Handbook of the Răwang dialect of the Nung language containing a grammar of the language, colloquial exercises, and a vocabulary with an appendix of Nung manners and customs

Material Information

Handbook of the Răwang dialect of the Nung language containing a grammar of the language, colloquial exercises, and a vocabulary with an appendix of Nung manners and customs
Barnard, J. T. O., 1872-
Place of Publication:
Suptd., Govt. Print. and Stationery, Burma
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
18 p ; 26 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Nung language ( lcsh )
Rawang language ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Myanmar -- Kachin State -- Putao District
Asia -- China -- Yunnan Province -- Nujiang Prefecture -- Fugong County
亚洲 -- 中国 -- 云南省 - 怒江州 - 福贡县
亞洲 -- 中國 -- 雲南省 - 怒江州 - 福貢縣
25.906175 x 98.867852
22 x 96

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
220681 ( ALEPH )
GQE Nung 415 /29747 ( SOAS classmark )


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Nung Language

(Rawang Dialect)




Rawang Dialect of the Nung Language




J. T. O. BARNARD, C.I.E., C.B.E., F.R.G.S.

Retired Dy. Commissioner, Burma Frontier Service


Supdt., Govt. Printing and Stationery, Burma




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London, W.C. 2, or through any bookseller.


Preface Introduction Transliteration Table PART I. SECTION PAGE V viix 1
The Subject and Object of the Verb 1-5 3
Nouns 69 4
Formation of the Plural 1014 5
Gender 15 6
Relations of Case 16 7
Pronouns ... 1722 7
Relative Pronouns ... 23 9
Adjectives 24-32 9
Numerals ... 3336 11
Ordinals 37 12
Adverbial Numerals ... 38 12
Prepositions 39 13
Conjunctions 40 13
Verbs ... 41 & 42 14
Causative Verbs ... 43 14
The Accidents of Verbs 4452 15
The Particle Shi ... ... 5354 17
The Dual Particle Shi ... 5557 18
Moods and Tenses ... 5874 18
Adverbs ... 7579 34
Interjections ... ... 80 37
Quotations ... 81 37
Couplets ... 82 38
Idioms and Combinations with wa and la ... 83 & 84 33
PART II. Colloquial Exercises. Exercise I.Miscellaneous 39
Exercise II.Miscellaneous ... 40
Exercise III.Miscellaneous ... 42
Exercise IV.Man ... 43
Exercise V.The Body ... 44
Exercise VI.Clothing ... ... ... 45
Exercise VII.Relationship ... ... 46
Exercise VIII.Birth and Marriage ... ... 47
Exercise IX.Disease and Death ... ... ... 48

( iv )

PART II concld.

Colloquial Exercisesconcld,


Exercise X.House ... ... ... ... ... 50

Exercise XI.Cultivation ... ... ... ... 51

Exercise XII.Weapons and War ... ... ... ... 52

Exercise XIII.Hunting ... ... ... ... ... 53

Exercise XIV.Fishing ... ... ... ... ... 54

Exercise XV.Debts and Feuds ... ... ... ... 55

Exercise XVI.Time and Seasons ... ... ... ... 57

Exercise XVII.The Elements (Fire, Air and Water'. ... ... 58

Exercise XVIII.The Earth ... ... ... ... 59

Exercise XIX.Beliefs and Superstitions ... ... ... 60


VocabularyEnglish and Rawang 63


Manners and Customs.

Physique and Character ... ... .... ... H4

Religion ... ... ... ... 114

Marriage ... ... ... ... H4

Birth and Naming of Children ... ... ... H5

Death ... ... ... ... 115

Dress and Ornaments ... ... ... 116

Food ... ... ... ... 116

War ... ... ... ... H6

Hunting ... ... ... ... 116

Villages ... ... ... 117

Domestic Animals ... ... ... H7

Government ... ... 117

Inheritance ... ... ... H7

Slavery ... ... ... H7

Music and Arts ... ... ... 118

Medicines ... ... ... 118


The Expeditions to Hkamti Long from Burma (191014) and
the subsequent administration by the Government of Burma of that
State and of the hill-tracts lying to the north of Myitkyina (1914) have
brought its officers in close' contact with the hill-people now known
as Nungs and it is hoped that this handbook will help in the
study of their language and give an insight into some of their
customs' and manners of life. Prior to the despatch of the first
Hkamti Long Expedition in 1910 little was known in Burma of
these people, for such intercourse as there had been with them was
from Assam, and, explorers from there, the last of whom was Mr. Erol
Gray, had accepted the Shan name of Hkanung (sometimes spelt,
Hkunung) for this tribe, some of whom had been met in the Hkamti
Shan plain. The reason for the change in the name of these people
will be found in the Introduction to this handbook.

This is the first book on the Nung language which has many
dialects, of which, however, Rawang may be taken as the one most
commonly spoken in the Nung hili-tracts, excepting, of course, the
Daru dialect which is quite distinct from the others. I have followed
in this book the same system of arrangement as that used by the late
Mr. H. F. Hertz, C.I.E., F.R.G.S., in his handbook of the Kachin or
Chinghpaw language (1917), and, I wish to place on record here my
indebtedness to the late Mr. Hertz for the help his book has been to
me in this respect. That the arrangement of the two books- is similar,
will, I think, help students of the Nung language for it is more than
probable that such students will already have learnt Chinghpaw from
Mr. Hertzs book. Except for the variations necessitated by the
difference between certain sounds of the two languages, the system of
spelling too is the same, and, is the one accepted by the Burmese
Government for the spelling of Chinghpaw in Roman characters.
There are, however, certain sounds which cannot be correctly rendered
by this method, and, the only way to acquire the true Nung pronuncia-
tion is by colloquial practice.



Before describing the people and their language a few explanatory
remarks are necessary about the two names, Nung and Rawang, which
appear on the title page of this handbook and have been touched on in
the Preface. When the First Expedition from Burma visited Hkamti
Long and the hill-tracts to the north of Myitkyina in 1910, and we were
brought into contact with the Nungs., they were known to us as
Hkdnungs. This is not what they call themselves but the Hkamti Shan
name for them and means Slave-Nungs. Explorers from Assam, of
whom Mr. Erol Gray was the last, had accepted this name for them.
Unlike their neighbours, the Chinghpaws and Laungvaws, ihese Nung
clans have no generic name for themselves. They consist of many
clans or families, such as, Matwaug, Htiseheang, Serwang, Serbia,
Walike, Agu, Hpungsi, Wadanihkong an so on, an owing t( their
isolation, consequent on the wild nature of their country, dialectic
differences in their 'language are common. The name Nung was
introduced when the Second Expedition from Burma visited their
country (1911-12) and is what the Chinghpaw calls ihese clans as a
whole. In years past we had accepted the Chinghpaw names of Maru
for the Laungvaw and Yawyin for the Lisu, so, in the same way, it was
decided to follow this precedent and call this tribe by the Chinghpaw
name, namely, Nung. In abandoning the Shan name the degrading
appellation of Hka would also be dropped.

Rdivang is what many cf the Nung families or clans call themselves
and though it dees not apply to all of them yet it is sufficiently
comprehensive to be accepted as the name of the dialect spoken by
most of the Nungs. However, it must be stated here, definitely,
that the Rawang dialect itself is subject to many dialectic ch mges,
the inhabitants of very nearly every valley speaking a variety cf
their own.

The People.

The Nung clans occupy the *NMai Valley roughly from latitude
2730', in the north to latitude 2640/, in the south. This may
be said to be the Nung country proper and is a wild and mountainous
region. But the Nung is by no means confined to this area and
clans are found in the Nam Ti Sang Valley and at the headwaters
of the Da and Jai Rivers in the Mali drainage. The latter have,
intermarried with the Chinghpaws and live in comparatively large
villages and have acquired in a degree the independence of the

( viii )

Chinghpaw. Small Nung and Darn settlements also exist in the hills
that bound the Hkamti Plain. They are, generally speaking, a miserable
lot, addicted to the opium habit which they have learnt from the Shan
and the Chinghpaw. The Nung and the Darn, undoubtedly, come from
the same stock but the latter is of smaller build and more unkempt in
appearance. Also there are great differences between his dialect and
Rdwang. The Ddrus are to be found mostly in the Nam Ta Mai Valley
and round the Big Bend of the Taron River and extend for about four
days journey down the NMai Valley south of the Nam Ta Mai-Taron
confluence. Daru is what they call themselves. The women tattoo
their faces and not very long ago the Tadzerwang-Darus lived in
shelters built in trees. The dwarfish-looking hill-people found as slaves
with the Tibetans at the headwaters of the Irrawaddy are, no doubt,
Darus. Living with the Nungs are the Tangser and Kwinhpang clans.
They speak a dialect of Nung but in dress resemble the Lisu. The
Tangsers claim to have come from Sham Sang Kor (?) in the Mekong
Valley and to have migrated over the Salween-Taron Divide as far as the
Hkamti Plain whence, however, they had to retire owing to the
unfriendly reception they received there. They now occupy the
Latagaw Valley in the NMai drainage. Some of them are said still to
be on the Mekong.

Origin of the Nungs.

The Nungs have no written records and their traditions are
at the best so sketchy, especially as regards place and time, that
it is impossible to prove definitely whence and when they came
to their present habitation. They say they came from the east and
we have the evidence of the Tangser headman that some of his clan
are still in the Mekong Valley Captain F. Kingdon Ward, F.R.G.S.,
who has traversed the Upper Salween and also explored the head-
waters of the Irrawaddy, came across a tribe of people living above
Yuragan in the Salween Valley and known locally as NutzerNu or Lu
chiang, by the way, being the local name for the Salweenwho, in his
opinion, are the same as the Nung in the upper reaches of the
Irrawaddy. In a small Nutzer vocabulary prepared by Captain
Kingdon Ward I found many of the words identical with Rdwang.
When the British Expedition from Burma first visited the Nung
country the Lisus were found levying hkuya (tribute) on the Nungs in
the Mali and NMai Valleys. The Salween Valley below Yuragan is the
home of the Lisus who levy this hkuya. The Lisus in the NMai
Valley are recent arrivals there, having crossed over from the Salween
about two or three generations ago. This custom of paying hkuya
some say arose from some Lisus having been murdered by Nungs at
the gold washings in the NMai Valley ; others ascribe it to a Nung
having lost a fire-burning competition with a Lisu at Nihku Longbu, a

( )

pass at the headwaters of the Mehk River. The details of this
competition as told me by a Matwang headman are somewhat meagre
but the result was that the Nung lost and since then has had to pay
hkuya in kind to the Lisu. There may be some truth in these stories
but still I am inclined to believe that the payment of this hkuya had its
origin while the Nungs were living in the Salween Valley, and, when
they moved into the Irrawaddy drainage, the Lisus followed them up.
All along, wherever I travelled in the Nung hills in those early days,
I saw7 undoubted signs of the subordination of the Nung to the
Lisu. Considering this evidence and bearing in mind the claim of the
Nungs that they came from the East, I am of opinion that the southern
course of the Nung migration was not confined to the sources of the
Irrawaddy but also followed down the Salween and perhaps even down
the Mekong, and was deflected westwards into the Upper Irrawaddy
about the time of the big wave of Shan migration which checked the
southern movement of these wild tribes. The Nungs appear to be the
last lot of hill-tribes that migrated in the manner suggested above-
They were being followed by the Lisus and there is no knowing how
this course of migration would have proceeded if law and order had
not been introduced by the British occupation of these northern areas.
This western movement is found also amongst the Hkamti Shans, large
numbers of whom moved into Assam driven out of the Hkamti Plain
owing to internecine warfare. Hkamti Plain is said to have
been at one time subordinate to Tibet. There is a tradition that
the Tibetans came down the Mali River by raft. About the
13th century they were driven out by the Mogaung Shans under
Sawbwa Sao Hsam Long, who occupied Hkamti and carried his
conquests into Assam. Living in Hkamti now, but practically absorbed
by the Shans, are the following clans which at the census of 1921 were
returned as follows :Hkang, 82 ; Yoya, 34 ; Tawhang, 67 ; Langhkai,
106 ; Nokkyo, 133 ; Nogmungs, 167 ; NTits, 10 ; Pangsu, 178. The
first five of these tribes are said to have been in Hkamti when
Sao Hsam Longs army invaded the plain and brought them under
subjugation. Each is said to have had a language of its own which
resembled Nung but there is no trace of it now. They were Animists
and the Shans say they came from the East. The Nokmungs, who call
themselves Hsamhpyen, the NTits and Pangsus, who call themselves
Sha-ve, lived east of the Mali River and about sixty years ago sought
the protection of the Shans because they were being harassed by the
Chinghpaws. Each of these clans spoke a dialect of a common
language closely resembling Chinghpaw and Nung. The country once
occupied by them is now occupied by the Nungs. Many Nung families
prior to the British occupation paid a yearly tribute in kind to certain
Shan Sawbwas who protected them against the Lisus who harried them
on the east. In fact, the Nungs in the Mali and 'NMai were between

( X )

two blood-suckers, the Shan Sawbwas on the west and the Lisus on the
east. As I have already said, the Lisu is an interloper in the NMai
Valley. He came over yearly to levy his blackmail on the Nung clans
that had been paying hkuyci to him in the Salween Valley and,
eventually, made his home with them in the NMai Valley.


There has been no regular census taken of the people in the Mali
and NMai Valleys but a rough estimate made in 1921 gave the Nungs
at 8,000 and the Darus at 5,600.

The Language.

The Nung language belongs to the Tibeto-Burman family of
languages. The late Mr. Taw Sein Ko, C.I.E., I.S.O., Superintendent,
Archaeological Survey of Burma, to whom the writer sent some
Nung words and sentences, classed the language under the Hsifan
group of the Tibeto-Burman family. He found a striking resemblance
between some Nung words and Burmese and was also of the opinion
that the Nungs appeared to be more Tibetan than Chinghpaw.

The grammatical construction of Burmese, Chinghpaw and Nung
is the same. It is not unlikely that the Chinghpaw interrogative
affix i has been evolved from the Nung affirmative particle i. In Nung,
like in Burmese, there is a direct and an indirect way of asking
questions, each with a different interrogative sign. The formation of
transitive verbs from intransitive ones is effected in the same method in
Nung as it is in Chinghpaw, namely, by the use of affixes [see § 43 (a)].
There is a similarity in the numerals of all three languages.
Another point of resemblance to Burmese is in the special numeral
auxiliaries which are used with human beings, animals and other
articles (see § 36). This is not found in Chinghpaw but occurs
in Laungvaw (Maru) and Lisu. Burmese and Chinghpaw verbs have,
however, no inflexion while Nung verbs have (see § 44). This inflexion
of certain verbs and the rule that when two short vowel sounds
come together the first is given a full and drawn out sound
[see § 67 (c) ] were amongst some of the difficulties I experienced when
beginning the study of the language. I learnt through the medium of
Chinghpaw and my Nung teacher who could speak Chinghpaw well
could give me no explanation why wa, do, became wang or zi) give,
became zing when conjugated in certain moods and tenses. And,
further, why the interrogative sign la was pronounced short with some
verbs and long with others. I mention these points because I fear
other beginners will find difficulty in grasping these peculiarities which,
as mentioned above, do not exist in Burmese or Chinghpaw.

( xi )

There are four tones in Nung, three of them being similar to those
found in Burmese. No attempt has been made in this book to indicate
these tones by signs or marks. Any system for doing this would
necessarily be complicated and of little help to the student who can
only hope to gain a correct pronunciation of the Nung sounds by
constant colloquial practice. In conclusion I would like to add that
there are many different dialects of Nung and the student must be
prepared to find many differences in words, but, when he has mastered
the Rawang dialect he should not find any great difficulty in making
himself understood in the NMai Valley, though, no doubt, these
differences in dialects will prove stumbling-blocks to his being readily
understood by the people.




Powers of Vowels.


& Suppressed sound

a The sound of the English
//, as in the words but,
dull, plum, up.

a The sound of a as in father

d Full and drawn out sound

c Short sound of e as in ten
e Open sound as ai in fair

i When in the middle of a
syllable, a short sound as
i in lip, sing.

i When standing alone, or as

a terminal letter of a
word, the sound of e as
in me.

t A long drawn out sound as
ee, in machine.

o Nearly the long sound of o,
in old.

u When standing alone, and
in the middle of a sentence,
the sound of 00 as in bull.
it Long drawn oat sound of 00

ii German ii, or u as sounded

in the Scotch, bluid and

au The sound of the English ow
aiv The sound of aw as in law ...


drum, distant ; tdgi, a dog ;

shell a, good ; aba, earth.
at, to run ; dm, to eat ; Ian, a
basket ; hdl, to arrive ; shdl
to drag ; da h tan, to expose ;
wan, to buy ; ndm, to buy.
chang, to ransom ; rana, to halt;
hta, to hear ; ma, to hide -r
dram, each ; lam, verbal

e hwdp u, fire ; e zdl 11, wash.
(Comp. § 49.)

sel} offspring ; yel, move aside.
de, sharp ; e, imperative prefix ;

e, verbal terminal.
rip, to stand ; siting, a tree ; sil
seU a soldier.

i e, yes ; shi, to die ; hti, one ; ziy
- to give ; ri, to carry.

idibln, to play ; lint, overflow ; e
shin u} tell (imperative mood).
hkong, a plate ; dong, a

numeral auxiliary.
u% the imperative affix ; u rd gap%
then ; chum, a house ; lung-
zing, ginger ; ur, to beg.
shup, to feel.

bit, verbal particle ; mdyii, to
want ; dyii, to leak ; hkii, to

yam sau, saltpetre.

gawy to call ; hpaw, to invert.

Powers of Consonants.

b As in English
d As in English
g As in English
It As in English
j As in English
k As in English

be, to be finished.
dda, to be rich.
git, to be short.
hal, to arrive.

ja, to be perforated
kdp, to be notched.

( 2 )

Letters. Examples.

1 As in English la, interrogative affix.
m As in English may to swallow.
n As in English nevy beer.
P As in English purely a crocodile.
r As in English r/, to carry.
s As in English sdinsfiin, small.
t As in English tab it y to rejoice.
IV As in English iva, to do. ya hkat, now.
y As in English
z As in English zi\ to give.
hk As in English hka, a language.
hp As in English hkalipu, ashes.
hi As in English ////, water.
hw As in English Invrirr, to burn.
ts As in English tsithing, samblnir.
er A sound between the German u and the English er. ger, also.
ch As in child chitw, a house.
chy No English eqivalent rakyi chyip, armpit.
ky Combination of k and v rakyi chyip, armpit.
hky Combined //, k and v anghkying, true.
ng As in tongue nga, I.
rr Rolled r Jiivdrr, to burn.
sit As in English slidin, a sword.
ur As in English hkurchang, a bachelor
Apostrophe sign denoting elision of the vowel a. d'rer, to find fault.

Note.The following letters are interchangeable :1 with n ; b with p ; cl with
t. In some dialects the final / takes the sound of r, so, to arrive, may be, hat or liar.

( 3 )


*1. The general rule is that the subject precedes the object and both
[precede the verb.


nga shat dm c = l eat rice.

nga = I (the subject).
sha t = rice (object).

dm d = eat (the verb, first person ; present tense).

attg chum iva e= He builds a house.
ang = he.
chit in = house.
wa c = builds.

2. Sometimes, when the object is to be emphasised, it is placed at
ithe beginning of a sentence and also may be preceded bv a demonstra-
tive pronoun.


za (kiiiupraivng) nga md dl = Money, I have none.

za = money.
nga = I.

nia = negative prefix.
rf/ = verb (present tense).

Jiku hpe nga shung siting
Mm = that.
hfe = person.
nga = I.

shung siting ^ = like (1st person ; present tense. See
§§44 and 45.)

3. The indirect object when used with the prepositions ddung or hka
may precede the object.


dek ddung hka bula e zang M = Put the coat in the box.
It would be equally correct to say

bula dek ddung hka e zang //.

dek = box.
bula = coat.
zang = put.
ddung hka = inside.
e = imperative prefix.
m = imperative affix.

Note.The numbers in the margin are the numbers of the sections into which
the grammatical portion of this book is divided. The symbol for section is, §.

( 4 )

4. 'Where no ambiguity is likely to arise the subject and the object
may be omitted.


nga hka lini wan mdyiing e = l want to buy eggs, (tiga, I, the
subject, may be omitted.)

na rci dang der le sluing f = How many do you want ? (ttt7, you,
may be omitted ; hka Urn, eggs, is omitted and the auxiliary
numeral der, used.)

5. The exceptions (paragraphs 2 to 4) to the general rule are not
always strictly followed.



6. Some verbs in their radical or simple form undergo no change
when used as nouns.


kdla = to bolt.
hpdlu = to spread.
rdna = to rest.
mal = to mark.
shin = to weed.

kdla = ci bolt.

Jipdlu = a carpet (a thing spread out)
rdna = a resting-place.
wa7 = mark or track.
skin = weeds.

7. Some nouns are formed by addition to the verbal root of the
particles, Jitang and dang (denoting place), lam and wa (denoting


ip-htang=A sleeping place, bed, from ip, to sleep.
zi-lam = For the purpose of giving, gifts, from zi, to give.
dm-wa = For the purpose of eating, food, from dm} to eat.
(dm-hpa also means food).

8. The particles ang and d are used as prefixes to the verbal root to
make nouns.


ang-wdin = A cover, from wain, to cover.
ang-su = A stopper, from sii, to close up, cork.
dshi = The dead, from shu to die (dshi may also be used as an

9. The introduction of certain English words accounts for a few
compound nouns such as, matsi-tsi-hpe, medicine-treating man, doctor
malsi-chum, medicine house, hospital.

( 5 )


10. A general plural is formed by adding ri to the singular.


dsang = A person.
tdgi = A dog.
chum = A house.

11. A collective particle, ra, is used with
£roup or class.


nang la ra, or nang la ra r/=Men. chuuiyaiv ra ri = Maidens.
sdma ra ri = Women. tdgi ra Dogs.

12. Nouns followed by adjectives denoting plurality and nouns used
in their generic sense may omit the plural sign.

dsang ri Persons.
tdgi ri= Dogs.
chum ri Houses.

animate things to denote a


dsang shangbe at am i All the persons have run away.
nang ngiva = Cattle.
ddung gdre Wild animals.

13. A dual plural may be made by adding ni to the adjective or
pronoun as the case may be.


ya life ni ma skald e These two men are not good.

nga i = We two.
na ni = You two.
ang ni = They two.

14. If there are more than two, the plural sign ning takes the place
of nu


hku hpe ning Those (three or more).
nga ning We (three or more).
na ningYou (three or more).
ang ning = They (three or more).

Note.hku hpe ning may also be expressed as hku hpi ri.

( 6 )


IS. The gender of nouns is distinguished as follows :

(1) (a) In the case of mankindby a different word.


khurchang = A bachelor. chumyaw A maiden.

This rule applies to most terms of relationship.

(b) By the prefix nangla, for males, and sdma, for females.


nangla sl7 = A male child. sdma mema A widow.
sdma sel= A female child. nangla tamrung An old man.
nangla mema A widower. sdma tamrung An old woman..

(c) By the affix hpe, for males, and tney for females :


mdwa hpe = A Shan man.
mdwa mc = A Shan woman.
manghpe hpe = A Chinaman.
manghpe me = A Chinese woman.

. anghkang Jipe = A house-owner (man).
anghkang me A house-owner (woman).

(2) In the case of bovine animals, ngdla is added for the masculine
and ngdtna for the feminine.


dlaiv ngdla A bull buffalo. nganser ngdla = An ox.

dlaw ngdma A cow buffalo. nganser ngdma A cow.

(3) In the case of other animals, the masculine affix is ang la and
the feminine ang ma. These may be abbreviated into la and ma


mi la A tom cat. wa la = A boar.

mi ma = A tabby cat. iva ma = A sow.

(4) In the case of birds ang gu is used for cock birds and
ang ma for hen birds. With domestic fowls the cock is known as
tdng gu and the hen hka ma. A cockerel is tanggu chi and a pullet hka


pddzu ang gu = A cock pheasant.
pddzu ang ma A hen pheasant.

( 7 )


16. The cases of nouns and pronouns are made by the addition after
them of the following particles ;

Nominative.mer, which, however, may be omitted if no
ambiguity is likely to arise. When the subject is to be emphasised and
in the sense of as for me or as regards, the particle tier is used.


nga mer na Jika hka hti me shin mdyilng e=l want to speak a
word with you.

nga ner, uni ding= As for me, I do not go.

Genative or Possessive.There is no such case in R&wang. My
house nga chum.

DativCi Accusative and Locative.hka is used with all three cases.
Sometimes hka er, denoting place in, is used with the locative.

Ablative.daw mer ; dd mer.

Instrumental.mer ; hi a.


nga hka e zing <7 = Give it to me.
nga mer ang hka nid shung e = l do not like this.
chum hka er ra gung hi i ? = Who is in the house ?
mar eng hka e di = Go to the village.

Nungri Mawa rdga dd mer shdla wan e = The Nungs buy
their salt from Hkamti.

nga hka htasi mer sat e = He beat me with a stick.

Notk.The accusative sign is not used in such sentences as : hti e hkaf /<, draw

water ; nga ncimba cfuuig e, I cut tanugyas.


pronouns are :

17. The personal


nga = I.
na = Thou.

ang = He, she or it.


nga ni = We two,
na ni = You two.
ang ni = They two.


nga ning=We.
na ning=You.
ang ning=They.


nga ni di hka i e = We two will go.

nga ni di shi= Let us two go.

ang ning md shdla = They are not good.

18. The reflexive pronoun is formed by placing gung, or, if a more
emphatic reflexive is required, gang ndn) or gung mandn after the

( 8 )


ang gang wa na ning gung ndn di ra e = You yourselves must go.
ang gung mdndn wa e ang gung tndndn dmal bit i = He himself
did it and he himself has forgotten.

19, There are no possessive pronouns. The personal pronoun is
used alone.


ang chuni = His house.

20. The demonstrative pronouns are ;

ytf = This.

Itkit That (denoting an object on the same level as the

law = That (denoting an object on a higher level than the

*?r = That (denoting an object on a lower level than the


ya w
hku kumrang, or, hku gitng kumrang=T\YAX. pony.
law c/*ww = That house up there.

er ndmbay or, er liang ndmba=That field down there.
er ndmba dtsum Jiang^Those three fields down there.
er nia dd nier dsang = The person from the place down
there. m, to-day ; ya ni, this day.

21. The demonstrative pronouns in the plural take ri after them or
after the noun they govern.


ya ri chum = These houses.
law ndinba ri = Those fields.

22. The interrogative root is ra or hka and to this is added the
auxiliary peculiar to the person or thing, regarding which the interroga-
tion is made. (See § 36.)


ra yaw) or, ra gung^YJho or what person.
ra me, or, hka me = Which thing.
ra wa = What.

ya hpe ra yaw Id i ? = Who is this man ?
ra gung tdgi mcr na hka la hke ? = Which dog bit you ?
na ra me le sitting ? = Which do you want ?
nd bing ra wa le i ?= What is your name ?

( 9 )


23. There are no relative pronouns in Rawang but their equivalents
are made by placing the noun or its auxiliary after the verb.

It should be noted that the locative particle ra, denoting action
towards a person or place is followed by the particle /.


nga wan e chum gum bit / = The house which I bought has been

nga dlaw nga am i life ski bit /' = The man who hired my
buffalo is dead.

de ni di ra i yaw ra yaw Id i ? = Who is the man who came
to-day ?

sa gi shi am i me Nang i £ = The woman who died yesterday
is Nang.


24. Adjectives generally follow the nouns they qualify, except when
followed by the verbal affix e, when they precede the nouns.


nga ddhe Dried fish. shdla e Jitdra = A good road.

hkdm shung Dry firewood. yang e sdnat = Along gun.

25. Used with hpe (male affix \ me (female affix) nndyaiv (a person)
the adjective comes first.


ma shdla lipe A bad man.
shdla me A good woman.
md mu yaw A quarrelsome person.
siting ma siting yaiv = A useless fellow.

26. The following combinations with the dual ni and the plural
articles ra and ri should be noted :


rip yaw ni = Two standing persons.

ngii e me ,n Two crying women.

ngii me ra = Three or more crying women.

rip ri or rip e ri Three or more standing men.

27. Some adjectives are made by prefixing a or ang to the verbal


dngdt hpe A live man. ang hkying hka = True words.

as hi life = A dead man.


28. Adjectives have no degree of comparison in themselves.

( 10 )

29. The positive is expressed as follows :

a me uaiig hku me nang hti ra lite
The literal translation of this is :

a ///
With. hti rfl = Same.

hku ///£ = That. hie £ = Big is.

(This with that with same big is.)

30. The comparative is made with the help of madam (above) and
hte (big, large, or more) ; madam is at times omitted.


nga chum hku chum madam hie hte t, = Mv house is bigger than
that house.

nga = My. hte = More.

chuin = House. hte = 1Big.

///*// = That. e = Verbal terminal.

chum = House.
madam = Above.

ya me Jiie slid la £ = This is better.

nga yaw hte dli e = My blanket is heavier.

31. The superlative degree is expressed by hte combined with
ilhtang (meaning finality) or by dlitang alone.


ya me hte shdla dhtaiig £ = This is the best.
hku me dhtang shdla 6, = That is the best.

32. (a) The word every is expressed by hkdvra or dram.


hkdra uia = Every place. hkdra ni= Every day.

yatv dram = Every person. chum dram = Every house.

These particles are also used in combination with the numeral
auxiliaries as :

hkdra gung= Every animal. .
mdhka hkdra yang= Every necklace.

(b) The distributive particle is, Ida.


dsang hia kuuihfiraw hie e zi u = Give each person feur annas.
hula hla dni dong e zi = Give each two coats.

(c) The terms (1) the whole day and (2) the whole night are
expressed as follows :ndm der} the whole day (till sunset) ; slidgi la
ga, the whole night (till day-light).


nam dcr tdgi gung <} = The dog barked all day.
shdgi la ga ang set ngit e = The child cried all night.

( 11 )


33. The numerals follow the nouns they qualify. They do not
go beyond the hundreds. From 1,000 onwards the Shan equivalents
are used and mean little more to the Nung than something innumerable
as he has never possessed a thousand of anything. The counting is
simple. After the unit it proceeds towards twenty bv saying, ten and
one, ten and two, and so forth, the and being omitted. Ten is hti
sel, and one hundred, hli ya, and their multiples are expressed by saying
two tens, three tens, two hundreds, three hundreds and so on. The
counting in between these multiples is the same as between ten and
twenty as explained above.

The numerals are :

//// = One.
dni = Two.
dtsum = Three.
dbyi= Four.

Iipung nga = Five.
h tar u = Six.
sdnit= Seven.
dshat = Eight.
tdger = Nine.
hti .sW = Ten.

Jili set hti= Eleven.
hti set ///' = Twelve.
hti ya~ 100
hti va hti =101
hti ra hti set hti= 111

(ini yrt = 200

dbyi va = 400
hti ching= 1,000
hti iniiii= 10,000
hti sen= 100,000

34. mawn or hpan is used in the place of ten in counting paddy or
swords, and also when bartering cooking-trivets (indda) ; Example r
A trivet (mada) may be said to be worth hti mawn, which means ten o
anything, but, generally, baskets of paddy.

35. Formerly the equivalents for the rupee and its parts were as
follows :

hti (Idl'd = One rupee. hti slid la = Four annas.

hti htali= Eight annas. hti at = Two annas.

But now the Chingpaw terms for money are used as shewn below :

hti Iap = One rupee.

dni htc = Eight annas (two four annas).

hti lite= Four annas.

hti /////. = Two annas (Burmese).

hti be = One anna (Burmese).

36. The ordinary numeral ending for inanimate things is me, as,-
hti me, one thing. But, as in Burmese, Shan and Lisu, the numerals
are followed by classifying auxiliaries. For rational beings yaiv or gung
is used and for animals gung (short tone). Many other inanimate
things, however, have auxiliaries peculiar to themselves or their class.
For instance, the numeral auxiliary for things like canes, ropes, bamboo
withies and their class is king ; for round things like eggs, fruit, pots
and stones, der ; for all classes of things heaped together, Jipung ; for
wearing apparel, dong ; for guns, spears, posts, bamboos, gung (middle
tone) and for rafts and boats, hkiin.

The auxiliary, ham, is used with articles of compensation paid irt
kind, as, ddhpii hti ham, one article of compensation.

( 12 )


a sang hti yaw One person.

sdma ra hti yaw or liti me One woman (me is the female

nangla ra hti yaw or hti hpe = One man (hpc is the male

yit hti gung= One wild dog.

htdwa hti gung= One bamboo.

hka lint hti der One egg.

dm liti hpung= One heap of paddy.

hkong shi hti hkim One boat.

bula hti dong One coat.

mdhka hti yang One string of beads.

mdhka hti der = One bead.

mdda hti rang = One cooking trivet.

chum hti chum = One house.

Note.These numeral auxiliaries are used with adverbs of quantity too.


dsang ra dang yaw Id i ?= How main' persons tire there ?
hkong shi ra dang likiui Id iJ= How many boats are there ?
mdhka ra dang der la i How many beads ?


37. There are no ordinals in Rawang. First and hist are expressed
by ung and lang dim, respectively. The equivalent for second is hpang,
and for middle, ddung. Where the object is obvious the noun may be
omitted and only its classifying auxiliary used.


ung yaw hka e zi // = Give it to the first person.
hpang kumrang me dmam i 6, = The second pony is blind.
nga ddung ham zang 6, = My middle finger pains.
lang dim me shdla <} = The last woman is pretty.
lang dim hkong shi ani hkim uia shdla e = The last two boats
are bad.

lang dim dhtang sduat gang de am /' = The very last gun has
broken (burst).


38. Firstly and lastly are expressed by ung hka and lang dim hka,
respectively. Once, twice, thrice, etc., are rendered by adding hkdt to
the numeral.


nga chum ung hka e di, ang chum lang dim hka e di = Go to
my house first and lastly to his house.
nga mer ang hka dni hkdt gazv e = l called him twice.
ang mer nga hka hti hkam yang <} = He saw me only once.
ang mer nga litdru hkdt sal e=He beat me six- times.

( 13 )


39. Prepositions follow the nouns they govern :

hka = To.

hka = In, to or at.

date liter, dd mer From.

hta er, ddiing Inside.

nang, mo = With (used as the conjunction and).

///dr = With (instrumental).

htal hka Near by.

c ha ng = Till (up to the time of).

ddher ~ Between.


nga hka e zing <7 = Give it to me.
ang tndrcng hka dl d = He is at the village.1
ya ma dd titer ra dang hie la rum ? = How far is it from here ?
nga sel chum adung dl d = My son is in the house.
na nang tiga nang di lam i e = You and I will go.
nga mer ang hka htdldim mer sat mi d = I beat him with a

nga chum tudreng htal hka e iva 7/= Build my house near
the village.

ang law e cliang e gal ning Keep it till he returns.
nga mer ang hka ya hkat chang md yang it e = I have not
seen him up to now.


ger = Also.

der ger ; der tier = Although.
nang= And.

iiang= For the purpose of. (Comp. § 59.)

der = And (joining two actions or events).

htdhkaiig= Because, on account of, therefore.

ddhpat= For.

der tier= If.

it rdgap = Then.

md i der tier = Otherwise.


ang ger ngii e = He also is crying.

nga mer ang hka zing der ger ang 111a lit dp e ~ Although
I gave it to him he did not accept it.
ang nang na natig=He and you.
nga shin nang ding d = I have come to say.

11 a iner nga hka e gaiv htdhhang nga ding e = Because you
called me I came.

nga ding der wang u e = l went and did it.
na mer nga hka e gaw ra der ner nga ding ning= If you call
me I will come.

na, md i der ner, ang zi ra d = You or lie will have to go.
dine ddhpat nga sluing d=I want it for my mother.

( 14 )


41. Rawang verbs like other parts of speech in the language are
monosyllabic and disyllabic. In the latter the lirsi syllable is either
4he shortened vowel sound a, or a root comprised of a consonant and a
vowel, or, two consonants and a vowel.


rung = To sit.
dya = To cheat.
dse = To ramble.
ahtu = To chop.

ddsu = To order.
lipdre = To fear.
share = To be ashamed.

Some monosyllabic verbs are made dissyllabic by combination with
-the particles dd and slid. (Comp. § 43.)


.6*7 = Sick. /'/" = To cany.

ddza = To make sick. sluin'= To cause to carry, send.

42. In respect to usage, verbs may be intransitive or transitive.


yaw = To grow (as trees).

£/=To ache.
bdhu = To be numb.
ddiin = To be barren.
yang=To see.

There is no passive voice in Rawang.

//7 = To bring.
ds/7 = To mix.
indgit s/// = To embrace.
gdynp = T6 crush.


43. Causative verbs are made in the following manner :

{a) By the use of the particles dd and slid as prefixes to the
-verbal root.


hta = To hear.

ddhta = To cause to hear, inform.
hpa = To adhere.
ddhpa^To cause to adhere.
ahtang = To return.
ddhtang = To cause to return.
lit = To get.

slidlu = To cause to get.

These same particles are used to make intransitive verbs transitive

( 15 )


be = To be finished
dabe = To finish.
sha = To be moist.

dash a = To moisten.
uiang = To be lost.
shdmang = To lose.

(b) By the use, combined with the verb iva and its particle der, of
the following particles which precede the verb :

1st and 3rd pers. sing, and plur., la.

2nd pers. sing., le ; plur., la.

uga la sha it, iva der, ang liter shdlap c= He teaches me that I
may know.

na le sha it, zvang der, nga mcr shdlap e=l teach that you
may know.

na ning le ant ning, zvang dcr, nga mer zi ning e=l give
that you all may eat.

Note. The verb wa and the principal verb in the sentence having a common
subject agree in person and number ; iva is used here idiomatically and means, saying
or declaring. The last example literally translated would read :I, saying, may you
cat, give you.

44. Though the conjugation of verbs is effected by means of verbal
particles yet certain verbs undergo a form of inflexion. This inflexion
-occurs where the subject or the objective of these verbs is in the 1st
person singular number, and is made by the agglutination to the verbal
root, or the verb in its simplest form, of the two consonants // and g
which go to form the personal pronoun, nga, I. The verbs which
undergo this inflexion are those, both intransitive and transitive,
-monosyllabic and dissyllabic, whose final letter is a vowel or u,
pronounced in a tone in which the sound is prolonged with a falling

uga zang e = l am sick (verbal root za).

nga leng e=l am pretty (verbal root le).

nga ding e = l go (verbal root di).

nga lunge = I bring (verbal root In).

nga slidzving e=l avoid (verb shdwi, avoid).

na mer nga lika e zing a c = You give to me (verb zi, give).

ang uier nga hka e zing ^ = He gives to me (verb zi, give).

Note 1.The e that precedes zing in both these last examples is a 2nd and 3rd
person particle.

Note 2.The verb /, to be, follows this rule.

45. The verbal reflexive auxiliary shi (comp. § 53) and the past
tense particle 6/7 [comp. § 60 (2)] both take theinflexion mentioned
above, whether the verb with which they are used is inflected or nob




( 16 )


nga ring siring e=l carry (verbal root ri, to carry; shir

nga Jiti zdl siring c l bathe (verbal root zal^ to bathe; shir

nga nier zing biing a = I gave (verbal root zi and bii).

ang mcr nga hka e sat biing <7 = He beat me.

46. In the verbal combination with the auxiliary affix mdyii meaning
wish, desire, the auxiliary only is inflected if its subject is in the 1st
person singular. The subsidiary verb in the sentence, whether of the
inflexional class or not, remains unchanged.


nga di nidyiing e=l want to go.

nga men ang hka zi nidyiing c=l want to give him.

47. This rule also applies in the verbal combination with shat to


nga di sliang c = l know how to go.

48. Verbs falling under the class noted in § 44 do not undergo any
change when used with the verbal particles, dangj ngut, ra, lika> lam
and na.


nga di ngut na i e = l will have gone.

nga zi ra e = I must give.

nga nap ni di hka i e = I will go to-morrow.

49. Transitive verbs containing a suppressed or short vowel sound in
the root, or in the case of dissyllabic verbs in the second syllable,
change that vowel into a full and drawn out one on being conjugated in
the Imperative Mood.


Simple Verb.

hti zdl = (To wash).
shin= (To say).
hwdrr=(To burn).
hwdp = (To fire a gun).
mdsdl = (To remember)
ddgdrr = (To awaken).

Imperative Form.
hti e zdl u.

e shin u or e shin nn.
e Invarr n.
c hwdp n.

* mesdl n.

* degarr it.

Note.For euphonys sake the final consonant of the verb is sometimes repeated
in the imperative affix, eg., c shin nu, say it; desdni mu, make it smaller.

See § 52.

( 17 )

50. The same rule applies to transitive verbs when the action
implied in the verb passes from a second to a third person or between
third persons only and the verb is followed by the tense particle u or
bii a.


na mer ang hka ni dram hti e zal u ma ? = Do you bathe him
daily ?

ang mer ang hka ya Jikdt mdsal u e = He remembers him now.

51. Dissyllabic verbs, whose first syllable is d, take na instead of e in
the imperative. [Comp. § 64 (2).]


dsn = To mix (imperative, na su a).

dbawn shi = To rise (imperative, na bawn shi).

dhtu = To chop (imperative, 11a htu u).

52. The suppressed vowel d found in combination with one or two
consonants in the first syllable of dissyllabic verbs, may be changed into
e in the imperative.


ddsu = To order. des-u u = Order.

htd!e = To change. htele u = Change.

ddgdrr = To awaken. degarr n = Awaken.

Note.In addition to this change the imperative affixes may also be used.


53. This may be classed as a reflexive particle and is used with
transitive verbs to give them an intransitive form. Its opposite is the
transitive affix u. The following table explains the use of this particler
(Comp. § 45.)



htdri = (To turn).
shalap= (To teach).
ma = (To hide).
zang={To insert).
yit = (To place down).
zdl=(To wash).
it = (To laugh at).


htdri shi= (To turn oneself).

shalap shi= (To teach oneself, learn).

ma shi=(To hide oneself).

zang shi=(To enter).

yit shi=(To descend).

zal shi={To wash oneself).

it shi= (To laugh).

54. The verb wa, to make or do, lang, to take and ri, to carry, when
combined with this particle shi, take on the idiomatic meaning of to
take and carry away for ones own use. For instance, e lang u, take
away, remove, but e lang shi, take or remove for ones own use. The
wrong use of this particle might lead to a person unintentionally
disposing of his property when he simply meant to order its removal
from one place to another.


( 18 )


55. This particle is used with intransitive verbs in the 1st and
2nd persons of the present and future tenses cf the Indicative
Mood. In the Potential Mood when combined with the particle ngut
shi it becomes saw. It is never used in the 3rd person.


nga ni di shi
11a ni e di shi di = You two will go.
nga ni di ngut sawe = We two can go.

56. The rule for the use of the dual particle with transitive verbs in

the present and future tenses of
Potential Mood is as follows :


First person

First and second persons ...

the Indicative Mood and in the

Indirect Object. Particle.

Second person ... shi.

Third person ... saw.

57. The verbal dual shi is not used in combinations with ra, hka, lam
and na.


58. There are six moods, viz.% The Infinitive, Affirmative, Indicative,
Potential, Subjunctive and Imperative. Verbs intransitive and transi-
tive are conjugated through these in their respective tenses by the aid
of verbal particles and terminals subject, of course, to the foregoing

The Infinitive Mood.

59. (a) There is no infinitive proper in RSwang but, where purpose or
necessity is to be expressed, it is done by the use of the particles nang%
lam and htdhkang with the verbal root.


nga mer na hka yang nang ding e = I come to see you.

nga ning namba chu nang di i e = We go to cut fields

nga ddhjfii ndm lang htdlikang gal u e = I keep goods for

(b) The permissive particles la and le before the verbal root and
followed by wa der may also be used to express the Infinitive. (See
Note to § 43.)


nga hka la ddbang, zva der, flasu e = He sent him to help me.
na hka le ddbangt wang der, ddsung u e = I sent to help you.

Note.Both wa and dasu are in the 1st person'singular.

( 19 )

The Affirmative Mood.

60. The verb used for this mood is i and it is equivalent to the
English verb, to be. (See Note to § 44.)

(1) Present Tense.

Singular. Plural.
First person ... ing e i i e.
Second person ... e i e . e i ning
Third person ... i e . i e.

hku nia ra gung la i ? = Who is there ?
nga ing e = lt is I.

nung nga e hkil e na e i e = \t is you who stole the cattle.
nga hka sett e hpe ang i e =The person who beat me is he.
di mayii i e nga ning i i e = We are the persons who want
to go.

(2) Past Tense.

This is formed by the use of hi} i or am i after the verbal root, i.


hku chum kaha sa ning da mer nga ning chum i b ii i = That
big house became ours from last year.

(3) Future Tense.

The tense particle for this is na which is used as follows :

na kumrang nap ni nga kumrang i na i e = Your pony will be
mine to-morrow.

(4) Conjectural Tense.
The conjectural particle is tang used with i.


hku kumrang nga ning kumrang tang i' di = That pony may
be ours.


Tabulated below is the conjugation of the intransitive verb, di, to
go, which undergoes the inflexion explained in 8 44.

( 20 )


Indicative Mood.

(1) Present Tense.

First person ...
Second person...
Third person ...


nga ding e ...
11a e di e
ang di e


nga ning di i e ...
11a iiing e di ning e
ang ning di e


nga ni di shi e.
11a ni e di shi
same as plural.

(2) Present Continuous Tense.

This is made by adding the particle der and the verb dl, between
the verbal root and its tense terminal e. To make the dual form of
this tense shi is prefixed to der in the 1st and 2nd persons.


nga di der dl e = l am (in the act of) coming.

nga ni di shi der dl e = Vfe two are (in the act of) coming.

ang ning di der dl e = They are (in the act of) coming.

(3) Past Imperfect Tense.

The following affixes are used in the formation of this tense :

Singular. Plural.

First person ... biing a or am a ... bii sha or am sha.

Second person ... bii i or am i ... bii sha or am sha.

Third person ... bii i or am i ... bii 1 or am i.

Note.Both di and bit are inflected in the 1st person singular. (Comp. § 44.1


nga ding biing a = I went.

ang sa ni di am z = He went yesterday.

na ningsa ni e di biisha^You went yesterday,

There is no dual form of this tense..

(4) Past Perfect Tense.

This tense is formed by the use of the verb ngnt, denoting comple-
tion, with the verb as conjugated in the past imperfect with this
exception, that the verb is not inflected in the 1st person singular and
the prefix e of the 2nd person singular and the plural precedes the verb


ang hal tdgap nga di ngut biing a = l had gone when he came.
ang hal tagap 11a di e ngut bii s/m = You had all gone when
he came.

(5) Future Imperfect Tense.

The future tense terminals are :


First person ... ning

Second person ... di

Third person ... di


i di.
ning di.

The dual terminals in the 1st and 2nd persons are shi di.

Singular. Plural. Dual.

First person ... nga ding ning... nga ning di i di ... nga ni di shi di.
Second person ... na e di di ... na ning e di ning di 11a ni e di shi di.
Third person ... ang di di ... ang di di ... same as plural.

This is the ordinary future and implies mere futurity. A more
definite and emphatic future is made with the particles, hkay lam and
na) combined with the affirmative particles / e. (See Note to Table C,
page .)


nga nap ni di hka i e = l will go to-morrow.
na di lain i e = You shall go.

ang ning nap ni di na i 'This form of the future has no dual.


nga ni di hka i <} = We two will go.

(6) Future Perfect Tense.

The particles for the formation of this tense are ngul and dangy
combined with the future affirmative na i e.


nga di ngut na i e = I will have gone.

ndm hdli ind der ragap ang ning di ngut 11a i d = They will have
gone before sunset.

Note.There is no dual form ancl the 2nd personal prefix is not used in this

The Potential Mood.

62. (1) This mood asserts capability or necessity and is expressed by
the use of the verbs ngut or dang implying capability and ra, denoting

( 22 )


nga di ngut nu e = I can go.

nga ni di ngut shaw
nga ning di ngut i e = We can go.

na di e ngut nu e = Thou canst go.

na ni e di ngut shaiv e = You two can go.

11a ning di e ngut ning e = You can go.

ang di ngut nu e} ang ning di ngut nu e = They can go.

Note.The verb in the 3rd person dual is the same as in the plural.

(2) The conjugation with ra, is as follows. There is no duaF
form :


First person ... nga di ra c
Second person ... 11a di ra e

Third person ... ang di ra e


nga nap ni di ngut nu c=l can go to-morrow.
ang htdra sha u e ang di ngut nu can go.

nga ya hkdt di ra c, md i dcr ner, hkamzer ngdn na i e = I must
go now otherwise the Chief will be angry.

(3) The word s//a, to know, may also be used in combination with-
verbs, to express knowledge or capability. It undergoes an inflexion
in the 1st person.


... nga ning di ra e.
... 11 a ning di ra e.

ang ning di ra e.


nga di shang e = I know how to go.
ang ning di sha £ = They know how to go.

The Subjunctive Mood.

63. This is a conditional or hypothetical mood and is expressed by
placing der ner after the verb.


ang md di der ner kumpraivng md In e = li he does not go he
will not get the money.

nga ya hkdt di ngut der ner dug md shi 11a i e=li I could go
now he would not die.

The Imperative Mood. (Comp. § 71.)

64. (1) The Imperative signs for monosyllabic verbs are :e or d
before the verbal root in the singular, followed by shi in the dual and
ning in the plural. Motion towards the speaker is indicated by the
additional particle ra (checked tone) aad motion away from, by the
particles bii or am.

( 23 )


Singular. Plural.

e di = Come. edi rang=All come.

e di ra = Come here. e di ra ningAll come here.

e di bii (am) = Go away. e di bii (am) ning All go away.


e di shi = You two come.
e di ra shi = You two come here.
e di bii (am) shi = You two go away.

(2) The rule for dissyllabic verbs is as follows :

(a) If the first syllable is the suppressed vowel d, it is changed into
na ; if it is combined with one or more consonants, the d may be changed
into e and it may also take the particles e or d before it.

(b) The plural affix is the same as for monosyllabic verbs, viz.f ning.
The locative and dual particles are the same.

Singular. Plural.

na htang=Return. na hlang ning= All return.

e tebln = Play. e tebln ning=Pd\ play.


na hlang s/ = You two return.
e tebln shi = You two play.

(3) The Imperative may also be formed by the use of the obligatory
particle ra which follows the verbal root. (Rem : The dual and loca-
tive particles are not used in this combination.)


de ni nga di ra e = \ must go to-day.
na nap ni dhtang ra e~ You must return to-morrow.
na ni ya hkdt di ra e = You two must return now. '
ddsdm ra ri nga hlal tdbln ra me.

The Exhortative.

(4) This is formed by the use of the particle la which precedes the
verb. The 1st person plural also takes the particle i after it.


nang la ding= Let me go.

nga ni la tdbln shi^ Let us two play.

nga ning la dhtang i= Let us return.

a fig la di= Let him go.

ang ning la tdbln = Let them play.

( 24 )

The Prohibitive.

65. (a) Prohibition in monosyllabic verbs is expressed in the singu-
lar by preceding the verbal root with me and following it with di, which
in the plural becomes ning di.

(b) Dissyllabic verbs retain the change they undergo in the Imper-
ative Mood [comp. § 64 (2)] and also follow the above rule.

(c) The prohibitive of the exhortative form is made by adding (1)
md% for monosyllabic, and (2) ma^ for dissyllabic verbs, between la and
the verb.



me di di= Dont go.

me na htang di = Dont return.

me hpere di= Dont be frightened.

[Rules (a) and (6).]


me di ning di = Dont you go.
me na htang ning di= Dont return,
me hpere ning di = Dont be


me di shi di~ Dont you two go.

me na htang shi di= Dont you two return.

me hpere shi di= Dont you two be frightened.

Examples. [Rule (c).]

ang la md di = Dont let him go.

nga ning la md dl i Dont let us stay.

ang la ma bawn shi = Dont let him rise.

ang ning la ma hpere di = Dont let them be frightened.

ang la ma htang= Dont let him return.

The Negative.

66. Yes and No are not used as in English in answering ques"
tions but in negation the verb or the whole statement is repeated with
ithe negative sign before it. The negative sign is md for monosyllabic
and ma for dissyllabic verbs in the 1st and 2nd persons singular and
plural. In the 2nd person singular and plural me is used for both
classes of verbs.


nga ma shdlang= I am not well.
ang ma hpdre = He is not frightened.
nga md ding= I will not come.
nga ma tdbin ning= I will not play.
u rdgap hku mana me dl = You were not there then.
nga ning ma tabu i htdhkang hpaw ma dl shi = We did not clap
because we were not happy.

ang ma dl der ger nga ding ning=Though he is not there I will

( 25 )

The Interrogative.

67. In Rawang as in Burmese there are two forms of interrogating
sentences, direct and indirect. (a) Direct questions are made by
placing ma, the interrogative particle, at the end of the sentence.


ang di bii i ma ?= Has he gone ?
dl ma f = Is it there ?
na me dl di ma ? = Will you not stay ?
ang sa ni Jidl u ma ? = Did he come yesterday ?
na c htu ra i ma ?= Have you arrived ? (A common form of

ib) ma may also be used for purely conjectural questions.


sa gi hpang lam mar eng kdza aka shi e} ra i va i e ma ?=Last
night there was a lot of shouting in the lower village, I
wonder what was the matter ?

(c) In indirect questions for monosyllabic verbs in the 1st and
-3rd person singular and plural, the interrogative particle is Id. In
dissyllabic verbs whose first syllable is the short vowel sound tf, the
interrogative particle is la. In the 2nd person singular and plural
for both classes of verbs the interrogative particle is le. These particles
always precede the verb.


ang ra wa htdhkang la di ? = Why did he come ?

* ang ra wa htdhkang la hfirr f = Why is he coughing ?
na ra tagap le di di f = When will ycu go ?
na ra wa htdhkang le na htang ? = Why did you return ?
ra dang hie la gzva ?= How bread is it ?
ra dang hie la rum fHow far is it ?

ang ra wa htdhkang la md di ? = Why did he ;iot come ?
asang maga na ra wa htdhkang le me na bazvn shi f = Why did
you not rise early ?

Note.* a It Hrr, to cough ; t drum, to be far.


Indicative Mood.

68. Conjugated below, Tables AD, is the transitive verb 2/, to give,
which is subject to the inflexion noted in § 44. First, 2nd and 3rd
persons are abbreviated in the tables to the numerals 1, 2 and 3 in
columns 1 and 2 of the tables.

( 26 )

The personal pronouns used in the conjugation are as follows, in
Nung :

nga = I. nga ning=We.

a = Thou. na ning = Yo\i.

ang= He. ang ning=They.

These pronouns must be understood to go with the conjugation of
the verb when reading the table.

The nominative case particle is mer, and the objective case particle
is hka, and these also follow the appropriate personal pronouns.

Table A.

(1) Present Tense.

Abbreviations : sub. = subject ; obj. = object ; ind. = indirect ;.
sing. = singular ; plur. = plural.

Sub. (1) ind. obj. (2) Sing. (3) Sub. plur. ind. obj. sing. (4) Sub. sing ind. obj. plur. (5) Sub. and ind. obj. both plur. (6)
1 2 zing e zi it zi ning e zi ning t (or, # t)
1 3 zing n e zi i e zing 11 e zi i t
2 1 e zing a e e zi slta e ezishat e z i sit a t
2 3 e zi 11 e e zi ning e l zi u e e zi ning t
3 1 e zing e e zing e t zi i e e zi i t
3 2 e zi e t zi e eziningB t zi ning t
3 3 zi n l zi u e zi n B zi u e

Dual Form.

Sub. (7) Ind. Dual
obj. (8) with ind. obj. sing. 19) with ind. objv plur. (10)
1 2 zi ski e zi ning e
2 3 zi saiv e zi saw t
2 1 t zi sha e e zi sha t
2 3 e zi saw e t zi saw t
3 1 The same as for sub. e zi i e
3 2 plur. and ind. obj. e zi e
3 3 sing. (vide col. 4 ante.) zi u e

( 27 )


nga mer na hka zdl e = l bathe you.

na mer ang hka ni dram hti e zdl u ma ?= Do you bathe him
daily ?

ang mer ang hka ya hkdt mdsdl u e = He remembers him now.

(2) Present Continuous Tense.

This is made by adding the particle der and the verbal root dl
between the verb and its tense terminal. To make the dual form shi is
prefixed to der in the 1st and 2nd persons.


nga mer na hka zing der dl e = l am (in the act of) giving you.
nga ni na hka zi der dl shi t' = We two are (in the act of)
giving you.

ang mer ang hka ddsit der al u e=He was (in the act of)
ordering him.

na ning mer nga ning hka e zi ska der dl e = You were (in the
act of) giving us.

Table B.

(3) Past Imperfect Tense.

Sub. Ind. Sing. Sub. plur. obj. Sub. sing. obj. Sub. and obj.
obj. sing, plur. both plur.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
1 2 zing bung a ... zi bn sit a zi bii ska zi bii sha
1 3 zing bii nga ... zi b ii sit a zing biing a ... zi bii sha
2 1 e zing biing a e zi bii sha e zi bit sha b zi bii sha
2 3 e zi bit a e zi bii sh a e zi bii a b zi bit sha
3 1 b zing biing a b zing bung a b zi bii sha b zi bii sha
3 2 e zi bii b ezibiib e zi bii sha b zi bii sha .
3 3 zi bit a zi bii a zi bii a zi bii a

Note.The dual is the same as for the subject in the plural and the object in the
singular as shown in the above table.


ang nier ang hka mdsal bit tf = He remembered him.
na mer ang ning kha hti e zdl bii a = You bathed them.

(4) Past Perfect Tense.

The past perfect is formed by the addition of the particle ngut
denoting completion, immediately after the verb root throughout the
conjugation of this tense.

( 28 )


nga ning mer ang hka zi ngut bii sha We had given it to him.
ang ning mer nga ning hka zi e ngut bii sha They had given
it to us.

nga mer an hka zi ngut biing a = I had given him.

Note.The verb zi remains unchanged and only iigut is conjugated.

Table C.

(5) Future Imperfect.

Sub. Ind. Sing. Sub. plur. ind. Sub. sing. ind. Sub. and obj.
obj. obj. sing. obj. plur. both plur.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6i
1 2 zing ning zi i di zi iiingdi zi i di or zi ning di
1 3 zing u ning ... zi i di zing n ning ... zi i di
2 1 e zing a ning e zi ska di e zi sha di e zi sha di
2 3 e zi n di eziningdi ... e zi u di zi ning di
3 1 e zing ning ... e zing ning ... e zi i di e zing ning
3 2 e zi di e zi di c zi ning di ... e zi ning di
3 3 zi it di zi n di zi n di zi n di

Dual Form.

Sub. Ind. obj. with ind. obj. sing. with ind. obj. plur.
(7) (8) i9) (10;
1 2 zi ski di zi ning di
1 3 zi saw di zi saw di
2 1 e zi sha di e zi sha di
2 3 e zi saw di e zi saw di
3 1 e zing ning e zi i di
3 2 e zi di e zi ning di
3 3 zi u di zi u di

( 29 )


nga liter na hka hka rdgap ger ina mdl ning=l will never forget

nga liter na iting hka nap ni zi ning di = I will give (it) to you

ang liter ang ning hka hti zdl u di= He will bathe them.

Note.As with intransitive verbs the future imperfect of transitive verbs may be
made throughout with the use of the particles hka, na and lam, combined with i b.


nga nter na hka nap ni zi hka i e=l will give it to you to-

it a ni nap ni ang hka knmprawng zi lam i £ = You two will
give him the money to-morrow.

(6) Future Perfect Tense.

The particles for this tense are dang or ngut (signs of completion)
combined with hka i e or na i e, which follow the verbal root. It is the
same for all numbers and persons.


kandauk hkainzer bdli ntd htu e rdgap nga ning liter ang hka
kumltprawng zi dang hka i e = We will have given him the
money before the civil officer arrives.

sltdla bdli md ski. rdgap ang ning wa dang na i e = They will
have done (the work) before the month is ended.

The Potential Mood.

69. (a) Under this mood come assertions regarding capability of
and necessity for the performance of an action.

The particle signifying capability is ngut, and the verb is conjugated
with it thus :

Table D.

Sub. Ind. obj. Sing. Sub. plur ind. obj. sing. Sub. sing. ind. obj. plur. Sub. and ind. obj. both plur.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
1 2 zi ugut ne zingutib zi ngiit ning & zi ngut ning e
1 3 zi ugut nil e ... zi ugut i e zi ngut nn e ... zi ugu t i e
2 1 zi e ngut a e ... zi e ngut ska e zi e ngu t sha £ zi b ngutsha e
2 3 zi e ngut mt e zi e ugu t uing e zi e ngu t //-// e zi b ngut ning b
3 1 2/ e ngut ue ... zi e ngut i b ... zi e ngut i e ... zi e ngnt i e
3 2 zi e ugut lie ... zi e ngut c zi d ngut ning e zi b ngut ning e
3 3 zi ngut nn e ... zi ugut nn e ... zi ugut nu b ... zi ngut nu e

( 30 )

Table Dconclcl.
Dual Form.

Sub. Ind. obj. with ind. obj. sing. with ind. obj. plur.
(7) (8) (9) (10)
1 2 zi ngut slri e zi ngut ning b
1 3 zi iigut saw e zi ngut saw e
2 1 zi e ngut slid e zi e ngut sha e
2 3 zi e ngut saw e zi e ngut ning e
3 1 ) A zi e ngut i e
3 2 [ same as in the J | singular ante. 1 zi e ngut ning e
3 3 i ) \ zi ngut nu e


uga mer na hka nap ni kumrang zi ugut ne= I will be able to
give you the pony to-morrow.

naini mer nga hka nap ni yang e ngul sha e You two will be
able to see me to-morrow.#

de ni nga mer ang hka kumprawng zi md ngut nu e = l will not
be able to give him the money to-day.

(b) The particle denoting a necessity is rn, which follows the verbal
root. In this combination ra may be conjugated as an intransitive verb
in the present; tense, or it may be used unchanged with the verbal
particle u?.


nga nap ni zi rang e = l must give to-morrow.

na de ni hti zdl shi e ra e or (zal ski ra d) = You must
bathe to-day.

ang nap ning chum wa ra e = He must build a house next

The Subjunctive Mood.

70. The rule for transitive verbs is the same as that for intransitive
ones, viz.% the particles der ncr follow the verb.

\ 31 )


ang naf) ni nid zi dcr ner nga cisoya hka shin 11a i e = li he does
not give to-morrow I will report to Government.
na kuuihpraivng e shung der ner na bungli wa ra 6, = If you
want money you must work.

na ang kha desu der tier ang di na i e = \i you order him he
will go.

The Imperative Mood. (Comp. §§ 49,51,52,64.)

71. (1) (a) The Imperative Mood is made by the use of the second
personal particle e, which precedes the verb and remains constant.
d sometimes also takes the place of e. The Imperative affixes which
follow the verb vary according to the number, motion and location
implied in the command or request.

(b) When the motion implied in a request is towards the speaker,
the verb is preceded and followed by the following particles :

Sing. ... e (or a) verb, a

Dual and Plur. ... e (or a) verb, sha

(c) Additional locative particles are used according to the
plane or level on which the speaker and the object addressed are
situated :

ra, when both parties are on the same plane or level ;
lung, when the speaker is on a higher level;
za} when the speaker is on a lower level.


nga hka e zing lung a = Come up and give me.
tiga hka e zing za a = Come down and give me.
nga ning e ddsdn sha = Escort us
nga ning hka mahka e zi sha = Give us beads.

(d) When the motion implied in the command or request
is to be directed to or towards a person other than the speaker, the
verb is in the form of the 2nd person and is preceded and followed
by the following particles :

Sing. ... e (or a) verb, u.

Dual ... e (or a) verb, saw.

Plur. ... e (us a) verb, ning.


ang hka e sat ?/ = Beat thou him.
ang hka e zi ning = Give you to him.
ang hka e descln u = Escort thou him.
ang hka a dcsdn ning= Escort you him.

It will be seen from the above that the Imperative Mood is practi-
cally the conjugation of the transitive verb in the present tense, when
fl) its subject is in the 2nd person and its object in the 1st, and,
(2) when its subject is in the 2nd person and its object in the 3rd,
with, of course, the omission of the final tense particle e and the inser-
tion, where necessary, of the locative particles [§7l (1) (c).]

( 32 )

(e) The particle ra denoting necessity [comp. 64 (3)] is also used
with transitive verbs as :

nga mer-zi ra e=l must give.
nga ning mer zi ra e = We must give.

The Exhortative.

(2) This is formed by the particles la and le which precede the
verb. Table E is the conjugation of the verb in this form.

Tabic E.

Sub. Ind. obj. Sing. Sub. plur. ind. obj. sing. Sub. sing. ind. obj. plur. Sub. and ind. obj. both plur.
(1) (2) .3) (4) (5> (6)
1 2 la zing la zi i la zi ning la zi ning
1 3 la zing it la zi i la zing u la zi i
2 1 le zing a le zi sha le zi sha . le zi sha
2 3 le zi u le zi ning le zi u le zi ning
3 1 le zing le zing le zi i le zi i
3 2 lb zi le zi le zi ning U zi ning
3 3 la zi n la zi n la zi n la zi u

Dual Form.

Dual .
Sub. Ind. obj. with ind. obj. 9iwg. with ind. obj. plur.
(7) (8) (9) (10)
1 2 la zi shi la zi ning
1 3 la zi saw la zi saw
2 1 le zi sha le zi sha
2 3 le zi saw le zi i
3 1 le zing le zi i
3 2 le zi le zi ning
3 3 la zi n la zi n

- The negative of this form is made by putting ma between la and the
verb and me between le and the verb. The rule in § 73 (f) must-be

I 33 )


ang mer nga hka le me zing = Dont let him give me.

Hpung mer ang hka la md zal // = Dont let Hpung bathe him.

The Prohibitive.

72. {a) Prohibition for transitive verbs is expressed in the same
manner as for intransitive ones, that is, me before the verb and di after
it in the singular, and ning di after it in the plural.

(h) When, however, the prohibition is directed against the
speaker a ning takes the place of di in the singular, and sha the place
of ning in the plural, the verb being inflected in the form which it takes
in the present tense when the subject of it is in the 2nd person and the
indirect object in the 1st person. The prefix me remains unchanged.
[Comp. § 71 (1) (&).]


me zi di = Dont give to him (sing.).
me zi ning di Dont give to him (plur.).
me zing a Dont give to me (sing.).

me zi ska di = Dont give to us (plur.).

The Negative. (Comp. § 66.)

73. {a) The negative particles for monosyllabic verbs are md and
me, and for dissyllabic ones ma.

(b) In both classes of verbs these particles precede the verb in
its appropriate conjugated form.

(c) The particle md is used when the subject is in the 1st
person and the indirect object in the 2nd or 31'c1, arid also when
both subject and indirect object are in the 3rd person.

(d) The particle ma used with dissyllabic verbs also follows this

(e) The particle me is used for both classes of verbs when the
subject is in the 2nd or 3rd person and the indirect object in the
1st, or when the subject is in the 2nd person and the indirect
object in the 3rd and vice versa.

(/) It must be noted that when two short vowel sounds are in
juxtaposition the former one is given the broad vowel sound as a "
in father. [See Table, page 1, and § 74 (ft).]


ang mer ang hka ra wa htahkang la md galu ? = Why did he
not take care of him ?

ang mer ang hka ra wa Jitdhkang la md gaw ? = Why did he
not call him ?

ang mer kumhprawng ma htdle= He did not change the

nga kumrang ahtang ma mdyung e~l do not want to
return the pony.


( 34 )

nga mer ang hka kumhprawng md zing u £=I did not give the
money to him.

net mer ang hka kumrang me ndm u e = You did not sell the
pony to him.

nga mer yaw ma zdl u e~ I did not wash the clothes.

ang mer ang hka ma mdshal u e = He does not remember

nga mer ang hka ma degarr u e = I did not wake him.

The Interrogative. (Comp. § 67.)

74. {a) The interrogative particles are may for direct questions and
la and le for indirect ones, ma may be used for purely conjectural
questions tco.

(h) It must be remembered that when two short vowel sounds come
together the first becomes broad, so, when this occurs, la becomes la.

(c) When the subject is in the 2nd person and the indirect
object in the 1st or 3rd person, and when the subject is in the 3rd
person and the indirect object in the 1st or 2nd person, then the
particle is le for both classes of verbs.

(id) The particle ma is placed at the end of the sentence but
Itr, la and le precede the verb.


na mer ang hka e zi n di ma ? = Will you give him ?
ang yaw zdl bit a ma f = Has he washed the clothes ?
hka e nd bil a ma t = Have you fed the fowls ?
nga mer na hka dek zing biing a ma ?=Have I given you the
box ?

nga mer na hka me desung e ma ? = Did I not order you 7
na chum hka rdgap le wa u? = When did you build your
house ?

na wa hka rdgap le ndm u dif = When will you sell your

pig ?

na mer kumrang mong ra wa htdhkang le me resdl u ? = Why
did you not chcose the white pony ?
u rdgap ang mer nga hka ra wa htdhkang la md shin ? =
Why did he not tell me then ?

ang mer ang hka ra ragap la htdp u f = When did he arrest him ?
na mer sama hka rdgap le le shi di f = When will you
marry the woman ?

ang mer nga hka nap ni kumhprawng ra wa htdhkang zi
le me ngut ningf = Why will he be unable to pay me the
money to-morrow ?

ang mer ang hka ra wa htdhkang la ma ddgarr u ? = Why
did he not wake him ?


75. Adverbs generally precede verbs and adjectives.

( 35 ):


Adverbs of Time.

de ni = To-clay.

de shang= This morning.

de yrt = This evening.

nap ni = To-morrow,

nap shaug= To-morrow morning.

nap ya = To-morrow evening.

.sa ni = Yesterday.

.ung m = Day before yesterday.

sa ni ung me ni= Day before yesterday (three days ago).
sa ni shang=Yesterday morning.
sa gi= Last night.

.sa hti ya = Night before last.

kpang ni= Day after to-morrow.

sa ner ; sa ra mang Formerly.

sa ra mang ale am f=Long ago ; the distant past.

de ning=This year.

sa ning= Next year.

.hti hkdt = Once,
ya hkdt = Now ; at once.
htdn ger = Again.

Jiii hkdt hti likdt = Sometimes.

dang followed by tdgap = When (referring to complete action).
IdgaP ; rdgap = When (referring to incomplete action).
u rdgap= Then.
ung hka = Before.
me hpang= After ; afterwards.

Jika rdgap ger (used with the negative form of the verb) =

ra tdgap ; ra rdgap ; kka rdgap = When.
hka rdgap i der ger = Whenever ; always.
hti md s//= Presently ; in a moment.
mdhlang mdhtang= Frequently.
ya hkdt change Up to this moment.
hti sa = In a breaths time.
sdiisdn ; bawhaw = Quickly.
iva ; hkdm = Only.

bdli ; ddang=Yet (followed by the verb in the negative


sa ra mang u yong md i = Formerly it was not like this.
htdn ger e shin w = Say it again.
ria hka rdgap le law di f = When will you return ?
ang hti hkdt wa di e= He came only once.
nga mer ang hka hka rdgap ger md yang w=I never saw

na ung hka e law = You return first.

nga hti md su ding ning = I will come in a moment.

hti md su e n^ = Stop for a moment.

( 36 )

sdnsdne di ra = Come here quickly.

ang bait md hdl rdt nu He has not yet arrived.

bdli me di di= Dont go yet.

ya hkat chang nga hka md zi ra = Up to this time he has not
given it to me.

77. Adverbs of Place.

a ma ; ya ma ; a hka ; yd hka = Here.
hku ma ; hku hka There.
ra ma ; hka ma ; ra kha Where.
hkdra ma ; ma dram Everywhere.
mdddm lam ; hta lam ; hta kha = Above.
hpang lam ; hpang hka = Below.
salim hf ang ; hpang reng = Under.
law ma ; law hka = Up there.
hpang ma ; hfang hka = Down there.
lang hpang = At the foot of.

Examples. v

ya hka e di ra = Come here.

hkn hka e law = Go or return there.

nga mer hkdra ma lang u der ger md yang u = Though I have-
searched everywhere I cannot see it.
hdmbe mdddm dl £ = It is on the shelf.
chum hpang reng e la u = Search under the house.
ang Jazv hka ma ski ^ = He is hiding up there. '
ang siting lang hpang rung der dl e=He is sitting at the foot
of the tree.

78. Adverbs of Quantity.

htdne = Almost.
ger = Also.
hkam ; WJrt = Only.

hti ngdn ngdn ; hti kdza ; sdmsdm = Little.
a dang hte = As much as ; as many as ; this much.
ra dang hte How much.

ra dang (joined with the numerical particle) = How many.

litan ger= Besides ; more.

mdna = Too much.

rdzal = Over and above.

hti wal = Some.

da n g=About.


ang hldne shi bii i= He almost died.

asang hti yaw wa di ra
sdmsdm e zi u = Give a little.

mdna me zi di= Dont give too much.

htan ger e wa u = Do more.

ang mer nga hka a dang hte e zing biing a = He gave me that-

( 37 )

mdhka ra dang hie le shung ?= How many beads do you want ?
41a ning rndreng ngan ser ra dang gung la dl ?= How many cows
are there in your village ?
hfiung nga sel rdzdl dl e = There are over fifty.
htdra hti wdl shdla £ = Some roads are good.
mdreng hta sdma ra hti sel dang dl e = There are about ten
women in the village.

79. Adverbs of Manner.

ra ynug = How.

bawbaw ; sdnsdii ; hti sa mer = Quickly.
a yitng = Thus.

shdla dang zwz = Well ; carefully.
kdza ; kdza nan ndn = Very.

Anan = Suddenly.

kdza = Hard ; with force ; diligently.

yu/=Easy (be).

saw mer= Even though.

ang liking ; ang hkying = Truly.

nana nana = Slowly ; gently.

siting nta shing= Useless.

u madam md hta = Moreover.


na ra yung le di ?= How did you come ?

sdnsdii e at shi = Run quickly.

£ yitng e wa u = Do it like this.

shdla dang wa e ri n = Carry it carefully.

Anan der skin u e= I said it suddenly.

kdza e wa z* = \Vork hard.

ya me wa yul e = This is easy to do.

me di di dl i saw mer na e di e = Although I told you not to,
you came.

na e di der ner shing ma siting i e = If you do it it will be

nana nana e shin u = Speak slowly.

u mdddm md hta der ngasanat wan ning=l will, moreover, buy
a gun.


80. The Nung in sorrow calls on his mother, ante e! The other
common exclamations or interjections are :dke / = pain, dyo / = wonder
or surprise and saw / = defiance or challenge, a sort of, come on !


81. Quoting what is said by another, or hearsay, is expressed by
.adding wa e at the end.

( 38 )


ang ma di ngut nu e wa u rdgap ang ma die wa e= He says he was not there then.
ang mer nga hka md zing e wa e=He says he did not give'
it to me.


82. The following are the more
R&wang dialect :

ang si ang hkang= ancestors.
ddli ddlani= changeable.
ang ri ang yang= relations.
mutsi muhtim= (asang) inha-
bitants of the world.
mdnim mdsini = dirty.
ddsha ddla = poor.

common couplets in use in the

hpali hpala = descendants.
htini htisdni= small things.
lanibaw lamchang= companion.
hpa ni hpasong, restless, hither
and thither.

baling bdlang insects in general.
lam ni lam hpaw= inconstant.


83. The following idioms are interesting and should be noted :

bdli md i = Not just yet.

ra dang md ///rt = Not very big (lit., how much, not big).
hti sa mer di hti sa mer law= He came quickly and went quickly
{hti s<7 = one breath).

sJidrim rim ski e = To wear a kilt or skirt.
agaw bam bam shi e = To wear a headdress.
hi did dul shi e htu e nang e zi u = Give it immediately on arrival.
dm mdbat gam nidbat Tho, more eaten the better the taste.
di a man shi = Get on ; start.
md mu yaiv = A quarrelsome person.
wa shi e = To take for ones own use.
dmang dang wa bii / = Lost, just like that (for no reason).
hti ddra ra ndm = To sell for a rupee each.
nga law ra htu yul i = The time for my going is near.
tdgu md da hpe i e=*A person without strength {tdgu literally
means, artery).

hti md lan = To persecute, belittle.

hpari mer shi = To die of hunger.

hkii iva liku e = He does nothing but steal.

84. The following are combinations with the verbs wa and al:

chaw wa e= Loose, not tight.

mdsham zwt = To sing.

sha nu nu wa £ = To be soft, tender.

htil htil wa e = To be dusty.

rim rim wa £ = To be twilight time.

rang sangwa e = To mourn for the dead.

konit lap lap dl shi £ = The stars go lap lap (twinkle)..

hpaw hpaw dl shi £ = To clap the hands.

hpe hpe dlshi £ = To pat, stroke.

hti mer rdl rdl dl = To sprinkle with water:

( 39 )



Exercise I.


Who are you ?

I am D&rat Hpung
Where you going ?

What do you want ?

I want nothing

I want work ; I want to do work ...

What is the name of your village ...

It is Magalhta
Where is it ?

In the R&mehti

How far is that from here ?

Call your compaicns
Sit down here

Have you all eaten your food ?

Wr have not yet eaten
Hkin is cooking it now, he will call
us when it is cooked.

Why have you come here ?

We have come to collect a debt

Have you reported this case to the
Civil Officer ?

We have not ; we do not know
where he is.

It will be better if you report to the
Civil Officer first, he is now on

All right, we will go there to-morrow
Come here

Call my (servant) Hpung

Have the things arrived ?

They have not yet arrived ; the road
is muddy.


11a ra gung Id i f
nga D dr at Hpung i e.
ra hka le di f
ra wa le sluing f
ra wa ger md shung.
nga hpungli shung e.
nga hpungli wa mdyiing e.
na mdreng hte Ian shi e mar eng
Id i f

Magalhta mdreng i e.

ra ma la dl f

Rdme hti hka dl e.

ya ma darner ra dang hte la rum f

na lam haw ri e gaw u.

ya hka e rung ning.

11a ning dm-hpa dm bii sha ma f
nga ning bdli ma dm i.
ya hkat Hkin hkit i e, hkit dang bu
i rdgap gaw i hka i e.
ra wa htdhkang ya hka le di ning f
sdran rit nang di i e (n7 = to ask ;

nang=for the purpose of).
u me sdran hka Hkandok hkdmzer
hka e shin bii sha ma f
[hkandok=revenue (Shan)].
md shin i ; ang ra ma dl e ma nga
ning mer md sha i.

Hkandok hkamzer hka ung shin
der ner hte shdla e ; ang Mawa
raga ya hkdt dl e.
shdla e\ nga ning nap ni di hka i L
ya hka e di ra.

.* nga Hpung hka e gaw bil u \ or
nga Hpung e gaw rat nu.
sdra hdl ra i ma f
bdli md htu ra ; htdra hka hti like
sdngba dl e (lit., there is mud
on the road).

* See § 64. Two particles bu and ra are used. The former particle implies
motion away from the speaker and the latter implies that Hpung has to be called
to the speaker ; rat nu is the euphonic rendering of ra u.

( 40 )


I will go to the Chiefs house ;
where is it ?

At the top end of the village

Show me the road

Are there any cross roads ?

The Chief is not in his house
Where has he gone ?

He has gone to the fields
I will wait here
There is someone coming
He is returning
What work do you do ?

I am the Chiefs younger brother ;

I work highland paddy.

Do you know Rawang ?

I do know ; I am a Rawang

Will you teach me Rawang ?

Say that again

What monthly pay do you want ? ...

Rs. 20 a month and food
Dont be frightened

Sit on the stool

I am not at leizure. I will come
early to-morrow morning.

I am tired. Please make my bed

Wake me early
Bring the tea now
The sugar is not enough. Bring
some more quickly.


nga mdgani hpe chum hka ding
ning ; ra ma la i f
mdreng mdddm hka i e.
nga hka htdra dehtung a.
htdra ddhka (ddhpa) dl ma ?
mdgam hpe chum hka ma dl e.
ang ra hka la di bii f
ndmba hka di bii i.
nga ya hka narr ski hka i e.
dsang hti yaw di e-
ang dhtang e.
na ra wa dmu le iva f
nga mdgam hpe ang 11am ing e ;

nga ndmba wang e.
na Rdwang hka e sha ma ?
nga shang ngu e ; nga Rdwang
ing e.

na mer nga hka Rdwang hka
shelap a ning ma f
lit an ger c shin.

na hti shdla ddhfiu (shabe) ra dang
hte le shung ?

ani sel nang am-hpa shung e.
me hpdre di ; me sdre di (also, me
lifere di).

rung-dang hka e rung,
na md htang e, nap shang mdga ga
ding ning.

nga tndjurr long a ; nga ip~htang
shelang a nga.

nga hka hler mdga degarr a.
ya hkat hpalap e lu rat nu.
jumdwi md bim e; htdn ger
bawbaw e lu rat nu.

Exercise IL

I did not sleep well
I will return to-morrow

Must I come with you ?

You must return to-day
With whom will I go
I have no food
Why did you not buy rice ?

I lost the money you gave me

Ask the cook for food

nga shdla dang wa ntd ip.
nga nap ni law e ; nga nap ni
dhtang nang.
nga na nang di ra e ma f
na de ni di ra e.
ra gung nang Id ding ning f
nga dm-hpa ma dl.
na ra wa htdhkang dm sit le me
wan f

11a mir e zing a kumhprawng
shdmang bung a.

dm-hpa hkit hpe hka dm-hpa e
rit u.


( 41


What is the price of the fowl ?

Only eight annas
Is it yours ?

No, it is not mine ; my friend left it
with me to sell.

Dont lie ; speak truthfully
Did you steal it ?

No, I did not steal it. I do not
know how to steal.

To-days road was very difficult, the
jungle is very thick.

Who knows the road ?

I know it

.Let us go together

You go hrst and I will follow

When will we arrive ?

At sunset time we will arrive

We will return now

I want to buy six eggs

What is the price ?

We do not want money
Please give us salt
I have no salt, it is finished
If so, please give us beads
How many beads do you want for
one egg ?

We want ten red beads

Come up here
Co down there
This road is not open
What is that village up there ?

The road to that village is very

Clear a new road ; cut all the jungle

Is it a deserted village ?

No, the villagers have all run away

Where are they ?

They are hiding in the jungle
Order them to come here at

They are frightened


ya gung hka ddhpii ra dang lite
Id i ?

ani hie wa i e.
na ya i ma f

nga ya md i ; nga numnang hpe
11dm lam htdhkang nga hka
gdl e.

me na ya di ; ang Jikying e shin.

11a e likii e ma f

nga ma hkiing ; nga Jikii md

de ni lit dr a kdza rdza e} ddung
ning zip i e.

htdra ra gung mer Id sha f .
nga mer shang u e.
hti ra di i.

na ung e di) nga ner lang dim zdn

nga ning hka ragap Id hdl
bii i di.

nam der e rdgap nga ning mer hdl
bii i di.

ya hkat nga ning law i di ; or ya
hkat nga ning law i e.
nga hka lim htdru der wan
mdyiing e.

ddhpii ra dang hie la i f
nga ning za md shung i e.
shdla, e zi sha.
sliala ma al e ; be a mi.
i der ner\ mdhka e zi sha.
hka lim hti der ner mahka ra dang
hie le shung f

zarr e mdhka hti set der
shung e.

ya hka e ngang lung,
hpang hka e yit slii za.
ya htdra md nga e.
law hka dl e mar eng ra wa mar eng
la i f

law mdreng hka di htdra kdza
ngang e.

htdra sdrr e htung ning ; ddung
shangbe 11a yap ning.
chum hong mdreng i ma f
chum hong mdreng md x, mdreng
sel ri shangbe at am i.
ang ning ra ma la dl f
ddungya hka ma shi e.
ya hka ya hkdt di dezdrr rat nu.

ang ning iipdre e.

( 42 )

Exercise III.


There is nothing to be afraid of ...
We slept at the river last night ...

I want to cross the river
Are there any boats ?

There are no boats, but a big raft
below the village.

Cross me over this evening
Do you know how to row ?

I do know ; I will go and get two

Why two ?

One for you and one for me

One man cannot manage the raft, it
is too big.

Collect twenty coolies to carry the

There are only women in the village
That is all right, they are just as
strong as men.

The headman is a useless fellow ...

He is always drunk ; his son, how-
ever, is very good ; now he is

You must wake me early to-morrow.

There is no need to start very early
We will go after eating our food ...
When will they finish the road ? ...

They have only made half of the.

Order them to work quickly ; every-
one (all) must work.

Why did he beat you ?

I do not know ; I said nothing to

There is an old debt between

It is raining and also very cold ;
light a fire.

The wood is damp, get dry wood
You can return now, I want to

Tigers are plentiful here
You too must keep watch


ra wa hpdre lam tna dl.
nga ning hti sang ip dp sha.
nga hti rap shi mdyiing e.
hkongshi dl e ma f
hkongshi ma dl e ; mar eng hpang
lam hka scr hie hti hkini dl c.
de yat nga hka e rap a.
ser rap e sha u ma f
shang u e ; nga hpaigak dni me
lung am u ning.
ani me ra wa htdhkang f
nga ddihpat hli me ; na ddhpat hti

asang hti yaw wa mcr rap md
dang shi e, kdza hie e.
sara ri lam coolie dni sel degun nu~

mar eng hka sdma ra wa dl e.
shala ang ning nangla sel nang
hti ra jurr e.

.mdreng mdgam hpe sizing ma siting
asang i e.

. hka ragap i der ner mer ngam e ;
i der ger ang sel asang shdla i e ;
ahkdt ang za e.

nap ni maga nga hka na degdrr
ra e.

liter maga di ma ra.
dm-hpa dm dang mer di hka i e.
.ang ning mer htdra ra tdgap la
dang lung u di f
Jitdra rawal wa dang u e.

. hawbaw wa dezarr u ; shangbe wa
ra e.

ang mer na hka ra wa htdhkang Je
sat f

nga md shang ; nga ang hka ra wa
hka ge' md shin e.
ang ning ddher saran asa dl e.

slier ger wa e ; maza ger maza shi er
htdmi e whdrr u.

hkam sha e hkam dahe e lu rat nu..
. ya hkat na law lun ne% nga ifc
mdyiing e.

ya ma hkang kdza him e.
na ni mer atsung ra e,

( 43 )


Lend me your gun ; it is inside
the hut under the cot. We
will follow the robbers at once.

Are there any tracks ?

There are tracks ; they lead to
the ferry.

Each person must carry a spear


nga hka sdnat e ngang nga ; dchap
aching hka} ip-ra hpang ring hka
dl e ; ahkii ri hka ya hkdt yun hka.
i e.

mal dl e ma f

mal dl e ; ser htang hka mal e.
dsang dram mangging lang ra e.

Exercise IV.


Of what race are you ?

I am a Chinghpaw

Are there many Chinese in
Hkamti ?

There are any Chinese traders

Burmese do not like the hill

The Marus live below the
Matwang country.

Formerly the Darus built their
houses in trees and also had
special strongholds.

The Lisus are very strong

The villagers are all my friends...

This child is an orphan

This woman has two bastard

What sort of a man is this ?

That Chief has a bad (or crooked)

This Chief has an upright mind...

The Kachin women grow old

These two children are twins ...

This old man and woman are

Dont be lazy ; work hard

This man is blind and also cannot

This woman stammers in her

The women now, having no work,
just only stroll about.

11a ra wa hpdn le i f

nga Ahpn ing e.

mdwa rdga Manghpe dl ma f

Manghpe ddhpii 11dm e ri kdza dl e.

Myen ri razi rdga ner md sitting
ski e.

Ddsii Zangbe ri M a twang raga hpang.
lam hka dl e.

sa ra mang Ddru ri shing hka chunr
wa der dl e ; ddang ger gal e.

Anung ri kdza jfirr e.
mar eng dsang ri shangbe nga
niimnang iva i e.
ya sel ddrat sel i e.
ya me ner hkdmhpan sel dni yaw ddar
bii i.

ya gang hie i e dsang Id i f
hkn mdgam hpe mil lagaw e.

ya magain hpe mil ada e.

Ahpu me ri hti md su dsa e.

ya me sel dni yaw, hpdra sel i e.
ya dsa hpe dsa me ddsha ciala i e.

me mdyiX di ; e man shi.
ya hpe me ger dmam e ; ana ger md
hla a e.

ya me, hka ahkal e.

ya hkdt sdma ra ri hpungli nta dT
der dgun wa dgnn shi e.

( 44 )

Exercise V.

The Body.




Hair of the






Eye-lashes^ ...










Palm of hand
Anus -



Finger nail ...





Navel string ..









Sole of foot 4.








me hk'rr.
me zim.

shdna ddung.


ner sil.



lip die.

ana ddung.
ur hpa.
hpin ; hpurr.
ndhkaw ;

tarn tsi htong.
ur hpe ham.
hpu ri.
hpu nin.

tdge ; mdzaw.

hpdn htong.
hpang hfit.
hi dam.
hi hpang.

Lobe of ear ...
Hair of the














Middle finger

Third finger ...

Little linger ...


Big toe

Little toe



Calf of leg
















ana ndzen.

hpdnong htong.
raddin ; rah
nun g.

nung agaiv.

rakyi chip,
ur tsi.
ur tabu,

mdding ham.
ddung ham.
htal ham.
ur sel ham.
hi ham.
hi hpe ham.
hi sel ham.


ni tsi ; hi me.

hi mdbaw.








ang sel ship.

gung rdival.

sdran ; dop.





( 45 )


My head aches

My ear aches and matter oozes

The man slipped on a stone and
sprained his ankle.

He is unable to walk

Though he is dumb he is very

This man appears to have scalded
his foot.

His foot was pierced with a panji

This man is very thin and that
one verv fat.

The Ra wangs cut their hair with
a knife.

Rinse your mouth

Wash your hands

His knee is swollen ; how did
it happen ?

This man is not strong. He
must be exchanged with
another man.

The Daru women tattoo their
mouths, sometimes even whole

He cut his*chin while shaving his

He; is a man of very quick hear-

Ra wan.

nga agaw zi e ; nga dgaw zang e.

nga ana zang der ddzer dyii e.

asang hti yaw lung hka chyat, iva der
hi tsi gdnil ski e.

htdra di md ngut nu.

ang ma-d i der ger ang hpazi kdza
dda e.

ya hpe ang hi dam hka hit su mer
dnut liti e.

ang hi dam hka az'rr mir ya shi e.

ya hpe kdza sung e; hku hpe kdza
su e.

Rdwang ri sham mer dni hint shi e~

na ner na jaw ski.

11a ur e sit shi.

ang hpang hpit gang e ; hie la i ?

ya hpe md jurr e ; asang hti yaiv mir
htale ra e.

ddru me ra ner hka dru shi e ; hti
hkdt hkdt m'rr shangbe dru shi e.

ang tung b'rr skil shi e rdgap ang
mahka hka be shi bii i.

ang ana ba hpe i e.

Exercise VI.


Women wear ear tubes and men

This woman is not wearing

The women always ask for beads

They make them into necklaces

The Rawangs make their yarn
from the hbre of the hemp.

Afterwards with this yarn they
weave their clothes.

Is the kilt worn by women the
same as that of a man ?

It is the same

If, however, the kilt has once been
worn by a woman, a man will
not wear it.

Order this woman to weave for
me two turbans, three skirts
and one haversack.

Rdwang me ra ana sii sit shi ey
nangla ra ndmhpu gi shi e.

ya me zdman md gi ,e.

sdma ra hka rdgap i der ger mahka
ur e.

ang ning mdhka razere.

Rdwang ri azi i ddmer sari wa e.

me hpang ya sdri mer yaw ra e.

sdma ra gwa sdrim nang nangla
ra sdrim nang hti ra e ma ?

hti ra i e.

i der ger sdma ra gwa bii der ner
nangla ra md giva.

ya me hka nga ddlipat gaw bam dni
dong sdrim disum dong, danggong
hti me ra desu //.

( 46 )


Hew long is a womans waist-
band ?

Some are one fathom and some
more than one fathom long.

This blanket is dirty, go and wash

'This bracelet is too mall, please
make it bigger,

This blanket is heavy, I will buy it.

Do you know how to sew ?

Yes I do, but someone has stolen
all my needles.

Cover this child with a blanket

To wear a blanket crosswise over
chest and back.

To wear a blanket bandolier

To wear a covering thrown back
over the head as R&wang
women sometimes do.

This woman is wearing cane waist
rings and also cane rings round
the legs.

The Rawang buy cane neck rings
from the Lisus and wear them.

Some Daru men do not wear kilts
they wear only flaps of cloth.

When men work hard they gird
their loins.

This coat was too tight, and

That R&wang man wears trousers
like a Lisu.

The R&wang women usually do
not wear coats. Sometimes
their chests are bare or some-
times they cover them with a
cloth. This cloth is known as


saina ra sdriui ddchi ra dang hte
la yang f

hli iv a I hti lam yang e hti zvdl hti
lam rdzdl yang e.

ya dong yaw nini hparer i e ; hti hka
e zal am u.

ya me zdniaii mdna sdm e, e delite it.

ya dong yaw ali e, nga wan hka i e.
na (yaw) ddse e ska in a f
nga shang u e) i dcr ger asang mer
nga sdmal shangbe hku am a.
ya ddsam hka yaw degwa it.
yaiv si lagan zva shi e.

yaw mer dbe shi e.

yaw mn gong ngi shi e.

ya me sumbang ger gi e, hpangda ger
gi e.

Rdwang me ri hpdnggu Am mg da
mer wan der gi e.

Darn nangla ra hti wdDsdrim ma
gwa e, sdlip wa lip shi e.

nangla ra hpungli ddza shi e rdgap
king gye gye shi e.

ya dong bula md sang der bing am i.

hku Rdwang nangla ra Anung yung
ndmbe be shi e.

Rdwang sdma ra ri ndnndn bula md
gzva shi e ; hti hkat hkdt ang ning
gang dma i e ; hti hkat hkdt
nungwdt wdt shi e.

Exercise VII.


Whose son are you ?

Are your parents alive ?

My father is dead ; my mother is

Formerly where did your
ancestors live ?

Formerly, they lived very far
away in the Salween country.

na ra gutig sel la if
na hpe na me dl ma f
dhpe shi am i ; ante dl e.

sa rd mang 11a si na hkang ra ma le
dl f

sa rd mang, ang ning kdza drum e
rdga dl e, hku Anung Rduie rdga
i e.

( 47 )


What clan were your grandfather
and grandmother ?

My grandfather is of the Matwang
clan, my grandmt -her of the
Wadamhtong clan.

His elder brother Hpung has
gone to bring his wife.

His younger brother is looking
after the house.

Ask the man if he has any sisters

He has two elder sisters and one
younger one ; all three are

He has more grandchildren than
I have.

Father-in-law (wifes father)

Father-in-law (husbands father)

Mother-in-law (wifes mother) ...
Mother-in-law (husbands mother)
Nephew (brothers son)

Nephew (sisters son)

Niece (brothers daughter)

Niece (sisters daughter)

Uncle (paternal elder or younger

Uncle (maternal elder or younger

Aunt (paternal elder or younger

Aunt (maternal elder or younger

Wifes relations
Husbands relations
Brother-in-law (husbands or
wifes brother).

Sister-in-law (husbands or wifes


na hkang ra wa hpdn le /, na si ra
wa hpdn le i f

nga dhkang Matwang i ey nga dsi
Wadamhtong i e.

ang Hpung ang sdma lu nang di am

ang sin ner chum hka dtsung der dl


hku hpe hka e rit u, ang ndm ang
chang sdma set dl ma.
ang dlat nang aiv nin aw dni yaw
dl e ; hpang dram chang hti yaw
dl e ; disum yaw nangla hka law
b ii i.

nga hpdli uidddm ahg hpdli him e.

as ang hpe.
dsang me.

pddu hpe.
dsang hpe.
pddu me.
dsang me.




shdwi sel ri.
ala hpe.

ala me.

Exercise VIII.

Birth and Marriage.

Where were you bcrn ? ... (1) na e gal et ra rdga le t ?

(2) na hpu nin Up e ma, ra rdga la
i f (where was your navel
. string buried).

Polite forms of pregnancy ... (1) gang dm amd i e (lit., body is not


(2) gung san md i e (lit., not feeling
well ; delicate health).

( 4S )


Impolite forms of the above

Are you married ? (question to
be put to a man;.

I have not yet married. I cannot
buy a wife.

This man eloped with this

Are you married ? (question to
be put to a woman).

Not yet, but a man has asked for
me in marriage.

When will you take a woman in
marriage ?

I will marry at this years harvest

I have given the proposal pre-

They too have given me a shahpan
(i.e., some article belonging to
the woman).

We shall divine over the shahpan
and if the result is good I will
take the woman.

These people are escorting the

What wedding presents did the
brides relations give ?

This womans first two children
were twins and both are now

This woman died in childbirth ;
her child did not die.

If a woman is bad it is a custom
to divorce her.

That woman has had a quarrel
with her husband and returned
to her parents house.


U) ang sel ri e (carrying a child).

(2) ang sel zang e (to have a child

na sdma e le shi bii i ma ? or na
sdma e lu shi bii i ma f

nga bali md leng shing e ; nga sdma
ra wan md dang u e.

ya hpe ya me hka ddhturr bii i.

na nangla ra hka e law bii i ma f

bdli md law, i der ger, nga hka
asang rit ra i e.

na sdma ra ra rdgap le lu di f

de ning rang htung mer nga sdma lu
(or le) hka i e.

sdma rit shdhpan zing biing a.

ang ning mer ger nga hka shdhpan
zi e.

nga ning u me shdhpan mawn wat
der, shdla lung der ner, lu hka i e.

ya ri dsang sdma shdlaw nang di e.

mayer ri mer dazun e ddhpii ra wa
ra wa la i f

ya me ung hka gal e dni sel, hpard
sel i e ; ya hkdt chang dni yaw dl

ya me lang dang mer baw der shi e
ang sel ner md shi e.

sdma ma shdla der ner gdrr e htung
dl e.

hku me sdma ra nangla hpe nang
asdt der mayer chum hka law bii i~

Exercise IX,

Disease and Death.

To be ill

To be sick with fever



There is an epidemic of cholera
Dysentery (have)

Small pox


lader mer za e.
zdnli ; zinli.
htawtang zinli bu e.
sher shut ne.
kongzi Ji.



( 49 )




Sore eyes

Headache (to have)

Epilepsy (have)

Offensive breath (have)

Catarrh (have)

Cough (have)

Venereal disease

During the rains people suffer
from malaria.

Last year cholera broke out and
more than a hundred people

There is small pox in the village
Have you been vaccinated ?

Not yet, the vaccinator has not
visited our village.

I will send him to-morrow. Let
the headman assemble all the
children in his house.

Though the children have measles
they are playing about in the

I have a boil under my armpit,
please lance it for me.

Squeeze the matter out
He has cui his linger, bind it up
with this cloth.

He is a little better to-day
This disease is contagious
When a Rawang dies his face
only is washed, not the whole
of his body.

The body is then kept till all the
relations come.

If he has to be kept for long the
corpse is put in a coffin.

Some Rawang clans encoffin
their dead, others wrap the
corpse in a bamboo matting
and bury it.

Only when there is plenty of
paddy then the final funeral
obsequies are held. Sometimes
many years pass before these
obsequies are held.

That man died a violent death ...

chdkut ; haw,
me za c.

dilaw zi e ; dgaiv like e.
hpdwa za e.
hfidiva shut e.
ndm mer ml e.
hpdyin i e,
sdmong zang ski e.
dhkul e dhurr e.
sdma ra ana.

mayu tin r dsang ri lader mer za e.

sa ning h law tang zdn li bu der dsang
hti ya razdl shi bii i.

mar eng hka mdhpil zdn li bn e.
na mdtsi e zang shi bii i ma f
bdli md zang shing, mdtsi zang hpe
nga ning mdreng bdli md hdl rat

nga ang hka nap ni desu hka i e ;
mdreng magain hpe ddsam ra ri
ang chum hka shangbe la ddhkim.
ddsdm ra ri kongzi li mer za i e der
ger mdreng hka tdbin e (or, dgun
shi e).

nga rdkyi chip hka pddzer hti hpong
dl e, e yun za a.
ddzer e sut shi.

ang ur ham be shi bu i, ya me yaw
han mer, e zap u.
de ni ang sdmsdm ban bii i.
ya me. ana zin ra wa i e.

Rawang shi e rdgap ang m'rr wa zdl
e ; gung shangbe md zdl it.

ang ning ang ri ang yang mer hdl u
cliang dshi dmang gal it e.
kdza gal 11a i der tier hker hka zang
ra e.

Raivang hti wdl tier dmang hker hka
zang shi e ; hti wdl tier tad in mer
mdche der lip shi e.

dm kdza dl e rdgap zva dshi hka
ddhpii e ; hti hkdt hti hkdt kdza
ning ale e hpaitg dshi hka ddhpu e.

hku hpe rdsa iva shi e (rdsa-rdga is
the Rawang hades).



This woman died by strangling
herself (committed suicide by

This man is very ill. Call the
doctor quickly.

Make a stretcher and carry him
to hospital.

Swallow these pills three times a
day after food.

The liquid medicine you must
drink before you go to sleep.

You must not take the medicine
with the red writing on it.

It is for rubbing on to the part
that is paining.

Please massage my hand


ya me ang wa ddchi shi der shi e.

ya hpe kaza za e ; m&lsi zi hpe (sdra
wan) lika bawbaw e gaw ning.

cha wa dang, ya hpe nialsi chum hka
e ba ning.

ya me ang der mdtsi am-hpa dm
dang at sum hkdt e md u.

anghii mdtsi bdli me ip rdgap, a ra


zdrr e iik dhpa e mdtsi hka, me dm

za e ma hka za ski 1am wa mdtsi i e.

nga ur hka na nip a.

Exercise X.


I am going to build a new house
next year.

I must call some men to dig the
house site.

How many fire-places will you
make in your house ?

I have dismantled my old house
I will use the old posts and the
old mat walling.

To-morrow, early, we all will cut
the thatching grass.

How many bundles of thatch can
one man carry ?

A. strong man can carry over a
hundred bundles.

In how many days will you roof
your house.

Bamboo withies
He splits bamboo withies
Bamboo (for flooring)

Bamboo (for walling)

Bamboo (used for rafters, joists,

To split bamboos
To split bamboos for flooring ...
The visitors room
The elders room
The young mens room
The maidens chamber
The house building materials are
all collected.

nap ning nga chum sdrr wa hka i e.

chum ra du lam htdlikang asang gaw
ra e.

11a chum ra dang mdrap le wa fling ?

nga chum dsa hpyi biing a.
htdrung dsa ri aw chum hkul dsa ri
aw Jang hka i e.

nap sang mdga nga ning Isip se hka
i e.

nangla ra hti yaw tsip randm ra
dang hte ri la dang 11 f
jilrr e Jipe ran dm hti ya rdsal ri dang

11a chum ra dang va le zip long ning
di f

ang alam chap e.



masang htdwa.

htdwa 11 ge.
tad in sap,

zale mdrap ; zdle ding.

dsa ra mdrap.

hkurchang ra marap.

chumyaw ra mdrap.

chum htdlang shangbe hkim bit i.


51 )


The men have gone to cut bam-
boo and the women are making

Some women are pounding paddy
in the front of the house and
some are weaving.

We have put all the paddy in the

The cattle are sleeping under the





Partition wall

Joists and cross pieces of floor ...

Beams of floor

Rafters of roof

Cross pieces of roof

Bamboo clamps for floor

To bind

Bamboo fire screen ...

Iron trivet
Stones of trivet
Cooking pot



nangla ra ri htawa rim nang di am
a, sdma ra ri ner sdrr e.

sdma ra hti wdl ner chum dhkong hka
dm durr e, hti wdl ner yaw ra e.

dm shangbe dza hka zang bii /.

nang ngwa ri chum hpang ring hka
bim e.
sdrim sang,
chum hkul.
ddung tagat.
tddin tdkyat.
hf>dng hul.
shaiv ral.

tddin dzan ; tddin sdnep.

hkdpding ; hkapsi (lower fire screen).




lung mdgu.

Jit a.

htdmi mdlilut.

Exercise XI.


Have you selected (seen) sites for
highland cultivation ?

We have already cut our early
paddy fields. We will burn
them to-morrow.

We have just been cutting the
late paddy fields (lit., mother

Last year the rats ate all our

There was a plague of rats then

Famine from plague c f rats

Famine from drought

Famine from excessive rain

There was a famine from a plague
of rats and many people died
of hunger.

All the women have gone to clear
up the new fields.

na ning ndmba chu lam ma e yang
bii sha ma f

nga ning dm sel ndmbu chu dang bii
ska ; nap ni hwdrr lam i e.

ndmba me ya hkdt wa chu hpang e.

sa ning nga fling dm dit mer shangbe
dm bii i.

u rdgap yi li ddhkcr e.
yi li ddhker.
ndm kong ddhker.
ser zi ddhker.

yi li ddhker der dsang ri hpdri mer
kdza shi am i.

ndmba sdrr gdrr iva nang sama ra
shangbe di am /..

( 52 )


Three days hence we will plant
the paddy.

We will reap the paddy to-morrow,
prepare the storing grounds

When must we make the paddy
treading grounds ?

Because the paddy was not pro-
perly weeded, all the ears of
paddy are empty.

Be ms, brinjals and yams are in
last years paddy fields.

To work a field for two seasons
in succession.

All the seed paddy has been

The children are scaring away the
birds in the paddy fields.

The Indian corn is ripe, we will
gather it to-morrow.

The Rawangs plant in their paddy
fields (taungyas) millet, sesa-
mum, string-beans, chillies,
cucumber, pumpkin, ginger,
onions and yams of all kinds.

A little tea is planted in the Rame-
hti Valley.


dtsum ya die ra der dm zu hka i e.

nga ning nap ni dm za hka i e ; dm
daw sdn sdn e iso a ning.

dm dzip la hkaw ra rdgap wa ra na
Id i f

shin shdla dang wa md wa htdhkang
dm shi shangbe hong e.

shdrangi shaba shi, gz, namba lung
hpin hka dl e.

ranggaw dhker.

dm yir shangbe gom bit i.

ddsain ra ri nduiba hka Isa raw der
dl e>

hpdgi gung bii /, nga ning nap ni rip
hka i e.

Rdwang ri} hpada, sanam, ndmga9
mdzang, danggwa, ahkim, lung-
zing., kdrawj gi hpa shangbe, ndm-
ba hka. likdl e.

hpalap sdmsdm Rame hti hka hkdt L

Exercise XII

Weapons and War.

The Rawangs do not use guns
very much. They use bows
and cross bows.

They sometimes poison their

They gither the poison (hpalaj in
the snow hills. There is one
big tuber and from this the
smaller tubers are gathered,

The lntle boys shoot small birds
with bows and arrows.

The thief slabbed the house-owner
with a spear.

The thief was caught and two
daggers were found in his bag.

The Chiefs son shot a deer with
his cap gun.




Rdirnng sdnat kdza ma lang e ;
hpangdan aw htdli aw wa lang e.

ang ning hti hkdt hti hkdt htdma hka
hpdla late.

hpala htdivan razi darner hkaw e ;
anghke hti me dl e, ya me darner
angsel hkaw e.

ddsdm la ri hpdngddn der Isa hwdp L

dhkii hpe nier chum anghkang hka
mangging mer ya bii i.

dliku hpe htdp der ner ang danggong
hka sham kyeng dni bang yang bil

mdgam sel mukdong sdnat mcr sitlang
hti gung hwdp bit i.

sdnat mi hteng.

sdnat mi ba.

zeze ; makhpao (shot).

1 53 )


While crossing the river his gun-
powder got wet.

He intercepted me on the road
and cut me with a dah.

He has still got the scar of that
cut on his shoulder.

Some time ago there was a very
bad man in the Matwang
country. He harrassed every-

Therefore the elders consulted
and he was tied up and stoned
to death.

The dace its entered the villgge at
midnight and set lire to the
headmans house.

They planted panjis on the road
while they ran away and there-
fore we could not follow them.

*The Agu and Sherwang clans
have special strongholds.


hli le she e rdgap wdnsi shangbe sha
am. i.

ang htdra hka disung der nga hka
sham mer dhtu e.

ya hkdt chang ang rdhput hka dhtu e
zit dase dl e.

sa ra mang Matwang raga kaza ma
shdla hpe hti yazv at e, ang dsang
shangbe hka ddshawa e.

u htahkang asara ri arung dang
ang hka htdp der lung mer sal e.

si I (tabu) ri ya ding rawal mer
mar eng hka di der magam hpe
chum hka hwdrr bu i.

ang ning at shi e saw mer az'rr z'rr
htahkang, nga ning yun md 11 gut.

Agu aw Sherwang aw adang gal e.

Exercise XIII.


Is big game to be found in the
hills ?

In the lower hills there are bark-
ing deer and sambhur and in
the high hills, serow and

Let us two go hunting to-morrow

We will go at dawn and track the
game into the hills.

We will first go to the salt lick.
How far is it ?

If we go now we will get there at

Sometimes bison, bear, wild pig
and tiger may be met at this
salt lick.

A tiger was roaring all last night.
This morning I saw its tracks
on the road to the watering

When we are returning it will be
dark. It will be better to carry
torches. *

razi rdga sha ma dl ma ?

razi sel hkay sari aw sitlang aw dl e ;
razi kdba hka, dzu aw shahfie aw
dl e.

nap ni nga, ni sha hwap nang di shi.
nga ni razi ran wa ga e rdgap di shi
der rdzi hka mal yun hka i e.
nga ni ung hka shdla htung hka di
lam i e ; ra dang hte Id rum f
ya hkdt di shi der ndm sdrr e rdgap
hal sa we.

ya me hlung hka hli hkdt hti hkdt
shawi, hpanally hkang, ahkim shi e.

sa gi la ga hkang hti gungging e ; de
sang hti likong htdra hka ang mal
mal e ; nga mer yang u e.

nga ning law i rdgap ndm der na 1 e;
litdnii mddim lang i der ner hte
shala 11a i e

* Note.These mountain strongholds (adangj are peculiar to certain Ravvang.
clans and when threatened by an enemy they seek safety in them.


The villagers killed a tiger in a

This is the one that killed my

It is a tigress ; its mate will come
to-night ; make a machan and
I will sit up for it.

Skin the tiger carefully. Keep the
whiskers, claws and jawbone.

It is hit but not dead, follow
quickly and search.

Carve the sambhur and divide the
meat among the villagers.

I will take the horns and send
them to England.

The gun is loaded do not point it
towards me.

The gunpowder and the caps are
all finished ; I have forgotten
the cartridges also.

Tell the headman I want to beat
for game to-morrow.

There are plenty of jungle fowl,
peacock pheasant pheasant and
partridges in the plains.

This big bear and wild pig were
killed in a panji trap last night.

Rawangs noose musk deer on the
very high hills.

The Shans know very well how to
noose birds in the plains.

The blood of the rhinoceros is
very valuable ; one tola fetches
Rs. 20.

I have two double barrel guns,
you carry one and I will carry
the other.

Clean the gun and put it away ...


mdreng sel ri nmhtim hka hkang hti
gung sdl bii i.

nga ngdnser like e hkang, ya gung i e.

hkang ma i e ; ang lamb aw de ya di
11a i e ; hkonggam e wa u, nga mer
atsung hka i e.

hkang sam shdla dang wa e sdm
ning ; ang tungb'rr, nin, ddgong
e gdl ning.

ra ner ra bii a, i da ger md shi e ;
sdnsdn e yun ning der e la ning.

ya gung sitlang na chdp ning der
mdreng sel ri hka ska na wal a

ya me sitlang dring nga In der Inga-
reik raga hka shari hka i e.

sanat ddung yam zang shi e ; nga hka
me htdnu di.

yam nang wdnsi nang be am i} yam
dawng ger, dmal bung a.

mdreng magam hpe hka e shin u) ndfi
ni nga sha hkan mdyilng e.

ddam raga hka tagdrr, bdJia, padzu
bungngam, bim e.

ya gung shdwi kdba aw hpdnam aw
danghkang hka sa gi sat shi e.

Rawang ri mer kaza hang e rdzi hka
htala hing wa e.

Mdwa ri ddam hka tsa king kdza wa
ska e.

dun slier kdza dhftii e ; hii dara mer
kumhpraw ani sel lun e.

nga sanat dahka dni me dl e ; na
mer hti, me e ba u, nga, mer hti me
ba hka i e.

sanat e zill 11 der e gdl u.

Exercise XIV.


There are plenty of fish in the
Mali River.

Fishing dam

The fish entered the trap and
were caught by hand.

A bamboo enclosure for netting

Mdli Rdme hka nga kdza bim e.

mazim ; mdsa (trap attached to

nga mdsa hka zang der ur mer htdp
am e.
nga rao.

( 55 )



The fish were caught from the
ngarao with a casting net.

Three-pronged fishing spear

The four-barbed fishing spear ...

To spear fish with either of these

Small portable bamboo fish trap

To angle for fish

The English officers angle for fish

In small streams the fish are
poisoned with su poison.

This fish has no scales

Sc lie the fish and take out the

Some fish we shall smoke over
the fire and some we shall mike
into pinaw (semi-putrid salt-

The Shans net the deep pools at
night by torchlight.


gun ; gun tagup (to cast a net)
nga nga rao hka da mer gun mer
id gup am e.

ya ; zaha mer ya. (to spear with a

htun ; htun hta (to set such traps).
uga mek mek.

Hkamzer ri nga mek mer nga dhki e
or nga mek mek e.
hii si hka su mer nga rii e.

ya gang nga rase ma dJ.
rdse e cha //, hpd)cr e y fin //.

nga hti wdl lam hka i e ; hti wdl
pinaw wa hka i e.

Mdwa ri ya ding htdmi mddim lang
der hii dim hpaw am e.

* hti dint = pool, hpaw = to open.

Exercise XV.

Debts and Feuds.

When there was scarcity in our
village I borrowed ten baskets
of paddy from a Kachin.

I have repaid seven baskets ancl
now I owe him three baskets.

To have or to owe a debt

He is demanding two baskets
more as interest

It is not customary to pay interest
but when I have sold my buffalo
I will pay him money instead
of paddy.

This man now denies the debt.
Have you any witnesses ?

Let us two settle this debt

This man has insulted me ; he
called me a dog and a pig.

He abused me very badly

He has gone to collect a debt ... *

nga ning mareng hpari mer shi e
rdgap nga Ahpu hii yaw da mer
dm hti in awn rum bung a.
sdnit Ian zing bung a, ya hkdt dm
at sum I an sdran a l e.
sdran dl e.

ang dniit dm Ian htdn ger nr e.

dniil zi e hlung ma dl der ger dlazv
ndm dang nga mer ang hka dm
dahpii kumhprawng zi hka i e.

hku hpe ya hkdt sdran htdhkang
nungdang e ; sdksi dl ma f
nga ni sdran htdhkang shdram shi.
u hpe nga hka hti nidi an e ; ddgi e,
wa e, nga hka wa: e.
ang mer nga hka kdza e hpate.
ang sdran rit nang di am i.

* 'Note.Used here idiomatically. It is done at night because then-the fish are
sluggish, just as they burn the water for salmon.

( 56 )


There are many thieves in
Hkamti ; last night my bag was

To-day I saw an Indian wearing
my bag. I arrested him.

Do you recognise your bag ?

Yes I do ; it has a hole at the
bottom end.

Compensation (fine) payable for
illegitimate children.

To settle a sum re debt

This man has divorced his wife,
therefore her relatives warn to
fine him.

This man has forcibly taken that
mans wife. He will have to
pay a hundred articles of com-

He is too poor. He will not be
able to pay.

Betrothed woman

This is a betrothed woman and
Hpung has eloped with her.

She has two bastard children ...

He has sent agents to ask for the
marriage dowry. If it is not
given there will be a debt.

If a young man forcibly seizes a
young woman there is no debt
according to Rawang custom.

If she is another mans wife, or a
betrothed woman, there will be
a case.

If there is a bastard child, what
will he do ?

Then he will have to pay sumre

If the woman dies in childbirth
the father will declare a blood

But this is not a big blood feud

How many articles of compen-
sation does fie have to pay ?

When Magalhta Hpung was
trading in (or selling) opium,
the Lisus sent two braves and
killed him.

Now there is a big blood feud
and two Lisus have been
killed and three houses burnt.

This feud-is not finished


Mdiva rdga ahkii kaza bim e ; sa gi
nga dauggong hhii bu i.

tie ni kala hti yaw nga danggong hpe
dcr dl e, nga mer yang biing a ;
ang hka hi dp biing a.

11 a danggong mesal u ma f

i nasal u e ; I ang hpang hka ja e.

sum re hka.

sumre hka zva shi c.

ya hpe ang sama hka nar bii z, u
litdhkang ang mdycr ri ang him
shdwa indyii e.

ya hpe hku hpe sdnia hka htul e ; ang
ddhpii hti ya zva shi ra na i e.

ang ddsha ddia i e ; zva md ngnt shi
i e.

drit sha me

ya me aril sha me i e ; Hpung ang
hka ddhlurr c.

ang hkdmhpan sci dni yaiv dl e.

ang sdma ddhpii rit nang hkinmang
dastt e ; ang md zi der ner ddhka
db ma i e.

hknrchang dm my aw dshdl i dcr ger
nga ning Raivang litung ra wa
ddhka ma dl.

dsang sdma i der ner, a sang aril sha
me i dcr ner, ddhka di e.

hkdmhpan sci shdri. c rdgap, hie wa
hka i e f

u rdgap sumre hka wa shi ra na i e.

sdma lang dang mer shi der ner ang
hpe mangrer shin na i e.

i der gcr ya me mangrer kaba md i.

ang ddhpu hkadang hie zi Id ra f

Magalhta Hpung kani udm e rdgap
Anting ri share dni yaiv saw dcr
sat bii i.

ya hkdt mangrer kdba dl 'e ; Anting
dni yaw ger sdt bii a, chum disum
chum ger hwdrr bu i.

ya me ddhka bdli md be e (or ball
md dang).

( 57 )


To be a witch

This child is sick ; it is not the
nats, he-has been bewitched.

While one man was cutting
bamboo his companions cut a
big tree and it fell on and
crushed him.

Though this was not done on
purpose, yet there will be a
blood feud.

Nowadays one must not retaliate ;
if one has a case he must
report it to the Court.

If they prefer, and the case is not
a big one, they can settle it
according to custom.

Tell your case from the beginning

The Government has hanged the
man who killed the old man.


hpdla wa e me.

va ddsain za e ; hpang iner md i ;
hpdla mer daza e i e.

asang Idi yaw htdwa rim e rdgap
ang lambaw mer shing kdba rim
htahkang ya me shing dnga der
dzit bil a.

ya me ner mang mang md wa i der
ger mangrer hka al e.

ya likdl ner dahka htdle hte ski md
me e ; hka dl der ner yon hka shin

ang ning hte shung der ner, hka kdba
md i der ner ang ning hlung hka
hti ra shin ngut ne.

ddhka lang hpang da mer e shin n.

dsa hpe hka sat e dsangy dsoya ang
hka bdnri mer ddclii der sat bil a.

Exercise XVI.

Time and Seasons.


About 8 a-m.


Between 3 and 4 p-m.


Time of darkness

The dacoits arrived at midnight
and hid in the jungle.

At daybreak they surrounded the

He arrived at midday and
returned before sunset.

Because it was dark we carried
torches and returned.

The sun is very hot between 1
and 2 p.m.

Cold season
Hot weather


tdnggu giri rdhter.
ran ran wa d e rdhter.
ndm ga rdhter.
ndm sdrr e rdhter.
ndm jang e rdhter.

ndm ay ang rdwdl rdhter ; ndm
ay ang rdhter.
ndm htan rdhter,
rim rim or yim yim wa e rdhter.
ndiii der sing e rdhter.
ya ding rdwdl rdhter.
ya ding rdwal sil ri di der adung ya
ma shi e.

ndm ga e rdgap mar eng hka wang
u e.

ang mer ndm dyang mer ha l u e,
lidm bdli md der ra^ap law e.
ndm der sing e htdhkang mer nga
ning mddim lang der law bu

ndm angycng e rdgap ndm kazz
geng e.

shdla (lit., month).
rang hlung slid!a.
ndm lim shdla.
mayu shdla.

( 58 )


In the cold season the paddy is

After this the people are at
leisure ; the women weave and
the men repair houses.

In the hot weather taungyas
(highland fields) are cut.

In the rains the paddy is weeded
Paddy planting season
Paddy ripening time
Owing to the excessive heat the
paddy has all died.

The paddy is seedless, empty


rang htu ng shdla mer ner dm za e.

me hpang dsang ri dhta e ; sdma ra
ri yaw ra ey nangla ra ri chum ri
ddsip e.

nam Jim shdla mer ner ndmba chives

mdyu shdla mer ner shin shin e.

taha shdla.

bangga shdla.

11dm kong dahker i hidhkang dm
shangbe shi e.

dm hong e.

Exercise XVII.

The Elements.

This fire is very hot

Will I burn this paper ?

If there is a fireplace, light the

Give me some fire, I want to light
my pipe.

The house appears to be burning,
the smoke is very black.

The fire in my pipe is

Put the rice pot on the fire

Strike a fire (from a flint)

Bring a firebrand

Light a torch

The fire is blazing too much, put
some of it out.

The lamp wick is too high, lower

ya me htdmi kdza dhkat shi e.
ya me ze hwdrr u ning ma ?
marap dl der ner htdmi e hwdrr u.

htdmi e zing rat nga, nga tnalit hta si
mdyiing e.

chum gom hti e, md-er kdza der ra e.

nga mdlit hta htdmi dmit bu i.

sat hta e slierong u.
zama decha u.
htdmi mahtut e lang rat 1111.
htdmi mdditn e si u.

Jitdini mdna dinung e, hti wdl e
shemit nu.

wdnbung htdmi mdna hte mu.

Is the water deep ?.

No, it is not, it is shallow

It is only ankle deep

It is knee deep

The water is not clear, it is

Go and draw water

There is a spring of water near
our village.

We draw water from a well

Pour out the water, put in fresh


hti rdna e ma f
ma rana ; ba e.
hi me chang wa rdna e.
hpang hpit chang rdna e.
ya me hti md san e ; dning e.

hti e hkdp bu 11.

nga ning mar eng htdl hti baw dl e..

hti dung dd mer nga ning hti hkafi
i e.

hti e up u ; hti sarr e zang u.

( 59 )


How broad is the river ?

Does the boat leak ?

It does leak

Stop or block up the leak
Can you swim ?

They fell into the river and died

Come, let us swim !

Put your hand in this hot water

There was a storm last night and
many trees have fallen on the

The sky is overcast and there is
no breeze.

The wind is blowing so strongly
the birds cannot fly.


hti ra dang hie la gwa ?

ya me hkong shi hti dyu ma f

dyu e.

dyu e via e sii u.

hti lang e sha ma f

ang ning hti hka acha der hii sip der
shi e.

saw, hti lang i!

11a ur hti Jim hka e zin shi.


sa gi 11 dm bing mdru mawt der htdra
hka siting ri kdza dja e.

mu ger der u e, ndmbing ger ma
wa e.

ndmbing u dang life wa e} tsa dam
md ngut e.

Exercise XVIII.


There is a big hole in the road,
fill it up.

There was a landslide last night

An eclipse of the sun, moon

An earthquake

There are silver mines in the
Darn country.

Lead is also there with the

The Zaging an 1 Talang clans
know how to work silver.

These clans have all died off ...

I want to dig precious stones ...

There is mica in the hills close to
the Hkamti plain.

Shans and Kachins are digging
these mines.

There is a little gold in the
N&msahpum Stream.

Formerly the villagers washed
for gold.

If a person works all day, how
much gold will he get ?

There is an iron mine at the
headwaters of the Namtisang.

The Dulengs make swords with
this iron and sell them.

They are sold for a rupee each *

htdra hka dung hk'rr dl e ; e su ning..

sa gi ddul adul e.

* ndm ma u e ; shala ma u e.

Nam Ner dshdl e ; Nam Ner zin e.

Daru raga za dung dl e.

zin nnng za nang hti ra dl e,

Zaging aw Talang aiv za+ mit sha e.

u hpdn shangbe shi am i.

nga sheng du mayung e.

Mdwa dam htal razi hka tang kaza
dl e.

Mdwa ri nang Ahpu ri ya hkat du
der dl e.

Ndmsahpum hti hka se sam sam dl e.

sa ra mang mar eng asang ri se
zal e.

hti ni ndm der zdl der ner asang hti
yaw se ra dang hte Id lun f

Kdsang hti him du dong dl e.

Duleng ri ya me sham mer sham rip
der ndm e.

hti ddra ra hka ndm e.

* Note.The nat who swallows the sun or moon is called Tong Dd Wa La.
Some say he is like a dog and some that he is like a frog.

t Note. Work is expressed by the idiomatic word mit.

( 60 )


Does the Hkaji bead exist in
these hills ?

No one seems to know from
where the Hkaji bead comes.

There are copper mines below
Myitkyina, but they are not
worked now.



Amber ...


Teak dees not grow in the high

What wood is used to build your
houses ?

We use narang and rangza (oak)

Rubber trees do not grow in the
Rame Hti country.

When there is scarcity Rawangs
cut htip and sago plain.

Do Rawangs plant indige ?

Peach, quince, orange and jack-
fruit trees are planted in the hills.

With want root do the Rawangs
dye the yarn ?

Its name is tangha it is red

They grow coptis leeta in the
Rame hti Valley.

After the bamboo seeds, it dies

The bambeo seed is good for
eating ; it is like paddy.

There was an earthquake about
fifteen days ago and, moreover,
four nights ago there was an
eclipse of the moon.


ya rdzi rdga marer dl e ma ?

mdrer ra wa ma dd mer le shi e, ra
yaw md sha hti e.

Myitkyna hpang lam hka shong dong
dl dcr tier ya hkdt md du e.

sheng 1 Hashing,
sheng zdrr.

hang e rdzi hka maisak shing md
yaw e.

na ning chum wa lam ra wa ra wa
siting le iva ning f
narang aw rangza azv lang e.

Rame hti rdga ganai hting mdyaw.

ddhker e ragap, Rawaitg ii http nang
die nang wa dm e.

Rawang ri dasit siting hkdt ma f
saiin^ maga, kamsi, malang hting ri
rdzi rdga hka hkdt e.

Rdwang ri ra wa shing rer mer
shdri la za ning f

atig bing u htangha Ian shi e ; zdrr
dang wa e.

Rame hti hka man hkdt e.

htawa sim me hpang hldwa shi e.
htawa sim dm shdla e ; dm yung i e.

hti sel hpung tiga ya ale ra /, Ndm
Ner zin e ; e dang hte md hta,
dhyi ya ale ra /, shdla md u e.

Exercise XIX.

Beliefs and Superstitions.

The R^wangs have no doctors ;
if a man is sick the nats have
made him sick.

For this reason the R^iwangs offer
to the nais.

Before the offering is made to
the natS) they divine with the
mawn leaf and offer to the
suitable nat only.

Rdwang ri matsi Isi e hpe ma dl ;
dbatig za der ner} hpang mer
daza e.

u hlahkatig Rdwang ri hpang nawng


hpang hali md nawng e, mawn wat
dang mer shdla e hpang wa nawng

'( 61 )


If cattle have to be offered up,
the sacrificial cross must be

The elders will then make the

The nat of the Heavens is a big
11a t.

Only cattle and pigs are offered
to the Mu nat.

If the thing in accordance with
the divination is not available
then a token is given in

When a man dies where does he
go ?

He goes to the land of his

If a person dies a violent death
he goes to the land of nals.

When a person dies with closed
fists he is said to be taking
away someone elses spirit,
therefore, his hands are
straightened ou. (after death).

Where is the nat country ?

Like h uman beings they live
everywhere ; in the high hills,
in the valleys and at the
confluence cf rivers.

Above the nais there is Ga Mer
Hpe (Creator).

Ga Mer Hpe made man

Some men were not so good so
he threw them against flat
rc cks and they became frogs.

Ga Mer Hpe gave Mer Nang On,
his daughter, to the Masang
Hpung On Rawangs.

Afterwards, when Masang Hpimg
On gave a big dance he invited
his father-in-law, Ga Mer, to it.
Ccme let us dance, said
Hpung. Then his son-in-law
begged him, saying : Give
me the thing that comes like
lire out cf your armpit. Ga
Mer said : This I cannot
give you but I will give you the
never-die medicine. But he
would not listen, and on his
again asking, Ga Mer was
angered and went away.


nung nga zi ra der ner ung hka
ngadang dasa ra c.

me hpang dsa ra ri hpang hkang wa-
hka i e.

Mu Hpang, hpang kdba i e.

Mu Hpang hka, nung nga nang wa
nang iva zi e.

inawn hta shdla e yung zi lam ma dl
der ner, mawn shawng wa shawng
dang i e.

dsang shi der ner ra ma la kal e f

angsi anghkang rdga hka hdl u e.

dsang rasa mer shi der ner, hpang
rdga hka law e.

asaml shi e rdgap ur mahtip ski der
dsang hpdla sel lang bit e wa. der
ur hka hpyit e.

hpang rdga ra ma la i f

dsang yung) ra ma ra ma ger dl e ;
dhang e razi) dhkong hkdraw
kdba, hti htu hka dl e,

hpang indddm hie Ga Mer Hpe i e.

Ga Mer Hpe mer dsang shale e.

hti wdl dsang ri ma shdla htdhkang
lung gang hka drim der, nahkyeng
shale shi e.

Ga Mer Hpe ang sel Mer Nang 0ny
Rdwang Mdsang Hpung O11 hka zi
u e.

me hpang Mdsang Hpung On dzer
lam e rdgap, ang hker Ga Mer
hka gaw e : Saw dzer lam bit
shi ; u rdgap ang hker hka) 11a
rakyi chip hka litdmi yiing ga e me
e zing a, wa der, lit e. Ga Mer
shin e : ya me zi md ngut) 11a
hka 111 a ski matsi zing rang ning,
iva der ger, md lit a, lit an ger rit e,
// hkdt Ga Mer sdna za der law bit

( 62 )


Hpung fell ill on that day so his
wife went to ask her father
(Ga Mer; saying: Your
son-in-law7 has fallen sick,
father I do not know,
said Ga Mer, askyour mother.
(Her mother then said) He
lies, it is he (meaning that Ga
Mer was the cause of Hpungs
sickness). O father what do

you want ? said the wrife. I
want some head of cattle.
Then cattle were given and he
(Ga Mer Hpung On) recovered,
and from that day the Ra wangs
started offering to the nats.

Long, long ago, the Moon and
the Sun shone with the same
brightness and strength. The
Moon w^as the male, Hpung,
and the Sun, the female, Nang.

Therefore it was very hot, so the
people shot Hpung (the Moon.)
with a bow and arrow and it
fell into the water and gave
forth no heat.

From then the Sun came during
the day and the Moon during
the night.

The axe of the sky is found
in the place where the lightning
strikes. The Raw^angs say it
is a propitious talisman and
keep it. They say that
sometimes it is found stuck in
a tree and sometimes stuck in
the ground.

Raw an g

u ni Hpung, za htdhkang ang sama
ner ang hpe, Ga Mer, hka rit
nang di der, na sang hpe za hii
i dhpe eN Nga ner md shatig
na me hka e rit u ; dya i e, na
hpe i e. A hpe e ra wa le shung

e f Nung nga shung e iva e.

U hkdt nung nga zi der ban e ;
u ni da mer Rdwang ri hpang
zi hpang e.

sa ra mang Shdla aw Nam aw hli ra
ga e, hti ra geng e ; Shdla hka
Hpung Idn e, Nam hka} ATang, Ian

u htdhkang kaza ging e ; asang ri
Hpung hka htdli mer hwap
der hti hka dja der, md geng e.

u dd mer Nam ner ay ang mer wa di
e ; Shdla ner ya ding mer wa di e.

Mu mer ru e ma mu pdzing al e ; /
sit hkanhpa i e, wa der, Rdwang ri
gal e ; hti hkdt slung hka dsa e
yang u e, hti Jtkdl aba hka dsa e
yang u, wa e.

( 63 )



Abbreviations.After each word its grammatical classification is
indicated by the following abbreviations :

Noun = ^.

Pronoun = pron.
Adjective = adj.

Verb transitive = v.t.
Verb intransitive = v.i.
Conjunction = con/'.
Adverb = adv.

The other abbreviations and signs are :

Section = §. Example = ex.

Compare = comp. Literally = lit.


Abandon, v.i.

Abate, v.i.
Abbreviate, v.i.
Abdicate, v.t.
Abdomen, n.

Abhor, v.t.

Abide (dwell), v.
Able (be), v.

Abode, 11.

Abort, v.i.

About, prep.

Above, prep.

Absent (be), v.

Abstract, v.i.

Abundant, adj.

Abuse, v.t.

Access, 11.

Accompany, v.t.

Aconite, n.

Accord (be in), v.

According, adv.

Accurate, v.

Accurately, adv.

Accuse, v.t.

Ache, v.i.

Ache (with a biting pain) v.i.
Acid (be), v.



garr ; nar.



ay a gdrr.
ina shung.

chum ; dl e ina (place of living).
ang sel dshoni.

htal (near by) ; ex., mar eng htal, (near
by the village).

dang ; ex hti sel dang (about ten).
mdbdt ; used with man shi e (about to);
ex ang ya hka di mdbdt man shi e
(he is about to come here). -
liiane (nearly ; ex., ang hi due shi e (he
nearly died).

madam ; hta hka ; h'a lam.
ma dl (lit., is not).
lu ; she.

hpat ; made.

zang e htdra (lit., road for entering).

hti ra di.


mit dram ; mit hti ra i e.
yung ; ex., ang siring e yung e iva u (do
according as he says).
ang liking i e ; ang likying i e.
ang liking ; ang hkying.




in a sat.

( 64 )
English. Rawang.
Acquaintance, 11. numnang.
Acquit, v.t. shalang.
Acid, v.t. zat ; ddhkim (to combine).
Adhere, v.i. dhpa ; v.t., ddpha.
Adjacent, adj. htal.
Adorn, v.t. ddsip (to make pretty).
Adultery, 11. dsang sdma hypit.
Advance, v. ung hka di.
Adze, n. pdzing.
Affix, v.t. dahpa.
Afraid, v. hpare.
After, prep. lang dim ; me hpang.
Afterwards, adv. lang dim hka ; me hpang hka.
Again, adv. htdn ger.
Age, 11. ddhpat.
Agent, n. ang htdle ; kdtsa ; ex., kdtsa or iikinmang dasu (to send an agent or go-between).
Agree, v.i. dr a shi.
Aid, v.i. ddbang.
Aim, v.i. hi dim ; shading.
Aimlessly (without purpose), adv. 11a ; ex., na shin e (he says it aimlessly).
Air, n. ndmbing.
Alike (to be), v. hti ra ; hti yung.
Alive (0 be), v. ngdt shi ; adj., dngdt.
All, adj. shangbe ; hkangbe.
Alligator, n. pur eng.
Allow (let), v.t. la ; ex., ang la wa (let him do it). [Comp. § 64 (4).]
Allure, z>./. len.
Almost, adv. htdne.
Alone, adj.y adv. wa ; ex., nga wa (I only).
Along with (accompany), v.t ... hti ra ; ex., nga nang hti ra di shi (come along with me).
Also, adv. ger.
Altar, n. hkaug ; hpang hkang (iiat altar).
Alter, v.t. htdle.
Alternately, adv. Ida htdle hta htdle.
Although, conj. der Her ; der ger.
Always (at all times), adv. hka rdgap i der ger.
Am (to be), v. i ; al.
Amazed (to be), v.i. da.
Amber, n. bat.
Amiss (to be), v. shut.
Ancestors, n. dding ahkang ; ang si ang hkang.
Ancient, adj. sa r'a mang.
And, conj. nang ; der ; exs., nga nang na nang (I and you) ; ang di der wa e (he went and did it).
Angry (to be), v. shdna za ; ndrim za.
Angle (for fisljt), v.t. uga mek mer nga dhki ; nga mek mek.
Animal, n. gung ; ex., ra wa gung i ma f (what animal is it ?)

( 65 )

English. Ravvang.

Anmial (domestic), 11. ... chum nung nga (house-cattle;.
Animal (wild), 11. ... cidling gave ; ddung sha.
Ankle, 11. ... hi I si (ankle joint) ; hi me ; hi tie (ankle bone).
Annoy, v.t. ... shdna ddza.
Annually, adv. ... hkdra ning ; ning dram.
Another, adj. ... tdga.
Answer, v.t. ... hka ah tan.
Ant, 11. ... sdraw ; sagin (white-ant) ; rip (flying- ant).

Anus, 11. ... ndhkaiv ; htdhvwng.
Anvil, 11. ... lung ram.
Anxious (to be), v. ... dddik ; myit.
Any, adj. ... ra yaw i der ger ; ra me i der ger.
Anywhere, adv. ... ra ma i der ger ; hka ma i der ger.
Anyhow, adv. ... ra yung i der ger ; hte i der ger.
Aperture (to have an), v. ... ja.
Appear (to seem), v. ... hti ; exs., htii e (it seems so) ; angshi hti e (he appears to be dead).
Appease, v.t. ... shdram (to make peace).
Approve, v.t. ... Ida.
Arise, v.i. ... dhawn shi ; dhawn (to raise).
Aqueduct, 11. ... hti hkawng shurr.
Arm, 11. ... ur.
Armpit, 11. ... rakyi chip.
Arms, 11. ... sham mangging ; ex., shdm nangmang- ging nangdi e (they came with arms) (lit., swords and spears).
Arouse, v.t. ... da gar r.
Arrange, v.t. ... ddzim shi ; ddsip.
Arrest, v.t. ... htdp.
Arrive, v.i. ... hdl; exs., nga ning mer hdl rat sha (we have arrived) ; ang ning mer hdl rat 11a (they have arrived) ; na mer e
hdl rat na ma f (have you arrived ?)
Arrow, n. As (like as), adv. ... htdma.
... yung (used with a, this, or hku, that) ; exs., a yung (like this) ; hku yung (like that).
As (as much as), adv. ... dang hte ; ddang hte (as much as this) ; anisel dang (about twenty).
Ascend, v.t. and i. ... 11 gang.
Ascent, n. ... 11 gang dang.
Ashamed, v.i. ... shdra shi ; mare shi.
Ashes, 11. ... hkahpu.
Ask, v.t. Asleep (sleeping), v. ... ril.
ip dcr al.
Assault, v.t. ... dsat ; sat.
Assemble, v.t. ... ddhkim.
Assist, v.t. ... ddbang.
At, prep. ... hka ; her ; sang ; hti sang (at or by the river).
Athirst (to be), v. hti ral.


( 66 )

English. Kawang.
Attain, v.t, lit.
Augment, v.t. zat.
Aunt (mothers elder sister), //. atsiin.
Aunt (mothers young sister), n. dtsiui
Aunt (fathers elder sister), n. ani.
Aunt (fathers younger sister), dni.
11. Avenge, v.i. ddhka hldle hie shi.
Avoid, v.t. shdwi ; vcI (move aside).
Awake, v.i. /ikuug shi ; g^/r (to be awake).
Awry (to be) v.i. dneiiil.
Axe, 11. pdzing. B
Baby, n. (lllg scl.
Bachelor, n. hkurchang ra.
Back (the spine), n. tain tsi htong ; gu 11 g rdival.
Bad (to be), v.i) ma shdla ; ind Ic.
Bag, ii. ying (a sack or bag) ; danggong (haversack).
Bake (in ashes), v.i. hii'drr.
Balances, n. die ; die hka ngong (to weigh on a balance).
Bale, v.t. hli up.
Ball, n. ang hpong ; angder.
Bamboo, n. htdwa ; me haw (bamboo pickle) ; danghtan ; diinghtan (bamboo joint used as a vessel).
Band (waist), n. shingkit ; ndmyat (womans waist- band).
Banish,^./. hkan.
Bank, n. hti kong rap.
Banyan tree, n. gingu hting.
Bar, ii. Jiknldang.
Bar, v.t. kdla.
Barren (be), v.i. ddim.
Bark (as a dog), v.i. gung ; gu.
Bark (of a tree), n. shing se ; shing se kurr.
Base, n. lang hpang.
Basket (rough, loosely woven ha.
one), 11.
Basket (closely woven one), n. Ian ; lipe.
Basket (with cover), n. saw nghpe.
Basket (small variety woven htdri sdinphi (htdri = cane).
with cane), 11.
Basket (fish-trap), 11. htuii ; v., htun hta (to set such a trap).
Bastard, 11. hkdniphan.
Bat, 11. hpaser ; chdri.
Bathe, v.i. hti zdl shi ; v.t., hti zdl.
Be, v.i. dl.


67 )

English. Efiwang.

Beads, n. a ... mdhka (large) ; mdni (small) ; mdrer (kciji bead).
Bean, n. ... shdrang ; ndmga (string beans).
Bear, n. ... shdwi mang zi (small) ; sJidwi htouggut (big bear).
Bear (to give birth), v.t. ... angsel gdl.
Beard, n. ... tungbrr ; tungb'rr yaw (to grow a beard).
Beat, v.i. ... sdt ; dclia (with a stick) ; Up up (with the back of a sword).
Beat (as for game), v.t. ... sJia hkan.
Beautiful (be), v.i. ... shala.
Because, conj. ... htdJikang.
Beckon, v.i. ... ur dwat shi.
Become, v.i. ... slidle shi.
Bed, n. ... ip-htang (sleeping-place).
Bedding, n. ... gung ga yaw (lit., cloths for covering the body) ; yaw rddul (roll of bed- ding).
Bee, 11. ... mdgam ; hka ; htimyer (hka is the cultivated bee).
Beehive, n. ... mdgam hang.
Beef, n. ... 111111 g 11 ga sha.
Beer, n. ... tier ; ner sdrr (to make beer).
Before, prep, or adv. ... ung ; ung hka.
Beg, vd. ... nr ; rit.
Begin, v.t. ... hpang.
Beginning (origin), n. ... lang hpang.
Behead, v.t. ... hpanung hpat wa dhtu (to cut the neck at one stroke).
Behind, prep. or adv. ... lang dint.
Behold, v.t. and v.i. ... yang.
Belch, v.t. ... a a wa.
Believe, v.t. ... hkam.
Bell, n. ... lang si.
Bellows, 11. Bellow (as a bull), v.i. ... htd-aw (leather) ; rasit (bamboo).
... baw.
Belly, 11. ... hpaiva.
Below, prep, or adv. ... hpang reng ; salim hpang ; hpang lam.
Belt, 11. ... shingkit ; namdam (Lisu).
Bench, n} ... rung-dang.
Bend, v.t. ... nger ; angi (to bend over as ripe grain).
Bend, n. ... tagaw.
Benumbed (be), v. ... bdhn ; mdhiu
Besides, prep. t ... htal rdga.
Best, adj. ... shdla dhtang ; le dhtang.
Bestow, v.t. ... zi.
Bet, v.t. ... dlawng shi.
Betel leaf, n. ... shazi sap.
Betel box, n. ... ip.
Betrothed woman, 11. ... rit sa me.
Better, adj. ... mdddm hie shdla.
Between, prep. ... ddher.

( 68 )

English. Rawang.
Bewitch, v.t. hpdla nier ddzq.
Big, adj. hie.
Bind, v.t. he ; hpdii (to tie) ; zap (to bandage)..
Bird, //. ha (bird) ; lika (domestic fowl).
Bird-lime, //. ... ranc.
Birth (to give), v.L angscl gal.
Bison, n. hpawlam.
Bite, v.t. like ; ru (to bite as a snake).
Bitter (to be), v.i. hka
Black (to be), v.i. na ; n., ang 11a me (the black thing) adj., na.
Blacksmith, n. langdip hpe.
Blade, n. sham cheng.
Bladder, n. tachang.
Blame, v.t: gdrai ddhpa ; gdrai shdJu.
Blanket, n. yazv.
Blaze, v.i. htdiiii sale dJipu ; hldiiii aiming.
Bleed, v.i. sher dyii.
Blend, v.t. dsu.
Blind, adj. me dniam ; me dde (be) ; me mer md yang.
Blink, v.i. me lap lap dl shi.
Block (as a road), v.t. drim ; dhpa ; hi dr a drim hii i (the road is blocked).
Blood, 11. slier.
Blood-feud, n. mangrer.
Blossom, n. ndmlipu.
Blow (with the mouth), v.t. ... maser ; dhpu ; v.i., nambing ha or wa (the wind blows) ; ndmbing maria mawt (a gale blows).
Blue, adj. mashing. (Also stands for green.)
Blunt (to be) v.i. md de ; md we.
Boar (wild), n. hpdnam wa la.
Board (a plank), n. shingbyen ; shinghkim.
Board (to supply with food), v t. Boat, n. ddhkum ; shadm.
Body, n. gung.
Boil, v.t. hti hta hkit.
Boil, v.i. dsu ; hti su (boiling-water).
Boil, n. padzer ; pddzer hti chang run gov padzer hti hpongdl (to have a boil).
Bolt, n. hkuldang ; kala.
Bolt (to fasten with bolt), v.t. hkuldang la ; kdla.
Bolt (to run away), v.i. at shi.
Bone, 11. sharer.
Book, it. lik.
Boot, n. hkeptiii.
Booty, n. hkii e gdrc.
Border, n. yaw md-ngain (border of a garment) ^ rdga ddrit (boundary).
Born, v.i. angsel gal or gal shi.
Borrow, v.t. rum (to borrow money).

( 69 )

English. Rawang.
Bottle, n. sisa. (Indian.)
Bottom, n. in A l si tabu (backside) ; lang Jipang (bottom, end of anything).
Boundary, n. ... rdga davit.
Bow, zhi. dgaw ngirn ski.
Bow (instrument for shooting), hpangdan ; hpangddn ddhu (pellet
n. bow) ; htdli ; htana (cross-bow).
Bowels, ii. ,.. hpdyer.
Bowl, 11. . wan. (Shan.) gun (made of bamboo).
Box, n. t dck.
Boy, ii. ... n a ngla sel.
Bracelet, n. zainaii ; zainan gi (to wear a bracelet).
Bracken, n. shin.
Brains, n. Branch, n. .. ailing.
... shiiig ddgang ; hidva ddhpa (branch road).
Brass, n. Brave (to be), v.i. ... mashing.
Bread, n. hpdne.
Breadth, n. ... in dr am.
Break (to shatter as a burst), v.l. cup, or re ; de (to be broken).
Break (as a stick), v.t. ... gyi ; li.
Breakfast, n. ... shdrang sat.
Breast, n. ... ii ung.
Breath, n. ... sa
Breathe, v.i. ... sa ngan shi (exhale) ; sa ddgin slii (inhale).
Breeze, n. Brew (as beer), v. ... ndiubing.
... ner sdrr.
Brick, 11. ... ga ut.
Bride, n. ... sdma sdrr (lit., new woman)-
Bridegroom, n. nangla sarr (lit., new man).
Bridge, n. ... dangdin.
Bridge (big), n. . ddba.
Bridge (single cane cable), n. ala.
Bridle, n. .. kangiua. (Shan.)
Bright (to be), v.i. ga (clear) ; tsan ; ging (to be shining like new metal) ; gam (to shine like the sun) ; iidin gam e (the sun is shining).
Bring, v.t. ... In ra.
Brinjal, ii. ... shdba shi.
Broad (to be), vA. giva ; gang.
Brood (to sit on eggs), v.l. him ; ang liiu biin sjii (to sit on eggs).
Brood, n. hka si sel.
Broom, n. ... chum shim.
Brother (elder), n. ... ndm dlat.
Brother (younger), n. hpang dram.
Brother-in-law, 77- ... dla (husbands or wifes brother).
Brow, ii. ... uirrda ; danggang.
Bubble, it. htil bawp ; hli bawp. bung. (Shan.)
Bucket, 11- ...

( 70 )

English. Rawang.
Bud, 11. shingivat ; shingwdt wdt (to bud)..
Buffalo, 11. dlaw.
Bug, n. chapfalap.
Build, v. wa ; chum wa (to build a house).
Bull, n. ngala.
Bullet, n. zeze.
Bullock, 11. ngdnser.
Bump, 11. hit hpong ; v.i., hti pong gang (to hava a bump or swelling) ; v.t., alitip (to bump against).
Bundle, 11. ddhke ; v.t., dahke mdzu (to bundle by tying the ends of the cloth together) ; tsip rdnam (bundle of thatch).
Burden, //. sdra.
Burmese, Myen.
Burn, v.t. lnvdrr (to set fire to, also, to consume in burning) ; v.i., gom ; dhkat ; si, as,. ya me siting ma si u e (this wood dees not burn).
Burst, v.i. de.
Bury, v.t. lip ; dshi dahpu (to inter with funeral rites}.
Burying-ground, 11. ddlip.
Business, n. pungli ; dmu. (Burmese.)
Busy (to be), v.i. ina hta ; md ngtit.
But, conj. i der ger.
Butt (as a goat), v.i. and v.t. ... d'rer.
Butterfly, n. hpalikil.
Buttocks, 11. mdtsi tabu.
Button, n. hula hkindang.
Buy, v.t. wan.
By (near), prep, and adv. htal hka. c
Cackle (as a hen), v.i, hkale.
Cage (for birds), n. hka dang rong.
Calculate, v.U rii ; htdrii.
Calf, 11. nungwa sel ; nung 11 ga sel.
Calf (of leg), 11. hi mdbaw.
Call, v.t. gaw ; ging (to call as a bird or animal).
Calm (be), vd. mang mang wa i e.
Camp, n. hpung ra.
Can, v.i. ngut ; dang.
Candle, 11. shdmi.
Cane, n. htdri.
Cap, 11. dmaw.
Capital, 11. a rang.
Captive, 11. htdp u hpe.
Caravan (trading), 11. dahpii la e ri (lit., traders).
Carcass, 11. dmang.

( 71 )

English. Rawang.
Careful (be), v.i. shdla dang wa dl.
Carefully, adv- slid la dang wa.
Careless, adj. sddi in a da ; sadi ma da hpe (careless fellow).
Caress, v.t mdgti shi.
Carpet, n. hpd In.
Carriage, n. leng.
Carry (as a load on the back), v.t. Carry (as in a bag), v.t. ri.
Carry (as a child on the back), v.t. Carry (on the shoulder), v.t. ... ri.
Carry (on a pole), v.t. gan nier ba {gaii^ pole ; mer, with ; ba, carry).
Carry (in the hand), v.t. lang.
Carve (cut up into parts), v.t. dchdp.
Carve (to slice), v.t. be.
Carve (to chisel out), v.t. dm. (The same word is used for to write.)
Cast (as a net), v.t. ddgup ; drilli (to cast away).
Catarrh (have), v.i. sduiong zang shi.
Cat, //. mi.
Caterpillar, n. baling.
Cattle (in general), n. nang ngzva ; niing nga.
Cause (to cause to go), v.t. ... ddsu ; ex., di desu u, make or cause him to go.
Cave, n. lungpu.
Cemetery, 11. ddlip (lit., grave. The Rawangs have no cemeteries, the dead being buried in the forest).
Centipede, n. iiuisam.
Centre, 11. Certain (be), v.i. rdivdl ; langwang.
ang hkying i e.
Chaff (paddy), iu zvasi.
Chain, n. t... sham bdnri (iron rope).
Chair, n. rung-dang (place for sitting).
Chalk, 11. aba moiig (white earth).
Chameleon, n. ber nahkyeng (lit., snake frog).
Change, v.t. htdle.
Charcoal, n. shil ; in adze.
Charm (talisman), n. sheng ; hkanhpa.
Chase, v.t. hkan.
Cheap (be), v.t. yul.
Cheat, v.t. dya.
Cheek, n. iiungna.
Chest (bosom), n. hang*
Chew, v.t. Chide (scold), v.t. ycr.
Chief, n. mdgam ; hkamzer (mdreng mdgam, village headman).
Child, n. ddsdm.
Chilli, 77. mazang.

( 72 )


Chin, n.

Chinghpaw, n.

Chinese, n.

Chisel, 11.

Choke, v.i.

Cholera, iu
Choose, v.t.

Chop, v.t.

Chunam, n.

Circle, n.

Circular, adj.

Citron, n.

Clap (as the hands), v.i.
Clean, v.t.

Clear (be), v.i.

Clever (be), v.i.

Climb, v.t.

Close, adj.

Close (as a door), v.t.

Cloth, 11.

Clothes, 11.

Cloud, 11.

Coal, it.

Coat, n.

Coax, v.t.

Cock (as the trigger of a gun),

Cock, n.

Cocks comb, u.

Cockroach, n.

Coffin, n.

Coin, 11.

Cold (be), v.i.

Cold, adj.

Cold (to have a cold in the
head], v.i.

Collect (as tribute), v.t.

Collect (to bring together), v.t.
Collect (as a debt), v.t.

Collect (gather together), v.t.
Collide, v.i.

Comb, 11.

Come, v.i.

Command (order), v.t.
Commence, v.t.

Companion, n.

Compassion (to have), v.t.






nang; sat mer naiig (to choke with
vasal ski.
lung htin.

ang hkang; v., ang hkang likul ski
(to surround).
ang gim.
ginisi ski.

nr uiit shi ; ur hpaw Jipaiv dl shi.
zdl ; shim (to clean up).
san ; chi ; exs., hti sail is clear; mu chi n e, the sky is

my it dda ; hpaji dda
11 gang.

htal rdga ; htal lam.
sit ; la ; again (close as a road).
yaw man ; yaw han (a rag).
gwa lam (things for wearing).
rdmit; rdmit dl (to be cloudy).
lung na (lit., black stone).
hula ; dze hula (Tibetan coat).

ngim ; le.

tanggu sdnel. (Sometimes pronounced




ddra. (Shan.)
zing ; mddza shi ; kit.
kit ; hti kit (cold water).
sanwng zang shi.

hkuya hkwa (to collect tribute).

sdran rit (to ask for- debt).
ddlikim shi ; v.i., hkim.

dsi ; v.t., dsi mer ashi (to comb) ; gaw
ani ashi shi (to comb the hair).
di. '

ddsu ; ddzdrr.
lip ang.

lambaw lipe ; jar a.
ddsha za.

( 73 )


Compensate, v.t.

Compensation, n.

Complain, v.t.

Completed, v.t.

Conceal, v.t.

Concern, v.t.

Conciliate, v.t.

Conduit (bamboo water pipe),

Confess, v.t.

Coniine, v.t.

Conquer, v.t.

Consent, v.i. ' ...

Consider, v.t.

Consult, v.i.

Contain, v.i.

Contagious (be), v.

Convalesce, v.i.

Converse with, v.i.

Cook, 11.

Cool (to be), v.i. *..

Copper, it.

Coptis teeta, n.

Copulate, v.t.

Cord, n.

Cork (stopper), n.

Corn, n.

Corner (angle), n.

Corpse, 11.

Correct, ad).

Cost, n.

Costly (be), v.i.

Col, it.

Cotton, n.

Cough, v.i.

Count, v.t.

Countenance, 11.

Cousin, n.

Cover (as with clothes), v.t. ...
Cover (a lid), n.

Cover (as with a lid), v.t.

Cow, 11.

Coward, n.

Cowrie, 11.

Crack, v.t.

Crawl, v.i.

Creator, n.

Cricket, n,

Crocodile, //.

Crooked (be\ v.i.

Crops (paddy harvested and
stacked), n.


iv a.

siidiva e ddhpii.

shawk. (Burmese.)

dang bit i.

ma ; v.i., ma ski.

seng. (Burmese, saing.)


hli hkwang shfirr.
hka dchang.

sdreng hka zang (lit., put in stocks).


mil dadam shi.

driing ; dsa ra ri drnng e (the elders
are consulting).
a I ; zang ski.

hka dhfaiv ; hka dhtip.
hkil ; min (to be cooked).





zdlun (cork stopper) ; ang-sii ; v.t., sii.
hpdgi ; htucha.
nung lit ting,

ang liking ; v.i., ang liking i e.



ip-h tang ; ip-ra.
da-n ; hpusi.
ahknl ; ahurr.

Hi ; hi dr h.

ddga ; v.i., ga (to wear).
ddhkam ; ang-wdm.

nganser ngdma.
hpdre a lit ang hpe.

re ; n., de e dang (a crack).
nm (as a child) ; sung (as a snake).

Ga Mer Wa or Ga Mer Hpb.

litinder nabing.


tdgaiv ; adj., tdgi tdgaw.
dm lipung

( 74 )

English. Raw an g.
Cross (sacrificial), n. ... ngadang.
Cross, v. ... rap shi ; v.t., rap ; shdrap.
Cross-bow, n. ... Iitana ; htdli.
Cross road, 11. ... htdra ddhka ; htara dahpa.
Crow, 11. ... htang hka ; v.i., lika gi e (the cock crows).
Crush, v.i. ... dzit ; shing mer le na zit (let the tree crush me) ; sdnep (to squeeze "to- gether).
Crush (into a powder), v.t. ... gay up.
Cry, v.i. ... ngii.
Cubit, 11. ... rddung ; pddung.
Cuckoo, 11. ... hkerk tern. (Onomatopoeic.)
Cucumber, n. danggwa shi.
Cultivate, v.t. ... nu du (to work lowland cultivation) ; 11a111 ha chii (to clear highland cultivation).
Cup, 11. ... wan. (Shan.) luui (made of bam- boo).
Cure, v.t. ... ddhan ban bii i (to be cured).
Curry, 77. ... hkdii hti.
Custom, 11. ... htiing.
Cut, v.t. ... dhtu (quick stroke with sword) ; be (to slice) ; din (to cut highland fields) ; yap (to cut jungle) ; se (to> cut thatch) ; rim (to cut bamboo).
Cut the hair (in a fringe) ... ridat dhka shi ; dni htut shi.
Cutch, 11. ... sliazi. D
Dacoit, 77, ... sil (enemy) ; hkii e sang (robber).
Dagger, //, Dah (sword), //. ... sham kyeng ; sham set (small knife).
... sham.
Daily, adj. ... hkdra ni; ni dram (each or every day).
Dam, 77. ... mdzim (fishing dam) ; mdisa (fish trap attached to dam).
Damp (be), v.i. ... sha.
Dance, v.i. ... dzer lam (to dance the Manao dance)'; bunglut dim ; shi ddhpu (to perform the death dance) ; nangga ddchang: (death dance outside the house).
Danger, n. ... lipdre lam.
Dare, v.i. ... share.
Dark (be), v.i. ... ndm der.
Dastard, 11. ... hpdre dhtang hpe (most frightened' person).
Daughter, 11. ... chumina set ; sdma sel ; zami.
Daughter-in-law, n. ... dsang.
Dawn, 77. ... 7777/7/ ga ; '77T7//7 tan ran ga (very early dawn).

( 75 )

English. Rawang.
Day, n. ay ang.
Daybreak, n. 11dm ga.
Dead (be), v.i. ski am i (past tense).
Deaf (be), v.i. ana md hta.
Dear (be), v.i. ddhfiii rdza ; dhfiu (costly).
Deathlike, adj. ski e yung i ; shi i hti i or shi hti.
Deceive, v.t. ay a ; ni.
Debt, 11. ddhka (feud) ; sdran (petty debt) ; dahlia la ; ddhka rang (to incur a debt).
Deduct, v.t. ddsdm.
Deep (be), v.i. ran a.
Deer, n. sari (barking deer) ; si thing (sambhur).
Defame, v.t. ddsi shin.
Defeated (be), v.i. sum.
Defraud, v.t. ay a der lu ; len der hi.
Deliberate, v.t. mil dddik ; mil ddddm shi.
Delighted (be), v.i. Idbu ; kdbu.
Demand, v.t. ril ; shawa (demand compensation).
Demon, n. h fid la ; hfidla dda (to have an evil' spirit).
Deny, v.t. ugyeng ; mingdang.
Depart, v.i. di ; laiv.
Deride, v.t. hti mdJaii ; ddsha wa.
Descend, v.i. Descendant, n. yit shi ; strong shi.
hfiali hpdla.
Design, v.t, wa.
Desire, v.t. and v.i. sluing ; mdyii.
Despair, v.i. mil htim.
Despatch, v.t. shdri.
Destroy, v.t. hi>yi.
Dew, n. saugdim ; sangdim iva e (the dew falls).
Diarrhoea, n. hfiazva shut.
Die, v.i. shi ; lang dang mer shi (to die ini childbirth).
Die a violent death, v.u rasa mer shi.
Different (be), v.i. idga i ; hti ra md i ; se se i. rdza ; v.i., rdza (to be difficult).
Difficult, adj.
Dig, v.t. du.
Dig (as for yams), v.t. hkaw ; ang gi hkaw e (he digs for yams).
Dim (be), v.t. man man wa yang ; md ga.
Dip, v.t. zin shi ; nu (to immerse).
Dirt, n. mdnim mdsim ; ni (excrement).
Dirty (be), v.i. mdnim mdsim i ; nim hfidrer i.
Disagree, v.i. mil ma ram.
Disappear, v.i. dm ang.
Discharge, v.t. liivdfi (as a gun).
Disengaged (be at leisure), v.i. dhta ; 11 gut.
Disease, 11. ana.
Disembowel, v.t. yun ; ya gung nga e yun u (disembowel this fish).
Dish, 11. wan ; gun.

( 76 )


Dismantle, v.t.
Dishonest (be), v.i.
Disobey, v.t.
Dispute, v.

Distant (be), v.
Distribute, v.t.
District, n.
Distrust, v.t.

Ditch, n.

Divide, v.t.

Divine, v.t.

Diviner, n.
Divorce, v.t.

Do, v.t.
Doctor, n.
Dog, n.

Doll, 11.

Door, 11.

Dove, it.
Down, adv.
Drag, v.t.
Drea':1, v.t.
Dreadful, adj.
Dream, n.

Dress, v.i.

Drift, v.i.
Drink, v.t,
Drop, 11.

Drown, v.i.
Drum, 11.

Drunk (be), v.i.
Dry (be), v.i.

Duck, n.

Dumb (be), v.i.
Dung, 11.

Durable (be), v.i.
Dust, 11.

Dwell, v.i.
Dwelling, n.

. Rawang,


ani* likying md i.

Ilka uid hta.

ngyeng ; nungdang.

drum ; die.



md likdin.

hti hkawng.

dwal ; n., wal (part of a division) ; ex.,
atsiiiu wal 11a wdl u (divide it into
three parts).

... mawn wdl ; hku shcl mawn wdl (to
divine by means of the him slid leaf) ;
sdma mawn wdt (to divine by means
of the sdma bamboo).

... mawii wat hpe.

... sdma hka gdrr ; sama hka liar (to
divorce a wife).

... wa.

... mdtsi tsi e lipe.

... tdgi ; yit (wild dog).

... hang.

... hpdnghka.

... ah ter.

... er hka ; hpang hka.

... shdl.

... hpdre.

... hpdre lam.

... ip mang ; v.t., ip mang mang (to dream
a dream) ; mang mer yang (to see in
a dream).

... ga ; gw a ; shdrim rim (to wear a kilt) ;
gawbam bam shi (to wear a head-
dress) ; v.t., ddga ; ddgwa.

... ba.

... a.

... der (one drop) ; hti der dhtaw (to pour
cut by drops) ; ddia ; dja (to fall by
being dropped) ; la (to let fall).

... hti hka dhtin der shi ; hti sip der shi.

... dzing ; dzing mit (to beat the drum).

... ner mer ngdm ; ner mer nang.

... sung ; he (to dry) ; lam ; ddsung ;

ddhe (to dry or cause to dry).

... pyet.

... ma-a.

... ngang.
... hpalitil.
... dl.

... chum.

( 77 )

English. Ravvang.
Dye, 11. ... (indigo) ; v.t., za ; ddsil mcr za (to dye with indigo).
Dysentery (have), v. slier shut (to have dysentery). E
Each, adj. . dram ; hkdra ; dsang dram ; Jikdra yaiv (each person) ; hta (distributive particle) ; kumhprawng hta hie e zi u (give each four annas).
Eagle, //, ... hidm cr.
Ear, 77. ana ; ana dung (ear hole) ; dna rdsap (wax of the ear) ; ndmhpu (ear- ring) ; dna sii (tube worn in ear) ; dm shi (ear of paddy).
Early, adv. ... mdga ; liter mdga (very early) ; mdga-
Earth, n. ... dba.
Earthquake, n. A 'dm Ner dshdl e ; Nam Ner ztn e. (Nam Ner is said to be a fabulous serpent who in his writhings shakes the earth.)
East, ii. ... nam sdrr hka ; nam sdrr lam.
Easy (be), v.i. ... ma rdza ; yul.
Eat, v.t. and v.i. ... dm.
Eatables, n. dm-hfa ; dm-wa ; dm-lam.
Eclipse of the moon, n. ... Tongte Wdla shdla md u e (Tongte Wala swallows the moon).
Noth.Tongtc Wala is some fabuloi s monster, some say a dog, some a frog.
Edge (of the knife), n. ... sham si.
E&b w. ... ang lini ; hka lim (fowls egg).
Eight, adj. ... dshat.
Eject (drive out), v.t. hkan.
Elbow, n. * ur hput.
Elder, //. h.. sdra hpe (be) ; v.i., dahpat hte rdzdl e..
Elect, v.t. rdsdl shi.
Elephant, n. indger.
Elevate, v.t. dbawn.
Elope, v. ... ddhturr ; sama dahturr bii i (he has- eloped with the woman).
Else, pron. and adj. ... tdga.
Else (otherwise), adj. ... md i der ger.
Emancipate, v.t. ... shdlang.
Emaciated (be), v.i. . . song.
Embrace, v.t, mdgu shi.
Embroider, v.t. yaw mdhka liter ; yaw nidJika iva.
Embroidery, 11. ... nidhha (generally used with the article embroidered).
Emetic, it. . . dn e mat si.
Employ, v.i. ... dga ring ; dga wa. dma (be) ; v.i., dma ; giingdma (empty
Empty, adj. . .
handed, naked) ; dhong.
Empty (to pour out), v.t. ... Up.

( 78 )

English. Ravvang.
Encircle, v.t. ... ang hkang hkul ski ; ang hkang ivang.
End (extremity), n. ... mdtsu ; md-ngam.
Enemy, n. ... sit ; tabu.
Enough (be), v.i. .. draw.
Entangle, v.i. 11 id sit.
Entice, v.t. ... ten.
Entrails, //. ... h paver.
Entrap, v.t. ... hing wa.
Enumerate, v.t. t.. rii.
Epidemic, //. ... zdnJi ; zinli ; v.i., zdnli bu (to break out as an epidemic).
Epilepsy (have), v.i. ... Nam mer mil u e (lit., to be seized by the Sun Nat).
Equal (be), v i. ... hti ra i e.
Erase, v.t. ... slidin ang (lit., to cause to disappear).
Erect, v.i. ... slid rip (be) ; v.i., rip ; sa.
Err, v.i. *. * shut ; wit ; ale.
Escape, v.i. ... at sJii.
Escort, v.i. . ddsdn.
Even (to be level), v.i. ... dr a ; v.t., shdra (to level).
Evening time, adv. ... dgilam ; ya (evening, in combination) ; exs., dgi law e di (come in the evening) ; de ya (this evening).
Ever, adv. ... hka rdgap ger.
Every, adj. ... draw ; hkdra.
Everywhere, adv. ... hkdra wa ; wa dram.
Exactly, adv. ... Jiti ra ; bing der ; ex., hti lan bing dcr e zi 11 (give exactly one basket).
Note.biiig = full ; not more or not less, /'.r., exactly.
Excavate, v.t. . du
Exceed, v.i. ... ache ; ex., dahpu hpung nga ddra la wa die (do not let it exceed Rs. 5 in price).
Exchange, v.t. ... litdle.
Excrement, n. ni.
Exhibit, v.t. ... ddhtan.
Expand, v.i. ... da ; bawm.
Expel, v.t. hka 11.
Expenses, 11. ... mazang.
Expensive (be), v.i. ... ahpii ; reng.
Explain, v.t. shin.
Expose, v.t. ... ddhtan.
Extinguish, v.t. shdmit.
Extinguished (to be), v.i. . dmit aw i.
Extol, v.t. shdngawn.
Extort, v.t. hpdre satin der htiil.
Extract, v.t. ... hte (pull out) ; she (take out) ; wit (to extract as metal from its ore) ; ex., za wit (extract silver).
Exude, v.i. ... dyii.
Exult, v.i. ... kabu.
Eye, n. ... me.

( 79 )

English. Rawang

Face, u. Fade, v.i. F m'rr.
yu ; d-ngyil.
Fail, v.i. hsuni.
Faint, v.i. nia.
Fair (be), v.i. 11 long.
Fall, v.i. dja ; dnga (fall down).
False (be), v.i. a ng likying md i.
Famine (be), v.i. ddhkcr i e.
Fan, n. Idivit.
Far (be), v.i. drum ; die.
Fast, adj bawbaiv ; sdnsdtt.
Fat (be\ v.i. su ; n., su.
Father, 11. dhpe (the speakers father) ; 11a hpe (your father) ; ang life (his father). ah her (the same word for wifes and
Father-in-law, //.
Fatigued (be), v.i. husbands father). uidjurr.
Fear, v.t. Jiftdre.
Feast, n. poi. (Burmese.)
Feather, 11. hha mil ; tsa mil.
Fee, 11. ddhpil.
Feeble (be), v.i. idgu ma da ; tdgu ma da hpe (feeble
Feed, v.t. man). dm ; na (to feed birds or animals).
Feel, v.t. si nip.
Feign, v.t. dya ; ddhpe ski ; za ddhpe shi (to feign
Fellow (companion), 11. sickness). lambaw ; jar a ; latnbaiv (fellow of a pair of things). See Grammar, § 15.
Female, 11.
Fence, n. hkuldang, v.t., hkuldang hkul (to
Ferry) n. enclose with a fence). ser-htang (lit., rafting-place).
Fetch, v.t. hi.
Feud, n. ddhka ; mangrer ddhka (blood feud).
Fever, n. lader ; lader mer za (to have fever).
Few (be), v.i. md him e (not many).
Fiddle, n. dawrazv.
Field (lowland wet cultivation), na.
11. Field (highland paddy held, ndmba ; hang.
taungya), 11. Field {taungya lying fallow), 11. ndmba lung hpin.
Field (highland held worked ranggaw hang ; v.t., ranggaiv dhker e (to work such a held).
for two consecutive years),
n. Fig tree (peepul), n. ginggu hling.
Fig tree (rubber), n. ganoi hling.
Fight, v.t. dsdt.
File, n. dansang.

80 )

English. Rfiwang.
Fill, v.L ... bing ; bing der zang ; sit (to fill up as a hole).
Filth, 11. ... aidliim iiidsim ; / impdrer.
Find, v.t. ... yang (lit., to see).
Fine, v.t. ... kumhpraw shdwa.
Finger, u. ... nr ham ; nv hpe ham (thumb) ; mailing.

ham (fore-finger) ; aching ham
(middle-finger) ; htal ham (third-
finger) ; ur sel ham (little-finger).

Finish (to complete), v.t. ... dddang ; hpdlbdl e wa u (complete it).
Finish (to exhaust as a supply of anything), v.t. da be.
Finished (be), v.i. ... be am i (be = verbal root, am /, past tense participle).
Fire (as a gun or bow), vd. .. hu'dp.
Fire, n. hid nil.
Fire-fly, n. ... hkurang.
Fire-place, n. mdrap.
Fire-screen, n. ... hkdpding ; hkdpsi (lower fire-screen).
First, adj. ... nng ; nng hka.
Fish, 11. ... nga, v.t., nga dhki (to hunt fish). (Comp.,, angle.)
Five, adj. .. hpnng nga.
Flame, n. ... hid mi sale.
Flash, n. ... sangbhal ; v.i., sangbhal lap.
Flat (be), v.i. ... dra ; ddam i e.
Flea, 11. ... sdli.
Flee, v.i. .. at shi.
Fleece, n. . dyang mil.
Flesh, n. ... sha.
Flint, n. .. ddging lung.
Flint and steel, n. ... zama ; v.t., zama ddcha (to strike a. flint).
Float, v.i. ... ba (drift).
Floor, ii. ... htddin.
Flow, v.i. . hii dyii:
Flour, 11. ... tdniin.
Flower, n. ... ndmhpu ; v.i., namhpu wdt.
Flute, n. ... biman ; biman mil (to play the flute).
Fly, v.i. ... dam ; n., zilhkong (house-fly) ; hpamil si (sand-fly) ; zil (blood blister-fly) chil da chaw (horse-fly).
Foam, it. ... htil bawp.
Foe, n. ... sil.
Fcg, n. sdiner.
Fold, 11. ang mdhtip ; v.t., mahtip.
Follow, v.t. ... zan ; yun.
Fond, v.t. shung.
Fcod, 11. dm-lam ; dm-hpa ; dm-iva.
Fool, n. ma a hpe ; mdna hpe.
Foolish (be), v.i. mdna ; ma d.
Foot, n. ... hi dam.

( 81 )

English. Rawang.
Foot (at the foot of), adv. lang hpang ; shing lang hpang (at the foot of the tree).
For, prep. ddhpat; htdhkang ; nang (for the pur- pose of).
Forcibly, adv. langgin mer.
Ford, n. hti le gang ; v.t., le shi.
Forehead, n. m'rr da.
Forest, n. Forget, v.l. mating; shingsang ya.
Fork, n. za ha (three prongs) ; dahka (a forked stick, or the fork of a road).
Formerly, adv. sa ra mang.
Four, adj. dbyi.
Fowl, n. Fragrant (be), v.i. hka ; hka tagdrr (jungle fowl).
dnga shdla e.
Free (to set free), v.t. slid lang.
Freeze, v.i. wan zung wa e ; wan zung zin.
Frequently, adv. md htang md htang ; hkadang hkdding.
Friend, 11. numnang.
Frighten, v.t. hpdre satin ; sdlin.
Frog, 11. nahkyiug; nagong (toad).
From, prep. da mcr ; daw mer.
Front, adj. ung hka.
Frost, 11. wan zung.
Fruit, 11. shing shi.
Fry, v.t. hu.
Fuel, 11. hkdm.
Full (be), v.i. king.
Fumble, v.i. dbe.
Funeral, 11. dshi ddhpu poi.
Future, 11. lang dim.
Gain, n. Gain (to profit), v.t. dm it.
dmit tun.
Gale, n. ndmbing mdru ; ndmbing maru mawt.
Gall bladder, n. sahi.
Gamble, v.i. lawng.
Gaol, 11. htawng.
Garden, n. sun.
Garlic, n. kdrawmaw.
Gate, 11. hpdnghka.
Gather, v.t. da gun (collect) ; ri (to gather as 1 wood); rat (to gather as leaves) ; rip (to gather as corn or fruit).
Gaze, v.t. rang
Geld, v.t. kabaiv (same word used for all cattle).
General, 11. sit hkamzer kdba (lit., big soldier officer).
Gently, adv. shdla dang wa ; nana nana.
Genuine, adj. 6 ang hkying.

( 82 )

English. Rawang.
Get, v.t. lun ; lu.
Ghost, 11. hpala set (spirit).
Gibbon, 11. hkager.
Giddy (be), v.i. me dri shi ; dgaw htdri slii.
Gift, 11. kimhpa ; zi-lam.
Ginger, 11. lungzing.
Gird (as the loins), v.t. langgye gye shi.
Girdle, n. shingkit.
Girl, 11. cliumyaw ra.
Give, v.t. zi.
Glad (be), v.i. tabu ; kdbu.
Glance, v.i. me htung mer yang (lit., to look from the corner of the eye).
Glass, 11. jdnina.
Glitter, v i. lap lap wa ; sur sur wa.
Gnash, v.t. sa dgyit shi.
Go, v.i. ... di; law.
Goat, 11. asit.
God, 11. Ga Mer Wa ; Ga Mer Hpe.
Goitre, n. ddb'rr ; hpdnong ddbrr (to have goitre).
Gold, n. se.
Gold dust, n. se angshi.
Goldsmith, n. se rip e hpe.
Gong, n. dtseng.
Good, adj. shdla.
Goods, 11. gave.
Goose, 11. shaugma.
Govern, v. ... up.
Government, n. dsoya ; rdga up e hpe.
Grab, v.i. mdga.
Grain, 11. ang yir (seeds for planting).
Grain (a small particle), n. ... hli.der.
Granary, n. dm dza.
Grandfather, n. dhkang. (The same word for both paternal and maternal grandfather.)
Grass, n. shin.
Grave, n. ddlip.
Gravel, n. £.. tse shel.
Gravy, n. hkan hti.
Gray, adj. rim rim 11a ; v.i. (be), rim rim 11a i e.
Graze (as bullet or arrow), v.t. chut al ; ex., htama mer chut al u e (the arrow grazed him).
Great, n. kaba ; hte.
Grease, n. Greedy (be), v.i. su ; v.t., su mer za.
ragit ; adj., ragit hpe i e (a greedy person).
Green (of colour), adj. mashing.
Green (unripe, uncooked), adj. dhting.
Grieve, v.i. yawn.
Grind, v.t, jik ; hal (grind, sharpen).
Groan, v. dlang shi.
Ground, n. dba.

( 83 )

English. Rawang.
Grow (as trees), v.i. yaw.
Grow (as humans), v.i. hte lung.
Gruel, n. ,,, tabu ; hti se.
Guard, v.t. ... dtsung (keep watch).
Guess, v.i. tak.
Guest, n. zdle.
Guide, n. htdra ddlitu e hfie ; v.t., dahtu.
Gum (of a tree), n. rdnzil ; sa sil (gum of the mouth).
Gun, 11. sdnat ; sdnat mukdong (cap-gun) ; sdnat mi hteng (check-gun) ; sdnat mi ba (flint-lock).
Gunstock, it. sdnat danghku.
Gunpowder, n. ... wdnsi.
Guts, 11. hfidyer. H
Habit (custom), n. htung.
Habitation, n. ... dl e ma ; chum (house).
Hack, v. . dtse.
Hades (the land of lost souls), rasa rdga.
it. Hail, n. wan sheng ; wan sheng wa (fall as hail).
Hair, n. ... dni (of the head) ; mil (of any other part of the body).
Half, adj. ... rdwdl ; hti ddhfia (one half of a thing).
Halt, v.i. 4.. rdna ; sa shi ; nar shi.
Ham, ii. ... wa hfidn.
Hammer, n. duma ; v.t., un (to strike with a hammer).
Hand, n. . ur.
Handle, 11. . angzul.
Hang (to suspend), v.t. ... dachung ; dazul ; v.i., chung ; zul.
Hang (to kill by hanging), v.t. ddchi der sat (lit., to strangle).
Happen, v.i. ... shale shi.
Happy (be), v. ... tabu ; kabu.
Harass, v.t. ddsha wa.
Hard- (be), v.i. . za ; rdza (to be difficult).
Harrow, n. 11a dsi wa (lit., field comb).
Hat, 11. . amaw.
Hatch, v.t. ... bim (lit., to sit down as animals do).
Hatchet, n. ... fidzing.
Hate, v.t. ... md shung,
Haul, v.t. . shdl ; dazdn.
Have, v.t. ... dl ; gdl.
Hawk, n. ... htdmer.
Hay, 11. dm hkdlang.
He, fir011. ... ang ; niiig.
Head, 11. ... dgaw
Headache, 11. ... dgaw zi ; dgaw like
Head-cloth, 11. ... dgaw bam ; gaw ham.
Headman, 11. ... mdgam hfie ; dsa hfie (elder).

t 84 )

English. Rawang.

Heal, v.t. ... ddban.
Heap, n. ... hpong ; v.t., ddbim.
Hear, v.t. ... hta.
Heart, n. ... mdgung.
Heavens, n. ... mu.
Heavy, adj. dli.
Heel, 11, . hi dzer.
Help, v.t. ddbang.
Hem (to environ), v4. ... wang ; n., ind-ngam (hem garment). of a
Hen, n. ... hka ma.
Here, adv. i... ya ma.
Herd, n. .. rangnong ; ra.
Hew, v.t. ... dse ; hkam na se u (chop wood). the
Hiccough, v.i. ... gaga wa.
Hide, v.t. ma ; v.i., ma shi.
Hide, 11. ... sha lipiii ; ang sam.
High (be), v.i. ... dhang ; adj., hang.
Hill, it. ... rdzi ; rdzi raga (the hill country).
Hilt, n. ... angzul.
Himself, pron. ... ang gung ; ang wa (only himself).
Hip, n. ... hj>dii ddsu.
Hire, v.t. ... 11ga ; n., shdbe.
Hit, v.i. ra ; ana ; v.t., dsat (to beat).
Hive, n. ... mdgam hang.
Hoar frost, n. u'dn zung.
Hoarse (be), v.i. ... hpdnong lire lire wa.
Hoe, ri. ... shangkawp.
Hog, 11. ... wa.
Hold, v.t. ... nil.
Hole, 11. ... dung hk'rr ; gi dung (yam-hole).
Holloa, v.i. *.. gaw.
Hollow, adj. ... hong ; siting hong (hollow tree).
Hollow out, v.t. ... chu ; hkongshi chu (to hollow boat). out a.
Home, it. ... chum.
Honest (be), v.i. ... mil dda.
Honey, n. ... mdgam hti.
Hoof, 11. ... chinang
Hook, n. 11 ga myek.
Hop, v.i. hi hti lam mer htdlun.
Horn, it. ... daring ; aring.
Hospital, it. matsi chum (medicine-house).
Hot (be), v.i. ... ahkat shi (as water or body). the
Hot (be), v.i. ... geng ; gang (as a fire or sun). the
House, 11. . chum ; chum ra (house-site).
Household, n. ... rap.
How, adv. ... hka yung ; ra \ung ; ra dang much or how many). (how
However, adv. ... ra yung i der ger.

( 85 )


Howl, vd.

Hug, v.t.

Hump, 11.

Human-like, adj.

Hungry (be), vd.

Hunt, v.t.

Hurt (be), vd.

Husband, n.

Hush (dont make a noise),
Husk, v.t.

Hut, 11.



ngu. (Same as cry.)
mdgu shi.

sdzun (bullocks hump).

dsang yuiig.

hpdri mer shi.

sha dhki ; sha hkan.


chum hpe ; asel ang hpe ; nangla ra

saw me wa di.

durr ; dm durr (to husk or pound
paddy); n., wa si.
dc:iap ; ndmha dchap (a field-hut).

I, pron. nga.
Ice, 11. htdwan.
Idiot, 11. ... ma a hpe ; mit ma da hpe.
Idle (lazy), v.i. mdyu ; dhta (to be at leisure).
Idol, 11. hkang.
If, C01lj. der ner.
Ignorant (be), vd. 4.. ra iva ger md sha.
Ill (be), v. ... za.
Illness, n. ... ana.
Illude, v.t. ... dya.
Imitate, v.t. sdn shi (to copy).
Immature (be), v.i. ... aiding i e ; md gung ; rdlher bdli md
hal (untimely).
Immediately, adv. ... ya hkdt.
Immerse, v.t. ... zin shi.
Immodest (be), v.i. ... sdra ma da ; nidre ma da.
Implore, v.t. ... rit.
Impossible (be), v.i. w.. le md ngut.
Imprison, v.t. ... Mating. (Burmese.) hka zang (to put
into prison).
Improper, adj. ... md le ; ma shdla.
In, Pref. hka ; hta \ ddung.
Inaccurate (be), v.i. ... ang hkying md i e.
Inadequate (be), v.i. md ram.
Inclose, v.t. .. ang hkang wang.
Include, v.t. f ddzdn.
Increase, v.i. . zal ; hie lung (to have grown
Incubate, v.i. . bim.
India rubber, n. ... gdnai.
India rubber tree, n. ... gdnai Ming.
Indicate, v.t. - ddhlu.
Indigo, 11. ... ddsit.

( 86 )

English. Ravvang.

Ineffectual (in vain ; useless), shing ma siting ; kaizu md dl.

Infant, n. d-nge set.
Infectious (be), v.i. ... zin ; ya me ana zin ra wa i e (this disease is infectious).
Infectious disease, 11. ... zdnli ; zinli.
Infirm (be), v.i. ... md ngang ; md jurr.
Inform, v.i. ... shin ; ddhta (lit., cause to hear).
Inhabit, v.i. . d).
Inhabitants, n. ... dsang ri ; mutsi muhtim asang (inhabi- tants of the world in general).
Inhale, v.i. .. sd ddginshi.
Inhospitable, adj. ... sha dm md wa shi ; sha dm md wa shi hpe (an inhospitable man).
Ink, 11. .. Jik dm hti (letter-writing water).
Inquire, v.t. Insane (be), v.t. ... rit.
... ma die; mdna i e.
Insect, 11. ... baling ; baling bdlang (insects in general).
Insert, v.t. ... zang ; zin shi (to introduce into).
Inside, adj. ... ddnng hka.
Inside out (with regard wearing apparel), v.i. to lamphaw hka dl e ; ang bula lamhpaw hka ga e (he wears his coat inside out).
Instantly, adv. ... ya lihdt ; sdnsan.
Instruct, v.t. ... sltdlap.
Insult, v.t. ... hti malan.
Intercept, v.t. ... atsung.
Interest, n. Interfere, v.t. ... dmit. (Burmese, dmyat)
... a be.
Interior, n. ... ddnng hka.
Intermingle, v.t. ... dsu ; dmul.
Interpret, v.t. ... hka htdle ; hka ddhtnt.
Interrogate, v.t. ... rit.
Intimate (be), v.i. niimiiang wa.
Intimidate, v.t. ... hpdre sdlin.
Into, prep. ... ddung hka.
Intoxicated (be), v.i. ... ngdm ; nang (used for nicotine poison- ing).
Inundate, v.t. ... Urn.
Invert, v.t. ... hpaw.
Invisible (be), v.t. ... yang md lu shi.
Invite, v.t. ... gaw.
Invoke, v.t. ... gaiv ; tdmsa hpe hpang nawng e (the priest invokes the nats).
Invoke, v.t. ... derng shi (to swear by the nats) ; ang. la derng shi (let him take the oath).
Iron, n. ... sham ; du (iron ore).
Is, v.i. i.
Island, n. . r hti sdlung.
It, pron. ... ang ; ning.
Itch, n. chdkul ; haw ; v.i., mdsa.
Ivory, n. ... ntdger ddgong.

( 87 )

English. Rawang. j
Jacket, n. bula.
Jack-fruit tree, n. ... malang hting.
Jade, n. sheng mashing,
Jail, n. ... htawng. (Burmese.)
Jar, n. ... ing ; gaw.
Jaw, n. ... mdhka.
Jest, v.i. ... tabin der shin ; sdre.
Join, v.t. ... htu (as a stream) ; ddhtut ; ddsaw (to connect or join as in carpentry).
Joint, n. ... tsi (as a bamboo joint) ; dahtong (con- nection or joint in carpentry).
Joist, n. ... tddin ; tdkyat.
Juice, n. ... liti ; mdgam hti (honey) ; ner hti (beer).
Jump, v.t. ... jun (to jump over an obstacle) ; jut (to jump lengthways).
Jungle, 11. ... ad ti ng ya. K
Keen (to be sharp), v. de ; we.
Keep, v.t. ... gdl.
Kerchief, n. ... hpachit.
Kettle, n. hti lim hta.
Key, n. ... tsaw. (Burmese thaw.)
Kick (forward), v.t. ... hi mer dahpat.
Kick (backward), v.t. ... ddcha.
Kid, n. ... dsit sel.
Kidneys, n. ... tare.
Kill, v.t. ... sat ; shat.
Kilt, 11. ... shdrim ; sdrim.
Kind (be), v. ... ddsha mer za e.
Kind (race), n. ... Jipdn.
Kindle, v. ... hwdrr ysi.
King, n. ... hkawhkam.
Kingdom, n. ... likawhkam rdga.
Kiss, n. ... sup. (R^wangs do not kiss ; the word really implies a sucking action).
Kite, n. ... htamer.
Kitten, n. Knead (as bread), v. ... mi sel.
... anai ; ahkin.
Knee, n. ... hpang hpit.
Kneel, v.i. ... hi dam zun mer rung.
Knife, n. ... sham kyeng ; ddzdrr hkong (big knife or dagger).
Knot, n. Knot (of hair), n. ... tsi (joint) ; ang ddhtim ; v.i., ddhtim.
... mdzung (top-knot of hair) ; mdzung zung shi (to tie the hair top-knot fashion).
Know, v i. ... sha.
Knuckle, n. ... ur tsi.

Full Text