William Dawes' notebooks on the Aboriginal language of Sydney (MS 41645 facsimile)

Material Information

William Dawes' notebooks on the Aboriginal language of Sydney (MS 41645 facsimile) a facsimile version of the notebooks from 1790-1791 on the Sydney language written by William Dawes and others
Dawes, William, 1762-1836
Rayner, Susannah ( Editor )
Brown, Stuart ( Editor )
Nathan, David ( Project coordinator )
Place of Publication:
SOAS, University of London
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
Facsimile edition
Physical Description:
80 pages ; 30 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Dharug language -- Glossaries, vocabularies, etc.
Dawes, William, 1762-1836
Aboriginal Australians -- Languages
Spatial Coverage:
Australia -- Australia -- New South Wales -- Sydney -- Sydney basin
-33.948056 x 150.76


General Note:
Cover title
General Note:
Consists of reproduction of original manuscript pages above transcription in edited regularised form

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, Univerity of London
Holding Location:
|Archives and Special Collections
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
501073134 ( OCLC )
9780728603905 ( ISBN )
072860390X ( ISBN )


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William Dawes' Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney, 1790-1791

William Dawes' Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney, 1790-1791
A facsimile version of the notebooks on the language of Sydney written by William Dawes and others, held at the Library Special Collections, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
Project/editors: David Nathan, Susannah Rayner and Stuart Brown Co-ordinator: David Nathan Book design: Tom Castle
Published by the Hans Rausing Endangered Language Project and SOAS Libraiy Special Collections,
School of Oriental and African Studies, Russell SQuare WC1H OXG, London and
Published in conjunction with the Darug Tribal Aboriginal Corporation
PO Box 441 Blacktown NSW 2148
Project website:
SOAS 2009
No part of this publication may be copied, reproduced, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, photocopying photographic, or any other) in whole or in any part without prior written permission of the copyright owner and the publishers.
First published by SOAS 2009
ISBN 978 0 7286 0390 5
Printed by the Darug Tribal Aboriginal Corporation, Sydney, Australia Funding assistance from
Endangered Languages Archive,
Hans Rausing Endangered Languages Project
University of London
School of Oriental and African Studies
Aboriginal Affairs, NSW

Acknowledgements ii
About this book iii
How to use this book iii
The Dawes notebooks v
William Dawes vi
Patyegarang vii
The language of Sydney viii
References, and contacts ix
Notebook A 1
Notebook B 25
Notebook C 49

William Dawes
This book is presented as a homage to the Sydney Aboriginal peoples knowledge, culture, and land in 1788-1791 and still veiy much alive today. It is also presented in tribute to William Dawes skills and humanity.
Project staff:
Project co-ordinator David Nathan
Joint co-ordinator Susannah Rayner
Corpus design, transcription, markup Stuart Brown
Photographer Christy Henshaw
Book design Tom Castle
Proofing Jeremy Steele, David Seton
Web design Nancia Guivarra
Additional research Michael Franjieh
The project co-ordinators would like to extend their thanks to the following people for their expressions of support and contributions of various kinds that made this book and its companion website possible:
Prue Adams Allen Madden
Chris Burke David Nash
Paul Caine Susan Page
Gayle Caldwell Nikki Parsons-Gardner
Cathy Eatock Mari Rhydwen
Kristina Everett Anthony Seiver
Richard Green David Seton
Nancia Guivarra Rosemary Seton
Christie Henshaw Michael Sillelidis
Paul Hodge Jeremy Steele
Raymond Ingrey Jacinta Tobin
Jim Kohen Jaky Troy
Cat Kutay Michael Walsh
Sandra Lee Aunty Edna Watson
Teriy Lee Gail Whiteford
The co-ordinators gratefully acknowledge funding, equipment and printing support received from:
Aboriginal Affairs, NSW
Hans Rausing Endangered Languages Project, SOAS Darug Tribal Aboriginal Corporation SOAS Multimedia Board

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
By David Nathan About this book
The notebooks of William Dawes, written from 1790 to 1791, contain his detailed and thoughtful description of the Indigenous language spoken in Sydney. This language was the first of Australias 250 Indigenous languages to be learnt by English colonisers, and the notebooks are one of Australias oldest written sources documenting Aboriginal people, life and culture.
This book is one of the results of a project conducted at the Endangered Languages Archive at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London (SOAS). The projects aims were to digitise the Dawes notebooks and make them available both on the World Wide Web and in printed form.
The Dawes notebooks are held in SOAS Library's Special Collections. Their content is of great significance to the Sydney Aboriginal communities, other NSW and Australian Aboriginal communities, and to linguists and historians. Recent popular publications and broadcasts have also attracted general public interest in the people who animate the notebooks, in particular William Dawes their principal author, and his friend Patyegarang Dawes main language teacher.
The Aboriginal languages spoken in the area of the Sydney Basin were destroyed so rapidly and comprehensively under colonisation that Dawes work remains the single most important source of written information about them. Little further information was collected, such that the best resources on the languages today (as well as the growing language revitalisation activities in the Aboriginal communities of the area) remain based on Dawes writings. However, until now, Dawes notebooks were only accessible in Australia through the interpretations of other writers or by viewing microfilm versions held at the Mitchell Library and the National Library of Australia.
The notebooks contain many words in the language of Sydney, which is today commonly known as Dharuk. They also contain many human stories, as Jones (2008:46) describes:
Dawes recorded his informal, even intimate, conversations with a number of Aboriginal people, not only with the young woman Patyegarang, but also with Aboriginal men such as Bennelong ...
This book began its life as a website and is intended to be used in conjunction with the site:
The site contains more transcriptions in greater detail, colour images of the pages, and further information about the Dharuk language and about Dawes life before, during and after his time in Sydney.
How to use this book
The purpose of this book is to reproduce the Dawes notebooks and to make their content more accessible through a new set of detailed transcriptions created especially for this project.
As shown in the diagram Organisation of the pages, the top section of each page contains the images of the notebook pages. This book reflects the true form of the

William Dawes
notebooks, so notebook pages with text written upside-down also appear upside-down here. Blank pages are also represented and numbered because they can be significant; for example in Book C the blank pages may delineate different hands or different times of writing. Where only one blank page occurs, we show it (as a placeholder if there is no image) with a caption This page is blank in the manuscript. For sequences of several blank pages, we show one or two blank pages with a caption x pages are blank in the manuscript (where x is the number of blank pages). This allows us to provide a complete representation of the notebooks.
The notebooks have been photographed page by page in order to achieve high image Quality; they have been reassembled here into their spreads i.e. the left and right pairs that one sees when opening a book. The physical notebook pages are about 16cm in height and are reproduced here at about 90% of their original size. For a closer look at the pages, refer to the project website http://www.williamdawes. org, which has higher resolution, colour versions of the page images.
The project has created two types of transcriptions: a literal or unregularised one, and an edited, or regularised one. This book provides only the regularised one, which we felt would be more useful for general readers, language learners, and those simply browsing and not concerned with the details of Dawes amendments, crossings-out and other artefacts of hand-writing. The regularised transcription also includes an editorial aspect some spellings have been corrected, abbreviations expanded, parts which are missing but understood have been inserted, and irrelevant details of physical layout have been suppressed. Text has been coloured to show where it results from regularisation; see the colour key diagram.
The unregularised transcriptions are available at the project website http://www.
Care should be taken in interpretating Dawes spelling and punctuation. He used several conventions that are not fully understood, and he changed his methods during the course of writing the notebooks. For further information, see Troy (1994), and Steele (2005) pages 63-94 (which can be downloaded from the project website).
Organisation of the pages
Reproduction of original manuscript
Transcription, in edited regularised form
Page numbering
Transcription Colour Key
Dawess text
Text that has been regularised, inserted or expanded
Text which is unclear in the original

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
The Dawes notebooks
Soon after Dawes left Australia in 1791 his notebooks came into the possession of the Orientalist and linguist William Marsden (1754-1836).1 Marsden eventually presented his library, including the notebooks, to Kings College London in 1835. Part of the manuscript collection, including these notebooks, was then transferred from Kings College to the newly-opened School of Oriental and African Studies in 1916.
The significance of the Dawes notebooks was only recognised in 1972, when they were listed by Phyllis Mander-Jones in Manuscripts in the British Isles relating to Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific, and thus came to the attention of Australian linguists. Since then they have continued to attract the interest of linguists, historians, and Aboriginal community members. Recent popular interest in Australias Indigenous and colonial history has attracted mainstream attention to Dawes and his notebooks; they featured in the SBS documentary First Australians (first broadcast in 2008), and Dawes and Patyegarang are fictionalised as the main characters Rooke and Tagaran in Kate Grenvilles historical novel The Lieutenant.
The notebooks are part of the Library Special Collections at SOAS and are catalogued as Manuscript 41645 parts (a), (b), and (c), although they are in the physical form of just two notebooks. William Dawes wrote manuscripts (a) and (b) and they contain words, translations, snippets of conversations, descriptions and explanations of expressions and situations, and some sketchy maps. Prominently figuring in these manuscripts is a young woman, Patyegarang (often Dawes calls her Patye).
The third catalogued manuscript (c) was probably not written by Dawes, and is attributed to Anonymous. Jakelin Troy explains its sources:
Manuscript c seems to have been the work of several authors as it is written in at least three different hands including both rough and fair scripts. [At the time] it was common for literate people to have a rough hand for rapid notetaking and composing and a fair or careful hand for final copy. One of the hands in the manuscript is exactly the same as Governor Arthur Phillips rough hand [as found in] many surviving manuscripts ... [Other] evidence ... suggests that two other officers, David Collins and John Hunter, also contributed to the manuscript... [So] it is veiy likely that [it] was composed by Phillip, Collins and Hunter (Troy 1994:5)
Although in good condition, the original manuscripts are vulnerable to damage, particularly the entries and drawings made in pencil. A microfiche copy created as part of the Australian Joint Copying Project ( ajcp.html) is available in the Mitchell Library, Sydney. The National Library of Australia holds a microfilm master ( A set of archival resolution digital images, resulting from the present project, is held at the Endangered Languages Archive at SOAS. This book and its companion website ( now provide general access to the content of the notebooks.
1 Not to be confused with the infamous Reverend Samuel Marsden.

William Dawes
William Dawes
From todays perspectives, William Dawes (1762-1836) was a pioneer. He was the first to make extensive written records of any Australian language, and the first to do so using an orthography which indicates he had some level of training (Attenbrow 2006). Unlike others who collected simple wordlists for newly encountered items like weapons and animals, Dawes recorded conversational snippets that tell of the cultural and social contexts, personalities, and the actions and the feelings of the people he interacted with.
Dawes was a member of the 1791 expedition party to the Hawkesbury River which came to understand for the first time amongst Europeans that the languages and cultures of Aboriginal people differed in each area (Wilkins and Nash 2008). Previously, the colonists had assumed that words collected earlier in north Queensland would also be used by the peoples of Sydney and indeed throughout the continent (see Troy 1994 for further information).
Dawes was the first European to be recorded as defending Aboriginal rights. His refusal to join a punitive expedition against Aborigines ordered by Governor Phillip in 1790 was most likely the first example of a European act of conscience in defence of Aboriginal interests (Jones 2008:342).
At Sydney Cove, Dawes acquired a reputation as the most educated, conscientious and gentlemanly of the colonists a reputation which stayed with him after he left Sydney. Later, he became involved in the international campaign to abolish slavery; its leader, William Wilberforce, wrote of Dawes in 1794: I dont believe there is in the world a more solid, honest, indefatigable man, more full of resources and common sense.
Map of Sydney, by William Dawes, 1791

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Prior to arriving in Sydney, Dawes, an Englishman and Lieutenant in the Royal Marines, had become a recognised astronomer and was recommended by the Astronomer Royal to join the First Fleet to New South Wales. Dawes was to make astronomical observations during the voyage and, on arrival, to set up the first observatory of the new colony in order to monitor a comet that was expected to appear in the southern hemisphere in 1788. Once in Sydney, Dawes built his observatory in a hut on what is now known as Dawes Point, under the south pylon of the Sydney Harbour Bridge, and made many observations, although the comet itself never appeared.
Dawes made many contributions to the astronomy, meteorology, surveying and mapping of the Sydney colony, but none surpassed his uniQue and enduring documentation of the language of Sydney and its people.
Patyegarang, a young woman aged about 15, appears to have been Dawes main language teacher and was vital to Dawes understanding and documentation of the language of Sydney.
In the colonys early days, Governor Phillip had several Aboriginal people captured in a largely fruitless attempt to learn their language and foster communication between the Aborigines and colonists. Dawes would have started to learn the language from captured men such as Arabanoo and Bennelong. Most Aboriginal people were afraid to enter the colonys main encampment at Sydney Cove. Eventually, many people, both Aboriginal and English, came to regard Dawes small, relatively isolated hut as a safe and welcoming place to share friendships and knowledge. It was here that Dawes was able to spend time with and learn from many different people.
The notebooks record Patyegarangs freouent visits to Dawes hut and their increasingly complex and intimate conversations. Words and expressions she shared with Dawes, such as Putuwa, suggest a warm and trusting relationship:2
Putuwa. To warm ones hand by the fire & then to squeeze gently the fingers of another person (Book B Page 21)
Evenings saw them together in Dawes hut, speaking together in her language:
Tariadyaou. I made a mistake in speaking. This Patye said after she had desired me to take away the blanket when she meant the candle (Book B Page 30)
Patyegarang: Nyimutj candle Mr. D. Put out the candle Mr. D. (Book B Page 34)
Dawes: Minyin bial natjadyimi? Why dont you sleep?
Patyegarang: Kandulin. Because of the candle. (Book B Page 36)
The notebooks clearly show that Dawes and Patyegarang spent time in each others company and shared emotion, humour, intellectual depth and mutual respect.
2 These examples are adapted for clarity: see the notebook pages for the original.

William Dawes
The language of Sydney
The language documented by William Dawes has frequently been called The Sydney Language, following Jakelin Troy (1994). It is also widely known as Dharuk (and other variant spellings of this name, such as Darug). The Aboriginal people encountered by Dawes used Eeora to describe themselves (see Book B, page 6), but this was a term for referring to themselves as people, not the name of their language.3
Dharuk probably had (at least) two dialectal variants, one spoken at the coast and another spoken inland. Other, different languages were spoken further afield (as were discovered by the 1791 expedition mentioned above). Today, Aboriginal communities in the area provide more comprehensive descriptions of the various clans and their areas (see, for example, and the Wikipedia entry for Darug).
Dharuk is the source of many words borrowed into Australian English and several other languages. Examples which occur in the notebooks, with spellings in todays Dharuk (courtesy of Richard Green), include:
English Today's Dharuk Meaning Notebook Reference
boobook bubuk owl Book B Page 3
cooee guwawi call of location Book B Page 15
corroborcc garriberri dancing event Book C Page 8
dingo dingu dog Book C Page 16
woomera wumara spear thrower Book B Page 22
waratah warada type of flower; now emblem of NSW Book C Page 20
This book is not intended as a complete reference to the language of Sydney, or as a self-contained learning resource. Those wishing to find out more about the language, or to learn it, are recommended to consult a teacher of the language, some of the references below, or the project website
3 The language has sometimes been called Eora. Recently, the name Biyal Biyal has been suggested (Steele 2005).

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
References and contacts
Attenbrow, Val. 2006. Aboriginal placenames in Sydney Harbour, New South Wales, Australia a dual naming Project. Paper Presented at the Forum UNESCO University and Heritage 10th International Seminar Cultural Landscapes in the 21st Century Newcastle upon Tyne, April 2005 [Online at]
Dawes, William. 1790-179 la. Grammatical forms of the language ofN.S. Wales, in the neighbourhood of Sydney, by Dawes, in the year 1790. Manuscript in Library of School of Oriental & African Studies, London. Marsden Collection Ms 41645(a). [also: Microfilm in Mitchell Library of State Library of NSW, Ref. LM4/3431, Reel 5, frames 771-794]
Dawes, William. 1790-179 lb. Vocabulary of the language of N.S. Wales, in the neighbourhood of Sydney (Native and English) by Dawes. Manuscript in Library of School of Oriental and African Studies, London. Marsden Collection, Ms 41645(b). [also: Microfilm in Mitchell Library of State Library of NSW, Ref. LM4/3431, Reel 5, frames 795-817]
Dawes, William. 1790-1791c. Vocabulary of the language of N.S.Wales, in the neighbourhood of Sydney. (Native and English, but not alphabetical). Manuscript in Library of School of Oriental and African Studies, London. Marsden Collection, Ms 41645(c). [also: Microfilm in Mitchell Library of State Library of NSW. Ref. LM4/3432, Reel 6, frames 342-66]
Grenville, Kate. 2008. The Lieutenant. Melbourne: The Text Publishing Company
Jones, Philip. 2008. Ochre and Rust. Adelaide: Wakefield Press
Mander-Jones, Phyllis. 1966. Dawes, William (1762 1836), in Australian
Dictionary of Biography, Volume 1, Melbourne University Press, pp 297-298. [Online at]
Steele, Jeremy. 2005. The Aboriginal language of Sydney: a partial reconstruction of the indigenous language of Sydney based on the notebooks of William Dawes of 1790-91, informed by other records of the Sydney and surrounding languages to c.1905. MA thesis. [Online at vital/access/manager/Repository/mo^231 ]
Troy, Jakelin. 1992. The Sydney language notebooks and responses to language contact in colonial NSW, Australian Journal of Linguistics, 12, pp. 145-170.
Troy, Jakelin. 1994. The Sydney Language. Canberra, Jakelin Troy.
Wilkins, David and David Nash. 2008. The European discovery of a multilingual Australia: the linguistic and ethnographic successes of a failed expedition, pp. 485-507, Chapter 18, in The history of research on Australian Aboriginal languages, edited by William McGregor. Pacific Linguistics 591.
Project website:
Hans Rausing Endangered Languages Project:
SOAS Library Special Collections:
The Endangered Languages Archive:
Darug Tribal Aboriginal Corporation:
This first edition may contain mistakes of various kinds and the editors will be grateful to be informed of any errors or omissions. Please contact David Nathan at

William Dawes

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Marsden Collection 41645a.
Grammatical forms of the language of N.S.Wales, in the neighbourhood of Sydney, by Dawes, in the year 1790.
MS 41645 A & B Inside Front Cover
Book A Front Cover

William Dawes
Naa To see or look
Ngia Ni (as nigh) I see or look Thou etc. He We Ye They Past
Naadjou- I did see or have seen etc.
Naadiemi- Thou didst see or hast seen
Naadiaga- He did see or has seen
Naadiagun We did see or have seen Ye They Future
Naabaou I shall or will see etc.
Naabami Thou shall or will see He
Naabangoon We shall or will see Ye They Imperative
Naala See thou
Book A Page 1
Book A Page 2

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney

Naa To see or look Present
Ngia Ni (as nigh) I see or look Thou He We Ye They
Naadjou- I did see or look, or have seen etc.
Naadiemi- Thou didst see or look or hast seen
Naadiarga He did see or look or has seen We Ye
NaadiouT They did see or look or have seen
Naabaou- I will see or look
NaabamT. Thou will see or look
Naababan He will see or look
Naabangoon We will see or look
NaabanTe Ye will see or look
NaabaouT They will see or look
Imperative Mood
Naala. See thou (or see! see! look!)
Other inflections of the same verb, the English of which is not yet certain, with some authorities for what is marked certain etc.
Naadiemi Thou hast seen, and
the same word spoken in a different tone I think signifies Hast thou seen?
rWhetherthis be not the same Naabanoo{ , , T,
word with Nabangoon? No. The
occasion on which it was used implied that it signified I have not seen him
Naabangoon We will see, or shall
Booroong we see Booroong?
These words were spoken to me by YTrTnibT, Booroongs Brother and he was evidently anxious in enquiring after Booroong. I have altered the English signification from the top of the page in consequence of discovering the 1^1 person plural of the future in the verbs WTda & Pata which see.
Book A Page 3
Book A Page 4

William Dawes
:Yenoo (or YenToo) :Yenio6mT:
To go or walk Present
I go or walk Thou goest or walkst He goes or walks We go or walk Ye
They go or walk
I did go or walk, or have gone etc. Thou etc.
I will go or walk Thou wilt go or walk He will go or walk We will go or walk Ye will go or walk They will go or walk Imperative Mood
Walk or go thou
Other inflections etc.
Yenma (1) Go thou
Yenmangoon Yenoo oryenToo
Yenidiemi Thou didst go or have been
Yenou Thou goest, or art going or
Goest thou?
Yena He goes or is going
(1) Yenma is I think a contraction of YenmamT and then it signifies, Thou shalt or wilt go, or Wilt thou go?
Yenmaban He or they will go
:YenTla: They go or walk
This last word is confirmed to signify as above, by the word Maanila which I heard Anganangan make use of signifying They take or catch (fish)____________________________
Yenma Walk or go thou
Yenma1 kaoui2 Walk1 come2, or in plain
English come here or walk this way. Said by Booroong on 1790 to Koorooda
YenmoonT Not go
Book A Page 5
Book A Page 6

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Other Inflections etc.
19th November 1790. Booroong & NanbarrT talking together and she observing his hair to be wet
Ba. Bogidiemi Bogi? Have you bathed or been bathing?
N. Bogidiou I did bath or have
been bathing
And I think Bogidiemee spoken in another tone signifies Thou didst bathe or hast been bathing
NanbarrT to Booroong 25 November 1790 BogTITebaou
Answer. Wauna Wauna Bog!boon!
(sometimes BogTITeboonT)
Nanbarri to me BogTITebangoon1 mullnaoul2 ngallTa3 ngTenT4. Shall we bathe1 tomorrow2 with me3 you4. Note the syllable lie does not appear to be of any determinate signification as
BogTITebaban or Will you two bathe, BogTbaban 0r You two will bathe
Bogi To bathe or swim Present
I bathe or swim Thou etc.
Bogidiou- I did bathe, or have been bathing
-Bogidiemi- Thou didst bathe, or hast been bathing
He We Ye They Future
I shall or will bathe
Book A Page 7
Book A Page 8

William Dawes


/JY\s ! j $T~ e^Ts*^c* ^iva ^)a>l^c^yr-r^0^ & 'frets fy^ tiL/t'Jfrv* '79*
c7&0st7<^ 0~i*sy^ ouf &--*/.
v C4S-ff~79-x? ***
I'*-OJC-iXst*-^0L' ftyuytsO' ^xJL> CKs
4^o-o-/^>t^y ^-^ouv^^acsfTteb tAJ-c*-e~' ^cTTtystsref ^ ^lL 'J < jfev T /7f 0 6*sv-Tt) uJ-txjxt -^e/ '~L*~' -
fc**o£eS} d-0 ua^sCT/ C#yi^e*ryy^c7 AC f-
^>saa JLZ&oxjt^j
$ yt~& Q&xdr'l- id-
tUns~4^£/) ^syiur Jv&r4-. farJluTj j
To cover Present
I cover Thou He We Ye They Past
I did cover, or have covered Thou He We Ye They Future
I shall or will cover Thou He We Ye They Imperative
Cover thou
Other inflections etc.
Boobanga1 Cover thou1 my sore2
Or in plain English, Put a plaster to my sore. This Baluderri said to me on the 15tti November 1790 & was clearly explained by his own gestures as well as positively in words by Nanbarri.
Boobanga. Cover thou (me with
a blanket)
which Booroong & Nanbarree were playing with on the 19tti November 1790 & this word was so often repeated and so well confirmed by correspondent actions & gestures that I have no doubt of it.
Boobangi He did cover, or
covered (the particle passive)
Book A Page 9
Book A Page 10

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
yji. o.
'A v_

% fcoCC

trr Jioa^

T c/^-uorty
C^iyC' 'Xy^snytS^TItsyi^O & j^&stye^y

' n A
, %
Urt/C£/ ^TXsX/
Yinibaou or Yinibo YTnTba
To fall Other inflections etc.
Present BTalgangi yTnTboonT No. I shall not fall down
| fall BTal yTnTbanoo The same No. I shall not fall down
Thou He We Ye They Past
I did fall, or have fallen Thou He We Ye They Future
I shall or will fall
He shall or will fall
Book A Page 11
Book A Page 12

William Dawes
To sit Present
I sit Thou He We Ye They Past
I did sit, or have sat Thou He We Ye They Future
I shall or will sit Thou He We Ye They Imperative Sit thou
Ngal aw audungoon
Book A Page 13
Book A Page 14

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Nanga To sleep Present
I sleep Thou He We Ye They Past
Nangadiou- I did sleep, or have slept
Nangadiemi- Thou didst sleep, or hast slept
He We Ye They Future
I shall or will sleep
Other Inflections etc.
She did sleep A dream
Book A Page 15
Book A Page 16

William Dawes
To paddle or row Present
I paddle Thou He We Ye They Past
I did paddle, or have paddled Thou He We Ye They Future
I shall or will paddle Thou shalt or wilt paddle He shall or will paddle We shall or will paddle Ye shall or will paddle They shall or will paddle
Other inflections etc.
Bangadara or Bangadaraba
I think a future of some other person.
Bangadarabaou (1st singular)
BangadarabamT (2nd singular)
Bangadarabangoon (1st plural)
BangadarabanTe (2nd plural)
Bangadarababan (3rd singular)
BangadarabaouT (3rd plural) dara in the same word when I think they could not refer to that place. It seems to me to be peculiary used when it is spoken as of rowing to a certain place to bring another back with you. But this is mere conjecture.
3rd Person singular or plural future tense
Speaking of Booroong. We think it relates to bringing Booroong to Dara. In which case it appears that they put words sometimes between the root and the termination. They were not speaking of Dara, for since I have heard them repeat
Book A Page 17
Book A Page 18

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Wfda To drink
1 drink
Widadiui They drink Past
Widadiou- I did drink, or have drank Thou He We Ye They
Widabaou- I shall drink
Widabami Thou shalt drink He
Widabangoon- We shall drink Ye They
Other inflections etc.
Widabangoon We shall or will drink
This was said by Benelong on the 234 November 1790 immediately after what is mentioned in the next leaf in the manner following
Widabangoon tea tsugar We shall drink tea and sugar Widaliebaban Ye will drink
Book A Page 19
Book A Page 20

William Dawes
^ Pata To eat
Patadjiu I eat
Patadjiumi Thou eatest
Patadiou- I did eat
Patadiemi- Thou didst eat
-Patadiaband- He did eat
:Patadiaban: They did eat
-Patabaou- I shall or will eat
Patabami Thou shalt or wilt eat
Patababan: He shall or will eat
Patabangoon- We shall or will eat
: Pata bam e: Ye shall or will eat
Patabaou i- They shall or will eat
/Other inflections etc.
Patabangoon We shall or will eat
Bye & bye Patabangoon Bye & bye We Dawes and
Dawes, Benelong Benelong shall eat
This was said by Benelong a little before dinner on 23rd November 1790
PatalTeba He will eat
Benelong a little after the above, having observed that I ate nothing & being told by me that I was going on board the Supply repeated what I said to him, to his wife and added PatalTeba or He will eat signifying that I was going on board to dinner. The syllable ITe may probably signify there and then the English will be, He will eat there otherwise it is an irregularity in the conjugation.
PataboonT Not eat (as)
BTal PataboonT. No, I have not eaten
NB. this was said to me by Kolby 21st December 1790
Book A Page 21
Book A Page 22

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney

This page is blank
To yawn Present I yawn Thou He We Ye They Past I
Book A Page 23
Book A Page 24

William Dawes
Kotbara To cut
I cut Thou He We Ye They Past I did cut Thou didst cut He We Ye They Future I will cut Thou
Kotbarabang He will cut
KotbarararabamT nga Kotbanaraung
Kotbarabang He will cut. This was
said to Berangaroo when she was laughing & playing with Benelong, while I was shaving him
Book A Page 25
Book A Page 26

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Wellama To return or come back
1 return
1 did return
Wellamabaou I shall or will return
Wellamabam! Thou shalt or wilt return
Wellamaba He shall or will return
Wellamabangoon We shall or will return
Book A Page 27 Book A Page 28 15

William Dawes
Book A Page 29
Book A Page 30

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
fHb-r tye-.

Bunga To make
I make Thou He We Ye They Past
I did make Thou He We Ye They Fulure I will make Thou He We Ye They
Book A Page 31
Other inflections etc.
Will you make? Made
Book A Page32

William Dawes
Ydrrsba To weary oneself Present
I weary myself Thou He We Ye They Past
Yarrsbadiou- I did weary or have wearied
myself Thou He We Ye They Future
Other inflections etc.
Yarsbaboom I am not tired
Book A Page 33
Book A Page 34

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Other inflections etc.
Wfngara or Wfn-ngara To think Win-ngari
Present Win-ngare
I think Thou He We Ye They Past
Wingaradiou I did think or was thinking
WingaradTemT Thou didst think or wast thinking
He We Ye They Future
I Shall or will think
I have thought Thou hast thought
Book A Page 35
Book A Page 36

William Dawes
They did
Book A Page 37
Book A Page 38

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
NGara To hear NgaraboonT
Present 1 BTalgangT NgaraboonT
Thou He We Ye They Past :NgaradTe:
Ngaradiou I did hear
NgaradTemT Thou didst hear He We Ye They Future
I do not, or did not hear I do not, or did not hear (more forcibly)
She does or did hear
Book A Page 39
Book A Page 40

William Dawes
4T I.r jdD Z*

fi-CC4f ^>K*- '
J&,W* ^*3 £y ^4 6f>. - -
J*ke3 Ai14- cd^ Jie^^tt/Cccim/- u>~^, sLt,
ftj u* Jtd'S&rrJx <^-
Maan To take
They take Past
I did take Thou didst take He We Ye They Future
I will take Thou He We Ye They Imperative
Take thou
Book A Page 41
MaanTIa They take. This
Anganangan said to me when he saw some natives fishing. MaanTliedianga She did take or has
This was said by Wauriweeal the less, who when I asked her where her petticoat was; she answered MaanTliedianga Mrs Brooks that is Mrs Brooks has taken it.
Book A Page 42

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Ngia1 yenma2 (:wooroo3:) Yenmaou
Yenmanagoon wooroo Yenmaou1 mullnaoul2 naabaou3 eeora4.
To go or to walk I1 go2 (:away3:)
I will go
Will you go
I will go1 morning21
In plain English, I will go tomorrow morning to see people- (before spoken of)
Book A Page 44
Book A Page 43

William Dawes
Beeal1 Naaboony2 beeal3
Naadiou-Ngia1 Ny2-Naalang alia diee-
To see
No1 cannot see2 no3, or You cannot see (it)
I did see (it)
I1 do see2-
See (thou) see there, see (Properly Naala. See thou. Ngalla diee There or here it is) Naabaou- I will see-
Book A Page 45
Book A Inside of Back Cover

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Marsden Collection 41645b.
Vocabulary of the language of N.S.Wales in the neighbourhood of Sydney. (Native <& English), by Dawes.
Book A Back Cover
Book B Front Cover

William Dawes
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Letter Name Sound As in the
English words
a aw aw all call
a a a at am an
b be b
d de d
e e e ell empty
g gay g hard good gum
i ee ee In It III
i ai ai ] ivy ire
k ka k
1 el 1
m em m
n en n
n eng ng sing king
0 0 0 open over
P pe P
r er r
s es s
t te t
u 00 00 cool fool
u u un-under
The four winds North Wind Bowan
South Wind Gomema
East Wind Puruwi Karirjal
West Wind Binmari Tulugal
23rd August Berangaroo to me Benelang gulara gari Mr Dawes badyul
tdara, ngia tungi
tdara birur) potatoe Did these potatoes grow at tdara
On asking Benelar) when the tyibul tyibul would go away, he answered
Guago1 yurugawa2 Bye & bye1 when the warm weather comes2
Book B Page 1
Book B Page 2

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney

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: ^ ^cJolP Mr {* fa!

Banga To paddle or row
Branye Yesterday
Baou, bow, or bo The termination of the future
tense of verbs,
as, Ngia bangabaou I will paddle, or row.:
Bia To bite
Burgia (W.) A Boil
Boming (W.) The red bill (a bird)
Blowree or boola Two
Berang The Belly
Buya or Kurrabul (J.) The Back
Barrangal (J.) Skin
Bulbul (J.) Kidney
Barrin The clothing of young women
Bunnerung Blood
Beeanga or Beeangelly Father
Bogul (J.) A Mouse
Beeniang A Bird
Booroodoo A Louse
Boodooroo 0
Bokbok An owl
Bora A Testicle
Baamoro 6rass
Benelongi Benelong's
Beraboong L>ew
Boong Posteriors
:Bangl: Covered, or dressed as a sore
Belangallwoola At Belangaliwool
BTrong or MTror) Belonging
Bunga To make or do (faire fr.)
Book B Page 3
Beriwal England
Beriwalgo To England
Bial1 betuglgo2 I have no1 rock oysters2
Berang The back of a sword
Breado tunga She cries for bread
Tagaran1 Tuba2 Patyegaran4 Kanmagnal3 The names of Patyegarag
Balul (The watch) is stopped (literally dead)
Barua :Near to:
Burara Dry. Not Wet.
Bumlbuna (from bum a negative and baga ) rather from buga
to do or make To take off, as a coat or any other garment.
Minyin bumlbugadyimi Why do you take off your
jacket? jacket?
BurudTn from Burudu a flea or louse & In a sign of the ab lative case (Answer) To rid it of fleas.
:Burinmili: To put on (as a garment)
Buna or BUnama To speak falsely in jest or to make believe As
BUnamadyaou; bial I only made believe, I did not
wanyadyaou tell a lie
Buruwanyan nadyaou I saw from the ship
Buladyiri (from Bula two & didyirigUru enough) Two are enough
BUmUrUtbUga Open make (the door)
Bulago, Twice. WogUlgo, Once.
Book B - - Page 4

William Dawes

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Dtooney a Scorpion
Dtoora to pinch
Dani. Deeyin dani Mine. My wife
Deeyin Woman or wife
Diemi :The termination of the 2nd
person singular imperfect tense of verbs
Diee warra There, or that way
Dargallee (W.) To scratch
Duralia (W.) A kind of Heron or Bittern
Dtarrung The shoulder
Dteewara The hair
Didyl didyl Oh you hurt me
Diee ngalla diee Here (it etc) is, here
as Ngieenee dtooradiemi Thou pinchedst.
Dtooradiou I struck or did strike (as a
fish with a fishgig)
Domine wau At Domine's house
Daringal (C.C.) His
DamUng (C.C.) A Cap
BTrong (C.C.) Belonging
DtulT Something relative to thirst. I
am thirsty
DtanUr) A Wart
Dturaduralar) The bark to make fish lines
Danawagolar) For me (See Oyimwagola )
Dana To me (or) for me
Didyl mUrri It is very painful
Dyinoragar) Old woman
DtulibilUr) A maggot in meat
Book B Page 5
Berarjimurjadyarja Barinmi lyidyu
To throw, or throw thou. Men, or people There
My bellyaches.
I am putting on my barrin
Book B Page 6

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
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l**4*_c.£ v/'ifi- 't / ,P (/V, n yr */f ^r*rr < > ^<*-6*r-ixs t^WroCwri, L+t .
Question from me to Patyegarar) sometime Ghoolara1. Ghoolara murry2 Cross, or illnatured1. Very
after she had hurt her finger cross2.
Murra bidyul? Is your finger Garree (W) To cough
better? Gittee gittee (W) The armpit (or rather I think) to tickle
Answer Bfal, Karurjun No, (I suppose) Gnarra (W.) A knot or to tie
Gnammul (W.) A stone sinker to a line
Godgang A Pidgeon
Gniana To breathe
Gore gore More more
Guaugo Bye & bye, or stop
Gomul A degree of relationship
Garjat which has been burnt Bald (like Pundas head)
GinT. rather GinyT To crack between the nails, as a flea etc.
Gmidyaou I have (or did) crack between the nails
Gulbarjabaou I will hold it up
Gonarjulye desiring to wear one of Patyegararjs pettycoats: I told her it was too long for her; on which she said Gulbarjabaou which Patye explained as above. -Gwara burawa The wind is fallen.
Book B Page 7
Book B Page 8

William Dawes
Burug Kalgaliag. Kolbi hjardma+a.
Kurubarabula hjaragalidg. Karagarag Dturall To grow
hjaramd+a. Tdnug mulugalidg. Murubiin "ijjTi To Send away
Benelag. Wari wear Karagarag. Wurrgan Munaguri
Book B Page 9
Book B Page 10

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
A tx < / (df- Je
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Kara I
Karra ign
Karoo ma
Kali Kali
Kamaru or kamarua-
Mr Dawes budyerl karaga Kanl1 gwiuga2 Karugutbalaba
Kurinyi baou Kurara Kiba
Kuba bado {
Doctor. They call our surgeons by this name What do you say?
A Snood to a hook The head To cough
The nail of the finger Lame, or he limps The black bream The shell on the womara I kaadianed it (that is I put the shell on the womare)
To dig
I set it on fire The Day
The edge of a sword (literally back)
To pronounce (as Mr Dawes pronounces well) It is burnt1 in the fire2 It (or they) will break or be broken.
I believe signifies reddish hair or perhaps thick matted hair I will beat (gently)
To dip water with a small vessel and then pour it into a bottle.
Book B Page 11
Kalabidyaqa beturji bogidwara
Hard. Difficult to break The Stomach ache To swallow :To itch:
It was cut (bruised hurt) by an oyster (shell) in bathing
Kaouwarin breakfast Let us breakfast first.
Karagadyera. The block which one throws along the ground for the rest to throw at.
Kanno. A full stomach. I have ate or drank enough Minyin bial widadyemi? Why did you not drink Kannoyin. Because I have drank enough (or my stomach is full)
Yenmanye kaouwi kamarabu
The same day As
We will return the same day.
Glad. Or not angry.
It itches
Book B Page 12

William Dawes
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Murry Large. An augmentative in general.
Mullnaoul- Tomorrow: morning-
-Mulla- A man, or husband-
Maneea- To sharpen Or Sharpen thou-
Mee. Mee diee What? What's this?
Mee diee mee What's this, what?
Maana- Take (it etc.) up- (Booroong)
Maangi Taken, or married, that is, taken to wife.
Meeditwinyi It leaks or runs out
Meeeema or Maanorodiouinia :I don't understand you:
Mee kiara What's the name?
Mitieewaranga, Miteeanga or Miteea } Stop a little stop
Mee Murry- How many
Maan To take
Maanma wooroo (So & fetch it
:Morf: How long
Mi gam Why, what for
Mori. Yemu mori Back. I am going back
MTn or MTnyin Why, what for?
MutUg Full
Mari mi rag Lend it me, or trust me with it. Badyegarag wanted me to
give her some bread on a promise of bringing fish hooks
afterwards. Migam1 bottle2 What is in the1 bottle2
Book B Page 13
Ngang deea. or Ngang deea What is the name of this
kiara. Person or thing?
Ngairee To bring
Ngieenee1. Ngieeneengy2 You1 (2nd person singular) Yours2
Naa To see
Ngalawau To sit down Or Sit thou
Ngalai yena :Will you go with me?:
Naabaou I will see
Nangara biidiemi She is asleep Rather You beat her while she was asleep.
Nowalbangi boobangi Relative to dressing wounds
Naanoongi His or Hers
Ng IITa An ally or friend in battle
Ngan ngTenT kiara What is your name?
Ngan dTT ngan ngTenT kiara What is your name?
Naragaign A degree of relationship
Diri waribaou I will carry it away with me
DarawUn A great way off.
Dwiaga1 tali2 Will you give me1 this2
Dabi walan It is going to rain
Naminma Let me see, or show it me.
Dana wUrri diana Who did it.
Dwiaga1 yurupata2 bread3 Sive me1 bread31 am very hungry2.
Dalaml Caught by the elbow by a latch or such matter.
Dan mulla bowUri Who was with him
NagarUg Snot
Book B - Page 14

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
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Parribugo Tomorrow
Kaouwl Kaouwl gabi bena gala moru Parrbuggy I have lost it
Callinq to come Pyomee A tune
Dan widalyi teara wura wura Who was that drinking tea Pyeetiatee Talk
with you? Pana (see wolan) Rain
Dan wura wura widalyi branyi The same more particularly Piyi Or tiati To speak
nyinigi teara Pierabuni Burnt
Dymiwagolag For you. As Dia bugabaou buk Paratbunga Open the door (literally, open
gyiniwagolag. I will make a make)
book for you PograbanTe Broken to pieces, as a ship or
Nagagolag To go to sleep. This boat on rocks
Badyegarag said when the Pograbaala Broken to pieces as china
taptoo beat ware etc.
Dara To hear or think or listen Purutbeni Empty
Go Go Go Yagu (contraction Stop, stop, stop (don't tell Pulwurra baou To stare or look steadfastly
of yaguna) garabaou me) I shall think of it directly Parabiaga Very early in the morning.
Nammmabadanami You will show me Before sunrise
Dyinadyimiga You stand between me A the Porbuga Awake. Or to awake
fire. Paouwa A shadow
Dolonadyemiga You did stop my way. PTnmilyi To cool one's self
Nakanye The hiccough Patyegarag after telling me she was very warm said
Datu mina wida mdni Make haste, drink it up quick PTnmilyibaou panawa I w ill cool myself in the rain. NB It
Dyinu Thou alone then rained quite fast.
Dwiaga or Dwiawaraga (Sive me Paouwagadyimiga You shade me (from the sun)
Nadyagalami? Did you see us? Punnul The sunshine
Diyu I alone Pyella, Crooked. Tugarug, Straight
Piabami Kolbinyi? Will you tell Kolbi
Purawa Above, upstairs, etc.
Book B - Page 15 Book B - Page 16

William Dawes
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Mutirjun DTriba or Mutir) Diribarjun Muramadyemi Matirjarabarjun narjaba Mi rjyini Poulden?
Manwaridyaou Minyin miwana? Mulagatur)
We will carry a fishgig (with us)
iThou didst let fall:
:We shall sleep separately: What relation are you to Poulden?
What's the matter with you To find (literally take abroad) I found or did find Why won't you have it?
A body louse
Mi mi ga. MTm bowanara mi What are you looking for 9a what.
I have lost a fish hook
Bera parsbugi
Mi mi waranara Manuru. Manuri Mulali
Patyegarang Bubilyidyaou
Dawes Minyin?
Patyegarang Mulalidwarin
What are you looking for.
To forget. Forgot Sick
I covered (myself) with a
Because I was sick.
To blow the nose Lent.
Soft. Easy for a child to eat
as soft bread, boiled carrot etc.
MurTr). The stick which the children throw at the block which another trolls along the ground Miami legolar)
Merana To be first. Wellarja To follow or be
Book B Page 17
Meranadyemi Meranl
Sand, Dust, or dry Earth To shut a clasp knife To open it a clasp knife I swallowed with difficulty You (drank tea once) before
This was said to me by Patyegarang when I was drinking tea
the second time to please them
Mikoarsbi His foot slipped.
MUnye To start, as frightened
MUnyemalyidyaou I started.
Munyemugadyemina You made me start
Mapiadyimi You speak an unknown language
Kanamaral kariadyemi. Bial Darabumwima. Kanamar Imi kariyi Munnu Another name for fleas or lice
Mekoarsmadyemiga You winked at me
Malug, Dark. Malumin, On account of Darkness MureUg Cold, or cool, pleasantly so.
Book B Page 18

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
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Tabonga (W) Tieeringang Taa boorool boorool Taamooly Tieeringaleema T amara Taabanga T siati
Tete Tetebaou T etetetetetetete TTIbarja
To yawn:
To sneeze To gape
To change names To yawn
To wipe the hands To yawn To talk
I refused you (something) Good, as to eat.
To tie, or tie thou To go away Go Go Go make haste To tear (as paper)
:I shall not become white:
This was said by Patyegarar) after I had told her, if she would wash herself often, she would become white at the same time throwing down the towel as in despair.
T lenmile
Dyela tienmile rjyela Tamuna
as Bread tamunadyaou TyererabUrja Tyuraga Tyirah Guri^
Tyargalye Tyelkala
Toana. To court. To make love to. :Tyerun: To run away
To play
Come to play come Gone. Expended. Used up I have ate up the bread To undress To spit
Shoal water Deep water To scratch To embrace. To hug
Book B Page 19
Degrees of Relationship
Biana Father
Wiana Mother
Pokariata woman Kamata man
Babana Brother
DtirCimin Sister
Makur). Sweetheart or Lover ::
Makungali Husband. Wife
Kowalgar) man Kowalgaliar) Elder brother.Elder sister.
Daramata. Daragaliar) Younger Younger brother. sister
Tima To squeeze (as water out of a spunge)
Tamunalar) A Churl. One who refuses to give
Tilbanyebuni The bell did not ring, or has not rung
Tarrsbi or Tyarrsbi expression for Short. Short. Tumuru is another
Tyarrsbabaouima I will throw it (water) over you
Talkal A Mussel
Tarimi, A long time. Tarimiba or Tarimibaou, I will
a long time As Tarimiba inyam rjalawaba, I will live (or stay)
here a long time
Book B - Page 20

William Dawes
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Warim Warimbur]i WidagolaQ?
Wadi3 wa2 q a la wady u1
to Daara
Where have you been :Why did you do it:
Is it for drinking I sit1 on2 a (block of) wood3
Waruga1 piaba2 warupa1 When1 will2 domine3 (that is domine3 buk4 WU. Johnson) read2 in the
This question was by my desire repeated several times by Badyegarap & mostly without waruga the second time.
Wura wura
Mr. Dawes1 ptala2wura wura3 Captain Campbell Captain Ball wellamaba Paramatin rjfrigal
Just now or some little time back
A/U. Dawes1 spoke2 just now3 to Captain Campbell Captain Ball will return from Parramatta bye dt bye (some littletime hence)
Stop stop!1 Hear2 me3 pray4
Datu1 para2 r]ia3 gT4 Putuwa To warm ones hand by the fire dt then to squeeze gently the fingers of another person
Putuwidyapa wiapata putuwi My mother scorched my fingers (that I should not steal)
This I got very particularly from Badyegaraq. 19th September 1791 See 3 page forward. *
Wauloomy. Booroody Wogul1 worree2 ngweea3 Waunanga
Waura Rascal from Nanbarry Waulomi (contraction of Waulomyen)
Answer BTal
NgTenT waunla
Waunabaou1 pilbooni2 (perhaps contraction of piallabooni)
a child (female large)
He (third person singular) :On this side (the water):
Put it downhere The lip The chin
To run as an animal. To fly as
a spear or bird. Also the
throwing stick
Worse. Better
Cive me3 one1 more2
Don't ye
Where are you going?
A Lie, or falsehood You lie You did lie Would you not?
More if you please The Mackerel.
Where have you been I will noHnot talk2 Note a
double negative.
Where have you been The bone point of a spear
Book B Page 22
Book B Page 21

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney

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Yagoona Today, or now
Yen To go or to walk
Yenmaou I will go
Yarrsboonie Mind your work
literally, you do not fatigue yourself.
Yeerie bena This way
Yenoo oryenioo I go or am going. They say this when going away
:Yerung: A tree
:Yeeraboabo: Bye A bye
Yooroo. Ngieenee goola yooroo? Hungry. Are you hungry.
Ngia yooroo ngia I am hungry
Yooroomadiou Booroong 1 was angry with Booroong.
Note this was said by Berangaroo after she had told me that Benelong had Booroong.
YTmgola You had near fallen
Yelga The barb of a spear
Yenwari Go away
YuruTn I am hungry or From hunger
Yuin Indeed, or It is true
YTmrjmadyemi Thou didst let fall
Yetbi To push anything along
Yenarabaou I will go and fetch it
Yurulbaradyu I am sharpening the tyibog (by rubbing it on a stone)
Yarrakal Clean. Or yellow
Yara To sharpen the point of a mutig or f ishgig
Book B Page 23
Anger Waurapeta Wauragooroong
My wurry wurry My kalgal
Wari. Away. Abroad. Wean or Weana Weanmaou Walibuga
Out of doors. Lost, or to lose To put I will put
To turn upside down
* About the middle of September 1791 I was telling Patyegarang that Wurrgan was a great thief & towards the close of the conversation I asked her if she stole anything. She said No and gave as a reason for it that her mother had gone through the ceremony described on the third page
Bial wanabum bial Don't refuse it. Or don't
throw it away (from wana) Wirri bara Shut the door
Woe. The hair of the dyin
Wanadyimiga? You will not have me?
Or You don't want my company? Of course Wanadyuinia I don't desire your company
Wfribl Worn out (as clothes Ac.)
Waneag Bad pronunciation. In contradistinction to Budyeri karaga which signifies Good pronunciation or Good mouth literally
Teraguiyug The same
/ Taramadvaou I took by mistake. This Patye
said after taking Dalgears tea cup (& pouring some tea into the saucer) instead of her own Wfribugadyemi Thou didst wrong or badly
Munaguri on seeing me scratch out what I had written
Book B Page 24

William Dawes


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Bye & bye Weeanadooroo,
Ngallawadooroo, orGuaugo.
Nadiagalami We two saw thee
Nola Hughes, Hughes was not there with you.
Dan1 bula2 nalawi3 inyam4 What1 other2 here4 at your
brani5 house3 yesterday5
Dana1 nwiyl2 Who1 gave2 it (to you)
Minyin tunga? Why does she cry?
Dabago For the breast. (Answer)
Walumibami gore badyulgo When will you be sick again
A mistake I think in saying walumibami for waruriabami
Wulaboadyagun Paramatm Something relative to coming from Parramatta
Wealig. As Wealig white man What is said for. As what
gore? does white man say for gore? Answer more
/Wurul. Wurulbadyaou Bashful. I was ashamed
This was said to me by Patyegarag after the departure of some strangers, before whom I could scarce prevail on her to
read 25th September 1791 Gwago patabagun or Gwagun pataba We will eat presently
Walomi bial kagalyibum You have not washed (your
Patyegarang Mr. Dawes M2. Dawes why don't you wash
Minyin bial kaga (this part)
Patyegarang Kolbia wami Tarigaga Kolby scolded Taringa
Note Kolbia, agent. Tariga-ga patient
/Warimi manyemi buk? Where did you find the book?
Warigiilyibaou I will remain awake
Warimi wellamabami? From whence will you return?
This to me by Tarabilag when going towards Botany Bay with him, Kolbi & Beriwam 13th November 1791
Book B - Page 26
Book B Page 25

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Doaga DarrGn Dalarigi Danama gwiyt Dalu, We two only,
Fat of meat. T ammul Ours, Belonging to us To whom didst thou give it Dyellu, We three only
Book B Page 27
Book B Page 28

William Dawes
Gonagulye Bid
Dawes Dia muri yurora. I am very angry.
Gonagulye & Patyegarang With us?
Gonagulye Mr Dawes gyim Mr Dawes will you speak? plaba?.
Dawes Danawa? To whom?
Gonagulye Gorgon mi rag. To the person belonging to
the Gorgon (before spoken of.)
On saying to the two girls to try if they would correct me Dyini, Gonagulye, Dia, Nagadyigun. Patye did correct me & said Bial Nagadyigun; Nagadyinye Hence Nagadyigun is dual We, & Nagadyinye is Plural We.
Gonagulye Yenaraou bisket My I go and fetch the bisket branigal which was left yesterday
Note Yenaou May I go. Yenaraou May I go and fetch.
Patyegarang to Gonagulye Gonagulye. Take hold of my
Gonagulye. poerbugana hand and help me up:_______
Patyegarang to Dawes Dia I will go and fetchyou some girinarabaouwima berara fish hooks (or the shells) Tariadyaou I made a mistake in speaking.
This Patye said, after she had desired me to take away the blanket when she meant the candle Tyarsbadyiga kubera :My head aches
Wanyawaridyaou I made believe or was only in
40 Book B Page 29 Book B Page 30
Goredyu tagarin I more it (that is I take more of it) from cold (that is to take off the cold) At this time Patyegarag was standing by the fire naked, and I desired her to put on her clothes, on which she said Goredyu tagarin the full meaning of which is "I will or do remain longer naked in order to get warm sooner, as the fire is felt better without clothes than if it had to penetrate through them." (This is a mistake. Goredyu signifies something else) Gore To warm.
Dawes MTmadyimi, mi? What's the matter, what?
Patyegarang Tyenmilyi, bunln I am come from play_______
Having sung Dalgear mutigore & Dalgear being very angry at it; I asked Patye
Dawes Minyin gulara Why is NJalgear angry?
Patyegarang Beriadwarin Because you sung
On singing the same again at some distance from Dalgear; Patyegarag said
Kamarata, beriadinye My friend, he sings about you
Gonagulye Mama kaowi galia My friend, come let us (two)
bogia go and bathe
Patyegarang Go go yagu Stop stop. I am just going to tityibaou yagu Mrs Johnson Mrs Johnson's house to get

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
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Parabula Parama Magmiwa Yenboigi
three or four times repeated, then Parabula Parama Beriaqgalaqda Toindinma Mai^imwa Yenboqi
Yudidyinun yudi Buruna We two are going to see
Booroong part of the way home
Dawes Minyin Kolbi plyi Why did Kolby beat Punagan? Punagan?
Patyegarang Gulara He was angry with him for
Beriwama kagarin seaming Beriwani
Kolbia Beriwania piyidyaband Kolby & Beriwani (they two) Punagaga beat Punangan.
Gonaqulye Mi. Dawes Manyaou dyi koityln, gwiadyaou Kolbinyi I found this (holding up a knife) at Koityi, (and) gave it to Kolbv
Dawes Wariwear, minyin Wariwear, why did Bull give gwiadyanye Bull pettycoat you the Pettycoat. Answer BarinmunTn Because I had no Barin Note. If Barin had not ended with an n it would have been bunln instead of munln
Patyegarang Gwiug gyimagi The fire is out, or going out
Patyegarang Dtulara Throw water on the fire
Naba1 bulagun2 Dalgear3 We two2 will go and see or bulaga4 Tugearna5 look for1 N)algear3and
Tugear5 they two4.
Yuma To send. As. Yumadarabami Thou wilt send to (the person before spoken of)
Dla dturabaou Wariwearna. I will kill (lice) for Wariwear. Gwiug boala, or Gwiug wuruna. The fire is out, or The fire is going out.
Book B Page 31
Book B Page 32

William Dawes
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pi _________
Dia burjalyidyaou yen Walawi burjalyidyaou Koinyerana yarja Biguna l/l/, Mr Dawes Walan yagu walan
I did thus
Bigun s Koinyera Mr Dawes It rains now it rains.
Patyegarang Kamara1 weana2 My friend1, put outside down wuru inyun wtira wadi. there, the stick
Patyegarang Nabaouima I will look at you through the Windayin Tamunadyemiga. window (because)you refused me (bread)
Tamunadyegarimiga Because you refused me
This, when I gave her a blow on the head out of window Patyegarang ML Dawes Ml. Dawes I will first
Meranabaou breakfast, breakfast <& then (take a
wellaga sulphur dose 0f) su|phur
Patyegarang Ml Dawes ML. Dawes I will call Haswell Kamabaou Haswell windayin from the window.
Dawes Minyin barakut Why are you afraid Tug ear
Tugear, minyin? why?
Tugear Mullayin. Because of the men.
Kurubtn. Wa dyin tarigal? Where's his wife?
Patyegarang & W. Englanda In England,
l/l/. Nabaouwi :galia: naba The eoras shall see us drink eora widadwara (sulphur)
Or Nabaouwi galari This last in preference
widadwara eorara naba
Tyarsgadyaouwima I scratched you
Dawes. Minyin gyim bial Why don't you (learn to) piabum whiteman? speak like a white man?
Patyegarang Wiagabuniga bial Not understanding this answer I asked her to explain it
Book B Page 33
Lose (verb) L.
I have lost it Parrbuggy
it which she did very clearly, by giving me to understand it was because 1 gave her victuals, drink & everything she wanted, without putting her to the trouble of asking for it.
/ 1 then told her that a whiteman had been wounded some days ago in coming from Kadi to Warag & asked her why the
black men did it. Answer Gulara (Because they are) angry.
Dawes Minyin gulara eora? Why are the black men angry?
Patyegarang Inyam galwt white men Because the white men are settled here.
Patyegarang Tyerun kamari gal The kamarigals are afraid.
Dawes Minyin tyerun kamari gal? Why are the kkamarigals afraid?
Pa tyegarang G U n 1 n Because of the Guns.
Dana meranaba? Which shall be first? (to drink sulphur water.)
Piyadyagun meranagolag We two were talking about who should be first.
WogulCiga bisket May I have, or will you give me 1
Patyegarang Wana breakfast Where do you breakfast ML.
Mr. Dawes? Dawes
Dawes Inyam gonyera. Here at home.
Patyegarang Bial gwiyugo. The fire is not yet lighted.
Patyegarang NylmCig candle Mr Dawes Put out the candle ML. Dawes
Patyegarang Manmagun We will gather tyibungs as
tylbug wellamadwara we come back.
DunmUl They call a palisade fence by this name
Yen piadyaou Yiriniblnya Wawi bowanara wag era. I spoke thus to Yirmiby
Book B - Page 34

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Patyegarang: Piabumwinya Or Bial winya piabum I d id not speak to you.
Bial mlrja piabum You did not speak to me
Muramadyirja rjalawa :It tires me to stay at home:
Yemar) :I want to go out:
Dia merawi, Warwiar wellurja I (went away) first, and Wariwiar followed.
T ulumi dyarja :He gave it me for nothing:
2 Piyidyenina1 I whitemana2 I A white man beat us three
rjyinari3 | Pundulna, we three3 Pundul, Poonda (&
Pundunga myself understood)
1 Piyidyarjala1 | whitemana2 | A white man2 beat us two1 we
rjalari3 | Pundurja4 two3 Panda4 (& myself understood)
The difference between speaking of we two & we three
as above expressed was obtained 27 November by Patyegarar) first speaking to me asmarked 1 and afterwards asmarked 2, when on asking her why she did not speak in the same way the 2d. time as the 1§t. she said it was because she had forgot that Pundul was with them, & explained
herself very clearly.
Patyegarang Dwiyaou May I give Ixjalgear some
Dalgearna tyurjora pork
Patyegarang DwiyT tali He gave pork (and) bread to
tyurjora breada eora the eoras
Patyegarang Dwiadyaouwi magora eorara dyi The eoras gave fish to him
Book B - Page 35
Patyegarang M:. Faddy yela MA Faddy with MA Clark Mr. Clark yenyaban Norfolk went to Norfolk Island. Island
Patyegarang Major Ross, Mt. Major Ross, Me. Clark (and) Clark, Mt. Faddy venvaouwi MA Faddy went to Norfolk Nl- Island
NB In this latter, Patyegarang positively denied the propriety of using gyela instead of yela, which I supposed might be proper for 3.
Bruwi kar adyuwi gabug (All) three have large
breasts that is. They are all three women grown.
Gonyera wogula In one house (all three)
After calling Dalgear repeatedly and receiving no answer Patye said with some warmth
Dalgear, guribum NJalgear, you have no ears
/ Dalu pfyala We two are talking to each other.
that is. We did not say any thing to you.
Dawes Minyin bial nagadyimi? Why don't you sleep?
Patyegarang KandulTn Because of the candle
Book B - - Page 36

William Dawes
Stop a little stop Mitieewaranga, Miteeanga,
Names etc. of persons dead of the dysentry
Tadyera mother of Warwiar the less & Bidya Bidya Tadyera (another) mother of Punda & Tariija
Book B Pages 37 to 39
Book B Page 40

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Wadba wadba The name of country near Bare Island Yera yerara The name of a pond of tolerable water
between it Awhere fishing Darty Parjarar) Capt.n Parker etc. dined.
Parts of the human Body
Kubbura The Head
Dulu Forehead
Kamura Top head
Kuru hind head
Damn eyebrow
YTneri eyebrow
Marin eyelash
Book B Page 41
Book B Page 42

William Dawes
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Buribirarjal Coasters E.
Dyindi Oyini
Bundur) Bunur) Knee
Munduru Munuru Navel
Me Mi Eye
Dyir Mandaouwi Manaouwi Foot
Dana, Black. Tyerra, White.
Gomun, Green. Yerakal, Yellow
Mudyil, Red
Names of Fruits in New South Wales
Mamnmara. Tyibug. Munmu. Mirriburu Bomula. Magara. Tyiwaragdg. Mururu.
Buruwag. Watagalh. NJurumaradyih.
Merimeri. Muriawin. Wiyigalyagh. Kinameah Waratah. Kamaragh. Burudunh. Mirrigalyagh. (Takuba, the Acajou-like cherry)
Of the above, such as have an h over them are the names of flowers bearing honey in sufficient quantity to render them notorious to the natives. The rest of them Wariwear gives the general name of Wigl to; whichl have great reason to believe signifies a berry as I know most of the bushes, all of which bear berries whichthe natives eat. I think it also probable that some of the above may be called by two or more different names.
Terminations etc of Verbs
She (or he) will washyou-They will beat me-
Book B Page 44
Book B Page 43

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
juk<.h a a -V- ^ vf
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Kolbi (or) 28
Warurjln, Warjubilyi
Yalowe 35
Kararjarang. Wadigabu Murianar). Kurut Kurut (this lady is wife to 25
Warurjln, W. Kolbi) Kurubarabula 17
Koreang moolagang
Ngangoon Booragy T aliangy Kuba Kuba T ooroomagoolie Barawoory Garangal Karamung Ngalgara T alia
Bush Point
Bradley's Point
drank water
Middle Head
a small Cove
South Head
North Head
swell of the water
d Hd stuff an ully were for a Bel
so many doubtful
Book B Page 45
Book B Page 46

William Dawes

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Vocabulary of the language of N.S.Wales, in the neighbourhood of Sydney. (Native and English, but not alphabetical).
41645. (c).(d)
Book C Front Cover

William Dawes
The North Wind The South Wind The East Wind The West Wind The N.W. Wind
The North Wind The South Wind The East Wind The West Wind The NE Wind The NW Wind The SE Wind The SW Wind
Book C back of cover
Book C Page 1

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
One Two Numbers Wogul + Bulla (or) Boolla +, yooblowre Gonangoolie Bedia Bedia Gnoorooin Waum name of a little girl name of a little boy name of a woman
Three Boorooi or Brewie + Waumediow
Four Marrydiolo Bomurra Cammeral the Potatoe apple fruit.
Marray wet.
Paye wallan illlabe Concerning heavy rain.
Maugoniera (or) Maugonyaira at his house
Goreeail Parroquet
Nangerra he is asleep
Gorroda lema he snores
Boorreea a woman's name
Cannalgalleon Boorreea's tribe
Murray toolo a great many +
Book C Page 2
Book C Page 3

William Dawes
Moorreere Line
Nalgarrar the hair line
Weeragal Mackarel
Panyadiswe did paddle Q
Nullogan Mallat }Fil lets
Yennarrabe He is gone Q
Allowaudioo. I stay
Pattane to eat
Di ngalla dee. There he, she or it is
Yemmerrawanne. Tabongen. Tanni.
Yenmannia Shall or will go
allowaw he lives or stays here
Goray Tarrawine. a Fish
Yen mow I am going
Gnabunnibow beal I will not see
Pemulwhy Bediagal. Tugagal . Tugara
Carrahdigan Carrahdy }a person skilled in healing wounds
Wuidadieme you have drank
Weedadjow I have drank
Darramurragal Werans Tribe
Goadgan Pigeon
Warrewallme worrey.
Yennwerre he is gone
Mongy he does not like it
Gonyara a woman's name
Birrabirragalleon. Her Tribe
Coroby a native's name
Tagora mediangha. severely cold
Book C Page 4
Book C Page 5

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
/^fe/TL LjOCU- CL, . frftt. aa/e/ri, -&J ^ tfu naXi/M*U to a. fioafQ'. J y_ /^u /Z-Ol/UrrCV Y . / ti n-CcL to oc 'mourv
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/ toon.
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Um/fuJc -rjfaoUfAtik.
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t Itcdo-aj iotmtf 7)
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tan to A- -mex^. tftjUL-te
A/oO CV C4Vt£j Lv - 'noffrua - 't cocclcestv trSoua, ceSfu/uL,
Wenyoua. The name g iven by the natives to a Mullarra Joined to a man
horse Coorarre (or) Goorarra }long +
/Gnanalema. she breathes Toomerre (or) Toomurro }short +
Warreweere Garabber Benoolbill Dannilbe
Barbuggi Lost Piejangha He did beat.
Daringhal His . Gnalga look
Whalloo where are you going Palleya violent laughter
mebawchiara. what is the name Jennebe Laughter
Diegomorammedee Peamine marrow
Diegomoramme Kiara bunne Medogy a joint
Damang a cap or covering for Weroong scar on the back
the head Wauburwau I don't know where
Cabberra birrong belongs to the head Carrahmah To steal
Darringhal his Noonunglanoong relative to place where
Gnadienna we saw
Book C - Page 6 Book C - Page 7

William Dawes
Nooroonniel The Ligatures round the arm, & which is a
Noroogal Camy. holes made in a line made of the fur
shield by a spear or hair of animals.
Wiggoon. Throwing stick Momurre the name of a fruit
Patty without the shell he did eat Deragal Bunmerre }Lizard
Pattare eat Narrang a species of the Lizard
Pattabow shall I eat Gnangnyelle a glass to look
Manow shall I take through Telescope
Tarramerragal the name of the tribe Berewalgal . the name given to us
Weran belongs to, in the district of by the natives.
Wanne. Berewal a great distance off
Pattaran may I eat Gnangnanyeele the glass a reading
Bogul a mouse + glass
Gnarramang the name of a dance Tallangeele window glass
Carribberre another mode of dancing Wolgan a pair of stays
Goorungurregal a tribe
Goray more +
Cahrahne Biscuit
Carrangel Jacket
54 Book C Page 8 Book C Page 9

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Matty petticoat.
Goragallong. young man. Query
Booroodel } Booroong says these people
Maugoran are unfriendly to us.
Morooberra a native's name.
Gniade for me.
Dinalleon women.
Garagallong alleong young women. Query
Bowwory Bowwah shadow.
Beragallon the name of a fish.
Goniado the name of a large bird.
Carrangarrany the name of a boy from Botany Bay.
Barringan the name of a very handsome girl.
Didyerregoor no more.
Weereamby Weereammy a bat.
Barowan or a plant that looks like the
Booroowan Aloe it bears a flower like the Lilly <& a green fruit not unlike a small cooking apple. This fruit is not wholesome, the name of a like.
Moorowul. The name of a Fish.
Carooma Black fish.
Cagone toad fish which they say is poisonous.
Dilluck Yannadah. Full Moon.
Diarramurrahmah Coing the Sun setting red.
Worgaweena to whistle.
Pennieeboollong. The name of Colebe's Child.
Goniee murrah. stink.
Nowwa. matter in a sore.
Miangah Fly.
Maugonally Mullamang }husband.
Book C Page 10
Book C Page 11

William Dawes
Din man wife.
Murraytoolo great many.
Ullowygang a Ray.
Murray naugul a flat Head
Ginnare the shovel nosed Ray without a sting.
Boorroonaganaga an unknown fish
Dooroomi lEf+ } hand
Warrangi right
Booroowunne the name of a man a stranger.
Carreweer the name of a female stranger.
Wallomill the Bullheaded shark
Corowin Nourse (very large)
Gnallangulla Tarreeburre a particular club
Mede or medgieme what is this.
Manniemongalla To surprise.
Badoberong a small fish like a tadpole with two feet
/ Yennime you are going.
/ lllabelebow I will make water.
/ lllabelediow I have made water.
/ lllabelediemi You have made water.
Megalliniara the clay on the face
Yabbun singing dancing or beating on two clubs
Yarebadiow I am tired.
Wannyewanyi (or) Wanyewanyi a Lie. +
yahmah I have made as
yahmah carregan I have made a line
worre worrar last night
nangahmi to dream or he dreams
Nowey, binniebow I will make a Canoe
Nowey, binnieba he will make a Canoe
Berang belonging to Kami berang a wound from a spear
Dooul Colebes word for the two Barbs
Tyyamoone when angry
Googooboari a shadow
Book C Page 12
Book C Page 13

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
If" /£- e O0t> Zerxt) HH & (^CU / V _ x'ay f //-,{/ A*C'
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^'y 77^.77*) s' . e' e\
Patany goolong Kamow shall I, or must I call
Barruwalluri The Porpoise
Warrin Winter
Weerummin Cutbarrar cut off
Warrahpattah deje a Curse
Pattarrah eat it
Goorogal biel left tooth out
Pannowa in the rain
Dooul the spear by which Yerrenibey was wounded
Murramurrong the reason given for Bennelongs wounding Yerrrenibey
warraigy yenne I believe he is gone
Waylin or Wairling how
Nanmar I dont know
Belle narbone I never saw him
Nole here, there, in this or in that
Jeereei supposed to be used as a charge
Goomedah a spirit or a deceased body
Murray naugul the flat head
Cowerre Large flat head
Mullinagul the small flat head
Pyebah he will beat him
Pyebah guago he will beat him presently
Guago soon or presently
Notulubrulawlaw notie Sung on seeing a flock of
Gnooroome, tatie, natie, natie Gnooroome, tatie, natie, natie Tarrahwow, tarrahwow Pelicans.
Wanyeawaur the Seal
Tarwaran the Seal
Boroowan a fruit
lllabe to make water
Goningalle voiding the excrement, or he voids &c
Yagunah to day
Barrane (or) Borahne Yesterday +
Parrebugo or Paraebugah (or) to morrow + Parribeugo
Parrebuwarrie the day after tomorrow
Mullinaool (or) Mullinowool the Morning or, this Morning
Tarreberre Daylight
Gilly the light given by a candle
Book C Page 14
Book C Page 15

William Dawes
Darrah (both the r the Thigh
Da rah (or) Darra the teeth + Bongajabun he did paddle
Karga the Mouth Wyabowinnyah I will give
Coing the Sun + Tannagal (or) Tannegal Ice +
Yannadah the Moon + Tagora yago now cold
Budoenong the two Magellanic clouds
Calgalleon the largest of the two maugonyaira at his house
Magellanic clouds Erabaddjang the ceremony or operation of
Teingo Worregal. a dog + drawing the tooth
Jungo Whalloo where are you going
Jungoro dogs Kamyberong a wound made by a spear
Carrun the beatle found in the grass tree Goray More +
Tangnoa the worm found in the grass tree
Cogarruck the Friar Didyeregoor enough or I am satisfied
Nangoba relative to sleep Piejangha he did beat
Gnamoroo a Compass (so called by the Yanbad tried
natives Gna to see and moroo a path) Baddje to hunt
Bonyooel the person who carried the Compass Pannah (or) Panna rain +
Yahmah or niayahmah I have made it Djerba } to pour out
Omoon (this in a whisper) silence or hush lllabba
Yennoreyen } get away Gnaneba the union between the sexes
Djerabar or Jerabber the name given to the musket Carrungun Maugro nea a Net to catch Fish
The Natives frequently called us by the name they give the Galgalla the small pox
musket. Gongyera (the a as in father) in the house
; Book C Page 16 Book C - Page 17

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
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Cowul (animals)
Weren (or) Weerring
Yeban (or) yibbun
Balee (or) Bailie
Bruang (or) Boorowong
Bruang Keba
Wadde berong
asking the name of a fowl
large house } No, or I do not know
I am in Sydney Cove to bark a male + a female to stare to sing
to be dry or want water
White Clay
Painted white
the Sci meter
a fishing Line
an Island. NB the natives call the ships by this name a Rocky Island + a wound from a stick
Yery mutin
Weda (or) Wedau
Didgerrygoor wogul banna
Wyajeminga (or) Weeang Canne
Pomera Bannielly Vuiddemey vuidudiou Yannamilly diou
to throw to throw
to throw a fiz gig to drink to watch
I have eaten it all only a little bit more say
I myself +
I eat or have eaten
You have eaten
to see
he drinks
he has drunk
a belly full, or I am full
Give me
to smell
to clap hands
Book C Page 18
Book C Page 19

William Dawes
£c *- £ l''
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goonang a spear the barbs of which are cut Waume is to scold
out of the solid wood Wahmadjangah a term of reproach, with which the natives
Kahmy the spear with a barb fixed on are highly offended, it is sometimes used by the women &
with gum, or a spear they throw which the men always punish them for.
Trees Terumo norar a place or country
Large Brown Mahogany Boorooma murray weree norar a bad country
tree tagubah (or) } the hart herr tree
Fig Tree Tammun targobar
White Sum tree Darane warringa by & by
the fruit of the potatoe Bemurra cammerral gurugal a long time back
plant Kebarra the present
a fruit 0 Momurre warr berong orah where is a better country
Cabbage tree Taranggera Gritty or dirty Pemulgina
Scarlet & Yellow bell Gadegalbadeerie above or upwards Boorawa
flower below or under Cady (or) Caddy +
The Banksiac which Watanggre speaking of a man & his wife he used these words
bears the bottle asher Maygonally
The Fir tree Goomun Gniella
the .igneous Pear Merrydugare Ditgalla
a low tree bearing a Weereagan Boonailley
fruit like the Booinyella
The sweet Tea plant Warraburra
The Sceptre flower Warrettah
i Book C Page 20 Book C Page 21

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney

fa-- -
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// X fa
eJ/fafa-fafat., fa Itrc fa rr .-

o C?y 4
Private Parts of Women Fat
Space occasioned by the loss of the Eye or hind tooth
Cabera (or) Caberra +
Mai (or) Mi (or) My +
Nogur (or) Nogurro +
Willin (or) Willing +
Tallang +
Wallo +
Gorey (or) Goray +
Yarre (or) Yarrin +
Devarra (or) Dewarra +
Barong (or) Barrong +
Bong (or) Boongbooro letong + Pannera (or) Pannerrong + Eora (or) Eorah +
The little finger of the left Malgun hand of the woman when the two joints are cut off
Father Bean. Beanna +
Mother Wyang. Wyanga. +
Male Child Wongera
Female Child Werowey Din
Relations or friends Goualgar
a name sake, or a person with Damelabillie
whom the name has been
Nyangdeea to ask the name of a person
Nang deea nang 0r thing
Nang deea nang kiara Nallar look or see
Nangare he sleeps or is asleep
For Copulation he uses all these words Yanga Cannadingga Callo Callyne.
The effect of the hot burning sand upon the Eye Murray Cannandinga Mi
Book C Page 22
Book C Page 23

William Dawes
£ <<*/**
sfVfaJ+.j C^cAnAt/o
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Emu Maraong Snapper Wallumai
Mosquito hawk Pobuck Sting Ray Teringyan
Hawk Jammul jammul Mullet large sort Waradiel
Crow Wogan Mullet small sort
White Cockatoo Garraway Crab Kera
Black Cockatoo Garate a Rock Oyster Petanghy
Spider Marraegong an Oyster Dainia
Beetle Goniagonia a Mussel Dalgal
Butterfly Burrudiera the Zebra fish Maromera
Curlew Urwinnerrywing The Squill Yurill
A bird with a shrill note Dilbung Blubber Garuma
Leaping Quadruped Large Patagorong The Prince fish Barong
Leaping quadruped, small Baggaray
the skin of the Patagorong Boggai
Common rat Wurra
Kangaroo rat Ganimong
Opossum Wobbin
Flying squirrel Bongo
Red opossum (another sort) Rogora
a Mosquito Tewra
Bite of a mosquito Tewra dieng
a Scorpion D.tooney
Book C Page 24
Book C Page 25

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
^ A o^o ~b
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Water Ba,do +
Earth Pemul +
Fire Guyon (or) Gweeyong +
Smoke Cadjiel (or) Cajel +
High Wind Guarra x
Dead Palley (or) Gogun (or) Boe
Sweat Yuruca
a Star Birrong +
a falling star T uruga
a cluster of stars Molumolu
a Canoe Noe
Cold T agora (or) Tagerra x
Bad Were (or) Weere +
a Sore Mediong
Stone or Rock Keba
Sand Murrong +
a Hut Gonye (or) Goniee
Thunder Murungle (or) Moorungul x
Respecting thunder Badjeberong
Struck by thunder Murungle berong

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Lightning a Spear Throwing stick Barb on a spear Sunrise Sunset
Moon when new Moon when set a great way off a Shield made of wood a Shield made of bark Ornament Night Day
Full Moon All men
a Spear with a barb To make the scars on the breast Here
Monghe (or) MonghhT
bybobar (or) Coing bybobar
Yannadah Parragi
Yannadah Poora
Arragong +
Elemong (or) Eelymong + Bengadde
Gnoowing (or) Gnooing +
Murray Yannadah
Carranga bowiniey Congarrey Die Diam (or) Inyam +
Book C Page 26
Book C Page 27

William Dawes
To Run
To Laugh
To Cry
To Sleep
To Sing
To Yawn
To Sneeze
To breathe
To Copulate
To shake hands
To stand with the hands
behind the back
To stand with the hands
behind the head
To Clap hands
To Bite
To Tickle
To Come here
To sit down
To Cut in two
T onga
Palpanieyou Toil Booroa Gittegitte
Coe Cowe Cwoi Cowana +
To Fly
To Snore
To Paddle
To shut one eye
a Woman that cries
a Man that cries
To Swim
To Dive
To Cut
To Burn
what gives fire
To Soak or wash in water
I am Dry
Relating to drinking To suck
describing an Infant Relating to walking Relating to walking at a future time Where Let us walk
Walking away or together
Din Tonge
Mulla Tongi
Wadby (or) Waddbe +
Cannadinga Cannadinan Gerrubber (or) Gerebar Carremille Bado Badogoballeyvuida Vuidaidinia
Binya Vuidu Mooroobin Nabungay Werowe Yennarabanie yennool Yenmania
Wau +
Book C Page 28
Book C Page 29

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
To hear Narradew
To Call Camar (or) Kama +
To Stand Warrewee
To Shiver T aggorayago
To Creep Marowey
To Chew Chiang (or) Changutah
To Kiss Boonalliey
To Speak Piarar
To Speak Byalla Garriga
To Fear Jarrune
Afraid Bargat +
To Fall Yerydiemy
To Stay Alloey
To Go away Albongadiow Woroo Woroo (or) Woorar
To set near anyone Urydiow
To Pick up anything Manioo
To blow with the breath Boamere
To Fight or beat Pyyabow
The colour green Boolgaga
Fine Weather Bealoray Boora careemey
Relating to giving weajeminga weajowinia Wianga.
Book C - Page 30
Gone Yenma
Broke Cotbainjow Cotbalie
Now Noong
Empty Parraberry
Full Eri (or) Boruk +
Diving Bogaillia
Cutting off Woganminnering
You must Cry Tongaydoro
Eating (the act of) Parranbaniediou
Will you have any more Wallumeron wea
Alive Mootong +
Air Bayjah +
Angry Goolarra +
Another Woguloray +
Ant Mon. +
a Bird Binyang +
Black Gnana +
Boy Wongerra +
Brave Mattong +
Breasts Nabung +
Dew Minnieemolong +
Book C Page 31

William Dawes
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Egg Cabahn. +
Eyebrow YinnerrT +
Far Arroun +
Feather Gnoniul +
Male Mulla +
Female Din +
Fish Maugro +
Foot Mannoe +
Good Boodyerre +
Great Murray +
Hole Gomerry +
Hungry Yuroo +
Little Narrang +
Man (homo) Man (vir.) } Guyong +
Milk Mooroobin +
Mine Dannai +
Mother Wyang Wyanga +
Nails Carrunggle +
No Beal +
Pregnant Binyeeghine +
Red Moojel +
Sea Carrigerrang +
Seek Petoe +
Sick Bagel (or) Bajel+
Sister Mamunna +
Son Doroong +
Tail Doon +
Wing Wilbing +
Woman Din +
Wood (Lignum) Wadday +
Wood (sylva) Tuga +
You Gnieenie +
Book C Page 32
Book C Page 33

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Book C Pages 34 to 49

William Dawes
Names of Places Rose Hill
The district of Rose Hill
Island at the Flats The people who inhabit the last district Arrowanelly are called Those people inhabiting Warmul are called
NB: In going to the Westward from Rose Hill you walk in ten minutes to Warmul, in nineteen to Malgramattar, in seven to Ararwoorung, in eighteen to Carrarmattar, in five to Bulbarnmattar, in twenty-nine to Karrarwotong, & in seventeen to Murrong Prospect Hill. Arrowanelly Bediagal
Book C Page 50
Book C Page 51

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
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Names of Places Sydney Cove Warran
1st island coming up the harbour Boamillie
2nd island coming upthe harbour Belanglewool
3rd island coming up the harbour or Garden Island Bainghoe
4th island coming up the harbour or Rock Island Mattewanye
5th island coming up the harbour Memil
6th island coming up the harbour or Cockatoo Island Wareamah
7th island coming up the harbour Arrareagon
8th island coming up the harbour or Spectacle Island Gongul
North Head Carranggel
South Head Tarralbe jam was added when we were
Middle Head Cabacaba on the spot, & is supposed to
Inner South Head Barraory mean, this is.
Another Head Tuberai
Farm Cove Woganmagule
East Point of Farm Cove Yuron
Cove next to Farm Cove Wallamool
East Point of Wallamool Derawun
Next Cove after Wallamool Carraginn
Book C Page 52
Book C Page 53

William Dawes
a Little sandy bay Weeaggywallar
Bradley Point Talleongi
Rose Bay Pannerong
West Point of Camp Cove Metallar
An Island Boorroowan
The Rock in the Channel Birrabirra
Sydney Cove East Point T ubowgule
Sydney Cove West Point Tarra
a small Cove within Sydney Cove Meliawool
Where the Hospital stands Tallawoladah
Where the Fisherman's hut is Tarrangeraguy
Botany Bay Kamay
Manly Bay Kayyemy
Collins Cove Kayoomay
Long Cove Gomora
Ross Farm Cowwan
the Point called the docks Pareinma
Breakfast Point Booridiowogule
Dinner Point Marraymah
70 Book C Page 54 Book C Page 55

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Names of Native Men Nanbarre
Burrow un Cuddur the man who died
Gomebeere Willemering the man who threw the spear
Yellomundy or Yellahmunde Weremurra
DJimba or Jimbah Werong
Gomil DC) Yooledieera
Colebe Maugeran or Maugoran
Bui manna Wolarrebarre, Wogultrowe, Bannellon, Boinba Bundebunda.
Goramoaboa DD
Watte wal Collindjam
Congarail Carrangarray
Gnoolumey DD Boo_ruwunne
Yendaw DD Gnungagnungen
Yarrearool DD We rare
Baiddo DD Bingywanne
Comma rang Doondallah
Carruey DD Narroommy
Tabongen Goreyang
Balooderry Boorodel. Maugoran
We ran
Book C Page 56 Book C Page 57 71

William Dawes
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Names of Women
Warraiwere Bielbool
Ponnieboollong Colebes child
Book C Pages 58 to 60
Book C Page 61

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney
Men Women
Cammeragal Cammeragalleon
Borogegal. Yuruey
Gomerigal. Tongarra
Book C Page 62
Book C Page 63

William Dawes
Words used by the Natives in the Hawkesbury
Bodda the Penis
Boroobal hair
Boroo Scrotum
Mareemy Testicles
Condoin Moon
Book C Page 64 to 74
Book C Page 75

Notebooks on the Aboriginal Language of Sydney

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