Citation
Inscriptions of Pagan, Pinya and Ava

Material Information

Title:
Inscriptions of Pagan, Pinya and Ava
Creator:
Burma. Archaeological Department
Forchchammer, Emanuel
Place of Publication:
Rangoon
Publisher:
Superintendent, Government Printing, Burma
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
186 s. : ill.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Inscriptions, Burmese ( lcsh )
Burma -- Pagan ( lcsh )
Burma -- Pagan Region ( lcsh )
Burma -- Pagan -- Pinya ( lcsh )
Myanmar -- Mandalay Region -- Inwa ( lcsh )
Genre:
Government publication
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Myanmar -- Pagan Kingdom -- Pinya
Asia -- Myanmar -- Mandalay Region -- Kyaukse District -- Inwa
Coordinates:
21.172222 x 94.860278
21.866667 x 96
21.85 x 95.983333

Notes

General Note:
Translation, with notes.
General Note:
Reprint of an 1892 Burmese edition
Biographical:
E. Forchhammer, government archaeologist, Burma.
General Note:
Ava is now known predominantly as Inwa

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
367888 ( ALEPH )
192352473 ( OCLC )
EM15 /4521 ( SOAS Classmark )

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Full Text
INSCRIPTIONS

OF

PAGAN, PINYA AND AVA.

TRANSLATION, WITH NOTES.

RANGOON:

PRINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRINTING, BURMA.

1899.




( 3 )

hist ry of Burma, and it bears evidence of learned and careful
editorship. But there is still room for much improvement, and it
would be well if the Archaeological Department could undertake
the publication of an edition revised in the light of the present and
several later collections of inscriptions. Queen Pwa Saws inscrip-
tion, erected at the monastery built by her in Thawati quarter,
Pagan, and inscriptions Nos. 15 and 16 found at the Shwezig6n
Pagoda, Pagan, the Tetnw£gyaung and other inscriptions erected in
Bodawpayas reign (17811819), have also been used as models
of high literary style.

Burma SECRETARIAT: |

30 th January 1899. f

Tun Nyein.




INTRODUCTIOW.

The inscriptions translated in the present volume were collected
by the late Dr. Forchhammer, Government Archaeologist, since
1886, at Pagan, Pinya and Ava, the ancient capitals of Burma.
They were edited by Mr. Taw Sein Ko, who for some time acted
as assistant to the learned Archaeologist. Five of the inscriptions
being in Taking have not yet been deciphered for want of compe-
tent assistance. The volume was made over in 1892 to Mr. Taw
Sein Ko for translation during his term of leave in England, but un-
fortunately nothing was done owing to ill-health and other duties,
and at his suggestion I took up the translation last year.

The oldest inscription in the present collection bears date
B.E., corresponding with A.D. 1084. The language of this and
several other inscriptions of the same and the following century is
considerably archaic and pal geographical peculiarities are numerous.
There is sufficient material in this collection to trace the evolution of
the Burmese alphabet from the eleventh century down to the present
time. For instance, oqcpu the Burmese word for Buddha, passed
through fifteen distinct stages during the period named before
attaining its present form, thus:


( 2 )

The present form has been in vogue ever since Bodawpaya's
reign (17811819 A.D.), a reign noted for literary culture.

The alphabet itself is of Indian origin. Mr. Taw Sein Ko, in his
Notes on the Kalyani Inscriptions, page 13 (c), says that Inscrip-
tions of the eleventh and twelfth centuries have been found at
Pagan whose palaeographical development is clearly traceable to
the Indo-PAli alphabet of Kanishka (vide Cunninghams Corpus
Inscriptionum Indicarum,Plate XXVII), and not to the South
Indian alphabet of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty of Kalinga (vide
Burnells Elements of South Indian ,Plate IV), from

which the Talaing alphabet was undoubtedly derived.

Many of these inscriptions are the outcome of the impetus given
to religion and letters by Anawratas conquest of Thaton in the
eleventh century. Anawrata took with him captive to Pagan the
Talaing King Manuha and family, and a large number of his sub-
jects and dedicated them all as pagoda slaves. Several of these
slaves are mentioned by name in the inscriptions, and there used to
be whole villages of them in the Pagan district as some of the place
names there clearly testify. These people Being originally Talaings
and captured enemies, it is easy to understand why they are uni-
versally looked down upon throughout Burma. They feel keenly
the social ostracism and contrive by every means in their power to
conceal their origin and descent. They have accordingly committed
such acts of vandalism as the demolishing of many of the smaller
shrines to which they were dedicated, and broken down, obliterated
or removed several lithic inscriptions.

Most of the inscriptions are religious: they contain grants of land
and slaves to pagodas, caves and monasteries. The boundaries of
the grants are, in the majority of cases, imperfectly defined, and
many of them have since reverted to the State. Some of the
inscriptions which are of historical value have been utilized in the
compilation of the different Mahayazawins, the latest compilation,
namely, the Hmannan, compiled in Bagyidaws reign (18191837),
specially referring to three of those in the present collection.
This Mahayazawin is generally accepted as the most authentic






INSCRIPTIONS

OF

PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

TRANSLATION, WITH NOTES.

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN.

I.Found at the Shwezigon Pagoda.

[Inscriptions numbered (i) to (7) have not been deciphered.
They are in Taking.]

The first 44 lines of Inscription No. (8) are in Talaing-Burmese
and have not been deciphered.

Line 45 to end (five lines) : On Monday the 11 th of the month
of Tabaung 611 SakkarAj (1249 A.D.), I dedicate Nga Pyi, his
younger brothers Thin Gyan and another, and Thupubyit Nga Nyo,
to the Sig6n* Pagoda.

No. (9).Obverse.

Locality.South-east corner of inner wall of pagoda.

Date.751 SakkarAj (1389 A.D.).

Substance of inscription.Bestowal of rewards upon the builders of
and dedication of lands to monastery.

Being apprehensive of....................., this (monastery) with the

three-tiered porch was built on the full-moon day of Kason 751 Sak-
karAj ................It was painted white within.....................The

builders were bounteously supplied with provisions and were rewarded

abundantly for their labour....................To the west of the Shwe-

zig6n Pagodaf.................The monastery was adorned with several

white flags and banners. KunalankA,]; the architect, was rewarded

* This word in itself means.a pagoda or stupa enshrining some sacred relic ; hence
Shwezig6n signifies golden pagoda.

t The Hmannan Yazawin and Cetivamsa agree in saying that this pagoda was built by
Anawrata in 1059 A.D. to enshrine a tooth, the frontal bone and collar bone of Gautama
Buddha.

X Gun&lankira. The name evidently of an Indian architect.


a

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

with a............., a female slave, a salver with lid and stand, a

cow and two pieces of turban cloth; and Tahe Thuyan,* the wood-
carver, received............pieces of white cloth, a salver and

stand, a cow and a goat. For the maintenance of the presiding
monk of the monastery during the 5,000 years of the Religion, a

golden bowl weighing 622 ticals, 30 pieces of silver,...........

a handsome pony, and, with the consent of His Majesty Siritribhava-
nAdipavarapanditadhammar&j&.t 30 of may ini land situated at
Magyigan were dedicated to the monastery. (The carpenters were
rewarded with) 10 ticals of silver and three goats each. Two clerks
demarcated the land, whose boundaries are as follows:

EastA large tamarind tree and a nat temple.§

SouthA large hnanbi tree.

WestLand belonging to Nga Taung We and Thin T6n.

NorthKantetwet land.

The boundaries were marked with stone pillars. The clerks who
demarcated the land were rewarded with five ticals of silver, a large
brass tray and a quantity of liquor. To the Mahdthera (o8) of
Minddn were given the lands of that village, 33 ticals of silver, a sal-
ver with stand and a tray with cover. Nga Th6n Thin, the village
headman, received a large brass tray and a large bowl. Five ticals
of silver were given to the four carpenters Chit Hla K6 Pa, Nga

Pauk Hla Pa, Chit Ya U Pa, and Ein Hla Ya Pa....................

(The headman and carpenters were also given) a tray and stand.
A large bullock and 13 jars of liquor were given to the villagers,
their headman and the four carpenters ; and the headman and
carpenters received suits of clothes besides. A large number of
people partook of the feast.

For this my good deed may I, on the advent of Metteyya,||
become an excellent Rahan, freed from concupiscence and all

carnal ties . .........may 1 be enabled to make offerings with

a mind as clear and calm as the sky at dawn ; may I be possessed §

* ooGoooqq^n

t King Narapatisithu.

% A species of early paddy cultivated on alluvial lands, along river banks and in
silted-up lakes.

§ These temples or sheds are still commonly met with in the districts under large
trees and in grave-yards; and they show that Buddhism has not yet entirely superseded-
the ancient nat or devil worship. Periodical nat festivals are still held by all classes all
over the province, especially among the Talaings, and in cases of sickness and pesti-
lence the nats are invoked and propitiated by weird dances accompanied with offerings
in the shape of rice, cocoanuts, plantains and other eatables. Liquor is freely imbibed by
the spirit mediums at these festivals.

|| The coming Buddha.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA. 3

of great power and might, majesty and glory, beauty and birth;
may I also be possessed of such vigorous health as would enable
me to minister to the wants of Metteyya, thereby securing to me
the means of salvation. Prior to the advent of Metteyya, and while
being tossed about in the sea of transmigration, may 1 be free from
all lusts of the flesh and evil desires, and be able to observe the
laws of asceticism............... [The continuation on the re-

verse has not been deciphered because the letters have been nearly
obliterated.]

No. (io).

Locality.North-east corner of Shwezigfin Pagoda platform; within
the inner wall.

Date.643 SakkarAj (1281 A.D.).

Founder.Queen Asaw.* *

Substance of inscription.Dedication of lands and slaves to pagoda.

Reverence to the Blessed, Holy and Enlightened One 1

ON Monday the 7th waxing of Tagu 643 SakkarAj, Queen Asaw
offered 100 pis^ of rice-land called Mdktabetswe and 10 bullocks
to the monks, headed by her spiritual Mentor, the Acalo Mahdthera,
who was also preceptor of the king. The Mahdthera enjoyed the
produce of the land for eight years and died. Before his death he was
presented with 200 pis also of irrigated rice-land south of the Shwe-
zigdn Pagoda and known as Chinthemaya, together with a broom,
three bowls, one lion-shaped stand and one lota. Five pagoda slaves,
namely, Nga Pon She, Nga SatTi, Nga Pon Daung, Nga Shan
and Yami Gyi, were directed to look after the pagoda. Out of the
produce of the 100 pis of land let a daily offering of three pyis j of
rice, three lamps and three quids of pan (betel leaf) be made to the
Buddha. Let my nephews Pyinnyanyanathiyi (PannAfiAnasiri) and
Pyinnyayathi (PannArAsi) represent me in making constant offerings,
and let the five pagoda slaves do their bidding. Let my two nephews
also collect the produce of the rice-lands.

* This queen was a commoner, who was raised to the throne for her beauty and intelli-
gence by 7 next king Kvawzwa.

t One pe = 175 acres.

j Pyi = ^ basket. This offering is a remnant of nat worship. The notion of endow-
ing objects of worship with material appetites is clearly one of the traces of Animism, and
is foreign to Buddhism, which did not recognize idolatry during the early centuries of its
existence. Its receptivity, however, and its readiness to adopt the forms of worship and
the superstitions of its converts, is notable.^ In Burma and Siam most Buddhists are
also nat worshippers and firm believers in witchcraft and other primitive superstitions. In
China and Japan the Buddhist converts are adherents of Confucianism, Taoism and
Shintoism also.


4

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

In ratification of the deed of dedication, water was poured on the
ground by the queens mother, and the queens two nephews were
formally declared to be her representatives. Instructions were also
left with Tannatpi, head pagoda slave of the CulAmani Pagoda, and
with Thinmatamanneik. Let my three slaves Thinwaramagonna,
Oktamanyanagdnna and Yakalanyin safeguard the interests of my
benefactions. May he who injures my pagoda, lands, or slaves be
burnt at the bottom of the nethermost hell,* and may he be preclud-
ed from adoring the successive Buddhas to come. But whoever
appreciates my good deed, may he share equally with me the merit
that has accrued to me. Let (this inscription) be placed in the old
Sigfin monastery.

The royal preceptor poured water on the ground in ratification of
the deed.

No. (ii).Obverse.

Locality.North-east corner of the Shwezigon Pagoda platform;
within the inner wall.

Date.546 Sakkar&j (1184 A.D.).

Founder.King Narapatisithu.

Substance of inscription.Dedication of lands and slaves to the
Shwezig6n Pagoda.

Adoration to Omniscience 1

When King Narapatisithu, bearer of the title Siritribhavan&ti-
tyapavarapanditadhammar£j&dhir&j&, lord of 39 white elephants and
an army of 17,645 soldiers, the acknowledged suzerain of all chiefs,
the mighty and powerful ruler of the territory bounded on the west
by Patikaya.t on the south by Kwetkyi, on the east by Sapipati.J
and on the north by Kadunawgyi and the tract where fire burns on
water, made a progress up the river, the royal barge stopped of its
own accord at Kokkan-Paunglaung and the kings helmet fell off.
The king then demanded an interpretation of the omen, and Shwe
In Dauk informed him that lands should be dedicated to the pa-
goda of the locality. Accordingly, on Thursday the 3rd waxing of
Tazaungmon 546 Sakkar&j, a piece of land having the following
boundaries was dedicated : south by Tada-u, north by Sittawa, south-
east by the sank tree to which the royal barge was moored, north-
east by a tindipara tree, south-west by a fishery, and north-west
by the place where the royal helmet fell off. The land measured
50 p&s, and the produce thereof was to be utilized in providing daily

* Aviciliterally (suffering) without intermission,
t Chittagong,
j Panthay territory.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA. g

rice-offerings and lights at the pagoda. Five slaves, five lamps,
and five copper lotas were also offered to the pagoda.

May all creatures inhabiting every region, from the uppermost
heaven to the nethermost hell, share with me the merit accruing from
this my good deed. During the course of 5,000 years* prescribed for
the continuance of the Religion, if any of the kings, ministers, nobles
or freeborn persons safeguard the interests of this my good deed, may
they share equally with me the merit accruing therefrom; and fur-
ther, may they enjoy long life and increased might and power. But
during the same period, if any of the kings, ministers, nobles or
freeborn persons destroy or injure the effects of my good deed, may
they be precluded from the enjoyment of long life and happiness,
and of increased might and power; and further, may all their under-
takings be doomed to failure; may they be subjected to the eight
forms of punishment; and may they, on their death, suffer in the four
hells. In the kalfas to come may they fail to adore the Buddhas,
and may they be precluded from the attainment of salvation under
the guidance of any of the Buddhas. And finally, may they be
doomed to suffer as charred pillars in that hell which is assigned to
confirmed and hopeless heretics.

Reverse.

Date. 743 Sakkar&j (1381 A.D.).

Founder.Wathe Thugyi and wife.

Substance of inscription.Dedication of lands, toddy-palms and
slaves to the Shwezig6n Pagoda.

Adoration to Omniscience I

In the year of the Religion 1925, corresponding with 743 Sakka-
r&j, the thugyi of Wathe f conceived a feeling of reverence to the
Shwezigdn Pagoda, and of fear in respect of the sufferings of -
saro ; and in order that he might be relieved from such sufferings,
he dedicated the following to the pagoda: Nga Kin Maung, a male
slave, to represent himself, Ein Byu, a female slave, to represent his
wife; a bullock, a cow, a piece of land at Alfegan called Palaungo,
another called Kano at Sape, a third at Einsisin called Mahagdn,
a fourth at Chauktaung called Kalangan, together with the toddy-
palm trees growing thereon.

This popular limitation has recently been controverted by Mr. Taw Sein Ko in his
Notes on the Kalyani Inscriptions [vide note (19), pages 16 and 17].

t The date of this inscription corresponds with the 13th year of Minkyizwasawk&s
reign (13681400 A.D.). It is recorded that several thugyis were then appointed by the
king to eat various towns and villages; and the Wathe Thugyi was evidently one of
these and not a mere revenue collector like the present day thugyis.


6 INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

Representatives of my wife and of myself have thus been ap-
pointed to .minister to. the pagoda. For performing this good deed
with my wife, I pray that the king, ministers and nobles may always
hold me in high esteem. May the prime minister and his wife
and other ministers and nobles share with me my merit. May my
parents by whom I was begotten, my uncle and my other relatives
who are in Government service or otherwise, also share with me my
merit. By virtue of the merit accruing from this gift, may I in my
future existences be not deformed, blind, leprous, crafty or wicked,
or be born as a bondsman; and, in my present existence, may I not
fall into a condition of poverty or wickedness. And when I pass
away, may I be born as a Veshya or Brahmin devoted to the Three
Gems. Further, on again passing away, may I be born as a superi-
or human being able to succour all others, both human and celestial,
from the sufferings of samsaro. May those who destroy my good
work suffer in the avtci hell, and even if they are again born as
human beings, may they always be destitute of food and raiment.
On the other hand, may those who safeguard my dedication equally
share with me the merit accruing therefrom.

NO. (12).

Locality.At the southern porch of the Thate-Mokku Pagoda.

Date.595 Sakkar&j (1233 A.D.).

Substance of inscription.Apparently dedication of lands and
slaves to some pagoda or monastery.

[A few words only in lines 18 have been deciphered. They
indicate that certain lands and slaves were dedicated to some pagoda
or monastery on Thursday the 5th waxing of Tabaung 595 Sak-
karAj.]

No. (13A.).

Locality.At the western porch of the Thale-M6kku Pagoda.

Date.559 SakkarAj (1197 A.D.).

Founder.Seya Thate.

Substance of inscription.Apparently dedication of lands and
slaves to some pagoda or monastery.

Adoration to the Buddha, Dhamma and the Samghal

On Thursday the 7th waxing Pyatho 559 Sakkaraj, the year

called Sayhata Samvacchora, Ceyya Setthi and.....................

[Enumeration of the names of slaves dedicated.]

[No. (13B.) and No. (13 C.) are a continuation of No. (13A.)
and contain a list of the slaves and lands dedicated.]


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINY A, AND AVA.

7

No. (14).

Locality.North-east corner of the Shwezigdn Pagoda ; within the
inner wall.

Date.71821 Sakkar&j (134659 A.D.).

Founder.Nurse Mathiragasa.

Substance of inscription. Dedication of a village, rice-lands and
toddy-palms to some pagoda apparently.

On Thursday the 7th waxing Tazaungmon 718 SakkarAj, the year
of Krataik, MathAragasa, Nurse of Queen Saw,* was staying at
M6kletti, attending on King Kyawzwa, the lord of white elephants,
and his Queen Saw, when she, in the presence of the royal minis-
ters Thamantabyit, TakkhanA and Chinbo, presented their majes-
ties with 100 fine mats and solicited a boon. Their majesties
were accordingly pleased to dedicate the Thaman village with a
view to enable the building (?) to last during the 5,000 years of the
Religion. The revenue of the Thaman village amounts to 350

ticals of silver................. The dedicated palm groves are

bounded on the north by two mango trees, on the south by Taung-

zin, on the east by the................... Aungyaung stream, and

on the west by Thiyamyein...................

May the merit accruing from this my good deed be shared by
their majesties the king and queen and by their royal fathers.
May those who safeguard the interests of my dedication equally
share with me my merit. May all beings, including men and nats,
inhabiting every region extending from the highest heaven to the
lowest hell, likewise participate in this merit. May those who
injure my gift be excluded from the privilege of adoring any of the
Buddhas in the worlds to come; may they suffer in the four states
of punishment; and if they are ever reborn as men, may they be
destitute of happiness, power and long life.

* This is not the consort of Narathihapade and Kyawzwa, but the Chief Queen Saw-
Anma of Kyawzwangfe of Pinya. She was the youngest granddaughter of Kyawzwa of
Pagan and was also known by the name of Onmadandi. She continued to occupy the
position of chief queen during the reigns of the two successive kings Narathu ana Uza-
nabyaung, brothers of her first husband, as well as in the reign of the next king Thado-
minbya. On the return of this last king from a military expedition to Sagu, he was
stricken down at Sw&gyo, in Pagan, with an attack of small-pox. He then sent for Nga
Nu, a minister, and strictly enjoined him with his dying breath to put her to death, say-
ing that he could not entertain the idea of her becoming the wife of another when he had
passed away. Nga Nu accordingly took the queen in a boat up the river with the
intention of fulfilling his masters behest; but, in an unguarded moment,-4ie disclosed
his errand, and the aueen appealing to his manly sympathy, succeeded in prevailing
upon him to land witn her at Ava and install himself as Governor. The couple sub-
sequently moved to Sagaing, but they were not long left in peace. Soon after the
accession of Minkyizwasawkfc to the throne on the death of Thadominbya an expedition
was sent against Nga Nu. The expedition was headed by Nga Mauk, a minister
known by the title of Yazathingyan and elder brother of Nga Nu, who had the promise of
the king that, if he were successful, he would be rewarded with the hand of Sawdnma.
Nga Mauk captured kis brother by stratagem, but secretly sent the captive away. He
brought Sawdnma to the capital and the king kept his word. Sawdnma was thus the
wife of four kings and two ministers, enjoying extraordinary long life and prosperity.


8

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

On the 5th waning of Nadaw 721 Sakkarij, Pinngwe Ein Lat,
Nga Hn6k and wife, and Sa M6 U were purchased and dedicated to
the (pagoda). For the purpose of making a daily rice offering .

Locality.In a cave at the north-east corner of the Shwezigfin
Pagoda platform; within the inner wall.

Date.727 Sakkar&j (1365 A.D.).

Founder.King Thadominbya.

Substance of inscription. Dedication of lands and cultivators to the
Shwezigdn.

On Tuesday the 5th waning of Nw&da* of the Tharawun (Sara-
vanna) year 727 SakkarAj,King Thadominbya,t who adores the Three
Gems and is a zealous promoter of the interests of the Religion,
proceeded down the river to Sagu.J When he arrived at Pagan,
the king made the following offering to the Shwezigdn in order
that the Religion might flourish during its prescribed period of

5,000 years : namely, the State paddy-land in Myingbndaing known
by the name of Pyinnaukkya-Puletthaik. It is to be worked by the
undermentioned cultivators in the proportion indicated : Nga Kan
Tu, 3 pis; Nga Pya Daung, 3; Nga Pya Daung Myit, 1 ; Nga
Shun, 5; Nga Shun Daung, .; Mdnthayan, 4; Nga Naung
Ngfe, 5 ; Yiru Milya,$ 5 ; Nga P6n. 5 ; Nga Naing Ngan, ; -Nga
Myaung, 5; Innet Ngb, 1; NgaLu Gyi, 5 ; Nga Nyo, 1 ; Ein Taya,
5 ; Nga Taba, 1 ; Nga Pyan, 5 ; Nga Kywfc, 5 ; Thugyi Thara, 1 ;
Nga Kyan Ya, 2 ; Nga Tauk To, 4 ; Nga Pyi, 2 ; Nga Wet To, 3 ;
Nga U Yaung, 5 ; Nga Tha Yaung, 5 ; Nga S6n Lettaw, 15 ; Nga
Aung Byi, 5; Nga Pwa, 1 ; Nga Aung Pyi Byit, 1; Nga Myi, 5;
grand total 100 pis.This rice-land has not fallen into my posses-
sion because I was elected king by public suffrage, but was secured
by right of conquest in the interests of the Religion ; and this land
I do hereby dedicate. In virtue of this my good deed, may I,
during my present existence, overcome all my enemies and be
enabled to promote the interests of the Religion. §

The obsolete equivalents of the months of

Wazo

t Founded Ava in 1364 A.D.

{The expedition was organized with the object of suppressing the rebellion of Them-
kathu, Myoza of Sagu.

§ Evidently a native of India.

No. (15).Obverse.

Tazaungmdn ^

Wagaung

Tawthalin

Thadingyut

- are


9

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

Reverse.

And when I pass away to other forms of existence, may I become
the ruler* of the four islands and be able to foster the continued
existence of the Religion; and when I have once attained a position
of power and prosperity, may I never fall from my high estate.
May all beings inhabiting every region, from the highest heaven to
the lowest hell, participate in the merit enjoyed by me. Hereafter,
during the 5,000 years of the Religion, if any kings, ministers,
nobles, or freeborn persons safeguard the interests of my endow-
ment, may they share equally with me the merit enjoyed by me
through the performance of this good deed; and moreover, may
they live long and prosper. On the other hand, during the 5,000
years of the Religion, if any kings, ministers, nobles, or freeborn
persons injure or destroy my endowment, may they be deprived of
long life, happiness and prosperity, and may they meet with failure
in every undertaking; and further, may they suffer the eight kinds of
punishment and undergo torture in the four kinds of hell; and may
they be deprived of the privilege of adoring any of the Buddhas in
the worlds to come. Finally, may they suffer as burnt pillars in the
hell assigned to confirmed heretics who are beyond the pale of
salvation.

Out of the produce of 20 pis of the land let the pagoda slaves
make daily offerings of rice, and let the produce of the remaining
80 pis be utilized in repairing the pagoda, whenever repairs are

necessary; and if there are no repairs to be executed, let the produce
be utilized in providing other offerings to the shrine.

No. (16).Obverse.

Locality.About 200 feet north of the staircase of the ShwezigAn
Pagoda and outside the western face of the outer wall.

Date.737 Sakkar&j (1375 A.D.)

Founder.Pagan Myoza.

Substance of inscription.Erection of pagoda and dedication of
rice-lands and toddy-palms to it.

On Wednesday the 5th waxing of Kason of the Cissa year 737
SakkAraj, corresponding with the year of the Religion 1919, the
Thettawshef minister and his wife, being apprehensive of the dan-
gers of samsaro and desiring to do honour to the Religion during its

allotted period^of 5,000 years, constructed the western wall of the

* Chakravatin. . .

t One who is exempt from capital punishment. In this case it is the Pagan Myoza%
Prime Minister of Minkyizwasawkfc, King of Ava.

2


IO INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

Shwezig6n Pagoda, a lofty and massive kalagyaung pagoda with
pyramidal tiers, and also the Yad tRatan&cetiya). For
the maintenance of the pagoda and the monks, Paganmin Thet-
tawshe availed himself of the occasion of the visit of their majesties
the king and queen to the pagoda to apply for a piece of land,
and His Majesty was pleased to grant the application and to ratify it
by pouring water on the ground. The land is called Taukat, and it
is situated in the Kukan (Pakan) circle between Myinwin and LMya.
Its boundaries are north, the Natein hills ; east, a toddy-palm
grove; south, the river; and west, the Kyaukauk palm-grove and
a stone pillar now erected. Another piece of land is likewise de-
dicated. It is a piece of forest land situated to the south-east
of Singyo. Its boundaries areeast, a stone pillar east of the
Sinlin canal; south, the Teingyaung river; , a stone pillar wfest

of Nga Ky£ Chaing; north-west, Taungzin Thapin Wutlfcpa ; north,
Ngapwet-Ngapyet forest. The witnesses to the dedication are
His Majestys son Prince Sinbyuthakin, His Majestys son-in-law
UzanA, Pinld Anawrata, Min Theingapade, and Mahathaman, a sec-
retary. Upon the secretaries and freeborn persons who demarcated
the boundaries of the land suitable gifts were bestowed. An ele-
phant was given to Ingatheinga; a silver bowl weighing 20 ticals to
the Tetthe Thugyi; to Nga Kin Hla Thin and his son a pair of
buffaloes, a pair of bullocks, and 12 pieces of white cloth; to the
Kyunnwa at his* a pair of buffaloes, a pair of bullocks, two pieces of
black cloth, and five' pieces of white cloth of good quality ; to Nga
Ni Ng6 a brass tray, a piece of head cloth, and a bullock; to Nga
Taung Bu a brass tray and a piece of head cloth ; to the Sinbyuyin
Prince too ticals of silver; to the Thinthi Thugyi a silver bowl and
a bullock ; to the Kyunnwa Thugyi a gold necklace and a buffalo;
to Tetkana, the clerk, 30 ticals of silver, one buffalo, and two cows ;
and to the three men Aung Tha, Aung Thabi Sin and Ponmasin-
Ponmathein, 25 ticals of silver, 50 baskets of paddy, and 7 pieces of
loin cloth. "As a result of this my good deed, may I always be
charitably inclined towards Buddha, his law and monkhood in
whatever station I may be placed in life, and may I always be im-
bued with zeal in the observance of May those who

approve of this my offering share its merits with me.

Twenty-five bundles of gold-leaf were used in gilding the orna-
mental //{-rest; 100 glass balls for the ti, and 90 bundles of gold-
leaf for the pagoda itself. The following expenditure was further
incurred, namely, 30 ticals of silver for tiles, 35 for stones, 30 for

* Private individuals as opposed to service men or conscripts,
t Five commandments (lit. virtues),
j Umbrella, or cone which surmounts the top of a pagoda.


INSCRIPTIONS OR PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA. 11

mortar, io for jaggery cement, 35 for masons* wages ; four bullocks
for timber; too baskets of paddy, one bullock and two pieces of cloth
for carpenters wages; 100 baskets of paddy, seven pieces of cloth,
two turbans, and two bullocks for the carvers ; one bullock for
solder ;* 30 ticals of silver for the bricklayers; two pieces of cloth for
the blacksmith;

Reverse.

thirty ticals of silver and 10 pieces of cloth for the carpenters; 25
ticals of silver and two pieces of cloth for a marble statuef of the
king; 300 ticals for distribution among cripples. One thousand suits
of yellow robes, 500 bullocks, 1,000 goats, 5,000 baskets of paddy,
and 60 pieces of cloth were offered for the consecration ceremonies
of the monastery. An elephant was given to Thingayaza, 300 ticals
of silver to the painters, and 400 viss of blackwood varnish, 450 viss
of prepared vermilion, 400 viss of resin, 1,500 viss of crude vermilion,
10 ticals worth of lac, and four viss of solder were used in the con-
struction of the monastery.

The towns and villages granted me by the king are Pyagaung,
Kuntaung, Pinthi, Yangdn, Mying6ndamg, Myittha, Pyinmana,
Sale, Pagan, Salin, Pakanngfc, Taungdwin, Talok, and Paganddn.
In the last town I constructed a gilt monastery and appurtenances.
To the monastery at Sale I dedicated 1,000 of land known by
the name of Mibayakawzwb, and to the monastery at Salin I dedi-
cated 280 pis of land. The following are the offerings made by me
from my youth up, namely, 7,000 bins of paddy, 1,000 suits of yellow
robes, 1,000 alms-bowls, 1,000 kettles, 1,000 spittoons and filters,
100 kateinsX 2,000 bullocks, and 290 pagodas. By virtue of these
my meritorious offerings, may I always be charitably inclined to-
wards Buddha, his law and monkhood, in whatever position in life
I may find myself, and may I always be imbued with zeal in the
observance of the pancasila. May those who approve of my offer-
ings share the merits with me. This is my grandchildrens and
great-grandchildrens monastery.

No. (17).

[About half a dozen lines only, both on the obverse and reverse,
are decipherable, the rest being indistinct, and nothing can be made

* Required for fixing the ti in its rest.

t Statuettes of kings, queens, and nobles in gold, silver, and marble are enshrined in
many pagodas in company with any precious images or reputed relics of Gautama Bud-
dha which the founders of the institutions may have had in their possession.

X Wickerwork cones on which are hung different articles required for use in monasteries,
somewhat after the manner of English Christmas trees, and which are offered to monks on
the first full-moon day after the Buddhist Lent (JulyOctober).


12

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

out of them beyond the fact that the founder of the inscription was
a monk called Yunmingyi Sayadaw and that it was erected in 754
SakkarAj (1392 A.D.)J

No. (18).

Locality.North-east corner of inner wall of pagoda.

Date.757 Sakkar&j (1395 A.D.).

Founder. Anandathu, Prime Minister.

Substance of inscription.Dedication of pagoda, brick monastery,
thein f and tazaung and lands attached to them.

On Wednesday the 4th waxing of Wazo 757 SakkarAj, Anan-
dathu, the Prime Minister of his most pious and most glorious
majesty the King of Ava, the lord of the white elephant, being with
his lady Saw Shwe Einf anxious to avoid the miseries of samsaro,
and to promote the cause of the Religion during its allotted period of

5,000 years, constructed and offered a three-winged brick monastery,
an image cave 10 cubits in diameter and containing an image 3$

cubits high, and a four*storied thein (sima).....................

(19 lines).

No. (19).

[Almost every other line in this inscription has been obliterated,
but there still remains sufficient to show that it was erected in 813
SakkarAj (1451 A.D.) by Kaninawyata, a minister of King Narapati
of Ava, and that certain paddy lands were dedicated to the Aung-
myebontha Pagoda, west of Nyaungu village, Pagan. The stone,
which is far from entire, lies near the thein attached to the pagoda.]

No. (20).

Locality.In the cave at the north-east corner of the pagoda
wall.

Date.1130 Sakkar&j (1767 A.D.).

Founder.King Sinbyuyin of Ava.

Substance of inscription.Dedication of a ti or umbrella for the
pagoda and of vuttagan lands mentioned in former inscrip-
tions as being offered to the pagoda by previous kings.

* Place where Buddhist monks are ordained.

t Lesser Queen of Minkyizwasawkfe. She was one of the sisters of Thadominbya, the
founder of Ava.


INSCRIPTIONS OP PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

3

Reverence to the Blessed, Holy, and Enlightened One I

I ADORE at all times the Buddha, who has overcome the five
enemies; who has passed through the three periods of night in

This diagram represents a white umbrella, one of the emblems of royalty. The mode
of reading ot the text thereon is to proceed from se, the lowest letter, upwards to ro; then
start from dha, the one next below the topmost, to the right, and again from the same
starting-point to the left; and then do the same for the other two lines below. This
method has to be followed when reading the inscriptions on the bells belonging to the
Shwe Dagdn Pagoda at Rangoon. The text, when written out in exienso, runs as
follows:

Seta chattuttara dharo dhammiko sa dhanft dh&ro rato sive raham name taponnata-
taro pdram, *

which being translated means :

I adore the excellent Buddha, who possesses the most excellent white umbrella; who
observes the law; who is the promulgator and possessor of the doctrines of righteous-
ness ; who delights in the calm of Nirvana ; who is worthy of all adoration; and who has
by virtue of meritorious deeds gained the other shore.


i4 INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PlNYA, AND AVA.

continuous succession; who has the wisdom to perceive, like the
all-pervading celestial eye, the previous existences he has passed
through. His most excellent majesty the Emperor, who is as
resplendent in glory as the rising sun; who is the giver of excellent
gifts and possessor of untold wealth; who is the over-lord of all
the kings of the earth ; who is replete with every virtue; who is the
possessor of several ruby and other mines ; and who is able to sub-
due every enemy, has delighted his numerous subjects by making
an offering of a most excellent bejewelled at the most auspicious
moment, on Sunday the 6th waning of the moon of Nay6n 1130
Sakkaraj, corresponding with the year 2312 Anno Buddhae.

As the Thagyamin had so willed it, the graceful Shwezigdn
Pagoda stands well within the firmament which is the highway of
the winds. It was erected by the eminent Emperor Anawrata,f
who, in consultation with the Thagyamin, conveyed the sacred tooth
relic from the Isle of LankaJ and enshrined it within this sanctuary.

Having accumulated every virtue by the performance of the
three kinds of meritorious deeds § throughout the 20 asankkeyyas ||
and 100,000 kalpas*i of his series of existences, and having in his
last existence enjoyed for over 29 years, within three magnificent
palaces, the life of a king mightier and more glorious than the fa-
mous Mandatmin, ruler of the four continents of the world, our
Buddha assumed, on the banks of the Anawma river, the yellow
robes which were reserved for him from the beginning. After six
years of rahanship,** the preceptor of the three kinds of superior
beings, namely, nats, men and brahmas, approached the throne under
the banyan tree from the north-east, and having seated himself there-'
on, attained Buddhahood. A great concourse of nats then came
down to worship him. While thus seated with a highly contented
and serene countenance, he was, as it were, anointed lord of the
heavens and the earth, with maggo as his white umbrella; virtue as
the walls of his city; good conscience as the moat; wisdom as the
porches of the city gates; diligence as the ramparts and battle-
ments ; equanimity as the portals; vigilance as the gates; the
suttapitakam as the streets; the abhidhamma as the crossings;
the vinaya as the main roads ; and the four kinds of satipathdna
as the kings highway. Along the streets of this great city of Nir-
vana are displayed everything pleasant and useful for the inhabit-

* King of nats or devds, the Indra of Hindu mythology.

110171059 A.D.

J Ceylon.

}(i) To become Buddha, (2) for relatives, (2) for the world.

The numerical value of an asankktyya is 1, followed by 140 ciphers.

1T Worlds.

** Or probationary period of penance.


INSCRIPIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

*5

ants, namely, the virtues as various kinds of incense and flowers;
the sotdpatti and other phalam as fruit; the different kinds of pen-
ances and contemplations as drugs for the healing of every ailment
and for safe protection from all evil influences ; and large quantities
of valuable mixtures for the promotion of health and wealth, wisdom
and beauty. The suzerain of every kingdom and principality in
the whole universe, after having reigned in this fair city for 45
years, during which period he conveyed several converts to it, from
K.undinnya* down to Thubatta, and having contemplated the

20,600,000 jhdna, himself abode permanently in Nirvftna. Two
thousand, two hundred and ninety-five years after this event, or in
the year 1113 SakkarAj, the ruler of theTalaing kingdom of Raman-
nadesa, consisting of three states,f conquered Ava and deposed the
King Lokasarapucetiddyaka. Misfortune thus befell the Burmese
empire and the Religion commenced to decline. But in accordance
with the oracle of the Buddha subsequently recorded by the nats
and risht's, I,{ who had by the ceremony of water-pouring prayed
for strength to overcome every enemy in case I were predestined
to become an embryo Buddha, overthrew the Talaings and thus be-
came Defender of the Religion. At that time the Shwetaza Paya§
offered by King Narapatisithu indicated|| the place where the
capital of the Burmese Empire should be. Accordingly the City of
Ratanasingha^f was built, and Alompra erected a magnificent golden
palace there and occupied the throne for a long period and promoted
the cause of the Religion with fervent zeal. Great good fortune at-
tended his military expeditions, and the provinces conquered by him
included Panm6, Mogaung, Mohnyin, Moda, Momeik, Theinni,
Thibaw, Nyaungywe, Mon&, Moby£, Zimmfc, Kyaingtdn, Kyaingybn,
Kyaingthein, Toungoo, Hanthawaddy, Martaban, Tavoy, Bassein,
Myaungmya, Tilin, Kale, and portions of Siam and Cambodia. In
all these states the king encouraged the propagation of the Religion
and spent large sums of money and large quantities of jewels in
erecting pagodas, images, monasteries, rest-houses and other reli-
gious edifices. The sawbwas and were allowed to retain

their offices and their brothers and sons were admitted as courtiers. § **

* One of the first five rishis who heard the preaching of Gautama Buddha.

t Hanthawaddy, Martaban, and Bassein.

X Alompra (175360).

§ One of nine pieces of saga (champa) wood said to have been obtained by super-
natural agency.

|| It is related that this image was one day found to have faced round towards the site
of Shwebo, and that subsequently it would always persist in doing so in spite of repeated
efforts to replace it in its former position.

% Shwebo.

** Shan chieftains.


16

INSCRIPIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

The petty kings and rulers also were granted pieces of land and
residences befitting their rank. It was thus that Alompra during the
io years* of his reign promoted the interests of the state and the
welfare of the country, and then departed for the abode of the
in the same manner as the Mandat Setkyamin, who abrogated the
heritage of the whole universe in favour of his son and heir, being
desirous of prolonging his sojourn with the Thagyamin Devindra.
Accordingly, on the 8th waning moon of Nayon 1122 Sakkar&j, the
eldest son,f and heir-apparent of Alompra, donor of the Maha-
bontha monastery and the Kadwin Pagoda, ascended the throne
and continued to foster the cause of the Religion and the interests of
the people, after having suppressed rebellion and intrigue and adopt-
ed proper measures to preserve the integrity of the empire. After
enjoying the pleasures of this earth for a length of time,! but not
so long as to be weary of them, the king departed to the abode of
the nats. He was succeeded by his younger brother,§ the donor of
the Bbnzantulut monastery, on Wednesday morning, the 4th waning
Nadaw 1125 SakkarAj, corresponding with Anno Buddhae 2307.
The emperor was replete with wisdom, and with every virtue and
kingly attribute ; was possessed of tact and foresight, and was very
mighty. Within 17 days of his accession his most glorious ma-
jesty succeeded, where others failed, in conveying to the palace from
Haripungall the sacred hair and the four images called Brahisinga,
Candaku, Brakyan, and Brasin. His life on the throne was as bliss-
ful as that of the Thagyamin, but having the interests of the Reli-
gion at heart, he was always making either new charitable offerings
or renovating the old ones. As predicted by Gautama Buddha
that Ratanapura^f would one day become the centre of the Religion
and the capital of many kings able to promote its cause, the
emperor contemplated the removal of his capital there, and the
guardian nats of the Religion indicated by explicit signs and legends
their approval of the project. Accordingly, on Tuesday the 11 th wax-
ing of Tagu 1125 SakkarAj, the building of the city was commenced**
and was completed in a short time. The coronation ceremony took
place on Wednesday the 4th waning of Nayon 1126 SakkarAj,
when the Thagyamin and his nats came down and presented a full
complement of exquisite and correctly formed conch shells neces- § **

* Actually only eight. The language of flattery would, however, include both the
year of accession and that of death.

t Commonly known as Naungdawgyi or elder brother of Sinbyuyin.

X 19 years.

§ Sinbyuyin (176376 A.D.).

II Classical name for Zimmfe.

% Ava.

** More correctly, rebuilt and fortified, for Ava was originally founded by Thadominbya
in 1364 A.D.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

>7

sary for the occasion, and which is not given to every king or
emperor to possess. On Wednesday the 14th waning of Nay6n

1126 Sakkarij, the emperor ordered the erection of the Neikban-
seiku Pagoda, which stands on a piece of bonminettkan land
south-west of Shwebo, and directed to be enshrined within it several
sacred relics of Gautama Buddha contained in both plain and be-
jewelled gold, silver, ruby, and amber caskets. The pagoda was
designed to afford relief and shelter to the poor and the wayfarer.
High were the festivals held and lavish were the charitable offerings
made on its completion.

The whole of Candapurif and Lanzin (Linzin) were conquered,
and these states had to pay tribute in the shape of elephants, ponies,
gold, silver, and precious stones, and the sons and daughters and
other relatives of the chieftains had to come up and serve in the
palace. On Sunday the 8th waning of Pyatho 1126 Sakkar&j, the
emperor invaded Manipur. Hon, the surrendered his state

together with a tribute of elephants and ponies, and the emperor re-
turned with over 30,000 Manipuri cavalry men and several sons and
daughters of the sawbwa, whom he treated as prisoners of war and
retained in his service.* On Tuesday the 7th waxing Wagaung

1127 SakkarAj, the magnificent seven-storied golden palace, which
is 120 cubits high, was commenced and completed in a very short
time, like that of King MahApanAta, who invoked the aid of the
devds in his undertaking.§ Then on Thursday, the 1 ith waxing of
Tagu 1127, which is the anniversary of the installation of King
Duttabaung on the throne of Tharckittaya (Prome), the emperor
ascended his throne. In Thadingyut 1128 SakkarAj it was re-
ported to the emperor that the petty chieftains on the northern
borders of the empire had entered into an intrigue with the Chinese,
and that an army of over a hundred thousand Chinaqibn had come
as far as Zethitseik, Bhamo township, with intent to occupy .the
tributary states of Maingmfc, Sigwin, Hotha, Latha, Mona (Maing-
na) and Sanda. The emperor accordingly sent out an army to
meet the Chinese and succeeded in capturing all of them, together
with their arms and ammunition. On Thursday the 10th waxing
of Tagu 1128, the emperor sent an expedition to Siam under the
leadership of his generals, || annexed that country for the first time
to the empire of Ava, and obtained tribute in the shape of elephants,
ponies, gold, silver, and precious stones. Subsequently the famous §

* Literally, starting-point to Nirvana.

t Shan State of Maingldn, or the Laos States.

I There are still many descendants of these Manipuris in and about Mandalay.

§ According to the legend, Mahapanatas palace was seen growing up out of the
earth.

1 Myinwun Mingyi and Athiwungyi.

3


18 INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

pancalohd* gong, which Asoka had obtained from a Cingalese
monk and placed in a cave at Thaton with the prayer that it may
be brought to light during the reign of some sovereign gifted with
the ability to overcome every enemy and to promote the cause of
the Religion, was discovered and was duly presented to the emperor.
On Thursday the 5th waxing of Pyatho 1129 SakkarAj, the emperor
held his second coronation ceremony in emulation of Narapati and
Thalunmindaya of Ava, Alaungsithu of Pagan, Asoka of PAtaliputra,
and other eminent kings and emperors of old, and he was presented
for a second time with a full complement of genuine conch shells.
When the Chinese army which encamped at Zethitseik in Bhamo
township did not return, the Chinese emperor raised an army of over
three hundred thousand men and, under the'leadership of his ablest
generals, ordered the invasion of Ava in three columns by three
different routes, marching through Mowun, Kaungtdn, Maingmaw,
Theinni, Kaingma, and Kyaingy6n. The army was furnished with
war chariots, cannon, guns, rockets, bows, arrows, lances, and
various other kinds of offensive weapons and munitions of war. On
the nth waxing of Pyatho 1129 SakkarAj it reached the ears of
the emperor that the Chinese army had arrived at Kaungtdn,
Theinni, and Kyaingydn.f Two armies were accordingly sent out
under two ministers by different routes and the heretic Chinese
were utterly routed and large quantities of their arms and ammunition
were captured. Great festivals were subsequently held in celebra-
tion of the victory. At the most auspicious hour on Friday the 6th
waxing Wagaung 1129 SakkarAj, the capital was redemarcated
with a view to extend its limits and its perimeter then measured
2,443 tas.% The building operations commenced on the 8th wan-

ing of Tabodwfe 1129 SakkarAj, and were completed on the 10th
waxing Nay6n 1130 SakkarAj, that is to say, in 106 days.

Our present universe is the only one out of a hundred thousand
others which has the honour of being the birthplace of the Buddhas
who are the guides to NirvAna. There are in it four continents and
500 islands, and of these the Jis the starting-place to
NirvAna, and is therefore the chief continent. And in this con-
tinent the great empire of Ava is the greatest; because it is the
richest in gold, silver, ruby, amber and other precious minerals; be-

* An alloy consisting of five varieties of metals.

t History relates that the Chinese came up to the village of Bdkthetkebyin, which is
only about 8 miles from the capital, and that Sinbyuyin had to resort to stratagem to
overcome the enemy, that is to say, he despatched several detachments of troops by dif-
ferent routes to cut off the retreat of the Chinese and to waylay the supplies of pro-
visions for them.

X One fa = 7 cubits or io| feet.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINY A, AND AVA.

19

cause it comprises several tributary kingdoms,* namely Sunaparanta,
Tampadipa, Kampoja, Yonaka, Haripunca, Khemivara, KhemA-
ratha, Mahanagara, Zeyyavaddhana, Sirikhetta, Mahisaka, Alavi,
Ayuddhaya, T4malitti and the country of the Seins; and lastly, be-
cause it is the chief centre of the Religion. As for the emperor, he
is the suzerain of all the rulers of the earth, and the possessor of in-
numerable weapons of war, including the four monster cannon, each
measuring 12 cubits in length, 9^ cubits in girth, with muzzles
measuring 9 inches in diameter. The golden palace is situated at
the centre of the great city of Ava, which stands on the Minwun
hill at the confluence of the seven ? (6) great rivers, Samon, Sanma,
Panlaung, Zaya, Nayinzaka, and Irrawaddy. Within this magni-
ficent palace sits enthroned the emperor, whose glory and splendour
may be compared with that of the king of devds, and who is continual-
ly attended by a host of queens and concubines and maids of honour.
But the emperor never loses sight of the interests of the country
and the Religion, and the welfare of himself and his descendants in
this and all future existences. He has therefore repeatedly per-
formed several meritorious deeds and has consequently increased in
power and wisdom. Being actuated by a highly charitable dis-
position, the emperor has constructed several new pagodas, images,
caves, and monasteries, and repaired many old ones, and has thus
acquired much virtue; but he is still insatiable. He is always
eagerly longing to add to his merits by accomplishing some new
charitable deed. So the thousand-eyed with the as-

sistance of his devds, afforded the emperor a fresh opportunity of
indulging in his favourite pursuit by taking away, on Thursday the
6th waxing Kas6n 1130 Sakkar&j, the ti\ of the Shwezigon Pagoda,
which was offered by Kyanzittha, grandfather of King Alaungsithu,
in 432 SakkarAj, the pagoda itself being built in 421 Sakkar&j by
Anawrata, who enshrined within it the frontal bone relic and tooth
relic. The emperor gladly availed himself of this opportunity, and,
having employed a number of experts to compute the proper
weights and dimensions of the different component parts of anew
ti, offered his own valuable crown of refined gold, a quantity of
gold plate, flowers and nuggets, gold dust, silver and precious
stones, towards the making of the while the queen dowager $
and other members of the royal family also, wishing to partake of
the emperors merits, contributed a large quantity of jewellery.
Moreover, the ministers applied for and obtained permission to con-

* Cf. the classical names of these so-called kingdoms with those contained in the
Po-udaung inscription, lines 4045.

t It must have fallen down because of natural decay or an earthquake or a storm,
j Mahayaza Dewi, Alompras queen.


20

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND-AVA.

tribute refined gold nuggets and silver bullion. The construction
of the new ti was commenced on Saturday the 14th waning of
Kas6n 1130 Sakkar&j on the reserved enclosure in front of the
hlutdaw.

The ti is of iron, plated over first with copper and then with pure
gold. The central iron rod is 13 cubits long, 13 letthits* in girth,
and weighs 63*75 viss. The ti is composed of 11 tiers: the first is
made of 36*71 viss of iron, 8*938 viss of copper, 2*5285 viss of gold,
and is 10 cubits, 1 maikt and 4 letthits in circumference, and
2 maiks and 4 letthits broad; the second tier is made of 23*217

viss of iron, 6*703 viss of copper, and 2*237-viss of gold, and is
10 cubits in circumference and 2 broad; the third tier is

made of I5'368 viss of iron, 5*673 viss of copper, and 1*93 viss of
gold, and is 9 cubits, 1 maik and 4 letthits in circumference, and
1 maik and 6 letthits in breadth; the fourth tier is made of I2'i4
viss of iron, 4*498 viss of copper, and 1*236 viss of gold, and is 9
cubits in circumference, and 1 maik and 3 letthits in breadth ; the
fifth tier is made of 10*96 viss of iron, 3*686 viss of copper, and
1*182 viss of gold, and is 8 cubits and 9 letthits in circumference,
and 1 maik and 2^ letthits in breadth ; the sixth tier is made of 9*5
viss of iron, 3*351 viss of copper,- and 1*211 viss of gold, and is 7
cubits and 15 letthits in circumference, and 1 maik and 1^ letthits
in breadth; the seventh tier is made of 8*36viss of iron, 2*982 viss
of copper, and 1*51 viss of gold, and is 6 cubits and 18 letthits in
circumference, and 1 maik letthits in breadth; the eighth tier is
made of 7*51 viss of iron, 2*465 viss of copper, and 89^ ticals of gold,
and is 5 cubits and 18 letthits in circumference, and 1 maik and 1 let-
thit in breadth; the ninth tier is made of 3*96 viss of iron, 1*918 viss
of copper, and 68^ ticals of gold, and is 4 cubits and 9 letthits in
circumference, and 1 maik and 1 letthit in breadth ; the tenth tier is
made of 3*76 viss of iron, 1*58 viss of copper, and 53! ticals of gold,
and is 4 cubits and 3 letthits in circumference and 1 maik in
breadth ; and the eleventh tier is made of 3*44 viss of iron, i*352
viss of copper, and 49$, ticals of gold, and is 3 cubits and 18 let-
thits in circumference and 1 maik in breadth. The weight of the dif-
ferent metals used is altogether 134*854 viss of iron, 43*142 viss of
copper, and 13*862 viss of gold. Forty-four miniature porches
and 44 flags are attached to the ti. The satthapu { is made
of 5*38 viss of iron, 7*306 viss of copper, and 3*503 viss of gold.
It is 3 cubits, 1 maik and 4 letthits in circumference and 5 cubits
in height, and is studded over with 998 precious stones, including

* One letthit = f inch,
t One maik = 8 letthits, or 6 inches.

\ Metal cone forming the apex of the ti.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

45 emeralds, 818 rubies, 65 diamonds, 34 sapphires, 6 cats-eyes
and two pearls. Moreover, to represent the sacred relics of Gauta-
ma Buddha 1,000 emeralds and 111 coral beads are placed within
the cone. The tirest is made of 1*7 viss of silver. The bells are 105
in number and are made of 44 174 viss of silver. The aggregate
weight of gold used is *7'3^8 viss, and silver 646i8 viss. The
aggregate number of precious stones is 2,109. The whole work was
successfully accomplished on Saturday the 13th waxing Nay6n
1130 SakkarAj. The emperor then invited every member of his
imperial family, as well as the ministers and generals, to witness
the ceremony of putting up the new ft, and in a golden barge adorn-
ed with three turret ted canopies, one at the bow, one at the stern,
and the third amidships, accompanied by a large fleet of gaily equip-
ped boats, proceeded down the river on Monday, the full-moon of
Nay6n 1130 Sakkar&j, and reached Nyaungu in four days. On the
sixth waxing day of the same month, the day on which the usual
yearly festival was held at the pagoda, the emperor, attended by
the queen dowager, the queen, his three younger brothers,* the
princes and princesses, performed the ceremony of offering the ti
by pouring water out of a gold cup studded with rubies. The whole
pagoda was then gilt and a large number of titled and other monks
renowned for their learning and piety were invited and were lavishly
supplied with food and raiment. The emperor then rededicated the
following offerings made by his ancestors, namely, the sacred lands
offered on Friday the 3rd waxing Nayon 510 Sakkarij by Alaung-
sithu; 50 pes of paddy land and two villages called Chiye and
Thumyattha, comprising an area of 1,000 pis, and 30 pes of old
fishery land, offered on Thursday the 13th waxing Tazaungm6n 545
by Nar£patisithu; the lands offered by Thadominzaw on Tuesday
the 5th waning Wazo 727 Sakkar&j; the lands at Myingondaing
offered in 730 Sakkar&j, and 23 pes of land opposite Lamaing vil-
lage offered in 757 Sakkar&j by Minkyizwasawk&; and the piece
of land offered by Pagankyawzwamin and yielding a rental of 350
baskets of paddy. The emperor made these offerings in order that
the Religion might flourish throughout its allotted period of 5,000
years.

By virtue of these my meritorious deeds may I soon attain
Buddhahood and so be enabled to confer the white umbrella of fu-
ture bli§s to men, devAs and brahm&s; may I in the present exist-
ence be endowed with power and ability to further the cause of the
Religion and promote the interests of my family and my people.
If in my future existences my lot should fall among dev&s, may I

* Pindal&min, Bodawpaya and Pakanmin.


22

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

always be their king, and if among men, may I be their sole em-
peror able to observe every kingly duty. May every devA and
every creature inhabiting this world, as well as my parents and
other relatives, share my merits equally with me, and may they ac-
claim their glad approval of my benefactions. May those who have,
be enabled to give freely, and thus promote the cause of the Religion.
May all grow in wealth and power and enjoy peace and prosperity.
May my imperial father and elder brother hear my prayers from
their celestial abode and express their approval. May the guardian

nat of the earth do the same.

, Our Buddha overcame every enemy before he departed to Nir-
vana. Throughout his previous existences and during his life on.
this earth he acquired every virtue and performed every deed neces-
sary for the benefit of the world. Before his attainment of NirvA-
na, moreover, he ordained that his Religion shall flourish for full
5,000 years. In the year 2307 of the Religion, the illustrious
Emperor Sinbyuyin, bearing the honoured title of Sirisudhamma-
mahArAjAjanindAdhipati, ascended the throne of Ava. As conspicu-
ous as the lunar orb in a clear sky, there stands in Pagan the
famous and wonderful Shwezigon Pagoda. It has for centuries
withstood the rigours of the climate. In the year 2312 of the
Religion, corresponding with the year 1130 SakkarAj, the emperor
in a happy moment asked himself what he should do to add to his
own merit and to please the people. No sooner had he done so
than the ti of the Shwezigon Pagoda, without being affected in the
least by wind or weather, bodily detached itself from its rest and
slowly glided down to the earth. When this was brought to the
notice of the emperor, he gladly welcomed the news and forthwith
commanded the new bejewelled ti to be made and set up, and rede-
dicated the sacred lands and pagoda slaves offered by the ancient
kings. The setting up of the ti was accompanied with high festi-
vals, and the water-pouring was performed by the emperor in person
with great pomp and ceremony. May the pagoda and the new ti
last long. In the year 2312 of the Religion the emperor who set

up this new ti removed his capital from Shwebo to Ava.

[Here follows the last line, which is undecipherable, being almost
obliterated].

* This corresponds with 1130 Sakkaraj or 1768 A. D.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

*3

No. (21).

Locality.North-east corner of inner wall of pagoda.

Date.1147 Sakkar&j (1785 A.D.).

Founder.Bodawpaya.*

Substance of inscription.Re-dedication of a number of
lands.

May the Religion flourish throughout its period of 5,000 years,
and may it be as resplendent in glory, as long-abiding and con-
spicuous as Mount Meru and the solar and lunar orbs. It is with
this object in view that His Most Excellent Majesty has per-
formed the meritorious deeds detailed below. Like King Nemi of
old, one of the embryo Buddhas, His Majesty is descended from a
race of kings who reigned over vast dominions, and who were thus
able to further the cause of the Religion, His Majesty being a son
of Alompra, the founder of a dynasty which is as notable in his-
tory as that of the primeval king Mahi Thamada. His Majesty
is, moreover, a brother of Naungdawgyi, the founder of Sagaing,
who was as mighty as the king of lions in war, and also of Sinbyu-
yin, founder of Ava, who also succeeded in overpowering his ene-
mies even as theGaldn + can when surrounded by other birds. His
Majesty is the lord of an innumerable army and possessor of vast
armaments and several white elephants. He is the donor of several
pagodas and monasteries, and is celebrated for his well-merited
title of Siripavaravijay&nantayasatribhavan^dityAdhipatipandita-
mah4dhammar&j4dhir&ji. Following the ancient traditions, His
Majesty performed the coronation ceremony twice in Amarapura,
the highly pleasant and impregnable city founded by him. Being
blessed with a son and heir and everything requisite for present
happiness, His Majesty could turn his attention to the welfare of the
country and the people, and to the interests of the Religion ; and see-
ing that if the inscriptions recording the offerings made by the
excellent kings of old were allowed to fall into decay and ruin, the
original purpose of the donors would miscarry, commanded that
the inscriptions should be collected and properly examined, and in
order that the Religion might continue to flourish, and he himself
attain Buddhahood ultimately, re-dedicated the offerings found
mentioned therein.

After having been anointed king twice like King Dev&nampiya-
tissa* in the great capital of Amarapura, His Majesty reigned in the
golden palace as glorious and as blissful as the king of
and like Asoka administered his vast dominions, including distant

* Founder of the first city of Amarapura.

t The Garuda, a fabulous bird.

% King of Ceylon and contemporary of Asoka.


24

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

Arakan, with equity and justice, despatched missionary monks to
over 50 places, erected pagodas and caves enshrining several sacred
relics in over 150 towns and villages, and brought over from Arakan
the Mah&muni image which was set up in the time of our Lord Bud-
dha. Having done so, His Majesty, being gifted with as much
foresight as the thousand-eyed king of the devds, proposed to re-
dedicate the religious lands offered by his royal ancestors to enrich
the Religion, knowing that they would otherwise be lost sight of in
course of time and in order that he might obtain Buddhahood and
that his descendants might continue to foster the cause of the Reli-
gion throughout its allotted period of 5,000 years. Accordingly
His Majesty re-dedicated the land attached to the Zeyakbnf (Shwe-
zigon) pagoda. The boundaries of the land are: east, Bawdigdn ;
south, a banyan tree at Mingalatedaw; west, Baludet landing-stage;
north-west and north, the thalweg of the Irrawaddy for a distance
of 700 tas.% Several disputes arose formerly in respect of the right
to utilize the usufruct of the land. In the reign of the founder of
Zeyapura orSagaing (Naungdawgyi), the Governor of Pagan, sued
for the recovery of the land from the pagoda slaves on the ground
that the Zeyakon pagoda was not the Shwezigdn. The case was
decided by water ordeal on the 14th waxing of Tawthalin, 1124
Sakkar&j, and the governor lost the suit. Again, in the reign of
Sinbyuyin, founder of Ratan&pura or Ava, a similar dispute arose
between the Governor of Pagan and the Thugyi of Nyaungu on the
one side and the pagoda slaves on the other. The king referred the
matter to the abbot of the Bbnzantulut monasteries for decision,
and the abbot, after having examined the records relating to the
land, decided the dispute in favour of the pagoda slaves on the
13th waning of Kason, 1134 Sakkar&j. Accordingly His Majesty,
the founder of Amarapura, hereby confirms the above decisions
and re-dedicates the land, which is fully 700 kalele § square, by
pouring water out of a golden kettle on the morning of Thursday,
the 9th waning of Thadingyut, 1147 Sakkar&j, in order that the
pagoda slaves might continue to utilize the usufruct of the land in

This huge brazen idol, which is now in Mandalay, was conveyed over the Western
Yoma mountains, not, however, in bulk, but in convenient pieces, in 1784 A.D. It was,
according to Burmese history, originally cast by Sandathuriya, 29th King of Arakan,
during Gautama Buddhas visit there.

t Originally Thfcgdn, a sandbank. Tradition relates that Anawrata, the hero-king
of Pagan, obtained by right of conquest a tooth-relic and a frontal bone relic of Gautama
from rrome, and on his return to the capital, placed them on a white elephant and set it
free with a wish that it might indicate the place where the sacred relics should be
enshrined. The elephant wandered to the site of the pagoda, which was then merely a
sandbank and stood there with its precious burden until those who followed in its wake
arrived.

t A ta = 7 cubits.

§ A bow measuring 4 cubits or 2 yards m length.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA' AND AVA. 35

making the daily offering of rice and lights and in maintaining the
pagoda in good repair.

No. (22).

Locality.South-east corner of inner wall of pagoda.

Date.1205 Sakkar&j (1843 A.D.).,

Founder.King Tharrawaddy.*

Substance of inscription.Demarcation of the land attached to the
pagoda.

In accordance with a royal order issued on the 2nd waxing
of Tazaungmdn, 1205 Sakkar&j, to the effect that the land attached
to the Shwezig&n pagoda, which is according to the inscription
700 kalele tas square, should be demarcated with boundary pillars
in order that the disputes regarding it might for ever be set at rest,
eight pillars were erected along the boundaries, and the fact is
hereby recorded. A distance of 700 tas was measured from the
central porch of the eastern wall of the pagoda to a point 45 tas
north-west of the Shitmyethna pagoda, and a pillar was set up
there on Thursday, the 3rd waning Tazaungmon, 1205 SakkarAj.
Then the same distance was measured from the western wall west-
ward to a sandbank, but this spot being found unsuitable for the
erection of a pillar, another spot 250 tas south of it and 44
tas north-west of the Shwegu pagoda was selected and a pillar was
set up thereon on Sunday, the 6th waning of Tazaungmon, 1205
SakkarAj. At the same distance from the southern wall and at a
spot 50 tas.north-west of the Tazingu pagoda a pillar was set up
on Monday, the 7th waning Tazaungmon, 1205 Sakkar&j. Next,
a distance of 758 tas, one cubit and four letthits was meas-
ured from the central pillar facing the southern wall westward
to a point 25 tas west of the masonry steps of the Kinminga
monastery ruins, this point being situated at the same distance from
the sandbank facing the western wall, and a boundary pillar was
set up there on Saturday, the nth waxing Nadaw, 1205 SakkarAj.
Again the same distance was measured from the central south-
ern pillar eastward and from the eastern central pillar south-
ward to a point 50 tas south of the Zedihla pagoda built by Asoka,
and a pillar was erected there on Sunday, the 12th waxing Nadaw,
1205 SakkarAj. The eastern, western, southern, south-eastern
and south-western pillars were erected on firm ground by MahA-
minhlamindinyaza, Wun of Pagan, Sitkfc Shwedaungyfegaung,
Nakan Shwedaungzeyasithugyaw, Nga Shun, Thugyi of Kawtha,
Jailor Nga Swe Gy6k, Myothugyis Nga Kwe and Nga So Min, Po

1837-46 A.D.

4


26 INSCRIPTIONS OP PAGAN, PINYA,'AND AVA.

Shwe Daung Kyawdinthu, Thirikyawthushwedaung, of

Tetnw&gyaung village, Zeyathiri, Ywathugyi of Wetkyi-in village,
Head Pagoda-slave Nga Shwe Maung and son Nga Pfc, *

Nga Cheik and Asuye* Nga Paing. On the sandbank facing the
northern wall the erection of a masonry pillar being impracticable,
the boundary was marked with a large heap of stones on tTie 8th
waning of Tazaungm6n, 1205 Sakkar&j. Then at a point 758 tas,
one cubit, one maik and four letthits east of this and the same
distance north of the central pillar facing the eastern wall, another
large heap of stones was piled up on the 14th waxing of
Nadaw, 1205 Sakkar&j. Then at a point 758 tas, one cubit, one
maik and four letthits west of the central pillar facing the north-
ern wall, and the same distance north of the heap of stones facing
the western wall, a wooden post about 27 inches in girth was plant-
ed, and round it a heap of stones was piled up on the 15th wax-
ing of Nadaw, 1205 Sakkarij. These heaps of stones were erected
by the same men abovementioned. This inscription is placed in
the tazaung in front of the Shwezig6n pagoda on Thursday, the
8th waning Nadaw, 1205 Sakkar&j, in the presence of those who
were deputed to demarcate the land, namely, clerk Nemyoyazanaw-
yata, Surveyor Nga Eik, Wutmye f clerk Zeyakyawywa, Head
Pagoda-slave Nga Shwe Maung and son Nga P6, Astyin Nga
Cheik and Asuye Nga Paing.

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN.

II.Found at Wetkyi-in.

NO. (1).

Locality.In inscription cave within the group of monasteries.

Date.532 Sakkar&j (1170 A.D.).

Founders.Yattapisi and wife.

Substance of inscription.Dedication of slaves to Kalagyaung $
image.

" On Thursday, the 3rd waxing of Tagu, 332 Sakkar&j, I, Yatta-
pisi and my wife offered to the image called Kalagyaung in monk
Kuntes monastery 18 slaves bought with the produce of our
own labour and not inherited from our parents, namely, Nga Myo
and his six sons NgaTha L6n, Nga Than B6n, Nga Para B6k, Nga

Designations of petty officials.

t Land dedicated tor religious purposes.

X This means literally an Indian monastery. All monasteries built of brick and
mortar were so called at that time, thus showing that masonry was introduced from India
along with several other elements of civilization.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

Kan Gu, Nga Dwe, and Nga Myo; O Twe ; 0 Bye and his three
sons Nga Tan Lin, Nga Ka Yi and Nga Tin; O Wa, his daughter
O Bya Hauk and his son Nga Pon She ; Nga Pyaung and his son
Nga Ywe; and O Wun Mu. The witnesses present at the dedi-
cation were Saya Nga Kala Thin, Nga Thu Yein Thin, monk Nga
Thanga Thin, Nga Se Ya Yin, Nga Pye Thin, Ta Hna L6n Thin,
O Mein Pa, mahout Nga San Pa, Nga Pyi Ya Thin, Nga Naing
Ngan Thin, Bala Thingyan, Mi Ya, Nga Ma Ta Thin, Than Pa
De, Pan But Ng&, Nga Pan Han Thin, Nga Hla Thin, monk
Lawkapyinnya, monk Nadi.................

No. (2).

Locality.Within the group of pagodas on the west bank of the
stream.

Date. 55a Sakkar&j (1190 A.D.).

Founder.Wife of Kyan Thaing.*

Substance of inscription.Dedication of paddy lands and slaves.

In accordance with the wishes of three monks, namely, Mahithera
Bajjabuddhi, Mah& Pandita and Agga Pandita, Kyan Thaings wife
offered to the eastern and western monasteries the Apitan land
measuring 30 pis, the Taungbyan land measuring 20 and the
Ngaradin land measuring 50 pis, allotting 50 pis to each monas-
tery. The following slaves were dedicated to the large pagoda and
the small cave, namely, Pantaya O Zwe; her daughters O Mi, O
Myauk, O Byi Wa and O Lut; her aunts Pantaya O Na and O
Paung Laung; Pantaya Ein and daughter O Chfe Chein ; Pantaya
O Thaik; Pantaya O Su and daughter O Mye ; her aunt O Swin
and daughter; total 14 women. Besides these there were five
men, namely, drummer f Nga P6n Ti, drummer Nga Pon Daw, drum-
mer Kunama and sons Ngi Yauk Lw6 and Nga Yin Ma. The
slaves dedicated to the cave built by Ywathugyi Pataya were: Nga

..........and wife O Chit Pwfc; drummer Nga Kin Ga, his wife

Thu Mattari, his son Nga Kauk Sit, his younger brother Nga Tat
Pyi, and his sister O Kan That; Pantaya Thani and daughter O Hla
Bu ; Pantaya Kali; Pantaya Yatthi and daughter O Ma Hla; Pan-
taya U Mfc and daughter O Myet Hla; drummer Nga Ti Ta and
drummer Nga Kun Ta; total 16 slaves. Besides these the whole
of the villagers of Pondaw were dedicated. The slaves dedicated

* This is not an ordinary name, but the designation of a patrician, and from the date
of the inscription, the bearer must have been a minister of the reign of Narapatisithu.

t These slaves had to beat the drum on festive days. They occupied whole villages
in Burmese times. In the Pagan district there is a village called Sidi (drummers). Then
there are others called LetlGk (sweepers and weeders), Sungyet (those who cook the rice-
offerings), and Pagan-yat (those who wash the plates and cups).


a8 INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

to ..... ............were Nga Pon Bye, his wife Ma Bye, his

daughter O Thwe, and his sister O Na L6n; and two of paddy-

land were also dedicated in order that these four slaves might
make rice-offerings with the produce thereof. The slaves dedicat-
ed to ... ................were drummers Nga Myet M6,

Nga Pan Tu, Nga U, Nga Sein, Nga Pyinnyaand Nga............;

Pantaya O Mi; Pantaya O Kyan ; Pantaya Tan Bu; Pantaya ..

No. (3).

Locality.Within the group of monasteries on the west bank of the
stream.

Date.585 Sakkar&j (1223 A.D.).

Founder.Daughter of Kyan Thaing.

Substance of inscription.Dedication of paddy lands and slaves.

HAVING no father or heir to inherit my estate, I dedicate on
this the nth waning Pyatho, 585 Sakkar&j, Monday, the whole of
the villagers of Nga Myindaung, a tank and a paddy-field measur-
ing 40 pis for the upkeep of the recumbent image on the eastern
side of my cave and of the image erected by monk Pwagyi. For
this my good deed may I in every form of existence be replete with
truth, wisdom, diligence, charity, and desire to become a Buddha.
May those who injure or destroy my offering suffer in all the
eight principal hells, namely, Sanjivo, Kajasutto, Sanghito, Roruvo,
MahcLroruvo, Tapano, Patapano, and Avici. The witnesses present
at the offering were: Saya Ka, monks Thetadithapamauk, Nyana-
teiktha, Thudamayinthi, Thatparotheikki, Taunglat, Anandanyana-
bokdi, Thudamalinga, Tilawkasaduyin, Dhammayazathiri. . . .

No. (4).

Locality.On the south side of a road which is about 200 feet
from the two Kunsaw pagodas on the west bank of the Wetkyi-
in stream.

Date.592 Sakkaraj (1230 A.D.).

Founder.Banker Minyazathuyanzeya.*

Substance of inscription.Dedication of paddy-land and pagoda
slaves.

WITH a view to promote the interests of the three Gems, namely,
Buddha, his law, and monkhood, the banker Minyazathuyanzeya

* This is not a name but a title. Those of the wealthy class who enjoyed royal favour
obtained titles and insignia of rank.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA. 29

dedicated on Monday, the 14th waxing Tazaungm6n, 592 Sakkar&j,
the following pagoda slaves, namely, Nga Pyi, Nga Pa Ze Wa, Nga
Letkana, his son Nga Pyi, his younger brother Pa Gon..

A paddy-field measuring 60 pis was also dedicated, and the banker
directed that....................................................

The total number of slaves was nine. The dedication was made in
the presence of monks Thingyi.....................................

No. (5).Obverse.

Locality.In a brick monastery within the Wetkyi-in group of monas-
teries which is about 800 feet south-west of the Shwezigdn
pagoda.

Date.591 Sakkar&j (1229 A.D.).

Founder.Tagagyi* and his mother.

Substance of inscription.Dedication of paddy-lands, slaves and
cows.

ON Thursday, the 10th waxing Pyatho, 591 Sakkar&j, Tagagyi
and his mother made the following offerings to the pagoda, cave and
monasteries at Kyauktadaing, and to Buddha, his law, and monk-
hood : namely, Moksogybn paddy-land measuring 300 pis, Nw&in
paddy-land measuring 100 fes;21 slaves belonging to her adopted
son Nga Hlauk Thin, namely, Nga Pan Deik of Kalam6 village
and son Nga Pa Yin; Nga Pa Paw and' two sons Nga Pyi and Nga
Hmyin L£; his uncle Nga Sein, nephew Nga Yauk U, uncle Nga
Wa, brothers Nga Than, Nga T6n, Nga Pa Ng£ and Nga Twe;
Nga San Tha, his wife Ya Bwe, son Nga Ta, brothers Nga Maand
Nga Yaung, sister O Kywin, daughter O Kyaung Che, aunt O
Mw6 and niece O L6n. Besides these the following slaves were
dedicated: namely, Nga Ra Ywa Pfe, wife Ni Tan, son Ka Ta,
brothers Nga Pyi, Nga Yaung, and Nga Chan, sisters Ya Zi and
A Zi; Yin Mwe's wife; Yin Tas wife ; his son Tfe Ta, brother Tin Za
and sister Pin Wi; Kalabu, his wife Hi Tu, daughter Eik Si; Mu
Bya Ngfes son Nga Pu Gan and his brother Nga Twe ; Ko Tu, his
wife Kan Nu, son Th6k Tara, and sister O Set Che; Thin Go H6,
his wife Thu La Na, daughter Ku Kan and granddaughter Chat

Donor of a religious institution.


30 INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

Tu ; San Nu; Na Yan; Tat Taw; drummer Me Ta, Lin Ga and
daughters Pu Ni and another; Ku Ki and son; Nga Pdn S6n and
wife O S6n ; O Pdn and daughter U L6n ; O Bu, her daughter 0

Chat Hmyo, sister..............................................

........................................(last line).

Reverse.

May the light of their eyes fail them, and may the earth swal-
low them into its bowels. Let none molest these my offerings
throughout the period of the Religion. May all those who approve
of my good deed partake with me of its merits. The offerings
made by me are 400 pis of paddy-land, 66 slaves, and 40 cows.
On Saturday, the 8th waxing Tagu, 594 Sakkaraj, Thakin Pwa,
the monk, dedicated the following as pagoda slaves: Nga Sa Ba,
his daughter O Sdn and son Nga Paung; Nga Pyi Wa; Nga Pyi
Wa Nape; Nga Kala; Nga Pal6; Nga Pwa; Nga Pb Gu; NgaPya
Tho ; and Nga Than; total 11. On the 5th waxing of Kas6n, 600

Sakkar&j, Nga Pus wife offered.........pieces of cloth and 20

pis of paddy-land; Nga Kya Chin Thin Be offered 200 of

paddy-land; Nga Kya Chin Thin 10 ........................

.................(last two lines).

No. (6).

Locality.In the ruins of a brick monastery about 700 feet west of
the Shwezig&n pagoda.

Date.654 Sakkar&j (1292 A.D.).

Founder. Myinzaing Thinkaya.*

[This inscription is so obliterated that, with the exception of the
date and the name of its author, nothing can be made out connect-
edly. It consists of only nine lines.]

No. (7).

Locality.On a hillock standing on the east bank of Wetkyi-in
stream, about 500 feet south-east of the Shwegyaung group of
monasteries.

Date 758 Sakkaraj (1396 A.D.).

Founder.Say? Taw U.+

Substance of inscription.Building of a monastery and dedication
of paddy-lands thereto.

* This is the eldest of the three Shan brothers who founded the States of Myinzaing,
Metkaya and Pinlfe in 1298 A.D. In proof of this fact the Hmannan Yazawin quotes
this inscription.

t Lesser Queen of Minkyizwasawkfe of Ava.


INSCRIPTIONS OP PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

3*

AFTER having acquired every virtue, conquered every enemy of
darkness and passion, and saved every man and deserving of
salvation, while seated on the throne beneath the banyan tree which
germinated the same day which gave him birth, the Buddha passed
away to Nirv&na. On Monday, the 5th waxing of Tazaungmdn,
758 Sakkaraj, Saw Taw U, Queen of Minkyizwasawkfc of Ava, the
glorious and powerful king entitled Siritribhavanidityipavarapandi-
t&dhammar&j4, with a view to avoid the dangers of samsaro and in
order to promote the interests of the Religion during its period of
5,000 years, built a beautiful monastery with concrete flooring for
the residence of the eminent Mahdthera Pinlfc. The monastery was
erected a short time after the queen was rewarded with the myoza-
ship of Pagan. Moreover, the queen dedicated the following garden
land for the maintenance of the presiding monk, at the request of
an official named Thilwa. At the zayat called Yanaungmyin, which
stands on the north side of the Shwezigdn pagoda, the queen
entreated His Majesty to perform in her behalf the consecration
ceremony, and His Majesty accordingly poured out the water out
of a bejewelled gold cup weighing 30 ticals while repeating the
prayer that he and the queen and their eight sons might always be
together in their future existences. The garden-land thus dedicat-,
ed is known as Padethanyin. It extends from Thettawshe monas-
tery to Myaukseikpin west of the Eindawya pagoda ; thence south-
wards to the main stream ; thence westwards to the Tilaungpingo
hill; thence further westward to the monastery built by Thama-
darit; thence north-westward to the temple of the Kyauktaw
The northernmost limit is the landing-stage behind the Shwezigdn
pagoda and the southernmost limit is the northern boundary of
Kanga garden, namely,.................(last line).

No. (8).Obverse.

Locality.Within the Tazaung group of monasteries.

Date.770 SakkarAj (1408 A.D.).

Founder.^Tazaung Mibaya.f

Substance of inscription.Building of a monastery and dedication
of village lands and palm trees thereto.

May the Religion prevail I

On Tuesday, the 5th waxing of Tabaung, 770 SakkarAj, the queen
built a monastery and dedicated to it the villages of Kanbd, con-

* This date is evidently wrong and is probably meant for 778. The Hmannanyaza-
win quotes this inscription and notices the mistake, for on the reverse the Mibaya wishes *
her two former husbands to partake of the merit of her benefactions and her third and
last husband did not ascend the throne until 778 Sakkari. This inscription is quoted also
in the Yazawin compiled by Mahasithu the Twinthin Wun.

t Queen of Tayapya, of Mingaung I, and lastly of Mohnyinmindaya of Ava.


32

INSCRIPTIONS OP PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

sisting of two main villages of that name and two subsidiary villages
called Pyuywa and Kyeganmdksoywa. The boundaries of this
group of villages arc: eastward up to the Myitkaing Queens
monastery land; northward to the Taungbya rocks; thence north-
wards to the Konyo rocks; thence further north to the Cha stream;
thence in the same direction to a grove of trees; and thence to the
Letpan tank ; thence westward to a heap of stones piled up on an
abandoned plantation; thence to the Ingyin rocks; thence to the
Taungngfc hill; thence to a ridge; thence still westward to the
twin nabitrees; thence to the Konyandwin pillar; thence to a large

tapase tree; and thence to Yedwet stream. The western boundary
commences from the Yedwet stream; thence southward to a
triangular prism-shaped pillar; thence eastward to a small hill;
thence southward to the Nanteintaungshin pillar; thence in the
same direction to a pillar close by a palm tree; thence still south-
ward to the pillar near the twin pauk trees. The southern bound-
ary commences from the pillar near the twin pauk trees to the
pillar at the Thategyaung monastery ; thence eastward to the
ridge forming a boundary of the Myitkaingdaungma land. The
tract enclosed within these boundaries includes 230 of low-lying
paddy-land and 3,000 pis of high land, or altogether 3,230 pis.
Out of the usufruct of this tract of land, 20 ticals of silver (per
annum) is to be paid to the administrators thereof; one and a
quarter baskets of sample paddy are to be given for basket hire and
one-sixty-fourth of the produce in kind as Government revenue. .

............(one line). In accordance with the usual practice, 50

pis of land are to be set apart for the rice-offerings. Let the over-
seers of the land bring in their usual monthly supply of fuel and two
baskets of charcoal each in the winter months, and see that when
cattle and game are killed, the administrators of the land are given
the hide and ribs, Pyizo the rumps, Thugyi the humps, and the
Kyeza the throat. Should any dispute arise in respect of the
land, let the overseers act as my representatives and bear the
costs. This has always been the custom in the Kanbfc group of
villages.

The three villages of Indaung, Kandein, and Chaunggauk, to-
gether with their subsidiary villages, namely, Kyauksaukngfc and
Inbingyaungng£, were also dedicated to the monastery, free from
the incumbrance of an annual revenue payable to Government and
amounting to 23^313 ticals of silver. The boundaries of the land
pertaining to these villages are : north, the Kyw&yat village ; east,
the Kyaungywa village lands; south, the Chaunggauk village ; west,
the Kanialat village lands. The boundaries of Chaunggauk village

* That is to say for the use of a standard basket for measuring the outturn of grain.


INSCRIPTIONS OP PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

33

are: east, the Pwingawa and Pindalfc lands ; south, the Pindal6 and
Ngatabdn lands; west, Pwa Saws monastery land, Shwe6nhmin
land, and the Nanywa village lands. Each of these three villages
contains about 3,300 palm trees. It is customary for the thugyi,
the overseers, and palm climbers of these three villages to hear
the sermons delivered at the royal monastery on the full-moon day
of Wagaung. If they fail to attend at the monastery at the begin-
ning and conclusion of Lent, they are deprived of the privilege of
sharing in the produce of the land and palm trees. Should the pre-
siding monk of the royal monastery visit them, they have to build
for him a temporary residence and provide him with the necessaries
of life as well as two lengths of rope each, and two baskets of
pickled tea and two cows or goats at the beginning and end of the
toddy tapping season. Besides this, whenever any overseer or tod-
dy climber dies, the presiding monk receives 30 ticals of silver, and in
the case of any one subordinate to them, one-ninth of the amount. It
is moreover customary for the men who erected the boundary pillars
and marks to point out the palm trees to the climbers while leading
the way lance in hand. These climbers are called Tandawathi.
Each climber is rewarded with a quarter basket of refined treacle,
another of good jaggery, one-eighth basket of cleaned rice and a fowl.
The revenue collectors receive the palm buds.f The revenue is 20
per cent. The collectors are rewarded with five ticals of silver
each. The collectors have to administer to the wants of visitors
from the monastery and their relatives, and give 20 ticals of silver
out of their fees and perquisites, as well as a portion of any cow or
goat killed. The revenue payable from Chaunggauk consists
of...............................

Reverse.

The Kyakat village lands in Taungzin circle, together with the
palm trees standing thereon, were dedicated to the Kyaungdawu
pagbda for the purpose of making the daily offerings of lights to
it. The boundaries of these lands are demarcated with masonry
pillars at the four corners. When the toddy farmer of the village
dies, it is customary for his heirs to give 20 ticals of silver, one
basket of pickled tea, and a pig to the abbot of the monastery.
The farmer has to pay his respects to the abbot at the monastery
at the beginning and conclusion of Lent on pain of losing his po-
sition. This refers only to the toddy farmer of Kyakat village.
Whoever destroys these my offerings, whether king, queen, noble-

* These ropes are usually made with the fibre obtained from the midribs of the leaves
of the to^fly palm and are intended for use at the monastery wells,
t More correctly the half-developed leaves used for writing on.

5


34

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

man, official, or commoner, may he or she fall repeatedly into the
saltwater pot in the Uthataret hell, suffer every form of punishment
and incur the curses and imprecations of all kings. May his or her
possessions disappear altogether from existence like salt thrown
into the middle of a large river from a boat, or like a handful of re-
fined cotton thrown into the fire. May he in his next existence
find himself in the eight principal and 128 lesser hells, suffering a
hundred, a thousand, a ten thousand, a hundred thousand, a million
times more violently than Dewadat.* Should he again become a
man, may he be leprous and diseased, poor and needy, failing in
every undertaking, despised and shunned by all men. Should he
become even a king, may his subjects rebel against him and may
he fall in battle with disgrace. On the other hand, may my ances-
tors before me and descendants after me, as well as my other rela-
tives, the monks and all other men, abundantly reap the benefits of
this my good deed. May my two former husbands, Sinbyuyin t and
Mingaung, partake of our merit equally with us. May every crea-
ture inhabiting every region, from the highest abode of to the
lowest avici hell, be benefited by this good deed. May our guard-
ian nats also, and the guardian nats of the Religion, the earth, the

trees, and all other nats of the universe, have their share of the
merit. Poison cannot be said to be very destructive to life, be-
cause it can kill only one ; but the poison of the monkhood can
destroy all monks and laymen and send them to the avici hell.J
If any one misappropriates any land offered to the monkhood, either
by himself or by others, he will for a period of a hundred thousand
kalfas become an ant or vermin in that land ; the saving influence
of 20 Buddhas will not reach him ; he will have to pass through the

500 existences of ogres and will ultimately perish ;..............

(last line).

No. (9).

Locality.Within the Tazaung kyaungdaik (or group of monas-
teries).

Date.777 Sakkar&j (1415 A.D.).

Founders.Mingaung I of Avaand his Queen Tazaung Mibaya.

Substance of inscription.Building of two monasteries and dedi-
cation of 19 villages thereto.

The brother-in-law and adversary of Gautama Buddha,
t Tayepya of Ava.

j This sentence is a variation of the 6ist verse of the Lokaniti, which says that ordi-
nary poison is not regarded as such ; but that the property of the monkhood (if mis-
appropriated) is deemed the poison, because ordinary poison kills only once), sjhile the
pther kills repeatedly (that is to say, it affects the offender at every re-birth).


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

35

Being desirous of attaining Nirvina after enjoying their exist-
ences as human beings and as devds, Their Majesties the King
and Chief Queen of Ava erected two monasteries at the most aus-
picious moment* on the forenoon of Tuesday, the 5th waxing of
Tabaung, 777 Sakkarij. When the buildings were completed the
king requested the queen to conduct the dedication. The queen
replied saying: O King! among the monkhood it is usual for the
disciple to follow the master ; likewise for the children to follow
their parents, and for the servants to follow the lord. On hearing
these words the king comprehended their import and conducted
the ceremony in person. The following villages were then dedi-
cated to the two monasteries, namely, Daungthitsi, Myaungsind&,
Lfesha, Kanb&, Pyuywa, Minkyaganmoksoywa, Letpangan, Tagan-
zin, Paukthaukpyetkan, Panlaingkuywa, Thapanyegyi, which is
situated on the south-east ofPopa hill, Indaung, Kandein, Chaung-
gauk, Kyaungngfc, Inbin, Taungzin-Kyakat, Pakan-Nyaungdwin
and Kanmfc, total 19 villages. These were dedicated in the order
named. The Governors of Pagan and Talokmyo both claimed
possession of the three Sindfc villages, and as no satisfactory set-
tlement of the dispute can be made, Their Majesties included these
villages in the offering.f Out of the usufruct of these village lands,
the keepers thereof shall receive 1 o ticals of silver per village in addi-
tion to the usual court fees, harbour dues, cart tolls, stall rents,
and petty taxes, also 50 pieces of lead for each female slave bought
or sold and 100 for each male slave. Besides this they shall re-
ceive the equivalent of a leg of beef or pork whenever a top-knot-
making or ear-boring or nat festival is held. The following scale
should be followed when offerings are made to the presiding monks
of the monasteries: in case of death of an overseer, namely,

Pyizo, thugyi or myedaing, 30 ticals of silver; kundt, 15 ticals;
kundtddn, 7^ ticals ; tamaukkunzon,3! ticals ; maungkunzon or
iamaungdSn, if ticals. When a presiding monk visits a village,
the thugyi shall build for him a temporary monastery at a cost of
140 ticals of silver raised by subscription, his contribution being 75
ticals, and shall not include this sum in the revenue payable from
the village, which he shall always pay in full in person. At the
beginning and conclusion of the toddy-tapping season each vil-
lage shall present to the presiding monks of the monasteries the
equivalent of 3 viss of pork. The thugyis and other overseers of
the village lands shall personally conduct all legal affairs regarding

The Burmese are firm believers in astrology. Soothsayers of note always enjoyed
the king's favour and they were consulted in all matters temporal and spiritual.

t A quaint form of deciding a judicial dispute to the satisfaction of all parties.
Whoever has the last claim will reap in a future existence the merit accruing from the
benefactions, the party who actually makes the offering coming in for a share.


36 INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

their respective charges and the allowances payable to them shall
be as recorded herein. The fees of the assessor shall be a piece
of cloth and 25 pieces of lead in the case of a field having a sowing
capacity of half a basket; 50 pieces in the case of mayin paddy-
lands ; 25 pieces in the case of vegetable gardens having a sowing

capacity of one basket of soy beans......On Saturday, the 9th

waxing of Pyatho, 778 SakkarAj.................(last line).

No. (10).

Locality.Within the Tazaung

Date.778 Sakkar&j (1416 A. D.).

Founders.Mingaung I, his Queen Tazaung Mibaya, and Thihapade,
a nobleman.

Substance of inscription.Dedication of paddy-lands to the Three
Gems.

ON Sunday, the 13th waning of Nadaw, 778 Sakkar&j, Their
Majesties dedicated to the Religion a piece of land whose owner-
ship was long disputed by different parties. It measures alto-
gether 55 pis, half of which is situated between Yabfc, Kyabo, and
Kadaung villages, and the other half in the last village. Its north-
eastern boundary is a piece of land called Peikthana. It is bound-
ed on the south by the Kaukla land and on the west by a fishery.
This fishery and the paddy-lands adjoining it are included in the
offering. On Wednesday, the 9th waning Nadaw, 778 Sakkar&j,
the following land was separately dedicated to the Law, namely,
35 pis of paddy-land south of Talaingdfc village on the bank of the
river. It is bounded on the south by the Kyabo road ; north-west
by a channel leading to a fishery; north by Myitk&n; north-east
by Shwepaukpinzu; south-west by Kyebingwa; east by a large
tein tree; and south by the Mahathaman land.

The offerings to be made out of the usufruct of this paddy-land
are eight baskets of paddy, 400 pieces of lead, 40 pieces for the col-
lector, four pots of rice-offering each containing one-sixteenth basket,
and five smoked fish. On Monday, the 1st waning of Nadaw, 778
Sakkar&j, the L&thang&taung fishery, situated on the north-west of
Ywathitkyi village, together with its adjoining alluvial lands mea-
suring altogether 300 pis and including 27^ pis of mayin paddy
and 27^ pis of than* paddy-lands was also dedicated tojthe Law.

On Tuesday, the 1st waxing of Pyatho, 778 Sakkar&j, Thihapade,
the nobleman, offered the Minkyegan land containing 3,000 pis
to his royal mothers t monastery. The land is bounded on the

* Archaic form of haukkyi or main crop wet-weather rice.

t Pagan Mibaya, eldest daughter of King Mohnyin Mindaya, and wife of the then
Governor of Pakan.


INSCRIPTIONS OP PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

37

south by the Letpangan hill, and from a masonry pillar erected on
this hill the boundary runs along the bank of a stream to another
prism-shaped masonry pillar; thence to the Letpagan tank ; thence
northwards to a thitnyo tree on the southern bank of a stream;
thence further northwards to a heap of stones ; thence proceeding
in the same direction to another heap of stones ; thence to a mason-
ry pillar at Ngapbngan; thence northwards to the twin nabi trees;
thence to a large tapase tree; thence to the Pakanlan stream
and along this stream to a masonry pillar at Saingdalin-Kyibinhla;
thence southwards to a large tamarind tree north of Chaungmagaing
village; thence further southwards to the headwaters of the Than-
bongfc stream ; thence^ still southwards to the junction of three
roads ; thence in the same direction to a masonry pillar ; and thence
to the Natein range of hills. On Tuesday, the full moon of Pyatho,
778 Sakkar&j...................(last line).

No. (11).Obverse.

Locality.Within the Wetkyi-in kyaungdaik.

Date.804 Sakkar&j (1442 A.D.).

Founder.Governor of Taungdwin* and his wife.

Substance of inscription.Construction of monastery, offering to
it of full text of the Tripitaka, and dedication to the same of
garden and paddy lands, villages and slaves.

I adore the Three Gems!

THIRIZEYATHU,Governor of Taungdwin, is a most ardent devotee
of the three incomparable Gems. He is a grandson of Thihapade,
nephew of King Mohnyin Mindaya and brother-in-law of the
celebrated conqueror Mingyikyawzwa. He is the protector of the
weak and distressed from all quarters of the earth, the promoter of
the interests of the people, and an able upholder of the traditions
of a long race of rulers. He has passed through several prosperous
existences in the cycle of samsaro and is as glorious and resplendent
as the sun in its zenith. From the time of his conception he was
destined to excel in wisdom and foresight, courage and power, and
proper discrimination in the performance of works of merit. Accord-
ingly in the 1986th year after the Buddhas attainment of Nirvelna
(1442 A.D.), the Governor and his wife,t daughter of Sinbyuyin
Thihathu, being desirous of attaining Nirvana, performed the
following works of merit. In the year 800 Sakkar&j, during the
reign of Mohnyin Mindaya, who ascended the throne of Ava on
the morning of Thursday, the 10th waning of Nay on, 788 Sakkar&j,

* Known in history as Minthirizeyathuya.

t His second wife, Sawbyichantha, granddaughter of Mingaung I.


38 INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINVA, AND AVA.

a meeting of pandits from different parts of the empire, who were
learned in the law, was convened in a large pavilion on a plain
north of the palace in the presence of the royal family and
ministers. High festivals were held on that occasion and lavish
offerings of elephants, ponies, cattle, slaves, clothing and provisions
were made. The king then, in consultation with the pandits, com-
manded the abolition of the current era.* At the most auspicious
moment on the morning of Sunday, the 13th waxing of Tagu, of
the 6th year of the new era founded by his royal uncle (Mohnyin)
Mindayaand aunt Mibaya Saw, the governor erected a most beauti-
ful'monastery with several spires, turrets, roofs, and porches, on a
highly favoured spot east of the Tetnwfe stream and west of the
Shwezig6n pagoda, in order that the Religion* might flourish during
its allotted period of 5,000 years. A wall was subsequently built
round it and the building was decorated with various statues and
paintings. In the monastery was placed for the benefit of students
of the Law copies of the whole of the Tripitaka, which were pur-
chased with the price of the hair from the head of the governor's
second wife. On the full-moon day of the same month, while this
good deed was being performed, the governor succeeded in annex-
ing the country called Thokok or Kale. On the 7th waxing of
the following month he captured Thonganbwa, ruler of Maw terri-
tory, which includes the eleven principalities of Maingmyfe and
Maingmaw, Mohnyin, Chigyinwut near the seacoast, Maingkale,
Manipur, Kachin Hills, Maingtein, Maingpyin, Maingti, Maingna,
Maingmyin, Cha-o, Maingnyo, Mainglo, Maingthaw, Maingya,
Maingchaing, Maingkftn, Maingpdn, Maingyo and Maingchi.
Thonganbwa and the chief of Kale were soon afterwards taken by
the governor to the presence of King Narapadi, who was then
sojourning in a temporary palace on Minwun hill, and on Sunday, the
12th waxing of Kason, several elephants and ponies and a quantity
of jewellery obtained from Kale were presented to the king.
Narapadi was highly pleased with the governors success, and as
return presents awarded a young elephant called Chit Naung, a
pair of mother-of-pearl bracelets set with precious stones, another
of gold set with emeralds, and a village called Sinbyu in Pakan
circle yielding a revenue of 40 ticals of silver. This village was
subsequently dedicated by the governor and his wife to the
monastery erected by them on the east bank of the Tetnwfc stream
in Pagan. Subsequently, on Wednesday, the 13th waning Tazaung-.
mon, 804 Sakkar&j, the governors wife, wishing to reach Nirvana,
where all cease to exist, and to promote the cause of the Religion,
begged of the king to grant her the Ngatayaw village in Pakan as

This abolition does not seem to have been recognized for any length of time.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

39

a boon. The presents brought by her on that occasion were: Chit
Naung, the elephant which was obtained as a royal reward when
Thongatibwa of Maw was taken captive; another elephant called
Pyilalin ; a pair of mother-of-pearl bracelets set with precious stones ;
a silver drinking-bowl weighing 70 ticals, which was borne to the
royal presence by the Lawa Fhugyi; and a jasper contained in
a covered gold tray borne by the Thinthi Thugyi. At the time of
the presentation the Heir-apparent MahAthihathuya knelt on the
right side of the throne, Thonganbwa of Maw was on the left, and
Thirizeyathuya, the Governor of Taungdwin, was between them and
in a line with them, while the ministers and court officials were in
their proper places behind. His Majesty then commanded Nara-
theinga, a secretary, to approach, ana after having questioned him
as to the particulars of the boon prayed for, granted it to the
governor and his wife, and to confirm the gift poured out a cup
of water and celebrated it by the beating of drums and cymbals
.......................................................(one line).

Reverse.

By virtue of this our meritorious deed, may we, prior to our ulti-
mate attainment of NirvAna as Buddhas and chiefs of the three kinds
of superior beings, and while we are still on the vast sea of samsaro,
be successful in every undertaking; may all our wishes be easily
fulfilled; may we in our next existence become suzerains of the
universe, and rulers of the devds in our subsequent existences;
finally, may we become Buddhas able to ferry over all our relatives
and friends as well as others to NirvAna and ultimately to reach it
ourselves.

The dedicated paddy-lands in Pakan circle measure altogether
422^ pis; garden lands, 3,800 pis; pasture lands, 20,633 P&s;
mayin paddy-lands, 14933 Pis; palm trees, 2,633. The eastern
boundary of the lands runs from Al&gan to L6-0, and thence to a
large tanaung tree. The south-eastern boundary starts from the
Sape land to Wadan, Ywabu, Wabu, Thamayo, Ywalfeget and
Lfegaing. The southern boundary runs from the Kyauktaung land
to Thitpu, Lintagaung, and Gyauknet. The south-western bound-
ary runs along the edge of Wetp6k land to Kunlat-Kinmyin. The
western boundary starts from the Yaw land to Thidutpin-Yedwet,
M6nbin-Tetkaw, Ngap6ntfe and Thahin land up to the summit of
Lindaung hill. The north-west boundary runs from the Sachi land
to Kyauk-o, Chaungthwe, and Ngasat-in. The north boundary
proceeds from the Kyaukmauk land to Kyauksin, Kyauktaga, and
Kyaukpag6k hill up to the headwaters of the Pfcgyaung stream.
The north-east boundary runs along the edge of the Pyathi land to


4o

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

Siyin and Nyaungyin. Within the said boundaries there are
many pieces of waste land. Whenever any of these are brought
under cultivation they shall be included in the cultivated portions
above mentioned. If the overseers concerned fail to do so, may
they suffer every punishment according to the law promulgated by
our Buddha. On the other hand, if they act honestly in regard to
the reclamation of waste land, may they share in our merit. The
Ngatayaw land in Pakan circle measures altogether 504J pis and
includes 2 pis of mayin land west of Letpanin village and south
of Saukpuya fishery, 2 pis of the same kind of land north of the
fishery, and ^ pi of wet-weather paddy land north of Inngfe. It is
bounded on the east by the land offered by Mingyikyawzwaand by
Niyin land at Kaingywa; south-east by the Minywa village lands;
south' by the Sulaban monastery land ; south-west by the land
offered by King Sithu to the Kugyi pagoda; west by the land
allotted to a number of natives of India* by the Gyaingnet monas-
tery and Pabu monastery lands; north-west by the land allotted
to the royal elephanteers; north by the Migyaungdin land; and
north-east by the Tagaing land. These boundaries are thus
recorded to obviate future disputes. Let not the Thugyis and
other overseers of our lands conceal any portion of the same.
Should they do so, may they suffer in the nethermost hell accord-
ing to the law laid down by the Buddha. But should they report
faithfully any reclamation of wastelands, may they share the merit
with us.

A sedan chair, a cast-iron fire tray, a spittoon, a kettle, a lounge
and a cot were placed in the monastery for the use of the presiding
monk. A white umbrella was erected over the image standing
in front of the monastery. The necessary repairs are to be made
out of the usufruct of the Myaing and Ngatayaw lands. One-fifth
of the same should be set apart for offerings of rice to the image in
the monastery and for repairs to the building itself. One-fifth of the
remainder is to be offered to the presiding monk and the balance to
the clerks and slaves of the monastery. All overseers shall be
appointed by the presiding monk and subordinate monks in con-
sultation, and they are in like manner to supervise the repairing of
the monastery, the out-buildings and walls, and the replacing of
damaged documents in the monastery library by new ones.

May those who fail to follow these my instructions suffer in
proportion to their knowledge of the Law. On the other hand,'
may those who follow them share in my merit. The following

* Probably colonists from Southern India. The list of books given in this inscription
contains several names of Sanskrit works.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA. 41

books are placed in the monastery for the enlightenment of all
comers:

PArajikakanda.

PAcittyAdibikkh&nivibhaiiga.

VinayamahAvagga.

Vinayacftjavagga.

VinayaparivAra.

PArajikakanda atthakathA.

PAcittyAdi atthakathA.

PArajikakanda tikA.

Terasakanda tikA.

Vinayasangaha atthakathA (1).

Vinayasangaha atthakathA (2).

KankhAvitarani atthakathA.

KhuddasikkhA tikA (old).

KhuddasikkhA tikA (new).

KankhA tikA (new).

Vinayaganth ipada.

Vinaya uttarasincaya atthakathA.

Vinayasincaya tikA (new).

Vinayakhandhaniddesa.

Dhammasangani.

Vibhanga.

DhAtukathA.

Puggalapanfiatti.

KathAvatthu.

MAlayamaka.

Indriyayamaka.

TikapatthAna.

DukatikapatthAna.

DukapatthAna.

AtthasAlini atthakathA.

Sammohavinodani atthakathA.

Paficapakarana atthakathA.

AbhidhammA anutikA.

Abhidhammatthasangaha atthakathA.

Abhidhammatthasangaha tikA.

AbhidhammatthavibhAvani tikA.

Silakkhandha.

MahAvagga.

PAtheyya.

Silakkhandha atthakathA.

MabAvagga atthakathA.

PAtheyya atthakathA.

6


INSCRIPTIONS OF. PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

Silakkhandha tiki. . ..

Mahivagga tiki.

Pitheyya tiki.

Milapannisa.

Milapannisa atthakathi.

Mulapannisa tiki.

Majjhimapannisa.

Majjhimapannisa atthakathi. .
Majjhimapannisa tiki.

Uparipaniiisa.

Uparipannisa atthakathi.

Uparipannisa tiki.

Sagithivaggasamyutta.
Sagithivaggasamyutta atthakathi.
Sagithivaggasamyutta tiki.

N idinavaggasariiy utta.
Nidinavaggasamyutta atthakathi.

Khand h avaggasamyutta.
Khandhavaggasamyutta tiki.
Saliyatanavaggasamyutta.
Sajiyatanavaggasarhyutta atthakathi.
Mahivaggasamyutta.

Ekadukatika anguttara.

Catukanipita anguttara.

Paficanipita anguttara.

Chasattanipita anguttara.

Atthanavanipita anguttara.

Dasa ekidasanipita anguttara.

Ekanipita anguttara atthakathi.
Dukatikacatukanipita anguttara atthakathi.
Pancidi anguttara atthakathi.

Anguttara tiki (i).

Anguttara tiki (2).

Khuddakapitha, text and atthakathi.
Dhammapada, text and atthakathi.

Udina, text and atthakathi.

Itivuttaka, text and atthakathi.

Suttanipita, text and atthakathi.
Viminavatthu, text and atthakathi.
Petavatthu, text and atthakathi.

Thera, text and atthakathi.

Theri, text and atthakathi.

Pithacariya.

Ekanipitajit^ka atthakathi.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

43

DukanipAtajAtaka atthakathA,

TikanipAtajAtaka atthakathA.
CatukapancachanipAtajAtaka atthakathA.
Satta-attha nava mpAtajAtaka atthakathA.
Dasa-ekAdasanipAtajAtaka atthakathA.
DvAdasaterasapakinnakanipAtajAtaka atthakatbA.
VisatijAtaka atthakathA.

J Atattaki- sotattaki-nid Ana atthakathA.
CAlaniddesa.

Cujaniddesa atthakathA.

MahAniddesa.

MahAniddesa atthakathA.
jAtaka tikA.

DumajAtaka atthakathA.

ApAdAna.

ApAdAna atthakathA.

PatisambhidAmagga.

PatisambhidAmagga atthakathA.
PatisambhidAmagga ganthipada.

Visuddhimagga atthakathA.

Visuddhimagga tikA.

Buddhavariisa atthakathA.

CariyApitaka atthakathA.

NAmarupa tikA (new).

Paramatthavinicchaya tikA (new).
Mohavicchedani.

Lokapannatti.

Mohanayana.

Lokuppatti.

Arunavati.

Chagatidipani.

SahassayaiiisimAlini.

Dasavatthu.

Sahassavatthu.

Sihajavatthu.

Petakopadesa.

TathAgatuppatti.

Dhammacakka.

Dhammacakka. tikA.

DAthAdhAtuvamsa.

DAthAdhAtuvamsa tikA.

Culavamsa.

Dipavarhsa.

Thupavamsa.


44

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA,

AnAgatavarfisa.

Bodnivariisa.

MahAvariisa.

MAhAvarhsa tiki.
DhammadAna.

M ah AkaccAyana.

T&anbyin tikA.

MahAtnera tikA.

RApasiddhi atthakathA.
RApasiddhi tikA.

BAlAvatAra.

V uttimoggalAna.
PaficikAmoggalAna.
PancikAmoggalAna tikA.
KArikA.

KArikA tikA.
Lingatthavivarana.
Lingatthavivarana tikA.

M ukhamattasAra.
MukhamattasAra tikA.
MahAgana.

CAjagana.

AbhidhAna.

AbhidhAna tikA.

Saddaniti.

CAlanirutti.
CAlasandhivisodhana.
Saddattha (bheda) cintA.
Saddattha (bheda) cintA tikA.
Padasodhana.
SambandhacintA tikA.
RApAvatAra.

SaddAvatAra.

Saddhammadipaka.

SotamAlini.

SambandhamAlini.

PadAvahAmahAcakka.

NvAdi (MoggalAna).

KatacA.

MahAkA.

BAlattajana.

SuttAvaJi.

Akkharasammoha (chedani).


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

45

CetiddhinemiparigAthA.

SamAsataddhitaatthadipani.

Bijakkhyam.

KaccAyanasAra.

BAlapabodhana.

AtthasAlini.

AtthasAlini nissaya.

KaccAyana nissaya.

Rftpasiddhi nissaya.
jAtaka nissaya.

JAtaka gaiithi.

Dhammapada ganthi nissaya.
KammavAcA.

Dhammasatta.

KalApapancikA.

KalApapancikA tikA.
KalApasupratififiAsaku tikA.
Prindo tikA.

RattamAlA.

RattamAIA tikA.

RoganidAna.

Dabraguna.

Dabraguna (Dravyaguna) tikA.
Chandoviciti.

Candaprutti.

CandrapancikAra.

KAmandaki.

DhammapaiifiApakarana.

Mahosatthi.

SubodhAlankAra.

SubodhAlankAra tikA.
Tanogabuddhi.

Tapdi.

Tandi tikA.

CankadAsa.

CankadAsa tikA.
AriyasaccAvatAra.
Vicitragandha-saddhammanpAya.
SArasangaha.

SArapinda.

Patipattisangaha.

SulasAra.

PAlatakka.

TrakkabhAsA.


46

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

Saddakiriki.

Kasikiprutti.

Palini.

Saddhammadipaka.

Saty asat vivabod ha.
Bilapabodhanapruttikarana.
Atthabyikhyam (Arthavyikyam).
Cijaniruttimanjisi.

Mafijisi tiki byikhyam.

Anu tikA byikhyarh.

Pakinnakanikiya.

Catthapayoga.

Matthapayoga.

Rogayatri.

Rogayatri tiki.

Satthekavipasvaprakisa.

Rijamattanta.

Parctsa.

Vakoladdhaja.

Brihajjitaka.

Brihajjitaka tlkA.

Dathituvamsa Dithidhituvamsa (tikA).
Patigaviveka tiki.

Alahkira tikA.

Calindapanciki.

V edavidhinimittaniruttivannani.

Nirutti byikhyam.

Vuttodaya.

Vuttodaya tiki.

Malinapafini (Milindapafihi).
Saratthasangaha.

Amarakosa (Amarakosha) nissaya.
Pindo nissaya.

Kalipa nissaya.

Roganidina byikhyam.

Dabbraguna (Dravyaguna) tiki.
Amarakosa (Amarakosha).

Dandi tiki (l).

Dandi tiki (2).

Dandi tiki (3).

Koladhvaja tikA.

Alankira.

Alankara tiki.

Bhesajjamanjisi.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA> AND AVA.

47

Yuddhajeya.

Yatanaprabha tiki.

Viragdha.

Viragdha tiki.

CulAmanisAra.

RAjamattanta tikA.

Mrityuvaficana.

MahAkAlacakka.

MahAkAlacakka tikA.

Paraviveka.

KaccAyanarupAvatAra.

PumbharasAn.

TaktAvatAra.

TaktAvatAra tikA.

NyAyabindhu.

NyAyabindhu tikA.

Hetubindhu.

Hetubindhu tikA.

RikkaniyayatrA.

RikkaniyayatrA tikA.

BarittaratAkara.

ShyArAmitikabya.

Yuttisangaha.

Yuttisangaha tikA.

SArasangaha nissaya.

RogayatrA nissaya.

RocpnidAna nissaya.

Saddattha (bheda) cintA nissaya.

PArA nissaya.

ShyAmitikabya nissaya.

BrihajjAtaka nissaya.

RattamAlAnayayuttisangaha nissaya.

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN.

III.Found at Hngetpyittaung.

No. (i).Obverse.

Locality.North of Nyaungu village.

Date. 804 SakkarAj (1442 A. D.).

Founders.Thinkaya, Governor of Taungdwin, and his wife.
Substance of inscription.Dedication of village lands and palm
trees to monastery.

On Saturday, the 2nd waning of Nay6n, 804 SakkarAj, the
Governor of Taungdwin, Thinkaya, and his wife obtained as a boon


48

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

from the king, MahAthihathuya,* the village of Yinsante, together
with the lands pertaining to it, and the palm trees growing thereon.
At the time the boon was asked the following presents accom-
panied the supplicants, namely, an elephantess called Shwethaluii, a
gold basket set with rubies and two bunches of gold sprays. These
lands were dedicated to the royal monastery at Myittha, Pagan.
The following personages were present at the time of the suppli-
cation of the boon, namely, Sithuya, Thugyi of Kale, brother-in-law
of the Chief of Maw, the lord of three white elephants; Princes
Nawyata, Uzana, and Sagumin ; the ministers ; the Shan chiefs and
other courtiers. The, boundaries of the land are as follows:
south, Obyunyaung, Tanaungwun and Wathfcb6k ; thence to the
junction of tne Zayet and Kanmya streams ; thence to a spot on
the Thamdn hill marked with a stone dragon facing west ; thence
to a stone pillar underneath a kdkko tree ; thence to a stone dragon
placed under a large nabl tree at Yaukchi; thence to a stone pillar
erected underneath a gyo tree on the east bank of the Kanthit
stream ; thence to a recumbent dragon in front of Nga Chaing
Thins Jtank; thence to Nyaungbindo, and then along the bound-
aries of Thittaung and Einshanzauk lands up to the main stream;
thence to the Tabutkan pond used by buffaloes ; thence to &yingat
bush overgrown by a kokko tree; thence to the small village of Nga-
pyitsin; thence to a stone dragon, facing west, built in front of a
nim tree ; thence to a cave ; thence to Lindathamya; thence to the

stream behind Einbwfcswfe........................Besides the land

included within these boundaries, the palm trees standing thereon
are also dedicated to the monastery erected by Princess U Min in
order that the Religion might flourish for 5,000 years, and in order
that the cause of the Three Gems might be promoted.

May we by virtue of this our present meritorious deed, be en-
abled to act as guides to the kings and queens of this earth, as well as
every nobleman and commoner, and every creature inhabiting
every region between the lowest hell and the highest heaven.
May we moreover be enabled to disperse every evil. Our daughter
joins in our prayer. May those who destroy my offering them-
selves, or aid and abet others who destroy it, suffer every kind
of punishment in the present ; and in the future may they pass
through the eight principal hells and suffer like the Buddhas
tormentor Dewadat, whose bulk of body in hell is equivalent
to a distance of 100 days journey, and who is placed in an iron
cage in avici hell facing west and secured with iron spits about the
size of an average log and piercing his body crosswise from side to

* This is the title by which King Narapadi was known while he was yet a Prince
and eater of Prome.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

49

side and from front to back. May they fail to have the benefit of
the saving influence of every succeeding Buddha. May they, even
in their present life, be separated from their families and friends,
become a deformed peta like the steward of Athasha Thate,* who
coveted the alms given to the poor, and may they always incur the
wrath of the king, be molested by thieves, and be in constant
danger from fire....................(last line).

No. (2).

Locality.Within the porch of a pagoda about 500 feet north
of the southern group of pagodas.

Date.577 Sakkar&j (1215 A.D.).

Founder.Daughter of Nagayit.f

Substance of inscriptionDedication of pagoda slaves.

On Saturday, the 6th waning of Tazaungmon, 577 SakkarAj, the
daughter of Nagayit dedicated her personal slaves to the Religion,
saying that she had no right of possession over even her own
offspring.} The names of the slaves are : Sigon Than, his daugh-
ters O Myet M£, O Lat, U Lon and Akyun; a young grandson;
Nga Kya Thin and his wife O Wa Hnin, daughter O Pa O,
sons Nga Pw&, Nga Pyin, and Nga Tha L6n ; O Don Ngfe and her
daughters O Kyi and O Lat, sons O Sdn, O Naing, O Ng6, and
O Gala; Nga Pyi; O L6n and his brother Nga Mwe, sons Nga
Pya L6n and Nga Lat; uncles Nga Ka, Nga Chat D6n, and Nga
La. Besides these personal attendants, other slaves were dedi-
cated, namely, an old woman called Sa Ya ; O Kywin ; O Paung;

O.................and O Pet. This dedication was made in the

presence of monks Thabyi, Taunglat, Bokdala......................, Nara-

singhakavi, Pananarasi, and Lakkhani.

No. (3).

Locality.About 100 feet west of Kyunbogan monastery.

Date.636 SakkarAj (1274 A.D.).

Founders.Five tbugyis or revenue collectors.

According to a current legend said to have emanated from Gautama Buddha himself
and repeated by his disciples, this thate or rich man was a citizen of Dviravatt (the
modern Sandoway). One day he held a charitable festival and directed his steward to
distribute alms lavishly to the poor and crippled who flocked to it. The steward sent
many applicants away empty-handed and his avarice was rewarded with instant deformity
and exile in the jungles.

t Nagaraj, an officer in charge of the royal elephants in Zeyatheinkas reign.

J This lady was evidently induced to part with her slaves. She could, however, of her
own accord dedicate them for religious service as she could dispose of them in whatever
way she pleased. Besides slaves, prisoners of war were frequently so dedicated. Reli-
gious slaves are always looked down upon and treated as outcasts.

7


50 INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

Substance of inscription.Building of pagoda and caves and de-
dication of paddy-lands and'pagoda slaves.

On Friday, the 14th waning Tawthalin, 583 SakkarAj (1221 A.D.),
Thugyi Kyizin and his wife offered to the monk Winido a complete
set of the Tripitaka together with 20 pis of paddy-land called Po-
dettheinmyit. On the same day they bought Tauknwfethi, daughter
of Ein Thi, as a slave. They moreover dedicated the following
slaves to the Law,* namely, Nga Set Pa and his son Nga Set, Nga
Pwe, Nga Ya, Nga Swa, Nga P6n and his son Nga Pa Gyi, Nga
Naung Ngb, Nga San Pyi, and Nga Yo.

May those who destroy these our offerings suffer in the avid
hell.

On Thursday, the 9th waxing, Tazaungmon, 596 SakkarAj (1234
A.D.), Thugyi Shwe Nyaung and his grandson Nga Nyaung Bin
dedicated to the image kept in monk Winidos monastery 30 pis of
paddy-land west of Hngepyittaung hill and mentioned in Thugyi
Nga Yit Thins revenue register, and 20 pis in Magyidein village
which are mentioned in Thugyi Tithanaws register; total 50 pis.

May those who destroy our offerings suffer in the avid hell.
May they never have the opportunity of beholding any of the suc-
ceeding Buddhas. On the other hand, may those who approve of
them have a share of our merit.

On Monday, the 7th waxing of Tabaung, 598 SakkarAj (1236
A.D.), Thugyi Kaungsin built a cave and dedicated the following
slaves to look after it in his behalf, namely, Payan Gyi and his
brother Payan Ng&. He further dedicated 70 pis of paddy-land
in Taunglabat village, south-east of Myingbndaing.

May every one, from the king downward, have a share of my
merit accruing from this good work. May those who destroy it be
burnt in the avid hell.

On Thursday, the 7th waxing of Kas6n, 602 SakkarAj (1240 A.D.),
Kingathingyan, the Thugyi, built a masonry monastery, and his
wife dedicated the Sagu paddy-land measuring 15 pis to the three
Gems.

On Thursday, the 3rd waning of Nadaw, 615 SakkarAj (1253 A.D.),
Kingathingyan and wife erected a cave and placed a large image
in it. The cave had 4,000 small images on its four sides as well as
representations of the Buddhas anterior births. The thugyi and
his wife subsequently dedicated to the three Gems the following
slaves, namely, Ta Ngdn and his son Nga Tha Din, his brothers
Nga Pana and Nga Myitsa, Ma Tein Baing and her mother O
Thet She, O Ma Kin Thin, and O Kyi Zu Mi. To monk Winidos

* That is to say, to look after the manuscripts and the place where they are kept, as well
as the lands, if any, pertaining thereto.


tNSCRIPTIONS'OF PAGAN, PlNYA, AND AVA. 51

monastery they dedicated the following paddy-lands, namely, 12^
pis behind Sadaung village, and the Madaya lands, measuring 350
pis; total 412^ pis.

On Tuesday, the 1 ith waning of Nadaw, 636 SakkarAj 1274 (A.D.),
Nga Thit Thin, son of Kingathingyan, the Thugyi, dedicated to the
three Gems the following paddy-lands on behalf of his deceased
wife,* namely, 30 pis behind Hngetpyittaung hill and mentioned in
Thugyi Nga Yit Thins revenue register, and 25 on the east
bank of the main irrigation channel south of Ngansun village
and included in the Kyetsein village lands. The witnesses to this
dedication were Naratheinzi, Manawyaza and son Nga Sizeinthin,
At winy we, and Nga Leinma Thin. The water-pouring ceremony
was performed in their presence.

May the king and every one else obtain a share of my merit, and
may I be gifted with omniscience.

No. (4).

Locality.^Within the double tiered cave south-west of Hngetpyit-
taung.

Date.633 SakkarAj (1271 A.D.).

Founder.- Letkanaletwfe.t

Substance of inscription.Dedication of paddy-lands and pagoda
slaves.

In the year 590 SakkarAj (1228 A.D.) Letkanaletwfe obtained
from the king, as a reward for his success in war, 173 pis of irri-
gated paddy-land called Pandeinmwe in Mahadankyadu, and 27
of similar land called Ngasutabo. These he dedicated to the
Payagyi pagoda in the presence of the monks Taminga, Tharapwe,
and Winido.

On Friday, the 4th waning of Wazo, 607 SakkarAj (1245 A.D.),
200 pis of paddy-land were dedicated to the same pagoda when the
monlc Bokdalingawaranyanfcyinthi, to whom the land was previously
offered by the king, renounced the world and chose the life of a strict
ascetic in a cave.

On Thursday, the 5th waxing of Thadingyut, 633 SakkarAj (1271
A.D.), Nga Pyinnya Thin dedicated to the same pagoda his two
personal slaves Nga Ya Kaing and Nga Thaung Ga, in order that
he and they might escape the horrors of avid hell. The slaves
willingly submitted to this dedication while they were resting their
heads on Nga Pyinnyas posteriors at a place called Ngataba.

This sort of dedication somewhat corresponds with the practice in vogue in the church
of Rome, where prayers are offered for the welfare of departed spirits,
f A minister of King Narathihapade or Zeyatheinka.


52

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PlNYA, AND AVA.

No. (s).

Locality. About half a mile south of the Hngetpyittaung pagoda and
a mile south-east of the Shwezig6n.

Date. 598 Sakkarij (1236 A.D.).

Founders.Yazathura and wife.*

Substance of inscription.Dedication of paddy-lands, cows, and
slaves to a monastery.

£This inscription is so fragmentary that nothing can be made out
of it beyond the facts noted above.]

NO. (6).

Locality. On the south-west side of the Mahathaman group of
monasteries.

Date.614 Sakkarij (1252 A.D.).

Founders.Mahathaman and wife.

Substance of inscription.Building of pagoda, monastery, rest-
house, and covered walks, and dedication of paddy-lands,
gardens, cows, buffaloes, and slaves.

" I adore the Buddha!

IN the year 1796 of the Religion, in the reign of King Uzana of
Pagan, the minister plenipotentiary, who was a very pious devotee of
the three Gems and whose wife was replete with virtue and wisdom
and charity, erected a large monastery surrounded by a wall enclosing
a beautiful garden containing young fruit trees, a tank, a beautiful
covered walk and rest-house, on a piece of high land east of Pagan
and in order that this offering, which was made to the monkhood
might last throughout the whole period of the Religion, dedicated to
it many slaves, male and female, paddy-lands, gardens and planta-
tions cows and buffaloes, and caused a large barn to be erected for
the storage of grain. The following were the slaves dedicated by
the minister and his wife in the presence of the monks Mahakatha-
pa and Dhammathirithubutisan, to their monastery, which was com-
pleted on Wednesday, the 5th waning of Nadaw, 599 Sakkaritj; Nga
Kan Tu and his sons Nga Pyi Wa, Ma Than and Nga U Pi; Nga
Pyi Was son Nga U Hla; Nga San This son Nga Myat; Nga Pyi;
Nga Kin Bun Thin; Nga Ta Ba and his wife O Chat La, daughters
O Myaik, O Si Gon, O Yeik Tha, and O Let Kauk; Nga Pu Te and
wife Eindaw, sons Nga Pdn Sa and Nga Kyw6; Nga Pon S6n and
wife Yadu, sons Be Hlan, Pb Ka, Nga Pana Ya, and Nga T6, daugh-
ters Kali, B6kka and Matuya; Nga Wun Bfe and wife O B6n, grand-
daughter O L6n; Ma Lemi and daughters Ma L£, O Bdn Ne, O Pi

Yazathura is a son of Narapadisthu, by Queen Usaukpan.'and uncle of Kyazwa, who
was reigning at the time the inscription was erected.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA. 53

Ku and O Pfc Hla; Nga Yon and son Nga Pyi Zon, grandson Nga
Si Zein; blacksmith Nga Pauk Ka and assistant Nga Min; O Tha
Do; Meta; Madaw and wife Hi Ton, daughter Paw Mi; Letkaw and
wife Zanu, daughter PuT6; Ana Kataya and wife Ala Mu, sons
Nga Pyinnya and Nga Dok Cha; Nga Twe Ba; Nga Twe Mi .

The following lands were dedicated, namely, 40 of paddy-
land behind Pinonyaing village in Mapinzaya circle, which was pur-
chased by Mahathaman out of the too offered to the Brahman
astrologers by King Mingyikyazwa; 50 pis of similar land in Kan-
du village purchased from Kinumi; 5 of similar land in Mabya
purchased from O Chat Thin, a maid-of-honour; another 50 pis in
Mabya obtained as a gift from the king; 30 pis of similar land in
Mawbwe purchased from Sandaraein; 200 pis of similar land in Pa-
kan called Letpanmye and Teindaunggwfc, purchased from Dewa-

panzdn;..........pis of land obtained in payment of a loan out

of 100 pis in Yatamaik, belonging to Kyamabats son; and 1,500 pis
between upper Dipeshin and Panbwe fishery whicli was obtained as
a gift from the king. Out of these lands, 30 pis at Panbwe, 52 at
Tanaunggyi, 30 out of Kinumis land, and too at Dipeshin are dedi-
cated to the Buddha and his Law." Fifty out of Dewapanzons
land and.........pis at Yatamaik are dedicated to the monk-

hood. The garden of young fruit trees situated north of the Okta-
ma-Kyauktuma forests was bought (here the inscription ends
abruptly).

No. (7).

Locality.Within the southern group of pagodas.

Date.605 Sakkar&j (1243 A.D.).

Founders.Minmeinma and Thugyi Thamantagdntan and wife.

Substance of inscription.Erection of pagoda, cave, monastery,
covered walk, rest-house and library, and dedication to the
same of paddy and garden lands, slaves, and cows.

On Thursday, the 7th waxing of Tabodwfc, 605 Sakkarij, the emi-
nent and charitably inclined lady Minmeinma, sister of the cele-
brated Tagagyi in conjunction with Thugyi Thamantagdntan and
his wife erected a pagoda, a cave, a monastery with masonry walls
a covered walk, a rest-house, a library, and 20 schools within the
monastery walls, in order that the Religion might last its full period
of 5,000 years. And for the upkeep of the same 300 pis of paddy

Founder of inscription No. (5) found at Wetkyi-in, Pagan.


54 INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

land, 30 slaves and 50 cows were dedicated to the three Gems by
the Thugyi and his wife. Minmeinma, sister of Tagagyi, dedicated

the following, namely,........................................

...........................(here follows the names of the slaves,

which are only partly decipherable). The dedication was made in
the presence of monk Winido.

No. (8).

Locality.Within the central group of pagodas.

617 Sakkar&j (1255 A.D.).

Founder.Sachibo.*

Substance of inscription. Building of monastery, cave, and rest-

house and dedication of garden and paddy-lands-and slaves.

I adore the Bnddha I

On Wednesday, the 1 ith waxing of Nay6n, 617 Sakkar&j, Sachibo
erected a monastery, a cave, and a rest-house, and dedicated the

following slaves to the three Gems," namely, Nga......and

son Nga Pa Thi; Nga Tha Lon ; O Kaung Myo and daughter .
. ; O Kya Bwe ; O Pyat; O Lauk Tet; O Kyan Byit and son

Nga U Pi; Nga Kyaung; O Hla; Ma.............and daughter Chit

Mye; O Daung Thu and daughter 0.............; Nga P6n Byit;

Nga Pen ; Nga Pon...........; Nga Mun; Nga Tagaung and son

Nga Kwe; total 23 slaves. The paddy-lands dedicated are the
following, namely, 30 pis south of Kyazinkyaung in Myingdndaing

circle; 5 pis of garden-land in Pauktaw; 5 pis.........

..........; 5 pis of paddy-land in Lawa village, purchased out of

the Pinmyaing lands; ..................................

60 pes behind Daukhlaga village, Mapinzaya circle; a portion of

the pay an gardens;.........................; 60 palm trees at

Ngathayauk. ________

No. (9).

Locality.At the source of the Wetkyi-in stream.

Date. 621 Sakkarij (1259 A.D.).

Founder.Somingyi, widow of Prince Minthalat.

Substance of inscription.Building of monastery and dedication of
slaves thereto.

I adore the Lord of the three lokas!

ON Monday, the 5th waning of Nayon, 621 Sakkar&j, Somingyi,
daughter of Mahathamangyi, f in compliance with the wishes of her

* Secretary to a Military Commander, corresponding to the modern asuye.
f Founder of inscription No. 6, ante.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

55

princely husband, erected a monastery, and pouring out water joint-
ly with her father, dedicated the same to the three Gems. The
lands attached to the monastery are the following, namely, 300
of mayin and 130 pis of kaukkyi land called Yagwetaya, and 100
pis of mayin and 900 pis of kattkkyi land called Kunthazeik in
Py6nlaing circle; \,000 pis of kaukkyi land called Tanaungwun in
Masfe circle ; 70 pis of mayin land called Ingyintayaz6n in Itingon
circle; so pis of mayin land in Ngazun circle; 20 pis of mayin and
kaukkyi land called Kalazinga which is included in the Oksana
lands in Pyinmana. Out of these, 170 pis of mayin and 1,430 pis
of kaukkyi land are set apart for the Buddha, his law, and monkhood,
and 100 pis of mayin and 400 pis of kaukkyi land are reserved for
the presiding monte of the monastery. The slaves dedicated were
the following, namely, Nga Wun Ta and son Nga Tun; Nga Thit
Kwes wife and her sons Nga Kwe Ya and Nga Pagan Mi, daugh-
ters O Zu Yi and Ap&; Ap6s daughter O Mi U ; Nga Thet She ;
Nga Kan Tha; Nga Kwe Ya and sons Nga U and Nga Pang6;
Thin Da; Nga Pyi Yas sons Pu Taya, Nga Sa Zo and Nga Pyu;
total 16 slaves.

By virtue of this good deed, may I enjoy the pleasures of this
world and the world of devds, and of Nirvana; and may every one
from the king downwards obtain a share of the merit. On the
other hand, may utter ruin befall those who destroy my offering, and
may they be burnt in avici hell.

No. (10).

Locality.V/ithin the double-tiered cave pagoda.

Date.661 SakkarAj (1299 A.D.).

Founder.Anandapade.*

Substance of inscription.Building of monastery and dedication of
paddy-land thereto.

On Thursday, the 8th waxing of Nayon, 661 Sakkaraj, Ananda-
pade obtained permission from the young king and built a monastery
at Tharabwe. He further obtained as a gift from the king and
dedicated to the monastery in the interests of the Religion 100
pis of paddy-land known as Kanbuntawgan, and 100 pis at
Kyantu which was originally allotted to Santarathus son Nga
Twe for military service; total 200 pis. The following personages
were present when the lands were applied for, namely, Thugyis
Athincha, Yazathingyan, and Theingathu ; nobles Tetkana, Saduyin-
gapyitsi, Etkapade, Eindapyitsaye, Ponnyathu, Paritpyetkathu, and
Mahathaman.

A minister of King Sawnit of Pagan.


56

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

May those who approve of this my offering have as many re-
wards as the grains of sand between Nyaungu and Thiyipyitsaya ;*
and may those who do not, and those who destroy the same, suffer
in avtci punishments which exceed in. number the said grains of
sand, and may they never have the opportunity of beholding any
of the succeeding Buddhas.

No. (11).

Locality.In the porch near the great image.

Date.1119 SakkarlLj (1757 A.D.).

Founder.Alompra.

Substance of inscription. Building of monastery and prohibiting
the taking of animal life within a radius of 500 tas.

We hereby command that the five letters abhayaddna be add-
ed to the inscription on the Hngetpyittaung seal, and that the
officials and other inhabitants of Pagan and Nyaungu shall, on
pain of severe punishment, refrain from indulgence in intoxicating
liquors and drugs, and from taking any animal life or capturing any
animal, within a radius of 500 tas of our monastery at Hngetpyit-
taung.Given through Zeyayanaung, Governor of Pagan, on
Saturday, the 4th waning of Tabodwfe, 1119 SakkarAj.

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN.

IV.Found on the north-east of Pagan.

No. (1).Obverse.

Locality.Within the walls of the Kemawaya pagoda.

Date.569 Sakkar&j (1207 A.D.).

Founder.King Nandaungmya.t

Substance of inscription.Building of a monastery and library and
dedication of lands.

Reverence to the Blessed, Holy, and Enlightened One 1

On Thursday, the 1st waxing of Tagu, 569SakkarAj, King Nan-
daungmya, wishing to attain Buddhahood, built a cave, a library, and
a monastery, and celebrated the dedication ceremony with dancing
and music, and made offerings of gold and silver flowers. The fol-
lowing lands were then dedicated to the monkhood, namely, 1,050pte
of land with palm trees thereon and situated on the south-west of

* Old Pagan.

t Better known in history as Zeyr.theinka and Uzana, which are his royal titles.
Nandaungmya means a frequent supplicant of the throne. It is recorded that he suc-
ceeded in obtaining the throne from his father Narapadis:.thu, owing to the good offices
of his mother.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

5-7

Taungpeinnfc; 300 pis adjoining the above and 700 pis of paddy-
land at Kaungza. Besides the above, 10,000 pis of land on the
banks of the southern Nab6 stream were dedicated. This piece of
land is bounded on the east by a piece of highland called
tufya, south by the Obokku village, west by the Lihtagaung land,
and north by the Kanthit land. The other lands dedicated were :
300 pis of paddy-land at Ngapaukku; 50 pis at Myethabin ^-700
pis at Maneik ; 1 ,000 pis at Kaing, 500 at Salin-Kyaikpadaung-
gyi, 500 at Pinmyaing, 500 at Yangon, 1,500pis called the Yebok-
kanzwfe land, 50 pis at Pakan-Nw^ni, 10,000 pis at Satheinywa-
byu near Yaw territory, which is bounded on the east by the Sinzein
land, on the south-east by the Gyaingzauk land, on the south by a
line at a distance of a peacocks crow beyond the Nyaungdipa abyss,
on the south-west by the Thabyedoland, on the west by the Chabin-
gwabdn range of hills, on the north-west by the Kyunthanbyin land,
on the north by the Yebyaletpan land, and on the north-east by a
line which is a peacocks crow beyond Satthwa stream. His Majesty
poured out the water of dedication amid the blowing of trumpets and
beating of drums in the presence of an assembly of ministers and
monks who acclaimed their approval.

May all those, from the rulers of the earth downwards, who mis-
appropriate or destroy my offering, suffer the eight kinds of punish-
ment during their existence as human beings, and after death may
they be burnt in the eight principal stages of hell; moreover, may
they become pet as like the man who, during the period of the Religion
of Kakusandha Buddha, altered, through covetousness, a boundary
pillar demarcating a piece of religious land and was punished by
being immersed waist-deep in a slab of rock 60 days journey square
and upon whom the saving influence of three successive Buddhas
has been exerted in vain. May they have no opportunity of behold-
ing any future Buddha. On the other hand, may those who approve
of my offering, who refrain from appropriating any portion of it to
their own use, or who in any way maintain its continuance, become
rulers of the universe, rich and prosperous men.

Reverse.

Date.609 SakkarAj (1247 A.D.).

Founders. Monk Pwa Gyi and grandson.

Substance of inscription.Rc-dodication of slaves who were attach-
ed to the Anuyada* monastery and the Lawkananda pagoda in
569 SakkarAj.

A DISPUTE having arisen between the governor and the head pa-
goda-slave Oksa in connection with the slaves dedicated by Monk

* Anuruddha.

8


$8 INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

Pwa Gyi and his grandson to the pagoda and monastery built by
them respectively on Friday, the 5th waning of Thadingyut, 569
Sakkardj, this inscription is recorded. The following slaves are re-
dedicated tp the Anuyuda monastery, namely, Mandaleiks son Pin-
gaw; Namateiks nephew; Pingaw's son Apok ; Hitu's infant
daughter; Mandalik's brotherTumu and nephew Lei tkein; Manda-
leiks wife Malika and sons Thoye and Nga Put; and Thabeiks
wife Kingu. Only these ten remain out of those originally dedi-
cated. May those who molest these slaves suffer in all the four
departments of avici hell, and perish together with all their kins-
men. The slaves re-dedicated to the Lawkananda pagoda are
the following, namely, Nga Pan Thas son Kadaw; Nga Pa Nwi,
brothers Nga Yauk and Nga Kan Tu, uncle Nga Tha Din, cousin
Nga Pa U, uncles Nga P6k Pya, U Don and Nga Pyi Z6n, cousin
Nga Pa Yin, uncles Nga Ka Ywfe and Nga Chit Twfe; Tanabyus son
Kauk Ka A; Amandan Thaw; Setthu; Tingu and daughter Ein
Chan Tha. Out of 21 slaves originally dedicated, only these 17
are surviving. May those who molest them suffer in all the four
departments of avici hell and may they perish together with all their
relatives.

No. (2).

Locality.Within the porch of the Einyagyaung pagoda, Pagan.

Date.604 Sakkaraj (1242 A.D.).

Founder.Wife of Kingathu (a noble).

Substance of inscription.Building of monastery and dedication of
slaves thereto.

I adore the Bnddha, his Law, and Monkhood I

ONThursday, the 14th waning of Nadaw, 6c>4SakkarAj, thedaugh-
ter of Nyaungyangyi and wife of Kingathu* built a monastery and
dedicated to it the following slaves, namely, Nga San Pfc and wife
O Tan Laing; sons Nga Kwe and Nga U Pi; cousin Nga Pyi Wa,
Nga Pyi Zin, Nga Min Ngfe, and son Nga Pa Zin; uncle Nga Hnit
Laing and nephew Nga Aung Myin; Nga La Ma and sons Nga
Twe and Nga Yauk U ; daughters O P6n and O Pi; Nga Ne and
sons Nga Kyaung and Nga Lat; Nga Kyaung's son Nga Pa Sin;
Nga Pa Zin and brother Nga Pan The; Nga Pyi Nyi; Nga Lo Hnit
and son Nga U; Nga Hmy6 and wife Ma Hla; daughters Mi U
and Thudama; uncle Nga P6n; Nga Pin Gaung, a mortar mason;
clerk Nga La and son Nga Twe; Nga P6n Lut; Nga Ban Mwe
and son Nga U Lw6; nephews Nga U Pi and an infant; Nga
Kyet Y6ns sons Nga Mutu, Nga U Lwe and Nga Pale; Nga L6n

Ministers of King Narapatisithu, Uxana, and Kyazwa, of Pagan.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

59

and sons Nga U Hla, Nga Kanaw; Nga U Gyi and brothers Nga
Kyun and Nga Myo, wife 0 Hnaung, brother-in-law Nga San; Nga
San Les sons Nga Kyi and Nga Chat; O Ket Pya and sons Nga
Mi Lut, Nga Tet Pyi and Nga Dwe Byu; Nga U Pa and son Nga
U; Nga IPs wife Ma Thein and son Nga Mye I, daughter O Tage,
sons Nga Kante and Nga Pa Gyi, uncle Nga Twe; O Nyo; O
Gywe; O Mauk and niece O L6n, husband Nga Le, son Nga Nyo,
sisters O B6n, 0 Byi, O Chat, and O Byi Wa; O MaukTs niece
O Bdn and her daughter Mi Kin, sister O Pdnza; Nga Pdn and
brother Nga Mdn, sons Nga Kwe, Nga Kaung, and Nga Aung Byi,
daughter O Mun, nephew Nga Pdn He; NgaTu Yin; Thit Taungs
cowherd Nga Ton; Nga Ta E and son Nga Than Gb; O Myin;
Nga San, grandson of Nga He Thins younger brother; Nga Twes
son Nga Mun; Nga U L6n and son; goldsmith Man Te and two
children; Nga La Gaung, a garden slave; O Na Ldn and daugh-
ters Mi U and O Kan Tu, sister O Nya Yan, niece Ma Ni; Nga
Ta and sons Nga K6n an infant, brothers Nga Nyo, Nga Chet
Su, and Nga Ke; O Kin and daughter 0 Pun, nieces O Byi Ya
and O Daing; washerman Nga Pyi and sons Nga Thaukkya and
Nga Kaungyan ; C) M6n, a tinsmiths servant, and daughter O Bdn ;
Nga U Gyi and son Nga Pyi, brother Nga Swa, brother-in-laws son;
O Yins daughters O Lat and Mi U; Thit Suts servant Nga Kun,

deceased.................s son Nga Nyo and wife O Nyet and

their sons Nga Yin Di and Nga Mye; O Sin Kyfe and daughter O

Sat; Nga Pyis younger brothers.....................................

........................................................(one line)

and io slaves who were dedicated along with the Wayindok paddy-
lands. Besides the above, there are Nga Sa Po and son Nga Min Se,
brother Nga Ma Thein, nephew Nga Tin Byi, brothers Nga Aung
Myin and Nga Pyit Sin, uncle Nga Mywin, cousins Nga San Ga,
Nga Pu, Nga Ma Lauk, and Nga Twe, uncle Nga Pyi Zinand sons
Nga U L6n and an infant, uncle Nga Ti and son Nga Sein, uncle
Nga Chan Tha, uncle Nga Aung and sons Nga Than Pa and Nga
. San, uncle Nga Myo; O Ka La Thin, O Kywe, O Hla, and alL
their relatives ; O Ta, O Kala, O Pon, O Kywin Yit and their re-
latives ; O Pyi Thins slave O Det Pyi and all her relatives and com?
panions; the chief queens slaves Nga P6n, the boatswain and sons
Nga Naing, Nga Son, and Nga San, brother NgaTaba; Nga Pi, and;
son Nga Yaung, and all their relatives, Nga Wun Pyi and sons.
Nga Paung and Nga Pin Gaung, brother Nga Chat Kaung, nephew
Nga Pyi Nyi, brother Nga Aung Tha and son Nga Son; Nga L6n
Ma and brother Nga Naung Tha; Nga La Tha; O Taung Laung;
total, 181 slaves. These are placed under the control of the Monk
Thera, seven being scholars in his monastery.


6a

INSCRfPTrONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

" May those who molest these slaves, whether king or subject*
monk or layman, man or woman, live short and inglorious lives ay
human beings and die an unnatural death caused by fire, water,
lightning, axe, elephant, horse, donkey, leopard, orang-outang, or by
seme incurable disease white spitting clots of blood. May they,
after death, be burnt in the great avid hell, and may they have no
opportunity of beholding any of the future Buddhas. If perchance
they are reborn as human beings, may they be leprous, lame, blind,
deaf, dumb, or otherwise deformed or rendered infirm in consequence
of their evil deed, and may they also suffer as fetas beneath this
earth. On the other hand, may those who approve of my offering
and support it in any way in the interests of the Religion, have a
share of its merit equally with me and my husband. May thev,
among, men,................................ ** (last line).

No. (3>.

Locality.Within the porch of the Emyagyamig pagoda, Pagan.

Date. 604 Sakkarrtj (1242 A.D.).

Founder.'Wife of Kingathu.

Substance of inscription.Budding of monastery and- dedication of
paddy-lands thereto.

Reference to the Blessed, Holy and Enlightened One I

ON Thursday, the 14th waning of Nadaw, 604 Sakkar&j, Kinga-
thu passed away. On Sunday, the 3rd waxing of the following
month of Pyatho, the daughter of Nyaungyangyi, appreciating fully
the unstability of things temporal, and in order to perpetuate the
memory of her beloved lord, dedicated several pieces of paddy-
land to her own monastery, to that of the monk MahAkassapa, and
another, built by O Det Pyi Thin, her husband's aunt. The lands
dedicated to the said monasteries are the Kanti land, measuring 200
ph, granted to Kingathu by King Sithu ; 100 pis of mayin paddy-
land called kauknan ; the Pandin land, measuring 6 obtained in
exchange fora boat from A Twe, son of Warit; 200 pis of land
called ?napo, which was originally granted by King Sithu to
Nyaungyangyis wife; 50- pis of paddy-land obtained in payment of
the price of an elephant called Ayanbye; 1,000 out of the- 2,000
granted to Kingathu by King Kyazwa; the Tanyaukyit land,
measuring 20 pis, granted to Nyaungyangyi-s wife by King Kya-
zwa ; and I pi of garden-land granted by the same king to Kinga-
thu. The offerings made to the monks at the funeral were gold
Howers worth 2,506 ticals of silver and the Tagaung garden-land
measuring 8 pis,worth 1,494ticals; and the Wayindok paddy-land,.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA. 61

measuring 125 pis, were offered to the image on Banker Minya2a*s
monastery. The total area of the lands thus offered is 1,710 pis.
Out of this 10 pis of the Kanti land and 10 of the Kaukkan land
are set apart for the maintenance of the presiding monks and in-
habitants of the monasteries. The lands are placed under the con-
trol of the monk Thera.

May the calamities mentioned in the inscription placed north
of this befall those who misappropriate or destroy these offerings^
On the other hand, may those who are devoted to the three Gems*
be benefited by my good wishes and so attain Nirvana.

No. (4).

Locality.Within the porch of the Tazaung pagoda.

Date.604 Sakkar&j (1242 A.D.).

Founder.Wife of Kingathu..

Substance of inscription.Building of monastery and dedication of
slaves thereto.

Reverence to the Blessed, Holy and Enlightened One I

On Thursday, the 14th waning of Nadaw, 604 SakkarAj, Kingathu
passed away to the abode of the devas. On Sunday, the 3rd wax-
ing of the following month of Pyatho, the daughter of Nyaungyan-
gyi, knowing that all things on this earth are prone to change and
destruction, and in commemoration of her deceased husband, dedi-
cated the following slaves to the monastery built by O Det Pyi, her
husbands aunt, namely, O Leinmas daughter O Kaung Maing and
granddaughters O Chan, O Hla Wun and O Tha Din; O Si G6n
and daughter O Nyo; Nga Twfcs son Nga Chit Kin, grandson Myet
Ya; Chit Kins brothers Nga La Pa, Nga Pon and Nga Yon; Nga
Shan and sons Nga Pon and Nga S6n; Nga Aung Byi, son Nga
Pu and grandson Nga Let Swfe; Nga S6n and sons Nga Tet Pyi,.
Nga Pin Di, Nga Hli and Nga Hlauk; Nga S6ns brother Nga
Taung Yan ; KaJan Byussons Nga Pa Yin and Nga Pauk, grand-
son Nga Pa E ; Nga Ti's son Nga Yaung; Nga Mye and son Nga
Kin Pa; Nga Myes brother Nga Thauk Kya and nephew Nga
Aung Din; Nga Ti San and sons Nga Swa, Nga Chit Ya; Nga
Swas brother Nga Kyin and nephew Nga Wa ; Nga Kwe and sons
Nga Hli and an infant; Nga Kwes brother Nga Yauk P6n and
nephews Nga U and an infant; Nga Yauk P6ns brother Nga P&n
Zon; Nga Sons sons Nga U Yin and Nga Hli Myi; Nga Taung
Yan and sons Nga Maukand Nga Taba; Nga Pes son Nga Kala
Nga Yons sons Nga Sat The, Nga Chit Pa, and grandson Nga Lat



6a INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

Nga Twes son Nga U Hla, 0 Kan We, daughter O In, and an infant
granddaughter; O Kan Wes sister0 Lwi; Kyo Mache; Nga Chit
Muns son Nga Thanbaya; mortar mason Nga Thuma and two
sons................'. .

Let these slaves utilize the usufruct of the paddy-lands for the
upkeep of the monastery. Let the male and female head slaves
enjoy the produce of 15 pis each without fear of future punishment
in hell."

No. (s).

Locality.Within the porch of the Tazaung pagoda.

Date.604 SakkarAj (134a A.D.).

Founder.-Wife of Kingathu.

Substance of inscription.Building of monastery and dedication
thereto of paddy-lands, boat, elephants, cows, buffaloes, goats,
and slaves.

Reverence to the Blessed, Holy end Enlightened One I

On Thursday, the 14th waning of Nadaw, 604 Sakkar&j, Kingathu
passed away. On Sunday, the 3rd waxing of the following month
of Pyatho, the daughter of Nyaungyangyi and wife of Kingathu,
being mindful of the ephemeral nature of all earthly things, and in
order to preserve the remembrance of her husband, made the fol-
lowing offerings to the monastery erected by O Det Pyi, her hus-
bands aunt, namely, 300 pis, including fishery and waste lands, at
Ngapyetin, 10 pis of paddy-land at Puttaingkyaung, 100 pis at
Sagu, 100 at Prome, and 11 pis of garden-lands ; 300 out of the
500 pis of paddy-land east of Kyintharit; one male elephant called
Thamizan, one female elephant, 10 cows, five buffaloes, 1.0 goats,
and a small boat. The slaves dedicated were:Nga Pi and wife
O Byu, daughters O Nyoand OThan Ba; O Nyein and daughters
O Kwe, O Nye U ; O Nyeins sisters O Kaung Yauk, O Mun, and
O Twe, and nieces O K& Laung, O Tin; O Ke and daughter O Pin
Myaing, and a granddaughter, name unknown; O Pin Nyaings
sister O Thin Twe; O Kes sister 0 Twe; O Twes nieces O
Myet Pwin, O Chit Mi, and O Nyein Thi; O Tin Kes daughter
O Mwein, granddaughters O Than Pa and an infant; Nga Pyi
Z6ns son Nga Pyit Sin ; Nga Yauk and his brothers Nga Laung
Laung and Nga U Hla, nephew Nga Kwa; Nga Kyi and son Nga
U Pi; Nga Kaung A and sons Nga Kyan Bin and Nga Chit Swa;
Nga Hla Byi and son Nga P6n Za; and Nga Seins son Nga
Kywin.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

63

No. <6).

Locality.In Taungpi village about 600 feet north-east of Pagan.

Date.656 Sakkar&j (1294 A.D.).

Founder.Eindapy i tsaya.*

Substance of inscription.Building of pagoda, monastery, and cave,
and dedication of lands, cows, and slaves thereto.

Reverence to the Blessed, Holy and Enlightened One I

In the year 1837 of the Religion, or on Thursday, the 6th waning
of Tazaungm6n, 654 Sakkar&j, Eindapyitsaya, the minister, wishing
to attain Buddhahood in order that he might be able to save men and
devds alike from the miseries of samsaro, built a beautiful masonry
monastery, a cave, and a pagoda surrounded by double walls. On
Saturday, the 13th waxing of Wagaung,655 Sakkar&i, Eindapyitsaya
obtained the kings permission and dedicated the following lands,
namely, 50 pis more or less at Salin, 50 pis more or less .at Kanti,
50 pis more or less at Sagu, 20 at Mapinzaya, and 30 at Kanzdnkyu;
total 200 pis. These lands were registered by Minister Mahatha-
man. In the year 656 SakkarAj, 40 natives of -India, including 30
females, were dedicated as slaves ; and 50 cows were at the same
time offered for the maintenance of the monkhood throughout the
period of the Religion.

May every creature from the king of the devas downwards have
a share of my merit. But may those who destroy my offering have
no opportunity of beholding any of the succeeding Buddhas. May
they become pet as even should they be so fortunate as to remain
as human beings, otherwise, may they be burnt in avici .hell and
become its dregs. May the next Buddha be enabled to foretell
when I shall attain Buddhahood.

No. (7).

Locality.Within the group of monasteries west of the!Myazig6n
pagoda.

Date.870 Sakkaraj (1508 A.D.).

Founder.Minsithu and wife.

Substance of inscription.Building of monastery and dedication of
lands thereto.

I adore the three Gems!

IN the year 2052 of the Religion of Gautama Buddha, who acquired
omniscience after a probationary period of 4 asankheyyas and 100,000
kalpas, Minsithu, King Narapati's Chamberlain and his wife dedi-
cated to the monkhood their beautiful monastery which stands on
the bank of the Irrawaddy north-east of Pagan, with the view that
they might enjoy their lives as human beings and as devas and sub-

A Minister of King Kyaswa of Pagan.


4 INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

sequently attain the bliss of NirvAna. The building of the monas-
tery, which was of brick, was commenced on Saturday, the ioth
waning of Nay6n, 865 SakkarAj, and when it was completed, of-
ferings were made for the maintenance of the presiding monks
throughout the 5,000 years of the Religion. On Friday, the ioth
waxing of Nadaw, 870 SakkarAj, one tame female elephant with gold-
en howdah, one pony with golden saddle and trappings and silver
stirrups, one gold drinking pot, and one gold bottle were presented
ito the King by the Royal Chamberlain in the presence of the Minis-
ters and the Governors of Tabayin, Pakan, and Pindalfe, and permis-
sion was obtained from His Majesty to dedicate to the monastery
the Tetnwfegyaung village lands, including the landing-place, and
the Kyaukm& village lands. Calling upon the guardian nats of the
universe to witness his act, the King himself poured the water of
dedication out of a gold cup. The boundaries of the landing-place
are..............(last line).

No. (8).

Locality.West of the Myazigdn pagoda.

Date.874 SakkarAj (1512 A.D.).

Founder.Minsithu, Royal Chamberlain.

Substance oj inscription. Building of a monastery.

{The latter portion of this inscription is so obliterated that there
is only sufficient matter to show that the monastery abovementioned
was built in memory of the founder's deceased son, who was a Gov-
ernor of Shwedaung.]

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN.

V.Found on the east of Pagan.

{Inscriptions (1) to (8) have not been deciphered. They appear
to be in Talaing-Burmese.]

No. (9).

Locality.Within the porch of the Tainggyut pagoda.

Date.506 Sakkar&j (1144 A.D.).

Founders.King Kyazwa and daughter of Governor of Pagan.

Substance of inscription.Dedication of lands and slaves to pagoda.

ON Saturday, the 5th waxing of Tabaung, 501 SakkarAj, Nga Pu
Thin, son of Ayimat,* applied to the king for permission to dedicate
certain lands to the Tainggyut pagoda. He was asked to mention
such lands as were available for the purpose, and he accordingly
named 50 pis at Nakakan, 130 pis in Moksobo circle, 100 pis ad-

* A Minister of King Alaungsithu.


INSCRIPTIONS OP PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA. 65

iacent to the Kyungaung lands, 70 known as the Myaungwun
lands south of Y&gyin village, 200 pis south-east of Ngalatwd village,
and *oo pis in Peiksfe circle; total 750 pis. The King Sithu com-
manded these lands to be dedicated.

On Sunday, the 5th waxing of Kas6n, 502 Sakkar&j, Queen Yada-
nabftn* built a cave near theTainggyut pagoda and dedicated to it 30
pis of paddy-land at Myitkwfe, north of Pyinmana. The royal betel
server, Ein P6n Thin, also built a cave and dedicated to it 10pis of
paddy-land at Salin, 30 pis called Tanaungkyi, 20 pis at Metkaya
which are entered in Thugyi Th&s rolls, and 10 pis at Ngalinbdk,
entered in Thugyi Bus rolls; total 70 pis. To the brazen image
placed in the cave the following lands were dedicated, namely, 30
pis of paddy-land at Pinlfc, 1 pi of garden-land, 30 pis known as
Kamyu, ana 10 pis called Taya; total 71 pis. Thamantathu, the
Thugyi, built a monastery near the pagoda and dedicated to it 40
pis of paddy-land in the Kamaing fishery at Wayinddk.

May those who approve of these offerings have a share of our
merit............................................(six lines).

On Sunday, the 7th waxing of Tabodwfc, 506 Sakkar&j, Thinapat*
tayof dedicated to the pagoda 30 pis of paddy-land in Ketlbn circle
known as the Nga Lin fields. The Pagan Governors daughter
and King Kyazwa dedicated, as pagoda slaves, a family consisting
of husband and wife, two sons Nga Mya Lu and Nga Twb, and a
daughter I....................................................

No. (10).

Locality.In the porch of the Tainggyut pagoda.

Date. 541 Sakkarftj (1179 A.D.).

Founder.Abinandalhu.

Substance of inscription.Repairing of the pagoda and dedication
of slaves thereto.

In Wazo, 541 Sakkar&j, Abinandathu.t a court official, regilt the
Tainggyut pagoda, set a golden ti upon it, built a new offering-
platform near it, and regilt the statues of Sariputto and Moggalano

..........................................................A number

of monks were supplied with food and robes. Abinandathu then
offered himself, his wife, and two sons as slaves to the pagoda.§
Other slaves were also, dedicated, namely, Nga Kyan Gaung, Nga
Kywin, Nga Letkana, Nga Swa, and Nga Lu Ng&; total 9 slaves;
moreover, 5 pis of paddy-land called Tanaunggyi were offered in

* Queen of Alaungsithu. | f A Minister of Sawmunnit.

X A courtier of Narapatisithus reign.

S This is quite unusual, for, as previously noted, pagoda slaves are always looked
down upon.

9


66 INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

order that the produce might be utilized for the rice-offering at the
pagoda.

By virtue of this my meritorious deed, may I and my teachers,
masters, friends, and relatives escape.the miseries of life in the
present and the future and ultimately attain Nirvana; and may
I become a Buddha.

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN.

VI.Found on the south-east of Pagan.

No. (1).Obverse.

Locality.Within the Damayangyi pagoda, about a mile south-east
of Pagan.

Date.527 Sakkar&j (1165 A.D.J.

Founders.Thugyi Kwa and Pfc B6k, daughter of Thugyi M6n.

Substance of inscription.Dedication of slaves, cows, and lands.

I adore the Excellent Buddha!

ON Monday, the 1st waning of Pyatho, 527 Sakkar&j, this in-
scription was sculptured. Thugyi Kwa of Southern Kalanlon circle,
and P& Bok, daughter of Thugyi M6n, dedicated the following
pagoda slaves, namely, Kangoncha and wife Yawok, daughter Ein
Bwe, son-in-law Nyache, and granddaughters Ein Lut and Ein
Kut; Nga Leik, daughters Ein But and Ein Maya, and grand-
daughters Ein Byin and Ein Thwa; Nga Pa Ein, wife Ein Hlauk,
and daughters Ein^ The, Ein By6n, and Ein Dfin ; Ein Mun and
sons Nga Twe and Nga Ke ; Kyw6 Eintha, son Nga That, daughter-
in-law Ein Yan Gye, grandsons Nga Tut Put and Nga Kan ; Nga
Pyu; Nga Kon; Nga B6n ; Ein B&ntaya W6, daughter Ein Kan

Gu and husband....................grandson Nga Taw Thu;

Ein San Zu; Nga Kan Dok ; Ein Pyw6; Than Dan; Ein Pwe and
brother Nga Cha Zi; Ein Yanngfc and husband Nga Pun Taw,
daughter Ein Katte To ; Nga Kin and wife Ein Byi; Ein Myethwe
Gwe and daughter; Nga Pyinnya and brother Nga Pe ; Nga Hlaw;
Nga San and wife Ya Gw&, sons Nga Kaya Bat and Nga Mwe
Nga Yaing; Ein Lun Gwfc, son Thazi, daughter Ein Myw£; Ein
Byu ; Nga Ma Thwa and wife Yo Yut ; Ein lP6n Gywe ; Eiri Bwin
Gwe; Ein Thit Kauk Kywe and son Nga Yauk ; Nga Nauk; Nga
Yaung.

Reverse.

and wife O Mya; Twe Ein Yin; A Ng6; and Pok Nga Yaung;
total 73 slaves. Besides the above the following slaves were dedi-


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

67

cated, namely, Nga Kaw Myin, wife Ein Don, son Nga Wa Byi,
brothers Nga Taing and Nga Ku; Nga Pin Bok, son Nga Paw,
younger brother Nga Paung; Nga Pwa, daughters Ein Di Kywe
and Ein Bet, sister Ein Gye; Ein Ywe and younger sister Ein Ze;
Nga Myin and wife Ein Yauk, sons Nga Tha, Nga Hayi; Nga
Nyein and sister Ein Gya, daughter Ein Gu; Nga Man Mu and
wife Ein Zu, sister-in-law Ein Gupantaya ; Ein Paung Gywe, Nga Pun
and wife Ein Mwe, daughters Ein Myat, Pantaya and Ein Yan; Ein
S6n and brothers Wa Su and Nga Swi; Nga Pyi and wife Ein
Kaw Yon, sons Nga Taung and Nga Aung; Nga Kyein and wife
Ein Bye, daughters Ein Wun and Ein Dun, sons Nga Chein, Nga
Yein, Nga Lut and Nga Cha; Nga Taung; Nga Pwe Bok and sons
Nga Ok and Nga Ng&; Nga Y6n Bok and sisters Ein Dein, Ein
Ywa Pantaya and Ein Zi; Ein Bu; and Ein Kwe; total 54. Also
48 cows, a garden, a tank, and 3 p of mayin paddy-land.

May those who destroy these my offerings die unnatural deaths
by poison or be devoured by wild beasts; and may they find them-
selves in a worse plight than that of Dewadat. On the other hand,
may those who witness (and approve of) these offerings escape
iny imprecations.

No. (a).

Locality.Within the porch of the Sulamani pagoda.

Date.545 Sakk.irffj (1183 A.D.).

Founder.Xarapatisithu.*

Substance of inscription.Building of pagoda and cave, and dedi-
cation of lands and slaves thereto.

I adore the All-wise I

On Thursday, the third waxing of Tazaungmon, 545 Sakkarij,
King Narapatisithu, whose glory is as resplendent as that of a devd
or as that of the rising sun, visited Tuyin,t and seeing a luminous
spot at a distance asked his attendants what it was. They replied
that it was a fire; but the king knew better and noting the spot
proceeded to it on his elephant, and demarcated it as a site for a
cave. Subsequently the articles to be enshrined were placed under-
ground and a cave was built over them. Above this was then
erected a pagoda, and over this again was built another, and lastly
the third tier was put on. When" the whole was completed the
king entered the cave and stationing himself in front of the golden

image, sent for the monk Maha.................................and poured

out the water of dedication. The paddy-lands offered to the
Religion in order that it might last its full period of 5,000 years are

King of Pagan (11741211 A.D.). | t A hill east of Pagan.


68

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

171 pis in Pinlfc district, consisting of L&dawya 10 P6nu io,
Shawthin 10, Ngashanmaik io, Pyinzi 30, Malfc 10, Theinngfe 21,
and Paungsin village land 70 pis; 195 pis in Pyinmana district,
consisting of Ngapdnthin village land 10, Yeinywa village land 10,
Isidk 5, Thein 10, Tase 5, Thadaing 70, Kyundanyauk 30, Kun-
dalin 30, Kyamalfe 10, Panzingyufe village 10, and Thaseg6n 5;
300 pis in Yangdn district, consisting of 100 in Kyunywa village
and 200 in Thanbyin village, including Paganngfe 10, Nyaungywa-
ngk 40, and Kanpanipadi 30; 120 pis in Mying6ndaing district,
consisting of Okkyithiny wa 60, Itan 10, Sazaunggyi 20, and S&y wa-
ngb 30; 100 pis in Panan district; 145 in Tam6k district, con-
sisting of Tahat 60 and Ywahaung village 85; 330 in T-hin-
daung district, consisting of Kyauktaung-Mawtwe village lands
100 pis,Sanhlu 30, Ibyin 10, Taungu 90, Yeshu 50, Ngathet 30,
Kamaung 10, and Metkaya-Myinshe 10; 40 pis in Tabyettha
district, consisting of Ngalinbok 30 and Taingmyi village 10; 175
pis in Kamyu district, consisting of Letw6 100 pis, Ywalat 30,
Legyan 5, Kyaunglaungngfc 10, and Kyaunglaunggyi 30; total
altogether 1,627 pis.

[From here to the end (14 lines) the inscription is fragmentary.]

- No. (3).

Locality.Within the porch of the Damayangyi pagoda.

Date.615 Sakkarij (1253 A.D.).

Founders.Mahapandita, Royal Preceptor, Nga M6n Thin and
others.

Substance of inscription.Placing image in western cave of pagoda
and dedication of lands, slaves, and bells.

ON Thursday, the 7th waning of Thadingyut, 567 Sakkaritj, the
king (Narapatisithu) offered the piece of land facing the western
wall of the Damayangyi pagoda to Mahapandita, his preceptor,
to be used as a site for a cave. The royal preceptor accordingly
built the cave, placed the image in it, and dedicated to it the
following slaves, namely, Nga Kala Ng6, Nga Pyi U, Nga Si G6n,
and son Nga Myfc Th6n ; Nga Let Tet, Nga Taya, Nga Myo, Nga
Pauk Ki, and Nga Yamana, total 9 men. The paddy-lands dedi-
cated were: the Maukti lands, measuring 300 and bounded by a
row of palm-trees extending to the Paunggwe lands and thence
westward to the Zinyaw and Pantan lands ; 5 pis at Kanhun and
the Kyagwetka fields purchased by Nga Than Yin Gyi. The
articles offered were : two bells weighing 2] viss and 90 ticals re-
spectively. The slaves offered by Nga Tok Thin, the monks chief


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA. 69

disciple, were : Nga U Hla and Nga P6n Su. By virtue of these
offerings, may my every wish be fulfilled ; and may the king obtain,
a share of my merit."

On Sunday, the 7th waxing of Tabodwfe, 615 Sakkar&j, NgaMfin
Thin and his wife dedicated the following slaves: O Mye, Nga.
Yan, and Nga Aung Zin, son of Nga P6n bu, who was purchased
for 5 viss oT silver. They further offered a brass kettle and a
brass offering bowl weighing 1 viss. The slaves who were born
in Nga M6n Thins lifetime are Nga Tayas son Nga Tha Din,
and Nga Tha Dins sons Nga Kywit, Nga Pa Ng& and Nga Pan
Zit. The slaves dedicated by Wadus wife and niece of monk
Nga T6k Thin were Nga Auk In and Nga Pin Yin, and the king
re-dedicated the same slaves, saying that he confirmed the act of
his grandmother.* Nga Mon Thin also confirmed the dedication
of his father Nga Pyu Thin. Let not the presiding monk of the
royal monastery and his successors exercise any control over these
slaves, but let my descendants after me look after them. By virtue
of this my meritorious deed, may I have the opportunity of behold-
ing the next Buddha ;f may I ultimately attain omniscience, and
may I be able to succour both men and .

No. (4).

Locality.Within the porch of the Damayangyi pagoda.

Date. 578 Sakkardj (1216 A.D.).

Founder.Mitaya Theinzi-J

Substance of inscription.Dedication of lands, slaves, and elephants
to pagoda.

On Thursday, the 13th waxing of Kason, 578 SakkarAj, Mitaya

Theinzi dedicated to the pagoda...................53 pis of paddy-

land, two elephants, and the following slaves, namely: O B6n and
son ; Nga Pan Tha and wife ; Chan Tha B6n and mother ; Aung
Kane and wife and two sons; total 10. The witnesses to the dedi-
cation were monks Thingapyitsi, Thingathu, Thattayapyitsi, Let-
yapayit, Mahame, Anandathu, Oktamape, and Nga Shan Thin;
total 8. Let the five monks who are in charge of the pagoda be

maintained out of the usufruct of the paddy-land. May those who
approve of my offering have a share of my merit; but may those
who destroy the same live short and ignominious lives, and be
burnt in the great avtci hell.

+ The historians are silent as to this relationship, presumably because they dare not or
would not indicate the kings plebeian origin on the maternal side.

t Mettevya.

% A Minister oi King Zeyatheinka or Uzana of Pagan (12111234 A.D.).


70

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

No. (5).

Locality.Within the porch of the Damayangyi pagoda.

Date.581 Sakkar&j (1219 A.D.).

Founder.Kinmi Pfepo.*

Substance oj inscription.Dedication of slaves to pagoda.

On Monday, the 3rd waxing of Thadingyut, 581 Sakkar4j, Kinmi
P6po dedicated to the pagoda the following slaves, namely : Nga
P&n Z6n, O Ya and daughters O Pyi Nyi, O Ti, and O Hmyauk ;
total 5. I have dedicated these slaves to the pagoda. If any of

my descendants molest them or their descendants, may they live
short and inglorious lives, and be burnt in avici hell.

No. (6).Obverse.

Locality.At the Taungkuni pagoda, about 300 feet south of Dama-
yangyi pagoda.

Date. 553 Sakkarftj (1191 A.D.).

Founder.Theingathuya.

Substance of inscription.Building of cave for reception of manu-
scripts and dedication of lands and slaves.

The cave built and furnished with manuscripts by Theingathuya, a
minister of King Narapatisithu, with the view that he might escape
the miseries of samsaro and attain Buddhahood, was completed
on the full-moon day of Tazaungm6n, 553 Sakkardj, and when it
was dedicated the following eight monks were present, namely, Pyit-
zobutdi, Kuthawyadithe, Ingu, Mahapandeik, Etthikadamakanbi,
Damaguru, Damanandi, and Nanga.

In the same year, 120 suits of yellow robes were offered to these
eight monks.

Before I attain Buddhahood, may I be rewarded with every
delight music can bestow, and to this end I dedicate to the pagoda
the following musicians as slaves, namely, Nga Thu Ka, Nga Ma
Ta, Nga Ma Yan, Nga P6n S6n, Nga Thu Yin, Nga Pyu, Pulaw-
16, Nga Yu Man, Adi, O A, O Kaung, O Kyi, Nga P6n Ya, Umi-
yani, Parinasi Dewi, Ngariwi, Pulawle, Nanmadi, Kutadandi, Nga
S6k, Pdktanni, and Nga Kyun; total 23. Again, in order that I
may never be in hunger or want, I dedicate 300 p&s of paddy-land
known as the Tenga fields to the pagoda and the presiding monk
of the monastery. Lastly, to avoid becoming a slave in my future
existences, I dedicate to the' pagoda and the monkhood the fol-

lowing 100 slaves, namely; .....................(a line) Nga

Kun Zin and wife O P6n, Nga Pun, Nga Pi and sons Nga
Mye, Nga Wun Bye and Nga Mo, Nga Tu and wife O Sut, daugn-

A maid of honour.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

7*

ter 0 Tin; Nga Awe and wife O Ya, O Kywin and daughter O Wun,
Nga Pon and wife O Paung, daughter O Byu, Nga Pyu and brother
Nga U Pi; Nga Pon and sons Nga Tauk Tu, Nga Se, Nga Chat,
O Pi and daughter 0 Pa O, O Mwe, Nga Hmya and son Nga
Paung, Nga Kan, Nga Thin D£, Nga Mata and sons Nga Kywfe,
Nga Ngfc and Nga Taing, Nga Kywe and sons Nga Maung Ngfe
and Nga Ha Yan, Nga Ka Lan, Nga Ya and wife O Paung,
daughters O Ku and O Mwe, son Nga Myit, grandsons Nga Nyo
and Nga Wun Be, O Kan and daughter O La Wa, Nga Pa, Nga
M6n, Nga Pwin, Nga Pwa, Nga Myet, Nga Mun, Nga Kye,
Nga Pyit, Nga U Zu and son Nga Than Ba, Nga Taung E, O
Ma ana sister 0 Pon, O Son, O Ma and daughters O San Thi, O
San Bin, O Bwin, O Ku and O Twe; Nga Deik and son Nga
Wun Byi, Nga Saung and son Nga Kalan; Nga Paung; Nga
Laung, Nga Than, Yakabu and daughter O K6n, O Sat, Nga
Pyi and wife O Pi, Nga Thet, Nga Lwe, Nga Paw, O Mwe and son
Nga Sein, daughters O Sein, O Kywet, O Ch6n, O Myo and O li
Yaung, Nga Yon and daughters O Sat, O Swin, Ya Keik and
daughters O Thi, O Hmo, O Pwa and O Pon, Nga Pa, Nga Mwe
and brother Nga Myaik ; total ioo.

For this my meritorious deed may I become a wise and distin-
guished Rahan in the time of the next Buddha.

No. (7).

Locality. Within the porch of the Myaukkuni pagoda.

Date.603 Sakkar&j (1241 A.D.).

Founder.Queen Asaw.

Substance of inscription.Building of cave-pagoda, monastery, and
rest-house, and dedication of lands, slaves, and cattle.

I adore the three Gems I

With a view to escape the miseries of samsaro and attain
NirvAna, Asaw,* Queen of Uzana t and mother of ThihapadeJ and
Tayabya,| built a cave, and on Wednesday, the full-moon of Kas6n,
603 SakkarAj, formally dedicated the same by water-pouring. At
the same time the Queen dedicated 178 slaves, 260 pis of paddy-
land and two gardens. The names of the slaves from Pagan are:
Myin Te Bok, Sathaya, daughter Ta Da and son Pya Gat, Thatawa,

This celebrated queen was a daughter of a farmer of Seiktein-Kanbyu village, near
Popa. She was raised to the throne at the age of 12 on account of her great intelligence
and beauty. She was the chief queen also of Uzanas son and successor Nayathihapati.

t Not the son of Kyazwa, who ascended the throne of Pagan in 1250 A.D., but the
son of Narapatisithu, who began to reign in 1211 A.D., is here meant. This Uzana was
also known by the names of Zeyatheinka, Nandaungmya and Tilominlo.

J Theinpade and Tayamun of history.


72 INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

wife Meik Ti and son Nga Yauk Thit; Ga Ya, wife Kein Dari and
daughter Dok Ki; Kithara Palapbk; Tha Panara; Sandarap6k;
Tintap6k; musician Budaw, wife Thu Ki, sons Titaya, Hitaya,
Nga Mun, and infant, and daughters Yale and Site; drummer
Petka and son Nga Twe; Pah and son drummer Nga Yut;
drummer Nga Pagan and sister Gumi; Byinki and son drummer
Nga Masun; Hitu and son artisan Nga Yinga, son Nga Buda;
Muki Kywe and daughters Thuki and Thide, grandson Nga U;'
Thanzi and daughter Thiwali; Gani and daughter Dewi; total 41.
The slaves from Ywale areNga Kaung and brother Nga Laung,
and Nga Pyi Wa; total 3. The cattle dedicated were 100 head of
cows from Myinmu in charge of 20 herdsmen. The following offer-
ings were also made, namely, a plain thingan and head-gear for
the lower image, an ornamented thingan for the upper image, a gilt
lounge, a screen, a cot with mattress and pillows, a betel clip, a brass
lamp stand, a brass spittoon, a large brass kettle, a bell stand, a
large and a small golden alms-bowl, two brass trays, five brass cups
with covers, one large pot cover, eight musical gongs, nine smaller
brass gongs, three pairs of cymbals, and three small bells.

The slaves dedicated to the pagoda by Pisenga were O Thukya
and daughters O Myama and Ma Oka. Thugyi Thayan also de-
dicated a slave called Nga Laung. The offerings made to the
monastery consisted of 174 slaves from Kawd& village and 300 pis
of paddy-land. The slaves from Pagan were Nga Ku Da, Nga
P6n Lut, Nga My&, Kyunozaukpeikthama, Nga Kaung, Nga L6k,
O Kan Pa and daughter O Thu Kya. The cattle offered were 100
cows from Sinbyu village in charge of 10 herdsmen; and the furni-
ture for the monastery consisted of one gilt lounge set with pre-
cious stones, one spittoon, one brass kettle, two brass trays with
stands, five cups with covers and a pot cover.

Let all these offerings be under the control of the presiding monk
of the monastery, and let him execute all necessary repairs. Let 5
baskets of paddy a month be given for every ten scholars in the
monastery. On the full-moon days of Kas6n, Wazo, Wagaung,
and Thadingyut, let offerings be made to the devas, and let each
offering consist of i£ baskets of rice, four baskets of paddy and six
baskets more of paddy for the purchase of fruit, betel, and other
necessaries. For the rice-offering at the pagoda let three baskets of
red rice, one of white rice, and seven and a-quarter of paddy be
given for each Lenten period.

In addition to this let five-eighths basket of paddy be given for
the daily rice-offering, and let 10 nuts a day be supplied for the betel-
offering. Let the two men who look after these offerings be given a
pi of paddy-land each. Let 135 baskets of paddy be set apart for


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

73

the musicians, and let the leader receive two baskets and the others
one basket each. Let the four cymbal-players receive half basket
each, the oldest drummer one basket, the oldest singer one basket,
and let the other drummers and singers receive three-quarter basket,
half basket, or quarter basket according to their age and position.
Let this be done every year.

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN.

VII.Found within the City walls.

NO. (i).*

Locality.Close to the eastern wall of the Shwegugyi pagoda porch.

Date.>503 Sakkar&j (1241 A.D.).

Founder.King Alaungsithu.f

Substance of inscription.Building of the Shwegugyi pagoda.

HONOUR and reverence to the Buddha, whose wisdom is as
vast as the earth and is pure, and who has led in the paths of the
excellent law all human beings, devds, and brahmds and other
beings, who could not of their own accord find their way across
the slough and the grove of desire. I adore this Buddha, whose
law and monkhood are incomparable.

The present world is honoured with five Buddhas. Four, who
were more eminent than men, have already appeared, and of these
I shall proceed to enumerate briefly the excellent attributes of
Gautama Buddha, who was replete with all wisdom and who was a
scion of the Sakya family of kings: Let the righteous hearken
to me.

The Buddha, who is of great renown and'who is the object of
worship of the three superior beings, acquired the 30 kinds of virtue
not only in one, but in several existences, by performing the three
kinds of meritorious deeds, namely, that for the world in general,
for his relations, and for the attainment of Buddhahood. He was
the fountain of mercy and was full of diligence. One of his virtues
was the performance of the five kinds of charity in the interests of the
world. As King Vessantara his constant delight was the further-
ance of the welfare of others, and as he chose the chief of the ten
kinds of virtue, he became, on his demise, an inhabitant of the
highest abode of nats excelling them all in glory. While there, a
host of nats from different parts of the universe approached him

* This inscription is in P&li throughout

t King of Pagan (10921167 A.D.). He was also known as Shwegu-d&yak& after the
erection of the Shwegugyi pagoda.

10


74 INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

with the request that he might assume Buddhaship, and it being in
accordance with his own wish, the embryo Buddha looked ahead
with the five kinds of vision, and on his next birth became a mem-
ber of the Sakya family. The glorious and wise embryo remained
as a man in the abode of men for 29 years and then renounced the
world to become a Rahan and thus acquire omniscience. He per-
formed several acts of penance, and his origin was as good as that
of the previous Buddhas. He resided at the foot of a banyan
tree near the Neranjara river, and lived on the milk offered him as
alms. Subsequently, be approached the beautiful and excellent
throne under the Bodhi tree and having seated himself thereon
exercised the four kinds of diligence. While the Bodhisat, who was
more excellent than the three kinds of superior beings, was thus
occupied, he beheld the nat Mira, with a host of mercenaries, ap-
proach him with the courage of the king of lions. But he was
totally unmoved; he destroyed the gate of desire and thus over-
awed the evil nat and his host. The victorious, imperturbable,
wise and diligent Bodhisat then passed the three watches of the
night exercising his omniscience. During the last watch or that
immediately preceding the dawn he reviewed all his anterior births.
Being more excellent than the five kinds of Muni and having
acquired omniscience, he merited the title of Buddha. The emit-
ter of the rays of wisdom, having acquired the knowledge of every
law, joyfully recited the stanzas beginning with Sarnsd-

ram and passed seven days on the throne. He thus emerged from
all sorrow, accomplished his task of becoming Buddha and ceased
from all passion, and was content, glad, and joyful, with his mind
set upon the welfare of men and nats."

The wise, righteous, and justly famous King Alaungsithu, who is
able to disperse his own enemies and those of his people and Re-
ligion as the glorious and rising sun disperses darkness, fear, and
cold, has been ruling Pagan in accordance with the ten kingly pre-
cepts. Knowing that in the three worlds it is exceedingly difficult
to become a Buddha or a man and have the opportunity of hearing
the law of the righteous preached, the wise King Alaungsithu had
this beautiful and lofty cave-pagoda built and adorned with several
small pagodas and statues of nats in honour of the excellent and
virtuous Buddha Gautama. Being desirous of saving the three
kinds of superior beings from the miseries of the king fur-

ther had a wonderfully beautiful and pleasing image made which,
exactly resembled the living Buddha, the adorable, the wise, and
the possessor of the five kinds of clear-visioned eyes. After the
completion of this pagoda and image, His Majesty caused a com-
plete copy of the Tripitaka to b& prepared, and during the dedi-


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

75

cation ceremonies offered suits of robes to several monks, and cheer-
fully ministered to their other material wants with his own hands.
An intense desire to become a Buddha then seized the king and
His Majesty accordingly expressed the following prayer :

Gautama attained Buddhaship by acquiring the ten kinds of
virtue and was thus enabled to liberate all sentient beings from the
bonds of desire. May I, in future, be in a position to do likewise.

" The all-wise Buddha comprehended the mysteries of the law
and propounded them without effort. He was the disburser of gifts
to the multitudes of suppliant brahmas and devds who flocked to
him from the ten thousand universes, while he was with Afin&la-
kondhanna Thera in the highly pleasant Isipatanamigadavum grove,
the resort of the flying rishis and the feathered world, after he had
himself travelled a distance of 30 yojands with incomparable dili-
gence, and was thus the means by which many attained Nirv&na.
May I be able to do likewise.

The excellent Buddha, whose origin was as good as his prede-
cessors, was well versed in the Yamakas and could therefore pro-
phesy as only Buddhas can. From his body was emitted variously
brilliant rays of brown, gold, red, white, and scarlet, and six other
kinds of resplendent rays penetrated with great rapidity to all
quarters in different ways, lighting up the darkness everywhere.
He succeeded in persuading by various means several heretics who
despised Nirv&na and were on their way to the four forms of de-
struction blinded with their own vain beliefs and misled by the
thought that they were Buddhas themselves, but who were in reality
far from the path leading to the abode of the nats and to NirvAna.
Moved by a heart full of great and tender mercy towards all sentient
beings, the Buddha brought many who were in abject misery from
several other universes to this, and exerting his power placed them
in a line on Mount Meru, walked along on their heads, and thus
healed them all. May I be able to work miracles of this nature.

Having performed the above miracle, the Buddha proceeded to
the slab of rock known as Pandhakampata in Tavatimsa, the abode
of the 33 Sakkas, and having seated himself thereon in divine
glory, administered the draught of blessing to several nais and
brahmas and preached the Abhidhamma law to an assembly of nats
headed by the one who was previously his royal mother. May
I have the opportunity of performing a similar deed.

The Buddha, who resided on the summit of Mount Meru, at-
tended by a brilliant retinue, performed several miracles for the
enlightenment of the whole world. May I, in future, be able to do
likewise.


76

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

After having preached to the assembly of nats in TSvatimsS,
the Buddha descended to this continent and preached several ser-
mons to men, brahmas, ogres, n,brahmins, nagas, elephants,
and heretics who thought themselves Buddhas. May I become such
a Buddha.

The Buddha, whose origin is as excellent as that of his prede-
cessors, performed the whole of the five kinds of duties incumbent
on all Buddhas. May I be able to do so/

Locality.Close to the western wall of the Shwegugyi pagoda
porch.

Date. 503 Sakkarij (1241 A.D.).

Founder.King Alaungsithu.

Substance of inscription.Building of the pagoda.

Thf. excellent Buddha, whose virtue is as vast in volume as
the earth, whose serenity is like that of the Himalayas, the king
of mountains, and whose wisdom is like the firmament, is free as
the wind from worldly attachments and lusts and desires. He has
passed the region of uncertain-----J J ' ' *'

subject no more to the three kinds of Having attained

the state of supreme refinement himself, he undertook to educate
multitudes of men and free them from misery and sorrow. He was
in the habit of acquiring special attributes and virtues, and as he
was himself free from the flame of desire, he constantly strove
to confer the same freedom on mankind. Omniscience was his
ardent wish, and he brought comfort to many and was the refuge of
the wise. He was the recipient of the charity of those who sought
happiness. He was free from marriage ties and his diligence was
great. May I become such a Buddha.

The Buddha, who was safe from the approach and attack of the.
enemy Desire, who was free from fear and trembling, whose fame
was widespread, who was full of mercy and wisdom, who may be
compared only with the previous.incomparable Buddhas, who al-
ways dispersed ignorance, who was replete with the 32 greater and
80 lesser attributes, who was ever surrounded with a halo of glory
about a fathom deep, who was the possessor of the 18 kinds of
gifts, whose constant wish was the welfare of the three kinds of
superior beings, and who was the head of them all, mastered the
four cardinal truths and was the possessor of the 14 kinds of sub-
lime wisdom. He was, moreover, free from the poisons of desire,

NO. (2) *

fluence of cause and effect.

This also is in PAIi throughout.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA. JJ

passion, and ignorance, and was incomparable and full of diligence.
May I become such a Buddha.

The multitudes of heretics, who being blinded by passion,
crowded into the grove of heresy like shoals of fish which rush into
a net with fine meshes cast by a fisherman, were encompassed by
the far-reaching and pure wisdom of the Buddha, the omniscient,
and were subdued by him. Every living thing on the earth as well
as the birds of the air, the different species of visible sentient be-
ings, those with spirits and those without, were encompassed by
that same wisdom. The world of and men was in utter dark-
ness, but the Buddhas wisdom enlightened it Ignorance flies be-
fore him as darkness flies before the rising sun. The excellent
preceptor of nats and men is as skilfull in guiding them as an ex-
pert charioteer (in driving a chariot). He is therefore worthy of
their adoration. May I become as worthy a Buddha as he.

By my present offering I have endeavoured to acquire merit in
the interests of all sentient beings. I do not desire the pleasures
of life in this world or in the world of nagas, nats, or brahmas, or
even as an immediate disciple of a Buddha. But, may I, by virtue
of my offering, become as it were a bridge by which all sentient
beings may cross the sea of samsaro to the excellent land of Nir-
vana.

May I succeed in crossing the sea of samsaro myself and be
able to succour those who are being drowned or are drifting in the
same.

May I be enlightened myself in order that I may enlighten
others.

May I be free from passion myself so that I may liberate others
from its bondage.

May I be able to arise from the stupor of passion and awaken
others who are under its influence.

May I escape from the fire of passion and be able to extinguish
it in others.

" May I be liberated from the trammels of passion and be able to
extricate others from the same.

May I be surrounded with the precepts of the righteous and
cease from sin myself, so that I may purify others.

May 1 always be free from desire, passion, and ignorance.

May my wealth and happiness, which 1 have obtained without
oppressing others, be continuous.

May I never encounter any danger from fire, robbers, and the
three other kinds of enemies.

May I always be free from the evils which arise from the senses
of sight, touch, smell, taste, and hearing.


78

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

" May I be able always to adhere to the precepts of the excel-
lent Buddha, which enable one to eschew evil, and keep mankind
from going to the four regions of punishment.

All wise men, who are more excellent than other mortals, re-
nounce the world and its pleasures. May 1 be able to do likewise
and attach myself to the Religion.

The excellent Buddha, who had at heart the welfare of
and men, ordained the Sikkhapadas. May I, in future, be able to
observe the whole of those precepts.

" During this present dispensation of Gautama Buddha may I,
by virtuous conduct, occupy as honourable a position among the
monkhood as the beautiful moon does among the stars in the firma-
ment.

May I be able to keep the law propounded by the Buddha and
contained in the Sutta, Abhidhamma, and Vinaya.

May I, in the present dispensation of Gautama Buddha, be able
to promote my own interests as well as those of others.

May I be able to leave undone all such acts as were prohibited
by the Buddha.

May I always be sensible of all acts of kindness done to me by
others and be alive to the necessity of reciprocating them.

May I ever be far removed from evil companions.

May I realize the misery of the poor beings who are subject to
re-birth, and be enabled to work out my own salvation from the vast
sea of existence.

May 1, by virtue of this my offering, have the opportunity of
hearing the sermons to be preached by the coming Buddha Met-
teyya on the covered walk which will be as beautifully adorned
and highly imposing as Mount Meru. May I have the opportunity
also of offering the four kinds of necessaries* to that Buddha and be
then qualified to hear the prophecy pronounced by him before the
assembly of nats and men that I shall on a certain day attain Bud-
dhahood.

The Buddha, who was the object of adoration of all nats and
men, was the possessor of several estimable attributes. May I be-
come such a Buddha.

The Buddha liberated 24 asankheyyas of sentient beings from
the bonds of samsaro, performed every duty incumbent on Buddhas,
preached his 84,000 sermons for the benefit of those of his time
and of subsequent times, shone like a mighty flame amidst his
disciples in the three lokas, and demonstrated the unstability of all

* Food, raiment, dwelling, and medicine.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

79

things material, thereby setting at naught the philosophy of the
foolish, who advocate their permanency. He has attained NirvAna,
where there is no aging or death. May I be able to do likewise
and attain the bliss of NirvAna. Here ends the prayer.

This inscription is erected by King Alaungsithu, who was full of
wisdom and prudence; who was a seeker after omniscience and
NirvAna; who was a devotee of the three Gems; whose glory is
as resplendent and whose power is as mighty as the rising sun, the
dispeller of the great darkness and cold which was much dreaded
by the first inhabitants of the earth; and who is able to subdue
his own enemies as well as those of the Religion and the people.

The building of this pagoda was commenced on Sunday, the 4th
waning of Kasdn, 503 SakkarAj, at the most auspicious moment. It
was completed together with its statues of guardian nats on Thurs-
day, the nth waning of Nadaw, 503 SakkarAj.

No. (3).Obverse.

Locality.'Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on the east
side.

Date.550 SakkarAj (1188 A.D.).

Founder.Thingyi Saya (Monk).*

Substance of inscription.Dedication of slaves to pagoda.

On Wednesday, the nth waxing of Nadaw, 550 SakkarAj, the
following slaves were dedicated by Thingyi Saya, namely, O Tha
Pin and son Nga Pan Kb; O Pwa; Hnit Thi Ya; Nga Chat Ya;
Nga Ku Kb ; Kaung Pi Myb; Nga Pyi ; Nga Yauk; Nga
Yanna; and Nga Ywa Kyu; total 11; also O Tan; Nga Pi; Nga
Sin Kyb Wa; O Thi Ki; Mo Pon Lut; Nga Ma So and sons Nga
Taba, Nga Pyaung Zon; O Do; O Pyan; O U Ldn ; and O Chat
Ya; total 12 ; grand total 23.

May I, by virtue of this offering, obtain omniscience; be
freed from the miseries of samsaro; be always imbued with piety
in my future existences; and be able to refrain from sinful deeds.
May those w'ho approve of my offering have their wishes gratified.
On the other hand, may those who destroy the same be burnt in

avid hell together with their relatives, and may they never have
the opportunity of beholding and being saved by any of the coming
Buddhas, though their number may reach that of the atoms in a
heap of earth.

* The word OoSt^§t ( thingyi) meant a military officer as well as a Buddhist ecclesi-
astical dignitary. So the founder might have been either the preceptor of a military
officer of Narapatisithus reign or simply an abbot.


8o INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINVA, AND AVA.

Reverse.

Date.558 SakkarAj (1196 A.D.).

Founder.Thakin Pwfethaung.*

Substance of inscription.Building of pagodas and dedication of
slaves thereto.

On Tuesday, the 9th waning of Tawthalin, 558 SakkarAj, Thakin
Pwfethaung dedicated to the two pagodas erected by him the
following four slaves, namely, Nga Naing and son Nga Ta; Pal6;
and O Than, a musician.

" By virtue of this offering may I escape the miseries of samsaro
and hell. May my parents and other relatives have a share of my
merit......... (six lines).

No. (4).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on the
east side.

Date.566 SakkarAj (1204 A.D.).

Founder.Daughter of Sominpyanchi.f

Substance of inscription.Dedication of pagoda slaves and paddy*
lands.

On Sunday, the .... Pyatho, 566 SakkarAj, the daughter of
Sominpyanchi dedicated six pagoda slaves, namely, Ein Mi Da;
Ein Byat; Ein Kwi Sein; Ein Byit; Nga Lein; and Nga Tan
Laing. The paddy-lands dedicated were 50 pis to the Buddha,
and 20 to his law.

41 Whoever misappropriates these my offerings, whether it be my
daughter, or my husband, or any other, may he fall into the four
principal hells. [Here follows names of slaves, which can only be
partly deciphered.]

No. (5).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on the east
side.

Date.570 SakkarAj (1208 A.D.).

Founder.Nga San Thin.

. Substance of inscription.Dedication of slaves, cows, and ponies to
pagoda.

On Sunday, the 9th waning of Wagaung, 570 SakkarAj, Nga
San Thin dedicated to the pagoda the following 10 slaves, namely:

* Probably a Minister of Narapatisithu.

t This is evidently Prince Pyanchi, third son of Narapatisithu by Queen Usaukpan.


INSCRIPTIONS OP PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA. 8l

Nga U Pi and wife O Wun Pa, son Nga U.Hla; Nga U L6n
and sister O Taung Do ; Nga Chat and wife O U Ya, son Nga
Tha Ldn, daughter O Let Swe; and Nga Ket. The following
offerings were also made, namely, one brass pestle; one flower tray ;
and six pesof paddy-land known as Thangaing; also 90 cows and
15 ponies to defray the cost of erecting a cave in the name of Nga
San Thins wife. The witnesses to these offerings were Monk
Gunathagiya ; Monk...............(11 lines).

NO. (6).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on the
south side.

Date.574 Sakkar&j (1212 A.D.).

Founder.Thingyi Dhammapala-Dhanimathw£.*

Substance of inscription.Erection of pagoda, cave, and monastery,
and dedication thereto of slaves and utensils.

On Wednesday, the 3rd waxing of Tawthalin, 574 SakkarAj,
Thingyi DhammapAla-Dhammathwd dedicated the following slavesto
the pagoda, cave, and monastery erected by him, namely, Thuma,t
Matayepyanili; Kuta ; Pyakadathi; Pyathut and wife Dedante ;
Mdmaw and wife Taunggi; Balada and wife Ginga; P&gaw ; Kala-
yandi, daughter of Ayin ; Hada ; Padaga ; Nga Tha Ya; Gawda ;
Udayandi and son Koktayantan ; Saw; RAmA; SetkamA; Nga
Taung Bye ; Pawti and wife O Pu Taw; total 24. The following
offerings were also made, namely, 300 ticals of silver, one large
lamp with stand, one large brass tray, one large pestle, and one large
brass kettle.

" May those who destroy my offering be deprived of the oppor-
tunity of beholding any of the coming Buddhas.

No. (7).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on the
east side.

Date.575 Sakkaraj (1213 A.D.).

Founder.Minyin Okatthinchin.J

Substance of inscription.Dedication of slaves and paddy-lands
to pagoda and monastery.

On Friday, the 11 th waxing of Naydn, 575 SakkarAj, Minyin Okat-
thinchin dedicated to the pagoda and monastery 200 of paddy-

* Burmanized form of Dhammasvdra.
t These slaves were evidently natives of India.
t A Minister of Zeyatheinka.

II


82

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

land, 20 slaves, on$ large brass tray, one large pestle, one large

brass kettle, one spittoon and one........... The following five

eminent monks were witnesses to the offering, namely, Zayaganbi,
Tilawthaya, Pyinnyawethatha, Dithapamauk, and Etgapandeik.
Nga Yauk Thin, a nobleman, was also present. The names of the
slaves are Nga Ta Paku and wife Yo B6n, sons Nga Pa, Nga
Thet She, Nga Pwa, daughter O Shan ; O Min Pa ; O Myo; O
Than Pa; Yanthagya; Nawazani; OSin; O Sin Kalit, and son
Nga Ma; O Bwin and daughter O Myaing Yin Ki; O Nga Paung;
Nga Kaung ; and Nga Kyi Zu.

" Of the produce of the paddy-lands, let three-fifths be utilized
for the Religion and two-fifths for the monkhood.

NO. (8).

Locality.Within the walls of the Sbinbinbawdi pagoda, on the east-
ern side.

Date.589 SakkarAj (1227 A.D.).

Founder.One of the Ministers of Zeyatheinka.

Substance of inscription.Dedication to pagoda of slaves, paddy-
lands, and cows.

On Friday, the 1st waxing of Thadingyut, 589 SakkarAj, the
Thettawshe Minister, wishing to attain omniscience, dedicated the
following slaves to the pagoda, namely, Nga Mye and son Nga Myit;
Nga Kin Bun and son Nga Thet Hlut; Nga Pyi; I Zwe; Nga Kydn
and son Nga Wun Tha; So Bun Tha ; Mi Pwa; and Nga Pyit;
total 11. Besides these were dedicated 15 cows, four pairs of bul-
locks, and a piece of paddy-land. The witnesses to the offering
were Makawya of Kyaungupon, Sekya, a monk of Tfedaungyi,
Chattayapyitsi of Kanya, Nga Che Thin of Tandawyaw, Nga Myat
of Kinpa, Nga Mye Thin and O Ti Thin of Yinthapanbin, Nga
Kyfc Thin, Bi Th&k Thin, Pinthaung Waik, Thingattabi, Thinzaye
of Thinthi village, Th6ktaba, Pdnthis sister, Nga Kaing, and
Nga Set.

No. (9).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on the east-
ern side.

Date.591 Sakkaraj (1229 A.D.).

Founder.Thin Nga Swe Thins brother.

Substance of inscription.Dedication of pagoda slaves and cattle.

On...........................Tazaungmon, 556 SakkarAj, Thin

Nga Swe Thin dedicated the following pagoda slaves, namely:


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

83

.......... daughter O Ka, granddaughter O Ku ; O.............;

O Pan ; O Chan Tha; O Myet............Pyin ;............; Nga

Yan Si and son..........................................; Nga

Sins son Nga Thaik; Nga Tha Ku;..............; and Boktadat.

These slaves were to look after the pagoda. The paddy-lands
dedicated measured 35 pis. The witnesses to the offering were Nga
Yin, Si Thin, Nga Pyi Thin, Nga Yin Thin, and Nga Hlauk Thin.

On Sunday, the 4th waning of Tabaung, 591 Sakkar&j, Thin Nga
Swe Thins younger brother dedicated the following slaves to the
pagoda, namely, Nga San Pe; Nga Put and sons Nga Myin Saw,
Nga Hlun; Nga Puts brother Nga Ye; Nga Ya Ma Na; Nga Pdn
Z6n; Nga Ywet P6n and sons Nga Pyi Z6n and Nga Tet Pyi; Nga
P6n Daw and son Nga Hlauk; Nga Chan Tha; Nga Pyi Zwa; Nga
Mun ; Nga Ya Me and wife O Mya Yo ; Taya Go and daughter O
Myet Mye; O Lon ; O Wun Tha and daughter O Pdn Lut, son
Nga Than B6k. Besides, 20 cows were also dedicated.

May those who destroy these offerings suffer worse than Devadat
in avict hell, and live a short and miserable life here. The witnesses
to this offering are Gitsakarapati and two sons; Nga Mye Th6n Yin;
Pyitsaya Thu; Yanna Thu, Nala Thin; Thamanta G6nkfe;and
Gdnkd. By virtue of this offering may I become an omniscient
Buddha.

No. (10).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on the east-
ern side.

Date.593 Sakkarij (1231 A.D.).

Founders.Kyan Chin Thin and wife O Kywfe Ho.

Substance of inscription.Building of cave-pagoda, and dedication
of slaves thereto.

On Monday, the 7th waxing of Tawthalin, 593 Sakkar&j, the
following slaves were dedicated by Kyan Chin Thin and his wife
O Kywd Ho to the cave-pagoda erected by them, namely, Yayi
Pinsha, O Chan and daughters O San Byi, O San Tha; O B6n
and daughter O Son ; O Gaung and daughters O Det Pyi, O Ta
Baung, O Ma W£, and O Hlun; total n. The witnesses to this
dedication were monk Wiseiktaru Pandi; monk Pyinnyana Gapi, r
Nga Tin Thin ; Kale ; Pahu ; Nga Ein Thin, Thinbunyaung; Thin

k&yaung;..................; Thinthinga;..................The

witnesses to the offering were Nga Chan Tha Thin ; Lu Ku Yaung;

Nga Pon Daw Thin;.................. Thinyin Pabyat Thin; Yepi

Thin; Nga Kaw Thin; Thin Yin Nga Byin; Nga Cho Thin;
Nga Tha Yun Thin; Kalan Nyo; Nga ThinTinbin; Nga Kyi


84 INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

Thin; O Nyfc Mi, daughter of Nga Taw' Thin; O Nyfc Ngfe;

.................; total 16 witnesses.

These slaves were not inherited from our ancestors, but were pur-
chased out of our own earnings. Should any of our relations during
seven generations molest any of them, may they be burnt in the
avict hell below this earth.

The above was composed by the wise monk called Narindakari
................................................(five lines).

No. (n).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on the east-
ern side.

Date.593 Sakkar&j (1231 A.D.).

Founders.Nga Myin Kin, Nga Myin Do, and their annt.

Substance of inscription. Building of pagoda and monastery and
dedication thereto of slaves.

On Thursday, the 5th waxing of Thadingyut, 593 Sakkar&j, the
brothers Nga Myin Kin and Nga Myin Do, sons of Nga Sin Thin,
dedicated the following slaves to the pagoda and monastery erected
by them, namely, Anan and son Nga Pa Naung; Ayaw and son
Nga Sagu; Nga Kywin; Thin Kwe and husband Seinga, daughter
Aye; and Nga Thwi; total 10. The brothers asked their aunt to
witness the dedication, and she added two more slaves, namely,
Nga Tha Ya and son Nga Th6k. The following offerings were
also made in the same year, namely, one brass tray, one pestle,
and one lamp-stand.

May those who destroy our offerings live short and ignominious
lives and fail to behold any of the coming Buddhas.

No. (12).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on the east-
ern side.

Date. 597 Sakkarij (1235 A.D.).

Founder.Monk Pitarit.*

Substance of inscription.Dedication of slaves, cattle, land, money,
and utensils to the three Gems.

I adore the Buddha 1

ON Wednesday, the 3rd waxing of Kas6n, 597 Sakkarij, Monk
Pitarit dedicated the following slaves to the pagoda called Pyathat,

* King Kyazwas spiritual adviser.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA. 85

namely, Nga Naka and sons Nga Myi, Nga U Hla, Nga P6k, Nga
Lu, Nga Pyin, Nga Pa Ngfe, and Nga Pa E; Nga Myis son Nga
Yauk Thit; Nga Nakas nephews Nga Aung, Nga Tagu, and Nga
Tha Pin ; Pi Mi; Ya San and daughter Ya Yin, sister Atisi, nieces
Yasan, Yapywi; Thida and son Nga Tan Ma; Thiyewi; Nga Pein
Taw and sons NgaYaung Ywe, Nga Tabaung and Nga Kwe; Nga
Yan and sons Nga San, Nga Tho, and Nga Aung Sin; musicians
Ke Nw6, Nga La H6k, and Taba Thi; Meta; Nga Kyaing and
son Nga Yin; NgaNayan; Nga Pa; Nga Hlaing and son; and
drummer Nga D6k Cha. The following slaves were offered to
monk Pitarit, namely, Dhamma W6kti and wife K6k P6, son Petki,
daughter Pweinde, son Maung Ma Meik; Thetkis sons Nga Thin,
Nga Thila, and Nga Dwit; Nga Thans sons Nga P6n Saung, Nga
Tin Sha, and Nga P6n; Nga Thilas sons Nga Mun, Nga Min Ban;
Nga Dwits son Nga Min Byu; Pweindfes daughters Amein, and
Mein Bwin, Mein Gywit, Mi Hla, and Tho B6n; O Hla and sister
Nagi, nieces O Thal6n, O Byi, O S6n, O Sagu, and O Bwin; O
Myauk and sisters O Kyaung, and O Chan Tha; total 73. Besides,
monk Pitarit offered 100 cows, five buffaloes, five ponies, and 50
of paddy-land granted him by the king and which lies near the field
belonging to Pwin Hla and his wife. Twenty pis of this land are
meant for the Buddha, five for the law, ten for the monkhood, and
15 for the maintenance of students of the law.................

two large brass trays; one cover;.............................

one pestle ; one copper kettle; ..........................

one spittoon......................................(3 lines).

No. (13).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on the east-
ern side.

Date.599 SakkarAj (1237 A.D.).

Founders.Nga Pyi Thin and wife.

Substance of inscription.Dedication of pagoda slaves.

On Wednesday, the 7th waxing of Thadingyut, 594 SakkarAj,
Nga Su Thin and his wife I Chan Thin dedicated Nga Yaung,
I Mywe She, and daughter I Kywin as pagoda slaves. The monk
Gunati poured out the water of dedication and it was during I Chan
Thins lifetime.

In 599 SakkarAj Nga Su Thin dedicated seven more pagoda
slaves, namely, I Myo, I Tin Ke, I Sa Ye, I Pyu, I Payan, Nga Pwin,
and Nga Sha.


86 INSCRIPTIONS OP PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

On Friday, the i ith waxing of Pyatho, 598 SakkarAj, Nga Thi
Kwa Thin dedicated the following pagoda slaves, namely, I Hlun
and I Taung We.

On Tuesday, the 1 ith waning of Tawthalin, 599 SakkarAj, Nga
Pyi Thin and his wife dedicated the following slaves, namely, Nga
Taba and NgaP6n Z6n to look after the pagoda.

May those who molest these slaves suffer in the avici hell and
fail to behold any of the future Buddhas. The witnesses to this
dedication were monk Gunati; U Pagok ; Chatta Tathi; Myana
Thago; Kanta Wadi; and I Lwa; total six witnesses in the same

year,...........................................................

....................................................(4 lines).

No. (14).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on the
southern side.

Date.599 SakkarAj (1237 A.D.).

Founder.Nyana Pyitsi.

Substance of inscription.Building of cave, monastery, and rest-
house with well, library, bell, and out-houses, and dedication slaves, paddy-lands, and cows thereto.

The building of the cave was commenced on the morning o f
Monday, the 3rd waning of Pyafho, 598 SakkarAj, and it was com-
pleted in 28 days. The walls were finished on the full-moon daj^
of Tabaung. The golden cap of the cave was set up on th
morning of Monday, the 7th waning of Tabaung. On Friday, th
roth waxing of Tagu, the painting of the cave was finished. Oi
the following Monday the 14,619 small images and 550 statues *
to be placed in the cave were completed. The monastery anti
out-houses were also completed on the same day. The bell attach-
ed to the cave weighed io6£ viss. The cap of the cave was of
brass, weighing 55^ viss, and 46 ticals of gold was used in gilding
it. Twenty ticals more was spent in gilding the main image.
Five school-houses were also built and an image was placed on the
monastery, near which three banyan trees were planted. Besides,
there were three lavatories and a library. All these were dedicated
on Friday, the 9th waning of Nadaw. On Monday, the 4th waning
of Kas6n, 599 SakkarAj, Nyana Pyitsi, the nobleman, dedicated the
following slaves to the cave erected by him, namely, Nga San Ya
and son Nga Lut; Nga T6n ; Nga Pu Ya and wife O Gon; daugh-
ters O Kyaung and O Yauk ; O Kfc Laung ; musician Nga Ton
Da ; drummer Nga Pwa ; Nga Ma Lo ; Thanapw6, an Indian
musician ; Nga Pyauk and O Ma, an Indian couple ; their son

* These represent the various anterior births of Gautama Buddha.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINVA, AND AVA.

87

Nga Taung Mwe ; Nga Kyaung .; Nga Mun ; Nga Yauk ;
Nga Twe ; Mi Tu and daughter Palu ; drummer Nga Pu Thi; Pwa
and Yi. The lands dedicated were :50 of paddy-land offered

by Y anyindi and called Petmanyo, 20 for the rice-offerings at the
pagoda and 30 for the maintenance of the presiding monk of the
monastery ; 70 pis of paddy-land called Paukpinbyu, 20 pis called
Ye-u, and a barn containing 300 baskets of paddy, which were offer-
ed by monk Katathu for the maintenance of the presiding monk.
Besides the above, monk Katathu offered Yatathu and 19 other
slaves to the pagoda. The 40 pis of paddy-land offered by Minhla
was for the maintenance of the students at the monastery, and the
30 pis called Pyaukya, situated south-west of Lfegwfe village in
L&gaing township, are for the presiding monk : so are the 300 pis
called Masfcpaung, offered by Hnaung. The 100 pis just beyond
Pyinbi village are dedicated to the three Gems.

May those who appropriate any of these lands suffer in the
avici hell along with seven generations of their relatives; may they
never behold any of the future Buddhas, even if their number be
as numerous as the atoms in a heap of earth. May they always be
petas in their future existences. On the other hand, may those
who approve of my offering share the merit with me.

Thirty cows were also offered to the pagoda. Bdkdalinga, the
mason, was rewarded with an elephant and four suits of clothes,
and Seiktara Misin, the painter, with an elephant, a pony, and two
suits of clothes.

No. (15).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on the east-
ern side.

Date.600 Sakkarij (1238 A.D.).

Founders.Myingaba Pizfe, his wife and son.

Substance of inscription.Dedication of slaves to pagoda.

The attributes of the Buddha and his Law are beyond com-
prehension, so is the merit of those who honour him and his Law.
May they receive praise.

On Thursday, the 3rd waning of Pyatho, 600 Sakkar&j, Myinga-
ba Piz6, his wife and son Atulayat dedicated the following pagoda
slaves, namely, Periyan and wife Ma Lauk, daughter Yasawi,
grandson Mimithwi ; Yasawis sister Akwe, nieces Awithakwe and
M6ktalon, nephew Xga Thauk ; Nga Di Kyet; total 9.

The witnesses to the dedication weremonks Bokdayinthe,
Dbammalat, U Oktamayazakawi, and Awiyazapandeik; Pattan
Thawami; Puyithaman ; Thiyipbnnayikadanbi; Ngachatma Thin ;


88 INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

Nganaing Thin ; Salawagdn ; Wizayapfe; Udayapfc ; Ngaby6 Thin ;
Ngakun Thin; Myinthadit; and Mwanayan.

Whoever destroys our offering, may he suffer in the uttermost
depths of the avid hell, and may he never have the opportunity of
beholding any of the coming Buddhas. *

No. (16).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on fctie
southern side.

Date.604 Sakkarij (1242 A.D.).

Founder.Kingathus t wife.

Substance of inscription.Building of monasteries, and dedication
thereto of slaves and lands.

On Thursday, the 14th waning of Nadaw, 604 SakkarAj, King-^-'
thu, the nobleman, passed away. On the following Sunday, h*is
wife, the daughter of Nyaungyangyi, having lost her beloved hus-
band and realizing the impermanency of things, commenced to
build three monasteries in the name of her husband and lord, h^t
mother and her father, and with a yiew to promote the cause of t
Religion. The monasteries were adorned with ornaments of gold*
silver, copper, brass, and rubies, and offerings were made to them o*
boats, elephants, cattle, goats, ivory, slaves, paddy and garde*"*
lands after having invoked the guardian nat of the earth to bea-*"'
witness to the act. To the Mahakatthapa monastery 100
paddy-land known as Sin-u were offered. This land was purchased
for a,000 ticals of silver from Chatmamfc Thin and Chatmayfe Tht*-*
during the reign of Alaungsithu. Chatmamfc Thin and Chatmajr^
Thin were the aunts of O Det Pye Thin. The Osbnyk land, mea.'
suring 16 pis, is included in the Sin-u land. The Pinthit garden*
which was also offered, was obtained in satisfaction of a debt o'f
4,000 ticals of silver due from Thula Piyit, his younger brothe*"
Anantanru and Lapiyit. Besides the above, the following offering^
were made, namely, Chanthagaung field, containing 7 pis, whicf*
was purchased by Kingathus wife for 150 ticals of silver front-*
Malauklan, his sons Nga U and Nga Lat, and his sister Wunmar**
Thin; Kyauksit field of 5 pis, which was State land, granted to
Kingathu; 5 pis purchased from Sinbu at 6 ticals per pi; th<5
Hlibo land, consisting of Tahat field, 6 pis, Pandin field 6 pis, Eir.
daraseik field 6 pis, and U Sauk Pan field 6 pis; Kantuhaung field
containing 20 pis, consisting of 15 pis purchased from Thingyiky6r>,

This would include the Buddhas of future k alp as also, for there is only one in ore
Buddha to come for this kalf>at namely, Metteyya.

f A Minister in the reigns of Narapalisithu, Uzana, and Kyazwa of Pagan.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

89

and 5 pis from Thingyi Pet; 50 pis offered to the Law by Kinga-
thu ; the Y6npon field containing and consisting of 40 pis

called Kanaukyibok, and 60 pis purchased from O PAn Thin ; 300
pis out of the KyAnthaye land containing 2,000 pes; and the
Pyingamya land containing 20 pis; grand total 617 pis ......

....................also 45 pis of garden land in Siywa village ;

25 pis west of MyinmwA and 25 slaves.

No. (17).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda,* on the
northern side.

Date.609 Sakkar&j (1247 A.D.).

Founders.Nga Hla Thin and wife.

Substance of inscription.Dedication of pagoda slaves.

On Thursday, the 1st waxing of Nadaw 609 SakkarAj, Nga Hla
Thin and his wife dedicated the following pagoda slaves, who were
purchased with their own earnings, namely, Nga Pan ; Ho Mauk ;
Nga Taung Mwe; Nga Kwe; Nga Pa Gan; O Tha Lon; Nga
Ma Y6k; O Chan ; OYauk; Aung Ma; O Kyitsaya; Nga Kan
Ba; Nga Kan ; Nga Myit; and Nga Chit Swe. The witnesses to
the dedication weremonks ThanlA, Pyinnya, and Kaya Thin ; O
K6n Dan Thin;. O Twe Thin; and clerk Nga Let Pyi. The
number of slaves was 15.

May those who destroy my offering suffer punishment under
this earth, like Devadat. But whoever approves of my offering,
may he share its merit with me. The paddy-land with the palm-
trees thereon is for the presiding monk of the, monastery. May I

be liberated from the bondage of samsaro .......................

(two lines).

No. (18).Obverse.

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on the
eastern side.

Date.610 Sakkar&j (1248 A.D.).

Founder.Banker Aing Hnin Thin.

Substance of inscription.Building of pagoda and dedication of
slaves, land, and cattle thereto.

On Monday, the 12th waxing of Tawthalin 610 SakkarAj, Banker
Aing Hnin Thin dedicated the 13 pagodas built by him and at the

* Built by King Kyanyitthaof Pagan (106492 A.D.)

12


go

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

same time offered the following persons as slaves thereto, namely:
Nga Yin Sin, Aing La Bu, Aing Kun Bu, Aing Mun U,. Aing
Wun Bye, Aing Mi, I Myi, Aing Sin Win, Aing Hlun, Paduma
Mi; total io. The offering was made in the presence of his three
sisters and Banker Nga Sinzwa Thin. These slaves were not in-
herited from his parents, but were bought with his own earnings.
The other witnesses to the dedication were Yinga Pahe and wife ;
Sattalin Kabo and wife; Samanta Pattara and wife.

" Whoever molests these slaves, whether it be my kinsman or

any other, may he be burnt in the avici hell......................"

(one line).

Reverse.

On Friday, the 13th waxing of Nay6n, the following offerings were

made to the old monastery, namely:.............................;

47 pis of paddy-land 5271 pis of garden-land ; 20 slaves; a herd of

cattle ; 20 pis of paddy-land called Moti, and 100 pis of paddy-
land at Minkyichauk. To the three images placed in the monas-
tery at Myeb6n the following offerings were made, namely: the
Ziddnpein field of 70 pes; 85 pis of paddy-land at Kyizin ; 542 pis
of garden-land ; and 21 slaves. Fifteen slaves and a herd of cattle
are offered to the monastery itself. For the maintenance of the
monk Kalaba, the Kyizin garden, measuring 5 pis, was offered.
At the same time 190 slaves were granted their freedom. Two-
thirds of the cattle were for the old monastery and the remainder
for the new. Out of the produce of the lands daily rice*offerings
shall be made according to the following scale, namely, 1 pi of
rice per image, the remainder to be utilized for the maintenance
of the monks who look after the pagoda and images. The names
of the slaves dedicated to the old monastery are: Nga Myo and
sons Nga Pwa and Nga Hnat; Nga U Hla and sons Nga Minze,
Nga M£, and Nga Pyu; Nga Ye Mdn ; Matu Naing and sons Nga
Kok, Nga Ket, and Nga Nyan; Nga San Ga; total 20. The slaves
dedicated to the image placed in the monastery at Myebdn are
O Ta, daughter O Kywin, husband Nga Pyi Wa; O Kywins
daughter O Sit; Nga Ta Mo ; Nga Pyi Wa; Kantu Ita; O Kyat;
Nga P6n and wife O Chan Tha; Nga Pdn's brother Nga Kyin ; .

. ; O Kus daughter O Kyun; O Tan Laing and daughter O
Man Tu ; O Pyi; O Chit and son Nga Hli, daughter O Myo;
mahout Nga Taung Mwe and brother Nga Pa E and 15 other
slaves; total 36. The offerings consisted of altogether 322 pis of
paddy-land, 813^5 of garden-land, 56 slaves, and a number of
head of cattle; also the garden of 5 pis at Kyizin which was
offered to monk Kalaba.


INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PINYA, AND AVA.

S>>

No. (19).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda on the east-
ern side.

Date.620 Sakkar&j (1258 A.D.).

Founders.Banker Nga Taing Bin Thin and wife.

Substance of inscription.Building of pagoda and dedication of
slaves thereto.

On Thursday, the full moon of Tawthalin 620 SakkarAj, Banker
Nga Taing Bin Thin and wife dedicated the following slaves to the
pagoda built by them, namely, Nga Yauk Pon and daughter Yate,
son Nga Kyaung Gyi; Yanydngi; Yatimi; Nga Pyu; O Chun
Mwe ; Yakywe; and Mi U.

May every one from the king downwards have a share of the
merit accruing from the offering of these nine slaves, and may I, for
my part, attain Buddhahood. The witnesses to the dedication
were monks Oktayanti, Dhammayit, Pavaradhammarajaguru, Hlaka-
metkabyan, Thuyeinthin, Bidayet, Kantathi, and Thukamein Mauk-
galan ; Nga Pan Deik ; Nga Pa Ngfe; and Nga San Thin. I re-
quest these witnesses to look after my offering, and I liberate the
three slaves Titalfe, Tharapi, and Yaywit. May those who destroy
my offering suffer in avici and never have the opportunity of be-
holding any of the coming Buddhas.

Inscribed by Nga Hnit Leik Thin.

No. (20).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on the north-
ern side.

Date.622 Sakkar&j {1260 A.D.).

Founder.T ayamyfe.

Substance of inscription.Dedication of slaves, lands, and cattle
to pagoda and monastery.

On Friday, the 4th waning of Tabodwfe 622 SakkarAj, Tayamy6
made the following offerings to the pagoda and monastery, namely,
30 pis of viayin paddy-land at Wayindok ; 12 slaves, Nga Awyin
Naing, Tadundo Ponz6n, and sons Kalaza and Nga Nyo Hmb O
Kyaung, O Kyun, O Kyi, Hnanlo Ya, O Pya, O Chwin Pi, and
O Pyu Lwa daughters of O Ponzdn ; 10 palm-trees at Tayin ; and
five cows. The rent of the land shall be utilized equally for the
upkeep of the pagoda and monastery. The students shall be
maintained out of the same fund and the presiding monk of the
monastery will execute all necessary repairs to the pagoda. The
witnesses to the offering were Dhammathaya Pandeik, Thutab6kdi,
Kalapat, Tawthein, Ata,..................... ............


93

INSCRIPTIONS OF PAGAN, PtNYA, AND AVA.

May those who destroy my offering be always miserable in the
present, and may they (in future) be burnt in avici. May those
who approve of my offerings increase in wealth and happiness.

No. (21).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on the
northern side.

Date.Nil.

Founder.Theinka *

Substance of inscription.Building of monastery and dedication
thereto of slaves and lands.

On Wednesday, the full-moon of Pyatho.................SakkarAj,

Theinka ., the nobleman, offered 30 out of 100 owned by him
at Myingyan to the monastery built by him.

May my liege the king as well as my parents and other rela-
tives obtain a share of the merit. May those who destroy my
offering suffer in the hell within this earth. But may those who

approve of it share its merit equally with me..................

(four lines).

Three slaves, Nga Chat, Nga U Ga, and.................were also

offered. May those who destroy the garden offered by me, fail to
enjoy happiness in the abode of men and nats, and may they
suffer as......................................................

No. (22).

Locality.Within the walls of the Shinbinbawdi pagoda, on the east-
ern side.

Date.636 Sakkar&j (1274 A.D.).

Founders.*Nga Lat Maing and wife.

Substance of inscription.Dedication of slaves and lands to monas-
tery.

May those who approve of this good deed from the king and
queen downwards reap the merit thereof throughout all ages.
This is the prayer of the nobleman Thiriwutdana and his wife
Min Saw Lat.f who built the monastery for the monk Thamanta-
pattara. Those who witnessed the dedication of the monastery
were : the Governor of Kaungsin, Saduyingabo, Nga Mye, brother
of Queen Asaw, and his wife, Eindapyitsaya, son of Thatharapo
.............Talathi and wife, Amyit and wife, and Atweaman.

* This is merely a portion of the title of a nobleman. The full title wouTd be either
Theinkathura, Theinkapati, or Theinkapyanchi.
t Daughter of King Narathihapade.


Full Text