Citation
Short glossary of Burmese

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Title:
Short glossary of Burmese
Creator:
Great Britain. War Office
Permanent Committee on Geographical Names
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
War Office
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Burmese
Physical Description:
20 p. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Burmese language -- Glossaries, vocabularies, etc. ( lcsh )
Genre:
glossaries
dictionaries
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Myanmar
Europe -- United Kingdom -- England -- London
Coordinates:
22 x 96
51.505556 x -0.125833

Notes

General Note:
"Prepared by the P.C.G.N." (Permanent Committee on Geographical Names)

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SOAS, University of London
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
435005 ( ALEPH )
194054984 ( OCLC )

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Full Text
SHORT GLOSSARY
OF
BURMESE
First Edition, January 1945
G.S.G.S.
WAR OFFICE, LONDON


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INTRODUCTORY NOTE
The transliteration of Burmese place names on official maps follows closely the rules laid down
in Tables for the transliteration of Burmese into English (Rangoon, 1908), but variant trans-
literations arise from the more recent use of hk, hsy ht and hp to distinguish aspirated consonants
and from a lack of uniformity in the use of the hyphen and of diacritical marks. Further, the mutation
of the sounds ky s, t and p to g, zy d and b after a vowel or a nasal is observed in the transliteration
into English. Thus the same Burmese spelling may have several English transliterations.
Burmese words of distinct meaning have not necessarily distinct Burmese spellings, and distinct
spellings may have the same English transliteration. This glossary contains separate entries for
separable Burmese spellings and for each entry there is shown the meaning, or meanings, most usual
in place names and the various transliterations in which the word usually appears on official maps.
Cross references are provided for the identification of variant transliterations.
The system of transliteration is intended to conform to the English pronunciation of the letters
used, but the following approximate equivalents may serve as a guide to the values of the vowels and
diphthongs and to the pronunciation of compound consonants.
A (long) as in bar
A (short) as in bat
E as in may /separable only by
E as in fair I the diacritical mark
I as in seen
O as in bone
U (long) as in boot
U (short) as in pat
EI as in aid
AW as in p aw
AU as in moant
KY as in o/mrch
GY as in 7'et
NG as in gomg over
NY as in Buwyan
The map overleaf is primarily intended to show the limited distribution of Burmese place
names within the territorial boundary of Burma. In the greater part of the area where Burmese is
shown as occurring with other elements Burmese place names are in the majority. The words Shan,
Chin, Kachin and Karen indicate only the main languages of the frontier districts ; the complex
mosaic of the many tribal languages of these areas defies simple diagrammatic representation.


V.C.Q.K


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
A
A prefix denoting a verbal noun
ahtet, atet upper
ain see ein
aing pool, swamp, stagnant water
alan flag
ale, ale middle, central
anauk West
anya the upper part of anything; Upper Burma
ashe East
atet see ahtet
auk lower
aukchin the hornbill (Buceros monoceros); a tree species
aung to conquer ; victory
B
baik see paik
baing see paing
ban see pan
bauk see pauk
baung see hp aung
baw see paw
bawdi sacred banyan tree (Ficus religiosa)
bay a see paya
bay on see hp ay on
bet see pet
bin see pin
bo leader, captain, official
bo see hpo
bode, bode rest house, dak-bungalow


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
bok see pok
bon see pon
bwin see pwin
bya see pya
byaing heron, egret
by at see pyat
byin see pyin
byu see hpyu
C
chaing : gyaing to be concave ; depression, low lying fields
chan : gyan fence, enclosure, cattle fold
chantha happiness ; prosperity
chauk: gyauk six ; to be dry
C., Ch. chaung : gyaung stream, river
chidauk, chedauk foot, secondary trunk of a banyan tree
chin Chin
D
da long knife, sword
da see ta
daga see taga
dahat a tree species (Tectona Hamiltonii)
daik stranded or drifting rubbish
daik see taik
daing see taing
dalin see talin
damin bamboo fish trap used in sea fisheries
dan see tan and htan
dani a palm used for thatch (Nipa fruticans)


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
danyin see tanyin
dat see tat
dathwekyauk OOOSGCgSGOqpcS a stone for whetting knives
daung G3l8g peacock
daung see taung
daw see taw
daye, daye 36|cS the hog deer (Cervus porcinus)
de, de see te
dein see tein
di see hti
didok 8 8" oo the large horned-owl
do see to
don see ton and hton
du see tu
duyin the durian tree {Durio zibethinus)
dwin see twin
E
e G332 cool, cold
ein, ain £S house
G
gaing see kaing
gale see kale
galon Og1§ a fabulous bird
gamon plants of the genus Kaempferia
gan see kan
gangaw o on 00 GO I 0 a flowering tree (Mesua pedun- culata)
gauk see kauk
gaung GOOOS numeral affix for animals
gaung see hkaung
ge 5 see hke


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
gin see khin and kin
gon see kon
gonnyin a species of creeper (Sutada pursaetha)
gu see ku
gwa see hkwa
gwe GCg or GOgg to be curved, a bend
gwet see kwet
gwin see kwin
gyaing see chaing
gyan see chan and kyan
gyauk see chauk and kyauk
gyaung see chaung and kyaung
gyi see kyi
gyo fresh (not salt)
gyo # dove
gyo see kyo
gyun see kyun
H
haung GQOoSs old
hintha oooSo a wild duck, the ruddy sheldrake (formerly a national emblem of the Pegu kingdom)
hkanaung, kanaung 9G^o8s a large whirlpool
hkaung, kaung: gaung G9l&§ head ; hollow, a wooden trough
hke, ke, ke : ge a stone, hard ; lead
hkwa, kwa : gwa §1 a hoof; to separate
hla 9? beautiful; excessive
hlaing cgSs a wave ; a sheaf of corn
hie GOJ boat
hie, hie 6 cart


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
hlwa a saw
hlwazin a sawpit
hman glass ; trees of the genus Randia
hmaw a variety of water weed
hmyaw to set afloat, to float timber
hmyaw a leech
hna see hnit
hnget bird
hngetpyaw, ngapyaw a banana
hnit, hna two
hpa, pa a frog ; a cleat nailed to a house post
hpalan, palan a tree species (Bauhinia diphylla)
hpaung, paung : baung raft, barge, royal boat
hpaye, paye, paye water melon
hpayon, payon : bayon pumpkin
hpo, po : bo bellows ; fireplace, furnace, kiln
hpongyi, pongyi Buddhist monk
hput, put a large lizard, iguana
hpyu, pyu : byu white
hsa, sa salt
hsabo, sabo salt boiler's furnace, place where salt is boiled
hsagyin, sagyin salt pans
hsaing, saing shop
hse, se, se : ze weir
hseik, seik : zeik landing-place
hsi, si: zi trees of the genus Zizyphus
hsin, sin elephant
hsu, su : zu thorn
htan, tan: dan the sugar palm
htaukkyan, taukkyan trees of the genus Terminalia
7


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
hti, ti: di c8s umbrella (frequently denoting rank or honour)
htin, tin ooSs firewood
htinyu, tinyu oo&s^s coniferous trees
hton, ton : don 0 cgs limestone, lime ; pool
I in 3aS the tree Dipterocarpus tuber culatus
in 338s lake, fishery, marsh
indaing 338c^8§ dry forest
ingyin 33&(cg8s the tree Shorea siamensis
K
kado or o^qjj) ferry
kaing : gaing to hang over in a curve, bend downwards ; elephant grass ; riverine cultivation
kala cqcooz foreign, Indian
kalauk ggcoooS cattle bell
kale : gale oogcos small, little, a child
kan : gan 00^ artificial pond or lake, tank '
kan : gan ooSs bank of a river, seashore
kanaung see hkanaung
kanazo oo^jjs trees of the genus Heritiera
kanyin 00gD8 the tree Dipterocarpus laevis
kathe oooo^ss Manipuri
kathit 00008 the tree Erythrina indica
kauk : gauk gooocs bent, crooked
kaung see hkaung
kayin 006|8 Karen
kazun OOg^S or oo^g^s a plant with an edible root
ke, ke 8 see hke


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
khin, kin : gin s>Ss suffix denoting a plot of cultiva- tion or a plantation
khunit seven
kin : gin ooSs guard, watchman's post
kin see khin
kinmun to be fond of, to long for
kinpun coSg^g the soap-acacia creeper
kokko a species of Acacia
kon, kon: gon bank, ridge, minor elevation ; land (in contradistinction to water)
ku : gu cr^or q cave
ku : gu OJg to cross, a crossing-place, ford
kun ngSg betel nut; betel leaf
kwa see hkwa
kwet: gwet ogoS field ; plot of land
kwin : gwin 028s circle; an area of cultivated land ; a patch of level ground
kya oqpg tiger
kya go water lily
kyakat goc8 a thorny bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea)
kyan : gyan § sugar-cane
kyauk : gyauk GocpcS rock, stone
kyaukhke, kyaukke GQCjjDoSb stone
kyaukmithwe G0rpc8§SGCgS coal
kyauk saung G0q|0c8GS008 a ledge of rock rising above water
kyauksayit G(7I)]OC8(D|8 gravel
kyauksu GoqpcSajs an anchor
kyaukthinbaw GQCjjOoSoOGO^O sea urchin
Kg. kyaung : gyaung G0qp8§ Buddhist monastery, school
kyet @GS fowl
kyetsu gcSs^ the castor-oil plant
9


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
kyetthun an onion
kyettuywe gcSojGgp parrot
kyi: gyi C^g crow
kyi g: big, large, great
kyi: gyi flowering trees of the genus Barringtonia
kyigan O^SOO^g crow
kyo: gyo # to break
kyo: gyo Oc|g broken, breach in a river bank or dyke
kyo: gyo the tree Melicocca trijuga
kyu reed
kyun : gyun oo UA- & island ; the teak tree (Tectona grandis)
kywe, kywe buffalo
L
lamaing CO^Ss cultivator of royal land
lan coSs road, path
laung GCQO&l a racing canoe, a long boat
le GCOo four ; heavy
le, le cocfi rice land, a rice field
leik c8S tortoise, turtle
letkok coc&jS trees of the genus Sterculia
letpan cocSo the cotton tree {Bombay insigne)
letthama COCSOOQOS carpenter
Ion c^s round ; numeral affix for round things
lu man, person
lwin C^S an open space, a clearing
M
ma Q main, principal; feminine prefix or female suffix; negative affix
IO


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
magyi the tamarind tree
mau, ma-u the tree Nauclea Cadamba
mayan or the marian tree (Mangifera oppositifolia)
mayin dry-weather rice grown in swamps
me, me b or o^Ss dark; indigo
meinma woman
mezali, mezali the tree Cassia fiorida
mi Is fire ; a light
migyaung 8GOrp8s crocodile
milaung 8sgcooS to be on fire, burnt
min q8s ruler; official
mingala g&coo auspicious ; a religious rite
mithwe charcoal
mogaung ^cSsGQQoSs abundant rainfall
mogyo thunderbolt
mokso or hunter
mwe snake
mwehauk GjgGOOOcS a cobra
myama Burmese
myanma g^go Burmese
myauk cgocS North
M. myaung GgoS ravine, narrow winding valley, hill stream
myaung cgoSs canal, ditch
mye Gg ground, earth, soil
myenu land newly formed by the accre- tion of silt, alluvial soil
myet goS grass
myethna tjj'cSfO the face ; quarter of the heavens
myin tall, high
myin g8s horse
II


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
myit §8 river
myo i town
myoma B town centre ; chief town in a region
myothit new town
N
na near ; to alight (as a bird)
naga a species of dragon
naing to overcome, excel
nandaw ^sgoqS palace
nat f>c8 spirit, supernatural being
* natsin fc8S spirit shrine
ne, ne region, province
ne the sun ; to dwell, remain
nebu, nepu to be hot (of the sun)
negya, negya boundary, frontier
neikban M heaven, Nirvana
nepu see nebu
net black
nga els five ; fish
ngabat clsocS
ngabyema
ngagyin c1s@oSs varieties of fish
ngakonma cls^sg
ngayan cK t
ngan c^s goose ; snakes of certain species
ngapi cls8 a preparation of pounded salt fish
ngapyaw see hngetpyaw
ngayok c<^c8 red pepper, the chili plant
ngayokkaung c^jcSgoooSs black pepper
nge, nge cuS 12 small, inferior


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
ngok gcS stump, tree stump
ngokto gcSc^j stump, tree stump; topless pagoda
ngu 9 a promontory, headland; the green pigeon
ngwe G2 silver ; money
ni ? red
ni |s near
nwa ox, bullock, cattle
nyaung GgDoS the banyan tree (Ficus indie a)
0
0 pot
ok brick
okmin or onmin SQ8 grotto, artificial cave, tunnel
okshit gogjS or 8§|8 the fruit tree Aegle Marmelos
on, on the coconut palm
onhne, onhne Si a species of Euphorbia
onmin see okmin
P pa see hpa
pabe, pabe o^scb or blacksmith
padauk 8gooog8 a tree species (Pterocarpus indicus)
padein goldsmith, silversmith
padi 9c8s a string of beads
paik : baik fishing-net
paing : baing portion, division, ward or quarter of a town
palan see hpalan
pan : ban o^s flower
pauk : bauk GolcS^ several species of flowering trees, the Bute a tree ; to come out; an opening
13


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
paung see hpaung
paw: baw goT to be awash, to come to the surface ; top, summit
paya : baya c^sps sacred being ; lord ; pagoda
paye, paye see hpaye
payon see hpayon
pazun or ^ crustacean, prawn, crab, shrimp
peinne, peinne 8g the jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia)
pet: bet 00 g8 side
pin : bin 08 generic suffix and numeral affix for trees and other plants
pinle oScocjS sea
po see hpo
pok: bok 98 putrid, rotten ; dark
pon : bon a shape, pattern; a heap, to collect in a heap
pongyi see hpongyi
ponna (^aoot a Brahmin
put see hput
pwe, pwe $ a dramatic performance; a transaction of any kind
pwin : bwin 88 to blossom, a flower
pya : bya gos flat
pyat: byat gcS to cut, divided
pyathat goCOoS graduated spire of a monastery or palace
pyi, pye country, territory
pyin : byin gs level plain
pyinkado qigSsooc^js the tree Inga xylocarpa
pyu see hpyu
R
| rathe 1 14 | see yathe


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
S sa see hsa
sabo see hsabo
sagyin see hsagyin
saing see hsaing
sakan (dosses or 9^>s camp, camping-ground
san : zan 8s a spring
sat socS the sambur deer
sauk: zauk goc8 depth ; steep, precipitous
se, se see hse
sehnit 2ocS§£ twelve
seik see hseik
sha the cutch tree (.Acacia catechu) ; various species of Euphorbia
shan Shan, an inhabitant of the Shan States
shauk g§pcS trees of the Citrus family
shaw gcg|s the fibrous inner bark of certain trees, used for making ropes
shazibo §josgs(^ a place where cutch is extracted by boiling
she §1£§ long
she g§] in front; East
shwe gold, golden
shwegyin GgCqS a washing for alluvial gold
si see hsi
sin see hsin
sino, sin-o, sinoh or gSd^S large glazed earthenware pot
sit war, battle ; a species of Acacia
sitke £cb Burmese military official
sizon 3825 oil press
son : zon * confluence of a stream, cross- roads
15


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
su : zu group of houses, hamlet, quarter of town
su see hsu
T
ta 00 one
ta: da 000 embankment
tada 060002 bridge, causeway, jetty
taga: daga oools gate, gateway
tagundaing oog^c^s a post bearing religious emblems, a sacred flagstaff
taik : daik substantial building, office, shop ; a group, a group of monasteries
taing : daing gs post, pillar, a measure of length equal to two miles
taing : daing gSs a wooded tract {used as a suffix to the specific name of the tree)
talaing oocJjjSs Talaing, Mon {strictly Mon)
talin : dalin oocoSs threshing floor ; level ground
taman 000 small dam or embankment to direct the flow of water over rice fields
tan : dan 00^2 row of trees or houses, street, anything in a row
tan see htan
tanyin : danyin 005382 the tree Inga dulcis
tarok - see tayok
tat: dat 008 fort, post, military unit
taukkyan see htaukkyan
taung : daung G0008 South ; mountain, hill
taungbo g000&cjjo an ant-hill, a mound
taungya gooosooo shifting cultivation on hillsides
taw : daw good forest, grove, waste
taw : daw goos royal; sacred ; honorific suffix
tayok, tarok 00^8 16 Chinese %


Abbreviatio?i \ i Transliteration Burmese Meaning
tazaung oo^gsooss a hall with graduated roof usually in the precincts of a pagoda
taze OO^DOS cultivated land regularly inun- dated by a river
te, te : de, de db temporary hut, shelter
te, te OD^ the tree Diospyros burmanica
teik o85 top, summit
tein: dein c3S shallow, a shallow place
tha ogo pleasant
tha ooos son
thabeik oo8c8 the bowl in which monks receive offerings of food
thabye oog(c] trees of the genus Eugenia
thabyu tree of the genus Dille?iia
thahpan, thapan oooEs tree of the genus Ficus
thakut OOgcS tree species {Spathodea Rheedii)
thamaing 00^82 history, legend
thambaya see thanbaya
thami 0 daughter
thamin oogS a species of deer
than 00 iron
thanat 00^8 a tree the leaf of which is used for making cigars (Cordia myxa)
thanbaya, thambaya oogsp the lime tree
thange, thunge OflCoS child
thapan see thahpan
thate ojGgs a rich man ; trader, industrialist
thaung gooos sandbank
thaungbyin Gooo8(yS a sand flat
thaya oooodo clear, pleasant; peaceful, flourishing
thayet oogcS the mango tree (Mangifera indica)
the, the ob sand


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
thegaw, thegaw ol)gooo a bar of silt in a stream, a shoal
thegon, thegon Ol)^ a sandbank, dune, sandy ridge
thein 08S place of ordination in Buddhist shrine
thetke, thetke oooScdS coarse grass used for thatch
thi oo fruit
thin 008 a reed (Thalia cannaeformis), used for weaving mats
thinban odSo^s a tree of the genus Hibiscus
thinbaw oogo8o ship, steamship; foreign
thingan monastic robes ; the tree Hopea odorata
thit oo£ new; timber, trees
thitcho the tree Sideroxylon tomentosum
thon 0 ap three
thugyi ajgs village headman
thunge see thange
ti see hti
tin see htin
tinwa oo8so1s a species of bamboo (Cephalo- stachyum pergracile)
tinyu see htinyu
to : do rSo 00 a fabulous animal
ton: don rS. 00 (suffix) a log or block of wood
ton see hton
tu: du to dig
twin: dwin 0g8g hole, well; valley
U -
udaung gGGlSs peacock
udo a creek ending in a cul-de-sac
uyin s^PS garden


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
W
wa 0 {suffix) mouth of a stream or river, any orifice
wa ols bamboo
wabo olgc^s or olstjfe a species of very large bamboos
waing circle, enclosure
wayon ols^j a clump of bamboos
we, we b whirlpool
wet 008 Pig
win oS to enter
win o&s a fence, a fenced enclosure
Y
ya 000 cultivated land not embanked for growing rice
yaing §82 wild
yakaing # Arakanese
yan battle, strife, quarrel, enmity
yat G|S {suffix) ward or quarter of a town
yathe, rathe G)G0l> hermit, ascetic
ye, ye * brave, bold
ye GG| water
yebu GG]V hot water, a hot spring
yedwin GG)0g8g a well
yegyaw GG)G^0 a water course, channel
yegyaw GGJGOCjjS a natural through channel be- tween two bends of a river
yegyo GG^ fresh water
yele, yele GGjeb an inundation
yenan GG|^> petroleum
yengan GGJC^ salt water
yeozin, ye-o-zin GG)^S8 a stand for waterpots at the road- side provided for the use of travellers
19


Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning
yewe G)G 0 a ridge between two rivers, watershed
yin ooSs a bamboo screen in channel or on bank of stream to prevent passage of fish
yindaik oo8sc§c8 a tree resembling ebony
- yinma OO8SGO a tree species of the genus Chickrassia
Y. yo §S creek ; bone, ridge
yodaya 0^230DOS Siamese (from the Siamese word Ayuthia)
yoma §SG mountain range
yon o to spring up in a cluster from one root (of plants)
yon office, public building, court- house
yon the tree Anogeissus acuminata
ywa §10 village
ywama main village
ywathit §|ooo8 new village
Z zalok oajc8 or ajcS the crop or craw of a bird ; a basin eroded by running water ; a kind of boat
zan see san
zauk see sauk
zayat G)8 or esj8 shelter for travellers, roofed but open at the sides, rest house
ze M OO bazaar, market
ze see hse
zedi Gc8 pagoda
zeik see hseik
zi see hsi
zibyu the tree Phyllanthus embelia
zon see son
zu 20 see hsu and su



-i| jfvf ^fr.v





Full Text

PAGE 1

l I .. j l ; j. 1 { I I I t I SHORT GLOSSARY I t OF i BURMESE First Edition, 1945 f I s I I G.S.G.S. WAR OFFICE, LONDON

PAGE 2

L 4-1 ; y I ,I I r

PAGE 3

INTRODUCTORY NOTE The transliteration of Burmese place names on official maps follows closely the rules laid down in Tables for the transliteration of Burmese into English" (Rangoon, 1908), but variant trans literations arise from the more recent use of hk, hs, ht and hp to distinguish aspira.ted consonants and from a lack of uniformity in the use of the hyphen and of diacritical marks. Further, the mutation of the sounds k, s, t and p to g, z, d and b after a vowel or a nasal is observed in the transliteration into English. Thus the same Burmese spelling may have several English transliterations Burmese words of distinct meaning have not necessarily distinct Burmese spellings, and distinct spellings may have the same English transliteration This glossary contains separate entries for separable Burmese spellings and for each entry there is shown the meaning, or meanings, most usual in place names and the various transliterations in which the word usually appears on official maps. Cross references _are provided for the identification of variant transliterations. The system of transliteration is intended to conform to the English pronunciation of the letters used, but the following approximate equivalents may serve as a guide to the values of the vowels and diphthongs and to the pronunciation of compound consonants. Af(long) as in bar t(short) as in bat E as m may {separable only by :E as in fair the diacritical mark I as m seen 0 as in bone u{(long) as in boot -(short) as in put El as in aid AW as in paw AU as in mount KY as in church GY as injet N G a s in going over NY as in Bunyan The map overleaf is primarily intended to show the limited distribution of Burmese place names within the territorial boundary of Burma. In the greater part of the area where Burmese is shown as occurring with other elements Burmese place names are in the majority. The words Shan, Chin, Kachin and Karen indicate only the main languages of the frontier districts ; the complex mosaic of the many tribal languages of these areas defies simple diagrammatic representation.

PAGE 4

BURMA Place Names -Burmese Burmese with other elements [ J Xon-Burmese .
PAGE 5

Abbreviation I Transliteration I Burmese -A ahtet, atet a in amg alan ale, ale anauk anya as he at et auk auk chin aung B baik baing ban bauk baung baw bawdi bay a bayon bet bin bo bo bode, bode 0 SdCD Gt:n8 3 Meaning prefix denoting a verbal noun upper see em pool, swamp, stagnant water flag middle, central West the upper part of anything ; Upper Burma East see ahtet lower the hornbill (Buceros monoceros) ; a tree species to conquer ; victory see paik see pamg see pan see pauk see hpaung see paw sacred banyan tree (Ficus religiosa) see paya see hpayon see pet see pin leader, captain, official see hpo rest house, dak-bungalow

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Abbreviation\ C., Ch. Transliteration ------------------! bok bon bwin bya byaing byat by in byu c chaing: gyamg chan: gyan chantha chauk : gyauk chaung : gyaung chidauk, chedauk chin D da da daga dahat daik daik daing dalin dam in dan dani 9JSgOJ') Burmese G[3')c}J G9j')tg G[3G(x)')d) I Meaning see pok see pon see pwin see pya heron, egret see pyat see pyin see hpyu to be concave ; depression, low lying fields fence, enclosure, cattle fold happiness ; prosperity six ; to be dry stream, river foot, secondary trunk of a banyan tree Chin long knife, sword see ta see taga a tree species (Tectona H amiltonii) stranded or drifting rubbish see taik see taing see talin bamboo fish trap used m sea fisheries see tan and htan a palm used for thatch (Nipa fruticans)

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Abbreviation Transliteration danyin dat dathwekyauk daung daung claw daye, daye d e de de in di didok do don du duyin dwin E e e1n, am G gaing gale gal on gamon gan gangaw gauk gaung / gaung ge Burmese ltg o:5GoT 5 Meaning see tanyin see tat a stone for whetting knives peacock see taung see taw the hog deer (Cervus po rcinus) see te see tein see hti the large horned-owl see to s e e ton and hton see tu the durian tree (Durio zibethinus) see twin cool, cold house see kaing see kale a fabulous bird plants of the g e nus Kaempferia see kan a flowering tree (Mesua pedun culata) see kauk numeral affix for animals see hkaung see hke

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Abbreviation I Transliteration gm gon gonnyin gu gwa gwe gwet gwin gyaing gyan gyauk gyaung gyt gyo gyo gyo gyun H haung hintha hkanaung, kanaung hkaung, kaung: gaung hke, ke, ke: ge hkwa, kwa: gwa hla hlaing hle hle, hle Burmese QlGptg GQl1tg Q g1 0:) GCI:J 6 Meaning see khin and kin see kon a species of creeper ( Sutada pursaetha) see ku see hkwa to be curved, a bend see kwet see kwin see chaing see chan and kyan see chauk and kyauk see chaung and kyaung see kyi fresh (not salt) dove see kyo see kyun old a wild duck, the ruddy sheldrake (formerly a national emblem of the Pegu kingdom) a large whirlpool head ; hollow, a wooden trough a stone, hard ; lead a hoof ; to separate beautiful ; excessive a wave ; a sheaf of corn boat cart

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Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese hlwa hlwazin hman hmaw hmyaw hmyaw hna hnget hngetpyaw, ngapyaw hnit, hna hpa, pa hpalan, palan 0 (9(\) hpaung, paung : baung G<91C or G::J.l')C hpaye, paye, paye hpayon, payon: bayon hpo, po: bo hpongyi, pongyi hput, put hpyu, pyu: byu hsa, sa hsabo, sabo hsagyin, sagyin hsaing, saing hse, se, se : ze hseik, seik : zeik hsi, si: z1 hsin, sin hsu, su: zu htan, tan : dan htaukkyan, taukkyan 0 <9(j) 01' Meaning a saw a sawpit glass ; trees of the genus Randia a variety of water weed to set afloat, to float timber a leech see hnit bird a banana two a frog ; a cleat nailed to a house post a tree species (Bauhinia diphylla) raft, barge, royal boat water melon pumpkin bellows ; fireplace, furnace, kiln Buddhist monk a large lizard, iguana white salt salt boiler's furnace, place where salt is boiled salt pans shop we1r landing-place trees of the genus Zizyphus elephant thorn the sugar palm trees of the genus Terminalia

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Abbreviation I Transliteration Burmese hti, ti: di htin, tin htinyu, tinyu hton, ton : don I m aat m aatg indaing ingyin aa56tg K kado or kaing: gaing kala Oi(\)'Jg kalauk dGC\J'Jcf) kale: gale O)G(\)g kan: gan kan: gan m6g kanaung kanazo kanyin kathe kathit kauk: gauk Gm'Jcf) kaung kayin mE>)t kazun or ke, ke 8 Meaning umbrella (frequently denoting rank or honour) firewood coniferous trees limestone, lime ; pool the tree Dipterocarpus tuberculatus lake, fishery, marsh dry forest the tree Shorea siamensis ferry to hang over in a curve, bend downwards ; elephant grass ; riverine cultivation foreign, Indian cattle bell small, little, a child artificial pond or lake, tank bank of a river, seashore see hkanaung trees of the genus Heritiera the tree Dipterocarpus laevis Manipuri the tree Erythrina indica bent, crooked see hkaung Karen a plant with an edible root see hke

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Transliteration Abbreviation I :------------------1 Kg. khin, kin : gin khunit kin: gm kin kinmun kin pun kokko kon, kon : gon ku: gu ku: gu kun kwa kwet: gwet kwin: gwin kya kya kyakat kyan: gyan kyauk : gyauk kyaukhke, kyaukke kyaukmithwe kyauk saung kyauksayit kyauksu kyaukthinbaw kyaung : gyaung kyet kyetsu otffil CYfl or ea 8 GO':lJ'Jo) Burmese GO':lJ'Jo)Q GO':lJ'JoSGoo'Jt GO':lJ'J o)OXj(g GO':lJ'Jo)OJGdl'J GO':lJ'JCg 6oS 6oSOXj( 9 Meaning suffix denoting a plot of cultiva tion or a plantation seven guard, watchman's post see khin to be fond of, to long for the soap-acacia creeper a species of Acacia bank, ridge, minor elevation ; land (in contradistinction to water) cave to cross, a crossing-place, ford betel nut ; betel leaf see hkwa field ; plot of land I circle ; an area of cultivated land ; a patch of level ground tiger water lily a thorny bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea) sugar-cane rock, stone stone coal a ledge of rock rising above water gravel an anchor sea urchin Buddhist monastery, school fowl the castor-oil plant

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Abbreviation I Transliteration kyetthun kyettuywe kyi: gp kyi kyi: gyi kyigan kyo: gyo kyo: gyo kyo: gyo kyu kyun: gyun kywe, kywe L lamaing I an Iaung le le, le leik Ietkok letpan letthama Ion lu I win M m a Burmese Oltg roSg GC\J'Jtg GC\Jg roeS cSS rooSJQ'Jg 0 C\(g C)l IQ 10 Meaning an omon parrot crow big, large, great flowering trees of the genus Barringtonia crow to break broken, breach in a river bank or dyke the tree Melicocca trijuga reed island; the teak tree (Tectona grandis) buffalo cultivator of royal land road, path a r;1cing canoe, a long boat four; heavy rice land, a rice field tortoise, turtle trees of the genus Sterculia the cotton tree (Bombainsigne) carpenter round; numeral affix for round things man, person an open space, a clearing main, principal; feminine prefix. or female suffix ; negative affix

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Abbreviation I M. Transliteration magyi mau, ma-u mayan maym me, me memma mezali, mezali ml migyaung milaung mm mingala mithwe mogaung mogyo mokso m we mwehauk myama myanma myauk myaung myaung m ye myenu m yet myethna my in my in Burmese G8jjl or g or gtg SGOij'JCg GCg GA(\)') or 11 Meaning the tamarind tree the tree Nauclea Cadamba the marian tree (Mangifera oppositifolia) dry-weather rice grown m swamps dark ; indigo woman the tree Cassia florida fire ; a light crocodile to be on fire, burnt ruler ; official auspicious ; a religious rite charcoal abundant rainfall thunderbolt hunter snake a cobra Burmese Burmese North ravine, narrow winding valley, hill stream canal, ditch ground, earth, soil land newly formed by the accre tion of silt, alluvial soil grass the face ; quarter of the heavens tall, high horse

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Abbreviation Transliteration Burmese Meaning my it nver myo town myoma town centre; chief town m a region myothit new town N na near ; to alight (as a bird) nag a cj'>O a species of dragon naing to overcome, excel nandaw palace nat cj'>oS spirit, supernatural being natsin ... spirit shrine ne, ne 'i'oS region, province ne Gcj'> the sun ; to dwell, remain nebu, nepu Gcj'>'n' to be hot (of the sun) negya, negya boundary, frontier neikban heaven, Nirvana nepu see nebu net 'i'oS black nga c five; fish ngabat c l ngabyema ngagyin \ varieties of fish f ngakonma c ngayan ngan goose ; snakes of certain species ngapr c1g8 a preparation of pounded salt fish ngapyaw see hngetpyaw ngayok CEj)oS red pepper, the chili plant ngayokkaung CEj)oSGm-:Jtg black pepper nge, nge coS small, inferior 12

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--------------------------;------------.---------------Abbreviation Transliteration ngok ngokto ngu ngwe m lll nwa nyaung 0 0 ok okmin or onmin okshit on, on onhne, onhne on mm p pa pabe, pabe padauk padein padi paik: baik paing : baing palan pan: ban pauk: bauk 8ild3 Burmese or or or 8Gm'JaS 13 Meaning stump, tree stump stump, tree stump ; topless pagoda a promontory, headland ; the green pigeon silver ; money red near ox, bullock, cattle the banyan tree (Ficus indica) pot brick grotto, artificial cave, tunnel the fruit tree Aegle Marmelos the coconut palm a species of Euphorbia see okmin see hpa blacksmith a tree species (Pterocarpus indicus) goldsmith, silversmith a string of beads fishing net portion, division, ward or quarter of a town see hpalan flower several species of flowering trees, the Butea tree ; to come out ; an opening

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Abbreviation Transliteration paung paw: baw paya: baya paye, paye payon pazun peinne, peinne pet: bet pin: bin pinle po pok: bok pon: bon pongyi ponna put pwe, pwe pwm: bwin pya: by a pyat: byat pyathat pyi, pye pyin: by in pyinkado pyu R rathe ----Burmese GoT J'tqJg :nr/) o5 o5roo5
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Abbreviation I Transliteration s sa sabo sagyin saing sakan san: zan sat sauk: zauk se, se sehnit seik sha shan shauk shaw shazibo she she shwe shwegyin SI Sill si no, sin-o, sinoh sit sitke sizon son: zon Burmese or Q)sg
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Abbreviation\ Transliteration su: zu su T ta ta: da tada taga: daga tagundaing taik: daik taing: daing taing: daing talaing talin: dalin taman tan: dan tan tanyin : danyin tarok tat: dat taukkyan taung : daung taungbo taungya taw: daw taw: daw tayok, tarok Burmese a:n OOBtg ooS GOO')t GOO')tc.D') GOO') GooS OO!j]O J6 Meaning group of houses, hamlet, quarter of town see hsu one embankment bridge, causeway, jetty gate, gateway a post bearing religious emblems, a sacred flagstaff substantial building, offiGe, shop ; a group, a group of monasteries post, pillar, a measure of length equal to two miles a wooded tract (used as a suffix to the specific name of the tree) Talaing, Mon (strictly Mon) threshing floor ; level ground small dam or embankment to direct the flow of water over rice fields row of trees or houses, street, anything in a row see htan the tree Inga dulcis see tayok fort, post, military unit see htaukkyan South ; mountain, hill an ant-hill, a mound shifting cultivation on hillsides forest, grove, waste royal ; sacred ; honorific suffix Chinese "'

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Abbreviation Transliteration tazaung taze te, te : de, de te, te teik tein: dein tha tha thabeik thabye thabyu thahpan, thapan thakut thamaing thambaya thami thamin than thanat thanbaya, thambaya thange, thunge thapan thate thaung thaungbyin thaya thayet the, the ::D8oS ::DGB ::D8oS G::D-:Jt G::D-:Jt@t Burmese 17 Meaning a hall with graduated roof usually in the precincts of a pagoda cultivated land regularly inun dated by a river temporary hut, shelter the tree Diospyros burmanica top, summit shallow, a shallow place pleasant son the bowl in which monks receive offerings of food trees of the genus Eugenia tree of the genus Dillenia tree of the genus Ficus tree species (Spathodea Rheedii) history, legend see thanbaya daughter a species of deer rron a tree the leaf of which is used for making cigars (Cordia myxa) the lime tree child see thahpan a rich man ; trader, industrialist sandbank a sand flat clear, pleasant; peaceful, flourishing the mango tree (Mangifera indica) sand

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Abbreviation I I Transliteration thegaw, thegaw thegon, thegon the in thetke, thetke thi thin thin ban thinbaw thingan thit thitcho thon thugyi thunge ti tin tinwa tinyu to: do ton: don ton tu: du twin: dwin u udaung udo uyin oJGOJ') 2G8ltg emp Burmese Meaning a bar of silt in a stream, a shoal a sandbank, dune, sandy ridge place of ordination in Buddhist shrine coarse grass used for thatch fruit a reed (Thalia cannaeformis), used for weaving mats a tree of the genus Hibiscus ship, steamship; foreign monastic robes ; the tree Hopea odorata new ; timber, trees the tree Sideroxylon tomentosum three village headman see thange see hti see htin a species of bamboo ( Cephalo stachyum pergracile) see htinyu a fabulous animal (suffix) a log or block of wood see hton to dig hole, well ; valley peacock a creek ending in a cul-de-sac garden

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Abbreviation I Transliteration w wa wa wabo waing way on we, we wet wm wm y ya yamg yakaing yan yat yathe, rathe ye, ye ye yebu yedwin yegyaw yegyaw yegyo yele, yele yenan yengan yeozin, ye-o-zin Burmese 0 0 1g o or o 0 od5 oE otg 0)') 6]0 6)Got G6) G6JG6') G6JGD:lJS G6jcD 0 G6j 19 Meaning (suffix) mouth of a stream or river, any orifice bamboo a species of very large bamboos circle, enclosure a clump of bamboos whirlpool pig to enter a fence, a fenced enclosure cultivated land not embanked for growing rice wild Arakanese battle, strife, quarrel, enmity (suffix) ward or quarter of a town hermit, ascetic brave, bold water hot water, a hot spring a well a water course, channel a natural through channel be tween two bends of a river fresh water an inundation petro!eum salt water a stand for waterpots at the road side provided for the use of travellers

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Abbreviation Y. Transliteration yewe yin yindaik yinma yo yodaya yoma yon yon yon ywa ywama ywathit z zalok zan zauk zayat ze ze zedi zeik Zl zibyu zon zu Burmese 20 Meaning a ridge between two rivers, watershed a bamboo screen in channel or on bank of stream to prevent passage of fish a tree resembling ebony a tree species of the genus Chickrassia creek ; bone, ridge Siamese (from the Siamese word Ayuthia) mountain range to spring up in a cluster from one root (of plants) office, public building, court house the tree Anogeissus acuminata village main village new village the crop or craw of a bird ; a basin eroded by running water ; a kind of boat see san see sauk shelter for travellers, roofed but open at the sides, rest house bazaar, market see hse pagoda see hseik see hsi the tree Phyllanthus embelia see son see hsu and su

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'\ \ .f.

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, I j / / \ I