Citation
Tanganyika notes and records

Material Information

Title:
Tanganyika notes and records
Creator:
Tanganyika Society
Place of Publication:
Dar-es-Salaam
Publisher:
Tanganyika Society
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Tanganyika -- Periodicals ( LCSH )
Tanzania -- Periodicals ( LCSH )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Tanganyika
Africa -- Tanzania
Coordinates:
-6.307 x 34.854

Notes

General Note:
Continued by: Tanzania notes and records

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
Digitised issues are believed to be in the public domain under the copyright law of Tanzania. This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
385163 ( ALEPH )
290161486 ( OCLC )
Per 3 /32085 ( SOAS classmark )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
Tanganyika Notes
and Records

List of Articles Page
The Description of Africa.......1
A Note on Longido and Ketumbeine Mountains
R. E. Moreau and P. J. Greenway 8
Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast
O.F.Cole 15
The "Mashokora" Cultivations of the Coast
A. V. Hartnoll and N. R. Fuggles Couchman 34
The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa
Arthur E. Robinson 40
Geological Notes on the Coastal Region of
Tanganyika.....G. M. Stochley 82
The Story of Mbega
Abdullah Hemedi (translation by Roland Allen) 87
Notes on the Fipa.....G.D. Popplewell 99
A Note on Some Ruins near Bagamoyo
Norman Forster 106
Voyage de Marseille au lac Tanganyika en 1902
Sister Rose 110
Anti-Locust Measures Memoirs R. C, Jerrard 114
A Story of the Origin of the Name of
Bandar-es-Salaam Morwenna Hartnoll 117
The Pain of Individualism T.M. Revington 120
Notes...........122
Book Reviews.........124
Correspondence.........128
Printed by
the Government Printer
Dar es Salaam

April
1937
- No. 3 -




PUBLISHED HALF YEARLY
Tanganyika
Notes and
Records
Editor: BRUCE HUTT
Editorial Committee
SIR EDMUND TEALE
C.GILL MAN, D.R.JOHN
P. W. NEWMAN
APRIL 1937
"Number 3"
FIVE SHILLINGS PER COPY




Editorial Note
WE REGRET that through an oversight we omitted to
acknowledge the sources of two of the illustrations
which appeared in the second number of the Journal. The block
for the frontispiece was lent us by the Bureau tot Bevordering
van het Kinine-Gebruik of Amsterdam and the photograph
facing page 48 was taken by Dr D. R. Grantham and was
reproduced by kind permission of the Mineralogical Magazine.
It is of interest to record that there has been a gratifying
increase in the circulation of the Journal during recent months
and that numerous enquiries for it have been received from
Europe and America as well as from South and East Africa.
Elsewhere in this number will be found a list of publications
which are now received on a reciprocating basis.
Readers are asked to note that the Edi tor is shortly proceeding
on leave and that, during his absence, his duties will be
undertaken by Mr F. A. Montague of the Secretariat, to whom
all communications should be addressed.






[.Frontispiece


The Defcription of Africa
1
The Defcription of Africa
The following description of Africa is taken from an old volume of maps
dated 1646. The author is unknown but he appears to have obtained much of
his information from the works of "our deserving Country-man Master John
Speed," (1552 ? to 1629), historian and cartographer. The maps are endorsed
"P. Kaerius coblavit 1646." This Peter Ivaerius was another well-known
seventeenth century cartographer and one of his maps dated 1614 is reproduced
(from another source) on the opposite page.
AFRICA as it lay neareft the feat of the fir ft people, fo queftionleffe it was
AX next inhabited: and therefore requires the fecond place in our Divifion.
It is generally agreed upon, that the North parts were poffeft by the fons
of Cham not long after the confufion. And fo indeed the Kingly Prophet in the
78. Pfalm, ufeth the Tents of Cham for the Land of Egypt, which is the part
of Africa which joyns upon the South-weft of Afia,.& is divided from the
holy Land but by a fmal Ifthmus. Give the people their own asking, and they
will have the glory of the fir ft Inhabitants of the World: and prove it too
both from the temperature of their air, and fertility of their foyl, which breeds
and nourifheth not onely Plants and fruits, but fends forth, of its own vertue,
living creatures in fuch fort, as amazeth the beholder. We have a report
(if you will beleeve it) that in a ground neer the River Nilus, there have been
found Mice half made up, & Nature taken in the very nick, when fhe had
already wrought life in the fore-parts, head aiid breaft, the hinder joynts yet
remaining in the form of earth. Thus I fuppofe they would have man at firft
grown out of their foyle, without the immediate hand of God in his Creation.
And it hath been the opinion of fome vain Philofophers, that for this caufe
have made the Ethiopians to be the firft people : for that there the Sun by
his propinquity, wrought fooneft upon the moifture of the ground, and made it
fit for mortality to fprout in.
(2) But to leave thefe, without doubt Africa is of great antiquity, and fo is
allowed by all Hiftorians of credit: In the year 1366 the people were increafed
to an exceeding multitude; and therefore were enforced to enlarge their
bounds, upon their neighbouring Countries. For as it was of a moft rare
fertility: fo it lay not any long way, and had free acceffe to it by land from
the garden of our firft Parents.
(3) In the time of Abraham we have better affurance from the Word of
God, that it was then a place of fame, and the Inhabitants of fome growth,
for they were able to fupply the wants of the Countries adjoyning by their
ft ore : and thither went Abraham out of the Land of Canaan, to avoid the
great famine, Gen. 12. She had then her Princes, Pharaoh and his mighty
men, that feared not to refift God, and were afterward made the inftruments
of his punifhments upon the children of Ifracl: for they kept them in bondage
foure hundred yeers, as was foretold to Abraham in the 15. of Genefis.
2




1
The Defcription of Africa
The following description of Africa is taken from an old volume of maps
dated 1646. The author is unknown but he appears to have obtained much of
his information from the works of "our deserving Country-man Master John
Speed," (1552 ? to 1629), historian and cartographer. The maps are endorsed
"P. Kaerius coelavit 1646." This Peter Ivaerius was another well-known
seventeenth century cartographer and one of his maps dated 1614 is reproduced
(from another source) on the opposite page.
AFRICA as it lay neareft the feat of the firft people, fo queftionleffe it was
/-X next inhabited: and therefore requires the fecond place in our Divifion.
It is generally agreed upon, that the North parts were poffeft by the fons
of Cham not long after the confufion. And fo indeed the Kingly Prophet in the
78. Pfalm, ufeth the Tents of Cham for the Land of Egypt, which is the part
of Africa which joyns upon the South-weft of Afia, & is divided from the
holy Land but by a fmal Ifthmus. Give the people their own asking, and they
will have the glory of the firft Inhabitants of the World: and prove it too
both from the temperature of their air, and fertility of their foyl, which breeds
and nourifheth not onely Plants and fruits, but fends forth, of its own vertue,
living creatures in fuch fort, as amazeth the beholder. We have a report
(if you will beleeve it) that in a ground neer the River Nilus, there have been
found Mice half made up, & Nature taken in the very nick, when fhe had
already wrought life in the fore-parts, head and breaft, the hinder joynts yet
remaining in the form of earth. Thus I fuppofe they would have man at firft
grown out of their foyle, without the immediate hand of God in his Creation.
And it hath been the opinion of fome vain Philofophers, that for this caufe
have made the Ethiopians to be the firft people : for that there the Sun by
his propinquity, wrought fooneft upon the moifture of the ground, and made it
fit for mortality to fprout in.
(2) But to leave thefe, without doubt Africa is of great antiquity, and fo is
allowed by all Hiftorians of credit: In the year 1566 the people were increafed
to an exceeding multitude; and therefore were enforced to enlarge their
bounds, upon their neighbouring Countries. For as it was of a moft rare
fertility: fo it lay not any long way, and had free acceffe to it by land from
the garden of our firft Parents.
(3) In the time of Abraham we have better affurance from the Word of
God, that it was then a place of fame, and the Inhabitants of fome growth,
for they were able to fupply the wants of the Countries adjoyning by their
ftore : and thither went Abraham out of the Land of Canaan, to avoid the
great famine, Gen. 12. She had then her Princes, Pharaoh and his mighty
men, that feared not to refift God, and were afterward made the inftruments
of his punifhments upon the children of Ifracl: for they kept them in bondage
foure hundred yeers, as was foretold to Abraham in the 15. of Genefis.
2


2
Tanganyika Notes and Records
(4) But this proof of Ancientry concerns not the whole Country: onely
thofe Regions which lye under the temperate Zone. The reft for a long time
after were unknown to our Geographers, held not habitable, indeed beyond
Mount Atlas, by reafon of the extream heat. The reports which paffe of it
before Ptolemeys time were but at randome, and by gueffe of fuch as had
never fayled it round, or fcarce come within light of it, but at a great diftance,
and by this means, either out of their own errour, or elfe a defire of glory
more then they had deferved: or perhaps a Travellors trick, to cheate the
ignorant world that could not confute their reports, they fpread many idle
fables of monftrous people without heads, with their eyes and mouthes in
their breafts, maintained to this day by fome Authors of good efteem. But for
my part I hold it moft reafonable to credit Saint Auguftine, who was born and
died in Africa. That hee in his eighth Booke De Civitate Dei, acknowledgeth
no fuch creatures, or if they be, they be not men; or if men, not born of Adam.
And our later difcoveries joyn in with him that report not (upon their own
experience) of any other people then fuch as our felves are; and yet I fuppofe
they have feen more of the Country then ever any heretofore did. For they
paffe not now to fayle it round once a yeer, by the Cape of good Hope to the
Eaft-fide of the very Ifthmus toward the Red Sea.
(5) This courfe by the South was difcovered by one Vajco de Gama, in the
yeer 1497. and a way found to the Eaft-Indies by which the Princes of Portugall
receive an infinite gain, both in Spices, and other Merchandife. The hope of
which firft fet them upon the adventure. And in this one thing wee owe much
to our own Countrey, otherwife a deteftable plague, that the infatiate defire
of wanton commodities hath opened to us a large part of the world before not
known, and which we hope may hereafter increafe the light of the Gofpel, and
the number of the Elect.
(6) If we compare Her to the two other portions of the fame Hemifphere,
fhee is fituated wholly South, and in part Weft-ward. It is divided on the
North from Europe by the Mediterraneum Sea. On the South where it runnes
into a kinde of point at the Cape of good Hope, it is bound with the vaft
Ocean, which in that part hath the name of the JEthiopick Sea; on the Eaft
with the Red Sea; and on the Weft with the Atlantike Ocean, called there in
our common Maps, Mare del North. So that in brief we reckon both Her
Longitude and Latitude in the largeft parts, to be neer upon 4200. Englijh
miles.
(7) Notwithftanding this vaft extent of ground, yet we ftill of Europe keep
our own, and by authority of the moft and beft Geographers, exceed as much
for number, as either this or Ajia doe for room. Caufe enough there is why
Africa indeed fhould come fhort of both: for in moft parts, fhe hath fcarce
plenty fufhcient to maintain Inhabitants : and where there is, we fhall meet
with multitudes of ravening beafts, or other horrible monfters, enough to
devour both it and us. In a word, there is no Region of the world fo great an
enemy to mans commerce : there is fuch fcarcity of water, that no creature
almoft could live, had not Nature provided thereafter, that the greater part of
them endures not drink in the very midft of Summer. So Pliny reports.
And if (as fometimes they be inforced by fuch as take them) they fuddenly


3
perifh. Thus we fee how God gives a property to each place, that may make
up her defects, left it fhould be left as well by beafts as men. Their Land is
full of fandy deferts, which lye open to the windes and ftorms, and oft times
are thrown up into billows like waves of the Sea, & indeed are no leffe
dangerous. Strcibo writes that Cambyfes his Army was thus hazarded in
Ethiopia. And Herodotus, that the Pfilli an ancient but foolifh Nation (it
feems) in Africa, as they marched toward the South, to revenge themfelves
upon the windes for drying up their Rivers, were over-whelmed with fand, and
fo dyed in their graves. Befides thefe annoyances, it is fo full of a venomous
kinde of Serpent, that in fome places they dare not dreffe their Land, uhleffe
they firft fence their legs with boots againft the fting. Other wilde creatures
there are which range about, and poffeffe to themfelves a great portion of this
Country, and make a Wilderneffe of Lions, Leopards, Elephants, and in fome
places Crocodiles, Hyena's, Bafilisks, and indeed monfters without either
number or name. Africa now every year produceth fome ftrange creatures
before not heard of, peradventure not extant. For fo Pliny thinks, that for
want of water, creatures of all kindes at fometimes of the year gather to thofe
few Rivers that are, to quench their thirft: And then the Males promifcuoufly
inforcing the Females of every fpecies which comes next him, produceth this
variety of forms : and would be a grace to Africa, were it not fo full of
danger to the Inhabitants, which as Salujt reports, die more by beafts then by
difeafes. For thofe tracts about Barbary are every tenth year, 15. or 25.
vifited with a great plague, and continually infected with the French difeaR
in fuch violence, that few recover, unleffe by change of aire into Numidia, or
the Land of Negroes, whofe very temper is faid to be a proper antidote againft
thofe difeafes.
(8) But among all theie inconveniences, commodities are found of good
worth: and the very evils yeeld at laft their benefit, both to their own Country
and other parts of the world. The Elephant, a docible creature and exceeding
ufefull for battell: The Camel which affords much riches to the Arabian.
The Barbary horfe which we our felves commend: The Ram, that befides his
flefh gives twenty pounds of wooll from his very tayl: The Bull, painfull, and
able to doe beft fervice in their tillage. And fo moft of their worft, alive or
dead, yield us their medicinall parts, which the world could not wel want.
(9) In her divifion we will follow our later Matters in this Art, whom time
at leaft and experience, if no other worth, have made more authentike, and
thofe divide it into feven parts. (1) Barbary or Mauritania. (2) Numidia.
(3) Lybia or Africa propria. (4) Nigritarum terra. (5) ^Ethiopia fuperior.
(6) ^Ethiopia inferior. (7) AEgypt: and to thefe we add the (8) Iflands
belonging to Africa.
(10) Barbary is the firft. The bounds of it are North-ward the Mediter-
ranean, Weft-ward the Atlantike: On the South the Mountain Atlas, and on
the Eaft TEgypt. It is efteemed the moft noble part of all A frica: and hath
its name from an Arabick word Barbara, that fignifies a kinde of rude found,
for fuch the A rabians took their Language to be : & thence the Grecians cal
them Barbarians that fpeak a harfher Language then themfelves. After the
Latines, and now we, efteem the people of our own Nation barbarous, if they


4
Tanganyika Notes and Records
ever to little differ from the rudeneffe either of our tongue or manners. The
Inhabitants are noted to be faithfull in their courfe : but yet crafty in promifing
and performing too. For they are covetous, ambitious, jealous of their wives
beyond meafure. Their Country yeelds Oranges, Dates, Olives, Figges, and
a certain kinde of Goat, whole haire makes a ftuffe as fine as hike. It contains
in it the Kingdomes of Tunnis, Algeires, Feffe, and Morocho. (i) Tunnis, is
famous for feverall places mentioned of old. Here was Dona where Auguftine
was Bifhop, and Hippo his birth-place. And Tunnis a City five miles in
compaffe, and old Carthage built by Virgils Dido, Romes cemula for wealth,
valour, and ambition of the univerfall Empire. It was twenty two miles in
circuit: And Vtica, memorable for Catoes death. (2) Algeires contains in it a
ftrange harbour for the Turkijh Pirates : and is of note for the refiftance it
made Charles the fifth; who received before the chief Towns in this Region, an
innumerable loffe of Ships, Horfes, Ordnance and men. (3) Fefje hath a City
in it with feven hundred Churches, and one of them a mile and a half in
compaffe {Stafford): And in this Country was our Englifh Stukeley flain.
(4) Morocho, where the chief Towne of the fame name hath a Church larger
then that of Fefje, and hath a Tower fo high that you may difcern from the
top of it the Hills of Azaji at an hundred and thirty miles diftance. Here is
likewife a Caftle of great fame, for their Globes of pure gold that ftand upon
the top of it, and weighing 130000. Barbary Duckets.
(11) Numidia was the feco'nd part in our Divifion of Africa, and hath on the
Weft the Atlantike, on the Eaft AEgypt, on the North Atlas, and the deferts of
Lybia on the South. It is called likewife regio dactylifera, from the abundance
of Dates; for they feed upon them onely; a people, Idolaters, Ideots, Theeves,
Murderers, except fome few Arabians that are mingled among them of
ingenious difpofition, and addicted much to Poetry. They feldome ftay longer
in one place then the eating down of the graffe, and this wandring courfe
makes but few Cities, and thofe in fome places three hundred miles diftant.
(12) Lybia the third is limited on the Eaft with Nilus, Weft-ward with the
Atlantike, on the North with Numidia, and the South with terra Nigritarum.
It was called Sarra, as much as Defert: For fo it is, and a dry one too, fuch as
can afford no water to a travellor fometimes in feven dayes journey. The
Inhabitants are much like to the Numidians, live without any Law almoft of
Nature. Yet in this place were two of the Sibyls, which prophecied of Chrift,
and Arrius the Heretick. About Lybia were the Garamantes, and the Pfdli
mentioned before for their fimple attempts againft the South winde.
(13) Terra Nigritarum, the Land of Negroes is the fourth, and hath oil the
Weft the Atlantike, on the Eaft 2Ethiopia juperior, on the North Lybia, on the
South the Kingdome of Manilongo in the inferior 2Ethiopia. It hath the name
either from the colour of the people which are black, or from the River Niger,
famous as Nilus almoft, for her over-flowing, iiifomuch, that they paffe at
fome times in Boats through the whole Country. It is full of Gold and Silver,
and other Commodities: but the Inhabitants molt barbarous. They draw
their originall from Chus, and have entertained all Religions that came in their
way. Firft their own, then the Jews, the Mahumetanes, and fome of them
the Chriftian. For the moft part they live not as if reafon guided their actions.


The Defcription of Africa
5
Maginas numbers twenty five Provinces of this Countrey, which have had their
feverall Governours. Now it knoweth but four Kings, and thofe are (i) The
King of Tombulum, and he is an infinite rich Monarch, hates a Jew to the
death of his fubject that converfeth with him : keeps a Guard of three thoufand
Horfemen befides Foot. (2) Of Bornaum, where the people have no proper
Names, no Wives peculiar, and therefore no Children which they call their own.
(3) Of Goaga, who hath no eftate but from his fubjects as he fpends it.
(4) Gualatum, a poor Country, God wot, not worth either Gentry or Laws, or
indeed the name of a Kingdome.
(14) ZEthiopia Superior the fifth and is called likewife the Kingdome of the
Abiffines. It is limited on the North with ZEgypt, on the South with the Montes
Lunce, on the Eaft with the Red Sea, and on the Weft with the Kingdome of
the Nigers and Manilongo. It is diftinct from the ZEthiopia fo often mentioned
in the Scripture : For by all probability, that was in another quarter of the
world, and reacheth from the Red Sea to the Perfian Gulf. It is governed by
one of the mightieft Emperors in the world: For his power reacheth almoft
to each Tropick, and is called by us Presbyter John. He is the onely white
man amongft them, and draws his Line from Solomon, and the Queen of the
South. His Court refts not long in any one place, but is moving as well for
houfing as retinue. For it confifts of Tents onely to the number of fixe
thoufand, and incompaffeth in, about twelve or thirteen miles. Hee hath
uiider him feventy Kings, which have their feverall Laws and Cuftomes;
Among thefe the Province of Dobas hath one, that no man marry till he hath
killed twelve Chriftians. The Inhabitants of the whole Region are generally
bafe and idle : the better fort have the modefty to attire themfelves, though
it be but in Lions and Tygers skins. Their Religion is mixt. Chriftians they
have, but yet differ from us; For they circumcife both fects. Their oath is by
the life of their King, whom they never fee but at Chriftmas, Eafter, and
Holy Rood. Their Commodities are Oranges, Lemmons, Cittrons, Barley,
Sugar, Honey, &c.
(15) ZEthiopia inferior the fixth part of Africa, is on every fide begirt with
Sea except toward the North; that way it is fevered from the Abiffines by the
Montes Lunce. The government of this Region is under five free Kings,
(1) of Aiana, which contains in it two petty Kingdomes of Adel and Adia, and
abounds with Flefh, Honey, Wax, Gold, Ivory, Corn, very large Sheep.
(2) Zanguebar, in this ftands Mefambique, called by Ptolemy, Praffum
Promontorium, and was the utmoft part South-ward of the old world. The
Inhabitants are practifed much in Sooth-faying, indeed Witch-craft. (3) Of
Monomolopa, in which is reported to be three thoufand Mines of Gold. Here
there lives a kiiide of Amazons as valiant as men. Their King is ferved in
great pompe, and hath a guard of two hundred Maftives. (4) Gafraia, whofe
people live in the Woods without Lawes like brutes. And here ftands the
Cape of good Hope, about which the Sea is always rough and dangerous:
It hath been efpecially fo to the Spaniard. It is their own note, in fo much,
that one was very angry with God, that he fuffered the Englifh Hereticks to
paffe it fo eafily over, and not give his good Catholikes the like fpeed.
(5) Manicongo, whofe Inhabitants are in fome parts Chriftians, but in other


6
Tanganyika Notes and Records
by-Provinces Anthropophagi, and have fhambles of mans flefh, as we have for
meat. They kill their own children in the birth, to avoid the trouble of
breeding them, and preferve their Nation with ftoln brats from their neighbour-
ing Countries.
(16) AEgypt, is the feventh and laft part of the African Continent, which
deferves a larger Tract then we can here afford it: But for the prefent be
content with a brief Survey; and fatisfie your felfe more particularly in the
many feverall Authours that write her ftory. It hath on the Eaft the Red Sea,
Barbary 011 the Weft: on the North, the Mediterraneum, and AEthiopia
Superior on the South. It was firft poffeft by Cham, and therefore called
Chemia in their own antique Stories; Or at leaft by Mitzraim his Grand-childe,
and is fo agreed upon by 1110ft. For plenty it was called Orbis horreum, yet
it had very feldome any rain, but that defect was fupplied by the River Nilus:
The places of note are, Caire and Alexandria. The firft was heretofore
Memphis : Some fay Babylon, whither the Virgin fled to efcape Herods tyranny
intended to our Saviour: and blufli not to fhew the very Cave where fhe had
hid her Babe. In a defert about four miles diftant ftand the Pyramids,
efteemed rightly one of the feven wonders of the world. Alexandria was a
magnificent City, and the place where Ptolemy tooke his Obfervations, and
was famous for the rareft Library in the world. To the Inhabitants of this
Country, we owe the invention of Aftrology, Phyfich, writing on paper. Their
Kings names were Pharaoh toward the beginning: now what the Turks
pleafeth.
(17) And this is as far as we may travell by Land: it remains that we loofe
out into the bordering Sea, and defcry what Iflands we can, neer thofe parts
of Africa which we have here mentioned. And thefe lye either South-ward in
the AEthiopick Sea, or elfe Weft-ward in the Atlantike Ocean.
(18) The AEthiopick Iflands are onely two. (1) the Illand of S. Lawrence
or Madagajcar, four thoufand miles in compaffe, and the length more than
Italy, rich in all Commodities almoft that man can ufe. The Inhabitants are
very barbarous, moft of them black, fome white there are, fuppofed to have
been tranfplanted out of China. (2) Zocratina at the mouth of the Red Sea, in
length fixty, in breadth twenty five mile. It lyeth open to fharp windes, and
by that means is extream drie and barren. Yet it hath good Drugs, and from
hence comes the Aloe Zocratina. The people are Chriftians and adore the
Croffe moft fuperftitioufiy, and give themfelves much to Inchaiitments.
(19) The Atlantick Iflands are (1) S. Thomas Ifland, and lyeth directly
under the AEquator, it was made habitable by the Portugals, which found it
nothing but a wood. It is full of Sugar, little other Commodities. (2) Prince
Ifland, between the AEquator and Tropick of Capricorn: It is rich enough for
the owner, though I finde no great report of it. (3) The Gorgades, of old,
the Gorgons where Medufa and her two fifters dwelt; I forbear the fable, they
are nine in number, and becaufe neer to Cape Viride, in the Land of Negroes,
they have a fecond name of Injulce Capitis Viridis. They abound with Goats,
and the chief of them is called Saint James. (4) The Canaries called for their
fertility The Fortunate Iflands, and was the place of the firft Meridian, with
the ancient Geographers, to divide the world into the Eaft and Weft, and


The Defcription of Africa 7
from thence to meafure the earths Longitude: but now it is removed into the
next Iflands more North, which are the Azores, and belong properly to
Europe, as lying neerer Spain then any other Continent. The number of the
Canaries are feven. The chief Canary, next Palus, where our Ships touch to
refrefh themfelves in their voyage toward America. Then Tanariffa, which
hath no water but from a cloud, that hangs over a tree, and at noon diffolves,
and fo is conveyed into feverall parts. The other four are Gomera, Hieiro,
Lanjarat, and Euerte ventura, fome few other not worth note or name.
The men lend their Wives like Horfes or any other Commodity. (5) Laftly, the
Hefperides, not far from the Gorgades, they are often mentioned by our Ancient
Poets in the fable of Atlas his Daughters. It was fuppofed to be the feat of
their bleffed, which they called the Elizian field. And indeed it is a very happy
foyle, the weather continually fair, the feafons all temperate, the ayre never
extream. To conclude, Africa affords not a fweeter place to reft in.


8
Tanganyika Notes and Records
A Note on Longido and Ketumbeine Mountains
By R. E. Moreau and P.J. Greenway
THIS note is occasioned by the fact that, although both mountains are
over eight thousand feet in height and are within fifty miles of Arusha,
no description of them is available in English. An ascent of Ketumbeine
is mentioned by Reck* but it has been visited very rarely indeed by Europeans.
Our acquaintance with the two mountains is derived from a fortnight in
January 1936, which we spent on them, accompanied by Mr T. A. Baldock,
making collections of birds and plants. Our thanks are due to Mr and Mrs
S. A. Child for helping us in many ways.
Longido.
Longido is an isolated mass of ancient crystalline rock (Plate 1). It rises
cleanly and abruptly out of rolling country (c. four thousand five hundred feet)
except on the south, where the Moshi road approaches from the Ngasserai
plain through a jumble of hills. The shape of the mountain is well suggested
on the 1 : 300,000 map (B 5, Kilimanjaro). It may be likened to an oval pie-
dish tilted so that its rim is highest on the south-westfacing on Monduli
and sunk on the north-east to the level of the flats that decline to Amboseli.
The interior of the dish is of so regular a form that we have heard it referred
to as "the crater."
The mountain rim is very narrow, almost a knife-edge in places, and deeply
notched, so that following its circumference, as we did on one occasion, one
is faced with a series of dog-tooth peaks. These culminate at about eight
thousand six hundred feet (2,614m. according to the map) in a heathy knob
from which one gets an all-round view. Half a mile of narrow ridge connects
this on the north with a grand turret of rock prominent in views of the
mountain (Plates 2 and 3) only about thirty feet lower than the highest point,
and sweeping down in thousand-foot precipices.
Between four thousand five hundred and five thousand three hundred feet
at the foot of the highest part of the rim the rock is bedded vertically, the
line of strike pointing straight to the Shira ridge and up the main valley that
cleaves the Engare Naibor hills on the north-west. Much of the exposed rock
on Longido is partly decomposed and soft. Here and there the game trails that
follow the rim and the steepest spurs are sunk feet deep into the rock, like
an old English pack-trail into chalk or greensand. In one place, with the aid
of erosion, the beasts have cut their way so deeply and narrowly that both
walls of it are polished by their hides.
*

Plate 1Longido Mountain, eastern face.
Plate 2The top of Longido Mountain
[to face page 8


Plate 3The top of Longido Mountain looking north-west


Note on Longido and Ketumbeine Mountains
9
Probably the best line of ascent is that up the spur behind the veterinary
station. It is a good steady pull which could be done in two and a half hours.
Near the top one uses hands for a few yards and one wonders how on earth
the big game, whose trail is so clear elsewhere on the spur, pass that spot.
Two other spurs which we also examined landed us in difficulties with thorns
and hidden rock-faces. The ravines are, as usual, impossible.
All round the base of the mountain the vegetation is dominated by the
umbrella thorn, Acacia spirocarpa Hochst.
No evergreen forest is shown on Longido in any map we have seen.
Actually forest of a poor dry type covers most of the slopes outside, and
occurs in patches inside, the high southern rim of the mountain, but not on
its other aspects, and nowhere below six thousand four hundred feet.
Blackened vestiges show where a mixture of East African cedar, Juniperus
procera Hochst., and olive, Olea chrysophylla Lam., came about three hundred
feet lower down the slope until a fire swept it away four years ago. The cedar
all small treesappears now to be almost extinct on the mountain. It is curious
that there are no signs of its having grown above seven thousand feet. A large
part of the mountain's very scanty stock of this timber must have gone in
the fire. Although we saw Longido under exceptionally favourable conditions,
shortly after six inches of rain, with all Masailand at its greenest, it appeared
unlikely to us that the forest would recover the lost ground, even if the fire
were kept out. It should be added that the mountain is not a gazetted forest
reserve. All that is worth protecting is comprised within an area of four miles
by three as a maximum, nearly all of that being on very steep slopes, and of
a very poor type.
The main forest, gnarled trees, few of them above forty feet in height, is
composed of Cassiporea Elliotii Alston, Lachnopylis congesta C.A.Sm., Teclea
simplicifolia Verdoorn.
Considering the dry conditions of the mountain as a whole it is astonishing
to find so heavy a growth of mosses and beard lichens on the trees, from
almost the lowest limits of the surviving forest. This is emphatically a mist
forest; and it seems that such a growth of mosses and lichens must considerably
multiply the condensing surface of the trees. It would be interesting to have
a calculated estimate of the effect. In the conditions at Longido it seems
probable that the determining factor in the existence of a local water supply
such as it isis the tree-borne mosses.
Balsams are first seen at about seven thousand feet. Bracken occurs in
scattered patches with shrubs of Hypericum lanceolatum Lam., Rhamnus
prinoides L'Herit., a barberry, Berberis Holstii Engl, and Conyza sp., together
with more stunted examples of the tree species already listed.
Scattered amongst these shrubs and trees was a fine asparagus together
with Thompson's red-hot poker, Kniphofia Thornsonii Baker, the latter plant
only found at high altitudes, and a tussock grass, Setaria sphacelata Stapf
and Hubbard. The topmost points, above eight thousand feet, where little
soil remains, are covered with a growth of Digitaria scalarum Chiov., Philippia


12
Tanganyika Notes and Records
to get there owing to the gentleness of the slope and the bad going. The
lower ground is occupied by thorn-bush, mostly poor and small, with Tribulus
covering a great part of the surface of the ground. In the dry season this
must be a most purgatorial piece of country, its only vegetation leafless thorn
trees, the ground a black lava rockery sprinkled with spiny seeds. From
about five thousand to six thousand feet, before dropping into the Nailut
gorge, we crossed a stretch of Themeda triandra Forsk. grassland with small
scattered Acacia and Commiphora trees.
There is little doubt that much evergreen forest has been lost of recent
years. On our side of the mountain a Janiperus procera Hoclist.-Olea
chrysophylla Lam. community probably came down at least as low as six
thousand feet, where such trees as Calodendron capense Thunb., the Cape
chestnut, which made a mauve pink splash of colour among the bright and
dark greens of the surrounding vegetation, of Vangueria acutiloba Bobyns,
Celtis kranssiana Bernh., Turrea sp., Maerna sp. and Teclea simplicifolia
Verdoorn and an occasionally bare and gauntly branched flame tree, Erythrina
tomentosa B. Br., still occupy the ravines with some admixture of candelabra
euphorbias and aloes. Just above the Nailut manyatta a fire which apparently
took place so recently as October 1935 had burnt its way for half a mile up a
spur and destroyed the lowest five hundred feet of forest. It is perhaps
unfortunate for forest conservation that at these altitudes especially the
removal of forest is followed by a pasture composed sometimes of Digitaria
scalarum Chiov., excellent for the Masai stock. So far as we could see, all
the spurs have suffered in this manner. Up to the very top of the mountain
(c. nine thousand five hundred feet) the continuity of the forest is broken in
many places,, and indeed over large areas the forest is reduced to patches,
which are doubtless subject to rapid attrition where the light patches
correspond to old burns (Plate 6). There must have been much loss of forest
since Beck's ascent in 1913 or he could hardly have written without
qualification (op. cit. p. 115) of the forest "der die Berghohe in breitem
Bing umgibt".
In the ascent by the Nailut spurand probably by all others on the eastern
side of the mountain at leastthere is nothing even remotely resembling a
climb. After passing through the burnt area one walks from six thousand
eight hundred to eight thousand three hundred feet up a long clear ride
bottomed with grass and so evenly overhung with trees, chiefly olive, Olea
chrysophylla Lam. and small Cassipourea elliotii Alston, pillar-wood, Schefflera
volkensii Harms, and Lachnopylis congesta C.A.Sm. as to have the appearance
of an ancient avenue up the crest of the spur. For all its great width, from
twenty to thirty yards, it seems probable that this ride was made by the
passage of big game. Above seven thousand feet the drapings of a beard
lichen become extremely heavy, and above eight thousand three hundred feet
Hagenia abyssinica Willd. is the dominant tree. For the last thousand feet we
were much impeded by a dense growth of a brilliant scarlet Leonotis, stinging-
nettles such as Urtica massaica Mildbr., Fleurya aeastans Gaud, and Laportea


13
alatipes Hk.f., a dodder, Cuscuta obtusiflora H. B. and K. which was
parasitic on balsams made a thick tangle with its yellow stems, Spcirmannia
ricinocarpa 0. Ktze., a beautiful deep blue-flowered but most unpleasantly
scented herb, Nepeta aznrea R. Br. and a salvia, S. nilotica Vahl., with
coarse tussocks of Eleusine Jacjeri Pilger and the white and pink flowered
forms of Pavonia schimperiana Hochst. up to eight feet in height, all drowned
in mist and dripping wet. When the aneroid showed a height of nine thousand
three hundred and fifty feet, we found ourselves on an almost flat featureless
expanse, smothered in similar rank herbage and regenerating growth, with a
dense stand of Crotalciria agatiflora Schweinf. ranging from shrubby herbs
six feet tall to much branched trees thirty feet high covered with large greenish
yellow pea-like flowers, which must indicate that extensive fires have swept
all along the top of the mountain. We walked some distance northwards over
this flat ground, plagued with nettles, mists, midges and an icy shower,
without being able to see any prominent features. On the eastern edge of the
plateau the ground fell away in a tree-clad precipice and it seemed certain
that we were on the edge of the crater. On our return we had a few minutes
clear view across to Meru, but on the whole it was extremely disappointing.
Although we spent several days on the mountain it seems poor biologically.
Its vegetation is dull and its avifauna scanty, though both cannot be regarded
as by any means fully known. As on Longido the forest is occupied by an
attenuated form of the East African montane avifauna. The most interesting
feature is that on Ketumbeine the turaco is T. schalotvi chalcolophus, the
Mbulu form replacing T. hartlaubi of Longido. At six thousand feet, on the
Themeda grassland and along the gorges, francolins were very common; these
turned out to be F. africanus, a species not hitherto recorded between Kenya
and the Transvaal. We saw no sign of colobus monkeyswhich indeed seem to
be absent from all the mountains of Masailand and the Mbulu district.
It is remarkable that a mountain well over nine thousand feet in height
(2,942m. according to the map), with quite a large area of mist forest, should
under normal weather conditions be so badly supplied with water. It would
have gone ill with Reek's party if a storm had not filled a temporary pool for
them near the top. On our visit we had too much of a good thing. It rained
at some time every day and spoilt our photography and our exploration of the
higher slopes with lowering cloud. Every stream-bed ran water. The channel
past our base camp, which was dry when we arrived, came roaring down with
a muddy spate four feet deep before morning. The Masai we met were most
insistent that these lovely waters we saw on all sides would be dry again after
a few days. They only remembered one other white man climbing the
mountain, and felt sure that we were spying out land for alienation.
On the north, west and southern sides of the mountain there is so far as
we could hear from all sources, no reliable water whatsoever; on the east one
stream always runs, the Engare Longishu which issues from the crater through
a great wooded gorge. Where we crossed it by a main cattle path half way up
the mountain the aneroid gave the depth of the gorge as one thousand one


14
Tanganyika Notes and Records
hundred feet. To this remote watering place the Masai stock must come from
all the high-level pastures on both sides during several months of the year.
Not long ago an elephant, which seems to have been injured in a fire, haunted
the place and damaged a few cattle until it was slain by the Masai. It appears
that even the Engare Longishu rarely flows down to the foot of the mountain
before being absorbed in the thirsty stream-bed. A furrow taken off at about
four thousand eight hundred feet conveys the water south-eastwards for about
three miles to a dam. According to Masai report the crater holds no lake;
indeed, its slopes converge so narrowly at the bottom as to leave little room
for one.


RLJFIJI DELTA
I 5)0
§0 ^Ca M/'/es)
Lt'lwi K'< V'fV
Chart of the Mafia and Kilwa Channels.
J 4






A fifty-nine pounder killed in the South Mafia Channel.
[to Jace page 15


Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast
15
Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast
By G.F. Cole
l9rHancJ

EW PEOPLE realize the possibilities of the fishing to be obtained off the
Tanganyika coast and these notes may be of assistance to those who are
interested in this fascinating sport. The localities where the fishing-grounds
are known, such as Tanga, Dar es Salaam and Lindi, though good are certainly
not the best and cannot be compared with the Mafia and Kilwa channels.*
These channels abound with reefs harbouring all the types of fish mentioned
in this article. Another point in their favour is that they are comparatively
unexplored even by the native ; and the weather conditions are favourable in
both monsoons, a barrier reef stretching about seventy miles giving an
excellent lee. This paper deals only with fish found to the west of this barrier ;
the eastern side is still unknown, though doubtless even greater fish
abound there.
Most people are only interested in fishing from the sporting point of view
and therefore only game fish are dealt with here. Trolling is taken as the
method of fishing although excellent sport may be had with a good rod and reel
while fishing from a dinghy which is either drifting or at anchor. The type of
canoe found on the coast is not a very safe craft for this purpose.
Fishing on the coast is seasonal, the best months being from mid-November
to mid-April, that is, during the north-eastern monsoon, but this does not mean
that there is no sport to be had during the remaining months or south-western
monsoon. The north-eastern monsoon certainly brings more variety but many
of the coastal fish, which include most of the mackerel class and the baracouda,
remain the whole year round although they are not so numerous between May
and October. August is perhaps the worst month.
There seems to be no set time for fishing although most anglers say that
the morning and the evening are best. This is true as regards avoiding the
heat of the day, but there are other more important points to be considered,
such as tide and weather. It is doubtful whether the height of the sun should
*A chart of these channels, showing the fishing-grounds, is appended.


16
Tanganyika Notes and Records
be considered except for the comfort of the fisherman, but the state of the tide
and the weather do make a considerable difference. For example, a low tide
rising is an excellent time to fish ; the reefs are then clearly defined and the
larger fish come closer to the reefs as the tide rises. Again fishing is poor when
going steadily into a head sea and swell, but keeping the wind astern better
results may be expected. The ideal conditions, of course, are in the cool of the
morning when the tide begins to flow and there is a gentle breeze, but these
conditions seldom occur except at neap tides.
It is interesting to note that the south-eastern end of a reef is better for
fishing than any other side, but this applies only to coral reefs that stand alone
and not to reefs extending off the shore.
It has been stated that fish migrate against currents but this is not the
case on the Tanganyika coast where the current runs in one direction only, that
is northward. The temperature of the water, however, has its effect in driving
away fish during the cool months.
Trolling.
The speed at which to troll is a more difficult question, but it is certainly
between three and a half and five and a half knotsthe lesser speed for the
smaller type of fish. Kingfish and baracouda will bite a spoon at almost any
speed up to nine knots but such a speed makes trolling impracticable and is
quite unnecessary. Four and a half knots, then, is a good average.
Little need be said with regard to handling a boat while trolling but it must
be remembered that fishing round reefs can have disastrous consequences. The
best places to troll are between deep blue water and shallow green water;
if, however, the engine of the motor-boat breaks down while on the windward
side of a reef, immediate action must be taken or the boat will be driven on
to the coral. To prevent this the first essential is an anchor or some type of
fairly heavy sinker, the weight depending on the size of the boat; an anchor
will be found to be the most satisfactory. To this anchor at least ten feet of
small chain and one hundred feet of rope should be attached, the chain being
necessary owing to the sharpness of the coral.
When a fish has been hooked the driver of the boat should immediately
stop his engine, the helmsman at the same time steering away from the reef
while there is still "way" on the boat. If this happens on the lee side of the
reef there is no need to worry, but if it happens to be the windward side the
helmsman should stand by the anchor as soon as the "way" is off the boat.
If a sailing boat is used the operations become more complicated but no
angler (unless he is with an expert yachtsman) should attempt trolling near reefs.
Many of the reefs are steep-sided, the sounding sometimes going from a
hundred fathoms to ten fathoms in a few feet and then often shelving quite
sharply to less than a fathom. Being able to see the bottom is no guide as to
its depth, but the boat can always be anchored when the bottom is sighted.
All anglers should obtain an Admiralty chart of the vicinity in which they
intend to fish. It will be found of great assistance in indicating just1 where the


Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast
17
coral lies and where rocks may be expected. A pair of oars is also a necessity.
Although a sea-anchor is not absolutely necessary, it may prove useful if the
motor-boat breaks down in deep water when the sea is rough.
A knife should be part of the fittings of a boat. This knife must be of hard
steel, sharp and pointed and will be found an invaluable aid when cutting out
hooks from fish which have been caught.
Bait.
A word on bait will not be out of place. There are two types : the fish bait
and the artificial bait. To troll a fish is obviously the best method, but this type
of bait is not always easy to obtain nor is it lasting. Again there is the difficulty
of fastening a live or a dead fish to a hook. An experienced angler can do this
easily but an amateur will find many difficulties. The large hook must be in
the tail end and the mouth must be closed up or the bait will soon become
waterlogged. With regard to the artificial lure, many suggestions have been
put forward and many contraptions tried but a brass spoon after the Wilson
type has been found to be successful along the whole coast. In all probability
the reason for this is that brass bears greater resemblance to the colour of the
food of the larger fish than does silver. Many anglers have their own ideas as to
what is the best bait to use and to prove them will quote what has been taken
with a ''Wilson spoon" or a "Trixereno." But then a native fisherman could
also tell what he has killed with a single hook and a piece of red bunting !
Every angler will doubtless make his own experiments with baits ; suffice it
to say that among them he should have a brass spoon and try it when fish are
not so plentiful, for it is a lure to all omnivorous feeders. However, whatever
artificial bait is used the hook should be an inch and a half clear of the tail end.
All wooden lures are very much alike, the main differences being the position
of the hooks and the colour ; most are fitted with a type of grapnel hook in the
tail which is not nearly so strong as a single one unless the size is out of all
proportion, and it is far more awkward to cut away from the fish's mouth.
It must be remembered that in order to kill big fish large bait must be
used, and one of six inches in length will give the angler unlimited sport with
anything from one or two pounds in weight to a fish weighing sixty or seventy
pounds. Over a long period it will be found that the average weight per fish
caught on a six-inch spoon is from ten to twelve pounds.
Fishing Tackle.
To take up fishing as a hobby requires a certain amount of outlay in the
buying of a rod, reel, line, swivels, spoons, hooks and such like. The reel is
perhaps the most important and no reel can be too good. It should be made
of some metal that will not rust and should be large enough to carry about
two hundred and fifty yards of 36-thread line. About twenty per cent allowance
must be made for a new line swelling when wet. Any type of oil will do for
lubrication, but vaseline should never be used. A single-piece rod about eight
feet in length is about the handiest size.
3


18
Tanganyika Notes and Records
Fishing lines are made of several materials, hemp, cotton, flax and silk all
being used. Flax lines are satisfactory for, unlike other lines, their breaking
strain increases when wet; they have a disadvantage, however, in that they
swell to almost double their normal size when wet. Silk lines are expensive
but, if properly treated, they will last for years. These lines have great elasticity
and this may save the angler from losing many a fish. Undressed cutty hank
if looked after is also good and inexpensive. For spinning, a woven line is
infinitely superior to one that is "laid up."
Only forged hooks without a bend in the shank close to the eye should be
used. Leads will not be found to be of much use, but should an angler
particularly desire to use one the torpedo-shaped lead with twisted wire ends
is the best. Swivels are most important and should be kept well lubricated.
Two swivels must be fitted to each trace, one at each end. Trace wire should
not be thick but must be strong; it should not be liable to break if kinks form.
A gaff is necessary for landing the fish and this should be fitted with a good
handle but without a loop for the wrist. Some sort of weapon will also be
required to kill the fish immediately it is brought aboard. Nothing is more
annoying than to have the floor boards of a boat made slippery by fish
scales.
If it is desired to use a handline, fifty yards of strong cod line backed up
with one hundred yards of quarter-inch line will be found to be quite satisfac-
tory. A native-made line instead of the cod line has proved to be suitable in
every respect and is certainly inexpensive. As regards the length of line to
employ while trolling, about fifty to sixty yards should be ample; most fish
will bite a spoon when only thirty yards are out.
It is a debatable point whether it is necessary to strike. Usually the fish
hook themselves and to strike them early in their first run is to court trouble.
Either the hook is pulled clean out of the fish's mouth or something carries
away. Pressure on the brake should be applied gently.
Handlines versus Rod and Reel.
From a sporting point of view the average angler will immediately condemn
the handline, but this should not be done without some thought. Any deviation
from the well-worn path is inclined to be looked upon with amused tolerance
until a good catch has been made; when this has been effected considerable
debate often ensues.
The rod and reel require a certain amount of manipulative skill and call for
endurance with big game fish. Anglers like to hear their line screaming out and
see their rod well bent. With fish over fifty pounds in weight a rod with its
three hundred yards of line is both necessary and sporting, but what of the fish
of under thirty pounds? Most anglers fish for sport and also probably with
a view to making a record catch, but should he hook a six-pound rock cod
over coral the fisherman may spend an hour trying to get the fish clear of its
refuge in the coral and stand an excellent chance of his line being cut or his
boat being driven on to the reef. With a handline the fish, especially when


Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast
19
only six pounds, may be drawn in sufficiently fast to prevent its reaching or
getting a hold on the bottom. The average angler out fishing for perhaps two
hours does not want to spend a great part of that time in killing a six-pound
rock cod.
A handline will bring in a fifteen-pound fish in less than half the time taken
by a six-inch reel and, although this may not be considered sporting, the angler
certainly has the personal touch on his line and will catch more fish and stand
a chance of getting more variety. Naturally if the "handliner" hooks an eighty-
pounder he will probably injure his hands, but he can counteract this to a
certain extent by wearing leather gloves.
Another point to be borne in mind is the price of rod and reel as compared
with a good handline. A reel must be a good one otherwise it is useless, and
this means a considerable outlay for the angler.
Fishing Grounds.
Moa.An excellent place for all-round fishing, and noted for sail-fish.
Many natives fish round Moa and local knowledge can be obtained from them.
Very little trolling has been done in this area so that its possibilities are
unknown. The great advantage of Moa is that the fishing grounds are sheltered
in both monsoons.
Tanga.There are several very keen fishermen in Tanga and good catches
have been made there. The best reefs are Niule and Yambe, but weather
conditions are seldom good enough for a small boat.
Sharks have been seen many times off Has Kisangani in Mwambani Bay.
All the types of fish mentioned in this paper are found in Tanga, but chewa
and kungnu are scarce. This is compensated for by the presence of kingfish
which are found all the year round off Rocky Island.
The fishing is not good inside the reefs between Tanga and Pangani.
Dar es Salaam.The fishing here is on the whole only fair; the best place
being in the channel. Further out to sea, that is, Sinda Island to the south and
Bongoyo and Mbudya Island to the north, better catches are made but the
distance to these islands makes fishing impossible when the monsoons begin to
blow hard.
Here, as in Tanga, there are many keen fishermen from whom local
knowledge can be obtained.
Latham Island.An almost impossible island to get to, being situated about
forty miles from Dar es Salaam, but the fishing is excellent. If an angler ever
has the good fortune to go to this island he should take very strong tackle
with him.
The best fishing will be found on the southern side of the island.
Karambezi, kolikoli, kungnu, mzia and other varieties of fish abound there.
There is no fresh water or shelter of any description on the island, which
consists of coral and sand and stands only ten feet high. Myriads of sea-fowl
live and breed there, and this alone is a good sign from the angler's point
of view.


20
Tanganyika Notes and Records
Mafia Island and Surrounding Reefs.The great advantage of the Mafia
channel is that the island provides an excellent lee to the inside reefs in both
monsoons, so that fishing is possible all the year round. The following are the
best fishing grounds :
RasMkumbi. This is the most northern point of Mafia Island and is probably
the best ground in the Mafia channel. All the species of fish mentioned in this
article are found there in great numbers. On the eastern side of the lighthouse
chewa are the most common, while on the north and western sides karambesi
and the mackerels and all the other varieties can be caught. No angler should
attempt the eastern side of the lighthouse if there is a heavy swell coming in
from the Indian Ocean.
Niororo Island. This island is noted for karambesi and kolikoli although
other varieties of fish can also be caught there. The west and north-western
sides give the best sport. There is fresh water on the island and a permanent
fishing village.
Wumi Patch. A small reef situated about ten miles north of Tirene and a
difficult one to find as it never uncovers even at low water. Should the angler
possess a compass he would find it worth his while to visit this reef, for he is
sure of getting good sport with the baracouda that abound there. The reef is
so small that it is advisable to circle round it continuously. The south-east
is probably the best side for fishing.
Fungu Sefo. One of the best known reefs in the channel and seldom dis-
appointing to the angler. From October to February natives fish this reef from
daybreak to noon and from three in the afternoon to dusk, sailing round and
round trolling koioana (a small species of bream). Excellent catches of
karambesi and kingfish have been made round this reef. Two anglers fishing for
two hours killed sixteen kingfish, the total weight being two hundred and
seventy-four pounds. It is an easy reef to find as it is provided with a beacon
standing on a sandbank.
Tirene Reef. Situated only two and a half miles from the district office
and has given fairly good sport, but is better for ground fishing. Several
varieties of rays abound between this reef and Kilindoni spit.
A1 Hajiri. This reef, though not so good as Fungu Sefo, has been found to
harbour large baracouda and is one of those reefs worth while trying ; but
if Fungu Sefo fails A1 Hajiri usually follows suit.
Mange Reef. Situated off the south of Mafia Island, it gives excellent
sport on the southern and western sides. This reef compares favourably with
Fungu Sefo and more varieties of fish may be expected. A beacon on a small
sand patch is situated on the northern end of the reef.
Tutia Reef. This is the most southern reef of the Mafia group and excellent
fishing may be obtained off the south-western corner during the north-east
monsoon. Cheiva, mzia and karambesi are the most common fish and a fifty-
nine-pounder of the latter species was caught on a five-inch brass spoon during


Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast
21
the month of November. This reef is clearly defined and the bottom consists
of sand and coral.
Kilwa Channel and Reefs.Unlike the Mafia channel the Kilwa channel
is not favoured with such a good lee, but the outer reefs serve to break the
swell. The outer islands, which include Okuza, Nyuni, Songo Songa and
Fanjove, do not give such good sport as might be expected but the inner reefs
are as good as most of those in the Mafia channel.
Simaya Island. Situated five miles off the Utagite mouth of the Mohoro
river is a good fishing ground, especially off the south-eastern end of the coral
reef, which is always sheltered. There is no habitation on the island, neither is
there any fresh water.
Memsembeuso Reef. Is one of the best reefs in the Kilwa channel. It is
four miles south of Simaya Island and is marked by a black beacon. All varieties
of fish abound and very good catches have been made on the eastern and
southern sides. Thirty-pound karamhesi are fairly common there.
Fanjove Island. The fishing close to the island is not good but on the
southern end of the reef good sport may be expected. The reef extends for
four miles south of the island. There is a lighthouse on the island and fresh
water, fowls and eggs are obtainable.
Fanjove Island might almost be considered a bird sanctuary as it harbours
many species of birds, such as flamingoes, gulls, curlew, cranes, pratincoles
and other varieties. This island also has other attributes, such as excellent
bathing and beautiful scenery.
Jewe Reef. This large reef is situated about six miles north of Kilwa
Kivinje and provides excellent all-round sport. There is a beacon on the western
corner of the reef and large fish of all kinds have been caught near it. Shark
also may be caught on the southern side.
Amana Reef. This is the nearest fishing reef to Kilwa Kivinje, being only
two and a half miles off. Amana has not been fished to any great extent although
the natives speak well of it. The southern and western sides are the best for
trolling and, fortunately, these sides are in calm water in both monsoons.
Kilwa Kisiwani.The fishing is decidedly poor inside the harbour, but in
the entrance channel between Balozi Spit beacon and Mwamba Kipakoni on
the southern side, and between Ras Mso and Albemarle Spit on the north,
good catches may be obtained. Both these reefs are steep-sided and great care
must be taken on hooking a big fish, especially off Mwamba Kipakoni which,
incidentally, is the best ground. Here the reef drops down like the face of a
cliff from a few feet to over fifty fathoms and there is always a swell running.
Fishing is impossible in any of the above places in the south-west monsoon with
a falling tide.
Lindi.The best fishing ground in Lindi is on the southern side of the
river between Ras Rungi, on the opposite side from Lindi, and Glarkson-point
lighthouse. Several good catches have been obtained along this strip of coast.
A heavy swell usually runs into the river entrance which makes fishing


22
Tanganyika Notes and Records
uncomfortable at times and the tide ebbs and flows at about two knots during
springs.
Sudi Bay.This bay lies twenty-two miles from Lindi in a southern direc-
tion. The fishing in the narrow channel is reputed to be very good and, from a
glance at the chart, it looks typical fishing ground.
Mikindani Bay.This huge coral-bound bay supplies all the good fishing
that the angler desires. If he is after fish of moderate size coupled with variety,
he should fish Mikindani channel, Mto Mtwawa channel and along the coral
reef between these two places; but if he is in possession of heavy tackle he
should visit Has Sangamku on the western side of the bay in the south-west
monsoon, and Cape Paman on the eastern side in the north-east monsoon.
Both these places harbour large fish and, according to the local natives
incredible catches have been made there.
NOTES ON SOME OP THE FISH FOUND ON THE COAST.
In the following notes the scientific classification of fish has been adhered to
as far as possible. The Swahili names appear after the Latin equivalents and
are those generally in use along the Tanganyika section of the East African
coast.
The Queenfish (Chorinemus sp.) (Pandu).
This fish is known in South Africa as the queenfish, while on the East
African coast it is often known as the kingfish.
The most noticeable feature about the pandu is the four large dark spots
about the size of a crown on each side, just above the lateral line. In general
shape it is comparable to the kolikoli, but the fin distribution is more like
that of the nguru in that it has the ten small fins above and below the tail
and the short pointed pectoral fin. In addition it has seven small spikes in place
of a first dorsal; these spikes may be retracted into separate grooves. The
colour is a light silvery-grey above the lateral line and silvery-gold below ;
the spots are steel-grey. The teeth are minute but the jaws are hard.
Pand,u are more plentiful during the north-east monsoon but are fairly
common all the year round, being found in deep water, inshore and in tidal
rivers. An adult in Tanganyika waters weighs about fifteen pounds, one weigh-
ing over eighteen pounds is exceptional. It is a game fish, fighting not like the
other members of the mackerel family, but leaping repeatedly out of the water
like the mzia and taking fast deep runs. It does not as a rule take the bait with
a rush but nibbles at it several times before biting. The pandu is not considered
good eating.
The Kingfish (Acanthocybium solandri) (Nguru).
The kingfish (known in South Africa as the "snoek") belongs to the
mackerel class and bears great resemblance to the European common mackerel
(scober scomber) in general shape and even more so to the tunny (thunnus
thynus) as regards fin distribution, but is not so heavy in the shoulders.


Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast
23
THE QUEEN FIS>H
'PcLSlJjUL
THE KIHG rtSH
Ncjlltvl H
THE" 3 ON t TO
"DjocLarrL

the ba rrhaowo*
K^LrULettbcs i
THE OA KFISH
Su.mbe.ruru
THE tfOR Kofi koli


24
Tanganyika Notes and Records
The nguru is quite a common fish on the coast and weight for weight can
put up as good a fight as any fish. It is one of the swiftest sea fish, having
a beautifully streamlined body, a strong tail and a dorsal fin which folds down
into a groove so that it is perfectly flush with the body when not in use.
The colouring of the back shades from a dark bluish-green, crossed with
irregular brownish bars, to a mother-of-pearl sheen reflection in the whitish
belly. The scales are very small and the eye has a large pupil.
The fight of this fish may be compared with that of the karambesi in that
it does not break surface, but the runs are swifter. It may be found all the
year round both in deep water and close to coral reefs, and will take most baits
willingly and, more important still, at any speed. The angler will find that
the bite of kingfish is thorough; and they have been caught at a speed of nine
knots and brought into the boat without reducing speed. One weighing thirty-
five pounds was hooked and landed at a speed of eight knots.
An attractive lure for kingfish is a wooden shaped fish painted red on the
top and white underneath, but the angler will find that they are not particular
and will bite at almost any artificial bait.
Kingfish often frequent the same locality and although this is not a rule
there are certain reefs on the coast where they can nearly always be found.
The weight of this fish reaches the forty-pound mark but anything in the
neighbourhood of thirty is good.
The Bonito (Tunny) (Scombridae family) (Jodari).
This migratory fish, of which so little is known, arrives on the coast
towards the end of November in the northern part and a week or two later
further south.
This particular species is also a member of the mackerel family and when
compared with the ngnrn the resemblance in many ways is extraordinary. The
main difference lies in girth, which in the tunny is greater. Two small finlets
protruding at right angles to the tail are found in both these species and
these keep them steady when travelling at fast speeds. The colouring of the
bonito is divided into three sections : the belly is a dull silver, the after part
of the back is a darker shade, across and over which run a series of dark brown
irregular bars, and the head is of a nondescript dark bluish-green.
Little is known of the weight to which these fish attain in these waters,
but inshore they do not as a rule go above fifteen pounds. Larger ones probably
do not venture close inshore. On being hooked they fight in a similar manner
to the other members of the mackerel family in that they do not leap into the
air but make fast and long runs, usually downwards. The flesh of the bonito is
red, but it makes very good eating.
The Albacore (Yellow Finned Tunny).
This is another type of tunny found on the Tanganyika coast. In general
shape and fin distribution it bears a strong resemblance to the bonito, but the
fins are longer and yellow in colour while the body is of a more uniform dull
grey.


Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast
25
Whereas the bonito is generally supposed to attain a weight of only about
ten to fifteen pounds, albacores have been caught scaling forty-five pounds and
probably reach a much higher figure. They are excellent fighters, gifted with
speed and strength and, like the great European tunny, deep fighters. A good
bait to use is a dead flying fish but any other fast moving lure is attractive to
them. The best months to fish them are December, January and February.
The coastal natives do not seem to make any distinction between the bonito
and the albacore.
The Kibua.
It would appear that the kibua belongs to the mackerel family as it bears
a strong resemblance to the tunny. In size it is small, a full-grown one
scaling little over two pounds and having a length of only nineteen inches.
It has long wispy pectoral fins like the karanibesi, two hard pointed dorsals
and ten small finlets between the second dorsal and caudal and between the
anal and caudal fin, as seen in the kingfish. The lateral line is straight and
well marked, standing out from the side of the tail. The colouring is like that
of a common mackerel, being a bottle-green above the lateral line, toning to
a bright silver belly. The scales are minute.
These migratory fish arrive on the coast towards the end of November and
by the end of March they have all left. For their size they are quite powerful
and will take almost any kind of spoon up to one of six inches in length.
This is remarkable as their mouth is by no means large, nor are they provided
with teeth. They are not esteemed for eating, the flesh being a dull red when
raw and turning a greyish colour after being cooked. The kibua is not very
common which, from an angler's point of view, is a blessing.
The Garfish (Belone belone) (Sumberuru).
The garfish is not very interesting to the deep-sea angler as it rarely attains
a greater length than three feet or weighs more than a few pounds; but by
using very light tackle excellent sport can be obtained, for it is a fierce fighter
and incredibly swift. Its usual action when on the line is to make short spurts
in all directions, leaping repeatedly out of the water or skimming along the
surface. It does not peck at the bait but, darting up from below, takes it clean
out of the water in one furious rush. Owing to its voraciousness it will take
most small baits if they are bright, although quite small garfish have been
known to take six-inch spoons.
The colouring is dark green along the back toning to a bright silver belly.
The bones are a greenish colour but the flesh makes quite good eating. It has
been said that, the garfish is closely related to the greater flying-fish and their
resemblance is certainly noticeable.
The Baracouda (Sphyraena sp.) (Mzia).
This fish is well known to deep-sea fishermen for its speed in taking a
trolled bait, its spectacular fight and its habit of collecting hooks, spoons and
lines. More tackle is lost on the baracouda than on any other fish. It takes


26
Tanganyika Notes and Records
the bait broadside on and the initial run is fierce and long. The brake should
be applied sparingly at first and there is seldom need to strike. It seems to do
its own. striking in the first instance. After the first run the fight is often
spectacular, the fish leaping into the air then occasionally going deep.
Sometimes it jumps ahead of the trace wire; this will often put kinks in the
wire, and is probably the cause of much loss of gear.
The baracouda will take almost any trolled bait and, having complete
confidence in its own powers, will take it well. It appears to have no fear and
will often take a spoon within a few yards of a motor-boat. The fish is easily
recognizable by its mouthful of terrible teeth, which the angler should treat
with respect, and by its pike-like appearance. The colour is dark brownish-grey
along the back, toning to silver underneath.
The baracouda may be found in deep or shallow water almost anywhere
along the'coast during all months, but it usually patrols the coral reefs like
a veritable pirate or lies in wait close to them.
The Horse Mackerel (Garanx hippos) (Karambesi).
This is the most common if not the most sporting fish of the coast.
Where fish are caught there the karambesi will be found, sometimes in shoals
and sometimes singly, ready to tackle almost any bait. They are easily
recognized by their blunt nose, long wispy pectoral fin, double first dorsal and
powerful shoulders.
There are at least three varieties of this species to be found, all closely
resembling each other in shape and fin distribution. The larger varieties,
weighing up to probably eighty or ninety pounds, are a dull grey colour being
extremely heavy in the head and having immense girth in proportion to their
length, while the smaller varieties are more highly coloured, some having
blue fins and some being mottled gold in colour. The latter are not quite so
blunt in the nose but resemble the bigger fish in the general shape of the body
and fins. The teeth are small.
The fight of the karambesi is not in the least spectacular as they do not
as a rule break surface but fight deep, pulling and snagging at the line and
taking fast runs. A fifty-pound karambesi is without doubt a hard fish to kill
and one which the sporting angler may be proud of. These fish feed mostly on
small mullet and the best bait to use is a trolled mullet, dead or alive, or a
brass spoon in preference to a plated one. The mullet is not always easy to
get, but a small fish which the natives call the kotvana, a small species of
bream about six inches long, is easily procurable and equally effective. The
mouth of the karambesi is hard and the fish takes the bait from behind so that
it usually gets well hooked. With careful handling no gear should be lost.
The Horse Mackerel (Garanx gymnostethoides) (Kolikoli).
This fish may be compared to the karambesi in many ways. For example, it
fights in the same way, it takes the same bait and it is found in the same
localities.


Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast
27
Kolikoli, however, are not nearly so common nor do they run to the same
weight. Although this fish belongs to the mackerel class, as does the karambesi,
the main differences between the two are as follows :
(a) Kolikoli are a much longer fish, they have not the blunt nose to the
same extent, and the pointed anal fin is sometimes absent. Also, they are
not always provided with teeth but merely with roughened gums and the
scales are smaller; and
(b) their general colour is lighter and their tail side fins do not carry
so far up the lateral line.
The following measurements taken of a fourteen and a half-pound karambesi
and a kolikoli of the same weight are in themselves explanatory :
Kolikoli, length 2 ft. llins., girth 1ft. 08ins.
Karambesi, length 2ft. 04Jins., girth 1ft. 09ins.
Many natives confuse the karambesi with the kolikoli but these two are
distinctly different from each other as has been shown.
The best months for this type of fish are November to March inclusive,
although karambesi are found all the year round.
The Rock Cod (Epincphalus sp.) (Chewa).
Many species of this genus are to be found on the coast weighing anything
from two to over a hundred pounds. They are members of the sea perch family.
The most common is the yellow, spotted with brown, but there is great
variation in the colour of the different species including brick red, yellow and
brown.
An angler getting a bite from one of these fish seldom fails to land it, the
mouth being so large and the jaws so strong that even the most inexperienced
of fisherman has little difficulty ; the whole art in landing the rock cod is
getting it in quickly. In this type of fishing the run allowed should be short,
the shorter the better, or the fish will dive straight for the bottom and wedge
itself in the coral. Fortunately, those caught in shallow water over coral do not
run up to any great weight.
Although the rock cod is not considered one of the sporting fish it can
often be most troublesome to the angler, especially if he lets it get down among
the coral. Should this happen the only hope is to shorten the line as much as
possible and keep a steady strain on it. Eventually the fish will tire, but this
may take a considerable timeand the angler's patience may tire first. After
being hooked the rock cod goes down deep, attempting to reach the bottom;
if this is not possible it will pull and tug at the line, but soon gets played out
and "comes along quietly."
Except for colouring the rock cod is by no means a beautiful fish, not
having the lines of the mackerel family ; nor is the mouth one of nature's
best efforts.
In the water their colouring is superb but all this is lost a few minutes
after landing them, and they become a dull brown colour. It is a curious fact
that many of them vomit after being landed, bringing up their last meal,


28
Tanganyika Notes and Records
THE ROCK COD THE 3 FA JBASS
THE 3NJA TPER
i
A txn^uu.

KipLm-hc*
THE 3AIL ElSH
n
Ndu
77^ DOLT Hi N
THE yELLOW TINNED TUNNY
n
TyjotiLasri


Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast
29
usually a kowana which has been swallowed whole and is in a half-digested
state.
The scales of this type of fish are small and it at first gives the impression
of being smooth skinned. The flesh of the younger ones is quite pleasant but is
rather coarse in the larger and older ones.
Bock cod are present on the coast throughout the year but are more or less
localized on certain reefs.
The Sea Bass (Epinephelus sp.) (Njombo).
This type of fish, another member of the large sea perch family, is even
more common than the chewa in the Mafia and Kilwa channels. The general
build is the same as that of the ehewa but the fins, colour and scales are
slightly different. The njombo has only six or seven spikes on the dorsal fin
and no spikes on the anal, and the pectoral fin is more rounded. The caudal
fin is what might be termed straight cut, that is, it has no "cut away" like
most other fish. It does not appear to the casual observer to have any scales
but they are present, although small. The colour is a very dark brownish-red,
mottled with small blue spots; the larger ones are lighter in colour. In size it
does not compare with the cheiva (which the natives state grows large enough
to take a human being), but fifty-pounders have been caught on the Tanganyika
coast and larger ones have been reported.
The njombo is a voracious fish but not very sporting, in fact anglers might
term it a nuisance. Fortunately it has not the same tendency to take refuge in
the coral as the chewa.
Many natives will not eat njombo, having some theory that if they do
they come out in spots. Actually it is not a good eating fish unless very
small.
Difficulty is often found in distinguishing the njombo from the chewa.
The main difference is that the njombo has only seven or eight spines on the
dorsal fin whereas the cheioa has nine or ten. Also the cheiva has larger
scales.
The Snapper (Pagras family) (Kunguu).
The snapper may be caught on the coast during all months of the year
and although it cannot be termed common, certain reefs are favoured. An
angler requiring snapper should go to a locality where rock cods are common,
for the two types are nearly always found together. Such fishing grounds as
Bas Mkumbi, Mange Beef and Tutia Beef are so favoured.
The snapper is a species of sea-bream ; the body is oblong, compressed and
covered with moderately large hard scales. The dorsal fin is elongated like that
of the rock cod, but has ten or twelve spines in the front half. There are also
three spines in front of the anal fin ; the cheeks are scaly. The general colour
is red, toning from a dark red back to a salmon-pink belly. The eye is large as in
most sea-bream and the teeth are small.
It is not only excellent eating but it is also a good sport-yielding fish.
A twenty-pounder will give an angler a thrilling few minutes, for although


30
Tanganyika Notes and Records
the snapper is not built for speed it is extremely powerful. Difficulty is often
found in gaffing this fish owing to its hard scales. Anglers should play it out
completely before attempting to use the gaff.
The Ivifimbo.
This fish is a type of bream and is one of the best eating fish caught by
trolling. It does not run to any great weight, a ten-pounder being a good
average. For its size it puts up quite a fair fight but after one or two short
runs soon gives up.
Kifimbo are found in the most unexpected places, both in deep water
and near reefs. They are never found in shoals but seem to go about singly.
Their colouring is sea-green above the lateral line and a greenish-white below.
The eye is large and the scales give one the impression of a large check
cloth. The dorsal fin, which is armed with sharp spikes and which the natives
treat with respect commences above the pectoral fin and continues almost to
the caudal fin. The cheeks of the kifimo are also scaly. Its mouth is large and
armed with short sharp teeth.
The Mtangaa.
The mtangaa is not a common fish neither does it run to any weight, but
it has been included here as being one of the fish caught only near reefs, and
no bait seems too big for it. One of five pounds would be a large one but a
two-pounder will readily take a six-inch spoon.
It has two peculiarities, one being that it always dies with its mouth wide
open and the other that all its fins with the exception of the pectorals end in
long wisps tipped with yellow. It has fine scales and their colouring is dark red
above the lateral line and a lighter red below. The dorsal fin, like that of the
rock cod is long, the forward half being hard and spiky and the remainder
being soft. On being hooked it will if possible dive straight for the bottom
and under the coral.
The Songoro.
The songoro appears to be a fairly common catch round the Tanga reefs,
but is certainly not common in the Mafia and Kilwa channels.
This smooth, dark-skinned fish, which has the appearance of a barbel is
an excellent fighter, being both strong and fast. In shape it is unlike any
of the fish mentioned here, being fiat along the belly. The cross section is
triangular in shape. It has one dorsal fin, large pectoral fins and a strong deep
caudal fin.
Songoro have been killed up to forty pounds in weight. They are not
considered good eating.
The Sail-Fish (Ishophorus gladins) (Nduwaro).
The sail-fish or sword-fish is rather an uncommon catch although they are
plentiful on the coast. Attaining a length of about twelve feet, exceedingly
powerful and pugnacious they are, to the native, the most feared fish on the
coast.


31
The name sword-fish is derived from the long pointed upper jaw and the
name sail-fish from the huge dorsal fin which, it has been said, they use as
a sail. It certainly has the appearance of one. They attack their larger prey
with repeated thrusts of the sword ; even dhows and canoes are attacked in
this manner, but if this happens the sword is liable to break as the fish has
not a sufficiently powerful backward movement to be able to extricate the
sword.
The sword-fish will occasionally take a spoon, but not with the usual rush.
Once a fair sized one is well hooked the angler can settle down to some excellent
sport coupled with hard work.
A description of the sail-fish is unnecessary; suffice it to say that as soon
as the sail and sword are sighted great care should be taken in landing it
as, in addition to the sword, it is also provided with teeth.
The Dolphin (Coryphaena hippurus) (Panji).
The pcinji is a deep water fish, seldom entering narrow channels or crossing
shallow water. It is not a very common catch on the Tanganyika coast,
although many may be seen in the Zanzibar fish market during January,
February and March.
In shape and fin distribution this fish stands alone. The head is deep and
blunt, rather like that of the karambesi, and the body tapers immediately to
a narrow tail. The dorsal fin commences at the forehead and continues to
within an inch or two of the caudal fin, while the anal fin is also continuous
for the length of the tail. The mouth is comparatively small and armed only
with small teeth. The colour is a greyish-blue along the back, toning to a
silvery-blue below, and the scales are so small as to give the impression of
a smooth skin.
The panji, although running up to about forty pounds in weight, is no great
fighter and after a single short run is soon exhausted.
Tanga's outer reefs are favoured during January and February with shoals
of these fish. Their presence is usually revealed by seagulls feeding on the
small fry which the larger fish are chasing to the surface.
The Springer (FAops saurus) (Chaehe).
Another name for this fish is the Cape salmon owing to its similarity to
the common salmon. It is a silvery fish having large scales rather like the
baracouda and a small mouth with minute teeth on the jaws.
On being hooked the springer has a most peculiar action, diving and
immediately surfacing repeatedly. This action probably gave rise to its name.
Although not common on the coast it may be added to the list of
Tanganyika's sporting fish and attains a weight of abour twelve pounds.
The Ribbon Fish (Trichiurus halmela).
This fish, often known as the cutlass fish, can hardly be termed "sporting"
although it is a fairly common catch on the coast. About half the number
of those caught are "foul hooked" and the angler imagines that he has caught


32
Tanganyika Notes and Records
a fairly large fish (a fish so hooked puts up a better fight than those hooked
in the mouth).
The ribbon fish, so called owing to its similarity to a piece of ribbon, is
a dark bottle green along the back toning to a light silver belly. The small
teeth are barbed.
The average weight of those caught rarely exceeds two pounds. They make
quite good eating but are full of small bones.
The Porpoise (Pomboo).
These mammals have been included not because the angler is likely to hook
one, although they have been caught on a rod and line, but because they are
so often seen and, like gulls, are a good sign to the fisherman.
Porpoises or perhaps dolphins are probably the fastest moving creatures in
the sea. They have been known to outdistance a ship travelling at thirty-six
knots with apparent ease. Their energy is tremendous, due probably to the
fact that their blood is rich. Out of water they look like a fish and their body
ends in a broad thick crescent, spread like a fin ; but this fin unlike a fish's is
horizontal. Under the skin will be found layers of fat which gives them
buoyancy. The females produce their young alive and feed them on milk.
They are, like whales, compelled to come to the surface for air.
In playful mood these mammals are wonderful to see, leaping out of the
water, turning round in mid-air and flopping back making a huge splash.
Often they will come so close to a motor-boat that they can easily be struck
with a boat hook. At times they are a nuisance owing to the fact that most
fish will clear out of their path, so the angler should, if possible, always keep
away from them.
Their food is fish and for that reason they are more thought of by the sailor
than by the fisherman. They run to several hundred pounds in weight though
accurate figures are not available. The usual type seen on the coast are from
four to eight feet in length.


Statistics of Fish Caught off the Coast.
The following statistics of fish caught off the coast during November and December 1936 may be of interest to
the reader:
Month Time and tide Locality and No. of lines used Nature of Bottom Name of Fish Weights in Pounds
November 4 p.m.-6 p.m. Rising Mange Reef (two) Sand and Coral Karambesi Mzia Njombo Chewa Mtangaa ! 34, 6, 6, 10, 6, 20 16 i 18, 3 1 17, 15 2,1
November 6 p.m.-9 a.m. Falling Ras Mkumbi (two) Coral | Karambesi Chewa Njombo Kifimbo Mzia Mtangaa 32, 19, 16, 8, 7, 7, 7, 3 13, 10, 8, 7, 7, 6, 4, 4, 4 28, 15, 12, 7 3 4 | 2
November 4 p.m.-6 p.m. Low water Sefo Shoal (two) Sand and Coral Nguru 21, 20, 8, 30, 25, 20, 18, 15, 14, 12, 10, 23, 22, 18, 18, 14, 14, 11, 10
November 5 p.m.-6.30 p.m. Falling Tutia Reef (two) Sand and Coral Karambesi Njombo Kifimbo Mzia | 59, 18, 13, 4 13, 12, 12, 11, 6, 6 1 2 3
December 6 a.m.-9 a.m. i High Mikindani (two) Sand i Karambesi Njombo Kunguu 50, 43, 42, 33, 30, 5 10 8
December 4.30 p.m.-7 p.m. Low and Rising Tutita Reef (two) I i i ; Sand and Coral Kolikoli Njombo Kunguu Karambesi Mzia Mtangaa 14 40, 19, 12, 9, 7, 5 10 11, 3 22 4
i o
I o
! 3
I Co
Cb
!
! I
s

S
Pi
S
CQ
i ^
i s
i
I .
Pi
o
o
Pi
Co
CD
CO


34
Tanganyika Notes and Records
The "Mashokora" Cultivations of the Coast
By A. V. Hartnoll and N. R. Fuggles Coucliman
Extent and Importance of the "Mashokora" Area.
IN THE central area of the Ear es Salaam district there is an extensive
area of hill country stretching practically the whole length of the district
and varying in width, probably being narrowest in the north and consider-
ably wider in the south. The soils on the hills and hill-slopes vary from a deep
red loam, derived from red sandstone, rather light in texture, to a very heavy
sticky black clay, the latter confined to a very well-defined area in the
Maneromango and Kisangire divisions of the district. In the various valleys
between the hills are fertile black, or poor sandy soils. Everywhere in the
not recently cultivated areas of such hill soils there is a dense cover of deciduous
scrub forest, known to the natives as vichaka. The most important species of
this forest are
Erithrophlcem guiniense (mwavi)
Ghlorophora excelsa (mvule)
Milletia sp. (muhamvi)
Ficus sp. (moimbo)
Grewia sp. (mkole)
Albizzia sp. (mtanga)
Afzalia cuanzensis (mkongo)
Baphia kirkii (mkumpti)
Cussonia sp. (mpopoma)
Tamarindus indicus (mkwaju)
Sysigium guiniense (msambarao)
Anona senegalensis (mtopetope)
Trema guiniensis (mpeke).
There are many climbing woody plants and generally speaking there are few
big trees, the average height of the bush rarely exceeding fifteen to twenty
feet. The big trees are practically confined to the Pugu Forest Reserve, where
one can see forest closely approximating to the original vichaka which
covered the whole area. Cultivation in the past has tended to destroy the
large trees, and the succession forest is of the general low type. As mentioned
above, it is deciduous and heavily clothed with leaves, the importance of which
will be referred to later. The scrub forest is not confined to the central hill
area, as it appears on all suitable red soils in the coastal area of the district.
As a rough estimate about one-sixth of the district consists of such country.
The importance of this country to the natives is very considerable as,
wherever it occurs, it is the reservoir for their grain crops as well as other
food and cash crops. For in many parts the lowland soils of their villages are


35
frequently poor sands on which cassava and coconuts are practically the only
crops which thrive, and the upland red soils are the only place where grain
crops may be grown successfully. As a result natives living in the vichaka
areas have evolved a very definite rotation, varying slightly from place to
place according to the fertility of the soil, the age of the forest, the annual
incidence of the rains and the yearly need for food and cash. Rotation in
this case does not, however, infer the European meaning of the term, in that
no leguminous crop is introduced to restore fertility, no manuring is done to
maintain fertility, and an integral part of the system is a shifting cultivation,
fertility being restored over a period of years by a secondary growth of scrub
forest, or mashokora as it is known to the natives. It does include, however,
a very definite succession of crops during the years in which any one cleared
area is in cultivation. This type of country also has another importance, as
on the tops of all the ridges, with the exception of the belt of black soils
previously referred to, the red soils which occur form the best surface for the
construction of all-weather roads. Not only does the firmness of the red soil
make the surface so good, but the fact that these ridges lie on the line of the
watersheds saves numerous bridges and culverts, whilst it is seldom found,
owing to the undulating nature of the country and the comparative lowness
of the hills that grading is necessary to avoid steep slopes. Such roads, there-
fore, are inexpensive to build and cheap to maintain.
Cultivation and Crops.
It will be realized that land which has been under such scrub bush for
many years will have obtained a considerable degree of fertility from the
constantly falling leaves, from the conservation of soil moisture and the protec-
tion from the sun's rays in the dry season, which has prevented excessive soil
sterilization. Thus, when the native first clears a piece of old forest he has
a field of very fertile soil. Realizing this either by trial and error or by
some slight insight into the factors influencing his crops, he uses the soil
while it is "green" for grain crops. In the first year the crop taken is rice.
The humus in the soil and its beautiful condition enable the maximum amount
of rain to be absorbed and held, sufficient for the demands of the dry land
or hill rice which he uses. The bush is cut by the men, all the light growth
being cut to the ground, and the bigger trees being cut at about three feet
from the ground. This is usually done in December and early January. If it
is done earlier and there are good rains in December an early crop of maize
will be sown in the first year, but this is unusual. When the bush has been
cut it is generally carefully burnt. Fire has little danger where the clearings
are surrounded by mashokora bush, which is generally the case, as such bush
is too green to burn. But where there is some pressure on the available forest
natives sometimes clear a piece of marginal forest. At the end of the cultivation
period that patch is very liable to be burnt out annually by the grass fires
with the result that the mashokora can never re-establish itself properly and
the area falls into miombo bush (the "dry-forest" of the savannah) with a


36
steadily decreasing fertility. It is, therefore, really essential for the natives to
leave a belt of uncleared forest round their cultivations, if the re-establishment
of the mashokora is to occur, which must happen if the system is to be
preserved. New clearings vary considerably in size from a quarter of an acre to
over an acre, according to the "beer-wealth" of the native, his energy and the
size of his family. Before the first crop is sown, the field is well hoed over
and the rice is sown according to the advent of the mvtia wa mpando, the
planting rains, between the middle of January and the end of February. Short
term rices are used, the commonest variety being one known as Bora kupata;
others used are Swala and Mizagala. The seed is sown haphazard, the holes
being about nine inches to one foot apart, made with a small hoe when the soil
is dry, or with a pole when it is wet. Men help the women with the sowing,
but the women do most of it and are extremely quick workers. As stated
above, if the bush is cleared early and the rains are good, a first crop of maize
may be taken ; this would be harvested after the rice has been sown. The
necessary weedings are done to keep the rice clean, and harvesting commences
as early as the beginning of May in favourable years. The first year of this
cultivation is known as chenge to the natives.
The following season, that is to say, in October and early November, the
old stubbles and weeds are cut out and burnt, the land is lightly prepared
and with good short rains a crop of maize will be sown, to be harvested in
February and March. The main crop in the second year depends upon the
age of the forest which was cleared in the first year, which influences the
goodness of the land after a crop of rice. If the forest was old and the land
good, rice is again sown probably mixed with sorghums. It may be put in
as early as the end of December if the rains are heavy, otherwise at the usual
time towards the end of January. If the soils are from secondary forest of
only fifteen or twenty years' growth, sorghums form the main crop in the
second year. These may be sown as with the rice, in December or January,
and with either main crop a long rain crop of maize is usually taken as an
inter-crop. In this year also pigeon-peas are sown, scattered about the field
and round the edges, continuing till the end of the period of use of the
particular field. This second year is known as pindua, as it is frequently the
year of change from rice to sorghum.
At the beginning of the third season a crop of maize is again sown with
the short rains, together with cowpeas or green gram, which may also be
sown in the second season. If the area was sown with sorghums in the
second year, then the maize is now interplanted with cassava as well. If, on
the other hand, it is an area of good soil, sorghums will be planted in the
third season. In the first case after the maize has been harvested the cassava
will be allowed to come away, and if it is still small another crop of maize
may be taken in the long rains, but this is unusual. The cassava is then left
in the field and harvested as necessary, the field being allowed to revert to
bush. A cover to the soil quickly forms, a grass, Panicum trichocladum, rapidly
growing under and over the cassava which gradually dies out, or is dug out.


The "Mashokora" Cultivations of the Coast
37
In the better areas this happens at the end of the fourth season, the cassava
having been planted at the beginning of that season. The third season is
known as pindua la gogo, meaning the "turning of the tree stumps," which
are well rotted and easily knocked over by that time. The secondary bush,
or mashokora, quickly asserts itself and in a few years has formed an
impenetrable thicket, and the return of fertility to the soil has commenced.
An area of secondary bush is rarely cut before it is ten years old. If it is
cut after that short period the natives do not consider it is fit for a rice crop,
maize and sorghums and then cassava only being cropped on it. If the forest
is twenty years old or more it is considered suitable for rice in the first year,
and the rotation depicted above is followed through again.
Possibilities and Improvements in the System.
The attention of one of the writers was drawn to this class of land when
attempting to encourage the production of cotton in the district. At every
baraza in a country of this nature, natives stated that cotton would not thrive
in the soils, that it grew and never produced a crop and so forth. From the
appearance of the soil after the fields had been used a year there would
appear to be no reason for such failure except perhaps in planting at the
wrong season, or exceptional rains in the flowering and boiling periods. It was
not until it was realized that they were using the newly-cleared land in the
first year, and that normally that land was well suited to rice, that the trouble
was understood and a possible solution brought to light. It is generally accepted
that cotton will not produce a satisfactory crop on rich land which has been
newly cleared, there being a tendency for the plants to run to wood and leaf
and to shed most of the crop. This was happening with their cotton. But
sorghum is grown in the second or third year, and if sorghum thrives cotton
should also be a satisfactory crop, given average climatic conditions. Thus it
appears to be a matter of fitting the cotton crop into the present native
rotation in the most suitable year. In the past the natives have been giving
themselves much extra work in clearing new areas for cotton in addition to
those necessary for their rice. There would seem to be no need for this double
effort, a point which should appeal to the native. When a double clearing has
to be made it must have a depressing effect on the area cleared for rice.
This is undesirable, as the rice crop is a most important one to the natives
in the hill areas and is one which flourishes there. It should be possible to
encourage the native to clear a larger area for his rice and when the second
and third years come round, to plant a part of the sorghum area with cotton.
The only crop to suffer any reduction would be the sorghum, as an early crop
of maize would be taken in the cotton area. The reduction of the sorghum
crop is not very vital, as maize, rice and cassava form the larger part of the
native's diet. With a larger initial area cleared for rice, there need not be
any reduction in the sorghum area. Further, such introduction of cotton
would in no way throw out the native rotation, or any of his work, while it
would introduce into the rotation a deep rooting, well tilled crop which would


38
Tanganyika Notes and Records
have beneficial effect on the third and fourth seasons' crops, that is to say the
half of the field planted with sorghum would become cotton and the cotton
area would be planted with maize in the third and fourth years.
Wood* says: "Cotton worked into an already existing rotation will, as
likely as not, be regarded as a subsidiary crop; cotton forming the basis of a
new rotation will almost certainly be the main crop to be considered." In
working cotton into the rotation in the manner outlined above it is with
a view to its being treated as a subsidiary cash crop. "Hill" rice flourishes
so exceedingly under average conditions and yields so well, giving the native
a good return of cash and food, that any curtailment of the crop for cotton
would be undesirable. Cotton should be regarded in these areas as a line of
defence against bad rice years, from which the native may obtain as a minimum
his tax money, as well as a few shillings for other purchases, and so leave all
his food crop for food purposes.
As in all areas of shifting cultivation, while there is no pressure on the
land available, there is nothing very damaging in the practice, as long as the
fallow is adequately protected from erosion and fire, so that fertility may be
restored as fully as the bush growth can restore it. During the four years in
which the natives use their red hill soils there is little fertility restored to
the land. Small crops of cowpeas and green gram are sown in the short rains
as intercrops, while pigeon peas for two years must have some good effect,
but they are very scattered and few in number. Once pres ire on the land
becomes too great for the long period of fallowing required under present
conditions the natives will have to resort to green manure and leguminous
crops in much greater quantity than at present. Probably then a mixed pure
stand of cowpeas, gram and pigeon peas for one or two years will have to be
used. It is possible to take two crops of cowpeas in one year, one of which
could be dug in as a green manure each year. Further, as the bush disappears
under such pressure, tsetse will also disappear, and with communal dipping
tanks cattle might be owned by the natives, so paving the way to a stable
system of mixed farming with ploughing.
Soil Erosion.
As mentioned above, most of the cultivation takes place on hillsides.
Nowhere in areas visited has water erosion seemed very apparent. In the
first year the soil is in a very water-retentive state, but during the subsequent
years run-off must increase. The practice of leaving the stumps in the soil
may also have a certain beneficial effect in holding up the soil during the first
two years. However, when the fields are left, the growth of P. trichocladum
is so rapid that a very fine cover soon forms and little or no wash takes place.
Thus, under the present system, while contour ridges would probably be
beneficial in the second and third years, the damage done by run-off does
not appear to make their construction absolutely essential, more especially
*Wooi), R. C., "Cotton Rotations." Empire Cotton Growing Review, xxiii, 2, April 193o.


The "Mashokora" Cultivations of the Coast
39
in view of the rapid growth of cover. But once continuous cropping becomes
general through lack of areas of new or regenerated forest, contour ridging
and storm draining will have to be carried out, to preserve the soils in
cultivation. This is readily seen in a few areas, where, through fire and other
reasons, the forest lias never re-established itselfthere erosion is proceeding
at a great pace.
Some Administrative Aspects of Mashokora Cultivation.
This method of cultivation viewed from the administrative standpoint has
everything to recommend it. In the first place it possesses the advantage of
accessibility once ridge line roads have been constructed; roads, which by
opening up the district would act adversely on the tendency of a population
to concentrate itself round a big centre like Dar es Salaam. Most of the
present roads in the district have never been properly located and have grown
up from the ordinary bush footpath, wandering in the valleys from waterhole
to waterhole. Thus they fail for this purpose. In the second place, this
mashokora country, being as a rule at the tops of the hills and away from
water, is healthy, and it is in the interest of the inhabitants that they should
eventually move out of the sandy or swampy valleys where malaria and other
diseases are rife, to live in the hill country where, indeed, their main food
crops are situated. There is no doubt that the population would be living there
now were it not for the facts that this country lies off the beaten track and
that there is phshortage of permanent water in the hills. It seems, in fact,
that one of the tests of our administration in this particular coastal area will
be how much we have developed and extended this method of cultivation.
There is plenty of land in the district suitable for mashokora cultivation.
However, it must be remembered that it takes some twenty to thirty years
for the land to restore itself to fertility after its four years of cultivation and
some five to six times as much as that under cultivation must lie fallow.
At the moment, and in the immediate future, there is, speaking for the district
as a whole, ample land for this type of development, provided that new areas
are opened up with roads and wells, without being faced with the necessity of
enforcing refertilization by more scientific methods.
Quite apart, however, from the question of available land for present
needs, vichaka forest will re-establish itself, provided that the annual dry
season grass fire can be kept out. Thus the restoration of vichaka in barren,
sandy, places not only increases the amount of land potentially available, but
practically eliminates soil erosion.
To sum up, therefore, we have in mashokora cultivation in a district where
the native population is not progressive the foundation of existing custom, on
which we can build, until by slow stages we have evolved good communications,
a prevention of disease, enlightened agricultural methods and an elimination of
the ever-increasing dangers of soil erosion.
The authors wish to thank Mr Maber of the Forestry Departmeni for
information concerning the species found in the forest.


40
Tanganyika Notes and Records
The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa
By Arthur E. Robinson
IN DEALING with any question affecting the history of the territory now
comprised within the mandate of Tanganyika it is necessary to remember
that it formed part of an African empire. It is a remarkable fact that Pate
is not mentioned in the annals of Kilwa and there is no mention of Kilwa in
the chronicles of Pate. Their territories met and both Mombasa and Zanzibar
are prominent in their histories.
The Lamu archipelago includes the islands of Pate, Amu (Lamu), Manda,
Uvondo, Ndao and Kiwayo. On the mainland Mkunumbi, Kao (on the lower
Tana river), Kipini, Shanga, Dodori and Kiunga are associated with the history
of Pate. Although divided against itself by feuds between the towns of Siu and
Pate, the island of Pate maintained its independence until 1507. In that year
da Cunha, who had been appointed Governor of the African coast by the Viceroy
Almeida, called at Lamu and made Pate and Lamu tributary to Portugal.
The ruins of the old Persian monastery (?) at Lamu and those at Mafia Island
are among the most notable on the east coast of Africa. They owe their
preservation to the comparative inaccessibility of the sites.
The importance of Kilwa in the history of East Africa can be gauged by the
fact that it was the only country (other than Egypt and the Barbary Coast
principalities) which struck coins in Africa during medieval times.
The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the Persian colonies as
distinct from Arab infiltration as much of the culture which impressed the
Portuguese upon their arrival was due to Persian civilization. A great deal has
been destroyed but much could be added to our knowledge of Africa by those
now there who are disposed to do it. The present paper has been compiled
so that it can be referred to by any interested in the medieval civilization of
the east coast without reference to books which are not easily obtainable.
At present the only sources of our information regarding the history of the
Shirazi colonies are native chronicles. There has been too much stress laid in
the past, however, upon these. Recent research indicates successive Persian
cultures dating from the ninth to the thirteenth century in East Africa. These
may have some connection with the Persian remains found in the Yemen and
Hadramut dated to the sixth century or the Persian evidences dated to the
same period found in Somaliland. The principal documents regarding the East
African settlements are, in their order of importance :
(a) The list of the rulers of Kilwa (Quiloa) published by Joao de Barros in
"Da Asia" at Lisbon, c. 1552-3. This is the earliest and most authentic record
known. It includes the rulers until 1507 and was reproduced by Admiral
Guillain(1). The list of de Barros is printed as Appendix A to this paper.


Kilwa Kisiwani Old Arab Fort,
Kilwa Kisiwani Ruins of Old Arab Mosque.
| to fare patje 10




41
It formed the basis of the list of rulers and genealogical trees published recently
by Mr Walker in his paper on the "Coinage of Kilwa"C). Although the line
of Kilwa rulers continued as Sheikhs until 1830 when they moved to the
mainland, I cannot trace any published list subsequent to that of de Barros.
An incomplete Arabic manuscript was presented to the British Museum in
1884 by Sir John Kirk. It was published in an abridged form with an English
summary by Mr S. Arthur StrongC). This is a modern and inaccurate copy of
a document written in a.h. 904 (a.d. 1494), when Sultan El Eadl ruled at
Kilwa. I .consider that de Barros obtained his information from the 1494
document. This was probably official and prepared by order of the Sultan
Muhamad l'adil (ex Amir) to settle questions of succession. There are definite
indications that the House of Alowi (i.e. A'li, the founder) had died out at
that period. No description of the tombs of the Kilwa sultans or any contem-
porary inscriptions appear to have, been published.
(b) There are three different version's of a local history of Pate, although
two of them are admittedly compiled from the same source. None of them is
correct. There are historical inaccuracies in each of them and unpleasant
incidents .such as family murders or irregularities in succession are omitted.
I cannot reconcile these three versions, but Appendix B to this paper gives the
names of the rulers in the three lists. The lacunae are so obvious that it is
impossible to produce a correct record. Appendix C is a summary of events
which may be regarded as milestones in any of the local chronicles. The
chronology adopted is that of Admiral Guillain. This differs from the native
records. The tribal record of Pate was destroyed in the bombardment of Witu
in 1890. The introduction of words such as Bwana Mkuu, Tamu Mkuu,
Mototo, Fumo, etc., clearly indicate the submergence of Persian culture by
Africanization. This is in marked contrast to the settlement at Mogadisco
where local imams and sherifs appeared soon after the re-establishment of the
caliphate by the Egyptian Mameluke Sultan Beybars. It is noticeable that
more than one sultan of Kilwa made the pilgrimage to Mecca, but there is
no record of any ruler of Pate having done so.
(c) A fragmentary record of Vumba was published by Sir Alfred Hollis(4).
The original documents upon which his paper was based were given to the
library of the Royal Anthropological Institute but I have been unable to obtain
access to them. The Vumba settlement was on the mainland, opposite to
Pemba, on the river Umba. There were extensive ruins at Mehamalale
(Msemelale). All local records were lost in the sack of Vanga and Ormuz
(Pongwi district)' in 1875. I understand that a copy of a manuscript dated 1721
exists but has not been published. The population of this settlement entirely
changed in character and it is possible relapsed to paganism in the seventeenth
century.
(d) A list of the rulers of the governors of Mombasa after the Omanese
occupation. All the previous records appear to have been lost when the town
was destroyed p'). This was published by Captain Owen (appendix D)(6).


42
Tanganyika Notes and Records
(e) A number of local traditions published by various writers to whom
acknowledgment is made by me in the text.
I cannot trace any chronicle of Melinde. This town seems to have been
a semi-pagan settlement until a comparatively late period. It was a kind of
buffer between Pate and Kilwa. It is very doubtful if it was colonized or
influenced by the Persians. There are no records of Zanzibar prior to the
Omanese occupation. The Kizimkazi mosque is dated at a.d. 1107 and is
attributed to Mfaume (a Swahili king, Musa bin Hasan)(7). Now that the coast
line between Italian territory and Portuguese is under British control it should
not be difficult to compile a "Corpus Inscriptorum" of historical value before
these records are obliterated or destroyed.
Ibn Batuta remarked upon the fact that the Shafiite system of jurisprudence
was general although the ruler of Mogadisco, Sheikh Abu Bekr ben Omar, was
a member of the Muthafar family (a.d. 1331). This sheikh exercised both
temporal and spiritual power and had introduced all the pomp and ceremony
which was characteristic of the Mameluke Sultans of Egypt at that time.
The state umbrella surmounted by a golden bird (eagle) was copied from
Egypt, as also the musical instruments on the occasion of the sheikh's visit
to the mosque each Friday. Unlike the aristocracy of the Sudan, the east coast
Moslems used to claim descent from sectaries who were obliged to leave their
native countries. In recent times claims to sherifian descent have become more
common than when Guillain visited the coast. In the sixteenth century the term
"Arab" was applied to people from the Bed Sea and the Yemen with certain
people from Oman. Shirazi was a generic term applied to all non-Arabs from
the Persian Gulf. One of the great causes of early divisions among Moslems
was the suppression of native customs. The mother of the Caliph Oma1
Qaitama bint Hisham was a negress(8). The suppression of Persian customs a
Vumba and the murders of the Neblianites at Pate were both probably more,
racial in origin than political(9).
The Wahabis destroyed all the tombs, etc., in Socotra in 1800. It is not
my intention to deal with the origins of the Gallas or Somalis or the
Swahilis(10). The racial origins and developments of these peoples can only be
determined by intensive archaeological field research on abandoned sites. There
is no reason to believe that any of the tribes in Kenya or Tanganyika occupy
now any of the territory which their ancestors did at the period when the
Portuguese first appeared on the Congo and East Coast.
* *
In a.h. 69 (a.d. 689) during the reign of the Caliph Abd el Melik (Ommayads
of Damascus), who ruled from 5th May, 685 to 9th October, 705, the province of
Oman was invaded by El Hajjaj ben Yusef, the Governor of Irak, died a.h. 75 or
a.d. 714(11). At that time Kufa was in the possession of Musaab (killed a.d. 691)
the brother of Ibn Zubayr the Alides Caliph at Mecca (a.d. 683-692). Among


43
those who opposed Hajjaj were two brothers, Suliman and Said, the sons of
Abbad of the Omanese Azdites. They were possibly sons of Julanda, who had
ruled Oman previously under the Prophet Muhamad. The Moslems did not
eject the Persians or the local rulers confirmed in tiie posts by the Persians
unless they actively repudiated Islam and declined to pay tribute. It was one
of the principles of the policy of Hajjaj to destroy Persian culture and the
language was superseded by Arabic. Suliman and Said were defeated and fled
with a number of their families to the "Land of Zinj"(12). The chronology
varies considerably. MasticFC2) gives the date of the Kharejite revolt as a.h. 30
and the war with Hajjaj as a.h. 77 in his resume of Arabian history.
The modern chronicle of Pate cited by Captain Stigand repeats a later
tradition that the first coast townsC'1) were founded by Abdel Melek ben
Muriani (i.e. Abdel Melek ben Marwan) and that his son, Jaafar, died at
Iviwayu. Another son, Hamza, is said to have been the first Moslem missionary
on the East Coast when there was a Christian community at Socotra. The
bishop of Socotra is said to have travelled to Mogadisco. The ruins of the
churches used by the population of Socotra when the Portuguese occupied the
island in 1507 cannot be identified as sacred buildings now. Stigand gives the
earliest Moslem settlements as Mukadisho (mui-wa-mwisho, i.e. the end city),
Marka (an ancient caravan port)(1;'), Brava, Tula, Twavae, Koyama, Vumbi
(see later), Kismayu, Omwi, Ndao, Kiwayu, Pate (see later), Paza or Faza,
Shanga, Emezi (Wangi), Magagoni (Tukutu), Amu (Larnu), Manda or
Mandra, Taka, Kitao, Komana, Uziwa, Shaka, Mea, Ozi, Melindi, Watamu,
Mvita (Mombasa), Wasini (Wasin island), Ivilwa, Tungi, Ngazija (Comoro
islands). This is a most comprehensive and improbable list. It is possible that
he or two Moslem traders settled at these places during the first century of
. :ie Moslem era but in my opinion the list is open to question and includes
settlements founded at different periods. It is most improbable that there were
any Ommayad colonies in East Africa until after they were driven out by the
Abbassides subsequent to the proclamation of Abu'l Abbas at Kufa on the 28th
November, 749. Masudi described the Ibadis as the Kharejites of the Yemen
but the application of this term has varied considerably at different times and
in various places.
In a.h. 120 (a.d. 740) Zayd, the grandson of Huseyn ben Ali the Caliph,
was induced by the Shiites of Kufa to revolt against the Caliph Hisham
(724-743). Zayd was deserted by his forces and killed. His son Yehya suffered
a similar fate in the reign of the Caliph Walid (743-744). Abu Muslim(a) who
(a) Abu Muslim was a Persian of the Hanifiya Shiites and a disciple of the Imam Ibrim, who
was imprisoned at Harran by the Caliph Marwan. He declared his mission in the province of
Merv on the 15th June, 747, and soon captured the country from the Arabs. Kufa was occupied
on the 2nd September, 749, by Hasan ben Qahtaba and on the 28th November Abu'l Abbas was
proclaimed as caliph there." He was the first Moslem ruler to appoint a wazir (vizier) or
"Helper." These officials became the king-makers of Islam. The office of emir (Amir-al-Amara)
was first instituted by the Caliph Radi and seems to have been copied from the Romans. The
Moslem emir was a sort of major-domo who commanded the permanent body-guard of the
sovereign. In Egypt the title was similar to that of a general and the emirs had numerous
privileges which included the use of metal drums which were sounded in certain areas on specified
occasions. Several notable emirs in African history were eunuchs.


44 Tanganyika Notes and Records
founded the Abbassides caliphate assumed black robes and constituted himself
the avenger of Yehya during the reign of Marwan II (744-750) who was the
last Ommayad. The son of Marwan 11 fled from Egypt, after his father's death,
to the Sudan and Abyssinia, where he formed a colony. He was subsequently
expelled from Abyssinia and both the Moslem Fung and Gallas have genealo-
gical trees in which he is claimed as an ancestor. After the proclamation of
Abu'l Abbas at Kufa, the Alides were pushed aside. They had answered their
purpose but no power was given to them. As a result of unsuccessful attempts
to obtain power there was an exodus of the Emosaids (followers of Zayd) from
the Persian Gulf which extended over a considerable period. About the middle
of the eighth century a party of Emosaids landed on the East African coast
from the Persian Gulf. This place is said to have been named by the holy man
who accompanied the fugitives. It is an adaptation of Makaad-es-shat, i.e. "the
sitting-place of the sheep," and is taken from an incident in a prophetic vision.
About a.d. 893 a colony of Emosaids was founded in southern Arabia and is
still in existence there. The Alides ('Emosaids or Zaidite) dynasty of Tabaristan
lasted from a.d. 864-9*28. De Burros published this tradition of the founding
of the Emosaid colonies and it rests on a more substantial basis than the
Ommayad story which has nothing historical in support. During the period
that the Emosaids held Mogadisco they exploited the trade with the natives.
This dated to the first century of our era. The Periplus states that the people
of Muca (Mocha) exported arms, beads, stuffs, etc., to Ehapta where they
had a settlement. After the power of the Axumites had been broken by the
Persians there would appear to have been constant intercourse between the
Yemen and Hadramut with East Africa. It is not improbable that during the
one hundred and fifty years when the Emosaids were paramount as a foreign
influence on the coast they traded as far south as Sofala. Gold was obtained
then by washing the sand in the alluvial beds of the rivers. Nuggets were found
also as they were in the early days at Ballarat (Australia). The Portuguese
miners sent out from Europe could not find any traces of ancient workings
when they prospected the country in the sixteenth century (16). At that time
the deposits of natural copper in the lower reaches of the Zambesi appear to
have been exhausted. As a rule when the supply of natural metal is exhausted
the local population relapse to a neolithic culture as the natural metals are
worked cold. There is sufficient historical evidence now to support the view
that the smelting of iron was introduced into East Africa from Arabia and
India at a period not earlier than the Roman occupation of Egypt(b).
(b) I understand that Sir Flinders Petrie has dated some iron slag found in Dongola as
not earlier than the sixth century b.c. It was about that period that the Persians intro-
duced iron into Egypt but its use was not general until the Roman occupation. The manu-
facture of iron from local ore has been attributed to the Blammyes after the Roman occupation
of Egypt. As a general rule the manufacture of iron from local ore took place a considerable
period after the imported metal had been in use in districts where the ore has been found. The
Carthaginians worked the North African and Spanish mines and it seems probable that the
Iberians learnt the art from them. The iron currency bars of Britain are analogous to the hoes
and spear-heads of Africa.


The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa
45
Professor Leakey has examined two sites lately. They are Engaruka (Eift
valley), west of Arusha in Tanganyika Territory, and Gedi (a ruined coast town)
north of Mombasa. The first-named he dates at about three hundred years ago
for its foundation, and its abandonment (through raids by the Masai) about
a century ago. The inhabitants were known as Wambulu but called themselves
Iraki. Gedi was an old walled town with some architecture analogous to that
of Zimbabwe (c). It is remarkable for cut-stone archways of a type suggestive of
"Early English" architecture. One arch rests on columns and Dr Leakey
considers that the site may be as early as a.d. 600, i.e. pre-Moslem(17).
During the reign of Harun-er-Rashid (786-809), Yehia ben Abdallah(18)
claimed the caliphate in 793. He was seized and died in prison. The caliph also
seized Musa ben Jafar al Kazim, the head of the Alides at Medina, and he met
a similar fate. In 798 the Barmecides were suppressed by Harun.
A gold coin attributed to Harun was found at Zanzibar and some of. earlier
dates with Cufic characters but Mr Ingrams considers the identification
doubtful. A coin of Ptolemy X (151-80 B.C.) was found at Msasan (north of
Dar es Salaam). Mr Ingrams states that the Makunduchi of Zanzibar, who are
peculiar for dances with tridents, claim to have migrated from Msasan. Among
the ruins visited by Burton were those at C-hanga Ndumi (on the mainland) five
miles from Tanga which he considered had been abandoned circ. 1741 (J9).
The coastal towns Shaka and Wangwana-wa-Mashat are reputed to have
been Persian settlements. They were conquered by Sultan Omar, the Nabhani
ruler of Pate, about the fourteenth century. They were repopulated but finally
destroyed by the Sultan Bwana Tamu of Pate about the beginning of the
eighteenth century when there would appear to have been a general revolt
against the restrictions imposed by the Persian Moslems. Shaka(d) was the
capital of Shah Mringari, a brother of Liongo who was conquered by Sultan
Omar of Pate(20).
Some of these abandoned sites were called after towns in Arabia. Among
these is Wa-Mekka on the coast (156'20"N. and 4248'42"E.). Guillain found
a ruined mosque there and a number of tombs. The pyramid on the island of
Wa-Sheikh he considered was an Arab navigation mark. In 1848 this village
was under the Imam Aloti of Obbia.
Guillain found vestiges of a- stone building at Ha-fun and published a plan
which might indicate any rectangular building. Sir Flinders Petrie considers
that Ha-fun was the home of the people of Punt. In recent years there has
been a tendency to identify the Fung of the Sudan, with this site. Burton men-
tioned that a part of the town of Zanzibar was known as the Eungu quarter(21).
The word was considered to mean autochthonous peasantry.
(c) The Illustrated London News of the 14th March, 1936, contains photographs of similar ruins
at sites much farther south, where terracing is done by stone walls for cultivation. The local
people live in grass kraals and regard the ruins in much the same way as the inhabitants near
Zimbabwe do those.
(d) Guillain described Skaka or Jaka as an abandoned site near Melinde which was founded by
Shirazi from Ha-fun. These people moved down the coast and colonized Vimba (Juba) and
Chungwaya.


46
Tanganyika Notes and Records
About a.h. -295 (a .d. 908) when the contemporary ruler of Oman may have
been El Hawari ben Matraf, seven brothers in three ships landed at Mogadisco.
These people are said to have been Sunnis and came from El Hasa on the
Omanese coast. They were possibly a branch of the El Azd tribe. The new
arrivals ejected the Emosaids, who settled outside the town among the native
population with whom they were friendly. They became absorbed among the
Adjourane tribe of the Hawiya Somali, who owned camels and controlled the
caravan trade into the interior. They were not allowed to remain inside the
town of Mogadisco after sunset however. At that time the monopoly of the
Sofala trade was in the hands of the people of Mogadisco who had discovered
the place through one of their ships being storm-driven there.
There is a curious tradition attached to this Sofala trade by the Arabs.
It was a-condition of the natives that the traders were obliged to furnish each
year a number of lusty young men who were left at Sofala (? as hostages).
These young men were mated with native women who retained the offspring
which were absorbed in the local tribes. The Asiatic features of the Makalanga
tribe were remarked upon by the early Portuguese travellers. It is doubtful if
there is any connection between the Ma-kalanga and the ancient Indian
kingdom of Kalanga. The Portuguese stated that the women of Socotra, who
were Christians when they arrived, had a great desire for children by the
Portuguese garrison. This seems probable as the Socotrans w^ere then a feeble
and decadent remnant of what had been a numerous and prosperous colony.
When Burton arrived on the coast he estimated the Indian population at about
fifteen thousand. It was the practice of the Banyans to take concubine slaves
as their wives never left India. MuhamadAnkoni benRukn-ed-Din "ed-Dabuli"
who was the principal local merchant when the Portuguese arrived at Kilwa
was probably the son of an Indian and a native of Africa. Both he and his
son Haji Hasan Muhamad had made the pilgrimage but it is easy to understand
that he was in the eyes of the Kilwans unsuitable as their sultan. During the
tenth century ships from the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, India and China visited
the coast. It is suggested that Malays visited the coast before the Chinese
arrived. The identification of the Wak-wak with the Malays is not generally
accepted but in a.h. 334 an attempted invasion of Pemba is recorded. It is
most improbable that Malays or Chinese would assemble a thousand vessels
for this purpose and in the present writer's opinion such a large number of
craft would be canoes. They were very probably people from the Comoro islands
or northern Madagascar where oriental colonies of beche-de-mer fishers seem
to have been established at an early period. Unfortunately the hoards of Chinese
coins found at Mafia, Pemba and other sites have disappeared and it is therefore
impossible now to fix any period at which these oriental colonies were founded
in Africa(e). I understand that an Amercian anthropologist who has visited the
(e) See the article "Indonesian Culture" by Hornei.l in the Jovrn. Roy. An thro. Inst., lxiv,
pp. 305, etc. From the historical evidence it is doubtful if any voyages were made before the
Christian era (except in the Mediterranean, or similar enclosed waters) by mariners who
deliberately lost' sight of the land.


The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa
47
coast attributes the origin of at least one tribe in Africa to the Chinese(f).
Burton identified the Ibadis with the Kharijites and stated that their
mosques were of the Wahabi type and distinctive from the other sects, as far as
Africa is concerned.
The following is the gist of a note by Guillain on the Ibadis :
They were led by Jelendi ben Masud, who was killed by the Beni Jaber in
an invasion of Oman. The land remained desolate until the reign of the Imam
Rezan, who ruled for fifteen years and died in a.h. 207 (a.d. 822). In the
reign of the Caliph A1 Motadhed (fifteenth caliph circ. 892-902 of our era) the
Imam was Azzan ben Temin el Mekhezoumi and there was civil war(B).
Tradition states that Oman was invaded by Muhamad ben Nur with twenty-
eight thousand men at the request of Muhamad ben Qassim-es-Sami and
Beshir ben El Mendur, who were two local notables. The ruling Caliph of
Baghdad gave his consent to this action and Muhamad ben Nur was proclaimed
ruler of Oman. The Ibadis dispersed after ruling the district for sixty-three
years. In a.h. 304 (a.d. 916) the rule of Oman was in the hands of Ahmed ben
Hilal of Sohar. He had been appointed by Muhamad ben Nur and was seen
by Masudi. From the foregoing it is obvious that this Muhamad ben Nur is
not the same person as Muhamad ben Nur (mentioned by Burton', p. 287,
op. cit.) the Lord of Jabrin who seized Oman on the death of Nadir Shah and
ruled it until 1728.
About a.h. 365 (a.d. 975) a certain Persian prince, Ali ben Sultan A1
Husayn ben Ali arrived on the African coast. He was reputed to be a native of
Shiraz, where his father had ruled. His mother was a concubine and he was
ousted from the rule by the legitimate sons. This story is weak as many of
the caliphs were the sons of slaves. At all events this Persian exile arrived
at Mogadisco. He was not allowed to settle there and proceeded to Kilwa
where he purchased a piece of land from the local ruler. The names of his
sons were Ali, Muhamad, Bashat, Suliman, Huseyn and Daud. The father and
each of his sons had a ship. It is therefore probable that the colonists numbered
from five hundred to a thousand souls. The traditional eventual distribution of
the family was(22) :
(r) There are 110 records or specimens in either the British Museum or the Ashmoiean Museum
of Chinese, Persian or coins of the Caliphate period which have been found in East- Africa.
Some have been found in Somaliland I understand, but no data has been published. The dates
of the Axumite coins are at present tentative. There are no records in England of the coins said
to be in the Zanzibar Museum.
Guillain (op. cit., p. 522) states that Kilwa recognized the Imam of Muscat immediately the
Portuguese fleet left the coast in 1696, and that both Kilwa and the fort at Zanzibar were
occupied by the Imam in 1698 and the Portuguese ejected.
(s) Dr A. J. Wensinck (Joint Editor) informs me that a new edition of the Encyclopedic de
VIdam is in preparation which will bring the religious portion up-to-date.
Ingram (op. cit., p. 188) states that the Ibadis were derived from Abdallah ben Yehia lbadh
et Temini who was a contemporary of the Caliph Marwan (744-749), and belonged to the Sarid
clan of the Beni Mukais of Temin ben Murr. He is said to have been put to death sometime
after the reign of Marwan. The pointed dome over the tomb of Exekiel (Kifl), the shaking
minaret of Bostam and the tomb of Shahzada Mahruk (in which the tomb of Omar Khayyam
is a part) are typical specimens of medieval Persian architecture.
The Shafiites were founded circ. 813-822.


48
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
Ali ben Sultan Al Huseyn ben Ali "es Shirazi."
(Ighawumij)
Founded Kilwa and died there.
Son at
Mogadisco
Son at
Yunbu
(Yambe Is.)
Bashat at
Mafia Is.
Females not
mentioned in
any record.
Son at
Shoughu
(Kismayu)
Son at
Jezirat el
Khufra
(Pemba)
Son at
Comoro Islands
( ? Johanna)
The local chronicles regard Ah ben Sultan Huseyn as the first Sultan of Kilwa.
Mr Walker has published genealogical trees(23). The earliest coins of this
dynasty are those of Hasan ben Talut who ruled in the thirteenth century(h)
when the sultans of Egypt had restored the Abbassides caliphate and invested
the pilgrimage to Mecca with a grandeur previously unknown(24).
There is another story of the colonization of Kilwa in a manuscript found at
Pemba .which is cited by Mr Ingrams. The name of the founder of Kilwa
is given as Darshash ben Shaha (or Shah). This man was accompanied by three
brothers, a sister and three nephews. The family are stated to have founded
Shehiri, Pate, Mombasa, Bayai, Pemba, Tumbutu, Zanzibar and Kilwa.
The local chronicle of Pate(i) records a second foundation at that site by
Suliman ben Suliman ben Muthafar (or El Mudaffar) en Nabhani. He landed
at Pate with his two brothers, Ali and Othinan, circ. a.h. 600 or a.d. 1203-4.
These Nabhanites are said to have been of royal blood (Meliks). They were
fugitives from the Yaarebi, a tribe which later ruled Muscat as imams from
a.d. 1624-1741, when they were displaced by the Busaidi (the present Ibadi
royal family of Zanzibar). Suliman is said to have married Batawina, the
daughter of Ishak, the last ruler of the previous dynasty. Ishak relinquished his
rule after the marriage. This procedure was so common in other parts of Africa
where matriarchal succession is of more importance than in Islam that it
lends colour to the story. Beyond the epitaph of Sultan Muhamad Abubekr
Mkuu which Stigand dated a.h. 1024 (a.d. 1624) there is nothing upon which
(h) Note.Prior to that date money was in use. This is clear by the dates of coins found on
the coast. Barter by the "silent trade" probably ceased as the result of competition and it is
probable that a basis of exchange was fixed on the lines of that found in force in Benadir by
Guillain. The piece or tobe of Indian cotton cloth was valued by the Indian merchants in
a similar manner to the way they did at Suakim when I was there first. All the other articles
were based on this price whether local produce or imported. There was a similar system in force
on the Abyssinian frontier where the exports from the Sudan were reckoned in rotls of coffee
or raw cotton. The Maria Theresa dollar was used then in Benadir and at Gallabat but it would
have been impossible to finance these markets with the actual coins in the towns. Beads were
used as small change.
(l) If written in Arabic the correct name would be Bata. In the latter part of the eighteenth
century after the massacre of the Nabhani the ruler described himself as "El Batani," and the
Moslem names are conspicuous by their absence. This event took place circ. 1744 when Fumo
Bakri ben Bwana Tamu was the ruler.


The Sliirazi Colonizations of East Africa
49
a chronological list of these rulers can be based(j). Ingrams identifies Bwana
Tamu, who ruled in 1728, with Abubekr ben Muhamad but gives no authority
for the Portuguese treaty which is not cited by Guillain (see Strandes, op. cit,,
p. 288). Bwana Tamu Mkuu died in 1733.
The notes on Vumba were published by Sir Alfred Hollis, when native
commissioner. They are based upon memory and an unpublished manuscript
dated 1721. A settlement was founded by the Shirazis, circ. 1199-1216, on
the banks of the river Umba (district called Vumba). There are ruins at
Mehamelale (Msemelale). Until 1875, when all the records were burnt, a list
of the rulers was extant. The first sultan was named Zumbura and none of the
names appear to be Arabic. The principal tribes of these people seem to have
been the Wadigo and Wasegeju (Mosseguios of the Portuguese, at Melinde)
and Wa-nyika. All these now claim Somali origin. The term Wa-nyika is
generic and means "desert folk." The Shirazi colonists are said to have come
from Shungwaya (about two hundred miles north of Mombasa). The rulers
took the title of Mwana-Chambi until 1544 and after that date Mwana-Chambi-
Chan.da and finally Furrio. They were recognized by the Portuguese but the
name Vumba does not appear in the inscription at Mombasa which includes
(j) It is most improbable that any ruler survived after deposition.
Mafia Island.The Shirazi capital was at Kua on Juani islet. Its foundation is attributed
to Shirazi (from Wambera, a district on the coast) who formed the nucleus of a kingdom
established by a son of the first Sultan of Kilwa, circ. a.d. 975. The houses were rectangular
with compounds for slaves. The ground plans are analogous to some ruins at the site of the old
city of Berber (Sudan) and to some of the Roman villas ih Britain where the slaves were housed
within the precincts of their owner's homesteads. Captain Norman King has illustrated the
Shirazi mosques at Mafia and Juani. He described the Shirazi tombs as "large with headstones
of the phallic type peculiar to the Shirazi." These tombs are apparently similar to the medieval
Moslem tombs seen by me at Aswan and Cairo. The tomb consists of a domed canopy of
masonry which is supported on four columns. Underneath this the body was buried. The head-
stone (sometimes also one at the feet) consisted of a cylindrical column surmounted by a turban
carved from the monolith. The Moorish fez and the Egyptian tarbush are modern in Islam.
The turban was the characteristic head-dress of Islam. It was probably adopted from the
Persians and was worn by the Turkish sultans after they usurped the caliphate. The most
peculiar feature of the Shirazi tombs in Africa is the niche or antechamber inside which the
relatives of the deceased could pray facing towards Mecca. Guillain remarked upon this feature
in the architecture of the rectangular domed tombs which he examined at Mogadisco during
the last century. Incidentally it was the fact that Sultan Yusef ben Ahmad (Don Geronimo
Chingoulia), who had been baptised at! Goa, prayed at his father's grave that precipitated the
massacre of the Portuguese at Mombasa in 1631. Mafia, Zanzibar and Pemba were attacked by
Duarte Lemos in 1508. The people from Pemba fled to Mombasa. In 1528 Pemba and Zanzibar
were loyal to the Portuguese and Mafia does not appear to have taken any active part in the
revolt. The Portuguese destroyed the town of Mombasa in March 1529 but as the inhabitants
had removed all the non-combatants to the mainland they returned and rebuilt the town as soon
as Nuna da Cunha left the coast.
Zimbabwe.In my opinion this architecture is imitative in character. The solid sugar-loaf
shaped towers may have been copied from Moslem tombs (Gubbas) of this shape. These are
common in the Sudan. It is improbable that natives could construct a hollow minaret. As late as
1820 it was impossible to do so in the Sudan and men were sent from Cairo by Muhamad Ali
Pasha later for the purpose. I understand that the Ibadi minarets have no staircases but the
imams clamber to the galleries by means of footholds in the wall. As a general rule the base
of these old minarets is considerably larger than the domed top. As late as the nineteenth
century human sacrifices were made on the east coast of Africa when'the foundations of build-
ings were laid. Apparently in some cases these sacrifices took place as each course of the masonry
was laid. It is therefore quite possible that the curious cairns on the walls of Zimbabwe which
are surmounted by columns described as "phallic" are cenotaphs. The ancestor worship of the
subjects of the Monomotapa appears to me to be merely a stage in the transition to paganism
due to the Africanization of the inhabitants and the loss of Islamic culture.
5


50
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
those who had rebelled and joined Sultan Yusef in 1630-5. The most notable
ruler recorded was Mwana-Chambi-Chanda Ivor who was ruling when the
great massacre of the Portuguese took place in 1630. He suppressed all the
Persian customs among his people including the veiling of women, the use of
wooden doors on huts, and the beating of drums. He was buried in a circle of
stones with a monolith but these were destroyed in 1896. Since the eighteenth
century the tribal rulers have assumed the title of Sherif. The first was Syed
Abu Bakri ibn Sheikh ibn Abu Bakri el Masela ben Alowi (1700-1742). The
investiture ceremony is a curious one and includes the wearing of a silver chain
about the right knee.
The Mombasa Chronicle states that the last Shirazi ruler of Mombasa was
Shahat ben Masham, or Mifta, who was called Shahat (Shah). The date of
his deposition was 1592. It was subsequent to a revolt in 1528 when Nuna da
Cunha offered the rule of Mombasa to Mougno Muhamad, a brother of King
Wagerage of Melindi. Muhamad declined the rule as he was the son of a slave
and suggested his brother Abubekr, who was a nephew of King Wagerage's
successor.
The Watikuu (Bajuns) claim Juni ben Katada of Medina as their eponymous
ancestor. Tradition states that he was driven out of the Hejaz circ. a.h. 50
and landed at Mogadisco. Some of his party went to Buralao. These people
finally reached Gobwen and Kiunga (on the mainland). Later they settled at
Faza. Tundwa was an old town of the Bajuns and as late as 1868 they fought
under Sheikh Shakari with their neighbours of Faza, who were under Mzee
Sefu.
Tumbutu Island. This place is mentioned by Yakut in the thirteenth
century. Its situation rendered it a place of exile or refuge from Zanzibar
(Angouya). The local tradition is that the place was colonized circ. a.h. 600
(a.d. 1204) by a Sultan Yusef ben Alowi of the Ahl Ali, who came from Tusi
in the Basrah district. A genealogical table based upon the information
published by Mr Ingrams might read as follows :
Yusef ben Alowi.
Bwana Pate Ibrim
(or Battah)
(2) Ali (relationship unknown)
Ismail = daughter of King Koronda of the
(reputed to be Muhiyas tribe in Kilwa territory
a Sultan of Kilwa)
As the only recorded Sultan Ismail of Kilwa was Ismail ibn Hasan ibn
Suliman, who ruled circ. 1442-1454, the tradition has no historcal confirmation.
There would seem to have been a similar tradition at Mafia. Burton says that
the island was ruled by the Moslems of Songo-Songo and Changa until they
were conquered by the Shirazi from Kilwa. There are two sites named Shanga
(i) 1
Abdallah
(First Sultan)


The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa
51
or Changa(k). One of these was on Pate Island and the'other on the mainland
near Melinde. There was a site called Tekwiri (south of 8042'59"S.Lat.) which
was considered to be the ancient Kilwa and possibly the classical Rhapta. The
local tradition was that the new town was founded by a Sheikh Yusef from
Shangaya, who purchased land from Nependu, a pagan chief. Yusef built the
old fort (at new Kilwa) at Kilwa Kisiwani and married Nependu's daughter.
He then killed his father-in-law and seized the rule as the Shirazi Sultan
of Kilwa.
The name Lamu or Amu is said to be derived from the Beni Lami an Arab
people from the Persian Gulf who colonized the islandO).
Stigand described the Siu people as Bani Sadu (Beni Saad) who came from
Shanga on the mainland and claimed a certain Jaafar ben Abd el Melik
(see ante) as their eponymous ancestor. It is a curious fact that a quarter of
the ruined city of Pate is called the Battah quarter and this name appears
in Swahili records. It is said to be the name of an Arab tribe from the
Hadramut.
There is also a tradition that Brava was colonized by Arabs circ. a.h. 1000
from the Hatimu who traced their descent from migrants from Andalusia.
The name Ghiberti or Jabarti frequently occurs in Italian or French
publications. It is an adaptation of the El Jabarta of El Makrizi. It means
Swahili or Wazumba. These people claimed to be the1 descendants of Persians
(or Asiatics) who had intermarried wTith pagans prior to the Moslem era. The
last sultan of the Swahili was Ahmed ben Sultan ben Hasan el Alawi, who
was entitled Muini Mkuu. Shangaya, north of Lamu (circ. 20S.), was one of
the earliest settlements. Leone Vivaldi, a Venetian, is said to have crossed
Africa from the west coast to Mogadisco in the eleventh century (25).
Major Pearce has dated the existing ruins of the mosque and ruins on
Pemba as from the tenth to the fourteenth centuries(26). There are pillared
tombs(27) at Ndagoni and Mkumbuu which are claimed to be phallic. Msuka
mosque has a graffiti dated a.h. 816 (a.d. 1414) when the mosque was then in
ruins apparently.
The grave of the son, Mjawli, of the infamous Mkame Mdume, a diwani,
who died about the time the Portuguese arrived, is known.
# # *
Culture.The distinctive culture of the Shirazi in addition to the
architectural evidence will be found briefly dealt with by Stigand, Ingrams and
other writers cited by me. It covers such a wide field, including that of naval
architecture, that space precludes the subject being dealt with here.
I hope to publish a short paper illustrating the types of vessels used by the
ancients, of which present types may be survivals.
(k) Burton suggested that Sanje Majoma may be the Changa of King Mtata Mandelima, who
expelled King Daud from Kilwa. There were ruins of a mosque, well cut gateway, mihrab with
Persian tiles and tombs of Shirazi sheikhs.
6) The old name for Lamu was Kiwa Odeo from Ndeo Island.


52
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
The weapons in use on the east coast of Africa during the early part of the
nineteenth century form a fascinating study upon which I am now engaged.
Very few, if any, appear to me to be of an original African design. Roman,
Arab, Indian, Malay and Portuguese types can be recognized among those
which have been manufactured by native blacksmiths in a wide belt of Africa
since medieval times. I cannot trace any Egyptian or Meroitic influences in
these historical documents. Copper weapons are rare. Their absence is no
proof, however, that native copper was not found and worked in Africa before
the art of smelting was introduced. As the supplies of native copper were
exhausted the metal would become of great value and any weapons made of
the metal perhaps assume a sacrosanct character in much the same way
that the first iron weapons have done. In North America there seems to have
been a relapse in culture from working in flint and native copper to
neolithic until imported manufactured iron was forged locally to meet native
requirements.
References.
Documents sur V hist aire et le commerce de VAfrique Orientate, 8 vols.
Part 1, "Expose Critique des Diverses notions," is the most important. The Kilwa
Chronicle is on page 177. Stokvis republished most of Guillain's chronologies and
gives lists of the Portuguese Governors in East Africa and at Goa.
(2) Numismatic Chronicle, March 1936. Erom the context of Guillain's works
he had access in 1846-48 to native chronicles which have disappeared since.
Mr Revington has presented specimens of the coins found at Mafia to the British
Museum, Ashmolean Museum and the Liverpool Museum, where they can be seen.
The coins are not dated. No value is indicated and the same size die is used on two
sizes of discs of copper.
(3) Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, xiv, No. LIV, pp. 148, et seq. In 1723
the Sultan of Kilwa was Ibrim ben Yusef ben Mumadi (Muhamad) ben Auli (Ali)
vide Strandes, Die Portuguesenzeit von Deutsch-und-Englisch Ostafrika, Berlin,
1899, p. 86. He was succeeded by his son, Hasan, who ruled in 1759.
(4) Journ. Roy. Anthro. Inst., xxx, p. 275, 1900.
(5) In August 1505 by Almeida. In March 1529 by Nuna d'Acunha. In 1587 by
Martin Alfonso de Melo Bombeiro. In 1589 by the M'zimba (cannibals). In 1681
by the local Sultan Yusef, who fled to Arabia and Madagascar. In 1660 by combined
forces of Omanese and Africans, etc.
(6) Appendix D. Amended with genealogies by A.E.R.
(7) W. H. Ingrams, Zanzibar, p. 43.
(8) Masudi, Prairies d'Or, edn. de Mavnard and de Courteille, Paris, 1861, iv,
Gap. LXXVI, pp. 190-2.
(9) In 1840 the Moslem Sultan of Bard ere attacked Brava and fined the town
five hundred piastres for religious laxity. He suppressed dancing and tobacco and
insisted upon women being veiled (Guillain, Relation de Voyage, n, 38).
(10) Genealogies of some of the Somali and more northerly tribes are given by
Guillain (Relation de Voyage, vols. 1 and 2). It is clear from contemporary records
that the Galla raids were further south at the end of the eighteenth century than in
the period 1860 to date.
(u) J. Walker, "Some Recent Oriental Coin Acquisitions of the British
Museum" (Numis. Chron., xv, 1935, p. 240). The chronology for the invasion of
Oman by Hajjaj ben Yusef is that adopted by the Encyclopaedia Britannica ("The
Caliphs").


53
(12) Badger, The Imams and Syeds of Oman, p. 12. The list published by
Miss Werner (op. cit.) is not complete.
(13) Prairies d'Or, Maynard and Courteille's edn., Paris, 1861, v, pp. 216, etseq.
Hajjaj married Hind bint Asnia bint Abu Bekr.
(M) Pemba, the Qanbalu of Masudi, is said to have been conquered by Moslems
circ. a.d. 730 when the Moslems occupied Crete; vide M. Devic, Livre de Merveilles
d'Inde, Leiden, 1883-6, pp. 174-5.
(1,r>) When Guillain visited Mark a some of the stone built ruins wTere attributed
to the Surati (Indians). It has been stated that the Ibadi sect did not assume any
local importance on the east coast of Africa until the seventeenth century.
(lt5) Theal, History and Ethnology of South Africa before 1785, vol. 1, p. 465.
The miners came out from Spain circ. 1634 and examined the mines in the
territories of the Monomotapa.
(J7) Illustrated London News, 12th October, 1935. The ruined cities of Somali-
land are considered to have been evacuated some time after the sixth century.
Judging by the photographs published there are architectural affinities between the
Somaliland ruins and those of Gedi.
(18) Yehia was a brother of Muhamad ben Abdallah ben Hasan of the Alides
(the Alowi of the Swahili and Somali). He was proclaimed Caliph at Medina in 762
but was killed. Basra was captured by Ibrim but he was defeated and killed at
Ba-Khamra.
(19) Cites Richd. Branner's Forschungen in Ostafriha, Mittheilungen, 1868;
also Baron Carl Clare von der Decken, Reisen in Ostafrika in den Jahren 1859 bis
1861. The third volume contains Tabellarische Uebersicht der Geschichte Ost-
afrikas. Mr Walker cites Justus Strandes, Die Portuguesenzeit von Deutsch-und-
Englisch Ostafrika, Berlin, 1899.
(20) Miss Werner op. cit., vide Mr Reddie.
(21) Zanzibar, vol. 1, p. 82. It may interest readers to know that cowrie-shells
were exported from Zanzibar to West Africa for use as currency. At the early part
of the last century a fleet of sailing vessels ran from Zanzibar to Lagos with cargoes
of cowrie-shells which were collected on the east coast of Africa. They displaced
the Indian variety and I suspect that some of the museum specimens of head-
dresses from the Congo, etc., are made from African shells.
(22) Arabic extract in Journ. Roy. Asiatic Socy. (Strong, op. cit.).
(23) "The Coinage of Kilwa" (op. cit.). The term Alowi used by the Swahili
seems to the present writer more likely to indicate descendants of Ali ben Husevn
of Kilwa than the Alides faction of the first millenium of our era.
(24) See my "Mahmal of the Moslem Pilgrimage" (Journ. Roy. Asiatic Socy.,
January 1931), and "The Utfa or Camel-litter of the Arabs" (Journ. of African
Socy., January 1931), and the authorities cited.
(2r>) Ingrams, op. cit., p. 85.
(26) Zanzibar, the Island Metropolis of East Africa, London, 1920.
(27) There is a tomb of this type at Khartoum. It was erected to one of the early
governors about a century ago.


54
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
Appendix A
THE RULERS OF KILWA or QUILOA.
De Barros (Asia, I, VIII, etc.).
A. Solta Hocen.
(From Xiraz, i.e. Shiraz.)
B. AH (his son).
(Came to Quilao, i.e. Kilwa.)
1. AH Bumale (? Ali ben Ali).
(Ruled 40 years, no sons.)
2. AH BusoloquetA
(Ruled 4\ years, son of a brother
in Mafia.)
3. Daut, son of Ali.
(Ruled 4 years, driven out by
Matata Madelina (Rey de Xaga)
the King of Shaga or Chaga.
Died in exile at Mafia).)
4. AH Bonebaquer (Ali ben Abubekr).
(Reigned for 2 years. He was a
nephew of Matata and usurped
the rule of Kilwa until he was
driven out.)
5. Hocen Soleiman (nephew of Daut).
(Ruled 16 years.)
(? Cousin of No. 3.)
Arabic Chronicle (Sheikh Moheddin.)
A. Hasan ibn Ali, sultan of Shiraz,
migrated with six sons to Africa.
1. Ali ibn Husain ibn Ali (? Abu
Malek); went to Mafia where
his sons ruled later, viz. :
Muhamad ... 2\ years.
Bashat ... 4\ ,,
2. Ali ibn Bashat.
(Ruled 41 years.) Walker says
that he ruled at first over his
uncles, Suliman, Hasan and
Daud (sons of Ali). It is presum-
ed that he was deposed by his
uncle (No. 3).
3. Daud ibn Ali.
(Ruled 2 years; retired to Mafia
to visit the tomb of his father
and whilst there abdicated in
favour of his son Ali, possibly
No. 6 of Barros.)
4. Khalid ibn Bakr (the Usurper).
(Appointed king by the Mata-
mandalin of Shaga and ruled for
2J years until driven out by the
Kilwans.)
5. Hasan ibn Suliman ibn Ali.
(Ruled 12 years. He fled to
Zanzibar as the Matamandalin
invaded Kilwa. The invaders
appointed the amir Muhamad
ibn Husain el Mundiri as ruler
of Kilwa.)
Hasan ibn Ali resumed the rule
and reigned at Kilwa for a
further period of 14 (?) years.
Note.Judging from the general practice of the compilers of these native chronicles it is
probable that the entire reign of Hasan ibn Suliman (including his exile) was sixteen years.
He would have been ejected after two years, i.e. twelve is an error, and ruled for fourteen years
after resuming the rule after a short interval.


The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa
55
De Barroscontd.
Al£ ben Daut (nephew).
(Ruled 60 (?) years.)
? cousin.
Ale, nephew of No. 5 (?).
(He was deposed and cast into
a well as a bad ruler. The tradi-
tion is that the well was near
the old mosque.)
8. Hacen ben Daut (brother).
(Ruled 24 years.)
9. Soleiman (relationship unknown).
(He was of the blood royal and
ruled 2 years. He was beheaded
by the Kilwans as a tyrant.)
10. Daut (son).
(Ruled 40 years, he was ex-
governor of Sofala and developed
the trade there.)
11. Soleiman Hacen (son).
(Ruled 18 years, built a fort at
Kilwa and other buildings of
stone. He conquered most of the
coast and occupied Pemba,
Mafia and Zanzibar.)
12. Daut (son).
(Ruled 2 years.)
13. Talut (brother).
(Ruled one year.)
14. Hacen (brother).
(Reigned 25 years, no
issue.)
15. Hal£ Bonij (Ali ben ?) a brother.
(Reigned 10 years. The fortun-
ate member of the dynasty.)
16. Bon6 Soleiman (ben Suliman)
nephew.
(Ruled 40 years.)
Possibly a contemporary of
Hulagu. A bronze coin struck
by Hulagu dated a.d. 1260 or
a.h. 658 was found at Mafia
Island.
17. Att Daut.
(Son of No. 12, vide Walker.
Ruled 14 years.)
18. Hacen (grandson).
(Ruled 18 years. He was an
excellent horseman and struck
legal
Arabic Chroniclecontd.
No mention.
There is some error here. It is
most probable that the events and
reign of No. 7 are correctly stated.
Walker considers Nos. 6 and 7 as
identical. This is possible, but it is
an unusual form of error, i.e. repeat-
ing the name with a variant (6 or 60)
of the period ruled.
Hasan ibn Daud.
(Ruled 70 years (?).) The period of
rule is not credible.
No mention.
Hasan ibn Talut (Saul or Goliath).
(Ruled 18 years. Seized Kilwa by
force. The name Talut and the fact


56
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
De Barroscontd.
coins dated by Walker as cire.
a.h. 684-702 or a.d. 1285-1302.)
19. Soleiman (son).
(Ruled 14 years. Killed outside
Kilwa mosque. Struck coins
dated by Walker a.d.1302-1316.)
20. Daut (son).
(Ruled, (a) as regent for his
brother when on the pilgrimage
for two years.)
21. Hacen (elder brother).
(Ruled 24 years.)
Ruling when Ibn Batuta visited
Kilwa in 1332. Walker fixed
date of reign of Hasan as
1318-134.1.
Note.Bronze coins of Muhammad
Khan (1336-7) found at Mafia.
22. No. 20 again as sultan.
(Ruled 24 years.) Struck coins
dated a.d. 1341-1364 (second
rule) by Walker.
23. Soleiman (son).
(Ruled 20 days.) He was de-
posed and superseded by his
uncle Hasan.
24. Hacen (uncle).
(Ruled 6J years.)
25. Taluf (Talut) (nephew).
(Ruled one year.)
26. Soleiman (brother).
(Ruled 2 years and 4 months.
Deposed and superseded by his
uncle Suliman.)
27. Soleiman (uncle).
(Ruled 24 years, 4 months and
20 days.)
28. Hacen (son).
(Ruled 24 years.)
29. Mahamed Ladil (brother).
(Ruled 9 years.)
Arabic Chroniclecontd.
that Hasan was a good horseman
indicates exotic influences, of a non-
African Moslem type.)
No mention.
Hasan ibn Sulaiman ibn Hasan ibn
Talut. (Ruled 14 years. Went to
Mecca and Aden. Was known as
Abu'l Mawahib.)
Daud ibn Sulaiman.
(Ruled 24 days(?), regent for his
brother Hasan when in Arabia. A
pious man.)
No mention.
Husain ibn Suliman.
(Ruled 6\ years and died in a jehad
with the infidels on the mainland.)
Talut ibn Husain.
(Ruled 2 years, 4 months and 14
days. Died en route to Mecca.)
No mention.
Coins found, struck by him.
No mention.
Husain ibn Suliman.
(Ruled 23 years, made the pilgrim-
age to Mecca.)
Muhamad ibn Suliman.
(Ruled 22 years, known as A1 Malek
al Adil, his wazir was Suliman and
the amir was Muhamad ibn Suli-
man.)


57
De Barroscontcl.
30. Soleiman (son).
(Ruled 22 years, no legal issue.)
31. Ismael ben Place (uncle).
(Ruled 14 years.)
32. The governor, i.e. amir, made
sultan for one year.
33. The governor, made sultan l'or one
year.
34. Ma hum (a poor man of royal
blood). (Ruled for one year.)
35. IIac£ (son of Ismael).
(Ruled 10 years.)
36. Zayde (son).
(Ruled 10 years.)
Note.Coins in the name of Daud ibn
A1 Hasan have been found. As a tem-
porary measure they have been allocated
to a brother of No. 39 and dated circ.
1460. There is no ruler of this name in
the lists.
37. The governor, becomes sultan for
one year. (His brother, the amir
Mamude, sent his three sons to
posts in parts of the empire of
Kilwa. Yusef, the governor of
Sofala when the Portuguese
arrived, was one of these sons.
38. Habedala (Abdallah) (brother of
Said). (Ruled \\ years.)
39. Ale (his brother).
(Ruled years.)
Note.Coins were struck by this ruler
and are dated c. 1480-1482 by Walker.
Arabic Chroniclecontd.
Sulaiman ibn Muhamad.
(Length of reign unknown.) Mosque
that was in ruins in time of No. 21
rebuilt at a cost of one thousand
mithkals of gold. Amir Muhamad
attempted to seize the throne.
Ismail ibn Husain.
(Ruled 13 years. His wazir was
Suliman and the amir Muhamad ibn
Suliman. Said ibn Hasan (No. 86)
revolted and sought aid from Hasan
ibn Abubekr, sultan of Zanzibar. He
was unsuccessful but was pardoned.)
Amir Muhamad, made sultan for one
year. Wazirat (a) Suliman and
(b) Said (No. 36); amir was Suliman
ibn Muhamad (No. 37).
No mention. Possibly renewal of office.
Ahmed ibn Suliman.
(Ruled for one year and abdicated
through poverty; wazir, Said (No.
36), and amir, Suliman ibn Muha-
mad.)
Hasan ibn Ismail.
(Ruled 10 years; wazir, Said (No.
36), and amir, Suliman ,No. 37).)
Said ibn Hasan.
(During the reign of Said, Masud er
Rasuli (who had been expelled from
Aden by Ali ben Tahir c. 1454)
arrived at Kilwa.)
The amir Suliman ibn Muhamad
became sultan for years. His
brother Muhamad was amir.
Abdallah ibn Hasan.
(Ruled years; wazir was Hasan
ibn Suliman and the amir Muhamad
Kiwab.)
Ali ibn Hasan.
(Ruled years, wazir was Hasan
ibn Suliman and the amir Muhamad
Kiwab.)


58
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
De Barroscontd.
40. Hac6 (son of the tyrannical gover-
nor, No. 37). (Length of rule not
stated.)
Note.Coins struck dated by Walker,
first reign 1482 and second reign 1448-
1493. For details of types, etc., see Num.
Chron., fifth series, xvi, p. 30, and
plate IX.
41. Xubo (of the blood royal).
(Ruled 1 year.)
42. Hacen (second reign of 5 years).
Note.Coins, see ante.
43. Habraemo (son of Solta Mamud6).
(Ruled 2 years, but was de-
posed.)
Interregnum during which the Amir
44. Alfudail (nephew).
(Short reign.)
Note.This sultan was murdered by
the Amir Ibrim circ. 1500.
Arabic Chroniclecontd.
Hasan ibn Suliman (el Amir).
(Amir was Muhamad Kiwab
wazir Muhamad.)
and
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
Mir Habraerno (succeeded Alfudail
but not called king (? sultan).
Became the vassal of Portugal
in 1502 but was deposed by
Almeida in 1505.
Mahamed Anconij.
(Crowned by Don Francisco
d'Almeida in 1505. He was
murdered by a local king of
Mafia at the instigation of Ibrim
(No. 45), in 1506.)
Hocem (Agi) (son of No. 47).
He usurped the rule and was
deposed by the Portuguese.
Mi c ante.
(Appointed by the Portuguese
by whom he had been recogniz-
ed as the successor of No. 46 at
the coronation ceremony. He
was deposed.)
Habraemo (? cousin of No. 48).
(Reinstated as ruler (and sultan)
by the Portuguese circ. 1507.)
Sabhat. (Ruled 1 year.)
(Walker gives as a son of Muhamad-
al-Adil (No. 29) and a brother of
Suliman (No. 30).)
Hasan ibn Suliman (No. 40). He was
reinstated by the amir Muhamad
who deposed him again.
Ibrim ibn Al-Malik-al-Adil.
(Ruled 5 years, Hasan tried to re-
gain rule, civil war.)
Muhamad ruled.
Al-Fudail (A1 Fadil).
(Began to rule a.h.901 or a.d. 1495-6.
The ex-sultan Hasan was driven out
as an exile, to Kilwa Kivinj4 (?).
The amir Muhamad died and his
nephew Ibrim, a son of Sultan
Suliman (No. 37), succeeded him.)
Amir Ibrim.
In a.h. 906 or a.d. 1506 Don Pedro
d'Alvarez arrived at Kilwa. Next
year Don Joao de Nova arrived. In
1502 Don Yasco di Gama called.
Identical with Muhamad ibn Rukn-ed-
Din-ed-Dabuli who was evidently a
son of an Indian merchant. Ankoni
(possibly the mother's name) was
one of the richest and chief men of
Kilwa but not of royal blood.
Haji Hasan ibn Muhamad Ankoni.
Muhamad Mikat.
Walker gives him as a son of the
amir Kiwab. He is generally des-
cribed as the son of A1 Fadil by a
slave. He was dethroned and fled to
the Querimba Isles, where he died.
Ibrim restored.
Said (brother of Ibrim, No. 49).
(Vide Walker's translation, etc.)
Continuity of narrative and list ends here. Other rulers mentioned by later
writers will be found in the Historical Summary.


The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa
59
NOTE ON KILWA HISTORY.
1507. The fort which had been built in 1505 was destroyed by the Portuguese
under orders from King Manuel. Pereira left for Socotra. The deposed
ruler, Ibrim, reoccupied Kilwa where he ruled until his death (during the
reign of King Manuel, prior to 1521).
1528. Nunho da Ounha reduced Mombasa. He fixed the coastal headquarters at
Kilwa, Sofala and Mozambique, and left on the 4th April, 1529, for
India. Kilwa and Melinde rulers were related by marriage at that time.
The Mougno Muhamad, a son of the late King Wagerage of Melinde,
was the son of a slave and he declined the rule of Mombasa in favour
of his brother Abubekr who was a descendant of the Kilwa sultans. This
Abubekr lost a hand in the attack in 1529 which ended in the surrender
of Mombasa to the Portuguese.
1570. Yasco Fernandes Homem and Francisco Barretto arrived at Kilwa. (Vide
Dr Paiva e Pona, Proceedings Lisbon Geological Society.)
1588. Kilwa was betrayed to the Mzimbe cannibals who destroyed the town and
devoured many of the people.
1596. Francisco di Gama re-established Portuguese rule.
1635. Francisco de Cabreira, the captain of Mombasa, is said to have restored
the lost towns to Portugal but Kilwa is not mentioned in his inscription.
Mafia then subject to Kilwa. The fort at Mafia appears in Rezende's
Traite, etc.
1696. Immediately the Portuguese fleet left, the Kilwans repudiated Portugal and
declared for the Imam.
1698. The Imam of Muscat occupied Zanzibar and Kilwa and ejected the
Portuguese.
1728. Kilwa surrendered to Bon Luis Melo de Samp ago.
1813. (a.ii. 1231). Date of inscription on fort on Kilwa Island, the text of which
is not published (Burton, op. cit., ii, 356).
1857. Local Wali (at Kivinjiya) of Kilwa, vide Burton, was Saif ben Ali.
1890. Germany purchased Mafia Island from the Sultan Syed Ali ben Saad for
four millions of marks.


60
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
Appendix B
THE RULERS OF PATE.
(N.Ji.These are compiled from the sources cited.)
Miss Werner's List.
Years
ruled
1. Suliman ben Suliman ... 25
2. Muhamad ben Suliman 25
3. Ahmed ben Suliman 20
4. Ahmed ben Muhamad ?
5. Muhamad Ahmed Muhamad ?
6. Omar ben Muhamad 17
7. Muhamad ben Omar 48
8. Ahmed ben Omar 43
9. Abubekr ben Muhamad 35
10. Muhamad ben Abubekr 25
11. Abubekr ben Muhamad 45
12. Bwana Mbuu ben Muhamad 28
13. Muhamad ben Abubekr 29
14. Abubekr ben Mkuu 39
15. Abubekr ben Muhamad 20
16. Bwana Mkuu ben Muhamad 39
17. Abubekr ben Bwana Mkuu ... 3
18. Ahmed ben Abubekr ... 8
19. Abubekr (real name) or
Bwana Tamu Mkuu 41
20. Ahmed ben Abubekr ... 8
21. Bwana Tamu Mtot'o 16
22. Mwana Mimi (Khadija) 11
Captain Stigand's List.
Years
ruled
a. Suliman ben Suliman ... 24
b. Muhamad ben Suliman 25
c. Ahmed ben Muhamad 40
d. Muhamad ben Ahmed 50
e. Omar ben Muhamad 55
f. Muhamad ben Omar 30
g. Abubekr ben Muhamad
(? Omar) 30
h. Bwana Mkuu (brother) ... 48
i. Muhamad ben Bwana Mkuu 42
j. Abubekr ben Bwana Mkuu 50
k. Bwana Mkuu ben Abubekr 15
1. Ahmed (cousin of k) 7
in. Muhamad ben Abubekr ... 1
n. Abubekr ben Bwana Mkuu 22
o. Muhamad (nephew of n) ... 20
p. Abubekr
(Bwana Tamu Mkuu) 40
q. Bwana Mkuu ben Abubekr 25
r. Mwana Tamu Mutiti 10
s. Bwana Bakari ben Tamu ... 15
t. Ahmed ben Bwana Tamu ... 27
u. Mwana Khadija 10


61
Miss Werner's Listcontd.
Years
ruled
23. Bwana Mkuu ... ... 4
24. Muhamad ben Abubekr 33
25. Ahmed ben Sheikh ... 6
26. Fumo Luti (II) 6
27. Bwana Sheikh 1
28. Bwana Sheikh ben Fumo Luti 1
29. Ahmed...... ... 12
30. Waziri........................1
31. Fumo Bakari ben Sheikh ... 12
32. Ahmed Simba (acceded in 1845 or
a. ii. 1262).
Captain Stigand's Listcontd.
Years
ruled
v. Fumo Luti ... 3
w. Fumo Madi (brother,
vide Guillain, of v) 34
x. Ahmed ben Sheikh ... ... 5
y. Fumo Luti Kipinga ... 4
z. Sheikh ben Fumo Madi 3
aa. Bwana Waziri ... 3
bb. Bwana Sheikh, again 1
cc. Bwana Waziri, again 5
dd. Fumo Bakri ben Sheikh 14
ee. Bwana Madi ben Sheikh (acceded
in 1259).
Notes.(a) The years are lunar and not calendar. The chronology published is not accurate
so it is omitted from these lists.
(b) Stigand (Land of Zinj, p. 163) gives the date on the tomb of Sultan Muhamad ben
Sultan Abubekr ben Sultan Mkuu as a.h. 1024 or a.d. 1624.
(c) From Miss Werner's list the ruler when the Portuguese arrived was Abubekr ben
Muhamad (circ. 1494-1538), but Stigand gives Muhamad ben Bwana Mkuu.
(d) The term "Bwana Mkuu" seems to mean "heir apparent" and "Bwana Tamu" the
"heir presumptive." All the members of the royal family were called "Bwana," or "Mwana."
The term "sheikh" is a title and not a proper name.
(e) Ahmed-es-Simba was the grandfather of Muhamad ben Fumo Omar, or more commonly
known as Bwana Kitini, the owner of the undisclosed chronicle. Waziri of course means vizier
and the Vizier Omar of Khadijah appears in some records as the Sultan Omari.
(f) The third list published by Miss Werner is so hopelessly inaccurate that I have not
reproduced it. None of the lists published by her agrees with the dates she gives of the
deposition of the ruler by Bwana Bakri and there is no date or name reconcilable with the
tomb of Sultan Muhamad ben Sultan Abubekr (died a.h. 1024).
(g) It seems clear that there were two khadijahs. The first one was the daughter of Bwana
Mkuu Muhamad Abubekr Omar whose sons, Bwana Abubekr and Bwana Madi, and the ruler
Abubekr Mkuu Abubekr Mkuu Muhamad ben Omar (No. 17) were killed by Ahmed Abubekr
Muhamad (No. 18) who was deposed as no rain fell. The husband of Khadija was shipped to
Goa with some forty others and their son was called Imam el Iladi ben Bwana Mkuu. He is
said to have ruled as Abubekr ben Bwana Mkuu (Bwana Tamu Mtoto) and to have been killed
by his people who elected Khadija bint Mwana Darini Mkuu (Khadija I) to succeed him in
1762. This date is the same in both records.
THE SECOND COLONIZATION OF PATE.
Years
ruled
1. Suliman ben Suliman ben Muthafar en Babhani, a.ii. 600-625 or 25
a.d. 1203-1228.
Married daughter of Ishak, last king of Dynasty T. His brothers
Ali and Othman did not rule at Pat A
2. Muhamad (son of No. 1), mother/daughter of Ishak, a.ii. 625-650 or 24
a.d. 1228-1252. Aged 20 at accession.
Stigand gives three sons, Ahmed, Suliman and Ali. He destroyed
Shanga. Siu became a place of refuge.


62
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
Years
ruled
3. Ahmed (brother of No. 2), aged 17 in 625 or 42 at accession, 20
a.h. 650-670 or a.d. 1228-1271.
Contemporary of Rukn ed Din Mahmud Ahmed el Kousi of
Ormuz (a.d. 1245-1277). Stigand states that he was the son of No. 2
and that his brothers, Suliman and Ali, revolted against him. By
the advice of Ali Othman Saif Muthafar, an old man who had been
with his father, he made peace (? by arresting them).
1. Ahmed ben Muhamad ben Suliman (nephew of No. 3) ... ... ... 20
Stigand (as No. 3) states that he had two sons, Omar and
Muhamad, a.h. 670-690 or a.d. 1271-1291. He was a contemporary
of Melik Omar ben Nabhan of Oman whose territory was invaded by
Fakr ed Din Ahmed ed Daya of Shiraz in a.h. 674 (a.d. 1275-6),
vide Guillain (op. cit., p. 483). The Shirazis were expelled from
Oman in a.h. 674 by Hilal ben Omar ben Nabhan.
5. Muhamad Ahmed Muhamad Suliman (son of No. 4), a.h. 690-732 or 40
a.d. 1291-1331. Aged 40 at accession and would be aged 80 at
death.
He conquered Faza and Manda. The latter town was destroyed
and the fugitives fled to Shela and Melind6. Those at Shela joined
Lamu. He is said to have exacted a tribute of a slave and twenty
dollars from every chief man of each tribe. He was the first to instal
a governor at Mogadisco. It is notable that Ibn Batuta described
Sheikh Abubekr ben Omar el M'thafar as of Berbera origin and not
Persian. The last Muthafar ruler of Mogadisco was Fake ed Din
about the end of the fourteenth century as in 1402 the town was
deserted. In 1499 it was a prosperous walled city, and sufficiently
strong to deter both Yasco di Gama and Da Cunha (in 1507) from
attacking it.
6. Omar (son of No. 5). One account states only son but Stigand
mentions a brother, Ahmed.
He conquered Lamu and the Swahili towns (on the mainland) Ozi,
Melind^, Kiwayu, Kitao, Miva, Imidhi, Watamu and reached
Kirimba (? coast opposite Querimba islands). The yumbe or royal
palace at Pat6 (in ruins) is by tradition attributed to Sultan Omar.
He did not rule over Zanzibar, and Kirimba is considered as the
frontier at that time between Pate and Kilwa. This sultan is said to
have married a daughter of Bwana Shakwa, the King of Faza.
There is a Haji Mwetha prominent in Faza affairs after Omar's
marriage when that town was destroyed. The ruler of Kitao is said
to have been a queen (Mwana Inali) and Liongo was the ruler of
the territory between Shaka and Komwana. The younger son,
Ahmed, is said to have been born at Magogoni and he conquered Ozi
whilst his father was attacking Melind6. A third son, Abubekr, is
also mentioned.
7. Muhamad ben Omar (son of No. 6), a.h. 749-797 or a.d. 1348-1394. 46
There are considerable inaccuracies and discrepancies in the text.
His sons are said to have been Bwana Tamu, Ahmed, Abubekr and
Omar. The reign is principally remarkable as giving the period at
which vessels were constructed on the East Coast of sufficient size
to make the voyage to India.
8. Ahmed ben Omar "(brother of No. 7), a.h. 797-840 or a.d. 1394-1436. 43
There is something radically wrong here as Ahmed must have been
over a hundred years of age if he captured Ozi during his father's


The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa
63
Years
ruled
lifetime and ruled for forty-three years after his brother's death.
There is some lacuna here such as Mr Walker has found in the
Kilwa chronicle. I am inclined to think that a definite change of the
dynasty took place.
9. Abubekr Muhamad ben Omar (son of No. 7), a.h. 840-875 or a.d. 1436-
1470.
The chronology is not accurate and the history refers to a later
ruler.
10. Muhamad ben Abubekr (elder son of No. 9), a.h. 875-900 or a.d. 1470-
1494.
Miss Werner says that there is some inaccuracy here. There is no
mention in this chronicle of a king who invited the Portuguese into
his territory in 1531 and was deposed by Bwana Bakari and resumed
the rule in 1537. Vasco cli Gama left Melindc for Goa on his first
voyage in 1498 so that the allusions in both the versions of Stigand
and Miss Werner to events in which the Portuguese are mentioned
are fictions.
11. Abubekr ben Muhamad (son of No. 10), a.h. 900-945 or a.d. 1494-1538.
He is said to have had a brother, Bwana Mkuu.
The first of a series of inaccuracies commenced with No. 7 where
it will be noticed the name Bwana Tamu was introduced, and men-
tion of the Portuguese was made. Abubekr ben Muhamad is generally
considered to have been ruling when the Portuguese arrived on the
coast in 1498 but I cannot trace any definite evidence to substantiate
the statement. It was not until 1507 that da Cunha visited the
Lamu archipelago. He seems to have arrived from Goa and although
some resistance was shown he obtained the surrender of the islands
and established a customs, so that the tribute could be collected
I presume. Abubekr left two sons, Ahmed and Muhamad.
12. Bwana Mkuu Muhamad ben Abubekr (bother of No. 11).
This is a most improbable succession in view of the fact that the
previous ruler had two sons. It is very obvious that the chronology
has been arranged in each list. I suggest that the list might read
thus:
(a) Ahmed ben Abubekr (son of No. 11) acceded circ. 1531 or
a.li. 938 and was deposed by Bwana Bakari, as stated by Miss
Werner.
(b) Probably Bwana Bakari (an uncle). List of Mshahame ben
Kombo gives a.h. 920-938 (1514-1531); and then No. 12 or
his son.
12. Bwana Mkuu ben Muhamad ben Abubekr ben Muhamad, a.h. 945-973 27
or a.d. 1538-1565.
Note.There is a notable absence of any historical allusions to
Lamu or Pat£ between 1507 and 1570.
13. Muhamad ben Abubekr (son of No. 11), a.h. 973-1002 or a.d. 1565-
1593.
Note.The stories of the discovery of the silver mine and the royal brass horn are curious.
It is quite possible that the white metal was not silver. Malay weapons were notable for the
whiteness of the steel and sacred horns and drums seem to have been part of the royal regalia.
There is great scope for anthropological research during the period prior to the arrival of
the Portuguese. Mr Hornell's paper should be studied by all who may be interested in native
customs, etc., on the east coast. The bibliography cited is invaluable. Swahili is so generic in
its application that it probably embraces as many clans as the term Bantu has as nations
or tribes.


64
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
Years
ruled
Said to have made a treaty with the Portuguese and left a son,
Abubekr, who succeeded him. Stigand states that Muhamad ben
Abubekr (a.h. 1017-1018 or a.d. 1608-1609) was deposed by the
Portuguese and replaced by Abubekr ben Bwana Mkuu. This term
Bwana Mkuu seems to have been equivalent to that of "Crown
Prince" originally.
In 1570 Francisco Barretto and Vasco Fernandes visited PatA
The people were defiant but paid a ransom of five thousand pounds
to save the places from destruction.
In 1586 Ali Bey, the corsair, arrived from the Red Sea. He seized
a Portuguese ship at Louiviza. The commander, Roque de Brito,
and some of the crew fled to Lamu. The local ruler there handed
them over to Ali Bey who enslaved them. De Brito died in
Constantinople. Lamu accepted Turkish sovereignty. Martin Alfonso
de Melo Bombeiro in 1587 arrived with a fleet.
In 1589 Thomas de Souza Continha arrived at Lamu and beheaded
the sheikh, who was a brother of the ruler of Kilifi (Guillain, op. ci.t.,
pp. 396-401). The sheikhs of Pat6, Siu and Faza, were forced to
assist at the executions, and an indemnity was placed on the islands.
Mandra Island was sacked and the Sheikh of Siu imprisoned.
There is a tomb at Pate with an epitaph to Sultan Muhainmadi
ben Sultan Abubakr ben Sultan Bwana Mkuu Nabahan al Batawi
which is dated the year a.h. 1024 or a.d. 1616. None of the three
lists give the name of any ruler who ceased to reign at the date.
He was probably deposed and died later.
14. x\bubekr ben Bwana Mkuu ben Muhamad ben Abubekr (son of No. 12,
and uncle of the heir Abubekr ben Muhamad), a.h. 1002-1041 or
a.d. 1593-1631.
In 1631 the massacre of the Portuguese by the renegade Sultan
Yusef took place.
In 1632 (2nd January) a fleet from Goa arrived at Faza under
Francesci di Moura. One ship returned to Pat4 from the south and
wintered there under the orders of Pedro Rodriquez Botelho, after
the seige of Mombasa had been abandoned and before its fall in
1635, to Francesco de Cabreira. In 1635 Pate paid tribute after the
walls of Siu had been destroyed by Cabreira and the rebellious chiefs
executed. Many of the people fled to Madagascar where they joined
the Sultan lTusef of Mombasa. Yusef was attacked unsuccessfully by
the Portuguese in 1635 (May).
Stigand states that Sultan Abubekr made terms with the.Portu-
guese and was made ruler of the island but his people deposed him
in a.h. 1040 and appointed his nephew. He left two sons, Bwana
Mkuu and Abubekr.
In 1615 the Yaarebi tribal ruler, Malek ben Abu'l Arab of Rustuk,
died. The first YTiarebi imam was Nasr ben Murshid (a.d. 1624-1649).
Father Lobo arrived at Pat6 in 1624. Stigand states that the only
Christian church was at Siu.
15. Abubekr ben Muhamad ben Abubekr, a.h. 1041-1061 or a.d. 1631-1650. 19
He attacked the Europeans who bombarded Pat6 before it was
conquered. This refers to the attack by Francesco X. de Cabreira
(ante), and followed the attack by the Imam Nasr ben Murshid in
1633 on the town of Sohar (Oman) occupied by the Portuguese then.
The Portuguese attacked Pate before Mombasa was relieved. This
sultan had two sons, Abubekr and Ahmed.


The Sliirazi Colonizations of East Africa
65
Years
ruled
16. Bwana Mkuu ben Muhamad ben Abubekr, a.h. 1061-1100 or a.d. 1650- 38
1688.
He made a treaty with the Portuguese and lived part of the year
at Lamu where he had a wife. The Wafamau revolted against him
and he destroyed Siu and brought survivors to Pat A The headman
fled to Dondo, the Portuguese headquarters, and demanded the
release of the Siu people. The Portuguese kidnapped the sultan's
cousin, Bwana Mkuu, with a number of his adherents and took
them to Goa where they died. He drove the Portuguese out of his
territory. There is another story of kidnapping at the instance of a
Sultan Ahmed at an earlier period. Guillain states that when the
Imam Sultan ben Saif ben Malek (died 1658) ruled in Oman during
1649 the ruler of Pat6 was Bwana or Fumo Shah Ali. His successor,
Bwana Tamil, was the son of a Nabhani (one of the sherifs buried
at Lamu) governor of Pate who married a princess from Kilwa. This
sultan had two sons, Bwana Abubekr and Bwana Madi, and a
daughter, Mwana Khadija (Mwana Darini Bwana Mkuu Abubekr).
Mombasa fell into the hands of the Swahili in 1660 after a long
seige but in 1661 a Portuguese fleet arrived and resumed possession
(vide Guillain). Bombay was sacked by the Omanese in 1663 and
Siu suffered a similar fate in 1670.
17. Abubekr ben Bwana Mkuu ben Abubekr, a.h. 1100-1103 or a.d. 1688- 3
1691.
He was killed after a short reign by Ahmed, the brother of Bwana
Mkuu, who had been kidnapped. Stigand's story is that Sultan
Muhamad (a.h. 1040-1060), who replaced his uncle, married his
son, Bwana Mkuu, to a daughter (? Khadija) of the deposed Sultan
Abubekr who resumed the rule and then imprisoned Muhamad.
Sultan Abubekr arranged the kidnapping of Bwana Mkuu. Later
Sultan Abubekr and his brother, Bwana Madi, were killed by the
people and Bwana Mkuu's son, Bwana Tamu, succeeded as
Abubekr. The other story is applied to No. 18.
18. Ahmed ben Abubekr ben Muhamad ben Abubekr Muhamad Omar, 8
a.h. 1103-1111 or a.d. 1691-1700.
He attacked the Portuguese and drove them out. The husband of
Mwana Darini Bwana Mkuu Abubekr went to Goa (in the time of
Sultan Ahmed, see ante), and her two brothers, Abubekr and Bwana
Madi, were killed by Sultan Ahmed ben Abubekr. A circumcision
feast for her son Bwana Tamu (the younger), by the kidnapped
man, also known as El Imam l'Hadi who ruled later as Abubekr
was arranged. Sultan Ahmed tried to prevent her using the royal
brass horn of Siu. Mweniji Bayagi Mkuu (a sherif of the l'Aili
clan (?) Alides) made another (now in the Zanzibar Museum). The
ancient brass horn was lost at sea later.
In 1696 a Portuguese fleet called at Mombasa, which was occupied
in 1698 by the Imam Saif ben Sultan who placed a governor there.
A general massacre of the Portuguese then occurred on the coast.
It is notable that the local chronicle states that Sultan Ahmed
abdicated as there had been no rain for seven years. Father Lobo
travelled to Juba and described the people of the district as Gallas.
19. Abubekr (Bwana Tamu Mkuu) ben Bwana Mutiti ben Abubekr, 39
a.h. 1111-1152 or a.d. 1700-1739.
Guillain states that a Sultan Bwana Tamu (grandson of Shah
5


66
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
Years
ruled
Ali) ceded Pate to the Portuguese in 1728 before the Liwali surren-
dered to the fleet under Luiz de Mello Sampago on the 12th March of
that year. The Portuguese were ejected on a Sunday, the 29th
November, and the local chronicle states that Sultan Bwana Tamu
Mkuu sent a force which was included in the attackers on the fort.
Guillain states that Bwana Tamu (of 1728) was succeeded by his
son, Fumo Bakri (Abubekr), who ruled Lamu, Mandra, Pemba and
the littoral between Kilifi and the Juba river.
Ingrams states that the Imam Saif ben Sultan placed a governor
at Zanzibar in 1710. In 1727 Hasan, king of Zanzibar, fled to Pat6
where the people placed themselves under Portuguese protection.
After the surrender of Mombasa to the Portuguese, Musa ben Hasan
went to Zanzibar by their orders. Sultan Abubekr (No. 19) is said
to have gone to Arabia and made an agreement there to expel the
Portuguese from Mombasa. His son did not succeed him.
Stigand says that Sultan Bwana Mkuu ben Sultan Abubekr
married a Lamu woman and built a mosque there as his mother
was a native of Lamu. He divided the rule of Pemba with the
governor of Zanzibar (? Mazrui).
20. Ahmed ben Abubekr ben Muhamad ben Abubekr Omar, a.h. 1152- 20
1160 or a.d. 1739-1747.
He left a son, Bwana Gongo, who did not succeed him. In 1746
the Busaidi Imam Ahmed ben Said appointed Abdallah ben Djad
as governor of Zanzibar. Guillain states that when the Busaidi Imam
was elected in 1744 the ruler of Pat6 was Fumo Bakri ben Bwana
Tamu, and the people of Pat6 killed all the sympathizers with the
imam, including the Nabhani, except the children. Fumo Bakri was
replaced by Bwana Mkuu (surnamed Melani-Gniombe) who was
replaced by a daughter of Bwana Tamu named Mwana Tamu and
later by a chief, Fumo Omar, who maintained Pat£ independent of
Oman.
21. Bwana Tamu Mtoto, also called Imam l'Hadi but real name Abubekr 15
ben Bwana Mkuu ben Abubekr Muhamad (?), a.h. 1160-1176 or
a.d. 1747-1762. Killed by his people.
There is nothing in the local chronicles beyond that statement,
and that the Yaarebi imam attacked Pat£ but could not subdue it.
Lamu revolted against Pat6 and the two towns fought. Guillain
states that Pemba revolted against the vizier (Omar) of Mwana
Mimi (Khadija ?), and Ali el Mazrui appointed his uncle, Khamis
ben Ali, as the governor there. Pat6 then at the request of the
M'vita attacked Mombasa and burnt Kilindini. About 1760 Masud
ben Nasr el Mazrui sent a force under Ahmed ben Ahmed fo support
Fumo Luti against the Vizier Omar who had been deposed. The
ex-vizier was imprisoned at Mombasa for five years and then
returned to Pat£ where he was assassinated.
22. Mwana Khadija (the Mwana Mimi) alluded to previously. ? a.h. 1176- 11
1187 or a.d. 1762-1773.
Guillain states, circ. 1755, the Vizier Fumo Omar wanted to
marry the ruler Mwana Mimi and was sent to attack Juba on the
question of the sovereignty of that territory. In his absence Fumo
Luti, a younger brother of the queen, acted as vizier but refused to
give up office to Omar who was imprisoned at Mombasa.


The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa
67
Years
ruled
23. Bwana Mkuu ibn Bwana Sheikh ibn Bwana Tamu Mkuu, a.h. 1187-
1191 or a.u. 1773-1777. He was murdered in the palace.
This omits the first rule of Fumo Luti who was nominated by the
Mazrui on condition that he recognized their sovereignty over Pate.
He did so prior to 1773 and became an ally against the Yaarebi.
Abdallah ben Masud el Bouhouri was then placed at Pat6 as the
Mazrui representative. He was replaced by Khalif ben Nasr. Fumo
Luti was killed at Pate in a.h. 1188. In 1190 (a.h.) Pate accepted
the Yaarebi imam's sovereignty.
24. Bwana Fumo Madi or Muhamad ben Abubekr Bwana Mkuu, a.h. 1191- 33
1224 or a.d. .1777-1809.
His people revolted against him and he defeated them. He
executed forty men of high rank (including two brothers) and there
was peace.
Guillain states that in 1773 Masud ben Nasr died and Abdallah
ben Abdallah succeeded at Mombasa. In 1774 Fumo Madi succeeded
at Pate. Badi Suliman was murdered at Pate and it became
independent of Mombasa.
25. Ahmed ben Sheikh ben Fumo Luti ben Sheikh ben Bwana Tamu, 6
a.ii. 1224-1230 or a.d. 1809-1814.
With forces from Mombasa he attacked Lamu and defeated them.
The people of Lainu sent an envoy to the Imam Said ben Sultan
ben Ahmed and placed themselves under his protection in a.h. 1228
or a.d. 1813. The kingdom of Pat£ consisted of Pate only. Fumo
Luti Kipimga, a son of Bwana Fumo Madi, attacked the Sultan
Ahmed who died of disease (wounds).
Guillain gives the date of Fumo Madi's death as the 28th January,
1807, and that Fumo Luti ben Fumo Luti attempted to take the
throne but was defeated and taken prisoner to Mombasa. He ruled
after No. 25. A deposed Sultan Bwana Mkuu was seen by Captain
Owen in 1817.
26. Fumo Luti (Kipunga), son of Bwana Fumo Madi, a.ii. 1230-1236 or
a.d. 1814-1820.
After an abortive attack on Shela (Lamu), Mubarak of Mombasa
agreed to reside at Pate. The local chronicle states that Sheikh
Mataka ben Mubarak was a vassal sheikh of Siu under Pate.


68
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
Appendix C
A SELECTED CHRONOLOGY OF SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS
IN THE HISTORY OF EAST AFRICA
(Until the Nineteenth Century).
First Century. Trade between East Africa and Mocha (Muca) described in the
"Periplus of the Erythrean Sea." Dioscuros sailed south on the African
coast to a point assumed to be the Rovuma.
Second Century. A Roman embassy reached China. Great maritime trade with
the East and Rome via the Red Sea, etc.
Third Century. Roman embassy to China. Last recorded king of Saba and
Raydan. Decline of the Roman eastern maritime trade.
Fourth "Century. Axumite dynasty divided. Sapor of Persia invaded Arabia.
Control of the Red Sea trade passed from Roman hands. Ezana of Axum
invaded Somaliland and Afan. Christianity replaced paganism in Axum and
territories under its influence.
Fifth Century. Philostorgius described Somaliland as inhabited by Syrians.
King Mogallana of Ceylon founded a war navy.
Sixth Century. Wasin Island said to have been visited by the bishops of
Socotra (Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, xxx, 284). The Jats
from the Indus occupied the Bahrein islands. The Axumites repulsed from
Mecca (a.d. 570). The Persians occupied eastern and southern Arabia. A viceroy
administered the territories with local princes or chiefs.
a.d. 622. The year "al Hejira" or Moslem era. Muhamad fled from Mecca to
Medina and assumed regal authority there.
632. Death of Muhamad. Islam accepted in southern Arabia. The Caliph
Abubekr nominated the Beni Nezar (Ghafiri) as rulers of Oman.
Persia invaded.
638. Caliph Omar (634-644) made treaties with the Zott (Jats), Sayabiji,
and other exotic tribes and mercenaries in Mesopotamia, etc. Egypt
invaded by the Arab Moslems.
655. Caliph Ali ben Abu Taleb (655-660). Revolt of Ayesha suppressed.
The Dual caliphate; Basra (or Alides) and Damascus or Omayads.
661. Persia became the Shi-ite centre of Islam after the death of the
Caliph Ali, who had restored the Hinawi rulers of Oman in 644.
Hasan ben Ali renounced the caliphate.
680. Huseyn defeated and killed at Kerbela.
689. First recorded Arab colonization of Moslem fugitives from El Hajjaj,
the governor of Mesopotamia for the Caliph Abd-el-Melik.
697. Kharejite revolts crushed by El Hajjaj.
730. Arabs settled at Pemba. Chinese coins dated 713-742 found on Mafia
Island and at Mogadisco.
759. Emosaids settled at Mogadisco and southern coastal districts,
c. 800. Shaka (Mwana Antana) reputed to have been founded by fugitives
from the Caliph Harun el Rashid. Coins of that ruler were found in
Zanzibar.
834. The Jats (Zott) were expelled from the Euphrates Delta and some
seized Socotra and became pirates.
845. Chinese coins (dated 713-742) found in ninth century deposits at
Mogadisco. Twelfth century Chinese coins also found.


The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa
69
870-1. Basrah sacked by the black slave (Zinj) troops of the Arabs.
883. The great Zinj rebellion in Mesopotamia.
905. The Carmathians conquered the Yemen.
908. Arabs from El Has a landed at Mogadisco and ejected the Emosaids
who intermarried with local tribes. The Emosaids founded the
dynasty known as "El Mudafar," in East Africa.
915. Masudi travelled on the East African coast. Ha-fun, then visited by
Azdite Arabs from Oman. Masudi travelled from Qanbalu (Pemba)
to Oman.
945. Reputed Chinese invasion of Pemba (Hornell).
c. 975. Ali ben Sultan Plasan Ali es Shirazi founded Kilwa and the Alowi
dynasty of East Africa. Chinese coins dated from a.d. 845 have been
found at Kilwa.
1094. The Caliph Muqtadi of Baghdad died. Melik Shah occupied Baghdad.
1107. Kizimkazi mosque (Zanzibar) founded by Abi Amram Mfaume el
Hasan.
1154. Melinde iron mines mentioned by El Idrisi from hearsay.
,, El Eellah ben Muhsin founded the Nebhanite dynasty of Oman.
1168. Traditional date of the foundation of Malayan colonies in Madagascar.
t_. 1170. Zanzibar mentioned in the Kilwa Chronicle during the reign of Sultan
Hasan ben Suliman ben Ali. He is said to have established Kilwan
rule as far as Sofala.
1203. The second foundation of Pate by Suliman ben Suliman ben Mudafar
en Nebhani who established the Nebhani dynasty (1203-1744). The
Shirazi foundation of Vumba of which the first sultan was Zumbura
is said to have been contemporaneous.
1228. A vessel from the Comoro islands to Kilwa was blown by storm to
Aden.
1238. Inscription on the ruined mosque at Mogadisco by Muhamad ben
Abd es Shadad (possibly founder and a local ruler).
Thirteenth Century. Ibn Sayd described the king of Zinj as resident at
Mombasa and Kilwa as "Gezira el Mend" (an Indian tribe, vide
Guillain).
1257. Hulagu occupied Baghdad. A bronze coin of this ruler was found at
Mafia (Walker).
1331. Ibn Batuta travelled along the African coast. Sultan Abul Muzafar
Hasan was ruler of Kilwa where there was a colony from the
Hejaz.
1336. Two bronze coins of Muhamad Khan of that date found at Mafia
(Walker).
c. 1400. The Bantus from the interior settled south of the Zambezi.
1402. Abu'l Muhasan, the Qadi of Lamu. Zanzibar then the chief seaport
on the coast.
1420. An Arab dhow from East Africa said to have rounded the Cape. An
Egyptian instructor and a Circassian mameluke made swords and
taught their use in Abyssinia against the Falasha.
1430. A Chinese fleet visited Mogadisco (Hirth).
1454. Masud er Rasuli who had been ejected from Aden went to Kilwa.
1457. Planisphere of Fra Mauro showed the Cape of Devils (Good Hope) and
the island of Sofala.
1485. Diego Cam took four hostages from the Congo to Portugal.
1492. The civil wars in the Congo began.


70
1498. Vasco di Gama (unable to make Kilwa by adverse wind) arrived at
Mombasa on the 7th April (Prestage). He left Melinde for India on
the 30th April. Melindb and Mombasa were then at war.
1499. Vasco di Gama (homewards) bombarded Mogadisco and sunk the
shipping (Osorio). He took an ambassador from the king of Melindd
to Portugal. He victualled at Zanzibar on the 27th February, vide
Osorio.
1500. Cabral arrived at Kilwa (26th July). He had lost four ships on the
voyage out. The local ruler was the Amir Ibriin who had murdered
the late Sultan El Fadil, and was impersonated by Luqman ben El
Malik al Fadil to Cabral. Omar, a brother of the king of Melinde,
was then at Kilwa with his uncle Fotriema who had been captured
on a dhow by Cabral. Yusef was governor of Sofala for Kilwa.
1501. A ship of Sancius Tovar drove ashore at Mombasa. The Portuguese
abandoned the wreck but the king of Mombasa salved the guns by
diving and mounted them in his fort. Juan di Nova visited Kilwa
and MelindA
1502. Cabral called at Kilwa homewards. Vasco di Gama called at Kilwa on
the 19th July with nineteen ships from Portugal. He put Ibrirn in
irons and demanded a tribute of fifteen hundred gold meticals.
Muhamad Ankoni paid a ransom (two thousand meticals) and this
metal was used to make the gold monstrance of the Belem cathedral.
The king of Melinde then was Wagerage and the ruler of Mozam-
bique was Sherif Muhamad al Alowi who wrote to King Manuel in
1517.
On the 3rd of October Yasco di Gama burnt the pilgrim ship Miri, and
two hundred and sixty persons on board the vessel perished.
1503. llavasco cruised on the coast and captured shipping. Fie collected a
hundred meticals as tribute at Kilwa and similar amounts elsewhere.
Muni Karri e ben Muni Said, the son of the king of Terendicunde
(Mafia) and a nephew of the Amir Ibrim of Kilwa, was captured
and held for ransom by the Portuguese, liavasco was attacked by
a flotilla of boats at Zanzibar as he blockaded the, port. The
Zanzibaris were repulsed and the king's son killed. Twelve notables
of Brava were seized at Mombasa and ransomed by their citizens.
1504. Saldanha arrived at Mombasa and forced a peace with Melinde. Lopes
Suares (homewards) demanded tribute from Ibrim of Kilwa but it
was refused. King Ahmed of Aden contemporary ruler.
1505. Almeida arrived at Kilwa (22nd July). The trading vessels under
Mayer and Sprenger formed part of his fleet. The inhabitants of
Kilwa (estimated variously from twelve to thirty thousand) deserted
the town which was sacked by the Portuguese. Muhamad Ankoni
was crowned with a golden crown (of Indian origin) by Almeida and
Micante, a base-born son of El Fadil, proclaimed heir-apparent.
Fort Santiago (illustrated by Strandes) was built at Kilwa and a
garrison under Pedro Ferreira Fogaca placed there. Almeida arrived
at Mombasa on the 3rd of August and sacked the town. He left
Melind^ for the Angedive islands where he received word of the
murder of King Muhamad Ankoni by the king of Terendikunde.
Civil war broke out in Kilwa between Haji Hasan (son of Muhamad
Ankoni) and Ibrim who strove against Micante for the throne. The
merchant population moved from Kilwa to Mombasa in consequence
of restrictions placed upon the Sofala trade (removed December
1506). Cy de Barbuda called at Kilwa from Sofala, circ. July 1505.


The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa
71
The king of Portugal prohibited the publication of East African
charts.
1506. Micante (Muhamad ben El Fadl es Sultan) was appointed by the
Portuguese but was deposed by Haji Hasan as a debauchee. Haji
Hasan with the Bantu chief, Munha Monge, attacked Terendikunde.
The town was burnt and the inhabitants deported and enslaved by
the Bantus. Nuno Vaz Pereira arrived at Melind6 in November as
governor of the coast. The Portuguese looted a wrecked Indian ship
and the officer who was responsible was sent under arrest to Goa.
Haji Hasan was deposed by order of Almeida and Micante reinstated.
He attacked Ibrim in revenge for his father's murder. Lionel di
Coutinho and Tristan d'Acunha (governor of the coast) both called
at Kilwa. Gja was sacked.
1507. Vasco d'Abreu (governor of Sofala and Mozambique) lost off Kilwa with
three vessels. D'Acunha anchored at Lamu (en route to Socotra)
and the people agreed to pay an annual tribute of six hundred
meticals. Payment was made in Venetian silver, vide Strandes.
D'Acunha burnt Brava (a walled town under a form of republican
government) as no tribute paid since 1503. The Portuguese annihil-
ated the garrison of the king of Kechen at Socotra and turned their
mosque into a church for the use by the garrison and servile Jacobite
natives. Mondragon, the French corsair, appeared at Mozambique.
He was captured by the Portuguese in 1.509 in European waters.
Ibrim was appointed king of Kilwa by Pestana (Commandant).
1508. Duarte de Leuios appointed governor of Ethiopia and Arabia (resident
at Mozambique). The Portuguese defeated by the Egyptians in a
naval action at Chaul.
1509. Duarte de Lemos visited Kilwa and possibly confirmed Ibrim as the
sultan after Micante had fled to the Querimba islands, where he
died. De Lemos attacked Mafla and Pemba successfully. Zanzibar
was sacked. The Egyptian fleet was destroyed by Albuquerque at
Siu.
1510. Goa (originally built by Arabs) occupied by Albuquerque who made it
the Viceregal capital.
1512. The Portuguese garrison evacuated Kilwa and destroyed their fort.
Subsidies were paid to native chiefs to keep the trade route to the
interior open.
1514. A Papal bull was issued on the 3rd of November defining the colonial
possession of Spain and Portugal.
1515. The Portuguese formally annexed Kilwa, Mombasa and Melind^.
A master of artillery was stationed at Melinde and it is believed that
control over the smelting of iron there was exercised (as on the
Congo) for military and trade purposes. Wagerage, king of Melind6,
wrote to the king of Portugal.
1517. The sultan of Turkey occupied Egypt and assumed the caliphate. The
Bed Sea ports were occupied by the Turks, and Mamelukes seized
the rule of southern Arabia. They deposed Zafir II.
1519. A Portuguese vessel with two hundred men which had been blown
from the Persian Gulf to Marka reached Melinde. The shipwrecked
crew of the San Jorge d'Albuquerque were massacred by Arabs at
Zanzibar.
1520. Portuguese mission (Alvarez and Rodrigo di Lima) to Abyssinia.
1522. King of Zanzibar, with the factors Joao de Mata and Pedro di Castro,
attacked the Querimba islands and the capital was destroyed.


72
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
1524. Inscription to Sherif Abu Bakari at Pate (dated by Stigand).
1527. A French corsair called at Kilwa (Strandes). The crew of a French ship
entered Moslem service in India.
1528. Nuno d'Acunha (viceroy) provisioned at Zanzibar in May and arrived
at Melind^ in September. He had suppressed a rebellion at Mozam-
bique.
1529 (March). With natives from Otondo, Melinde, etc., d'Acunha attacked
and destroyed Mombasa after a four months' seige. He appointed
Sidi Abubekr (nephew of the king of Melind^) ruler of Mombasa
but he lost a hand in the assault on the fort. This man was a
descendant of the sultans of Kilwa. Melinde was garrisoned by
eighty Portuguese. Kilwa, Sofala and Mozambique were made the
headquarters of the Portuguese in East Africa. The Lamu archi-
pelago was practically independent.
1535. Axum sacked by the Moslems who subsequently overran Abyssinia.
1538. Socotra occupied by the Turks.
1539.' Diego Botelho reached Lisbon from Goa in a boat fifteen metres by
three.
1541. Joao de Sepulveda called at Melinde and Mogadisco. Great massacre
of the Portuguese in the Congo.
1542. Joao de Souza called at Mozambique, Melind^ and Mogadisco.
M. A. de Souza, viceroy of Goa.
1544. Kilimane founded. Portuguese and Bantu half-breeds called
"Mozungas" (vide Theale).
1545. Joao de Castro (viceroy) called at Mozambique en route to Goa.
1546. Lake Nyasa (Maravi) appeared on Portuguese maps.
1547. Francisco Barretto arrived at Kilwa (Strandes).
1548. Massacres of the Portuguese in Madagascar. After that date all
sentences of death pronounced in East Africa required the confirm-
ation of the viceroy at Goa.
1553. Twenty-four survivors (out of three hundred and twenty-three) from
the wrecked ship Sao Brao reached Mozambique from the Umtata
river.
Note.There were numerous shipwrecks and missing ships.
A large proportion of the crew were negro slaves and when these
people reached the shore they generally fled to the bush and joined
the local natives. The survivors who reached Portuguese settlements
were generally Portuguese, Indians or Portuguese half-castes
(Theale).
1554. Ship L'Espadarte of Pedro de Mascarheno's squadron at Mombasa.
1555. Francesco Barretto (viceroy) reached Mozambique from Goa in 1559
en route to Portugal but his ship was so unseaworthy that he had to
return to Goa.
c. 1555. The Augustines settled at Mombasa. I cannot trace any evidence of
the "auto-de-fe" which was introduced into the West Indies but
the missionary efforts of the priests created a political situation
similar to that of Uganda three hundred years later.
1560. Mosque at Marka built (vide inscription).
1561. Don Gonzales de Silveira murdered by the Monomotapa near
Zimbabwe.
1659. Francesco Barretto arrived at Mozambique as governor of Africa. He
visited Kilwa, Mafia and the coast ports. At Pate the people were
defiant but paid a ransom of five thousand pounds to save their


The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa
73
towns from bombardment (vide Dr Paiva e Pona). He crushed a
revolt of the negroes at Zanzibar.
1570. The Muzimbe (cannibals) from the Congo dispersed before Tete and
a horde marched north.
1580. Spain annexed Portugal and Spanish domination lasted until 1640.
1581. F. de Mascarenhas succeeded F. Telles de Menezes as viceroy of Goa.
1586. Ali Bey, the corsair, arrived on the coast from Jeddah. Roque de Brito
Falcao (ex-commandant of Melinde, en route to Goa), whose ship
was disabled at Lamu, fled to Faza. There, he was handed over to
Ali Bey who enslaved him with other Portuguese prisoners. De Brito
Falcao died subsequently at Constantinople in slavery. With the
exception of Melinde and Mozambique, the entire coast (including
Brava and J uba) accepted Turkish sovereignty and protection
against the Christians. As an instance of the communication across
Africa at that time, a trade blanket from the Congo was identified
at Manica and taken to Sofala.
1587. Martin Alfonso de Melo Bombeiro arrived at Mogadisco from Goa with
nineteen ships. He restored the Portuguese rule on the coast and
burnt Mombasa. The Bavake raids (1542-1587) ceased in the Congo
and the Muzimbas ravaged the east coast of Africa.
1588. The Muzimbas were repulsed from Melinde by Mattheo Mendes de
Vasconellos, the Portuguese commandant. The Portuguese at Pemba
were massacred by the inhabitants and the diwani (loyal) fled to
Melinde. Kilwa was betrayed by a Moslem to the Muzimbas. They
sacked the town, carried off the young women and ate about three
thousand of the people.
1589. Thos. de Souza Continhos (brother of the viceroy) left Goa with a fleet
on the 20th January, and arrived on the coast in March. He
reinstated the diwani of Pemba. An indemnity of four thousand
criisados was placed on Pate and the local king was deposed. The
sheikh of Siu was imprisoned and the various local rulers on the
coast forced to assist at the executions of the natives. Bwana
Bashiri, the king of Lamu (and brother of the sheikh of Kilifi),
was executed for the betrayal of de Brito Falca. Muzimbas had
invested Mombasa, and the Portuguese made a treaty with the
savages under which the place was attacked by sea and land. Ali
Bey was captured by the Portuguese and taken to Portugal, where
he died. The Muzimbas sacked Mombasa and the inhabitants
suffered a similar fate to those of Kilwa. The king of Melinde was
made paramount native ruler on the coast by the Portuguese. He
was chief of the Waseguyo (Mosseguios) and a descendant of
Wagerage, the king, who sent an embassy to Portugal. The people
of Pate claim to have conquered Melinde c. 1340 as it harboured
fugitives from the Lamu archipelago towns.
1590. A ship from Lisbon to Goa was captured by the British and taken as
a prize to England.
1591. Sir James Lancaster wintered at Zanzibar (left 2nd February, 1592)
and visited Pemba, where there was a Portuguese factor.
1592. The king of Melinde deposed the last Shirazi ruler (Shaho ben
Mshahm) of Mombasa after desperate fighting between the
Mombasans and the Kilifi against Melinde (Waseguyo). Ahmed ben
Hasan, a descendant of the Kilwa sultans and a relative of the
king of Melinde, was made ruler of Mombasa. The carrack Madre di


74
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
Dios from Goa was captured off Flores and taken to Plymouth as
a prize.
1594. The Earl of Cumberland captured Nuno Velia Pereira (ex-governor of
Sofala) in the carrack La Cinque Llagas off Fayal. The Mombasa
fort was built.
1596. The viceroy, Francisco di Gama, arrived at Mombasa in December.
He stayed there until February 1597. He reinstated Emmena
(Amin), the previously exiled diwan of Pemba, who had been
deposed again. Permission was given for the Indian princes to send
a pilgrim ship annually to Mecca. Antonia Godinho d'Andrade was
made commandant of the fort at Mombasa on its completion.
Eminena of Pemba went to Goa in 1597.
1596. Nuno d'Acunlia farmed the Mozambique and Sofala trade for nine
thousand six hundred pounds per annum plus all customs dues.
1598. Rebellion in Pemba. Fiki Vane Munganante, governor (vide Ingrams).
Portuguese settled at Lamu and Faza. Ruy Soares de Mello, com-
mandant of Mombasa.
1602. Dutch East India Company formed.
1604. Ahmed, king of Melind£, overlord of Pemba. His son, Hasan,
succeeded in 1609 (Strandes).
c. ,, A princess of Faza accepted Christianity and was married to Joao de
Monteiro Fonseca.
1607. Don Phillip (ex-diwani of Pemba) accepted Christianity and married
Dona Anna, an orphan (Strandes). Estevan d'Ataide repulsed the
Dutch from Mozambique. A fleet under J. Continho landed a hundred
men at Mozambique en route to Goa.
1610. Manuel de Melo Pereira, commandant of Mombasa.
1614. As the result of intrigues by Muigni Naja (uncle of Ahmed), Hasan
the ruler of Mombasa fled to Kilifi. He returned and was assassin-
ated by treachery. Muigni Naja was made local ruler with Muigni
Muhamad (brother of murdered Ahmed) by the Portuguese. An
uncle of Ahmed was known as Don Alfonso.
.1615. Yusef (son of the murdered King Hasan), then aged seven, was sent
to Goa from Mombasa. He was baptised as a Christian in India.
1616. Caspar Bocarro reached Kilwa from Tete by land after a journey of
fifty-three days via Shire and Nyasa.
1617. Orders re custom houses issued by the king of Spain (22nd February),
vide Strandes.
1624. Father Lobo left Goa for Pat6 (26th January). He travelled to Melind^
and Juba.
1627. Portuguese factor on Angoxo Island murdered by natives.
1680. Yusef ben Ahmed (Don Geronimo Chingoulia) returned from Goa and
was installed as king of Mombasa, on the 23rd August. Pedro
Leytan de Gamboa, commandant of the fort.
1631. Yusef was discovered praying at his father's tomb and feared
denouncement to the inquisition as a renegade. He killed Gamboa
and a general massacre of the Portuguese took place. The Christian
churches were destroyed. The sheikhs of Tanga, Mtangata and
Motone joined Yusef. The commandant at Pate sent a messenger to
Goa who reached there in October with news of the rebellion. In
December Pedro Rodriques Botelho and Andre Vasconcellos arrived
at Pat6 and blockaded the coast.
1632. Miguel da Noronha (son of Count Linhares, the viceroy) and Francesco
de Moura arrived at Faza on. the 2nd of January and at Mombasa


75
on the 10th. Botelho and Vasconcellos, after visiting Zanzibar, had
abandoned their ships. Yusef embarked his artillery, family and
adherents on these ships and sailed for Arabia. The town of
Mombasa was destroyed by these events and became a desert.
Strandes gives Mwana Charnba Chande as the ruler of Yumba.
1633. Two Franciscan priests who left Mogadisco for Abyssinia were killed
by the Gallas.
1634. Spanish miners sent from Europe failed to discover any ancient under-
ground workings in Manica (vide Theale).
,, Antonio Garneira Salema Pirnentura visited the coast. Melinde fort
was garrisoned but the people were neutral in the rebellion.
1635. Yusef returned from Arabia and settled with the Arabs at Bweni Bay
(in Madagascar) under a Sultan Masselage. He was joined by
numerous sympathizers from Pate and other places. Francisco de
Cabreira reoccupied Mombasa, Pemba and Pate. He appointed Fiki
Ali as the local ruler of Mombasa and recolonized the island by
twenty families from Pate and Zanzibar. Mafia was then under
Kilwa and tribute was paid to the commandant of Mombasa
(Rezende).
.1636. (17th May), Roque Borgas with two ships from Mozambique made an
unsuccessful attack on the ex-king of Mombasa, Yusef, in Mada-
gascar. It was stated that the failure was due to the lack of
co-operation by Cint. Garneira Sallema (Strandes). Pat£ was
attacked by Cabreira, who fined the inhabitants eight thousand
pernios, Siu one thousand five hundred pardos and Mandra fifty
pardos. He razed the walls of Siu and executed the rebellious chiefs.
Zanzibar was ruled by Sheikh Sandarus and a fine of five hundred
pardos was imposed. Strandes gives rulers of Pate as Hasan Mtaka
and Chande Mtaka.
1637. Treaty made between Pate and Portugal (29th January) under which
no Arab was allowed to settle there. Customs were established.
Chaka (see Barros, 11. 1. 2) made tributary to Portugal (Mombasa
inscription).
1638. Ruler of Waseguyo of Melinde then was Menge Eisen (Strandes).
1644. The slave trade between Mozambique and Brazil initiated.
1645. (3rd December). Petitions from Pate, Faza and Siu against the com-
mandant of Mombasa sent to Goa.
1648. Captain Salvador Correa de Saerbot arrived on East Coast from the
West Coast (Strandes).
.1649. The Imam Sultan ben Saif ben Malek of Oman succeeded (died 1668).
Guillain states that Bwana (Fumo) Shah Ali of Pate whose successor
the Bwana Tamu was the son of a Nabhani governor (and a native
princess), was a contemporary.
1650. (26th January). Muscat surrendered by Portuguese to the Omanese.
1652. The Omanese were repulsed in an attack on Zanzibar.
1653. Francis de S. Cabreira arrived at Zanzibar with one hundred and
twenty Portuguese, forty Indians and one hundred and twenty
Waseguyos and crushed a revolt. The Queen Mwana Mwena Fatima
and her son Otondo were driven out and four hundred Portuguese
prisoners released. Tribute was levied from Zanzibar, Pemba and
Otondo. The king of Zanzibar was exiled and all the dhows belong-
ing to Mafia and Kilwa which he had seized were restored to their
owners (Strandes).


76
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
1655-1659. Numerous deputations were sent from Pate, Zanzibar and other
places on the coast by the Moslems to the imam of Muscat. They
asked for aid in ejecting the Portuguese in return for recognition of
his sovereignty.
1660. Mombasa surrendered by the Portuguese to the Somali and Omanese.
Muhamad ben Mubarak appointed governor by the imam of Muscat,
Sultan ben Saif.
1661. A Portuguese fleet arrived and resumed possession of Mombasa.
1662. Jos. Botelho de Silveira commandant of Mombasa, and Munha Agho
native Moslem ruler.
1670. Patd revolted against the Portuguese. Moslems repulsed from Mozam-
bique.
1678. Pedro d'Almeida (viceroy) arrived at Pate (12th August). Faza and
the Wagunga were allied with the Portuguese. A four-month seige
of Pate and Siu took place before they surrendered. The Portuguese
commander made his headquarters in the principal mosque and
built a fort at Pate. The inhabitants were fined thirty thousand
crusados, and the kings of Pate and Siu were imprisoned.
1680. Trade on the coast thrown open to the Banyans.
1682. The ship Nostra Senora da Ayuda was seized by pirates. The pirates
were captured at Mozambique and sent in irons to Goa.
1686. The deposed ruler of Faza then at Mombasa in exile. Joao Antunes,
Portuguese commandant at Mombasa, attacked Pat6.
1687. (April). Francesco P. de Silva left for Pate and attacked the town
in May. The prince of Pate and his retinue were deported to Goa
(vide Strandes and native records). Pate fort (near Makupa) garri-
soned with one hundred men under the Bwana Daud ben Sheikh and
Joseph Pereira de Brito as local governor. In October an English
galiot from Surat arrived at Pate. Before the end of the year the
Portuguese occupation of Pate ceased.
1690. Free trade on the coast interdicted (30th March). It was not until
1783 that the Banyans were expelled from south of the Zambesi.
1692. Portuguese sovereignty of the Lamu archipelago ceased.
1696. Joao Rodriques Leao, commandant of Mombasa (23rd October). The
Somalis and Omanese invested Mombasa in November.
1697. (27th January). A Portuguese fleet under Luis de Mello Sampayo
arrived at Mombasa from Goa. In March, the Moslem governor of
Mombasa was Fiki Valla di Muigni Mutamo. The king of Tanga
Island was Guaba di Muizabo. Sampayo arrived at Mozambique
on 16th August and the viceroy reached Goa from Lisbon on 23rd
December. Last letter from Ant. Mogo de Mello from Mombasa
dated 15th March, 1697.
1698. Kilwa and Zanzibar joined the Moslems against the Portuguese, under
an Omanese commander. Mombasa surrendered and Nasr ben
Abdallah was appointed governor by the imam of Muscat. A general
massacre of the Portuguese (including the half-castes) is said to have
taken place along the coast. Renegades from the Moslem faith seem
to have suffered a similar fate to that of Christian renegades inflicted
by the Portuguese. The Omanese fleet was repulsed from Mozam-
bique (Guillain).
1699. A fleet of five ships with nine hundred men left Lisbon under Henrique
Jaques de Magelhan.
c. 1700. Sayid Abu Bakri ben Sheikh ben Abu Bakri el Masela ben Alowi
became the first sherifian sultan of Vumba (Hollis).


The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa
77
1710. The Bwana Daud of Faza in exile at Goa. Sheikh Nasr of Kilwa then
had a garrison of fifty men.
1719. A king of Kilwa (un-named) mentioned by Strandes.
1720. Pate suzerain to Muscat.
1723. Ibrim ben Yusef ben Mumadi ben Auli (? Ali) then the sultan of
Kilwa (vide Strandes).
1727. (12th December). Envoys from East Africa, including Bwana Amadi
ben Muallem Bekr, invited the Portuguese to eject the Omanese
and resume the sovereignty of the coast. Treaty made on the 24th
December between the Bwana Tamu Abubekr ben Muhamad of
Pate and the Portuguese by which Pate was placed under the protec-
tion of Goa (for a cash consideration paid to the ruling king). Bwana
Amadi ben Zayd (the titular ruler of Zanzibar) was then in the
Hejaz on the pilgrimage.
1728. Luis de Mello Sampayo arrived at Pate and hoisted the Portuguese
flags at Pate and Sin. The Li wall Muhamad Abdin Syed (vide
Strandes) surrendered Mombasa to the Portuguese and their allies
on. the 12th March. Antonio de Albuquerque de Coelho appointed
governor of Pate with a garrison of three hundred men. Alvaro
Caetano de Mello e Castro appointed governor of Mombasa. Nasr
ben Abdallah returned to Oman. Kilwa (which had joined the
Moslems) surrendered to the Portuguese, also Ben Sultan Alowi
the ruler of Tanga and Mkam Erumba the ruler of Mtangata.
1729. (29th November). The Portuguese were again ejected from Mombasa
by the Moslems. The sultan of Pate sent a force against the
Portuguese. Sece Romba, an Omanese usurper, was sent to Mozam-
bique and died there. A deputation was sent to Muscat to ask the
imam to resume possession.
1730. A fleet under Luis de Mello left Goa for Africa on the 2nd January.
Two of the vessels sunk in heavy weather and the remainder were
dismasted. The attempt to regain possession of Mombasa was
abandoned and the coastal rulers became independent of each other
under a nominal suzerainty to the imam of Muscat.
1733. The Bwana Tamu Mkuu (Abubekr ben Muhamad) of Pat£ was
succeeded by his son, Bakari (vide Strandes).
1735. Saleh ben Said el Hadermi, governor of Mombasa for the imam.
1739. Muhamad ben Osman el Mazrui replaced Saleh ben Said at Mombasa.
Ahmed ben Sheikh ben Ahmed ben Sheikh el Melindi (a descendant
of the father of Sultan Yusef) was the vizier (Guillain).
1744. Lamu and Brava refused to recognize the Busaidi Imam Ahmed ben
Said who had been recognized by the sherif of Mecca. Massacre of
the Nebhani at Pate by the Sultan Fumo Bakri ben Bwana Tamu.
1746. Revolt in Pemba against Queen Mwana Mimi of Pate. Pat6 attacked
Mombasa and Marka sent envoys to the Imam Ahmed ben Said.
Ali ben Othman el Mazrui of Mombasa declared his independence
from Oman, which was then in Persian occupation, and Sultan ben
Murshid had committed suicide.
1755. The Mazrui of Mombasa attacked Zanzibar.
1759. A messenger from Sultan Hasan ben Yusef of Kilwa arrived at Mozam-
bique.
1760. Civil war in Pate in which the Mazrui intervened (vide letter of the
sultan of Kilwa dated the 12th May, cited by Strandes). Siu
(Portuguese station) raided by the Omanese.


78
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
1768. Titular prince of Faza at Mozambique in exile with a pension of one
hundred scrafinos monthly from the Portuguese.
1769. Caetano Alberto Judice made a final and unsuccessful effort to
recapture Mombasa for the Portuguese.
1770. The Arabs expelled from Mozambique by the Portuguese.
1776. William Bolts hoisted Austrian flag at Delagoa Bay and introduced the
Maria Theresa dollar for currency.
1784. The deposed Imam Saif ben Ahmed arrived at Lamu from Zanzibar
and resided there until his death. His son, Badir, was murdered in
Oman on the 31st July, 1806.
1790. The Biemal tribe ejected the people of Marka and occupied the town
(Guillain).
1811. Lamu partially destroyed by the Mombasans.


The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa
79
THE MAZRUI RULERS OF MOMBASA.
(Compiled from the information published by Guillain.)
Ali
Appendix D
Othman
(i) i
Muhamad
(1739-1746)
Murdered
(4) |
Abdallah
(1773-1782)
I
Ali
(At Pate in
1807)
(2) |
Ali
(1746-1755)
Murdered
(7) |
Suliman (Ex-
Gov. of Pemba)
1725-1826
(5) |
Ahmed
(Accepted
Busaidil784 (Deposed and
later revolted) imprisoned
1783-1814 with 2 sons)
Nasr (at Pemba,
1823). (Attacked
No. 8). Murdered
in 1829.
i r
(6) Abdallah Muhamad
(1814-1825) (killed
Defied the 1833)
Imam.
Driven out of Mombasa by
Bwana Sheikh ben Fumo
Madi of Pate who returned
from Muscat with troops
under Abdel Hadi and
assumed rule of Pate as
Imam's vassal.
i
Khamis
| Nasr
Khamis (3) |
| (At Pemba Masud
Kateb c. 1745) (1756-1773)
| Ex-Governor
Rashid of Pemba
Mubarak
died 1806
(Buried at Chaka)
i
Razik
Abdallah
(At Pemba 1783)
Beheaded by
Nyika)
(Ruled Pemba in 1822.
Fled to Mombasa.
Defeated at Pemba
and fled. Returned
to Pemba & killed)
I
Bint Khosu
(At Gasi in
1848)
(8) Salem
(1826-1835)
Accepted Imam
in 1828.
Rashid
(1836-7)
Deported to Oman
with 24 others.
I (9) I |
Rashid Nasr Mubarak
(Killed (1835-6) (at Pemba)
1834) Fought with
No. 8 in 1825.
Went to
Mauritius with
Capt. Owen.
(Mubarak was defeated
by Muhamad ben Nasr
and the island was
re-occupied by the
Sultan of Zanzibar)
Khamis
(At Takaongo in 1848)
vide Guillain.
Appendix E
PEMBA.
Original line of Rulers (Liwali) and Counsellors (Diwani) reputed to be Shirazi
from Kilwa.
1508. Duarte de Lemos attacked Pemba and tribute exacted. Most of the
population fled to Mombasa.
1528. Pemba and Zanzibar loyal to Portugal against Mombasa.
1587. Massacre of the Portuguese at Pemba. The pro-Portuguese Liwali fled to
MelindA He was reinstated by Thomas de Souza Continho.


80
1594. The Liwali again ejected and fled to Mombasa, where he became a
Christian. He went to Goa and was reinstated by Francisco di Gama
in 1596. This man's name was Emmena (Amin, vide Guillain). He was
probably the last of the Shirazi.
1598. A rebellion at Pemba was reported to Goa.
In 1740 a New Dynasty of Liwali from Pagi was founded.
Selim
Mkame ben Abubekr
(1) I (2) | ~ (4) [
Ngwachini Othman Kihanuni
(Went to Muscat and saw the I |
Imam circ. 1820). Nasr ben | ?
Suliman the Imam's governor ?
at Zanzibar was ordered to
attack Pemba and drive the
Mazrui put.
No. 3. I brim.
No. 4. As above.
No. 5. Kikamburi.
No. 6. Syed Mtu ben Kikamburi.
Notes on Pemba.
1608. Captain Sharpey was attacked at Pemba.
1635. Francisco Xeixas de Cabreira attacked Pemba.
1637. Tribute was collected.
1698. The Imam Saif ben Sultan occupied Pemba and ejected the Europeans.
1710. Pemba garrisoned by the Imam.
1728. Diwani Mwenyi Mkuu ben Sultan Manya. saw Luis de Mello de Sampayo at Mombasa.
1739. Pemba revolted against Oman.
1746. Ali ben Osman appointed his uncle, Khamis ben Ali, governor of Pemba.
1753. Masud ben Nasr governor of Pemba.
c. 1774. Badi ben Suliman, Mazrui chief at Pemba, murdered by adherents of Fumo Amadi of
Pate.
1783. Abdallah ben Masud sent to Pemba as governor for Mazrui. He revolted.
,, Suliman ben Ali (cousin of Ahmed ben Muhamad el Mazrui) sent as governor of
Pemba.
1825. Captain Owen saw Nasr ben Suliman el Mazrui.
Notes for Appendix F
Notes on Zanzibar and Tumbutu.(1) There is no record of the rulers and Ingram states
that practically nothing is known of any prior to the Mazrui. There is an inscription in the
Kizimkazi mosque to Es Sheikh es Seyid Abi Amram Mfaume el Hasan ben Muhamad which is
dated a.h. 500 or a.d. 1107. The inscription is attributed to the founder of the mosque.
(2) This may be the Queen Fatima of 1653 who was driven out of the island by the
Portuguese when they released four hundred prisoners. Her son (Otondo) was banished with
her (vide Ingram's, op. cit., p. 114). Burton {op. cit., I, p. 284) states that the Europeans at
Zanzibar were massacred after the fall of Mombasa in 1660. It is possible that Mwenyi Mkuu
Yusef, son of the banished queen, was the ruler then.
(3) This queen sent a letter to Goa in 1697. The Portuguese had sent a fleet in 1696 but
both Zanzibar and Mombasa were occupied by the Imam Saif ben Sultan in 1698 (vide Guillain,
op. cit., p. 522).
(4) Mwenyi Mkuu was born in 1785 and died in 1865. During the latter part of his life he
lived with Sheha (Shah) Kiriemata ben Ngwamchanga of the Wa-Changani. Mwenyi Mkuu is
notorious for the large numbers of slaves which he slaughtered to consecrate the foundations
of a palace which was incomplete after ten years' intermittent work.
(5) The grave of Mwana Mwatima bint Mfaume Madi es Shirazi (who is not otherwise
recorded) and the grave of her son, Mfaume Ali Sherif, are at Kizimkazi.
The old regalia of the Zanzibar kings included two wooden drums and two wooden horns
(trumpets) now in the Zanzibar Museum.


The Sliirazi Colonizations of East Africa 81
ZANZIBAR ANI) TUMBUTU.
Genealogies. (After Guillain and Ingrams.)
Appendix F
Zanzibar.
In the thirteenth century the ruler was:
Hasan ben Abubekr (vide Kilwa Chron.)
(Of reputed Shirazi descent). (1)
(2)
Mwana Mwema=An Arab from Yemen
I
Mwenyi Mkuu Yusef
(of Otonda)
Bakari
(Kazimkazi)
(Rule divided)
Fatima
(Zanzibar)
(3)
Queen Fatima=Abdallah, Mek of Otondo
Hasan
(Ruling in 1728)
A fugitive at Pate
Sultan
I
Ahmed (Ruled prior to 1744)
Musa
(Went to Zanzibar
from Pate in
1728)
Hasan ii=Mwana bint Mwana
(at Bweni) j (Queen of Tumbutu)
Ali (Ruler of Tumbutu)
El Wazir Muhamad ben Ahmed
? brother of Hasan ii
I (4)
Mwenyi Mkuu
(a)
Tumbutu.
Mwana b. Mwana=Mwenyi Mkuu Hasan ii
I (of Zanzibar)
(b) I
Ali
<>J
fc atima
I
Mkadam
(d) I
Vuai
Daughter=Muhamad
ben Ali
Ahmed (1865-1873)
Daughter
(died 1871)
(e) |
Mwana Kazija
Daughter
Mwana Nguya=Muhamad ben Saif
(Bint Mkuu) (died 1899)
Kombo
I
Ngala
(f)l
Ali
(Last of the
Royal line)
5


82
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
Geological Notes on the Coastal Region of Tanganyika
By G. M. StocUey
THE coastal region of Tanganyika may be divided into two distinct areas,
using the Rufiji river as an intermediate boundary. The northerly
triangular shaped section has its base along the Rufiji river and its apex
a few miles west of Tanga. The western boundary is somewhat irregular but
part of it is limited by the Pall's Line Fault*, passing through Ngerengere
on the Central Railway. The southern area is roughly shaped to a narrow
quadrilateral or truncated triangle with its base along the Rovuma river and
its northern side bounded by the Rufiji river. From Newala northwards the
western boundary is an irregular erosion scarp. Although the area of the
coastal sediments narrows considerably and finally is broken in the north, it
nevertheless persists to as far as the Mombasa coastal region of Kenya.
Similarly in the south the coastal sediments continue into the Portuguese
colony of East Africa.
This division of the coastal region into two areas is particularly useful,
as it enables certain features to be contrasted ; differences of topography, which
may only be interpreted by tectonics, are thus sharply defined. These features
may be briefly summarized as follows :
(1) The northern triangle has relatively few hills : it is a gently
undulating country rising to about seven hundred and fifty feet above
sea-level, seventy miles west of Dar es Salaam. The Pugu hills and the
Maneromango district directly west and south-west of the capital form the
one exception. These hills rise to over one thousand three hundred feet
above sea-level.
(2) The southern quadrilateral rises from sea-level to over two thousand
feet within seventy to eighty miles from the coast at Mikindani.
(3) The western boundary of the northern section is partly faulted :
if the Karroo rocks are also included then there is a sharp, faulted boundary
between the fossiliferous sediments and the rocks of the Basement
Complex.
(4) The western boundary of the southern section consists of frowning
cliffs at least one thousand feet high, which from the south decrease in
boldness of profile northwards to close to the Rufiji river. As a matter
of fact there is a sag in the topographic features between the elevated
Makonde-Mwera plateaux of the south and the hills of the Matumbi
district south of the Rufiji river.
*Mr. C. Gillman, f.g.s., Chief Engineer of the Tanganyika Railways, first pointed out
the existence of falls and rapids in most of the rivers from north to south, coinciding with
a south-west fault, commencing west of Tanga to as far as the IJlanga river and possibly
to the Rovuma.


Geological Notes on the Coastal Regions of Tanganyika
83
(5) Both regions have high ground in their southern portions and
descend topographically to the north. The northern section descends more
or less gradually to sea-level near Tanga (the Amboni Caves on the coast
are formed of Jurassic limestone) while the southern section ends off,
more or less abruptly, just south of the Bufiji.
(6) Both areas have drowned coastlines, incisions cut into the coast
forming bays and creeks. But there is a distinct zig-zag outline to the
northern region formed by relatively straight coastlines. In the south the
coastal fringe is more or less curved, and more indented.
(7) The smaller rivers in the Makonde and Mwera plateaux have cut
deep valleys and gorges in their upper reaches. Similar rivers in the
Kiturika and Matumbi hills flow in shallower valleys, but exhibit the same
youthful features. These conditions it should be noted, are conspicuously
absent in the northern triangular region with the exception of the Pugu
hills. The Pugu hills exhibit the characters of the southern region; they
are more elevated in the south and die away to the north.
Thus the Rovuma and Lukuledi rivers flow through deep,, wide gorges
before they reach the coast and the entrance to these gorges coincides with the
outcrop of the Mesozoic rocks. On the other hand, in the northern region the
rivers meander through mature valleys in a coastal plain. In most cases, with
one exception, the rivers flow directly from west to east. The tendency of
rivers in the southern region to flow north-eastwards is also exhibited by rivers
of the northern region, but to a much less extent. The one exception is the
Ruvu river, which curves from a south-east direction directly to the north-east
as soon as it enters the region of the coastal sediments.
It should be pointed out that the plateaux of the south descend in almost
a straight line to the coast line; a small interruption to this inclined plane
may be observed near Lindi town. But the eastern slopes of the Pugu hills
are marked by numerous notches or benches from summit to base. These
benches are formed by periodic halts in the general uplift of the coastline.
They are in fact "fossil cliffs."
The actual coastal fringe is usually flat and was formed at a much later
date. It consists of coral reefs with a rich accumulation of the dead tests and
shells of echinoids and mollusca.
Now, the topographic features enumerated above are not without
significance; they are definitely governed by geological and tectonic
conditions. The geology shows that in both regions the sediments dip at a
low angle eastwards to the coast. The rocks of the Pugu hills form an
exception as they dip to the north-west. This area is quite distinct and should
be separated from both the main regions. Otherwise there is an apparent
conform ability of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in both regions. In the south,
however, the Jurassics lie unconformably upon rocks of the Basement
Complex; while in the north the Jurassics rest upon unfossiliferous sand-
stones, presumed to be of Karroo age. These Karroo rocks have been proved


84
Tanganyika Notes arid Records
by boring to lie upon the Basement Complex, but at the surface they are
faulted against the latter downthrown to the east.
In the northern section no Paleogene (early Tertiary) rocks have yet been
discovered; the earliest Tertiary rocks are found on Pemba Island, east of
Tanga port and separated both from the mainland and Zanzibar Island by a
deep trough. There is a possibility that earlier Tertiaries underlie the older
Neogene (Miocene). Paleogene rocks are known only from the Lindi and
Kilwa coasts. These rocks are faulted against the Mesozoic near Lindi town.
The outcrop of Mesozoic rocks, which end more or less abruptly at the
Rufiji river, and which are repeated in the Maneromango area east of the
Ruvu river, suggests a repetition by strike faulting. This is supported to a
certain extent by the opposing dips. The dips revealed in the cuttings of the
Central railway through the Pugu hills are to the north-west, while the dips
on the west of the Ruvu river are to the east and south-east. This of course
may be interpreted as support for a synclinal structure. Against this conception
is the general absence of folding in this area,, the lack of repetition of
Cretaceous and Jurassic rocks on the eastern slopes of the Pugu hills, and
the possibility of the correlation of this fault with the extension southwards
of the western fault of the Pemba Trough. This trough is in reality a miniature
rift valley, drowned below sea-level. The strike fault must therefore occur in
the vale of the Ruvu river and probably accounts for the sudden change in
the direction of drainage. The southern extension of this fault coincides with
the eastern boundary of the Karroo south of the Rufiji river. The Karroo
rocks are known to dip eastwards into the Basement Complex and must
therefore be bounded on the east by a south-west fault.
A fault with a general east-south-east direction, lying close to the Rufiji
river is indicated by certain considerations. In the first case there is the
abrupt ending of the Mesozoic, where the Ruvu river swings round to the
north-east. There is a faulted boundary to the Karroo rocks south of that
point. There are certain topographic features to the east, which suggest a
higher elevation of the Pugu block relative to the coastal area to the south.
The presence of a hot spring in the Rufiji valley, west of Mohoro, along this
line may be connected with this fault. In addition there is the blunt ending
of the outcrops of the Basement Complex, between the Karroo rocks on
the west and the coastal sediments on the east, south of the Rufiji river.
Other faults are suggested by the evidence of the rapid descent in sub-
marine soundings close to the coast and to the islands of the Zanzibar
Protectorate. There is very little doubt that faults occur all along the coastline,
around Pemba Island, and on the east coast of Zanzibar Island.
These dislocations may now be classified as follows :
A. Paleogene Faultsprobably late Eocene to early Oligocene age. ,
1. Pall's Line Fault, direction NE.
2. Probable Rufiji Fault, E.-W.
3. General foundering of the coastline with the completion of the
formation of the Indian Ocean.


Full Text

PAGE 1

TANGANYIKA NOTES AND RECORDS List of Articles ../ The Description of Africa Page 1 / ..; Printed by A Note on Longido and Ketumbeine Mountains R. E Moreau and P. J. Greenway 8 Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast G. F. Oole 15 The "Mashokora" Cultivations of the Coast A. V. Hartnoll and N. R Fuggles Couchman 34 The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa Arthur E. Robinson 40 Geological Notes on the Coastal Region of Tanganyika G M. Stockley 82 The Story of Mbega Abdullah Hemedi (translation by Roland Allen) 87 Notes. on the Fipa G. D. Popplewell 99 A Note on Some Ruins near Bagam.oyo Norman Forster 106 Voyage de Marseille au lac Tanganyika en 1902 Sister Rose 110 Anti-Locust Measures Memoirs R. C Jerrard 114 A Story of the Origin of the Name of Bandar-es-Salaam Morwenna Hartnoll 117 The Pain of Individualism T. M Revington 120 Notes 122 Book Reviews Corresponc;lence 124 128 the Government Printer Dar es Salaam

PAGE 3

PUBLISHED HALF YEARLY Tanganyika Notes and Records Editor : B R U C E H U T T Editorial Committee SIR EDMUND TEALE C. GILL M AN, D. R. J 0 H N P. W. N E W M A N APRIL 1937 -Number3-FIVE SHILLINGS PER COPY

PAGE 5

EditoTial Note Wl1 : REGRE'L' that through an oversight we omitted to acknowledge the sources of two of the illustrations which appeared in the second number of the Journal. The block for the frontispiece was lent us by the Bureau tot Bevordering van het Kinine-Gebruik of Amsterdam and the photograph facing page 48 was taken by Dr D. R. Grantham and was reproduced by kind permission of the Mineralogical Magazine. It is of interest to reeord that there lms been a gratifying increase in the cireulation of the Journal during recent months and that numerous en
PAGE 8

[F1ontispiece

PAGE 9

The Dejc1'iplion of Africa 1 --------------------------------------The Delcription of Africa The following description of Africa is ktken from an old volume of maps dat-ed 1646. '11he author is unknown but he appears to lmve obtained much of his information from the works of "our deserving Country-man Master John Speed," (1552 ? to 1629), historian and cartographer. The maps are endorsed "P. KAERIUS COELAVIT 1646." ThiH Peter Kaerius was another well-known seventeenth century cartographer and one of his maps dated 1614 is r-eproduced (from another source) on the opposite page. AFRICA as it lay neareft the feat of the firft people, fo queitionleffe it was next inhabited: and therefore requires the fecond place in our Divifion. It is generally agreed upon, that the North parts were poffeft by the fons of Cham not long after the confufion. And fo indeed the Kingly Prophet in the 78. Pfalm, ufeth the Tents of Cham for the Land of Egypt, which is the part of Africa which joyns upon the South-weft of Afia, & is divided from the holy Land but by a fmallfthmus. Give the people their own asking, and they will have the glory of the firft Inhabitants of the W oriel: and prove it too both from the temperature of their air, ai1d fertility of their foyl, which breeds and nourifheth not onely Plants and fruits, but fends forth, of its own vertue, livi11g creatures in fuch fort, as amazeth the beholder. We have a report (if you will beleeve it) that in a ground neer the River Nilus, there have been found Mice half made up, & Nature taken in the very nick, when fhe had already wrought life in the fore-parts, head and breaft, the hinder joynts yet remaining in the form of earth. Thus I fuppofe they would have man at firft grown out of their foyle, without the immediate hand of God in his Creation. And it hath beeh the opinion of fome vain Philofophers, that for this caufe have made the Ethiopians to be the firft people: for that there the Sun by his propinquity, wrought fooneft upon the moifture of the ground, and made it fit for mortality to fprout ih. (2) But to leave thefe, without doubt Africa is of great antiquity, and fo is allowed by all Hiftorians of credit: In the year 1566 the people were increafed to an exceeding multitude; and therefore were enforced to enlarge their bounds, upon their neighbouring Countries. For as it was of a moft rare fertility: fo it lay not any long way, and had free acceffe to it by land from the garden of our firft Parents. (J) In the time of A braham we have better affurance from the Word of God, that it was then a place of fame, and the Inhabitants of fome growth, for they were able to fupply the wants of the Countries adjoyning by their [tore: and thither went A braham out of the Land of Canaan, to avoid the great famine, Gen. rz. She had then her Princes, Pharaoh and his mighty men that feared not to reflft God, and were afterward made the inftruments of his punifhments upon the children of Jfracl: for they kept them in bondage foure hundred yeers, as was foretold to Abraham in the rs. of Genefis. 2

PAGE 11

The Defc1'iptiun uf AjTica 1 The Defcription of Africa 'rhe following description of Africa is taken from an old volume of maps daJed 1646. 'rhe author is unknown but he appears to have obtained much of his information from the works of "our deserving Country-man Master John Speed," (1552 ? to 1629), historian and cartographer. The maps are endorsed "P. KAERIUS COELAVIT 1646." 'l'bis Peter Kaerius was another well-known seventeenth century cartographer and one of his maps dated 1614 is reproduced (from another souree) on the oppoRite page. AFRICA as it lay neareft the feat of the firft people, fo queftionleffe it was next inhabited: and therefore requires the fecond place in our Divifion. It is generally agreed upon, that the North parts were poffeft by the fons of Cham not long after the confullon. And fo indeed the Kingly Prophet in the 78. Pfalm, ufeth the Tents of Cham for the Land of Egypt, which is the part of Africa which joyns upon the South-weft of Ajia, & is divided from the holy Land but by a fmal I jthmus. Give the people their own asking, and they will have the glory of the firft Inhabitants of the World: and prove it too both from the temperature of their air, ai1,d fertility of their foyl, which breeds and nourifheth not onely Plants and fruits, but fends forth, of its own vertue, livi11g creatures in fuch fort, as amazeth the beholder. We have a report (if you will beleeve it) that in a ground neer the River Nilus, there have been found Mice half made up, & Nature taken in the very nick, when fhe had already wrought life in the fore-parts, head ai1d breaft, the hinder joynts yet remaining in the form of earth. Thus I fuppofe they would have man at firft grown out of their foyle, without the immediate hand of God in his Creation. And it bath been the opinion of fome vain Philofophers, that for this caufe have made the Ethiopians to be the firft people: for that there the Sun by his propinquity, wrought fooneft upon the moifture of the ground, and made it fit for mortality to fprout in. (2) But to leave thefe, without doubt Africa is of great antiquity, and fo is allowed by all Hiftorians of credit: In the year 1566 the people were increafed to an exceeding multitude; and therefore were enforced to enlarge their bounds, upon their neighbouring Countries. For as it was of a moft rare fertility: fo it lay not any long way, and had free acceffe to it by land from the garden of our firft Parents. (J) In the time of A braham we have better affurance from the Word of God, that it was then a place of fame, and the Inhabitants of fome growth, for they were able to fupply the wants of the Countries adjoyning by their ftore: and thither went A braham out of the Land of Canaan, to avoid the great famine, Gen. 12. She had then her Princes, Pharaoh and his mighty men, that feared not to reflft God, and were afterward made the inftruments of his punifhments upon the children of Ifracl: for they kept them in bondage foure hundred yeers, as was foretold to Abraham in the 15. of Genejis. 2

PAGE 12

Tanganyika Notes and Records ---------------------(4) But this proof of Ancientry concerns not the whole Country: onely thofe Regions which lye under the temperate Zone. The reft for a long time after were unknown to our Geographers, held not habitable, indeed beyond Mount Atlas, by reafon of the extream heat. The reports which paffe of it before Ptolemey s time were but at randome, and by gueffe of fuch as had never fayled it round, or fcarce come within fight of it, but at a great diftance, and by this means, either out of their own errour, or elfe a deftre of glory more then they had deferved: or perhaps a Travellors trick, to cheate the ignorant world that could not confute their reports, they fpread many idle fables of monftrous people without heads, with their eyes and mouthes in their breafts, maintained to this day by fame Authors of good efteem. But for my part I hold it moft reafonable to credit Saint Auguftine, who was born and died in Africa. That bee in his eighth Booke De Civitate Dei, acknowledgeth no fuch creatures, or if they be, they be not men; or if men, not born of Adam. 'And our later difcoveries j oyn in with him that report not (upon their own experience) of any other people then fuch as our felves are; and yet I fuppofe they have feen more of the Country then ever any heretofore did. For they paffe not now to fay le it round once a yeer, by the Cape of good Hope to the Eaft-fide of the very Jfthmus toward the Red Sea. (5) This courfe by the South was difcovered by one Vafco de Gama, in the yeer 1497. and a way found to the Eaft-Indies by which the Princes of Portugal! receive an infinite gain, both in Spices, and other Merchandife. The hope of which firft fet them upon the adventure. And in this one thing wee owe much to our own Countrey, otherwife a deteftable plague, that the infatiate defire of wanton commodities bath opei.1ed to us a large part of the world before not known, and which we hope may hereafter increafe the light of the Gofpel, and the number of the Elect. (6) If we compare Her to the two other portions of the fame Hemifphere, fhee is fituated wholly South, and in part Weft-ward. It is divided on the North from Europe by the M editerraneum Sea. On the South where it runnes into a kinde of point at the Cape of good Hope, it is bound with the vaft Ocean, which in that part hath the name of the 2Ethiopicl? Sea; on the Eaft with the Red Sea; and on the Weft with the A tlantike Ocean, called there in our common Maps, M are del North. So that in brief we reckon both Her Longitude and Latitude in the largeft parts, to be neer upon 4200. Englifh miles. (7) N otwithftanding this vaft extent of ground, yet we ftill of Europe keep our own, and by authority of the moft and beft Geographers, exceed as much for number, as either this or Afia doe for room. Caufe enough there is why Africa indeed fhould come fhort of both: for in moft parts, fhe bath fcarce plenty fufficient to maintain Inhabitants: and where there is, we fhall meet with multitudes of ravening beafts, or other horrible monfters, enough to devour both it and us. In a word, there is no Region of the world fo great an enemy to mans commerce: there is fuch fcarcity of water, that no creature almoft could live, had not Nature provided thereafter, that the greater part of them endures not drink in the very midft of Summer. So Pliny reports. And if (as fometimes they be inforced by fuch as take them) they fuddenly

PAGE 13

The De.fcTiption of AfTica 3 perifh. Thus we fee how God gives a property to each place, that may make up her defects, left it fhoulcl be left as well by beafts as men. Their Land is full of fandy deferts, which lye open to the wincles and ftorms, and oft times are thrown up ii1to billows like waves of the Sea, & indeed are no leffe dangerous. Strabo writes that Cambyfes his Army was thus hazarded in .!Ethiopia. And H erodotus, that the P [tlli an ancient but foolifh Nation (it feems) in Africa, as they marched toward the South, to revenge themfelves upo11 the wincles for drying up their Rivers, were over-whelmed with fand, and fo dyed in their graves. Beficles thefe annoyances, it is fo full of a venomous kinde of Serpent, that in fome places they dare not dreffe their Land, ui:l)effe they firft fence their legs with boots againft the fting. Other wilde creatures there are which range about, and poffeffe to themfelves a great portion of this Country, and make a Wilderneffe of Lions, Leopards, Elephants, and in fome places Crocodiles, H)1ena's, Bafilisks, at:!cl indeed monfters without either number or name. Africa now every year produceth fome ftrange creatures before not heard of, peradventure not extant. For fo Pliny thii1ks, that for want of water, creatures of all kincles at fometimes of the year gather to thofe few Rivers that are, to quench their thirft: And then the Males promifcuoufly inforcing the Females of every fpecies which comes next him, produceth this variety of forms: and would be a grace to Africa, were it not fo full of clanger to the Inhabitants, which as Saluft reports, die more by beafts then by difeafes. For thofe tracts about Barbar3' are every tenth year, 15. or 25. vifited with a great plague, and continually it!fectecl with the French difea[e in fuch violence, that few recover, unleffe by change of aire into Numidia, or the Land of Negroes, whofe very temper is faid to be a proper antidote againft thofe difeafes. (8) But among all theie inconveniences, commodities are found of good worth: and the very evils yeeld at !aft their benefit, both to their own Country and other parts of the world. The Elephant, a docible creature and exceeding ufefull for battell: The Camel which affords much riches to the Arabian. The Barbary horfe which we om: felves commend: The Ram, that befides his ftefh gives twenty pounds of wooll from his very tayl: The Bull, painfull, and able to doe beft f.ervice in their tillage. And fo m oft of their worft, alive or dead, yield us their meclicinall parts, which the world could not we! want. (9) In her divifion we will follow our later Mafters in this Art, whom time at leaft and experience, if f\O other worth, have made more authentike, and thofe divide it into feven parts. (r) Rarbary or Mauritania. (2) Numidia. (3) Lybia or AfTica propria. (4) Nig1itarum terra. (S) .!Ethiopia fuperior. (6) .!Ethiopia inferior. (7) .!Egypt: and to thefe we add the (8) Iflai1ds belonging to Africa. (ro) Barbary is the firft. The bounds of it are North-ward the Mediter raneum, Weft-ward the Atlantike: On the South the Mountain Atlas, and on the Eaft .!Egypt. It is efteemecl the m oft noble part of all Africa: and hath its name from an A rabick word Barbara, that fignifies a kinde of rude found, for fuch the Arabians took their Language to be: & thence the Grecians ea! them Barbarians that fpeak a harfher Language then themfelves. After the La tines, and now we, efteem the people of our own Nation barbarous, if they

PAGE 14

4 Tanganyika Notes and Records ever fo little differ from the rudeneffe either of our tongue or manners. The Inhabitants are noted to be faithfull in their courfe : but yet crafty in promifing and performing too. For they are covetous, ambitious, jealous of their wives beyond meafure. Their Country yeelds Oranges, Dates, Olives, Figges, and a certain kinde of Goat, whofe haire makes a ftuffe as fine as lilke. It contains in it the Kingdomes of Tunnis, Algeires, Feffe, and Morocho. (1) Tunnis, is famous for fever all places mentioned of old. Here was Dona where A uguftine was Bifhop, and Hippo his birth-place. And Ttmnis a City five miles in compaffe, and old Carthage built by Virgils Dido, Romes a:mula for wealth, valour, and ambition of the univerfall Empire. It was twenty two miles in circuit: And Vtica, memorable for Catoes death. (2) Algeires contains in it a ftrange harbour for the Turkifh Pirates: and is of note for the reflftance it made Charles the fifth; who received before the chief Towns in this Region, an innumerable loffe of Ships, Horfes, Ordnance and men. (3) Feffe bath a City in it with feven hundred Churches, and one of them a mile and a half in compaffe (Stafford): And in this Country was our Englifh Stukeley Ilain. (4) M orocho, where the chief Towne of the fame name bath a Church larger then that of Feffe, and bath a Tower fo high that you may difcern from the top of it the Hills of Azafi at an hundred and thirty miles diftance. Here is likewife a Caftle of great fame, for their Globes of pure gold that ftand upon the top of it, and weighing 130000. Barbary Duckets. (II) Numidia was the fecond part in our Divifion of Africa, and bath on the Weft the Atlantike, on the Eaft J'Egypt, on the North Atlas, and the deferts of Lybia on the South. It is called likewife regio dactylifera, from the abundance of Dates; for they feed upon them onely; a people, Idolaters, Ideots, Theeves. Murderers, except fame few Arabians that are mingled among them of ingenious difpofttion, and addicted much to Poetry. They feldome ftay longer in one place then the eating down of the graffe, and this wandring courfe makes but few Cities, and thofe in fame places three hundred miles diftant. (12) Lybia the third is limited oi;J. the Eaft with Nilus, Weft-ward with the Atlantike, on the North with Nwnidia, and the South with terra Nigritarum. It was called Sarra, as much as Defert: For fo it is, and a dry one too, fuch as can afford no water to a travellor fometimes in feven dayes journey. The Inhabitants are much like to the Numidians, live without any Law almoft of Nature. Yet in this place were two of the Sibyls, which prophecied of Chrift, and Arrius the Heretick. About Lybia were the Garamantes, and the Pfilli mentioned before for their ftmple attempts againft the South winde. (13) Terra Nigritarum, the Land of Negroes is the fourth, and hath oi1 the Weft the Atlantike, on the Eaft l'Ethiopia fuperior, on the North Lybia, on the South the Kingdome of Manilongo in the inferior J'Ethiopia. It bath the name either from the colour of the people which are black, or from the River Niger, famous as Nilus almoft, for her over-flowing, ii1fomuch, that they pafie at fame times in Boats through the whole Country. It is full of Gold and Silver, and other Commodities : but the Inhabitants moft barbarous. They draw their originall from Chus, and have entertained all Religions that came in their way. Firft their own, then the Jews, the Mahumetanes, and fame of them the Chriftian. For the moft part they live not as if reafon guided their actions.

PAGE 15

The Defcription of Africa 5 M a gin us numbers twenty five Provinces of this Countrey, which have had their feverall Governours. Now it knoweth but four Kings, and thofe are (r) The Kii1g of T ombulum, and he is an infinite rich Monarch, hates a Jew to the death of his fubject that converfeth with him: keeps a Guard of three thoufand Horfemen befides Foot. (2) Of Bornaum, where the people have no proper Names, no Wives peculiar, and therefore no Children which they call their own. (3) Of Goaga, who hath no eftate but from his fubjects as he fpends it. (4) Gualatum, a poor Cou11try, God wot, not worth either Gentry or Laws, or indeed the name of a Kingdome. (14) .!Ethiopia Superior the fifth and is called likewife the Kingdome of the Abiffines. It is limited on the North with .lEg'ypt, on the South with the Mantes Lwna;, on the Eaft with the Red Sea, and on the Weft with the Kingdome of the Nigers and Manilongo. It is diftinct from the .!Ethiopia fo often mentioned in the Scripture: For by all probability, that was in another quarter of the world, and reacheth from the Red Sea to the Perllan Gulf. It is governed by one of the mightieft Emperors ih the world: For his power reacheth almoft to each Tropick, and is called by us Presbyter John. He is the onely white man amongft them, and draws his Line from Solomon, and the Queen of the South. His Court refts not lm1g in any one place, but is moving as well for houllng as retinue. For it confifts of Tents onely to the number of fixe thoufand, and incompaffeth in, about twelve or thirteen miles. Hee hath him feventy Kings, which have their feverall Laws and Cuftomes; Among thefe the Province of Dobas hath one, that no man marry till he hath killed twelve Chriftians. The Inhabitants of the whole Region are generally bafe and idle : the better fort have the modefty to attire themfelves, though it be but in Lions and Tygers skins. Their Religion is mixt. Chriftians they have, but yet differ from us; For they circumcife both fects. Their oath is by the life of their King, whom they never fee but at Chriftmas, Eafter, and Holy Rood. Their Commodities are Oranges, Lemmons, Cittrons, Barley, Sugar, Honey, &c. (r5) .!Ethiopia inferior the fixth part of Africa, is on every fide begirt with Sea except toward the North; that way it is fevered from the A bi!fines by the M ontes Luna;. The government of this Region is under five free Kings, (I) of Aiana, which contains in it two petty Kingdomes of Adel and Adia, and abounds with Flefh, Honey, Wax, Gold, Ivory, Corn, very large Sheep. (2) Zanguebar, ii1 this ftands M efambique, called by Ptolemy, Praffum Promontorium, and was the utmoft part South-ward of the old world. The Inhabitants are practifed much in Sooth-faying, indeed Witch-craft. (3) Of M on01nolopa, in which is reported to be three thoufand Mines of Gold. Here there lives a kii1de of Ama.r:ons as valiant as men. Their King is ferved in great pompe, and hath a guard of two hundred Maftives. (4) Cafraia, whofe people live in the Woods without Lawes like brutes. And here ftands the Cape of good Hope, about which the Sea is always rough and dangerous: It hath been efpecially fo to the Spaniard. It is their own note, in fo much, that one was very angry with God, that he fuffered the Englifh Hereticks to paffe it fo eafily over, and not give his good Catholikes the like fpeed. (S) Manicongo, whofe Inhabitants are in fome parts Chriftians, but in other

PAGE 16

6 Tnnganyika Notes and Records by-Provinces Anthropophagi, and have fhambles of mans ftefh, as we have for meat. They kill their own children in the birth, to avoid the trouble of breeding them, and preferve their Nation with ftoln brats from their neighbour ing Countries. (16) .!Egypt, is the feventh and laft part of the African Continent, which deferves a larger Tract then we can here afford it: But for the prefent be content with a brief Survey; aqd fatisfie your felfe more particularly in the many feverall Authours that write her ftory. It hath on the Eaft the Red Sea, Barbary on the Weft: on the North, the M cditerraneum, and .!Ethiopia Superior on the South. It was firft poffeft by Cham, and therefore called Chemia in their own a}1tique Stories; Or at leaft by Mit.r::raim his Grand-childe, and is fo agreed upon by moft. For plenty it was called Orbis horreu1n, yet it had very feldome any rain, but that defect was fupplied by the River Nilus: The places of note are, Caire and Alexandria. The firft was heretofore Memphis: Some fay Babylun, whither the Virgin fled to efcape H erods tyranny mtended to our Saviour: and blufh not to fhew the very Cave where fhe had hid her Babe. In a defert about four miles diftant ftand the Pyramids, efteemed rightly one of the feven wonders of the world. Alexandria was a magnificent City, and the place where Ptolemy tooke his Obfervations, and was famous for the rareft Library in the world. To the Inhabitants of this Country, we owe the invention of Aftrology, Phyftch, writing on paper. Their Kings names were Pharaoh toward the beginning: now what the pleafeth. (17) And this is as far as we may travell by Land: it remains that we loofe out into the bordering Sea, an,d defcry what IJ!ands we can, neer thofe parts of Africa which we have here mentioned. And thefe lye either South-ward in the .lEthiopicl? Sea, or elfe Weft-ward in the A tlantike Ocean. (18) The .lEthiopick l11ands are onely two. (1) the Ifland of S. Lawrence or Madagajcar, four thoufand miles in compaffe, and the length more than Italy, rich in all Commodities almoft that man can ufe. The Inhabitants are very barbarous, moft of them black, fome white there are, fuppofed to have been tranfplanted out of China. (2) Z ocratina at the mouth of the Red Sea, in length ftxty, in breadth twei1ty five mile. It lyeth open to fharp windes, and by that means is extream drie and barren. Yet it hath good Drugs, and from hence comes the Aloe Zocratina. The people are Chriftians and adore the Croffe moft fuperftitioufly, and give themfelves much to Inchantments. (19) The Atlantick Iflands are (r) S. Thomas Ifland, and lyeth directly under the .!Equator, it was made habitable by the Portugals, which found it nothing but a wood. It is full of Sugar, little other Commodities. (2) Prince Ifland, between the .!Equator and Tropick of Capricorn: It is rich enough for the owner, though I finde no great report of it. (3) The Gorgades, of old, the Gorgons where M eduja and her two fifters dwelt; I forbear the fable, they are nine in number, and becaufe neer to Cape Viride, in the Land of Negroes, they have a fecond name of I nful(]! Capitis V iridis. They abound with Goats, and the chief of them is called Saint lames. (4) The Canaries called for their fertility The Fortunate I /lands, and was the place of the firft Meridian, with the ancient Geographers, to divide the world into the Eaft and Weft. and

PAGE 17

The Defcription of Africa 7 -----from thence to meafure the earths Longitude : but now it is removed into the next Iflands more North, which are the Azores, and belong properly to Europe, as lying neerer Spain then any other Continent. The number of the Canaries are feven. The chief Canar}'; next Palus, where our Ships touch to refrefh themfelves in their voyage toward America. Then Tanariffa, which hath no water but from a cloud, that hangs over a tree, and at noon diffolves, and fo is conveyed into feverall parts. The other four are Gomera, Hieiro, Lanfarat, and Fuerte ventura, fome few other not worth note or name. The men lend their Wives like Horfes or any other Commodity. (S) Laftly, the H ejperides, not far from the G or gades, they are often mentioned by our Ancient Poets in the fable of Atlas his Daughters. It was fuppofed to be the feat of their bleffed, which they called the Elizian field. And indeed it is a very happy foyle, the weather continually fair, the feafons all temperate, the ayre never extream. To conclude, Africa affords not a fweeter place to reft in.

PAGE 18

8 Tanganyika Notes and Records A Note on Longido and Ketumbeine Mountains By R. E. M oreau and P. J. Greenway THIS note is occasioned by the fact that, although both mountains are over eight thousand feet in height and are within iifty miles of Arusha, no description of them is avaibble in English. An :1scent of Ketumbeine is mentioned by Reek* but it has been visited very rarely indeed by Europeans. Our acquaintance with the two mountains is derived from a fortnight in January 1936, which we spent on them, aeeompanied by Mr T. A. Baldock, making eollections of birds and plants. Our thanks are due to Mr :wd Mrs S. A. Chi_ld for helping us m many ways. LONGIDO. Longido is an isolated mass of ancient crystalline rock (Plate 1). It rises cleanly and abruptly out of rolling country (c. four thousand five hundred feet) except on the south, where the Moshi ro[1d approaches from the N gasserai plain through a jumble of hills. The Hhape of the mountain is well suggested on the 1: 300,000 map (B 5, Kilimanjaro). It may be likened to an oval pie dish tilted so that its rim is highest on the south-west-facing on Monduliand sunk on the north-east to the level of the fbts that decline to Amboseli. The interior of the dish is of so regulrtr a form that we h[l,ve heard it referred to as ''the crater.'' The mountain rim is very narrow, almost a knife-edge in places, and deeply notched, so that following its circumference, as we did on one occasion, one is faced with a series of dog-tooth peaks. 'rhese culminate at about eight thousand six hundred feet (2,614m. according to the map) in a heathy knob from which one gets an all-round view. H:Llf a mile of narrow ridge connects this on the north with a grand turret of rock prominent in views of the mountain (Plates 2 and 3) only about thirty feet lower than the highest point, and sweeping down in thousand-foot precipices. Between four thousand five hundred and five thousand three hundred feet at the foot of the highest part of the rirn the rock is bedded vertically, the line of strike pointing straight to the Shira ridge and up the main valley that cleaves the Engare N aibor hills on the north-west. Much of the exposed rock on Longido is partly decomposed and soft. Here and there the game trails that follow the rim and the steepest spurs are sunk feet deep into the rock, like an old English pack-tmil into ehalk or greensand. In one place, with the aid of erosion, the beasts have cut their way so deeply and narrowly that both walls of it are polished by their hides. *"Oldoway," Leipzig, 1933, a reference for which we are indebted to Mr C. Gillman.

PAGE 19

Plate 1-Longido Mountain, eastern face. Plate 2-The top of Longido Mountain. [to fate pa.ye 8

PAGE 20

Plate 3-The top of Longido Mountain looking north-west

PAGE 21

Note on Longido and Ketumbeine Mountains 9 Probably the best line of ascent is that up the spur behind the veterinary station. It is a good steady pull which could be done in two and a half hours. Near the top one uses hands for a few yards and one wonders how on earth the big game, whose trail is so clear elsewhere on the spur, pass that spot. Two other spurs which we also exarnined landed us in difficulties with thorns and hidden rock-faces. The ravines are, as usual, impossible. All round the b:tse of the mount:tin the vegetation is dominated by the urn brella thorn, Acacia spin1carpa Hochst. No evergreen forest is shown on Longido in any map we have seen. Actu:Lily forest of a poor dry type covers most of the slopes outside, and oceurs in patches inside, the high southern rim of the mountain, but not on its other aspects, and nowhere below six thousand four hundred feet. Blackened vestiges :-;how where a mixture of East African cedar, Juniperus procera Hochst., and olive, Olea chrysophylla I.1:1m., cmne about three hundred feet lower down the slope until a fire swept it away four years ago. The cedar all small trees-appears now to be almost extinct on the mountain. It is curious that there are no signs of its h:wing grown above seven thousand feet. A large part of the mountain's very scanty stock of this timber must have gone in the fire. Although we saw Longido under exception:dly favourable conditions. shortly fLfter six inches of rain, with all Masailand at its greenest, it appeared unlikely to us that the forest would recover the lost ground, even if the fire were kept out. It should be added that the mountain is not a gazetted forest reserve. All that is worth protecting is comprised within an area of four miles by three as a maximum, nearly all of tlmt being on very steep slopes, and of a very poor type. The main forest, gnarled trees, few of them above forty feet in height, is composed of CassipOTea Elliotii Alston, Lachnopylis congesta C.A. Sm., Teclea sintplicifolia V erdoorn. Considering the dry conditions of the mountain as a whole it is astonishing to find so heavy a growth of mosses and beard lichens on the trees, from almost the lowest limits of the surviving forest. This is emphatically a mist forest; and it seems that such a growth of mosses and lichens must considerably multiply the condensing surface of the trees. It would be interesting to have a calculated estimate of the efiect. In the conditions at Longido it seems probable that the determining factor in the existence of a local water supplysuch as it is-is the tree-borne mosses. Balsams are first seen at about seven thousand feet. Bracken occurs in scattered patches with shrubs of Hyper1:cum lanceolatum Lam., Rhamnus prinoides I.1'Herit., a bar berry, Berberis H olstii Engl. and Conyza sp., together with more stunted examples of the tree species already listed. Scattered amongst these shrubs and trees was a fine asparagus together with Thompson's red-hot poker, Kniphofia Thomsonii Baker, the latter plant only found at high altitudes, and tt tussock grass, Setaria sphacelata Stapf and Hubbard. The topmost points, above eight thousand feet, where little soil remains, are covered with a growth of Digitaria scalarum Chiov., Philippia.

PAGE 22

12 Tanganyika Notes and Records ----------------------------------to get there owing to the gentleness of the slope and the bad going. The lower ground is occupied by thorn-bush, mostly poor and small, with Tribulus covering a great part of the surface of the ground. In the dry season this must be a most purgatorial piece of country, its only vegetation leafless thorn trees, the ground a black bva rockery sprinkled with spiny seeds. From about five thousand to six thousand feet, before dropping into the Nailut gorge, we crossed a stretch of Themeda triandm Forsk. grassland with small scattered Acacia and Commiphora trees. There is little doubt that much evergreen forest has been lost of recent years. On our side of the mountain a Juniperus procera Hochst.-Olea ehrysophylla I_jam. community probably came down at least as low as six thousand feet, where such trees as Calodendron eapense Thunb., the Cape chestnut, which made a mauve pink splash of colour among the bright a-nd dark greens of the surrounding vegeta-tion, of Vangue1ia aeutiloba Robyns, Celtis kraussiana Bernh., Turrea sp., Maema sp. and Teclea simplicifolia Verdoorn and an occasionally bare and gauntly branched flame tree, Erythrina tomentosa R. Br., still occupy the ravines with some admixture of ca-ndelabra euphorbias and aloes. Just a-bove the N:tilut manyatta a fire which apparently took place so recently as October 1935 had burnt its way for half a mile up a, spur and destroyed the lowest five hundred feet of forest. It is perhaps unfortunate for forest conservation that at these altitudes especially the removal of forest is followed by a pasture composed sometimes of Digitaria scalarum Chiov., excellent for the Masai stock. So far as we could see, all the spurs have suffered in this manner. Up to the very top of the mountain (c. nine thousand five hundred feet) the continuity of the forest is broken in many places,. and indeed over large a-reas the forest is reduced to patches, which are doubtless subject to rapid attrition where the light patches correspond to old burns (Plate 6). There must have been much loss of forest since Reek's ascent in 1913 or he could hardly have written without qualification (op. cit. p. 115) of the forest "der die BerghOhe in breitem Ring umgibt''. In the ascent by the Nail ut spur--and probably by all others on the ea-stern side of the mountain at least--there is nothing even remotely resembling a climb. After passing through the burnt area one walks from six thousand eight hundred to eight thousand three hundred feet up a long clear ride bottomed with grass and so evenly overhung with trees, chiefly olive, Olea chrysophylla Lam. and small Cassipourea elliotii Alston, pillar-wood, Schefflera volkensii Harms, and Lachnopylis congesta C.A.Sm. as to have the appearance of an ancient avenue up the crest of the spur. For all its great width, from twenty to thirty yards, it seems proba-ble that this ride was made by the passage of big game. Above seven thousand feet the drapings of a beard lichen become extremely heavy, and above eight thousand three hundred feet H agenia abyssinica Will d. is the dominant tree. For the bst thousand feet we were much impeded by a dense growth of a brilliant scarlet Leonotis, stinging nettles such as Urtica massaica Mildbr., Fleurya aeustans Gaud. and Laportea

PAGE 23

N ate on Longidu and Ketumbeine Mountains 13 alatipes Hk.f., a dodder, Cuseuta ubtusifiora H. B. and K. which was plLrasitic on balsams made a thick tangle with its yellow stems, Sparmannia rieinoearpa 0. Ktze., a beautiful deep blue-flowered but most unpleasantly scented herb, Nepeta azurea R. Br. and a salvia,. S. nilotiea Vahl., with coarse tussocks of Eleusine J ayeri Pilger and the white and pink flowered forms of Pavonia schirnperiana Hochst. up to eight feet in height, all drowned in mist and dripping wet.. When the aneroid showed a height of nine thousand three hundred and fifty feet, we found ourselves on an almost flat featureless expanse, smothered in similar rank herbage and regenerating growth, with a dense stand of Crotalaria agatifiora Schweinf. ranging from shrubby herbs six feet tall to much branched trees thirty feet high covered with large greenish yellow pea-like flowers, which must indicate that extensive fires have swept all along the top of the mountain. We walked some distance northwards over this flat ground, plagued with nettles, mists, midges and an icy shower, without being able to see any prominent features. On the eastern edge of the plateau the ground fell away in a tree-clad precipice and it seemed certain that we were on the edge of the crater. On our return we had a few minutes clear view across to Meru, but on the whole it was extremely disappointing. Although we spent several days on the mountain it seems poor biologically. Its vegetation iR dull its avifauna scanty, though both cannot be regarded as by any means fully known. As on J_jongido the forest is occupied by an attenuated form of the East African montane avifauna. The most interesting feature is that on Ketumbeine the turaco is T. schalowi chalcolophus, the Mbulu form replacing T. hartlaubi of J_jongido. At six thousand feet, on the Themeda grassland and along the gorges, francolins were very common; these turned out to be F. africanus, a species not hitherto recorded between Kenya and the Transvaal. We saw no sign of colobus monkeys-which indeed seem to be absent from all the mountains of Masailand and the Mbulu district. It is remarkable that a mountain well over nine thousand feet in height (2,94'2m. according to the map), with quite a large area of mist forest, should under normal weather conditions be so badly supplied with water. It would have gone ill with Reek's party if a storm had not filled a tempomry pool for them near the top. On our visit we had too much of a good thing. It rained Rome time every day and spoilt om photography and our exploration of the higher slopes with lowering cloud. Every stream-bed ran water. The channel past our base camp, which was dry \Vhen we arrived, came roaring down with a muddy spate four feet deep before morning. The Masai we met were most insistent that these lovely waters we saw on all sides would be dry ttgain after a few days. They only remembered one other white man climbing the mountain, and felt sure that we were spying out land for alienation. On the north, west and southern sides of the mountain there is so far as we could hear from all sources, no reliable water whatsoever; on the east one stream always runs, the Engare J_jongishu which issues from the crater through a great wooded gorge. Where we crossed it by a main cattle path half way up the mountain the aneroid gave the depth of the gorge as one thousand one

PAGE 24

14 Tanganyika Notes and Records ---------------------hundred feet. To this remote watering place the Mn,sai stock must come from all the high-level pastures on both sides during several months of the year. Not long ago an elephant, which seems to have been injured in a fire, haunted the place and damaged a few cattle until it was slain by the Masai. It appears that even the Engare Longishu rarely flows down to the foot of the mountain before being absorbed in the thirsty stream-bed. A furrow taken off at about four thousand eight hundred feet conveys the water south-eastwards for about three miles to a dam. According to Masai report the crater holds no lake; indeed, its slopes converge so narrowly at the bottom as to leave little room for one.

PAGE 25

RIJFI J'I ])ELTA ...... .. b ......... : .'5 (7 IS 5 ./5 7 7 tO q /0 12 6 12 Nioro-ro I 12 I 17 I I I ... --KiJ:o.--I t30 I I \ ,.-' I \ _,,.0 -'' 'I I .... ,_ 12 6 lfO l I I J!> '! la.n..cl c-al Reef 1 .. ,, 1 _L c{ /JJu., 01\e. rtu..ruu< ............ __ sc.a.-le to Sa. ne/. h Mafia a n Chart oft e d Kilwa Channels. [t o face pag e 14

PAGE 28

A fifty-nine pounder kllled in the South Mafia Channel. [to ;ace paye 15

PAGE 29

Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast By G. F. Cole 15 FEW PEOPLE realize the possibilities of the fishing to be obtained off the 'l1anganyika coast and these notes rnay be of assistance to those who are interested in this fascinating sport. 'rhe localities where the fishing-grounds are known, such as 'l1anga, Dar es Salaam and Lindi, though good are certainly not the best and cannot be compared with the Mafia and Kilwa channels.* These channels abound with reefs harbouring all the types of fish mentioned in this article. Another point in their favour is that they are comparatively unexplored even by the native ; and the weather conditions are favourable in both monsoons, <1 barrier reef stretching about seventy miles giving an excellent lee. This paper deals only with fish found to the west of this barrier; the eastern side is still unknown, though doubtless even greater fish abound there. Most people are only interested in fishing from the sporting point of view and therefore only game fish are dealt with here. Trolling is taken as the method of fishing although excellent sport may be had with a good rod and reel while fishing from a dinghy which is either drifting or at anchor. The type of canoe found on the coast is not a very safe craft for this purpose. Fishing on the coast is seasonal, the best months being from mid-November to n1id-April, that is, during the north-eastern monsoon, but this does not mean that there is no sport to be had during the remaining months or south-western rnonsoon. 'rhe north-eastern monsoon eerta.inly brings more variety but many of the coastal fish, whieh inelnde most of the mackerel class and the baracouda, remain the whole year round although they are not so numerous between May and October. August is perhaps the worst month. There seemR to be no set time for fiRbing a.lthough most anglers say that the morning and the evening are best. This is true as regards avoiding the heat of the day, but there are other more important points to be eonsidered, such as tide and weather. It is doubtful whether the height of the sun should *A chart of these channels, showing the fishing grounds, is appended.

PAGE 30

16 Tanganyika Notes and Records be considered except for the comfort of the fishenmm, but the state of the tide and the weather do make a considerable difference. For example, a low tide rising is an excellent time to fish ; the reefs a,re then clearly defined and the larger fish come closer to the reefs as the tide rises. Again fishing is poor when going steadily into a head sea and swell, but keeping the wind astern better results may be expected. The ideal conditions, of course, are in the cool of the morning when the tide begins to flow and there is a gentle breeze, but these conditions seldom occur except at neap tides. It is interesting to note that the south-eastern end of a reef is better for fishing than any other side, but this applies only to coral reefs that stand alone and not to reefs extending off the shore. It has been stated that fish migrate against currents but this is not the case on the Tanganyika coast where the current runs in one direction only, that is northward. The temperature of the vvater, however, has its effect in driving away fish during the cool months. TROLLING. The speed at which to troll is a more difficult question, but it is certainly between three and a half and five and a half knots-the lesser speed for the smaller type of fish. Kingfish and baracouda will bite a spoon at almost any speed up to nine knots but such a speed makes trolling impracticable and is guite unnecessary. Four and a half knots, then, is a good cwerage. Little need be said with regard to handling a boat while trolling but it must be remembered that fishing round reefs can have disastrous consequences. The best places to troll are between deep blue water and shallow green water ; if, however, the engine of the motor-boat breaks down while on the windward side of a reef, immediate action must be taken or the boat will be driven on to the coral. To prevent this the first essential is an anchor or some type of fairly heavy sinker, the weight depending on the size of the boat ; an anchor will be found to be the most satisfactory. To this anchor at least ten feet of small chain and one hundred feet of rope should be attached, the chain being necessary owing to the sharpness of the coral. When a fish has been hooked the driver of the boat should immediately stop his engine, the helmsman at the same time steering ttway from the reef while there is still "way" on the boat. If this happens on the lee side of the reef there is no need to worry, but if it happens to be the windward side the helmsman should stand by the anchor as soon as the ''way'' is off the boat. If a sailing boat is used the operations become more complicated but no angler (unless he is with an expert yachtsman) should attempt trolling near reefs. Many of the reefs are steep-sided, the sounding sometimes going from a hundred fathoms to ten fathoms in a few feet and then often shelving quite sharply to less than a fathom. Being able to see the bottom is no guide as to its depth, but the boat can always be anchored when the bottom is sighted. All anglers should obtain an Admiralty clmrt of the vicinity in which they intend to fish. It will be found of great assistance in indicating just' where the

PAGE 31

Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast 17 coral lies and where rocks may be expected. A pair of oars is also a necessity. Although a sea-anchor is not absolutely necessary, it may prove useful if the motor-boat breaks down in deep water when the sea is rough. A knife should be part of the fittings of a boat. This knife must be of hard steel, sharp and pointed and will be found an invaluable aid when cutting out hooks from fish which have been caught. BAIT. A word on bait will not be out of place. There are two types : the fish bait and the artificial bait. To troll a fish is obviously the best method, but this type of bait is not always easy to obtain nor is it lasting. Again there is the difficulty of fastening a live or a dead fish to a hook. An experienced angler can do this easily but tm amateur will find many difficulties. The large hook must be in the tail end and the month must be closed up or the bait will soon become waterlogged. With regard to the artificial lure, many suggestions have been put forward
PAGE 32

18 Tanganyika Notes and Records Fishing lines are made of several materials, hemp, cotton, flax and silk all being used. Flax lines are satisfactory for, unlike other lines, their breaking strain increases when wet; they have a disadvantage, however, in that they swell to almost double their normal size when wet. Silk lines are expensive but, if properly treated, they will last for years. These lines have great elasticity and this may save the angler from losing many a fish. Undressed cutty hank if looked after is also good and inexpensive. For spinning, a woven line is infinitely superior to one that is "laid up." Only forged hooks without a bend in the shank close to the eye should be used. Leads will not be found to be of much use, but should an angler particularly desire to use one the torpedo-shaped lead with twisted wire ends is the best. Swivels are most important and should be kept well lubricated. Two swivels must be fitted to each trace, one at each end. Trace wire should not be thick but must be strong; it should not be liable to break if kinks form. A gaff is necessary for landing the fish and this should be fitted with a good handle but without a loop for the wrist. Some sort of weapon will also be required to kill the fish immediately it is brought aboard. Nothing is more annoying than to have the floor boards of a boat made slippery by fish scales. If it is desired to use a handline, fifty yards of strong cod line backed up with one hundred yards of quarter-inch line will be found to be quite satisfac tory. A native-made line instead of the cod line has proved to be suitable in every respect and is certainly inexpensive. As regards the length of line to employ while trolling, about fifty to sixty yards should be ample ; most fish will bite a spoon when only thirty yards are out. It is a debatable point whether it is necessary to strike. Usually the fish hook themselves and to strike them early in their first run is to court trouble. Either the hook is pulled clean out of the fish's mouth or something carries away. Pressure on the brake should be applied gently. HANDLINES versus RoD AND REEL. From a sporting point of view the average angler will immediately condemn the handline, but this should not be done without some thought. Any deviation from the well-worn path is inclined to be looked upon with amused tolerance until a good catch has been made ; when this has been effected considerable debate often ensues. The rod and reel require a certain amount of manipulative skill and call for endurance with big game fish. Anglers like to hear their line screaming out and see their rod well bent. With fish over fifty pounds in weight a rod with its three hundred yards of line is both necessary and sporting, but what of the fish of under thirty pounds? Most anglers fish for sport and also probably with a view to making a record catch, but should he hook a six-pound rock cod over coral the fisherman may spend an hour trying to get the fish clear of its refuge in the coral and stand an excellent chance of his line being cut or his boat being driven on to the reef. With a handline the fish, especially when

PAGE 33

Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast 19 only six pounds, may be drawn in sufficiently fast to prevent its reaching or getting a hold on the bottom. 'l'he average angler out fishing for perhaps two hours does not want to spend a great part of that time in killing a six-pound rock cod. A handline will bring in a fifteen-pound fish in less than half the time taken by a six-inch reel and, although this may not be considered sporting, the angler certainly has the personal touch on his line and will c:atch more fish and stand a chance of getting more variety. Naturally if the "handliner" hooks an eighty pounder he will probably injure his hm1ds, but he can counteract this to a certain extent by wearing leather gloves. Another point to be borne in mind is the price of rod and reel as compared with a good handline. A reel must be a good one otherwise it is useless, and this means a considerable outlay for the angler. FISHING GROUNDS. lVI oa.-An excellent place for all-round fishing, and noted for sail-fish. Many natives fish round Moa and loc;Ll knowledge can be obtained from them. Very little trolling has been done in this area so that its possibilities are unknown. The great advantage of Moa is that the fishing grounds are sheltered in both monsoons. Tanga.-'rhere are several very keen fishermen in Tanga and good catches have been made there. 'l'he best reefs are Niule and Yambe, but weather conditions are seLdom good enough for a small boat. Sharks have been seen many times off Ras Kisangani in Mwambani Bay. All the types of fish mentioned in this paper are found in Tanga, but chewa and kungnu are scarce. This is compensrtted for by the presence of kingfish which are found all the year round off Rocky Island. The fishing is not good inside the reefs between Tanga and Pangani. Dar es Salaarn.-The fishing here is on the whole only fair; the best place being in the channel. Further out to sea, that is, Sinda Island to the south and Bongoyo and Mbudya Isbnd to the north, better catches are made but the distance to these islands makes fishing impossible when the monsoons begin to blow hard. Here, as in Tanga, there are many keen fishermen from whom local knowledge can be obtained. Latharn I sland.-An almost impossible island to get to, being situated about forty miles from Dar es Salaam, but the fishing is excellent. If an angler ever has the good fortune to go to this island he should take very strong tackle with him. The best fishing will be found on the southern side of the island. Iiararnbezi, kolikoli, kungnu, rnzia lmd other varieties of fish abound there. 'rhere is no fresh water or shelter of any description on the island, which consists of coral and sand and stands only ten feet high. Myriads of sea-fowl live and breed there, and this alone is a good sign from the angler's point of view.

PAGE 34

20 Ta -nganyika Notes and Records Mafia Island and Sm1mmcling Reefs.--The great advantage of the Mafia channel is that the island provides an excellent lee to the inside reefs in both monsoons, so that fishing is possible all the year round. The following are the best fishing grounds:-RasMkumbi. This is the most northern point ofMafiaisland and is probably the best ground in the Mafia channeL All the species of fish mentioned in this article are found there in great numbers. On the eastern side of the lighthouse chewa are the most common, while on the north and western sides karambesi and the mackerels and all the other varieties can be caught. No angler should attempt the eastern side of the lighthouse if there is a heavy swell coming in from the Indian Ocean. Niororo Island. This island is noted for karambesi and kolikoli although other varieties of fish can also be caught there. The west and north-western sides give the best sport. 'l'here is fresh water on the island and a permanent fishing village. Wumi Patch. A small reef situated about ten miles north of Tirene and a difficult one to find as it never uncovers even at low water. Should the angler possess a compass he would find it worth his while to visit this reef, for he is sure of getting good sport with the baracouda that abound there. The reef is so small that it is advisable to circle round it continuously. The south-east is probably the best side for fishing. Fungu Sefo. One of the best known reefs in the channel and seldom disappointing to the angler. From October to February natives fish this reef from daybreak to noon and from three in the afternoon to dusk, sailing round and round trolling kowana (a small species of bream). Excellent catches of karambesi and kingfish have been made round this reef. Two tmglers fishing for two hours killed sixteen kingfish, the total weight being two hundred and seventy-four pounds. It is an easy reef to find as it is provided with a beacon standing on a sandbank. Tirene Reef. Situated only two and a half miles from the district office and has given fairly good sport, but is better for ground fishing. Several varieties of rays abound between this reef and Kilindoni spit. Al Hajiri. This reef, though not so good as Fungu Sefo, has been found to harbour large baracouda and is one of those reefs worth while trying ; but if Fungu Sefo fails Al Hajiri usually follows suit. Mange Reef. Situated off the south of Mafia Island, it gives excellent sport on the southern and western sides. This reef compares favourably with Fungu Sefo and more varieties of fish may be expected. A beacon on a small sand patch is situated on the northern end of the reef. Tutia Reef. This is the most southern reef of the Mafia group and excellent fishing may be obtained off the south-western corner during the north-east monsoon. Chewa, mzia and karambesi are the most common fish and a fifty nine-pounder of the latter species was caught on a five-inch brass spoon during

PAGE 35

Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast 21 ---the month of November. This reef is clearly defined and the bottom consists of sand and coral. l(ilwa Channel and Reefs .-Unlike the Mafia channel the Kilwa channel is not favoured with such a good lee, but the outer reefs serve to break the swell. The outer islands, which include Okuza, Nyuni, Songo Songa and Fanjove, do not give such good sport as might be expected but the inner reefs are as good as most of those in the Mafia channel. Simaya Island. Situated five miles off the Utagite mouth of the Mohoro river is a good fishing ground, especially off the south-eastern end of the coral reef, which is always sheltered. There is no habitation on the island, neither is there any fresh water. Memsembeuso Reef. Is one of the best reefs in the Kilwa channel. It is four miles south of Simaya Island and is marked by a black beacon. All varieties of fish tLbound and very good catches have been made on the eastern and southern sides. 'l'hirty-pound lwrarnbesi are fairly common there. Fanjove Isbnd. 'l'he fishing close to the island is not good but on the southern end of the reef good sport may be expected. 'l'he reef extends for four miles south of the island. There is a lighthouse on the island and fresh water, fowls and eggs are obtainable. Fanjove Island might tdmost be considered a bird sanctuary as it harbours many species of birds, such as flamingoes, gulls, curlew, cranes, pratincoles and other varieties. This island also has other attributes, such as excellent bathing and beautiful scenery. J ewe Reef. This large reef is situated about six miles north of Kilwa Kivinje and provides excellent all-round sport. 'l1here is a beacon on the western corner of the reef and large fish of all kinds have been c.aught near it. Shark also may be caught on the southern side. Amana Reef. This is the nearest fishing reef to Kilwa Kivinje, being only two and a half miles off. Amana has not been fished to any great extent although the natives speak well of it. 'l1he southern and western sides are the best for trolling and, fortunately, these sides are in calm WtLter in both monsoons. l(ilwa Kisiwani.-'l'he fishing is decidedly poor inside the harbour, but in the entrance channel between Balozi Spit beacon and Mwamba Kipakoni on the southern side, t1nd between Ras Mso and Albemarle Spit on the north, good catches may be obtained. Both these reefs are steep-sided and great care must be taken on hooking a big fish, especially off Mwamba Kipakoni which, incidentally, is the best ground. Here the reef drops down like the face of a cliff from a few feet to over fifty fathoms and there is always a swell running. Fishing is impossible in any of the above places in the south-west monsoon with a falling tide. Lindi.-The best fishing ground in I.1indi is on the southern side of the river between Ras Rungi, on the opposite side from Lindi, and Clarkson-point lighthouse. Several good catches have been obtained along this strip of coast. A heavy swell usually runs into the river entrance which makes fishing

PAGE 36

22 Tanganyika Notes and Records uncomfortable at times and the tide ebbs and flows at
PAGE 37

Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast 23 ------------------------------------THE QUEEN THE KING F"ISH "pa.n.du_. "Ngu.ru" THt: '&ON IT'O THE ]3AfU?.IlC.OU1)A IHG GA ltFtSII "M.Jia.. IH /fORSE MAC.I({/fJ.. "f
PAGE 38

24 Tanganyika Notes and Records ---------------------------------------The nguru is quite a common fish on the coast and weight for weight can put up as good a fight as any fish. It is one of the swiftest sea fish, having a beautifully streamlined body, a strong tail and a dorsal fin which folds down into a groove so that it is perfectly flush with the body when not in use. The colouring of the back shades from a dark bluish-green, crossed with irregular brownish bars, to a mother-of-pearl sheen reflection in the whitish belly. The scales are very small and the eye has a large pupil. The fight of this fish may be compared with that of the karambesi in that it does not break surface, but the runs are swifter. It may be found all the year round both in deep water and close to coral reefs, and will take most baits willingly and, more important still, at any speed. 'l'he angler will find that the bite of kingfish is thorough ; and they have been caught a speed of nine knots and brought into the bmtt without reducing speed. One weighing thirtyfive pounds was hooked and landed at a speed of eight knots. An attractive lure for kingfish is a wooden shaped fish painted red on the top and white underneath, but the angler will find that they are not particular and will bite at almost any artificial bait. Kingfish often fre<1uent the same locality and although this is not a rule there are certain reefs on the coast where they can nearly always be found. The weight of this fish reaches the forty-pound mark but anything in the neighbourhood of thirty is good. 'l'HE BONITO (TUNNY) (Scornbridae family) (Jodari). This migratory fish, of which so little is known,
PAGE 39

Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast 25 Whereas the bonito is generally supposed to attain a weight of only about ten to fifteen pounds, albacores have been caught scaling forty-five pounds and probably reach a much higher figure. 'l'hey are excellent fighters, gifted with speed and strength and, like the great European tunny, deep fighters. A good bait to use is a dead flying fish but any other fast moving lure is attractive to them. The best months to fish them are December, January and February. 'l1he coastal natives do not seem to make any distinction between the bonito and the albacore. 'l'HE KIBUA. It would appear that the kibua belongs to the mackerel family as it bears a, strong resernbbnce to the tunny. In size it is snmll, tt full-grown one scaling little over two pounds a,nd having a length of only nineteen inches. It has long wispy pectoral finR like the karanzbesi, two hard pointed dorsals and ten small fmlets between the second dorsa,] and caudal and between the anal cttudal fin, as seen in the kingfish. 'l'he lateral line is straight and well nmrked, standing out from the side of the tail. 'l'he colouring is like that of a, common mackerel, being a bottle-green above the bteral line, toning to a bright silver belly. 'l'he seales are minute. 'l'hese migratory fish arrive on the eoast towttrds the end of November and by the end of Mareh they have
PAGE 40

'26 Tanganyika Notes and Records -----------------------------------------------the bait broadside on and the initial run is fierce and long. The brake should be applied sparingly at first and there is seldom need to strike. It seems to do its own striking in the first instance. After the first run the fight is often spectacular, the fish leaping into the air then occasionally going deep. Sometimes it jumps ahead of the trace wire; this will often put kinks in the wire, and is probably the cause of much loss of gear. The baracouda will take almost any trolled bait and, having complete confidence in its own powers, will take it well. It appears to have no fear and will often take a spoon within a few yards of a motor-boat. The fish is easily recognizable by its mouthful of terrible teeth, which the angler should treat with respect, and by its pike-like appearance. 'rhe colour is dark brownish-grey along the back, toning to silver underneath. The baracouda may be found in deep or shallow water almost anywhere along the coast during all months, but it usually patrols the coral reefs like a veritable pirate or lies in wait close to them. THE HoRSE MACKEREL (Caranx hippos) (Karambesi). This is the most common if not the most sporting fish of the coast. Where fish are caught there the karambesi will be found, sometimes in shoals and sometimes singly, ready to tackle almost any bait. 'l'hey are easily recognized by their blunt nose, long wispy pectoral fin, double first dorsal and powerful shoulders. There are at least three varieties of this species to be found, all closely resembling each other in shape and fin distribution. The larger varieties, weighing up to probably eighty or ninety pounds, are a dull grey colour being extremely heavy in the head and having immense girth in proportion to their length, while the smaller varieties are more highly coloured, some having blue fins and some being mottled gold in colour. The latter are not quite so blunt in the nose but resemble the bigger fish in the general shape of the body and fins. The teeth are small. The fight of the karambesi is not in the least spectacular as they do not as a rule break surface but fight deep, pulling and snagging at the line and taking fast runs. A fifty-pound kararnbesi is without doubt a hard fish to kill and one which the sporting angler may be proud of. These fish feed mostly on small mullet and the best bait to use is a trolled mullet, dead or alive, or a brass spoon in preference to a plated one. The mullet is not always easy to get, but a emall fish which the natives call the kowana, a small species of bream about six inches long, is easily procurable and equally effective. The mouth of the karambesi is hard and the fish takes the bait from behind so that it usually gets well hooked. With careful handling no gear should be lost. THE HoRSE MACKEREL (Caranx gymnostethoides) (Kolikoli). This fieh may be compared to the karambesi in many ways. For example, it fights in the same way, it takes the same bait and it is found in the same localities.

PAGE 41

Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast 27 Kolikoli, however, are not nearly so common nor do they run to the same weight. Although this fish belongs to the mackerel class, as doee the karambesi, the main difierences between the two are as follows :-(a) Kolikoli are a much longer fish, they have not the blunt nose to the same extent, and the pointed anal fin is sometimes absent. Aleo, they are not always provided with teeth but merely with roughened gums and the scales are smaller ; and (b) their general colour is lighter and their tail side fins do not carry so far up the lateral line. 'l'he following mea,surements taken of a fourteen and a half-pound kammbesi and tL kolikoli of the same weight are in themselves explanatory :-J(olikoli, length 2 ft. llins., girth 1ft. 08ins. J(arambesi, length 2ft. 04Qins., girth 1ft. 09ins. Many natives confuse the kara'lnbesi with the kolikoli but these two are distinctly different from each other as has been shown. The best months for this type of fish are November to March inclusive, although karambesi are found all the year round. THE HocK Con (Epinephalus sp.) (Chewa). Many species of this genus are to .be found on the coast weighing anything from two to over a hundred pounds. 'l'hey are members of the sea perch family. The most common is the yellow, spotted with brown, but there ie great variation in the colour of the different species including brick red, yellow and brown. An angler getting t1 bite from one of these fish seldom fails to land it, the mouth being so large and the jaws so strong that even the most inexperienced of fisherman has little difficulty; the whole art in landing the rock cod ie getting it in quickly. In this type of fishing the run allowed should be short, the shorter the better, or the fish will dive straight for the bottom and wedge itself in the coral. Fortunately, those cn,ught in shallow water over coral do not run up to any great weight. Although the rock cod is not considered one of the sporting fish it can often be moet troublesome to the angler, especially if he lets it get down among the coral. Should this happen the only hope is to shorten the line as much as possible and keep a steady strain on it. the fish will tire, but this may take a considerable time-and the angler's patience may tire first. After being hooked the rock cod goes down deep, attempting to reach the bottom; if this ie not possible it will pull and tug at the line, but soon gets played out and ''comes along quietly.'' Except for colouring the rock cod is by no means a beautiful fish, not having the lines of the mackerel family; nor is the mouth one of nature's best efforts. In the water their colouring is superb but all this is lost a few minutes after landing them, and they become a dull brown colour. It ie a curious fact that many of them vomit after being landed, bringing up their last meal,

PAGE 42

28 Tanganyika Notes and Records IH ROCK C.O.D "Ch.ewCL" THE SNA"PPE:R Tile I>aLPtiJ N. -pCl.nji ,. THE SEA BASS "N r ,, "Jom..bo THE .5Aft. 1-ISI-# -rH! yeu...O\V FJNNP IUNNY ("L.&jod.CL-ri.

PAGE 43

Notes on Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast 29 usually a kowana which has been swallowed whole and is in a half-digested state. The scales of this type of fish are small and it at first gives the impression of being emooth skinned. 'I'he flesh of the younger ones is quite pleasant but is rather coarse in the larger and older ones. Rock cod are present on the coast throughout the year but are more or less localized on certain reefs. THE SEA BAss (Epinephelus sp.) (Njornbo). This type of fish, another member of the large sea perch family, is even more common than the chewa in the Mafia and Kilwa channels. The general build is the same as that of the chewa but the fins, colour and scales are slightly different. 'rhe njombo has only six or seven spikes on the dorsal fin and no spikes on the ana), and the pectoral fin is more rounded. The caudal fin is wlmt might be termed straight cut, th
PAGE 44

30 Tanganyika Notes and Records ------------------------------------------the snapper is not built for speed it is extremely powerful. Difficulty is often found in gaffing this fish owing to its hard scales. Anglers should play it out completely before attempting to use the gaff. THE KIFIMBO. This fish is a type of bream and is one of the best eating fish caught by trolling. It does not run to any great weight, a ten-pounder being a good avemge. For its size it puts up quite a fair fight but after one or two short runs eoon grves up. Kijimbo are found in the most unexpected places, both in deep water and near reefs. They are never found in shoals but seem to go about singly. Their colouring is sea-green above the lateral line and a greenish-white below. The eye is large and the scales give one the impression of a large check cloth. The dorsal fin, which is armed with sharp spikes and which the natives treat with respect, commences above the pectoral fin and continues almost to the caudal fin. 'l1he cheeks of the kifimo are also scaly. Its mouth is large and armed with short sharp teeth. THE MTANGAA. The mtanga(t is not a common fish neither does it run to any weight, but it has been included here as being one of the fish caught only near reefs, and no bait seems too big for it. One of five pounds would be a large one but a two-pounder will readily take a six-inch spoon. It has two peculiarities, one being that it always dies with its mouth wide open and the other that all its fins with the exception of the pectorals end in long wisps tipped with yellow. It has fine scales and their colouring is dark red above the lateral line and a lighter red below. 'rhe dorsal fin, like that of the rock cod is long, the forward half being hard and spiky and the remainder being soft. On being hooked it will if possible dive straight for the bottom and under the coral. THE SoNGORO. The songoro appears to be a fairly common catch round the Tanga reefs, but is certainly not common in the Mafia l1nd Kilwa channels. This smooth, dftrk-skinned fish, which has the appearance of a barbel is an excellent fighter, being both strong and fast. In shape it is unlike any of the fish mentioned here, being flat along the belly. The cross section is triangular in shape. It has one dorsal fin, large pectoral fins and a strong deep caudal fin. Songoro have been killed up to forty pounds in weight. They are not considered good eating. THE SAIL-FISH (Ishophoms gladins) (Nduwaro). The sail-fish or Eword-fish is rather an uncommon catch although they are plentiful on the coast. Attaining a length of about twelve feet, exceedingly powerful and pugnacious they are, to the native, the most feared fish on the coast.

PAGE 45

Notes on: Sea-Angling off the Tanganyika Coast 31 T'he name sword-fish is derived from the long pointed upper jaw and the name sa.il-fish from the huge dorsal fin which, it has been said, they use as a sail. It certainly has the appeamnce of one. 'l'hey attack their larger prey with repeated thrusts of the sword ; even dhows a.nd canoes are attacked in this ma.nner, but if this happens the sword is liable to break as the fish has not a sufficiently powerful backwa.rd movement to be able to extricate the sword. 'rhe sword-fish will o c casionally take a spoon, but not with the usual rush. Once a fair sized one is well hooked the angler can settle down to some excellent sport coupled with hard work A deecription of the sai!-fish is unnecessary ; suffice it to say that as soon as the sail and sword are sighted grea t care should be taken in landing it as, in addition to the sword, it is also provided with teeth. THE DoLPHIN (Coryplwena. hippnrns) (Panji). 'l'he panji is a deep water fish, s eldom entering narrow channels or crossing shallow W
PAGE 46

3'2 Tanganyika Notes and Records a fairly large fish (a fish so hooked puts up a better fight than those hooked in the mouth). The ribbon fish, so called owing to its similarity to a piece of ribbon, is a dark bottle green along the back toning to a light silver belly. The small teeth are barbed. The average weight of those caught rarely exceeds two pounds. They make quite good eating but are full of small bones. 'fHE PoRPOISE (Pomboo). These marnmals have been included not because the angler is likely to hook one, although they have been caught on a rod and line, but because they are so often seen and, like gulls, are a good sign to the fisherman. Porpoises or perhaps dolphins are probably the fastest moving creatures in the sea. They have been known to outdist
PAGE 47

STATISTICS OF FISH CAUGHT OFF THE CoAST. The following statistics of fish caught off the coast during November and December 1936 may be of interest to the reader :-Month Time and tide November 4 p .m.-6 p.m. Rising November 6 p m .-9 a.m. Falling November 4 p.m.-6 p.m. Low water November 5 p.m. -6.30 p.m. Falling December 6 a m .-9 a.m. High December 4.30 p.m.-7 p.m. Low and Rising i Locality and No. i of lines used Mange Reef (two) Ras Mkumbi (two) Sefo Shoal (two) Tutia Reef (two) Mikindani (two) Tutita Reef (two) Nature of Bottom Sand and Coral Coral Sand and Coral Sand and Coral Sand Sand and Coral Name of Fish Karambesi Mzia Njombo Chewa Mtangaa Karambesi Chewa Njombo Kifimbo Mzia Mtangaa Nguru Karambesi Njombo Kifimbo Mzia Karambesi Njombo Kunguu Kolikoli Njombo Kunguu Karambesi Mzia Mtangaa Weights in Pounds 34, 6, 6, 10, 6, 20 16 18, 3 17, 15 2, 1 32, 19, 16, 8, 7, 7, 7, 3 13, 10,8, 7, 7,6,4,4,4 28, 15, 12, 7 3 4 2 21, 20, 8, 30 25, 20, 18, 15, 14, 12, 10, 23, 22, 18, 18, 14, 14, ll, 10 59, 18, 13, 4 13, 12, 12, ll, 6, 6 2 3 50, 43, 42, 33, 30, 5 lO 8 14 40, 19, 12, 9, 7, 5 10 11, 3 22 4 I '>-' '"' !"" : o i;::! ; [gg

PAGE 48

34 Tanganyika Notes and Records The "JYiashokora" Cultivations of the Coast By A. V. Hartnoll and N. R. Fuggles Couchman EXTENT AND IMPORTANCE OF THE "MASHOKORA" AREA. IN THE central area of the Dar es Salaam district there is an extensive area of hill country stretching practically the whole length of the district and varying in width, probably being narrowest in the north and consider ably wider in the south. The soils on the hills and hill-slopes vary from a deep red loam, derived from reel sandstone, rather light in texture, to a very heavy sticky black clay, the latter confined to a very well-defined area in the Mttneromango and Kisangire divisions of the district. In the various valleys between the hills are fertile black, or poor sandy soils. Everywhere in the not recently cultivated areas of such hill soils there is a dense cover of deciduous scrub forest, known to the natives as vichaka. The most important species of this forest areErithrophlmm guiniense (mwavi) Chlorophora excelsa (mvule) Milletia sp. (muhamvi) Ficus sp. (moimbo) Grewia sp. (mkole) Albizzia sp. (mtanga) Afzalia cuanzensis (mkongo) Baphia kirkii (mkumpti) Cussonia sp. (mpopoma) Tamarindus indicus (mkwaju) Sysigium guiniense (msambarao) A nona senegalensis (mtopetope) Trema guiniensis (mpeke). There are many climbing woody plants and generally speaking there axe few big trees, the average height of the bush rarely exceeding fifteen to twenty feet. The big trees are practically confined to the Pugu Forest Reserve, where one can see forest closely approximating to the original vichaka which covered the whole area. Cultivation in the past has tended to destroy the large trees, and the succession forest is of the general low type. As mentioned above, it is deciduous and heavily clothed with leaves, the importance of which will be referred to later. The scrub forest is not confined to the central hill area, as it appears on all suitable red soils in the coastal area of the district. As a rough estimate about one-sixth of the district consists of such country. The importance of this country to the natives is very considerable as, wherever it occurs, it is the reservoir for their grain crops as well as other food and cash crops. For in many parts the lowland soils of their villages are

PAGE 49

The "M ashokora" Cultivations of the Coast 35 frequently poor sands on which cassava and coconuts are practically the only crops which thrive, and the upland red soils are the only place where grain crops may be grown successfully. As a result natives living in the vichaka areas have evolved a very definite rotation, varying slightly from place to place according to the fertility of the soil, the age of the forest, the annual incidence of the rains and the yearly need for food and cash. Rotation in this case does not, however, infer the European meaning of the term, in that no leguminous crop is introduced to restore fertility, no manuring is done to maintain fertility, and an integral part of the system is a shifting cultivation, fertility being restored over a period of years by a secondary growth of scrub forest, or mashokora as it is known to the natives. It does include, however, a very definite succession of crops during the years in which any one cleared area is in cultivation. 'l'his type of country also has another importance, as on the tops of all the ridges, with the exception of the belt of black soils previously referred to, the red soils which occur form the best surface for the construction of all-weather roads. Not only does the firmness of the red soil make the surface so good, but the fact that these ridges lie on the line of the watersheds saves numerous bridges and culverts, whilst it is seldom found, owing to the undulating nature of the country and the comparative lowness of the hills that grading is necessary to avoid steep slopes. Such roads, there fore, are inexpensive to build and cheap to maintain. Cur"TIVATION AND CRoPs. It will be realized that land which has been under such scrub bush for many years will have obtained a considerable degree of fertility from the constantly falling leaves, frmn the conservation of soil moisture and the protection from the sun's rays in the dry season, which has prevented excessive soil sterilization. Thus, when the native first clears tt piece of old forest he has a field of very fertile soil. Realizing this either by trial and error or by some slight insight into the factors influencing his crops, he uses the soil while it is "green" for grain crops. In the first year the crop taken is rice. The humus in the soil and its bettutiful condition enable the maximum amount of rain to be absorbed and held, sufficient for the demands of the dry land or hill rice which he uses. The bush is cut by the men, all the light growth being cut to the ground, and the bigger trees being cut at about three feet from the ground. 'rhis is usually done in December and early January. If it is done earlier and there are good rains in December a.n early crop of maize will be sown in the first year, but this is unusual. When the bush has been cut it is generally carefully burnt. Fire has little danger where the clearings are surrounded by mashokora bush, which is generally the ease, as such bush is too green to burn. But where there is some pressure on the available forest natives sometimes clear a piece of marginal forest. At the end of the cultivation period that patch is very liable to be burnt out annually by the grass fires with the result that the masholwra mtn never re-establish itself properly a.nd the area falls into mion1,bo bush (the "dry-forest" of the savannah) with a

PAGE 50

36 Ta.nganyika Notes and Records steadily decreasing fertility. It is, therefore, really essential for the natives to leave a belt of uncleared forest round their cultivations, if the re-establishment of the mashokora is to occur, which must happen if the system is to be preserved. New clearings vary considerably in size from a quarter of an acre to over an acre, according to the "beer-wealth" of the native, his energy and the size of his family. Before the first crop is sown, the field is well hoed over and the rice is sown according to the advent of the mvua wa 1npando, the planting rains, between the middle of January and the end of February. Short term rices are used, the commonest variety being one known as Bora kupata; others used are Swala and Mizagala. The seed is sown haphazard, the holes being about nine inches to one foot apart, made with a small hoe when the soil is dry, or with a pole when it is wet. Men help the women with the sowing, but the women do most of it and are extremely quick workers. As stated above, if the bush is cleared early and the rains are good, a first crop of maize may be taken; this would be harvested after the rice has been sown. The necessary weedings are done to keep the rice clean, and harvesting eommences as early as the beginning of May in favourable years. The first year of this cultivation is known as chenge to the natives. The following season, that is to sa.y, in October and early November, the old stubbles and weeds are cut out and burnt, the land is lightly prepared and with good short rains a erop of maize will be sown, to be harvested in F.ebruary and March. The main crop in the second year depends upon the age of the forest which was cleared in the first year, which influences the goodness of the land after a crop of rice. If the forest was old and the land good, rice is again sown probably mixed with sorghums. It may be put in as early as the end of December if the rains are heavy, otherwise at the usual time towards the end of January. If the soils are from secondary forest of only fifteen or twenty years' growth, sorghums form the main crop in the second year. These may be sown as with the rice, in December or January, and with either main crop a long rain crop of maize is usually taken as an inter-crop. In this year also pigeon-peas are sown, scattered about the field and round the edges, continuing till the end of the period of use of the particular field. This second year is known as pindua, as it is frequently the year of change from rice to sorghum. At the beginning of the third season a crop of maize is again sown with the short rains, together with cowpeas or green gram, which may also be Aown in the second season. If the area was sown with sorghums in the second year, then the maize is now interplanted with cassava as well. If, on the other hand, it is an area of good soil, sorghums will be planted in the third season. In the first case after the maize has been harvested the cassava will be allowed to come away, and if it is still small another crop of maize may be taken in the long rains, but this is unusual. The cassava is then left in the field and harvested as necessary, the field being allowed to revert to bush. A cover to the soil quickly forms, a grass, Panicum trichocladum, rapidly growing under and over the cassava which gradually dies out, or is dug out.

PAGE 51

37 The ''Masholwra'' Cultivations of the Coast __________________ ____::__ _______ ___ In the better areas this happens at the end of the fourth season, the cassava having been planted at the beginning of that season. The third season is known as pindua la gogo, meaning the "turning of the tree stumps," which are well rotted and easily knocked over by that time. The secondary bush, or rnashokora, quickly asserts itself and in a few years has formed an impenetrable thicket, and the return of fertility to the soil has commenced. An area of secondary bush is rarely cut before it is ten years old. If it is cut after that short period the natives do not consider it is fit for a rice crop, maize and sorghums and then cassava only being cropped on it. If the forest is twenty years old or more it is considered suitable for rice in the first year, and the rotation depicted above is followed through again. PosSIBILITIES AND hiPROVEMENTS IN THE SYSTEM. The attention of one of the writers was drawn to this class of land when a,ttempting to encourage the production of cotton in the district. At every bamza in a country of this nature, natives stated that cotton would not thrive in the soils, that it grew and never produced a crop and so forth. From the appearance of the soil after the fi.elds had been used a year there would appear to be no reason for such failure except perhaps in planting at the wrong season, or exceptional rains in the flowering and boiling periods. It was not until it was realized that they were using the newly-cleared land in the first year, and that normally that land was well suited to rice, that the trouble was understood and a possible solution brought to light. It is generally accepted that cotton will not produce a satisfactory crop on rich land which has been newly cleared, there being a tendency for the plants to run to wood and leaf and to shed most of the crop. 'l'his was happening with their cotton. But sorghum is grown in the second or third year, and if sorghum thrives cotton should also be a satisfactory crop, given average climatic conditions. Thus it appears to be a matter of fitting the cotton crop into the present native rotation in the most suitable yel1r. In the past the natives have been giving themselves much extra work in clearing new areas for cotton in addition to those necessl1ry for their rice. There would seem to be no need for this double effort, a point which should appeal to the native. When a double clearing has to be made it must have a depressing effect on the area cleared for rice. 'l'his is undesirable, as the rice crop is a most important one to the natives in the hill areas and is one which flourishes there. It should be possible to encourage the native to clear a larger area for his rice and when the second and third years come round, to plant a part of the sorghum area with cotton. The only crop to suffer any reduction would be the sorghum, as an early crop of maize would be taken in the cotton area. The redqction of the sorghum crop is not very vital, as maize, rice ancl cassava form the larger part of the native's diet. With a larger initial area cleared for rice, there need not be any reduction in the sorghum area. Further, such introduction of cotton would in no way throw out the native rotation, or any of his work, while it would introduce into the rotation a deep rooting, well tilled crop which would

PAGE 52

38 Tanganyika Notes and Records have beneficial effect on the third and fourth seasons' crops, that is to say the half of the field planted with sorghum would become cotton and the cotton area would be planted with maize in the third and fourth years. Woon* says: "Cotton worked into an already existing rofation will, as likely as not, be regarded as a subsidiary crop ; cotton forming the basis of :t new rotation will almost certainly be the main crop to be considered.'' In working cotton into the rotation in the manner outlined above it is with a view to its being treated as a subsidiary cash crop. "Hill" rice flourishes so exceedingly under average conditions and yields so well, giving the native a good return of cash and food, that any curtailment of the t:rop for cotton would be undesirable. Cotton should be regarded in these areas as a line of defence against bad rice years, from which the native may obtain as a minimum his tax n;toney, as well as a few shillings for other purchases, and so leave all his food crop for food purposes. As in all areas of shifting cultivation, while there is no pressure on the land available, there is nothing very damaging in the practice, as long as the fallow is adequately protected from erosion and fire, so that fertility may be restored as fully as the bush growth can restore it. During the four years in which the natives use their red hill soils there is little fertility restored to the land. Small crops of cowpeas and green gram are sown in the short rains as intercrops, while pigeon peas for two years must have some good effect, but they are very scattered and few in number. Once pres 1re on the land becomes too great for the long period of allowing required under present conditions the natives will have to resort to green manure and leguminous crops in much greater quantity than at present. Probably then a mixed pure stand of cowpeas, gram and pigeon peas for one or two years will have to be used. It is possible to take two crops of cowpeas in one year, one of which could be dug in as a green manure eat:h year. Further, as the bush disappears under such pressure, tsetse will also disappear, and with communal dipping tanks cattle might be owned by the natives, so paving the way to a stable system of mixed farming with ploughing. SoiL EROSION. As mentioned above, most of the cultivation takes place on hillsides. Nowhere in areas visited has water erosion seemed very apparent. In the first year the soil is in a very water-retentive state, but during the subsequent years run-off must increase. The practice of leaving the stumps in the soil may ctlso have a certain beneficial effed in holding up the soil during the first two years. However, when the fields are left, the growth of P. bichocladum is so rapid that a very fine cover soon forms :tnd little or no wash takes place. Thus, under the present system, while contour ridges would probably be beneficial in the second and third years, the damage done by run-off does not appear to make their construction absolutely essential, more especially *WootJ, R. C., "Cotton Rotations." Empire Cotton Growing Review, XXIII, 2, April 1936.

PAGE 53

The "M ashokom" Cult-ivat-ions of the Coast 39 -------in view of the rapid growth of cover. But once continuous cropping becomes general through lack of areas of new or regenerated forest, contour ridging and storm draining will have to be carried out, to preserve the soils in cultivation. 'l'his is readily seen in a few areas, where, through fire and other reasons, the forest htts never re-established itself-there erosion is proceeding at a greut pace. SoME AD:VIINISTRATIVE AsPECTS OF Mashokom CuLTIVATION. This method of cultivation viewed from the administrative standpoint has everything to recommend it. In the first place it possesses the advantage of accessibility once ridg.e line roads have been constructed; roads, which by opening up the district would act ttdversely on the tendency of a population to concentrate itself round a big centre like Dar es Salaam. Most of the present roads in the district have never been properly located and have grown up from the ordinary bush footpath, wandering in the valleys from waterhole to waterhole. Thus they :fa.il for this purpose. In the second place, this nwsholwm country, being as tL rule at the tops of the hills and away from water, is healthy, and it is in the interest of the inlmbitants that they should eventmtlly move out of the sandy or swampy valleys where malaria and other diseases are rife, to live in the hill country where, indeed, their main food crops are situated. 'l'here is no doubt that the population would be living there now were it not for the facts that this country lies off the beaten track and that there is :'Rshortage of permanent water in the hills. It seems, in fact, that one of the tests of om administration in this particubr coastal area will be how much we have developed and extended this method of cultivation. There is plenty of land in the district suitable for mashokora cultivation. However, it must be remembered that it takes some twenty to thirty years for the land to restore itself to fertility after its four years of cultivation and some five to six times as much as that under cultivation must lie fallow. At the moment, and in the immediate future, there is, speaking for the district as a whole, ample land for this type of development, provided that new areas are opened up with roads and wells, without being faced with the necessity of enforcing refertilization by more scientific methods. Quite apart, however, from the question of available land for present needs, v-ichalw forest will re-estttblish itself, provided that the tmnual dry season grass fire can be kept out. 'l'hus the restoration of vichaka in barren, sandy, places not only increases the amount of land potentially available, but practically eliminates soil erosion. To sum up, therefor.e, we have in nwsholwra cultivation in a district where the native population is not progressive the foundation of existing custom, on which we can build, until by slow stages we have evolved good communications, u prevention of disease, enlightened agricultural methods and an elimination of the ever-increasing dangers of soil erosion. 'rhe authors wish to thank Mr Maber of the Forestry Department for information concerning the species found in the forest.

PAGE 54

40 Tanganyika Notes and Records ---------------The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa By A rthur E. Robinson IN DEAI.1IN G with any question affecting the history of the territory now comprised within the mandate of 'Tanganyika it is necessary to remember that it formed part of an African empire. It is a remarkable fact that Pate is not mentioned in the annals of KilwtL and there is no mention of Kilwa in the chronicles of Pate. 'l'heir territories met and both Mombasa and Zanzibar are prominent in their histories. The Larnu archipelago includes the islands of Pate, Amu (Lamu), Manda, Uvondo, Ndao and Kiwayo. On the mainland Mkunumbi, Kao (on the lower Tana river), Kipini, Shanga, Dodori and Kiunga are associated with the history of Pate. Although divided against itself by feuds between the towns of Siu and Pate, the island of Pate maintained its independence until 1507. In that year da Cunha, who had been appointed Governor of the African coast by the Viceroy Almeida, called at Lamu and made Pate and IJamu tributary to Portugal. The ruins of the old Persian monastery( ?J at I.1amu and those at Mafia Island are among the most notable on the east coast of Africa. They owe their preservation to the comparative inaccessibility of the sites. The importance of Kilwa in the history of East Africa can be gauged by the fact that it was the only country (other than Egypt and the Barbary Coast principalities) which struck coins in Africa during medieval times. The purpose of this paper is to dmw attention to the Persian colonies as distinct from Arab infiltration as much of the culture which impressed the Portuguese upon their arrivttl was due to Persian civilization. A great deal has been destroyed but much could be added to our knowledge of Africa by those now there who are disposed to do it. The present paper has been compiled so that it can be referred to by any interested in the medieval civilization of the east coast without reference to books which are not easily obtainable. At present the only sources of our information regarding the history of the Shirazi colonies are native chronicles. There has been too much stress laid in the past, however, upon these. Recent research indicates successive Persian cultures dating from the ninth to the thirteenth century in East Africa. These may have some connection with the Persian remains found in the Yemen and Hadramut dated to the sixth century or the Persian evidences dated to the same period found in Somaliland. 'I'he principal documents regarding the East African settlements are, in their order of importance :-(a) The list of the rulers of Kilwa ( Quiloa) published by J oao de Barros in "Da Asia" at Lisbon, c. 155'2-3. This is the earliest and most authentic record known. It includes the rulers until 1507 and was reproduced by Admiral Guillain('). 'l'he list of de Barros is printed as Appendix A to this paper.

PAGE 55

Kilwa Kisiwani Old Arab Fort. Kilwa Kisiwani-Ruins of Old Arab Mosque. ]/(J fwoe )Ht!le .JO

PAGE 57

It formed the basis of the list of rulers and genealogical trees published recently by Mr walker in his paper on the "Coinage of Kilwa" ("). Although the line of Kilwa rulers continued as Sheikhs until 1830 when they moved to the mainland, I c:.;annot trac:.;e any published list subsequent to that of de Barros. An im;omplete Ambic Humuscript was presented to the British Museum in 1884 by Sir John Kirk. It was published in an abridged form with an English summary by l'VIr S. Arthur Strong('). 'L'his is a modern and inaccurate copy of a document written in A.H. 904 (A.D. 1494), when Sultan El Fad! ruled at Kilwa. I .<.:onsider that de BalTos obtained l1is information from the 1494 document. 'l'his wu,s probably offkial and prepared by order of the Sultan Muhamad I' adil (ex Amir) to settle questions of suc:.;cession. 'l1here are definite indic:.;ations that the House of Alowi (i.e. A li, the founder) had died out at that period. No deot:ription of the tombs of the Kilwa sult:1ns or any contem porary insc:.;riptions appear to have. been published. (b) 'l'here are three different versions of a local history of Pate, although two of them admittedly c:.;omeiled fiorn the same source. None of them is correct. 'l'here are historict1l inaccumcies in eltch of them ttnd unpleasant incidents such as f:1mily murders or irreguhtrities in succession are omitted. I cannot rec:.;oncile these three versions, but Appendix B to this pltper gives the names of the rulers in the three lists. 'J'he lucume are so obvious that it is impossible to produce a c:.;orrect rec:.;ord. Appendix C is a summary of events which may be regarded as milestones in any of the local chronicles. The chronology adopted is that of Admiral Ouillain. This differs from the native records. The tribal record of Pate was destroyed in the bombardment of Witu in 1890. 'l'he introduction of words such as Bwana Mkwu, Tamu Mkuu, M a toto, Fmno, etc., clearly indicate the submergence of Persian culture by Africanization. 'l'his is in marked c:.;ontmst to the settlement at Mogadisco where local imams and sherifs appeared soon after the re-establishment of the caliphate by the Bgyptian Marneluke Sultan Beybars. It is noticeable that more than one sultan of Kilwa made the pilgrimage to Mecca, but there is no record of any ruler of 1\tte luwing done so. (c) A fragmentary record of V umba was published by Sir Alfred Hollis(4). 'rhe original documents upon which his paper was based were given to the library of the Hoyal Anthropologict1l Institute but I have been unable to obtain access to them. '1'he Vnmba settlement was on the mainland, opposite to Pemba, on the river Urnba. 'rhere were extensive ruins at Mehamalale (Msemelale). All local records were lost in the sack of Vanga and Ormuz (Pongwi district). in 187 5. I understand tht1t a copy of a manuscript dated 1721 exists but has not been published. The population of this settlement entirely changed in character and it is possible relapsed to paganism in the seventeenth century. (d) A list of the rulers of the governors of. Mombasa after the Omanese occupation. All the previous rec:.;ords appear to h:we been lost when the town was destroyed("). 'l'his was published by Owen (appendix D)(S).

PAGE 58

4'2 Tanyanyika Notes and Records (e) A number of local traditions published by various writers to whom acknowledgment is made by me in the text. I cannot trace :my ehronicle of Melimle. 'l'his town seems to have been a semi-pagan settlement until
PAGE 59

The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa 43 those who opposed Hajjaj were two brothers, Suliman and Said, the sons of Abbad of the Omanese Azdites. 'l'hey vvere possibly sons of Julanda, who had ruled Oman previously under the Prophet Muhamad. 'l'he Moslems did not eject the Persians or the locttl rulers confirmed in the posts by the Persians unless they aetively repudiated Islam and declined to pay tribute. It was one of the prineiples of the poliey of 1-hjjaj to destroy Persian eulture and the language was superseded by Arabie. Snliman and Said wer.e defeated and fled with a number of their f:nuilies to the "'Land of Zinj"('"). 'l'he chronology varies considerably. 2\Jasudi("') gives the date of the Kharejite revolt as A.H. 30 and the war vvith Haj,jaj as A.H. 77 in his resume of Arabian history. 'l'he moclern ehroniele of eited by Captain Stigand repea.ts a later tradition tlmt the first coast towns(''') were founded by Ab del Melek ben Muriani (i.e. Ab del Melek ben Marwan) and that his son, J aafar, died at Kiwayu. Another son, Hamza, is said to have been the first Moslem missionary on the East Coast when there was a Christian eommunity at Socotra. The bishop of Soeotra is said to have travelled to Mogadiseo. 'l'he ruins of the churehes used by the population of Soeotra when the Portuguese occupied the island in ];507 eannot be identified as sacred buildings now. Stigand gives the earliest Moslem settlements as Mukadisho (mui-wa-mwisho, i.e. the end city), JVIarlm (an aneient. caravan port)(u), Brava, 'l'ula, 'l'wavae, Koyama, Vumbi (see later), Kismayu, Omwi, N dao, Kiwayu, Pate (se later), or Faza, Shanga, Emezi (W:mgi), lVIagagoni ('l'ukutu), Amu (Lamu), Manda or Mandra, Taka, Kitao, Kornana, Uziwa, Shaka, Mea, Ozi, Melindi, Watamu, Mvita (Mombasa), vVasini (\V"asin island), Kilwa, 'l'ungi, Ngazija (Comoro islands). 'l'his is a most comprehensive and improbable list. It is possible that .,le or two Moslem traders settled at these places during the first century of !le Moslem er<1 but in my opinion the list is open to question and includes settlements foun.ded at different periods. It is most improbable that there were any Ommayad eolonies in East Africa until after they were driven out by the Abbassides subsequent to the proclamation of Abu'l Abbas at Kufa on the 28th November, 749. Masudi deseribed the lbctdis as the Kharejites of the Yemen but the application of this term has varied eonsiderably at different times and in various plaees. In A.H. 120 (A.D. 740) Zayd, the grandson of Huseyn ben Ali the Caliph, was indueed by the Shiites of Kufa to revolt against the Caliph Hisham (724-743). Zayd was deserted by his forces and killed. His son Yehya suffered a similar fate in the reign of the Ca.liph Walid (743-744). Abu Muslim(") who (") Abu Muslim was a Persian of the Hanifiya Shiites and a disciple. G>f_ the_ Imam I brim, was imprisoned at Harran by the Cahph Marwan. He declared h1s m1ss10n m the provmce of Merv on the 15th June, 747, and soon captured the. country from the Arabs. Kufa was occupied on the 2nd September, 749, by Hasan ben and 011 the 28th Nov.ember was proclaimed as caliph there. He was the first Moslem ruler to appomt a waz1r (v1Z1er) or "Helper." These officials became the king-makers of Islam. The office of emir (Amir-al-Amara) was first instituted by the Caliph Radi and seems to have been copied from the Romans. The Moslem emir was a sort of major-domo who commrmded the permanent body-guard of the sovereign. In Egypt the title was similar to that. of a general the emirs had numerous privileges which included the use of metal drums winch were sounded m certam areas on specified oc,.asions. Several notable emirs in African history were eunuchs.

PAGE 60

44 Tanganyika Notes and Records founded the AbbasRideR caliphate asRmned black robes and constituted himself the avenger of Yehya during the reign of lVIarwan II (744-750) who was the laRt Omtnayud. 'l'he son of Marwu,n ll fled from Egypt, after his father's death, to the Sudltn and Abyssinia, where he formed a colony. He was subsequently expelled from AbysRinia and both the Moslem Fung and Gallas hrtve genealo gical trees in w!Jich he is claimed as an ancestor. After the proclamation of Abu'l Abbas at Kufa, the Alicles were pnRhecl aside. They had answered their purpose but no power was given to them. As a result of unsuccessful attempts to obtain power there was an exodus of the Ernosaids (followers of Zayd) from the Persian Gulf vvhich extended over a conRiderable period. About the middle of the eighth century a party of EmosrLids landed on the East African coast from the Persian Gulf. 'l'his place is said to have been named by the holy man who accon;panied the fugitives. It is an adaptation of Malmad-es-shat, i.e. "the sitting-place of the sheep," and is taken from an incident in a prophetic vision. About A.D. 89:i a colony of Emosaids was founded in southern Arabia and is still in existence there. 'l'he Alides (Emosltids or Zaidite) dynasty of Tabaristan lusted fro'iu A.D. 864-928. De Barros published this tradition of the founding of the Emosaid colonies and it rests on more substantial basis than the Omrnayad story which has nothing historical in support. During the period that the Emos
PAGE 61

The Shirazi Colonizations of East A_f1ica 45 Professor J_jeakey has examined two sites lately. They are Engaruka (Rift valley), west of Arusha in 'ranganyika Territory, and Gedi (a ruined coast town) north of Mombasa. 'l'he first-named he dates at about three hundred years ago for its foundation, and its abandonment (through raids by the Masai) about a century ago. The inhabitants were known as Wambulu but called themselves Iraki. Gedi was an old walled town with some architecture analogous to that of Zimbabw(H0). It is remarkable for cut-stone archways of a type suggestive of "Early English" architecture. One arch rests on columns and Dr Leakey eonsiders that the site may be as early as A.D. 600, i.e. pre-Moslem(17). During the reign of H arun-er-Rashid (786-809), Yehia ben Abdallah(18 ) claimed the caliphate in 7\)3. He was seized and died in prison. The ealiph also seized Musa ben J afar al Kazim, the head of the Alides at Medina, and he met a similar fate. In 798 the Barmecides were suppressed by Harun. A gold coin attributed to Hanm was found at Zanzibar and some of earlier dates with Cufic char(lcters bnt Mr Ingrams considers the identification doubtful. A coin of Ptolemy X (151-80 B.c.) was found at Msasan (north of Dares Salaam). Mr Ingrams states that the Makunduchi of Zanzibar, vvho are peeuliar for dances with tridents, claim to have migrated from Msasan. Among .I the ruins visited by Burton were those at Changa N dumi (on the mainland) five miles from Tanga which he considered had been abandoned circ. 1741('"). The coastal towns Shaka and Wangwana-wa-Mashat are reputed to have been Persian settlements. They were eonquered by Sultan Omar, the N abhani ruler of Pate, about the fourteenth century. They were repopulated but finally destroyed by the Sultan Bwana ramu of Pate about the beginning of the eighteenth century when there would appear to have been general revolt against the restrictions imposed by the Persittn Moslems. Shaka(rl) was the capital of Shah Mringari, a brother of Liongo who was conquered by Sultan Om;1r of Pate (20). Some of these abandoned sites were called after towns in Arabia. Among these is vVa-Mekk1 on the coast (1120"N. and 42'42"E.). Guillain found a ruined mm;qne there and a number of tombs. 'l'he pyrmuid on the island of Wa-Sheikh he eonsidered was an Arab navigation mark. In 1848 this village was under the Imam Aloti of Obbia. Guillain found vestiges of a. stone building at Ha-fun ;md published a plan which might indieate any rectanguh1r building. Sir Flinclers Petrie considers that Ha-fun was the home of the people of Punt. ln recent years there has been a tendency to identify the Fnng of the Sndan with this site. Bnrton men tioned that a part of the town of Zanzib;1r was known as the Fungu qmtrter("'). 'l'he word was considered to mean ctntoehthonous peasantry. (c) The Illustrated London News of the .14th. March, 1935, contains of sim}!ar ruins at sites much farther south where terracmg 1s done by stone walls fot culbvntwn. I he local people live in grass kraals a:nd regard the ruins in much the same way as the inhabitants near Zimbabwe do those. (d) Guillain described Skaka or Jaka as an abandoned site near Melinde was founded by Shirazi from Ha-fun. These people moved down the coast and colomzed Vtmba (Juba) a.nd Chungwaya.

PAGE 62

46 Tanganyika Notes and Records About A.H. '295 (A.D. 908) when the contemporary ruler of Oman may have been El Hawari ben Matraf, seven brothers in three ships landed at Mogadisco. These people are said to have been Sunnis am! came from El Has;L on the Omanese coast. 'l1hey were possibly a branch of the El Azd tribe. 'l'he new arrivals ejected the Emosaids, who settled ontside the town among the native population with whom they were friendly. They became absorbed among the .Adjourane tribe of the Hawiya Somali, who owned camels and controlled the caravan trade into the interior. They were not allowed to remain inside the town of Mogadisco after sunset however. At that time the monopoly of the Sofala trade was in the hands of the people of Mogadisco who had discovered the place through one of their ships being storm-driven there. There is a curious tradition attached to this Sofala trade by the Arabs. It was a .. condition of the natives that the traders were obliged to fnrnish each year a number of lusty young men who vvere left at Sofala (? as hostages). These young men were mated with native women who retained the offspring which were absorbed in the local tribes. 'rhe Asiatic features of the Makalanga tribe were remarked upon by the early Portuguese travellers. It. is doubtful if there is any connection between the Ma-kalanga and the ancient Indian kingdom of Kalanga. The Portuguese stated that the women of Socotra, who were Christians when they arrived, had a great desire for children by the Portuguese garrison. 'l'his seems probable as the Socotrans were then a feeble and decadent remnant of what had been a numerous and prosperous colony. When Burton arrived on the coast he estimated the Indian population at about fifteen thousand. It was the practice of the Banyans to take concubine slaves as their wives never left India. MuhamadAnkoni benHukn-ed-Din "ecl-Dabuli" who was the principal local merchant when the Portuguese arrived at Kilwa was probably the son of an Indian and a native of Africa. Both he and his son Haji Hasan Muhamad had made the pilgrimage but it is easy to understand that he was in the eyes of the Kilwans unsuitable as their sultan. During the tenth century ships from the Heel Sea, Persian Gulf, India and ChimL visited the coast. It is suggested that Malays visited the coast before the Chinese nrrived. 'l'he identification of the Wak-\vak with the Malays is not generally accepted but in ,\.H. :334 an attempted invasion of Pemba is recorded. It is most improbable that Mahtys or Chinese would assemble a thonsand vessels for this purpose and in the pres-ent writer's opinion such a large number of craft would be canoes. 'I' hey were very probably people from the Comoro islands or northern Madagascar where oriental coloni.ec; of beche-de-mer fishers seem to have been established at an early period. Unfortunately the homds of Chinese coins found at Mafia, Pernba and other sites have disappeared and it is therefore impossible now to fix any period at which these oriental colonies were founded in Afriea(e). l understand that an Amercian anthropologist who has visited the (")See the article "Indonesian Culture" by HortNELL in the Journ. Hoy. Anthro. LXIV, pp. 305, etc. From the historical evidence it is doubtful 1f any voyages were made before the Christian era (except in the Mediterranean, or similar enclosed waters) by manners who deliberately lost sight of the land.

PAGE 63

_ of ___ ________ coast attributes the origin of at least one tribe in Africa to the Chinese (f). Burton identified the Ibadis with the I\harijites and stated that t :heir mosques were of the W ahabi type and distinctive from the other sects, as far as Africa is concerned. 'l'he following is the gist of a note by Guillain on the Ibadis :-They were led by J elendi ben Masnd, who was killed by the Beni J aber in
PAGE 64

48 I Son at Mogadisco Tanganyilw N otcs and Records ALI BEN SuLTAN AL HusEYN BEN ALr "Es SHIRAzr." Son at Shoughu (Kismayu) (Ighawumij) Founded Kilwa and died there. I Son at Yunbu (Yambe Is.) Son at Jezirat el Khufra (Pemba) I Bashat at Mafia Is. Son at Comoro Islands (? Johanna) I Females not mentioned in any record. 'rhe local chronicles regard Ali ben Sultan Huseyn as the first Sultan of Kilwa. Mr Walker has published genealogical trees('"). ']'he earliest coins of this dynasty are those of Hasan ben 'ralut who ruled in the thirteenth century(11) when the sultans of Egypt had restored the Abbassides caliphate and invested the pilgrimage to Mecca with a grandeur previously unknown(24). There is another story of the colonization of Kilwa in a manuscript found at Pemba .which is cited by Mr Ingrarns. 'rhe name of the founder of Kilwa is given as Darshash ben Shaha (or Shah). This man was accompanied by three brothers, a sister and three nephews. The family are stat-ed to have founded Shehiri, Pate, Mombasa, Pemba, Turnbutu, Zan:r:ibar and Kilwa. The local chronicle of Pate(i) records a second foundation at that site by Suliman ben $uliman ben lVIuthafar (or El Mudaffar) en Nabhani. He ltmded at Pate with his two brothers, Ali and Othman, circ. A.H. 600 or A.D. 1203-4. 'rhese N abhanites are said to have been of royal blood (Meliks). 'l'hey were fugitives from the Yaarebi, a tribe which later ruled Muscat as imams from A.D. 1624-1741, when they were displaced by the Busaidi (the present Ibadi royal family of Za,nzibar). is said to have married Batawim1, the daughter of Ishak, the last ruler of the previous dynasty. lsh
PAGE 65

The Shimzi Colonizations of East Africa 49 a ehronological list of these rulers ean be basede). Ingrams identifies Bwana Tamu, who ruled in 1728, with Abubekr ben Muhamad but aives no authority b 0 for the Portuguese treaty which is not cited by Guillain (see Strandes, op. cit., p. 288). Bwana 'l'amu Mkuu died in 173:-3. The notes on Vumba were published by Sir Alfred Hollis, when native commissioner. They are based upon memory and an unpublished manuscript da,ted 1721. A settlement was founded by the Shirazis, circ. 1199-1216, on the banks of the river Umba (district called Vumba). There are ruins at Mehamelale (Msemelale). Until 1875, when all the records were burnt, a list of the rulers was extant. The first sultan was named Zumbura and none of the names a.ppear to be Arabic. The principrLl tribes of these people seem to have been the Wadigo and Wasegeju (Mosseguios of the Portuguese, at Melinde) and Wa-nyika. All these now claim Somali origin. The term Wa-nyika is generic and means "desert folic" The Shirazi colonists are said to have come from Shungwaya (nbout two hundred miles north of Mombasa). The rulers took the title of M wana-Chambi until1544 and after that date M wana-ChambiChanda and finally Fumo. 'l'hey were recognized by the Portuguese but the name Vumba does not appear in the inscription at Mombasa which includes (i) It is most improbable that any ruler survived after deposition. Mafia Island.-The Shirazi capital was at Kua on Juani islet. Its foundation is attributed to Shirazi (from Wambera, a district on the coast) who formed the nucleus of a kingdom established by a son of the first Sultan of Kilwa, circ. A.D. 975. The houses were rectangular with compounds for slaves. The ground plans me analogous to some ruins at the site of the old city of Berber (Sudan) and to some of the Roman villas ih Britain where the slaves were housed within the precincts of their owner's homesteads. Captain Norman King has illustrated the Shirazi mosques at Mafia and Juani. He described the Shirazi tombs as "larg.e with headstones of the phallic type peculiar to the Shirazi." These tombs are apparently similar to the medieval Moslem tombs seen by me at Aswan and Cairo. The tomb consists of a domed canopy of masonry which is supported on four columns. Underneath this the body was buried. The head stone (sometimes also one at the feet) consisted of a. cylindrical column surmounted by a. turban carved from the monolith. The Moorish fez and the Egyptian tarbush are modern in Islam. The turban was the characteristic head-dress of Islam. It. was probably adopted from the Persians and was worn by the Turkish sultans after they usurped the caliphate. The most peculiar feature of the Shira.zi tombs in Africa is the niche or antechamber inside which the relatives of the deceased could pray facing towards Mecca. Guillain remarked upon this feature in the architecture of the rectangular domed tombs which he examined at Mogadisco during the last century. Incidentally it was the fact that Sultan Yusef hen Ahmad (Don Geronimo Chingoulia), who had been baptised at Goa, prayed at his [
PAGE 66

50 Tanganyika Notes and Records those who had rebelled and joined Sultan Yusef in 1630-5. The most notable ruler recordd was Mwana-Chambi-Chanda Ivor who was ruling when the great massacre of the Portuguese took place in 1630. He suppressed all the Persian customs among his people including the veiling of women, the use of wooden doors on huts, and the beating of drums. He was buried in a circle of stones with a monolith but these were dstroyed in 1896. Since the eighteenth century the tribal rulers have assumed the title of Sherif. The first was Syed Abu Bakri ibn Sheikh ibn Abu Bakri el Masela ben Alowi (1700-17 42). The investiture ceremony is a curious one and includes the wearing of a silver chain about the right knee. The Mombasa Chronicle states that the last Shirazi ruler of Mombasa was Shahat ben Masham, or Mifta, who was called Shahat (Shah). Th date of his was 1592. It was subsequent to a revolt in 1528 when N una da Cunha offered the rule of Mombasa to Mougno Muhamad, a brother of King Wagerage of Melindi. Muhamad declined the rule as he was the son of a slave and suggested his brother Abubekr, who was a nephew of King Wagerage's successor. The Watikuu (Bajuns) claim Juni ben Katada of Medina as their eponymous ancestor. Tradition states that he was driven out of the Hejaz circ. A.H. 50 and landed at Mogadisco. Some of his party went to Buralao. These people finally reached Gobwen and Kiunga (on the mainland). Later they settled at Faza. Tundwa was an old town of the Bajuns and as late as 1868 they fought under Sheikh Shakari with their neighbours of Faza, who were under Mzee Sefu. Tumbutu Island. This place is mentioned by Yakut in the thirteenth century. Its situation rendered it a place of exile or refuge from Zanzibar (Angouya). The local tradition is that the place was colonized circ. A.H. 600 (A.D. 1204) by a Sultan Yusef ben Alowi of the Ahl Ali, who came from Tusi in the Basrah district. A genealogical table based upon the information published by Mr Ingrams might read as follows:-( 1) 1 Abdallah (First Sultan) I YusEF BEN ALowi. I Bwana Pate (or Battah) (2) Ali (relationship unknown) Ismail = daughter of King Koronda of the (reputed to be Muhiyas tribe in Kilwa territory a Sultan of Kilwa) I I brim As the only recorded Sultan Ismail of Kilwa was Ismail ibn Hasan ibn Suliman, who ruled circ. 1442-1454, the tradition has no historcal confirmation. There would seem to have been a similai"i tradition at Mafia. Burton says that the island was ruled by the Moslems of Songo-Songo and Changa until they were conquered by the Shirazi from Kilwa. There are two sites named Shanga

PAGE 67

The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa 51 or Changa(k). One of these was on Pate Island and the; other on the mainland near Melinde. There was a site called Tekwiri (south of 8159"S.Lat.) which was considered to be the ancient Kilwa and possibly the classical Rhapta. The local tradition was that the new town was founded by a Sheikh Yusef from Shangaya, who purchased land from N ependu, a pagan chief. Yusef built the old fort (at new Kilwa) at Kilwa Kisiwani and married Nependu's daughter. He then killed his father-in-law and seized the rule as the Shirazi Sultan of Kilwa. The name Lamu or Amu is said to be derived from the Beni Lami an Arab people from the Persian Gulf who colonized the island(!). Stigand described the Sin people as Bani Sadu (Beni Saad) who came from Shanga on the mainland and claimed a certain J aafar ben Abd el Melik (see ante) as their eponymous ancestor. It is a curious fact that a quarter of the ruined city of Pate is called the Battah quarter and this name appears in Swahili records. It is said to be the name of an Arab tribe from the Hadramut. There is also a tradition that Brava was colopized by Arabs circ. A.H. 1000 from the Hatimu who traced their descent from migrants from Andalusia. The name Ghiberti or J abarti frequently occurs in Italian or French publications. It is an adaptation of the El J abarta of El Makrizi. It means Swahili or Wazumba. These people claimed to be thel descendants of Persians (or Asiatics) who had intermarried with pagans prior to the Moslem era. The last sultan of the Swahili was Ahmed ben Sultan ben Hasan el Alawi, who was entitled Muini Mkuu. Shangaya, north of Lamu (circ. 20S.), was one of the earliest settlements. lJeone Vival_di, a Venetian, is said to have crossed Africa from the west coast to Mogadisco in the eleventh century(25). Major Pearce has dated the existing ruins of the mosque and ruins on Pemba as from the tenth to the fourteenth centuries(26). There are pillared tombs(27 ) at N dagoni and Mkumbuu which are claimed to be phallic. Msuka mosque has a graffiti dated A.H. 816 (A.D. 1414) when the mosque was then in ruins apparently. 'l'he grave of the son, Mjawli, of the infamous Mkame Mdume, a diwani, who died about the time the Portuguese arrived, is known. CuLTURE.-The distinctive culture of the Shirazi in addition to the architectural evidence will be found briefly dealt with by Stigand, Ingrams and other writers cited by me. It covers such a wide field, including that of naval architecture, that space precludes the subject being dealt with here. I hope to publish a short paper illustrating the types of vessels used by the ancients, of which present types may be survivals. (k) Bmton suggested that Sanje Majoma may be the Chang;t of King Mtata Mandelima, who expelled King Daud from Kilwa. There were ruins of a mosque, well cut gateway, mihrab with Persian tiles and tombs of Shirazi sheikhs. (I) The old name for Lamu was Kiwa Odeo from N deo Is1md.

PAGE 68

52 Tanyanyila.t Notes and Recouls The weapons in use on the east coast of Africa during the early pa.rt of the nineteenth century form a fascinating study upon which I am now engaged. Very few, if any, appear to me to be of an original African design. Roman, Arab, Indian, Mal ay and Portuguese types can be recognized among those which have been manufactured by native blacksmiths in a wide belt of Africa since medieval times. I cannot trace any Egyptian or Meroitic influences in these historical documents. Copper weapons are rare. Their absence is no proof, however, that native copper was not found and worked in Africa before the art of smelting was introduced. As the supplies of native copper were exhausted the metal would become of great value and any weapons made of the metal perhaps assume a saerosanct character in much the same way that the first iron weapons have done. In North America there seems to have been a relapse in culture from working in flint and native copper to neolithic until imported manufactured iron was forged locally to meet native requirements. REFERENCES. (') Documcnt.s 8W' l!histoire et le commerce de I!Ajriq1w Orientale, 3 vols. Part 1, "Expose Critique des Diverses notions," is the most important. The Kilwa Chronicle is on page 177. Stokvis republished most of Guillain 's chmnologies and gives lists of the Portuguese Governors in East Africa and at Goa. (2) Nwmismatic Chronicle, March 1936. From the context of Guillain's works he had access in 1846-48 to native chronicles which have. disappeared since. Mr Revington has presented specimens of the coins found at Mafia to the British Museum, Ashmolean Museum and the Liverpool Museum, where they can be seen. The coins are not dated. No value is indicated and the same size die is used on two sizes of discs of copper. (") Joumal of the Royal Asiatic Society, XIV, No. LIV, pp. 148, et seq. In 1723 the Sultan of Kilwa was Ibrim ben Yusef ben Mumadi (Muhamad) ben Auli (Ali) vide Strandes, Die Pmtuguesenzeit von Deutsch-und-Englisch Ostafrilw, Berlin, 1899, p. 86. He was succeeded by his son, Hasan, who ruled in 1759. ( 4 ) Joum. Roy. Anthro. Inst., xxx, p. 275, 1900. ( 5 ) In August 1505 by Almeida. In March 1529 by Nuna d'Acunha. In 1587 by Martin Alfonso de Melo Bombeiro. In 1589 by t"he M'zimba (cannibals). In 1631 by the local Sultan Yusef, who fled to Arabia and Madagascar. In 1660 by combined forces of Omanese and Africans, etc. (") Appendix D. Amended with genealogies by A.E.R. (7) W. H. Ingrams, Zanzibar, p. 43. ( 8 ) Masudi, Prairies d'01, edn. de Maynard and de Courteille, Paris, 1861, IV, Cap. LXXVI, pp. 190-2. ( 9 ) In 1840 the Moslem Sultan of Bardere attacked Brava and fined the town five hundred _pinstres for religious laxity. He suppressed dancing and tobauco and insisted upon women being veiled (Guillain, Relation de Voyage, n, 38). ('0 ) Genealogies of some of the Somali and more northerly tribes are given by Guillain (Relntion de Voyage, vols. 1 and 2). It is clear from contemporary records that t,he Galla raids were further south at the end of the eighteenth century than in the period 1860 to date. ('1 ) J. Walker, "Some Recent Oriental Coin Acquisitions of the British Museum" (Numis. Chron., xv, 1935, p. 240). The chronology for the invasion of Oman by Hajjaj ben Yusef is that adopted by the Encycloptedia Britannica ("'I.'he Caliphs").

PAGE 69

The Shimzi Colonizations of East Africa 53 (12 ) Badger, The Imams and Syeds of Oman, p. 12. The list published by Miss Werner (op. cit.) is not complete. ('") Prairies d'Or, Maynard and Courteille's edn., Paris, 1861, v, pp. 216, etseq. Hajjaj married Hind hint Asrna hint Abu Bekr. ( 1 1 ) Pemba, the Qanbalu of Masudi, is said to have been conquered by Moslems circ. A.D. 730 when the Moslems occupied Crete; vide M. Devic, Livre de M erveilles d'Inde, Leiden, 1883-6, pp. 174-5. ("') When Ouillain visited Marka some of the stone built ruins were attributed to the Surati (Indians). It has been stated that the lbadi sect did not assume any local importance on the east coast of Africa until the seventeenth century. ('") 'l'heal, History and Ethnology of Sotdh Africa before 1785, vol. 1, p. 465. The miners came out from Spain circ. 1634 and examined the mines in the territories of the Monomotapa. ('7 ) Illustrated London News, 12th October, 1935. The ruined cities of Somali land are considered to have been evacuated some time after the sixth century. Judging by the photographs published there are architectural affinities between the Somaliland ruins and those of Gedi. ('") Yehia was a brother of Muhamad ben Abdallah ben Hasan of the Alides (the Alowi of the Swahili and Smnali). He was proclaimed Caliph at Medina in 762 but >vas killed. Basra was captured by Ibrim but he was defeated and killed at Ba-Khamra. ('") Cites Richd. Brunner's Forsclmngen in Ostafrilca, Mittheillmgen, 1868; also Baron Carl Clare von der Decken, Reisen in Ostafrilw in den Jahren 1859 bis l861. The third volume contains 'l'abellarische Uebersicht der Geschichte Ost afrilms. Mr \Valker cites J ustus Strandes, Die Pmtu.guesenzeit von Deutsch-tmdEnglisch Ostafrika, Berlin, 1899. (2") Miss Werner op. cit., vide Mr Reddie. ("') Zanzibar, vol. 1, p. 82. It may interest readers to know that cowrie-shells were exported from Zanzibar to west Africa for use as currency. At the early part of the last century a fleet of sailing vessels ran from Zanzibar to Lagos with cargoes of cowrie-shells which were collected on the east coast of Africa. They displaced the Indian variety and I sut>pect that some of the museum specimens of head dresses from the Congo, etc., are made from African shells. (22 ) Arabic extract in Jmon. Boy. Asiatic Socy. (Strong, op. cit.). ("3 ) "The Coinage of Kilwa" (op. cit.). The term Alowi used by the Swahili Reerns to the present writer more likely to indicate descendants of Ali ben Huseyn of Kilwa than the Alides faction of the first millenium of our era. (24) See my "Mahmal of the Moslem Pilgrimage" (Joum. Boy. Asiatic Socy., January 1931), and "The Utfa or Camel-litter of the Arabs" (Joum. of African Socy., January 1931), and the authorities cited. (2'') lngrams, op. cit., p. 85. (26 ) Zanzibar, the Island Metropolts of East AfT1ca, London, 1920. (21) There is a tomb of this type at Khartoum. It was erected to one of the early governors about a century ago.

PAGE 70

54 Tanganyika Notes and Records Appendix A THE HULERS OP KILWA OR QUILOA. De BarJ'Os (Asia, I, VIII, etc.). A. Solta Hocen. (Prom Xiraz, i.e. Shiraz.) B. Ale (his son). (Came to Quilao, i.e. Kilwa.) 1. Ale (? Ali ben Ali). (Ruled 40 years, no sons.) 2. Ale Busoloquete. (Ruled 4t years, son of a brother in Mafia.) 3. Daut, son of Ali. (Huled 4 years, driven out by Matata Madelina (Hey de Xaga) the King of Shaga or Chaga. Died in exile at Mafia).) 4. Ale Bonebaquer (Ali ben Abubekr). (Reigned for 2 years. He was a nephew of Matata and usurped the rule of Kilwa until he was driven out.) 5. Hocen Soleiman (nephew of Daut). (Huled 16 years.) (? Cousin of No. 3.) Arabic Chronicle (Sheikh M oheddin.) A. Hasan ibn Ali, sultan of Shiraz, migrated with six sons to Africa. I. Ali ibn Husain ibn Ali (? Abu Malek); went to Mafia where his sons ruled later, viz. :-Muhamad 2!years. Bashat 4-! 2. Ali ibn Bashat. (Huled 4t years.) Walker says that he ruled at first over his uncles, Suliman, Hasan and Daud (sons of Ali). It is presumed that he was deposed by his uncle (No. 3). 3. Daud ibn Ali. (Ruled 2 years; retired to Mafia to visit the tomb of his father and whilst there abdicated in favour of his son Ali, possibly No. 6 of Barros.) 4. Khalid ibn Bakr (the Usurper). (Appointed king by the Matamandalin of Shaga and ruled for 2!years until driven out by the Kilwans.) fi. Hasan ibn Suliman ibn Ali. (Ruled 12 years. He fled to Zanzibar as the Matamandalin invaded Kilwa. The invaders appointed the amir Muhamad ibn Husain el Mundiri as ruler of Kilwa.) Hasan ibn Ali resumed the rule and reigned at Kilwa for a further period of 14 ( ?) years. NOTE.-Judging from the general practice of the compilers of these native chronicles it is probable that the entire reign of Hasan ibn Suliman (including his exile) was sixteen years. He would have been ejected after two years, i.e. twelve is an error, and ruled for fourteen years after resuming the rule after a short interval.

PAGE 71

The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa 55 De Ba1'Tos-contd. 6. Ale ben Daut (nephew). (Ruled 60 (?)years.) ? cousin. 7. Ale, nephew of No. 5 ( ?). (He was deposed and cast into a well as a bad ruler. The tradition is that the well was near the old mosque.) 8. Hacen ben Daut (brother). (Ruled 24 years.) 9. Soleirnan (relationship unknown). (He was of the blood royal and ruled 2 years. He was beheaded by the Kilwans as a tyrant.) 10. Daut (son). (Ruled 40 years, he was ex governorof Sofala and developed the trade there.) 11. Soleiman Hacen (son). (Ruled 18 years, built a fort at Kilwa and other buildings of stone. He conquered most of the coast and occupied Pemba, Mafia and Zanzibar.) 12. Daut (son). (Ruled 2 years.) 13. Talut (brother). (Ruled one year.) 14. Hacen (brother). (Reigned 25 years, no legal issue.) 15. Hale Bonij (Ali ben ?) a brother. (Reigned 10 years. The fortunate member of the dynasty.) 16. Bone Soleiman (ben Suliman) nephew. (Ruled 40 years.) Possibly a contemporary of Hulagu. ,A bronze coin struck by Hulagu dated A.D. 1260 or A.H. 658 was found at Mafia Island. 17. Ale Daut. (Son of No. 12, vide Walker. Ruled 14 years.) 18. Hacen (grandson). (Ruled 18 years. He was an excellent horseman and struck Arabic Chronicle-contd. No mention. There is some error here. It is most probable that the events and reign of No. 7 are correctly stated. Walker considers Nos. 6 and 7 as identical. This is possible, but it is an unusual form of error, i.e. repeating the name with a variant (6 or 60) of the period ruled. Hasan ibn Daud. (Ruled 70 years ( ?) ) The period of rule is not credible. No mention. Hasan ibn Talut (Saul or Goliath). (Ruled 18 years. Seized Kilwa by force. The name Talut and the fact

PAGE 72

56 Tanyanyika Notes and Records De Ba1'1'os-contd. coins dated by \V alker as circ. A.H. 684-702 01' A.D. 1285-1302.) 19. Soleiman (son). (Hulecl 14 years. Killed outside Kihva mosque. Struck coins elated by \Valker A.D.1302-1316.) 20. Daut (son). (Huled, (a) as regent for his brother when on the pilgrimage for two years.) 21. Hacen (elder brother). (Hulecl 24 years.) Ruling when Ibn Batuta visited Kilwa in 1332. Walker fixed date of reign of Hasan as 1318-1341. N O'l'E.-Bronze coins of Mu ham mad Khan (1336-7) found at Mafia. 22. No. 20 again as sultan. (Ruled 24 years.) Struck coins elated A.D. 1341-1364 (second rule) by Walker. 23. Soleiman (son). (Ruled 20 clays.) He was de posed and superseded by his uncle Hasan. 24. Haccn (uncle). (Ruled 6t years.) 25. 'raluf (Talut) (nephew). (Hulecl one year.) 26. Soleiman: (brother). (Huled 2 years and 4 months. Deposed and superseded by his uncle Suliman.) 27. Soleiman (uncle). (Ruled 24 years, 4 months and 20 days.) 28. Hacen (son). (Ruled 24 years.) 29. Mahamed Ladil (brother). (Huled 9 years.) Arabic ChTonicle-contd. that Hasan was a good horseman indicates exotic influences, of a nonAfriean Moslem type.) No mention. Hasan ibn Sulaiman ibn Hasan ibn Talut. (Ruled 14 years. Went to Mecca and Aden. Was known as Abu'l Mawahib.) Daucl ibn Sulaiman. (Ruled 24 days(?), regent for his brother Hasan when in Arabia. A pious man.) No mention. Husain ibn Suliman. (Huled 61 years and died in a jeharl with the infidels on the mainland.) Talut ibn Husain. (Ruled 2 years, 4 months and 14 days. Died en ronte to Mecca.) No mention. Coins found, struck by him. No mention. Husain ibn Suliman. (Ruled 23 years, made the pilgrim age to Mecca.) Muhamad ibn Suliman. (Ruled 22 years, known as Al Malek al Adil, his wazir was Suliman and the arnir was Muhamad ibn Suli man.)

PAGE 73

'l'he Shimzi Colonizations of ItJast AjTiea 57 De Banos-contd. 30. Soleiman (son). ( H uled 22 years, no legal issue.) 31. Ismnel ben .Hacu (uncle). (Huled 14 year:>.) 32. 'l'he governor, i.e. mnir, made sultan for one year. 33. The goveruor, made sultan for one year. 34. Mahum (a poor man of royal blood). (Huled for one year.) 35. Hace (son of Ismael). (Ruled 10 years.) 36. Zayde (son). 10 years.) NOTE.-Coins in the name of Daud ibn Al Hasan have been found. As a temporary measure they have been allocated to a brother of No. 39 and dated circ. 1460. There is no ruler of this name in the lists. 37. The governor, becomes sultan for one year. (His brother, the amir Mamude, sent his three sons to posts in parts of the empire of Kilwa. Yusef, the governor of Sofala when the Portuguese arrived, was one of these sons. 38. Habedala (Abdallah) (brother of Said). (Ruled lt years.) 39. Ale (his brother). (Ruled It years.) NOTE.-Coins were struck by this ruler and are dated c. 1480-1482 by Walker. Arabic Ch1'onicle-contcl. Hulaimnn ibn Muhamad. (Length of reign unknown.) Mosque that was in ruins in time of No. 21 rebuilt at a cost of one thousand mithlwl8 of gold. An:1ir Muhamad attempted to seize the throne. Jsnwil ibn Husain. (Ruled 13 years. His wazir was Huliman and the amir Muhamad ibn Huliman. Said ibn Hasan (No. 36) revolted and sought aiel from Hasan ibn Abubekr, sultan of Zanzibar. He wns unsuccessful but was pardoned.) Amir Muhamad, made sultan for one year. Wazirat (a) Sulirnan and (b) Said (No. 36); nmir was Sulirnan ibn Muhamad (No. 37) .i\o mention. Possibly renewal of office. Ahmed ibn Suliman. (Huled for one year and abdicated through poverty; wazir, Said (No. 36), and 11mir, Suliman ibn Muhamnd.) I-Insan ibn Ismail. (Huled lO years; wazir, Said (:t\o. 36), and amir, Sulirnan ,No. 37).) Haid ibn Hasan. (During the reign of Said, Masud er Hasuli (who had been expelled from Aden by Ali ben 'l'ahir c. 1454) arrived at Kilwa.) The amir Suliman ibn Muhamad became sultan for 1-! yearR. His brother Muharnad was amir. Abdallah ibn Hasan. (Hnled 1-! years; wazir was Hasan ibn Suliman and the amir Mnhamacl Kiwab.) Ali ibn Hasan. (Huled lt years, wazir was Hasan ibn Suliman and the amir Muhamad Ki,vab.)

PAGE 74

58 Tanganyika Notes and Records De Barros-contd. 40. Race (son of the tyrannical governor, No. 37). (Length of rule not stated.) NOTE.-Coins struck dated by Walker, first reign 1482 and second reign 14481493. For details of types, etc., see N urn. UhTon., fifth series, xvr, p. 30, and plate IX. 41. Xubo (of the blood royal). (Ruled 1 year.) 42. Hacen (second reign of 5 years). 43. NoTE.-Coins, see ante. Habraemo (son of Solta Mamude). (Ruled 2 years, but was de posed.) Arabic Chronicle-contd. Hasan ibn Suliman (el Amir). (Amir was lY.I;uhamad Kiwab wazir Muhamad.) and Sabhat. (Ruled 1 year.) (Walker gives as a son of Muhamadal-Adil (No. 29) and a brother of Suliman (No. 30).) Hasan ibn Suliman (No. 40). He was reinstated by the amir Muhamad who deposed him again. Ibrim ibn Al-Malik-al-Adil. (Ruled 5 years, Hasan tried to regain rule, civil war.) Interregnum during whieh the Alfuclail (nephew). Amir Muhamad ruled. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. (Short reign.) NOTE.-'l'his sultan was murdered by the Amir Ibrim circ. 1500. Mir Habraemo (succeeded Alfudail but not called king (? sultan). Became the vassal of Portugal in 1502 but was deposed by Almeida in 1505. Mahamed Anconij. (Crowned by Don Francisco d'Almeida in 1505. He was murdered by a local king of Mafia at the instigation of Ibrim (No. 45), in 1506.) Hocem (Agi) (son of No. 47). He usurped the rule and was deposed by the Portuguese. Micante. (Appointed by the Portuguese by whom he had been recogniz ed as the successor of No. 46 at the coronation ceremony. He was deposed.) Al-Fudail (Al Fadil). (Began to rule A.H.901 or A.D.1495-6. The ex-sultan Hasan was driven out as an exile, to Kilwa Kivinje ( ?). The amir Muhamad died and his nephew Ibrim, a son of Sultan Suliman (No. 37), succeeded him.) Amir Ibrim. In A.H. 906 or A.D. 1506 Don Pedro d'Alvarez arrived at Kilwa. Next year Don Joao de Nova arrived. ln 1502 Don V asco di Gama called. Identical with lY.I;uhamad ibn Rukn-edDin-ed-Dabuli who was evidently a son of an Indian merchant. Ankoni (possibly the mother's name) was one of the richest and chief. men of Kilwa but not of royal blood. Haji Hasan ibn Muhamad Ankoni. Muhamad Mikat. Walker gives him as a son of the amir Kiwab. He is generally described as the son of Al Fadil by a slave. He was dethroned and fled to the Querimba where he died. Ibrim restored. Habraemo (?cousin of No. 48). (Reinstated as ruler (and sultan) by the Portuguese circ. 1507.) Said (brother of Ibrim, No. 49). (Vide Walker's translation, etc.) Continuity of narrative and list ends here. Other rulers mentioned by later writers will be found in the Historical Summary. 50.

PAGE 75

The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa 59 ---------NOTE ON KILWA HISTORY. 1507. The fort which had been built in 1505 was destroyed by the Portuguese under orders from King Manuel. Pereira left for Socotra. The deposed ruler, Ibrim, reoccupied Kilwa where he ruled until his death (during the reign of King Manuel, prior to 1521). 1528. Nunho da Cunha reduced Mombasa. He fixed the coastal headquarters at Kilwa, Sofala and Mozambique, and left on the 4th April, 1529, for India. Kilwa and Melinde rulers were related by marriage at that time. 'rhe Mougno Muharnad, a son of the late King \Vagerage of Melinde, was the son of a slave and he declined the rule of Mombasa in favour of his brother Abubekr who was a descendant of the Kilwa sultans. This Abubekr lost a hand in the attack in 1529 which ended in the surrender of Mombasa to the Portuguese. 1570. Vasco Fermmdes Homem and Francisco Barretto arrived at Kilwa. (Vide Dr Paiva e Pona, PTOceedings Lisbon Geological Society.) 1588. Kilwa was betrayed to the Mzimbe cannibals who destroyed the town and devomed many of the people. 1596. Francisco di Gama re-established Portuguese rule. 1635. Francisco de Cabreira, the captain of Mombasa, is said to have restored the lost towns to Portugal but Kilwa is not mentioned in his inscription. Mafia then subject to Kilwa. The fort at Mafia appears in Rezende's Traite, etc. 1696. Immediately the Portuguese fleet left, the Kilwans repudiated Portugal and declared for the In:tam. 1698. The Imarn of Muscat occupied Zanzibar and Kilwa and ejected the Portuguese. 1728. Kilwa surrendered to Don Luis Melo de Sampago. 1813. (A.H. 1231 ). Date of inscription on fort on Kilwa Island, the text of which is not published (Burton, op. cit., rr, 356). 1857. Local W ali (at Kivinjiya) of Kilwa, vide Burton, was Saif ben Ali. 1890. Germany purchased Mafia Island from the Sultan Syed Ali ben Saad for four millions of marks.

PAGE 76

60 Tanganyika Notes and Records Appmdi;c B THE RULERS OF PATE. (N./f.-These are compiled from the sources cited.) Miss Wemer's List. l. Snliman ben t:\uliman 2. Muhamacl ben Sulirnan B. Ahmecl ben Suliman Years ruled 25 25 20 4. Ahmecl ben Muhamad '! cl. Muhmnacl Ahmecl Muhamacl '! 5. Omar ben Muhamad 17 7. Muhamad ben Omar 48 8. Ahmecl ben Omar 43 n. Abubekr ben Muhamad 35 10. Muharnacl ben Abubekr 25 11. Abubekr ben Muhamacl 45 12. Bwana Mbuu ben Muhamad 28 13. Muharnad ben Abubekr 29 14. Abubekr ben Mkuu 15. Abnbekr ben Muhamacl 39 20 1.5. Bwana Mkuu ben Muhamad 39 17. Abubekr ben Bwana Mkuu ... 3 18. Ahmed ben Abubekr 8 19. Abubekr (real name) or Bwana Tarnu Mkuu 41 20. Ahrned ben Abubekr 8 21. Bwana Tamu Mtoto 22. Mwana Min1i (I<-hndija) 15 11 Captain Stigand's List. a. Suliman ben Suliman b. Muhamad ben Suliman c. Ahmed ben Muhamacl cl. Muhmnad ben Ahmecl e. Omar ben Muharnacl f. Muhamad ben Omar g. Abubekr ben Muhamad Years ruled 24 25 40 50 55 30 (? Omar) 30 h. Bwana Mkuu (brother) 48 1. l\Iuhamad ben Bwana Mkuu 42 J Abubekr ben Bwana Mkuu 50 k. Bwana Mkuu ben Abubekr 15 l. Ahmecl (cousin of k) 7 m. Muhamacl ben Abubekr 1 n. Abubekr ben Bwana Mkuu 22 o. Muhamacl (nephew of n) ... 20 p. Abubekr (Bwana Tamu Mkuu) 40 q. Bwana Mkuu ben Abubekr 25 r. Mwana Tamu Mutiti s. Bwana Bakari ben 'l'amu t .. Ahmed ben Bwana 'l'amu u. Mwana Khaclija 10 15 27 10

PAGE 77

The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa 61 Miss Wcrner's List-contd. 23. Bwanu Mkuu ... 24. Muhamad ben Abubekr 2ii. Ahmed ben Sheikh 26. Jl'umo Luti (II) 27. Bwana Sheikh Years ruled 4 33 6 6 28. Bwana Sheikh ben Fumo Luti 1 29. Ahmed... 12 30. W aziri .. 1 31. Fumo Bakari ben Sheikh 12 32 .. Ahmed Simba (acceded in 1845 or A.JI. 1262). Captain Stignnd's List-contd. Years rulerl v. Furno Luti 3 w. Fumo Mndi (brother, vide Guillain, of v) 34 x. Ahmed ben Sheikh .. 5 y. Fumo Luti Kipinga 4 z. Sheikh ben Fumo Madi aa. Bwana Waziri bb. Bwana Sheikh, agam cc. Bwana W aziri, again del. Furno Bakri ben Sheikh B I 5 14 ce. Bwana Madi ben Sheikh (acceded in 1259). NoTES.-(a) The years are lunar and not calendar. The chronology published is not accurate so it is omitted from these lists. (b) Stiganrl (Land of Ziuj, p. 163) gives the rlate on the tomb of Sultan Muhamad ben Sultan Abubekr ben Sultan Mkuu as A.H. 1024 or A.D. 1624. (c) From Miss Warner's list the ruler when the Portuguese arrived was Abubekr ben Muhamad (circ. 1494), but Stigand gives Muhamad ben Bwana Mkuu. (d) The term "Bwana Mkuu" seems to mean "heir apparent" and "Bwana 'l'amu" the "heir presumptive." All the members of the royal family were called "Bwana," or "Mwana." The term "sheikh" is a title and not a proper name. (e) Ahmed-es-Simba was the grandfather of Muhamad ben Fumo Omar, or more commonly known as Bwana Kitini, the owner of the undisclosed chronicle. Waziri of course means vizier and the Vizier Omar of Khadijah appears in some records as the Sultan Omari. (f) The third list published by Miss Werner is so hopelessly inaccurate that I have not reproduced it. None of the lists published by her agrees with the dates she gives of the deposition of the ruler by Bwana Bakri and there is no date or name reconcilable with the tomb of Sultan Muhamad ben Sultan Abubekr (died A.H. 1024) .. (g) It. seems clear that there were two khadijahs. The first one was the daughter of Bwana Mkuu Muhamad Abubekr Omar whose sons, Bwana Abubekr and Bwana Madi, and the ruler Abubeh Mkuu Abubekr Mkuu Muhamad ben Oma.r (No. 17) were killed by Ahmed Abubekr Muhamad (No. 18) who was deposed as no rain fell. The husband of Khadija was shippeo t Goa with some fmty others and their son was called Imam el Hadi ben Bwana Mkuu. He is said to have ruled as Abubekr ben Bwana Mkuu (Rwana Tamu Mtoto) and to have been killed hy his people who elected Khadija hint Mwana Darini Mkuu (Khadija I} to succeed him in 1762. This date is the same in both records. THB SECOND COLONIZATION OF PATE. Year:; ruled 1. Suliman hen Suliman ben Muthafar on Babhani, A.II. fi00-62.5 or 25 A.D. 1203-1228. Married daughter of Ishak, last king of Dynasty I. His brothers Ali and Othman did not rule at Pate. 2. Muhamad (son of No. 1), mother/daughter of Ishak, A.n. 62.'5-650 or 24 A.D. 1228-1252. Aged 20 at accession. Stigand gives three sons, Ahmed, Suliman and Ali. He destroyed Shanga. Siu became a place of refuge.

PAGE 78

62 Tanyanyika Notes and Records 3. Ahmed (brother of No. 2), aged 17 in 625 or 42 at accession, A.H. 650-670 or A.D. 1228-1271. Contemporary of Rulm eel Din Mahmud Ahmed el Kousi of Ormuz (A.D. 1245-1277). Stigand states that he was the son of No. 2 and that his brothers, Suliman and Ali, revolted against him. By the advice of Ali Othman Saif Muthafar, an old man who had been with his father, he made peace (? by arresting them). 1. Ahmed ben Muhamad ben Suliman (nephew of No. 3) ... Stigand (as No. 3) states that he had two sons, Omar and Muhamad, A.H. 670-690 or A.D. 1271-1291. He was a contemporary of Melik Omar ben Nabhan of Oman whose territory was invaded by Fakr eel Din Ahmed eel Daya of Shiraz in A.H. 674 (A.D. 1275-6), vide Guillain ( op. cit., p. 483). The Shirazis were expelled from Oman in A.H. 674 by Hilal ben Omar ben Nabhan. 5. Muhamad Ahmed Muhamad Suliman (son of No. 4), A.H. 690-732 or A.D. 1291-1331. Aged 40 at accession and would be aged 80 at death. He conquered Faza and Manda. The latter town was destroyed and the fugitives fled to Shela and Melinde. Those at Shela joined Lamu. He is said to have exacted a tribute of a slave and twenty dollars from every chief man of each tribe. He was the first to instal a governor at Mogadisco. It is notable that Ibn Batuta described Sheikh Abubekr ben Omar el M'thafar as of Berbera origin and not Persian. The last Muthafar ruler of Mogadisco was Fake eel Din about the end of the fourteenth century as in 1402 the town was deserted. In 1499 it was a prosperous walled city, and sufficiently strong to deter both V asco di Gama and Da Cunha (in 1507) from attacking it. 6. Omar (son of No. 5). One account states only son but Stigand mentions a brother, Ahmed. He conquered Lamu and the Swahili towns (on the mainland) Ozi, Melinde, Kiwayu, Kitao, Miya, Imidhi, Watamu and reached Kirimba (? coast opposite Querimba islands). The yumbe or royal palace at Pate (in ruins) is by tradition attributed to Sultan Omar. He did not rule over Zanzibar, and Kirimba is considered as the frontier at that time between Pate and Kilwa. This sultan is said to have married a daughter of Bwana Shakwa, the King of Faza. There is a Haji Mwetha prominent in Faza affairs after Omar's marriage vvhen that town was destroyed. The ruler of Kitao is said to have been a queen (Mwana Inali) and Liongo was the ruler of the territory between Shaka and Komwana. The younger son, Ahmed, is said to have been born at Magogoni and he conquered Ozi whilst his father was attacking Melinde. A third son, Abubekr, is also mentioned. 7. Muhamad ben Omar (son of No. 6), A.H. 749-797 or A.D. 1348-1394. There are considerable inaccuracies and discrepancies in the text. His sons are said to have been Bwana Tamu, Ahmed, Abubekr and Omar. The reign is principally remarkable as giving the period at which vessels were constructed on the East Coast of sufficient size to make the voyage to India. 8. Ahmed ben Omar (brother of No. 7), A.H. 797-840 or A.D. 1394-1436. There is something radically wrong here as Ahmed must have been over a hundred years of age if he captured Ozi during his father's Years ruled 20 20 40 46 43

PAGE 79

The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa lifetime and ruled for forty-three years after his brother's death. 'rh ere is some lacuna here such as Mr Walker has found in the Kilwa chronicle. I am inclined to think that a definite change of the dynasty took place. 9. Abubelu Muhamad ben Omar (son of No. 7), A.H. 840-875 or A.D. 14361470. The chronology is not accurate and the history refers to a later ruler. 10. Muhamad ben Abubekr (elder son of No. 9), A.H. 875-900 or A.D. 14701494. Miss \Verner says that there is some inaccuracy here. There is no mention in this chronicle of a king who invited the Portuguese into his territory in 1531 and vvas deposed by Bwana Bakari and resumed the rule in 1537. Vas eo di Gama left M elindc for Go a on his first voyage in 1498 so that the allusions in both the versions of Stigand and Miss W ern er to events in which the Portuguese are mentioned are fictions. 11. Abubekr ben Muham.ad (son of No. 10), A.H. 900-945 or A.D. 1494-1538. He is said to have had a brother, Bwana Mkuu. The first of a series of inaccuracies commenced with No. 7 where it will be noticed the nam.e Bwana Tamu was introduced, and mention of the Portuguese was made. Abubekr ben Muhamad is generally considered to have been ruling when the Portuguese arrived on the coast in 1498 but I cannot trace anv definite evidence to substantiate the statement. It was not until ''1507 that da Cunha visited the Lamu archipelago. He seerns to have arrived from Goa and although some resistance was shown he obtained the surrender of the islands and established a customs, so that the tribute could be collected I presume. Abubekr left two sons, Ahmed and Muhamad. 12. Bwana Mkuu Muhamad ben Abubekr (bother of No. 11). This is a most improbable succession in view of the fact that the previous ruler had two sons. It is very obvious that the chronology has been arranged in each list. I suggest that the list might read thus:-(a) Ahmed ben Abubekr (son of No. 11) acceded circ. 1531 or A.II. 938 and was deposed by Bwana Bakari, as stated by Miss Werner. (b) Probably Bwana Bakari (an uncle). List of Mshahame ben Kombo gives A.H. 920-938 (1514-1531); and then No. 12 or his son. 63 Years ruled 12. Bwana Mkuu ben Muhamad ben Abubekr ben Muhamad, A.H. 9415-973 27 or A.D. 1538-1565. NoTE.-There is a notable absence of any historical allusions to Lamu or Pate between 1507 and 1570. 13. Muhamad ben Abubekr (son of No. 11), A.H. 973-1002 or A.D. 15651593. NoTE.-The stories of the discovery of the silver mine and the royal brass horn are curious. It is quite possible that the white metal was not silver. l\Ialay weapons were notable for the whiteness of the steel and sacred horns and drums seem to have been part of the royal regalia. There is great scope for anthropological research during the period prior to the arrival of the Portug,uese. Mr Hornell's paper should be studied by all who may be interested in native customs, etc., on the east coast. The bibliography cited is invaluable. Swahili is so generic in its application that it probably emhraces as many clans as the term Bantu has as nations or tribes.

PAGE 80

64 Tanyanyilw Note;-; and Records Said to have made a treaty with the Portugue;;e and left a son, Abubekr, who succeeded him. Stigancl states that Muhamacl ben Abubekr (A.H. 1017-1018 or A.D. 1608-160\J) was deposed by the Portuguese and replaced by Abubekr ben Bwana Mkuu. Thi,; term Bvvana Mkuu seems to have been equivalent t,o that of 'Crown Prince'' originally. In 1570 Francisco Barretto and Vasco Fernandes visited Pt
PAGE 81

The Shimzi Colonization of East Africa 65 Years ruled 16. Bwana Mkuu ben Muhamad ben Abubekr, A.H. 1061-1100 or A.D. 165038 1688. He made a treaty with the Portuguese and lived part of the year at Lamu where he had a wife. The W afamau revolted against him and he destroyed Siu and brought survivors to Pate. The headman fled to Dondo, the Portuguese headquarters, and demanded the release of the Siu people. The Portuguese kidnapped the sultan's cousin, Bwana Mkuu, with a number of his adherents and took them to Goa where they died. He drove the Portuguese out of his territory. There is another story of kidnapping at the instance of a Sultan Ahmed at an earlier period. Guillain states that when the Imarn Sultan ben Saif ben Malek (died 1658) ruled in Oman during 1649 the ruler of Pate was Bwana or Fumo Shah Ali. His successor, Bwana Tamu, was the son of a Nabhani (one of the sherifs buried at Lamu) governor of Pate who married a princess from Kilwa. This sultan had t-vvo sons, Bwana Abubekr and Bwana Madi, and a daughter, Mwana Khadija (Mwana Darini Bwana Mkuu Abubekr). Mombasa fell into the hands of the Swahili in 1660 after a long seige but in 1661 a Portuguese fleet arrived and resumed possession (vide Guillain). Bombay was sacked by the Omanese in 1663 and Sin suffered a similar fate in 1670. 17. Abubekr ben Bwana Mlmu ben Ahubekr, A.H. 1100-1103 or A.D. 16883 1691. He was killed after a short reign by Ahmed, the brother of Bwana Mkuu, who had been kidnapped. Stigand 's story is that Sultan Muhanwd (A.H. 1040-1060), who replaced his uncle, married his son, Bwana Mkuu, to a daughter (? Khadija) of the deposed Sultan Abubekr vvho resumed the rule and then imprisoned Muhamad. Sultan Abubekr arranged the kidnapping of Bwana Mkuu. Later Sultan Abubekr and his brother, Bwana Madi, were killed by the people and Bwana Mkuu's son, Bwana Tamu, succeeded as Abubekr. The other story is applied to No. 18. 18. Ahmed ben Abubekr ben Muhamad ben Abubekr Muhamad Omar, 8 A.H. 1103-1111 or A.D. 1691-1700. He attacked the Portuguese and drove them out. The husband of Mwana Darini Bwana Mkuu Abubekr went to Goa (in the time of Sultan Ahmed, see ante), and her two brothers, Abubekr and Bwana Madi, were killed by Sultan Ahmed ben Abubekr. A circumcision feast for her son Bwana Tamu (the younger), by the kidnapped man, also known as El Inwm l'Hadi who ruled later as Abubekr was arranged. Sultan Ahmed tried to prevent her using the royal brass horn of Siu. Mweniji Bayagi Mlmu (a sherif of the l'Aili clan ( ?) Alides) made another (now in the Zanzibar Museum). The ancient brass horn was lost at sea later. In 1696 a Portuguese i1eet called at Mombasa, which was occupied in 1698 by the Imam Saif ben Sultan who placed a governor there. A general massacre of the Portuguese then occurred on the coast. It is notable that the local chronicle states that Sultan Ahmed abdicated as there had been no rain for seven years. Father Lobo travelled to J uba and described the people of the district as Gallas. 19. Abubekr (Bwana Tamu Mkuu) ben Bwana Mutiti ben Abubekr, 39 A.H. 1111-1152 or A.D. 1700-1739. Guillain states that a Sultan Bwana 'famu (grandson of Shah 6

PAGE 82

66 'Tanganyika Notes and Records ------------------Ali) ceded Pate to the Portuguese in 1728 before the Liwali surrendered to the fleet under Luiz de Mello Sampago on the 12t,h March of that year. The Portuguese were ejected on a Sunday, the 29th November, and the local chronicle states that Sultan Bwana Tamu Mkuu sent a force which was included in the attackers on the fort. Guillain states that Bwana Tamu (of 1728) was succeeded by his son, Fumo Bakri (Abubekr), who ruled Lamu, Mandra, Pemba and the littoral between Kilifi and the J uba river. Ingrams states that the Imam Saif ben Sultan placed a governor at Zanzibar in 1710. In 1727 Hasan, king of Zanzibar, fled to Pate where the people placed themselves under PortugueBe protection. After the surrender of Mombasa to the Portuguese, Musa ben Hasan went to Zanzibar by their orders. Sultan Abubekr (No. 19) is said to have gone to Arabia and made an agreement there to expel the Portuguese from Mombasa. His son did not succeed him. Stigand sa.ys that Sultan Bwana Mkuu ben Sultan Abubekr married a Lamu woman and built a mosque there as his mother was a native of Lamu. He divided the rule of Pemba with the governor of Zanzibar (? Mazrui). Years ruled 20. Ahmed ben Abubekr ben Muhamacl ben Abubekr Omar, A.H. 115220 1160 or A.D. 1739-1747. He left a son, Bwana Gongo, who did not succeed him. In 1746 the Busaidi Imam Ahmed ben Said appointed Abdallah ben Djad as governor of Zanzibar. Guillain states that when the Busaidi Imam was elected in 1744 the ruler of Pate was Fumo Bakri ben Bwana Tamu, and the people of Pate killed all the sympathizers with the imam, including the Nabhani, except the children. Fumo Bakri was replaced by Bwana Mlnm (surnamed Melani-Gniombe) who was replaced by a daughter of Bw:ma Tamu named Mwana Tamu and later by a chief, Fumo Omar, who maintained Pate independent of Oman. 21. Bwana Tamu Mtoto, also called Imam l'Hadi but real name Abubekr 15 ben Bwana Mkuu ben Abubekr Muhamad ( ?), A.H. 1160-1176 or A.D. 1747-1762. Killed by his people. There is nothing in the local chronicles beyond that statement, and that the Yaarebi imam attacked Pate but could not subdue it. Lamu revolted against Pate and the two towns fought. Guillain states that Pemba revolted against the vizier (Omar) of Mwana Mimi (Khadija ?), and Ali el Mazrui appointed his uncle, Khamis ben Ali, as the governor there. Pate then at the request of the M'vita attacked Mombasa and burnt Kilindini. About 1760 Masud ben Nasr el Mazrui sent a force under Ahmed ben Ahmed to support Fumo Luti against the Vizier Omar who had been deposed. The ex-vizier was imprisoned at Mombasa for five years and then returned to Pate where he was assassinated. 22. Mwana Khadija (the Mwana Mimi) alluded to previously. ? A.H. 117611 1187 or A.D. 1762-1773. Guillain states, circ. 1755, the Vizier Fumo Omar wanted to marry the ruler Mwana Mimi and was sent to attack Juba on the qut3stion of the sovereignty of that territory. In his absence Fumo Luti, a younger brother of the queen, acted as vizier but refused to give up office to Omar who was imprisoned at Mombasa.

PAGE 83

The Shimzi Colonizutions of East Africa 23. Hwana Mkuu ibn Bwana Sheikh ibn Bwana Tamu Mkuu, A.H. 1187lJSJl or A.D. 1773-1777. He vvas murdered in the palace. This omits the Jirst rule of Fumo Luti who was nominated by the l\lnzwi on condition that he recognized their sovereignty over Pate. He did so prior to 1773 and became an ally against the Y aarebi. Abrlallah ben Masud el Bouhouri was then placed at Pate as the Mazrni representative. He was replaced by Khalif ben Nasr. Fumo Luti was killed at Pate in A.H. 1188. In 11ll0 (A.H.) Pate accepted the Y aarebi im am's sovereignty. 67 Years ruled 24. Bwnna l<'muo Macli or Muharnad ben Abubekr Bwana Mkuu, A.H.l191-33 J22L! or A.D. 1777-1809. HiH ]'eo]ile revolted against him and he defeated them. He exeeutcrl forty rnen of high rank (including two brothers) and there was pence. Ctttillain states that in 1773 Masud ben Nasr died and Abdallah ben Abdallah succeeded at Mombasa. In 1774 Fumo Madi succeeded at Pate. Bacli Suliman was murdered at Pate and it became indepcnilent of Mombasa. 2.5. Ahllled ben Sheikh ben Fmuo Luti ben Sheikh ben Bwana Tamu, 6 A.II. 1224-1230 or A.D. 1809-1814. \Vith forces from Mombasa he attacked Lamu and defeated them. The people of Lmnu sent an envoy to the Imam Said ben Sultan ben Ahmed and placed thernselves under his protection in A.H. 1228 or A.D. 1813. The kingdom of Pate consisted of Pate only. Fumo Luti Kiptmga, a son of Bwann l:<'luno Macli, attacked the Sultan Ahnnxl who died of disease (wounds). Guillnin gives the elate of Furno Madi's death as the 28th January, 1807, nnd that :Fumo Luti ben Fumo Luti attempted to take the throne but was defeated and taken prisoner to Mombasa. He ruled after No. 2:>. A deposed Sultan Bwana Mkuu was seen by Captain Owen in 1817. 26. Fumo Luti (Kipunga), son of Bwana Fumo Madi, A.n. 1230-1236 or A.D. 1814-1820. After an abortive attack on Sheh (Lamu), Mubarak of Mombasa agreed to reside at Pate. The local chronicle states that Sheikh Mataka ben Mubarak was a vassal sheikh of Siu under Pate.

PAGE 84

68 Tanganyika Notes and Records Appendix C A SELECTED CHRONOLOGY OF SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN THE HISTOHY OF EAST AFRICA (UNTIL THE NINETEENTH CENTURY). FIRST CENTURY. Trade between East Africa and Mocha (Muca) described in the "Periplus of the Erythrean Sea." Dioscuros sailed south on the African coast to a point assumed to be the Rovuma. SECOND CENTURY. A Roman embassy reached China. Great maritime trade with the East and Rome via the Red Sea, etc. THIRD CENTURY. Roman embassy to China. Last recorded king of Saba and Raydan. Decline of the Roman eastern maritime trade. FouRTH -GENTURY. Axumite dynasty divided. Sapor of Persia invaded Arabia. Control of the Red Sea trade passed from Roman hands. Ezana of Axum invaded Somaliland and Afan. Christianity replaced paganism in Axum and territories under its influence. FIFTH CENTURY. Philostorgius described Somaliland as inhabited by Syrians. King Mogallana of Ceylon founded a war navy. SIXTH CENTURY. W asin Island said to have been visited by the bishops of Socotra (Joumal of the Roynl Anthropological Instit?de, xxx, 284). The Jats from the Indus occupied the Bahrein islands. The Axumites repulsed from Mecca (A. D. 570). 'rhe Persians occupied eastern and southern Arabia. A viceroy administered the territories with local princes or chiefs. A.D. 622. The year "al Hejira" or Moslem era. Muhamad fled from Mecca to Medina and assumed regal authority there. 632. Death of Muhamad. Islam accepted in southern Arabia. The Caliph Abubekr nominated the Beni Nezar (Ghafiri) as rulers of Oman. Persia invaded. 638. Caliph Omar (634-644) made treaties with the Zott (J ats), Sayabiji, and other exotic tribes and mercenaries in Mesopotamia, etc. Egypt invaded by the Arab Moslems. 655. Caliph Ali ben Abu Taleb (655-660). Revolt of Ayesha suppressed. The Dual caliphate; Basra (or Alides) and Damascus or Omayads. 661. Persia became the Shi-ite centre of Islam after the death of the Caliph Ali, who had restored the Hinawi rulers of Oman in 644. Hasan ben Ali renounced the caliphate. 680. Huseyn defeated and killed at Kerbela. 689. First recorded Arab colonization of Moslem fugitives from El Hajjaj, the governor of Mesopotamia for the, Caliph Abd-el-Melik. 697. Kharejite revolts crushed by El Hajjaj. 730. Arabs settled at Pemba. Chinese coins dated 713-742 found on Mafia Island and at Mogadisco. 759. Emosaids settled at Mogadisco and southern coastal districts. c. 800. Shaka (Mwana Antana) reputed to have been founded by fugitives from the Caliph Harun el Rashid. Coins of that ruler were found in Zanzibar. 834. The J ats (Zott) were expelled from the Euphrates Delta and some seized Socotra and became pirates. 845. Chinese coins (dated 713-742) found in ninth century deposits at Mogadisco. Twelfth century Chinese coins also found.

PAGE 85

The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa 69 ----------------870-1. Basrah sacked by the black slave (Zinj) troops of the Arabs. 883. 'l'he great Zinj rebellion in Mesopotamia. 905. 'l'he Carrnathians conquered the Yemen. \:JOB. Arabs from El Hasa lande d at Mogadisco and ejected the Emosaids who intermarried with local tribes. The Emosaids founded the dynasty known as "El Mudafar,'' in East Africa 915. Masudi travelle d on the Bast African coast. Ha-fun, then visited by Azdit e Arabs from Oman. Masudi travelled from Qanbalu (Pemba) to Oman. 945. Heputed Chinese invasion of Pemba (HoRNELL). c. 975. Ali ben Sultan Hasan Ali es Shirazi founded Kilwa and the Alowi dynasty of East Afric a. Chinese coins dated from A .D. 845 have been found at Kilwa. 1094 'l'h e Caliph Muqtadi o f Baghdad died. Melik Shah occupied Baghdad. 1107 Kizimkazi mosque (Zanzibar) founded by Abi Amram Mfaume el Has an. 1154. Melinde iron mines mentioned by El Idrisi from hearsay. 1168 1170 El Fellah ben Muhsin founded the Nebhanite dynasty of Oman. 'l'raditional date of the foundation o f Malayan colonies in Madagascar. Zanzibar mentioned in the Kilwa Chronicle during the reign of Sultan Hasan ben Suliman ben Ali. He is said to have established Kilwan rule as far as Sofala. 1203 'l'he seeond foundation of Pate by Suliman ben Suliman ben Mudafar en Nebhani who established the Nebhani dynasty (1203-1744). The Shiruzi foundation of Vurnba o f which the first sultan was Zumbura is said to have been contemporaneous. 1228. A v ess el fr o m the Comoro islands to Kilw a was blown by storm to Ad e n. 1238. Inscription on the ruined mosque at Mogadisco by Muhamad ben Abd es Shadad (possibly founder and a loc a l ruler) THIRTEENTH CENTURY. lbn Sayd described the king of Zinj as resident at Mombasa and Kilwa as "Gezira el Mend" (an Indian tribe, vide Guillain). 12 57. Hulagu occupied Baghdad. A bronze coin of this ruler was found a t M afia (WALKER). 1331. Ibn Batuta travelled a long the African coast. Sultan Abul Muzafar Hasan was ruler of Kilwa where there was a co lony from the Heja z 1336. Two bronze coins of Muhamad Khan of that date found at Mafia (Walker). c. 1400 The Bantus from the interior settled south of the Zambezi. 1402 Abu'l Muhasan, the Qadi of Lamu. Zanzibar the n the chief seaport on the coast. 1420. 1430. 1454 1457. 148 5 1492 An Arab dhow from East Africa said to have rounded the Cape. A n Egyptian instructor and a Ci r cass ian mameluke made swords and taught their use in Abyssinia against the Falasha. A Chinese fleet visited Mogadisco (HIRTH). Masud er H.asuli who had been ejected from Ad e n went to Kilwa. Planisphere of Fra Mauro showed the Cape of Devils (Good Hope) and the island of Sofala. Diego Cam took four hostages from the Congo to Portugal. The civi l wars in the Congo began.

PAGE 86

70 Tanganyika Notes and Records 1498. Vasco di Gama (unable to make Kilwa by adverse wind) arrived at Mombasa on the 7th April (PnES'l'AGE). He left Melinde for India on the 30th April. Melinde and Mombasa vvere then at war. 1499. Vasco di Gama (homewards) bombarded Mogadisco and sunk the shipping (Osomo). He took an ambassador from the king of Melinde to .Portugal. He victualled at Zanzibar on the :27th February, vide Osorio. 1500. Cabral arrived at Kilwa (26th July). He had lost four ships on the voyage out. The local ruler was the Ami1 Ibrim \\ho had murdered the late Sultan El :Fadil, and was impersonated Ly Luqman ben El Malik al Fadil to Cabral. Omar, a brother of the king of Melinde, was then at Kilwa with his uncle Fotrierna who had been captured on a dhow by Cabral. Yusef was governor of Sofala for Kilwa. 1501. A ship of Sancius 'l'ovar drove ashore at Mom!Jasa. The Portuguese abandoned the wreck but the king of Mom!Jasa salved the guns by diving and mounted them in his fort. Juan di Nova visited Kilwa and Melinde. 1502. Cabral called at Kilwa homewards. Vasco di Gama called at Kilwa on the 19th July with nineteen ships from Portugal. He put Ibrim in irons and demanded a tribute of fifteen hundred gold meticals. Muhamad Anlwni paid a ransom (two thousand mcticals) and this metal was used to lllake the gold lllonstrance of the Belem cathedral. 'rhe king of Melinde then was \Vagerage allCl the ruler of Mozambique was Sherif Muhalllad al Alowi who wrote to King Manuel in 1517. On the 3rd of October Vasco di Gama burnt the pilgrim ship Miri, and two hundred and sixty persons on board the vessel perished. 11J03. Havasco cruised on the coast and captured shipping. He collected a hunched 1neticals as tribute at Kilwa and similar amounts elsewhere. Muni Kame ben Muni Said, the son of the king of 'l'erendicunde (Mafia) and a nephew of the Amir Ibrilll of Kilwa, was captured and held for ransom by the Portuguese. Havasco was attacked by a flotilla of boats at Zanzibar as he blockaded the, port. The Zanzibaris were repulsed and the king's son killed. Twelve notables of Brava vvere seized at Mombasa and ransmued by their citizens. 1504. Saldanha arrived at Mombasa and forced a peaee with Melinde. Lopes Suares (homewards) demanded tribute from Ibrim of Kilwa but it was refused. King Ahmed of Aden contemporary ruler. 1505. Almeida arrived at Kilwa (22nd July). The trading vessels under Mayer and Sprenger formed part of his :fieet. 'l'he inhabitants of Kilwa (estirnated variously from twelve to thirty thousand) deserted i:he town which was sacked by the Portuguese. Muhamad Anlwni was crowned with a golden crown (of Indian origin) by Ahneicla and Micante, a base-born son of El F:Hlil, proclai1ned heir-apparent .Fort Santiago (illustrated by Strandes) was built at Kilwa and a garrison under Pedro Ferreira Fogaca placed there. Almeida arrived at Mombasa on the 3rd of August and sacked the town. He left Melinde for the Angeclive islands where he received word of the murder of King Muharnad Ankoni by the king of Terendilmnde. Civil war broke out in Kilwa between Haji Hasan (son of Muhamacl Ankoni) and Ibrim who strove against Micante for the throne. The merchant population moved from Kilwa to Mombasa in consequence of restrictions placed upon the Sofala trade (removed December Hi06). Cy de Barbuda called at Kilwa fron:t Soiala, circ. July 11505.

PAGE 87

The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa 71 ---The king of Portugal prohibited the publication of East African charts. 1506. Micante (Muhamad ben El .Facll es Sultan) was appointed by the Portuguese but was deposed by Haji Hasan as a debauchee. Haji Hasan with the Bantu chief, Munha Monge, attacked 'l'erendikunde. The town was burnt ancl the inhabitants deported and enslaved by the Bantus. N uno Vaz l>ereira arrived at Melinde in November as governor of the coast. The Portuguese looted a wrecked Indian ship and the ofti.cer who was responsible was sent under arrest to Goa. Haji Hasan was deposed by order of Almeida and Micante reinstated. He attacked Ibrim in revenge for his father's murder. Lionel di Coutinho and Tristan cl' Acunha (governor of the coast) both called at Kilwa. Oja was sacked. 1507. Vasco d'Abreu (governor of Sofala m!cl Mozambique) lost off Kilwa with three vessels. D'Acunha anchored at Lamu (en route to Socotra) nnd the people agreed to pay an annual tribute of six hundred rnetical.s. Payment was 1nacle in Venetian silver, vide Strandes. D 'Acunha burnt Brava (a walled town under a form of republican govemment) as no tribute paid since 1503. The Portuguese annihilated the gatTison of the king of Kechen at Socotra and turned their mosque into a church for the use by the garrison and servile Jacobite natives. Mondragon, the .French corsair, appeared at Mozambique. 1-le was captured by the J>ortugul'se in 1509 in European waters. Ibrim was appointed king of IGlwa by Pestana (Commandant). 1508. Duarte de Leu10s appointed governor of Ethiopia and Arabia (resident at Mozan:tbique). The Portuguese defeated by the Egyptians in a naval action at Chaul. 1509. Duartc de Lemos visited Kilwa and possibly confirmed Ibrim as the sultan after Micante had Bed to the Querilllba islands, where he died. De Lemos attacked Maiia and remba successfully. Zanzibar was sacked. 'l'he Egyptinn fleet. was destroyed by Albuquerque at Siu. 1510. Goa (originally built by Arabs) occupied by Albuquerque who made it the Viceregal ca]Jital. 1512. The Portuguese gal'rison evacuated Kilwa and destroyed their fort. Subsidies were paid to native chiefs to keep the trade route to the interior open. 1514. A Papal bull was issued on the 3rd of November defining the colonial possession of Spain and Portugal. 1515. The Portuguese formally annexed Kilwa, Mombasa and Melinde. A master of artillery was stationed at Melinde and it is believed that control over the smelting of iron there was exercised (as on the Congo) for military and trade purposes. Wagerage, king of Melinde, wrote to the king of Portugal. 1517. 'l'he sultan of Turkey occupied Bgypt and assumed the caliphate. The Heel Sea ports were occupied by the 'l'urks, and Mamelukes seized the mle of southern Arabia. 'l'hey deposed Zalir II. 1519. A Portuguese vessel with two hundred men which had been blown from. the Persian Gulf to Marka reached Melinde. The shipwrecked crew of the San J orge d 'Allntq-uerqtw were massacred by Arabs at Zanzibar. 1520. Portuguese mission (Alvarez and Hodrigo di Lima) to Abyssinia. 1522. King of Zanzibar, with the factors Joao de Mata and Pedro di Castro, attacked the Querimbn islands and the capital was destroyed.

PAGE 88

72 1524. 1527. Tanganyika Notes and Records Inscription to Sherif Abu Bakari at Pate (dated by Stigand). A French corsair called at IGlwa (Strandes). The crew of a French ship entered Moslem service in India. 1528. Nuno d"Acunba (viceroy) provisioned at Zanzibar in May and arrived at Melinde in 8eptember. He had suppressed a rebellion at Mozambique. 1529 (March). With natives from Otondo, Melinde, etc., d'Acunba attacked and destroyed Mombasa after a four rnontbs' seige. He appointed Sidi Abubekr (nephew of the king of Melinde) ruler of Mombasa but be lost a hand in the assault on the fort. This man was a descendant of the sultans of Kilwa. Melinde was garrisoned by eighty Portuguese. Kilwa, Sofala and Mozambique were made the headquarters of the Portuguese in East Africa. The Lamu archi1535. 1538. 1539." 1541. 1542. 1544. 1545. 1546. 1547. 1548. 1553. 1554. 1555. c. 1555. 1560. 1561. 1659. pelago was practically independent. Axum sacked by the Moslems who subsequently overran Abyssinia. Socotra. occupied by the Turks. Diego Botelho reached Lisbon from Goa in a boat fifteen metres by three. Joao de Sepulveda called at Melinde and Mogadisco. Great massacre of the Portuguese in the Congo. Joao de Souza called at Mozambique, Melinde and Mogadisco. M. A. de Souza, viceroy of Goa. Kilimane founded. l)ortuguese and Bantu half-breeds called "Mozungas" (vide Theale). J oao de Castro (viceroy) called at Mozambique en Toute to Goa. Lake Nyasa (Maravi) appeared on Portuguese maps. Francisco Barretto arrived at Kilwa (Strandes). Massacres of the Portuguese in Madagascar. After that date all sentences of death pronounced in East Africa required the confirmation of the viceroy at Goa. Twenty-four survivors (out of three hundred and twenty-three) from wrecked ship Sao Brao reached Mozambique from the Umtata nver. NoTE.-There were numerous shipwrecks and missing ships. A large proportion of the crew were negro slaves and when these people reached the shore they generally fled to the bush and joined the local natives. 'l'he survivors who reached Portuguese settlements were generally Portuguese, Indians or Portuguese half-castes (Theale). Ship L'Espadarte of Pedro de Mascarheno's squadron at Mombasa. Francesco Barretto (viceroy) reached Mozambique from Goa in 1559 en Toute to Portugal but his ship >vas so unseaworthy that he had to return to Goa. The Augustines settled at Mombasa. I cannot trace any evidence of the "auto-de-fe" which was introduced into the West Indies but the missionary efforts of the priests created a political situation similar to that of Uganda three hundred years later. Mosque at Marka built (vide inscription). Don Gonzales de Silveira murdered by the Monomotapa near Zimbabwe. Francesco Barretto arrived at Mozambique as governor of Africa. He visited Kilwa, Mafia and the coast ports. At Pate the people were defiant but paid a ransom of five thousand pounds to save their

PAGE 89

L370. 1580. 1581. 1586. 1587. 1588. 1589. 1590. 1591. 1592. The Shimzi Colonizations of East Africa 73 --------------------------------towns from bor11bardrnent (vide Dr Paiva e Pona). He crushed a revolt of the negroes at Zanzibar. 'l'he Muzimbc\ (cannibals) front the Congo dispersed before Tete and a horde n1arehed north. Spain annexed Portugal and Spanish domination lasted until 1640. F. de Mascarenhas sueeeeded .F. Telles de Menezes as viceroy of Goa. Ali Bey, the corsair, arrivrccl on the coast from Jeddah. Roque de Brito Falcao (ex-commandant of Melinde, en route to Goa), whose ship was disabled at Larnu, fled to Faza. There, he was handed over to Ali Bey who enslaved him with other Portuguese prisoners. De Brito Faleao died subsequently at Constantinople in slavery. With the exception of Melinde ancl Mozambique, the entire coast (including Brava and Juba) Turkish sovereignty and protection against the Christians. As an iustance of the communication across Africa at that time, a trade blanket from the Congo was identified at Maniea and taken to Sofala. Martin Alfonso de Melo Bombeiro arrived at Mogadisco from Goa with nineteen ships. He restored the Portuguese rule on the coast and burnt Mombasa. The Bayake raids (1!542-1587) ceased in the Congo and the Muzimbas ravaged the east eoa.st of Africa. 'rhe Muzimbas were repulsed from Melinde by Mattheo Mendes de Vasconellos, the Portuguese eommandant. The Portuguese at Pemba vvere massaered by the inhabitants and the diwani (loyal) fled to Melinde. Kilwa was betrayed by a Moslem to the Muzimbas. They sacked the town, carried off the young women and ate about three thousand of the people. 'l'hos. de Souza Continhos (brother of the viceroy) left Goa with a fleet on the 20th January, and arrived on the coast in March. He reinstated the diwani of l'emba. An indemnity of four thousand crusnclos was placed on Pate and the local king was deposed. The sheikh of Siu was imprisoned and the various local rulers on the coast forced to assist at the executions of the natives. Bwana Bashiri, the king of Lamu (and brother of the sheikh of Kilifi), was executed for the betrayal of de Brito Falca. Muzimbas had invested Mombasa, and the Portuguese made a treaty with the savages under which the plaee was attacked by sea and land. Ali Bey was captured by the Portuguese and taken to Portugal, where he died. The Muzimbas sacked Mombasa and the inhabitants suffered a similar fate to those of Kilwa. The king of Melinde was made paramount native ruler on the coast by the Portuguese. He was chief of the Waseguyo (Mosseguios) and a descendant of Wagerage, the king, who sent an embassy to Portugal. The people of Pate claim to have conqm\recl Melinde c. 1340 as it harboured fugitives from the Lamu archipelago towns. A ship from Lisbon to Goa was captured by the British and taken as a prize to England. Sir J ames Lancaster wintered at Zanzibar (left 2nd February, 1592) and visited Pemba, where there was a Portuguese factor. The king of Melinde deposed the last Shirazi ruler (Shaho ben Mshahm) of Mombasa after desperate fighting between the Mombasans and the Kiliti against Melinde (W aseguyo). Ahmed ben Hasan, a descendant of the Kilwa sultans and a relative of the king of Melinde, was n:wde ruler of Mombasa. The carrack Madre di

PAGE 90

74 c. 1594. 1596. 1596. 15\.18. 160:3. 1604. 1007. 1610. 1614. J6L"i. 1616. 1617. 1624. 1627. 1630. 1631. 1613:.3. Tanganyika Notes and Records Dios from Goa was captured off Flares and taken to Plymouth as a prize. 'l'he Earl of Cumberland captured Nuno Velia Pereira (ex-governor of 8ofala) in the carrack La Cinque Llagas off Fayal. 'l'he Mombasa fort was built. The viceroy, Francisco di Gama, arrived at Mmnbasa in December. He stayed there until February 1597. He reinstated En.tmena (Amin), the previously exiled diwan of Pemba, who had been deposed again. Permission was given for the Indian princes to send a pilgrim ship annually to Mecca. Antonia Godinho d'Andrade was made commandant of the fort at Mombasa on its completion. Bnnnena of Pemba went to Goa in 1597. Nuno d'Acunha farmed the Mozambique and Sofala trade for nine thousand six hundred pounds per annum plus all customs dues. Hebellion in Pemba. Fiki Vane Munganante, governor (vide Ingrams). Portuguese settled at Lamu and Faza. Ruy Soares de Mello, commandant of Mombasa. Dutch East India Company fanned. Ahmed, king of Melinde, overlord of Pemba. His son, Hasan, succeeded in 1609 (8trandes). A princess of Faza accepted Christianity and was married to J oao de Monteiro Fonseca. Don Phillip ( ex-diwani of Pemba) accepted Christianity and rnarried Dona Anna, an orphan (Strandes). Estevan d'Ataide repulsed the Dutch from Mozambique. A fleet under J. Continho landed a hundred men at Mozambique en route to Goa. Manuel de Melo Pereira, commandant of Mombasa. As the result of intrigues by Muigni Naja (uncle of Ahmed), Hasan the ruler of Mombasa fled to Kilifi. He returned and was assassinated by treachery. Muigni Naja was made local ruler with Muigni Muharnad (brother of murdered Ahmed) by the Portuguese. An uncle of Ahmed was known as Don Alfonso. Yusef (son of the murdered King Hasan), then aged seven, was sent to Goa from Mombasa. He was baptised as a Christian in India. Gaspar Bocarro reached Kilwa from Tete by land after a journey of fifty-three days via Shire and Nyasa. Orders re custom houses issued by the king of Spain (22nd February), vide Strandes. Father Lobo left Goa for Pate (26th January). He travelled to Melinde and Juba. Portuguese factor on Angoxo Island murdered by natives. Yw>ef ben Ahmed (Don Geronimo Chingoulia) returned from Goa and was installed as king of Mombasa, on the 23rd August. Pedro Leytan de Gamboa, commandant of the fort. Yusef was discovered praying at his father's tomb and feared denouncement to the inquisition as a renegade. He killed Gamboa and a general massacre of the Portuguese took place. The Christian churches were destroyed. The sheikhs of Tanga, Mtangata and Motone joined Yusef. 'rhe commandant at Pate sent a messenger to Goa who reached there in October with news of the rebellion. In December Pedro Rodriques Botelho and Andre Vasconcellos arrived at Pate and blockaded the coast. Miguel da Noronha (son of Count Linhares, the viceroy) and Francesco cle Mourn arrived at Faza on the 2nd of January and at Mombasa

PAGE 91

c. L633. 1634. 163;'i 1636. 1637. 1638. 1644. 1645. 1048. 1649. 1650. 1552. 1653. The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa 75 on the lOth. Botelho and Vasconcellos, after visiting Zanzibar, had abandoned their ships. Yusef embarked his artillery, family and adherents on these ships and sailed for Arabia. The town of Mombasa was destroyed by these events and became a desert. Strandes gives Mvvana Chamba Chande as the ruler of Vumba. 'l'wo :Franciscan priests who left Mogadisco for Abyssinia were killed by the Gallas. Spanish miners sent from Europe failed to discover any ancient underground workings in Manic a (vide The ale). Antonio Carneira Salellla Pimentura visited the coast. Melinde fort was garrisoned but the people were neutral in the rebellion. Yusef retmned from Arabia and settled with the Arabs at Bweni Bay (in Madagascar) under a Sultan Masselage. He was joined by numerous sympathizers from Pate and other places. Francisco de Cabreim reoccupied Mombasa, Pemba and Pate. He appointed Fiki Ali as the local ruler of Mombasa and recolonized the island by twenty families from Pate and Zanzibar. Mafia was then under Kilwa and tribute was paid to the commandant of Mombasa (Hezende). (17th May). Hoque Bmgas with two ships from Mozambique made an lll1S\Wcessful attack on the ex-king of Mombasa, Yusef, in Madagascar. It W11s stated that the failure was due to the lack of eo-operation by Cint. Cnrneim Sallema (Strandes). Pate was attacked by Cabreim, who fined the inhabitants eight thousand pardus, Si u one thousuud ii ve hundred pmdus and Mandra f-ifty JWI'dus. He rnzed the walls of Siu and executed the rebellious chiefs. Zanzibar was ruled by Sheikh Sanclarus and a Hne of five hundred pardos wa:,; iiiiposed. Strandes gives rulers of Pate as Hasan Mtaka and Chancle Mtaka. Treaty lllacle between Pate ancll'ortugal (:39th .January) under which no Arab was allowed to settle there. Customs were established. Clmlm (see Barms, 11. l. 2) made tributary to l'ortugal (Mombasn inscription). H uler of W aseguyo of Melinde then was Menge Eisen (Strandes). The slave trade between Mozambique and Brazil initiated. (3rd Deeember). Petitions frolll Pate\, Faza and Siu against the commandant of Molll basn sent to Uoa. Captain Salvador CmTea de Saerbot arrived on East Coast from the West Coast (Strandes). 'I'he Imam Sult.an ben Saif ben Malelc of Oman succeeded (died 1668). Guillain states that Bwnna (Fumo) Shah Ali of Pate whose successor the Bwann 'I'amu was the son of a Nabhani governor (and a native princess), was a conteutporary. (26th .Jnnuary). Museat surrendered by Portuguese to the Omanese. 'J'he Omanese were repulsed in an attack on Zanzibar. Francis de S. Cabreira arrived at Zanzibar with one hundred and twenty Portuguese, forty Indians and one hundred and twenty Waseguyos and crushed a revolt. The Queen Mwana Mwena :Fatima and her son Otonclo were driven out and fom hundred Portuguese vrisoners released. Tribute was levied from Zanzibar, Pemba and Otondo. The king of Zanzibar \\as exiled and all the dhows belonging to Mafia and Kilwa which he had seized were restored to their owners (Strandes).

PAGE 92

76 Tanyanyiha Notes a:nd Records 1655-1659. umerous deputations \Vere sent fron1 Pate, Zanzibar and other places on the coast by the Moslems to the ima.m of Muscat. They asked for aiel in ejecting the Portuguese in return for recognition of his sovereignty. 1660. .Mombasa. surrendered by the Portuguese to the Somali and Omanese. Muhamad ben Mubarak appointed governor by the irnam of Muscat, Sultan ben Saif. 1661. A Portuguese fleet arrived and resun1ed possession of Mombasa. 1662. Jos. Botelho de Silveira commandant of Mombasa, and Munha Agho native Moslem ruler. 1670. Pate revolted against the Portuguese. Moslems repulsed from Mozambique. 1678. Pedro d'Alrneicla (viceroy) arrived at Pate (12th August). Faza and the W agunga were allied with the Portuguese. A four-month seige of Pate and Siu took place before they surrendered. The Portuguese commander made his headquarters in the principal mosque and built a fort at Pate. The inhabitants were fined thirty thousand cTusados, and the kings of l'ate and Siu were irnprisoned. 1680. Trade on the coast thrown open to the Banyans. 1682. The ship NostTa Senom da Ayuda was seized by pirates. 'rhe pirates were captured at Mozambique and sent in irons to Goa. 1686. The deposed ruler of Faza then at Mombasa in exile. Joao Antunes, Portuguese commandant at Mombasa, attacked Pate. 1687. (April). Francesco P. de Silva left for Pate and attacked the town in May. The prince of Pate and his retinue were deported to Goa (vide Strancles and native records). Pate fort (near Makupa) garri soned with one hundred men under the Bwana Daud ben Sheikh and J oseph Pereira de Brito as local governor. In October an English galiot from Surat arrived at Pate. Before the end of the year the Portuguese occupation of Pate ceased. 1690. Free trade on the coast interdicted (30th March). It was not until 1783 that the Banyans were expelled from south of the Zambesi. 1692. Portuguese sovereignty of the Lamu archipelago ceased. 1696. Joao B.odriques Leao, commandant of Mombasa (23rd October). The Somalis and Omanese invested Mombasa in November. 1697. (27th January). A Portuguese fleet under Luis de Mello Sampayo arrived at Mombasa from Goa. In March, the Moslem governor of Mombasa was Fiki Valla di Muigni Mutamo. The king of Tanga Island was Guaba di Muizabo. Sampayo arrived at Mozambique on 16th August and the viceroy reached Goa from Lisbon on 23rd December. Last letter from Ant. :Mogo de Mello from Mombasa dated 15th March, 1697. 1698. Kilwa and Zanzibar joined the Moslems against the Portuguese, under an Ornanese commander. Mombasa surrendered and Nasr ben Abdallah was appointed governor by the imam of Muscat. A general massacre of the Portuguese (including the half-castes) is said to have taken place along the coast. Henegades from the Moslem faith seem to have suffered a similar fate to that of Christian renegades inflicted by the Portuguese. The Omanese fleet was repulsed from Mozambique (Guillain). 1699. A fleet of five ships with nine hundred men left Lisbon under Henrique Jaques de Magelhan. c. 1700. Sayid Abu Bakri ben Sheikh ben Abu Bakri el Masela ben Alowi became the first sherifian sultan of Vumba (Hollis).

PAGE 93

1710. 1719. 1720. 1723. 1727. 1728. 1729. 1730. 1733. 1735. 1739. 1744. 1746. 1755. 1759. 1760. The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa 77 ------------------------The Bwana Daud of Faza in exile at Goa. Sheikh Nasr of Kilwa then had a garrison of fifty rnen. A king of Kilwa (un-named) mentioned by Strandes. Pate suzerain to Muscat. !brim ben Yusef ben Mumadi ben Auli (? Ali) then the sultan of Kilwa (vide Strandes). (12th December). Envoys from East Africa, including Bwana Amadi ben Muallem Bekr, invited the Portuguese to eject the Omanese and resume the sovereignty of the coast. 'rreaty made on the 24th December between the Bwana Tamu Abubekr ben Muhamad of Pate and the Portuguese by which Pate vvas placed under the protection of Goa (for a cash consideration paid to the ruling king). Bwana Amadi ben Zayd (the titular ruler of Zanzibar) was then in the Hejaz on the pilgrimage. Luis de Mello Sampayo arrived at Pate and hoisted the Portuguese flags at Pate and Sin. 'l'he Liwali Muhamad Abdin Syed (vide Strandes) surrendered Mombasa to the Portuguese and their allies on the 12th March. Antonio de Albuquerque de Coelho appointed governor of Pate with a garrison of three hundred men. Alvaro Caetano de Mello e Castro appointed governor of Mombasa. Nasr ben Abdallah returned to Ornan. Kilwa (which had joined the Moslems) surrendered to the Portuguese, also Ben Sultan Alowi the ruler of Tanga and Mkam Erumba the ruler of Mtangata. (29th November). The Portuguese were again ejected from Mombasa by the Moslems. The sultan of Pate sent a force against the I)ortuguese. Sece Romba, an On:tanese usurper, was sent to Mozambique and died there. A deputation was sent to Muscat to ask the imam to resume possession. A fleet under Luis de Mello left Go a for Africa on the 2nd January. Two of the vessels sunk in heavv weather and the remainder were dismasted. The attempt to regain possession of Mombasa was abandoned and the coastRl rulers became independent of each other under a nominal suzerainty to the imam. of Muscat. The Bwana Tamu Mkuu (Abubekr ben Muhamad) of Pate was succeeded by his son, Bakari (vide Strandes). Saleh ben Said el Hadermi, governor of Mombasa for the imam. Muhamad ben Osman el Mazrui replaced Saleh ben Said at Mombasa. Ahm.ed ben Sheikh ben Ahmed ben Sheikh el Melindi (a descendant of the father of Sultan Yusef) was the vizier (Guillain). Lamu and Brava refused to recognize the Busaidi Imam Ahmed ben Said who had been recognized by the sherif of Mecca. Massacre of the Nebhani at Pate by the Sultan Fumo Bahi ben Bwana Tamu. Revolt in Pemba Queen Mwana Mim.i of Pate. Pate attacked Mombasa and Marlm sent envovs to the Imam Ahmed ben Said. Ali ben Othman el Mazrui of l\ii:ombasa declared his independence from Oman, which was then in Persian occupation, and Sultan ben Murshid had committed suicide. The Mazrui of Mom.basa attacked Zanzibar. A messenger from Sultan Hasan ben Yusef of Kilwa arrived at Mozam bique. Civil war in Pate in which the Mazrui intervened (viclc letter of the sultan of Kilwa dated the 12th May, cited by Strandes). Siu (Portuguese station) raided by the Omanese.

PAGE 94

78 Tanuanyilw Notes and Records -----------------------1768. Titular prince of Faza at Mozambique in exile with a pension of one hunclred scra.finos monthly from the Portuguese. 1769. Caetano Alberta Judice made a final and unsuccessful effort to recapture J'liombasa for the l'ortuguese. 1770. The Arabs expelled from Mozambique by the Portuguese. 1776. William Bolts hoisted Austrian flag at Delagoa Bay and introduced the Maria Theresa dollar for currency. 1784. The deposed Immn Saif ben Ahmed arrived at Lamu from Zanzibar and resided there until his death. His son, Badir, was murdered in Oman on the 31st July, 1806. 1790. The Biemal tribe ejected the people of Marka and occupied the town ( Guillain). 1811. Larnu partially destroyed by the Mombasans.

PAGE 95

The Shirazi Coloniza.tions of East Africa 79 Appendix D THE MAZRUI RULERS OF MOMBASA. (Compiled from the information published by Gttillain.) Ali I Othman I (1) I Muhamad Ali (1739-1746) (1746-1755) Murdered Murdered I (7) I I Kateb I Rashid I I Kasr Khamis (3) I (At Pemba Masud c. 1745) (1756-1773) Ex-Governor of Pemba I (4) I Abdallah ( 1773-1782) Suliman (Ex Ahmed Gov. of Pemba) (Accepted 1725-1826 Mubarak died 1806 (Buried at Chaka) Abdallah (At Pemba 1783) Beheaded by Nyika) I Ali (At Pate in 1807) Busaidi 1784 (Deposed and later revolted) imprisoned 1783-1814 with 2 sons) I Nasr (at Pemba, 1823). (Attacked No. 8). Murdered in 1829. I Razik I (6) Abdallah ( 1814-1825) Defied the Imam. ___ 1833) I 1848) 1834) Driven out of Mombasa by Bwana Sheikh ben Fumo Madi of Pate who returned from Muscat with troops under Abdel Hadi and assumed rule of Pate as Imam's vassal. I (8) Salem (1826-1835) Accepted Imam in 1828. I Rashid (1836-7) Deported to Oman with 24 others. I Khamis (At Takaongo in 1848) vide Guillain. PEMBA. (Ruled Pemba in 1822. Fled to Mombasa. Defeated at. Pemba andfled. Returned to Pemba & killed) (9) I Nasr (1835-6) I Mubarak (at Pemba) Fought with No. 8 in 1825. Went. to Mauritius wit-h Capt. Owen. (Mubarak was defeated by Muhamad ben Nasr and the island was re-occupied by the Sultan of Zanziba.r) Appendix E Original line of Rulers (Liwali) and Cotmsellors (Diwani) 1cputed to be Shirazi fmm Kilwa. 1508. 1528. 1587. Duarte de Lemos attacked Pemba and tribute exacted. Most of the population fled to Mombasa. Pemba and Zanzibar loyal to Portugal against Mombasa. Massacre of the Portuguese at Pemba. The pro-Portuguese Liwali fled to Melinde. He was reinstated by Thomas de Souza Continho.

PAGE 96

80 Tanganyika Notes and RecoTds 1594. The Liwali again ejected and fled to Mombasa, where he became a Christian. He went to Goa and was reinstated by Francisco di Gama in 1596. This man's name was Emmena (Amin, vide Guillain). He was probably the last of the Shirazi. 1598. A rebellion at Pemba was reported to Goa. IN 1740 A NEW DYNASTY OF LIWALI FROM PAGI WAS FOUNDED. Selim I Mkame ben Abubekr I (ll Ngwachini Othman Kihanuni (Went to Muscat and saw the I I Imam circ. 1820). Nasr ben ? Suliman the Imam's governor ? at Zanzibar was ordered to attack Pemba and drive the Mazrui .out. -1 ? No. 3. No. 4. No. 5. No. 6. I brim. As above. Kikamburi. Syed Mtu ben Kikamburi. NOTES ON PEMBA.1608. 1635. 1637. 1698. 1710. 1728. 1739. 1746. 1753. c. 1774. 1783. 1825. Captain Sharpey was attacked at Pemba. Francisco Xeixas de Cabreira attacked Pemba. Tribute was collected. The Imam Saif ben 1::\ultan occupied Pemba and ejected the Europeans. Pemba garrisoned by the Imam. Diwani Mwenyi Mkuu ben Sultan Manya. sa.w Luis de Mello de Sampayo a.t Mombasa. Pemha revolted against Oman. Ali ben Osman appointed his uncle, Khamis ben Ali, governor of Pemba. Masud ben Nasr governor of Pemba. Badi ben Suliman, Mazrui chief at Pemba, murdered by adherents of Fumo Amadi of Pate. Abdallah ben Masud sent to Pemba as governor for Mazrui. He revolted. Suliman ben Ali (cousin of Ahmecl ben Muhamad el Mazrui) sent as governor of Pemba. Captain Owen saw N asr ben Suliman el Mazrui. Notes for Appendix /1' NoTES ON ZANZIBAR AND TuMBUTU.-(1) There is no record of the rulers and Ingram states that practically nothing is known of any prior to the Mazrui. There is an inscription in the Kizimkazi mosque toEs Sheikh es Seyicl Abi Annam Mfaume el Hasan ben Muhamad which is elated A.H. 500 or A.D. 1107. The inscription is attributed to the founder of the mosque. (2) This may be the Queen Fatima of 1653 who was driven out of the island by the Portuguese when they released four hundred prisoners. Her son (Otondo) was banished with her (vide Ingram's, 0]1. cit., p. 114). Burton (op. cit., r, p. 284) states that the Europeans at Zanzibar were massacred after the fall of Mombasa in 1660. It is possible that Mwenyi Mkuu Yusef, son of the banished queen, was the ruler then. (3) This queen sent a letter to Goa in 1697. The Portug.uese had sent a fleet in 1696 but both Zanzibar and Mombasa were occupied by the Imam Saif ben Sultan in 1698 (vide Guillain, op. cit., p. 522). (4) Mwenyi Mkuu was born in 1785 and died in 1865. During the latter part of his life he lived with Sheha (Shah) Kiriemata ben Ngwamchanga of the Wa-Changani. Mwenyi Mkuu is notorious for the large numbers of slaves which he slaughtered to consecrate the foundations of a palace which was incomplete after ten years' intermittent work. (5) The grave of Mwana Mwatima hint Mfaume Madi es Shirazi (who is not otherwise recorded) and the grave of her son, Mfaume Ali Sherif, are at Kizimkazi. The old regalia of the Zanzibar kings included two wooden drums and two wooden horns (trumpets) now in the Zanzibar Museum.

PAGE 97

The Shirazi Colonizations of East Africa 81 Appendix F ZANZIBAH AND 'l'UMBUTU. GENEALOGIES. (After Guillain and lngram8.) Zanzibar. In the thirteenth century the ruler was:Hasan ben Abubekr (vide Kilwa Chron.) (Of reputed Shirazi descent). (1) (2) Mwana Mwema=An Arab from Yemen I M wenyi Mkuu Yusef (of Otonda) I Bakari (Kazimkazi) I (Rule divided) (3) I Fatima (Zanzibar) Queen Fatima=Abdallah, Mek of Otondo I ----r Hasan (Ruling in J 728) A fugitive at Pate I Sultan I Ahmed (Ruled prior to 1744) I I Musa (Went to Zanzibar from Pate in 1728) (a) Tumbutu. Hasan n=Mwana hint Mwana (at Bweni) I (Queen of Tumbutu) Ali (Ruler of Tumbutu) Mwana b. Mwana=Mwenyi Mkuu Hasan II El Wazir Muhamad ben Ahmed ?brother of Hasan u I ......... ? ................ .. -----------------------(c) I Fatima I (4) Mwenyi Mkuu 1 Daughter=Muhamad I __ Ahled (1865-1873) I Daughber (died 1871) ben Ali (e) 1 Mwana Kazija Daughter I Mwana Nguya=Muhamad ben Saif (Bint Mkuu) (died 1899) 7 (b) I (of Zanzibar) Ali I IMkadam (d) I Vuai Kombo I Ngala I ----------(Ifl Ali (Last of the Royal line)

PAGE 98

82 Tanganyika Notes and Records Geological Notes on the Coastal Region of Tanganyika By G. M. Stockley THE coastal region of Tanganyika may be divided into two distinct areas, using the Rufiji river as an intermediate boundary. The northerly triangular shaped section has its base along the Hufiji river and its apex a few miles west of Tanga. The western boundary is somewhat irregular but part of it is limited by the Fall's Ijine Fault*, passing through Ngerengere on the Central Railway. The southern area is roughly shaped to a narrow quadrilateral or truncated triangle with its base along the Rovuma river and its northern side bounded by the Rufiji river. From N ewala northwards the western boundary is an irregular erosion scarp. Although the area of the coastal sediments narrows considerably and finally is broken in the north, it nevertheless persists to as hr as the Mombasa coastal region of Kenya. Similarly in the south the coastal sediments continue into the Portuguese colony of East Africa. This division of the coastal region into two areas is pi1rticularly useful, as it enables certain features to be contrasted; differences of topography, which m1:1y only be interpreted by tectonics, are thus sharply defined. These features may be briefly summarized as follows:-(1) The northern triangle has relatively few hills : it is a gently undulating country rising to about seven hundred and fifty feet above sea-level, seventy miles west of Dar es Salaam. The Pugu hills and the Maneromango district directly west and south-west of the capital form the one exception. These hills rise to over one thousand three hundred feet above sea-level. (2) The southern quadrilateral rises from sea-level to over two thousand feet within seventy to eighty miles from the coast at Mikindani. (3) The western boundary of the northern section is partly faulted : if the Karroo rocks are also included then there is a sharp, faulted bounda.ry between the fossiliferous sediments and the rocks of the Basement Complex. (4) The western boundary of the southern section consists of frowning cliffs at least one thousand feet high, which from the south decrease in boldness of profile northwards to close to the Rufiji river. As a matter of fact there is a sag in the topographic features between the elevated Makonde-Mwera plateaux of the south and the hills of the Matumbi district south of the Rufiji river. *Mr. C. Gillman, F.G.s., Chief Engineer of the Tanganyika Railways, first pointed out the existence of falls and rapids in most of the rivers from north to south, coinciding with a south-west fault, commencing west of Tanga to as far as the Ulanga river and possibly to the Rovuma.

PAGE 99

Geological Notes on the Coastal Regions of Tanganyika 83 (5) Both regions have high ground in their southern portions and der-;eend topographically to the north. The northern section descends more or less gradually to sea-level near 'l'anga (the Amboni Caves on the coast are formed of Jnrassic limestone) while the southern section ends off, more or less abruptly, just south of the Rufiji. (6) Both areas have drowned coastlines, incisions cut into the coast forming bays and creeks. But there iR a distinct zig-zag outline to the northern region formed by rela,tively Rtraight coastlines. In the south the em1stal fringe is more or less curved, and more indented. (7) The smaller rivers in the Makonde and Mwera plateaux have cut deep valleys and gorges in their upper reaches. Similar rivers in the Kiturika and Matumbi hills flow in r-;hallower valleys, but exhibit the same youthful features. These conditions it should be noted, are conspicuously absent in the northern triangular region with the exception of the Pugu hills. The Pugu hills exhibit the characters of the southern region; they are more elevated in the south and die away to the north. 'l'hus the Rovuma and I1ulmledi rivers flow through deep,. wide gorges they reach the coast and the entrance to these gorges coincides with the outcrop of the Mesozoic rocks. On the other hand, in the northern region the rivers meander through mature valleys in a. coastal plain. In most cases, with one exception, the rivers flow directly from west to east. The tendency of rivers in the southern region to flow north-eastwards is also exhibited by rivers of the northern region, but to a much less extent. The one exception is the Ruvu river, which curves from a south-east direction directly to the north-east as soon as it enters the region of the coastal sediments. It should be pointed out that the plateaux of the south descend in almost a straight line to the eoast line; a snu1ll interruption to this inclined plane may be observed near JJindi town. But the eastern slopes of the Pugn hills
PAGE 100

84 Tanganyika Notes and Reeo1'ds ----------------------by boring to lie upon the Basement Complex, but at the surface they are faulted against the latter downthrown to the east. In the northern section no Paleogene (early Tertiary) rocks have yet been discovered; the earliest Tertiary rocks are found on Pemba Island, east of Tanga port and separated both from the mainland and Zanzibar Island by a deep trough. There is a. possibility that earlier Tertiaries underlie the older Neogene (Miocene). Paleogene rocks are known only from the I_jindi and Kilwa coasts. These rocks are faulted against the Mesozoic near town. The outcrop of Mesozoic rocks, which end more or less abruptly at the Rufiji river, and which are repeated in the Maneromango area east of the Ruvu river, suggests a repetition by strike faulting. This is supported to a certain extent by the opposing dips. The dips revealed in the cuttings of the Central railway through the Pugu hills are to the north-west, while the dips on the west of the Ruvu river are to the east and south-east. This of eourse may be interpreted as support for a synelinal structure. Against this coneeption is the general absence of folding in this area,. the lack of repetition of Cretaceous and Jurassic rocks on the eastern slopes of the Pugn hills, and the possibility of the correlation of this fault with the extension southwards of the western fault of the Pemba Trough. This trough is in reality a miniature rift valley, drowned below sea-level. The strike fault must therefore occur in the vale of the Ruvu river and probably accounts for the sudden change in the direction of drainage. The southern extension of this fault coincides with the eastern boundary of the Karroo south of the Rufiji river. The Karroo rocks are known to dip eastwards into the Basement Complex and must therefore be bounded on the east by a south-west fault. A fault with a general east-south-east direction, lying close to the Rufiji river is indicated by certain considerations. In the first ease there is the abrupt ending of the Mesozoic, where the Ruvu river swings round to the north-east. There is a faulted boundary to the Karroo rocks south of that point. There are certain topographie features to the east, which suggest a higher elevation of the Pugu bloek relative to the coastal area to the south. The presence of a hot spring in the Rufiji valley, west of Mohoro, along this line may be connected with this fault. In addition there is the blunt ending of the outcrops of the Basement Complex, between the Karroo rocks on the west and the coastal sediments on the east, south of the Rufiji river. Other faults are suggested by the evidence of the rapid descent in submarine soundings close to the coast and to the islands of the Zanzibar Protectorate. There is very little doubt that faults occur all a.long the coastline, around Pemba Island, and on the east coast of Zanzibar Island. These dislocations may now be classified as follows :--A. Paleogene Faults--probably late Eocene to early Oligocene age. 1. Fall's Line Fault, direction NE. '2. Probable Rufiji Fault, E.-W. 3. General foundering of the coastline with the completion of the formation of the Indian Ocean.

PAGE 101

Geological Notes on the Coastal Regions of Tanganyika 85 -----------------B. N eogene Faults-probably late Miocene. 1. Pemba Island Faults, directions NB., NW. and WNW. 2. Ruvu Fault may be extension of Pemba Troug-h or vice ve1sa. 3. Lindi Fault--a small dislocation near Lindi town. C. Y ouny er N coy ene Fault--probably late Pliocene or may be Pleistocene. 1. Sadani-Dar es Salaam coastline, direction NW. (Pliocene rocks on Ma.zingini ridge near Zanzibar town are proba.bly downthrown to the west, as Pliocene rocks are known to occur at a considerable depth below Dar es Sttbam.) Summarizing all the evidence briefly outlined in the foregoing, a general appreciation of the geological conditions governing the forma.tion of the coastal region may now be described. 'l'he coastal reg-ion divides itself naturally into three blocks-the southern block south of the Hufiji river, the Pugu block, and the Ngerengere-Tanga block. Bach block has been shown to contain the same inherent geological characters with certain modifications. The southern block belongs to the major shield of Africa and it has been uplifted to at least two thousand feet above sea-level and tilted slightly northwards. The Pngu block has been uplifted from sea-level to approximately one thousand three hundred feet and tilted north and westwards. The third block has been elevated and then faulted down to its present level. It may be that the whole coastline, by the end of the Oligocene period, was raised to the one level ;md subsequently each block fonndered to different elevtttions. While there seems to have been a fairly even uplift of the southern block, the Pngu block, on the other hand. had a more interrupted history. 'l'he figure two thousand feet is the highest level of the Mwera and Makonde plateaux ttnd rnay be the highest elevated are;1 of the coastal region. This figure may be modified at a future date to allow for the later drowning of the coastttl region, dattt for which are not yet known, but it approximates to the truth. Finally it is possible to trace the general sequence of events that followed on the lacustrine-marine sedimentation of the late Permian and Triassic periods. (a) Mesozoic sedimentation, estuarine in the south passing to general marine in the north. This is probably a continuation of the Paleozoic sedimentation in the Kidodi-Ngerengere-Tanga regions. (b) Uplift of coastal belt to within a few miles west of existing coast line. (c) Early Hift Faulting-differential hinging downwards to the north in both regions. This was of early Eocene to early Oligocene age. It was followed by either the foundering of the region now occupied by the Indian Ocean or the separation of India from East Africa, commenced by continental drift. (d) Consequent on this faulting and uplift began the sculpture of the

PAGE 102

86 Tanganyika Notes and Records ----------------------present topography. Rivers cutting into newly formed coastal rocks concurrent with a rising land surface aggraded in a general east and north-east direction following the dip and tilt directions. (e) During the sedimentation of Paleogene and Miocene times there appears to have been a deeper water facies in the south and a shallower facies in the north. This is specially indicated in the Miocene. It is complete reversal of the conditions extant during Mesozoic times. (f) Second uplift of coast narrowing the difference between present and past coastlines to a very narrow margin. (g) Upper Miocene faulting--Pemba Trough formed. (h) Pliocene sedimentation--limited to Zanzibar IRland, Mafia Island and Tanga-Sadani-Dar es Salaam coasta.l fiinges. (i) Uplift followed by general submergence : formation of relatively shallow Zanzibar Channel partly by NW. fault and partly by marine eroswn. (j) Pleistocene sedimentation. (k) Uplift and exposure of Pleistocene sediments in coral reefs. (l) Present coastline formed by general submergence; and drowning of coastline. At the end of the Pleistocene period and also within recent times there has been a small uplift of five to nine feet with exposure of beach sandstones. This was followed by a slight submergence in late historic times. At Kilwa the floor of a mosque, which cannot be of great age, is now below sea-level.

PAGE 103

The Story of Mbega ------(Continued from page 91, No. 2, October 1936.) The Story of Mbega By A bdullah bin H emedi bin Ali Liajjemi Translated by Roland Allen CHAPTER XV.-Bucm IS SENT FROM VuGA TO BE EDUCATED BY His MoTHER's FAMILY. 87 THB MEN of Bumburi say that after the birth of the child, the people sat down to discuss the matter, and they said, It will never do for the child to be brought up in the country of Vuga, for he will not get to know us his kinsfolk and cannot become familiar with us ; he will be familiar with the people of Vuga; and they strove saying, We shall be of no account compared with them. 'l'hey discussed the matter till they were all of one mind, and they chose out men of standing to go to Vuga with the father of Mbega's wife. They went to the house of their tribal friend in Vuga, and they were asked u,ll the news of Bumburi. Then they sent the man to look for the brother-in-law of the chief, that is, their son who came to Vuga with his sister at the first. He went and told him, I have been sent by your elders, they call you, they have come, they are here at my houS. He answered, Very well, and they went together and cmne to the house, and he greeted them, and then they told him all their business. He said, I agree, but I will go to the Great House and ask my sister. 'rhey said, Go, and he went and found his sister in the house, and he told her, Our father has come and he greets you ; he has come with an uncle and very many of the elders of Bumburi to persuade your husband to let them take you and your child home with them. ']'hey want you to bring up the child with his grandparents rather than by yourself, because he will be a trouble to you ; a little child causes both care and trouble every day. His Rister said, If you agree, I will agree, let us go back to Bumburi. The hLd said to his sister, I agree; and they settled the matter together. 'l'hen the lad said, I will go and tell the elders to talk it over with their son-in-law, and that, if they come to terms with him, we have made up our minds, we have no objection. The elders said, We are very glad that our children are agreed. Now let our friend go to the chief and tell him that his kinsmen are here. He went and said, There are guests at my house. Mbega asked, Where do they come from? He said, They are your wife's family and elders of Bumburi. Mbega said, Tell them I have heard. He went and said, I gave him your message and he said: It is well, and a goat and pork and beef and much food is coming. The men who brought it said, 'l'he chief says, When you have finished eating tell your

PAGE 104

88 Tanganyika Notes and Records friend to bring you to him. 'l'hey said, Thank you. We will come. They ate, they wer.e given cane beer and they drank. 'l'hen they said, Now take us to see the chief. 'l'hey went and greeted him; he made them welcome, and they sat down. He said to the men who were there, Ask them their news, and they were asked the usual polite questions. 'l'hen they said, Chief, we want privacy to tell you what has brought us to you. He said, Very well; and they went apart with five elders of Vuga and two men of the guard. CHAPTER XVI.-THE MEN OF BuMBURI AsK MBEGA TO MAKE BUGE THEIR CHIEF. The men of Bumburi and Mbega went aside and they said, vVe have come to greet you and to see the child. Mbega answered, It is well. Then they said, We hav.e a proposal to make, and we want you to agree to it. He asked, What sort of proposal? They said, We have all taken counsel, all your relations. and brothers-in-law, men and women all of us, and they all want the child to be brought up with them, because they know that your wife will have great trouble to bring him up by herself alone. Well, let us agree on this. This is the reason of our coming. Mbega answered and said, It is an excellent plan ; but I will go and ask my wife and her brother, and if they agree, I will give you an answer. They said, Go. CHAPTER XVII.-BuoE GoEs TO BuMBURI. After this Mbega went to his wife's house and called her and sat with iller. He told her, I have had news to-day, have not you heard it? She said, No. He said, Have not you seen your father? She said, He has not been to the house since he came. He said, If you have not seen him, I have seen them all and your uncles as well. They all called me, and elders of Vug-a were with them, and they told me, We have come to ask you to let your wife go with us home to Bumburi with her child Buge that his grandparents may bring him up, because you are very busy and have much to do; if the child falls sick you cannot tend him, you have too much business; and I said, It is well, wait and I will speak to her, and, if she and her brother agree, I will give you an answer. Well now I want your answer to give them. His wife answered, I have nothing to say, and my brother has nothing, we listen to you. Her husband asked his brother-in-law, What do you say? His brother-in-law answered, I have nothing to say. Whatever you and your wife decide, the matter is ended, because I should not have come here except to be a comfort to my sister, and now, if you agree that she should go with her father and uncles, I must go with her, for I shall not stay here. The chief said, I like the plan, go to Bumburi and bring up the child there; and as for you, I think it is better that you should go with your sister and look well after her. So she does not know that this business was really finished yesterday. And he said, To-morrow I will answer the elders. In the morning the elders of Bumburi were called and Mbega said to them, I will answer your proposal of yesterday. They said, What is your

PAGE 105

The SioTy of Mbega 89 answer? He told them, I talked the matter over with my wife and she agrees to go, so I want to know your plans. 'rhey said, We want to start to-day. He answered, Very well, and he prepared for them food for the journey and gave his son ten rnikh kine and very many goats, and he took leave of him in due form and gave him clothes, and he set out with guards and very many young warriors and mueh people, a great army without number, and Mbega ehnrgecl them straitly, When you halt for the night, kill an ox and five goats, it is not good that the people should fail in their prayers or laek meat; for they are on the king's errand. 'l'hey obeyed him; they went that day and halted at the grove, rmd killed tln ox and five goats and they ate. In the morning they started and went to Tekwa and they halted there and killed an ox and five goats and they ate. In the morning men went to Bumburi to report, and when they reaehed the town they said, We have eo me to tell you that the earavan is at hand. We eome with the chief's wife and her son and very many people, and guards and young warriors, and we have been sent to tell you. vVhen the people of the town and the elders heard that, they took counsel, saying, vVlmt do you think? Where shall he go to sttty '? 'rhey agreed, IJet him go to I1ukoka the town of his grandfather. Many people and all the young vvarriors of Bumburi went out to welcome him on the road and they met him and returned with rejoicing and gladness, and enterecl Lukoka the town of his grandfather and his mother's sisters. At their cmning in they killed an ox, and her father brought two oxen as a thank-offering for his daughter's safe delivery, :md the people ate and divided the meat. 'rhen her father talked with the men of Vuga who hacl come with her ancl saicl, W.hen you want to go, take leave of me. They saicl, It is well, and they lay down. In the morning they took leave of him and they were given an ox for food on the way, and they departed. When they reached Vugtt, they told Mbega all that had happened at Bumburi. CHAP'l'ER XVIII.-'rHE EDucATION oF BuaE. Buge etune to Burnburi and was brought up there with all honour and was waited on, and had his field cultivated and his cattle pastured well, and whenever a ease came before his uneles, if cattle were forfeitecl, he was given a beast. Very many days passed and Buge grew to be a child that could speak, and his father sent a man to call the men of Bumburi, elders and young men, and they went to Vuga, and he said to them, I have called you to ask how the child is doing. They :1nswered, He can talk now, and he knows the names of all the people nettr him. '!'hen Mbega said, I want to give you a man to watch over him and to live with him in the Great House in Bumburi till the boy is grown, and I have a plan to lay before you. They answered, It is well. He said, Choose out a man of understanding and considerate ehamcter, not a covetous man, a good speaker and a man of courage, one who ean walk from morning till night, not an overbearing man, not a man who ean insult the child. So take counsel with the men of Bumburi

PAGE 106

90 Tanganyz:ka Notes and Records and of Mahezangmu and of Mwavula, and of Zeba and of Shembekeza and of Barangai, call them all. let not one be absent, and let them all agree on the man whom you choose, and when yon have found him send men to tell me. The elders of Bumburi said, It is well, we have heard. 'rhey went and came to Bnmburi and slept that night, and in the morning they tied three knots -the third clay was the day of meeting -and they went to the districts which had a right to be called, a.nd on the third clay all who had been called eame. Mbega's design was fully explained to them, and they chose a man whom they knew to have such a reputation, and they said, Let us send a man to Vuga to report to Mbega, and men were sent to tell him what had been clone. Mbega asked them whom they chose, and then he called all the men of Vnga n,nd sn,id to them, I \Vant to set up in Handei Zikoi a man to be their leader and to govern them : so my son will have a judge among all the people. 'l'he men of Ynga said, It is well. Mbega said, I sent men to search out the man, and tbey have found him, and now I want :L man of Vuga to go to instal him in the Great House in the room where I myself stay. In the morning he took the man and said to him, Do not go alone, take two men with you. 'l'he man went with two or three others and came to Bumburi. He waR received vrith all respect and the child was told that an elder had come from his father and to bring an ox to give to him. He gave it and he killed it. CHAPTER XIX.-A GuARDIAN IS APPOINTED FOR BuGE. In the morning they said, J,et the people be assembled; and they met together and went aside and sat down in private, and they asked, Does this man know of this order? 'l'hey sn,id, He does not ; we propose to send young warriors to move his goods for hi.m. They agreed, and all the young warriors were brought out, and they went to the house of that man on whom they had fixed, and they looked to see if he had a tali.Rman, and the young men went into his honRe and brought out hi.s beds and all his goods, and they laid hold on the man, and they took one of his goats and killed i.t there at his door and ate it there. rrhe people of the town were astounded, because they did not know what to think, the thing had come upon them suddenly, and they said, 'rell us what thiR meiLUS. 'l'he messengers answered, If you want us to tell you, come with us to the town of Zikoi to the house of Buge the son of J'vlbega; it is he who has sent us to seize this man and his chief wife, but we were not ordered to take hiR second wife. 'rhe people followed them to the town, a,nd when they got there they s:1w a greu,t multitude of people without number. 'J'he messengers set the man in the courtyard; and Buge brought an ox and gave it to them. 'rhen Mbega's messengers held aloft the spear and gave instructions to the man, Dwell with the lad in all honour, do justice without respect for any man's person, even though it be your son or your brother, judge according to the law. Then they took the man n,nd his wife into the Great House, and they brought the leg and half the breiLst and the

PAGE 107

The StOTy of Mbega 91 kidney of the ox and presented them to him as the king's agent, and they said, Whenever a case wmes before yon and a goat is killed, your share of the flesh is a leg and half the breast ; that is your due. So they ended, and in the evening he brought a goat, and the elders assembled and went into the !louse and they sat there all night and instructed him fullv in all thinas and .1 b they ate the goat. At dawn he brought an ox and they set the guard for him and in the morning he brought a goat and they went to show him the farm, and they killed the goat there, and they cooked bananas and ate, and they instructed him, If people come here to the farm to work, when they go home, give a goat to the guards who came with them as Mbega himself directed you. 'J'hen they returned to the town. In the morning the men of Vuga said, vVe will go our way; but if Mbega has any message for you here in Zikoi he will send me; if you do not see me you will see this man, or this man ; look well at them that you may not forget them, and if any other man comes, unless it is this man, or this man, or I myself, do not accept him, even if he bring the ,;pear of Mbega, do not accept him. Ho good-bye. Then the herald and his two sons departed and went to VugtL and reported to Mbega aJl that had been done, omitting nothing, and Mbega said, I have heard; and they abode so. CHAPTER XX.-'J'HE PLOT OF 'l'HE MEN oF UBmi AND THE BIRTH OF KIMWETU. After these things the men of Ubiri heard what had been done, and they gathered and took counsel together rmd they determined to take one of their children and to send her to Mbega to be his wife, that they might gain the same benefits, for they said, If we send him our child, we shall get flesh every clay, and honour ; and if she gives birth, we will go and fetch our child and grandchild to bring him up here, and we slmll get property and dignity. So they chose out a very beautiful girl, and they said, Let men go to Vuga, and tell Mhega some tale and talk with him cunningly. The messengers went and came to Mbega and greeted him. He asked them after their welfare, and they said, All is well; we have come to ask if we may go hunting with you. He said, I am not going hunting to-clay, but perhaps to-morrow. 'l'hey said, We will the night, and they did so. In the morning Mbega said to his guards and young men, Come, collect the dogs; we will hunt to-clay. 'l'hey collected all the dogs and they took the wallet of charms, and they went into the thick forest, and they found very many pigs, and they killed them, and collected them, and sorted them, and laid them in order. 'l'he men of Ubiri said to Mbegtt, The reason why we have come on this hunt is because we want meat, we have a feast to make for our children. He said, What do you want? 'l'hey said, We want flesh. He gave them much, many loads, enough to spare. One man of Ubiri came forward and said, Chief, let us speak in private. Mbega said, Come. vVhen they came to the place, the

PAGE 108

92 'l'angany ika Notes and Records man of Ubiri said, I have a request to make, but will you grant it? Mbega S<1id, If it pleases me. I will give you five portions. He said, In our village there is a beautiful girl ; since you came to this country you have not seen her equal ; if you wish yon shall have her. Mbega said, Well to-day let us pass your village and sleep at Ubiri and let me see her. He said, Come. Mbega gave him five portions, and told the men of Vuga and the young warriors, Pass on before me : I will go by Ubiri, and if the sun sets I shall not go further; I shall sleep there. 'l'he men of_ Vuga went off with their loads and the guards and the men of Ubiri went with Mbega to Ubiri. The people of Ubiri assembled to greet him, and they brought an ox and made him a feast, and all who heard of it came and the author of the plan, and as they were standing at the chief's house, just then the girl passed by to be seen and Mbega was charmed with her. He said, 'ro-morrow I want to go on my way. 'rhey said, You cannot go to-morrow because there are many matters t1waiting your judgment. He spent the night and the next day there and gave his judgment on all their questions; he left nothing unsettled. 'Chen he took leave of them and departed, and when he came near to Vuga he S
PAGE 109

The Story of Mbega 93 let us go, and .they started out and went to Shashui. They greeted Mbega and he asked of their welfare, and they answered, All is well; we have come to consult you about the circumcision of Buge, for he is now a full-grown lad. It is for you to decide, if you say, him be circumcised at Bumburi-well, or T.Jet him come to Vugatell us. Mbega answered, Bring him with his mother and his grandparents, and the elders and the agent, come all of you. They departed and went to Bumburi and reported all that had happened and they said, \?Ve start to-morrow. 'l'hey came to Shashui, and t.hey gave Buge the place of honour and they went and told the captain of the guard, Go tell the chief that his guests have come from Bmnburi. He It is well, and he went and told Mbega, saying, 'I' he men of Bumburi have come with the boy. Mbega said, It is well, let him stay where he is, and let the men of Bumburi and the agent come to see me. 'J'he ctLptain of the guard went and told them, You are called, ri:oe and come with me. 'J'hey went with him and came where Mbega was and greeted him. 'rhey sa,t clown before the whole assembly of men of Vuga, of Ubiri, of Shashui, and they vvere asked their news, and they said, vVe sent news of the boy and your answer was reported to us, and we have come with the boy and his mother and his grandpa,rentH and undeR : the agent will come to-monow ; we were with him but he tumed back on the road because he was slllllntoned to entertain a stranger. Mbega said, Stay the night here, tLnd to-morrow, when the agent comes, let us take counsel, and let us send men to Vuga to call the elders and the headnu1n 'l'iui. They were given an ox and they went to the place where they stopped and they killed the ox and sent a leg and the breast to the chief. In the morning men were sent to Yuga to call the people and all the elders came and the agent of Burnburi <1l1d they met in council and discussed all the arrangements for the circumcision. Then Mhega said, If you have finished,. let men go to the bush to fetch M w
PAGE 110

94 Tanganyika N otcs and Records the boy was sent to Bmnburi with an army of people with rejoicing, and on the road oxen were killed and the poor htLd rest because they received food in abundanee and goat skins were given them, and so they came to Bumburi and brought the boy to the how;e called Hevnmo. 'rhen his mother and the elder women went into the town of Bumburi and directed sugar cane to be c.:ut, and in the morning all the people c.:ut sugar cane and brought it to the tovvn and every town brought much food and they killed three oxen and goats and sheep and made a great feast for three days and the women danced their dances, and they ceased. CHAPTER xxn.-'rHE ArroiNTMENT oF BuGE As CHIEF OF BuMBURI. \Vhen Buge was fifteen years old, the elders of Bumburi took counsel with his uncles and grandfather that no word of their design, if they agreed, rnight be report.ed beforehand in Vnga and they settled the matter and they said, ]Jet us go to Vnga and ask the chief to let us instal the boy as our chief here in Bumburi. Then the elders set out with the agent and came to Vuga and they went to that man who had been sent to Bumburi before on the king's errands. He asked them bow things were going in Bumburi, ;md they told him, We have corne to see the c.:hief: we have words for him about the boy; we want to set him up as c.:hief in our town : the people will till his fields; they will \'iait on him, and from all the suits which are brought to be judged he will get oxen and goats and sheep and clothes and the king will be relieved of the burden of sending food to his son. The man of Vuga said, Wait, let me go and inform the chief; and he went and greeted him. Mbega asked him to sit down, and he sat down, and he said, I have c.:orne to tell you that your agent and of Bumburi have come to my house, and when I asked their errand they said, We want Buge to be our chief now. What do you stty? Mbega said, Dring them to me. He went and brought them, and they went in the great ball where the chief sat to give judgment on the suits which men brought against one another. That hall is eelebrated and all men know it, even strangers all know it. There they met
PAGE 111

The Story of Mbega 95 day the men of Vuga came to Karange, the agent and the elders received them and gave them goats. They lay down ; and in the morning the people near Bumburi came together, and the men of Vnga brought a great ox and a black sheep, and when they met the men of Vnga said, Bring Buge. 'l'hey went and brought him from I1nkoka where he waR, :1nd they took him round with the sheep by the way by which his father had gone when he went to Vuga till they set him in the house; the name of that house was Mwevumo and it was a very famous house ; it was there that the guard slept, it \Vas there that all their public business waR done. In the morning he vvas brought out and set in the (heat House of the chief in Bumburi, and they beat the war drum, and the sound went throughout the country and the people came from Shembekeza, that is Nguru, and Mwamavala and Kwagoroto and Baga and Mtunda and Mahezanguru and 'l'a.mota and Kiriya and Pararn and Ngugo. and Barangai, and Vanga, and Zeba, a.nd Ngere, and Garambo, and rrekwa,

PAGE 112

H6 Tanyanyika Notes and Records killed, and they united the whole country and they took their leave and went their way. And in the morning the herald took leave of them and departed. CHAPTER XXIII.-THB NEWS IS 'llAKEN TO MBEGA. 'l'he herald put on his arms, his sword and Hpear and shield, an'd his sons paeked the fl.esb and they started out and entered Vuga in the tLfternoon and went into the herald's house. 'l'he herald ordered them to undo the flesh that they had carried and he divided portions for the elders and the ehildren, and for his sons who had gone with him, and he said, In the morning come and let us report to the chief all the nevvs of Bnmburi. 'l'hey went and lay down,
PAGE 113

The Story of Mbega 97 at the Great House. He went and said, The men of Bumburi want to go home. Mb.ega replied, 'l'ell them that they may go. They all girded themselves for the journey and they sounded the horn, and they went and slept at the grove, and next morning they entered Bumburi. So Buge ruled in Bumbnri, and there was great peace between him and his brethren. One was Kimweri who was set over Ubiri, one was Chief of Mlalo, one was Chief of Mlola, and one was Chief of Mrungui, and of all these Buge was the greatest. So he dwelt and was very strong in his kingdom. CHAPTEH XXV.-THE DEATH OF MBEGA, AND THE CnoWNING OF BuGE. 'l'he clay of Mbega's death was known only by five elders. He was sick for only three days, and his children did not hear of it, nor even the people there in the town. It was his custom not to appear in public but to keep in his house for as much as ten clays together, and his guards told any who came that the chief was detained by his magic. When he pleased he went out, that was his custom. So his sickness passed unnoticed, and when he died his death was not apparent. Men went to Bumburi by night, and when they arrived, they roused some who woke the king's agent and told him who were there, and he went to the Great House and woke the chief. He asked the king's agent, What is it? And he said, Two men have come from Vuga and one of them is the herald and he wants you. Buge answered, Bring them here. The agent went and brought the men and set them before him, and he asked them, What news do you bring that you come by night? They said, Your father is very ill, and he has sent us to fetch you tonight. Instantly he said to the agent, Take your weapons, and call two of the guard. The agent went to the guardroom and roused two men of the guard, and went to his house. Buge girded himself and went out and said to the herald, I have told the agent we are going. They started and reached the grove by cockcrow. 'l'here they met two men who told Buge, Your father is dead; but we luwe kept up the pretence that he iR alive, till you come. He said, Go quickly into the bush and tell those men of Kilincli there, Your brother is dead, I am here at the grove; and if they eome, let them come here. His messengers went and brought the men of Kilindi to the grove. Buge asked them, How do you bury? They 1-mid, First kill a black bull,
PAGE 114

98 Tanganyika Notes and Records when the corpse was brought, they made the cat stay in the grave (they had already laid the skin there) and they buried Mbega. Still the people in the town knew nothing. When they had finished, they asked, \Vhat shall we do now'? Many said, Let Buge take his father's place. He said, I had better go back to Bumburi and take counsel there, and do you behave as if Mbega were still in the house, and let the doctors stay, and if any one asks whether Buge came and the cause, say that he was called by his father. Then quietly make arrangements. The chief officer of Vuga said, I do not like that plan, for if this comes to your brothers' ears, they will seize Vuga. Buge said, That is true, and they decided to bring Buge into Vuga, and to send men to Bumburi to fetch his wife and to bring her where he was that is, to the grove. When his wife arrived, she rested at the grove and at dawn she W
PAGE 115

N ot,es on the Fipa Notes on the Fipa By G. D. Popplewell gg THE :Fipa district is roughly bounded on the west by Lake Tanganyika, on the north by the uninhabited mimnbo woodlands of southern Kigoma and Uruwira ('rabora district), on the east by Lake Rukwa and its tributaries, the Rungwa and Momba, on the south by the upper waters of the Momba, known as the Saisi, by the upper reaches of the Immi river and by the lower reaches of the Kalambo river. This southern boundary coincides with the northern boundary of north-eastern Rhodesia. Geographically the district can be divided into the following three areas :(1) The Fipa Plateau.-This platea,u, six thousand feet above sea-level, is shaped like a saucer. The centre is composed of open rolling country, com paratively treeless, except ;1long the margins of the five largish rivers that traverse it (two flowing west into I_jttke Tanganyika and three east into the l1ake Rukwa system) and their tributaries. The sides slope upwards to scarp edges that drop on the west to h1ke Tanganyika, on the east to Lake Rukwa. These upward slopes to the west, north-east and south-east are clothed in miombo woodlands (dry forest). On the east these slopes are comparat!vely treeless, except for a small patch of true rain forest. In the south the open country becomes merged into the mi01nbo woodlands of north-eastern Rhodesia. ('2) Lake Tanganyika.-On the west the scarp drops down precipitously to the shore of I_jake Tanganyika (three thousand feet above sea-level) except where it is cut by rivers from the :Fipa plateau or by streams rising in the scarp itself. Here expanses of treeless, flat country have been formed, varying in extent from several square miles to tt few acres. (3) Lake Rukwa.-On the east the scarp falls sheer to the I_jake Rukwa valley (three thommnd feet above sea-leven. The central portion of this valley is filled with the waters of J_jake Rukwa itself and with the larger area to the north of the actual lake that has been flooded since 1904 ( ?). :Further to the north lies the river Rungwa and its main tributary, that rises in the Fipa plateau. To the south lies the river Momba. The country between the escarpment and the Lake Rukwa system is flat and cov,ered with miombo woodlands and is intersected by many streams (some perennial, others merely seasonal) that have their origin in the scarp itself. Around the river Rungwtt and along the fringes of I_jake Rukwa the country is open and marshy in the rains. On its eastern side the Rukwa valley is bounded to the north by the hills of Ukonongo and is here some thirty miles wide. Towards the middle it broadens out and narrows again at its southern end where the Mbeya hills form its eastern wall.

PAGE 116

100 Tanganyika Notes ancl Records CLIMATE. The mean annual rainfall of the district is between thirty and forty inches. This is spread over the months from December to May, with the heaviest falls usually in January, February and March. The nights and early mornings on the plateau from May to July are extremely cold, for the rest of the year cool. The mid-day sun is hot but never excessively so. On the eastern side of the plateau, from April to August, very strong easterly winds blow and earthquake shocks are occasionally felt. The climate of the Lake Tanganyika shore and the Rukwa valley is hot, except for a short period after the rains. Cool winds off I1ake Tanganyika arise at night. TRIBAL DISTRIBUTION. The whole of the plateau except for a small area along the Rhodesian border is inhabited by the Fipa tribe. The Fipa have also overflowed on to the eastern shores of that part of Lake Tanganyika that lies within the district and into the Rukwa valley to the east and south-east of the district. The tribe, at the present day, is divided into two chiefdoms. Originally they acknowledged one chief, but the usual war between two rival claimants occurred and the tribe split into two. The more important chief with his headquarters at Sumbawanga, the present district headquarters, rules over the northern half of the plateau, the Fipa country on Lake Tanganyika and the northern half of the Fipa territory in the Lake Rukwa valley. The lesser chief, a woman, reigns over the southern half of the plateau and the southern section of the Rukwa Fipa. All the Rukwa Fipa are known as "Wakwa." The Fipa proper are of Bantu stock but their chiefs have Hamitic blood in their veins. Tradition has it that two women of Hamitic stock came down from the north. After many wanderings, the .elder usurped the chiefdom of Fipa. To obtain heirs, they married Nyika husbands but, thereafter, to maintain racial purity marriage outside the family was forbidden. Be that as it may, both the present chiefs show distinct traces of Hamitic origin, the man being of a much lighter colour than the average Bantu, while the woman has the slender limbs and figure of the Hamite. The Hamitic blood, however, in spite of tradition, has been much intermingled with Bantu. Interpersed with the Fipa of the plateau, but not nearly so numerous, are the Nyika. They are supposed to have been forced up from the south by the Angoni invasions towards the end of the last century. Though they acknowledge the Fipa chiefs, they keep more or less to themselves. The combined population of the Fipa and Nyika is approximately fifty-six thousand adults and children. VILLAGE DISTRIBUTION AND AGRICULTURE. (a) THE FIPA PLATEAU. (i) Habitat and Water Supply .-The villages of the Fipa are built on rising, open ground near streams, of which the majority never dry up. Shallow wells are dug in the beds of those that do. The villages are compact, though of no settled plan. The individual huts are rectangular, built of poles

PAGE 117

Notes on the Fipa 101 -----------------------------------with a thatch roof. The poles are frequently not plastered with mud. The huts are divided into two rooms, with an outside door leading into one room. An open space to the left or right of the connecting wall forms the door between the two rooms. No courtyards ttre built. Owing to the comparative dearth of trees, building nmterial is not easy to obtain. When villages move-which they do frequently owing to the previous site being fouled-the huts are pulled down and the old poles used for the new huts. The new village as a rule is not far from the old site. The villages of the Nyika, also built abov-e streams, are scattered mainly along the upward slopes towards the eastern edge of the plateau, away from the main centres of population. They are primarily a hunting people and prefer solitude near to the haunts of game. Their huts originally were grass structures like wigwams, some ten feet high, witl1 wooden doors some four feet high. Nowadays they are more and more tending to follow the Fipa pattern. (ii) Agriculture and Village Economy.-The fields of the Fipa are always some distance from the villages owing to the depredatory habits of goats, sheep and cattle. Owing to the lack of trees, the Fipa cannot use wood-ash to increase the fertility of the soil. Therefore, after the rains in April, they select a piece of ground aRd, cutting the sods with a large hoe, heap them up into cones some three feet high and some three feet in diameter at the base, the grassy sides of the sods being turned inwards. The decomposition of the grass fertilizes the soil. This work is perfornted by the men. In November, before the rains, these cones are levelled, hoed and eleusine millet planted. The following year after the rains the field is extended by turning fresh cones. The old field is ridged the following November and maize, beans and some groundnuts planted. This process is continued for a third year. Thereafter, tt new field is chosen as the fertility of the soil is considered exhausted. The eleusine millet is harvested from June to July, the maize, beans a.nd groundnuts earlier, in April, May and early June. The planting and harvesting are done mainly by the women. Eleusine millet is the main economic crop, large quantities being transported by head porterage to the Lupa goldfields, some two hundred miles to the eastward in Mbeya district. Considerable numbers of Fipa emigrate thither in the dry season in search of work, mine sinking, gold washing and the like. The majority of these, however, return before the planting season commences. In the extreme north of the plateau many of the men go off to the uninhabited woodlands of Gongwe that lie on the Kigoma border in search of beeswax. This, when found, is transported by head porterage to the Arab and Indian shops at Mtakuja, a small trading settlement in the north of the Fipa coast of Lake Tanganyika. The agricultural methods of the N yika are similar to those of the Fipa. It must be remembered, however, that the Nyika were primarily a hunting people, who have only recently taken to agriculture, owing to the increasing scarcity of game round their haunts. Their favourite method of hunting-to surround a game haunt, to fire the grass and to shoot the escaping animals

PAGE 118

102 Tanganyika Notes and Records with poisoned arrows-gives some idea of the rate of destruction of game by these people in the past. Hunting parties, complete with dogs and poisoned arrows are frequently seen. (b) LAKE TANGANYIKA. (i) Habitat and Supply.-The villages are nearly all situated on the lake-shore itself, at the outfall of rivers and streams, where expanses of treeless flat country, flooded either by the rains or, if these are not sufficient, by irrigation, produce excellent crops of rice. 'l'he water supply is obtained either from the lake itself or from the rivers and streams. (ii) Agriculture and Village Economy .-'l'he staple food is cassava, which is interspersed at planting with maize and/ or groundnuts. The fi.elds are cultivated round the actual villages. Planting takes place in December, the ground being ridged in October or November. Harvest of maize occurs from April to. May ; of groundnuts from May to June. 'l'he principal economic crop is rice. This is planted in the flooded areas in Dec.;ember and is reaped from May to July. All planting and harvesting is done by the women, while the preparation of the fields is shared between the sexes. Fishing is extensively practised. The chief cakh is dauaa ( whitebait) whic.;h, when dried, is exported to Kigoma and the ports of Huanda-Urundi to feed labour. The main season for dagaa is from April to September. 'l'he fishing takes place at night. Lighted torc.;hes are affixed in iron holders to the bows of c.;anoes. 'l'he shoals are attracted by the light and are caught in nets. When a whole fleet of canoes are out, the lake appea.rs to be dotted with innumerable fairy lights and is a picture that remains long in the memory. (c) LAKE RUKW A. (i) Habitat and Water Supply .-Many streams from the Fipa escarpment flow to the Lake Rukwa system. In the course of years these have cut out widish beds in the miombo woodlands at the foot of the escarpment. These beds vary in width but average some (1uarter to half a mile. Their banks are steep and are from ten to twenty feet high. The actual streams average some ten feet in width in the rains, though a few flood a much wider area. Some completely dry up, but the majority are perennial, though they shrink in volume in the dry season. The villages are built on the banks of the beds. These beds are very fertile and are planted with cassava, eleusine millet, maize, mangoes, bananas and pawpaws. 'I' he fields are usually some quarter to half a mile from the village. Water is usually obtained from the streams. In a few instances during the dry season wells have to be sunk in the dried-up courses. (ii) Agriculture and Village Economy.-'l'he staple erop is eleusine millet, though cassava is starting to run it a very good second. The ground is prepared by clearing the beds of the luxuriant grass and bush that is their natural covering and by hoeing up long parallel ridges. This clearing and hoeing should take place just after the rains in May or June. In November

PAGE 119

Notes on the Fipa 103 the ridges are levelled and eleusine millet planted. Cassava and maize and/ or groundnuts are planted the second and third year. Every year fresh ground is broken for the eleusine. Rice is planted only in the larger streams that flood a considerable area in the rains. It is planted in December and harvested in May and June. Here as elsewhere the preparation of the fields is the work of the men, planting ttnd harvesting mainly that of the women. The chief economic crop as on the plateau is eleusine millet, transported by head porterage to the Lupa goldfields. Some cassava flour is also sold there, and rmmy tribesmen go there to work but return to their homes before the planting season. STOCK. In the old days there were few herds of cattle in Fipa. Those that did exist belonged to the chiefs and important headmen. Now, however, with the exception of the people on the J_jake 'l'anganyika shore, the majority of the Fipa own cattle. Goats a,nd sheep abound everywhere. Cattle cannot exist by Lc1ke 'l'anga,nyika owing to a. tsetse belt-uninfected with sleeping sickness-varying in depth from thirty miles in the north to four miles in the south that cuts off the plateau from the coast. In each village the cattle are herded at night into two or three common kraals, while the sheep and goats sleep in the sleeping rooms of the village huts. These cattle kraals are solid structures of split poles some eight feet high with piled masses of dry thorn branches on the outside, the whole being designed as protection against lion. The cattle are let out about eight or nine o'clock in the morning and are herded by small boys, armed with sticks and small bows and arrows. They graze on the grasslands abutting on the tree-fringed rivers and streams and lie up among these trees during the heat of the day. The grazing is usually good all through the year. 'l'he grass fires ta,ke place in July to September. Therettfter the young grass rtffords good grazing which is increased by the rains. If the burning is unduly delayed, some scarcity of grazing occurs. GAME. Game is still plentiful in the Fipa country in spite of the depredations of the Nyiktt, who have denuded certain areas of game, notably on the plateau, within living memory. In the north can be found roan, hartebeest, topi, eland, bushbuck, reedbuck, dniker, buffalo and lion. In the Rukwa valley herds of zebra, hartebeest, roan, eland, reedbuck, duiker and impalla roam the open plains that fringe the lake. The thick vegetation round the streams hide buffalo. Elephant and lion abound. In the miombo woodlands are kudu. In the centre of the situtunga dwell in the thick reed-beds that bor.der certain rivers. In the south, roan, topi, reedbuck and duiker can easily be seen. On Lake Tanganyika hippopotami cause much damage to the rice, and crocodiles infest the waters. In the miombo woodlands of the western escarpment dwell buffalo, roan, kudu and sable antelope.

PAGE 120

104 Tanganyika Notes and Records LAND TENURE AND NATURAL PRODUCTS. In the old days before the :Europe;m occupation neither strangers nor natives had to get leave from the chief to cultivate, though the former had to ask permission to build. Everyone, however, had to send a basket of eleusine annually to the chief. The chief had no right to eject anyone, but no land could be transferred either by gift or sale. The produce only was the cultivator's own, to dispose of as he liked. Goats were frequently put into another's care and field produce the usual payment. Food had to be given to the chief and his advisers when they visited a village. His wives never accompanied him. The position is substantially the same to-day though no one can cultivate without the leave of the chief; which, however, is never refused. Grazing is :;ommunal to the village. Any tree, in the old days, could be felled without permission. One leg of every game animal killed had to be given to the headman of the village. Bxcept for this, game was free to all; but hunting parties could not go far afield for fear of raiding W em be from the south or Makalunga from the west. No salt is found in the whole district. This was obtained by individuals from what is now N 01thern Rhodesia in exchange for tobacco. Nowadays it is imported either from U vinza in Kigornu district or from the salt pans to the east of Lake Rukwa. EuROPEAN INFLUENCE. The first and prime European influence on the Fipa has been that of the White Fathers' mission, the headquarters of which is in Algiers. In the eighteen-eighties a body of these missionaries landed at Bagamoyo and, after a journey of extreme hardship, reached Ujiji via Tabora. From here in the last decade of the last century they founded four missions on the shore of Lake Tanganyika. Thence they extended their field of operations until to-day there are seven missions in Fipa, two on Lake Tanganyika, three on the plateau and two in the Rukwa valley. One of these latter is not in Fipa proper but lies just to the north in Pimbwe country, whose people share a native treasury with a section of the Fipa. The mission stations, designed and built by the missionaries themselves with the aid of native Christians, are beautiful buildings of burnt brick and tiles, the majority with large churches of the same material. These stations are oases of exotic trees, each with its own gardens and orchards. On the plateau coffee and wheat are grown to supply the needs of all the White Fathers' missions in the territory. Excellent oranges are grown. In the Lake Tanganyika and Rukwa missions mangoes, bananas, pineapples and other tropical fruit grow in abundance. At each mission there is a small dispensary and a large school for boys and girls, the latter of whom are taught by the sisters. Many village mission schools are scattered throughout Fipa. As a result some eighty per cent of the Fipa are Christians while a large proportion, especially of the young generation, are literate. The most striking feature of any visit to Fipa, especially on the

PAGE 121

Notes on the Fipa 105 ----------------------plateau, is the abundance of young children in any village. l.Jarge families-the average is over four-are the rule. While doubtless many factors combine to produce this result (climate, absence of fever for a large pfLrt of the year, steady male population) mission medical work in combating venereal disease u,nd mission teaching that promotes the sanctity of family life may fairly claim no sm:dl share. In the past, many males emigru,ted yearly to 'l'anga and elsewhere on the coast in search of work on the plantations; the majority of them did not return. It was feared that 11 serious depopubtion might result. Some three years ago, therefore, recruiting of labour, except for a limited yearly number, was forbidden. Conse(1uently the mu,le population is fairly constant. The demand for labour for the Lupa goldfields does not greatly affect the popula tion, as the greu,t majority of those tribesmen who go thither in search of work return to their own homes before the planting season. The demand for foodstuffs to feed the labour on these gold mines has stimulated production in Fipa. The yenrly export to the mines is estimated at five hundred tons, mainly carried by the producers themselves to the l.JUp:1 market. The export of cattle to the Lupa from Fipa is chiefly in the hands of one or two European settlers, who bny a large proportion of their stock from the Fipa. The latter, too, are yearly increasing their own export. 'J'he rise of the Lupa goldfields, therefore, has resulted in an increased circulation of money in Fipa, which, in turn, is reflected in :1 higher standard of living, typified by a greater demand for cloth, imported hoes, shirts, knives, lamps nnd kerosene.

PAGE 122

106 'Tanganyika Notes and Rec01ds A Note on Some Ruins near Bagamoyo By Norman Forster THE HUINS herein referred to, whid1 apparently are of Arab origin and of wnsidernble antiquity, are situated near the village of Kaole approximately five or six miles south-south-east of Bagamoyo on a sandy elevation raised slightly above the level of the swampy ground surrounding it. 'l'he site is approached from Bagamoyo by a road along the crest of a coral ridge, evidently an anc.:ient coastline, which serves as a protective rampart for the land behind it against possible immtds by the sea. The height of this natural bea-wall enables an uninterrupted view of the Indian Ocean to be obtained from it through a \vide arc over the tops of the coconut palms g'l'owing on the flat gromH1 between it and the present-day high water mark. At J\aole-a modern successor to the village destroyed by the patriot Bushiri bin Salirn in 1889-a pathway diverges from the road, desc:ends the abrupt escarpment of the old coastline and crossing a belt of rna!'shy ground, beautiful with water-lilies, leads to the remains of an ancient graveyard. These monuments of an earlier invasion than ours comprise (a) two ruined mosques and (bl a series of some twenty or more tombs all of which are in various stages of disrepair and, what is of special interest, are of different ages. As has been mentioned, the site occupies a slight but definite rise in the ground, a "whale baek" the configuration of which makes it appear likely that it was once either an off-shore island or a sand-bank, dry at all states of the tide. In view of this and the purpose to which it has been put, it is not unreasonable to suppose that this was once a "holy island" of Islam, a place of honoured sepulture for those Moslem venturers who were among the earliest immigrants to these shores. 'l1he remains of wh:1t evidently is the older of the two mosques (subsequently referred to as mosque "A") are found towards the north-western end of the site. The walls and vaulted roof of the rnbir-ilw (the annexe devoted to ceremonial ablutions at the entrance of the mosque) are still standing intttct (see illustration 1) while adjacent may be seen the well whence centuries ago worshippers drew water for their religious cleansing. Much of the side walls and the whole of the roof of the main structure have collapsed and their fragments lie in a confused heap on the earth-obscured floor of the mosque. An examination of some of these fragments seems to indicate that the building had a flat roof. Apart from the rnbirika there are no traces of vaulting supported by pillars, the doorways having simple square lintels which rested on wedges of stone cemented at an angle into the walls on either side. What, for convenience, may be termed the (ecclesiastical) "west" wall is still standing,

PAGE 123

Flg. 1

PAGE 124

Fig. 2 Fig. 3

PAGE 125

Note on Some Ruins neat Bagamoyo 107 supported by a massive buttress the outer slope of which is fashioned into steps (probttbly to enable the muezzin to gain access to the roof) but this wall is badly craeked and before long no doubt it also will fall. 'l'he kibula (Arabic, mihmb) or recess at the "east" end-strictly that end of the building nearest Mecea-is still standing and there are traces of what appears to be an inseription on its vaulting. Near by are several tombs, the most imposing of whieh (tomb 1), evidently that of someone of importttnee, is Hhown in illustration 2. A wall of coralline limestone, probably of loeal origin, approximately four feet six inches in height, surrounds the grave
PAGE 126

108 Tanganyika Notes and Records -------------------------------------------------Again, the placing of the bowls on the sunwa,rd side of the stele may indicate Persian influence. 'rhe shallow recessed panels on the outer face of the head-wall on either side of the base of the stele are of considerable interest. These recesses frame thin slabs of white coral worked to a high degree of smoothness a,nd beautifully engraved with what appear to be eulogistic epitaphs or pious texts. Owing to the softness of the stone, however, which has weathered to the crumbling flakiness of dried whitewash, these inscriptions are now almost completely indecipherable but sufficient traces remain to encourage squeezes being taken. 'l'hey appear to be of later elate than the mural tablet already mentioned, their delicate script being more cursive and less conventionalized. Along the upper rim or architrave of each recess runs a repeating "tau" pattern similar to that seen in Arabic monuments elsewhere, notably in the Hadhramaut. It is .not easy to fix the elate either of this tomb or of mosque "A" with n,ny degree of accuracy. One would like to assume that they are relics of the seventh century and of one of the earliest Moslem contacts with Africa but, dilapichted as they are, their condition makes it questionable whether they are quite so old. It is interesting to notice that the main features of this tomb have been to a greater or less extent copied and modified by the men who raised the neighbouring ones. 'l'hus, on the other and presumably later tombs, one observes a progressive shortening of the stelm, scarcely any two of which are of the same height though all are shorter than that of tomb 1. It may be that this shortening represents an economy of cost and effort by those responsible for the entombment, but whatever the reason, the stele eventually became reduced to the dimensions of the "Prince of Wales' feathers" type of monument seen on the two dark-coloured tombs in the foreground of illustration 3. 'rhese apparently are of later date than tomb 1. Not only has the stele all but disappeared but the memorial panels are replaced by diaper pattern decorations similar to that sometimes seen in Early English Gothic. Illustration 4 shows a development of this idea of memorial panelling. 'J;'he rectangulation seen in the illustration is formed by oblong blocks of finely dressed coral that in colour and texture resemble white marble and which are stuck on to the cement-smoothed inner surface of one of the surrounding walls of a simple tomb contiguous to the "east" end of mosque "A". Evidently the rectangular recesses thus formed once contained obituary plaques. In view of the small size of the compartments (nine feet by six feet) these may have been encaustic but it is more likely that they were similar to the inscribed marble panels seen in tomb 1. In any case no trace now remains of them. It is interesting to speculate whether and to what extent the small lattice moulding seen in the top right corner of the head-wall of the central tomb in illustration 3 is derived from this applique stonework. Mosque "B", which, as has already been noted, is almost certainly of later date than mosque "A", lies towards the south-eastern end of the site.

PAGE 127

Fig. 4 Fig. 5 [to face paye 108

PAGE 129

N ate on Some Ruins near Bagamoyo 109 Its ruins have been tidied up and in part restored. Illustration 5 shows the kibula and part of the "east" wall, subsequent to restoration, and also the bases of the pillars which supported the roof. No doubt this was vaulted and triple domed as is the ruined mosque at Kilwa Kisiwani and which mosque ''B'' so closely resembles that it is not unreasonable to surmise that these two buildings are contemporaneous and possibly the work of the same builder. As in the case of mosque "A", the well near mosque "B" may still be seen, but only the foundations of the mbirilw remain. In conclusion, it is to be observed that this note is the result of a brief visit only and time, unfortunately, did not permit of a more detailed examination being made or of accurate measurements being taken. It seems likely, however, that some trenching and excavation on a quite modest scale would be sufficiently fruitful ofresults to make such an enterprise worth while.

PAGE 130

110 Tanyanyih:a Notes and Records Voyage de Marseille au lac Tanganyika en 1902 via Mozambique et lac Nyasa By Sister Rose, des Soeurs Missionnaires d' Afrique Soettrs Blanches J E PAH/l'IS de 1\Iarseille le 3 Juin, 1902, a bord d'un vieux bateau allemand, le Bundesrath, qui hisait son dernier vo.yage. Deux autres Soeurs Blanches et deux Peres Blancs s' etaient en meme temps que moi. Ces trois Soeurs Blanches sont encore vivantes aujourd'hui, et elles travaillent sur les bords du 'l'anganyika. Les deux sont morts depuis deja plusieurs annees. N ous fimes une premiere eHcale a Naples et' comme le bat eau devait y -:harbonher, no us en profitames pour visiter un peu la ville. N otre seconde escale fut Port Stti"d. Dam; le cours du voyage le bateau s'arreta aussi a Aden, Mombasa, 'l'anga et, le 8 .Jnin, il arrivait a Zanzibar. Comme le Bundesrath devait aller a Dares Salaam et revenir h Zanzibar, nous reslames la a l'attendre, et les Soeurs de Cluuy ehez tjUi now.; logions, nom; firent visiter la ville et les euv1rons. 2 .Juillet 110UH remontlnlleS Slll' le Bundesmth qui fit escale a Quilimane. JJit encore nons deseend]mes et nous allfunes voir les Soeurs de Cluny. Ces braves Soeurs voulment nous faire un cadeau : deux paires de dindons qui furent mises en c.ages et que nons emportltmes jnsqu'au Tanganyika. Il y avait la une bonne vieille Superieure que tous les enropeens connaissaient et qu'ils ctppelaient "Mere 'l'res-Chic." Elle nous gata litterallement, et de toutes les manieres. DeQuilimane le bateau nons arnena en face deChinde. La, on nous descendit dans des corbeilles et nons fumes Mposees dans un petit bateau qui attendait le::; voyageurs et
PAGE 131

Voyage de Marseille au lac Tanganyika en 1002 111 Nons voguames sur le Zambese pendant quatre jours. Le bateau s'arretait tous les soirs 1111 peu avant le coucher d11 solei!, et nous en profitions pour faire une petite promenade a terre. Sur les deux berges du fleuve il y avait des crocodileH en quantit(\. U n passager, un chasseur, en tira plusieurs. On put me me hisser une de ces betes sur le pont du batetw, et le chasseur voulut se faire photogra.phier devant son trophee. Pour une plus grande "mise en scene" il resolut meme de se faire photographier avec un pied clans la gueule de !'animal. Mais comme les marins essayaient d'ouvrir les m[whoires du croco trvec un baton, ce dernier donna Lm coup de queue qui produisit, parmi les nombreux spectateurs, 1111 vrai "sauve-qui-peut." Pourtant, !'animal n'ayant plus don !le autre signe de vie, la COnfiance fin it par He retabJir, et la photo fut prise .... mais Rans le pied du ehasseur clans la gue11le du croco. Nons quittames la Queen h Chiromo. Vu son tonnage un peu fort, ce bateau ne ponvait plus aller plus loin, le niveau d' eau du fleuve ne le permettant pas. Nons resti1mes a Chiromo deux jours pom attendre nn bateau plus petit, et a fond plat, qui devait nons conduire juRqn'au Shire. Dans cette riviere les eaux etant encore beaucoup pluR baRses que clans le Zambese, notre petit bateau devait souvent obliquer a droite et ir gauche pour cviter les petits monticules de sable de ci et de lir au milieu de la riviere. Ac:sez sonvent le coup de g-ouvernail n'Mait pas donnc a temps, et le btrteau allait donner du nez dans le sable. Il fallait faire alms machine en arriere, Inais quelcjuefois la machine, malgre tons ses Mforts, n'arrivait pas a nons "depanner." Alors tout l'equipage sautait a l'eau et venait an secours de \a. machine. A Chiromo nons passameR la nu it ehez une brave famille danoise. J-1e matin, an moment des adieux, l'une d'entre nons oublia son casque dans eette maison hospitaliere. Mais bient6t un boy de nos htJteR arriva a notre poursuite en toute viteRRe, nons apportant le casque qu'il temtit bien haut, comme nn flambeau, au bout d'un long baton. De Chirorno nons arrivames a E:atonga, mais la il fallut mettre pied a terre : nons Mions clans le voisinage de petites chutes qui, sanR avoir la reputa,tion mondiale de celles dn Niagara Oll dn Victoritt, etaient pourhmt assez puissanteR pour dire a notre petit bateau: "tu n'iras pas plus loin." Mais l'African-]:;aes
PAGE 132

112 Ta,-nganyika Notes and Records -----------------------------caisses, chacune de nous se proposant de faire, pour son propre compte, au Tanganyika, nn autre petit Blantyre. Un brave anglais, qui voyageait avec nons depuis Blantyre jusqu' a Matope, avait un chien magnifique anquel il tenait beancoup, et ce chien devint meme eomme la mascotte de toute la carav;tne. U n jour, nn leopard tnwersa la route que nous suivions. I1e brave chien, n'eeoutant que son instinct et son courage, se lanya a sa poursuite, mais, d'un eoup de patte, le leopard lui fit une profonde blessure a la cuisse. Nous pansames aussit6t la plaie sur laquelle nons mimes un bandage fait d'apres toutes les regles de !'art. Le soir et les jours suivants le pansage etait eonsciencieusement renouvelle. N ous par lions ensuite sou vent de ee brave chien, et chague fois nous faisions des souhaits pour son complet retablissement. Arrivees a Matope nons nons embarquames des le soir et nons allames jusqu' .a Fort-Johnston. Cette ville etait tout a ses debuts, seulement quelques maisons comme a Blantyre, mais eo m me a Blantyre egalement les anglais avaient vu la, grand, et de belles et larges routes etaient tracees. N ous etions alors au prmnier Aout. J e le repete : a tons ces nombreux points de depart et d'arrivee nons n'avions qu'a nons laisser faire; partout J' African-Lacs s'occupait de tout et tres bien. De Fort-J ohnston nons fUmes eonduits au lac N yasa par le motor-boat de l' African-IJacs. Nons voyagefnnes quatre jours sur le Nyasa. Souvent nons voyions des hippopotames qui venaient ronfler tout pres du bateau. Le lac fut tres mauvais, et le mal de mer, auquel nons avions ern dire
PAGE 133

Voyage de Marseille au lac Tanganyika en 1902 113 brousse .T e me rappelle que pour entrer dans ces villages fortifies il nous fallait, non ::;eulement nous baisser, mais ram per a quatre pattes. Toute la nuit un grand feu bnllait clans le camp pour eloigner les fauves. Ce feu etait loin de nons incommoder car la temperature sur ces hauts plateaux etait tres fraiche, surtout pendant la derniere partie de la nuit. 'rrois jours avant d'atteindre Kala-mais deja nous avions aperc;u, a deux ou trois reprises, les eaux du 'ranganyika, but de notre voyage-nons arrivames aux chutes du Kalambo-une vraie merveille comparee aux petites cascades que nom: fwions vues sur le Shire, et les plus belles, dit-on, apres les chutes du Vidoria Falls. 28 Aoflt. !lOllS ctions a Kala, mission que je n'ai jamais quittee depuis .Tamais je n'ai revu ni Marseille, ni la France, ni l'Europe. Toutes les inventions moderues qui ont surgi en civilises depuis trente-cinq ans, je ne les eonnais que par oui-dire, et lorsque j' en en tends parler j 'ai bien du mal i1 me les reprcsenter. Pourta,nt, durant ces dernieres annees, j'ai vu une demi douzaine survoler le Tanganyika, au large de Kala. C'est du haut du ciel rJue j'espere contempler toutes ces merveilles dont on m'a parle. QuELQUEs DATEs CHIWNOLOGIQUEs. 13.3.1857: Burton et Speke decouvrent le lac Tanganyika. 12-14.9.1876: L'Association Internationale est. fondee a Bruxelles par le Roi Leopold II. Elle subsite de 1876-1884. 24.2.1878: Depart des premiers Peres Blancs pour le Tanganyika. Ils y arrivent le 29 Janvier, 1879. 1.10.1884: La Societe de Colonisation Allemande se fonde et envoie Peters clans l'Est-Africain. Presque a son arrivee Peters pmclame le protectorat allemand sur les provinces voisines de la cote. 12.6.188;): Le Sultan de Zanzibar, Sai:d-Bargash, qui a re<;u notification du demembrement de la cote du Zanzibar, se fache et refuse de reconnaitre le protectorat allemand. 1.11.1886: Traite de Londres: accord entre l'Angleterre et l'Allemagne relativement aux Etats du Sultan de Zanzibar et a la ligne de partage clans l'EstAfricain. A la suite de cet accord, constitution, a Berlin, de la Compagnie Allemande qui se substitue aux droits de la Societe de Colonisation du 1.10.1884. 16.8.1887: Salves d 'artillerie qui saluent le drapeau allemand arbore sur quatorze ports de la cote. L'Allemagne a !'administration du domaine du Sultan de Zanzibar et la regie des clouanes, jusqu'au 17.16.1890, date de l'accord Anglo Allemand relatif a Zanzibar. 6.R.1890: Emin-Pacha, deux ans apre.s avoir ete secouru et ramene a la cote par Stanley, s'engage au service de l'Allemagne et devient Gouverneur de la colonie. 29.7.18\JO: Emin-Pacha arrive a Tabora. 4.8.1890: Les Arahes de Tabora acceptent le drapeau all em and des mains d 'Emin Pacha. 9.11.1890: Proclamation, a Zanzibar, du protectorat anglais sur cette ile. 1.1.1891: Les territoires cedes par le Sultan de Zanzibar a la Compagnie Coloniale Allemande passent sous l'autoriM de l'Empire. Nov. 1890: Fondation de Bukoba. Oct. 1893: Le Lieutenant allemand Sigl prend possession d'Ujiji. 9

PAGE 134

114 Tanganyika Notes and Records --------------------Anti-Locust Measures Memoirs By R. C. Jerrard MUCH valuable data has been collected and written regarding anti-locust measures, dealing mainly with hatching, eggs and egg-laying, hoppers, adults, life history of the red locust, how to distinguish between the red form of the tropical migratory locust, their natural enemies, and so on. This information is admittedly of the most profound importance. There is, however, another side to the question and that is the all-imporhmt one of persuading the local natives to deal efficiently and willingly with such swarms. It is all very well to be told how to deal with invasions of the migratory locust such as flevv across the territory from the north-east to the south-west in October 19:32 or the swarms of the red locust which literally poured into the territory from the north in November 1933 but, however good the advice and however painstaking those appointed to deal with them may be, the success of any such undertaking must depend mainly on the open and willing assistance of the natives themselves, since without them little can be achieved. Exchanges of ideas, and records of the methods employed in various provinces would, I think, be of considerable value in dealing with future invasions, should they reappear, at the same time greatly enhancing the value of the biological reports. It is with this object in view rather than the desire to rush into print that I venture somewhat timidly to place the following on record. As already stated, a large infestation of the red locust (Nomadacris septmeasclata Serv.) from the north along the Zambezi river began to enter the territory in November 1933. By January 1934 they arrived in the Muheza area of the Tanga district and it is no exaggeration to say that they laid in practically every part of this area on a front of some twenty-two square miles. The natives themselves at that time were saying, "Loo! hao sio nzige tena ila baa," meaning that this invasion was more like a serious epidemic than a locust infestation so great were their numbers. I was duly appointed a locust officer and I have to admit that the task did not look a particularly easy or pleasa,nt one. I first called in the jumbe mkuu also the other jnmbes and headmen from the twenty-two areas concerned and gave them detailed instructions as to what was to be done, such as searching for and digging up eggs and beating hoppers. The vital necessity of persuading their people to tuin out for this work was duly impressed upon them ; this was important as the organization of the anti-locust campaigns is in the case of natives in the hands of native authorities, headmen and jumbes, directed by European officers in the event of large infestations. I quickly discovered that the natives were not turning out in anything like the numbers required if their work was to be of any material value. Consider able time was then spent by the jumbe mkuu and myself in training gangs

PAGE 135

A M ea,sures M emoirs 115 .... ,., --------------------------in the best methods to be used in dealin g with the locu st, and from these trained men I despatched two or three to eac h of the areas, to train further g
PAGE 136

116 Tanganyika Notes and Records shouts of joy would resound when one of them was duly reprimanded by the inspecting officer for being on parade with a fine large npongoo which on inspec tion was discovered to have a large or hollow in the business end. I must admit that I, too, got a lot of fun and amusement out of it. The natives soon began to know the numbers of the various companies remarkably well and this was of considerable help in sending late-comers to their correct posts. Often in the evenings after a good day's vita (war) I would wander into the villages and discuss results with my by then tired lads, summing up the merits of the various companies, laughing over numerous amusing events of the day and, where possible, stimulating renewed interest for the following day's battle. The result of all this was that over a period a five months seventy thousand natives in the Muheza area turned out to work on locust duty (excluding school children and mission boys), and I am sure that the locusts, in spite of their overwhelming numbers, must have agreed that my trained army of natives was not so contemptible after all ; in fact so good were they that not a single flying swarm escaped from this area and very little damage was done to crops.

PAGE 137

Story of the Origin of the Name of Bandar-es-Salaam 117 A Story of the Origin of the Name of Bandar-es-Salaam, which in the old days was called Mzizima By M oTwenna H aTtnoll NoTE.-This story is translated chiefl y from a typescript belonging to Pazi Deg e lubozi bin Mlawa, ndewa of Mmumbo who states that it was written down at his dictation and that he was told it b y his father, and partly from verb a l versions of the same tale given by various Zaramu natives and amended and added to by Ali bin Said, an Arab of Dar es Salaam who, according to his own statement, first came here more than seventy years ago and personally knew most of the people mentioned herein.-M.M.H. A '1' 'l'HE of. this sto. ry yw chief men of M zizima were the leaders 1-\. of the Shomv1 elan*-h.ttembe, Gungulugwa, Tambaza of Zalala, Chomvilali and Abdallah Usisana; and a half-bred Arab, Said bin Abdallah, son of Abdallah Marahubi, a wealthy Arab of Zanzibar and his slave concubine, birdi Nyaganyaga, daughter of Pazi Nyaganyaga, half-brother of Pazi Degelubozi of the Pazi dan. Said bin Abdallah's position as a man of high standing in Mzizin:ia is explained by his dose kinship on his mo ther's side with the Pazi and the fact that they in cornmon with the Shomvi had good reason to remembe r his birth, for on that occasion they h a d shared between them a present of three thousand nale (twelve thour:;and r:;hillings ) sent them by Abdallah Marahubi, whor:;e first son was Said bin Abdallah In addition, Said bin Abdallah was a friend and favourite of the then Sultan of Zanzibar, Said Majid (1856-70) In those days there lived where Sea View now stands a rich Banyan merchant named Mamula, whose son Mtoro committed adultery with Mwatatu the daughter of Kitembe. 'l'hey were surprised and caught in the house and Mwinyisheh e, the girl's brother, took the boy Mtoro and strangled him. When Mamula the Banyan diseovered the murder of his son he took M winyishehe to Said bin Abdallah and laid his complaint before him saying, "Mwinyishehe bin Kitembe has strangled m y son." Said bin Abdallah asked Mwinyishehe, "Why did you do this?'' 'l'o which the son of Kitembe replied, :'Are not my commands mere ly a child's orders? Why should I have strangled him? I know nothing about it." 'rhen said Said bin Abdallah, You ordered a man to be strang led for no r easo n. This is a l aw less country I shall go to Unguja (Zanzib ar) to eonsult with Said Majid.'' *The Shomvi were the ruling clan of the coast, the Pazi the ruling family of the hinterland. Since the time when the Pazi under their leader, Pazi Gurajazi, had come to the assistance of the Shomvi by defending the in vading Kamba and banishing them from the country, the Shomvi, though they still ruled in their areas, tacitly acknowledged the supremacy of their ally and pair! yearly tribute t o the Pazi.

PAGE 138

118 Tanganyika Notes and Records Said bin Abdallah departed immediately and when he reached Said Majid he said to him, "'l'here is a fine cmmtry." "Which country'?" asked Said Majid. '' Mzizima.'' "Who lives there?" ''Firstly, Kitembe and his family, sewndly, Gungulungwa and 'l'ambaza and thirdly, Shomvilali, Palalugwe, Zalala ancl Abdallah U sisana,. 'l'hese are the d1ief men of Mzizima," replied Said Lin ALdallah. The sultan was interested and said, "I will go to this country to see it for myself." So Sai_d Majid set sail in a three-masted sailing ship (manchen) and came to Mzizima, where he anchored outside the channel. He sent Said bin Abdallah ashore in a rowing boat to summon E:itemLe and his Shomvi kindred. Said bin Abdallah gave a letter to I\itembe and informed him and his relations, "Said .Majid is here and calls you to him. He cannot come into the channel so he has sent for you and all your male relations.'' The Shomvi obeyed the summons and when they arrived Said lVIajid said to them, "I have sent for you on my arrival here because I wish to settle in your country." lVI winyimkun Chimba stood up and answered, "We do not want you to live in our country." But Kitembe said, "That is not right. It is our duty to let him settle here if he comes in peace.'' Said Majid fin cling that opinion was divided decided to leave the Shomvi to themselves, saying to Said bin Abdallah, "'l'ell them to go to their homes now and think it over and later call them together again ; but every one must be present when they give me their answer." Said bin Abdallah constituted himself the emissary of Said Majid and advised the Shornvi, "Do not refuse him admittance; allow him to live here in peace.'' Which advice they eventually agreed to follow. 'l'hey returned with their answer to the sultan, who was pleased and said to them, 'Now I am going ba,ck to U nguja. Later I will return and bring my people to build in your country." And he departed with Said bin Abdallah. On his return he sailed right through the channel into the harbour. Sai_d bin Abdalbh and many Arab soldiers were with him and also a carpenter named Baruti wadi Saburi. Kitembe wtts sent to summon the Pazi Kilama, Sultan Degelubozi and Nyaganyaga and their children and grandchildren and all the triLe of the Zaramu. When they were ail assembled Baruti wadi Saburi the earpenter made the coffee of peace before beginning to build houses of stone in lVIzizima which was not yet called Bm1dar-es-Salaam. Said Majid stayed several months, during which time there was much feasting, and he gave gifts of every kind to the Pazi and Shomvi. 'l'hen he sent for all the Arabs who had followed him and sa.id to them, "Plant the seeds* which I shall send you from Unguja and till my land in this country which I now love, I, Said Majid. Its name shall be called Ban dar-es-Salaam i *Coconuts. tSaid Majid copied Haroun-al-Rashid, who named Baghdad "Dar-es-Salaam," because he tnok it without any bloodshed.

PAGE 139

Si;ory of the Origin of the Name of Bandar-es-Salaam 119 -----(the port of the haven of peace) because I took it peacefully, I did not fight with the Pazi nor with the Shomvi. I am pleased with the Pazi and the Slwmvi." 'J'he Pazi and the Slwmvi replied, "We also are pleased because you and your people live here in peace and do not quarrel with our people." They adopted the new name and the country prospered. One day Said Majid sent for Kitembe and publicly enquired of him about the death of Mtoro saying, "I have heard that your son Mwinyishehe bin Kitembe strangled Mtoro the son of Mamula the Banyan. For thisMwinyishehe must be imprisoned because he made trouble in the country of U zaramu by strangling
PAGE 140

120 Tanganyika Notes and Records The Pain of Individualism By T. M. Revington THB EUROPEAN is an individualist and the tribalized African has as yet little conception of his own personal entity. In the words of Oldham and Gibson in The Remaking of Africa: "In contrast with the disastrous atomization of western society, native society in Africa still possesses an organic unity. In the life of the family, the clan and the tribe, men remain bound to one another in mutual obligation.'' In other words whereas the actions of a European are visited upon his own head those of an African ripple outwards, like the water when a stone is flung into a pond, bringing into their orbits many members of the family, the clan and the tribe. If this is an exaggeration it must be admitted that many others are directly interested in an African "cause" than merely the several protagonists and their nearest relations. Hence the intense local interest in what appears to the European to be :m insignificant matter brought to him for decision. 'l'he individualism of laws imposed by the European and the "monism of European judgments stupefy and bewilder the African brought up to different ideals. He is aghast that a clan member should be cut of from the tribal life for a period and be unable, say, to attend such an important event as an initiation ceremony or a marriage in the elan, or a planting festival. By his law a compensation would have met the case and the delinquent's work would not have been lost to the tribe. How efficient would be crime prevention-that ideal of administration-were it possible to accept the old tribal law and eustorn of communal punishment. So strong is the communal sense, even in detribalized areas in Tanganyika, that it is seldom that the individual p:tys a, fine himself, it being found almost invariably by his family, friends, dance society or fellow workers. The African still feels an overwhelming fear when hel.d personally responsible for a fine, as must have a Briton in the first century when punished by the conquering powers in defiance of the custom that ''the price of a life or a limb is paid not by the wrong-doer to the wronged but by the family or house of the wrong-doer to the family or house of the wronged.'' The "organic unity" of the family and the tribe has other responsibilities. A government elerk working with the writer resigned a well-paid post suddenly. He refused to give any adequate reason for what-to a have been a very serious step. Some few months later he accepted re-employment in the same district at one-third of his former salary and on being pressed stated that whilst his relatives to the "N"th degree knew that he was in receipt of a high salary many of them lived on him. To escape this unavoidable imposition he accepted a lower salary in a job which he knew would entail much travelling. Should this reason appear to be puerile it should be remembered that whereas

PAGE 141

The Pain of Individualism 121 Europeans will gather together for social reasons for a few hours Africans pass days in a like social manner. Quite recently a native court fined a man heavily for having refused house room to a belated traveller; he was only allowed to sleep in the outer porch. During the night the stranger was mauled by a lion and the court found the householder responsible for his guest's hurts. 'rhe judgment was fundamental in the African coneeption and there vvas no appeal lo.dged Yet a third instance of the etiect of the virus of individualism has just come to the writer' s notice. A Sukuma man recently sold to another an excellent piece of cotton land the use of which t.he seller had enjoyed for some years; the sale was l[Uashed by the chief as the field disposed of could not by tribal Jaw change hands in this fashion, a fact which both parties must have known. A feather in the wind of individualism. Individualism is, of eourse, not eomplete. A transition period must always be uncomfortable and chaotic as the effect of the ol.d order and the new are both felt at once; whilst the Sukuma is now held solely responsible to the chief for his own actions he is not permitted to sell his house on leaving an area but must ha_nd it over to his headman whose property it is by tribal custom. 'l'bat he does so without complaint illustrates the malleability and flexibility of the Bantu. It may not be long however, before he will rebel against the "half-and-half" eustoms in force and claim the right to sell the work of his own hands. This instance of hardship may not be the fairest example as_ it is t he custom for houses to be built communally so that the tribe has some claim to them although the oecupier will have assisted others in a like manner from time to time. 'l'rees planted by the individual revert to tribal ownership when the planter leaves the ehiefdom or area in which he lived; he has no rights in them if he goes elsewhere and must leave them intact. He may not even cut them down for building purposes in his new area. rrhe English law holds a man responsible for the safe passage of his friend in his car after centuries of individualism, and awards the passenger damages if hurt; whereas it would be logical to suppose that the state would punish a man for not taking proper eare of his own body by failing to select an efficient driver and not allow him compensation for harm caused by another. Pure individualism is impossible in the nature of things-in Africa or Europe. 'l'he African administrator suffers daily owing to the inability of the African chiefs and peoples to assimilate the individualistic doctrine as opposed to the indigenous ''organic unity.'' rrhey' the people' are suffering from political indigestion which can only be cured by the pills of education and the exercise of considerable patience by both parties. rl'he African foundations are sound but must always be hidden ; the building in course of construction cannot-hence the necessity for patience and care to ensure that the imposed super-structure is in keeping with the nature of the base; it must be neither unduly rococo nor foreign; festina lente muRt be our motto.

PAGE 142

122 Tanganyika Notes and Records ---NOTES German Storks at Kiberege By G. lVI. Culwick /I 11 11 IN 'l'HE last week of January storks began arriving at I\iberege from, it is a north-easterly direction. At first there we.re only u few dozen wheelmg over the larger cleanngs, but m the course of some days they had in huge numbers, spreading themselves over all the villages from Kiberege to lfakara at least, a distance of twenty-two miles. How much further their occupation extended we have no information. Day after day they wheeled endlessly over the cleared land, or ttlighted to make war on the grasshoppers and other pests by which cultivators were sorely lmrasse.d at the time. rrheir numbers must have run into a good many thousands, for as ma,ny as two hundred could be counted circling together over one shamba while many hundreds more were on the ground. One morning shortly after their arrival, an Indian picked up the mutilated corpse of one lying in his sharnba, killed by some marauding animal during the night, and on its leg he found a, ring which he brought to the Boma. It has been duly returned to the address it bore : VoGELW ARTE, Hos SITTEN, GERMANIA. More recently he sent up a,nother clawed corpse, this time ringless, and to-day a solitary stork walking about on the Boma hill was cautiously approa,ched by a messenger, who got near enough to see that it was ringed. 'rhere seem to be only a few about now and the main body has passed on, in what direction we do not know. I regret to say that my sharnba (garden) was apparently the only one unhonoured by these welcome visitors and that every dudn (insect) in Africa seems to have taken refuge there. Indonesian Influences in East Africa By A rthur E. Robinson THE BEAD trade between India and East Africa is probably the most ancient foreign trade known in that part of the continent. It existed probably at least a millenium before the Christian era. Recent archD?ological discoveries in northern India which have been published lately in The Illustrated London News diselose the fact that agate and cornelian beads were manufactured

PAGE 143

Indonesian Influences in Easl Africa 123 there and exported to Sumer. 'l'his export trade in beads at a time contemporary with the lndns civilization is indicated in the las t paragraph of the paper "Cambay and the Bead 'rrade," published by Mr Arkell (Antiquity, September 19:3G). Mr Arkell has given an historical outl in e of the trade and illustrated it by eight photographs of specimens. He has deseribed the present methods of rmmufacture which diff ers materially from tbe ancient processes. It may interest readers to know tlutt worn :-;pecirnens of these bead s discovered durin g the middle of the las t eentury were co n s idered to be of Egyptian origin. (+laRR beads l!lade in India, w e re di Rcovered by Miss Caton 'l'hompson a t and other sites. In another paper, "Some 'l'nareg Ornaments and their Conne ction with India" (Journal of the Royal kntltropological Instittde, LXV, December, 1935), Mr Arkell. has illustrated certain form s of pendants and other ornaments worn by the '1\mreg. 'l'here are numerou s illustra tions, including a, similar type of pendant worn from the upper pa,rt of the ear by the Garo Garo hill p e ople of Assam. '.rhe views of Mr ]'. Renne l Hocld n.nd Mr Arkell r egarding the ongms of tile "t:dhakim" or "Agades Cross" are dealt with fully in the text.

PAGE 144

1'34 'Tanganyika Notes and Records BOOKS REVIEWED "A Pmvisiunnl Suil Map of Enst Africa," by G. Milne, East African Agricultural Research Station, 1986. 'l'hirty-four pages, map and bibliography. This map, which includes Uganda, Kenya and Tanganyika 'l'erritory, and is accompanied by concise but useful explanatory notes, forms an important contribution to the regional geography of East Africa. The author brings a modern olltlook and training to bear in a branch of science that has expanded and developed t::uch :>ince the beginning of the present century .Progress anu development at the present time demand surveys of many kinds and the results [Jrovide a variety of nwps without which no sound regional review of the complex relationships of a country's conditions and resources is possible. 'l'he suite of maps necessary for this study in East Africa is still very incomplete. 'l'his map and the population map by U. Gillman are definitely the two most outstanding contributions in this direction which have appeared recently in this part of Africa. 'The author breaks practically new ground and his task, with the information available, and the area to be covered, was a formidable one. Great credit is due to his efforts and the manner in which he has presented his results. Classification in many branches of science has been subject to much variation aecording to the predominance given to particular features or factors. 'l'his is particularly the case with soil classification according to the importance attached to climate, physiography, geology, etc., in relation to soil origin or formation. 'l'he basis of the present classification is largely, but not entirely, morphology, which has nlllch to say in its favour, as it is based on present form and position rather than on some other factors the recognition of which may be obscure. At the same time their influence is not overlooked. Thus the major groups include: (1) desert soils, (2) saline soils, (3) plains soils, (4) black and grey clays, (5) mottled clays, (o)red earths, non-laterized, (7)red earths, laterized, (B) plateau soils, (9)podsolized soils, (10) lithological types. These are again subdivided into sub-groups. The boundaries of soil types like those of most other natural regions such as vegetation, climate, etc., are usually ill-defined and therefore a large amount of time and detailed examination are essential to map accurately areal distribution. This was clearly beyond the scope of the first inquiry, but after distinguishing the major groups and their subdivisions the difficulty ,of representing these on a map without actual boundaries was overcome in a very ingenious and useful manner by adopting a method defined as the Catena. The result has a novel striped appearance aptly described as the "pyjama pattern," which at first sight gives the impression of alarming complexity, but, on closer acquaintance resolves itself into a most useful and flexible method of representation. Its use is fully described in the text, but briefly, it achieves the depicting of the various soil types which form a soil complex for a given area by a combination, in a definite order, of the stripes which represent the individual types. Thus the Usukuma Catenn indicates a soil complex composed of red earths on granite hills, plateau soils on extensive footslopes and calcareous black clays in depressions. 'l'hus the essential soil types for a given area are indicated in general whereas it would have been impossible to attempt a map showing boundaries of individual types.

PAGE 145

Books Reviewed 125 This work stands high as a special geographical study, but the agriculturist will be disappointed if he expects to find guidance with regard to particular soil problems on his small estate. 'fhe broad foundations of soil science only are applicable on a map of this scale. The answer to individual problems is to be obtained only by detailed systematic soil survey requiring sufficient field staff and laboratory support, which the author justifiably hopes may be included in some future plan.-E.O.T. "The Wilderness of Zin," by Leonanl W nnlley and T. E. Lawrence, 1936. This is a reprinted edition of a report by the late Colonel La:wrence of a superficial archmological survey of Sinai during a period of six weeks prior to 1914. The writers consider that stone-age man did not inhabit the district. The earliest period for flints found is given as the Byzantine. The oval scrapers were used to shear sheep and the Arabs cut their hair and toe-nails by flints which they discarded. The earliest cairns are elated to the middle of the seeond millenium B.C. It is possible that the statement (p. 36) "that at no time since man first settled in this land has the rainfall been appreciably greater or more regular than now" is open to question. The report on Esbeita which was not abandoned until the twelfth to fourteenth century is of considerable importance. This town was not encircled by a. wall. It was similar to many ruined and mud built towns in Africa. The houses were enclosed by walls (hoshes) and the streets were fe\v. Water was conserved by cisterns. Few wells found. During war time the ends of the streets leading out of the town were closed by walls. The eity then became what was virtually a walled town. Fig. 16 illustrates a headpost similar in pattern to the minarets and domes of Persian and Indian mosques. 'fhese headposts for gates or gTaves are frequently described as phallic. They are found in Christian and Moslem buildings of a religious character and are not evidence of a contemporary phallism. Those at Abda and Esbeita are dated at about the sixth centurv A.D. and seem to me to be merely survivals of a previous type of architecture or local development of the classical ball and pillar headpost. At Abda there ate ruins of a great pillared temple dated second to third century B.C. which is surrounded by Nabatean tombs. Inscriptions to Aretaz were found at Khalassa (Elusa of the Romans) which was founded in the second century n.c. There are numerous illustrations of tombs, graves (rectangular and circular) and the l'Uins visited. It is interesting to note that the modern graves are placed near water for the purpose of the angel\; inquisition.-A.E.R. "Tanganyika Memories: A J1ldge in the Red Khanzu," by Gilchrist Alexander, a former Judge of the High Cowt of Tanganyilw. Blackie and Sons, Dtd. 10s. 6d. 'I'hose residents of 'I'anganyika Territory who recall Judge Alexander's term of office as a High Court Judge will recapture a great deal of his genial personality in this attractively-written volume of reminiscences. During the course of his official duties, Judge Alexander had travelled widely throughout the territory in the days when it was gradually recovering from the effects of the great war. A keen observer of men nnd things, he committed to memory his many experiences, of which the present happily conceived book is the outcome. Tanganyikans past and present-and more particularly those especially associated with Dar es Salaam-will recognize within these pages a number of people, places and incidents, which recall to the mind the early days of the territory's development under the British Administration.

PAGE 146

12(i 'l'anqany ika N ot.es and Becords In addition to the descriptive uwtter and valuable cmmnents which Judge Alexander offers to his readers, the book contains a number of chara.cteristie anecdotes which give to it a pleasantly intilllate flavour. Illustrated with some of the
PAGE 147

Books Reviewed 1'27 The history of West Coast agriculture is followed from its simple beginning ac; nn ancient type of subsistence farming until the present day, when it is changing rapidly into an agriculture of small-gro'Aers. The present and future prosperity of the country must depend on her ability as an agricultural producer, and this is impaired by the clanger of social disintegration. Suggestions for improving the present state of farming embrace the following: firstly; a form of co-operation to weld the scattered producers and to treat and market crops; secondly, an approach to agriculture by the wise teaching of biology in schools-teaching directly from natural objects; thirdly, the use of experimental farms and other forms of demonstration by experts. Indirect rule is shown to have an important bearing upon the subjeet in that it affords a gradual training in those qualities of discipline, responsibility, and self-reliance, that are essential in the development of an organized, self-supporting people. The value of the book is increased by the inclusion of a section containing notes on the bibliography quoted.-M.A.C.J. PUBLICATIONS. The Editor acknowledges the receipt of the following publications:"Some Cl-eographical Controls in East Africa," by C. Gillman. (The South Africun Gnogmphical .Journal, Vol. XV.) "'l'he Mbosi Meteoric Iron, 11anganyilm Territory," by D. H. Grantham and k Oates. (The Mincmlogic:al Magazine, Vol. XXII, No. 133.) "Some Hecent Oriental Coin Acquisitions of the British Museum," by John Walker. (The Numismatic Ohronidc, Fifth Series, Vol. XV.) "The Coinage of the Second Saffarid Dynasty in Sistan," by John Walker. (Numismatic Notes nncl Monogmphs, No. 72. The American Numismatie Society.) "Ban tu Studies." 'l'hc Uganda .!o1l1'nal (Journal of t,he Uganda Society) .Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society. 'l'he African Observer. United Empire (Journal of the Hoyal Empire Society) .J ourna.l of the Royal African Society. Bulletin of the Worlcl Econornic Archives of Hamburg .Jou.rnal of the Royal African Society. Dc1dschc Kolonial-Zeitung (Journal of the Deutsche Kolonial Bibliothek, I}erliu ). WisNcnschaftlichc V croffcntlichungcn des Deutschen Museums fiir LiindeTlwndc zu Leipzig (Journal of the Deutsche Museum fur Liinclerkunde, Leipzig) .Journal de la Societe des Africanistes (Journal of the Societe des Africanistes, Paris). Kolonialc Rundschn1t (Journal of the Geographisches Institut der Universitat, Berlin).

PAGE 148

128 Correspondence CORRESPONDENCE I Editor, Tanganyika Notes and Records. Dear Sir,-I wonder if any of your readers could give me some information regarding the origin and antiquity of the Arab doors which are to be found on many parts of the East African coast and, oceasionally, up-country. I may say that so far as I am aware no mention is made of them in Burton's Zanzibnr. Yours etc., R.S. 'l'he Editor, 'l'anganyilw Notes and Hecords. Dear Sir,-I am at present working on a series of notes on African weapons. Some of these might be of interest to your readers. It would be better, however, if you eould manage to persuade some one in Tanganyika to take up the matter. Detailed measurements are essential and sketches to scale of great importance. Weights of each weapon and, in the case of spears or arrows, the numbers carried must be stated. Further, the teehnique of the rnanufacture, mounting or hafting, forging or cutting from blanks is most neeessary. You can use this letter as an appeal or inducement to yom shy contributors if you desire.-Yours faithfully, ARTHUR E. HoBINsox.

PAGE 150

/