Citation
Japan-Manchoukuo year book

Material Information

Title:
Japan-Manchoukuo year book
Alternate Title:
Japan-Manchoukuo yearbook
Alternate Title:
Who's who in Japan and Manchoukuo
Abbreviated Title:
Business directory, list of leading firms and business houses in Japan and Manchoukuo
Creator:
Japan-Manchoukuo Year Book Co.
Place of Publication:
Tokyo
Publisher:
Japan-Manchoukuo Year Book Co.
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill., maps ; 26 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Manchoukuo -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Manchuria (China) -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Manchuria (China) -- Bibliography -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Manchuria (China) -- Biography -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Manchuria (China) -- Directories ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Manchouko
Asia -- China -- Manchuria
Coordinates:
43.883333 x 125.316667

Notes

General Note:
Continues: Japan times year book
General Note:
Continued by: Orient year book

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
853511 ( ALEPH )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
READ CAREFULLY

It Will Make The Year Book
Worfh More To You

General Division

The book is divided into two major sections, namely, Japan and,'
Manchoukuo. Complementing these sections are four appendices, viz.,
Who's Who, Business Directory, Bibliography and Learned and Social
Institutions, in addition to a General Index.

How the Parts Assist Each Other

The parts, mentioned above are so arranged and edited as to permit
comprehensive understanding of each independent of the others. The
trained reader will find immediately, however, that each section can
be made to complement the others considerably in a number of cases.
For instance, given a specific subject either on Japan or Manchoukuo
to review, the reader may look up the item; in the General Index.
If there is any prominent person connected with the activity, his
name may be found in the Who's Who. If the biography further
mentions his affiliations with learned or social institutions, or com-
panies, the standing of such may be found either in the Business
Directory or in the appendix on Learned and Social Institutions. If
there are books to be read on any line of affair of the two countries,
the Bibliography will be found to contain the list of the latest
authoritative works. This is only one of many ways in which the-
sections, related as a unit, may help the reader in locating the
important information on the two countries.

Statistics

There are approximately 1,200 tables in this book. The sources of
the tables will be found at the end of the respective chapters in which
they appear. The sign ". ." indicates that the figure is not available

at the time of writing or that it is non-existent. The sign "-**

indicates that the figure is either nil or negligible.

Maps

Several maps are supplemented to this issue. The large map of
Japan, Manchoukuo, North and Central China contains some 4,000
place names, the spelling of which follow the form most in usage.
There are also two railway maps, one of the railways in Manchoukuo
and the other of China, an air service map of Japan, Manchoukuo and
China, and a map of China showing the sphere of the Sino-Japanese
hostilities.

Identifying Chinese Characters

In view of the existence of a large number of different Chinese
characters of identical pronunciation, the Who's Who gives the cor-
responding Chinese characters of the names entered of Japanese and
Manchoukuoans.

Descriptions of Leading Companies

Effort has been directed in this issue to present a comprehensive picture
of the position of the leading concerns in Japan and' Manchoukuo in
the realm of finance, commerce and industry in view of their import-
ance in the study of the economic fabric of the Japanese Empire.
As an example, the position of the Taiwan Sugar Company is men-
tioned in four different parts of this volume, viz. in the chapters on
Foodstuff Industry and Trade, in the Business Directory and under4
Konzerns. By referring to the General Index and the Business Direc-
tory Index information pertaining to the Company's production,
numbsr of refineries, authorized capital, paid-up capital, amount of
profit, dividend rate, movement of its stocks, directorate, date of
establishment and address, etc. may be obtained.

Advertisements

Advertisers are representative of establishments of high standing, and
their advertisements will be found in the pages preceding and follow-
ing the contents of the book. Inquiries concerning our advertisers
are welcomed, and will be attended to promptly.


I






Mitsubishi Kogyo Kaisha, Limited

(Mitsubishi Mining Company, Limited)

Cable AddressIWASAKIMIN TOKYO99 CAPITAL:Yen 100,000,000
Producers and Sellers of Coal, Metals & Other Minerals.
HEAD OFFICE: MARUNOUCHI, TOKYO.

Metal Mines :Makimine, Osarizawa, Ikuno, Sado, Akenobe, Hosokura, Ohira, Teine, Arakawa, Tsunatori,

Izushi, Takara, Kintei, Mozan, Kenjiho, Ginryu, Kasei, etc.
Coal Mines Takashima, Bibai, Namazuta, Shinnyu, Hojo, Kamiyamada, lizuka, Oyubari, etc.
Smelting & Refining Works :Naoshima, Osaka.

Branches & Representatives:Tokyo, Yokohama, WakamatSu, Nagasaki, Moji, Keijo, Otaru, Murcran,
Hakodate, Kushiro, Sapporo, Aomori, Funakawa, Sendai, Ominato, Niigata, Tsuruga, Fushiki, Shimizu,
Sakata, Rumoye, etc.
Mining & Metallurgical Laboratory :Tokyo.

The Mitsubishi Bank, Limited

Cable Address." IWASAKIBAK TOKYO 99 CAPITAL: Yen 100,000,000

General Banking 8c Exchange Business.
HEAD OFFICE: MARUNOUCHI, TOKYO.

Branches: Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Kyoto, Nagoya, Otaru, Shanghai,
Dairen, London, New York.

Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha

(Mitsubishi Electric Manufacturing Co., Ltd.)

Cable Address:" IWASAKILEC TOKYO99 CAPITAL:Yen 30,000,000

Manufacturers of Generators, Motors, Transformers, Other Electrical Machinery,
Air Brake Apparatus, Door Control Engines, etc.

HEAD OFFICE: MARUNOUCHI, TOKYO.

Works:Kobe, Nagasaki, Nagoya.

Mitsubishi Trust Company, Limited

Cable Address IWASAKITRU TOKYO99 CAPITAL:Yen30,000,000

General Trust Business,
HEAD OFFICE : MARUNOUCHI, TOKYO.
Branch; Osaka.

Mitsubishi Estate Company, Limited

Cable Address :IWASAKILAD TOKYO 99 CAPITAL:Yen 15,000,000

Controlling of Estates & Buildings.
HEAD OFFICE: MARUNOUCHI, TOKYO.

AD. 3


General Motors
means Good Measure

CHEVROLET : PONTIAC : OLDSMOBILE : BUICK : CADILLAC :
LA SALLE : BEDFORD : VAUXHALL : OPEL

GENERAL MOTORS JAPAN LTD.

OSAKA, JAPAN

AD. 4


AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT

DUISBURG (Germany)

WE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCT

COMPLETE PLANTS

FOR MINES AND QUARRIES

Blast Furnaces, Steelworks
and Rolling Mills

Cranes and transporting plants for harbours,
store-yards and factories, electrically operated
high speed lifting devices, toothed wheel gears,
shovel excavators, compressors and portable
compressed-air plants

STEEL STRUCTURES

Road and Railway Bridges

FOR INFORMATION PLEASE APPLY TO:

H. GOOS8ENS

DEMAG'S GENERAL-REPRESENTATIVE

No. 612 Nippon Yusen Bldg., Marunouchi,
TOKYO

Tel. : Marunouchi 0869 6i 0954

AD. 5


President:
YOSHISVKE AIKAWA

Capital Subscribed
Paid-up

- - ¥450,000,000

- - ¥450,000,000

HEAD OFFICE:
HSINKING, MANCHOUKUO

BRANCH OFFICE:

2, Tamura-cho 1-chome, Shiba-ku,
TOKYO

Principal Affiliated Companies in Manchoukuo

Showa Steel Works, Ltd.

(K. K. Showa Seiko Sho)

Established 1929. Capital Subscribed ¥200,-
000,000; Paid-up ¥125,000,000. Head Office:
Anshan.

Manchuria Colliery Co., Ltd.

(Manshu Tanko K. K.)

Established 1934. Capital Subscribed ¥80,-
000,000; Paid-up ¥64,000,000. Head Office:
Hsinking.

Manchuria Light Metals Co., Ltd.

(Manshu Keikinzoku Seizo K. K.)

Established 1936. Capital Subscribed ¥25,-
000,000; Paid-up ¥25,000,000. Head Office:
Fushun.

Manchuria Magnesium Mfg. Co., Ltd.

(Manshu Magnesium Kogyo K. K.)

Established 1938. Capital Subscribed ¥10,-
000,000; Paid-up ¥2,500,000. Head Office:
Hsinking.

Manchuria Gold Mining Co., Ltd.

(Manshu Saikin K. K.)

Established 1934. Capital Subscribed ¥12,-
000,000; Paid-up ¥12,000,000. Head Office:
Hsinking.

Dowa Automobile Co., Ltd.

(Dowa Jidosha Kogyo K. K.)

Established 1934. Capital Subscribed ¥6,200,-
000; Paid-up ¥6,200,000. Head Office: Mukden.

Manchuria Mining Co., Ltd.
(Manshu Kozan K. K.)

Established 1938. Capital Subscribed ¥50,-
000,000; Paid-up ¥25,000,000. Head Office:
Hsinking.

Manchuria Lead Co., Ltd.

(Manshu Enko K. K.)

Established 1935. Capital Subscribed ¥4,000,-
000; Paid-up ¥4,000,000. Head Office: Muk-
den.

Manchuria Airplane Mfg. Co., Ltd.

(Manshu Hikoki Seizo K. K.)

Established 1938. Capital Subscribed ¥20,-
000,000; Paid-up ¥5,000,000. Head Office:
Mukden.

Tohendo Development Co., Ltd.

(Tohendo Kaihatsu K. K.)

Established 1938. Capital Subscribed ¥30,-
000,000; Paid-up ¥10,200,000. Head Office:
Hsinking.

Manchuria Soya Bean Industry Corp.

(Manshu Daizu Kogyo K. K.)

Established 1934. Capital Subscribed ¥5,000,-
000; Paid-up ¥2,525,000. Head Office: Dairen
(14, Jijiko).

AD. 6


Principal Affiliated Companies in Japan

Nippon Mining Co., Ltd.

(Nippon Kogyo K. K.)

Established 1929. Capital Subscribed ¥240/
150,000; Paid-up ¥180,112,500. Head Office:
Tokyo (2, Tamura-cho 1-chome, Shiba-ku).

Hitachi, Ltd.

(K. K. Hitachi Seisakiisho)

Established 1920. Capital Subscribed ¥117,'
900,000; Paid-up ¥117,900,000. Head Office:
Tokyo (15, Marunouchi 2-chome, Kojimachi-
ku).

Osaka Iron Works, Ltd.

(K. K. Osaka Tekkosho)

Established 1914. Capital Subscribed ¥30,-
000,000; Paid-up ¥30,000,000. Head Office:
Osaka (17, Sakurajima Minamino-cho, Kono-
hana-ku).

Hitachi Electric Power Co., Ltd.

(Hitachi Denryoku K. K.)

Established 1927. Capital Subscribed ¥10,-
000,000; Paid-up ¥6,250,000. Head Office:
Tokyo (2, Tamura-cho 1-chome, Shiba-ku).

Nissan Automobile Co., Ltd.

(Nissan Jidosha K. K.)

Established 193 3. Capital Subscribed ¥30,-
000,000; Paid-up ¥30,000,000. Head Office:
Yokohama (2, Takara-cho, Kanagawa-ku).

Nissan Automobile Sales Co., Ltd.

(Nissan Jidosha Hambai K. K.)

Established 1935. Capital Subscribed ¥5,000,-
000: Paid-up ¥2,000,000. Head Office: Tokyo
(18, Marunouchi 2-chome, Kojimachi-ku).
Sales Office: 2, Ginsa 1-chome, Kyobashi-ku.

Nissan Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd,

(Nissan Kagaku Kogyo K. K.)

Established 1934. Capital Subscribed ¥124,-
000,000; Paid-up ¥77,500,000. Head Office:
Tokyo (2, Tamura-cho 1-chome, Shiba-ku).

Japan Fat & Oil Industrial Co., Ltd.

(Nippon Yushi K. K.)

Established 1917. Capital Subscribed ¥50,-
500,000; Paid-up ¥30,600,000. Head Office:
Tokyo (2, Tamura-cho 1-chome, Shiba-ku).

Nippon Marine Products Co., Ltd.

(Nippon Suisan K. K.)

Established 1925. Capital Subscribed ¥91,-
500,000; Paid-up ¥67,500,000. Head Office:
Tokyo (2, Tamura-cho 1-chome, Shiba-ku).

Borneo Fishing Co., Ltd.

(Borneo Suisan K. K.)

Established 1933. Capital Subscribed ¥2,500,-
000; Paid-up ¥1,400,000. Head Office: Tokyo
(2, Tamura-cho 1-chome, Shiba-ku).

Nippon Industrial Rubber Co., Ltd.

(Nippon Sangyo Gomu K. K.)

Established 1934. Capital Subscribed ¥10,-
000,000; Paid-up ¥10,000,000. Head Office:
Tokyo (2, Tamura-cho 1-chome, Shiba-ku).

Nissan Steamship Co., Ltd.

(Nissan Kisen K. K.)

Established 1934. Capital Subscribed ¥10,000,-
000; Paid-up ¥8,500,000. Head Office: Tokyo
(2, Tamura-cho 1-chome, Shiba-ku). Kobe
Office: 17, Harima-machi, Kobe-ku.

The Daido Match Co., Ltd.

(Daido Match K. K.)

Established 1927. Capital Subscribed ¥8,000,-
000; Paid-up ¥7,000,000. Head Office: Kobe
(2, Shimosawa-dori 6-chome, Hyogo-ku).

The Nissan Fire & Marine Ins. Co., Ltd.

(Nissan Kasai Kaijo Hoken K. K.)

Established 1911. Capital Subscribed ¥10,000,-
000; Paid-up ¥2,500,000. Head Office: Tokyo
(18, Marunouchi 2-chome, Kojimachi-ku).

AD. 7


L

BY





v-r Via
; ?=0

Japan-gftlanchoukuo
(Connecting Service

26 Sailings Per Month

OSAKA SYOSEN KAISYA

HEAD OFFICE t OSAKA, JAPAN

i

AAIREN, MUKDEN, K8INKING, HARBIN* Brandies & Agents aH over the WorSd

AD. 8


THE POPULAR WAY TO
JAPAN & MANCHO UK HO

Go N.Y.K.......experienced travellers tell you.

Living comforts and seagoing diversions are conceived
with unusual charm and delight on palatial N. Y. K.
liners.

Frequent rail, sea and air services link Japan and
Manchoukuo, the promising new State.

N. Y. K. LINE

(Japan Mail)

HEAD OFFICE : Tokyo, Japan
Branch Office: 181 Yamagata-dori, Dairen

Other Offices & Agencies throughout the World

AD. 9


KOKUSAI LINE

S. KUROKAWA

PRESIDENT

Owners of Motor and Steam Vessels
Aggregating

320,000 Tons Deadweight

Head Office : TOKYO, JAPAN
Telegraphic Address : INTERSHIP TOKYO

PRINCIPAL REGULAR SERVICES

Far EastNorth EuropeFar East

The new motor vessels in the above service operate from Kobe to Marseilles in 32 days via Suez
or from Yokohama to London in 36 days via Panama,
carrying a limited number of passengers.

OrientNew YorkOrient

The new motor vessels in the above service operate from Yokohama to New York
in 25 days via Panama, carrying a limited number of passengers.

New YorkHamburgNew York JapanAustraliaJapan
JapanAfricaJapan Japan Bombay-Japan
Etc., Etc., Etc.

BRANCH OFFICES

KOBE : Kogin Building, Nisi-Mati, Kobe

Telegraphic Address : KOKUSAISEN KOBE
YOKOHAMA : Sin-ei Building, Hontyo, Yokohama

Telegraphic Address : KOKUSAISEN YOKOHAMA
LONDON : Holland House, Eury Street, London, E. C. 3

Telegraphic Address: KOKUSAISEN LONDON
NEW YORK : 1 Broadway, New York

.Telegraphic Address: KOKUSAISEN NEWYORK
LOS ANGELES: 490 Chamber of Commerce Building, Los Angeles, Calif.

Telegraphic Address : KOKUSAISEN LOSANGELES
Agencies at all Principal Ports in the World

AD. 10


M.S. "ARIMASAN MARX 10,523 Tons IV W Spred 19M Knots.

REGULAR SERVICE

STRAIT-PHILIPPINE-JAPAN-NEW YORK LINE ............2-3 Sailings Per Month

JAPAN-BOMBAY LINE ..................................... 1 Sailing Per Month

JAPAN-MADRAS LINE .................................... 1 Sailing Per Month

JAPAN-PERSIAN GULF LINE .............................. 1 Sailing Per Month

JAPAN-BANGKOK LINE ............................... 2-3 Sailings Per Month

JAPAN-PHILIPPINE LINE .................................. 2 Sailings Per Month

JAPAN-DAIREN LINE !.................................. 4 Sailings Per Month

JAPAN-TIENTSIN LINE .................................... 3 Sailings Per Month

MITSUI BUSSAN KAISHA, LIMITED

(MITSUI CO., LTD.)
SHIP DEPARTMENT

Headquarters: 3, Kaigan-dori, Kobe

Local Offices: Tokyo, Otaru, Osaka, Moji, Miike, Dairen, Tientsin, Shanghai, Manila, Bangkok,
Bombay, Calcutta, Seattle, San Francisco, New York, London.

Agents: MITSUI & CO., LTD., BRANCH OFFICES
at Various Centers of the World

AD. II


The East Asiatic Co., Ltd.

Head Office: COPENHAGEN



--^ ^aK^MWIBJW'i'f^'

1. Regular Sailings from Europe to Ceylon, Siam, China, Japan,

South Africa, Australia, West Indies, Central
America and the West Coast of North
America and vice versa*

2. Import to Europe of Far-Eastern and other Oversea products*

3. Export to Oversea ports of European products.

HARBIN AGENCY :
Polevaja 65

Telgr. Add. : WASSARD'

DAIREN AGENCY:
Higashikoencho 1

Telgr. Add.: WASSARD "

Own Oversea Branches and Agencies: Bangkok, Singapore,
Shanghai, Hongkong, Canton, Hangkow, Tsingtao, Weihaiwei,
Seattle, San Francisco, Durban, Johannesburg, Capetown*
Madras, Bombay, Calcutta, Rangoon, Penang, Kuala Lumpur.

Agents in Japan: DODWELL & CO*

(Kobe.
Osaka.
Yokohama.

AD. 12


LINE

No* 47 Sakaye-machi, Kobe, Japan

Cable Address i

"KAWAKISEN" Kobe

Codes Used :

Bentley's Second Phrase, Bentley's Complete
Phrase, Boe, Kendall's, Acme,
A.B.C. 6th Ed. 6C Duo

BRANCH OFFICES:

NEW YORK, SAN FRANCISCO, TOKYO, YOKOHAMA,
OTARU, SHIMONOSEKI

AGENTS:

LONDON, SEATTLE, SAN FRANCISCO, MANILA, SHANGHAI

REGULAR LINES:

NEW YORK LINE

SAN FRANCISCO-LOS ANGELES LINE
SEATTLE-VANCOUVER LINE
SOUTH AMERICA (West Coast) LINE
EAST 6c SOUTH AFRICA LINE
BOMBAY LINE

ASIA-EUROPE-N. 6c S. AMERICA LINE
JAPAN-AUSTRALIA LINE

EUROPE-FAR EAST LINE
TOKYO-YOKOHAMA-DAIREN LINE
OSAKA-SHIKUKA LINE
OSAKA-ODOMARI LINE
REISUI-SHIMONOSEKI LINE
REISUI-HANSHIN LINE
WEST KOREA LINE
NORTH KOREA LINE

AD. 13


m

THE YASUDA BANK, LTD.

HEAD OFFICE:

Otemachi 1 -chome, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo

Capital Subscribed Yen 150,000,000
Reserve Funds...... 73,000,000

Chairman: HAJIME YASUDA

Deputy-Chairman : IIIROZO MORI

The Bank is now in command, not only of 130 branches in Japan, but also of the
services which it has secured from many correspondents throughout the world, and is
able to offer accommodation for every kind of banking facility, foreign and domestic.

TRADE MARK

OSAKA KIKAI KOSAKUSHO, LTD.

T0Y0SAK1 NISHI-DORI, HIGASHI YODOGAWA-KU, OSAKA, NIPPON

CAPITAL.......Yen 12,000,000

Branches: Marunouchi Bldg., Tokyo

16, Szeching Road, Shanghai



MANUFACTURERS of

Spinning and Weaving Machines (for Waste Silk, Cotton, Wool, Worsted, Rayon, Staple Fibre),
Water-Meters, Oil-Meters, Road Rollers, Diesel Engines, Machine Tools,
Refrigerating Machines, Etc.

AD. 14


CTT WCLff

KCELN (GECMANy)

Ironworks and Metalworks
Machine-Factor.es
Wholesale in Iron and Metal

Sole Agents of

Daimler-Benz Motor Cars,
Diesel Trucks, Diesel Engines & c.

CTTC WCLff, rCELN

Hsinking Branch
303, Ryu-Jo-Ro
Telephone: 2-2667
Telegr. Address: Ironwolff

CTTC wcLrr, jkceln

Dairen Branch
2, Yamagatadori
Totaku Building room 509
Telephone: 2-9042
Telegr. Address: Ironwolff

AD. 15


THE MITSUI BANK, LTD.

capital subscribed......yen 100,000,000

capital paid-up......... 60,000,000

reserve funds.......... 63,800,000

HEAD OFFICE: 1, Muromachi 2-chome, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo

Home Branches: Fukuoka, Hiroshima, Ikebukuro (Tokyo), Kobe, Kyoto, Marunouchi (Tokyo),
Meguro (Tokyo), Moji, Nagoya, Nagoya-Kamimaetsu, Nihonbashi (Tokyo), Osaka,
Osaka-Dojima, Osaka-Kawaguchi, Osaka-Nishi, Osaka-Semba, Otaru, Shinjuku (Tokyo),
Wakamatsu (Kyushu), Yokohama.

Foreign Branches: Bombay, Dairen, London, New York, Shanghai, Sourabaya.

London Bankers: Barclays Bank, Ltd. Midland Bank, Ltd.

New York Bankers: Ban^rs Trust Co. Chase National Bank. National City Bank of New York.

A

THE MITSUBISHI BANK, LTD.

Capital..........Yen 100,0009000

Reserve Funds ....... 63,500,000

Chairman: Takeo Kato.

Managing Directors:

Hideya Maruyama, Yamaguchi, Kenkichi Takagi

Head Office: No. 5, Marunouchi 2-chome, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo.

BranchesHome:

Tokyo:Eitaibashi, Tokio Kaijo Building, Marunouchi Building, Nihonbashi, Yotsuya,

Komagome, Nihonbashi-Torichp, Kanda, Shinagawa, Omori, Toranomon, Kyobashi,
Osaka .Osaka, Nakanoshima, Senba,.Osaka-Minami.

Kobe:Kobe, Sannomiya. w"" Others: Kyoto, Nagoya, Otaru.

BranchesOverseas:

SHANGHAI OFFICE:-No. 36, Kiukiang Road, Shanghai.
DAIREN OFFICE :No. 165, Yamagata-Dori, Dairen.
LONDON OFFICE:-No. 3, Birchin Lane, Cornhill, London, E.C.3.
NEW YORK OFFICE:No. 120, Broadway, New York.

AMERICAN EXPRESS TRAVELERS CHEQUES Sold at Head Office (Tokyo),

Osaka, Sannomiya (Kobe) and Nagoya Branches.

AD. 16


THE SAMWA BANK, LTD.

Head Offfice: OSAKA, JAPAN

Capital Subscribed. Yee 17920090(0)
Capital Paid-op 99 7292009000
Reserve Firadls ...... 99 35971900

President:

Mr. S. NAKANE

Managing Directors:
Mr. K. OKANO Mr. K. MORINOBU

Mr. M. SANO Mr. T. MATSUNO

Established in 1933 by amalgamation of the Thirty-Fourth Bank,
Ltd., the Yamaguchi Bank, Ltd. and the Konoike Bank, Ltd. These
three banks have held leading positions for over half a century among
the most important financial institutions that served to develop the
industry and commerce of the nation.

The bank, with its concentrated capital and combined executive
experience, is able to offer the best of service to both local and foreign
business.

Ovreseas Agents:

LONDON:
The Bank of Taiwan, Ltd.
The Barclays Bank, Ltd.
The Chase National Bank of the City

of New York.
Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Cor-
poration.
The Lloyds Bank, Ltd.
The National City Bank of New York
The Yokohama Specie Bank, Ltd.

NEW YORK:
The Bank of Taiwan, Ltd.
The Chase National Bank of the City

of New York.
The Guaranty Trust Co. of New York.
Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Cor-
poration.
Irving Trust Company.
The National City Bank of New York.
The Yokohama Specie Bank, Ltd.

AD. 17


THE DAI-ICHI GINKO, LTD.

(Formerly The First National Bank)

(ESTABLISHED 1873)

CAPITAL (Paid up) ... Yen 57,500,000
RESERVE...... Yen 73,500,000

A Complete Banking Service

HEAD OFFICE; TOKYO
BRANCHES:

Yokohama, Kobe, Osaka, Kyoto, Seoul and other principal Cities at home.
Correspondents: All important places at home and abroad.

THE SUMITOMO BANK, LIMITED

HEAD OFFICE: OSAKA JAPAN

Subscribed Capital...........Yen 70,000,000

Paid-up Capital............. ,, 50,000.000

Reserve Funds........... it 46,100,000

HOME OFFICES

Osaka, Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya, Kyoto, Kobe, Wakayama, Okayama,
Onomichi, Niihama, Kure, Hiroshima, Yanai, Shimonoseki, Moji, Kokura,
Wakamatsu, Fukuoka, Kurume and Kumamoto.

OFFICES IN PACIFIC LINERS

M.S. "Asama Maru," M.S. Titibu Maru," M.S. 44 Tatuta Maru "

FOREIGN OFFICES

London, New York, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Shanghai.

AFFILIATED BANKS

The Sumitomo Bank of California, Sacramento, Cal., U.S.A.
The Sumitomo Bank of Seattle, Seattle, Wash., U.S.A.
The Sumitomo Bank of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii.

CORRESPONDENTS

Maintained in all important places at home and abroad.

AD. 18


The Central Bank of Manchou

(Established 1932)

CAPITAL......M. Yen 30,000,000

HEAD OFFICE:
Hsinking, Manchoukuo

BRANCHES:

KIRIN HARBIN TSITSIHAR

YINGKOW ANTUNG TOKYO
(150 Places in All)

FOREIGN CORRESPONDENTS:

New York, London, Paris, Berlin, Shanghai, Tientsin,
Peking, Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, Kobe,
and at All Principal Cities
Throughout Japan

GOVERNOR: TETSUIIRO TANAKA
VICE-GOVERNOR: KAN CHAO-HSI

DIRECTORS:
KIRUTARO OS AW A HIROSHI UN AG A MI

TETSUII TAKAGI SUSUMU ABE

WANG FU-CHUN SUN YAO-TSUNG

AUDITORS:
TING SHIH-YUAN CHENG TING-HOU

MUKDEN
DAIREN

AD. 19


Cable Address: ^gjSjgk CAPITAL SUBSCRIBED:

"KOGIN" Tokyo ¥50,000,000

THE INDUSTRIAL BANK OF JAPAN, LTD.

(NIPPON KOGYO GINKO)

Established by the Japanese Government by virtue of a Special Enactment of the

Imperial Diet

HEAD OFFICE: 8, 1-CHOME, MARUNOUCHI, TOKYO
Branches: TokyoNihonbashi; OsakaKoraibashi; KobeNishi-machi; NagoyaHirokoji-
dori 6-chome; FukuokaTenjinno-cho; Fu'iushimaOmachi; ToyamaSakurabashi-
dori; HiroshimaNakajima-Honmachi; SapporoKitasanjo-Nishi 4-chome.
Governor: ICHIMATSU HORAI, Esq. Vice-Governor: KOICHI KAWAKAMI, Esq.

Directors: SHIGERU KOTAKE, Esq.; RYUZO WATANABE, Esq.;
KENYU FUKUOKA, Esq.; EIZO UEYAMA, Esq.

Auditors:

Count YOSHINORI FUTARA: EIZABURO SUGANO, Esq.; KEIKICHI KATAOKA, Esci.
All descriptions of general banking, exchange, both foreign and domestic and

trust and corporation financial business transacted.
Correspondents: In the principal cities at home, and London, Paris and New York

Business Transacted:

3. Deposits and safe custody of valuables.

4. Trust company business.

5. Discounting of bills.

1. Loans on the security of public bonds
or debentures and shares, estates (Zai-
dan), special land and buildings.

2. Subscription and underwriting public
bonds or debentures.

6. Foreign exchange business.

THE INDUSTRIAL BANK OF MANCHOU

SUBSCRIBED CAPITAL.....M. ¥. 30,000 000

PAID UP CAPITAL......M. Y. 15,000,000

GOVERNOR : YUTARO TOM1TA

Banking Service for all kinds of
Commercial Business, Industrial
and Agricultural Enterprises and
Security Business

HEAD OFFICE:

202 DAIDO-TAIGAI, HSINKING

BRANCH OFFICE :

FENGTIEN (MUKDEN), HARBIN, ANTUNG, DAIREN,
AND OTHER PRINCIPAL PLACES

AD. 20


Telegraphic Address :
SALEHOUSE "

Codes:
All Standard Codes

SALE & CO. LTD.

Exporters & Imiiipoirtiers

FINANCE, INVESTMENT & INSURANCE

Head Office:

14, Marunouchi 2-chome, Kojimachi-ku,
TOKYO

cxpccts:

Canned Food Products
(Brands: Musketeer, Fusiyama, Taiyo, etc.)
Lumber and General Merchandise
Galvanized Wires and Sheets, Graphite and Manganese Ores,
Toilet Soaps, Toys, Fancy Goods, General Merchandise

BMPOCTS:

Machinery, Equipment and Materials for the Canning Industry,
Crude Oil, Fuel Oil, Diesel Oil, Lubricating Oil
General Merchandise

ad. 21


Cable Address: _ ^ ^^, _

_ __ All Standard Codes Used.

' DIASTASE TOKYO

SANKYO COMPANY, LTD.

Capital: Yen 12,000,000 (paid up)

Orient's Foremost Manufacturers of Pharmaceuticals,
Chemicals Specialities.

Home Office : Muromachi, Nihombashi, Tokyo.
Branches : Osaka, Taihoku, New York.
Factories : Tokyo, Osaka, Dairen.

Inquiries Received at Home Office.

AD. 22


General Telegraphic
Address :

" CRESCENT "

Codes:

Schofields, Eclectic, Bentley's
A.B.C. 5th Edition,
Western Union Etc., Etc.

BRUNNER, MOND & CO. (Japan) Limited

Industrial Chemicals and Fertilisers

Connections in all parts of the World

HEAD OFFICE FOR JAPAN :

CRESCENT BUILDING, KYO-MACHI, KOBE, JAPAN
P. O. Box No. 86, Sannomiya
Telephones: Scnnomiya 1670 (6 lines)

DISTRIBUTORS FOR CONSTITUENT AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES OF
IMPERIAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES LTD., INCLUDING :

British Dyestuffs Corporation Ltd.
I. C. I. (Alkali) Ltd.
Castner-Kellner Alkali Co., Ltd.
Cassel Cyanide Co., Ltd.
Chance 8c Hunt, Ltd.

I.C.I. (Fertilisers 8c Synthetic Products) Ltd.
I.C.I. (General Chemicals) Ltd.

AGENTS FOR :

Carbon Black, Casein, Glue, Quebracho, Quicksilver, Sandalwood Oil,
Sporting Ammunition, Ultramarine, Wattle Bark, Gelatine, etc., etc.

Associated with

Chemical Industries Ltd., London

Importers & Exporters

of

AD. 23




Mt

TOYOBO

LEVER LACE

TOVO COTTON MILLS CO., LTD.

}0nebo

Txilll^sliloncd
SilCTosicrij

and

ididtett
Goods

Silk Department

The Kanegafuchi Spinning Co., Ltd.

(Kanegafuchi Boseki Kabushiki Kaisha)
KOBE, JAPAN

AD. 24


MARATHON STEEL DEPT

of Doitsu Seiko Kabushiki Kaisha



Marathon Steel For Highest Efficiency and Every Purpose

A Product of

DEUTSCHE EDELSTAHLWERKE A.-G. Krefeld (Germany)

MARATHON High Speed Steel.
MARATHON Alloyed and Unalloyed Tool Steel.
MARATHON Non-Shrinking Steel.

MARATHON Remanit Stainless and Acid-Resisting Steel.
MARATHON Thermax Heat Resisting Steel.

MARATHON Construction Steel, Chrome, Nickel and Molybdenum Alloyed,
For All Purposes Such As Machines, Motorcars, Airplanes, etc.
MARATHON Cold Rolls, With Highest Hardness.

MARATHON Forgings For All Purposes, Such As Crankshafts, Camshafts,

Connecting Rods for Airplanes, Motor Cars and Diesel Engines.
MARATHON Magnet Steel and Finished Magnets, Cr, Wo, and Co-Alloyed.
MARATHON Ball 8C Ball Bearing Steel.

Produced As Rolled and Forged Bars, Plates, Drop-Forgings, Cold Drawn.

Ground and Polished

Titanit Hard Metal

HEAD OFFICE:
2, 3-chome Marunouchi, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo

Cable Address: "MARATHON" Tokyo

Osaka Branch: Nihon Kaijo Building, Edobori'dori, Nishi-ku.

Nagoya Branch: Chiyoda Seimei Building, Minami Otsu-machi.

Dairen Branch: Okura Building, 18 Yamagata-dori.

Mukden Branch: Mitsui Building, 2 Kamomachi.

AD. 25


OIMATSU-CHO, KITAKU, OSAKA

Cable Address: HOMARETAI Osaka
Codes: Commercial Telegraph & Cable Code, Bentley's & Private

Exporters, Importers and Commission Merchants

Import:
Export:

Tokyo Office: Kobiki-cho, Kyobashi-ku

Coffee from all parts of the world.

Natural and Marine Products, Canned Goods, other

Provisions and Dry Goods, etc.

T. Sumlda & §mpiifs LM

CORNER, MAUNAKEA dc PAUAHI STREETS
HONOLULU, T. H.

Japanese and American Goods
Importers, Exporters and
Wholesalers in General
Merchandise

JAPAN OFFICE:

Sumida Bussan Kaisha, Ltd.

Main Office:
21, 1-chome Oirnatsu-aho, Kita-ku, Osaka

Branch:

3, 2-chome Kobiki-cho, Kyobashi-ku, Tokyo

Cable Address : SUMIDA "

Telephone: 2339 P.O. Box 979

A.B.C. 5th Edition, Bentley's,

Commercial Telegraph & Cable Code,
Private Code

AD. 26


I. TSCHURIN

Manufacturers, Importers and Exporters

HEAD OFFICE: Harbin, Manchoukuo
BRANCHES :

Kobe, Dairen, Mukden, Ssupingkai, Hsinking, Kwangtchendze,
Kirin, Tsifsihar, Hailar and Heiho.

UNIVERSAL STORES
Agricultural, Technical and Aufomobile Departments

F. SCHICHAU, G.m.b.H.

Elbing, Germany

Technical Equipment

C. D. MAGIRUS, A.-G.

Ulm/a Donau, Germany

Diesel Trucks

Maschinenfabrik KOMINICK, G.m.b.H.
Elbing, Germany

Technical Equipment

HUMBOLDT-DEUTZMOTOREN, A.G.

Koeln, Germany

Kerosene Engines, Diesel Engines

THE ASIA TRADING CO., LTD.

Dairen, Kwantung Leased Territory

Crossley Radios, Crossley Refrigerators, Dodge
Bros. Motor Vehicles and Spare Parts

SOLE AGENCIES:

Rudolf BAECHER

Roudnice, Czecho-SIovakia

Agricultural Machinery

Gebrueder EBERHARDT

Ulm/a Donau, Germany

Agricultural Machinery

Maschiiienfabrik FAHR, A.-G.

Gottmandingen, Baden, Germany

Agricultural Machinery

GARBE, LAHMEYER Sc CO., A.-G.

Aachen, Germany

Technical Equipment

J. A. JOHN, A.-G.

Erfurt, Germany

Heating and Ventilating Plants, Laundry and
Desinfection Equipment, Drying Plants

DEUTZ DIESEL TRACTOR

AD. 27


The Nippon Life Assurance Co., Ltd.

ESTABLISHED 1889

Assurance in Force

Amount ------- Yen 2,845,036,000

Policies..............2,527,000

Total Assets.......Yen 522,914,000

(At the end of August, 1938)

i, IMABASHI SHICHOME, OSAKA, NIPPON

TATSU NARUSE, President

Cable Address : Code Used :

" Microphone Tokyo " Bentley's

Established 1899

Nippon* Electric <5)9 LtdL

2, Mita, Shikoku-machi, Sfalba-ku, Tokyo

Branches & Agencies

Osaka, Dairen, Mukden, Hsinking, Harbin, Tientsin, Peking, Taihoku,
Sapporo, Sendai, Yokosuka, Nagoya, Kobe, Kure, Fukuoka,
Saseho, Nagasaki, Keijo, Shanghai.

Products

Telephone & Telegraph Apparatus, Telephone Switchboards,
Wireless Apparatus, Electrical Measuring Instruments, Etc.

ad. 28


Established in 1872

(OJI PAPER MANUFACTURING CO., LTD.)

Largest Manufacturers of
Paper and Pulp in Asia

CAPITAL: Yen 300,000,000

Annual Output:

PAPER .... 900,000 TONS
PULP..... 850,000 TONS

President: Ginjiro Fujihara
Vice-President: Kikujiro Takashima

Business Office:

SANSHIN BUILDING, HIBIYA PARK, TOKYO

AGENTS CABLE ADDRESS i

IN ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD " OJISEISHI"

AD. 29


KAIGAITSUSHO K.K.I

J YURAMi BUILDING
CNO 4 3 CH0ME MARUfJOUCHI.S
TOKYO i

OSAKA* MAGOYA.HOTENj

lilllliiili
llllMilil


ramav Yurakukan Marunouchi 3-chome No. 4 Kojimachi-ku Sumitomo Building No.3 Hirokojidori 6-chome Naka-ku BECT5BI Daido Building Tosabori |-chome Nishi-ku Mitsui Building 2 Kamo-cbo



Seegartenstr2 I^SHIS! W. 15. Kurfuersten- damm 197 Wellington House W.C.2, 125-130 Strand


AD. 30


The J apan-Manchoukuo Year Book

19 3 9

Cyclopedia of General Information and Statistics on the
Empires of Japan and Manchoukuo

Appendices: Who's Who; Business Directory

"Neither Is Understandable Without the Other"

TOKYO

Maruzen Co., Ltd.

Nihombashi, Tokyo

KOBE

J. M. Thompson 8C Co.

3, Kaigan-dori

NEW YORK

The H. W. Wilson Co.

950, University Avenue,
N. Y. City

LONDON

Arthur Probsthain

41, Great Russell St.

BERLIN

A. Asher & Co.

17, Behrenst, W. 8

AGENTS:

PARIS

Ricour, Chevillet 8C Cie.

22, Rue de la Banque, .22

LEIPZIG, C I.
Otto Harrassowitz

Querstrasse, 14

SHANGHAI

Kelly & Walsh
HONGKONG

Kelly & Walsh
SINGAPORE

Kelly 8C Walsh
PEKING

French Book Store
TIENTSIN

Oriental Book Store

Rue de France

HARBIN
Nauka-sha

DAIREN

Simpson's Agencies

SYDNEY

Goddard 8C Co.

George Street

MELBOURNE

Robertson, Mullen 8C Co.

Elizabeth Street

BOMBAY

Taraporevalla 8C Sons

Hornby Rd., Fort.

CALCUTTA

Thacker, Spink 8C Co.

3, Esplanade East

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The Japan-M

Totaku Bill,

o Year Book Co.

io, Kojimachi-ku,

PAN


The Siemens-Works are leading the progress

of the electro-technical world since 91 years

Siemens-Works at Berlin-Siemensstadt

SIEMENS-SCHUCKERT

DENKI KABUSHIKI KAISHA
TOKYOOSAKADAIREN

GADELIUS 8c CO., LTD.

TOKYO

OSAKA BUILDING
UCHISAIWAICHO

D A I R E N

TOTAKU BUILDING, YAMAGATADORI

Machinery and Equipment for

POWER PLANTSSHIPSDOCK-YARDSMINES
METALLURGICAL & CHEMICAL PLANTS
PULP AND PAPER MILLS.

SANDVIK & AVESTA STEEL PRODUCTS

OSAKA

GOSHO BUILDING
NAKANOSHIMA

AD. 32


FOREWORD

^HIS marks the sixth annual issue of THE JAPAN-MANCHOUKUO
YEAR BOOK. It is believed that in the present edition a greater
degree of unity has been achieved among the various chapters than
in the previous issues. Tables on more than fifty new subjects have been
added, while a large number of statistics, on internationally comparative
bases have been inserted to bring out more clearly the relative positions
of Japan and Manchoukuo. The general index has been further enlarged
so as to facilitate the search for information.

A special feature of this issue is the supplement entitled Japan's
Economic Position in China. Since the publication of the previous issue
the undeclared war in China has developed in scope and extent, involving
many sweeping changes which have all been noted and embodied in the
present compilation so far as possible.

The publishers wish again to express their deep appreciation of the
many kindnesses rendered by official and private sources and by individuals
in the compilation of valuable data for this edition of The Japan'Manchou-
kuo Year Book.

Tokyo.

THE PUBLISHERS.


Cable Address: ILLIES

lilies & Co.

Established in Japan: 1859

Importers & Exporters

BRANCHES:

BERLIN, OSAKA, YOKOHAMA, KOBE, NAGOYA, TOBATA,
DAIREN, MUKDEN, HSINKING, HARBIN,
MANILA

Shipping Agents

for

Hamburg-Amerlka Linte

AD. Si


TABLE OF CONTENTS

(Reference to Pages)

JAPAN SECTION

Chapter Pas:*

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................L

TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................................iii.-xii.

DIAGRAMMATIC CHARTS................................................................................xiii.-xxii.

WEIGHTS, MEASURES, MONEYS ..................................................................xxiii.

JAPANESE AND MANCHOUKUO YEAR DATES ........................................xxiv.

I. GEOGRAPHY....................................................................................................1-14

PositionTerritoryAreaPhysical FeaturesClimateFauna and
Flora

II. OUTLINE OF HISTORY ................... ........................................15-24

Mythical PeriodiLegendary PeriodPeriod of FoundationNara
PeriodHeian PeriodKamakura PeriodMuromaehi PeriodYedo
PeriodModern JapanSino-Japanese WarRusso-Japanese War
Anglo-Japanese AllianceWorld WarSiberian ExpeditionMan-
churian IncidentSino-Japanese Hostilities

III. GEOLOGY ........................................................................................................25-32

Geological CompositionVolcanoesHot SpringsEarthquakes

IV. POPULATION AND EMIGRATION ..............................................................33-42

Introductory RemarksDensity of PopulationDistribution of Popu-
lationNumber of BirthsDeathsMarriagesDivorcesAverage
Age of MortalityPopulation by CallingLegal Status of Foreigners
NaturalizationEmigration

V. IMPERIAL COURT..........................................................................................43-54

The Imperial Housethe Reigning SovereignMembers of the Im-
perial FamilyRoyal House of ChosenArea of Crown Landed
EstatesImperial Property LawImperial Household Department
DecorationsPeerageCourt RankGenealogy of the Imperial House
List of EmperorsList of Year-Names

VI. ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM ........................................................................55-71

The Central GovernmentComposition of MinistriesCivil and Mili-
tary ServiceScale of- SalariesPension SystemDirectory of Gov-
ernment OfficialsLocal GovernmentReform in Japanese Admini-
strative Machinery in Manchoukuo

VII. POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES ......................................................72-8S

Politicsthe Emperorthe Privy Councilthe Cabinetthe "Genro"
the Imperial DietComposition of Imperial DietChronological
Session of House of RepresentativesElectoral SystemPolitical
PartiesCabinet ChangesRecent Situation

VIII. DIPLOMACY ....................................................................................................87-94

HistoricalRecent SituationAnti-Comintern AgreementPanay In-
cidentLadybird IncidentSoviet-Japanese Fishery Arrangement
Italo-Japanese Commercial TreatyU.S.-Japan Fisheries Issue
Chronology of Sino-Japanese HostilitiesList of Treaties


CONTENTS (Japan)

Chapter

IX. NATIONAL DEFENCE..........................................

Introductory RemarksBoard of Marshals and Fleet Admirals
Supreme War CouncilCourt-Martial LawArmy and Navy Expen-
ditures. Conscription, Army EducationDevelopment and Reorganiza-
tion of Special CorpsArms Depots and Military ArsenalsStrength
of Standing ForceStatistics of DivisionsNaval Districts and Bases
Personnel of the ServiceAge-Limit of OfficersNaval Education
Standing FleetsList of WarshipsMilitary AviationNaval Avia-
tionthe Sino-Japanese Hostilities

X. RELIGION ....................................................

Introductory RemarksShintoismBuddhismChristianityNo. of
Temples and PriestsProtestant WorkRoman Catholic Work
Y.M.C.A.Y.W.C.A.Salvation ArmyNational Temperance Union

XI. EDUCATION ..................................................

Introductory RemarksEntrance ExaminationCo-educationPrimary
EducationBlind, Deaf, Dumb SchoolsSecondary Education
University EducationTechnical Professional EducationTraining
Schools for Teachersthe Imperial AcademyFinancial Aspects of
EducationSchool HygieneLibraries and MuseumsMoral Educa-
tion and Physical Culture

XII. JUDICATURE .................................................

Judicial SystemJury SystemNew Civil Procedure LawCivil and
Criminal CasesPoliceConvicts by CrimesSuicidesPrisons and
Prisoners

XIII. MEDICINE AND SANITATION ..................................

IntroductoryMedical PractitionersHospitalsTuberculosisLepro-
sariaPatent MedicinesEpidemic LaboratoriesEpidemic Mortality
Deaths by CausesDeath Rate and Expectancy of Life

XIV. PRESS AND PUBLICATIONS ...................................

Press LawCensorship and Freedom of DiscussionLeading News-
papersForeign Journalism in JapanNews AgenciesForeign Cor-
respondents in JapanLeading MagazinesPublication Law

XV. ARTS AND CRAFTS ...........................................

Japanese Painting in Meiji Era and AfterArt Societies and Ex-
hibitionsImperal Board of ArtCultural Decoration, Art Museums
and SchoolsNational TreasuresPainters of Note

XVI. PUBLIC WORKS .................. ...........................

Public Works ExpendituresRoadsTramwaysRiver WorksHar-
bour WorksSanitary WorksWater SupplySewage

XVII. COMMUNICATIONS ........................ ...................

PostMail RoutesTelegraph ServiceWireless TelegraphyInter-
national Radio-Telephone ServiceTelephone ServiceRadio Broad-
castingAir MailPostal Savings

XVIII. LABOR ........................................................

Beginnings of Labor MovementPeasant MovementsRecent Trends
Number of Organized and Non-Organized LaborersMay Day
DemonstrationsWagesFactory LawProductivity of Labor
Workers by Age and SexLabor DisputesEmployment IndexJapan
and International Labor Organization

XIX. SOCIAL PROBLEMS .............................................

General RemarksPoor PeopleHousing QuestionPublic Pawnshops
Public MarketsOrgans for ControlDeliberation and Arbitration

Tage

95-113

114-122
123-140

141-153

154-162

163-170

171-177

178-183
184-195

196-207
208-218


V

Chapter

Democratic and Communistic MovementsPaternalism in Labor Dis-
putesCo-operative Societies-Health InsurancesUnemployment and
EmploymentWomen ProblemsYoung Men's LeaguesEleemosynary
WorksSocial Welfare Work Expenditures

XX. INDUSTRIAL PROPERTIES ....................................

General RemarksMonopoly RegulationsPatentsUtility Models1
DesignsTrade-MarksEncouragement of Inventions

XXI. TRANSPORTATION ............................................

Railways: LengthCapital InvestmentsAdministrationMain Lines
Traffic ResultsPassenger and Goods HauledFinanceConstruc-
tion and Operation. Tramways: Financial PositionNumber of Pas-
sengers. Air Transportation: Civil AviationGovernment Control
Five-Year ProgrammeOperation ResultsDistance FlownAir Fares
Distances between CitiesAccidentsTime TableAirplane Manu-
facturersHotel and WarehousingBoard of Tourist Industry
Japan Tourist BureauHotels in Japan, Chosen, TaiwanSpendings
by Foreign Visitors

XXII. SHIPPING & SHIPBUILDING ...................................

Japan's Position in World Shippingdumber and Tonnage of Ships
LaunchedShipping Safety LawSteamers by Age, Speed and
TonnageLeading ShipownersShipping SubsidyOverseas and
Near-sea RoutesTramp-ownersFreight RatesNavigationSalvage
WorksShipbuildingNo. of Ships LaunchedRecent Shipbuilding
Situation

XXIII. PUBLIC AND LOCAL FINANCES ...............................

Budgetary SystemStructure of the BudgetScope of Legislative
AuthorityState Revenue and ExpenditureSpecial AccountLocal
LoansNational Loans OutstandingNational WealthState Mono-
polies and UndertakingsDetails of TaxesRecent SituationWar-
time Financial ProgramSupplementary Budget for 1938-39New
Public Loans Issued

XXIV. BANKING ....................................................

Introductory RemarksBanking SystemNumber and Capitalization
of BanksEmployment of Banking FundsLeading Ordinary and
Savings BanksForeign Banks in JapanMoney Organs for Poorer
ClassesFunds Available for Investment PurposesCurrency System
Amount of Notes IssuedDiscount RateForeign Exchange Busi-
nessBankers' Clearing HousesTrust BusinessNumber and Gen-
eral Condition of Trust CompaniesRecent Banking Situation

XXV. INSURANCE ...................................................

Japan's Position in Life InsuranceInvestment of SavingsRates of
Investment Yieldsthe Big Five Insurance CompaniesState Control
Deaths of Insured Classified by CausesCapitalization, Assets,
Liabilities of Insurance CompaniesLeading Insurance Companies
Foreign Insurance Business

XXVI. AGRICULTURE............ ...................................

Principal Agricultural and Pastoral ProductsArea and Population
Free Holders and TenantsAverage Agricultural Gross Income
Japan's Position in Productive LandsStaple Farm ProductsRice
Farm ProductsRice StockGovernment GodownOther Cereals
HorticultureIndustrial Crops Tobacco Camphor Tea Stock
BreedingDairy and Meat PreservingsSlaughteringLivestock In
suranceLivestock Assn.Number of Animals AffectedAgrarian
ProblemsIrrigation and DrainageFarm AdjustmentFertilizers

Page

219-224

225-244

245-258

259-294

295-315

316-324

326-341


CONTENTS (Japan) xxxviii

Chapter

XXVII.

XXVIII.

XXIX.

XXX.

XXXI.

XXXII.

XXXIII.

SERICULTURE ..........................................:.....

CocooningReelingMulberry PlantationsRaw Silk Production-
Raw Silk FinancingDemandExportSericultural PolicyArrivals
of Silk Yarn.

FORESTRY ...................................................

Tropical ZonesArea of ForestsForest by Ownership and By Pur-
posesPercentage ForestsImportant ForestsAdjustment of State
ForestsRiver Control and Afforestation-Forestry OutputPrincipal
TimbersPrincipal By-ProductsForestry FinanceDemand and Sup-
ply of TimberInflow of Foreign TimberExport and Import of
TimberDemand and Supply of PulpFive-Year Plan of Pulp Pro-
duction.

FISHERY .....................................................

Value of CatchesKinds of FishAquatic AdministrationMember-
ship of AssociationFishing PopulationFishing CraftsCoastwise
Fishing CropsResults of Pelagic FisheryWhaling in Japanese Water
and Antarctic OceanCoral CollectionAquatic ManufactureIsin-
glassPearl CultureFisheries in the HokkaidoExports and Imports
of Fish and Marine ManufacturesJapanese FisKing Activities in
Soviet WatersFloating Crab CanneriesSalmon CanneriesSalt In-
dustryOutput of SaltDemand and Supply of Salt.

MINING ......................................................

Value of Mineral ProductionJapan's Position in Output of Certain
Basic MineralsMining LotsIron and Steel, Raw Material Supply
Pig Iron and Steel MaterialsCokeScrap IronProductive Con-
ditionsProduction of Steel IngotsSteel Materials ClassifiedIn-
dustry Under ControlGoldSilverCopperLeadTinZincSul-
phurDemand and Supply of Principal MineralsMagnesium
AluminiumCoal ReservesDemand and Supply of CoalLeading
Coal-minesPetroleumEstimated Petroleum DepositsCrude Oil
ProductionPetroleum By-productsDemand and Supply of Refined
OilPetroleum Wholesale Price in TokyoImports of Petroleum
State Subsidy for Petroleum Industry in SaghalienCondition of the
Mining CompaniesNumber of MinersMining Law.

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES ................................

Japan's Position in Industrial ProductionProduction ValueIndustrial
Production by Principal CommoditiesOperatives and Factories by
Leading Industries-Dependence on Foreign Raw MaterialsWorking
Hours and WagesState Subsidies for Key IndustriesIndustrial
Associations.

TEXTILE INDUSTRY...........................................

Volume Indices of ProductionJapan's Position in Number of Spindles
and Consumption of Raw CottonComparison of British and Japanese
Cotton Fabric ExportsCotton SpinningCotton Cloth Output
Cotton WeavingRaw Cotton ImportsRaw Cotton Consumption
Cotton YarnExports of Cotton YarnCotton Spinning Control Policy.
Silk TextilesProduction Value. Rayon Yarn ProductionDemand
and Supply of Rayon YarnRayon Yarn and Fabric Exports. Staple
FibreJapan's Position in Staple Fibre Production. Woolen Cloth and
Worsted YarnOutput of Woolen FabricsDemand and Supply of
Woolen YarnWool Imports. Hemp Cloth ProductionImports
Crops of Hemp, Ramie, Flax, etc.

ELECTRIC AND GAS INDUSTRIES ................

Principal Rivers and Average Potential Output of H.P.'sLargest Load
CentresPower Generating CapacityDemand for Electric Lights

Page

342-347

348-355

356-364

365-385

386-393

394-405

406-410


CONTENTS (Japan)

vii

Chapter

XXXIV.

XXXV.

XXXVI.

XXXVII.

XXXVIII.

XXXIX.

Consumption of Power by IndustriesLength of Electric Wirings
Fuel Consumptions by Power StationsFinancial Position of Electric
IndustryElectric Power ControlStatistics of Gas Industry.

CHEMICAL AND CERAMIC INDUSTRIES.........................

Volume Indices of Chemicals and Ceramic Production. Fertilizers
ProductionClassificationConsumption and Imports of Commercial
Fertilizers. Output of Industrial ChemicalsAmmonium Sulphate
Dye-stuff IndustryDemand & SupplyImports of Dye-stuffs. Bleach-
ing Powder. Caustic Soda. Paper IndustryProductionDemand and
SupplyExports of Paper. Pulp Consumption and Imports. Rubber
IndustryImports of Raw Rubber and Production and Exports of
Rubber GoodsJapanese Rubber Plantation Abroads. Ceramic Indus-
try: Production of CeramicsExports of CeramicsPottery and
Porcelain. Cement ProductionConsumption and Exports of Cement.
Glass ProductionImport, Export & Consumption of Glass and Glass
Ware. Vegetable Oil ProductionImports and Exports of Oils and
Fats. Fish Oil Production. Animal Fats. Production and Exports of
Soap. Menthol Production and Exports. Camphor and Camphor Oil
Output and Exports. Celluloid Output and Exports.

FOODSTUFF INDUSTRY .......................................

Cane Sugar ProductionExports and Imports of Sugar. Flour Milling
Wheat ImportsDemand and SupplyProduction and Exports of
Flour. BrewingProduction of Sake, Beer, etc. Exports of Beer.
Canned ProvisionsProduction. Exports, etc. of Canned Provision.
Isinglass Production and Exports. Volume Indices of Food-stuff Pro-
duction.

MECHANICAL INDUSTRY......................................

Demand and SupplyOutput Value of Principal MachineriesImports
and Exports, Output of Scientific, Medical Instruments, Optical Instru-
ments, Electric Machine and MotorsProduction of Locomotives and
Rolling StockMarine Diesel Engines, Cranes, Elevators, etc. Machine
Tool OutputAutomobile Industry: ProductionImports of Auto-
mobiles and PartsRegistered Motor Vehicles in Japan. Foreign
ContributionsProduction and Exports of Bicycles. Production and
Exports of Watch and ClockProduction of Measuring and Weighing
Instruments and Various MetersMachine Tool Industries LawThe
Aeroplane Manufacturing Industries Law.

MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES.................................

ProductionExport of Knitted GoodsHatsLacquer WareLeather
and Leather GoodsBamboo GoodsBrushesStraw BraidsElectric
BulbsPyrethrumToysButtonsMatches, etc.

TRADE .......................................................

Formation of CompaniesValue of ProductionStatistics of Cos. by
BusinessBusiness Results of Leading Cos.Capitalization of Cos.
Chambers of. Commerce & IndustryExchangesStock, Rice and
Market Value of Indices of Industrial SharesQuotation of National
BondsAverage Quotation of National BondsForeign Quotations of
Japanese National BondsWarehousing--Commodity PricesForward
Quotations of Principal Staple CommoditiesGuilds of Staple Commo-
ditiesYield of Bonds and Stocks.

FOREIGN TRADE .......................... ................

Trade by Political UnitsExports and Imports by GroupsForeign
Trade Since 1889Imports and Exports of Specie and Bullions

Page

411-424

425-429

430-440

441-444

445-457

458-490


viii

CONTENTS (Manchoukuo)

Chapter

Import Ratio of Industrial Raw Materials Against Total Consumption
Foreign Trade by Continents, Countries and CommoditiesInvisible
TradeBalance of International PaymentsImport Tariff of Japan
Trade Regulation and Trade Protection LawTrade Agreement with
Foreign Countries.

XL. SIX PREMIER CITIES ......................................

The City Planning LawArea and Population of Six Premier Cities
Tax BurdenRevenue and ExpenditureMunicipal LoansSocial
WorksReconstruction of Tokyo and YokohamaTokyoYokohama
OsakaKyotoNagoyaKobe.

XLI. SPORTS ...........................

Swimming: Results of Recent Aquatic MeetsNew Records in Swim-
mingBaseballGolfBoxingBasketballTrack and Field Athle-
tics, Japanese RecordsVolley-BailSoccer and RugbyHockey and
CricketLawn TennisResult of 1938 Davis Cup Tournament
RowingWrestlingWinter Sports: Skating and SkiingHorse
Riding and RacesMountaineering: Fuji, Japanese Alps, Prominent
Peaks.

XLII. CHOSEN (KOREA) ............................................

GeographyPopulationFinancePublic DebtsEducation and Re-
ligionGarrison and PolicePublic WorksBanking and Other Finan-
cing OrganizationsForeign TradeMonopolyValue of Output from
IndustriesAgricultureMining Principal MineralsForestryManu-
facturing IndustriesTradeRailwaysOriental Development Co.

XLIII. TAIWAN (FORMOSA) ..........................................

GeographyMeteorological ObservationsInhabitants and Population
AboriginesAdministrationState FinanceEducationJustice and
PrisonsManufacturing IndustriesForestryFishery and Marine
ProductsMineral Products and MiningAgricultureFruitsSugar
IndustryTea IndustryStock-breedingMonopolyForeign Trade
Public WorksCommunicationsRailwaysBanks and Other Financial
Institutions.

XLIV. KARAFUTO (SAGHALIEN) .....................................

Area and PopulationState FinanceBanking and Other Monetary
OrgansSanitationReligionEducation Agriculture Immigration
Fishery-^ForestryOutput of Pulp and PaperMining Industry
RailwaysCommerce and Industry.

XLV. THE SOUTH SEA MANDATED ISLANDS..........................

GeographyRaceLanguageManners and CustomsAdministration
PopulationState FinanceReligionEducationJustice and Police
AgricultureForestryFisheryCommerce and IndustryPrincipal
Manufactured GoodsForeign TradeCommunications.

SUPPLEMENT

JAPAN: Diplomatic & Consular Service............................

Page

491-504

505-517

518-539

540-559

560-568

569-586

589-598

MANCHOUKUO SECTION

GEOGRAPHY & GEOLOGY .........

Physiographic Division Boundaries -
RiversLakes-CoastlineHarbours
ClimateFlora and Fauna.

Position Area Mountain:
Geology of Manchoukuo

599-616


ix

Chapter Paffe

II. OUTLINE OF HISTORY ............................. ................617-625

Ancient TimesModern TimesIndependence of Three Eastern Pro-
vincesChronicle of Important Events.

III. RACES AND TRIBES .......................................... 626-631

Peoples of ManchouRaces and Tribes of North ManchuriaRaces
and Tribes of Mongolia.

IV. FOUNDING OF MANCHOUKUO ......... ....................... 632-635

Transitional MeasureDeclaration of Establishment of the New State
Public Declaration of the Chief ExecutiveThe New Flag Recognition
by JapanJapan-Manchoukuo ProtocolBirth of Imperial Regime.

V. POPULATION AND IMMIGRATION .............................. 636-644

Population: by Nationality, by Province, of Principal Cities, by Age,
by OccupationImmigrationJapanese Emigration PolicyCondition
of ImmigrantsLocality of Settlements.

VI. ADMINISTRATION ............................................ 645-653

The EmperorPrivy CouncilLegislative CouncilState Council
CourtsSupervisory CouncilCabinetsDecorationsAllowance to
OfficialsJapan in Administration of Manchoukuo.

VII. JUDICATURE .................................................. 654-661

Courts and JurisdictionSupreme CourtProcurator's Office-Nulnber
of Civil and Criminal CasesWater Police BureauNumber of Police
Stations and OfficersReformed JurisdictionPrisonsArrestsLaws
Promulgated or Revised During 1937.

VIII. DIPLOMACY ....................................................662-666

Japanese Diplomacy Under New SystemRecognition of Germany
Recognition of ItalyRecognition by PolandRecognition of Franco
GovernmentChangkufeng AffairForeign Diplomatic and Consular
Service Abroad.

IX. NATIONAL DEFENCE........................................\ 667-672

National Defense Appropriations to Japanese Army & NavyStanding
ArmyNavyGunboats of ManchoukuoBandit Suppression
National Mobilization Law.

X. EDUCATION (AND RELIGION) ................................. 673-688

Reforms in Educational SystemPrimary SchoolsPrimary School
FinanceMiddle and Girls' High SchoolsNormal SchoolsStatistics
of CollegesDaido GakuinVocational SchoolsYouths' Schools
Teachers' InstitutionsPrivate SchoolsText BooksDiffusion of
Japanese LanguageGovernment Students Sent AbroadSpecial
Educational OrgansLibrariesMuseumsEducation of Mongols
Japanese Educai&ii&I Enterprises. -Religion: Religions Among For-
eigners Buddhism Taoism : Confucianism Mohammedanism v
Lamaism.

XI. STATE FINANCE .............................................. 689-696^

Budget for 1938State Revenue and Expenditure ClassifiedSpecial
AccountsPublic LoansLoans and Borrowings Outstanding
Domestic and External LoansMaritime Customs State Monopoly
System: Salt, Match, Opium, Oil Monopolies.

XII. BANKING & CURRENCY ............................................................................698-714

Statistics of Financing Organs in Manchoukuo & KwantungCentral
Bank of ManchouOrdinary BanksPopular Financing OrgansThe
Industrial Bank of ManchouForeign BanksJapanese Banks in
ManchoukuoMonetary Advances to IndustriesCredit Associations


X

Chanter

Postal SavingsMoney OrdersInterest Rate. Insurance: Japanese
EnterprisePostal Life InsuranceKwantung Province Fire Insurance
SocietyNew Insurance Business LawManchuria Fire and Marine
Insurance Company. Currency: Currency StabilizationIssue of Bank
NotesSubsidiary Coins IssuedGold PurchaseExchange Control
LawForeign Exchange RatesAbolishment of the ChaopiaoThe
Currency LawThe Regulation Governing the Adjustment of the Old
Currency.

XIII. COMMUNICATIONS ..............................................

Telegraph & TelephoneManchuria Telephone and Telegraph Co.
Broadcasting StationsNumber of Listener-inRadio Programs
Wireless InstallationsPostal Administration: Inland and Foreign
Mail HandledParcel PostFees for Foreign Mail MattersPostal
SavingsImprovement of Japan-Manchoukuo Postal Savings System
Text of the LawAgreement Concerning the Establishment of Man-
churia Telegraph and Telephone Co.

XIV. TRANSPORTATION ..............*................ .............

Roads: State Highways EstablishedUnder ConstructionFive-Year
Plan for Improvement of Local Road & Bridges. Motor Transport:
Condition of Motor Bus TransportationNational Bus Lines by Dis-
trictAuto Transport Business Placed Under New LawRoad Acci-
dentsNumber of Cars. Air Transport: Routes Newly Opened
Timetable and Fares on Principal Air RoutesNew Aviation Law
EnactedAir Mail RegulationAir Mail Rates. Transportation by
Water: Navigation BureauxRiver Voyage ScheduleNo. of Vessels
Navigable RiversNo. of People Landing and Leaving Through
Principal PortsNavigation LawPrincipal Ports.

XV. RAILWAYS ...............................%....................

Statistics of States and S.M.R. LinesNewly Built LinesRailway
HistoryFreight TrafficFreight RatesSoya-bean Freight Rates
Soiith Manchuria Railway Company.

XVI. AGRICULTURE................................................

Arable Land and Farming PopulationStructure of Agricultural
EconomyFarm-laborersTenant-farmersLanded FarmersLand-
lordsFertilizersDomestic AnimalsMethod of TenancyAgricul-
tural DivisionArea Under Various CropsPrincipal CropsSoya
Beans, Kaoliang, Twenty-Five-Year Expansion Plan for Wheat Pro-
ductionPerilla-seedTobaccoCottonStock FarmingDomestic
AnimalsSlaughter House Returns30-Year Plan for Sheep's Wool
ProductionLive-stock Breeding FarmsS.M.R, Animal Disease Labo-
ratoryLive-stock Assn.Public GranariesGovernment's Basic Policy
for Agricultural DevelopmentPlans for 1939.

XVII. COMMERCE...................................................

Commercial CodeTrade Control LawNew Industrial Rights Law
Chamber of Commerce & IndustryTrade MarksPatent Rights and
DesignsWeights and MeasureJapanese OrgansManchu Import
GuildS.M.R. Consumption GuildExchangesMarketsCorporate
CapitalizationWarehousingCommodity Prices.

XVIII. FORESTRY ...................................................

Distribution of ForestsTimber SpeciesSupply and Demand of Tim-
berProducers' GuildPulp IndustryAfforestation.

XIX. FISHERIES ....................................................

Salt Water FisheryRiver FisheriesMarine ProductsFishing House-
hold and PopulationSalt; Manufacture.


CONTENTS (Manchoukuo)

Chapter

XX. MINING .................................... .................

Mineral ResourcesMining OutputCoal: Deposit, Mines, Output,
Demand, Export, Five-Year PlanIron Industry: Deposits, Produc-
tion, Expansion Plans of Showa Steel Works, By-Products, Iron and
Steel Control LawGold: Output, Five-Year Gold Mining Plan,
Mining Cos.LimestoneSoapstoneLeadCopperManganese
Alumina ShalePetroleumCoal LiquefactionShale Oil.

XXI. MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY .................... .............

Statistics of Mfg. Industries in Manchuria: Capital Investment-
Textile Industry: Spinning Industry, Raw Cotton Imports and Con-
sumption, Number of Weaving MachinesWoollen Industry: Demand
and Supply of Woollen FabricsWoollen Fabrics Cos.Hemp-Dress-
ing Industry: Import of Flax, Ramie, Hemp, etc. Wild Six Yarn and
Silk Pongee Mills: Output and Export of CocoonsChemical Industry-
Cement output, Demand and Supply, Cos.Fire Clay Production
Glass IndustryDolomite IndustryPapetrPulpReed PulpSta-
tistics of Sulphate of AmmoniaSoda AshSoapPaintMatch
DyestuffsGunpowder and Other ExplosivesBricksEarthenware and
PorcelainBean Oil & Cake Industry: Output of Bean Oil, Number
of Mills and Capacity, ExportFoodstuffs and Drinks: Distilling
and Brewing, Alcohol FactoriesSugar Production, Cos., Demand and
Supply of Sugar, Imports of SugarFlour Statistics. Electric & Gas
Industry: Power GenerationControl of Electric PowerConsump-
tion of Light and PowerElectric Cos.Details of Gas Industry.
Metal & Mechanical Industry: MetalsMachinery and ToolImports
of Machinery and Tools, Vessels and VehiclesMiscellaneous Indus-
tries: TobaccoHide and LeatherExports of Hides, Leather and
Other Animal Substances.

XXII. FOREIGN TRADE................................ .............

Value Percentage of Exports and Imports, By Countries and Cate-
goriesTrade by CountriesStaple Imports and ExportsPrincipal
Exports and Imports Value and Volume^Trend in 1938.

XXIII. SANITATION................................................

Public Health OrganizationPhysiciansHospitalsInfectious Disease
MortalityS.M.R. Hygienic ActivitiesMethods for Combatting Dis-
easesNutritionEnvironmental HygieneRed Cross Medical Service
Medical SchoolsMedical Practitioners, Dentists, Pharmacists
Opium SmokingControl of Poppy CultivationRelief of Opium
Addicts.

XXIV. PRINCIPAL CITIES ............................................

Hsinking-HarbinKirinTunghuaYenkiTumenPort Arthur
Dairen Chinchow Pulantien Wafangtien Hsiungyuehcheng
Tashihchiao Anshan LiaoyangSuchiatunLiaoyangSuchiatun
Fushun Mukden Tiehling Kaiyuan Ssupingchieh Kung-
chulingPenhsihuAntungYingkowTsitsihar.

LABOR ......................................................

Influx of Chinese LaborNumber of Immigrant Labor and their
OccupationCooliesDemand and Supply of LaborersPublic Works
Living Condition of LaborersIndices of Cost of LivingWages-
Outgoing CooliesLabor DisputesState Control of Labor.

THE SOUTH MANCHURIA RAILWAY COMPANY.................

Early HistoryEstablishment of the CompanyOrganizationRail-
way LinesGeneral Balance SheetFinanceCapitalizationInvest-
mentsRailway Receipts, Expenditures, Profits-Subsidiary Under-
takingsRolling Stock and WorkshopCompanies Controlled.

XXV.

XXVI.


xii

Chapter

XXVII. ECONOMIC POLICY

Tage

897-912

Law Controlling Important IndustriesIndustries Under New Law
Government StatementFive-Year Industrial PlanRevised Economic
PolicyMineral and Manufacturing IndustriesCapital Resources
Result of the First Year of the Five Year PlanJapan-Manchoukuo
Emergency Economic ConferenceJapanese EmigrationJapanese
InvestmentsManchuria Industrial Development Corp.Business Re-
sult for 1st Half of 1938Articles of Assn. of Manchuria Industrial
Development Corp. Manchuria Industrial Development Corp. Ad-
ministration Act.Principal Affiliated Cos. of the Manchuria Industrial
Development Corp.

Geographical PositionPopulationAdministrationDefence Services
NavyPoliceCourts of JusticeFinanceTaxesSocial Educa-
tionAgricultureForestryLivestock IndustryFisheries and Salt
ManufactureManufacturing IndustryDairen CustomsCommuni-
cations System.

General Outlook Relations with China before 1937 Japan's
-Comparative Position in China's Finance and IndustryJapanese
Investments Foreign Investments Investments by Enterprises
Mileage of Chinese National Railways Foreign Trade Trade
with Leading Countries Foreign Trade by Political Arenas
ShippingAirwaysCotton Spinning and WeavingCotton Produc-
tionTobacco ManufacturingCoal MiningMineral OutputIron
Ore EnterprisesIron DepositsElectric Power EnterprisesSalt
WoolJapan's Economic Programs in North and Central Chitia
China Economic BoardNorth China and Central China Development
CompaniesNew Commercial Policy in North and Central China
Customs Stations Under New RegimeCurrency Stabilization in North
ChinaThe Federal Reserve BankArea and Population of China
Area Under Cultivation and Production of Crops.

XXVIII. KWANTUNG LEASED TERRITORY

913-918

SUPPLEMENT

JAPAN'S ECONOMIC POSITION IN CHINA

919-940

APPENDICES

WHO'S WHO IN JAPAN & MANCHOUKUO

BUSINESS DIRECTORY .................

KONZERNS OF JAPAN .................

BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................

LEARNED AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS .

491-1067
1068-1150
1151-1162
1163-1178
1179-1188

INDEX

ADVERTISERS .......

BUSINESS DIRECTORY
GENERAL ...........

MAPS

1189
1069-107.7

1190

Sino-Japanese Hostilities Map ...............

Air Route Map of Japan, Manchoukuo and China

Manchoukuo Railway Map...................

China Railway Map .........................

112-113
239
745
920-921


INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COMPARISONS

Indices of Market Value of Industrial
Shares

r160,-

Indices of Wholesale Prices

11 n 1111111

Sources : Bank of Japan (Japan)

Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, League of Nations
(U. S. A. & U. K.)

Indices of Industrial Production

Sources : Mitsubishi Economic Research Bureau (Japan)

Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, League of Nations
(U. S. A. & U.K.)

Indices of Employment

170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50

1 1 1 : 1929-100 1 M Ml[lllll 11111111111
/
// ^ i
A V
J AP. AN-^
/U. K.
/A (
/ /
A / / /
rA N r /
V \ /
N V /*- U. S. A.
\ .y _____/
V .......; (,, i. i. 1111. i
r- rv) ON oo rsj On ON Cvl On o m ON m On rsj rn On m m ON rn ON m rn On VO m On 1937 1938

Sources : Dept. of Commerce & Industry (Japan)

Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, League of Nations
(U.S. A. &U. K.)

Indices of Foreign Trade

130 120 | 1929: = 10 10 i 1 1 1 1..... nvn J in rr

110 100 90 80 70 60 AF Ab / . K.
i y
1 k: i ( / \
\ J / U. S. A. \
\ \ \ / / / \
\ v' / 11 i 1111 1111 .....1 i I l l
r- rvi ON 00 ON On CN) ON o rn ON rn ON rg rn On m m ON m ON in On VO m On 1937 1938

Sources : Bank of Japan (Japan)

Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, League of Nations
(U.S.A. & U. K)

Indices of Japan's Foreign Trade

Source : Review of World Trade, 1937.

Source: The Yokohama Specie Bank


CAPITAL INVESTMENT IN JAPAN

AB

(A) Agriculture 0.9".

(B) Fishery 0.7

CO

(C) Agriculture 0.8

(D) Fishery 0.9^

PRODUCTION BY INDUSTRIES IN JAPAN

Mill. Yen

WEIGHTED ARITHMETICAL INDICES OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION


State Revenue & Expenditures, General Accounts
Japan

Year ending March 31, 1927

Bonds issue
34

Stamp,
Receipts
82

Year ending March 31, 1932

Year ending March 31, 1939
(Budget Estimate) >

Stamp Receipts^
100

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5

One
Hundred
Mill. Yen

^State Enterprises
& Properties 367

- f
i J / :
; j /
: rT\ tal Re\ renues
Tota il Expe snditur *-- - - y dinars 7 Reve: nues .
: ^ _____ ---- ---- -- *___ :
! " Vor dinary Exper iditure IS :
i i

1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5

One
Hundred
Mill. Yen


xvi

Foreign Trade of Japan Proper

1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937

(A) Machine &
Tool 110

(B) Comestibles in
tin & bottle 87

(C) Silk tissues 72

(G) Australia 72

(J) France & Colonies
101

BY KINDS, 1937
(In Million yen)

BY COUNTRIES, 1937
fin Million yen)

(D) Paper Pulp 117

(E) Crude Rubber

(F) Beans & Peas
93

BY POLITICAL UNITS, 1937
(In Million yen)

(H) Great Britain
106

(I) Federation of
South Africa

89


ECONOMIC BAROMETERS OF JAPAN: GENERAL INDEX CHART

1921-25 Average .

1929 (Average)..

1930 (

1931 (

1932 (

1933 (

1934 (

1935 (

1936 (

1937 <

;......

)......

)......

)......

)......

)......

)......

)......

1936 Oct.
Nov.
Dec.

1937 Jan.
Feb. .
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec. .

1938 Jan. ,
Feb. ,
Mar. .
Apr. ,
May
June .
July .
Aug. .
Sept. .

Bank Clearings

Tokyo

and
Osaka

V million %

4,831
3.950
3.272
3,002
3,51fi
4,477
4,148
4.015
4,365
5,357
4,301
4,096
5,621

4.750

4.751
6,046
5.701
5,788
5,373
5,591
4,732
4,954
4.839
4.843
6.911
4,421
5.061
6,021
5,878
5,693
5.601
5,633
5,212
4,915

100
82
63
62
73
93
86
83
90
111
89
85
116

125
118
120
111
116
98
103
100
100
143
92
105
125
122
118
116
117
108
102

Whole country

6,191
5,303
4,302
3,854
4,405
5,579
5.368
5,322
5,8'Jl
7,106
5,753
5,568
7,520
6,255
6.349

8.119
7,502
7,597

7.120
7,387
6,418
6,567
6,436
6,520
9.000
5.863
6,524
7,686
7,452
7,409
7,289
7.319
6,937
6,494

100
86

70
62

71
90
87
86

94
115

33
90
122
101

103
131
121

123
115

119

104
106

104

105
145

95
105

124

120
120
118
118
112
105

Banking

Deposits
V million

11.347.0

11.057.6
10.828.3

10.247.1

11.078.7

11.823.0

12.416.6

13.283.2

14.690.3

13.378.8

13.646.9

13.968.3

13.816.4

13.937.1

14.304.7
14,436.7
14,575.1
14.893.1

14.646.4
14.787.3
14,961.3

14.987.5

15.191.6

15.746.5

15.563.1

15.751.6

16.005.2
16,141.9
16,669.9

17.308.1

17.095.2
17,362.4-
17.657.5

Total
V millio

10.316.7

10.235.4
10,024.2

9.790.7
9.350.9
8,903.9
8,876.1
9,177.5

10.220.8
9,374.7
9,396.9

9.505.4

9.516.1

9.626.5
9.885.4
9.925.7

9.673.2
10,100.2

10.278.2

10.408.3
10,575.2
10,668.9

10.780.1

11.011.5

10.973.2

10.987.3

11.098.4

11.113.5
11,180.7

" 11,326.7
11,376.0
11,475.4
11,507.4

Bills
discounted
V million

1,270.8

1.126.4

1.050.0

1.051.1

1.070.3

1.079.5

1.213.2
1,356.2

1.762.4
1,422.0
1,441.7

1.550.5

1.504.4

1.545.5

1.644.2

1.656.7
1,625.0

1.716.3
1,721.5

1.754.8

1.884.3

1.931.7
1.983.0
2.181.0
2,117.0

2.123.0
2.219.2

2.203.8
2.226.5

2.279.1

2.266.9

2.263.4
2.230.0

Commercial banks

Deposits
Â¥ million

8.159.6
8,765.3

8.384.2

7.757.7
8,378.1

9.002.3

3.460.4
10,223.5

11.508.2
10,532.5

10.724.3
10,932.1
10,857,3

10.967.0

11.261.1

11.367.0
11,474.5
11,704.3

11.456.8

11.535.5
11,643.7
11,627.3

11.851.3

12.352.4

12.228.1

12.373.9
12,530.3
12,560.1

13.073.6
13,652.9

13.414.5

13.596.6
13.832.3

Advances
V million

7,287.1

6.982.8
6,586.1
6,303.1
6.040.3

5.839.9

5.921.6

6.295.8

7.259.0

6.569.7

6.597.1

6.660.2
6,711.1
6,824.0
7.035.3

7.072.6
7.043.0
7,209.0

7.377.5
7,465.0

7.489.7

7.554.6

7.614.0

7.712.3

7.680.9

7.662.7

7.738.4

7.766.1
7,803.0

7.923.8
7,980.6
8.062.3
8.0M.7

(a) Excluding Bank of Japan.

(Prepared by 3Iit>>ubiehi Economic Research Bureau)


ECONOMIC BAROMETERS OF JAPAN: SPECULATION

1921-25 Average ...

1929 (Average)......

1930 ( )......

1931 ( )......

1932 ( )......

1933 ( .. )......

1934 ( )......

1935 ( )......

1936 ( .. )......

1937 ( .. )......

1936 October.........

November......

December.:....

1937 January .........

February ......

March .........

April ............

May...............

June ............

July...............

August .........

September ...

October.........

November......

December......

1938 January.........

February ......

March .........

April ............

May ............

June ............

July...............

August .........

September ...

Average
Price of 50
Industrial
Shares

yen %

72.15
58.98
39.05
36.76
46.66
68.19
78.60

71.94
77.71
87.05
80.15
79.57
79.66
83.66
86.24
92.46
96.71
92.35

90.95
92.07
82.27

79.86
80.40
80.84
86.76
87.50
88.50
86.63
83.43
81.69
79.15

74.87
76.00
77.66

100
82
54
51
65
95

109
100
108
121
111

110
110
116
120
128
134
128
126
129
114
111
111
112
120
121
123
120
116
113
110

104

105
108

Price of
Tokyo Stock
Exchange
Company's

Share
yen %

128.60 100
138.87 1 08

130.25 101

163.05
182.56
146.78
138.43
130.74

127
142
114
108
102

1'47.76 115

131.63 102

132.10 103

131.90 103

146.00 114

148.44 115

162.00 1 26

160.41 125

152.15 118

151.14 118

146.89 114

132.24 1 03

133.32 104

135.89 1 06

160.27 125

159.85 124

156.23 122

145.55 113

137.37 1 07

136.41 106

121.47
126.76

99

105

Tokyo Stock
Exchnhfte
I ong-term
Transactions
(Daily average)
shares %

10-
61

122,875
75,201
110,441
93.114

148.641 121
184,680 1 50
176.923 1 44

98

120.562 _
158,906 129
198.560 162
156,293 1 27
162,479 132
169,135 138
265,697 216
274,423 223
322,438 262
275,504 224
187.U4 152
147,332 120
165.795 135
145,161 118
170,591 139
84,438 69
124,340 1 01
219.888 1 79
134,575 110
173,400 141
103,700 84
137,927 112
............85

104.503
103.316
97.806
87,743

Price of
Government
_Bonds

" Kogo ") (1st series)
yen__yen

86.44
93.19
91.56
92.81
92.50
100.72
104.08
103.95
101.76
101.28

100.48
100.25
100.20
100.32

100.49
100.80

101.56
101.60

101.57
101.55
101.07
10J.20
101.68
101.72
101.78

102.41
102.70
102.82
102.99
103.31
103.47
103.46

103.42
103.65

* Jan.June, 1921, excluded. t Average yield during the month.

75.56
79.25
77.66

78.02
79.73
93.50

99.03
98.80

101.31
101.53
101.40
101.06
101.40
101.73
101.93
102.02
102.05
101.64
101.43

101.46
100.82
100.78
101.43
101.38
101.64
102.10
102.19
102.12
102.12
102.34

102.47
102.66
102.68
102.86

Average Yield
(At the beginning of the month)

8.70
6.85
8.15
6.83
6.01
5.03
4.90

5.58

5.59
5.31
5.47
5.53
5.62
5.40
5.26
5.10

4.95

4.96
+5.16
t5.16
t5.54
t5.74
t5.64
t5.56
t5.40
t5.40
t5.39
+5.41 *
t5.51
t5.58
t5.66
t5.80
t5.81
t5.69

100
79
94
79
69

58

56
64
64
61

63

64

65
62
61

59

57
57
59
59

64

66

65
64
62
62
62
62

63

64

65
67
67
65

Company

debentures
% %

8.520*
6.425
6.330
6.491
6.836
5.961
5.411
4.995
4.456
4.403
4.354
4.354
4.385
4.382
4.375
4.360
4.360
4.365
t4.408
t4.413
t4.424
t4.536
4.455
4.421
4.430
4.417
4.384
4.358
+4.360
+4.369
t4.366
+4.363
+4.362
t4.358

100

75
74

76
80
70
64
59
52
52
51

51

52
51
51
51

51
61

52
52

52

53
52
52
52
52
52
51
51
51
51
51
51
51

(Prepared by Mitsubishi Economic Research Bureau)


ECONOMIC BAROMETERS OF JAPAN: BUSINESS

76 Commodities
(Dec. 10. 1931-100)

Wholesale Price Indices__

20 Commodities(a) iRetaiKa)
/Weighted, Average^

General

1929 (Average)....

1930 ( )....

1931 ( )....

1932 ( )....

1933 ( .. )....

1934 ( ,. )....

1935 ( .. )....

1936 ( )....

1937 ( )....

1936 October.......

November .
December .

1937 January.......

February ....

March .......

April ..........

May ..........

June ..........

July.............

August .......

September .

October.......

November ,
December .

1938 January.......

February ....

March .......

April ..........

May ..........

June ..........

July ..........

August.......

September'.
October ....

100
121
144
148
150
155
190

157.5
162.0

171.6

183.6

185.0

194.5

197.1

193.2
188.8
190.0

189.0
,189.2

189.1
190-.0
190.9

193.9

198.3

199.4
202.9

204.7

214.2

217.3

215.6

213.8

Goods
for
domestic

con-
sumption
(14 art.)

100
103
111
119
123
130
144

128.8

131.0

135.5

140.2

140.6

141.3

143.4

141.7

140.3

142.5

140.4

142.1

147.1

151.6

153.0

152.5

152.2

151.5

152.1

151.6
154.6
156.6

156.6

158.7

V for 1903'14100 J

Goods for

inter-
national

con-
sumption
(62 art.)*

100
124
151
154
156
161
201

164.0
169.0

179.8

193.4
195.0

206.5

209.3

204.9

199.7

200.8
199.9
199.9
198.5
198.7

199.4

203.3
208.7
210.2

214.4
216.7
227.7
230.9
229.0
226.3

169
132
105
116
132
135
144
150
175

150.4

155.8

161.9

172.5
171.9
175.9
180.8
176.7

176.0
176.7
171.9

175.1
-173.9
173.7

176.2

179.3
182.7
184.5
180.5
179.9
180.0
180.7

179.4
180.1

Pro-
ducers'
goods
(10 art.)

167
120
100
109
133
126
132
137
174

139.0
147.5
159.0

175.2

170.0

177.3

183.3

175.2
174.5

175.5

170.1

173.8

171.4

170.6

173.3

176.9

180.5

180.3

172.5

171.4
169.8
170.8

167.6
167.0

Con-
sumers'
goods
(10 art.)

171
145
110
123
130
143
157
163
176

161.8

164.1

164.8

169.7

173.9

174.5

178.3

178.2

177.4

177.8
173.7

176.4

176.3
176.7
179.1

181.7

185.0

188.6

188.5

188.4

190.1

190.5

191.2
193.2

Price
Index

/July.\
( 1914 )

181
155

136

137
146
149
152
159
174

158.7
158.9

162.5

169.8
170.7

171.0

171.9
171.9
171.4
172.4
173.9

177.6

179.2
179,9
182.4

184.6
190.4

192.7
197.6
197.6
196.9

199.3

203.1
204.3

207.8

Cost of Living

Index(b)
(July, 1937=100)

Working I Salary
class | men

100.0
10016

101.7

101.8
101.8
103.0

104.4
105.8
106-8
108.0
108.3
109.0
112.2
113.3
113.2

100.0
100.6

101.7

101.8
101.6
102.9

104.2
105".5

106.3

107.5
107.7

108.4

111.6
112.7
112.6

Labour Indices(a)
(Average for 1926=100)

Actual
earnings

103.9
98.7

90.7
88.1
89.2
91.2

91.1

91.8

96.8

92.2
93.0

96.2

92.7

95.5
97.0

94.9

95.8

96.6

96.3

96.0

96.1

98.3

99.4
102.9

100.6
102.3
104.3
103.3
102.9
105.1
103.7

Rates of
wages

{a) Based on the indices of the Bank of Japan. (b) Compiled by the Cabinet Bureau of Statistics. Revised after January, 1937.

(Prepared by Mitsubishi Economic Research Bureau)


ECONOMIC BAROMETERS OF JAPAN: SPECULATION

- Discount Rate (Average of minimum) Sen* % p.a. % Day-to-Day Rate (Average of minimum) Sen % p.a. % Note I (Daily a\ ¥ million Bank of Japan Foreign Exchange *
ssue re rage) % 1 Advances & Dis- | counts Advances to Gov't excluded (Daily average) V million % Yokohama on New York (Average T. T.) $ par Old mint ¥100 par= 100 Yokohama on London (Average T. T.) s.d. Mint par p,ir¥l
1921-25 Average... 1929 (Average) ... 2.208 8.06 100 1.664 6.08 100 1,204.4 100 288.1 100 49.846 100 2/ 0.582 100
L112 4.06 50 0.829 3.03 50 1,267.8 105 715.4 248 46.070 92 1/10.755 93
1930 ( ) ... 1.202 4.39 54 0.959 3.50 58 1,139.6 95 685.4 238 49.368 99 2/ 0.342 99
1931 ( .. ) ... 1.153 4.21 62 0.900 3.29 54 1,044.1 87 683.9 237 48.873 98 2/ 2.021 106
1932 ( ) ... 1.419 5.18 64 1.183 4.32 71 1,041.1 86 774.1 269 28.066 56 1/ 7.126 78
1933 ( ) ... 1.057 3.86 48 0.690 2.52 41 1,114.4 93 706.6 245 25.392 51 1/ 2.488 59
1934 ( ) ... 1.039 3.79 , 47 0.683 2.49 41 1,178.5 98 707.5 246 29.687 60 1/ 2.140 58
1935 ( ) ... 1.062 3.88 48 0.695 2.54 42 1,247.6 104 704.7 245 28.665 58 1/ 2.047 57
1936 ( ) ... 1.054 3.35 48 0.734 Z.68 44 1,340.5 111 673.5 234 28.976 58 1/ 2.000 57
1937 ( ., ) ... 1.078 3.94 49 0.718 2.62 43 1,535.4 128 621.8 216 28.717 58 1/ 1.992 57
1936 October ...... 1.082 3.95 49 0.794 2.90 48 1,332.3 111 68.1 232 28.572 57 1/ 1.996 57
November ... 1.087 3.97 49 0.766 2.80 46 1,344.9 112 695.6 242 28.516 57 1/ 2.000 57
December ... 1.117 4.03 51 0.708 2.58 43 1,562.2 130 667.5 232 28.488 57 1/ 1.939 57
1937 January ...... 1.071 3.91 49 0.690 2.52 42 1,525.9 127 607.5 211 28.465 57 1/ 1.925 57
February ... 1.067 3.90 48 0.725 2.65 44 1,461.4 121 615.2 214 33.476 57 1/ 1.976 57
March......... 1.067 3.90 48 0.765 2.79 46 1,404.7 117 598.2 208 28.447 57 1/ 2.000 57
April ......... 1.067 3.90 48 0.767 2.80 46 1,444.4 120 610.7 212 28.568 57 1/ 2.000 57
May............ 1.067 3.90 48 0.719 2.62 43 1,406.5 117 566.3 197 28.750 58 1/ 2.000 57
June............ 1.076 3.93 49 0.735 2.68 44 1,452.5 121 537.6 187 28.673 58 1/ 2.000 57
July ............ 1.065 3.89 48 0.716 2.61 43 1,472.2 122 525.7 183 28.773 58 1/ 2.000 57
August ...... 1.089 3.98 49 0.776 2.83 47 1,501.0 125 681.7 237 28.933 58 1/ 2.000 57
September... 1.100 4.02 50 0.651 2.38 39 1,515.3 126 660.5 229 28.790 5 8 1/ 2.000 57
October ...... 1.084 3.96 49 0.706 2.58 42 1,623.8 135 693.2 241 28.709 58 1/ 2.000 57
November ... 1.083 3.95 49 0.70? 2.56 42 1,671.7 139 753.2 261 28.979 68 1/ 2.000 57
December ... 1.100 4.02 50 0.669 2.44 40 1,936.4 161 611.5 212 29.043 58 1/ 2.000 57
1938 January ...... 1.072 3.91 49 0.637 2.33 38 1,926.8 160 526.3 183 28.970 58 1/ 2.000 57
February ... 1.067 3.90 48 0.649 2.37 39 1,784.8 148 505.0 175 28.957 58 1/ 2.000 57
March...-...... 1.067 3.90 48 0.665 2.43 40 1,765.2 147 493.7 171 28.813 68 1/ 2.000 57
April ......... 1.067 3.90 48 0.646 2.36 39 1,805.2 150 486.0 J 69 29.029 58 1/ 2.000 57
May............ 1.067 3.90 48 0.635 2.32 38 1,790.2 149 478.4 166 28.947 58 1/ 2.000 : 57
June............ 1.054 3.85 48 0.627 2.29 38 1.856.1 154 463.0 161 28.904 68 1/ 2.000 - 57
July ............ 1.050 3.83 48 0.639 2.33 38 1,906.8 158 456.6 159~ 28.740 58 1/ 2.000 57
August ...... 1.050 3.83 48 0.649 2.37 39 1,920.5 160 493.3 171 28.456 57 1/ 2.000 57
September... 1.050 3.83 48- 0.613 2.24 37 1,909.1 159 489.3 170 28.020 56 1/ 2.000 57

* After Dec., 1931, quoted by the Mitsubishi Bank.

(Prepared by Mitsubishi Economic Research Bureau)


Total Value of Exports and Imports of Manchoukuo
(1928-1937)

900

900

Mill.
My

1928 1929

1930

193 L

1932

1933

1934

1935

Mill. MY

Principal Articles Imported, 1937

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 _

1936 1937

150

200

Cotton Piece Goods
Iron & Steel
Machine & Tools- -
Vehicles & Vessels
Raw Cotton
Silk Goods _

Electrical Requisites---

Paper
Sugar

Marine Products
Chemicals&Pharmaceuticals|
Gunny Bags--------

Woolen Piece Goods---

Clothing, etc.-------

Timber & Wood-----

Principal Articles Exported, 1937

Soya Beans
Bean Cakes
Coal

Iron & Steel
Other Beans
Kaoliang
Sulphate of Ammonia
Peri 11a Oil
Maize

Raw Silk (wild)---

Peril la Seed------

Salt -

Mill. MY 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100


XXII

Value of Exports and Imports of Manchoukuo by Countries,

19331937. JMpORTS

r.. .. 1933

1935

1936

Gl. Bril,
Germany l<3*y thers 64

1937

Germany 1 7'

l China ^


Weights, Measures and Moneys

(JAPAN)

With English and French Equivalents

Ri=36 cho 2160 hen
Bi= (marine)
Ken=6 shaku = 60 sun
ShaJcu = 10 sun=100 bu
ShaJcu (cloth measure)
Tan (cloth measure)

Square ri = 1296 sq. cho
Cho = 10 tan=3000 tsubo
Tsubo or bu

Ko (Formosa )=2934 tsubo

Distance and Length

=2.4403 miles
= 1 knot
=5.965163 ft.
=0.994194 ft.
= 1.25 shalcu

= a roll of about 25 shahu

Land Measure

=5.95516 sq. miles
= 2.45064 acres
=3.95369 sq. yards

=3.92727 kilometres
= 1.85318 kilometres
= 1.81818 metres
=0.30303 metre

= 15.42345 kilometres catres
= 99.17355 ares
= 3.30579 centiares

Quantity, Capacity and Cubic Measures

Koku=l0
Go (10th of a sho)
Kohu (capacity of vessels)
Kohu (timber)
KoJcu (fish)
ShaJcujime (timber)
Taba (fagot, etc.)

Kwan (J£an)=1000 momme
Kin=160 momme
Momme = 10 fun

/ 4.96005 bushels
47.95389 gallons

(Liquid) U.S.A.
5.11902 bushels

(Dry) U.S.AJ

= 10th of a ton .
= about 1 cubic ft. x 10
=40 kwan (in weight)
= about 1 cubic ft. x 12
=about 3x6x6 ft.

= 1.80391 hectolitres

Weights

8.26733
10.04711

lbs.
lbs.

(Avoir)
(Troy)

)=3.75000 kilogrammes

-{

-{

0.13228 oz. (Avoir)
0.12057 oz. (Troy)

Money

j=3.75000 grammes

Yen (Y) =100 sew=1000 rin=(at par)

Revised rate : Dollar0.88C67 gram of gold,

f 2s. Od. 581 (England)
12.72265 francs (France)
2.0925 marks (Germany)
0.49846 dollars (U.S.A.)
V0.84459 dollars (U.S.A.)*


Japanese Year Dates

lst Year of Meiji...... ......1868 38th Year of Meiji
2nd ...... ......1869 39th
3rd ...... ......1870 40th
4th ...... ......1871 41st V f
5th ...... ...... 1872 42nd
6th ...... ...... 1873 43rd ,,
7th ...... 8th ...... 9th ...... ......1874 ...... 1875 ...... 1876 44th 45th ,, t *
10th ...... ......1877 lst Year of Taisho
11th ...... 1878 2nd
12th ...... ......1879 3rd *
13th ,, ...... ...... 1880 4th ff
14th ...... ......1881 5 th ft
15th ...... ...... 1882 6th
16th ...... ...... 1883 7th *>
17th ...... 1884 8th
18th ...... ...... 1885 9th
19th ,, ...... ...... 1886 10th >
20th ,, ...... ...... 1887 11th 1
21st ......1888 12th i r
22nd ' ......1889 13th j J
23rd ...... ......1890 14th
24th ,, ...... ...... 1891 15 th t f
25th ...... ...... 1892 lst Year of Showa
26th ,, ...... 1893 2nd 11
27th ...... ......1894 3rd i f
28th ,, ......- 1895 4th ,,
29th ...... 1896 5 th
30th ,, ...... ......1897 6th f t
31st ...... ...... 1898 7th M
32nd ,, ...... ......1899 8 th t*
33rd ,, ...... ......1900 9th tt
34th ,, ...... ......19.01 10th ,, , ,
35th ,, ,, ...... ...... 1902 11th 1 t
36th ...... ......1903 12th ,, 13th ,, 14th ,,
37th ,, ...... ......1904 tf y

Manchoukuo Year Dates

lst Year of Tatung............ 1932

2nd ............ 1933

?rdV * ...........'1 1934

lst Year of Kangteh...........>

2nd Year of Kangteh
3rd
4th
5th
6th


JAPAN

Geography

CHAPTER I

GEOGRAPHY

POSITION, TERRITORY, AREA, PHYSICAL FEATURES,
CLIMATE, FAUNA AND FLORA

Japan is situated in the east of the Continent
of Asia and in the west of the Northern Pacific
lying between 20 25' and 50 55' N. latitude
and 119 18' and 156 31' E. longtitude. The
territory comprised within this limit consists
of six large islands, i.e. Honshu, Shikoku, Kyu-
shu, Hokkaido, Taiwan (Formosa), Southern
Karafuto (Saghalien below 50 lat.) and the
Peninsula of Chosen (Korea), and about six
hundred smaller islands. Of these islands Sado,
Oki, Tsushima, Iki Awaji and the four archi-
pelagoes of Boko (Pescadores), Chishima
(Kuriles), Ogasawara (Benin) and Ryukyu
(Luchu) may deserve mention, all the rest be-
ing insignificant. Japan Proper consists of the
four large islands of Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu,
and Hokkaido, and is exclusive of Taiwan and
its adjoining islands, Karafuto- and Chosen.

After the Japan-China War (1894-1895) Japan
acquired Taiwan including the Pescadores, and

after the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) the
Southern half of Saghalien, and also obtained a
free hand in Korea, which she later annexed
and renamed it Chosen. The realm now covers
675,365 sq. kilometers.

Table 1. Japan's Position in Area
and Population

Population

Area
CI 000 sq. kms.) (1,000) Per sq. km.
Japan Proper . 382 70,500 185
Manchonkuo 1,303 35,338 27
China Proper . 4,848 413,205 85
British India . 4,684 374,200 80
United Kingdom 244 47,187 193
France ........ 551 41,910 76
Germany ...... 471 67,587 143
Italy .......... 310 42,677 138
U. S. S. R...... 21,176 175,500 8
U. S. A........ 7,839 128,840 16
Canada ........ 9,542 11,080 1

Table 2. Area of Japan

Japan Proper (incl. outlying islands).........

Honshu ( " " ).........

Shikoku ( " " ).........

Kyushu ( " " ).........

Hokkaido ( " " ).........

Ryukyu ( " " ).........

Taiwan (Formosa) ( " " ).........

Karafuto (Saghalien) (" " ).........

Chosen (Korea) ( " ).........

Total..................................

Kwantung Leased Territory ( ).........

Pacific Mandated Islands ...................

Note:All the outlying- islands having a coast line of
are included in the total area.

Inclusive of the Pacific Mandated Islands the
Empire stretches latitudinally for 5,643.81 kilo-
meters, the northernmost tip reaching to within
1,738.7 kilometers of the Arctic Circle, while
the southernmost of the Mandated Islands touches
the Equator. With the four main islands of

Area

Coast line
(Sq. kilometres) Percentage Ckilometres)
382,545.42 56.64 30,605.46
230,532.30 34.13 11,904.08
18,772.83 2.78 2,946.51
42,078.99 6.23 8,662.30
88,775.04 13.14 5,484.50
2,386.24 0.35 1,608.06
35,834.35 5.32 1,570.41
36,090.30 5.34 1,534.42
220,768.65 32.69 18,203.73
675,365.58 100.00 52,231.79
3,462.45 , 1,216.75
2,148.80 4,059.50
over 2 miles and also smaller islands that are inhabited

Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Hokkaido as a
nucleus, the cluster of islands divides into two
forks, northward and southward. One end of
the northern fork projects to Saghalien and the
other towards the Aleutians. The southern fork
spreads one arm towards Taiwan and the other


2

GEOGRAPHY

towards the Mariana, Marshall and Caroline
groups of islands.

Japan proper which occupies 56.64% of the
ar'ea of the whole Empire is smaller 'than
Sweden or Poland but is larger than England,
Italy or Norway.

PHYSICAL FEATURES

Mountains.The land is mountainous and
volcanic. The most conspicuous ranges are, in
the west and south, two branches of the Kwen-
lun system of China of which, the Chugoku
range, traverses Kyushu and finds its way into
the middle part of Honshu, while the other com-
ing from Shikoku also enters the middle of
Honshu. In the north there is the Saghalien
system which forms the ridges in Hokkaido and
northern Honshu. These ranges encounter at
the middle of Honshu, thereby producing up-
heavals popularly known among mountaineers
as the Japan Alps, and other prominent peaks
such as Fuji, Norikuradake, etc.

Many volcanoes occur in these ranges. The
Aso and Nasu volcanic chains form part res-
pectively of the branches of the Kwen-lun and
the Saghalien system, while the Fuji volcanic
range traverses the Seven Islands and Peninsula
of Izu and joins the two main systems at the
middle of Honshu, which in this part rise in
peaks of over 10,000 ft. in height. The Fuji
range divides Honshu into two main sections,
Southern Japan and Northern Japan.

The Nasu volcanic range and Chugoku range
part Honshu into what are called the Omote
Nihon (Outer Japan), or Pacific board and the
Ura Nihon (Inner Japan), or Japan Sea board,
these two presenting striking difference in
climate and other physical conditions as well
as civilization. The Kirishima volcanic range
occurs in the Luchu and Osumi Islands and
enters Kyushu while the Kuriles have also1 a
volcanic chain which stretches to Hokkaido.
Chosen and Taiwan have their own mountain
ranges and volcanic chains. In the latter there
are 48 peaks of above 10,000 ft.

There are in Japanese territory over 231
mountain peaks each measuring above 8,000 ft.,
of which the first 39, with" the single exception
of Mount Fu'ji, are in Taiwan. The following
are the principal peaks in Japan Proper, Taiwan
and Chosen:

Table 3. Principal Peaks in Japan Proper

Height

Locality (metres) Ofeet)

Suruga-Kai.........3,776 12,461

Kai ..................3,192 10,534

Shinano-Hida......3,190 10,527

do ......3,180 10,494

Suruga...............3,146 .10,352

Shinano-Suruga ..3,120 10,296

Suruga ...............3,084 10,177

Shinano-Hida......3,063 10,108

Shinano-Suruga .. 3,047 10.055

Shinano-Kai........ 3,033 10,009

Kai-Suruga.........3,026 9,936

Shinano-Hida......3,026 9,986

Etchu ...............3,015 9,950

Shinano-Suruga ...3,011 9,936

Etchyu ...............3,003 9,910

Taiwan

Niitaka (Mt. Morrison) ........3,950 13,035

Tsugitaka (Mt. Sylvia) ........3,884 12,743

Shukoran-san (Maborasu-san) ...3,833 12,649

Uramon-san ..................3,806 12,560

Tarakussha...................3,758 12,401

Nankodai-san .................3,740 12,270

Trop ........................3,712 12,250

Chuo Senzan .................3,703 12,149

Harihe .....................'.3,702 12,146

Kwan-san ....................3,667 12,101

Daisuikutsu-san ...............3,645 12,029

Chosen

Kanboho .....................2,541 8,3&5

Rivers.Due to the insular position and com-
plicated topography, rivers are comparatively
short and of rapid current. They are not navi-
gable for large sea-going vessels, but owing to
frequent rainfalls they sufficiently serve the
purpose of irrigation and hydraulic power.

Principal rivers are given below with their
length, drainage area, etc.

Name

Mt. Fuji............

Shirane-Kitadake

Hodakadake ......

Yarigadake ......

Akuzawa Higa-

shidake .........

Akaishidake ......

Oku-Nishi-Kawa-

chidake .........

Ontake...............

Shiomidake ......

Senjogatake ......

Nodoridake ......

Norikuradake ...

Tateyama .........

Hijiridake .........

Tsurugidake......

Table 4. Principal Rivers

Flowing into

Japan Sea

Name

/ Agano (Honshu) ...........

Go-no ...........

Ishikari (Hokkaido) .........

Mogami (Honshu) ..........

Jinzu " ..........

( Noshiro or Yoneshiro (Honshu)

Omono (Honshu) ...........

Rakuto (Chosen) ...........

Shinano (Honshu) ..........

Teshio (Hokkaido) ..........

k Tumen (Chosen) ...........

Length Drainage basin Navigable length*
miles kms. Sq. miles sq. kms. mi'es kms.
105 169 3,212 8,340 217 585
124 200 1,471 3,810 124 200
227 365 5,401 14,250
134 216 2,858 7,400 215 459
78 126 1,073 2,780 27 55
85 137 1,584 4,100 124 228
93 149 1,614 4,180 142 334
327 525 9,212 23,860 215 344
229 369 4,734 12,260 344 703
193 306 2,247 5,820 -
325 521 4,061 10,513 54 85


GEOGRAPHY

JAPAN

Geography-

Flowing into

Pacific Ocean

Inland Sea ....
Okhotsk Sea .

East China Sea.

Names
Abukuma (Honshu)
Arakawa "

Ki
Kiso

Kitakami "

Naka

Kumano "

Fuji

Tenryu "

Tokachi (Hokkaido)
Tone (Honshu) .
Yoshino (Shikoku)
Yodo (Honshu) ,
Tokoro (Hokkaido)

{Chikugo (Kyushu)

:

Dakusui (Taiwan)

( Daido (Chosen) ............ 273

Yellow Sea ----{ Kan

V Oryokko (Yalu)

* Including tributaries.

Length Dra'nage basin Navigable length-

miles kms. s .. kms. sq. km.' miles kms.
122 196 2,114 5,480 81 149
110 177 1,209 3,130 154 475
83 134 735 1,910 144 232
144 232 2,513 9,100 278 448
152 243 4.139 10,720 225 605
78 126 1,262 3,270 68 118
100 161 942 2,440 183 295
100 161 1,749 4,530 55 90
134 216 1,888 4,890 176 357
122 196 3,389 8,780
200 322 6,086 15,760 415 852
146 236 1,4-29 3,700 146 236
49 79 3,246 8,410 220 660
90 145 1,027 2,660
88 141 1,102 2,850 117 189
95 165
273 439 6,437 16,673 161 260
320 514 10,147 26,279 205 330
491 790 12,255 31,739 434 698

Lakes and Ponds.The are many of these in-
land water basins, adding much to the scenic
beauty of the country, though most of them
are small in size. They are generally of vol-
canic or seismic origin, or have been formed by
gradation. Among lakes of over 1.5 sq. miles
in circumference and lying at high altitude may
be mentioned Lake Chuzenji (1,271 m. above
sea level), Lake Yamanaka (982 m.), Lake Mo-
tosu (902 m.), Lake Kawaguchi (830 m.), Lake
Hibara (819 m.) and Lake Suwa (715 m.). As
regards depth, Lake Tazawa (425 m.), Lake
Towada (378 m.) and Lake Shikotsu (363 m.)
head the list.

The area and circumference of principal lakes
are as follows:

Table 5. Principal Lakes

Circum"
Area ference
Lakes Locality (sq. kms.) (kms,)
Biwa ...... 674.80 235.20
Hachiro-gata . .Akita ...... 223.29 80.63
Kasumigaura .Ibaraki ..... 189.17 150.42
Taraika . .Karafuto . 180.06 80.63
Tomnai . )f 168.18 90.90
Saroma 150.53 77.00
Inawashiro . . .Fukushima . 104.83 56.08
Nakanoumi . ..Shimane .... 101.60 95.83
Shinji ..... 83.13 50.50
Kutcharo ... .Hokkaido ... 79.89 56.52
Shikotsu 7) 76.18 40.98
Hamana 72.04 126.22
Doya ...... 69.60 42.85
Towada 59.58 46.20

Chuzenji in Nikko (23.35 sq. kms.), Ashi-no-ko
in Hakone (20.2 Sq. kms.), Suwa-ko in Shinano
(18.18 kms.) and Towada in Mutsu (59.58 sq.
kms.) are noted mountain lakes.

Plains.As might be expected from the hilly
nature of her topography Japan cannot boast of
large plains, and indeed land inclined 10 and
below does not exceed a quarter of the whole
area. But small alluvial plains are not scarce,
the valleys of larger rivers being especially fer-
tile. Of these the Kwanto plain, watered by
two large rivers, Tone and Arakawa, is most
important and contains Tokyo, Yokohama and
many other towns and cities, supporting alto-
gether over 10 miHioris of souls. The Nobi
plain consists of the valleys of the Kiso' and other
rivers and feeds over 2V2 million people, clu-
stered in Nagoya and other towns and cities.
Other plains in Honshu are the Kinai plain
with Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, etc. in it, containing
4% million people, and traversed by the Yodo
and other rivers; the Echigo plain traversed by
the Shinano and Agano rivers; the Sendai plain
watered by the Kitakami and the Abukuma.
Hokkaido has Ishikari and six other large plains.
The Tsukushi plain in Kyushu contains coal
fields, where 60 per cent, of the coal produced
in Japan is mined. In Chosen the valleys of the
Kan-go (River Han)> are reputed to be among
the most developed. Principal plains in Japan
Proper are as follows:

Table 6. Principal Plains

Noted towns

Name Watered by

Kwanto.....Tone, Ara, Tama, Naka & Sagami. .Tokyo, Yokohama, etc.

Nobi ..., .Kiso system (Ibi and Nagara)......Nagoya, Gifu, etc.....

Kinai.......Yodo ..........................Kyoto, Osaka & Kobe .

Echigo .....Shinano and Agano..............Niigata .............

Area Approximate No.
(sq. kms.) of inhabitants

13,000 11 millions
18,000 3
1,250 5
1,800 1% "


4

GEOGRAPHY

Name Watered by

Sendai......Kitakami and Abukuma .........

Ishikari .... Ishikari .......................

Tsukushi Chikugo.......................

Adjacent Seas.The East China Sea is shallow
except for the portion near Taiwan and the
Luchu, but the Sea of Japan is deeper, the
maximum being 1,880 fathoms. Great depres-
sions are found in the Pacific waters not far
from the coast. One of them, the Tuscarora
deep, discovered by the American steamer
Tuscarora in 1874, which extends for about 400
miles along the Chishima Islands (Kuriles) has
a maximum depth of 4,655 fathoms (8,514
metres), the Ryukyu deep being credited with
4,041 fathoms. The deepest sea-bottom in the
sea about Japan which had hitherto been be-
lieved to be the Tuscarora Deep has been ascer-
tained to be a spot lying about midway between
the Hachijo and Ogasawara (Bonin) islands, 30
49' N.L. and 142 18' E.L., where a maximum
depth of 9,435 metres was sounded by the war-
ship Manshu in October, 1926.

Ocean Currents.Warm and cold currents en-
counter in Japanese seas, which has a favour-
able effect upon the fishing and marine product
industries of the country. The great warm
current in the North Pacific, known as Kuro-
shio (Black or Japan Current), runs along the
southeastern shores of Taiwan and Japan Pro-
per to a point of about 85 6' N.L. where it
bifurcates and takes a northeasterly course. The
Tsushima Current which branches from the Kuro-
shio near the Luchu Is. passes through the
Straits of Tsushima and washes the Japan Sea
board of Honshu, finally reaching Saghalien.
The cold currents in the Japan Sea tare the
Liman Current which, after touching the con-
tinental shores, streams along the northeastern
coast of Chosen, and the Okhotsk Current in
the Okhotsk Sea. The Oyashio or Chishima
Current is also cold and washes the Pacific side
of the Kuriles, Hokkaido, and northeastern
Honshu. It meets one of the branches of the
Black Current off the Ojika Peninsula, where
there is a bank that furnishes a good fishing
ground.

Though visited by cold streams the Japanese
seas are ice-free, save in the extreme north of
the Korean waters where ice-breakers are neces-
sary in winter. Part of the Northern Pacific
north of Cape Erimo (Hokkaido) is also visited
by floating ice and ice-fields which are a menace
to navigation from January to April.

Tides.Tides register a very high range on
the Yellow Sea and East China Sea coasts,
reaching as much as 34-5 ft. at Jinsen (Che-

Area Approximate No.

Noted towns (sq. kms.) of inhabitants

Sendai ............... 1,500 1

Sapporo .............. 2,100 1/5 "

Kurume .............. 1,200 2

mulpo) in Chosen. In Japan Proper the highest
range is 18 ft. at the port of Miike in Kyushu.
The difference is 6-13 ft. in the Inland Sea,
6-9 ft. on the Pacific coast and 4-5 ft. on the
Okhotsk. The Japan Sea is one of the waters
with the smallest tidal range in the world, being
scarcely more than 2 ft. except at the Tsushima
Straits. At Naruto, one of the narrow straits
by which the Inland Sea communicates with the
Pacific, the tidal streams form eddies and whirl-
pools which present a unique sight.

Bays and Harbours.The Pacific coast is far
more diversified in outline than the Japan Sea
coast. The coast line of the former measures
in aggregate 10,310.3 miles against 2,818.6 miles
of the latter. In Honshu alone, the outer coast
measures 3,199.3 miles and the other only 1,588.6
miles. The eastern coast of northern Japan,
i.e., from Cape Shiriya to Cape Inubo outside
of Tokyo Bay, has only one continuous large
inlet, the Bay of Sendai and the Bay of Matsu-
shima embraced by the Ojika Peninsula, but
for about 146 miles north of Sendai it is rich
in smaller indentations and forms a Ria coast.
The southern coast of Honshu extending from
near Tokyo Bay to Cape Satta in Kyushu
abounds in large indentations and furnishes
several excellent anchorages. These inlets are
Tckyo Bay, the Gulf of Sagami, the Bay of
Atsumi, the Bay of Ise, the Straits of Kii and
the Gulf of Tosa.

The Inland Sea may practically be regarded
as one large inland basin being connected with
the outer sea by four very narrow straits, i.e.,
Shimonoseki, Hayatomo-, Yura and Naruto. It
is dotted with small islets and renowned for its
charming scenery.

The China Sea coast of Kyushu is much in-
dented, and over the sea are scattered the is-
lands of Goto, Hirado, Amakusa and Koshiki.
In the northwest the Nishisonogi, Nomo and
Shimabara peninsulas divide the coast into the
four bays of Omura, Nagasaki, Sasebo- and Miike.
The Bay of Kagoshima also may be mentioned,
for it contains the volcanic island of Sakurajima
on which there was an eruption in 1914.

The western part of the Japan Sea coast is
much zigzagged and between Chosen and Kyu-
shu there exists a narrow strait rather shallow
in depth. This strait is further divided into
three, i.e., Iki, East Tsushima and West Tsu-
shima channels, by the two islands of Iki and
Tsushima which lie in it. The West Tsushima


JAPAN

Geography-

GEOGRAPHY

channel is only 4,700 metres wide.

The monotonous nature of the Japan Sea coast
of Honshu is somewhat diversified by the pre-
sence, here and there, of lagoons formed by the
action of wind and wave. Nakanoumi Lagoon
is one of such depressions. The only note-
worthy indentation along the whole coast is
that forming the Gulf of Wakasa on which are
situated the secondary naval port of Maizuru,
and the harbours of Miyazu, Tsuruga, etc. One
interesting geographical feature is that owing
to the presence of the gulf the most constructed
neck of Honshu exists there.

Between the Gulf of Wakasa and Tsugaru
Promontory the curves formed by Noto and
Oga Peninsulas are worthy of mention, what-
ever other inlets there may be being insigni-
ficant and at best forming river ports of no
great value. The Oga Peninsula encloses the
Hachirogata, a lagoon with beautiful scenery.
The Gulf of Mutsu, in which lie Aomori and
Ominato, a secondary naval port, opens to the
Tsugaru Straits but the mouth is narrowed by
the Shimokita Peninsula. The Tsugaru Straits
separates Hokkaido from Honshu with a width
of only 20,000 metres and a maximum depth of
111 fathoms. It is well known as Blackston's
line.

The coast of Hokkaido and of Taiwan is not
much better off for anchorage. The former is
characterised by the presence of sand dunes
formed by strong wind and sediments brought
down by rivers. The Volcanic Bay and Oshima
Peninsula, Nemuro Bay and Ishikari Bay only
deserve mention. The coast of Taiwan presents
a sharp contrast in the eastern and western
shores, the former ending abruptly in deep
water and the latter terminating in shelving
bottom with shoals. The three large islands of
the Pescadores group enclose among themselves
an important anchorage. The Japan Sea coast
of Chosen is very monotonous, while the Yellow
Sea board is rich in indentations of which West
Chosen and Gunsan Bays are the largest, con-
taining Ryugampo (Yongampo), Jinsen (Che-
mulpo), Gunsan (Kunsan), Moppo and other
harbours. This part also abounds in islets. The
south coast of the Peninsula is not marked by

large zigags but has excellent anchorages, such
as Masan and Fusan.

CLIMATE -

Atmospheric Pressure and Wind.The climate
of Japan is chiefly governed by the prevalence
of monsoons, that is, the prevailing winds that
periodically change their directions about every
half year. During the warm seasons what is
called the summer monsoon prevails, its direc-
tion being generally south to southeasterly while
the winter monsoon that prevails during the
cold seasons is north to northeasterly in direc-
tion. From the latter part of September to
March a large area of high barometric pressure
covers the whole of Eastern Siberia, its centre
being the districts surrounding Lake Baikal. At
the same time an area of low pressure appears
over the northern Pacific, extending to the south
of the Aleutian Islands. This results in the pre-
valence of anticyclonic wind over the whole of
the Far East, its direction being west to- north-
west in Hokkaido, northwest in Japan Proper,
north in the Luchu Islands, and northeasterly in
Taiwan. One of the characteristics of the winter
monsoon is its marked constancy in strength. It
continues to blow for many days running, being
broken only by an occasional visitation of the
atmospheric disturbances called "cyclonic storm."
From the latter part of April to the end of
August what is known as the grand Pacific
high pressure occupies the central part of the
north Pacific Ocean, its western margin reach-
ing as far as the eastern coast of Japan. Then
in the Tibetan plateau there develops a great
low area with a secondary low area also develop-
ing over the Mongolian desert. Thus a system
of cyclonic circulations of air is established all
over the Far Eastern coast, and the air current
from the Pacific flows in into the Continent past
Japan and her neighbouring seas. This summer
monsoon, however, is generally variable in
strength and its duration is short.

Below are given the mean monthly barometric
reading at a few stations as reduced to the sea-
level and given nr mm. and a table showing the
mean direction of prevailing winds at principal
localities:

Table 7. Atmospheric Pressure (in mm.)

Fukuoka .
Kagoshima
Hiroshima
Osaka .
Nagoya ..
Kanazawa
Tokyo ...

(1936)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Ave.
66.1 65.1 6^.5 60.6 57.8 55.3 54.3 53.9 57.0 61.4 64.2 65.7 60.4
66.8 65.7 G '.5 61.9 59.2 56.3 56.4 56.2 59.1 63.2 65.8 66.7 61.8
66.2 65.0 63.8 61.5 59.2 56.6 56.9 56.3 58.4 62.2 65.1 66.1 61.4
66.2 65.3 64.4 62.0 59.4 56.6 56.8 56.6 59.3 63.2 65.7 66.1 61.8
65.2 64.4 63.9 61.9 59.4 56.8 57.0 56.9 59.3 62.8 65.0 65.1 61.5
64.3 63.5 63.3 61.9 59.5 57.0 57.2- 57.3 59.5 62.6 64.6 64.5 61.3
64.5 64.2 63.8 61.9 59.3 56.7 56.9 56.9 59.5 63.0 64.8 64.4 61.3
62.5 62.1 62.3 61.6 59.3 57.1 57.4 57.6 59.9 62.6 63.7 62.7 60.7


6

GEOGRAPHY

(Continuid) Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June ' July Aug. Sapt. Oct. Nov. Dec. Ave.
Niigata 63.5 63.3 63.4 62.0 59.5 56.9 57.1 57.2 59.8 63.1 64.4 63.5 61.1
Ishinomaki . 62.1 61.9 62,3 61.6 59.3 57.3 57.4 57.7 60.2 60.8 63.6 62.4 60.7
Hakodate . 61.1 61.1 61.3 60.8 58.8 56.9 57.0 57.6 60.0 62.3 62.5 61.1 60.0
Nemuro . 58.9 59.6 60.0 *0.2 58.8 57.8 57.7 58.4 60.6 61.7 60.8 58.7 59.4
Chichi jima
(Bonin) . 63.3 62.5 62.8 61.9 60.0 59.3 59.0 57.0 58.9 60.1 62.2 63.0 60.8
Table 8. Directions i of Prevailing Wind

Fukuoka.

Osaka ......

Nagoya ...
Kanazawa

Tokyo ......

Niigata ...

Nemuro

(1922-1936)

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec, Ave.
NE NE NE NE NE NE SE SE NE NE NE NE NE
NW NW NW NW NW NW SE SE NE NE NW NW NW
NW N W NW NW NW NE SW NE Nii NW NW NW NW
Nvv NW N V NW NW SW SW SW NE NE N NW NW
NW NW NW NW NW NW SW SW NE NE NW NW NW
NW NW N W NW SW SW SW SE NW NW/ NW NW NW
SW SW SW SW SW NE SW NE NE SE SE SW SW
NW NW NW NE SE SE SE SE NE NE NW NW NE
NIV NW NW SW SW SW SW SW SE SW SW NW NW
NW NW NW NW SE SE SE SE NE NW NW NW NW
NW NW NW SW SW SE SE SE SE NW NW NW NW
NW NW NW SW SW SE SE SE SE SW NW NW SW
NW NW SW SE SE SW SE SE SE SE NE NE SE

Cyclones and Typhoons.In speaking of winds
in Japan and her neighbourhood, it is necessary
to mention the violent rotatory storms called
cyclones and typhoons. The former are also
known by the name of Continental cyclones,
and belong to the same category as the European
rotatory storms. A cyclone is caused by the
intruding polar front of general circulation in
the higher latitude. These continental cyclones
are most frequent in winter and are very rare
in summer. The typhoon is of tropical origin

as hurricanes observed in the Gulf of Mexico
and the Atlantic and the cyclones visiting the
Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea. It is most
frequent from July to October, the severest oc-
curing usually in August and September. In
winter this kind of atmospheric disturbance is
rarely met with. Below is given the frequency
of both kinds of rotatory storms, the statistics
being quoted from Father Froc's well known
memoir "L'atmosphere en Extreme Orient":

Table 9. Number of Stormy Days

(Average of 1925-1936)

Jan. F^b. Mar, Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
Taihoku ..... 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 6
Fukuoka 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 7
Kagoshima , 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 7
Hiroshima .. 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4
Osaka ....... 3 2 2 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 3 15
Nagoya ..... 5 7 8 6 3 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 41
Kanazawa 8 4 5 3 2 1 0 0 1 1 3 7 36
Tokyo ....... 2 3 5 3 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 22
Niigata ...... 20 17 17 10 8 4 3 4 10 15 15 130
Ishinomaki . 4 4 7 5 2 1 0 1 1 1 3 4 33
Hakodate . 17 12 15 13 9 5 4 4 7 11 15 16 128
Nemuro . 12 6 8 10 7 3 3 3 5 9 13 13 92
Chichi jima
(Bonin) . 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 17

Air Temperature.In winter the cold is intense
in Japan Proper for its latitude, owing to the
cold air currents brought over from the Asiatic
Continent by the winter monsoon, while being
much milder than in the districts of the same
latitude in Manchuria, Siberia, etc. The climate
of Chosen (Korea) is more continental and colder

than that of Japan Proper, the territory form-
ing part of the Continent. In Japan Proper the
interior of Hokkaido is also marked by conti-
nentality of climate, the temperature once re-
corded in Asahigawa being as low as -14 C.

In the hot season the air tempera!are on land
being already high due to insolation, the effect


JAPAN

Geography

GEOGRAPHY 63

of the summer monsoon which prevails there is
chiefly shown in the close or sultry air owing
to the moisture borne from the sea. Summer
in Taiwan (Formosa) is most unbearable, be-
cause of the high temperature which lasts from
the daytime far into the night, though the
maximum is comparatively low. In Honshu and
other islands of Japan Proper, however, the
heat lessens in the morning and evening. In
Hokkaido it is as hot as in Honshu in the day-
time when tropical clothes are needful, but it
grows so cool before sunrise and after sunset,
that people are liable to catch cold. On the

coast of the Setonaikai, or the Inland Sea dis-
tricts, land and sea breezes are well developed
and consequently morning and evening calms
marking the pause of these breezes occur very
regularly. In the hours 7 to 9 p.m. during the
hot season, the air in these districts is as still
as dead, not a puff quivering the blades of
grass, and one feels as if shut up in a hot
house.

The appended tables show the monthly mean
air temperature and the daily mean maximum
and minimum temperature:

Table 1<
Jan. Feb.
Taihoku . 15.2 14.8
Fukuoka . . 4.9 5.1
Kagoshima . 7.0 7.4
Hiroshima . . 3.9 4.3
Osaka .... 4.2 4.4
Nagoya . . 3.0 3.7
Kanazawa . . 2.4 2.3
Tokyo ---- . 3.0 3.7
Niigata . 1.5 1.5
Ishinomaki . -0.4 0.2
Hakodate . . -2.9 -2.3
Nemuro1 . . -4.9 -5.5
Chichi jima
(Bonin) . . 17.5 17.4
Table 1
Jan. Feb.
Taihoku . . 19.0 18.5
Fukuoka . . 9.3 9.6
Kagoshima . . 11.9 12.3
Hiroshima . . 8.9 9.4
Osaka .... . 8.6 8.9
Nagoya . . 8.1 9.1
Kanazawa . . 5.9 6.1
Tokyo ., 8.3 8.7
Niigata 4.3 4.7
Ishinomaki . 3.3 4.1
Hakodate . . 0.4 1.2
Nemuro -1.9 -2.2
Chichi jima
(Bonin) . . 20.6 20.4
Table
Jan. Feb.
Taihoku . , 12.3 12.0
Fukuoka .. . 0.9 0.8
Kagoshima . . 2.5 2.9
Hiroshima . . -0.2 0.1
Osaka..... . 0.3 0.4
Nagoya -1.2 -0.9
Kanazawa . . -0.5 -0.9
Tokyo . -1.4 -0.7
Niigata . -1.2 -1.4
Ishinomaki . -3.9 -3.4
Hakodate . . -7.2 -6.9
Nemuro . -8.7 -9.6
Chichi jima
(Bonin) , . 14.4 14.1

Monthly Mean Temperature

(1936)

of Air (in C.)

Mar.
16.9
8.1
10.7
7.4
7.4
6.9
5.2
6.9
4.4
3.0
0.8
-2.4

Apr.
20.6

13.1

15.5
12.9

13.2
13.0
11.0

12.6
10.2

8.7
6.3

2.8

May

24.1

17.1
18.9

17.2
17.6

17.3

15.6

16.7

14.8
13.2

10.4
6.5

June
26.6
21.4

22.3

21.4
21.9

21.5
20.1
20.5
19.5
17.2
14.4

9.9

July
28.2
25.7
26.2

25.6
26.1

25.7

24.2

24.3

23.8
21.2
19.0
14.2

Aug.

27.9

26.4
26.8
26.8
27.3

26.5

25.6

25.7
25.6
23.2
21.5
17.2

Sept.
26.2
22.2

24.2
22.9

23.4
22.8

21.5
22.0
21.5

19.8

17.9

15.3

Oct.

22.9

16.3
18.9
16.7
17.1

16.4
15.4
16.0
15.3
13.7
11.9
10.7

Nov.

19.8
11.5
13.7
11.0

11.5

10.6
10.1
10.6

9.6
7.9

5.7
4.6

Dec.
16.8

7.1
9.0

6.2
6.7
5.4

5.2
5.4

4.3

2.4
-0.1
-1.3

Mean Daily Maximum

(1936)

Temperature of Air

Mar.
20.9
13.0
15.7
12.6
12.2
12.6
9.8
11.9
8.4
7.4
4.4
0.9

Apr.

24.9
18.4
20.3
18.1

18.3
18.6
16.2

17.4
14.9
13.1
10.7

6.7

May

28.5
22.7

23.6

22.4

22.7
23.0

20.7
21.2

19.5
17.3

14.8

10.6

June

31.5
26.2

26.3

25.7

26.4
26.4

24.6
24.6
23.6

20.8
18.4
13.8

July
33.2

30.1

30.2
29.8
30.5
30.5
28.5

28.3
27.7

24.5

22.6
18.1

Aug.

32.9
31.2
31.2

31.6

32.2

31.7

30.4
29.9
29.9

26.5

25.3
20.9

Sept.

30.9

27.3

28.7

27.8
28.1
27.7

26.4
26.0
25.7
23.4
22.2
18.7

Oct.

27.1
22.3

24.0
22.6
22.3
22.0
20.5
20.5
19.5

18.1
16.8

14.2

Nov.

23.8

17.0

19.1

16.9

16.7
16.5

14.8
15.7
13.5
12.4

9.7
7.9

Mar.
13.9

3.1
5.9
2.4
2.9
1.8

1.2
2.2
0.9

-0.8
-3.4
-6.2

Apr.

17.3
7.4
10.8
7.6
8.3
7.6
6.1
8.0
6.0

4.6

1.7
-0.5

May
20.6
11.5
14.4
12.0
12.8
12.1
10.8
12.3
10.8
9.3
5.9
2.9

June

22.9

17.1
18.8
17.3
18.0

17.2
16.0

17.0
16.0

14.1
10.7

6.6

July
24.3
22.2
22.8
22.0
22.6
21.8

20.5
21.0

20.6
18.5
15.7
11.0

Aug.

24.2
22.5

23.3
22.9

23.5

22.6
21.5

22.3
22.0

20.4
17.8
14.1

SePt.

22.7
18.3
20.6

18.8

19.6
18.9

17.7
18.7
17.9
16.6
13.2
J.2.1

Air
Oct.

19.8

10.7

14.6

11.8

12.7

11.8
11.4
12.3
11.7

9.7
6.3
6.9

Nov.
16.8
6.3

9.0

6.1

7.0
5.6

6.1
6.2
6.1
3.6
1.1
0.8

Dec.

13.9

2.7
4.3

1.8
2.5
0\9
1.9
0.8
1.3

-1.1
-4.1
-5.0

Ave.

21.7
14.9
16.7
14.7

15.1
14.4

13.2
13.9

12.7

10.8
8.6
5.6

18.2 20.5 22.7 25.5 27.2 27.3 26.9 25.5 22.7 19.5 22.6

Dec.

20.7
11.7
14.2
11.5
11.4

10.7

9.1

10.8

7.6
6.4

3.2

1.7

Ave.
26.0
19.9

21.5

19.8

19.9

19.7

17.8

18.6
16.6
14.8
12.5

9.1

21.5 23.8 25.8 28.7 31.0 30.7 30.4 28.8 25.8 22.4 25.8

12. Mean Daily Minimum Temperature of

(1936)

Ave.

18.4
10.3

12.5
10.2
10.9

9.9
9.3
9.9

9.2

7.3
4.2
2.0

15.1 17.7 20.1 22.8 24.2 24.7 24.3 22.9 20.0 16.6 19.7


8

GEOGRAPHY

Precipitation.During the cold season the
northwesterly monsoon that comes from the Conti-
nent blows across the Japan Sea, where it takes
up considerable quantities of moisture. This
inflowing air current strikes the coast and is
forced to ascend the slopes of the central moun-
tain ranges running almost parallel to the coast.
Due to the adiabatic cooling of this ascending
moist air a considerable quantity of precipitation,
especially in the form of snow, falls as long as
the wind continues blowing. In consequence,
during winter deep snow covers the ground in
the districts facing the Japan Sea, i.e. from
northern Kyushu to Hokkaido, especially the
region extending from Kanazawa to Otaru. In
the prefecture of Niigata, especially in the upper
valley of the River Shinano, 10 to 20 feet of
snow is the rule. In 1893 it measured 25 feet
in Aoyagi village, Nakakubiki-gun, in that pre-
fecture. The snowfall is also heavy in Hokkaido.
Once a depth of 13 feet was recorded in Ebishima
village, Ishikari province. In those snowy dis-
tricts the drifts reach the eaves, so that the in-
habitants make tunnels through them, or more
generally live in the upper storey rooms, the
street traffic being carried on the beaten track
over the snow. As a drift frequently piles up
to several feet in a single night, it baffles the
operation of the Russel plough and railway trains
are often held up for days. On the Pacific board,
which is separated from the Japan Sea coast by
the central mountain ranges, the northwesterly
monsoon blowing as a descending current, the
weather is mostly fair with the sky so clear
and serene that not a speck of cloud dots it.
Thus the winter weather along the Pacific and
that along the Japan Sea board with high

ridges in between, are characterized by almost
contrary phenomena. Only in the northeastern
districts where the central ranges are not so
high the loaded current from the Japan Sea is
borne over to the Pacific coast, so that the
region extending from Aomori to Sendai and
Koriyama is mostly covered with snow all
through the winter, though the district south of
these latter cities is free from the precipitation.

"Bai-u" or "Plum-rain."During the warm
season the situation is quite different! Besides
the general rainfall caused by the occasional
visitation of cyclones and typhoons, a long spell
of wet weather prevails from the second decade
of June to the first decade of July. The rainy
season is commonly known as "Bai-u" or
"Plum-rain", as it occurs when the plums are
getting ripe. This "Plum-rain" season begins
earlier in the lower latitude and progresses to
the higher latitude. Thus the Luchu Islands
have the rainy season in May, while in North
Chosen and Manchuria it occurs in July. The
characteristic of the "Bai-u" lies not so much
in the heaviness of rainfall as in the long spell
of drizzling. Heavy precipitation in a short
space of time mostly occurs with the visitation
of typhoons in August and September, when
torrential downpour of rain often causes the
rivers to swell and overflow their banks. It is
in these months that inundations and landslides
frequently paralyze the railway service. In short,
heavy precipitation takes place twice, in winter
and summer, on the Japan Sea coast, and once,
i.e. in summer, on the Pacific coast..

The following tables give the average month-
ly rainfall in mm. and the number of wet
days:

Table 13. Amount of Precipitation (in mm.)

(1936)

Jan. Feb.

Taihoku ..............88 137

Fukuoka ..................67 79

Kagoshima ..............80 98

Hiroshima ..............50 63

Osaka .....................45 58

Nagoya .............54 67

Kanazawa................272 188

Tokyo ......................52 73

Niigata ....................188 125

Ishinomaki ..............42 50

Hakodate ................66 60

Nemuro ..................37 27

Chichijima

(Bonin) ..............95 84

Mar.

184
107
155
105
96
113
168

109

110
74
67
56

Apr.
168
134
225
168
138
158
166
134
105
96
71
78

May
222
120
210
146
126
157
136
153

87
112

88

93

June

284
241
394
240
189
207
170
159
116
115

91

92

July

233
254
299
218
152
186
211

134
164
126

135
102

Aug.

303
139
189
107
110
167
164
151
123
121
134
109

Sept.

234
194
222
189
183
246
237
239
181
165
174
144

Oct.

119
95
124
106
127
157
208
200
163
129
119
104

Nov. Dec.

65
77
93
67
77

87
269
100
193

67
108

88

73
82
86
55
50
58
344
57
225
43
78
57

Total
2,110
1,588
2,175
1,513
1,348
1,658
2,533
1,559
1,779
1,140
1,186
986

111 128 209 130 91 153 146 156 150 133 1,585


JAPAN

Geography

GEOGRAPHY 65

Table 14. No. of Days With Precipitation

(1936)

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec, Total.
Taihoku ...... . 17 17 17 15 16 16 14 15 14 15 15 16 186
Fukuoka ...... . 16 14 15 14 12 15 14 12 15 11 12 16 165
Kagoshinia ... 14 13 16 15 14 18 16 15 14 11 11 13 168
Hiroshima..... 11 10 13 13 11 13 13 10 14 9 9 10 136
Osaka ........ 8 9 13 13 12 14 12 10 14 11 10 9 136
Nagoya ....... . 10 9 12 13 13 14 14 12 16 12 10 10 143
Kanazawa 27 23 21 16 14 15 15 12 17 18 21 26 223
Tokyo ........ 7 8 13 14 14 15 14 13 16 14 10 7 145
Niigata ....... ... 28 23 22 15 14 13 14 12 17 19 22 27 225
Ishinomald 11 11, 12 12 12 13 15 14 16 14 11 11 152
Hakodate ..... 21 18 18 12 13 13 14 13 16 15 19 21 195
Nemuro ...... 12 10 13 12 13 14 15 15 15 14 14 13 159
Chichi jima
(Bonin) . 17 15 15 15 17 13 13 17 17 18 17 17 192

Frost.The invasion of cold wind from the
Asiatic continent often causes killing frost, which
frequently inflicts heavy damage on young mul-
berry leaves, and hence to spring sericulture.
The following is the record of late frost in various
sericultural centres:

Table 15. Frost

Average

Taihoku ................Jan. 24

Kumamoto............Apr. 13

Kanazawa ...... " 16

Osaka.......... 8

Nagoya ........ " 14

Tokyo.......... 7

Matsumoto ..........May 12

Niigata ................Apr. 8

Hakodate ..............May 14

Sapporo ........ " 21

Fusan....................Mar. 28

Dairen ......... " 30

Table 16. Average Humidity (Percent)

(1936)

(taking saturation as 100)

As occure 1 last

Mar. 7, 1906
May 4, 1933
" 12, 1927
3, 1935
" 13, 1902
" 16, 1926
" 29, 1921
" 16, 1911
June 7, 1917
" 28, 1928
Apr. 25, 1917
" 22, 1915

Humidity.Due to her geographical position
the climate of Japan is very moist, and this
fact is responsible for the southerly wind in
summer that travels with the Black Current
and the northerly wind in winter which blows
with the Tsushima Current. For reasons al-
ready stated, Japan is one of the rainiest re-
gions in the world, the average record of rain-
fall ranging from 700 m.m. in Karafuto and
Northwestern Chosen, and 3,312 m.m. in Hachi-
jo Island off the Izu Peninsula. In Southern
and Northern Taiwan, the Luchu Is., and on the
southeastern and Japan Sea coasts of Japan
Proper, it is generally above 2,000 m.m. In the
middle part of the Inland Sea coast, the inland
basins in Nagano and other prefectures, the
gauge registers below 1,200 m.m. The Pacific
coast of Northern Japan has generally little
rain.

The following tables show the records of
average humidity and average precipitation taken
at principal observatories:

Past
Observatory Jan. Apr. July Oct. Ave. Min.-
Taihoku .... . 84 83 78 81 82 24
Kumamoto . . 77 76 82 78 78 18
Kanazawa . 79 73 81 79 77 19
. 71 72 77 76 74 16
Nagoya ..... . 75 72 79 78 76 21
Tokyo ...... . 63 73 83 79 74 7
Matsumoto . . 78 70 80 82 77 13
Niigata ..... 81 75 82 78 79 20
Hakodate . . 77 72 85 74 77 19
Sapporo .... . 80 72 84 80 79 8
51 67 83 64 66 5
Dairen ..... . 63 57 83 64 66 9

Table 17. Average Precipitation (mm.)

(1936)
Yearly Max.
Jan. Apr. July Oct. total per day
Taihoku . 88 168 233 119 2,110 359
Kumamoto. 59 116 302 100 1,785 298
Kanazawa. 272 166 211 208 2,533 179
Osaka .... 45 138 152 127 1,348 183
Nagoya . 54 158 186 157 1,658 240
Tokyo . 52 134 134 200 1,559 194
Matsumcto. 41 90 130 111 1,108 156
Niigata . 188 105 164 163 1,779 133
Hakodate . 66 71 135 119 1,186 147
Sapporo .. 86 57 89 114 1,050 124
Fusan 45 145 305 69 1,442 251
Dairen .. . 11 24 170 27 604 190

As a natural consequence of the heavy preci-
pitation of rain or snow, the number of sunny
days is comparatively small. Rain or snow claims
150 days on an average, the remaining 215 days
being fair. Thus Japan may approximately be
said to have, in a year, 4 sunny days for every
3 days of rain or snow. The Pescadores (94.5
days) and Kamo (245.3 days) are the two ex-
tremes. In Chosen and Western Taiwan wet
days do not exceed 120 while in Japan Proper
they seldom fall below the figures. The Japan
Sea board of Honshu and the Luchu, Bonin and


10

GEOGRAPHY

Kurile Islands have more than 200 wet days.
In the first-named region gloomy weather prevails
in winter months (Nov. to Feb.) and over 23
days of the month are rainy or snowy.

Japan has two wettest seasons, one from the
middle of June to the beginning of July, and
the other from the beginning of September to
October. The former called "bai-u" or tsu-yu"
as mentioned before is especially marked on the
Pacific coast of Southern Japan, due to the
appearance of low pressure areas in the Yangtze
valley of China wThich travels north-eastward.
It occasions a long spell of drizzling rain. The
latter is caused by the low atmospheric pres-
sure that originates from the South Seas and is
characterised by heavy precipitation.

Table 18. Average No. of Wet Days

(1936)
Observatory Jan. Apr. July Oct. Yearly to:al
Taihoku .. . 17 15 14 15 186
Kumamoto . . 12 14 16 10 153
Osaka ..... 8 13 12 11 136
Nagoya .... . 10 13 14 12 143
Tokyo ..... 7 14 14 14 145
Matsumoto . . 11 12 15 12 145
Kanazawa . 27 16 15 18 223
Niigata .... . 28 15 14 19 225
Hakodate . . 21 12 14 15 195
Sapporo .. . 21 13 13 17 196
Fusan ..... 6 10 14 7 105
Dairen .... 4 5 11 6 76

The Aerologlcal Observatory at Tateno-The

aerological observatory established in 1929 at
Tateno in Miyazaki prefecture (Kyushu) at the
cost of approximately ¥25,0;00, is the only one
of the kind in Japan. The observatory exchanges
communications as to daily meteorological pheno-
menon with the Central Meteorological Obser-
vatory (Tokyo) and the meteorological stations
at Kumagai (Saitama pref.), Nagano, Osaka,
Kobe, Hiroshima, Fukuoka, Jinsen (Chemulpo),
Heijo (Phongyang), Nawa (Luchu), Saipan
(South Sea Islands), and other places.

FAUNA AND FLORA

Japan is very rich in fauna and flora, for
three reasons, i.e. (1) the land is very much
elongated from north to south, (2) the coasts
are highly indented, and (3) there are many
high mountains. Species found in the northern
parts of Japan, i.e. Karafuto (Saghalien), Chi-
shima (Kuriles), and Hokkaido, and Chosen
(Korea) have much in common with those of
Manchuria, Siberia and Europe, while the
southern parts, i.e. Taiwan (Formosa), Ryukyu
(Luchu Islands) and Ogasawara (Bonin Islands)
compare with South China, Oceania and India.

Fauna

So far as is known at present, the approxi-
mate number of species of some principal ani-
mal groups is as follows:

Mammals, 270; Birds, 800; Reptiles, 110; Am-
phibians, 80; Fishes, 2,500; Insects, 10,500; Mol-
lusca, 4,000.

Land Faui>a

The land fauna of Japan may be divided into
two principal groups, one Palaearctic, and the
other Oriental. Of these, the Palaearctic ele-
ments are chiefly found in the northern terri-
tories, while the Oriental ones range over the
islands of Taiwan (Formosa) and Ryukyu
(Luchu). The Japanese archipelago may, there-
fore, be divided into the following faunal areas:

1. Palaearctic region: (a) Eurasian sub-re-
gion, consisting of the Kurile group and
Saghalien; (b) East Asian sub-region, in-
cluding Chosen (Korea) and Japan Proper,
the latter consisting of Honshu, Shikoku
and Kyushu.

2. Oriental region, comprising the islands of
Taiwan (Formosa) and Ryukyu (Luchu).

The Kurile Group.Of about 22 species of
animals known in this group, two appear to be
endemic and are spread over the two northern
sub-groups, namely, the Kurile field vole (Micro-
tus uchidae) and the Kurile mouse (Mus Kurilen-
sis). The birds observed in the islands are
much less in number than those of Hokkaido
and apparently less peculiar. This is also true
of reptiles and amphibians. There is & radical
difference between the sub-region of islands not
very far removed from each other. Beyond doubt,
the northern sub-group zoo-geographically be-
longs to Kamchatka, and the southern to Hok-
kaido. Of land snails, Zonitoides chishimanas
and Karaftohelix urupensis are the endemic
species, the former being the smallest species
of the land snails.

Karafuto (.Saghalien).Of about 30 species of
mammals known in the island, 13 are identical
with those of Amurland and these remain in
the island without making their way to Hok-
kaido. The long-tailed mouse (Sicista caudata)
is supposed to be the sole species in existence
found nowhere else. The Schrenck's fox (Vulpes
anadylensis schrencki) furnishes a very valuable
quality of fur, and this has led to the establish-
ment of breeding farms with imported foxes.

Some additional light may be thrown upon
this subject by the avifauna which is less rich,


JAPAN

Geography

GEOGRAPHY 11

having about 150 species, a majority of which
are almost or quite identical with those of the
adjacent land and islands.

Reptiles and amphibians are extremely scanty,
and only 6 species are known, of which Bufo
sachaliensis and Hynobius cristatus are consider-
ed as endemic.

Of butterflies about 74 species and sub-species
are found in the island, most of them being
representative of the forms limited, in distribu-
tion, to the north of the Soya Strait, such as
Melitoea maturna intermedia, Argynnis ama-
tluisia miyake, Lycctena karaftonis, etc. The
land snail, Karafutohelix fiscina, is common.

Hokkaido.In mammals, the island appears to
be less rich, having only about 25 species, of
which more than a half are related to those of
Saghalien and the Continent, either as identical
or allied species. Amongst them, the species
common to the districts just mentioned are
Pallas' ground squirrel (Eutamias asiaticus),
Siberian ermine (Mustella erminea kanei), sable
(Martes zibellina) and others, which are not
found in Honshu.

Turning to birds we find an enormous number
of species which are quite identical with, or
closely allied to, those found in Saghalien and
on the Continent. The species considered as
peculiar are Yeso-ptarmigan (Sittiparus varius,
Dryobates leucotos subcirris, Lynx torquilla hok-
kaidi, etc.).

With reptiles the case is different, because
the number of the species which may be con-
sidered as those with southern affinities appears
to exceed that of Eurasian types. Amphibians
are represented by Bufo vulgaris hokkaidoensis,
Rana temporalia and Hynobius retardatus, etc.

Passing on to the insect fauna, we find a large
number of species which also inhabit Saghalien
and Amurland. Of butterflies we have several
species of Eurasian character. Frequently to
be met with are such land snails as Acusta gai-
nesi, Eulota blakei, E. septentrionalis.

Chosen (Korea).In the Korean Peninsula the
fauna belongs decidedly to the Palaearctic re-
gion but with a small number of Oriental types.

Of mammals it possesses more than 50 spe-
cies, of which about a half are identical with
those found in China, Siberia and other adjacent
districts. The species and sub-species which are
considered as peculiar are numerous, comprising
the Korean hare (Lepus coreanus), Korean wolf
(Canis lupus coreanus), Korean red fox (Vulpes
peculiosus), Korean badger (Meles melanogenys),
tiger (Felis tigris coreansis), etc.

Of birds we are now acquainted with more
than 300 species and sub-species, of which the
majority are almost or quite identical with those
of the Continent. Recorded from the peninsula
are about 16 species of reptiles, most of which
are not discovered in Japan Proper. Coming to
amphibians we find many species which are
known to occur on the adjacent mainland.
Characteristic species are Cacopoides tornieri,
Rana temporaria koreana, Hynobius leechiif etc.
Dwelling in the peninsula is found a large number
of butterflies, most of which also inhabit the
immediately surrounding countries. Intermingled
with them are seen such Oriental types as
Papilio protenor demetrius, Hestina assimilis,
etc.

Freshwater bivalves are represented by Cris-
taria parvula, Anodonta woodiana, etc., and the
land snails by Strobilops hirasei, Eulota orien-
talis and others.

Japan Proper.The majority of animals in this
region are related to those of the two Palaearctic
sub-regions, though a small number are of an
Oriental character.

Of mammals there are more than 60 species
which are invariably confined to the south of
the Tsugaru Strait. Recently specified as "pro-
tected" is the racoon dog (Nyctereutes viver-
rinus) which, with other species of this genus,
is the most typical representative of the animals
characteristic of the East Asian sub-region. The
birds ascertained to inhabit the islands reach an
enormous number, a part of them being repre-
sented by forms widely distributed in China and
Korea. The number of species and sub-species
which appear to be peculiar are 6 in Kyushu and
17 in Honshu. One of the most notable species
is the Japanese ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus
japonicus) with habitat in the Japan Alps at
the snow line. Recently specified as "natural
monuments'' or "protected" are some birds, which
comprise, besides the Japanese ptarmigan, the
cranes (Megalornis monachusy Pseudogeranus
vipio, Sarcogeranus leucogeranus, Anthropoides
virgo, etc.), the Japanese stork (Ciconia ciconia
boyciana), black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris),
swans (Cygnus cygnus), long-tailed fowl, the
Chinese magpie (Pica pica sesicae) and the
Japanese shearwater (Puffinus leucomelas).

Reptiles represent about 13 species, most of
them being related to those of Chosen and chiefly
inhabiting the southern region. The endemic
species are Achalinus spinalis, Dinodon orientale,
Amyda japonica, etc. We are acquainted with
about 13 species of frogs and toads which, with
the exception of an Oriental type, seem to be


12

GEOGRAPHY

of a Palaearctic character. The urodeles, the
majority of which are considered as peculiar,
are represented by Hynobius nebidosus, H.
stejnegeri, Onychodaetylus japonicus, etc. Most
noteworthy is the giant salamander (Megalo-
batrachus japonicus) which inhabits the cool
mountain streams of provinces in Honshu and
Kyushu. Intermingled here are found a large
number of insects which are of three different
characters, Eurasian, East Asian and Oriental.
The so-called alpine species inhabit the high
mountain districts of central Honshu, these be-
ing represented by Aporia hippia japonica,
Erebia Ligea takanonis, Oeneis jutta japonica,
etc. The mollusca are very abundant and
varied. The freshwater bivalves and land snails
of the endemic species very frequently met with
are Hyliopsis schlegeri, Cristaria spatiosa, Mar-
garitana margaritifera, etc., and Eid'ota senken-
bergiana, E. quaesita, Megalophaedusa martensi,
etc.

Taiwan (Formosa).The mammals so far dis-
covered are more than 60 in number, while the
species which appear to be peculiar to the is-
land number 45, the majority of them being
considered only varieties of the species found
in the Oriental and Palaearctic regions. The
species not found anywhere outside of the is-
land are Formosa flying fox (Pleropus for-
mosus), Formosa macaque (Paradoxuris lar-
vatus), etc. The squamata are represented by a
single ant-eater {Mants pentadactyla).

Of birds we find more than 330 species and
sub-species, of which 33 are common to the is-
land, China and the Philippines, and about 87
belong to peculiar forms. One of the most
notable species is the Mikado pheasant (Neo-
calophasis mikado) which lives in the central
and eastern mountainous parts, 6,000-9,000 feet
above the sea level. More than 65 species of
reptiles and amphibians are known to inhabit
the island, and very frequently to be met with
is Trimeresurus gramineus, a poisonous snake,
which is of an almoso uniform green colour and
widely distributed in tropical districts.

The insect fauna is exceedingly rich and var-
ied. We are acquainted with about 319 forms
of butterflies, most of which are known from
the tropical countries.

Of freshwater bivalves and land snails we
find such species as Corbicula maxima, C. fid-
menea and Dolicheidota formosensis, Formosana
taiwanica, Tortaxis matsudai, etc.

The Ryukyu (Luchu) Group.The animal
forms of this group are of two different char-
acters, Oriental and Palaearctic, the former types
considerably exceeding the latter in number.

About 36 species of mammals have been recorded,
the most notable being Ishigaki great leaf-nosed
bat (Hipposideros turpis) in the Ishigakishima
sub-group and Amami hare (Pentalagus furnessi)
in the Amami-Oshima.

Of birds, the species which appear to be
peculiar number 11 in the Sakishima, 6 in the
Okinawa and 8 in the Amami-Oshima sub-group.
The most notable species are Pryer's wood-pecker
(Sapheopipo moguchii), Lidth's jay (Lalocitta
lidthi), the latter furnishing beautiful feathers
for ladies' hats and now specified as "protected."
The reptilian fauna is very rich, having 30
species, of which one-third is the same as those
found in the Oriental region, and the rest are
those not found elsewhere. About 15 species of
amphibians are known, characteristic forms being
Bombina holsti, Rhacojihomis oivstoni, Babina
subaspersa, etc. The land snails are rich,
peculiar ones being Cyclophorus hirasei, Japonia
barbata, Ganesella largillierti adelinae, and many
species of Luchuphaedusa.

The Ogasawara (Bonin) Group.This oceanic
island group, together with the Sulphur group,
shows tropical features in its fauna. The most
remarkable of mammals is Bonin flying fox
(Pteropus pselaphori) which flourishes here. One
of the most notable features of the fauna of this
island group is the fair abundance of birds.
The endemic species in the group are Horornis
cantans diphone, Bonin-island Bulbul (Micros-
celis amaurotis squamiceps), etc., and those in
the Sulphur group, Sulphur-island white eye

{Zosterops palphebrosa alani), Sulphur-island
crake (Poliolimnas cinereus brevipes), etc.
Cryptobrepharus boutonii is the only one repre-
sentative of reptiles found in the Bonins. The
endemic genera of mollusca are of Hirasea,
Mandarina, Otesia, Fametesta, etc.

Marine Fauna

Japanese waters command a very rich and
varied marine fauna, there being found two
types Northern region.

1. Northern Zone.It extends from the shore
of the Kurile group to the north of Kinkasan.
Amongst the carnivorous mammals the sea-otter
(Enhydra lutris) is confined to the north of
Hokkaido, while the Stellar's sea-lion (Eumeto-
pias jubata) and several seals (Phaco vitidinat
etc.) frequent the more southern waters. The
northern fur-seal (Callorhynus ursinus) which is
of economic importance particularly abounds in
Kaihyo-to. We find three whalebone whale3,
such as the southern right whale {Balaena yla*


JAPAN

Geography

GEOGRAPHY 13

cialis), Arctic right whale (Balaena viysticetus)
and Calif ornian gray whale (Rhachianectus
galucus). Around the Kuriles, Hokkaido and
Saghalien are found in immense quantity a
great variety of fishes such as cods, salmon
and herrings, which are of the same greatest
economic importance as in Norway, Scotland
and other countries. Much less developed here
than in the tropics are a number of echino-
derms. Amongst sea-cucumbers, Sticopus jct-
ponicus and Cucumciria japonica are of great
economic value in this country. In the sea
ranging from the Behring Sea to the Japan Sea
occurs Paralithodes ccimtschatica which attains
a very large size and is of great economic im-
portance. A large number of mollusca are also
known from this district, the most valuable
species being Ostrea gigas, Maetra scichalinensis,
Pecten yessoensis, Ommastrephes sloani pacificus,
etc.

2. Middle Zone.Most of the types characte-
ristically Japanese belong to this zone. Some
whalebone whales may be recorded which are
of great economic importance. As principal
species of fishes, the abundance of which dis-
tinguishes this zone from the others, may be
counted Cynias manazo, Hyporhamphns sajori,
Apogan semilineatas, Halichoeres poecilopterus,
etc. Echinoderms are plentiful, and consist of
a number of interesting species.

Of crustaceans, the most notable is the giant
crab Macrocheira kaempferi, which attains more
than 3 meters in the extent of legs. Beside we
find Tachypleus tridentatus in the inland sea
of Seto and Ariake Sea. In the depth of the
Tosa, the Kii and the Sagami Seas occur three
species of Pleurotomaria which are of great in-
terest on account of their representing a relic
of the geological period. One of the notable
cephalopods is an oegopsid, Watasenia scintillans,
which emits luminosity. It appears abundantly
in Toyama Bay, about May every year. Also
in the deeper parts of the Pacific side, there ara
found Hyalonema, Euplectella, Rhabdocalyptus
and other silicious sponges.

3. Southern Zone.Exclusive of the hair-seal
(Zalophus lobatus), occasionally appearing in
this zone, there can be seen a few species of
whalebone whales and toothed whales. Of fishes
we*find a number of forms which are all of
great economic importance, and some forms are
found to extend northward up to the middle
zone. We also find a large number of species
of mollusca, e.g. Terabra, Conus, Cyprea, Strom-
bus, Tridaena Hippopus, Pteria and others.

Noted Specialists.c. Ishikawa, D. Sci., (d.
1935) A. Oka, D. Sci. (for Hirudinae), N. Yatsu,

D. Sci., S. Hatai, D. Sci., C. Sasaki, D. Sci.,
(Entomologist), M. Matsumura, D. S., (Entomo-
logist), T. Komai, T. Kawamura, D. Sci., H.
Oshima, D. Sci., (for Echinoderms), S. Uchida
(Ornithologist), H. Kishida (for mammals).

Principal Societies and Publishing Organs.
Zoological Magazine (in Japanese); Annotations
Zoologicae Japonensis (in foreign language) is-
sued by Zoological Society of Japan (Tokyo);
Insecta Matsumurana (Sapporo); The Magazine
of Applied Zoology (in Japanese) (Tokyo); An-
notations Ornithologicae Orientalist (Tokyo);
Bulletin of the Bio-geographical Society of Japan
issued by Bio-geographical Society of Japan
(Tokyo) ; Japanese Journal of Zoology (Tokyo);
Tori or "Birds" (in Japanese) (Tokyo); The
Venus (in Japanese) by Malucological Society
of Japan (Kyoto); Folia Anatomica Japonica
(Tokyo); Zephyrus (in Japanese) issued by
Chorui Doko'kwai (Fukuoka); Konchu or "In-
sects" (in Japanese) issued by Tokyo Entomo-
logical Society (Tokyo).

Flora

Owing to the peculiar topographical condition,
the flora of the Japanese Empire consists of
several distinct groups, and at present nearly
10,000 flowering plants and ferns are known,
with possibility of new additions through fur-
ther study. In point of fact no small number
of new genera have already been established by
Japanese botanists, and of these may be men-
tioned Taiwania, Hayata (Conifer), Chosenia,
Nakai (Salicaceae), Hanabusaya, Nakai (Cam-
pannplaceae), Mitrastemon, Makino (Rafflesia-
ceae), Hakonechloa, Makino (Gramineae), Matsu-
murella, Makino (Labiatae), etc., etc. The name
of Dr. T. Makino and Dr. T. Nakai stand out
prominent as discoverers, the latter as specialist
in Korean flora having enriched it with 190
genera and some 440 species and varieties, while
the former, who chiefly devoted himself to the
main island, is responsible for some new genera
and several hundreds of new species.

In 1929 a remarkable genera Japanolilion was
established by Dr. T. Nakai, represented only
by J. Osense found at Ose in Nikko. It is a
small preinal weed. Another striking discovery
is that of two new species belonging to family
Podostemonaceae in Kyushu by S. Imamura.
None of this family had been found in Japan
up to this discovery in 1927. Many new lichens
both new to Japan and to science are enriching
the lichen flora through Dr. Asahina's dis-
coveries. Japan is rich in bamboos with over


14

GEOGRAPHY

60 species and a number of new species still
coming to the light, most of them belonging to
new genera which are indigenous to Japan.
Merit in this direction is due to Dr. T. Makino.

So far as known the flora of Japan consists of
about 17,087 species classified as follows:

Table 19. Flora Species

Flowering plants .......About 9,000 species

Ferns.........t........

Moss and Hepatic.......

Mushrooms.............

Lichens ................

Sea-weeds (marine algae).

Fresh-water algae ......

Slime molds (Mycetozoa).

Speaking of some common familiar plants there
grow in Japan some 130 species and varieties
of violets, according to Dr. T. Nakai. About 30
species of primroses are known to grow in the
alpine districts. Primula Sieboldii is growing
wild even near Tokyo and is "protected." P.
japonica was introduced into England as early as
1863 and was called "Queen of Primrose" by
Robert Fortune.

Trees and shrubs number over 600 species.
To mention those that are noted for ornament,
or use, or both, there are Japanese mountain
cherries growing wild everywhere, of which
Primus serrata var. spontanea is most common.
In high altitude arc found P. nipponica, P.
Maximoviczii, P. incisa, etc., the last mentioned
growing abundantly at the foot of Mt. Fuji and
flowering in May. Of conifers we have Cryp-
tomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa,
two of the most important timber and orna-
mental trees; then among the Pinus may be
mentioned P. Thunbergii and P. densiflora. The
quercus family is represented by nine important
species, while of Rhododendron (Azalea) Japan
boasts about 50 species with garden varieties
numbering several hundreds. R. Komiyamae is
a new addition recently found near Mt. Fuji.
An interesting species belonging to this family
is Teusiophyllum Tanakae, Maximovicz that
grows on mountain rocks at some limited locali-

ties in Middle Japan; it is a dwarfish tree with
scaly green leaves and white tubeshaped flowers.
As regards willows our salicologists say that
the final enumeration as of existing species
should be reserved for the future, but so far
some sixty species have been identified. Bamboos
are counted by over 50 species in Japan Proper,
exclusive of numerous garden varieties.

Timber trees extant number over 100, but
those that are valuable for wood do not exceed
thirty species or so (Vide Chapter on Forestry).

Ornamental plants, wild or cultivated, couitf
about one hundred, according to the list pre-
pared by the Garden Committee of the Meiji
Shrine erected in Tokyo in 1920. The list in-
cludes 34 evergreen trees, 41 deciduous trees,
7 evergreen and 9 deciduous shrubs, and 10
herbs.

Special plants were first placed under pro-
tection of law in 1920, and 137 are now on the
list.

No?:ed Specialists.In Systematic botany there
is a long list of distinguished men, as Dr. J.
Matsumura, Dr. T. Makino, Dr. Yabe (noted
for his South Manchuria and North China flo-
ra), Dr. B. Hayata (for Formosan flora), Dr.
T. Nakai (for Korean and Japanese flora), Dr.
Y. Kudo (for Hokkaido flora), Dr. K. Miyabe
(for Hokkaido and South Saghalien flora), Dr.
M. Honda (for grasses), Dr. K. Okamura
(specializing in marine algae), Dr. S. Okamura,
Y. Horikawa (in mosses and liverwort), Dr. S.
Kawamura (fungi), Drs. R. Nakazawa and K.
Saito (yeasts), Mr. K. Minakata (slime molds),
Dr. Y. Asahina (lichens). (Dr. J. Matsumura
died in 1923 and Dr. B. Hayata in 1934).

Pathology is represented by Drs. K. Miyabe,
K. Shirai, and M. Hori; Phylogeny by Dr. S.
Ikeno; Cytology and Anatomy by Dr. K. Fujii,
Dr. Y. Kuwata, etc.; Physiology by Drs. K.
Shibata, H. Kooriba, H. Hattori and S. Kusano.

Publishing Organs.Publishing organs consist
of the Imperial University Bulletin, the Tokyo
Botanical Magazine, the Japanese Journal of
Bctfany by Dr. Fujii, and the Journal of Japanese
Botany, the last named edited by Dr. T. Makino,

700
2,000
3,500
700
691
323

References:

Table Nos.: la, 2 b, 3 c, 4 c, 5 c, 6 c, 7 c, 8 c, 9 c, 10 c, 11c, 12 c, 13 c, 14 c 15 c'16 c

17 c, 18 c, 19 d. '

Key: aStatistical Year Book of the League of Nations,
bResearches of the Statistics Bureau of Cabinet,
cOfficial Statistical Annual of Physics,
dResearches of the Tokyo Botanical Garden.


JAPAN

History

CHAPTER II

OUTLINE OF HISTORY

I. ANCIENT TIMES

Mythical Period.The "age of gods" preceding
the accession of the first Emperor Jimmu Tenno
is, like the corresponding period in Greek
history, made up of strange tales of the gods
and demi-gods. In this age flourished the Sun-
Goddess, or Amaterasu O-mikami, enshrined in
the Great Shrine of Ise, her brother the im-
petuous Susanoo-no-Mikoto to whom the Great
Shrine of Izumo is dedicated, and all the host
of "milliard deities."

Legendary Period--From the accession of the

Emperor Jimmu Tenno (660 B.C.) to about the
reign of Yuryaku Tenno (456-479 A.D.), the
Imperial House was chiefly employed, according
to the time-honoured legends and traditions, in
subjugating the northeastern region still held
by the earlier inhabitants, namely the Ainus,
and Kyushu which was probably in close touch
with the ancient kingdoms in the Korean
Peninsula. In the dim light of this prehistoric
period move such heroic figures as Yamatotake-
runo-Mikoto who was sent to subjugate the
regions in the north and the south, while the
name of the Empress Jingo (201-269 A.D.) stands
conspicuous as the conqueror of the hostile
Korean kingdoms. Her grand counsellor, Take-
nouchi-no-Sukune, is a Japanese Methuselah,
being recorded to have attained the age of 300.

Period of Foundation (532709 A.D.)

Introduction of Buddhism.We begin to tread
on surer ground from the reign of Kimmei Tenno
(539-571 A.D.) when, with the introduction of
Buddhism and Chinese classics through Korea,
Japan gradually advanced towards civilization
through contact with the more enlightened Korea,
and through her with China. The arrival of
this exotic religion occasioned a fierce internal
discord between the rival clans of the Moriya
and the Soga, and the latter, which was in favour
of adopting it, came out triumphant. The Soga
family assumed the real power of the country,
assassinated an Emperor who was unfriendly to
them, and through their encouragement and
that of Prince Shotoku, Buddhism spread both
the Court and among the masses. This
caused a marked rise of Japanese art, principally
of a religious character, especially in the reign
ot Empress Suiko (592-628 A.D.), the first female
monarch in Japan. The Horyuji temple in
* amato, built more than 1300 years ago is one

of the temples erected at that time. In 607 A.IX
Japan first sent an embassy to China, then
under the Tung dynasty. The arrogance of the
Soga family invited their downfall in the reign
of Tenchi Tenno (661-671), who, before acces-
sion to the Throne, had headed the faction that
destroyed the family. The Court then recovered
itys supreme authority. Meanwhile Yezo (present
Hokkaido) was subdued and the victorious arm
was even extended to northern Manchuria. On
the other hand, Japan lost the suzerainty over
Korea. The reign of Kotoku Tenno (645-654),
the predecessor of Tenchi, is remarkable for hav-
ing thoroughly remodelled the administrative
system on that of China, and introduced th
Chinese custom "year name."

Nara Period (710793 A.D.)

Gemmyo Tenno (707-715), the 5th Em*
press, removed the seat of the Court, which
had been shifting its seat from one place
to another, to Nara, where for about seventy
years art and culture burst into splendour seldom
equalled in some respects, as may be judged
from the treasures, over 300 articles in all,
kept in the storehouse of the Shoso-in Temple
at Nara, and comprising the articles that were
used by Shomu Tenno (724-749) and pre-
sented to the temple after his death in 756. The
first Japanese book extant "Kojiki", and first
Japanese anthology, "Man-nyo-Shu," were the
production of the Nara Period (710-793). Budd-
feism retained its greater influence over the
Court to such an extent that an infatuated
Empress Koken Tenno (749-758) even con-
templated elevating her favourite monk Dokyo
to the Throne, though from this fate Japan was
saved by the fearless opposition of Wake-no
Kiyomaro.

Heian Period (7941191 A.D.)

Court of Kyoto.Established as the Imperial
Capital in 794 A.D. Kyoto was the centre ort
power and culture for about 400 years till 1192
when Minamoto-Yoritomo established at Kama-
kura the Shogunate government, and reduced the
position of the Imperial city to one of nominal
importance. Meanwhile the actual power at the
Imperial Court had passed to the ministerial
family of Fujiwara which was founded by Ka' tari, Tenchi Tenno's righthand man in the plot

against the Soga family. Art and literature
made a striking development. The Court gave
itself up to the refined amusement, leaving the


16

OUTLINE OF HISTORY

sterner duty of maintaining peace to warrior
classes, of which the Taira or Heike, and the
Minamoto or Genji family came to the front.
The period witnessed the invention of the "kana"
scripts, an innovation of immense educational
importance as it helped the spread of learning
among the people, and made possible the appear-
ance of such classics as "Genji Monogatari" by
Murasaki-Shikibu, "Makura-no-Soshi" by Sei-
Shonagon, "Eiga-Monogatari" by Akazome-Emon,
and others, all maids of honour. Kino-Tsurayuki
who compiled another anthology "Kokin-Shu"
furnished a model of the mixed style of Chinese
characters and "kana" in his classic diary "Tosa-
Nikki." The custom of sending students to
China for study had already been discontinued.

The effeminacy of the ruling class at the
Court was followed by the rise of the military
family of the Heike which overthrew their rival
the Genji and assumed the administrative au-
thority as successors to the Fujiwaras. It proved
a very short ascendency of only about 20 years,
for living amidst the enervating atmosphere of
Kyoto the original warlike spirit was soon sap-
ped, and the Heike fell an easy prey to the
fierce attack of the rough and rude followers of
the Genji who had been watching their oppor-
tunity in the provinces. The battles fought
between the rival armies near Kobe, Yashima
and Dannoura, furnish romantic chapters in the
history of Japan.

Kamakura Period (11851333 A.D.)

Yoritomo brought the whole of Japan under
complete subjugation, not sparing even his own
brother Yoshitsune who had destroyed the Heike
clan. Around Kamakura grew up culture of a
severer type agreeable to the simpler taste of the
warrior classes. The power soon passed to the
Ho jo family from which came the wife of Yori-
tomo, and for about a century this humbler
family wielded the supreme authority as Shik-
ken, or Regents, to the boy Shoguns selected
from among children of courtiers at Kyoto, and
ruled the country in peace and prosperity. The
era is memorable for the arrival first in 1274
and next in 1281 of the Mongol armada, which
was, however, annihilated with the help of
the "divine wind" or typhoon in modern par-
lance.

The Imperial Court that had long been chaf-
ing under the humiliating treatment of military
rulers repeatedly attempted to recover its legi-
timate authority, and an abortive rising in 1221
resulted in the wholesale exile of the three retired
Emperors. A similar attempt by Godaigo Tenno
(1318-1339) fared no better at first, but by this

time the maladministration of the Hojo had very
much alienated public support. Kusunoki- Masa-
shige first raised the anti-Hojo banner near Kyoto
and he was followed by Nitta-Yoshirada, and
lastly Ashikaga-Takauji. Kamakura was sacked
and taken by Nitta, and the Hojo regency ceased
to exist. Emperor Godaigo, who had been exiled
to Oki, reascended the Throne and the restoration
of the Imperial power was consummated, but only
for a short while. The courtiers and favourites
claimed the lion's share in the distribution of the
vast domains hitherto held by the Hojos, and
there was only a little left to be given to those
generals and their followers who at the cost
of their lives and blood pulled down the Hojos.
Takauji read the signs of the times, raised the
banner of rebellion at Kamakura and set up
one of the Imperial princes as his own Emperor.
For half a century Japan had two Imperial
Courts, the Southern Court, which was supported
by the followers of the unfortunate Godaigo
Tenno, and the Northern Court backed by the
Ashikagas. Kusunoki, Nitta, Kitabatake, and
others who remained faijthful to the Southern
Court were killed in one battle after another till
the rival courts were fused in 1392 in the reign
of Emperor Gokameyama.

Muromachi Period (13381602 A.D.)

Ashik&ga Shogunate (1338-1573).1The rule of
the Ashikaga shogunate established at Kyoto was
never a strong one and the powerful barons in
the provinces were practically left a free hand.
As regards matters of taste and refinement,
however, this period made a very valuable con-
tribution to the history of civilization in Japan.
Thus it was in the days of the 8th Shogun
Ashikaga Yoshimasa (1435-90) that the art of
tea ceremonial, the lyric drama called "No" and
other arts were originated in this country. The
period is also memorable for having revived
trade with China, then under the Ming dynasty,
and witnessed the visit of many Japanese artists
to and learned priests from the opposite shores.
Japaiiese freebooters also ventured out in their
frail craft and spread terror along the coast of
Korea and China. The arrival of the first
Portuguese ship in 1543, of the Spaniards not
long after, and of Francis Xavier, a Jesuit mis-
sionary in 1549 are noteworthy incidents in the
history of the Empire.

For more than a century, from about the
middle of the 15th century, a state of anarchy
prevailed, the shogunate having completely lost
its prestige. By force of arms and by crafty
schemes all the ambitious barons were bent on
annexing the domains of weaker neighbours.
One of them, Oda-Nobunaga, of Owari, succeed-
ed in subjugating all the neighbourhood, and the


JAPAN

History

OUTLINE OF HISTORY 17

way to Kyoto thus cleared, he was able to
advance to the Imperial Capital, which must
have been left in a state of utter desolation in
consequence of repeated battles fought in and
about it. His victorious troops conquered in
the east and the west. In this expedition of
territorial expansion Hideyoshi, one of his gener-
als, who had entered his service as a mere
menial retainer, distinguished himself over all
the veteran generals of Nobunaga. When No-
bunaga was killed by one of his generals Mitsu-
hide in 1582, Hideyoshi came back in a hurry,
revenged his lord upon the traitor in a pitched
battle fought near. Kyoto, and by promptly
forestalling all the other generals of the unfor-
tunate Nobunaga, made himself the master of
the grand edifice nearly completed by his chief.

Nobunaga had even adopted the policy of en-
couraging Christianity, chiefly in order to check
the rampant tendency of the Buddhist priests
against whom he had led a crusade. Tokugawa
Iyeyasu, the lord of Mikawa, Totomi and Suru-
ga, was an ally of Nobunaga, but with the as-
sumption of power by Hideyoshi to the exclusion
of Nobunaga's two sons, Iyeyasu adopted an
attitude of neutrality, and then one of hostility
when one of the two sons, for having sided
with an enemy of Hideyoshi, fled to Iyeyasu.
The latter took up the cause of the' refugee,
fought with the overwhelming host of Hideyoshi,
and routed his advance army. Hideyoshi judged
it wiser to win over Iyeyasu by peaceful means
instead of by war, and the two houses were
reconciled.

Hideyoshi brought the whole country under
his sway, built a castle in Osaka, and then an-
other at Momoyama, Fushimi, besides a magnifi-
cent mansion in Kyoto. His love of splendour
and display was reflected in the art of this
period, and painting, architecture and so forth
developed a bold style.

Hideyoshi next turned his attention to the
ambitious project of subduing China, and in
1592 the invading army landed in Korea. For
seven years, with the interruption of three in-
tervening years, the invaders routed the Koreans
and their allies the Chinese army. The ex-
pedition, however, was rendered abortive by the
death of Hideyoshi in 1598. The period of 236
years from the establishment of the Ashikaga
Shogunate in Kyoto in 1338 to 1573 is called
the Muromachi period and the subsequent period
from 1574 to 1598 the Azuchi-Momoyama period.

Yedo Period (16021867 A.D.)

Tokugawa Shogunate. Iyeyasu was now
the most powerful man, for H'ideyoshi's son
Hideyori at Osaka was still a minor. The
jealousy of a number of the followers of Hide-

yori brought about in 1600 the great battle of
Sekigahara between them and lyeyasu in which
the two houses of Mori and Shimazu that sided
with the former fared hard. Iyeyasu's victory
further strengthened the position of the Toku-
gawa family, which then provoked war upon
Osaka (Hideyori and his followers) and the lattei
fell in 1615.

Japan enjoyed on the whole peace and pros-
perity during the regime of the Tokugawa Shogu-
nate that lasted over two centuries and a half.
Christianity that had been tabooed by Hideyoshi
was at first tolerated, and intercourse with
foreign countries was encouraged. Thus in 1610
the Spaniards who were wrecked off the coast
of Japan were sent to Mexico by a Japanese
ship, while in 1613 Date-Masamune, the lord of
Sendai, dispatched Hasekura-Rokuemon to Rome
to inspect the state of affairs there. This liberal
policy was soon superseded by one of prohibition
owing to the rivalry between the Dutch and the
Portuguese traders. The outbreak of the Christi-
an rebellion at Amakusa (Kyushu) in 1637 was
followed by a severer policy against Christianity
and foreign commerce, exception being made only
in favour of the Dutch and the Chinese. Japan
remained secluded till Perry's mission came to
demand the opening of the country to commerce.

Learning was encouraged by the Shogunate,
chiefly to check the war-like propensity of the
daimyos. Indirectly it fostered historical and
literary research by our scholars and it is in-
teresting to note these researches brought home
to their mind the abnormal state into which the
executive power of the country had fallen and
especially to the encroachment of the military
classes on the sovereignty of the Court. Mean-
while the extravagance of the successive Shoguns
highly impaired their credit, while the arrival
of foreign missions one after another in the
early 19th century, demanding the conclusion of
treaties of commerce, further tended to reveal
their internal decay. Chiefly to gain time, the
Shogunate applied to the Court at Kyoto for
permission to open the country and thus in-
voluntarily placed itself under the direction of
the legitimate rulers. The Court then ordered
the expulsion of the foreign missions. It was
a highly irresponsible decision, but the Court
had been long estranged from active politics
and was moreover inclined to obstruct and annoy
the Shogunate out of spite. It was in such
peculiar circumstances that the sentiment of
loyalty to the legitimate rulers became strangely
associated with the anti-foreign policy, and gave
rise to the "Sonno-joi" (loyalty to the, Court and
expulsion of foreigners) agitation, the slogan that


18

OUTLINE OF HISTORY

swept over the whole country at that time. But
the foreign missions would no longer wait so
that the senior counsellor of the Shogunate of
the day, Ii-Kamon-no-Kami, signed tentative
treaties in 1858, and for the resolute step he
took he was assassinated by a band of the "sonno-
joi" upholders. The bigoted and dangerous cause
was considered sacred by the general public, and
even such powerful daimyos as those of Choshu
and Satsuma, who had a spite against the Toku-
gawa from one cause or another, tried to carry
out the "Joi" order to the letter, and under
slight provocation or none at all killed or in-
jured foreigners or fired upon foreign warships.
The Government was in utter dismay, for the
foreign representatives made on every such oc-
casion a strong demand for reparation. These
repeated troubles were too great for the im-
potent Shogunate to settle, and at last Shogun
Keiki, the last of the illustrious line, surrendered
the vicarious power of ruling the country, for he
was enlightened enough to perceive the trend of
the times, and thus the Imperial Court recovered
its full prerogative which had been kept in
abeyance for about ten centuries. This memo-
rable event was not consummated without some
bloodshed, through an armed struggle, fortu-
nately of short duration, between a section of
the misguided partisans of the Tokugawa and
the Imperial adherents.

Meanwhile those young patriots who had so
zealously taken up the bigoted and dangerous
cause were disillusioned due to the knowledge,
though scanty, which they obtained either by
staying abroad a short while, as Ito, Inouye
and some others of the Choshu clan did, or by
some indirect means. Their attitude was com-
pletely changed, for it now was "Learn of
foreigners where they are strong and remedy
our defects." By the time the Shogunate had
fallen (1867) the "joi" agitation had practically
disappeared. In fact most of the agitators were
soon converted into radical reformers. This
period which lasted about 270 years is called
the Tokugawa or Edo period.

MODERN JAPAN

The 45 years of the Meiji period (1868-1912)
will forever remain in the hisjtory of Japan as the
most illustrious epoch in the development of the
nation, besides supplying to the history of human
progress a memorable chapter, teaching how a
nation, even when placed under serious dis-
advantage, may, by dint of untiring diligence
and patriotic endeavours and perseverance, suc-

ceed in pushing ahead the prosperity of the
nation and in expanding its prestige and credit.
A century ago Japan was a terra incognita
or at best a mere geographical name, but to-
day she is a respected member of the great
comity of nations.

The Meiji government was very fortunate in
that it was guided from the outset by such able
court nobles as Iwakura and Sanjo and by the
younger samurai of progressive ideas and burn-
ing patriotism sent by the awakened feudal
clans of Satsuma, Choshu, Tosa and Saga that
were chiefly instrumental in overthrowing the
Tokugawa shogunate. Among such young samu-
rai were Yamagata, Okubo, Kido, Saigo, Itagaki,
Soejima and Goto. It was fortunate, too, that
they had sprung from comparatively humble
ranks in their respective classes, for they had
no particular compunction in doing away with
old traditions and ancient manners. The first
thing which they advised the boy Emperor, who
was only 16 when he ascended the Throne, to
do was to swear an oath of five articles and to
proclaim it to the nation. It runs thus, "All
governmental affairs shall be decided by public
discussions; both rulers and ruled shall unite for
the advancement of the national interests; all
base customs of former times shall be abolished;
knowledge shall be sought for far and wide; every
one in the community shall be assisted to perse-
vere in carrying out his will for all good pur-
poses." The following year (1869) the Imperial
Court was removed to Tokyo.

The task which these young Councillors of
State had to undertake was really herculean.
First they had to reduce the internal admini-
stration to some kind of unity and order, and
to this end they persuaded their feudal lords
to follow the example of the Shogunate and to
surrender their fiefs to the Court. The chief-
tains did not hesitate to comply and early in
1869 they, under joint signatures, memorialized
the Court for permission to surrender their an-
cient trusts. All the other fiefs, for there were
no less than 262 such principalities large and
small throughout the land, exclusive of the
Shogunate's domains, vied with each other in
submitting similar memorials, so that in less
than six months the whole territory was brought
under the Imperial Government. No sooner was
the centralization effected than grave troubles,
both domestic and foreign, and these reacting
upon one another, demanded the attention of the
Government. The domestic troubles involved the
country in a series of civil wars, as described
later.


JAPAN

History

OUTLINE OF HISTORY 19

Foreign Trouble.When the Imperial Govern-
ment was restored, the news was duly conveyed
to Korea with the purpose of causing the latter
to send a congratulatory envoy as had been
invariably done whenever a new Shogun was
installed, but whk'h courtesy had been neglected
by Korea in the latter days of the Tokugawa
Shogunate. While this question of Korean dis-
courtesy was still pending the Iwakura mission
started for the West in October 1871 with the
object of having the one-sided Treaties of Com-
merce revised the following year, as expressly
stated in the documents. When the mission
returned in September 1873, honoured at most
places but sincerely advised at a few others to
effect first of all a thorough internal reform
before approaching the Powers to revise the
treaties, Iwakura, Okubo, Kido, Ito and others
that formed the mission found their colleagues
fully determined to send a punitive expedition
to Korea, if the returning Ministers approved.
The latter stoutly opposed the decision and the
first serious split in the new Government was
the result, Saigo, Soejima, Itagaki and other
Ministers resigning office. The other foreign
complications in which the new Government
was involved were the expedition to Formosa
in 1874 for chastising the natives who had
murdered the shipwrecked fishermen of Luchu,
for China had tried to disown responsibility on
the ground that the island was outside her con-
trol; the protracted negotiation with Russia
about the delimitation of boundary in Saghalien,
resulting in the relinquishment of Japan's claim
to the island in exchange for the absolute con-
trol of the Kuriles (Chishima Islands) in 1875;
definite recognition by China, through President
Grant's intercession, of Japan's right over
Luchu which had been feudatory to the House
of Shimazu (former feudal Lord of Satsuma)
for centuries but which had secretly maintained
a relation of vassalage to China.

Civil Wars.The ministerial split of 1873 soon
brought two civil wars as a sequel to the
Korean question. The first broke out in 1874
at Saga under the ex-Minister of Justice Eto,
but was fortunately suppressed in a few weeks,
but the other that was started in February 1877
in Kagoshima by the faithful adherents of Saigo
proved a rebellion of the gravest character, for
it took some seven months before the Imperial
Government could subdue the rebels who, led
by men that held high offices in the Imperial
army, offered desperate resistance. The rebel-
lion was the most formidable crisis which the
Meiji Government had to encounter at home,
*Pr since the memorable ministerial dissension the

whole country had been seething with discontent
and Saigo, who was a simple-mannered soldier
of strong personal magnetism, had numerous
friends in many parts of the country ready to
rise and take up his cause at the first opportunity.
The rebellion served as an occasion for demon-
strating most emphatically that the much despised
sons of farmers, if properly disciplined, could
make as good soldiers as the young samurai who
formed the bulk of Saigo's army. There occarred
minor uprisings shortly before Saigo's rebellion,
at Kumamoto, Akitsuki and Hagi, but they were
merely explosions of those who were roused to
see the time-honoured manners and customs
ruthlessly superseded by the foreign and "barba-
rous" ways. The suppression of the rebellion
resulted in establishing on a firm basis the
prestige of the Meiji Government and bringing
the country into unity, but the cost paid for it
was very dear, not only on account of the vast
disbursements, over ¥40 millions, but in the
loss of hundreds of men of uncommon ability
and usefulness. The great Okubo was assassi-
nated by a number of Saigo's adherents in the
year following the subjugation of the Satsuma
rebellion.

Administrative Reform and Political Agitation.

The whole energy of the Government was now
bent upon pushing industries and projects for
promoting general prosperity, while at the same
time steps were taken for reorganizing the ad-
ministrative system after the Western pattern.
It is interesting to note that the popular ac-
tivity at this period was chiefly political and was
aimed at the speedy establishment of repre-
sentative government, and equally interesting ia
the fact that the movement was started by ex-v
civilian Ministers, such as Itagaki, Soejima and
Goto, and it looked as if the Korean expedition-
ists had changed their tactics with the object of
harassing their former colleagues in power. The
agitation lasted with growing intensity till 1881
when an Imperial Edict promising the creation
of a National Assembly ten years later was
issued.

The opening of the Diet in 1890 occasioned
between the Government and the Lower House
prolonged contests that were bitter and fierce.
The members returned were all serious politi-
cians of strong conviction and staunch views
who had staked all they had in promoting the
cause of constitutional movement. They were
most of them veterans in speech and debate,
and completely out-argued cabinet ministers and
their lieutenants on the platform, and outvoted
them, too, for it was significant as a sign of
the times that ministerial candidates were held


20

OUTLINE OF HISTORY

in utter contempt by the general public and
had little chance of getting into the House.
When the attempts made by the bureaucrats to
form their own party in the House failed, they
next adopted the conciliatory policy of admitting
one or another leader of a predominant party
into the Cabinet, but, of course, this paltering
measure could not long keep the opposition in
silence.

At last in 1898 the retiring Premier Ito (late
Prince Hirobumi Ito) took a heroic step; he re-
commended Okuma and Itagaki, leaders of the
amalgamated Opposition, as his successors. The
result was the formation of the Okuma-Itagaki
Ministry in which all the portfolios, with the
exception of the army and navy, were held by
leading party men. It was the first, though in-
complete, party cabinet in Japan. Unfortunate-
ly the Cabinet was short-lived, for obsessed with
a sense of security from the attack of the Op-
position numerically quite contemptible, the fol-
lowers of Okuma and those of Itagaki quarrelled
over the division of the spoils of their combined
victory. At last the Itagaki contingent struck
their tents and withdrew, and thus the first party
government collapsed miserably. From that
time till the fall of the last bureaucratic ministry
headed by Terauchi, Japanese politics was literal-
ly a game played by the bureaucrats, the Seiyu-
kai and the Kensei-kai (later reorganized and
renamed as Minsei-to) with the Genro standing
by as arbiters. (For details vide Chapter on
Politics).

sition offered by the Treaty Powers to Japan's
proposals but because, in its later stage when
the substance of the draft had leaked out, public
opinion began to object violently to the clause
concerning the mixed tribunals with foreign
judges as assessors, though this clause was
gradually attenuated in the Okuma draft ia its
application and was intended at last to cover
only the Supreme Court. Still the public agita-
tion was by no means appeased; on the contrary,
led by a section of those demagogues who had
long training as agitators in upholding the con-
stitution movement, the cry against the "mixed
court" clause grew in intensity in the House and
outside of it. These stalwarts declared that
Japan could not submit to the humiliating treat-
ment Egypt and some other semi-independent
countries had; they were well contented to do
without such shameful revision. At the same
time they argued that Japan must guard her
interest reserved by the existing treaties, es-
pecially about restrictions of freedom of residence
and travel in the interior. They even passed a
resolution to that effect in the House, the Diet
having been inaugurated in the meanwhile, and
it invited its dissolution. It was to the lasting
credit of the late Count Mutsu that a revised
treaty was signed at London in 1894, and the
example set by Britain was soon followed by
the United States and other countries, and Japan
thus obtained a treaty for the first time on a
basis of equality. However, it was not till 1911
that complete tariff autonomy was secured.

Revision of Treaties

It took about half a century before Japan
succeeded in getting revised the one-sided treaties
concluded by the Tokugawa Government in 1858,
containing the humiliating clause of extra-terri-
toriality and restriction of customs duty to the
very low level of 5 per cent. This grave problem
demanded of both Government and people most
strenuous efforts, and it must be said that the
natural though ambitious aspiration exerted a
salutary influence in hastening the internal im-
provement, especially as regards judiciary, though
thirty years of untiring investigations and delibe-
ration had to pass before Japan could complete
the condition of all the important laws on a
Western model with the assistance of a number
of foreign experts.

Between 1882 and 1892, when the treaty was
revised first of all with Great Britain, the For-
eign Office changed its Minister no less than
five times, not only because of the strong oppo-

National Expansion

While Japan was bent upon the stupendous
task of reorganizing her institutions on a West-
ern model and introducing the important inno-
vations of modern civilization, her two nearest
neighbours, Korea and China, were still stub-
bornly wedded to their effete routine, refusing
to open the countries to foreign intercourse and
generally despising foreign ways. They were
too haughty and self-important to perceive how
greedily the aggressive Powers of the West were
watching them, ready to pounce upon them at
the first favourable opportunity. China was the
worse sinner of the two as regards this attitude
of apathy and defencelessness, for Korea, though
an independent kingdom, contented herself with
being a slavish imitator of her great neighbour,
allowing the latter to assume the position of a
suzerain. Japan concluded a treaty of commerce
with Korea in 1876, for she wanted the latter
to be sufficiently strong to protect herself against


JAPAN

History

OUTLINE OF HISTORY 77

foreign aggression. In Korea Japan stood for
progress and China for reactionary interest;
Korea herself was divided by two native rival
factions which kept the country in interminable
disturbances. These ceaseless troubles at last
involved their two patrons in open war in 1894.

Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895).Japan made
short work of the enemy's resistance on land and
sea, drove the Chinese troops from one position
to another in Manchuria, and soon the way was
open for her army to march on Peking. An-
other detachment, in co-operation with the fleet,
reduced Weihaiwei in Shantung and moreover
annihilated the once proud Northern fleet. China
sued for peace, and the result was the Treaty of
Shimonoseki concluded in April 1895, by which
China agreed (1) to the complete independence
of Korea; (2) to cede the Liaotung Peninsula
and littoral and (3) Formosa and the Pescadores;
(4) to pay an indemnity of 200 million taels, and
also to open to commerce four inland ports and
the Yangtze for navigation. The 2nd clause
Japan was obliged to renounce owing to the
pressure brought to bear upon her by Russia,
Germany and France in the interest of the
"peace of the Far East," and had to console
herself with the 30 million taels paid extra by
China. When Japan had conclusively shown
that the once dreaded "sleeping lion" of China
was really sickly, if not moribund, the Powers
lost no time in offering their services to the
humiliated China as honest brokers. True to
their secret purpose, under one pretext after an-
other, Germany established herself at Kiaochau,
Russia in Manchuria, France got some lease and
railway concession in the south, and even Bri-
tain, to preserve the balance of power, felt
obliged to demand the lease of Weihaiwei, while
Japan obtained from China the pledge of non-
alienation of the Province of Fukien that lies
opposite Formosa to any other Power.

The Boxer Trouble (1899)--All these succes-
sive intrusions made by the Powers on her rights
and domain roused in 1899 the bitter anti-foreign
agitations in China known as the Boxer Trouble.
Japan in a hurry despatched the 5th Division,
which formed the bulk of the allied army orga-
nized for rescuing the diplomatic and foreign
communities besieged in Peking by the insurgents
who killed the counsellor of the Japanese Legation
and the German Minister. The trouble cost
China 450 million taels in indemnity payable
m instalment.

Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905).Meanwhile
Russia had been steadily gaining influence in
Korea, for her subservient court, now that China

21

had lost prestige, began to lean upon the northern
Power, leaving the special relation of Japan
to the Peninsula utterly disregarded. With her
basis of operation firmly established in Man-
churia, Russia thought that she could defy Japan's
protest and when Japan made a conciliatory
offer, Russia replied with a highhanded counter
offer, so that in spite of all the conventions and
memoranda exchanged for defining the relative
positions of the two in Korea, the relations be-
tween them became more and more strained, es-
pecially after Russia's occupation of Manchuria
subsequent to the Boxer Trouble. And so in
1904, just ten years after the Sino-Japanese War,
Japan was forced to draw her sword once more
to defend her very existence and preserve the
peace of the Far East.

The whole nation, except perhaps a handful of
pacifists, went into this war as one man, with
the grim resolution to conquer or to die, for all
believed implicitly that on the issue of the war
depended the very existence of the nation. On
the other hand, to the muzhiks the war had no
meaning; they could not understand why they
should have to give their lives in fighting Japan.
General Kropotkin, the unfortunate Commander-
in-Chief in the disastrous battle of Mukden,
must have thoroughly measured the fighting
strength of the Japanese army when he visited
our country a few years before the outbreak of
the war, but evidently he did not take into full
account this vital factor in the psychology of
the two warring nations. Better equipped than
their foe, strongly entrenched, the Russian army
was dislodged from one position after another,
lost Port Arthur, though after a heroic defence
lasting for about six months, was routed in the
great battle of Mukden, and when the Baltic
fleet, after having effected with credit the weary
voyage, was literally wiped off the face of the
Japan Sea by Admiral Togo in May 1905, Russia
decided to give up the hopeless war. The result
was the Portsmouth Treaty signed by the repre-
sentatives of the two hostile countries on the 5th
September, 1905 through the mediation of Presi-
dent Roosevelt. Russia refused to pay any
indemnity, but agreed to recognize Japan's
supremacy in Korea, to hand over to Japan the
lease of the Liaotung Peninsula and the South
Manchuria Railway with the mining and other
rights pertaining to it and to cede to her the
southern half of Saghalien.

Anglo-Japanese Alliance.It was in 1902, or
a little before the Russo-Japanese war, when the
attention of the European Powers was directed
to the Far East, that Japan and Great Britain
entered into an Agreement fpr Alliance, the two


22

OUTLINE OF HISTORY

parties mutually recognizing as well as safe-
guarding their own interests in China, and
Britain admitting Japan's special position in
Korea. In 1905 the Agreement was enlarged in
scope and was replaced by a new stipulation
designed to cover the maintenance of general
peace in Eastern Asia and India; was further
modified in 1911 and made effective till July,
1921. The dual compact on the whole worked
with marked success, and while it greatly
strengthened the position of Japan in the Far
East, it enabled Britain to concentrate her fleet
at home.

Annexation of Korea.By virtue of the Ports-
mouth Treaty Japan proceeded to place Korea
under her protection and this was followed in
1910 by the Treaty of Annexation, the year after
the assassination of Prince Ito, the first Viceroy
of Korea, at Harbin by a Korean fanatic.

Japan in International Politics

The two wars internationally raised the status
of Japan; she was no longer obliged to appeal
to the magnanimity of the Powers in guarding
her interests and rights. The Powers were now
willing to make advances and to seek her hand.
They even began to watch her movements with
jealous and suspicious eyes. Be that as it may,,
Japan's position was now sufficiently established
to warrant the Powers with special interests in
the Far East in entering into agreement with
her for guaranteeing the general peace in this
region, for maintaining the respective situations
and territorial rights of the contracting parties,
safeguarding the integrity of China and up-
holding the principle of equal opportunity and
open door in that country. It is true such a
covenant with Britain was concluded first in 1902,
to be afterward expanded into an offensive and
defensive alliance with certain restrictions, but
those with France, Russia and America were
arranged after the Russo-Japanese War. At the
same time the United States and the British
dominions of Canada and Australia began to
place obstacles in the way of free immigration of
Japanese labourers and to try to subject those
already residing there to unfair treatment. This
has given rise to a grave problem of racial dis-
crimination, a question that has begun to arrest
the serious attention of thinkers the world over
in the interest of the general peace of the whole
human race and of humanity. ^

Demise of Emperor Meiji.On July 31, 1912,
Meiji Tenno died before attaining his '60th

anniversary, but it may be said that his memo-
rable reign was brought to a fitting close. His
memory will forever be held in profound venera-
tion by the people as one of the most illustrious
sovereigns that have ever ruled over the country.
With the immediate accession of his son Prince
Yoshihito (Emperor Taisho) to the Throne began
the new era of Taisho. The 45 years (1868-
1912) compose the Meiji period.

The World War and Japan

When the World War broke out in 1914, it
was a foregone conclusion that Japan should
cast in her lot with the Allies, and so in August
1914 she declared war on Germany, and a few
days later treaty relations with Austria-Hun-
gary also ceased. In November the German
fortress at Tsingtao was captured by the Japa-
nese army in co-operation with the British con-
tingent. This was followed by the occupation
of the German possessions in the South Seas,
the effective expulsion of German commerce
raiding cruisers and the despatch of a Japanese
fleet to the Mediterranean to assist the Allies in
their naval activities.

When the hostilities came to an end in
November, 1918, with the conclusion of the
Armistice, the Peace Conference was held from
January to June 1919, at which Japan was re-
presented by five delegates including Marquis
Saionji, Baron Makino and Viscount Chinda. By
the terms of the Peace Treaty concluded on June
28th Japan acquired rights and privileges con-
cerning Shantung, which she pledged herself to
restore to China with all its rights, only keeping
to herself the economic privileges that had once
been granted to Germany. By virtue of the
Feace Treaty and the League of Nations Cove-
nant Japan was given a mandate over the
German South Sea territories north of the
equator, including the Marshall and Caroline Is-
lands and the Island of Yap. Later, a contro-
versy regarding Yap arose between Japan and
the U.S.A. due to the latter's protest against
the decisions in December, 1919 of the Supreme
Council with regard to the assignment of man-
datory territories, but the question was at
length settled in September, 1921 before the
opening of the Washington Conference, Japan
recognizing the right of the U.S.A. and other
countries to land the submarine cables on the
Island. Another question that commanded keen
interest at the Peace Conference was that of the
abolition of racial discrimination as submitted
by the Japanese delegates to the League of


JAPAN

History

OUTLINE OF HISTORY

Nations Committee, though Japan had to with-
draw and reserve it for future discussion.

Siberian Expedition (1918-22).The military
expedition of Japan to Siberia was originally
undertaken in common accord and in co-opera-
tion with the United States in August, 1918.
It was primarily intended to render assistance
to the Czecho-Slovak troops who, in their home-
ward journey across Siberia from European
Russia, found themselves in grave and pressing
danger at the hands of hostile forces under Ger-
man command. Great Britain, France, Italy and
China also joined the expedition and sent their
troops to Vladivostok. The Allied forces fought
their way from Vladivostok far into the region
of the Amur and the Trans-Baikal Provinces
to protect the railway lines which afforded the
sole means of transportation of the Czecho-Slovak
troops from the interior of Siberia to the port
of Vladivostok. The expenditure of the

military operations that spread over five years
drained the national coffers of Japan of about-
$700 millions.

Occupation of Saghalien (1920-25).The occu-
pation of the Russian Province of Saghalien by
the Japanese army was in reprisal for the incident
of 1920 at Nikolaievsk, where more than 700
Japanese were cruelly tortured and massacred,
and was, therefore, wholly different, both in
nature and in origin, from the stationing of
troops in the Maritime Province. The occupa-
tion was effected early in July, 1920, and lasted
for nearly five years.

On the' establishment of the Soviet Govern-
ment of Russia conferences were held between
the representatives Of the two Governments with
a view to finding basic principles for solving
the pending problems between Japan and Russia
and restoring the former diplomatic relations^
conference between the Japanese Minister in
Peking (Yoshizawa) and the Ambassador (Kara-
khan) of the Soviet Government of Russia in
Peking, that was opened in the summer of 1924,
was satisfactorily concluded on January 20, 1925,
and the treaty signed by the two plenipotentia-
ries. received sanction by the Prince Regent on
February 25. By the exchange of formal ratifi-
cation of the treaty between the two plenipo-
tentiaries in Peking the next day the restoration
of diplomatic relations between the two countries
was at last accomplished. The Japanese Army
was promptly withdrawn from the occupied terri-
tory and the protracted trouble disturbing peace
in this quarter of the globe was definitely settled.

Washington Conference (1921-22).Japan's
interest in this International Conference was far
more vital than in the Peace Conference at Ver-

23

sailles, as it was held for the express purpose
of limiting naval armament and discussing the
Pacific problems with special reference to China
Japan was represented by Admiral Baron Kato,
then Minister of the Navy in the Hara Cabinet,
Prince Tokugawa, then President of the House
of Peers, Baron Shidehara, Japanese Ambassador
at Washington, and Mr. Hanihara, Vice-Mini-
ster of Foreign Affairs.

The Conference clarified the relations between
Japan and other countries represented at the
Conference table and, in particular, went far to
remove the suspicions and misunderstandings
entertained abroad regarding Japan's attitude
towards China. (Fr further details vide Chap-
ters dealing with the Navy and Diplomacy).

The Dawn of a New Era

His Majesty Yoshihito, the 123rd Emperor^
passed away on December 25th, 1926, at the
Imperial Villa at Hayama, and on the same day
Crown Prince Hirohito ascended the Throne as
the 124th sovereign of the Empire. According
to the traditional custom of the Imperial House
the late Majesty was given the posthumous title
of Taisho Tenno, while the new era named Showa
was adopted for the reign.

It was probably in conformity with the trend
of the times that the two events of such supreme
national importance (departure of an Emperor
and accession of his successor) were officially
proclaimed according to actual fact; the time-
honoured custom could never have/allowed their
occurrence outside the Imperial Palace.

The enthronement of the new Emperor (His
Majesty Hirohito) was officially celebrated at the
ancient capital Kyoto in November, 1928, after
lapse of one! year's mourning over the demise of
the departed Emperor according to the traditional
custom, the national function being performed
with the time-honoured State ceremonies which
lasted for six days {Nov. 10 to 15). For the
first time in the history of the Empire the
Empress was also present at this grand func-
tion, the Throne for Her Majesty being erected
by the side of that for the Emperor at the Shi-
shinden Hall. This is a matter of great signifi-
cance and is noteworthy as an event marking the
formal recognition of the status of an Empress
and her privilege to attend the grand State
ceremonies with her Imperial consort. Formerly,
the status of an Empress was not properly recog-
nized but placed on a lower level under the social
conditions that obtained in those days in this
country.

Prior to this, namely, in March-September
1921, the Crown Prince made a journey to Eu


80

OUTLINE OF HISTORY

rope to make observations and exchange courte-
sies with the sovereigns and rulers of European
countries. It was an event unprecedented in
the history of Japan, and was moreover an
unqualified success in every respect. Then in
November of the same year the Crown Prince
was appointed Regent to undertake the conduct
of State affairs in place of his Imperial father
who was suffering from chronic illness and was
incapacitated from attending to public duties.
In the spring of 1924 the Crown Prince married
Princess Naga-ko, first daughter of H.I.H. Prince
Kuni. The Crown Prince's foreign tour was
followed by that of his younger brother Prince
Chichibu, 2nd Imperial son, who proceeded to
England for study leaving Japan in May, 1925.
He entered Oxford in October, 1926, which he
had to leave on learning that his father was
critically ill and returned home in January 1927.
Then, in the spring of 1930 Prince Takamatsu,
younger brother of Prince Chichibu, accompanied
by his consort Princess Kiku-ko, made an exten-
sive tour of Europe visiting the British Court on
Imperial mission and also the Courts of other
European countries, returning home in the spring
of 1931 by way of America.

The Manchurian Incident

The Manchurian Incident of September 18,
1931 and the subsequent establishment of the
independent state of Manchoukuo form a land-
mark in modern Japanese history. Its signi-
ficance lies in the crystalization of an insepar-
able relationship between the new Empire and
Japan. In the years that have elapsed since
the founding of Manchoukuo, the intercourse
between the two countries have become in-

creasingly cordial. Japan was visited in April
1935 by His Majesty the Emperor of Manchou-
kuo, who returned the visit of the previous year
of His Highness Prince Chichibu, younger bro-
ther of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan,

The Sino-Japanese Hostilities

The Sino-Japanese hostilities, which have since
taken on the aspects of a war on a huge scale,
broke out in July, 1937 from an incident at
Fengtai, near Peking, on July 7 when units of
the Japanese forces stationed in that district
were fired upon by Chinese troops. After a
truce was attained, firing was again commenced
by the Chinese troops at Lukowkiao on July 9.
Minor clashes continued until finally the hos-
tilities spread to Shanghai when on August 9th
Sub-Lieutenant Isao Oyama, Commander of the
1st Company of the Japanese Landing Party,
and First Class Seaman Yozo Saito were at-
tacked and killed by Chinese troops. The skir-
mishes in the north as well as in Central China
were soon transformed into actual warfare. At
the time of this writing there are still no indi-
cations of an early conclusion of the conflict
which has continued for almost a year and a
half. Among the strategic points which have
been captured by the Japanese troops are Shang-
hai, Nanking, Suchow, Anking and Kiukiang in
Central China and Tientsin, Peking, Tsingtao,
Tsinan, Kalgan and a string of other important
cities and strategic districts in North China.
With the exception of Canton all other im-
portant Chinese ports were under Japanese oc-
cupation.


JAPAN

Geology

CHAPTER III

GEOLOGY

A. GEOLOGY OF JAPAN

Geologists suggest that the islands constitut-
ing Japan Proper are the summits of a great
mountain system that originally formed part of
the Altai and other ranges in China and that
was detached later by the depression of the in-
tervening land. The presence of great marine
depressions along the external or eastern side
of a fanciful festoon that stretches parallel to
the Pacific coast of the Asiatic Continent seems
to confirm this hypothesis. This chain of is-
lands from Hokkaido to Taiwan (Formosa)
curves towards the northwest, the concave or
the Japan Sea side being called by scientists
"Inner zone" or arc, and the convex or Pacific
side "Outer zone" or arc. The two zones present
points of marked contrast geographically and
otherwise. Another interesting geological feature
of Japan is that the Main Island or Honshu is
divided into "North Japan" and "South Japan"

by the so-called Fuji volcanic zone that runs
across its middle from the Japan Sea to the
Pacific Ocean, the zone containing the great cone
of Fuji and other volcanoes.

Geological Composition

The geological composition of Japan as in-
vestigated by the Government Geological Survey
is as follows:

Table 1. Geological Composition of Japan
Area (Sq. kms.) %
Paleozoic.......... .. 75,426 16.39
Mesozoic .......... . 46,498 10.11
Tertiary ......... , 93,276 20.27
Quarternary....... . 90,101 19.59
Igneous (older) .... .. 73,673 16.02
Igneous (younger) . ... 81,048 17.62
Total ........... ... 460,022 100.00
The sedimentary formation and contemporane-

ous igneous rocks of Japan are tabulated below:

Cainozoic {Tertiary

(

Meaozoic

Table 2. Sedimentary Formation and Contemporaneous Igneous Rocks

Sedimentary Formations Recent Pleistocene
Quaternary Loam Terrace Deposits

/Pliocene;

Musashino Formation,
Tertiary#of Tanaba, Kakegawa, etc.,
Plant fossil Bed of Mogi,
Upper Tertiary of Hokkaido.

Miocene;
Plant fossil Bed of Itsukaichi,
Orbitoides-Limestone of Nakaozaka,
Shiramizu (Coal-bearing Series) of the Joban District
Middle Tertiary of Hokkaido.

Oligocene and Eocene;
Lower Tertiary (Coal-bearing Series) of Hokk&ido,
Coal-bearing Series of Northern Kyushu,
Nummulites Beds of Bonin & Luchu.

Senonian-Gault;
Futaba Series,
Izumi-Sandstone,

Trigonia-Sandstone and Ammonites Beds of Hokkaido.

Neocomian;
Lower Bed of Miyake Series,
Ryoseki Series and Torinosu Limestone,

'Malm;

Upper Shizukawa Series,
Tetori Series.

Jurassic Dogger;

Middle Shizukawa Series.

Liassic;

Lower Shizukawa Series.

/Cretaceous

Igneous Rrcks

Liparite,
Andesite, Basalt

Liparite,

Andesite,

Basalt.

Granite,

Porphyrite,

Gabbro,

Serpentine, etc.

Porphyrite.


26

GEOLOGY

^Triassic

Palaeozoic

rRhaetic;

Plant Bed of Yamanoi.

Noric;
Pseudomonotis Beds.

Ladinic;

Daonella Beds of Rikuzen and TosaJ

Anisic-Skytic;
Geratites Beds.

Permian and (

1

ferous I

Porphyrite.

^ Granite, Diorite,
jGabbro, Diabase,
J etc.

Pre-Carboni- (Mikabu Series (Lower division of the Chichibu System), \ A^i^i;^
ferous I Sambagawa Series. jse^Ke*'

The Chichibu System

As \he oldest fossil-bearing strata in Japan
and one existing within a few hours by railway
from Tokyo, the Chichibu system was first studied
by the German geologist Dr., Nauman who was
in the service of the Japanese Government about
1877. 'It is a cradle as also the most popular
field of geological researches in Japan. This
hilly mass is further noted for containing various
strata characteristic of the geological formation
of the land.

Economic Geology of Japan

Carboniferous and similar Paleozoic strata
formed in Japan are, unlike those in the West,
not generally coal-bearing as they originated
under the sea, though with a few exceptions.
Coal-seams of economic importance exist in Japan
in Tertiary formations, that is, in Kyushu, Hok-
kaido and the Joban (Hitachi-Iwaki) districts.
Oil-fields chiefly occur in the younger Tertiary of
the Inner zone, mostly in Echigo, Akita and
Hokkaido. Mr. Kanehara writes that the coal-
bearing series of northern Kyushu is an import-
ant representative of the Japanese Palaeogene,
the fossils found being mainly of Eocene forms.
Thus the Takashima coal-field has yielded Sabal
nipponica, Kryst, also Osmunda, Lastrea, Salvi-
nia, etc., the Miike coal-measure Aturia, Phola-
domya, Crassatelia, Carditat, etc. One note-?
worthy thing is that in the coal-fields of Sasebo
and Imari, economically less important than the
two others mentioned, an Anthracotherid tooth
and Brachyodus were discovered, these judged to
be of Lower Oligocene origin. The plant and
shell fossils as found in the coal-measures of
Hokkaido and Karafuto are nearly identical with
those of northern Kyushu. The Neogene in the
Joban district consists of the Shiramizu (Mio-
cene), the Yunagaya (Miocene) and the Shirado
(Pliocene) series, the lowest part of Shiramizu

being now extensively worked for its bitumen. In
the meridional and western parts of northern
Honshu, the Neogene extends from Shinano and
Echigo on the southwest to the northern end of
Aomori through Akita. The older Neogene of
this region often contains coal-seams in the
lower part while the younger is often petrolifer-
ous, constituting the oil-fields of Echigo, Akita
and Aomori. Then the lower Neogene found
in Shizuoka prefecture is Miocene and petroli-
ferous. In Taiwan there exists the coal-bearing
Neogene in the north, while in the south it is
petroliferous. In Hokkaido the Tertiary consists
of the Lower, the Middle, the Upper and the
Uppermost. The Lower is the coal-bearing
Palaeogene and the other three range between
Miocene and Pliocene or. Pleistocene. The Middle
Tertiary has the Poronai series in its lower
part and th^ Kawabata series in the Upper,
the Momiji-yama series lying between being of
a transitional formation. The Upper Tertiary
is often oil-bearing, its rocks resembling those
of similar formation in northern Honshu.

Minerals.The number of species is 208 ex-
clusive of those of organic origin. Minerals or
crystals characteristic of Japan areradial con-
centric aggregations of rhombohedra of arsenic;
magnificent crystals of stibnite; large and beauti-
ful crystals of galena, zinc-blende, enargite,
danburite and topaz; beautiful crystals of pyr-
rhotite, axjnite and columbite; needle forms or
triangular crystals of chalcopyrite; twinned cry-
stals of quartz; unusually large crystals of
augite, andalusite, glaucophane and piedmontite;
xenotime and zircon iiy parallel growth; zircon
containing some rare earths; cordierite crystals
occurring in lavas, etc.

Mineral Deposits. These are chiefly found in
the Tertiary terrain. Gold quartz and cuprifer-
ous pyrite-qiiartz veins are common in the
Tertiary liparite or andesite and their tuffs.
Cupriferous pyrite deposits imbvdded in the


GEOLOGY

27

Palaeozoic schists and clavslates are of a great
economic importance. Magnetite masses and
hematite veins in granite, and galenablende
masses or veins are found respectively in the
Palaeozoic limestone, and Tertiary tuffs. The
coal-seams and oil-fields are as mentioned before.

B. VOLCANOES

Volcanoes number 165, of which 54 are active
and consist of seven zones, those noteworthy
oeing:

Fuji zone that cuts across the middle of Hon-
shu from the Japan Sea to the Pacific Ocean and
continuning to the Seven Islands of Izu, the
Bonin Islands, the Sulphur Islands and to the
Mariana and Caroline Group. The zone contains
Myoko-zan, Togakushi-yama, Tadeshina-yama,
Yatsu-ga-take, Fuji-san, Hakone, Amagi, etc.

The Nasu chain forms the backbone of North
Japan and extends further north to Hokkaido,
the chain comprising Osore-zan, Ganshu-zan,
Nasu-san, 'Nantai-san (Nikko), Akagi, Haruna,
Asama, etc. The other chains are the Chokai
that runs parallel to the Nasu chain, the Chi-
shima chain that extends from Hokkaido to Chi-
shima (Kuriles) and further to Kamchatka, the
Hakusan chain that contains Hakusan, Daisen,
Sambe-yama, etc., and the Kirishima chain which
traverses the western margin of the island of
Kyushu. With Kirishima as a centre it extends
to Unzen on the north and to the volcanic islands
in the Ryukyu archipelago. For the past half
a century Japanese volcanoes have invariably
been of the Strombolian type as exemplified in
the eruption of Bandai-san (1888), Azuma-san
(1893), Adataro-yama (1900), and Torishima
(1902). Asama, Yari-ga-take and Kirishima are
known for their paroxymal, though not des-

tructive explosions. Also in the Kirishima chain
is a complex volcano with its highest cone tower-
ing 1,592 m., which is perhaps the, largest volcano
in the world, its crater extending about 15 miles
north and south, and 10 miles the other way.

C. HOT SPRINGS

As a redeeming feature to compensate for the
presence of so many volcanoes, a large number
of mineral springs, both hot and cold, are found
throughout the country. Japan, in fact, occupies
a very high place in the world as to the number
of mineral springs and especially those possessing
high medical value.

Hot springs of note number about one thousand,
mostly in northern and southern parts of the
country, and of these those that are popular from
easier access or medical quality occupy at least
one quarter, as shown in the accompanying table.
In composition simple and salt springs pre-
dominate, followed by sulphur springs.

Table 3. Number and Kinds of Hot Springs

Honshu Hokkai-

(Mainland) do Kyushr i Total
Simple cold springs . 134 i 20 155
Simple hot springs ... 152 3 70 225
Simple acid springs .. 17 3 3 21
'"Earthy" acid springs 12 1 3 16
Alkaline acid springs.. 94 20 35 149
Salt springs ......... 155 5 19 179
Bitter springs ....... 58 4 16 78
Iron springs ........ 29 1 2 32
Sulphur springs ..... 95 14 18 127
Acid hydrogen sulphide
springs ........... 10 1 11
Acid vitriol springs .. 5 1 6
Alum vitriol springs .. 7 1 8
Springs (not examined) 82 17 99
Total ............. 850 51 205 1,106
Besides, there are 68 and 27 hot-springs in Cho-

sen (Korea) and Taiwan (Formosa) respectively.

Table 4* List of Popular Hot Springs

Name
Arima
As mushi
Atami
Beppu
Dogo
Hakone
fMiyanoshita
\Ashinoyu

Higashiyama

Ikao
Ito

Kinosaki
Kusatsu

Nagaoka
Nasu

Nearest
Rly. station

Arima

Asamushi

Atami

Beppu

Dogo

Odawara

fAizu

\ Wakamatsu
Shibukawa
Atami
Kinosaki
Kusatsu
Kurayoshi
Nagaoka
Kuroiso

Above sea

Character level (ft.)

Simple carbon-dioxated ........................1,287

Sulphated bitter ....................................

Earth-muriated Common salt ..........74

Simple thermals ................................50

Simple thermals ................................35

Alkaline common salt ............. 1,377

Sulphur........................... 2,760

Saline bitter ................. (about) 850

Sulphated bitter......................................2,800

Simple thermals (Seaside)..............

Earth-muriated common salt............

Acid vitriol ..............................................4,500

Simple thermals .........................50

Simple thermals ....................................100

Hydrogen sulphide.......... (about)4,500

Ave. Temperature

C.

17.0
70.3

53.0
44.5

47.5

46.0
46.9

62.0
71.0
48.5

F.

62.6
158.5
198.5
127.4
112.1

137.3
113.0

117.5

114.8
116.4
126.1
143.6
159.8
119.3
82.4


28

GEOLOGY

Ave. Temperature

Nearest Above sea / n

Name Ely. station Chnracter level (ft.) C. F.

{Yumoto Nikko Hydrogen sulphide .......... (about)4,590 - 113.9

Noboribetsu Noboribetsu Vitriol..........................................................660 97.0 206 6

Shibu Toyono Sulphated common salt........................6,960 76.0 168.8

Shima Shibukawa Earth-muriated common salt ............2,600 93.0 199.4

Shiobara Nishinasuno Alkaline ....................................................3,150 132.4

Shuzenji Shuzenji Saline common salt................................330 77.0 170.6

Unzen Isahara Acid hydrogen sulphate ......................2,400 51.6 124.7

Wagura Nanao Earth-muriated common salt (Seaside) 179.2

Yamanaka Daishoji Sulphated sulphur.................................. 120.2

Yamashiro Daishoji Saline sulphur............................................ 149.5

Yugawara Yugawara Common salt ............................................351 88.5 191.3

The distinctive feature of Kusatsu, Nasu, as to altitude, Kusatsu and its subsidiaries Shibu,

Noboribetsu and others is that they carry free Shima, etc. stand highest, while Atami, Asa-

mineral acids in their alumina and iron contents, mushi, Wagura, etc. are found near the seashore,
and this peculiarity is especially marked in Kusa-
tsu and Nasu. Many springs contain small pro- Radio-activity of Japanese Mineral Springs
portions of boric acid and iodine, bromine, lithium,

manganese and other compounds. Many of those springs are of strong radio-

Reference to the map given elsewhere will show activity, these being as below, giving both hot

that the regions traversed by the volcanic chains and cold springs. It will be seen that compared

mentioned before are especially rich in these with the famous radio-active springs in Europe,

natural baths. The Izu Peninsula in the Fuji Masutomi is second only to Joachimsthal and

zone, has, for instance, Atami, Ito, Shuzenji, Brambach, but surpasses Gastein, Landeck,

Nagaoka, Yugawara, Izusan, Kona, and other Baden-Baden, etc. Misasa is only next to Ischia

minor spas. in Italy and almost rivals Gastein in this respect.

The three important clusters of hot-springs All these Japanese mineral springs are found

are Hakone-Izu, Kusatsu, and Beppu. Classified in granite regions.

Temperature
Character C.

Simple 71.0

Sulphur 44.0

Simple 39.0

Saline 40.0

Table 5. List of Principal Radio-Active Springs

(Emanation per liter of water in Mache's unit)
Hot Springs

Mache'a

Name Prefecture unite

Miasa................... Tottori 142.14

Sekigane ...........;........ ,, 30.12

Tochiomata.................. Niigata 25.86

Kawatana................... Yamaguchi 11.88

Cold Springs

Masutomi.................... Yamanashi 828 Saline

Takayama................... Gifu 281 Simple

Ikeda........................ Shimane 188 Carbonated

Hirukawa................... Gifu 60 Simple

Murasugi.................... Niigata 60

D. EARTHQUAKES

Japan is a land of volcanoes and earthquakes.
It owes its beautiful scenery, in many instances,
to volcanic agency, while the graceful outline of
the snow-capped Fujiyama with its logarithmic
curves, an emblem of purity and sublimity, is a
common art motif. With regard to seismic dis-
turbances, it may be said that in Japan the
telluric energy is still in the young and vigorous
stage of development, and earthquakes have
naturally made a profound impression upon our

21.5 -

10.0 -
17.0 -

12.0 -
25.6

countrymen from the earliest times, the first re-
cord of an earthquake in authentic history dating
back to the reign of the Emperor Inkyo (416
A.D.). In former times an earthquake catas-
trophe was believed to be a divine warning of
some great event, and it is a noteworthy fact
that an earthquake often served as a stimulus
for summoning the courage of our people in time
of danger. Thus, on the occasion of the famous
shocks of the first year of Ansei (1854), the
year in which the treaty with Commodore Perry
was concluded, the Daimyo of Tosa issued pro-


GEOLOGY

JAPAN

Geology

29

clamations enjoining his subjects to take these
disasters as censures from Heaven and to rouse
themselves t difficult epoch of Internal troubles and foreign
complications. The attempt to guard against the
effect of seismic disturbances is, as may be ex-
pected, shown in the style of various ancient
Japanese buildings. Thus, a properly built
i;'sammon" (temple gate), "kanetsukido" (bell
tower), and "gojunoto" (five-storeyed pagoda)
can never be overturned by an earthquake, how-
ever violent. The last-named structures are in
principle exactly conformable with the modern
instrument called the duplex pendulum seismo-
graph, since they consist of the outer portion or
tower, which may be likened to an inverted
pendulum, and of the central suspended column
which forms a pendulum whose lower end is not
in contact with the ground; these two systems
which are respectively in unstable and stable
equilibrium, combine into a building capable of
lessening the disaster of seismic shocks. On the
occasion of the great Ansei earthquake (1885)
of Yedo, the "gojunoto" at the Kwannon Temple,
Asakusa had its "kurin" (large vertical metal
rod on the top) considerably bent, but the build-
ing itself sustained no damage. Again, the
curved form of a large stone "ishigaki," or dry
masonry retaining wall, is a feature peculiar to
the Japanese castle building not to be found
in the architecture of China, Chosen (Korea)
and other countries. Its origin lay probably in
the idea of making the stonewall earthquake-
proof. The wall curve forms a parabola, and
a noteworthy fact is that the column whose wall
is parabolic has the property of being seismically
uniform in strength, namely, of possessing sta-
bility against the earthquake which remains con-
stant for the different sections. A stone retaining
wall with a parabolic form is thus free from
the defect of being weakest at the base, thereby
lessening the risk of the production of the
"marginal vibration," which may result in the
formation of cracks along the upper edge and
the sliding down of the side surface. As no
cementing was used in the construction of the
stone castle walls, the old Japanese civil engi-
neers had evidently to give the "ishigaki" a form
calculated to possess in itself a sufficient strength
and stability.

Japanese Arc

Where great mountain ranges are arranged on
chains of islands in the form of a circular arc,
the convex, or outer portion, which corresponds
to the tension side, is often shaken by great
earthquake; while the concave, or inner portion,

corresponding to the compression side, is dis-
turbed only by occasional local shocks. This is
notably the case with the Japanese arc, whose
convex side is turned toward the Pacific, parallel
with and off whose coast there runs the principal
earthquake and Himalaya-Mediterranean lines of
disturbance. Since the great shocks of 1854 the
southern and western parts of Japan have not
been visited by great seismic disasters and
"tsunami" (tidal-waves) that very often follow
them, excepting those of 1924 and 1925

Volcanoes whether active, dormant, or extinct
are located only on the Japan Sea side, or the
compression portion, of the Japanese islands and
along the Fuji volcanic chain, which may be
regarded as a sort of crack in the arc.

Small Earthquakes

The number of earthquakes occurring in dif-
ferent parts of Japan gives the average yearly
frequency of some 1,500, or of about four shocks
per day. In Tokyo a sensible shock occurs on
the average once every three days.

Great Earthquake of Tokyo in 1923

As regards the magnitude of damage inflicted
on life and property, the great earthquake of
September 1, 1923, that overwhelmed the region
bordering on the Bay of Sagami is indeed with-
out a parallel in the world's history, the dis-
astrous fire that burst out on the wake of the
tremendous upheaval having reduced to ashes
in a couple of days about one half of Tokyo,
and practically the whole of Yokohama. Scien-
tifically the 1923 earthquake belongs to what is
called "world shaking earthquakes", and was re-
corded, for instance, at Granada, Spain, at 12h
12m 33s of September 1st, while at Sydney it
began at 12h 9m 8s.

To the lasting regret for accuracy of seismo-
logical investigation it should be noted that the
instruments at both the Seismological Institute
of Tokyo Imperial University, and the Central
Meteorological Observatory (Tokyo) broke down
just at the critical moment, so that the only
reliable observation carried out at Tokyo indicat-
ed that the preliminary tremor lasted about 12.1
s., and that in Tokyo it occurred at llh 58m
46s of the central standard time, that is, the time
of the 135 meridian; that taking various factors
into consideration, the depth of the seismic centre
must have been about 45km. and the position of
the epicentre at the bottom of the northern part
of Sagami Bay,


30

GEOLOGY

The seismographical record taken at the Cen-
tral Meteorological Observatory consisted of the
following elements:

Table 6. Seismographic Record

Initial time.................... llh 58m 46s 5

Duration of preliminary tremor 12s 1

Maximum amplitude ....................89mm

Intensity ...................... disastrous

Epicentre......Northern part of Sagami Bay;

Longitude 13U2 E......Latitude 351 N.

As to the origin of this terrestrial disturbance
the hypothesis offered is that, judging from the
distribution of geological strata and the nature
of topographical features of the affected area,
it was not probably due to the powerful strain
to which the earth-crust between the Izu Penin-
sula, the most elevated portion, and the Sea of
Sagami, the most subsided portion, in this re-
gion, must have been subjected for a considerable
period of time. The shock caused severe dis-
location of the strata of the disturbed area,
the shores of Sagami Bay and the west coast of
the Boso Peninsula marking sudden upheaval, as
much as 55 metres at some places, while on the
other hand the bottom of Sagami Bay fell by 20
to 400 metres. Among other noteworthy phenom-
ena was the visit of seismic sea-waves or
"tsunami" which attained the height of 8
metres at some parts on the eastern shores of
the Izu Peninsula, though on the coast of Tokyo
Bay the height was generally below one metre.
Landslides occurred here and there, notably along
the eastern shores of the Izu Peninsula, one at
Nebukawa, about midway between Atami and
Odawara, being most disastrous, while the hilly
district of Hakone was also severely damaged
from this particular dislocation of earth-crust.

As is usual with most strong earthquakes the
1923 convulsion was followed by long trains of
after-shocks, and it was believed by experts that
some three years would elapse before the dis-
located strata could settle to normal condition.
Here is the record of after-shocks observed at
the Central Meteorological Observatory.

Table 7. Number of After-shocks

(Sept. 1, 1923Sept. 1, 1925)

Felt......................... about 1,600

Not felt ..................... 6,100

The seat of after-shocks is naturally shifting.
So far two very strong passing vibrations of
this description have occurred, one on Septem-
ber 2, 1923, off Katsu-ura on the southern coast
of the Boso Peninsula and the other on January

15, 1924, in Sagami Bay. Its intensity is indi-
cated by the following data:

Table 8. Seismoorraphic Record

Initial time ..................... 6h 50m 25s

Duration of preliminary tremor.. 7s 6

Maximum amplitude ............22mm

Whole duration..................................12m

Intensity........................ Stro- g

Epicentre. .Sagami Bay, L. 1392 E. .L. 352 N.

Table 9 Seismic Record in Japan

More disastrous earthquakes recorded in the
pre-Tokugawa period were:

684 A.D. An area of 810 sq. kilometres in
Tosa (Kochi Pref.) subsided and
was covered by sea-water.
869 99 Earthquake with tidal waves visited
Mutsu (Aomori Pref. )and about
1,000 people were killed.
1361 Earthquakes in districts round

about Kyoto.
1498 Tokaido was visited by a severe
earthquake, causing death of over
5,000 persons. Hamana lagoon
(Maizaka station, Tokaido Rail-
way, formerly inland lake) was
formed.

1596 Bungo (Kyushu) was visited by a
severe earthquake and 708 persons
killed.

1596 Districts about Kyoto were shaken
and 1,200 persons killed.

The principal calamities that have occurred
since are:

Houses No. of
destroyed deaths

1605, Feb. 2

1611, Sept. 27
1611, Dec. 2

1633, Mar. 1

1649, July 29

1662, June 16

1666, Feb. 1

1694,June 19

1703, Dec. 31

1704, May 27
1707, Oct. 28

1711, Mar, 19

Tokaido & Shi-
koku (Pacific
Coast) (with
tidal waves) .
Aizu in Iwashiro
Hokkaido and
Sanriku district
(Pacific coast)
(with tidal

waves).......

Odawara (Kana-
gawa Pref.) .
Yedo (Tokyo)..

Places about

Kyoto........

Takata in Echi-

go......

No shir o (Akita

Pref.) .......

Places about
Yedo (Tokyo) .
No shir o (Akita

Pref.) .......

Pacific coast of
Tokaido, Kyu-
shu & Shikoku
(with tidal

waves) .......

Mimasaka, Ina-

8,800
3,700

5,000

150

several
hundreds

3,000

2,760
20,162
1,200

800
1,500
394
5,233
58

29,000 4,900


87 GEOLOGY

JAPAN

Geology
31

ba & Hoki (Tot- Houses No. of
tori, Okayama ce troyed deaths

Pref.) ........ 500 400

1751 Mav 20 Takata in Echi

' go (tidal waves) 6,088 2,000

1766, Mar. 8 Hirosaki ...... 7,192 1,335

1792! May 21 Hizen, High &
vicinity (with

tidal waves) 12,000 15,200
1804, July 10 Kisakata (Akita
Pref.) (with

tidal waves) 5,500 333
1828, Dec. 18 Sanjo in Echigo 11,012 1,443

1830, Aug. 19 Kyoto & vicinity 280

1847, May. 8 Nagano and Nii-
gata Districts.. 34,000 12,000
1854, July 9 Yamato, Iga &
Ise (Miye and

Nara Districts) 5,000 1,057
1854, Dec. 23 Tokaido, Tosan-
do Hokuroku,

San-in Sanyo.. 9,000 1,200

1854, Dec. 24 Tokaido & Shi-

koku (with tidal

waves) ....... 60,000 3,000

1855, Nov. 11 Yedo (Tokyo) 14,346 7,000
1858, Apr. 9 Northern Hida

(Gifu District) 709 203
1872, Mar. 14 Hama in Shima-

ne Pref.....ever 5,000 600

1891, Oct. 28 Mino and Owari
Gifu-Aichi Dis-
trict ......... 80,000 7,273

1894, Oct. 22 Shonai in Yama-

gata ......... 6,006 720

1896, June 15 Sanriku district
(Aomori Iwate
District) (with

tidal waves) 10,370 27,000
1896, Aug. 31 Akita-Iwate Dis-
trict ......... 6,079 206

1904, Nov. 6 Toroku, Kagi

(Taiwan) ..... 1,723 145

1906, Mar. 17 Kagi (Taiwan). 6.769 1,258
1909, Aug. 14 Omi (Shiga Dis-
trict ......... 976 41

1914, Mar. 15 Akita ........ 640 90

1923, Sept. 1 Sagami Bay

(epicentre), To-
kyo, Yokohama
and -outlying
districts ......701,622 99,331

1924, Jan. 15 Sagami ....... 1,273 14

1925, May 23 Northern part

of Tajima (N.

of Himeji) ____ 3,333 895

1927, Mar. 7 N.-W. part of

Kyoto ........ 16,026 3,017

1930, Nov. 26 Northern part

of Izu........ 2,142 259

1933, Mar. 3 Sanriku district
(with tidal

waves) ....... 4,086 2,986

1935, Apr. 21 Shinchiku and

Taichu districts

(Taiwan) ____ 17,835 3,322

1936, Feb. 21 Settsu, Kawachi

iA and Yamato ..." 108 9

1936, Dec. 27 Nii-jima & Shiki-
ne-jima (Ogasa-

wara Is.) ____\ 508 3

Seismic Zones

Ten seismic zones along the weak lines on the
earth's crust are recognized by seismologists,
the more noteworthy being those running parallel
to the Pacific coast. Earthquakes occurring in
these zones are generally of destructive world-
shaking character. Japan that lies along one
of these zones has her own subsidiary belts or
zones as shown in the accompanying map.

Seismic Prediction, Losses, Etc.

(See 1937 Issue)

The exhaustive researches of our seismologists
coupled with the extensive surveying carried out
by the Military and Naval surveying departments
have done much- towards throwing light upon
the mysterious subterranean working of the
earth's crust incidental to seismic activity and
towards placing this infant science on definite
system. The researches and surveying combined
have made it clear that at the seat of the epi-
centre of the 1923 quake, i.e. the 'bottom of the
Bay of Sagami, a tremendous fault occurred,
resulting in an enormous depression on one part
and an equally extensive upheaval on the other,
and that similar extraordinary topographical
changes were witnessed in the Kwanto block it-
self. It has also been ascertained that for the
two preceding years (1921-22) the land adjoining
the seat of the disturbance was undergoing
secular subsidence and slight elevation, all these
indicating the accumulation of a gigantic sub-
terranean stress for many years in this particular
. region.

The number of earthquakes which occurred in
different parts of Japan Proper from the great
earthquake of September 1, 1923, and up to the
end of 1934 is shown in the following statistics
based on the reports of the Central Meteorological
Observatory:

Table 10. Number of Earthquakes
Since 1923 Disaster

No. of earth- Daily
quakes aver ge

1923 (after Sept. 1)...... 1,968 7.8

(for the whole year) 2,786 16.1

1924 ....................................1,200 3.3

1925 ....................................1,886 5.2

1926 ....................................1,272 3.5

1927 .....................2,069 7.4

1928 ....................................1,450 4.0

1929 ....................................1,443 4.0

1930 ....................................5,774 15.8

1931 ....................................1,740 4.8

1932 ....................................1,245 3.4

1933 __________________________1,511 4.1

1934 ...................1,308 3.6

1935 ....................................1,584 4.3'

1936 ...............................1,437 3.9

1937 ....................................1,395 .3.8


32

GEOLOGY

As stated, the relatively large number for
1923 is due to the frequent occurrence of after-
shocks that followed the great earthquake of
September 1; again the large number of shocks
in 1930 is accounted for by the frequent oc-
currence of many minor shocks in the offing of
Shiofuki Point, the Izu Peninsula, between March
and May of that year and the frequent occur-
rence of shocks before and after the severe earth-
quake at northern Izu on November 26 the same
year.

The following table, also based on the inves-
tigation of the Central Meteorological Observa-
tory, shows the number of earthquakes felt by
human body that occurred in Tokyo and vicinity
in the recent past.

Table 11. Number of Earthquakes
in Tokyo and Vicinity

1912

1913

1914

1915

1916

1917

1918

1919
] 920

1921

1922

119
95
86
184
122
111
110
100
68
30
42

1923 ......... 1,374

(After Sept. 1- 1,326)
(Up to Aug. 31 48;

1924 ......... 203

1925

1926

1927

1928

1929

1930

1931

1932

1933

1934

1935

1936

1937

62
56
65
47
56
74
39

30

31
52
22

26

References:

Table Nos.: la, 2 a, 3 b, 4 b, 5 a, 6 c; 7 c, 8 c, 9 c, 10 c, 11 a, 12 c.
Key: aOfficial Statistical Annual of Physics, 1938.
bHot Springs in Japan.

cResearches of the Tokyo Central Meteorological Observatory*


JAPAN

Population

CHAPTER IV

POPULATION AND EMIGRATION

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

The population of Japan is characterized by
a density and a rate of increase comparable to
those of the highest in the world. Although
there are no accurate data to verify the popu-
lation of Japan prior to the Meiji Restoration
(1868), the number of inhabitants is put in
approximate figures at thirty millions. It
is computed that in the preceding century or
more the population had remained almost at a
standstill. The prolific increase in population is
therefore a phenomena of the past 70 years
during which time the number of inhabitants
has more than doubled. The rate of increase
by decades is as follows: 1870-1880, 5%; 1880-
1890, 7.6%; 1890-1900, 10%; 1900-1910, 12%;
1910-1920, 13%; 1920-1930, 15%. For the

quinquennial period, 1930-1935, the rate of in-
crease fell off to 6.4%. The annual growth in
population was highest in 1932 at 1,007,398,
but since then a gradual decline has been noted.

Races.Besides the Yamato race (the main
strain of what is now known as the Japanese
race), the Empire harbours within its confines
some six distinct types. Of these only two are
jprominent in the Empire, the Koreans and the
Formosans who number roughly 20,500,000 and
148,000, respectively. The other types are the
Ainus (pop. 16,000) of the Hokkaido, Kuriles
and Saghalien, the Gilyaks (pop. 77) of
Saghalien, the Orokes, and the Micronesians
(pop. .51,000) of the South Sea Mandated
Islands.

Table 1. Population of Japan Compared with Other Countries

Density per

Year Area (sq. km.) Population Male Female sq. km.

Japan ........................1935 675,344 97,697,555 49,242,822 48,454,733 145

Japan Proper .... 382,545 69,254,148 34,734,133 34,520,015 181

Dependencies________ 292,799 28,443,407 14,508,689 13,934,718 97

China ........................1932 9,686,907 445,181,000 ____ ________' 46

Germany....................1933 468,802 65,218,461 31,685,562 33,532,899 "139

England ....................1931 229,865 44,795,357 21,458,533 23,336,824 '195

France ......................1931 550,986 41,228,466 19,911,676 21,316,790 75

United States _________1930 7,839,353 122,775,046 62,137,080 60,637,966 16

Italy............................1931 310,177 41,176,671 20,133,455 21,043,216 133

India..........................1931 4,684,461 352,837,778 181,828,923 171,008,855 75

Soviet Union ............1926 21,176,187 147,027,915 71,043,352 75,984,563 7

Belgium ....................1930 30,507 8,092,004 4,007,418 4,084,586 265

Holland ....................1930 34,181 7,935,565 3,942,676 3,992,889 232

Northern Ireland not included.

Population of the Whole Empire.The popula-
tion of the whole Empire of Japan as enumerat-
ed by the 1935 census is 97,697,555. Contrasted
with the 1930 census, it shows an increase of
7,301,512, or 8.1%?. As for the increases shown
by Japan Proper and her colonies during the
five years, Japan Proper is represented by
4,804,143 (7.4%), Korea by 1,840,733 (8.7%),
Formosa by 619,881 (13.5%) and Karafuto by
36,747 (12.5%).

The leased territory of Kwantung Province
accounts for 1,134,704, the South Manchuria
Railway Zone for 522,689 and the mandated
South Sea Islands for 102,537. Adding these
figures to the population of the whole Empire
given above, the total is 99,456,818.

Density of Population.The average density

of population of the Empire according to the
1935 census is 145. That of Japan Proper is
181, which makes Japan one of the most densely
populated countries in the world coming next
only to Holland, Belgium and England, as Stated
above. Contrasted with the two previous census,
the number shows a gain of 12 and 25 res-
pectively.

The density of population differs greatly ac-
cording to prefectures. Tokyo Prefecture comes
first with 2,970 per square km. (45,805 per
square ri), followed by Osaka with 2,369
(36,544 per square ri). Kanagawa, Aichi, and
Fukuoka Prefectures are each represented by
500 and upwards, Kagawa and Saitama and
other prefectures by 400 and upwards. The
Hokkaido comes last with 35 per square km,
(533 per square ri).


34

POPULATION AND EMIGRATION

Table 2. Density of Population

(Oct. 1, 1936)

M>le Popula-

population tion
Area per 1C0 per sq.
(Sq. km.) Population 1 em ales km.
Japan Proper. .382,545 70,258,200 101 181
Chosen ....... ,220,768 22,047,836 103 100
Taiwan....... 35,961 5,451,863 104 151
Karafuto ..... 36,090 321,765 119 9
Total ...... 675,385 98,079,664 102 145
Kwantung Leas-
ed Territory &
S.M.R. Zone.. 3,760 1,680,627 145 447
Pacific Mandate
Islands ...... 2,148 107,137 125 49
Grand total. . 681,294 99,867,428 146

Sex Ratio..Of the total population of Japan
Proper at the 1935 census given as 69,254,148,
34,734,133 are males and 34,520,015 females.
The number of males exceeds that of females by
232,118. They are in a ratio of 100.6 to 100,
which compares with 101.0 to 100 for the pre-
vious census.

Table 3. Census Population By Sex

(Japan Proper)

Male Population
Male Female per 100 females

1920...... 28,044,185 27,918,868 100.4

1925...... 30,013,109 29,723,713 101.0

1930...... 32,390,155 32,059,850 101.0

1935...... 34,734,133 34,520,015 100.6

Distribution of Population.To look into the
distribution of population by prefectures, Tokyo
ranks first with 6,570,800 and Osaka next with
4,455,400. They are followed by the Hokkaido
and three other prefectures each with 2,000,000
and upwards. Besides, eleven prefectures are
populated by 1,500,000 and upwards, thirteen
prefectures by 1,000,000 and upwards, eleven
prefectures by 700,000 and upwards, five by
5,000,000 and upwards. Tottori Prefecture comes
last with 490,700. Compared with the 1930
census, with the exception of the three prefec-
tures of Saga, Nagano and Kochi, all prefectures
show an increase in population. The greatest
increase is 961,241 shown by Tokyo, followed by
Osaka with 757,157, Aichi and four other pre-
fectures each with 200,000 and upwards, Kyoto
and two others each with 100,000 and upwards.

As for the sex ratio in the prefectures, the
male proportion is larger than the female pro-
portion in fourteen prefectures and smaller in
thirty-three. Tokyo, comes first with the male
proportion with 109.3 for every 100 females,
followed by Osaka with 109.1, the Hokkaido with
108.1 and Kanagawa with 107.1.

Urban and Suburban Population.The total

population of all the cities of the country,
numbering 127, as returned at the 1935 census,
is 22,665,920 and that of the suburbs 46,585,345.
The former bears a proportion of 32.7% to the
population of the whole country and the latter
67.3%. Compared with 24% for the urban popu-
lation and 76% for the suburban population at
the 1930 census, the percentage for the urban
population shows a marked expansion. This is
due in no small degree to the municipal extension
of Tokyo. To divide the urban population by
sex, males number 11,635,729 and females
11,030,191, the former and the latter being in
a ratio of 105.5 to 100. As for the suburban
population, males number 23,096,131 and
females 23,489,214, the ratio being 98.3 to 100.

Table 4. Population By Urban and
Surburban Districts

TT t_ -p -i Increase on

Urban Popula- 1920 1925 figures

tion ...... 12,269,210 13,711,120 1,441,910

Suburban

Population. 43,693,843 46,025,702 2,331,859

Urban Popula- 1925 193o ^figures0"

tion ...... 13,711,120 15,444,300 l,73o,180

Suburban

Population. 46,025,702 49,005,705 2,980,003

Urban Popula- 193o 1935 '"figures011

tion ...... 15,444,300 22,666,307 7,222,007

Suburban

Population. 49,005,705 46,587,841 2,417,864*

N.B.: decrease.

Of the 127 cities, those with a population of
100,000 and upwards number 34. Tokyo tops
the list with 5,875,388, followed by Osaka with
2,989,866, Nagoya with 1,082,814, Kyoto with
1,080,592, Kobe with 912,140, Yokohama with
704,290. In comparison with the previous ceusus,
Osaka was surpassed by Tokyo and Kobe by
Kyoto. These "Big Six" are followed by Hiro-
shima with 310,117. Those cities with a popu-
lation of 200,000 and upwards are Fukuoka and
six others, those with a population of 100,000
and upwards are -Sapporo and nineteen others.
The population of these cities each with a popu-
lation of 100,000 and upwards is 17,517,717,
which bears a proportion of 25.3 per cent, to the
population of the whole country. This percent-
age compares with 12.1 at the 1920 census, or
the first census, 14.6 at the 1925 census and 17.1
at the 1930 census. Of that population, 9,099,-
846 are males and 8,417,871 females, the ratio
of the former and the latter being 108.1 to 100.

As for the percentage of the population of the
cities each with 100,000 and upwards in Europe
and America, to the entire population, England
is represented by 45.5 (1931), Germany by 30.4
(1933), the U.S.A. by 29.6 (1930), Italy by 17.4
(1932), France by 15.7 (1931). It will thus be
seen that Japan is preceded by the U.S.A. and
followed by Italy.


POPULATION AND EMIGRATION

JAPAN

Population

35

City Year

New York ..................1936

Tokyo..........................1937

Berlin ........................1937

* Census results.

Table 5. Population of Tokyo Compared with Foreign Cities

Population
(1,000)

7,365
6,274
4,251

City

London ......................1936

* Paris ..........................1936

*Rome ........................1936

Table 6. Japan's Position in Birth and Deathrate per 1,000 People

Japan Proper England Germany

Population
(1,000)

4,141
2,330
1,179

France

Birth Death Birth Death ' Birth Death Birth Death
1930..... , 32.4 18.2 16.8 11.7 17.5 11.1 18.0 15.7
1931..... , 32.2 19.0 16.3 12.5 16.0 11.2 17.5 16.3
1932..... 32.9 17.7 15.8 12.3 15.1 10.8 17.3 15.8
1933..... 31.6 17.8 14.9 12.0 14.7 11.2 16.2 15.8
1934..... 30.0 18.1 15.2 12.0 18.0 10.9 16.2 15.1
1935----- 31.6 16.8 15.2 12.0 18.9 11.8 15.3 15.7
1936----- . 30.3 17.5

Natural Increase in Population.The natural
increase in population caused by the increase in
the difference between births and deaths differs
somewhat according to year, but it has on the
whole pursued an upward course. This natural
increase in population was reckoned at over
700,000 yearly about a quarter of a century ago.
In 1918 the number seriously decreased to less
than 300,000 due chiefly to the prevalence of the
Spanish influenza. The following year the num-
ber increased to 500,000. Since then it gradu-
ally increased until 1926 when it reached a

height of 940,000. Later the number dropped to
the level of 800,000. In 1930 the number re-
covered the 900,000 level at 914,000, or 14.2 in
1,000 people. In 1932 the number reached the
1,000,000 level at 1,007,000, or 15.19 in 1,000
people. From the following year, however, the
number began to decline.

The number of births and deaths for the
whole of 1936 was 2,101,969 and 1,230,278
respectively. The proportion of the number
of births per 1,000 population is 29.9, while
deaths is 17.5.

Table 7. Married and Unmarried Population

Married

Unmarried

Dec. Males Females Total

1898 ....................7^979,858 7,979,858 15,959,716

1903 ....................8,229,152' 8,229,152 16,458,304

1908 ....................8,583,168 8,583,168 17,166,336

1913 ....................9,144,727 9,144,727 18,289,454

1918 ....................9,568,500 9,568,502 19,137,002

1925 ....................11,860,690 11,881,960 23,742,650

1930 ....................12,477,501 12,516,167 24,993,668

N.B,:Excluding divorce and bereavement.

Males

14,093,234
15,372,488
16,463,212
17,819,859
19,057,117
16,739,639
18,508,059

Females

13,709,665
14,902,084
15,959,356
17,253,369
18,473,592
14,454,786
16,010,492

27,802,899
30,274,572
32,422,468
35,073,228
37,530,709
31,194,425
34,518,551

1909-13
1914-18
1919-23
1924-28
1929-32
1932. .
1933.. .
1934.. .
1935. ..
1936...

No.

1,729,925
1,803,391
1,961,547
2,077,121
2,116,707
2,182,742
2,121,25&
2,043,783
2,190,704
2,101,969

, No.

153,920
141,965

136.277

122.278
118,196
119,579
114,138
113,043
115,593
111,056

Table 9. Average Age of First Marriage

No.

1,052,735
1,215,254
1,322,411
1,215,484
1,217,005
1,175,344
1,193,987
1,234,684
1,161,936
1,230,278

Ratio per
No. 1,000 pop.

8.45

Table 8. Number of Births, Deaths, Marriage and Divorce

Births Still-births Deaths Marriage

Ratio per
1.0G0 pop.

2.99

2.57
2.39
2.02
1.84
1.80
1.70
1.66
1.67

1.58

Divorce

Ratio per
1,000 pop.

33.7
32.6
34.4
34.4
33.0
32.9
31.6
30.0
31.6
29.9

Ratio per
1,000 pop.

20.5
22.0
23.2
20.1
19.2

17.7

17.8
18.1
16.8
17.5

434,786
456,074
514,833
504,964
502,697
515,270
486,058
512,654
556,730
549,116

8.07

9.03
8.34
7.83
7.77
7.23
7.52

8.04
7.82

No.
59,023
58,495
53,998
50,734
50,729
51,437
49,282
48,610
48,528
46,167

Ratio per
1,000 pop

1.15
1.06
0.95
0.84
0.75
0.78
0.73
0.71
0.70
0.66

Male Female

192 5........................27.09 23.12

192 6........................27.13 23.07

192 7...................27.18 23.05

192 8........................27.26 23.10

192 9........................27.36 23.23

193 0........................27.33 23.21

Male

193 1........................27.29

193 2........................27.40

193 3........................27.57

193 4........................27.70

193 5........................27.76

193 6........................27.86

Female

23.25
23.39
23.58
23.70
23.81
23.92


population and emigration

Sterilization of Unfit

The Home Office is framing a bill for the steri-
lization of the mentally unfit. This action is
being taken because an investigation, made in
cooperation with the Japan Eugenics Society,
has revealed that 70 per cent of the 150,000 per-
sons in Japan known to be suffering from mental
diseases have inherited their handicaps.

Table 10. Average Age of Mortality

Male Female

1886........................38.13 38.91

1896................33.87 34.93

1906................32.11 34.55

1916........................31.81 32.30

193 2........................33.56 34.34

193 3........................33.93 34.96

193 4........................34.24 35.44

193 5........................34.53 35.54

Table 11. Census Population of the Prefectures

(Enumerated at the Quinquennial Census taken Oct. 1, 1935)

Prefecture Area (sq. km.)

Aichi ....................5,081

Akita ....................11,664

Aomori ................9,631

Chiba....................5,062

Ehime ..................5,667

Fukui....................4,264

Fukijoka ..............4,940

Fukushima............13,782

Gifu ......................10,495

Gumma ................6,336

Hiroshima ............8,437

Hokkaido..............88,775

Hyogo ..................8,323

Ibaraki ................6,091

Ishikawa ..............4,192

Iwate ....................15,235

Osaka
Saga ....
Saitama .
Shiga ....
Shimane .
Shizuoka .
Tochigi .
Tokushima

1,814
2,449
3,803
4,051
6,625
7,770
6,437
4,143

Population

2,862,701
1,037,744
967,129
1,546,394
1,164,898
646,659
2,755,804
1,581,563
1,225,799
1,242,453
1,804,916
3,068,282
2,923,249
1,548,991
768,416
1,04-6,111
4,297,174
686,117
1,528,854
711,436
747,119
1,939,860
1,195,057
728,748

Prefecture Area Csq. km.)

Kagawa ................1,859

Kagoshima............9,104

Kanagawa ............2,353

Kochi....................7,104

Kumamoto............7,438

Kyoto....................4,621

Miyagi ..................7,274

Miyazaki ..............7,739

Miye......................5,765

Nagano ................13,626

Nagasaki ..............4,076

Nara......................3,689

Niigata ................12,578

Oita
Okayama .
Okinawa ,

Tokyo ____

Tottori .
Toyama .
Wakayama
Yamagata
Yamaguchi
Yamanashi ,

6,334
7,046
2,386
2,145
3,489
4,257
4,723
9,326
6,082
4,466

Population
748,656
1,591,466
1,840,005
714,980
1,387,054
1,702,508
1,234,801
824,431
1,174,595
1,714,000
1,296,883
620,471
1,995,777
980,458
1,332,647
592,494
6,369,919
490,461
798,890
864,087
1,116,822
1,190,542
646,727

Table 12. Census Population of the Cities

(Enumerated at the Quinquennial Census taken Oct. 1, 1935)

Cities Population

Akashi ..............42,644

Akita ................60,646

Amagasaki .... 71,072

Aomori ............93,414

Asahikawa________91,021

Ashikaga ..........48,875

Beppu ..............62,345

Chiba ..............57,446

Choshi ____... 48,352

Fukui ..............75,273

Fukuoka ..........291,158

Fukushima .... 48,484

Fukuyama .... 58,186

Gifu ..................128,721

Hachinohe .... 62,210

Hachioji............59,494

Hagi ................32,587

Hakodate..........207.480

Hamamatsu ... 133,338

Himeji ..............91,375

Hiratsuka ________38,346

Hirosaki ..........46,014

Hiroshima ,,,, 310,118

Increase of
No. of pop. on 1950
households census

9,406
10,961
14,783
17,693
16,356
8,999
13,596
11,938
9,857
16,861
55,184
8,842
12,394
25,936
10,853
11,338
7,160
39,196
25,702
18,210
7.640
8,555
66,336

3,686
4,101
21,008

11.334
3,796
4,977
5,155
8,358
5,654
8,705

40,914
2,792
3,789

11.335
9,303
7,606

481
10.228
23,860
7,396
4,850
2,677
39,701

Cities

Ichikawa .

Ichinorniya

Iizuka .

Imabari .

Ishinomaki

Kagoshima

Kainan .

Kartazawa

Karatsu .

Kawagoye

Kawaguchi

Kawasaki .

Kiryu

Kishiwada

Kobe ____

Kochi

Kofu ____

Kokura .

Koriyama

Kumagaya

Kumamoto

Kurashiki

Kure

Population

46,711
53,376
39,629
51,602
33,530
181,736
29,917
163,733
31,058
35,192
53,716
154,748
76,145
39,097
912,179
103,405
82,664
110,372
54,709
37,649
187,382
34,716
231,333

. No. of
households

8,952
10,009
7,777
11,020
5,726
35,647
6,376
35,399
6,230
6,954
10,245
30,656
13,478
8,565
198,018
24,033
17,068
22,798
9,895
7,227
36,311
7,366
46,707

Increase of
pop. on 1930
census

8,922
11,147
* 380
3,563
2,787
15,366
1,231
*3,576
909
987
12,392
40,454
17,849
3,995
124,563
3,277
3,217
22,323
3,342
1,736
15,507
4,604
41,051


JAPAN

Population

POPULATION AND EMIGRATION

37

Cities Po^11 atin

Kurume ............91,920

Kushiro ............56,170

Kyoto................1,080,593

Marugame .... 29,615

Matsumoto ... 73,353

Matsuyama .. . 81,940

Matsuye ..........52,033

Matsuzaka .... 35,661

Mayebashi________87,181

Mito..................63,816

Miyakonojo ... 36,575

Miyazaki ..........64,726

Moji..................121,611

Morioka
Muroran
Nagano
Nagaoka

69,130
65,095
77,325
62,152

No. of
househou

16,468
10,237
224,663
6,308
14,851
18,363
10,623
7,199
16,953
12,958
7,201
12,925
26,415
12,847
12.343
15,483
11,860
43,470

Nagasaki ..........211,702

Nagoya ...........1,082,816 .219,739

Nakatsu ............30,328 ~ '

Naokata............43,943

Nara..................55,968

Nawa ................65,208

Niigata..............134,992

Nishinomiya . 89,909

Nobeoka ______56,421

Numazu ...... 49,824

Obihiro ............35,695

Ogaki................49,273

Oita ..................61,732

Okayama ..........166,144

Okazaki ............77,195

Omuda..............104,992

Onomichi..........30,777

Osaka................2,989,874

Otaru................153,587

Otsu..................71,063

Saga ................50,154

Sakai ................. 141,286

Sakata ..............31,866

Sanjyo..............34,649

Sapporo ............196,541

* Decrease.

6,105
8,528
11,840
15,241
26,319
18,241
10,089
9,063
6,980
9,888
11,168
35,837
15,650
20,685
6,950
630,232
29,223
14,235
9,406
29,518
6,374
6,331
38,019

Increase of
pop. on 1930
d census!

8,911
4,584
128,189
778
1,212
* 537
3,261
2,410
2,256
2,972
1,063
5,805
13,481
6,881
9,240
3,413
4,286
7,076
175,412
1,765
3,871
3.184
4,673
9,884
17,790
25,524
5,797
7,560
7,615
4,438
17,477
11,688
7,693
1,693
536,301
8,700
11,692
3,971
20,938
1,586
3,393
22,362

Cities Population

Sasebo ....... 173,283

Sendai ....... 219,547

Seto ......

Shimizu .
Shimonoseki
Shingyu

47,553
61,123
132,737
32,055

Shizuoka ..... 200,737

Shuri
Takamatsu
Takaoka .
Takasaki .
Takata .
Tobata .
Tokushima

19,305
86,840
57,249

64.283

31.284
67,800
97,021

Tokyo .......5,875,6671

Tottori..............45,335

Toyama ............83,324

Toyohashi ________140,735

Tsu ...............65,971

Tsuruoka ..........37,224

Tsuyama ..........36,092

Ube ..................76,642

Uji-Yamada . 52,494

Urawa ....... 4-4,328

Utsunomiya . 87,129

Uwajima ..... 51,280

Uyeda .............35,380

Wakamatsu

(Fukushima-ken)
Wakamatsu

(Fukuoka-ken) 73,345

Wakayama . 179,732

Yamagata .... 69,931

Yamaguehi ... 34,803

Yawata ......... 208,629

Yawatahama . 30,500

Yokkaichi ________58,471

Yokohama .... 704,290

Yokosuka 182,871.

Yonago ...... 36,635

Yonezawa .. . 50,448

No. of
household

31,009
39,883
10,092
11,629
28,833
7,458
36,492
4,571
18,803
11,299
12,907
5,758
13,937
21,168
,191,939
9,217
17,262
27,285
13,628
7,191
7,784
16,488
10,790
8,772
17,355
11,127
7,620

Increase of
pop. on 1930
census

40,109
23,685
10,144
5,458
12,671
3,088
10,228
* 8.14
6,934
3,207
4,355
350
16,126
6,387
904,828
3,198
3,778
12,022
2,274
2,908
1,933
11,041
1,414
7,482
5,741
923
242

46,199 8,517 2,468

15,253
38,943
12,635
7,156
42,922
6,537
12,381
148,545
31,640
7,950
8,878

7,283
19,268
3,786
2,418
40,412
1,520
6,661
71,828
39,610
1,415
5,717

Table 13. Distribution of Urban and Rural Population

Results of 1925 Census Results of 1930 Census Results of. 1935 Census

Population
Under 500 .
501-2,000 ..
2,001-5,000 ..
5,001-10,000 .
10,001-20,000.
20,001-50,000.
50,001-100,000
Over 100,000

No. of
towns

82
2,542
7,052
1,734
392
145
51
21

Total ......12,019

Population

26,103
3,848,410
22,533,803
11,475,200
5,229,161
4,437,992
3,444,916
8,741,237
59,736,822

Pet.
0.04
6.45
37.72
19.21
8.75
7.43
5.77
14.63
100.00

No. of
towns

70
2,350
6,886
1,878
426
158
65
32
11,865

Population

21,766
3,543,608
22,120,136
12,472,034
5,718,084
4,690,674
4,402,415'
11,481,288
64,450,005

Pet.
0.03
5.50
34.32
19.35
8.87
7.28
6.83
17.82
100.00

No. of

towns Population Pet.
64 18,703 0.03
2,265 3,408,135 4.92
6,564 21,137,240 30.52
1,953 12,938,344 18.68
466 6,254,515 9.03
146 4,294,122 6.20
54 3,685,020 5.32
34 17,518,069 25.30
11,546 69,254,148 100.00

Table 14. Population Classified By Calling

j (1930 Census)

Employers Independent Employed

Male Female Male '"ernale Male Female Total

Agriculture ....... 4,084,190 192,976 485,592 243,732 3,173,283 5,960,334 14,140,107

Fishery ........... 115,065 755 114,755 11,671 271,258 43,120 546,624

Mining .......... 4,439 41 5,,39 71 200,496 40,934 251,220

Industry .......... 657,539 29,105 802,627 172,629 2,808,985 1,228,696 5,699,581

Tra<*e ............ 826,814 126,242 887,255 355,228 1,299,831 982,725 4,478,098


38 POPULATION AND EMIGRATION

Employers Independent Employed

Male Female Male Female Male Female Total

Transportation ________60,152 806 120,423 925 848,020 77,248 1,107,574

(Civil service and
Professional occu-
pations) ................44,166 4,772 115,586 58,390 1,532,051 289,186 2,044,151

Domestic employees. - -----84,203 697,116 781,319

Others........................2,787 95 27,496 4,223 457,982 78,383 570,966

Without fixed calling - ---- --34,830,365

Total ......................5,795,152 354,792 2,558,976 836,869 10,676,109 9,397,742 64,450,005

Foreign Residents in Japan

The number of foreign residents in Japan as
at the end of 1937, as shown by the returns of
the Statistics Bureau of the Cabinet, stood at
40,865. It shows an increase of 2,390 over the
previous year. Tokyo tops the list with 11,969,
followed by Hyogo with 8,916, Kanagawa with
5,737, Osaka with 3,214, Nagasaki 1,604, Kyoto
1,004, Fukuoka 1,063, Aichi 696, the Hokkaido
682.

Table 15. Foreign Residents in Japan by Sex

Male Female Total

1927..............23,746 9,171 32,917

193 2..............18,615 8,270 26,885

193 3................19,764 9,504 29,268

193 4..............21,895 10,746 32,641

193 5..............25,766 12,709 38,475

193 6..............27,502 13,363 40,865

As for the nationality of foreign residents in
Japan, Chinese come first with 27,090, Amer-

icans with 2,086, English 2,092, Manchoukuoans

with 2,581, Germans with 1,535, Russians with
1,294.

Table 16. Foreign Residents By Nationality

Nationality 1933 1934 1935 1936

Australia ...... 45 55 44 58

British India____ 317 395 474 874

China ......... 19,932 22,741 26,203 27,090

Canada ........ 304 311 291 303

Denmark....... 82 92 85 88

France ........ 491 512 537 569

Germany ...... 1,118 1,254 1,458 1,535

England ....... 1,944 1,953 2,075 2,092

Italy .......... 132 130 159 183

Manchoukuo____ 128 260 1,792 2,581

Netherlands ____ 139 163 248 238

Portugal ....... 158 107 195 214

Russia (white) 1,479 1,457 1,248 1,294

Sweden ........ 79 91 96 87

Switzerland .... 203 187 203 215

United States 2,039 2,082 2,084 2,086

U. S. S. R..................... ., 281 268

Total including

others ..... 29,268 32,641 38,475 40,865

Table 17. Foreign Visitors to Japan

British American German French Russian Chinese Total incl. other
1931..... . 3,523 6,162 672 462 1,082 12,877 27,272
1932..... ... 3,525 4,310 721 478 1,066 7,792 20,960
1933..... 5,117 5,792 1,118 636 1,091 9,146 26,264
1934..... 6,391 7,947 1,313 883 1,427 12,676 35,196
1935. ... 7,293' 9,111 1,523 894 1,280 14,260 42,629
1936 ..... . 6,992 9,655 1,446 920 1,315 11,398 42,568
1937..... . 6,097 10,077 1,816 882 1,562 8,275 40,302

LEGAL STATUS OF FOREIGNERS

Landownership and Naturalization

With some exceptions the f oreigners living
in Japan enjoy the same status as native sub-
jects, so far as rights and privileges are con-
cerned. At the same time foreigners are just
as amenable to the criminal laws and punitive
provisions of the realm as the Japanese. The
exceptions mentioned above relate first to min-
ing concessions which are granted only to native
subjects or to companies formed under Japanese
laws. Foreigners may therefore enjoy mining
rights by becoming shareholders of a company
so formed. Certain subsidized companies such
as the Nippon Yusen Kaisha and the Osaka
Shosen Kaisha or the banks under special pro-

tection like the Bank of Japan, the Yokohama
Specie Bank, etc. are not allowed to take for-
eigners as shareholders.

Alien Landownership

This was first sanction in 1910 by law, but
as the date for putting it into operation was
left unfixed the law remained a dead letter.
A new law voted in the 50th session of the Im-
perial Diet and promulgated on April 1, 1925,
has replaced the original enactment, the measure
being put in force on November 10, 1926. The
law in question is essentially based on the spirit
of reciprocity and recognizes the rights of alien
ownership as mutual concession. In other words,


JAPAN

Population

POPULATION AND EMIGRATION

this right is extended only to citizens, either as
individuals or as majority partners, shareholders,
etc., of foreign juridical persons, of those foreign
countries that recognize mutatis mutandis similar
right of Japanese subjects. According to the
law, foreigners cannot own land or acquire
superficies or emphyteusis in certain districts
of strategic importance without permission of
the Ministers of Army and Navy, such districts
being designated in the ordinance relating to the
operation of the alien landownership law, pro-
mulgated on November lst, 1926.

Naturalization

A foreigner may become a Japanese subject
under the following conditions, viz., (1) That he
has been domiciled in Japan for at least five
years continuously; (2) is at least 20 years of
age and possesses civil capacity according to the
law of his native country; (3) is of good moral;
(4) possesses property or ability to maintain
himself; (5) possesses no nationality or will lose
it on being made a Japanese subject.

The above conditions are much modified for

those whose fathers, mothers or wives were
Japanese subjects, and for those who were born
in Japan of either Japanese father or mother.
Those who have lived in Japan for ten years or
more may be naturalized even when they have
not domiciled for five consecutive years, while
for those who have made distinguished services
to Japan the process of naturalization may, with
Imperial sanction, be made very simple, i.e.,
continuous residence or domicile in Japan for at
least one year and good morals. The nationality
can also be acquired by being adopted by a
Japanese subject. Naturalization still remains
comparatively insignificant in number, the bulk
being supplied by Chinese living in Taiwan.

Table 18. Naturalization

Marrying Rehabi-

Year into family Adopted Naturalized litated

192 9................3 1 9 27

193 0................4 1 29

193 1................1 1 3 35

193 2................3 4 9 55

193 3................4 2 124

193 4................1 5 167

193 5........... 2 4 157

193 6................ 1 3 131

EMIGRATION

Expatriation of Japanese

Until 1916 Japan did not recognize expatria-
tion of her sons and daughters who acquired for-
eign citizenship, excepting those females who
married foreign subjects, The result was the
Japanese who legally became American citizens,
for example, still figured on Japanese census
register so that they stood on the peculiar status
of double nationality. This procedure was at
last changed and the Law of Nationality was re-

vised in August, 1916. The law was further
amended in December, 1924 and the foreign
countries to which the expatriation applied was
designated to be (1) U.S.A., (2) Argentina, (3)
Brazil, (4) Canada, (5) Chile, and (6) Peru. It
may be noted that those American or Canadian-
born Japanese boys not yet expatriated are still
technically liable to the Japanese conscription
law, so that the crux of "double nationality"
question remains unsolved.

Table 19. Number of New Emigrants in Recent Years ^

Malay Total incl.

Brazil Philippines Peru Canada U.S.S.R. States D.E.I. Argentine Mexico Australia otheife

!930............13,741 2,685 831 137 1,512 835 558 489 434 75 21,828

193 1............5,565 1,109 299 106 1,238 549 447 362 283 34 10,384

193 2............15,108 746 369 .98 1,096 356 533 239 149 101 19,028

193 3............23,299 941 481 91 1,095 322 468 135 85 59 27,317

193 4............22,960 1,544 473 105 1,320 598 356 112 80 105 28,087

}935--------5,745 1,802 814 57 322 583 389 201 53 92 10,813

1936............5,357 2,891 593 82 297 534 145 349 62 223 11,119

While the annual rate of increase of the popu- The small outflow of emigrants is due to the

lation of the Japanese Empire is between imposition of immigration restrictions by a num-

800,000 and 1,000,000 in recent years the num- ber of countries, on one hand, and to the diffi-

ber of emigrants is roughly 12,000 yearly, or culties confronted by the Japanese in competing

1.2% of the total increase in population when against the nationals of the countries where

the latter is taken at 1,000,000 per year. The immigration of Japanese is allowed, on the other

number of Japanese residing abroad was 1,220,- hand.

117 on the lst of October, 1937. Brazil has for many years been the outlet for


40

POPULATION AND EMIGRATION

the largest number of Japanese emigrants. In
1936 a total of 5,357 Japanese subjects, repre-
senting 48% of the total number of emigrants
for that year, went over to Brazil. The next
largest outlet has been the Philippines which ac-
counted for 2,891 in the same year.

Formerly, affairs relating to emigration and
settlement were under the control of the Depart-
ment of Home Affairs. With the establishment
of the Department of Overseas Affairs in June,
1929, however, they were transferred to the

new Department, which has since been co-opera-
ing with various private'"associations in pro-
moting the external development of the country
by taking protective and encouraging measures
for emigration and settlement. Mention must
especially be made of the fact that in September,
1932 the question that had been pending for
many years was settled when the Government
started granting a subsidy to emigrants to help
them prepare for setting out on a long journey,

Table 20. Emigrants Going and Returning and Remittances

Number of emigrants Those emigrating Money remitted
again by emigrants
Year Male Female Total Cmen and women) (Â¥1,000)
1926 ..... . 10,555 5,629 16,184 2,362 24,945
1927..... ... 11,735 6,306 18,041 2,270 24,441
1928..... . 12,502 7,348 19,850 2,103 27,613
1929..... . 16,330 9,374 25,704 1,873 28,145
1930..... . 14,130 7,699 21,829 1,199 23,195
1931 ... 7,052 3,332 10,384 1,058 17,914
1932.. .. 11,408 7,625 19,033 1,204 20,066
1933 ... 15,919 11,398 27,317 700 20,307
1934,. . 16,419 11,668 28,087 2,011 20,532
1935..... 6,654 4,159 10,813 1,645
for the occupations of the Japanese resi- proportion at 20%, followed by commerce 1

dents, in 1930 agriculture claimed the largest 10%, industry 9%, official and other duties 2%,

Table 21. Japanese Residents Abroad By Continents

North America Asia Europe South America Africa Oceania Total
1931.... ..... 127,964 109,866 3,997 142,648 69 125,210 509,754
1932____ ---- 131,152 205,777 3,696 146,678 104 147,820 635,227
1933 129,429 228,208 3,778 160,387 152 150,312 672,266
1934. .. 174,230 339,998 2,954 201,740 201 153,684 872,807
1935.., 123,611 247,115 3,840 200,786 948 113,518 689,818
1936.,,. ---- 137,587 447,576 2,629 223,655 210' 155,458 997,115

Table 22. Number of Japanese Residing Abroad
By Consular's Jurisdictions

(Oct. 1st, 1937)

Male Female Total

Grand Total...... 682,334 537,763 1,220,117

Asia

Eastern Russia:

Vladivostok .... 47 32 79
Havarovsk 7 1 8
Alexandrovsk . 677 103 780
Oha ...... 1,860 96 1,956
Total incl. others 2,613 241 2,854
Manchoukuo:
Chientao . 1,337 1,077 2,414
Mukden . 78,314 63,706 142,020
Antung , 9,850 8,864 18,714
Hsinking 43,054 33,210 76,264
Harbin , 20,811 15,817 36,628
Kirin ..... 5,886 4,805 10,691
Total incl. others 211,152 164,884 376,036
China:
Tientsin . 6,019 4,842 10,861
Tsingtao . 7,618 7,404 15,022

Male Female Total
Tsinan ........ 957 916 1,873
Shanghai ...... 12,585 11,087 23,672
Hankow ....... 856 844 1,700
Amoy ......... 211 197 408
Total incl. others 31,517 27,828 59,345
Hongkong ...... 709 702 1,411
Siam ........... 304 143 447
French Indo-China 123 129 252
British India & Ceylon:
Calcutta ....... 195 162 357
Bombay ....... 321 243 564
Rangoon ....... 285 189 474
Colombo ....... 31 26 57
Total incl. others 832 620 1,507
Singapore:
British Borneo & 945
, Sarawak ...... 651 294
S. S. & Malay 7,185
States ........ 4,234 2,951
Total......... 4,885 3,245 8,130
21 12 33
Afganistan ...... 12 5 17
Dutch East Indies. 4,413 2,084 6,497


JAPAN

Population

POPULATION AND EMIGRATION

41

Philippines:

Davao .........

Manila ........

Total incl. others

Europe

England ........

Germany........

France .........

Belgium ........

Spain ..........

Netherlands .....

Switzerland .....

Italy ....--------

Austria .........

Sweden .........

U. S. S. R.......

Poland .........

Turkey .........

Portugal ........

Total incl. others
North America
U. S. A.:
San Francisco
Los Angeles .
Portland ....

Seattle .....

Chicago ....
New York .
Total incl. others

Canada:

Ottawa ........

Vancouver .....

Total incl. others
Central & South America

Mexico .........

Panama ........

Cuba...........

Salvador........

Brazil ..........

Argentine .......

Uruguay ........

Paraguay .......

Peru ...........

Bolivia .........

Chile ...........

Colombia .......

Venezuela.......

Total incl. others.
Africa

Egypt ..........

Fed. of S. Africa. .

B. E. A.........

Total incl. others.
Oceania

Male Female Total
9,638 4,861 14,499
4,733 1,909 6,642
14,339 6,748 21,468
807 436 1,243
356 119 475
312 120 432
39 28 67
3 1 4
12 5 17
41 19 60
42 31 73
13 11 24
8 4 12
60 33 93
15 4 19
17 14 31
12 10 '"22
1,761 868 2,629

25,106 19,665 44,771
22,620 17,698 40,318
2,924 1,990 4,914
9,469 6,519 15,988
781 450 1,231
2,176 1,014 3,190
63,520 47,664 111,184
174 94 268
11,774 8,551 20,325
11,948 8,645 20,593
lerica
'2,779 1,912 4,691
247 97 344
542 224 766
7 2 9
107,682 85,375 193,057
4,407 1,497 5,904
47 22 69
177 131 308
14,280 8,290 22,570
557 234 791
435 233 668
162 111 273
12 3 15
131,334 98,131 229,465
51 35 86
15 16 31
53 23 76
129 81 210
1,403 289 1,692
153 47 200
1,172 136 1,308

New Guinea,
Solomon, etc. .
New Caledonia, etc.

Total incl. others 2,735 470 3,205

Hawaii ..................79,201 72,998 152,199

Note:Figures are exclusive of Kwantung Leased Terri-
tory. Figures do not include those of Japanese
colonial races.

Excluding Manchoukuo and China, which are
differently circumstanced from other countries in

so far as the question of our emigration is con-
cerned and also the United States, Hawaii and
Canada, which are no longer prospective fields
for our emigration, reference will be made to
conditions of resident Japanese in Central and
South America and the South Seas.

South America

Brazil.It was in 1911 that the first Japanese
emigrants were sent to Brazil. From 1913 to
1919 several thousand emigrants crossed over to
that country. From 1923 the number began dis-
tinctly to increase until it reached 12,000 in "1927
and 15,000 in 1929. In 1934 emigrants number-
ed 22,960 (vide table titled "Number of New.
Emigrants in Recent Years" in this chapter).
This increase is partly due to Government sub-
sidy being granted to emigrants. The number
of Japanese residents in Brazil as 'On October
1, 1936 as shown by the returns of the Foreign
Office, stood at 193,057.

In 1932 the Brazilian government by a re-
vision of its constitution curbed the entry of
foreigners into the country to two per cent, of
the number of emigrants from each land for the
past fifty years. Japanese emigration was thus
restricted between three and four thousand an-
nually.

As for the occupation of these Japanese emi-
grants, the majority of them are engaged in
farming for the reason that Brazil is a great
agricultural country, and that almost all our
emigrants have sailed to that country for the
purpose of pursuing agriculture. It is estimated
that over 160,000 are engaged in farming 2,000
in commerce, and 1,000 in the manufacturing
industry. Of the rest, about 400 attend to
public and other duties and 250 are domestic
servants.

The majority of Japanese farmers work on the
coffee plantations. Of late years many of them
have taken to the cultivation of rice, cotton,
tabacco and sugar cane. Besides, the culture of
fruits and vegetables and sericulture are in-
creasingly engaging the attention of enterpre-
neurs. Especially reputable is the cultivation
of potatoes by Japanese in the neighbourhood
of Sao Paulo. There are not a few successful
Japanese farmers in Sao Paulo, who own big
farms and employ many hands.

Argentina.The Japanese' emigrants sailed to
Argentina for the first time in 1907. But the
number of emigrants to that country has always
been quite limited. The number, which stood
at 362 in 1931, decreased to 239 in 1932, to
135 in 1933 and advanced to 349 in 1936. The
total number of Japanese residents in that
country as on October 1, 1936 was 5,904. Of


42

POPULATION AND EMIGRATION

this number 3,082 were in Buenos Aires and
the rest are scattered over many other parts
of the country. As for their occupations, in-
dustry comes first with about 1,100 followed
by agriculture with 1,000, and commerce with
900. Most of these industrialists are engaged
in spinning. The agriculture pursued by the
Japanese emigrants consists chiefly of the cul-
tivation of cotton and tea.

Peru.-The first emigration of Japanese to
Peru dates back to 1899. To give the number
of emigrants to that country in recent years re-
gistrations were 299 in 1931 and 369 in 1932
and 481 in 1933 and 593 in 1936. The total
number of Japanese residents on October 1,
1937 w?s 22,570. The majority of them, or
19,000 were in Lima and the rest scattered
over various localities. Classifying Japanese
residents according to occupations, about, 5,000
are engaged in commerce, 2,000 in agriculture,
500 in the manufacturing industry and 150 at-
tend to official and other duties.

The Japanese residents are tending to con-
centrate on Lima, Callao and other cities. Al-
most all the Japanese residents in the above
mentioned two cities are engaged in commerce,
their number being estimated at more than
9,300.

Other South American Countries. Other
countries in South America, as Chile, Colombia,
Bolivia, Paraguay, Venezuela, etc., do not re-
strict in any way the entry of Japanese emi-
grants. All these countries are well suited to
agriculture, but Japanese residents are still
quite limited. There were 668 Japanese in
Chile, 791 in Bolivia, 273 in Colombia, 69 in'
Uruguay, 308 in Paraguay, and 15 in Venezuela
in 1936.

Central America

No country in Central America has a larger
number of Japanese residents than Mexico.
In 1897 Japanese emigrants first sailed to that
country. The inauguration of the Gentlemen's

Agreement between Japan and America greatly
stimulated emigration to Mexico. 1906 and 1907
saw a tremendous increase in Japanese emi-
grants. Owing to the prevalence of pestilence
and the revolutionary disturbances in that coun-
try, the number of emigrants has since seriously
decreased. New emigrants numbered 283 in
1931, 149 in 1932, 85 in 1933, 80 in 1934, 53
in 1935 and 62 in 1936.

The total number of Japanese residents in
Mexico as on October 1, 1937 stood at 4,691.
About a half of them were in Mexico City and
other places in the central part of the country
and the other half in the three north-western
states and other localities.

The principal occupations of the Japanese
residents are agriculture, horticulture, stock-
farming. Besides Mexico, there are 344 Japa-
nese in Panama and 766 in Cuba.

Philippines

At present the Philippines come next in
importance to South America in regard to
Japanese emigration. They are preceded only
by Brazil in the yearly number of settlers. The
first emigration of Japanese to the islands was
in 1900. Though their number was then very
small, it so swiftly increased that 1903 saw over
2,200 new emigrants. The total number of Japa-
nese residents in the islands as on October 1,
1937 was 21,468. As for the distribution of
thesD Japanese residents, 6,642 were in Manila,
14,499 in Davao and Kotabatu. Most of the
Japanese are engaged in agriculture, Manila
hemp being their principal product.

There are also many Japanese residents in the
Malay States and the Straits Settlements, British
North Borneo and Sarawak, the Dutch East
Indies, British India and Siam.

Most of the Japanese residents are clerks of
banks and companies and shops. There are also
a considerable number of domestic servants and
tradesmen. As to farming, rubber and cocoa
are principal farm products, followed by sugar
and tea.

References:

Table Nos.: 144 a, 15 b; 16 b, 17 c, 18 b, 19-20 d, 21-22 e.

Key: aInvestigation of the Cabinet Statistics Bureau,

b 11 " " Home Office,

c " " " Department of Railways,

d 11 " " Department of Overseas,

e 11 " " Department of Foreign Affairs.


JAPAN v

Imperial Court

CHAPTER V

IMPERIAL COURT

For the Imperial House Law see Chapter V of the 1934 editionEditor
THE IMPERIAL HOUSE

The Reigning Sovereign

His Imperial Majesty Hirohito, the reigning
Emperor of Japan (124th of the line), is the first
son of the late Emperor Taisho (Taisho Tenno),
born on April 29th, 1901. He was nominated
Heir-Apparent on September 9th, 1912, being at
the same time appointed Sub-Lieutenant of the
Army and Second Sub-Lieutenant of the Impe-
rial Navy and decorated with the Grand Cordon
of the Chrysanthemum; promoted to Lieutenant
of the Army and 1st Sub-Lieutenant of the Navy
on October 31st, 1914; to Captain and Lieute-
nant on October 31st, 1916; promoted to Major
and Lieut.-Commander on Oct. 31st, 1920; visit-
ed Europe in 1921; appointed Regent on Nov.
25th, 1921; promoted to Lieut.Colonel and Com-
mander on Oct. 31st, 1923; married Princess
Nagako Kuni (first daughter of H.I.H. Prince
Kuni) on Jan. 26th, 1924; promoted to Colonel
and Captain (Navy) on Oct. 31st, 1924; acceded
to the Throne on the death of his father Em-
peror Taisho on Dec. 25th, 1926; formally en-
throned on Nov. 10th, 1928.

On March 3rd, 1921 His Majesty (then Crown
Prince) proceeded to Europe to make observa-
tions and exchange courtesies with the sover-
eigns and rulers of European countries, return-
ing home in September the same year. It was an
epoch-making event in the history of the Japa-
nese Imperial House as it was the first Crown
Prince of this Empire who ever stepped out of
the country and visited foreign lands, and more-
over it was an unqualified success in every re-
spect, particularly having had the result of pro-
moting and further cementing the happy relations
between Japan and her friendly Powers in the
Occident. After returning from the foreign tour,
he was appointed Regent in November, 1921, to
conduct affairs of State in place of his Imperial
father who, on account of chronic illness, was
incapacitated from performing his onerous duties
as Emperor. In January, 1924, he married
Princess Nagako, eldest daughter of H.I.H. Gen-
eral Prince Kuniyoshi Kuni. Then on the 25th
of December, 1926, following the death of his
father Emperor Yoshihito (Taisho Tenno) he
ascended the Throne as the 124th Emperor, the
nw era named Showa being adopted for his

reign. The enthronement of the sovereign was
officially celebrated at the ancient Capital of
Kyoto in November (10th to 15th), 1928, after
the lapse of one year's mourning over the de-
mise of the departed Emperor according to
traditional custom, the national function being
performed with time-honoured ceremonies.

Nagako, the Empress, first daughter of the
late Prince Kuniyoshi Kuni, born on March 6th,
1903. Her Majesty was educated at the Peeres-
ses' School and afterward studied under private
tutors at her home. Married the Emperor (then
Crown Prince) Jan. 26th, 1924.

Sadako, the Empress Dowager (consort of the
late Emperor Taisho), born June 25th, 1884;
fourth daughter of the late Prince Michitaka
Kujo, a noble of the first rank; married Em-
peror Taisho (then Crown Prince) on May 10th,
1900; widow Dec. 25th, 1926.

The Crown Prince

Tsugu-no-miya Akihito, first son of the Em-
peror, born on December 23rd, 1933.

Other Children of the Emperor

Masahito (Yoshi-no-Miya), second son of the
Emperor, born Nov. 28th, 1935.

Shigeko (Teru-no-Miya), first daughter of the
Emperor, born Dec. 6th, 1925.

Kazuko (Taka-no-Miya), third daughter of
the Emperor, born Sept. 30th, 1929.

Atsuko (Yori-no-Miya), fourth daughter of
the Emperor, born Mar. 7th, 1931.

Brothers of the Emperor

Chichibu-no-Miya (ResidenceAkasaka-ku,
Tokyo).

Prince Yasuhito, present head (1st of the
line) and second son of the late Emperor Taisho,
born June 25th, 1902. His house-name was
formerly Atsu-no-Miya, but on attaining ma-
jority in June, 1922 the Prince founded a new
house (Chichibu-no-Miya) by Imperial order.
The Prince was educated at the Peers' School
and, after finishing the middle school course of
the institution, entered the Central Military
Preparatory School in 1917 to receive military


4f:

IMPERIAL COURT

education; further studied at the Military
Academy, graduating in 1922; appointed Sub-
Lieutenant (infantry) October 1922 and at-
tached to Imperial Guards Division; promoted
to Lieutenant, 1925; went abroad to study at Ox-
ford, 1925-26; returned in January 1927; mar-
ried Miss Setsu-ko, daughter of Mr. Tsuneo
Matsudaira, then Ambassador to the Court of
St. James', 1928; promoted to Captain, 1930;
visited Manchoukuo, 1934; promoted to Major,
1935; Lieut.-Col., 1938, attended British Coro-
nation, 1937. The Prince is Honorary President,
British Association (Tokyo), Siamese Associa-
tion (Tokyo), Swedish Association of Japan,
Peers' Club. Honorary member, Ski Club of
Great Britain, Alpine Ski Club of England.

Princess Setsuko, consort of the above, is
daughter of Mr. Tsuneo Matsudaira, Minister of
the Imperial Household, and niece of Viscount
Yasuo Matsudaira. Was born Sept.9th, 1909;
educated at the Peeresses' School and later in
the United States; married the Prince Sept.
28th, 1928.

Takarnatsu-no-Miya (ResidenceTakanawa
Nishidaimachi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo).

Prince Nobuhito, present head (1st of the
line) and third son of the late Emperor Taisho,
born January 3, 1905. Graduated from Peers'
School, 1921, from Naval College, 1924; ap-
pointed 2nd Sub-Lieutenant, December 1925;
1st Sub-Lieutenant, 1926; .meanwhile studied at
the Torpedo School, 1925-26; Naval Aviation
School at Kasumigaura, 1927; Naval Gunnery
School at Yokosuka, 1930-31; promoted to
Lieutenant, 1930 and attached to the Naval
Staff Board; appointed squadron Commander of
the warship Takao, 1932; transferred to the Fu-
so in similar capacity, 1933; promoted to Lieut.-
Commdr., 1935. The Prince married Princess
Kikuko, daughter of the late Prince Yoshitaka
Tokugawa, February 1930; went abroad the same
year to return the courtesy of the British Court
accompanied by the Princess. The Prince is
Honorary President, the Japan Fine Arts Asso-
ciation, the Turco-Japanese Society and the
Japan-Denmark Society, both of Tokyo. The
Prince was formerly called Teru-no-Miya, but
in July, 1931, he set up a new house and assum-
ed the family-name, Takamatsu-no-Miya.

Princess Kikuko, consort of the above, is sister
of Prince Yoshimitsu Tokugawa and was born
Dec. 26th, 1911. Married the Prince Feb. 4th,
1930.

Mikasa-no-Miya (ResidenceAkasaka-ku, To-
kyo).

Prince Takahito, present head (1st of the
line) and fourth son of late Emperor Taisho
and the youngest brother of the reigning Em-
peror, born Dec. 2nd, 1915. The Prince finish-

ed the middle school course of the Peers' School
in 1932; the Military Academy in June, 1936-
is attached to the 15th Regiment (Cavalry) as
Cadet. On attaining his majority in 1935
the Prince was granted the name of Mikasa
and founded a new house. Promoted to Sub-
Lieut. 1936, Lieut., 1937. The Prince visited
Manchoukuo in 1936.

Other Members of the Imperial Family

Other members of the Imperial Family are as
follows:

Kan-in-no-Miya (ResidenceNagata-cho, Koji-
machi-ku, Tokyo).

The House was founded by Prince Naohito
(1703-52, A.D.), eldest son of Higashiyama
Tenno (113th Emperor).

Prince Kotohito, head (6th of the line), Field
Marshal, Supreme War Councillor and Chief of
General Staff. Is the 16th son of the late Prince
Kuniie Fushimi; born Sept. 22nd, 1865; studied
at the Military Preparatory Schools and then at
the Military Academy; later studied at a French
Military School; took part in the Japan-China
and the Russo-Japanese Wars; promoted to
Lieut.-General in 1905; appointed Commander
of the Imperial Guards Division in 1906; pro-
moted to General and made Supreme War Coun-
cillor in 1912; Field Marshal in 1919; appointed
Chief of General Staff, Dec. 1931. In 1921 the
Prince accompanied the Crown Prince (present
Emperor) on his tour of Europe. Prince is Hon,
President of the Japan Red Cross Society, the
Japan Sericultural Association, the Franco-Japa-
nese Society, the Russo-Japanese Society, the
Tokyo Geological Society, the Military Club, the
Tokyo Club and many other similar bodies.

Princess Chieko, Consort of the above, 2nd
daughter of the late Prince Sanetomi Sanjo;
born May 25th, 1872. Married the Prince Dec.
19th, 1891. The Princess is Honorary President
of the Japan Women's Education Association
and of the Japan Red Cross Voluntary Nurses'

Association.

Prince Haruhito, 2nd sen of Prince Kotohito,
born Aug. 3rd, 1902. Studied at the Peers'
School. and then at the Military Academy; is
Captain of Cavalry attached to the Cavalry
School as instructor and superintendent of re-
search department, appointed Major of Cavalry,
July, 1937.

Princess Naoko, consort' of the above, 4th
daughter of the late Prince Saneteru Ichijo;
born Nov. 7th, 1908; married Prince Haruhito
July 14 th, 1926.

Higashi Fushimi-no-Miya (ResidenceTokiwa-
matsu, Shibu.ya-ku, Tokyo).

The House was set up by the late Adm. Prince
Yorihito, 7tli son of the late Prince Kuniie Fu-


Full Text

PAGE 1

READ CAREFULLY It Will Make The Year Book Worth More To You General Division The book is divided into two major sections, namely, Japan and; Manchoukuo. Complementing these sections are four appendices, viz., Who's Who, Business Directory, Bibliogl'.aphy and Learned and Social Institutions, in addition to a General Index. How the Parts Assist Each Other The parts, mentioned above are so arranged and edited as to permit comprehensive understanding of each independent of the others. The trained reader will find immediately, however, that each section can be made to complement the others considerably in a nwnber of cases. For instance, given a specific subject either on Japan or Manchoukuo to review, the rea
PAGE 3

J. Mitsubishi Kogyo Kaisha, Limited (Mitsubishi Mining Company, limited) Cable .Addim:-" IWASAKIJJfJN TOKYO" CAPITAL :-Yen 100,000,000 Producers and Sellers of Coal, Metals & Other Minerals. HEAD OFFICE: MARUNOUCHI, TOKYO. Metal Mines ,-Makimine, Osarizawa, lkuno, Sade, Akenobe, Hosokura, Ohira, Teine, Arakawa, Tsunatori, lzushi, Takara, Kintei, Mozan, Kenjiho, Ginryu, Kasei, etc. Coal Mines ,-Takashima, Bibai, Namazuta, Shinnyu, Hojo, Kamiyamada, lizuka, Oyubari, etc. Smelting & Refining Works :-Naoshima, Osaka. Branches & Representatives ,-Tokyo, Yokohama, Wakamat$u, Nagasaki, Moji, Keijo, Otaru, Murcran. Hakodate, Kushiro, Sapporo, Aomori, Funakawa, Sendai, Ominato, Niigata, Tsuruga, Fushiki, Shimizu, Sakata, Rumoye, etc. Mining & Metallurgical Laboratory ,-Tokyo. The Mitsubishi Bank, Limited Cable Ad(fress :-" IW ASAKIBAK TOKYO" CAPITAL :-Yen 100,000,000 General Banking & Exchange Business. HEAD OFFICE: MARUNOUCHI, TOKYO. Branches: Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Kyoto, Nagoya, Otaru, Shanghai, Dairen, London, New York. Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha (Mitsubishi Electric Manufacturing Co., Ltd.) Gable Address:-" IWASAKI LEO TOKYO" CAPITAL :-Yen 30,000,000 Manufacturers of Generators, Motors, Transformers, Other Electrical Machinery, Air Brake Apparatus, Door Control Engines, etc. HEAD OFFICE: MARUNOUCHI, TOKYO. Works ,-Kobe, Nagasaki, Nagoya. Mitsubishi Trust Company, Limited Cable Add1ess :-' IW .A SAKITRU TOKYO" CAPITAL:-Yen3o,ooo,ooo General Trust Business, HEAD OFFICE: MARUNOUCHI, TOKYO. Branch: Osaka. Mitsubishi Estate Company, Limited Gable Address :-"IW ASAKILAD TOKYO" CAPITAL :-Yen 1s,ooo,ooo Controlling of Estates & Buildings. HEAD OFFICE, MARUNOUCHI, TOKYO. AD. 3

PAGE 4

-fused rnlidly together. top, hot/um and sides -provid ing wfet_; with style whfrh glorifin ,tee/ cc,mtruction KNEEACTION -Jbe iruegliding ride-makes efJery vule you lra1.1el more co111/ortable and assures helter control of steering w emergency -puts the safety of solul steel over your head in n u-y do~ed car of th, Ge,ural Motors family keeps the air you breathe healthfully free from dra/11 and makes dri11ing safer bl' keeping the inside of the uind shield and windows fog-frer GENERAL M(Jf()RS MEANS Goon MEAsURE CHEVROLET: PONTIAC: OLDSMOBILE: BUICK: CADILLAC: LA SALLE : BEDFORD : V AUXHALL : OPEL GENERAL MOTORS JAPAN LTD. OSAKA, JAPAN AD. 4

PAGE 5

. ,. ., AG AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT DUISBURG (Germany) WE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCT COMPLETE PLANTS FOR MINES AND QUARRIES Blast Furnaces, Steelworks and Rolling Mills Cranes and transporting plants for harbours, store-yards and factories, electrically operated high speed lifting devices, toothed wheel gears, shovel excavators, compressors and portable compressed-air plants STEEL STRUCTURES Road and Railway Bridges FOR INFORMATION PLEASE APPLY TO1 ]H[. GrOOJ~N DEMAG'S GENERAL-REPRESENTATIVE No. 61.Z Nippon Yusen Bldg., Marunoucbi, TOK.YO Tel.: Marunouchi 0869 & 0954 AD.6

PAGE 6

Malllchmria h1dU1strial President: YOSHHffI{E Ail{AWA Capital Subscribed Paid-up ,000,000 ,000,000 HEAD OFFICE: HSINKING, MANCHOUKUO BRANCH OFFICE: 2, Tamura-cha 1-chome, Shiba-ku, TOKYO Principal Affiliated Companies in Manchoukuo Showa Steel Works, Ltd. (K. K. Showa Seiko Sho) Established 1929. Capital Subscribed ,000,000; Paid-up ,000,000. Head Office: Anshan. Manchuria Colliery Co., Ltd. (Manshu Tanko K. K.) Established 1934. Capital Subscribed ,, 000,000; Paid-up ,000,000. Head Office: Hsinking. Manchuria Light Metals Co., Ltd. (Manshu Keikinzoku Seizo K. K.) Established 1936. Capital Subscribed ,000,000; Paid-up ,000,000. Head Office: Fushun. Manchuria Magnesium Mfg. Co., Ltd. (Manshu Magnesium Kogyo K. K.) Established 1938. Capital Subscribed ,000,000; Paid-up ,500,000. Head Office: Hsinking. Manchuria Gold Mining Co., Ltd. (Manshu Saikin K. K.) Established 1934. Capital Subscribed ,000,000; Paid-up ,000,000. Head Office: Hsinking. Dowa Automobile Co., Ltd. (Dowa Jidosha Kogyo K. K.) Established 1934. Capital Subscribed ,200,000; Paid-up ,200,000. Head Office: Mukden. Manchuria Mining Co., Ltd. (Manshu Kozan K. K.) Established 1938. Capital Subscribed ,, 000,000; Paid-up ,000,000. Head Office: Hsinking. Manchuria Lead Co., Ltd. (Manshu Enko K. K.) Established 1935. Capital Subscribed ,000,, 000; Paid-up ,000,000. Head Office: Muk, den. Manchuria Airplane Mfg. Co., Ltd. (Manshu Hikoki Seizo K. K.) Established 1938. Capital Subscribed ,000,000; Paid-up ,000,000. Head Office: Mukden. Tohendo Development Co., Ltd. (Tohendo Kaihatsu K. K.) Established 1938. Capital Subscribed ,000,000; Paid-up ,200,000. Head Office: Hsinking. Manchuria Soya Bean Industry Corp. (Manshu Daizu Kogyo K. K.) Established 1934. Capital Subscribed ,000,000; Paid-up ,525,000. Head Office: Dairen (14, Jijiko). AD. 6

PAGE 7

Development Corporation Principal Affiliated Companies in Japan Nippon Mining Co., Ltd. (Nippon Kogyo K. K.) Established 1929. Capital Subscribed ,, 150,000; Paid-up ,112,500. Head Office: Tokyo (2, Tamuracho 1-chome, Shiba,ku). Hitachi, Ltd. (K. K. Hitachi Seisaktisho) Established 1920. Capital Subscribed ,, 900,000; Paid,up ,900,000. Head Office: Tokyo ( 15, Marunouchi 2chome, Kojimachi, ku). Osaka. Iron Works, Ltd. (K. K. Osaka Tekkosho) Established 1914. Capital Subscribed ,, 000,000; Paid,up ,000,000. Head Office: Osaka ( 17, Sakurajima Minamino-cho, Kono, hana,ku). Hitachi Electric Power Co., Ltd. (Hitachi Denryoku K. K.) Established 1927. Capital Subscribed ,, 000,000; Paid,up ,250,000. Head Office: Tokyo (2, Tamura,cho lchome, Shiba,ku). Nissan Automobile Co., Ltd. (Nissan Jidosha K. K.) Established 1933. Capital Subscribed ,, 000,000; Paid,up ,000,000. Head Office: Yokohama (2, Takara,cho, Kanagawa,ku). Nissan Automobile Sales Cd., Ltd. (Nissan Jidosha Hambai K. K.) Established 1935. Capital Subscribed ,000,, 000; Paid,up ,000,000. Head Office: Tokyo (18, Marunouchi 2-chome, Kojimachi,ku). Sales_ Office: 2, Ginza 1-chome, Kyobashi,ku. Nissan Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd. (Nissan Kagaku Kogyo K. K.) Established 1934. Capital Subscribed ,, 000,000; Paid,up ,500,000. Head Office: Tokyo (2, Tamura,cho 1-chome, Shiba,ku). Japan Fat & Oil Industrial Co., Ltd. (Nippon Yushi K. K.) Established 1917. Capital Subscribed ,, 500,000; Paid,up ,600,000. Head Office: Tokyo (2, Tamura-cho 1,chome, Shiba,ku). Nippon Marine Products Co., Ltd. (Nippon Suisan K. K.) Established 1925. Capital Subscribed 500,000; Paid-up ,500,000. Head Office: Tokyo (2, Tamura,cho 1-chome, Shiba,ku). Borneo Fishing Co., Ltd. (Borneo Suisan K. K.) Established 1933. Capital Subscribed ,500,000; Paid-up ,400,000. Head Office: Tokyo ( 2, Tamura-cho 1-chome, Shiba,ku). Nippon Industrial Rubber Co., Ltd. (Nippon Sangyo Gomu K. K.) Established 1934. Capital Subscribed 000,000; Paid-up ,000,000. Head Office: Tokyo (2, Tamura,cho 1-chome, Shiba,ku). Nissan Steamship Co., Ltd. (Nissan Kisen K. K.) Established 1934. Capital Subscribed ,000,000; Paid,up ,500,000. Head Office: Tokyo ( 2, Tamura-cho 1-chome, Shiba,ku). Kobe Office: 17, Harima-machi, Kobe-Im. The Daido Match Co., Ltd. (Daido Match K. K.) Established 1927. Capital Subscribed ,000, 000: Paid-up ,000,000. Head Office: Kobe (2,_ Shimosawa,dori 6-chome, Hyogo,ku). The Nissan Fire & Marine Ins. Co., Ltd. (Nissan Kasai Kaijo Hoken K. K.) Established 1911. Capital Subscribed ,000, 000; Paid,up ,500,000. Head Office: Tokyo (18, Marunouchi 2-chome, Kojimachi,ku). AD. 7

PAGE 8

O.S.K.LINE T. R A V [ L BY s E A e-i.Jia Japan,ctJr[anchoukuo c>onnecting Service -26 Sailings Per Month OSAKA SYOSEN K.AISY A BEAD OfflCEa OSAKA, ..JAPAN AIBElf, MUKDEN, E!SINIUNG, BARBIN. Braacllea "' Aseats aH over die World AD. 8

PAGE 9

THE POPULAR WAY TO JAPAN & 1lfANCHOUKUO Go N.Y.K ...... experienced travellers tell you. Living comforts and seagoing diversions are conceived with unusual charm and delight on palatial N. Y. K. liners. Frequent rail, sea and air services link Japan and Manchoukuo, the promising new State. N,. Y. It. LINE (Japan Mail) BEAD OFFICE: Tokyo, Japan Braneb Olllee: 181 Yamagata-dori, 'Dairen Other Offices & Agencies throughout the World AD. 9

PAGE 10

KOKUSAI LINE S. KUROKAWA PRESIDENT Owners of IV1otor and Steam Vessels Aggregating 320,000 Tons Deadweight Head Office: TOKYO, JAPAN Telegraphic Address: INTERSHIP TOKYO PRINCIPAL REGULAR SERVICES Far East-North Europe-Far East The neu motor vessels in rhe above service operate from Kobe to Marseilles in 32 days via Suez or from Yokohama ro London in 36 days via Panama, carrying a limited number of passengers. Orient-New Y erk-Orient The new motor vessels in the above service operate from Yokohama to New York in 25 days via Panama, carrying a limited number of p:zssengers. New York-Hamburg-New York Japan-Australia-Japan Japan--Africa-Japan Japan -Bombay-Japan Etc., Etc., Etc. BRANCH OFFICES KOBE: Kogin Building, Nisi-Mati, Kobe Telegraphic Address: KOKUSAISEN KOBE YOKOHAMA : Sin-ei Building, Hontyo, Y oko_hama Telegraphic Address: KOKUSAISEN YOKOHAMA LONDON : Holland House, Eury Street, London, E. C. 3 Telegraphic Address: KOKUSAISEN LONDON NEW YORK : 1 Broadway, New York Telegraphic Address: KOKUSAISEN NEWYORK LOS ANGELES: 490 Chamber of Commerce Building, Los Angeles, Calif. Telegraphic Address: KOKUSAISEN LOSANGELES Agencies at all Principal Pores in the 'X' orld AD. 10

PAGE 11

MITSUI LINE :11.R. "A Rl1[ASAN )L-\Rl:" -10,523 Tcms D.'"" -SpeNl 19 Knots. REGULAR SERVICE STRAIT-PHILIPPINE-JAPAN-NEW YORK LINE ............ 2-3 Sailings Per Month JAPAN-BOMBAY LINE .. . . . . 1 Sailing Per Month JAPAN-MADRAS LINE . . . . 1 Sailing Per Month JAPAN-PERSIAN GULF LINE . . . 1 Sailing Per Month JAPAN-BANGKOK LINE ............................... ... 2-.3 Sailings Per Month JAPAN-PHILIPPINE LINE . . . . 2 Sailings Per Month JAPAN-DAIREN LINE .. : . . . . 4 Sailings Per Month JAPAN-TIENTSIN LINE . . . . 3 Sailings Per Month MITSUI BUSSAN KAISHA, LIMITED lM]['JrU][ & co., I .. .'JrD.) SHIP DEPARTMENT Headquarters: 3, Kaigan-dori, Kobe Local Offices: Tokyo, Otarn, Osaka, Moji, Miike, Daireni Tientsin, Shanghai, Manila, Bangkok, Bombay, Calcutta, Seattle, San Francisco, New York, London. Agents: MITSUI & CO., LTD., BRANCH OFFICES at Various Centers of the World AD.U

PAGE 12

The East Asiatic Co., Ltd. Head Office: COPENHAGEN 1. Regular Sailings from Europe to Ceylon, Siam, China, Japan, South Africa, Australia, West Indies, Central America and the West Coast of North America and vice versa. 2. Import to Europe of Far-Eastern and other Oversea products. 3. Export to Oversea ports of European products. HARBIN AGENCY : Polevaja 65 Telgr. Add. : WASS ARD DAIREN AGENCY : Higashikoencho 1 Telgr. Add. : W ASSARD Own Oversea Branches and Agencies: Bangkok, Singapore, Shanghai, Hongkong, Canton, Hangkow, Tsingtao, Weihaiwei, Seattle, San Francisco, Durban, Johannesburg, Capetown, Madras, Bombay, Calcutta, Rangoon, Penang, Kuala Lumpur. !Kobe. Agents in Japan: DODWELL & CO., Osaka. Yokohama. AD. 12

PAGE 13

'~K'' LINE KWASAKI KISEN KAISHA No. 4 7 Sakaye-machi, Kobe, Japan Cable Address 1 "KAWAKISEN" Kobe Codes Useds Bentley's Second Phrase, Bentley's Complete Phrase, Boe, Kendall's, Acme, A.B.C. 6th Ed. & Duo BRANCH OFFICES : NEW YORK, SAN FRANCISCO, TOKYO, YOKOHAMA, OTARU, SHIMONOSEKI AGENTS: LONDON, SEATTLE, SAN FRANCISCO, MANILA, SHANGHAI NEW YORK LINE EUROPE-FAR EAST LINE SAN FRANCISCO-LOS ANGELES LINE TOKYO-YOKOHAMA-DAIREN LINE SEATTLE-VANCOUVER LINE OSAKA-SHIKUKA LINE S0UTH AMERICA (West Coast) LINE OSAKA-ODOMARI LINE EAST & SOUTH AFRICA LINE REISUI-SHIMONOSEKI LINE BOMBAY LINE REISUI-HANSHIN LINE ASIA-EUROPE-N. & S. AMERICA LINE WEST KOREA LINE JAPAN-AUSTRALIA LINE NORTH KOREA LINE AD. 13

PAGE 14

iilllllliilliiliiliiliitillllbllfllililllliiiiiiiiiiii iii illiiiiililliiii liiibiiiili iiiiiiiilil iiiiiililiilllliiliiiliiiliiliill!iliiiiililltiiiiiiliii!HHIIIMHIIHWIINiii iiliPH IIIIIIHIIIIUIIHIIIIIIIIIHOIII !l!!I @ THE YASUDA BANK, LTD. HEAD OFFICE: Otemachi 1-chome, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo ----------Capital Subscribed Reserve Funds Yen so,000,000 ,, 73,000,000 Chairman: HA.TIME YASUDA DeputyChairman : HIROZO ~MORI The Bank is now in command, not only of 130 branches in Japan, but also of the services which it has secured from many correspondents throughout the world, and is able to offer accommodation for every kind of banking facility, foreign and domestic. TRADE MARK OSAKA KIKAI KOSAKUSHO, LTD. TOYOSAKI NISHI-DORI, HIGASHI YODOGAWA-KU, OSAKA, NIPPON CAPITAL Yen 12,000,000 Branches: Marunouchi Bldg., Tokyo 16, Szeching Road, Shanghai MANUFACTURERS of Spinning and Weaving Machines (for Waste Silk, Cotton, Wool, Worsted, Rayon, Staple Fibre), Water-Meters, Oil-Meters, Road Rollers, Diesel Engines, Machine Tools, Refrigerating Machines, Etc. AD. 14

PAGE 15

Ironworks and Metalworks Ma chine-Factor: es Wholesale in Iron and Metal Sole Agents of Daimler-Benz Motor Cars, Diesel Trucks, Diesel Engines & c. OTTO WOLt=t= f\O1:Li-.l Hsinking Branch 303, Ryu-Jo-Ro Telephone : 2-266 7 T e.legr: Address: lronwolff OTTO WOLt=t=. f\O1:Li-.l Dairen Branch 2, Y amagatadori T otaku Building room 509 Telephone: 2-9042 T elegr. Address: lronwolff AD. 15

PAGE 16

11 THE MITSUI BANK, LTD. OAPIT.AL SUBSCRIBED C.APIT.AL PAID-UP. RESERYE FUNDS. Yen 100,000,000 60,000,000 63,800,000 HEAD OFFICE: 1, Muromachi 2-chome, Nihonbashi-ku. Tokyo Home Branches: Fukuoka, Hiroshima, lkebukuro (Tokyo), Kobe, Kyoto, Marunouchi (Tokyo), Meguro (Tokyo), Moji, Nagoya, Nagoya-Kamimaetsu, Nihonbashi (Tokyo), Osaka, Osaka-Dojima, Osaka-Kawaguchi, Osaka-Nishi, Osaka-Semba, Otaru, Shinjuku tTokyo), Wakamatsu (Kyushu), Yokohama. Foreign Branches: Bombay, Dairen, London, New York, Shanghai, Sourabaya. London Bankers: Barclays Bank, Ltd. Midland Bank, Ltd. New York Bankers: Baners Trust Co. Chase National Bank. National City Bank of New York. )... THE MITSUBISHI BANK, LTD. Capital Te~ :10090009000 Reserve Funds 63,500,000 Cbalnaaa : Takeo Kato. Maaginc Directors : Hideya Maruyama, Yamaguchi, Kenkichi Takagi Head Office: No. 5, Marunouchi 2-chome, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo. Brancbes-Bome: Tokyo:-Eitaibashi, Tokio Kaijo Building, Marunouchi Building, Nihonbashi, Yotsuya, Komagome, Nihonbashi-Torich9, IS. anda, Shinagawa, Omori, Toranomon, Kyobashi. Osaka:-Osaka, Nakanoshima, Senba,.Osaka-Minarn.i, Kobe =~Kobe, Sannomiya. Others :-Kyoto, Nagoya, Otar11. Braacbe1-0ver1ea1: SHANGHAI OFFICE :-No. 36, Kiukiang Road, Shanghai. DAIREN OFFICE :-No. 165, Yamagata-Dori, Dairen. LONDON OFFICE :-No. 3, Birchin Lane, Cornhill, London, E.C.3. NE\
PAGE 17

Tlfl[E SANW A. BANOC, LTD., Head Offfice : OSAKA, JAPAN Capitml :mlbciriiberll o Capo.tall 1Pao.dl~11.Rp Reserve F11.mrndl Yem JL ({))7 92({))({))9({))({))((]) H 7292W:(1)9({))({))({)) 359 7 ]I_ ({))9(()(()({)) President: Mr. S. NAKANE l\fanaging Directors : Mr. K. OKANO Mr. K. MORINOBU Mr. M. SANO Mr. T. MATSUNO Established in 1933 by amalgamation of the Thirty,Fourth Bank, Ltd., the Yamaguchi Bank, Ltd. and the Konoike Bank, Ltd. These three banks have held leading positions for over half a century among the most important :financial institutions that served to develop the industry and commerce of the nation. The bank, with its concentrated capital and combined executive experience, is able to offer the best of service to both local and foreign business. Ovreseas Agents: LONDON: The Bank of Taiwan, Ltd. The Barclays Bank, Ltd. The Chase National Bank of the City of New York. Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corporation. The Lloyds Bank, Ltd. 'fhe National City Bank of New York The Yokohama Specie Bank, Ltd. NEW YORK: The Bank of Taiwan, Ltd. The Chase National Bank of the City of New York. The Guaranty Trust Co. of New York. Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corporation. Irving Trust Company. The National City Bank of New York. The Yokohama Specie Bank, Ltd. AD. 17

PAGE 18

-.. THE DAI--ICHI GINKO, LTD. (Formerly The First National Bank) (ESTABLISHED 1873) CAPITAL (Paid up) RESERVE Yen 57,500,000 Yen 73,500,000 A Complete Banking Service HEAD OFFICE; TOKYO BRANCHES: Yokohama, Kobe, Osaka, Kyoto, Seoul and other principal Cities at home. Correspondents : All important places at home and abroad THE SUMITOMO BANK, LIMITED HEAD OFFICE: OSAKA JAPAN Subscribed Capital Paid-up Capital. Reserve Funds ., HOME OFFICES Yen 70,000,000 ,. 5(.',000.000 46,100,000 Osaka, 'l'okyo, Yokohama, Nagoya, Kyoto, Kobe, Wakayama, Okayama, Onomichi, Niihama, Kure, Hiroshima, Yanai, Shimonoseki, Moji, Kokura, Wakamatsu, Fukuoka, Kurume and Kumamoto. OFFICES IN PACIFIC LINERS M.S. "Asama Maru," M.S. "Titibu Maru," M.S. "Tatuta Maru" FOREIGN OFFICES London, New York, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Shanghai. AFFILIATED BANKS The Sumitomo Bank of California, Sacramento, Cal., U.S.A. The Sumitomo Bank of Seattle, Seattle, Wash., U.S.A. The Sumitomo Bank of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. CORRESPONDENTS Maintained in all important places at home and abroad. AD. 18

PAGE 19

The Central Bank of Manchou (Established 1932) CAPITAL. M. Yen 30,000,000 Ml/KOEN DAIREN HEAD OFFICE: Hsinking, Manchoukuo BRANCHES: KIRIN HARBIN YINGKOW ANTUNG (150 Places in All) FOREIGN CORRESPONDENTS: TSITSIHAR TOKYO New York, London, Paris, Berlin, Shanghai, Tientsin, Peking, Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, Kobe, and at All Principal Cities Throughout Japan GOVERNOR: 'IETSUJIRO TANAKA VICE-GOVERNOR: KAN CHAO-HSI DIRECTORS: KIRUTARO OSAWA TETSUJI TAKAGI WANG FU-CHUN HIROSHI U1VAGAMI SUSUMU ABE SUN YAO-TSUNG AUDITORS: TING SHIH-YUAN CHENG TING-HOU AD. 19

PAGE 20

Cable Address: CAPITAL SUBSCRIBED: "KOGIN" Tokyo ,000,000 THE INDUSTRIAL BANK OF JAPAN, LTD. (N I P P O N K O G Y O G I N K 0) Established by the Japanese Government by virtue of a Special Enactment of the Imperial Diet HEAD OFFICE: 8, 1-CHOME, MARUNOUCHI. TOKYO Branches: Tokyo-Nihonbashi; Osaka-Koraiba,hi; Kobe-Nishi-machi; Nagoya-liirokoJidori 6-chome; Fukuoka-Tenjinno-cho; Fu '.cushima-Omachi; Toyama-Sakurabashidori; Hiroshima-Nakajima-Honmachi; Sapporo-Kitasanjo-Nishi 4-chome. Governor: ICHIMATSU HOR.AI, Esq. Vice-Governor: KOICHI KAWAKAMI, Esq. -'uditors: Directors: SHIGERU KOTAKE, Esq.; RYUZO WATANABE, Esq.; KENYU FUKUOKA, Esq.; EIZO UEYAMA, Esq. Count YOSHINORI FUTARA: EIZABURO SUGANO, Esq.; KEIKICHI KATAOKA, Esa. All descriptions of general banking, exchange, both :foreign and domestic and trust and corporation financial business transacted. Correspondents: In the principal cities at home, and London, Paris and New York Business Transacted: 1. Loans on the security of public bonds or debentures and shares, estates (Zaidan), special land and buildings. 2. Subscription and underwriting public bonds or debentures. 3. Deposits and safe custody of valuables. 4. Trust company business. 5. Discounting of bills. 6. Foreign exchange business. THE INDUSTRIAL BANK OF MANCHOU SUBSCRIBED CAPITAL. M. 30,000.000 PAID UP CAPITAL M. 15,000,000 GOVERNOR : YUT ARO TOMITA Banking Service for all kinds of Commercial Business, Industrial and Agricultural Enterprises and Security Business HEAD OFFICE : 202 DAIDO-T AIGAI, HSINKING BRANCH OFFICE : FENGTIEN (MUKDEN), HARBIN, ANTUNG, DAIREN, AND OTHER PRINCIPAL PLACES AD. 20

PAGE 21

Codes: Telegraphic Address: ;, SALEHOUSE All Standard Codes SAL~ & co.~ L TI). Ezpor1ters 8 lmpor1ters FINANCE, INVESTMENT & INSURANCE Head Office : r4, Marunouchi 2,chome, Kojimachi,ku, TOKYO Canned Food Products (Brands: Musketeer, Fusiyama, Taiyo, etc.) Lumber and General Merchandise Galvanized Wires and Sheets, Graphite and Manganese Ores, Toilet Soaps, Toys, Fancy Goods, General Merchandise IMV012T: Machinery, Equipment and Materials for the Canning Industry, Crude Oil, Fuel Oil, Diesel Oil, Lubricating Oil General Merchandise AD. 21

PAGE 22

Cable Address; ''DIASTASE" TOKYO All Siandard Codes Used. SANI(YO COMPANY, LTD. Capital : Yen 1 2,000,000 (paid up) Orient's Foremost Manufacturers of Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals Specialities. Home Office : Muromachi, Nihombashi, Tokyo. Branches: Osaka, Taihoku, New York. Factories : Tokyo, Osaka, Dairen. Inquiries Received at Home Office. lfyi CHOCOLATE MEIJI SEIKA KAISHA,LTD. TOK YO, JAPAN. AD. 22

PAGE 23

General Telegraphic Address: Codes:" CRESCENT Schoflelds, Eclectic, Bentley's A.B.C. 5th Edition, Western Union Etc., Etc. BRUNNER, MONO & CO. cJapan) Limited Associated with Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd., London Importers & Exporters of Industrial Chemicals and Fertilisers Connections in all parts of the World HEAD OFFICE FOR JAPAN: CRESCENT BUILDING, KYO-MACHI, KOBE, JAPAN P. 0. Box No. 86, Sannomiya Telephones : Sannomiya 1670 ( 6 lines) DISTRIBUTORS FOR CONSTITUENT AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES OF IMPERIAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES LTD., INCLUDING : British Dyestuffs Corporation Ltd. I. C. I. (Alkali) Ltd. CastnerKellner Alkali Co., Ltd. Cassel Cyanide Co., Ltd. Chance & Hunt, Ltd. I.C.I. (Fertilisers & Synthetic Products) Ltd. I.C.I. (General Chemicals) Ltd. AGENTS FOR: Carbon Black, Casein, Glue, Guebracho, Quicksilver, Sandalwood Oil, Sporting Ammunition, Ultramarine, Wattle Bark, Gelatine, etc., etc. AD. 23

PAGE 24

-Tull 'mshione& Silk.1-losWry 9/unf Mitte& qoo&s Silk Department The Kanegafuchi Spinning Co., Ltd. (Kanegafu:chi Boseki Kabushiki Kaisha) KOBE, .JAPAN AD. 24

PAGE 25

MARATHON STEEL DEPT. of Doitsu Seiko Kabushiki Kaisha Marathon Steel For Highest Efficiency and Every Purpose A Product: of DEUTSCHE EDELST AHLWERKE A.-G. Krefeld (Germany) MARATHON High Speed Steel. MARATHON Alloyed and Unalloyed Tool Steel. MARATHON Non-Shrinking Steel. MARATHON Remanit Stainless and Acid-Resisting Steel. MARATHON Thermax Heat Resisting Steel. MARA THON Construction Steel, Chrome, Nickel and Molybdenum Alloyed, For All Purposes Such As Machines, Motorcars, Airplaries, etc. MARA THON Cold Rolls, With Highest Hardness. MARA THON Forgings For All Purposes, Such As Crankshafts, Camshafts, Connecting Rods for Airplanes, Motor Cars and Diesel Engines. MARATHON Magnet Steel and Finished Magnets, Cr, Wo, and Co-Alloyed. MARATHON Ball & Ball Bearing Steel. Produced As Rolled and Forged Bars, Plates, Drop-Forgings, Cold Drawn. Ground and Polished Titanit Hard Metal HEAD OFFICE: 2, 3-chome Marunouchi, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo Cable Address: "MARATHON" Tokyo Osaka Branch: Nihon Kaijo Building, Edobori,dori, Nishi,ku. Nagoya Branch: Chiyoda Seimei Building, Minami Otsu,machi. Dairen Branch: Okura Building, 18 Yamagata,dori. Mukden Branch: Mitsui Building, 2 Kamo,machi. AD. 25

PAGE 26

Established : 1904 President: T, Sumida Sumida llussan Kaisha, Ltd~ OIMATSU-CHO, KITAKU, OSAKA Cable Address: HO MARET AI Osaka Codes: Commercial Telegraph & Cable Code, Bentley's & Private Exporters, Importers and Commission Merchants Import: Coffee from all parts of the world. E:acport I Natural and Marine Products, Canned Goods, other Provisions and Dry Goods, etc. Tokyo Office: Kobiki-cho, Kyobashi-ku CORNER, MAUNAKEA & PAUAHI STREETS HONOLULU, T. H. Japanese and American Goods Importers, Exporters and Wholesalers in General Merchandise JAPAN OFFICE': Sumida Bussan Kaisha, Ltd. Main Office: 21, 1-chome Oirnatsu-oho, Kita-ku, Osaka Branch: 3, 2-chome Kobiki-cho, Kyobashi-ku, Tokyo AD. 26 Cable Address: "SUMIDA" Telephone: 2339 P.O. Box 979 A.B.C. 6th Edition, Bentley's, Commercial Telegraph & Cable Code, Private Code

PAGE 27

Manufacturers, Importers and Exporters HEAD OFFICE: Harbin, Manchoukuo BRANCHES: Kobe, Dairen, Mukden, Ssupingkai, Hsinking, Kwangtchendze, Kirin, Tsifsihar, Hailar and Heiho. UNIVERSAL STORES Agricultural, Technical and Automobile Departments SOLE AGENCIES: F. SCHICHAU, G.m.b.H. Elbing, Germany Technical Equipment C. D. MAGIRUS, A.-G. Ulm/ a Donau, Germany Diesel Trucks Maschinenfabrik KOMINICK, G.m.b.H. Elbing, Germany Technical Equipment HUMBOLDT-DEUTZMOTOREN, A.G. Koeln, Germany Kerosene Engines, Diesel Engines THE ASIA TRADING CO., LTD. Dairen, Kwantung Leased Territory Crossley Radios, Crossley Refrigerators, Dodge Bros. Motor Vehicles and Spare Parts Rudolf BAECHER Roudnice, Czecho-Slovakia Agricultural Machinery Gebrueder EBERHARDT Ulm/ a Donau, Germany Agricultural Machinery Maschine11fabrik FAHR, A.-G. Gottmandingen, Baden, Germany Agricultural Machinery GARBE, LAHMEYER & CO., A.-G. Aachen, Germany Technical Equipment J. A. JOHN, A.-G. Erfurt, Germany Heating and Ventilating Plants, Laundry and Desinfection Equipment, Drying Plants DEUTZ DIESEL TRACTOR AD. 27

PAGE 28

The Nippon Life Assurance Co., Ltd. EST ABU SHED 1889 Assurance in Force Amount Policies Yen 2,845,036,000 2,527,000 Total Assets -------Yen 522,914,000 (At the end of August, 1938) 1, IMABASHI SHICHOME, OSAKA, NIPPON T ATSU NARUSE, President Cable Address : Code Used: Microphone Tokyo Bentley's Estalallshed J:899 :z, Mita, Shlkoku-machi, Shiba-ku, Tokyo Branches a Agencies Osaka, Dairen, Mukden, Hsinking, Harbin, Tientsin, Peking, Taihoku, Sapporo, Sendai, Yokosuka, Nagoya, Kobe, Kure, Fukuoka, Saseho, Nagasaki, Keijo, Shanghai. Products Telephone & Telegraph Apparatus, Telephone Switchboards, Wireless Apparatus, Electrical Measuring Instruments, Etc. AD. 28

PAGE 29

Established in 1872 Oji Seishl Kabunshllri Kaisha (OJI PAPER MANUFACTURING CO., LTD.) Largest Manufacturers of Paper and Pulp in Asia CAPITAL: Yen 300,000,000 Annual Output : PAPER PULP 900,000 TONS 850,000 TONS President: Ginjiro Fujihara Vice-President: Kikujiro Takashima Business Office : SANSHIN BUILDING, HIBIYA PARK, TOKYO AGENTS IN ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD AD. 29 CABLE ADDRESS: OJISEISHI ''

PAGE 30

~-~;-;;;;;;,;.------: --.-.-.-~-,.-.. -.. -,!-~-'--Ut-!ciWi ,.411111_ ______ _, .. iiej$1 Sumitomo Building i~-fi:M Yurakukan No.3 Daido Building Marunouchi Hirokojidori 6-chome Tosabori 1-chome 3-chome No.4 Naka-ku Nishi-ku Kojimachi-ku i... fAIJ;it411 1:1:1911@1 Seegartenstr. 2 W. 15. Kurfuersten-damm 197 AD. 80 IU-iiiH Mitsui Building 2 Kamo-cho l!l@lII@I We Iii ngton House W.C.2, 125-130 Strand

PAGE 31

The Japan-Manchoul(uo Year Bool( 1 9 3 9 Cyclopedia of General Information and Statistics on the Empires of Japan and Manchoukuo Appendices: Who's Who; Business Directory "Neither Is Understandable Without the Other" TOKYO Maruzen Co., Ltd. Nihombashi, Tokyo KOBE J. M. Thompson & Co. 3, Kaigan,dori NEW YORK The H. W. Wilson Co. 950, University Avenue, N. Y. City LONDON Arthur Probsthain 41, Great Russell St. BERLIN A. Asher & Co. 17, Behrenst, W. 8 AGENTS: PARIS Ricour. Chevillet & Cie. 22, Rue de la Banque, 22 LEIPZIG, C I. Otto Harrassowitz Querstrasse, 14 SHANGHAI Kelly & Walsh HONGKONG Kelly & Walsh SINGAPORE Kelly & Walsh PEKING French Book Store TIENTSIN Oriental Book Store Rue de France ALL RIGI-j.TS RESERVED HARBIN Nauka,sha DAIREN Simpson's Agencies SYDNEY Goddard & Co. George Street MELBOURNE Robertson, Mullen & Co. Elizabeth Street BOMBAY. Taraporevalla & Sons Hornby Rd., Fort. CALCUTTA Thacker, Spink & Co. 3, Esplanade East THE JAPAN-M. o YEAR BOOK Co. c., .J Totaku B18\ ., o, Kojimachi-ku,

PAGE 32

The Siemens-Works are leading the progress of the electro-technical world since 91 years Siemens-Works at Berlin-Siemensstadt SIEMENS-SCHUCKERT DENKI KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOKYO-OSAKA-DAIREN GADELIUS & CO.~ LTD. TOKYO OSAKA BUILDING UCHISAIWAICHO DAIRBN OSAKA. GOSHO BUILDING NAKANOSHIMA TOT AKU BUILDING, YAMAGAT ADORI Machinery and Equipment for POWER PLANTS-SHIPS-DOCK-YARDS-MINES METALLURGICAL & CHEMICAL PLANTS PULP AND PAPER MILLS. SANDVIK & AVESTA STEEL PRODUCTS AD. 32

PAGE 33

FOREWORD THIS marks the sixth annual issue of THE JAPAN,MANCHOUKUO YEAR BOOK. It is believed that in the present edition a greater degree of unity has been achieved among the various chapters than in the previous issues. Tables on more than fifty new subjects have been added, while a large number of statistics, on internationally comparative bases have been inserted to bring out more clearly the relative positions of Japan and Manchoukuo. The general index has been further enlarged so as to facilitate the search for information. A special feature of this issue is the supplement entitled Japan's Economic Position in China. Since the publication of the previous issue the undeclared war in China has developed in scope and extent, involving many sweeping changes which have all been noted and embodied in the present compilation so far as possible. The publishers wish again to express their deep appreciation of the many kindnesses rendered by official and private sources and by individuals in the compilation of valuable data for this edition of The Japan,Manchou, kuo Year Book. Tokyo. THE PUBLISHERS.

PAGE 34

Cable Address : ILLIES C. Illies S Co. Establish~d in Japan: 1859 l1nporters 8 Exporters H U Q-TOKYO BRANCHES: BERLIN, OSAKA, YOKOHAMA, KOBE, NAGOYA, TOBATA, DAIREN, MUKDEN, HSINKING, HARBIN, MANILA Shipping Agents lor HamburgAmerika Linie AD. 34.

PAGE 35

TABLE OF CONTENTS' (Reference to Pages) JAPAN SECTION FOREWORD ................................................... TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................... DIAGI!,AMMATIC CHARTS ....................................... WEIGHTS, MEASURES, MONEYS ................................ JAPANESE AND MANCHOUKUO YEAR DATES ................... I. GEOGRAPHY ................................................. II. Position-Territory-Area-Physical Features-Climate-Fauna and Flora OUTLINE OF HISTORY Mythical Period-,Legendary Period-Period of Foundation-Nara Period-Heian Period-Kamakura Period~Muromachi Period-Yedo Period-Modern Japan-Sino-Japanese War-Russo-Japanese WarAnglo-Japanese Alliance-World War-Siberian Expedition-Manchurian Incident-Sino-Japanese Hostilities III. GEOLOGY ............ ...................................... Geological Composition-Volcanoes-Hot Springs-Earthquakes IV. POPULATION AND EMIGRATION .............................. Introductory Remarks-Density of Population-Distribution of Population-Number of Births-Deaths-Marriages-Divorces-Average Age of Mortality-Population by Calling-Legal Status of Foreigners -Naturalization-Emigration V. IMPERIAL COURT ............................................ The Imperial House-the Reigning Sovereign-Members of the Imperial Family-Royal House of Chosen-Area of Crown Landed Estates-Imperial Property Law-Imperial Household DepartmentDecorations-Peerage-Court Rank-Genealogy of the Imperial House -List of Emperors-List of Year-Names VI. ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM ................................. .. VII. The Central Government-Composition of Ministries-Civil and Military Service-Scale of-Salaries-Pension System-Directory of Gov ernment Officials-Local Government-Reform in Japanese Admini strative Machinery in Manchoukuo POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES Politics-the Emperor-the Privy Council-the Cabinet-the "Genro" -the Imperial Diet-Composition of Imperial Diet-Chronological Session of House of Representatives-Electoral System-Political Parties-Cabinet Changes-Recent Situation VIII. DIPLOMACY ........................ Historical-Recent Situation-Anti-Comintern Agreement-Panay Incident-Ladybird Incident-Soviet-Japanese Fishery ArrangementItalo-Japanese Commercial T:reaty-U.S.-Japan Fisheries IssueChronology of Sino-Japanese Hostilities-List of Treaties i. iii.-xii. xiii.-xxii. xxiii. xxiv. 1-14 15-24 25-32: 33-42 43-54 55-71 72-86 87-~4

PAGE 36

IV CONTENTS (Japan) Clla1,t<"r IX. NATIONAL DEFENCE ............................. Introductory Remarks-Board of Marshals and Fleet AdmiralsSupreme War Council-Court-Martial Law-Army and Navy Expenditures, Conscription, Army Education-Development and Reorganization of Special Corps--Arms Depots and Military Arsenals--Strength of Standing Force-Statistics of Divisions-Naval Districts and Bases -Personnel of the Service-Age-Limit of Officers-Naval Education -Standing Fleets--List of Warships-Military Aviation-Naval Avia-tion-the Sino-Japanese Hostilities X. RELIGION ................................................ Introductory Remarks-Shintoism-Buddhism-Christianity-No. of Temples and Priests-Protestant Work-Roman Catholic WorkY.M.C.A.-Y.W.C.A.-Salvation Army-National Temperance Union XI. EDUCATION ................................................. Introductory Remarks-Entrance Examination-Co-education-Primary Education-Blind, Deaf, Dumb Schools-Secondary EducationUniversity Education-Technical Professional Education-Training Schools for Teachers-the Imperial Academy-Financial Aspects of Education-School Hygiene-Libraries and Museums-Moral Edura tion and Physical Culture XII. JUDICATURE ................................................ XIII. Judicial System-Jury System-New Civil Procedure Law-Civil and Criminal Cases-Police-Convicts by Crimes-Suicides-Prisons .and Prisoners MEDICINE AND SANITATION Introductory-Medical Practitioners-Hospitals-Tuberculosis--Leprosaria-Patent Medicines-Epidemic Laboratories-Epidemic Mortality -Deaths by Causes-Death Rate and Expectancy of Life XIV. PRESS AND PUBLICATIONS ................................... Press Law-Censorship and Freedom of Discussion-Leading Newspapers-Foreign Journalism in Japan-News Agencies-Foreign Correspondents in Japan-Leading Magazines-Publication Law XV. ARTS AND CRAFTS .......................................... Japanese Painting in Meiji Era and After-Art Societies and Exhibitions-Imperal Board of Art-Cultural Decoration, Art Museums and Schools-National Treasures-Painters of Note XVI. PUBLIC WORKS ............................................. Public Works Expenditmes-Roads-Tramways-River Works-Har-hour Works-Sanitary Works-Water Supply-Sewage XVII. COMMUNICATIONS ........................ : ............... ... Post-Mail Routes-Telegraph Service-Wireless Telegraphy-International Radio-Telephone Service-Telephone Service-Radio Broadcasting-Air Mail-Postal Savings XVIII. LABOR ...................................................... Beginnings of Labor Movement-Peasant Movements-Recent Trends -Number of Organized and Non-Organized Laborers-May Day Demonstrations-Wages-Factory Law-Productivity of LaborWorkers by Age and Sex-Labor Disputes-:--Employment Index-Japan and International Labor Organization XIX. SOCIAL PROBLEMS .......................................... General Remarks-Poor People-Housing Question-Public Pawnshops Public Markets--Organs for Control-Deliberation and Arbitration-114-122 123-140 141-153 154-162 163-170 171-177 178-183 184-195 196-207 208-218

PAGE 37

CONTENTS (Japan) -----~-------. -------~-------------------------Chaptei Democratic and communistic Movements-Patemalism in Labor Disputes-Co-operative Societies-Health Insurances-Unemployment and Employment-Women Problems-Young Men's Leagues-Eleemosynary Works-Social Welfare Work Expenditures XX. INDUSTRIAL PROPERTIES ................................... General Remarks-Monopoly Regulations-Patents-Utility Models--' Designs-Trade-Marks-Encouragement of Inventions XXI. TRANSPORTATION ........................................... Railways: Length-Capital Investments-Administration-Main Line'> -Traffic Results-Passenger and Goods Hauled-Finance-Construction and Operation. Tramways: Financial Position-Number of Passengers. Air Transportation: Civil Aviation-Government ControlFive-Year Programme-Operation Results-Distance Flown-Air Fares -Distances between Cities--Accidents-Time Table-Airplane Manufacturers-Hotel and Warehousing-Board of Tourist IndustryJapan Tourist Bureau-Hotels in Japan, Chosen, Taiwan-Spendings by Foreign Visitors XXII. SHIPPING & SHIPBUILDING .................................. Japan's Position in World Shipping-'Number and Tonnage of Ships Launched-Shipping Safety Law-Steamers by Age, Speed and Tonnage-Leading Shipowners-Shipping Subsidy-Overseas and Near-sea Routes-Tramp-owners-Freight Rates-Navigation-Salvage Works-Shipbuilding-No. of Ships Launched-Recent Shipbuilding Situation XXIII. PUBLIC AND LOCAL FINANCES .............................. Budgetary System-Structure of the Budget-Scope of Legislative Authority-State Revenue and Expengiture-Special Account-Local Loans-National Loans Outstanding-National Wealth-State Mono polies and Undertakings-Details of Taxes-Recent Situation-Wartime Financial Program-Supplementary Budget for 1938-39~New Public Loans Issued XXIV. BANKING ................................................... Introductory Remarks-Banking System-Number and Capitalization of Banks-Employment of Bank)ng Funds-Leading Ordinary and Savings Banks-Foreign Banks in Japan-Money Org~ns for Poorer Classes-Funds Available for Investment Purposes-Currency System -Amount of Notes Issued-Discount Rate-Foreign Exchange Business-Bankers" Clearing Houses-Trust Business-Number and General Condition of Trust Companies-Recent Banking Situation XXV. INSURANCE ................................................. Japan's Position in Life Insurance-Investment of Savings-Rates of Investment Yields-the Big Five Insurance Companies-State Control -Deaths of Insured Classified by Causes-Capitalization, Assets, Liabilities of Insurance Companies-Leading Insurance CompaniesForeign Insurance Business XXVI. AGRICULTURE ............ .................................. Principal Agricultural and Pastoral Products-Area and PopulationFree Holders and Tenants-Average Agricultural Gross IncomeJapan's Position in Productive Lands-Staple Farm Products-RiceFarm Products-Rice Stock-Government Godown-Other CerealsHorticulture-Industrial Crops Tobacco -Camphor -Tea -Stock Breeding-Dairy and Meat Preservings-Slaughtering-Livestock In surance-Livestock Assn.-Number of Animals Affected-Agrarian Problems-Irrigation and Drainage-Farm Adjustment-Fertilizers V Pagi, 219-224 225-244 245-258 259-294 295-315 316-324 326-341

PAGE 38

vi ('.ha.pt.er XXVII. CONTENTS (Japan) SERI CULTURE Cocooning-Reeling-Mulbeny Plantations-Raw Silk ProductionRaw Silk Financing-Demand-Export-Sericultural Policy-Arrivals of Silk Yarn. XXVIII. FORESTRY ................................................... Tropical Zones-Area of Forests-Forest by Ownership and By Purposes-Percentage Forests-Important Forests-Adjustment of State Forests-River Control and Afforestation-Forestry Output-Principal Timbers-Principal By-Products-Forestry Finance-Demand and Supply of Timber-Inflow of Foreign Timber-Export and Import of Timber-Demand and Supply of Pulp-Five-Year Plan of Pulp Production. XXIX. FISHERY .................................................... Value of Catches-Kinds of Fish-Aquatic Administration-Membership of Association-Fishing Population---,-Fishing Crafts-Coastwise Fishing Crops-Results of Pelagic Fishery-Whaling in Japanese Water and Antarctic Ocean-Coral Collection-Aquatic Manufacture-Isinglass-Pearl Culture-Fisheries i~ the Hokkaido-Exports and Imports of Fish and Marine Manufactures-Japanese Fisliing Activities in Soviet Waters-Floating Crab Canneries-Salmon Canneries-Salt ln dustry---'Output of Salt-Demand and Supply of Salt. XXX. MINING ..................................................... Value of Mineral Production-Japan's Position in Output of Certain Basic Minerals-Mining Lots-Iron and Steel, Raw Material Supply -Pig Iron and Steel Materials-Coke-Scrap Iron-Productive Conditions-Production of Steel Ingots-Steel Materials Classified-Industry Under Control-Gold-Silver-Copper-Lead~Tin-Zinc-Sul-phur-Demand and Supply of Principal Minerals-MagnesiumAluminium-Coal. Reserves-Demand and Supply of Coal-Leading Coal-mines-Petroleum-Estimated Petroleum Deposits-Crude Oil Production-Petroleum By-products-Demand and Supply of Re.fined Oil-Petroleum Wholesale Price in Tokyo-Imports of PetroleumState Subsidy for Petroleum Industry in Saghalien-Condition of the Mining Companjes-Number of Miners-Mining Law. XXXI. MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES .. ............................. Japan's Position in Industrial Production-Production Value-Industrial Praduction by Principal Commodities-Operatives and Factories by Leading Industries~Dependence on Foreign Raw Materials-Working Hours and Wages-State Subsidies for Key Industries-Industrial Associations. XXXII. TEXTILE INDUSTRY .......................................... Volume Indices of Production-Japan's Position in Number of Spindles and Consumption of Raw Cotton-Comparison of British and Japanese Cotton Fabric Exports-Cotton Spinning-Cotton Cloth OutputCotton Weaving-Raw Cotton Imports-Raw Cotton ConsumptionCotton Yarn-Exports of Cotton Yarn-Cotton Spinning Control Policy. Silk Textiles-Production Value. Rayon Yarn P1:oduction-Demand and Supply of Rayon Yarn-Rayon Yarn and Fabric Exports. Staple Fibre-Japan's Position in Staple Fibre Production. Woolen Cloth and Worsted Yarn-Output of Woolen Fabrics-Demand and Supply of woolen Yarn-Wool Imports. Hemp Cloth Production-ImportsCrops of Hemp, Ramie, Flax, etc. XXXIII. ELECTRIC AND GAS INDUSTRIES ............................. Principal Rivers and Average Potential Output of H.P.'s-Largest Load Centres-Power Generating Capacity-Demand for Electric Lights-342-347 348-355 356-364 365-385 386-393 394-405 406-410

PAGE 39

CONTENTS (Japan) Consumption of Power by Industries-Le11gth of Electric Wirings Fuel Consumptions by Power Stations-Financial Position of Electric Industry-Electric Power Control-Statistics of Gas Industry. XXXIV. CHEMICAL AND CERAMIC INDUSTRIES ........................ Volume Indices of Chemicals and Ceramic Production. FertilizersProduction-Classification-Consumption and Imports of Commercial Fertilizers. Output of Industrial Chemicals-Ammonium SulphateDye-stuff Industry-Demand & Supply-Imports of Dye-stuffs. Bleaching Powder. Caustic Soda. Paper Industry-Production-Demand and Supply-Exports of Paper. Pulp Consumption and Imports. Rubber Industry-Imports of Raw Rubber and Production and Exports of Rubber Goods-Japanese Rubber Plantation Abroads. Ceramic Industry: Production of Ceramics-Exports of Ceramics-Pottery and Porcelain. Cement Production-Consumption and Exports of Cement. Glass Production-Import, Export & Consumption of Glass and Glass Ware. Vegetable Oil Production-Imports and Exports of Oils and Fats. Fish Oil Production. Animal Fats. Production and Exports of Soap. Menthol Production and Exports. Camphor and Camphor Oil Output and Exports. Celluloid Output and Exports. XXXV. FOODSTUFF INDUSTRY ...................................... XXXVI. Cane Sugar Production-Exports and Imports of Sugar. Flour Milling -Wheat Imports-Demand and Supply.:._Production and Exports of Flour. Brewing-Production of Sake, Beer, etc. Exports of Beer. Canned Provisions-Production, Exports, etc. of Canned Provision. Isinglass Production and Exports. Volume Indices of Food-stuff Production. MECHANICAL INDUSTRY Demand and Supply-=-:Output Value of Principal Machineries-Imports and Exports, Output of Scientific, Medical Instruments, Optical Instruments, Electric Machine and Motors-Production of Locomotives and Rolling Stock-Marine Diesel Engines, Cranes, Elevators, etc. Machine Tool Output-Automobile Industry: Production-Imports of Automobiles and Parts-Registered Motor Vehicles in Japan. Foreign Contributions-Production and Exports of Bicycles. Production and Exports of Watch and Clock-Production of Measuring and Weighing Instruments and Various Meters-Machine Tool Industries Law-The Aeroplane Manufacturing Industries Law. XXXVII. MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES ................................ Production-Export of Knitted Goods-Hats-Lacquer Ware-Leather and Leather Goods-Bamboo Goods-Brushes-Straw Braids-Electric Bulbs-Pyrethrum-Toys-Butfons-Matches, etc. XXXVIII. TRADE ........................ Formation of Companies-Value of Production'.._Statistics of Cos. by Business-Business Results of Leading Cos.-Capitalization of Cos.Chambers of. Commerce & Industry-Exchanges-Stock, Rice and Market Value of Indices: of Industrial Shares-Quotation of National Bonds-Average Quotation of National Bonds-Foreign Quotations of Japanese National Bonds-Warehousing~Commodity Prices-Forward Quotations of Principal Staple Commodities-Guilds of Staple Commo-dities-Yield of Bonds and Stocks. XXXIX. FOREIGN TRADE ................... : Trade by Political Units-Exports and Imports by Groups-Foreign Trade Since 1889-lmports and Exports of -Specieand Bullionsvii Page 411-424 425-429 430-440 441-444 445-457 458-490

PAGE 40

viii CONTENTS (Manchoukuo) Chu11ter XL. Import Ratio of Industrial Raw Materials Against Total ConsumptionForeign Trade by Continents, Countries and Commodities-Invisible Trade-Balance of International Payments-Import Tariff of JapanTrade Regulation and Trade Protection Law-Trade Agreement with Foreign Countries. SIX PREMIER CITIES The City Planning Law-Area and Population of Six Premier CitiesTax Burden-Revenue and Expenditure-Municipal Loans-Social Works-Reconstruction of Tokyo and Yokohama-Tokyo-YokohamaOsaka-Kyoto-Nagoya-Kobe. XLI. SPORTS ............................................. ........ Swimming: Results of Recent Aquatic Meets-New Records in Swimming-Baseball-Golf-Boxing-Basketball-Track and Field Athletics, Japanese Records-Volley-Ball-Soccer and Rugby-Hockey and Cricket-Lawn Tennis-Result of 1938 Davis Cup TournamentRowing-Wrestling-Winter Sports: Skating and Skiing-Horse Riding and Races-Mountaineering: Fuji, Japanese Alps, Prominent Peaks. XLII. CHOSEN (KOREA) ........................................... Geography-,-Population-Finance-Public Debts-Education and Religion-Garrison and Police-Public Works-Banking and Other Financing Organizations-Foreign Trade-Monopoly-Value of Output from Industries-Agriculture-Mining Principal Minerals-Forestry-Manufacturing Industries-Trade-Railways-Oriental Development Co. XLIII. TAI WAN (FORMOSA) ......................................... Geography-Meteorological Observations-Inhabitants and Population Aborigines-Administration-State Finance-Education...,..Justice aiid Prisons-Manufacturing Industries-Forestry-F.ishery and Marine Products--Mineral Products and Mining-Agriculture-Fruits-Sugar Industry-Tea Industry-Stock-breeding-lVIonopoly-Foreign Trade Public Works-Communications-Railways-Banks and Other Financial Institutions. XLIV. KARAFUTO (SAGHALIEN) .................................... Area and Population-State Finance-Banking and Other Monetary Organs-Sanitation-Religion-Education-Agriculture-Immigration Fishery~Forestry-Output of Pulp and Paper-Mining Industry Railways-Commerce and Industry. XLV. THE SOUTH SEA MANDATED ISLANDS ......................... Geography-Race-Language-Manners and Customs-Administration --Population-State Finance-Religion-Education-Justice and Police Agriculture-Forestry-Fishery-Commerce and Industry-Principal Manufactured Goods-Foreign Trade-Communications. SUPPLEMENT JAPAN: Diplomatic & Consulai Service ........................... MANCHOUKUO SECTION I. GEOGRAPHY & GEOLOGY .................................... Physiographic Division -Boundaries -Position -Area -Mountains -Rivers-Lakes-Coastline-Harbours. Geology of ManchoukuoClimate-Flora and Fauna. Page 491-504 505-517 518-539 540-559 560-568, 569-586 589-598 599-616

PAGE 41

CONTENTS (Manchoukuo) ------------C1ia11tr 11. III. IV. OUTLINE OF HISTORY ....................................... Ancient Times-Modern Times--:Independence of Three E~stern Provinces-Chronicle of Important Events. RACES AND TRIBES ......................................... Peoples of Manchou-Races and Tribes of North Manchuria-Races and Tribes of Mongolia. FOUNDING OF MANCHOUKUO . . . . Transitional Measure-Declaration of Establishment of the New State Public Declaration of the Chief Executive-The New Flag--Recognition by Japan-Japan-Manchoukuo Protocol-Birth of Imperial Regime. V. POPULATION AND IMMIGRATION ............................. Population: by Nationality, by Province, of Principal Cities, by Age, by Occupation-1mmigration-Japanese Emigratfon Policy-Condition of Immigrants-Locality of Settlements. VI. ADMINISTRATION ........................................... The Emperor-Privy. Council-Legislative Council-State CouncilCourts-Supervisory Council-Cabinets-Decorations-Allowance to Officials-Japan in Administration of Manchoukuo. VII. JUDICATURE ................................................. VIII. IX. Courts and Jurisdiction-Supreme Court-Procurator's Office---'NU\nber of Civil and Criminal Cases-Water Police Bureau-Number of Police Stations and Officers-Reformed Jurisdiction-Prisons-Arrests-Laws Promulgated or Revised During 1937. DIPLOMACY ................................................. Japanese Diplomacy Under New System-Recognition of GermanyRecognition of Italy-Recognition by Poland-Recognition of Franco Government--Changkufeng Affair-Foreign Diplomatic and Consu,lar Service Abroad. l NATIONAL DEFENCE ......................................... National Defense Appropriations to Japanese Army & Navy-Standing Aimy-Navy-Gunboats of Manchoukuo-Bandit SuppressionNational Mobilization Law. X. EDUCATION (AND RELIGION) ................................ Reforms in Educational System-Primary Schools-Primary School Finance-Middle and Girls' High Schools-Normal Schools-Statistics of Colleges-Daido Gakuin-Vocational Schools-Youths' SchoolsTeachers' Institutions-Private Schools-Text Books-Diffusion of ,Japanese Language-Government Students Sent Abroad-Special Educational Organ~-Libraries-Muse.ums-Education of MongolsJ apanese Educt'!.t.~n..! Enterprises. ,Religion: Rel!gions Among Foreigners -Buddhism -Taoism .--: Confucianism -Mohammedanism Lamaism. XI. STATE FINANCE ....................... Budget fo1 1938-State Revenue and Expenditure Classified-Special Accounts-Public Loans-Loans and Borrowings OutstandingDomestic and External Loans-Maritime Customs-State Monopoly System: Salt, Match, Opium, Oil Monopol~es'. XII. BANKING & CURRENCY . . ..... Statistics of Financing Organs in Manchoukuo & Kwantung-Qentral Bank of l\llanchou-Ordinary Banks---,-Popufo.~ Financing Organs-The Industrial Bank of Manchou-Foreign Banks-Japanese Banks in Manchoukuo-Monetary Advances to Industties-Credit Associations ix Page 617-625 626-631 632-635 636-644' 645-653 654-661 662-666 667-672 673-688 689-696 698-714

PAGE 42

X CONTENTS (l\fanchoukuo) -------------------------------~--------------Postal Savings--Money Orders-Interest Rate. Insurance: Japanese Enterprise-Postal Life Insurance-Kwantung Province Fire Insurance Society-New Insurance Business Law-Manchuria Fire and Marine Insurance Company. Currency: Currency Stabilization-Issue of Bank Notcs~Subsidiary Coins Issued-Gold Purchase-Exchange Control Law-Foreign Exchange Rates-Abolishment of the Chaopiao-The Currency Law-The Regulation Governing the Adjustment of the Old Cunency. Xlll. COMMUN I CA TI ONS ........................................... Telegraph & Telephone-Manchuria Telephone and Telegraph Co. Broadcasting Stations-Number of Listener-in-Radio ProgramsWireless Installations-Postal Administration: Inland and Foreign Mail Handled-Parcel Post-Fees for Foreign Mail Matters-Postal Savings-Improvement of Japan-Manchoukuo Postal Savings System -Text of the Law-Agreement Concerning the Establishment of Manchuria Telegraph and Telephone Co. XIV. TRANSPORTATION ............. : ............................. Roads: State Highways Established-Under Construction-Five-Year Plan for Improvement of Local Road & Bridges. Motor Transport: Condition of Motor Bus Transportation-National Bus Lines by Dis tiict-Auto Transport Business Placed Under New Law-Road Acci dents-Numbei of Cars. Air Transport: Routes Newly OpenedTimetable and Fares on Principal Air Routes-New Aviation Law Enacted-Air Mail Regulation-Air Mail Rates. Transportation by Water: Navigation Bureaux-River Voyage Schedule-No. of Vessels -Navigable Rivers-No. of People Landing and Leaving Through Principal Ports-Navigation Law-Principal Ports. XV. RAILWAYS ............................... ................... Statistics of States and S.M.R. Lines-Newly Built Lines-Railway History-Freight Traffic-Freight Rates-Soya-bean Freight Rates Smith Manchuria Railway Company. XVI. AGRICULTURE ............................................... Arable Land and Farming Population-Structure of Agricultural Economy-Farm-laborers-Tenant-farmers-Landed Farmers-Land~ lords-Fertilizers-Domestic Animals-Method of Tenancy-Agricultural Division-Area Under Various Crops-Principal Crops-Soya Beans, Kaoliang, Twenty-Five-Year Expansion Plan for Wheat Production-Perilla-seed-Tobacco-Cotton-Stock Farming-Domestic Animals-Slaughter House Returns-30-Year Plan for Sheep's Wool Production-Live-stock Breeding Farms--S.M.R. Animal Disease Laboratory-Live-stock Assn.-Public Granaries-Government's Ba3ic Policy for Agricultural Development-Plans for 1939. XVII. COMMERCE .................................................. xvm. Commerci~l Code-Trade Control Law-New Industrial Rights LawChamber of Commerce & Industry-Trade Marks-Patent Rights and Designs-Weights and Measure-Japanese Organs-Manchu Import Guild-S.l\'I.R. Consumption Guild~Exchanges-Markets-Corporate Capitalization-Warehousing-Commodity Prices. FORESTRY ................................................... Distribution of Forests-Timber Species-Supply and Demand of Timber-Producers' Guild-Pulp Industry-Afforestation. XIX. FISHtRIE_S ................ ... ............................... Salt Water Fishery-River Fisheries-Marine Products-Fishing HotJse hold and Population-Salt, Manufacture. 716-726 728-742743-75! 753-773 774-785 786-792 793-791

PAGE 43

CONTE~TS (Manchoukuo) f.hR:ptt'r XX. MINING .................................... ................ Mineral Resources-Mining Output-Coal: Deposit, Mines, Output, Demand, Export, Five-Year Plan-Iron Industry: Deposits, Production, Expansion Plans of Showa Steel Works, By-P1oducts, Iron and Steel Control Law-Gold: Output, Five-Year Gold Mining Plan, Mining Cos.-Limestone-Soapstone-Lead-Copper-ManganeseAlumina Shale-Petroleum-Coal Liquefaction-Shale Oil. XXI. MANUFACTURING IN[)USTRY .................... : ........... Statistics of Mfg. Industries in Manchuria: Capital Investment-, Textile Industry: Spinning Industry, Raw Cotton Imports and Consumption, Number of Weaving Machines-Woollen Industry: Demand and Supply of Woollen Fabrics-Woollen Fabrics Cos.-Hemp-Dressing Industry: Import of Flax, Ramie, Hemp, etc. Wild Six Yarn and Silk Pongee Mills: Output and Export of Cocoons-Chemical Industry. Cement output, Demand and Supply, Cos.-Fire Clay ProductionGlass Indus'try-Dolo:mite Industry-Papeir-Pulp,--Reed Pulp--Sta tistics of Sulphate of Ammonia-Soda Ash-Soap-Pahit-MatchDyestuffs-Gunpowder and Other Explosives-Bricks-Earthenware and Porcelain-Bean Oil & Cake Industry: Output of Bean Oil, Number of Mills and Capacity, Export-Foodstuffs and Drinks: Distilling and Brewing, Alcohol Factories-Sugar Production, Cos., Demand and Supply of Sugar, Imports of Sugar-Flour Statistics. Electric & Gas Industry: Power Generation-Control of Electric Power-Consumption of Light and Power-Electric Cos.-Details of Gas Industry. Metal & Mechanical Industry: Metals-Machinery and Tool-Imports of Machinery and Tools, Vessels and Vehicles-Miscellaneous I.ndus tries: Tobacco-Hide and Leather-Exports of Hides, Leather and Other Animal Substances. XXII. FOREIGN TRADE ................................ ; .. ......... Yalue Percentage of Exports and Imports, By Countries and Categories-Trade by Countries-Staple Imports and Exports-Principal Exports and Imports Value and Volume-Trend in 1938'. XXIII. SANITATION ......................................... : ....... Public Health Organization-Physicians-Hospitals-Infectious Disease Mortality-S.M.R. Hygienic Activities-Methods for Combatting Dis eases-Nutrition-Environmental Hygiene-Red Cross Medical Service -Medical Schools-Medical Practitioners, Dentists, Pharmacists Opium Smoking-Control of Poppy Cultivation-Relief of Opium Addicts. XXIV. PRINCIPAL cfTIES ........................................... Hsinking___:Harbin-Kirin-Tunghua-Y enki-Tumen-Port ArthurDairen Chinchow -Pulantien -Wafangtien Hsiungyuehcheng-' Tashihchiao -Anshan -Liaoyang-Suchiatun-Liaoyang-Suchiatun -Fushun -Mukden -Tiehling -Kaiyuan -Ssupingchieh -Kungchuling-Penhsihu-Antung-Yingkow-Tsitsihar. XXV. LABOR ...................................................... Influx of Chinese Labor-Number of Immigrant Labor and their Occupation-Coolies-Demand and Supply of Laborers-Public Works -Living Condition of Laborers-Indices of Cost of Living-Wages~ Outgoing Coolies-Labpr Disputes-State Control of Labor. XXVI. THE SOUTH MANCHURIA RAILWAY COMPANY ................ Early History-Establishment of the Company-Organization-Railway Lines-General Balance Sheet-Finance-Capitalization-Invest ments~Railway Receipts, Expenditures, Profits~Subsidiary Undertakings-Rolling Stock and Workshop-Companies Controlled. XI Paire 798-810 811-837 838-858 859-867 868-879 880-887 888-896

PAGE 44

xii CONTENTS (Manchoukuo) ---------------------------------------('ha1>ter XXVII. ECONOMIC POLICY .................. .... Law Controlling Important Industries-Industries Under New LawGovernment Statement-Five-Year Industrial .Plan-Revised Economic Policy-Mineral and Manufacturing Industries-Capital ResourcesResult of the First Year of the Five Year Plan-Japan-Manchoukuo Emergency Economic Conference-Japanese Emigration-Japanese Investments-Manchuria Industrial Development Corp.-Business Result for 1st Half of 1938-Articles of Assn. of Manchuria Industrial Development Corp. Manchuria Industrial Development Corp. Administration Act.-Principal Affiliated Cos. of the Manchuria Industrial Development Corp. XXVIII. KWANTUNG LEASED TERRITORY ............................. Geographical Position-Population-Administration-Defence Services -Navy-Police-Courts of Justice-Finance-Taxes-Social Education-Agriculture-Forestry-Livestock Industry-Fisheries and Salt Manufacture-Manufacturing Industry-Dairen Customs-Communications System. SUPPLEMENT JAPAN'S ECONOMIC POSITION IN CHINA ...................... General Outlook -Relations with China before 1937 -Japan's -Comparative Pos~tion in China's Finance and Industry-Japanese Investments -Foreign Investments -Investments by Enterprises Mileage of Chinese National Railways Foreign Trade Trade with Leading Countries -Foreign Trade by Political Are'as -Shipping-Airways-Cotton Spinning and Weaving-Cotton Production-Tobacco Manufacturing-Coal Mining-Mineral Output-Iron Ore Enterprises-Iron Deposits-Electric Power Enterprises-SaltWool-Japan's Economic Programs in North and Central ChibaChina Economic Board-North China and Central China Development Companies-New Commercial Policy in North and Central ChinaCustoms Stations Under New Regime-Currency Stabilization in North China-The Federal Reserve Bank-Area and Population of ChinaArea Under Cultivation and Production of Crops. APPENDICES WHO'S WHO IN JAPAN & MANCHOUKUO ..................... BUSINESS DIRECTORY KONZERNS OF JAPAN ....................................... BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................ LEARNED AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS ........................ INDEX ADVERTISERS ............................................... BUSINESS DIRECTORY ....................................... GENERAL ................................................... MAPS Sino-Japanese Hostilities Map ................................. Air Route Map of Japan, Manchoukuo and China .................. Manchoukuo Railway Map .......................... : .......... China Railwa}' Map ................ : .......................... Page 897-912 913-918 919-940 491-1067 1068-1150 1151-1162 1163-1178 1179-1188 1189 1069-107.7 1190 112-113 239 745 920-921

PAGE 45

INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COMPARISONS Indices of Wholesale Prices I 1 1929=100 1 ---120 I I JAPAN -IA rr 110 ---.. ,ii/ .,.,...,. 100 \.U.S.A. n 90 ,, '\: tl ..I "'t---=-A 80 I Ku.K. ~'/ I / --. '~ 70 -----60 50 r-ao o-o ......... "'"y 1\11 (,170 $",:, .... J:;' ll '..._<, 160 -.,,.o c.' 11 i --'A .,.,,.,;;-,c_ :.tf 'l. .,.,,.,\lo~ 4 ,~, 70 ;; ~o 00 -N "' "
PAGE 46

xiv AB (A) Agriculture 0.9~~ (B} Fishery 0.7, CAPITAL INVESTMENT IN JAPAN Commerce 42.8~ en (C) Agriculture 0.8 ~ (DJ Fishery 0.9, PRODUCTION BY INDUSTRIES IN JAPAN Commerce 38.0~ ,---,--,----,--.----,--..---,--....--,---,---, ,--"'T"-r---,--r----,--.----,--....---,---,--, 1927 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 o 1,000 0 234567891011 Mill. Yen WEIGHTED ARITHMETICAL INDICES OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 200 I ""11111 I 1111111111 200 --Average 180 -Manufactor--ing Industry ~/\ ri I.\ ,----f------Mining J kl/' '-: # V A I \ ... -----1 V I\ r-' \ I --. I\,'"....._,.. I 180 160 160 Ii'~ I I I I r.., I I I ,, I~ I ~."1: V! ~---...... I ,, I V I I I 140 140 V_,' r,' / ,/ I 120 120 -.... ~,.,' /, .. ~-~... 100 100 I I I I 111111111 I 1111111 1930 1931 1932 1933 193{ 19.15 1 9 3 6 1 9 3 7 I 9 3 8 80 80 (Average of 1931, 1932, 1933 = 100)

PAGE 47

State Revenue &. Expenditures, General Accounts Stamp-. Receipts 65 40 35 30 25 20 Japan Year ending March 31, 1927 Year ending March 31, 1932 Year ending March 31, 1939 (Budget Estimate) \.state Enterprises & Properties 367 rTotal Revenues ....-". r,--'"'----Administration 911 V ,J V V Total Expendi tu;es-..,, --1---A ,,, /'O~din"'1 Revenue5--/ _, __ i,.---_.,,:-.. _,15 ---r----------r-----:::::. _,, -=--r ----------r.-------;..---'-Ordinary Expenditures 10 5 I I I I 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 One One Hundred Hundred Mill, Yen 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 Mill, YcQ

PAGE 48

xvi Foreign Trade of Japan Proper 4,000 3,000 -----------------------------------------------___ ,.!~!:o~t~---__________________________ 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 (A) Machine & Tool 110 (B) Comestibles in tin & bottle 87 (C) Silk tissues 72 (G) Australi'a 72 BY KINDS, 1937 (In Million yenl Others 2,325 BY COUNTRIES, 1937 /In Mill ion yen) BY POLITICAL UNITS, 1937 (In Million yen) Netherlands & Colonies 161 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 1,500 1,000 500 (D) Paper Pulp 117 (E) Crude Rubber 99 (F) Beans & Peas 93 (I) Federation of South Africa 89 (K) France & Colonies 66

PAGE 49

ECONOMIC BAROMETERS OF JAPAN: GENERAL INDEX CHART .. +4 +3 f +3 -l '.!: IA., iC f: +I ff I \ '\. +I "'\~ ''"" I\_,._ G .. ,. ~-'\ ~'d./ \I> 0 t' 0 'TV ... IA" -\ A>-., ll: ,,u V _, I ~J/1 ,y vW ; -I -:.:' ., !, 2 _, w ,,,~ "' bi A,.. Ba.. j ,._ -3 -3 \. fn...V -4 '"" /;. J ,.,f""'\J ... /, /1, ....,,.,, THREE Al;PRESENTA.TJVE SERIES ---\}lY ...... 7 -- -A-$pecalalion Pritc of 5U Industrial Shan:s ,, -7 ,._.,,.,,,, ''"\.A. rv -1 Wholc.s.tlePncu ----... 011COUnt Rae -10 .... ,,, .. ..l .... .r, "'' "'"1"'"1..""" 111111111, ,,, .. 1 .... """'" ,, .. ,,,,, ,.,, .. "''"" ..... .. .. ,, .... ... ,,, ... ,.,1,,., "'I'''"' '"'illlllU -10 ,1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1936 Bank Clearings Banking All hanks (nJ Commerciai banh Tokyo and Osaka V\'hole country million million % 1921 AveraRe ... 1929 Average) ...... 1930 ) ..... 1931 ') ..... 1932 .. ) ..... 1933 .. ) ..... 1934 .. ) ..... 1930 ., ) ..... 1936 ,. ) .... .. 1937 .. ) .... .. 1936 Oct. Nov. Dec. 1937 Jnn. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. lq3R Jan. Feb. M1tr. Ap,. May June July Aug. Sept. 4,831 3,950 3,272 3,002 3,516 4,477 4,148 4.015 4,365 5,357 4,301 4,096 5,621 4,750 4,751 6,046 5.701 5,7M 5,373 5,f.91 4,732 4.954 4,839 4.843 6,911 4,421 5,061 6.021 "-87R o.693 !i.601 5,633 o,212 4,910 Ca) Excluding Bank or ]opan. 100 6,191 82 5,303 63 4,302 62 3,854 73 4,405 93 o,579 86 5,368 83 5,322 90 5,801 111 7,106 89 5,753 85 5,568 116 7,520 98 6,255 98 6,349 125 8,119 118 7,502 120 7,597 111 7,120 116 7,387 98 6,418 103 6,o/17 100 6,436 100 6,520 143 9.000 92 5,863 105 6,524 125 7.686 122 7,452 118 7,409 116 7,289 117 7.319 108 S,937 102 6,494 100 86 70 62 71 90 87 86 94 115 8,1 90 122 101 103 131 121 123 116 119 104 106 104 105 145 95 105 124 120 120 IIB 118 112 105 Depoi.its Y million 11,347.0 11,057.6 10,82R.3 10,247.1 11,078.7 11,823.0 12,416.6 13,283.2 14,690.3 13,378.8 13,646.9 13,968.3 lll,Rl6.4 13,937.1 14,304.7 14,436.7 14,575.1 14,893.1 14,646.4 14,787.3 14.961.3 14,987.5 15,191.6 IS,746.5 15,563.1 15.751.6 16.00o.2 16,141.9 16,669.9 17.308.1 17,090.2 17.362.4 17.657.5 Advances Total Bills discounted mitlion r:,illion 10,3lfi.7 10,235.4 10,fl24.2 9,790.7 9,3.S0.9 8,903.9 8.876.1 9,177.5 10.220.8 9,374.7 9,396.9 9,505.4 9,:ll6.1 9,626.5 9.885.4 9,925.7 9,673.2 10,IQ0.2 10,278.2 10,408.3 10,575.2 10,668.9 10,780.1 n.011.5 10,973.2 10,987.3 11,098.4 11.113.5 ll,180.7 n.326.7 11.376.0 11.475.4 11,507.4 1,270.8 1,126.4 1,0.SO.0 l,0Sl.I 1,070.3 1,079.~ 1,213.2 1,356.2 1,762.4 1.422.0 1,441.7" 1,550.5 1,504.4 1,545.5 1,644.2 1,656.7 1.625.0 1,716.3 l,72U 1,7'4.8 1.11114.3 1,931.7 1,983.0 2,lBI.O 2,117.0 2,123.0 2.219.3 2,203.R 2,226.5 2,279.1 2,266.9 2,263.4 2,230.0 Deposits million 8,159.6 8,765.3 8,384.2 7,7fi7.7 R,378.1 9,002.3 ~.460.4 10,223.5 11,508.2 10,532.5 10,724.3 10,932.1 10.857,3 10,967.0 11,261.1 11,367.0 11,474.5 11,704.3 11,456.8 11,535.5 11,643.7 11,627.3 11,R.S!.3 12.302.4 12,228.1 12.373.9 12,030.3 12,560.1 13,073.6 13,652.9 13,414.5 13,"96.6 13,832.3 Advances million 7,287.1 6,982.8 6,586.1 6,303.1 6.040.3 5,839.9 5,921.6 6,295.8 7,259.0 6,569.7 6,597.1 6.660.2 6,711.1 6,824.0 7,035.3 7.072.6 7,043.0 7,209.0 7,377.5 7,465.0 7,489.7 7,554.6 7,614.0 7,712.3 7.680.9 7,662.7 7,738.4 7.766.1 7,803.0 7.923.8 7,980.6 8,062.3 8,0!c'-6.7 I Excess of deposits over advances million l,872.f-1,782.5 1,798.1 1,454.6 2,337.8 3,162.4 3,588.8 3,927.7 4,249.2 3,962.8 4,127.1 4.271.9 4,146.2 4,143.0 4,225.8 4,294.4 4,43U 4,495.4 4,079.3 4.070.5 4,153.9 4,072.8 4,237.S 4,640.1 4,547.2 4.711.1 4,791.9 4,794.0 5,270.6 5,729.1 5,433.S 5,534.4 5,745.6 (Pre:-tiarf-'cl b, )Iitf.mbishi :t~rononlit Research Bureau) xvii

PAGE 50

xviii ECONOMIC BAROMETERS OF JAPAN: SPECULATION .----.--,---.---.--.----ir--r--,-,-,--r--r-r-T-T-,7 +Ti----+---l-_.:.--1---+--f---+--+-+--t----t--t------i--T-+----;t----i ,, Sl----+----1r---t--, ;:--+--+---t----t---~~----t---,--,-f---1----i----tl'c-rr-;i-'"l 0~ -----+-----t------+--!---,lf----,---1\"-+--+--t----i-:---t-, /\/ \ [\a t\,-1'-\ t---1--'"~ ---ll\-f--'I v--'\ 't--t--t--i/t:,-11 --------l---+-----ttr--V-----V-tt---n~-~,--V I ,' \ "----+----f-J.ll----,tt,lll:f-___,t;,;----i-----1---+).-------t------1 .,,1-----------+-+-----tli!li---HJ--/r-t--r'Y--\og J ~/ \~ (\If\, f!I.:.. ., ,+t-J-+-----t--------tt-. -:---. -----.r_t:Tl;N-r---,1 .---il::;----1----IL\t '\~1.i-;1i+---!:---1-l; L..\\:\---\ ----.+------171-t,\ -----r-t:11rt:iHrt-'\~ ., lf-Vit~ i L_i ,vi 1'\ \ ', ; t\rt/ I'> fw lL:--'vw, ,: '\,"w, I~ Mi \ _j 'g l Co I \ I .. ,< ", .i. \ ,,,,.f~ +--"'nt~tt---t 0 o : \\ i -'f,J''-f..,_N_.,_:OI., \v;,\/'*f_j'\Lf 11---J,,\ +,'/i-\;1_'-c;'"i-/--A\--,i\;c,'# +-'+~-4---,---J--LJ-"_'i----~\I/ _i_;-~';""'j -1 _, ._..,)[! ;,.. -w.:v '\ ~1, 'I,// -2l-~~ ... r+_L_L--:1-,-+~"'l,+:4t------.:.+----m---.:--i----111--r----i1- W' tIIIl:IIIJJ Price of 50 Industrial -3 cJlt-----,---, ___ P:!a:t Tokyo Stock 1---1--~f'II \1-----+-----16:~-j----Jf-----j----j---t----i------r--l _4 -,-----r---, ---V!,~~a::cT:::::~k 1---1---1---'~.efn---\ii\----v--+---t---t---t----r---r--, -5 -r====1====~l------,_':_"'.:''~h,:".'""'~T__"ra"'."g'.':~~;"'.""'.'._'__L+--t---7~r-u,---t--t---t--,--:--1----:-,-:----j[~l-O 6 I ,d., 11 I ,.I 111 11 ""'"" 11111!r1 p 111iJ1111 111, /11 ... 1 "" ,,,,ii,,,, 1111111 '" 11111'11111 -7 -,-;~1~~ ;~1;4 1 g~;i', 92~\ 19~'1i'192~ ';'~'~~ 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1921-25 Average .. 1929 (Average) .... .. mn :: ; .. .. i:n :: i .... .. 1934 ( ., ) """ 1935 ( ,. ) ..... 1936 ( ,. ) ... 1937 ( ,. ) .. -1936 October ........ November ..... December.: ... 1937 January ........ Februnry .... .. March April ........... May ............ June .......... ,. July ............. August ...... September October ........ November ..... Dec~mber ..... 1938 Janu"ary ........ February ..... March ... April .......... May .......... June July .......... August ..... Sep1ember ... AveraJZe Price of 50 lnrlU!1trial Shares Ye-n % 72.15 58.98 39.05 36.76 46.66 68.19 78,60 71.94 77.71 87.05 80.15 79.57 79.66 83.66 86,24 92.46 96.71 92.35 90.95 92.07 82.27 79.86 80.40 80.84 86.76 87.50 88.50 86.63 83.43 81.69 79.15 7<1.R7 71i.OO 77.66 100 82 54 51 65 95 109 100 108 121 111 110 110 116 120 128 131 128 126 129 114 111 111 112 120 121 123 120 II6 II3 II0 104 108 Price of Tokyo Stock Price of Tokyo Stock Exchnh&te Government ExchRnp;e [ onA'.term Iloncl:a1 Company"s Transaction!! t------,-,"'%~-'--c-, --,-4"'%---, Share (Daily averaRe) ('" KoRO ")j I Ost series) yen _%-l_,_he_,_--~% 7_~Y __ en_-,-~Y_en_-t_'~%-~%--,-_% __ %_, ---t-~%-~%-128.60 100 122.R75 10, 86.44 I 1s.56 8.10 100 s.s20 100 6.143"' 100 138.S7 108 75,201 61 93,19 79.25 6.85 79 6.425 75 5.082 83 108.43 84 110,441 90 91,56 77.66 8.15 94 6,330 74 5.365 87 130.25 IOI 93,114 76 92.Bl 78,02 6.83 79 6.491 76 5.397 88 163,05 127 148,641 121 92.50 79.73 6,01 69 6.8,6 80 5.590 91 182.56 142 184,680 150 100.72 93.50 5.03 58 5.9Sl 70 4.812 78 146.78 II4 176,923 144 104.08 99.03 4.90 56 5.411 64 4,524 74 138.43 108 120.562 98 103.9:> 98.80 5.58 64 4.995 59 4.499 73 130.74 102 1S8,90li 129 101.76 101.31 5.59 64 4.456 52 4.078 66 1'47.76 115 198.560 162 101.28 101.53 5.31 61 4.403 52 3.936 64 131.63 102 156,293 121 100,J>are-au)

PAGE 51

xix ECONOMIC BAROMETERS OF JAPAN: BUSINESS f. g r I,,,+6 .. !!. I .. .. g: 'a : ii. I i I i ..... +4 a 3 ~-'" a 'I, ) A i" l'"'._i +3 .,~j. l ,i A : h A .-;;.-4 ;j !V :\ r~ !. ; J~\ +2 .,'J :'"\ \ '\ E" .. /\, i ll. ,r.\1 IY.xJ 'J :y u 1: : 'J '.j j\ -i ,.f I ii 11i/ \ ;., 0 \ : i./' _,1111 : i,J-u JY-u IA :-.: :: J :': r' j"fl '"' .AA 0 I\. :\ .. II :;) V\ /1. "\ ., I -.:" ... .! w '\, l,MJV LI -I -2 ; ',I ,11,~ ... v A,,.. -2 -3 -3 Wholesale Prices "-/I lJ"' 20 commodities \. .:e --Bank Clearings l H. Tokyo and Osaka I -1 ...... Volume of Railway Goods Traffic ,~ .... rv --1 .I. .. 1,, .. 1 .. .. ,.,,.1., .. ..... ,.. -9 l,nt "'I'" ... ,., ..... .... .... ..... r. .. ,.1. ... ..... ... ..... .. ..1. .. .... ..... .. .. .... 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 --r Wholesale Price Indices 1------I Cost of Living La hour Indices IndexCb) CDec. 10. 1931-100) cwr:~~~.:_.t;!;~e) Price (July, 1937-100) (Average for 1926-100) Goods Goods [orl I Index I or interProConw:;::: \ General domestic national General ducers' sumers' euly,\ Salary Actua1 Rates of Employ .. 1-If concon: I goods goods 1914 men earnings wages ment sumption s11mp11on -100 ___ (62 art.)"' ___ (10 art.) (10 art.) I -------I _____ 1929 rverage) ...... 169 167 171 181 103.9 98.6 91.1 :: j:::::: 132 120 145 155 98.7 96.2 82.0 100 100 100 105 100 110 136 90.7 91.3 74.5 1932 .. ..... 121 103 124 116 109 123 137 88.1 88.l 74.7 1933 .. ) ...... 144 111 151 132 133 130 146 89.2 85.1 81.9 1934 ) 148 119 154 135 126 143 149 91.2 82.9 91.3 l~\ :: i:::::: 150 123 156 144 132 157 152 91.1 81.3 99.9 155 130 161 150 137 163 159 91.8 80.7 105.5 1937 ( ,. ...... 190 144 201 175 174 176 174 96.8 82.4 117.3 1936 October ......... 157.5 128.8 164.0 150.4 139.0 161.8 158.7 92.2 80.6 107.5 November ... 162.0 131.0 169.0 ; 155.8 14?.5 164.1 158.9 gi.o 80.6 108.t' December ... 171.6 135.5 179.8 161.9 159.0 164.8 162.5 96.2 80.9 108.5 1937 January ......... 183.6 140.2 193.4 172.5 175.2 169.7 169.8 92,7 81.5 109.0 February, ..... 18.S.O 140.6 195.0 171.9 170.0 173.9 170.7 95.5 81.7 110.0 March ......... 194.5 141.3 206.5 175.9 177.3 174.5 171.0 97.0 81.6 111.7 April ............ 197,1 143.4 209.3 180.8 183.3 178.3 171.9 94.9 81.4 116.4 May ............ 193.2 141.7 204.9 176.7 175.2 178.2 171.9 95.8 81.8 117.1 June 11:18.A 140.3 199.7 176.0 174.5 177,4 171.4 96.6 82.4 117.6 July ............... 190.0 142.5 200.~ 176.7 175.5 177.8 172.4 100.0 100.0 96.3 83.0 117.8 : August ......... 1"9.0 140.4 199.9 171.9 170.1 173.7 173.9 100:6 lOD.6 96.0 83.0 118.6 September ... ,189.2 142.1 199.9 175.1 173.8 176.4 177.6 101.7 101.7 96.1 83.0 120.8 October ......... 189.1 147.1 198.5 -173.9 171.4 176.3 179.2 101.B 101,8 98.3 83.0 122.2 November ... 100.0 151.6 198.7 173.7 170.6 '176.7 l79,9 101.B 101.6 99.4 83.0 123.3 December ... 190.9 153.0 199.4 176.2 173.3 179.1 182.4 103.0 102.9 102.9 83.3 123.2 1938 ]Rnuary ......... 193.9 152.5 203.3 179.3 176.9 181.7 184.6 104.4 104.2 100.6 83,8 122.9 February ...... 198.3 152.2 208.7 182.7 180.5 185.0 190.4 105.8 lOS:5 102.3 84.0 123.5 March ......... 199.4 151.5 210.2 184.5 180.3 188.6 192.7 10..0 106.3 104,3 84.2 125.0 April ............ 202.9 152.1 214.4 I 180.5 172.5 11:18.5 197.6 108.0 107.5 103.3 114.1 129.3 : May 204.7 151.6 216.7 179.9 171.4 188.4 197.6 108.3 107.7 102.9 84.3 129.8 I June ............ 214.2 154.6 2'1:1.7 180.0 169.8 190.1 196.9 109.0 108.4 105.1 84.9 130.0 Ju]y 217.3 156.6 230.9 180.7 170.B 190.5 19!>.S 112.2 111.6 103.7 85.6 129.9 August ......... 215.6 156.6 229.0 179.4 167.6 191.2 203.1 113.3 112.7 September ... 213.8 158.7 226.3 180.1 167.0 193.2 204.3 113.2 112.6 I October ...... 207.8 (a) Based on the indices of the Bank of Jnpan. (b} Com-piled by the Cabinet Bureau of Stat1sflcs. "" Revised ater January, 1937. (Prepared by ;mtsubishi Econontic Researdt Bureau)

PAGE 52

XX ECONOMIC BAROMETERS OF JAPAN: MONEY -s,1------t---+---+------,f---+--+---t----+-,-~--~-~---t-----r---r---,i,-~-,-,.e +?t-----+---+---+------,f---+--+---..,_..---+----, = Discount Rate 1------.------,..--..,l,-,._t'-.. .,.1 +s,1------t---+---+------,f---+--+----a'if_r__ Day-to-Day Rate i 'v' +a +s,1-----t---+---+------,f---+--+---a. -____ h __ Note Issue 1------.------,..---,,r--,-----,+5 +4-~'+--+--f-f-----f--i,--+---t---':i;,--f-~~--Ba~ok_o_f_J,_p,Tn __ _,_ __ ,_ __, _,f,....,.. __ "1 ;i H ) .. --f ------.f-+;.....--,. __ -+------a~--+---~,---+--+---.----,.---,,,.--,,--,---, r. j I :: i V.J +3 Ji.Jn.~/ ;\ ,, --+---,------t---+---.---,"',i..,,.. --!-:-,.----,.----, +I ,I r1fri~ \ "1J\ J\-f:r7 :,f-\-_,""'-jfl-\--+---~---+---t: ,-, -~ii,-\---,(;-'l"S,-., ""-,---;---, .. ., 0I,i' \J' I~_/, Jr."f:0r-.... v .,. /'. \ /\ _, w If"~~-~ -. A.. "r-.AJ-\, Af!\-, '\..i \,,,J'' 'v'\.-,( 0 _, r----2 ----!---+--r-W,\-"' V 'tr,; ... ~'---J -3--r-~ -f----,f------in-~,~---+--t----t--+---+-----, 1--~--~t?~ _/_ /, -3 -4 _,,_____ .~ ---f'\,==~"'=ea:=4==.J.t.,.'='~=="''"l====--1 -6----------t---1----+----t-----1 -t----+---+---+--~f----+---+---+------,-6 11111,,I ,,.,, ,, 1,:, ''"'I,,. ill' 1;,1 11: q,,,! .,,111111!111' ,! ,,, ,!.,.,, : ,I ,,, :"""'" 111,..,, [!llil'"" 1111!!11,11 t11trl 11 _7 1923 19241925 1926 1927 192B 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 19341935 1936 1937 193B 1i~~-~i~:r~r;~e::: 1930 ( ., ... 1931 ( ,. .,. 1932 ( ,. ... 1933 \ ,. ) .. ii~: t :: l ::: i~;i :: l ::: 1936 October ..... November .. December .. 1937 January ..... Februnry .. March ....... .. April May ........... June ........... July ........... August ..... September .. October ..... November ... December .. 1938 January .... .. February .. March .. : ..... tf.~1 ... ::::::::: June ........... July ........... August ..... September ... Discount Rate (Average 0 minimum) Sen IJ1i n.a. 2.208 8.06 100 Lll2 4.06 60 L202 4.39 54 1.153 4.21 62 1.419 5.18 64 1,057 3.86 48 1.039 3.79 41 1.062 3.88 48 1.054 3.85 48 1.078 3.94 49 1.082 3.95 49 1.087 3,97 49 1,117 4.08 51 1.071 3.91 49 1.067 3.90 48 1.067 3.90 48 1.067 3,90 48 1.067 3.90 48 1.076 3.93 49 1.065 3.89 48 1.089 3.98 49 1.100 4.02 50 1.084 3.96 49 1,083 3,95 49 1.100 4.02 60 1,072 -3.91 49 1.067 3.90 48 1.067 3.90 48 1.067 3.90 48 J.067 3.90 48 1.054 3.85 48 1.050 3.83 48 1.050 3.83 48 1.050 3.83 48 Day-to-Day Rate 196 67 I/ 2.000 57 I/ J.939 57 1/ l.925 57 1/ 1.976 57 1/ 2.000 57 I/ 2.000 58 I/ 2.000 58 I/ 2,000 ~8 1/ 7.000 SB I/ 2.000 sR I/ 2.000 58 If 2.000 68 I/ 2.000 68 I/ 2,000 57 57 57 57 57 57 67 67 57 57 57 67 57 67 57 28.970 68 I I 2.000 67 28.957 58 I/ 2.000 57 28.813 68 I/ 2.000 57 29.029 58 I/ 2.000 57 28,947 68 1/ 2.000 57 28.904 68 l/ 2.000 51 28.740 58 I/ 2.000 57 28.456 67 1/ 2.000 57 28.020 56 1/ 2.000 57 (Prpparecl by Mitsubishi Eeonomic Resea.n,h Bureau)

PAGE 53

Total Value of Exports and Imports of Manchoukuo (1928-1937) 900r--------------------------------==::--,900 soa1-------------------------------, 400 301) :r, !P<: 200 0 c.. :@ 100 Mill. MY 1928 1929 1930 Mill. MY 10 Cotton Piece Goods ---Iron & Steel -------Machine & Tools---Vehicles & Vessels---Raw Cotton ________ Silk Goods -_. _____ Electrical Requisites --Paper __ __ Sugar Marine Products ----Chemicals&Pharm~ceuticals Gunny Bags Woolen Piece Good.s ---Clothing. etc. ------Timber & Wood------Soya Beans--------Bean Cakes--------Coal~---Bean Oil ----------1931 1932 Others 63.4 Principal Articles Exported, 1937 ===-, Ground Nuts -------Millet ----------Iron & Steel ------Other Beans ------Kaoliang --------Sulphate of Ammonia--Perilla Oil ---Maize-----------Raw Silk (wild) .---Perilla Seed ------Salt ----------Mill.MY 70 80 90 100 Others 43.:ly. 150 700 soa 400 200 100 Mill. My 200 200 xxi

PAGE 54

xxii Gt. Brilain 9 Netherland I 0 Value of Exports and Imports of Manchoukuo by Countries, EXPORTS 1933 1935 1936 1937 1933-1937. IMPORTS 1933 1935 1936 1937

PAGE 55

Weights~ Measures and Moneys (JAPAN) With English and French Equivalents Ri=36 cho 2160 ken Ri= (marine) Ken;.,_6 shaku=60 sun Shaku=l0 sun=lO0 bu Bhalcu (cloth measure) Tan (cloth measure) Square ri= 1296 sq. cho Cho= 10 tan= 3000 tsubo Tsubo or bu Ko (Formosa)=2934 tsubo Distance and Length =2.4403 miles =1 knot =5.965163 ft. =0.994194 ft. =1.25 shaku = a roll of about 25 shaku Land Measure =5.95516 sq. miles = 2.45064 acres =3.95369 sq. yards =3.92727 kilometres = 1.85318 kilometres =1.81818 metres =0.30303 metre = 15.42345 kilometres catres =99.17355 ares =3.30579 centiares Quantity, Capacity and Cubic Measures 47.95389 gallons Koku=lO to=lO0 sho = (Liquid) U.S.A. =l.80391 hectolitres { 4.96005 bushels } Go (10th of a sho) Koku (capacity of vessels) Koku (timber) Koku (fish) Shakujime (timber) Taba (fagot, etc.) Kwan (Kan) =1000 momme Kin= 160 momme .Momme=lO fun 5.11902 bushels (Dry) U.S.A. =lOth of a ton =about 1 cubic ft. x 10 =40 kwan (in weight) =about I cubic ft. x 12 =about 3 x 6 x 6 ft. Weights { 8.26733 lbs. (Avoir) \ k. = 10 04711 lbs. (Troy) I =3.75000 1logrammes { 1.32277 lbs. (Avoir) } = 1.60754 lbs. (Troy) =0.60000 kilogrammes ={ 0.13228 oz. (Avoir) l _3 75000 0.12057 oz. (Troy) jgrammes Money ( 2s. 0d. 581 (England) } 12.72265 francs (France) Yen() =100 sen=lO00 rin= (at par) 2.0925 marks (Germany) 0.49846 dollars (U.S.A.) 0.84459 dollars (U.S.A.) Revised rate : Dollar-0.88C67 gram of gold.

PAGE 56

Japanese Year Dates 1st Year of Meiji 1868 38th Year of Meiji . 1905 2nd ,, ,, 1869 39th ,, ,, 1906, 3rd ,, 1870 40th ,, ,, 1907 4th 1871 41st 1908 5th 1872 42nd 1909 6th ,, 1873 43rd 1910 ,, 7th ,, ,, 1874 44th 1911 8th 1875 ,, 45th 9th 1876 .. ,, J 1st Year of Taisho 1912 10th 1877 11th 1878 2nd ,, 1913 ,, 12th 1879 3rd ,, 1914 13t.h 1880 4th 1915 14th ,, 1881 5th ., 1916 15th ,, 1882 6th ,, 1917 16th ,, 1883 7th ,, 1918 17th 1884 8th 1919 ,, ,, 18th ,, 1885 9th 1920 19th 1886 10th ,, 1921 ,, 20th 1887 11th ,, 1922 21st 1888 12th 1923 22nd 1889 13th ,, 1924 23rd 1890 14th ,, 1925 ,, 24th 1891 15th ,, ,, :} 1926 25th 1892 1st Year of Showa 26th 1893 2nd 1927 ,, ,, 27th 1894 3rd 1928 ,, ,, 28th 1895 4th 1929 29th 1896 5th 1930 30th ,, 1897 6th 1931 ,, ,, 31st ,. 1898 7th 1932 ,, 32nd ,, ,, 1899 8th 1933 ,, 33rd 1900 9th 1934 34th 19.01 10th 1935 35th 1902 11th 1936 36th 1903 12th 1937 13th 1938 37th 1904 ,, 14th 1939 Manchoukuo Year Dates 1st Year of Tatung . 1932 2nd ,, ,, . 1933 8rd .. ,, } 1934 1st Year of Kangteh . 2nd Year of Kangteh. 1935 3rd ,, ,, 1936 4th ,, ,, 1937 5th ., ,, 1938 6th ., ,. 1939,

PAGE 57

JAPAN Geography CHAPTER I GEOGRAPHY POSITION, TERRITORY, AREA, PHYSICAL FEATURES, CLIMATE, FAUNA AND FLORA Japan is situated in the east of the Continent of Asia and in the west of the Northern Pacific lying between. 20 25' and 50 55' N. latitude and 119 18' and 156 31' E. longtitude. The territory comprised within this limit co~sists of six large islands, i.e. Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Hokkaido, Taiwan (Formosa), Southern Karafuto (Saghalien below 50 !at.) and the Peninsula of Chosen (Korea), and about six hundred smaller islands. Of these islands Sado, Oki, Tsushima, Iki Awaji and the four archipeiagoes ,of Boko (Pescadores), Chishima (Kuriles), Ogasawara (Bonin) and Ryukyu (Luchu) may deserve mention, all the rest being insignificant. Japan Proper consists of the four large islands of Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Hokkaido, and is exclusive of Taiwan and its adjoining islands, Karafuto and Chosen. After the Japan-China War (1894-1895) Japan acquired Taiwan including the Pescadores, and after the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) the Southern half of Saghalien, and also obtained a free hand in Korea, which she later annexed and renamed it Chosen. The realm now covers 675,365 sq. kilometers. Table 1. Japan's Position in Area and Population Area (1,000 sq. kms.) Japan Proper 382 Manchoukuo 1,303 China Proper 4,848 British India 4,684 United Kingdom 244 France . 551 Germany ....... 471 Italy . 310 U. S. S. R ....... 21,176 U. S. A ......... 7,839 Canada . 9,542 Population (1936) (1,000) Per sq. km. 70,500 185 35,338 27 413,205 85 374,200 80 47,187 193 41,910 76 67,587 143 42,677 138 175,500 8 128,840 16 11,080 1 Table 2. Area of Japan Japan Proper (incl. outlying islands) ........ Honshu ( ) ........ Shikoku ( ) ........ Kyushu ( ) ........ Hokkaido ( ) ....... Ryukyu ( ) . Taiwan (Formosa) ( ) ........ Karafuto (Saghalien) ( ) ........ Chosen (Korea) ( ) ........ Total ............................. Kwantung Leased Territory ( ) ........ Pacific Mandated Islands .............. (Sq. kilometres) 382,545.42 230,532.30 18,772.83 42,078.99 88,775.04 2,386.24 35,834.35 36,090.30 220,768.65 675,365.58 3,462.45 2,148.80 Area Percenta~ 56.64 34.13 2.78 6.23 13.14 0.35 5.32 5.34 32.69 100.00 Coast line (kilometres) 30,605.46 11,904.08 2,946.51 8,662.30 5,484.50 1,608.06 1,570.41 1,534.42 18,203.73 52,231.79 1,216.75 4,059.50 IS'ote:-All the outlying islands having a. coast line of over 2 miles.and also smaller Islands that a.re inhabited are included In the total area. Inclusive of the Pacific Mandated Islands the Empire stret~hes latitudinally for 5,643.81 kilo meters, the northernmost tip reaching to within 1,738.7 kilometers of the Arctic Circle, while the southernmost of the Mandated Islands touches the Equator. With the four main islands of Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Hokkaido as a nucleus, the cluster of islands divides into two forks, northward and southward. One end of the northern fork projects to Saghalien and th~ other towards the Aleutians. The southern fork spreads one arm towards Taiwan and the other

PAGE 58

2 GEOGRAPHY towards the Mariana, Marshall and Caroline groups of islands. Japan proper which occupies 56.64% -of the a:rea ofthe 'Whole Empire is smaller ~than Sweden or Poland but is larger than England, Italy or Norway. PHYSICAL FEATURES Mountains.-The land is mountainous and volcanic. The most conspicuous ranges are, in the west and south, two branches of the Kwenlun system of China of which, the Chugoku range, traverses Kyushu and finds its way into the middle part of Honshu, while the other coming from Shikoku also enters the middle of Honshu. In the north there is the Saghalien system which forms the ridges in Hokkaido and northern Honshu. These ranges encounter at the middle of Honshu, thereby producing upheavals popularly known among mountaineers as the Japan Alps, and other prominent peaks such as Fuji, Norikuradake, etc. Many volcanoes occur in these ranges. The Aso and Nasu volcanic chains form part respectively of the branches of the Kwen-lun and the Saghalien system, while the Fuji voicanic range traverses the Seven Islands and Peninsula of Izu and joins the two main systems at the middle of Honshu, which in this part rise in peaks of over 10,000 ft. in height. The Fuji range divides Honshu into two main sections, Southern Japan and Northern Japan. The Nasu volcanic range and Chugoku range part Honshu into what are called the Omote Nihon (Outer Japan), or Pacific board and the Ura Nihon (Inner Japan), or Japan Sea board, these two, presenting striking difference in climate and other physical conditions as well as civilization. The Kirishima volcanic range occurs in the Luchu and Osumi Islands and enters Kyushu while the Kuriles have also a volcanic chain which stretches to Hokkaido. Chosen and Taiwan have their own mountain ranges and volcanic chains. In the latter there are 48 peaks of above 10,000 ft. There are in Japanese territory over 231 mountain peaks each measuring above 8,000 ft., of which the first 39, with the single exception of Mount F'ii)i, are in Taiwan. The following are the principal peaks in Japan Proper, Taiwan and Chosen:-Table 3. Principal Peaks in Japan Proper Height -------Name Locality (metres) (feet) Mt. Fuji ........... Shirane-Kitadake Suruga-Kai ........ 3, 776 12,461 Kai .................. 3,192 10,534 Hodakadake ..... Shinano-Hida ...... 3,190 10,627 Yarigadake ..... Akuzawa -Higa-do ...... 3,180 10,494 shidake ........ Akaishidake ..... OkuNishi-Kawa-ehidake ........ Ontake .............. Shiomidake ..... Senjogate.ke ..... Nodoridake ..... Norikure.dake ... Tateyama ........ Hijiridake ........ Tsurugidake ..... Suruga ............... 8,146 Shinano-Suruga .. 3,120 Suruga ............... 3,084 Shinano-Hida ...... 3,063 Shine.no-Suruga .. 3,047 Shinano-Kai.. ...... 3,033 Kai-Suruga ......... 3,026 Shinano-Hida ...... 3,026 Etehu ............... 3,015 Shinano-Suruga ... 8,011 Etehyu ............... 3,003 Taiwan Niitaka (Mt. Morrison) ........ 3,950 Tsugitaka (Mt. Sylvia) ........ 3,884 Shukoran-san (Maborasu-san) ... 3,833 Uramon-san .................. 3,806 Tarakussha ................... 3,758 Nankodai-san ................. 3,740 Trop ........................ 3,712 Chuo Senzan ................. 3,703 Harihe ..................... 3,702 Kwan-san .................... 3,667 Daisuikutsu-san ............... 3,645 Chosen Kanboho ..................... 2,541 .10,382 10,296 10,177 10,108 10,055 10,009 9,936 9,986 9,950 9,936 9,910 13,035 12,743 12,649 12,560 12,401 12,270 12,250 12,149 12,146 12,101 12,029 8,385 Rivers.-Due ~o the insular position and complicated topography, rivers are comparatively short and of rapid current. They are not navigable for large sea-going vessels, but owing to frequent rainfalls they sufficiently serve the purpose of irrigation and hydraulic power. Principal rivers are given below with their length, drainage area, etc. Table 4. Principal Rivers Length Drainage basin Navigable length" ,_,_ Flowing into Name miles kms. sq. miles sq. kms. mi'.es kms. Agano (Honshu) ........... 105 169 3,212 8,340 217 585 Go-no 124 200 1,471 3,810 124 200 ........... Japan Sea .. Ishikari (Hokkaido) ......... 227 365 5,401 14,250 Mogami (Honshu) .......... 134 216 2,858 7,400 215 459 Jinzu 78 126 1,073 2,780 27 55 .......... Noshiro or Yoneshiro (Honshu) 85 137 1,584 4,100 124 228 Omono (Honshu) ........... 93 149 1,614 4,180 142 334 Rakuto (Chosen) ........... 327 525 9,212 23,860 215 344 Shinano (Honshu) .......... 229 369 4,734 12,260 344 703 Teshio (Hokkaido) .......... 193 306 2,247 5,820 Tumen (Chosen) ........... 325 521 4,061 10,513 54 85

PAGE 59

JAPAN Geography GEOGRAPHY 3 Flowing into Names Abukuma (Honshu) ..... Arakawa ........ Ki ....... Kiso ....... Kitakami ...... Pacific Ocean Naka Kumano ........ Fuji ........ Tenryu '' ........ Tokachi (Hokkaido) ........ Tone (Honshu) ............ Yoshino (Shikoku) ........ In'.and Sea Yodo (Honshu) ........... Okhotsk Sea Tokoro (Hokkaido) ........ East China Sea .. { Chikug~ (Ky:ushu) ......... Dakusm (Taiwan) ......... { Daido (Chosen) ........... Yellow Sea Kan ........... Oryokko (Yalu) ......... Including tributaries. Lakes and Ponds.-The are many of these inland water basins, adding much to the scenic beauty of the country, though most of them are small in size. They are generally of vol canic or seismic origin, or have been formed by gradation. Among lakes of over 1.5 sq. miles in circumference and lying at J,igh altitude may be mentioned Lake Chuzenji (1,271 m. above sea level), Lake Yamanaka (982 m.), Lake Mo tosu (902 m.), !..,ake Kawaguchi (830 m.), Lake Hibara (819 m,) and Lake Suwa (715 m.). As regards depth, Lake Tazawa ( 425 m.), Lake Towada (378 m.) and Lake Shikotsu (363 m.) head the list. The area and circumference of principal lakes are as follows:-Table 5. Principal Lakes Lakes Locality Biwa ..... Shiga ..... Hachiro-gata Akita ..... Kasumigaura .Ibaraki .... Taraika ... Karafuto .. Tomnai .. Saroma ... Hokkaido ... Inawashiro Fukushima .. Nakanoumi Shimane .... Shinji Kutcharo Hokkaido Shikotsu Hamana ... Shizuoka .. Doya .... Hokkaido .. Towada .. Akita-Aomori. Area (sq. kms.) 674.80 223.29 189.17 180.06 168.18 150.53 104.83 101.60 83.13 79.89 76.18 72.04 69.60 59.58 Circum ference (kms.) 235.20 80.63 150.42 80.63 90.90 77.00 56.08 95.83 50.50 56.52 40.98 126.22 42.85 46.20 Length Dranage basin Navigable Jesgth* ---miJe3 kms. S.'. kms. sq.km. miles kms. 122 196 2,114 5,480 81 149 110 177 1,209 3,130 154 475 83 134 735 1,910 144 232 144 232 2,513 9,100 278 448 152 243 4,139 10,720 225 605 78 126 1,262 3,270 68 118 100 161 942 2,440 183 295 100 161 1,749 4,530 55 90 13,1 216 1,888 4,890 176 357 122 196 3,389 8,780 200 322 6,086 15,760 415 852 146 236 1,429 3,700 146 236 49 79 3,246 8,410 220 660 90 145 1,027 2,660 88 141 1,102 2,850 117 189 95 165 273 439 6,437 16,673 161 260 320 514 10,147 26,279 205 330 491 790 12,255 31,739 434 698 Chuzenji in Nikko (23.35 sq. kms.), Ashi-no-ko in Hakone (20.2 !lq. kms.), Suwa-ko in Shinano (18.18 kms.) and Towada in Mutsu (59.58 sq. kms.) are noted mountain Jakes. Plains.-As might be expected from the hilly nature of her to-pography Japan cannot boast of large plains, and indeed land inclined 10 and below does not exceed a quarter of the whole area. But small alluvial plains are not scarce, the valleys of larger rivers being especially fer tiie. Of these the Kwanto plain, watered by two large rivers, Tone and Arakawa, is most impo-rtant and contains Tokyo, Yokohama and many other towns and cities, supporting altogether over 10 mi!lions of souls. The Nobi plain consists of the valleys of the Kiso, and other rivers and feeds over 2 million people, clustered in Nagoya and other towns and cities. Other plains in Honshu are the Kinai plain with Kyoto,' Osaka, Kobe, etc. in it, containing 4 million people, and traversed by the Yodo and other rivers; the Echigo plain traversed by the Shinano and Agano rivers; the Sendai plain watered by the Kitakami and the Abukuma. Hokkaido has Ishikari and six other large plains. The Tsukushi plain in Kyushu contains coal fields, where 60 per cent. of the coal produced in Japan is mined. In Chosen the valleys of the Kan-go (River Han), are reputed to be among the most developed. Principal plains in Japan Proper are as follows:-Table 6. Principal Plains Name Watered by Noted towns Kwanto .... ,Tone, Ara Tama, Nairn & Sagami .. Tokyo, Yokohama, etc .. Nobi ....... Kiso syste{n (Ibi and Nagara) ...... Nagoya, Gifu, etc ...... Kinai ....... Yo-do .......................... Kyoto, Osaka & Kobe .. Echigo .. Shinano and Agano .. Niigata ........ Area Approximate No. (sq. kms.) of inhabitants 13,000 11 millions 18,000 3 1,250 5 1,800 1 ,,

PAGE 60

4 GEOGRAPHY Area Approximate No, Name Watered by Noted towns (sq. kms.) of inhabitants Sendai ..... Kitakami and Abukuma .......... Sendai .............. 1,500 1 lshikari .... Ishikari ..................... Sapporo ............. 2,100 1/5 Tsukushi ... Chikugo ........................ Kurume ............. 1,200 2 Adjacent Seas.-The East China Sea is shallow except for the portion near Taiwan and the Luchu, but the Sea of Japan is deeper, the maximum being 1,880 fathoms. Great depressions are found in the Pacific waters not far from the coast. One of them, the Tuscarora deep, discovered by the American steamer Tuscarora in 1874, which extends for about 400 miles along the Chishima Islands (Kuriles) has a maximum depth of 4,655 fathoms (8,514 metres), the Ryukyu deep being credited with 4,041 fathoms. The deepest sea-bottom in the sea about Japan which had hitherto been believed t9 be the Tuscarora Deep has been ascertained to be a spot lying about midway between the Hachijo and Ogasawara (Bonin) islands, 30 49' N.L. and 142 18' E.L., where a maximum depth of 9,435 metres was sounded by the warship Manshu in October, 1926. Ocean Currents.-Warm and cold currents encounter in Japanese seas, which has a favourable effect upon the fishing and marine product industries of the country. The great warm current in the North Pacific, known as Kuroshio (Black or Japan Current), runs along the southeastern shores of Taiwan and Japan Proper to a point of about 85 6' N.L. where it bifurcates and takes a northeasterly course. The Tsushima Curren:t which branches from the Kuroshio near the Luchu Is. passes through the Straits of Tsushima and washes the Japan Sea board of Honshu, finally reaching Saghalien. The cold currents in the Japan Sea ,are the Liman Current which, after touching the continental shores, streams along the northeastern coast of Chosen, and the Okhotsk Current in the Okhotsk Sea. The Oyashio or Chishima Current is also cold and washes the Pacific side of the Kuriles, Hokkaido, and northeastern Honshu. It meets one of the branches of the Black Current off the Ojika Peninsula, where there is a bank that furnishes a good fishing ground. Though visited by cold streams the Japanese seas are ice-free, save in the extreme north of the Korean waters where ice-breakers are necessary in winter. Part of the No,rthern Pacific north of Cape Erimo (Hokkaido) is also visited by floating ice and ice-fields which are a menace to navigation from January to April. Tides.-Tides register a very high range on the Yell ow Sea and East China Sea coasts, reaching as much as 34-5 ft. at Jinsen (Che-mulpo) in' Chosen. In Japan Proper the highest range is 18 ft. at the port of Miike in Kyushu. The difference is 6-13 ft. in the Inland Sea, 6-9 ft. on the Pacific coast and 4-5 ft. on the Okhotsk. The Japan Sea is one of the waters with the smallest tidal range in the world, being scarcely more than 2 ft. except at the Tsushima Straits. At Naruto, one of the narrow straits by which the Inland Sea communicates with the Pacific, the tidal streams form eddies and whirl; pools which present a unique sight. Bays and Harbours.-The Pacific coast is far more diversified in outline than the Japan Sea coast. The coast line of the former measures in aggregate 10,310.3 miles against 2,818.6 miles of the latter. In Honshu alone, the outer coast measures 3,199.3 miles and the other only 1,588.6 miles. The eastern coast of northern Japan, i.e., from Cape Shiriya to Cape Inubo outside of Tokyo Bay, has only one continuous large inlet, the Bay of Sendai and the Bay of Matsushima embraced by the Ojika Peninsula, but for about 146 miles north of Sendai it is rich in smaller indentations and forms a Ria coast. The southern coast of Honshu extending from near Tokyo Bay to Cape Satta in Kyushu abounds in large indentations and furnishes several excellent anchorages. These inlets are Tckyo Bay, the Gulf of Sagami, the Bay of Atsumi, the Bay of Ise, the Straits of Kii and the Gulf of Tosa. The Inland Sea may practically be regarded as one large inland basin being connected with the outer sea by four very narrow straits, i.e., Shimonoseki, Hayatomo, Yura and Naruto. It is dotted with small islets and renowned for its charming scenery. The China Sea coast of Kyushu is much indented, and over the sea are scattered the islands of Goto, Hirado, Amakusa and Koshiki. In the northwest the Nishisonogi, Nomo and Shimabara peninsulas divide the coast into the four bays of Omura, Nagasaki, Sasebo and Miike. The Bay of Kagoshima also may be mentioned, for it contains the volcanic island of Sakurajima on which there was an eruption in 1914. The western part o-f the Japan Sea coast is much zigzagged and between Chosen and Kyushu there exists a narrow strait rather shallow in depth. This strait is further divided into three, i.e., Iki, East Tsushima and West Tsushima channels, by the two islands of Iki and Tsushima which lie in it. The West Tsushima

PAGE 61

JAPAN Geography GEOGRAPHY 6 channel is only 4,700 metres wide. The monotonous nature of the Japan Sea coast of Honshu is somewhat diversified by the presence, here and there, of lagoons formed by the action of wind and wave. Nakanoumi Lagoon is one of such depressions. The only noteworthy indentation along the whole coast is that forming the Gulf of Wakasa on which are situated the secondary naval port of Maizuru, and the harbours of Miyazu, Tsuruga, etc. One interesting geographical feature is that owing to the presence of the gulf the most constructed neck of Honshu exists there. Between the Gulf of W akasa and Tsugaru Promontory the curves formed by Noto and 0ga Peninsulas are worthy of mention, whatever other inlets there may be being insignificant and at best forming river ports of no great value. The Oga Peninsula encloses the Hachirogata, a lagoon .with beautiful scenery. The Gulf of Mutsu, in which lie Aomori and 0minato, a secondary naval port, opens to the Tsugaru Straits but the mouth is narrowed by the Shimokita Peninsula. The Tsugaru Straits separates Hokkaido from Honshu with a width of only 20,000 metres and a maximum depth of 111 fathoms. It is well known as Blackston's line. The coast of Hokkaido and of Taiwan is not much better off for anchorage. The former is characterised by the presence of sand rlunes formed by strong wind and sediments brought down by rivers. The Volcanic Bay and Oshima Peninsula, Nemuro Bay and Ishikari Bay only deserve mention. The coast of Taiwan presents a sharp contrast in the eastern and western shores, the former ending abruptly in deep water and the latter terminating in shelving bottom with shoals. The three large islands of the Pescadores group enclose among themselves an important anchorage. The Japan Sea coast of Chosen is very monotonous, while the Yellow Sea board is rich in indentations of which West Chosen and Gunsan Bays are the largest con taining Ryugampo (Yongampo), Jinsen '(Chemulpo), Gunsan (Kunsan), Moppo and other harbours. This part also abounds in islets. The south coast of the Peninsula is not marked by large zigags but has excellent anchorages, such as Masan and Fusan. CLIMATE Atmospheric Pressure and Wind.-The climate of Japan is chiefly governed by the prevalence of monsoons, that is, the prevailing winds that perfodically change their directions about every half year. During the warm seasons what is called the summer monsoon prevails, its direction being generally south to southeasterly while the winter monsoon that prevails during the cold seasons is north to northeasterly in direc~ tion. From the latter part of September to March a large area of high barometric pressure covers the whole of Eastern Siberia, its centre being the districts surrounding Lake Baikal. At the same time an area of low pressure appears over the northern Pacific, extending to the south of the Aleutian Islands. This results in the prevalence of anticyclonic wind over the whole of the Far East, its direction being west to, north west in Hokkaido, northwest in Japan Proper, north in the Luchu Islands, and northeasterly in Taiwan. One of the characteristics of the winter monsoon is its marked constancy in strength. It continues to blow for many days running, being broken only by an occasional visitation o.f the atmospheric disturbances called "cyclonic storm." From the latter part of April to the end of August what is known as the grand Pacific high pressure occupies the central part of the north Pacific Ocean, its western margin reaching as far as the eastern coast of Japan. Then in the Tibetan plateau there develops a great low area with a secondary low area also develop ing over the Mongolian desert. Thus a system of cyclonic circulations of air is established all over the Far Eastern coast, and the air current from the Pacific flows in into the Continent past Japan and her neighbouring seas. This summer monsoon, however, is generally variable in strength and its duration is short. Below are given the mean monthly barometric reading at a few stations as reduced to the sealevel and given inmm. and a table showing the mean direction of prevailing winds at principal localities:-Table 7, Atmospheric Pressure (in ,mm.) (1936) Jan, Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug, Sept, Oct. Nov. Dec. Ave. Taihoku 66.1 65.1 6R.5 60.6 57.8 55.3 54.3 53.9 57.0 61.4 64.2 65.7 60.4 Fukuoka : : : : 66.8 65.7 (i '.5 6l.9 59.2 56.3 56.4 56.2 59.1 63.2 65.8 66.7 61.8 Kagoshima .. 66.2 65.0 63.8 61.5 59.2 56.6 56.9 56.3 58.4 62.2 65.1 66.1 61.4 Hiroshima 66.2 65.3 64.4 62.0 59.4 56.6 56.8 56.6 59.3 63.2 65.7 66.1 61.8 ~saka ... : : : 65.2 64.4 63.9 61.9 59.4 56.8 57.0 56.9 59.3 62.8 65.0 65.1 61.5 Kagoya ..... 64.3 63.5 63.3 61.9 59.5 57.0 57.2 57.3 59.5 62.6 64.6 64.5 61.3 anazawa 64.5 64.2 63.8 61.9 59.3 56.7 56.9 56.9 59.5 63.0 64.8 64.4 61.3 Tokyo .... : : 62.5 62.1 62.3 61.6 59.3 57.1 57.4 57.6 59.9 62.6 63.7 62.7 60.7

PAGE 62

6 GEOGRAPHY -(Continu:d) Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June I July Aug. Sept. Oc~. Nov. Dec. Ave, Niigata 63.5 63.3 63.4 62.0 59.5 56.9 57.1 57.2 59.8 63.1 64.4 63.5 61.1 Ishinom2.ki 62.1 61.9 62.3 61.(l 59.3 57.3 57.4 57.7 60.2 60.8 63.6 62.4 60.7 Hakodate 61.1 61.1 61.3 60.8 58.8 56.9 57.0 57.6 60.0 62.3 62.5 61.1 60.0 Nemuro ..... 58.9 59.6 60.0 *0.2 58.8 57.8 57.7 58.4 60.6 61.7 60.8 58.7 59.4 Chichijima (Bonin) 63.3 62.5 62.S 61.9 60.0 59.3 59.0 57.0 58.9 60.1 62.2 63.0 60.8 Table 8. Directions of Prevailing Wind (1922-1936) Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. 'J'aihokii .. ; ........................ NE NE NE NE Fukuoka ........................... NW NW NV,[ NW Kagoshima NW NW NW NW Hiroshima ........................ N1-V NW N-1-' NW Osaka ......................... NW NW NW NW Nagoya ........................... NW NW J-!W NW Kanazawa ........................ SW SW SW SW Tokyo ........................ NW NW NW NE Niigata NW NW NW SW Ishinomaki ........................ NW NW NW NW Hakodate ........................ NW NW NW SW Nemuro .......................... NW NW NW SW Ch.ichijima (Bonin) .......... NW NW SW SE Cyclones and Typhoons.-ln speaking of winds tn Japan and her neighbourhood, it is necessary to mention the violent rotatory storms called cyclones and typhoons. The former are also known by the name of Continental cyclones, and belong to the same category as the European rotatory storms. A cyclone is caused by the intruding polar front of general circulation in the higher latitude. These continental cyclones are most frequent in winter and are very rare in summer. The typhoon is of tropical origin May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec, Ave. NE NE SE SE NE NE NE NE NE NW NW SE SE NE NE NW NW NW NW NE SN NE N1~ NW NW NW NW NW SW SW SW NE NE N NW NW NW NW SW SW NE NE NW NW NW SW SW SW SE NW NW/ NW NW NW SW NE SW NE NE SE SE SW SW SE SE SE SE NE NE NW NW NE SW SW SW 8W SE SW SW NW NW SE SE SE SE NE NW NW NW NW SW SE SE SE SE NW NW NW NW SW SE SE SE SE SW NW NW SW SE SW SE SE SE SE NE NE SE as hurricanes observed in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic and the cyclones visiting the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea. It is most frequent from July to October, the severest occuring usually in August and September. In winter this kind of atmospheric disturbance is rarely met with. Below is given the frequency of both kinds of rotatory storms, the statistics being quoted from Father Froc's well knowii memoir "L'atmosphere en Extreme Orient",::Table 9. Number of .Stormy Days (Average of 1925-1936) Jan. Feb. M,r, Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total Taihoku ...... 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 6 Fukuoka ...... 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 7 Kagoshima .... 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 7 Hiroshima 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 o 0 4 Osaka ........ 3 2 2 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 3 15 Nagoya 5 7 8 6 3 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 41 Kanazawa 8 4 5 3 2 1 0 0 1 1 3 7 36 Tokyo ........ 2 3 5 3 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 22 Niigata ....... 20 17 17 ]0 8 4 3 4 5 10 15 15 130 Ishinomaki .... 4 4 7 5 2 1 0 1 1 1 3 4 33 Hakodate ..... 17 12 15 13 u 5 4 4 7 11 15 16 128 Nemuro 12 6 8 10 7 3 3 5 u 13 13 92 a Chichijima (Bonin) 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 17 Air Temperature.-In winter the cold is intense than that of Japan Proper, the territory form in Japan Proper for its latitude, owing to the ing part of the Continent. In Japan Proper the cold air currents brought over from the Asiatic interior of Hokkaido is also marked by conti-Continent by the winter monsoon, while being nentality of climate, the temperature once re much milder than in the districts of the same corded in Asahigawa being as low as -14 C. latitude in Manchuria, Siberia, etc. The climate In the hot season the air temperai,.ti~ on land of Chosen (Korea) is more continental and colder being already high due to insolation, the effect

PAGE 63

JAPAN Geography GEOGRAPHY 7 ---------of the summer monsoon which prevails there is chiefly shown in the close or sultry air owing to the moisture borne from the sea. Summer in Taiwan (Formosa) is most unbearable, be cause of the high temperature which lasts from the daytime far into the night, though the maximum is comparatively low. In Honshu and other islands of Japan Proper, however, the heat lessens in the morning and evening. In Hokkaido it is as hot as in Honshu in the daytime when tropical clothes are needful, but it grows so cool _before sunrise and after sunset, that people are liable to catch cold. On the coast of the Setonaikai, or the Inland Sea districts, land and sea breezes are well developed. and consequently morning and evening calma marking the pause of these breezes occur very regularly. In the hours 7 to 9 p.m. during the hot season, the air in these districts is as still as dead, not a puff quivering the blades of grass, and one feels as if shut up in a hot house. The appended tables show the monthly mean air temperature and the daily mean maximum and minimum temperature:-Table 10. Monthly Mean Temperature of Air (in C.)" (1936) Taihoku .... Fukuoka ... Kagoshima .. Hiroshima .. Osaka ..... Nagoya Kanazawa .. Tokyo ..... Niigata Ishinomaki .. Hakodate .... Nemuro, Chichijima (Bonin) ... Taihoku .... Fukuoka Kagoshima .. Hiroshima .. Osaka ..... Nagoya Kanazawa .. Tokyo ..... Niigata .... Ishinomaki .. Hakodate ... Nemuro .... Chichijima (Bonin) ... Taihoku .... Fukuoka .... Kagoshima Hiroshima ... Osaka .... Nagoya .... Kanazawa .. Tokyo ..... Niigata .... Ishincimaki .. Hakodate ... Nemuro ..... Chichijima (Bonin) ... Jan. 15.2 4.9 7.0 3.9 4.2 3.0 2.4 3.0 1.5 -0.4 -2.9 -4.9 17.5 Feb. 14.8 5.1 7.4 4.3 4.4 3.7 2.3 3.7 1.5 0.2 -2.3 -5.5 17.4 Mar. 16.9 8.1 10.7 7.4 7.4 6.9 5.2 6.9 4.4 3.0 0.8 -2.4 18.2 Apr, 20.6 13.1 15.5 12.9 13.2 13.0 11.0 12.6 10.2 8.7 6.3 2.8 20.5 May 24.1 17.l 18.9 17.2 17.6 17.3 15.6 16.7 14.8 13.2 10.4 6.5 22.7 Jur.e 26.6 21.4 22.3 21.4 21.9 21.5 20.1 20.5 19.5 17.2 14.4 9.9 25,5 July 28.2 25.7 26.2 25.6 26.1 25.7 24.2 24.3 23.8 21.2 19.0 14.2 27.2 Aug. 27.9 26.4 26.8 26.8 27.3 26.5 25.6 25.7 25.6 23.2 21.5 17.2 27.3 Sept. 26.2 22.2 24.2 22.9 23.4 22.8 21.5 22.0 21.5 19.8 17.9 15.3 26.9 Oct. 22.9 16.3 18.9 16.7 17.1 16.4 15.4 16.0 15.3 13.7 11.9 10.7 25.5 Table 11. Mean Daily Maximum Tem.perature of Air (1936) Jan. 19.0 9.3 11.9 8.9 8.6 8.1 5.9 8.3 4.3 3.3 0.4 -1.9 20.6 Jan. 12.3 0.9 2.5 -0.2 0.3 -1.2 -0.5 -1.4 -1.2 -3.9 -7.2 -8.7 14.4 Feb. 18.5 9.6 12.3 9.4 8.9 9.1 6.1 8.7 4.7 4;1 1.2 -2.2 20.4 Mar. 20.9 13.0 15.7 12.6 12.2 12.6 9.8 11.9 8.4 7.4 4.4 0.9 21.5 APr. 24.9 18.4 20.3 18.1 18.3 18.6 16.2 17.4 14.9 13.1 10.7 6.7 23.8 May 28.5 22.7 23.6 22.4 22.7 23.0 20.7 21.2 19.5 17.3 14.8 10.6 25.8 June 31.5 26.2 26.3 25.7 26.4 26.4 24.6 24.6 23.6 20.8 18.4 13.8 28.7 July 33.2 30.1 30.2 29.8 30.5 30.5 28.5 28.3 27.7 24.5 22.6 18.1 31.0 Aug. 32.9 31.2 31.2 31.6 32.2 31.7 30.4 29.9 29.9 26.5 25.3 20.9 30.7 Sept. 30.9 27.3 28.7 27.8 28.1 27.7 26.4 26.0 25.7 23.4 22.2 18.7 30.4 Oct. 27.1 22.3 24.0 22.6 22.3 22.0 20.5 20.5 19.5 18.1 16.8 14.2 28.8 Table 12. Mean Daily Minimum Temperature of Air (1936) Feb. 12.0 0.8 2.9 0.1 0.4 -0.9 -0.9 -0.7 -1.4 -3.4 -6.9 -9.6 14.1 Mar. 13.9 3.1 5.9 2.4 2.9 1.8 1.2 2.2 0.9 -0.8 -3.4 -6.2 15.1 A?r. 17.3 7.4 10.8 7.6 8.3 7.6 6.1 8.0 6.0 4.6 1.7 -0.5 17.7 May 20.6 11.5 14.4 12.0 12.8 12.1 10.8 12.3 10.8 9.3 5.9 2.9 20.1 June 22.9 17.1 18.8 17.3 18.0 17.2 16.0 17.0 16.0 14.1 10.7 6.6 22.8 July 24.3 22.2 22.8 22.0 22.6 21.8 20.5 21.0 ,20.6' 18.5 15.7 11.0 24.2 Aug. 24.2 22.5 23.3 22.9 23.5 22.6 21.5 22.3 22.0 20.4 17.8 14.1 24.7 SePt. 22.7 18.3 20.6 18.8 19.6 18.9 17.7 18.7 17.9 16.6 13.2 i2.1 24.3 Oct. 19.8 10.7 14.6 11.8 12.7 11.8 11.4 12.3 11.7 9.7 6.3 6.9 22.9 Nov. 19.8 11.5 13.7 11.0 11.5 10.6 10.1 10.6 9.6 7.9 5.7 4.6 22.7 Nov. 23.8 17.0 19.1 16.9 16.7 16.5 14.8 15.7 13.5 12.4 9.7 7.9 25.8 Nov. 16.8 6.3 9.0 6.1 7.0 5.6 6.1 6.2 6.1 3.6 1.1 0.8 20.0 Dec. Ave. 16.8 21.7 7.1 14.9 9.0 16.7 6.2 14.7 6.7 15.1 5.4 U:4 5.2 13.2 5.4 13.9 4.3 12.7 2.4 10.8 -0.1 8.6 -1.3 5.6 19.5 22.6 Dec. Ave. 20.7 26.0 11.7 19.9 14.2 21.5 11.5 19.8 11.4 19.9 10.7 19.7 9.1 17.8 10.8 18.6 7.6 16.6 6.4 14.8 3.2 12.5 1.7 9.1 22.4 25.8 Dec. Ave. 13.9 18.4 2.7 10.3 4.3 12.5 1.8 10.2 2.5 10.9 0'.9 9.9 1.9 9.3 0.8 9.9 1.3 9.2 -1.1 7.3 -4.1 4.2 -5.0 2.0 16.6 19. 7

PAGE 64

8 GEOGRAPHY Precipitation.-During the cold season the northwesterly monsoon. that comes from the Continent blo-ws across the Japan Sea, where it takes up considerable quantities of moisture. This inflowing air current strikes the coast and is forced to ascend the slopes of the central mountain ranges running almost parallel to the coast. Due to the adiabatic cooling of this ascending moist air a considerable quantity of precipitation, especially in the form of snow, falls as long as the wind continues blowing. In consequence, during winter deep snow covers the ground in the districts facing the Japan Sea, i.e. from northern Kyushu to Hokkaido, especially the region extending from Kanazawa to Otaru. In the prefecture of Niigata, especially in the upper valley of the River Shinano, 10 to 20 feet of snow is the rule. In 1893 it measured 25 feet in Aoy-"gi village, Nakakubiki-gun, in that prefecture. The snowfall is also heavy in Hokkaido. Once a depth of 13 feet was recorded in Ebishima village, Ishikari province. In those snowy districts the drifts reach the eaves, so that the inhabitants make tunnels through them, or more generally live in the upper storey rooms, the street traffic being carried on the beaten track over the snow. As a drift frequently piles up to several feet in a single night, it baffles the operation of the Russel plough and railway trains are often held up for days. On the Pacific board, which is separated from the Japan Sea coast by the central mountain ranges, the northwesterly monsoon blowing as a descending current, the weather is mostly fair with the sky so clear and serene that not a speck of cloud dots it. Thus the winter weather along the Pacific and that along the Japan Sea board with high ridges in between, are characterized by almost contrary phenomena. Only in the nortbeastern districts where the central ranges are not so high the loaded current from the Japan Sea is borne over to the Pacific coast, so that the region extending from Aomori to Sendai and Koriyama is mostly covered with snow all through the winter, though the district south of these latter cities is free from the precipitation, "Bai-u" or "Plum-rain."-During the warm season the situation is quite different! Besides the general rainfall caused by the occasional visitation of cyclones and typhoons, a long spell of wet weather prevails from the second decade of June to the first decade of July. The rainy season is commonly known as "Bai-u" or "Plum-rain", as it occurs when the plums are getting ripe. This "Plum-rain" season begins earlier in the lower latitude and progresses to the higher latitude. Thus the Luchu Islands have the rainy season in May, while in North Chosen and Manchuria it occurs in July. The characteristic of the "Bai-u" lies not so much in the heaviness of rainfall as in the long spell of drizzling. Heavy precipitation in a short space of time mostly occurs with the visitation of typhoons in August and September, when torrential downpour of rain often causes the rivers to swell and overflow their banks. It is in these months that inundations and landslides frequently paralyze the railway service. In short, heavy precipitation takes place twice, in winter and summer, on the Japan Sea coast, and once, i.e. in summer, on the Pacific coast .. The following tables give the average monthly rainfall in mm. and the number of wet days:-Table 13. Amount of Precipitation (in mm.) (1936) Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total Taihoku .......... 88 137 184 168 222 284 233 303 234 119 65 73 2,110 Fukuoka ......... 67 79 107 134 120 241 254 139 194 95 77 82 1,588 Kagoshima ....... 80 98 155 225 210 394 299 189 222 124 93 86 2,175 Hiroshima ....... 50 63 105 168 146 240 218 107 189 106 67 55 1,513 Osaka ........... 45 58 96 138 126 189 152 110 183 127 77 50 1,348 Nagoya .......... 54 67 113 158 157 207 186 167 246 157 87 58 1,658 Kanazawa ........ 272 188 168 166 136 170 211 164 237 208 269 344 2,533 Tokyo ........... 52 73 109 134 153 159 134 151 239 200 100 57 1,559 Niigata .......... 188 125 110 105 87 116 164 123 181 163 193 225 1,779 Ishinomaki ....... 42 50 74 96 112 115 126 121 165 129 67 43 1,140 Hakodate ........ 66 60 67 71 88 91 135 134 174 119 108 78 1,186 Nemuro ......... 37 27 56 78 93 92 102 109 144 104 88 57 986 Chichijima (Bonin) ....... 95 84 111 128 209 130 91 153 146 156 150 133 1,585

PAGE 65

JAPAN ~Geography GEOGRAPHY 9 Table 14. No. of. Days With Precipitation (1936) Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Taihoku ......... 17 17 17 15 16 Fukuoka ......... 16 14 15 14 12 Kagoshin~a ....... 14 13 16 15 14 Hiroshima ........ 11 lO 13 13 11 Osaka ........... 8 9 13 13 12 Nagoya .......... 10 9 12 13 13 Kanazawa 27 23 21 16 14 Tokyo ........... 7 8 13 14 14 Niigata .......... 28 23 22 15 14 Ishinomaki ....... 11 1l. 12 12 12 Hakodate ........ 21 18 18 12 13 Nemuro ......... 12 10 13 12 13 Chichijima (Bonin) ....... 17 15 15 15 17 Frost..-The invasion of cold wind from the Asiatic continent often causes killing frost, which frequently inflicts heavy damage on young mulberry leaves, and hence to spring sericulture. The following is the record of late frost in various sericultural centres:-Table 15. Frost Average As occure 1 last Taihoku . Jan. 24 Mar. 7, 1906 -Kumamoto Apr. Ii! May 4, 1933 .Kanazawa 16 12, 1927 ...... Osaka 8 3, 19~5 . Nagoya ,, 14 13, 1902 . Tokyo .......... 7 16, 1926 Matsumoto May 12 29, 1921 Niigata Apr. 8 16, 1911 ........ Hakodate ....... May 14 June 7, 1917 Sapporo 21 28, 1928 ........ Fusan .......... Mar. 28 Apr. 25, 1917 Dairen 30 22, 1915 ......... Humidity.-Due to her geographical position the climate of Japan is very moist, and this fact is responsible for the southerly wind in summer that travels with the Black Current and the northerly wind in winter which blows with the Tsushima Current. For reasons already stated, Japan is one of the rainiest regions in the world, the average record of rainfall ranging from 700 m.m. in Karafuto and Northwestern Chosen, and 3,312 m.m. in Hachijo Island off the Izu Peninsula. In Southern and Northern Taiwan, the "Luchu Is., and on the southeastern and Japan Sea coasts of Japan Proper, it is generally above 2,000 m.m. In the middle part of the Inland Sea coast, the inland basins in Nagano and other prefedures, the gauge registers below 1,200 m.m. The Pacific coast of Northern Japan has generally little rain. The following tables show the records of average humidity and average precipitation taken at principal observatories:-June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total. 16 14 15 14 15 15 16 186 15 14 12 15 11 12 16 165 18 16 15 14 11 11 13 168 13 13 J.O 14 9 9 10 136 14 12 10 14 11 10 9 136 14 14 12 16 12 10 10 143 15 15 12 17 18 21 26 223 15 14 13 16 14 10 7 145 13 14 12 17 19 22 27 225 13 15 14 16 14 11 11 152 13 14 13 16 15 19 21 195 14 15 15 15 14 14 13 159 13 13 17 17 18 17 17 192. Table 16. Avel."age Humidity (Percent) (1936) (taking saturation as 100) Past Observatory Jan. Apr. July Oct. Ave. Min.-Taihoku ..... 84 83 78 81 82 24 Kumamoto ... 77 76 82 78 78 18 Kanazawa 79 73 81 79 77 19 Osaka ...... 71 72 77 76 74 16 Nagoya ...... 75 72 79 78 76 21 Tokyo ....... 63 73 83 79 74 7 Matsumoto ... 78 70 80 82 77 13 Niigata a I a 81 75 82 78 79 20 I-Iakodate .... 77 72 85 74 77 19 Sapporo ..... 80 72 84 80 79 8 Fusan ....... 51 67 83 64 66 5 Dairen ...... 63 57 83 64 66 9 Table 17. Average Precipitation (mm.) (1936) Yearly Max. Jan. Apr. July Oct. total per day Taihoku .. 88 168 233 119 2,110 359 Kumamoto. 59 116 302 100 1,785 298 Kanazawa. 272 166 211 208 2,533 179 Osaka .... 45 138 152 127 1,348 183 Nagoya .. 54 158 186 157 1,658 240 Tokyo 52 134 134 200 1,559 194 Matsumcto. 41 90 130 111 1,108 156 Niigata 188 105 164 163 1,779 133 Hakodate 66 71 135 119 1,186 147 Sapporo .. 86 57 89 114 1,050 124 Fusan 45 145 305 69 1,442 251 Dairen ... 11 24 170 27 604 190 As a natural consequence of the heavy precipitation of rain or snow, the number of sunny days is comparatively small. Rain or snow claims 150 days on an average, the remaining 215 days being fair. Thus Japan may approximately be said to have, in a year, 4 sunny days for every 3 days of rain or snow. The Pescadores (94.5 days) and Kamo (245.3 days) are the two ex. tremes. In Chosen and Western Taiwan wet days do not exceed 120 while in Japan Proper they seldom fall below the figures. The Japan Sea board of Honshu and the LucJ::i_u, Bonin and

PAGE 66

10 GEOGRAPHY Kurile Islands have more than 200 wet days. In the first-named region gloomy weather prevails in winter months (Nov. to Feb.) and over 23 days of the month are rainy or snowy. Japan has two wettest seasons, one from the middle of June to the beginning of July, and the other from the beginning of September to October. The former called "bai-u" or tsu-yu" as mentioned before is especially marked on the Pacific coast of Southern Japan, due to the appearance of low pressure areas in the Yangtze valley of China which travels north-eastward. It occasions a long spell of drizzling rain. The latter is caused by the low atmospheric pressure that originates from the South Seas and is characterised by heavy precipitation. Table 18. Average No. of Wet Days (1936) Observatory Jan. Apr. July Oct. Yearly to:al Taihoku 17 15 14 15 186 Kumamoto .. 12 14 16 10 153 Osaka ...... 8 13 12 11 136 Nagoya ..... 10 13 14 12 143 Tokyo 7 14 14 14 145 Matsumoto 11 12 15 12 145 Kanazawa 27 16 15 18 223 Niigata 28 15 14 19 225 Hakodate ... 21 12 14 15 195 Sapporo .... 21 13 13 17 196 Fusan ...... 6 10 14 7 105 Dairen 4 5 11 6 76 The Aerological Observatory at Tateno--The aerological observatory established in 1929 at Tateno in Miyazaki prefecture (Kyushu) at the cost of approximately ,0,00, is the only one of the kind in Japan. The observatory exchanges communications as to daily meteorological pheno menon with the Central Meteorological Observatory (Tokyo) and the meteorological stations at Kumagai (Saitama pref.), Nagano, Osaka, Kobe, Hiroshima, Fukuoka, Jinsen (Chemulpo), Heijo (Phongyang), Nawa (Luchu), Saipan (South Sea Islands), and other places. FAUNA AND FLORA Japan is very rich in fauna and flora, for three reasons, i.e. (1) the land is very much elongated from north to south, (2) the coasts are highly indented, and (3) there are many high mountains. Species found in the northern parts of Japan, i.e. Karafuto (Saghalien), Chishima (Kuriles), and Hokkaido, and Chosen (Korea) have much in common with those of Manchuria, Siberia and Europe, while the southern parts, i.e. Taiwan (Formosa), Ryukyu (Luchu Islands) and Ogasawara (Bonin Islands) compare with South China, Oceania and India. Fauna So far as is known at present, the approximate number of species of some principal animal tToups is as follows:-Mammals, 270; Birds, 800; Reptiles, 110; Amphibians, 80; Fishes, 2,500; Insects, 10,500; Mollusca, 4,000. Land Faul)a The land fauna of Japan may be divided into two principal groups, one Palaearctic, and the other Oriental. Of these, the Palaearctic elements are chiefly found in the northern terri tories, while the Oriental ones range over the islands of Taiwan (Formosa) and Ryukyu (Luchu). The Japanese archipelago may, there fore, be divided into the following fauna! areas:-1. Palaearctic region: (a) Eurasian sub-re gion, consisting of the Kurile group and Saghalien; (b) East Asian sub-region, including Chosen (Korea) and Japan Proper, the latter consisting of Honshu, Shikoku and_ Kyushu 2. Oriental region, comprising the islands of Taiwan (Formosa) and Ryukyu (Luchu), The Kurile Group.-Of about 22 _species of animals known in this group, two appear to be endemic and are spread over the two northern sub-groups, namely, the Kurile field vole (Micro tus uchidae) and the Kurile mouse (Mus Kurilen sis). The birds observed in the islands are much less in number than those of Hokkaido and apparently less peculiar. This is also true of reptiles and amphibians. There is a. radical difference between the sub-region of islands not very far removed from each other. Beyond doubt, the northern sub-group zoo-geographically belongs to Kamchatka, and the southern to Hokkaido. Of land snails, Zonitoides chishimanus and Karaftohelix urupensis are the endemic species, the former being the smallest species of the land snails. Karaful:o (.Saghalien).-Of about 30 species of mammals known in the island, 13 are identical with those of Amurland and these remain in the island without making their way to Hokkaido. The long-tailed mouse (Sicista caudata) is supposed to be the sole species in existence found nowhere else. The Schrenck's fox (Vulpes anadylensis schrencki) furnishes a very valuable quality of fur, and this has led to the establishment of breeding farms with imported foxes. Some additional light may be thrown upon this subject by the avifauna which is less rich,

PAGE 67

JAPAN Geography GEOGRAPHY 11 having about 150 species, a majority of which are almost or quite identical with those of the adjacent land and islands. Reptiles and amphibians are extremely scanty, and only 6 species are known, of which Bufo sachaliensis and Hynobius cristatus are considered as endemic. Of butterflies about 74 species and sub-species are found in the island, most of them bein:g representative of the forms limited, in distribution, to the north of the Soya Strait, such as Melitoea maturna intermedia, Argynnis ama thusia miyake, Lycaena karaftonis, etc. The land snail, Karafutohelix fiscina, is common. -Hc,kkaido.-In mammals, the island appears to be less rich, having only about 25 species, of which more than a half are related to those of Saghalien and the Continent, either as identical or allied species. Amongst them, the species common to the districts just mentioned are Pallas' ground squirrel (Eutamias asiaticus), Siberian ermine (Mustella erminea kanei), sable (Martes zibellina) and others, which are not found in Honshu. Turning to birds we find an enormous number of species which are quite identical with, or closely allied to, those found in Saghalien and on the Continent. The species considered as peculiar are Yeso-ptarmigan (Sittiparus vari-us, Dryobates leucotos subcirris, Lynx torquilla hok kaidi, etc.) With reptiles the case is different, because the number .of the species which may 'be con sidered as those with southern affinities appears to exceed that of Eurasian types. Amphibians are represented by Bufo vulgaris hokkaidoensis, Rana temporalia and I-lynobi-us retardatus, etc. Passing on to the insect fauna, we :find a large number of species which also inhabit Saghalien and Amurland. Of butterflies we have several species of Eurasian character. Frequently to be met with are such land snails as Acusta gai nesi, Eulota blakei, E. septentrionalis. Chosen (Korea).-In the Korean Peninsula the fauna belongs decidedly to the Palaearctic region but with a small number of Oriental types. Of mammals it possesses more than 50 species, of which about a half are identical with those found in China, Siberia and other adjacent districts. The species and sub-species which are considered as peculiar are numerous, comprising the Korean hare (Lepus coreanus), Korean wolf (Ganis lupus coreanus), Korean red fox (Vulpes P_eculiosus), Korean badger (Meles melanogenys), tiger (Felis tigris coreansis), etc. Of birds we are now acquainted with more than 300 species and sub-species, of which the majority are almost or quite identical with those of the Continent. Recorded from the peninsula are about 16 species of reptiles, most of which are not discovered in Japan Proper. Coming to amphibians we find many species which are known to occur on the adjacent mainland. Characteristic species are Cacopoides tornieri, Rana temporaria koreana, I-lynobius leechii, etc. Dwelling in the peninsula is found a large number of butterflies, most of which also inhabit the immediately surrounding countries. Intermingled with them are seen such Oriental types as Papilio proteno1 demetrius, Hestina assimilis, etc. Freshwater bivalves are represented by Cristaria parvula, A nodonta woodiana, etc., and the land snails by Strobilops hirasei, Eulota orien talis and others. Japan Proper.-The majority of animals in this region are related to those of the two Palaearctic sub-regions, though a small number are of an Oriental character. Of mammals there are more than 60 species which are invariably confined to the south of the Tsugaru Strait. Recently specified as "protected" is the racoon dog (Nyctereutes viver rinus) which, with other species of this genus, is the .most typicai representative of the animals characteristic of the East Asian sub-region. The birds ascertained to inhabit the islands reach an enormous number, a part of them being represented by forms widely distributed in China and Korea. The number of species and sub-species which appear to be peculiar are 6 in Kyushu and 17 in Honshu. One of the most notable species is the Japanese ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus japonicus) with habitat in the Japan Alps at the snow line. Recently specified as "natural monuments" or "protected" are some birds, which comprise, besides the Japanese ptarmigan, the cranes (Megalornis monachus, Pseudogeranus vipio, Sarcogeranus leucogeranus, Anthropoides virgo, etc.), the Japanese stork (Ciconia ciconia boyciana), black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), swans ( Cygnus cygnits), long-tailed fowl, the Chinese magpie (Pica pica ses-icae) and the Japanese shearwa ter (Puffinus leucomelas). Reptiles represent about 13 species, most of them being related to those of Chosen and chiefly inhabiting the southern region. The endemic species are Achalinus spinalis, Dinodon orientale, Amyda japonica, etc. We are acquainted with about 13 species of frogs and toads which, with the exception of an Oriental type, seem to be

PAGE 68

12 GEOGRAPHY of a Palaearctic character. The urodeles, the majority of which are considered as peculiar, are represented by Hynobius nebulosus, H. stejnegeri, Onychodaetylus japonicus, etc. Most noteworthy is the giant salamander (Megalobatrachus japonicus) which inhabits the cool mountain streams of provinces in Honshu and Kyushu. Intermingled here are found a large number of insects which are of three different characters, Eurasian, East Asian and Oriental. The so-called alpine species inhabit the high mountain districts of central Honshu, these being represented by Aporia hippia japonica, Erebia Ligea takanonis, Oeneis jutta japonica, etc. The mollusca are very abundant and varied. The freshwater bivalves and land snails of the endemic species very frequently met with are Hyliovsis schlegeri, Cristaria spatiosa, Margaritana margaritifera, etc., and Eulbta senkenbergiana, E. quaesita, Megalophasdusa martensi, etc. Taiwan (Formosa).-The mammals so far dis covered are more than 60 in number, while the species which appear to be peculiar to the island number 45, the majority of them being considered only varieties of the species found in .the Oriental and Palaearctic regions. The species not found anywhere outside of the island are Fo;rmosa flying fox (Pteropus for mosus), Formosa macaque (Paradoxuris lar vatus), etc. The squamata are represented by a single ant-eater (Manii pentadactyla), Of birds we find more than 330 species and sub-species, of which 33 are common to the island, China and the Philippines, and about 87 belong to peculiar forms. One of the most notable species is the Mikado pheasant (N eo calophasis mikado) which lives in the central and eastern mountainous parts, 6,000-9,000 feet above the sea level. More than 65 species of reptiles and amphibians are known to inhabit the island, and very frequently to be met with is Trimeresurus gramineus, a poisonous snake, which is of an almoso uniform green colour and widely distributed in tropical districts. The insect fauna is exceedingly rich and varied. We are acquainted with about 319 forms of butterflies, most of which are known from the tropical countries. Of freshwater bivalves and land snails we find such species as Corbicula maxima, C. ful. menea and Dolicheulota formosensis, Forr,iosana taiwanica, Tortaxis matsudai, etc. The Ryukyu (Luchu) Group.-The animal forms of this group are of two different characters, Oriental and Palael".rctic, the former types considerably exceeding the latter in number. About 36 species of mammals have been recorded, the most notable being Ishigaki great leaf-nosed bat (Hivposideros turpis) in the Ishigakishima sub-group and Amami hare (Pentalagus furnessi) in the Amami-Oshima. Of birds, the species which appear to be peculiar number 11 in the Sakishima, 6 in the Okinawa and 8 in the Amami-Oshima sub-group. T.he most notable species are Fryer's wood-pecker (Sapheopipo mogitchii), Lidth's jay (Lalocitta lidthi), the latter furnishing beautiful feathers for ladies' hats and now specified as "protected." The reptilian fauna is very rich, having 30 species, of which one-third is the same as those found in the Oriental region, and the rest are those not found elsewhere. About 15 species of amphibians are known, characteristic forms being Bombina holsti, Rhacovhorus owstoni, Babina subaspersa, etc. The land snails are rich, peculiar ones being Cyelophorus hiraset; Japonia barbata, Ganesella largillierti adelinae, and many species of Luchuphaedusa. The Ogasawara (Bonin) Group.-This oceanic island group, together with the Sulphur group, shows tropical features in its fauna. The most remarkable of mammals is Bonin flying fox (Pteropus pselaphon) which flourishes here. One of the most notable features of the fauna of this island group is the fair abundance of birds. The endemic species in the group are Horornis cantans diphone, Bonin-island Bulbul (Micros celis amaurotis squamiceps), etc., and those in the Sulphur group, Sulphur-island white eye (Zosterops palphebrosa alani), Sulphur-island crake (Poliolimnas cinereus brevipes), etc. Cryptobrepharus boutonii is the only one representative of reptiles found in the Bonins. The endemic genera of mollusca are ef Hirasea, Mandarina, Otesia, Fametesta, etc. Marine Fauna Japanese waters command a very rich and. varied marine fauna, there being found two types 9f animal life, the Indo-Pacific -region and Northern region. 1. Nc,rthern Zone.-It extends from the shore of the Kurile group to the north of Kinkasan. Amongst the carnivorous mammals the sea-otter (Enhydra lutris) is confined to the north of Hokkaido, while the Stellar's sea-lion (Eumeto vias jubata) and several seals (Phaco vitulina, etc.) frequent the more southern waters. The northern fur-seal ( Callorhynus ursinus) which is of economic importance particularly abounc\s in Kaihyo-to. We find three whalebone whales, such as the southern right whale (Bcilcuma gla

PAGE 69

JAPAN Geography GEOGRAPHY 13 cialis), Arctic right whale (Balaena mysticetus) and Californian gray whale (Rhach'ianectus galucus). Around the Kuriles, Hokkaido and Saghalien are found in immense quantity a great variety of fishes such as cods, salmon and herrings, which are of the same greatest economic importance as in Norway, Scotland and other countries. Much less developed here than in the tropics are a number of echino derms. Amongst sea-cucumbers, Sticopus japonicus and Cucurnaria japonica are of great economic value in this country. In the sea ranging from the Behring Sea to the Japan Sea occurs Paralithodes camtschatica which attains a very large size and is of great economic im portance. A large numbf'.l" of mollusca are als() known from this distrit.;, the most valuable species being Ostrea gigas, Maetra sachalinensis, Pecten yeslioensis, Ommastrephes sloani pacificus, etc. 2. Middle Zone.-Most of the types characteristically Japanese belong to this zone. Some whalebone whales may be recorded which are of great economic importance. As principal species of fishes, the abundance of which dis tinguishes this zone from the others, may be counted Cynias manazo, Hyporhamphus sajori, Apogan semilineatus, Halichoeres poecilopterus, etc. Echinoderms are plentiful, and consist of a number of interesting species. Of crustaceans, the most notable is the giant crab Macrocheira kaempferi, whi.ch attains more than 8 meters in the extent of legs. Beside we find Tachypleus tridentatus in the inland sea of Seto and Ariake Sea. In the depth of the Tosa, the Kii and the Sagami Seas occur three species of Pleurotomaria which are of great in terest on account of their representing a reli~ of the geological period. One of the notable cephalopods is an oegopsid, W atasenia scintillans, which emits luminosity. It appears abundantly in Toyama Bay, about May every year. Also in the deeper parts of the Pacific side, there are found Hyalonema, Euplectella, Rhabdocalyptus and other silicious sponges. 3. Southern Zone.-Exclusive of the hair-s;al (Zalophus lobatus), occasionally appearing in this zone, there can be seen a few species of whalebone whales and toothed whales. Of fishes we"find a number of forms which are all of great economic importance, and some forms are found to extend northward up to the middle zone. We also find a large number of species of mollusca, e.g. Terabra, Conus, Cyprea, Strom bus, Tridaena Iiippopus, Pteria and others. Noted Specialists.-C. Ishikawa, D. Sci., (d. 1935) A. Oka, D. Sci. (for Hirudinae), N. Yatsu, D. Sci., S. Hatai, D. Sci., C. Sasaki, D. Sci., (Entomologist), M. Matsumura, D. S., (Entomologist), T. Komai, T. Kawamura, D. Sci., H. Oshima, D. Sci., (for Echinoderms), S. Uchida (Ornithologist), H. Kishida (for mammals). Principal Sccieties and Publishing Organs.Zoological Magazine (in Japanese); Annotations Zoologicae Japonensis (in foreign language) issued by Zoological Society of Japan (Tokyo); Insecta Matsumurana (Sapporo); The Magazine of Applied Zoology (in Japanese) (Tokyo); Annotations Ornithologicae Orientalis-.:~ (Tokyo); Bulletin of the Bio-geographical Society of Japan issued by Bio-geographical Society of Japan (Tokyo); Japanese Journal of Zoology (Tokyo); Tori or "Birds" (in Japanese) (Tokyo); The Venus (in Japanese) by Malucological Society of Japan (Kyoto); FoEa Anatomica Japonica (Tokyo); Zephyrus (in Japanese) issued by Chorui Dokokwai (Fukuoka); Konchu or "Insects" (in Japanese) issued by Tokyo Entomological Society (Tokyo) Flora Owing to the peculiar topographical condition, the flora of the Japanese Empire consists of several distinct groups, and at present nearly 10,000 flowering plants and ferns are known, with possibility of new additions through further study. In point of fact no small number of new genera have already been established by Japanese botanists, and of these may be mentioned Taiwania, Hayata (Conifer), Chosenia, Nakai (Salicaceae), Hanabusaya, Nakai (Cam pami_placeae), Mitrastemon, Makino (Raffiesia ceae), H akonechloa, Makino ( Gramineae), Matsumurella, Makino (Labiatae), etc., etc. The name of Dr. T. Makino and Dr. T. Nakai stand out prominent as discoverers, the latter as specialist in Korean flora having enriched it with 190 genera and some 440 species and varieties, while the former, who chiefly devoted himself to the main island, is responsible for some new genera and several hundreds of new species. In 1929 a remarkable genera Japanolilion was established by Dr. T. Nakai, repi:esented only by J. Osense found at Ose in Nikko. It is a small preinal weed. Another striking discovery is that of two new species belonging to family Podostemonaceae in Kyushu by S. Imamura. None of this family had been found in Japan up to this discovery in 1927. Many new lichens both new to Japan and to science are enriching the lichen flora through Dr. Asahina's dis coveries. Japan is rich in bamboos with over

PAGE 70

14 GEOGRAPHY 60 species and a number of new species still coming to the light, most of them belonging to new genera which are indigenous to Japan. Merit in this direction is due to Dr. T. Makino. So far as known the flora of Japan consists of about 17,087 species classified as follows:-Table 19. Flora Speciea Flowering plants Ab,rnt 9,000 species Ferns ........ ,\. ....... 700 Moss and Hepatic ....... 2,000 Mushrooms ............. 3,500 Lichens ................ 700 Sea-weeds (mr.ririe algae}. 691 Fresh-water algae 3~3 Slime molds ( Mycetozoa) 173 Speaking of some common familiar plants there grow in Japan some 130 species and varieties of violets, according to Dr. T. Nakai. About 30 s:;;,ccies of primroses are known to ;;;-row in the alpine districts. Primula Sieboldii is growing wild even ne:ir Tokyo and is "protected." P. japonica was introduced into England as early as 1863 and was called "Queen of Primrose" by Robert Fortune. Trees and shrubs number over 600 species. To mention those that are noted for ornament, or use, or both, the:::-e are Japanese mountain cherries ,growing wild everywhere, of which Pruniis Serrata var. spontanea is most common. In high altitude arc found P. wipponica, P. Jfo:;;imoviczii, P. incisa, etc., the last mentioned growing abundantly at the foot of Mt. Fuji and flowering in May. Of conifers we have Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa, two of the most important timber and ornamental trees; then among the Pin us may be mentioned P. 7'hunbergii and P. densif/,ora. The quercus family is represented by nine important species, while of Rhododendron (Azalea) Japan boasts about 50 species with gard3n varieties numbering several hundreds. R. Komiyamae is a new addition recently found near Mt. Fuji. An interesting species belonging to this family is Teusiophyllum Tanakae, Maximovicz that grows on mountain rocks at some limited locali-References: ties in Middle Japan; it is a dwarfish tree with scaly green leaves and wh.ite tubeshaped flowers. As regards willows our salicologis~s say that the final enumeration as of existing species should be reserved for the future, but so far some sixty species have been identified. Bamboos are counted by over 50 species in Japan Proper, exclusive of numerous garden varieties. Timber trees extant number over 100, but those that are valuable for wood do not exceed thirty species or so (Vide Chapter on Forestry), Ornamental plants, wild or cultivated, coum about one hundred, according to the list prepared by the Garden Committee of the Meiji Shrine erected in Tokyo in 1920. The list includes 34 evergreen trees, 41 deciduous trees, 7 evergreen and 9 deciduous shrubs, and 10 herbs. Special plants were first placed under protection of law in 1920, and 137 are now on the list. Noted Specialisf:s.-In Systematic botany there is a long list of distinguished men, as Dr. J. Matsumura, Dr. T. Makino, Dr. Yabe (noted for his South Manchuria and North China flora), Dr. B. Hayata (for Formosan flora), Dr. T. Nakai (for Korean and Japanese flora), Dr. Y. Kudo (for Hokkaido flora), Dr. K. Miyabe (for Hokkaido and South Saghalien flora), Dr. M. Honda (for grasses), Dr. K. Okamura (specializing in marine algae), Dr. S. Okamura, Y. Horikawa (in mosses and liverwort), Dr. S. Kawamura (fungi), Drs. R. Nakazawa and K. Saito (yeasts), Mr. K. Minakata (slime molds), Dr. Y. Asahina (lichens). (Dr. J. Matsumura died in 1928 and Dr. B. Hayata in 1934). Pathology is represented by Drs. K. Miyabe, K. Shirai, and M. Hori; Phylogeny by Dr. S. Ikeno; Cytology and Anatomy by Dr. K. Fujii, Dr. Y. Kuwata, etc.; Physiology by Drs. K. Shibata, H. Kooriba, H. Hattori and S. Kusano. Publishing Organs.-Publishing organs consist of the Imperial University Bulletin, the Tokyo Botanical Magazine, the Japanese Journal of BQ.tany by Dr. Fujii, and the Journal of Japanese Botany, the last named edited by Dr. T. Makino, Table Nos.: 1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 c, 5 c, 6 c, 7 c, 8 c, 9 c, 10 c, 17 c, 18 c, 19 d. Key: a-Statistical Year Book of the League of Nations. b-Researches of the Statistics Bureau of Cabinet. c-Oflicial Statistical Annual of Physics. cl-Researches of the Tokyo Botanical Garden. 11 c, 12 c, 13 c, 14 c, 15 c, 16 c,

PAGE 71

JAPAN History CHAPTER II OUTLINE OF HISTORY I. ANCIENT TIMES Mythical Period.-The "age of gods" preceding the accession of the first Emperor Jimmu Tenno is, like the corresponding period in Greek history, made up of strange tales of the gods and demi-gods. In this age flourished the SunGoddess, or Amaterasu O-mikami, enshrined in the Great Shrine of Ise, her brother the im petuous Susanoo-no-Mikoto to whom the Great Shrine of lzumo is dedicated, and all the host of "milliard deities." Legendary Period,-From the accession of the Emperor Jimmu Tenno (660 B.C.) to about the reign of Yuryaku Tenno ( 456-479 A.D.), the Imperial House was chiefly employed, according to the time-honoured legends and traditions, in subjugating the northeastern region still held by the earlier inhabitants, namely the Ainus, and Kyushu which was probably in close touch with ; the ancient kingdoms in the Korean Peninsula. In the dim light of this prehistorie period move such heroic figures as Yamatotakeruno-Mikoto who was sent to subjugate the regions in the north and the south, while the name of the Empress Jingo (201-269 A.D.) stands conspi<'uous as the conqueror of the hostile Korean kingdoms. Her grand counsellor, Takenouchi-no-Sukune, is a Japanese Methuselah, being recorded to have attained the age of 300. Period of Foundation (532-709 A.I>.) Introduction of Buddhism.-We begin to tread on surer ground from the reign of Kimmei Tenno (539-571 A.D.) when, with the introduction of Buddhism and Chinese classics through Korea, Japan gradually advanced towards civilization through contact with the more enlightened Korea, an_d through her with China. The arrival of t~is exotic religion occasioned a fierce internal dl.Scord between the rival clans of the Moriya and the Soga, and the l,atter, which was in favour ;f a_dopting it, came out triumphant. The Soga amily assumed the real power of the country assassinated an Emperor who was unfriendly t~ them, and through their encouragement and ~hat of Prince Shotoku, Buddhism spread both in the Court and among the masses. This caused a marked rise of Japanese art principally of a r f re ig10us char!l,cter, especially in the reign 0 Empress Suiko ( 592-628 A.D.), the first female ;onarch in Japan. The Horyuji temple in amato, built more than 1300 years ago is one of the temples erected at that time. In 607 A.D. Japan first sent an embassy to China, then under the Tung dynasty. The arrogance of tht Soga family invited their downfall in the reign of Tenchi Tenno (661-671), who, before acces sion to the Throne, had headed the faction that destroyed the family. The Court then recovered i~s supreme authority. Meanwhile Yezo (present Hokkaido) was subdued and the victorious arm was even extended to northern Manchuria. On the other hand, Japan lost the suzerainty over Korea. The reign of Kotoku Tenno (645-654), the predecessor of Tenchi, is remarkable for hav ing thoroughly remodelled the administrative system on that of China, and introduced the Chinese custom "year name." Nara Period (710-793 A.D.) Gemmyo Tenno (707-715), the 5th Em press, removed the seat of the Court, which had been shifting its seat from one place to another, to Nara, where for about seventy years art and culture burst into splendour seldom equalled in some respects, as may be judged from the treasures, over 300 articles in all, kept in the storehouse of the Shoso-in Temple at Nara, and comprising the articles that were used by Shomu Tenno (724-749) and presented to the temple after his death in 756. The first Japanese book extant "Ko.iiki", and first Japanese antholog-v, "Man-nyo-Shu," were 'the production of the Nara Period (710-7~3). Budd laism retained its greater influence over the Court to such an extent that an infatuated Empress Koken Tenno (749-758) even contemplated elevating her favourite monk Dokyo to the Throne, though from this fate Japan wa! saved by the fearless opposition of Wake-nc, Kiyomaro. Heian Period (794-1191 A.D.) Court of Kyoto.-Est~blished as the Imperia: Capital in 794 A.D. Kyoto was the centre o'. power and culture for about 400 years till 1192 when Minamoto-Yoritomo establi,;hed at Kamakura the Shogunate government, and reduced the position of the Imperial city to one of nominal importance. Meanwhile the actual power at the Imperial Court had passed to the ministerial :family of Fujiwara which was founded bv Ka,1atari, Tenchi Tenno's righthand man in the plot egainst the Soga family. Art and literature made a striking development. The Court gave itself up to the refined amusement, leaving the

PAGE 72

16 OUTLINE OF HISTORY sterner duty of maintaining peace to warrior classes, of which the Taira or Heike, and the Minamoto or Genji family came to the front. The period witnessed the invention of the "kana" scripts, an innovation of immense educational importance as it helped the spread of learning nmong the people, and made possible the appearance of such classics as "Genji Monogatari" by Murasaki-Shikibu, "Makura-no-Soshi" by SeiShonagon, "Eiga-Monogatari" by Akazome-Emon, and others, all maids of honour. Kino-Tsurayuki who compiled another anthology "K.okin-Shu" furnished a model of the mixed style of Chinese characters and "kana" in his classic diary "TosaN ikki." The custom of sending students to China for stu-dy had already been discontinued. The effeminacy of the ruling class at the Court was followed by the rise of the military family-of the Heike which overthrew their rival the Genji and ::i.ssumed the administrative authority as successors to the Fujiwaras. It proved a very short ascendency of only about 20 years, for living amidst the enervating atmosphere of Kyoto the original warlike spirit was soon sapped, and the Heike fell an easy prey to the fierce attack of the rough and rude followers of the Genji who had been watching their opportunity in the .provinces. The battles fought between the rival armies near Kobe, Yashima and Dannoura, furnish romantic chapters in the history of Japan. Kamakura Period (1185-1333 A.D.) Yoritomo brought the whole of Japan under complete subjugation, not sparing even his own brother Yoshitsune who had destroyed the Heike clan. Around Kamakura grew up culture of a severer type agreeable to the simpler taste of the warrior classes. The power soon passed to the Hojo family from which came the wife of Yoritomo, and for about a century this humbler family wielded the supreme authority as Shikken, or Regents, to the boy Shoguns selected from among children of courtiers at Kyoto, and ruled the country in peace and prosperity. The era is memorable for the arrival first in 127 4 and next in 1281 of the Mongol armada, which was, however, annihilated with the help of the "divine wind" or typhoon in modern parlance. The Imperial Court that had long been chafing under the humiliating treatment of military rulers tepeatedly attempted to recover its legitimate authority, and an abortive rising in 1221 resulted in the wholesale exile of the three retired Emperors. A similar attempt by Godaigo Tenno (1318-1339) fared no better at :first, but by this time the maladministration of the Hojo had very much alienated public support. Kusunoki-Masashige first raised the anti-I-Iojo banner near Kyoto and he was followed by Nitta-Yoshirnda, and lastly Ashikaga-Takauji. Kamakura was sacked and taken by Nitta, and the Hojo regency cea8ed to exist. Emperor Godaigo, who had been exiled to Oki, reascended the Throne and the restoration of the Imperial power was consummated, but only for a short while. The courtiers and favourites claimed the lion's share in the distribution of the vast domains hitherto held by the Hojos, and there was only a little left to be given to those generals and their followers who at tae cost of their lives and blood pulled down the Hojos. Takauji read the signs of the times, raised the banner of rebellion at Kamakura and set up one of the Imperial princes as his own Emperor. For half a century Japan had two Imperial Courts, the Southern Court, which was supported by the followers of the unfortunate Godaigo' Tenno, and the Northern Court backed by the Ashikagas. Kusunoki, Nitta, Kitabatakc, and others who remained faithful to the Southern Court were killed in one battle after another till the rival courts were fused in 1392 in the reign of Emperor Gokameyama. Murornachi Period (1338-1602 A.D.) Ashikaga Shogunate (1338-1573).~The rule of the Ashikaga shogunate established at Kyoto was never a strong one and the powerful barons in the provinces were practically left a free hand. As regards matters of taste and refinement, however, this period made a very valuable contribution to the history of civilization in Japan. Thus it was in the days of the 8th Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa (1435-90) that the art of tea ceremonial, the lyric drama called "No" and other arts were originated in this country. The period is also memorable for having revived trade with China, then under the Ming dynasty, and witnessed the visit of many Japanese artists to and learned priests from the opposite shores, Japanese freebooters also ventured out in their frail craft and spread terror along the coast of Korea and China. The arrival of the first Portuguese ship in J.543, of the Spaniards not long after, and of Francis Xavier, a Jesuit missionary in 1549 a;:e noteworthy incidents in the history of the Empire. For more than a century, from about the middle of the 15th century, a state of anarchy prevailed, the shogunate having completely lost its prestige. By force of arms and by crafty schemes all the ambitious barons were bent on annexing the domains of weaker neighbours. One of them, Oda-Nobunaga, of Owari, succeed ed in subjugating all the neighbourhood, and the

PAGE 73

JAPAN ~ietory OUTLINE OF HISTORY 17 way to Kyoto thus cleared, he was able to advance to the Imperial Capital, which must have been left in a state of utter desolation in consequence of repeated battles fought in and about it. His victorious troops conquered in the east and the west. In this expedition of territorial expansion Hideyoshi, one of his generals, who had entered his service as a mere menial retainer, distinguished himself over all the veteran generals of Nobunaia. When No~ bunaga was killed by one of his generals Mitsuhide in 1582, Hideyoshi came back in a hurry, revenged his lord upon the traitor in a pitched battle fought near. Kyoto, and by promptly forestalling all the other generals of the unfortunate Nobunaga, made himself the master of the grand edi:ice nearly completed by his chief. Nobunaga had even adopted the policy of en couraging Christianity, chiefly in order to check the rampant tendency of the Buddhist priests against whom he had led a crusade. Tokugawa lyeyasu, the lord of Mikawa, Totomi and Suruga, was an ally of Nobunaga, but with the assumption of power by Hideyoshi to the exclusion of Nobunaga's two sons, Iyeyasu adopted an attitude of neutrality, and then one of hostility when one of the two sons, for having sided with an enemy of Hideyoshi, fled to lyeyasu. The latter took up the cause of the refugee, fought with the overwhelming host of Hideyoshi, ar.d routed his advance army. Hideyoshi judged it wiser to win over Iyeyasu by peaceful means instead of by war, and the two houses were reconciled. Hideyoshi brought the whole country under his sway, built a castle in Osaka, and then another at Momoyama, Fushimi, besides a magnificent mansion in Kyoto. His love of splendour and display was reflected in the art of this period, and painting, architecture and so forth developed a bold style. Hideyoshi next turned his attention to the ambitious project of subduing China, and in 1592 the invading army landed in Korea. For seven years, with the interruption of three intervening years, the invaders routed the Koreans and their allies the Chinese army. The ex pedition, however, was rendered abortive by the death of Hideyoshi in 1598. The period of 236 years from the establishment of the Ashikaga Shogunate in Kyoto in 1338 to 1573 is called the Muromachi period and the subsequent period from 1574 to 1598 the Azuchi-Momoyama period. Yedo Period (1602-1867 A.D.) Tokugawa Shogunate. -Iyeyasu was now th_e most powerful man, for ll'ideyoshi's son Hideyori at Osaka was still a minor. The Jealousy of a number of the followers of Hideyori brought about in 1600 the great battle of Sekigahara between them and Iyeyasu in which the two houses of Mori and Shimazu that sided with the former fared hard. Iyeyasu's victory further strengthened the position of the Tokugawa family, which then provoked war upon Osaka (Hideyori and his followers) and the lattez fell in t615. Japan enjoyed on the whole peace and prosperity during the regime of the Tokugawa Shogunate that lasted over two centuries and a l).alf. Christianity that had been tabooed by Hideyoshi was at first tolerated, and intercourse with foreign countries was encouraged. Thus in 1610 the Spaniards who were wrecked off the coast of Japan were sent to Mexico by a Japanese ship, while in 1613 Date-Masamune, the lord of Sendai, dispatched Hasekura-Rokuemon to Rome to inspect the state of affairs there. This liberal policy was soon superseded by one of prohibition owing to the rivalry between the Dutch and the Portuguese traders. The outbreak of the Christian rebellion at Amakusa (Kyushu) in 1637 was followed by a severer policy against Christianity and foreign commerce, exception being made only in favour of the Dutch and the Chinese. Japan remained secluded till Perry's mission came to demand the opening of the country to commerce. Learning was encouraged by the Shogunate, chiefly to check the war-like propensity of the daimyos. Indirectly it fostered historical and literary research by our scholars and it is interesting to note these researches brought home to their mind the abnormal state into which the executive power of the country had fallen and especi2.lly to the encroachment of the military classes on the sovereignty of the Court. Mean while the extravagance of the successive Shoguns highly impaired their credit, while the arrival of foreign missions one after another in the early 19th century, demanding the conclusion of treaties of commerce, further tended to revea] their internal decay. Chiefly to gain time, the Shogunate applied to the Court at Kyoto for permission to open the country and thus involuntarily placed itself under the direction of the legitimate rulers. The Court then ordered the expulsion of the foreign missions. It was a highly irresponsible decision, but the Court had been long estranged from active politics and was moreover inclined to obstruct and annoy the Shogunate out of spite. It was in such peculiar circumstances that the sentiment of loyalty to the legitimate rulers became strangely associated with the anti-foreign policy, and gave rise to the "Sonno-joi" (loyalty to the, Court and expulsion of foreigners) agitation, the slogan that

PAGE 74

18 OUTLINE OF HISTORY --------------------------------------swept over the whole country at that time. But the foreign missions would no longer wait so that the senior counsellor of the Shogunate of the day, Ii-Kamon-no-Kami, signed tentative treaties in 1858, and for the resolute step he took he was assassinated by a band of the "sonno joi" upholders. The bigoted and dangerous cause was considered sacred by the general public, and even such powerful daimyos ~s those of Choshu and Satsuma, who had a spite against the Tokugawa from one cause or another, tried to carry out the "Joi" order to the letter, and under slight provocation or none at all killed or injured foreigners or fired upon foreign warships. The Government was in utter dismay, for the foreign representatives made on every such oc casion a strong demand for reparation. Thei,e repeated troubles were too great for the impotent Shogunate to settle, and at last Shogun Keiki, the last of the illustrious line, surrendered the vicarious power of ruling the country, for he was enlightened enough to perceive the trend of the times, and thus the Imperial Court recovered its full prerogative which had been kept in abeyance for about ten centuries. This memorable event was not consummated without some bloodshed, through an armed struggle, fortunately of short duration, between a section of. the misguided. partisans of the Tokugawa and the Imperial adherents. Meanwhile those young patriots who had so zealously taken up the bigoted and dangerous cause were disillusioned due to the knowledge, though scanty, which they obtained either by staying abroad a short while, as Ito, Inouye and some others of the Choshu clan did, or by some indirect means. Their attitude was completely changed, for it now was "Learn of foreigners where they are strong and remedy our defects." By the time the Shogunate had fallen (1867) the "joi" agitation had practically disappeared. In fact most of the agitators were soon converted into radical reformers. This period which lasted about 270 years is called the Tokugawa or Edo period. MODERN JAPAN The 45 years of the Meiji period (1868-1912) will forever remain in the his.tory of Japan as the most illustrious epoch in the development of the nation, besides supplying to the history of human p:-ogress a memorable chapter, teaching how a nation, even when placed under serious disadvantage, may, by dint of untiring diligence 1md :patriotic endeavours and perseverance, sue-ceed in pushing ahead the prosperitiy of the nation and in expanding. its prestige and credit. A century ago Japan was a terra incognita or at best a mere geographical name, but to, day she is a respected member of the great comity of nations. The Meiji government was very fortunate in that it was guided from the outset by such able court nobles as Iwakura and Sanjo i>nd by the younger samurai of progressive ideas and burning patriotism sent by the awakened feudal clans of Satsuma, Choshu, Tosa and Saga that were chiefly instrumental in overthrowing the Tokugawa shogunate. Among such young samurai were Yamagata, Okubo, Kido, Saigo, Itagaki, Soejima and Goto. It was fortunate, too, that they had sprung from comparatively humble ranks in their respective classes, for they had no particular compunction in doing away with old traditions and ancient manners. The first thing which they advised the boy Emperor, who was only 16 when he ascended the Throne, to do was to swear an oath of five articles and to proclaim it to the nation. It runs thus, "All governmental affairs shall be decided by public discussions; both rulers and ruled shall unite for the advancement of the national interests; all base customs of former times shall be abolished; knowledge shall be sought for far and wide; every one in the community shall be assisted to persevere in carrying out his will for all good pur poses." The following year (1869) the Imperial Court was removed to Tokyo. The task which these young Councillors of State had to undertake was really herculean. First they had to reduce the internal administration to some kind of unity and order, and to this end they persuaded their feudal lords to follow the example of the Shogunate and to surrender their fiefs to the Court. The chieftains did not hesitate to comply and early in 1869 they, under joint signatures, memorialized the Court for permission to surrender their ancient trusts. All the other fiefs, for there were no less than 262 such principalities large and small throughout the land, exclusive of the Shogunate's domains, vied with each other in submitting similar memorials, so that in less than six months. the whole territory was brought under the Imperial Government .. No sooner was the centralization effected than grave troubles, both domestic and foreign, and these reacting upon one another, demanded the attention of the Government. The domestic troubles involved the country in a series of civil wars, as described later,

PAGE 75

JAPAN History OUTLINE OF HISTORY 19 Foreign Trouble.-When the Imperial Govern ment was restored, the news was duly conveyed to Korea with the purpose of causing the latter to send a congratulatory envoy as had been invariably done whenever a new Shogun was installed, but whi.::h courtesy had been neglected by Korea in the latter days of the Tokugawa Shogunate. While this question of Korean dis courtesy was still pending the Iwakura mission started for the West in October 1871 with the object of having the one-sided Treaties of Commerce revised the following ye:ir, as expressly stated in the documents. When the mission returned in September 1873, honoured at most places but sincerely advised at a few others to effect first of all a thorough internal reform before approaching the Powers to revise the treaties, Iwakura, Okubo, Kido, Ito and others that formed the mission found their colleagues fully determined to send a punitive expedition to Korea, if the returning Ministers approved. The latter stoutly opposed the decision and the first serious split in the new Government was the result, Saigo, Soejima, Itagaki and other Ministers resig-ning office. The other foreign complications in which the new Government was involved were the expedition to Formosa in 1874 for chastising the natives who had murdered the shipwrecked fishermen of Luchu, for China had tried to disown responsibility on the ground that the island was outside her con trol; the protracted negotiation with Russia about the delimitation of boundary in Saghalien, resulting in the relinquishment of Japan's claim to the island in exchange for the absolute con trol of the Kuriles (Chishima Islands) in 1875; definite recognition by China, through President Grant's intercession, of Japan's right over Luchu which had been feudatory to the House of Shimazu (former feudal Lord of Satsuma) for centuries but which had secretly maintained a relation of vassalage to China. Civil Wars.-The ministerial split of 1873 soon brought two civil wars as a sequel to the Korean question. The first broke out in 1874 at Saga under the ex-Minister of Justice Eto, but was fortunately suppressed in a few weeks, but the other that was started in February 1877 in Kagoshima by the faithful adherents of Saigo Proved a rebellion of the gravest character, for it took some seven months before the Imperial Government could subdue the rebels who, led by men that held high offices in the Imperial army, offered desperate resistance. The rebel lion was the most formidable crisis which the Meiji Government had to encounter at home, f11r since the memorable ministerial disseneion the whole country had been seething with discontent and Saigo, who was a simple-mannered soldier of strong personal magnetism, had numerous friends in many parts of the country ready to rise and take up his cause at the first opportunity. The rebellion served as an occasion for demonstrating most emphatically that the much desJ)ised sons of farmers, if properly disciplined, could make as good soldiers as the young samurai who formed the bulk of Saigo's army. There occarred minor uprisings shortly before Saigo's rebellion, at Kumamoto, Akitsuki and Hagi, but they were merely explosions of those who were roused to see the time-honoured manners and customs ruthlessly superseded by the foreign and "barbarous" ways. The suppression of the rebellion resulted in establishing on a firm basis the prestige of the Meiji Government and bringing the country into unity, but the cost paid for it was very dear, not only on account of the vast disbursements, over millions, but in the loss of hundreds of men of uncommon ability and usefulness. The great Okubo was assassinated by a number of Saigo's adherents in the year following the subjugation of the Satsuma rebellion. Administrative Reform and Political Agitation. -The whole energy of the Government was now bent upon pushing industries and projects for promoting general prosperity, while at the same time steps were taken for reorganizing the administrative system after the Western pattern. It is interesting to note that the popular activity at this period was chiefly political and was aimed at the speedy establishment of representative government, and equally interesting is the fact that the movement was started by ex-' civilian Ministers, such as Itagaki, Soejima and Goto, and it looked as if the Korean expeditionists had changed their tactics with the object of harassing their former colleagues in power. The agitation lasted with growing intensity till 1881 when an Imperial Edict promising the creation of a National Assembly ten years later was issued. The opening of the Diet in 1890 occasioned between the Government and the Lower House prolonged contests that were bitter and fierce. The members returned were all serious politicians of strong conviction and staunch views who had staked all they had in promoting the cause of constitutional movement. They were most of them veterans in speech and debate, and completely out-argued cabinet ministers and their lieutenants on the platform, and outvoted them, too, for it was significant as a sign of the times that i;ninisterial ca.ndidates were held

PAGE 76

20 OUTLINE OF HISTORY in utter contempt by the general public and had little chance of getting into the House. When the attempts made by the bureaucrats to form their own party in the House failed, they next adopted the conciliatory policy of admitting one or another leader of a predominant party into the Cabinet, but, of course, this paltering measure could not long keep the opposition in silence. At last in 1898 the retiring Premier Ito (late Prince Hirobumi Ito) took a heroic step; he recommended Okuma and Itagaki, leaders of the amalgamated Opposition, as his successors. The result was the formation of the Okuma-Itagaki Ministry in which all the portfolios, with the exception of the army and navy, were held by leading party men. It was the first, though incomplete, party cabinet in Japan. Unfortunately the Cabinet was short-lived, for obsessed with a sense of security from the attack of the Op position numerically quite contemptible, the fol lowers of Okuma and those of Itagaki quarrelled over the division of the spoils of their combined victory. At last the Itagaki contingent struck their tents and withdrew, and thus the first party government collapsed miserably. From that time till the fall of the last bureaucratic ministry headed by Terauchi, Japanese politics was literally a game played by the bureaucrats, the Seiyukai and the Kensei-kai (later reorganized and renamed as Minsei-to) with the Genro standing by as arbiters. (For details vide Chapter on Politics). Revision of Treaties It took about half a century before Japan succeeded in getting revised the one-sided treaties concluded by the Tokugawa Government in 1858, containing the humiliating clause of extra-territoriality and restriction of customs duty to the very low level of 5 per cent. This grave problem demanded of both Government and people most strenuous efforts, and it must be said that the natural though ambitious aspiration exerted a salutary influence in hastening the internal im provement, especially as regards judiciary, though thirty years of untiring investigations and deliberation had to pass before Japan could complete the condition of all the important laws on a Western model with the assistance of a number of foreign experts. Between 1882 and 1892, when the treaty was' revised first of all with Great Britain, the Foreign Office changed its Minister no less than five times, not only because of the strong opposition offered by the Treaty Powers to Japan's proposals but because, in its later stage when the substance of the draft had leaked out, public opinion began to object violently to the clause concerning the mixed tribunals with foreign judges as assessors, though this clause was gradually attenuated in the Okuma draft ill! its application and was intended at last to cover only the Supreme Court. Still the public agita tion was by no means appeased; on the contrary, led by a section of those demagogues who had long training as agitators in upholding the constitution movement, the cry against the "mixed court" clause grew in intensity in the House and outside of it. These stalwarts declared that Japan -could not submit to the humiliating treatment Egypt and some other semi-independent countries had; they were well contented to do without such shameful revision. At the same time they argued that Japan must guard her interest reserved by the existing treaties, especially about restrictions of freedom of residence and travel in the interior. They even passed a resolution to that effect in the House, the Diet having been inaugurated in the meanwhile, and it invited its dissolution. It was to the lasting credit of the late Count Mutsu that a revised treaty was signed at London in 1894, and the example set by Britain was soon followed by -the United States and other countries, and Japan thus obtained a treaty for the first time on a basis of equality. However, it was not till 1911 that complete tariff autonomy was secured. National Expansion While Japan was bent upon the stupendous task of reorganizing her institutions on a Western model and introducing the important innovations of modern civilization, her two nearest neighbours, Korea and China, were still stubbornly wedded to their effete routine, refusing to open the countries to foreign intercourse and generally despising foreign ways. They were too haughty and self-important to perceive how greedily the aggressive Powers of the West were watching them, ready to pounce upon them at the first favourable opportunity. China was the worse sinner of the two as regards this attitude of apathy and defencelessness, for Korea, though an independent kingdom, contented herself with being a slavish imitator of her great neighbour, allowing the latter to assume the position of a suzerain. Japan concluded a treaty of commerce with Korea in 1876, for she wanted the latter to be sufficiently strong to protect herself agab1$t

PAGE 77

JAPAN History OUTLINE OF HISTORY 21 foreign aggression. In Korea ~apan s~ood for progress and China for react10nary tmter~st i Korea herself was divided by two na 1ve riva factions which kept the country in interminable disturbances. These ceaseless troubles at last involved their two patrons in open war in 1894. Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895).-Japan made short work of the enemy's resis-tance on lanif and sea, drove the Chinese troops from one position to another in Manchuria, and soon the way was open for her army to march on Peking. An other detachment, in co-operation with the fleet, reduced Weihaiwei in Shantung and moreover annihilated the once proud Northern fleet. China sued for peace, and the result was the Treaty of SJiimonoseki concluded in April 1895, by which China agreed (1) to the complete independence of Korea; (2) to cede the 1-iaotung Peninsula and littoral and (3) Formosa and the Pescadores; (4) to pay an indemnity of 200 million taels, and also to open to commerce four inland ports and the Yangtze for navigation. The 2nd clau~e Japan was obliged to renounce owing to the pressure brought to bear upon _her by Russia, Germany and France in the interest of the "peace of the Far East," and had to console herself with the 30 million taels paid extra by China. When Japan had conclusively shown that the once dreaded "sleeping lion" of China was really sickly, if not moribund, the Powers lost no time in offering their services to the humiliated China as honest brokers. True to their secret purpose, under one pretext after another, Germany established herself at Kiaochau, Russia in Manchuria, France got some lease and railway concession in the south, and even Britain, to preserve the balance of power, felt obliged to demand the lease of W eihaiwei, while Japan obtained from China the pledge of non .alienation of the Province of Fukien that lies opposite Formosa to any other Power. The Boxer Trouble (1899).-AII these successive intrusions made by the Powers on her rights and domain roused in 1899 the bitter anti-foreign agitations in China known as the Boxer Trouble. Japan in a hurry despatched the 5th Division, which formed the bulk of the allied army orga nized for rescuing the diplomatic and foreign communities besieged in Peking by the insurgents who killed the counsellor of the Japanese Legation and the German Minister. The trouble cost China 450 million taels in indemnity payable in instalment. Russo.Japanese War (1904-1905).-Meanwhile Russia had been steadily gaining influence in Korea, for her subservient court, now that China had lost prestige, began to lean upon the northern Power, leaving the special relation of. Japan to the Peninsula utterly disregarded. With her basis of operation firmly established in Manchuria, Russia thought that she could defy Japan's protest and when Japan made a conciliatory offer Russia replied with a highhanded counter offer' so that in spite of all the conventions and mem~randa exchanged for defining the relative positions of the two in Korea, the relations between them became more and more strained, es pecially after Russia's occupation of Manchuria subsequent to the Boxer Trouble. And so in 1904, just ten years after the Sino-Japanese War, Japan was forced to draw her sword once more to defend her very existence and preserve the peace of the Far East. The whole nation, except perhaps a handful of pacifists, went into this war as one man, with the grim resolution to conquer or to die, for all believed implicitly that on the issue of the war depended the very existence of the nation. On the other hand, to the muzhiks the war had no meaning; they could not understand why they should have to give their lives in fighting Japan. General Kropotkin, the unfortunate Commander in-Chief in the disastrous battle of Mukden, must have thoroughly measured the fighting strength of the Japanese army when he visited our country a few years before the outbreak of the war, but evidently he did not take into full account this vital factor in the psychology of the two warring nations. Better equipped than their foe, strongly entrenched, the Russian army was dislodged from one position after another, lost Port Arthur, though after a heroic defence lasting for about six months, was routed in the gr.eat battle of Mukden, and when the Baltic fleet, after having effected with credit the weary voyage, was literally wiped off the face of t~e Japan Sea by Admiral Togo in May 1905, Russia decided to give up the hopeless war. The result was the Portsmouth Treaty signed by the representatives of the two hostile countries on the 5th September, 1905 through the mediation of President Roosevelt. Russia refused to pay any indemnity, but agreed to recognize Japan's supremacy in Korea, to hand over to Japan the lease of the Liaotung Peninsula and the South Manchuria Railway with the mining and other rights pertaining to it and to cede to her the southern half of Saghalien. Anglo-Japanese Alliance.-It was in 1902, or a little before the Russo-Japanese war, when the attention of the European Powers was directed to the Far East, tha.t Japan and Great Britain <'mtered into an Agreement, f~r Alliance, the two

PAGE 78

22 OUTLINE OF HISTORY parties mutually recogmzmg as well as safeguarding their own interests in China, and Britain admitting Ja pan's special position in Korea. In 1905 the Agreement was enlarged in scope and was replaced by a new stipulation designed to cover the maintenance of general peace in Eastern Asia and India; was further modified in 1911 and made effective till July, 1921. The dual compact on the whole worked with marked success, and while it greatly strengthened the position of Japan in the Far East, it enabled Britain to concentrate her fleet at home. Annexation of Korea.-By virtue of the Portsmouth Treaty Japan proceeded to place Korea under her protection and this was followed in 1910 by the Treaty of Annexation, the year after the assassination of Prince Ito, the first Viceroy of Korea, at Harbin by a Korean fanatic. Japan in International Politics The two wars internationally raised the status of Japan; ;he was no longer obliged to appeal to the magnanimity of the Powers in guarding her interests and rights. The Powers were now willing to make advances and to seek her hand. They even began to watch her movements, with jealous and suspicious eyes. Be that as it may,, Japan's position was now -sufficiently established to warrant the Powers with special interests in the Far East in entering into agreement with her for guaranteeing the general peace _in this region, for maintaining the respective situations and territorial rights of the contracting parties, safeguarding the integrity of China and upholding the principle of equal opportunity and 1 open door in that country. It is true such a covenant with Britain was concluded first in 1902, to be afterward expanded into an offensive and defensive alliance with certain restrictions, but those with France, Russia and America were arranged after the Russo-Japanese War. At the same time the United States and the British dominions of Canada and Australia began to place obstacles in the way of free immigration of Japanese labourers and to try to subject those already residing there to unfair treatment. This has given rise to a grave problem of racial dis crimination, a question that has begun to arrest the serious attention of thinkers the world over in the interest of the general peace of the whole human race and of humanity. i_ Demise c-f Emperor Meiji.-On July 31, 1912, -Meiji Tenno died before attaiing his "60th anniversary, but it may be said that his memorable reign was brought to a fitting close. His memory will forever be held in profound venera tion by the people as one of the most illustrious sovereigns that have ever ruled over the country. With the immediate accession of his son Prince Yoshihito (Emperor Taisho) to the Throne began the new era of Taisho. The 45 years (1868-1912) compose ~he Meiji period. The World War and Japan When the World War broke out in 1914, it was a foregone conclusion that Japan should cast in her lot with the Allies, and so in August 1914 she declared war on Germany, and a few days later treaty relations with Austria-Hungary also ceased. In November the -German fortress at Tsingtao was captured by the Japa nese army in co-operation with the British contingent. This was followed-by the occupation -of the German possessions in the South Seas, the effective ~xpulsion of German commerce raiding cruisers and the despatch of a Japanese fleet to the Mediterranean to assist the Allies in their naval activities. Wheri the hostilities came to an end in November, 1918, with the conclusion of the Armistice, the Peace Conference was held from January to June 1919, at which Japan was re presented ,by five delegates including Marquis Saionji, Baron Makino and Viscount Chinda. By the terms of the Peace Treaty concluded on June 28th Japan acquired rights and privileges concerning Shantung, which she pledged herself to restore to China with all its rights, only keeping to herself the economic privileges that had once been granted to Germany. By virtue of the Feace Treaty and the League of Nations Covenant Japan was given a mandate over the German South Sea territories north of the equator, including the Marshall and Caroline Islands and the Island of Yap. Later, a contro versy regarding Yap arose between Japan and the U.S.A. due to the latter's protest against the decisions in December, 1919 of the Supreme Council with regard to the assignment of mandatory territories, but the question was at length settled in September, 1921 before the opening of the Washington Conference, Japan recognizing the right of the U .S.A. and other countries to land the submarine cables on ths Island. Another question that commanded keen interest at the Peace Conference was that of the abolition of racial discrimination as submitted by the Japanese delegates to the League of

PAGE 79

JAPAN History OUTLINE OF HISTORY 23 Nations Committee, though Japan had to withd~aw and reserve it for future discussion. Siberian Expedition (1918-22).-The military expedition of Japan to Siberia was originally undertaken in common accord and in co-opera ,ron with the United States in August, 1918. it was primarily intended to render assistance to the Czecho-Slovak troops who, in their homeward journey across Siberia from European Russia, found themselves in grave and pressing danger at the hands of hostile forces under German command. Great Britain, France, Italy and China also joined the expedition and sent their troops to Vladivostok. The Allied forces fought their way from Vladivostok far into the region of the Amur and the Trans-Baikal Provinces to protect the railway lines which afforded the sole means of transportation of the Czecho-Slovak troops from the interior of Siberia to the port of Vladivostok. The expenditure of the military operations that spread over five years drained the national coffers of Japan of abou:'~700 millions. Occupation of Saghalien (1920-25).-The occu~ pation of the Russian Province of Saghalien by the Japanese army was in reprisal for the incident of 1920 at Nikolaievsk, where moce than 700 Japanese were cruelly tortured and massacred, and was, therefore, wholly different, both in nature and in origin, from 'the stationing of troops in the Maritime Province. The occupation was effected early in July, 1920, and lasted for nearly five years. On the establishment of the Soviet Government of Russia conferences were held between the representatives of the two Governments with a view to finding basic principles for solving the pending problems between Japan and Russia and restoring the former diplomatic relations, he conference between the Japanese Minister in Peking (Y9shizawa) and the Ambassador (Karakhan) of the Soviet Government of Russia in Peking, that was opened in the summer of 1924 was satisfactorily concluded on January 20, 1925: a~d the treaty signed by the two plenipot~ntiaries. received sanction by the Prince Regent on February 25. By the exchange of formal ratification of the treaty between the two plenipo tentiaries in Peking the next day the restoration of di;plomatic relations between the two countries was at last accomplished. The Japanese Army Was promptly withdrawn from the occupied terri !0ry ~nd the protracted trouble disturbing peace ln tins qu:i.rter of the globe was definitely settled. Washington Conference (1921-22).-Japan's interest in this Internatiunal Conference was far more vital than in the Peace Conference at Ver-sailles, as it was held for the express purpose of limiting naval armament and discussing the Pacific problems with special reference to China Japan was represented by Admiral Baron Kato, then Minister of the Navy in the Hara Cabinet, Prince Tokugawa, then President of the House of Peers, Baron Shidehara, Japanese Ambassador at Washington, and Mr. Hanihara, Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs. The Conference clarified the relations between Japan and other countries represented at the Conference table and, in particular, went far to remove the suspicions and misunderstandings entertained abroad regarding Japan's attitude towards China. (F,;ir further details vide Chapters dealing with the Navy and Diplomacy). The Dawn of a New Era His Majesty Yoshihito, the 123rd Emperor, passed away on December 25th, 1926, at the Imperial Villa at Hayama, and. on the same day -Crown Prince Hirohito ascended the Throne as the 124th .sovereign of the Empire. According to the traditional custom of the Imperial House the late Majesty was given the posthumous title of Taisho Tenno, while the new era named Showa was adopted for the reign. It was probably in conformity with the trend of the times that the two events of such supreme national importance ( departure of an Emperor and accession of his successor) were. officially proclah:ned according to actual fact; the time honoured custoin could never have, allowed their occurrence outside the Imperial Palace. The enthronement of the new Emperor (His Majesty Hirohito) was officially celebrated at the ancient capital Kyoto in November, 1928, after lapse of one year's mourning over the demise of the departed Emperor' according to the traditio~al custom, the national function being performed with the time-honoured State ceremonies which lasted for six days (Nov. 10 to 15). For the first time in the history of the Empire the Empress was also present at this grand func tion, the Throne for Her Majesty being erected by the side of that for the Emperor at the Shi shinden Hall. This is a matter of great signifi~ cance and is noteworthy as an event marking the formal recognition of the status of an Empress and her privilege to attend 'the grand State ceremonies with her Imperial consort. Formerly, the status of an Empress was not properly recog nized but placed on a lower level under the social conditions that obtained in those days in this country. Prior to this, namely, in March-September 1921, the Crown Prince made .. a jour,ney to Eu

PAGE 80

24 OUTLINE OF HISTORY rope to make observations and exchange courtesies with the sovereigns and rulers of European countries. It was an event unprecedented in the history of Japan, and was moreover an unqualified success in every respect. Then in November of the same year the Crown Prince was appointed Regent to undertake the conduct of State affairs in place of his Imperial father who was suffering from chronic illness and was incapacitated from attending to public duties. In the spring of 1924 the Crown Prince married Princess Naga-ko, first daughter of H.I.H. Prince Kuni. The Crown Prince's foreign tour was followed by that of his younger brother Prince Chichibu, 2nd Imperial son, who proceeded to England for study leaving Japan in May, 1925. He entered Oxford in October, 1926, which he had to leave on learning that his father was critically ill and returned home in January 1927. Then, in the spring of 1930 Prince Takamatsu, younger brother of Prince Chichibu, accompanied by his consort Princess Kiku-ko, made an extensive tour of Europe visiting the British Court on Imperial mission and also the Courts of other European countries, returning home in the spring of 1931 by way of America. The Manchurian Incident The Manchurian Incident of September 18, 1931 and the subsequent establishment of the independent state of Manchoukuo form a landmark in modern Japanese history. Its significance lies in the crystalization of an inseparable relationship between the new Empire and Japan. In the years that have elapsed since the founding of Manchoukuo, the intercourse between the two countries have become in-creasingly cordial. Japan was visited In April 1935 by His Majesty the Emperor of Manchou kuo, who returned the visit of the previous year of His Highness Prince Chichibu, younger bro, ther of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan. The Sino-Japanese Hostilities The Sino-Japanese hostilities, which have since taken on the aspects of a war on a huge scale, broke out in July, 1937 from an incident at Fengtai, near Peking, on July 7 when units of the Japanese forces stationed in that district were fired upon by Chinese troops. After a truce was attained, firing was again commenced by the Chinese troops at Lukowkiao on July 9. Minor clashes continued until finally the hostilities spread to Shanghai when on August 9th Sub-Lieutenant Isao Oyama, Commander of the 1st Company of the Japanese Landing Party, and First Class Seaman Yozo Saito were attacked and killed by Chinese troops. The skir, mishes in the north as well as in Central China were soon transformed into actual warfare. At the time of this writing there are still no indications of an early conclusion of the conflict which has continued for almost a year and a half. Among the strategic points which have. been captured by the Japanese troops are Shanghai, Nanking, Suchow, Anking and Kiukiang in Central China and Tientsin, Peking, Tsingtao, Tsinan, Kalgan and a string of other importallt cities and strategic districts in North China. With the exception of Canton all other im portant Chinese ports were under Japanese oc cupation.

PAGE 81

CHAPTER III GEOLOGY A, GEOLOGY OF JAPAN JAPAN Geology Geologist!! suggest that the islands constituting Japan Proper are the summits of a great mountain system that originally formed part of the Altai and other rangef, in China and that was detached le.ter by the depression of the intervening land. The presence of great marine depressions along the external or eastern side of a fanciful festoon that stretches parallel to the Pacific coast of the Asiatic Continent seems to confirm this hypothesis. This chain of is lands from Hokkaido to Taiwan (Formosa) curves towards the northwest, the concave or the Japan Sea side being called by scientists "Inner zone" or arc, and the convex or Pacific side "Outer zone" or arc. The two zones present points of marked contrast geographically and otherwise. Another interesting geological feature of Japan is that the Main Island or Honshu is divided into "North Japan" and "South Japan" by the so-called Fuji volcani.c zone that runs across its middle from the Japan Sea to the Pacific Ocean, the zone containing the great cone of Fuji and other volcanoes. Geological Composit.ion The geological composition of Japan as investigated by the Government Geological Survey is as follows :-Table 1, Geological Composition of Area iSq. kms.) Paleozoic 75,426 Mesozoic 46,498 Tertiary 93,276 Quarternary ... 90,101 Igneous (older) ... ,. 73,673 Igneous (younger) 81,048 Total . 460,022 Japan 16.39 10.11 20.27 19.59 16.02 17.62 100.00 The sedimentary formation and contemporaneous igneous rocks of Japan are tabulated below: Table 2. Sedimentar-y Formation and Contemporaneous Igneous Rocks Quaternary Cainozolc {Tertiary Cretaceous Mesozoic Jurassic Sedimentar_y Formations Recent Pleistocene Loam Terrace Deposits Pliocene; Musashino Formation, Tertiary,of Tanab2, Kakegawa, etc., Plant fossil Bed of Mogi, Upper Tertiary of Hokkaido. Miocene; Plant fossil Bed of Itsukaichi, Orbitoides-Limesto:he of Nakaozaka, Shiramizu (Coal-bearing Series) of the Joban District Middle Tertiary of Hokkaido. Oligocene and Eocene ; Lower Tertiary (Coal-bearing Series) of Hokkaido, Coal-bearing Series of Northern Kyushu, Nummulites Beds of Bonin & Luchu, [Senonian-Gault; Futaba Series, Izumi-Sandstone, Trigonia-Sandstone and Ammonites Beds of Hokkaido. Neocomian; Lower Bed of Miyake Series, Ryoseki Series and Torinosu Limestone. [Malm; Upper Shizukawa Series, Tetori Series. Dogger; Middle Shizukawa Series. Liassic; Lower Shizukawa Series. Igneous Rrcks Liparite, Andeaite, Basalt Liparite, Andesite, Basalt, ]Granite, Porphyrite, Gabbro, Serpentine, etc, i I Forphyrite,

PAGE 82

26 GEOLOGY Rbaetic; Plant Bed of Yamanoi. Noric; Pseudomonotis Beds. Porphyrite. Ladinic; Caonella Beds of Rikuzen and Tosa; Anisic-Skytic ; Geratites Beds. Carbonil Middle and Upper divisions of the Chichibu System. Palaeozoic ferous { Permian and f } Granite, Diorite, Gabbro, Diabase, etc. Pre-C'arboni{Mikabu Series (Lower division of the Chichibu System), ferous Sambagawa Series. }Granite, Amphibolite, Serpentine. The Chichibu System As \he oldest fossil-bearing strata in Japan and one existing within a few hours by railway from Tokyo, the Chichibu system was first studied by the German geologist Dr .. Nauman who was in the service of the Japanese Government about 1877: -It is a cradle as also the most popular field of geological researches in Japan. This hilly mass is further noted for containing various strata characteristic of the geological formation of the land. Economic Geology of Japan Ca1"boniferous and similar Paleozoic strata formed in Japan. are, unlike th~se in the West, not generally coal-bearing as they originated under the sea, though with a few exceptions. Coal-scams of economic importance exist in Japan in Tertiary f9rmations, that is, in Kyushu, Hok kaido and the Joban (Hitachi-Iwaki) districts. Oil-fields chiefly occur in the younger Tertiary of the Inner zone, mostly in. Echigo, Akita and Hokkaido. Mr. Kanehara wr'ites that the coalbearing series of northern Kyushu is an important representative of the Japanese Palaeogene, the fossils found being mainly of. Eocene forms. Tl.us the Takashima coal-field has yielded Sabal nipponica, Kryst, also Osmunda, Lastrea, Salvinia, etc., -the Miike coal-measure Aturia, Phola; domya, Crassatella, Carditat, etc. One not~ worthy thing is that in the coa:1-fields of Sasebo and Imal'i, economically less important than the two other.s mentioned, an Anthracotherid tooth and Brachyodus were discovered, these judged to be of Lower Oligocene origin. The plant and shell fossils as found in the coal-measures of Hokkaido and Karafuto are nearly identical with those of north~rn Kyushu. The N eogene in the Joban district consists of the Shiramizu (Miocene), the Yunagaya (Miocene) and the Shirado (Pliocene) series, the lowest part of Shiramizu being now extensively worked for its bitumen. In the meridional and western parts of northern Honshu, the Neogene extends from Shinano and Echigo on the southwest to the northern end of Aomori through Akita. The older Neogene of this region often contains coal-seams. in the lower part while the younger is often petrolifer ous, constituting the oil-fields of Echigo, Akita and Aomori. Then the lower N eogene found. in Shizuoka prefecture is Miocene and petroli~ ferous. In Taiwan there exists the coal-bearing Neogene in the north, while in the south it is petroliferous. In Hokkaido the Tertiary consists of the Lower, the Middle, the Upper and the Uppermost. The Lower is the coal-bearing Palaeogene and the other three range between Miocene and Pliocene or. Pleistocene. The Middle Tertiary has the Po~onai series in its lower part and t~ Kawabata series in the ?pper, the Momiji-yama series lying between bemg of a transitional formation. The Upper Tertiary is often oil-bearing, its rocks resembling those of similar formation in northern Honshu, Minerals.-The !!Umber of species is 208 exclusive of those of organic origin. Minerals or crystals characteristic of Japan are-radial concentric aggregations of rhombohedra of arsenic; magnificent crystals of s.tibnite; large and beautiful crystals of galena, zinc-blende, enargite, danburite and topaz; beautiful crystals of pyr rhotite, axinite and columbite; needle forms or triangular crystals of chalcopyrite;. twinned cry stals of quartz; unusualiy large cry.stals of augite, andalusite, glaucophane and piedmontite; xenotime and zircon irl parallel growth; zircon containing some rare earths; cordierite crystals occurring. in l_avas, etc. M;ne,-al Dep<>sits.-These are chiefly found in the Tertiary terrain. Gold quartz and cuprifer ous pyrite-quartz veins are common in the Tertiary liparite or' andesite and their tuffs. Cupriferous py'rite deposits imb\dded in the

PAGE 83

JAPAN Geology GEOLOGY 27 Palaeozoic schists and clayslates are of a great econor.1ic importance. Magnetite masses and hematite veins in granite, and galenablende masses or veins are found respectively in +he Palaeozoic limestone, and Tertiary tuft's. The coal-seams and oil-fields are as mentioned before. B. VOLCANOES Volcanoes number 165, of which 54 are active and consist of seven zones, those noteworthy oeing:-Fuji zone that cuts across the middle of Hon shu from the Japan Sea to the Pacific Ocean and continuning to the Seven Islands of Izu, the Bonin Islands, the Sulphur Islands and to the Mariana and Caroline Group. The zone contains Myoko-zan, Togakushi-yama, Tadeshina-yama, Yatsu-ga-take, Fuji-san, Hakone, Amagi, etc. The Nasu chain forms the backbone of North Japan and extends fu.rther north to Hokkaido, the chain comprising Osore-zan, Ganshu-zan, Nasu-san, Nantai-san (Nikko), Akagi, Haruna, Asama, etc. The other chains are the Chokai that runs parallel to the Nasu chain, the Chi shima chain that extends from Hokkaido to Chi shima (Kuriles) and further to Kamchatka, the Hakusan chain that contains Hakusan, Daisen, Sambe-yama, etc., and the Kirishima chain which traverses the western margin of the island of Kyushu. With Kirishima as a centre it extends to Unzen on the north and to the volcanic islands in the Ryukyu archipelago. For the past half a century Japanese volcanoes have invariably been of the Strombolian type as exemplified in the eruption of Bandai-san (1888), Azuma-san (1893), Adataro-yama (1900), and Torishima (1902). Asarna, Yari-ga-take and Kirishima are known for their paroxymal, though not des-tructive explosions. Also in the Kirishima chain is a complex volcano with its highest cone towering 1,592 m,, which is perhaps t},~ largest volcano in the world, its crater extendli,g about i5 miles north and south, and 10 miles the other way. C. HOT SPRINGS As a redeeming feature to compensate for the presence of so many volcanoes, a large number of mineral springs, both hot and cold, are found throughout the country. Japan, in fact, occupies a very high place in the world as to the number of mineral springs and especially those possessing high medical value. Hot springs of note number about one thousand, mostly in northern and southern parts of the country, and of these those that are popular from easier access or medical quality occupy at least one quarter, as shown in the accompanying table. In composition simple and salt springs predominate, followed by sulphur springs. Table 3. Number and Kinda of Hot Springs Honshu Hokkai-(Mainland) do Kyushu Total 155 225 Simple cold springs 134 i 20 Simple hot springs ... 152 3 70 Simple acid springs 17 3 3 "Earthy" acid springs 12 1 3 Alkaline acid springs. 94 20 35 Salt springs 1G5 5 19 Bitter springs 58 4 16 Iron springs . 29 1 2 Sulphur springs 95 14 18 Acid hydrogen sulphide springs . 10 Acid vitriol springs 5 Alum vitriol springs 7 Springs (not examined) 82 1 Total ............. 850 51 1 1 17 Z05 21 16 149 179 78 32 127 11 6 8 99 1,106 Besides, there are 68 and 27 hot-springs in Chosen (Korea) and Taiwan (Forinosa) respectively. Table 4 List of Popular Hot Springs Name Arima As mushi Atami Beppu Dogo Hakone { Miyanoshita Ashinoyu Higashiyama lkao Ito Kinosaki Kusatsu Misasa Nagaoka Nasu Nearest Rly. station Arima Asamushi Atami Beppu Dogo Odawara { Aizu Wakama,tsu Shibukawa Atami Kinosaki Kusatsu Kurayoshi Nagaoka Kuroiso Character Simple carbon-dioxated .. Sulphated bitter ................. Earth-muriated Common salt .... Simple thermals .. ... Simple thermals ................. Above sea level (ft.l 1,287 74 50 35 Alkaline common salt 1,377 Sulphur . . 2,760 Saline bitter ................. (about) 850 Sulphated bitter .. .. .. .. 2,800 Simple thermals (Seaside) ....... Earth-muriated common salt .. Acid vitriol .. .. .. .. .. 4,500 Simple thermala .. .. 50 Simple thermals .. .. .. 100 Hydrogen sulphide (about)4,500 Ave. Temperature C. .F. 17.0 62.6 70.3 158.6 198.6 63.0 127.4 44.6 112.1 137.3 113.0 47.5 117.6 46.0 114.8 46.9 116.4 ]26.1 62.0 14~.6 71.0 ]59.8 48.5 119.3 82.4

PAGE 84

28 GEOLOGY Ave. Temperature Neareat Above sea Name Rly. 1tation Chnracter level (ft.) c. F. {Nikko Yumoto Nikko Hydrogen sulphide (about)4,690 113.9 Noboribetsu Noboribetsu Vitriol ................ 660 97.0 206 6 Shibu Toyono Sulphated common salt ... 6,960 76.0 168.8 Earth-muriated common salt 2,600 93.0 199.4 Shima Shibukawa Shiobara Nishinasuno Alkaline 1,150 132.4 Shuzenji Shuzenji Saline common salt .......... 330 77.0 170.6 Unzen !sahara Acid hydrogen sulphate ........... 2,400 61.6 124.7 Earth-muriated common salt (Seaside) 179.2 Nanao -Wagura Yamanaka Daishoji Sulphated sulphur ................. 120.2 149.5 Yamashiro Daishoji Saline sulphur ..... 351 88.6 191.3 Yugawara Yugawara Common salt The distinctive feature of Kusatsu, Nasu, Noboribetsu and others is that they carry free mineral acids in their alumina and iron contents, and this peculiarity is especially marked in Kusatsu and Nasu. Many springs contain small proportions of boric acid and iodine, bromine, lithium, manganese and other compounds. Reference to the map given elsewhere will show that the regions traversed by the volcanic chains mentioned before are especially rich in these natural baths. The Izu Peninsula in the Fuji zone, has, for instance, Atami, Ito, Shuzenji, Nagaoka, Yugawara, Izusan, Kona, and other minor spas. The three important clusters of hot-springs are Hakone-Izu, Kusatsu, and Beppu. Classified as to altitude, Kusatsu and its subsidiaries Shibu, Shima, etc. stand highest, while Atami, Asamushi, W agura, etc. are found near the seashore, Radio-activity of Japanese Mineral Springs Many of those springs are of strong radio activity, these being as below, giving both hot and cold springs. It will be seen that compared with the famous radio-active springs in Europe, Masutomi is second only to J oachimsthal and Brambach, but surpasses Gastein, Landeck, Baden-Baden, etc. Misasa is on,y next to Ischia in Italy and almost rivals Gastein in this respect. All these Japanese mineral springs are found in granite regions, Table 5. List of Principal Radio-Active Springe (Emanation per liter of water in Mache's unit) Hot Springs Name Miasa. .............. Sekigane .. Tochiomata ... Kawatana ............... ... Prefecture Tottori Nilgata Yamaguchi M'achea unite 142.14 30.12 26.86 11.88 Charar.ter Simi;le Sulphur Simple Saline Temperature c. 71.0 44.0 39.0 40.0 F. Cold Springs Masutomi Yamanashi Takayama Gifu Ikeda .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Shimane Birukawa ................... Gifu Murasugi ................ ... Niigata D. EARTHQUAKES Japan is a land of volcanoes and earthquakes. It owes its beautiful scenery, in many instances, to volcanic:: agency, while the graceful outline of the snow-capped Fujiyama with its logarithmic curves, an emblem of purity and sublimity, is a common art motif. With regard to seismic disturbances, it may be said that in Japan the telluric energy is still in the young and vigorous stage of development, and earthquakes have naturally made a profound impression upon our 828 281 188 60 60 Saline Simple Carbonated Simple 21.6 10.0 17.0 12.0 25.8 countrymen from the earliest times, the first re cord of an earthquake in authentic history dating back to the reign of the Emperor Inkyo ( 416 A.D.). In former times an earthquake catas trophe was believed to be a divine warning of some great event, and it is a note~orthy fact that an earthquake often served as a stimulus for summoning the courage of our people in time of danger. Thus, on the occasion of the famous shocks of the first year of Ansei (1854), the year in which the treaty with Commodore Perry was concluded, the Daimyo of Tosa issued pro

PAGE 85

JAPAN Geology GEOLOGY 29 clamations enjoining his subjects to take these disasters as censures from Heaven and to ro11se themselves tr guide the Empire through the difficult epoch of internal troubles and foreign complications. The atte,Ylpt to guard against the effect of seismic disturbances is, as may be expected, shown in the style of various ancient Japanese buildings. Thus, a properly built "sammon" (temple gate), "kanetsukido" (bell tower), and "gojunoto" (five-storeyed pagoda) can never be overturned by an earthquake, how ever violent. The last-named structures are in principle exactly conformable with the modern instrument called the duplex pendulum seismo graph, since they consist of the outer portion or tower, which may be likened to an inverted pendulum, and of the central suspended column which forms a pendulum whose lower end is not in contact with the ground; these two systems which are respectively in unstable and stable equilibrium, combine into a building capable of lessening the disaster of seismic shocks. On the occasion of the great Ansei earthquake (1885) of Yedo, the "gojunoto" at the Kwannon Temple, Asakusa had its "kurin" (large vertical metal rod on the top) considerably bent, but the building itself sustained no damage. Again, the curved fqrm of a large stone "ishigaki," or dry masonry retaining wall, is a feature peculiar to the Japanese castle building not to be found in the architecture of China, Chosen (Korea) and other countries. Its origin lay probably in the idea of making the stonewall earthquakeproof. The wall curve forms a parabola, and a noteworthy fact is that the column whose wall is parabolic has the property of being seismically uniform in strength, namely, of possessing stability against the earthquake which remains con stant for the differ~nt settions. A stone retaining wall with a parabolic form is thus free from the defect of being weakest at the base, thereby lessening the risk of the production of the "marginal vibration," which may result in the formation of cracks along the upper edge and the sliding down of the side surface. As no cementing was used in the construcHon of the stone castle walls, the old Japanese civil engi neers had evidently to give the "ishigaki" a form calculated to possess in itself a sufficient strength and stability. Japanese Arc Where great mountain ranges are arranged on chains of islands in the form of a circular arc, the convex, or outer portion, which corresponds to the tension side, is often shaken by great earthquake; while the concave, or inner portion, corresponding to the compression side, is disturbed only by occasional local shocks. This is notably the case with the Japanese arc, whose corivex side is turned toward the Pacific, parallel with and off whose coast there runs the principal earthquake and Himalaya-Mediterranean lines of disturbance. Since the great shocks of 1854 the southern and western parts of Japan have not been visited by great seismic disasters and "tsunami" (tidal-waves) that very often follow them, excepting those of 1924 and 1925 Volcanoes whether active, dormant, or extinct are located only on the Japan Sea side, or the compression portion, of the Japanese islands and along the Fuji volcanic chain, which may be regarded as a sort of crack in the are. Small Earthquakes The number of earthquakes occurring in dif ferent parts of Japan gives the average yearly frequency of some 1,500, or of about four shocks per day. In Tokyo a sensible shock occurs. on the average once every three days. Great Earthquake o~ Tokyo in 1923 As regards the magnitude of damage inflicted on life and property, the great earthquake of September 1, 1923, that overwhelmed the region bordering on the Bay of Sagami is indeed without a parallel in the world's history, the disastrous fire that burst out on the wake of the tremendous upheaval having reduced to ashes in a couple of days about one half of Tokyo, and practically the whole of Yokohama. Scien tifically the 1923 earthquake belongs to what is called "world shaking earthquakes", and was recorded, for instance, at Granada, Spain, at 12h 12m 33s of September 1st, while at Sydney it began at 12h 9m 8s. To the lasting regret for accuracy of seismo logical investigation it should be noted that the instruments at ~oth the Seismological Institute of Tokyo Imperial University, and the Central Meteorological Observatory (Tokyo) broke down just at the critical moment, so that the only reliable observation carried out at Tokyo indicated that the preliminary tremor lasted about 12.1 a., and that in Tokyo it occurred at llh 58m 46s of the central standard time, that is, the time of the 135 meridian; that taking various factors into consideration, the depth of the seismic centre must have been about 45km. and the position of the epicentre at the bottom of the northern part qf Sagami Bay,

PAGE 86

30 GEOLOGY The seismographical record taken at the Central Meteorological Observatory consisted of the following elements: Table 6. Seismographic Record Initial time . . llh 68m 46s 6 Duration of preliminary tremor 12s 1 Maximum ampli-tude . 89mm Intensity . . disastrous Epicentre ...... Northern part of Sagami Bay; Longitude ]30 E ...... Latitude 36 N. As to the origin of this terrestrial disturbance the hypothesis offered is that, judging from the distribution of geological strata and the nature of topographical features of the affected area, it was not probably due to the powerful strain to which the earth-crust between the Izu Penin-15, 1924, in Sagami Bay. Its intensity is indicated by the following data:-Table 8. Seismographic Record Initial time . . 6h 60m 25s Duration of prr.~iminary tremor. 7s 6 Maximum amp,itude . 22mm Whole duration . 12m Intensity . . . Stro" g Epicentre .. Sagami Bay, L. 139i E .. L. 35 N. Table 9. Seismic Record in Japan More disastrous earthquakes recorded in the pre-Tokugawa period were: 684 A.D. An area of 8-10 sq. kilometres in Tosa (Kochi Pref.) subsided and 86~. ,. was covered by sea-water. E'arthquake with tidal waves visited Mutsu (Aomori Pref. ) and about 1,000 people were killed. sula, the most elevated portion, and the Sea of Sagami, the most subsided portion, in this re1361 ., gion, must have been subjected for a considerable 1498 ,, period of time. The shock caused severe dis-Earthquakes in districts round about Kyoto, Tokaido was visited by a severe earthquake, causing death of over 5,000 persons. Hamana lagoon (Maizaka station, Tokaido Railway, formerly inland lake) was location of the strata of the disturbed area, the shores of Sagami Bay and the west coast of the Boso Peninsula marking sudden upheaval, as formed. much as 55 metres at some places, while on the 1596 ,, other hand the bottom of Sagami Bay fell by 20 to 400 metres. Among other noteworthy phenom-Bungo (Kyushu) was visited by a severe earthquake and 708 persons killed. ena was the visit of seismic sea-waves or 1596 ., "tsunami" which attained the_ height of 8 Districts about Kyoto were shaken and 1,200 persons killed. metres at some parts on the eastern shores of The principal calamities that have occurred the Izu Peninsula, though on the coast of Tokyo since are:-Bay the height was generally below one metre. Landslides occurred here and there, notably along the eastern shores of the Izu PeninsulF,, one at 1605, Feb. 2 Nebukawa, about midway between Atami and 0 Odawara, being most disastrous, while the hilly district of Hakone was also severely damaged 1611, Sept. 27 from this particular dislocation of earth-crust. 1611, Dec. 2 As is usual with most strong earthquakes the 1923 convulsion was followed by long trains of after-shocks, and it was believed by experts that some three years would elapse before the dis located strata could settle to normal condition. Here is the record of after-shocks observed at the Central Meteorological Observatory. Table 7. Number of After-shocks (Sept. 1, 1923-Sept. 1, 1925) Felt ....... ................ about 1,600 Not felt ,, 6,100 The seat of after-shocks is naturally shifting_. So far two very strong passing vibrations of this description have occurred, one on September 2, 1923, off Katsu-ura on the southern coast of the Boso Peninsula and the other on January 1633, Mar. 1 1649, July 29 1662,June 16 1666, Feb. 1 1694,June 19 1703, Dec. 31 1704, May 27 1707, Oct. 28 1711, Mar. 19 Houses No. of destroyed deaths Tokaido & Shi-koku (Pacific Coast) (with tidal waves) .. Aizu in Iwashiro Hokkaido and Sanriku district (Pacific coast) (with tidal 8,800 3,700 waves) ...... Odawara (Kanagawa Pref.) ... Yedo (Tokyo) 5,000 150 several hundreds Places. about Kyoto . 3,000 Takata in Echi-go ...... : ... Noshiro (Akita Pref.) 2,760 Places about Yedo (Tokyo) 20,162 Noshiro (Akita Pref.) 1,200 Pacific coast of Tokaido, Kyu-shu & Shikoku (with tidal waves) ...... 29,000 Mimasaka, !]111. 800 1,500 394 5,233 58 4,900

PAGE 87

GEOLOGY JAPAN Geology 31 ------------------------------------------1751, May 20 1766, Mar. 8 1792, May 21 1804, July 10 1828, Dec. 18 1830, Aug. 19 1847, May 8 1854, July 9 1854, Dec. 23 1854, Dec. 24 1855, Nov. 11 1858, Apr. 9 1872, Mar.-14 1891, Oct. 28 1894, Oct. 22 1896, June 15 1896, Aug. 31 1904, Nov. 6 1906, Mar. 17 1909, Aug. 14 1914, Mar. 15 1923, Sept. 1 1924, Jan. 15 1925, May 23 1927, Mar. 7 1930, Nov. 26 1933, Mar. 3 1935, Apr. 21 1936, Feb. 21 1936, Dec. 27 ha & Hold (Tot-Houses tori, Okayama de tri>yed Pref.) . 500 Takata in Echi go (tidal waves) 6,088 Hirosaki 7,192 Hizen, High & vicinity (with tidal waves) 12,000 Kisakata (Akita Pref.) (with tidal waves) 5,500 Sanfo in Echigo 11,012 Kyoto & vicinity Nagano a11d Nii-gata Districts. 34,000 Yamato, lga & Ise (Miye and Nara Districts) 5,000 Tokaido, Tosan-do Hokuroku, San-in Sanyo. 9,000 Tokaido & Shi-koku (with tidal waves) 60,000 Yedo (Tokyo) .. 14,346 Northern I-Iida (Gifu District) 709 Hama in Shima-ne Pref ..... ever 5,000 Mino and Owari Gifu-Aichi Dis-trict . 80,000 Shonai in Y ama-gata . 6,006 Sam-iku district (Aomori Iwate District) (with tidal waves) ... 10,370 Akita-Iwate Dis-trict . 6,079 Toroku, Kagi (Taiwan) 1,723 Kagi (Taiwan). 6,769 Omi (Shiga Dis-trict . 976 Akita . 640 Sagami Bay (epicentre), Tokyo, Yokohama and outlying districts ...... 7 ul,622 Sagami 1,273 Northern part of Tajima (N. of Himeji) 3,333 N.-W. part of Kyoto . 16,026 Northern part of Izu . 2,142 Sanriku district (with tidal waves) 4,086 Shinchiku and Taichu districts (Taiwan) 17,835 Settsu, Kawachi and Yamato 108 Nii-jima & Shikine-jima (Ogas11--wara Is.) .... 508 No.of deaths 400 2,000 1,335 15,200 333 1,443 280 12,000 Seismic Zones Ten seismic zones along the weak lines on the _earth's crust are recognized by seismolcgists; the more noteworthy being those running parallel to the Pacific coast. Earthquakes occurring in these zones are generally of destructive worldshaking character. Japan that lies aiong one of these zones has her own subsidiary b,lts or zones as shown in the accompanying map. Seismic Prediction, Losses, Etc. (See 1937 Issue) The exhaustive researches of our seismologists 1,057 coupled with the extensive surveying carried out by the Military and Naval surveying departments have done much. towards throwing light upon l,200 the mysterious subterranean working of the earth's crust incidental to seismic activity and 3,000 towards placing this infant science on definite 7,000 system. The researches and surveying combined have made it clear that at the seat of the epi-203 centre of the 1923 quake, i.e. the 'bottom of the 600 Bay of Sagami, a tremendous fault occurred, resulting in an enormous depression on one part and an equally extensive upheaval on the other, 7,273 and that similar extraordinary topographical changes were witnessed in the Kwanto block it-72o \lelf. It has also been ascertained that for the two preceding years (1921-22) the land adjoining the seat of the disturbance was undergoing 27,000 secular subsidence and slight elevation, all these indicating the accumulation of a gigantic sub-206 terranean fltress for many years in this particular 145 region. 1 ,258 The number of earthquakes which occurred in 41 different parts of Japan Proper from the great 90 earthquake of September 1, 1923, and up to the end of 1934 is shown in the following statistics based on the reports of the Central Meteorological Observatory:99,331 14 895 3,017 259 2,986 3,322 9 3 Table 10. Number of !:arthquakes Since 1923 Disaster 1923 (after Sept. 1) ..... ,, (for the whole year) 1924 ................. 1925 ............ 1926 ...... 1927 ................. 1928 ....... 1929 ................. 1930 ................. 1931 ................. 1932 ........ ....... 1933 ........ .-. 1934 ................. 1935 ............ .... 1936 ................. 1937 ....... .. No. of earth quakes 1,968 2,786 1,200 1,886 1,272 2,069 1,450 1,443 5,774 1,740 1,245 1,511 1,308 1,584 1,437 1,395 Daily aver ge 7.8 16.1 3.3 5.2 3.5 7.4 4.0 4.0 15.8 4.8 3.4 4.1 3.6 4.31 3.9 3.8

PAGE 88

32 GEOLOGY As stated, the relatively large number for 1923 is due to the frequent occurrence of aftershocks that followed the great earthquake o:C September 1; again the large number of shocks in 1930 is accounted for by the frequent occurrence of many minor shocks in the offing of Shiofuki Point, the Izu Peninsula, between March and May of that year and the frequent occurrence of shocks before and after the severe earthquake at northern Izu on November 26 the same year. Table 11. Number of Earthquakes in Tokyo 1912 ......... 119 1913 ......... 95 1914 ......... 86 1915 ......... 184 1916 ......... 122 1917 ......... 111 1918 ......... 110 1919 ......... 100 ]920 ......... 68 1921 ........ 30 1922 ......... 42 The following table, also based on the investigation of the Central Meteorological Observatory, shows the number of earthquakes felt by human body that occurred in Tokyo and vicinitJ 1923 ......... 1,374 (After Sept. 1-1,32~) (Up to Aug. 3148) 1924 . 203 in the recent past. References: Table Nos.: 1 a, 2 a, 3 b, 4 b, 5 a, 6 c; 7 c, 8 c, 9 c, 10 c, 11 a, 12 c. Key: a-Official Statistical Annual of Physics, 1938. b-Hot Springs in Japan. c-Researches of the Tokyo Central Meteorological Observatory, and Vicinity 1925 ........ 1926 ........ 1927 ........ 1928 ........ 1929 ........ 1930 ........ 1931 ........ 1932 ........ 1933 ........ 1934 ........ 1935 ........ 1936 ........ 1937 66 62 56 65 47 56 74 39 30 31 52 22 26

PAGE 89

JAPAN Population CHAPTER IV POPULATION AND EMIGRATION INTRODUCTORY REMARKS The population of Japan is characterized by a density and a rate of increase comparable to those of the highest in the world. Although there are no accurate data to verify the population of Japan prior to the Meiji Restoration (1868), the number of inhabitants is put in approximate figures at thirty millions. It is computed that in the preceding century or more the population had remained almost at a standstill. The prolific increase in population is therefore a phenomena of the past 70 years during which time the number of inhabitants has more than doubled. The rate of increase by decades is as follows: 1870-1880, 5%; 1880-1890, 7.6%; 1890-1900, 10%; 1900-1910, 12%; 1910-1920, 13%; 1920-1930, 15%. For the quinquennial period, 1930-1935, the rate of in crease fell off to 6.4%. The annual growth in population was highest in 1932 at 1,007,398, but since then a gradual decline has been noted. Races.-Besides the Yamato race (the main strain of what is now known as. the Japanese race), the Empire harbours within its confines some six distinct types. Of these only two are ,Prominent in the Empire, the Koreans and the Formosans who number roughly 20,500,000 and 148,000, respectively. The other types are the Ainus (pop. 16,000) of the Hokkaido, Kuriles and Saghalien, the Gilyaks (pop. 77) of Saghalien, the Orokes, and the Micronesians (pop .. 51,000) of the South Sea Mandated Islands. Table 1. Population of Japan Compared with Other Countries Year Area (sq. km.) Japan ............ 1935 675,344 Japan Proper ... 382,545 Dependencies .... 292,799 China ............ 1932 9,686,907 Germany .......... 1933 468,802 *England .......... 1931 229,865 France ........... 1931 550,986 United States ...... 1930 7,839,353 Italy .............. 1931 310,177 India ............ 1931 4,684,461 Soviet Union ...... 1926 21,176,187 Belgium .......... 1930 30,507 Holland .......... 1930 34,181 Northern Ireland not included. Population of the Whole Empire.-The population of the whole Empire of Japan as enumerated by the 1935 census is 97,697,555. Contrasted with the 1930 census, it shows an increase of 7,301,512, or 8.1 %. As for the increases shown by Japan Proper and her colonies during the five years, Japan Proper is represented by 4,804,143 (7.4%), Korea by 1,840,733 (8.7%), Formosa by 619,881 (13.5%) and Karafuto by 36,747 (12.5%). The leased territory of Kwantung Province 'lccounts for 1,134,704, the South Manchuria Railway Zone for 522,689 and the mandated South Sea Islands. for 102,537. Adding these figures to the population of the whole Empire given above, the total is 99,456,818. I>ensit7 of Population,-The average density Density per Population Male Female sq.km. 97,697,555 49,242,822 48,454,733 145 69,254,148 34,734,133 34,520,015 181 28,443,407 14,508,689 13,934,718 97 445,181,000 46 65,218,461 31,685,562 33,532,899 139 44,795,357 21,458,533 23,336,824 195 41,228,466 19,911,676 21,316,790 75 122,775,046 62,137,080 60,637,966 16 41,176,671 20,133,455 21,043,216 133 352,837,778 181,828,923 171,008,855 75 147,027,915 71,043,352 75,984,563 7 8,092,004 4,007,418 4,084,586 265 7,935,565 3,942,676 3,992,889 232 of population of the Empire according to the 1935 census is 145. That of Japan Proper is 181, which makes Japan one of the most densely populated countries in the world coming next only to Holland, Belgium and England, as stated above. Contrasted with the two previous census, the number shows a gain of 12 and 25 res pectively. The density of population differs greatly ac cording to prefectures. Tokyo Prefecture comes first with 2,970 per square km. (45,805 per square ri), followed by Osaka with 2,369 (36,544 per square ri). Kanagawa, Aichi, and Fukuoka Prefectures are each represented. by 500 a'nd upwards, Kagawa and Saitama and other prefectures by 400 and upwards. The Hokkaido comes last with 35 per square km, (533 per square ri).

PAGE 90

84 POPULATION AND EMIGRATION Table 2. Density of Population (Oct. 1, 1936) M~.le Popula population ton Area per 100 per sq. (Sq, km.) Population 1emales km. Japan Proper .. 382,545 70,258,200 101 181 Chosen ....... 220,768 22,047,836 103 100 Taiwan ....... 35,961 5,451,863 104 151 Karafuto ..... 36,090 321,765 119 9 Total ...... 675,385 98,079,664 102 145 Kwantung Leas-ed Territory & S.M.R. Zone. 3,760 1,680,627 145 447 Pacific Mandate Islands 2,148 107,137 125 49 Grand total.. 681,294 99,867,428 146 Sex Ratio.~Of the total population of Japan Proper at the 1935 census given as 69,254,148, 34,734,133 are males and 34,520,015 females. The number of males exceeds that of females by 232,118. They are in a ratio of 100.6 to 100, which compares with 101.0 to 100 for th~ previous census. Table 3. Census Population By Se:a::. (Japan Proper) Male 1920 ..... 28,044,185 1925 ..... 30,013,109 1930 ...... 32,390,155 1935 ..... 34,734,133 Male Population Female per 100 females 27,918,868 100.4 29,723,713 101.0 32,059,850 101.0 34,520,015 100.6 Di0atribution of Population.-To look into the distribution of population by prefectures, Tokyo ranks first with 6,570,800 and Osaka next with 4,455,400. They are followed by the Hokkaido and three other prefectures each with 2,000,000 and upwards. Besides, eleven prefectures are populated by 1,500,000 and upwards, thirteen prefectures by 1,000,000 and upwards, eleven prefectures by 700,000 and upwards, five by 5,000,000 and upwards. Tottori Prefecture comes last with 490,700. Compared with the 1930 census, with the exception of the three prefectures of Saga, Nagano and Kochi, all prefectures show an incre.i,se in population. The greatest increase is 961,241 shown by Tokyo, followed by Osaka with 757,157, Aichi and four other prefectures each with 200,000 and upwards, Kyoto and two others each with 100,000 and upwards. As for the sex ratio in the prefectures, the male proportion is larger than the female proportion in fourteen prefectures and smaller in thirty-three. Tokyo, comes first with the male proportion with 109.3 for every 100 females, followed by Osaka with 109.1, the Hokkaido with 108.1 and Kanagawa with 107.1. Urban and Subul'ban Population.-The total population of all the cities of the country, numbering 127, as returned at the 1935 census, is 22,665,920 and that of the suburbs 46,585,345, The former bears a proportion of 32.7% to the population of the wliole country and the latter 67.3%. Compared with' 24% for the urban popu. lation and 76% for the suburban population at the 1930 census, the percentage for the urban population shows a marked expansion. This is due in no small degree to the municipal extension of Tokyo. To divide the urban population by sex, males number 11,635,729 and females 11,030,191, the former and the latter being in a ratio of 105.5 to 100. As for the suburban population, males number 23,096,131 and females 23,489,214, the ratio being 98.3 to 100. Table 4. Population By Urban and Surburban Districts Urban Popula-tion ..... Suburban Population. Urban Popula-tion ..... Suburban Population. Urban Popula-tion ..... Suburban Population. Increase on 1920 1925 figures 12,269,210 13,711,120 1,441,910 43,693,843 46,025,702 2,331,859 Increase on 1925 1930 figures 13,711,120 15,444,300 1, 73;;,180 46,025,702 49,005,705 2,980,003 Increase on 1930 1935 figures 15,444,300 22,666,307 7,222,007 49,005,705 46,587,841 2,417,864* N.B.: decrease. Of the 127 cities, those with a population of 100,000 and upwards number 34. Tokyo tops the list with 5,875,388, followed by Osaka with 2,989,866, Nagoya with 1,082,814, Kyoto with 1,080,592, Kobe with 912,140, Yokohama with 704,290. In comparison with the previous ceusus, Osaka was surpassed by Tokyo and Kobe by Kyoto. These "Big Six" are followed by Hiroshima with 310,117. Those cities with a population of 200,000 and upwards are Fukuoka and six others, those with a population of 100,000 and upwards are .Sapporo and nineteen others. The population of these cities each with a popu. lation of 100,000 and upwards is 17,517,717, which bears a proportion of 25.3 per cent. to the population of the whole country. This percent age compares with 12.1 at the 1920 census, or the first census, 14.6 at the 1925 census and 17.1 at the 1930 census. Of that population, 9,099, 846 are males and 8,417,871 females, the ratio of the former and the latter being 108.1 to 100. As for the percentage of the population of the cities each with 100,000 and upwards in Europe and America, to the entire population, England is represented by 45.5 (1931), Germany by 30.4 (1933), the U.S.A. by 29.6 (1930), Italy by 17.4 (1932), France by 15.7 (1931). It will thus be seen that Japan is preceded by the U.S.A. and followed by Italy.

PAGE 91

POPULATION AND EMIGRATION Table 5. Popuiation of Tokyo Compared with Foreign Cities City New York ... Tokyo ....... Berlin .......... Census resultA. Year 1936 1937 1937 Population (1,000) 7,365 6,274 4,251 City London ...... *Paris .......... *Rome .. ,., ....... 1936 1936 1936 Table 6. Japan's Position in Birth and Deathrate per 1,000 People Japan Proper ,__,,___ England Germany JAPAN Population 35 Population (1,000) 4,141 2,330' 1,179 France ,-A..-.,. Birth Death Birth Death Birth Deat.h Birth Death 1930. 32.4 18.2 16.8 11.7 17.5 11.1 18.0 15.7 1931. 32.2 19.0 16.3 12.5 16.0 11.2 17.5 16.3 1932 ........ 32.9 17.7 15.8 12.3 15.1 10.8 17.3 15.8 1933 ....... 31.6 17.8 14.9 12.0 14.7 11.2 16.2 15.8 1934 ....... 30.0 18.1 15.2 12.0 18.0 10.9 16.2 15.1 1935 .... 31.6 16.8 15.2 12.0 18.9 11.8 15.3 15.7 1936 ........ 30.3 17.5 Natural Increase in Population.-The natural increase in population caused by the increase in the difference between births and deaths differs somewhat according to year, but it has on the whole pursued an upward course. This natural increase in population was reckoned at over 700,000 yearly about a quarter of a century ago. In 1918 the number seriously decreased to l~ss than 300,000 due chiefly to the prevalence of the Spanish influenza. The following year the number increased to 500,000. Since then it gradually increased until 1926 when it reached a height of 940,000. Later the number dropped to the level of 800,000. In 1930 the number re covered the 900,000 level at 914,000, or 14.2 in 1,000 people. In 1932 the number reached the 1,000,000 level at 1,007,000, or 15.19 in 1,000 people. From the following year,. however, the number began to decline. The number of births and deaths for t_he whole of 1936 was 2,101,969 and 1,230,278 respectively. The proportion of the number of births per 1,000 population is 29.9, while deaths is 17.5. Table 7. Married and Unmarried Population Married Unmarried Dec. Males Females Total Males Females 1898 .......... 7:979,858, 7,979,858 15,959,716 14,0,234 13,709,665 1903 .......... 8,229,152 8,229,152 16,458,304 15,372,488 14,902,084 1908 .......... 8,583,168 8,583,168 17,166,336 16,463,212 15,959,356 1913 .......... 9,144,727 9,144,727 18,289,454 17,819,859 17,253,369 1918 .......... 9,568,500 9,568,502 19,137,002 19,057,117 18,473,592 1925 .......... 11,860,690 11,881,960 23,742,650 16,739,639 14,454,786 1930 .......... 12,477,501 12,516,167 24,993,668 18,508,059 16,010,492 N,B,:-Excluding divorce and bereavement. Table 8. Number of Births, Deaths, Marriage and Divorce Births ,........_ Still-births-Deaths Marriage ,-,---. ,-,---. ,-,---. Ratio per Ratio per Ratio per Ratio per No. 1.000 pop. No. 1,000 pop. No. l,OGO pop. No. 1,000 pop. 1909-13 ... 1914-18 ... 1919-23 ... 1924-28 ... 1929-32 ... 1932 ...... 1933 ...... 1934 ...... 1935 ...... 1936 ...... 1,729,925 33. 7 153,920 1,803,391 32.6 141,965 1,961,547 34.4 136,277 2,077,121 34.4 122,278. 2,116,707 33.0 118,196 2,182,742 32.9 119,579 2,121,253 31.6 114,138 2,043,783 30.0 113,043 2,190,704 31.6 115,593 2,101,969 29.9 111,056 2.99 1,052,735 20.5 2.57 1,215,254 22.0 2.39 1,322,411 23.2 2.02 1,215,484 20.1 1.84 1,217,005 19.2 1.80 1,175,344 17.7 1.70 1,193,987 17.8 1.66 1,234,684 18.1 1.67 1,161,936 16.8 1.58 1,230,278 17.5 434,786 8.45 456,074 8.07 514,833 9.03 504,964 8.34 502,697 7.83 515,270 7.77 486,058 7.23 512,654 7.52 556,730 8.04 549,116 7.82 Table 9. Average Age of First Marriage Male Female Male 1925 .......... 27.09 23.12 1931 ............ 27.29 1926 ....... 27.13 23.07 1932 ........... 27.40 1927 .......... 27.18 23.05 1933 ...... ...... 27.57 1928 ............ 27.26 23.10 1934 ............ 27.70 1929 ............ 27.36 23.23 1935 ............ 27.76 1930 .. ,, 27.33 23.21 1936 ........ 27.86 Total 27,802,899 30,274,572 32,422,468 35,073,228 37,530,709 3.1.,194,425 34,518,551 Divorce ,-,---. No. 59,023 58,495 53,998 50,734 50,729 51,437 49,282 48,610 48,528 46,167 Ratio per 1,000 pop 1.15 1.06 0.95 0.84 0.75 0.78 0.73 0.71 0.70 0.66 Female 23.25 23.39 23.58 23.70 23.81 23.92

PAGE 92

36 POPUL,-...TION AND E'MIGRATION Sterilization of Unfit The Home Office is framing a bill for the sterilization of the mentally unfit, This action is being taken because an inv.estigatiou, made in cooperation with the Japan Eugenics Society, has revealed that 70 per cent of the 150,000 persons in Japan known to be suffering from mental diseases have inherited their handicaps. Table 10. Average Age of Mortality 1886 ........... 1896 ........... 1906 ........ .,. .. 1916 ........... 1932 ........... 1933 ........... 1934 ........... 1935 ...... Male 38.13 3'3:87 32:11 31.81 33.56 33.93 34.24 34.53 Female 38.91 34.93 34.55 32.30 34.34 34.96 35.44 35.54 Table 11. Census Population of the Prefectures (Enumerated at the Quinquennial Census taken Oct. 1935) Prefecture Area (sq. km.) Population Prefecture Area (sq. km.) Population Aichi . 5,081 2,862,701 K:agawa ........ 1,859 748,656 Akita .......... 11,664 1,037,74'4 Kagoshima ...... 9,104 ,1,591,466 Aomori . 9,631 967,129 Kanagawa ...... 2,353 1,840,005 Chiba I o 5,062 1,546,394 Kochi ........... 7,104 714,980 Ehime ......... 5,667 1,164,898 Kumamoto .... 7,438 1,387,054 Fukui . 4,264 646,659 Kyoto .......... 4,621 1,702,508 Fuk~oka 4,940 2,755,804 Miyagi ......... 7,274 1,234,801 Fukushima ...... 13,782 1,581,563 Miyazaki ....... 7,739 824,431 Gifu ........... 10,495 1,225,799 Miye .......... 5,765 1,174,595 Gumma . 6,336 1,242,453 Nagano ........ 13,626 1,714,000 Hiroshima 8,437 1,804,916 Nagasaki ....... 4,076 1,296,883 Hokkaido ....... 88,775 3,068,282 Nara ........... 3,689 620,471 Hyogo . 8,323 2,923,249 Niigata ........ 12,578 1,995,777 Ibaraki . 6,091 1,548,991 Oita ........... 6,334 980,458 Ishikawa 4,192 768,416 Okayama ....... 7,046 1,332,647 Iwate .. 15,235 1,046,111 Okinawa ....... 2,386 592,494 Osaka .......... 1,814 4,297,174 Tokyo ......... 2,145 6,369,919 Saga .. 2,449 686,117 Tottori ........ 3,489 490,461 Saitama .. .... 3,803 1,528,854 Toyama ....... 4,257 798,890 Shiga . 4,051 711,436 Wakayama ..... 4,723 864,087 Shimane 6,625 747,119 Yamagata ...... 9,326 1,116,822 Shizuoka ....... 7,770 1,939,860 Yamaguchi 6,082 1,190,542 Tochigi ........ 6,437 1,195,057 Yamanashi .... 4,466 646,727 Tokushima ...... 4,143 728,748 Table 12. Census Population of the Citiea (Enumerated at the Quinquennial Census taken Oct. 1, 1935) Increase of Increase of No. of pop. on 1930 Population "bo~~h~fds pop. on !930 Cities Population households census Cities censu9 Akashi ....... 42,644 9,406 3,686 Ichikawa 46,711 8,952 8,922 Akita ........ 60,646 10,961 4,101 Ichinomiya .. 53,376 10,009 11,147 Amagasaki .... 71,072 14,783 21,008 Iizuka ....... 39,629 7,777 380 Aomori 93,414 17,693 11,334 Imabari 51,602 11,020 3,563 Asahikawa .. 91,021 16,356 3,796 Ishinomaki 33,530 5,726 2,787 Ashikaga ..... 48,875 8,999 4,977 Kagoshima .... 181,736 35,647 15,366 Beppu ....... 62,345 13,596 5,155 Kainan 29,917 6,376 1,231 Chiba ....... 57,446 11,938 8,358 Kartazawa ... 163,733 35,899 *3,576 Choshi ....... 48,352 9,857 5,65 Karatsu 31,058 6,230 909 Fukui ....... 75,273 16,861 8,705 Kawagoye 35,192 6,954 987 Fukuoka 291,158 55,184 40,914 Kawaguchi .... 53,716 10,245 12,392 Fukushima .... 48,484 8,842 2,792 Kawasaki ..... 154,748 30,656 40,454 Fukuyama .... 58,186 12,394 3,789 Kiryu ....... 7s,145 13,478 17,849 Gifu ......... 128,721 25,936 11,335 Kishiwada ... 39,097 8,565 3,995 Hachinohe 62,210 10,853 9,303 Kobe ........ 912,179 198,018 124,563 Hachioji ..... 59,494 11,338 7,606 Kochi ........ 103,405 24,033 3,277 Hagi ........ 32,587 7,160 481 Kofu ....... 82,664 17,068 3,217 Hakodate .... 207.480 39,196 10,228 Kokura 110,372 22,798 ,323 Hamamatsu ... 133-,338 25,702 23,860 Koriyama 54,709. 9,895 3,342 Himeji ....... 91,375 18,210 7,396 Kumagaya 37,649 7,227 1,736 Hiratsuka .... 38,3 7.640 4,850 Kumamoto ... 187,382 '36,311 15,507 Hirosaki 46,014 s;555 2,677 Kurashiki .. 34,716 7,366 4,604 Hiroshima ... 310,118 66,336 39,701 Kure 231,333 46,707 41,051

PAGE 93

JAPAN Population POPULATION AND EMIGRATION 37 Increase of Increase of No. of pop. on 1930 No. of pop. on 1930 Popu ation househou d Populatio., Cities census I Citie1 household census Kurume 91,920 16,468 8,911 Sasebo ....... 173,283 31,009 40,109 Kushiro 56,170 10,237 4,584 Sendai ....... 219,'547 39,883 23,685 Kyoto ...... 1,080,593 224,663 128,189 Seto ......... 47,553 10,092 10,144 Marugame 29,615 6,308 778 Shimizu 61,123 11,629 5,458 Matsumoto 73,353 14,851 1,212 Shimonoseki .. 132,737 28,833 12,671 Matsuyama 81,940 18,363 537 Shingyu 32,055 7,458 3,088 ...... Matsuye 52,033 10,623 3,261 Shizuoka ..... 200,737 36,492 10,228 Matsuzaka 35,661 7,199 2,410 Shuri 19,305 4,571 814 ........ Mayebashi .... 87,181 16,953 2,256 Takamatsu 86,840 18,803 6,934 Mito ......... 63,816 12,958 2,972 Takaoka 57,249 11,299 3,207 Miyakonojo 36,575 7,201 1,063 Takasaki ..... 64,283 12,907 4,355 Miyazaki 64,726 12,925 5,805 Takata ....... 31,284 5,758 350 Moji ......... 121,611 26,415 13,481 Tobata ...... 67,800 13,937 16,126 Morioka ...... 69,130 12,847 6,881 Tokushima .... 97,021 21,168 6,387 Muroran ..... 65,095 12,343 9,240 Tokyo ....... 5,875,6671,191,939 904,828 Nagano ...... 77,325 15,483 3,413 Tottori ....... 45,335 9,217 3,198 Nagaoka ..... 62,152 11,860 4,286 Toyama 83,324 17,262 3,778 Nagasaki 211,702 43,470 7,076 Toyohashi 140,735 27,285 12,022 Nagoya 1,082,816 .219,739 175,412 Tsu ......... 65,971 13,628 2,274 Nakatsu 30,328 6,105 1,765 Tsuruoka ..... 37,224 7,191 2,908 Naokata ...... 43,943 8,528 3,871 Tsuyama .... 36,092 7,784 1,933 Nara,, .... 55,968 _11,840 3,184 Ube ........ 76,642 16,488 11,041 Nawa ........ 65,208 15,241 4,673 Uji-Yamadu ... 52,494 10,790 1,414 Niigata ...... 134,992 26,319 9,884 Urawa ...... 44,328 8,772 7,482 Nishinomiya 89,909 18,241 17,790 Utsunomiy2 ... 87,129 17,355 5,741 Nobeoka 56,421 10,089 25,524 Uwajima ...... 51,280 11,127 923 Numazu 49,824 9,063 5,797 Uyeda ....... 35,380 7,620 242 Obihiro ...... 35,695 6,980 7,560 Wakamatsu Ogaki .... 49,273 9,888 7,615 (Fukushima-ken) 46,199 8,517 2,468 Oita ......... 61,732 11,~68 4,438 Wakamatsu Okayama ..... 166,144 35,837 17,477 (Fukuoka-ken) 73,345 15,253 7,283 Okazaki 77,195 15,650 11,688 Wakayama ... 179,732 38,943 19,268 Omuda 104,992 20,685 7,693 Yamagata .... 69,931 12,635 3,786 Onomichi 30,777 6,950 1,693 Yamaguchi .... 34,803 7;156 2,418 Osaka .... 2,989,874 630,232 536,301 Ya\Vata ..... 208,629 42,922 40,412 Otaru 153,587 29,223 8,700 Yawatahama .. 30,500 6,537 1,520 Otsu .. 71,063 14,235 11,692 Yokkaichi .... 58,471 12,381 6,661 Saga ........ 50,154 9,406 3,971 Yokohama 704,290 148,545 71,828 Sakai ........ 141,286 29,518 20,938 Yokosuka ... 182,871. 31,640 39,610 Sakata ....... 31,866 6,374 1,586 Yonago 36,635 7,950 1,415 Sanjyo 34,649 6,331 3,393 Yonezawa ...... 50,448 8,878 5,717 Sapporo ...... 196,541 38,019 22,362 Decrease. Table 13. Distribution of Urban and Rural Population Results of 1925 Census Results Qf 1930 Census Results of.1935 Census No.of No.of No. of Population towns Population Pet. towns Poj:>ulation. Pet. towns Po~ulation Pet. Under 500 82 26,103 0.04 70 21,766 0.03 64 18,703 0.03 501-2;000 2,542 3,848,410 6.45 2,350 3,543,608 5.50 2,265 3,408,135 4.92 2,001-5,000 7,052 22,533,803 37.72 6,886 22,120,136 34.32' 6,564 21,137,240 30.52 5,001'-10,000 1,734 11,475,200 19.21 1,878 12,472,034 19.35 1,953 12,938,344 18.68 10,001-20,000. 392 5,229,161 8.75 426 5,718,084 8.87 466 6,254,515 9.03 20,001-50,000. 145 4,437,992 7.43 158 4,690,674 7.28 146 4,294,122 6.20 50,001-100,000 51 3,444,916 5.77 65 4,402,415' 6.83 54 3,685,020 5.32 Over 100,000 21 8,741,237 14.63 32 11,481,288 17.13"2 34 17,518,069 25.30 Total 12,019 59,736,822 100.00 11,865 64,450,005. 100.00 11,546 69,254,l.48 100,00 Table 14. Population Classified By Calling (1930 Census) Agriculture .... Fishery ......... Mining ....... Industry ...... Trade ...... Employers ------Male Female 4,084,190 192,976 115,065 755 4,439 41 657,539 29,105 826,814 126,242 Indenendent ------Male .. ,ernale 485,592 243,732 114,755 11,671 5,~39 71 802,627 172,629 887,25.8 355,228 Employed._ Male .Female 3,173,283 5,960,334 271,258 43,120 200,496 40,934 2,808,985 1,228,696 1,29_9,831 982,725 Total 14,140,107 546,624 251,220 5,699,581 4,478,098

PAGE 94

38 POPULATION AND EMIGRATION ----------------------------------------. Employers Independent Employed Male Female Male Female Male Female Total Transportation 60,152 806 120,423 925 848,020 77,248 1,107,574 (Civil s~rvice and Professional occu-pations) ........ 44,166 4,772 115,586 58,390 1,532,051 289,186 2,044,151 Domestic employees. 84,203 697,116 _781,319 Others ............ 2,787 95 27,496 4,223 457,982 78,383 570,966 Without fixed calling 34,830,365 Total ........... 5,795,152 354,792 2,558,976 836,869 10,676,109 9,397,742 64,450,005 Foreign Residents in Japan The number of foreign residents in Japan as at the end of 1937, as shown by the returns of the Statistics Bureau of the Cabinet, stood at 40,865. It shows an increase ,of 2,390 over the previous year. Tokyo tops the list with 11,969, followed by Hyogo with 8,916, Kanagawa with 5,737, Osaka with 3,214, Nagasaki 1,604, Kyoto 1,004, Fukuoka 1,063, Aichi 696, the Hokkaido 682. Table 15. Foreign Residents in Japan by Sex 1927 ...... 1932 ...... 1933 ...... 1934 ...... 1935 ...... 1936 ...... Ma'.e 23,746 18,615 19,764 21,895 25,766 27,502 Female 9,171 8,270 9,504 10,746 12,709 13,363 Total 32,917 26,885 29,268 32,641 38,475 40,865 As for the nationality of foreign residents in Japan, Chinese come first with 27,090, Amer-T_able 17. Foreign British American German 1931 ........ 3,523 6,162 672 1932 ........ 3,525 4,310 721 1933 ........ 5,117 5,792 1,118 1934 ........ 6,391 7,947 1,313 1935 ........ 7,293, 9,111 1,523 ........ 6,992 9,655 1,446 1937 ........ 6,097 10,077 1,816 icans with 2,086, English 2,092; Manchoukuoans with 2,581, Germans with 1,535, Russians with 1,294. Table 16. Foreign Residents By Nationality Nationality 1933 1934 1935 1936 Australia ..... 45 55 44 58 British India ... 317 395 474 874 China ........ 19,932 22,741 26,203 27,090 Canada ....... Denmark ...... France ....... Germany England ...... Italy ......... Manchoukuo ... Netherlands ... Portugal ...... Russia (white) .. Sweden ....... Switzerland ... United States .. u. s. s. R. .... 304 311 291 303 82 92 85 88 491 512 537 569 1,118 1,254 1,458 1,535 1,944 1,953 2,075 2,092 132 130 159 183 128 260 1,792 2,581 139 163 248 238 158 107 195 214 1,479 1,457 1,248 1,294 79 91 96 87 203 187 203 215 2,039 2,082 2,084 2,086 281 268 Total including ,others ..... 29,268 32,641 38,475 40,865 Visitors to Japan French Russian Ctinese Total incl. other 462 1,082 12,877 27,272 478 1,066 7,792 20,960 636 1,091 9,146 26,264 883 1,427 12,676 35,196 894 1,280 14,260 42,629 920 1,315 11,398 42,568 882 1,562 8,275 40,302 LEGAL STATUS OF FOREIGNERS Landownership and Naturalization With some exceptions the foreigners living in Japan enjoy the same status as native subjects, so far as rights and privileges are concerned. At the same time foreigners are just as amenable to the criminal laws and_ punitive provisions of the realm as the Japanese. The exceptions mentioned above relate first to mining concessions which are granted only to native subjects or to companies forn,ed under Japanese laws. Foreigners may therefore enjoy mining rights by becoming shareholders of a company so formed. Certain subsidized companies such as the Nippon Yusen Kaisha and the Osaka Shosen Kaisha or-the banks under special pro-tection like the Bank of Japan, the Yokohama Specie Bank, etc. are not allowed to take for eigners as shareholders. Alien Landownership This was first sanction in 1910 by law, but as the date for putting it into operation was left unfixed the law remained a dead letter. A new law voted in the 50th session of the Imperial Diet and promulgated on April 1, 1925, has replaced the original enactment, the measure being put in force on November 10, 1926. The law in question is essentially based on the spirit of reciprocity and recognizes the rights of alien ownership as mutual concession, In other words,

PAGE 95

JAPAN Population POPULATION AND EMIGRATION 89 this right is extended only to citizens, either as individuals or as majority partners, shareholders, etc., of foreign juridical persons, of those foreign countries that recognize mutatis mutandis similar right ,of Japanese subjects. According to the law, foreigners cannot own land or acquire superficies or emphyteusis in certain districts of strategic importance without permission of the Ministers of Army and Navy, such districts being designated in the ordinance relating to the operation of the alien landownership law, promulgated on November 1st, 1926. Naturalization A foreigner may become a Japanese subject under the following conditions, viz., (1) That he has been domiciled in Japan for at least five years continuously; (2) is at least 20 years of age and possesses civil capacity according to the law of his native country; ( 3) is of good moral; (4) possesses property or ability to maintain himself; ( 5) possesses no nationality or will lose it on being made a Japanese subject. The above conditions are much modified for those whose fathers, mothers or wives were Japanese subjects, and for those who were born in Japan of either Japanese father or mother. Those who have lived in Japan for ten years or more may be naturalized even when they have not domiciled for five consecutive years, while for those who have made distinguished services to Japan the process of naturalization may, with Imperial sanction, be made very simple, i.e., continuous residence or domicil~ in Japan f.or at least one year and good morals. The nationality_ can also be acquired by being adopted by a Japanese subject. Naturalization still remains comparatively insignificant in number, the bulk being supplied by Chinese living in Taiwan. Table 18. Naturalization Marrying Year into family Adopted Naturalized 1929. 3 1 9 1930........ 4 1 1931........ 1 1 3 1932 ........ 3 4 9 1933 ........ 4 2 1934........ 1 5 1935 ........ -2 4 1936........ 1 3 Rehabi litated 27 29 35 55 124 167 157 131 EMIGRATION Expatriation of Japanese Until 1916 Japan did not recognize expatriation of her sons and daughters who acquired foreign citizenship, excepting those females who married foreign subjects, The result was the Japanese who legally became American citizens, for example, still figured on Japanese census register so that they stood on the peculiar status of double nationality. This procedure was at last changed and the Law of Nationality was re-Table 19. Number of New vised in August, 1916. The law was further amended in December, 1924 and the foreign countries to which the expatriation applied was designated to be (1) U.S.A., (2) Argentina, (3) Brazil, (4) Canada, (5) Chile, and (6) Peru. It may be noted that those American or Canadianborn Japanese boys not yet expatriated are still technically liable to the Japanese conscription law, so that the crux of "double nationality" question remains unsolved. Emigrants in Recent Years Brazil Philippines Peru Canada u.s.s.R. Malay States Tota1 i~I. D.E.I. Argentine Mexico Australia othe 1930 .... ,. 13,741 2,685 1931 ...... 831 137 1,512 835 558 489 434 75 21,828 5,565 1,109 299 106 1,238 1932 ...... 549 447 362 283 34 10,384 1933 ...... 15,108 746 369 98 1,096 356 533 239 149 101 19,028 23,299 941 481 91 1,095 322 468 135 85 59 27,317 1934 ...... 1935 ...... 22,960 1,544 473 105 1,320 598 356 112 80 105 28,087 5,745 1,802 814 57 1936 ...... 5,357 2,891 593 82 While the annual rate of increase of the popu.:. lation of the Japanese Empire is between 800,000 and 1,000,000 in recent years the number of emigrants is roughly 12,000 yearly, or 1.2% of the total increase in population when the latter is taken at 1,000,000 per year. The number of Japanese residing abroad was 1,220,-117 on the 1st of October, 1937. 322 583 389 201 53 92 10,813 297 534 145 349 62 223 11,119 The small outflow of emigrants is due to the imposition of immigration restrictions by a number of countries, on one hand, and to the difficulties confronted by the Japanese in competing against the nationals of the countries where immigration of Japanese is allowed, on the other hand. Brazil has for many years been the outlet for

PAGE 96

40 POPULATION AND EMIGRATION -----------------------------------------------the largest number of Japanese emigrants. In 1936 a total of 5,357 Japanese subjects, representing 48% of the total number of emigrants for that year, went over to Brazil. The next largest outlet has been the Philippines which accounted for 2,891 in the same year. Formerly, affairs relating to emigration and settlement were under the control of the Department of Home Affairs. With the establishment of the Department of Overseas Affairs in June, 1929, however, they were transferred to the new Department, which has since been co-operaing with various private_,, associations in promoting the external development of the country by taking protective and encouraging measures for emigration and settlement. Mention must especially be made of the fact that in September, 1932 the question that had been pending for many years was settled when the Government started granting a subsidy to emigrants to help them prepare for setting out on a long journey, Table 20. Emigrants Going and Returning and Remittances Number of emigrants Year Male Female 1926 ........ 10,555 5,629 1927 ........ 11,735 6,306 1928 ........ 12,502 7,348 1929 ....... 16,330 9,374 1930 ........ 14,130 7,699 1931 ........ 7,052 3,332 1932 ...... 11,408 7,625 1933 ........ 15,919 11,398 1934 ........ 16,419 11,668 1935 ........ 6,654 4,159 -As for the occupations of the Japanese residents, in 1930 agriculture claimed the largest Those emi~rating Money remitted again by emigrants Total (men and women) (,000) 16,184 2,362 24,945 18,041 2,270 24,441 19,850 2,103 27,613 25,704 1,873 28,145 21,829 1,199 23,195 10,384 1,058 17,914 19,033 1,204 20,066 27,317 700 20,307 28,087 2,011 20,532 10,813 1,645 llt proportion at 20%; followed by commer~e with 10%, industry 9%, official and other duties 2%, Table 21. Japanese Residents Abroad By Continents 1931 ....... 1932 ....... 1933 .... : .. 1934 ....... 1935 ....... 1936 ....... North America 127,964 131,152 129,429 174,230 123,611 137,587 Asia 109,866 205,777 228,208 339,998 247,115 447,576 Europe 3,997 3,696 3,778 2,954 3,840 2,629 Table 22. Number of Japanese Residing Abroad By Consular's Jurisdictions (Oct. 1st, 1937) Grand Total Asia Eastern Russia: Vladivostok .... Havarovsk Alexandrovsk .. Oha .......... Total foci. others Manchoukuo: Chientao ...... Mukden .... Antung .... Hsinking Harbin ....... Kirin ......... Total incl. others China: Tientsin Tsingtao Male Female Total 682,334 537,763 1,220,117 47 7 677 1,860 2,613 1,337 78,314 9,850 43,054 20,811 5,886 211,152 6,019 7,618 32 1 103 96 241 1,077 63,706 8,864 33,210 15,817 4,805 164,884 4,842 7,404 79 8 780 1,956 2,854 2,414 142.020 18,714 76,264 36,628 10,691 376,036 10,861 15,022 South America 142,648 146,678 160,387 201,740 200,786 223,655 Africa 69 104 152 201 948 210 Tsinan .. Shanghai ..... Hankow ...... Amoy ........ Total incl. others Hongkong Siam .......... French Indo-China Oceania 125,210 147,820 150,312 153,684 113,518 155,458 Male 957 12,585 856 211 31;517 709 304 123 Female 916 11,087 844 197 27,828 702 143 129 British India & Ceylon: Calcutta 195 Bombay ... 321 Rangoon 285 Colombo 31 Total incl. others 832 Singapore: British Borneo & Sarawak S. S. & Malay States ....... Total ........ Iran ........... Afganistan Dutch East Indies. "651 4,234 4,885 21 12 4,413 162 243 189 26 620 294 2,951 3,245 12 5 2,084 Total 509,754 635,227 672,266 872,807 689,818 997,115 Total 1,873 23,672 1,700 408 59,345 1,411 447 252 357 564 474 57 1,507 945 7,185 8,130 33 17 6,497

PAGE 97

JAPAN Population POPULATION AND EMIGRATION Philippines : Davao ..... Manila ..... Total incl. others Europe England ... Germany ... France ... Belgium ..... Spain ........ Netherlands .... Switzerland Italy .......... Austria ........ Sweden ....... U.S. S. R ...... Poland ........ Turkey ........ Portugal ....... Total incl. others North America U.S. A.: San Francisco Los Angeles ... Portland ...... Seattle ...... Chicago ...... New York ..... Total incl. others Canada: Ottawa ...... Vancouver Total incl. others Male 9,638 4,733 14,339 807 356 312 39 3 12 41 42 13 8 60 15 17 12 1,761 25,106 22,620 2,924 9,469 781 2,176 63,520 174 11,774 11,948 Central & South America Mexico ........ Panama ....... Cuba .......... Salvador ...... Brazil ..... Argentine ... Uruguay ...... Paraguay ...... Peru .......... Bolivia ........ Chile .......... Colombia ....... Venezuela ...... Total incl. others Africa Egypt ......... Fed. of S. Africa .. B. E. A ........ Total incl. others. Oceania ,779 247 542 7 107,682 4,407 47 177 14,280 557 435 162 12 131,334 51 15 53 129 Female 4,861 1,909 6,748 436 119 120 28 1 5 19 31 11 4 33 4 14 J.O 868 19,665 17,698 1,990 6,519 450 1,014 47,664 94 8,551 8,645 1,912 97 224 2 85,375 1,497 22 131 8,290 234 233 111 3 98,131 35 16 23 81 Total 14,499 6,642 21,468 1,243 475 432 67 4 17 60 73 24 12 93 19 31 22 2,629 44,771 40,318 4,914 15,988 1,231 3,190 111,184 268 20,325 20,593 4,691 344 766 9 193,057 5,904 69. 308 22,570 791 668 273 15 229,465 8G 31 76 210 Australia 1,403 289 1,692 New Guinea, Solomon, etc. 153 47 200 New Caledonia, etc. 1,172 136 1,308 Total incl. others 2,735 470 3,205 Hawaii . 79,201 72,998 152,199 Note:-Figures a!"e exclusive of Kwantung Leased Terri~ tory. Figures do not include those of Japanese .colonial races. Excluding Manchoukuo and China, which are differently circumstanced from other countries in so far as the question of our emigration is concerned and also the United States, Hawaii and Canada, which are no longer prcspective fields for our emigration, reference will be made to conditions of resident Japanese in Central and South America and the South Seas. South America Brazil.-It was in 1911 that the first Japanese emigrants were sent to Brazil. From 1913 to 1919 several thousand emigrants crossed over to that country. From 1923 the number began distinctly to increase until it reached 12,000 in 1927 and 15,000 in 1929. In 1934 emigrants numbered 22,960 (vide table titled "Number of New. Emigrants in Recent Years" in this chapter). This increase is partly due to Government subsidy being granted to emigrants. The number of Japanese residents in Brazil as ,on October 1, 1936 as shown by the returns of the Foreign Office, stood at 193,057. In 1932 the. Brazilian government by a revision of its constitution curbed the entry of foreigners into the country to two per cent. of the number of emigrants from each 'land for the past fifty years. Japanese emigration was thus restricted between three and four thousand annually. As for the occupation of these Japanese emigrants, the majority of them are engaged in farming for the reason that Brazil is a great agricultural country, and that almost all our emigrants have sailed to that country for the purpose of pursuing agriculture. It is estimated that over 160,000 are engaged in farming 2,000 in commerce, and 1,000 in the manufacturing industry. Of the rest, about 400 attend to public and ,other duties and 250 are domestic servants. The majority of Japanese farmers work on the coffee plantations. Of late years many of them have taken to the cultivation of rice, cotton, tabacc,o and sugar cane. Besides, the culture of fruits and vegetables and sericulture are increasingly engaging the attention of enterpreneurs. Especially reputable is the cultivation of potatoes by Japanese in the neighbourhood of Sao Paulo. There are not a few suc~essful Japanese farmers in Sao Paulo, who own big farms and employ many hands. Argentina.-The Japanese' emigrants sailed to Argentina for the first time in 1907. But the number of emigrants to that country has always been quite limited. The number, which stood at 362 in 1931, decreaced to 239 in 1932, to 135 in 1933 and advanced to 349 in 1936. The total number of Japanese residents in that country as on October 1, 1936 was 5,904. Of

PAGE 98

42 POPULATION AND EMIGRATION this number 3,082 were in Buenos Aires. and the rest are scattered over many other parts of the country. As for their occupations, industry comes first with about 1,100 followed by agriculture with 1,000, and commerce with 900. Most of these industrialists are engaged in spinning. The agriculture pursued by the Japanese emigrants consists chiefly of the cul-tivation of cotton and tea. Peru.-The first emigration of Japanese to Peru dates back to 1899. To give the number of emigrants to that country in recent years re gistrr,tions w~re 299 in 1931 and 369 in 1932 and 481 in 1933 and 593 in 1936. The total number -of Japanese residents on October 1, 1937 Wl".S 22,570. The majority of them, or 19,000 were in Lima and the rest scattered over various localities. Classifying Japanese residents according to occupations, about, 5,000 are engr.gcd in commerce, 2,000 in agriculture; 500 in the manufactudng industry and 150 attend to official and other duties. The Ja!;;:;nese residents are tending to concentrate on Lima, Callao and other cities. Almost all the Japanese residents in the abcve mentioned two cities are engaged in commerce, their number being esti:n1nt-ed at more than 9,300. Other South American Co-untries. Other countries in South America, as Chile, Colombia, Bolivia, Paraguay, Venezuela, etc., do not restrict in any way the entry of Japanese emigrants. All these countries are well suited to agriculture, but Japanese residents are still quite limited. There were 668 Japanese in Chile, 791 in Bolivia, 273 in Colombia, 69 in Uruguay, 308 in Paraguay, and 15 in Venezuela in 1936. Central America No country in Central America has a larger number of Japanese residents than Mexico. In 1897 Japanese emigrants first sailed to that country. 'I'he inauguration of the Gentlemen's References: Agreement between Japan and Ameyica greatly stimulated emigration to Mexico. 1906 and 1907 saw a tremendous incre:;ise in Japanese emj. grants. Owing to the prevalence of pestilence and the revolutionary disturbances in that country, the number of emigrants has since seriously decreased. New emigrants numbered 283 in 1931, 149 in 1932, 85 in 1933, 80 in 1934, 53 in 1935 and 62 in 1936. The total number of Japanese residents in Mexico as on October 1, 1.937 stood at 4,691. About a half of them were in Mexico City and other places in the central part of the country and the other half in the three north-western states and other localities. The principal occupations of the Japanese residents are agriculture, horticulture, stockfarming. Besides Mexico, there are 344 Japa, nese in Panama and 766 in Cuba. Philippines At present the Philippines come next in importance to South America in regard to Japanese emigraticn. They are preceded only by Brazil in the yearly number of settlers. The fir::;t emigration of Japanese to the islands was in 1900. Though their number was then very small, it so swiftly increased that 1903 saw over 2,200 new emigrants. The total number of Japanese residents in the islands as on October 1, 1937 was 21,468. As for the distribution of thesJ Japanese residents, 6,642 were in Manila, 14,499 in Davao and Kotabatu. Most of the Japanese are engaged in agriculture, Manila hemp being their principal product. There are also many Japanese residents in the Malay States and the Straits Settlements, British North Borneo and Sarawak, the Dutch East Indies, British India and Siam. Most of the Japanese residents are clerks of banks and companies and shops. There are also a considerable number of domestic servants and tradesmen. As to farming, rubber and cocoa are principal farm products, followed by sugar and tea. Table Nos.: 1-14 a, 15 b; 16 b, 17 c, 18 6, 19-20 d, 21-22 e. Key: a-Investigation of the Cabinet Statistics Bureau. b" Home Office. c-Department of Railways. d-Department of Overseas. e-Department of Foreign Affairs.

PAGE 99

JAPAN,: Imperial Court CHAPTER V IMPERIAL COURT For the Imperial House Law see Chapter V of the 1934 edition-Editor THE IMPERIAL HOUSE The Reigning Sovereign His Imperial Majesty Hirohito, the reigning Emperor of Japan (124thof the line), is the first son of the late Emperor Taisho (Taisho Tenno), born on April 29th, 1901. He was nominated Heir-Apparent on September 9th, 1912, being at the same time appointed Sub-Lieutenant of the Army and Second Sub-Lieutenant of the Imperial Navy and decorated with the Grand Cordon of the Chrysanthemum; promoted to Lieutenant of the Army and 1st Sub-Lieutenant of the Navy on October 31st, 1914; to Captain and Lieutenant on October 31st, 1916; promoted to Major and Lieut.-Commander on Oct. 31st, 1920; visited Europe .in 1921; appointed Regent on Nov. 25th, 1921; promoted to Lieut.Colonel and Com mander on Oct. 31st, 1923; married Princess Nagako Kuni (first daughter of H.I.H. Prince Kuni) on Jan. 26th, 1924; promoted to Colonel and Captain (Navy) on Oct. 31st, 1924; acceded to the Throne on the death of his father Emperor Taisho on Dec. 25th, 1926; formally enthroned on Nov. 10th, 1928. On March 3rd, 1921 His Majesty (then Crown Prince) proceeded to Europe to make observations and exchange courtesies with the sovereigns and rulers of European countries, returning home in September the same year. It was an epoch-making event in the history of the Japanese Imperial House as it was the first Crown Prince of this Empire who ever stepped out of the country and visited foreign lands, and moreover it was an unqualified success in every respect, particularly having had the result of promoting and further cementing the happy relations between Japan and her friendly Powers in the Occident. After returning from the foreign tour, he was appointed Regent in November, 1921, to conduct affairs of State in place of his Imperial father who, on account of chronic illness, was incapacitated from performing his onerous duties as Emperor. In January, 1924, he married Princess Nagako, eldest daughter of H.I.H. General Prince Kuniyoshi Kuni. Then on the 25th of December, 1926, following the death of his father Emperor Yoshihito (Taisho Tenno) he ascended the Throne as the 124th Emperor, the new era named Showa being adopted for his reign. The enthronement of the sovereign was officially celeb_rated at the ancient Capital of Kyoto in November (10th to 15th), 1928, after the lapse of one year's mourning over the de mise of the departed Emperor according to traditional custom, the national function being performed with time-honoured ceremonies. Nagako, the Empress, first daughter of the late Prince Kuniyoshi Kuni, born on March 6th, 1903. Her Majesty was educated at the Peeresses' School and afterward studied under pr.ivate tutors at her home. Married the Emperor (then Crown Prince) Jan. 26th, 1924. Sadako, the Empress Dowager (consort of the late Emperor Taisho), born June 25th, 1884; fourth daughter of the late Prince Michitaka Kujo, a noble of the first rank; married Emperor Taisho (then Crown Prince) on May 10th, 1900; widow Dec. 25th, 1926, The Crown Prince Tsugu-no-miya Akihito, first son of the Em peror, born on December 23rd, 1933. Other Children of the Emperor Masahito (Yoshi-no-Miya), second son of the Emperor, born Nov. 28th, 1935. Shigeko (Teru-no-Miya), first daughter .of the Emperor, born Dec. 6th; 1925. Kazuko (Taka-no-Miya), third daughter of the Emperor, born Sept. 30th, 1929. Atsuko (Yori-no-Miya), fourth daughter of the Emperor, born Mar. 7th, 1931. Brothers of the Emperor Chichibu-no-Miya Tokyo). (Residence-Akasaka-ku, Prince Yasuhito, present head (1st of the line) and second son of the late Emperor Taisho, born June 25th, 1902. His house-name was formerly Atsu-no-Miya, but on attaining majority in June, 1922 the Prince founded a new house ( Chichibu-no-Miya) by Imperial order. The Prince was edu<;ated at _the Peers' School and, after finishing the middle school course o:C the institution, entered the Central Military Preparatory School in 1917 to receive military

PAGE 100

44 IMPERIAL COURT education; further studied a,t the Military Academy, graduating in 1922; appointed SubLieutenant (infantry) October 1922 and attached to Imperial Guards Division; promoted to Lieutenant, 1925; went abroad to study at Oxford, 1925-26; returned in January 1927; married Miss Setsu-ko, daughter of Mr. Tsuneo Matsudaira, then Ambassador to the Court of St. James', 1928; promoted to Captain, 1930; visited Manchoukuo, 1934; promoted to Major, 1935; Lieut.-Col., 1938, attended British Coronation, 1937. The Prince is Honorary President, British Association (Tokyo), Siamese Association (Tokyo), Swedish Association of Japan, Peers' Club. Honora~y member, Ski Club of Great Britain, Alpine Ski Club of England. Princess Setsuko, consort of the above, is daughter of Mr. Tsuneo Matsudaira, Minister of the Imperial Household, and niece of Viscount Yasuo Matsudaira. Was born Sept.9th, 1909; educated at the Peeresses' School and later in the United States; married the Prince Sept. 28th, 1928. Takarnatsu-no-Miya (Residence-Takanawa Nishidaimachi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo). Prince Nobuhito, present head (1st of the line) and third son of the late Emperor Taisho, born January 3, 1905. Graduated from Peers' School, 1921," from Naval College, 1924; appointed 2nd sub-Li.eutenant, December 1925; 1st Sub-Lieute.nant, 1926; .meanwhile studied at the Torpedo School, 1925-26; Naval Aviation School at Kasumigaura, 1927; Naval Gunnery School -at Yokosuka, 1930-31; promoted to Lieutenant, 1930 and attached to the Naval Staff Board; appointed squadron Commander of the warship Takao, 1932; transferred to the Fu-so in similar capacity, 1933; promoted to Lieut.Commdr., 1935. The Prince married Princess Kikuko, daughter of the late Prince Yoshitaka Tokugawa, February 1930; went abroad the same year to return the courtesy of the British Court accompanied by the Princess. The Prince is Honorary President, the Japan Fine Arts Association, the Turco-Japanese Society and the Japan-Denmark Society, both of Tokyo. The Prince was formerly called Teru-no-Miya, but in July, 1931, he set up a new house and assumed the family-name, Takamatsu-no-Miya. Princess Kikulrn, consort of the above, is siste1 of Prince Y oshimitsu Tokugawa and was born Dec. 26th, 1911. Married the Prince Feb. 4th, 1930. Mikasa-no-Miya (Residence-Akasaka-ku, Tokyo). Prince Takahito, present head (1st of the line) and fourth son of late Emperor Taisho and the youngest brother of the reigning Emperor, born Dec. 2nd, 1915. The Prince finish-ed the middle school course of the Peers' Schoo] in 19 32; the Military Academy in June, 1936 is attached to the 15th Regiment (Cavalry) a; Cadet. On attaining his majority in 1935 the Prince was granted the name of Mikas~ and founded a new house. Promoted to Sub. Lieut. 1936, Lieut., 1937. The Prince visited Mand10ukuo in 1936. Other Membe1s of the Imperial Family Other members of the Imperial Family are as follows:-Kan-in-no-Miya (Residence-Nagata-cha, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo). The House was founded by Prince Naohito (1703-52, A.D.), eldest son of Higashiyama Tenno (113th Emperor). Prince Kotohito, head ( 6th of the line), Field Marshal, Supreme War Councillor and Chief of General Staff. Is the 16th son of the late Prince Kuniie Fushimi; born Sept. 22nd, 1865; studied at the Military Preparatory Schools and then at the Military Academy; later studied at a French Military School; took part in the Japan-China and the Russo-Japanese Wars; promoted to Lieut.-General in 1905; appointed Commander of the Imperial Guards Division in 1906; pro meted to General and made Supreme War Councillor in 1912; Field Marshal in 1919; appointed Chief of General Staff, Dec. 1931. In 1921 the Prince accompanied the Crown Prince (present Emperor) on his tour of Europe. Prince is Hon, President of the Japan Red Cross Society, the Japan Sericultural Association, the Franco-Japa nese Society, the Russo-Japanese Society, the Tokyo Geological Society, the Military Club, the Tokyo Club and many other simiJar bodies, Princess Chieko, Consort of the above, 2nd daughter of the late Prince Sanetomi Sanjo; born May 25th, 1872. Married the Prince Dec, 19th, 1891. The Princess is Honorary President of the Japan Women's Education Associatfon and of the Japan Red Cross Voluntary Nurses' Association. Prince HaruhHo, 2nd scn of Prince Kotohito, born Aug. 3rd, 1902. Studied at the Peers' School. and then at the Military Academy; is Captain of Cavalry attached to the Cavalry School as instructor and superintendent of re search department, appointed Major of Cavalry, July, 1937. Princess Naoko, consort' of the above, 4th daughter of the late Prince Saneteru Ichijo; born Nov. 7th, 1908; married Prince Haruhito July 14th, 1926. Higashi Fushimi-no-Miya (Residence-Tokiwa matsu, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo). The House was set up by the late Adm. Prin_ce Yorihito, 7th son of the late Prince Kuniie Fu

PAGE 101

JAPAN Imperial Court IMPJ"RIAL COURT 45 h' and younger brother of Marshal Prince s im1, 922 K n The Prince died he1rless m 1 an-1 Dowager Princess Kaneko, consort of the late Prince Yorihito and eldest daughter of the late Prince Tomosada Iwakura. Born Aug. 29th, 1876 married the late Prince Feb. 10th, 1898; 'do~ in 1922. The Princess is Honorary Pre-WI A t' d 'd t of .i-1,e Ladies' Patriotic ssocia 10n an s1 en "'' also of the Women's Hygiene Associat10n. Fushimi-no-Miya (Residence-Kioicho, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo). The House is the oldest of the princely families founded in the 14th century by a son of Gohanazo:rfo Tenno, the 102nd Emperor. Prince Hiroyasu, present head (23rd of the line) and eldest son of the late General Prince Sadanaru; born Oct. 16th, 1875; succeeded to the House of Prince Kwacho in 1883, but re turned to the present House in July 1904; stu died at the Naval Academy and then in Germany; took part in the Russo-Japanese War and was wounded on board the Mikasa in the battle of the Yellow Sea (Aug. 1904); studied in Eng land, 1909-10; was in command of the Takachiho, 1910; Vice-Admiral, 1917; full Admiral, 1922; Supreme War Councillor, 1920; appointed Chief of Naval Staff Board, Feb. 1932; Ad miral of Fleet, May 1932. The Prince is Hon. President of the Imperial Life Boat Association, the Japan Seamen's Relief Association, the Can cer Research Society, the Naval Club, the JapanGerman Society, the Scientific & Chemical Re search Institute, etc. Princess Tsuneko, consort of the above, 9th daughter <,f the late Prince Keiki Tokugawa (the last Shogun). Born Sept. 23rd, 1882. Married Jan. 9th, 1897. Prince Hir~yoshi, eldest son of Prince Hiroyasu, born 1897; studied at the Naval Academy; married Princess Tokiko, 3rd daughter of Prince lchijo, in 1919; is Commander of the Navy; ap pointed Vice-Commander of the Cruiser Naka, Nov. 1934; Commander of the Mine Layer Itsu kushima, Nov. 1935; Commander of 3rd Des troyer Flotilla, 1936. Princess Tokiko, consort of the above, 3rd daughter of Prince Saneteru Ichijo, born 1902. Married Dec. 23rd, 1919. (Prince Hironobu, 3rd son of Prince Hiro yasu, born 1905, created a new House in 19"2tl by order of the late Emperor Taisho and is now called Marquis Kwacho. He graduated from the Naval Academy in 1925). Yamashina-no-Miya (Residence-Fujimi-cho, Kojimachi-ku; Tokyo). Dowager Princess Hisako, mother of Prince Takehiko and consort of the late Prince Kiku maro, 3rd daughter of the late Prince Tadayoshi Shimazu born Feb, 7th, 1874; widow, 1908. Prince' Takehiko has four brothers, Prince Yoshimaro (born 1901), Prince Fujimaro (born 1905), Prince Hagimaro (born 1906) and Prince Shigemaro (born 1908), who were all orderecl to set up new houses and are now known as Marquis Yamashina, Marquis Tsukuba, Count Kashima (died Aug.1932) arid Count Katsuragi respectively, They are no longer members of the Imperial Family. Prince Takehiko, head ( 3rd of the line), eldest son of the late Prince Kikumaro; born Feo. 13th, 1898; studied at the Naval Academy; at tached to the Naval Aviation Corps as Sub.-Lieutenant and attached to the Naval Staff Board;. retired from active service in 1927 on account of declining health; promoted to Lieut.-Com~ mander in 1929 and at the same time placed on waiting list. Married Princess Sakiko, 2nd daughter of the late Prince Kuniyoshi Kaya-noMiya, who died on Sept. 1st, 1932. Was at one time an aviation enthusiast for which the Prince was populary called "Prince of the Air" and, established a private aviation institute (Mikuni Aviation School). Kaya-no-Miya (Residence-Sambancho, Koji machi-ku, Tokyo). Dowager Princess Yoshiko, mother of Prince Tsunenori and eldest daughter of the late Marquis Tadayori Daigo. Born Oct. 20th, 1865. Married the late Prince Kuninori in 1892; widow, 1910. Prince Tsunenori, head (2nd of the line) and eldest son of the late Prince Ku:ninori. Born Jan. 27th, 1900. Graduated from the Military Academy in 1921 and then from the Military Staff College in 1926; promoted tq Major of Cavalry and instructor at the Military Staff Col lege, 1931-34; appointed Comma.nder of the 10th Cavalry Regiment Aug. 1925, is now commdr. 16th Cavalry Regiment. The Prince, accompanied by Princess Toshiko, visited Europe and America in 1934. Princess Toshiko, consort of Prince Tsunenori and 5th daughter of Prince Michizaile Kujo. Born May 16th, 1903; married Prince Tsunenori May 3rd, 19.21. Kuni-no-Miya (Residence-Miyashiro, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo). Dowager Princess Chikako, mother of Prince Asa-Akira, 7th daughter of the late Prince Tadayoshi Shimazu. Born Oct. 19th, 1879; married

PAGE 102

411 IMPERIAL COURT the late Prince Kuniyoshi Dec. 23rd, 1899; visited Europe with her husband in 1909; widow, Jan., 1929. Is also mother of the Empress Nagako. -~ (Prince Kunihide, 3rd son of the late Prince Kuniyoshi, born May 10th, 1910. Set up a new house in April, 1931, by Imperial order and is now known as Count Higashi Fushimi). Prince Asa-Akira, head ( 3rd of the line), eldest son of the late Marshal Prince Kuniyoshi Kuni. Born Feb. 2nd, 1901; studied at the Naval Academy; made Lieutenant in 1928; promoted to Lieut.-Commander in 1931 attached to the Naval Staff Board; Chief Gun~er of the criser Kiso; transferred to the cruiser Yakumo in the same capacity in August, 1934, promoted to Lieut.-Commdr. and now attached to the Navy Office. Princess Tomoko, consort of the above and 3rd daughter of Prince Hiroyasu Fushimi. Born May 18th, 1907; married the Prince ,Tan. 25th 1925. Nashimoto-no~Miya (Residence-Mitake-cho, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo). Prince Morimasa, head and 2nd of the line 4th son of the late Prince Asahiko; born March 9th, 1874. Field Marshal and Supreme War Councillor. Studied at a French Military School in 1903-04 and again in 1907-08; took part in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05); after holding various high posts including the post of divisional commander was promoted to full General in 1923 and then appointed member of the Supreme War Council; Field Marshal A~gust 1932. The Prince is Honorary Presicl~nt of th~ Franco-Japanese Society, the Japan Agricultural Association, the Japan Forestry Association the Japan Martial Art Association, the Imperiai Aero Association, the Italian Society of Japan etc. Princess Itsuko, consort of the above, 2nd daughter of the late Marquis Naotada Nabeshima; born Feb. 2nd, 1882; married Prince Morimasa Nov. 28th, 1900; made a tour of Europe with the Prince in 1908-09. Asaka-no-Miya (created in March 1906). ('Re sidence-Shirokane Dai-machi, Shiha-ku, Tokyo). Prince Y asuhiko, head, 8th son of the late Prince Asahiko Kuni; born Oct. 2nd, 1887. Studied at the Military Academy and then in France; Major-General and instructor at the Military Staff College in 1930, later appointed Commander of the 1st Infantry Brigade; pl'.o moted to Lieut.-General and appointed Com-mander of the Imperial Guards Division in Aug. 1933; appointed Supreme War Councillor, 1935. Higashi Kuni-no-Miya (created in Nov. 1906) (Residence-Ichibei-cho, Azabu-ku, Tokyo). Prince Naruhiko, head, 9th son of the late Prince Asahiko Kuni; born Dec. 3rd 1887 set up the present house in November," 1906: by order of the late Emperor Meiji. Studied at the Military Academy and later in France where he stayed from 1920 till 1926; married Princess Toshiko May 18th, 1915; Major-General and Commander of the 5th Infantry Brigade in August, 1930; promoted to Lieut-General and appointed Commander of the 4th Army Division in August 1934; appointed Chief of the Military Aviation Department, July, 1937: is Honorary President of the Press Association of Japan, Princess Toshiko, consort of the above, is the youngest daughter of the late Emperor Meiji. Born May 11th, 1896; married the Prince May 11th, 1915. Kita Shirakawa-no-Miya (Residence-Takanawa Minami-cho, Tokyo). Dowager Princess Fusako, mother of Prince Nagahisa and consort of the. late Prince Nari hisa; 7th daughter of ,the late Emperor Meiji. Born Jan. 28th, 1890; married Prince Narihisa Apr. 29th, 1909; went to France with the late Prince in 1922; widow 1923. Prince Nagahisa, head (4th of the line), elaest son of the late Prince Nagahisa; born Feb. 19th, 1910 ; succeeded to the title on the death in Paris of his father in 1923 studied at tne Military Academy; married Princess Sachiko Apr. 26th, 1935; is Captain of Artillery and attached to Field Artillery Regiment (Imperial Guards Division). The Prince has three sisters. Princess Sachiko, consort of the above, is the 2nd daughter of Baron Yoshiyor~ Tokugawa, Born Aug. 26th, 1916, married Prince Nagahisa Apr. 26th, 1935. Takeda-no-Miya (Residence-Takanawa Mi nami-cho, Shiba-ku, Tokyo). The House was created in March, 1906 by the late Prince Tsunehisa ( died in 1910), eldest son of the late Prince Kitashirakawa, by order of the late Emperor Meiji. Dowager Princess Masako, mother of .Prince Tsuneyoshi and consort of the late Prince Tsunebisa; is the 6th daughter of the late Emperor Meiji, born Sept. 30th, 1888; married the late Prince Tsunehisa Apr. 30th, 1908; widow in 1919. The Prince is Honorary President of the Tokyo Charity Association. Pl!'ince Tsuneyoshi, head (2nd of the line), eldest son of the late Prince Tsunehisa; born

PAGE 103

JAPAN Imperial Court IMPERIAL COURT 47 -------------------------Mar. 4th, 1909. Studied at the Military Academy; was appointed Sub-Lieutenant of Cavalry in 1930 and attached to the 1st Cavalry Regiment; promoted to Lieutenant in August, 1933, Captain in August, 1936. Married Princess Mitsuko May 12th, 1934. Princess Mitsuko, consort of the above, is the youngest daughter of Prince Kinteru Sanjo. Born Nov. 6th, 1915. Royal House of Chosen Ri, the former royal family of Chosen (Ko rea). Prince Gin, head of the family and younger brother of Prince Chiok (the late head of the house), born October 20th, 1897 in Keijo (Seoul). Brought up in the royal palace in the former Korean capital but later moved to Tokyo to receive education. Graduated from the Military Academy in Tokyo in 1920; promoted to Captain and attached to the 2nd Infantry Regiment of the Imperial Guards Division in 1926; later attached to the General Staff Office; promoted to Lieut.-Colonel and attached to the Military Training Department; appointed Colonel and Commander of the 59th Infantry Regiment August, 1935, appointed head instructor ?f the preparatory course, Military Staff College, July, l!l37 promoted to Major-Gen. July, 1938; married Princess Masako in 1920; visited Europe in 1927 for study and observation acc-ompanied by Princess Masako. Residence in Tokyo-Kioicho. Kojimachi-ku). Princess Masako, consort of the above, eldest daughte'r of H.I.H. Prince Morimasa Nashimoto; born November 4th 1901; married Prince Gin in 1920. Princess Im, consort of the late Prince Chiok Ri, born September 19th, 1894; widow in 192.6, (Residence-Seoul, Chosen). Prince Ri Ken, eldest son of Prince Ri Kang, born October 28, 1909. Graduated at the Military Academy; is Captain of Cavalry. (Residence-Tokiwamatsu, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo). Princess Yoshiko, consort of the above, eldest daughter o~ Mr. Hiroshi l\fatsudaira; born October 6th, 1911; married the Prince in OctGber 1931. (Issue-Two sons). Prince Ri Ko, 5th son of the late Grand Prince Ri and father of Prince Ri Ken; born March 30th, 1877. Princess Kin, consort of the above and eldest daughter of the late Baron Kin; born December 22nd, 1880; married December 6th, 1893. Prince Ri Gu, 2nd son of Prince Ri Kang; born November 15th, 1912. Graduated at the Military Cadet School and is now Captain of Artillery. Princess Sanshu, consort of the above and daughter of Marquis Boku; born December 11th, 1914; married May 3rd, 1935. Issue:-A son. (Residence-Tokiwamatsu, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo). THE IMPERIAL ESTATE AND CIVIL LIST The civil list was formerly three million yen, but was increased to four and half a million yen in 1910. The land and other property belonging to the Emperor is divided into hereditary and ordinary estates. As existing at the end of 1935, the Court owned 1,269,827 "cho" (about 3,111,965 acres) of landed estates consisting of palace grounds, other building land, forests, farm land, etc., the figure being composed of 209,o.90 "cho" (about 512,160.50 acres) of hereditary estate and 1,060,737 "cho.." (about 2,599,548 acres) of ordinary estate, the whole being valued at about 650,000,000 yen, the details _being as follows:-Table 1. Area of Crown Landed Estates (At the end of 1935: In cho*) Palace ground Forests Hereditary .......... 478 208,511 Ordinary ........... 229 1,018,317 Total ............ 707 1,226,828 Do. for 1928 ....... 685 1,244,938 Do. for 1926 ....... 677 1,359,480 *2. 45 acres. In conside't'ation of the food question and so forth, the Imperial Court several years ago decided to sell or otherwise transfer to public or private ownership part of the Crown estate, and in 1921 such transfer was made to the extent of 289,259.25 acres of land and forest, that is, about 26.6 per cent. of the total area of the hereditary estates, which at the end of 1929 was returned as 539,305.35 acres, Fur-..... ,_. Farmland Building land Others Total 37 64 209,090 39,504 188 4,255 1,062,493 39,504 225 4,319 1,271,583 69,075 241 2,172 1,317,111 162,352 311 5,416 1,528,236 ther in 1930 the Court decided to discontinue the detached palace at Nagoya and six Imperial villas in the provinces to save the expenditure involved in their maintenance, the Nagoya palace having been donated to Nagoya City. There were besides buildings, household effects, and furniture, livestock and many otlier items. Then the Court owns shares of several banking and other business concerns such as the

PAGE 104

4< ,. IMPERIAL COURT Bank of Japan, the Yokohama Specie Bank, the Hypothec Bank of Japan, the Industrial Bank of Japan, the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, the Imperial Hotel, etc., all these coming up to hundreds ot millions of yen. Table 2. Imperial Estates The Imperial hereditary estates are at present as follows:Hereditary Estates: Name The Imperial Palace ........... Akasaka and Aoyama Palace ... Hama Detached Palace ......... Kyoto Detached Palace ........ Nijo Detached Palace .......... Katsura Detached Palace ....... Shugakuin Detached Palace ..... Hakone Detached Palace ....... Shosoin Treasury ............. Takanawa Imperial Estate ...... Minami Toshima Estate ........ Unehiyama Estate ............ Chigashira Estate ............. Tanazawa Estate ............. Sejiri Estate ................. Kiso Estate ................... Nanamune Estate .. : .......... Danto Estate ................ Other Imperial Palaces, Villas, etc. Name Locality Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo ............. Akasaka-ku, Tokyo ................ Kyobashi-ku, Tokyo ............... Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto ................ Nakakyo-ku, Kyoto ................ Ukyo-ku, Kyoto .................. Sakyo-ku, Kyoto .................. Ar.higara Shimo-gun, Kanagawa pref .. Nara, Nara prefecture ............. Shiba-ku, Tokyo .................. Yotsuya and Shibuya, Tokyo ........ Takaichi-gun, Nara prefecture ....... Shizuoka prefecture .............. Kanagawa prefecture ..... ....... Iwata-gun, Shizuoka prefecture ..... 'Nagano and Gifu prefectures ........ Gifu prefecture ................... Kitashitara-gun, Aichi prefecture ..... Kasumigaseki Detached Palace ........ Locality Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo Kobe City Muko Detached Palace .............. Area 306,760 (tsubo) 185,775 75,489 270,692 83,051 13,167 84,245 51,798 5,161 ,,. 33,772 263,587 33.34 (cho) 38,370.21 4,880.85 1,598.78 155,975.14 1,563.01 5,794.52 Hayama Imperial Villa .............. Tate-ishi Rest-House ............... Numazu Imperial Villa ............. Nikko Imperial Villa ............... Tamozawa Imperial Villa ......... .. Hayama-cho, Kanagawa Prefecture Nishiura-mura, Kanagawa Prefecture Agehara-machi, Numazu City Nikko-machi, Tochigi Prefecture Shiobara Imperial Villa ............. Nasu Imperial_ Villa ................ Ikaho Imperial Estate ............... ,, Shiobara-machi, Tochigi Prefecture Nasu-mura, Tochigi Prefecture Ikaho-machi, Gumma Prefecture The Imperial game preserves are as follows:-Name Locality Games Nagaragawa Preserves .... Gifu prefecture . "Ayu" fish. Jintsugawa Preserves ....... Toyama prefecture .. "Ayu," Salmon, Trout. Edogawa Preserves ..... Saitama prefecture ....... Wild ducks, Pheasants, Wild geese. Edogawa Preserves Chiba prefecture ........ Wild ducks, Wild geese, Snipes, Plovers, IMPERIAL PROPERTY LAW The Law as gazetted in December, 1910 and put in force in January, 1911 provides that the land and other property belonging to the Emperor is divided into hereditary and personal property, and that for all the judicial proceedings affecting the property the Minister of the Imperial Household is held responsible. The ordinary civil or commercial law is applicable to the property only when it does not conflict with the Imperial House Law and the present law, No hereditary landed estate can be newly used for any other purpose except those of public utility, or undertakings sanctioned by the Em peror. The property of the members of the Im perial House is subject to levy when it does not conflict with the Imperial House Law or the present law. However, this do1cs not apply to the estates belonging to the Grand Empress Dowager, Empress Dowager, Empress, Heir-Ap parent, his consort, eldest son and his consort, and other unmarried members of the Imperial Family who have not yet attained majority.

PAGE 105

JAPAN Imperial Court IMPERIAL COURT 49 THE IMPERIAL HOUSEHOLD DEPARTMENT The Imperial Household Department controls '.'.Tid conducts affairs relating to the Imperial Household, members of the Imperial Family, Peers, etc., and is independent of the Government departments, its offices being located in the compounds of the Imperial Palace. The Department is divided into several boards or bureaus, including the Board of Chamberlains, the Board of Masters of Ceremonies, Board of the Imperial Families and Peerage, the Board of the Imperial Mausolea, the Board of Archives, the Board of Court Physicians, the Imperial Treasury, the Bureau of Architecture, the Bureau of Imperial Mews and the Bureau of Culinary Affairs. Besides these and not subject to the control of the Household Department, there are also in the Imperial Palace the offices of the Lord-Keeper of the Priviy Seal, the Temporary Bureau of Compilation, the Imperial Board of Audit, the Imperial Forest and Estate Bureau, the Imperial Poetry Bureau, etc. Attached to the Household Department and placed under control of the Minister of the Imperial Household are also the Peers' Schools, the Peeresses' School and the Imperial Household Museum, these being, however, located at different places outside of the Imperial Palace grounds. The chief official of the Imperial Household Department is the Minister of the Imperial Household, who, besides supervising the affairs of the Department also, acts as advisor to the Ei;nperor on all matters relating to the Imperial Household and controls the peers (including Korean peers), and in executing his ~fficial duties he is assisted by a Vice-Minister. ~des those mentioned above and apart from the lfficiP) of the Imperial Household Departm~1. :,,re are several important offices such as Court irituals who have charge of the Imperial Sanctuary known as the "Kashiko-Dokoro" and the Imperial Ancestral Halls known as "Koreiden" and "Shinden" and officiate at all religious ceremonies conducted at the Imperial Court, Chief Aide-de-Camp and Aides-de-Camp to the Emperor, Lord Steward to the Empress, Lord Steward to the Empress Dowager, etc., who usually attend to the Emperor, the Empress or the Empress Dowager respectively. Then there are Court Councillors, Lords-in-Waiting at the Jako Hall and Lords-in-Waiting at the Kinkei Hall, which are, however, all mere honorary posts or titles and have no particular duties assigned to the holders thereof All these con stitute what generally goes by0 the term "Court' officials." The total number of officials in the service of the Imperial Household, as existing at the end of 1936, stood at 4,522, the figure including 2,254 employees, the stipend for the entire force amounting to 4,522,000 yen for the year. Privy Council.-Be!'lides the Household Department there is in the Imperial Household a special organ acting as advisory body to the Emperor on all important affairs of State. This special organ named "Sumitsu-in" or Privy Council, consists of 26 members with its own President and Vice-President, the members being all veteran statesmen who have played important parts in the administration, and though no longer taking an active share in it, their age and prestige entitle them to universal respect. The functions of the Privy Council are chiefly of a consultative nature. It meets to deliberate on any important matter of State, when its opinion is asked for by the Emperor, and advises him according to its lights. The principal matters on which it is usually consulted are those coming under the jurisdiction of the Imperial House Law, all important legislations, relating to Articlel'l of the Constitution, the issuing of proclamations of the law of siege and of Imperial ordinances and all matters relating to international treaties and pledges, etc. (Also see Chapter on Politics), DECORA!I'IONS There exist eight kinds of decorations, viz., the Grand Order of Merit (Daikun-i) ; Supreme Order of Chrysanthemum (Daikun-i Kikka-sho), the Grand Cordon of Chrysanthemum (Kikka Daijusho), and the Grand Cordon of Rising Sun and Paulownia (Kyckujitsu Toka Daijusho) ; all granted to the holders of the Grand Order of Merit; the Order of Rising Sun (Kyokujitsu Daijusho), 1st to 6th grade; the Order of Sacred Treasure (Zuihosho), 1st to 8th grade; granted both to men and women; the Order of Crowll. (Hokansho), 1st to 8th grade and only for women; and lastly the Military Order of the Gplden Kite (Kinshi Kunsho), 1st to 7th grade. Be sides there exists the Collar of Chrysanthemum (Kikkasho Kubikazari), a special mark of honour granted to those holding the Grand Order of Merit~ The Order of Rising Sun sometimes carries an annuity. The Collar Chrysanthemum, the Grand Order of Merit and the Grand Cordon of Chrysanthemum are the highest honours accessible to Japanese subjects. The Golden Kite carries an annuity, ranging from 1,500 yen a year granted to a holder of the 1st grade and 150 yen granted to a holder of the 7th and. lowest grade. Then there are the Blue-ribbon medals conferred on ordinary people who distinguish themselves in the cause of public utility; the Greenribbon medals conferred on those distinguished

PAGE 106

50 IMPERIAL COURT for filial piety, and the Red-ribbon medals conferred on those who rescue human lives at the peril of their own; the Dark Blue-ribbon medals conferred on those who make monetary contri-bution in aid of public utility enterprises; the Yellow-ribbon medals (gold or silver) conferred on those who make similar contribution to the national defence funds. Table 3. Number of Decorations and Holders Thereof (At the end of 1936) Chrysan-Rising Sun and Rising Sacred No. of Sun Treasure Crown Holders themum G.C.C. ................... G.C . . 1st ...................... 2nd ..................... 3rd ..................... Total with lower grade ... G.C.C.=Grand Cordon with Collar. G.C. =Grand Cordon, 3 16 19 Paulownia 50 50 3 13 156 294 24 425 448 1,278 20 1,398 1,742 7,680 4 7,739 808,513 653,714 2,036 1,377,885 N.B.:-1~hose holding more than one order being counted by the highest order they wear, the actual number of orders cloes not agree 'With that of holders. Table 4. Decorations Presented to or Conferred on Foreigners G.O.M_ 1928 ............ 1929 ............ 2 1930 ............ 1 1931 ............ 1 1932 ............ 1933 ............ 1934 ............ 2 1935 ............ 1 1936 ............ 1 G.0.ll-L=Grand Oriier of :1.-Ierit. O.M. =Order of Merit. 1st 2nd Q_M_ O.M. 26 16 4 10 6 1 11 4 8 5 7 5 7 2 4 4 30 29 THE PEERAGE, COURT RANK, ETC. ord Q_M 30 12 8 6 22 12 15 6 59 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th O.M. O.M. O.M. O.M. O.M. Total 32 12 1 117 6 8 2 50 6 7 2 32 11 4 1 2 1 41 21 6 62 9 5 1 39 13 9 48 6 4 1 26 43 20 2 184 surrender of the honour or by order of the Court, when he diagraces the rank. Cases of lapsing of the title owing to the successor of a deceased Peer not being reported within one year have occurred now and then lately, such practice no longer being considered as disres pectful to the Court as before. Though the peerage as a distinct social rank dates only from 1884, it practically existed from ancient times, courtiers or Kuge and feudal princes or Daimyos of olden days corresponding to the Peers of to-day. The Peerage is divided into five grades, viz. Prince, Marquis, Count, Viscount and Baron. There is no intermediate Court Rank.-These are called "ikai" or "kn rank corresponding to the British baronetcy. rai," and are granted into eight classes, each By origin the Japanese Peers may be classifield of a senior and a junior degree, this "ikai" be into four distinct groups, i.e., those who are ing given only to Japanese subjects, and serving descendants of the former courtiers or Kuge; to determine precedence, when there are no de descendants of the former Daimyos; those coration or other conventional marks to settle created Peers in recent times, and lastly Korean it. Thus a holder of a senior degree of the Peers who were created after the annexation. 3rd grade of "ikai" is entitled to take precedence The number of Peers (exclusive of Korean over one whose "ikai" is a junior degree of the peers) as at the end of 1937 was as follows:-same grade. A Peer bears as a matter of course Prince .19, Marquis 41, Count 109, Viscount "ikai" differing according to his rank, a 4th 378, and Baron 408, total 953. grade for a Baron, for instance. A number of Korean Peers.-In Oct. 1910, 67 distinguished wealthy merchant~ nnssess "ikai" genPrally in Koreans including five members of the former consideration of their contributions of money Royal family, were created Peers, i.e., 6 Mar-for public purposes. quises, 3 Counts, 22 Viscounts, and 45 Barons. Posthumous Honours.-The peculiar custo~ The new Peers were given monetary grants. of conferring posthumous honours still lingers ID The number of the Korean Peers at the end of Japan, though it was abolished years ago in Aug., 1937 was 7 Marquises, 3 Counts, 17 Vis- China, the country of its origin. The idea is counts and 32 Barons, making a total of 59. based on the principle of ancestor-worship, Hereditary Privilege.-Japan has no lifeTheoretically the honour is a parting gift to Peers, all the Peers being hereditary. A nofileone on his death-bed, and is granted with this man may be degraded either by his voluntary official announcement: "Promoted by one de

PAGE 107

JAPAN Imperial Court IMPERIAL COURT 51 gree for special consideration." In most cases the honour is posthumous, as it usually comes after the death of the beneficiary and Japanese of exalted rank have therefore two different dates of death, i.e., physiological dissolution and official death. What is still more interesting is that notable persons dead s,everal centuries ar6 sometimes honoured in this way. The granting of a peerage has also oc,easionally been posthumous, and a Barony that is conferred on a distinguished man on his death-bed or after h'ls death, falls to his heir. Table 5. Genealogy of the Imperial House Numl:er Period of Years of Names of Emperors after Jimmu reign Tenno (Years) (1st) (2nd) (3rdi (4th) (5th) (6th) (7th) (8th) (9th) Jimmu Tenno ....... Suizei 1 76 80 33 Annei Itoku Kosho Koan Korei Kogen Kaika Sujin Suinin ,, 112 38 151 34 186 83 259 102 371 76 447 57 503 60 (10th) (11th) ,, 564 68 632 99 (12th) Keiko 731 (13th: Seim u 791 (14th) Chuai ,, 852 Empress Jingo (Regent)...... 860 (15th) Ojin Tenno 930 (16th) Nintoku ,, 973 (17th) Richii lOEO (18th) Hansho 1066 (19th) lngyo 1072 (20th) Anko 1113 (21st) Yuryaku 1116 (22nd) Seinei 1140 (23rd) Kenso 1145 (24th) Ninken ,, 1148 (25th) Buretsu ,, 1158 (26th) Keitai 1167 (27th) Ankan 1191 (28th) Senka 1195 (29th) Kimmei 1199 (30th) Bidatsu 1232 (31st) Yomei 1245 (32nd) Sushun ,, 1247 (13rd1 Suiko ,, (Empress) 1252 r 34th) Jomei ,, 1289 (35th) Kogyoku ., (Empress) 1302 (36th J Kotoku ,. 1306 13ith) Saimei ,. (Empress) 1315 (38th) Tenji ......... 1321 (39th) Kobun ,. ......... 1331 (40th) Temrnu ,, 1332 41st) Jito ,, (Empress) 1346 (42nd) Mornmu ,. ......... 1357 (43rd] Gernmyo ., (Empress) 1367 144th) Gensho Tenno (Empress) ...... .. 1375 (45th) Shornu Tei:no ......... 1384 (46th) Koken ,. (Empress; 1409 (47th) Junnin ......... 1418 (48th) Shotoku ., (Empress) 1424 (49th) Konin ,, 1430 (50th) Karnrnu ,, 1441 (5' st) Heizei ,, 1466 (52nd) Saga 1469 (53rd) Junna 1483 (64th) Nimmyo ,, 1493 (65th) Montoku ]510 (56th) Seiwa 1518 (67th) Yozei 1536 60 60 9 69 41 87 6 5 42 4 23 5 3 ll 8 25 5 4 32 14 2 5 36 13 4 10 7 10 l 14 12 ll 9 10 26 10 7 7 12 26 4 15 11 18 9 19 9 Acces sion tO' Throner B.C. ,660 581 649 510 475 392 290 214 157 97 29 (A.D.) 71 131 192 200 270 313 400 406 412 454 456 480 485 488 498 607 531 535 539 672 585 65l7 592 62\J 642 645 655 661 671 672 686 697 707 715 724 749 758 764 770 781 806 809 823 833 850 858 876 (58th) (59th) (60th) l6lst) (62nd) (63rd) (64th) (65th) (66th) (67th) (68th) (69th) (70th) Names of Emperors Koko Tenno Uda Daigo Suzaku ,, Murakami ,, Reizei En-yii Kazan Ichijo Sanjo ,, Go-Ichij6 ,, Go-Suzaku ,, Go-Reizei ,. Number Period of Years of after Jin mu reigr Tenr:o (YeaL 1544 4 1547 11 1557 34 1590 17 1506 22 1627 3 1629 16 1644 3 1646 26 1671 6 1676 21 1696 10 1705 24 .(71st) Go-Sanjo ,. 1728 5 (72nd) Shirakawa,, 1732 15 (73rd) Horikawa ,, 1746 22 (74th) Toba ,, 1767 17 (75th) Sutoku ,, 1783 19 (76th) Konoye ,, 1801 15 (77th) Goshirakawa ,, ...... 1815 4 (78th) Nijo 1818 8 (79th) Rokujo ,, 1825 4 (80thl Takakura,, 1828 13 (81st) Antoku ,, 1840 6 (82nd) Go-Toba ,, 1845 14 (83rd) Tsuchirnikado Tenno 1858 l? (84th) Juntoku ,, 1870 11 (85th) Chiikyo ,, 1881 1 (86th) Go-Horikawa Tenno. 1881 12 (87th) Shiio ,, 1892 11 (88thJ Go-Saga Tenno 1902 5 (89th) Go-Fukakusa Tenno. 1905 14 (90th) Kameyarna Tenno ... 1919 16 (91st) Go-Uda ,, 1934 14 (92nd) Fushimi ,. 1947 12 (93rd) Go-Fushimi Tenno... 1958 4 (94th) Go-Nijo ,, 1961 8 (95th) Hanazono., 1968 11 ( 96th l Go-Dai go ,, 1978 21 (97th) Go-Murakami Tenno 1999 30 (98th) Chokei ., 2028 16 (99th) Go-Kameyama Tenno 2043 10 (100th) Go-Komatsu Tenno.. 2052 21 (10lst1 Shoko Tenno ......... 2072 17 (102nd) Go-Hanazono Tenno 2088 37 (103rd) Go-Tsuchimikado ,, 2124 37 (104th) Go-Kashiwabara ,, 2160 27 (105th) Go-Nara Tenno ...... 2186 32 (106th) Ogirnachi ,, 2217 30 (107th) Go-Yozei ,. 2246 26 (108th) Go-Mizuno-o Tenno 2271 19 (109th) Myosho Tenno (Empressl............ 2289 15 (lIOthJ Go-K6my5 Tenno 2303 12 (111th) Go-Sai 2314 10 (112th) Reigen ,. 2323 25 (113th) Higashiyama,, 2347 23 (114th) Nakamikado,, 2369 27 (115th) Sakuramachi,, 2395 13 Acces sion to Throne A.D. 884 887 897 930 946 967 959 984 986 1011 1016 1036 1045 1068 ]072 1086 1107 1123 1141 1155 1158 1165 1168 1180 1185 1198 1210 1221 122L 1232 1242 1246 1259 1274 1287 1298 1301 1308 1318 1339 1368 1383 1392 1412 1428 1464 1500 1526 1557 1586 1611 1629 1643 1654 1663 1687 1709 1735

PAGE 108

\ 62 IMPERIAL COURT Number Period Acces Number Feriod Acces of Years of sion to of years of sion to Names of after Jimmu reign Throne Names of after Jimmu reign Turone Emperors Tenno (Years) A.D. Emperors Tenno (Years) A.O. {116th) Momozono .. 2407 16 1747 (120th) Ninko .. ... 2477 80 1816 (117th) Go-Sakuramachi ,, (121st) Komei ,, ... 2506 2L 1847 (Empress, ........ 242~ 9 1762 (122nd) Meiji ,. ... 2527 46 1862 (118th) Go-Momozono ,. 2480 10 1770 (123rd) Taisho ., 2572 15 1916 (119th, Kokaku .. ... 2489 89 1779 (124th) Present Emperor 2586 1927 Table 6. List of Emperors (In Alphabetical Order) (The names printed in black are female Emperors. The reigns that fall before the Christian era are marked B.C.). Emperors Period of Reign Ankan . 531-535 Anko . . 453-456 Annei . . 549-511 (B.C.) Antoku .............. 1180-1185 Bidatsu . . 572-585 Buretsu . 498-506 Cho-kei . 1368-1383 Chuai ................ 192-200 Chukyo . 1221-(Apr.-July) Daigo . . 897-930 Enyu . . 969-984 Fushimi . .. 1287-1298 Gemmyo . 707-715 Gensho . 715-724 Go-Daigo ............. 1318-1339 Go-Fukakusa . 1246-1259 Go-Fushimi . 1298-1301 Go-Hanazono . 1428-1463 Go-Horikawa .......... 1221-1232 Go-Ichijo ............. 1016-1036 Go-Kameyama . 1383-1392 Go-Kashiwabara 1500-1526 Go-Komatsu .1383-1392, 1392-1412 Go-Komyo ............. 1643-1654 Go-Mizuno-o .......... 1611-1629 Go-Momozono . 1770-1779 Go-Murakami . 1339-1368 Go-Nara . 1526-1557 Go-Nijo .............. 1301-1308 Go-Reizei . 1045-1068 Go-Saga . 1242-1246 Go-Sai . 1654-1663 Go-Sakuramachi ....... 1762-1770 Go-Sanjo ............. 1068-1072 Go-Shirakawa . 1155-1158 Go-Suzaku ............ 1036-1045 Go-Toba .............. 1185-1198 Go-Tsuchimikado ...... 1464-1500 Go-Uda ............... 1274-1287 Go-Yozei ............. 1586-1611 Hanazono ............ 1308-1318 Hansho . 406-410 Heizei . . 806-809 Higashiyama . 1687-1709 Horikawa . 1086-1107 Ichijo . . 986-1011 lngyo . . 412-453 ltoku . . 510-477 (B.C.) Jimmu . 660-585 (B.C.) Jing.a Kogo .. 200-269 Jito . . 686-697 Jomei .......... : 629-641 Junna . . 823-833 Junnin ......... : ... : 7,58-764 Juntoku ........ ,, .. 1210-1221 Emperors Period of Reign Kaika . 157-98 (B.C.) Kameyama ......... 1259-1274 Kammu . 781-806 Kazan . . 984-986 Keiko . . 71-130 Keitai . . 507-531 Kenso . . 485...,... 487 Kimmei . 539-571 Koan . . 392-291 (B.C.) Kobun . 671-672 Kogen . . 214-158 (B.C,) Kogyoku .............. 642-645 Kokaku .............. 1779-1817 K.oken .. . 749-758 Koko . . 884-887 Komei . . 1846-1866 Konin . . 770-781 Konoye ............... 1141-1155 Korei . . 290-215 (B.C.) Kosho . . 475-393 (B.C.) Kotoku . 645-654 Meiji ................ 1867-1912 Mommu . 697-707 Momozono ............ 1747-1762 Montoku .............. 850-858 Murakami . 946-967 My.osho . 1629-1643 Nakamikado .......... 1709-1735 N!j6 : . 1158-1165 N1mmyo . 833-850 Ninken ............... 488-498 Ninko . . 1817-1846 Nintoku . 313-399 6gimachi . 1557-1586 6jin . . 270-310 Re;ge:n . 1663-1687 Re1ze1 . . 697-969 Richu . . 400-405 Rokujo . 1165-1168 Saga . . 809-823 Saimei . 655-661 Sakuramachi .......... 1735-1747 Sanjo . . 1011-1016 Seimu . . 131-190 Seinei . . 479-484 Seiwa . . 858-876 Senka ................ 535-539 Shijo . . 1232-1242 Shirakawa ............ 1072-1086 shoko ................ 1412-1428 Shomu ............... 724-749 Shotoku .............. 764-770 Suiko . . 592-628 Suinin ............. 29 (B.C.)-70 (A.D,) Suizei ... 581-549 (B.C,)

PAGE 109

JAPAN Imperial Court IMPERIAL COURT 53 ------------j --Emperor, Sujin ...... Sushun ............. Sutoku .............. Suzaku .............. Taisho ............... Takakura ............ Temmu ............. Period of Reign 97-30 (B.C.) 587-592 1123-1141 930-946 1912-1926 1168-1180 672-686 Emperors Tenji ........... Toba ................ Tsuchimikado ......... Uda ................ Yomei ............... Yozei .............. Yfiryaku ............. Period of Reign 661-671 1107-1123 1198-1210 887-897 585-587 876-884 456-479 Table 7. List of Japanese Year-Names (The year-name, originally Chinese custom, was first adopted in the reign of the 39th Emperor K6toku Tenno (645-654) and until that time there was no year-name. In many cases the year-name was changed several times dur-Year-name An-ei An-gen An-sei An-tei An-wa Bun-mei Bun-po Bun-an Bun-chu Bun-ei Bun-ji Bun-ka Bim-ki Bun-kyu Bun-o Bun-reki Bun-roku Bun-sei Bun-sho Bun-wa Cho-gen Cho-ho cho:ji Cho-kan Cho-kyo Cho-kyfi Cho-reki Cho-roku Cho-sho Cho-toku Cho-wa Dai-do Dai-ei Dai-ji Ei-cho Ei-en Ei-ho Ei-ji Ei-kan Ei-kyo Ei-kyfi Ei-man Ei-nin Ei-ryaku Ei-roku Ei-sho Ei-sho Ei-so Ei-toku Ei-wa Em-bun Em-po ;;k) ....... 7G) l!iic) .. i:i.) ....... ln) ....... ~) ....... ff:) ....... 'le) ....... It' ) ...... ;;k) ..... Fa) ....... 1t) ....... ilB) ....... ~) ....... IJj) ....... }ff ) ... ii*) ....... l!iic) ... JE) ....... ln) ....... 5'c) ....... ff:) ....... ni) ....... j[) ....... ) ....... A) ....... )ff) ...... ii*) ....... jJ!c) ...... .. {t{) ....... fn) ....... Ill] ) ... ;;k) ....... ro) ....... :f.i:) ~) ....... ) ....... ni) ....... :t/"JI.) ) ....... A) ....... ;lit; ) .. t:: J ....... M) ....... ~) ....... jJ!c ) :iE) .... ifrj,) .. :f/1.1) fn) ....... 3t) ...... jf) ....... Period 1772-1781 1175-1177 1854-1860 1227-1229 968-970 1469-1487 1317-1319 1444-1449 1372-1374 1264-1275 1185-1190 1804-1818 1501-1504 1861-1863 1260-1261 1234-1235 1592-1596 1818-1830 1466-1467 1352-1356 1028-1037 999-1004 1104-1106 1163-1165 1487-1489 1040-1044 1037-1040 1457-1460 1132-1135 995-999 1012-1017 806-810 1521-1528 1126-1131 1096 987-988 1081-1084 1141-1142 983-985 1429-1441 1113-1118 1165-1166 1293-1299 1160-1161 1558-1570 1045-1053 1504-15_21 989-990 1381-1384 1375-1379 1356-1361 1673-1681 ing the reign of one Emperor in the days prior to the Meiji era. In the following list of the year-names the period is calculated in the Christian era). Yearname En-cho (ill; :f.l:) .. En-gen ( 5'c) ... En-gi ( ~) ....... En-kei (~ /!f) ....... En-kvo (~ ) ....... En-kyfi (~ A) ....... En-o (~ /Ji) ... En-ryaku ( ill; M ) ....... En-toku (~ {!{) ...... Gen-bun ( 5'c 3t) ....... Gen-cha ( 5'c q, ) ....... Gen-ei ( 5f: ;;k) ....... Gen-ji ( JG Fa) .... Gen-kei ( 5f: !i) ....... Gen-ki ( 5f: ~) ....... Gen-kyo ( 5f: ) ....... Gen-ko ( JG s.L.) .. Gen-kyfi ( 5f: A) ....... Gen-na ( 5f: ln) ....... Gen-nin ( 5f: t:) ....... Gen-o ( 5f: 1Ji) ... Gen-roku ( JG ii*) ...... Gen-ryaku ( 5f: M) ....... Gen-toku ( 5f: fJ!{) Haku-chi ( 13 1$) ..... Haku-ho ( 13 !iii.) Hei-ji (2fi n;) ....... Ho-an ( ff: 'i,i:) .. Ho-ei (" 7k) ....... Ho-en ( ff: ~) ....... Ho-gen ( ff: 5f:) Ho-ji < n;) ..... Ho-ki ( jg) Ho-reki ( ,g /ff J Ho-toku ( ffi) ... Ji-an ( ;'Ei '1c) .. Jing~-keiun (Jjiifl [l!l Ii!~ ) Jin-ki ( ff,l{I ~) Ji-reki ( n, /ff) ....... Ji-sho Ut. 7J!c l ....... Jo-ei ( i:i. :1k) ...... .. Jo-gen ( ti. JG) ........ Jo-ji
PAGE 110

Year-name Kam-bun (11 Kam-pei (Jli: Kam-po ( Jt Kan-ei ( 1t Kan-en ( Kan-gen ()( Kan-ji ( il Kan-ki ( jli'. Kan-ko (jlj: Kan-nin ( j[ Kan-o ( Kan-sei ( ;li'. Kan-sei ( Jt Kan-toku ( Jt Kan-wa (jli'. Ka-o ( Ka-reki (~ Ka-roku (~ Ka-sho ( Ka-sho ( ,t Ka-tei ( Kei-an ( Kei-cho ( )1f Kei-o ( r.l! Kei-un ( II Kem-bu ( Kem-po ( ill; Ken-cho (~ Ken-ei ( ij! Ken-gen' ( lit Ken-ji ( ij! Ken-kyu ( ll!: Ken-nin ( Ken-ryaku ( ll! Ken-toku ( II!: Ko-an (!l.l. Ko-an (m Ko-cho ( !l.l. Ko-ei ( Ko-gen (IJlt Ko-hei (m Ko-ho (rut Ko-ji cm Ko-ji (5L. Ko-koku (~ Ko-ka ( 51. Ko-nin ( !l.l. Ko-o ( 51. Ko-reki ( .I* Ko-roku ( 11t Ko-sho ( J;'Jt Ko-toku ( J;l Ko-wa (Hit Ko-wa ( 51. Kyo-ho ( Kyo-toku (.:,: Kyo-wa ( Kyu-an (!J... Kyu-ju ( !J... Man-en ( 1lf, Man-ji ( ;lit Man-ju (;lit Mei-ji ( l!JJ Mei-o ( 00 Mei-reki ( M Mei-toku ( ll]j Mei-wa ( !!Jj Nim-pyo (t: Nin-an (t: Nin-.ii ( 1= Nin-ju (-f= :3t) ...... .. 2ji) ....... ffi) ....... :;k) ....... }! ) JG) .. fr;) ....... ::jJ) ....... sL.) t:) ....... ll/!i) ..... l!i!c) ....... 1E) ffl) ....... fl!) ...... I@!) /It) ....... iiif<:) jjl:) ..... ;frj!) ....... ff!Jl) ....... 'le) ....... :lli;) ...... .. @) ....... ffl;) ....... lit) ....... 1*) ..... :!if:) ....... 7~) ...... JG) fr;) ... A) ....... t:) ....... II-) ....... ffl) ....... 'Z:) ....... 'tc).,' .... .. *) ....... ik) ....... JG) ...... .. "2Ji') f!/:) ....... f,;) ....... jf;) ....... '[!!i;!)" ...... .-. :::) ...... .. t:) ...... Hf!:i) ....... M) ...... .. m~n ...... .. JE') ,ff.)" fll) ...... ;J:n) ... f!i!:) ....... ,1n ....... 5f;IJ) '~) ....... iji} ...... .. ill;) ....... ft;) ....... ~) ....... u;) ... ; ... 1.0'.ll) ....... /If) ....... ":flit!). ...... fll ) ...... :,p:.) ........ ?) ft;) ....... ) ....... IMPERIAL COURT Period 1661-1673 889-898 1741-1744 1626-161!4 1748-1751 1243-1247 1087-1094 1229-1232 1004-1012 1017-1021 1350-1352 1789-1801 1460-1466 1044-1046 985-987 1169-1171 1326-1329 1225-1227 1106-1108 848-851 1235-1238 1648-1652 1596-1615 1865-1868 704-708 1334-1338 1213-1219 1249-1256 1206-1207 1302-1303 1275-1278 1190-1199 1201-1204 1211-1213 1370-1372 1278-1288 1361-1362 1261-1264 1342-1345 1256-1257 1058-1065 964-968 1142-1144 1555-1558 1340-1846 1844-1848 810-824 1389-1390 1379-1381 1528-1533 1455-1456 1452-1455 1099-1101 1381-1384 1716-1736 1452-1455 1801-1804 1145-1151 1154-1156 1860-1861 1658-1661 1024-1028 1868-1912 1492-1501 1655-1658 1890-1394 1764-1772 1151-1154 1166-1168 1240-1243 851-854 Year-name Nin-na ( t: ,t,11) 6-an ( !d!i '"i.c ) 6-cho ( IJ/!i f'f:) ....... 6-ei (B~ ik) ---- 6-ho (IJil.l I~) ....... 6-toku ( /Jj ffl) .. --. -6-wa ( Hff!. ;t;n) Rei-ki ( 1ili '1i ) ....... Reki-nin ( M 1::) Reki-o ( JI, IJj) ....... Sai-ko ( ,!if ~) ....... Shi-toku ( ? ff.) ....... Sho-an (jJ!: ) Sho-gen ( IE JG ) Sho-gen (;I( JG) ....... Sho-hei ( ;if(. 2Ji) Sho-hei ( 1E ip.) Sho-ho (;iJ!: 1*) .. Sho-ho ( JE fJi!: ) Sho-ji ( iE #l) ........ Sho-ka (iE ~) .... Sho-kei ( JE rt) ....... Sho-kyu ( ;if(. A) ....... Sho-o ( JE Bf! ) Sho-o ( ;ill: .I.ii) .... Sho-reki ( i /If) ..... Sho-reki ( 'f.fc M ) ....... Sho-tai ( it'\ >%:) Sho-toku ( ;if(. ffi) ...... Sho-toku ( 1E .il) ....... Sho-wa ( JE ;t;I!) Sho-wa (jj!:, ,t;n) Sho-wa ( Pl'l ;t;U ) Shu-cho (* A) ..... .. Tai-ho (;k. If) ....... Tai-ka (;k. 11:::) ...... Tai-ji ( -J<:.. #3) ...... Tai-sho ( *-JE) Tern-bun ( ;R 3t ) ....... Tem-mei ( ;R ) Tern-po (::R. 1)i::) Tem-puku ( ;R. iiiil\) ... Tem-pyo ( ::R. 2Ji) ... Tempyii-Hiiji ( ;R 2Ji !j:) Tempyii-Jingo ( ;R. 1iS Jfdjl ll/,1!) Tempyii-Shiihii ( ::R 2Ji .Ill W) .. Ten-kei ( ;R m) ....... Ten-an ( ::R. 'R) ....... Ten-cho ( ::R :Ill:) Ten-ei ( ::R. :;k) ........ Ten-en ( ::R. ill;) .... Ten-gen ( ::R. JG) .. Ten-ji ( ::R. 'It!) ...... Ten-ju ( ::R. ~) Ten-ki ( ::R. ~) Ten-nin ( ::R. {-:) Ten-o ( x 1/l!i) Ten-roku ( x. ffi(f;:) Ten-ryaku ( x. /ff) ...... 'l'en-sho ( ;R. ;ll() .. Ten-sho (;li;, JE) ..... Ten-toku (::R. ffl) ....... Ten-wa (::R. ,t;n) .. Ten-yo (:R ~) .... Toku-ji ( t'!\ fr'/) Wa-do (5f;II iffl) ...... .. Yo-ro <~ ~) ....... Yo-wa (~ ;J:n) ... Period 885-889 1368-1375 1311-1312 1394-1428 1161-1163 1084-1087 961-964 715-717 1238-1239 1338-1342 854-857 1384-1387 1171-1175 1299-1302 1428-1429 1324-1326 1259-1260 1207-1211 931-938 1346-1370 1074-1077 1644-1648 1199-1201 1257-1259 1332-1333 1219-1222 1288-1293 1652-1655 990-995 1077-1081 898-904 1097-1099 1711-1716 834-848 1312-1317 1926 686-701 701704 645-650 1126-1131 1912-i926 1532-1555 1781-1789 1830-1844 1233-1234 729-749 757-765 765-767 749-757 938-947 857-859 824-834 1110-1113 973-976 978-983 1124-1126 1375-1381 1053-1058 1108-1110 781-782 970-973 947-957 1131-1132 1573-1592 957-961 1681-1684 1144-1145 1306-1308 708715 717-724 1181-1182 References: 'I'ables 1 & 2-Imperial Household D~parhnent. Tables a & 4-Researches of the Cabinet Statistics Bureau ..

PAGE 111

JAPAN Administration CHAPTER VI ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM I. THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT The Cabinet.-The "Naikaku" or Cabinet is the highest central' administrative organ, and is organized with all Ministers of State who are at the same time chiefs of different departments of the central Government. The function of this collective body of Ministers of State is to initiate, determine and carry out the general schemes and politics of the Government, and as the chief and highest executive administrative organ of the State it exercises all powers executive, legislative and judicial, which are vested in the Crown by the Constitution. Thus is issuance of all administrative and emergency ordinances, the making of treaties with foreign countries, the making or unmaking of war, etc., all falling within the executive function of the Government, are virtually controlled by the Cabinet in the name of the Emperor. The Ministers of State as members of the Cabinet periodically meet to discuss and determine under the presidency and guidance of the Prime Minister how the Imperial Government is to be carried on in all important matters of State and how to advise the Emperor on such matters, the meeting being called the Cabinet council. The Central Government is composed of twelve Departments, namely, those of Foreign Affairs, of Home Affairs, of Finance, of Army, of Navy, of Justice, of Education, of Agriculture and Forestry, of Commerce and Industry, of Communications, of Railways and of Overseas Affairs. The last named department was created in June 1929. Each of these departments has its chief official, who is a Minister of State and who besides controlling the department and supervising its affairs is held responsible to the Emperor as a Minister of State. The Minister is assisted by a permanent vice-minister in controlling and supervising the affairs of the department, and also by a parliamentary vice-minister in directing political affairs of the department and matters relating to parliamentary affairs. Under the parliamentary vice-minister there is in each de partment a parliamentary counsellor whose duty is to assist the parliamentary vice-minister. Each department is divided into several bureaux, each bureau having its head or bureau director, and again each of these bureaux is divided into more than one section, each section having its chief official or sectional chief. Under these chief officials there is a number of clerks who are attached to different bureaux or sections as the case may be. Besides these officials, there are in each department a personal secretary to the Minister, several secretaries, tedmical experts, and other special officials or non-official members~ etc. The Ministers are appointed by the Emperor in person and are classed as officials of Shinnin rank; the vice-ministers (both parliamentary and permanent), parliamentary counsellors and bureau directors classed as officials of Chokunin rank and are appointed by the Ministers by the order of the Emperor. Ordinary clerks and other junior officials belong to either the Sonin or Hannin rank. The Composition of Departments The composition of various departments, briefly explained, is as follows:-The Foreign Office (Gaimu-sho) .. There are five bureaux, i.e. European & Asiatic Bureau, Eastern Asiatic Bureau, American Bureau, Commercial Bureau, and Treaty Bureau, be sides the Information Department, the Research Department and the Cultural Undertakings Department. Location-Kasumigaseki 1-chome, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo. The Department of Home Affairs (Naimusho). Is divided into five bureaux, i.e. those of Shrines, Local Affairs, Police, Public Work, and Planning It also controls Shinto shrines, city and town planning, etc. Location.-Sakurada-machi, Ko-jimachi-ku, Tokyo. .. .. __ The Department of Finance (Okura-sho). Has four bureaux, i.e. Account, Taxation, Finance, Rnd Banking: also the Deposits Section, the Mint, the Monopoly Bureau, etc. Location-Otemachi 1-chome, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo. The Department of War (Rikugun-sho). Is divided into eight bureaux, namely, those of Personnel, Military Affairs, Reorganization, Ordnance, Account, Medical Affairs Construe-

PAGE 112

56 ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM tion and Judicial Affairs. The General Staff Office consisting of four sub-departments with a number of officers is also on the same pre mises as the Department of War. LocationNagata-cho, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo. The Department of the Navy (Kaigun-sho). Is divided into eight bureaux, namely, those of Naval Affairs, Personnel, Education, Supplies, Medical Affairs, Account, Construction and Judicial Affairs. The Naval Staff Board is also on the same premises as the Department of the Navy. Location-Kasumigaseki 2-chome, Koji machi-ku, Tokyo. The Department of Justice (Shiho-sho). Con sists of the Civil Affairs Bureau, the Criminal Affairs Bureau arid the Prison Affairs Bureau. Location-Nishi Hibiya-cho, Kojimachi-ku, To kyo. The Department of Education (Mombu-sho). Consists of six bureaux, i.e., Special Education, Common Education, Technical Education, Social Education) Textbooks, and Religions. Location -Sannen-cho, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo. The Department of Agriculture & Forestry (Norin-sho). Is divided into six bureaux, namely, those of Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery, Stock-breeding, Sericu!ture, and Rice. Besides, it has 6 local forest bureaux in Tokyo and elsewhere, the Yokohama Silk Conditioning House, several local agricultural, horticultural, tea, fishery, sericutural, stock-breeding and forestry experimental stations, etc. Location-Otemachi, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo. The Department of Commerce & Industry (Shoko-sho). Is divided into five bureaux, i.e., Commerce, Industry, Mining, Trade, and Insur-ance besides, the Fuel Bureau, the Patent Bu. reau, Geological Investigation Institute; also controls the local mine superintendence bureaux, etc. Location-Kobiki-cho, 10-chome, Kyobashi ku, Tokyo. The Department of Communications (Teishin. sho). Is divided into seven bureaux, i.e., Postal Affairs, Telegraph & Telephone, Construction, Electrical Affairs, Mercantile Marine, Aviation and Account. Also has several separate bureaux such as Postal Savings, Co:r;nmunications, Lighthouse, etc. Location-Ote-machi 2-chome, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo. The Department of Railways (Tetsudo-sho). Has seven bureaux, i.e., Private Railway Ad ministration, Traffic, Construction, Way & Work, Engineering, Electric, and Account. Besides, it has the Bureau of Traffic Industry, Divisional Superintendence Offices, etc. Location-Marunouchi, 1-chome, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo. The Department of Overseas Affairs (Takumu sho). Consists of one sub-department (Chosen Dept.) and three bureaux, namely, those of Superintendence, Industrial, and Colonial Affairs. Location-Nishi Hibiya-cho, Kojimachi lm, Tokyo. The Department of Public Welfare (Kosei sho). There are five bureaux and two boards, i.e., Physical Improvement Bureau, Sanitation Bureau, Diseases Prevention Bureau, Social Affairs Bureau, Labor Bureau, Disabled Soldiers Relief Board. The Insurance Board has three bureaux, namely those of General Affairs, Social Insurance and Post Office Life Insurance. Location-1 of 7, Ote-machi, Kojimachi-ku, To kyo. II. CIVIL AND MILITARY SERVICE Classification 'rhe civil service is graded into four ranks, viz. as follows:-"Shin-nin" or Ministerial-Cabinet Ministers, Privy Councillors, Ambassadors, and a few others, who are nominat_ed by the Emperor' in person and are entitled to report direct to the Crown. "Choku-nin" or Directorship-Vice-Ministers and Bureau Directors of various Departments, Prefectural Governors, University Professors of high grade and some others, all of whom are appointed by the Emperor through the chiefs of the respective Departments an.d are entitled to attend the State ceremonies. "Son-nin" or Secretaryship-Bureau Secretaries, Sectional Chiefs, etc., who are not en-titled to attend the State ceremonies. "Han-nin" or Clerical staff-Assistant engi neers etc. The 2nd and 3rd grade officials (i.e., "Choku nin" and "Son-nin" officials) are also collectively called "Koto-kan" (High officials), the term being also applied to high officers of the Army and Navy. Non-commissioned and warrant officers ~f the Amry and Navy are classed as "Han-nin" rank. Appointment Under the Appointment Regulation in :force the "Choku-nin" -officials are appointed, in principle, from among those "So-nin" officials of higher rank who have been in the service for

PAGE 113

JAPAN Administration ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 67 over 2 years or others possessing similar qualifications, the Army and Navy officers of the nnk above major-general or rear-admiral or corresponding rank having the privilege to be appointed the "Choku-nin" officials (civil) of the Army or Navy Department respectively. The "So-nin" ,officials are appointed from among those who passed the examination for higher civil service or others possessing similar qualifications, those "Han-nin" officials who have been in the service for over 5 years and have shown ability in the execution of official business being accorded the treatme'nt of "So-nin" grade. The "Han-nin" offi_cials are appointed from among those who-have passed the examination for ordinary civil service or graduates of middle schools or other schools of similar status and recognized as such by the Education Minister, or others having similar qualifications, or those junior clerks or employees who have been in the public service for over 4 years successively. Special Appointment-Some classes of high officials are appointed irrespective of the aforementioned qualifications, these being Chief Sec retary of Cabinet, Director of Legislation Board, Parliamentary Vice-Ministers and Parliamentary Counsellors of various Departments, Director of Police Affairs Bureau (Home office), Inspec tor-General of Metropolitan Police, Chief Sec-1etaries of the House of the Diet, Personal Secretaries to the Ministers of State, etc. The special appointment also covers the Chiefs of Gov. Iron Foundry and Monopoly Bureau, Directors of Printing Bureau, the Mint and the Wool Jen Factory (Army), Financial Commissioners stationed abroad, and a few others, who are appointed from among men possessi~g technical knowledge, tact and experience necessary to the execution of official business peculiar to the respective posts, irrespective of the qualifications specified in the Appointment Regulations. The total force of the staff of Government service is as follows :-Table 1. Government Civil No. of officers 1927 .... 1932 ... 1933 ... 1934 ...... 1935 ....... 1936 ........ 124,116 130,988 132,987 136,643 143,412 148,984 Service Se!arY (,0) 147,097 157,689 159,579 164,972 171,639 176,848 Note: Exclusive of employees and noncommis, sioned officers. Scale of Salaries The scale of salaries for the officials in the Government service of all ranks excluding Pre mier, Ministers of States, Governor-Generals of Chosen, and Taiwan, and Governor of Kwantung Leased Territory were substantially increased in 1920. The new scale for principal posts in civil and military service stands as follows:-Table 2. Scale of Salaries (a) "Shin-n-in'-' Rank Salary per annum Prime Minister . ,600 Mi~isters of State ...... } 6,800 Gov .-Gen. of Chosen ............... Pres. of Privy Council. ............ i Gov.-Gen. of Taiwan .............. Ambassadors ..................... Pres. of Administrative Litigat1.on Court 6,600 Pres. of Supreme Court ............. Public Procurator-General ......... Pres. of Board of Audit. . Vice-Pres. of the Privy Council ....... l Dir.-Gen. of Admin. Affairs (Chosen) .. 6,200 Pres. of Manchurian Affairs Board .... J Privy Councillors . 5,800 (b) "Choku-nin" Rank Pres. of Imp. Universities ..... Gov. of Hokkaido ............. Vice-Pres. of Manchurian Affairs Board .................... Pres. of Social Bureau ......... 6,200-5,350 6,200-5,800 Financial Commissioners Abroad. 5,800-5,100 Pres. of Monopoly Bureau ...... Pres. of Patent Bureau ..... ... Pres. o:E Supreme Court (Taiwan) Dir.-Gen. of Kwantung Bureau .. Chief Secretary of Cabinet ......... Pres. of Legislation Bureau ......... Vice-Ministers (Parl. and Perm.) .. .. Dir.-Gen. of Civil Affairs (Taiwan) ... Chief Engineer of Home Department. 5,800 Inspector-Gen. of Metropolitan Police Board ........................ Pres. of Supreme Court (Chosen) .... Vice-Pres. of Cabinet Planning Board .. Ministers Plenipotentiary ...... Embassy Councillors ... 5 800-4 650 Embassy Commercial Councillors. Bureau Dir. of Chosen Govt.-Gen. Judges and Procurators......... 5,800-4,050 Goi"ar~fut~ou:~. ~~-. Pres. of Public Universities. 5 350 4 650 Chief of National Cultural Re' search Office ............... Gov. of Prefectures ........... Pr~s. o_,f Decorat~on Eurea~ .... } 5,100 Chief Seer. of Privy Council. ........ Chi~f Seer. of' the Hous~s of Diet. l 5 350-4,650 Gov. of Kwantung Provmce ...... S Parliamentary Councillors .......... l Bureau Directors .................. 4,650 Consul-General .................... J The Governors of Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto, Kanagawa and Hyogo enjoy each an additional allowance of and those of Nagasaki, Niigata, Aichi, Miyagi, Hiroshil11a, Fukuoka and Kumamoto,

PAGE 114

58 ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM (c) "So-nin' and "Han-nin" Rank 0Sonin" "Hannin'' Grade (Annual) (Monthly) ccSo-nin'' 0Han-nin" 7th ........ 2,150-1,300 65 Grade (Annual) (Monthly) 8th ........ 1,820-1,130 55 1st class ........ ,050-2, 770 9th ........ 1,650-1,050 50 2nd ........ 3,600-2,420 135 10th ........ 1,470-970 45 3rd ........ 3,400-2,150 115 11th ,, ........ l,300~ 900 40 4th .. 3,050-1,820 100 12th ........ 1,130 5th ........ 2, 770-1,650 85 Note:-In exceptional cases the salary of "Han .. nin" rank 6th ........ 2,420-1,470 75 may be raised to '1'200, (d) "Choku-nin" Rank Salary Ambassador ............ ,600 ......... Service Allowance ,000 (U. S. A.) 40,000 (Great Britain & France) 35,000 (Germany) 30,000 (Russia, Italy, Brazil and Turkey) 28,000 (Belgium) 26,000 (China) 13,000 (Manchoukuo) (Poland) Minister Plenipotentiary and {(a) 6 ,800} 22 000 (European countries except Austria) { ,000 (Austria, Iran, Argentina & Canada) Envoy Extraordinary ......... !~~g ............ 18:ooo (Mexico, Chile, Peru & Egypt) 15,000 (Siam) Embassy Counsellor and {(a) ,800} { Emb. Commercial (b) 5,100 ......... .. ,000-7,300 Counsellor ..................... (C) 4,660 Consul-General ......... ,650 ......... Consul ........ ,050-2,150 ........ Vice-Consul ......... ,050-1,300 ....... ,000-13,000 (New York) 14,000-12,000 (San Francisco) 12,000-10,000 (London, Hamburg, Sydney, Honolulu & San Paulo) 11,000-9,000 (Shanghai) 10,000-8000 (Habarovsk, Vladivostok, Alex androvsk, Harbin, Singapore & Calcutta) 9,000-8000 (Tientsin, Tsingtao, Nanking, Hankow & Manila) 8,500-7,500 (Tsinan, Canton, Hongkong, .Hanoi & Batavia) 7,000-4,100 (In Manchoukuo and some Chinese cities). 9,000 (Havana) 8,500 (Seattle, Chicago and New York) 8,150 (London) 8,000 (Liverpool, Marseilles, Los Angeles, Portland, New Orleans, Vancouver), Panama Bauru, Para & San Salvador 7,800 (San Francisco) 7,650 (Hamburg) 7,500 (Lyons, Milan, Anvers, Odessa & Lima) 7,000 (Rangoon, Colombo, Bombay, Alexan dria, Port Said, Mombassa, Cape Town & San Paulo) 6,800 (Sydney & Honolulu) 6,500 (Saigon & Durvao) 6,000-4,000 (In other places). 7,750-1,650

PAGE 115

JAPAN Administration ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 69 -----------------------------~------------(e) Imperial Household Service Salary per annum Minister .... Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal .. Director of Peerage Bureau ... } Grand Chamberlain .......... Grand Master of Ceremonies .... Vice-Minister .......... Lord Steward to Empress ..... } Lord Steward to Empress Dowager ................. Pres. Peers' School ........... Grand Chamberlain to Prince Ri President of Imp. Estate Bureau } President of Imp. Board of Audit. ,800 6,800 6,200-5,800 5,800 5,800-5,100 Officials of higher civil service ,100 to 970 .a year. 5,800-4,650 draw from (f) Judicial Service Supreme Court: President ............ Procurator-General ... Judges & Procurators ..... Appeal Courts : President ............. Chief Procurators ........ Judges & Procurators .... District Court: Presiding Judges & Chief Procurators ............. ,600 6,600 5,800-4,050 5,800-4,650 5,800-4,650 4,650-4,050 4,650-4,050 (g) Army Service Salary per annum General .......................... ............ Y6,600 Lieut.-General ........................ ... ... 5,800 Major-General .............................. 5,000 Colonel .. ...... ..................... ...... ...... 4,160 Lieut.-Colonel .. ......... ...... ...... ... 3,220 Major ....................................... ... 2.330 Captain ....................................... 1,900-1,470 Lieutenant.................................... 1,130-1,020 Sub-Lieutenant.............................. 850 Bandmaster (1st) ........................... 2,150-1,750 ,, (2nd)........................... 1,540-1,390 ,. (3rd) ........................... 1,240 --1,180 (h) Navy Service Admiral ..................................... .. Vice-Admiral ............................... .. Rear-Admiral ............................. Captain ...................................... Commander ................................ Lieutenant-Commander ................ .. Lieutenant ................................... Sub-Lieutenant (1st) .................... Snb-Lieutenant (2nd) ................... .. Special Commission Sub-Lieut ..... .. ,, ,, Sub-Lieut. 1st). Cad~ts ,, Sub-Lieut. (2nd) ,600 6,800 6,000 4,160 3,220 2,330 1,900-1,470 1,130-1,020 850 2,070 -1,910 1,740-1,630 1,470 --1,368 670 III. THE PENSION SYSTEM The pension law (revised in 1923) divides pension into (a) ordinary pension, (b) additional pension and invalid allowance, (c) retiring allowance, (d) pension to the families of deceased officials and officers, and ( e) allowance to the families of deceased officials and officers. Those who are entitled to pension under the law are civil officials above "han-nin" rank and military officers and men, the staff of puhlic schools and libraries, prison and police officers (all above "han-nin" rank) being also entitled to the same privileges as civil officials. Ordinary Pension.-Civil officials who retire after a series of 15 years or more (5 years in the case of Ministers of State and 10 years in the case of police and prison officers) are entitled to ordinary pension, the amount being fixed according to the length of service and the sum of salary drawn at the time of retirement. The rate is 50/150 of the annual sum of salary for one whose service extended 15-16 years, 1/150 to be added for each extra year until the maximum of 40 years is reached. Military officers and men are 15ranted ordinary pension on retiring after the service of 11 years or more, an addition being arowed for each extra year until the maximum of 50 years is reached, as shown in the under mentioned scale of rate fixed according to rank and length of service. Table 3. Pension System for Army and Navy Length of Generals & Color.els (Captains) Non-Commissioned & service Admirals to l.iectenants Warrant Officers Private 11 .............. ,500-1,867 ,534-467 -225 -150 15 .............. 2,700-1,017 1,656-505 432-253 224-174 20 0 I O O o o O O O O O O O 0 2,950-2,204 1,808-552 472-288 254-204 25 .............. 3,200-2,392 1,961-600 512-329 284-234 30 .............. 8,450-2,579 2,113-647 552-358 314-264 35 .............. 3,700-2,797 2,266-695 592-393 344-294 40 .............. 3,950-2,954 2,418-742 632-428 474-334 45 .............. 4,200-3,329 2,571-790 673-463 403-381 50 0 I O 00 0 0 0 0 00 a O 0 4,500-3,329 2,703-837 712-498 534-384 Additional Pension.-Civil officials and military officers and men who retire on account of incapacity arising from sickness contracted while in discharge of duty or who have become in-

PAGE 116

60 ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM valids because of wounds sustainedin action are grant~d additional pension at the rate ranging from to ,880 per annum for those disabled while on ordinary duty and from to ,600 per annum for those disabled in ac~ion. The rates differs according to the order of official rank held at the time of retiring from service and the degree of incapacity. Invalid Allowance.-This is granted to military men of the rank of non-commissioned and warrant officers and privates or blue-jackets who retire from service on account of ill health or wounds suffered while on duty, though not disabled for life. The rates which differ according to rank as well as the cause and degree of incapacity range between (min.) and ,650 ( max.) for non-commissioned officers and warrant officers, and between (min.) and ,500 (max.) for privates and blue-jackets, as shown below:-Invalid from action Invalid from discharge of ordinary duty Non-commissioned and warrant officers -1,660 150-1,500 -1,320 120-1,200 Privates and blue-jackets ............... Retiring Allowance.-Retiring allowance is granted to those who retire from the service before the tenure of service entitles them to pension, the sum being fixed, as in the case of pension, according to the length of service and the sum of salary drawn by the retiring official or officer at the time of retirement. For civil officials it is calculated by multiplying the sum of monthly salary by the number of years of service. Rates for military officers vary according to the official rank and the length of service, the scale of maximum and minimum rates being as follows:-Table 4. Retiring Allowance for Army and Navy Rank {(a) Generals and Admirals (b) (c) Colonels to {~;} Lieutenants ( d) (e) (f) Non-commissioned & warrant officers ( c) (d) Minimum Maximum .... ,375 ,250 3,250 5,417 2,333 5,417 1,533 3,833 988 3,292 542 2,708 196 1,960 142 1,417 117 1,167 100 1,000 71 713 64 638 56 863 Pension & Allowance to Families of Deceased Officials and Officers.-Pension is granted to the family of the deceased whose tenure of service entitles him to ordinary pension or who had already been receiving ordinary pension, the amount being (1) the whole sum of the pension to the deceased in .the case of death from ill health or wounds suffered in ,action, (2) 8/10 in the case of death from ill health or wounds while on ordinary duty, and (3) 5/10 in the case of death from other causes. Allowance is granted to the family of one who died while in office before the tenure 'of service entitles him to pension, the amount being the same as the retiring allowance for the corresonding length of service. The order of family members entitled to this pension or allowance is widow, children under age, widower, parents, and grandparents. Pension and Annuities Pensions to civil and military officers, annuities to their families, and lump sum of money granted on their retiring, or, in case of death, to their families, make the following record. Annuities attached to the decorations are added. 1927 .. 1932 .. 1933 .. 1934 .. 1935 .. 1936 .. 1927 .. 1932 .. 1933 .. 1934 .. 1935 .. 1936 .. 1927 .. 1932 .. 1933 .. 1934 .. 1935 .. 1936 .. Table Year 1927 .. 1932 .. 1933 .. 1934 .. 1934 .. 1936 .. Table 5. Pension (a) Civil Service Pension Annuity to family No.of Total No. of Total recipients amount reci_ ients amount 53,876 ,833,565 21,052 ,711,918 64,294 40,654,321 26,556 7,681,063 66,297 42,076,308 27,668 8,110,432 68,087 43.527,986 29,088 8,623,104 68,843 44,387,896 30,100 9,001,607 70,231 45,641,348 31,829 9,646,257 (b) Army Service 113,951 47,359,321 84,157 16,265,m 111,403 49,498,604 79,188 15,896,662 110,389 49,392,255 78,597 16,176,481 109,321 49,703,523 77,953 16,267,497 108,158 49,782,784 77,437 16,307,663 107,664 50,439,770 76,048 16,177,565 (c) Navy Service 59,476 21,827,293 13,685 3,261,461 70,926 26,553,453 16,297 3,885,895 71,576 26,900,066 16,743 4,049,540 71,899 27,180,508 17,529 4,250,514 74,366 28,061,601 18,278 4,439,978 78,464 29,535,190 19,387 4,744,138 6. Annuity Attached to the Order of Golden Kite and Rising Sun Go'.den Kite Ris:ngSun No.of Total No. of Total recipients amount ;recipients amount 65,056 ,727,600 3,976 ,505 59,640 10,640,3.50 3,252 200,150 58,858 10,478,4.5-0 3,126 193,440 61,424 10,967,550 2,951 172,310 60,849 10,894,150 2,840 173,155 59,767 11,001,300 2,844 171,980

PAGE 117

JAPAN Administration ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 61 Table 7. Directory Cabinet: Prime Minister ......................... Chief Secretary ........................ Legislation Bureau ......... {Planning Board ........... President of Decoration Bureau ......... Manchurian Affairs Board ... Information Bureau ........ Pension .................. Bureau Printing .................. {Statistics ................. Directors Tohoku .................. Privy Council: Preparation of ............. Celebration of the 2,600th Aniniversary of Imperial Reign. President ............................. Vice-President ......................... Chief Secretary ........................ Councillor; H.I.H. Prince Yasuhito Chichibu H.I.H. Prince Takahito Mikasa Count Kentaro Kaneko Marquis Nagashige Kuroda Dr. Joji Sakurai Misao Kawai (General) Baron Kantaro Suzuki (Admiral) Viscount Kikujiro Ishii Ryokitsu Arima (Admiral) Dr. Seitaro Kubota Hajime Motoda Soroku Suzuki _(General) Eizo Ishizuka Department of the Imperial Household: Minister .............................. Vice-Minister .......................... Grand Chamberlain ..................... Grand Master of Ceremonies ............. Deputy Grand Master of Ceremonies ...... Grand Master of Rituals ................. Deputy Grand Master of Rituals .......... Chief Aide-de-Camp to the Emperor ....... Bureau Directors Peerage .................. Medical Affairs ............ Archives ................. Architecture .............. Treasury .......... ....... Imperial Mews ............ Crown Forest ............. Poetry : ................. Lord Steward to the Empress ............. Lord Steward to the Empress Dowager ..... President, Peers' School ................. Director, Imp. Household Meseum (Tokyo) .. (Nara) ... Office of the Privy Seal: Lord-Keeper of Privy Seal ......... Chief Secretary ............. Department of Foreign Affairs: Minister .............................. Parliamentary Vice-Minister ............. Permanent Vice-Minister ................ Prince Fumimaro Konoe Akira Kazami Masao Taki Chu Funada Yasumaro Shimojo Lieut.-Gen. S. Itagaki Koki Y okomizo H. Hiraki T. 'l'akagi K. Tsuchiya M. Kuwahara S. Utada Dr. Baron K. Hiranuma Y. Hara K. Murakami H.I.H. Prince Nobuhito Takamatsu H.I.H. Prince Kotohito Kan-in Dr. Tohru Shimizu Ikunosuke Fujisawa Baron Gonsuke Hayashi Hiroshi Minami Ryuzo Tanaka Takeji Nara (General) Dr. Torasaburo Araki Baron Keisiro Matsui Dr. Michinori Sugawara Chinjiro Matsuura Tsuneo Matsudaira Baron Matsusuke Shirane General Sabu'ro Hyakutake Marquis Tadakata Hirohata 'l'orao Kagoshima Prince Kimiteru Sanjo Tadanao Daigo Lieut.,Gen. Koshiya Usami Viscount K. Mushakoji Dr. Z. Yada S. Watanabe T. Iwanami A. Miura K. Sugimura M. Mitsuya Prince K. Sanj o Marquis T. Hivohata Masao Oya Admiral Ki Nomura Dr. Eizaburo Sugi T. Yamaguchi Kurahei Yuasa Marquis Y. Matsudaira Prince F. Konoe (Add-.) Tadao Matsumoto Kensuke Horinouchi

PAGE 118

62 ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM Bureau Directors Cheif {Eastern Asia .............. European & Asia .......... American ................. Co111111e1cial ............... Treaty ................... {Information Department .... Cultural Undertaking Dept ... Research Department ....... Note: For the na1nes of An1bassadors, )finisters and other diplo1natic and consular officials see Directory, Chapter on Dipl01nacy. Department of Home Affairs: Minister ............................... Parliamentary Vice-M;.inister .............. Permanent Vice-Minister ................. Parliamentary Councillor ................. Bureau Local Affairs ............. {Shrines .................. Directors Police ................... Public Works ............. Planning ................. Chief, Japanese Office of International Labour Board (Geneva) ..................... Department of Finance: Minister .............................. Parliamentary Vice-Minister ............. Parmanent Vice-Minister ................ Parliamentary Councillor ................ Financial Gommissoner Abroad ........... Bureau Directors Directors, Gostoms Houses Directors, Local Taxation Superintendece Bureaux Account .................. Taxation ................. Finance .................. Banking .................. Exchange ................. National Savings .......... Deposit .................. Building & Repair ......... Monopoly ................ Mint ..................... {Yokohama ................ Kobe .................... Osaka .................... Na&"!'-saki ................. MoJ1 ..................... Hakodate ................. Nagoya .................. {Tokyo ................... Osaka ................... Sendai ................... Nagoya .................. Hiroshima ............... Kumamoto ............... Department of Justice: Minister .............................. Parliamentary Vice-Minister ............. Permanent Vice-Minister ............. Parliamentary councillor ........ : .... Bureau { Civil Affairs ........... Directors Criminal Affairs ........ Penal Adm ............... Research Department ................... President, Supreme Cout ................ Procurator-General, Supreme Gourt ..... I. Ishii K. Inouye S. Yoshizawa S. Matsushima T. Mitani T. Kawai T. Hachiya K. Yonezawa Admiral Nobumasa Suetsugu Eikichi Katsuda Masanori Hanyu Masayoshi Kimura K. Kodama C. Saka S. Honma K. Ando M. Matsumura Juitsu Kitaoka Nariakira Ikeda Masataka Ota Sotari Ishiwatari Sanjo Nakamura S. Arakawa T. Taniguchi H. Oya R. Ono T. Irumano K. Nakamura S. Ishiwatari T. Hirose S. Ishiwatari S. Arai T. Yamada S. Takahashi M. Mitsuyama A. Komiya A. Ando K. Tani,oka K. Kawamata T. Tamai Shigenobu Nakamura Satoru Nakamura S. Matsuyama Y. Fukada H. Takebe 0. Kurihara Suehiko Shiono Tomoyuki Hisayama Michiyo Iwamura Wakami Fujita K. Omori N. Matsusaka K. Akiyama N. Inouye Dr. Torajiro Ikeda S. Motoji

PAGE 119

ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM President, Appeal Courts ( Tokyo ................... Osaka .................. Nagoya .................. Hiroshima ................ N~gas~ki ................. M1yag1 ................... Sapporo ................ Chief Osaka ................... ( Tokyo ................. Procurators Hiroshima ................ Appeal Nagoya .................. Courts N ~gas~ki ................. M1yag1 ................... Sapporo .................. Department of Education: Minister ............................... Parliamentary Vice-Minister ............. Parmanent Vice-Minister ................ Parliamentary Councillor ................ Bureau Directors Presidents Directors (Special School ............. Common School ........... Technical School .......... Special Education ......... Text Book ................ Religious ................. Educational Reform ........ ( Tokyo Imperial Univ. ...... Kyoto ....... Tohoku ....... Kyushu ....... Hokkaido ....... Osaka ....... Epidemic .Diseases Inst. .... Aeronautical Inst. ........ Seismic Research Inst. ..... Tokyo Astronomical Ohs. .. Imperial Library ........... Central Meteorological Obser-vatory (Tokyo) ......... Physical Education Research Inst .................... Navigation Training Inst .... Marine Observatory (Kobe) .. High Altitute Observatory ... Geodetic Observatory ...... Science Museum (Tokyo) .... Imperial Academy ......... [mp. Fine Arts Academy .... Department of Agriculutre and Forestry: Minister .............................. Parliamentary Vice-Minister ............. Permanent v M' t p ice1n1s er ................ arliamentary Councillor ................. \Agriculture ............... Fishery .................. Bureau Forestry .................. Directors Stock Breeding ...... ...... Directors Sericulture ............... Rice ..... : ............... Horse Administration ....... { Economic Rehabilitation Dept .. Silk Conditioning House (Yokohama) ........... .. Silk Conditioning House (Kobe) N. Kimura T. Nagashima K. Tateishi II. Sakurada S. Shimizu Y. Kubota Y. Hidaka S. Yoshimasu K. Kanayama T. Kamiya C. -Miyagi R. Wada G. Iwa:matsu H. Takikawa Baron General Sadao Araki Sakusaburo Uchigasaki Nobukichi Ito Tadataka Ikezaki Baron K. Yamakawa M. Fujino T. Ogasawara S. Tanaka T. Ishii C. Nagao T. Kikuchi Dr. M. Nagayo Dr. M. Hirano Dr. K. Honda Dr. B. Arakawa Dr. Y. Kon Dr. C. Kusumoto Dr. Y. Miyakawa Dr. K. Wada Dr. M. Ishimoto Dr. R. Sekiguchi K. Matsumoto Dr. T. Okada Dr. T. Iwahara 'f. Ogasawara Dr. T. Okada W. Oishi Dr. S. Kimura T. Mizuno Dr. Joji Sakurai Dr. Tooru Shimizu Count Yoriyasu Arima Morihei Takahashi Hiroyasu Ino Keishiro Sukegawa H. Obama H. Miyake F. Murakami R. Kishi S. Yoshida H. Sudo Y. Hasumi Dr. G. Kodaira Toshihiko Higo Fred Kitao JAPAN Administration 63

PAGE 120

64 ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM Department of Commerce and Industry: Minister .............................. Parliamenta1y Vice-Minister ............. Permanent Vice-i\iinister ................ Parliamentary Councillo_r ................ \ {Commercial ............... Bureau Industrial ................ Directors Mining ................... insurance ................. Control ......... ......... Presidents {Patent Bureau ............. Trade Bureau ............. Fuel Bureau .............. { Tokyo Mine Superintendence Direc-Sendai tors Osaka Fukuoka. Sapporo Bureau ,, ,, Department of Communications: Minister .............................. Parliamentary Vice-Minister ............. Permanent Vice-Minister ................ Parliamentary Councillor ................ Bureau Directors Postal Affairs ............. Telegraph & Telephone ..... Construction .............. Electrical ........... ..... Mercantile Marine ......... Financial ................. Postal Savings ............ Control .................. Light House .............. Tokyo City Communications Bureau. Toky,o District Nagoya Bureau Osaka Director~ Hiroshima Kumamoto Sendai Sapporo Presidents {Aviation Board ............ Higher Marine Court (Tokyo). Department of Railways: Minister .............................. Parliamentary Vice-Minister ........... Permanent Vice-Minister ................ Parliamentary Councillor ................ Bureau Directors Traffic & Operation ........ Construction .............. Maintenance & Improvement .. Local Railway Administration. Mechanical Engineering .... Financial & Purchasing ..... Electric .................. Tourist Industry ........... Tokyo ................... Nagoya .................. Osaka ................... Regional Moji ..................... Superindents Sendai ................... Sapporo ... ............... Hiroshima ................ Niigata ...... _._ ............. Nariakira Ikeda Budayu Kogure Naokai Murase Kennosuke Sato T. Niikura E. Azuma Y. Kogane N. Maki K. Kuroda Ginya Ishii S. Terao S. Kojima H. Nagata K. Nakamura N. Oshima N. Kashiwamura Y. Adachi Ryutaro Nagai Katsutaro Tajima Takeshi Ono Ken Inukai N. Nagaoka K. Tamura Dr. Arakawa T. Owada J. Isetani S. Teshima T. Hagiwara Y. Yamada T. Yamane T. Iino M. Morishima K. Hirata S. Komatsu S. Okazaki M. Nakamura M. Mayeda J. Yasuda Y. Fujiwara J. Isetani Chikuhei Nakajima Shogo Tajiri Kenjiro Kiyasu Masao Kanai S. Yamada S. Horikoshi H. Asonuma K. Suzuki H. Kii K. lkei S. Morita M. Den S. Nagasaki T. Hirayama R. Kimura T. Eguchi I. Kambayashi M. Ushizuka K. Fukui T. Nakajima

PAGE 121

ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM Department of Overseas Affairs: Minister ................ .... ... -.. Parliamentary Vice-Minister ............. Permanent Vice-Minister ................ Parliamentary Councillor ................ Chief, Chosen Department ............... Bureau {Superintendence ........... Directors Industrial ................ Colonial Affairs ........... Government-General of Chosen: Governor-General ...................... Director General -of Administrative Affairs .. Bureau Directors Presidents Customs Directors Internal Affairs ........... Financial ................. Industrial ................. Judicial .................. Educational ............... Police .................... Agriculture & Forestry ..... Railway .................. Communications ........... Monopoly ................. {Higher Court ............. Appeal Courts (Keijo) ..... (Heijo) ..... ( Taikyu) .... {Jinsen ................... Fusan .................... Shingishu ................ Rashin ................... President, Keijo Imperial University Government-General of Taiwan: Governor-General .... ................. Director-General .of Administrative Affairs .. {Internal Affairs ........... Educational .............. Bureau Financial ................. Directors Industrial ................ Police .................... Monopoly ................. President, Traffic Board ................. Higher Court ................. Customs Director (Keelung) ............. ". (Takao) .............. President, Taihoku Imperial University .... Kwantung Bureau: Director-General ....................... Chief of Home Affairs Board ............. Chief of Supervisory Board ............. Gov. of Kwantung Province ............. {Internal Affairs ........... Bureau Police Affairs ............. Directors of Financial Affairs ........... Kwantung Pub~ic Wor~s ............. Province Marme Affairs ............ Communications ........... Monopoly ................ H~\her. Court {President ................. yoJun) Chief Procurator .......... Chief Civil {Ryojun ................... Ad~inistraChinchow ................ tion Office Pulantien ................ Pitzuwo ............... .. Prince F. Konoe (Add.) Saburo Yasumi Hikozo Hagiwara H. Irei H. Hagiwara K. Soyejima T. Ueba S. Yasui General Jiro Minami Rokuichiro Ono J. Otake N. Mizuta S. Hozumi H. Miyamoto T. Shiobara K. Mitsuhashi T. Yunomura Y. Kudo C. Yamada H. Suzukawa Y. dgawa H. Kido C. Nomura S. Hara M. Oda S. Hyodo K. Ike K. Odajima Dr. H. Hayami Admiral Seizo Kobayashi Jiro Morioka S. Yamagata S. Shimada K. Mineda K. Tobata N. Futami F. Imagawa T. Tomari K. Tom
PAGE 122

66 ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM President, Ryojun Engineering College ..... Karafuto Administration Office: Governor ............................. {Internal Affairs ............ Police .................... Industrial ................ Central Laboratory ........ Directors South Sea Islands (Mandate) Administration Office: Dr. S. Noda S. Munesue K. Muto Y. Shirai T. Nakamura Dr. K. Miyake Governor . . . Kenjiro, Kitajima Director, Civil Affairs . . Teiichi Domoto Colonization . . Shintaro Takahashi President, Higher Court . . Otoji Ishikawa Board of Audit: President ............................. Department Chiefs 2nd {1st ................ 3rd ................ 4th ........... .... Court of Administrative Litigation: President ............................. Department Chiefs : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Metropolitan Police Board: Inspector-Gene_ral ...................... Department of Army: Minister .............................. Parliamentary Vice-Minister ............. Permanent Vice-Minister ................ Parliamentary Councillor ................ Bureau Directors Personnel ................ Military .................. Arms .................... Finance .................. Law ..................... Organization .............. Medical .................. Soldiers .................. Aviation Department ............ Aviation Technical Research Inst .. Military Aviation Arsenal ........ Military Arsenal . ... Chiefs Ordnance Department ........... Technical Department ........... Scientific Research Institute ...... Fortification Department ......... Horse Supply Department ....... Commander, Tokyo Gendarmerie ......... Chosen ......... ,, Military Air Corps ......... {Senju Woollen Factory ..... Provi~ion Depot ........... Cfothmg Depot ............ Director General Staff Office: Chief ............... ................ Deputy Chief ......................... Section Chiefs {General Affairs ..... .-...... 1st Section ............... 2nd Section ............... 3rd Section ............... 4 th Section .... ..... Kesao Oka S. Kimura B. Kawamoto M. Oka T. Kiyohara Dr. H. Futagami T. Miyake G. Endo Genki Abe Lieut.-Gen. Seishiro Itagaki Kumeshiro Kato, Lieut.-Gen. E. Tojyo Shohei Hisa Lieut.-Gen. K. Aminami Lieut.-Gen. A. Nakamura Major-Gen. H. Kimura Intendant-Lieut.-Gen. H. Ishikawa F. Oyama Major-Gen. Y. Uetsuki Surgeon Lieut.-Gen. C. Koizumi Major-Gen. H. Imamura H.I.H. Prince Naruhiko Major-Gen. K. Kazumi Major-Gen. T. Nakagawa Lieut.-Gen. G. Nagamochi Lieut.-Gen. T. Nakayama Lieut.-Gen. T. Hisamura Lieut.-Gen. R. Tada Major-Gen. Y. Satake Lieut.-Gen. S. Kuno Major-Gen. K. Fujii Major-Gen. S. Ninomiya Lieut.-Gen. Y. Tokugawa Intendant Major-Gen. N. Yamamoto Intendant Major-Gen. T. Kano Intendant Major-Gen. K. Suzuki Field Marshal H.I.H. Prince Kan-in Lieut.-Gen. H. Tada Major-Gen. T. Nakajima Major-Gen. K. Ishihara Major-Gen. M. Homma Major-Gen. G. Tsukada (Vacant)

PAGE 123

JAPAN Administration ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 67 Chief, Land Surveying Department ....... Military Training Department: Inspector-General ...................... Superintendent ........................ Inspectors School Directors {Cavalry .................. Artillery ................. Engineering .............. Commissariat ............. Military Staff College ....... Military Academy ......... Artillery & Engrg. Sch. ... Infantry School ........... Toyama School ............ Cavalry School ............ Field Artillery School ...... Heavy Artillery School ..... Engineering School ........ Intendants School .......... Veterinary Surgeon School .. Motor Car School .......... Tokorozawa Aviation School .. Akeno Aviation School ..... Shimoshizu Aviation School .. Hamamatsu Aviation School .. Kumagai Aviation School ... Aviation Technical Sch ...... Communications School ..... Preparatory Sch. (Tokyo) ... (Hir,oshima) (Sendai) Narashino Military Sch. ... Artifiicers School .......... Tank School .............. Commanders ( Tokyo Garrison Headquarters Eastern Air Defense Hdqrs .... Central Air Defense Hdqrs. .. Western Air Defense Hdqrs. Army Divison (May 1st, 1938.) Divisions Guards 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th (Tokyo) (Tokyo) (Sendai) (Nagoya) .... (Osaka) .... (Hiroshima) (Kumamoto) (Asahikawa) (Hirosaki) Colonial Armies Commander (Lt.-Gen.) S. Iida T. Kuwaki Y. Okumura S. Fujita M. Matsui R. Ando K. Muto W. Sonobe Marquis T. Mayeda { Chosen Army ............. C Taiwan Army ............. ommanders Kwantung Army ........... in Shanghai District Force .. in N. China District Force .. Department of Navy: Minister Parliam t ... v ... 0M0 : t ................. P en ary ice-ims er .............. ermane t v M" t P n iceinis er ................. arliamentary Councillor ............. Major-Gen. S. Kuwahara Lieut.-Gen. J. Nishi Lieut.-Gen. R. Ando Lieut.-Gen. S. Nakayama T. Iseki M. Ushijima Major-Gen. K. Seki Major.-Gen. 0. Tsukada Lieut.-Gen. Y. Shinotsuka Major-Gen. S. Shimada Lieut.-Gen. T. Miyake (Vacant) Major-Gen. Y. Ishida Lieut.-Gen. T. Hirono Major-Gen. M. Kimoto Major-Gen. K. Asakawa Intendant Major-Gen. K. Ouchi Sur. Lieut.-Gen. Y. Terashi Maj,or-Gen. K. Tsuchihashi B. Kinoshita K. Nagasawa T. Giga Lieut.-Gen. M. Makino E. Ebashi Major-Gen. K. Tsuji S. Hyakutake T. Kamimura N. Tominaga U. Yamada Lieut.-Gen. M. Takiguchi Major-Gen. T. Miura M. Tanabe Lieut.-Gen. K. Nakamura B. Kawagishi H. Tani 9th 10th 11th 12th 14th 16th 19th 20th M. Matsui Divisi~ns (Kanaza"wa) (Himeji) (Zentsuji) (Kurume) (Utsunomiya) (Kyoto) (Ranan) (Ryusan) .... Commander (Lt.-Gen.) R. Yoshizumi R. Isogai M. Yamamuro 0. Yamada K. Doihara K. Nakajima K. Suetaka B. Kawagishi General K. Koiso Lieut.-Gen. M. Furusho General K. Uyeda General S. Hata General H. Terauchi Admiral Mitsumasa Yonai Fusajiro Ichinomiya Vice-Admiral faoroku Yamamoto Seiki Kishida

PAGE 124

68 ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM Bureau Directors Chiefs School Directors Naval Affairs ............. Personnel ................ Supplies .................. Construction .............. Education ................ Medical Affairs .......... Account .................. Law Affairs ........... ... {Naval Technical Department .. Aviation Department ....... Technical Institute ......... Gunpowder Depot ......... Hydrographical Department .. Naval Staff College ........ Naval College ............. Engineering School ........ Medical School ............ Gunnery School ........... Torpedo School ........... Communications School ..... Paymaster School .......... Artificers School ........... Navigation School ......... Submarine School ......... Naval Staff Board: Chief ................................ Deputy-Chief .......................... Section Chiefs ......................... { Naval Stations: C d {y okosuka ................ or:::c~~er Kure .................... Sasebo ................... Secondary Naval Ports: {Maizuru .................. Ominato ................. Commanders Mako .. .................. Chinkai .................. Ryojun .................. Naval Arsenal: Cheifs {Yokosuka ................. Kure ................... Hiro ..................... Sasebo .............. Maizuru .................. Aeronautical, Yokosuka ..... lm,perial Fleets: !Combined Fleet ........... First Squadron ... ........ Commander Second Squadron .......... in Cliief Third Squadron ........... China Sea Squadr,on ....... Training Squadron ..... .. Navy Department in Manchoukuo: Commander-in-Chief .................... Chief Staff ........................... Rear-Adm. S. Inouye Y. Shimizu Vice-Adm. N. Ujiya Rear-Adm. N. Yoshida M. Niimi Surg. Vice-Adm. S. Takssugi Paym. Vice-Adm. T. Takei S. Shiomi Rear-Adm. T. Sugiyama Vice-Adm. I. Yamamoto K. Hidaka Ordnance Rear-Adm. S. Matsuoka Rear-Adm. S. Koike Vice-Adm. S. Hibino T. Sumiyama Rear-Adm. I. Kaneda Surg. Vice-Adm. C. Tanaka Rear-Adm. D. Okochi C. Nagumo K. Makida Paym. Vice-Adm. T. Otaba Rear-Adm. H. Asakuma Rear-Adm. S. Moizumi Marquis Rear-Adm. Teruhisa Komatsu Fleet Adm. H.I.H. Prince Hiroyasu Fushimi Vice-Admiral S. Shigeizumi Vice-Adm. N. Kondo Rear-Adm. G. Mikawa B. Furihata Captain K. Abe Vice-Adm. K. Hasegawa T. Kato S. Toyota Vice-Adm. Rear-Adm. Vice-Adm. Rear-Adm. M. Idemitsu S. Shimomura S. Mito J. Arichi M. Maeda Rear-Adm. M. Hoshino Vice-Adm. M. Yoshinari H. Araki Rear-Adm. K. Sunakawa M. Matsuki Vice-Adm. G. Hara Vice-Adm. Zengo Yoshida ,, Shigetaro Shimada Koshiro Oikawa Rear-Adrn. Umataro Tanimoto Rear-Adm. Shiro Takasu Captain Kiyoshi Ujitani

PAGE 125

JAPAN Administration ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 63 IV. LOCAL GOVERNMENT Japan proper is divided into 46 administrative districts or prefectures, three of them being called "fu" and the rest "ken." These 46 prefectures are sudivided into 627 smaller administrative districts, which are called gun" or counties, and these in turn are subdivided into villages or "mura" and towns or "machi." Originally sub-prefectural administrative division, the "gun" system was abolished in 1926 and "gun'' now remains as a mere relic of olden times. As existing on August 1, 1936, there were 9,724 villages, 1,693 towns and 129 autonomous cities or "shi." The chief administrator of a "fu" or "ken" is called "chiji" or prefectural governor and is ap pointed by the Minister of the Interior; whereas the mayor of a city or the headman of a town or village is elected by indirect popular votes usually for the term of four years. Thus when we say local government, the term includes all these different administrative organs, the chief executives of which are prefectural governor, mayor, and headman. Prefectures Each prefecture has its own prefectural as sembly, which is composed of at least 30 members elected by popular votes. Every male Japanese subject of the age of over 25 years, residing over one year in the prefecture and en joying citizenship, has the right to vote or to be elected. The terni of office of the members is four years. The assembly is called once a year by the prefectural governor to deliberate and decide the annual budget of the prefect'iire, and to give its conserit to the general policies of the Governor. The assembly has initiative on non-budgetary matters and can demand a call of a special session _on the quorum of at least one-third of the assembly or of one-half of the standing committee. The assembly can be dissolved subject to Imperial sanction. Established in 1878 it is in Japan the oldest representative institution modelled after the Western system and the law as last revised in 1929 made it liberal and more up-to-date in principle. Cities The city with a population of over 30,000 Ii.as a_ municipal government. The mayor of a muni~1pal city is elected by its city council, which _is composed of at least 30 members elected by ~he qualified voters. Hence a city-government Ill Japan is in a sense a self-government though th_e power of the mayor and city-co'uncil is still very much limited. A municipality can own and control electric, gas and water plants, and sewer systems; and it manages all matters concerning the primary education of its citizens, and its sanitary affairs. Within the limit de fined by law, a municipality can make its own regulations and can tax its citizens. It can also make contract of loans. But all the power the mayor and the city-council of a city can exercise is under the strict supervision of the central as well as the prefectural government. No municipality in Japan is given the po~v11er to control the police forces within its city-limits, and even in Tokyo they are subsidiary to the Home Office. Members of the city-council are elected by qualified voters, the qualifications of an elector being that he must be a male Japanese subject of 20 years of age and residing for a period of one year or more in his municipal electoral district. (As regards composition, finance, etc., vide Chapters on Population and also on Six Premier Cities). -I The Muncicipal System The municipal system in force was revised in 1921, together with partial reform in the law for the control of the election of the members of the city-council, next in 1926 and again in 1929. By the last revision the scope of franchise was considerably enlarged to prepare a way for the enforcement of general manhood suffrage for the election of parliamentary mem bers. The extension of franchise through the revision has considerably increased the number of voters, by about 204 per cent., the number swelling to 80 voters for a population of 1,uOO against 26 voters for a population of the same number under the old rules. The result of the elections held under the system as revised in 1929 indicates a dicideil improvement in the quality of the members returned, particularly in respect of age, education, etc. Towns and Villages The town and the village have also their own self-government, somewhat similar to the municipal government but on a smaller scale. They have their own headmen elected by indirect popular votes, i.e. a headman elected by the town council in the case of a town, and by the village council in the case of a village The qualifications of an elector of the town or village council are practically the same as those of an elector of the municipal ~ouncil.

PAGE 126

70 ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM -------------------------------------------------Latest Revision of Local System The year 1926 saw an epoch-making revision in the local administrative system, in other words, the principle of the new election law for parliamentary members was adopted for the election of the members of prefectural, municipal and village-town assemblies. In 1929 the prefectural system was revised as described above and that of the subordinate bodies was also made more democratic. In other words, their initiative is now recognized and the power of the administrative headmen was much curtailed as regards the enforcement of draft measures. Election under Universal Suffrage System The first elections of prefectural assembly members under the universal suffrage system came off in 1927-28 with the following results. No. of voters, 12,406,311; No. of votes, 9,960,-230; ratio of absentees, 19.7%. The votes polled as classified by party distinction were as follows:-Seiyukai (Ministerial) Minseito ( Oppositiqn) Proletarians .......... Others .............. 4,359,633 4,262,580 471,131 866,88ff Table 8. Composition of Prefectures (April, 1935) Prefecture "Gun City Toxn Aichi 18 5 81 Akita 9 1 52 Aomori 8 3 24 Chiba . 12 3 84 Ehime 12 4 33 Fukui . 11 1 13 Fukuoka 19 10 49 Fukushima 1 7 3 4 7 Gifu . 18 2 56 Village 150 183 140 251 232 162 251 357 276 Prcfectur.e "Gun" Gumma 11 Hiroshima 16 Hokkaido 85 Hyogo ........ 25 Ibaraki ....... 14 Ishikawa 8 Iwate . 13 Kagawa 7 Kagoshima 12 Kanagawa 11 Kochi . 7 Kumamoto 12 Kyoto .. .. .. .. 18 Miyazaki 8 .Miye . 15 Miyagi . 16 Nagano ....... 16 Nagasaki 9 Nara . 10 Niigata 16 Oita 12 Okayama 19 Okinawa 5 Osaka 7 Saga . 8 Saitama 9 Shiga 12 Shimane 16 Shizuoka 13 Tochigi 8 Tokushima 10 Tokyo . 3 Tottori 6 Toyama 8 Wakayama 7 Yamagata 11 Yamaguchi 11 Yamanashi 9 Total 627 Do ( 1934) 627 Do (1933) 627 Do (1932) 632 Do (1931) 632 Do (1930) 632 Do (1929) 632 City 3 4 7 5 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 1-1 3 4 2 4 2 1 4 3 3 2 3 2 4 1 1 4 2 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 1 129 124 121 112 109 109 104 Town 40 56 47 70 54 27 28 22 38 34 28 42 27 20 35 38 30 26 28 52 34 61 4 28 13 49 20 26 51 38 38 11 17 33 27 26 irn 13 1,702 1,683 1,663 1,716 1,708 1,702 1,687 Viilage 162 340 217 336 325 180 208 150 101 137 163 303 204 72 293 162 354 157 122 346 214 320 50 195 110 310 177 246 264 137 98 89 160 228 185 198 182 224 9,721 9,788 9,839 9,946 9,986 9,980 10,065 Note:-For area, population, etc. see Chapter on Fopula tion. Table 9. Members of Local Assemblies Prefectural Municipal Town and Village ___.,____, ,__.,.__ _...._ .Electors E:ectors Electors Mem. (1,000) Mem, (1,000) Mem. (1,000) i929 e I I I o I I I o o I 3,870 2,700 154,621 9,496 1930 0 0 0 0 I I I I O O O O O O O I 1,881 12,129 3,868 2,819 154,816 9,575 1931 ................ 1,901 12,373 3,886 2,935 154,086 9,613 1932 0 0 0 0 I I I O O O IOI IOI 4,092 3,645 151,918 9,157 1933 I o IOI I I I I I I I I II I 4,451 3,810 152,542 9,U2 1934 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1,901 19,373 4,585 4,034 150,787 9,161 1935 ................ 1,902 12,871 4,624 4,203 150,865 9,201 1936 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ,842 4,417 149,883 9,168 REFORM IN JAPANESE ADMINISTRATIVE MACHINERY IN MANCHOUKUO The question of reforming the Japanese administrative machinery in Mal'lchoukuo was settled in December 1934. According to the regu l_ati.ons published on December 26 through the Official Gazette with reference to the new offices set up, the new Manchurian Affairs Board (Tai man Jimukyoku) is under control of the Premier and takes charge of the following business:-

PAGE 127

JAPAN Administration ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM '71 (1) Business relative to the Kwantung Bureau. (2) The unification of administrative affairs bearing on Manchoukuo in all Government offices. (3) The guidance and encouragement of colo nization business in Manchoukuo, except matters of foreign relations. (4) Supervision of the South Manchuria Rail way Company and the Manchuria Telegraph and Telephone Company. The new Kwantung Bureau, provided within the Japanese Embassy in Hsinking, supervises the Kwantung Government and controls administrative matters in Kwantung Province, controls administration in the South Manchuria Railway zone, except what may be otherwise stipulated, and supervises the business of the South Man churia Railway Company and the Manchuria Telegraph and Telephone Company. The Ambassador to Manchoukuo superintends the Kwantung Bureau, himself being under the supervision of the Premier. In matters of for1ign relations, however, he is amenable to the i:ontrol of the F_oreign Minister, References: Table Nos.: 1 a, 2 b, 3,4 c, 5-6 a, 7 d, 8 e. Key: a-Cabinet Statitics Bureau. The Ambassador can ask the military or naval commanders in the districts concerned for the use of military or naval force, in case he deems the step necessary for the maintenance of peace and order in Kwantung Province and the South Manchuria Railway zone. The Kwantung Government is provided for Kwantung Province, which is divided into five administrative districts, each having a civil administrative office. The Governor of Kwantung Province controls administrative business in the province under the direction and supervision of the Ambassador. The Governor can, either by virtue of his office or by special powers entrusted to him, issue orders, for the infraction of which he can impose penalties of imprisonment with or witliout hard labour for a term not exceeding three months and or a fine not exceeding -., The Governor is called upon to report to the Ambassador when he requires the help of armed force for the maintenance of peace and order in the province under his jurisdiction. In case of emergency, he can apply to the military or naval commander in the affected districts direct. b-List of the Government Officials. c-Army and Navy Offices. cl-Research of the Japai=i.-Manchouk~o Year Book Co. e-Statistics Bureau, Home Department.

PAGE 128

CHAPTER VII POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES INTRODUCTORY POLITICS Politics in every country has its own peculiarities, and that is particularly so in Japan. Her political institutions are verv complicated and the political psychology of her people i~ unique and extremely singular. Hence it is not an easy matter to describe the workings of her government or the political seat of the country. The principal factors in the constitutional machinery of Japan are the Emperor, the Privy Council, the Cabinet, the Imperial Diet, the Electorate, the Political Parties, and the Genro or Elder Statesmen which last is now practically one of historic interest. Their legal status and actual powers, and their relations to each other may be briefly described as follows:-The Emperor Prince Hirobumi Ito, the chief framer of the Constitution, expounds the constitutional status of the Emperor with the following words: "The sovereign power of reigning over and governing the State is inherited by the Emperor from his ancestors; and by him bequeathed to his posterity. All the different legislative as well as executive powers of State, by means of which he reigns over the country and governs the people, are united in the Most Exalted Personage, who holds in his hands, as it were, all the ramifying threads of the political life of the country, just as the brain in the human body is the primitive source of all mental activity manifested through the four limbs and different parts of the body." Thus, in theory, the Emperor is absolute, and the people believe him to be sacred and inviolable according to the letter of the Constitution. But in reality, he acts only by the advice of the Prime-Minister and occa sionally by that of the Elder Statesmen. And constitutionally he is inviolable in the sense that "he can do no wrong." The Privy Council Next to the Emperor, the Privy Council in Japan occupies a peculiar position in the con stitutional system of her government. It is not like the Privy Council of England, out of which the British cabinet system has grown, and in which the Cabinet Ministers have their legal existence. The Cabinet and the Privy Counc'.l in Japan form two separate and independent institutions. ".... The functions of the Privy Council are chiefly of a consultative nature. It meets to deliberate on any important matter of State, when its opinion is asked for by the Emperor, and advises him according to its lights. The principal matter on which it is usually consulted are those which come under the jurisdiction of the Imperial House Law, all important legislatfons relating to Articles of the Constitution, the issuing of the proclamations of the law of siege and of Imperial ordinances and all the matters relating to international treaties and pledges. The power of the Privy Council is entirely of a negative nature; nevertheless it exercises a very strong power and influence in Japanese politics. It consists of 26 members with its President and Vice-President. They are all veteran statesmen who have played very im portant part in the administration, and though no longer taking an active share in it, their age and prestige entitle them to universal respect. As may be expected they are extremely conservative in their political ideas and sentiments. All such important acts of legislation as relating to rights and liberties of the people are usually submitted to the Privy Council, before the Government introduce them to the Imperial Diet. The Privy Council is at liberty to reject or to delay their passage. Of course, it is as the Emperor pleases either to accept or reject this decision, but it may easily be seen how great is the influence which the Privy Council can exercise on all such legislation by virtue of its de liberative function. Sometimes the Cabinet uses the power of the Privy Council as a convenient expedient for killing measures it does not really desire to bring into the Diet. On the other hand, it sometimes happens that the Privy Council prevents the passage of some important measures of the Government, But the Privy Council cannot meet on its own account, its meetings being called by the Emperor on tbe advice of the Minister-President. All the Cabi net ministers have seats in the Council ex-officio, and, therefore, it is the will of the Cabinet that

PAGE 129

JAPAN Politics POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES ultimately prevails, and not that of the Privy Council. As to international treaties and pledges, the Privy Council is always consulted, and it is the only deliberative body in the constitutional system of Japan that can freely dis.cuss all the foreign policies of a Government with the Cabinet, though its meetings are kept absolutely secret. The most important power of the Privy Council is that of interpreting the Constitution. In 1927 and 1928 three important cases were sub mitted to the approval of the Privy Council. 'l"jle disa})proval of the Wakatsuki Ministry's ./Bank of Taiwan relief measure in April, 1927 / on constitutional ground caused its fall, wh1le a similar proposal made by the succeeding Cabi net and the Peace Preservation Emergency Ordinance proposed in July, 1928 by the same Cabinet were both passed. The latest instance was a hot dispute raised in June, 1929 that the phrase in the Kellogg Anti-War Pact; "in the names of their respective peoples," was not compatible with the Constitution. The Cabinet Nowhere in the Constitution of Japan is the word "Cabinet" mentioned. Yet there exists as a matter of fact a collective body of all Department Ministers under the presidency of the Minister-President, somewhat like the Council of Ministers in Belgium, or the British Cabi net, for the purpose of initiating, determining, or carrying out the general scheme and policies of the Government. Though this collective body known as the "Naikaku" meets to discuss and determine under the guidance of the Minister President how the Imperial government is to be carried on in all important matters of State and how to advise the Emperor, yet it has ~o joint responsibility as the British Cabinet has, that is to say, each Cabinet Minister is not responsible for the action of the Cabinet as a whole nor the Cabinet as a whole for the action of each Minister. As chief executive organ of the State, the Cabinet exercises all powers executive, legislative, and judical, which are invested in the Crown by the Constitution that is to say, the issuing of administrative ~nd emergency ordinances, the making of treaties with foreign nations, the declaring of peace and war, etc., all of which falling within the executive function of government are virtually controlled by the Cabinet in the name of the Emperor. In Japan, the Cabinet Ministers, unlike those of England, are not always party-men; they may hold their office independent of the House of Representatives. The representative system of government has not yet developed in this country to such a stage as to make the Cabinet Ministers necessarily responsible to the Diet. A certain ordina,,ce provides that the Min ister of War must be but a General or Lieutenant-General, and the Minister for the Navy, an Admiral or Vice-Admiral, and because of this ordinance it was found impossible on one oc casion to organize a Cabinet as ordered by the Emperor because there was no suitable Adrriiral willing to become the Minister for the Navy in the Cabinet. On another occasion the Ministry in power was forced to go o~t of office because of the strong demand of military men to increase the army divisions. But the above instances are unusual, and as a matter of fact, those days are now passed. The "Genro" The "Genro" or so-called Elder Statesmen as a body has no constitutional status, but as surviving builders of the grand work of the Imperial rehabilitation over half a century ago the Council of Genro was, until the beginning of 1922, an important institution in the political system of Japan, though with functions not legally formulated. It then consisted of four Elder Statesmen, Marshal Prince Yamagata, Prince Saiemji, Marquis Matsukata and Mar quis Okuma. The last mentioned had not often been present at its conclaves. The venerable title is now retained by Prince Saionji, the other three being no more, and Though the Prince is still held in great respect by politi cians of all parties as one to be consulted on important ques~ions of State, age no longer al lows him to take any active part. The Imperial Diet The Imperial Diet is bicameral, consisting of a House of Peers and a House of Representatives. The former is composed of Princes of the Blood; ordinary Princes and Marquises who sit by virtue of their right; representatives of Counts, Viscounts, and Barons; Imperial Nominees and representatives of the highest taxpayers .. With regard to_ legislative matters, all rights and powers granted to the Diet by the Constitution are equally granted to both Houses, except that the Budget is to be introduced first into the House of Representatives. Thus the two Houses are supposed to be coordinate, neitner one nor the other being considered superior or subordinate. But it is not so in practical politics. Where there are two chambers in a legislature, naturally one or the other becom~s predominant,

PAGE 130

74 POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES Although, as far as outward appearances go, the members of the House of Peers occupy a better fortified position, for the House of Peers is not subject to dissolution as the House of Representative is, yet in practice it is not the former, but the latter that the Cabinet regards with greater dread, holding it more aggressive and powerful, and more difficult to control. The fact is that the 125 Imperial Nominees in the House of Peers are mostly ex-officials of government, who hold their position on a life tenure, while the rest are aristocrats either by birth or by wealth. Naturally their sympathy has almost always been with the Cabinet Ministers independent of and irresponsible to the House of Representatives. In the House of Peers there are no political parties, so to speak. Nevertheless all its members are of political leaning, either for or against the Cabinet of the day, as mentioned elsewhere in this chapter. This political acti vity is especially strong among the younger and ambitious members of the House. In the House of Reperesentatives, there are very clear-cut divisions, and no matter how inany parties there are, the House is usually divided into two camps, the government party and the opposition, though this party division does not come from any political principle or conviction. Of late things have become more complicated in the House owing to the absence of a party commanding absolute majority and to the manouevre engineered by minor partymen to snatch an opportunity of casting votes. The Lower House has the power of initiative in all matters of legislation, but its legislative power is rather negative in character, for in Japan a majority of the House of Representa tives does not necessarily contrpl the Cabinet. It is the Cabinet that gets majority by one way or other. When a political party in Japan supports the Government, it is because its leader is the Prime Minister or holds a certain port folio in the Cabinet. Then again some parties or individual members too often give support to the Government from consideration of inter est, while, on the other hand, the Government can sometimes force them to support its policies either by intimidation or through threat of dissolution. The Cabinet Ministers in Japan do not therefore formulate the policies of State in accordance with the political programmes which the parties supporting the Government may have laid down at the time of their election. It may even be said that the political parties in Japan have no definite programmes; they make no definite promise before election. They know well that they cannot make their promises good, even if they made them; The Cabinet Ministers have practically an entirely free hand to formulate all policies of State, and even the government party usually accepts almost blindly whatever the Cabinet decides. Too often the government party is merely a convenient tool of the Cabinet for carrying its measures through the House of Representatives. COMPOSITION OF THE IMPERIAL DIET The House of Peers The House of Peers is composed of (a) Princes of the Blood; (b) Peers of the order of Princes and Marquises who are to sit in the House by virtue of their birthright when they attain the age of thirty; (c) Representatives of the peers of the order 6f Counts, Viscounts and Barons, who are elected from among their respective orders; (d) Men of erudition ,or of distinguished services nominated by the Emperor; ( e) Four members of the Imperial Academy elected from among the members thereof and nominated by the Emperor; (f) Representatives of the highest tax payers elected by means of mutual election from among the highest tax payers in each prefecture, the number thereof being one or two for each prefecture. The number of members representing each of three inferior orders of the peerage is 18 for Counts, 66 for Viscounts and 66 for Barons. (Furtber details are given elsewhere in this chapter). The House is composed as follows: Table 1. Composition of the House of Peers (End of June 1937) Princes of Blood. . 18 Princes . . 16 Marquises . 35 Counts ................. 17 Viscounts . . 66 Barons . . 66 Imperial Nominees . 118 Imperial Academy Members. 4 Highest Tax paying Members. 65 Total . . 405 As mentioned elsewhere in this chapter, there are clear-cut political divisions or parties in the Upper House as in 'the case of the other House, still the members excluding ,those Imperial Princes having seats in the House now belong to one or the other of several groups or associations which exist as organs to form the opinions of the members of the respective groups or important political or other problems. Of thos(

PAGE 131

JAPAN Politics: POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 75 organizations, the most influential is the Renkyukai whose attitude very often controls opi nions ~f the House on the bills of important issue. The relative strength of those quasi-political groups in the House is as follows:-Table 2. Factions in House of Peers (71st Session: July 25-Aug. 8, 1937) Imperial Princes ............ Kenkyu-kai ................ Dosei-kai Kosei-kai .................. Koyu Club ................. Dowa-kai .................. Kayo-kai .................. Independents (N ei:trnl) ...... Total ................... 18 163 22 66 35 34 42 32 412 The President of the House of Peer~ in 1937 was Count Yorinaga Matsudaira, who succeeded Prince Fumimaro Konoe; the Vice-President, Marquis Yukitada Sasaki, and the Chief Secretary, T. Cho. The House of Representatives As under the new election law passed in the 50th session of the Imperial Diet in 1925, and enforced in 1928, the Rouse is composed of members elected by male Japanese subjects of not less than 25 years of age, who are qualified for eligibility to the franchise with some excepttions. The whole country is divided into 119 electoral districts, Taiwan (Formosa) and other colonies being excluded of course, each district returning from 3 to 5 members to the House, with the total number of members fixed at 466. A general election is to take place every four years, and is carried on by secret ballot, one vote for one man. The allotment of seats, which formerly was 305 for the rural districts and 75 for the urban districts, was increased to 352 and 112 respectively in 1928. Sessions of House and Dissolutions The chronological lists of sessions of the Lower House from the first is as follows; those marked with asterisks ( *) being the dissolyed sessions. Table 3. Chronological Session of House of Representatives Session Perio:l of sitting President 1st ........................ Nov. 29, 1890-Mar. 8, 1891} N N k 2nd ........................ Nov. 29, 1891-Dec. 25, 18H a &Jima 3rd ........................ May 26, 1892-June 16, 1892 T. Hoshi 4th ........................ Nov. 29, 1892-Mar. 1, 1893 Do. 5th ........................ Nov. 28, 1893 Dec. 30, 1893l 6th ........................ May 16, 1894-June 2, 1894 7th ....................... Oct. 18, 1834-Oct. 22, 1894 M. Kusumoto 8th ........................ Dec. 24, 1894-Mar. 27, 1895 9th ........................ Dec. 28, 1895-Mar. 29, 1896 m~ ........................ Dec. 25, 18. 96-Mar. 2i, 1897} K. Hatoyama ........................ Dec. 24, 1897-Dec. 2t>, 1897 *12th ........................ May 19, 1898-June 10, 18981 13th ........................ Dec. 3, 1898-Mar. 10, 1899 14th ........................ Nov. 22, 1899-Feb. 24, 1900 ........................ Dec. 25, 1900-Mar. 25, 1901 K. Kataoka h ........................ Dec. 10, 1901-Mar. 10, 1902 17t ........................ Dec. 9, 1902-Dec. 28, 1902 18th ........................ May 12, 1903-June 5, 1903 *19th ........................ Dec. 10, 1903 Dec. 11, 1903 H. Kono 21th ........................ Mar. 20, 1904-Mar. 30, 1904} M M t d 2 st ........................ Nov. 30, 1904-Feb. 28, 1905 a su a ~2nd ........................ Dec. 28, 1905-Mar. 27, 1906} Jr!Dec. 28, 19:6-Mar. 28, 1907 T. Sugita t ........................ Dec. 24, 1907-Mar. 28, 1908 ~:tt ...................... Dec. 28, 19:18-Mar. 26, 19091 27ih ........................ Dec. 24, 1909-Mar. 24, 1910 S. Haseba ZSth ..................... Dec. 24, 1910-Mar. 24, 1911 ..................... Dec. 24, 1911-Mar. 24, 1912 ~~it ........................ Aug. 21, 19l2-Aug. 23, 1912} I. Oo'.'a 3 .... Dec. 24, 19]2-Mar. 26, 1913 lst ........................ Dec. 26, 19l3-Mar. 26, 1914 I. Ooka, S. Haseba, H. Oku ~~ng ........................ May 5, 1914-May 8, 19141 34~hJune 2?, 1914-June 26, 1914 H. Oku *3Sth ....................... Sept. 3, 1914 Sept. 9, 1914 SSth ....................... Dec 7, 1914-D2c. 25, 1914 3?th ........................ May 20, Bl5-June 15, 191~} "8Sth ........................ Dec. 1, 1915 -Feb. 29, 1916 S. Shimada ........................ Dec. 27, 1916-June 25, 1916 Vice-President S. Tsuda A. Sone M. Kumamoto I. Abei K. Kataoka Do. S. Shimada Do Do Do. Do. H. Motoda T. Sugita Do. K. Minoura Do. R. Koezuka N. Seki Do. Do. T. Hanai Do. S. Hayami

PAGE 132

76 POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES Session Period of sitting President 39th ........................ June 22, 1917-July 15, 1917} 40th ........................ Dec. 22, 1917-Mar. 26, 1918 I Ooka 41st ....................... Dec. 27, 1918-Mar. 27, 1919 "42nd ....................... Dec. 26, 1919-Feb. 16, 1920 43rd ....................... June 29-1920.-July 30, 1920l 44th ....................... Dec. 25, 1920-Mar. 27, 1921 f S. Oku 45th ..................... ;Dec. 25, 1921-Mar. 25, 1922 46th ....................... Dec. 27, 1922 Mar. 27, 1923} 47th ....................... Dec. 11, 1923-Dec. 23, 19'B *48th ....................... Dec. 27, 1923 Jan. 31, 1924 49th ....................... June 28, 1924-July 19, 1924 Y. Kasuya 50th ........................ Dec. 24, 1924-Mar. 31, 1925 51st ....................... Dec. 24, 1925-Mar. 31, 1926 52nd ........................ Dec. 24, I 926-Mar. 25, 1927 5~rd ....................... May 3, 1927-May 8, 1927 l S. Morita 5.th ....................... Dec. 26, 1927Jan. 21, 1928 I 55th ..................... Apr. 20, 1928-May 7, 1928 H. Motoda 56th ....................... Dec. U, 1925 -Mar. 25, 1929 H. Motoda, M. Kawahara "57th ....................... Dec. 24, 1923-Jan. 21, 1930 Z. Horikiri 58th ........................ Apr. 23, 1930 May 14, 1930} I. Fujisawa 59th ....................... Dec. 26, 1930--Mar. 28, 1931 '60th ........................ Dec. 26, 1931--Jan. 21, 1932 K. Nakamura *61st ...................... Mar. 20, 1932 Mar. 25, 1932 62nd ...... ; ................ June 1, 1932June 15, 19321 63rd ........................ Aug. 23, 1932-Sept. 5, 1932 I{. Akita 64th ........................ Dec. 26, 1932-Mar. 28, 1933 65th .................. Dec. 26, 1933-Mar. 25, 1934 66th .: ................. Nov. 27, 1934-Dec. 10, W34 .. 67th .................. Dec. 24, 1934-Mar. 26, 1935} K. Hamada 68th .................. Dec. 26, 1935 Jan. 21, 1936 69th ...................... May 1, 1936-Ma~ 27, 1936} K. Tomita 70th ........................ Dec. 27, 1936-Mar. 31, 1937 71st ........................ July 25, 1937-Aug. 8, 1937 S. Koyama THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM VicePresiden'. K. Hamada Y. Kasuya G. Matsuda Do. Do. M. Koizumi Do. Do. Do. G. Matsuura I. Kiyose Do. Do. M. Koyama G. Masuda E. Uehara Do. T. Okada T. Kanamitsu The Election Law in Japan has a separate existence from the Constitution; and that is very fortunate for her, revision having been effected already four times solely on account of this convenient arrangement. The Consititu tion, on the other hand, is a :fo1'11\idable docu ment that does not easily allow modification. Important features in the original and revised Election Laws are shown below in tabular form:-Table 4. Important Features in Original and Revised Election Law1 Elector Candidate No. of Member Original: ,_,,.--., ----No.of Voers per electoral Age Tax Age 1890 ........... 25 30 Revised: 1900 ........... 25 30 1920 ........... 25 3 30 1925 ........... 25 none 30 1934 ........... 25 none 30 1935 ........... 25 none 30 1936 ........... 25 none 30 1937 ........... 25 none 30 The revision in 1925 is memorable as an epoch-making event in the democratic movement in Japan and as a distinct triumph realized by those espousing the cause of universal suffrage. It is essential!~ a general manhood suffrage system somewhat limited in application, but as such it occasioned intense contest from the 42nd session (1919-20) to the u0th (1924 25) in and out of the Diet betwee.'l the two opposing parties and it even caused at one time Tax MemLers (in 1,000) district 300 500 1-2 none 381 1,500 4-12 none 464 3,070 1-3 none 466 3,288 3-5 none 466 13,000 35 none 466 13,000 35 none 466 14,075 3-5 none 466 14,618 3-5 the dissolution of the House. The law as it stands was a result of compromise at the con ference of the two Houses. Revised Election Law The features of the election law as revised in 1925 and still in force are outlined as follows:As shown above the result of the removal of the tax qualification has increased the number of those eligible to franchise to upward of 14,000,

PAGE 133

JAPAN Politics POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 77 000 as against approximately 3,000,000 under the former system. Excluding from that. figure those who are disqualified for franchise because of their receiving pv.!:;iic or private relief or help towards a living 0:!1 account of poverty, the number of those entitled to vote will come down to about 10,000,000. Eligibility for Franchise:-The right of voting has been extended to the following: Students; Teachers of primary schools; Shinto or Buddhist priest and other persons engaged in religious work; Persons doing work for the Government under contract; Government and public officials connected with election affairs, who have not resigned their office 3 months before. (Government officials other than those connected with administrative. affairs of State have no right to vote). Electoral Districts:-The new law has adopted the system of middle electoral districts, the number of members for each district being fixed at 3 to 5, at the rate of one member for a population of 120,000. The former system of independent electoral districts for cities has been abolished. In consequence of the abovementioned change the number of electorates has decreased to 122 from 379 as under the former system, while the number of members has increased to 466 from 464. Period of Election Campaign:-The new election law has shortened the period intervening between the expiration of the term of members and the day of the next general election, or between the dissolution of the House of Re presentatives and the next general election, 'In the case of dissolution the general election is to be held within 30 days from the date of the dissolution, while in the case of the expiration of the members' term a general election is to be held on the day following the day when the term expired, or within 5 days after the said date in case circumstances necessitate. In case the members' term expires during the session of the House or within 25 days after the closing of the session a general election is to be held within 30 days after the lapse of 26 days from the date of the closing of the session. Candidates:-The candidate must send in applications to the chief election commissioners within 7 days before the date of the election, and must deposit a sum of ,000 either in cash or public bonds as security. In case the number of candidates falls short of the fixed number of members to be returned from a certain election district the candidates will be elected as members for that district without going th rough the proceedings of voting. Coat of Election:-The expense to be defray ed by a candidate is fixed at the rate of 40 sen for each franchise-holder, and the total amount of the expenses is fixed at the total number of the franchise-holders of the electoral districts divided by the number of parliamentary members for the districts, the quotient thus obtained being then multiplied by 40 sen. The standard figure of the total number of voters divided by the number of members is estimated at between 25,000 and 30,000, and the amount of the election expenses is roughly estimated at between ,000 and ,000 for one candidate. The defrayal of the election expenses is to be in charge of chief election commissioners or those specially designated by chief election commission ers. When the amount of expenses of a cantli date exceeds the maximum limit his election shall be void. Strict Control over Campaigns:-In the new law only election commissioners and election committees, their number not to exceed fifty persons, are permitted to take part in the campaign. These are allowed to receive remuneration from candidates to cover the cost incurred or they may be employed on wage basis by candidates. The number of election offices to be established by a candidate in one electoral district is limited to seven. The new law prohibits the practice of the "house-to-house call" by candidates or their canvassers for soliciting votes. Penal Provisions:-The revised election law provides much heavier penalties for the violation of the law. Candidates who have infringed the law are punished with a fine of ,000 or less or servitude or imprisonment for a perioil not longer than 3 years as the heaviest penalty, as against the maximum amount of a fine of and imprisonment without hard labour of the old law. Upper House Reform Simultaneously with the adoption of the general manhood suffrage bill in the 50th session (1924-5) 0f the Diet the reform of the Upper House was effected, though naturally more limited than that of the Lower House. The main points in the reform are as follows:-The age-limit for the members of the order of Prince and Marquis was raised to 30 from 25 years. The number of the members of the lower order of peerage has been fixed at 18 for Counts, 66 for Viscounts and 66 for Barons. The inclusion of 4 representatives of the members of the Imperial Academy to be elected from among the members thereof by niutual elections. The highest tax paying members in the House shall be effected from. among those paying di-

PAGE 134

78 POLITICS AN:::> POLITICAL PARTIES ------------rect national tax to the amount of and upward in connection with landed property, industry or commerce, the age-limit for such members being fixed as 40 years and upwards. The number of such members for each prefecture is limited to 1 or 2, according to the size of population, the total number not exceeding 66. The application of the penal clause of the election law, hitherto exclusively applied to the election of the members of the Lower House, to the election of the highest tax paying members. The cancellation of Article 7 of the Law of the Houses providing that the number of the Imperial nominees and highest tax paying members in the Upper House shall not exceed the number of the titled members. The period of the examination of the Budget by the Upper House committee has been limited to within 21 days as in the case of the Lower House committee. THE POLITICAL PARTIES The representative system of Japan dates from 1890, but the history of political parties is much older. The Jiyu-to (Liberal) was the first political party and was organized by the late Count Itagaki and his followers in 1880, to be followed two years later by the Kaishinto (Progressive) formed by the late Marquis, then Count Okuma. Both upheld the cause ot liberty and progress, the only difference being that the former were more radical. As an organ of conservative and bureaucratic element the Teisei-to (Imperialists) was created soon after, but for all the fostering care bestowed upon its growth, it failed to enlist any great support of the public and. disappeared in 18"84. Hard and bitter was the campaign which the Liberals waged against bureaucrats and militarist who entrenched in their formidable stronghold, treated them with merciless severity. It was a critical moment in the political history of Japan. Fortunately Japan had at that time an enlightened sovereign in Meiji Tenno who on the advice of the late Prince Ito, his most trusted counsellor, made a solemn pledge in 1881 to establish constitutional government within ten years, and true to this pledge the Diet was convened in 1890 The political history of the past forty-five years is a record of ceaseless endeavours for power among the liberals, the bureauc;rats and the militarists, and as is usually the case these elements have been but instruments through which the general condition of the times have been reflected. Following the golden era oi the bureaucrats under the banner of Prince Itc we next find the liberals under Kei Hara in thei; heyday. The Incident of September 18, rnn which led to the creation of the state of Man choukuo the following year next switched political power to the militarists. The bureaucrats and the liberalists have, therefore, for the past few years been marking time, and if anythir,g their star seems to be rising again. Seiy:ukai The creation of the Seiyu-kai by the late Prince Ito in l900 forms a distinct ch"J.pter in the history of party politics in Japan, though the first Ministry under Ito did not last for more than two years, for what with the opposition of the Peers and militarists and next desertion of members of questionable loyalty, its power was weakened. Then in 1903 Ito had to exchange his post as party leader for the Presidency of the Privy Council held by Prince Sai onji, and the latter led the party till 1914. The chair was next filled by K. Hara, and during the seven years of his leadership the Seiyu-kai reigned supreme. Naturally the masterful leader made himself an object of implacable hatred and unbounded dread to his political foe, this eventually causing him to be assassinated by a demented youth. From the untimely death of Hara (Nov. 4, 1921) till the split of the party in January, 1924 the history of the Seiyu-kai was one of repeated troubles and internal disintegration. The resignation of the leadership by K. Takahashi (former Viscount) in 1925 in favour of General Baron Tanaka somewhat improved the situation as it induced a number of the seceders to come back. On the fall of the Kensei-kai Cabinet in 1927 the Seiyu-kai came into power though the Party's strength in the House still fell below the Kensei-kai, and was brought practically to a tie by the gene~al election of 1928. On the Seiyu-kai Ministery's resignation in June, 1929, and the creation of a Minsei-to Cabinet, Tokonami's anomalous group Shinto Club-' was persuaded to join the Seiyu-kai, so that the latter became ap parently the largest party in the House. But the Party appeared to be far from stable and settled internklly, owing to the growing discon tent against the erratic doings of its lea~er (Baron Tanaka). Minsei-to This party was created in 1927 on the union of the Kensei-kai and the Seiyu-Honto, the former being historically composed of the followers of Okuma, Katsura, and Inukai. Katsura's party was called the Doshi-kai, and when the

PAGE 135

JAPAN Politics POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES Prince died .Prematurely, the leadership of the party fell naturally upon Viscount Kato, a deputy leader. The party supported Marquis Okuma when he organized a Cabinet in 1914, and Vis count Kato was given the post of Minister of Foreign Affairs in that ministry. In the general election held in 1915 under the Okuma Cabinet, the influence of the party almost swept the whole country. The name of the party was then changed to Kensei-kai. At the time of the downfall of the Okuma Ministry in 1916, the Kensei-kai still held a majority in the House of Representatives, but in the general elections of 1917 and 1920, the party's strength was much reduced, and had only 109 seats in the House at the beginning of the 45th session, to be still further weakened during that session. In the general election of May 1924 the party profited by the desperate contest fought between the Seiyu-kai and its deserters the Honto, and came out relatively the strongest force in the House. In May 1927, Y. Hamaguchi succeeded Wakatsuki (now Baron) as leader of the party and the latter and Tokonami, Honto leader, were appointed Advisers. Once again the ex-Honto leader was a political waif in June 1929, when the Tanaka Cabinet was about to resign and at last he was persuaded, with diminished following, to join the Seiyu-kai where he held a delicate position until he was appointed Min ister of Communication in the Okada Ministry in July 1934. Proletarian Parties Amidst the ceaseless changes in the composi tion of the existing parties the rapid march of democratic movement and the enactment of the Manhood Suffrage Law in 1926 were signalized by the birth of several Proletarian parties, namely, Shakai Minshu-to (Social Democratic Party upholding Fabian ideas), Rodo Nomin-to (Labour Farmers Party), Nihon Rono-to (Japan Labour Farmers Party), etc. Of these Proletarians, the first organized by such intellectuals as Isoh Abe, fomerly Prof. at Waseda University and Bu:nji Suzuki, President of the Federation of Japanese Labourers, overshadowe-d the other sections in influence and though their fol lowing was less than that of some others, they were far more compact and well organized. The other Proletarians were fluctuating and divided between those adovocating extreme views tinged red and others standing midway, between them and the Fabians. It should be noted that the Rodo Nomin-to was ordered dissolution by the Home 'Minister in 1928 on the charge of holding communistic ideas and hence subversive of the national polity. Other Parties The political party that comes next to the two predominating parties is the "KokuminDomei' or "National League." It was organized in December, 1932 by Kenzo Adachi, Home Minister in the second Wakatsuki Cabinet. Adachi, in spite of the fact of his being a Minseito leader, insisted upon organizing a coalition Cabinet, There was some misunderstanding between Premier Wakatsuki and Home Minister Adachi, which eventually caused the collapse of the Wakatsuki Ministry and subsequently the latter's departure from the Minseito rank. His coalition Cabinet plan was shattered to the ground and the power was transferred to the rival party the Seiyukai. Those who were faithful to Adachi and who belonged to the Minseito grew impatient with the inactivity of that party and sought to form ,a more vigorous political party and they all rallied under Adachi's leadership. Their efforts culminated in the formation of a new party Kokumin Domei (National League or National Party) with Adachi as its leader and central figure. The new political unit is not as yet a full-fledged party in the strict sense. The public interest was aroused, however, concerning the probable in~ tensity of Fascism with which this unit may grow up because of its outspoken views on such subjects as the state control of economy. As a result of internal dissensions within the Kokumin Domei, however, the party was merged into the Daiichi Giin Club. This new party, which consists of the former members of the Showakai, the Kokumin Domei and the Nippon Kakushinto had a membership of 47 persons when tht! 73rd session of the Imperial Diet came to a close in March, 1938. The Social Mass party had a membership of 34 at the end of the 73rd session of the Diet. CABINET CHANGES SINCE 1885 It will be seen from the following table of Cabinet changes since 1885 that the bureaucratic statesmen monopolized the administration till the formation of the 1st Okuma Cabinet in June 1898. It was the first Cabinet organized along the party lines, but unfortunately it collapsed after a short existence from internal dissension of the two rival parties that had temporarily sunk their difference to uphold the common cause of party politics. Then followed the suc-

PAGE 136

so POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES cession of Cabinet either purely bureaucratic or, with a thin veneer of party element. Of the sixteen administrations that were in power from the fall of the Okuma Cabinet down to the formation of the 2nd Kato Cabinet, seven were purely bureaucratic and the other nine mixed. So far the Harn Ministry and its extension, the Takahashi Ministry, have risen to the highest level accessible to party politics under the peculiarly complicated circumstances in which various political organizations work in Japan. The Hara Administration is noteworthy as the first Cabinet of Japan formed by an avowed party leader (Seiyukai) and an untitled commoner. The Hamaguchi Cabinet and its extension namely 2nd Wakatsuki Cabinet was another. Table 5. Statistics of Cabinet Changes Since 1885 Ministerial 1st Ito Kuroda 1st Yamagata 1st Matsukata 2nd Ito chairs Dec. 1~85 April lb89 Dec. 1889 May H91 Aug. 1892 Premier ................................. Ito Kuroda Yamagata Matsukata Ito, Kuroda {Inouye {Mutsu Foreign Affairs .. ... .. .. ... .. I to Okuma Aoki Enomoto Saionji Okuma ro {'"'"'' {Yamagata Shinagawa Home Affairs ........................ Y:unagata Matsukata (Yamagata Soyejima Nomura Sai;;,o Yoshikawa Yamagata Matsukata Itagaki Kono {Watanabe Finance ................................. Matsukata Matsukata Matsukata Matsukata Matsukata Watanabe ryam~ Saigo Army .................................... Oyama Oyama Oyama Takashima Yamagata Navy .................................... {~;i:~a Oyama Saigo {Saigo Kabayama {Nire Saigo Kabayama Saigo {Yamada {Yamagata Justice ................................. Yamada Yamada Yamada Tanaka Ito Kono Yoshikawa {Mori {Kono Education ............................. Mori Oyama Yoshikawa {Yoshikawa Yoshikawa Oki Inouye Enomoto Saionji {'""' Saigo {Enomoto {Mutsu {Goto Agriculture & Commerce ...... Tani Jnouye Mutsa Kono Enomoto Hijikata Yamagata Sano Kuroda Communications .................. Enomoto {Enomoto Goto Goto Goto Kurodll (Continued) 2nd Mcts1kata 3rd lto 1st Okuma 2nd Yamagata 4th Ito Sept. 1896 Jan. 1898 June 1893 Nov. 1698 Oct.1900 Premier Matsukata Ito Okuma Yamagata Ito F Aff {Okuma Nishi Okuma Aoki {Saionji ore1gn airs .. ... .. .... .. .. Nishi Kato Home Affairs ........................ Kabayama Yoshikawa Itagaki Saigo Suyemateu Finance ................................. Matsukata Inouye Matsuda Matsuda rw~ta~abe 8a1onJI Army .................................... Takashima Katsura Katsura Katsura { Katsura Kodama Navy .................................... Saigo Saigo Saigo Yamamoto Yamamoto Justice Kiyoura Sane Ohigashi Kiyoura Kaneko Education .............................. { uka {Saionji {Ozaki Kabayama Matsuda Toyama lnukai {Enomoto {M.Ito Agriculture & Commerce ... ... Okuma Oishi Sone Hayashi Yamada Kaneko Communication11 .................. Nomura Suyematsu Hayashi Yoshikawa {Hoshi Hara

PAGE 137

JAPAN Politics POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 1st Katsura (Continued) June 1901 Premier ........................... ,.... Katsura Foreign Affairs ..... ............ Komura {Utsumi Kodama Home Affairs ........................ Yoshikawa Kiyoura Finance................................. Sone Army .................................... Terauchi Navy .................................... Y~mamoto 1st Saionii June 1905 Saionji {Kato Hayashi Hara {Sakatani Matsuda Terauchi Saito 2nd Katsura July 1908 Katsura {Katsura Komura Hirata Katsura Terauchi Saito 2nd Saionii Aug.1911 Saionji Saionji Hara 3rd Katsura Dec. 1912 Katsura Katsura Oura T. Yamamoto Wakatsuki Ishimoto Saito Kigoshi Saito 81 {K1youra Justice ................................. Hatano { Matsuda Senge Okabe Matsuda Matsumuro {Kikuchi Education ............... ........ ..... Kodama {Hirata Agriculture & Commerce ...... Kiyoura {Yoshikawo. Commun1cat1ons .................. Sone { Saionji b {Haseba Makino Komatsu ara Makino Matsuoka Oura Makino { I. Yamagata S. Goto Hayashi Hotta Yamamoto 2ndOkuma Terauchi Hara (Continued) Feb. 1913 Apr. 1914 Oct.1916 Oct.1918 Premier .............. ~: ................. Yamamoto Okuma Terauchi i Hara {Kato {Terauchi {Uchida Foreign Affairs ..................... Makinr Okuma Motono Hara Ishii rm Home Affairs ........................ Hara Oura Goto Tokonami Okuma Ichiki Finance ................................. Takahashi {Wakatsuki Shoda Takahashi Taketomi Army ......... ......................... Kusunose {Oka Oshima {Tanaka Oshima Yamanashi Navy .................................... S3ito {Yashiro Kato Kato 1'. Kato J t {Matsuda O k. Matsumuro Oki us ice ......... ............ ... .. ...... Okuda za 1 Ed t { Ooka {1chiki Okada Nakahashi uca ion .............................. Okuda Takata Agriculture & Commerce ...... T. Yamamoto Oura, Kono Nakashoji T.Yamamoto Communications .................. Motoda {T~ketomi Den Noda Minoura Railways .............................. Motoda Shibata Nakashoji S. Goto Takahashi Nov.1921 Takahashi Uchida Tokonami Takahashi Yamanashi Kato Oki Nakahashi T. Yamamoto Noda Motoda Kato (Adm.) Yamamoto Kiyoura 1st Kato 2nd Kato (Continued) June 1922 Sept. 1923 Jan. 1924 June 1924 Aug. 1925 Premier ........... ;: .................... Kato (Adm.) Yamamoto Kiyoura Kato (Vis. T.) Kato (Vis. T.) Foreign Affairs ..................... Uchida {Yamamoto Matsui Shidehara Shidehara Ijuin HF!)me Affairs ........................ Mizuno Goto Mizuno Wakatsuki Wakatsuki inance I h.k. I Sh d H h.. H h. A ...... ......................... ... c 1 1 nouye o a amaguc 1 amaguc 1 rmy .................................... Yamanashi Tanaka Ugaki Ugaki Ugaki Navy ........................ : ........... {~:~~rabe Takarabe Murakami Takarabe ~uetice .................................. Okano Hiranuma Suzuki {J;!~~ Adu~ation .............................. Kamada Okano S. Egi R. Okada griculture & Commerce ...... Arai Den, Okano Mayeda Takahashi ~gr. i Forestry ....................................................................................... Okazaki. Co~:~ni!~~stry .................. M ....... d ............... I ..... k .... _. ............ F .... :: ................ INodka Rail ns .................. aye a nu a1 uJ1mura nu a1 ways ....................... ,...... Oki Yamanouchi Komatsu Sengoku Takarabe Egi R. Okada Hayami Kataoka Adachi Sengoku

PAGE 138

82 POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES Wakatsuki (Continued) Jan. )926 Premier ........................ Wakatsuki Foreign Affairs ............... Shidehara {Wakatsuki Horne Affairs ................. Harnaguchi {Hamaguchi Finance........................... ~:{:~~ Army ............................... Ugaki Navy .............................. 'I'akarabe Justice ........................... Egi Education ........................ Okada Agr. & Forestry {Hayarni Machida {Kataoka Com. & Industry ............ Fujisawa Communicatior.s ............ Adachi {Sengoku Railways ........................ lnouye Overseas Affairs Inukai (Continued) Dec. 13, 1931 Premier ............... Inukai {Inukai* Foreign Affairs ...... Yoshizawa Home Affairs......... Nakahashi F {Takahashi mance ............ J. Inouye Army .................. Araki Adm. Saito May 26, 1932 Saito lria1:;a Hirota Yamamoto (Baron) Takahashi {Araki. Hayashi Tanaka April 1927 Tanaka Tanaka {Suzuki Mochizuki {Takahashi Mitsuchi Shirakawa Okada Y. Hara {Mitsuchi Mizuno Shoda T. Yamamoto Nakahashi {Mochizuki Kuhara Ogawa Tanaka Adm.Okada July 8, l93i Okada Hirota F. Goto {Fujii Takahashi {Hayashi Kawashima Navy ..................... Osumi Justice .................. Suzuki Okada, Osumi Koyama Osumi Ohara {Hatoyama Education ............ Hatoyama Saito* Agr. & For ............ T. Yamamoto F. Goto Com. & Ind. .. Mayeda Communications .. Mitsuchi Railways ............... Tokonami Overseas Affairs Hata { K. Nakajima J. Matsumoto H. Minami Mitsuchi Nagai { Matsuda Mochizuki Yamazaki Machida { Tokonami Mochizuki Uchida { Okada* Kodama (Count) Hamaguchi July 1929 2nd Wakatsuki Apr. 14, 1931. Harnaguchi Wakatsuki Shidehar,11 Shidehara Adachi {Adachi Suzuki J. Inouye J. Inouye Ugaki J. Minami Takarabe Abo Watanabe {Watanabe Kawamura {Kobashi R. Tanaka R. Tanaka Machida Machida Tawara Sakurauchi Koizumi Koizumi T. Egi T. Egi G. Matsuda S. Hara Hirota Mar. 9, 1935 Hirota {Hirota* Arita Ushio Baba Terauchi Nagano Hayashi {Ushio* Hirao Shimada {Kawasaki Ogawa Tanomogi Maeda Nagata Gen. Hayashi Prince Konnye Feb. 4, 1937 June 5, 1931 Hayashi Konoe {Hayashi* {Hirota Ugaki Sato Konoe* Kawarada {Baba Suetsugu Yuki {Kaya Ikeda {Nakamura {Sugiya_ma Sugiyama Itagak1 Yonai Shiono Hayashi Yamazaki Godo {Yamazaki* Kodama (Count) Godo* Yuki* Yonai Shiono {Yasui Kido Araki Arima {Yoshino Ikeda* Nagai Nakajima { Ohtani Ugaki* Konoe* Kido Public Welfares -. t N.B.:-The Department of Agriculture and Com1nerce ceased to exist in. ,Tune, 1924, at the _time of Kato's ininh;try and instead th~ Deparlment of A~riculture &. Forestry and tha.t-_-of Commerce & I roe of were newlv establi~h'?tl; the Depa,rt111e11-t of Overseas Affairs WiLS cre~tec.l 1n 1027 at the t, General 'r~nalta's 111inislry, AclU.itional l)ost,

PAGE 139

JAPAN Politics POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 83 after the natural expiry of the 4 years term. .Sitting.-Ordinary sessions are generally convoked between November and December, and last three months. After effecting the organization towards the end of December the House adjourns for about one month, so that its actual working time does not exceed two months. The results of the general election carried out in April 1937 are as follows:-General Election Table 6. Results of General Election (April 30th, 1937) Name of Party Seiyu-kai . . 175 Minsei-to . 179 The general election takes place every four years, this being the regular term for Commoners. The extraordinary session must, according to the Constitution, be convened within five months from the date of dissolution. In general three or four months intervene between the date of dissolution and that of general election. Of the 19 general elections since the 1st election held in 1890 only four, i.e. those of 1902, 1908, 1912 and 1936, were regular and were held Showa-kai . 19 Kokumin Domei 11 Shakai Taishu-to 37 Toho-kai ............. 11 Total incl. others. . 466 Sessions and Relative Party Strength Leaving out of account all those minor groups of temporary existence, the relative strength of those permanent parties as at the close of the respective sessions is shown below:-Table 7. Relative Strength of Political Parties Shakai-Taishu-At close of tDaiichi to (Social Total incl. session: Date Seiyukai Minseito GiinClub Tohokai Mass Party) others 67th Session Mar. 260 118 466 68th ,, Jan. 1936* .... 242 127 466 69th ,, May 1936 170 204 466 .... 70th ,, Mar. 1937* .... 171 204 9 20 466 71st ,, Aug. 1937 175 180 49 11 36 466 72nd ,, Sept. 1937 174 179 49 11 36 466 73rd ,, Mar. 1938 173 179 47 12 34 466 Session dissolved. t Consists. of the former Showa Club, Kokumin Domei, Nippon Kakushtnto, etc. Nwmber of Franchise-Holders.-The election law revised in 1925 and enforced in 1928 increased the number of franchise-holders to 14,618,000 in 1937. ~able 8. Franchise Holders Franchise Election M.P.'s holders (1,000) 1st (1890) 300 467 10th (1908)............ 379 1,582 14th (1920). 464 3,069 15th (1924) ..... ,..... 464 3,341 16th (1928)............ 466 12,530 17th (1930)............ 466 12,943 18th (1932)... . 466 13,096 19th (1936) ... ;.,...... 466 14,579 20th (1937)............ 466 14,618 Franchiseholders per 1 member 1,550 4,176 6,166 7,199 26,889 27,496 28,108 31,284 31,396 Franchiseholders per 1,000 pop. 11.42 32.80 46.33 55.60 199.75 198.81 200.34 210.50 of Voting Voters Absenteea 85.72 86.70. 91.18 80.33 83.34 81.68 76.36 70.03 14.28 13.30 8.82 19.67 16.66 18.32 20.01 29.97 f P~ofession of Members.-Comparing the proess1ons of the members returned in the general election of 1936 with those on former occasions the decrease of farmer members and increase of those of other origins are quite noticeable, the relative percentage being as follows:';, Table 9. Occupations of M.P.'s tti\~-.. ,\O. (in Percentages) 5th 10th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th Civil and Military .............. 0.7 0.3 6.5 3.2 10.2 7.9 9.2 4.9 5.8 ~hysicians .................... 1.3 1.9 1.7 3.0 2.2 2.5 1.5 1.5 1.7 L'Ournalists ................... 2.7 4.5 5.4 6.5 7.3 3.6 10.3 8.8 12.4 a-wyers 8.3 16.9 14.7 13.8 15.6 16.9 17.8 18.8 19.7

PAGE 140

84 POLITTCS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 5th 10th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th Businessmen .................. 17.0 16.1 28.4 27.8 22.2 22.1 16.7 23.7 18.2 Farmers ...................... 48.7 27.4 20.0 17.9 9.5 13.9 9.4 16.7 19.5 Manufacturers and Mine-owners ... 1.7 3.2 5.8 5.0 9.7 2.1 9.8 3.4 1.7 Others .................... 4.3 6.3 3.5 5.8 5.2 12.2 4.9 8.8 7.9 No profession ................. 15.3 2" .:,.o 14.0 17.0 18.1 16.5 20.1 13.4 13.1 :Violation of Election Law.-The record since the 1st election is as follows:-Table 10. Sta tis ties of Violation of Election Law Election Imprisonment Penalty Acquitted Unseated Total 1st (1890) ................ 26 211 47 286 2nd (1892) ................ 65 183 69 4 323 3rd-4th (1894) ............ 217 504 403 24 1,155 5th-6th (1898) ............ 249 611 152 15 1,029 7th (1902) .......... .... 173 1,348 335 5 1,861 8th (1903) ................ 140 1,642 212 2 1,998 9th (1904) ... ...... .... 25 280 28 1 284 10th" (1908) ................ 128 1,419 274 1,921 11th (1911) ............. 325 3,437 188 3,950 12th (1915) ............... 448 7,194 671 19 8,332 13th (1917) ................ 1,283 21,245 319 530 23,377 14th (1920) ................ 148 5,166 145 37 5,496 15th (1924) ................ 56 9,434 36 1,825 11,351 16th (1928) ................ 241 7,559 69 12,869 17th (1930) ................ 221 12,690 59 12,970 Age of Members.-The average is gradually increasing as follows, the fi~ures in percentage: Table 11. Age of M.P.'s 60 or 60or Election 30-39 40-49 !:0 over Election 30-39 40-49 50-59 over 1st (1890) ... 51.3% 35.0 10.0 3.7 16th (1928) .... 7.9 38.6 34.8 18.7 5th (1902) .... 35.0 47.0 15.0 3.0 17th (1930) .... 4.5 35.4 36.3 23-8 10th (1912) .... 16.1 46.4 34.0 3.4 18th (1932) .... 4.5 34.1 41.4 20.0 14th (1920) .... 12.9 32.3 41.2 13.6 19th (1936) .. 4.7 26,4 42.3 26.6 15th (1924) 14.2 37.7 38.2 9.9 RECENT SITUATION The 73rd session of the Imperial Diet, originally scheduled to close on March 26, was prolonged for ,one day and closed on March 27, 1938. During the brief period of slightly over two months following its resumption on January 22, 1938 after the year-end and New Year recesses, the Diet approved the general budget and numerous additional budgets, totalling 3,514 million yen in ordinary accounts and more than 4,886 m_illion yen as the extraordinary military expenditure. In addition it deliberated upon and passed a total of 87 bills including such important measures as the law pertaining to the general mobilization of the national resources and that for the enforcement of state control over the electric power industry. It must be admitted that these achievements at the 73rd Diet session represent a record in the history of this country's Parliament. Due to thes~ achievements the foundation ,of the wartime system of our nation has been consolidated almost to perfection, and because. of .this the Parliament's efforts deser:ve high praise, lt must not be overlooked, however, that the great achievements of the Diet reflect foe power of the united front of the Japane~ people in dealing with the current situation, Out of the 87 bills passed hy the Diet, 86 were proposed by the Government and mostly concerned economic legislation. 7 4 bills were approved in their original form, the others being passed with amendments. The bills are intended to _meet the emergency situation, protecting important industries and endeavouring to exploit national resources with the greatest efficiency. The most important bills were the National General Mobilization Law, the Electric Power Control Law, the Electric Power Generation and Transmission Company Law, the Mineral Production Law, the Petroleum Resources Exploitation Law, the Japan Gold Production Company Law, the Machirte Tools Manufactu;:-ing Industries Law, the Aerr plane Manufacturing Industries Law, the Sulphate of Ammonia Output E;icpansion and Dis tl'ibution Control Law and various tax laws,

PAGE 141

JAPAN Politics POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES 85 The above laws are generally intended to raise the production and efficiency in the utilization of natural resources and of the industrial apparatus of the country. Other measures tending rather to relieve the burden of necessitous sections of the population, thereby strengthening the morale of the nation, are the Public Health Insurance Law, the Social Welfare Law, the Farm Adjustment Law, the Temporary Firm Debts Liquidation Law, the Pension Loan Fund Law, the Popular Loan Fund Law, the Shop Assistants Law, the Cooperative Societies Auditing Law, etc. Of financial bills may be mentioned the Security Business Control Law, the Security Underwriters Law, the Law for the Temporary Extension of the Fiduciary Note Issue, etc. The two important laws concerning the establishment .of a North China Develop ment Company and a Central China Development Company refer to economic reconstruction and development, including the exploitation of natural resources in China. National General Mobilization Law The purpose of this Law is to enable the State to develop its full capacity for national defence from both the material and spiritual view. These objects may be achieved through the preparation of adequate armaments enabling the army and navy to maintain their full fighting efficiency, and by safeguarding the supply of necessities for the people, thereby promoting the smooth functioning of the national economy. The National Mobilization Law (Promulgated at the 73rd Session of the Imperial Diet, 1988) (Summary) 1,-Wartime Measures 1. Labour and Other Services Needless to state, in time of war military forces are mobilized first. Such mobilization wo11ld result in a shortage in supply of labour and other services within the country, while simultaneously greater supply of labor _and other services would become necessary to meet sharply increased war de111a11ds. Thus it would be necessary to adopt sllch n1easures as to increase the supply of labour and other services on the one hand and to strengthen the control Of the services on the other, so that demand and supply of services n1ay be adjusted 'and distribution of them n1~y be placed on a rational basis. The present Law, therefore, authorizes the Government to impose upon subjects of the E111pire a national defense duty, which may be termed the general mobilization duty, and. cause then1 to engage in various necessary business, in case the re9uired services are unavailable by .solicitation on a voluntary basis. The Law at the san1e time provides that the Government may take necessary measures regarding employment or discharge of workers and also with respect to wages and other labour .conditions, such, for example, as issuance of orders requiring an extension of working hours. Again, the Law authorizes the Government to take necessary measures for the prevention or settlement of labour disputes and for the restriction or prohibition of certain me.thods of labour controversies. 2. Materials While detnand for materials incr0ases suddenly in wartime to ensure sufficiency in supply Of war materials, lt is inevitable that there will be certain kinds of lllaterlals, supply of which will fail to keep pace with ~ncreasing demand. In the case of such comn1odities, it woulcl be necessary to ado1~t most effective measures to acquire and utilize them. For this purpose, the Present Law authorizes the Government to control production, consumption, use, movement, transfer, E!JXport and import of im,po'rtant goods, and also to use or expropI'iate Uie111 in case of necessity. Furthermore, with respect to imports and exports, the Governn1ent is authorized tO restrict or prohibit importation of unnecessary or non-urgent goOds, or to order exportation of goods with a view to attaining better1nent in the international trade balance of the 'country, S. Establishments and Institutions In order to enable the Government to place the operation of important. establishments and institutions tinder State control or to operate them in ti111e of war, the present Law authorizes the Govern1nent to control, use or e:icpropriate important ones including land. and buildings which are deemed necessary for general mobiliM zation. It f~rther provides that the Government may order private manufacturers to install new equipment or extend or improve the existing facilities for the expansion of the enterprises involved. On the other hand, the Government may restrict or pre 'bit installaM tion of n~w equipment or exten,sion of existing establishments arid institutions in certain enterprises, as it is necessary to prevent the absorption of goods, labour and capital bY non-urgent and unnecessary busin0sses, 4. Control of Enterprises It is hardly necessary to emphasize the necessity of controlled operation in various ilnportant industrial and business lines in warti1ne. In this connection, however, autonon1ous control on the part of business n1en. and industrialists should be expected in the :first place. Thus, in order to adjust this autonomous control in har1nony with national mobilization, it is provided that the Government 'may adopt necessary measures regarding conclusion of control agreements among business men and industrialists operating in ihe sa1ne line or in allied lines, or 1nay make change in such agreements. The Law also a.thorizes the Government to ea.use those

PAGE 142

86 POLITICS AND POLITICAL PARTIES who are in allied lines to organize associations and to have the1n conduct cooperative importation, purchases and sales of goods, so that business and industry n1ay be thoroughly controlled. 5-Cn11ital In order to adjust supply and de1nand of capital for equi-balancing supply and clen1ancl of labour and 1naterials, the principles of the provisions of Article 2 and 4 of the existing Te1nporary Funds, Acljustlnent Law have been expanded in the present National :Mobilization Law, so that the Government may restrict or prohibit creation of new c01npanies, while it 111ay adopt necessary n1easures regarding investn1ents of funds by banks, trust com1>anies and other financial institutions, with a view to assuring abundant supply of capital. 6. Commodity Prices To contribute to adequate supply of war materials anrl to achieve sn1octh operation of general econotnic machinery and to secure stability in the livelihood of the people in warthne, the Law authorizes the Govern111ent to restrict profiteering in c01n1nodity prices and ~reight charges, to restrain exhorbitant advances in conunoclity prices and to take other necessary price control n1easures. 7. N ews11n.pers and Other I"ublicn.tlons In wartin1e, it may be necessary to restrict or prohibit publication of articles regarding not only military and diplomatic affairs but also financial, economfo and other 1natters when deemed advisable. The Law authorizes the Governn1ent to take such steps as well as n1easures against violators of the restrictions or prohibitions in order to achieve perfect execution of general mobilization. II.-Peace Time Measures Primarily, general mobilization is to be enforced in advance. At present, the Govern111ent is authorized to times of war, but some of the necessary provisions cannot serve their purposes if applied abruptly in war tilue. Again there are matters which require considerable preparation during times of peace in order to attain smooth and appropriate operation of general mobilization when war comes. The present Law, therefore, provides for the following regulations regarding these preparations: 1. National Registration For the purpose of enforcing the provisions regarding the expropriation of services of the people and with a view to accumulating basic data 0for the adjustment of supply ancl den1and of labour and other services in wartime, it is extre111ely necessary to register the professions and technical ability of different classes of the people in advance. For this purpose, the present Law has provisions requiring the people to make neces sary reports and authorizing the competent officials to make necessary investigations. 2. Training of Technicians A shortage is anticipated in the number of technicians, especially skilled workers, in wartime, and it is im possible to train them in a limitel). period. This La.;,, -therefore, authorizes the Government to issue orders to schools and institutions regarding the training of technicians in peace time in order to meet wartime requiren1ents. The Law also provides that the Government ma.y order employers to make necessary arrange .. ments for the re-education of their technicians and skilled workers. 3. Conservation of Ma.terlals With respect to those important goods, the supply of which is anticipated to be insufficient in wartime, the present Law authorizes the Govern1nent to issue orders requiring manufacturers and businessmen to hold reserve stocks of them in thnes of peace. It is, of course. necessary to adopt divergent 1neasures to replenish the supplies of these goods. In spite of such rneasures, however, supply of some goods 1nay be insufficient in time ol war, and It is Inevitable that consideration be given to reservation of these goods in Reference: cause private interests to reserve petroleum in accordance with the Petroleum Industry Law, and iron and steel under the Iron Industry Law. In the present Law, the principles of these existing laws are expanded. 4. Formulation of Plans, Training and Exercises It is necessary to formulate detaUed and exhaustive plans for the enforcement of a widespread, complicated mobilization. The Government must therefore cause factory owners to set up concrete production increase plans for wartime at their factories and have them conduct training and exercises in the Operation of such plans, in order to avoid any obstacles to the execution of the plans after a state of war exists. The Air De fence Law authorizes the Government to issue orders for air defence plans and air defence exercises. 5. Scientific Research In view of the importance, especially in wartime, of the n1obilization of science in connection wlth the realization of national defence purposes, the present Law authorizes the Govern~ent to order managers of factories and plants and administrators of experimental and research institutions to conduct necessary experl n1ents and research at their institutions. 6. Subsidization of Enterprises Production capacity within the country should be expanded before the time of war. The present Law, therefore, authorizes the Government to guarantee a certain rate of business profit or give subsidies to those persons who are engaged in the business of producing or repairing important materials, with a. view to pro mating their efficiency, and also to have them Install necessary equipment for their plants. 7. Compensation It is quite conceivable that losses may be Incurred bf the people due to the enforcement of the National Mobilization Law. Such losses shall be Indemnified by the Government. In order to assure fairriess of such n1onetary compensation, the amounts shall be fixed after consideration is given by the National Mobilization In demnity Commission, which shall consist of official and private representatives. Table Nos.: 1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d, 5 b, 6,7 c, 8 d. Key: a-Investigation of the Department of Imperial Household. b" Cabinet Statistics Bureau. c,. ,, Diet authority. d-" Department of Home Affairs, -.,fl!

PAGE 143

JAPAN Diplomacy CHAPTER VIII DIPLOMACY Historical Throughout her long history Japan's foreign intercourse has been marked by constant and constructive efforts to preserve her national security and at the same time to adopt and assimilate new alien civilizations, spiritual as well as material. This was amply illustrated not only in the beginning of Japanese relations with China and Korea, but also at the time when this country came into contact with Occidental peoples. It is quite natural that Japan's relations with China and Korea antedated those with the nations of Europe and began in an age with which the present survey is not concerned. A few remarks however, may with propriety be made on -our earlier relations with China and Korea, so that the underlying causes of events in later days may be made clearer. After the Empress Jingo's expedition to South Korea and the establishment of a resident Japanese Government in one of the then warring Korean kingdoms in 346 A.D., Japan began systematically to introduce Chinese culture and learning through the Korean Peninsula, and soon afterwards Chinese influence over Japan became so great that, toward the end of the sixth century, the Prince Regent Shotoku felt the diplomatic need of building an imposing Buddhist, temple and pagoda at Tennoji to impress the Chinese envoys and traders who came to the port of Osaka. Seventy years later, the. Emperor Tenchi had to assist one ,of the Korean kingdoms against the encroachment of the powerful Tang dynasty of China. In the thirteenth century Japan's security was menaced for the first time in her history by the invasion of the Western shores of Kyushu by the Yuen, or Mongol Chinese, who were eventually repulsed with the incidental aid of a tempest. At the same time political refugees from China welcomed in Japan had a restraining influence over the conquerors. Toward the close of the six teenth century Hideyoshi the actual ruler of this country, despatched a' punitive expedition to Korea for a diplomatic assertion of Japan's national independence which was sometimes disregarded by the Korean kings. It ended in a failure, ostensibly owing to the death of HideYoshi, but actually and mainly because China sent help to Korea which she claimed as a vassal atate. When the Manchous conquered and established their rule over China, -Chinese refugees came over to Japan and contributed to the progress of our civilization in the middle of the seventeenth century. Recent Situation The Manchurian Incident -of September 1931 will take a place in Japan's recent history as marking the beginning of a new phase in. the course of our country's diplomatic policy. The establishment of Manchoukuo and the refusal of the League ,of Nations to recognize the new state forced Japan to withdraw from that international body. The significance of this step lies in the determination of Japan to make a clear-cut distinction between_ cooperating as hitherto for world amity and in adjusting her diplomacy towards such realities, the recognition ,of which she believes to confer most to international peace and security. Convinced in this belief she has striven untiringly towards enlightening this point of view. Her policy has since been upheld by both Italy and Germany which, upon withdrawing from membership in the League of Nations, have rec.ognized the Empire of Manchoukuo. Recognition of the new state was also given by Salvador. A notable trend in Japan's diplomacy in recent years has been the increasing imp.ortance directed towards settling problems arising from economic causes with foreign countries. This trend has become particularly evident with the development of trade barriers in forms such as advances in tariffs and the adoption of quota systems and in the general spread of economic nationalism. Japan's diplomacy has been directed, and is being directed, therefore, to the end of adjusting her commercial relations with nations whose economic structures are in a state of transition. Commercial conventions have been altered or modified to meet the new situation. Where difficulties have not been smoothed out diplomacy is at work to evolve some new formulas. Apart from the matter of international econo mic relations, Japanese diplomacy has been concerned in good measure with Soviet Russia and China. In view of the fact that China has never been unifie_d under a single rule, the diplomatic inter-

PAGE 144

88 DIPLOMACY course between Japan and China has been, un fortunately_, a chronicle of difficulties and complications. However, the relations between the two countries were never very tense, excepting for brief periods, for over twenty years until the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese hostilities of July, 1937. It is safe to say that had China adopted a saner method than the propagation of antiJaponism in her attempt to unify the administration of the entire country, there would have been no cause for the dispute that broke out in 1937, and which has since grown into a major war. Japan's relations with Soviet Russia were highly satisfactory for several years following the as:.umption of diplomatic intercourse between the two countries in 1924. The principle causes which have led to an estrangement of friendly relations in recent years are the avowed policy of Soviet Russia to spread the doctrine of Communism throughout the world, the disputes over the boundary between Russia and Manchoukuo and the oppression brought to bear upon Japan's oil concessions in Soviet Saghalien and on the latter's fishery rights in Soviet waters. Should these questions be amicably settled there is every reason to believe that the relations between the two countries can again be as cordial as formerly. Agreement Guarding Against the Communist International On November 25, 1936 an understanding was reached between Japan and ,Germany to defend themselves against the Communist International. The outcome of the understanding is embodied in the Agreement Guarding Against the Communist International which was signed at Berlin on the same day by the plenipotentiaries of the respective countries, Ambassador Kintomo Mu shakoji' for Japan and Ambassador Joachim von Ribbentrop for Germany. The accord is directed specially against the Gomintern, or Communist International and the two Governments agree to keep each informed of its activities and to confer on and carry out measures to defend themselves against it. The full text of the agreement is subjoined:-Text of Anti-Comintern Agreement The Imperial Government of Japan and the Government of Germany, In cognizance of the fact that the object of the Communist International (the so-called Comintern) is the disintegration of, and the commission of violence against, existing States by the exercise of all 1neans at its com mand, Believing that the toleration of Interference by the Communist International in the internal affairs of nations not only endangers their internal peace and social welfare, but. threatens the general peace of tile world, Desiring to co-operate for de.fcnse aginst Communist disintegration; have agreed as fellows: Article I The high contracting States agree that they wiJJ mutually keep each other informed concerning the activities o!' the Conununist International, will confer u11on the necessary n1easures cf defense and will carry out such n1easures in close co-operation. Article II The high contracting States will jointly invite third States whose internal peace is menacecl by the disintegration work of the Con1munist International to adopt defensive measures in the spirit of the present agreement or to participate in the present agreement. Article III 'rhe .Japanese and German texts are each valid as the original text of this agreement. The agreen1ent shall co111e in to force on the day of its signature and shall remain in force for the term of five years. The high con:. tracting States will, in a reasonable time before the expiration of the said term, come to an understanding upon the further manner of their co-operation. In witness whereof the undersigned, duly authorized by their respective Govern111ents, have affixed hereto their seals and signatures. Done in duplicate at Berlin, November 25, 11th year of Showa, corresponding to November 25, 1936. (L, S.) (Signed) Viscount Kintomo Mushakoii; Ambas sador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Japan. (L. 8.) (Signed) Joachim von Ribbentrop, Plenipoten tiary of Germany. Supplementa.ry Protocol to the Agreement Guarding Against the Communist International On the occasion of the signature this day of the agree ment guarding against the Communist Inernatlonal, the undersigned plenipotentiaries have agreed as follows: a) The competent authorities of both high contracting States w!ll closely co-operate in the exchange of reports on the activities of the Communist International and on me:asure of information and defence against the Co~-1nunist Intern'ational. b) The competent authorities of both high contracting States:will, within the framework of the existing la'\V, take stringent measures against those who at home or abroad work on direct or inclirect duty of the Communist International shall be considered and conferred upon. c) To facilitate the co-operation of the competent au thorities of the two high contracting States as set out in (a) above, a standing committee shall be established. By this committee, further measures to be adopted to counteract the disintegrating activities of the Communi5t International shall be considered and conferred upon. Done at Berlin, November 25, 11th year of Showa., cor responding to November 25, 1936. (Signed) Viscount Kintomo Mushakojl, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Japan, (Signed) Joachim von Rlbbentrop, PlenipotentlarY 01 Germany. The Panay Incident On December 12, 1937 the United States gun boat Panay and three steamers belonging to the Standard Oil Company were sunk by the bombing of the Japanese naval force on the Yangtze River at a point about twenty-six miles above Nanking,

PAGE 145

JAPAN Diplomacy DIPLOMACY 89 This unfortunate incident was due entirely to a mistake, for due to poor visibility a Japanese aircraft, acting upon information that the Chinese troops which were fleeing from Nanking were going up the river in steamers, mistook the American vessels for those of the Chinese. Profound regrets were tended by the Japanese Government over the unfortunate incident and an indemnity of $2,214,007.36 was paid to the United States, meeting in full the claims of the United States in connection with the losses. j The Ladybird Incident With regard to the incidents that occurred on December 12, 1937 in which Japanese forces attacked by mistake the Ladybird, a British man of war, and merchant vessels in Chinese waters, the Japanese Government sent an offi-cial note under date of December 28, 1937 explaining the circumstances relating to the incidents, making an apology, and giving a pledge of future guarantees against the recurrence ,of any similar incident. To this notification of the Japanese Government, the British Government sent an answer on December 31, 1937, informing that the latter had accepted Japan's note. Soviet-Japanese Fishery Arrangement A new protocol between Japan and Soviet Russia as the third provisional :fishery arrangement was formally signed in Moscow between Mr. Mamoru Shigemitsu, Japanese Ambassador to the Soviet Union, and Mr. Stomoniakov, Vice Commissar of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union, on December 29, 1937. The Soviet Japanese fishery agreement regulating Japan's exercise of her fishery rights in northern waters around Kamchatka expired in May, 1937, and the Japanese Government, as a stop-gap measure, made a temporary arrangement in this matter to meet the requirements f.or the last half of 1937. For 1938 also the J:apanese Government was obliged to arrange a provisional agreement with the Soviet Union. Unable to rest content with any such half measures Mr. Koki Hirota, the Japanese Foreign Minister, instructed Mr. Shigemitsu, Ambassador in Moscow, to urge the Soviet Government to conclude a formal fi_s~ery agreement, but :finding the Soviet autho~~ties. obdurate against it, Mr. Hirota made up 1s mmd to conclude a third tem-porary arrangement and sent instructions to Mr. Shigemitsu accordingly. On December 21, 1937 an agreement, though not satisfactory, was reached. The arragment P~~vides for the extensi~n of the second proVJSJOnal agreement for one year,,. that is, during the course of 1938. ,, .,,_, ltalo-Japanese Commercial Treaty Another link was forged in the chain of friendship between Japan and Italy, when a supplementary agreement to the commercial treaty in existence between the two countries was formally signed in Rome between Mr. Masaald Hotta, Japanese Ambassador, and. Count Galeazzo Ciano, Italian Foreign Minister on December 30, 1937. The new agreement took effect from January, 1938. The origin of the agreement goes back to December, 1936, when the Japanese Government abolished the Japanese Legation in Abyssinia and established in its stead a consulate-general. On that occasion, the Italian Government declared it would respect Japan's commerical and other interests in Abyssinia and would give specially favourable considerations to. those interests. The present Italo-Japanese commercial treaty is so drawn as to make possible its abrogation at any time by a month's notice after three years have elapsed since its signing. A feature is 1that Italy agrees to recognize as an exception from the treatment of most-favoured-nation clause whatever preferences Japan may accord to Manchoukuo in the matter of customs duties. The provision regarding Manchoukuo is ,of special significance from the standpoint of the indivisibility of Japan and Manchoukuo. Settlement of U. S.-Japan Fisheries Issue The delicate Alaskan salmon fishing problem, which threatened at one time to assume serious proportions was settled successfully, on March 25, 1938 by announcement of an agreement suitable to both the United States and Japan. Japan gave assurances that it will (1) suspend the three-year salmon fishing survey begun in 1936, (2) not issue licenses to boats to :fish in Alaskan waters, (3) punish all offenders who fish illegally in Alaskan waters. On the same subject, the Japanese Foreign Office issued a statement wherein it declared that "inasmuch as salmon fishing by Japanese vessels is not permitted without licenses from the Japanese Government and as the Government has been refraining from issuing such licenses to those vessels which desired to proceed to the Bristol Bay area to fish for salmon, it will, on its own initiative, continue to suspend the issuance of such licenses; that in order to make effective this assurance the Japanese Government is prepared to take, if and when conclusive evidence is presented that any Japanese vessels engage in salmon fishing on a commercial scale in the waters in question, necessary and proper

PAGE 146

90 DIPLOMACY measures to prevent any such further operations." Italian Goodwill Mission to Japan The Italian goodwill misson, headed by Marquis Paulucci, was accorded a hearty welcome on its arrival in Japan on March 19, 1938. The mission was sent by the Italian GoverI,J.ment to return the courtesy of the Japanese Government in having sent a similar mission to Italy and to, realize the object of cooperation in culture, labour and production. The misson which was received most cordially at all of the Japanese cities which it visited, conferred much to the development of Halo-Japanese friendship. THE SINO-JAPANESE HOSTILITIES The Sino-Japanese hostilities which started in July, 1937 from a small incident in the outskirts of Peking had grown into a war of the largest scale in the history of the Far East at the time of this writing. The war front extended in July, 1938, or a year after hostilities commenced, over a terrain of 2,200 kilometers. The area under Japanese occupation is estimate_d to be over 1,000,000 square kilometers, harbouring a population in excess of 130,000,000. Chinese losses are computed to have been approximately 510,000 killed as in July, 1938. The number of Japanese killed in the corresponding period is given as 36,000. Counting the injured the total Chinese casualties were estimated to be in excess of 1,300,000. A resume of the causes leading up to the present hostilities will be found in the 1938 issue of the Japan-Manchoukuo Year Book. The chr,onology of the major events of the Sino-Japanese strife is given below: CHRONOLOGY OF THE SINO-JAPANESE HOSTILITIES July 7, 1937: Chinese troops fire upon Japanese forces stationed at Fengtai while the latter are engaged in night maneuvers. A demand is made by the Japanese authorities to the commander of the Chinese forces to apologize for the firing. The Chinese resume hostilities, however, and the J apanese forces return fire. July 8: At 7 :30 a.m. a white flag is hoisted over the gate of the walled city of Lukow kiao, reportedly at the order of General Feng Chi-an, commander of the 37th Di vision. July 9: After another skirmish in the morning, a truce is reached, resulting in the withdrawal of the Chinese troops, which were involved in the fighting at Lukowkiao, from the walled city of Yenping to the right bank of the Yungting River. July 11: Despite the temporary truce, continued progress of the Chinese Central Army toward North China gravely endangers the prospects of an amicable set-tlement. July 12: Chinese troops advance and open fire on the Japanese at 11 a.m. General Ho Ying-chin, Chinese war minister, leaves Nanking for Kuling to confer with General Chiang Kai-shek. July 13: Three Japanese soldiers are killed when a small Japanese unit in motor trucks is fired on by Chinese at Matsun, about a kilometer south of Peiping. July 15: The Japanese War Office announces at 8:10 p.m. that in view of the situation in North China it has been decided to send a contingent of troops there from Japan. July 16: An attack by 100 Chinese soldiers on a Japanese unit about to enter Anping, southeast of Tungchow, the capital of the East Hopei regime, takes place. After fighting in which no Japanese are reported killed or wounded, the Chinese are disarmed. July 17: The Japanese Cabinet appropriates ,000,000 from the second reserve fund of the 1937-38 budget to finance the initial cost of dispatching re-enforcements to North China. July 18: Reputedly with the intention fulfilling one of the three terms of the understanding reached at Peiping on July 11 by Colonel Takuro Matsui, head of the army's special service mission in Peiping, and Gen era! Chang Yun-ying, commander of the Hopei peace preservation corps, General Sung Cheh-yuan, chairman of the HopeiChahar Political Council and Commander of the. 29th Army Corps, formally tenders to Lieutenant-General Kiyoshi Katsuki, Commander of the Japanese ga,rrison, an apology for the Lukowkiao incident. July 19: The Nanking Government replies to the Japanese memorandum presented on July 17 with a note in which it makes the following four points:-1. The two countries should agree on a date when movements of their military forces would cease and they would be recalled to their original positions, 2. Diplomatic negotiations should be opened for settlement of the dispute,

PAGE 147

JAPAN Diplomacy DIPLOMACY 91 3. The authorization of the Nanking Government is essential for any agreement concluded on the spot. 4. China is willing to accept any means of settlement recognized by international law and treaties. 1[The Japanese Foreign Office decides to reject in its entirety the reply given by the Nanking_ Government to the Japanese memorandum presented on July 17. ,r General Chiang Kai-shek orders the troops of the Central Army on the North China front to hold themselves in readiness to start fighting at a moment's notice. July 20: The Japanese forces on the front west of Peiping bombards the walled vil lage of Wanping (Yuanping), north of Lukowkiao, and silences the Chinese in it. The action is the first taken since the warning issued July 19 by the headquarters of the Japanese garrison in Tientsin that further Chinese attacks would not be tolerated. 1[The Chinese Central Army in the Shanghai district definitely begins to move toward Greater Shanghai in anticipation of a conflict with the Japanese, according to Chinese sources. July 21: General Sung Cheh-yuan, chairman of the Hopei-Chahar Political Council, in forms Lieut.-Colonel Takeo Imai, Japanese resident officer, that the Chinese troops have started to withdraw from the vicinity of Lukowkiao. July 24: Hopes for peace in North China fades when it is discovered that Chinese troops of the 37th Division have failed to leave their front-line positions near Peiping and also that General Hsiung Pin, vice-chief of the general staff of the Central Army, has prevailed upon General Sung Cheh-yuan and other northern Chi nese leaders to revive a vigorous antiJapanese policy. July 25: Emergency conference is called by the Japanese Navy Minister to study reports on the still unsuccessful search for a Japanese blue-jacket who is alleged fo have been kidnapped in Shanghai July 24 by a Chinese gang. (" July 26: A virtual ultimatum demanding.complete withdrawal of the whole 37th Division from the Peiping area in accordance with the settlement accord concluded on July 11 and warning that, if the demanded evacuati?n is not carried out, the Japanese army will be compelled to take free action is sent by Lieutenant-General Kiyoshi Katsuki, commander of the Japanese garrison in North China, to .General Sung Cheh-yuan, chairman of the Hopei-Chahar Political Council. 1fin less than 24 hours after the Langfang incident, Japanese and Chinese troops again seriously clash at Kwanganmen, in the southwestern suburbs of Peiping, at 8 p.m. after the Chinese had suddenly opened rifle and machine-gun fire on a Japanese unit. July 27: Signalizing a rapid spread of hostilities over the nothern front, reports reaching Shanghai state that troops of General Chao Teng-wu's 132nd Division attacKed the Japanese at Tanho, south of Nanyuan, about 4 p.m. July 28: Japanese operations against the Chinese troops in the Peiping area is begun in earnest with aerial and land attacks. July 29: Japanese troops start aerial and artillery bombardment against the Chinese forces at Tientsin. 1[Almost unbelievable atrocities of the Eaf!t Hopei peace preservation corps are inflict ed upon Japanese residents at Tungchow, taking a toll of 180 lives. July 30: The Peiping District Autonomous Committee, consisting of representatives of several local organizations, is formally inaugurated at the residence of General Chiang Chao-tsun, the Chairman-designate. August 7: The Japanese House of Peers pas ses the supplementary budget bill providing ,600,000 for the North China incident. August 9: Sub-Lieutenant Isao Oyama, Commander of the 1st Company of the Naval Landing Party, and First Class Seaman Y ozo Saito are attacked and killed by Chi nese troops of the peace preservation corps in Shanghai, at about 5 p.m. 1fChinese mobs loot.the Japanese concession at Hankow as Japanese leave Hankew con cession. August 12: Mayor O.K. Yui of Greater Shanghai rejects at a meeting of the international committee for enforcement of the 1932 truce agreement the Japanese c mand for withrawal of the ,Chinese armed forces from around the International Settlement. August 13: Japanese warships moored in the Whangpoo River open a heavy bombardment on the Chinese positions, covering the forces of the naval landing party in action in the vicinity of Yangtzepoo Road. August 14: Chinese warplanes drop bombs on Shanghai International Concession killing more than 100 persons, including Dr. Robert Karl Reischauer, professor at Princeton University,

PAGE 148

92 DIPLOMACY August 19: Japanese warplanes raid Nanking and bomb the powder-magazine on the northwestern outskirts of the capital. August 24: Several units of the Japanese army occupy Kalgan, capital of Chahar Province. August 25: Blockade of the Chinese coast against Chinese vessels is proclaimed by Vice-Admiral Kiyoshi Hasegawa, commander of the 3rd Fleet. August 26: Sir Hughe Montgomery Knatchbull-Hugessen, British Ambassador, is wounded when the motor car in which he is riding from Nanking to Shanghai is subjected to a volley of machine-gun bullets from an airplane. August 27: A Japanese unit occupies Hwailai, on the Peiping-Suiyuan railway, about 28 miles northwest of Nankow, thwarting the Central Army's invasion of Chahar. August 29: Conclusion of a non-aggression pact between the Chinese and Soviet Governments is announced by the National Government. August 31: Japanese forces in Shanghai finally succeed in capturing ."Woosung fort, hitherto considered the most important Chinese position on the lower reaches of the Whangpoo. 1f Canton is bombed twice by Japanese naval planes. September 2: Foreign Minister Hirota tells fo1eign correspondents in a press conference that ships of third Powers specifically employed for the purpose of carrying war supplies to the Chinese cannot be considered as being engaged in peaceful commerce. ,r Shihtzelin fort is captured by the Asama unit of the Japanese army. September 4: The Akashiba unit of the Japanese army completes occupation of Tangkwantun, the first line of the Chinese de f enses in the Machang area. September 5: The whole Chinese coast, with the exception of Tsingtao and the foreign concessions, is closed to Chinese vessels by the Japanese navy at 6 p.m. September 8: A unit of Japanese troops enters the walled town of Yangkao, in northeastern Shansi Province about 18 miles west of Tienchen on the Peiping-Suiyuan Railway. September 11: Occupation of the Chinese positions in the Machang sector is effected by the Akashiba detachment of the Japa11esc army. September 12: Units of the Japanese army occupy Yanghanchen, southwest of Pao. I shan, in the Shanghai area. September 13: Japanese units succeed in clearing off Chinese troops from Chunk:ung Road, in Shanghai. ,r Japanese units capture Tatung, important strategic centre in northeastern Shansi. September 17: Japanese units capture Feng chen, in Suiyuan after two days of fighting. September 19: Japanese warplanes attack Nanking, destroying 26 Chinese planes. September 20: Vice-Admiral Kiyoshi Hasegawa, commander of the 3rd Fleet of the Japanese navy, announces that extensive bombing of Nanking is contemplated after September 21 in a statement issued to foreign diplomats. September 24: Japanese units occupy the walled city of Paoting. Japanese units also occupy Tsangchow. October 1: Japanese units occupy Liuchiahang on the Kiangwan-Lotien front in the Shanghai area. October 2: Japanese units occupy the walled town of Techow, within the northern border of Shantung Province. October 14: Japanese units completely occupy the walled town of Suiyuan. October 26: Japanese troops occupy Kiangwanchen and Tatsangchen. October 27: Japanese troops occupy the Chapei area. November 5: Japanese forces land on the northern bank of Hangchow Bay. November 9: Japanese troops occupy the walled town of Taiyuan in Shansi and Nantao in Shanghai and complete the en velopment of Shanghai. November 25: Japanese occupy Wuhi. December 13: Japanese occupy Nanking. December 24: Japanese occupy Hangchow. 1938, January 10: Japanese forces land in Tsingtao. April 3: Japanese occupy Taierchwang. May 10: The Japanese naval forces occupy Amoy Island. May 19: Suchow is captured by the Japanese, May 20: Japanese occupy Lienyun harbor. May 24: Lanfeng occupied by the Japanese, June 5: Kaifeng occupied by the Japanese. June 11: Chinese destroy the YeUow Rive~ embankment. Japan announces object 0 advancing on Hankow. June 13: Anking is occupied by the Japanese,

PAGE 149

DIPLOMACY we8tern Anhwei Province. JAPAN Diplomacy 93 June 21: Nan-ao island is occupied by the Japanese naval force. July 4: Hukow, on the Yangtze River, is occupied by the Japanese. August 2: Japane_se occupy Hwangmei, in southwestern Hupeh Province. July 26: Japanese ,occupy Kiukiang on the Yangtze River. August 24: Japanese occupy Juichang, 20 miles west of Kiukiang. August 29: Hwoshan in Anhwei Province is occupied by the Japanese. August 1: Japanese occupy Susung_ in south-Contracting States Afghanistan Albania ...... Argentina .... Austria ...... Belgium Bolivia ....... Brazil ...... Chile China Colombia ..... Czecho-Slovakia. Denmark ..... Finland ...... France ..... Free City of Danzig ..... Germany ...... Great Britain .. Greece ....... Netherlands Italy ........ Jugoslavia Latvia Lithuani~ Liberia I I I I List of Treaties Between Japan and Foreign Countries Name of Treaty Treaty of Amity ........ Treaty of Amity, Commerce .......... { tTr:i~~ ~: -~~i~~'. ?.o~~-e~~~ Treaty of Commerce and Navigation .... *Treaty of Commerce and Navigation ... *Treaty of Commerce ............... Treaty of Amity and Commerce ....... { tTreaty of Amity, Commerce and Naviga-Ai~?~o~~l A~ti~i~s t~ th~ 0Af~1:e~;~ti~~~d Treaty ........................ { Treaty of Commerce and Navigation .... Supplementary Convention to the T1eaty of Commerce and Navigation ....... Customs Tariff Convention ........... Agreement concerning the Exchange of Postal Matters .............. ; .... { tTrfi~~ -~~-i~~'. tTreaty of Commerce ................ { *Treaty of Commerce and Navigation ... tSpecial Reciprocal Customs Convention .. { tTr.:i~~ ~: -~~i~~'. ?.o~~-e~~~ -~~~i_g_a: tTreaty of Commerce and Navigation .... Convention between Ja pan and France .. Agreement concerning Commercial Relations between Japan and French Indo-China .......................... *Treaty of Commerce and Navigation ... Note relating to the Application to Free City of Danzig of the Treaty of Commerce & Navigation between Japan and Poland ......................... *Treaty of Commerce ................ The Agreement against the Communist International, and the Supplementary Protocol ........................ *Treaty of Commerce and Navigation .... Supplementary Convention to the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation ..... .. Treaty of Commerce between Japan and India ......................... .. Agreement Concerning the Exchange of the Postal Money Order ........... { tTr;i~~ -~~-i~~. { Treaty of Commerce and Navigation .... Treaty of Judicial Settlement, Arbitration and Conciliation .................. *Treaty of Commerce and Navigation ... tTreaty of Commerce and Navigation ... tTreaty of Commerce and Navigation .... Exchange of Notes Constitutin ga Com-Date of Signature Apr. 2, 1928 June 20, 1934 Feb. Aug. June Apr. Nov. 3, 1898 16, 1980 27, 1924 13, 1914 6, 1896 Sept. 26, 1897 Oct. 16, 1899 July 21, 1896 Oct. 8, 1903 May 6, 1980 Dec. 8, 1922 May 25, 1908 Oct. 30, 1925 Feb. 12, 1912 Feb. 12, 1912 Aug. 26, 1918 June 7, 1924 June 10, 1907 May 13, 1932 Aug. 19. 1911 Aug. 19, 1911 Apr. 11, 1927 July 2, 1927 Nov. 25, 1986 Apr. 3, 1911 July 80, 1925 July 12, 1984 Aug, 24, 1986 June July Apr. Nov. Nov. July May 1, 1899 6, 1!112 19, 1933 25, 1912 16, 1928 4, 1925 2, 1930 Ratification exchanged July 17, 1981 July 11, 1981 Sept. Dae. May Mar. Feb. 18, 1901 2, 1981 8, 1925 15, 1916 12, 1897 Sept. 24, 1906 Sept. 24' 1906 Oct. 20, 1895 Jan. 11, 1904 (Promulgated) May 7, 1930 (Promulgated) Jan. 1, 1928 Dee. 10, 1908 Oct. 20, 1926 May 6. 1912 May 6; 1912 Mar. 81, 1919 Oct. 22, 1925 June 10, 1907 Aug. 17, 1932 Apr. 22, 1912 Aug. 26, 1911 (Promulgated) Apr. 16, 1927 Apr. 2, 1928 May 5, 1911 July 29, 1927 Dec. 20, 1986 Sept. 21, 1899 Oct. 8, 1918 Aug, 18, 1985 June 17, 1913 Jan. 13, 1925 Aug. 25, 1928 Nov. 80, 1931

PAGE 150

96 NATIONAL DEFENCE ----------------------------Table 1. The Army Expenditure Year Ending March 31: 1894 (Before Sino-Japanese War) ... 1897 (After Sino-Japanese War) ..... 1904 (Before Russo-Japanese War) .... 1907 (After Russo-Japanese War) ..... 1913 ....... 1918 ................... .... :i.924 ....... 1925 ....... 1926 ............................. 1927 .... 1928 ....... 1929 ........ 1930 ........ 1931 ............ 1932 .................. 1933 ........ ... 1934 ............... 1935 ............. 1936 ............... 1937 ................ 1938 (Budget Estimate) ............. 1939 ( ) .... Ordinary (H,OOOJ 12,420 32,614 39,355 37,835 80,175 88,344 176,224 179,331 170,761 167,561 174,190 167,620 178,899 174,546 163,680 148,266 166,471 168,790 179,905 191,433 217,804 165,849 Extraordinary (tl.000) 2,301 30,629 7,529 30,045 23,950 35,093 47,704 27,403 44,044 29,380 43,913 81,486 48,356 26,278 63,808 225,309 296,173 289,739 316,654 319,286 510,461 400,907 Table 2. The Navy Expenditure Year Ending March 3l; Ordinary Extraordinary (1'1,000) (l'l,000) 1894 (Before Sino-Japanese War) ..... 5,141 2,960 1897 (After Sino-Japanese War) ....... 7,351 12,655 1904 (Before Russo-Japanese War) ... 21,991 14,588 1907 (After Russo-Japanese War) ..... 27,991 33,885 1913 .............................. 41,534 53,952 1918 .............................. 48,528 113,906 1926 .............................. 122,242 106,761 1927 .............................. 127,428 109,879 1928 .............................. 136,545 136,992 1929 .............................. 143,026 125,106 1930 .............................. 147,649 120,017 1931 .............................. 146,888 95,147 1932 0 0 0 0 o O o O O o o I o o o o o o o o o o o o o o O o 138,914 88,215 1933 .............................. 140,740 172,069 1934 .............................. 179,027 230,948 1935 o 0 0 o I 199,430 283,923 1936 .............................. ';!16,447 319,931 1937 .............................. 236,408 331,042 1938 (Budget Estimate) .............. 273,053 410,005 1939 ( ) 294,Q93 386,290 .............. Total (,000) 14,721 53,243 46,884 67,870 104,125 123,437 223,927 206,735 214,805 196,941 218,104 249,106 227,255 200,824 227,488 373,575 462,645 458,529 496,559 510,719 728,265 566,256 Total (,000) 8,101 20,006 36,118 61,876 95,486 162,434 229,003 237,307 273,537 268,132 267,665 242,035 227,129 312,809 409,975 483,353 536,378 567,450 683,958 680,383 % to to al State Expenditure 17.40 32.02 18.78 14.65 17.52 16.78 14.89 12.72 14.09 12.47 12.35 13.73 13.09 12.89 15.40 19.16 20.52 20.41 21.91 22.40 24.42 16.11 % to total State Expenditure 9.58 10.73 14.47 13.36 10.68 22.10 15.02 15.03 15.49 14.77 15.41 15.54 15.38 16.04 18.18 21.51 23.74 24.85 22.93 19.35 Note: Other table on the financial aspects of national defence will be found in the chapter on Public Finance. SECTION I. Prefatory Remarks For about seven centuries till the abolition of feudalism in 1868, military service was an exclusive privilege of the samurai class, but with the advent of the resuscitated Imperial regime (1868) it was converted into a system of conscription service to which sons and brothers of all classes of people are liable on reaching majority. Japan thus adopted the Western system, namely that of a nation in arms. Of the generals who rendered distinguished service ii} the task of thus organizing the military system of Japan, the names of the late Marshals Yamagata and Oyama and the late General Prince Katsura THE ARMY stand out prominent. Marshal Yamagata carried out in 1884 minute investigations into the mili tary systems of the leading Powers of Europe. As a result of his memorable tour of inspection of Europe, the military organization of the country was remodelled on the Prussian system, The Marshal's suite contained the best talents of the time so far as military affairs were co~ cerned and included the late General Kawakami, Chief of the General Staff, and the late Prince Katsura. It was by General Kawakami, who by the way died soon after the close of the J~p~n China war in which he played the most distin guished part, that the staff service of the country was laid on the present basis of perfection and

PAGE 151

JAPAN Defence NATIONAL DEFENCE 97 efficiency. On the other hand General Katsura. did much to improve the administrative side of the service. In adopting the German method Japan owed much to the late General Meckel of the Prussian Army who came to this country in 1885 as adviser to the Japanese Army and took under his tutelage most of our distinguished Generals. I. CONSCRIPTION The conscription system, first elaborated in 1873 and lastly revised in 1927, requires all able-bodied Japanese males of from full 17 to 40 years old to respond to the nation's call. In practice, the fundamental principle has never been put in force, and even on such an extraordinary occasion as that of the 1904-5 War the call was limited to a portion of those on the second reserve. The service is divided as follows:-Jobi heieki (standing army) consisting of gen-cki (active service) and yobi-eki ( 1st reserve service) ; kobi hei-eki (2nd reserve service); hoju hei-eki (territorial army service); kokumin hei-eki (national army service). The youths at full 20 years of age are subject to examination for conscription. Those who pass it as Class I are enrolled by lottery in the active service which extends 2 years (3 years in the navy) or 1st or 2nd territorial army service. Lads who finish the active service are placed on the 1st reserve list for 5 years and 4 months ( 4 years in the navy) at the end of which they are transferred to the 2nd reserve for 10 years (5 years in the navy), and finally, after 17 years and 4 months (12 years in the navy) of service, on the national army. Those who have gone through the period of territorial army service also pass into the national army. Youths who are classed as II a1e not recruited, but placed on the national army service. Exemption and Postponement.-Those who are classed as III are exempted from service, while Class IV lads are to be examined again the following year and if they remain in the same class after repeated examinations, are exempted. Criminals and the only supporters of the family have their enlistment put off. The postponement of enlistment is allowed in favour of lads studying at schools, Government or private, whic;h are recognized to be of a status at least equal to that of Middle Schools till they reach 27 years of age according to the length of the term of schools they attend. Such boys are subject to conscription examination when they cease to attend schools. This postponement is also applicable tp those staying abroad except in near Asiatic countries, to the age of 37. On the other hand, a student living within the eligible limit is enrolled at once in the service without the favour of chance of exemption from active service incidental to the drawing of lots, as soon as he leaves a school placed under the postponement clause, or when he reaches the above ages. Short Term Active Service.-Under the new conscription law in force since Dec. 1927, the term of active service of those conscripts who finished the course of the Seinen Kunren-sho or Young Men's Training Institutes (also see under Chapter on Education) has been reduced to 18 months, while that of the graduates of normal schools has been shortened to 5 months. The system of this short term active service has also been adopted in the Navy with the object of spreading and popularizing the maritime knowledge. The term of active service for the students of middle schools and higher grade schools who underwent the course of military training at schools has been reduced to 12 months for the graduates of middle grade schools and 10 months for those of higher grade schools. The former system of one year volunteers was discontinued after Nov. 30, 1927. E-xamination for Conscription.-Lads of con'. script age are classified into six grades as regards their physical examination, as A, Bl, B2, C, D and E, the respective figures for the last few years being as follows:Table 3. Statistics of Conscript Examinations (a) Lads of Conscript Age of Various Grades 1933 1934 1936 Total Number .... 631,099 641,969 633,886 A Grade ........ 178,994 185,432 188,470 B-1 Grade ...... 72,796 72,979 72,833 B-2 Grade ...... 132,681 135,275 130,041 C Grade ........ 205,777 206,810 201,716 D Grade ........ 40,141 40,822 40,108 E Grade ........ 710 651 718 (b) ,Stature (Meter) Aver. Year Over Over Over Over Over Over Over Under Dis stature 1.75 1,70 1.66 J.60 1.55 1.50 1.45 1.40 qualified (metre) 1931. ... 2,709 21,762 90,109 192,904 190,725 92,283 21,206 3,585 3,673 1.600 1932 .... 2,883 22,751 92,463 194,375 189,109 91,845 20,924 3,731 3,570 1.600 1933 .... 3,123 24,451 97,069 197,812 190,697 89,706 20,611 3,525 3,876 1.602 1934 .... 3,766 25,886 100,125 202,304 192,486 89,640 20,0,11 3,587 4,134 J .603 1935 .... 3;sss 25,649 99,659 199,024 189,214 88,526 20,306 3,512 1.603 1936 .... 3,929 26,186 97,708 197,362 188,724 88,337 20,918 3,665 1.603

PAGE 152

98 NATIONAL DEFENCE (c) Weight (Kg.) Over Over Over Over Over Ovet Over Over Under Year 75Kg. 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 40 Average 1933 .... 588 2,131 11,328 49,666 143,359 221,210 152,302 41,390 5,254 52.816 1934 .... 745 2.350 12,420 53,398 149,865 224,958 149,643 39,435 4,993 52.994 2;280 1935 .... 754 11,771 51,571 147,027 222,866 149,157 39,476 4,874 52.950 1936 .... 773 2,470 12,819 54,615 151,960 221,555 141,819 36,303 4,515 53.180 The ratio of ihiteracy, which stood at 4.28 per cent. in 1910, fell to 2.17 in 1915, to 0.88 in 1925, to 0.48 in 1930, further dropping to 0.38 in 1934. Conscripts and Leave of Absence In order to meet the convenience of the families of conscripts the military authorities adopted in 1919 a new measure, according to which conscripts may return home to assist in the business of their families at a convenient period, staying for the number of days representing their leave, but in no case for more than a fortnight. II. PERSONNEL OF ACTIVE SERVICE Officers-Infantry, cavalry, artillery, engineer, commissariat and aviation officers are appointed from among cadets trained at the Miiitary Cadets' Schools, or non-commissioned officers. Technical officers, surgeons and veterinary surgeons are promoted from among probational of ficers who must be graduates of universities and technical or medical schools, while paymasters are trained at the Paymasters' School. Officers can also volunteer for the gendarmerie when they are put to training at the Gendarmerie Training Institute. Warrant Office-rs.-These are special sergeant majors. Non-Commissioned Officers.-These comprise sergeant-majors, sergeants and corporals, all to be promoted from the ranks of the privates. Privates.-These are classified into senior (jotohei), 1st (ittohei) and 2nd (nitohei) classes. Promotion and Age-Limit of Officers Rules for promotion of milit!!,ry officers in service in time of peace are as follows: ( this limit being reduced to in time of war). 1 year from Sub-Lieutenant to Lieutenant, 2 years from Lieutenant to Captain, 4 years to Major, 2 years to Lieutenant--Colonel, 2 years each to Colonel and next to Major-General, 3 years to Lieutenanet-General. The promotion to full General and next to Marshal is left to the will of the Emperor. Age-limit in the active service is-45 for SubLieutenant and Lieutenant, 48 for Captain, 50 for Major, 53 for Lieutenant-Colonel, 55 for Colonel, 58 for Major-General, 62 for Lieutenant-General, 65 for General and no limit for Marshal. (Owing to the present Sino-Japanese Incident the age limit of Captain was elevated to 50 from 48). Opens the Door of the Service To induce non-commissioned officers to remain in the service, the military authorities devised in 1920 a special system by which the warrant officer of capability may be promoted to a special lieutenant after a short education, to be elevated according to merit to a higher post, even to the supreme Marshalship. On the other hand, to reinforce the Army with erudite officers, the graduates of universities in science or engineering can now be appointed by the Appointment Regulations of Technical Officers gazetted in August 1919, to Engineer or Artillery Lieutenants after 6 months' cadetship, while those graduated from the medical and agricultural colleges are likewise qualified to become Surgeon and Veterinary Lieutenants respectively. Table 4. No. of Officers on Active List Gen. to Col.to Capt.to Maj.-Gen. Maj. & Sub.-Lieut. & ranking ranking & ranking Total Year officers officers officers 1930 .... 220 3,747 9,823 12,790 1931. ... 221 3,747 9,797 13,765 1932 .... 233 3,939 9,729 13,901 1933 .... 233 4,260 10,374 14,867 1934 .... 231 4,661 10,063 14,955 III. ARMY EDUCATION Military education is under the control of the Military Training Department. The principal institutions for military education are :-(1) The Military Preparatory Schools located at Tokyo educates candidates aspiring to become officers (2) The Military Cadets' School (Military Academy) situated at Tokyo receives the grad~ates of the Preparatory School and other candidates; (3) The Military Staff College gives the finishing polish to lieutenants and captains of promising ability and gives necessary training so as to qualify them to become staff officers, The third is under direct control of the General Staff Office. For benefit of those aspiring to become non-commissioned officers, Military Training Schools were established at Sendai, Toyohashi and Kumamoto in 1927. Besides the above there are various schools

PAGE 153

JAPAN Defence NATIONAL DEFENCE 99 to give special education connected with Army. These are:-The Artillery and Engineering School for 2nd lieutenants of the respective corps to receive necessary training; (2) the Infanti,y School to instruct captains and lieutenants in tactics, etc.,; ( 3) the Toyama Military School to give officers and non-commissioned officers from two to seven months' training in gymnastics, and fencing, and to train the Mili tary Band; (4) the Cavalry School to give eleven months' training to officers and non-commission-ed officers of cavalry; (5) the Heavy Artillery School; (6) the Field Artillery School; (7) the Gunnery Mechanic School; (8) the Paymasters School; (9) the Surgery School; (10) the Veterinary Surgery School; ( 11) the Engineering School for training officers and non-commissioned officers in military engineering; (12) the Military Communications School; (13) the Military Motor Car School; (14) the Military Aviation School; ( 15) Gendarmerie Training Institute. Table 5. Statistics of Military Schools (At the end of Sept., 1936) Staffs Enrolments Graduates Staff College . . . 53 Gunnery Mechanical School . . 70 160 Infantry School . . . 100 -,Toyama School . . . 50 160 146 Cavalry School . . 58 55 55 Field Art. School . . . 94 81 Engineering School . . 45 20 17 Cadets' School (Mil. Acad.) . . 200 2,491 901 Mil. Motor Car School . . 43 100 Mil. Communications School . . 10 30 Mil. Aviatio)l Technical School . 54 400 98 Mil. Surgery School . . 45 135 Vet. Surgery School ..................... 84 Paymasters School ....................... 93 64 Mil. Preparatory School . . 45 450 147 Gendarmerie Training Inst. . 40 105 Note:-Asterisk denotes as in March. 1935. IV. DEVELOPMENT & REORGANIZATION OF SPECIAL CORPS As a result of actual experience learned in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) and the World War (1914-18), special corps has been expanded or reorganized. The development is specially conspicuous in (1) Heavy Artillery, (2) Field and Mountain ArtJ.llery, (3) Machine Gun Companies, (4) Communication Corps, (5) Flying Corps, etc. Heavy Artillery.-This is the new term adopted for the Fortress Artillery in the old system, stationed at the forts existing at various strategic points, as the Bay of Tokyo, Shimonoseki, and others. The system of the former Fortress Artillery having been exclusively defensive and therefore unsuited for aggressive operations, thorough reform was introduced to the system to bring it up to date, the strength of the artiller! corps stationed at vario1:1s places being. unified at the same time. Further to strengthen fu e. efficiency and mobi-le power of the Heavy Artillery Corps, lighter guns were attached, to ~e made use of when quick work is required. fhe Heavy Artillery Corps are distributed as ollows:Regiments.-Yokosuka Miyama; Shimonoseki, Battalions.-Hakodate; Maizuru; Keichi; Sa seho; Masan; Ryojun; Keelung; Mako. Field Artillery and Mountain Artillery.-(A) A field artillery regiment, composed of three battalions, is attached to each Army Division with the exception Qf the 9th, 11th and 19th Divisions, for each of which a mountain artillery regiment is provided. (B) Besides there are four brigades of field heavy artillery, each of two regiments strength, distri~uted as follows:-Brigade headquarters 1st (Mishima) 2nd (Kokura) 3rd (Konodai) 4th (Tokyo) : ........ Regiments 'nd I 3rd 5th .6th 1st 7th 4th ; 8th (C) Two independent mountain artillery regiments, each two battalions strong, are. stationed at Takata (1st reg.) and Kurume (3rd reg.) Mounted Artillery.-A mounted artillery battallion is stationed at Konodai, Chiba prefecture. Mounted Machine Guns.-A Battery of mounted machine guns is attached to each infantry regiment.

PAGE 154

100 NATIONAL DEFENCE Telegraph Regiments.-There are two telegraph regiments, the 1st regiment being stationed in Tokyo, and the 2nd in Hiroshima. Railway Regiments.-Two railway regiments (both belonging to the Guard Division) are stationed at Narashino and Chiba, both in Chiba prefecture. Tank Regiments.-Two tank regiments (created in 1925) are stationed at Kurume and Narashino. Anti-Aircraft Artillery.-Four anti-aircraft artillery regiments (created in 1925) are stationed at Hamamatsu, Konodai, Otsu and Saga. Two battalions are stationed at Rashin and Heijo. Balloon Corps.-A balloon corps is stationed at Chiba prefecture. Army Air Force.-At present there are ten flying regiments each consisting of 3 or 4 com panies. The force was made an independent service in June 1925, the former term "flying battalions" having been changed into "flying regiments" at the same time. (For further details vide Aviation Section of the Chapter). Fortresses.-There are 17 fortresses at points of strategic importance, in different parts of the country and dependencies. A heavy artillery regiment or battallion is stationed at each of these fortresses as stated before. They are as follows:-Yokosuka, Chichijima (Bonin Is.), Yura, Shi monoseki, Maizuru, Sasebo, Tsushima, Nagasaki, Iki, Hakodate, Saganoseki (Oita), Amami-Oshima, Keelung, Mako, Chinkai, Gensan and Ryojun (Port Arthur). The Military Arsenals exist at Kokura. Osaka, and Nagoya, each having a number of branch factories and powder magazines, with the. head. quarters at Kokura (Kyushu). They undertake the designing, planning and manufactu.i;e of arms, ordnance, munitions of war and inspection, and also undertake the manufacture of powder and arms for the Navy and the public at their request. Besides there are ordnance manufactories at Jujo (Tokyo), Tadaumi, Atsuta, Kokura and Heijo (Chosen). VI. ARMY ON PEACE STANDING A Division is generally composed of 2 brigades of infantry, 1 regiment each of cavalry and artillery, 1 battalian each of engineers and army service corps. A regiment of infantry consists of 3 battalions, each. of 600 men, while a regiment of cavalry is composed of 3 or 4 squadron, each of 100 sabres. A l'egiment of field artillery consists of 6 batteries, each of 4 guns, while a battalion of engineers consists of 3 companies, each of 150 men, and that of army service corps of 300 men. There are also independent corps, as shown in the table of army distribution given later. Table 6. Strength of Standing Force No. of Regiments Kind (or battalions) Infantry . 68 regiments Cavalry . . 25 regiments Field artillery . 14 regiments Mountain artillery . 5 regiments Field heavy artillery 8 regiments Heavy artillery .. . 8 regiments Sappers (Engineers) 17 battalions Railway corps . 2 regiments V. ARMS DEPOTS AND MILITARY Telegraph corps . 2 regiments ARSENALS Air force . 10 regiments Th A D h h d T Balloon corps . 1 regiment e rms epot as its ea quarters m o-Commissariat . 15 regiments kyo, and branches at Tokyo, Chiba, Nagoya, Tank corps .... ; 2 regiments Osaka, Hiroshima and Kokura. They conduct Anti-aircraft artillery 2 regiments the purchase, storing, maintenance, repairs, dis-The above rr~entioned force is divided and tribution, replacement, etc., of arms and ord-organized into 17 Divisions ( 34 brigades), as nance, mouriting of guns and similar work. shown below:-Divisional Headquarters Imperial Guard Division (Tokyo) Table 7. Statistics of Divisions (As in July 1938) Brigade. Regiment. Battalion, etc. of Various Garrisson or Corps and Headquarters corps I f tr {Guard Brig. I: Tokyo...... Guard Regs. I & 2 ............... } n an Y Guard Brig. 2: Tokyo ...... Guard Regs. 3 & 4 ...... ......... Tokyo C I B 1 N h. f Guard Cavalry Reg ............ ava ry rig. aras mo ......... ...... Regs. 13 & 14 ..................... Narashino Guard F.L. Reg. } Tokyo Field Heavy Art. Brig. 4: Tokyo ......... l Reg. 8 ...... ........................... Reg. 4 ... ... ........................... Shimosh1zu Guard Engineer Reg.; Guard Commissariat Reg.; } Tokyo Telegraph Reg. 1. ........ ................................................................ Ra! a R g {l ........................................................... .".................. Chiba 1 w Y e 2 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...... .... .. ...... .... ..... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ......... Narash1no Air. Reg. 5............... ................................. ..................... .................. Tachikawa Balloon Corps... ......... ... .................. ......... ... ... ................................. Chiba Anti-aircraft Art. Reg. 2 .................................................................. Konodai

PAGE 155

JAPAN NATIONAL DEFENCE --------------------Divisional' Headquarters let Division (Tokyo) Brigade, Regiment, Battalion, etc. of Various Garrison or Corps and Headquarters corps {Brig. 1: Tokyo ............. { Reg. 49 ......................... Kofu Infantry... Reg. 1 } Tokyo Brig 2 Tokyo { Reg. 3 Reg. 67 ............................. Sakura Cavalry Brig. 2: Narashino { Reg. 16 & 16 Narashino Reg. 1 } Tok o { Field Art. l ..... ... ... ...... ... ... Y Field Heavy Art. Regs. 1 & 7} Field Heavy Art. Brig. 3. Konoda1 ... Mounted Art. Reg-............... Konoda1 Tank Regiment 2 ............ ... Narashino Yokosuka Heavy Artillery Reg. ..................................................... Yokosuka Eng. Reg. l; Commissariat Reg. l .................................................. Tokyo Reg. 29 ........................... Wakamatsu-llnd Division Infantry... { Reg. 16, Bats, 1 & 2 ............ Shibata I !Brig. 3: Sendai. ............. { Reg. 4 .............................. Sendai (Sendai) Brig. 16,: Takata .......... Reg. 16, Bats, 3 ............. Muramatsu Reg. 30 ............................. Takata Cavalry Reg. 2; Field Art. Reg. 2; Eng. Reg. 2; Comt. Reg. 2............ Sendai_ Independent Mountain Art Reg. l ........................................ Takata {Brig. 6: Nagoya t Reg. 6 ............ ;.......... Nagoya Infantry... Reg. 68 .......................... Gifu Brig. 29 : Shizuoka .. ... Reg. 18 ... .. ........ ... Toyohashi Reg. 34 .......................... Shizuoka Cavalry Brig. 4: Toyohashi ............... f Reg. 3 ; Nagoya 3rd Division Regs. 26 & ,6........................ Toyohashi (Nagoya) Field Heavy Art. Brig. l: Mishima { F!eld Art. Reg. 3.................. Nagoya Field Heavy Art. Regs. 2 & 3 Mishima Comt. Reg. 3 .................................................................................... Nagoya Anti-aircraft Art. Reg. 1 .................................................................. Hamamatsu Eng. Reg. 3 ........................... ......................................................... Toyohashi Defence 101 1st Air {Air Regs. l & 2 ............................................................ Kagamigahara Corps Air Reg. 7 .................................... ........................ ......... Hamamatsu 4th Division (Osaka {Brig 7. Osaka { Reg. 8 ... ... .................. Osaka Infantry ... ............... Reg. 70 ......................... Shinoyama Brig. 32: Wakayama ...... { Reg. 37 .............................. Osaka Reg. 61 ............................ Wakayama Cavalry Regiment 4 ........................................................................ Osaka Field Artillery Regiment 4 ............................................................... Shinodayama Commissariat Regiment 4 .......................................................... Osaka Miyama Heavy Artillery .................................... ... ... ............... ......... Miya ma Engineer Reg. 4 ..................................................................... ........ Takatsuki 6th Division Infantry... Reg. 41 .............................. Fukuyama { { Brig. 9: Hiroshima ..... { Reg. 11 .............................. Hiroshima (H. h. Brig 21 Yamaguchi { Reg. 21 ............................ Hamada 1ros 1ma) Reg. 42 ............................. Yamaguchi CaJ!!r~ Reg 6;.Fie~ Art .. Reg. 6 ;.Eng Reg .. 6;.Comt Reg. 6;_Teleg.} Hiroshima { {Brig. 11: Kumamoto .... { Reg. 13 ............................. K.umamoto 6th D1v111on Infantry... Reg. 47 ... ............ ... ........ O1_ta (Kumamoto) Brig. 36: Kagoshima { Reg. 23 .............................. M1yako~OJO Reg. 45 .............................. Kagoshima Cavalry Reg. 6; Field Art. Reg. 6; Eng. Reg. 6; Comt. Reg. 6............ Kumamoto { {Brig. 13: Asahikawa ...... { Reg. 25 Sapporo 7th Division Infantry... Reg. 26 ............................ } (Asahikawa) Brig .. 14: Asah1kawa ...... Reg. 27 & 28 ........................ Asah1kawa Cavalry Reg. 7; Field Art. Reg. 7; Eng. Reg. 7; Comt. Reg. 7 ........... Hakodate Heavy Art. Reg. ................................. ......... ..................... Hakodate 8th Division (Hirosaki) {Brig. 4: Hi-rosaki ......... { Reg. 5 .............................. A?mori. Infantry... Reg. 31 .............................. H1r_osak1 Brig 16 Akita { Reg. 17 .............................. Akita Reg. 32 .............................. Yamagat'\ Field Art. Reg. 8; Comt. Reg. 8 ........................... } Hirosaki Cavalry Brig 3 Morioko { Reg. 8 .... ......... Regs. 23 & 24 .................. -} Morioka Engineer Regiment 8 ....................................................................... { {Brig. 6: Kanazawa ........ { Reg. 7 ijth Division Infant Reg. 35 (Kanazawa) ry Brig. 18: Tsuruga ............ I Reg. 19 Cavalry Reg. 9; Mount. Art. Reg. 9; E~:.e:~:~ 9 :c~~iR~g:g:::::: Kanazawa Toyama Tsuruga Sabaye Kanazawa

PAGE 156

102 NATIONAL DEFENCE Divisional Brigade, Regiment, Battalion etc. of Various Garrison or Headquaners Corps and Headquarters corps { { 8 H. { Reg. 89 ........................ ...... Himeji Brig. : 1meJ1 ............ Reg 40 T10ttor1 I f t ............................ 10th Division n an ry Brig. 33: Okayama ......... { Reg. 10 ........................... Okayama (H. Reg. 63 .............................. Matsuye imeJI) Cavalry Regiment 10: Field Artillery l
PAGE 157

JAPAN Defence NATIONAL DEFENCE were sunk or destroyed in the battle off the port of Hakpdate. When in 1870 a War Department was created by the new Government, the puny "fleet" in extence was made subordinate to it, though two years later the two services were divided into the Army and Navy Departments, the latter having acquired in that short period 17 warships with an aggregate tonnage of 14,000 tons. This formed the nucleus of the Japanese Navy. Gradually expanded in tonnage it had grown to 59,000 by the time of the Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) and to 260,000 on the occasion of the more formidable Russo-Japanese War (1904-05). The expansion subsequently _made was so rapid that when the Washington Conference was held in 1921 the I1r:r:erial fleet comprised 15 battle-ships, 7 battlecruisers, about 50 cruisers, coast-defence ships, and gun-boats, including other auxiliary ships, 130 torpedo-boat destroyers and torpedo-boats, and about 30 submarines, representing an aggregate tonnage of approximately 770,000 tons. NAVAL DISTRICTS AND BASES The coast of Japan is divided into three n~val districts, each having its base or naval stations, i.e. Yokosuka, Sasebo, and Kure. At each of these stations there is an Admiralty, with an arsenal, a marine corps, air force, and other provisions necessary for a naval base. Besides there are. Strategic Ports or secondary naval stations at Maizuru, Ominato, Ryojun (Port Arthur), Mako (Taiwan) and Chinkai (Chosen). The coast and adjacent seas of Kwantung province are termed the Kwantung naval district, and those -of the South Sea mandatory isles the South Sea naval district, and are respectively under control of the Sasebo and Yokosuka Admiralties. Naval Arsenal and Shipbuilding Each Admiralty has an arsenal with a ship building yard and posseses a dry dock for ac commodating large warships. The Yokosuka and Kure Arsenals have each two cradles, capable of taking in superdreadnoughts of over 40,000 tons, but the Sasebo and Maizuru Arsenals have each only one cradle for building cruisers and lesser ships. Besides the above there are private establishments approved by the Navy. They are the Mitsubishi Shipyard at Nagasaki, Kawasaki Shipyard at Kobe, Fujinagata Shipyard at Kobe, Ishikawajima Shipyard at Tokyo and others. The first two have capacity of building superdreadnoughts. Supply of Building Materials at Home Japan is almost self-dependent as regards materials for war implements. Armour plates, rails, etc., are now turned out at the Iron Works at Yawata (Kyushu), the plates being also produced at the Naval Yard belonging to the Kure Admiralty. A .steel works established in 1908 at Muro ran (Hokkaido), as a joint undertaking of the Hokkaido Colliery and Steamship Co. and Armstrong and Vickers (of England), with the countenance of the Navy, is devoted to casting guns and some commercial products. In wood, Siamese teak and Oregon pine are used for deck, while foreign oaks, maples, etc., are used for decorative parts. "Keyaki" (Obelicea serrata), a species of "Zelkowa" oaks also serves the latter purpose. PERSONNEL OF THE SERVICE Officers.-Besides the executive officers there a-re in the civil branch engineers, surgeons, pharmacists, hydrographers and construction, mechanical and ordnance officers. The executive officers, engineers, surgeons and paymasters are trained respectively at the Naval College, Engineering College, Surgery School and Intendants School. The other non-combatant of ficers are appointed from among the candidates who should be graduates of universities or other schools of similar grade. Petty and Warrant Officers.-Petty officers are appointed by selection from among the lstclass seamen, and are of 1st to 3rd classes, while for warrant officers the last class petty officers are eligible. Warrant officers of meritorious active service of not less than 5 years may be commissioned and gradually promoted as special service officers to the rank of Lieut.Commander or even higher. Officers -and Sub-officers of the Service The personnel of the Active serv-ice for the last few years is as follows:-Table 8. No. of Officers and Sub-officers on Active Service 1932 1933 1934 l93ii Adm. to Rear-Adm. and ranking officers ....... 118 136 148 153 C~ptain to Lieut.-comdr. and ranking officers .. 2,146 2,272 2,395 2,560 Lieutenants to 2nd class sub-lieut., special ser-3,958 3,991 vice and ranking officers ........... 3,885 3,952

PAGE 158

Jb4 NATIONAL DEFENCE Midshipmen ............................. Warrant officers ......................... Cadets at schools ........................ Total .............................. Elimination of Officers.-The elimination of officers in accordance with the Limitation of Armaments, begun in August 1922, was completed in March 1924. The total eliminated was as follows:-Table 9. Elimination of Officers in Connexion With Armament Limitation Full Admirals ................. Vice-Admirals ................. Rear-Admirals ................ Captains ..................... Commanders .................. Lieut.-Commanders ............ Lieutenants ................... Sub-Lieutenants .............. Total .................... 8 52 99 290 262 171 115 43 1,043 At the same time warrant and ranking officers were reduced by over 700 and petty officers and seamen by over 13,000. Volunteers and Conscripts In the Navy the volunteers service is supplemented by conscription. The age-limit for vol unteers is fixed at over 15 and below 21 years, that for aerial service being 15 to 17. The annual enlistment of men makes the following record for the last few years:-Table 10. Annual Enlistment of Men Year 19 ............... 1931. .............. 1932 ............... 1933 ............... 1934 ............... 1935 ............... Conscripts 7,525 9,780 Naval Officers' Promotion Volunteers 4,937 4,676 4,668 7,526 7,042 7,014 Promotion by selection is the rule in the Japanese Navy. Candidates for special promotion are selected at the conference of the Admirals' Council. The time-limit for promotion is reduced to one half in time of war. The regular course of promotion for junior officers is as follows-Midshipmen, over one year's service in a training ship; 2nd Sub-Lnts. over one year's service; 1st Sub-Lnts. over 18 months of which six months in Torpedo or Gunnery School; Lnt. of over 4 years in the service are promoted to Lieut.-Commanders; Special service 1st Sub-Lnts. over two years' service; Special service 2nd Sub-Lnts. over three years' service; ( combatants;, engimters and --------------------1932 349 1,686 6,149 1933 348 1,806 6,360 1934 348 1,953 6,501 1935 184 2,144 6,704 Intendants) may be promoted to Lieut.-Com. mander by special appointment. Commanders.-Lieut.-Commanders of over two years' service are promoted to Commander. Captains.-Commanders of over two years' service are promoted_ to Captain. Rear Admirals.-Captains of over two years' service are promoted to Rear-Admiral. Vice-Admirals.-Rear-Admirals of over three, years' service are promoted to Vice-Admiral. Admirals.-Vice-Admirals, who have seen much actual service or are of special merits are promoted by Imperial order. N.B.:-lst-cinss warrant or ranking officer of over 6 y1?ars in the service 111ay be pro1noted to 1st Lieutenant or ranking officer. Table 11. Age-Limit of Officers in Active Service Fleet Admiral ..................... No limit Admiral . . . 65 Vice-Admiral . . 62 Rear-Admiral & Non-Combatant Rear-Admiral . . . 60 Rear-Admiral . . 58 Non-Combatant Captain . 56 Captain & Engineer Captain . 54 Non-Combatant Commander . 52 Commander & Engineer Commander. 50 Non-Combatant Lieut.-Commander. 49 Lieut.-Comdr. & Engineer Lieut.-Comdr. 47 Non-Combatant Lieutenant . 47 Lieutenant and Engineer Lieutenant. 45 Sub-Lieut. (Non-Combatant, 1st & 2nd) 42 Sub-Lieut. & Eng. Sub-Lieut. (1st & 2nd) .. . . 40 NAVAL EDUCATION There are ten educational institutions, name ly, the Naval Staff College, NavaC College (or Cadets School), Engineering College, Torpedo School, Gunnery School, Intendants School, Surgery School, and Submarine School (all thoroughly recast after the World War), and Naval Communications School (created in 1930). Table 12. Statistics of NavaJ Schools (At the end of Sept., 1936) Naval Staff College (Tokyo) Naval College (Etajima) .. Naval Engrg. School Staff (Maizuru) . 133 Intendants School (Tokyo) 7 5 Engrg. Mechanical School Grad Students uates 335 410 .... 196 71 167 (Y.okosuka) . 255 i~t~;:~ln~c~~~;oiyt~~~~f~~ 504 N.B.:-Asterisk denotes as at the end of :March, 1935

PAGE 159

NATIONAL DEFENCE Table 13. The Standing Fleets for 1937-38 First Fleet: 1st Battle Squadron: Nagato (Flagship), Mutsu, Hyuga. 3rd Battle Squadron: Haruna (Flagship) and Kirishima. 8th Battle Squadron: Kinu (Flagsh_ip), Natori and Yura. JAPAN Defence 105 1st Torpedo Battle Squadron: Sendai (Flagship), 9th and 21st destroyer flotillas. 1st Submarine Squadron: Isuzu (Flagship), 7th and 8th submarine flotillas. 1st Air Battle Squadron: Hosho (Flagship), Ryujo and 30th destroyer flotilla. Combined Fleet .. ; Second Fleet: 4th Battle Squadron: 5th Battle Squadron: 2nd Torpedo Battle destroyer flotillas. Takao (Flagship) and Maya. Na chi (Flagship), Haguro and Ashigara. Squadron: Jintsu (Flagship), 7th, 8th and 19th 2nd Submarine Battle Squadron: Jingei (Flagship), 12th, 29th. and 30th submarine flotillas. 2nd Air Battle Squadron: Kaga (Flagship), 22nd destroyer flotilla:. 12th Air Battle Squadron: Okishima (Flagship), Kamui and 18th destroyer flotilla. Third Fleet .. -{ Training Fleet .... 10th Battle Squadron: Izumo (Flagship), Tenryu and Tatsuta. 11th Battle Squadron: Ataka (Flagship), Toba, Seta, Katada, Hira, Hozu, Atami, Futami, Kuri, Toga and Hachisu. Yakumo and Iwate. Attached to the Combined Fleet are three special service ships (Mamiya, Naruto and Saga). Classification of the Ships Under the new classification the ships are subdivided into:-(1) battleships; (2) lst-class cruisers (displacement over 7,000 tons); (3) 2nd-class cruisers ( displacement under 7,000 tons); (4) air-craft carriers; (5) submarine tender ships; (6) mine-layers; (7) coast defence ships; (8) gunboats; (9) lst-class destroyers (displacement over 1,000 tons); (10) 2nd-class destroyers (displacement 600-1,000 tons); (11) lst-class submarines (displacement over 1,000 tons); ( 12) 2nd-class submarines ( displacement 600-1,000 tons); (13) Torpedo boats; (14) Mine sweepers; ( 15) Special service ships, etc. The number and total tonnage of war vessels of the Imperial Navy in recent years are tabulated below:-Table 14. No. of War Vessels Warships Destroyers Other crafts No. Tonnage No. Tonnage No. Tonnage 1922 .......... 69 795,582 107 85,361 2 1,420 1930 ............ 74 642,295 107 115,295 92 334,154 1932 ............ 75 661,920 103 122,493 86 332,978 1933 ............ 76 672,070 102 122,869 83 330,411 1936 (July) .... 76 712,245 97 118,311 74 290,019 1937 (July) ..... 77 716,645 103 127,077 77 '293,389 T_able 15. List of Warships (Aug., 1938) Battleships Nominal Main Displacement Length When speed Torpedo armaments High angle (tons) (meter) launched (knots) tunes (centimeter guns Nagato 32,720 201.35 1919 23.0 6 40( 8); 14(20) 12.7 cm.(8) Mutsu ..... 32,720 201.35 1920 23.0 6 40(8); 14(20) 12.7 cm. (8) Fuso .. .... 29,330 192.02 1914 22.5 2 36 (12); 15 (16) 12.7cm.(8) Yamashiro 29,330 192.02 1915 22.5 2 36(12); 15(16) 12.7 cm.(8) Ise ....... 29,990 195.07 1910 23.0 4 36(12); 14(18) 12.7cm.(8) Hyuga .... 29,990 195.07 1917 23.0 4 36 (12); 14 (18) 12.7 cm.(8) .t?n~o ..... 29,330 199.21 1912 26.0 4 36( 8); 15(16) 12.7 crn.(8) 1ye1 ..... 19,500 199.19 1912 18.0 36(6); 15(16) 12.7 cm. (4) Haruna .... 29,330 199.21 1913 26.0 4 36( 8); 15(16) { 1.2.7 cm.(8) 8.0cm.(4) Kirishima .. 29,330 i99.21 1913 26.0 4 36_{ 8); 15(16) 12.7 cm.(8) N,B,- Training battleship.

PAGE 160

106 NATIONAL DEFENCE lst-Class Cruisers Nominal Main Disolacement Length Year speed Torpedo armaments (tons) (meer) completed (knots) tubes (centimetre) Hili::h angle Myoko 10,000 192.07 1929 33.0 12 20(10) 12 cm. (6) Nachi 10,000 192.07 1928 33.0 12 20(10) 12cm.(6) Ashigara .... 10,000 192.07 1929 33.0 12 20 (10) 12 cm. (6) Haguro ..... 10,000 192.07 1929 33.0 12 20(10) 12 cm.(6) Takao ...... 9,850 198.00 1932 33.0 8 20(10) 12 cm. (4) Atago ...... 9,850 198.00 1932 33.0 8 20(10) 12 cm. (4) Chokai ..... 9,850 198.00 1932 33.0 8 20(10) 12 cm. (4) Maya ...... 9;850 198.00 1932 33.0 8 20(10) 12 cm. (4) Kako ....... 7.100 176.78 1926 33.0 12 20 ( 6 ) 12cm.(4) Furutaka ... 7,100 176.78 1926 33.0 12 20 ( 6 ) 12 cm.(4) Kinukasa ... 7,100 176.78 1927 33.0 12 20 ( 6 ) 12cm.(4) Aoba ....... 7,100 176.78 1927 33.0 12 20 ( 6) 12 cm.(4) 2nd-Class Cruisers Hirado 4,400 134.11 1912 26.0 3 15 ( 8 ) ; 8 (2) 8 cm. (2) Yahagi 4,400 134.11 1912 26.0 3 15 (8);8(2) 8 cm. (2) Tatsuta 3,230 134.11 1919 31.0 6 14 ( 4 ) 8 cm.(1) Tenryu 3,230 134.11 1919 31.0 6 14 ( 4) 8 cm.(1) Kuma ...... 5,100 152.40 1920 33.0 8 14 ( 7.) 8 cm.(2) Tama 5,100 152.40 1021 33.0 8 14 ( 7 ) 8 cm.(2) Kitakami ... 5,100 152.40 1921 33.0 8 14 ( 7 ) 8 !!m.(2) 0-i ........ 5,100 152.40 1921 33.0 8 14 ( 7 ) 8 cm. (2) Kiso ....... 5,100 152.40 1921 33.0 8 14 ( 7 ) 8 cm.(2) Nagara ..... 5,170 152.40 1922 33.0 8 14 ( 7 ) 8 cm.(2) Isuzu 5,170 152.40 1923 33.0 8 14 ( 7 ) 8 cm.(2) Natori .... 5,170 152.40 1922 33.0 8 14 ( 7 ) 8 cm. (2) Yura ....... 5,170 152.40 1923 33.0 8 14 ( 7 ) 8 cm. (2) Kinu ....... 5,170 152.40 1922 33.0 8 14 ( 7 ) 8 cm.(2) Abukuma ... 5,170 152.40 1925 33.0 8 14 ( 7 ) 8 cm. (2) Sendai ..... 5,195 152.40 1924 33.0 8 14 ( 7 ) 8 cm.(2) Jintsu ...... 5,195 152.40 1925 33.0 8 14 ( 7 ) 8 cm.(2) Naka ....... 5,195 152.40 1925 33.0 8 14 ( 7 ) 8 cm.(2) Yubari ..... 2,890 132.59 1923 33.0 4 14 ( 6 ) 8 cm.(1) Mogami .... 8,500 190.50 1935 33.0 12 15 ( 6) 12.7 cm.(8) Mikuma .... 8,500 190.50 1935 33.0 12 15(15) 12.7 cm.(8) Suzuya ..... 8.500 190.50 tl934 33.0 12 15 (15) 12.7 cm.(8) Kumano .... 8,500 190.50 t1936 33.0 12 15 (15) 12.7 cm.(8) Tone ....... 8,500 (under construction) 33.0 12 15(15) 12.7 cm.(8) Tsukuma 8,500 ( ) 33.0 12 15(15) 12.7 cm.(8) ... Coast Defence .Ships Displacement Length Year Nominal Torpedo Main armaments (tons) (meter) completed speed (knots) tubes (centimeter) Asama ....... 9,240 124.36 1899 21.25 4 20(4); 15(12); 8 (4); *8(1) Yakumo .... 9,010 124.66 1900 16.00 2 20(4); 15(12); 8 (4); *8(1) Azuma ..... 8,640 135.89 1900 16.00 4 20(4); 15(12); 8 (4); *8(1) Iwate ...... 9,180 121.92 1901 16.00 4 20(4); 15(14); 8(4); *8(1) Izumo ...... 9,180 121.92 1900 20.75 2 20(4); 15(14); 8(4); *8(1) Kasuga 7,080 104.88 1904 20.00 25(1); 15(14); 20(2); *8(4) Tsushima 3,120 1904 20.00 15(6); 8(8) *7(1) Note: High angle guns. Aircraft Carriers Displacement Year Speed Armamsnts High angle (tons) completed (l,nots) (cm.) (cm.) Ak9igi 26,900 1927 28.5 20(10) 12 (12) Kaga ....... 26,900 1928 23.0 20(10) 12 (12) Hosho 7,470 1922 25.0 14 ( 4 ) 8 ( 2) Ryujo 7,100 1933 25.0 12.7(12) Soryu 10,050 t1935 30.0 '12.7(12) Hiryu 10,050 ( under construction) 30.0 12.7 (12) Note: t Year lunched.

PAGE 161

Jingei ... Chogei .... Kanzaki Komahashi Taigei .. Notoro .. Kamoi .. Chitose .... Chiyoda .. Mizuho ... Yodo ...... Futami .... Atami ..... Ataka ..... Toba Saga Hira ...... Hozu Seta ....... Katada ... Dis't. (tons) 5,160 5,160 9,570 1,125 10,000 14,050 17,000 10,000 9,000 9,000 1,320 170 170 725 215 685 305 305 305 305 Name Armaments (cm.) Minekaze Sawakaze .. 0kikaze Shimakaze Nadakaze .. Yakaze ... Hakaze ... Shiokaze Akikaze .. Yukaze ... Tachikaze .. Hokaze ... Nokaze ... Namikaze .. Numakaze Kamikaze Asakaze ... Harukaze .. Matsukaze Hatakaze .. 0ikaze .... Hayate ... ~sanagi .. unagi .. .. Mutsuki .. Kisaragi .. Yayoi .... Uzuki ..... Satsuki ... Minazuki .. i Fumizuki .. Nagatsuki ; Kikuzuki : : t Mikazuki .. Mochizuki Yuzuki Fubuki : :: : 12 (4) " " ,,. " 12.7(6) NATIONAL DEFENCE Sub-marine Tender Ships When launched 1923 1924 1914 1934 Speed (knots) 16.0 16.0 12.6 13.9 20.0 Sea Plane Tender Ships 1920 1922 (under construction) ( ). ( ) 12.0 15.0 20.0 20.0 17.0 Gunboats 1908 22 16 16 16 15 15 16 16 16 16 1930 1929 1922 1911 1912 1923 1923 1923 1923 lst-Class Destroyers Displace-ment Torpedo Year (tons) tubes completed 1,215 6 1920 " " 1,270 " 1,315 " 1,700 " " " " 9 1921 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1924 1925 1926 1925 1926 1925 1927 1926 1927 1926 1927 1928 Name Shirayuki Hatsuyuki Murakumo Shinonome Usugumo Shirakumo Isonami .. Uranami .. Ayanami Shikinami Amagiri .. Asagiri .... Sagiri .... Yugiri ..... Oboro Akebono ... Sazanami .. Ushio Akatsuki ... Hibiki Ikazuchi .. Inazuma .. Nenohi ... Hatsuharu Ariake Yugure .... Hatsushimo Wakaba ... Shiratsuyu Shigure Murasame Yudachi .. Samidare Y-amakaze Harusame Umikaze .. Kawakaze Armaments (centimeter) 14(4) 14(4) 8(1) 8(2) 12(2) 14(2) 8(2) 12(2) 12(1) Armaments (cm.) 12.7(6) " " 12.7(5) " JAPAN High angle (cm.) 8 (2) 8 (2) 8 (1) 8 (1) 12.7(4) 8 (2) 8 (2) 12.7 (4) 12.7(4) 12.7 (6) 8 (1) 8 (1) 8 (2) 8 (2) 8 (3) 8 (2) 8 (2) 8 (2) 8 (2), Defence 107 Displace ment Torpedo Year (tons) tubes completed 1,700 '9 1928 1929 " " 1,368 ,, " " " 6 " 1928 ,, 1929 1930 1929 1930 1931 1930 1931 1932 1931 1932 1933 1932 1933 1935 1934 1936 1937 1936 1937 tl9"36

PAGE 162

108 NATIONAL DEFENCE DisplaceDisplace-Armaments ment Torpedo ~Year tubes completed Armaments ment Torpedo Year Name Suzukaze Asashio .... Oshio Michishio Arashio Natsugumo Mamo ..... Hinoki Yanagi .... Kaya ...... Nire ...... Kuri Nashi Take ...... Kaki ...... Tsuga ..... Kiku ...... Aoi ...... Hagi Suzuki Fuji ...... Name (cm.) 12.7 (5) 12.7(6) 12 (3) " ,, (tons) 1,368 1,500 755 770 " Displacement (tons) Tokiwa 9,240 Katsuriki ...... 1,540 Shirataka ...... 1,345 Itsukushima . 1,970 Yaeyama . 1,135 Okinoshima . 4,440 Note: Hi&'h angle guns. Shiretoko ........... 14,050 Erimo ,, ............ Sata ............... Tsurumi ............ Shiriya ............. Iro ................ Ondo ............... Hayatomo .......... Naruto ............. ilforoto 8,215 .. ............ NoJ1ma .............. Tsurugizaki ......... 12,000 Takasaki ........... Akashi ............. Mamiya ............ 15,820 Sunosaki (Transport ship) 8,800 Otomari (Ice breaker) 2,330 Koshu (Surveying ship) 2,080 Fuji (Training ship) .. 9,179 Asahi (Training ship) 11,441 Shikishima (Training ship) ... il,275 Settsu (Target ship) .. 16,130 Note: High angle guns. Displacement (tons) "I" No. 1 ...... 1,955 "I" No. 2 ...... "I" No. 3 ...... "I" No. 4 ...... 6 8 t1937 1936 t t1937 t t Name Asagumo Yamagumo Minegumo Kasumi .... Arare .. 2nd-Class Destroyers 6 1916 Tsuta ... 1917 Ashi ..... Hishi ..... 4 1920 Hachisu Sumire ... Yomogi ... 1919 'Tade ..... Wakatake .. 1920 Kuretake Sanaye ... Asagao ... Yugao .... 1921 Fuyo ..... Karukaya Mine Layer L (cm.) ,, " '' Nominal Length Year Speed (meter) completed (knots) 124.36 1899 21.25 73.15 1917 13.00 79.20 1929 16.00 100.00 1929 16.00 85.50 1932 20.00 1936 20.00 Special Service Ships 138.68 1920 12.00 138.68 1920 12.00 138.68 1921 12.00 138.68 1922 12.00 138.68 12.00 138.68 12.00 138.68 1923 12.00 138.68 1922 12.00 138.68 12.00 105.16 1918 12 105.16 1919 12 1935 19.00 1936 19.00 (under const.) 19.00 144.78 1924 14.00 121.92 1918 14.00 60.96 1921 13.00 76.96 1904 10.30 114.00 1897 18.25 122.10 1900 18.20 121.92 1898 18.60 152.40 1912 21.00 lst-Class Submarines When Speed (when afloat) completed (Knots) 1926 17.0 1929 ". (tons) tubes completed (Under canst,) ( ) ,, ( ,, ) ( ,, ) ( ) ,, 820 Main armaments " 1921 1922 1923 1922 1923 1924 1923 { 20 cm. (2); 15 cm.(8) 8 cm.(2); *8 cm.(l) 8 cm. (3) *12 cm.(3) 14cm.(3); *8cm.(2) *12 cm. (3) 14 cm. (4) 12 cm. (2); *8 cm.(2) 12cm.(2); *8cm.(2) 14 cm. (2) ; *8 cm. (2) 14 cm. (2); *8 cm. (2) 14 cm. (2); *8 cm.(2) 14 cm.(2); *8 cm.(2) 14 cm. (2); *8 cm.(2) 14 cm. (2); *8 cm,(2) 14 cm. (2); *8 cm.(2) 12cm.(2) 12 cm. (2) 12.7 cm.(4) 12.7 cm. (4) 12.7 cm.(4) 14 cm.(2); *8 cm.(2) 12cm.(2)-; *8cm.(2) 8 cm. (1) 8 cm. (2) Armaments (cm.) 14 (2) Torpedo tubes 6

PAGE 163

JAPAN Defence NATIONAL DEFENCE 109 DisJ)lacement When Speed Armaments Torpedo (tons) completed (When afloat; Knots) (cm.) tub,s "I" No. 5 ...... 1,955 1932 17.0 12.7(1) 6 "I" No. 6 ...... 1,900 1935 "I" No. 7 ..... 1,950 1936 14 (2) "I" No. 8 ...... 1936(L) "I" No. 21 .. .. 1,142 1927 14.0 14 (1) 4 "I" No. 22 ...... "I" No. 23 ..... 1928 "I" No. 24 ... "I" No. 51 ... 1,390 1924 17.0 12 (1) 8 "I" No. 52 ..... 1925 19.0 "I" No. 53 ..... 1,635 1927 "I" No. 54 .... "I" No. 55 ... "I" No. 56 .... 1929 ,, "I'' No. 57 ...... "I" No. 58 ..... 1928 "I" No. 59 ... 1930 "I" No. 60 .. ,; .. 1929 .,, .,, "I" No. 61. ..... 6 "I" No. 62 ...... 1930 ,, "I" No. 63 ...... 1928 ., ,, 8 "I" No. 64 ... 1930 ,, ,, 6 "I" No. 65 .... 1,638 1932 10 (1)" ,, "I" No. 66 ..... ,, "I" No. 67 ..... ,, "I' No. 68 ...... 1,400 1934 20.0 ,, "I" No. 69 ..... 1935 ,, "I" No. 70 ..... ,, ,, "I" No. 71 ..... 12 (1) "I" No. 72 ...... 1937 ,, "I" No. 73 ...... ,, "I" No. 74 .. ,, (Under const.) "I" No. 75, I I I I I 1936(L) ,, ,, 2nd Class Submarines "Ro" No. 26.; .. 746 1923 16.0 *8 (1) short 4 "Ro" No. 27 ..... 1924 "Ro'' No. 28 ..... 1923 "Ro" No. 30 .... 655 1924 13.0 12 (1) "Ro" No. 31 ..... 1927 "Ro" No. 32 .... 1924 "Ro" No. 33., ... 700 1935 16.0 *8 (1) "Ro" No. 34 ..... 1937 ,, "Ro" No. 51 ..... 893 1920 17.0 *8 (1) short 6 "Ro" No. 53 ..... 1921 4 "Ro" No. 54 ..... 6 "Ro" No. 55 .... "Ro" No. .56 .... 1922 "Ro" No. 57 ..... 889 4 "Ro" No. 58 ..... ,, "Ro" No. 59 ..... 1923 "Ro" No. 60 ..... 988 16.0 8 (1) 6 "Ro" No. 61 .... 1924 "Ro" No. 62 ... "Ro" No. 63 ..... "Ro" No. 64 ..... 1925 ,, I "Ro" No. 65 ... 1926 ,, ''Ro" No. 66 ..... 1927 "Ro" No. 67 ..... 1926 "Ro" No. 68 .. 1925 ,, Note:-"I" and "Ro" angle guns, represent first and secon,l letters of the Japanese Alphabet. (L)--When laiinched, -Hl!f'

PAGE 164

110 NATIONAL DEFENCE Displacement (tons) Chidori .......... Manazuru ........ Tomozuru ........ Hatsukari ........ Odori ........... Hiyodori ......... Hayabusa ...... Kasasagi ......... Kiji ............ Kari ............ Sagi ............ Hato ......... 527 ,, ,, ,, 595 ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, Torpedo When completed 1934 1936 1936 1936 1937 1937 (L) 1937 (L) 1937 (L) 1937(L) Boat. S;,erd (When afloat; Knots) 26.0 28.0 ,, Armaments lcm.) 12 (3) ,, ,, --------T,r:edt Lb,s 2 3 Mine Sweepers No. 1 ........... No. 2 ........... No, 3 .... No. 4 .......... No. 5 No. 6 .. No. 13 ... No. 14 ........... No. 15 ........... No. 16 ........... No.17 ........... No. 18 ........... 615 ,, ,, ,, 492 1923 1925 1929 1933 1934 1936 1936 Note:- High angle guns. (L) When launched,. Besides these, the Imperial Navy possesses 62 submarines of which 8 (No. "i" 4th class boats) are the largest destroyers (cruiser-destroyers) in the world; also 12 torpedo-boats and 13 mine sweepers. SECTION III. AVIATION For air mail service vide Chapter on Communications, and for air transportation, also vide Chapter on Transportation.-Editor. I. MILITARY AVIATION Two Army officers who were trained in France and returned home in 1911 were the first airmen in Japan, followed by two others in 1912 and three in 1913. In 1919, an aviation section was created in the Army Department and the first army aviation school was opened at Tokorozawa (near Tokyo) in 1920 to give training to about 100 students including both commissioned and non-commissioned officers, besides admitting a few civilians. In 1922, two military aviation1 schools were newly established, one at Shimoshizu (Chiba prefecture) and the other at Akeno (Miye prefecture). Since 1917 the Army has yearly bought powerful machines from Europe, at the same time making best efforts to produce them at home, at State and private factories. .20 12(2); *8(1) ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, l::?(2) ,, 19.0 Japan sent an aviation m1ss10n to the Italian front during the World War in August, 1918, it consisting of 22 officers (1 died there) and over 70 artisans. They returned home in Aug. 1919. Equally noteworthy was the arrival in February, 1919, of some 60 French army avia tors headed by Col. Faure, for giving training to Japanese army aviators, and also the participation with marked success of the army and navy aviators in the Tsingtao campaign of 1914. In June 1925, the Army aviation corps were made independent and on equal footing with infantry, cavalry, field artillery, etc., and at the same time each air batt1i.lion was reorganized into an air regiment. Simultaneously with the independence of the air force two bombing regiments were newly added to the force. In 1927 a section of Army flight officers re ceived special training in bombing practice at the Akenogahara Aerodrome under a French expert. Expansion of Air Force.-To strengthen the air force to suitable level, the Army authorities drew up in 1925 an expansion programme which w2s put into execution the following year, the object being to create 1 bombing battalion, 1 reconnoitering battalion and 1 fighting battalion, each consisting of 3 companies, as the ftr~t period expansion work. In principle, one air regiment is organized wit~ 3 companies in or dinary time, each company being equipped with

PAGE 165

JAPAN Defence NATIONAL DEFENCE 111 12 machines for a fighting corps and 9 machines for reconnoitering. As provided fol' in the expansion programme, which was completed by the end of 1932, the 1st, 4th, 5th and 7th regiments were increased to 4 companies each, and 1 company added to the 8th regiment. The balloon corps has had 1 additional company. Organization of Air Regiments.-The Army air force consists at present of ten air regiments or 26 companies, i.e. 11 reconnoitering, 11 fighting and 4 bombing companies and 2 balloon corps, organized with 6,900 officers and men. The headquarters of these air regiments are located as follows:-Table 16. Headquarters of Air Regiments 1st Regiment 2nd Regiment 3rd Regiment 4th Regiment 5th Regiment 6th Regiment 7th Regiment 9th Regiment Balloon Corps ( 4 air companies) .............. ..... Kagamigahara, Gifu Prefecture. Kagamigahara, Gifu Prefecture. Yokaichi, Shiga Prefecture. Tachiarai, Fukuoka Prefecture. Tachikawa, Tokyo. (2 air companies) ................... (3 air companies) ................... (4 air companies) ................... (4 air companies) ................... (3 air companies) ................... Heijo (Pingyang), Chosen. Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Prefecture. Kainei, Chosen. (3 air companies) ................... (2 companies) ...................... Tsuganuma, Chiba Prefecture. Air Defence Provisions.-The defence plan as de.cided in 1929 provides for the completion -of the defence arrangements against air raids by 1931 in Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya and other important cities at the estimated cost of millions as a work spread ~ver 3 years. The programme for Tokyo consists of the equipments of anti-aircraft guns, anti-aircraft machine guns, searchlights and other necessary prov1s1ons. The scheme was completed in 1933 and further perfection is being contemplated. II. NAVAL AVIATION Naval aviation in Japan dates from 1912 when our officers training in France and America returned home. It was not long before a training ground was established at Oppama near Yokosuka and at experimental course was started. From 1912 till 1917, the sum yearly disbursed on this account amounted to -400,000, to increase in 1918 to million and to millions in 1919, the total aggregating ,800,-000 in ten years .. From 1921 to 1922 the. British air experts headed by Captain Senville gave thorough training at Kasumigaura to our flight officers whose efficiency has in consequence made striking improvement. Thus the Japaese navy aviation is indebted for the marked progress it has attain:ed to the tutorin O' of British flying officers just as the Army ahservice to that of French flying officers. In April 1927 q 't avra '!On department was created in the Navy following the example set by the Army and in April 1928 a tender squadron was organized as a unit of the standing fleet, it consistinoof the Ak ( agi flagship), Hosho, and two destroyers. Exn n -ans1on .-rogramme.-The expansion pro-gram111e decided on comprises the creation of 14 aoiitional air fleets as the 1st repletion scheme and that of 8 additional fleets as the 2nd repletion scheme, which added to the existing 17 fleets make a total of 39 fleets. Of the 1st re,Pletion programme, the organization -of 4 fleets was completed by the end of 1933. In 1934 6 fleets were attached to the newly established air corps at Ominato, Saeki and Tateyama. The above is the existing status of the air force belonging to the respective naval stations. Besides, there is a certain number of sea-planes carried on board the tender ships Akagi, Kaga, Hosho and Ryujo, the special service ships Notaro, and warship Nagata, Mutsu and other battleships, battle-cruisers and light cruisers, each carrying a few machines. The annual allotment for the upkeep of this standing force is on ordinary account mil lions, and 70 per cent. replacement policy is to be pursued. Tender Ships.-Prior to the Washington Con f_erence the Japanese navy had ,only one tender ship, namely, the Hosho (1,470 tons; 25 knots). Following the example of the U.S. Navy Japan has concerted the battle-cruiser Akagi (26,900 tons) and the battleship Kaga (also 26,900 tons) into tender ships. The former was completed in 1927 and commissioned in 1928, and the latter completed in 1928 and put to commission the same year. They are the pride of the Japanese navy. The Ryujo (7,600 tons) built at the Yokosuka navy yard (completed and commissioned in May 1933) is the latest addition to the list of tender ships of the kind. The Navy aviation department adopted in 1930 the system of youthful aviation, candi dates b be selected from among lads of 15 to 17 years old and after going through neces-

PAGE 166

112 NATIONAL DEFENCE sa1y training to be appointed navy aviators ranking as petty officers. The training institute was opened at Yokosuka in May, 1930. Air Force Activity in Sino-Japanese Hostilities In the Sino-Japanese hostilities which began in the outskil':s of Peiping in July 1937, finally spreading to Shanghai and other points south, the Japanese army and navy air forces took -a11 important role in cooperating with land forces to break through the enemy lines. The Japanese warcrafts proved highly efficient and long distance raids were carried out successfully against Hankow and other cities in the interior of China. Losses in the Sino-Japanese Hostilities Chinese losses as shown by the number of corpses recovered by the Japanese forces up to October 3, 1938 was 578,846. Total Japanese losses were given as 33,379 as. of the same date, The spheres ,of strife and losses are given as follows:-Table 17. Chinese Corpses Recovered by the Japanese Forces Standing October 3rd, 1938 (Issued by the Imperial Headquarters) Central China: No, of Corpses Sphere of strife Shanghai ....... .................. Eastern region of lake Taihu ............. Nanking{ : ~-~~io~: : ~i : ~i~~t~i~_:;~1i~~ Mop-Line .......... ............. ping ":~~t-e~-~-~:. 1_a~~-:.a~~~:::::: Anking ............................... ....................................... North China: 1st {Peking-Tientsin, Tientsin-Pukow, Pe-stage t~:;H~~l~~'~. ~Final stage and mopping ............... Southern Shantung and Hsuchow ......... Southern region of river Hwangho ......... Date Up to October end, November, December, January, February,. March, April-June, June, August 20-October 3, Up to November first, l February, March, April, May, June, March end-May 24, May end-June, 1937 1937 1937 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 1937 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 Mongolia and Sinkiang: Inner Mongolia Up to November first, 1937 { Hochu . March, 1938 MopYinshan ............ . April, 1938 ping Holin ................. . May, 1938 rsingshuiho and Pienkwan. June, 1938 Total Chinese Corpses Recovered. ...................... ......... Total Japanese loss ....... ................. Table 18. Losses of the Chinese Navy in the Sino-Japanese Hostilities Standing July 4th, 1938 (Issued by the Japanese Navy Headquarters) Cruisers: Location Wrecked: No. Tonnage Yangtzekiang .......... 8 22,600 Canton ............... 1 2,600 Converted cruiser: Tsingtao .............. 1 2,700 Gun boats: Y angtzekiang .......... 4 3,765 Tsingtao .............. 3 2,075 Canton ................ 3 1,127 Fuchow ................ 1 745 Converted gun boat: Canton ................ 1 200 Small gun boats: Location Wrecked: Canton ............. Yangtzekiang ........ Fuchow .............. Tsingtao ............. Weihaiwei ........... Destroyers: No. 1 5 2 5 1 Tsingtao 1 Y angtzekiang 1 Torpedo boat: Y angtzekiang 1 Special service ships: Tsingtao . 1 Canton . ... 1 Yangtzekiang 2 Total 43 Recovered 81,000 63,000 83,000 2,150 9,500 13,250 3,000 2,647 68,737 53,470 6,000 17,500 20,937 6,655 123,000 5,300 22,500 3,600 1,510 1,790 1,300 578,846 38,379 Tonnage 225 1,400 430 567 227 390 390 96 1,100 1,700 779 43,116

PAGE 167

Ho~hua Tatunao 0 Lukouch,ao x 1111 o Tunschow ( :~ TlEN1lilN@ (,_.,--/ (-, Paohriso Tsan&Chowo '-Chengfineo oShihchiachot\!, OTAIYUAN oTsinir8 lL \)Silien Is. '1D Lienyun Port o Taierhchwar,a oHsuchow 0~ Date of Occupation of Important Points in China by the Japanese Forces in the Sino-Japanese Hostilities Amoy ....... 1938 May 10 Anking :: June 12 Bias Bay Oct. 12 Canton Oct. 21 Changteh .... 1937 Nov. 4 Cheefoo ..... 1938 Feb. 3 Chengting .... 1937 Oct. 8 Chiahsing Nov. 18 Fenglintu .... 1938 Mar. 7 Fengyang ... -1937 Dec. 17 Funing ..... -1938 May 6 Hangchow ... 1937 Dec. 24 Hankow ..... 1938 Oct. 25 Hanyang Oct. 25 Hochu Mar. 6 Houhua ...... 1937 Oct. 14 Hsuchow .... -1938 May 19 Ituiyang Oct. 15 Humentsai Oct. 23 Kaifeng June 6 Kiukiang July 26 Lienyuan Port May 20 Lukouchiao .. 1937 Sept. 7 Nangtung ... -1938 May 17 Nanking ..... 1937 Dec. 13 Paoting Sept. 24 Paotou Oct. 17 Peking n Aug. 4 Pengpuo ... --1938 Feb. 2 Pingyao Feb. 13 Pingyang Feb. 27 Poshan ...... 1937 Dec. 30 Puchow ...... 1938 Mar. 6 Shanghai .... -1937 Nov. 12 Shichiachang Oct. 10 Silien Island Sept. 15 Suancheng Dec. 6 Suchow Nov. 19 Taierchwang .. 1938 Apr. 3 Taiyuan ..... 1937 Nov. 8 Tatung Sept. 13 Tientsin Aug. 2 Tochow ...... 1938 Apr. 9 Ts'angchow .. -1937 Sept: 24 Tsinan ....... 1937 Dec. 26 Tsingtao Jan. 10 Tsining ..... -1938 Jan. 11 Tungchow ... 1937 July 30 Weihaiwei ... 1938 Mar. 7 Weihui Feb. 17 Woosung .... 1937 Aug. 23 Wuchang ... 1938 Oct. 25 Wuhu ....... 1937 Dec. 10 Yencheng .... 1938 Apr. 27 Yoyang Nov. 12

PAGE 168

ll

PAGE 169

NATIONAL DEFENCE Table 19. List of Arms Seized by the Japanese Forces (As at end of June, 1938) JAPAN Defence 113' Total incl. Commodities: North China Shanhghai Nanking Hsuchow Lunghai Line Others Rifle & Revolvers ........ 14,630 14,200 130,605 17,400 3,606 180,971 Light Machine Guns ...... 900 1,900 2,856 832 21 6,685 Heavy 340 480 1,737 270 20 2,878 Field & Mountain Guns ... 82 21 200 96 7 486 Bomb-guns ............. 185 70 378 11 1,051 Tanks & Automobiles ..... 156 86 14 19 275 Locomotives ............ 3 86 89 Wagons ................ 80 60 2,031 2,171 Bullets ................. 1,691,555 783,000 9,2'50,000 1,608,040 13,332,595 Dum-dum bullets ........ 20,000 20,000 Hand-grenades .......... 4,853 9,000 2,277,850 1,300 2,293,003 Field & Mountain Gun shots 453 601,026 4,500 3,700 609,679 Bomb-gun shots ......... 1,639 600 1,662,572 40,000 13,000 1,717,811 Poison Gas-shots (case) ... 4 4 Horses ................. 1,000 1,000 Note: The above table does not include other articles such as communic~tions materials, sanitation n1aterials, clothings~ fodders. tobacco, etc., which amount to a large volume. Table 20. By the Army: List of Chinese War Planes Destroyed By the Japanese Air Force By the Navy: (up toJune 30, 1938) (up t.o May 20, 1938) Definitely Destroyed Uncertain Total 175 25 200 Definitely Destroyed Shot down ......... 175 Destroyed by Bombing 25 Total .......... 200 Shot down ......... 439 Destroyed by Bombing 459 Total ............ 898 Uncertain 59 57 116 Note: Japanese Navy war-plane losses were returned at 8& machines at the end of June, 1938. Figures of the Army planes lost are not yet available. References: Table Nos.: 1,2a, 3,4b, 5,7c, 8-llb, 12,15d, 16c, 17,20e. Key: a-Report of Department of Finance. b-Cabinet Statistic Bureau Annual. c-Report of Department of War. d-Report of Navy Office. e-Reports of the Japanese Army & Navy Headquarters. Total 498 516 1,014

PAGE 170

CHAPTER X RELIGION Introductory Remarks There are in Japan three principal religions, Shintoism, Buddhism, and Christianity, of which the latter two are of alien origin while the first named is a native religion. The State treats these three religions with equal tolerance and perfect fairness, strictly in conformity with the Constitution which guarantees absolute freedom of faith. The State therefore pursues the policy of secular education, though this seems to be less rigid lately, for the authorities, it seems, are now inclined to allow the teaching of religious doctrines in the classroom for the proper guidance of young peoples' thought. At any rate, in administrative control the same principle of indiscriminate fairness is acted upon and no difference is observed in the treatment of the three religions. Shintoism.-Shinto (Way of Gods), the indigenous cult of Japan that has existed from time immemorial, is esssentially a system of nature-worship and ancestor-worship, with -especial application to the rites and ceremonies perform ed to do homage to the Imperial ancestors among whom stands foremost the Sun-Goddess, the Great Ancestress of the Imperial House, and also to the spirits of warriors of worthy deeds ana loyal subjects of renowned service. Buc!rlhism.-The first image of Buddha and the sacred texts were presented to the Imperial Japanese Court by a Korean King in 552 A.D. in the reign of Kinmei Tenno, and in the reign of the Empress Suiko (593-628 A.D.) Buddhism was elevated to the status of the state religion through the zealous efforts of the Prince Imperial Shotoku who was a devout convert. What contributed far more to the spread of the Buddhist doctrines was the ingenious adaptation by the great Buddhist reformers Saicho and Kukai of the transmigration theory of Hinduism to the Shinto tradition. The Shintoist prejudice overcome by this clever conception, the two rival faiths were brought into a state of alliance, and for more than one thousand years till soon after restoration of the Imperial regime, a hybrid form' of :religion, partaking of both Shintoism and Buddhism, known as Ryobu-Shinto, was much in evidence throughout the land. Chriatianity.-This dates with the landing of St. Fr1ancis Xavier in 1549 at Kagoshima, and till 163T when the Shimabara rebellion was suppressed, Christianity had gained a great influence among military commanders in Kyushu. For more than two centuries thenceforward Christianity was forbidden under penalty of severe punishment till the country was thrown open to foreign intercourse about the middle of the 19th century. As regards the part which the three religions played in the history of civilization and intellectual d-evelopment of Ja pan, Buddhism stands foremost. The rise O'f Buddhism in Japan is so closely interwoven with the 'history of her civilization that it is almost impossible to treat the two s-eparately. The number of the followers of the three religions in Japan Proper for the last few years is as follows:-Table 1. Number of Followers of the Three Religions Shintoism Boddhism 1928 .... 17,253,000 41,176,000 1929 .... 17,485,000 41,334,000 1930 .... 16,526,000 41,082,000 1931 .... 16,772,000 41,803,000 1932 .... 16,960,000 41,374,000 1933 .... 17,193,194 41,393,135 1934 .... 17,485,622 41,334,305 1935 .... 17,376,519 51,243,344 SHINTOISM Chris'ianity 248,000 254,000 273,000 279,000 287,299 304,602 274,311 310,687 The ancestor-worship as practised by Shintoist devotees is confined to praying for the welfare of the Emperor, as they implicitly believe that the welfare of the Emperor is entirely identical with theirs. The idea comes from the orthodox tradition that as the Japanese nation is one huge family of homogeneous origin, the praying for its patriarchal chief the Emperor covers the whole people. Hence Shintoism is also called by some Mikadoism. Cleanliness and Purity.-Purity and purifica tion underlie all Shinto services, and hence with true Shinto believers cleanliness in body and heart is a cardinal article of faith. The "Harai" or wind-purification and the other "Misogi" or water purification are the principal forms of purification ceremonies. Washing of the hands and, if possible, rinsing of the mouth, is thought necessary when one approaches a shinto shrine for worship. Some zealots even carry this wash ing practice to the extent of bodily ablution, Death and blood are consider-ed especially con taminating, hence Shinto priests formerly kept

PAGE 171

JAPAN Religion RELIGION 115 aloof from burial services. In the town of Yamada, the seat of the Grand Shrine of Ise, dead bodies bad to be carried stealthily under the cover of darkness. The same idea of cleanliness also symbolises "Shimenawa," a straw festoon hung in front of Shinto edifices and similar places of worship for averting, according to popular superstition, pestilence. Another common symbol is "(;iohei," a rod supporting a tuft of cut paper or other things, The Shinto emblems jealously preserved in the sanctum are a mirror, a sword and curved jewels, after the Sacred Treasures of the Imperial Court. The. Shinto votives consist of the Eoil and the sea, an evergreen, sake and sometimes woven cloth. Shintoism is treated by religious writers as a cult distinct from Buddhism or Christianity, for the only thing worth mentioning in Shinto theology is that it believe~ in immortality of soul. However, during the period of its rnbordinati.on to Buddhism for about one thousand years, Shintoism acquired religious guise, the existence oi a number of sects, for instance, being traceable to this fact. Two Forms of Shintoism,_:_The are two forms of Shintoism, i.e. Shintoism standing aloof from all oects, and next, secta~ian Shintoism organized for the conv-enience of propagation. The non-sectarian Shinto now forms an essen tial part of the general system of statecraft, and on all important occasions calling for august rites and ceremonies the service of Shinto priests is requisitioned. Of late Shintoism has grown quite liberal in its practices and it has become customary of late for Shinto priests to officiate in funeral services and also at marriage ceremonies. SHINTO SHRINES AND THEIR "KEEPERS" Classification of Shrines.-Shinto shrines are classified into seven grades, viz., the Jingu or the Great Shrine of Ise, "Kampei'' or State shrines, "Kokuhei" or National shrines, and "F" ( f u pre ectural), "Ken" (pref.ectural), "Go" (communial), "Son" (village) and "Mukaku" (nonrecognized) shrines. The "Kampei" and "Kokuhei" shrines form part of the regular mechanism of State, being maintained at the expense of the Treasury, but shrines of other ranks ue under the care 'of local communities and parishioners. The offerings made on the oc casion of regular festivals come from the Imperial Court in regard to the "Kampei", and from the Treasury for the "Kokuhei." The "Kampei" shrines are subdivided into four class es, and the "Kokuhei" three classes. Of the 54 first class "Kampei" shrines the greater number are dedicated to the major deities of the age of gods and the rest to Emperors who generally figure on the pages of authentic histocy, while all the special "Kampei" shrines are dedicated to loyal s-abJects, There is no particular distinction between the Kampei and the other grade shrin-es as to the deities selected for wor ship. Keepers and Priests.-The Government use the term "Shinkan" or Shinto officers for those who minister at the Great Shrine and "Shinshoku" or Shin'co functionaries for others attending the "Kokuhei" and the lesser shrines. The "Shinkan" are under the Civil Service Regulations, and they and the "Shinshoku" o'f the "Kokuhei" shrines are appointed by the Government, but for shrin-es of lower rank the parishioners mark the choice, subject to the approval of the supervising authorities. It will be seen that those on service at nonsectarian Shinto .shrines are quite different in their function from those at sectarian shrines and are more properly ritualists whose busin-ess is to see to all matters relative to rites and fes tivals as the upkeep of their shrines. They keep proudly aloof from preaching and the work of propagation which demand no small attention from the secta1'ian Shinto priests. Shinto Sects There are thirteen officially recognized sects. They all profess as a cardinal article of faith reverence to deities and observe precepts handed down by the "divine ancestors." The established Shinto ~ects are: Taisha (revived by Sompuku Senge, 1845-1918); Taisei (founded by Shosai Hiroyama, 1815-90), Jikko (by Hanamori Shibata) 1809--90); Kurozumi (by Munetada Kurozumi 1780-1850); Shinseiha (by Kunimat.'!u Nitta, 1829-1920); Mitake Misogi (by Masakane Inoue, 1790-1849); Konko (by Daijin Konko, 1814-1883); Tenri (by Mrs. Miki Naka yama, 1798-1887). Table 2. No. of Shinto Shrines and Priests End of (a) Shrines June *Great *Stae *National Prefectural Communal Village Ungraded 1931 Shrine S,rine Shrine Shrine Shrine Shrines Shrines Total .......... 1 109 85 977 3,580 44,875 61,712 111,339 1932. 1933 ....... 1 110 85 998 3,596 44,860 61,500 111,150 1934 .......... 1 110 85 1,016 3,607 44,864 61,351 111,033 1935:::::::::: 1 111 85 1,031 3,610 44,864 61,261 110,963 1 111 85 1,069 3,607 44,884 61,095 110,852 RD.cl of December.

PAGE 172

116 RELIGION End of Great Dec. Shr,ne 1930............ 73 1931....... 68 1932............ 68 1933. . 68 1934............ 68 1935............ 68 BUDDHISM State S~rines 507 514 517 528 543 541 (b) National Shrines 297 301 304 312 317 325 Buddhism and Civilization.-The debt Japan owes to Buddhism, especially in early days, in the development of her civilization must be said to be incalculable. The study of the masterly specimens of sculpture, painting and architecture, as preserved in Nara and Kyoto, the treasures kept in the Horyu-j1i Temple, itself a splendid Buddhist structure, classical works of ancient writers, and so forth make one doubt whether without the help of Buddhism, accompanied as it was by the introduction of the material civilization prevailing in India, China and Korea, which were more advanced than Japan in those days, it would have been possi ble for Japan to attain such a high stage of refinement as she presented when she opened her doors to foreign intercourse. Further, Buddhism which was a foster mother and guardian of learning when the country was torn by civil strifes in the Kumakura and Ashikaga periods, supplied an inspiring fact.or in moulding the samurais' code of honour universally known as Bushido and has also deeply tinged our art and literature. The high priests of ancient days guided the people and furnished them with models in matters of social welfare, taught them how to build roads and bridges, and introduced useful plants from China and Korea. Driven by their fervent desire to study the doctrine they dared even to face the perils of the sea by going over to China in frail craft. Buddhism and the Imperial Court.-During the period of its ascendency Buddhism "Stood in high favour with the Court, reducing Shintoism and Confucianism to comparatively insignificant po sitions. Such close relations bound it with the Court prior to the Meiji Restoration (1868), that the Princes of the Blood were customarily in stalled as head priests of noted monasteries. At the Restoration, the Prince-abbot (a.fterward Prince Komatsu) of the Ninna-ji Temple, Kyoto, was ordered to return to secular life, and as Prince Komatsu, led an Imperial army sent to subjugate the rebellious followers of the fallen Shogunate. The late Prince Kita-Shirakawa (d. 1895) was also a Princeabbot of the Kan-eiji Temple, Tokyo. It was in consideration of the past relation that the Court conferred titles of nobility on the chief abbots of th~ three head-Priests Prefectural C mmunal Shrines Shrines 1,032 3,323 1,337 3,391 1,382 3,436 1,459 3,499 1,495 3,494 1,512 3,521 Village Shrines 8,621 8,680 8,711 8,777 8,811 8,803 Un{!raded Shrines 946 908 957 943 968 979 Total 15,069 15,199 15,375 15,586 15,696 15,749 quarters of the Shinshu -sect, when the peerage was instituted in 1884. Buddhist Sects The earliest Buddhist sects in Japan were all introduced from China during the Nara period, and these are Sanron, Hosllo, J ojitsu, Kusha, Ritsu and Kegon. Of these, only Hosso, Kegon and Ritsu have survived, though more as a relic of historical interest than religious sects of living force. As classical models of our ancient Buddhist architecture introduced from China and Korea, existing temples of these time-honoured sects possess inestimable value, these being, as head-temples of the Hosso sect, the celebrated Horyu-ji near Nara, the Kofuku-ji and Ya:kushi ji near Nara, the Todai-ji in Nara for Kegon, ~nd the Toshodai-ji in Nara for Ritsu. The rise of Tendai and Shingon which tried to reconcile the Buddhist doctrine with the Shintoist prejudice marks the development o:f Buddhism as a popul&.r religion. For about four hundred years till the rise of military regency in Kamakura, the two sects swayed not only matters of religious, belief but even secular affairs, Their headquarters, one on Mt. Hiyei near Kyoto and the othr on Mt. Koya in Kii, grew so powerful that they even defied the command of the central Government. Corruption and degeneration soon followed and the two sects were' reduced to a state of impotence and ineptiti1de. It was not long before the need for new faith was supplied by the rise o:f the Zen sect as introduced from China by Yeisai (1140-121/)) and Dogen (1199-1253), and especially by the establishment of the Yuzu-Nenbutsu sect by Ryonin in 1117, the J odo by Hon en in 1174, the Shin by Shinran (1173-1262), the Nichiren or Hokke by Nichiren (1222-1281), and the Ji by Ippen (1239-1289). Of the above, the Zen sect stands apart a:;: a doctrine that originated in China. It demands of its followers a certain form of bodily and mental discipline as a means of attaining enlightenment and found many zealous believers in those troubled days among-warriors who were weary o:f !life of bloodshed and worldliness. and hence in cidentally contributed to the development of Japanese knighthood commonly called "Bushido.'' The Z-en has three sub-seats, viz., Rinzai, Sodo

PAGE 173

JAPAN Religion RELIGION 117 and Obaku, the last of which was introduced by a naturalized Chinese priest Yingen in 1653. The popularizing movement of the abstruse Buddhist tenets started by Saicho and Kukai was carried still further by Honen and his more f:ur.ous disciple Shinran and by the fiery Nichiren. The latter two so modified the teaching of Sakyamuni to adapt it to Japanese needs that there is hardly any similarity between them and Continental Buddhism. Shinran was really a radical reformer and an arch iconoclast. He discarded all ascetic practices such as celibacy and meat-eating, and also the worship of the Buddhist images, with the exception of his own as an interpreter of Buddhist truths for all his faithful followers, and finally he denounced the current superstitions about days, directions, and so forth. The four se-cts, Zen, J odo, Shin, and Nichiren, practically divided the Buddhist world of Japan for about four centuries till about the time of the downfall of the Tokugawa sho gunate regime and the restoration of theImperial Government in 1868, the two other sects !being of local importance. The long period of undisputed supremacy which Buddhism exerd-sed over the spiritual and intellectual world :sap ped its sound growth, while the policy which the Tokugawa shogunate adopted of encouraging the Confucian cuQt as a moral guide for the samurai class robbed it of healthy stimulus. Degeneration and decay followed, and when, with the advent of the Imperial restora. tion, Japan began to introduce with feverish hurry the civilization of the West, Buddhist priests found themselves left behind in the forced march of the times. They lost touch with the general tendency of the new era with its novel requirements and strange culture. It was only when Japan, after some decades of this hurried transformation, called a halt at the biddance of nationalistic reaction, that Buddhism, already roused from its long torpor and now busy to regain self-consciousness, could recover its lost position to some extent. The Zen, Nichiren and Shin sects are most notable in this respect, and they can count among their followers both clergymen and laymen, some of the ablest thinkers of the day. Buddhist Temples and Priests The number of Buddhist temples and priests, cl,assified by sects, throughout the country in rP.cent years, based on the repo-rt of the Religion Bureau, is as follows:-Table 3. No. of Temples and Priests (a) Temples End of March Tendai Shingon Jodo Rinzai Soda Obaku 14,225 523 14,229 523 14,208 500 14,241 500 14,244 500 1932 .... 4,508 12,089 8,316 5,976 1933 .... 4,504 12,095 8,314 5,977 1934 .... 4,425 11,922, 8,254 5,979 1935 .... 4,438 11,975 8,288 5,984 1936 .... 4,438 11,970 8,280 5,984 1932 ... 1933 ... 1934 ... 1935 ... 1936 Total Ke incl. Shin Nichiren Ji Yuzu Hosso gon others 19,715 5,026 491 357 41 27 71,343 19,716 5,028 491 357 41 27 73,571 19,809 4,970 494 357 41 27 71,032 19,815 4,989 494 357 41 27 71,190 19,815 4,998 494 357 41 27 71,194 CHRISTIANITY Early Christianity.-As previously indicated, Christianity, having been introduced into Japan by Francis Xavier in 1549, had made rapid progress, and in less than a century, by 1637, when it was suppressed, it had spread with very great rapidity, firrl throughout Kyushu, among the f'ludal barons and t'heir retainers, and then in many parts of the main island, especially among the higher circles. It is thought that there were then as many as 300,000 Christian converts, with Perhaps 250 organized ,Churches, all of them, of course, Roman Catholic. This work was led by the Jeo1uits, many of them Portuguese, a~d it Was perhaps owing to their excess of zeal, as (b) Priests End of March Tendai Shingon Jodo Rinzai Seda Obaku 1932 .... 2,900 7,875 6,472 4,578 12,249 361 1933 .... 2,854 7,915 6,534 4,617 12,208 370 1934 .... 2,892 7,933 6,588 4,518 12,235 365 1935 .... 2,888 7,909 6,580 4,497 12,193 368 1936 .... 2,877 7,987 6,653 4,579 11,969 376 Ke Shin Nichiren Ji Yuzu Hosso gon Total 1932. 15,932 4,119 342 236 13 17 55,094 1933.... 15,609 4,344 344 236 13 17 55,370 1934.... 15,980 4,382 356 236 14 19 55,518 1935 ... .' 15,891 4,443 356 258 14 19 55,416 1936. 16,008 4,348 359 244 20 19 55,439 well as the jealousy of the Dutch traders in Na gasaki, and the widely spread reports that these fathers were too much meddling with poHtical affairs that invited the suppression. At any rate the foreign padres were expelled, and in 1613 an edict was issued, prohibiting any form of Christian worship on pain of death. There are many tales of the heroic martyrs of those days, and the blood of these martyrs proved again to be the seed of the Church, blossoming again after a repression of two and more centuries. The open rebellion at Shimabara in 1637 which was partly religious in nature was the final act leading to the absolute prohibition of the foreign religion. And :for long years thereafter the cross-roads of the Empire were marked with the

PAGE 174

118 RELIGION edict boards which threatened with death any who should introduce the Christian religion again. New Beginnings,-It was inevitable that, when Japan was forced to emerge from her long iso-. lation and enter the fellowship of nations, the Christian gospel should again be introduced. 'fhe year after th2 first treaty between Japan and Amc;,.,;ica was ratified the first missionaries came. 'his was in 1859, and seven representatives of both Protestant and Catholic Societies reached Japan before the end of that year. Some came from China where they had alre,ady served as missionaries, and some directly from America. The first Protestant missionaries were from the American Episcopal and Dutch Refor med Boards. Centers of work were opened in Yokohama and Nagasaki. At first any Japanese who associated with these foreigners was under suspicion. The missionaries engaged in teaching English or in studying the Japanese language; 11ome were physicians and introduced Western science of medicin:i. Williams in Nagasaki, Verbeck in Nagasaki and Tokyo, Brown and Hepburn in Yokohama were some of the pioneers who helped to reintroduce the forbidden faith into the m,wly opened Empire. Protestant Work.-The edict boards against Christianity were not taken down until 1872. Previous to that year Christian activities were necessarily restricted and quiet. The two _main forms of missionary work were the so-called evangelistic and educational. Schools :were early established, at first on a very small scale, but gradually these have developed into large and influential institutions. Among these may be mentioned the Doshisha -in Kyoto, an institution of university grade, co-educational, established by Jo Neeshima and J.D. Davis of the American Board (Congregational), in 1875, and now taking a leading part in educational work in Central .Japan. The Aoyama Gakuin (Tokyo), Rikkyo Dai Gaku (Tokyo), M-eiji Gakuin (Tokyo), T0hoku Gakuin (Sendai), Kwansei Gakuin (Kobe), Kwanto Gakuin (Yokohama), all having College or University departments, and a considerable number of other schools of Higher Grade, are p:::rt of the large Christian educational system that has grown up through these years. The Christian schools for girls, includin~ the Women's Christian College (Tokyo Joshi Daigaku) in Tokyo, and the Kobe Giris College (Kobe Jogaku-in) in Kobe, and e~celient schools in all the larger cities of the Empire, early to,ok a lead in the education of women, and are steadily growing in number and strength. Christian kinclel'gartens also have multiplied very largely. In the establishing of Christian Churches throughout the Empire, in the earlier days, when all foreigners had to live in certain concessions, there was wide travelling, but not much liv-ing in the interior for direct evangelistic work. However, it was during this period that Christianity gave promise of great triumphs, and many people were optimistic as to the early sweep of the country. Soon afterwards there came a reaction, This was partly due to the general change 01 attitude toward foreign influence after Japan's victorious wars in the Orient and partly to the anti-foreign sentiment caused by the unfair trea ties, a suspicion of the cosmopolitan Christianity, a fear in many circles that Christianity was not as intensely loyal to all Japan's national fundamentals as the other faiths. Several of these causes combined to effect a setback in the progress of Christianity about the beginning of the present c-Emtury. Since that time, however, there has been a slow and steady growth. It is pro hably true; as has often been stated, that th( real Christian population far exceeds the number that the statistics would indicate, and the practi cal influence of Christianity runs far wider still. One of the out~tanding features of Protestantism to-day is the ,development of self-government Churches. In the larger bodies the control is in the hands of Japanese leaders, or i:h the hands of those most capable of leadership, irrespective of nationality. In the Japan Methodist Church there have been Japanese bishops, with exclusive episocopal powers since 1907. In the Episcopal Churches two of the bishops are Japanese, the first having been consecrated eight years ago. Several of the smaller churches ,are still largely controlled from abroad as Mis.sion Churches, but this is becoming the exception, and the great mass of the Christian bodies of Japan may now be called autonomous, and many of them are in every way self-supporting. There is a body known as The Japan Christian Coun cil, with representatives from most of the Churches and Missons, and this body furnishes the basis upon which many of the Churches and Missions co-operate in various ways., A delega tion from this body, comprising four Japanese and three missionary leaders, represented Japa nese Christianity at the World Conference in Jerusalem in 1928. Dr. John R. Mott's visit to Japan in 1929 was chiefly in connection wit~ the activities of this Council. The president 11 Dr. Chiba and the head.quarters are at 13, Nishikicho 1-chome Kanda-ku Tokyo. The Federation of Mission ~nd Christi~n Council co-operate in conducting the Christian Literature Society (Kyo Bun Kwan) which was reorganized in March

PAGE 175

JAPAN Religion RELIGION 119 1933 as kabushiki kaisha (joint-stock company) with Hampei Nagao (d. 1936) a.s Chairman of Board and Dr. S. H. Wainright as Manage1. There is a hearty spirit of Co-operation among the various churches. Rural evangelism is attracting the attention of many of the leaders at this time. Social evangeHsm under such leaders as Toyohiko Kagawa has also had marked success in many places. Medical Missions have never had a very prominent place in Japan, but the St. Luke's Hospital in Tokyo, international in name, but own ed and controlled by the American Episcopal Mission, completed a few years ago a successful campaign in America and Japan for raising funds fo!' the reconstruction of its buildings on a large scale, and an exceedingly fine plant was completed in 1933 on the premises of the former structure. There are other hospitals and creches under special Christian direction in other parts of the Empire. Roman Catholic Work.~-After a lapse of two hundred years a Roman Catholic priest again entered the borders of Japan in the person of Fr. Forcade, of the Society .o:f the Foreign Mis sions of Paris, who was permitted to enter Naha, the 8apital of the Luchu Islands, in 181"1. Two years later he was appointed Vicar Apostolic of Japan, but no Catholic priest was permitted to enter Japan Proper until 1859, in which year, shortly after the arrival of several Protestant missionaries, several Roman Cotholic priests arrived in Nagasaki, Yokohama and Hakodate. The first Church was opened at Yokohama in 1862, and three years later another was opened at Nagasaki. It was on this occasion that a remarkable event in Christian history occurred. About a month after the opening of this Church, some 3,700 villagers living near Nagasaki, who had been secretly professing the Roman Catholic faith as handed down in their families dur!ng the past generations. came to the Church and openly declared themselves Christians, much to the surprise of the local officials. For this had been th~ center of the former persecutions, and the ~diet boards against Christianity were yet stand ing, and were not to be taken down yet for some years. This group of zealous Christians really formed the nucleus of the future Roman Catholic Church in Japan. The work has extended to many parts of the Empire. Most of the missionaries who have come are from France, though there are some also from Germany and other European countries ~nd from America. There is an arch-bishop 1n Tokyo and there are bishops in Fukuoka and Nagasaki. In 1927, the first Japanese bishop was consecrated in the person of the Rev. Jl!nuarius Hayasaka, Bishop of Nagasaki. Bishop Hayasaka jourP-eyed to Rome on the invitation of Pope Pius XI, and was personally consecrated to the episcopacy by Pepe Pius in the Basilica of St. Peter'5, Rome. The Apostolic Deh'gate re.sides in Tokyo. Although the priesthood is preponderatingly foreign in its personnel, the number of Japanese priests is growing. The,il are about 250 foreign missionaries, and 300 religious men and 700 religious women from abroad, or from Europe and America. Seven different orders of religious men and eleven orders of Sisters are represented in Japan, and are carrying on work of spiritual 5ervice, education and benevolence. There are also three distinctly Japanese sisterhoods, Bernadotte Kai in Hakodate, Seishin Aishi Kai in Akita, and Homon Aiku Kai in Omori, Tokyo. There are Leper Asylums, Day Nurserie.;; and Dispensaries of much the same order as those conduct.ed under Protestant Churches. Hospitals and orphanages too are part of the work of the Roman Catholic Missions. In educational work the Sisters of St. Maur have taken the lead in schools for girls, the first having been opened in Tokyo in 1873, but other organizations, the Sisters O'f theInfant Jesus, Sisters of St. Paul of Charters, the Sisters of the Sacred Heart, and. other similar Sisterhoods have opened sch.ools for girls in many parts of the Empire. The education of boys was begun at a later date than that for girls, the first Middle School having been opened by the Marianists in 1888 in Tokyo. There are also schools for boys in Yokohama, Osaka and Nagasaki. The Jesuits returned to Japan in 1908, and at the instance of Pope Pius X, opened a University in Tokyo. This university follows largely the curriculum endoraed by the Government Department of Education, and concludes with the course in Scholastic Philosophy, characteristic of Jesuit universi tles in J
PAGE 176

RELIGION Government. There are about fifteen thousand members. The work in Taiwan is under the direction of the Spanish Dominicans, where the Roman Catholic population is about five thousand. ChQsen has bishops stationed at Keijo, Taiku nnd Gensan, who ove1see a Roman Catholic population of about 87,000. Russian Orthodox Church.-Early in the Meiji period, Nikolai, a Russian priest, came to Hakodate as a misaionary of the Russian Orthodox Church. He later came to Tokyo, and built the imposing Russian Cathedral in Tokyo. He sent prie.st.s to many centres of Japan, and there were also many lay workers. Since the World War, this work has considerably ~aned. Bishop Serge, in Tokyo, has undertaken to reconstruct the cathedral, but religious and political condition in Russia has made the work in Japan ve,ry largely self-supporting, and the old system had not prepared the Japan Church for such an emergency, so that the present work of that Church in the Empire is largely quiescent. Statistics.-The number of churches, etc. for the latest year available is tabulated as follows:-Table 4. Statistics of Christianity No. of Workers (End of Dec., _1935) Name of Church No.of Headquarters Churches Japa ForeignNo.of nese ers Members Roman Catholic ....... ;: .. :::: ... Representatives A. Cambon Sekiguchi Dai-machi, Koishi-88 186 93,560 826 25 40,736 170 25 26,392 280 97 29,669 kawa-ku, Tokyo ............... 267 Japanese Christian Church M. Tomita Japan Congregational ......... H. Hatanaka 3, Shinmachi, 4-chome, Akasaka-ku, Tokyo.................. 800 Daido Bldg., Tosabori-dori, Nishi-ku, Osaka .................. 158 Seikokai (Episcopal) ........... Samuel Heaslett 8, Sakae-cho, Shiba-ku, Tokyo. 240 Nippon Methodist T. Kugiyama Sergius 28, Midorigaoka-machi, Shi-83,612 12,043 buya-ku, Tokyo .............. 240 96 287 120 108 6 Russian Orthodox Surugadai, Kanda, Tokyo Japan Baptist ..................... Y. Chiba 4, Misaki-cho 1-chome, Kanda-86 14 6,311 Christian Church ............... Y. Hirai ku, Tokyo ., .... ,................. 77 257, Nakazato; Takinogawa, Tokyo................................. 88 26 6 4,369 Salvation Army .................. M. Uemura 17, Jimbocho 2-chome, Kanda, 244 6 12,502 Tokyo ................................. 127 Total incl. others ................................ ; .. : ................................................ 2,013 2,191 604 310,687 Y.M.C,A. The Young Men's Christian Association o:f Japan was established in 1880 in Tokyo. It has flince ~teadily grown until no:w there are elev,en City Associations (inclusive of Korea, Formosa ~nd Manchoukuo) (at the end of December, 1933) with a total membership of 8,232 and one hundred and forty-two Student Associations (inclusive of Korea, Formosa and Manchoukuo) with 3,526 members. All these Associations formed themselves into a union styled "The National Committee -of the Young Men's Christian Associations of Japan", which celebrated the thirtieth anniversary of its foundation in 1933. The Associations are organized on lines similar to those in the United States, Ganada and other countries. The work is divided into Religious, Education and Employment Departments. The influence of the Associations is well recognized as shown by the support given it by public spirited citizens and by several imperial gi:fts. The assets of the National Committee as at tha end of 1983 aggregated ,707,286.64 and Ordinary Expenditure for the year was ,-214.03. The General Secretary of the National Committee is Mr. Soichi Saito. Y.W.C.A. r The Young Women's Christian Association of Japan was first organized in 1905. In 1925 the National Committee was organized with five City Associations of Tokyo, Yokohama, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe and Student Associations representing 88 schools. At present the Nati,onal Committee is composed of six City Associations of Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe and Student Associations representing 40 schools, Its total membersihip is 8,000 approximately. The Nationd Committee owns and maintains a hall at the foot of Mt. Fuji, Gotemba, where summer conferences are held in July and AuguSt with an approximate registration of 400 (1935 ) for the conferences and camp. The official or~an of the National Committee is a monthly pubhc87 tion -called the "Young Women of Japan" (Joshi

PAGE 177

JAPAN Religion RELIGION 121 Seinen Kai). The activities of the City Asso ciations are, in general, educational classes in English, home economics, commercial subjects and Japanese etiquette, Bible classes and religious work, self-governing clubs among students, and factory shop and office girls, girls of leisure and young married women, physical education, etc. Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya, Osaka and Kyoto have boarding houses for Japanese girls. Kyoto and Tokyo have also rooms for transients -Japanese and foreign women. The Chairman of the National Committee is Mrs. Matsu Tsuji. The Headquarters are situated at 13, Nishiki-cho 1-chome, Kanda, Tokyo. The Salvation Army For some years after the Salvation Army's extending of activities to Japan its progress was somewhat slow. Since it did distinguished services in stirring up public opinion in the interests of the women in the licensed quarters of Tokyo and in opening the way for these slave girls to liberate themselves, the Salvation Army has steadily risen in public regard and done inestimate services in the cause of religion and humanity in general. It may be mentioned that the visit to Japan of Gen. William Booth, the founder of this great organization, who was graciously received in audience by the late Emperor Meiji has added considerably to the honour and prestige of the Japanese Salvation Army. Mention must not also be omitted of the fact that Commissioner Yamamuro, who is a man of extraordinary calibre and noble character, has been no small factor in the great development of the Japanese Salvation Army. The Army is now carrying on its work in more than 300 centres of the country. Commissioner Yamamuro, who resigned as Commander due to ill health in February, 1935, was reappointed to the post on April 9, 1936. Simultaneously with this, Lieutenant-Colonels V. Rolfe and Y. Segawa were relieved of the post of Joint Commander. He is the author of numerous books and pamphlets, the most popular one being the "Common People's Gospel," which ?as now reached 350 editions. Besides attendmg to his duties in the Army, Commissioner Yamamuro is devoting himself to his life work of writing "The Bible for the Masses.'' 1, National Temperance Union of Japan (Nihon Kinshu Domei) The temperance movement in Japan was first started in 1886 by S. Hayashi in Yokohama and by K. Ito in Sapporo, the latter under the in spiration of Dr. Clark of the Sapporo Agricultural College. For many years Taro Ando (d. 1925) and Sha Nemoto (d. 1932) were leaders in the lor~ 1 and national movement. The Minor's Prohibition Bill was annually introduced into the Imperial Diet for twenty yeal'S, finally becoming a law in 1922. The present National Temperance Union was formed in 1920 by a federation of existing so cieties. The Union now has 1,200 local societies, with a total membership of about 300,000. The league publishes two periodicals, the "Kinshu no Nippon" with a circulation of 25,000 and the "Kinshu Shimbun" with a circulation of about 50,000. The Student Temperance Fe'.:leration, affiliated with the Union has 56 branches with a membership of 3,000 in college and universities. The headquarters of the National Temperance Union is at 10, Omote Sarugaku-cho, Kanda, To kyo, and Hampei Nagano is. its representative. 2. Aoki Foundation The Aoki Foundation was established in Feb:, 1923 with a fund given by Shozo Aoki. It carries on special research work on various phases of the alcohol problem, publishing the results in special bulletins, available on request. (Address-Aoki Foundation (Aoki Kyosaizaidan), 777 Shinden Nishi-Sugamo, Tokyo). 3. Women's Christian Temprance Union of Japan (Kiristokyo Fujin Kyofukai) The W.C.T.U. of Japan was formed in 1896. The president and recognized leader for many years was the late Mrs. Kaji Yajinia, a wellknown educator. There are now 192 branches in the whole country with a total membership of over 8,000. Believing that Licensed Prostitution and the Geisha (Dancing Girls) are the greatest foes of the home life of Japan, the leaders of the W.C.T.U. movement have from the beginning taken an active part in the Purity Movement and in general movements for the education and so cial uplift of women. The W.C.T.U. maintains a Women's Home at Hyakunin-machi, Yodobashi ku, Tokyo, for the rescue and reformation of women and girls. Affiliated with the W.C.T.U. are 11 branches of the Young Women's Auxiliary with 500 members, and 147 branches of the Children's Loyal Temperance Legion, with 70,000 members. There is a Foreign Auxiliary (composed of resident American and European women) which cooperates with the National Union. The President of the National W.C.T.'u. is Mrs. Chiyo Kozaki. The Headquarters are at 360, Hyakunin-machi 3-chome, Yodobashi-ku, Tokyo.

PAGE 178

122 RELIGION ----------------------------------------Social Purity Federation (Kakusei Kwai) The social Purity Federation, founded in 1910 wit:P, (late) Saburo Shimada, M.P. as President, has since taken the lead, with the active cooperation of the Women's Christian Temperance Union in the campaign for the abolition of licenced prostitution in Japan. The strategy of the movement has been to seize special occasion for wide ilpread and intensive educational cam paigns. Influenced by the press and the circulation of petitions, five prefectures soon decided against licenced houses. The Purity Federation publishes a monthly periodical, "Kakusei" (Purification). The Headquarters of the Federation are at Otsuka-nakamachi, Koishikawa-ku, Tokyo. TENRIKYO Tenrikyo, a sect of Shintoism founded by Mrs. Miki Nakayama (1798-1887), is based upon Divine Revelation. Its fundamental principle is the salvation of mankind. Its followers be lieve that God the Parent descended from universe into the person of the foundress, Miki Nakayama, who called Him by the name: Tenrio-no-Mikoto," or "God the Parent." Through its staunch unshaken faith, Tenrikyo has been developed by divine revelation to lead mankind from darkness into light, to realize a world of supreme bliss without any evil and through these efforts to attain the hignest good for the world. The divine revelation was conveyed directly to the foundress, who acted as mediator between God the Parent and mankind. Believers in Tenrikyo declare that Miki Nakayama was born in this world destined by God the Parent to become the Foundress of this new religion, and that is what constitutes belief in "the Soul of the Foundress." They believe that Tenrio-no-mikoto is "God the Parent" who created man and all else on the earth. He is the "Real God" who protects and helps all human beings to procreate References: Table Nos.: 1 a, 2 c, 3 b, 4 a. and progress daily without a moment's pause, now and for all time. This would explain their seeking after God the Parent and daily offering Him their gratitude for His benefits. He has declared "God is the parent of man and man is the child of God." Tenrikyo, though of comparatively late origin, is the most popular of all sects of Shintoism, having a large number of believers and votaries among peoples of almost all classes, Its religious activities and propaganda now embrace nearly all quarters of the world. The foreign mission work was first started in 1904 at Fusan (in Chosen), and since the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) through which Japan gained prestige among the Powers of the world, the. foreign mission work has gradually and steadily expanded. At present there are the following number of Tenrikyo temples in foreign lands; Manchoukuo, 87; China, 30; North America, 42; South America, 6; Hawaii Islands, 18; South Sea Islands, 6. Inclusive of those in Japan there are approximately 12,322 temples, 84,000 teachers, 300,000 quasi-teachers and 6,000,000 fol-lowers of Tenrikyo. In Manchoukuo Tenrikyo has established a number of civil institutes, such as Tenri-Gakuin, Bunka-Gakuin, Dokei-Kai and Tenri-mura, the last being & Japanese immigrants' village. The village occupies a plot of 10,000 hectares about ten kilometres east of Harbin City and two immigrant parties totalling 63 families have already settled in the village, Cultural establishments of various nature have been founded, including a primary school, a library and a hospital in addition to a public bath-house and a public storehouse. The farming enterprises carried out by the Tenrikyo followers have been highly successful, Rice, soya beans, kaoliang, wheat, millet as well as water-melons, musk-melons, tobacco, tomatoes and other vegetables are grown on tlie farms. The success achieved in this model vii lage is ascribed to the spiritual unity among the Tenrikyo followers. The Tenrikyo Central Church is in Tenri! Nara-ken, Japa~ Key: a--F_ef.earches of Religion Bureau, Department of Education. b-Statistic Annual, Department of Education. c-Annual of Cabinet Statistic Bureau.

PAGE 179

JAPAN Education CHAPTER XI EDUCATION INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Primary education of six years is a compulsory governmental decree. It is surmised that at present the illiterates ,occupy only about 5.6% of males of above 10 years of age and 11% of females of and above the same age. The nucleus of the present educational system dates only from the Meiji Restoration or, strictly speaking, from 1872 when the modern public school system was adopted in accordance with the Imperial Rescript promulgated in the same year. Prior to the Restoration education was the select privilege of the higher strata of society. The role played by Buddhist priest in introducing the culture of China into Japan, in preserving intact such culture during the periods of internal turbulence and in developing Japan's own civilization can hardly be over-estimated. With the Restoration a spirit of democracy swept the nation and class distinction 'was abolished. Thanks to this movement the educational institutions of Japan, both private and public, are to this date within access to the rank and file of the populace, entrance to them being governed solely by scholastic merit and physical fitness. Educational Reform.-The finding of employment for graduates is an imminent problem of Japanese educational circles. The cause lies partly in changing business conditions which cannot accommodate all of the graduates and partly in the greater specialization within industries which calls for specialized talent. With a view towards lessening such obstacles the Department of Education has taken steps towards making the studies in schools more practical. In 1936 it also drafted a plan to lengthen the period of compulsory education from six to eight years with a view to advancing the general educational level of the people, but this plan is yet to be adopted. Recently, due to brisk economic activity the difficulties of finding employment for graduates have been greatly dispelled. Table 1. International Comparison of Number of Elementary Schools Schools Teachers Pupils Pupils per 1,000 population Japan Proper (1936*) .............. 25,799 257,6.91 11,425,628 164.9 Germany (1936) ............... 52,370 184,927 7,982,184 117.6 England ( 1934) ............... 26,281 195,695 6,449,273 138.2 France (1935) ............... 80,288 Italy 141,620 5,260,534 125.4 U, s. A. (1935) ............... 13,966 110,935 4,875,344 113.9 (1934) ............... 218,215 619,393 20,765,037 164.0 Manchoukuo (1936) ............... 13,245 19,632 971,888 27.5 Note: Year Encling March 31 Entrance Examination. -Entrance examination to certain of the more prominent institutions of higher learning is fraught with great difficulties owing to the number of applicants. In certain cases the ratio of those enrolled to applicants runs to as high as 10 to 1 and in extreme cases to 20 to 1. This entrance difficulty arises from the favouritism extended Particulary by government departments to graduates of certain institutions. As a result the better talent tends to concentrate ,on a select number of higher schools and universities, thus further developing this incongruity. The lack of special schools has also been a cause for such difficulties. Appreciating this impediment the Department of Education in 1919 increased the number of Government High and Higher Indus-trial Schools two to three times in number and has been making additions to other schools in the intervening years. Moreover, by cooperating with the private institutions the Department of Education has suceeded in mowing down this wedge somewhat. Co-education.:__Co-education is universal in the primary schools, but ceases in schools of higher learning. Exceptions to this rule are found only at the Tohoku and the Kyushu Imperial Universities, the Tokyo Academy of Music, and the Toyo University (private). Because of traditional social customs, which accord the male a status higher than that of the female, co-education has so far not taken the fancy of the people. Changing customs are giv7 ing this practise a better hearing, and art schools are leading the vanguard.

PAGE 180

124 EDUCATION Table 2. General Statistics of Educational Institutions in Japan Proper for the Year Ending March 31, 1936 Elementary Schools ..................... Governn1ent ........................ Pubiic ............................. Private ............................ Normal Schools (Public) ................. Higher Normal Schools (Government) ....... Do. for Girls' (Government) .............. Training Institute for Technical School Teachers (Government) ................ Training Institute for Young Men's School Teachers ............................ Middle Schools ......................... Government ........................ Public ... .......................... Private ............................ Girls' High & Practical High Schools ....... Governn1ent ........................ Public ............................. Private ............................ Special Schools (Collegiate) .............. Government ........................ Public ............................. Private ............................ Higher Schools ......................... Govern111ent ........................ Public ............................. Private ............................ Universities ............................ Government ........................ Public ............................. Private ............................ Technical Schools (Collegiate) ............ Government ........................ Public ............................. Private ............................ Do. (Secondary grade) ................... Government ........................ Public .......................... Private ...... .................... Youth Schools .......................... Government ....... ................ Public ............................. Private ............................ Temporary Teachers Training Institute ..... Blind Schools ........................... Government ........................ Public ............................. Private ............................ Deaf & Dumb Schools ................... Govern1nent ........................ Public ............................ Private ............................ Other Schools ........................ Public ............................ Private ........... .... .......... Total Do. for Do. : Do. for Do. for 1934-35 1933-34 1932-33 1931-32 No. of schools 25,799 4 25,698 97 102 2 2 4 Teeching staff 257,691 92 256,709 890 2,283 217 108 45 104 557 13,908 2 61 437 10,972 118 2,875 974 15,887 2 56 573 10,838 219 4,993 117 5,605 8 399 9 200 100 5,006 32 1,435 25 1,074 3 148 4 213 45 6,484 18 3,188 2 111 25 3,185 60 2,243 44 1,792 2 41 14 410 1,250 1 939 310 16,708 3 18,513 12,205 6,308 68,179 16,351 64,938 327 3,241 1 34 78 650 1 47 47 409 30 194 62 639 1 48 43 477 18 114 1,912 18,368 143 391 1,769 17,977 47,750 412,348 46,138 359,117 45,903 348,564 45,793 339,913 45,765 333,779 Note: F~igures for l-ligher Schools include the preparatory course, Students or pupils Graduates 11,425,628 2,250,621 2,321 444 11,397,064 2,245,685 26,243 4,492 29,825 10,431 1,787 446 871 255 360 1,117 340,657 982 280,172 59,503 412,126 1,295 301,033 109,798 70,894 4,792 2,826 63,276 17,898 13,641 2,060 2,197 71,607 28,199 1,448 41,960 26,035 19,538 896 5,601 396,968 180 276,786 120,002 1,902,876 719 1,830,831 71,776 59 4,950 257 3,502 1,191 5,334 235 4,300 799 240,800 15,420 225,380 114 619 59,285 172 46,527 8,586 90,172 291 69,738 20,143 19,370 1,269 971 17,130 5,667 4,518 571 578 21,151 7,536 429 13,186 7,945 6,129 250 1,566 94,139 56 65,281 28,802 484,579 210 467,378 16,991 29 1,176 95 815 266 858 74 679 105 124,512 3,697 120,815 14,949,792 3,167,368 14,035,818 3,052,920 13,760;200 2,948,726 13,410,197 2,933,642 13,073,715 2,825,476 New stud,nts 2,659,091 481 2,653,175 5,435 10,842 583 263 120 637 82,370 205 66,343 15,822 113,099 316 84,294 28,489 30,053 2,195 1,046 26,812 5,292 4,073 588 631 27,086 9,313 474 17,2~9 9,460 6,958 321 2,181 136,079 67 93,360 42,652 1,164,746 387 1,108,654 55,705 30 1,445 84 993 368 1,512 78 1,243 191 205,112 5,001 200,111 -

PAGE 181

JAPAN Education EDUCATION 125 PRIMARY EDUCATION THE "SHO-GAKKO" (ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS) The Ordinary ~tiffientar,, &: Higher Elementary Grade and School-Years.-Both are generally combined. The Ordinary course which is compulsory receives children of 6 to 14 and extends six years and the Higher course two or three years. Tuition.-Though in principle elementary edu-cation is free, a small amount of tuition may be charged under special permission, in a case where English may be included in the curriculum for schools in the urban districts. Text-books.-These are compiled by the Education Department, to be published and sold by the specified publishers. Table 3. Statistics of Elementary Schools No. of Schools No. of Pupils Year Ending March 31; Ordinary Ord. & Higher Higher Ordinary Higher Teachers 1932 .................. 7,090 18,414 161 9,068,519 1,312,771 233,682 1933 .................. 7,097 18,442 158 9,314,107 1,400,089 238,515 1934 .................. 7,079 18,457 166 9,479,977 1,555,301 245,723 1935 ................... 7,078 18,521 172 9,612,564 1,619,512 252,594 1936 o I o o o O o o o o o o O O o o O o 7,018 18,606 175 9,792,372 1,633,256 257,691 Table 4. Number of Children of School Age Under Obligation to Attend Schools Year Ending March 31; 1932 ........ 1933 ........ 1934 .. ...... 1935 ........ 1936 ........ (Continued) Year Ending March 31; 1932 ........ 1933 ........ 1934 ........ 1935 ........ 1936 ........ Receiving the prescribed course of instruction Boys 5,245,153 5,430,177 5,566,300 5,629,813 5,734,736 Boys 5,269,088 5,453,114 5,589,175 5,653,529 5,758,431 Girls 5,099,489 5,278,753 5,412,418 5,474,107 5,576,530 Total no. of chi!drens under obligation Girls 5,123,706 5,301,848 5,435,357 5,497,295 5,599,663 THE "YOCHI-EN" (KINDERGARTENS) Kindergartens that admit children of 3 to 7 years limit the number of enrolment to 120 at Total 10,344,642 10,708,930 10,976,718 11,103,920 11,311,266 Total 10,392,794 10,754,962 11,024,532 11,150,824 11,358,094 Not receiving the prescribed coursa of instruction Boys Girls Total 23,935 24,217 48,152 22,937 23,095 46,032 22,875 22,939 45,814 23,716 23,188 46,904 23,695 23,133 46,828 Percentage attending schools Boys Girls Total 99.55 99.53 99.54 99.58 99.56 99.57 99.59 99.58 99.58 99.58 99.58 99.58 99.59 99.59 99.59 one kindergarten, and to 200 in special cases, and children under charge of one conductor should not exceed 40. Table 5. Statistics of Kindergartens Average no. Average no. No.of No.of No.of of pupils of pupils re Year Ending March 31 ; institutions caretakers pupils per institution caretakerr 1932 ................... 1,622 1933 ................... 1,708 1934 ................... 1,786 1935 ................... 1,862 1936 ................... 1,892 BLIND, DEAF AND DUMB SCHOOLS Num,ber of Schools.-There .are two Govern ment institutions and 138 public and private schools, and the two Government schools (The Tokyo Blind School and the Tokyo Deaf and 5,012 126,564 78.0 25.3 5,333 129,001 75.5 24.2 5,527 133,735 74.9 24.2 5,872 143,469 77.1 24.4 5,861 143,676 75.9 24.5 Dumb Scool) are provided with ordinary, professional, and normal courses. A kindergarten was established in 1928 to receive deaf and dumb children under school age, it being attached to the Tokyo Deaf and Dumb School. The latest available data are as follows:-

PAGE 182

126 EDUCATION Table 6. Schools for Blind, Deaf and Dumb B:ind Deaf and Dumb Year Ending No, of Gra-No.of Gra-Ma ch31: schoo'.s Teachers Pupils duates Schools Teachers Pupils duate, 1932 ............. 77 625 4,550 1,029 59 500 4,144 583 1933 ............. 78 625 4,613 1,037 59 526 4,376 720 1934 ............. 78 633 4,709 1,105 60 578 4,791 639 1935 ............. 78 646 4,830 1,088 62 618 5,077 512 1936 ............. 78 646 4,950 1,176 62 639 5,334 858 Blind, Deaf and Dumb of School Age.-The and their ratio per 10,000 of normal children of number of blind or mute children of school age the same age are shown below:-Table 7. Blind and Mute of School Age Defecl.ives per Blind and mute of Receiving instruction JO,COO children sch,ol age at schools of schuol age Year Ending March31: Blind Mute Total Blind Mute Total Blind Mute 1932 ............ 2,356 6,611 8,967 646 2,075 2,721 1.94 5.47 1933 ............ 2,310 6,619 8,929 789 2,397 3,186 1.85 5.31 1934 ............ 2,250 6,137 8,387 814 2,617 3,431 1.77 4.82 1935 ............ 2,425 6,303 8,728 1,033 2,918 3,95i 1.88 4.88 1936 ............ 2,373 6,519 8,892 1,000 3,072 4,072 1.81 4.99 SECONDARY EDUCATION THE "CHU-GAKKO" (MIDDLE SCHOOLS) Number of .School-Years.-5 year, but those who have finished the 4th year course are allowed to enter a Higher School on examination. Qualification and Selective Examination.-In principle, graduates of ordinary elementary school course are qualified, but in practice, owing to the excessive number of applicants, the boys are obliged to undergo selective examinations at most schools of first standing. THE "KOTO JO-GAKKO" (GIRLS' HIGH SCHOOLS) Kinds of Schools. -There are Girls' High Schools, giving ordinary liberal education, and Girls' Domestic High Schools for those desirous of studying such arts as are necessary for females. A higher course of three years may also be provided for the benefit of those who desire to pursue further study after finishing Girls' High Schools. THE "KOTO GAKKO" (HIGHER SCHOOLS) School-Years and Purposes.-There are two classes of Koto-Gakko, namely 7-year Schools and 3-year Schools. All the Government Higher Schools (25 in number, except one at Tokyo) belong to the latter, and only three public and four private schools are of seven-year course, the first four years' course corresponding to the same stage as the Middle School. All private universities have their own 3-year preparatory course. The Koto-Gakko proper is divided into two parts, Literary and Scientific. One foreign language (English, German or French) is compulsory and another, also English, German or French, optional. In April, 1929 another 7-year school, The Tokyo Prefectural Higher School was established. UNIVERSITY EDUCATION As stated before "Private" universities, .thank!' to the new graduates enacted in 1919, now enjoy the same status as that of the Government Universities. The recognition -of a single faculty university, and of establishment of universities by prefectures and cities is another point of the new Regulations. Academic Titles.-The degree of "Gakushi," corresponding to M.A., is conferred by all universities on their graduates, The Presidents of all the Government, public and private universities are equally privileged, subject to the ap proval of the Minister of Education, to confer t:-he highest academic title "Hakushi" or "~~kase," corresponding to Doctor of Science, C!Vll Law, etc., as the case may be. The title of "Hakushi" is of twelve kinds the latest available data on the number of the h~lders of "Hakushi" (living) being as follows:-

PAGE 183

JAPAN Education EDUCATION 127 Table 8. Number of Holders of Doctors' Degree Outstanding (Year Ending March 31, 1937) Degree Holders Under Old Regulation New Regulation Law ....... 222 74 Medicine ..................... 844 8,768 Pha1:mac3'. .................... Engmeenng .................. 36 65 387 404 Literature .................... 197 130 Science ...................... 182 428 Agriculture ................... 114 249 F.orestry ..................... 39 14 Veterinary ................. 26 8 Economics .................... 48 Commerce .................... 22 Political Science ............... 2 Total .................... 2,047 10,212 Total Outstanding 296 9,612 101 791 327 610 363 53 34 48 22 2 12,259 Newly Issued (Apr. 1936 'o Mar. !937) 4 880 7 47 17 49 23 2 4 1,033 Table 9. Number of Students, Graduates, Applicants, Etc. of Universities Classified by Departments Departments University Hall ....... Law ................. Medical .............. Engineering .......... Literature ............ Science .............. Agriculture ........... Economics ...... ..... Commerce ............ Law & Literature ..... Political Economics ..... Science & Engineering .. Science & Literature ... Preparatory Course .... Total incl. others ...... Stu dents 2,307 8,208 7,971 4,017 4,937 1,089 2,430 5,804 4,580 4,362 1,236 820 624 19,939 71,162 (Year Ending March 31) Gradu ates 295 2,400 1,791 1,245 1,486 313 754 1,675 1,435 1,387 422 279 188 7,183 21,650 Applicants 1,074 3,818 3,245 2,463 1,953 575 1,869 2,768 2,241 2,085 535 291 370 29,426 56,671 Admitted 1,039 2,797 2,079 1,329 1,656 369 848 2,090 1,681 1,620 449 287 242 8,529 26,234 Stu dent, 2,604 8,300 8,104 4,025 4,701 1,114 2,146 5,740 4,756 4,433 1,319 797 680 19,924 71,607 GOVERNMENT UNIVERSITIES 1936 Gradu ates 378 2,414 1,776 1,184 1,456 .354 661 1,669 1,379 1,209 398 226 177 7,118 21,151 Appli cants 1,222 4,156 3,272 2,673 1,853 623 1,265 2,617 2,344 2,526 631 294 445 29,796 57,397 Admit-ted 1,128 2,941 2,177 1,411 1,608 386 772 2,118 1,834 1,849 509 287 258 8,557 27,086 The Teikoku Daigaku (Imperial Universities) There are eight Imperial Universities, each consisting of several departments of colleges, and University Halls. Graduates ,of Higher Schools are admitted, in principle, on diploma, but owing to the excessive number of Higher School graduates, selective examination is held. N,me Tokyo Imp. Univ Table 10. List of Imperial Universities (End of April, 1938) Estab'.ished Location President Faculty Department No. of Students 1886 Tokyo M. Nagayo {Law ........... Medicine ....... Engineering .... 655 Literature ...... Science ........ Economics ...... Agriculture ..... 2,440 663 1,032 1,066 353 1,209 684

PAGE 184

128 EDUCATION Name Estal,lished Location President Faculty Department No. of Studets Kyoto Imp. Univ. 1897 Kyoto Tohoku Imp. Univ. ... 1910 Kyushu Imp. Univ. ... 1910 Hokkaido Imp. Univ. 1918 Keijo Imp. Univ. .... 1926 Taihoku Imp. Univ. .. 1'928 Osaka Imp. Univ. .... 1931 Sendai Fukuoka (Kyushu) Sapporo (Hokkaido) Seoul (Chosen) Taihoku (Taiwan) Osaka M. Matsui K. Honda S. Matsuura Y. Kon H. Hayami S. Mita C, Kusumoto [ Law ............ 1,685 Engineering -635 Medicine . 543 570 Literature 508 Science . 287 Economics 835 Agriculture 372 { Medicine ....... 272 Scie~ce .......... Engmeermg .... Law & Litt ...... { Medicine ....... Engineerin;s .... 27 4 Agriculture ..... Law & Litt ..... { Agriculture ..... Medicine ....... 303 Engineering .... Science ........ { Law & Litt ...... 131 Medicine ....... I Litt. & Politics .. 108 i Science & Agr ... Medicine ....... { Medicine ....... 206 Science ........ Engineering .... 428 207 250 77 501 373 221 600 819 287 302 147 156 259 61 51 79 490 173 420 There are also Government universities of later creation which formerly existed as colleges or as special schools. They have all been elevated to the status of university with the coming in operation of the new regulations. Table 11. List of Government Universities (May, 1938) Tokyo University of Commerce ........... Niigata University of Medicine ........... Okayama University of Medicine .......... Kanazawa University of Medicine ......... Nagasaki University of Medicine .......... Chiba University of Medicine ............. Kumamoto University of Medicine ......... Nagoya University of Medicine ........... Kobe University of Commerce ............. Tokyo University of Literatul'e & Science ... Hiroshima University of Literature & Science Tokyo Technical University .............. Year of eleva:.io!l 1920 1922 1922 1923 1932 1923 1929 1931 1929 1929 1929 1929 Loca tion Tokyo Niigata Okayama Kanazawa Nagasald Chiba Kumamoto Nagoya Kobe Tokyo Hiroshima Tokyo Note: Number of Faculty excludes those with additional posts. Includes Pharrnaceutical College attached to same. t Includes Preparatory Course and Conunercial College of sa1ne. PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES President T. Ueda FacultY (Mar.1937) I. Motoshima O. Tamura S. Ishisaka S. Sumio N. Takahashi Y. Kurosawa S. Tamura S. Tasaki T. Morioka M. Tsukahara K. Nakamura 175t 40 44 60* 63* 57* 39 70 41 119 85 115 Student, (Mar.19!1) 2,133t 849 442 509* 683* 844 409 611 371 335 579 f ts At present there are only two public univer-and have each a preparatory department O 1 sities, the one being prefectural, and the other own. municipal. They are all of single faculty system

PAGE 185

EDUCATION Table 12. List of Public Universities (May, 1938) Year of elevation Location Kyoto Pref. University of Medicine........ 1921 Kyoto Osaka University of Commerce. . 1928 Osaka Note: .ncludes Preparatory Cciul'Se of same. PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES President T. Sumita S. Kawada Faculty 54* 67* The private institutions recognized by the University Regulations are as follows:-Table 13. List of Private Universities (May, 1938) Keio University ......... Waseda University ......... Meiji University ............ Chuo University ............ Nihon University ........... Hosei University ............ Doshisha University ......... Kokugakuin University ....... Jlkei University of Medicine ... Ryukoku University ......... Otani University ............ Senshu University ........... Rikkyo University ........... Kwansai University .......... Takushoku University ........ Ritsumeikan University ...... Rissho University ........... Komazawa University ....... Tokyo Agr. University ....... Nihon University of Medicine .. Koyasan University ......... Taisho University ........... Toyo University ............ Jochi University ............ Kwansei Gakuin University ... Note: Includes Night Classes. Location. Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Kyoto Tokyo Tokyo Kyoto Kyoto Tokyo Tokyo Osaka Pref. Tokyo Kyoto Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Wakayama Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Hyogo Pref. Established 1858 1882 1881 1885 1920 1879 1920 1893 1881 1922 1922 1880 1874 1886 1920 1900 1904 1883 1891 1926 1886 1926 1887 1913 1932 President S. Koizumi H. Tanaka S. Uzawa R. Hayashi M. Yamaoka M. Koyama R. Wada S. Kono E. Kanasugi R. Hanada S. Osuga Baron Y. Sakatani I. Toyama M. Kambe H. Nagata Y. Oda R. Shimizu S. Tachibana Y. Yoshikawa H. Shioda S. Wada. R. Omori K. Okura H. Heuvers C. J. L. Bates TECHNICAL PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION Faculty 334 557 328 245* 743* 334 241 199 60 129 120 195* 120 264* 118 154* 181* 133 135 64 35 180 132 119* 163 JAPAN Educ,ition 129 Students 672* 776* Students 7,389 12,974 6,470 7,036* 11,805* 4,472 2,849 1,337 1,258 1,082 732 2,288* 1,415 4,496* 879 2,027* 826* 738 1,407 1,115 235 854 643 258* 1,117 (PROFESSIONAL) SCHOOLS OF HIGHER GRADE Qualification,-Admits graduates of Middle Schools and Technical Schools of Secondary grade on diploma, though owing to the number of applicants most of them hold selective examination. They are of 3 to 4 school-years. Table 14. List of Government Technical and Special Schools (May, 1938) No, of No.of Schools Location Professors Higher Agr. & Forestry Schools.... 7 nomiya, Gifu, Miyazaki, 298 { Morioka, Kagoshima, Utsu-} :)ghher Agr. Schools ............ !g er Sericultural Schools ...... Higher Horticultural School .... Tokyo, Tsu ........... 2 Tottori, Tokyo . 57 3 Ueda, Tokyo, Kyoto 125 1 Chiba ..... 19 Stud.,nt capacity 2,280 390 825 150

PAGE 186

180 EDUCATION No. of No. of Schoos Location Pro essors { Nagasaki, Yamaguchi, Ota-1 ru, Nagoya, Fukushima, Higher Commercial Schools ....... 11 Oita, Hikone, Wakayama, 378 Yokohama, Takamatsu, Takaoka ............. Kyoto, Nagoya, Kumamoto, Yonezawa, Kiryu, Yoko-Higher Technical Schools .. 17 hama, Hiroshima, Kana zawa, Sendai, Meiji (Fukuoka), Tokyo, Kobe. Higher Mining School ........... Higher Nautical Schools ......... Pharmaceutical Schools ......... Higher Dental School ........... Foreign Language Schools ....... Fine Arts Academy ............. Academy of Music ............. Hakodate Higher Fisheries School .. Hamamatsu, Tokushima, Nagaoka, Fukui, Yama-nashi ................ 1 Akita ................. 2 Tokyo, Kobe ............ 2 Toyama, Kumamoto ..... 1 Tokyo ................. 2 Tokyo, Osaka ........... 1 Tokyo ................. 1 Tokyo ................. 1 Hakodate .... Table 15, Kinds of Public Special Schools (End of Apr., 1938) 331 47 113 38 45 143 72. 69. 39 Faculty (Mar. 19.7) Location Kyoto Municipal Painting School ........... Kyoto ............ 15 Gifu Pharmaceutical School ............... Gifu ............. 18 Fukuoka Pref. Women's Special School. ..... Fukuoka .......... 18 Osaka Pref. Women's Special School ........ Osaka ............ 47 Miyagi Pref. Women's Special School ........ Sendai t 17 Kyoto Pref. Women's Special School. ........ Kyoto ............ 19 Hiroshima Pref. Women's Special School ..... Hiroshima ........ 20 Nagano Pref. Women's Special School. ...... Nagano ........... 10 Student eapacity 6,225 7,518 860 1,760 600 400 2,410 620 790 860 Capacity 150 390 830 860 320 860 310 160 PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS OF HIGHER GRADE Table 16. Statistics of Technical Schools There are mostly of collegiate standing, and are divided into two groups, (A) those giving technical or professional education, (B) those giving higher liberal education. School-years.-The course sometimes extends for five or six years. Statistics of public and private collegiate institutions are as follows:(Year Ending March 31, No.of schools Faculty Technical ....... 19 819 Agricultural ..... 14 526 Commercial 24 746 Nautical ....... 2 113 Fishery ......... 1 39 To,tal ........ 60 2,243 Do. for 1935 .... 56 2,179 Do. for 1934 .... 54 2,146 Do. for 1933 .... 54 2,123 Do. for 1932 .... 52 2,048 1936) Gra Student duate 7,659 2,409 4,458 1,455 12,878 3,750 1,360 278 185 47 26,035 7,945 24,111 7,333 23,082 7,024 22,546 6,732 21,952 6,669 PUBLIC AND PRIVATE TECHNICAL & COMMERCIAL SCHOOLS OF SECONDARY GRADE These scho-ols are divided into 3 grades, (A) the Middle School grade for 14-17 year boys, (B) the Higher Elementary School grade for 12-15 year boys, (C) the continuation (or sup plementary) grade for 12-13 year boys and girls, The latest avaHable data are as follows:-

PAGE 187

Technical ..... .. Agricultural ...... Commercial ..... Nautical ....... Fishery .......... Vocational ..... Total ...... ... Total for 1935 ... Total for 1934 ... Total for 1933 ... Total for 1932 ... EDUCATION Table 17. Technical Schools of Secondary Grade (Year Ending March 31, 1936) Schools Teachers Students -------------------------A B A B A B 107 35 2,488 361 40,819 7,753 249 112 2,907 944 54,974 21,483 315 80 6,959 771 173,525 21,497 9 1 128 10 1,983 51 13 3 168 8 2,372 147 268 58 3,226 543 60,266 12,098 961 289 15,876 2,637 333,939 63,029 861 208 14,901 2,041 298,961 43,953 839 202 14,323 1,834 276,982 39,864 822 202 13,849 1,798 262,214 37,905 807 196 13,421 1,792 256,128 35,887 JAPAN Education 131 Graduates ---------A B 7,871 2,235 14,953 7;148 27,699 7,085 538 52 461 33 20,544 5,520 72,066 22,073 66,354 14,927 63,841 13,521 62,127 13,623 60,035 12,607 Note: A-Represents "Ko-shu" with terms of course of 4 and 5 years or more for boys and girls, respectively. B-Represents otsu-shu" with terms of course shorter than those of f'Ko-shu ... TRAINING SCHOOLS FOR TEACHERS Training schools for teachers are divided into two grades:-Table 18. Statistics of Normal Schools (A) Normal Schools, maintained by prefectures, for preparing teachers of elementary schools. (B) Higher Normal Schools for training teachers of Middle, Normal, and Girls' High Schools. 1932 .... 1933 .... 1934 .... 1935 .... (Year Ending March 31) Students No. of lnstruc ---------Gra-schools tora Male Female duates 104 2,525 26,334 12,534 11,033 103 2,429 24,935 11,932 12,611 103 2,334 21,898 10,919 11,669 102 2,287 20,046 10,374 10;735 PREFECTURAL NORMAL SCHOOLS 1936 .... 102 2,283 19,396 10,429 10,431 Each prefecture is under obligation to maintain at least one normal school, with two courses, one extending over 4 or 5 years and receiving boys and girls from elementary schools, and the other training middle school graduates for one year. The latest available figures are as follows:-HIGHER SCHOOLS FOR TEACHERS Number of Schools.-There are two State institutions for boys (the Tokyo and the Hiroshima Higher Normal Schools), and two State Schools for girls (the Tokyo and Nara Higher Girls' Normal Schools). Table 19. Statistics of Higher Normal Schools (1938) Director Faculty Students Graduates 277 169 128 127 Tokyo ... Hiroshima ...... Tokyo (Women's). Nara (Women's) .. T. Morioka M. Tsukahara ... I. Shimomura H. Inaba .. 140 77 62 46 1,119 668 460 411 Table 20. Organization of Imperial Academy (Aug., 1938) President: Dr. J. Sakurai. Chief Secretary: Dr. M. Kato 1st Department .............................................. (Director: Dr. Kiheiji Onozuka) 1st Section (Law, Politics and Economy) ..................... 2 d 2nd Section (Philosophy, History and Literature) ......... n Department ............................................ (Director: Dr. Sankichi Sato) 1st Section (Mathematics and Astro'nomy) ................... 2nd Section (Physics and Chemistry) ....................... 3rd Section (Geography and Geology) .................... : .. ith Section (Biology and Medicine) ......................... th Section (Engineering and Agriculture) ............. Membership Regular Actual 50 50 25 25 25 25 50 47 7 7 11 10 8 8 16 16 8 7

PAGE 188

132 EDUCATION SCHOOLS NOT UNDER CONTROL OF THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION There are several schools outside the control of the Education Department, but under that of the Army, Navy, Railways, or Communications Departments, etc. The Peers' School ("Gakushu-ln") Founded in 1877, this is an institution maintained by the Imperial Household Department as a special educational organ for the children of the titled class. The course is divided into three grades, viz. elementary school, middle school and higher courses. The children of the Imperial House and those of the Imperial Princes are all educated at this institution. Location: Mejiro, Tokyo. Director-Dr. Torasaburo Araki. The Peeresses, School ("Joshi Gakushu-ln';) This is also an educational organ for the daughters of the titled class and was founded in 1885. It was originally known. as the Kwazoku J ogakko. The course is divided into three, the same as the Peers School. Location: Aoyama, Tokyo. Director-Dr. Junji Nagaya. The Fishery Institute (Suisan Koshusho) Founded in 1890 by the Department of Agriculture and Commerce (now extinct), it is divided into Regular Course catching, manufacture & rearing), Pelagic Fishery, Post-graduate and Special courses, the first extending over three years. Location: Etchujima, Tokyo. Director-Y. Sugiura. SOCIETIES AND COUNCILS The Imperial Academy of Japan This institution corresponding to the Royal Society of Great Britain or ..the Academie Fran1:aise was established in 1897 for the promotion of science and art, with a view to exercising a beneficial influence on culture in general, and is placed under the control of the Education Minister. Its members are selected from amongst seniors of learning and appointed by the Emperor, being accorded the treatment of "Chokunin" rank (for which see Chapter on Civil & Mil. Service). In 1906 it joined the International Academic Union. The Academy consists of two sections, viz. (1st Section) Literature and Social Science and (2nd Section) Science, pure and applied, the members belonging either to the 1st or 2nd section, according to their speciality. The officials consist of the President, one Manager, and two sectional chiefs. The number of members is fixed at iOO, and annuities are granted to members above 60 years old. Since 1910 the Academy has received from the Imperial Household an annual grant of money and Barons Mitsui, Iwasal!i and Sumitomo have also offered donations. Proceedings are occasionaly published in Japanese and also in German, English and French. The President is Dr. J. Sakurai, (Privy Councillor); Manager, Dr. Masaharu Kato; Directors, Baron Dr. M. Tomii, Privy Councillor (1st Section) and Baron Dr. S. Sato (2nd Section). Location: Ueno Park, Tokyo. Chemical & Physical Research Institute Rikagaku Kenkusho) This is a laboratory founded in 1917 at the instance of the late Dr. Jokichi Takamine to promote the fundamental development of industries through scientific researches. Its fund amounting to ,300,000 consists ,of Imperial donations, State grants and contributions by leading businessmen. The chief officials are :-Pres., H.I.H. Prince Fushimi; Superintendent, Vis. Dr. M. Okochi; 13 directors, and a number of research staff. At present about 363 persons are engaged in researches, the subjects of researches undertaken in 1935-36 numbering over 369. Patents acquired from foreign and home governments from its founding up to the end of March 1936 numbered 593. National Research Council (Nihon Gakujutsu Shinkokai) Tae Council, which is under the superinten dence of the Education Minister, was created in June 1919 for the purpose of regulating international relations with regard to scientific researches and application of their results, as 8 member of the International Scientific Research Council. It despatches representatives to the conf-rences of the International Research Coun cil, answers inquiries and consultations of the State Ministers concerned, and makes sugg~stions about matters relating to science and its

PAGE 189

JAPAN Education EDUCATION 133 practical application. The number of members is fixed at 100, these being appointed by the Government at the Council's recommendation. The chief officials and the scientific depart-ments are as follows:-Directors: J. Sakurai, Dr. Sc. (Privy Councillor) ; Chief, Gen. Affairs Board, Admiral Takeshi Takarabe (retired). Table 21, Organization of National Research Council (Aug., 1938) President: Dr. J. Sakurai Vice-President: Dr. A. Tanakadate Departments Membership Directors Astronomy . 8 Geophysics ........ 10 Chemistry . . 15 Physics . . 10 Geology & Geography. 8 Biology & Agriculture 10 Medicine . . 12 Engineering . 18 Mathematics . ./1 S. Hirayama, Dr. Sc. A. Imamura, Dr. Sc. Y. Matsubara, Dr. Eng. H. Nagaoka, Dr. Sc. T. Ogawa, Dr. Sc. T. Ando, Dr. Agr. S. Sato, Dr. Med. M. Shibusawa, Dr. Sc. S. Takagi, Dr. Sc. FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF EDUCATION Education in Japan is principally controlled by the State, though it is partly delegated to local public bodies and partly carried on by private individuals or organizations by permission of the Government. Consequently, educational expenditure is met from these three different financial sources. No investigation having been made as to the amount of private money spent on education, the figures given in the following table refer only to the amount expended by the local public bodies. In recent years the educational undertakings have been gr_eatly extended and the treatment of teachers considerably improved in accordance with the post-war programme of the country, and this has caused the educational expenditure to swell in a remarkable degree. The following table shows the total educational expenditure during the past few fiscal years:-Table 22. Educational Expenditure Borne By Public Bodies Year Ending Prefec Towns and Total inc'. March31: tures Cities Villages others 1929 .... 113,295 101,833 256,132 471,322 1930 .... 114,503 96,687 235,899 447,168 1931. ... 111,299 81,642 213,334 406,349 1932 .... 106,856 77,766 197,724 382,345 1933 .... 97,886 87,580 199,346 384,901 1934 .... 100,103 102,319 202,816 405,326 1935 .... 104,618 103,435 224,909 453,277 1936 .... 109,120 119,145 224,909 453,277 Table 23. Revenue of Public Educational Organs (In ,000) Revenue (End ,of March, 1936) Fees Subsidies Others Total Elementary Schools ........................ 7,151 95,578 6,820 109,549 Normal ........................ 543 2,300 104 2,947 Middle 13,468 76 945 14,489 Girls' ........................ Higher 12,459 189 804 13,541 ........................ Higher 163 66 229 Universities ..... ................. 219 1,192 1,411 ipecial Scho~l~ (~~Ji~gi~t~)::::::::::::::::: 182 7 15 202 ec~~ical Schools ( ) ................. 9,402 456 1,92,1 11,780 Trammg Institutes for Technical Continuation y School Teachers .................... 4 7 11 Bf uths' Schools .......................... 837 4,205 325 5,368 D md Schools ............................ 6 65 52 122 0 hmb and Deaf Schools ............... 2 46 39 88 K~ er Schools .................. ,'. 168 2 12 182 L y:de~gartens ..................... 1 806 806 1 rar1es 11 203 214 Others : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :.: : : : : 4,361 2,043 6,404 Total ........ , _. ,_.,, 44,691 107,300 15,354 167,346

PAGE 190

U!4 EDUCATION Table 24. Expenditure of Public Educational Organs (In ,000; Year Ending March 31) Elementary Schools .................... Normal .................... Middle .................... Girls' Higher .................... Hi~her .................... Universities ........................... Special Schools (collegiate) .............. Technical Schools (collegiate) ............ Training Institutes for Technical Continuation School Teachers ...................... Blind Schools .......................... Dumb and Deaf Schools ................. Other Schools ......................... Youths' School ......................... Kindergartens ......................... Libraries ............................ Others ............................ Total .............................. 234,882 10,916 22,541 18,984 799 2,381 423 38,094 381 807 305 384 4,714 1,412 1,453 43,874 382,345 1933 245,590 9,739 21,350 18,134 715 2,126 532 37,474 335 709 226 399 4,786 1,394 1,390 40,002 384,901 1934 260,682 9,215 21,079 18,263 521 2,541 468 38,480 303 788 483 548 5,113 1,484 1,444 43,885 405,328 1035 269,897 9,747 21,205 18,433 688 2,395 650 42,025 301 684 634 608 5,628 1,536 1,549 47,018 422,998 19RG 293,064 9,590 22,122 19,733 485 1,879 486 27,656 327 747 601 664 24,191 1,623 1,607 48,501 453,277 Table 25. Government School Properties (In ,000) Prefectures Cities Total incl. others Of which Ofwh'ch Of which Year Ending Pro fundamental Reser Pro fundamental Reser Pro fundamental Reser March31; perties properties ves perties properties ves perties properties ves 1933 ... 217,623 12,456 7,115 516,603 8,215 2,415 1,396,630 27,827 16,533 1934 ... 323,103 8,675 9,238 538,786 8,182 2,597 1,431,988 27,072 15,683 1935 ... 327,197 9,535 6,520 547,643 7,991 2,670 1,464,231 27,665 15,718 1936 ... 332,738 8,961 6,308 571,521 7,655 2,770 1,519,864 86,760 15,292 Table 26. Details of School Properties (In 1,000 yen; Year Ending March 31, 1936) Properties: Land ....................... Building ..................... Other articles ................. Total ...................... Of which fundamental properties: Cash, deposits, securities, etc. .. Land ........................ Building ..................... Other articles ................. Total ...................... Reserves ....................... Prefectures 103,060 168,583 61,095 332,738 8,179 770 12 8,961 6,308 Table 27. Govermnent Relief for Elementary School Children (Year Ending March 31, 1936) Article supplied Text books Stationaries Clothings ....... Foods .......... Living Expenses .. Others ......... Total ........ No. of Pupils receiving re: iefs 182,554 415,097 145,126 518,826 14,236 94,438 1,370,277 Value 156,732 429,593 337,600 1,454,612 82,236 153,330 2,614,154 Cities Towns & villages Total incl. others 237,777 108,434 449,357 280,286 400,676 849,802 53,457 106,064 220,705 571,521 615,174 1,519,864 5,798 43,963 57,944 1,831 25,992 28,593 26 166 204 19 19 7,655 70,141 86,760 2,770 6,214 15,292 Grants to Cities, Towns and Viilages for Compulsory Education Cities and towns and villages are responsible for the establishment and maintenance of ordinary elementary schools. Part of the expense, however, is met by the State Treasury, in order that the teachers may be well paid andthe burdens on the rate-payer may not be too heavy. For the four financial years ending 1933-34, the sum of ,000,000 was yearly defrayed for

PAGE 191

JAPAN Education EDUCATION 185 this purpose. Destitute cities., towns and villages teceive special consideration in the appointment of the grant. Special Educational Fund An educational endowment fund of ,000,-000 was set aside in 1889 for various educational purpose. Part of the interest accruing from them is distributed among Hokkaido and prefec-tures in proportion to the number of school age children, and the rest is expended on items which are considered necessary for the spread and improvement of elementary education. Hokkaido and prefectures come, on receipt of the aforesaid allotments, under obligation to add further equipment of elementary schools or meet the medical expenses of elementary school teachers, and expenses necessary for promoting and developing social as well as elementary education. SCHOOL HYGIENE Heath of Students in Government Schools Health data of students in the Imperial Universities, Higher Schools and various Professional (collegiate) Schools are as follows:-Table 28. Condition of Health of Male Students o-f Government Schools General Spinal No. of development Nutrition column Year Ending students March31: examined A B C A B C Normal Abnormal 1929 .... ...... 50,423 22,916 17,627 9,880 30,191 19,000 1,232 48,683 1,740 1930 ............. 50,864 23,971 17,506 9,387 30,970 18,879 1,015 49,529 1,335 1931 ........... 49,306 22,590 16,998 .9,718 29,776 18,579 951 47,913 1,393 1932 ............. 51,013 24,078 17,114 9,821 31,592 18,739 682 49,873 1,140 1933 ........... 49,994 24,038 16,844 9,112 31,381 17,904 709 48,933 1,061 1934 ........... 52,113 24,632 17,747 9,734 32,454 18,650 1,009 50,841 1,272 1935 ... ....... 53,080 25,167 18,298 9,615 33,448 18,927 705 51,891 1,189 Year Ending Normal Far-sighted Near-sighted Astigmatism etc, March 31: Both eyes One eye Both eyes One eye Both eyes One eye Poth eyes O .e eye 1929 ................ 24,272 2,926 359 138 22,263 2,851 426 291 1930 ................ 23,682 3,107 339 112 23,138 3,059 443 246 1931 ................ 22,740 3,022 288 90 22,746 3,007 392 161 1932 ................ 23,362 3,282 107 52 23,656 3,261 455 269 1933 ................ 23,065 3,051 149 75 23,226 3,040 370 202 1934 ................ 22,851 3,050 136 61 25,518 3,046 415 229 1935 ................ 22,883 3,128 185 50 24,610 3,103 389 145 Table 29. Condition of Health of Female Students of Government Schools Year:inding No.of General development Nutrition Spinal column students March 31: examine::! A B C A B. C Normal Abnormal 1929 ................ 2,473 1,139 1,141 193 1,427 1,012 34 2,400 75 1930 ........ ....... 2,242 1,029 1,042 171 1,265 948 29 2,159 85 1931 ................ 2,376 1,078 1,091 207 1,386 986 22 2,255 121 1932 ................ 2,362 1,061 1,122 179 1,354 987 21 2,214 148 1933 .............. .. 2,367 1,127 1,048 192 1,389 996 12 2,234 133 1934 ............... 2,366 1,136 1,061 169 1,383 971 12 2,276 90 1935 ..... ........ 2,301 1,122 1,023 156 1,390 902 9 2,216 85 Year Ending Normal Far-sighted Nersighted Astigmatism, etc. March 31: Both eyes One eye Both eyes One eye Both ,yes One eye Both eyes One eye 1929 ............... 1,740 46 25 1 621 42 43 3 1930 ............... 1,527 52 3 1 632 45 28 6 1931 ............... 1,658 57 3 1 636 56 17 10 1932 ............... 1,652 58 627 58 24 1 1933 ............... 1,590 98 4 1 646 94 26 9 1934 ............... 1,541 136 11 4 645 126 32 8 1935 ............... 1,468 121 16 8 675 115, 17 6

PAGE 192

136 EDUCATION Health of Pupils and Students in Public and Private Schools Health data of girls in Higher No~al Schools, and Girls' High Schools attached thereto are as follows:-Table 30 Health o,f Publicand Private School Pupils (Year Ending March 31, 1935) No. of pupils Boys ; examined Elementary ...... 1,822,880 Middle.................. 336,237 Girls: General developm~nt Nutrition A B C A B C 412,668 1,045,012 365,200 885,684 884,692 52,604 13\l,857 161,080 40,282 199,119 132,639 4,f79 Spinal column Normal Abnormal 1,752,452 70,428 322,037 14,200 Elementary ...... I, 726,623 394,973 98~,379 343,289 882,409 794,407 49,807 1,649,408 77,215 Middle ............... 335,678 137,447 159,858 38,382 206,661 122,324 6,712 327,328 8,369 Elementary School Boys Elementary School Girls No.of Girth of No.of Girth of pupils Height Weight chest pupils Height Weight chest Age examined (c.m.) (kg.) (cm.) examined (cm.) (kg.) (cm.) 7 .. '. -.' 275,519 108.8 18.2 54.7 269,646 107.7 17.5 53.0 10 ........ 260,926 123.3 24.1 60.5 254,838 122.3 23.5 58.4 13 ... ,, ... 135,820, 136.9 31.9 66.5 110,448 138.2 33.2 66.5 16 ....... 369 151.2 43.8 75.4 147 145.1 40.6 71.7 Middle School Girls High School 13 ........ 60,805 140.4 33.6 67.3 76,265 141.2 35.0' 67.4 16 ........ 61,749 158.1 48.8 78.2 70,273 150.3 45.8 75.5 18 ........ 21,128 161.7 53.8 82.1 4,619 150.7 47.9 77.1 20 ........ 1,485 161.4 55.2 83.7 92 150.8 47.9 76.6 COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION Competitive Entrance Examination The steadily growing number of aspirants to ;chools of higher and university grade compels ;he authorities to erect the barrier of competitive ~xamination, so that the rejected students, :heoretically qualified to get admission on their diploma, have to shift themselves as best as circumstances admit. The admission ratio, is much lower in the 25 government Higher Schools than that for institutions of similar or higher grade. Admission rati~ of middle schools, girls' high schools, and normal schools is as follows:-Table 31'. Admission Rate of Schools 1934 1935 1936 No.of No. of No.of No. of No. of No.of No.of No.of No.of Kinds of School Schools Applicant. Admitted Schools Applicants Admitte1 Schools Applicants Admitted Middle Schools 554 121,074 76,816 555 133,372 80,322 557 141,662 82,370 Girls' Higher ....... 975 164,545 103,855 970 177,186 109,063 974 184,010 113,099 Normal Schools ..... 103 42,253 9,408 102 44,694 9,920 102 38,695 10,842 Higher Schools ..... 32 31,597 5,702 32 30,058 4,622 32 31,099 4,692 Higher: Technical & Mining 19 17,433 2,598 19 Agricultural, Fores-20,327 2,643 19 22,412 2,726 try, Sericultural & 1,737 Veterinary ...... 13 8,325 1,469 13 9,413 1,595 14 10,656 Commercial ...... 22 15,805 4,013 22 19,483 4,570 24 21,450 4,700 Nautical ......... 2 1,479 198 2 1,737 212 2 2,066 220 Fishery .......... 1 315 77 Private Univ. ....... 25 32,644 16,795 25 32,544 16,535 25 33,398 17,299 Government & Public Univ. ........... 14 8,565 2,577 14 8,930 3,743 14 9,286 2,855 Imperial Univ. ...... 6 14,215 7,022 6 15,397 6,956 6 14,713 6,931

PAGE 193

JAPAN Education EDUCATION 137 LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS LIBRARIES The number of libraries throughout the country as of Mar., 1935, was 4,794 consisting of one Government (Imperial Library). ];lesides, there are libraries belonging to the Imperial and other universities. Of the above, the Imperial Library and the Library of the Tokyo Imperial University surpass the rest as to accommodation, etc. The Libraries of the Kyoto Imp. University, of the Cabinet and of the Imperial Household Department are also worthy of mention. Statistics on libraries, books stored, visitors, etc., in recent years are as follows:-Table 32. Statistics of Library Year Ending March31: 1932 .............. 1933 .............. 1934 .............. 1935 .............. 1936 .............. Lib. 3,266 3,297 3,298 3,348 3,351 State & Pub!ic Books (1,000) 7,009 7,289 7,508 8,029 8,320 \.hiitors (1,000) 19,276 20,033 20,153 19,906 19,511 The Tokyo Imperial University Library The Tokyo Imperial University Library, which, with its 800,000 volumes of books, both Occi dental and Oriental, was totally destroyed by the disastrous earthquake fire ,of September 1, 1923, has been reconstructed with the sympathetic co-operation of intellectual organizations, both at home and abroad. In the United States, Prof. K. Takayanagi, of the Law College of the Imperial University, despatched in 1925 to Europe and America on the mission of making appeal, obtained, among other gifts, Mr. Rocke feller's donation of ,000,000 unconditionally given, for the construction of a model library building. His appeal in England, France, Italy, Belgium and other European countries was a complete success. Prof. Takayanagi brought home 300,000 books he had collected either by purchase or as gifts, and these foreign books, together with those got at home, numbering over 552,000 vols. as in Feb., 1926, have all been housed in the fine Rockefeller library building reconstructed in the University grounds in honor of the donor's name, which was completed in Nov. 1928. With the largest collection of valuable Occidental books, the library is perhaps the best equipped of the institutions of the line in this country. The Nanki Library containing 100,800 books, established by Marquis Tokugawa, was also donated to the library in 1926. Public and Private Libraries Public and private libraries present a poor showing compared with those mentioned above. In the provinces, the Osaka Prefectural Library possessing 259,000 books as on April 1, 1938, heads the list in the number of books stored. In .1921 the Hibiya Municipal Library, Tokyo Private Total Books Visitors Books Visitors Lib. (1,000) (1,000) Lib. (1,000) (1,000) 1,343 3,129 5,703 4,609 10,138 24,979 1,389 3,274 4,773 4,686 10,563 24,766 1,356 3,254 4,796 4,634 10,762 24,949 1,446 3,347 4,760 4,794 11,376 24,666 1,408 3,999 4,689 4,759 12,319 24,200 added to the list 2,000 new books published in the United States, and contributed to the Municipality by the Carnegie Peace Mission. Among private libraries of note may be mentioned the Ohashi Library (Tokyo) established in 1906 by Mr. Shintaro Ohashi, the Nakanoshima Library (Osaka) founded by the Sumitomo family, the Shokado Library by the Iwasaki family (located at Toriizaka, Azabu, Tokyo, in the compounds of Baron Koyata Iwasaki), Mr. Kuhara's Library in Osaka, etc. Private universities, especially Waseda, Keio and Hosei, have each a big library. Dr. Morrison's famous library acquired by Baron Hisaya Iwasaki in 1917 for ,000 is also noteworthy, containing over 200,000 books on China. The library has been much enlarged and reorganized into a seminary devoted to Oriental researches, under the name of Oriental Research Institute (Toyo Kenkyusho), the library house being located at Kago-machi, Koishikawa, Tokyo, in the grounds donated by the Baron. MUSEUMS The museums that exist in most important cities are generally of limited scope and of corn. mercial interest. The three museums belonging to the Imperial Household Department, in Tokyo, Kyoto and Nara, are more general in nature, things on display therein being principally historical relics, rare and valuable specimens of art and industry, etc. Of these three, the Tokyo Imperial Museum located at Ueno Park is the largest and pioneer establishment of the kind in this country, its foundation. dating back to 1872. Among the articles on show there are also various ancient costumes, utensils, etc., showing the customs and habits at different times and places, and specimens of various na-

PAGE 194

138 EDUCATION tural products. The Hyokei Kwan, erected in 1910 in commemoration of the wedding of the late Emperor Taisho and the Empress (the pre-sent Empress Dowager), forms a part of the Imperial Museum, and is devoted to the disp~ay of objects of fine arts and art industry. MORAL EDUCATION AND PHYSICAL CULTURE MORAL EUCATION The Imperial Rescript on Education issued in 1890 is regarded as the cornerstone of moral education in Japan. Even little children under ten is expected to have the text of the rescript by heart, even though the meaning is deep for their heads. At the same time, it is supplemented with text-books on ethics in which stories of famous men and women are predominating features. Secondary Schools-The Department of Education enforces the following general directions on the subject. "The teaching of morals must be based upon the precepts of the Imperial Rescript on Education; its object is to. foster the growth of moral ideas and sentiments, and to give the culture and charactei necessary for men and women of middle and higher grade, and to encourage and promote the practice of virtues. Besides explaining essential points of morals in connection with the daily life of pupils, by means of good works or maxims, a little more systematic exposition of the duties to self, to society, and to the State, together with elements of ethics, may be given." Higher lnstitutions.-The Minister of Education issued in 1909 an Instruction, emphasizing the importance of moral culture in higher institutions, especially exhorting the faculties of the schools, to the end that the Emperor's wishes contained in the Rescript on .Education and also the Imperial Message to the people (about thrift) may be carried out. Military Training in Schools.-Military training has been introduced, though not with suc cess as anticipated, into schools, with the special object of cultivating wholesome moral education among school boys by way of physical training. The measure is included in the regular curriculum of the secondary grade and high schools, but optional for universities and others of higher grade, the training being given by the army officers specially detailed for the purpose. In November 1929, the Otani Girls' High School (a private institution in Hakodate, Hokkaido) introduced i'n its curriculum military training which is imposed on the students of higher classes. This is the first departure made by girls' schools and its result is being watched ,,,ith keen interest in educational circles. PHYSICAL CULTURE "Judo" or "Jujitsu" This manly art of self-defence owes its present day popularity to the reform effected by Dr. J. Kano who established for this purpose in 1886 a special training hall styled "Kodokwan," now in Koishikawu, Tokyo. The fame of the new style, studied both for purposes of mental discipline and physical culture, eliminating dangerous features from the various styles formerly in vogue, began to spread not only in Japan, but even to foreign countries, especially after the Russo-Japanese War. At present in almost every school of secondary grade and higher, the exercise is practised as a method of physical culture. Private clubs and schools for the practie of "Jujitsu" are to be found in all cities aad towns. Fencing As practised to-day at schools, the art is merely a faint memory of past grandeur and importance. The practice sword is made of split bamboo, about four feet in length, with a hilt twelve inches in length for the double grasp. The points counted as effective hits are the head, both sides, the right hand and throat. The traditional method of the two-handed use of the sword is still preferred by the Japanese to the single grasp popular in Western countries. The practice of the exercise is still popular, especially among policemen and school-boys. Physical Culture for Girls With the introduction of the Occidental system of exercise and the present unprecedented vogue of sports, physical culture for girls, hitherto baffled by many obstacles, such as disfavour expressed by some conservative mothers, Japanese female garments, etc., are now gradually gaining ground. In the Girls' High Schools, the subject of gymnastics, 3 hours a week, is included in the curriculum, and the girls go through various methods of training. Physical Education Research Institute With the object of conducting scientific research into physical training at schoois and training instructors in physical education, the Physi cal Education Research Institute was founded

PAGE 195

JAPAN Education EDUCATION 139 in December, 1924. It has eight departments, each with a suitable force of staff, i.e., the Anatomical, the Physiological, the Chemical, the Hygienic, the Pedagogic and Philosophical, the Drill and Gymnastics and the Athletic and Budo ("Jujitsu," and fencing) Departments. Association for Physical Culture The Martial Art Association.-Organized in 1908 in Kyoto for the purpose of promoting martial arts, it now enrolls, 2,520,000 members, with Gen. Soroku Suzuki (ret.) as president. The gymnastics practised in the association are "jujitsu," fencing, archery and boating. "Every year in May and August a tournament is held. The Y,M.C.A. Gymnasium in Tokyo.-The Y.M.C.A. Gymnasium of 'I'okyo was destroyed in the 1923 earthquake fire, but the skeleton left being 'judged available, it was decided to reconstruct it on the former site, practically in the same style as before, only slightly enlarged. The work of the reconstruction was completed in 1929. YOUNG MEN'S TRAINING INSTITUTES With a view to training young men in general both physically and mentally to develop their citizenship, Regulations for the Young Men's Training Institute were issued in April 1926 and the work started in July. Though not stated in the Regulations practically every autonomic coporation is obliged to maintain its own institute. The maintenance cost ,240,000 in 1926, ,060,000 in 1927 and ,680,000 in 1928, but the Government subsidy to the fund is only 1 million yen a year, so that the bulk is to be borne by the corporations. They train boys from 16 to 20 years of age, free of charge, Table 33. Statistics in the course of morals, c1v1cs, military drill and ordinary and technical subjects for the period of four years. The minimum number of hours of training is 800 for the whole course, 400 for military training and 200 each for vocational and general education. For those who complete the course with good records, the regular conscription term may be shortened. At the end -of March 1936, 16,708 institutes existed throughout the country including 327 private establishments. The roll of attendants and number of institutes for the last few years are tabulated as follows:-of Youths' Schools (Seinen Gakko) Year ending No. of No.of Those completing Mar. 31: institutes attendants course Instructors 1930 ................. 15,787 806,454 110,627 89,912 1931 ................ 15,617 794,171 108,754 88,061 1932 ................. 15,550 796,132 104,140 88,680 1933 ................. 15,546 735,723 122,223 90,644 1934 ................. 15,576 819,968 112,878 92,346 1935 ................. 15,795 818,681 111,872 96,554 1936 ................. 16,708 1,902,876 484,579 68,179 FOREIGN STUDENTS STUDYING IN JAPAN AND JAPANESE ABROAD The number of foreign students enrolled in Japanese schools, at the end of March, 1935 totalled 2,372 consisting of 1,830 males and 542 females. Of these the Chinese are the most important both in number and other respects. It was some years after the close of the JapanChina War that they began to arrive in Japan to acquire modern learning. Japanese Students Studying Abroad The number of students of both sexes which Japan has sent to Europe, America and other foreign countries since the beginning of the Meiji era (1868-1912) must reach enormous figure3, especially when students who have gone abroad at their own expenses are included-. Up to March, 1928 the number o.f those sent by the Education Department alone reached about 3,000. These are mostly selected from among those who have undertaken teaching at Government institutions. In general the allowance made is ,320 for one in Europe or U.S.A., besides about for the "Outfit Allowance." Those sent abroad by the Dept. of Education are as follows:-Table 34. Number of Students Despatched to Abroad by the Dept. of Education Year Ending March !l: 1931. .... 1932 ..... 1933 ..... 1934 ..... 1935 ..... 1936 ... Newly despatched __,__ Male Female 25 3 108 2 88 1 43 1 40 1 79 Total in Abroad __,__ Male F,male 216 3 187 4 181 3 133 3 101 3 125 l

PAGE 196

140 EDUCATION TEACHERS' LICENSE EXAMINATION Teachers' license examination is annually held. The total number of the licenses for elementary schools, kindergartens, middle and higher schoois is tabulated as follows:-Table 35. Licenses for Elementary School Teachers and Kindergarten Nurses Elementary School Kindergarten Without On Graduates Without On Year Ending exami-exami-of normal Grand exami-exami-March31: nati lll nation Total schools total nation nation Total 1932 ........ 12,400 5,028 17,428 7,854 25,282 893 24 917 1933 ........ 10,793 4,543 15,336 10,433 25,769 943 42 985 1934 ........ 12,320 4,623 16,943 9.440 26,383 952. 57 1,009 1935 ........ 14,021 4,809 18,830 8,424 27,254 1,049 57 1,160 1936.; ...... 13,089 5,833 18,922 7,996 26,918 1,085 75 1,160 Table 36. Licenses Issued for School Teachers Normal. Mic1d!e & Technical Girls' High School Sch.aol Year Ending Il. Total March31: A. B. Total A. Higher School A. B. Total 1932 .......... 10,532 607 11,139 473 113 586 571 41 612 1933 .......... 11,476 574 12,050 392 116 508 1,111 13 1,124 1934 .......... 14,187 592 14,779 487 110 597 1,141 44 1,185 1935 .......... 11,214 553 11,767 467 126 593 1,185 13 1,198 1936 .......... 11,018 624 11,642 499 128 627 1,209 41 1,250 Note: A-Those who recein?d the licenses without exan1ination. B-Those who received the licenses with examination. BOY SCOUTS ORGANIZATION This movement is still primitive in Japan, as it practically dates from the visit of the Crown Prince (the present Emperor) to Europe in 1921, when he saw Gen. Baden-Powell. The formation of the Association of Boy Scouts of Japan in 1921 at a grand meeting held in Shizuoka led to the general activity of this movement, and to-day upwards of 8,000 bodies exist throughout the country. On the occasion of the Prince of Wales visit to Japan in 1922 all the different associations sent their representatives to Tokyo and for three days they conducted a Jamboree. Though the boy's organization in the modern sense is comparatively new, the spirit was pretty well represented by the "Ken ,Ti-no-sha" (Association of Robust Boys) that formerly existed among samurai's boys, especially of the clan of the Lord: of Sats1,1ma References: (Princely House of Shirnazu) to inculcate in the minds of samurai's boys, seven to twenty-five years in age, the spirit of Bushido or Japanese chivalry, The Badge of the Boy Scouts is designed upon the three ancient sacred treasures of the Imperial House, i.e. Mirror, Sword, and Jewels. The Association is presided over by the Mayor of Tokyo, and its Board of Directors consists of Count Y. Futara, Vise. T. Mishima, Messrs. M. Ozaki, M: Oseko, etc. It sent its representatives to the World's Jamboree held at Copenhagen in the summer of 1924, and it was also represented in a similar event held at Birkenhead, England, in the summer of 1929, the delegation sent in 1929 being headed by Visc.ount T. Sano. Table Nos.: 1 a, 2-7 b, 8 a, 9-19 b, 20 c, 21 a, 22 b, 28-30 a, 31-36 b. Key: a-Cabinet Statistics Bureau. b-Department of Education. c-Department of Imperial Household.

PAGE 197

JAPAN Judicature CHAPTER XII JUDICATURE! JUSTICE The Judicial System The Japanese Courts of Justice consist of Local Courts (Ku-Saibansho), District Courts (Chiho-Saibansho), Court of Appeal (Koso-in), and the Supreme Court (Daishin-in). The Local Courts are held by single judges; District Courts and Courts of Appeal are collegiate courts, divided into several divisions, each consisting of three judges; the Supreme Court is also a col legiate court, divided into divisions, in each of which five judges sit. Besides these ordinary courts, there is the Court of Administrative Litigation ( Gyosei-Saibansho) to deal with ac tions regarding ind~vidual rights encroached upon by an illegal administrative disposition. Actions.-(1) Procedure in Court.-All pro-ceedings are oral unless it is otherwise provided by law. For persons unacquainted with the Japanese language an interpreter is to be provided. In an action to which a foreigner is a party, the oral proceedings may be in foreign language, if the officials and all other persons concerned are acquainted with such language, but no instance of an actual application of this, provision of the law has ever been known. (2) Appeal, Revision and Complaint.-An appeal lies against a judgment rendered in the 1st Instance by a District Court to a Local Court. It must be lodged within one month from the service of the judgment. Proceedings before the Court of Appeal are oral, and new allegations, of facts and new evidences may be introduced. Revision applies to judgment rendered in the 2nd Instance by a District Court or a Court o:f! Appeal. It is only for errors in law. The time for claiming revision is the same as for appeal. Complaint can be made against any ruling or order of the court other than a judgment, by which an application relating to the proceedings is refused, and in such other cases as are prescribed by law. A decision on a complaint is generally made without oral proceedings. No period is fixed for a complaint, except that in certain cases an immediate com plaint is provided for, which must be made within one week from the service of the order or ruling, (3) Summary Proceedings.-When a claim is for a fixed sum of money, or for the presentation of a fixed quantity of other tangible things, or of securities, the creditor, instead of bringing an action, may apply to the Local Court of the general forum of the debtor, or if the claim is secured by a lien on an immovable of the real forum, to make an "order of payment" against the debtor. The latter may object to this order within two weeks after it is served upon him, or any time before an order of execution is made. If he fails to do so, an order will be made for the execution of the order of payment. Acknowledgments.-These can be made in the presence of a Notary Public, but the drawback to employing a notary is that the proceeding must be conducted in the Japanese language, and that the notary's act must be recorded in Japanese script, this entailing much troublesome work. Among foreigners residing in Japan, the custom is to make acknowledgment before their respective Consuls, but the documents so acknowledged are neither deemed to be "Notarial Deeds" by the courts, nor to possess evidential value in judicial sense. Costs in Civil Procedure.-These are paid by means of adhesive stamps affixed to the original written petitions. Costs of 1st Instance are as follows:-Value of Subject-matter Not exceeding ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, Stamp duty ............. .00 750 ............. 15.00 1,000 .. . 18.00 2,500. . 25.00 5,000 ............ 30.00 For amounts exceeding ,000, three yen is to be added for each ,000. If the value of a suit is ,000 the costs will be for the first ,000 and per each subsequent ,000, i.e. plus 45X3= (=). Costs of Appeal Instance are the same as stated above, but with a surcharge of 50 per cent added thereto. Costs in the Supreme Court are double those of 1st Instance. Sundry Fees.~The law provides for certain small fees to be paid in respect to incidental

PAGE 198

142 JUDICATURE petitions and statements, varying from 20 sen to each. Process-Servers' Fees depend upon the work entailed, as provided for in the law. All papers must be served by an official Process Server. Lawyers Fees.-There is no official scale, and the question of fees is one of custom and ar rangement. As a rule, the Japanese lawyers charge on "percentage" basis which varies with the difficulty and importance of the case, value of the subject-matter of the suit, time taken up, etc. The professional standing of the practitioner has also to be taken into consideration. It must be borne in mind that the party defeated is only bound to pay the "judicial costs" occasioned by the suit, and that these do not include the lawyers' fees, as between solicitor and client, incurred by the successful party. The Age-limit for Judicial Officials The President of the Supreme Court, formerly allowed to rell'ain in office indefinitely, must now retire whea he attains 65 years of age while judges and procurators are to resign at 63 years. They may be allowed to retain their office 5 years longer with the approval of a general meeting of the members of the Supreme Court or the Courts of Appeal. The Jury System The Jury System Law, enacted in 1923, was enforced on Oct. 1, 1928. The special feature of the Japanese system is that it does not authorise the jury to inquire into the crimes, its function being only to decide whether the accused is guilty or not, so that its decision has no binding power on the opinions of the judges as is the case with the Occidental system. The cases to be submitted for trial by jury are limited to crimes punishable with death penalty, life servitude or imprisonment, or servitude or imprisonment for a period exceeding 3 years, all of which come under the jurisdiction of District Courts ( Chiho-Saibansho). The jury 'for each case is made up of 12 members, selected from among Japanese male subjects of over 30 years, who have had their domiciles in the same city or town or village for over two years and are payers of direct tax of over and who can read and write. 'l.'he judgment of the jury does not affect the judges "--' '-eserve the right to dismiss a jury and em. panel another as often as they please if they are not satisfied with the verdict. The jury system enforced since October 1, 1928, is claimed to be working satisfactorily. Of eighty-one cases tried by the jury during the first 7 months only four cases were submitted for retrial owing to the variance of opinions between the jury and the presiding judges. Other prominent features that mark the working of the new system are: (1) The accused's request for retrial was very few from consideration of costs involved; (2) the juries' vedict was generally of lighter penalty than the ruling of procurators; ( 3) the period required in the jury trial was very short, the average time spent being 1 1/6 day per case, etc. The New Civil Procedure Law The revised civil procedure law, enacted in April 1926, was put into force on October 1, 1929. The new measure principally aims at simplifying the process and shortening the time of legal proceedings, and its principal features are ( 1) to be more circumspect in preparafory procedure; (2) to abolish judgment by default; ( 3) to prohibit postponement of trial by mutual agreement of parties concerned; (4) to take preventive steps against perjury, etc. Table 1. Composition of Courts (1938) Su-Ap Dispreme peal trict Local No. of Courts 1 7 52 282 ..__,_,, No. of Judges 47 129 1,294 No. of Procurators. 14 46 626 Total 342 1,470 686 Table 2. Number of Civil Casei in 1936 1st instance ....................... Summary procedure ............... Compromise ...................... Compulsory execution .............. Trial other than law-suit ............ Bankruptcy_ ...................... Local Courts Reconciliation ............. ..... Complaint on registration ........... No, of Cases 522,639 553,361 25,017 49,383 289,333 4,231 108 8 Cases disPased of 483,400 253,342 24,455 44,218 276,559 3,102 72 8 Cases remaining in hnd 39,239 19 562 5,165 12,774 1,125 36 -

PAGE 199

JUDICATURE I Disposition of lease and rented houses .. Disposition of commercial matters ..... Temporary disposition of money debts .. Total ........................ Retrial ........................... 1st instance ...................... Trial for appeal ................... Trial for complaint ................ No. of Cases 19,796 1,734 80,137 1,245,747 31 Cases disposed of 18,739 1,540 76,003 1,181,438 21 47,290 13,045 2,383 JAPAN. Judicature 143 Cases remaining in tand 1,057 194 4,134 64,305 10 21,122 6,582 693 376 District Courts .. Trial other than law-suit ............ Tenancy disposition ............... 68,412 19,627 3,076 4,173 8,266 3,797 7,542 724 Bankruptcy by old law ............. Total ........................ Retrial .......................... Special trial ..... ................. 263 103,817 41 19 74,076 26 5,254 2 244 29,741 15 4,594 2 Appeal Courts { Trial for appeal ................... Trial for complaint ................ Total ........................ 9,848 4 242 10,094 20 209 33 5,465 4,629 Retrial .......................... 12 8 2,768 1,068 Special trial ...................... 4 4 { Trial for revision ................. Supreme Court Triallo%lc~~:~~i~:.::::::::::::::::: 3,836 8 1,340 5,184 33 1,237 103 4,009 1,175 Total Retrial ......................... ( 1st instance ...................... Trial for appeal ................... Trial for revision ................. Trial for complaint ................ Total ......................... Retrial .......................... 591,051 29,475 3,836 4,658 629,020 125 23 530,~90 18,299 2,768 3,829 555,586 82 Note: Above table includes ail the criminal c.asf's handled during the year 1986 at various courts. 'l'he total figures include all the r.ases in various trials except reconciliations, searches carried out. co1npulsory execution, trial othe!' than law-suit, bankruptcy, tendency disposition, etc. Special trial in Appeal Courts is included in the 1st instance, Table 3. Civil Cases Disposed of 10 60,361 11,176 1,068 829 73,434 43 In other Remaining No. of cases Decided Withdrawn Reconciled ways in hand 841,387 119,784 77,123 53,560 514,019 76,901 1933 .... 737,275 101,011 78,223 49,007 439,444 69,590 r --;ases of 1st instance ...... 1934 .... 669,548 87,721 73,566 43;119 400,49