past no force of whatever nature can destroy. In exploiting the pos sibility of Sino-Japanese cooperation it is well not to ignore the essential el e ments of this k ind of national psychology 13" 11 General Chiang Kai-shek 12 Italics mine. 13 A translation from report given by the Central News Agency, in the Ta Kung Pao February, 17, 1935. PAGE 82 CHAPTER IV NATIONAL ECONOMIC COUNCIL IN 1934 ; CHIN FEN Guiding 'l'he work of the Natioual Economic Council Principles for the year 1934 has been mainly directed to-ward meeting the mos t pressing need of China to-day This need lies in the amelioration of the living conditions of the people through the development of transportation and communication facilities, rural reha bilita tion, and improvement of productive indm, tries. 'l'hese three important phases of economic development constitute the nucleus of our endeavor But in view of the limited funds placed at the disposal of the Com1cil, some guiding principles were laid do,vn in the formation of a program for the present year. 'l'hese principles were: (1) con centration of the funds on a few important and urgent activities only; (2) selection of certain regions in most urgent need of reconstruct.ion; and (3) activities which may be important but beyond the financial resources of the Council should not be taken up for the time being. In the light of these principles and on the basis of$15,000,000 appropriated by the National Government for 1934, the Council's program of reconstruction was drawn up and subsequently received thei approval of the Government In brief, the work of the Council may be divided into six sections, namely, highway construction hydraulic work, rural rehabilitation, control of cotton industry, improve ment of sericulture, and public health. I. Highway In the first stage of road development, the Construction ( !ouncil limited its effort to supervising the construction of highways in the three provinces of Kia. ngsu, Chekiang, and Anlnvei Six high ways have been completed under the Council's supervision They are: the Nanking-Hangchow, Shanghai-Hangchow, *By courtesy of Che Kai Agency.

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HIGHWAYS 47 N anking-"\V uhu, Soochow-Kashing, Suancheng-Changhing'. and Ha;ngchow-Hweichow highways, totalling over 983 km. On the initiative of the Council, an Inter-Provincial Highway Traffic Commission has been organized, providing many facilities for inter-provincial highway traffic and re moving many inconveniences that stand in the way of the free movement of motor vehicles. Highway Extension 'l'he Council's highway activities were later extended to four additional pro vinces, including Kiangsi, Hupeli,, Hunan, and Honan, forming a seve.n-province highway system of a total length of about 22,000 km. Including 7,000 km. of the existing road, the Council has up to October of this year made it possible to complete the construction of over 14,700 km. Subsequently, the building of over 1,100 km. in Ii,ukien Province was placed under the Council's supervision. 570 km. of roads in that province have been completed. The roads now available for traffic: in both the seven provinces and J.i,ukien are over 15,270 km. Highways in In the North west, two main trunk high North-West ways are under construction, the SianLanchow and the Siain-Hanchung High ways. The former highway is 750 km. long and is the main connecting line between Shensi and Kansu Provinces Up to October 1934, 150 km. of roadbed, 27 bridges and 40 culverts had been constructed. 'l'he Sian-Hanchung highway is 390 km long, forming an important trunk line between the three provinces of Shensi, Kansu, and Szechwan. The section between Sian and Paochi being already existent, what remains to be constructed by the Council i
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48 WATER CONSERVANCY Inter-Provincial Highways In order to make plans for the inter provincial highway systems and to im prove the building and maintenance of highways, investigations have been made into the traffic conditions and actual mileage of the various inter-provincial hig hways, their building materials and places of produc tion, and petroleum possibilities in Szechwan Province. Two experimental roads have been built in the vicinity of Nanking, the first to test the U,<;e of various local materials for building road surface, and the second to test the use of bituminous materials for surface treatment. Highway Personnel For the training of highway perso1mel and automobile mechanics, the Council has asked the Chiaotung University at Shanghai to offer courses on automobile engineering, in addition to a training school for automobile technique, conducted under the joint auspices of the Council and the Inter-Provincial Traffic Com:mission. II. Hydraulic Work The great flood of 1931, which caused depredations on the most colossal scale, gave the Government a new impetus to cope with river conservancy works. The National Flood Relief Commission was created to deal with the effects of the disaster brought about by the flood. .After the Com mission wound up its work, the Council was called upon to take over its program in connection with hydraulic re construction. Over 2,000 km. of the main dykes of the Yangtze River on both banks from Hupeh downstream have been strengthened and raised higher than the water mark of 1931. Special efforts have been made to re-enforce bank protection works with big stones at some parts of the dykes in Hnpeh Province which are liable to be washed away by flood Similar repairs have been done for the dykes of the Hwai, the Han, and the Kan Rivers. Irrigation In the North West, plans have been made Projects for carrying out the Kinghuichu a.nd Lohuichu Irrigation Projects. Improve ment works on these two canals are already under way, and

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RIVER CONTROL 49 when completed, will greatly benefit the irrigation systems in Shensi Province. The river conservancy work has been extended as far as Suiyuan, Kansu and Ninghsia provinces. In Suiyuan, the improvement of the Sara,tsi Canal has engaged the att.e,ntion of the Council. .An attempt had been made by the joint effort of the Suiyuan Provincial Govern n1.ent and the C I.F.R.C to improve the canal, but the work was suspended by reason of financial difficulties. The Council has now begun a resurvey of the region, because of the extremely flat topographical conditions that exist in that part of the country For the study of the soils of the Saratsi Ca.nal in relation to reclamation, the Council has availed it.self of the services of Mr. Thorpe, Chief Soil Technologist of the National Geological Survey of China, whose report is now under examination. For the canals in Kansu and Ni.nghsia Provinces, surveys are being made and improvement work is now under progress. For the remedy of the land submerged every summer by the Kinshui to the extent of about 1,000,000 mow, the Kinshui Project has bee.n undertaken under the Council's auspices since J\farch, 1933 for the construction of sluice gates. The whole project is nearing completion and will make possible the reclamation of many hundred thousand mow of land for agricultural purposes. River Control The Yangtze and the Han Rivers in Hupeh Province are in imperative need of fundamental regulation. As a preliminary measure, surveys and investigations have been made; a lev~lling party to survey the level of the two banks of the Yangtze, and an investigation party to observe the hydraulic condit ions of the Yangtze tributaries have commenced opera tions. For irrigation works in the North West and Kiang si, and the upper reaches of the H wai River in Honan, the Council commissioned surveying parties, and on the basis of their reports, plans have been drawn u.p for their im provement.

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50 REHABILITATION Hydraulic Projects Prof. Omodeo, the eminent hydraulic expert of the League, was consulted by the Council's representative at Geneva last summer concerning the feasibility of some hydraulic projects. At the request of the League, Prof. Omode.o and a few other hydraulic experts have come to China for a local study and have placed their services at the disposal of the Council. Likewise, Prof. Engels of Germany, a leading authority on the Hlwangho, has received a grantin-aid from the Council which will enable him to complete his Hwangho experiments, so unfortunately interrupted and some times suspended by lack of funds. It is commonly felt that the complexity and multi plicity of water conservancy organizations in the country have greatly hampe1,ed the efficiency of the adlninistration. For this reason, the National Government has made the Council a central organ for al:l hydraulic organizations in order to accelerate the administrative efficiency and to pursue a more systematic policy in connection with hydraulic development. III. Agricultural The Council has succeeded to the Rehabilitation works of the National Flood Relief Commission created in 1931 to cope with the emergency relief measures, not only in water con servancy but also in rural rehabilitation. Loans have been granted to the farmers in the provinces of Anh:wei, Kiang si, Hunan and Hupeh on the working basis of the Mutual Welfare Societies which have been gradually transformed into Cooperatives. There are at p1esent 2,361 Mutual Welfare Societies and 3,809 Cooperative Societies, and membership in these two groups of societies reaches a grand total of 229,532. Of these cooperatives the most popular kind is the credit society. Rural Kiangsi Province, which has suffered Rehabilitation most severely from the communist panic, awaits urgent measures of rural rehabilita tion. The Council meets this need by :-(1) the establish ment of ten rural welfare centres; (2) promotion of CO

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RURAL COOPERATIVES 51 operatives; and (3) improvement of rural education and agriculture. The rmal welfare centres have as their object the amelioration of the living conditions of the country people by means of the operation of demonstration farms, rural schools, mass education, and cooperatives. Cooperative work had already taken root in Kiangsi but it is no,v all the more necessary in districts which have been recently recovered from the communists. For this work, the Council has increased its appropriation and has set up a Special Committee for the administration of this cooperative fund. As to rural education and agriculture in Kia.ngsi, there is the inherent defect of the lack of coordination among various institutions. For this purpose, the Council has cooperated with the Kiangsi Provincial Govcmment in the mergi.ng together of all rural organiza tions undel' the Kiangsi Agricultural Institute. This am algamation will make it possible to centralize the admini stration and pursue a systematic development of rural work in the Province. Rural In the North "\Vest, the Council tackled Cooperatives ihP. pi-oblem of agricultural development from two angles,-improvement of animal husbandry and extension of rural cooperatives. With thin population. and vast areas of grazing lane\, the North "\Vest is rated very favorably for the rearing of sheep, cattle and horses. But the poor a.nd obsolete method used in connection with animal husbandry leaves the industry in a deteriorated state. 'l'hei Council has established a North western Animal Improvement Station at Kanpingsze in Chinghai Province. This station, if proved succ'essful, will have branch steJions in other cattle raising regions. Rea.Iizing that rural cooperatives will meet the urgent need of the farmers in the North West, the Council has co onera.ted with the Shensi Provincial Government in the establishment of a Shensi Agricultural Cooperative Com mittee which has the control of all cooperative work in that province. Over 200 cooperatives have been organized, and the farmers have been greatly benefited by their existence.

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52 COTTON INDUSTRY Tea Industry The recuperation of the tea industry in China also engages the attention of the Council. I.n conjunction with the Ministry of Industries and the .Anhwei Provincial Government, the Council has reorganized the Tea Experimental Station at Chimen, .Anhwei. This station is favorably situated and has already over 760 mow of tea bushes under cultivation. Investiga tions of the tea industry_ are under way not only in different regions """ithin the country but aL'>o in such tea growing countries as India, Ceylon, Java, and Japan. IV. Cotton For the purpose of improving cotton-lndustry growing and developing the cotton indus-try, the Council has formed the Cotton Industry Commission. It has purchased 30,000 piculs of selected cotton seeds and freely distributed them to the farmers in Kiangsu, Shensi, Honan, and Shansi Provinces .At Nanking, a Cotton Improve111ent Centre has been formed for the improvement of cotton quality and the extension of cotton-growing, with branch bureaux in Kiangsu, Shen si, a.nd Honan Provinces. There is also a Cotton Demonstration Station in She.nsi primarily for cotton extensicn work. For the training of personnel for cotton-grading e;otton-growing and cotton-cooperatives, both the Central University and the University of Nanking have been asked to offer such courses with grants-in-aid from the Council. Cotton The improvenient of cotton spinning, Industry weaving, a11d dyeing technique forms a Com.mission part of the program of the Cotton Industry Commission. In concert with the .Acade mia Sinica, the Council has formed a special bureau with two laboratories, one for spinning, weaving and dyeing, and the other for research, both being temporal-ily housed in the Engineering Institute of the .Academia Sinica. Recruitment of the personnel for cotton spinning, weaving, and dyeing will be drawn from such institutes as the Nantung Technical Institute, Tientsin Technical Institute of I-Iopei Province, and Soochow Technical Institute of Kiangsu Province, which have received financial aid from the

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SERICULTURE 53 Council for personnel training. To exercise control over the malpractice of cotton adulteration, a Central Bureau for the Prohibition of Cotton Adulteration at Shanghai with branch offices in the provinces has been formed under the auspices of the Council. Investigations into the con ditions of cotton raiw material, m,nnufacture and marketing have been m : ade by the staff of the Cotton Industry Com mission in the cotton-growing regions. V. Sericulture The sericulture situation in China has Improvement become so precarious that some remedial measures are imperative. For this reason, the Council has formed the Sericulture Improve ment Commission. In the last spring, over 518,000 seed lings were distributed freely to the farmers in Kiangsu, Chekiang, and Anhwei Provinces. In the vicinities of Nan king and Hangchow, 2,000 mow each of barren hills have been reclaimed for planting mulberry trees. Scientific methods have been employed to demonstrate the cultivation of mulberry trees to the farmers by the Chekiang Sericulture Station and by the Hangchow and Kintan Sericulture Demonstration Stations. With regard to seed selection, the Council has established collective seed stations at Nan king and Hangchow It is expected that in three years' time, 2,000,000 sheets of superior seeds may be produced for the immediate use of Kiangsu and Chekiang Provinces and ultimately for the whole country. The Station at Na.nking has planted over 100,000 trees and that at Hangchow over 200,000 trees. Silkworm The work of silkworm rearing has pro-Rearing ceeded in two directions, namely, intensive direction given in prosperous sericultural re gions ~uch as the model stations in Hsiaoshan, Hangchow and Kmta~; and general supervision of a propaganda nat~1re exe~c1sed all over the country, such as the demonstra t10n stations in Chungking and Tungchwan in Szechwan Ningchu in Shantung, Chuenchiao in Anhwei and Shunteih in K:vangtung. ~'or promoting autumn rearing and in creasmg the farmers' output, 56 demonstration stations

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54 PUBLIC HEALTH for autumn rearing have been formed in Kiangsu, Che kiang and Shantung. In these demonstration stations, at tention has been given to such work as incubation, disin fection of rearing rooms and. implements, improvement of rearing and mounting, and promotion of sericultural cooperatives. Cocoons With reference to the installation of modern cocoon drying machines and modern reels, it is urged that the sericultural districts should raise funds to purchase such machines with loans, if necessary, from the Council, to be returned by instalments. Preparations have been m.:ade for the establishment of union filatmes for the collective purchase of cocoons and for technical cooperation, collaboration in management, and improvement of machinery. Seri cultural Expert The seric'ulture experimental work of the Council has been placed u,nder the supervision of Dr. Mari, an Italian sericultural expert, who has engaged himself in the study of cross breeding. Some good varieties have been produced and, in another year's time some more varieties of good and superior quality will be available. Personnel For the training of personnel in sericulture, the Council has organized a training school for sericulture field workers and also a sericulture institute to give training to more advanced students in this field. VI. Public Health Under the Council's Central Field Health Station, eleven different laboratories have been equipped for the various departments Some of the important studies carried out by the station concern the prevalence of malaria in and around Nanking, fly control by theJ use of cyanide, the activated-sludge sewage-disposal plant, deilousing and fumigation methods, the infestation of helminths among school children in Nan king, and the standardization of routine methods used in public health laboratories. In the :field, investigation

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RURA HEALTH 55 units and research stations have. been operated. Special bodies started by the Council include the North West Epidemic Prevention Bureau at Lanchow, Kansu; the Kala-azar Research Station at Tsingkiangpu, Kiangsu; investigation units for schistosomiasis at Hangchow and at Chuhsien; for paragonimus at Shaohsing, and for fasciolopsis at Shiaoshan, Chekiang; and the vital statistics projects in N anking and in Chuyunghsien, Kiangsu. Rural The first rural health demonstration work Health was begun in 1931 with the creation of a station at Tangshan, a district about 20 miles east of Nanking. Medical clinics, control of communicable dis eases, maternity and infant welfare, school health, environ mental sanitation, health propaganda, and vital statistics are the main activities of the station. In the autumn of 1933, a more systen)iatic rural health demonstration. program was initiated at Kiangning hsien. The project for this complete hsien health system consists of: (1) a primary health station served by a full-time nurse or specially trained auxiliary health worker; (2) a secondary health station staffed by a doctor, a midwife and nurses; and (3) a hsien health ce.nter, as headquarters, which includes a hospital of at least 25 beds. Health Work Mention should also be made of the in North West health work that the Council has been doing for the North West and Kiangsi Province. With the assistance of the Council, the health stations in Kansu, Chinghai, and Ninghsia Provinces have been organized. Special attention has been given to the preventio111 of animal disease in the North West. Likewise in Kiangsi, the Provincial Health Department was formed with assistance rendered by the Council both in finance and in personnel. This Department handles both muni cipal and rural health work in the Province. Epidemics Immediate aid has been given in areas where the local authorities alone were unable to deal with actual or threatened epidemics. The Council has J;>artici:pated in the control of bubonic pla~ue in $hensi PAGE 92 56 HEALTH EDUCATION and Shansi, cholera in Shanghai, and diphtheria in Nan king. It has also been in hearty cooperation with flood and famine relief bodies f9r medical relief work; and special health services have been established for the care of high way workmen and the protection of bus lines employees and passengers. Health The rapid development of health work Work during the past two or three years has created Personnel a pressing demand for qualified personnel. Consequently, the Council has undertaken rather actively the task of personnel training in health activities Tbe First National Mid,vifery School was established in Peiping in 1929, and the Central Midwifery School was opened in Nanking in 1932. A Central School of Nursing was established at Nanking in 1932. Health Besides the training of technical personnel, Education the Council has also carried out a rather extensive program for popular health education. Over 1,600 models, 700,000 copies of posters, amd 3,000 lantern slides have been prepared and distributed. Thirty nine health exhibitions have been given in 23 cities. Various health campaigns have also been conducted at least three or four times a year in cooperation with local authorities PAGE 93 CHAPTER V ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN RURAL CHINA A. B. LEWIS Rural In '' An Estimate of China's Farms and Population Crops," C. C. Chang~ estimated that the farm population of China is about 73 per cent of the total. From this fundamental, not easily changeable relationship, certain important conclusions may be drawn. The first is that economic conditions in rural China, whatever they are, have a dominant influence upon Chinese economic conditions as a whole. Commercial Secondly, if 27 percent of the peop'le Population are not farmers, then at least 27 per cent of the food produced in China must pass through commercial channels of some sort before it is consumed. Wheat Not enough food is imported into China to Imports change this conclusion, even if such food im-ports were not partially offset by food exports. In 1933, for instance, 17 ,716.,289 piculs of wheat were imported into China.1 Flour imports were 3,236,021 piculs, and would be equivalent to about 4,622,887 piculs of wheat, if 70 of flour equals 100 of wheat. Total im ports of wheat and wheat equivalent were therefore about 22,339,176 piculs, but domestic production was about 396,200,000 piculs.2 Imports were therefore only 5.6 percent as large. as production. Rice Imports Similar results are obtained for rice. In 1933, 21,419,006 piculs were imported, and 932,900,000 piculs were produced domestically. Im ports of rice were thus 2.3 percent as large as domestic 1 Chinese Maritime Customs, The Trade of China, 1933. 2 Department of Agricultural Economics, National Agric. Research Bureau, Ministry of Industries, Crop Reporting in China, 1933. PAGE 94 58 RURAL TRADE production. Other food imports were relatively unim portant. Generally speaking, the Chinese city food supply is furnished by Chinese farmers. It is apparent, then, that Chinese farmers must sell enough food to supply the cities, not to mention the fibre and other materials which they-also sell. Crop Products Sold The inference that Chinese farmers sell a substantial part o:fl that which they produce is reinforced by sample studies of farms. According to preliminary data from a study of land utilization conducted by the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nanking, Chinese farm ers sold about 23 percent by weight of their principal crop products. This average summarizes data for 11,500 farmers in 115 localities in 23 provinces. Farm Like farmers everywhere, the Chinese tend Products to market the more valuable portion of their Value produce and to keep the less valuable for home consumption. Consequently, they sell a greater percentage of the value than of the weight of their products. In "Chinese Farm Economy," J. L. Buck states tha~ 54 percent of the value of the products of the farms which he studied was sold for money. Disbursement of Farm Money The money which is received for rice, wheat, tea, and the dozens of other farm products is disbursed by the farmers in a great variety of ways. In a study of farm price relationships in Wuchin, Kiangsu Province, L. L. Chang reports the prices of 64 articles purchased by the farmers. Of these articles 14 were farm products and 17 were other food products. Apparently the farmers not only needed to buy salt, sugar, and the various cooking oils and flavorings, but the individual farmer's larder was sometimes loiw even with respect to rice, wheat, and barley, produced on his own or neighboring farms. Of the remaining articles, 18 were cloth or clothing mate rials, 4 were for fuel and light, 3 were metals and 8 were miscellaneous. PAGE 95 RUR.A.L FIN .A.NOES 59 Workers The purchase of goods is only a_ part of the on Farms use which the Chinese farmers make of money. The average number of workers on Chinese farms is 2.0, according to preliminary data from the Uni versity of Nanking Study of Land Uti'1ization. Of these workers, about 15 percent are hired laborers, the remainder being members of the farm family. According to other preliminary data from the same source, about onehalf of the wages of farm laborers is paid in cash aud one-half is paid in board and other privileges. Land Rent Cash is sometimes required for the pay-ment of land rent. According to preliminary data from the University of Nanking Land Utilization Study, about one-fourth of the farm area is rented, and of that which is rented, about one-fourth is for cash rent. About one-half of the rented land is under the cash crop system, in which the tenant pays a specified amount of a staple crop per mow of land. Sometimes, however, the equivalent is paid in cash instead of in grain. The re maining fourth of the rented land is held under share rent and less important systems of tenure. Taxes TaX'es also require cash payments by farmers. In 1933, farm taxes in China were 2.67 percent of the value of the paddy land, ; 2.74 percent of the value of the level land, and 3.05 percent of the value of the hilly land. 3 Farmers' Debts Since agriculture is a seasonal industry, there often are times when farmers must bor row money in advance of the harvest. Heavier debts may be assmned by young farmers if there is a pro spect of paying off the debt in later years. The repay ment of these 'loans plus the interest creates a further need of selling farm products for cash. In December, 1933, 56 percent of the farmers were reported to be in 3 Department of Agricultural Economics, The National Agricultural Research Bureau, Ministry of Industries, Crop Reporting in China, 1933. PAGE 96 i .' \ I I l l I ."' =-=-========== c .-------.. "" 60 POPULATION debt for cash.4 'l'he annual rat(I of interest averaged 34 percent. Indebtedness is not to be regarded as an un qualified evil. In normal times, a moderate all'.llOunt of indebtedness may be only a convenient method of increasing the supply of available farm capital, and may there fore be taken as a sign of enterprise. Rural Apparently there is and nonnally Commercial must be a large aimount of comm(lrcial. Activity activity in rural China Any traveller in the rural districts will also have seen it for himself This commercial activity is necessary to the ordinary economic life of the country, and any forces which tend to prevent the exchange of goods cause un usual hardship and unrest. Standards Standards of living, by and la,rge, are of Living determined by the quotient of the total sup-ply of consumaMe goods divided by the total number of people The enjoyment of standard of living that is normal under any set of fundamental circum stances also depends upon freedom of exchange of goods. Density of China is a densely populated country. It Population has been tentatively estimated from one source5 that in the country districts, with out calculating the city population, there are 1771 per sons per square mile of cultivated and uncultivated pro ductive land. l?rom other data in the same study,5 the number of persons per square kilometer of crop area is estimated to be 603. These two figures while not quite comparable, are near enough to be miutually supporting. Another measure of population density is the size of the farm. According to the source already quoted,5 the average size of the farm; was 1.69 hectare, or less than 4.5 acres The 4 Dept. of Agric. Economics, National Agricultural Research Bureau, Ministry of Industries, Crop Reports, Vol. 2, No. 4, April, 1934 5 Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nanking, Preliminary data from a study of laud utilization in China. PAGE 97 RURAL FOOD SUPPLY area in crops is somewhat greater, since more than one crop may be grown on the same land at different seasons. Population If the population were to remain stable, the rural standard of living could be raised by improvements in methods of production, in crop and livestock varieties, in farm organization, and in other ways. Nevertheless, a very high ave,ra.ge standard ,of living, with a population of the present density, is not physically possible. Food Supply .Although the customary standard of living may not be very high, ye.t under ordinary conditions the Chinese farmers do not lack for food. In some ways the quality of food might be im proved but the quantity seems sufficient for all needs when measured by the accepted standards.6 Only when production is cut off by calamitous floods or droughts or by warfare are famine conditions to be expected. Soil Standards of living vary in different Productivity parts of the country, and especially with-in each local district. The standard of living is influenced very strongly by the productivity of the soil on which the population lives. Within short dis tances., if the soil changes in character, great differences in well being are to be seen. This variation is to be seen in the rural areas of other countries where there are local variations in soi!l types. Agricultural Depression A few fundamental economic conditions have already been described in order to show what the normal is. In the past three years, an unusual economic depression has prevailed. The origin of this depression seems to be monetary, and it is different from, although in addition to the other limitations under which Chinese agriculture usually 6 This statement is based on detailed analyses of farm food consumption made by the Dept. of Agr. Economics, Univ. of Nanking, in connection with the China Land Utilization Study. Movement of Silver in Shanghai. Circular-Ms. No. 4, November, PAGE 98 62 CURRENCY labors. If the depression is monetary, knowledge of the type of currency used by the farmers is essential. Ac cording to preliminary data from the University of Nan.king study of land utilization, previously mentioned, the farmers received silver for products sold in 79 per cent of the localities, and paid silver for goods purchased in 80 per cent. In 19 per cent of the localities coppers were re.ceived for products sold and were paid for goods purchased in 29 per cent. In 4 per cent of the loca:lities, farmers used local paper currency in buying and selling. These percentages add to more than 100 be.cause in some localities, several kinds of currency were reported. In general, silver is apparently of much greater importance as a currency for buying and selling than are coppers. Silver In Kiangsi and Hupeh, coppers were more Currency important with rel8ition to silver than elsewhere., but even in these provinces, silver is almost universally required for the payment of debts. In 118 localities reported, in 20 provinces farmers in 96 per cent were require.cl to pay debts in silver. In only 7 per cent of the localities were debts due in coppers. Taxes Taxes, also, are usually assessed in silver The fact that debts and taxes must be paid in silver is a crucial point in deciding that the Chinese farmers are really on the silver standard. Even though the farmers do receive some part of their returns in coppers, some of the coppers so received m:ust be converted into silver for periodical large payments Generally speaking, coppers in China are a subsidiary currency used in most areas chiefly for small transactions. Copper During the past ten years, coppers have Currency depreciated rapidly in terms of silver. This depreciation does not coincide with any decline in the valuet of copper in terms of silver, nor may it be explained entirely as clue to reductions in the copper content of coins. Apparently, the copper coins have de preciated because they have been issued in too large quan tities. Their original value must have been far above PAGE 99 EXCHANGE 63 the value of the metal which they contained Such a relationship wr0uld explain why they have depreciated with over-issue, and also why they have been over-issued by the govei:ning authorities. Exchange A curious variation of Gresham's law is that when the dearer currency is require.d for debts and taxes, the dearer drives out the cheaper cur rency. The constant : depreciation of 1coppers with re spect to silver has therefore led to an increased use of silver by the Chinese farmers, because, silver could be saved for future payments with no loss of value with respect to payments required Furthermore, the fluctuating rate of exchange between coppers and silver works a hardship to the farmers who receive, coppers. When taxes are assessed or debts fall due, the value of the necessary silver suddenly rises when the farmers flock to the ex change shops to offer their coppers. Data from the Uni versity of N anking land utilization study show that for111;erly many more localities were using coppers as the medium of exchange than are now using them. It is also known that before 1931, the interior of China was re ceiving a large annual net importation of silver from Shanghai.7 Statements to the effect that Chinese farmers are on a copper standard of currency are based on limited observation or on data that are several years old. Value of Since Chinese farmers a;re not self-suf-Silver ficient, and since their principal medium of exchange is silver, changes in the value of silver are of real importance to Chinese farmers When silver is high in value, Chinese farmers receive less silver for their produce When silver is low in value, prices received by Chinese farmers are correspondingly high Understanding of the truth of this statement is based on a clear distinction between the val1te of and the price of silver. The price of silver is the number of dollars, 7 Directorate of Statistics, National Government, Nanking, China, 1934. PAGE 100 64 SILVER f,-,:< }. ; (:; ( .. >; -u pounds, francs, gold units, or other currency units that is required to buy one ounce of silver. 'rhe price of silver, so reckoned, is not at all a mea.sure of the value of silver, as it appears to the Chinese farmer, because the value, of currency units and of gold itself is not stable but is changing constantly. Nobody would try to measure dis tance with a flexible yardstick, but many persons have tried to measure the value of silver by its price in terms of the metal gold. Commodity Value of Siver The Chinese farmer sells commodities to get silver, which is useful in buying other commodities and in discharging ob1ligations. The Chinese farmer is there fore interested in the value of silver as measured in terms of commodities. When average commodity prices, as ex pressed in silver, are rising, silver is declining in value, because more silver is obtained when goods are sold. Similarly, when average conunodity prices are falling, as expressed in Chinese silver currency, silver is rising in value. According to indexes of the wholesale prices of Chinese import-e:x;port conunodities, compiled by Nankai Institute of Economics of Nankai University, average wholesale prices in China rose from an index of 4 7 .8 in 1887 to 162.4 in 1931, if prices in the period 1910-14 are called 100. In other words, the commodity value of silver in China declined from 209.2 in 1887 to 61.6 in 1931. In the same period, the value of s.ilver in England, as ex pressed in terms of commodities, fell from 209 5 in 1887 to 55 in 1931.8 In the United States, the commodity value of silver fell from 202 in 1887 to 48 in 1931.9 8 The purehasing power of silver in England is the pereentage that an index of the priee of silver in England is of the BoarJ of Trade index; of wholesale priees. 9 The purehasing power of silver in the United States is the pereentage that an index of the priee of silver in the United States is of the Bureau of Labor Statisties index of wholesale priees PAGE 101 Purchasing Power of Silver SILVER VALUE 65 In 1929 the purchasing power of silver was 70.5 in China, 67. 7 in England, and 67 in the United States, when the value in 1910-14 is calle.d 100. The greater dis crepancies that existed in 1!)31 between the relative value of silver in the three countries were due to unusual dis turbances caused by declining prices in the Unit~d States and by the abandonm ent of the gold standard in England. Decline in This long and precipitous decline in the Silver Value value of silver, which caused prices to rise in China during the period 1887 to 1931, was caused by the general abandonment of the silver standard and the bimetallic standard. As nation after nation placed its currency upon a gold basis, large stocks of monetary silver were placed on the market. Each year saw the monetary field of use of silver become smaller, until, in 1930, only China, Hongkong" and Abyssinia re mained on the silver standard. Only India and Spain still possessed, lal"ge stocks of surplus monetary silver. It was natural that silver should have declined in value. Production of Silver It was equally natural that the declining value of silver would affe.ct the production of silver Before 1915, when the value of silver had been declining for 28 years, the world's pro duction of silve1' began to fall behind the world's produc, tion of other basic corrnn:odities The annual production of silver is such a small proportion of t ,he available sup ply, and so much surplus silver was being sold by central banks, that the production of silver remained low for more than 16 years before the value of silver began to rise. In England and the United States silver reached its lowest value in Febmary, 1931. According to the National Tariff Commission, the highest point of wholesale prices in Shanghai, and therefore the lowest value of silver, was in August, 1931. H : owever, prices in this month were raised because of the great flood which covered the Yang tze valleor The previous high point of wholesale prices had been 129. 2 in June, 1931, when 1926 is 100. From PAGE 102 66 PRICES a low point in 1931, the value of silver subsequently rose in England, inl the United States, and in China. In China, the rise in the value of silver was registered by a decline in wholesale commodity prices. In September, 1934, wholesale prices in Shanghai had fallen about 25 per cent, and had reached an index of 97.3. Commodity In order to explain the price of an in-Price diYidual commodity in China, the supply 0 the commodity, the demand for the commodity, and the value of silver as measured by average wholesale prices, must be taken into account Thus, in the last quarter of 1931, the wholesale price of wheat in Shanghai was 3.783 taels per picul (133 pounds) In 1932, the Chinese supply was 101.5 per cent of the 1931 supply, when domestic production, plus imports of wheat and flour, minus exports, are considered as the supply. Average wholesale prices in Shanghai were 86.5 per cent of prices in the rrast quarter of 1931. ,The price of wheat in Shanghai in the last quarter of 1932 should therefore 3.783 taels have been about 86.5=3.223 taels. 101.5 Actually, it was 3.512 taels By a similar method, the price of wheat in the last quarter of 1933 may be estimated at 3.062 taels. The actual price was 2.903 taels. Price of Rice The price of rice may also be explained with fair success. Apparently;, the lQw price of rice in Shanghai in December, 1933, was mostly due to an 18.4 per cent increase in the Central China rice supply over 1931, combined with a rise in the value of silver sufficient in itself to cause average wholesale prices to fall 19 2 per cent. The com,bined effect of these two, plus other factors, brought the price of rice down from 10.097 taels in 1931 to 5.544 taels in 1933. In these equations, no measure of the demand for wheat or rice is included. The demand for a staple food product such {l,S wheat or i;ic~ does not chang-e very much in three :years. PAGE 103 SUPPLY AND DEMAND 67 Price of Cotton 'fhe price of Chinese raw cotton in the last quarter of 1932 and 1933 m'a.y be explained with reference to the supply of Chinese raw cotton, the consumption of Chinese raw cotton, and the value of silver as measured by changes in average whole sale prices. Silk Not all commodities sold by farmers are inPrices fluenced mostly, as wheat, rice, and cotton seem to be, by the domestic supply and demand coup led with the value of silver. Silk prices are apparently influenced by the value of silver coupled with the world Slipply of and demand for silk. Thus, silk prices at Shanghai m;ove in line with silk prices at Ne.w York converte d to a silver basis by means of currency exchange rates. Prices of silk in China therefore have be.en affected seriously by the depression in the gold standard countries, which has reduced the demand Commodity Supply The forces of commodity supply, com modity demand, and the value of silver, which influence prices in Shanghai, are effective in all parts of interior China where silver is used as money. Price of Wheat In October, 1933, the wholesale price of wheat in Shanghai was 64 per cent of the price in January, 1931. The average price received by farmers for wheat in 10 northern and northwestern provinces was then 63 per cent of the January, 1931, price. The average for individual provinces showed a high de gree of uniformity, considering the vast size of the area covered. These data were collected by the Department of Agricultural Economics of the National Agricultural Re search Bureau, Ministry of Industries. About 6000 crop re porters report to this agency. Price of Rice Similarly, the farm price of rice in Central China in October, 1933, was 59 per cent of the January, 1!)31, price; in Shanghai, the whole s&le :price of riGe wa,s 58 :per (,lent of January; li93l, :price, PAGE 104 68 SCARCITIES Furthermore, the average farm price of cotton omitting Szechwan prices, was 84 per cent of the January, 1931, price; in Shanghai, the corre sponding percentage price was 81. Scarcities It is true that local scarcities caused by diought, war, or flood may cause pric e s in one area to soar above those in other, nearby areas, because transportation facilities are poor. In some areas, non silver currencies are in use. However, except in times of calamity, prices in different parts of China, as expressed in silver, apparently move together uniformly The reas on for this fact is the same as that which causes the commodity value of silver in America, England, and China to move in harmony Silver is high in value per unit of weight, and therefore is readily transportable, even when other commodities are too bulky to be moved pro fitably Were silver to rise in value in one part of China or of the world, silver c,ould be shipped to that region from places where it was cheaper. This force, the high transportability of the medium of exchange, keeps farm prices in different parts of China fairly uniform and in line with wholesale prices in the largei cities. Thus, after 1931, commodity prices in silver declined throughout China. Farm As farm prices of commodities have fallen in Prices China, the profits of Chinese farmers have declined. In Wuchin Kiangsu, F. L. Chang reports that the prices received by farmers fell from 173 in 1931 to 123 in 1933 when prices in 1910-14 are 100. At the same time, the prices paid by the farmers for the goods which they purchased fell only from 181 to 169. Wages which were 145 in W31, rose to 158 in 1933. Data from other localities support similar conclusions. Such relationships are always observed when the average level of prices falls, whether in America or in China. Taxes Taxes also faiL to decline when price,<, fall In 12 provinces farm ]and taxes rose 10 per cent from }931 to 1933, while farm land values foll 20 p'er cent, PAGE 105 ECONOMIC SITUATION 69 a.eeording to figures of the National Agricultural Research Bureau. Furthermore, debts do not decline when retuins are. decreased. Suffering of Farmers J<'igures, sueh as these are insufficient to tell 1he story of the physical and mental suffering which the farm population of China has endured as a result of the fall in the level of prices. Only the farmers of other countries, who passed through the same experiences when gold rose in value during the years 1929 to 1933, can appreciate the situation which the Chinese farmers are now facing. The unfavor able economic position of Chinese farmers has had effects npon the national economy. Silver in Shanghai Previous to 1932, when conunodity prices in China were still rising, there was a large annual net flow of silver from Shanghai to interior points. In 1932, as soon as the level of prices began to fall, shipments of silver from Shanghai to the interior practically ceased, wh.ile shipments out of the interior remained as large as before. This phenomenon was to be expected, because prices paid by farmers re mained high, although the prices received fell very low. Inve,"Stment of money in the interior became hazardous. Bandits 'l'he drain of silver to the cities is probably an entirely economic movement, and has little or nothing to do with the bandit situation. Bandits have not increased since 1931. In the United States, liquid funds were drained from rural to urban centers as prices declined, but there were no bandits upon which to blame this movement. Imports As the value of silver rose after 1931 Chinese imports declined rapidly both in value and in volume. This decrease in imports was the logical re sult of the falling net incomes of Chinese, people, PAGE 106 70 Control of Silver Prices DROUGHT In July, 1933, the international agreement relative to the control of silver prices wa.s signed in London This agreement provided for a net increase in the world consumption of silver In 1934, the United States launch ed its own program of silver purchases '\\Till the rise in the value of silver, brought about by these measures, affect the Chinese farmer favorably or unfavorably 1 The answer is found in the havoc that has already been wrought by the rise in the value of silver that began m 1931, causing the Chinese price level to fall. Drought: 1934 After having suffered from a period oi declininp; prices, the fa,rmcrs of Central China were visitei with a very unusual drought in the summer of 1934.10 It has been estimated that in the provinces of Kiangsu, Chekiang, and Anhwei, as mur.h as 46 percent of the rice crop was lost, together with about 35 percent of the corn, kaoliang, and soybean crops. Nearly 50 percent of the cotton crop was lost. In Shantung, Honan, Hnpeh, Hunan, and Kiangsi prov inces losses were less but still very substantial. About one-fourth of the rice, kaoliang, corn, millet, cotton, and soybean crops was lost In Hopei province, cotton, corn, kaoliang, and soybean crops were reduced by about onethird, and the mill e t crop by about one-half. In Shensi province the millet crop was reduced by one -half and other crops by about one-fourth. In Shansi province losses ranged from twelve percent for kaoliang to twenty percent for cotton and soybeans. In some areas, losses were much more severe than these ave.rages would indicate. In severity, this drought is quite comparable with the drought which ruined the cropr; in large areas of the United States in the same season In America, the wheat crop was 44 percent less than the previous five year aver-10 Department of Agricultural Economies, National Agricultural Research Bureau, J.1,finistry of Industries, Crop Reports, Vol. 2, Nos. 9, 10, 11, 1934. PAGE 107 ECONOMIC EMERGENCY 71 age; corn, 45 percent less; and oats, 55 percent less.11 In effect upon the people_ the Chinese drought is more serious, because the crops affected are, to a greater degree than in America, used directly for human food, whereas in America the coin and oats feed animals primarily. Also, the carry-over from previous years probably is not so great in China as in America There is also less pos sibility of equalizing the food supplies in different areas in China, because of lac k of transportation facilities. Conclusions Discussions of economic conditions are likely to place emphasis on what is wrong rather than on what is right. Knowledge of tl1'e situation and the causes is necessary, however, before constructive efforts can be reliably made Remedies for such troubles as there are must be found in China. The Chinese economic dep~ession cannot be cured outside China, but can only be affected by some action upon the Chinese currency itself The need for such action is the most serious pre sent emergency. Droughts and floods will doubtless be come less disastrous when a long period of stahle govern ment has encouraged the accumulation of surpluses, and transportation facilities have been provided. Population That the growth of population will nullify the effects of all efforts to improve economic conditions is by no means an inevitable con clusion. A rising standard of education, combined with the increased mobility made possible by modern economic conditions, may in later years do something to halt the excessive growth of population. It may be that the reduc tion of the large family system, placing more responsibility directly upon those who bear children, will also help. 11 Warren, G F. and Pearson, F. A The Crop Situation in Farm Economics, No. 87, 1935 Published by Department of Agric PAGE 108 CHAPTER VI PRESENT-DAY THOUGHT MOVEMENTS P. C. Hsu Problem '"fhis is intended to be a brief resume of of China the major movements in political, economic and social life, particularly those which seem to have a bearing on the future destiny of China.'' 'l'his quotation gi,tes the terms of this chapter as imposed by the Editor of this Year Book. The writer will dra;w his material for the first part of this chapter almost exclusively from a volume entitled "Thought lVIovements Concerning the Problem of China," recently published by the Chinese Student Christian Move ment, for this book giYes a most handy collection of repre sentative views. Nevertheless, to condense a book of 446 pages into a short chapter, is by no means an easy task; selection therefrom has to be somewhat arbitrary. Kuomingtang '' The ruling political party in China is called the, Kuomingiang (~.R:.:~). For the last five or six years it has been vigorously carrying out its one-party government idea. Theoretically, the Kuomingtang reginie has a threefold division viz. party, political and military. Practically, General Chiang is the dom,inating figure He has succeeded in putting clown many opposition groups within the party and has recently driven the Communists out of Kia.ngsi. Though a militarist, he sees the real hope of China s national salvation in its social and moral regeneration. In an address he gave a year ago, entitled "Education, Livelihood and Protection (1JJ:1t:f#.i), he said in part:-National "If we want to avert the national crisis Regeneration and to regenerate the race, the few that are already enlightened should lead the others in this common effort ... National regene,ration PAGE 109 SOCIAL MOVEMENTS 73 does not depend so much on military strength as on economic and educational reconstruction. Education has four cardinal principles, viz, Li, t Lien and Chih ( iiif ~Etftlf.G,). Without these, no character-building is pos sibPe either for the individual or for the nation. True revolution is nothing but the universal adoption of these life principles.'' New Life In another lecture clelivered about the same Movement time, entitled '' The Essential Meaning of the New Life Movement" (%Jr~r5~!VJjz.~~0 he said:-'' In spite of the strict limitation on armament imposed on Germany by the Versailles' Treaty, Germany has succeeded in throwing off this yoke, not because of her physical powers but because of the intelieetual and moral caEbre of her people . But the life of our nation must be thoroughly militarized By that, I mean that we must cultivate the spirit of bravery, alertness, hardihood and cooperation. When the nation calls us, we must stand ready to sacrifice ourselves.'' Fascists Inside the Kuomingtang there is a fascist group, sometimes called '' the Blue Shirts.'' To them. the Three Peoples' Principles =t~) can only be carried out if and when there is a strong organization. "The majority must be governed by the minority, who, however, should have the welfare of the majority as their sole objective 'l'his ,vas precisely the nature of the move ment started by Dr. Sun Yat-sen. '' One writer of this school strongly urges that the period of party-government be prolonged, thall China be put under a dictatorship and that state capitalism be developed China Communist Party 'l'he irreconcilable foe of the Kuoming tang is the Chinese Communist Party ( :!~fil[!~). Their purpose is to effect the overthrow of foreign imperialism and the Kuo mingtang regime in China., and Lo establish a go,iernment by the laboring masses. 'l'o this end, they would confiscate all 1he establishments of the imperialistic powers in China PAGE 110 74 COMMUNISTS as well as the land owned by the rich. They treat the U.S.S.R. as their only friend. According to their land act, the confiscated land would be redistributed among the poor and middle-class peasants. Such redistribution has state ownership as its ultimate objective When land is confiscated, title deeds will be destroyed and high-interest loans to the farmers will be cancelled. If the rich farmers are willing to toil on the farm, they may be given a certain amount of inferior land. State relief will be administered to those who are disabled or aged A certain amount of good land will be reserved for the Red Army and their families and such land, known as '' public farm,'' will be tilled by voluntary labor contributed by the farmers of a given locality This land revolution, as worked out in two of the hsiens in Kiangsi (ift%f-,1}lllt}%,), amounts to this :-Before the revolution .. the farmers of the two districts had only 20%-25% of the crop; but after the revolu tion, the maximum and minimum shares in the two districts for each person are :-22.5, and 7 .5. piculs; 15, and 7 piculs respeetively That means : nobody needs to suffer starvation when others have plenty. Once laud has been redistributed, speculation by rich farmers and former owners is to be strictly forbidden. Chinese The Kuomingtang and the Communists are Youths' the only parties of importance though two other Party groups deserve mention also. They are, the Party of Chinese Youths (lf'iJ'M~;f,;), and the State Socialists (l@ll~~iiit':t~im), The Party of Chinese Youths is a group of youths who advocate narrow national ism. Their slogan is, "Eliminate traitors from within and resist aggressors from without.'' Its very first group was formed in Paris in 1923. In the following year, its official organ, "The Awakening Lion" was published in Shanghai. It is deadly opposed to the Communist party because the latter scorns patriotism. It is opposed to the Kuomingtang because of the latter's pro-Japanese lean ings. In political theory, it is distinguished by :-(1) election by vocation; (2) federal government of autonomous states; and, (3) state ownership of public utilities. In the PAGE 111 STATE SOCIALIS'l'S 75 n~alm of education, it believes in a thoroughgoing separa tion of education from religion, or in other words, complete secularization. State The State Socialists have Carson Chang Socialists ( ~:ltl:i.VJ) as their chief writer and thinker. 'l'heir organ is called "Regeneration" (W.~). In an article entitled : "\Vhat we want to say" (;f.ic.fr1J,@r*w'{;fl~Jflif;) Carson Chang says:-" 'l'he chief cause which has reduced China to this intolerable situation lies in the moral bankruptcy of the intelligentsia. Most of them today are scheming, jealous, hypocritical, selfish, vain and irresponsible. Few are frank, earnest, sincere and public spirited. \Ve believe the native consciousness to be an irresistible force and that the Marxian doctrine of a working men's brotherhood is nothing but an idle dream. Preaching national consciousness though we do, we are, however, opposed to the doctrine of hate. There are four pre-requisit'es to national regeneration :-(1) a great in1 elligence; ( 2) a deep I onging; ( 3) a gradually expanding self-confidence; and, ( '.i:) an ultimate but not-lightly-resort ed-to force." In another article entitled: "State ))emo cracy and State Socialism" ( I@~ f\:. =i: Sdf.i {JU~]* tit lii:I: =i:~), he says:-'' In order to bear the responsibility of national regeneration, the intelligentsia from now on must change :-(1) from cautiously looking after one's selfinterest to sacrificing one's own life for the cause of truth; (2) from the foolhardy spirit of duelling to courage for a public fight; (3) from foxy exasion of clangers to cour ageous living for righteousness; ( 4) from the habit of back biting to face-to-face admonitions; ( 5) from indulging in petty likes and dislikes to a strict sense, of right or wrong; (6) from face-saving devices to la,v observance." Hu Shih In addition to these political parties of greater or lesser nnportance, there are other non-poli tical groups of thinkers, whose views, because of their influence, should also be summarized. Dr. Hu Shih ( ~J:lii'!!i) is the leader of th'e '' Crescent Moon'' group ( '*fr R i}j), named after the organ paper they used to publish. In his article. entitled "Whither We Go?" he says:- PAGE 112 76 VILLAGE REFORMERS Finding an Objective '' Our duty is to view objectively the actual needs of modern China, so that we can determine our objective. Negatively, we want to ask : Down with what? and positively: Establish what? Our answer to the first is: China has five enemies: poverty, disease, ignorance, greed and dis order. Capitalism is not included in our list because it does not exist in China. Nor is imperialism included, be cause i~ couLd not have come 1mless invited by conditions that obtain. ,Our answer to the second question is: We want to establish a peaceful, prosperous and civilized modern state. Such being our ultimate goal, we must ask: How~ W11ich way shall we follow? There is no sharp distinction between evolution and revolution. Evolution becomes revolution ,vhen it is accelerated China does not need violent revolutions. Her five enemies can only be subdued by the patient application of scie nce and scientific method. This is ,vhat we call self-conscious reformation." Village Another non-political group of thinkers Reformers worth mentioning is called the ''Village Reformers" CifH:rifi), which has as its head Mr. Liang Shou-ming (~W:rJO. In his article en titled "The Solution of China's Problems," he says:-" we want to ask: Through whose power are China's problems to be solved? And by what means-evolution or revolu tion 1 Our answer to the first question is :-The solution of China's problems from beginning to end lies in the com bined force of the intelligentsia and the country people. The fundamental problem of China does not lie in one group or class having antithetical relations with another, but in seeing the necessity of cultural reconstrnction and na tional self-salvation. So the prevalent jargon on class struggle or anti-imperialism does not amount to anything. The masses, viz, the villagers, should furnish the real motive power for social revolution but, as a matter of fact, they are neither conscious of any need of social revolution nor of possessing the necessary motivating power. When the intelligentsia fail to carry the masses with them, no amount of revolutionary effort will succeed .'' Mr. Liang believes PAGE 113 STUDEN'r CHRiSTI.A.N MOVEMENT that China's social revolution has to go through the follow .. ing stages :-(1) 'l'hc intelligentsia should unite among themselves either prior to or after their going to the vil lagers; (2) thus uniting, nuclei-groups will be formed; (3) these groups should not swerve from their goal, which is social revolution; through educating the people, they can gradually unite with them; ( 4) when the forces of the intelligentsia and masses are combined, they can subdue any recalcitrant forces that may exist in the villages. Rural 'l'he Rural Reconstrnetion Movem e .nt Reconstruction ( Jl .ft ,m 3i '[iJJ ) of which Ting Hsi en (:~)\!f-) and Chou Ping ( t~li2P) are not able examples, has become a nation-wide movement. As each constituent gToup at this moment has a point of view of its own, it is evidently impossible to introduce all the schools of thought in this short article. So the writer has to be contented with the above brief summary of the ideas of one school, viz, the '' Village Reformers.'' Chinese Student Having briefly summarized the Christian Movement political, economic and social views of the various political and non political groups in China, it may not be out of place to m1e ntion the views of at least one important Christian group, viz, the Chinese Student Christian Movement. Strictly speaking, the Chinese Student Christian Move ment (S.C.1\1.) is not yet born. 'l'he consciousness of a nation-wide student Christian movement began in 1922, when the ViT. S .1f. GenC:>rnL Committee call e d forth at 'l'singlma the so-called anti-Christian movement. After ten years of preparation, a Provisional National Council was formed in the summer of 1933 which is now planning to convene the First National Convention in 1936, when the Chinese S C M will be officially launched. At the Executive Com mittee meeting held in January, ]935, at Shanghai, after a heated debate o.n the question whether Christian students should take part in social revolution, a Study Commission on the Faith and Message of tbe S.C.M. was appointed with two sub-sections located in Shanghai and Peiping. PAGE 114 78 lUV AL SOCIAL ORDERS A few clays ago, the Peiping sub-section met and the resnlts of their deliberation may be summarized under the follow -ing h~aclings :-Faith of S.C.M. '' God is. He is the sole source of life and truth. He is Father of mankind and, con sequently, men are brothers. His will for this age and generation is knowable and it is man's duty to discover His will. ; Thonigh each individual or group of individuals has to find outj what God's will is for himself, yet in general we may say God's will is that men should enjoy the 'Abundant Life.' Justice, love, freedom and peace are characteristics of this abundant life Therefore, forces and institutions that are in agreement with these are in agreement with the will of God. Jesus Christ is the revealer of God and represents the highest achievement in the spiritual values of mankind. His gospel if:; for the entire man. Hence the usual distinction between personal gospel and social gospel is meaningless He advocates revolution but His revolution is that of love, not of force or hate. The Kingdom of Goel is an ideal society where the value of the individual and of the group are equally emphasized and where Goel actually becomes the Father of mankind. Rival Orders '' 'fhe present world seems to be in a great con fusion but upon close examination, two rival economic and social orders seem to emerge. On the one hand, there is the capitalistic social order, repre~ sented by practically all the European and American na tions, and on the other, the socialistic order as represented by the U.S S R. The former is much older but seems to be tottering. All devices to save the capitalistic civilization seem to end in failure. The latter (socialism), though much newer, seems to hold out promises. This being the case, which of the two is China going to choose? People today talk openly about the 'Next War.' Judging by the world situation, another war is not im;possible, though when it happens, China will suffer all the more. As it is, she is already suffering from outside oppression and inter- PAGE 115 S'l'UDENT CHRISTIAN MESSAGEl 79 ; i -~: nal disorder. 'fhe recent years have witnessed a strong national awakening; but the struggle of the various groups for supremacy, coupled with the indifferent attitude of the masses towards progress, have created in the Chinese youths a sense of bewilderment and helplessness. At this junc ture, one must ask : What is the message of a movement like the Chinese S.C M ? S.C.M. Message "Christian students, unite! We must unite because we have a message which is needed by the whole world, especially by China. Our messi1igel is founded on our faith in God who is the source of life and truth; and is inspired by the spirit of Jesus Christ whose gospel is powerful enough to trans form life, both individual and social. We must unite, so that we can pray and work mweasingly for the coming of the Kingdom of God; where injustice, sin and suffering shall be clone away with and where love, justice, freedom and peace shall prevail. In order to realize this purpose, however, it is necessary that WQ Christian students should first dedicate our lives to God and to our fellowmen vVe should stand ready to suffer with suffering humanity. We should busy our lives with tasks which promote social welfare. But, most important of all, we should create a new society, where we can actually practise the Christian ideals of communistic living which shall be a forecast of the social order which should eventually prevail in the entire world -a society of mutual love and service.'' In the course of the next year and a half, the above statement of the Chinese S.Cil.\L will undoubtedly undergo many revisions but its central thoughts will probably re main unaltered. PAGE 116 0HAPTER VII lVIODERNIZA'l'ION OF CHINESE WOMEN Miss Au-IluNA '110Na Westernization Dming the passing years of revolution-ary China, it has b e come the custom to think of ideal Chinese womanhood in terms of modernism. The pattern which all women of the first three decades of this c 'entury sought was-anything that spelled of w e ster nization. If a woman were a returned ::;tudent, had a degree, wore foreign clothes, spoke foreign languages, did things in a foreign manner, she was thC1 woman to follow; she was admired, and, I dare say, worshipped by the large majority. Anything that a foreign returned woman did was perfect. The doors of China had just been op ened to the foreigners. Whatever met the eyes of the Chinese, which for so many hundreds of years had been focused on their own, usually man-made materials, seemed wonder ful, phenomenal. Glamor veiled all things that came from the West. Returned Students A foreign college degree for women as well as men ,vas a passport to China. The girl visiting for the first time the native land of her parents was sought in marriage; she herself came with the idea of making a brilliant marTiage. 'I'he foreignreturned women naturally received the '' cream of the crop'' in everything. So the1e began a complete throwing over board of all Chinese influences for those that were foreign. All thoughts of discretion-so sacred to the Chinese woman-and balance, were thrown to the winds. There was only one idea, and that was-anything foreign must be good PAGE 117 CHINESE CULTURE 81 Foreign-Style Living Gradually it became the fashion to be '' foreignized'' in living. Entertainlng with Lipton's tea and foreign cakes was the rage; foreign meals were the thing; and one always strove to have foreign-style decorations in the home. Whether a manner of living was good or bad, it made no difference to the people so long as it was '' foreign style.'' They copied it just because it came from the "\Vest. There are a.ny number of people who will remember having been entertained by women in their homes, who inevitably must have proudly remarked, '' This comes frolllj America'' and so on, though the object of adulation might itself be grotesquely ugly or ordinarily common. Or one may have heard:-'' I am g iving you something very special. You have never seen or eaten it before. It's a foreign dish." Return to Within the unfolding of the last five years, Chinese there has been a change in the thought-life Culture of the Chinese woman. She no longer cares so much for foreign-made materials. foreign food, or for eign living. She cares only for living up to what she thinks is the best type of womanhood, gleaned from her kno,vledge of both the East and the West, and perfumed by the beauty and culture that make up her own heritage She is now a distinc.t individual, who appreciates her o,vn civilization as well as the goods of modern machine pro duction. She no longer accepts foreig11 customs wholesale but demands time for good choice. She blends the best of the modern machine and practical world with her own Oriental background. The 0'1tcome of this molding can only be for the good of Chinese civilization It is in itself the greatest forward movement of Chinese women. It is a revolution within the revolution that made China. a re public that is bound to have far-reaching results. Creating a Whereas, in olden times Chinese women Blend of were tie.cl down to conventions, traditions, Civilizations and the dictates of old ways, and in the early years of the Republi~ were bound by the fashion of foreignization, they now stand alone as PAGE 118 82 HOME DISCIPLINE something very individual and wholly differ(lnt, with fore bearance for the past, present and the future. In minute detail Chinese women now expect modern con veniences in their homes, which is something decidedly western. But they want old style architecture for their homes, for as Mrs. V. K. Wellington Koo, wife of the minister of France, says :-'' Chinese architecture as seen in the houses of Peiping, cannot be compared with those you find in Shanghai.'' Incorporated in the modern-con venience homes will be seen Chinese decorations, antiques, heirloom,c;-as in the home of Dr. and Mrs. H. H. Kung and old art. Discipline in the Home Chinrse children are now brought up under a. discipline that is both" Chinese and foreign. They are given the greatest en couragement in those health, athletic, and extra-curricular activities, which heretofore were unknown in the Chinese system of education. Mothers diligently attend child-study groups and lectures by child psychologists to discuss their problems and learn how best to handle their children. How this change came about I cannot say scientifically. Cir cumstances point to th(I group of women who have had both foreign and Chinese education. In the sense that travelling educates and broadens one's '?utlook, the foreign-returned woman has the advantage over her ''home-bred'' sisters, who remain in China an their lives and see only one side of things. 'l'his has been the winning card in the Chinese woman's ability to choose for herself that which is best for the making of character. Also, her living abroad among other races tends to make her intensely Chinese in spirit and mind. Leaders Somehow, as a result of t.heir broad education that initiative which seldom manifests it self in the local woman, is highly developed, resulting in the making of leaders of a very large number, if not all, of the returned women. Just as they incited the scramble for becoming foreign, two and three decades ago, they are now turning the tide of thought to the blending of the best of two entirely different cultures. PAGE 119 SOCIAL WORK 83 Social Work Leisurely living comes as a matter of course, but Chinese women no longer are satisfied with the butterfly life. They want to do con strnctive work-to help others help themselves. With each individual leader go scores of followers who benefit im mediately and directly through personal contacts alone. There are many women like Mrs. L. C. King who are putting their money and talent into effort to promote work and a means of living for many others. Her shop ic;; an outlet for the work of many girls who paint, draw, design and embroider. She puts in her time and energy directing the work to make it the best for present and for future sales. Y.W.C.A. There are many women who direct their talents and energies toward the building of better homes for living, and others whose guidance serves as inspiration for local trained women. In the case of the Young Women's Christian Association, the board of direc tors, most of whom are foreign-returned women, having work and homes of their own, are leaders of the great piece of work that is being done by the Association in cities and rural centers in helping the women, girls and school children adjust themselves to the economic and social problems that have arisen in connection with the building of a new China. The Association is also training hundreds of young women, under the direction of the Board of Directors, as secretaries for future leadership. In work among the rural population, industrial workers, school girls, and home makers, the Association is laying a foundation for a just and more satisfying social order. W.C.T.U. The W.C T.U is another creation of the foreign-returned women's energies. Mrs. Herman C. E. Liu, the general secretary, is the force be hind this large and beneficia.l organization. One may wonder what an organization like the W.C.T.U. can do in a temperate drinking country. Though founded on tem perance principles, this local organization preaches tem perance with regard to the other social evi:ls that menace t,he country. PAGE 120 84 WOMEN'S ACTIVITIES Women's League In sponsoring the Women's League of China, the W.C.T.U. is bending it<;; efforts toward en larg PAGE 121 UNEDUCATED WOMEN 85 the same time personally conducting marriages for the grown-up beggar girls or finding useful work for rescued prostitutes. Chinese Women's Club 'l'he Chinese W onwn 's Club, whose member ship is mostly made up of foreign-returned wo m e n, is an organization of leaders. Among them is a leader of leaders, who has given much impetus to this new idea of Chinese womanhood Mrs. H C. Mei. She has bee.n the only one of the club's charter mem bers big enough to withstand the criticism, trials and tribulations which usually befall a club that includes a wide circle of women. She is the power behind the club officers, who understand the power of suggestion in making leaders among the memi!)ers. I speak from experience of Mrs. Mei s power of suggestion, of which a little has gone a long way in my short life I appreciate it, though she may not remember the incident and place of suggestion. In giving her the honor of first advisor, the club openly ad mits that they ca1mot do without her. Rear-Guard Women So far, we have spoken of the educated women only, who after all, make up a small minority of the vast population of China. The large majority of women must certainly be considered for they complete the picture of the weighing of the two groups of wom,en who are the source of spiritual uplift for the race. 'fhe majority is naturally the fdllow ing group. They are still following the wa.ys the educated group discarded years ago. 'fhe movement for foreign style living is at ebbtide, and ebbtide at any seashore draws forth the la1gest crowds who get into the water for no reason of their own but simply because the other fellow is doing it. So it is the uneducated and follo,ver-type of women who are now living foreign style, though this is certainly many steps ahead of where they were a score of years ago Because the.y have not the reasoning power of the educated they have taken to foreign ways more strongly than the groups who have now graduated there from. Their conception of foreign living, enhanced h:y PAGE 122 86 NEW LIFE MOVEMENT very popular forms of recreation and movies, is agreeable to the point of repletion. They are basking in the de lights of a moral code not so strict as when they were young. It must be with some disgust that responsible leaders of the community see young couples, and old too, walking and practically embracing in broad daylight. China's The only movement that will force this "New Deal" large group forward is China's "New Deal, '' as inaugurated by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. It is only by force that this group can be moved out of the rut they are enjoying so much, for they naturally cannot be depended upon to think for them selves, or make progress like the others. They have had no education or training to help them. New Life The New Life Movement is providMtially Movement timely in that it has come just in time to save what the leaders have accomplished towards the making of a new China. Certainly nothing but an order from the highest governing powers can restrain un educated women. It is perfectly alright to have permanently waved hair and apply make-up with discretion, and in a manner becoming fo the person; but it certainly is ridiculous and demoralizing the way these women insist upon having their hair kinked and practically standing on end. The control of styles and cuts of dress by the New Life Movement points directly to those women who have given up all modesty for what they term fashionableness-the showing of bare thighs and dirty arms. Good taste among this group has long since been lost in this miscalled "foreignism ", but there is hope of its reestablishment within the next few years, by the rigid enforcement of the New Life Movem'ent ideas. Careers for Women The revolutionary thought which makes for a distinctive Chinese woman, recognized in international groups like the Pan-Pacific Women's Conference, International vV omen's conference, a"Qd the Internation(ll W.C.T .U. conferen ce, as a contl'ibu PAGE 123 CAREERS FOR WOMEN 87 tion to th~ world cannot and does not stand alone. It is only the center fo~ce, like a tree trunk, from which bran~hes grow, and without which the branches can only be saplmgs and bushes It is the driving force which makes women leaders choose such professions and life-work as tlreir talents dictate. Among these it will be seen that the branch of medicine is one of the oldest and that a; new sprout has just appeared in the social welfare branch. Birth Control This new sprout, the birth-co.ntrol bureau, appeare d this winter, though its director, Mrs. Ann Chou must have put much work and thought in it before its emergence into the light of pub licity. China is an old country, though new in form of government and has a large population of poor people With the correct distribution of birth-control informa tion, misery, suffering, and want can, to a certain ex tent, be relieved. When they are taught to limit the number of children according to their income and their health, the children that are born in poor families will have better opportunities than they now have I admire the courage of Mrs. Chou in undertaking this project, which still remains a delicate subject among most of the women of China. In spite of disappointment Mrs Chou is working stead fastly, believing in the ultimate good birth-control will accomplish for the masses She gets only a little h'elp here and ther'e. She must plod along just as Dr. Mary Stone and her sisters did during the first years of their entrance into the medical field. The now open field for doctoring and nursing has certainly repaid the first women M.D 's and Florence Nightingales of China for their early discouragements. Women A forward movement in medicine in China Specialists is seen in specialization; as in the case of ,Dr. Tom who, through chiropractic work, hopes to develop a more physically fit and body-beautiful woman for the Chinese race; and Mrs. Dorothy Huie Wong, who heads the department of bacteriology in the National Medical College. Bringing beauty into the home is the PAGE 124 88 BUSINESS WOMEN aim of Miss Ada Lum, who is a wizard with her handsand an attractive one at that. Her speciality is ctecom tion of the home, though anything she touches becomes a work of art. She has been most successful in the decoration of children's rooms and nurseries. Business Women The business world is full of successful women but Miss S V{. Nyien of the Woman's Bank stands out above all others, be.cause she was the one to start such ,,iork at a time when there was no such thing as banking for women. In spite of the lack of pre cedents, Miss Nyien has ~ade her work a success, and all example to others who have similar aspirations. Women Education as one of the first fields for Educators directing women's energies has had a steady growth from the time the Empress Dowager sanctioned women's education in 1907 There is an outstanding woman educator in nearly every large institution. Space will not permit personal mention. Future of Therefore, against the background which Chinese pioneering and public-spirited wome,n of the Women 20th century have sought to build, and with the rich heritage that ancient Chinese womanhood has be queathed, a great future lies ahead of the Chinese woman China is a country just entering upon the era of development which in European countries is coming to an end. The force of the New Life Movement, which takes care of thos~ whose tendencies are toward the extreme, and the inspiration of present-day women, who arc leaders in the new type of womanhood, will keep Chinese womanhood on the middle highway, which is the victorious road of civiliza tion. PAGE 125 CHAPTER VIII THE CHINESE COMMUlVIISTS GEORGE w. SHEPHERD Kuomintang A dictatorship of the proletariat in China and travelled a long way since the days of 1924-7 Communists when the conununist party was officially a part of the Kuomintang. The Russian advisers, except for a few stragglers, have returned home convin.;ed that the Ch.ines.e people are not so easily m,anipula.tecl as they at first supposed In recent years the Kuomintang and the communist party have been sworn enemies, and the National Government has been spending millions of dollars and sacrificing tens of thousands of lives in stamping out the Red menace. Nobody has yet estimated what this little excursion of Russian propaganda into the heart of China has cost both China and Russia. A more recent develop ment, in those areas where the Soviet Government of China has held sway, is that the farmers and workers are re pudiating conununism and working against the Red Army. 'I'hey are deserting the cause of communism in droves and flocking over to the peace and security of the reorganized National Government. Chinese Attitude to Communism Those who have spent the past ten years along the Yangtze vall'ey have many in cidents a.nd much information upon which to base their musings and their conclusions. Among other things they have witnessed the march of China's youth against the strongly entrenched militarists, and in the process seen half tlte nation exposed to Leninism. They have seen much of China's ancient civilization thrown into the discard in favor of the new economic theories ad vanced by the Russians What is of more importance, they have seen these economic theories at work amongst the farmers and workers Bandits, gangsters, and the evil PAGE 126 90 COMMUNIST PROPRAGANDA elements in society have been thrown together with ideal ists, students and workers in one grand effort to over throw the old order and to establish upon its mins a dictatorship of the proletariat. Incidents in Shanghai, Canton, and other port cities have been cleverly used in propaganda by professional agitators, and the people have been fed a mental diet of hatred and disorder from Shang hai to Chengtu, and from Harbin to Canton. Only men so immature and inexperienced in world affairs as the new dictators of Russia could have supposed that the largely peaceful, industrious population of China might be snared by such devices. 'rime and time again it has been proven that the Chinese are one of the earth's most stable races. Only fools and charlatans try to put things over on them. The advocates of Leninism have long since learned to their sorrow that '' too many crooks spoil the social broth.'' The leaders of China have had enough and have turned ener getically away. Social regeneration is not achieved through organizing the evil-minded and brutal elements in society into a conquering host. Distressing economic and social conditions cannot be corrected through the use of machine guns and long SiWOrds in the hands of a self elected minority. At least, not in China. Nanking The "Nanking incident'' of 1927 was merely Incident one in a long series of outrages against organized society. When the National Government examined this regrettable crime, and discovered it was part of a deep laid plot of the communists to embarrass the newly-formed government of the Kuomintang, the busi ness of driving the communists out of China began. The people of China are not children in the business of living. They prefer the wisdom; of the ages to blind social and economic experiments. They give one the impression of being sophisticated and mature. China's Following the action of the National Gov Communist ernment in expelling the communist party Minority from the Kuomintang it was to be expected that a small m,inority of enthusiastic com munists would take to the woods of Kwangtung, Kiangsi, PAGE 127 COMMUNIST STATE 91 Hunan and Fukien, determined to carry on the world wide revolution of the Soviets. This group it was, who, under the leadership of men like Chu 'l'e and Mao Tsai tung, organized the many divisions and departments of the United Soviet States of China with the national capital at Juichin i,n southern Kiangsi. In 1932-3 this Soviet government controlle.d some sixty hsien (counties) in Kiangsi, and about fifteen hsien in Fukien. They issued their own currency in paper notes ranging from five cents to one dollar, with a small quantity of one-cent copper, and twenty-cent silver pieces. Some of these bear the likeness of Lenin, some a mailed fist, and all display the familiar ham~er and sickle. The very name of this government is foreign and distasteful to conservative farmers and work ers in the heart of China. It is called "Su Wei Ai" a transliteration of Soviet Postage stamps, war and reconstruction bonds, issued by this government, may still be found in piles of rubbish down in this territory. Distribution During the years 1927 to 1933, at which of Land time the Soviet government was at its height, all title deeds and mortgages were destroyed and the land divided amongst the farmers with certain fields being retained by the Soviet government. These were worked by the farmers and called state lands, the crops becoming the property of the state. Official pro nouncements prominently displayed in Soviet territory in dicated that the farmers were not very enthusiastic about farming these state lands. .A.!11 prices were controlled by the government and the profit motive eliminated. Men of education were destroyed along with all ex-officials, landowners, and bankers In some centres as many as five hundred were, stabbed, like so many pigs, in a single night. Every citizen who dared to criticize the Soviet regime was destroyed, until, in most districts, the regime developed into a dictatorship of the ignorant over the ignorant. 'fhe new economic theory appeared as a stereotyped system that refused to compromise with China's ancient civiliza tion, and it replaced experienced village elders with youth- PAGE 128 92 COMMUNIST ORGANIZERS ful experimenters or ignorant town bullies. 'l'hc men elected to serve as chairmen of these various village and town Soviets were uniformly undi sciplined youngsters or near bandits. Only occasionally, and through coercion could a self-respecting citizen be persuaded to accept the appointment, since the greater part of his business involved looting and killing his rather more fortunate neighbors. Class hatred and violence are not acceptable to the Chinese as a method of reconstruction. Popular It is impos.sible to prove the contention Dissillusionment that the Red Army, which forced this dictatorship and tyranny upon the people, was composed of '' embattled farmers.'' In every community a few young men and women in search of adventure and excitement and tired of the humdrmn exist ence of the farm, did volunteer for s e rvice in the Red Army. In this respect China is like all nations Vv ar fever everywhere claims its victim,s. 'fhe Red Army dut ing its campaigns in Kiangsi and I<'ukie.n was composed of men and women conscripted from the farms and forced to remain in the ranks until death mercifully released them. The slightest sign of rebellion was ruthlessly crushed and all would-be deserters were shot 'l'ens of thousands of farmers, who once fought on the side of the Reds, are now glad to be back where they may breathe the air of freedom under their O\Yn flag Restored to their farms and their homes these masses of disillusioned toilers are through with communism. Agitators, who appear amongst them, are bound and delivered to th'e nearest magistrate. Anti-Communist A question that I am constantly being Campaign asked, is, '' By what mysterious power has a group of professional agitators and corn~ munist organizers been able to command so large a following and hold out so long against the National Army The answer is not far to seek. Foll-Owing the establishment of the National Government at Nanking and the slow defeat of the militarists in various sections of the country, the Kuomintang spent too much time and energy collecting PAGE 129 AN'l'I-COMMUNIST CAMPAIGN 93 the spoils of victory. The provinces had already been reduced to poverty through years of civil strife and mis government. Available capital had long since fled to the port cities. The newly formed National Government con centrate.cl upon the exploitation and the development of these resources at the coast, leaving the country very largely in the hands of private armies that had aided in the march from Canton to Peking. Politicians along with technically trained men and women, who, during the campaign of 1926-7, had pledged themselves to the reconstruction of the nation in line .with the 'l'hree Principles of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, just settled down to a soft life in half a dozen big coastal cities. Legislation, education and health were very largely concerned with making life comfortable and happy for the privileged class and their offspring. The ninety percent of the population living in rural districts were either left to shift for themselves or handed over to tender mercies of the tax-collectors. Merchants, farmers, and artisans, throughout the provinces, who were unable to move to the better protected towns were gradually reduced to poverty and forced nearer and nearer to the point of rebellion. Illegal taxation and all manner of corruption practised by the gentry made the i~ense agricultural resources of the country one grand field for exploitation. 'fhe unseemly scramble of scholars for the best paying jobs in the government or educational institutions left the average man with the impression that education was merely a short cut to a sinecure. A brief survey in one prov ince revealed the appalling fact that 95 per cent of the revenue of the province was paid by the farmers, but only five percent was expended for the education of farmers' children, for the illl; PAGE 130 94 SOCIAL DISORDER skirmishes arranged as just so much camouflage. 'l'he higher command seemed powerless to cope with the situa tion. The arlll't.Y had gone from bad to worse until every investigation was killed in its initial stages. Men were working for a machine which offered them a chance to amass untold wealth in a few short years. '' Every man had his price.'' The welfare of the people had been com pletely forgotten. Officers at the front rode in sedan chairs and spent their evenings in the yamens gambling away the people's money with the rottenest set of officials that China has ever had. Feasting, wine drinking, gambling, and toying with a sing-song girl, or occasionally smoking opium, appeared to these scrubs to be the main business of life. No amount of suffering and distress moved them. Men and women of vision and character everywhere threw up their hands in disgust and frankly stated that China was going to the dogs. Students and many of the intell igentsia wondered if communism offered the only way out. The inarticulate masses suffered in silence and, true to their genius, maintained a balanced restraint. Most nations would have been seething with revolution. The Red Army was adding district after district to its domain, and agitators were busy proclaiming the gospel of Lenin amongst the bewildered farmers. They promised to abolish taxation, divide the land, burn the de.eds and mortgages, kill the landlords and money-lenders, and set up a government by the people. Such promises had a wide appeal. In some districts the farmers sent a delegation of young men to invite the communists to come in and drive out their oppressors. One dark night they came and destroyed every vestige of the old order. And just when things were at their worst, something happened. Rebirth of National Government The Generalissimo of the National Forces, General Chiang Kai-shek, had long heard the rumblings of the wheels of rebellion and suspected that something was wrong with the army. He immediately set about retraining the officers of the National Army, making the welfare of the people his chief !Objective. PAGE 131 NATIONAL ARMY 95 Remoulding his own life and his attitude toward the people, he rapidly reorganized the entire army at the front. The younge.r men responded and immediately found themselves in command Soldiers and civilians now worked side by side in building dirt roads down into communist territory. Remote mountainous regions suddenly found themselves linked up with the outside world, and the. noise of tanks, army transport trucks and buses rolled along in clouds of dust. Wheelbarrows and slow-moving huma.n transport trains were no longer needed. In vain the Red Army burned the wooden bridges and killed the leaders of the road gangs. Officers died by the score lead ing their men against communist strongholds, but their places we .re quickly taken by reserves, for a new spirit had taken possession of the Army. Both General and Mad ame Chiang Kai-shek move.d up to the front where they could give full time to the welfare of the army and the peo ple. Officers and men no longer oppressed and insulted the farmers over whose fields they were fighting Communist prisoners, taken in battle or captured by the farmers, were well treated and set to work behind the lines As soon as this good news penetrated Soviet regions thou sands flocked to the national cause They had had all they wanted of this dictatorship of the proletariat. Their own people deserting by tens of thousands, and confronted by a National Army with new tactics and a new spirit, the Soviet regime began to topple. Communism suddenly ap peared as a spent force. The main Red Army was forced to flee to Szechwan, where it is at present establishing itself, and where the centre of struggle must shortly move But in the meantime the main business of reconstruction in the recovered areas is just getting under way. New Life In a brief chapter it is not possible to men Movement tion the many 01ganizations that are at work in Kiangsi and the recovered communist. areas. The drive behind them all is the New Life Move ment, which is precisely what its name implies. New social goals have been set up, and a brand new order of things is coming into being. Corruption and disloyalty have PAGE 132 96 NEW LIFE MOVEMENT become unpopular, technically trained m.en and women ,we replacing grafting politicans, and the farmers, work ers, a,nd merchants are being given a square deal. All that the communists could promise came to the people in a form more acceptable to those cradled in Chi nese civilization. '11he e.ffect upon the people ha.s been electric. General and Madame Chiang Kai-shek, through the inauguration of the New Life Movement, fired the first shot in a great social revolution that will go clown in history. Sick of official corruption and of revolution through violence, the people of China are today heaving one grand sigh of relief. Int.o that sigh is going the pent np emotions of years of suiforing and patience. Em1ur miee and common sense have triumphed. The welfare of the people and the m1ifi(at.ion of CIJjna. have b0. come the common quest. North, South, East and West are at last united. The great dream of Dr. Sun Yat-sen has come trne. Radicalism and communism are dead. It is impossible to roll up a people's following for the communist ea.use. In some sections of the country the Red Army rna.y continue to force its will upon the farmers, but giYen their choice they will undoubtedly choose free dom and the National Govemment.. PAGE 133 PART II RELIGIOUS LIFE CHAPTER IX : MODERN RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS (1) IN CHRISTIANITY C. f~'l'ANLEY SlvIITII. Dr. Paul R Abbott wrote such an excellent chapte1 on this subject for the Cfiinci Chrdian Year Book, 1932-33 that it is almost presumptuous to add another one on the sub ject in this issue. However, the editorial staff has asked me to prepare such an article, and since there have been some changes during the ye-ar, a.nd there were some aspects not covered by Dr. Abbott, I shall undertake to give some personal impressions based on conversations and observa~ tions made over a wide area during the fall of 1934 while I was studying the question of leadership training with the Survey 'ream. Extent As a general statement we may say that we found the church in all the areas visited affected by these variorn; religious movements This was especially true in North and South China. The Yangtze Valley was somewhat less stirred than these other two areas. Of West China I am unprepared to speak. Independent The religious moYements included in this Evangelists report are those associated with various inclepend'ent eyangelists, such as Rev. Wang Ming-tao, Dr. Sung .San-chieh (John Sung), and Mr. Leland Wang; the Bethel Bands, The Little Flock, The Real Jesus Church, and the Oxford Group Movement. There are, doubtless, other evangelists and other movements in various parts of China; but these are the most important. The Ling En Hui (Spiritual) Movement in Shantung was so fully treated last year by Dr. Abbott that I shall mention it only incidentally i.n this article. PAGE 134 98 NEW SECTS Shansi Our study last fall took us first to Shansi and we took pains to inquire about the presence and influence of these movements or evangelists in that province. So far as we could learn, there has been little influence felt here from any of the evangelists or groups mentioned above. Around Taiyua,nfu mention was made of th'e presence of the Real Jesus Church and the Seventh Day Adventists These two sects were disturbing the regular church somewhat and taking away members. They seem to be doing more proselyting than evangelizing. With the exception of these two bodies., that province seem ed to be little affected by outside religious movements. New Sects Peiping can be described as a veritable hotbed for new sects. Some are pentecostal in their emphases and methods, others are stressing various modes of baptism, or small points of doctrine. We heard of churches being divided over the question of the method of baptism. Not only was there a division between those who favored immersion and those whose method was sprinkling or pouring, but among those who required immersion there was division between those who insisted that immer sion should be face forward and those who argued that it should be backwards. Also there were those who claimed that there should be three immersions in the name, of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost. There are many independent evangelists in Peiping who are leading groups away from the regular churches, sometimes holding services for these groups in their own homes. Some of these evangelists have been greatly influenced by the Ling En Movement from Shantung. On the whole, they all put great stress on the apocalyptic elements in the Scriptures. Preaching Bands Dr. John Sung has exerted a very great influence in Pe.iping. He came there first with the Bethel Bands, and the work which these bands did in the city and surrounding territory has been a lasting one. \Ve found many small preaching bands established by Dr. Sung still carrying on enthusiastically fiver a year after Dr. Sung's visit, Dr. Sung made such PAGE 135 SEPARATISM 99 an impression on certain sections of the Christian community that Ire was asked to remain as pastor of one of the churches. He declined this offer, however. Scriptural Rev Wang Ming-tao is an influential Expositions factor in the religious life of Peiping. He is much less emotional than many of the other evangelists, and his sermons consist largely of somewhat didactic expositions of Scripture. He is a powerful preacher and has built up a large following. He has established his own churc h in the city, and it is reported to be filled each Sunday. Separatism Some of the church leaders in Peiping are alarmed because of the growing number and power of these various sects. They are creating divi sion and dissension in some of the churches and are drawing many members away from regular church organizations. There seems to be no limit to the number of smaller sects into which these movements divide themselves. The sect is generally dominated by one strong personality who com mands the loyalty of his followers. It must be said, how ever, that these religious activities are putting new life into many dead church members, and while they are creating problems, they are also a challenge to th'e regular churches to be more energetic and to place greater stress upon the de'eper spiritual needs of the people. Movement in Shantung Shantung is still the home of the Ling En Movement so fully described by Dr. Abbott 'l'his movement seems to be not so much the work of a few leaders, as the gen~ral stirring of the whole Christian community From what we could learn, this movement has moderate.cl a great deal d1,1.ring the past year. Many of the more exotic elements have died down and the movement seems to be settling down to a much more constructive phase in which the churches and leaders are making earnest effort to conserve its worthwhile results. The movement has resulted in the growth of some very strong congregations who continue to carry on their PAGE 136 100 OXFORD GROUPS chmch life with enthusiasm and power. On'e such group is to be found in Tsingiao. A friend reported recent]}: of this group that it is one of the most inspiring congregations to preach to or to worship with of any in China. Oxford Group A year or so ago in the Presbyterian MisMovement sion work in North Anhwei there was an outburst of revival spirit accompanied with many of the phenomena which we have come to associate with the Ling En l\fovement,-intense emotionalism, faith 11ealing, and speaking with tongues. Many lives were changed during these revivals 'l'he more extreme elements in this movement have, as in Shantung, been moderated or clone away with. This has been due partly to the exhaus tion of the original outburst of emotionalism, more directly perhaps to the coming of the Oxford Group l\Tovement into this area. Several of the missiona r ies lu:ive b e en greatly stirred by the Oxford Group Movement and they have brought many of its methods and attitudes to their Chinese colleagues. While in some eases the, coming of the Oxford Group Movement has tended to be divisive and to separate groups formerly united, yet on the whole this movement has made a distinct contribution in this area to the lives both of missionaries and Chinese. It has tended to moderate some of the excesses of the earlier revivals, to break down barriers between Chinese church leaders, and to bring a new reality into the religious life of many Christians. Revival in Central China has been more affected by Central China the Oxford Group Movement, revivalism and the True Jesus Church than by either the Little Flock or the evangelists mentioned above There has been a genuine revival among the Lutheran churches in Hupeh and Honan. This revival seems to have been contem poraneous with the Ling En Move,ment in Shantung, but we could not ascertain whether it had originated from this movement. It has been kept more within the regular church organization and has been freer of questionable 'excesses of emotionalism than has the Shantung Movement. As a :result of these revivals there h::ts come a large increase i~ PAGE 137 TRUE JESUS CHURCH 101 church membership and a vitalizing of the religious life of the cong-regations Here, as in Shantung, the new religi ous n1ovement has had a real effect upon the independence and self-support of the Chinese church, and them have been substantial advances in both these respects. In Changsha we learned of the growth of th'e True Jesus Church. One outstanding Chinese leader there reported that on a very hot day last summer, when most of the other clrnrchcs were but sparsely attended, there were over a thousand people packed into a building where this sect "ms holding its worship. This leader spoke with evident respect of this sect and its growing influence in the community While it often attacks other church bodies and thrive.-; largely through proselytizing, yet it has the advantage of being a purely indigenous movement, not depending upon any foreign funds for support. It is but another evidence of the present tendency in many parts of China for Christians to break away from regular established churches and to form independent sects. Nanking Nanking has been but little influenced by these new religious movements. The regular life of the churches has gone steadily on and there has been a practically full recovery in church membership, and in some cases an advance, since the Nanking Incident of 1927 when 1nany of the churches' were occupied and the church members scattered in all directions. Perhaps it has been the need of co, ncentrating all their efforts on this recovery that has led the churches in this city t.o be lessi influenced by outside movements. It may also be that many of the wea~er or disaffected members who so often form a nucleus of these new movements were eliminated from the church in the days following the Nanking Incident when it was not popular to be known as a Christian. So far as I can learn there has been little serious disaffection among the church members in recent years. The churches have a fairly stro.ng leadership in an educated clergy, and there a.re many intelligent laymen to help keep the churches from being unduly swayed by every new wind of doctriUE\ PAGE 138 102 PREACHING BANDS Dr. John Sung held a series of revival meetings in the Quak e r Church during the fall. These meetings were very well attended, and many Christians had their spiritual life <1nickened and vitalized and many non-Christians were led to confess Christ. 'l'he ,re were some aspects of Dr. Sung 's work which tended to be divisive, and his freedom in harshly criticizing many of his fellow Christians, especially the leaders of churches, was regrettable. As a result of his meetings there haYe been organized many preaching bands, espe.ciaUy among the younger students. These bands are continuing their work and where there has been wise leadership, they have been re.al forces for spiritual awakening-and evangelism. Dr. Sung tends to minimize the value of education and to impress the students with the idea that it is more important to preach than to study. 'l'his has Jed, in s ome cases, to difficulties in the schools and to the desire on tlrn part of som'e of the students to slight their school work, especially at examination time The Oxford Group Movement has been rather slow in making its influence felt ,in Nanking'. There have been some small groups of foreigners interested in this move ment, but until recently few Chinese have come in contact with it. There has been a modified Group for some time in Nanking Theological Seminary. More recently Rev. Woodrow Ging ap.d Pastor Tong Tm1g-hsi of Shanghai came to Nanking following the house party held in Shang hai during the Chinese New Year. The.y have aroused in terest in this new movement and started some Groups. New Movements in Shanghai Shanghai has been the home or at least the base of operation, for several of these new movements. The Bethel Bands originated in the Bible School in Shanghai estab lished by the Bethel Mission. There are several groups connected with the Pentecostal Movement. Mr. Ni Tou sen and the Little Flock Movement have operated from 8hanghai. Dr. John Sung was originally associated with the Bethel Band!,\, but within the past year he has broken away from them and has become independent. PAGE 139 OXFORD GROUPS 103 Shanghai is r;uch a large center that it is difficult to find out how much influence these new movements are hav ing there. I can speak more authoritativ'ely regarding the Oxford Group Movement. 'l'o my mind the strongest Groups in China among Chinese are located in Shanghai. This movement was introduced into Shanghai by Mr. Tong Tung-hsi who came under the influence of Dr. Frank Buchman while attending Hartford Theological Seminary in 1928. There has been a steady growth since then. There are several strong Groups in Shanghai at present. They held their first House Party in the New Asia Hotel during the recent China New Year period. One of the strongest of these Groups centers around the home of Rev. and Mrs. Frank Millican. Rev. and Mrs. Miilican have had a very great and con structive influence in molcling the gro,'lth of the Groups in Shanghai. I have attended three Group meetings at various times in their home and: have been much impressed with the calibre of the Group, it,<; sanity, genuine spirituality, and the way in which it has reached out into interna tional and social interests. My first impression was that this is just such a group of Christians as I have been accus tomed to me.et with in Christian Endeavor meetings in America. There was th!l same informality, spontaneity, and general wholesomeness that I have always associated with the Chri PAGE 140 104 LITTLE FLOCK These Oxford groups in Shanghai raise the question of the relatio:o.ship of such groups to the reg'1llar organized churches They attract a class of educated, business, and professional people who often find it difficult to feel at home in the ordinary church service These people are now getting certain spiritual satisfaction in their Group mieetings It is important, however, that these Christians should be led to see the church as a field of service and to link themselves up closely with its work and worship. My impression is that there is a very definite effort on the part of thi leaders of these groups in Shanghai to unite their members dosely with the churches One of the by-products of the group movement in Shang hai has been the establishment of the Christian Broad casting Station located in the Christian Literature. Society Building. This broadcasting station has been sponsored and largely financed by one of the Oxford Groups. Little Flock As we leave Shanghai and travel south we come more directly into the field of the Little Flock and of Dr. J ohri Sung. During the past year there has been a revival meeting under Dr. Sung and a large conference of the Lit.de Flock under Ni Tou sen in Ha.ng c how. This latter movement. has been growing very rapidly in Chelcia.ngand has drawn away from the church many ordinary church mem;l)e rs and even some church leaders Its opposition to a paid ministry is a1s ing a response in those denominations that are being forced by mission policy or economic depression to require more self-support on the part of the local church Ni Tou-sen teaches that a pa.id ministry is unnecessary a.nd, therefore, leads some of the Christian groups to question why they should use their money to pay for a pastor. The Little Flock movement allso denounces denominational differ ences and although it has it.self developed into a sect, its teachings against denominational differences inherited from the West meet with a popular response. As one Chinese leader is said to have remarked recently, "The Chinese church will have divisions, but they will be its own and PAGE 141 J<'AITH HEALING 105 not those inherited from abroad.'' 'fhe present tendency oi these indigenous movements to separate into sects supports this remark. The Little Fllock Movement places special emphasis upon the apocalyptic elements in the Gos pels, stressing the second coming of Christ, the Rapture, the Resurrection, and the Judgment. These doctrines, dealing' as they do with the future and the other world, arouse a response in the hearts of many who are discouraged about conditions in the world and in China in particular. They are set forth with great vividness and detail and are readily accepted, especially among the less educated. In the twin city of Soocho\V a large group has split off from the Church of Christ in China and formed a Little Plock. They have .rented a building opposite one of the Presbyterian churches, and they hold their meetings at the same time as the church services. They are doing their best to disrupt the church and to attract members to their group. Eddy Meetings From all I can learn Dr. Sung's meetings in Hangchow were very successful and made a strong impression upon the whole Christian community. One of the outstanding features of the meet ings was Dr. Sung 's opposition to Dr. Sher:wood Eddy. After denouncing Dr. Eddy, he called for a show of hands of those who would refuse to attend the Eddy meetings. An overwhelming majority of those in the audience raised their hands, among them some of the Christian educational leaders. When Dr. Eddy came to Hangchow, it took a good deal of work to induce some of these people to change their decision and go to hear Dr. 'Eddy. Here, as else where, Dr. Sung organized preaching bands that have been carrying on their work after his departure. Faith Another feature of Dr. Sung's work was faith Healing healing, and many cures are reputed to have beein effected. I found in Hangchow and further south that Dr. Sung ,vas becoming quite a ''character.'' ).\1any stories are told about him and his work, some of them evidently quite legendary. ,vhereiver PAGE 142 106 JOHN SUNG you could get a gl'oup of Chinese pastors or church workers together and introduce the subject of Dr. Sung, you never lacked for conversat i on. The first reaction almost inevit ably was that he had the ability to criticize and revile, but having said this, most of these church leaders that I met were very frank to admit that he was supplying a lack in the ordinary church services. He was meeting some deep spiritual needs which the churches had failed to meet His dramatic preaching was holding large congregations for hours at a time. These n1i{ln with whom I talked were very frank, both in their criticism of Dr. Sung and in their appreciation of his good points They ,vere accepting him as a challenge to deeper spiritual living, mor~ effective preaching, and more thorough Bible tenching South As we went south, the influence of the Little China Flock grew less while the influence of Dr. John Sung increased. Especially was this true in the Amoy and Swatow districts. Here Dr. Sung had just com pleted exceptionally successful evangelistic meetings, and the churches were still under the influence of the revival. Attendance at the Sunday services was exceptionally large, many bands of earnest young people were going about preaching in city and country, and there were springing up a number of imitators of Dr. Sung who were going about try:ihg to hold revival meetings In Amoy Dr. Sung carried on three meetings a clay, beginning at 6 :30 in the morning and ending after 10 at night. He was tireiless in the energy which he put into these m.eetings which .generally lasted at least two hours. He would break up the tension by interrupting his talks with a series of choruses which he taught his audiences. He showed very good knowledge of teaching methods, and his dramatic portrayal of Bible stories and religious truths made lasting impressions upon his hearers. He made his strongest attacks against sin in various forms, and after vividly portraying the results of a sinful 'life he called upon those who wished to forsake their sins to raise their hands. In all the meetings there were many who respond- PAGE 143 FAITll HEALING 107 ed to the invitation, and there is a record throughout tll'e southern cities of many changed lives, of restitution for past dishonesty, of families reunited, and a general quickening of the spiritual lifE\ of the churches I am glad to mention these constructive l'lesults of Dr. Sung's meetings be cause there were also many things about them that could not be spoken of so favorably. His criticism of church leaders, while often deserved, was yet harsh and extreme. His appeal to emotionalism and attack upon education could not but be harmful to the many young people who crowded to his meetings. He was inclined to denounce as false Christians all those who disagreed with him. While he built up many preaching bands,-it is reported that there were 147 such bands in Amoy and Kulangsu alone which promised to go out every Sunday and preach the Gospelyet these bands were organized under a leadership which was directly linked up with himself and not with the synod or church, so that much of the movement which he started has been developed outside of the regular church leadership, and sometimes under the leaclersip of those who, for one reason or another, had becom'e dissatisfied with the church. Faith Another aspect of Dr. Sung's meetings has Healing been the increasing emphasis which he has put upon faithhealing. All through the south there are many stories of remarkable miraculous healings. while there have doubtless been many who have been helped in this way, yet many of theJ stories will not stand investiga tion. In one place I heard the story of a boy, blind from birth, who attended the Sung meetings, and on the last day mounted the platform and cried out that he cou'ld see. Many flocked around him, holding out hands and objects for him to identify. He always replied that he did not know what it was: he was looking at, but that he could see People said that it was not remarkable that, never having seen, he could not identify objects. The local mission doctor who had examined the boy shortly before the meet ings and pr,onounced him incurable, went to see the lad. In the course of his ip.terview the boy admitted that he PAGE 144 108 POPULAR EVANGELISTS could not see, but he said that Dr. Sung had told him that he must always say, "I can see;" otherwise it would be a lack of faith and he would never be able to see. The result was, of course, that the boy whenever he was asked, maintained that he could see, and the story of this remark able cure has gone all through the south. '!'he r e are many other stories of healing with just as little foundation. Canton and Hong king 'fhe churches in Canton and Hongkong are so strong and well-organized and have such capable lay leadership that they are not as easily stirred as are the churches in some other parts of China by these new religious movements. We heard very little there about the influence of th'e Little li'lock Movement or the Real Jesus Church. The Oxford Group Movement does not seem. to have taken a foothold to any extent in these cities. At least, it was not brought up as a movement calling for special n11ention during our conversa tion with church leaders. The work of Dr. Sung, how PAGE 145 CHURCH DEFICIENCIES 100 the people really wanted more definite assurance of redemp tion and immortality. I also found o,n the part of these church leaders a very strong conviction that there had to be much more positive, constructive Bible teaching in the church if the churches were to avoid being divided and split up by these new religious move,m.ents which put such stress upon Scripture teaching, but whose exposition of th_e Scripture so often only revealed one side of the truth, or overemphasized certain doctrines which, while Script ural, were yet not the main teacl I ings either of the Scripture or of the church. Meaning of After thi s rather rambling and some New Movements what supetficial account of my personal observations over a wide area in China, let us try to summarize, if' we can, these impressions. One of my colleagues on; these trip~, Dr. C S Miao, in a report on this subject which he gave at the annual :m,eeting of the N.C.C R.E. last November, said that these new religious movements represented a reaction from certain defects in the life of the churches. He said they indicated a revolt against :-(1) authority; (2) a theological instead of a spontaneous religion ; ( 3) over-organization ; ( 4) over inteUectualism; ( 5) a dry church program with no pro vision for social fellowship; ( 6) a method 0 training and preaching which allo;Ws rthe congregation to be passive. Certain defects of these movements he indicated as follows: They are individualistic, other-wordly, over-emotional. Confession is often unhealthy and they are too much under the domination of certain leaders who are exposed to the temptations of m,oney. With this estimate of Dr. Miao I am in full sympathy. In respect to the last defect, the temptation of money, more should be said Not only is there a temptation to these wandering evangelists in the ease with which they can secure relatively large contribu tions from the churches for short series of meetings, con tributions which are far greater in proportion than what the churches arc giving to1 their past-Ors,. but they also tend to drain away from the church funds which should go to church work and the support of the preachers. PAGE 146 llO FRUITS OF MOVEMBNTS We may say in conclusion that these movements are stirring the church in. all parts of China, that while they are productive of much g'ood and are. bringing new life into dead churches;yet there are very grave evils associated with them. Movements like the Little Flock and the Real Jesus Church deliberately seek to proselyte; to weaken the existing churches. They are often eclectic, taking elements from many denominations and setting themselves forth as the only true Christian movement. We find the evangelists tending to create followers for themselves and to set up their own churches. For instance, we have a church by Rev. Wang Ming-ta.o in Peiping unrelated to any of the existing denominations ln Hongkong Mr. Leland vV a.ng has established a following and has his ow.n church, also unrelated to any of the existing churches. 'l'hese new sects and movements, coming as they do at a time of growing nationalism, a.re making an appeal to this nationalistic spirit because they are generally independent movements, wholly Chinese and depending almost entirely on Chinese sources of support. They also attack the divi sions inherited from the vV est, and often appeal to narrow prejudices. Their theology is extremely conservative, and as we have said, they put great emphasis upon apocalyptic elements in Christian teaching. These movements are spreading and growing power and influence. (2) IN NON-CHRISTIAN RELIGIONS Ji'. R. MILLICAN Confucian Modern Chinese scholars are divided in Ceremonies their attitude. towards Confucius and in their evaluation of Confucianism. This difference has been brought out anew as a result of the resolution of the Central Party in July of last year (1934) calling for the observance on August 27th of appropriate birthday ceremonies for Confucius PAGE 147 "A Modern Sage" CONFUCIUS 111 Mr. Wang Ching-wei, president of the Executive Yuan, defended this resolution on the ground that the conceptions of benevolence and propriety as well as the other principles of Confucius are timeless in their nature and are fundamental to Chinese civilization. He concludes his defense in the words of Mencius, "Confucius was a timely sage." In answer to the question, "What is meant by the word 'timely' "?, he said it means, 'Of the present generation-modern'. Therefore I contend that Confucius is a present-time sage, a modern sage.'' Confucianism Mr. Wang in defending Confucianism tt.nd Religion objects to two current conceptions. He objects, first, to Confucianism being called a religion He holds that Confucius did not have rn.uch of a religious temperament and that '' there. is nothing in the writing~ of Confucius which can be regarded as of a religious nature". On the other hand he points out that Confucius '' established certain common beliefs for the conduct of human life". Confucian idea.ls are em bodied in the famous passage in the Li Yiiin Pien ( iiii'l m! ) beginning with the sentence, '' When the Great Doctrine prevails, all under heaven will work for th-3 com mon good". This is a description of the "future state of Great Prosperity and Peace". While these ideals were expressed at such an early date, Mr. Wang feels that it was '' not until forty or fifty years ago, when our party leader Dr. Sun Yat-sen made. strenuous endeavors to realize such an ideal, that anything was done to put that principle into practice''. Confucius and Chinese Culture teaching as In the second place Mr. W a.ng takes issue with those who disparage Confucius. He complains that some critics are ready not only to denounce Confucius but to discard all his teachings. Others regard Confucian obsolete and out-of-date, "inapplicable to PAGE 148 112 OPPONENTS OF CONFUCIUS modern requirements' '. Both views, he says, are falla cious. 'l'o him Confucius was a great teacher, '' one, who has been our intellectual leader and pioneer". "\Ve must also recognize that Confucius has not only been the chief representative of China's culture for some 2,000 years, but that he has also been the intellectual father of the Chinese people. ''1 Opponents One of the outstancling opponents of this of Confucius rcYerence for Confucius is Dr. Hu Shih. He lays at the door of Confucianism and of Confucius most of tlrn backwardness and degeneration in Chinese society-despotism, concubinage, foot-binding, the eight-legged essay, judicial torture, etc. He adds, '' 'fhe Analects, the Book of Filial Piety, and the Book of Great Learning were taught in every village, and the study and discussion of philo s ophy was a regular fad among scholars. But what did all these, and the elaborate ritual in the temple of Confucius, do to prevent the social cruelties and political corruptions of the times?'' These evils are being swept away, he believes, not by Confucianism but by other and stronger forces in modern life. Manchukuo and Confucius But there are also other forces working for ai revival of Confucianism. One of these is found in the important place given to Confucianism in the political-moral code of the Manchukuo Government by Premier Cheng Hsiao-hsu. This is a defence of tlre monarchical form of government based on the Confucian ideal of rule by character rather than by force. Military preparedness is fro,vne.d upon and the emphasis is on the old Confucian virtues and customs. His attitude towards the demo cratic tendencies of modern China is revealed in the. following quotation. '' First of the causes of weakness is the violation of righteousness Spurning the title of Chun and 1. As copied from The People's Tribune in Chinese Reoort1e1, November, 1934, pp. 683-688. PAGE 149 l\:1ANCHUKUO AND CONFUCIUS 113 Chen ( lz-sovereiign and subject) the promoters of the Revolution of 1911 and of the new democracy threw down these tested governors of conduct; theif went to the length of d enying the existence in character of superiority and inferiority; the doctrine of equality was rashly adopted with the results that we see With the doctrine of equality removed from the sphere of theory and p PAGE 150 114 CONFUCIAN LEADERS deliberate plan to offset the efforts of Ja pan to win her way into Chinese good-will, first in the northern provinces and now throughout China; or is it a part of a plan of rapprochment with Japan; or is it both 7 In any event we have evidence here of a renewed interest in Con fucianism in China which might become a big factor in the detennination of the religious development of the Chinese in the future. It is also interesting to note, in passing, that Christian leaders in the Government recog nize the harmony between much that fa Confucian and their own Christian beliefs and practices and' so are ready to cooperate in this new emphasis to quite an extent. Conservative Confucian Leaders Th is movement is further strengthened by the renewed activity of quite a few of the older and more conservative leaders of China These men with their well grounded Confucian backgrounds are be coming more and more dissatisfied with, and troubled over, the influx of western influences. They see, their nation breaking away from the old traditions and practices and failing to a large ;extent to find anything to put in their places. The e.x:cessive freedom of modern China, the lack of moral restraint, such as grew out of the former emphasis on filial piety and subordination on loyalty and mutuality, and on the five cardinal virtues together with the threat that these conditions bring to the Chinese home life, have aroused them to an active endeavour to restore many of the old ideals and practices. Confucian Literature A concrete illustration of this is found in a recent book, now in its ninth or tenth edition, entitled, "A Record of the Veneration of Confucianism in Chinese History Together with Appreciations From Foreign Scholars." This work, edited by the elderly scholar Cheng-ii ( and published in 1933 under the auspices of the China Ethical Soci~ty PAGE 151 CONFUCIAN LITERATURE 115 ( i:.p ffi 1-J ) with headquarters in Shanghai, is neatly encased in the old style Chinese loosefolding cover It has prefaces by well known men, by Wang I-ting, the well known philanthropist, by Cheng-ii himself and by Suen Fu-fang. Many pictures of the various courts and build ings in the temple of Confucius at Ch iifu in Shantung are given, as well as a record of the important events of each year in the life of the sage. Part I is a record of the official pronounceme,nts regarding the virtues of Confucius and 'Confucianism in each successive: dynasty and, more recently, of the leaders in the Republic Part II is a collection of thirty-five expressions of appreciation on the part of foreign friends, English, American, French, German, Italian and ,Japanese. Quotations from Dr. Timothy Richard and Gilbert Reid head the list. Towards the end we see references to the new interest in things Chinese on the part of the American Council of Learned Societies and of such individuals as Hodous, Humme.l and Latourette. This j is followed by an account of the renewed interest in Chinese culture and art on the part of the \Vest and a list of e ighteen authors on things Chinese, together with their works, beginning from Marco Polo and ending with Professor Laufer of the I<'ield lVInseum in Chicago. Indigenous Education On the inside of the cover of this in teresting wod, is a manifesto protesting against the domination of foreign in fluences in Chinese education and calling for a return to indigenous materials and ide.ah;. The final conclusion is that Confucianism is not only the one way of life for the Chinese but also for the whole distracted modern world. Confucian This same interest in Confucianism Cosmopolitanism in a modified form is found in the recent movement known as the "Confucian Cosmopolitan World Peace Prayer Conference". This movement centers around a Mr. PAGE 152 116 COSMOPOLITANISM Tuan Cheng-yuan, kno,vn as '' Tuan, The Great Teacher", who was born in wei Yuen Hsie.n, Szechwan, in 1863. Tuan early came to believe, that sincerity of thought, rectification of heart, cultivation of one's person, orderliness of the family and wise government of the state-the old Confucian list of doctrines-would bring peace to a cou.ntry. He later immersed himself in Buddhist thought and meclitatio'n and for a.bout fifty years has been preaching Confucian Cosmopolitanism The organization of the World Prayer Peace Conference is an outgro' wth of his supposedly successful prayer for rain during the drought in Chekiang Province in the summer of 1934;. and his warning concerning another world war. Mr. Tuan is being invited to com~ from Peiping to Shanghai to give a series of lectures on the '' Truth of Confucian Cosmopolitanism'' and to lead in the Prayer Conference for Peace. 'rhe call for this conference is issued over the na.me of the philanthropist Wang I-ting and Ho Chien, Chairman of Hunan Province. In this movement we have a sy.ncretism of religious elronents from various religions, but it is too early to evaluate its influence. Ho1wev0r, this, along with the other move ments mentioned above, indicates that there is a real revival of interest in Confucianism in combination with certain elements taken over from other religions. We often hear highly educated Chinese gentlemen suggesting that there is good in all the religions and expressing th(, hope that a uni...-ersal re~ig-ion combining the best in all the religions may be developed. No doubt they would like Confucian ethics and practices to be m,we or less central in sueh a .movement. Confucianism and State I have mentioned the, favorable attitude of some Christian men to,Yards a revival of interest in Confucianism. It is in teresting to find a Chinese Christian scholar definitely supporting the move to make : Conf..uciainism the state PAGE 153 CONFUCIANISM AND CHRISTIANITY 117 culture for modern China. It is the conviction of this writer 'tha;t Chinese culture 1ha,s grown up under the guidance of God's Spirit. While, in his judgment it does not represent the full light as it is found in the revela tion of Jesus Christ, yet it is the result of centuries of the influence of Goel on the hearts and minds of China's great sages in pre-Christian times That the ancient Chinese had a strong belief in God, he believes, is evident from the early classical writing~ Confucian This writer would have Confucianism Toleration made the state culture for China so that it might act as a moral bulvmrk to the nation and at the same time provicl! an atmosphere of tolerati,m in which the other relig;ions may be free to contribute, without persecutio~ whatever of good they may have to give. Without this emphasis on the old Confucian virtues and culture, he fears, the nation may descend into moral chaos. ,No other religion is in a position to unite the mind and hold the loyalty of the nation at large at the present time. Confucianism and Christianity While as a Christian he is very positive in his belief in Christ as the divine Saviour and as the fullest revelation of God, yet he holds that a true Confucianist may become a real Christian without giving up his Confucian loyalties. There are certa.in things in Confucianism in its historical development that would have to be given up and should be changed just as there are elements in Christianity as it has developed in the West that should be eliminated. All the good, however, should be reta.ined, and supple mented by the fuller revelation in Christ. Christia.uity should not only conserve the good, it should also enrich the Confucian, i.e., Chinese, culture. No one should be compelled to become a Confucianist but Confucianism should become a unifying forcl"-1 for the nation and all the religions should flow into this culture. Thus would be PAGE 154 118 BUDDHISM developed in a fuller sense the '' Great Way of Sincerity and Spirituality (----11Pl~~*Iti: or ~lt*i! '." Ancestral ,Ancestral worship, which is so central to Worship Confucianism, should be retained but so modified and purified as to become a means of teaching true respect for the departed without in any way making it a substitute for the true worship of God The result would be a Confucianized or indigenous Christianity rather than a Europeanized Christianity, or, we might say, a Confucian culture with Christ as tlte center.2 Buddhist Previous reports in this Year Book on Activities activities among Buddhists may well be supplemented by the following brief summary of the outstanding events from a Buddhist standpoint during the past year. 1 There has been a steady increase in the number of subscribers to the outstanding Buddhist magazine, the Sound of the Tid,3 (ifi.l:'iMtf) 2. A Sung Edition of the Buddhist classics has been published by a society formed in Shantung for that purpose 3. A Buddhist Prayer Convocation conducted by the Panchan Lama was held in Ling Yin Monastery, Hang chow, in the spring of 1934. Tens of thousands of people visited the temple during this period and passed by the temple door (as the writer did) while the Lama sprinkled holy water into the air. The great attention shown the Lama by officials leads one to suspect that the political struggle in Tibet has had something to do with the Lama's triumphal trip throughout China 4. A. Buddhist hospital known as the "Great Benevol ence Hospital'' has been opened in Pei ping. 5. The foundations have been laid for the '' Pure Land Hall'' in the Court of World Buddhism in the Great :B,orest ... 2 See "Chinese Nation-Through the Eyes of Jesus" by Chao Liu Chu Shih (Prineeton S, Hsii), Sold at Assoeiation Press! Shanghai, PAGE 155 BUDDHIST ACTIVITIES 119 Monastery on Kuling Mountain This is to be used for annual gatherings in this the birthplace of this sect, in the hope of interesting not only Chinese but :f!oreign residents of this summer resort in Buddhism. 6. A beginning has been made in the work of translating the 'ribetan Buddhist Scriptures into Chinese. A keen interest is being shown in this project on the part of Buddhist leaders. 7. An Institute of l\Iongolian and Tibetan Literature has been established. 'fhis will have an indirect influence on the spread of knowledge of Buddhism 8. A Boddhisattva Society has been organized to pro pagate Tibetan Buddhism 9. A Buddhist Society has been established in Europe for the study and propagation of Buddhism. 10 The Buddhist Society of China held a national meet ing in Shanghai but, being dominated by Buddhist laymen, mostly prominent men and ex ofncials in Shanghai, it met with criticism and opposition from ordained priests.8 11. A visit to China by Dr. Goddard, who has estab lished a Buddhist center in California, has created an exaggerated impression of Buddhist influence abroad. 12. A Buddhist Dictionary by Professors Soothill and Hodous is soon to be published by Kegan, Paul, Trench & Co., in London ,4 3 The above are taken frem a Buddhist '! Sp1ing and Su=er'' ( tf.::fl\:) or, Annals for the Year, in a. recent issu!l of the '' Sound of the Tide". 4 For further information on "Trends in Non-Christian Religions" the reader is 1eerred to the very informing: article by Dr. K. L. Reichelt in The Chinese Recorder, Nov 1934 (p. 707) This ;tlso treats of secret sects. See also article "Religion in a Manchurian City", F S. Drake, Chi71rl!S1! ~(lcqrder! :reqruarr! M;t:r;chl 1935, PAGE 156 CHAPTER X THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 1934 F. c. DIETZ Archbishop Zanin '11h0 outstaiiding event of the year, an event 0 'major im ,portauce particularly as regards developments in the Catholic Church in China in the near future, was the arrival on March 31 of the new .Apostolic Delegate, H. E. Archbishop Mario Zanin. This esteemed young prelate succeeded Archbishop Celso Costantini, who resigned ~s position because of ill health after eleven years of devoted service which gained for the Catholic Church in China a con fide.nee and prestige that many did not concede to it a decade before. Archbishop Zanin's Career Archbishop Zanin came to the Orient eminently prepared for his new post. While engaged in the active ministry, after his ordination on July 13., 1913, he had served as Ecclesiastical Assistant to various associations of Catholic Action. He was later engaged as a professor in the Major Seminary and as Vice-Re'Ctor for six years in the Minor Seminary at Felt.re, his native city, in Northern Italy. He was dioc esan Director of Missions for twenty years. The Missionary Union of the Clergy, established in 1919, had him as one of its associate founders. "Propaganda", the Roman Congregation of Cardinals charged with the care and oversight of Catholic Missions throughout the world, called him to Rome in 1926 as its Press Director in which capacity he manifested great energy and exceptional talent as an organizer. In 1930 he was named General Secretary of the Pontific a l Society of St. Peter for the Native Clergy. He pleaded the cause of native seminaries with marked oratorical ability, and his efforts during these years were largely responsible for the develop m ent of this So eiety to its present perfection. When PAGE 157 VISITS TO MISSIONS 121 Msgr. Zanin received his appointment as Apostolic Delegate to China on December 4, 1933, the news was hailed with unanimous applause. He was consecrated Archbishop of Traianopolis by H. Em. Cardinal Fmn~ asoni-Biondi, Pre.feet of Propaganda, on J unuary 7, 1934, and embarked at Venice for the Ori'ent on l\'Iarch 10. Visitation Tours After spending some weeks in becoming acquainted with the South China Missions, Archbishop Zanin proceeded to Shanghai, paid his official re.spects to the National Government in Nanking, May 14, and, after inspecting ,;arious missions en route, reached Peiping ,June 2. Eve,rywhere his coming aroused wide interest. Civil and military officials were most cordial in their welcome. His reception in Catholic circles was marked by ardent enthusiasm. Toward the e.ncl of October, the Apostolic Delegate began a second tour. His first objective was Hankow. where, after officiating at the consecration of Bishop O'Gara, ,C.P he presided a.t important gatherings of bishops and a Week of Conferences on Catholic Action. In all, two months were spent in visiting missions in the Yangtze Valley and along the lower 'fsin-Pu, the LungHai and Ping-Han Railways. Once again the authorities everywhere joined with the Catholics in doing higl1 honor to the accredited representative of the Holy See. As a result of these two strenuous tours, Archbishop Zanin made the personal acquaintance of five-sixths of the Ordinaries of the China Missions and inspected one-third of the seminaries, in which, as former Secretary General of the Pontifical Society of St. Peter, he was particularly interested. He gained valuable knowledge of the country, people and customs, and learned much concerning mission conditions and the problems incident to thenl!. Statistics We proceed now to a statistical review of the year 1934. 'l'he order which will be fol lowed is in the main that of the four tables of statistics given elsewhere ;1 personnel, education, works of mercy, 1 See Appendix I. PAGE 158 122 CATHOLIC MISSIONS Administration of the Sacraments. In the tables, the last two columns give the corresponding totals for 1934 and 1933 respectively. This greatly facilitates comparison and often tells the story at a glance. Unless otherwise noted, the figures given are of June 30, as the statistical year ends on that date. "Where in the course of our remarks information referring to the latter half of the year is given, this will be sufficiently evident from the context. Missions For purposes of evangelization, China has been divided to date into 121 ecclesiastical are.as to which we shall simply refer as missions. The 121 Missions comprise : 81 Vicariates, 28 Apostolic Prefectures, and 12 Independent Missions Vicariates correspond with dioceses in non mission countries, while Prefectures and Indept~ndent Missions may be considered as embryonic stages in the evolution of vicariates. For ce.rtain reasons of convenience, these 121 Missions are sometimes grouped into 20 regions, the regions corres ponding roughly with Mongolia, Manchuria, and the original eighteen provinces. Twenty-one of the 121 Missions have so far b'een placed entirely in the hands of Chinese bishops and clergy. Heads of There are 89 bishops. nine of them, including Missions one Chinese bishop, are Coadjutors or Auxiliaries Of the 80 at the head of Missions, 13 are Chinese,-including the Bishop of Nanking, still to be appointed. There are 8 Chinese and 20 foreign Apos tolic Prefects. The 12 Superiors of Independent l\Iissions are all of foreign origin. Priests There aie 4,014 Catholic priests in China; 2,367 are from abroad; 1, 64 7 are Chinese. It has been estimated that the latter, who make up 41 per cent of the clergy, minister to approximately one -half the Catholics in the nation The net gain during the year in the number of foreign priests was 64, of Chinese priests, 52. PAGE 159 MARTYRS i23 Brothers A diminution of 121 in the number of Chinese Religious Brothers during the pre< ceding year was more than made up for this year by an increase of 138. Foreign Brothers showed an augmentation both years: 74 for 1933, and 79 for 1934. Chinese Broth ers are slightly in the majority, accounting for 53 per cent of the total of 1,148 Sisters The number of Native Nuns showed a slight falling-off; from 3,419 to 3,319. Still the general total of all Sisters reveals a net gain of 38, Foreign Nuns having increased by 138; from 1,693 to 1,831. The in teresting point to note here is that. the Chinese Nuns are nearly twice as numerous as their foreign sisters and go to form: 65 per cent of the total. And a further observa tion of interest is that 70 per cent of all Chinese nuns are in native Congregations conducted by the Chinese them selves Missionary Martyrs While on the subject of missionary per sonnel, wei may mention here that two priests fell victims to Communist brigands during 1934. They were : Father Urban Martin, Spanish Dominican of the Vicariate of Funing, Fukien; and a Chinese, Father Stephen Pang, of the Vicariate of Y enan, Shensi. This brings to 51 the total of Catholic missionaries killed in China since 1915. The turbulent years 1927-31 account for 32 of these casualties. About one-third of those who lost their lives in this manner were Chinese. Missionaries The following were taken captive during in Captivity 1934: Father Anselmo, C .M., of the Vicariate of Kianfu, Kian.gsi; Father Cyprian Bravo, O.P., (released February 27, 1935), of the Vicariate of Foochow, Fukien; Fathers Lucas Wang and Joseph Liu, ( the latter has since regained his liberty), of the Prefecture of Puchi, Hupeh; and Father Dositeo Lopez, S.J. of the Vicariate of Anking, Anhwei. The PAGE 160 124 SEMINARY STUDENTS total of Catholic missionaries made ca.ptive. since 1912 a.mounts to about 330. About one -third also of these were Chinese. Remaining in the hands of Comm:unists from formei years are two Spanish Jesuits, Father A vito and Father Esteban, of Anhwei; Father Paly, Swiss Dominican, of Fukien; and Father Von Arx, Swiss Vincentian, of Kiangsi It is probable they are dead, with the possible exception of Father Esteban. Seminary Students Both Major and Minor Seminarists reg istered a slight increase, 22 and 108 re spectively. The enrolment of the Probatoria, preparatory institutions for determining the possible vocations of young aspirants to the priesthood, remained for aU practical purposes stationary. New Regional Seminaries are being erected in Yunnan, Shensi, Fukien, and Anhwei. Of the 938 Major Seminarists, 42 are studying in the Urban College of Propaganda in Rome, and 134 are with various Religious Orders or Congrega tions. As the Major Seminary covers six years of study, -2 years of philosophy and 4 of theology-, a total of 938 students represents an average of 156 per class. This means tha~, allowing for discontinuances, 100 or more new Chinese. priests become available every year under present conditions. Lay Workers The important part played by lay associates in the work of Catholic Mis sions in China may be inferred from the imposing array of Catechists and School Teachers. The former comprise 7,381 men and 4,452 women,-a total of 11,833, which marks an increase of a little more than 500 over 1933. School teachers aggregate 8,683 m:en and 6,249 women,a total of 11,833, which marks an increase of a little more than 500 over 1933. School teachers aggregate 8,683 and 6,249 women,-a total of 14,932. This represents an increase of 2,100 for the year. PAGE 161 CATHOLIC MEMBERSHIP 125 Conversions, 1934 The number of adult baptisms for the year is reckoned as the number of con versions. 'l'his was 82,145,-a :figure hitherto but rarely attained and surpassing by about 12,500 that of 1933, which was considered at that time exceptionally good. Membership On June 30. the recordedi Catholic popula-tion of China was 2,702,468. 'l'his re presents a net increase of 78,908 over the census of the preceding year, which gave the number of Catholics at that time as 2,623,560. The growth of the Catholic population as exhibited by this population data is about 3,200 less than that resulting from conversions. Recti fication of statistics in the case of several Missions ac counts for most of the discrepancy. At any rate, what ever natural increase there may have been was counter balanced by a proportionate loss. Under present condi tions it is impossible to determine just how this loss occurred Emigration may be partly responsible, and deaths from famines and floods; infant mortality very probably accounts for a considerable share. The relative loss was only half that of last year and very much less than that of the year before. Catechumens These number approximately 465,000. Being as yet unbaptized, they are reckoned neither among the conversions nor in the Catholic popula tion figure given above. Before being accepted for bap tism, they are required to undergo successfully a period of instruction and probation lasting a year, more or less, according to circumstances. Conversion Averages It will be interesting to consider in some detail the splendid results of the past year. Which parts of China and which Missions gave the best results 1 The best way to determine this is by means of conversion averages, which are obtained by dividing the number of conversions in a given Mission or Region by the number of priests working in it. A word PAGE 162 126 CONVERSIONS of caution will be in order here, lest unwarranted co11-dusions be drawn. It must be kept in mind that condi tions vary greatly in different parts of China and also at different times in the same parts. An equal expenditure of effort and devotion may produce very disparate re sults Merit is gauged by the former, not the latter. The general average of conversions for 1934 was 21 per priest, not counting those of the clergy engaged in general work in the Procures, Religious Common Houses, and as professors in Regional Seminaries,-in all, about 230 per sons. If we include the latter, the average was 20.5 In the following averages, only those priests engaged in the active apostolate are considered Averages 'l'he Regions securing the highest averages are : Shansi with 40 conversions per priest; Sl1ensi, with 38; and Hopei, with 30.5. The best in dividual Mission averages are as follows : Taiyuanfu, Shansi-145; Chaohsien, Hopei-113; Loyang, Honan-90; Sianfu, Shensi-83.5; Chowchih, Shensi-80.7; Hanyang, Hupeh-73.5; Tsitsihar-71.8; Yiitze, Shansi68.5; Hengchow, Hunan-56; Chengchow, Honan-54.5; Ankwo, Hopei-52.4; Yungnien, Hopei-50.2. The following Missions yielded averages between 50 and 40 : W nchow, K wangsi; Changtien, Shantung; Yihsien, Ropei; Sinyangcho,v, Honan; K weiteh, Honan; Pengpu, Anhwei; Tientsin, Hopei; W eihaiwei, Shantung; Shun fohfu, Hopei; and Yangku, Shantung. Ten Missions have averages between 40 and 30; 60 Mis sions between 30 and 10; and 26 Missions, below 10. Averages In general, the highest averages occur in Regional North and Central China, the lowest in the South. The vast Regions of Szechwan, Kweichow, and Yunnan have averages below ten. One evident reason is the paucity of missioners in those parts, resulting in a scattering of effort and great loss of time in making long journeys. Where missionaries are con centrated, as in the North, and communications compara- PAGE 163 CHINESE CLERGY 12'i tively well developed, results per missioner are much better. Another important reason is the multiplicity of dialects and heterogeneous languages in the Far South and Southwest. And there are other reasons. To do justice to even half of themi would require a book. Indigenous If we single out from the rest the 21 Clergy Missions entrusted to the Chinese clergy, we find that in point of objective accomplish ment they compare very well indeed with the Missions administered by missionaries from other lands. It is only fair, however, to call attention to the fact that, as a rule, the best and most promising sections of the mission field were the ones turned over to the native clergy. The general average for the 21 Chinese Missions was 27 .66. 'l'his is considerably above the general average for all China, which, as we pointed out above, was 21. Averages When we compare the individual averages Compared of these 21 Chinese Missions with the averages of the Regions in which they are situa ted, we find that 10 of them fall below the average and 11 of them above, 5 of them very notably above. The native Vicariate of Chaohsien, Hopei, shows the magni ficent average of 113 conversions per priest, being second only to Taiyuanfu, Shansi. Seminarists The proportion of seminarists to Catholic population is 2.4 per 1,000 for the country as a whole Fior the Chinese Missions considere.d seperately, it is 3 per 1,000. Educational The second 'table of statistics furnishes Institutions the latest data on Catholic educational institutions in China. The number of stu dents of each sex is indicated for each of the classifica tions, also the number of Catholics and non-Catholics. It will be seen that the last-mentioned predominate in in stitutions of higher learning, are about equal with Catho lics in Upper Primary Schools, and constitute less than half in 'the Lower Primary grades. PAGE 164 128 EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Prayer 'rhe Prayer Schools would hardly be cons Schools siclered schools in the modern use of the term. With them included, the total number of schools amounts to 14,549 with enrolm,ents aggregating 388,802 students. These figures may be increased by 120 and 4,350 respectively so as to include the Amoy and Foochow statistics, which arrived too late to be included in the table, as the editor of the '' Annuaire'' notes in his Pre face. Educational Progress Up to recent years Catholic missionaries in China have been so largely absorbed in the direct quest for souls and so hampered by lack of material means that full justice was not done to the im:portant field of education That strenuous efforts are being made in the teeth of poverty is clear from the very definite progress discernible in a comparison of the figures for the last two years. Industrial 2,252 boys and young men are being Institutions taught useful trades in 49 Catholic Industrial Establishments. There are 94 corresponding institutions for girls, with 4,390 workers and pupils. The figures appear small in comparison with China's vast population, but, w~en all is duly considered,, they represent an appreciable qualitative contribution to wards the economic reconstruction of the Nation. Catholic Press The number of Catholic newspapers and periodicals in Chinese has approximately doubled during the last two or three years. The latest count revealed 45 of them. New ones, usually of a local or provincial character, are constantly coming to light. Catholic periodicals published in China in English, French, Latin and other languages number 26. As the end of 1934 approached, preparations were being made at the Synodal Comm)i.ssion in Peiping for the launching of a Catholic Press Service. Twenty-five Catholic printing establishments continue to turn out an ever-growing Catholic literature. Some of them have an annual output of several hundred thousand units. PAGE 165 MEDICAL WORK 129 Synodal An important adjunct to Education is Commission the Synodal Commission, called into being by the First Plenary Council of China, 1924, and operative since 1928 Its functions are to coordinate and supervise Catholic education, foster the pro duct i on and dissemination of Catholic literature, promote the Catholic press, stimulate and assist Catholic Action, etc., in a word, to be of service, under the direction of the .Apostolic Delegate, to the Ordinaries in matters that con <'l'rn the Missions as a whole. More than 70 publications and several periodicals, including the scholarly digest, now in its eighth year, testify to its vigorous activity on behalf of the a postolate. The digest has been edited from its inception by the Rev. Theodore Minter, S V D., <'f the Yenchowfu, Shantung, Vicariate, who was one of the first to be named to the Commission. Seminaries and Medical Work In a letter addressed to the Ordinaries of China September 14, 1934, Archbishop Zanin stressed particularly Seminaries and Catholic Action. He declared the former to be his heart of hearts and the apple of his eye; and to give a practical turn to his interest appointed a new mem ber to the Synodal Commission in the person of the Rev. Joseph Rutten, C.I.C.M., former Superior General of the Scheut Mission Society, a veteran missionary of ripe ex perience and wide acquaintance. Having devoted his re cent years to fostering typhus research, which has already saved the lives of :m.:any missionaries in North China and Mongolia, Father Rutten was concomitantly named Director of Health and Mission Medicine for the Catholic :;\fissions in China Catholic Action Touching next upon Catholic Action, His Excellency recalled that the Rev. Dr. Paul Yi:i Pin had been designated General Director of Catholic Action while still in Rome prior to his return to China in the fall of 1933. He thereupon also named Dr. Yi.i Pin to the Synodal Commission, charging him concurrently with the supervision of Catholic Schools. PAGE 166 130 CURRENT LITERATURE Current Literature Dr. Yii Pin, a native of Manchuria, spent ten years of study in Europe, where he obtained doctorates in Theology, Ec clesiastical and Civil Law, and Political Sciences, in the Pontifical College of Propaganda, Apollinaris University in Rome, and the University of Perugia respectively. Since taking up his work in Peiping, Dr. Yii Pin has evinced exceptional talent and a remarkable activity. Under the direction of the Apostolic Delegate, he re organized the Men's and the Young Men's branches of catholic Action and organized two ne.w branclies, one for women, the other for intellectuals. He improved the monthly review for the men, which soon became a fort nightly and still later was issued every ten days. The magazine for the young men was amalgamated with the "P'an She" (Rock) of the Catholic University of Peking. A new quarterly was founded for the women. And the well-known "Pei Oh 'en" of the Jesuit "Hautes Etudes" in Tientsin was acquired and metamorphosed into the "Hsin Pei Ch'en" (New North Star), a monthly organ for the intellectuals. Dr. Yi.i. Pin's services were greatly in demand for lectures and for assistance in organizing local and district associations of Catholic Action throughout the country. As Supervisor of Catholic Schools, he also transformed the Synodal Comimission 's Chinese Quarterly, "Educational Analects", into the "Kung Chiao Hsue Hsiao" (The Catholic School), which was thereafter published every ten days. Membership of Synodal Commission Thus it is evident that with the arrival of Archbishop Zanin the Synodal Com mission took on added importance and gives promise of becoming a very valuable asset to Catholic Missions in China, especially in the field!il of education, secular and clerical, mission medicine, Catholic Action, and the press. Its present five members are of five nationalities-American, Belgian, Chinese, French, and German One is a secular priest, the others '3re members of different Mission Institutes. They ~aineq PAGE 167 PHILANTHROPY AND SACRAMENTS 131 their experience in diverse parts of the country, Man churia, Mongolia Hopei, Shantung, and Kwangtung. 'fhus they are fairly representative of the China Missions as a whole. It appears as though im,perative economies have forced a slight reduction in the number of charitable institutions, dispensaries ex cepted. 'l'lte number of aged p e rsons cared for dimin ished by about 350, from 6,638 to 6,282 The obvious i 1 1ference is that fewer replacements were made as deaths occurred. The estimate of 80,000 in-patients in Catholic hospitals is given as probable by the statistician, who ex plains his inability to give an exact figure for the year due to some misapprehension of the French term '' malades hospitalises.'' Works of Mercy Orphanages Though the number of orphanages decreased by 40, the actual number of orphans cared for increased considerably, the net gain being 1,378. Foundling work shows larger figures throughout. Leper asylums increased by one and cared for 1,140 outcasts, about 200 more than the year before. The Sacraments To Catholics, statistics regarding the Sacraments are of prime importance. Adult baptis~ represent the year's conversions and are the index of the success of apostolic effort. The Annual Confessions and Holy Communions demonstrate in clear cut fashion whether Catholics who have reached the age of reason practise their Faith or not. Confessions and Holy Communions of Devotion (supererogation) indicate the relative fervor of our Catholic people. In each of these respects the figures given in the table are enlighten ing. The 11 per cent decrease in the number of Extreme Unctions is rather remarkable As this Sacrament is ad ministered only in cases of dangerous illness, it would appear that epidemic disease was le&& &erio"\l& ~n 1~3{ tha,u during the preceding yea,r, PAGE 168 132 CATHOLIC PROGRAM ; : :.. : ; !'. ;.r ~f ~il~i Mixed Mixed marriages increased from 20 per Marriages -cent of the total in 1933 to 22 per cent of the total in 1934. From the Catholic point of view mixed marriages are not desirable, but are tolerated as a lesser evil where, as in China, Catholics form a rather small minority of the population The two per cent increase may be simply fortuitous and as such of little moment. Progress in 1934 From all that has been revealed, it is quite clear that 1934 has been altogether a re markable year for the Catholic Church in China. Next to the grace of God, Who giveth the increase, to what may ,ve ascribe these apostolic successes 7 Briefly, we wish to suggest here one imtportant internal reason and three external ones. Mission Program Faithful adherence to the Mission Program of the Church, as outlined especially in the Papal Encyclicals '' Maximum illud'' and '' Rerum Ecclesiae, '' is, in our opinion, the internal reason This program has produced throughout the world a veritable renaissance of mission effort, and, by its em phasis on the develop:nient of native clergy and episcopate, has rooted the Church more firmly to the native soil. The institution of the Apostolic Delegation in China in 1922, the First General Council of China, 1924, the Pontifical Letter '' Ab ipsis primordiis,'' the consecration of the first six Chinese bishops by Pope Pius XI, 1926, his Message to the Chinese People, 1928, the further consecration of three Chinese bishops in Rome during the Holy Year, 1933, each of these marks a.n important step along the virgin road which the' Catholic Church op'ened up for herself and then followed. Environmental Conditions The external causes are more patent; a relatively greater tranquility, due in great part to the successes of the Government's Anti-Communir,t Campaign which broke the back of Bolshevism as an organized force; a more general PAGE 169 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS 133 friendliness toward Catholic missionaries, whose unques tionable courage and devotion to the suffering multitudes while the storm of revolution raged won them, in large measure, the appreciation and confidence of the people; and last, but not least, a more cordial attitude on the part of Government officials, desirous in the interests of internal reconstruction of rallying to their aid all the sane. forces of the nation As an illustration of this last point, we may cite the very friendly reception given Archbishop Zanin du :ring his official visit to Nanking, May 14, 1934. Jn his reply to the address of the Apostolic Delegate, His Excellency Lin S'en, Chairman of the National Gov ernment of the Republic of China, closed his remarks as follows: ... I desire to express here a profound appreciation of the contributions of the Catholic Church towards the peace, progress and prosperity of China It is hardly necessary to repeat that our Goverpment will continue to ensure the security of her institutions so as to facilitate their beneficent. activity. In view of Your :B}xcellency 's wide experience in the fields of religion and culture, in view also of your intimate understanding of the Chinese people and their interests, I profoundly be lieve that the relations b~tween the Chinese Government and People, on the one hand, and the Holy See, on the other, will make continued progress It is with great pleasure I welcome Your Excellency to our shores and I wish you the best of h'ealth during your sojourn among us.'' Strength During the visit 0 the Apostolic Delegate of Church to Hankow, a public Eucharistic procession through the streets of the city terminated a ,veek of episcopal and lay conferences. At their own instance a considerable number of civil officials and military officers took part. The event attracted wide attention and occasioned the following editorial in the Peking and 'l'ientsin Times of Nov. 8, 1934, with which we m.ay fit tingly bring our account to a close: "The great proces sion of the Catholics in Hankow a few days ago is an- PAGE 170 134 CATHOLIC CHURCH VITALITY other instance of the extraordinary vitality of the Catholic Church. The turbulent events of our time appear to have &trengthened rather than sapped that strength. Many of those who beheld this unique sight in the streets of Mid-China's most important centre must have been re minded of the very different scenes which were enacted there some seven years ago. It was a period, readers will recall, when Christians of all sorts suffered in common with the Imperialists, under the rage and violence of a semi-communist upheaval. The processions in those days wer~ composed of the proletariat, and such an event as that which has just been reported would then have been wholly unthinkable.'' Meaning "It is not only in China that the immense of Church and apparently unconquerable vitality of the Catholic Church is being made manifest in the teeth of a bewildered and sceptical world. In our shifting scene the Church stands for something deep and permanent, as it has stood through the many centuries . Not the least noteworthy feature of its vitality is its ability to adapt itself to new methods. The pro cession not only displayed the colourful pageantry for which the Catholic Church is noted, but the authorities who organized it evidently engaged an aeroplane which flew overhead and dropped pamphlets on the crowd be low. The ceremonies of which this was the culmination were arranged in connection with the visit of the new Apostolic Delegate to China, who is clearly a vigorous and forceful personality.'' ,'f. PAGE 171 CHAPTER XI THE CHURCH OF CHRIST IN MANCHURIA F. w. s. O'NEILL The Revival Up till the change of regime which occurred in Moukde.n on the 18th of September, 1931, the Manchurian branch of the Church of Christ in China had been going ahead without many spectacular results. But since that eventfuil date a great change has taken place Within the last couple of years a revival of a stable kind, both within and outside the Church has covered the land. 'l'hat this religious awaken ing, which has surprised us, has some connection with political events, can scarcely be doubted. General depression, the uncertainty of life, fear of the future, the breakclo"wn of the past, these and other conditions resulting from the "change of affairs" (as the Septem ber event is conunonly called), have been used by God to turn men's hearts to Him. It was under the cloud of political defeat after the Exile that the Jewish faith was purified. Under a similar but darker cloud in Palestine, Christianity was born. Liberty of Action During the three and a half years of our new Government, practically no inter ference has been put in the way of Christian propaganda in church, street-chapel, school or hospital, either by the local or central authorities. On the contrary, both Japanese and Manchukuo officials have acted towards us in a spirit of friendliness. A plot of ground in West Moukden adjacent to a new road was offered to the church by the South Illanchuria Railway for religious or social purposes Unfortunately the necessary funds were not forthcoming ori our part to erect a building. Hence the offer la~sed. During thti setious disturbances of 1932, PAGE 172 136 BRIGANDS AND NARCOTICS the county town of Fakumen happened to be full of refugees, when it was bombed from the air, resulting in the death of a laiw-abiding citizen. An app,eal was sent through the post by the local missionary to General Honjo, Commander-in-Chief of the Kwantung Army. Later a very courteous reply was dropped by an aeroplane explaining the military reason for the action, and re questing the mlissionary to maJrn it clear to the .Chamber of Commerce that the Army had no intention of killing innocent men. Brigands The suffering of those appalling days has left its mark. Not to speak of numbers of Chinese friends killed or tortured or robbed mostly by their own countrymen, mention may be made of lHrs W edclerburn of the Scottish Mission, bound hand ancl foot and nearly suffocated in her home at Hailung. The world knows more of the long captivity of Dr. Nielsen of the Danish Mission, a.nd of the kidnapping of lVIrs. l'awley, daughter of Dr. Phillips, honorary Irish mission ary at Newchwang. At Hsinpin in the Eastern Hills a band of robbers, bent on looting the mission house, was repelled by Rev J olm Stewart violently beating a dinner gong. The noise attracted the police, who proceeded to fire their rifles into the air. Narcotics Gradually the country became more or less tranquil, though sporadic brigandage has continued up to the present time (April, 1935). One grave social vice has spread in all directions. With o, without the connivance of authority, opium. morphia aud heroin, are sapping the morale of the people Steps have been taken by the Government, however, to tackle the drug traffic. Morphia addicts have been rounded up and placed in reformatories. Anti-opium campaigns have been organized The poppy is not now grown as freely as the new regime at first permitted. At the same time opium is on regular sale at licensed stores PAGE 173 NEW CHURCH NAME i31 Church Name Changed With regard to the relations existing 'between the Church and the authorities, as well as the Japanese community, some points are worthy of note. Japanese Christians, including ministers of congregations in Moukden and Hsinking, fine types of earnest men, help to smooth the way where they can. From our Church a party of leading educa tionalists and others was taken last year on a tour in Ja pan, without expense to the visitors. By the ge.nerosity of Japanese Christians, several ''Manchu'' congrega tJi.ons have been started, those in Jvioukden and Hsinking with trained men from our Church invited to take charge. Despite the languag e difficulty, a united pra;rer meeting attended by pastors and other leaders, both Chinese and Japanese, has been held at intervals in Moukden Froru the first, the name "Church of Christ in China" pre.,;ented a stumbling-block. The question was more than once debated at our annual Synod, where the majority was strongly in favour of retaining the name. But liberty was given to drop the designation "China ( Chung Huaj in case of local necessity. Finally at the last Synod of July 1934, a committee was appointed to interview the central Government at Hsinking (in Oirder to discover their attitude. The upshot of that interview led to an announcement in the name of Synod: we were to drop the name "China". The official designation now employed 1s "Manchu Presbyterian Christian Church" Either that title, or simply the name of their town or village instead of Manchu Presbyterian", may be used by congregations and outstations. It should be observed that this action did 11ot arise froin' any government order, for no such order has ever been given. Howev er loath the majority of the members of Synod may be to give up, even in appearance, what to us had precious associations of a large arnl growing church unity, nevertheless this voluntary change of title cannot be considered to involve either a sacrifice of principle, or a;n altered attitude towards the main body' south of the Great Wall. PAGE 174 138 REVIVAL New Life Turning from the political and general background of our propaganda, it is a joy to experience the refreshing spiritual atmosphere of these recent years, and lto be allowed a share in reaping the greatly increased harvest. One village after another has opened its doors to Christ our Lord. Dangers there are bound to be in any mass movement. Catholics and Protestants alike are, as it were, spontaJ1e.ously advancing their forces over the land. But the history of the Boxer rising has not lost its lesson. Nor can the Church, which is an offshoot of Scottish and Irish Christianity, be nowadays employed as a cloak for clever schemers A reassuring sign is that the movement in favor of our religion has been gradual and steady. And along with the influx of catechumens, there goes the rise. in the spiritual quality of the Church as a whole. Constant sales of New Testaments and complete Bibles indicate a growing attachment to the written Word. This improve ment can indeed be traced farther back than 1931. During a good many years, systematic short course Bible schools for adult Christians have been a feature of church life in various stations. Last autumn by the direction of Synod, a very successful school of this kind was conducted in Moukden for the training of laymen, chosen from all parts of the field, as voluntary workers. The experiment is to be repeated. Manchuria has now a Bible school travelling secretary, Mr. K. T. Kao, and a religious education secret ary, Miss Y. C. Ch'i, both of these having had th'e advan tage of study under the mother Church in Scotland For that purpose they had been chosen and se.nt by the daughter Church out here. Is it Real? To give an example of the ingathering, Fakumen District, north-west of Moukden, with a membership of 1308, had last year 355 baptisms, much the largest number in its forty-five years' history. If the question be asked whether these Christians are willing to put their hands in their pockets for the furtherance of the Gospel, the reply can be given that, considering PAGE 175 SELF-SUPPORT AND MEMBERSHIP 139 the severe financial slump of the last few years, there, is a strong and sustained effort towards self-support. lj'rom the beginning the Manchurian custom has been that a call to the pastorate involv,ed the provision of stipend from local, not mission sources. In addition to this excellent though difficult plan, evangelists to a considerable extent receive partial or complete support from the. people who invite themi As a result of Mr. Kenneth Maclennan's investigations during 1934, he formed the opinion that '' too easy fore.ign money resources and a failure to train the Chinese towards self-support had in the past done the Chinese "Church serious spiritual harm.'' In face of such a charge brought by a highly competent observer, few of us missionari$ ca~'l feel quite innocent. Possibly ,our Scottish friend did not mean to refer to his fellow Presbyteria.ns But if he did, ,ve can derive a little comfort from the fact that during 1933 the 18,033 adult Christians of our field, averaged in contributions $3.45 per head, or about four shillings and seven pence. Still, "too easy foreign money" is a barb that sticks Membership Leakage While it can truly be affirmed that the general outlook is exhilarating, there are nevertheless certain facts which give us pause.. Our ~embers are indeed increasing considerably, and yet the total members4ip, though approaching 20,000, has not reached that figure which it had almost attained in the Boxer year, and since that date had surpassed more than once. Obviously the leakage has been considerable, doubtless to some e.."'<:tent due to the shifting nature of many of the inhabitants, not rooted to the soil. Separatist More disconcerting than such fluctuations Movements is that dangerous legacy of the Re.formation, a tendency to split. In two large cities, Hsinking and Kirin, the "Little Flock" has taken away a number of earnest people from our congregations. A couple of years ago there was started in I,akumen by a group of our Christians an independent church, which has been successful both in propaganda a11d in self-support PAGE 176 140 CHURCH tJNlTY There being now so wide an opportnnity to enter opefii doors, these efforts to sustain the spiritual life apa1t from the parent bodj' have no important repercussions on the Church a.'I a whole. If in the central Synod there should appear a serious rift., then would the situation givei cause for alarm. A year or two ago some slight indications in that direction seemed to be evident. But of late, between conservatives and others among the Chinese, a willingness to live and let live arppears to have overcome any incipient temptation to separatism, much to our delight. The mis sionaries themselves, Scottish, Irish and Danes ( those in union institutions), whatever may be their theological opinions, form a united and very harmonious family, without distinction of age or sex. The Chinese leaders are their staunch friends. In church government the foreign ers receive their location and work under instruction from the Policy Committee of the Chinese Synod. Composed of some 120 members, with a yearly influx of new delegates and a sprinkling of ncissionaries, the Synod itself is a less impressive organ, though the highest court of the Church, than its Policy Committe.e (" Advisory Board"), a picked Cabinet., Chinese and for,eiign, which handles all finance and many other affairs. A well-articulated organization of this kind, acting through local district boards with full responsibility, gives promise of a capacity to absorb the eccentricities of individual prjvate judgment within the living Body of Christ. The comprehensive nature of the Gospel receives a clear illustration in Moukden, where. the historic congregation at the East of the city has for its pastor, ~v. I. S. Liu from Slia.ntung, while the \Vest Church, near the colleges and foreign business firms, is ministered to by Rev. K. ~ Liu from Fakumen-two men of Goel, differing in type a.nd outlook, and appealing to worshippers of different kinds, yet both fast friends and loyal colleagues. The hope of the future lies there. Oxford Group Movement And in case the clanger of division were threatening, which apparently it is not, there now comes on the field the 0:il'forcl Group Movement, cutting across theological diver- PAGE 177 TR.A.iNING i41 sitics by calling men back to what is deeper than opinions. At the end of January, 1935, through the m;edium of the Chinese language, the first Manchurian House Party numbering sixty of various nationalities, met at the Hot Springs' Hotel, Tangkangtzu. The message of the mov ,ement has already taken hold within the Chinese Church. Training Because in the Moukden Theological College the evangelistic staff of the Church is prepared by a thorough course of instruction in theory and practice, for the pastorate and general propaganda, that. College since its foundation thirty-seven years ago has always been the nerve-centre of the whole body. Just now under the new Principal, Rev. J. W. Findlay of the Scottish :Mission, a change is taking place by order of Synod. From this year, except in spe~ial cases, new students, men and women already in church employ, are only to receive a small uniform. allowance of$5 a month while at the coUege. It is hoped in this way to make clear the distinction be tween preparatory study and paid work. Preaching Bands The spirit of evangelism, characteristic of the mission from the time of the pioneers ,nearly seventy years ago, has never been more alive than today. In many centres it is the custom for preaching bands, sometime.s led by the missionaries, to carry the Good Tidings with vigor and resource to market-town and village. In order to increase the supply of competent evangelists, there was founded a few years a.go at Newchwang the North-East Bible School, a large and flourishing institution within the Manchurian Church, but independent of officiaJ support from the Synod or the Mission. By its training of volunteers in Scripture and in prayer, this Bible School, mainly due to the consecrated energy of the Rev. James McCammon, is proving a powerful rejnforcement to the cause of God. Education Apart from the '' cult of statistics'' common to Manchukuo and the Island Empire, our Christian colleges and schools have cause for gratitude to

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142 SCHOOLS the powers-that-be. Not that we receive financial assist ance or any special favor It is enough to have our re ligious position stabilized. Outside the curriculum, but within the buildings, we are quite free to give religious instruction. With regard to registration, a question which under the former Government hung fire for years, it seemed as if the new regulations with their severe demands on all private schools, might stand in the way. For instance, in the case of loca[ schools.. the size of playgrounds and the requisite financial basis looked staggering. But evidently common-sense has carried the day. Already primary schools, if arrangements can be definitely made with the local authorities are receiving registration. In the. case of middle schools the detailed minutiae take up a good deal more time For public purposes the higher institu tions in l\Ioukden have reverted to the older custom of appointing foreign heads. ('I'he Theological College had never changed) The Chinese principals considered their foreign colleagues to be in a better position to deal, for example, with Japanese advisers to the Government. Hence in the Girls' Normal School Miss H B. IC. Maclean has reverted tOI her old post at the top. The Principal of the Manchuria Christian College, Mr. C. S. Liu, stepped down, and was replaced by Rev W. Miskelly. As for the Medical College, a dual arrangement between Dr. W H. Gow and Dr. Ellerbek has been found satisfactory. Medical The l\iloukden :Medical College has for some Training time had Government re.cognition, not being regarded, on the professional side, as a rival to the J apa.nese Medical College, but, in a country so vast as Manchuria, admitted to be a well equipped and efficient ly-staffed supplement to the famous Japanese institution. The aim of Dr. Dugald Christie in founding Moukden Medical College (now recognized by the University of Edinburgh) was to produce Christian doctors This aim, broadly speaking, the College continues to fulfil. Every year sixteen or more men and women graduates go out to mission hospitals, official service, private practice. or

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EDUCATION AND GOVERNMENT 143 further study. For the character and work of very m.auy of these doctors, followers of the Good Physician, the Church has reason to be profoundly grateful. The Authorities vYh.ile the Japanese langua,ge ha.'> become pa.rt of the curriculum of the schools, the requirements in this respect are by no means onerous. On the w'hole subject of Christian education, it is a great relief to have our status regularized in relation to the Govermnent, at no expense to our freedom of action. It should be added that, in some cases at least, the way has been smoothed by the cordial co-operation between church people and local authorities, men whose friendship has been of long standing. For some reason or other, our schools and colleges are packed. Since September, 1931, the position of the Y,M.C.A., particularly in Moukden and Kirin, has been more difficult than that of any other Christian organization The cause of the difficulty is doubtless traceable in part to the political activities of some Y.M.C.A. leaders under the form.er regime. Several months after the military occupation, a Chinese secretary in Kirin was arrested and imprisoned on acoount of state ments written in his annual report. In the course of time, efforts made on his behalf met with success. He was re leased on the condition that he leave Manchuria. Up to the present no definite step has been taken by those in power to hamper Y.M.C.A. work. Shortly after Chinese New Year, 1935, a very well attended series of evangelistic meetings was conducted in Moukden Y.M.C.A., without let or hindrance of any kind. If a certain amount of watching occurs, that is no more than one might e.xpect. At our Church Education Board and Policy Committee meetings, January, 1935, one or two plain-clothes' observers were present as unobtrusive listeners. 1The future, especially of the Kirin Association, is a little uncertain. Formal connection with the National Committee has been severed the Manchurian Associations being now under a control of their o,v11, dependent largely on the wisdom and zeal of the chief secretary, the Rev. Johannes Rasmussen.

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i44 DANISH LUTHERANS The Danes Engaged on a larger or smaller scale in carrying the Gospel to the Chinese ( or as we are taught now to call the citizens, "Manchus ") of this new Empire, there are a munber of other missions, of which the two in closest contact with us are the Danish Lutherans and the Canadian Presbyterians. The Lutheran Mission, next in size to our own, ha.s a long history of sp1endid evangelism, leading to the gradual building up of strong churches \Vhi]je not actually joining forces with the Church of Christ S y nod, they have always kept in active touch with us, more particularly through personal cooperation of the best kind in the 1 \'Iedical College, where Dr. S. A. Ellerbek has for many years been Dean or Principal, and the Manchuria Christian College whose honoured Science Master is Mr. Johannes Witt. We. are proud of our fel1owship with the Lutherans, and admire their type of piety but publicity, at least in English, is not their forte. Moreover, they hold tlrnir annual meetings at a quiet spot like :B,einghuangcheng, far from the madding crowd. And even to these meetings the heroic Dr. Nielsen can hardly be persuaded to com;e. (Perhaps he would agree with an Irishman's description of a mission con ference as "leaving your work to talk about it.") Despite the persistent modesty of this mission, a notable person like Miss Ellen Nielsen cannot be hid. It is she who finds or earns the income needed to conduct her large industrial colony at Takushan on the southeast coast. In order to facilitate her philanthropic enterprises, she renounced her Danish nationality several years ago. Her purpose is, if possibl'e, to provide a useful living for the poor among her flock. The Canadians :B,ollowing the disruption of 1925, the Canadian Presbyterians sought, through their representative, the Rev. Dr. Jonathan Goforth, to find a new sphere in China. After five unsuccessful attempts an invitation to settle in Manchuria was acceptecl, the beg inning of the mission dating from 1927. 'l'he area

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CANADIAN PRESBYTERIANS 145 agreed upon stretches 400 miles from north to south, with the headquarters at Szepingkai on the South Manchuria Railway. A vast hinterland, equal in size to the province of Ontario, spreads westward for 1,000 miles into Mongolia. In this region a few of the cities had been partly evange lize.cl by the Irish Mission, whose stations, by their own wish, continue apart from the Canadians but in cordial relations with them. Dr. Goforth did not feel able to join the Synod of the Church of Christ. In spite of the small ness of the Canadian mi s sionary staff since Dr. and Mrs. Goforth retired to Canada early in 1935, the foreign staff has consisted of two missionaries and their wives-during the eight years of its history th_e mission has achieved re markable success. For the year 1934 the number of bap tisms was 966, ,vhile the communion roll stood at 2,031. A drastic cut in the budget from Canada two years ago instead of hampering advance, produced exactly the op posite effect. The Chinese Christians built twelve churches, a.ncl by the encl of 1935 the remaining congflegations are expected to o,vn their buildings or to pay all or most of the rent. Their average, contributions for li934 came to the creditable sum of m,01,e than $14 per head, or about nineteen shillings All honour to Dr. Goforth for his inde fatigable eva ngelistic labours, and to his two colleagues upon whose strong shoulders now rests the responsibility for this rapidly growing 'Church. To us of the older mission, the coming of the Canadians was a Godsend, a.nd to none more than to the writer of this article, for it is chiefly in his immense diocese that their sphere of action lies Up till the time of their arrivall, our efforts were not merel y inadequate. We were hardly touchin g the frit1ge of a continually increasing population of immigrants. Now we can unfeignedly rejoice in the harvest which is b eing reaped by our friends and brothers. Cuts Before drawing this sketch to a close, a few words may be said about home funds. Both Scots and Danes have been threatened with shortage, but on the field nothing serious has as yet occurred When during PAGE 182 146 FINANCES the Synod meetings of July, 1934, Dr. Cheng Ching-yi (who was the invited preacher and the honored guest of Synod, along with Dr. A R. Kepler) heard that the Irish Mission had suffered no diminution either on missionaries' salaries or grantsin-aid, he was much surprised On his travels through China he had come across only one other mission of which the same could be said. That was the largest of all, the China Inland Mission. Although Ulster has been as hard hit by the world-slump as any other part of the British Isles, it is a remarkable tribute to the gen erosity of the J rish Presbyterian Church, and to the efficiency of its home organization that no funds have been cut off nor personnel withdrawn from China ( or India), while on the other hand, reinforcements have continued to arrive up till the present day. An Irishman No attempt, however ina:dequate, to offer an account of the Christian ad venture "East of the Barrier," could properly end with out a reference to our distinguished senior, the Reverend Dr. T. C Fulton, now the father of the Manchurian Mission. His rival in age, Rev C. Y. Liu, the first ordained pastor, has been for years a minister emeritus. But, after half a century of service, of which more. than thirty years were given to the Theological College as Professor or Principal, Dr. Fulton is still as hard at work as ever His career in the East has coincided with the growth of the Church from infancy to its present maturity. The long lonely journeys from one end of the la.nd to the other., without ever seeing the face of a Christian, belong to the distant past. Each of the nine central stations of the Irish Mission is associated with his history. The Chinese pastors of the Church have, since 1898, almost all sat at Dr. Fulton's feet. About our beloved Nestor there breathes a certain air of timelessness His youth has been renewed like the eagle's. Perhaps the secret of his charm lies in his humil ity. In October, 1934, a movement was set on foot by Chinese leaders to celebrate his jubilee in l\foukden, where he was due for. an executive meeting. Hearing of the pro- PAGE 183 WITNESS 147 posal, Dr. Fulton deliberately stayed away, remaining at his post in Chinchow, lest a flood of complimentary speeches might give the glory to a servant, rather than to the Master. The Church of Christ in Manchuria is blessed with a living witness, if ever there was one, to the truth that the Gospel is the power of God unto salvation to every o-ne that be lieveth. PAGE 184 CHAPTER XII AMONG THE TRIBES' PEOPLE ( l) IN SZECHW AN T. TORRANCE Origin of Work To the China Inland Mission belongs the distinction of beginning mission work among the native races of Szechwau Over forty years ago l\Ir. and Mrs. Cecil Polhill of this Society went to reside at Son.gpan a city in the far north-west of the province They rightly saw the great importance of this busy centre to reach the Hsipan, the Bolo and the nomads of the northern grasslands as well as the Tibetans who came here for the purposes of trade and barter. what they did not see, however, was the determined opposition of the Chinese to anyone attempting to reach t.hese '' subjects'' of the Celestial Empire. Within a year they were ignominiously driven out with nothing but the clothes which they wore. Continuity of Work Two or tlll'ee years later Messrs. J arnes Neave a.nd Theo. Sorensen, of the same mis sion, reopened the work. At this time., or soon afterwards, the missionary societies in Szechwan were in conclave about the division of the field Since the Church Missionary Society had already taken over the northern section of Szechwan and Songpan came within this prospective area, the China Inland Mission withdrew these men and tra.nsferred them to Tachienlu at the gate. way of Eastern Tibet. As events turned out this was a pity, for the Church Missionary Society, for lack of men and funds, were never able to undertake anything but sporadic work in Songpan and,, after a time, even this practically ceased It was not until 1929 and 1930, when the Chengtu agent of the American Bible Society who had PAGE 185 CHIANG PEOPLE 149 come to take an interest in Tribes' work sent unofficially a Chinese evangelist to rent premises in the pla.ce, th;t continuous Christian work began Attitude Again the Chinese, when they noted a of Chinese desire to touch the aborigines, did their best to stop the work; but the preacher bravely held on Slowly success began to crown his self-denying zeal. When the American Bible Society agent found time to visit him, a number of converts were baptized and a local church organized. Interpreters The, difficulty thus far, in reaching the tribes in the vicinity, has been that preach ing has had to be clone by means of interpreters. Only a very small percentage of the trihesfolk are bilingual. But this hindrance is only temporary. A young preaeher is at present giving himself to the study of two of the local Ja;nguages As he grows proficient, greater success will attend Christian endeavour in the whole district. Chiang Further south, in the valley of the Min River, People the Church l\.Iissionary Society sent English mis sionaries to reside, at Maochou (now Monghsien) and the China Inland Mission sent the Rev. C. H. Coates and his wife to W eichow (n'ow: W eikin). Both were ideal centres from which to conduct evangelization among the Chiang People and other races, but the efforts of the missionaries were mainly directed towards the Chinese who occupied these towns or lived in the valley. Any side. attempts to, Christianize the mountain dwellers, therefore, met with small reward.. for Chinese and tribat work cannot be pr~ secnted together successfully .. Approach .Nearly twenty years ago l\Ir and Mrs. Coates vacated Weichow to go on furlough. After their return to" China they were kept in East China and a. year or two later, the China Inland Mission disposed of their W eichow premises. Shortly before this, the Ame rican Bible Society agent at Chengtu began independei;1;t . PAGE 186 150 TRIBAL EV ANGELIZATION work among the Chiang. He was fortunate enough to dis cover the key of access to the villages of this ancient people and sent an ex-colporteur to itinerate among them. As time permitted he also tod'k preaching journeys through their country. The key was the discoveiring of the nature of their old monotheistic religion which thi.y guarded nearly as closely as a Freemasons' lodge, does its peculiar secrets. Churches By means of special Bible classes, when selected converts were yearly given syst e matic instruction in the Scriptures, two churches were organized in the country and, a.round them, numbc,rs of village preaching houses. It cannot be pretended that what has been done is in any way adequate; a beginning only has been made But it points the way for oth e r missions to follow. At vV enchuan, where one of the churches is found, a number of Giarung speaking converts have become mem bers. These belong to a local tribe called the Vv asze who, like the Chiang people, speak Chinese as well as their own lang11age. The converts, alil told, are still under three hundred. Persecution by Chinese officials has kept then down and sifted the numbers It is constantly given out that the adoption of Christianity means disloyalty to China Tribal At Lifan, a walled town twenty-five ~vangelization miles west of W eichow, the Chinese home church of the Canadian Methodist Mission in Szechwan opened would-be missionary work among the tdbes' people there : To this work the mission aries and Chinese Christians have loyally subscribed for fourteen years but, here again, efforts have been largely nullified by attempting to mix Chinese and tribal worship. The Chinese preacher sent could not, would not, concentrate on purely ti-ibal evangelization. He became an illustration of the fact that mere zeal is not enough; to secure results it has to be intelligently directed. The preacher's motto among the Tribes should be1 '' this one thing I do,'' PAGE 187 LOLO AND GIARUNG 151 Schools At Lifan and Tsakulao, Chinese schools have been run for a considerable time. A young preacher has now been engaged to itinerate among the Giarung-speaking people to the north of Lifan who follow Lamaistic cre eds, closely allied to Tibetan Lamaism. Lolo For a decade or more, the missionaries of the Anijerican Baptist Mission in Yachow have been attempting, from thei1 outstations of Fulin and Hanyuen, to do work among the great Loilo race. A number of Lolo converts, or Nosu as they call themselves, have been received into church membership. Occasional short trips are taken into Lololand wh e n they succeed in visiting the region If the work is not extensive, it is very commendable in that there is the will to do something for this warlike and independent people Giarung To the north of Tachienlu (now Tatsienlu) and west of the Chiang country, in what are called the regions of the Ta-kin and Siaio-kin, live large numbers of Giarung people. Through the earnest advice of the Rev. J H. Edgar, the China Inland Mission has now sent two missionaries to do evangelistic work th'ere, viz., Messrs. Amos and Dr. Jeffrey. To assist them in their study of the language, Mr. Edgar has compiled a Vocabulary and Grammar of Giarnng which has been published by the West China Union University. As these men gain proficiency in the language, they propose to proceed into the independent Giarung states of Damba, J oksgee, Rougkang and Somo. New, In the north of Szechwan, four days' Missionaries journey from the Kansu border, the China Inland Mission has given further signal proof of its forward zeal as a Mission by sending Messrs Bazire Roberts and Purchas to evangelize the tribes on the Kansu-Szechwan border. Thus, at long last, something serious is being attempted in tribal work The regular missions are no longer going to play at it or leave it to private effort Who will elect to enter Nosuland in effec- PAGE 188 152 WILD LOI tive strength and proceed to the great needy aboriginal sphere west of that, is not known! These tribes, too, awa.it the foreign missio.nary who can appeal successfully to the non-Chinese races of the vast Szechwan hinterland. (2) IN HAINAN J. F. STEINER Tai The aboriginal or tribes' people who occupy the central areas of Hainan Island belong to the Tai race of the Laos and Indo-China, their general character istics and laguage being much the same. By the Haina nese (Chinese) they are called the Loi. This term applies to all the Tai tribes. Loi The Loi, however, divide into two main groups First, the '' Tame Loi,'' who becausei of long association with the Hainanese have been to a large degree assimilated hy them although there are still numerous differences in dress, language and customs. Wild Loi Second, the "Wild Loi," who have been forced into the mounta.in d:istriiets in the central and southern parts of the Island. They are to this da.y, no doubt, very much the same as they were several hundred years ago. 'l'hey are begining to feel, too, the influence of Chinese civilization Chinese traders go every where Within the last two years public auto roads have been built into the interior and the Government has established fifty schools for the "Wild Loi." There is, also, the influen c e which is brought to bear on them by the Church of Christ in Hainan. Several men of this Church are now located at strategic places There are in all twenty five ,chapels, perhaps, where grtmps ga.ther for worship. On Christmas day, 1934, thirty Loi came to Nocloa Station. Language Used One of the Bible Societies has requested the missionaries to reduce the Loi language to writing with a view to making the Bible available to them in their own language In view of the wide variation in the dialects this will be very difficult PAGE 189 LOI AND MIAO 153 since no one form would suit them all. It was considered b'est, therefore, to emphasize Chinese 'l'he Chinese Gov ernment has lately become more aggressive in its effort to civilize the Loi and to make them literate, so that it is only a matter of time whan they will be wholly assimilate PAGE 190 CHAPTER XIII YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION IN 1934 EUGENE E. BARNETT Number of Associations Affiliated with the National Committee of Young Men's Christian Associations of China are thirty-eight city and 75 student Y.M.C A. 's. During the stormy years of anti-religion agitation, foreign aggression, and economic depression, the city associations have held their own numerically; several ''provisional'' branches have gone out of existence but several new branches have been started in their stead There has been a marked drop in the number of student associations, from about 200 to 75, one important factor in this change being the shrinkage in Christian senior middle schools for boys since 1925 from about 200 to 68.1 Of the present student Y.M.C.A 's 12 are in Christian c:olleges, 57 are in Christian middle schools (senior and junior) and 6 are in government and private colleges and b.?.hools. Employed Staff The :first Y M C .A's started in China were organized in 1885 in mission schools by Ame rican missionaries Ten years later, in 1895, the International Committee sent D. Willard Lyon to China, the :first employed secretary in this country. His coming was the signal for expansion, first into the govern ment student :field and later into the growing :field of modern educated youth in the principal educational, polit ical, and com.merical centers of China. The establish ment of the Y.M.C.A. in a network of cities and educa tional institutions which now stretches from Harbin to Yunnan and from Shanghai to Chengtu has been made I Not included in this review is the work of "Foreign: Y.M.C .A's" in Hongkong and Shanghai, a Japanese Y.M.C.A. in Shanghai, British Army Y.M.C.A 's in Hongkong and Shanghai, a Russian Y M.C.A in Harbin, and American Army and Navy Y.M.C .A's in Shanghai, Chefoo, Tientsin, Peiping, and Hankow. PAGE 191 FOREIGN SECRETARIES 155 possible by the development of a body of professional youth workers employed by the National Committee and by local associations. At the beginning of 1934 there were 243 secretaries, including 26 men allocated by cooperating movements abroad.2 Foreign Personnel Cooperating bodies allocating men to Y.M.C.A. service in China in 1934 have included the International Committee of Y.M.C.A 's of the United States and Canada, the Danish National Council of Y.M C.A's, the United Church of Canada, the English National Council of Y M.C.A's, the Church of the Brethren Mission. the American Board Mis sion, the English Baptist Mission and the Irish Presbyterian Mission Most of the men thus assigned to youth work in connection with the Y ,iM.C.A. have been set aside under formal arrangements entered upon between the National Y.M.C.A. Committee of China and the cooperating bodies fo other cases the arrangements have been made between the local Y.M C.A Boards of Directors and the local mis sion stations immediately concerned. Losses in Foreign Secretaries The largest contribution in western per s01inel has been provided by the International Committee Y.M.C.A., which at one time maintained slightly more than one hun-dred men for service on the China staff. This number has progressively shrunk during the past decade, and with great rapidity during the depres sion years in America following 1929. Drastic dem9bilizatio11s early in 1934 left only nine men on, the China staff fully supported by the International Committee Ten ~ore men reniained in China mainly supported by the National Committee of China and the local Associations ser,,ed or temporarily 2 Thi s figure does not include 104 office employees, 478 paid teachers, 505 servants, and 517 employees of concessions run by the Associations. Theoretically men listed as ''secretaries'' are members of the staff employed because of their professional qualifications as youth workers. PAGE 192 CHINESE LEADERSHIP allocated to and supported by other religious and social service agencies. Effect of Losses The Y.M.C.A's in China have been able to stand the shock of sudden and drastic losses in foreign personnel because of certain poli cies on which the Movement has been built. (1) Current budgets have been raised entirely in China. (2) Final re sponsibility for the work has rested in national and local boards composed entirely of Chinese. (3) Ultimate ex ecutive responsibility has been carried increasingly by Chinese secretaries, both ou the National Committee and in the local associations. Conceiving of the contribution which a western body has to make to China mainly in terms of money and of administration, some have supposed that this three-fold policy calls for the early elimination of the foreign secretary. At no time, howe.ver, has this assumption represented the thinking of responsible Chi nese leaders. ,vhen relieved of final exeeutive responsibility the foreign secretary has found (under competent Chinese administration) greater not less opportunity for strengthening the hands of his colleagues, for extending the influence of the Association in the membership and community, and for maintaining a rich,. vital, and timely program of work. The rapid loss of foreign workers has not resulted in the closing down of associations, but it has lessened the capacity of the Movement to meet the demands made upon it in a critical and creative period of China's history. Chinese Leadership More basic in the development of the Movement in China is the maintenance of a stable and growing lay and professional leadership The fiery tests of recent years have proved the loyalty and strength of lay boards and of a supporting body of "foundation ( Christian) members." Not the least contribution of the Y.'M.C .A. to the church and the comrn;unity has been its training through actual experience 0 men to think, plan, and work together in unselfish undertakings. Gradually, too, there is emerging in the PAGE 193 TRAINING 157 employed secretary of the Y.1VLC.A. a new type of pro fessional worker, though as yet unsatisfactory conditions with respect both to his status and his financial security result in a costly turn-over in his ranks. Men of Y.M C.A. training and experience are in demand, and competing opportunities in public and private agencies are frequent ly more attractive because of the greater financial re wards and (in some cases) the greater prestige which they offer. Leadership Training Responsibility for the professional training of the employed staff centers in the National Committee. Training projects carried on in 1934 included: (1) pre-service seminar field work scholarships for recent college graduates; (2) Sabbatical scholarships for experienced secretaries (main ly in the Short Term Course for Religious and Social Workers given by Yenching University); (3) a summer school at Kuling (for executive secretaries of "Youth and Religion Committees" and for student secretaries); (4) training institutes for staffs of local associations; ( 5) staff study groups for which outline courses have been prepared by the National Committee; and (6) the mainten ance of a National Circulating Library for the benefit of national and local secretaries. Two International Com mittee secretaries,. Dr. R. M; Hogan in Shanghai and Dr. L. Sweet in Peiping, have been assigned full time to give direction to this training program. Under their leadership the entire travelling staff of the National Committee is expected to participate in the training program. Twelfth National Convention Early in the year, January 23-28, the Twelfth National Convei.1tion of the Y.M. C.A 's of China met on the campus of St. John's University, in Shanghai. 'fhere was an attendance of 222, of whom about 50% were delegates of city Y.M.C.A's, 25% of student Y.M.C .A's, and 25% speakers and special guests. Because of important legislation under consideration at tendance was held down to responsible representatives PAGE 194 158 NEW ORGANIZATION of member associations. Undoubtedly this Convention, which has hitherto met triennially, brings together the largest and most representative body of Christian laymen (non-paid workers) which meets regularly in China. Important Most important among the actions of the Legislation National Convention was the adoption: (1) of a revised Constitution for the Na tional Movement; (2) of a new statement of student work policy; (3) of resolutions on the social program of the Y.M.C.A.; and ( 4) of resolutions calling upon city and student Y M.C.A's to unite in a two-year "Youth and Religion Program.'' Revision of National Constitution The manner in which the revised Con ;;titution was considered and adopted by the Convention furnished reassuriug evidence of the maturity and competence at which the Movement has arrived. For five years the new Constitution had been in process of study, debate, formulation, and revision. Even so the firm grasp of the main issues involved and the complete avoidance by the Convention of entanglements with side-issues were both un nsual and gratifying. New Important points in the revised ConOrganization ,-;titution are: (1) the vesting of the highest legislative authority of the Movement in the National Committee, to be composed approxi mately of 50 elected representatives of city Y.M.C.A 's, 30 representatives of student Y.M.C A's, and 16 co-opted members; (2) the creation (a) of an ad interim Executive Board to act between biennial meetings of the National Committee; and (b) of a Board of Custody and Investment; (3) the creation of city and student division com mittees to deal with matters related specifically to city and student Y.M.C.A's respectively; and (4) the definition of the field and functions of area committees for both city and student Y.M C.A's as the creation of such committees become~ desirable and feasible. The National Convention PAGE 195 NATIONAL COMMITTEE 159 retains a place in the Movement, not, however, for purposes of legislation but rather as the occasion for bringing hlrger numbers of members together for the widening of vision and for inspiration Board of Custody and Investment The Board of Custody and Investment created during the year under the revised Constitution deserves brief comment. In the past the National Committee and its executive board have borne responsibility for the administration both of current work and budget and of capital c quipment and funds. Under the new arrangement there are two coordinate boards functioning under the National Committee. The Executive Board carries an interim re sponsibility (as in the past). for uniting, supervising and in various ways serving city and student Y M.C.A 's, for pioneering new associations and new forms of work, and for raising and administering the necessary funds. The Board of Custody and Investment acts for the National Committee in the custody of all its properties and in the administration of its capital funds, and it is authorized to act also for local associations in this two-fold service when requested so to do. Already most of the modern buildings owned by Y.M.C.A 's in China are vested in the National Committee; these properties will now be handled for the Committee by this Board com:posed of men chosen because of their special qualifications to perform this service. Student Work The adoption by the National Convention of a "Student Work Policy" represented the culmination of seven years of discussion and experimentation. In the Tenth National Convention held in Tsinan in 1926 representatives were appointed to con sult with representatives of the Y.W.C.A. and of the Student Volunteer Movement for the ministry (now d efunct) to consider measures looking toward a more inclusive student Christian movement. This joint com mission, or the Y.l\LC.A section of it, was reappointed by the Eleventh National Convention in Hangchow. Many PAGE 196 160 STUDENT WORK questions have developed in the course of the negotiations of this Commission. The relationships of men and women, boys and girls in an inclusive student Christian movement; the dual relationships of student Christian groups as part of a general student Christian movement and at the same time of the still more general Christian youth movement; the' additional role of student Y.W.C.A's as part of a Christian feminist movement; the respective roles of undergraduates and of alumni in a student movement; the function of the church and of ecclesiastically controlled bodies in relationship to student Christian act ivity; the distinctive field and function of purely voluntary, intercollegiate student associations in relationship to faculty and church initiated activity among students on the campus-these are a few of the tortuous problems of relationships which have arisen, alongside of more funda mental questions of ultimjate purpose and immediate obJectives. The Convention resolutions outlining the policy 2ncl program of student Y.M.C.A. work, the outcome of prolonged discussion and experience, and formulated by a special commission of experienced leaders in close con sultation and full agreement with the officers of the joint Com;mittee referred to above, received the unanimous en dorsement of the Convention in January. Progress has been made during the year in putting the resolutions into effect. Campus units have been strengthened. The na tional staff has produced manuals and '' program papers'' for the guidance of these local groups. Eleven student conferences, for which the Y M.C.A now shares respon sibility with other agencies, m,et in the summer, with "action" (rather than "talk") as their keynote in most of the gatherings. The strengthening of Student Young Men's Christian Associations or (in co-educational institu tions) of Student Christian Associations and the incor poration of these associations with other voluntary undergraduate Christian groups ("fellowships" etc.) in an inclusive "Student Christian Movement" has been furthered. The acceptance of the principle of affiliation, when desired, with more than one national agency ( e.g. with PAGE 197 SOCIAL PROGRAM: 161 the National Co~mittees of both Y M.C.A and Y.W.C.A.) has in some instances met desires of students. to conserve the values in present relationships and at the same time widen and enrich these relationships Social Program The Convention adopted forward-looking re solutions dealing with the "Social Program of the Y.M C :A." 'l' h e Y .lvl.C.A. in China as in other countries, has be e n preeminently an mhan movement. The Convention instructed the National Committee and its Executive Board to devise ways and means Gf extending the ministry (if not the organization) of the Y.M.C.A .into rural communities while continuing to serve underprivileged groups in the cities. There is a difference of opinion among association leaders as to whether the Y.M.C.A. in China should undertake rural work (instead of eoncerntrating on the eities) but what ever misgiving-s on this point exist failed to find expres sion on the convention floor. Resolutions adopted ealled, moreover for participation by the Y.l:VLC. A in those forces which are working for fundamental reconstruction in the social system The ease with which this position wa~; adopted raised in one's mind questions as to how clearly the revolutionary implications involved were understood and accepted! That a Christian youth organization has a serious, though largely unexplored, responsibility with respect to fundamental social questions was recognized This recognition was expressed in instructions to the in coming National Committee to set up a standing "Commission on the Y.M.C A and Its Social Program" to study the question further. Youth and Religion One of the most carefully formulated set of resolutions adopted by the Convention re sulted in the launching of the so-called '' Youth and Religion Movement .'' One could not help wondering at the time if this Movement would end in pious resolutions, or whether if grounded in genuine con viction and implemented by practical measures the Move ment would-move! At th!;! 0los~ Qf one year it is pos~- PAGE 198 162 LITERATURE ible to report encouraging progress The entire pro gram has been developed under the guidance of a strong Youth and Religion Committee appointed by the National Executive Boa.rd and of a full-time executive secretary, Mr. E H. Munson. Corresponding local committees have been created in a number of cities. The youth workers of entire Christian communities have been mobilized for united investigation, study, planning a.nd effort Special literature has been produced. During the four closing months of the year Dr. G. Sherwood Eddy led a team of workers who conducted "Youth and Religion Campaigns" in twenty-one cities In these cities the attendance totalled 180,600 persons, mainly educated youth. In the meet ings 2,476 persons recorded their decision to become Christians, and 4,144 joined groups for the further study of Christianity. In some cities the enrolment in study groups has grown rather than fallen off as time has gone on. At the close of the year plans were already being set up for the second year's program. Literature The past year has been unusually fruitful in the production of new and timely literature. The Publication Department has drawn up a three-year program in which it is planned to publish fifty two books comprising a Youth Library Series-twenty on religion, fifteen on character education, eleven on social problems, and six on sex. During 1934 nineteen of these books have been published and in addition nineteen pamphlets on social questions and fourteen on religion have been produced Assistance provided by the Chris tian Literature Promotion Fund has enabled the Associa tion Press to bring out, these books and pamphlets in spite of a financial loss. A monthly magazine Tiing Kung, organ of the city as.c,ociations, and Hsiao Hsi, organ of the stu dent associations have appeared regularly throughout the year. Among the technical books and pamphlets pub lished, special mention should be made of a Camp Direct ors Manual, a series of manuals on religi.ous work among ;r, outh, a series of Student Y.M C.A. Manuals, and a PAGE 199 CONFERENCES 163 Manual on the Organization and Work of Chung Tsing 'l'uan (Hi-Y Clubs), a newly started type of club for stu dents in junior middle schools of which nine have been organized during the year. Boys' Camps In 1933 there was conducted a national camp directors' school in which Mr. Tracy Strong of the World's Committee and Dr. Lennig Sweet of Peip i ng, experienced workers among boys, were leaders 'rhe Y.M C .A. in China, as in other countries, is being called upon to pioneer this type of educational work for boys. The Camp Directors' School and the experimental camp run at the same time and place were designed to work out camp methods suited to China, and to develop leaders with some training in theory and prac tice capable of conducting camps in their own areas In 1934 ten such camps were conducted. In addition to local camps in 1935 the Fourth Pacific Area Older Boys' Camp will meet in August at Camp Tsingtau. Rural and Two conferences of significance were held City Work in the late Spring. The associations in East China joined in a Rural Work Conference held in Nanking. A strong array of rural experts pictured the rural needs of China. Past and present experiments of the Y M C A. in the rural field were re viewed. The special contributions of the Y.M.C.A in this field were envisaged as social, religious, and educational as contrasted with agricultural and economic. A little later there was held in Hangchow a conference of general secretaries of city Y.IVI.C.A's situated in the eight largest cities of China. The most notable outcome of this con ference was action calling on the National Committee to formulate a plan under which existing associations will assume responsibility for supplying and (for limited periods) supporting secretaries to open up associations in new cities. Most of the city Y.M.C.A 's now in existence were started by American secretaries assigned to cities with their own support provided elsewhere. Pioneering PAGE 200 164 SELF-SUPPORT secretaries from abroad are not now to be had and more over some of the associations now :firmly established feel an obligation to share the benefits of their experience with other centers. Incidentally the number of unopened cities desiring help in starting Y.M.C A. work is large. Financial Support Depending entirely upon their respective communities, the Y M.C .A's in China have in support received a measure of the value placed upon them by those they are trying to serve. Totals for 1934 are not yet in but it is worth noting that during the preceding three years-1931, 1932, and 1933-the ag gregate income of the local associations every year ex ceeded that received in any preceding year. In 1933 the total reached$1,243 081.00 (silver), income received by 38 city Y M.C.A's 'rhe net incom'.e of the National Com mittee during the same year (all secured in China) was $89 770.15, silver.3 Association Fellowships The experts who in 1930 conducted a survey of Y.M.C .A. and Y.W.C.A. work as it is actually functioning in thirty odd countries investigated (including China), commenting on the distinctive role of these two organizations, concluded that '' the Christian associations are essentially and irreducibly fellowships for the development of personality in young men and young women i.u accord with a Christ. ian character ideal, central in which is that presented in the personality of Jesus." In China the Y.M.C.A. has been compelled also to function as a social service agency, and in so aoing it has borne a good testimony to the dynamic good will of practical Christianity. Not for 3 Secretaries allocatecl by cooperating bodies abroad are supported by these bodies, and their support does not appear in these figures. However in 1934 the National Committee drnw upon endowment funds to create a Personnel Emergency Fund which was used to provide partial support for five Notth Ameriean secretaries demobilized early in the year by the Intern::i,tiona, Committee, PAGE 201 ASSOCIATION FELLOWSHIPS 165 years, however, h a ve the associations found conditions so ripe for ca rrying out their "fundamental" and "irreducible'' mission as '' fellowships for the development of personality in young men in accord with a Christian character ideal. ... No attempt has been made in this review to give an exhaustive record of the year's work, nor to ou t line the objectives underlying the work clone. 'rhe events and facts singled out for brief comment are indicative of important developments and trends which, it is believed, will be of interest to all those who h a ve the progress of Christianity among the youth of China sincerely at heart. PAGE 202 CHAPTER XIV YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION LILY ,K. HAASS Early In its early stages, the Y.W.C.A. in China Stages was engaged in the process of becoming indigenous. The First National Convention in 1923 marked the emergence of a national organization, national not only in the sense of embracing a geographical area, but also in spirit. Contribution Thencefonvarcl succeeding conventions revealed the trends within the association as well as the process of adaptation to new situations. Probably nothing shows more clearly the progressive stages in its development than its convention mottoes. The first gath ering had as its motto "The contribution of the Y.W.C.A. to the v.,r omen of China.'' Emphasis was laid on the word "contribution." While the Y.W C.A. has at all times embraced within its membership both Christian and non-Christian women, in the early days, stress was laid en the importance of a strong Christian basis in the membership and in control, voting privileges being limited to church members Again, the main field for some years, was considered students, educational women, the so-called "upper classes." It was not surprising then, that the function of the association should be thought of in terms of ''contributions.'' Character Building By 1928, the date of the Second Convention, the scene had already changed. The horizon had enlarged; thinking was in terms of an all-inclusive women's movement. Rural women had come within its purview; industrial women were included, not merely as a group for whom protective laws were to be PAGE 203 SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION 167 secured, but as an integral part of the movement. In later years business and professional women assumed an increasingly important place in the program. Women students, from the beginning a part of the _association constituency, somewhat later, as a joint organization of men and women students began to take shape, reaffirmed their desire to remain a part of a women's movement, by the beginning of the constitution of a College Women's Federation, r elated to the Y W.C .A (1931) "Character Building" among all t hese women for t he salvation of 1 he country, was adopted as the theme of the second convention. Here, too the privilege of voting was extended tu all who as members subscribe to the purpose of the association, regardless of religious affiliation. Social In 1933, when the, Third Convention Reconstruction assembled, the outlook had enlarged in another direction. To be sure, the policy of including all women had borne fruit in that industrial and rural women participated, for the first time as regular delegates Even more significant were the implications of the slogan "Constructing a New Society." No longer was attention focussed primarily on women and women's prob l ems as such; direction was given t o the movement by the probl ems of society. An inevitable consequence of the spirit of the times, following the revolution of 1927 and the increasing tension of the nation al crisis of thr,;,suing years. the patriotic passion of the Y.W.C A. was not content to find vent in former reforms concerned ,Yith foot-binding, concubinage, anti-opium or even Iabor l eg islation important as these may be. It could not rest satisfied with attempting to create "better homes'' by teaching a little hygiene, while dirfl povert:v m akr,s D better home a mockery for millions; it did not consider a little recreation adequate for industrial workers who are becoming -class conscious. Neither did it consider sufficient for the solution o:f international injustices the crea,tion of good will thru friendly personal contacts, without: understanding,. and grappling with, deep-rooted PAGE 204 168 GROWTH I causes of strife. Instead, it felt the urge to go deep into fundamental issues toward a far reaching reconstruction. By this time there began to be articulate an understanding of the association's method of sharing in religion, as being primarily a sharing thru the lives of its workers, by the working out of life situations by individuals and groups, and in the creation together of a Christian society. Emphasis thus falls on practice, rather than on words Members of the national staff specializing in religious education, have functioned in promoting local programs, training leaders, and providing materials for vrorship services, pageants, dramas, and study groups. Growth Although like all religious and social institutions the Y W.C.A. has suffered in the last decade from national unrest and from the world-wide economic depression, there are outstanding evidences of growth and expansion. In 1925 the organized city asso ciations numbered eleven; in the beginning of 1935, sixteen were listed,-more than a 40% increase. Several other cities are doing preorganization work. It becomes an acute problem whether in view of the shortage of qualified staff, expansion is a wise policy, yet heed must be given to these groups of local wom.ert who call for the association. The association has become so truly indigenous that no longer can a headquarters' committee decide whether or not expansion is wise; local groups demand it. Rural centers have been started in Toishan, Kwangtung; Ta Chang near Shanghai ; Sung Shu, in the vicinity of Na.nking; and Fushan in Shantung. In program, progress has been most notable in this period in the :field of gi.rls' work, with the spread of the "Hua Kuang" club, work among industrial women, and in rural work. Buildings Nine city associations and one rural (Toi-shan) own their own buildings; eight of these were secured witpin the last ten years. In contrast with most mission buildings, the funds for the land and building were raised in China, (with the exception of the land in PAGE 205 l!"OREIGN SECRET AR!BS 169 Hangchow and one structure in Canton). The buildings are, accordingly completely owned and controlled by the local association. Thus in spite of the anti-Christian movement, political disturbances, and economic depression, a persistent policy of the acquisition of property points toward a belief in the pernlanence 0 the organization. On centrally located land in Shanghai, the gift of friends, a headquarters building was completed in 1932 After all construction costs are covered, it will serve to provide some endo,vment for the national budget. Secretariat Growth appears evident also in the secretariat. The shrinkage of western secretaries from the 11umber of eighty-seven to only fifteen at the present time threw upon the Association a heavy weight in several resp<:,-ets. Obviously it was not to be expected that so large a number of workers could so quickly be replaced, in these days of revolution and re-buildings: new workers could not be found, trained and assimilated with such speed, nor in view of the long accepted policy that nationals are employed only on funds raised in China could it be hoped that the burden of extra budget to employ Chinese staff could suddenly be assumed At the present time, the only western secretaries on local assignments are one in Mukden, one in the International Branch in Shanghai, mid a part-time worker in Changsha. As recently as 1921, a city association was not considered adequately staffed (ideally) unless it numbered four westerners. In the comparatively short time of ten years, then, the local associations have become completely self-supporting; such aid as is given by workers from other countries comes only in the form of short visits from mem!bers of the national staff. Thus the task of raising a larger budget, of main t PAGE 206 170 CHINESE SECRETARIES the actual number of staff members employed, the 1927 nationalist movement accounts for a decline, followed by steady progress in the ensuing years. Chinese The recruiting and training of new secreSecretaries taries is thus one of the most acute problems in the Y.W.C.A. In 1934, out of eighty-five Chinese secretaries on the roll, twenty-eight were new ones. The large number of beginners was due in part to a normal increase, and in part to turn-over. In addition to the attractions of matrimony, young college graduates are dra,vn to the accepted profession of teaching, and, more recently, to openings in government positions, so that finding qualified workers of high grade is difficult. 'With the withdrawal of western secretaries, general secre taries to take leading executive positions needed first to be secured. within a period of three years, twelve out PAGE 207 TRAINING 171 their mental level, but one who, with courses in economics and sociology, understands the fundamental issues involved in rural life. Training With such radical changes in staff, the train-ing of workers has assumed a place of first importance In view of rapid turnovers, a period of long training could manifestly now be deim1nded, and, with a relatively small group at a given time, a regular school would seem to be too cumbersome Consequently a. training system was evolved consisting of short-time institutes Annually in August, a ten days to two weeks' study course is held for new secretaries just about to begin work. Here attention centers on an understa11 :ding of the Y.W. C.A its history, philosophy, nature and fields of work and program, with an emphasis on the social background in which it operates. During the first year the new worker is given special help by the general secretary, and, so far as is possible, by the national training department. A second feature of the training is technical institutes, each kind of work, rural, industrial, student, etc. having one every three years These concentrate on aims and methods, with work on concrete programs. Another aspect of training, less emphasized, has been work in summer schools, organized by the association in connection with regular college summer schools, or utilizing their courses. A reading course with certain required work particularly during the first year, i~ prepared by the Training Department. The practice of a furlough year after five or six years of work is commonly observed. Several workers have been given the epportunity to study abroad ; others have had the special year's course for religious and social workers at Yenching University. The association cooperated in starting this special course, and for some years maintained a member on the faculty. As the western staff became depleted and the demand for an undergraduate course decreased with the general raising of the academj.c standard of the Chinese i.taff, this policy lapsed. PAGE 208 172 INDUSTRIAL WORK Standards A certain amount of improvement has been made in the matter of professional standards. An extensive study of current practice as well as ideals in regard to qualifications, salaries, furloughs, 1:ours of work and the like, was made throughout the field, with a formulation t.hat might serve as a guide to local associations. It indicates a forward step in the creation and maintenance of high professional standards for women. Relations In its relations with other countries, a With policy has been developed whereby the Na-Associations tional Committee communicates to associations Abroad abroad its needs and desires in the way of staff. The power of designation of western secretaries to fields of work lies entirely with the China Association, which also issues invitations for return. Thus tlie China staff functions as a unit, under one head. Industrial As early as 1020 the Y.W.C.A. was chall-W ork enged by the ,situation arising out of the development of rn,odern large scale industry in China. Acutely aware of the effect of unlimited working hours, and the lack of protective measures, on the lives of women and children, stress was laid on the need for labor legislation. Toward the end of securing ad equate laws, the association cooperated with other organ izations, outstandingly with the National Christian Council, in the effort to create public opinion toward the control of working conditions, and an active conscience and sense of responsibility in the Christian Church in regard to the growing industrial problem. Specifically the associa tion participated in the attempt to pass a Child Labor Law in the International Settlement, an attempt which failed of fruition in asituation involving international complications. Work With Always conscious of its special mission Labor Women as a "women's organization" and that not merely f 01 women, but with women, the Y.W.C.A. proceeded to pioneer in a new field of direct PAGE 209 LIVELIHOOD 173 work with women. In five cities, Shanghai, Tientsin, IIankow, Chefoo and Taiyuan, classes and club work are going on with the aim of developing an intelligent labor leadership. Beginning with literacy classes, these women move on to advanced workers' education, with courses in economics, labor problems, and economic history. Experience in organizing and conducting their own clubs gives ptactice in leadership. Week -end conferences concern themselves with subjects of wide reach, such as "Unemployment'' and '' Current Political and Economic Systems and Ideals.'' Cooperative banking, case work, health examinations have met concrete needs. In the displacement of labor and resulting unemployment follows ing the Japanese Invasion of Shanghai in 1932, an em ployment bureau for connecting girls with vacancies proved of value. Livelihood In its effect on the movement, the industrial work has not been restricted to the particular cities engaged in direct work. Thru the direct contact, the whole movement has become conscious of the deeper i:ssues involved in industrial problems Attention has been directed to the interplay of political, international and economic forces that retard the economic development of China, the collapse of the agricultural system, the tenant system, excessive rates of interest, and the emergence of radical social theories which claim the allegiance of youth. 'l'he 'l'hird National Convention decreed that "Livelihood" should be a major program elllJ)hasis. Subsequently pro ject material on family budget studies, and labor day obse rvance, has been issued, and social reconstruction has had a prominent place in conferences of all sorts. Rural Tho the entrance into the rural field was of Work a later date (1927), rural work rapicUy moved toward assuming a place of first importance. 'l'here is. no set type of program to be carried out in all centers; in each place the program is molded according to the locality's needs Certain principles hav~. been taken ai:; gui(1Ps in developing the work. (1) The areas chosen PAGE 210 174 RURAL ASSOCIATIONS must be small enough to do intensive rather than extensive work. (2) The use of a limited budget is the only safeguard against building a top-heavy program, and the only way to develop local leadership and responsibility. (3) In the training of local women and girls as leaders, the problem of illi.teracy must be tackled first, with health work, home making, recreation and leadership and charac ter training following. (4) In order that the Y.W C.A. secretary may be able to become part of the community, 1o establish mutual interest., confidence and friendship, she must live in the village. Rural In no two centers has the work been the Associations same. In Fushanhsien, Shantung, literacy was the primary emphasis. Gradually, as hundreds graduated from, the advanced classes and in turn became teachers of beginners, other forms of program developed. In this fruit growing area, the association has been active in securing the cooperation of the agricultural o .epartment at Nanking in the elimination of orchard pests. In 1933, a rural Y.\V.C.A. was organized with a local committee in charge, carrying its own financial 1esponsibility. In Toishan, Kwangtung, a market town related to a large rural area, a certain foundation of literacy already existed and other forms of work took shape more rapidly. In Sung Shu in the Shun Hua Chen area, near Nanking, the low standard of living demands attention, and in 'l'a Chang, in the neighborhood of Shanghai, market gardening, and cooperative marketing stand out. It is evident that in aiming at a changed cumm'Unity with healthier, more wholesome and abundant living, nothing that is conducive or necessary to that end is neglected, and that a low standard o:t' living is a factor that must be met Girls' In no field has growth been more obvious than Work in that of girls' work After some experimenting with various forms of organization such as the Rainbow Club, and the Pioneer Club, the Hua Kuang 'l' 'uan ( :}'l; m.l ) was originated in 1930. More and PAGE 211 GIRLS' WORK 175 more it has proved suitable for adolescent girls from the ages of 12 18, including in its orbit, school girls, both junior and middle, industrial and rural girls, and girls a~ home. In 1934 there were eighty-five clubs with 2300 members embracing groups in city and rural associations, m, well as those in schools and churches who use the Hua Kuang program: The program supplements ordinary educational and religious classes, and provides a chance for girl leadership and self-expression. In several parts of the country training courses have been given for the adults who serve as advisers or leaders. In some schools it is being recognized that the student Y W.C.A. form of organization and program, originated with college students in mind, is not suitable for younger girls, and the club form is rapidly taking its place. Camps Summer camps of several varieties are gaining in popularity. Rest camps for students, profess ional women, a.nd other members have be.en conducted by city associations in the mountains or by the sea shore. More recently the possibilities of summer camp as an instrument of training in group life and education, have led to a camp-conference type of gathering in Hangchow and Shansi for younger girls in place of the well known student conference, as well as longer camp seasons in IC uliang in Fukien province. Business Women In the city associations, a new feature has been the emergence of a new group, business and professional women who have become a ,:;urprisingly large proportion of the total membership. 'i\;c some work has been attempted, no adequate program :!,,:,.; as yet been evolved for this group. In some places, among which N anking stands out, living accommodations ueed to be provided for these young women employed in offices, schools, nursing and other gainful occupations. Wholesome recreation and education activities are engaged in during their leisure time. The hostels also serve trav ellers, students and other young women living away from home. PAGE 212 176 LITERATURE Home The large bulk of city association members Program are still '' home women,'' consequently there continues a program of mothers' clubs, better homes' conferences and child training projects. Now, however, the emphasis is even more on marriage and sex problems,-in the field of human relations, than on the material side of do!ll1estic science and economy. 'l'he 1933 Convention approached the subject of birth control, both from the angle of maternal welfare, and the economic implications of a rapidly increasing population Student Work The student work of the association is so well known and has been written of so fully that it hardly needs treatment here. 'l'he Y.vV.C .A. has cooperated with the utmost friendliness in the formation of a national student movement of men and women. The inclusion of middle school girls for whom a less mature form of program and organization is desirable, remains a moot point. The approach to government school students continues difficult but important. In Peiping a notable experiment has been made in the housing of such students. Publications In 1916 the Y.W. C.A. began the publica-tion of a magazine, "Nil Ching Nien," literally translated "The Green Y ea.i." Beginning as a quarterly of sixteen pages functioning as the official organ vf the Y.W.C A and focussing on its interests, it has expanded to a monthly magazine of seventy-two pages It now concerns itself with women's interests in their wider social aspects. It is edited entirely by Chinese women From time to time books and pamphlets were produced along the lines of religion, home life, physical education and drama. In 1931, keenly aware of the need for Christian literature for youth, and stim;ulated by its report of the survey commissioners who studied the work o.i: the association, it launched out into an enlarged literature project, made possible by an initial gift secured by friends. In these recent years, therefore, books of wider &cope and magnitude have been produced. A first group PAGE 213 RELIEF WORK 177 still has to do with women's problems-sex, marriage, care c,f children, divorce. Biography, novels, poeniS and stories comprise a section, while some deal with social reconstruc tion and others are of a religious nature. Fiftynine of the books produced still have a good steady sale. Relief Local associations collected money and clothing Work for the sufferers from the 1931 Central China flood, and friends from abroad entrusted funds to the National Committee A special project was under taken by the Wuchang Association with the aid of the national staff, including an orphanage refuge during the winter, and an industrial school aiming toward rehabili tation thru teaching a means of livelihood during the period following. There was also much activity in the collection of funds for the aid of refugees and the equip ment of medical units in the war days of Manchuria and Shanghai. Such work has, however, been looked upon as emergency work, rather than as a steady program, since the association interprets its function in terms of character building and social reconstruction rather than in terms of relief and philanthropy. Specialization With so wide a variety of work it might seem at first glance that the Y.W.C.A. ha~ a tendency to scatter its energies On the contrary, there is now a decided stress on specialization and intensification 'l'his is due to a recognition that no one organization can attempt to meet all the needs of all women, and to a growing demand for efficiency. Survey In 1930 the China Y.W.C A conducted, in cooperation with an International Survey Group in A.merica, a survey of its field and work. The healthy habit of evaluation of work was begun and local trnits have from time to time continued to study their work, and where advisable, eliminated parts in the interests of higher quality. PAGE 214 178 SURVEY The survey urged that the program be more intensive, with concentration in each center on a few lines of work. To some extent this has been accomplished; thus Shanghai has built up strong. industrial work, and serves as a train ing center for new secretaries, Hongkong emphasizes girls' work, Pei ping student work, Canton vocational education. Others are moving in this direction. PAGE 215 CHAPTER XV CHRISTIAN LEADERSHIP SURVEY C. S. MIAO This is not a report of the Survey Team That has already been published under the title, '' Training for Service in the Chinese Church.'' This chapter is only a brief review of the survey as undertaken by the National Committee for Christian Religious Education in Chiua, 1934-1935. Origin The survey originated in a very interesting way. In 1930, when the first invitation was extended to Dr. Luther A Weigle to visit China in the summer of 1931, it was to ask his help in the national religious education conference held in Shanghai and in organizing the National Committee for Christian Religious Bducation in China. Inasmuch as Dr. Weigle could not come out in 1931, the invitation was renewed in May 1932. The N.C.C.R.E. decided to invite Dr. Weigle for two main purposes: (1) to deepen the interest of the churches in religious education; (2) to attend the 1933 meeting of the N C.C.R.E. at which members and others whom they would invite to sit with them (such as the leaders of sectional groups on curriculum) would have an opportunity to talk over the problems of the various aspects of religious education work. In the fall of 1932, the original specific purpose of Dr. Weigle's visit was changed and broadened. The N.C.C.R.E. Executive Board that met in Shanghai, November 30-December ~' 1932, thoroughly discussed the aim of this visit and decided to re-define it as being to make a study of the problem of training church leaders. Following this, the endoisement of the Ad Interim Committee of the National Christian Council and the Ex- PAGE 216 180 SCOPE OF SURVEY l e~utive Committee of the China Christian Educational ..,_\ ssociation for this proposed survey was secured. This step was necessary because the N.C C.R.E. serves as the standing committee of both these organisations. A representative committee on preparation called '' Committee on Study of Church Leadership" was appointed to ex ecute the project and direct the survey. The Literature Committee of seven seminaries (Yen ching, Clteeloo, Nanking, Shekow, Shanghai, West China and Canton) that met in July, 1933, passed resolutions, endorsing the project of the N.C C.R.E and inviting Dr. vv eiglc to visit their seminaries After the representa ti\es of thes e se;:ninaries had reported back to their seminaries official invitations were issued. Scope of Survey It was decided by the Committee on Pre p aration that this survey of church leadership should be China-centered and th;it s rminaries of college grade are not the only institutions concerned, but tllat Bible schools and short-term training in~;titutes for ministerial and voluntary workers should also come within the scope of policy to be considered It was further decided that this survey should be more than a fact-finding survey of present conditions It s hould aim, also, to find a way out of the present difficul t ies; and find out prevailing ideas and opinions as to the fotui e needs of the church. Thus the survey aimed to secure the cooperation of as many of the churches and theological training schools as possible. Steps in Survey The Committee on Preparation decided that tlle survey project should be composed of three parts. The first part ,vould consist mainly of a surY ey to be obtained through the use of questionnaires and personal interviews and, during the fall of 1934, visits to the theological schools and church centers by a survey team. The second part would involve the study by Dr. Weigle of the report and recommendations of the team for his suggestion and help. Dr. Weigle arrived in China Feb. 14, 1935. Since then he has spent most PAGE 217 PERSONNEL OF SURVEY 181 of his time in visiting a few important and strategic centres for unhurried personal conferences and leisured si. udy of the situation. The third part would be an attempt to carry out the recommendations of Dr. Weigle and the smvey team. The first step toward this last was taken at tl1c Biennial Meeting of the National Christ ian Council, .April 25-May 2, 1935. When the Survey T ea m presented their major findings, Dr. w eigle gave an address and a group in leadership training met five times and submitted recommendations1 to the Biennial Meeting 'rhe second step toward this will be the Kuling Conference, July 18-29, 1935. In this conference there will be present representatives of theological seminaries, church and mission executives, and members of N C.C.R.E. 'l'he N. C. C Biennial Meeting only touched the problem of church membership and voluntary service, but in the Kuling Conference the recommendations of the team and Dr. Weigle will be presented and the problem will be studied as a whole. It is hoped that the new Commission on the "Life and \Vork of the Churches, "2 through as many of its members as may be present in the Conference, will be able to work out a part of its program' in cooperation with this survey. Personnel The Committee on Preparation consists of of Survey Bishop Herbert Welch, Rev. T. K. Shen, Rev. 'r. C. Bau, Dr. C. S. Miao, Dr. C. Y. Cheng, Dr. S. H Leger, Rev. Earl Cressy, Rev. E C. Lobenstine, Dr. D. W. Lyon Miss Alice Gregg, Dr. John Y. Lee, l\'.Iiss 'J'in g Shu-ching Dr. D. II. Zi, and Rt. Rev Lindel Tsen. The members of the Survey Team were: Rev. T. C Bau. Pastor of Baptist Church, Hangchow, 1914-1921, General Secretary of the Chekiang-Shanghai Baptist Convention, J.:921; Rev C Stanley Smith American Presbyterian Mission, North, Professor of Christian Theolog y Nanking Theological Seminary, Nanking; Dr. 1 See N.C .C. Biennial Report, 1933-35. 2 Appointed at last meeting of N.C .C. PAGE 218 182 METHODS OF SURVEY C. S. Miao Baptist Church, Sha.nghai, Executive Secretary of the N C.C.R.E Dr. Luther A Weigle is the counsellor of this survey. He is the Dean of the Divinity School, Yale University; Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Conference of Theological Seminaries in the United States and Canada; and Chairman of an Inter-Seminary Commission for Training of the Rural Ministry. Methods In the execution of its task, the Survey of Survey Team has used a combination of methods. Mr. Smith spent a good portion of his time in the spring and summer of 1934 in getting and tabulating statistical data supplied by various training centers. 'L'hen the team worked out two questionnaires One on "What kind, of leadership does the Church in China need under present conditions ?", was sent to church and mission executives, as well as to many Christians keenly interested in the problem The second one was to be answered by theological students for the purpose of finding out their home, educational and religious background. Special efforts ,vere made in the study of various findings and resolutions of previous investigations and conferences dealing with the subject of training for f>ervice in the Chinese Church, such as the Burton Report, tLe Corley Report, the Fact-Finders' Report, the Butter tield Report, the report of the sixth annual meeting of the N.C.C Education of Christian Ministers in China by S. H Leger, and Methods of Mission Work by Rev. John L Nevius, etc. Since the Burton Report, entitled "Christian Education in China", Chapter V, is by far the most thorough and comprehem;ive report that has been made on this whole subject, the Team took special pains to ~tudy it in the light of conditions in 1934. In its travels, the Team spent most of its time in holding interviews and small group conferences. This was also the main method used by Dr. Weigle in his vi1:5its, PAGE 219 RESULTS OF SURVEY 183 Finances This survey was financed in a cooperative of Survey way. The World's Sunday School Association offered its help in contributing Dr. Weigle 's travel expenses. Yale University granted Dr. weigle leave-of-absence for half a year with salary, Nanking Theological Seminary gave P!'ofessor Smith leave of absence for almost a year, and the Chekiang-Shanghai Baptist Convention permitted Dr. Bau leave of absence for five months. The China Council of the Presbyterian Mission, North, contributed substantial funds to cover lVIr. Smith's travel expenses and the Literature Promo tion Fund contributed toward Dr. Bau 's expenses A grant was given by the N.C.C. to meet the expenses of the Kuling Conference and of the report of the Survey Team. Facts in As stated at the beginning of this the Survey chapter, this is not intended to be a report of the :findings of the Team. For full in formation we ask our readers to consult '' Training for Service in the Chinese Church''. Here are given only a few facts that may serve as sample material. 1. In 1922 when the Burton Report was written, there were at least fourteen theological schools doing work above senior middle school grade. In 1934, there were also four teen, but two of these were for training women only. Besides these there were ten theofogical schools for men doing work based upon junior middle school preparation. 2. In 1922, there were forty-eight Bible schools for men. In 1934, nineteen of these were known still to exist, :five have advanced to higher grade schools, two have E1erged into a union school of higher grade, and the fate of five is unknown 3. In 1922, the Burton Commission listed 38 Bible Schools for Women, unclas~frfied. In 1934, there were two schools that had a department based upon senior middle school graduation, five that had a department requiring junior middle school preparation. A large number have 1ow become adult education schools for women. PAGE 220 184 THEOLOGICAL STUDENTS 4 In 1922, the Burton Commission recommended that theological schools be freely open to women on the same terms as to men, and that women be welcomed in all the classrooms. In 1934, wo note.cl with great satisfaction that it was pos:::ible for women to enter most of the theological schools in China on equal terms with men 'J'hcre was a total of 59 women students enrolled in 1934 in six theo logical schools for men requiring senior middle school graduation. 5. In 1922, there were ninety-six men of college grade and 295 nien of middle school grade in theological schools -a total of 391. In 1934, there vere enrolled in theological schools only 26 full college graduates, fifteen men who had had at least a year of college work and 228 who have at least senior middle school education. This means a decrease of 57.3% of theological students having college education and of 33.2% having at least senior middle school pri! p aration. 6. In recent years there ha.'> of necessity been a dropping of many employed workers. In soane cases, perhaps the majority, these have been men of the lower grades, but it is also true that financial stringency has compelled and continues to compel the dropping of many men in the higher grades. 7 As the Christian Movement has come more and more under the control of the Chinese Church, the question of an adequate compensation for college trained men in all but a few of the larger city churches becomes a serious if not a practically impossible one. 8. There is now a definite trend toward the larger use of voluntary service in the church. ,Ve observed ma11y new developments along this line that are ve .ry signi ficant and many training experiments that ha.Ye great. possibilities. 9. Among all the methods of training voluntary worke1s in the church, training through supervision seems to PAGE 221 PASTOR-SUPERVISORS 185 be the most desirable method as shown by the group dis cussion in the last Biennial meeting of the National Christian Council. 10. It seems clear that the nature of the training of full-time ministers will be vitally affected especially in regard to rural workers: by the present tendency to depend on voluntary workers for local services, so that a major function of the district pastor is that of Supervisor and helper of voluntary workers. PAGE 222 CHAPTER XV! REORGANIZATION OF BIBLE SOCIETY WORK CARLETON LACY. London The recent organizatioiial developments Conference among the Bible Societies in China have a history of several years. Their immediate basis, however, is the Conference of Bible Society repre sentatives held in London in July, 1932, now commonly referred to as the "London Conference" "The greatest problem before the Conference was how to make the work of Bible distribution native to the countries where the Bible Societies were at work.' '1 Towards its solution the Conference adopted the following resolutions relating to China: (a) This conference recommends that the three societies should work together with a view to encouraging the formation of a China Bible Society which, having the same basic principles as the cooperating societies, shall share with them in the world-wide work of the distribution of the Scriptures. (b) To this end the conference recommends the immed iate, formation of an advisory council in Shanghai which, in addition to the China secretaries, shall consist of eighteen members, one-third of whom shall be appointed by each of the home boards on the recommendation of its o,vn China secretary. ( c) The functions of this council shall be to consider and advise as to any questions of policy, method or pro cedure relevant to the work, including such matters as the arrangement of work so as to prevent overlapping, the organization of local or regional council and 11,uxiliaries, the publication of the Scriptul'es, the issue of publicity literature, selling prices and discounts, special applications for Scriptures for free grants or for fre.e distribution. lQuoted from A. H. Wilkinson in the International .Review of Missions for January. 1934, p. 124. PAGE 223 ADVISORY COUNCIL 187 ( cl) The administrative expenses of the council should he shared by the three Bible societies in the field in suitable proportion. Advisory This Advisory Council was duly organized Council and held its first meeting in the June of 1933 when Dr. Cheng Ching-yi was chosen chairman. The present officers are chairman, the Rt. Rev. Bishop John Curtis, Vice-chairman Rev 'l'. C. Bau, D.D., and secretary, Rev E. : S. Yu. Bi-monthly meetings have been held for conference with the three Bible Society secretaries and to make recommendations to the home boards in London New York and Scotland. The Council has made a study of field methods of distributing scrip tures, a study of the notes and annotations used in the portions published by the several societies, and a study into the records and accounting systems and the office mid godown arrangements of the three societies in Shanghai. A specific function of the Council, delegated to it by the original resolution c ited above, was '' the organization of local and regional councils and auxiliaries .'' Local The first of these local auxiliaries had Auxiliaries been in existence for several years before the London Conference. This was the South China Bible Society, which, with the cooperation of the British and Foreign and the American Bible Societies, was constituted in 'December, 1927 This body has com mittees in Canton and Hongkong, has enrolled many hundreds o'I' members annually, and now directs the col portage work throughout all of that region. The Society has employed its own promotional secretary and supervisor of colportage work, and has enjoyed the services and heartiest cooperation of the representatives of the foreign societies which now do their colportage and promotional work entirely through this local society. Organizational The next auxiliary was formed in Committees Wuhan and the third in Shanghai, known as the East China Bible Society, and the fourth in Tsinan Organizational committees have begun PAGE 224 188 NATIONAL BIBLE SOCIETY work m Tientsin, Peiping and other cities. These groups have undertaken a variety of activities in the cultivation of interest in Bible study and distribution, the annual observance of Bible Sunday, and some support and direction of local colportage work. The constitution of the. auxiliary in Shantung defines its function inter alia. '' to link up the work of the foreign Bible Societies., and assist them financially; to cooperate with colporteurs and guide them in methods of work.'' National Bible Society As yet these several local and regional organizations have not been integrated into a National Bible Society. That step must come after they have become active, self-conscious mid integrated within themselves. Meantime the Advisory Council seeks to give suggestions and guidance that will ai PAGE 225 COOPERATION 189 Central China In the fall of 1932 arrangements were Bible House made in Hankow to unite the offices and the work of these two societies in what has come to be known as the Central China Bible House. Bach society contributed part of its staff and shared expenses equally. The stock of scriptures was combined and replenished in equal quantities from the two societies A unified budget like-wise was shared on equal terms. Cooperation 'l'he fourth step in provincial or regional in Szechwan arrangements was taken in Szechwan in 1933 when the secretary of the British and Foreign Bible Society left on furlough and turned over his business to the secretary of the American Bible Society. The two offices and businesses were maintained separately for r, year and a half. But in the fall of 1934 when the one secretary returned and the other left for his overdue furlough, the staff, stock and business of the two societies were united not only for Cheng-tu but also for the branch office in Chungking. Union in Canton '!.'his was the signal for a further step toward union in Canton. The stock and accounts which heretofore had been kept separate there were united. It was thus possible to arrange that all of the orders and correspondence and reports from the South China field should be routed through one office in Shanghai and those from the vV est China field through the other, and expenses and circulation divided equally for these two areas between the two Societies concerned. Elimination These processes in the provincial offices of Machinery eliminated from a large part of the field duplication of machinery and the ap pearance of rivalry so far as these two societies were concerned '!.'hey also reduced by one the number of units with which the Chinese auxiliaries were required to deal. Differences in certain policies and viewpoints with held the third foreign society from participation in these union arrangements for provincial offices. PAGE 226 190 CLOSER COORDINATION Cooperation Further steps toward closer coordination in Shanghai were now required in the Shanghai offices to implement the arrangements for united activity in the field. Accordingly the two societies con cerned have adopted a common title page for all books published in common. This title page bears no foreign designation in Chinese character, but on the reverse of the page in small type are printed in English the names of both societies. Also a joint catalogue and price list of the publications of these two societies was issued with a new cataloguing system to apply to their entire stock of Chinese scriptures. Thus, in general terms, the field business of the British and Foreign and the American Bible Societies in China has been unified Staff Adjustments in staff arrangements Arrangements likewise have become mutual and cooperative. In addition to those above referred to there has been sharing in Tientsin and in Shanghai. Furloughs were so arranged that during the absence of the British secretary from Tientsin his position was filled from the Am erican Society's staff; and in Shanghai since June 1934 one accountant has served both societies, dividing his time between the two offices. Union of In the field of publicity the quarterly Magazines magazines published independently by two societies have been united and the third society has become a partner in this enterprise All ad vertisements appearing in Chinese or in English now carry the names of all three Bible -Societies. The weekly radio broadcast is shared by all three societies. Future A plan for the complete union of British and Plans Foreign and American Bible Society work in China has been prepared and unanimously endorsed officially by the Advisory Council with an ex pression of hope that the National Bible Society of Scotland might find it possible to join in the arrangements. Mean time the above paragraphs indicate the degree to which PAGE 227 UNION OF SOCIETIES 191 it has been possible to carry out the recommendations of the London Conference that "the three societies should work together with a view to encouraging the formation of a China Bible Society." February 15, 1935. PAGE 228 CHAPTER XVII NATIQNAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL Attitudes to Cooperation RONALD REES There are two main views held by church leaders today in regard to cooperation. One group will have none of it unless they can have complete ecclesiastical ,unity, or they are just not interested u.nle~,; otb ers fall into step with them and accept their doctrine;;. The other gr-oup believes that real fellowship i:, quite possible for people who hold differing views. Variety may even emicll fello,vship. '\hether 'the ultimate ~deal is one oubnll'cl organization or not is still a matter for dis cus sion '\hat is not an open question among this second group is that the followers of Christ the members of His Bocly, should not tolerate any mmecessary barriers separating them from one another; and must not commit the criminal folly of being isolated in face of the grave dangers and the splendicl opportunities of the present hour. Cooperation is an essential of thcir Christian faith. Purpose The National Christian Council of China of N. C. C, exists for the purpose of cooperation. Like the twenty-seven councils in otlie.r lands, it owes its existence to the W odd Missionary Conference at Edinburgh (1910). The vision there seen has by suc cessive steps b een realized. There is now available an instrument of cooperation, created surel y by the spirit of God, that has already meant much ancl that is ready for far gTeater things provided there are men who sin cerely desire. to use it for great purposes PAGE 229 NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 193 Membership Sixteen church denominations ancl nine Christian national organizations arc members of the Council, including the Anglican Chmch and most of the other major denominations. l\'Iissions find their place on the Council through missionaries appointed by their churches; they have no separate ancl direct membership Thus a body such as the Church of Chris,t in China counts as one of the twenty-five members, but the Church of Christ itself is an organization in which fourteen American and British societies cooperate. All but two of the member organizations were represented at the Biennial Meeting of the Council held in Shanghai from April 25 to May 2, 1935 Eightyseven persons were official delegates, only .. nine of these being co-opted.. The majority were Chinese Sixty-five perc0nt represented church bodies, thirty-five percent national organizations. The bodies from which they come comprise fifty-eight percent of the membership of the entire Protestant Christian community of China. Staff The two years under review have seen certain important changes in staff. In J a.uuary 1934 Dr. C. Y. Cheng, Who had been suffedng in health for some months, resigned his position as General. Secretary. Rev. E. C. Lob0nstine also resigned in ,Tune 1935 to return with his family to America. Both these men gave devoted service to the Council from 1913 onwards. lV[r. F. L. Chang and Mr. T. H. Sun we.re on leave of absence for most. of this biennium and resigned in April 1935 to take important work elsewhere. ;Dr. H. H,. Tsui also resigned in l\:Iay 1935 after four years of work in con nection w ith the li'ive Year Movement Dr. Y. Y. Tsu served for eighteen months with the Council before re signing in December li934. Mrs. Eugenia Chen served for one year in 1933-34. PAGE 230 194 ENLARGED COOPERATION Present On tl1e other hand Miss T C. Kuan re Secretariat turned to the Council in September 193,i after two years of study in .America. l\fr. L. D. Cio and Rev. C L. Boynton have continued uninterruptedly. Rev. R. D. Rees was absent on furlough for one year (1933-34). Dr. C. S. Miao in 1934 came for full time, instead of part time, to the work of the National Committee for Christian Religiou3 Education which serves as a standing corn:rnittee of the NCC. Moreover Rev. E. H. Cressy and Dr. Edward H. Hume beginning from May 1935 came into close associa tion with the staff by changes which will be described presently. Though without a general secretary for more than eighteen months the staff continued to function and do effective work, Mr. L. D. Cio acting as chairman of staff meetings Organization Full meetings of the Council have been held every two years since 1929. In that year the meeting was held at Hangchow, in 1931 again at Hangchow, in 1933 at Sungkiang and in 1935 at Shanghai The Executive Committee met five times during the biennium under review, and the Ad Interim Committee (East China members of the Executive) met eighteen times during the same period. The. act ivities of the staff have been bound up with every department of the work of the Council as briefly describ ed in this chapter. Sd;rne secretaries have travelled to keep in touch with the constituency or to attend confer ences and institutes. At headquarters the. service of information has been maintained, literature prepared and distributed, and a constant stream of visitors received Closer At the Biennial Meeting of the Council Cooperation in Shanghai (April 1935) a new plan was approved whereby educational and medical work might be drawn into still close.r association with the life of the churches through the National Christian Council. It is popularly known as a gentlemen's agree ment, as no constitutional changes have be;ien made. ; ,.. ., .... PAGE 231 COOPERATIVE COMMISSIONS 195 Three New Three Comrn:issians were set tnp within Commissions the framework of the NCC A Oornmission on the Life and lV ork of the Churches is composed of thirty-one members of the Council (primarily church and mission a.dministrators) who were prese1nt at the Biennial Meeting in Shanghai. They will constitute the Commission until a more permanent body is elected An executive of twelve persons and a small reference committee were appointed :to i1rn,ngurate the work which will include the cooperative promotion of the Five Year Movement in the churches and other matters that demand mutual consultation and action Another C01nnt'ission on Christian Ecfocation was appointed, and the China Christian Educational Association has agreed to the request that it should function as this Commission. Similarly the Council on Medical Missions of the Chinese Medical Association has agreed to function as the Com mission on CMistian Medical Work. It has been arranged that each of these three Com missions shall exercise a general measure of autonomy in the management of its own affairs., shall make an annual report to the Council, including a financial statement, shall be adequately represented on the Executive Com mittee of the NCC and shall accept the invitation to its executive secretary to serve as a member of the staff of the NCC. Following the Biennial Meeting steps were taken to provide an executive secretary for the Commis sion on the Life and vVork of the Church. By special arrangement Dr. Hume will act as Niaison officer for the Commission on Medical Work (though Dr. J. L. Maxwell continues as executive secretary of the C.M.lVL), and Mr. Cressy serves also as a member of the staff of the NCC in charge of the Commission on Christian Educa tion. 'l'his new experiment will be tried for the next two years. Its purpose is to make a sincere effort to relate the work of the churches and certain national Christian organizations to each other more effectively in one organ of cooperatioi1-t~ N~tional Qhristian Counci~of Chinv PAGE 232 196 FIVE YEAR MOVEMENT ; : i i ; ; t l Five Year Movement The work of this Movement in its coopera tive aspects ~ontinuecl to dominate the actiYi ties of the Council and its staff during the period under review. There were eight points of em phasis in the movement ;-Evangelism, the Home, Re ligious Educati on. Rurnl Life, Literacy, Youth, Stnvar d ship and Economic R e lations. In the se eight points tlH T C is some obvious overlapping. Nor can it be sa.icl that the l<'ive Year Movement created a.ny of them for thC' fin;t time. what it did was to give a sense of '' togethemcs:,'' in the pursuit of a program of advance along a broad line. Fruits of As the encl of the fifth year approached Movement in the autumn of 1934 inquiries wer e s ent out to every part of China asking for reports anc1 suggestions as to the future of this movement. The replies (mostly Chinese) were very encom aging. The numeric.al goal of doubling the membership of the: Church has not be.en realized save by a few. But many luwe increased their membership. And nearly all report improvement in the quality of Christian life. Defeatism has been defeated. A positive and aggressive program has been undertaken. Church rolls have been purged. Evangelistic work has greatly increased. Large quantities of literature have be.en distributed, the sale of Bibles increased and the number of those who can read multi plied. There has been a growing response to the call to Christianize the home, to religious education, to rura 1 reconstruction, to literacy work, to stewardship and s e lf support. Future of At the full meeting of the Council in April Movement 1935 a report of the. Movement was presented. In the discussion, representative Chinese anc1 missionaries expre~,;secl their conviction and that of those they represented that the Movement should be continued. D1. C. Y. Cheng, who might be called the father of the l\fovemen-. said that the situation then was different from PAGE 233 EVANGELISM 197 what it was five years previously. In 1930 it was a time of danger and difficulty. In 1935 it was a time of ex traordinary opportunity. He hoped the Council would take hold of the opportunity and continue the Five Year Movement into a further period. The sense of the meet ing was heartily in favour of continuance. The Move ment therefore goes on. The points of emphasis suggest ed are Evangelism, 'l'raining for Service and Christian Stewardship. 'l'he special fields of work are Youth, the Home, the School and Rural Areas. In the following paragraphs we may pick out a few illustrations of cooperative activity through the Council in various fields. No pretence of completeness is made. For fuller reports the records of the Council should be consulted. Evangelism In the broad sense, all the activities of the Council have no other purpose than evangelism. In the more restricted sense of evangelistir, meetings the Council has not itself taken responsibility but has left the initiative to its constituent organiza tions, as when the YMCA invited Dr. G. Sherwood Eddy in the autumn of 1934. (The visit of Dr. E. Stanley Jones in 1932 had, however, been under the direct auspii:es of the NCC.) ,A distinctive function of the Council has been to bring together Christian leaders in a number of regional Five Year Movement conferences. For instance, one such was held in Sian, Shensi, in May 1933 As a result, a special evangelistic campaign was started in that area, which included literacy classes and the training of inquirers. "\Vithin one year-and a. half, 683 new members were baptised and 866 new inquirers were brought ~n. Literature Literature for use in the week of evangelism {February) and for other occasions has been another piece of cooperative work through the Com1cil. For 1934 the topic chosen was the Beatitudes. For 1935 the subject wm, Jesus Christ, as a Young Man, an Adult, a Patriot, a World Citizen, a Truth Seeker, a 'l'rnth Revealer, Yonr F1iend and Your Savio1w- PAGE 234 198 RELIGIOUS EDUCATION eight tracts written by pro, minent Christian leaders of diff'erent denominations. During the last two years more than a million and a half of such tracts produced by the Council haYe been distributed. The Hoine One of the most outstanding contributions made by the Council since 1930 has been the movement for Christianizing the Home, part of the Five Year ]'lfovement. Sets of material for the observance of Home Week ( each October) were prepared and distributed by the thousand. During the last two years efforts were made to make this literature something more than propaganda which drew attention to urgency and need, and to issue material of more permanent quality and educational value. Miss T. C. Kuan on her return to China has set herself to develop this aspect of the work of the Council, conferring with chnrch leaders on the needs of rural homes and on the training of lay leaders for rural adult education. Religious 'l.'he work of the National Committee for Education Christian Religious Education, in which fourteen organizations cooperate has steadily grown Twelve groups of workers in different parts of China are at work on new curriculum material for chil dren, young people or adult,c;. Considerable advance was made by the middle school group under the leadership of Prof. E. Stowe of Foochow who has directed study and thought into the meaning and methods of Christian Education and made valuable researches into the needs of students as a basis for a new curriculum. During the year ending Sept. 30, 1934 14,860 copies of 'rwenty--Four NCCRE publications were sold. Of two sets of pictures issued with two primary Sunday school books, 58. sets containing 235,979 pictures were sold. A catalogue of selected books has now reached its fourth edition. Regional Training is an essential for good teaching. Institutes Two regioual institutes at Wuhu and Nanking were held in the last bienniuum Local t.raining, sununer schools and conferences at holilfoy PAGE 235 RURAL WORK 199 resoi'ts developed steadily. The strategic importance of the ministry for the supervision of this work was re. cogn.ized in the invitation to Dr. Luther A. W eig le of Yale to visit China for six mouths in 1935. His coming was prepared for by a survey team who in April 1935 issued their re.port entitled '' Training for Service in the Chinese Church." Dr. Weigle was present at the Bien nial Meeting of the NCC and a t a special conference con vened by the NCCRE at Kuling in July of the same year. Far-reaching recommend ations are being made in the policy of training for ministerial and for lay ser vice, in which the theological seminaries are called on to play a vital part. Religious Education Fellowship The. Religlious grown to nearly regular service material. Education Fellowshin 11as 700 members and issues a of bulletins and other The rnral secretary of the NCC, Mr. F L. Rural Work Chang, was loaned to the National Economic Council in April 1934 and has been put in charge of rural w elfare centers in Kiangsi. This is one service that the Council has rendered to the. caus e of rura l reconstruction. 'l'h e Lichwan service centre in Kiangs i inaugurated in 19 3 4 in connection with the Kiangsi Christian Rural Se rvice Union, was an attempt to ma\e a distinctively Christian contribution in one particular locality. Some twenty younger men and women haYe been at work under the direction first of R ev. George W Sheppard, later of R ev. Hugh Hubbard. A fortnightly papel' The Ohl'istian Farnier (T'ien Chia) began pub lication in August 1934 under the auspices of the North China Chri stfa n Rural Service Union Mr. T. H. Sun was loaned by the Council to become the first editor. Bv April 1935 it had attained a circulation of 7000. Thfs Christian rural service union has three branches, in Hop,: i, Shantung and Shansi link ed together b y an interpro vincial council. The Hopei branch arranged for an insti- PAGE 236 200 YOUTH tute for supervisors of rural work which took place ut the end of March 1935 at 'runghsien, where certain lines of work were agreed upon with a central emphasis on the village church fellowship 'l'he last Biennial meeting of the Council underlined the findings of Tunghsien and stressed the, importance of training local vqluntary leaders. A piece of work with great importance, for the rural church is being undertaken by Rev. Frank Price and the Nanking Seminary at Shenhuachun, in research, new material for workers and the training of theological students for rural work. Literacy Though the Council was without the services of Mr. 'I'. H. Sun for most of the last biennium, literacy work has been pushed forward by the churches and C'hrist.ian organizations, s o me using phonetic 'tut more favouring the thousand character courses. Of tho~e who answered the Five Year Movement question 84% reported an increase in literacy among their people. Youth The Council has h a d no youth secretary or Committee as such during the last two years. Youth in Christian schools and colleges has had much thought given to it by the Chri stian Educational Asrn ciation and by the NCCRE middle ,school currjculum group. The, YMCA and YWCA have continued to deve lop clubs and camps for boys and girls The Student Christian Movement took a significant step in January 1935 when Mr. Y H Gung was appointed as national secretary, with the status also of a secretary of the student department of the National Committee of the YMCA. There are many who believe the steady emer gence of the S .C.M. has great promise for the future. Government School Students A weakness in the work of the churehos has been the poverty of its work .for grJv ernment school students and youth outside of any school, as also for graduates, returned students and young married couples. A feature PAGE 237 PUBLICATIONS 201 of the last two years was a definite increase. of attention to this aspect of their work on the part of the Methodist churches and of the Church of Christ in China. Church confe1ences for young people have been held and 011e retreat for teachers was reported. National The Biennial Meeting of the Couocil Consultation ( 1935) called for a national consultation on youth work in 1936, to be prepared for by a careful study of the gaps in our work, classification of types of youth work, training for workers, the setting up of denominational youth departments and the more effective presentation of the Christian message to youth. Publications The "China Christian Year Book" ( 1932-3) was issued in two volumes; the Chinese edited by Mr L. D. Cio, the English edited by Dr. Frank Rawlinson. These are two separate books and form valu able records of development in the Christian Movement. 'fhe NCC bulletin in Chinese appeared monthly for two months of the year, with a circulation of 9000 copies each issue. The English bulJ.etin averaged four or five issues each year, with 4000 copies ea.eh issue. The NCCRE issued two bulletins, No. 4 in the spring of 1934, No. 5 in January 1935. The '' Directory of Protestant l\'hssions'' ceased to be published by the NCC and was taken over by the North China Daily News, but with the assistance of Mr. C. L. Boynton. lYir. Boynton has also been at work on a "Handbook of Protestant Churches and Missions" to be published in 1935. As regards promotional literature during the last five years, in addition to the large quantity of material published by the Christian Literature Society in conne:;tioH wii:h the home, stewardship a.nd NCCRE, the Council itself produced altogether more than hrnnty-nine million pages for the use of its constituency. PAGE 238 202 Commission on Program and Cooperation lnNANCE At the Biennial Meeting of 1933 this Commission ,vas set up to furthe1 the ea.use of local and regional cooperation. Dr. Y. Y. Tsu and Rev. E. C. Lobenstine visited a number of centers in China. The initiative taken in North Chekiang has begun to bear fruit followi11g a conference held in I-Iangchow in February 1935 A survey of the city of Shanghai was also initiated and prom ises good results when workers are available to push it with the energy it deserves. The new experiment in the working of the NCC through these Commissions, as described above, owes its origin also to the work of this special commission. Other Space forbids more than the mention of other Activities cooperative work undertaken through the NCC, dealing with the training of missionaries, workers' education, better motion pictures, anti-narcotic work, stewardship and self-support and the Timothy Richard prize. Readers who desire further information are invited to consult the Research Library and files of the Council, or to write to the offices at 169 Ynen lVIing Yuen Road, Shanghai. Finance 'l'he above activities of the Council have all been carried on with a rigid economy, the ex penditure in 1934-35 being$57,144 The contributions from mission boards during the last five years have been reduced in the case of the .American societies from $27,018 to$11,805, in the case of British socieiies from $13,443 to$8,594 (Shanghai currency throughout). Support in China of an indirect nature was increased these last two years by making conferences almost self-supporting and by doing more to put promotional literature and other services on the same basis. Future of Council The new chairman of the Council is one of China's outstanding women leaders the P.resident of Ginling College, Dr. Wu I-fang. The spirit of cooperation is gaining strength in these days

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PUTURE OF COUNCIL 203 of danger and opportunity. The links that bind this or ganization to the Intemational Missionary Cotmcil and the older churches of the West are firmer than ever Its place in the national life is secure. 'rhe National Christian Council of China is thus in a unique position to serve its constituency, to carry forward the manifold lines of cooperative work referred to in these pages and to share in fulfilling the loving purposes of God for this great poop le.

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CHAPTER XVIII H'OMB MISSION WORK T E 'l'ONG Unoccupied Areas 'l'he Christian org a nizations founded by western missions are mostly in large cities. As a result the far districts are somewhat neglected Home Missionary Societies Happily there a.re in evidence the Chinese Home Mission a r y S o ciety and the evang elistic boards for the far di s tricts of the Methodi s t Episcopal Church, South, and others. Their work is successful. A recent study of some of the home mission work giv e s the following statis t ics : -I. ORGANIZA'l'ION AND DISTRIBUTION 0ROANI CHJNESE IMETHOnIST CHUNG KoRTHERN I CHIN!sSE ITOJlfE HUA \\OMEN'S MISSIONARY:El'ISCOPAL SHENG BAPTIST I S OCIETY OF ZATIONS I_ SOCIETY I SOUTH KoNo Hux 1]11. E. CHURCH ... Yunnan M,,,,,,u,1 Province s :Mongolia Chckiang in which S zcchwan Shensi Yungan, ]'u. they work Hcilung Anhwei kiang Work e rs I Pai d 21 4 11 2 8 Self I support 64 3 1 ing I C e 1,ters I with 28 5 I fj 3 1 chure h e s I N"o churc h 26

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HOME MISSIONS 205 II. TYPES OF WORK \CHINESE HOME METHODIST EPI COPAL --SOUTH CHUNG HUA SHENG KUNG HUI NORTHERN BAPTI3T I WOMEN'S I CHINESE J I MIS roNARY EOCIETY l I Soc11 TY OF M. E. C'HURC j =========!=========!~-====== 1. F,eachiug 1. Bible ~I Preaching. 11. Dis p e u l. Preaching. sary. :3. Women's I 2. D. V. B. S. BibltJ 3. B p r i 11 g S,h1ol. lj Pr e;i. c h : 3. Family ing Worship. ll-1. Preaching!. Morning in MarkWatch I cts, CounG Short-term try Pris Scho~ls. 011a and6.Eible Factories. cla9scs 6. Christian Endeav our So ciety. 1 6. Women's S.hool. 7. Li tc racy, Class tor Girls. 1 8. Dible i Clns~. : i 9, Prayer j Meeting. ; ilO. Rea. diug'i Room tn. Rible i Class forl I Enquirers I 112. Fam i I y Wonh\p. 113. Primary School. ,14. United I Evan gel L istic Work1 j15, -: h o r t -1 I T e r m l Bible I School I in MarkClass. Sunday ets. 2. Chapel School. ?. Chap c l Preach Primary Preach-ing. School. iJ,g, 3. Street I!. Kinder-3 Family Pre:teh I garten. Worship. ing. 5. '!'raining 4.Bible 4.Training class in Class. Institutes Homemak G. Preaching forChurch ing. to the Members. 6. Mothers' Busines~ G. Priman meetings. :Me11, Shop Schools. 7, Visiting in to Shop. 6. Relief homes. 6. Retr!'ats. Work. 8. Industrial 7. Spring 7. Literacy work. and Au ClasR. 9. Evangelis tuum Con 8. Fam i I y tic work ferences. Vlorsllip 8. 0 1 p h an 9. Christian Asylum. t-:ndeav-9. Primary our. I School. 10. Prayer iO. Literacy Mcetings.1 C!'lss for 11. Personal Women. Work 11. Children's ,..Group9 Service. l~:-D is pen Ii 12. Relief sa ry Work.

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206 STATISTICS I ~ .: : III. STATIS'l'ICS I I CHINF.Sls METHOD CHUNG 1 CHINESE R(U'1ZA-Hmm IBT HUA NORTHERN Wo~lEN'S TIONS i M1SSIONa\RY Er!SOOPAL SJIENG I BAPTIST SocIETY 01' i SocmTY SouTH Kmm Hui, M E. CnuRo Christians E:nquirers --j ____ and li'i96 Schcols G i i 300 I 122 over 200 I I I i 682 I i 200 I I l ---1---I 166 l ---1 ------I I I i 1 2 I 1 -------1-----1 }Iedical 4 Clinics 7 ,2'11 'freatW ork ments I 1 1
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CHAP'I'ER XIX SALVATION ARMY IN CHINA A. J. BENWELL Beginning The coinunencement of t.he work of 'rhe Salvation Army in China was the direct out come of thei last wishes of William Booth, its Founder and first General. In the last consecutive conversation before his death, William Booth extracted a promise from his ,:on, Bramwell Booth, that tlie flag of the Army should be planted in China at the very earliest opportunity. Owing to the world war the fulfihnent of this promise was delayed. However, pioneer officers arrived in Peiping in ,January 1916, where, after a period of language study. they commenced public meetings. Aim The chief aim of The Salvation Army is to save the souls of men and women, hence t.he evangelical side of its operations has the premier place. At the very beginning of the public meetings in Peiping converts were won, thus forming the nucleus of the present thirteen corps now in that city. Centers The work soon spread to such places as Tientsin, Tsinanfu, T 'aiyuarrfu, Paotingfu, Kalgan., to hsien towns and large villages, etc. so that there are now e ighty-seven centers in China where eivangelistic work is in progresS". Training In 1918 a Training Institute was opened for Institute the training of young men and women Salvat.ionists for the important work of evangelizing their own people. The training consists of study of the Bible and doctrine, Army organization and methods, as well as practical training in visiting and the conducting of meetings. The course of training covers a period of twenty-one months

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208 EVANGELISM Staff There are now 183 Chinese and 63 foreign officers working in China A new Training Institute was opened in 1932 as a memorial to William Booth. It provides for the training of 40 young men and 20 young ,vomen simultaneously. Methods V a.ried means are used to bring the message of the Gospel to the people,, which have met with much success. Open-air St>rvices are amongst the chief me.ans for getting into contact with the people ,v orkers have also been appointed to special tent work. 'l'hey travel around from villag e to village away from the beaten track. The tent is set up in a village where its aclrnnt causes curiosity; it also attracts many sincere seekers after the truth. Rural Populations in small villages along river bauks Work are not forgotten and are reached by workers who travel up and down these waterways preaeh ing and selling copies of the gospels. The Peking cart has also been brought into action for touring inland clis tl'icts with the sole object of evangelizing the rural people Oppol'tunity ifl offered by the temple fairs for reaching great crowds, and thousands upon thousands of copies of the Gospels have been sold from the theatre stages of these gatherings. In village centers, as in the larger p l aces regular meetings are wld. Classes have been formed for teaching the 'Gospel Thon sa.ncl Characters' thus enabling village folk eventually to read the Word of God for them selves. Publications The literary siJ.e of .Army activities includes the publishing of a monthly paper "The Viar Cry" (Chiu Shih Pao-10,000 copies per issue) in t4e Mandarin Language which carries the message of Salvation to almost every province in China. "The Crusader", a supplement in English, is also pub li<;;hed. A magazine in the Chinese Language, '' The Officer'', is also issued for private circulation. Salvation Army books have been translated into Chinese and books

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HOMES 209 by Commissioner Brengle on ''Holiness'' have had a wide sale. From time to time striking posters and tracts are issued in connection with special evangelistic campaigns Homes for In China as elsewhere, the Salvation Children Army has found that although preaching the Gospel is the ma.in objective yet the physical suffering and misery of the people cannot be ignored. Serious floods in 1917 led to the. opening of a home for children who were either orphans or else had parents too poor to support them In Pe.iping there are two such homes; one for girls and one for boys The children in these homes spend half their time at school and a portion of the remaining time in practical work that will help them to support themselves when the time comes for them to leave the homes. The girls are taught needlework, knitting and kindred subjects. In these they have re.ached a high degree of efficiency, causing their work to be much in demand. The boys are taught bootmaking and tailo11ing. They : also .make writing pads and en velopes. It is hoped that other occupations such as carpentry and printing can be included in the training given. A small brass band has been organized in the Home and in the short space of e i ghteen months the boys mastered some of the intricacies of music and are now able to play simple tunes effectively. Home for A home for women was established in Women Hongkong soime four years ago It meets a great need in the lives of many women and girls. The Army officers cooperate with tl1e authorities in the reformation of wayward girls, Prison Prison work is a much prized opportunity for Work reaching a needy class of people. Ready access is granted to the officers by the authorities for the purpose of telling of God's powei: to save from sin. A Prisoners' Aid Department is in operation in Shanghai for the visitation of prisoners, and to care for them on their release by finding work for them or else transporting

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210 RELIEF WORK ... them back to their homes if these a.re outside of Shanghai. Other work of great value to the community is under taken by the Army in Sha.nghai Relief Winter Re.lief is given in the form of porridge Work kitchens where thousands of needy people are fed, and warm shelters where destitute men are housed during the cold winter months. This has had a big place in the relief program of the Army. Cheap meal and grain and fuel grant-;; also enter into account. Famine Relief Pleas for help from fau11line-stricken dis tricts, flooded area,-;;, or war devastated regions do not go unheeded. Help in the form of grain, clothing and shelter is readily given, such help only being limited by the state of the exchequer. During the troubles of early 1933 the Army organized a war hospital in Peiping Medical Wor.k On October lOth, 1932 the first Salvation Army Hospital in China was opened in Ting hsien, a thickly populated district of Hopei with accommodation for 60 beds Vrhilst the hospital is for general cases, speciai facilit.ie.
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SALVATION ARMY 211 Extension Owing to the development of the work and the need of greater convenience in the oversight of the same, Salvation Army work will be beg11n in the Southern Provinces in August, 1935, with a separate administration at Canton Headquarters for the. work in Manchuria already exist at l\tlukden, under the direction of an officer who is responsible to International Head quarters in London.

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CHAPTER XX UNION CHURCH MOVEMEN'l'S1 C. L BOYNTON Previous The progress of the movements of the Summaries churches toward spiritual and organic unity has been noted in previous issues of this YEAR BooK. In 1931 Dr. A. R. Kepler, Executive Secre tary of the Church of Christ in China, recorded the meeting of the China Baptist Alliance in the. preceding year; the m ganization of the China Baptist Council and its :findings; the vote of the Canadian Methodist Church in Szechwan to unite with the Church of Christ in China; the similar vote, of the London Mission Churches in North China; the official statements of the Church of Christ in China on Church Unity and the resolutions of the Lambeth Conference with reference to the United Church in South Inclia.2 The wider aspects of "Coopera- tion and Union in China" w ern dealt with by Rev. E. C Lobenstiue in the YEAR BooK for 1932-33.3 English Methodists Unite The completion of the reunion of three Methodist Churches in England in 1932 with the resultant "Methodist. Church of Eng'land", brought about a similar union of the Chinese churches related to the h,o missionary socie ties of these bodies having work in China. Their first 1. This chapter is au adaptation for the purposes of the YEAR BOOK of a pamphlet issued in May, 1935 by the Commission on Church Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Eastern Asia Central Conference, entitled '' Progress in Church Union and its Relations to the Methodist Churches". Permission for its use has been grantecl by the Secretary of the Commission. 2. Pp. 143-160. 3. Pp. 158-174.

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METHODISTS AND UNION 213 meeting at Ningpo in October 1933, appointed a repre sentative committee to make this union effective and the process has been slowly continued, hampered somewhat by the wide separation of the Methodist districts in Hopei, Chekiang, Kwangtung, Yunnan, Hunan and Hupeh. Methodist Episcopal Church 'l'lte Eastern Asia. Central Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, held in Nanking April 25-May 1, 1934, received a report from its Commission on Program and Policy, of which Par. 1 "Relation with Other Denominations" said: ''We recognize how great a task is given the Christian Movement in China where, after 127 years of effort, but a very small percentage of the pe,ople has been won to Christ. We deplore the fact that no united front is pre sented, and that to the large number of denominational divisions introduced from the West, there are now being added new names and sects, to the great confusion of all concerned and the offering of serious handicaps to the best progress of the KingdOIJn business in. China. We belie.ve that the Methodist Episcopal Church has shown the right spirit through the years in entering many union enter prises, and that now one, further step should be taken. '' Therefore, we recommend that the Methodist Episcopal Church affiliate with the Church of Christ in China. "That the na.me "Mei I Mei" be, discontinued and instead we use the words, "Wei Li Tsung", the term favored by representatives 'of -aU Methodisrt bodies !at work in China as expressed in a conference in Shanghai 1916. The fuJl designation would then become: Chung Hua Chi Tu Chiao Huv Wei Li Tsitng which in English will be: The Church of Christ in China (Methodist). 'rhis name will indicate affiliation with the central body but will also maintain, for the time at least, our identity, ancl indicate our continued relationship with the Board in New York

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214 CHURCH UNI'rY '' '\Ve recommend further that ihe Central Confe r ence appoint a committee to confer with the Executive Committee of the Church of Christ in China with regard to this affiliation.'' Commission on Church Unity 'l he Conference approved the following resolution: '' In reply to resolutions and memorials on the subject of unions wiih other churches and church unity the com mittee recommends that a Commission be appointed to study this question and report to the next Central Conference '4 In its first report the Commission states: "It realizes, however, that the instructions which it received from the 1934 session of the Eastern Asia Central Conference go further than a stucl;v of these cooperative enterprises. It is a Commission on Church Union and represents the growing conviction of Methodists that cooperation should lead to comity agreemetnts to f ederatio.n, and even to orga.nic union Methodist Union "When the National Christian Conference was held in Shang hai in 1922 there were eight different churches in the Methodist group. The processes of church union already described have reduced tnat. number to five. The Canadian Method ists first entered the United Church of Canada, and are now in the Church of Christ in China The two English Methodist churches are now united in one church The two Evangelical churches are now one. The five remaining Methodist churches are :-(1) English Methodist Church, (2) Evangelical Church, (3) Free Methodist Church ( 4) Methodist Episcopal Church, and (5) Meth odist Episcopal Church, South I these were united into one Methodist. Church in China, it would be the largest church in this country next to the Church of Christ in China. 4 Page 72 of Minutes.

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Methodist Steps Toward Union COOPERATION 215 '' The Commission believes that if we Methodists move to,Yard church 1mion, we should do so by three separate steps: (1) the union of our church with the Methodist Episcopal Church, South; (2) The union of all Methodist bodies in China; a.nd (3) The union of the resulting Methodist Church with other Christian bodies in a more inclusive union In preparation for the first step we have already held one joint conference with a similar conunitte.e appointed by the China Conference of the Southern Church. The fact that their church and our own are already united in Mexico, Ja.pan, and Korea, and the further fact that the two mother churches are conferring on union, should open the wa.y for some prac tical results. This joint conference pledges the support of the two churches in China in the plans for union. Enlarged This joint conference of the representa Cooperation tives in China of the Northern and South-ern Methodist bodies realized that the union of ,the two bodies is la.rgely contingent on home nction. '\Ve therefore canvassed the situation for larger areas of cooperation during this interim, and determined that it would be to our mutual adva.ntage to do the following things together: (1) to cooperate in a program of Christian literature, including the Advocates; (2) to cooperate in Leadership Training both lay and ministerial, including institutes for pastors, summer conferences for young people, etc; (3) to arrange the prompt tram;fer of members who move into the area of the other church, and the interchange of ministers as eircumstances make possible : and ( 4) to secure the rep resentation of the Southern Church at the forthcoming session of the Eastern Asia Central Conference. Such a program of actual cooperation should prepare us for the more intimate relations that lie ahead

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216 STEPS TO UNION Fundamental Issues '' The Commission wishes to stimulate thought on the question of church union, and therefore proposes several funda mental questions for discussion: (1) Do we agree that the considerations favoring church union are vastly more important than the difficulties? (2) Is it true that if we l\Iethodists cannot unite with other Methodists, we probably cannot unite with any other Christians 1 (3) Is it true that we are now in essential fellowship with many other communiom,, and that this fellowship can be best conserved and made effective by organic union with them? ( 4) Is it true that our divisions are a major cause of weakness, and that only a united church could bring all Christian forces into an effective impact on the life. of our world 1 ( 5) Is it true that the corporate union of the churches is the best way to fulfil the prayer of Jesus that his followers be one, even as he and his Father are one?'' Church of Christ in China The further unions with the Church of Christ in China contemplated in the pre vious YEAR BooKs have been accomplished in Szechwan, where the former Canadian Methodist Churches have formed a synod; in Hopei, where the former London :Mission Churches have come in; and in Shansi and Shensi where churches affiliated with the Baptist Missionary S,ociety have ijoined as the Shansi and Shensi Synods. All these were represented at the General Assembly of the Church in Amoy in October of 1933. The former South Fukien Conference of the Meth odist Episcopal Church has entered the South Fukien (Min-nan) Synod of the Church of Christ in China An interesting example of essential spiritual unity is the joining of the secretarial staff of the General Assembly in June by Dr. H. H. 'l':mi, formerly a secretary of the National Christian Council, and a member of the Shantung Conference of the. Methodist Episcopal Church, without loss of his status in that church.

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CONFERENCE ON UNITY 217 Lutherans The Lutheran Church of China held a very successful General Synod meeting in Shang hai in ivlay 1934 and further consolidated the bonds of union between the ten constituent units which had entered into the Church. The recent publication of a fine Lutheran hymnal is expected to aid in the development of the sense of unity within this Church. Church Unity "In January 1935 at the invitation of Conference the Anglican Church in China, there was held in Shanghai a Conference on Church Unity. It was attended by twenty-five delegates from seven different churches, the Anglican, Church of Christ in China, Methodist Episcopal. Methodist Epigcopal South, English Methodist Church, Northern Baptist Church and North China Congregational. After two days of fellowship these delegates asserted that they found them selves '' united in loyalty to Jesus Chrfat and in an earnest desire to become so united to Christ that the result may be an organic 1111ion of all Christia.n bodies.'' Before ad journing, this g-roup appointed a continuation committee instructed to set up a more widely representative con ference in 1936, to develop Societies of the Friends of Church Union wherever possible, and to publish informa tion on church union movements. Church Unity in China '' The latest statistics show that there are about 150 separate independent organizations at work in the China Christian Movement. But the ma.joi'ity of these are agencies and not churches in the true sense of that term. There are really only about 55 distinct churches. RepresentatiYes of these churches met in Shanghai in 1922 and issued a message to the Ch1istian wodd, which included the following declaration : '"\Ve believe that there is an essential unity among all Chinese Christians, and that ,ve are voicing the sentiment of the whole Chinese Chri<;tian body in claiming that we have the desire and the possibility to effect a spe.edy realization of corporate unity.' The

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218 CHURCH UNION delegates m that Conference certainly knew the difficulties-financial connection with the western churches, diverse creedal statements, different conceptions of the church, its ministry and sacraments, disparate forms of organizations-but their discovery of an identical ex perience in Christ was considered strong enough to over come them all.'' Progress in Church Unity It will thus be seen that material pro gress is being made in China in the direc tion of church union. The five Anglican bodies are united in the Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui with 34,612 confirmed members and 29,685 other baptized members; ten Lutheran bodies representing mother organizations in Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden and the United States are united in the Lutheran Church of China (Sin I Hui, with 23,930 communicants); fourteen former organizations-Baptist, Con gregational, Methodist, Methodist Episcopal, Presby terian, Reformed a.nd United Brethren churches-have joined to form the Church of Christ in China ( over 125,000 commm1icant<;); and the (English) Methocust bodies have united in a single Methodist church (21,408 communicants). Thus over 200,000 of the approximately 500,000 communicants of the Protestant churches in China a.re to be found in one of these major de.nomina tions representing a union movement. The Methodist Episcopal Church includes 46,389 comnumicants and the Methodist Episcopal' Ohmch, South, 13,149 others It may be noted that a different type of union, represented by the China Inland Mission churches, reported 80,928 members at the end of 1933

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PART Ill MISSIONS AND MISSIONARIES OHAPTER XXI RELA'fION OF CHURCH .AND MISSION c. E. PATTON Younger and The assigned subject is '' Missions Older Churches and the Church". This is further defined as '' an effort to give some idea of the present relation of the missions to the church, how far devolution has been carried, and what is at the moment the special place and f1.mction of the missions in relation to the church.'' A pamphlet by A. L. W arnshuis, Sec retary, and Esther Strong. Assistant Secretary, respec tively, of the International Missionary Council, entitled "Partners in the Expanding Church", presented to the Foreign Missions Conference of North America, January 3, 1935, gives such a complete review of the developing relations between the younger and older churches as to render anything more unnecessary. Moreover, it is world wide in its scope Little As regards China, specifically, little need be Changes added. Recent years have seen no fundamental changes in relationships, mission organizations and, generally speaking, the churches too, have been busy consolidating the positions which they took in the years just prior to 1930 This, however, does not mean lack of progress Church and Mission The relation of the missions to the organized church are of four general types. Some have contributed outright both mission force and funds to the organized church. Of this the American Board is the outstanding example. Some have

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220 ORGANIZED CHURCH sought to absorb the church in the mission., not avowedly so, but, in spite of terminology, more or less in fact. Others have., on the principle of duality, merely sought to define, deJ.i.mit and interprret relationships resulting in quite a variety of forms or degrees of cooperation. The Presbyterian missions represent this type. 'l'he fourth type is composed of those who have continued on the even tenor of their ways, prea.ching the gospel and leaving the organizing of the church largely to care for itself. As might be expected, the mission organization 1mderwent certain modification in accord with the respec tive type to which it was related, the church also, probably, but to a much lesser degree. Organized As the mission is a compact, well organized Church body, for present purposes we are thinking of a.n equally well defined church, an or ganized body, and would venture a few observations re garding the two though chiefly the latter. That the church once organized should be wholly autonomous will be questioned by none. Its -Organization may be premature but the principle of autonomy, once its organization has been effected, certainly holds and should always be respected Autonomy, however, has its limitations. The church certainly must be fully autonomous in regard to :i't.
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DEVOLUTION 221 that institution or activity may be transferred to the church, always on the assumption that sooner or later, certainly ultimately, every Christian activity and institution must or should be transferred to the organized church. This assumption does not hold in the West, nor, in fact, anywhere else in the universe so far as we are aware. vV e find hospitals, colleges and even theolog ical seminaries, each a.nd all 'Christian'' it is true, but for the most part not under the control or direction of the organized church. If, therefore, we admit that within the geographical area of an organized church there is room for Christian or nearChristian activity not controlled by the organized church, it follows that there is room for a continuance of certain forms of ruission activity alongside of or within the area of the organized church. Certain types of activity are by common cousent recognized as belonging to the church; for example, evangelism. In this sphere obviously the church should dommate and control; and in this sphere the mission and all other agencies should work only tbrough the organized church, at least wherever and in so far as the cnurch is in a pos1t10n to assume such responsibility. In many other types of activity the prmc1ple should be cooperation ratner than control. "Church-centric" The. over emphasis placed by a few Activities upon the term ''church-centric'' is misleading. 'l'his term or slogan, by the way, is a misnomer as commonly employed. ..l!.ltymo logically, as in'' Christo-ee.ntric,'' meaning the central posi tion of the church, it is u&ually made to sig11i:y the all inc1usiveness of, or the centering of everything within the church. When used in its proper sense it has another meaning. As commonly used it c .uri.es unfortunate and dangerous implications as one. passes out into 1u eas where there is no organized church 01' where the church is merely embryonic

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222 Weaknesses of Chinese Church CHURCH AND MISSION It will be generally admitte-1 that the Chinese Church is weak in three respects, organization, leadership, and self-support. It may be urged that it is in these three it1at the missionary makes his chief contribution. From which it follows that the withdrawal of the missionary, prematurely or comple,tely, will affect the church in these respects. Church and Mission The very phrase, '' Church and Mission,'' too, has in it a misleading element The thought and attention being devoted by certain church administrators to the definition of terms and the establishment of relations between the church and the mission, espe c ially where thOiY a.re of more than passing value and look toward permanency, may ere.ate a wrong impression in the minds of Chinese Christ ians. These are not coordinate terms or bodies. The older and the younger churches are the coordinate bodies between which mutual relations would ordinarily be maintained, chiefly fraternal. It is true that for certai purposes, especially where the younger church is dependent upon the older church for force or funds, such appeals of the younger cnurch should be proffered through the missions as the agents of the older church. There is apparent danger that the younger church has its eye too rigidly fixed upon organic relation with the mission, whether local or at headquarters, with all consequent im plications of dependence rather than upon the ideal of two autonomous self-dependent and coordinate. bodies, the older and the younger church.

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CHAPTER XXII MISSIONARY SITUATION IN CHINA Reduced Missionary Force lVIARGARET FRAME The peak year of the Protestant missionary occupation of China was probably 1925. The total number of missionaries for that year, according to the best available statistics, was 8300. The number reported for 1935 is 5875, thus showing a loss of 29%. This loss is due to a variety of causes The unsettled conditions of 1926 to 1928 led to missionary evacuation from many parts of China, and many missionaries during that period adjusted themselves to life in the homeland and never returned. From 1928 to 1930 the devolution of mission work, espe cially in the educational field, wllile not necessarily lessening the need for missionaries, le.d many of them to feel that their particular niche could be filled better by a Chinese and that tlleir special preparation made adjustment to other work in 011ina difficult; and so they with drew. Financial From 1930 on the reduced income of most Depression mission boards, due to the economic depression, led to some withdrawals and to a general failure to send out enough new missionaries to replace natural losses. Accompanying these three causes there has been an unusual amount of questioning and criticism of miss1011s. 'l'hls has come not only from those mem bers of the sending cnurches who have always been indif ferent or antagomstic, but from some of spiritual vision who have believed in missions but are now questioning the present-day misi;;ionary approach.

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224 MISSIONARY DEMOBILIZATION Causes of It is impossible to evaluate fully these Demobilization various causes. It is worth noting that the American mission having the second largest number of missionaries in China is related through its board in the homeland to missions in ten other coun tries of the world, and that in those other countries the 1rnmber of missionaries remained static from 1924 until l'.J33 when reduced funds led to reduction in their 1rnmber. This is at least a straw suggesting that apart from the depression and from the critical attitude toward missions, there was a condition in China itself which led to a more rapid demobilization here than elsewhere Yet it is safe to assume that the present. demobilization of m i ssionaries is largely though not entirely due to the de pression The depression not only reduces the total giYing power but makes the appeal for the use of benevolent funds in the homelands very strong. Whether the end of the reduction clue to this cause has yet been reached is open to question The criticism of present-clay missions, as represented in the Laymen's Report has deflected some gifts from mission boards but it has also caused other givers to rally to their support. An immediate effect 1.as been to increase somewhat the proportion of mission aries representing conservative missions. The permanent effect upon the number of missionaries will involve a balancing of factors which cannot yet be weighed-the shaken faith of younger church leaders in the missionary movement with consequent further failure of support; the degree of adjustm ent which the present agencies or ue-w ones may make to present the challenge of the social program of Christianity on the mission field with conse quent further enlistment of support. Are More Missionaries Needed? The question is frequently asked whether it will ever be nece.ssary to rebuild the missionary force up to its former statis tical strength; whether the present reduced number represents disaster or is, in some measure, the natural result of a lessening need. No one is prepared

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MISSION ARIES NEEDED 225 to speak for any length of time ahead. It may be that as the spirit of narrow nationalism passes and the iinancial difficulties of the boards clear there will again come a great increase in the number of missionaries. It may be that Chinese leadership will develop so rapidly that the number of missionaries will still further decrease. But thinking in terms of the next five to ten years, rep resentatives of the larger missions are fairly unanimous 1 hat in China the number has already been cut below the standard of efficiency; that if the ordinary losses to the work continue, without replacements, the work will be sadly slowed up and much ground lost; and this in spite of the rapicliy developing Chinese leadership and the constant increase in Chinese gifts. The number of mis sionaries should certainly not be further lowered; and at least some part of the large decrease should be restored at the earliest possible date Chinese leaders when con sulted expressed the same view. At various times during these past years before the more recent cuts had taken place, responsible church bodies have expressed their hope that the numbers might be maintained without reduction. Attitude to Missionaries There was a general atmosphere in many centcrs during the stormy years of 19251928 which was embarrassing to the missionary worker. Now, however, the appreciation of: the missionary associate, which never failed so far a.,; i-he responsible leaders of the Chinese Church were concerned, is again reinforced by the more general attitude of ap preciation on the part of the whole church and of the <,ommunity. However, it must be confessed that the Chinese churches, hesitant about taking over a function hitherto belonging to the missions, have not yet made what can be regarded as a careful :mrvey of the specific needs of even the immediate future. Church bodies have bc:r:1.1 for the most part general in their invitations; and little more than local Chinese sentiment has been secured for many of the specific requests for ne\\ missionaries. Ther-::

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226 LIFE SERVICE is need for a comprehensive study 011 the part of tlic Chinese administrative groups of the numbers and types of new missionaries desired in the near future. Pioneer Work The work of the church is only well begun in China. In large areas there is scarcely the beginning of a church so that there is still much need of pioneer work. The task of integrating the personal religious experience of the individual into a Christianized social orde1 in this great nation is the work of many gen erations. So long as the resources of the older churches in men and money remain so much greater than the resources of the relatively small Christian group in China, there would seem to be every reason for a continued sharing of the task. Life Service 'rhe ,caj.l of the Chinese is still for men and women to come out with the expectation of life-service Greater stress than ever before is being placed on the necessity for the missionary truly to understand the culture and aspirations of China, her pre sent problems, social and economic, and to identify himself fully with the Chinese people The work of the missionary, which has always been difficult, will in this day of growing complexity be increasingly exacting. The turnover of m1ss10naries at the encl of a first term, which in the very nature of things is proba tionary, or even in the later years of service, will probably be greater than in the past. As Chinese Christians assume larger responsibility there will b~ in some respects a narrower scope of missionary activity, less permanency in any particular position and perhaps also in certain types of work. With frank recognition that such developments will lead to a greater turnover, the desire is still for the missionaries who expect to give life-service and to that end are willing to submit to a discipline of training in Chinese language and culture and of apprenticeship in the adaptation of their specialized prepara.tion Ito the situation in China, even more se.vere than that to which

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SHORT-TERM :MISSIONARIES 227 missionaries of an earlier day submitted. Such a prepara tion involving for the individual missionary a distinct break in his career in the homeland can only be justified on the basis of a long term of service amounting practic ally to life appointment. Short-Term There is, in addition, a place for a limited Missionaries number of young people in the schools as short-term teachers of English or music or of other subjects taught in English. Experience se.ems to show that these young people, with their lack of the Chinese language and their inexperience, rarely make the con1Tibution to the religious life expected of the missionary. It is a question whether the desired values may not be more economically and satisfactorily obtained in the col leges by exchange students, and in the. middle schools by the employment of English teachers already in China selected by the schools directly rather than by the mission boards. In the universities there is a place for the occa sional experienced specialist who comes out for a year or two. There will also be opportunities for prophetic spirits whose ministry is international, such a.s Dr. Eddy, Dr. Stanley Jones and Canon Streete.r; and for speciaEsts who can, by their practical experience and historic perspec tive, give aid in studies of specific fields which the Chinese Church may desire to make with a view to shaping up programs in those fields. "\Ve have in mind men for such services as have. been rendered in the past by Dr. Burton, Dr. Mott, Dr. Butterfield; and as are lieing rendered now by Dean Weigle and Dr. E. H. Hume. Type of Any question as to the type of future Missionaries missionaries is sure to elicit emphasis upon the need for those highly trained for a specialized task; and upon quality rather than quantity. There has probably been no time since the first generation of missionaries when the Christian forces: on the field would not have given the same answer! The other constant emphasis is that the new missionary is not to come as an administrator but as a co-worker. Yet creative ability and

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228 MINISTERIAL MISSIONARY )rf" _.r;"\i" spiritual leadership are still sought, so that here too it may be a difference in the discipline to which the missionary submits himself rather than a difference in natural gifts that is indicated. Evangelists, doctors, muses and teachers are still being called for. Yet the task of each is bei.ng defined in somewhat different terms. Ministerial 'f."\V.D. James in an article in the lntcr Missionary 1wtional 1tevie-w of Missions, October 1934, points out that the ministerial missionary is still needed for the two-fold task of the past-evangelism and the building up of the church. His assistance in the government and organization of the church is secondary; and as the Chinese ministry grows he has progressively less to do with the nurture of converts and a decreasing opportunity for preaching F'ortunately, however, there is at this time a new emphasis laid on the many-sidedness of the evangelistic witness, and adaptation of the Christian message to the. community and its application to the whole man. In this varied task of religious education, Chris tianizing the home and community, developing lay leadership, the ministerial missionary may find an enlarging field. And preaching as the communication of a religious experience, meant to change the spirit of man, may be a very intimate communication-a man with a friend or with a little group of friends is still prophetic preaching, and it is imperative that the Christian Movement foster it. Mr. J runes also believes that there is need for missionary ministerial aid in con structive theological thinking within the Chinese Church; and need also ; of the same aid in the continuing process of building up the church just because the ministerial missionary is essentially church-centric in his thinking while the Chinese are not naturally so. Theological C. Stanley Smith, who has just been Education making a survey of theological education in China, reports a ge.neral feeling among the Chinese that more evangelistic missionaries are neerlocl.

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TEACHERS 229 He writes, '' There is such a dearth of well-trained leaders that even yet in many places responsibility for planning and administrative work must still be shared by the n11ss1onary. Moreov e r the number of Chinese college graduates now in preparation for the ministry is but 42% of what it was in 1922. Frequently alarm was expressed at the way in which the evangelistic force is being clepleteu.. '' Middle School Teachers 'l'he same writer speaks of the need for teachers in the middle schools as follows : I find that there is a great need for missionary teachers to help promote the religious life iii the schools. Many of these schools no longer have any missionaries giving full-time service, and where this is true there is generally a decline in the religious life of the institution It fa very important that the right people be secured to do religious work in these schools. Such men and women should be thoi;e who are especially adapted for this type of work. 'rhey should, if possible, have some experience of life in China before going into the schools, and the request for them should come from the Chine:;e administrators of the schools. It is rather vital, I think, that such religious workers should not be placed in the schools under pressure from a mission but should come only with the whole-hearted welcome of the administration But with this provision I feel there is a real need and a vital place for a young man or woman who has the ability to work with students; a.nd I hope that such opportunities will be presented to young men and women in America who may be thinking of missionary service.'' Public Even in the case of the doctors and nurses for Health the teaching institutions and the station hospitals a new emphasis is being placed oi1 preparation for public health work. The increasing general interest in social problems especially rural reconstruction is not yet reflected in any numerically large request for social or rural workers bnt many au evangelistic worker is finding

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230 MISSIONARY PREPARATION himself faced with the nec>essity of acquiring an addi tional technique for such work. There is constantly ex pressed the hope that all new missionaries will combine social vision with spiritual power. Old-Type Missionary Realism makes us admit that some of the more conservative missions, and presumably the Chinese among whom they work, are not even in these vague terms asking for a new type of missionary. But there is a growing group who feel that a new era in missions has already dawned in China and that we should, iu the next few years, make this clear by our insistence upon the appointment of miss ionaries prepared to help in varied tasks of corn\lllunity rebuilding or social reconstruction; for this group has felt the challenge to transform the whole social structure, in which the Church in China finds itself, into Christian ways of living and working Missionary What may be done by way of preparation Preparation of missionaries before they come to the field is a matter for further study. More depends upon the selection of the candi
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MISSION ARY TRAINlNG 231 4. That missionaries, particularly those to be sent to China for evangelistic ancl church work, shoulcl be required to take a course in educational principles and methods as related to the teaching of religion as part of, or in addition to, their ordinary training. 5. That for all missionaries, and especially for those whose work is likely to be carried on in the rura l areas, some adequate training in social science and history, and in the application of Christian principles to economic c onditions is of vital importance. The mission ary forces in China today should 'be far better equipped than they are to take aclvantage of and contribute to the marked interest being taken in social and industrial problems, so as to make Christianity an effective and guiding influence in the whole life of individuals all(l communities. 6. That ev a ngelistic missionaries, wherever possible, should be cncoUl'aged to t a ke practica l training at home for a limited period so as to accustom and train tliem in ways of approach to others with the Christian message. Such training might be secured in assistant pastorates and in connection with institutional churches in the home cities. Special Missionary Training A few boards ask that their appointees spend a year in a special training school but other boards feel that such schools rarely succeed in giving sufficient challenge to the young man or woman who has already had coniderable pro fessional as well as general education Boards might well try to stimulate an interest in better courses in preparation for missionary work in theological seminaries and in col leges from which numbers of missionaries are being drawn. Many institutions still have Student Voluntee r Bands and courses of study with real content value might be, recom mended to such bands. A good deal of stimulus to study can be given even in a brief conference with outgoing missionaries and much might be done by so little a thing as the presentation to an appointee of a few books chosen with a view to his field and his probable work therein. Choosing Missionary Candidates Without venturing to define the method of securing this end we would lay upon the boards a very special responsibility in the choice of candidates whether doctors, nur&es, teachers, social workers or evangelists-that they each one

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232 LANGUAGE STUDY understand the religious contribution which they as Christians may hope to make; that they know the faith that is in them in its relationship to other religions; and in its impact upon the environment in which it has found itself through the centuries from Christ's time to the present. Field Training A questionaire answered by fifty representa tive missionaries ancl Chinese revealed that the value of a langua.ge school fo1 the early stages of language study is fully recognized, one year being the most generally recommended period. At present the College of Cltiuese Studie,; in Peiping provides a place for such study in residence. Special e:ffoit shonl l l be made by the school to interest students in the study of Chinese culture and to outline for them methods of continuing self-education in that field The school should also be re sponsible for providing some fairly intimate contacts with helpful Chinese leaders and for associating the missionary students with some gToup in which Chinese and missionary, or missionaries, are together s e eking some common objecti\'e -an English Bible class, a chorus, class in physical educa tion, something requiring only an hour or two a week but providing opportm1ity :for worthwhile cout.act with Chinese Advanced Study A second yeur spent in the future field of work should also be given np to la.nguage study under a teacher who has been trained for that purpose and who is a man of culture. Apart from the teacher some missionary Ol' Chinese leader should be made definitely responsible for actingas counsellor and guide during the period of study and orientation. Hitherto provision has been made by each mission for the examination of the student after he has left the language &ehool It would seem desirable for the language schools to take responsibility for arranging for periodic exami nations for these students during their second and sub sequent years of language study.

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JUNIOR MISSION ARIES 233 Specialized Studies After the secoiid yea1 in China the mis~ionaries' language study will probably be limited to two 01 three hours a day through the next three yeari:i. But missions would do well to be generous in providing for further periods of inten:,ive study for the missionary who has shown exceptional linguistic ability or ability to interpret the cultural life of the Chinese people; and to give opportunity for some of those who have had to learn firnt a. local dialect, and have become proficient in it, to attend a hmgnage school for study of the national Jangnage Summer '.i'he language school should hold itself in Courses readiness to offer summer term courses in both Chinese language and cultural subjects to the older missionaries and to provide some guide for advanced study and perhaps some correspondence courses. Supervsion of Junior Missionaries 'l'he years just following the ones spent in intensive language study are often the hardest for the new missionary. As a part of the terms of his appointment he should clearly lm
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234 TRAINING PROGRAMS Furlough lVlission boards are recognizing the im-Study portance of making it possible for the first furlough at least to be one of study. Those on the field who have been responsible for supervision of the work of the young missionary should be expected to advise as to the nature of that study. Visits li,or the older missionary as well as the young missionary much can be gained through visits to other stations, through conferences and through carefully selected reading. After all, the ability to understand Chinese life and culture is largely dependent upon the will to learn. Mission Study Programs Several missions have their own training programs fully developed and would not be interested in closer cooperation But it would see.m that other missions might unite to do more than they now do for the preparation and stimulation of their missionaries. Lang uage schools require united support; language study in the stations might be supervised by a s1111all regional committee chosen irrespective of mis sion membership; center:s developing e.-;pecially strong pieces of work, as for example., in rural reconstruction or public health or training in homemaking, might arrange to take in young missionaries of any mission for a brief period of directed work comparable to an internship in medical work. Committee on During the past year a Committee Training of on the Training of Missionaries has made Missionaries a study. To the answers to the question-naire sent out by that committee and its findings the writer of this chapter is greatly indebted. It closed its list of recommendations ,vith the proposal that there be a permanent standing committee of the National Christian Council to direct the policy and program of study and early tra.ining of missionaries and their work on the field, and in keeping the home boards acquainted with the field needs and viewpoint in the selection and training of candidates such a corrunittee should be able to further some of the common projects in missionary training.

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THE NEW MISSIONARY 235 The New Day A new day is dawning in China. A new day is dawning for the Church in China. In the work of that Church there is still a welcome for missionaries from other lands. There is much to make us think their numbers mal.}' never again be as great as in 1925, but even that is not certain In the great pioneer fields of China there is stall a place for missionaries of the type the churches have been sending, although it is to be hoped that they may all have social vision. The con servative missions, at least, will still continue to provide missionaries of the older type. But there is the recognition on the part of an increasing munber that the new day calls for a new type, missionaries trained for bringing to bear upon social and economic problems Christian thought and experience with a view to Christianizing all relation ships. Such missionaries need a broad background of familiarity in such fields; they need an understanding of Chinese life and thought, both past and present; they need a real command of the Chinese language, as a means both of gaining that thought and of communicating their own experience; and they need to lmow the faith they come to communicate both in its historical aspects and as a vital personal experience. The boards should see to it that their appointees in some measure have this preparation and the capacity and opportunity for acquiring the requisite equipment. Yet no man will volunteer to come because he believes he has these great gifts. i\1en and women will continue to come because they have had an experience of Christ in their own lives which has made them sensitive to the needs of societies and of individuals who have not been so enriched; because they see in China an opportuniti}'" for working together with others of like spirit to permeate a nation with Christim1 ideals; and because in all humility they wish under the grace of God to dedicate such gifts as they have, but especially their capacities for learning and for fellowship, to meeting this opportunity for working with God to establish His Kingdom.

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Education PART IV EDUCATION CHAPTER XXIII GOVERNMENT EDUCA'rION HERMAN C E. LIU and Reconstruction During recent years Government edu cation in China has made rapid progress. In spite of economic depression and for eign oppression, the Government and people have determined to push the educational program, partly because of China's traditional respect for education but particularly because the Chinese believe education is the foundation of the reconstruction of New China. Anti-Illiteracy Campaign Illiteracy is regarded as the worst problem now facing China. About eighty per cent of the people cannot read or write. The Government is determined to eradicate this condition as soon as possible During the past year, there has been tre,mendom; progrei;s in different parts of the country. The Ministry of Education has issued orders to all Provincial Commissioners of Education to carry on anti-illiteracy eampaigns. Many provinces are ener getically taking up this work. Hupeh, Kiangsi and Anl1wei have already started campaigns. 'l'he City of Greater Shanghai. is vigorously pushing one lVIayor \Vu Teh-chen has anno1mced that a.11 the citizens of the city must be able to read and write within a year, that is by July 1936. Individuals and civic organizations have been mobilized to participate in the campaign. Students from colleges, mid dle schools and elementary schools are to be drafted to help in the campaign. 'I'he "Little teacher" movement, ad vocated by Dr. W T. Tao, has received enthusiaastic sup port. The city is to be divided into twenty-two school

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RURAL EDUCATION 237 districts. In addition to the special schools established, three hundred teams and one hundred thousand people are to be recruited for this anti-illiteracy work. lVIany other cities, such as Peiping, Tsingtao and Hankow are planning to do the same. Phonetic Script 1.'v, an auxiliary tool, the Ministry of Education has ordered that the phonetic script be use.cl. With the aid of this simple device, one can learn to rea.cl and write in a short time. The Ministry is trying to have the literature for mass education printed in Chinese characters and in the phonetic script. In Nanking all the signs on government offices and the streets a.re written both in Chinese and phonetic script. This is also true of signs at the Shanghai-Nanking Railway stations. Such facilities will be extended in all parts of China It"is hoped that the illiteracy problem will soon be solved. Rural Rural reconstructio.n and rural education Education are considered paramount, as about eighty per cent of the people live in rural dis tricts. 'l'he National Economic Council is carrying on ambitious projects in different parts of China, such m: road building, railway construction, development of natural resources, rural cooperatives and in the health and social well-being of the populace. The Government and the, people realize that in the past there was too much urban education and not enough atten tion to rural needs. In the last few years, different pro vinces have set up special experimental districts. The National Mass Education Movement headed by Dr. Y. C. Ja.mes Yen has been pioneering in this field The Shantung Rural Reconstruction Institute, under the direction of Mr. Liang Su-ming, has made successful demonstration in Chou Ping, Shantung. 'l'he Kiangsu 'feachers' College for Mass Edncation at \Vnsih is tra.i11.il1g large numbers of newtype rural teachers. .Anhwei, Hupeh, Kia.ngsi, Kwangsi,

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238 VOCATIONAL EDUCATION K ,vantung, Szechwan and other provinces are aiso starting au ambitious program for rural educatio n and rural reconstruction. Vocational Vocational education is also a demand of Education the hour. The Ministry of Education has decided to vocationalize all the schools. It has ordered that new schools established ,must be along vocational lines. Not less than thirty-five per cent of the revenue of different provinces must be spent for vocational schools. F'urthermore, the Government has separated the vocational schools from the general middle schools. Trade schools are to be emphasized. In Kiangsi, the Government is working on a plan to require each guild to establish at least one trade school. Continuation schools are. also to be promoted. These have been especially successful in large cities such as Shanghai, Tientsin and Hankow. Vocational guidance programs are being pushed in different parts of China. Special weeks are observed in the schools. Recently the Ministry of Education organized an Employment Bureau for graduates of colleges and universities. Civic Education In order to build a modern State, China must have an enlightened citizenship. Civic education is emphasized in all schools. All students are required to study Dr. Stm 's "'l'hree People's Principles "-the political Bible of China. During the past year, it was decided ,not to teach the '' 'rhree People's Principles'' as a special unit but mix it with the other courses. More reeently General Chiang Kai-shek has started the New Life Movement. 'rhis is an attempt to provide good citizenship training, not only for students but also for the general public, especially government employees and sol.diers. In many schools, the New Life Movement is integrated with the school activities. As projects for citizenship training, the Government is requiring that all junior middle schools students must join the Boy Scouts; and the students in the senior middle

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION 239 schools and the college freshmen must take military training. Students in the first year of senior middle schools are to have three months special military training in a central ca,mp, from April lOth to July lOth, and college freshmen are to have two months concentrated training from May lOth to July lOth. In spite of opposition from many educators, the Government is pushing its program of military training because they believe it is one of the most effective ways for the training of good cit.izenship and discipline. Ministry of Education We have just mentioned the general trend of government education in China. Now let us review briefly the Administration of Government Education. The Central Education Office of China is the Ministry of Education at Nanking. It is sub-divided into the. Division of Higher Education, Division of General Education, Division of Social Education. and Division of Mongolian and Thibetan Education. The duties of the Division of Higher Educa tion include the registration and supervision of colleges and universities and the conferring of academic degrees. The Division of General Education is in charge of elementary and secondary education. It also includes the promotion of Overseas' Chinese children's education 'rhe Division of Social Education promotes mass, adult and civic education. The duties of the Division of Mongolian and Thibetan Education are to study the educational conditions in Mongolia and Thibet and to promote educa tional enterprises in frontier territo1ies. In each pro vince there is a Bureau of Education. The Commissioner is appointed by the National Ministry of Education to take charge of the Bure.au and the education of the prov ince. In each county or '' hsien'' there is a Department of Education in the District Government 1.vith a director in charge, who is appointed by the provincial commissioner of education. The '' hsien'' is sub-divided into several school districts, each of which has an educational officer.

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240 ELEMENTARY EDUCATION Elementary Elementary education includes kinder Education garten, lower pl'imary school and higher primary school. Children under six years of age are admitted into the kindergarten. They spend from three to six hours daily in the kindergarte n. 'l'he curriculum of kindergarten students is as follows : (1) music ; ( 2) stories and songs; ( 3) games; ( 4) social and nature studies; (5) manual wod:; (6) re,st; and (7) feeding The lo,ver primary school consists of four years and the higher primary school of two years. Statistics The geographical distribution of the elementary schools in China, according to the la.test information avail a ble : from the Ministry of Education is as follows: P.BOVINCES Kiangeu .. Kwangtung Anhwei Honan Shansi Szee hwan Sikong Jehol Ningshia. Chekiang Kwnngsi Hunan Hupeh Shensi Kweichow Sinkiang Chabei Heilungkiang Fukien Liaoning Suiyuan Kirin Kiangsi Hope i Shan tun Karnm Yunnan NUMBER OF SCHOOLS 10,654 9,968 4,569 15,343 22,555 21,702 151 813 229 11,957 5,043 17 211 22,021 6,928 1,761 122 1,982 1,649 3,003 9,228 307 2,037 4,426 2,657 27,780 4,207 4,612 NUMBER 011' STUDENTS 654,181 532,794 612,214 835,681 976,160 4,270 28,644 6 505 605,748 243 846 638,629 111,602 253,668 81,529 5,477 74,069 73,992 212,551 601,870 1,007 131,530 177,849 793,375 452,262 138,518 203,382

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FREE EDUCATION 241 'l'orAL ELEM~;NTARY SCHOOLS PROVINCES NUMBER OF NU'MBE& OF Kindergartens Lower grade elementary schools Higher primary schools Other schools SCHOOLS 829 170,062 13,652 442 TOTAL ELEMEN~'ARY STUDENTS Children attending kindergarten Lower primary students Higher primary students Students in other schools Total number of children in elementary schools STUDENTS 31,967 7,118,581 774,082 112,928 7,937,558 Free Education The National GoYernment has just announced a plan for universal education .According to the regulations issued, the extension of free education to school-age children shall be made in three stages. During the first period from Augur;t 1935 to July 1940 all ischool-age children shall rece ive one year's free education During the second period from August 1940 to July 1944 all school-age children shall receive two years' free education. Duringthe third period, August 1944 onward, all school-age children shall receiYe four years' free education. In the enforcement of this program the regulations provide that '' efforts should be exerted for the development of all existing primm-y schools the enlargement of school enrollment the improvement of country schools and the strict enforcement of the higher and lower primary school systems.'' The re g'ulations further provido that "public education com mittees.should be organized by the central and local aut horities to supervise the enforcement of public education.'' Secondary Secondary education covers a period of Education six years divided into two sections of three years each, known as the junior and senior middle schools. The junior middle school offers general training but may give vocational subjects as local concli-

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242 HIGHER EDUCATION tions demand Formerly the senior middle school curriculum might consist of general, normal, commercial and agriculture cour&es. The present policy is to separate the vocational courses from the general course, to lay more stress on natural sciences; and to abolish the system. of optional courses in both the s0nior and juni, or middle schools. The &pecial Government examination for gradua tion has be en strictly enforced. Educational Finances Regarding finances, the Government re quires forty per cent of the revenue for general middle schools; twenty-fi v e per cent for normal schools and thirty-five per cent for vocational schools Statistics According to the latest statisti c s available from t he Ministry of Education, there are al together 2,992 secondary schools with 514,609 students as follows: SCHOOLS STUDENTS EXPENDITURES Junior middle schools 1,330 227,867 $14,791,311 Senior middle schools 554 179,071 20,540,210 Normal schools 846 82,809 8,419,140 Vocational schools 272 34,852 4,961,996 2,992 514,609$48,713,057 Higher With regard to higher education, the pre Education sent policy of the Government is to raise the standard of existing institutions. The re gulations have been strictly enforced and several institu tions have been closed for failure to conform with the standard requirements. Honorable \Vang Shih-chieh, the Minister of Education, has just announced: '' In addition to quality, the other points to be emphasized are as fol lows: (1) to develop science, agriculture, engineering and medieine but limit arts' and law courses; (2) to raise the qualifications for faculty and the academic standard for students ; ( 3) to revise the curriculum and increase, the science equipment; ( 4) to correlate the different institutions in the same area; (5) to abolish bad private institutions

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GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIES 24-3 and subsidize good ones ; ( 6) to establish scholarship funds to assist poor but worthy students; and (7) to raise the qualifications for students going abroad-only college graduates to be allowed to do so.'' Statistics According to the 1934 survey, there are 110 institutions of higher learning in China, of which 41 are universities, 38 colleges and 31 junior colleges Of these institutions, 28 are national, 31 pro vincial, and 51 private. The number of college teachers is 7,100; and officers 4,200. Seventy-five and a half per cent of the faculties are full-time and 39.8 per cent of them are returned students. The number of students is 44,000, of which 5,100 are women that is, twelve per cent. Seventy per cent of the students are taking arts, law, education and commerce; and thirty per cent are taking science, agriculture, engineering and medicine Finances INCOME From national revenue From provincial revenue From private sources Endowment Tuition Miscellaneous 31.45% 20.80% 26.30% 5.28% 10.42% 5.75% EXPENDITURES Teachers' salaries Officers' salaries Wages for workers Equipment Special expenses Attachecl organizations 37.88% 14.61% 12.42% 19 5 % 7.85% 4.32% Government Subsidies to Education In the past year the Central Govern ment has appropriated $720,000 to sub sidize private institutions of higher learning. The fund is distributed as follows: GOVERNMENT GRANTS, (1934-5) University of Shanghai University of Nanking Ginling College Soochow University Nautung College Tatung University Futau University Kwanghua University Great China University Franco Chinois University$20,000 $30,000$12,000 $10,000$35,000 $35,000$15,000 $15,000$15,000 $10,000 PAGE 280 244 UNIVERSITY STUDENTS Tungya Collego Soochow School of Fino Arts Hangchow College Amoy University Fukien Christian College Hwanan College Kwangchow University West China University Linguan University Kwangtuug Peoples' University Hunan-Yale Medical College Chunghwa University Central China College Boone Library School .. Chiaochu School of Technology Shansi Medical School Yenching University Catholic Universtiy Chaoyang College .. Nankai University Chee loo University$ 5,000 $6,000$ 8,000 $9,000$12,000 $8,000$ 6,000 $20,000$35,000 $14,000$35,000 $8 000$15,000 $5,000$35,000 $15,000$60 000 $10,000$ 8,000 $40,0'.l')$30,CJ,JO College and University Students 'l'hc number of students in institutions of higher learning, in diff erent provinces according to the latest information avail able, is as follows: PROVINO!,; STUDENTS Kiangsu 6,647 Kwangtuug 5,844 Hopei 4,268 Chekiaug 3,414 Liaoning 3,003 Szechwan 2,885 Fukien 2,609 Shansi 2,387 Anhwei 1,916 Shantung 1,857 Hunan l,'592 Kiangsi 1,346 Hupeh 1,302 Honan 1,236 Kwangsi 1,073 Kirin 865 Shensi 361 POPULATION 34,125,857 :{2,427,626 3:i,232,131 20,642,701 15,233,123 47 ,992,28 2 10,071,136 12, 228, 155 21,715,396 28,672,419 30,501,212 20,322,837 26,699,126 ~0.565,651 13,648,200 7,634,671 11,80 2, 446 NUMBER m STUDENTS PE& MILLION PEOPLE 195 180 13 1 165 195 60 261 195 88 65 50 66 49 40 79 113 31

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PROVINCE Ywman Heilungkiang Kweichow Kansu Chahar Suiyang Jehol Hsinkiang Tibet Ninghsia Chinghwei Hsikong Mongolia Chinese Students Abroad .. .. STUDENTS ABROAD 245 NUMBER OF STUDENTS STUDENTS POPULATION PER MILLION PEOPLE 329 13,821,234 24 327 3,724,738 88 184 14,744,722 12 164 6,281,186 26 133 1,997,015 67 104 2,123,728 49 84 6,593,440 13 54 2,c51,741 23 51 3,722,011 14 25 1,449,867 17 7 6,195,057 11 6 8,906,450 7 2 6,160,106 3 'l'he movement for sending students to foreign countries to study western learning was started by Yung Wing in 1868. He took over to the United States thirty young govern ment students. Before 1910 a large number of Chinese students went to Ja pan. In recent years the number of students sent to different countries has been decreased. Now only college students are allowed to go abroad. Statistics available for the last year are as follows: COUNTRY STUDENTS AMOUNT SPENT United States of America 115 $568,278 France .. 105 408,240 Germany 84 388,080 Japan 83 90,985 Belgium 26 89,232 England 25 96,600 Canada 4 19,829 Sweden 3 4,500 Italy 1 4,01)0 Switzerland 1 5,130 Philippine Islands 1 1,000 India 1 1,000 450$1,677,574

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246 CHRISTIAN EDUCATION Christian Education is regarded as a state function Education in China In the last few years the cultural influence of the European Powers has been stronger than that of the Anglo-Saxon The process of nationalization is likely to go on with some vigor; and more strict standardization will probably be enforced. This policy will irritate Christian educators as many of them are accustomed to American and British ways. However, there are signs that this is only a transitional period. Many government educators realize the importance of educational expel'imentation and appreciate the special contribution of private education such as Christian schools offer. There is a permanent place for Christian education in China. The Government and the people of China will support Christian education more energeti cally in the future, provided if can make the wise ad justment now.

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CHAP'rER XXIV RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 1. CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS EDUCATION COMMITTEE ALICE GREGG Organizaion The National Committee for Christian Religious Education in China is an officially appointed group of some thirty members who a.re engaged in the task of working out a comprehensive religious education program for children, youth and adults in l1ome, school and church. It came into existence in July, 1931 following the All-China Religious Education Con ference as an integration of the Religious Education Council of the China Christian Educational Association and the Religious Education Committee of the National Christian Council. Each of these organizations contri buted one executive secretary: Dr. Chestel' S. Miao represents the C.C.E.A., and the Rev : Ronald D. Rees, the N.C.C. From its inception, there has always been close cooperation with the Home Department of the National Christian Council. Membership In addition to the two executive secretaries, there are some twenty nine or thirty members who are outside the Missions Building These members are the officially appointed representatives of their respective churches or organizations (Y.M.C.A., Y.W C A., Christian Literature Society, et al), or are co-opted. They fall into four general classes, although one person may do some work in two or three of these fields : (1) full-time religious education secretaries; (2) writers of religious education curricula; (3) professors of religious education in colleges or seminaries; ( 4) church administrators or active workers in religious education. This i s a working gToup Meetings are held once a year:

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248 RELIGIOUS EDUCATION .l!'ELLOWSHIP sometimes after twelve months; sometimes after eighteen. At these meetings, which usually last four or five days, progress is checked and plans are laid for further advance. One of these days is a Sunday, which is spent in worship and fellowship together. Executive Board There is a smaller group, the Exec;utiYe Board, which, with the secretaries, meets for three working days at least once during this interval. The Executive takes up such matters as may not wait for action by the whole Board, or such matters as the Board has delegated to it. Religious Education Fellowship In close relationship with the N.C.C R E and yet an independent organization which preceded the organization of the N C.C.R.E. by a day, is the Religious Education Fel lowship. 'fhis Fellowship sprang up spontaneously on the closing day of the All-China Religious Education Con ference. 'fhe eighty-six members of the conference had found so much help and inspiration during the ten days spent together that, before separating for the different provinces of China, they formed themselves into a Fellow sp.ip. Beginning with eighty-six charter members, in three and a half years the number has grown to six hundred and thirty-one. Membership is a pers onal matter. Any one may become a member through the introcluction of another member. There are no officially appointed re presentatives and institutions may not become members. Some of the members b e long to organizations which are not official members of th<.> N.C C R.E. Fellowship Bulletin At the request of the F'ellowship, the two executive secretaries of the N.C.C R.E. also serve as secretaries for the Religious Educa tion Pellowship There are the membership dues to be rollected; the Fellowship Biilletin to be edited; the sending out of other materials that will be of interest to religious education "orke.rs; correspondence and requests for help

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RELIGIOUS EDUCATION CURRI(JULA 249 to b e answered 'l'hese things, taken in the light of constantly growing numbers, niean considerable demand upon the ime and strength of the executive secretaries. Objectives The two main objectives set before the N.C.C .R.E. on July 10-11, 1931, at the organizat i on meeting were : (1) the need for new and varied curricula materials to meet the different needs of children youth and adults; (2) the development of leaders vvho understand and make u s e of new curricula materials. Production A fundamental principle of the N.C.C. of Material R.E. has been that no one shall be asked to
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250 LEADERSHIP dose cooperation with the N.C.C.R.E.)-Parent Educa tion, Rural Youth and Adults, City Youth, Middle School Curriculum, College Curriculum, 'l'eache.r '!'raining. Most of the material produced by these group, as well as by many others in the Christian body in China, are listed in the Catalog of Religious Educati on Books. (N C.C.R.E., ~Tune, 1934 ) Leadership With regard to the second objective, the development of an adequate leadership in religious education, we can report that the yeaTS 1934 and 1935 have taken nearlv all the time of one of the executive secrelaries, Dr. :Miao, in the study of leadership training which is now taking place. Dr. Miao, Dr. T. C Bau and Professor Stanley Smith have been working separately and together as members of a survey team since the beginning of 1934. They were reinforced by the arrival of Dr. Luther Vv eigle, Dean of Yale Divinity School, in late February, 1935. Dr. Weigle will give almost six months to this study. The results of the two years of study, and recommendations for constru c tive planning, will be the program for the next N.C.C.U.E. Board meeting. This was set for July 18-27, 1935 in Kuling when the N.C C.R.E enlarged by invitation to include certain workers in this field and ehurch administrators, and in coope.raJion with the 'rheological College Association, in session at the same time and place, will meet with Dr. Weigle. Leadership Training For the meeting of the immediate needs of the churches in the matter of leadership training, the N.C.C.R.E. launched in 1931 its schedule of Regional Religious Education Conferences sponsored by the N C C R.E. The idea back of these regional conferences was that the N C.C.R.E., while limited to a staff of two executive secretaries and conse quently unable to undertake the training of the religious teachers of the nation, might yet serve as the medium v. hich brought together within a region those persons

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LEADERSHIP TRAINING 251 who were in this region responsible for the denominational training programs : the church administrators and .. those who give courses at denominational institutes and summer schools Such a conference would be limited to forty or fifty persons, and might work out the machinery for a pooling of resources that would make for more efficient leadership training in that region In actual practice, 1here has not been a very clear grasp of this principle. The regional conference is several cases has been a training institute only In some places, however, where this principle has been grasped, interdenominational committees have resulted and further training institutes have been held by those attending the regional conference. Problems In common with many other organizations, the N.C.C.R.E. feels the problem of finance to be a very acute one. In 1931 the World's Sunday School Association, whose recognized unit in China is the N.C.C.R.E., hop e d to contribute $3000.00 U.S currency a 3'flar to the0N.C.C.R.E. This amount has been reduced to$1,200.00 U .S~ currency; the drop in exchange has further 1educed this. Such a drop in income makes it impossible to employ a staff that can serve the gro,ving constituency There are constantly heavier burdens of correspondence, of editing the new curricula materials, of proof-reading; the R.E.F. grows steadily and brings an increase of work; all over the country has come a new awakening and a desire fo1 help in training institutes. These all indicate life and growth and would be hailed with enthusiasm a-s proofs of usefulness did not a falling income make the procuring of adequate help an impossibility It is neces sary, also, to cultivate friends abroad and maintain links with the World's Sunday School Association and with missionary councils and boards. 'rhern comes the request, almost the command for statistics as to the munbe.r we are reaching To m eet this would require an amount of special research and study that no one at this juncture seems able to give There is the problem of raising a larger share of the budget in China. In the face of the re ductions and cuts the churches are meeting this is no easy

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252 COOPERATION task. There is the problem of how the N.C.C.R.E. can stimulate the churches to carry the religious e.ducation pro grnm down into their constituencies and set up strong or ganizations, and at the same time so to correlate denomina tional programs that the.re will not be overlapping. An other problem is the relationship of the N C.C.R.E. to leadership training institutions which are beginning to carry on research, experiment and editorial work. Future Perhaps the answer to many of these probOutlook lems is further amalga.mation of the N.C.C.R.E. with some other national organization or organizations. The principal problem that faces us is, 1herefore, as Dr. Miao stated at the last board meetingthe future of the N.C.C.R.E. We have reached a new stage He left with us these three questions: (1) Is there 11ecessity for correlation 1 (2) What form shall this corre lation take? (3) How can the N.C.C.R.E fit into the larger correlation 1 2. CHINA SUNDAY SCHOOL UNI~ E. G. TEWKSBURY Origin It is almost a decade since the YEAR BooK has contained an article from the China Sunday School Union, and it is almost a quarter of a century since the Union was formed. As a matte.r of historical interest, certain facts ,rnuld well be recorded as to the service which the Sunday School Committee, first appointed at the 11)07 Centenary Conference, desired to be rendered, and the projects looking to the carrying out of that service which, through the years, have been entered upon. These are briefly mentioned below. Bible It should, however, first be noted that during Study this last decade, the special lines of work which were expected from the China Sunday School Union have been for several reasons somewhat definitely defined. The aims and ramifications of what is now called Religious Educahon a.re so broad that one agency can hardly hope adequately to compass them.

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BIBLE STUDY 253 Several years ago, two new agencies for promoting Re ligious Education, were added to those already in existence, viz the "National Committee for Christian Religious Education'' and the '' Religious Education Fellowship.'' The N.C.C.R.E. is related to the National Christian Council and the Christian Educational Association. By research and experimentation these Committees are endeavoring to produce so-called ''Character-Forming'' teaching material, which can take the place of, and or supplement distinctly '' Bible Study'' Courses. The China Sunday School Union, however, has through the years and specifically at the. present time, limited its work to promoting and helping forward Biblfl study and Bible teaching. Common Biblical Truths Inasnmch as in the church groups that instituted the Sunday School Conunitte.e and still continue to direct its activities, there are different emphases on certain elements of belief and practice., the Committee has clearly stated that the )iterature which it is&ues is to emphasize '' those Biblical truths which are cOllllmon to the different denominations and are conta.ine.cl in their Standards and Declarations. '' As early as 1913, while Dr. A. P. Parker was the Editorial Secretary, the following statement was issued:-''The editors of both the Uniform and Grnded Series of Chinese Lesson Notes wish to emphasize their unqualified loyalty to the Inspired Word of God. They yield to no one in their de,iermina tion only to select such co=ents and illustrations and questions for their publications as shall most worthily interpret and explain truths which are in their nature divine Destructive and specula tive comment they understand has no place in the work of those who earnestly seek the prayeis and loyalty of their whole constituency, that they may be accepted as '' workmen that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the Word of Truth" The Lesson Courses and Helps the Union is&ues are ,therefore, definitely '"l'rue to the Bible and Christ-cent ered, '' while, of course, distinctly pupil directed. Union Having adopte.d and followed consistently Committee through the years this policy, the China Sunday School Union has been able to have upon its General Committee members electively repre-

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254 SUNDAY SCHOOL LITERATURE sentative of the larger denominations. In spite of evacua tions, government religions restrictions, financial depres sion and the formation of other Religious Education agencies; the circulation of the China S.S Union Bible Helps still continues, as shown by the graphs herewith. ----------,,------.---500,000 191.'> 19~0 1910 COO.OOO 800 OOO 100,DOP Quarter-Century Graphs, showing Sunday School Membership and the Circulation of the China Sunday School Union "Uniform" Lesson Helps, in comparison with the communicant church member ship in China. The dots on the graph represent as near as possible accurate figures. The broken lines are estimates only, and are intended to show the fall in numbers, especially at the period of the evacua tions and also on account of goverment restrictions regarding Bible teaching in schools,

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World's Sunday School Association LITURATURE FINANCES 255 For nineteen years the World's Sunday School Association had made an annual grant to the China Sunday School Union, understanding that its China Secrefary should serve under the direction of the C.S.S.U. Committee. This Committee., by its Constitution, was to consist, two-thirds of representatives elected by the larger missions and churches, and one-third coopted by them. 'l'he relationship between the \Vorld 's S. S. Association and tha China Unit was most cordial during this period. In 1929 a newly-elected W. S. S .Association Secretary visited China, and after cornmlta.tion with groups desiring a broader policy in Religious Education :Suggested to the China S. S Committee certain changes in its Constitu tion. These changes, in the minds of the majority of the Committee seemed, if carried out, to endanger the long recognized union policy of that Committee, in fact, caused the threatened resignation from the General Committee of one of the largest missions in China. Enough votes not being ~ecured to authorize the proposed constitutional changes, the Committee therefore voted to "go forward lmcler its present Constitution and the policy which is well-known, both to its constituency and supporters.'' On the return to America of its Secre.tary, the Vv orlcl 's S. S Association dismissed its China Secretary and withdrew its grant from the China S. S. Union. It now sponsors the National Committee for Religious Education that re.presents and serves a certain section of the Christian community. Financial Resources The China S S. Union Conunittee having been dependent on i~ World's S. S. Asso ciation grant; and the Stewart Evangelistic Funds, which had been liberally helping the Union for some years, being about to terminate, the Committee has been obliged to look, for its further continuance and sup port, to such church groups and elements in the Christian community as desire to m;e its facilities. The, Committee also invited the former China S. S. Union Secretary to

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256 SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION continue his services as Secretary of the China S. S. Union The support given to the Union by church groups in China and America has enabled the staff to carry on with much the sa.me results as before, in spite of financial depression and the coming into the field of agenc ies with different policies. Staff At the present time, the Snnday School Union has a staff of eleven Chinese ;-a Chinese secretary and assistant, bookkeepers, mailing clerks, artists, litho graphers, et al. It is hoped that the support of this Chinese staff., amonnting to some :M:$9,000 annually, will continue to be provided by contributions. Some twelve church groups in China, several hundred missionaries and Chinese Sunday Schools, and a fe:w individuals in America, are contributing. Their sharing has made it possible thus far to keep the prices of the Bible Helps much beiow the real cost, and thus within the purchasing power of the Chinese churches. Annual support for a missionary secretary is greatly needed. Service Even though this chapter must take the place of a review of the twenty-five years in which the China S S. Union has sought to serve the Chinese churches, we can only note a very few of the emphases in the Union's work which the conditions of Sunday School work have seemed to require. After briefly mentioning these, we would more carefully indicate the present need and the work immediately at hand. Lesson First: Lesson Helps. The Sunday School ComHelps mittee responded to the need stated in its terms of reference and sought to unify, improve a.nd more widely circulate Sunday School Lesson Helps. The British Section of the World's S. S. Association :financed the secretarial and editorial work. With the help from the American Methodist Sunday School Board a,nd the Methodist Publishing House, the China S. S. Union was enabled to add to the former reachers' Quarterlies and Pupils' Leaflets based on the International Uniform PAGE 293 SUNDAY SCHOOL INSTITUTES 257 Courses, several seJ.ies of the International Graded Courses. Five of these courses were prepared in Chinese, some of them not only in Mandarin but also in W enli. Teacher Second: Teachcr-Training. It seemed usele ss Training to issne Lesso n HeJps unles s some effort was given to the training of Sunday School teachers Th rough the help of the 'i,Vorld's S. S. Association, a series of Teacher-'l'raining hooks 'was early issued, both in English reprint and in Chinese. These have hacl a wide circulat ion Many thousands of copies l 1me been sold Institutes Third: Snnclay School Instt'tutes. Both for the promotion of interest in Sunday School work and the inspiration and training of Bible teachers, institute work was greatly nee.ded. while the G eneral Secretary was a member of the American Board Mission h e convened snmmer conferences at Peitaiho, North China, perhaps the earliest Slm1mer conferences of Christian leaders of all denomination.s ever held in China. Speci al funds enabled the Sunday School Union to continue to use the Peitaiho conference plant for Sunday Scho ol Institutes The cooperation of the Stevvart Evange listi c :B'nnd ma.d e many summer institutes and conferences possi ble during the last fifte.en years. 'l'hese funds are now exhausted and help is greatly needed, both in personnel and money, if the C S.S.U. Training Institutes are to be continued. Teaching Pourth: Problem Tea ching If the Teacher-Training books and the Sunday School In stitutes for the training of teachers were to produce results, it was felt needful that the Teachers' quarterlies and Pupils' Helps of the CSSU should be pedagogicall y adequate for the study and teaching of the Bible L e ssons. 'rhe g1.1iding principle in the preparation of these Helps has been in the words of onEi of the institute slogans, "Begin with a problem and end with an action." Thus each Bible L esson would suggest a specific '' Decision for Action Besides the two problems for the Elementar? PAGE 294 258 SUNDAY SCHOOL MATERIAL and Adult Departments, there are also sug geste.d several more Life Problems from which the teacher may select, if the ''Common'' Problem does not seem to fit his own pupils' purpose. It is interesting to record that this illustrated problem device was featured in the CSSU Lesson Helps more than fifteen years ago. Until within the last few years this pedagogical emphasis by puzzle picture and problem-story has not been developed even in the most largely used Su.nclay School Lesson Helps abroad The CSSU General Secre.tary has i&sued a booklet describing thig pedagogically worthwhile method of teaching Methods Pifth: Special 111ethocls. For primary and adult Bible class organization and teaching certain new features which are not commonJy and ade quately present in the homelands were promoted. The "Organized Adult Bible CJ ass" promotion was :financed by a friend in the United Rtates. Graded Sixth: Gracled il1cderial. Adequate grading Material in class work and Lesson Helps has been a problem which still is most difficult of solution. Grading by age as in the homelands cannot easily be adopted in mission lands, except to a certain extent with Christian pupils already graded in mission day and boarding &chools. Obviously in the church the same lesson treat ment cannot be given for non-Christians, enquire.rs, illiter ates, students, et al. The Chinese Lesson Help based upon the International "Improved Uniform" Syllabus have therefore been graded, not only by age, but for gronps of illiterates, outsiders neighborhood or ragged children, etc. There. are now available some twenty different Pupils' a,ud Teachers' Helps on the "Uniform" Lessons issued by the CSSU and some eight more by the China Baptist Publication Society Unique The. above emphases may not seem worthy of Features special mention, and yet as promoted, at Insti-tutes and featured in lesson helps, each project contains certain features we. believe to be unique in Sunday PAGE 295 BIBLE STUDY 259 School practice, that if faithfully carried out would make Bible teaching not merely correct pedagogically, but effec.tual towards the inculcation of life and true Christian living. Bible Teaching But there are two great wealmesse& lying at the very foundation of a.11 Bible teaching, which are far more, vital than all the difficul ties the aboYe projects hope to overcome. In China there is no alphabet a.ncl there were but few Bible pictutes. Chi"istian truth has entered largely by the ''ear-gate.'' Bible teaching has been a matter of preaching, of homilies ex pounding isolated texts of Scripture. Bible "study" could only consist of the memorizing of Scripture ver&es and catechisms through the '' hearing of the ear.'' Closed (1) Clos(';d Bil1le. The "eye-gate" has been Bible open to visual instruction, but thousands of intricate incleographs clog the gateway! Half the church members cannot intelligently read the Bible in the Chinese character. 'l'here is no '' open vision.'' The CSSU early realized that no adequate Sunday School work could be done unless the membership could read the Bible for themselves Open In 1918 a Phonetic Promotion Committee was Bible formed, of which lVIiss Garland of the CIM was Secretary, and the Secretaries of the CSSU mem bers. The Committee's motto was '' An open Bible for China.'' It promoted the use of the Government Phonetic, issuing teaching mate.rial and Bible Posters. These large Posters were designed and issued in large numbers to "advertise" God's 'Nord. The CSSU joined enthu siastically in all this \York and for many years has issued several of its weekly S. S. Leaflets in the combination phonetic and charactei At the present time more than a million pages of phonetic are being issued annually. Phonetic Through the years, the Phonetic has been supported by grants from the Stewart Evange listic Funds. 'l'hese have now terminated and there ic; PAGE 296 260 BIBLE PICTURES great need for further financing. 'fhe New 'festament in combination type has had a large sale and at the present time the Phonetic Promotion Com\lllittee is making type and setting up the Old Testament. This has been a matter of heavy expense, which has be e n borne by certain faithful stewards of God's Word, who have been led to devote large funds to oprn the Scriptures to China's i\'fil lions Visnl (2) Pew 1'is1iai Aids: The second great Aids weakness underlying Bible instruction, especially considering the. problem of illiteracy even of ehurch members, is the fact that until recent years, illustrated Bibles and Bible Pictures have not been avail able to the Christian constituents. Conditions in China mal,ing it impractible to manufacture them locally, most missionaries depended upon old picture cards and scrolls sent from abroad. These were of course without explanatory Chinese chawa. cters upon them. Moreover, the Bible Societies not publishing i'.lliistrated Bibles, homes and children were deprived of that most fascinating occupation of looking at the pictures of the Bible story told them in the Sunday Schools or at home As regards Picture Cards, the CSSU at first imported them in sheets and had the Chinese Scripture 'fexts printe.d on them in Shanghai As regards the large Wall Scrolls, an attempt was made by Pastor Jen of the Congregational Mission in Peking, to draw and publish indigenous Bible Pictures, through the No1th China Tract. Society But this venture did not prove successful.. Some ten years ago it became possible to have the work done at the Com mercial Press American lithograph publishers having given permission to allow their large Bible Pictures to be reproduced in China., aud they made no charge for copyright, under&'tanding the work was for the benefit of the Sunday Schools. The CSSU was able to secure a.n earnest Chinese Christian artist for designing the indigenous pictures and later hand-lithographers. Thus it was possible to have made in China excellent colorerl PAGE 297 LIFE-PROBLEM PICTURES 261 Bible Pictures at p1ices several times cheaper than those from abroad, and therefore within the purchasing power of the Chinese communities. Picture Cards Some 5,000,000 Picture Cards, etc., are now printed each year by the three-color half-tone process, and over 100,000 Wall Scroll hand lithographs. The CSSU owns many of the plates and is now able to furnish and/or produce pictures illustrating the principal events of Scripture. The CSSU Staff artist and lithographers are keenly conscious of their high calling and they endeavor to make the Bible '' live in pictures for their fellow-countrymen.'' Life-Problem Pictures Besides the colored foreign reproduc : tions and indigenous illustrations for the Cards and Vv all Scrolls, it has been found helpful to use in the Bible Helps ru variety of cuts which not only add to the understanding of the Bible but will help towards the pupil's interest in Bible truths and inspire to decision for new living. Perhaps ,the most important of these cuts are the so-called '' Life Problem'' pictures and parable stories mentioned above. 'fhe CSSU has a collection of many hundreds of these cuts intended to illustrate the most common problems of Chinese youth and adult life. They are ''puzzle'' pictures in that the solution of the problem-situation is not supplied in the picture, but left to be found by class discussion, helped by the Bible Lesson of the day. A "common" elementary and an adult problem cut is printed for each Lesson, both in the Quarterlies and in the Leaflets. The Bible Picture cut, however, is shown beside the Chinese Life Pictures, that the problem may be used at the beginning or the end of the teaching process. In the quarterlies there are also suggestive blackboard sketches, and on the folders cuts of specific activities which the Bible story should suggest. "\Vhere possible, cut.s of Palestinian scenes or customs are also inserted. PAGE 298 262 Home Bible Study RELIGIOUS EDUCATION A recent emphasis is upon Bible Study in the Home. To that encl the Daily Bible Readings, which each week lead up to the Lesson of the Sunday, are not only indicated on most of the Les son Helps, but are printed on "Inserts", where a cut illus trating the Daily Bible Reading is offered for each day. These "Inserts" are intended, like the "Perry Pictures", for insertion in Bibles or preservation in series. We have mentioned the general conditions under which the CSSU has served the Christian community, referring to a few of the projects having special features, which have had emphasis through the years. vVe have indicated, especially two vital wealme sses which underlie Bible teaching in China, and the efforts the CSSU and the Phonetic Promotion Committee are making to strength the founda tions. Situation in Religious Education A word further should be said as to the present ;situation in, Religious Educatio1t1. In spite of the many warnings throug!h the years, the ease with which Bible instruction could be organized and carried forward regularly in the mission schools has diverted attention from the vital importance of building up worthwhile Sunday School work in the churches. When the Government placed restrictions upo.n Bible teaching and indoctrina tion in the schools, and attendance at Sunday School was not proscribed, the churches found their Sunday School work not only depleted in numbers, but largely composed of adults and the children of church members. The. decline of ciwrculmn Bible teaching, greatly deplored by the majority of Christian leaders, has brought forth so-called "character-forming" elective courses. Thus far at least, these seem to be attended by only a very small proportion of the school enrol1ment. A bright light in the situation, however, comes not only from the awaken in~ h1terest ip making the church Sunday School more PAGE 299 BffiLE STUDY 263 worthwhile, both pedagogically and spiritually, but also in promoting voluntary service in opening Sunday Schools for ''neighborhood'' poor children. In spite of this hectic rush to experiment with various courses and appliances in so-called Religious Education, underneath it all is a definite realization that nothing can take the place, in a true Christian movement, of system atic study of the Bible and indoctrination in the truths of the Historic Faith. To this alone can rightly be ap plied the name of Christian and without this emphasis in teaching, the inculcation and nurture of worthwhile Christian living cannot be attained. PAGE 300 CHAPTER XXV CHRISTIAN EDUCATION January 1934 to July 1935 E. H. CRESSY Christian education in China is beset by problems but continues to make progress. This review attempts to present the situation, record meetings which have been held and indicate trends. Higher Education Number of 'l'here are thirteen Christian colleges and Institutions universities, three separate colleges of medicine and seven colleges of theology. The total number of students of college grade is 6,475. 't'he number has more than doubled in the last ten years. lu spite of financial difficulties and recent decreases the budgets have approxiim;ate.ly doubled in a ten-year period. Correlated Program The Council of Higher Education is made up of three representatives from each insti tution. At its annual meeting in January ] 934, fifty persons were present. It should be noted that neither the Council itself nor the China Christian Educa tional Association of which it is part, pays out any funds in connection with these meetings, expenses being provided by the several institutions. The main work of the 1934 annual meeting was the review of the Correlated Program. This is now in the form of a five-year agreement covering the period 1933-38. It is the result of nation-wide planning based upon division of labor as 10 professional schools and vocational departments and limitation of enrolment. It is an agreement voluntarily entered into by the institutions concerned. The working out and putting into effect of this program has been the PAGE 301 COOPERATION IN EDUCATION 265 major project of the Council for nine years. The program is not yet complete, but progress continues to be made Closer During the period under review the Correlation boards of directors of the University of Nanking, Ginling College and the Nanking Theological Seminary have each appointed three members on a joint committee to consider closer correlation. This !'ommittee has made a number of unanimous recommenda tions designed to bring about a closer integration of the work of these three Christian institutions, and thus provide greater strength and make possible economies In Foochow negotiations are progressing favorably look ing toward closer cooperation between Hwa Nan College and Fukien Christian University. Senior The annual meeting in 1935 gave its approval Colleges to a proposal made by the parties concerned United that the senior colleges of Hangchow Christian College and Soochow University be moved to a university center in Shanghai to be located in the vicinity of the University of Shanghai. Representatives of the three institutions have cooperated in a study as to the details of this cooperation, which indicates that savings of approximately 25% of the total teaching cost of the senior colleges in the three institutions are probable, and that in addition the number of courses available to students in the several institutions will be increased from 40% to 70%. Religious Life The 1935 meeting gave special considera tion to the religious life in the Christian colleges. Reports were presented by a number of observers who had visited these colleges, and fundamental problems were discussed. A report is in preparation. American Associated Boards The Associated Boards for Christian Colleges in China, which includes the entire membership of the boards of trustees in North America of ten of the Christian colleges, held its secorid annual meeting in April 1934. PAGE 302 266 EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCES At this time it reviewed and endorsed the Correlated Program as adopted by the Council of Higher Education. The Associated Boards have begun systematic publicity on a large scale, including an occasional publication, '' The China Colleges," of which three numbers have been issued, Hnd certain pamphlets which have been mailed to some thousands of persons not previously interested in the China colleges. In addition a team of twelve representatives of the colleges, including three presidents, held conferences m thirteen cities in the United States during the fall of 1934. British Associated Boards The United Committee for Christian Universities of China, with headquarters in London, issues publicity concerning the colleges in which British boards cooperate. In June 1934 a joint meeting was held at Oxford of members of the Associated Boards and the United Committee, at which the Correlated Program was approved and plans for further promotional work adopted. Presidents Confer The presidents, or other administrators representing them, from ten institutions spent a week together on Mokanshan in July 1934. This gave opportunity for five clays of fellowship and frank discussion of problems. This was found so rro:fitable that it is planned to meet annually so far as possible. East China The Council of the East China Christian Institutions Colleges and Universities has held three meetings. Its standing committee of deans end registrars has met twice There ~ave been meetings of heads of departments of biology, chemistry and English. In all of these meetings much emphasis has been put upon a larger degree of uniformity as a basis for closer coopera tion and division of labor. PAGE 303 SECONDARY SCHOOLS 267 Financial Difficulties In general, the Christian colleges are economizing very closely but are thus far holding their own and in a number of ir,stances putting up ne,v buildings with funds raised il1 China. 'l'he financial difficulties are emphasizing tht1 trend toward closer cooperation Secondary Education Middle 'l'here are approximately 260 Christian Schools middle schools in China. The total number of students is about 50,000. The statistics which have been compiled for three years indicate that certain changes are going on. The number of students in the schools who live at home is increasing in most cities. This has facilitated a growth in numbers without the necessity of increased dormitory facilities. Co-educational Schools A considerable number of co-e.duca tional schools have developed in the last six or eight years. At the present time 25% of the students in junior middle schools are in co-educational schools 'l'he reason for this is the savings which result. In a recent instance, where financial difficulties necessitated a combination, it was found that a boys' middle school and a girls' middle school could bo c:ombined and save the entire cost of the girls' middle school. The co-educational schools appear to be successful. 'l'his question should receive the careful study of both general boards and women's boards. Weak schools in considerable numbers constitute one of the most serious :problems. The statistics indicate that about half of the boys' schools show an increase in enrolment and the rest a decrease. The government attitude throughout the country is friendly toward schools that come up to standard. 'here is no future for weak schools The Council of ~econdary Education urges the necessity for united planning-city-wide, province-wide and national. The city of Ningpo has been made a test case in East China. After continued negotiations three of the four missions there PAGE 304 268 REGISTRA'rION have now combined in a boys' school. This process should go on over the whole country until all of the weak schools are merged and only those remain which can maintain high standards. Decreasing D e creasing appropriations from mis A ppropriations sion boards constitute a major difficulty. Out of 133 schools reporting on finances, thirty-three, or one in four, received no appropriation whatever from mission boards, and twenty-two had no r.:iissionary teachers. This proportion is increasing. On the other hand, the stronger s c hools all over the country are raising funds from alumni and the general public to provide endowment, buildings and equipment. In one city the amounts raised locally to date exceed one million dollars. It is probable that a considerable minority of Christian middle schools will continue to receive substan tial mission board gra:nts, but that the majority must base tbeir policy upon the funds which can be secured in China. 'l'his involves a policy of concentration. Council of Secondary Education The Council of Secondary Education was organized in April, 1934. It is putting special emphasis upon the improvement of the profes sional status of teachers, development of better programs of religious activities and the working out of a cooperative program for consideration on a basis of nation Viide planning. It also has a number of technical boards dealing with physics apparatus, middle school libraries, sehool architecture and the like. The second annual meeting was held in May, 1935, at which there were joint sessions with the Council of Youth Workers and large emphasis was put upon the religious life in the Christian schools Results of Practically all of the Christian middle Registration schools are registered. The three years' statistics now available give a basis for appraising the results of registration on the Christian activities in the schools. The chief fear was that the PAGE 305 RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 269 change from required to elective courses in religion, and the elimination of all such from the junior middle school would make religious education impossible. The figures for three years give approximately the same results; name1y, that 80% of the pupils in the junior middle s chools take courses in religion and 66% of those in the senior middl e schools. The individual student probably cioos not take as many credits of work in this subject as m1cle r the required system. It is likely, however, that the uet result is not much less owing to the fact that the rresent work is done on the student' s own initiative. Approximately one hundred schools a year report some thing over a thousand baptisms of students. Primary Schools '11he number of primary schools is not known, and no complete statistics have been gathered. The figures for individual boards would indicate a total of not less than 100,000, and pro1,ably 150,000 students. A large number of these schools connected with middle schools in cities are of high grade. National Committee; Religious Education Religious Education The National Committee for Christian Religious Education, which is related to the China Christian Educational Association, takes the chief responsibility for research and the working out of teaching and project materials for the training of workers. This is reported elsewhere.1 The Educational Association cooperates in putting into effect in the schools the plans worked out by the specialists in the field of religious education. Particular emphasis has been placed on a study of the situation during the past year and a half, and plans are under way for training conferences in a number of cities m three provinces. 1. See Chapter xxiv PAGE 306 270 EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION Trends Great importance is placed upon the securing of exact facts. 'fo this end the Educational As sociation issues a bulletin of college statistics and one of middle school statistics each year. 'l'his makes possible the prompt discovery of trends and the analysis of prob lems. These are distributed free to all of the schools and other agencies concerned. Periodicals The Educational Association publishes thtee periodicals, the Educational Review five times a year, the Chinese Quarterly and the Primmy Magazine. The first two are approximately self-supporting. These publications, together with the meetings and conferences conducted by the Association, help to maintain the spirit of the Christian schools and their consciousness c,f the special contribution which they have to make. China Christian Educational Association Central The central agency for Christian education in Agency China is the China Christian Educational Association, with headquarters at 169 Yuen Ming Yuen Road, Shanghai 'l'his organization operates on the modest budget of$12,600, Chinese currency, p,lus the full time of one missionary and the half time of two others. This does not include one missionary allocated to the National Committee for Christian Religious Education engaged in research in Hopei. The Association provides ~taff and office facilities for the several Councils. It should le noted that its budget does not include traveling expenses for the members of the various councils, which are provided by the institutions which they represent. Weaker 'l'he outstanding problem before Christian Schools education at the moment is that of the survival of tLe weaker schools Nation-wide planning is imperative. The present set-up of separate mission boards, tach one subdivided into a number of missions in China, is all in the direction of diversity and competition. The China Christian Educational Association is practically the

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REGIONAL ASSOCIATIONS 271 only organization in this field which pi'ovides for unifica tion and united planning. It seeks the cooperation and snpport of all boards and missions in overcoming such tendencies to disunity as constitute weakness and danger, and in promoting the unification which is necessary if Christian education is to survive and continue to make its contribution. The staff of the Association is much reduced. 'rhe resignation of Dr. C S. l\1iao as general f ; ecr etary in order to give his whole time to the work of religious education has been a severe loss. Regional In a country the size of China it has Associations been found absolutely necessary to develop regional associations in order to come into close touch with individual schools and their problems. 'l'hese were set up thirteen years ago on the lines of church boards of education. Most of them died In East China a different set-up resulted in a professional organization supported by contributions from the schools which it serves This association has grown steadily in 1<-trength. Its general secretary for the last six years has leen Mr. C. C. Djao, who has done a successful piece of work. The North China Association was reorganized a year ago with a full time secretary, Mr. Victor Wong, being supported on the East China basis. The Associa tion in Fukien has also been reorganized with a part time secretary, Mr. J. M Tan. The Kwangtung Association was reorganized in February, 1935, at a meeting with an attendance of 250 persons. The reorganization of the Central China Association is being discussed. The one in Vl est China has been discontinued for some years. The main effort of the China Christian Educational Association for tbe period under review has gone into the reorganiza tion of these regional associations. The problem of financing them through local contributions has proved difficult, but is being gradually solved. The work of the regional associations as it develops is being closely jntE:.grated with that of the national Association. The first nation-wide staff meeting composed of secretaries of the

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272 COOPERATION national and r e gional associations was held in May, 1935, and developed a united program of work for the ensuing year. Natio,ial 'l'he China Christian Educational Organizations Association has taken an active part in advocating and helping to work out cl.tl~cr relationships among the national organizations of the Christian movement. It ii; now functioning on a gentle men's agreement as the Commission of Education of the National Christian Council.2 'his is opening the way for closer cooperation between the schools and the churches Bnd hospitals, so that the Christian movement may become a closer unity. Cooperation The future of the Christian movement in Necessary China is in the :field of cooperation Strong schools have won the support and friendship of the public mid the government authorities One indi cation of this is the fact that approximately half of the grants of several hundred thousand dollars made by the Ministry of Education to private universities went to the Christian institutions.3 The present tendency is in the direction of united planning, closer cooperation and l,igher standards. If this can be achieved the Christian :::chools have a long period of usefulness aheacJ 2. See Chapter xvii 3. See Chapter niii

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CHAPTER XXVI FOUNDATIONS AND CHRISTIA.l"\1 HIGHER EDUCATION J. LEIGHTON SruART Christian Colleges All the Christian institutions of higher education (referred to hereafter by the generic term colleges) were established by one or more denominational mission boards, with the single exception of Lingnan University. It was assumed that the constituent bodies would provide adequate support except in &o far as this ,voulcl be supplemented by fees and other local sources. This article is an inquiry regarding the extent to which Foundations have affected the development of these colleges, or modified their purpose and policy. RQckefeller The body which has hadthe preponder-roundation ant part in this process is the Rockefeller Foundation. A few years ago a study was made of the twenty-odd Foundations established in tl1e Fnited States to ascertain whether any others might by their terms of trust give aid to China colleges, and the result was practically negative If any others have done so it has only been sporadically and in such small amounts that the bearing on this inquiry is negligible. The Rocke feller Foundation has, however, contributed very generously during the past decade to nine or more of the thirteen colleges, and has thus made possible much that could not otherwise have been undertaken at all or would have been maintained with inferior quality and decid.edly smaller range.

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274 Peking Union Medical Cc,llege MEDICAL EDUCATION The Foundation's interest began in the field of medical education and took the form of establishing under the name and with the nucleus of the original missionary Peking Union Medical College, an institution which is intended to set a standard o:f excellence for the nation and to <:oncentrate in a single school the finest achievements of medical science. This aim has been abundantly realized, and for beauty of buildings, perfection of equipment, efficiency of management and professional superiority it is one of the outstanding medical schools of the whole world. It has in the process discarded to a large extent the moral 2nd religious concepts of the original school, and this can-11ot but have an indirect effect upon the profession as a whole, especially because of its deserved prestige and far reaching influence. Students entering from Christian colleges or doing graduate or other special work after finishing in mission medical schools, are ineluctably exposed to these differing standards of behavior. But this would be true of similar study elsewhere or abroad and in any other career than the sheltered one of a mission hospital or school. On the other hand it has furnished a standard of excellence which would otherwise have been lacking, has provided facilities to' foreign and Chinese physicians, and has stimulated progress in this supremely important subject. It has almost created trained nursing as a career of dignity, economic opportunity and human service. Its notable contributions in research and beneficial discovery Hre generally recognised and are somewhat beyond the scope of this article, but they are not without their bearing on missionary education. Cheeloo School of Medicine In more direct and deliberate forms the Foundation and its own Medical College have had important consequences. The School of Medicine at Shantung Christian University ( Cheeloo) has until now been continuously aided in plant and current expenses in order to provide for a type of education regarded as no less essential and of similar

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CHINA FOUNDATION 275 content but with a difference in functional purpose. So with other medical schools. In all of this it has un doubtedly had some part in shaping mission policy as to the location and maintenance of such schools. But its own need for medical students adequately prepared has led to ~ery substantial assistance to colleges in various parts of the country for pre-medical courses. Y enching University ewes almost the entire existence of its College of Natural Sciences and the buildings in which it is housed to this source and to other donations secured through conditions it laid down. Natural Science Teaching Not only for pre-medical work but in the improvement of natural science teaching generally, this Foundation has been a dominant factor. The grants listed in its Report for 1925 as appropriated previously or during that year for buildings or current budgets to Christian colleges and their medical departments reach a total of almost half a million dollars, U S currency. In the years following these grants were repeated more or less continually, 11 lthough the annual totals vary largely because of construction items and more recently because of its own materially reduced income or changes of policy. But the r.verage for the decade since 1925 has been not far from U.S. $100,000 pe1 annmn China Foundation The China Foundation for Education and Culture (American Boxer Indemnity Fund) has also stressed Natural Science. At its inception it was defiuitely understood that the group of Christian colleges should not apply for grants ju order that there might be no suspicion of America having remitted these amounts in order to secure any partial or indirect benefit through colleges founded chiefly by her nationals. But with their increasing nationaliza tion one or another began to apply and these requests have l1ad no discriminatory treatment. In fact, among the :private colleges of the country they have in relation to PAGE 312 276 BRITISH BOXER INDEMNITY their number and needs had almost preferential con si.deration. But most of the amounts granted are relatively small and have been intended in the main for equipment as a form of non-recurrent assistance. The total amount given during the nine years of its existence to nine institu tions is silver$434,950. Of this $185,000. has been for two colleges of agriculture and$118,950 for the Boone Library School. Science Fellowships These two Foundations have maintained fellowships for advanced study in science both in China and abroad, and not a few graduates of the Christian colleges have qualified for this privilege, among whom have been secured-among other gains to the colleges-a supply of excellent teachers. Older members of their faculties have also found the opportunity thus to spend a year's leaYe-of-absencc in profitable research. British Boxer Indemnity rrhe British Boxer Indemnity Trustees made their first distribution last year, and with only one and three-quarter million dol) ars (silver currency) at their disposal had to deal with requests amounting in all to over thirty million dollars Only four private colleges received grants, one of these being a British missionary medical college in Manchuria. Of the three in China proper one was a Christian college, with only a slight British connection, but it was awarded more than the other two combined. It may therefore be inferred that this Fund will consider applications in the light of its own program regardless of the type of institution concerned This program appears to be in the direction of definite economic and industrial empha-sis rather than one that is cultural or in the field of theoretical science. Social The Rockefeller Foundation has in later years Sciences been giving much attention to the Social Sciences. In the case of China, it would seem that, partly becat1se of its medical interests and partly

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RURAL RECONSTRUCTION 277 because of its realization of the need in this country alike of the scientific habit and of the application of science to economic and other .. progress, the natural sciences have been so helpfully stressed, but that the Foundation be lieves that the argument for these subjects has been thoroughly won and that provision for their study has been at least rather extensively encouraged It is there fore turning to the more human phases of scientific in ,estigation in the hope that the importance of these may be similarly appreciated and the technique for their mastery and use be introduced Public Affairs Probably with some such intention the College of Public Affairs in Yenching Univer sity was given U.S. $140,000. over a seven year period (which expires this year) in order to supplement the more permanent source of support which it was rather too optimistically anticipated could be relied upon. Rural In so far as there is any reason for Reconstruction the inference that this Foundation is intending to strengthen training in social subjects there are indications that this will be with primary reference to rural reconstruction. It can indeed bE: almost assumed that further aid to natural science will be with its application to this problem largely in view. With the wide-spread realization of the basic necessity of eeonomic recovery in the vast rural areas and the re habilitation of those regions which have suffered especially from communist or other disturbances, it is as easy to nnderstand as it is to approve any such program "Whether any of the Christian colleges are enabled to have Bn immediate share in the Foundation's rural policy will depend perhaps in large measure upon their ability to render a distinct and needed functional service But in any case all will be indirectly stimulated so to modify their curricula and teaching personnel as to equip their students for entering this supremely patriotic and pro founclly Christian form of service. PAGE 314 278 Teaching Physical Sciences VOCATIONAL 1.rRAINING Attempting to summarize the consequences to our Christian colleges from Foundation grants, the most conspicuous one is their ability to provide courses and laboratory equipment for teaching the physical sciences as would otherwise have been extremely difficult This has had many advantages. It has given the students vocational outlets. It has sup plied a mental discipline which has served to neutralize certain defects in their cultural heritage and fit them for present-day conditions. The training of science teachers in middle schools is an important gain. The stimulus to commercial, agricultural and industrial progress ought to become increasingly manifest. The religious implications are one of the fortunate by-products. For at a time when, in the first awakening to scientific truth, this has seemed to discredit religion or to be in conflict with such faith, it must have had convincing influence with many a student that his well-qualified teachers of these subjects found no hindrance therein to their own Christian beliefs. The fact that much of the best and most advanced teaching of phy sical science during these crucial years has been in colleges known as Christian has been a timely witness to the true relation of science and religion to each other. It has doubtless also helped Christian students to formulate their religious convictions in harmony with proven knowledge in other fields, and be thus prepared to guide others in similar perplexity Vocational The more recent and as yet less clearly Training formulated emphasis of one of the Foundations on the social sciences and on rural reconstruc tion, has aided certain of the colleges both to offer voca tional training and to carry on research that could not otherwise have been. done nearly so well, if at all, and to appreciate the obligation of higher education to relate itself very directly to the most urgently pressing form of national welfare and of human need. It is of course a eplendidly Christian ideal of service that is being thus implemented, and it can be confidently anticipated that PAGE 315 REDUCED FUNDS 279 even those institutions which do not share in the financial assistance afforded will share in the inspiration to such activities and in the opportunity for securing teachers trained in these subjects as based on Chinese conditions. Reduced There is, however, one possible source of Finances harm to these colleges from the otherwise beneficial relationships described in the preceding paragraph. The Rockefeller Foundation has been com pelled to reduce very substantially its expenditures in China and has modified its policy in regard to these The funds of the China Foundation are also diminishing and this fact cannot but influence its policies as well as the size of its grants. The colleges may have been tempted to maintain programs or to expand these in a way that would not have happened had it not been for the en couragements thus received. A mild caveat is therefore l\Ot out of place in bringing these comments to a close. Chinese Studies Perhaps a brief reference should be made to the Harvard-Yenching Institute of Chinese Studies which, while not a foundation di.;;pens ing grants at its discertain as in the case of the others mentioned, yet according to a different pattern has J1ad somewhat analogous consequences. It has nine members on a Board of Trustees appointed by the two universities concerned, and uses its own funds for advanced work in Chinese subjects or studies adapted to western learners in these two centres or elsewhere. It also holds endow ments in trust for six universities: Lingnan, Fukien, Nan king, Cheeloo, West China and Yenching. These are available for aiding in undergraduate operation but with the stipulation that a sufficient proportion must be spent on Chinese to make those courses of high standard. This organization was in large measure created for the express purpose of improving the quality of Chinese teaching in Christian colleges, and has thus been of very timely help in removing the stigma of inferior work in this phase of their education. It has enabled the PAGE 316 280 CHINESE STUDIES PAGE 317 PART V SOCl'\L WORK CHAPTER XXVII FLOOD, DROUGHT AND WAR RELIEF J. E. BAKER The years 1933 and 1934 have provided no such spectacular disasters requiring relief as the floods of 1931. Nevertheless, in separated sections of the country there have occurred several situations any one of which would have been considered a major disaster if viewed against the background of customary peace and quiet. North-East The first catastrophe of the year 1933 War Relief was the Japanese invasion of Northern Hopei and Chahar The destruction, dis organization and distress invariably acompanying a military invasion need not be described. Two principal ngencies bore the brunt of relief work. One of these, the North-Eastern War-Area Refugee Relief Society under the general leadership of General Chu Ching-Ian, well known for his administration of philanthropic work in the North-West and with the National Flood Relief Com mission, was in general charge. No public report of the extent of the work of this Society has been made, probably for the reason that its activities ran so nearly parallel with those of the North-East Volunteer Defense Society that it was against public interest to present accounts and statistics. North China War Relief However, as the invasion assumed a static stage, the Government created the North China War District Relief Commis sion and appropriated approximately$3,000,000* for its All figures in this chapter are in Chinese silver currency unlerss specifially stated otherwise.

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282 FLOOD RELIEF (' ..,..~~---~ ~-~: work. The Executive Secretary of the China International Famine Relief Commission, Mr. Y. S. Djang, who had suggested the form of relief to the Government, was placed in charge. Drawing experienced workers from the cooperative societies recognized by the C .I.F .R.C. in Hopei, he duplicated in a measure in the North-East the work of the National Flood Relief Commission in the Yangtze Valley with respect to farm rehabilitation. During the summer, 3903 emergency cooperative societies were created to which loans were made to enable the dislocated population to resume life in home villages, re f:cquire draft animals and tools, obtain seed and thus resume normal activities. It is planned eventually to reorganize these emergency mutual aid societies into genuine credit cooperatives and leave the amounts returned from these relief loans as a capital fund for the cooperative development of local resources. A. gift of $5,000 silver received from China Child Welfare, New York, was administered for the relief of children in the war area by a committee at Changli formed under missionary auspices at the request of the C I.F.R.C. Relief of Children Yellow River The most serious disaster of the past two Flood Relief years undoubtedly was the overflow of the Yellow River in the summer of 1933. Due to peculiar deposits of silt after various freshets, rather than to any phenomenal precipitation, the Yellow River overflowed both its north and south banks, and flooded western Shantung, south Hopei and a considerable area in Honan. Various estimates have been made concerning the extent of the destruction That made by the China International Famine Relief Commission gives the number c,f villages inundated as 3911, the number of houses des troyed as 529,000 and the number of people affected 3,199,000. The report of the Hwang Ho Flood Relief Commission confirmed the number of people affected and gave the area inundated as about 5,000 !,!q. miles, while PAGE 319 FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 283 the value of tl1C1 property damaged was$200 OOO OOO. Thooe figures would indicate that the Yello w River' flood with respect to area, destructiveness, and number of people affected was about one-tenth the size of the floods of 1931. Nevertheless, the area and population represent a seriously substantial segment of the country. Huang Ho Possibly because the popular effort in Flood Relief 1931-32 had exhausted the philanthropic impulse, there was almost no public res ponse to the Yellow River catastrophe; but more likely explanation is to be found in the prompt acceptance by the Government of responsibility for relief AB in the case of the Yangtze flood, a national commission was formed under the chairmanship of Hon. T. V. Soong, Minister of Finance, and designated the Huang' Ho Flood Relief Commission. Its Secretary-General, Mr. 'l'. K Tseng, Chief of Emergency Relief, Mr. T. C. Hsi, and Chief of Hygiene and Sanitation, Dr. J. Heng Liu, were drawn from the former National Flood Relief Commission. The Chief of Engineering Relief, Mr. Z Y. Chow, had been uctive in the early stages of the National Flood Relief Commission Its Chief Finance Officer, Mr. F. Chin, was Secretary-General of the National Economic Council. Form of Relief In general the method of relief followed was the same as that practised in the major emergency two years before, namely, a labor organization was created in the flooded districts to repair dykes and thus give able-bodied heads of families an opportunity to earn subsistence for self and dependents, while "free relief" was given in concentration camps and by distribution to families where there were insufficient able-bodied representatives and, in many cases, where women and children and the aged had been left behind while the men sought employment at a distance. In two respects, however, the Huang H-0 Flood Relief deviated from the former practice A considerable portion of the repair work on dykes was let out to local contractors whereas the accepted famine practice in the past had

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284 RELIEF FUNDS been to recruit labor in the villages in local gangs and pay each of these gangs according to the quantity of earth work which it handled. The other difference was that the Huang Ho Flood Relief attempted no farm rehabilita tion, but by agreement this phase of the relief work w,s taken up by the China International Famine Relief Commission. Relief Funds The Government appropriated $3,820,000 which together with$128,000 of voluntary con tributions made a total of nearly $4,000,000 for relief work. Of this, a million and a half were allocated to reconstruction, two million to emergency relief, of which$500,000 was in the form of subsidies to provincial c-rganizations, and $300,000 for sanitation and hygiene work. Free relief included distribution of more than 220,000 suits of cloths, the maintenance of several gruel kitchens and refugee camps and cash distributions of$1 or $2 per capita to those found deserving. Because of the immediate proximity to food supplies the relief organization found it unnecessary to organize any con siderable amount of food importation, finding it simpler to distribute the cash and allow the recipients to make their own purchases. More than a million flood sufferers received directly relief of this sort. In addition, from first to last, a very large number of laborers were em ployed on dyke reconstruction, but as the same persons worked for short periods, then left and returned, no attempt has been made to arrive at the actual number of individuals who received aid through this device. Farm The China International Famine Relief Rehabilitation Commission undertook a campaign for funds for the specific purpose of farm rehabilitation in the Yellow River flooded area. The campaign was organized in several cities of China, especially those in the Yangtze Vally, which were just recovering from their own disaster of two years previous. Appeals were also made to 350 groups of Chinese over seas and to China Famine Relief U.S.A Inc. A total PAGE 321 ROAD CONSTRUCTION 285 c,$200,000 was raised. Four hundred mutual aid socie ties have been formed to which $150,000 was granted. The process is still in progress as the need caused by the flood still exists. North-West The year 1933 also saw a recrudescence Drought Relief 0 famine as the result of drought in the north-west, especially in Shensi and Kansu. In addition to$15,000 supplied to the C I.F.R.C. by China Famine Relief U.S.A. and used for the main tenance of refugee homes for women and children, two pieces of work were used to meet the situation These were continuation jobs in both instances, the Si-Ian road and the Wei Pei irrigation system. Road 'l'he Si-Ian road construction was begun Construction in 1931 by the C.I.F.R.C. and was reported in the last issue of this YEAR BooK. Con cerning its importance, Dr. Hewlett Johnson, Dean of Canterbury Cathedral, writing of his inspection of the Kansu portion in 1932, reported: "Midway to Tibet lay the Liupan Pass, rising 10,000 feet high, the worst obstacle between Central Asia and the coast. We harnessed two uxen and a mule to our car, put it in fourth gear and at last reached the summit. Clouds swept all around us, a train of sixty camels lurched past us in single file along the alpine pathway, looming mysteriously through the mist. Travellers have dreaded this Liupan Pass since the days of Marco Polo, but they need dread it no longer, or above us, descending in noble sweeps, were the curves of Todd's new road, as fine as any which traverses the Alps Nowhere does its gradient exceed seven percent. Man-drawn rickshas can traverse it and cars ascend it on top gear. A ten-mile road has vanquished the terror of ages at a cost of ,000. '' Si-Lan Road During 1933, work on this trunk line was continued by the C.I.F.R.C. by means of a grant of $200,000 received from. the National Economic Council. The work consisted principally of PAGE 322 286 IRRIGATION cutting down the grades in the hilly portions both in Shensi and Kansu, but also included the building of a 11ew forty-mile detour just east of Lanchow. This new line included the construction of four large tunnels, nine small drainage tunnels through conglomerate or cement clay gravel formation, culverts, paved dips, paved drainage ditches and wells. Liupan Shan Road The new 7% grade road over the Liupan Shan section was not quite completed. About three-quarters of a mile, estimated to cost$20,000, still remain to be put into condition. During 1934 work on this road was carried on by the National Economic Council which plans grad ually to surface the highway with gravel or macadam so as to make it a year-round road. In certain sections, a single season's rainfall has amounted to as much as fifty inches which effectively prevents the unsurfaced road from being used during the rainy season. Irrigation The Wei Pei irrigation district whose dedication was reported in the last issue of this YEAR BooK was also extended during 1933 as a means of giving relief and to further the program of famine prevention in Shensi. The original arrangement was that the C.I.F.R.C would build the dam, tunnel and other construction at the intake and complete the main canal while the Shensi Provincial Government would look after the construction of laterals. Famine and war, however, had left the province in such a situation that the laterals were completed in only one of three counties intended to be served by the system. Accordingly, upon the receipt of further funds from China Famine Relief U.S.A., the C.I.F.R.C. assisted the province in building the unfinished laterals. The Chinese Foreign Famine Relief Society of Shanghai also added to the fund and by 1934, the district served had been enlarged so that in addition to the three hsien included in the original plan, two adjoining hsien were partially served. Press reports stated that in 1934, cotton crops in this district were estimated to have a value

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FAMINE PREVENTION 287 of $40,000,000 At present a silt diversion channel is being added to the head works. Further north some$50,000 worth of repairs, necessitated by the torrential rains of 1932, were applied to the Satochu irrigation system. Shansi Hydraulic Survey Probably the most significant development of the two years was the. conservancy survey carried out under the direction of the C.I.F. R.C. 's Engineering Department but financed by the province of Sha.nsi. This survey concerned itself principally with the development of a scheme for utilizing to the utmost the waters of the Fen Ho and tributaries for irrigation on the 1'aiyuan Plain. At present these waters are partially utilized by the construction of temporary earthwork dams which divert a portion of the river flow on to higher land'>. A tremendous ampunt of labor is washed out every year and the quality of the dam material is such that the height is limited. Already the province had begun to install a series of masonry dams. 'l'he complete survey, however, was conside1ed necessary in order to insure a proper adjustment of dimen sions and of expense to the benefits expected. Especially was it desired to find a site for a storage reservoir by which to impound flood waters to be released during the planting and growing seasons. Famine The survey begun in the early months of Prevention 1933 was continued through 1934 with the result that a satisfactory reservoir site was discovered, borings were ma.de so that a safe style of construction can be planned and, in addition, a compre hensive system of pumping stations by which to supple ment gravity flow of the river waters has been mapped out. In addition, the potential water power resources for generation of electricity have been mapped and the utilization of same for irrigation has been indicated While the channel work and the reservoir on the Fen Ho partake of the nature of flood prevention, the work

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288 COOPERATIVES as a whole looks definitely toward an aggressive attack on the problem of increased production and an improved standard of living. While the survey provides plans which can be put into operation immediately in case of future disaster so as to use the "work" ,method in administering relief, attention has been focussed upon the deeper fundamental to famine prevention, namely, the improvement of the economic condition of the pro vince by means of investment in conservancy work. Cooperative Credit Societies The last YEAR BooK contained paragraphs pointing out that one of the most serious factors contributing to famine in China is the lack of institutions by which :financial reserves can be accumulated by a thrifty family for the meeting of this inevitable emergency. Report was made also that for ten years the C.I.F.R.C. had been working on a program of rural improvement which in eludes cooperative credit societies; that the experiment had extended so far and continued with so much success that one of the Shanghai banks had allied itself with the C.I.F.R.C. in this work and that two others were taking steps thereto; also that the National Flood Relief Commission had assigned to the C.I.F.R.C. administration of the refunded Farm Rehabilitation loans in Kiangsi and Anhwei with some,vhat similar arrangements in Hupeh and Hunan. Cooperative Society Statistics The years 1933 and 1934 have seen a rapid expansion o:f this .form of activity. At the end of 1932, the movement was confined principally to Hopei and Shantung and the accumulated total of loans was something in excess o:f $300,000. At the end of 1934, the capital available in Hopei alone was three times this amount and the movement had been extended until nearly nine thou sand societies with 288,000 members and an available capital in excess of four million was devoted to the work in the six provinces indicated below :- PAGE 325 COOPERATIVES 289 No. OF CAPITAL SOCIETIES MEMBERS AVAILABLE !fopc,i 1,456 36,904$ 948,1:l4 03 K1a. ugsl 1,463 57,603 417,600.50 Anhwei 4,589 168,694 1,084,895.00 Hupeh 726 13,474 851,657.90 Huna n 448 11,4 3 9 794,850 07 Rhc nsi 10 240 2,940.00 8,692 288;354 $4, 100,067 50 'l'his table includes all societies, recognized or not, and in all cases except Hopei and Shensi, includes both the mutual aid and cooperative societies. 'l'he amounts of capital available include bank and government investment but not share. capital and deposits made by the members of the societies. Cooperatives Organized By Banks While the above development outside of Hopei was largely the result of funds made available from theNational Flood Relief Commission Rehabilitation loans, it should be understood that the list given does not cover the entire field. Those which have be e n organized by the several banks, which have now entered actively into the move ment, as well as the very considerable number of inde pendents which have orgaHizecl locally on the initiative of enterprising individuals who have been encouraged by the success of the C.I.F.R.C., constitute an addition involving larger numbers and much greater capital. Furthermore, certain institutions have undertaken similar work. An example of this is the Ting Hsien experiment in Mass Educatfon whose work in that hsien has been so successful that the C.I.F.R.C has withdrawn entirely. In Shensi, the Provincial Government and the N.E.C. have formed a commission on rural cooperation. Alliance with the C.I.F.R.C. is obtained by the. appointment of Mr. Y. S. Djang, Secretary of the C.I.F.R.C as director of the bureau. Between the province and the National Economic Council a capital of$1,200 000 was provided and within four months 206 societies had been organized

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290 COOPERATIVE EXPERTS in nine hsien. Govermnental direction has been given to the movement in that portion of Kiangsi recently cleared of the "Reds", and a 'ba~-: with a capitalization of $2,500,000 has been established to head up the work. These developments do not overshadow the activity of certain banks, the most prominent being the Shanghai Commercial & Savings Bank, Bank of China and Kincheng Banking Corporation, in the organization and financing of rural cooperatives. It is to be remarked that their methods appear to be much more aggressive and far less conservative, than those of the C I..F.R.C. It is difficult to combine data showing the extent of their activities on account of the varied bases upon which same has been reported. However, it is reliably estimated that upwards of$10,000,000 has been loaned by the banks for this purpose. Foreign Three experts from abroad, one, Mr. E Cooperative Briand Claussen from Denmark, invited by Experts the N.E .C., Mr. C. F. Strickland, for many years registrar of cooperatives in the Punjab, India, invited by the Universities' Committe.e (British Boxer Indemnity), and Dr. W.M. Stevens, at one time principal organization expert of the U.S. Federal Farm Board, are now in China observing cooperatives at first hand and advising on matters of organization. Mr. Strickland also fills the professorship established at the University of Nanking as a result of a contribution by the Shanghai Commercial & Savingis Bank, the purpose being to develop a personnel with the technical equipment necessary for organizers and auditors of coope.ratives. Marketing While the cooperative movement so far and Storage is predominantly of the credit variety, e.xCooperative perime.nts are being made in other fields. For example in Suiyuan and around Nanking, cooperative storage is being attempted in order to enable farmers to avoid sacrificing their crops immediately after harvest. In Hopei, cooperative marketing_

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COOPERATIVE UNIONS 291 of cotton has shown progressive development. The first attempt was made in 1932 when 104 bales were marketed by the cooperators, the proceeds being $4,300 and the credits involved being limited to$1,000. In 1934, the quantity was in excess of 6,400 bales with a value in excess of $371,000. By this method of marketing the farmers were able to avoid a local broker's tax and so to control the quality of their product that experimenting brokers purchased nearly half of the total quantity direct. The Nankai University, the Mass Education Movement and the Kincheng Banking Corporation have associated them selves for the promotion of research and the training of personnel for the developing of improved seed, marketing, insurance and warehousing, especially in connection with cotton. Cooperative Unions 'l'he development of cooperative societies contemplates the cooperation of the. E>ocie ties themselves in the formation of unions. A union is limited in size principally by convenience of communication and begin!'! with the affiliation of the cooperative societies in a few nearby villages. So far, of the 1,456 societies in Hopei, indicated above, about onethird of the.m are affiliated in 67 unions. Similar grouping is developed in other provinces. During 1934, the union in Shentsi, Hopei, was expanded to cover the entire hsien by that name, being the first of its kind. The. growth of the movement has shown such an acceleration during the past two years that experts and many of those closest to the work feel that at the moment attention should be diverted from expansion to the technique of administra tion and control. Training in The C.I.F.R.C.,<-banks and other organiza Cooperatives tions interested in cooperatives hope to develop by means of the courses being offered in the University of Nanking material for junior organizers and auditors. From the juniors will in time, b(I selected those who will take senior responsibility PAGE 328 292 BENEVOLENT AGENCIES for provincial unions On Feb. 16, 1934, the Legislative Yuan passed the National Cooperatives' Law defining cooperatives in general and as to special classes, laying down the rules as to membership qualifications of mem bers, liabilities and indicating slightly the procedure to be observed. However the effective date has not been fixed Hence the law can be considered as educative rather than ma.ndatory Chinese Benevolent Agencies As stated in the 1932 YEAR BooK a vast amount of benevolent work is done in China by purely native agencies which, for the mo&t part, concern themselves with the ''doorstep'' variety of relief, leaving disasters of a scale beyond the confines of a single province to be dealt with by governmental agencies. 'rhe pre-occupation of the government with the problems of mere existence and with political expediency make it very difficult for the national er provincial governments to prepare themselves in advance for the emergencies which experience shows are bound to recur every few years. For this reason, the China Inte rnational Pamine Relief Commission was planned to act as a permanent society ready with a per sonnel and a technique to handle emergencies a& they arise, and to keep its organization in a high state of morale by executing works of prevention during the relatively few years intenening between disasters. Relief Funds Raised in China Up to t he present, the C.I.F.R.C has been forced to operate for the most part with funds rai s ed during the existence of a disaster. As a ce1-tain portion of such funds always arrives too late for application to the relier of the disaster for which it is intended, ad interim activi ties of the C.I.F.R.C. have occupied a large part of its history. Due to world depr e ssion, funds from abroad have virtually ceased, hence the C.I.F.R.C. has been forced to consider the development of adequate local support. PAGE 329 SUPPORT OF RELIEF WORK 293 The year 1934 saw the planning, and a brief testing of the pla:ifs adopted for such support. Popular The plan adopted envisages a mode8t annual Support contribution from regular supporters through-out the country. While large sums are ac cepted, the typical contribution solicited is$1 or $2 with opportunity given to school children, laborers' guilds and the like to combine many small contributions into a few dollars for the entire group. Only a small permanent staff is required to keep up the organization. The actual work of solicitation is done by groups of volunteers, these groups being made up of a representative from each institution within the area under organization. By the use of the method just described, the American Red Cross at small eA-pense was able to mobilize as supporters be tween twenty and forty per cent of thei entire adult pop ulation of the United States-the higher percentage, of course, responding during years when spectacular disas ters had rendered the public more conscious of need. It is believed that by careful and persistent organization with full publicity of account&, both as to receipts an PAGE 330 294 DROUGHT Drought of 1934 The summer of 1934 was accompanied by severe drought in the Yangtze Valley. Official estimates give the area affected as equal roughly to 30,000 sq. miles involving a population of between 12 and 15 million The crop loss is estimated as upwards of four hundred million while there was no loss of life or of other property such as is common in cases of flood, these figures show the drought of 1934 to be, equal in extent and in crop loss to about half the flood of 1931. Droughts are not so spectacular as floods and do not, therefore, command the same public attention Furthermore, the population affected is situated in the more pro.sperous portions of the country and adjacent to areas well supplied with foodstuffs. The fir&t crop of the year, was about normal in most regions and a certain amount of winter vegetables can a1so be produced. Nevertheless, as was foreseen in the early autumn, the end of the years saw the highland regions of the Yangtze provinces approaching an acute stage of food shortage. Provincial Drought Relief The drought in America rendered impos sible any repetition of the 1931 wheat loan and the national budget did not permit of any considerable assistance from the Central Treasury. For the most part, the problem of meeting the situation was left to the provinces and these, to a very considerable e;xtent, were attempting at the end of the year to float loans by which to pay laborers on conservancy and highway programs, thus following in general the plan followed by the National Flood Relief Commission in 1931. In addition, at the instance of the Government Famine Relief Bureau, an Inter-Provincial Famine Relief Associa tion was formed to solicit funds and administer free relief. This Commission was barely organized and had only begun its work of relief at the end of the year. The account of its activities must appear, if at all, in future issues of the YEAR BOOK. PAGE 331 TRENDS IN RELIEF 295 Summary If the two years 1933-34 be reviewed for the purpose of detecting trends, two of major signi ficance are fairly manifest. The :first of these is the increas ing willingness of the Government to take responsibility for relief in case of large disasters. The second is the development of public activity toward prevention meas ures. Of the prevention measures, major attention seems to have been given to the development of financial resources in the country-side through the use of cooperative credit societies, although the planning of future conservancy measures to be executed when funds are available has received a good start in the province of Shansi and at the hands of the National Economic Council. If, however, the work of the National Economic Council on river con servancy and highway construction be taken into considera tion, actual physical prevention work has received an equally great impetus during the past biennial period. Nor should there be overlooked an important development in private enterprise which ultimately will have probably an even greater effect in the mitigation of suffering during natural calamities. A reliable authority states that for purposes of highway construction, river conservancy, irrigation projects, establishment<; of power plants, water works and for agricultural relief, loans totalling upwards of$150,000,000 were floated through the Shanghai banks during the year 1934. In November alone such loans as were consummated agg-regated $18.000.000 while other loans totalling approximately$36,000,000 were under negotia tion. This great interest taken by the metropolitan :financial concerns in projects promoting interior safe.t.y and prosperity is a most encouraging sign in the econom ic outlook and portends an increasing comfort and safety for the Chinese masses.

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CHAPTER XXVHI CHINA'S COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT c F. STRICKLAND Need for In the. course of the last ten years the:' need Cooperatives for a genuine and wide-spread movement of cooperative organization among Chinese farmers and the less wealthy classes of the towns has becom~ increasingly felt. Attempts to start such a move ment have been made in a number of provinces. The farmer's poverty is due to several causes : the uncertainty of the seasons; national disasters by flood, famine and war; uneven and sometimes severe taxation; and the lack of reasonable facilities for selling his c rops or for borTowing money whenever 110. must borro,v Meanwhile the road and the railway bring within his reach a host of petty luxuries which he can barely afford 'fhere is a danger that h.is .standard of living may rise while his meth ods of production remain unchanged. The consequence will be unhappiness and debt. A large part, moreover, of what has here been said applies with equal force to the townsman, the temptation t o undue expenditure be ing in his case greater. Favoring The experience of other com1tries, and in Conditions particular of Japan and India, proves that ,vhere the people are a s in China, industriom ; and thrifty, and provided that the necessary education in cooperative methods and principles is given by the gover~a ment or by a competent private body, cooperative societies of various kinds can flourish and be of great service. China is less embarrassed than Japan by congestion of population and subdivision of farms, and is fortunately free from those religious and caste quarrels which impede every na tional effort in India. There should, therefore, be every hope of s:uccess, The Chinese family syste111 11;, a valu,able

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OHIGIN OP COOPERATIVES 297 boud, holding tog ether the members of the village com nrnnity, and creating a sense of joint. interest and respon sibility such as cooperation demands. 'l'he improvement of communication,<; makes easier the collection and transport of agricultural produce or the finished goods of rural craftsmen, which can then be sold in bulk, pooled and processed as may be required, in the larger markets. The goverlll11ents national and provincial, are eager to aid the work of economic recon.struction, and the commercial banks have shown a remarkable readiness, unique in the history of cooperation, to organize and finance the societies if they can do so without undue risk to the money in their charge. Unfavorable 'l'here is, no doubt, another side to the Conditions picture. Both the farmer and the poorer townsman are, as a rule, illiterate; and though illiterate men may be intelligent,, they cannot keep accounts nor (still more important) can they be instructed by means of pamphlets and written pI'opaganda. The personnel for oral teaching o: cooperation throughout the country has not been trained, and cooperative societies guided by an untrained personnel may go astray. The local gentry are not al-ways disposed to play a benevolent part when they see their weaker neighbours trying to help themselves, and the task of an organizer may be rendered more difficult by their activities. Origin and Despite these obstacles, progress has been Growth of made, and in recent years has become. rapid; Cooperatives perhaps dangerously rapid. The first society, a savings bank, was organized in Shanghai in 1919 by Professor Hsueh Hsien-chu of Futan University, but no appreciable advance took place unt.il in 1924 the China International Famine Relief Commission, having studied the economic condition of many rural areas, drew up a model fonn of constitution and simple account books, and issued the first loans to eig -ht small credit societies from its own funds. From that date onwards the expan sion in Hopei has been steady, U11til at the; end of 1934 there were 1250 societies, 500 of which had been '' recogniz-

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298 COOPERATIVE AGENCIES e.'' by the Commission i .e. considered sufficiently stable to receive a loan from the money provided for this purpose by the Commission itself or the commerical banks. Certain of the "unrecognized" societies have obtained loans from banks on the recommendation of the Commission, while others are strnggling on with their own resources or are inactive. The membership of 1250 societies is ap proximately 25,000 persons, the owned capital (share money, deposits, and accumulated reserves) about $150,000, and the loans held from the Commission and from banks are in the neighbourhood of$335,000.1 General Cooperative Agencies The Commission has been engaged in the promotio n of the cooperative movement in several other provinces which were affected by the great Yangtze flood, and has similarly supplied organizing staff and supervising ability to the government of famine-stricken Shensi. In these areas, however, the funds to finance the societies have been pro vided largely by the state, and since other orga.uizing forces have also been at work, it is not possible to dis tinguish between the societies formed by one institution and by another. All rank alike on the official register. The usual procedure in these provinces, where coopbration is being introduced in consequence of a large-scale dis aster, has been to create elementary mutual aid'' groups which receive the first advances, and subsequently to convert them, if the.y desire, into registered cooperatives. The experience of the China International Famine Relief Com mission in Hopei was of great value at the time of urgent expansion in the regions in question; but other agencies are now in the field. Agricultural Banks Three of these agencies deserve particular notice The provision of funds by the central government for provinces afflicted by special calamities has already been described Another step in the same direction was taken by the Government of 1. Approximate figares are given in order to be more intelligible to the genral reader. All figures are in silver currency.

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AGRICULTURAL BANKS 299 Kiangsu in 1928, when an Agricultural Bank2 was set up under official management, and financed from the proceeds of a special tax. In 1929 the Chekiang Government en trusted funds to a commercial bank in Hangchow for a similar purpose. Cooperative societies, chiefly of credit, were rapidly formed in both provinces in the following years, but the lack of trained personnel led to difficulties, and though a revision of policy brought about some im provement, there is still a marked inequality in the coopera tive standards of the better and the worse societies. The latest available returns show a total of some 2000 societies in Kiangsu and over 1000 in Chekiang. A.n '' Agricultural Bank of Four Provinces'' was founded in Hankow in 1933, and is financing many of the Kiangsi societies through the official Cooperative Committee in Nanchang; its activity in the other provinces of the central Yangtze and in Shensi is less important but is growing. Cooperative committees in Kiangsi, Hunan, I-lupeh and A.nhwei, and a Cooperative Bureau in Shensi, are official groups which employ or ganizers of societies on behalf of the local governme nts, and (with the exception of the Kiangsi Committee, which ad ministers a lump sum placed in its hands by the Agricultural Bank) re.commend the societies to commercial banks as deserving of financial assistance. The committees or ganize every kind of society, but are inclined to prefer, wh@.re conditions allow, the Utilization Society which is primarily intended for land improvement, but may, accord ing to its constitution, undertake almost any operation from a consumers' shop to collective farming Mass The second of the three agencies is that Education of the Mass Education Movements, among Cooperatives which Tinghsien in Hopei holds the leading place, but which are scattered all over China. A. mass educatici'n association aims at rural reconstruction 2. The English title, commonly used for this institution, is tho ''Farmers' Bank,'' a name not known in other countries. An '' Ag;icultural Bank'' is a term understood throughout the world.

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300 BANKS AND COOPERATIVES of every economic and social kind. 'l'he cooperative socie ties which it promotes are apt, therefore, to be ambitious, and to include in their program a great variety of objects. Complicated societies of this sort may, like the utilization societies mentioned above, be beyond the power of farmers to manage, and. the assistance of officials in the one case, and of the philanthropic educators in the. other, may for a long while be indispensable. Banks and The third cooperative force is that of the Cooperatives Chinese. commercial banks. The attitude of the commercial banker in most parts of the world towards the small farmer, even in cooperative groups, is one of pl'ofound distrust. Neither the material security nor the moral integrity which a village cultivator can offe,r, ordinarily satisfy the commercial man of the towns, who is accustomed to short-term bmiiness and to the handling of industrial goods. The position in China is peculiar in this respect. The banks of Shanghai, Tientsin and other major! towns which have received large deposits from the disturbed rural areas, and which are undoubtedly anxious also on patriotic grounds to improve the condition of the agriculttu'al population and enhance the. nation's productive power, have shown a remarkable readiness to finance the cooperative societies and have themselves undertaken their organization. There are clangers in such a development. Urban banks are not always equipped with a knowledge of rural matters; still less have they a familiarity with the principles of cooperation or a trained staff who can guide the fan11ers in their application. The pro vision of such a staff is the most urgent need of the moment. Nevertheless, if the question of. method can be answered, the finance required by the cooperative farmer is available, and there will be no further need for the Chinese governmentS:, central or provincial, to impose taxation or raise costly internal loans in order to place money in the farmer's hands.

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Extent and Number of Cooperatives NUMBER OF COOPERATIVES 301 Other institutions have also occupied them selves with cooperative work-universities, churches, associations for civic improve ment etc. IJ.'hus though exact records are not everywhere maintained, there may be as many as 10,000 cooperative societies in China at the encl of 1934, and a continuous increase is still taking place. In addi tion to cooperative societies (not all of which are registered in accordance with the law), there are some thousands of mutna.l aid groups, which are likely to be converted and reg istered in the near future. Thei commonest type is every where the credit society, with a membership usually of twenty or thirty farmers and a working capital, owned and bonowed, of $1000 or$2000. Sha res are small, ranging from $1 to$20, but in the be.tter s ocieties a system of monthiy savings deposits is gradually teaching thrift to the members and reducing t.he necessity of external borrowing. The experience of India and other cotmtries with a large peasant population indicates that ten years of sound man agement and thrift will place a village society in a position to provide most if not all of the money required for recurrent needs. In the meantime, seasonal or sometimes longer term loans from the banks enable the leaders of each little group to finance their members for productive or domestic objects, and to relieve them. from. new dealings with the money lender. Old debts of course. can only be eleared off by an effort sustained throughout a series of years. Marketing Societies Next in order of popularity is the marketing society, and sifilce this type can offer to a financing institution a lien on warehoused produce, it is naturally one which the commercial banks will readily accommodate. whereas in fact, the advances made to credit societies often bear a rate of interest as high as 14.4% per annum (12 per mille in a month), the rate on. money lent to a marketing society may rule as low as 8 or 9 % per annum. The marketing societies, partly on this account and partly in order to attract the farmers, have beg"lln to g-rant credits for crop-production

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302 CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVES in competition with the credit societies : an arrangement adverse to the growth of a strong credit system and contrary to the wiser practices of marketing soc ieties abroad. The credit societies, or the unions which village societies have begun3 to form in a hsien or a chit, are in their turn attempting the business of marketing; and though on grounds of principle a credit body may more suitably extend its functions to marketing than vice versa, there are serious disadvantages in such an extension of function in China, on grounds of accountancy and of technical efficiency. The best marketing societies are under careful man agement, and promise to confer great benefits on the pro ducer, grading and proc e ssing his cotton grain, or fruit, and selling it in bulk to the wholesaler The cotton-selling societies in Shensi province. are an example of such a development. China suffers from an adverse balance of trade, is losing her export markets for silk and tea, and is importing wheat, cotton and rice, which she is capable of producing herself An organization of production and of marketing on an improved plan will go far to restore the balance, and the cooperative method is the most effective. and practicable where the small farmer is concerned. Marketing societies may at present number only one hundred, but the area and membe.rship of such a society may be comparatively large and a comparison of numbers with the credit &ocietie.s is therefore irrelevant Consumers' Consumers' shops in the towns, on the Cooperatives western model, are few and not always prosperous. It is difficult to hold the loyalty of unrelated individuals in China, and the best shops have been those in a college or similar institution which creates a sense of common interest. Village credit societies, on the other hand, are operating retail shops in several provinces and the "supply unions" in the liberated areas of Kiangsi have sometimes enjoyed almost a monopoly of trade. There may be a future before such cooperative 3. The C.I.F.R.C. organization in Hopei, for instance, has now 61 stteh unions.

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LAW AND COOPER.A. TIVES 303 shops in the countryside, whether they limit themselves, as usually in Italy, to distributive business as a shop, or extend also, as in Ireland, to the marketing of the mem bers' produce. 'l'he combined duty, undertaken in some Kiangsi localities, is complicated, though it economizes staff and office space. The conduct of shops, however, by the credit societies is not advisable, and is contrary to the world's experience. A shop should be separately registered from a credit society, and should carry its own risks. Utilization Another type, advocated by the official Societies Cooperative Committees of Kiangsi, Hupeh, and some adjoining Yangtze provinces, is the Utilization Society. The object is to improve land by irrigation, drainage or afforestation, or to arrange its joint tenancy and cultivation on economic lines. It is hoped by these means to reconcile the antagonism of the landlord and the tenant, which was exploited so vigorously by the Communists while in power. The utilization societies share with certain other types a tendency to embark on too many ventures at once, but may make a great con tribution to rural development if they attempt only one thing, such as the farmers themselves can manage. Law and The Chinese Government has prudently Cooperatives prepared a law to govern the cooperative societies, though it has not yet been declared in force. The experience of the last two years appears to indicate that, while the law is in its essentials well and wisely conceived, Isome amendments may be advisable There is, for instance, no provision for the audit of societies. Throughout the rest of the world cooperative societies are annually audited, but no audit is performed in China Rural accounts are simple, and the training of rural audi ters will not be expensive or advanced. Registration of The registration of societies is another Cooperatives duty of government, and the provincial authorities are tending to entrust thi& duty to a special bureau at the provincial headquarters, in order to se. cure a more skilled examination of the socie-

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304 GOVERNMENT AND COOPERA'l'IVES ties' rules than can be made by the hsi en magistrates. '11his too is a wise step, and the formation of a cooperative bureau in every province for registration and supervision is now desirable. In some cases the provincial government also employs an organizing staff, but while this course may be unavoidable in the e.arly stages of the movement, it seems unnecessary in China to build up a large officiai staff for the control of the societies. Superior control must rest in the hands of government, but the ordinary organizer who moves among the farmers may be non-official, employed by the cooperative unions, local or provincial, or by the banks and such private bodies as the China International Famine Relief Commission. Government Aid to Cooperatives Government aid in finance should seldom be required. An mrnsi.rnl disaster by flood, famine or wars, may make the banks un willing to enter a given area., and there is then no alternative to official financing of relief, whether in a cooperative or other form. But normally the banks appear ready to assist a well organized society, and a business-like management of the societies will be better promoted by a commercial than by an official agency. Rural departments have been created in the Bank of China, the Kincheng Banking Cooperation, the Shanghai Com mercial and Savings' Bank and several other establishments; and credit., marketing, supply and utilization soc ieties, if satisfactory, are being assisted from Hopei to Canton. The difficulties in the way are:-( 1) the lack of a fully trained personnel for work in the villa.ges ;4 (2) the imperfect organization m1d teaching of many of the societies which desire to borro,v; and (3) a tencle.ncy, in the bank..i, to judge rural credit by urban standards, and to demand from farmers a form of security and of behaviour which rural conditions rencler impossible. The remedy for all these evils is teaching a.nd more teaching. Cooperation calls for deep study of rural conditions in 4 This lack has been realized, and steps are being taken to train and employ men of higher qualificatioB.S.

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CON'l'ROL OF COOPERATIVES 305 China, of cooperative achievements elsewhere and of the meaning of cooperation in itself. And wherever it is found or believed that a real cooperative method cannot be applied, it is legitimate to apply a different method, but not then to register the body, so organized, under the cooperative law. Organization and Control of Cooperatives If the Government is responsible, for legislation and the general control of a national movement, and if the banks are willing to finance a sound society, who is to organize it, educate it, and make it such as the banks can finance1 Not the Government itself; for a cooperative society must be voluntarily formed and dem ocratically managed, and the authoritative tone of a government senant may lead to the formation of groups which a.re not spontaneous, and may also rob them of their independent juclgment. Nor again the banks; for their preoccupation must be with the safety of their money, and important though this consideration is, it should not block out from the view the less material values of coop erative working the strengthening of individual character, the teaching of thrift, and the practice of a democratic management of common village affairs The right body, as the world's experience shows, to organize and educate and supervise the societies is a superior cooperative institu tion resting on the societies themselves, supported by them either wholly or within the limit of their means, and aided with financial grants by the Government and the banks if its own resources are inadequate.. A Provincial Cooperative Institute might include as its members all the societies and local unions of that province, and sympathetic individuals from the universities or other bodies which favour a cooperative movement a11Cl understand its nature. The advice and participation of such persons will be very valuable to the representatives of the societies on the di recting board. The societies would then be registered ( and when necessary de-registerecl) by the Government, organize.cl, educated, audited and inspected by the staff of the Institute, and financed by the banks on the strength

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306 VILLAGE INDUSTRIES of the audit reports and other infonnation supplied by the Institute, together with any other data which the banks might prefer to collect directly. If the staff of the Institute was well trained an
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COOPERATIVE UNIONS 307 Self-government in the village is an excellent training for self-government in the nation. Cooperative At present, however, the zeal of cooperative Unions promoters is not always tempered with knowledge or judgment. Organizers have to be trained by men who know how to teach them and what to teach. The individual organizer has then to be posted in the centre of a g-roup of societies, so that he may be come familiar with their conditions and they with his teaching. The societies will then form unions, and the banks, it is to be hoped, will finance the unions rather than the single societies. A cooperative bureau in each province and in the Central Government will watch the observance of the law and encourage the establishment of the higher cooperative institutions All these developments require patience and time, but that is no argument for postponing the first steps They cost very little money, and whereas a national edifice of cooperation may be constructed on a sound foundation, it cannot stand on a basis of enthusiasm alone Wisely planned, there is no reason why cooperation should not be as successful in China as in any country of the world.

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CHAPTER XXIX LABOUR PROBLEM8 CORA DENG Industrialization Industrialization in China is producin China ing ill effects similar to those which have accompanied it in the West. These are the unavoidable results of a sy:;tem of large scale produc tion motivated by profit and using competitive methods to the disadvantage of workers. Factory As yet industrialization in China is not ex Workers tensive The J.933 CHINA LABOUR YEAR BooK sets the total number of factory workers (i e those in establishments which employ 30 workers and use power) at 786 716, in 22 trades, in 2187 factories in 22 provinces ( 1) In the same year there were 200,7 43 miners. (2) Railway workers number 81,448: postal workers 21,076. (3) Despite this comparatively small degree of indus trialization the problems already created are grave, aggra vated by the fact that China is both in a semi-feudal and semi-colonial stage of political and economic development. A combination of the s e consideni.ti ons has produced hard sfiip for workers. China's During the past two years the outstanding Depression issues for labour have derived from the world depression in general and the economic maladjustment in which the semi-colonial China finds it.self Disadvantage in exchange vis-a-vis Japan on the one hand, and the lack of sufficient capital and absence of good man agement in Chinese factories on the other together with an unfavourable tax position have made it impossible for the products of Chinese factories to compet e with certain *The figures in parentheses refer to ieferenees at the end of the chapter

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UNEMPLOYMENT 30!) overseas' goods, while some of these factors a1so operate in respect of competition with foreign-owned and-managed enterprises in China. The situation is rendered the more serious since collapse of rural economy in China, due to high rents, war, heavy taxation, usury and decline in the price of agricultural products, has made it impossible for the products of factories to be purchased in the provinces. From these causes the industrial workers are suffering severely. The facts enumerated above explain the number of strikes, dismissals, lockouts and wage reductions which have been features of recent months in the silk, cotton, match flour and rubber shoe industries. Unemployment In the absence of reliable sources it is impossible to ascertain the extent of in dustrial unemployment, which general observation reveals has increased during the past two years. There is always in China the situation of "underemployment" aggravated by recent conditions to serious lmemployment Figures varying from just under one million in 1933 as quoted by the Clmng Hwli Er Pao, (March 4, 1933) to as high as 12,000,000 given by the LABOUR YEAR BOOK are given. ( 4) An interesting tabulation has been made of causes of un employment in 11 pro.vinces and municipalities, 24 dis tricts and 62 trades of 29,015 cases of unemployment This analysis is of value not as sho,ving the extent of unemployment, but revealing, within the sample which these :figures represent, the proportions of people affected by varying factors. Causes Depression Strikes Dismissals Changes in occupation Laziness Seasonal Physical reasons Not being able to fit into environment Total No. of Persons 18,923 2,642 2,386 1,698 1,122 961 781 502 29,015 Percentage 65.3% 9.2% 8.3% 5.9% 3.9% 3.3% 2.7% 1.4% 100.00 (5)

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310 Unemployment Among Cotton. Workers UNEMPLOYMENT Eighty-seven percent of unemployment analyzed proved to be among cotton workers. This is an indication of the seriousness of the situation in this, one of the most significant of Chinese industries. Though there was an actual increase in the number of Chinese cotton mills built and spindles installed during 1933 and 1934, the industry has not been able to work the equipment full time. It has been necessary eithe:, to reduce the number of spindles in operation or to suspend shifts, both policies contributing seriously to workers' reduced earning capacity. Unemployed Some :figures are obtainable in other Silk Workers industries to indicate the position In the two provinces of Kiangsu and Chekiang in 1930 there were 181 silk :filatures with 44,823 reels. By August 1933 only 107 we.re operating and by September 1934 only 71 were running with 18,570 reels. In Shanghai in August 1933 there were 55 out of 100 :filatures in operation : by September in 1934 the number had been re duced to 23, 32 being closed in little over a year. (6) This produced unemployment for 60,000 persons in Shanghai and possibly as high as 600, 000 in. the two provinces. (7). Unemployed l\fatchworkers have faced a serious situa Matchworkers tion a1so. There were in 1930, 185 factories operating in various parts of the country and enjoying 7 /10 of the market. (8,) But since 1930 increased taxation and competition from Japanese factories in China, which operate at lower costs and with higher efficiency, have caused factories in Tientsin, Taiyuan, Shanghai and Canton to close or decrease working time (9) A similiar predicament has faced rubber shoe in dustries. In 1932 there were 50 factories of this type in Shanghai. By 1934 the membership of the Rubber Manufacturers' Association had decreased to 35. (10) Several factories have suspended operation and othel'S have greatly reduce.cl the piece work price per pair of shoes madefrom a former 7 cents to 31/z cents per pair. One hosiery

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HOURS OF WORK 311 factory reduced its rates from 22-25 cents per dozen pairs of stockings made, by 4 cents per dozen. Others yet again have reduced production. Workers in communication services are the only ones whose employment see.ms to be little affected Hours As yet in China there has not been achieved of Work limitation on hours of work. Workers in a strong period of unionization raised protests and demanded shortened hours, but there has been little lasting effect. Despite the extreme tiredness and result for the health of workers which accompany long hours, the necessity of earning every cent that is possible for the family income induces many not only to put up with, but even to ask for, long hours Silk In the silk industry reelers usually work 11 Industry hours. Depression has, however, reduced these hours to from 6 to 8 per day with correspond ing de.crease in earning. Skeiners have easier work and receive higher remuneration. '!'here are two rest days in the month. Cotton Cotton mill workers continue to work gen Industry erally an 111/z or 12 hours' day or night: the half hour difference is occasioned by some mills permitting workers to leave machines for a meal interval of half an hour, others not so permitting One mill in Tientsin experimented in recent years with three eight-hour shifts per day. Examples were found of the old device of workers presenting themselves at two shifts, which is in itself an indication of pressing family needs. The ex periment was abandoned during the cotton industry crisis of 1933 Changes of shift occur at intervals of seven or ten days At the change the mill is idle for 12 hours. Under the device of making even the number of hours worked by the day and night shifts per week, employers are able to g e.t another shift worked each week. Workers in some mills do not even have a full 24 hours for a rest clay, since examples are known of the night shift having

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312 MINING INDUSTRY to work as late as 9 a.m. or 12 noon instead of 6 a.m. on the so-called rest day. This cxtm wol'k is d0i1e without pay. Other The hosiery trade has been accustomed to work Trades 11 hours per day. Recent developments have instituted two shifts of approximately 8 hours. In the match industry a 12 hours' day is usual. Flour mill workers also work for 12 hours. In the chemical. trades hours very from 10 to 12, while printers may work from 9 to as long as 15 hours daily. Mining In the mining industry there are two kinds Industry of workers. '' Outside ,vorkers'' are those under contractors, without direct relation to the mining company. In theory their hours are 8 per shift: three shifts are worked each 24 hours But it is known that hours represents the time actually underground. Preparations and worlq at the end of a ,shift are not included therein : thus the actual length of the shift may be as long as ten hours ( 11) "Inside workers," those directly employed by the company, are skilled workers whose working hours aggregate 9% per day. Long To sum up, in general, men, women and children Hours in China work for 10 to 12 hours a day. Such long hours menace the health of workers, especially children. The burden falls most hardly on women who have night work, since during the day they have to cook, wash and mend for their families, and economize on their sleep to do so. How bitter a fate for the workers of China! And for cultural life as yet there is for them no place! Wages There have been few studies made during the past two years in the wage field, and the country as a whole still lacks reliable and comprehensive informa tion on the subject. Railway and post-office employers are more adequately and regularly paid tlum those in other

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WAGES 313 occupations. Average wages from $15 to$40 on various lines. (12). Postmen average $20 per month (13). In addi tion there is a homing bonus for postal workers. Miners' Minel's' wages vary according to whether they Wages are "inside wol"kers" directly employed by the company or '' outside workers'' employed by contractors. The average wages of the former is from 40 to 80 cents daily, while those, of the latter are from 30 to 40 cents. In 1933 miners in Pinghsiang had wages reduced to 15 cents per day. Where in addition short time was worked wages fell at times as low as$2 per month One mining company in North China in 1933 owed 8 months' wages to workers .Another in Anhwei owed half a. year's wages., and finally paid at 20-40% discount to the workers. Other forms -0f squeezing in wage pay ments are known, ,such as raising the val!ne of currency when paying: wages, exploitation at the hands of foremen, etc. (14). Shanghai Wage Rates vV age rates for Shanghai workers were studied by several investigators in 1930, but little later statistical information is available. A study of 100 Commercial Press families by J:t,ang Fu An in that year showed 36 families with an aver age annual income of from $100 to$300, and 54 in the $300$500 category. Only ten families received over $500 for the year, and in these cases other members of the family than breadwinners contributed Fifty percent of the fami lies had a deficit at the end of the year, a.nd only 38% had a surplus. The average deficit per family was$48 .57 which had to be met by pawning or borrowing at high rates of interest. (15). Industrial Workers' Wages Fang Fu-an 's second study of 100 families in Yang'tszepoo, the industrial section of Shanghai showed 31 families in receipt of $100-300 per year 34 having incomes ranging from$300 to $500, 21 from$500 to $700. The total family income of these 100 families averaged$431.42 per year, to which the male head contributed $122.40, sons PAGE 350 314 WAGE REDUCTIONS$197.28, daughters $40.92, wife$29.76, daughters-in-law $29.55. The male heads of no fewer than 95 of these families received less than$150 for a whole year's wage (16) Professor H. D. Lamson's study of 21 families in Yangtszepoo gave $9.30 per month as the average. earnings of 8 children,$12.60 per month as the average for 28 women, and $21.30 as that for 22 men. ( 17) W agoo for cotton spinners in 1930 averaged$15 .57 per month. Wage Some few figures are available to show the Reductions comparative wages for 1933. In Hankow the average for male workers in the cotton industry '\\'as $12 per month. (19) Cuts had then already begun and have been going on ove1 since. 1'hough no statistics are available for Shanghai for 1933-1934 it is known that wages of women have been reduced to from$3 to 8 per month. Even this small amount is affected by dis counts, doing away with bonus for regular attendance which has been in the past the method of obtaining Sunday attendance and corresponded to the Sunday wage. ln Shanghai and Wusih silk :filatnres wages in 1927 reached 60 cents per day: 40 cents now represents the maximum and in the absence of regular whole-day and whole-week work, the actual wages received each month are very low. Low In hosiery knitting rates have fallen from 80 _Wages cents to 30 cents per day per 'worker, due in part to the realignment of hours previously referred to in this industry, but providing for individual workers a tot.al wage so small that they can live but with difficulty. Piece work rates in this trade have already been referred tQ. Silk weaving, formerly a skilled trade and comparatively well paid at60 per month for men weavers and $40 for women, is now seriously affe c ted The rate per yard of silk ,voven ha,s in some cases been reduced from 81h cents to as low as 6 cents and from$3.04 to $2.88 per bolt woven and the monthly wage is correspondingly less. Figures are not available for other indUBtries, but here also close observers who know workers in various trades a.re only too poignantly aware of the straits in which workers are. PAGE 351 LIVING STANDARD 315 Security Mention has been made of methods of reducof Work ing-' 'squeezing'' from-worke.rs' wages, such as extending the. night shift without payment on the clay of change of shift in cotton mills Another is requiring workers to make a deposit of the first two weeks wages earned, amounting perhaps to from$7 to $10, as an earne s t of good behaviour, to be collected only upon the worker leaving the factory of his own accord. But there are many ways in which to dismiss a worker In North China one mill paid off workers in paper notes which were negotiable in factory shops where prices are higher than those of other stores! Fines are very common. Walking through a factory it is possible to see the names of workers posted on a bulletin board '' Two days with out wage for one day's absence without reason.' '' Break ing Rule No. 10, fin(I 10 cents." "Bad work-fine 20 cents .'' Workers seldom go through a month without a fine. The practice of paying a monthly percentage to the foreman for getting or keeping the job is a further drain on the meagre wages which shrink still further nearer the vanishing point. Standard of Living The general standard of living has fallen during the past two years, low though it always is in view of the low wage rates gen erally ruling Studie s of costs 9f living previow.;ly quoted agree in revealing that the male head of the family can in very few cases earn enough to support his children, (20) which is the explanation of much of the woman and child labor found. Total family earnings, are not suffic ient and there is recourse to the pawn shop and money lendeJ.'. Since rates for lending range from 30-60% per month it is small wonder that, once the practice of borrowing is begun it is impossible to escape from the clutches of the nsurer. Expenditure of Income Recent studies of th(I Ministry of Industries .show that workers need at least$27 per month. Other studies reveal that 54% is needed for food, 7% for clothing, 11 % for rent,

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316 WORKERS' HOUSES 9% for fuel and that 17% is essential for miscellaneous expenditure (21). The fuel item is for cooking (w:ltkers cannot have fuel for warmth!), bringing the food item to more than 63%. The bare. necegsities thus have taken up more than 88% leaving the small remaincler for purposes of health, recreation, education, gifts etc. Even these figures do not tell the whole story. Food is of a poor quality. One only out of the three meals can have fish or fresh vegetables: the others have salted cabbage or turnip to be eaten with the rice bowl. Two suit~ of cotton clothing is all that can under any circunwtances be afforded in each year. Women in factories are often somewhat better dressed: this is a factor in their keep ing their jobs with the foreman! During the past year very few wor kers known to the writer have had new clothes! Housing 'I'he housing of workers in the cities, due to of Workers the high price of land, is terribly congested If workers, for the salrn of cheapness, live on the outskirts of the city, they occupy small boats on low evil smelling creeks, or mud huts. Into the surroundings of the&e at least the sun can sometimes penetrate. If they live close to their work they must occupy houses in li's provided by factories at a rent of from $4 to$6 per month, or single rooms or lofts in other li's. Here the conditions are terribly bad, aggravated by the fact that light and air can seldom penetrate into the inner rooms and lofts partitioned off from access to the window space. Sickness Fed with mrnutritious food, housed under filthy conditions, and overfatigued by long hours, the incidence of sickness is high. When a worker becomes ill, there is very little margin. It is small wonder that sickness and death rates are high and that there is misery for the families of workers cut off from earning. Health Except in factories which are housed in Conditions modern buildings specially built for the pur-pose, health conditions are in most instances appalling. Premises are often ill-venti~ated and ill-

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WORKING CONDITIONS 317 lighted: sanitary prov.isions are of the poorest: overcrowd ing reaches a condition of congestion which is almoot in credible and is the chief factor militating against improve ments Working In both silk reeling processes and cotton Conditions spinning and weaving workers are subjected to a high degree of humidity. In silk reeling this condition arises from the many open basins from which steam continually arises, bleaching the hands of workers the while In cotton w e aving a1~tificially humidified atmosph e res are ne{cled for the p r oduct. 'l'h e results of both situations are debilitating for wo1ke rs. In cotton processes cotton fluff flying in the air enters the pulmonary passages of workers, and affe c :ts also th e eyes Add to this the long standing at ma.chines, the deafening noise of the machinery and it will be realized that if prosperity is attained in the cotton industry i t is at the expense of workers Lighting Inadequate or unsuitable lighting which is very common in small silk weaving factories or machine shops has many untoward results. ,Vork has frequently to be carried on by artificial light which may either be blinding in its glare or insufficient. In either case there is the obvious effect on the eyesight which is knO'wn to suffer greatly, especially in the fine silk processes. And both aspects of poor light contribute to the incidence of accident5 on machines or by falls where more suitable light ing would have revealed the hazards and possibly obviated the occurrence. Toilet Toilet facilities except in modern factories Facilities in areas where sewers have been installed are exceedingly poor. Where houses have been converted to factories it is obvious that no provision in advance for toilet accommodation for numbers of persons has been made, and make-shift accommodation is invariably bad. In very few factories are there washing facilities, though washing before eating is laid down in the codes of many countries as precaution against certain known in-

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318 DISEASES AND ACCIDENTS dustrial disease risks. Some factories have, a room where luncheon may be taken, but in the majority workers have to eat beside machines, on the stainvays, or on the roadside. Occupational Diseases Little definite study has been done as yet in China upon this subject, though experi ence elsewhere insists that workers using white phosphorus in the manufacture of matches are exposed to necrosis of the jaw: those in printing shops and the painting industry may acquire lead poisoning: those in glas'.l works using sand may become victims of silicosis and suffer from lung affections: those in the increasing number of chromium plating workshops may have the septum of the nose ea.ten away. These are but typical hazards which extend into many more industrie'.l. vVork ers who become ill from occupational causes and perhaps die mean families without the normal support of the breadwinner. Prevention of occupational disease is possible,. Red phosphorus may be substituted for white and the risk be eliminated: lead poisoning may be evaded by keeping type boxes dusted by exhaust and insisting on the washing of hands before meals: in chromium plating, wodrers should wear protective aprons and gloves while an efficient exhaust should be fitted to the plating tank to re move the noxious fumes. But as yet in China little attention has been given to these problems, and no public opi.11. ion insists on change of conditions. rendering occupational disease possible Accidents Accidents which occur a.re another form of the tremendous sacrifice which Chinese workers make in modern industrial processes. Few studieG have yet been made. In 1934, however, out of 1788 cases reported to and investigated by the Shanghai Municipal Council, 112 were fatal. (22) 'fhese figures are not totals, but the analysis of the causes of the samples which they represent probably indicates the position. The general style of Chinese clothing is &hown to be quite unsuited to modern machine work. The long loose sleeve, the shirt (coat) loose at the waist line, the trouser reaching ouly

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CHILD LABOR 319 half way down the leg and, being wide, projecting, and the loose cut of the trouser and the habit of folding it in front aro all found, by the sad process of actual accident, to have contributed to social loss for the individuals con cerned. Bad lighting as a cause of accident has already been referred to. Insufficient knowledge of the explosive potentialities of chemical substances, poor electrical in stallation and ignorance of the possibilities of electric shock have taken their toll. Fatigue plays an important part. While workers work such long hours their atten tion in repetitive machine processes must flag, with result ing accident. 1.i-,ew machines are effectively guarded, and then the clothing and fatigue factors have full sway in causing bitter results. As with occupational disease, social loss from accidents is largely preventable. Though com pensation may be paid, what substitute is this for the skill of a worker lost forever, or what comfort to a family deprived of its means of support 7 First Aid Measures First aid assistance is available in only few factories W"hlle major accident cases may be sent to hospital for attention, minor injuries are often tended by the workers themselves, fre quently inducing poisoning of an original lesion In re cent depression periods wages have been behind-hand, and medical care even to a lesser extent than formerly is pro vided or paid for, with the result that when accidents occur there is less possibility of the worker making a satisfactory recovery. Child Labor Child labor is still a curse in this land. In silk spinning there is some hope of the elimina tion of ,.vork of children with the discarding of the older system and the substitution of more modern methods which the demand for more even quality of silk is dictating and facilitating. But in the cotton spinning industry hope from this direction is impossible. Only by government action can child labor, which continues as long as that of adults, be forbidden.

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320 CONTRACT SYSTEM Contract System 'l'Le contract system, obtaining especially in Japanese mills, constitutes virtual slavery. A Chinese eontractor goes to the country, pays to the relatives of a girl worker a sum of $20 to$30 dollars, brings the girl to the city, and is then entitled to her full wages for a period of from three to four years. The contractor m1dertakes to provide lodging, food and clothing. The lodging is cro-wded and dirty beyond descrip tion, the rice is of the poorest grade, with vegetables merely the di,scard of the vegetable sellers. On day shifts the meals are one of hard rice and one of soft ric~. On night shift there is one of soft rict'>, and othel'wise girls are given 6-12 coppers for the midnight meal. Instead of using it thus, however, the coppers a.re saved to buy shoc.s and .stockings. The contractor gives one sL1it of clothing to each girl for summer wear and one for winter: but unless supplemented by clothing brought by relatives from the country this is not sufficient to provide for cllanges at the time of washing the clothes. Girls are escorted to and from the factory. 'l'hey are not permitted to go out alone. Often the quarters are within mill compounds, so that it is impossible for outside influences to reach the workers. w omen workers are thus completely under the control of men contractors. This is worse than slavery, for slave owners are at least concerned with the well-being of their property, whereas in the contract system there is always a further supply of labor to be got, and the contractor is not vitally concerned whether a girl lives or dies! Apprentices Apprentices in China, especially those in small iron and machine workshops are another group of children who suffer silently year in and year out. They begin work as young as 12 or 13 They work long, long hours--14 to 16 a day. They live under Ull'>peakable circumstances. They sleep on the ground beside the machines, or on lofts or shelves erected for the purpose Food is poor. In addition to their work in the shop, they are domestic servants for their masters:. The early years of apprenticeship indeed do not provide much opportunity for learning the trade. Punishment is

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l!'ACTORY LEGISLATION 321 swift and horrible in the event of mistake The small boy is often the victim o.f the ill-temper of the master even when he has no connection with the cau.se 'rhis group of children is cert.ainly in urgent need of attention! Though the F'actory Law of China devote.<; clauses to apprenticeship conditions it does not take account of ruling practice, and limit the duties of appientices to their trade occupations Welfare In recent years there has been a disposition Work on the part of ,some factories to institute welfare work. Clinics, dining rooms, educa tional facilities, recreation grounds, dormitories with bath facilities have a.11 appeared. One or two factories in Wusih have attempted to use scientific methods in the selection, training and employment of workers. But the educational work being done is such as to induce workers to think merely in terms of being faithful and good em ployees! Factory dormitories ar-c actively disliked, even though conditions of living may be. comparatively good. Workers rightly resent losing their freedom in a strictly controlled, primary-school-like dormitory. Factory Enforcement of the F'actory Law in facLegislation tories situated in the foreign concessions and settlement is r:~;sential to effect the enforce ment of the law throughout the country as a whole.. In 1931 there seemed a possibility o:I' arriving at an agreement between the three administrative authorities in Shanghai a.'.l to the regulation of industrial c onditionr,, but this faded with the onset of the Shanghai war. Subsequent pro tracted negotiation between the Shanghai Municipal Council and the Shanghai City Government has not found e. solution to the jurisdictional issue involved. (23). Factory Law The Shanghai Municipal Council has orEnforcement ganized an Industrial Section which has studied the incidence of accidents and has used moral suasion and educative methods in working to ward improvement in the safety and health spheres. So far no legal machinery is invoked for enforcement. 'l'he

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322 LABOR ORGANIZATION Shanghai City Government has taken first steps toward enforcement of the Factory Law by requiring reports from factories about the number of workers, hours of work etc. Nothing otherwise has yet been attempted. Working also in the direction of a public opinion against accidents, the Labor Division of the Bureau of Social Affairs has organized a safety association and published a safety magazine which has proved useful. Labor The Labor Movement began in China in Movement 1919 during the May 5 movement, developed during the adoption by the Kuomintang of a protective policy for labor in 1924 and after the May 30 incident in 1925, reached its height during the Northern expedition in 1926-27, and sank in 1929 at the promulga tion of the Trade Urrion Law. This, in brief, is the history of the Trade Union 1\fovement in China. Union Since the reorganization of unions according to the 'l'rade Union Law control and limitation have been so severe that there is little active expression of any spontaneous or genuine movement. (24) Those ex isting are either a name only, or are run by people other than workers, mostly Kuomintang officials. Labor Following 1931 there was some labor actActivity ivity, directing its attention however in common with other sections of the community, to the organization of AntiJapanese clubs, boycotting Japanese goods, petitioning for a policy against Ja pan, etc. There has been in addition some expression of resistance to the rigid Trade Union Law. The General Labor Union (forbidden since 1929) of the Special Municipality of Shanghai in the name of a Shang hai Workers' Convention sent a petition to the Fourth Plenary Congress of the Kuomintang to cancel exii:.ting legislation, to promulgate new laws according to the S1m Yat-sen principles, and ask~ iug for workers to be represented in the drafting of new instruments. This was rejected by the authorities, but in 1934 the Shanghai General Labour Union was again per mitted to have qualified existence. In 1932, again, peti-

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STRIKES 323 tions were sent to the Governme.ut for the enactment 0 a special Trade Union Law covering public employees. When in August 1932, the law appeared, it did not in any way accord with the desires of railway, postal, telegraphic and. marine workers, but efforts to effect changes were again unsuccessful. Even where General Labor Unions have been permitted to present petitions, the control ex ercised is still so stringent that they are in no sense the workers 'own. Strikes Since 1931, also, the main effort of the Labor Movement has shifted from active insistence on raising of wages or bettering conditions to a defence posi tion to maintain what had been obtained by collective effort in former years The1,e facts are borne out by Professor Chen Ta 's studies Thirty-six per cent of the strikes be tween 1918 and 1926 were for wage increase. His study or 1932 shows that out of a total of 317 disputes, 68 we.re in connection with wages, 54 with treatment, 48 with system of work 39 with employment and dismissals, 21 with stopping work or closing down. The figure for the last two specified causes, together with the number con cerned with wage rates, totalling 37%, gives evidence that labor had begun to be on the defence. (24) In 1933 this struggle to maintain former gains is shown to be, accentuated: almost 60% out of 296 disputes were for the causes mentioned. Of these 296 disputes, 79 resulted in actual strikes, almost 66% of the causes of which were attempts to deprive the work of the standards previously won (25). Though no :figures are yet available for 1934, observers have noted that strikes have been concerned with wage cuts, lockouts, or dismis, ;als. The longest and most tragic strike was that of the Kailan Mining Company's workers in North China. Two thousand workers in Ma Chia Kou opposing wage cuts and lockout came into conflict with police on January 14, resulting in several deaths and many being ,vounded Strikers in the Tan Shan Colliery, demanding compensation as promised by the company for not joining the Ma Chia Kou strike again suffered in an encounter with police (26).

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324 S'.1.'RIKES IN SHANGHAI Strikes in In Shanghai the. silk weaving industry was Shanghai troubled by many strikes. The largest was that of the l\iei Ya ,'>ilk weavers in March 1934. Again the ,rorkers opposed a. 1\age cut. Though the.re was no union, the workers were systematically organized. 'l'ragecly occurred when on l\Iarch 11 workers, gathered to see the ma.nag-er of one of the factories in the French Concession, came into conflict with the F're.nch Police resulting in the death of some and wounding of some 80 others. The situation remained deadlocked for a month. Strike It has to be realized that many workers live Failures in the factory premises, so that, in the event of strike or lockout, their very daily food is involved Threatened that food would be .stopped, and under the orders of local authorities and of the General issimo s decree on the prohibition of strikes,, the workers were therefore force.cl to go back on reduced wages with the dismissal of their leaders. As is usual, an employer-con trolled press did not permit the viewpoint of thei workers to reach the public (27). Serious Shanghai Strike Another serious Shanghai strike. occurred in the British-American Tobacco Factory in May, when workers in the No 2 mill staged first a '' go slow'' strike in protest against the closing of the No. 1 mill. Later complete cessation of work occurred. Organization of the workers was sufficient to prevent 400 Chinese and 30 Russian strike breakers from entering the factory. Clashes occurred also in this strike. Despite an efforts of the workers, the No 1 mill was closed, with consequent loss of employment for several thousand workers. (28). Workers' These examples show that wodcers, facing Struggle wage cut~:; and unemployment are ready to face a. life and d eath struggle. It is flesh and blood on one side and money and guns on the other. In every case in recent strike s employers have wou, despite the fa.et that workers have sho,vn power, strength in organization and improved skill in tacties, and that they are willfog

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LABOR UNIONS 325 to face acute starvation and flying bullets. They have, however, to give way to the employers who have on their side not only economic advantages but also the police force to turn against the unarmed workers. Labor Though permanently organized unions of Unions workers, then, are not to be found, the movement has nevertheless progressed on the wave crests of labor unrest. Workers have shown their willing ness to suffer, and their ability to organize Given a chance, a spontaneous movement of workers will emerge a(> quickly as bamboo sprouts. Meantime the suppressed energy has been gathering momentmn and acquiring ideology under ground, which may well startle the world when a change takes place. Profiteering System In conclusion it may be said that, though depression in the cities and rural bankruptcy in the country areas have had their effect on the labor struggle, the problems of the past two years have not greatly changed in nature. Even if workers had well organiztd muons of their own, eve.n if a depression psychology did not grip industry, it is doubtful whether the conditions in regard to wage, cuts and unemployment could be avoided to any effective degree, since these prob lems are the products of a profiteering system of produc tion Unless thls is altered the problems of labor cannot be solved. 1. Labor Year Book, 22nd Year of Republic (1933). 2 Ibid, Section 1. P 262. 3. Ibid, Section 1. pp. 284-294. 4. Ibid, Section 1. P. 232. 5. Ibid, Section 1. pp. 236~238. 6. Chinese Economic Journal, Vol. XVI No. 1. P. 16. 7. Labor Year Book, 22nd Year of Republic (1933) Section 1. pp. 234-235. 8. Labor Quarterly, Vol. 1. No. 1. p. 120. 9. Chlnese Economic Journal, Vol. VXI. No. 1. pp. 30-33.

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326 LABOR PROBLEMS 10. Chinese Economic Jomnal-Vol. XVI. No. l. P. 35. 11. Labor Monthly, Vol. III. No. 3. P. 47. 12. Labor Year Book 1933, Section l. P. 295. 13. Ibid P. 297. 14. Ibid, pp. 265-266. 15. Chinese Economic Journal, Sept. 1930. pp. 1008-9. 16. Chinese Economic Journal, August 1930. pp. 882-"1. 17. Lamson: "Social Pathology in China.," 1934 p 82. 18. Fang Fu-an; "Chinese Labor" P 47. Quoted from '' Shanghai Indufo;try'' edited by Bureau of Social Affairs, City Government of Shanghai. 19. Labor Year Book, 1933-P. 117. 20. Lamson, "Social Pathology in China," P 54-5G. 21. Statistical Study of W 01kers' Livelihood & Indus-trial Production-lVfinjstry of C o mmerce, 1930. 22. Annual Repo:rt S l\f.C. 1934. 23. Annual Report S .lVI.C. 1933. 24. International Labor, Vol. l. No. 2. pp. 10-11. 25. International Labor, Vol. 1. No. 4. pp. 2-4. 26. Labor Quarterly, Vol. l. No. 2 pp. 139-l:'>5. 27. Green Year, Organ of N11tio1rnl ComrniU(r. Y.W.C A. of China. Vol. 18 No. 5 pp, 85-4:J. 28. Labor Quarterly, Vol. l. No. 2. P. 158.

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CHAPTER XXX CHJLD WELFARE MOVEMENT JABIN Hsu. Origin and Since the establishment of the National Purpose Child Welfare Association of China in 1928, China as a whole has begun to realize the im portance of the child welfare movement. The founders of this association are Dr. H. H Kung, Dr. R. Y. Lo, Dr. Fong F. Sec, Dr. Frank Rawlinson, Rev. IC T. Chung, l\1rs. P. W. Kuo, Miss Ting Shu-clung and Messrs. V. D. Kao, H C. Chen., Gideon Chen, Garfield Huang aml others. Its avowed purpose is to '' advocate, protect, and insure the rights of the children of China, and to pro mote, in every possible way, their well-being.'' Relief In the years past, this Association has Work accomplished much work of a relief nature. It ex erted its efforts in '.rescuing destitute children in the famine districts of Kansu, Honan and Shantung in 1928. While the historic, formidable inundation of 1931 swallowed everything in Hopei, Kiang~ si, and Kiangsu, this Association set up a receiving home for uncared for children in Hankow, and organized a child welfare division in the Shanghai Receiving Home for Flood Victims, thus affording nourishment and educa tional facilities for u~1fortunate children. During the years 1932 and 1933, when our national armies fought with the Japanese military forces in Shanghai and North China, this Association established a refuge for parent}ef,s children in the war area, and sent the necessary sup plies to children in want. Five-Year However, this Association does not Welfare Plan confine itself to relief work. It endeavours to achieve, also, a lot of other things along lines of child protection, child health, child study

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328 CHILD WELFARE CONFERENCE and parent education In its Fifth Annual Meet ing held in J anua1-y 1934, this Association fixed and adopted the so-called "Five-Year Child Welfare Plan", with the object of conducting child welfare work on a l 'arge scale.1 '!'his adds a new page to its glorious history. 1934 was the year for the starting of the work im plied in the "Five-year Child W"elfare Plan". Not everything included in the said plan could be accomplished in one year. Being &traitened by present financial circum stances we can but act within the limits of our resources. The activities of the year past may be briefly summarized under the following points: National One of the great achievements of the Conference year was the convening of the National Conference of Child Welfare Leaders under the chairma11t>hip of our President, Dr. H. H. Kung, who, in spite of his manifold official duties, stayed through the sessions from October lOth to 13th. Child welfare work in China began centuries ago; but clue to the lack of coordination and scientific management, few effective results were achieved. "\\Tith a view to improving the organizatiom1 for child welfare work, the National Con ference of Child vVelfare Leaders was held. There were i;rathered for four days unde r one roof at the New Asia Hotel, Shanghai, noted philanthropists, workers in the field of child welfare, experts in child education, child health and children's psychology as well as representa tives from various provincial government'>, bureaux o.f social welfare, education and health One hundred and thirty-four delegate.s representing fourteen provinces at tended F'ifty-four resolutions on child welfare work ad ministration, research, protection, relief and education were passed. These will guide the policy of the various child welfare institutions and prove beneficial to all of them. The conference received the hearty endorsement of President Lin Sen of the National Government, President Wang Ching-wei of the Executive Yuan, Minister of interior Huang Shao-hsiung, President Tai Chi-tao of 1. See Appendix II.

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CHILD PROTECTION 329 the Examination Yuan and other important officials. The conference broke up amidst an atmosphere of keen optimism. Child Welfare Branch Associations Branches have already been established in Peiping and Luanhsien and reports indicate that they are doing well. The Nanking branch was to have been inaugurated last year, but due to. the departure of the chair man of the Provincial Committee, Mr. Theodore Tu, and to other difficulties, it was postponed. The committee, however, is proceeding with the preparationr, and it is hoped that the inauguration will take place in the near future. An interesting thing is that the Shanghai Child Welfare Association has been officially recognized as a branch of our Association and is making remarkable pro gress under the presidency of Mayor Wu Teh-chen Child During the year, 123 cases of child protec Protection tion were handled by the secretariat, of which thirteen concerned: cruelty to slave girls; two. a:;;sault on slave girl; five, cruelty to expectant claughters in-law; ten, cruelty to adopted sons; eight, cruelty to adopted daughters; two, crnelty to young servants; fifteen, cruelty to apprentices; six, cruelty to child laborers ; two, cruelty to sons by their ow.n fathers; two, cruelty to step sons by step-fathers; two cruelty to sons by mothers; two, cruelty to step-sons by step-mothers; fifteen cases of aband onment; two cases of forced marriage; two of forcing claughters to prostitution; thirteen kidnapping cases; four sales of children; three cases of relief to homeless children ; seven cases of relief to orphans and seven cases of child prostitution. Suitable relief was given in all cases Right to Prosecute In June 1934, this Association prosecuted a profejssional dancing partner ("Taxie Dancer") in a local court for cruelty to a six-year old adopted daughter. Although the 0ourt found the defendant guilty, it was com pelled to waive jurisdiction, because this Associa tioon lacks the right to prosecute in accordance with

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330 CLINICS FOR CHILDREN the present criminal code. It was a matter of great regret to ma.ny public-spirited citizens and child welfare workers to note the defects in the present code, which gives no relief to oppressed children, who, or whose parents, do not desire to be involved in litigation. Consequently, this Association petitioned the Judicial Yuan for the right to prosecute such cases in the na,me of child welfare bodiffi. The Judicial Yuan has replied, stating' that the matter has been referred to the Conunission on Criminal Investiga tion for consideration. Child Under the direction of Dr. Grace Huang, Dr. Welfare C. Mosse, Dr. H. Jakubowski, Dr. E. Lewin and Clinics Dr. H. Danziger and advised by our Health Secretary, Dr. Liu Yi-peh, 12,344 patients were taken care of at our Chapei Child Welfare Clinic during the past year1 One thousaJ1d 'eight hundred and eighteen children were given free baths and 2,611 children participated in our health club meetings. Om nurses ma.de 414 calls on patients at their own homes. 'l'he figures are staggering, bnt those of us who have in spected the clinic agree that even larger numbers woulcl a.pply for relief, if more facilities could be offered. Medical Besides looking after the health of our Clinics Child Welfare Home on Tongshan Road, Shanghai, and at the Ya.ngizepoo Nursery, Dr. Liu, our Health Secretary, holcls clinic sessions at the Shang hai Women's Club free school in ,J essfield Village, the \Vestern End Industrial School of the Chinese Y.,v.C.A. at. Robirn;on Road and the Na.ntao Nursery of t.he Sha.ng hai Branch of the Natiional Child w el.fare Association. In all, a total of 4,654 cases were handled :a.i11ce March lst., 1934. Tuberculosis In cooperation with the Ching Chong Sanitarium Sanitarium at Kiangwan, we have construc-ted a Child Welfare 'ru: bercu losis Section in memory of the late 1\1rs. Rhoda Cunningham, long a member of our Executive Committee. Already fifteen students are attending classes and recl\iving treatment.

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HOMES FOR CHILDREN 331 By mutual agl'eement, it has been decided to let the Ching Chong Hospital take care of the medical requirements of the children while we are to look after their educational needs. Nursery 'l'he Yangtzepoo Nursery has been operating with wsual satisfaction. During the year fifty children were taken care of, including 26 boys and 24 girls. Seven students were graduated from the nursery school oi1 August 17th when a program was held in the presence of the staff of the Association and the parents of the students. These graduates have been admitted as students of the Yangtzepoo Soc.ia.l Center School free of tuition. Child Welfare Home ,Much progres& has been made in the health and education of the Child Welfare Home on Tongshan Road, Shanghai During the year, we received 99 boys and 80 girls and placed out as apprentices, or by adoption, 48 boys and 45 girls. .At present, the home has an enrollment of 51 boys an :cl 35 girls. Benevolent Home Since August lst, 1934, the management of the Chapei Benevolent Home, established by the Shanghai Citizen's Union, has been turned over :for two years by mutual agreement to our Associa tion. 'l'he Horne has since been re-organized and now operates a number of industrial and ag-ricul.tural depart ments, including a paper box-making department, a shoe making department, a. laundry, a se:wing department, a bras'3-smith 's shop,, a stone section, a woodwork section anu a farming and fishing section. Latest reports indicate that the monthly receipts for the industrial and other products now amonnt to over $300 and it is expected that before long the Home will be self-supporting Children's The creation of Children's Day on April Day and Year 4th of every year was the result of the efforts of our Association For the first time in history this day was popularly obser~ed through out the country in 1934. Mass meetings were held in all PAGE 368 332 CHILDREN'S DAY large 'Cit.ies. )At Shw.ng,hai, the Municipal Government of Greater Shanghai, the Kuomintang, the local Child W elfare .Aissociation and other orgw1izations joined in the celebration. The Mayor, General Wu Te-chen, was host at the new Civic Centre to all children. Four thousand child laborers, orphans and primary school students at tended. Speeches were delivered, besides the Mayor, by national leaders like Dr. Tsai Yuan-pei and Mr. Li Shih tsen as well as Commissioner Wu Hsin-ya of the Bureau of Social Affairs. Shops held special sales for children. Hospitals gave free clinic and vaccination. Parks and movie houses had '' open house'' for children, while newspapers published special Children's Editions Besides holding Children's Day, we have. also been advocating Children's Year. According to the latest report we re ceived, the National Government has decided to promulgate and observe Children's Year dating from August 1, 1935 to July 31, 1936.2 Publications For the dissemination of parenthood educa-tion as a means toward child welfare, this Association issues a monthly magazine, entitled '' Modern Parents.'' Eleven issues made their appearance. during the year. Five thousand copies are printed for e.Yel'Y issue, and are readily accepted by the public as interesting reading matter. The well-known book on "Parenthood Education,'' written by D r. Ada Hart Arlitt of the University of Cincinnati, was translated and published in the course of the year and is being widely distributed. The translation has reached its second edition, so large is the demand. Beside, a set of posters, depicting parenthood education has also been printed and extensively distributed. They are being greatly used by classes on that subject. Parenthood Education A petition has been filed with the National Government to emphasize the importance of parenthood education in schools above the rank of middle schools. It is hoped that a rescript will be received in the near future, approving the suggestion. 2. See Appendix III. PAGE 369 CHILD WELFARE 333 Broadcasting Since January, 1934, membeirs of the secretariat and child welfare leaders have been giving periodical programs on child welfare topics over the Christian Broadcasting Station. Alto gether forty-five prog-rams were given and a great deal of interest was aroused. PAGE 370 CHAPTER XXXI. REFORM OF RICKSHA BUSINESS LAWRENCE ToDNEM. Ricksha Pullers That ricksha men form a very large class in China is common knowledge, and though no very accurate records of their numbers are kept some fairly accurate estimates can be made. Requests were sent to seven of the largest cities for definite infor mation but little was available. Perhaps the most accurate and complete figures were given by Shanghai and Hankow. Number of Rickshas in Shanghai In Shanghai the la.test study was made under the auspices of the city Goverrunent Ricksha Investigation Committee. This Committee found t.hat the munber of rick shas licensed in the whole area of Shanghai totalecl 24,309 ,mbdivicled as follows: J 1 nterna,tional Settlement . . 9 ,,9!)0 Nanta.o . . . . . . fi,014 Chapei . . . . . . 2,902 Western area . . . . . 3,135 Other Chinese AclministratiYe Areas 2,268 It is to be not.ell that there are also 17,000 rickshas licensed in'. the French Concession not mentioned above but these cannot be added to the total, for 9990 of these are also licensed in the International Settlement a.n PAGE 371 Number of Rickshas in Hankow RICKSHA REGULATIONS 335 H'.ankow reports 10,300 rickshas in which figure presumably there would be no du plications. 'l'he 1934 YEAR BooK gives the population of Hanlrnw as 777,993 which means that there would be. a rickshas for every seventy-five of the population in that city. But1 considering that Shanghai is best equipped with modern transportation facilities and least dependent upon the rickshas, Hankow probably would come near representing the average. However, in ordor that the case may not be o-verstated, even if it is asuumed that there is only one rieksha for every 100 of population, there would be 135,357 rickshas in China's forty-four maritime customs ports alone. If there are three pullers attached1 to each ricksha and a total of five in each puller's family there will be 2,250,000 in these fortyfonr cities dependent upon the ricksha business for part or entire livelihood. The vehicles alone represent an investment of about$10,000,000 and the business would be receiving from the riding public something like $.80 per day per ricksha or annually in round numbers about$40,000,000. Thongh these figures are estimates in part and cannot be of any statistical value they serve to illus trate something of the size of the business involved. Ricksha The seven cities which were asked for rc Regulations ports were Nanking, Tientsin, Peiping, Tsingtao, Hankow, Canton and Shanghai. Replies i'e{'.eived would indicate that ricksha men: as a class are getting some, though not much., special attention. In six of the leading cities there is an attempt to limit the ricksha business to such numbers as can make a living from their labors. In four of the: cities the rental rate which a hong may charge the puller for the use of a ricksha is fixed by government or munieipal rrgulation. In three of tl{e cities standard tariffs havCI been fixed which'. the puller may charge the public for his services. In two cities there are organiied effod;s to pl'ovide medical services for 1icksha inen as a cla;.;s. In only one city are there any educational facilities for ricksha men and their children. In one city there is a beginning at providing help for the

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336 RICKSHA REFORMS puller in case of sickne&'3 or accident causing disability to pull. 'l'o the question '' Are ricksha men organized 1" one city replied "Not now but they were ten years ago." Another replied "'Yes, one small cooperative group"; another "Yes, by the Tangpu"; a fourth "Those in the International Settlement are being organized into a Puller's Mutual Aid Association." On 13pecial housing for ricksha men only very limited and scattered attempts are being made. No city has any projected plan for ultimately eliminating the ricksha as a means of transportation. Problem of This very limited infoi
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RICKSHA COOPERATIVES 337 was for the loan to be repaid in four years. The income would cover loan and interest, provide for taxes and repairs, buy new rickshas to replace the old ones (the life of a ricksha is estimated to be four yea1"8) and assure each member o.f the cooperative an increasing amount of capital in the society. Ricksha After one year's experience it was deLoan Society cided to modify somewhat the original plan. As the ricksha puller personnel changed frequently it seemed better to try a ricksha loan society without profit. All income over and above de preciation, taxes, repairs, return of loan etc., will go into a savings' accolmt for the pullers. Ricksha Through these studies and experiments Cooperatives the Municipal Government of Nanking has become interested and is now planning ricksha welfare work on a larger scale. A graduate of Shanghai and Y enching Universities with such expe rience in Christian social work has been called to take responsibility for planning ancl direction Some larger p,Ian :of ricksha cooperatives or loan sdcieties l\viU be lalmched. Medical Aid for Pullers In T&ingtao the Lion's Club became. interested in bringing relief to the sufferings of the ricksha man. They have m1dertaken to provide medical aid for incapacitated men. Though this ser vice has continued for some time it has not yet re&ulted in any general move on the part of the conummity or municipality to deal in any large way with the whole problem. Ricksha Reform in Shanghai The International Settlement in Shanghai has probably made the most comprehensive effort yet undertaken to deal adequately with the ricksha business. In September of 1933 the Shanghai Municipal Council appointed a Ricksha Committee. This committee was composed of four men with a fifth added later. The committee invited the cooperation of the public The result was increased gen-

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338 PULLERS' LIVELiHOOD eral interest in the, ricksha puller and the passing of a very enlig'htening report. 'rhis report appeared in the Municipal Gazette on February 13, 1934. The Muni cipal com1cil then created a Ricksha Board This Board they entrusted with carrying out those recommendations of the Ricksha Committee approved by the Council. Through the work of this Board certain definite changes have bwn brought into the ricksha busine&S. These changes were designed to eliminate or lessen the abuses found to exist The most outstanding of these: wm be treated one by one in this chapter. Pullers' 1. Too many men were depending upon Livelihood pulling for a living with a result that none received a reasonable living from their la b o rs. Of the men investigated the average puller conhl get a ricksha to pull only 15.4 clays in the month, where as he should have been working about 25 days. He re ceive.cl an average net monthly income of only $9.23 when he should have been earning about$15.00 The remedy applied he.re was to license the pullers thus limiting the numbers of men wh0; might become pullers in line with the actual requirements of the business Ricksha Rental 2. On an average a puller must pay about 47% of his gross earnings to the hongs in rick sha rent.al. 'l'his wa.~ considered to be too high so the Ricksha Board recommended to the Shanghai Municipal Council that rentals be reduced from the thsn prevailing rate ,of 14 dimes to 10 dimes small money as the first step and that the rate be further reduced to 8 climes small money : as the second step. This recommenda tion was approved. The first reduction has been made with the rnriation that the rate was fixed at 78' cts big mi011e;y instead of 10 dimes small money The second reduction has not been'. made and no da.te for making such a reduction has been fixed. The change already made represents a 25% reduction from the former average rate of about 14 dimes or $1;05 but the privilege was granted the owners of collecting an extra 7 cts. to cover advances required of them PAGE 375 PULLERS' AID ASSOCIATION 33!) for the Puller's Mutual Aicl Association This brought the net reduction in rental charge down to 19%. This 19% reduction in terms of money represents 20 cents per day per ricksha and must be ilivided among the men pulling the vehicle during the 24 hours. So the savings to each man is small though the percentage seems fairly large. Mutual Aid Association The 7 cents paid to the Puller's Mutual Aid Association is estimated to average$1.50 per month per ricksha, which smn the owners are required to pay into the Puller's Mutual Aid Assoeia tion 's bank account.. It is fo reimburse the owners for this advance that the additional charge of 7 cents was authorized. In this way every puller contributes towards the support of the Puller's Mutual Aid Association, whose benefits are given in detail later in this article. In re turn for this it is the plan of the Puller's Mutual Aid Association that every puller shall receive some benefit, tho at present only a part of the men are availing them selv r s of its amenities. Revision of From the standpoint of the owners and Rental Charge their inve,tment in the business this downward revision of rental charges was con sid e red jnstifiecl by the fol1owing facts; before ricksha rentals had been revised downwards an operator collected on an awrage about 1jf27.00 per month pe1~ ricksha: against this he paid in licence fees $5.18; in upkeep, replacement ancl neces,;al'y overheac\, about$7 .00 per month. This l eft a net income of over $14.00 per month on a capital ilffestment of lj;GO to$80. Taking the highest figure of :j;SO this means that the owner would take in net receipts, *177 .84, per ;rear per ricks ha, or more than double his capital every twelve months. License These figures apply to rickshas, the capital Profiteering investment for which was limited to the cost of the vehicle. It would not hold true for those vehicles which were bought with the license and fot which an excessive price had been paid for tM license.

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340 RICKSHA PROFITEERING In such cases the cost of rickshas varied from manufacturing cost of $80 to as high as$700, but in view of the fact that these excessive costs of a vehicle came through abuses and unapproved practices they are not given consideration in trying to arrive at fair vehicle rentals. Under the new rental rates the operator gets 78 cts per day or say $19.50 pe11 month. Out of this he pays the same operating costs as before, namely$12.18, leaving him a net balance of $7.32 per month or$87.84 per year. That is, it will take him two years to double his capital. Only one conclusion can be drawn from these :figures, which is that profits to owners in tJ1e ricksha business are still unjustifiably high considering what the puller gets. Rentals should be further reduced. Ricks ha Fare 3 A further problem was the uncertain fare a puller could get from the riding public in view O{f the over-crowded state of the ricksha business. Toward relieving this a beginning has been made by fixing a se.t of charges and exposing them by means of a pla.te placed on the fender of the. ricksha. Tiraffi.c in 4. The moot vicious abuses found in the Licences ricksha 'business by 'the Committee was the trafficing in licenses. One hundred and fortyfour licensees received and distributed at will 9900 licen ses. A ricksha-carrying three licenses. which permit travel in the three area.,;; of Shanghai, cost $5.18, per month, but the Ricksha Hongs' Association authorized a charge to the operation of$10 00 per month. That is a profit of $4.82 per month was allowed for nothing except the keeping of the license in the recipient's name. To stop this the Shanghai Municipal Council required that rick sha licenses be issued to rick'>ha owners only and that there be no sub-le.tting of licenses. Pullers' 5. To ameliorate the distresses of pullers Mutual Aid and to set new standard'> of living a Puller's Association Mutual Aid Association was organized in July of 19;34 through the interest of the Ricksha Board of the Shanghai Municipal Council. This PAGE 377 PULLERS'WELFAREWORK 341 Association is managed by a Board composed of seven members of the general community, two representatives of the Ricksha Owners' Association and the three Trustees of the Puller's Mutual Aid Association who also are now member of the Ricksha Board. The Association is financed by funds collected from the pullers by means of an advance subscription by the owners of$1.50 per ricksha per month in return for which the Shanghai Muni cipal Council authorizes an increase of rental charge by the owners of 7 cents per day as aforesaid Welfare work The Puller's Mutual Aid Association for Pullers undertakes the following program of work; 1 The cost of licensing the public ricksha pullers is covered in part by a license fee fixed by the Shanghai Municipal Council. 'fhis fee comes to $1.00 per man. If each were required to produce one dollar for registration this would work a very great hardship upon the pullers, so the Pullers' Mutual Aid Association is paying that fee out of the Associa.tion's income. The total will be something like$40,000.00. 2 It has established two clinics, one at East Kashing Road and one at Markham Road. Places for additional clinics are being sought on the south side of the Interna tional Settlement. 'fhese clinics serve pullers and their families The services and medicines are without charge. Hospital pa.t.ients are cared for in cooperating hospitals. The cost of the service is paid by the Pullers' Mutual Aid Association During the month of December 1851 patients were treated in the two clinics Two district nurses are employed who visit the sick in their places, of lodging and two case workers are constantly following up pullers reported to be in distress. 3 One permanent social service center has been opened at East Kashing Road a.nd place for a second center is being sought at Tatung Road. The Kashing Road center has 16,141 square feet of floor space, contains dormitory space for 250 pullers at 60 cents per month or 10 coppers per night, bedding provided, a clinic (already mentioned), a bath room adequate for 1200 baths per day without cost, free ed11cational ~lasses for both pullers and th~ chilclren

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342 RICKSHA OWNERS' OPPOSITION of pullers, an auditorium for lectures, cinemas and other educational and entertainm.en1J activities. A tea room with tea provided designed to become the social center of the life of the puller, a letter writing service for illiterate men and a reading room with papers and lig ht magazine.s for those who are able to read. 4 The Pullers' lVI utual Aid Association has a department for relief It undertakes to help incapacitated pullers as well as to help in funeral and emergency expenses at such a time of distress. 5 Included in the projected program, but not yet opera tive due to inadequate technical data and financial reserve, there is a plan for group insuring against accident disability and death. Unemployment is already cover e d by the license plan for pullers. Oooperative r stores and cooperative credit groups as well asi a Saving'S' Bank for pullers are also in the approved plan and within the year will begin to operate Association's Finances The work of the Pullers' Mutual Aid Association ~ill necessarily be limited by its income. Too much cannot be achie.ved with an income o: only 13,4 cents per day per puller but, working on the principle that the strong shall help the weak and all shall be bound into a cooperative group, the directors believe that a. very great deal can be done to give greater fullness of life to this class. Ricksha Owners' This effort in Shanghai for improving Opposition the conditions of the pullers has been stoutly oppQsed by the Ricksha Owne.rs' Association at every step of the way. The success or failure of this effo~ will largely depend upon whether or not the Shanghai Municipal Council deals effectively with this open opposition. 'l'he owners opposed the Council's licensing of rickshas in the name of actual owners They have opposed the licensing of the pullers. They have insisted upon the right to introduce the men to be licensed and having failed to prevent the licensing of pullers they have formulated a plan for contract puller labor to deprive the pullers of the freetlom

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RICKSHA EXPLOI'rATIDN 343 ga.ined under the licensei system. They have opposed the do-wn.ward revision of vehicle 'rentals. ;I'hey have opposed the introduction of improved vehicles. 'rhe ricksha business as a business has opposed every effort to effect improvements designed to benefit either puller or the traveling public This opposition, in the face of known exorbitant returns upon investments, has left the operators of this business with but scanty sympathy from the public. The fact that something like 140,000 human beings in the International Settlement alone are depen dent upon the business for their livelihood makes negotia tions with these owners unusually difficult, for a com plete breakdown would quickly result in severe suffering and violence. Exploitation of Ricksha Pullers In summing up it il'l fair to say that ricksha men as a class are oppre.~sed and need special attention; that the business from the standpoint of ricksha owners is very lucrative; that. in nearly every major city the business is getting some special attention; that there is a rising tide of fee.ling that the use of human motor power to operate a public conveyance is not in keeping with a nation's self-respect or a poor man's inalienable rig ht to decent working and living conditions Further, it. is evident that while there will be some amelioration of this condition by means of controls placed upon the busines1s;, the economic level of too many people in China continues to be so low, that the elimination of the ricksha or the raising of the rickshaman 's standard of living and his conditions of work will necessarily be retarded and halting. It is also evident that the changing of these conditions can only come with an increased consciousness of need for change on the part of the general public a.nd a general improvement in the whole economic life of the people

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CILAPTER XXXII PRESEN'r-DAY OPIUM PROBLEl\'.[ GARFIELD HUANG Chief Menace Few friendi:i of China have ever realized to China the important role the evil of narcotic drugs has played in ruining this great nation. The constn1etive efforts made by her good elements in the past decades to up-build this country were nullified by the destructive influence exerted by opium and its allied drugs which served as a check to hold China back from developing into a modern state. In fact, opium has been the source of official corruption, civil strife, famine, banditry, poverty, military tyranny, and other kindred ,social and economic vices which handicap China's pro gress The lack of morality, the weakening of the race and the rapid increase of various social evils can in the last analysis be traced back to their source in opium. No nation in the world is able to survive and develop with only one of the l:l,bove eviL'3 attached to her; but China is now pra.ctically confronted with all of them. I believe those who have the welfare of this great nation in their heart will all agree that China's primary job to-day is no other than the eradication of the drug evil. Narcotics Both the people and the Government of and Profits China have in the past made praiseworthy efforts on several occasions to do away with this their common enemy, but the measures they employed were never effective enough to stamp out thi'3 menace The reason for this regrettable state of affairs, we may frankly admit, lay in the Government not being sincere and honest enough to deal with the issue. The element of finances involved in this question has always been given more consideration than the necessity of the actual sup pression of this profitable traffic li'urthermore, in the

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OPIUM REVENUE 345 past twenty years, the Government was never strong enough to enforce its mandates throughout the whole of the coun try. Consequently, all opium suppression provisions have become mere scraps of paper; the higher-ups could do whatever they wished without worrying about legal pen alties. During his trip to the central China provinces last spring, the writer was deeply impressed by the fact that in Hupeh and Hunan, nearly every government organiza tion has come to depend upon opium revenue for mainten ance Law courts, Tangpus, and schools are no exception. Positioll)S as revenue officials are generally considered fat jobs; even an ordinary clerk could easily make a few thousand dollars a month The seriousness of the opium menace as a source of revenue ca.n be imagined by noting the following figures. Opium Opium taxed in Hankow by the Opium Tax Revenue Bureau from 1929-1933. 1929 100,000 piculs 1930 117,000 1931 70,020 1932 59,860 1933 71,756 The slight decrease in the amount of opium taxed since 1930 does not mean decrease in the trade, but is due to increase in smuggling made possible through the conspiracy between opium merchants and revenue officials. In a case discovered in the spring of 1934 Gen eral I-Iua11g Chin-hsin, head of the I-Iankow Special Tax Bureau, was found to have misapproprieted over $8,,000,-000.00. The annual receipts reported by the Ha.nkow bureau was about$25,000,000.00, but the actual income was believed to be more than double that amount. Easy How opium serves as a profitable source of Profits revenue may be well illustrated by the following example of a picul of opium from Fengtu, Szechwan. According~ to the existing reg1.1lation a picul of Fengt.u opium valued at 'ffi'l,000 when exported, is required

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346 ANTI-OPIUM MOVEMENT to pay a pri1J.cipal tax of $320 00, communist suppression surtax of$32 00, national revenue stamps of $3.20, Chamber of Commerce fees of$1.50, Special Goods' (opium) Association fees of $2.50, Hsih-t'>un Girls' School fu.nd$2.50, and protection fees for transportion $7 .00; in W anhsien a fee of$13.26 is coLlected for highway main tenance, and girl's school fund, and in Ifankow another principal tax of $920 00 is a.gain collected. The actual cost for opium costing ~,1000 is only$400 00 but the taxes amount to $1300.96 up to Hankow only. More taxeSi are collected of course when the picul concerned is transported from Hankow to other parts of China. Anti-Opium Ten years ago, however, there sprang up Movement a strong anti-opium movement under the leadership of the National Anti-Opium Association of China. The movement, initiated by the church, spread all over China and reached the Chinese people in all walks of life It succeeded in building up a strong anti-opiuin public opinion in China and created an impression abroad as to the determination of the Chinese people to do away with this harmful trade. To our sincere regret, the people's anti-opium movement was unable to accomplish very much as a result of the unfavorable polit ical enviro.nment and its many powerful enemies. It is now striving to preserve its aim and uphold its ideal of total suppression against any compromise and without any reservation. For this movement, imbued with the traditional spirit of the people, has resolved to stand its ground whatever the circumstances. It believes that opium can only be done away with by refusing to yield ground to financial and other political elements. It is the con viction of its prime movers that unless and until the Government is prepared to sacrifice opium revenue and face the issue squarely by overthrowing the power of the influential officials whose back:iJ.1g; perpetuates this evil, talk of opium suppression will always be idle. As soon as we have a government with a will strong enough to see that whatever me asures are adopted for the suppression of opium are effective, the results will be gratifying. PAGE 383 Supp,ression Versus Meno poly OPIUM MONOPOLY 347 During the past few years the controve .rsy between the advocates of opium suppression and opium monopoly has become very tense. The opium monopoly group, composed most~ ly of politicians and revenue officials, tried to influence the Government to adopt_ a form of monopoly, while the other camp, represented by the National Al1ti-Opium Association,, fought to uphold the cause of total suppress ion. It is unnecessary to describe here, the struggle be tween these two camps of ideas on the opium issue, for it is now an established fact that the opium monopoly group has finally succeeded in influencing the Government to adopt the so-called '' suppression through taxation policy.'' It must be born in mind that the present Gov ernment is much 1stronger than its predecessors in many years, being able to' enforce orders in the greater part of China proper. The measures the Government now mf'orces with regard to opium are for this reason effective in the regions under its control. These measures, sum marized in what is known as the '' Six Years' Opium Suppression Program'' are being enforced in Kiangsu, Kiangsi, Hunan,, Hup(>h, Honan, Chekiang, Anhwei, Fukien, Shensi and Ka.nsu, the ten provinces under the direct contro1 of Nanking. The organ that ha~'> been created to take charge of the administration of this program is known as the '' Opium Suppression Inspectorate for the Ten Provinces." It succeeds the Hunan and Hupeh Special Tax Bureau with headquarters at Hankow, the main opium trade cent.er of China, and is under the direct con trol of the Council on Military Affairs. Sub-inspectorates have been established in every one of ten provinces, and a bank,--the Four Provinces' Ag'ricultural Bank (Hupeh, Anhwei, Hona.n and Kiangsi)-has been e&tablished to handle the revenuesi and to finance the opium trade. This fact was revealed by Mr. Chow Li-seng, a member of the Control Yuan last year and subsquently became a subject of criticism in the League of Nations' meeting. In spite of its announced objects, this "Six Year Program" when carefully examined works for the centralization of opium PAGE 384 348 OPIUM SUPPRESSION l'tlvenue for the Government and the gradual eradication of opium through a process of government monopoly. It has also undertaken to wage an uncompromising war against the trade in high-power narcotics other than opium. Opium It is not necessary to go into details in Suppression dealing with the background of the present Policy opium suppression policy adopted by the Chinese government. But it may not be out of place to mention the significance of this policy internally and externally. Externally, it has been the wish of several powers, especially those which have colonies in the Far East, that China should discard the policy of the total &uppression of opium, and adopt instead the policy of opium monopoly. For once China adopts the policy of opium monopoly, she will no longer be in a posit.ion to criticize those powers who maintain, in their Far Eastern possessions, opium monopolies to supply Chi nese emigrants. As a result these poweo.s would be able to continue counting upon opium as their chief source of revenue. Furthermore, in those countries where an opium monopoly is maintained for revenue purposes, it has been their expressed wish to suppress the traffic in narcotics partly because these drugs are more harmful than opium and partly because narcotics are natural substitutes of opium. In order to protect the revenue in opium, it is deemed necessary to kill the trade in its competitive sub stitutes. Opium Revenue Frankly speaking, we must admit that to-clay in China, :financial consideration still plays a more important part in the opium issue than the actual suppression of the traffic. I am afraid China has fallen into the camp of the opium monopoly group and is now enforcing a policy which will, in the long run, lead to dependence upon opium revenue as is the caE>e with the colonial, governments of the powers in the Far East. Internally, the adoption of a government opium mon opoly, has brought to realization the long cherished desire of the opium monopoly group in Nanking which is composed m;0stly of re.venue official.s. The legalization of the opium PAGE 385 NATIONAL OPIUM REVENUE 349 trade and opium smoking by the Central Government has proved a sad and retrogressive step in the morals of th.is modern government. Such centralization of ophun revenue is in open conflict with the teachings of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the doctrine of the Kuomintang, and the present Chinese opium law. In making this statement, however, the writer does not wish to ignore the various improvements the Government has brought about in suppressing opium. Its efforts to fight narcotic drugs, the movement to, provide medical facilities for addicts who want to break off the habit, the total supprEpsion measures being tried out in Chekiang and N anking and the policy of the Kiangsu Government in devoting, incomes from opium suppreBsion to preventive and ameliorative measures, are all praise worthy steips that will contribute 1nuch to the cause of opium suppression. National The writer is very much concerned Finances about the element of income in this whole and question, According to reliable estimates, Opium the ten provinces' opium monopoly scheme will raise an annual revenue of$100,000,000.00 for the Government. Under the present scheme, there is no arrangement that will either provide for the gradual reduction of this revenue or build up a substitute income therefor. It is very doubtful, therefore, that the Government, facing a general depression such as that of to-day, will be able to sacrifice at the end of six years the big volume of tax receipts now coming from the traffic in opium. Even if the Central Government is able to sacrifice this revenue, it will be in1p: ossible for those local pro vincial governments which have come to depend upon the opium tax as their chief source of revenue, to follow suit without first building up substitute funds. Opium In the progressive province of Kwang&i, Revenue for instance, $18,061,984.00 was received in Kwangsi from opium taxes in the year 1933, mostly from transit taxes on Yunnan and Kweichow opium which pass th~ugh this province for K wangtung PAGE 386 350 YUNN AN OPIUM TRUST and other provinces. 'l'his sum constituted over one-third of the total revenue for this province which amounted to$50,906,156 00, the, income from opium being '34.48%. For the month of March 1934, the Provincial Government of Kwangtlmg received $1,015,285.62 from opium re.venue, while the total income was only$6,169,384 94. This re presents only one month s income for the provincial gov ernment and does not include receipts of local hsien and municipal governments Opium According to the report of the Nan-seng Trust of Company, the semi-official Opium Trust of Yunnan Yunnan, the value of the opium collect.ed by the company from the farmers from 1929 to 1934 is as follows: 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 '$' 34,700,000 47,400,000 Ff 48,900,000 Ff 51,600,000 '$' 51,900 ,000 Ff 52,000,000 The above amount represents the opium production of Yunnan every year; and it i1~ by means of this traffic that the government is maintained. Opium in In Ka.nsu 17,1236,575 taels' worth of opium Kansu was produced in the. 1933-HJ34 season, while the a.mount of taxes and; other fees collected by the government amounted to $11,514,868 00. The, situa tions in Shensi, Kweichow and Szechwan are pmctically the same if not more serious. Poppy Cultivation With regard to the suppression of the poppy, the Government has succeeded in cleaning up cultivation in the ten provinces mentioned except parts of Kansu and Shens:i. This will not only help to suppress the1 traffic but will also contribute much to the unification of the nation. For in the past twenty years, poppy cultivation has been the source of revenue for the local provincial generals who, in most PAGE 387 JAPANESE OPIUM AGENCIES 351 cases, had become too strong for the Central Gove rn.ment by building up a bigger army through the support of poppy taxes. The suppression of poppy cultivation taxes in the provinces has made it impossible for local gen erals to become strong. But so far there has no step been taken to suppress the cultivation of the poppy in the provinces of Szechwan, Yunnan and Kweichow the chief producing centers and the source of supply of the govern ment opium now b e ing distributed through the monopoly organs Flor nnle.ss poppy cultivati on is prohibited in these three provinces the suppression of opium enforced by the government will amount to nothing more than "the suppression of competition.'' Japanese Agencies Another situation concerning this problem, is the influx tlu, ough Japanese Agencies of opium from Jeho l into North China and Persian opium from Formosa into Fukien. It has now become an open secret that even the Japanese army and navy have participated in the smuggling and that the local authorities have found it expedient to allow the importa tion and distribute the same by means of their monopoly agencies. In Hankow, after the order to close all opium dens was issued last year by General Chiang Kai-shek, most of the dens moved into the Japanese concession there, ~nd continued their business. The Japanese Settlement in Tientsin is the headquarters of the drug trade which is carried on openly. This situation, if unamended, will only create a good market for Japanese opium at the end d six years and make actual suppression impossible. Opium The greatest mistake the Government has Merchants made in enforcing the scheme of opium suppression is to entrust this important task mostly to opium revenue officials and notorious opimn merchants, who were in the past engaged in the illicit traffic themselves. For instance, the head of the government, opium monopoly agency in Fukien is a no torious opium merchant and fugitive from Shanghai, where he was found guilty of opium smuggling by the PAGE 388 -352 OPIUM SUPPRESSION FAILURES court and was convicted and given a heavy sentence As a result of this situation, the administration of the opium suppression program leads only to the flourishing of the trade rather than to its suppression. In spite of the registration of addicts, opium can be purchased without a license In Fukien and several other provinces, the general opium monopoly agency has required its sub agencies to distribute a minimum amount of opium per month. Should the sub-agency fail to distribute the amount required a heavy fine is imposed But a reward will be given to any agency whose distribution capacity exceeds the required amount Such arrangement naturally does not lead to the actual suppression of opium but rather serves to perpetuate the traffic. However, no one can reasonably expect the opium merchants and opium revenue officials to carry out a real suppression scheme, for that would mean the cutting of their own throats. Further more, they have spent considerable money in securing these positions as a business proposition. Confiscated Another retrogressive step the Government Drugs has taken in connection with the scheme of opium suppression is to instruct all custom houses in China to discontinue burning the opium and narcotics seized and to surrender the same to the Central Health Laboratory for refining and manufacturing into narcotics drugs to meet the medicinal and scientific re quirements of China. As the proportion of China's millions who nse modern medicine is rather small, one who knows the situation will question the wisdom of keeping all seizures in narcotics, including heroin which has no medicinal value whatsoever, for "legitimate'_' purposes. Undoubtedly financial considerations again play an im portant part in this issue. Foreign As mentioned above, the Government is now Narcotics directing all efforts to fight the evil of nar-cotics, but one aspect has somehow been over looked by the authorities. The trade in narcotics in North China and the treaty ports is mostly in the hands of Japanese, Korean, and Formosan ronins, who cannot be PAGE 389 JAPAN'S OPIUM POLICY 353 reached by Chinese law. During the period January lst, 1934 to February 16, 1935, the Chinese authorities in Peiping discovered 206 cases of foreigners dealing in drug smuggling. Out of the !206 cases, 205 were found to be Japanese and Koreans Unless something is done soon to redress this situation, the suppression scheme enforced by the Chinese authorities will serve only to create a market for Japanese drugs. In the light of the writer's personal observation and experience, he strongly believes that the narcotization of the Chinese nation is a part of Japan's a g gressive s c heme. It is certainly something more than :financial consideration alone Of this our people should not lose sight. Japan's Opium Policy From every point of view the opium policy of Japan stands to ruin the Chinese race. The statement may be best substantiated by the follow ing facts from Manchuria. Since the adoption of an opium monopoly scheme by the Japanese-Manchulmo Government, and the introduction of waitresses in smok ing dens and morphine joints the drug evil has greatly in creased, especially; among the younger generation. Accord ing to an official report issued by the Manchukuo Ministry of Interior last summer there are now over 9,000,000 habitual opium smokers in Manchuria, that is about one third of the total population. Thirteen percent of them are, below 15 years 'Of' age: 23 % below 25, years: and 33 % beJo-i:v 30 years The rest are above 30 years of age. Opium Trade in Manchuria 'l'ake, for instance, the fact that one ch i e n of opium is sold at forty cents: and each addict requires from one to two chiens of opium a day ; the total consumption of all addicts in Manchuria a year will be over$1,000,000,000.00 For those who cannot afford opium the con venient substitutes of morphine or heroin may be easily obtained at a cheaper price. If these addicts are still unable to continue the use of narcotics owing to financial difficulties, the Japanese drug stores kindly offer to buy

PAGE 390

354 NARCOTIC WORLD ISSUE their blood at $15.60 per tube Now no one can stand having more than three tubes of blood taken out. Hundreds end their lives in this way iii Manchuria daily. World In presenting these facts to his readers, the Issue writer wishes to invite their attention again to this very vital issue of humanity which, while affecting China to-day, will in the long run affect the whole world. It is the duty of those who are working for the betterment. of all phases of human life to cooperate in the noble fight against this common enemy of mankind. For this evil always counteracts the force of progress. With out stamping out the drug evil, all constructive efforts will be spent in vain. PAGE 391 PART VI MEDICAL WORK CHAPTER XXXIII MEDICINE IN CHINA EDWARD H. Hu:r,,rn Those who have read with care Dr. F. C Yen's review of "Medical Educa t.ion in China," in the CHIN A CHRISTIAN YEAR BooK, 1932-33, as well as the article on "Medical Missions" by Dr. R. T Shields in the same issue, will have gained a clear notion of developments that are signi ficant in the field of medicine in China today. The ele ment in the picture which gives such universal satis faction is that the National Government has come into its own and has assumed a responsibility that, a decade ago, was scarcely envisaged. :Early Medical Workers Dr. Wu Lien-teh has pointed out1 that there is reason to believe that medical activity was displayed by the early N estorian Christians, near the beginning of the T'ang dynasty. Centuries later a Nestorian, Mar Sergius, a physician from Samarkand, was appointed Governor of Chinkiang in 1277 or 1278. He built monasteries in and near this city and medical aid was probably given to the poor there. Dr. Wu continues, "We know definitely that in A D. 1569 the Mizericordia Hospital (Santa Caza da Mizericordia) was founded (in Macao) by Bishop D. Belchior Carneiro. Here medical aid was confined to Europeans only, as the relations between Chinese and foreigners in those days were not in the nature of friendly intercourse. About the I. Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal .tl.siatio Society, Volume LXII, 1931. PAGE 392 356 J<.:ARLY MEDICAL WORKERS same time, however, a start was made in providing medical relief by the Jesuit Fathers. Among the converts of the great missionary Matteo Ricci (1552-1610) was the minister Hsu Kuang-chi (Ko Lan), whose youngest daughter, called Candida, showed the same religious piety as her father. Among the charities instituted by her in those parts (Kiangsi, Hu-Kuang, Szechwan), was a fom1d ling hospital and orphanage. '' Soon afterwards, the ranks of the Jesuit Fathers in China were joined by a great scholar and physician, Fat.her Jean Terrenz (or Terrentius) .... Arrived in the East, he undertook long journeys in India, l\falacca, Sumatra, Cochin China, and China, collecting samples of minerals, plants and animals, as well as undertaking climatological and ethnological studies. Besides his manifold activities, he found time to practise medicine and to convert patients cured by his skill.'' When the Emperor K 'ang Hsi was iU with malaria in 1692, the Jesuit missionaries, Gerbillon, Bouvet and Fontevey, were called to treat him with the cinchona bark they had recently received. The cure of the Emperor was a dramatic event and earned great honor for these missionaries. Between 1805 and 1816, Dr. Alexander Pearson, surgeon to the British factory in Canton, was responsible, principally if not solely, for the introduction of Jenner 's method of small-pox vaccination among the Chinese population. Later on, Dr. Wu tells us, "vaccination was practised from 1820 by the doctors attached to the Russian mission who had introduced it to Kiachta on the Russian-Chinese frontier as early as 1805. '' First Medical Missionaries In the year 1820, there was founded at Canton a dispensary for Chinese "by John Livingstone, surgeon to the East India Company, and the Rev. Robert Morrison, D.D. We possess but little information about the former, 'the first person who systematically brought medical aid within reach of the Chinese' .... In 1827 Thomas Richardson Colledge began medical work for the Chinese at Macao. Assisted by Dr. Bradford, an American PAGE 393 FIRST MEDICAL MISSION ARIES 357 physician from Philadelphia, he opened in 1828 a free dispensary at Canton, whereby crowds of sufferers were relieved. Though he himself modestly deprecated it, the example of Colledge as well as his reports and papers were instrumentat in directing the attention of the missionary circles in America and Europe to the splendid oppor tunities for medical missionaries in China and led to the early dispatch of the first and greatest of them, the Rev Dr. Peter Parker. This great man, of whom it was truly said that 'he opened the gate,; of China with a lancet when Western cannon could not heave a single bar' was born in 1804, gradated at Yale both in theology and medicine, was appointed by the American Board of Commissioners for F'oreign Missions, and arrived at Canton on October 26, 1834. Soon afterwards he left for Singapore to study the Chinese language. '!'here he opened a dispensary for Chinese where more than 1,000 patients were treated from January to August, 1835. Returning to Canton he opened 011 November 4 of the same year, a hospital and dispensary in F'actory No. 7, F'ung-tai hong, San-taulan Street, a site quite near the foreign factories.'' The centenary celebration o.f that event occurs in Canton in 1935, when the Chinese Medical Association, the conspicuous, uniting medical body of China, will hold its biennial conference at the Canton Hospital during the first week of November Extent of Medical Missions Starting with the foundation he laid, medical missionaries, whether doctors or nurses, administrators, teachers, country workers or otherwise, have built an edifice of devoted endeavor throughout the land. Fearless in the presence of epidemic and bloodshed, of bandits and rioters, of economic depression and local unfriendliness, they have gone forward to plant the seeds of a health service-cura tive, preventivt1, nursing-that have borne remarkable fruit. They began and continued to conduct hospitals that have been responsible, in provinc-e after province, for the introduction of modern medicine If some of them have tended to become narrow and traditionalized in outlook, it PAGE 394 358 STATE HEALTH POLICY was because they went to inland places, far. from the com radeship of professional companions. 'l'o them let there be given due recognition for the service they have rendered through the century since 1835. State Health Policy But a new day has dawned. In all countries today, the State is carrying, as it should, an increasing responsibility for the health of its citizens. In some countries, State Medicine has already become absolute In China, State Medicine will before long, be the accepted form of health service. 'l'he Wei Sheng Shu in Nanking has already, in the cig'ht years of its existence, given remarkable evide;nce of its breadth of view, its capacity for originating large pro vincial and national health programs, and its determination to plan for a nation-wide campaign of curative, preventive and investigative medicine. With the Chiao Yue Pu, it is responsible for educational thinking and planning, especial ly in the realm of nurse education and midwife training. But it is neitheT able, nor does it desire to, dispense with t.he chain of mission hospitals, 250 in number, scattered all over the land. It desires their continuance, and looks forward to their cordial cooperation. There can be little doubt that the life of the missionary medical institutions in China will be lengthened and strengthened if they will set themselves to discover all those possible ways in which they can cooperate with the Government's health program. Attention is called below to certain important develop ments that have occurred during 1934. Obviously, the increasing strength of the relationship between the Wei Sheng Shu and the several provinces, is a token of great promise, an index of that nation-wide control which will be exerted in the coming years. Commission Under the Chiao Yue Pu, the Com-On Medical mission on Medical Education has been Education a potent force in outlining standards, in determining curriculum requirements, in fixing minimum standards for equipment, and in serving as an arbiter in educational disputes. At its session in PAGE 395 SCHOOLS OF NURSING 859 September 1934, the major issue was the question as to whether schools should be of two grades or only of one uniform grade It was finally concluded to sanction two grades; a four-year curriculum and a six-year curriculum. Certain details were left to a sub-committee, but a final vote was taken in April 1935 and the ministry has ordered accordingly. Health Inspectors But this is not all Inspectors have al ready been at work, visiting schools and making vigorous recommendations as to policy, conformity with requirements, administrative pro cedure, and the like. There can be little doubt but that such inspection, honestly carried out, will result in a rapid improvement in the schools, where they are weak; and a continued endorsement of those schools that already have their houses in order. Registration Further, to two separate committees under this commission, there has been entrusted responsibility for determining the curriculum and for effecting registration in schools of nursing and in midwife-training institutions. The work done these many years by the Nurses' Association of China, the pioneer agency in this important field, is thus conserved and given government status. When the entire matter of curricu lum of registration, etc. passes over into the hands of the Commission, the N.A.C. will continue as a membership body much as the Chinese Medical Association is the mem bership body for the physicians of China Here, too, is another significant field in which the pioneer work of the missionary nurse is to find recognition and prolongation of life under the auspices of the National Government. Medical Personnel, rather than financial stringency Colleges* alone, is the serious problem of the modern medical college in China ; for there are far too few physicians available to cope with the vast task in hand. The Government has already approved the continuance of *See Appendix V. PAGE 396 360 MEDICAL SCHOOLS a number of national medical colleges; one in Peiping, two in Shanghai, one in Cant.on, and plans for others. It has also approved the development of provincial schools wherever funds and finance are adequate; in Hopei, in Shantung, in Kiangsi, in Hunan, and elsewhere; and is encouraging new ventures in this provincial field. Thus, a new provincial school is getting under way in the enter prising province of Kwangsi, under the direction of Dr. Ko Shao-lung, formerly director in the Hopei Medical College. 'l'he Minister of Education is eager that pro vinces in which strong hospitals are established, whether under missionary bodies or otherwise, should take advantage of the existence of such hospitals as arenas for clinical instruction, and set up medical schools in connec tion therewith. An experiment is well under way at Pao ting, by which surgical students in the Hopei Medical College go to the Taylor Memorial Hospital of the Pres byteiian Mission for instruction in its surgical wards. Such forms of cooperation are welcome and their number should be rapidly increased Canton, hopes for large. goY ernment grants to aid in the completion of plans for a Sun Yat-sen Memorial Medical School, to be conducted as a merger by Lingnan University, Hackett Medical College and Cant.on Hospital, the latter being the pioneer medical institution in China Hunan-Yale The Hsiang Ya (Hunan-Yale) Medical Medical College College in Changsha is giving continue;icl thought to the proposal for an experi mental curriculum, discussed by Dr. Yen in his article in the previous YEAR BooK. A special eonference was called in Nanking in April 1935 to consider whether there are elements in.a total social program in Hunan which are of adequate supplementary value to offer an enlarged opportunity for the provincial educational plan. Health Commissioners vincial Health Starting early in 1934, the Wei Sheng Shu began its program of health control in the provinces by appointing Pro Commissioners in H uuan and in Kiangsi, PAGE 397 HEALTH PROGRAM 361 as well as in Suiyuan, Kansu and Ninghsia. A Commis sion was appoint4'd in Shensi and experimental health pro grams were started in Shantung and in certain other areas in the northwest. More recently, a Provincial Health Commissioner has been appointed in Chekiang. Through these various agencies, a truly connected system of health control will, presently, be exerted by the Wei Sheng Shu all over China. Health Centres An interesting development in Hunan has been the approach made by Dr. Y. Y. Lung', the Health Commissioner, to the mission hospitals of the province. There are hospitals of this sort in the ten major hsiens of Hunan. Dr. Lung hopes these hospitals will continue to function in the way originally planned, but that they will also be willing to serve as hsien health centres Such a program, when more fully developed, should be a vivid demonstration of the increased cffectiYeness of medical service possible through coopera tion. Conferences Three medical groups of national significance met in China in 1934. In April, the biennial meeting of the Chinese Medical Association was held in Nanking, and gave delegates from all over the land the chance to see the remarkable developments in the health program of the National Government, as well as to discuss the results of the great variety of experimental work in ward and laboratory, now being undertaken in China. In August the Nurses' As.s:ocia.tion of China held an important conference in Hankow. The heat of the summer was nnavailing to check the enthusiasm and alert ness of the delegates. In October the Ninth Conference of the Ji'ar East~rn Association of Tropical Medicine was held in Nanking, bringing together government and private delegates from many countries. It was a remark able gathering, both because of the wide area from which members came, and because of the searching reports on aspects of tropical medicine that were presented and dis cussed. PAGE 398 362 Survey of Mission Hospitals RURAL HEALTH In order to show how vastly equipment and facilities had increased in the mission hospi tals of China since the survey of Dr. Balme, more than fifteen years ago, Dr. Snell of Soo chow was requested to make a new survey, and his com prehensive report is most illuminating. The finq_ings need not be tabulated here, but serve to indicate the enormous improvement in facilities, in administrative arrangements and in completeness of service now capable of being ren dered by these institutions. Comparative tables make it possible to study the records of government and private Chinese hospitals side by side with those of the mission hospitals. Rural There is no more encouraging sign on the Health medical horizon in China than the widespread determination to discover what the health needs of the rural areas are; to provide adequately for those needs in both curative and preventive medicine; and to launch a program of health education that shall use all schools, from kindergarten to university, as a base for spreading health knowledge. Those who visit the rural health centres of the Wei Sheng Shu in Kiang Ning Hsien, around Nan.king, or the health stations of the Nanking University Hospital in that same hsien, or the great health experiments being conducted at Tinghsien (Hopei), at Tsou Ping and Lung Shan (Shantung-), and elsewhere, will be amazed at the extent of the work already undertaken and the response of all classes in the country to these health activities There is little doubt as to the effectiveness of the school as the logical centre through which the hospital's health program may be extended. Narcotics The Government proposes to make narcotics a monopoly. As soon as possible the Wei Sheng Shu will become a depot for all supplies: applica tions for narcotics will be sent to that institution; and all registered hospitals will be able to secure what they need. In this way it is hoped to put an end, quite rapidly, to the misuse of narcotics which has become so serious a menace. PAGE 399 MEDICAL PROGRESS 363 Progress There is a thrill in the air in medicine in China today. The Government is awake and driving ahead at a vigorous pace. Practitioners of medi cine are at work in all the large cities and in numbers of lesser towns. Research is holding the attention of workers in private laboratories and government institutes. Vac cines and serums of all needed sorts, medicaments and analytic material for the most exacting requirements are being produced in China. The Government is eager .that every worthy practitioner should be enrolled as a part of the fighting force against disease; and that every hospital, dispensary, nursing school, midwife-training centre, techni cian school, under mission auspices or otherwise, if doing work of a creditable standard, shall be included in the armamentarium of medical defence for the land. Dangers But with this advance, certain dangers have come into being. The supply of workers being so limited, many thrust themselves into medical practice who are utterly unprepared and inadequate. The Government's dilemma arises out of its utterly insufficient supply of personnel for the work so urgently needing staff. Only by the most rigorous supervision can the Government exclude from practice those who cannot qualify therefor. A further serious danger besetting the profession is that, setting diagnosis aside, it will fall a prey to the advertiser's wiles and adopt injections as a substitute for careful study. Everywhere in China shops that sell tablets and serums are parading under the title of I Yiwn ( ~IS1c). 'fhey are a menace to the public welfare and it is a satisfaction to know that the Govern ment is taking steps to regulate the continuance of these shops. The medical profession of China is in its youth. Immature, yet vigo rous and confident., it is eage,1 to accomplish miracles. If economic stringency does not prevent the expansion of the national health program, and if every medical agency in the land, including the great group of Christian hospitals, will cooperate to the best of its ability, there will be great advances in medicine in China during the next few years. PAGE 400 Awakened Interest in China CHAPTER XXXIV CHINA'S LEP~OSY PROBLEM JAMES L. MAXWELL rrhe past year has seen an awakening of interest in the treatment and prevention of leprosy in this country such as has never been known before. While the bodies mainly responsible for this work, and for the direction of any advance that is being made, are The Chinese Mission to Lep ers and The Mission to Lepers (International) it should be noted that there is a widespread feeling of dissatisfaction with the existing failure to tackle this important problem, and a desire for advance which is showing itself in the strengthening of existing work and in proposals for further effort in a number of new centre,; As the length of this article is strictly limited we shall attempt to deal bri e fly with only a few of the most important points. Legislation China has no central legislation on the subject of leprosy. While this has certain serious disadvantages it has to be remembered that legislation on the subject in most countries is so unsatis factory and so much ruled by hysterical fear 0 the disease rather than by a scientific approach to the problem, that the absence of national laws if they should conform to the procedure in other lands is entirely advantageous. Ou the other hand it allows the promulgation of local legisla tion which in some places has been of a penal nature pressing most heavily on the unfortunate victims of the disease. Among the worst of the local laws relating to lepers were those of Kwangtung which called for the arrest of every leper by the police and their compulsory segrega tion in settlements which did not even exist in sufficient PAGE 401 MODEL LEPROSARIUM 365 number to house more than one per cent of the victims. 'l'o this question of leper settlements we shall refer again but the legislation was the cause of much suffering among the lepers. Happily Canton has again assumed the lead in progressive measures and at the end of last year promul gated legislation completely repealing the former penal la,vs and throwing the door widely open for modern scientific treatment of the disease. The British Colony of Hongkong is also engaged in a revision of its leprosy laws pointing in the same direc tion Extension Work In the course of last ye,ar plans have been developed f~ new efforts in the cause of the lepers or for further development of existing centres in the following places. Shanghai The Chinese Mission to Lepers is busy erecting a model leprosarium to the north of Shanghai. Building has already begun and it was hoped to admit patients in the autumn of 1935. 'l'he accommoda tion will be for about 100 and is primarily intended for the lepers of Shanghai. This leprosarimn is being built on an unusually elaborate scale with the intention of pro viding for the much needed training of doctors and nurses in leprosy work. Tsingchow, A colony for fifty lepers is being planned Shantung in Tsingchow by the mission hospital with the support of the local gentry. Hangchow sarium in Mission to Foochow Plans are being considered for extension and development of the well-known lepro this place The work is supported by the Lepers (International) A i'.eheme is on foot here for a development of a settlement under the Chinese Mission to Lepers and local supporters, with a consecutive effort by the Mission to Lepers (International) for rural work and a small hospital for patients needing special treatment. An excellent site for the settlement has been promised by PAGE 402 366 RURAL LEPER CLINICS the local authorities and it is hoped that work may be begun without too long a delay. Amoy A site has been promised for a leper settlement and if certain unexpected difficulties can be over come a much needed piece of work should be started here. Chengtu, With the support of the Mission to Lepers Szechwan (International) it is hoped to build a small hospital especially for early cases in connec tion with the Medical College of the West China Union University. Pakhoi. The old established work here, the first we Kwangtung believe in China, is about to be extended. The present accommodation is for 150 lepers and it is thoug'ht that it may be possible to enlarge the settlement to, take in as many as a thousand patients. Leper Clinics Hopeful though all these promises of exten sion are, a still more import advance is the development of hospital and rural clinics. The most remarkable of the latter is a work commenced in the country districts north of Swatow by the mission hospital of that place, towards the close of last year. In a purely village area a weekly clinic has registered over 100 lepers and has an average attendance of more than seventy. Even in the short time since this work was begun a very marked alleviation of symptoms is evident in many of the patients. Another interesting and n1:0st hopeful village clinic work is being developed by the staff of the vV eihsien Hospital, Shantung. Hospital clinics for lepers have been carried on, often in a rather perfunctory way, for some years but recently there has been a considerable extension of such work on more hopeful lines. New clinics are being opened and places where work had stopped owing to opposition from the local authorities are being reopened. PAGE 403 LEPER SEGREGATION 367 Village Clinics We have referred already to the development of village clinics for lepers as the most important advance of recent years. 'rhe necessity for these cannot be exaggerated There is no desire to belittle the value of settlements and hospitals for lepers They are essential for the! exhibition of Christian charity of the very finest type. They do not, however, touch the problem of leprosy. A leper home may very well be compared to a home for limbless soldiers. Both provide a very necessary haven for those who have fallen in the fight against disease or the enemy. As a means of tackling the origins of the trouble be they disease or war, they are valueless. These can only be dealt with at their source, which in the case of leprosy, is in the villages. Segregation No country which is heavily infected with leprosy has ever eradicated the disease by segregation. The best example of this is the Philippine Islands where, with a comparatively small population, no expense has been spared to segregate a.U the lepers. The result of decades of untold effort l1as been that 9000 lepers have been seg'l'egated and yet more than 6000 are still at large, probably very much more than this number. Rural Clinics Rural clinics allow for treatment of cases in their own homes without transplanting them to uncongenial surroundings the psychological effects of which are ent.irely inimical to cure. The early cases can be reached, patients can be followed up in their homes with health instruction and the children if infected can be reached before the disease has advanced. Further, such work is possible at a cost that is less than a tithe of what settle ment treatment requires Even in a country as poor as China, village clinics might reach every leper; whereas the cost of segregation for even ten per cent of the lepers is such that neither private or public finance could meet it. The future of leprosy work in this country, if it is to a success, lies in the villages. PAGE 404 PART VII LITERATURE CHAPTER XXXV A YEAR OF CHINESE PUBLICATION WORK TSAO LIANG Publication Data Accurate statistical data of the publications of China are very difficult to get. The law concerning right of authorship was enacted in l\fay, 1928. The Ministry of Interior has begun to register books. But owing to the fact that the law has not been long in existence, publishers have not been able to carry it out. The Government, too, has not strictly en forced the law. For these reasons, beginning from .June 1928 to 1933 tJ1ere were only 3776 classifications of publications, newspapers and magazines with about 3331 kinds registered in the Ministry of Interi01. 'fhese publications may be classified as follows:-I. Books registered in the Ministry of Interior from the 17th to 22nd year. I~ 17th to 20th 2lst yr. I 22nd yr. Total yr. I s Sociology 190 I 384 574 Natural Science 72 I Ui 186 Practical Scierce 5f> 216 271 Philosophy 47 G2 !)9 Religion 3 11 14 Literature 235 329 G64 History & Geography 59 147 206 Arts ~2 70 98 Language 21 128 149 M iscel J aneous 182 I 433 61:i Total 1000 886 1.890 3,776 PAGE 405 REGISTERED LITERA'l'URE 369 II. Magazines and newspapers registered in the Ministry of Interior from 1928-1933 17th Yr. to I PLACJ:;S December 22nd Yr. TOTAL 2lst Yr. Nanking 158 I 177 335 Shanghai 199 261 460 Peping 104 I 121 225 Tsingtao 24 I 16 40 Wcihaiwci 2 I 2 4 Kiangiju Prov' nco 138 28!) 427 Chck :ang 173 I 173 346 .. Anwei M I 63 97 ,, I Kiangsi .. 36 I 20 56 I Honan .. 42 I 66 108 Hopeh 6~ 184 247 Shantung ,, 3r, 53 88 Shausi 38 22 61 Hunan 115 I 126 241 .. I Hupei 183 122 305 Yunnan 2 ]3 15 Szcchw::m 4 74 78 Fukien ,, 11 27 38 Kwangtung ,, 2 63 65 Kwangsi .. 10 12 22 Shensi .. I 8 8 Kweichow 3 I l 4 ,, I (~Dfrf!O Chahar i Province 10 I 6 16 Suiyuan ,, 5 11 16 Ningshia 2 2 Kansu 10 16 26 Chinghai ,, 2 2 Total I l,403 I 1,919 3,331 III. Magazines, newspapers and other publications reported registered in the Ministry of Interior, 23rd year, January to May. PAGE 406 370 REGISTERED LITERATURE JAN. I F1rn. \MARCH: Arnn, I MAY ---.--Social Science 31 27 20 7 48 Natural Science 8 1 1 8 Practical Science 8 2 9 1 5 Philosophy 7 2 1 4 Religion 2 Literature 8 2 7 1 17 Hi9tory & Geography 5 3 1 12 Arts 8 7 2 Language 6 1 2 3 14 Miscellaneous 1 1 5 Total 82 33 52 r 16 115 IV. Magazines and newspapers registered Ministry of Interior in 23rd year, January to ber. I~ "' "' i-< < 0 ,-l I>< ;: I>< "' < p fil ,-l l:l p < (!> Ill Ol < .; p 0 Ill PAGE 407 CLASSII<'ICATION OF PUBLICATIONS 371 V Classification of publications advertized in Sin Pao from January to October, 1934. TITLES AND VOLUMES "' "' r,i r,i ,.:i E< ,; Iii ,.:i l>l .5 !-< !-< .... ,.:i -< z "!:-, 0 TITLES lil I:> I:> r,i 0 l> lz; ...., rD. 0 ,.:i < ,.:i 0 g !:-, !:-, ---------General 2 4 1 3 5 7 6 7 2 37 51 Philosophy 2 1 6 6 3 8 5 9 1 4 45 50 Psychology 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 12 12 Ethics 1 10 1 12 l:l Religion 1 6 1 1 2 2 1 2 16 16 Sociology 2 4 5 5 1 2 1 2 22 23 Statistics 1 2 I 2 6 6 Politiral Science 6 1 8 2 7 3 12 1 1 41 42 Economics 6 12 7 11 8 8 5 13 2 4 76 77 Law 3 6 4 10 3 3 5 3 42 2 81 82 Administration 2 2 4 1 4 1 1 1 16 16 Military 1 3 1 1 6 6 Education 8 2 6 6 39 20 26 58 22 20 207 207 Business 1 1 1 5 8 8 Communication 1 1 1 1 4 4 Language 2 8 3 3 8 5 3 3 4 6 45 50 Science 1 1 1 5 2 1 11 11 Mathematics 3 1 4 4 5 3 4 24 24 Astronomy 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 8 Physics 3 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 13 13 Chemistry ] 1 2 2 Geology 2 2 2 Biology 2 1 1 1 2 7 7 P!antology 1 1 2 1 5 5 Zoology 2 2 2 6 6 Medicine 4 3 1 2 3 2 6 2 3 25 Engineering 1 4 4 5 7 4 1 2 28 28 Farming 3 2 1 6 4 44 9 5 1 75 75 Bnsiness 2 1 4 1 2 2 4 7 2 25 27 Handicraft 2 5 1 1 1 10 10 Art 1 3 3 l!l 1) 10 3 3 4 5 60 61 Literature 42 14 10 23 47 38 .8 19 20 22 243 316 Hist. & Geo. 6 12 9 19 15 14 10 14 4 7 110 334 TOTAL 105 78 87 133 169 'HO 86 185 136 97 1,286 161{ PAGE 408 372 CLASSICS REPUBLISHED 'l'he above data a.l'c not, of coul'se complete. In comparing what is listed in the Ministry of Interior and the publications' advertisements of Sin Pao we, see that the numbers of books registered in the Ministry of Interior is still very far from the actual number. Since Shanghai is the publishing center and the Sin Pao is a popular newspaper its data are, therefore more reliable. Assuming that the publications listed in the advertisement columns of Sin Pao are 90% of the publica tions of China then within ten months there must be 1430 titles and 1800 volumes. 'l'here will thus be 1716 titles, 2160 volumes in one year In comparison with the world's publicatiom; China occupies the 16th place, just a little ahead of Switzerland 'l'hel'e is about one Yolume for every 21!),230 persons. Product of The above data may be considered as in Publishers dicating the pl'ocluct. of publishers in 1934. They only represent their product, however uot the distinctive features of the publishing business, 'l'hese features are as follows : I. Classics Republished ..:\s the technique of publishing has be come more advanced the republishing of books has become common. 'l'his year is the first time in Chinese history when valuable old books were l'epublishecl. Three such important republications are as follows : a. The Sih Kuh Clrnan Suieh ( l!9 filH~::-~ ;lji:). These four classics belong to the Wen Yuen Kok ()ttJll{lffl) which has not been published before. There are about 231 index numbers in the first part as published by the Commercial Press. The proposal to republish was made in 1924 : but not till 193,1 was this proposal carried out. The Ministry of Education appointed seventeen persons to take care of the Index part<, 'l.'wo thousand copies will be published in two years. Selling started in the spring of 1935. PAGE 409 YEAR BOOKS 373 b Collection of Ancient and Modern Books. ( i] Jvt) This work is more or less 0 the nature 0 an Eucyclopedia. It was edited by Chan Mung Liu in the Ching Dynasty. He collected all the material from the books possessed by the Emperor Sing Chun. There are altogether about 10,000 copies which are divided into six volumes It is said that all the ancient Chinese histories are contained in this work. The Chung Hua Book Com pany has planned to issue 800 copies or sale in the autumn 0 1935. II. Year Books Formerly the only year book published was in English by ai foreigner THE CHINESE YEAR BooK was published by the Commercial Press or the first time Last yeair Sin Pao published the SIN PAO YEAR BooK and the Minister 0 Railways published the RAILWAY YEAR BooK. This year there was in addition the YEAR BooK OF EDUCATION, published by the Ministry 0 Education, the CHINA EcoNOMICs' YEAR BooK, publishe d by the Ministry of Industry, a~1d the COMMUNICATIONS AND PINANCE YEAR BooK, published by the Ministries 0 Communication and Finance, though the latter is not yet actual ly off the press. Besides there 8!re the DIPLOMATIC AND BANKING Year Books and the lN'l'EimA'fIONAL ARMAMENT YEAR BooK O.I!' 1933 Although the number of annuals is not very great yet t.he material in them is very important and practical. This is one of the features 0 these publications. I comment on these publications below. a. YEAR BOOK ON ARMAivIENT. Or-~~,,n 'rhis was edited by the League 0 Nations, translated by International Correspondence Co. and published by the China Cultural Association. In a preface to this YEAR BooK General Chiang Kai-shek made the following statement: "This book contains the munition and military affairs of the different countries. There are about PAGE 410 374 YEAR BOOKS ~4 countries mentioned in it. Some of them are mem bersa of the International Alliance; ome are not. From this book we can get a bird's-eye view of aU the forces of the different countries.'' b. CHINA EooNo:r.rws' YEAR BooK. (~~$:ID This book was edited by more than 100 experts em ployed by the Ministry of Industry. The material therein is utilized by all the different experts, societies, big busi ness organizations and legal corporations. The book is divided into seventeen chapters and contains more than 6,000,000 characters. All the material, whether directly or indirectly co.nnected with the statistics of economics, published or unpublished, are classified and put into this book. Therefore Chan, Kung-po, the Minister of Industry, said that in name it is an annual, but in fact, it is a book which treats of all the economic conditions of China. It is published by the Commercial Press. c. YEAR BooK OF EDUCATION. (~A'$~) This ann~al reports all the things concerning educa tions in China. It is. divided into five parts :-(a) general discussion of education; (b) educational laws; (c) general condition of education; (d) educational statistics; ( e) and educational miscellany. Most of the data begin from the Ching Dynasty except the legal rules and statistics of education. On account of the size of China communication is not very convenient. It is difficult to get material from different places; hence, it is hard to publish one such book every year. In name it is called the FrnsT YEAR BooK OF CHINESE EDUCATION but in fact'' we may call it '' The Modern History of Chi nese Education''. The book is in two volumes. It was published by the Kai Ming Book Co. d. YEAR BOOK OF DIPLOMACY. (:$'f.~$~) This book was published by the Kai Ming Book Co. There are two i;tyles. It is divided into five chapters: PAGE 411 YEAR BOOKS 375 -(1) The Chinese Government and Diplomacy; (2) Ministry Association and Diplom.acy; ( 3) History of Chinese Diplomacy; ( 4) The Diplomacy of One Year; ( 5) and Foreign Affairs and the Administration of One Year. c. YEAR BOOK ON BANKS IN CHINA. (ffl:frc:~) This book was edited and published by the Research Department of the Bank of China. It is divided into major and minor parts. 'rhe major part runs from chapter one to chapter eight and deals with the conditions of the banks, legal rules, surveys, etc. The minor part runs from chapter nine to chapter fifteen and deals with the banking business. This can be divided into foreign banks, money exchange shops, trust com panies, underwriting companies, savings' banks, insurance companies and pawn shops. It serves as a reference for students, professors or other experts. f. SIN PAo YEAR Boore ($fll1f:~) This is a second edition. Most of the material has been changed and corrected. The editors tried to obtain material from experts and specialists. They got all the statistical data through correspondence. Therefore the contents are reliable. The book is divided into 25 items. The material which concerns land, population, Kuomintang affairs, political affairs, economics and education, i., listed in detail. It was printed in two styles. It was published by the Sin Pao Newspaper Co. of Shanghai. III. Increase The two termil, '' Magazine Year'' and in Magazines "Children's Year" are found often in newspapers and magazines. The magazines of this year (1934) are much more numerous than those of last year. This can be noted in the contents od' maga zines as listed in the Ren Win ]Jfonthby.

PAGE 412

376 Pt MAGAZINES VI Number of magazines as received by Ren Win Monthly for each of ten months in three years. ',, Years Mo~--~ 21st. Year 22nd. Year 23rd. Yrnr February 89 90 194 March 93 89 203 April 80 89 169 May 90 98 202 June 80 110 209 Augu~t 91 B8 230 September 84 163 242 October 88 150 217 November 88 l(\(i 210 December 94 179 210 Total 877 1,274 2 ,086 If on the basis of the above diagram we take an average of ten months of the magazines received by Ren Win l.lfonthLy we see that there wert1 88 kinds in the year before last, 128 kinds last year, and 209 kinds this year. On the one hand we note that the sale of magazines this year will be much larger than that of last year, and on the other hand we know that some people have acquired the passion for knowledge. IV. Censorship Formerly only newspape.rs were censored. But after the Nanking Govern ment was established, even books dealing with political science were censored. This latter field is still very small. Books of general literature, sociology and other magazines are censored, with the exception of those published by the Government. The censorship law contains fourteen articles. It is one of the features of China's modern publishing life. V. Decline in Price The publishers encountered a difficulty this year. 'l'he book companies published many new books and magazint1S but they could not Thus ever since the autumn of 1934 the prices of be sold.

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PRIC.ES OF LITERATURE 377 primary school text-books fell to 80% or 60% of their otiginal prices; middle-school tt.>xt-books fell from 100% to 80%, even to 50%. 'l'he term "cheap sale" was applied in every line of business. 'rhis year it applies also to publications. This may also be recognized as one of the featnres of China's publishing'. life this year.

PAGE 414

ClIAPTER XXXVI ClIRISTI.AN LITERATURE AND THOUGHT FENG HSUEH-PING Christian The purpose of this chapter is not to make Literature a complete survey of Christian literature during the past year, since the space allotted would perhaps hardly be sufficient for the titles of the books and pamphlets published Last year was a fruitful year in Christian literature, the Annual Report of the Christian Literature Society alone listing eighty-five new books and ninety-one reprints. If to these we add the publications of other Christian organizations, we see that the total number of books published is considerable. These books are on a great variety of subjects, and are written for different types of readers. The writer of this chapter hopes to show how some of them are of consid erable importance as revealing the modem Chinese Christian thought and mind, through which we may understand something of the condition of Christianity in the land to-day, as well as of its future prospects. Trends of Thought Christian literature has followed two of the trends of modern Christian thought in China : the first may be called the trend of individual Gospel literature: and the second the trend of social Gospel literature. As the reader well knows, these represent two of the different views of Christian life ffillphasized in the course of Christian history; one which looks mainly to the cultivation of the individual self; and the other which dwells more -011 social reform. These two view~ still exist to-day and the emphasis on one or the other is even more marked than in the past.

PAGE 415

INDIVIDUAL GOSPEL 37. 9 Individual We consider first the individual Gospel Gospel literature. It is exemplified in the Oxford Literature Group Movement and has had considerable influence. The principal idea of these Groups is shown in the books :-".The Principles of the Oxford Group" ( .tf=:.~ M -1::kf.Wil), "The Oxford Group Movement" (.tf::.~til~wJJ). and "Sharing" ( ~~~!!]h). The members of these groups meet togeither at certain intervals, in what are called '' house parties.'' In reading the books just men tioned, we see how they emphasize, the cultivation of the individual self, and how they try to follow the way of the first century disciples. '!'heir distinctive practices are can fession, witnessing and sharing of experiences. Their idea is the salvation of the soul out of a sinful world. But theJ' hold that, in order to be saved, confession of sin before some one must take place; this confession will help others; hence the "sharing". Mr. A. J. Russell's book "For Sinners Only" ( ~AZtf) has be.en translated for this purpose, and several editions have been sold in a short period. i 1 Mr. N. Z. Zia ( ~t~~ft.) gathered together a number of his own articles, which the National Y M.C.A. Committee published in book form under the title of '' The Individual Gospel'' ( ilfflAiiloiif). In the preface, the author relates how he first studied in Chica.go Seminary under Prof. Shailer Mathews, who lectured on the subject of social theology. These lectures did not satisfy Mr. Zia, who later on went to Harvard and became a student under Dr. A. N. Whitehead whose teaching he found profitable. In Dr. Whitehead 's '' Religion in the Making,'' Mr. Zia found the following sentences, which he regarded as words of gold: "Religion is what the individual does with his own solitariness"; "What should emerge from religion is individual worth of character"; and "Religion in its decay sinks back into sociability.'' This led Mr. Zia away from an emphasis on the ritual and social aspects of religion to a deeper appreciation of its individual character.

PAGE 416

380 SOCIAL SERVICE Religious As to religious experience, the National Experience Y M C .A. Conunittee published a symposium entitled "My Religious Experience" rn~Wc which includes eighteen articles by different authors. 1\iost of these authors are well-known Chinese, Christian thinkers. Their views on religion differ, but their faith in the necessity of an individual experience of God is one. Social But religion does not only mean personal reService demption from sin or personal advantages derived from communion with Christ. Neither did Jesus insist on a theologically accurate creed or on mystical ecstasy. ,vhat J e sus wanted us to do was to take up the cross and follow him. So the real meaning of Christianity involves a deep idea of social service. Many Chinese Christians 'look at the present crisis in, China and the world at large, and they cannot but think that Christianity should not be confined to personal religion, but should be free to raise the standard of social reform on the basis of the teaching of Christ. In this way the prob lem is spreading out from individual redemption. to the redemption of the, world. Those who hold this view be lieve that a religion. which is fit for the present age must be a social religion, and ,for this reason they raise a new cry for a social Gospel. Individual and Social Religion But, at bottom, this individual and this social Gospel are but an indication of two steps in one process. The two are not com petitive or alternative expe rienc es, but suc cessive ones. The religion of the individual is not the religion of individualism It is no longer poss ible. to think of religion only as a personal possession or joy, for the mind of today turns inevitably to the further question of utilization,, applicatfon and service It can be concluded then, that individual religion is a preparatory step to social religion, because only a personal experience of Goel can, give the power to establish the kingdom of God upon

PAGE 417

SOCIAL GOSPEL 381 earth. The first ma.y be tlescribed as the spiritualiza.tion of the social question; and the second as the socialization of the religious life. Social 'rhe Association Press of the Y.M.C .A. pubGospel lished a book entitled "Social Gospel" (Jfcl:W fiiji}) by a Christian writer and thinker of repute, Mr. Y.T. Wu (~j\;ffl*). It contains eighteen chapters centered in the idea of the social gospel. 'l'he author believes that true religion is the religion of the practical life, which ought to be carried out in every aspect of man's activity. The period in which we live is one of great change. It, is an age of struggle, sacrifice and effort. .The Christian Movement in China must undertake the responsibility for saving society. But how can this be done? The autho r strongly rejects violence and force as being against the teaching of Christ. He advocates pacifism or universal love and has organized the "Society of Pacifists" (Pft;~ ifd:). which publishes a bi-monthly ( Jlft~~RfU). History of Socialism Mr. J. Wesley Shen also wrote a book called '' A New History of Socialism'' ( JJ'd:tt .3:~ r ) In this book Mr. Shen describes Christianity as a movement of social reform. In. the first chapter the author shows the Bible as a seed of socialism. He quotes the saying-s of ancient Hebrew prophets and the teachings of Christ in the Gospels Then he follows the history of Christianity and gives examples showing how the leaders in the apost.olici age, the church fathers and mediaeval saints had a very deep social consc-iousness. In the last chapter he ma.ke& a complete survey of Christian socialism. l\'.Ir. Shen may have received his idea from Kautsky's "The Bases of Christianity" (-iit~ZlHiJV. Kautsky was a follower of Karl Marx and took a materialtstic stand point in interpreting Christianity. This book has been translated into Chinese and published by a secular book shop.

PAGE 418

382 Christianity and Chinese Culture RELIGION AND CULTURE There are many books and articles on the subject of Christianity and Chinese Culture.'' This is a. big theme worth consideration by Chinese Christians Many Chinese people look upon Christianity as a foreign religion only because Christianity could not penetrate deeply into Chin ese culture and mix with it. Buddhism did not originate in China,, but it does :not seem a foreign religion to the Chinese So, many Christians think that unless Christianity ean peinetrate into Chinese culture it will one day be buried in oblivion. 'l'herefore many writers have been led to contribute their own views on this problem. Mr. N. Z. Zia wrote on the subject of "How Christianity May be Combined with Chines e Gluture. '' He concludes that this work may succeed through individualization and rationalization. And in another book '' Chinese Ethical Thoughts (~~{nliJffili!MJl) he g ives a vivid description of the central faith of the Chinese people. Christianity and Chinese Culture Compared Mr. P C Hsu also wrote a book on "Christianity and Chinese Culture" (:~flU!ctft1 i:1"1 ffixj:,C ft). First of all he pointsi out how the fu.ndam.ental view of the un iverse and of life of the two systems of thought are not the same That of Christianity is based on God ( ifi$*) while that of Chii1ese culture is based on man. (A*). In support of this arg11ment he quotes many passages from the Chinese class i cs and the. writing of Chinese philosophers But h e does not hold that Christianity and Chinese cultur e can not harmonize. He mentions how Buddhism was introduced into China and suggests that Christianity might fo1low a similar method. Faith of Mr. T. C. Chao (,tfl~Jif) wrote a.u article Christianity on the same subject (1tlkY:tk.ffi!~1~iJ,Cft) and anothe.r book on '' The Central Faith of Christianity" ( fi~(t,J s:p ,i:,,ffl fJJJ) In the latter he holds that the central faith of Christianity is Jesus Christ and PAGE 419 CHRISTIANITY AND CONFUCIANlSM 383 the central faith of Jesus Christ is the God whom he dis covered from his own life. Therefore the most important work of Christianity is to present J asus and His God to the Chines e people and leave out the traditions and theology of the West. Christian Mr. T. A Yuan's (~'li::ti:) article on Contributions "Christianity and Chinese Culture" won the first prize in the Timothy Richard Essay Contest of 1934. It is a comprehensive survey and a valuable piece of re.search work. The writer of this chapter secured the second prize with a paper on the subject '' How Christianity Can Contribute to the Changing of China.'' Christianity and Mr. Princeton S Hsu l tt.f'~:P) Confucianism wrote two companion volumes on the subject of '' Christianity and Chinese Culture." The first is "The Chinese Nation Through the Eyes of Jesus" (ll~f!i~H.lUifa'-.Jrp4{11(n~); and the other is ''Jesus Through the Eyes of the Chinese Nation'' ( i:p~ R~H.l:Uifs'-J ll~i.r;f;). 'fhe author points out some unwise forms of Christian propaganda in China, and then compares the ideas of God and life of Christianity with those of Confucianism. 'l'he main idea of the author seems to be to combine all the existing religions into one Expansion of Christian Literature The writer is gfad to be able to mention the fact that Christian literature is now finding a new means of expansion. Hitherto Christian books have been published elm.ost exclusively by Christian organizations. Religious books are often regarded with indifference and eve.n with contempt by ordinary book shops But during the year that is past (1934) some of the most important publishing firms have issued books on Christianity, while an increasing number of writers are giving quotations from the Bible. In this connection, it is interesting to no,te that in a re cently published "Anthology of Chinese Prose" ( 1h~:f& ), two passages from the New Testament were given as examples of good literary style The Commercial Press PAGE 420 384 CHRISTIAN LITERARY WORK published Mr. T. A. Yuan's "Life of Jesns Christ" (JIJHM1 ;1:-ti), and also asked another writer to prepare a book on "'l'he History of Christian Thought." 'l'he Chung II wa Book Co. published N. Z. Zia 's "An Outline of Christianity" (fi!JHOO~) and Mr. S C. Wang's (::E fa,(i,) "An Outline of Chinese Religious Thought" (i:pffilll ~~.EM.:m ~::kM), one third of this book being related to Christianity. The Ka lVIing Book Co. published '' 'l'he Little Bible.'' (fJTTM~'-11~). Christian The literary work of the Christian Literary Work Church in China is still in its beg innings and needs careful nurture. It is onlv through the development of Christian literature that Christianity itself can reach its highest development in China. Our hope and pra.ye,r is that the day of grE'atcr effort in Christian literary work is at hand. PAGE 421 CHAPTER XXXVII LITERATURE PROMO'l'ION AND DISTRIBUTION Increased Use of Literature MYRON E TERRY The use of Christian literature. as indicated by sales, is increasing year by year. \Ve make no attempt here to present statistics, or to make the allowances for extraneous factors which would be necessary to explain accurateily those statistics. Various reports, however, indicate a g ro,rth in the reading of Christian books by the Chinese Church as a whole. Increased Sales 'l'he Christian Literature Society reports in 1934 sales of its own publications larger than ever before in its forty-seven years of service. The. China Sunday School Union is publishing and selling more pictures: of all kinds than ever before The National Christian Council, at the completion of its Five Year Movement., reports 29.,000,000 pages of literature distributed in conection with this movement Circulation of Bibles A summary of the total circulation during 1934 of the Bibles of the three Bible societies with headquarters in Shanghai, the British & Foreign Bible Society, the Ame,rican Bible Society and the National Bible Society of Scotland, show a total circula tion in China for the year a follows:-Bibles . . . . 7 4,841 Testaments . . . 7 4,659 Portions . . . 9,557,318 Total 9,706,818 'l'hese totals registering a substantial advance on those of the previous year, conform to the general average of the past ten years except in one particular. The proportion PAGE 422 386 SALE OF SCRIPTURES of complete Bibles has g-reatly advanced, and for the first time on record more Chinese Bible were sold than New Testaments. Sale of Gospels The sale of the separate Gospels ( the '' Portions'' consist chiefly of Gospels), varies according to the number of colporteurs employed, the degTee of safety for travel, and the general conditions of the country. The Gospels are bought almost entirely by non-Christians. The New Testaments. and Bible are mostly purchased by those already attached to or interested in the Christian Church. Up to a few years ago i the New Testament was rega1ded as the requisite for a Chines e Christian, and public sermons or addresses were almost always based upon the New Testament That now the complete Bible is more generally required is indicative of an interesting and significant development. The in creasing number of Bibles sold in the last eight years is shown in the following figures:-Increased Desire to Read 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 22,419 26,463 35,812 43,593 61,190 63, 224 63, 921 74,841 The increase in the use of Christian Literature is due to many contributing factors. Lead ership in the Church is being increasingly as sumed by the Christians themselves, and as responsibility is shouldered increased need to read and study is felt. Educational movements in the Church over a long period of years have produced the ability and desire to read on the part of more Christian people. Year by year more books are being published, and there is more specialized literature for specific needs. PAGE 423 Literature Better Known LOAN LIBRARIES 387 The literature societies are making efforts to make their literature better known and to make it easy of access. Three of the larger societies-the Religious Tract Society, the Lutheran Book Concern and the Christian Literature Society--have yearly membership plans whereby members receive copies of new book as soon as published. There has been an increasing effort to give lite.rature a large place in all kinds of conferences and wherever church lea.de-rs and missionaries gather for any purpose. Loan An increasing number of leaders and mission Libraries aries in local areas have undertaken the responsibility of supplying literature in their localities, and of making the gospel known through litera ture. Many new travelling loan libraries have been started recently and reports show that both Christians and non Christians are reading the books. Every year there are some converts to Christ who have rece.ivecl their first know ledge of Him from a book loaned by a library colporteur Non-Christian Bookstores We regret that we cannot report much increase in the circulation of Christian books 'itlu;ougil1 the non-Christian book.stores and the secular channels of book-trade. A vast market and an unlimited field of influence awaits us here, but is so fa.r scarcely touched Free It is interesting to note that this increase Literature is taking! place at a time when appropriations for mi&<;.i.on work have been grea.tly reduced. There is less money than before in the hands of those who buy this literature, yet its importance in the Christian Movement is so definitcly recognized that it is purchased in greater quantity than ever. In former years the Stewart Evangelistic Fund bonght &nd gave away an enormous amount of literature. This fund is now exhausted and there is no agency in its place which is making free literature available to any gTeat extent. PAGE 424 388 CHRISTIAN PUBLISHERS' ASSOCIATION Publishing The actual business of printing books has, during the last few years, become much easier than before. ,A generation ago missions had to build printing plants, train typesetters and other workmen, and actually turn ont the books themselveS'. Prior to that they had to develop moveable type which could be set. Today in any large city in China the.re are efficient presses run by Chinese business men which will print books in excellent sty le. W"ithin a very few years the art of printing colore.d pictures has ma.de great strides. It is now comparatively -easy to produce the books, and many workmen are giving loyal service to the Christian MoYCmcnt in this way. Christian Publishers' Association 'l'he Christian Publishers' Assodation is now in its eighteenth year. Its object is '' to cooperate in ensuring a u11itecl and pro gressive policy in matters of production, printing, distribution, nomenclature, and other matters affecting Christian literature." Its eighteen members carry on their cooperative activities chiefly through the medium of l'HE CHINA. BOOKMAN. 'l'his magazine, formerly published quarterly:, is now published bi-month ly, and the free circulation has been increased to 10,000, including all ordained pastors, school principles, hospitals and missionaries throughout China. It makes announce ments of new publications, and carries articles discussing the various movements affecting literature. Index of The Association is planning a BooKLiterature, MAN ANNUAL (to be published either annually or bi-annually) which will be a combined catalogue of Christian publishers, with indexes. It is hoped that this will carry on the excellent work done in the CLASSIFIED INDEX published in 1933 by the Kwang Hsueh Publishing House. 'rhis latter is the third such index published in China., but the number of years elapsing between them has been a great disadvantage PAGE 425 UNION HYMN BOOK 389 New New literature is constantly being issued. Literature The Association Press, which for several years had produced very little in the way of new books, has in the first year of the Youth and Religion Movement, produced mora than forty books and pamphlets. The Christian Literature Society produced 185 new titles in 1933-4. The amount of literature available for the needs of the church is steadily increasing, but practically all of it is sold below its actual cost. There is still need for funds from outside, therefore, and valuable manuscripts that are ready are awaiting funds for printing. Union Hymn Book The "Hymns of Universal Praise" is the com bined product of six of the church groups in China, namely: The Chung Hwa Sheng Kung Hwei, The Church of Christ in China, The East China Baptist Convention, The Methodist Episcopal Church North, The Methodist Episcopal Church South, and The North China Kung Li Hui. No effort has been spared in the preparation of words or music, and it is expected that it will become the standard of good hymnology for years to come. It went to press in the spring of 1935, after several years of consecrated labor, and will be ready for distribution about the end of the year. Here again we pay tribute to a Chinese printing concern which has undertaken an almost pioneer task of music typesetting. "Christian Farmer" The farmer in China, long neglected as far as ability to read is concerned, is receiving attention from allied groups in several parts of the country. These groups are producing literature in simple language through which the fanner can be taught to read, and through which he may come to a knowledge of Christianity. The North China Christian Rural Service Union began, in Juy, 1934, Publication of The Christ ian F'a,rmer. It is a bi-weekly church newspaper for rural people, and has been very well re.ceived as is evidenced by the fact that the subscription list is growing rapidly. PAGE 426 390 LITERATURE PROGRAM Phonetic Script The Phonetic Promotion Committee is working onia phonetic edition of the Old Testament. The books of Genesis, Jonah, Ruth and Daniel are already completed and on sale, and as we write, Psalms, Isaiah and E:irodus are being set in type. The entire Old Testament will soon be ready, making it avail able to thousands who cannot read the characters. The New Testament was completed more than a decade ago. Interest in Increased interest at home in the support Literature of literature production and distribution has been strongly evidenced In 1934 l\Ir. Kenneth l\facLenuan Yisitecl China. and in 1935 Dr. John R. Mott spent a fe" ,reeks here. Both of these men have in the past shown a great interest in literature and they indicated that funds would be available in England, Can ada, the United States and elsewhere iu support of the further production of needed literature. Each of them in turn gave a strong impetus to the plans for future pro duction and urged the literature agencies to go forward ivith progressive plans. Program The Literature agencies are working on a program to guide them in the production of literature. Such a program is necessary because the limited resources for production and the limited number of people who are able to write make it imperative that there be no duplication of effort. Books of so many kincl"> are required that without such a progeam some kinds would not. be included. Conference These literature agencies are planning a eonference in the hope that a meeting of representatives from all of them may be held sometime in the near future. Some individual will be set aside for a period to give full time to the preparation of such a con ference. It is hoped that. out of this may grow a united program for production and also a regular series of meet ings from year to study the literature needs of the Christ-ian .Movement. PAGE 427 CHAPTER XXXVIII SOME BOOKS IN ENGLISH ON CHINA l\'.IRs. R. R. SERVICE Ethics and As usual, there is great diversity in the Philosophy titles and subject matter of recent books concerning China, her affairs and her problems. There are several volumes on philosophy, among them being translations of Huai Nan Tzu, under the title, Tao, the Luminant, by Evan Morgan; Mencius, translated by Leonard A. Lyall; Motze, with two books of this title, one by Dr. Y. P. Mei and one by W. H. Long; Chinese Ethical Ideals by Dr. Frank Rawlinson; The Confucian Civilization by Z. K. Zia; a.nd Confucianism and Modern China by Sir Reginald F. Johnston. Dr. Rawlinson states the ethical ideals of the Chinese from a westerner's view point and this should be helpful to the many who haYc not spent a life-time among Orientals so as to be, able to approach these subjects in an Oriental manner. His volume is the result of keen insight and clear analysis. His appreciation) of Chinese ethics should encourage others to search the Classics for those foundations upon which much of the Christia u teaching may be based Sir Reginald Johnston's book woud recall the Confucian ideal to the present-day type of Chinese who is trying to }nuddle through without much of any ideal that the public can discern. His volume is made up of lectures such as might be given in a foreign land to people interested in, but not students of, Chinese ethics of progress. The author. admires the old Chinese ethics and wonders if they may be recovered, in the future. No account is taken of any pro gress in g overnme.nt as instituted by the present regime, though there is a hope that the newly-organized New Life ~ovement may bring about a return to old valuations. PAGE 428 392 HISTORY AND SOCIOLOGY History There is a Pageants of Asia by Kenneth Saunders to give us the setting of India, China and Ja pan in their cultural .and ethical heritage. This baekground is not brought down to the present generation but remains only as a well-drawn surface upon which the patterns produced by philosophies, persons and occurrences stand out in relief and show their varying forms of civiliza tion. A Pageant of Chinese History by Elizabeth Seeger is a well-written book for adolescent westerners. It has c.larity and a fine perspective and should be a model for books of this nature. It interprets Chinese culture in a truthful and delightful manner. Geography George Il. Cressy has furnished us with an excellent. geography in his China's Geograph ical Foundations. It has good maps and illustrations. The statistical tables are as g,ood as he could make them, but at present there is a lack of available material for such use. Later editions of his book may be improved as this con dition is bettered. Archeology Dr. J. Gunnar Anderson, the Swedish archeologist and geologist, has written a fascinating book on the results of his study into the lives of the early dwellers in the Loess Country. Children of the Yellow Earth should enthrall those interested in these investigations, and its story of the discovery of the famous '' Peking Man" is one that will appeal to a wide variety of readers. S.ociology There are several books on sociology and kindred subjects. Social Pathology in China is an exhaustive product of much investigation and study on the part of its author, H. D. Lam.son. Such volumes are most useful in presenting the existing realities upon which any plans for social amelioration must be based. Complex as these questions are in the Occident they are never the same when found in Oriental guise, and need to be studied though Chinese material in order to be of use to stude;nts of China. PAGE 429 POLITICAL HISTORY 393 Recent Among books of recent history, Twilight in History the Forbidden City, by Sir Reginald F. Johnston, concerns itself with a sympathetic account of the conditions leading ll.P to the life of Pu-Yi as the last mem ber of royalty in the old Peking Palace enclosure. As tutor of the Prince of the Manchu house we cannot expect the author to be anything but. favorable to the present surround ings and position of his former pupil. His thesis is to up hold the Japanese view of Manchuria as the home of the Manchus and never as a part of China. This position is, of course, refuted by the Chinese, who do not agree with the author's premise. Manchukuo The opposite side of this controversy is explained in a book edited by Tang Leang-li. Under the title, The Puppet State of "Manchukuo", the author shows clearly the Chinese view of the situa.tion in Manchuria today and gives documented reasons for apprehension as to the purpose of Japan in future relations with that portion of Asian soil. Sun Yat-sen 'fwo books with the title of Sun Yat-sen are from the pens of Leo.nard S. Hsii and Lyon Sharman. The former's volmne consists of translations of the great majority of Dr. Sun's writings. Mrs. Sharman 's book is an attempt to give an unbiassed presentation of Dr. Sun's life and career. Some of the myths of his early days are dispelled and we are shown as much reality as can be obtained from an exhaustive search into a.ll material available. China's Renaissance A book that has been widely read and reviewed is The Chinese Renaissance by Hu Shih. 'l'he addresses which form this book were de.livered at the University of Chicago and ex press the author's feeling as .to the revival of an old civiliza tion. He thinks that the old order is being eroded away; emancipation is bringing about many changes which,, though they appear to out<;iders as a collapse of the old standards, mean defmitely new values for the future. Dr. Hu has PAGE 430 394 BIOGRAPHY been a pioneer in the establishment of a common language for the written word; he is also keenly concerned with many phases of the evolution now taking place along many lines. His book may seem overly optimistic to some, but the tone of his whole argument is that of restraint in the face of mighty distances to go and the great progress that is at present emerging. Biography Sheng-cheng's Son of China is an attempt at autobiography, but the result does not seem as convincing asi it might, especially to those "'ho have read The Dream of the Red Chamber and have occasion to recall some of the occurrences there which seem to have repeated themselves in the life of this modern Chinese. A Chinese Testament by S. Tretiakov is the story of a young Chinese, Tan Shih-hu8i, as told to his Russian teacher. It is well told and makes a striking narrative. The book bas created much interest abroad and has found many readers. The vicissitudes of this youth and his difficult life form a startling study in psychological evolu tion. One is left in the end with no inkling as to what has become of the man today or how he is setting a.bout. to bring his life in line with social and political uplift for his country. The interest of the narrator is chiefly in the revolutionary aspects of Tan Shih-hua's experiences, but if he has been taught by them and by his later con., tacts it would havei been interesting to have told something more as to the outcome of such molding Chinese Victor A. Y akhontoff, in Chinese Soviets, tells Soviets the story of what has been accomplished by the Reds in China. Agnes Smedley 's China's Red Army Marches On is even more pro-Soviet for she is a sympathizer with Communism.1. 'fhis whole story has changed somewhat since the campaign of the past few months. In One's Company by Peter Fleming we are given to understand the hopeless situation of those who were trying to drive o;ut the Soviet power. Still, in the very districts mentioned by these writers, changes have taken place and are being followed up today by constructive PAGE 431 REVOLUTION ARY LITERA'l'URE 395 efforts to better existing co.11ditio1i.s 1mder government control. 'l'he author of One's Company, speaking no Chinese, managed to, get ar otmd over a good deal of country in China and saw many things of interest. His chief asset, however, a.c; a write.r, is an ability to spin a yarn. His penetration camwt have been very deep, according to his own story, and it is somewhat amusing to have a Catholic speak of him first of all as one. who was keen for a draught of g-oocl hoer. He apparently met only one or two Protestant missionaries for whom he had any liking or respect. Revolution Man's Fate by Andre Malraux might be classed with books on the Soviets, although it holds more than a story of their intrigues. It concems itself entirely with a variety of revolutionary adventure that ic, alien to all that the commonplace run of ordinary folk in the Orient know anything about. Indeed, one might think this book described events on some other planet in some city far from Shanghai. Malraux is said to be one of the clever young French writers, and his volume has aroused much comment. As one reviewer has phrased it, his book is a.bout a "fevered few" among the polyglot citizens of this huge city where al\ races meet, sometimes to the benefit of none. 'l'he book is not interpretive of real effort to advance anything, it. is fragmentary and shows more finesse and discernment in portions devoted to sex intrigue than in the parts which most concern real revolu tionary strivings. There is murder and plenty of fly by-night adventure. Pearl Buck says, "'fhe author shows knowledge of his material, although it is the knowledge that a brilliant and glancing mind may obtain by a vivid but brief experience, rather than by actual and permanent life in any country or cause.'' Criticism Ralph Townsend's Ways That are Dark is the kind of a book that a young person of bias might write about a people among whom he has been so unfortunate as to make no friends. One has a feeling a]] throngh this book that it is written with spite, and a PAGE 432 396 ART AND POETRY malicious glee in the showing up of a people who in the mind of the author lack culture, stamina or ability. One can but feel sorry for such an author. In a country whose citizens hold a vast ability for making and holding friends he has never shown an appreciative response, nor has he made a real friend who might interpret China and the Chinese to him His book is full of pessimism and will be displeasing to very many westerners whose experiences have been quit the oppo8ite from his. Investigation In contrast to this unsympathetic attitude is the wo:rk of a talented Swiss newepaper man who investigated China and the Chinese on a lei'>1uely tour of the, Orient and whose conclusions have been issued in the book, Understand the Chinese. The author is William Martin of the Journal de Geneve. His desire was to get below the surface, to know the Chinese and to enter into the understanding of all classes of people His book, though not without faults, is a.n illuminating and reve.aling account of present-day China and the Chinese. Art Rene Grousset, a French art critic, has written an appreciation of Chinese Art in his work entitled China. It has i280 illustrations and is well gotten up in eve.ry way, covering a wide range of study in the various art forms. This is a volume that lovers of Chinese art will all wish to own. One of the newest books on this subject is Dagny Carter's China Magnificent. This, is a history of Chinese art with many illustrations. As a use ful guide for purchasers of things artistic in China Hilda Arthurs Strong's Sketch of Chinese Arts and Crafts is hepful. There are concise, explanations and enough il lustrations to make the volume useful to the collector. Poetry Among several translations from Chinese poetry we would first mention The Travels of a Chinese Poet. This is the se.cond book about Tu Fu from the pen of Mrs. Ayscough. The whole volume speak8 of the keenest sympathy and understanding felt by the author for the wandering poet whose life at this period was being spent PAGE 433 MUSIC AND FICTION 397 in far places. His poems are translated in a most meti culous style, the peculiarities of the Chinese text being followed very closely in the English version We thus have no articles before nouns and there are other omissions which produce a literary form more Chinese than English, and which, though it lacks the smoothness of much poetry, has much strength and ruggedness. Mrs. Ayscough has carried the poet's life aLong through his poems and has produced a work of art. The illustrations a.re from etchings by Miss Douglass. The Herald Wind is a small book of translations from the Sung poets and is the work of Clara M. Candlin Her style is the direct antithesis of that used by Mrs. Ayscough. The translations may thus be more truthfully termed paraphrases than tra.nslations though they carry great charm and interest. Music Only one book on Chinese music has come to onr attention. This is The Yellow Bell by Chao MeiPa. It is a slender effort and gives only a brief description of Chinese musical instruments with some text about the theory of music and a few attempts to transcribe Chinese melody into Western forms Description Ann Bridge, the author of Peking Picnic, gave us another book this year. Its title is The Ginger Griffin and it is a story of the sophisticated life of the consular and business people in Peiping Its tone is heathier than that of Peking Picnic. Hundred Altars by Juliet Bredon does not seem to us to be a real novel. It is too much a description of the daily affairs of a village and the few families t.hat i make up the center of its life. Novels Pearl Buck's novels, The Mother a.nd A House Divided, are both very strong and are well written. The latter book is the third in the trilogy which began with The Good Earth and continued with Sons. Of these three books The Good Earth is more elemental and universal; Sons is more Chinese; A House Divided is more cosmopolitan. Westerners will probably prefer the third PAGE 434 398 FICTION book to the second, but some Americans may not care for its American characters In A House Divided the story of the Wang family meets many new changes as its members become educated in new ways and see more of the ,rorld and its outlooks a.part from those Chinese. Mrs. Buck draws a clearcut picture of the tremendous forces now at work in disrupting Chinese family life, such as travel, education and a thousand outside influence which meet and pass the old conservative customs and ideals of past ages. A House Divided is a book which causes thought. In it Mrs Buck shows her mastery of the novel and her deep understanding of the Chinese mind. The Mother is purely Chinese, a character full of power and the unconquerable love of life a.nd cheer which we ean always see in the Chinese workers of the soil, in spite of the barest poverty and an almost total lack of brightening touches of pleasure or comfort. We think. it highly prob able that Sons and The Mother will never be as popular among westerners as A House Divided for this last book Mntains more that is known t.o foreigners and less of the pure Chinese atmosphere. PAGE 435 PART VIII APPENDICES I STA'l'ISTICS OF 'rHE R.OM;AN CATHOLIC CHURCH (for the year ending Jm1e 30, 1934) Adapted from "Aimuaire-1935 ", Zikawei, Shanghai PERSONNEL Total Foreign Chinese 1934 1933 Catholic Population Ecdesiastical Divisions ll Nov ) Archbishop (Apost. Dekgate) Bishops Ordinaries Coadjutors or Auxiliaries Prefects Apostolic Superiors of Indep 't Missions Priests Brothers Nuns In Foreign Congregations In Native Congregations Seminarians In Major Seminaries In Minor Seminaries In Probatoria Catechists Men Women School Teachers Men Women Catechumens Conversions (Adult Baptisms) 100 67 8 20 12 2,367 541 1,831 EDUC.AT ION Students Sch o ols 1 l1ale Femat, Supel'ior and Secondary 208 12,320 6 794 Upper Pr'mary 447 14. 142 9 521 J,ower P1i1nan 3,430 88,532 39,010 21 13 1 8 1,647 607 974 2,345 938 3,424 1,970 7,381 4,452 8,683 6,249 2,702,468 2,623.560 121 119 1 l 89 88 28 12 4,014 1,148 5,150 2,805 2,345 6,332 11,833 14,932 466,287 82,145 28 1?. 3,898 931 5,112 2,709 2,403 6,211 916 3,316 1,979 11,324 12,832 411,184, 69,547 StudmtJ Total Call,. Jllon 19.u 193.? Call,. 7,960 11,154 19,114 16.717 11,671 11.992 2$,663 18 sor, 71,247 56.290 127,633 115,793 T>octri ne and Prayer!. 10,464 122 ,461 06,0!Jl 204,492 14,000 218,492 204 878 14,6,9 388,902 35,,, 19

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400 CATHOLIC STATISTICS Industrial Schools for Boys . . 49 Students and Workers . . . 2 252 Industrial Workrooms for Girls . . 94 Workers and Apprentices . . . 4,390 P rinting Establishments . . . 25 Newspapers and Periodic a ls .......... In Chinese . . . . . 45 In Other L a nguages . . . 26 WORKS OF MERCY Hospitals and Homes for the Aged Patients cared for Aged cared for Dispensaries Treatments Orph a nages Boy Orphans Girl Orphans Foundlings of the "Holy Childhood" Received during the year Living in Asylums or Out to Nurse Placed in Families Leprosaria Lepers cared for 1934 245 ea. 80, 000 6,282 777 7,791 096 392 2,445 21,775 46,450 18,427 8,810 9 1,140 Total ADMINISTRATION OF THE SA.OllAMENTS Total Nu1nber 1934 Baptisms 499,744 Adults 82,145 Children of Christians 85,766 Adults in danger of death 32,007 Infants in danger of death 299,826 Confirmations 87,512 Confessions 9,802 885 Annual, of obligation 1,300,902 Of devotion 8,501,983 1933 266 73, 539 6,638 744 7,799 693 432 2,512 20,330 43,521 16,840 8,042 8 935 1933 480,012 86,240 9,249,551 Holy Communions 24,966,973 24,379,414 Annual, of obligation 1,196,415 Of devotion 23,770,5 5 8 Extreme Unctions 29,716 33,495 Marriages 19,710 19,634 Between Catholics 15,413 Mixed 4,297

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CHILD WEU'ARE 401 II FIVE YEAR PLAN FOR CHILD WELFARE Care for the welfare of children has been prominent in the past history of China. The ,irork now being under taken by the National Child Welfare Association is, there fore., new in form and spirit rather than new in kind. The leaders a.nd workers of this Association realizing that child welfare is the essential fact,or in the upbuilding and re covery of China and acting on the basis of their experience of the past five years, have endeavored to prepare a feasible and thorough prog-ram that will be ,videly challenging. It is hoped that the sixty items of the Five Year Plan, as given below, will achieve this purpose. They were adopted with a view to having the National Child Welfare Associa toin of China put them into practice sta1ting: at the begin ning of 1934 and finishing at the end of 1938 1. Child protection law. 2. Establishment of juvenile courts. 3. Special legal code of allowance for dependent mothers. 4 Establishment of reformatories. 5. Suppression of traffic in children. 6. Suppression of maltreatment of children. 7. Relief of street children. 8. Relief of child prostitutes. 9. Betterment of livelihood for child laborers. 10 Betterment of livelihood for woman laborers. 11. Relief of bastard children. 12. Promotion of birth control. 13. Establishment of nurseries. 14. Parents' conferences. 15. Child welfare oral contests. 16. Child welfare oral debates. 17. Child welfare radio broadcasting. 18. Promotion and celebration of Children's Festival Day. 19 Publication of "Modern Parents."

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402 FIVE YEAR PLAN 20. Publication of a series of modern parent education books. 21. Establishment of children's library. Z2. Organization of Children's Culture Assoc.iation. 23. Promotion of children's savings. 24. Promotion of children's manual work. 25. Promotion of children's public health. 26. Children's health exhibit. 27. Establishment of Child Health Bureau. 28. Children's health contest. 29. National Contest for Child Health. 30. Establishment of children's hospital. 31. Establishment of children's Anti-T. B. Sanitarium 32. Relief of abnonnal and injured children 33. Prevention of smoking or drinking by children. 34. Promotion of health for expectant mothers. 35. Health exhibit for pregnant mothers 36. Health Guidance Institutions for pregnant mothers. 37. Obstetrical hospitals for poor preguant mothers 38. Obstetrical schools. 39. Visiting midwives 40. Visiting nurses 41. Promotion of model kindergarten. 42. Establishment of children's gardens. 43. Establishment of children's playgrounds. 44. Establishment of children's cinema 45. Exhibit of children's toys. 46. Exhibit of children's reading material. 47. Stimulation of children's interest in contributing for their poor mates. 48. Stimulation of childr. en 's interest in participation in public reeonstruction. 49. National Convention of Child Welfare Leaders. 50. Reformation of existing child welfare.institutions. 51. Branches of Child W e .lfare Associations throughout China. 52 Chapei Child Welfare Demonstration Center. 53. Nanking Child Welfare Demonstration Center.

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NATIONAL CHILDREN'S YEAR 403 54. Construction 0 association building. 55. Children's international communication centers. 56. Encouragement of children's interest in invention. 57. Establishment of Model Foundling Home. 58. Promotion of children's standard food and clothes. 59. Establishment of childre.n's inspection centers. 60. Organization of Children's Social Service Study Center. III PROGRAM 0:B' NA'l'IONAL CHILDREN'S YEAR I. In General: 1. The aim of the Children's Year is to a.rouse public interest by emphasizing the need of normal development of the children, both physically, intellectually and spirit ually, a.nd by advocating, protecting and insuring the rights of the children of China in order to bring them up to be healthy and useful citizens of the nation. 2. The Children's Year shall commence August 1, 1935 and expire July 31, 1936. 3. The Central Executive Con'unittee in charge of the nation-wide program o