Citation
Report on the antiquities of Arakan

Material Information

Title:
Report on the antiquities of Arakan
Uncontrolled:
A ntiquities of Arakan
Alternate title:
Arakan Chapter I, the Mahamuni Pagoda
Creator:
Forchhammer, Emanuel, 1851-1890
Place of Publication:
[Burma?]
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
67 p., [42] leaves of plates : ill., folded map ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Arakanese (Burmese people) ( lcsh )
Pagodas -- Burma ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Burma ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Myanmar -- Arakan
Asia -- Myanmar -- Rakhine
Coordinates:
19.5 x 94 ( Rakhine State )
19 x 94.5 ( Arakan Empire )

Notes

General Note:
Title from inserted strip of paper.
General Note:
Title of all 3 sections of text: Arakan.
Statement of Responsibility:
by E. Forchhammer.

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
548203 ( aleph )
OCM27102158 ( oclc )
Classification:
FNA.L.7 ( ddc )

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Full Text
Monogaph on Arakan antiquities
by Dr. Forchhammer.

/15536


ARAKAN.
CHAPTER I.—The Mahamuni Pagoda.
The Mahamuni shrine is situated north latitude 2i°, east longitude 93°, 8 miles east of the
Kaladan river and 48 miles north of Mrohaung, the once famous capital of the Arakanese kings.
History.—The earliest dawn of the history of Arakan reveals the base of the hills, which
divide the lower course of the Kaladan and Lemro rivers, inhabited by sojourners from India,
governed by chiefs who claim relationship with the rulers of Kapilavastu. Their subjects are divided
into the four castes of the older Hindu communities; the kings and priests study the three Vedas;
the rivers, hills, and cities bear names of Aryan origin; and the titles assumed by the king and
queen regnant suggest connection with the Solar and Lunar dynasties of India.
The Lemro river was then called Anjanadi from its crooked course. Marayu, the first of
Arakanese kings, founded the city of Dhanyavati on the banks of the Sirimanadi (now the Thare
creek). The Kaladan meandered past the Skilagiri (now Kyauktaw) under the appellation Gaccha-
bhanadi and joined the sea (samudra) below Urasa, the present Urittaung. The Mallapabbata,
Gandhagiri, and Jarupabbata separated the Kaladan from the Mallayunadi (Mayu river), and to the
west rose the Kasinapabbata. Later on, but still before our era, four towns (chaturgama) were
founded where the Launggyet creek joins the Lemro; the modern villages Nankya, Barin, Bato, and
Letma indicate the sites of the " four cities;" and the Anjanadi changed its name to Lemro (Le-
myomyit), or the " four-city river." Vakall (Vesali) is said to have first been founded by King
Vasudeva. The ruins of this town can still be traced 20 miles north of Mrohaung, 2 miles east of
the village of Paragyi. Both Dhanyavati and Vesali were repeatedly destroyed by neighbouring
mountain tribes, but again rebuilt by the Aryan settlers.
With Candrasuriya or Mahacandrasuriya appear the dim outlines of the history of Arakan. This
monarch erected a new city and palace on the site of Old Dhanyavati ; to this ruler historical annals
and traditions unanimously ascribe the foundation of the original Mahamuni shrine intended to receive
the brazen image of Gotama. The records of Farther India make Candrasuriya a contemporary of
Mahamuni, the great sage. Buddhism, as it now prevails in Burma, is decidedly an offshoot of the
Southern Buddhist school. In the nth and 12th centuries the priests of Pagan united their church
with the mother-church of Ceylon. In the 10th century Buddhism, established in Burma by Sona and
Uttara, who were sent by Asoka, must have become nearly extinct. Manuha, King of the Takings,
was brought captive to Pagan by Anawratha (10th century) ; he was, however, allowed to build a
residence for himself, and in this palace nearly all is Indian art, and Trimurtni reigned supreme, as is
evident from the stone sculptures still preserved in the edifice (see Report on Pagan). The religious
zeal of Anawratha and Narapatijayasura again secured supremacy to Buddhism. But there are old
Buddhist traditions among the Takings and Arakanese, traditions which could not have originated
with the Southern Buddhist school, but are the remnants of the old Northern Buddhism, which reached
Arakan from the Ganges when India was mainly Buddhistic ; they form a substratum cropping up here
apd there apparently without any connection ; its centre is the Mahamuni pagoda, the most important
remains of ancient Buddhism in Burma, antedating in this province both Brahmanism and the
Buddhism of the Southern school. The legend asserts that during the reign of Candrasuriya, King
of Dhannavati (Northern Arakan), Gotama Buddha came with many of his followers to this country.


2
„ THE MAHAMUNI PAGODA. II
On the Selagiri (opposite Kyauktaw on the Kaladan river) he held a prophetic discourse ; after the
casting of his image he departed to the south, visited Dvaravati (Sandoway), then turned to the east,
and alighting (he is flying through the air) on the summit of the Po-u taung (a steep hill 7 miles
above Prome on the Irrawaddy) he delivered another discourse pregnant with prophesies. His further
journeys in Burma are still remembered by the Talaings in connection with certain old pagodas in
Pegu, Thaton, and Martaban. Nothing is reported in the Southern Buddhist scriptures of Gotama's
sojourn in Suvannabhumi, Arimaddana, or Ramannadesa (constituting the present Burma) ; but, say
the Ceylonese chroniclers, he flew through the air and alighted on a prominent peak in Ceylon,
converted the savage inhabitants of the island, and then flew back to India. The modern Burmese
historians have a third legend : he visited Ceylon, then crossed, in one gigantic step, the ocean and
landed on the Po-u taung mountain ; with another step he again stood on the heights of Rajagrihi.
All three traditions are equally trustworthy or the contrary. But it is immaterial to our inquiry
whether or not Gotama sojourned in Dhannavati or whether he was personally present at the casting
of his image on the Sirigutta hill, on which Candrasuriya erected the Mahamuni shrine in commemo-
ration of both events ; it suffices to know that the strange tradition, unrecorded in the Tipitaka, is
not an afterthought, conceived in modern times, of which we have so many instances in the history of
Burma.
The tradition is intimately connected with the religious history of Arakan and Burma in general;
it is as old as Buddhism itself in that province. Nearly all pagodas within the confines of Dhanna-
vati and on the banks of the Irrawaddy owe their origin to it; ancient Arakanese kings, mindful of
the prophesies it contained, built pagodas on the spots indicated, and modern kings rebuilt or repaired
them ; the Urittaung pagoda, the Uginceti, the Andaw, Nandaw, and Sandaw shrines in Sandoway
still exist in fulfilment of Gotama's dicta; and the removal of the Mahamuni image the Arakanese
look upon as the temporary working of the still unexpiated result (Kammavipaka) of Gotama's two
evil deeds (see page 7) committed on the Cheduba island and visited on his younger brother and re-
presentative : only another foretelling fulfilled in this land of strange prophecies, Arakan, the Pales-
tine of the Farther East. A century ago Bodawpaya, on returning from a victorious campaign against
the Talaings, erected the Po-u taung pagoda above Prome, on the hill where Gotama, on his jour-
ney from Sandoway to Srikshetra (see page 5), alighted with his pupils and foretold the history of
Prome.
As in reports on Burmese archaeological remains we shall often have occasion to refer to the
Mahamuni tradition, I give here the necessary extracts from the Mahamuni thamein (a history of
this shrine) and the Sappadanapakarawa (Sarvas^hanaprakarawa), an ancient Arakanese manuscript
of great value :
Sarvasthanaprakarana.
" Candrasuriya, hearing of the great teacher Gotama, yearned to pay homage to him, and to
present him with rich offerings. Buddha, while dwelling in Sravasti (Savatthi), became aware, by his
divine power to perceive the thoughts of others, of the intentions of Candrasuriya. The teacher said
to his chief disciple Ananda : ' The king will have to pass regions full of danger to travellers ; large
' rivers will impede his journey, and the ocean is ruled by nagas inimical to seafarers : let us betake
' ourselves to the dominions of the king, so that he may execute his pious intentions without being
' compelled to undertake so dangerous a journey.' Then Gotama, accompanied by Ananda and 500
rahans, flew through the air and alighted on the summit of the Selagiri (the hill opposite Kyauk-
taw). Here he held a discourse with his disciples and then addressed Ananda thus: 'Ananda,
' to the west of the Gacchabha river, which flows past this hill, there is a plain ; here have I in
' former existences been born many times. One yojana distant from this Selagiri, whereon we are
' now standing, there is a mountain called Mallapabbata ; on this hill a pagoda will be built to receive


„ THE MAHAMUNI PAGODA.
II
f as relics the hair from both sides of my head ; the shrine will be called Uzundawcetl (§sg8*G053e^c8) ;
f near the Mallapabbata is another hill called Ve/uva^apabbata, where during one of my births I lived
' as a Zapagyi serpent (oo"|»g« boa constrictor); on its summit the Nasaceti will be built, containing as
' relic my nasal bone. Near this again is a hill called Gandhagiri, where I lived as a Granzin
' —Burm. the single-horned rhinoceros) during one of my births ; on this hill the Ka««a-
' dhatucetl will be erected holding as relic my left ear. On the southern side of this hill and more than
' a yojana distant there is a low range of hills named Salamaya; there I lived in a former existence
' as a gardener; in aftertimes my camrutdhat (ogoS ?) will be enshrined here in a pagoda to be
' called the Camuticeti. Further to the south and near the Gacchabhanadi there is a steep rocky hill
' known as the Selapabbata ; there I lived when in a former life I was born as a Brahman versed in
' the Vedas ; the skull, measuring 18 inches in circumference, still remains there and will be enshrined
' in a pagoda to be named the Urajtaungceti (Urittaungceti gcp&GoooScocB). On the western side of
'this hill and at a distance of about 3 leagues there is a river called the Mallayu (now called
' Mayu). On the eastern bank of this river is the Rajapabbata (now Yathetaung); on this moun-
' tain I lived during one of my births as a Chaddanta elephant. When I die the frontal bone of this
' elephant will be found and enshrined in a tabernacle bearing the name Ugintawceti (§sco8gooSgoc8).
' On the western side of the Mallayu (or Rammamallayu) river, and close to the ocean, there is a
' range of hills known as the Kasinapabbata ; there I formerly spent a life as the King of the peacocks.
' On my death my neckbone will be discovered and enshrined there in a pagoda to be called the
' Liyodawceti (co^S^gooSgocB).'
" Thus the Blessed One spoke to Ananda ; and at the end of this prophesy the great earth with
mount Meru as its centre trembled and shook, and the sea became hot and boiled.
" On perceiving these portentous signs King Mahacandrasuriya took alarm and asked his as-
trologers what their cause might be. They answered that the signs were caused by the advent of the
Blessed One (Gotama) ; and on his expressing a wish to go and adore the teacher, the propitious
time for his intended visit was named to him after consulting the nakshatras.
"Surrounded by 1,600 maidens with Candramala, the chief queen, at their head, preceded by
his numerous ministers, Mahacandrasuriya went to do homage to the great teacher. On his way he
experienced great fatigue, and after calling for a halt he took his meal. During his meal he omitted
to eat his rice-gruel, so to this day the place where he halted is called Hingmasa (ooSsooosh). From
that place he moved on. The noise caused by his fourfold army, consisting of elephants, horses,
chariots, and foot-soldiers, was deafening and seemed to fill the skyey dome ; hence to this day that
place is known as Yoppyin (ftSgSs). He continued his journey and came to a large place, where
dust arose on all sides and enshrouded him and his men in utter darkness. As he could no longer
see his way, even there he did homage to the Blessed One. The Blessed One knew about this, so he
sent his aureole rays to dispel the darkness. And the darkness being dispelled the king moved on.
That spot is to this day known as Munbyin Thence he proceeded with great swiftness and
duly arrived in the presence of the Blessed One. He approached him on foot, holding flowers and
perfumes in his hands ; he embraced the teacher's feet and ordered parched rice, garlands, and
perfumes to be showered upon him. The Blessed One established the king in the five, eight, and
ten silas, and preached to him the ten rules of kingly conduct. Candrasuriya became transported
with joy and addressed the teacher thus : ' O great King of righteousness, do have compassion
on me.and my subjects, and vouchsafe to honour my capital with a visit.' And the Blessed One
consented to do so. "
The histories minutely relate all the incidents of Gotama's seven days' sojourn in Dhanyavau.
I omit them here as unessential. The records then continue thus : " When Buddha made prepa-
" rations to depart, the king, who with his court and all his subjects had been converted to the new re-


4
„ THE MAHAMUNI PAGODA. II
" ligion, spoke thus to him : ' O Lord, who is the crown, light, and glory of the three kinds of beings,
" ' if you wander about from place to place in distant countries, we shall have no one to pay homage
" ' to. Therefore, for my own good and that of others, I would pray you to leave us an image of you.'
" The Blessed One heard the prayer and in his omniscient wisdom thought thus : ' An image of
' mine called Candasara was at one time in the country of the DiMri King, so Sakra has hidden it on
' a golden throne ; it is thus that kings can no longer adore it. Therefore it behoves me that I in
' this country, which is more excellent than the rest of the 84,000 countries, and which has been the
' scene of my various transmigrations, should leave my image and hair, which, I am fully convinced, will
' be held in veneration by men, nats, and Brahmans, during the 5,000 years subsequent to my Nirvana.
' I will comply with the king's request.'
" Candrasuriya was overjoyed ; he ordered nine kutis worth of treasure to be collected. When
all was ready Buddha called upon Sakra and Visvakarman, and issued to them the following order :
1 Take these treasures and with them make an image of me which shall not vary from the actual size
of my body even by the breadth of a hair.' He then handed the treasures to Sakra, seven armfuls
in all. They were placed in golden baskets overlaid with flowers and white cloth, and placed on the
back of a white elephant under the umbrage of a white umbrella. With the intention of detaining
the Blessed One just till the image was finished, Sakra and Visvakarman created by their super-
natural power a pleasant pavilion on the Sirigutta hill situated to the north-east of the city of Dhanya-
vatl (Pali Dhannavatl). The pavilion was adorned with every decoration which human and celestial
ingenuity could devise ; and in it for seven days dance, music, and song were held, and the five kinds
of musical instruments sent forth their harmonious strain.
"The Sirigutta hill was so called because it was as white as fine silver and looked like a conch-shell
whose spiral winding is towards the right. The hill was also called Agganutta ; formerly its name
was Trikumbhaw^a because the features of the hill seemed to represent three ogres standing abreast.
Another name for it was Slharaja, owing to a stone figure on the summit representing the lion-king
roaring and devouring its prey. The hillock was likewise called Wakthazo because there was a figure
representing a female hog suckling her young, and Wakthadotaung by reason of our Pra having in a
former existence lived there as a hog-king surrounded by 500 companions and escaped from being
devoured by a tiger—the Devadatta in embryo—by making a subterranean hole and seeking refuge
therein.
" On this Sirigutta hill, King Candrasuriya being then in the 51st year of his reign, Sakra and
Visvakarman cast an image of the Blessed One; the event took place in the year 118 Kosasakkaraj-
gyi. Being desirous of imparting some of his glory to the image, the great teacher breathed upon
the image, when lo! the image was transformed into a life-like one, so life-like indeed that to the
eyes of men, nats, Sakra, and Brahma there appeared two Pras. The king and his attendants were
filled with joy and offered the image various kinds of flowers and perfumes, coloured parched rice,
torches, lamps, cloth from Urasa, &c., and shouted ' sadhu, sadhu.' Again the earth trembled and
shook, and King Candrasuriya, full of faith and overawed by these miraculous signs, embraced the
holy feet of the Blessed One and became lost in rapture. When he had regained his consciousness
he placed the image on a jewelled throne, built an elaborately carved turret above it, erected monas-
teries well furnished with the eight priestly utensils, and entrusted the inmates, holy Rahans, with
the custody of the sacred shrine.
" While the great teacher gazed upon the image it slowly rose as if possessed of life and stood
in the attitude of welcoming his elder brother (Gotama) ; and the Omniscient One stretched out his
right hand, waved his hand, and said (to the image): ' Younger brother, do not stand up. I shall
' enter Nirvana in my eightieth year; but you, endowed with the supernatural powers of a Buddha,


„ THE MAHAMUNI PAGODA.
II
' shall exist for 5,000 years, which I have prescribed to be the limit of my religion ; you shall be the
' means of working the salvation of men and nats.' After delivering this prophecy the Blessed One
continued: 'In one of my former existences I was a king on the island of Cheduba. I broke the
' thigh-bone of a gardener and sliced off a piece of flesh from the back of a young prince ; you (address-
' ing the image) are my representative on earth and you shall suffer the results (Kammavipaka) of
' these two evil deeds.' Gotama then preached a sermon on the Candasara image—for so he named
it. It is the first and only true image of Buddha.
" King Candrasuriya offered the remainder of the nine kutis of treasure to the Rahandas in
charge of the shrine ; but they refused to accept it. The king, feeling that it was improper for him
to appropriate the treasures intended for the Three Gems, buried them under the throne of the
image.
" Then the Blessed One addressed his disciples thus : ' O Rahans, my beloved sons! in the
' island of Jambudipa and among the 16 countries of Majjhimadesa the food offered to the priest-
' hood consists of a mixture of maize, beans, corn, and millet. But in this country the food offered
' consists of various kinds of barley and rice ; such food is eaten by the priests with relish ; my pre-
' ceding elder brothers (Kakusandha, Go«agamana, and Kassapa, i.e., the three Buddhas who preced-
' ed Gotama) have called this country Dhannavati and, as the inhabitants have never suffered from
' famine, this region shall in all times to come continue to be called Dhannavati {i.e., the grain-blessed).'
" Gotama then rose with his disciples and flew through the air in the direction of Dvaravati
(i.e., Sandoway). Flying along the banks of the Dvaravati river he stood awhile on a small hillock,
which is to this day known as the Tantawmutaung. Standing on that hill the Blessed One smiled
and Ananda, reverencing him with the five tokens of respect, asked him the cause, and Buddha vouch-
safed this answer: ' Ananda, I, who am your elder brother, was many a time in former existences a
' king of men in this very city ; in one of my births I was a harmadryad-king on the Pfisurapabbata ;
' on my death my molar tooth shall come to be enshrined on that hill in a pagoda to be called the
' Andawceti. Not far from the Pasura hill is the Lokula hillock, where I once lived as a partridge-
' king ; when I die my namadhiitu (rib-relic ?) shall be enshrined there in a pagoda to be called the
* Nandawceti. Not far from thence, in a south-easterly direction, is the Mumkesa hill, where I lived in
' one of my former births as a Shw&zamari (yak-ox). There a hair relic of mine will become enshrin-
' ed in a pagoda to be called the SandawcetT.' Having uttered this prophecy the Blessed One de-
parted in the direction of Sirikhetra (Prome).
" Meanwhile King Candrasuriya, together with his queens and subjects, celebrated festivals in
Dhannavati, like those of Sudhamma in the Tavatimsa heaven, and without interruption by day or
night did homage to the Mahamuni (i.e., Candasara) image, which was the representative of the
Blessed One. Nine miracles took place in the image-house: (1) The vasundhara hole dug in its
presence could not be filled up with the holy water poured in it by its votaries; (2) when heretics
worshipped, its sixfold aureole rays would fade away ; (3) when the faithful approached the image the
sixfold rays would flash forth not unlike the flashes of forked lightning; (4) these rays flashed forth
in the evening ; (5) birds dared not fly over the image-house ; (6) the precincts of the image-house
were so spacious that the 101 races of men who thronged to worship the image could never fill it;
(7) the tank where the head of the image was washed had the same quantity of water during all
seasons of the year; (8) the trees which grew round the image-house had their leaves, twigs, and
branches turned towards it; (9) the stone figures placed towards the cardinal points kept away
persons who approached the image-house with evil intentions (of plunder, &c.)."
The native records here pass over many centuries in silence ; they resume the history of the shrine
in the eighth century of our era thus. In the year 152 B. E. (A. D. 789) the new city of Vesali was
2


6
„ THE MAHAMUNI PAGODA. II
founded by King Mahataingcandra on the site where the old town had stood. During the reign of this
king the Mahamuni image-house was twice rebuilt; he also erected a new stone altar for the image ;
while consecrating the shrine he was miraculously presented with the celestial Arindama spear {i.e.,
the spear of victory, the fortunate possessor of which could not be defeated in arms). In Sakkaraj
172 (A. D. 810) King Suriyataingcandra rebuilt the image-house, which had been destroyed by fire
one year before his father's death ; he placed the image on a new altar made of marble finely carved ;
the spires of the shrine were coated with brass plates. Priests from Pagan and Ceylon came to
worship at the temple.
During the reign of Sanghataingcandra (B. E. 297—313, A. D. 935—951) the King of Pagan
sent two ministers called Lusaka and Majalon to the Mahamuni pagoda with the instruction to re-
place the stone figures of nats by images of Buddha; but the King of Vesali opposed this change
and only two of the nat figures were allowed to be chiselled into images of Buddha. (These two
figures stand on the east side of the second platform ; they show traces of the old original nat figures
chiselled clumsily into Buddhas.) King Culataingcandra (B. E. 313, A.D. 951) made extensive
repairs to the Mahamuni pagoda and had several tanks dug out to the west of the shrine.
During the reign of King Paipyu (B. E. 326—356, A.D. 964—994) the Shans invaded Arakan ;
the king had founded a new city where Mrohaung now stands, but the Shans forced him to abandon
it ; the invaders then settled in large numbers to the east of the Mahamuni shrine ; they removed
the treasures which Candrasuriya had buried under the altar and burned down the image-house.
In the 10th century the great Burmese monarch Anawratha sojourned from Pagan to superintend
in person the rebuilding of the Mahamuni temple ; he also erected a hall in front of the shrine,
surmounted by a richly carved graduated turret.
The pagoda was again repaired by Asankhara Min, a king of the Pancamyo dynasty (B. E.
448, A. D. 1086); the same king erected a staircase roofed with graduated turrets, leading up to
the north-entrance of the shrine. (The staircase is still in fair order ; the wooden turrets have of
course disappeared.)
In the year B. E. 458 (A. D. 1096) the Burmese King Alaingsithu sent a minister, 500 noble-
men, and 50,000 soldiers to Arakan ; they erected a camp on the west side of the Mahamuni shrine ;
employing good architects they erected a four-sided building over the image, planted champac
trees around it, and repaired the approaches to the temple. After the departure of the Burmese
army King Minthan, of the Pancamyo dynasty, being prompted by national hatred towards the
Burmans, destroyed the shrine built by them and erected a new one.
In the year B. E. 460 (A. D. 1098) the Mahamuni pagoda was razed to the ground by the
Pyus and Talaings, who were then lords of DvaravatI and Mrohaung; the shrine was not rebuilt till
B. E. 515 (A. D. 1153), when King Dasaraja, of the Parin dynasty, had search made for the ruins, even
the site of which had been forgotten ; he restored the pagoda. The temple was again repaired in
B. E. 599 (A. D. 1237) by the first king of the Launggyet dynasty, Alomapyu, but was destroyed
again by the Shans in B. E. 696 (A. D. 1354), who conquered the whole region from Launggyet to
Mahamuni.
The pagoda was again repaired by Sinda, a king of the Launggyet dynasty, in the year B. E.
755 (A- D. 1393).
After King Minzawmun had founded the new city of Mrohaung (B. E. 792, A. D. 1430) he
constructed a road from this city to Mahamuni; he inaugurated periodical pilgrimages to the sacred
shrine, which he put in thorough repairs ; the numerous tanks along the road are ascribed to him.
King Minkhari (or Allkin) had a copy of the Pi/aka prepared in Ceylon and entrusted it to the keep-
ing of the priest who lived near the Mahamuni pagoda (B. E. 801, A. D. 1439).


„ THE MAHAMUNI PAGODA.
II
King Minbin or Sirisuriyacandra made large offerings to the pagoda and ordered numerous
images to be cut resembling the original in the sacred shrine ; these stone images were set up at the
various pagodas in Arakan, especially in the Shitthaung pagoda in Mrohaung (B. E. 898, A. D.
1536). During the reign of the Mrohaung King Candrasudhamma the shrine was consumed by fire ;
the king rebuilt it again ; it was finished in the year B. E. 1020 (A. D. 1658).
Under King Sirisuriya, who ascended the throne in 1046 B. E. (A. D. 1684) a great religious re-
vival took place in Arakan ; the king built several monasteries and Upasampadasimas round the
Mahilmuni pagoda ; over a thousand novices received ordination at this temple during one year.
In the year B. E. 1058 (A. D. 1696), while King Maruppiya reigned, the shrine was again burn-
ed down and was rebuilt by King Candavijaya in the year B. E. 1072 (A. D. 1710).
King Naradhipati had a bell cast and placed on the platform of the Mahamuni pagoda (B. E.
1095, A. D. 1734) ; the bell is covered with inscriptions in Pali, Burmese, and Sanskrit; they con-
tain sacred formulas (mandras) which, when pronouned under certain ceremonies, would effect the
destruction of any enemy against whom the mandra is directed.
In the year A. D. 1761 a violent earthquake partly demolished the altar on which the image
stood and portions of the walls of the outer enclosure fell in.
The kings of Pagan, Prome, and Pegu invaded Arakan from the earliest time, often with no
other intention than to obtain possession of the sacred image of Gotama preserved in the Mahamuni
temple. The first attempt recorded in native histories is that of King Supanna, who reigned in
Prome in the latter half of the first century of the Christian era. Captain Forbes remarks (Legendary
History of Burma and Arakan, p. 13) : " Supanna invaded and subdued Arakan, and attempted to
" convey to Burma the famous image of Gotama from the temple of Mahamuni. This highly venerat-
" ed object of worship has been thus described : The image of Gotama is made of brass and highly
" burnished. The figure is about 10 feet high, in the customary sitting posture, with the legs crossed
" and inverted, the left hand resting on the lap and the right pendent over the right knee. This
" image is believed to be the original resemblance of Gotama taken from life, and is so highly venerat-
" ed that pilgrims have for centuries been accustomed to come from the remotest countries where the
" supremacy of Gotama is.acknowledged to pay their devotions at the foot of his brazen represen-
" tative."
Although the Burmans failed at that time, they were destined several centuries later to obtain
possession of this coveted treasure, which is now enthroned in the city of Amarapura.
In the year A. D. 1784 the Burmese King Bodawpaya conquered Arakan. " The great nation-
" al image of Arakan, called Mahamuni, was sent across the mountains by the Taungup pass, was re-
" ceived by the king with great honour, and was set up in a building specially erected for it to the
" north of the city " (Sir Arthur Phayre's History of Burma, p. 215).
Until the removal of the Candasara image the Mahamuni pagoda was the most sacred shrine
in Indo-China ; the entire religious history of Buddhistic Arakan centres round this "younger brother "
of Gotama; the loss of this relic sank deeper into the hearts of the people than the loss of theii
liberty and the extinction of their royal house. " It will one day be brought back again," the Ara-
kanese fondly hope. The abolishment of this stronghold of Buddhism has been followed by a
general decline of this religion throughout Arakan. The natives totally neglected the shrine ; wild
jungle overgrew the precincts ; in due time the place became haunted and shunned.
In the year 1867 a Shan from LankavatI in Gamboja arrived with his relatives at the abandon-
ed shrine to pay homage ; he had the jungle cleared, erected a square image-house, in which he


8
„ THE MAHAMUNI PAGODA. II
placed some stone images found in the neighbourhood, and paved the topmost terrace ; he also
effected the restoration of the bell, which, after the first Anglo-Burmese war, had been removed from
the pagoda and kept under the court-house in Akyab.
Description.—We now proceed to the description of the temple. The tradition says that the
Mahamuni pagoda was built in the north-east corner of the ancient city of Dhannavati. The walls
of the town are partly still traceable ; one runs due west from the shrine, forming the southern bank
of the creek known as the Mahamuni mraung ; the wall extends to the west bank of the Tharekyaung;
there stands still an ancient pagoda called now the Mrunkyaungwa shrine from a newly founded Mro
village of the same name ; the length of the embankment, consisting partly of earth, partly of roughly-
hewn blocks of sandstone, is 3 miles ; the east wall can be traced for 2 miles from the north-east
corner ; it is overgrown with jungle and represents a succession of irregular elevations having an
average height of 12' with a breadth of 10—12' at the top and 16—18' at the base ; no other re-
mains of Dhannavati could be found except a few old tanks and here and there a broken stone
image of a Buddha.
The pagoda stands transversely across the inner angle of the north-east corner of the old city
walls ; it is erected on a small eminence, the Sirigutta hill, which has been levelled on the top and the
sides cut into terraces, walled in with square-cut blocks of granular sandstone. The whole structure
(see Plate No. 1) represents three enclosures one within the other, the second raised 30' above the
first, and the third platform 3o' above the second. The first or outermost platform measures from
east to south-west 685", from north to south-east 472'; on each side is an entrance leading to the
topmost platform in a straight ascent, io' wide, walled in on both sides ; the stone wall protruding
on both sides of the entrance is 10' high and 7' 6" thick; the niches a and b (see Plate No. 1, fig.
No. 2) probably held originally images of Buddha ; the photograph shows the western entrance to the
pagoda with the shrine in the background ; d is the library built by King Minkhari, A. D. 1439 ; the roof
has fallen in and nothing but the bare walls remain ; it is constructed of square-cut blocks of sandstone ;
e e are two small solid brick pagodas, one circular, the other square, built by the Burmans at the close of
last century ; they are of the ordinary type, without niches and umbrellas (tes) ; / is the large tank dug
by Candasuriya; in this reservoir the head of the Candasara image was washed ; it is said (see page
5) to have always the same amount of water independent of the season ; the tank is probably fed by
underground springs as it was quite full of clear water in June, no rain having as yet fallen ; all the
other tanks are without water at the end of the hot season ; the reservoir is walled in with bricks;
g, another small tank, walled in with stones ; h, ruins of an old stone pagoda ; i is an Upasampada
hall, where priests received their ordination ; a passage leads through the old wall of Dhannavati to the
water edge of the Mahamuni mraung, a small creek, where the baptismal ceremony of the ordination
service was performed ; k and I are the roads constructed by Minzawmun (see page 11), A. D. 1430 ;
they lead to Vesali and Mrohaung ; on the north side of the west entrance (c) lies a huge stone block
bearing an inscription now almost entirely effaced owing to the villagers sharpening their knives and
swords upon it; the few words that can be read are in the Burmese (Arakanese) language and letters,
and appear to belong to the 15th century : for dj, a particle of the accusative case, is still spelled ;
98 (Lord) is written 038 ; 0000825 (a good deed) appears as 000085 ; like all other Burmese inscrip-
tions of the 15th century no accents are used. The text of the inscription cannot be restored (see
Plate No. VII, Nos. 1 and 2).
All other parts of the first platform are overgrown with dense jungle. A dilapidated stone stair-
case leads on each cardinal point to the second platform, which measures 221 by 21T. The
north-east corner is in tolerable good preservation ; it contains a tree-altar consisting of a layer of
square stone blocks 17' long by 18' broad and 4 high, arranged round the trunk of a huge
banyan tree (see Plate No. VI, fig. No. 1) ; toward the east is attached a stone portal with a porch


THE MAHAMUNI PAGODA.
9
4' 4" wide and 5' high ; a few modern wooden images of Buddhas have been placed in it. Tra-
dition reports that Gotama rested under this banyan tree while his image was being cast. In the
south-west corner is a stone slab bearing a modern inscription set up by the Shan Zaya Maung Shwe
Hmon of Lankavadi, Camboja, in the year 1228 B. E. The text is in Burmese (see Plates Nos. II and
III) and the following is a translation : " (This pagoda is) built by the King Candrasuriya in Sak-
" karaj (an older era, not the present) 147. Long may last the religion of Buddha. This representa-
tive (the image) of the Omniscient One, the Lord of the three worlds, constructed in Sakkaraj Koza
" 147 by the mighty King Candrasuriya, that great patron of religion, is likewise subject to the laws
"of impermanence. So when, on the 8th waxing moon of Tabaung 1228 Sakkaraj, the Shan Zaya
" Maung Shwe Hmon of Lankavadi in the Camboja country, together with Mi Waing, his wife, Mi I,
" his elder daughter, Mi Nu, his younger daughter, his son-in-law, and the latter's two brothers Maung
" Ngon and Maung Ri, seven persons in all, came to worship at the Mahamuni pagoda, the niche which
" contained the image was found to be ruined. The Shan Zaya was overcome with a great desire to
" have it repaired. He consulted his wife about the project and had the repairs begun in Sakkaraj
" 1229. In the course of the work it was found that the sum of Rs. 460, which he had brought with
" him, would not suffice. In this dilemma he appealed to the Wundauk and begged of him to receive
" his wife and children as surety (in pawn) for Rs. 400. But the Wundauk would not agree to the
" proposal. He, however, most liberally advanced him the Rs. 400 to meet the expenses. With all
" this aid, however, it was found that the extra money received could only suffice to repair the base,
" but not to roof the image-house. Arrangements were made to collect subscriptions from the whole of
" Dhannavati (Arakan) in order to bring the work to a successful close. The following are the names
" of the subscribers : Wundauk Maung Kala Wa, with the title Dakyizi (olo^S); Dayaka Sandun Rs. 5,
" Tarazin Thadun 2, Sikedawmin Maung Shwe Taw 8, Paw Tun 10, Maung Gale 66, Kyaungtaga Nyo
" Aung 31, Maung Ke 5, Maung Nadawzwe 5, Tarazin Sanzapwe 5, Shan Zaya Maung Shwe Hmon 8 ;
"altogether Rs. 145.
" This money was made over to the custody of the Shan Zaya Maung Shwe Hmon. For having
made these contributions may these pious and charitable persons be free from the three kappas and
the eight apayas ; may they attain to the maggas and phalas, and finally merge into Nibbana.
" The repair of the Mahamuni image-house by the Shan Zaya Maung Shwe Hmon was brought
to an end on Tuesday, the 4th waxing moon of Tagu 1232 Sakkaraj.
" May this work of merit, deserving Nibbana, meet with the approval of both nats and men ! "
The rest of the second terrace is covered with jungle.
A walled-in flight of steps leads to the third platform ; this is newly paved with stones and bricks,
also the work of the devoted Shan Maung Shwe Mmon ; it measures 127' by 98'; nearly in the
centre stands the image-house built 18 years ago; it is 27' broad and 39' 1" long inclusive of the
portale to the east, which protrudes f 3"; on the east side a passage 6' 3" wide and 13' 10" long
leads to a rectangular chamber 13' 3" wide, 15' 2" deep, and 14" high; three stone images of Buddha are
seated on a stone altar constructed of material taken from the dilapidated walls of the lower terraces ;
the central image is 8' high, the two others 5'; they sit with the legs crossed under them, the left hand
resting on the lap with the palm turned up ; the right hangs over the right knee, the back of the hand
turned up ; they wear short crisp hair, very curly, like all images made in imitation of the origi-
nal brass image. The image-house itself is a clumsy brick and plaster structure 18' high with a flat
roof: on this are built five small pagodas, the largest in the centre and a smaller one on each corner •
they are badly gilded and each wears an iron umbrella covered with gold leaf. The passage to the
inner chamber is a pointed arch; two stone altars, on which offerings are placed, stand in front of the
entrance (see Plate No. 1, fig. 3).
3


IO
„ THE MAHAMUNI PAGODA. II
In the north-east corner is the mysterious Yattara bell, an object of ominous fear to all Arakan-
ese ; no one ever touches it. After the first Anglo-Burmese war the bell was removed to Akyab,
where it was placed under the court-house. The Shan Zaya Maung Shwe Hmon effected its removal
to the Mahamuni shrine ; it hangs suspended from a beam, one end of which rests in the axle of a tree,
the other on the outer wall of the platform. The bell bears the date Sakkaraj 1095. The text itself
consists, with the exception of a few lines made up of mystic syllables and words in Burmese, Pali,
and Sanskrit (all written in Burmese letters), of eight large and 38 smaller astrological tables ; the
former are each subdivided into 64 (8x8), or 81 (9X9) fields, the latter into 9 (3X3), or 16 (4X4)
fields ; each field contains a letter or a numeral, being signs for constellations and the calculations
connected with it. As the key to these mystical figures has been lost the deciphering and interpre-
tation of the inscription offered considerable difficulties. The following translation (or rather interpre-
tation) may according to the Sarvasthanapakarawa, already mentioned on page 2, be considered fairly
correct (Plate No. V, fig. 4, and Plate No. VI) :—
" To prevent the inroads of enemies from foreign towns and villages, let offerings of flowers,
parched corn, and lamps be made night and day at the Thitthaungnu, Mwedawngayat, and the
Myotiparathit pagodas.
" To cause the rulers of the towns and villages in the four cardinal directions to be panic-stricken,
let a pagoda, provided with four archways (facing the four cardinal points), be constructed over the
Gondaw dhat (a^GooSoloS) at Gonlatan ; and let the Yattara bell be hung and struck at the eastern
archway, and the enemies from the east will be panic-stricken and quit by flight. Let the bell be
hung and struck at the southern archway, and the enemies from the south will be panic-stricken and
run away ; let it be hung and struck at the western archway, and the enemies from the west will be
panic-stricken and fly away; let it be hung and struck at the northern archway, and the enemies
from the north will be panic-stricken and depart. Furthermore, let lamps and parched corn be offered
to the holy relic on the hill night and day ; let also the Yattara bidauk drum be struck at the relic
chambers of Buddha. By these means foreign invaders will be seized by fear and take to flight.
" If the king desires the destruction of Udarat (g3q$), let the summit of the Udarat hill be
levelled to the extent of 5 cubits and a pagoda built thereon ; a tank must be dug on the north side ;
let the nagataing (dragon-post) be made of a piece of urat (?) timber placed upside down. Let no repre-
sentations of nagas be made ; let umbrellas, banners, lamps, flowers, and parched corn be placed at
the four corners of the tank. Then the kingdom of Udarat will be destroyed.
" If the destruction of Pathan is meditated, let a pagoda be built at Pauktaing or Pauktu ; on its
south-western side let a tank be dug ; let the nagataing be a piece of pinne timber (.Artocarpus in-
tegrifolia) placed upside down ; at its four corners let cocoanut trees be planted. And Pathan will
be destroyed.
" If the king desires the destruction of Maunggot (Mogul Empire), let a pagoda be erected at
Maungzwe, Mritkain, or Mingauk ; on its western side let a tank be dug; let the nagataing be of
prano (§g$o) wood placed upside down, and plant shashauk (gpsogpnS Citrus ?) trees at the corners
of the tank. And Maunggot will be destroyed.
" If the destruction of the Kulas (Western foreigners) is wished for, let a pagoda be built either
at the entrance of the lesser Kulatan cave or at that of a small subterranean cavity near it; on its
western side let a tank be dug ; let the nagataing be of kula.(?) wood placed upside down ; and at its
four corners let pebabwt* trees be planted. By these means all the Kulas will be destroyed.
" If the king desires the destruction of the Palaungs (the English are called in Arakan Palaungs,
a corruption of Feringi), let a pagoda be built on a level of 4 cubits either on the top of the Pale-
taung, or the Palaypaletaung; on its southern side let a tank be dug; let the nagataing be of


„ THE MAHAMUNI PAGODA. II
prawa (?) bamboo placed upside down ; at its four corners let r^roshashauk trees (a species of Morin-
da) be planted. And the Palaungs will be destroyed.
" If the destruction of Yodaya (Siam) is desired, let a pagoda be erected on the top of the west-
ern Yattara hill levelled to the extent of 8 cubits ; on its north-western side let a tank be dug ;
let the nagataing be of yintaingthit (black wood) placed upside down ; at its four corners plant urat
trees. And Yodaya will be destroyed.
" If the destruction of Muttama (Martaban) is meditated, let a pagoda be built on the top of
the Puto hill on the Puto plain, after having levelled it to the extent of 4 cubits ; let a tank be
dug on its eastern side ; let the nagataing be a piece of pran&thaka timber upside down; plant mango
trees on its four corners. And Muttama will be destroyed.
" If the destruction of Pegu is desired, let a pagoda be built either at the Pipin (808) tank or at
Praintain (Boronga island) ; on its northern side let a tank be dug; let the nagataing be of pinka-
thit (Gyrocarpus) placed upside down ; plant yinsh& trees (Lumnitzera rcicemosa) at its four corners.
And Pegu will be destroyed.
" If the destruction of all the Muns (Talaings) is desired, let a pagoda be built either at Raleit or
Talak ; on its south-western side let a tank be dug; let the nagataing be of kalethit wood placed
upside down and plant urat trees at the four corners of the tank. And all the Talaings will be
destroyed.
" If the king desires the destruction of Thanlyin (Syriam), let a pagoda be erected on a level of
4 cubits on the top of either the Thanlwin hill or the Thanlwin taung. On its south-western
side let a tank be dug; let the nagataing be of thavinthit wood (Karun oil tree) placed upside
down and at its four corners plant yinhnaung trees (Vitis auriculata). And Thanhlyin will be
destroyed.
" If the destruction of Pre (Prome) be wished for, let a pagoda be built at Pyin ; on its south-
eastern side let a tank be dug; let the nagataing be of pyinthit wood placed upside down ; at its
four corners plant kankaw trees (Mesuci pedunculated). And Pre will be destroyed.
" If the destruction of Taungngu (Taungu) be desired, let a pagoda be erected on a level of 2
cubits in extent on the summit of either the Anataungang or the Agy& taungngu ; on its south-
eastern side let a tank be dug ; let the nagataing be a piece of kyathit timber placed upside down ;
at its four corners plant paukpanpyu trees {Butea). And Taungngu will be destroyed.
" If the destruction of Puggan (Pagan) is desired, let a pagoda be built on a level of 2 cubits
in extent on the top of the Puggan taung ; on its western or northern side let a tank be dug; let the
nagataing be made of printhit wood placed upside down ; at its four corners plant mayzali {Cassia
jlorida) trees. And Pagan will be destroyed.
" If the destruction of Ava be required, let a pagoda be built either at Onwa or at Anwa ; on its
south-western side let a tank be dug; let the nagataing be made of uratthit wood placed upside
down ; at its four corners let shauk (citron) trees be planted. And Ava will be destroyed.
" If all the people known as the Aukthas (gcoooSooos) (Burmans of the Irrawady delta and south
of Sandoway) are to be sent to destruction, let a pagoda be built on a level of 6 cubits in extent
on the summit of the Aukthataung; on its eastern side let a tank be dug ; let the nagataing be
made either of uhaungthit or ushinthit and placed upside down ; at its four corners plant tikkha-
teindhan trees. And the Aukthas will be destroyed.
" If the destruction of the Shans be meditated, let a pagoda be built on a level of 6 cubits in
extent on the top of either the Theintaung or the Shantaung ; dig a tank on its north-eastern side ;


12
„ THE MAHAMUNI PAGODA. II
let the nagataing be made of thiban or shisha wood and placed upside down ; at the four corners
plant yintaik or yinkauk trees. And the Shans will be destroyed.
" The destruction of the Saks (an Arakanese tribe) can be effected in a similar way.
" If the king's natal star be on the ascendant in the hinnawing, and if the constellations locate
his siri, parivara, ayu bhumi, and marawa (i.e., his glory, retinue, life and territory, and death) in the
Myauk-u city (i.e., Mrohaung), such a place is indeed excellent and should not be abandoned
becaus.e the starry influence exercised both on the king and city is the same. But let another palace
be built between Wuntitaung and Kyaktharetaung (a hill to the east of the palace in Mrohaung);
then the welfare and prosperity of the Arakanese towns and villages will be promoted ; both
laymen and priests will be happy ; the king's longevity will be insured. Shinbyushin, the Lord of the
five white elephants (the King of Pegu), will be conciliated; the neighbouring kings will pay tribute
and be submissive to our king. Foreign invaders will be frightened and repelled by the sound of
the Yattara bell through which the incomparable Mahamuni image proclaims and yields his power."
In the preceding pages I have given in full the traditions connected with the foundation of the
Mahamuni shrine and the Yattara bell because reference will have continually to be made to them in
treating of the history of towns and pagodas in Arakan. To the north of the palace in Mrohaung
(which city I visited before Mahamuni, and ere I had become acquainted with the contents of the bell
inscription) is a steep rocky hill, called Udarattaung; its narrow top is levelled, a small pagoda is
perched on it, and on its north side a small tank has been dug in an almost impossible place ; no water
can ever gather in the reservoir, and no one would ever climb the rock to get water there, espe-
cially as there are large tanks near the foot of the rock. I could obtain locally no information as to
the history and origin of the pagoda and tank; the Yattara bell inscription gives, however, the motive
which led to their construction. " If the destruction of Udarat (a country north of Arakan, now
" comprised within the Manipur State) be desired, let the summit of the Udarat hill be levelled to
" the extent of 5 cubits and a pagoda built thereon ; let a tank be dug on its northern side, &c."
(see page 10). The kings of Arakan, firmly believing in the promises of the bell, erected pagodas
and dug tanks on the spots pointed out by the inscription.
In front of the eastern gate stands a huge banyan tree ; at its foot is a small porch containing a
piece of marble \ 6" long and 9" thick; on one side is engraved what appears to be a dog with a
human head wearing a crown ; with the paw of the right forefoot the figure holds a lotus flower, the
emblem of Buddhism. The stone is said to be all that is left of the finely carved marble throne
(see page 6) for the Mahamuni image, constructed by the order of King Suriyataing Candra (A,
D. 810).
No other objects of interest could be found at the Mahamuni shrine except the stone figures
(see page 5) placed, according to tradition, by Candrasuriya towards the eight cardinal points. Of
the original shrine nothing remains ; the age of the various buildings, inscriptions, &c., has been given
in the preceding pages. It is only the massive stone walls which form the first, second, and third
terraces enclosing the shrine, the large tank in the south-east corner of the first enclosure, and the
stone sculptures, presently to be enumerated, which are left of Candasuriya's temple ; there are in
Lower Burma no other remains which are so well preserved from so remote a date.
On the plan of the pagoda (see Plate No. IV, fig. 1) the position of the stone figures is indi-
cated by a small stroke with a numeral attached ; there are 20 slabs in all; they are much damaged
and were covered with debris and jungle ; 12 are on the second platform, eight on the first.
No. 1 (second platform, north side). Stone slab 3' 10" high, i' 10" broad, 8" thick ; relief from
1—7" thick; the flag on the head points to the west; represents a male figure ; it holds the royal
spear in the right hand.


„ THE MAHAMUNI PAGODA. II
No. 2(11 terrace, north-east corner). Relief nearly effaced, the upper part of the head traceable ;
the small flag on the head points to the east; the head-dress differs from that of No. i ; size of stone
the same as the preceding.
No. 3 (II terrace, east side). Only the head-piece of the stone left with the head, which is the
same as in No. i.
No. 4 (II terrace, east side). The slab is much damaged ; two small figures traceable in sitting
posture; they represent Buddhas in their ordinary dress and attitude, and have been chiselled out
of the original nat figures by the emissaries of Anawratha (see page 6).
No. 5 (II terrace, east side). Nude female figure with head-dress, earrings, necklace, and rings
around the upper arm ; the arms are knocked off at the elbow; the stone is 3' 8" high and i7 10"
broad (Plate No. IV, fig. 2).
No. 6 (II terrace, south-east corner). Nude female figure ; right arm broken off; the left hand
rests on the left knee; head-dress and ornaments similar to No. 4; the stone is broken in two ; 3' 10"
high, i7 10" broad (see Plate No. IV, fig. 3).
No.- 7 (II terrace, south side). Represents a naked female figure in the attitude of worshipping
figure No. 8 ; the stone is broken into several pieces and the figure is much damaged ; over the
head spreads the hood of a cobra (see Plate No. IV, fig. 4).
No. 8 (II terrace, south side). A male figure ; flag on the head points to the east; otherwise
similar to No. 1 ; the portion of the stone not covered by the figure appears, to judge from the hori-
zontal lines, to have contained an inscription, but no letters are now traceable ; size of stone 3' 10"
high, T io'7 broad (see Plate No. 5, fig. 1).
No. 9 (II terrace, west side). Represents the same figure as No. 5 ; size of the stone also the
same.
No. 10 (II terrace, west side). The naked figure of a female ; right arm broken off from the
elbow; the outspread hood of a cobra rises above the head ; size of stone 3' io/7X i7 io77 (see Plate
No. V, fig. 2).
No. 11 (II terrace, north-west corner). A naked female figure ; the same as No. 4.
No. 12 (II terrace, north side. A naked female figure ; left arm broken off; size of stone 37 8'7x
i7 io/7 (see Plate No. V, fig. 3).
No. 13 (I terrace, north side). A female figure like No. 12.
No. 14 (I terrace, north-east corner). A female figure like No. 12.
No. 15 (I terrace, east side). A female figure in the same attitude and head-dress as No. 1,
but without the flag on the head ; the left hand touches the raised left knee and holds the spear ; in
No. 1 the right knee is raised and the right hand clasps the spear (see page 12).
No. 16 (I terrace, east side). Very much damaged ; two small figures of Buddha sit with
their legs crossed under them ; the same as No. 6.
No. 17 (I terrace, south-east corner). A female figure like No. 5.
No. 18 (I terrace, south-west corner). A female figure like No. 5.
No. 19 (I terrace, north-west corner). A female figure like No. 12.
No. 20 (I terrace, north side). A female figure like No. 4.
Many pilgrims from Upper and Lower Burma, from the Shan States, and Ceylon visited the shrine
in former times and kept the image-house and topmost platform in repair ; the interest of the Arakanese
in their once so famed sanctuary has much abated since the removal of the image by the Burmans.
4


„ THE MAHAMUNI PAGODA. II
let the nagataing be made of thiban or shisha wood and placed upside down ; at the four corners
plant yintaik or yinkauk trees. And the Shans will be destroyed.
" The destruction of the Saks (an Arakanese tribe) can be effected in a similar way.
" If the king's natal star be on the ascendant in the hinnawing, and if the constellations locate
his siri, parivara, ayu bhumi, and mara^a {i.e., his glory, retinue, life and territory, and death) in the
Myauk-u city {i.e., Mrohaung), such a place is indeed excellent and should not be abandoned
because the starry influence exercised both on the king and city is the same. But let another palace
be built between Wuntitaung and Kyaktharetaung (a hill to the east of the palace in Mrohaung);
then the welfare and prosperity of the Arakanese towns and villages will be promoted ; both
laymen and priests will be happy ; the king's longevity will be insured. Shinbyushin, the Lord of the
five white elephants (the King of Pegu), will be conciliated; the neighbouring kings will pay tribute
and be submissive to our king. Foreign invaders will be frightened and repelled by the sound of
the Yattara bell through which the incomparable Mahamuni image proclaims and yields his power."
In the preceding pages I have given in full the traditions connected with the foundation of the
Mahamuni shrine and the Yattara bell because reference will have continually to be made to them in
treating of the history of towns and pagodas in Arakan. To the north of the palace in Mrohaung
(which city I visited before Mahamuni, and ere I had become acquainted with the contents of the bell
inscription) is a steep rocky hill, called Udarattaung; its narrow top is levelled, a small pagoda is
perched on it, and on its north side a small tank has been dug in an almost impossible place ; no water
can ever gather in the reservoir, and no one would ever climb the rock to get water there, espe-
cially as there are large tanks near the foot of the rock. I could obtain locally no information as to
the history and origin of the pagoda and tank; the Yattara bell inscription gives, however, the motive
which led to their construction. " If the destruction of Udarat (a country north of Arakan, now
" comprised within the Manipur State) be desired, let the summit of the Udarat hill be levelled to
" the extent of 5 cubits and a pagoda built thereon ; let a tank be dug on its northern side, &c."
(see page 10). The kings of Arakan, firmly believing in the promises of the bell, erected pagodas
and dug tanks on the spots pointed out by the inscription.
In front of the eastern gate stands a huge banyan tree ; at its foot is a small porch containing a
piece of marble T 6" long and 9" thick; on one side is engraved what appears to be a dog with a
human head wearing a crown ; with the paw of the right forefoot the figure holds a lotus flower, the
emblem of Buddhism. The stone is said to be all that is left of the finely carved marble throne
(see page 6) for the Mahamuni image, constructed by the order of King Suriyataing Candra (A.
D. 810).
No other objects of interest could be found at the Mahamuni shrine except the stone figures)
(see page 5) placed, according to tradition, by Candrasuriya towards the eight cardinal points. Of
the original shrine nothing remains ; the age of the various buildings, inscriptions, &c., has been given
in the preceding pages. It is only the massive stone walls which form the first, second, and third
terraces enclosing the shrine, the large tank in the south-east corner of the first enclosure, and the
stone sculptures, presently to be enumerated, which are left of Candasuriya's temple ; there are in
Lower Burma no other remains which are so well preserved from so remote a date.
On the plan of the pagoda (see Plate No. IV, fig. 1) the position of the stone figures is indi-
cated by a small stroke with a numeral attached ; there are 20 slabs in all; they are much damaged
and were covered with debris and jungle ; 12 are on the second platform, eight on the first.
No. 1 (second platform, north side). Stone slab 3' 10" high, \ 10' broad, 8" thick ; relief from
1—7" thick; the flag on the head points to the west; represents a male figure ; it holds the royal
spear in the right hand.


„ THE MAHAMUNI PAGODA. II
No. 2 (II terrace, north-east corner). Relief nearly effaced, the upper part of the head traceable ;
the small flag on the head points to the east; the head-dress differs from that of No. i ; size of stone
the same as the preceding.
No. 3 (II terrace, east side). Only the head-piece of the stone left with the head, which is the
same as in No. i.
No. 4 (II terrace, east side). The slab is much damaged ; two small figures traceable in sitting
posture; they represent Buddhas in their ordinary dress and attitude, and have been chiselled out
of the original nat figures by the emissaries of Anawratha (see page 6).
No. 5 (II terrace, east side). Nude female figure with head-dress, earrings, necklace, and rings
around the upper arm ; the arms are knocked off at the elbow; the stone is 3' 8" high and i7 10"
broad (Plate No. IV, fig. 2).
No. 6 (II terrace, south-east corner). Nude female figure ; right arm broken off; the left hand
rests on the left knee; head-dress and ornaments similar to No. 4; the stone is broken in two ; 3' 10"
high, i7 io'7 broad (see Plate No. IV, fig. 3).
No.- 7 (II terrace, south side). Represents a naked female figure in the attitude of worshipping
figure No. 8 ; the stone is broken into several pieces and the figure is much damaged ; over the
head spreads the hood of a cobra (see Plate No. IV, fig. 4).
No. 8 (II terrace, south side). A male figure ; flag on the head points to the east; otherwise
similar to No. 1 ; the portion of the stone not covered by the figure appears, to judge from the hori-
zontal lines, to have contained an inscription, but no letters are now traceable ; size of stone 3" io'7
high, i7 io77 broad (see Plate No. 5, fig. 1).
No. 9 (II terrace, west side). Represents the same figure as No. 5 ; size of the stone also the
same.
No. 10 (II terrace, west side). The naked figure of a female ; right arm broken off from the
elbow; the outspread hood of a cobra rises above the head ; size of stone 3" io77x i7 io77 (see Plate
No. V, fig. 2).
No. 11 (II terrace, north-west corner). A naked female figure ; the same as No. 4.
No. 12 (II terrace, north side. A naked female figure ; left arm broken off; size of stone 37 877x
i7 io77 (see Plate No. V, fig. 3).
No. 13 (I terrace, north side). A female figure like No. 12.
No. 14 (I terrace, north-east corner). A female figure like No. 12.
No. 15 (I terrace, east side). A female figure in the same attitude and head-dress as No. 1,
but without the flag on the head ; the left hand touches the raised left knee and holds the spear ; in
No. 1 the right knee is raised and the right hand clasps the spear (see page 12).
No. 16 (I terrace, east side). Very much damaged ; two small figures of Buddha sit with
their legs crossed under them ; the same as No. 6.
No. 17 (I terrace, south-east corner). A female figure like No. 5.
No. 18 (I terrace, south-west corner). A female figure like No. 5.
No. 19 (I terrace, north-west corner). A female figure like No. 12.
No. 20 (I terrace, north side). A female figure like No. 4.
Many pilgrims from Upper and Lower Burma, from the Shan States, and Ceylon visited the shrine
in former times and kept the image-house and topmost platform in repair ; the interest of the Arakanese
in their once so famed sanctuary has much abated since the removal of the image by the Burmans.
4


H
„ THE MAHAMUNI PAGODA. II
The two lower terraces are covered with jungle. This might be removed and the steps leading to the
II and III platforms be repaired with little cost. Treasure hunters are at work, especially on the north
side of the second enclosure.
2. mrunchaungwa pagoda.—a small shrine (see page 8) 3 miles to the west of Mahamuni
on the top of a small hill, which appears to have formed, or stood within, the north-west corner of
ancient Dhannavati. The north wall can be traced to this pagoda; it is a circular small temple built
of square blocks of sandstone T 2" thick ; there are really two walls constructed of stone with an inter-
space of 8"; the latter is filled with pounded bricks; the thickness of the wall is 3'; the roof has
fallen in and the images in the circular central chamber are half-buried under the debris; the largest
image is of stone and 6' high; it represents a Buddha sitting cross-legged in the usual atti-
tude ; to the east a passage, with a semi-circular arch 5" high, 3' wide, and 8' long, leads to the
chamber ; the latter measures 9 across. No decorative designs whatever on the pagoda. The shrine
is old, but nothing is known of its history except that it was repaired by order of King Sirisuriyacandra
in the year 535 B.E.; it has been allowed to fall into ruin since. But funds are now being collect-
ed in the neighbouring villages to repair the pagoda, the foundation of which tradition ascribes to the
pious Buddhist kings of Old Dhannavati.
3. Selagiriceti.—Opposite the town of Kyauktaw, on the east bank of the Kaladan, rises
a low but rocky range of hills known as the Selagiri (the Pali for the Sanskrit Sailagiri, rock-hill). Here,
on the summit of the hill, Gotama held, according to tradition (see page 2), his discourse on previ-
ous existences during which he dwelled in Dhannavati and Dvaravati. After Buddha had departed
from the capital of Candrasuriya the king erected a small pagoda on the Selagiri. History reports
nothing further of the temple till the reign of Siridhammaraja ; this king repaired the ceti in the year
986 B.E. (A.D.1624) ; it fell into a state of disrepair again. Ten years ago the villagers of Kyauktaw
began to rebuild the pagoda from the base ; but the individual who headed the movement died within
a year from the day the repairs had begun ; this being considered a very evil omen, the restoration
was abandoned, and all that now remains of the pagoda is the circular base of the projected new
temple raised to the height of 15'. A few broken stone images lie about. On a block of sandstone
which probably once formed part of the throne of an image, an inscription, C long, was found (see
Plate No. VI, fig. 3) ; the characters are Nagari and the inscription is the oldest of its kind as yet
found in Burma.
To the south of Kyauktaw are a number of small pagodas built of stone, usually with a central
chamber and a vaulted passage opening towards the east; numerous tanks and traces of old walls
and roads show the place to have once been the site of a considerable town ; in front of the present
court-house, close to the river, are three huge pedestals, each cut out of a single stone block. One is
circular, 3' high, and beautifully carved, alternate tiers worked in pearl and leaf designs, the latter
either quarterfoil echinus or like the banyan leaf; the second pedestal is hexagonal, also elaborately
carved. The stones, intended as pedestals for Buddha statues, were found at the base of the hills to
the west of the town and carried to the river bank, to ultimately adorn the shrine to be built on the
summit of the Selagiri; they lay there totally neglected. One of them might be brought to Rangoon
and deposited in the Phayre Museum.
From Kyauktaw to Urittaung no archaeological remains of any importance were found.
Note.—The Yattara bell-inscription is referred to in Arakanese history long before the casting of the bell that now bears the
name Yattara; there must have been an older one, now destroyed or removed.


MROHAUNG.
15
CHAPTER II.—Mrohaung.
The most important archaeological remains in Arakan are found in Mrohaung, the capital of the
once powerful Myauk-u kings. The Mahamuni and all other pagodas mentioned in the Selagiri tra-
dition are remembered and visited for purposes of worship by the Arakanese and Buddhists in general
because their foundation or history is connected with the supposed advent of Gotama in Dhannavati ;
they afford, however, few instances of decorative art and few examples of constructive skill.
For the splendid temples of Mrohaung, built by the kings of the Myauk-u dynasty, the natives
have more superstitous awe than religious reverence ; they seldom worship at these shrines and they
allowed them to fall into disrepair; while they contribute freely to plaster, whitewash, or gild the
architecturally worthless Urittaung or the Sandoway pagodas, they will not raise a hand to prevent
the wanton destruction by treasure-hunters of the temples, which bespeak the power, resources, and
culture of their former rulers. The architectural style of the Shitthaung and Dukkanthein pagodas is
probably unique in India, and the two shrines are undoubtedly the finest ruins in Lower Burma. They
were not constructed by the Arakanese, but by " Kulas " from India ; the natives were forced to burn
the bricks and bring the stones from distant quarries ; Hindu architects and Hindu sculptors raised and
embellished the structures ; to the Arakanese, compelled to years of unpaid labour, these pagodas are
an unpleasant reminiscence of the tyrannic and arbitrary rule of several Myauk-u kings.
Mrohaung, the headquarters of the Mrohaung township, is situated in 20° 44/ N. latitude and 930
26' E. longitude. The Arakanese name was Myauk-u, or monkey's egg (the Burmese name for potato),
the origin of which is very obscure. It stands at the head of a branch of the Kaladan river, about
50 miles from its mouth, almost at the farthest limit of tidal influence, on a rocky plain surrounded by
hills. The principal creek is formed of two branches, which unite below the hills and pass through
the town (see British Burma Gazetteer, 423). The ruins of Mrohaung, as we now see them, date
chiefly from the 15th and 16th centuries. Cities have, however, been founded at very early dates on
the same plain. Parin (Barin, Paraung), east of Mrohaung on the L&mro, formed one of the " Catur-
gamas" or "four cities." In the year B. E. 319 (A. D. 957) King Amrathu, a Chief of the Mru
tribe and connected with the Vesali dynasty through his mother Candradevi, who had been raised to
the position of chief queen in the palace of Culataincandra, founded a city 4 miles to the north-
east of the spot where the palace of Myauk-u now stands ; the embankments of the town form a pen-
tagon and are still traceable; but it was soon abandoned owing to the want of sweet water and to
the prevalency of fever, " which befell alike men, horses, and elephants." King Paipyu, a nephew
of Amrathu, selected in the year B. E. 326 another place for his capital on the low hills to the
south-east of the former Myauk-u. Twelve years later (B. E. 338) the Shans invaded the country
and compelled Paipyu to abandon the newly founded city; it remained for 18 years in posses-
sion of the invaders. Subsequent kings built the Pancanagara, Kyeitmyo, Parin (the new), and
other towns on the Anjanadi (L£mro). In the year B. E. 768 (A. D. 1406) the city of Launggyet was
destroyed by Takings and Burmans. King Minzawmun, the son of Rajathu, the last but one
of the Launggyet dynasty, fled to Suratan (i.e., the dominions of the Sultan). In B. E. 792 (A. D.
1430) he returned to Arakan supported by the Mahomedan ruler of Delhi. He ascended the
Anjanadi and, guided by the prognostications of his astrologer Candindaraja, entered a creek to the
west and selected a site between the Shwedaung and Galun hills for the erection of a royal residence
and a city. King Minzawmun is the first of the Myauk-u dynasty ; a century later King Minbin,
or Siri suri yacan dramahadhammaraja, the twelfth king of this line, constructed fortifications, roads, and
embankments ; by his order were built the Tharekop and Shwedaung pagodas. The 14th king,
Zawhla, had the Alayceti and Myaukceti, the Dukkankyaung, Taungkyaung, and Kulamyokyaung


i6
MROHAUNG.
erected (B. E. 917—926, A. D. 1555—1564). Minpalaung (B. E. 933) repaired the Urittaung and
Mahahti pagodas. Minrajagyi, the 17th of the Myauk-u dynasty (B. E. 955—974), raised the walls
which enclose the palace from 9 to 12 cubits and perfected the system of fortifications begun by
King Minbin ; he built the Parabo pagoda and repaired the Andaw, Sandaw, and Nandaw cetis at
Sandoway. Minkamaung, his successor, built the Thuparamaceti, Shwepara, and Ngwepara (B. E.
974—984). Siridhammaraja restored the Selagiri shrine (see page 14) in the year 986 B. E. King
Candasudhamma, to the Arakanese better known as " Pazamin," had the Shweguha pagoda erected
and also the Ratanazanu ceti ; he repaired all pagodas in Arakan reputed to contain relics of Gotama;
he also constructed (B. E. 1038) a new palace within the old enclosures and had his effigy in stone
set up at the gates facing the cardinal points (see Plate X, No. 1). Varadhammaraja repaired the
Urittaung pagoda and erected the Mangalaramaceti (B. A. 1053). Candavijaya (B. E. 1072, A. D.
1710), who reigned 21 years, is said to have constructed and repaired in Arakan 800 pagodas, image
houses, tanks, and monasteries. After his demise no religious or other buildings of importance have
been raised. In the year A. D. 1784 the Burmans conquered Arakan and Myauk-u became the site
of a Burmese Viceroy. A year before the occupation of Arakan by the Government of India the
higher Burmese officials repaired the large tank in the south-east corner, II terrace, of the palace
enclosure and had the meritorious deed recorded in a long inscription on a slab of alabaster (see Plate
X, No. 4).
We now proceed to the description of the ruins of Mrohaung, beginning with the palace. It is
situated on the Taungnyo hill and consists of three enclosures one within the other, each successive
higher than the preceding, the topmost being about 50' above the level of the first or lowest plat-
form. The ground plan is similar to that of the Mahfimuni pagoda; the lines from west to east dip
considerably towards the north, and those from north to south to the east (see map of Mrohaung).
The measurements are as follow:
I terrace : from north to south west line 1,606', east line 1,200', from west to east 1,740'; entering
the west gate the distance from the wall of the first to that of the second enclosure is 140', to that of
the third 237'; across the III platform 656'; from the opposite east gate of the III platform to the
gate of the second 267', to the gate of the first enclosure 440'. Entering the north gate of the
first enclosure there are 233' to the second, 166' to the third, and 879' across the topmost platform;
138' from the south gate of the III terrace to that of the second and 450' to that of the first
enclosure.
The walls are constructed of sandstone blocks of various sizes, well hewn and cemented with
mortar which possesses great adhesiveness ; it was prepared by mixing sand and clay ; to give the
mass the proper consistency pieces of buffalo hide, tails, and hoofs were boiled in water till
it became viscous like gum in solution. The plaster employed in covering surfaces of temples is
prepared in the same manner to this day. The walls are 7' thick at the base, 4' at the top ; in a few
places, especially on the III platform, the height of the stone walls has been increased by 2—3' of
bricks, an addition made by the Burmans after they had conquered Arakan. The first wall has in
many places disappeared, the stones having been used to construct the stone quay of the Akyab har-
bour. A bazaar has been erected in the north-east corner; the village Nyaungbinse flanks the north
side; the north gate is called Mathataga on account of the royal funeral processions leaving the
palace through this gate to the cemetery. The space between the first and second enclosures on the
west side was once filled by a clear sheet of water, on which in former times the queen and princesses
would of an evening disport themselves gaily on the water in their gilded royal boats.
The gates are all completely demolished with the exception of one at the south-east corner, first
enclosure ; the entrance is 10' wide ; on either side the wall protrudes 8' with a thickness of 7^' and
a height of 12'; on the inner side of the wall a thick stone slab is firmly inserted in the wall about


MROHAUNG. jy
above the ground, and a second similar one above it at a height of 8'; in the centre of each stone is a
hole of 5" diameter, no doubt intended to receive the two ends of a beam, to which a swinging door
was attached.
Close to the south side of the gate is a stone slab 4'6" high, 2' io' broad, and 6" thick; on one
side a square is marked out, subdivided into 9X9=81 smaller fields, each containing incised one or
two numerals (see Plate X, No. 2).
Nothing is written on the reverse ; the left upper corner is damaged and the numbers in four fields
are defaced.
In the north-east corner of the second enclosure is a large tank, well laid out with bricks and
stones, surrounded by a wall with entrances on each cardinal side and stairs leading to the water
edge ; it is an old tank, but was repaired during the Burmese occupation of Arakan. On the south
side lies a well-polished stone slab (see Plate X, No. 4), 4" 7" high from the socket, 1' 7" broad,
6" thick; the inscription, in the Burmese language, is very neatly engraved ; the following is the
transcript:
0530<$go§GS8IIOOOq8oSg(^80050 8qc8g0q00gOg0ti nODgGgOMOqeOD5GODo8oDGpCO^M8(q8qOOOo5H<5)^gSgOGC00030COooSo^?n cSgOqiiOOC&olGOOO^S
oo^shcoc88gcooiigo^|Sgoo^Sc^^ii cfjsdlsqaSG^oS" ooSg§G33Do5ooo5n oooo588)ii j^oSoggcfl iioqggoggoSn oc^$o5coo3h
cqo5cooS<^oggonoDggo1c£j»q]ScDOGdlS^ OGoc^SaooSnoSgoSodlS
^H95oHMGGpc^GOODo1cq]Sqoo^ogG€pSiic'l2cqgGOOoS(3§"0$8G^)oS88?^M GpO)goSajn^^GO^j8coSiig^gs5i8c§ii GOOOS»8
COOiigGpODOGOOi'asSQSsGCOO^aSMGCOOf^cBS^Sii^gO^g^iiglgC^SGOOOu GCOSCOGGpC^S" gjoS^Soq^oSnqDCOGOoSjiSu OOSgoS
OD000Oiiq|0gCgq8G0008c1gGpGoT8SC§ll00G^0Sgg0S@08ll GOOO^OOOgOOpSiiOOqDgOqgOgaSn Oo£oS@o5GOQoSnj q5oo8«g)o8n c^oogognoqgo1oo8(§8iiD30^§802o5iioqd88Ggognooo8o^3gl8§u ooSgogGojgoSii
G30oSqo5oGd1o5|| Cg^8GOOOc8GGpS oluO)g^q]Oj^c8iig^gOGgo8Ggo8 ll^iSGOOoSoqgqDiiOofjjOgoSoOOo" G§00S3b.cT8CCgSll0gGp8
OOOaO^OilGqOGOOOSriOgSii iiOOg§On OOGOOOII OOO^GOOOii C^jSsg^'C^" OOqjaSoOSJpHoSgOO^GCOSll OSO^GOOO" G000S3D
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oSsoogcooSscoc^ii ^$gg33G£|q|oSjpii gg§j oodoac^Sso^soqS^godo^odood^oognooocd^^GOgGODOGgoSng qjoSSjg^g
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g roo o^ GOO 0 H <^Sg oqg^ 000 g H as q] o g oogg o] 33 co^
030080086^11 gSso8cq8Gooo8oo^n oo§o3oqjogooGooo8 go" 03^0330008 gon oogoooS 03 gooo8o3o$so3GoooS p@030g$8
qjoSgonaoooof 00008300011 oo5oqgnoOjo58$oGOOogooo$Ggoo$>§S$o5n Goq)Oo5r^3o8GOOOogc5gSii SoooSggcogSnoqoSSjisoo
cgs«« 9 q)o5pqoSo53lgiiccg3igGOoS3oo^so3qjiS«i03ooSoo86gS»8oq8cso38gsGg.oo^n no^c^cqjoSo^gooqq^ggSiiqgS
g^s^gof t^Gqoo^iiGOo6S8g^oogcoooSn oq8G3008@^|gn ooor^goqsG^Sii GgoSgoqgoociioooooqJoSu Gcogoo"] oSoqn
ogooo o 8" 9801 g qdcooo 8 ob 8G5)0 8 GO 8 OgOM § 0 08
sono^[Coj,8Hq|Goaoco^8" oog^soqGooS"9S@oSGocjjSo§MGg|GC98o33oSsii ooSgSgco^ctoo, ^SoUoS^SgSdbgS^SHGgS
gSoo^nqaSoqgJoognaoo^qggqGoo^oaoocftog^ cqOOHCCOSGOGOOS.. o aogSn
OGg)OOg$g............030Ob" oloqooo§Gcogoao88"^83qi53oTGOii^Ggool3iicoSoogooaooiiqoo^o^--|iqggSg3oo^iiGoqjSc§g
aoGaDS^o5u9GOo3GDgOiigSG3303lc9Sii§3goy^ qpgqjSoogg
oliiGOGsaDO^iGOOog^SigJScogog^
5


i8
MROHAUNG.
(goS§3llC^GraD83of{|3C^n33C^38oDn©00^ ..................GolSSajqps
............ODQScgODSS" Gagg3^SGOo5GC03GOD5oo5Go"l6iGJGQo82^GOH G03GC%(§2Ggoo8lla5...............qp3o8ooggo1
............«Co8oCo8ll^o8q|03g0o1^00900O||00^o"ljiSll 0^,0(500110 gg........................CJJ3] OG^jllGOSGOgtSlI..........
..................©CO2e003S3jd3^3llGQc8^803n6GODllCX^G[§r^..........................gJc^dlr^ODO^ODO^GoToOGOOoSlI
Translation.—" This is the meritorious work of Talupmingyi Mahamingyikyawzwa, the Wunmin
of Dhannavati. May the law of the Virtuous last for a long time ! The Immaculate One, the Chief of
the three cakravalas, the celebrated Being endowed with the nine qualities, and whose fame pervades
the space from the highest empyrean to the lowest hell, clearly showed, by means of salvation worked
out by him, the way to the city of glory, that pinnacle of the regions of happiness to thousands of
creatures without any distinction as to caste or creed. In his eightieth year of a life pure and holy,
and after he had passed 45 rainy seasons as an ascetic, this Chief of the Lokas entered Nirvana in
the Salgrove, the pleasure-garden of the rulers of that great city called Rajagaha, a city environed
by five verdure-clad hills whose greenness is like that of the emerald. Four months after this event
the ruler of men Ajatasattu, the illustrious Kassapa, and 500 others of the elect convened the first
convocation, when the threefold law as expounded by the Teacher was committed to memory intact
and entire, so that its pristine purity might be preserved. Since then three other convocations have
been held for the same purpose; an impetus was thereby given to the study of the Buddhist scrip-
tures. The religion has been progressing with splendour in the heart of Jambudipa for the last 2,365
years.
" The Lord of life and death {i.e., King of Burma), the Lord of the white elephant, whose colour
was like that of a piece of white cloth or of silver, the Ruler of Maha-Amarapura and Ratanapura,
the capitals of Tampadipa, Kamboja, and other great countries, founded by the king himself and
decorated with the nine kinds of gems, and which are surrounded by such beautiful hills as Minwun
and Mandalay. This great king, confiding in their loyalty, appointed to the government of
Dhannavati {i.e., Arakan) Talupmingyi Mahamingyikyawzwa as Viceroy (Governor), Nandisena-
nawrata as Collector of Revenue, Nemyosiriyedin as Collector of Customs, Nemyo Balanawrata and
Pyankhyikyawdinawrata as Military Commandants, Nemyosiha and Yedinsihanawrata as Sub-
Governors, Nemyoshwedaungrajakyaw and Sirikyawdinawrata as Secretaries. These officers arriv-
ing in Dhannavati, the western appendage of the empire, proceeded in conformity with the trust
imposed in them to govern the people. Nor were they remiss in their duty to stimulate the propa-
gation of the religion; in consultation with the Zayadaw Gunabhivamsadhajamahadhammarajaguru
they settled religious matters in conformity with the canonical teachi ys of Gotama as well as
in accordance with the rulings of the secular authorities. Now, during the reign of Palaung (Min-
palaung), an ancient king of Arakan, a tank called Nanthagan was constructed within the great
double walled city and east of the palace stockade ; this tank had in course of time become filled
up with the debris of the ruins of the city. Talupmingyi and Mahamingyikyawzwa, with a view
to attaining Nirvana, and in order that all people and all kinds of beings coming from the four
cardinal points and the four intermediate points might bathe in it and drink out of it, repaired the
aforesaid tank on Wednesday, the 9th of the waning of Pyatho Sakkaraj 1183. It measures 90
cubits in length, 90 in breadth, 15 in depth, and 360 in perimeter. In order that it might be preserved
in good condition throughout the period of 5,000 years allotted to the religion, its bottom was inlaid
with stones held together by mortar; it was surrounded by a brick wall, and gateways, gates, steps,
and staircases, facing the four cardinal points, were constructed.
" For this great meritorious work of repairing this large square tank with the intention of gaining
Nirvana, and with a mind well inclined towards the religion, may I, while transmigrating through
Samsara, not be re-born either in the four apayas or the eight states of punishment; but may I, if


MROHAUNG.
19
re-born in the Brahma, Deva, or Manussa worlds, be healthy, strong, active, and powerful as Bandhula;
in beauty may I be as handsome as Kaccayana, that great hero of illustrious renown, whose golden
beauty vied with that of the Devas themselves; and in wisdom, prudence, and foresight may I be
equal to Sariputta, that great Mahathera, whose wisdom was extolled by Our Lord, the Buddha.
And being replete with these endowments may this my body be free from all kinds of diseases, and
may I be as healthy and happy as Pakula. In the possession of gold, silver, corn, garments,
ornaments, and jewels may I be like Jotika, celebrated for his charity, and like him be able to
practise liberality with a wealth that cannot be exhausted. And when Metteyya, the converging point
of all piety and devotion, sees the four sublime truths under the red and fragrant kankaw (Mesua
ferred) tree, may I be the first to adore him; and from his holy mouth may I receive a definite
assurance of becoming a Sammasambuddha, the preceptor of nats and men, so that I may be able
to reach the city of peace with thousands of other beings.
" Lastly, may the merit accruing from this my good deed be participated in by my grandparents,
parents, and teachers, the 101 rulers of mankind each together with their queens, sons, daughters,
other relatives, and the four ministers ; also all living beings without exception.
" May Vasundhara, whose extent measures 240,000 yojanas, raise an acclamation of ' sadhu
sadhu,' as a witness to this good work of mine."
The surrounding walls of the tank are partly in disrepair, and the tank is overgrown with weed
and jungle; within the enclosure and close to the sheet of water are four square stone pillars, one
in each corner, standing erect; they are high above ground and each side measures i' 6"; the
two sides turned towards the tank exhibt the rude figures of Bilus or Rakkhas (see Plate X, No. 3);
in each hand they bear a club; these stone pillars were set up by King Minpalaung (A.D. 1571 —
1593); the one photographed stands in the north-east corner of the tank. On the north side of the
second wall is a large circular well with a circumference of 76', built of stone; it is ascribed to
Minpalaung.
The wall, which circumvallates the third and highest terrace, rises on the north and east side to
a height of 30' above the second terrace and of 20'—30' over the level of the third platform. Nothing
of interest can be found on the latter except three stone slabs (two of them opposite the police thana),
all bearing, in bold relief, the life-size effigy of King Pazamin (B. E. 1014—1046), also called Canda-
sudhamma (see Plate X, No. 1); at the foot of the monument is engraved his name in Burmese
characters oscooS. The walls towards the south and west are lower, less formidable, and the interme-
diate spaces narrower than on the north and east sides, which were to protect the palace against the
attacks of the Burmans and the Shans.
The east side of the palace court and part of the south side is overgrown with jungle ; on the west
side of the first and second terraces the native officials have their houses erected, and on the topmost
platform stand the court-house and the police court. Of the old palace itself only traces of the
walls remain.
From the north side of the fort two low ranges of hills run parallel in a northerly direction for
nearly 3 miles, leaving a flat-bottomed valley between of about half-a-mile breadth; on the
northernmost extremity, about 3 miles distant, the hills approach each other and are joined by a
massive, high wall; beyond is the dismal Pangyi swamp. This valley formed part of the old city
of Mrohaung and contains the most interesting architectural remains of Lower Burma (see map
of Mrohaung).
Passing through the north gate (called " Mathilttaga," or funeral gate) of the fortress and
the village Nyaungbinse a steep, rocky hill is reached about 500" from the north-west corner of


i20
MROHAUNG.
the palace ; on its rocky but levelled summit is the small Udarit (or Udarat) pagoda and a tank
sunk into the rocks; the stupa is square at the base and circular above the bell (garbha) ; it was built
in the middle of the last century by the King Nara-apaya to " destroy the enemies to the north," a re-
medy suggested, as already mentioned (see page 12) in the mandras of the mysterious Yattara bell of
Mahamuni. The pagoda exhibits no ornamentation or anything else worth noticing in its construc-
tion. At the base o,f the hill are a few small temples of the most ordinary type, lately built by the
villagers ; the path then leads to the base of the eastern hill range ; on its west side, about half a
mile north of the palace, is the Shitthaungpagoda, i.e., " the shrine of 80,000 images " (see Plate XI,
No. 5) ; this remarkable temple was erected by King Minbin, the 12th of the Myauk-u dynasty ; he
reigned over Arakan from A. D. 1531 to 1553; the shrine is the work of Hindu architects and Hindu
workmen ; the skill and art displayed in its construction and ornamentation are far beyond what the
Arakanese themselves have ever attained ; the entire structure is alien in its main features to the
native architectural style.
The Shitthaungpara is more a fortress than a pagoda; its obvious purpose was to serve as a
place of refuge to the royal family and retainers. The main temple is built on a promontory half
way up the west side of the hill; the side facing the valley rests upon massive stone walls carried up
from the base of the ridge to the height of the promontory (about 40') ; laterally the shrine is pro-
tected by walls, which branch off from its north and south sides, and connect them with the common
basis of the entire structure, the hill. In old Arakanese forts and fortified pagodas (such as the
Mahamuni) it is always the north and east sides which are rendered the strongest; the Mros-, Saks,
Shans, Burmans, and Talaings usually attacked from these quarters. But when Minbin erected
the Shitthaungpara the cannons of the Dutch and Portuguese had already been heard and felt in
the capital of the Myauk-u dynasty, being, in the words of the Viceroy of Goa, " both rich and weak,
and therefore desirable." The inner passages in the pagoda lead through well-cemented stone walls
of 6—15' thickness and open toward the hill; the vaulted stone roof and all parts of the pagoda facing
the west are in addition covered with layers of bricks 6—io7 high ; the outer wall forms a rampart
overlooking and commanding the valley ; the temple premises can hold a large garrison.
On the southernmost end a flight of stairs, 87 broad, 35' long, and lined with strong walls con-
structed with huge blocks of sandstone, leads (see Plate XI, No. 5) to the first platform lying 16'
above the level of the valley ; a wall, 180' long, runs to the north (with a slight dip to the west) and
meets the south side of the central structure ; to the left hand of the entrance (north side) a square
stone pillar rises to the height of 1 T from the socket ; each side is 27 4" broad ; three sides are
covered with inscriptions in Nagari characters (see Plate XII, No. 10); that facing the east is almost
entirely defaced (see Plate XII, No. 8) and the text cannot be recovered ; the inscription on the north
side is also much damaged (see Plate XIII, No. 11); the lines are very irregular and the letters badly
engraved ; that on the west side is best preserved (see Plate XIII, No. 12); the south side of the pillar
has not been inscribed; the stone exhibits no ornamental designs. Opposite the inscription (marked
c on the plan) is an octagonal stone pillar (see Plate XI, No. 6), 87 10" high above ground ; the circum-
ference of the base measures 72" (9" to each side) ; the decorative designs near the top are in relief;
the pillar contains no inscriptions ; the shaft and base are roughly hewn.
Close to the inscribed pillar lies a large stone slab (marked d on the plan), 127 long, 4" 2" broad
and 10—12" thick (see Plate XI, No. 7) ; at the lower end (marked / on No. 7) is depicted, in
relief, a conch, with the. opening of the convolution to the right; a lotus flower grows out of the
aperture ; the tip of the petals touch the outer rim of the " dhammacakka," the " wheel of the law."
The design (wrought, as already stated, by Hindus) appears to be emblematic of Brahmanism (the


MROHAUNG.
21
conch), which produced Buddhism (the lotus flower), the dhammacakka. At the upper end of the
latter a square hole is sunk into the stone (marked 4 on fig. 7), 5" deep, 2' 4" long, and 2'' 8" broad ;
next follows a circular, cup-like hole, 4" deep and 6" across the opening ; the reverse of the stone shows
only a rough-hewn surface. As the sides (see preceding paragraph) of the inscribed pillar measure
also 2' I believe the stone slab, which must have been from 18—20 long, but is broken off above
the cup-like hollow, to have served originally as a lintel or architrave: the square hole capped the in-
scribed pillar forming the left-hand post of the entrance gate ; the circular hollow received the revolv-
ing axis of a swinging door; that portion of the lintel which exhibits the dhammacakka, the lotus and
conch, protruded over the north side of the inscribed pillar to counterbalance the weight of the oppo-
site part of the slab (now broken off) which formed the actual lintel over the entrance ; the octagonal
pillar constituted the right-hand post of the entrance. The construction of the gate forcibly recalls
to mind the famous phrase " dhammacakkam pavatteti," or (as it is usually rendered) " the turning
of the wheel of the law."
The first platform appears to have contained a number of small shrines, all built of stone ; but
they are nearly all in ruins covered with the debris of the walls and pagodas fallen down from the
upper temple court and overgrown with dense jungle; one image-shrine only has escaped total de-
struction (see Plate XI, No. 5, marked e on the plan); it is circular at the base, with a passage towards
the west leading to a central chamber, also circular and dome-shaped ; the hemispherical shape of
the ceiling has been secured by placing the stones in circular rows, one above the other ; the stones
are quadrangular, at the ends and double as long as broad; the sides form a trapezoid with the
narrower side turned inward ; the cupola, formed by a series of circular rows of stones nearly wedge-
shaped, supports itself by its own weight till the sides give way ; nearly all vaults and domes in Ara-
kanese pagodas are constructed on the same principle. The chamber contains a few broken
stone images; the shrine has a diameter of 32' and a height of 48' (see Plate XIV, No. 13, a
view of the pagoda). Close by are the ruins of another small pagoda (marked/on the plan) ; it is
octagonal; the sides are concave and the entrance faces the east; the inner chamber is filled with
the debris of the fallen-in roof.
Before entering the principal platform of the pagoda the way leads through a vaulted gateway
7' wide and io' high (see Plate XII, No. 9) to a terrace (marked on the plan) 60' long and from 20—
30' wide; it lies 3c/ above the level of the first court; the walls to the west and south are 9 thick,
built of stone, and must have been originally 12' high ; the terrace contains nothing of interest; the
east side of the whole edifice is protected by the steep, almost inaccessible hill.
The central temple court measures from south to north 140', from east to west 225'; the
circumambient wall rises 40" above the lower enclosures to the south and north, 60 to the west above
the level of the valley, and on the side facing the shrine 4—6' above the terrace. On the north and
south walls (marked h and i on the plan) stand at regular intervals circular, turret-like pagodas, 7'
high, with a circumference of 20'; they are built of bricks ; between each turret (there are 13 on each
side) a stone slab, measuring in height 3 8", in breadth 2' 10", in thickness T 10", is let upright into
the wall; both sides of the stone contain sculptures in bold relief; the side facing the inner temple
usually represents a Buddha in various attitudes, the outer side an ogre, naga, or cannibal with
hideously distorted features (see Plate XIV, No. 14) ; one depicts a cobra with spreading hood, holding
a lotus flower in its mouth ; there were originally 24 stone slabs, but most of them have fallen over
the wall on the platform below and are now buried in heaps of stones and bricks ; the small pagodas
have all been undermined by treasure-hunters and are in a very dilapidated condition. The only
entrances to this outer temple court are two gates close to the hill, one to the north and one to the
south. ,


i22
MROHAUNG.
We proceed now to describe the shrine itself; it consists of an inner temple court (marked n
on the plan), a gallery all round the structure, intricate secret passages and chambers in the body
of the pagoda, and a central image-chamber with a passage opening from the east.
The inner temple court is a spacious place, measuring 70' from north to south and 40" from east
to west; the wall, which encloses it from three sides, is 14' high, and 6' thick at the base ; its only
inlet, an arched passage, opens towards the east (see Plate XV, No. 17, showing passage from the out-
side) ; there are besides two openings in the east wall, 4' high by 2 10" broad, also arched, containing
each two images of Buddha with their backs to each other, one figure facing the inner, the other the
outer temple court; these representatives of Buddha were all modelled after the Mahamuni image
(see page 7). Along the wall of the inner side of the court rows of stone seats, 2 high, have been
constructed to receive the sitting images of Gotama ; the latter have all been shattered to pieces.
The west end of the north and south walls of the inner court passes over into a vaulted passage
(marked 0 on the plan) ; it leads all round the north, west, and south sides of the main building ; its
height is 12 6", its width 6'' 4" ; the total length from the entrance on the south side to the exit on the
north side is 312'. The outer wall contains at regular intervals arched passages 4' 10" high, 4' 8"
wide ; they number 8 to each side, plus 4 on the east side, 28 in all; each holds two sitting life-size
images of Buddha ; they are placed back to back, so that one figure looks upon the outer platform,
the other faces the inner passage (see Plate XV, No. 18, showing construction of the arched inlets from
the outside) ; the outer wall is of brick and 4' thick; the inner wall consists of huge, well-hewn blocks
of stone cut over its whole length (312') into six tiers of figures, the corners excepted, which show a
large central figure, the king in state riding an elephant, or the image of Vishnu, possessing four
arms, surrounded by Brahmans and ministers richly dressed. The lowest belt represents men in
native costume, in the attitude of wrestling, boxing, dancing, and general merry-making; the
II, III, IV, and V belts depict the 550 phases of existence through which Gotama had passed be-
fore he attained Buddhahood ; the 6th and topmost girdle shows human figures, male and female, in
praying attitude. At regular intervals of 18' a set of larger images protrude from the wall one above
the other ; one represents Buddha kneeling, the hands folded over the chest; over his head is perch-
ed the Garuda bird with wings outspread, or he is protected by a cobra distending its hood over him ;
the sculpture of the next higher belt above Buddha represents a male or female figure, the upper
part human, from the waist downward fish or bird,; a third depicts a man and woman, gorgeously
dressed, standing beside each other. The lower figure represents the head of a naga, a snake, or
an ogre.
The debris and rubbish have so accumulated on the outer platform in front of the inlets to the
gallery that no light can penetrate to illuminate the latter ; utter darkness prevails, imumerable bats
whisk through the passage, and the stench arising from unventilated ancient bat colonies renders a pro-
longed stay in it impossible. Plate XV, No. 19, shows the south entrance to the passage (marked
0 on the plan) taken from the inner court temple; photograph No. 20 the same, but taken from the
inner corner (z) of the passage, the lens turned towards the entrance ; the figures are much dam-
aged ; the one which covers the corner has four arms (Vishnu ?) and sits in full state dress on a throne ;
a smaller image above possesses six arms; the lowest belt shows the native in his ordinary dress, the
second girdle depicts the ministers and generals in their respective costumes, and above all, above even
the king himself, strut the Brahmans ; the representation is typical of the four castes recognized by
Arakanese kings of the 15th and 16th centuries, namely, the Brahmans, the king, the ministers and
nobles, and the common subjects. Plate XVI; No. 22, shows the corner sculpture of the north side
where the passage turns to the left; the lens is turned towards the entrance (s) ; the king sits on the
joint heads of two elephants, whose bodies flank the sides of the corner ; his wives and children sit behind


MROHAUNG. 23
him on the back of the elephants. Plate XVI, No. 21, represents a few feet of the upper belt of the north
side of the gallery; part of the north-west corner has fallen down, filling the passage and admitting a
little light from the ceiling; the topmost girdle depicts male and female devotees in praying attitude ;
one of the protruding sculptures is visible at the end showing a male and female figure, human from
the waist upward ; the lower part is that of a bird.
On the west side the 8 vaulted passages open into an outer gallery 16' broad with a vaulted roof
of stone; over the roof a layer of bricks 10—12' thick has been laid, no doubt to protect the vault
from the telling shots of the white Kulas ; five wide arched passages lead to the westernmost portion
of the platform (u), covered with a wild confusion of ruins, dense thorny jungle, infested by snakes
and the terrible " soldier " ants ; it forms a bulwark to the main building ; the massive stone wall, 6o'
high, falls perpendicular to the base of the hill.
Close to the south entrance to the gallery is another smaller aperture (see plan, Plate XI, No. 5/),
2' 10" wide by 8' high ; the lintel consists of a large stone slab extending a foot over the sides of-the
entrance ; the walls consist of massive well-hewn stone blocks of irregular size (some have a surface of
1' by T 6" high, others 8—io' by i' 6" high) ; they are connected with firm cement; the outer wall is
6' thick, the inner over 20' till it meets the second winding of the labyrinthian passage (see / on the
plan) ; no ornamental designs of any kind are in this part of the pagoda. The passage runs 8' from
east to west, then 16' to the south, then 16' to the west, opening into a vaulted space 70' long, 9 broad ;
a buttress-like projection of the inner wall again reduces the passage to a width of 3' (by a length
of 5') ; it then runs 8o' to the north ; again a projection as on the preceding corner ; and continues
70' to the east; then passes into the small antechamber ; the narrow opening admits but one man
at a time to a spacious room (marked v on the plan) facing the east; a small window allows a faint
light to enter from the outer court temple ; the photo-
graph shows the aperture as seen from without. On
the west side of the room the passage continues
through a narrow aperture and runs 46' to the west,
then 35' to the south, again 46' to the east, and finally
opens into another room (marked w on the plan) ;
the entire length of the labyrinth is 438'; there is no
exit from the chamber w; it is not possible to enter
or leave the labyrinthian passage except through the
one and only aperture marked / on the plan. Its pur-
pose is to serve as a place of refuge ; an attacking
enemy would have to pass through the narrow pas-
sages in a file, and guards filling the more spacious
rooms could cut down intruders as they emerged
singly from the harrow gangways, and if repulsed renew the slaughter at each corner and contracted
passage ; the outer wall has small air-holes (10" by 10") io' above the ground opening out into the gal-
lery ; they served as air-holes, but admit no light, and are at present choked with rubbish ; the cham-
ber w contains a few stone-images representing Buddha. The ceiling of the lateral wider pas-
sages and of the two rooms v and w is vaulted and constructed with wedge-shaped stones ; that of the
narrow gangways is flat; stone slabs are let horizontally into the walls ; no light enters the labyrinth
except through the small window in room v; at the entrance to the inner passage a sandstone of the
size and shape of a brick was found pressed in between the stone blocks of the wall; two edges of
the stone contain a legend in Arabic characters (see Plate XXVI, No. 48). It must have been inserted
after the pagoda had been built. In the centre of the east fa$ade of the temple is another passage
(marked r on the plan) 3' 7" wide, 3T long, and 19' high ; it is vaulted and leads to a chamber 19'


i24
MROHAUNG.
by 19", with a stone altar in the background, filling the width of the room ; a stone image of Gotama
8" high is seated upon it in the usual posture ; no decorative designs either on altar or walls.
The sides of the inner temple rise only to a height of 30'; they are connected by a vaulted roof of
great thickness, protecting the inner passages and chambers with a layer of stones and bricks about
12' thick; on the four corners of the roof are the traces of turrets or pagodas ; above the west side
of the temple rises the principal spire about 60' above the roof; it is built of bricks ; the bell or gar-
bha is hemispherical; the part above it gradually tapers off into a point; probably the whole was sur-
mounted by a hti.
Near the north entrance to the outer temple court is a small image-shrine with a protruding
portal to the east, a central chamber, and one stone image of Buddha in sitting attitude ; the upper part
of the shrine has fallen down. Close to the northern gateway a large stone slab is let into the wall re-
presenting a six-armed figure and richly dressed Brahmans at one side of it; the sculpture (see Plate
XVI, No. 24) is much damaged.
The temple fortress was twice bombarded, in A. D. 1784 by the Burmans and in 1825 by the
British. The external appearance of the pagoda, especially the western portion, has suffered much
in consequence ; viewed from outside it represents an almost shapeless heap of bricks and stones
(see Plate XVI, No. 23).
The mixture of sculptural representations from the Buddhist cultus and Hindu pantheon, the pro-
minent position assigned to the Brahman instead to the Buddhist priest, and the absence of all
images of former Buddhas are peculiar to the Shitthaung pagoda ; there are no columns and but few
decorative designs ; the images of Gotama have always the same aspect and differ only in size ; the
legs are crossed ; the right hand hangs with the palm downward over the right knee, the left rests, with
the palm turned up, in the lap. The palm of the hand and the sole of the upturned foot show no lines
or lineaments which chiromancy could interpret; many images in Pagan distinctly bear some of the
32 marks which characterize great men (Mahapurissalakkha7za) ; the fingers, the thumb excepted, are
all of the same length ; the tightly fitting upper garment leaves the right shoulder and arm un-
covered ; the garb shows no folds ; the ears are large, especially the upper portion ; the ear-lobe is
narrow and pierced, but does not rest upon the shoulder as is the case in many images in the Irra-
waddy valley ; the nostrils are broad, the ridge of the nose runs in a straight line ; the chin is well
rounded and protrudes somewhat; a benignant smile touches the mouth ; the eyelids are lowered,
the axis of the eyes straight, the arched eyebrows semicircular, the forehead more broad than high ;
the greatest breadth of the face is over the eyes; the hair is worn in short curls, gathered in a hemi-
spherical knot on the top ; the whole figure depicts the meek aspect of meditative repose.
Passing through the north gate (marked m on the plan) the path continues in a north-easterly
direction and at a distance of 86" we stand before the—
Andaw pagoda, the receptacle of a tooth-relm_of Gotama. This pagoda was built between
the years B. E. 897 and 905 (A. D. 1534—1542) by the 12th king of the Myauk-u dynasty, King
Minbin, whose full name was Sirisuriyacandamahadhammaraja; he reigned over Arakan from A. D.
i53i ^ 1553-
The central shrine is an octagonal structure of stone, with two internal octangular concentric pas-
sages ; it rests upon a basement 125' from north to south and 120' from east to west; 13 small circu-
lar^pagodas, built of bricks and massive throughout, stand on this platform (see Plate XVII, No. 25); to
the east the shrine opens into a temple court, which has an entrance on the east, north, and south
sides ; a stone wall divides it from the outer court, which is also circumpassed by a wall. The east
fagade of the shrine measures 3T from north to south and is only 14' high from the ground to the


MROHAUNG. 25
roof; on each side of the entrance are three niches let into the wall, 6' high, P 2" deep, and 2' wide ;
they appear to have originally contained stone figures in standing attitude as in two of the niches the
feet have been left; no other traces of these images, which no doubt have been carried away bodily,
could be found ; the arches of the niches consist of three wedge-shaped stones concavely cut on the
narrower end, forming a vaulted arch when joined. The entrance is 9 high, 4' 4" broad, and 10' long ;
the portal has some decorative designs in bas-relief, but they have become indistinct through ex-
posure. Passing through the vaulted passage a gallery opens on either hand ; rt is 3' 7" wide and g'
high, and runs in an octagon round the central chamber ; each of the outer sides of the passage mea-
sures 20' and contains a row of four niches with a semicircular arch 2' above the ground, and a
second row of smaller niches at the height of 7', four to each side ; the niches hold stone images of
Gotama of the common Mahamuni type. From the inner side of the gallery a vaulted passage leads
from north, south, east, and west to the inner chamber, which is also octagonal; in the centre stands an
eight-cornered stone pillar 40' in circumference ; it gives support to the roof and the central tower above
it; at a height of io'the octahedral wall of the chamber receives a circular layer of stones ; they are
laid in courses, gradually narrowing in hemispherically till they meet the central column at a height
of 12' 8"; the latter has a niche on each side 1 7" deep, 6' g' high, and i' 5" broad, and raised 1' g"
above the ground ; the partly gilded stone images of Gotama rest upon thrones which are all pen-
tagonal, symbolical of the five Buddhas of the present Kalpa (Kakusandho, Konagamana, Kassapa,
Gotama, and Metteyya, who is yet to appear).
No light and air can penetrate into the Andaw pagoda except through the front entrance; it is,
like the Shitthaung pagoda, a temple fortress and place of refuge; the inner portion of the octagon
is constructed throughout with stone blocks ; the roof is protected by an additional layer of bricks
about 10" thick; over each of the eight corners stood a turret or smaller pagoda, and in the centre,
over the column noticed before, a larger one, all of brick, but now in ruins and overgrown with jungle ;
so are the 13 turrets, the western platform, and in fact the whole exterior of the pagoda and the
premises; only the temple court to the east, guarding the entrance to the inner passage, is kept free
of jungle and is still in tolerable repair.
The Andawpara, though built by Indian workmen, contains, in its images and sculptures, not the
slightest admixture from the Hindu pantheon; the images represent Buddha in his usual sitting
attitude; they exhibit no variation in type from the Mahamuni type.
The central tower once contained a tooth-relic of Gotama; the king who built the pagoda is
said to have obtained it from Ceylon. About 20 years ago a Bengali, living in the Allays^ village
near Mrohaung, broke into the relic-chamber and abstracted a golden casket containing the tooth ;
the then Myook of Mrohaung succeeded in getting back the tooth-relic minus its receptacle ; the
tooth was placed in a silver case; an iron, fire-proof safe was procured and the treasure deposited in
it; the key is in the keeping of the Myook; the safe has been placed in the custody of pongyis in
a monastery near the Lokamu pagoda. The tooth is sV l°ng> an broad, and nearly as
thick (see Plate XVII, No. 26); it is thickly gilded ; the graining cannot be distinctly seen. This is
the third specimen of tooth-relics of Gotama I have had the opportunity to inspect,—one in Bassein,
the other in Pegu; all three have about the same size and graining, and belong to one species of
animal. Dr. Frost, the Veterinary Surgeon of Burma, kindly examined the tooth-relic of Pegu
and, after careful examination and comparison, pronounced it to be the fourth molar tooth of
the upper jaw of an ox. It must be borne in mind that a relic of Gotama does not necessarily imply
a part of his body during his last existence only; it may be the remnant of the mortal coil of any
of his previous existences. According to the Jatakas Buddha was born four times as an ox or
bull; we have seen in the Selagiri Discourse that he passed one of his bovine existences near Dvara-
7


26
THE DUKKANTHEIN PAGODA.
vati, the present Sandoway. The tooth-relic enclosed in the Andaw pagoda is not the tooth of the
homo Gotama, but of the bos Bodhisatto, which the devout believers, remembering the prophecy of
Buddha (see page 5), profess to have found on the pasture-grounds in which, according to his own
statement, he lived an animal life of lower order ages ago. Again, the Urittaung pagoda (see page 3)
does not contain the skull of the Buddha Gotama, but the cranium of Bodhisat (embryo Buddha),
who passed one of his former existences as a rich Brahman in Punnagyun (Urittaung). The same
applies to many other relics both in India and Burma; later generations, forgetting the original nature
of the sacred remnants and the traditions connected with them, pronounced them to be relics of the
body of Buddha, in which he lived out his last existence. The extraordinary size of Gotama's tooth-
relics the Burmans explain by maintaining that the stature of the Great Teacher was 8 cubits high
and that the jaws of the men of his generation were provided with such teeth.
The Ratanapon pagoda. Forty feet to the north of the outer wall of the Andaw shrine rises
the enclosure of the Ratanapon pagoda. It was erected by King Minpalaung, who refigned over
Arakan from A.D. 1571 to 1593 (B. E. 933—955). Indian art has not touched this structure; the
main temple is circular at the base, measures 336' in circumference, and is constructed of blocks
of sandstone; it rises in a number of concentric tiers, of which the upper recedes from the one
lying beneath it, to a height of about 200 feet (see Plates XVII and XVIII, fig. 28) ; the upper-
most portion has fallen down. There are no entrances, niches, arches, or ornamentation of any kind,
not even an image could be found. Eight feet distant from the central stupa rises a brick wall \
high and 2' thick, which encompasses the pagoda in a circle; then follows a row of 24 small circular
pagodas built of brick; they are all in ruins; the whole structure is enclosed by an octagonal wall,
8—io7 thick, with an entrance to the south. The temple court is overgrown with dense jungle,
which has also taken root all over the central pyramid. The building imposes by its massiveness ;
in style it represents the ordinary Burmese pagoda ; but the barreness of decorative designs and the
absence of structural skill characterize it as peculiarly Arakanese, and it differs only in size from the
many utterly tasteless pagodas built by the Arakanese branch of the Tibeto-Burman family. The
Ratanapon was erected for purposes of defence and forms a link in the system of fortifications
which protect the approaches to the palace from the north.
The Dukkanthein Pagoda.
Opposite, and about 3007 to the north-west of the entrance to the Shitthaung pagoda (see map
of Mrohaung), rises on a low elevation the Dukkanthein and Lemyekhna temples. They were, like
the Shitthaung and Andaw shrines, erected by King Minbin, the 12th of the Myauk-u dynasty,
between the years B.E. 893—915 (A.D. 1531—1553); they are also temple-fortresses and places of
refuge in war, chiefly for the Buddhist priests, who resided in numerous monasteries built for them
by the same king in the vicinity of the shrines; both are constructed of massive stone blocks and
layers of bricks over the roof.
The Dukkhanthein stands on an elevation 307 high ; it measures 1907 from north to south and
2007 from east to west, and is walled in on all sides ; a staircase, 8' broad, leads from the north and
east to the platform, which is 227 above the base of the wall; each step consisted originally of
a stone block 87 long, 2' thick, and 2—3' broad ; some are now broken, and the position of all is curiously
distorted—the effects, the natives assert, of the vehement seismotic disturbances in A. D. 1761.
The platform is the carefully levelled surface of a low hill; it is not paved and contains nothing
of interest. The main body of the temple runs in a straight line 1067 from north to south, and the
same distance from east to west (see Plate XIX, No. 31); the west side, however, bulges out into a


27 THE DUKKANTHEIN PAGODA.

semicircle, and an additional chamber connects the pagoda with the outer wall; the substructure
rises, slightly slanting, to a height of 18'; the material, is stone ; then follow three cupolar superstruc-
tures one above the other; the whole is capped by a circular turret; the total height of the pagoda
from the top to the platform is 84/; viewing the west side, the outlines of the temple appear
distinctly; on the east side the succession of semicircular contours of the roof is broken by the
dimensions of inner chambers and straight flights of staircases which lead from the platform over
the outside of the building to a vaulted chamber on the top (see Plate XIX, No. 33, section of the
Dukkhanthein) ; the inner chambers and passages of the temple are all constructed with well-fitting
and cemented stones; the upper parts of the structure have, especially towards the west, protective
layers of bricks, often from 10—15" thickness. Over each of the four corners of the lowest terrace
stand the remains of a small circular brick turret or pagoda, solid throughout. The platform is
densely overgrown with jungle, the east side excepted.
It has already been stated that a staircase leads from the platform over the east side of the
temple to a room in the upper part of the structure; the only other entrance to the interior is through
an opening, also on the east fa9ade of the temple and south of the staircase ; it is 8" high, 10' 10"
long, and 3' 10" wide; the lintel consists of two large stone slabs laid horizontally over the sides; on
each side of the entrance lie the fragments of stone images of Gotama in the usual sitting attitude
(see Plate XVIII, No. 30). The passage runs 16' to the west, then 12' to the south, then 86' to
the west; the latter portion widens to 6' breadth, and the roof is vaulted ; the labyrinth now turns in a
curve to the north; advancing 56' we met with a small aperture to the left, only 3' high and 2'
wide ; creeping through it we landed in a small, square, and roofless room ; the walls are of stone and 12
high ; from the floor a stone staircase leads to the roof of the temple ; fugitives acquainted with the intri-
cacies of the dark labyrinth could easily escape from pursuers through this narrow opening. On one
end of the door-sill and lintel of the opening to the chamber is a cuplike depression, intended to receive
the axis of a swinging door; two men could defend the outlet of the passage into the room against
all comers. On the opposite side of the room is another opening of the same dimensions as the
first; it is io' long and opens into a hall 26' from north to south and 15' from east to west (see Plate
XIX, Nos. 31 and 33, plan of pagoda); the roof has fallen in and the debris covers the floor; the walls
are also 12 high and built of large stone blocks ; no images or decorative designs could be found ; this
portion of the building is jungle overgrown. But we return to the principal passage in the pagoda;
continuing another 56" along the curve, the labyrinth then turns to the east, then 86' to the south,
again 7c/ to the west, and a vault of 12 length landed us in a room of peculiar shape; the floor is a
trapezoid approximately; the east side measures 42' and the chamber 15' across; the west wall
inclines considerably towards the east side, so that the room, the floor of which is 15' broad, has
a ceiling only 8' broad ; the latter is slightly vaulted ; to the left of the entrance the wall is
sharply indented and pierced by a small loophole not more than an inch wide and 8" high, opening
out on the first bend which the passage makes to the south, close to the main entrance. Leaving the
room a narrow gangway, hardly 2' broad and 4 high) leads to the second convolution ; this is io' wide,
\2 high, vaulted and slightly ascending ; walking 68' to the west, about 90' in a curve to the north,
and again 66' to the east, we crept through a low passage 26' long with a considerable ascent and
were after having groped our way through over 700 carefully measured feet of this dismal labyrinthian
passage, filled with palpable darkness, with bats, guano, spiders, centipedes, &c., not a little relieved
in finding ourselves in a spacious room pervaded by solar light and breathable air. It must be
mentioned that on both sides of the entire passage niches 1broad, i' deep, and 2 high are sunk at
regular intervals of 20" into the wall containing each a sitting stone-image of Gotama ; the lintel of
the niche is a horizontal stone slab ; no ornamental designs of any kind were observed. From
Plate XVIII, No. 30, it will be seen that the upper portion of the first terrace is honeycombed with


28
THE DUKKANTHEIN PAGODA.
large holes 4' wide by 3' high; they penetrate the massive walls, sloping downward and gradually
becoming narrower; they open into the passage of the outer convolution of the labyrinth ; the inner
orifice is square, measures only 8" all round, and is 8' above the floor of the gangway ; these air-holes
are now filled with rubbish. We penetrated the passages by the light of lamps ; the rush of the
disturbed bats extinguished the torches we tried first; we protected ourselves by holding outspread
umbrellas before us as we advanced against the stream of bats.
The chamber above mentioned measures 28' from east to west and 18' from north to south ; it is
about 30' high ; the roof is a vault slightly pointed at the apex ;. towards the east is a large opening
7' high, 4 10" broad, 6' 6" long, and io' above the floor of the chamber ; two protruding stones assist
the ascent. Plate XIX, No. 34, gives a view of the opening from the outside ; the architrave
consists of two stone slabs overtopping the sides ; the lower slab is plain ; the upper has on both
ends a circular elevation a foot in diameter and 2" high; the surface is convexly rounded and has a
depression and knob in the centre ; the two slabs are surmounted by what appears to represent the
outspread hood of a cobra; the small niche beneath probably held originally an image of Gotama;
the circular elevations on the upper stone slab represent the dhammacakka, or " wheel of the law,"
symbolical of Buddhism ; from this opening a stone staircase (already mentioned on page 27) 8"
broad, leads over the east side of the pagoda to the platform ; the staircase consists simply of a series
of stone slabs resting on the sloping brick or stonework of the main building ; at its lower end the
staircase protrudes far into the platform (see Plate XIX, No. 33); this portion is supported by a com-
pact mass of stones, filling the space between the wall of the pagoda and the platform underneath
the steps. This is the construction of all ascents or descents mediated by stairs in this temple, with
the exception of that which leads from the small chamber attached to the west side of the pagoda
(see page 27) to the roof; here a series of stone slabs protrudes from out the side wall of the room;
they have no other support than the firm insertion of one end of the slab into the mural work. The
staircases are without rails, ballusters, or lateral walls.
On the west side of the chamber which we had reached through the inner passage a staircase
of 10 steps 8' broad leads to the topmost chamber; at the foot of the ascent is on each side a
square stone altar 2 high; upon it is seated a stone image of Gotama of the Mahamuni type ; in
front of it lies a gilded image, 2 long, representing a human figure lying on its face, with the arms
stretched out over its head and the palms of the hands joined. It is the ascetic Sumedha, who lived
during the Buddhahood of Dlpankara; by an act of kindness and devotion to the latter he obtained
the promise from him that he (Sumedha) will in a far distant future also become a Buddha ; with the
appearance of Gotama Buddha this prophecy was fulfilled, for Gotama was this very same Sumedha
in a former existence. The Buddhavamsa and the Jatakas (see Fansboll's Jataka, Sumedhakatha,
Vol. I, pages 2—17, or Rhys Davids' translation, pages 2—30) give full details of this event. The
main points of the story are as follows. " Four asankheyyas and 100,000 cycles ago a wealthy
" Brahman named Sumedha dwelt in a city called Amaravati or Amara. Addicted to study and medi-
" tation, the conviction gradually grew upon him that wordly possessions and pleasures were worth-
" less and illusory ; he divided his wealth among the Brahmans and the poor, and retired, a recluse, to
" the Dhammaka mountain in the Himavanta ; there he acquired the power of supernatural knowledge,
" and while living in the bliss of the (eight) attainments, the teacher (and first Buddha) Dlpankara
" appeared in the world ; the latter, accompanied by 100,000 saints, travelling from place to
" place, reached the city of Ramma. The inhabitants had made great preparation for his recep-
" tion, and were mending and adorning the road over which Dlpankara was to walk. Sumedha
" had also repaired to Ramma. A small portion of the way prepared for the Buddha was not yet
" finished at his approach. Sumedha reflected thus : ' This day it behoves me to make a sacrifice of
" ' my life for the Buddha; let not the Blessed One walk in the mire, nay let him advance with his


29 THE DUKKANTHEIN PAGODA.

100,000 saints trampling on my body as if walking upon a bridge of jewelled planks ; this deed will
" ' be for my good and happiness.' He then loosened his hair, and spreading in the inky mire his her-
" mit's skin mantle, roll of matted hair, and garment of bark, he lay down in the mire like a bridge of
" jewelled planks, with the firm resolution to become a Buddha by allowing the Buddha to walk over his
" outstretched body which covered the breach in the road. The blessed Dipankara having reached the
" spot, and beholding the hermit Sudhema lying in the mire, thought to himself: ' This hermit who
" lies here has formed the resolution to be a Buddha ; will his prayer be fulfilled or not ? ' And casting
" forth his prescient gaze into the future, and considering, he perceived that four asankheyyas and
" 100,000 cycles from that time he would become a Buddha named Gotama."
The most interesting feature in this tradition is that the Arakanese believe Rammanagara to
have been a town in the ancient kingdom of Dhannavati (Arakan) ; the " Paccantadesavisaye, in
the region of the border districts," they consider as referring to their own native-land. In the history
of Arakan a Ramanagara (now Ramu) is often mentioned as being within the dominions of the
rulers of Myauk-Q. This is one of the many instances of historical after-thoughts on part of recent
. compilers of indigenous records. Many events and entire episodes recorded in Indian Buddhist
annals as having transpired in RamavatI, Kusinanagara, Hamsavati, &c., were made to take place in
Burma because a region or town of the same name (albeit of modern origin) happened to be found
in it. Next to Buddha Gotama, Dipankara is of all other Buddhas held in the highest veneration
because of his visit to Ramma. In the present Pegu district Dipankara is supplanted by the 13th
Buddha Padumuttara because the Buddhavamsa states that " his city " was Hamsavati (tassa
nagaram" Hamsavati nama ahosi) ; Hamsavati is the classical name of Pegu, and hence the native
chroniclers inferred Padumuttara to have been a Talaing born in Pegu. Worthless though these
inferences be, yet it is expedient to take careful cognizance of them as they explain many peculiar
features and local colouring in the Buddhist pantheon and worship in Burma. In Plate XXVIII,
No. 57, Sumedha is depicted as he lay prostrate on the ground to serve as a bridge ; the image has
been placed upright to afford a better view of the body and features.
The thrones upon which the figures are placed consist of square-hewn stones and exhibit no
decorative designs. The topmost chamber is oblong and measures 20'by 14'; the height is 24'; the
room is ellipsoid in outline ; at the base the walls rise perpendicular to a height of 16'; then follow
four square equidistant air-holes on the south and north sides of the room ; the roof is dome-shaped ;
the stones are laid in ellipsoid courses ; the stones which form the two opposite curves of the ellipse are
thicker than those of the sides, which -results in the ellipsis gradually passing over into a circle,
narrowing in and finishing off in a rounded central stone in the apex. A few broken images of stone
lie about in the chamber ; the lintel of the doorway is a stone slab laid horizontally.
The interior of this gloomy temple is throughout in good order; nothing save a terrible earth-
quake or a continued bombardment can disturb the compactness of such masses of well-fitted and
cemented stones mantled with thick strata of bricks ; the latter have been considerably distorted by
creepers and the roots of jungle trees which forced themselves through them ; the exterior of the
west side of the pagoda is completely in ruins.
No use whatever is made of this temple fortress ; the natives do not venture to enter the laby-
rinth ; a superstitious awe impels them to avoid even approaching it. The peculiar features of the
Dukkhanthein, or " shrine of misery," are the absence of decorative designs, the intricate construction
of the interior and the means employed to render the shrine indestructible. I know of no prototype
of this probably unique structure.


3°
THE LEMYEKHNA PAGODA.
The Lemyekhna Pagoda.
To the north-west of the Dukkanthein and at a distance of 150' is the Lemyekhna, or " the four-
sided pagoda ;" it was erected by order of King Minbin between the years A. D. 1531 and 1553. It
is a square structure, with a far protruding portal towards each cardinal point (see Plate XIX, No. 32) ;
the interior room is octagonal; in the centre of the latter is an octahedral column intended to sup-
port the circular tower erected over the centre of the roof; over each corner of the latter a smaller
circular tower or pagoda has been built; the whole structure is enclosed by a wall, leaving a spacious
platform, now overgrown with jungle ; the exterior of the pagoda is much damaged, the interior in
fairly good order.
Each side of the square of the shrine measures 52'; the portals are 13' broad and protrude
into the platform ; the passage leading to the chamber is vaulted, 3' io// wide, io' high, and 20' 4"
long ; four stone steps lead from the outside to each entrance ; the outer perpendicular walls are 20'
high from the platform to the roof; the whole square is constructed of stone blocks, tightly fitting
and cemented ; the small turret is built of brick 7—8' high and 30' circumference round the base ;
they are bell-shaped. The central tower is circular, has the shape of a dome, with a circumference of
8o' at the base ; it is constructed of stone and appears to be massive throughout. Each side of the
octagonal chamber within the square measures 16' 5". Each alternate side contains three niches 5"
high, 2 3" broad, and T 6" deep, holding a sitting image of Buddha of the Mahamuni type ; the other
sides of the octagon have only two such niches, one on each side of the entrance ; the width between
the outer wall of the room and the octagonal central column, which is constructed of bricks, is 17',
the height 14"; the passage has a vaulted ceiling ; the sides of the column are concave, measuring 9'
7" each ; in each concavity is fitted a plain stone altar, with a convex outer side 3' 6" high ; nearly all
the images seated on these thrones are demolished ; they are representations of Gotama Buddha of
the same type as those of the Shitthaung pagoda; they differ only in size ; there are no ornamental
designs of any kind. The platform is not paved ; the enclosing wall is built of stone with a layer of
bricks on it (for plan see Plate XIX, No. 32). Plate XIX, No. 35, shows the south-east corner of
the temple.
At present no use is made of this pagoda ; it is totally neglected.
The Andaw (see page 24), Shitthaung (see pages 20—24), and Dukkanthein pagodas are struc-
tures peculiar to Mrohaung ; they can, as far as I know, not be assigned to any known prototype, not
even in Pagan can a structure of this nature be found. The Ratanapon (see page 26) may have
for its pattern the ordinary Talaing pagoda, such as the Shwesandaw in Pegu city and the Shwe
Dagon pagoda in Rangoon ; the Lemyekhna is an imitation of temples of a similar style common
in the ancient and modern capitals of Burmese monarchs.
We now pass over to a more modern group of pagodas in Mrohaung; their architectural style is
the same as that of the ordinary Burmese temple east of the Arakan Yoma ; it may be briefly describ-
ed as a spire, massive throughout, rising from a circular, square, or octagonal basis, in a succession
of tiers, belts, or circles, of which the upper is always narrower than the one immediately beneath it,
tapering gradually off to a point at a height which is usually one and a half or twice that of the diame-
ter of the base. Porches are attached to the sides or niches led into the wall to receive images ; the
whole is surmounted by a " ti " or umbrella of iron, often gilded, consisting of a number of concentric
hoops or rings rising in ever-narrowing circles, finishing off in a long iron rod which rises con-
siderably above the ti; to the upper end is often fastened a glass ball. (That glass is a non-con-
ductor of electricity seems to have been known in Ceylon and Burma from ancient times.) The
sides of the rod are barbed with pennans ; the lower end pierces the topmost ring and is inserted in


PITAKATAIK.
31
a strong wooden post, which carries the ti and is perpendicularly thrust down through the apex deep
into the body of the pagoda ; the lower end of the pole is fitted into a hole cut through the middle of
a stone slab laid horizontally on the brick or stone-work and burdened with the superincumbent
weight of that portion of the spire which lies between the stone slab and the apex.
There is, however, that marked difference between the pagodas of Mrohaung and their Burmese
prototype that the former are built of stone, the latter of bricks; all ornamental designs on the former
are wrought on the unplastered stone, whereas on the latter decoration is executed on the plaster-
coating of the bricks while it is still soft. In durability, architectural skill, and ornamentation the
Mrohaung temples far surpass those on the banks of the Irrawaddy. A brick temple is ancient when
50 monsoons have passed over it and becomes a complete ruin if not repaired ; the stucco must be
renewed every two or three years; the stone pagodas in Mrohaung were built three and four centuries
ago, and many have been totally neglected for the last 150 years ; the sides of the ponderous stone
blocks fit compactly and are joined with cement, thus resisting the absorption of moisture, the pene-
trating force of the tenacious creepers, and the roots of ficus, which are capable of reducing a brick
pagoda in a few years to a number of detached, shapeless heaps of bricks.
King Narapatigyi, who reigned between the years A. D. 1638 and 1645, and King Candasu-
dhamma, the 23rd of the Myauk-u dynasty, who ruled between A. D. 1652 and 1684, erected the
following temples,—the Tipitakataik, a receptacle for the Buddhist scriptures ; the Mangalamaraung
(«8cofel§©33o8), Jinamaraung (8)^>o1^gj»o8), Sakyamaraung (od@1^co3o6), Ratanamaraung (qoo$o©l£[
©3do8)? Lokamaraung (©cooodo"!^©asoS), Dipayon pagoda (So^sajeps), Limpanhmaung (c6So§gGgo6
©}Gps), and the Anoma shrine (33©$o©:q©ps).
Of these temples the Pitakataik, the Limpanhmaung, Dipayon, Anoma, and Mangalamaraung
are situated in the same valley as the Shitthaung pagoda and to the north of the latter. About half
a mile to the north of the Dukkanthein is the—
PITAKATAIK (Bc^oS).
The building was used as a depository for the Buddhist scriptures ; it measures 14' from east to
west and io7 from north to south ; it is built entirely of stone (see Plate XX, No. 36) ; the base is square
and the main body of the structure widens in a curved line towards the top, so that the upper
part is broader and wider than the fundament; height from ground to roof g ; the entrance, an arched
passage, opens towards the east; only the north wall is now standing; the other three sides and the
roof have fallen in ; the latter, to judge from the shape of the stones scattered about, must original-
ly have been a hemispherical cupola.
The Buddhist scriptures, commentaries and scholia, which Narapatigyi had received from Ceylon
were deposited in this receptacle.
Plate XX, No. 36, gives the details of the decorative designs of one-half of the north side ; the other
half is its exact counterpart. Style of structure and ornamentation is purely Burmese ; the prototype
seems to be the wooden frame, decked out with carved and decorated sideboards, which holds the
body of a defunct priest, or other person of note, prior to being burned or interred ; such biers can be
seen at nearly every funeral in Burma, and it is probable that the Arakanese^ copied from this model
and wrought the designs on stone, in relief \ an inch high ; the coloured leaf-shaped tablets consis
of burned clay, glazed on one side, stained in fresh bright colours, red, green, blue, yellow, white, and
let into a closely fitting impression on the surface of the stone.
The building is rather top-heavy ; to give stability to the upper portion, the architects constructed
the base with heavy thick blocks of stone, which gradually become thinner but longer as they ap-
proach the roof, so that the uppermost course consists of only two thin slabs, the ends of which
meet in the centre of the side. This precaution appears not to have had the desired effect; the roof


32 THE MANGALAMARAUNG PAGODA.
pressed the walls asunder, the latter falling forward, with the exception of the north wall. â–  The
construction of the building in stone is faulty throughout and impractical. There is a similar shrine,
with the same exquisite carving in stone, in the Launggyet circle (see Kado shrine, Chapter III).
Fifty feet to the north of the Pitakataik is a brick wall about 4 high and 2' thick ; it runs from
south-east to north-west across the bottom of the valley between the base of the eastern and western
hill range ; the wall is very dilapidated and was erected by the Burmans during the first war with the
British, after the latter had occupied the heights of Shwedaung and the palace ruins ; they made their
last stand behind this defence and then fled through the Chinkait gate, which closes the north side
of the valley.
A few yards to the north of the walls begins the enclosure of the—
LIMPANHMAUNG PAGODA,
also called Limpanpyaungpara. The wall, which surrounds the spacious but now jungle-covered
temple-court, is built of stone blocks ; the outer surface of it is divided into square fields by a series of
perpendicular lines, formed by the stones projecting an inch out of the wall; in the centre of each
is a rosette, consisting, similar to those on the Pitakataik, of eight coloured clay tablets, red, yellow,
blue, and green alternately, with a w'hite centre ;• the diameter of the ornament is i' 8"; the wall is
still in tolerably good repair. An opening from the east and one from the west leads to the platform
raised about 6' above the level of the surrounding ground ; the court is not paved. The massive
stone pagoda in the centre is an octagonal pyramid ; each side measures at the base 33' and
rises in ever-receding tiers to a height of about 120"; there is no ti at the top and not a single
ornamental design on the body of the pagoda. On the first tier, in the middle of each of the
eight sides, stood originally a porch consisting of two square pillars forming the sides of the porch;
they are a foot broad all round and 2' 8" high; the architrave is a block of stone 5' long and P 5"
high; this is again surmounted by a third piece 3' high; each niche contained an image of Gotama,
but they have been removed. The outer surface of the appendage displays an exquisite pattern of
carving in stone (see Plate XX, No. 37) ; the design is in the main features the same as the ornamental
plaster work on shrines built by Burmans or Talaings. The pagoda has no other openings or niches ;
it is in fairly good order; no use of it is made at present.
Fifty steps to the north are the ruins of the D'tpayon shrine; the base is octagonal; the upper part
has fallen down; the material is stone; the spacious temple court is surrounded by a wall in disrepair; to
the east is a tank, now filled with rubbish and vegetation, and the traces of the avails of a square
sima or ordination hall for Buddhist priests ; nothing of interest could be found about these ruins ;
A stone's throw to the east is another partly ruined stone pagoda with enclosing wall; the base and
first four tiers are octagonal; the next four are square and the upper circular; no ti surmounts the
apex ; the circumference of the pagoda measures 160'; it is devoid of all ornamentation or other objects
of interest.
MANGALAMARAUNG PAGODA.
Half a mile to the west of the Dipayonpara is an octagonal solid stone spire, without por-
ches, niches, or ornamental work; it is overgrown with dense jungle. The pagoda was built, as
already stated, by Narapatigyi between the years 1638 and 1645 A. D. On the south side of the
stupa are four stone slabs covered on one side with Burmese inscriptions; one is completely defaced,
the other three are tolerably well preserved (see Plates XXI, XXII, and XXIII). The records bear
the date B. E. 1078 and 1080 (A. D. 1720 and 1722) and were set up by King Candavijaya, the
34th of the Myauk-u dynasty ; though in Arakanese history called an usurper, he styles himself in
the inscription " great-great-grandson of Narapatigyi," who erected the Mangalamaraung pagoda.


THE MANGALAMARAUNG PAGODA. 33
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9


34
THE MANGALAMARAUNG PAGODA.
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oo^coo5f8©a>o8^9Co§o83GG^oc8co^G8c^8oq8oo5jk83^gc8aq]...................................
The inscriptions are damaged in several places; the stone is a dark gray sandstone ; they
are 3' 6" high by 2' 8" broad and 10" thick. The following is a translation of the text: "On
day, the 7th waning of Kason sakkaraj 1073, the King (Candavijaya), following in the wake of his
great-great-grandfather Narapatigyi, the builder of the Ratanarama monastery, erected on its site
the Ratanatejo cloister. And he, for the maintenance of this monastery, set apart these lands
situated in the villages of Musanagyisindan Kwuntapmyinmo (tjG>togaoSoo$g$ooSgSl}8») and Habara
(coocpn),—10 paddy-fields bounded by the Kacchabhanadi (Kaladan river) on the east, by Ganzwun-
kyaung (ro$g§Gsp8) on the south, by Mingan (oSro$) on the west, and by the Ginkyaung (ooScspc)
on the north, three paddy-fields bounded by the Ganzwunkyaung (oo$§$©q]DS) on the south, by the
Myinmoyuakyaung (§8£}8qoesj]o8) on the north, by the Nabinkyaung (^o8Gqjo8) on the west, and by
the Legyawyuakyaung (eco©@5§pcqp6) on the east; one paddy-field bounded by Ganzwunkyaung
(oD$g$Gsjp8) on the south, by Habaranlay (a>oqo$cooo) on the north, by the Nabinkyaung (^o£©sjo8)
on the east, by Gambaingkyaung on the west; 10 paddy-fields bounded by Byinteimlambaw,
(gSc8Sco topkatthingyilay (©ScooGpogogSooScwSo^coGS) on the west, by Nawinkyaung (^oSe^oB) on the east ;
one paddy-field bounded by the Dawgigyawkvaung on the west, by the headwaters of the Baw-
shwekyaung (^ScgjGqjoSy on the norm, Dy Myinbawnanlay (§8S}8$$cooS) on the east, by the Kyaung-
tet (csjp8©ooo5) on the south; 20 paddy-fields bounded by the Zeitkyaung (=8oSg^o8) and
Danbaungthingyilay (00$Gooo6c»&i)~oo5) on the east, by the Thittavakkyaung (odSodocSgsjoS) and
Thaunglonyanpyawtaungsananlay (coDo8cq$©§(§8Gooo8oos$$:oo5) on the north, by Ganzwunkyaung
(£) and Kumarathingyilay (cqooqooSo^DoaS) on the west, and also by the Kumarathingyilay
on the south; three " kyaungs " (©qp8) of paddy-fields, bounded by Kumarathingyilay (oqooqoDfi^
cooS) on the east, by Nantetzayathingyilay ($$ooc8;aoqDa>&j)couS) 0n the south, by the Zeitkyaung
(a8o5cqp8) on the west, by Gwunthibinlampit (og one bek bounded on the north by the Mun village Inbuttwing (oofiqoSogS), situated to the
right of Einshyedapyawbanbi (sSSgjooSgoooo^cS), on the south by Nadaunggyakyaung (^coDoScq)
cqp6), on the east by hills, on the north and west by Inbutkyaung (335go5cqp5). These paddy-
fields number in all 52 shin (ajgS) 3 pava (ool) and 1 kyaung (gsj]o8).
" On day, the 7th waning of Kason sakkaraj 1080, the Ratanarama monastery of (the
king's) great-grandfather Narapatigyi and originally built by King Gaung (Min Gaunggyi ? A. D. 1206),
was now rebuilt and completed within a month. The king, being engaged in war, led his army to
Urittaung and encamped on the summit of the Urittaung (pagoda) hill.
" In the middle of the island (of Punnagyun), in Dawbaswinnyun (e^oigSg^ ?), there are 10
paddy-fields bounded on the east by Dokyaung (©ooocsjoS), on the south by the Thaukkyakyaung
(cDoooSgocqjoS), on the west by the Gyeinkyaunggyi (gScqpSg), on the north by the Thingabha-
thugyikaung (oDfiooooqgGsjpS) ; one paddy-field belonging to Kawyanthugyizaya (r^Sq^ajgaoep)
bounded on the east by the Linthatgyikyaung (coSoooSgcqpS), on the north and west by Dagya-
kyaung (ooiajjesjoS), on the south by Hnetgyikyaungmayaw (gc6gscsp£ofjiS) ; 17 paddy-fields less


35 THE MANGALAMARAUNG PAGODA.
one bek (oooS); 20 paddy-fields bounded on the east by Dagyakyaung (oosoqjcsfloS), on the
south by the field of Nitdizaya singyi (^SSssoGpcofi^) and Taungyualampit (eocoSgpcoSoS), on the
west by Mingoloplay («6c§8cq8^oS) and Bonyuekgyakyaung (c^cScrRcsfloS), on the north by the
ridge between Kyaungsaukyetho (©sfloSccooS©qc£}8), and Gyekgyayomo (go5oq]©cp38)."
Translation of the second stone inscription is a continuation of the first: " These paddy-fields
" number 60 in all; they, together with the monasteries, pagodas, images, gardens, tanks, fruits, trees,
" and any sanghika property (i.e., belonging jointly to the priesthood) shall not be appropriated or des-
" troyed by others. Whosoever, be he a priest, disciple, townsman, minister, or countryman, looks on
" these grants with an envious eye, or, being actuated by avaricious motives, either destroys or insti-
" gates to be destroyed, may such an offender be smitten to death by the nat who keeps watch over the
" person of the Buddha, who is revered in the three abodes, who practised, during four asankheyyas and
" 100,000 kalpas, and often under adverse circumstances, the 10 paramitas beginning with Dana and
" ending with Upekha.
" Or may such an offender be killed by the nat who keeps guard over the holy molar and canine
teeth (of Buddha), the Bodhi tree, and the holy shrines in heaven and earth for 5,000 years, which is
the period allotted for the duration of the religion. Or may he be killed by the nat who guards
and protects Buddha's disciples, the blessed Ariyas, who have attained to the Magga/Zhanas and
PhalaZZhanas. Or may he be destroyed by Sakka, the lord who rules over Meru, Sattaparcwa
(Echites scholaris), Yugandhara, the Sun, and the Moon. Or may he be killed by the four Maharaja
nats, well known to all. Or by the four Lokapala nats, who keep guard over the world of men.
Or by the four Asura nats, who are fierce and false, and addicted to intoxication. Or by the other
nats who keep guard over the four great islands together with the 20,000 lesser islets. May he,
during the whole of the present kalpa, not be reborn even as a common ant or a red sour ant; may
he not be saved though hearing the law preached by the Buddha who will appear in the future. May
he be born as a being whose nature is that of the submarine stump called the Bosamsarakharaka
(GolcDaDoqolqco). And even in this his present existence may he be afflicted with leprosy, deafness,
epilepsy, hysterics, dulness of the head, dumbness, and may he suffer from the malice of others."
The third inscription is short and the lower portion of the text is defaced: " On Saturday, the
" seventh waning of sakkaraj 1080 the king erected the Ratanatejorama monastery
"for the abode of the preceptor of his mother, the Northern Queen; it is built on the site of the
" Ratanarama monastery founded by his great-great-grandfather, the King Narapatigyi. For the
" maintenance of the preceptor and his disciples residing in the abovenamed monastery the following
" lands, forming a part of Mundawgyi (^e^gg), situated in Tapkyaukdahlab& (ooScoqpoSocqeoo), near
" the northern pagoda, are set apart: Twenty paddy-fields bounded on the east by Shwezinga (g§|o>u5),
" on the west by Sekkalampit (coo5oodco8o8), on the north by Waptinat (oScB^oS), on the south by
" Paragyaw toqp^Q3) and Lekthakyaung (coo8coD©qp£). Further, 17 paddy-fields, bounded on
"the east by Singa (o>o5o), on the west by Yankyaung (c$eqp8 or Ǥ), on the south by Kyaukhlega-
" kyaung (coqpo8ecga>:>s©qp8»), on the north by Thekkyaung (coo5®cpS). Also two paddy-fields bounded
" on the north by Thankyaung (o^csjpS), on the east by the headwaters of the Thekkyaung (aooScqpS)
" and Shinhlakyaung (98cge=p8), on the west by the walls of King Kara (ocp probably Minkhari, who
reigned from A. D. 1434 to 1459; a portion of this massive wall still exists to the west of the palace),
and on the south by the Tantaingkyaung (ooo^8©q]o8). " And these 39 paddy-fields * * "
So far the text is readable. Of the Ratanatejo monastery and of the many other cloisters
once numerous in this valley not a trace remains. Excepting these inscriptions nothing of interest
was found about the Mangalamaraung pagoda.


36
THE MANGALAMARAUNG PAGODA.
We return to the Dipayonpara (see map of Mrohaung) and the smaller pagoda to the east
(see page 32); the latter is called Anomapara and stands on the base of the eastern hill range.
The valley from this pagoda to the north gate was once the camping-ground of the Arakanese
main army. The ground along the foot of the hill is levelled into a broad platform; to the east
rises a projecting, steep, and rocky ridge. The platform is here and there covered with the ruins of
small pagodas and image-houses; several large but mutilated stone images of Gotama- were
noticed ; the summits are crowned with small massive shrines without porches, niches, or ornamental
designs; they served as look-outs to the guards; the place is now a wild chaos of broken images, stones,
demolished pedestals, pillars, etc. This spot was the scene of the fiercest struggle between the
Burmans and the Arakanese. Torwards the north, and nearly 3 miles from the palace, the ends
of the two parallel hill-ranges converge to within a distance of about 300 feet; across the opening
runs due east to west a high rampart of earth about 50' high ; on it stands a stone wall, 5—6' in
height and 3' thick, pierced by loopholes for small arms and cannons; it gives additional strength
to the defence. Beyond it is the Panzemraung, a dismal morass (see map of Mrohaung), which
stretches in a bowline from the north-west side of the town to the north-east; on the opposite side it
is lined by low ranges of hills, leaving a flat-bottomed valley half a mile broad, covered with water
through the rainy season; in the hot season it is a fever-breeding, pestilential swamp, where even
buffaloes refuse to wallow; the natives also shun the place. Until the beginning of the 15th century
a branch of the Lemro river flew through this valley; King Minkhari, who reigned during the years
A.D. 1434—1459, erected extensive embankments to the north-east of the town, stopping the influx
of the river.
Close to the north side of the wall which connects the two hill ranges lie two stone slabs; one
is 4' 2" high, 2' 4" broad, and 8'' thick, the other 5' 8" by 2' 4" and 8" thick; they are inscribed on
one side only; the inscription is an equilateral square, subdivided into 91 smaller fields, each contain-
ing one or two numerals; the key to the meaning of the inscriptions is lost. In Plate No. XXX a
copy is given; under each Burmese numeral I have added the English equivalent; the upper right
corner of the first stone is broken off and four fields with it.
On the eastern base of the hill, on wrhich the Udarit—now often called the Kharit pagoda—
stands, the inhabitants of Mrohaung have erected a cluster of small pagodas of the modern Burmese
type; here they worship; but all the shrines situated in the valley to the north of Mrohaung have
been abandoned and totally neglected since the Burmese invasion (A.D. 1782). The old monasteries
have all disappeared; the orchards and paddy-fields, into which the bottom of the valley had been
converted, are now for the greatest part overgrown with jungle; the numerous wells and tanks are in
a dilapidated condition; the whole valley is a desolate wilderness.
We return to the palace and then take the jungle path, which runs in a north-easterly direction
along the base of low hills to the north. At a distance of a mile and a half rises the—
Sakyamaraung Pagoda (a>goo£jco3oecqcps).
The erection of this stupa is ascribed to King Candasudhamma, the 23rd of the Myauk-u dynasty ;
he reigned between the years A.D. 1652 and 1684. Plate XXIV, Nos. 41 and 42, gives the ground plan
and photograph of the pogoda. The outline of the base is peculiar and probably the only instance of
the kind in Lower Burma; it represents eight braces joined to an irregular octagon, the braces forming
the sides on the four cardinal points are wider than the intermediate ones. From the first tier upward
the structure becomes octagonal: the sides over the four main braces pass into a straight line, those
over the intermediate braces into a chevroned or zigzag design; after the ninth tier the outline of the
spire becomes circular and continues so to the top; a ti appears to have originally surmounted
it, since the ti-yo ("umbrella bone") is still seen protruding out of the apex of the stupa.


THE RATANAMARAUNGPARA. 37
On each side of the second and third tier stands a niche, or rather a porch, containing a sitting stone
image of Gotama. The face of the porch exhibits ornamental designs similar to those of the
Limpanpyaungpara (see Plate XXI, No. 37).
The circumference of the pagoda measures at the base 280'; the whole structure is solid stone
work throughout and still in a fairly good state of preservation. The spacious temple court contains
no other building or other object of interest; it is overgrown with reeds; the enclosing stone wall of
simple construction has an opening towards the east and west, and is still well preserved; no
worship.
Half a mile to the north of the Sakyamaraung is the—
ratanamaraungpara (qoo^o^goaos^eps).
This pagoda is also ascribed to King Candasudhamma (A.D. 1652—1684). It is a solid stone
structure, octagonal from the base to the top, and measures round the base 344'; there are no niches,
porches, openings, or decorative designs on the mam body of the stupa. To the east is a small
square building with a protruding portal; the passage to the interior chamber is arched, the latter
square with vaulted roof; in the background is seated a stone image of Gotama, 8' high, of the
ordinary Mahamuni type ; the image-house is constructed of a block of sandstone and is still in good
order. In the north-west corner of the enclosure is an oblong quadrangular thein (sima), 36'
long and 22' broad; the roof is vaulted, but partly in ruin. The inner chamber, which is likewise
vaulted, has a stone floor; through its centre runs longitudinally a stone groove, o! wide and 8" deep.
This shrine, which contains no images and exhibits no ornamentic, is said to have served as a
confessional to Buddhist nuns ; the groove was filled with water and the nuns made their fortnightly
confessions over the water to the priest standing on the other side of the groove. There are a few
other small shrines on the platform and neighbourhood, but they are completely ruined. (Photo-
graph on Plate XXIV, No. 43, represents the pagoda from the south-west corner of the enclosing wall.)
The temple court is covered with jungle; the central pagoda is in fairly good state of preservation ;
the ti has fallen down.
To the east of the palace are the Alays& and Thayetop villages ; on the surrounding low but
steep hills stand small stone pagodas, octagonal or square at the base, constructed of stone and
usually provided with a small porch facing the east. These shrines were constructed by order of King
Minbin, whose royal title was Sirisuriyacandamahadhammaraja; he is the 12th of the Myauk-u
kings and reigned between the years A. D. 1531 and 1553. Near Thayetop (1^ miles from the palace)
is the Nibbuddhapabbata, with the ruins of the small Nibbuddha shrine on its summit; close to it is
a roughly hewn stone slab 3" high, i' 6" broad, and 8" thick; one surface is covered with what
appears to be Burmese letters intertwined in wild confusion (see Plate No. XXV). I fear the in-
scription is undecipherable, if indeed it purports to be a written record ; the letters are only about
four centuries old and appear to be the work of a novice, who utterly failed in his attempt to write
Burmese characters.
To the south-east of Alays^yua (f mile east of the palace) rises the steep Shwedaung hill crowned
by the Shwedaung pagoda; the latter is circular from base to apex ; the ti has fallen down and the
shrine, unimportant in itself, has much suffered from shots. Here the Burmans had, during the
first Anglo-Burmese war, erected some earthworks well mounted with guns, which inflicted some
loss upon the British forces; portions of the earthworks are still standing.
Half a mile due north of the Shwedaungpara is another small hill; the sides are covered with
stones that once formed part of an ancient Hindu shrine crowning the top ; on the latter are a
number of stone sculptures appertaining to the Hindu pantheon ; they constituted the contents of
10


38
THE RATANAMARAUNGPARA. 38
the temple. The hill is called the Wuntitaung (or Wantitaung) and the shrine Wunticeti; the
latter is of unknown age. In native records it is first mentioned in connection with King Amrathu,
son of CandadevT; he was a chief of the Mru tribe and is said to have erected a palace on the Gyet-
tharetaung in Myauk-u (Mrohaung) in the year B. E. 320, A. D. 958.
The sculptures are much damaged. The central piece is a female figure, standing; the head is
wanting; the arms hang down by the sides; the palm of either hand rests on a smaller naked figure
in squatting attitude ; the body of the latter is human, the head apparently that of a monkey ; heavy
bangles cover the wrists and ankles ; a narrow strip of cloth is fastened to the loins, otherwise the
whole figure is nude ; it is 2' 3" highland T 5" across the shoulders ; the base of the pedestal rests
in a massive stone socket; the statue is coarsely hewn out of dark standstone ; the fingers and toes
are brought out by four incised lines of the same length and running parallel, so that' even the thumb
is not distinguished by its position and size. The figure is in high-relief.
To the left is a small stone image, io'7 high, in demi-relief; it appears to represent a female
figure to judge from the high head-dress, the long pendants in the ears, and the necklace ; the left
hand holds a long staff with an ornamental conch-like top; the image is too much damaged to dis-
tinguish details and is besides not well finished.
To the right hand is a stone slab 2' 87/ high and 27 2 broad ; six figures are cut out in demi-
relief : the central and highest is the image of a female deity standing upright on the back of a bull ;
she wears a simple dress round the loins ; the hair is bound in a knot on the top of the head; the
face is well rounded, the nose prominent, the eyes straight, the cheek bones not protruding; no other
characteristics can be distinguished, the surface of the stone being much corroded by exposure.
To the right is a male figure, only a foot high ; the left leg is bent, the left hand rests on the knee, the
outstretched arm supporting the weight of the body ; the leg from the knee downward is drawn under
the body ; the right knee is raised ; it is nearly a squatting posture, but the knees are turned outward ;
a strip of cover hangs over the lower part of the abdomen ; he squats on the back of what appears
to be a horse. To the left of the central image is a female figure somewhat smaller, but in all other
features identical with its neighbour; beneath its feet is a winged creature in flying attitude, with a
human body and a monkey's head; the hands are joined over the breast in the attitude of paying
homage.
Next follow two smaller stone images ; they are much injured and almost defaced ; one appears
to represent Buddha sitting cross-legged, with his right hand over the right knee, the left resting in
his lap. The other depicts a human figure squatting in adoring attitude. The last group is again a
large stone slab, 3' 4" high and 2 8'7 broad ; it exhibits two female and one male figure, the image
of a bull, a horse, and a winged monkey-headed being, all in the same relative position as on the other
stone slab.
Close to the images lies a stone, 5" 8/7 long and 2' 87/ high with a badly executed Burmese in-
scription, bearing the date B. E. 883 (A. D. 1521) ; the letters are partly defaced (see Plate XXVI,
No. 47) and record, it appears, the repair of the temple. The inscription reads thus : oog^cgSGpcgb
©3coq|qoo^8.......coao......qc8ooq$1og8iiGoooScg)8oo. ..^ooooocpol ajS oc8.........cgpS......
«8.........00 of February in Batuna ( ? ), the Lord Maharaja eight Wunti (temple) repaired (by the) King
again ; the inscription......."
King Minraja reigned at Myauk-u at the time indicated by the inscription ; we can gather from
the latter that the Wunti shrine was repaired by his order and that he caused his good deed to be
recorded as indicated.


THE SANTIKAN MOSQUE.
39
This inscription is one of the oldest Burmese records found in Arakan. The peculiarities in
spelling are those of the contemporary Talaing-Burmese inscriptions : cdQS from the Sanskrit sakra-
raja (Pali sakkaraja) ; 038 (eight) for the modern g|S ; goo (ten) for oooS ; 09 (three) for cqs ; oo£j8c^>
for oogog ; cooo (waxing moon) for coao^g ; 038 for g)S ; cg^ (to repair) for q]8 ; «8 (king) for «Ss; oogoS
for oDg^g (inscription). The Shwe Dagon inscriptions, engraved in the year B. E. 885 (A. D. 1523)
spell the above word in the same way.
But the technical execution of the Wunti and other records of the same date is very imperfect
and clumsy when compared with the high finish of Burmese and Talaing inscriptions east of the
Yoma of even an earlier date. The Burmese alphabet began to be used in Arakan at the beginning
of the 15th century.
The shrine is, as already stated a complete ruin ; the images have suffered much from shots and
exposure to the weather ; the hill is covered with jungle and the existence of these interesting ancient
relics is now hardly known to even the natives of the place. They ought to be preserved by remov-
ing and bringing them under shelter.
Two and a half miles to the east-south-east of the palace is another non-Buddhistic temple. It
is a Mahomedan mosque, called santikan, built by the followers of King Minzawmwun after
he had returned from 24 years of exile in the Suratan (Sultan) country (from A. D. 1406 to 1430).
South of the road which leads to Alayseyua are two large tanks with stone embankments ; between
them is the mosque surrounded by a stone wall 4" high. The temple court measures 65'from north to
south and 82' from east to west (for plan of building and photograph see Plate XXVII, Nos. 49 and 50).,
The shrine is a rectangular structure with 33' front and a length of 47'; it consists of an ante-room
which occupies the whole breadth of the east front 33' by a depth of only 9. A passage, 6' high, 3'
3" broad, leads from the north, south, and east to the ante-room ; the walls are 4'8" thick ; the passage
is vaulted ; the arch consist of a series of wedge-shaped stones; the room is also vaulted, but outside
the roof over it is a slanting plane from the cupola of the central chamber to the eastern front wall of
the building, which is only 9 high. Through the centre of the west side of the ante-room a passage,
3' wide, 6' high, and 6' 10" long, and also vaulted, brings us to the principal chamber ; it measures
19' on each side ; a narrow opening in the north and south walls admits some light; on the west side
a semicircular niche, 2 wide across the opening, T deep, and 5' high, is let into the wall, but it
contains nothing. The ceiling is a hemispherical low cupola constructed on the same principle as
the domes in the Shitthaung and Dukkanthein pagodas.
The whole shrine is built of well-cut stone blocks, the floors inclusive, but it is absolutelv
bare of all decorative designs or anything else of interest. The temple has of late years been put to
some extent in repair by Mahomedan tradesmen of Mrohaung and is now in their custody ; a Mus-
sulman lives on the premises to keep them in order; it is now used as a house of worship.
To the north of the Santikan mosque, between the road and the Krakaunlaungmraung (see map
of Mrohaung) lies a stone slab, 6' 4" long, 2! 4" broad, and 10" thick; the upper half of one side
contains in demi-relief the sitting image of a Buddha, the lower half contains the following short
Burmese inscription:—
qanOQa8GOD5d}8a)£(yS f00g:c8$ qqcoo Gqo.oo&pDso^qjpSooic^ooSq^C»C£}8M OD0^8gaDo5oD8cq^7* oodcngcql
g CO 0 6 g Jt o " On the 5th waxing of Tabodwe sakkaraj 955 (A. D. 1594) King Naradhipati, the lord of the
palace, declared that in the month of Wazo his wish would be fulfilled. He therefore gave away in
charity to his Punna (Brahman) Manidaw 5 shins and 1 pavfi of paddy-land situated in Hinduthoro-
mohno near the Kinbrin (oo£§5 Arak. Kanbrang). His Majesty hopes that these lands will con-


4°
THE JINAMARAUNG PAGODA.
tinue for all time to come (as heritage to the donee). He also gave away in charity his two attend-
ants..............................to be in future regarded as slaves on the religious establishment he now
founds."
Naradhipati is known in Arakanese history as Minrajagyi, who ascended the throne in the year
B. E. 955 (A. D. 1594) and reigned till A. D. 1612 ; " his wish to be fulfilled " has probably reference
to his anticipated ascension ; the grant is apparently made to his Brahman astrologer, who drew his
horoscope and predicted the event.
The inscription uses, like the records of the Burmans and Talaings of the same period, no
signs for the light (aukmyit) and the heavy accent (shyebauk); 038 stands for 98 (lord) ; oc£}56g for
oogdg (February) ; olsgS for ola§ (July) ; s88 for (to speak) ; cf}8 for cfj (particle); 3OS for j>S (two).
The letters are badly and irregularly engraved, but still well preserved ; the stone lies in the open
field, which is now not cultivated or claimed as a grant. Kanbrang (Ginbyin) was a village a mile to
the sout-east of the Santikan, near the present Paungdokprang.
JINAMARAUNG PAGODA.
The name (B)^«18jc33o8o^cp3) implies the shrine where Jina (Buddha) overcomes (csooS) the
King of Death (Mara). It was erected by King Candasudhamma between the years A. D. 1652 and
1684. The pagoda stands on a low steep hill, half a mile to the south of the palace ; a dilapidated
brick staircase leads over the eastern and western slopes ; the temple court is surrounded by a quadran-
gular wall, also made of bricks ; the platform is overgrown with jungle. The stupa is octagonal
and measures 296" round the base. Towards the east is a porch, which leads to a chamber occupy-
ing the centre of the pagoda. The fa9ade of the porch is 13' 4" wide and 16' 12" high; length of
passage 17' 2", height 13' 4", width 5' 2'; the central room is 13' 4" wide, 15' 7" long, and 18'
high ; the centre of the west side of the chamber has an altar (pallin) constructed with roughly hewn
stone blocks without ornamental designs ; upon it are seated three stone images of Gotama in sitting
attitude; they are all broken ; the ceiling is vaulted. The fa9ade of the porch exhibits some good
carving in stone (see Plate XXVII, No. 51) ; the frontispiece, minus the vaulted passage and opening,
is repeated on the second, third, and fourth tiers of the pagoda in a straight ascending line. In
the centre of each of the eight sides on the first tier stood originally smaller niches with the same
carving and construction as exhibited on the principal nich to the east; they originally contained
images, but they have been removed. Each of the eight corners of the pagoda is protected by a
lion or griffin ; the body is double (see Plate XXVII, No. 54,) ; the single head shows fierce
whiskers and a long beard.
The clumsy figure is cut out of a single block of sandstone ; the height of the front is 3' and
the breadth across the hindquarters 9 ; among the natives it is called " Sihamanussa," or " lion-
man ;" its prototype is probably a similar sculpture found near old Talaing pagodas in the Amherst
district, especially in Ayetthima and Taikkula. At the latter place the first Buddhist missionaries,
Sona and Uttara, are supposed to have landed two centuries before Christ; they met with opposition ;
an ogress, who with her retinue subsisted on human flesh, threatened to kill and devour the inhabitants
of the town. " Manussa," records the Kalyani inscriptions, " tam disva bhitatasita viravanti; tada
" dve thera ativiya bhayanake rakkhasl sihasadisekaslsadvidhabhutaslhakaye disva tato rakkhasagawa
" te diguzze attabhave mapetva anubandhitva ruddhapesum ; atha te pisaca te theramapite dvigune
" attabhave disva ' mayam p'idani imesawz bhakkha bhavissama 'ti bhita samuddabhimukadhavizzzsu
" ......sabbesam abhinavajatadarakanazzca rakkhasaranivarazzattha^ bhuje va pannz va tada therama-
" pitattabhavarupawz likkhitva slse paridhapayizzzsu ; nagarassa ca pacinuttaradisabhage girimattake
" theramapitattabhavam pazwsilamayam katva dhapayimsu ; tarn rupaw yavajjatana dissati."


41 THE MANGALAMARAUNG PAGODA.

" The men, seeing her, cried out with fear. Then the two Theras, seeing that the ogress (with her
attendants) had assumed the surpassingly frightful appearance of lions, of which each had one head
and two bodies, created by their magical power monsters of the same frightful appearance, but twice
the number of those accompanying the ogress ; they closed in upon them and obstructed their fur-
ther progress. When the pisacas saw themselves confronted by double their own number of like
monsters created by the Theras, they cried out ' we shall be devoured by them,' and fled frightened
towards the sea......To shield all newborn infants from the danger of the ogress, bracelets or (palm)
leaves, on which were traced the supernatural appearance (the lion with two bodies) created by the
Theras, were placed on their heads ; a stone on which the same figure was sculptured was set up on
the. top of the hill upon which stood the north-eastern portion of the town ; this stone may be seen
to this day."
Among the Takings the children even now wear a circular flat piece of silver or tin fastened
with a string round the neck and with the double-bodied lion traced upon it. The Sihamanussa of
the Jinamaraung pagoda is, I believe, the only one of the kind in Arakan.
The shrine is constructed entirely of stone and is surmounted by an iron ti still in passably
good order ; the garbha has been broken in at several places and looted. The pagoda is totally
neglected and no longer used for worship.
Close by are two small brick pagodas, one octagonal, the other square, with a small porch to the
east; in front of one stands .an altar (pallin) upon which offerings were placed ; it is 3' high and
cut out of a single block of stone (see Plate XXVII, No. 53) ; nothing else worthy of note was found.
South-west of the palace, at a distance of half a mile, is the ancient Mokdaw pagoda now completely
demolished ; nothing but the octagonal stone basement and a few broken images remain. Crossing
the Zekyaung a low range of hills rises ; the summits are crowned with small pagodas of ordinary
type and without interest. Close to the bank of the creek, right opposite the Mokdaw pagoda,
stands a large stone image of Buddha sitting cross-legged on a throne constructed of blocks of stone ;
the image is of the usual Mahamuni type ; it measures io' 6" in height (without the throne) and 7" 6"
from knee to knee ; no ornamental designs ; the body of the stone image is hollow and opens at the
back by removing a square stone slab inserted in the aperture ; the front of the altar bears the follow-
ing inscription in Burmese :
oogSog^qofJoS.....In the year 857 Zo Min "......the rest is defaced. The inscription consists
of only one line. King Zo Mingathu governed in Mrohaung from the year B. E. 856 to 863 (A. D.
1494 to 1501). In the immediate neighbourhood are the dilapidated remains of small shrines of no
importance.
To the west of the palace are also numerous temples, most of them in ruins ; the terrain is in-
tersected by many creeks. Ten minutes' walk brings us to the Waz£ village ; an ancient stone wall,
called . the Khariyo from its constructor Minkhari (B. E. 796—821, A. D. 1434—1459), extends
about 400' from east to west; in many places it is 40—50" high, with a broad rampart on the top
10—;I5' across; it is built of stone. On the north side of the wall is the large Ponwa tank; west
of the Waz£ village rises a narrow, steep, and rocky ridge, with five small stone pagodas on the top,
all more or less in ruins and architecturally of no interest. The central stupa has a small porch facing
the east; tradition reports that the bone of the fourth finger of Gotama is here enshrined, and is there-
fore called Lekkyodcitpara; a steep staircase, 5' broad and constructed of bricks, leads from the
base of the hill to the summit.
On the Peinnegun, another small hill to the north-west of the Waz£ villagers the Kotanzi pagoda,
so called from its founder, a Burmese official of the last century; the stupa is solid throughout,
square at the base, pyramid type, small, and unimportant. The north-west base of the hill is covered
with the ruins of buildings of small dimensions ; amongst them the Shwegyathein deserves mention
11


42
PARABO PAGODA.
for the stone carving over the fa$ade of the temple (see Plate XXVIII, No. 55). The image
shrine was built by King Candasudhamma (A. D. 1652—1684) ; it is a small square structure of
stone, measuring 18' from east to west and 15'from north to south; the roof has fallen in ; the height
of the walls is 16'. To the east protrudes a porch, 15" long, 14" high, with an arched passage (14'
long, 4' 2" wide, and io' high) leading to the image-room measuring 13" by io' 8"; on the west side
of the chamber is a large stone image of Buddha 6' high, sitting cross-legged on a roughly hewn
stone altar ; it is of the ordinary Mahamuni type. The fac^ade of the porch is cut into ornamental de-
signs ; the pillar, so rare in Arakan, appears here at least in conception; on each side of the entrance
a pillaster stands out in bas-relief an inch high ; the nature of the ornamental design above the
capital is unfortunately no longer discernible. No use is at present made of the shrine, which is fast
falling to pieces.
West of the Shwegyathein is the Byinz& village, and north of the latter the Kyaukyityua; be-
tween the two villages is the Lokamu pagoda or the Lokamaraungpara (©ccooowo^erooSo^Gps). This
temple was also built by Candasudhamma (A. D. 1652—1684). In the spacious temple court,
shaded by mango and tamarind trees, the pilgrims used to assemble who intended to visit the dis-
tant Mahamuni pagoda (48 miles north); the old road to Vaisali and Mahamuni begins here.
The shrine is constructed of stone blocks, well hewn and cemented ; it is square at the base,
each side measuring 74'; the first four tiers are also square ; in the centre of each side of the tiers
stands a porch containing an image of Buddha ; the sides of the porch are stone slabs ; the architrave
is similar to that of the Linpanpyaung pagoda (see Plate XXVIII, No. 56); there are traces of orna-
mental designs over the surface of the porches. Unfortunately the villagers have during recent repairs
covered the outside of the pagoda with plaster and then whitewashed the whole; the decorative
designs have thereby become obliterated. Over each corner of the first four tiers stands a small
circular pagoda, solid, and without niches or appendages ; the lowest is 10' high, that on the last of
the four belts only 4. From the garbha upward the central spire is circular ; the apex is crowned
with an iron ti once gilded and still in passably good order.
The east fa<^ade of the pagoda has a portal 20' high, protruding i' from the main wall; a vaulted
passage 4 8" wide, 16' high, and 29' long leads to a chamber in the centre of the pagoda; it con-
tains a stone image of Buddha 7' high, sitting cross-legged on a plain stone altar; the ceiling is a
hemispherical dome ; the apex is 16' from the ground.
In front of the entrance a large bamboo shed has lately been erected ; towards the enclosing stone
wall the temple court is overgrown with jungle. The Locamu and Parabo pagodas are the only
temples built in Mrohaung during the reign of Arakanese kings which still receive some attention and
care from the present inhabitants of the place ; they worship here occasionally ; it is to be regretted
that the deteriorated taste of the present generation induced the natives to hide the tasteful deco-
rative designs on the porches under plaster and whitewash.
Crossing the Parabokyaung we reach another group of pagodas and image-houses, most of
them in ruins. The largest and most important is the—
PARABO PAGODA
(also spelled Parabaw) standing on the bank of the tidal creek. The temple was built by Minrajagyi,
the 17th king of the Myauk-u dynasty, in the year B.E. 965, and was repaired by the first Burmese
Myowunof Mrohaung in the year 1786. It is constructed of bricks ; the base is a square ; the walls
rise perpendicular to a height of 20'; then follow four tiers, one above the other, a circular dome-
shaped garbha, and then a succession of 12 concentric bells or rings, gradually tapering off- to a point;
a rusty iron ti surmounts the whole ; the entire structure is 70' high; the east side of the square
base measures 48'. To the north, east, and south a portal protrudes ; a passage with a pointed arch


43 PARABO PAGODA.

leads to a central room ; a throne is built against the west wall of the chamber and on it is seated
a large stone image of Buddha of the ordinary Mahamuni type. A number of smaller stone and
wooden images are grouped around the central figure; they represent Buddhas, male and female
Rahans (see Plate XXVIII, No. 57) ; one exhibits the prostrate figure (in the photograph set up
straight to admit a view of the face and habiliment) of the Brahman Sumedha in the act of bridging
over the unfinished portion of the way over which the Buddha Dipankara was to walk ; the details
of this tradition have been given on page 28. On the temple court stand a few small pagodas of
modern Burmese type lately erected by the inhabitants of the Pinz£ village. On each side of the
three entrances is seated a stone image of Gotama, 3—4/ high, on a plain stone or brick pedestal.
In front of the east entrance rises a cone, 15' high and 9' round the base ; it is cut out of a single
block of stone ; the surface is divided into a series of belts girdling the stone; each band is subdivid-
ed into a number of small fields containing in bas-relief images of Buddha in standing and sitting at-
titude. A similar monument is found close to a monastery on the south-side of the Prome pagoda hill.
The temple court is partly paved with bricks and in good order; this shrine is now usually visited by
pilgrims to the Mahamuni pagoda, who also have of late effected some repairs. The principal
entrance to the platform is guarded by two griffins of the modern Burmese type.
An ordination hall for priests stood originally outside and to the east of the enclosure to the
Parabo pagoda; nothing now is left of it except traces of the wall and a few stone images of Buddha;
the same must be said of the other ruins in the neighbourhood. There are also six small pagodas
along the bank of the creek; they were lately built by the natives, and all that can be said of them is
that they are conical heaps of bricks plastered over and whitewashed.
There are a number of smafl pagodas in Mrohaung, which are of no interest; they are dimi-
nutive imitations of the Mangalamaraung pagoda (see page 32)—massive stone-work throughout,
with a porch to the east; their history and even their very names are forgotten. Plate XXIX,
No. 58, shows a copper-plate inscription found by a native of Mrohaung in an old pagoda; the plate
is 8" long by 4" broad; it is very much corroded and only a part of the legend is readable. Nos. 59
and 60 exhibit the characters on the stone-slabs (see page 36).
Plates XXX and XXXI show photographs of Arakanese cannons and inscriptions thereon,
captured by the Burmans at the close of the last century; they were found in the arsenal of King
Thebaw.
Myauk-u has at all times been an unhealthy place; the plain on which the city now stands has
in ancient times often been selected as a site for a capital, but as often abandoned owing, as the
Arakanese chronicles state, to " men, elephants, horses, and cattle dying of pestilential fever."
Kings Minzawmwun and Min Khari had extensive bunds erected, extending between the Parabo-
chaung and the Lemro river (see map of Myauk-u); they were to regulate the influx and efflux
of the tides from both the Kaladan and Lemro. The Lasuguen, Anoma, and Kassapa lakes are
beautiful sheets of sweet water; originally they were three deep valleys, with very precipitous hills
between them, and opened towards the north. Minzawmwun had the apertures closed by immense
bonds (see map), which retained the surface-water of the monsoon pouring down from the hills; the
brackish water of the plains and swamps around could not contaminate these lakes ; superstition pre-
vents the natives of today to make any use of these artificial lakes.




MAHATI.
45
CHAPTER III.—MAHATI (oodocSs).
The Mahati pagoda stands on a low hill at the junction of the Launggyet creek and the Baw-
myit (goo3§8), in the Launggyet circle of the Mrohaung township, Akyab district, 10 miles south, of
Myauk-u. The Bawzotaung and Maungshwetaung hills, which in their northern bifurcation hold the
Lekzin, Anoma, and Kassapa lakes, run south-south-east, and are surrounded on the east and west
by dismal swamps ; on the southernmost spur stands the Kyauknyo or Mahati shrine and image ;
an old road paved with stone-blocks follows the western base of the hill range connecting Mahati
and the intermediate villages directly with Mrohaung.
The ridge, which has three summits, is known in the old history of Arakan as the Culapabbata.
Each of the three hillocks is crowned by a shrine ; the northernmost, a mile to the north of the
Mahati village, is of ancient date, being the remains of the Paungdawdhat (go"1Sgoo5©1o5) pagoda,
erected by Culataingcandra in the year 316 B.E. (954 A.D.). According to tradition the famous
Anandathera passed one of his former existences on this hill as a hermit; his thigh-bone was found
there and a shrine erected over it; in the year 953 B.E. (1591 A.D.) the sthupa was repaired by
Minpalaung, the 16th ruler of the Myauk-u dynasty; an inscription (see Plate No. XXXII) dated
953 B.E. records the meritorious deed and the grants of paddy-fields and other benefices in
support of the monasteries attached to the pagoda ; the letters and the language are Burmese ; the
former are irregular and partly defaced ; the inscription, as far as it can be read, runs thus : cog&
g39qoo$qcoGeoo8gg$ pqoSoooooSQo*......§o5u ogqSoSoGCooSoqu ogqSoSoQc^ooGooooGooooDoScqolsc^GqjoSogS
.........co8o8gGoo8cg8oDog|^oo.........oocq«S.........Ggoo8GOOOogSpoblcg58c^o§cf8.........(r^GsjpSogScgj^cqS
.........ogS^oqi^cqSoccjoScqdcboQ......oocqjpSsb3cg|^x)Go1co8......sbog|8c>ob] ^S^SojOsgooIiBggogooogQoS
cqqSoSoGcooSc^GGlSGODSoGblsGqGnoooSgSogSoSc^c^SGo...... odoSgoogooo.........08 .......c^S......Qcooo^ooos
gooo8goo8odq5ooogcoo1c^8^gccoi c^'gocs......33olog8oi>......od......oocsoSoqSdl(3..........The stone records
that Minpalaung restored the pagoda in the year B. E. 953 and mentions the paddy-field and other
grants bestowed upon the monasteries and their inmates entrusted with the keeping-up of the pagoda
and its premises. The pagoda itself is completely in ruins, nothing being left save a formless heap
of stones and a few broken images of Buddha ; the shrine was but a small one. The Mahati
pagoda stands on the central hill which rises behind the village of the same name; an old road,
paved with stone slabs of various sizes and here and there with bricks, leads from the river bank
to the hill; at the base of the latter are large tanks walled in with stones or bricks ; a staircase of
52 steps, 8' broad, with lateral walls j' high, connects the road with the platform of the pagoda.
The latter is a square structure (see Plate No. XXXII, Nos. 65 and 66) with a protruding portal
towards the east and a central chamber ; each side of the square measures 25V'; the walls rise
perpendicular to a height of 12"; then follow three tiers of bricks also square, with indented
corners, gradually narrowing-in as they rise one above the other; the structure finishes off in a
circular garbha and an iron ti gilded ; the entire sthupa is 40" high ; the porch to the east protrudes
6/8//; it is 11' high in front; a vaulted passage 4' wide, 8' high, and 12" 2" long leads to the central
square room ; each side measures 15"; at a height of 12' the walls begin to converge and meet in
an apex 18' above the floor of the chamber. The vault of the passage and the ceiling of the
chamber is constructed on a principle different from the one followed in the construction of the
vaults aud cupolas in Mrohaung ; in the former the arch is formed by allowing the end of each
succeeding brick to overtop the one immediately beneath it by about an inch till the two sides
finally meet. This mode of building arches has been adopted from the Burmans and Talaings ;
vaults and roofs thus constructed have little stability as the superincumbent weight lies upon the
arch without the perpendicular sides sharing much in resisting the stress. On the west side of the
12


46
MAHATI.
chamber is a pedestal 2 high, 14/ 10" broad, and 8' thick, apparently cut out of a solid stone block ;
its outline is circular; the front side is smooth, the other parts roughly hewn without any orna-
mental design on either. The stone image seated on the pallin is of the ordinary Mahamuni
type ; it measures 7' 9" from knee to knee and 8' in height; it is gilded all over.
The shrine as it now stands is only 40 years old, it having been built by two merchants of
Akyab, Maung Maung and his son Maung Shwe Po. During the first Anglo-Burman war the Bur-
mans, to guard the approach to Mrohaung, had taken up a position on the hill; during the engage-
ment with the British forces the temple was destroyed and the image much damaged. The sides of
the hill are covered with the fragments of images, stone inscriptions, and the debris of the old pagoda.
The new shrine is built of bricks and covered with plaster; no ornamental designs except a waving
line round the garbha and an egg-and-tongue design near the ti, all traced in plaster.
The platform spreads over the whole of the levelled surface of the hill; it appears once to have
been paved with stone-slabs and bricks ; the wall which surrounds the temple court is dilapidated and
the latter covered in most places with the ruins of small pagodas and image-houses. Two new
but unimportant pagodas have been erected on the same temple court to the south of the Mahati ;
they are built of bricks covered with plaster and whitewashed ; one is circular at the base, the other
two square, but show no decorative designs (see Plate No. XXXIII, No. 66). On the north side
of the platform are also three small new shrines, with porches to the east, in which images of
wood and stone found about the premises have been placed. Some of the images represent Buddha
sitting cross-legged on a throne with a naga spreading its hood over his head ; others depict Rahans
in kneeling attitude of adoration; most are cut out of pieces of a dark sandstone ; a few consist of
alabaster and are modern importations from Mandalay. The stone inscriptions appear to have been
shattered to small fragments by shots ; notwithstanding a careful searching and collecting of the
pieces no continuous text could be restored ; but the letters and language are Burmese, and the
former of the same character as those of the Paungdawdhat inscription (see Plate No. XXXII).
The celebrated Kyauknyo image (" dusky stone "), which is said to have been set up by King
Goliya in the year 495 B.E. (1133 A.D.), is to be found on the top of the southernmost hill. The
shrine which contained the image was totally destroyed during the first Anglo-Burmese war, the
head of the image was knocked off ; ever since the statue has stood unprotected on the hill. Last
year the villagers erected a bamboo shed over it, set the head on the body, re-adjusted the stones
which form the throne, covered the image with black lac to receive the gilding, and removed the
jungle on the platform.
The statue is seated cross-legged, the right hand hangs over the right knee and the left lies open
in lap, the palm turned upward ; against the common custom the robe covers both shoulders and
closes tightly round the neck ; the lobe of the ears touch the shoulders; the expression of the face is
altogether peculiar (see Plate No. XXXIII, Nos. 67 and 68); the eyelids and eyebrows are raised ;
the eyes have a fixed stare ; the nose is broad at the end, the nostrils largely developed, the bridge
rather flat ; the mouth has a complacent, self-contained expression; the chin is broad and double,
the cheeks well rounded, the neck short and thickly set; the hair curly and gathered in a knot on the
top of the head; the latter is gilded all over; the image measures 5' 4" from knee to knee and is
6' 6" high. We have seen (page 45) that the Paungdawdhat pagoda north of Mahati is said to
contain the thigh-bone of Ananda, or rather of the recluse who in a subsequent existence became
Ananda, the famous -pupil of Gotama. The expression of the face of the statue suggests more
Ananda, the " joyful," than Gotama; the deviation from the usual cast of the features is the more
remarkable as all other images about Mahfiti and in Arakan in general are close imitations of the
Mahamuni representation of Gotama. The stone throne is 5' 4" high ; the circumference at the top
is 27', round the base 38' 5". It consists of nine tiers of stone blocks, the outer surface of which is


LAUNGGYET. 47
cut into flowery designs, human and animal figures; the latter are on the third and fourth row from
the base; there are in all 44 figures arranged so that a block with a floral design and a block with a
figure follows alternately; the latter represent (1) an ogre, (2) a man in dancing attitude, the puzos
tugged up in Burmese fashion, else no other clothes; (3) a tittiro or partridge ; (4) a male human
figure 5 (5) a parrot; (6) a man dancing as in No. (2); (7) a doe ; (8) a man dancing as in Nos. (2) and
(6); (9) is too much damaged to be made out; (10) human male figure; (11) a crow; (12), (13), (14)
defaced; (15) a lion with two heads ; (46) a pigeon; (17) a woman giving suck to an infant; (18)
defaced ; (19) a manussiha, having a human head on a lion's body; (20) a horse ; (21) an ogre ; (22)
jungle goat; (23) a male and female, both nude; (24) elephant; (25) a woman kneeling, with the
hands folded over the breast, holding between them her hair twisted into a plait; (26) a kinnara, a
fabulous animal, having the body of a bird with a human face ; (27) defaced ; (28) a bird, chloropsis
auvifrons; (29) a manussiha as No. (19); (30) a parrot; (31) manussiha, a lion's body up to the
waist; head, thorax, and arms human ; (32) a Garuda bird ; (33) a woman nursing an infant as
No- (17); (34) a horse; (35) an elephant; (36) a deer; (37) a man dancing, as in No. (2); (38) a
horse; (39) a man dancing; (40) a peacock; (41) a man dancing; (42) defaced ; (43) a man danc-
ing ; (44) a bird resembling a dove.
The pedestal appears to have been demolished, the stones subsequently collected and loosely
set together in that order which appeared proper to the repairer, but can hardly be the same as that
of the original pallin (see Plate No. XXXIII, No. 67). The figures are in bold relief 4" to high.
There are still traces of a temple court and enclosing walls, but they are now overgrown with jungle.
The Mahati village was once the site of a considerable town. During the reign of Minpalaung roads
were constructed along the river and paved with bricks and stone slabs ; the remains still exist; the
numerous tanks along the base of the hill are also ascribed to the same king; he reigned from
1571 to 1593 A.D.
The following tradition is connected with the Kyauknyo or " dusky stone " image: King Go-
liya, the sixth king of the Parin dynasty, who ruled from 1133 to 1153 A.D., dreamt that in the
bed of the Launggyet river was a massive stone, from which he was to form an image of the
Buddha (?). He caused search to be made by divers and such a stone of dusky hue was found.
This was raised with red silk cords and an image carved therefrom.
It has already been pointed out (page 46) that the statue is probably meant to represent
Ananda, the Mahuthera, who, according to the Sailagiri tradition, visited Arakan with Gotama. The
Burmans shorten " thera " to goo£} and pronounce it " ti; " and as the image was originally called
" Mahati" it is just possible that this is a corruption of " Mahathera," and the statue and shrine
were called so as an off-set against the Mahamuni image and shrine, and to commemorate the
sojourn of this celebrated pupil of Gotama in ancient Dhannavati and his having passed one of
his former existences as a recluse on the Culapabbata near the present Mahfiti village. Ananda
figures largely in the legendary traditions of Arakan. About 12 miles north of Mrohaung are the
ruins of the Thingyat pagoda (o^fiocflSsojcps) on a hill of the same name ; here the Mahathera
lived through one of his former existences as a thingyat (a kind of snake) ; the frontal bone ($ of such a snake having been found there, a pagoda was built over it by Mahataingcandra (790 A.D.),
the first king of the Arakanese Vesall dynasty. On the Mallapabbata, west of Urittaung, a small
pagoda held enshrined a hair from Ananda's head ; the shrine no longer exists.
Launggyet (gcoo8@o5).
In the year 440 B.E. (1078 A.D.) Min Bilu, the 12th king of the Panca (Pin-za) dynasty, was
killed by Thank bay a (Sankhayo\ an Arakanese noble, who usurped the throne. The son of the mur-
dered king fled with his wife to Pagan, where he was received by King Kyansittha. For 25 years


48
LAUNGGYET.
the Royal family remained in exile. Minrebhaya, the son of Min Bilu, had a male heir born to him,
known in history as Letyaminnan (Sir A. Phayre's History of Burma, page 46). The father having
died, the reigning King of Pagan, Alaungsithu, determined to place the son on the throne of Arakan.
According to popular tradition, handed down in song, an army of 100,000 Pyus and 100,000
Takings was sent by sea and land to Arakan at the close of the rainy season. The usurper's grand-
son Minpati offered stout resistance, and it was not until the following year 464 B.E. (1102 A.D.)
that the restoration was effected.
Minthan, the son of the usurper, destroyed the Mahimuni pagoda, which the Pagan King
Alaungsithu had rebuilt; he then erected in its place a new shrine ; the Talaings and Pyus retaliated
this act by demolishing Minthan's shrine ; 50 years later Dasaraja, the 7th ruler of the Parin
dynasty, restored the temple. Letyaminnan founded the city of Launggyet (pronounced Longgrat by
the Arakanese) in the year 465 B.E. (1103 A.D.). But the site proved so unhealthy that it was
abandoned after three years. He founded another capital 3 miles further north, on the west bank
of the Lemro and called it Parin; traces of walls and of stone and brick buildings still exist. Here
he and his descendants reigned till 1165 A.D.
Launggyet was again chosen as the site of the Royal residence. In the year 1239 A.D.
Alomapyu, the son of Nganalum, rebuilt Launggyet and it continued with few interruptions to be the
capital of the Arakanese kings till 1401 A.D. Shans appeared on the Lemro river in 1294 A.D.
and again in 1324 ; they appear not to have succeeded in conquering the place ; they moved further
to the south and took Ramri conjointly with the Burmans. In the year 1395 the Talaings conquered
Launggyet; Rajathumin, the then king, fled, but returned two years later, and put to flight the
Talaing Governor Mintheingyi and his countrymen. Sanghathu, the brother and successor of
Rajathu, established, in the year 1401, the office of a Sanghariijagyi, or supreme Bishop over the
Buddhist clergy, the first of the kind in Arakan.
In 1406 A.D. the Burmans invaded the country, drove the King Minzawmwun into exile and
captured Launggyet. On Minzawmwun's return in 1430 he removed the seat of government further
inland to Mrohaung. In the meantime the Talaings drove the Burmans out of Launggyet (1407 A.D.);
the King of Pegu, Rajadhirit (Rajadhiraja) placed a noble, Maung Kwin, over it as Governor. But
in 1408 the Burmans, reinforced by troops from Sandoway, ascended the Lemro, attacked the un-
fortunate city, and gained possession of it after a sanguinary engagement; the Talaings gave again
battle, worsted the Burmans, and forced them to retire to Ramri. A few years later the Talaing
Governors Ulukin and Uzeka removed the seat of government to Parin, which city had been abandoned
since (1165 A.D.); Ulukin rebuilt the town. In the year 1429 A.D. he was killed by two emissaries
from the Court of Delhi and immediately after Minzawmwun, the protege of the " Suratanmin "
(Sultan) appeared in Launggyet, but resolved, following the advice of his astrologer Canindaraja, to
build a new capital, the Myauk-u city, the present Mrohaung. Launggyet then drops gradually
out of Arakanese history. Minpalaung (crowned 1571 A.D.) attempted to rebuild it; but the
insalubrity of the climate ever stood in the way of Launggyet rising to a populous and important
place. King Narapatigyi (crowned at Myauk-u 1638 A.D.) was recommended by his astrologers
to set up a large number of images of Gotama about Launggyet to expel the fever; the statues,
black with age and exposure, still sit in the paddy-fields about Nankya, but the climate is as bad
as ever. The dominion of the Launggyet dynasty was bounded on the east by the Lemro river, on
the south by the Mraungbway, on the west and north-west by the Launggyet creek. With the ex-
ception of a low hill on the northern extremity the island is a perfectly level plain, studded with
numerous tanks and fringed along the bank of the water-courses with fruit trees and villages; the in-
terior is a waste paddy-field with hardly any other vegetation. Of archaeological remains there are
few; on the summit of the hill to the north are a few small pagodas built of brick with a small porch


LAUNGGYET.
49
to the east; they were built 25 years ago on the site of older but ruined pagodas, and have since
been wholly neglected by the villagers. To the south of the hill is the Nandawgon, a square
enclosure containing once the royal residence and the " city " of Launggyet; it must have been a
small town; the walls are 20' high, constructed of earth mixed with stone, £ mile long from north to
south and hardly a thousand feet from east to west; here and there are heaps of bricks and stone,
indicating probably the site of ruined pagodas; the whole place is overgrown with dense, shrubby
jungle; nothing was found worthy of note. South of the enclosure paddy-fields begin. Large
images of Buddha, 8' high and 6' from knee to knee, seated on pedestals 3' to 4/ high, and unpro-
tected by any shelter, stand here and there as melancholy solitary guardians in the open fields ; we
have seen that they were placed there by King Narapatigyi (1640 A.D.). The statues are imi-
tations of the Mahamuni image and are all of stone.
On the southern extremity of Nankya village, and close to the bank of the Lemro river is a shrine
constructed of stone, the only building partially preserved in the northern half of the island. It was
constructed by Mindi, the ninth king of the Launggyet dynasty; he was crowned in the year 1279
A.D. The form of the shrine is ellipsoidal and measures (not including the portal) 24' from east to
west and if from north to south; it contains only one chamber, also ellipsoid, 21'long and 14'wide;
the room is entered through a portal which opens towards the east; it protrudes if from the main
building; the passage is 8' 10" wide and 14' long; the roof is vaulted, the arch being constructed
in the same way as in the Shitthaung and Dukkanthein in Mrohaung. The entire temple is con-
structed of square stone block (dark sandstone), each side measuring 1' 7", the thickness being 8";
the stones are well hewn and cemented together; the roof of the chamber has fallen down; to judge
from the shape of the stones, which once constituted the roof, it must have been a vault, as one
end of the blocks is narrower than the opposite one; the height of the walls is on an average
18'; the narrow unpaved temple court is surrounded by a low stone wall in dilapidated condition.
Along the wall of the chamber are placed nine stone pedestals, four on either side, and the
ninth, the largest one, on the west end; upon them are seated images of Buddha, cross-legged, in the
usual attitude of the Mahamuni prototype (see Plate No. XXXIV, No. 71); they are all of stone
and the largest is io'high and 8'from knee to knee; these statues have, however, one peculiar
feature ; the right hand has only four fingers, the forefinger being wanting. The following legend
is connected with these four-fingered images :
" King Mindi (who reigned from 1279 to 1385 A. D.), well known for his stern justice, had a new
palace erected. As his betel-chewing subjects are in the habit of cleaning, after removing chunam
(lime) from the box and lay it on the betel-leaf, their soiled forefinger on the doorposts or other con-
venient places, the king issued the order that the doorposts of his new palace were not to be soiled in
the manner indicated; any one infringing against the rule was to be punished by having the offending
finger cut off. After some time the king, forgetful of his own order, cleaned his finger by rubbing
it against one of the palace doorposts. The attending Ministers made a careful note of it, writing
down the date and hour when it occurred, but did not remove the lime from the post. A few days
later the king observed the spot on the palace door and, unconscious that he himself was the cul-
prit, angrily ordered his Ministers to ascertain the offender and see the punishment for such an offence
inflicted upon him. When the Ministers produced the proof of his own guilt, the king, with his
own sword, cut off his forefinger, saying " that even a king should not issue orders for himself
to break with impunity. To commemorate the event he had the image-house erected, and instruct-
ed the sculptors to allow only four fingers to the right hand of the images of Buddha."
On the south-east side of the shrine we dug up a large stone slab, measuring 8' by 3'; one side
of it is covered with Burmese letters, but so defaced that the text cannot be restored ; the only
13


50 KADOTHEIN.
legible portion is the beginning of the first line; it contains the date Sakkaraj 840 (0DQ8090),
1487 A.D, No other remains exist about Launggyet city.
Passing the villages Gywe Te, Thigya, and Maung Nyo, which lie to the south and south-west of
Launggyet, we reached, about 8 miles south of the latter, the small Mingaloppara; it deserves being
mentioned on the ground of its old age, it having been built by King Mindi at the close of the 13th
century; the shrine is square (20' by 12'and io'highl, the roof has fallen in; in the quadrangular
room stands an image of Buddha 8' high ; a portal with a vaulted passage opens towards the east;
the structure is wholly built of stone, roughly hewn and barren of all ornamental designs ; the shrines
stand at the corner of a large walled-in tank constructed by the same king.
Near the village Thanbyingyi is the Zitkethein, built about 200 years ago by an Arakanese noble-
man ; the pagoda is square, each side measures 32';. the walls rise, perpendicular to a height of
24'; on the roof rises a conical spire with the remains of an iron "ti" over the apex. The
structure is hollow; through each of the four sides an arched passage 8' high leads to the central
chamber with vaulted roof. Five stone images, representing the five Buddhas of this Kalpa, are
seated on brick thrones ; their features and attitude are alike in all. The only object of interest in
this pagoda is a stone pillar which stands in front of the central image; it is 3' high above the socket;
the latter is buried in the ground ; the shaft is octagonal, slightly tapering, and 2 high ; the next four
inches of the shaft are circular in the outline, then square for another four inches ; each of the
four sides contains, in relief, the image of Buddha in the usual attitude ; the remaining four inches
of the shaft are cut into a series of circular concentric rings, gradually tapering to a point at
the top.
The pagoda is built of bricks, the plaster has fallen off, the walls have gaping fissures, the
temple court is covered with jungle, and the enclosing wall is in a dilapidated condition ; the shrine
has long been abandoned to neglect and ruin.
Kadothein.
The gem of the art of stone-sculpture in Arakan is the Kado shrine, in the Launggyet circle, a
mile north of Kamaungdat village, 10 miles due south of Launggyet. Two years ago it was buried
in the jungle; its very existence appears to have been forgotten ; the villagers of Kamaungdat dis-
covered the shrine, cleared the jungle round about it, and repaired it as well as they could without
much outlay to themselves ; a shed was built over it, so narrow and low that no photograph of the
shrine itself could be taken. On Plate XXX VP I give a drawing of the design of the east fa5ade
of the temple.
Kadothein was erected by order of King Canda Vijaya (1710—1731 A.D.) in the year Sakka-
raj 1085 ; two well-executed stone inscriptions in the temple court record the meritorious deed and the
grants of land which he settled upon the adjoining monasteries for the support of their inmates (see
Plates Nos. XXXVII and XXXVIII). The following is a translation of the inscriptions:—
I.
" May there be victory! On the 2nd waning of Pyatho, Sakkaraj 1085, Shwe Vijayaraja, the
Lord of the palace and the Lord of life and death, made grants of paddy-fields to enable Shaung Atap
Kawdan to build a thein (sima) and to surround it by larger and smaller monasteries, inhabited by
the preceptors of the father, mother, and sons of the king. The fields have the following boun-
daries.
" Ten paddy-fields situated on the banks of the Maykwin («©?§£) nyaung stream which is
to the east of the Tawran (coo8q) fort in the northern division of the Nanggyi; they are bounded
on the east by the Tanta (oo$coo) and Ange (ooSro) streams ; on the south by the Nyaungkyaung


kadothein.
51
(cgoScqjoS) ; on the west by the Ta-dvara (ooosgicp) stream and the Tinge (ooSob) field ; on the
north by the Ange (3380b) village.
" Eight paddy-fields having the following boundaries : the Sanghika {i.e., monastic) land of Ran-
daung (qcoooS) to the east; the Sanghika field of the Mromasaya to the south ; the Ranauktanta
(6pG$oc5oo$oo33) stream to the west; the Angeyua (osSdbgp) creek to the north.
" Three paddy-fields having the following boundaries : to the east the Pre (eg) creek ; to the
south the Sigyapsinyin (8g£oSqS) stream ; to the west Gyunloptain (ng)$cqSc£}S). and Gathnain
(008JS) streams ; to the north the Aung (03336) creek.
" Ten paddy-fields situated in Yitkaungbyan (ooScolSg^) with the following boundaries : to the
east Gywelappauktaung (r^coSGoloSGoooS) stream ; to the south Thet (coed) and Gywelappauk creek;
to the west Thitkaungbyan (oo8gg1S(c^) creek; to the north the Yanthin fields.
"...... paddy-fields having the following boundaries : to the east the Thitkaungbyan ( oaScs"!
creek; to the south the Kula (oqcoog) creek.
" Five chaungs of paddy-fields situated in Tabettatkyi village. One shin (03 j§) and one pava
(ools) of paddy-field situated in Mukya (qqj) village. Five shins and one pava of paddy-fields be-
longing to the Gyaungpyuta (cnqpSgoo) monastery in Kamaungdat village. Three pavas of land on
which the monasteries and the Kado sima are built."
II.
" These sixty paddy-fields, the sima, monasteries, shrines, scriptural writings, gardens, tanks,
fruits, trees, and any other property belonging to the priesthood as sanghika ; whosoever, be he a
menial in a monastery, a priest or his disciple, or any clerical brother, a citizen, a minister, his sub-
jects (subordinates) or a peasant,—being motioned by feelings of covetousness or entices by the nine
kinds of malice,—brings about, or causes to be brought about, their destruction, may he be stricken
to death by the Nat who watches over the Buddha, who during four asankheyyas and 100,000
kappas preached and himself fulfilled with great energy and devotion the threefold ten Pararnit-
as beginning with Dana and ending with Upekkha, and is highly revered in the three worlds.
Or may he be smitten by the Nat, who for 5,000 years, the period allotted to the religion, keeps
constant guard over the holy tooth relics, the Bodhi tree, and the innumerable images and shrines
both in the devalokas and on this earth. Or by the Nat who keeps watch over the holy disciples
(who have attained to the) blessed and revered Maggatthanas and Phalatthanas. Or by Sakyamin,
who keeps guard over Mount Meru, the seven concentric circles of rock, the Yugandhara peak to-
gether with the sun and moon. Or may he be killed by the hands of the four great kings (catu-
maharajas), the four renowned and mighty Nats. Or by the four Lokapalas who guard the world of
men ; or by all the other Nats who guard the four great islands together with the two thousand sur-
rounding islets. May such a destroyer not be reborn in this world of men, not even as an ant, a
white-ant, wood-ant, or a quail; and not being saved by any of the Buddhas that are to appear, may
the chain of his transmigratory existences be cut off as the tree stump called the Bisamsarakharaka ;
and even during his existence in this world may he be stricken with leprosy, deafness, epilepsy, and
lunacy beyond all cure ; and being grossly ignorant and not knowing the art of speaking may he in-
cur the implacable hatred of others."
The inscriptions"are written on light-gray, scaly sandstone ; the first is 3' high, 2' 2" broad, and
3" thick ; the second 3' high by 2 5" broad and 4" thick; the bottom lines of both records are de-
faced. Letters and language are Burmese ; both the short and high accents are marked ; nothing of
the peculiarities of the Arakanese dialect appear in the inscription (see Plate XXXV, Nos. 73 and
74).


52
PATAW.
The Kadothein is constructed entirely of stone; it is square with corners indented; from base to
roof it is 9 high, from the roof to the central apex f 8"; so that the whole height of the shrine is
only 16' 8"; each side of the square measures \2. A vaulted passage 2 wide, 5' 4" high, and 3' 4"
long, opens towards the east and leads to a chamber (for plan see Plate XXXIV, No. 69) ; the roof
is a hemispherical cupola, the stones being laid in concentric courses as in the Shitthaung pagoda
in Mrohaung.
The entire outer surface of the shrine is covered with ornamental designs of the Pagan type
(see Plate XXXVI, No. 77) ; it is constructed on the same plan as the Pitakattaik north of the
Lbmyekhna pagoda (see II, Mrohaung, Plate XX, No. 36, and page 31); the upper portion of the
building does not, however, protrude so much over the base as in the latter; but still it is top-
heavy ; deep and long rents in the wall leave no doubt that it will share the fate of its prototype
in Mrohaung, unless it be put in thorough repairs, which could be done with little cost. The inner
chamber is 7' 6" high, 5' 6" deep, and f wide ; on the west side is a stone throne nearly circular in
the outline and 2 high ; upon it is seated an ordinary stone image of Gotama 3' high ; on either
side of the throne are 2 inches let into the wall each containing an image of a Buddha. Three
other and partly broken sculptures lie about on the floor of the room (see Plate XXXV, No. 75) ;
the central figure is 13" high ; on either side of the throne is a kneeling rahan with the hands folded
over the breast; a niche is cut into the front side of the throne containing in high-relief the upper
portion (the lower is broken off) of a human figure, whichholds a cudgel in the right hand and the
left the hair of the head twisted into a long plait drawn over the shoulder and hanging over the
breast; the images (see Plate XXXV, No. 76) to the right and left, respectively 10" and 8" high,
are cut clumsily out of white limestone; these kinds of sculptures are common in pagodas on the
Salween and Sittang rivers and are of Shan origin; it is probable that they found their way
to Arakan through the Talaings or Shans when they occupied Launggyet. The inner chamber
walls and the thrones and niches are barren of decorative designs; the whole exterior of the sima
was originally gilded. The shrine is surrounded by a double stone wall; the inner temple court
measures 24' from north to south and 29' from east to west; it is paved with quadrangular tiles a
little over an inch thick and 8" to each side; the upper side is vitrified, coloured blue, green,'or
brown with floral designs, figures of birds and other animals drawn in white lines on the surface ;
the material of the tiles is burned clay ; they are now nearly all broken and covered with earth and
rubbish (see Plates XXXIV, No. 72, and XXXV, No. 75), which show a few specimens of carving
on stone and patterns on tiles placed for convenient photographing on the wall which surrounds
.the inner temple court). The stones of the shrine were originally cemented with mortar; the outer
court measures 88' from north to south and 94' from east to west; it is not paved; both walls
are in a dilapidated condition and are constructed of sandstone blocks loosely set together; outside
the enclosures are here and there groups of stone images of Buddha in life size standing amidst
the ruined roofless walls of the shrines which formerly enclosed and protected them. The villagers
of Kamaungdat have lately built a small monastery near the Kado shrine where a pongyi resides
during the rainy season. It is hoped that the shrine will by his care be preserved from further
destruction.
Pataw.
On the west bank of the Launggyet creek, where the Mroungbway joins the latter, is the Pataw
village ; 2 miles inland rises a low hill-range about 5 miles long running from north to south ; in
ancient times it was known as the Gandhapabbata. On the highest peak in the centre of the hill range
stands the small Ukundaw ceti (ggc •o6cod8..g§Gcc8)) a shrine said to contain the skull of a snake, in
which form Gotama passed one of his former existences in this place; the sthupa is built of stone,
square at the base and circular from the garbha upward ; an iron ti crowns the apex; a small porch


PATAW. 53
protrudes to the east, but contains no image; the structure has lately been repaired, covered with
plaster, and whitewashed by the villagers of Pataw; it is wholly barren of ornament or any other
point of interest.
Along the eastern base of the hill are numerous tanks, embankments, traces of buildings and
other vestiges indicating the site of a once important city known in Arakan as Sigunmyo; it was
built by King Gajapati, the ninth of the Myauk-u dynasty; he ruled between the years 1523 and 1525.
Four miles to the north-west of Pataw, at the foot of that portion of the hill range called Udukinzain,
is a rock 11 long and 4 2" high; the side facing the east is covered with Burmese letters (see Plate
XXXIX, No. 80); the inscription is dated Sakkaraj 886 (1524 A.D.); the language is Burmese.
Most of the letters are too defaced to enable restoration of the text.
Further up the hillside are several other stones with dressed surfaces, but no inscriptions; they
contained figures in relief, but they have all been chipped off with das; a few mutilated stone images
of Buddha lie about and traces of the fundament of pagodas are met with all along the hill; the ruins
are buried in almost impenetrable jungle. Close by is a settlement of Qwemis (Kamis), who have
lately come down from the hill tracts; they told me that a tree-nat (rukkhazo) has his being near the
inscribed stone, so to secure his good will, which, as taungya-cultivators, they are very anxious to do,
they stuck gold leaves on the stone (see photograph) and dug a hole near by till they struck water ;
and now the long-neglected sylvan deity enjoys a clear pool of sweet water wherewith to quench his
thirst and often he finds plantains and rice on the stone, an offering from the cautious children of the
forest.
Two miles further south the base of the hill is lined with huge boulders of ferruginous sand-
stone ; on all is distinctly traceable the corrosive action of flowing water. Ages ago a river, or the
ocean probably, washed the foot of the hill. These boulders are, however, of great interest to the
antiquarian; rude figures are engraved on the surface of eight of them; the position of the rocks has
evidently been selected with the aim to give the proper sequence to the story which the figures cut
upon them record in a language which cannot be misinterpreted. Plate XL shows the relative
position of the stones and the rock-cut figures, the only ones of the kind as yet found in Lower Burma.
I venture to interpret the figurative record as follows: ist stone: on the side facing the north are
the rude outlines of a ship sailing due west towards the mountain. 2nd stone : strangers step on shore ;
the natives oppose them; they come, however, to an agreement, which is expressed by the two
parties stretching out an arm towards each other, pressing thumb against thumb, the little finger
against the little finger, the knuckles of the three other fingers meeting each other. 3rd stone: the
stranger becomes violent and oppressive; with his knee on the breast of the prostrate native he has
taken hold of the latter's head with one hand and swings a sword or da in the other (the lower
portion of the figures is much defaced). 4th stone: the stranger has cut off the head of his victim
and is dancing with exultation. The 5th stone has a slope to the west and one to the east; it is in-
tended to represent the hill range; the images are defaced in some places. The stranger is in ex-
clusive possession of the eastern side of the hill and makes himself at home; the native was driven
across the hill and alights on tigers and elephants, with whom he has to share his new home; he is
represented as having fallen with his full length upon the back of what appears to be an elephant,
with his head towards the tail of the animal. The figures on the 6th stone are very indistinct; one
represents the ship of the intruder; above it are two waving lines, which probably should intimate
that the vessel of the enemy had been sunk to the bottom of the river or sea; the natives recover
courage. On the 7th stone the naked, emaciated figure of the ejected aborigin stands by a tree in the
attitude of making an oath (most of the uncivilized tribes in Burma swear to this day by a particular
tree) ; the trunk has two eyes, and the three additional lines above it may indicate the number of
kindred tribes who entered into a solemn compact to attack and eject the intruder, whose main
'4


54
MINBYA.
strength lay in his ship, of which, however, he was now deprived. The eighth rock depicts the
stranger in the act of departing in undignified hurry; his right hand holds a stout walking-stick,
the left hand a tiny bundle of " free luggage," which will not impede his swift journey to the south;
he is scantily dressed, a strip of cloth round the loins being his only vestment; the hair hangs down
over the back of the head and the shoulder in a single plait, tied at the end with a string; flying
arrows and stones bless his departure. The outlines of this figure are cut half-an-inch deep into the
surface of the rock.
Absolutely nothing is known as to the date and authorship of these rock-carvings; not even a
legend is afloat concerning them. It may here be pointed out that at the very dawm of Arakanese
history certain appellations were given to mountains according to images or figures found engraved
on rocks or stones about them.
Close to the picture rocks are several large stone images of Gotama of the usual type ; also
stone pallins (pedestals) with fine decorative designs engraved upon them; the thorny bamboo jungle
is here so dense that for want of room and light, photographing becomes impossible and sketching
still more so owing to the fearful pest of this kind of jungle, the soldier-ant. At the base of the
hill are numerous old tanks ; the place is the site of the old Kyeitmyo destroyed by the Takings ; it
was the capital of the Kyeit dynasty.
Minbya.
Four miles to the south-east of Pataw rises another hill running 3 miles from north to south-
east ; its original name was Renusarapabbata; it is now called Myotaung (city-hill) or Pamwetaung,
because a small pagoda on the southern portion of the hill is said to contain a hair from the cheeks
of Gotama. The eastern and western base of the hill are lined with large tanks ; there are also traces
of walls, pagodas, and other brick and stone structures. On the north-west end of the range is the
site of Thaymyo founded in the year 689 B.E. (1328 A.D.) by King Mindi, the 9th of the
Launggyet dynasty ; it w:as soon afterw-ards destroyed by the Shans. During the Burmese regime
the place was selected as the residence of a Myoza or Governor of a town ; numerous pagodas and
image-houses were built, which in part still exist, but are of no interest, as they are all constructed in
the ordinary modern Burmese style ; they consist of a solid cone of brickwork with a porch on the
square base upon which the cone rests ; the villagers of Athayyua, Ngapi-ing, and Talinggyi villages
close by do nothing for the preservation of the ruins ; they have built a small pagoda of their own
where they worship. On the north-east base of the hill once stood Campavakmyo, founded by
King Kinnarupo, the third ruler of the Kyeit dynasty in 1178 A.D. Arakanese, Shans, Burmans,
and Talaings struggled alternately for its possession ; after the founding of Launggyet the site was
abandoned. Campavak is of historical importance, but no remains are left of it to interest us here.
The northern summit of the hill range was in ages past the burial-ground of the Mros, an
indigenous tribe, which once occupied all the western hill ranges of Arakan and had always been a
source of danger to the, stability of the dynasties which ruled at Vesali, Dhaimavati, Launggyet, and
Myauk-u. Like the Chins and kindred tribes, they burned their dead, collected the ashes in a pot of
burned clay, and deposited it on the summit of a secluded hill of difficult access. The burial-ground
above Athayyua occupies several acres of ground on the wooded mountain top; each grave consists
of an urn filled with a hard, greyish yellow' substance, the ashes of the departed mixed with earth and
sand ; the pots are of various shapes and sizes, from 8 inches to i-J feet high and 1 \ to 3 feet
in circumference round the widest girth. I found them buried close to the surface of the ground ;
the spot where an urn lies is indicated by a layer of bricks or stones, roughly hewm, arranged radiately
around the mouth of the pot ; some were enclosed with a second circle, 3 to 4' from the centre,
consisting of unhewn stones and fragments of bricks ; the urns are usually barren of decorative


URITTAUNG.
55
designs upon them, save occasionally a few waving lines round the rim. The age of this burial-
ground is unknown and there are no clues to even approximately ascertain it. While Parin (east of
Mrohaung) was the capital of the Arakanese kings, the Mros are described as invading the royal
dominions from the north; King Goliya (1133—1153 A.D.) led his armies up the Lemro river to
punish the marauding Mros; from this it may be inferred that already eight centuries ago they had
been driven back to the headwaters of the Lemro river, and that they buried their cimmerial urns on
the Minbya mountain, lying so far south, during a period which antedates the foundation of Parin
(1103A.D.).
On the summit of the southern portion of the hill range stand a group of small pagodas known
as the Kyeindaw-shin-para ; the spot is the site of an old shrine which has lain in ruins until the
late Myook of Minbya rebuilt and whitewashed it, and set up six smaller pagodas of the ordinary
conical type with a porch to the east. From an antiquarian or artist's view-point these pagodas de-
serve no notice. The history of the old shrine I could not ascertain. From the summit of the hill
a staircase leads straight down to the base of the hill; the total length is 930 feet; the steps,
650 in all, are 5 feet wade; a wall, 2 feet high and i-J feet thick, closes the staircase in on either
side ; the entrance below is guarded by two small griffins ; the whole structure is built of bricks;. it
is the longest staircase in Burma, and there are few like it in the world ; the costs of material and
construction amounted to Rs. 12,000, paid by the late Myook of Minbya. It is distressing to know-
that it cost so much since nobody ever ascends it, the few worshippers preferring the shady and easy
forest path to reach the top.
The numerous tanks between the base of the hill and Minbya town were dug by the order of
King Canda Vijaya, who reigned in Myauk-u between the years iyioand 1731 A.D. Here and there
lie the ruins of small shrines and the fragments of images in the dark shade of ancient mango trees ;
groups of lagerstroemias and coco palms indicate land formerly cultivated. Near the village Pupin, 2
miles south-west of Minbya, is an old image-house of a unique type; the main body is circular and
measures 36' in circumference ; the walls are perpendicular to a height of 7 feet; then follow seven
concentric graduated tiers, each succeeding one a few inches narrower than the one immediately
beneath it; on the apex stands a pinnacle representing a lotus flower and stalk with rudiments
of leaves at the base; the ornament is carved out of stone. On the east side of the building
protrudes a portal 5' long on the outside and 6' high ; a passage with a pointedly vaulted roof 2 wide
and 5" high leads to a central chamber also circular; the ceiling is graduated like the roof outside.
The room holds an alabaster image of Gotama, 2 feet high, sitting cross-legged on a stone pedestal;
the statue is of the modern Burmese type, and has but lately been placed into the shrine ; of the latter's
age or history I could ascertain nothing ; it may be three to four centuries old.
Urittaung Pagoda.
The Urittaung Pagoda is situated on a low, but steep and rocky hill opposite the village of
Punnakyun in the Urittaung township. On this hill Gotama once lived in a former existence (see
I, Mahamuni Pagoda, page 3) as a Brahman of high birth. " After my death," says Buddha in his
discourse held on the Selagiri, " my skull (i.e., the skull of the once Brahman) will be found on this
hill and a pagoda will be erected over it." In the native records it is not stated who founded the
original temple ; the first mention of it is made in the year 883 B. E. (A. D. 1521), when King Gaja-
pati, of the Myauk-u dynasty, descended the Kacchabhanadi (Kaladan) and repaired the pagoda;
this was replaced by a larger temple erected by order of the King Minpalaung in the year B. E. 953
(A. D. 1591). The Rdjavamsa gives the following account of the event: " In this golden land of
" Arakan King Dhammasoka of olden days built cetis wherein he enshrined some of the Sariradhatu
" (body relics) of the Buddha encased in precious receptacles. King Minpalaung ordered all such


56
URITTAUNG.
" temples to be repaired. Before the king set out leading an army into the Mrun country he promis-
" ed to repair the Urittaung pagoda on the Selapabbata if he came back triumphant; he conquered
" the Mrun country and on his return, to redeem his promise, he had the summit of the Selapabbata
" levelled and cleared of rubbish lying thereon. He then engaged numerous masons and architects,
"whom he left under the supervision of his son, the Governor of Urittaung. A pagoda, whose girth
" at the base was,.80 imperial lans (1 lan=4 cubits), was built of deep green stone. After the
" completion the king made preparations for a charitable offering like the great Asatissadana ; he
" embarked on the royal floating palace surrounded by a great number of boats and descended the
" river Kacchabha. In due course he reached the mouth of the Lampaikchyaung, situated between
" the Urittaungdhat and Camuttawdhnt, where he took up his temporary residence. On both banks
" of the stream he had large tanks dug to provide water for charitable offerings; the Brahmans and
" Rahans received liberal provisions.
" The distance between the temporary royal residence and the platform of the Urittaung pagoda
measured 90 ussabhas (12,600 cubits) ; the king connected the two points with a good road, so that
elephants, horses, chariots, and foot-soldiers might pass over it with ease. In the intervening space,
between the Camuttawdhat and the Urittaungdhat, a large hall was constructed ; along the roads
representations of the 101 races of men, of scenes in the 550 Jatakas, of aquatic monsters were
paraded. The streets were decorated with banners and streams, vases, and water jars holding
lilies. On Sunday, the first day of the waning moon of Tagu Sakkaraj 953, or 2135 of the era of
religion, was celebrated the festival in honour of the relic-receptacle (i.e., the festival attending the
ceremony of depositing the relic in the relic chamber). At its conclusion the eight kinds of priestly
utensils were offered to thousands of priests ; for seven days the festival lasted and offerings to the
value of nine lakhs were given away. Then Minpalaung, the great lord of life and death, returned
to his capital. He died on Sunday, the sixth waxing of Wazo Sakkaraj 955, in his 59th year."
In the year B. E. 1010 (A. D. 1641) the Urittaung pagoda was again repaired by King Thado
(Mintara), and once more by King Varadhammaraja in B. E. 1050 (A. D. 1688).
Eight years ago the temple underwent thorough repairs and was gilded by Ma Myat U. An
inscription on a slab of alabaster set up close to the pagoda records the meritorious deed thus:
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URITTAUNG.
57
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"The great, magnificent Urittaung ceti. Reverence to Him who is blessed, holy, and all-wise.
The conqueror (Buddha), accompanied by his holy disciples, came many times to the country of
the Mrammas (Burmans), known as Sunaparanta or Tambadlpa, and there established his religion.
May his religion last for ever!
" In the year B. E. 40, i.e., B. E. 1240 (A. D. 1879) (A. D. 1240) Ma Myat U, the beloved wife
of Zayattaga Maung Chin Daung, of Mawleit village in the Akyab district, spent more than Rs.
15,000 in gilding the ceti on the summit of the Urittaung hill as a work of merit done for the
good of her deceased husband. May the merit accruing from this deed shield me from the four
apayas, the .three kappas, and from my enemies ; may I become possessed of the four blessings,—
long life, beauty, happiness, and strength. May the King and the Queen, the Princes and Princess-
es, the other members of the royal family, the ministers, generals, teachers, parents, relatives,
friends, members of my household, and all other rational beings, may they all participate in the
merit of this work! I appeal to thee, 0 Vasundhara, god of the earth, to witness the general
acclamation of nats and men (at my work).
" Besides, on account of my fervid zeal in this work of merit, may I come to be possessed of
riches, cattle, horses, and elephants. May all my wishes be fulfilled. May I possess beauty, a good
voice, numerous attendants, and sons and daughters. And if I be re-born in the country of the nats
(devalokas), may I dwell in a celestial mansion, resplendent with emeralds, diamonds, and other
gems.
" May I attain to eminence, whether amongst men or nats. May these my prayers be fulfilled,
and may all my wishes and longings culminate in the attainment of Nirvana."
Note '.—The four apayas, or states of suffering, are—naraka, hell; tiracchdna, animals ; petaloka,
the world of petas ; and the asuraloka, the world of Titans or fallen angels.
The three kappas, or cycles of time, are the Mahakappa, Asankheyyakappa, and Antarakappa.
The devotee wishes to avoid the endles chain of transmigration through the alternate destruction,
by fire or water, of the universe, and the periods of renovation and continuance of the universe.
In the year A. D. 1882 a new ti was put on the gilded spire ; it costs Rs. 10,000. The money
was raised by a general subscription. Since then funds are constantly being collected to defray the
expenses of paving the platform with bricks, erect a wall around the temple court, and to construct
new stairs leading from the foot of the hill to the summit.
The Urittaung pagoda is gradually becoming the most frequented and most sacred shrine in Ara-
kan. The religious affection of the people revived and now centres round this temple since the
spoliation of the Mahamuni shrine had produced religious indifference.
The hill upon which the pagoda stands is very precipitous and rocky on the north, west, and east
sides ; towards the south the elevation slopes gradually towards the plain ; at the southern extremity
stood the temporary residence of King Minpalaung (see page 56) ; the whole ridge is levelled
J5


61 URITTAUNG.
at the top, indicating the road constructed by the monarch. The pagoda is situated at the north-
ernmost extremity of the hill. The ground plan of the structure is simply a circle : there are no
niches, porches, or ornamental designs on the central pagoda itself; the base is circular, with a
girth of 387', and rises perpendicular to the height of 8'; a succession of concentric rings follows,
each succeeding narrower than the one below it; the bell or garbha comes next and tapers off at a
height of 190'; the surmounting ti has lost the topmost iron rod; the lower part of the spire is not
gilded ; the gilding begins at the garbha or bell; the base consists of well-hewn stones 10" broad by 6"
high, the upper part of bricks ; the whole pagoda has a coating of ingat& (plaster) (see Plate XLI, Nos.
84 and 85); here and there the plaster has been inlaid with square pieces of mirror glass. On the
north and east sides of the pagoda are two small brick buildings plastered and whitewashed, their backs
touching the base of the former (see Plate XLI, No. 85) ; they are 8' high, 12' long, and 9 deep; the
ceiling of the room is flat, so also the roof; the edges only are relieved by an undulating line ; two
entrances, finishing in a pointed arch, lead from the front side to the quadrangular chamber which
contains nothing but a small brick altar, whereon flowers and other offerings are deposited ; they
hold no images. These structures are imitations of the small Hindu temples so common in Arakan;
they are modern and replace the beautiful turretted tazaungs which stand on the four cardinal points
of all larger temples in the Irrawaddy valley.
The platform is level, but not paved; contour very irregular and not marked by a wall. On the
east side is a new, zinc-roofed zayat (rest-house) ; in front of it stands, between two stone pillars,
the alabaster slab, bearing the inscription in the Burmese language of which the text and translation
has been given above; the stone measures above the socket 3' 7" by 2 4" broad and 5" thick; the
head-piece of the stone shows good carving (see Plate XLI, No. 86), and the tops of the lateral
pillars (also alabaster) are cut into lotus flowers.
In the north-east corner of the platform stands a Garuntaing, i.e., the Garuda bird, made of wood,
mounted on a high pole; at the base of the latter are four wooden figures on wooden posts (see Plate
XLI, No. 85) ; the figures are nearly life-size, finely carved and gilded, the fringes of their garments
and head-dress being inlaid with small pieces of variously coloured glass.
On the north side a flight of stairs leads in a straight line from the foot of the hill to the platform ;
it was built by Minpalaung and is now in a very dilapidated condition ; the staircase is \ wide, with a
brick wall \ 6" high on either side ; the steps are also constructed with bricks set on their ends in rows.
A stone image of Gotama 4' high, sitting with legs crossed under the body, stands in a small
shrine on the south side of the platform.
The absence of ornamentation, even of the floral designs in stucco, so common in all religious
buildings east of the Arakan Yoma, characterizes the Mahamuni, Urittaung, and nearly all other pago-
das repaired within the last 50 years in Arakan. Decorative art, either executed on stone, in plaster,
wood, or metal, has become nearly extinct on the west coast of Burma, though it had there attained
to a high state of development in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Urittaung pagoda is visited by worshippers from all parts of Arakan. Extensive repairs are
now carried on on the platform ; the pagoda is to be gilded anew, the ti mended, the temple court is
to be paved and enclosed by a brick wall; a new and roofed staircase is to be constructed from the
foot of the hill to the platform, and a prayer hall erected on the north side of the pagoda.
Of the Camuttawdhat and the original Uritdhat pagodas (see page 56) no traces are left, un-
less it be a small dilapidated cetl on the north side of the hill; a few clay tablets of unknown date were
found ; one tablet, 8" broad, 6" high, had the surface divided into small regular fields of about an inch
square with the image of Buddha, in the usual sitting posture, stamped in relief.


AKYAB.
59
U kindawceti. This small pagoda stands on a precipitous rock on the west side of Yathe-
taung at the confluence of the Mayu river and Yathechaung.
" To the west of Urittaung (see discourse of Gotama on the Selagiri, Ch. I, Mahamuni Pagoda,
page 3) and at a distance of about 3 leagues there is a river called Mallayu (now Mayu); on the east
bank of this river is the Rajapabbata (now Yathetaung) ; on this hill I lived during one of my births
as a Chaddanta elephant (i.e., an elephant with six tusks) ; when I die the frontal bone of this
elephant will be found and enshrined in a tabernacle bearing the name of U Kindawceti (Kumbha-
ceti)."
The native chronicles do not report the name of the original founder of the pagoda; it was re-
built by Minpalaung in the year B. E. 955 (A. D. 1591) at the same time when the Urittaung pagoda
was being repaired by him. The spire is built of blocks of sandstone, is circular at the base, and rises
to a height of about 8c/ in a succession of concentric rings narrowing in at the top ; an iron ti sur-
mounts the spire; it is constructed exactly in the same style as the Urittaung cetT, only on a smaller
scale; the top of the hill is too narrow for a temple court; no ornamental designs of any kind; it is
kept in tolerable good repair by the inhabitants of Yathetaung ; this sthupa requires no further notice.
A few small and modern pagodas crown the top of the hill to the north-east.
llnyodawceti. This pagoda is on the hill range which separates the Mayu valley from the
ocean, about 7 miles to the west of Buthitaung, close to the road leading to Mongdo. The classical
name of the hill range is Kasinapabbata, and here Gotama passed, according to the Selagiri tradition
(see page 3), one of his existences as the king of peacocks. " On my death my neckbone will be
discovered and enshrined there in a pagoda to be called the Linyodawcetl." Tradition and native re-
cords afford no other information ; it is not now known who built it. The pagoda has completely
fallen to ruins ; it must have been a small circular stone pyramid to judge from the traces left. The
same fate was shared by the pagodas on the Mallapabbata, the Ve/uvannapabbata, Gandhagiri, and
Sandalamaya, which are mentioned in the Selagiri tradition.
Akyab.
The town of Akyab is a modern place and owes its origin and growth chiefly to the removal,
in the year 1826, of the British garrison from Mrohaung (Myauk-u), the climate of which proved
pestilential to the troops, to a small fishing village at the mouth of the Kaladan river now developed
into the capital of the Arakan division.
There are, however, some hazy traditions still lingering among the Arakanese which connect four
small pagodas situated on a low sandy ridge to the north-west of Akyab town with the famous
Selagiri tradition of Gotama (see Ch. I, Mahamuni Pagoda, pages 3 and following) ; they are called
the Ankyeit or Akyattaw (from the latter is derived the name " Akyab "), the Thingyittawdhat, the
Letyatalundaw, and the Letwetalundaw pagoda, or the shrine of the "back part of Gotama's jaw,"
that of the thigh of Buddha, that of the right shin-bone, and that of the left shin-bone of Gotama.
The ridge on which they stand is known as the Akyatkundaw. The erection of the original pagodas,
the traces of which are still seen, is said to date back to the 16th century ; they fell into disrepair
and lately new " temples " were erected on the old foundations. On Plates XXXIX, No. 83, and
XLI, No. 87, a photograph is given of the Thingyittaw and Akyattaw pagodas. The latter is built on
the circular fundament, measuring 113" in circumference, of the old stone temple of the same name •
the superstructure erected in 1873 by Po Tha Zan of Akyab is all brickwork; its height is 20'.
There are no niches, images, flowered or any other designs on them or the rest of these four pagodas,
which have probably few equals in Burma in point of ugliness and total want of any feature of art,
architecture, or archaeological interest.


6o
AKYAB.
There are a few modern temples in Akyab which are interesting inasmuch as their architectural
style is a mixture of the Burmese turreted pagoda and the Mahomedan four-cornered minaret structure
surmounted by a hemispherical cupola. Plates XLII and XLIII show examples. The worship,
too, is mixed; both temples are visited by Mahomedans and Buddhists, and the Buddermokan has
also its Hindu votaries.
The Buddermokan (Plate XLII, No. 88) is said to have been founded in A. D. 1756 by the
Mussulmans in memory of one Budder Auliah, whom they regard as an eminent saint. Colonel
Nelson Davies, in 1876 Deputy Commissioner of Akyab, gives the following account in a record
preserved in the office of the Commissioner of Arakan and kindly lent me : " On the southern side
" of the island of Akyab, near the eastern shore of the Bay, there is a group of masonry buildings,
" one of which, in its style of construction, resembles an Indian mosque ; the other is a cave, con-
" structed of stone on the bare rock, which superstructure once served as a hermit's cell. The spot
" where these buildings are situated is called Buddermokan, Budder being the name of a saint of
" Islam, and mokan, a place of abode. It is said that 140 years ago or thereabouts two brothers
" named Manickand Chan, traders from Chittagong, while returning from Cape Negrais in a vessel
" loaded with turmeric, called at Akyab for water, and the vessel anchored off the Buddermokan rocks,
" On the following night, after Chan and Manick had procured water near these rocks, Manick had
" a dream that the saint Budder Auliah desired him to construct a cave or a place of abode at the
" locality near where they procured the water. Manick replied that he had no means wherewith he
" could comply with the request. Budder then said that all his (Manick's) turmeric would turn into
" gold, and that he should therefore endeavour to erect the building from the proceeds thereof.
" When morning came Manick, observing that all the turmeric had been transformed into gold, con-
" suited his brother Chan on the subject of the dream and they conjointly constructed a cave and
" also dug a well at the locality now known as Buddermokan.
"There are orders in Persian in the Deputy Commissioner's Court of Akyab dated 1834 from
William Dampier, Esquire, Commissioner of Chittagong, and also from T. Dickenson, Esquire,
Commissioner of Arakan, to the effect that one Hussain Ally (then the thugyi of Bhudamaw
circle) was to have charge of the Buddermokan in token of his good services rendered to the British
force in 1825, and to enjoy any sums that he might collect on account of alms and offerings.
"In 1849 Mr. R. C. Raikes, the officiating Magistrate at Akyab, ordered that Hussain Ally
was to have charge of the Buddermokan buildings, and granted permission to one Mah Ming Oung,
a female fakir, to erect a building; accordingly in 1849 the present masonry buildings were con-
structed by her; she also re-dug the tank.
" The expenditure lor the whole work came to about Rs. 2,000. After Hussain Ally's death his
son Abdoolah had charge, and after the death of the latter his sister Me Moorazamal, the present
wife of Abdool Marein, Pleader, took charge. Abdool Mareinis now in charge on behalf of his wife."
Plate XLII shows the general features of the exterior of the buildings; the interior is very
simple: a square or quadrangular room. There are really two caves, one on the top of the rocks
(see photograph); it has an entrance on the north and south sides; the arch Is vaulted and so is the
inner chamber; the exterior of the cave is 9' 3" wide, 1 T 6" long, and 8' 6" high; the inner chamber
measures 7' by 5' 8" ; height 6' 5" ; the material is partly stone, partly brick plastered over ; the
whole is absolutely devoid of decorative designs. The other cave is similarly constructed, only the
floor is the bare rock, slightly slanting towards the south entrance ; it is still smaller than the preced-
ing cave. The principal mosque stands on a platform ; a flight of brick and stone stairs leads up to
it • the east front of the temple measures- 28' 6", the south side 26' 6" ; the chamber is 16' 9" long and
13' wide; the ceiling is a cupola ; on the west side is a niche, let i' into the wall, with a pointed arch


SANDOWAY.
6l
and a pillaster on each side; over it hangs a copy in Persian of the grant mentioned above. A small
prayer hall, also quadrangular, with a low cupola, is pressed in between the rocks close by ; all the
buildings are in good order. The curiously shaped rocks capped by these buildings form a very pic-
turesque group. The principal mosque has become the prototype for many Buddhist temples like
the one on Plate XLIII ; this pagoda is the most perfect type of the blending of the Indian mosque
and the Burmese turreted spire.
Sandoway.
We continue with the description of the sthupas connected with the Selagiri tradition. After
the casting of the Mahamuni image Gotama is said to have left for Dvaravati, i.e., Sandoway. While
standing on the Tantawmutaung he predicted (see Ch. I, Mahamuni Pagoda, page 5) the erection
of the Andaw, Nandaw, and Sandaw pagodas over relics of his body of former existences.
AndawCETI. This pagoda stands on the Sandaw hill, upon the left bank of the Sandoway
river, about half-a-mile distant from the town and a mile to the south of the Nandaw pagoda.
" Ananda," said Gotama, " I who am your elder brother, was many a time in former existences
a king of men in this very city ; in one of my births I was a harmadryad king on the Pasura-
pabbata; on my death my molar tooth shall come to be enshrined on that hill in a pagoda to be
called the Andawceti."
Buddha's prophecy was fulfilled in the year B. E. 125 (A. D. 762). King Minzechok of Dviira-
vati built a pagoda over the molar tooth of the harmadryad, the Bodhisat. The shrine was repaired
A. D. 1323 by King Mahazo (Launggyet dynasty) ; again by order of Minrajagyi of the Myauk-u
dynasty in B. E. 969 (A. D. 1626). In the year 1038 (A. D. 1676) the pious King of Myauk-u, Canda-
sudhamma, thoroughly restored the Andaw, Nandaw, and Sandaw pagodas, erected monasteries, and
made large offerings. About 10 years ago the Andawceti was rebuilt with bricks, plastered, and
whitewashed ; the inhabitants of Andawyua and Sandoway keep the sthupa and premises in order.
An iron ti, gilded, was put on the pagoda in B. E. 1210 (A. D. 1848); the deed is recorded on
a stone lying outside the temple court (see below).
The pagoda is octagonal at the base ; each side measures from 25 to 27 feet, the circumference
being 244 feet; from the bell upwards the spire is circular, gradually narrowing in at the top ; total
height 46 feet; no porch, niches, or ornamental designs of any kind; not even an image or altar ; the
temple court is not paved ; it is narrow and encompassed by a quadrangular wall; an irregular
octagon drawn in a square is the ground plan of the platform and spire ; the structure is badly
built and of little interest to the antiquarian, except through its connection with the Selagiri
tradition.
A small new bell in the north-east corner of the platform bears the date B. E. 1236 (A. D.
1875). Outside the temple court, on the east side of the hill, lies a circular stone measuring 15" in
circumference ; in the centre a square hole has been cut, each side measuring 2 2' • the slab is T 2"
thick; the space between the hole and the edge of the stone is covered by a Burmese inscription
recording the putting up of a new ti at a cost of over Rs. 350 ; the inscription is modern, but the
stone is old ; when breaking down the old pagoda to rebuild it the slab was found immured above
the bell (garbha) ; the square hole in the centre received the " ti-yo," the beam or post which
supports the ti, the lower end being walled-in in the upper part of the pagoda.
A peculiar superstitious practise, which I have met with only in Arakan, is connected with such
unused umbrella stones ; it prognosticates the success or failure of a contemplated undertaking ; the
stone is placed flat on the ground within the temple court; a twig of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus
indica) is planted within the square hole ; if the twig thrives well, success may be expected ; but if it
16


62
SANDOWAY.
dies, failure is certain ; the stone on the Andaw pagoda was put to this use a few years ago; the
planted sprig dried up; the slab was rolled outside the temple court and is now tabooed.
The following is a copy of the inscription : cssoSeaoD^pi c»gS ojooq^S dS'oqgooooSoSgJoaoS^cfj
cooSoo" [38000 cpSn £»GOo8GOc8oooS(^r^ii cgcfiaooj goooSj ojc^iicoSoq......oqogggoo'qpco^ cq cqj8;,8oo8GOOoji8oo8oo8G»o8gG€poScDgSo3c^5nd8oooooM gajSQiiGOpSgoSGii GGOS^S 11 GOOSG§)^O8H
cgoS^S'1 gg0860811 GoaSsgjcgSu ggoS......csgttsjooqn qSgSaolooqp osoqoqd^sodqj cqojjggoq8fS00Ogu cg)8$qjo5
COo5§£o^Og8llOo(§Cq33^§HCqqo5^8qG^^ DjOO^SiiOD
■ sqscojygsgajb......qc8goooc^|og^n35gooogoc8oqgpc^^gc:^oo5^33c^90ii cgoo8§^g-^qcopsn $08090^800089080008
gog08ngoqjoo5oooggqooooo^oo^cbcq33go18godos goo 08j$£d0 oooo} gsflcogoosu
" May there be victory ! In the year Sakkaraj 1210, at the request of the Theingon Sayadaw
Khingyi, and for the decoration of the Andawceti (containing) a representation of the. Para, an
umbrella, whose opening measured cubits and which had 12 tiers, was constructed by Maung Lu
Molu, who was paid Rs. 100 for its workmanship. It was brought to its destination by a steamer and
its donors, A Po Kyet, Po Kwe Bu, U Tup Bru, Maung Myat E, Maung Schwap, Maung Shwe
Eit, Maung Waing, Maung San Min, Maung Shwe Hlaing, Maung......together with their families
proceeded to cover the ti with solid gold at their owm expense and with the money obtained by
subscription from others who were anxious to acquire merit. A great festival was held lasting
three days; feast, dance, mirth, and song amused the whole town ; the cost of the festival was
Rs. 350. The covering with gold of the umbrella of the Andawceti was accomplished on Friday, the
...... day of the waning moon of Kason Sakkaraj 1210. May this meritorious deed lead the donors
and their families to the attainment of the Maggas and Nirvana. For the remembrance of men
and nats this inscription is set up. May men and nats raise an unanimous acclamation of ' sadhu 1' "
Note.—There are eight Maggas to which laymen can attain,—right views, right thoughts, right
speech, right actions, right living, right exertion, right recollection, right meditation.
At the foot of the hill, on the east side, stands a small image-house containing an image of
Gotama constructed of bricks and covered with plaster ; it was built on the site of an old shrine
at the beginning of this century by the Burmese Sitk£ U Shwe Bu ; the shrine is peculiar; it repre-
sents a combination of the style of the Native image-house and the Mahomedan mosque (see
Plate XLIV, No. 92). The passage leads to a square chamber; the ceiling follows the contour of
the central cupola. The shrine is called Parahla (i.e., the beautiful pagoda) and is kept in good
repair.
Sandawceti. This pagoda stands on the left bank of the Sandoway river, about a mile
distant from the town of Sandoway, on a precipitous hill.
"Not far from the Lokula hill," said Gotama to Ananda while standing on the Tantawmutaung
(see Ch. 1, Mahamuni Pagoda, page 5), "in a south-easterly direction is the Munikesa hill, where I
" lived in one of my former existences as a Shwe Jamari (yak-ox). There a hair relic of mine
will become enshrined in a pagoda to be called Sandawceti."
The pagoda was erected in the year Sakkaraj 145 (A. D. 784) by the Dvaravati King Minnyokin ;
Mahazo, of the Launggyet dynasty, rebuilt the sthupa in A. D. 1323, and Minrajagyi of Myauk-u in
Sakkaraj 969 (A. D. 1626) ; again repaired by Candasudhamma in A. D. 1676, by the inhabitants of
Sandoway in A. D. 1849, and again by the same agency in A. D. 1876.
A brick staircase 6' broad, with a wall 3' high on both sides, leads from the foot of the hill to
the north side to the platform ; it counts 204 steps. The cetl, massive throughout, is octagonal like
the Andaw, constructed of bricks, covered with plaster, and whitewashed ; from the bell upward it is
circular and tapering towards the top; its height is 65'; around the base it measures 18c/ ; an iron ti


SANDAWSHIN.
63
surmounts the whole. The temple court is not paved, but kept clean ; the wall around the platform is
also octagonal, built of bricks, 5' high, and provided with three entrances, but only the one staircase
already mentioned. In the north-east corner hangs a new bell bearing the date Sakkaraj 1211.
Decorative art has not touched the pagoda; there are no niches, porches, not even a single image or
anything else worth noticing on the platform. On the foot of the hill are a few small shrines of
modern date. One deserves notice. In appearance it is like an ordinary Mahomedan burial monu-
ment ; it was built for the purpose of preserving manuscripts (see Plate XLIV, No. 90) ; the inner
chamber is square, the ceiling follows the contour of the roof; the whole structure is made of bricks
and coated with plaster.
The NandawCeti, on the Nandaw (Lokula) hill, standing upon the left bank of the Sandoway
river and distant a mile in a northerly direction from the town.
Of this place Gotama said (Selagiri tradition) : " Not far from the Pasura hill is the Lokula
" hillock, where I once lived as a partridge-king. When I die my namadhatu (?) will there be found
"and shall be enshrined in a pagoda to be called the Nandawceti (Rib-relic-pagoda)."
The sthupa is said to have been built in the year Sakkaraj 124 (A. D. 763) by King Minbya ;
repaired, or rather re-built, by Mahazo A. D. 1323, Minrajagyi A. D. 1626, Candasudhamma A. D.
1676, and by the inhabitants of Sandoway in 1849 and 1878.
Originally it is described as having had only the height of 6'; each repairer constructed a new
pagoda over the old one and it is now about 40' high from the base to the ti; its circumference at
the base is 11 o feet; it is octagonal below, circular towards the end ; its style is exactly that of
the Andaw and Sandaw pagodas, only on a smaller scale, and is as barren in art and objects of anti-
quarian interest as its sister shrines ; we have mentioned them because they are connected with the
Selagiri tradition and the foundation of the Mahamuni temple ; the site of the three pagodas is un-
doubtedly as old as that of DvaravatI; but not a trace of the old shrines now remains, unless they be
enclosed within the new structures erected over the old ones.
The original site of. DvaravatI must have been about 12 miles west of the present town of
Sandoway, on the left bank of the river; but all searches for antiquities were without success.
From Sandoway to Kwa are no archaeological remains of any importance. Ngapoli, Go, and
Myochaung to the south and south-east of Sandoway, and near the seashore, were visited and
carefully examined as these parts of the coast and adjacant islands were often occupied by Portuguese
pirates and adventurers from Goa; no traces of their settlements were found. Myochaung is sup-
posed to be so called because, I was told, there are still the remains of an old town (§ myo) and fort
to be seen on the banks of the streamlet; we followed it up its sources, but in vain. In the 15th
century the Takings had conquered Arakan from Kwa to Launggyet and Mrohaung. The main
body of the Myos (pronounced in Arakan " Mro ") were driven to the north of Kaladan ; a por-
tion of this once powerful mountain trike retired to the valley of this stream and stubbornly and suc-
cessfully defended their new home against the Takings. Henceforth it was called Myochaung or
Mrochaung.
We reached Arakan at the end of April; the monsoon, beginning in June, prevented my visiting
the upper regions of the Mayu, Kaladan, and Lemro rivers.
Sandawshin Pagoda.
The Nandawceti in Sandoway is the southernmost and last of religious edifices in Arakan con-
nected with the Selagiri tradition. On the Boronga or Myainyoon island, which forms the eastern
bank of the Gacchabha or Kaladan river at its junction with the sea, are found the ruins of a small
pagoda built of stone with a niche towards the east containing a few images hewn clumsily out of


64 SAN DAWS H IN.
white limestone. Excepting the niche, the shrine is massive throughout and was originally a simple
pyramid of the Shwe Dagon type.
With this Sandawshin para begins another important tradition which commingles with and
partly overlays the legend of the Mahamuni temple. It is the story of the journey of the
two brothers Taphussa and Pallika, who travelled as merchants between Suvannabhumi (Burma)
and Bengal. The story runs thus : " While journeying in India they came upon Gotama while he
" resided in Yajagyo (Rajagriha); they paid him devout homage and presented numerous offerings.
" Gotama Buddha, observing the great respect and devotion shown him, made them a present of eight
" of the hairs of his head to take with them to their native country. On their journey to Ukkalapo
" (supposed to be regions of the delta of the Irrawaddy) it came to pass that from stress of weather
" the two brothers called at Nagammaw situated on the Boronga island ; they found the sea too boister-
" ous to proceed further. In the interim during their stay at the place it so occurred that a Naga or
" sea-dragon struck with the divine effulgence of Gotama's hair assumed the form of a human being .
" appearing in this state before the two travellers he promised them that, should they present him two
" of Buddha's hairs, he would becalm the weather to enable them to proceed on their journey. They,
" complied with his request, the sea became calm, and Taphussa and Pallika reached Ukkalapo in
" safety. Here they erected the Shwe Dagon and other pagodas, and deposited the hairs, placed in
" golden caskets, in the relic chambers of those shrines." The Mahamuni temple is the centre of the
Selagiri tradition, the Shwe Dagon in Rangoon that of the hair legend. They are the two oldest in
Burma and we shall often have to refer to them in future reports. The journey of Taphussa and
Pallika, and the presentation of hair to them by Buddha is mentioned in the Mahavagga of the Vinaya
Pitaka (see my report on the Shwe Dagon pagoda).
Before concluding the report on Arakan I must once more revert to that curious book, the
Sabbathanapakaranam, already mentioned on page 2, Chapter I, Mahamuni pagoda. Amongst other
interesting information it gives a list of the 198 ancient and modern cities in Arakan, 99 on each
side of the Gacchabha or Kaladan river. The spelling is throughout that of the original manu-
script.
The gg cities to the east of the Gacchabha Nadi (Kaladan).
(19) ooSfteoooS Tin (or Tang) Rutaung.
(1) Dvaravatl.
(2) o|oc8 Pannavati.
(3) d8gc8 Sibbali.
(4) oSscSsgSg Minthamipyin (or prang).
(5) oSsooosgSs Minthabyin (or prang).
(6) cocSooSo^ Thaktinwun.
(7) scSoqs Zintu.
(8) goISgcooS Baunglaung.
(9) c^SsJS Taingkyain.
(10) oooo^gooS Kavantaw.
(11) GDDoc8g5 Thaukpyin (or prang).
(12) ©gSGoooSooooS Zibhaungtaung.
(13) ocbcoooS Paletaung.
(14) of>lgS Gangapyin (Gangaprang).
(15) GblSgcoooS Khaungprutaung.
(16) o§ooS Wuntin or Wantang.
(17) Muncari.
(18) oocqogoo Velupabbata.
(20) g^sgooqS Netaung.
(21) GG|sg«Ss2^8 Yekhyamaing.
(22) g§|o§8goooS Shwepantaung.
(23) oggo Paiica (Binza).
(24) GoqjooSolsGocoS Kyaukpantaung.
(25) cS^qoS Sirigut.
(26) soSafjJs Zhinkyo.
(27) ©goc8 Dhannavati.
(28) 00^2096 Kanthoning (or ang).
(29) osgjocB Ajjhavati.
(30) c8^«ooc8 Slrimavati.
(31) «Dcoou}gB^os§GpagoS Rajakyo (Raja-
griha), close to the Malayu river.
(The Malayu river is now called
Mayu; it is the westernmost of the
large Arakanese rivers; a "New
Rajakyo" had been founded there).


ARAKAN.
65
(32) HI00® Rannavati.
(33) GODcoo^§g8ao8|i!Goo>oc8 Vesali, near the
Selanadi. (The ruins of Vesali are
about 20 miles north of Mrohaung.)
(34) PancavatL
(35) ^gocB Sammavati.
(36) ooqa8cqggo8£j Karamsuttavagiri.
(37) Kywepyin (Krweprang).
(38) gco8^5«gooo8 Lehningtaung.
(39) ^g00® Kummavati.
(40) olcSo Pasiva.
(41) ©gg^ Cancana.
(42) c»o8dJS Thavingaing.
(43) S£c3s Pyaingtaing.
(44) g§oo8goods Khwethintaung.
(45) oii^ssgooos Payintaung.
(46) Gsoglf (coog]$) Cheddana(? Bheddana).
(47) @o5c»Gq©ooo8 Kyettharetaung.
(48) o^odoo6codo8 Zithabhintaung.
(49) § in Khyeippya.
(50) ogocS Cammavak (Campavak).
(51) go18^godo8 Paungbhontaung.
(52) §Sc£jSGcooS(5 Pyaingtaing taungpyu.
(53) Kyeintha.
(54) DDcg$Gooo8 Thalwuntaung.
(55) S^qpS Pinne chyaung (Pinne is the
Burmese for Sriganesa and its vo-
taries ; the name implies the creek
of Sriganesa or its worshipper).
(56) aoSgng^s Zhingphyukywun (the island of
the royal white elephants).
(57) 'S Twepyaphyu.
(58) odooo^gooos Katantaung.
(59) 9og$.8g8$og§ii<|oo6ooo5 Phuthing (P u-
sang), near the Amba (Mango) river.
(60) o8coos£|S Sila aing.
(61) g|Sss>So8$ Yinkattein (Rang Khaptein).
(62) ogoocB Cammavati.
The gg Cities to the west of the
(1) (c§°o«co§ Kylmasari.
(2) cqcc"$3>8 Kulapanjing.
(3) goo Phyuma (Phruma).
(4) Kantamajjhima.
(5) ooSoq Pakhingara.
(63) «$gogoS Manaung.
(64) o$s}$odo Pannantha.
(65) Minza (Maiica).
(66) o^ogi^sooo Zapokywuntha.
(67) s8o5ogoodc8 Zheitmatauk.
(68) co8Linglo (Langlo).
(69) (70) ©grooS Campalay.
(71) ooogqogoooD^GoooS Rakkhara pabbata
kanantaung.
(72) Hlan Yopon.
(73) gooo8o^s3oo5 Taung thonzhay.
(74) Sarabbhan.
(75) S^GoooS Nagataung.
(76) ooo8cf}8 Tapintaing.
(77) Gooo8gGocoS Taungphyutaung.
(78) ?coogooo8 Nilataung.
(79) cg^scoooS Hlanyotaung.
(80) oooo5q8!qoS'Jj Got city in Taungop.
(81) 006303 Linghon.
(82) dloqg8$os§.ia>gco§ The city of Kammala
near the Vasu river.
(83) oog|o5gooo5 Tharaktaung.
(84) Muni.
(85) o8ooco8 Zittaling.
(86) Go^ooSccgol Kyaukhlekha.
(87) cooScsooo Lakphaya.
(88) §05 Hmanku.
(89) coSg Ling (Lang) myo (the city of Ling).
(90) egg Myemyo (Mremro), the city of
Mye (Mre).
(91) G^qggcp Neranjara.
(92) oqoooocB Kusavatl.
(93) The city of Natl (?).
(94) ogoc8gs Myauku (Mrohaung).
(95) OGl£ Paring (Prang), to the east of Mro-
haung.
(96) ccqolo Catu (r) gama, known under the
more modern name of Launggyet.
The remaining names are effaced.
Gacchabha (.Kaladan) river.
(6) ooo>8ooco Kajingkala.
(7) mfococo Santakala.
(8) ooAooogPS> Kantakaraj.
(9) c^0^2!3^ Zikuraj.
(10) GODooooooGp§) Sotakaraj.
17


66
ARAKAN.
(11) ooDoogooGpS>g Mahapabbatarajmyo (the
city of the Mountain Chief, an hono-
rary title bestowed by Arakanese and
Burmese Kings upon submissive tribu-
tary Hill Chiefs).
(12) qgoracp&g Culakarajmyo (the city of
Culakaraj).
(13) oocoooDcpS) Kalakaraj.
(14) oggc8oo8cp& Pa7zcalikinraj.
(15) oogSoloq Kapingvaku.
(16) c|oooGp& Candasaraj.
(17) o^ocoo Pankhala.
(18) D3£gc§§g Anjatanadimyo (the city of
Anjata river).
(19) o^ooooocB Parccakamavatl.
(20) oo^Giggcol Taw carara capo.
(21) aoggoo^ Ajjhatan.
(22) Suvanumagiri.
(23) gsg Myimyo (Mrimro) (the city of Mri).
(24) o§©coo^>oq Pathidhalanagara.
(25) ©S^^ Pa/ffianagor.
(26) ^go^R Ramapura.
(27) colcgq^ Pakkharanandi.
(28) cdoooIoo Samavaya.
(29) goco3o$gooo8 Velapantaung.
(30) oDooqg The city of Kakara.
(31) cod^oo^ Ngatansar&.
(32) Mallaraj.
(33) wrgo^oq Yakkhagandhara.
(34) s^0^ Samaglri.
(35) Candagiri.
(36) coqqg The city of Catura.
(37) qcs^cps) pulintaraj.
(38) 000^(330$,) Bhavanti (? Avanti).
(39) coDooooDGpS. Kokakaraj.
(40) ooogoccos zhataling.
(41) ©GtoScq Khamaungton.
(42) coqoS^S Tharakaing.
(43) cggScooooS Kyientauk.
(44) o$«gS Panpyin (Panprang).
(45) ©?sgoojco|iiod8o5goog6h Thapeittaung in
Yo Vebhula.
(46) o|og8$os|nooS©ooo£GoooSii YingChaung-
taung, near the river Panna.
(47) GODOggoo§gso*|a»8sg8sGoooS Ing (Ang)
Kyintaung, near the river Sokkatan.
(48) c§)o(5 Shwe Sankyan.
(49) ao8c8§gsgs^os|iiao£eoog The city of Zhin-
the, near the river Zintainkhyin.
(50) Zhaddanaing.
(51) oDo$cg$g Savankywun.
(52) ©soo^ioos Zittanting.
(53) 03005 Samak (Thamet).
(54) g030^® Yaukkhama.
(55) 300^8 Zhantunbw&.
(56) odo}©ooo8 Tha (Sa) lutaung.-
(57) The city of Tap.
(58) GoooSog^s Taungkywun.
(59) o9jc8gooSgoooS Kyektawtaung.
(60) oDocqq Kasura.
(61) g00008Taukzon.
(62) d^cocjcqjoS T&lamuchhaung.
(63) gcsgodooS Phekauk.
(64) congas Phekywun.
(65) ogooSc8oS(s8o5) Khamaung Cheit (zheit ?)
(66) gSs|?cooo$8©ooo8i Nilapantaung in Hmain.
(67) ^ Kh&lu.
(68) Surananda.
(69) oDo^cpS) Samantaraj.
(70) 6)oogodo Patako.
(71) oocfjSooS Ta (n) Taingthin.
(72) q|©o5.GoooS Khyinthetaung.
(73) goSeooGoooS Myatthetaung.
(74) ^gcp^oogcpS,) Andaraj (? Bhandaraj).
(75) ro&Bd^S Kinbhiaing.
(76) ^§08^8 Yb (Rb) Yo (ro) pintaing.
(77) gooogodooS Themathauk.
(78) oooscj^ Thapyongo.
(79) oo^g8^os|©oq)oo5oo©T8 Kyaukta (n) Kha near
the Takho river.
(80) ocq8GsjjoSs^08§ooq8oD$g The city of Tarop-
kan (Chinese quarter) near the Tarop
creek.
(81) c§?Goog The city of Khwethe.
(82) egooq Omara.
(83) ogpgg Cakk'avanna.
(84) eoqgg Veranja.
(85) ooqSg Taropmyo (Chinese city).
(86) oooooog Thayamyo (the city of Thaya).
(87) o^og The city of Mala.
(88) ©ooo8oDog The city of Aungtha.
(89) ?coog£g The town of Nilapyin (Nilaprang).
(90) cggSeooooS Kyientauk.


ARAKAN.
67
(91) acSgcoooS Zhinphyutaung.
(92) g^ooSgsjjoSs Nyaungchaung.
(93) Zinyinpya.
(94) oocfjSsoS Ta (n) taingvin.
(99) *
Some of the names are modern and quite fanciful, like (98) and (99).
prove useful to the student of the ancient history of India.
(95) *OGl§ Nagaramyo (?)
(96) ccooqoog The city of Lorama.
(97) Pyasatu.
(98) ^ooooog The city of Nattisala (?)
^ocog The city of Nattibala (?)
The list will probably




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ARAKAN . CHAPTE R I.—TH E MAHAMUN I PAGODA . TH E Mahamun i shrin e i s situate d nort h latitud e 2i° , eas t longitud e 93° , 8 mile s eas t o f th e Kalada n rive r an d 4 8 mile s nort h o f Mrohaung , th e onc e famou s capita l o f th e Arakanes e kings . History .—The earlies t daw n o f th e histor y o f Araka n reveal s th e bas e o f th e hills , whic h divid e th e lowe r cours e o f th e Kalada n an d Lemr o rivers , inhabite d b y sojourner s fro m India , governe d b y chief s wh o clai m relationshi p wit h th e ruler s o f Kapilavastu . Thei r subject s ar e divide d int o th e fou r caste s o f th e olde r Hind u communities ; th e king s an d priest s stud y th e thre e Vedas ; th e rivers , hills , an d citie s bea r name s o f Arya n origin ; an d th e title s assume d b y th e kin g an d quee n regnan t sugges t connectio n wit h th e Sola r an d Luna r dynastie s o f India . Th e Lemr o rive r wa s the n calle d Anjanad i fro m it s crooke d course . Marayu , th e first o f Arakanes e kings , founde d th e cit y o f Dhanyavat i o n th e bank s o f th e Sirimanad i (no w th e Thar e creek) . Th e Kalada n meandere d pas t th e Skilagir i (no w Kyauktaw ) unde r th e appellatio n Gaccha bhanad i an d joine d th e se a (samudra ) belo w Urasa , th e presen t Urittaung . Th e Mallapabbata , Gandhagiri , an d Jarupabbat a separate d th e Kalada n fro m th e Mallayunad i (May u river) , an d t o th e wes t ros e th e Kasinapabbata . Late r on , bu t stil l befor e ou r era , fou r town s (chaturgama ) wer e founde d wher e th e Launggye t cree k join s th e Lemro ; th e moder n village s Nankya , Barin , Bato , an d Letm a indicat e th e site s o f th e " fou r cities; " an d th e Anjanad i change d it s nam e t o Lemr o (Le myomyit) , o r th e " four-cit y river. " Vakal l (Vesali ) i s sai d t o hav e first bee n founde d b y Kin g Vasudeva . Th e ruin s o f thi s tow n ca n stil l b e trace d 2 0 mile s nort h o f Mrohaung , 2 mile s eas t o f th e villag e o f Paragyi . Bot h Dhanyavat i an d Vesal i wer e repeatedl y destroye d b y neighbourin g mountai n tribes , bu t agai n rebuil t b y th e Arya n settlers . Wit h Candrasuriy a o r Mahacandrasuriy a appea r th e di m outline s o f th e histor y o f Arakan . Thi s monarc h erecte d a ne w cit y an d palac e o n th e sit e o f Ol d Dhanyavat i ; t o thi s rule r historica l annal s an d tradition s unanimousl y ascrib e th e foundatio n o f th e origina l Mahamun i shrin e intende d t o receiv e th e braze n imag e o f Gotama . Th e record s o f Farthe r Indi a mak e Candrasuriy a a contemporar y o f Mahamuni , th e grea t sage . Buddhism , a s i t no w prevail s i n Burma , i s decidedl y a n offshoo t o f th e Souther n Buddhis t school . I n th e nt h an d 12t h centurie s th e priest s o f Paga n unite d thei r churc h wit h th e mother-churc h o f Ceylon . I n th e 10t h centur y Buddhism , establishe d i n Burm a b y Son a an d Uttara , wh o wer e sen t b y Asoka , mus t hav e becom e nearl y extinct . Manuha , Kin g o f th e Takings , wa s brough t captiv e t o Paga n b y Anawrath a (10t h century ) ; h e was , however , allowe d t o buil d a residenc e fo r himself , an d i n thi s palac e nearl y al l i s India n art , an d Trimurtn i reigne d supreme , a s i s eviden t fro m th e ston e sculpture s stil l preserve d i n th e edific e (se e Repor t o n Pagan) . Th e religiou s zea l o f Anawrath a an d Narapatijayasur a agai n secure d supremac y t o Buddhism . Bu t ther e ar e ol d Buddhis t tradition s amon g th e Taking s an d Arakanese , tradition s whic h coul d no t hav e originate d wit h th e Souther n Buddhis t school , bu t ar e the remnant s o f th e ol d Norther n Buddhism , whic h reache d Araka n fro m th e Gange s whe n Indi a wa s mainl y Buddhisti c ; the y for m a substratu m croppin g u p her e ap d ther e apparentl y withou t an y connectio n ; it s centr e i s th e Mahamun i pagoda , th e mos t importan t remain s o f ancien t Buddhis m i n Burma , antedatin g i n thi s provinc e bot h Brahmanis m an d th e Buddhis m o f th e Souther n school . Th e legen d assert s tha t durin g th e reig n o f Candrasuriya , Kin g o f Dhannavat i (Norther n Arakan) , Gotam a Buddh a cam e wit h man y o f hi s follower s t o thi s country .

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2 „ TH E MAHAMUN I PAGODA . II O n th e Selagir i (opposit e Kyaukta w o n th e Kalada n river ) h e hel d a propheti c discours e ; afte r th e castin g o f hi s imag e h e departe d t o th e south , visite d Dvaravat i (Sandoway) , the n turne d t o th e east , an d alightin g (h e i s flying throug h th e air ) o n th e summi t o f th e Pou taun g ( a stee p hil l 7 mile s abov e Prom e o n th e Irrawaddy ) h e delivere d anothe r discours e pregnan t wit h prophesies . Hi s furthe r journey s i n Burm a ar e stil l remembere d b y th e Talaing s i n connectio n wit h certai n ol d pagoda s i n Pegu , Thaton , an d Martaban . Nothin g i s reporte d i n th e Souther n Buddhis t scripture s o f Gotama' s sojour n i n Suvannabhumi , Arimaddana , o r Ramannades a (constitutin g th e presen t Burma ) ; but , sa y th e Ceylones e chroniclers , h e flew throug h th e ai r an d alighte d o n a prominen t pea k i n Ceylon , converte d th e savag e inhabitant s o f th e island , an d the n flew bac k t o India . Th e moder n Burmes e historian s hav e a thir d legen d : h e visite d Ceylon , the n crossed , i n on e giganti c step , th e ocea n an d lande d o n th e Pou taun g mountai n ; wit h anothe r ste p h e agai n stoo d o n th e height s o f Rajagrihi . Al l thre e tradition s ar e equall y trustworth y o r th e contrary . Bu t i t i s immateria l t o ou r inquir y whethe r o r no t Gotam a sojourne d i n Dhannavat i o r whethe r h e was personall y presen t a t th e castin g o f hi s imag e o n th e Sirigutt a hill , o n whic h Candrasuriy a erecte d th e Mahamun i shrin e i n commemo ratio n o f bot h event s ; i t suffice s t o kno w tha t th e strang e tradition , unrecorde d i n th e Tipitaka , i s no t a n afterthought , conceive d i n moder n times , o f whic h w e hav e s o man y instance s i n th e histor y o f Burma . Th e traditio n i s intimatel y connecte d wit h th e religiou s histor y o f Araka n an d Burm a i n general ; i t i s a s ol d a s Buddhis m itsel f i n tha t province . Nearl y al l pagoda s withi n th e confine s o f Dhanna vat i an d o n th e bank s o f th e Irrawadd y ow e thei r origi n t o it ; ancien t Arakanes e kings , mindfu l o f th e prophesie s i t contained , buil t pagoda s o n th e spot s indicated , an d moder n king s rebuil t o r repaire d the m ; th e Urittaun g pagoda , th e Uginceti , th e Andaw , Nandaw , an d Sanda w shrine s i n Sandowa y stil l exis t i n fulfilmen t o f Gotama' s dicta ; an d th e remova l o f th e Mahamun i imag e th e Arakanes e loo k upo n a s th e temporar y workin g o f th e stil l unexpiate d resul t (Kammavipaka ) o f Gotama' s tw o evi l deed s (se e pag e 7 ) committe d o n th e Chedub a islan d an d visite d o n hi s younge r brothe r an d re presentativ e : onl y anothe r foretellin g fulfille d i n thi s lan d o f strang e prophecies , Arakan , th e Pales tin e o f th e Farthe r East . A centur y ag o Bodawpaya , o n returnin g fro m a victoriou s campaig n agains t th e Talaings , erecte d th e Pou taun g pagod a abov e Prome , o n th e hil l wher e Gotama , o n hi s jour ne y fro m Sandowa y t o Srikshetr a (se e pag e 5) , alighte d wit h hi s pupil s an d foretol d th e histor y o f Prome. A s i n report s o n Burmes e archaeologica l remain s w e shal l ofte n hav e occasio n t o refe r t o th e Mahamun i tradition , I giv e her e th e necessar y extract s fro m th e Mahamun i thamei n ( a histor y o f thi s shrine ) an d th e Sappadanapakaraw a (Sarvas^hanaprakarawa) , a n ancien t Arakanes e manuscrip t o f grea t valu e : Sarvasthanaprakarana. " Candrasuriya , hearin g o f th e grea t teache r Gotama , yearne d t o pa y homag e t o him , an d t o presen t hi m wit h ric h offerings . Buddha , whil e dwellin g i n Sravast i (Savatthi) , becam e aware , b y hi s divin e powe r t o perceiv e th e thought s o f others , o f th e intention s o f Candrasuriya . Th e teache r sai d t o hi s chie f discipl e Anand a : ' Th e kin g wil l hav e t o pas s region s ful l o f dange r t o traveller s ; larg e ' river s wil l imped e hi s journey, an d th e ocea n i s rule d b y naga s inimica l t o seafarer s : le t u s betak e ' ourselve s t o th e dominion s o f th e king , s o tha t h e ma y execut e hi s piou s intention s withou t bein g ' compelle d t o undertak e s o dangerou s a journey. ' The n Gotama , accompanie d b y Anand a an d 50 0 rahans , flew throug h th e ai r an d alighte d o n th e summi t o f th e Selagir i (th e hil l opposit e Kyauk taw) . Her e h e hel d a discours e wit h hi s disciple s an d the n addresse d Anand a thus : 'Ananda , ' t o th e wes t o f th e Gacchabh a river , whic h flows pas t thi s hill , ther e i s a plai n ; her e hav e I i n ' forme r existence s bee n bor n man y times . On e yojan a distan t fro m thi s Selagiri , whereo n w e ar e ' no w standing , ther e i s a mountai n calle d Mallapabbat a ; o n thi s hil l a pagod a wil l b e buil t t o receiv e

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„ TH E MAHAMUN I PAGODA . II f a s relic s th e hai r fro m bot h side s o f m y hea d ; th e shrin e wil l b e calle d Uzundawcet l (§sg8*G053e^c8 ) ; f nea r th e Mallapabbat a i s anothe r hil l calle d Ve/uva^apabbata , wher e durin g on e o f m y birth s I live d ' a s a Zapagy i serpen t (oo"|»g « bo a constrictor) ; o n it s summi t th e Nasacet i wil l b e built , containin g a s ' reli c m y nasa l bone . Nea r thi s agai n i s a hil l calle d Gandhagiri , wher e I live d a s a Granzi n ' —Burm . th e single-horne d rhinoceros ) durin g on e o f m y birth s ; o n thi s hil l th e Ka««a ' dhatucet l wil l b e erecte d holdin g a s reli c m y lef t ear . O n th e souther n sid e o f thi s hil l an d mor e tha n ' a yojan a distan t ther e i s a lo w rang e o f hill s name d Salamaya ; ther e I live d i n a forme r existenc e ' a s a gardener ; i n aftertime s m y camrutdha t (ogo S ? ) wil l b e enshrine d her e i n a pagod a t o b e ' calle d th e Camuticeti . Furthe r t o th e sout h an d nea r th e Gacchabhanad i ther e i s a stee p rock y hil l ' know n a s th e Selapabbat a ; ther e I live d whe n i n a forme r lif e I wa s bor n a s a Brahma n verse d i n ' th e Veda s ; th e skull , measurin g 1 8 inche s i n circumference , stil l remain s ther e an d wil l b e enshrine d ' i n a pagod a t o b e name d th e Urajtaungcet i (Urittaungcet i gcp&GoooScocB) . O n th e wester n sid e o f 'thi s hil l an d a t a distanc e o f abou t 3 league s ther e i s a rive r calle d th e Mallay u (no w calle d ' Mayu) . O n th e easter n ban k o f thi s rive r i s th e Rajapabbat a (no w Yathetaung) ; o n thi s moun ' tai n I live d durin g on e o f m y birth s a s a Chaddant a elephant . Whe n I di e th e fronta l bon e o f thi s ' elephan t wil l b e foun d an d enshrine d i n a tabernacl e bearin g th e nam e Ugintawcet i (§SCO8GOOSGOC8) . ' O n th e wester n sid e o f th e Mallay u (o r Rammamallayu ) river , an d clos e t o th e ocean , ther e i s a ' rang e o f hill s know n a s th e Kasinapabbat a ; ther e I formerl y spen t a lif e a s th e Kin g o f th e peacocks . ' O n m y deat h m y neckbon e wil l b e discovere d an d enshrine d ther e i n a pagod a t o b e calle d th e ' Liyodawcet i (CO^S^GOOSGOCB). ' " Thu s th e Blesse d On e spok e t o Anand a ; an d a t th e en d o f thi s prophes y th e grea t eart h wit h moun t Mer u a s it s centr e tremble d an d shook , an d th e se a becam e ho t an d boiled . " O n perceivin g thes e portentou s sign s Kin g Mahacandrasuriy a too k alar m an d aske d hi s as trologer s wha t thei r caus e migh t be . The y answere d tha t th e sign s wer e cause d b y th e adven t o f th e Blesse d On e (Gotama ) ; an d o n hi s expressin g a wis h t o g o an d ador e th e teacher , th e propitiou s tim e fo r hi s intende d visi t wa s name d t o hi m afte r consultin g th e nakshatras . "Surrounde d b y 1,60 0 maiden s wit h Candramala , th e chie f queen , a t thei r head , precede d b y hi s numerou s ministers , Mahacandrasuriy a wen t t o d o homag e t o th e grea t teacher . O n hi s wa y h e experience d grea t fatigue , an d afte r callin g fo r a hal t h e too k hi s meal . Durin g hi s mea l h e omitte d t o ea t hi s rice-gruel , s o t o thi s da y th e plac e wher e h e halte d i s calle d Hingmas a (OOSSOOOSH) . Fro m tha t plac e h e move d on . Th e nois e cause d b y hi s fourfol d army , consistin g o f elephants , horses , chariots , an d foot-soldiers , wa s deafenin g an d seeme d t o fill th e skye y dom e ; henc e t o thi s da y tha t plac e i s know n a s Yoppyi n (ftSgSs) . H e continue d hi s journe y an d cam e t o a larg e place , wher e dus t aros e o n al l side s an d enshroude d hi m an d hi s me n i n utte r darkness . A s h e coul d n o longe r se e hi s way , eve n ther e h e di d homag e t o th e Blesse d One . Th e Blesse d On e kne w abou t this , s o h e sen t hi s aureol e ray s t o dispe l th e darkness . An d th e darknes s bein g dispelle d th e kin g move d on . Tha t spo t i s t o thi s da y know n a s Munbyi n Thenc e h e proceede d wit h grea t swiftnes s an d dul y arrive d i n th e presenc e o f th e Blesse d One . H e approache d hi m o n foot , holdin g flower s an d perfume s i n hi s hand s ; h e embrace d th e teacher' s fee t an d ordere d parche d rice , garlands , an d perfume s t o b e showere d upo n him . Th e Blesse d On e establishe d th e kin g i n th e five, eight , an d te n silas , an d preache d t o hi m th e te n rule s o f kingl y conduct . Candrasuriy a becam e transporte d wit h jo y an d addresse d th e teache r thu s : ' O grea t Kin g o f righteousness , d o hav e compassio n o n me.an d m y subjects , an d vouchsaf e t o honou r m y capita l wit h a visit. ' An d th e Blesse d On e consente d t o d o so . " Th e historie s minutel y relat e al l th e incident s o f Gotama' s seve n days ' sojour n i n Dhanyavau . I omi t the m her e a s unessential . Th e record s the n continu e thu s : " Whe n Buddh a mad e prepa " ration s t o depart , th e king , wh o wit h hi s cour t an d al l hi s subject s ha d bee n converte d t o th e ne w re

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4 „ TH E MAHAMUN I PAGODA . II " ligion , spok e thu s t o hi m : ' O Lord , wh o i s th e crown , light , an d glor y o f th e thre e kind s o f beings , " ' i f yo u wande r abou t fro m plac e t o plac e i n distan t countries , w e shal l hav e n o on e t o pa y homag e " ' to . Therefore , fo r m y ow n goo d an d tha t o f others , I woul d pra y yo u t o leav e u s a n imag e o f you. ' " Th e Blesse d On e hear d th e praye r an d i n hi s omniscien t wisdo m though t thu s : ' A n imag e o f ' min e calle d Candasar a wa s a t on e tim e i n th e countr y o f th e DiMr i King , s o Sakr a ha s hidde n i t o n ' a golde n thron e ; i t i s thu s tha t king s ca n n o longe r ador e it . Therefor e i t behove s m e tha t I i n ' thi s country , whic h i s mor e excellen t tha n th e res t o f th e 84,00 0 countries , an d whic h ha s bee n th e ' scen e o f m y variou s transmigrations , shoul d leav e m y imag e an d hair , which , I a m full y convinced , wil l ' b e hel d i n veneratio n b y men , nats , an d Brahmans , durin g th e 5,00 0 year s subsequen t t o m y Nirvana . ' I wil l compl y wit h th e king' s request. ' " Candrasuriy a was overjoye d ; h e ordere d nin e kuti s wort h o f treasur e t o b e collected . Whe n al l wa s ready Buddh a calle d upo n Sakr a an d Visvakarman , an d issue d t o the m th e followin g orde r : 1 Tak e thes e treasure s an d wit h the m mak e a n imag e o f m e whic h shal l no t var y fro m th e actua l siz e o f m y bod y eve n b y th e breadt h o f a hair. ' H e the n hande d th e treasure s t o Sakra , seve n armful s i n all . The y wer e place d i n golde n basket s overlai d wit h flowers an d whit e cloth , an d place d o n th e bac k o f a whit e elephan t unde r th e umbrag e o f a whit e umbrella . Wit h th e intentio n o f detainin g th e Blesse d On e jus t til l th e imag e wa s finished, Sakr a an d Visvakarma n create d b y thei r super natura l powe r a pleasan t pavilio n o n th e Sirigutt a hil l situate d t o th e north-eas t o f th e cit y o f Dhanya vat l (Pal i Dhannavatl) . Th e pavilio n wa s adorne d wit h ever y decoratio n whic h huma n an d celestia l ingenuit y coul d devis e ; an d i n i t fo r seve n day s dance , music , an d son g wer e held , an d th e fiv e kind s o f musica l instrument s sen t fort h thei r harmoniou s strain . "Th e Sirigutt a hil l wa s s o calle d becaus e i t was a s whit e a s fin e silve r an d looke d lik e a conch-shel l whos e spira l windin g i s toward s th e right . Th e hil l wa s als o calle d Agganutt a ; formerl y it s nam e was Trikumbhaw^ a becaus e th e feature s o f th e hil l seeme d t o represen t thre e ogre s standin g abreast . Anothe r nam e fo r i t wa s Slharaja , owin g t o a ston e figur e o n th e summi t representin g th e lion-kin g roarin g an d devourin g its prey . Th e hilloc k wa s likewis e calle d Wakthaz o becaus e ther e wa s a figur e representin g a femal e ho g sucklin g he r young , an d Wakthadotaun g b y reaso n o f ou r Pr a havin g i n a forme r existenc e live d ther e a s a hog-kin g surrounde d b y 50 0 companion s an d escape d fro m bein g devoure d b y a tiger—th e Devadatt a i n embryo—b y makin g a subterranea n hol e an d seekin g refug e therein . " O n thi s Sirigutt a hill , Kin g Candrasuriy a bein g the n i n th e 51s t yea r o f hi s reign , Sakr a an d Visvakarma n cas t a n imag e o f th e Blesse d One ; th e even t too k plac e i n th e yea r 11 8 Kosasakkaraj gyi . Bein g desirou s o f impartin g som e o f hi s glor y t o th e image , th e grea t teache r breathe d upo n th e image , whe n lo ! th e imag e wa s transforme d int o a life-lik e one , s o life-lik e indee d tha t t o th e eye s o f men , nats , Sakra , an d Brahm a ther e appeare d tw o Pras . Th e kin g an d hi s attendant s wer e filled wit h jo y an d offere d th e imag e variou s kind s o f flowers an d perfumes , coloure d parche d rice , torches , lamps , clot h fro m Urasa , &c. , an d shoute d ' sadhu , sadhu. ' Agai n th e eart h tremble d an d shook , an d Kin g Candrasuriya , ful l o f fait h an d overawe d b y thes e miraculou s signs , embrace d th e hol y fee t o f th e Blesse d On e an d becam e los t i n rapture . Whe n h e ha d regaine d hi s consciousnes s h e place d th e imag e o n a jewelle d throne , buil t a n elaboratel y carve d turre t abov e it , erecte d monas terie s wel l furnishe d wit h th e eigh t priestl y utensils , an d entruste d th e inmates , hol y Rahans , wit h th e custod y o f th e sacre d shrine . " Whil e th e grea t teache r gaze d upo n th e imag e i t slowl y ros e a s i f possesse d o f lif e an d stoo d i n th e attitud e o f welcomin g hi s elde r brothe r (Gotama ) ; an d th e Omniscien t On e stretche d ou t hi s righ t hand , wave d hi s hand , an d sai d (t o th e image) : ' Younge r brother , d o no t stan d up . I shal l ' ente r Nirvan a i n m y eightiet h year ; bu t you , endowe d wit h th e supernatura l power s o f a Buddha ,

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„ TH E MAHAMUN I PAGODA . II ' shal l exis t fo r 5,00 0 years , whic h I hav e prescribe d t o b e th e limi t o f m y religio n ; yo u shal l b e th e ' mean s o f workin g th e salvatio n o f me n an d nats. ' Afte r deliverin g thi s prophec y th e Blesse d On e continued : 'I n on e o f m y forme r existence s I wa s a kin g o n th e islan d o f Cheduba . I brok e th e ' thigh-bon e o f a gardene r an d slice d of f a piec e o f flesh fro m th e bac k o f a youn g princ e ; yo u (address ' in g th e image ) ar e m y representativ e o n eart h an d yo u shal l suffe r th e result s (Kammavipaka ) o f ' thes e tw o evi l deeds. ' Gotam a the n preache d a sermo n o n th e Candasar a image—fo r s o h e name d it . I t i s th e first an d onl y tru e imag e o f Buddha . " Kin g Candrasuriy a offere d th e remainde r o f th e nin e kuti s o f treasur e t o th e Rahanda s i n charg e o f th e shrin e ; bu t the y refuse d t o accep t it . Th e king , feelin g tha t i t wa s imprope r fo r hi m t o appropriat e th e treasure s intende d fo r th e Thre e Gems , burie d the m unde r th e thron e o f th e image . " The n th e Blesse d On e addresse d hi s disciple s thu s : ' O Rahans , m y belove d sons ! i n th e ' islan d o f Jambudip a an d amon g th e 1 6 countrie s o f Majjhimades a th e foo d offere d t o th e priest ' hoo d consist s o f a mixtur e o f maize , beans , corn , an d millet . But i n thi s countr y th e foo d offere d ' consist s o f variou s kind s o f barle y an d ric e ; suc h foo d i s eate n b y th e priest s wit h relis h ; m y pre ' cedin g elde r brother s (Kakusandha , Go«agamana , an d Kassapa , i.e., th e thre e Buddha s wh o preced ' e d Gotama ) hav e calle d thi s countr y Dhannavat i and , a s th e inhabitant s hav e neve r suffere d fro m ' famine , thi s regio n shal l i n al l time s t o com e continu e t o b e calle d Dhannavat i {i.e., th e grain-blessed). ' " Gotam a the n ros e wit h hi s disciple s an d flew throug h th e ai r i n th e directio n o f Dvaravat i (i.e., Sandoway) . Flyin g alon g th e bank s o f th e Dvaravat i rive r h e stoo d awhil e o n a smal l hillock , whic h i s t o thi s da y know n a s th e Tantawmutaung . Standin g o n tha t hil l th e Blesse d On e smile d an d Ananda , reverencin g hi m wit h th e fiv e token s o f respect , aske d hi m th e cause , an d Buddh a vouch safe d thi s answer : ' Ananda , I , wh o a m you r elde r brother , wa s man y a tim e i n forme r existence s a ' kin g o f me n i n thi s ver y cit y ; i n on e o f m y birth s I wa s a harmadryad-kin g o n th e Pfisurapabbat a ; ' o n m y deat h m y mola r toot h shal l com e t o b e enshrine d o n tha t hil l i n a pagod a t o b e calle d th e ' Andawceti . No t fa r fro m th e Pasur a hil l i s th e Lokul a hillock , wher e I onc e live d a s a partridge ' kin g ; whe n I di e m y namadhiit u (rib-reli c ? ) shal l b e enshrine d ther e i n a pagod a t o b e calle d th e * Nandawceti . No t fa r fro m thence , i n a south-easterl y direction , i s th e Mumkes a hill , wher e I live d i n ' on e o f m y forme r birth s a s a Shw&zamar i (yak-ox) . Ther e a hai r reli c o f min e wil l becom e enshrin ' e d i n a pagod a t o b e calle d th e SandawcetT. ' Havin g uttere d thi s prophec y th e Blesse d On e de parte d i n th e directio n o f Sirikhetr a (Prome) . " Meanwhil e Kin g Candrasuriya , togethe r wit h hi s queen s an d subjects , celebrate d festival s i n Dhannavati , lik e thos e o f Sudhamm a i n th e Tavatims a heaven , an d withou t interruptio n b y da y o r nigh t di d homag e t o th e Mahamun i (i.e., Candasara ) image , whic h wa s th e representativ e o f th e Blesse d One . Nin e miracle s too k plac e i n th e image-house : (1 ) Th e vasundhar a hol e du g i n it s presenc e coul d no t b e fille d u p wit h th e hol y wate r poure d i n i t b y it s votaries ; (2 ) whe n heretic s worshipped , its sixfol d aureol e ray s woul d fad e awa y ; (3 ) whe n th e faithfu l approache d th e imag e th e sixfol d ray s woul d flash fort h no t unlik e th e flashes o f forke d lightning ; (4 ) thes e ray s flashed fort h i n th e evenin g ; (5 ) bird s dare d no t fly ove r th e image-hous e ; (6 ) th e precinct s o f th e image-hous e wer e s o spaciou s tha t th e 10 1 race s o f me n wh o thronge d t o worshi p th e imag e coul d neve r fill it ; (7 ) th e tan k wher e th e hea d o f th e imag e wa s washe d ha d th e sam e quantit y o f wate r durin g al l season s o f th e year ; (8 ) th e tree s whic h gre w roun d th e image-hous e ha d thei r leaves , twigs , an d branche s turne d toward s it ; (9 ) th e ston e figure s place d toward s th e cardina l point s kep t awa y person s wh o approache d th e image-hous e wit h evi l intention s (o f plunder , &c.). " Th e nativ e record s her e pas s ove r man y centurie s i n silenc e ; the y resum e th e histor y o f th e shrin e i n th e eight h centur y o f ou r er a thus . I n th e yea r 15 2 B . E . (A . D . 789 ) th e ne w cit y o f Vesal i wa s 2

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6 „ TH E MAHAMUN I PAGODA . II founde d b y Kin g Mahataingcandr a o n th e sit e wher e th e ol d tow n ha d stood . Durin g th e reig n o f thi s kin g th e Mahamun i image-hous e wa s twic e rebuilt ; h e als o erecte d a ne w ston e alta r fo r th e imag e ; whil e consecratin g th e shrin e h e wa s miraculousl y presente d wit h th e celestia l Arindam a spea r {i.e., th e spea r o f victory , th e fortunat e possesso r o f whic h coul d no t b e defeate d i n arms) . I n Sakkara j 17 2 (A . D . 810 ) Kin g Suriyataingcandr a rebuil t th e image-house , whic h ha d bee n destroye d b y fir e on e yea r befor e hi s father' s deat h ; h e place d th e imag e o n a ne w alta r mad e o f marbl e finely carve d ; th e spire s o f th e shrin e wer e coate d wit h bras s plates . Priest s fro m Paga n an d Ceylo n cam e t o worshi p a t th e temple . Durin g th e reig n o f Sanghataingcandr a (B . E . 297—313 , A . D . 935—951 ) th e Kin g o f Paga n sen t tw o minister s calle d Lusak a an d Majalo n t o th e Mahamun i pagod a wit h th e instructio n t o re plac e th e ston e figures o f nat s b y image s o f Buddha ; bu t th e Kin g o f Vesal i oppose d thi s chang e an d onl y tw o o f th e na t figures wer e allowe d t o b e chiselle d int o image s o f Buddha . (Thes e tw o figures stan d o n th e eas t sid e o f th e secon d platfor m ; the y sho w trace s o f th e ol d origina l na t figures chiselle d clumsil y int o Buddhas. ) Kin g Culataingcandr a (B . E . 313 , A.D . 951 ) mad e extensiv e repair s t o th e Mahamun i pagod a an d ha d severa l tank s du g ou t t o th e wes t o f th e shrine . Durin g th e reig n o f Kin g Paipy u (B . E . 326—356 , A.D . 964—994 ) th e Shan s invade d Araka n ; th e kin g ha d founde d a ne w cit y wher e Mrohaun g no w stands , bu t th e Shan s force d hi m t o abando n i t ; th e invader s the n settle d i n larg e number s t o th e eas t o f th e Mahamun i shrin e ; the y remove d th e treasure s whic h Candrasuriy a ha d burie d unde r th e alta r an d burne d dow n th e image-house . I n th e 10t h centur y th e grea t Burmes e monarc h Anawrath a sojourne d fro m Paga n t o superinten d i n perso n th e rebuildin g o f th e Mahamun i templ e ; h e als o erecte d a hal l i n fron t o f th e shrine , surmounte d b y a richl y carve d graduate d turret . Th e pagod a wa s agai n repaire d b y Asankhar a Min , a kin g o f th e Pancamy o dynast y (B . E . 448 , A . D . 1086) ; th e sam e kin g erecte d a staircas e roofe d wit h graduate d turrets , leadin g u p t o th e north-entranc e o f th e shrine . (Th e staircas e i s stil l i n fai r orde r ; th e woode n turret s hav e o f cours e disappeared. ) I n th e yea r B . E . 45 8 (A . D . 1096 ) th e Burmes e Kin g Alaingsith u sen t a minister , 50 0 noble men , an d 50,00 0 soldier s t o Araka n ; the y erecte d a cam p o n th e wes t sid e o f th e Mahamun i shrin e ; employin g goo d architect s the y erecte d a four-side d buildin g ove r th e image , plante d champa c tree s aroun d it , an d repaire d th e approache s t o th e temple . Afte r th e departur e o f th e Burmes e arm y Kin g Minthan , o f th e Pancamy o dynasty , bein g prompte d b y nationa l hatre d toward s th e Burmans , destroye d th e shrin e buil t b y the m an d erecte d a ne w one . I n th e yea r B . E . 46 0 (A . D . 1098 ) th e Mahamun i pagod a wa s raze d t o th e groun d b y th e Pyu s an d Talaings , wh o wer e the n lord s o f Dvaravat I an d Mrohaung ; th e shrin e wa s no t rebuil t til l B . E . 51 5 (A . D . 1153) , whe n Kin g Dasaraja , o f th e Pari n dynasty , ha d searc h mad e fo r th e ruins , eve n th e sit e o f whic h ha d bee n forgotte n ; h e restore d th e pagoda . Th e templ e wa s agai n repaire d i n B . E . 59 9 (A . D . 1237 ) b y th e first kin g o f th e Launggye t dynasty , Alomapyu , bu t was destroye d agai n b y th e Shan s i n B . E . 69 6 (A . D . 1354) , wh o conquere d th e whol e regio n fro m Launggye t t o Mahamuni . Th e pagod a was agai n repaire d b y Sinda , a kin g o f th e Launggye t dynasty , i n th e yea r B . E . 75 5 (A D . 1393) . Afte r Kin g Minzawmu n ha d founde d th e ne w cit y o f Mrohaun g (B . E . 792 , A . D . 1430 ) h e constructe d a roa d fro m thi s cit y t o Mahamuni ; h e inaugurate d periodica l pilgrimage s t o th e sacre d shrine , whic h h e pu t i n thoroug h repair s ; th e numerou s tank s alon g th e roa d ar e ascribe d t o him . Kin g Minkhar i (o r Allkin ) ha d a cop y o f th e Pi/ak a prepare d i n Ceylo n an d entruste d i t t o th e keepin g o f th e pries t wh o live d nea r th e Mahamun i pagod a (B . E . 801 , A . D . 1439) .

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„ TH E MAHAMUN I PAGODA . II Kin g Minbi n o r Sirisuriyacandr a mad e larg e offering s t o th e pagod a an d ordere d numerou s image s t o b e cu t resemblin g th e origina l i n th e sacre d shrin e ; thes e ston e image s wer e se t u p a t th e variou s pagoda s i n Arakan , especiall y i n th e Shitthaun g pagod a i n Mrohaun g (B . E . 898 , A . D . 1536) . Durin g th e reig n o f th e Mrohaun g Kin g Candrasudhamm a th e shrin e wa s consume d b y fire ; th e kin g rebuil t i t agai n ; i t wa s finished i n th e yea r B . E . 102 0 (A . D . 1658) . Unde r Kin g Sirisuriya , wh o ascende d th e thron e i n 104 6 B . E . (A . D . 1684 ) a grea t religiou s re vival too k plac e i n Araka n ; th e kin g buil t severa l monasterie s an d Upasampadasima s roun d th e Mahilmun i pagod a ; ove r a thousan d novice s receive d ordinatio n a t thi s templ e durin g on e year . I n th e yea r B . E . 105 8 (A . D . 1696) , whil e Kin g Maruppiy a reigned , th e shrin e wa s agai n burn e d dow n an d wa s rebuil t b y Kin g Candavijay a i n th e yea r B . E . 107 2 (A . D . 1710) . Kin g Naradhipat i ha d a bel l cas t an d place d o n th e platfor m o f th e Mahamun i pagod a (B . E . 1095 , A . D . 1734 ) ; th e bel l i s covere d wit h inscription s i n Pali , Burmese , an d Sanskrit ; the y con tai n sacre d formula s (mandras ) which , whe n pronoune d unde r certai n ceremonies , woul d effec t th e destructio n o f an y enem y agains t who m th e mandr a i s directed . I n th e yea r A . D . 176 1 a violen t earthquak e partl y demolishe d th e alta r o n whic h th e imag e stoo d an d portion s o f th e wall s o f th e oute r enclosur e fel l in . Th e king s o f Pagan , Prome , an d Peg u invade d Araka n fro m th e earlies t time , ofte n wit h n o othe r intentio n tha n t o obtai n possessio n o f th e sacre d imag e o f Gotam a preserve d i n th e Mahamun i temple . Th e first attemp t recorde d i n nativ e historie s i s tha t o f Kin g Supanna , wh o reigne d i n Prom e i n th e latte r hal f o f th e first centur y o f th e Christia n era . Captai n Forbe s remark s ( Legendar y History of Burma and Arakan , p . 13 ) : " Supann a invade d an d subdue d Arakan , an d attempte d t o " conve y t o Burm a th e famous imag e o f Gotam a fro m th e templ e o f Mahamuni . Thi s highl y venerat " e d objec t o f worshi p ha s bee n thu s describe d : Th e imag e o f Gotam a i s mad e o f bras s an d highl y " burnished . Th e figure i s abou t 1 0 fee t high , i n th e customar y sittin g posture , wit h th e leg s crosse d " an d inverted , th e lef t han d restin g o n th e la p an d th e righ t penden t ove r th e righ t knee . Thi s " imag e i s believe d t o b e th e origina l resemblanc e o f Gotam a take n fro m life , an d i s s o highl y venerat " e d tha t pilgrim s hav e fo r centurie s bee n accustome d t o com e fro m th e remotes t countrie s wher e th e " supremac y o f Gotam a is.acknowledge d t o pa y thei r devotion s a t th e foo t o f hi s braze n represen " tative. " Althoug h th e Burman s faile d a t tha t time , the y wer e destine d severa l centurie s late r t o obtai n possessio n o f thi s covete d treasure , whic h i s no w enthrone d i n th e cit y o f Amarapura . I n th e yea r A . D . 178 4 th e Burmes e Kin g Bodawpay a conquere d Arakan . " Th e grea t nation " a l imag e o f Arakan , calle d Mahamuni , wa s sen t acros s th e mountain s b y th e Taungu p pass , wa s re " ceive d b y th e kin g wit h grea t honour , an d wa s se t u p i n a buildin g speciall y erecte d fo r i t t o th e " nort h o f th e cit y " (Si r Arthu r Phayre' s History of Burma, p . 215) . Unti l th e remova l o f th e Candasar a imag e th e Mahamun i pagod a wa s th e mos t sacre d shrin e i n Indo-Chin a ; th e entir e religiou s histor y o f Buddhisti c Araka n centre s roun d thi s "younge r brothe r " o f Gotama ; th e los s o f thi s reli c san k deepe r int o th e heart s o f th e peopl e tha n th e los s o f thei i libert y an d th e extinctio n o f thei r roya l house . " I t wil l on e da y b e brough t bac k again, " th e Ara kanes e fondl y hope . Th e abolishmen t o f thi s stronghol d o f Buddhis m ha s bee n followe d b y a genera l declin e o f thi s religio n throughou t Arakan . Th e native s totall y neglecte d th e shrin e ; wil d jungl e overgre w th e precinct s ; i n du e tim e th e plac e becam e haunte d an d shunned . I n th e yea r 186 7 a Sha n fro m Lankavat I i n Gamboj a arrive d wit h hi s relative s a t th e abandon e d shrin e t o pa y homag e ; h e ha d th e jungl e cleared , erecte d a squar e image-house , i n whic h h e

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8 „ TH E MAHAMUN I PAGODA . II place d som e ston e image s foun d i n th e neighbourhood , an d pave d th e topmos t terrac e ; h e als o effecte d th e restoratio n o f th e bell , which , afte r th e firs t Anglo-Burmes e war , ha d bee n remove d fro m th e pagod a an d kep t unde r th e court-hous e i n Akyab . Description. —We no w procee d t o th e descriptio n o f th e temple . Th e traditio n say s tha t th e Mahamun i pagod a was buil t i n th e north-eas t corne r o f th e ancien t cit y o f Dhannavati . Th e wall s o f th e tow n ar e partl y stil l traceabl e ; on e run s du e wes t fro m th e shrine , formin g th e souther n ban k o f th e cree k know n a s th e Mahamun i mraun g ; th e wal l extend s t o th e wes t ban k o f th e Tharekyaung ; ther e stand s stil l a n ancien t pagod a calle d no w th e Mrunkyaungw a shrin e fro m a newl y founde d Mr o villag e o f th e sam e nam e ; th e lengt h o f th e embankment , consistin g partl y o f earth , partl y o f roughly hew n block s o f sandstone , i s 3 mile s ; th e eas t wal l ca n b e trace d fo r 2 mile s fro m th e north-eas t corne r ; i t i s overgrow n wit h jungl e an d represent s a successio n o f irregula r elevation s havin g a n averag e heigh t o f 12 ' wit h a breadt h o f 10—12 ' a t th e to p an d 16—18 ' a t th e bas e ; n o othe r re main s o f Dhannavat i coul d b e foun d excep t a fe w ol d tank s an d her e an d ther e a broke n ston e imag e o f a Buddha . Th e pagod a stand s transversel y acros s th e inne r angl e o f th e north-eas t corne r o f th e ol d cit y wall s ; i t i s erecte d o n a smal l eminence , th e Sirigutt a hill , whic h ha s bee n levelle d o n th e to p an d th e side s cu t int o terraces , walle d i n wit h square-cu t block s o f granula r sandstone . Th e whol e structur e (se e Plat e No . 1 ) represent s thre e enclosure s on e withi n th e other , th e secon d raise d 30 ' abov e th e first, an d th e thir d platfor m 3o ' abov e th e second . Th e firs t o r outermos t platfor m measure s fro m eas t t o south-wes t 685" , fro m nort h t o south-eas t 472' ; o n eac h sid e i s a n entranc e leadin g t o th e topmos t platfor m i n a straigh t ascent , io ' wide , walle d i n o n bot h side s ; th e ston e wal l protrudin g o n bot h side s o f th e entranc e i s 10 ' hig h an d 7 ' 6 " thick ; th e niche s a an d b (se e Plate No . 1 , fig. No . 2 ) probabl y hel d originall y image s o f Buddh a ; th e photograp h show s th e wester n entranc e t o th e pagod a wit h th e shrin e i n th e backgroun d ; d i s th e librar y buil t b y Kin g Minkhari , A . D . 143 9 ; th e roo f ha s falle n i n an d nothin g bu t th e bar e wall s remai n ; i t i s constructe d o f square-cu t block s o f sandston e ; e e ar e tw o smal l soli d bric k pagodas , on e circular , th e othe r square , buil t b y th e Burman s a t th e clos e o f las t centur y ; the y ar e o f th e ordinar y type , withou t niche s an d umbrella s (tes ) ; / i s th e larg e tan k du g b y Candasuriya ; i n thi s reservoi r th e hea d o f th e Candasar a imag e wa s washe d ; i t i s sai d (se e pag e 5 ) t o hav e alway s th e sam e amoun t o f wate r independen t o f th e seaso n ; th e tan k i s probabl y fe d b y undergroun d spring s a s i t wa s quit e ful l o f clea r wate r i n June , n o rai n havin g a s ye t falle n ; al l th e othe r tank s ar e withou t wate r a t th e en d o f th e ho t seaso n ; th e reservoi r i s walle d i n wit h bricks ; g, anothe r smal l tank , walle d i n wit h stone s ; h, ruin s o f a n ol d ston e pagod a ; i i s a n Upasampad a hall , wher e priest s receive d thei r ordinatio n ; a passag e lead s throug h th e ol d wal l o f Dhannavat i t o th e wate r edg e o f th e Mahamun i mraung , a smal l creek , wher e th e baptisma l ceremon y o f th e ordinatio n servic e was performe d ; k an d I ar e th e road s constructe d b y Minzawmu n (se e pag e 11) , A . D . 143 0 ; the y lea d t o Vesal i an d Mrohaun g ; o n th e nort h sid e o f th e wes t entranc e (c ) lie s a hug e ston e bloc k bearin g a n inscriptio n no w almos t entirel y efface d owin g t o th e villager s sharpenin g thei r knive s an d sword s upo n it ; th e fe w word s tha t ca n b e rea d ar e i n th e Burmes e (Arakanese ) languag e an d letters , an d appea r t o belon g t o th e 15t h centur y : fo r dj , a particl e o f th e accusativ e case , i s stil l spelle d ; 9 8 (Lord ) i s writte n 03 8 ; 000082 5 ( a goo d deed ) appear s a s 00008 5 ; lik e al l othe r Burmes e inscrip tion s o f th e 15t h centur y n o accent s ar e used . Th e tex t o f th e inscriptio n canno t b e restore d (se e Plat e No . VII , Nos . 1 an d 2) . Al l othe r part s o f th e first platfor m ar e overgrow n wit h dens e jungle . A dilapidate d ston e stair cas e lead s o n eac h cardina l poin t t o th e secon d platform , whic h measure s 22 1 b y 21T . Th e north-eas t corne r i s i n tolerabl e goo d preservatio n ; i t contain s a tree-alta r consistin g o f a laye r o f squar e ston e block s 17 ' lon g b y 18 ' broa d an d 4 high , arrange d roun d th e trun k o f a hug e banya n tre e (se e Plat e No . VI , fig. No . 1 ) ; towar d th e eas t i s attache d a ston e porta l wit h a porc h

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TH E MAHAMUN I PAGODA . 9 4 ' 4 " wid e an d 5 ' hig h ; a fe w moder n woode n image s o f Buddha s hav e bee n place d i n it . Tra ditio n report s tha t Gotam a reste d unde r thi s banya n tre e whil e hi s imag e was bein g cast . I n th e south-wes t corne r i s a ston e sla b bearin g a moder n inscriptio n se t u p b y th e Sha n Zay a Maun g Shw e Hmo n o f Lankavadi , Camboja , i n th e yea r 122 8 B . E . Th e tex t i s i n Burmes e (se e Plate s Nos . I I an d III ) an d th e followin g i s a translatio n : " (Thi s pagod a is ) buil t b y th e Kin g Candrasuriy a i n Sak " kara j (a n olde r era , no t th e present ) 147 . Lon g ma y last th e religio n o f Buddha . Thi s representa tiv e (th e image ) o f th e Omniscien t One , th e Lor d o f th e thre e worlds , constructe d i n Sakkara j Koz a " 14 7 b y th e might y Kin g Candrasuriya , tha t grea t patro n o f religion , i s likewis e subjec t t o th e law s "o f impermanence . S o when , o n th e 8t h waxin g moo n o f Tabaun g 122 8 Sakkaraj , th e Sha n Zay a " Maun g Shw e Hmo n o f Lankavad i i n th e Camboj a country , togethe r wit h M i Waing , hi s wife , M i I , " hi s elde r daughter , M i Nu , hi s younge r daughter , hi s son-in-law , an d th e latter' s tw o brother s Maun g " Ngo n an d Maun g Ri , seve n person s i n all , cam e t o worshi p a t th e Mahamun i pagoda , th e nich e whic h " containe d th e imag e was foun d t o b e ruined . Th e Sha n Zay a wa s overcom e wit h a grea t desir e t o " hav e i t repaired . H e consulte d hi s wif e abou t th e projec t an d ha d th e repair s begu n i n Sakkara j " 1229 . I n th e cours e o f th e wor k i t wa s foun d tha t th e su m o f Rs . 460 , whic h h e ha d brough t wit h " him , woul d no t suffice . I n thi s dilemm a h e appeale d t o th e Wundau k an d begge d o f hi m t o receiv e " hi s wif e an d childre n a s suret y (i n pawn ) fo r Rs . 400 . Bu t th e Wundau k woul d no t agre e t o th e " proposal . He , however , mos t liberall y advance d hi m th e Rs . 40 0 t o mee t th e expenses . Wit h al l " thi s aid , however , i t wa s foun d tha t th e extr a mone y receive d coul d onl y suffic e t o repai r th e base , " bu t no t t o roo f th e image-house . Arrangement s wer e mad e t o collec t subscription s fro m th e whol e o f " Dhannavat i (Arakan ) i n orde r t o brin g th e wor k t o a successfu l close . Th e followin g ar e th e name s " o f th e subscriber s : Wundau k Maun g Kal a Wa , wit h th e titl e Dakyiz i (olo^S) ; Dayak a Sandu n Rs . 5 , " Tarazi n Thadu n 2 , Sikedawmi n Maun g Shw e Ta w 8 , Pa w Tu n 10 , Maun g Gal e 66 , Kyaungtag a Ny o " Aun g 31 , Maun g K e 5 , Maun g Nadawzw e 5 , Tarazi n Sanzapw e 5 , Sha n Zay a Maun g Shw e Hmo n 8 ; "altogethe r Rs . 145 . " Thi s mone y was mad e ove r t o th e custod y o f th e Sha n Zay a Maun g Shw e Hmon . Fo r havin g mad e thes e contribution s ma y thes e piou s an d charitabl e person s b e fre e fro m th e thre e kappa s an d th e eigh t apaya s ; ma y the y attai n t o th e magga s an d phalas , an d finall y merg e int o Nibbana . " Th e repai r o f th e Mahamun i image-hous e b y th e Sha n Zay a Maun g Shw e Hmo n wa s brough t t o a n en d o n Tuesday , th e 4t h waxin g moo n o f Tag u 123 2 Sakkaraj . " Ma y thi s wor k o f merit , deservin g Nibbana , mee t wit h th e approva l o f bot h nat s an d me n ! " Th e res t o f th e secon d terrac e i s covere d wit h jungle . A walled-i n flight o f step s lead s t o th e thir d platfor m ; thi s i s newl y pave d wit h stone s an d bricks , als o th e wor k o f th e devote d Sha n Maun g Shw e Mmo n ; i t measure s 127 ' b y 98' ; nearl y i n th e centr e stand s th e image-hous e buil t 1 8 year s ago ; i t i s 27 ' broa d an d 39 ' 1 " lon g inclusiv e o f th e portal e t o th e east , whic h protrude s f 3" ; o n th e eas t sid e a passag e 6 ' 3 " wid e an d 13 ' 10 " lon g lead s t o a rectangula r chambe r 13 ' 3 " wide , 15 ' 2 " deep , an d 14 " high ; thre e ston e image s o f Buddh a ar e seate d o n a ston e alta r constructe d o f materia l take n fro m th e dilapidate d wall s o f th e lowe r terrace s ; th e centra l imag e i s 8 ' high , th e tw o other s 5' ; the y si t wit h th e leg s crosse d unde r them , th e lef t han d restin g o n th e la p wit h th e pal m turne d u p ; th e righ t hang s ove r th e righ t knee , th e bac k o f th e han d turne d u p ; the y wea r shor t cris p hair , ver y curly , lik e al l image s mad e i n imitatio n o f th e origi na l bras s image . Th e image-hous e itsel f i s a clums y bric k an d plaste r structur e 18 ' hig h wit h a flat roof : o n thi s ar e buil t five smal l pagodas , th e larges t i n th e centr e an d a smalle r on e o n eac h corne r • the y ar e badl y gilde d an d eac h wear s a n iro n umbrell a covere d wit h gol d leaf . Th e passag e t o th e inne r chambe r i s a pointe d arch ; tw o ston e altars , o n whic h offering s ar e placed , stan d i n fron t o f th e entranc e (se e Plat e No . 1 , fig. 3) . 3

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I O „ TH E MAHAMUN I PAGODA . II I n th e north-eas t corne r i s th e mysteriou s Yattar a bell , a n objec t o f ominou s fea r t o al l Arakan es e ; n o on e eve r touche s it . Afte r th e firs t Anglo-Burmes e wa r th e bel l was remove d t o Akyab , wher e i t was place d unde r th e court-house . Th e Sha n Zay a Maun g Shw e Hmo n effecte d its remova l t o th e Mahamun i shrin e ; i t hang s suspende d fro m a beam , on e en d o f whic h rest s i n th e axl e o f a tree , th e othe r o n th e oute r wal l o f th e platform . Th e bel l bear s th e dat e Sakkara j 1095 . Th e tex t itsel f consists , wit h th e exceptio n o f a fe w line s mad e u p o f mysti c syllable s an d word s i n Burmese , Pali , an d Sanskri t (al l writte n i n Burmes e letters) , o f eigh t larg e an d 3 8 smalle r astrologica l table s ; th e forme r ar e eac h subdivide d int o 6 4 (8x8) , o r 8 1 (9X9 ) fields , th e latte r int o 9 (3X3) , o r 1 6 (4X4 ) field s ; eac h fiel d contain s a lette r o r a numeral , bein g sign s fo r constellation s an d th e calculation s connecte d wit h it . A s th e ke y t o thes e mystica l figure s ha s bee n los t th e decipherin g an d interpre tatio n o f th e inscriptio n offere d considerabl e difficulties . Th e followin g translatio n (o r rathe r interpre tation ) ma y accordin g t o th e Sarvasthanapakarawa , alread y mentione d o n pag e 2 , b e considere d fairl y correc t (Plat e No . V , fig . 4 , an d Plat e No . VI ) : — " T o preven t th e inroad s o f enemie s fro m foreig n town s an d villages , le t offering s o f flowers, parche d corn , an d lamp s b e mad e nigh t an d da y a t th e Thitthaungnu , Mwedawngayat , an d th e Myotiparathi t pagodas . " T o caus e th e ruler s o f th e town s an d village s i n th e fou r cardina l direction s t o b e panic-stricken , le t a pagoda , provide d wit h fou r archway s (facin g th e fou r cardina l points) , b e constructe d ove r th e Gonda w dha t (a^GooSoloS ) a t Gonlata n ; an d le t th e Yattar a bel l b e hun g an d struc k a t th e easter n archway , an d th e enemie s fro m th e eas t wil l b e panic-stricke n an d qui t b y flight. Le t th e bel l b e hun g an d struc k a t th e souther n archway , an d th e enemie s fro m th e sout h wil l b e panic-stricke n an d ru n awa y ; le t i t b e hun g an d struc k a t th e wester n archway , an d th e enemie s fro m th e wes t wil l b e panic-stricke n an d fly away ; le t i t b e hun g an d struc k a t th e norther n archway , an d th e enemie s fro m th e nort h wil l b e panic-stricke n an d depart . Furthermore , le t lamp s an d parche d cor n b e offere d t o th e hol y reli c o n th e hil l nigh t an d da y ; le t als o th e Yattar a bidau k dru m b e struc k a t th e reli c chamber s o f Buddha . B y thes e mean s foreig n invader s wil l b e seize d b y fea r an d tak e t o flight. " I f th e kin g desire s th e destructio n o f Udarat (g3q$) , le t th e summi t o f th e Udarat hil l b e levelle d t o th e exten t o f 5 cubit s an d a pagod a buil t thereo n ; a tan k mus t b e du g o n th e nort h sid e ; le t th e nagatain g (dragon-post ) b e mad e o f a piec e o f ura t (? ) timbe r place d upsid e down . Le t n o repre sentation s o f naga s b e mad e ; le t umbrellas , banners , lamps , flowers, an d parche d cor n b e place d a t th e fou r corner s o f th e tank . The n th e kingdo m o f Udara t wil l b e destroyed . " I f th e destructio n o f Patha n i s meditated , le t a pagod a b e buil t a t Pauktain g o r Paukt u ; o n it s south-wester n sid e le t a tan k b e du g ; le t th e nagatain g b e a piec e o f pinn e timbe r (. Artocarpu s integrifolia ) place d upsid e dow n ; a t its fou r corner s le t cocoanu t tree s b e planted . An d Patha n wil l b e destroyed . " I f th e kin g desire s th e destructio n o f Maunggo t (Mogu l Empire) , le t a pagod a b e erecte d a t Maungzwe , Mritkain , o r Mingau k ; o n it s wester n sid e le t a tan k b e dug ; le t th e nagatain g b e o f pran o (§G$O ) woo d place d upsid e down , an d plan t shashau k (gpsogpn S Citrus ?) tree s a t th e corner s o f th e tank . An d Maunggo t wil l b e destroyed . " I f th e destructio n o f th e Kula s (Wester n foreigners ) i s wishe d for , le t a pagod a b e buil t eithe r a t th e entranc e o f th e lesse r Kulata n cav e o r a t tha t o f a smal l subterranea n cavit y nea r it ; o n it s wester n sid e le t a tan k b e du g ; le t th e nagatain g b e o f kula.(? ) woo d place d upsid e dow n ; an d a t its fou r corner s le t pebabwt * tree s b e planted . B y thes e mean s al l th e Kula s wil l b e destroyed . " I f th e kin g desire s th e destructio n o f th e Palaung s (th e Englis h ar e calle d i n Araka n Palaungs , a corruptio n o f Feringi) , le t a pagod a b e buil t o n a leve l o f 4 cubit s eithe r o n th e to p o f th e Pale taung , o r th e Palaypaletaung ; o n it s souther n sid e le t a tan k b e dug ; le t th e nagatain g b e o f

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„ TH E MAHAMUN I PAGODA . I I praw a (? ) bambo o place d upsid e dow n ; a t it s fou r corner s le t r^roshashau k tree s ( a specie s o f Morinda) b e planted . An d th e Palaung s wil l b e destroyed . " I f th e destructio n o f Yoday a (Siam ) i s desired , le t a pagod a b e erecte d o n th e to p o f th e west er n Yattar a hil l levelle d t o th e exten t o f 8 cubit s ; o n its north-wester n sid e le t a tan k b e du g ; le t th e nagatain g b e o f yintaingthi t (blac k wood ) place d upsid e dow n ; a t its fou r corner s plan t ura t trees . An d Yoday a wil l b e destroyed . " I f th e destructio n o f Muttam a (Martaban ) i s meditated , le t a pagod a b e buil t o n th e to p o f th e Put o hil l o n th e Put o plain , afte r havin g levelle d i t t o th e exten t o f 4 cubit s ; le t a tan k b e du g o n it s easter n sid e ; le t th e nagatain g b e a piec e o f pran&thak a timbe r upsid e down ; plan t mang o tree s o n it s fou r corners . An d Muttam a wil l b e destroyed . " I f th e destructio n o f Peg u i s desired , le t a pagod a b e buil t eithe r a t th e Pipi n (808 ) tan k o r a t Praintai n (Borong a island ) ; o n its norther n sid e le t a tan k b e dug ; le t th e nagatain g b e o f pinka thi t ( Gyrocarpus ) place d upsid e dow n ; plan t yinsh & tree s ( Lumnitzer a rcicemosa) a t its fou r corners . An d Peg u wil l b e destroyed . " I f th e destructio n o f al l th e Mun s (Talaings ) i s desired , le t a pagod a b e buil t eithe r a t Ralei t o r Tala k ; o n it s south-wester n sid e le t a tan k b e dug ; le t th e nagatain g b e o f kalethi t woo d place d upsid e dow n an d plan t ura t tree s a t th e fou r corner s o f th e tank . An d al l th e Talaing s wil l b e destroyed . " I f th e kin g desire s th e destructio n o f Thanlyi n (Syriam) , le t a pagod a b e erecte d o n a leve l o f 4 cubit s o n th e to p o f eithe r th e Thanlwi n hil l o r th e Thanlwi n taung . O n it s south-wester n sid e le t a tan k b e dug ; le t th e nagatain g b e o f thavinthi t woo d (Karu n oi l tree ) place d upsid e dow n an d a t it s fou r corner s plan t yinhnaun g tree s ( Viti s auriculata). An d Thanhlyi n wil l b e destroyed . " I f th e destructio n o f Pr e (Prome ) b e wishe d for , le t a pagod a b e buil t a t Pyi n ; o n its south easter n sid e le t a tan k b e dug ; le t th e nagatain g b e o f pyinthi t woo d place d upsid e dow n ; a t its fou r corner s plan t kanka w tree s ( Mesuc i pedunculated). An d Pr e wil l b e destroyed . " I f th e destructio n o f Taungng u (Taungu ) b e desired , le t a pagod a b e erecte d o n a leve l o f 2 cubit s i n exten t o n th e summi t o f eithe r th e Anataungan g o r th e Agy & taungng u ; o n it s south easter n sid e le t a tan k b e du g ; le t th e nagataing b e a piec e o f kyathi t timbe r place d upsid e dow n ; a t it s fou r corner s plan t paukpanpy u tree s {Butea). An d Taungng u wil l b e destroyed . " I f th e destructio n o f Pugga n (Pagan ) i s desired , le t a pagod a b e buil t o n a leve l o f 2 cubit s i n exten t o n th e to p o f th e Pugga n taun g ; o n it s wester n o r norther n sid e le t a tan k b e dug ; le t th e nagatain g b e mad e o f printhi t woo d place d upsid e dow n ; a t it s fou r corner s plan t mayzal i {Cassia jlorida ) trees . An d Paga n wil l b e destroyed . " I f th e destructio n o f Av a b e required , le t a pagod a b e buil t eithe r a t Onw a o r a t Anw a ; o n it s south-wester n sid e le t a tan k b e dug ; le t th e nagatain g b e mad e o f uratthi t woo d place d upsid e dow n ; a t it s fou r corner s le t shau k (citron ) tree s b e planted . An d Av a wil l b e destroyed . " I f al l th e peopl e know n a s th e Auktha s (GCOOOSOOOS ) (Burman s o f th e Irrawad y delt a an d sout h o f Sandoway ) ar e t o b e sen t t o destruction , le t a pagod a b e buil t o n a leve l o f 6 cubit s i n exten t o n th e summi t o f th e Aukthataung ; o n its easter n sid e le t a tan k b e du g ; le t th e nagatain g b e mad e eithe r o f uhaungthi t o r ushinthi t an d place d upsid e dow n ; a t its fou r corner s plan t tikkha teindha n trees . An d th e Auktha s wil l b e destroyed . " I f th e destructio n o f th e Shan s b e meditated , le t a pagod a b e buil t o n a leve l o f 6 cubit s i n exten t o n th e to p o f eithe r th e Theintaun g o r th e Shantaun g ; di g a tan k o n its north-easter n sid e ;

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1 2 „ TH E MAHAMUN I PAGODA . II le t th e nagataing b e mad e o f thiba n o r shish a woo d an d place d upsid e dow n ; a t th e fou r corner s plan t yintai k o r yinkau k trees . An d th e Shan s wil l b e destroyed . " Th e destructio n o f th e Sak s (a n Arakanes e tribe ) ca n b e effecte d i n a simila r way . " I f th e king' s nata l sta r b e o n th e ascendan t i n th e hinnawing , an d i f th e constellation s locat e hi s siri , parivara , ay u bhumi , an d maraw a (i.e., hi s glory , retinue , lif e an d territory , an d death ) i n th e Myauku cit y (i.e., Mrohaung) , suc h a plac e i s indee d excellen t an d shoul d no t b e abandone d becaus. e th e starr y influenc e exercise d bot h o n th e kin g an d cit y i s th e same . Bu t le t anothe r palac e b e buil t betwee n Wuntitaun g an d Kyaktharetaun g ( a hil l t o th e eas t o f th e palac e i n Mrohaung) ; the n th e welfar e an d prosperit y o f th e Arakanes e town s an d village s wil l b e promote d ; bot h layme n an d priest s wil l b e happ y ; th e king' s longevit y wil l b e insured . Shinbyushin , th e Lor d o f th e five whit e elephant s (th e Kin g o f Pegu) , wil l b e conciliated ; th e neighbourin g king s wil l pa y tribut e an d b e submissiv e t o ou r king . Foreig n invader s wil l b e frightene d an d repelle d b y th e soun d o f th e Yattar a bel l throug h whic h th e incomparabl e Mahamun i imag e proclaim s an d yield s hi s power. " I n th e precedin g page s I hav e give n i n ful l th e tradition s connecte d wit h th e foundatio n o f th e Mahamun i shrin e an d th e Yattar a bel l becaus e referenc e wil l hav e continuall y t o b e mad e t o the m i n treatin g o f th e histor y o f town s an d pagoda s i n Arakan . T o th e nort h o f th e palac e i n Mrohaun g (whic h cit y I visite d befor e Mahamuni , an d er e I ha d becom e acquainte d wit h th e content s o f th e bel l inscription ) i s a stee p rock y hill , calle d Udarattaung ; it s narro w to p i s levelled , a smal l pagod a i s perche d o n it , an d o n its nort h sid e a smal l tan k ha s bee n du g i n a n almos t impossibl e plac e ; n o wate r ca n eve r gathe r i n th e reservoir , an d n o on e woul d eve r clim b th e roc k t o ge t wate r there , espe ciall y a s ther e ar e larg e tank s nea r th e foo t o f th e rock . I coul d obtai n locall y n o informatio n a s t o th e histor y an d origi n o f th e pagod a an d tank ; th e Yattar a bel l inscriptio n gives , however , th e motiv e whic h le d t o thei r construction . " I f th e destructio n o f Udara t ( a countr y nort h o f Arakan , no w " comprise d withi n th e Manipu r State ) b e desired , le t th e summi t o f th e Udara t hil l b e levelle d t o " th e exten t o f 5 cubit s an d a pagod a buil t thereo n ; le t a tan k b e du g o n it s norther n side , &c. " (se e pag e 10) . Th e king s o f Arakan , firmly believin g i n th e promise s o f th e bell , erecte d pagoda s an d du g tank s o n th e spot s pointe d ou t b y th e inscription . I n fron t o f th e easter n gat e stand s a hug e banya n tre e ; a t its foo t i s a smal l porc h containin g a piec e o f marbl e \ 6 " lon g an d 9 " thick ; o n on e sid e i s engrave d wha t appear s t o b e a do g wit h a huma n hea d wearin g a crow n ; wit h th e pa w o f th e righ t forefoo t th e figure hold s a lotu s flower, th e emble m o f Buddhism . Th e ston e i s sai d t o b e al l tha t i s lef t o f th e finely carve d marbl e thron e (se e pag e 6 ) fo r th e Mahamun i image , constructe d b y th e orde r o f Kin g Suriyatain g Candr a (A , D . 810) . N o othe r object s o f interes t coul d b e foun d a t th e Mahamun i shrin e excep t th e ston e figures (se e pag e 5 ) placed , accordin g t o tradition , b y Candrasuriy a toward s th e eigh t cardina l points . O f th e origina l shrin e nothin g remain s ; th e ag e o f th e variou s buildings , inscriptions , &c. , ha s bee n give n i n th e precedin g pages . I t i s onl y th e massiv e ston e wall s whic h for m th e first, second , an d thir d terrace s enclosin g th e shrine , th e larg e tan k i n th e south-eas t corne r o f th e first enclosure , an d th e ston e sculptures , presentl y t o b e enumerated , whic h ar e lef t o f Candasuriya' s templ e ; ther e ar e i n Lowe r Burm a n o othe r remain s whic h ar e s o wel l preserve d fro m s o remot e a date . O n th e pla n o f th e pagod a (se e Plat e No . IV , fig. 1 ) th e positio n o f th e ston e figures i s indi cate d b y a smal l strok e wit h a numera l attache d ; ther e ar e 2 0 slab s i n all ; the y ar e muc h damage d an d wer e covere d wit h debris an d jungl e ; 1 2 ar e o n th e secon d platform , eigh t o n th e first. No . 1 (secon d platform , nort h side) . Ston e sla b 3 ' 10 " high , i ' 10 " broad , 8 " thic k ; relie f fro m 1—7 " thick ; th e flag o n th e hea d point s t o th e west ; represent s a mal e figure ; i t hold s th e roya l spea r i n th e righ t hand .

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„ TH E MAHAMUN I PAGODA . II No . 2(1 1 terrace , north-eas t corner) . Relie f nearl y effaced , th e uppe r par t o f th e hea d traceabl e ; th e smal l flag o n th e hea d point s t o th e east ; th e head-dres s differ s fro m tha t o f No . i ; siz e o f ston e th e sam e a s th e preceding . No . 3 (I I terrace , eas t side) . Onl y th e head-piec e o f th e ston e lef t wit h th e head , whic h i s th e sam e a s i n No . i . No . 4 (I I terrace , eas t side) . Th e sla b i s muc h damage d ; tw o smal l figure s traceabl e i n sittin g posture ; the y represen t Buddha s i n thei r ordinar y dres s an d attitude , an d hav e bee n chiselle d ou t o f th e origina l na t figure s b y th e emissarie s o f Anawrath a (se e pag e 6) . No . 5 (I I terrace , eas t side) . Nud e femal e figur e wit h head-dress , earrings , necklace , an d ring s aroun d th e uppe r ar m ; th e arm s ar e knocke d of f a t th e elbow ; th e ston e i s 3 ' 8 " hig h an d i 7 10 " broa d (Plat e No . IV , fig . 2) . No . 6 (I I terrace , south-eas t corner) . Nud e femal e figur e ; righ t ar m broke n off ; th e lef t han d rest s o n th e lef t knee ; head-dres s an d ornament s simila r t o No . 4 ; th e ston e i s broke n i n tw o ; 3 ' 10 " high , i 7 10 " broa d (se e Plat e No . IV , fig . 3) . No. 7 (I I terrace , sout h side) . Represent s a nake d femal e figur e i n th e attitud e o f worshippin g figur e No . 8 ; th e ston e i s broke n int o severa l piece s an d th e figur e i s muc h damage d ; ove r th e hea d spread s th e hoo d o f a cobr a (se e Plate No . IV , fig . 4) . No . 8 (I I terrace , sout h side) . A mal e figur e ; flag o n th e hea d point s t o th e east ; otherwis e simila r t o No . 1 ; th e portio n o f th e ston e no t covere d b y th e figur e appears , t o judg e fro m th e hori zonta l lines , t o hav e containe d a n inscription , bu t n o letter s ar e no w traceabl e ; siz e o f ston e 3 ' 10 " high , T io' 7 broa d (se e Plat e No . 5 , fig . 1) . No . 9 (I I terrace , wes t side) . Represent s th e sam e figur e a s No . 5 ; siz e o f th e ston e als o th e same . No . 1 0 (I I terrace , wes t side) . Th e nake d figur e o f a femal e ; righ t ar m broke n of f fro m th e elbow ; th e outsprea d hoo d o f a cobr a rise s abov e th e hea d ; siz e o f ston e 3 ' io / 7 X i 7 io 7 7 (se e Plat e No . V , fig . 2) . No . 1 1 (I I terrace , north-wes t corner) . A nake d femal e figur e ; th e sam e a s No . 4 . No . 1 2 (I I terrace , nort h side . A nake d femal e figur e ; lef t ar m broke n off ; siz e o f ston e 3 7 8' 7 X i 7 io / 7 (se e Plat e No . V , fig . 3) . No . 1 3 ( I terrace , nort h side) . A femal e figur e lik e No . 12 . No . 1 4 ( I terrace , north-eas t corner) . A femal e figur e lik e No . 12 . No . 1 5 ( I terrace , eas t side) . A femal e figur e i n th e sam e attitud e an d head-dres s a s No . 1 , bu t withou t th e flag o n th e hea d ; th e lef t han d touche s th e raise d lef t kne e an d hold s th e spea r ; i n No . 1 th e righ t kne e i s raise d an d th e righ t han d clasp s th e spea r (se e pag e 12) . No . 1 6 ( I terrace , eas t side) . Ver y muc h damage d ; tw o smal l figure s o f Buddh a si t wit h thei r leg s crosse d unde r the m ; th e sam e a s No . 6 . No . 1 7 ( I terrace , south-eas t corner) . A femal e figur e lik e No . 5 . No . 1 8 ( I terrace , south-wes t corner) . A femal e figur e lik e No . 5 . No . 1 9 ( I terrace , north-wes t corner) . A femal e figur e lik e No . 12 . No . 2 0 ( I terrace , nort h side) . A femal e figur e lik e No . 4 . Man y pilgrim s fro m Uppe r an d Lowe r Burma , fro m th e Sha n States , an d Ceylo n visite d th e shrin e i n forme r time s an d kep t th e image-hous e an d topmos t platfor m i n repai r ; th e interes t o f th e Arakanes e i n thei r onc e s o fame d sanctuar y ha s muc h abate d sinc e th e remova l o f th e imag e b y th e Burmans . 4

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„ TH E MAHAMUN I PAGODA . II le t th e nagataing b e mad e o f thiba n o r shish a woo d an d place d upsid e dow n ; a t th e fou r corner s plan t yintai k o r yinkau k trees . An d th e Shan s wil l b e destroyed . " Th e destructio n o f th e Sak s (a n Arakanes e tribe ) ca n b e effecte d i n a simila r way . " I f th e king' s nata l sta r b e o n th e ascendan t i n th e hinnawing , an d i f th e constellation s locat e hi s siri , parivara , ay u bhumi , an d mara^ a {i.e., hi s glory , retinue , lif e an d territory , an d death ) i n th e Myauku cit y {i.e., Mrohaung) , suc h a plac e i s indee d excellen t an d shoul d no t b e abandone d becaus e th e starr y influenc e exercise d bot h o n th e kin g an d cit y i s th e same . Bu t le t anothe r palac e b e buil t betwee n Wuntitaun g an d Kyaktharetaun g ( a hil l t o th e eas t o f th e palac e i n Mrohaung) ; the n th e welfar e an d prosperit y o f th e Arakanes e town s an d village s wil l b e promote d ; bot h layme n an d priest s wil l b e happ y ; th e king' s longevit y wil l b e insured . Shinbyushin , th e Lor d o f th e fiv e whit e elephant s (th e Kin g o f Pegu) , wil l b e conciliated ; th e neighbourin g king s wil l pa y tribut e an d b e submissiv e t o ou r king . Foreig n invader s wil l b e frightene d an d repelle d b y th e soun d o f th e Yattar a bel l throug h whic h th e incomparabl e Mahamun i imag e proclaim s an d yield s hi s power. " I n th e precedin g page s I hav e give n i n ful l th e tradition s connecte d wit h th e foundatio n o f th e Mahamun i shrin e an d th e Yattar a bel l becaus e referenc e wil l hav e continuall y t o b e mad e t o the m i n treatin g o f th e histor y o f town s an d pagoda s i n Arakan . T o th e nort h o f th e palac e i n Mrohaun g (whic h cit y I visite d befor e Mahamuni , an d er e I ha d becom e acquainte d wit h th e content s o f th e bel l inscription ) i s a stee p rock y hill , calle d Udarattaung ; its narro w to p i s levelled , a smal l pagod a i s perche d o n it , an d o n it s nort h sid e a smal l tan k ha s bee n du g i n a n almos t impossibl e plac e ; n o wate r ca n eve r gathe r i n th e reservoir , an d n o on e woul d eve r clim b th e roc k t o ge t wate r there , espe ciall y a s ther e ar e larg e tank s nea r th e foo t o f th e rock . I coul d obtai n locall y n o informatio n a s t o th e histor y an d origi n o f th e pagod a an d tank ; th e Yattar a bel l inscriptio n gives , however , th e motiv e whic h le d t o thei r construction . " I f th e destructio n o f Udara t ( a countr y nort h o f Arakan , no w " comprise d withi n th e Manipu r State ) b e desired , le t th e summi t o f th e Udara t hil l b e levelle d t o " th e exten t o f 5 cubit s an d a pagod a buil t thereo n ; le t a tan k b e du g o n its norther n side , &c. " (se e pag e 10) . Th e king s o f Arakan , firmly believin g i n th e promise s o f th e bell , erecte d pagoda s an d du g tank s o n th e spot s pointe d ou t b y th e inscription . I n fron t o f th e easter n gat e stand s a hug e banya n tre e ; a t it s foo t i s a smal l porc h containin g a piec e o f marbl e T 6 " lon g an d 9 " thick ; o n on e sid e i s engrave d wha t appear s t o b e a dog wit h a huma n hea d wearin g a crow n ; wit h th e pa w o f th e righ t forefoo t th e figure hold s a lotu s flower, th e emble m o f Buddhism . Th e ston e i s sai d t o b e al l tha t i s lef t o f th e finely carve d marbl e thron e (se e pag e 6 ) fo r th e Mahamun i image , constructe d b y th e orde r o f Kin g Suriyatain g Candr a (A . D . 810) . N o othe r object s o f interes t coul d b e foun d a t th e Mahamun i shrin e excep t th e ston e figures) (se e pag e 5 ) placed , accordin g t o tradition , b y Candrasuriy a toward s th e eigh t cardina l points . O f th e origina l shrin e nothin g remain s ; th e ag e o f th e variou s buildings , inscriptions , &c. , ha s bee n give n i n th e precedin g pages . I t i s onl y th e massiv e ston e wall s whic h for m th e first, second , an d thir d terrace s enclosin g th e shrine , th e larg e tan k i n th e south-eas t corne r o f th e first enclosure , an d th e ston e sculptures , presentl y t o b e enumerated , whic h ar e lef t o f Candasuriya' s templ e ; ther e ar e i n Lowe r Burm a n o othe r remain s whic h ar e s o wel l preserve d fro m s o remot e a date . O n th e pla n o f th e pagod a (se e Plat e No . IV , fig . 1 ) th e positio n o f th e ston e figures i s indi cate d b y a smal l strok e wit h a numera l attache d ; ther e ar e 2 0 slab s i n all ; the y ar e muc h damage d an d wer e covere d wit h debris an d jungl e ; 1 2 ar e o n th e secon d platform , eigh t o n th e first. No . 1 (secon d platform , nort h side) . Ston e sla b 3 ' 10 " high , \ 10' broad , 8 " thic k ; relie f fro m 1—7 " thick ; th e flag o n th e hea d point s t o th e west ; represent s a mal e figure ; i t hold s th e roya l spea r i n th e righ t hand .

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„ TH E MAHAMUN I PAGODA . II No . 2 (I I terrace , north-eas t corner) . Relie f nearl y effaced , th e uppe r par t o f th e hea d traceabl e ; th e smal l flag o n th e hea d point s t o th e east ; th e head-dres s differ s fro m tha t o f No . i ; siz e o f ston e th e sam e a s th e preceding . No . 3 (I I terrace , eas t side) . Onl y th e head-piec e o f th e ston e lef t wit h th e head , whic h i s th e sam e a s i n No . i . No . 4 (I I terrace , eas t side) . Th e sla b i s muc h damage d ; tw o smal l figures traceabl e i n sittin g posture ; the y represen t Buddha s i n thei r ordinar y dres s an d attitude , an d hav e bee n chiselle d ou t o f th e origina l na t figures b y th e emissarie s o f Anawrath a (se e pag e 6) . No . 5 (I I terrace , eas t side) . Nud e femal e figure wit h head-dress , earrings , necklace , an d ring s aroun d th e uppe r ar m ; th e arm s ar e knocke d of f a t th e elbow ; th e ston e i s 3 ' 8 " hig h an d i 7 10" broa d (Plat e No . IV , fig. 2) . No . 6 (I I terrace , south-eas t corner) . Nud e femal e figure ; righ t ar m broke n off ; th e lef t han d rest s o n th e lef t knee ; head-dres s an d ornament s simila r t o No . 4 ; th e ston e i s broke n i n tw o ; 3 ' 10 " high , i 7 io' 7 broa d (se e Plate No . IV , fig. 3) . No. 7 (I I terrace , sout h side) . Represent s a nake d femal e figure i n th e attitud e o f worshippin g figure No . 8 ; th e ston e i s broke n int o severa l piece s an d th e figure i s muc h damage d ; ove r th e hea d spread s th e hoo d o f a cobr a (se e Plat e No . IV , fig. 4) . No . 8 (I I terrace , sout h side) . A mal e figure ; flag o n th e hea d point s t o th e east ; otherwis e simila r t o No . 1 ; th e portio n o f th e ston e no t covere d b y th e figure appears , t o judg e fro m th e hori zonta l lines , t o hav e containe d a n inscription , bu t n o letter s ar e no w traceabl e ; siz e o f ston e 3 " io' 7 high , i 7 io 7 7 broa d (se e Plat e No . 5 , fig. 1) . No . 9 (I I terrace , wes t side) . Represent s th e sam e figure a s No . 5 ; siz e o f th e ston e als o th e same . No . 1 0 (I I terrace , wes t side) . Th e nake d figure o f a femal e ; righ t ar m broke n of f fro m th e elbow ; th e outsprea d hoo d o f a cobr a rise s abov e th e hea d ; siz e o f ston e 3 " io 7 7 X I 7 io 7 7 (se e Plat e No . V , fig. 2) . No . 1 1 (I I terrace , north-wes t corner) . A nake d femal e figure ; th e sam e a s No . 4 . No . 1 2 (I I terrace , nort h side . A nake d femal e figure ; lef t ar m broke n off ; siz e o f ston e 3 7 8 7 7 X i 7 io 7 7 (se e Plat e No . V , fig. 3) . No . 1 3 ( I terrace , nort h side) . A femal e figure lik e No . 12 . No . 1 4 ( I terrace , north-eas t corner) . A femal e figure lik e No . 12 . No . 1 5 ( I terrace , eas t side) . A femal e figure i n th e sam e attitud e an d head-dres s a s No . 1 , bu t withou t th e flag o n th e hea d ; th e lef t han d touche s th e raise d lef t kne e an d hold s th e spea r ; i n No . 1 th e righ t kne e i s raise d an d th e righ t han d clasp s th e spea r (se e pag e 12) . No . 1 6 ( I terrace , eas t side) . Ver y muc h damage d ; tw o smal l figures o f Buddh a si t wit h thei r leg s crosse d unde r the m ; th e sam e a s No . 6 . No . 1 7 ( I terrace , south-eas t corner) . A femal e figure lik e No . 5 . No . 1 8 ( I terrace , south-wes t corner) . A femal e figure lik e No . 5 . No . 1 9 ( I terrace , north-wes t corner) . A femal e figure lik e No . 12 . No . 2 0 ( I terrace , nort h side) . A femal e figure lik e No . 4. Man y pilgrim s fro m Uppe r an d Lowe r Burma , fro m th e Sha n States , an d Ceylo n visite d th e shrin e i n forme r time s an d kep t th e image-hous e an d topmos t platfor m i n repai r ; th e interes t o f th e Arakanes e i n thei r onc e s o fame d sanctuar y ha s muc h abate d sinc e th e remova l o f th e imag e b y th e Burmans . 4

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H „ THE MAHAMUN I PAGODA . II Th e tw o lowe r terrace s ar e covere d wit h jungle . Thi s migh t b e remove d an d th e step s leadin g t o th e I I an d II I platform s b e repaire d wit h littl e cost . Treasur e hunter s ar e a t work , especiall y o n th e nort h sid e o f th e secon d enclosure . 2 . MRUNCHAUNGW A PAGODA.— A smal l shrin e (se e pag e 8 ) 3 mile s t o th e wes t o f Mahamun i o n th e to p o f a smal l hill , whic h appear s t o hav e formed , o r stoo d within , th e north-wes t corne r o f ancien t Dhannavati . Th e nort h wal l ca n b e trace d t o thi s pagoda ; i t i s a circula r smal l templ e buil t o f squar e block s o f sandston e T 2" thic k ; ther e ar e reall y tw o wall s constructe d o f ston e wit h a n inter spac e o f 8" ; th e latte r i s filled wit h pounde d bricks ; th e thicknes s o f th e wal l i s 3' ; th e roo f ha s falle n i n an d th e image s i n th e circula r centra l chambe r ar e half-burie d unde r th e debris; th e larges t imag e i s o f ston e an d 6 ' high ; i t represent s a Buddh a sittin g cross-legge d i n th e usua l atti tud e ; t o th e eas t a passage , wit h a semi-circula r arc h 5 " high , 3 ' wide , an d 8 ' long , lead s t o th e chambe r ; th e latte r measure s 9 across . N o decorativ e design s whateve r o n th e pagoda . Th e shrin e i s old , bu t nothin g i s know n o f its histor y excep t tha t i t wa s repaire d b y orde r o f Kin g Sirisuriyacandr a i n th e yea r 53 5 B.E. ; i t ha s bee n allowe d t o fal l int o rui n since . But fund s ar e no w bein g collect e d i n th e neighbourin g village s t o repai r th e pagoda , th e foundatio n o f whic h traditio n ascribe s t o th e piou s Buddhis t king s o f Ol d Dhannavati . 3 . SELAGIRICETI.—Opposit e th e tow n o f Kyauktaw , o n th e eas t ban k o f th e Kaladan , rise s a lo w bu t rock y rang e o f hill s know n a s th e Selagir i (th e Pal i fo r th e Sanskri t Sailagiri , rock-hill) . Here , o n th e summi t o f th e hill , Gotam a held , accordin g t o traditio n (se e pag e 2) , hi s discours e o n previ ou s existence s durin g whic h h e dwelle d i n Dhannavat i an d Dvaravati . Afte r Buddh a ha d departe d fro m th e capita l o f Candrasuriy a th e kin g erecte d a smal l pagod a o n th e Selagiri . Histor y report s nothin g furthe r o f th e templ e til l th e reig n o f Siridhammaraj a ; thi s kin g repaire d th e cet i i n th e yea r 98 6 B.E . (A.D.1624 ) ; i t fel l int o a stat e o f disrepai r again . Te n year s ag o th e villager s o f Kyaukta w bega n t o rebuil d th e pagod a fro m th e bas e ; bu t th e individua l wh o heade d th e movemen t die d withi n a yea r fro m th e da y th e repair s ha d begu n ; thi s bein g considere d a ver y evi l omen , th e restoratio n wa s abandoned , an d al l tha t no w remain s o f th e pagod a i s th e circula r bas e o f th e projecte d ne w templ e raise d t o th e heigh t o f 15' . A fe w broke n ston e image s li e about . O n a bloc k o f sandston e whic h probabl y onc e forme d par t o f th e thron e o f a n image , a n inscription , C long , wa s foun d (se e Plat e No . VI , fig. 3 ) ; th e character s ar e Nagar i an d th e inscriptio n i s th e oldes t o f its kin d a s ye t foun d i n Burma . T o th e sout h o f Kyaukta w ar e a numbe r o f smal l pagoda s buil t o f stone , usuall y wit h a centra l chambe r an d a vaulte d passag e openin g toward s th e east ; numerou s tank s an d trace s o f ol d wall s an d road s sho w th e plac e t o hav e onc e bee n th e sit e o f a considerabl e tow n ; i n fron t o f th e presen t court-house , clos e t o th e river , ar e thre e hug e pedestals , eac h cu t ou t o f a singl e ston e block . On e i s circular , 3 ' high , an d beautifull y carved, alternat e tier s worke d i n pear l an d lea f designs , th e latte r eithe r quarterfoi l echinu s o r lik e th e banya n leaf ; th e secon d pedesta l i s hexagonal , als o elaboratel y carved . Th e stones , intende d a s pedestal s fo r Buddh a statues, wer e foun d a t th e bas e o f th e hill s t o th e wes t o f th e tow n an d carrie d t o th e rive r bank , t o ultimatel y ador n th e shrin e t o b e buil t o n th e summi t o f th e Selagiri ; the y la y ther e totall y neglected . On e o f the m migh t b e brough t t o Rangoo n an d deposite d i n th e Phayr e Museum . Fro m Kyaukta w t o Urittaun g n o archaeologica l remain s o f an y importanc e wer e found . NOTE.— Th e Yattar a bell-inscriptio n i s referre d t o i n Arakanes e histor y lon g befor e th e castin g o f th e bel l tha t no w bear s th e nam e Yattara ; ther e mus t hav e bee n a n olde r one , no w destroye d o r removed .

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MROHAUNG . 1 5 CHAPTE R II.—MROHAUNG . TH E mos t importan t archaeologica l remain s i n Araka n ar e foun d i n Mrohaung, th e capita l o f th e onc e powerfu l Myauku kings . Th e Mahamun i an d al l othe r pagoda s mentione d i n th e Selagir i tra ditio n ar e remembere d an d visite d fo r purpose s o f worshi p b y th e Arakanes e an d Buddhist s i n genera l becaus e thei r foundatio n o r histor y i s connecte d wit h th e suppose d adven t o f Gotam a i n Dhannavat i ; the y afford , however , fe w instance s o f decorativ e ar t an d fe w example s o f constructiv e skill . Fo r th e splendi d temple s o f Mrohaung , buil t b y th e king s o f th e Myauku dynasty , th e native s hav e mor e superstitou s aw e tha n religiou s reverenc e ; the y seldo m worshi p a t thes e shrine s an d the y allowe d the m t o fal l int o disrepair ; whil e the y contribut e freel y t o plaster , whitewash , o r gil d th e architecturall y worthles s Urittaun g o r th e Sandowa y pagodas , the y wil l no t rais e a han d t o preven t th e wanto n destructio n b y treasure-hunter s o f th e temples , whic h bespea k th e power , resources , an d cultur e o f thei r forme r rulers . Th e architectura l styl e o f th e Shitthaun g an d Dukkanthei n pagoda s i s probabl y uniqu e i n India , an d th e tw o shrine s ar e undoubtedl y th e finest ruin s i n Lowe r Burma . The y wer e no t constructe d b y th e Arakanese , bu t b y " Kula s " fro m Indi a ; th e native s wer e force d t o bur n th e brick s an d brin g th e stone s fro m distan t quarrie s ; Hind u architect s an d Hind u sculptor s raise d an d embellishe d th e structure s ; t o th e Arakanese , compelle d t o year s o f unpai d labour , thes e pagoda s ar e a n unpleasan t reminiscenc e o f th e tyranni c an d arbitrar y rul e o f severa l Myauku kings . Mrohaung , th e headquarter s o f th e Mrohaun g township , i s situate d i n 20 ° 44 / N . latitud e an d 93 0 26 ' E . longitude . Th e Arakanes e n am e wa s Myauk-u , o r monkey' s eg g (th e Burmes e nam e fo r potato) , th e origi n o f whic h i s ver y obscure . I t stand s a t th e hea d o f a branc h o f th e Kalada n river , abou t 5 0 mile s fro m its mouth , almos t a t th e farthes t limi t o f tida l influence , o n a rock y plai n surrounde d b y hills . Th e principa l cree k i s forme d o f tw o branches , whic h unit e belo w th e hill s an d pas s throug h th e tow n (se e British Burma Gazetteer , 423) . Th e ruin s o f Mrohaung , a s w e no w se e them , dat e chiefl y fro m th e 15t h an d 16t h centuries . Citie s have , however , bee n founde d a t ver y earl y date s o n th e sam e plain . Pari n (Barin , Paraung) , eas t o f Mrohaun g o n th e L&mro , forme d on e o f th e " Catur gamas " o r "fou r cities. " I n th e yea r B . E . 31 9 (A . D . 957 ) Kin g Amrathu , a Chie f o f th e Mr u trib e an d connecte d wit h th e Vesal i dynast y throug h hi s mothe r Candradevi , wh o ha d bee n raise d t o th e positio n o f chie f quee n i n th e palac e o f Culataincandra , founde d a cit y 4 mile s t o th e north eas t o f th e spo t wher e th e palac e o f Myauku no w stand s ; th e embankment s o f th e tow n for m a pen tago n an d ar e stil l traceable ; bu t i t wa s soo n abandone d owin g t o th e wan t o f swee t wate r an d t o th e prevalenc y o f fever , " whic h befel l alik e men , horses , an d elephants. " Kin g Paipyu , a nephe w o f Amrathu , selecte d i n th e yea r B . E . 32 6 anothe r plac e fo r hi s capita l o n th e lo w hill s t o th e south-eas t o f th e forme r Myauk-u . Twelv e year s late r (B . E . 338 ) th e Shan s invade d th e countr y an d compelle d Paipy u t o abando n th e newl y founde d city ; i t remaine d fo r 1 8 year s i n posses sio n o f th e invaders . Subsequen t king s buil t th e Pancanagara , Kyeitmyo , Pari n (th e new) , an d othe r town s o n th e Anjanad i (L£mro) . I n th e yea r B . E . 76 8 (A . D . 1406 ) th e cit y o f Launggye t was destroye d b y Taking s an d Burmans . Kin g Minzawmun , th e so n o f Rajathu , th e las t bu t on e o f th e Launggye t dynasty , fled t o Surata n (i.e., th e dominion s o f th e Sultan) . I n B . E . 79 2 (A . D . 1430 ) h e returne d t o Araka n supporte d b y th e Mahomeda n rule r o f Delhi . H e ascende d th e Anjanad i and , guide d b y th e prognostication s o f hi s astrologe r Candindaraja , entere d a cree k t o th e wes t an d selecte d a sit e betwee n th e Shwedaun g an d Galu n hill s fo r th e erectio n o f a roya l residenc e an d a city . Kin g Minzawmu n i s th e first o f th e Myauku dynast y ; a centur y late r Kin g Minbin , o r Sir i sur i yaca n dramahadhammaraja , th e twelft h kin g o f thi s line , constructe d fortifications , roads , an d embankment s ; b y hi s orde r wer e buil t th e Thareko p an d Shwedaun g pagodas . Th e 14t h king , Zawhla , ha d th e Alaycet i an d Myaukceti , th e Dukkankyaung , Taungkyaung , an d Kulamyokyaun g

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i 6 MROHAUNG . erecte d (B . E . 917—926 , A . D . 1555—1564) . Minpalaun g (B . E . 933 ) repaire d th e Urittaun g an d Mahaht i pagodas . Minrajagyi , th e 17t h o f th e Myauku dynast y (B . E . 955—974) , raise d th e wall s whic h enclos e th e palac e fro m 9 t o 1 2 cubit s an d perfecte d th e syste m o f fortification s begu n b y Kin g Minbi n ; h e buil t th e Parab o pagod a an d repaire d th e Andaw , Sandaw , an d Nanda w ceti s a t Sandoway . Minkamaung , hi s successor , buil t th e Thuparamaceti , Shwepara , an d Ngwepar a (B . E . 974—984) . Siridhammaraj a restore d th e Selagir i shrin e (se e pag e 14 ) i n th e yea r 98 6 B . E . Kin g Candasudhamma , t o th e Arakanes e bette r know n a s " Pazamin, " ha d th e Shweguh a pagod a erecte d an d als o th e Ratanazan u cet i ; h e repaire d al l pagoda s i n Araka n repute d t o contai n relic s o f Gotama ; h e als o constructe d (B . E . 1038 ) a ne w palac e withi n th e ol d enclosure s an d ha d hi s effig y i n ston e se t u p a t th e gate s facin g th e cardina l point s (se e Plat e X , No . 1) . Varadhammaraj a repaire d th e Urittaun g pagod a an d erecte d th e Mangalaramacet i (B . A . 1053) . Candavijay a (B . E . 1072 , A . D . 1710) , wh o reigne d 2 1 years , i s sai d t o hav e constructe d an d repaire d i n Araka n 80 0 pagodas , imag e houses , tanks , an d monasteries . Afte r hi s demis e n o religiou s o r othe r building s o f importanc e hav e bee n raised . I n th e yea r A . D . 178 4 th e Burman s conquere d Araka n an d Myauku becam e th e sit e o f a Burmes e Viceroy . A yea r befor e th e occupatio n o f Araka n b y th e Governmen t o f Indi a th e highe r Burmes e official s repaire d th e larg e tan k i n th e south-eas t corner , I I terrace , o f th e palac e enclosur e an d ha d th e meritoriou s dee d recorde d i n a lon g inscriptio n o n a sla b o f alabaste r (se e Plat e X , No . 4) . W e no w procee d t o th e descriptio n o f th e ruin s o f Mrohaung , beginnin g wit h th e palace . I t i s situate d o n th e Taungny o hil l an d consist s o f thre e enclosure s on e withi n th e other , eac h successiv e highe r tha n th e preceding , th e topmos t bein g abou t 50 ' abov e th e leve l o f th e firs t o r lowes t plat form . Th e groun d pla n i s simila r t o tha t o f th e Mahfimun i pagoda ; th e line s fro m wes t t o eas t di p considerabl y toward s th e north , an d thos e fro m nort h t o sout h t o th e eas t (se e ma p o f Mrohaung) . Th e measurement s ar e a s follow : I terrac e : fro m nort h t o sout h wes t lin e 1,606' , eas t lin e 1,200' , fro m wes t t o eas t 1,740' ; enterin g th e wes t gat e th e distanc e fro m th e wal l o f th e firs t t o tha t o f th e secon d enclosur e i s 140' , t o tha t o f th e thir d 237' ; acros s th e II I platfor m 656' ; fro m th e opposit e eas t gat e o f th e II I platfor m t o th e gat e o f th e secon d 267' , t o th e gat e o f th e firs t enclosur e 440' . Enterin g th e nort h gat e o f th e firs t enclosur e ther e ar e 233 ' t o th e second , 166 ' t o th e third , an d 879 ' acros s th e topmos t platform ; 138 ' fro m th e sout h gat e o f th e II I terrac e t o tha t o f th e secon d an d 450 ' t o tha t o f th e firs t enclosure . Th e wall s ar e constructe d o f sandston e block s o f variou s sizes , wel l hew n an d cemente d wit h morta r whic h possesse s grea t adhesivenes s ; i t wa s prepare d b y mixin g san d an d cla y ; t o giv e th e mas s th e prope r consistenc y piece s o f buffal o hide , tails , an d hoof s wer e boile d i n wate r til l i t becam e viscou s lik e gu m i n solution . Th e plaste r employe d i n coverin g surface s o f temple s i s prepare d i n th e sam e manne r t o thi s day . Th e wall s ar e 7 ' thic k a t th e base , 4 ' a t th e to p ; i n a fe w places , especiall y o n th e II I platform , th e heigh t o f th e ston e wall s ha s bee n increase d b y 2—3 ' o f bricks , a n additio n mad e b y th e Burman s afte r the y ha d conquere d Arakan . Th e firs t wal l ha s i n man y place s disappeared , th e stone s havin g bee n use d t o construc t th e ston e qua y o f th e Akya b har bour . A bazaa r ha s bee n erecte d i n th e north-eas t corner ; th e villag e Nyaungbins e flanks th e nort h side ; th e nort h gat e i s calle d Mathatag a o n accoun t o f th e roya l funera l procession s leavin g th e palac e throug h thi s gat e t o th e cemetery . Th e spac e betwee n th e firs t an d secon d enclosure s o n th e wes t sid e wa s onc e fille d b y a clea r shee t o f water , o n whic h i n forme r time s th e quee n an d princesse s woul d o f a n evenin g dispor t themselve s gail y o n th e wate r i n thei r gilde d roya l boats . Th e gate s ar e al l completel y demolishe d wit h th e exceptio n o f on e a t th e south-eas t corner , firs t enclosur e ; th e entranc e i s 10 ' wid e ; o n eithe r sid e th e wal l protrude s 8 ' wit h a thicknes s o f 7^ ' an d a heigh t o f 12' ; o n th e inne r sid e o f th e wal l a thic k ston e sla b i s firml y inserte d i n th e wal l abou t

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MROHAUNG . j y abov e th e ground , an d a secon d simila r on e abov e i t a t a heigh t o f 8' ; i n th e centr e o f eac h ston e i s a hol e o f 5 " diameter , n o doub t intende d t o receiv e th e tw o end s o f a beam , t o whic h a swingin g doo r wa s attached . Clos e t o th e sout h sid e o f th e gat e i s a ston e sla b 4'6 " high , 2 ' io ' broad , an d 6 " thick ; o n on e sid e a squar e i s marke d out , subdivide d int o 9X9=8 1 smalle r fields , eac h containin g incise d on e o r tw o numeral s (se e Plat e X , No . 2) . Nothin g i s writte n o n th e revers e ; th e lef t uppe r corne r i s damage d an d th e number s i n fou r field s ar e defaced . I n th e north-eas t corne r o f th e secon d enclosur e i s a larg e tank , wel l lai d ou t wit h brick s an d stones , surrounde d b y a wal l wit h entrance s o n eac h cardina l sid e an d stair s leadin g t o th e wate r edg e ; i t i s a n ol d tank , bu t wa s repaire d durin g th e Burmes e occupatio n o f Arakan . O n th e sout h sid e lie s a well-polishe d ston e sla b (se e Plat e X , No . 4) , 4 " 7 " hig h fro m th e socket , 1' 7 " broad , 6 " thick ; th e inscription , i n th e Burmes e language , i s ver y neatl y engrave d ; th e followin g i s th e transcript : 0530<$go§GS8IIOOOq8oSg(^80050G05j8nd8^Gcq|8ooSG^5qeoo n cggooGqsggo^GODS^^i i G^g^GODS[g?c»q3oooo20Gaoo5q]o5jiOi i o^DocSggsogcq o qj8iiGoq|8c^goDgOGOo8r^G^]5GOOO§ H cfjSsoqggSooosgi i O3ocooooq8c8$88q8a3jo5i i o£joog§ " o^o^ h ooooo$oGqggocoj£ u OGoan>OG300$ocoo5gcooo3p5a©c£[Si i qar>Qc8600oO)«cx)0ogqDG)qqG0qpG00SjiSc^SoS^i i ggoSgqoogS n G^gq^Sccg S ogq S OSSOOGCOOSSCOC^I I ^$gg33G £|Q |oSjpi i gg § j oodoac^Sso^soqS^GODO^ODOOD^OOGNOOOCD ^^GOgGODOGgoSn g qjoSSjg^ g ^aogg.ioooqSoSsggi'OuooGSsgsGoqjSgD " eooaooogc^oSgoctdgS^go^S^cS^q^SgoSgi i osqSgqjoSjpnsoqSoqjobji O g roo o ^ GO O 0 H <^S g oqg ^ 00 0 g H a s q ] o g oog g o ] 3 3 co ^ 030080086 ^1 1 gSso8cq8Gooo8oo^ n oo §o3oqjogooGooo 8 go " 03^033000 8 go n OOGOOO S 0 3 GOOO8O3O$SO3GOOO S p@030g$ 8 qjoSgonaoooo f 0000830001 1 oo5oqgnoOjo58$ o GOOogooo$Ggoo$>§S$o5 n Goq)Oo5r^3o8GOOOogc5gSi i SoooSggcogSnoqoSSjiso o cgs« « 9 q)o5pqoSo53lgiiccg3igGOoS3oo^so3qjiS«i03ooSoo86gS»8oq8cso38gsGg.oo^ n no^c^cqjoSo^gooqq^ggSiiqg S g^s^go f t^Gqoo^iiGOo6S8g^oogcoooS n oq8G3008@^|g n ooor^goqsG^Si i GgoSgoqgoociioooooqJoS u Gcogoo" ] oSoq n ogoo o o 8 " 980 1 g qdcoo o 8 o b 8G5) 0 8 G O 8 OgO M § 0 0 8 sono^[Coj,8Hq|Goaoco^8 " oog^soqGooS"9S@oSGocjjSo§MGg|GC98o33oSsi i ooSgSgco^ctoo , ^SoUoS^SgSdbgS^SHGg S gSoo^nqaSoqgJoognaoo^qggqGoo^oaoocftog ^ cqOOHCCOSGOGOOS. . o aogS n OGg)OOg$ g 030Ob " oloqooo§Gcogoao88"^83qi53oTGOii^Ggool3iicoSoogooaooiiqoo^o^--|iqggSg3oo^iiGoqjSc§ g aoGaDS^o5u9GOo3GDgOiigSG3303lc9Sii§3goy ^ qpgqjSoog g oliiGOGsaDO^iGOOog ^SigJScogog ^ 5

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i 8 MROHAUNG . (goS§3llC^GraD83of{|3C^n33C^38oDn©00 ^ GolSSajqp s ODQScgODSS " Gagg3^SGOo5GC03GOD5oo5Go"l6iGJGQo82^GO H G03GC%(§2Ggoo8lla 5 qp3o8ooggo 1 «Co8oCo8ll^o8q|03g0o1^00900O||00^o"ljiSl l 0^,0(50011 0 g g CJJ3 ] OG^jllGOSGOgtSl I ©CO2e003S3jd3^3llGQc8^803n6GODllCX^G[§r ^ gJc^dlr^ODO^ODO^GoToOGOOoSl I Translation. —" Thi s i s th e meritoriou s wor k o f Talupmingy i Mahamingyikyawzwa , th e Wunmi n o f Dhannavati . Ma y th e la w o f th e Virtuou s last fo r a lon g tim e ! Th e Immaculat e One , th e Chie f o f th e thre e cakravalas , th e celebrate d Bein g endowe d wit h th e nin e qualities , an d whos e fam e pervade s th e spac e fro m th e highes t empyrea n t o th e lowes t hell , clearl y showed , b y mean s o f salvatio n worke d ou t b y him , th e wa y t o th e cit y o f glory , tha t pinnacl e o f th e region s o f happines s t o thousand s o f creature s withou t an y distinctio n a s t o cast e o r creed . I n hi s eightiet h yea r o f a lif e pur e an d holy , an d afte r h e ha d passe d 4 5 rain y seasons a s a n ascetic , thi s Chie f o f th e Loka s entere d Nirvan a i n th e Salgrove , th e pleasure-garde n o f th e ruler s o f tha t grea t cit y calle d Rajagaha , a cit y environe d b y five verdure-cla d hill s whos e greennes s i s lik e tha t o f th e emerald . Fou r month s afte r thi s even t th e rule r o f me n Ajatasattu , th e illustriou s Kassapa , an d 50 0 other s o f th e elec t convene d th e first convocation , whe n th e threefol d la w a s expounde d b y th e Teache r was committe d t o memor y intac t an d entire , s o tha t it s pristin e purit y migh t b e preserved . Sinc e the n thre e othe r convocation s hav e bee n hel d fo r th e sam e purpose ; a n impetu s was thereb y give n t o th e stud y o f th e Buddhis t scrip tures . Th e religio n ha s bee n progressin g wit h splendou r i n th e hear t o f Jambudip a fo r th e las t 2,36 5 years . " Th e Lor d o f lif e an d deat h {i.e., Kin g o f Burma) , th e Lor d o f th e whit e elephant , whos e colou r wa s lik e tha t o f a piec e o f whit e clot h o r o f silver , th e Rule r o f Maha-Amarapur a an d Ratanapura , th e capital s o f Tampadipa , Kamboja , an d othe r grea t countries , founde d b y th e kin g himsel f an d decorate d wit h th e nin e kind s o f gems , an d whic h ar e surrounde d b y suc h beautifu l hill s a s Minwu n an d Mandalay . Thi s grea t king , confidin g i n thei r loyalty , appointe d t o th e governmen t o f Dhannavat i {i.e., Arakan ) Talupmingy i Mahamingyikyawzw a a s Vicero y (Governor) , Nandisena nawrat a a s Collecto r o f Revenue , Nemyosiriyedi n a s Collecto r o f Customs , Nemy o Balanawrat a an d Pyankhyikyawdinawrat a a s Militar y Commandants , Nemyosih a an d Yedinsihanawrat a a s Sub Governors , Nemyoshwedaungrajakya w an d Sirikyawdinawrat a a s Secretaries . Thes e officer s arriv in g i n Dhannavati , th e wester n appendag e o f th e empire , proceede d i n conformit y wit h th e trus t impose d i n the m t o gover n th e people . No r wer e the y remis s i n thei r dut y t o stimulat e th e propa gatio n o f th e religion ; i n consultatio n wit h th e Zayada w Gunabhivamsadhajamahadhammarajagur u the y settle d religiou s matter s i n conformit y wit h th e canonica l teach i y s o f Gotam a a s wel l a s i n accordanc e wit h th e ruling s o f th e secula r authorities . Now , durin g th e reig n o f Palaun g (Min palaung) , a n ancien t kin g o f Arakan , a tan k calle d Nanthaga n wa s constructe d withi n th e grea t doubl e walle d cit y an d eas t o f th e palac e stockad e ; thi s tan k ha d i n cours e o f tim e becom e filled u p wit h th e debris o f th e ruin s o f th e city . Talupmingy i an d Mahamingyikyawzwa , wit h a vie w t o attainin g Nirvana , an d i n orde r tha t al l peopl e an d al l kind s o f being s comin g fro m th e fou r cardina l point s an d th e fou r intermediat e point s migh t bath e i n i t an d drin k ou t o f it , repaire d th e aforesai d tan k o n Wednesday , th e 9t h o f th e wanin g o f Pyath o Sakkara j 1183 . I t measure s 9 0 cubit s i n length , 9 0 i n breadth , 1 5 i n depth , an d 36 0 i n perimeter . I n orde r tha t i t migh t b e preserve d i n goo d conditio n throughou t th e perio d o f 5,00 0 year s allotte d t o th e religion , it s botto m wa s inlai d wit h stone s hel d togethe r b y mortar ; i t was surrounde d b y a bric k wall , an d gateways , gates , steps , an d staircases , facin g th e fou r cardina l points , wer e constructed . " Fo r thi s grea t meritoriou s wor k o f repairin g thi s larg e squar e tan k wit h th e intentio n o f gainin g Nirvana , an d wit h a min d wel l incline d toward s th e religion , ma y I , whil e transmigratin g throug h Samsara , no t b e re-bor n eithe r i n th e fou r apaya s o r th e eigh t state s o f punishment ; bu t ma y I , i f

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MROHAUNG . 1 9 re-bor n i n th e Brahma , Deva , o r Manuss a worlds , b e healthy , strong , active , an d powerfu l a s Bandhula ; i n beaut y ma y I b e a s handsom e a s Kaccayana , tha t grea t her o o f illustriou s renown , whos e golde n beaut y vie d wit h tha t o f th e Deva s themselves ; an d i n wisdom , prudence , an d foresigh t ma y I b e equa l t o Sariputta , tha t grea t Mahathera , whos e wisdo m wa s extolle d b y Ou r Lord , th e Buddha . An d bein g replet e wit h thes e endowment s ma y thi s m y bod y b e fre e fro m al l kind s o f diseases , an d ma y I b e a s health y an d happ y a s Pakula . I n th e possessio n o f gold , silver , corn , garments , ornaments , an d jewels ma y I b e lik e Jotika , celebrate d fo r hi s charity , an d lik e hi m b e abl e t o practis e liberalit y wit h a wealt h tha t canno t b e exhausted . An d whe n Metteyya , th e convergin g poin t o f al l piet y an d devotion , see s th e fou r sublim e truth s unde r th e re d an d fragran t kanka w ( Mesu a ferred) tree , ma y I b e th e firs t t o ador e him ; an d fro m hi s hol y mout h ma y I receiv e a definit e assuranc e o f becomin g a Sammasambuddha , th e precepto r o f nat s an d men , s o tha t I ma y b e abl e t o reac h th e cit y o f peac e wit h thousand s o f othe r beings . " Lastly , ma y th e meri t accruin g fro m thi s m y goo d dee d b e participate d i n b y m y grandparents , parents , an d teachers , th e 10 1 ruler s o f mankin d eac h togethe r wit h thei r queens , sons , daughters , othe r relatives , an d th e fou r minister s ; als o al l livin g being s withou t exception . " Ma y Vasundhara , whos e exten t measure s 240,00 0 yojanas , rais e a n acclamatio n o f ' sadh u sadhu, ' a s a witnes s t o thi s goo d wor k o f mine. " Th e surroundin g wall s o f th e tan k ar e partl y i n disrepair , an d th e tan k i s overgrow n wit h wee d an d jungle ; withi n th e enclosur e an d clos e t o th e shee t o f wate r ar e fou r squar e ston e pillars , on e i n eac h corner , standin g erect ; the y ar e hig h abov e groun d an d eac h sid e measure s i ' 6" ; th e tw o side s turne d toward s th e tan k exhib t th e rud e figures o f Bilu s o r Rakkha s (se e Plate X , No . 3) ; i n eac h han d the y bea r a club ; thes e ston e pillar s wer e se t u p b y Kin g Minpalaun g (A.D . 157 1 — 1593) ; th e on e photographe d stand s i n th e north-eas t corne r o f th e tank . O n th e nort h sid e o f th e secon d wal l i s a larg e circula r wel l wit h a circumferenc e o f 76' , buil t o f stone ; i t i s ascribe d t o Minpalaung . Th e wall , whic h circumvallate s th e thir d an d highes t terrace , rise s o n th e nort h an d eas t sid e t o a heigh t o f 30 ' abov e th e secon d terrac e an d o f 20'—30 ' ove r th e leve l o f th e thir d platform . Nothin g o f interes t ca n b e foun d o n th e latte r excep t thre e ston e slab s (tw o o f the m opposit e th e polic e thana) , al l bearing , i n bol d relief , th e life-siz e effig y o f Kin g Pazami n (B . E . 1014—1046) , als o calle d Canda sudhamm a (se e Plat e X , No . 1) ; a t th e foo t o f th e monumen t i s engrave d hi s nam e i n Burmes e character s oscooS . Th e wall s toward s th e sout h an d wes t ar e lower , les s formidable , an d th e interme diat e space s narrowe r tha n o n th e nort h an d eas t sides , whic h wer e t o protec t th e palac e agains t th e attack s o f th e Burman s an d th e Shans . Th e eas t sid e o f th e palac e cour t an d par t o f th e sout h sid e i s overgrow n wit h jungl e ; o n th e wes t sid e o f th e firs t an d secon d terrace s th e nativ e official s hav e thei r house s erected , an d o n th e topmos t platfor m stan d th e court-hous e an d th e polic e court . O f th e ol d palac e itsel f onl y trace s o f th e wall s remain . Fro m th e nort h sid e o f th e for t tw o lo w range s o f hill s ru n paralle l i n a northerl y directio n fo r nearl y 3 miles , leavin g a flat-bottomed valle y betwee n o f abou t half-a-mil e breadth ; o n th e northernmos t extremity , abou t 3 mile s distant , th e hill s approac h eac h othe r an d ar e joine d b y a massive , hig h wall ; beyon d i s th e disma l Pangy i swamp . Thi s valle y forme d par t o f th e ol d cit y o f Mrohaun g an d contain s th e mos t interestin g architectura l remain s o f Lowe r Burm a (se e ma p o f Mrohaung) . Passin g throug h th e nort h gat e (calle d " Mathilttaga, " o r funera l gate ) o f th e fortres s an d th e villag e Nyaungbins e a steep , rock y hil l i s reache d abou t 500 " fro m th e north-wes t corne r o f

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i20 MROHAUNG . th e palac e ; o n it s rock y bu t levelle d summi t i s th e smal l Udari t (o r Udarat ) pagod a an d a tan k sun k int o th e rocks ; th e stup a i s squar e a t th e bas e an d circula r abov e th e bel l (garbha ) ; i t was buil t i n th e middl e o f th e las t centur y b y th e Kin g Nara-apay a t o " destro y th e enemie s t o th e north, " a re med y suggested , a s alread y mentione d (se e pag e 12 ) i n th e mandra s o f th e mysteriou s Yattar a bel l o f Mahamuni . Th e pagod a exhibit s n o ornamentatio n o r anythin g els e wort h noticin g i n it s construc tion . A t th e bas e o, f th e hil l ar e a fe w smal l temple s o f th e mos t ordinar y type , latel y buil t b y th e villager s ; th e pat h the n lead s t o th e bas e o f th e easter n hil l rang e ; o n its wes t side , abou t hal f a mil e nort h o f th e palace , i s th e Shitthaungpagoda, i.e., " th e shrin e o f 80,00 0 image s " (se e Plate XI , No . 5 ) ; thi s remarkabl e templ e wa s erecte d b y Kin g Minbin , th e 12t h o f th e Myauku dynast y ; h e reigne d ove r Araka n fro m A . D . 153 1 t o 1553 ; th e shrin e i s th e wor k o f Hind u architect s an d Hind u workme n ; th e skil l an d ar t displaye d i n its constructio n an d ornamentatio n ar e fa r beyon d wha t th e Arakanes e themselve s hav e eve r attaine d ; th e entir e structur e i s alie n i n its mai n feature s t o th e nativ e architectura l style . Th e Shitthaungpar a i s mor e a fortres s tha n a pagoda ; it s obviou s purpos e was t o serv e a s a plac e o f refug e t o th e roya l famil y an d retainers . Th e mai n templ e i s buil t o n a promontor y hal f wa y u p th e wes t sid e o f th e hill ; th e sid e facin g th e valle y rest s upo n massiv e ston e wall s carrie d u p fro m th e bas e o f th e ridg e t o th e heigh t o f th e promontor y (abou t 40' ) ; laterall y th e shrin e i s pro tecte d b y walls , whic h branc h of f fro m it s nort h an d sout h sides , an d connec t the m wit h th e commo n basi s o f th e entir e structure , th e hill . I n ol d Arakanes e fort s an d fortifie d pagoda s (suc h a s th e Mahamuni ) i t i s alway s th e nort h an d eas t side s whic h ar e rendere d th e strongest ; th e Mros, Saks , Shans , Burmans , an d Talaing s usuall y attacke d fro m thes e quarters . But whe n Minbi n erecte d th e Shitthaungpar a th e cannon s o f th e Dutc h an d Portugues e ha d alread y bee n hear d an d fel t i n th e capita l o f th e Myauku dynasty , being , i n th e word s o f th e Vicero y o f Goa , " bot h ric h an d weak , an d therefor e desirable. " Th e inne r passage s i n th e pagod a lea d throug h well-cemente d ston e wall s o f 6—15 ' thicknes s an d ope n towar d th e hill ; th e vaulte d ston e roo f an d al l part s o f th e pagod a facin g th e wes t ar e i n additio n covere d wit h layer s o f brick s 6—io 7 hig h ; th e oute r wal l form s a rampar t overlookin g an d commandin g th e valle y ; th e templ e premise s ca n hol d a larg e garrison . O n th e southernmos t en d a flight o f stairs , 8 7 broad , 35 ' long , an d line d wit h stron g wall s con structe d wit h hug e block s o f sandstone , lead s (se e Plat e XI , No . 5 ) t o th e first platfor m lyin g 16 ' abov e th e leve l o f th e valle y ; a wall , 180 ' long , run s t o th e nort h (wit h a sligh t di p t o th e west ) an d meet s th e sout h sid e o f th e centra l structur e ; t o th e lef t han d o f th e entranc e (nort h side ) a squar e ston e pilla r rise s t o th e heigh t o f 1 T fro m th e socke t ; eac h sid e i s 2 7 4 " broa d ; thre e side s ar e covere d wit h inscription s i n Nagar i character s (se e Plat e XII , No . 10) ; tha t facin g th e eas t i s almos t entirel y deface d (se e Plat e XII , No . 8 ) an d th e tex t canno t b e recovere d ; th e inscriptio n o n th e nort h sid e i s als o muc h damage d (se e Plate XIII , No . 11) ; th e line s ar e ver y irregula r an d th e letter s badl y engrave d ; tha t o n th e wes t sid e i s bes t preserve d (se e Plat e XIII , No . 12) ; th e sout h sid e o f th e pilla r ha s no t bee n inscribed ; th e ston e exhibit s n o ornamenta l designs . Opposit e th e inscriptio n (marke d c o n th e plan ) i s a n octagona l ston e pilla r (se e Plat e XI , No . 6) , 8 7 10 " hig h abov e groun d ; th e circum ferenc e o f th e bas e measure s 72 " (9 " t o eac h side ) ; th e decorativ e design s nea r th e to p ar e i n relief ; th e pilla r contain s n o inscription s ; th e shaf t an d bas e ar e roughl y hewn . Clos e t o th e inscribe d pilla r lie s a larg e ston e sla b (marke d d o n th e plan) , 12 7 long , 4 " 2 " broa d an d 10—12 " thic k (se e Plate XI , No . 7 ) ; a t th e lowe r en d (marke d / o n No . 7 ) i s depicted , i n relief , a conch , wit h the . openin g o f th e convolutio n t o th e right ; a lotu s flower grow s ou t o f th e apertur e ; th e ti p o f th e petal s touc h th e oute r ri m o f th e " dhammacakka, " th e " whee l o f th e law. " Th e desig n (wrought , a s alread y stated , b y Hindus ) appear s t o b e emblemati c o f Brahmanis m (th e

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MROHAUNG . 2 1 conch) , whic h produce d Buddhis m (th e lotu s flower), th e dhammacakka . A t th e uppe r en d o f th e latte r a squar e hol e i s sun k int o th e ston e (marke d 4 o n fig . 7) , 5 " deep , 2' 4 " long , an d 2'' 8 " broa d ; nex t follow s a circular , cup-lik e hole , 4 " dee p an d 6 " acros s th e openin g ; th e revers e o f th e ston e show s onl y a rough-hew n surface . A s th e side s (se e precedin g paragraph ) o f th e inscribe d pilla r measur e als o 2 ' I believ e th e ston e slab , whic h mus t hav e bee n fro m 18— 2 0 long , bu t i s broke n of f abov e th e cup-lik e hollow , t o hav e serve d originall y a s a linte l o r architrave : th e squar e hol e cappe d th e in scribe d pilla r formin g th e left-han d pos t o f th e entranc e gat e ; th e circula r hollo w receive d th e revolv in g axi s o f a swingin g door ; tha t portio n o f th e linte l whic h exhibit s th e dhammacakka , th e lotu s an d conch , protrude d ove r th e nort h sid e o f th e inscribe d pilla r t o counterbalanc e th e weigh t o f th e oppo sit e par t o f th e sla b (no w broke n off ) whic h forme d th e actua l linte l ove r th e entranc e ; th e octagona l pilla r constitute d th e right-han d pos t o f th e entrance . Th e constructio n o f th e gat e forcibl y recall s t o min d th e famou s phras e " dhammacakka m pavatteti, " o r (a s i t i s usuall y rendered ) " th e turnin g o f th e whee l o f th e law. " Th e firs t platfor m appear s t o hav e containe d a numbe r o f smal l shrines , al l buil t o f ston e ; bu t the y ar e nearl y al l i n ruin s covere d wit h th e debris o f th e wall s an d pagoda s falle n dow n fro m th e uppe r templ e cour t an d overgrow n wit h dens e jungle ; on e image-shrin e onl y ha s escape d tota l de structio n (se e Plate XI , No . 5 , marke d e o n th e plan) ; i t i s circula r a t th e base , wit h a passag e toward s th e wes t leadin g t o a centra l chamber , als o circula r an d dome-shape d ; th e hemispherica l shap e o f th e ceilin g ha s bee n secure d b y placin g th e stone s i n circula r rows , on e abov e th e othe r ; th e stone s ar e quadrangular , a t th e end s an d doubl e a s lon g a s broad ; th e side s for m a trapezoi d wit h th e narrowe r sid e turne d inwar d ; th e cupola , forme d b y a serie s o f circula r row s o f stone s nearl y wedge shaped , support s itsel f b y it s ow n weigh t til l th e side s giv e wa y ; nearl y al l vault s an d dome s i n Ara kanes e pagoda s ar e constructe d o n th e sam e principle . Th e chambe r contain s a fe w broke n ston e images ; th e shrin e ha s a diamete r o f 32 ' an d a heigh t o f 48 ' (se e Plat e XIV , No . 13 , a vie w o f th e pagoda) . Clos e b y ar e th e ruin s o f anothe r smal l pagod a (marked/o n th e plan ) ; i t i s octagonal ; th e side s ar e concav e an d th e entranc e face s th e east ; th e inne r chambe r i s fille d wit h th e debris o f th e fallen-i n roof . Befor e enterin g th e principa l platfor m o f th e pagod a th e wa y lead s throug h a vaulte d gatewa y 7 ' wid e an d io ' hig h (se e Plate XII , No . 9 ) t o a terrac e (marke d o n th e plan ) 60 ' lon g an d fro m 20 — 30 ' wide ; i t lie s 3c / abov e th e leve l o f th e firs t court ; th e wall s t o th e wes t an d sout h ar e 9 thick , buil t o f stone , an d mus t hav e bee n originall y 12 ' hig h ; th e terrac e contain s nothin g o f interest ; th e eas t sid e o f th e whol e edific e i s protecte d b y th e steep , almos t inaccessibl e hill . Th e centra l templ e cour t measure s fro m sout h t o nort h 140' , fro m eas t t o wes t 225' ; th e circumambien t wal l rise s 40 " abov e th e lowe r enclosure s t o th e sout h an d north , 60 t o th e wes t abov e th e leve l o f th e valley , an d o n th e sid e facin g th e shrin e 4—6 ' abov e th e terrace . O n th e nort h an d sout h wall s (marke d h an d i o n th e plan ) stan d a t regula r interval s circular , turret-lik e pagodas , 7 ' high , wit h a circumferenc e o f 20' ; the y ar e buil t o f brick s ; betwee n eac h turre t (ther e ar e 1 3 o n eac h side ) a ston e slab , measurin g i n heigh t 3 8" , i n breadt h 2 ' 10" , i n thicknes s T 10" , i s le t uprigh t int o th e wall ; bot h side s o f th e ston e contai n sculpture s i n bol d relief ; th e sid e facin g th e inne r templ e usuall y represent s a Buddh a i n variou s attitudes , th e oute r sid e a n ogre , naga , o r canniba l wit h hideousl y distorte d feature s (se e Plat e XIV , No . 14 ) ; on e depict s a cobr a wit h spreadin g hood , holdin g a lotu s flower i n it s mout h ; ther e wer e originall y 2 4 ston e slabs , bu t mos t o f the m hav e falle n ove r th e wal l o n th e platfor m belo w an d ar e no w burie d i n heap s o f stone s an d brick s ; th e smal l pagoda s hav e al l bee n undermine d b y treasure-hunter s an d ar e i n a ver y dilapidate d condition . Th e onl y entrance s t o thi s oute r templ e cour t ar e tw o gate s clos e t o th e hill , on e t o th e nort h an d on e t o th e south . ,

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i22 MROHAUNG . W e procee d no w t o describ e th e shrin e itself ; i t consist s o f a n inne r templ e cour t (marke d n o n th e plan) , a galler y al l roun d th e structure , intricat e secre t passage s an d chamber s i n th e bod y o f th e pagoda , an d a centra l image-chambe r wit h a passag e openin g fro m th e east . Th e inne r templ e cour t i s a spaciou s place , measurin g 70 ' fro m nort h t o sout h an d 40 " fro m eas t t o west ; th e wall , whic h enclose s i t fro m thre e sides , i s 14 ' high , an d 6 ' thic k a t th e bas e ; its onl y inlet , a n arche d passage , open s toward s th e eas t (se e Plate XV , No . 17 , showin g passag e fro m th e out side ) ; ther e ar e beside s tw o opening s i n th e eas t wall , 4 ' hig h b y 2 10 " broad , als o arched , containin g eac h tw o image s o f Buddh a wit h thei r back s t o eac h other , on e figur e facin g th e inner , th e othe r th e oute r templ e court ; thes e representative s o f Buddh a wer e al l modelle d afte r th e Mahamun i imag e (se e pag e 7) . Alon g th e wal l o f th e inne r sid e o f th e cour t row s o f ston e seats , 2 high , hav e bee n constructe d t o receiv e th e sittin g image s o f Gotam a ; th e latte r hav e al l bee n shattere d t o pieces . Th e wes t en d o f th e nort h an d sout h wall s o f th e inne r cour t passe s ove r int o a vaulte d passag e (marke d 0 o n th e plan ) ; i t lead s al l roun d th e north , west , an d sout h side s o f th e mai n buildin g ; it s heigh t i s 1 2 6", it s widt h 6'' 4 " ; th e tota l lengt h fro m th e entranc e o n th e sout h sid e t o th e exi t o n th e nort h sid e i s 312' . Th e oute r wal l contain s a t regula r interval s arche d passage s 4 ' 10 " high , 4 ' 8 " wid e ; the y numbe r 8 t o eac h side , plu s 4 o n th e eas t side , 2 8 i n all ; eac h hold s tw o sittin g life-siz e image s o f Buddh a ; the y ar e place d bac k t o back , s o tha t on e figur e look s upo n th e oute r platform , th e othe r face s th e inne r passag e (se e Plate XV , No . 18 , showin g constructio n o f th e arche d inlet s fro m th e outside ) ; th e oute r wal l i s o f bric k an d 4 ' thick ; th e inne r wal l consist s o f huge , well-hew n block s o f ston e cu t ove r it s whol e lengt h (312' ) int o si x tier s o f figures , th e corner s excepted , whic h sho w a larg e centra l figure , th e kin g i n stat e ridin g a n elephant , o r th e imag e o f Vishnu , possessin g fou r arms , surrounde d b y Brahman s an d minister s richl y dressed . Th e lowes t bel t represent s me n i n nativ e costume , i n th e attitud e o f wrestling , boxing , dancing , an d genera l merry-making ; th e II , III , IV , an d V belt s depic t th e 55 0 phase s o f existenc e throug h whic h Gotam a ha d passe d be for e h e attaine d Buddhahoo d ; th e 6t h an d topmos t girdl e show s huma n figures , mal e an d female , i n prayin g attitude . A t regula r interval s o f 18 ' a se t o f large r image s protrud e fro m th e wal l on e abov e th e othe r ; on e represent s Buddh a kneeling , th e hand s folde d ove r th e chest ; ove r hi s hea d i s perch e d th e Garud a bir d wit h wing s outspread , o r h e i s protecte d b y a cobr a distendin g it s hoo d ove r hi m ; th e sculptur e o f th e nex t highe r bel t abov e Buddh a represent s a mal e o r femal e figure , th e uppe r par t human , fro m th e wais t downwar d fis h o r bird, ; a thir d depict s a ma n an d woman , gorgeousl y dressed , standin g besid e eac h other . Th e lowe r figur e represent s th e hea d o f a naga , a snake , o r a n ogre . Th e debris an d rubbis h hav e s o accumulate d o n th e oute r platfor m i n fron t o f th e inlet s t o th e galler y tha t n o ligh t ca n penetrat e t o illuminat e th e latte r ; utte r darknes s prevails , imumerabl e bat s whis k throug h th e passage , an d th e stenc h arisin g fro m unventilate d ancien t ba t colonie s render s a pro longe d sta y i n i t impossible . Plate XV , No . 19 , show s th e sout h entranc e t o th e passag e (marke d 0 o n th e plan ) take n fro m th e inne r cour t temple ; photograp h No . 2 0 th e same , bu t take n fro m th e inne r corne r (z) o f th e passage , th e len s turne d toward s th e entranc e ; th e figure s ar e muc h dam age d ; th e on e whic h cover s th e corne r ha s fou r arm s (Vishn u ? ) an d sit s i n ful l stat e dres s o n a thron e ; a smalle r imag e abov e possesse s si x arms ; th e lowes t bel t show s th e nativ e i n hi s ordinar y dress , th e secon d girdl e depict s th e minister s an d general s i n thei r respectiv e costumes , an d abov e all , abov e eve n th e kin g himself , stru t th e Brahman s ; th e representatio n i s typica l o f th e fou r caste s recognize d b y Arakanes e king s o f th e 15t h an d 16t h centuries , namely , th e Brahmans , th e king , th e minister s an d nobles , an d th e commo n subjects . Plate XVI ; No . 22 , show s th e corne r sculptur e o f th e nort h sid e wher e th e passag e turn s t o th e left ; th e len s i s turne d toward s th e entranc e (s ) ; th e kin g sit s o n th e join t head s o f tw o elephants , whos e bodie s flank th e side s o f th e corne r ; hi s wive s an d childre n si t behin d

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MROHAUNG . 2 3 hi m o n th e bac k o f th e elephants . Plate XVI , No . 21 , represent s a fe w fee t o f th e uppe r bel t o f th e nort h sid e o f th e gallery ; par t o f th e north-wes t corne r ha s falle n down , filling th e passag e an d admittin g a littl e ligh t fro m th e ceiling ; th e topmos t girdl e depict s mal e an d femal e devotee s i n prayin g attitud e ; on e o f th e protrudin g sculpture s i s visibl e a t th e en d showin g a mal e an d femal e figure, huma n fro m th e wais t upwar d ; th e lowe r par t i s tha t o f a bird . O n th e wes t sid e th e 8 vaulte d passage s ope n int o a n oute r galler y 16 ' broa d wit h a vaulte d roo f o f stone ; ove r th e roo f a laye r o f brick s 10—12 ' thic k ha s bee n laid , n o doub t t o protec t th e vaul t fro m th e tellin g shot s o f th e whit e Kula s ; five wid e arche d passage s lea d t o th e westernmos t portio n o f th e platfor m (u) , covere d wit h a wil d confusio n o f ruins , dens e thorn y jungle , infeste d b y snake s an d th e terribl e " soldie r " ant s ; i t form s a bulwar k t o th e mai n buildin g ; th e massiv e ston e wall , 6o ' high , fall s perpendicula r t o th e bas e o f th e hill . Clos e t o th e sout h entranc e t o th e galler y i s anothe r smalle r apertur e (se e plan , Plat e XI , No . 5/) , 2 ' 10 " wid e b y 8 ' hig h ; th e linte l consist s o f a larg e ston e sla b extendin g a foo t ove r th e side s of-th e entranc e ; th e wall s consis t o f massiv e well-hew n ston e block s o f irregula r siz e (som e hav e a surfac e o f 1' b y T 6 " high , other s 8—io ' b y i ' 6 " high ) ; the y ar e connecte d wit h firm cement ; th e oute r wal l i s 6 ' thick , th e inne r ove r 20 ' til l i t meet s th e secon d windin g o f th e labyrinthia n passag e (se e / o n th e plan ) ; n o ornamenta l design s o f an y kin d ar e i n thi s par t o f th e pagoda . Th e passag e run s 8 ' fro m eas t t o west , the n 16 ' t o th e south , the n 16 ' t o th e west , openin g int o a vaulte d spac e 70 ' long , 9 broa d ; a buttress-lik e projectio n o f th e inne r wal l agai n reduce s th e passag e t o a widt h o f 3 ' (b y a lengt h o f 5' ) ; i t the n run s 8o ' t o th e nort h ; agai n a projectio n a s o n th e precedin g corne r ; an d continue s 70 ' t o th e east ; the n passe s int o th e smal l antechambe r ; th e narro w openin g admit s bu t on e ma n a t a tim e t o a spaciou s roo m (marke d v o n th e plan ) facin g th e east ; a smal l windo w allow s a fain t ligh t t o ente r fro m th e oute r cour t templ e ; th e photo grap h show s th e apertur e a s see n fro m without . O n th e wes t sid e o f th e roo m th e passag e continue s throug h a narro w apertur e an d run s 46 ' t o th e west , the n 35 ' t o th e south , agai n 46 ' t o th e east , an d finally open s int o anothe r roo m (marke d w o n th e plan ) ; th e entir e lengt h o f th e labyrint h i s 438' ; ther e i s n o exi t fro m th e chambe r w ; i t i s no t possibl e t o ente r o r leav e th e labyrinthia n passag e excep t throug h th e on e an d onl y apertur e marke d / o n th e plan . It s pur pos e i s t o serv e a s a plac e o f refug e ; a n attackin g enem y woul d hav e t o pas s throug h th e narro w pas sage s i n a file, an d guard s filling th e mor e spaciou s room s coul d cu t dow n intruder s a s the y emerge d singl y fro m th e harro w gangways , an d i f repulse d rene w th e slaughte r a t eac h corne r an d contracte d passag e ; th e oute r wal l ha s smal l air-hole s (10 " b y 10" ) io ' abov e th e groun d openin g ou t int o th e gal ler y ; the y serve d a s air-holes , bu t admi t n o light , an d ar e a t presen t choke d wit h rubbis h ; th e cham be r w contain s a fe w stone-image s representin g Buddha . Th e ceilin g o f th e latera l wide r pas sage s an d o f th e tw o room s v an d w i s vaulte d an d constructe d wit h wedge-shape d stone s ; tha t o f th e narro w gangway s i s flat; ston e slab s ar e le t horizontall y int o th e wall s ; n o ligh t enter s th e labyrint h excep t throug h th e smal l windo w i n roo m v ; a t th e entranc e t o th e inne r passag e a sandston e o f th e siz e an d shap e o f a bric k wa s foun d presse d i n betwee n th e ston e block s o f th e wall ; tw o edge s o f th e ston e contai n a legen d i n Arabi c character s (se e Plat e XXVI , No . 48) . I t mus t hav e bee n inserte d afte r th e pagod a ha d bee n built . I n th e centr e o f th e eas t fa$ad e o f th e templ e i s anothe r passag e (marke d r o n th e plan ) 3 ' 7 " wide , 3 T long , an d 19 ' hig h ; i t i s vaulte d an d lead s t o a chambe r 19 '

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i24 MROHAUNG . b y 19" , wit h a ston e alta r i n th e background , fillin g th e widt h o f th e roo m ; a ston e imag e o f Gotam a 8 " hig h i s seate d upo n i t i n th e usua l postur e ; n o decorativ e design s eithe r o n alta r o r walls . Th e side s o f th e inne r templ e ris e onl y t o a heigh t o f 30' ; the y ar e connecte d b y a vaulte d roo f o f grea t thickness , protectin g th e inne r passage s an d chamber s wit h a laye r o f stone s an d brick s abou t 12 ' thick ; o n th e fou r corner s o f th e roo f ar e th e trace s o f turret s o r pagoda s ; abov e th e wes t sid e o f th e templ e rise s th e principa l spir e abou t 60' abov e th e roof ; i t i s buil t o f brick s ; th e bel l o r gar bh a i s hemispherical ; th e par t abov e i t graduall y taper s of f int o a point ; probabl y th e whol e was sur mounte d b y a hti . Nea r th e nort h entranc e t o th e oute r templ e cour t i s a smal l image-shrin e wit h a protrudin g porta l t o th e east , a centra l chamber , an d on e ston e imag e o f Buddh a i n sittin g attitud e ; th e uppe r par t o f th e shrin e ha s falle n down . Clos e t o th e norther n gatewa y a larg e ston e sla b i s le t int o th e wal l re presentin g a six-arme d figur e an d richl y dresse d Brahman s a t on e sid e o f it ; th e sculptur e (se e Plat e XVI , No . 24 ) i s muc h damaged . Th e templ e fortres s wa s twic e bombarded , i n A . D . 178 4 b y th e Burman s an d i n 182 5 b y th e British . Th e externa l appearanc e o f th e pagoda , especiall y th e wester n portion , ha s suffere d muc h i n consequenc e ; viewe d fro m outsid e i t represent s a n almos t shapeles s hea p o f brick s an d stone s (se e Plat e XVI , No . 23) . Th e mixtur e o f sculptura l representation s fro m th e Buddhis t cultu s an d Hind u pantheon , th e pro minen t positio n assigne d t o th e Brahma n instea d t o th e Buddhis t priest , an d th e absenc e o f al l image s o f forme r Buddha s ar e peculia r t o th e Shitthaun g pagod a ; ther e ar e n o column s an d bu t fe w decorativ e design s ; th e image s o f Gotam a hav e alway s th e sam e aspec t an d diffe r onl y i n siz e ; th e leg s ar e crosse d ; th e righ t han d hang s wit h th e pal m downwar d ove r th e righ t knee , th e lef t rests , wit h th e pal m turne d up , i n th e lap . Th e pal m o f th e han d an d th e sol e o f th e upturne d foo t sho w n o line s o r lineament s whic h chiromanc y coul d interpret ; man y image s i n Paga n distinctl y bea r som e o f th e 3 2 mark s whic h characteriz e grea t me n (Mahapurissalakkha7za ) ; th e fingers , th e thum b excepted , ar e al l o f th e sam e lengt h ; th e tightl y fittin g uppe r garmen t leave s th e righ t shoulde r an d ar m un covere d ; th e gar b show s n o fold s ; th e ear s ar e large , especiall y th e uppe r portio n ; th e ear-lob e i s narro w an d pierced , bu t doe s no t res t upo n th e shoulde r a s i s th e cas e i n man y image s i n th e Irra wadd y valle y ; th e nostril s ar e broad , th e ridg e o f th e nos e run s i n a straigh t lin e ; th e chi n i s wel l rounde d an d protrude s somewhat ; a benignan t smil e touche s th e mout h ; th e eyelid s ar e lowered , th e axi s o f th e eye s straight , th e arche d eyebrow s semicircular , th e forehea d mor e broa d tha n hig h ; th e greates t breadt h o f th e fac e i s ove r th e eyes ; th e hai r i s wor n i n shor t curls , gathere d i n a hemi spherica l kno t o n th e to p ; th e whol e figure depict s th e mee k aspec t o f meditativ e repose . Passin g throug h th e nort h gat e (marke d m o n th e plan ) th e pat h continue s i n a north-easterl y directio n an d a t a distanc e o f 86 " w e stan d befor e the — ANDA W PAGODA , th e receptacl e o f a tooth-relm_o f Got ama . Thi s pagod a wa s buil t betwee n th e year s B . E . 89 7 an d 905 (A . D . 1534—1542 ) b y th e 12t h kin g o f th e Myauku dynasty , Kin g Minbin , whos e ful l nam e was Sirisuriyacandamahadhammaraja ; h e reigne d ove r Araka n fro m A . D . i53 i ^ 1553 Th e centra l shrin e i s a n octagona l structur e o f stone , wit h tw o interna l octangula r concentri c pas sage s ; i t rest s upo n a basemen t 125 ' fro m nort h t o sout h an d 120 ' fro m eas t t o west ; 1 3 smal l circu lar^pagodas , buil t o f brick s an d massiv e throughout , stan d o n thi s platfor m (se e Plat e XVII , No . 25) ; t o th e eas t th e shrin e open s int o a templ e court , whic h ha s a n entranc e o n th e east , north , an d sout h side s ; a ston e wal l divide s i t fro m th e oute r court , whic h i s als o circumpasse d b y a wall . Th e eas t fagad e o f th e shrin e measure s 3 T fro m nort h t o sout h an d i s onl y 14 ' hig h fro m th e groun d t o th e

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MROHAUNG . 2 5 roof ; o n eac h sid e o f th e entranc e ar e thre e niche s le t int o th e wall , 6 ' high , P 2 " deep , an d 2 ' wid e ; the y appea r t o hav e originall y containe d ston e figure s i n standin g attitud e a s i n tw o o f th e niche s th e fee t hav e bee n left ; n o othe r trace s o f thes e images , whic h n o doub t hav e bee n carrie d awa y bodily , coul d b e foun d ; th e arche s o f th e niche s consis t o f thre e wedge-shape d stone s concavel y cu t o n th e narrowe r end , formin g a vaulte d arc h whe n joined . Th e entranc e i s 9 high , 4 ' 4 " broad , an d 10 ' lon g ; th e porta l ha s som e decorativ e design s i n bas-relief , bu t the y hav e becom e indistinc t throug h ex posure . Passin g throug h th e vaulte d passag e a galler y open s o n eithe r han d ; r t i s 3 ' 7 " wid e an d g' high , an d run s i n a n octago n roun d th e centra l chambe r ; eac h o f th e oute r side s o f th e passag e mea sure s 20 ' an d contain s a ro w o f fou r niche s wit h a semicircula r arc h 2 ' abov e th e ground , an d a secon d ro w o f smalle r niche s a t th e heigh t o f 7' , fou r t o eac h sid e ; th e niche s hol d ston e image s o f Gotam a o f th e commo n Mahamun i type . Fro m th e inne r sid e o f th e galler y a vaulte d passag e lead s fro m north , south , east , an d wes t t o th e inne r chamber , whic h i s als o octagonal ; i n th e centr e stand s a n eight-cornere d ston e pilla r 40 ' i n circumferenc e ; i t give s suppor t t o th e roo f an d th e centra l towe r abov e it ; a t a heigh t o f io'th e octahedra l wal l o f th e chambe r receive s a circula r laye r o f stone s ; the y ar e lai d i n courses , graduall y narrowin g i n hemisphericall y til l the y mee t th e centra l colum n a t a heigh t o f 1 2 ' 8" ; th e latte r ha s a nich e o n eac h sid e 1 7 " deep , 6' g' high , an d i' 5 " broad , an d raise d 1' g" abov e th e groun d ; th e partl y gilde d ston e image s o f Gotam a res t upo n throne s whic h ar e al l pen tagonal , symbolica l o f th e fiv e Buddha s o f th e presen t Kalp a (Kakusandho , Konagamana , Kassapa , Gotama , an d Metteyya , wh o i s ye t t o appear) . N o ligh t an d ai r ca n penetrat e int o th e Anda w pagod a excep t throug h th e fron t entrance ; i t is , lik e th e Shitthaun g pagoda , a templ e fortres s an d plac e o f refuge ; th e inne r portio n o f th e octago n i s constructe d throughou t wit h ston e block s ; th e roo f i s protecte d b y a n additiona l laye r o f brick s abou t 10 " thick ; ove r eac h o f th e eigh t corner s stoo d a turre t o r smalle r pagoda , an d i n th e centre , over th e colum n notice d before , a large r one , al l o f brick , bu t no w i n ruin s an d overgrow n wit h jungl e ; s o ar e th e 1 3 turrets , th e wester n platform , an d i n fac t th e whol e exterio r o f th e pagod a an d th e premises ; onl y th e templ e cour t t o th e east , guardin g th e entranc e t o th e inne r passage , i s kep t fre e o f jungl e an d i s stil l i n tolerabl e repair . Th e Anda wpara , thoug h buil t b y India n workmen , contains , i n its image s an d sculptures , no t th e slightes t admixtur e fro m th e Hind u pantheon ; th e image s represen t Buddh a i n hi s usua l sittin g attitude ; the y exhibi t n o variatio n i n typ e fro m th e Mahamun i type . Th e centra l towe r onc e containe d a tooth-reli c o f Gotama ; th e kin g wh o buil t th e pagod a i s sai d t o hav e obtaine d i t fro m Ceylon . Abou t 2 0 year s ag o a Bengali , livin g i n th e Allays ^ villag e nea r Mrohaung , brok e int o th e relic-chambe r an d abstracte d a golde n caske t containin g th e toot h ; th e the n Myoo k o f Mrohaun g succeede d i n gettin g bac k th e tooth-reli c minu s its receptacl e ; th e toot h was place d i n a silve r case ; a n iron , fire-proo f saf e wa s procure d an d th e treasur e deposite d i n it ; th e ke y i s i n th e keepin g o f th e Myook ; th e saf e ha s bee n place d i n th e custod y o f pongyi s i n a monaster y nea r th e Lokam u pagoda . Th e toot h i s s V l° n g > a n broad , an d nearl y a s thic k (se e Plat e XVII , No . 26) ; i t i s thickl y gilde d ; th e grainin g canno t b e distinctl y seen . Thi s i s th e thir d specime n o f tooth-relic s o f Gotam a I hav e ha d th e opportunit y t o inspect,—on e i n Bassein , th e othe r i n Pegu ; al l thre e hav e abou t th e sam e siz e an d graining , an d belon g t o on e specie s o f animal . Dr . Frost , th e Veterinar y Surgeo n o f Burma , kindl y examine d th e tooth-reli c o f Peg u and , afte r carefu l examinatio n an d comparison , pronounce d i t t o b e th e fourt h mola r toot h o f th e uppe r ja w o f a n ox . I t mus t b e born e i n min d tha t a reli c o f Gotam a doe s no t necessaril y impl y a par t o f hi s bod y durin g hi s last existenc e only ; i t ma y b e th e remnan t o f th e morta l coi l o f an y o f hi s previou s existences . Accordin g t o th e Jataka s Buddh a wa s bor n fou r time s a s a n o x o r bull ; w e hav e see n i n th e Selagir i Discours e tha t h e passe d on e o f hi s bovin e existence s nea r Dvara 7

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2 6 TH E DUKKANTHEI N PAGODA . vati , th e presen t Sandoway . Th e tooth-reli c enclose d i n th e Anda w pagod a i s no t th e toot h o f th e homo Gotama , bu t o f th e bos Bodhisatto , whic h th e devou t believers , rememberin g th e prophec y o f Buddh a (se e pag e 5) , profes s t o hav e foun d o n th e pasture-ground s i n which , accordin g t o hi s ow n statement , h e live d a n anima l lif e o f lowe r orde r age s ago . Again , th e Urittaun g pagod a (se e pag e 3 ) doe s no t contai n th e skul l o f th e Buddh a Gotama , bu t th e craniu m o f Bodhisa t (embry o Buddha) , wh o passe d on e o f hi s forme r existence s a s a ric h Brahma n i n Punnagyu n (Urittaung) . Th e sam e applie s t o man y othe r relic s bot h i n Indi a an d Burma ; late r generations , forgettin g th e origina l natur e o f th e sacre d remnant s an d th e tradition s connecte d wit h them , pronounce d the m t o b e relic s o f th e bod y o f Buddha , i n whic h h e live d ou t hi s last existence . Th e extraordinar y siz e o f Gotama' s tooth relic s th e Burman s explai n b y maintainin g tha t th e statur e o f th e Grea t Teache r wa s 8 cubit s hig h an d tha t th e jaw s o f th e me n o f hi s generatio n wer e provide d wit h suc h teeth . TH E RATANAPO N PAGODA . Fort y fee t t o th e nort h o f th e oute r wal l o f th e Andaw shrin e rise s th e enclosur e o f th e Ratanapo n pagoda . I t wa s erecte d b y Kin g Minpalaung , wh o refigne d ove r Araka n fro m A.D . 157 1 t o 159 3 (B . E . 933—955) . India n ar t ha s no t touche d thi s structure ; th e mai n templ e i s circula r a t th e base , measure s 336 ' i n circumference , an d i s constructe d o f block s o f sandstone ; i t rise s i n a numbe r o f concentri c tiers , o f whic h th e uppe r recede s fro m th e on e lyin g beneat h it , t o a heigh t o f abou t 20 0 fee t (se e Plate s XVI I an d XVIII , fig . 28 ) ; th e upper mos t portio n ha s falle n down . Ther e ar e n o entrances , niches , arches , o r ornamentatio n o f an y kind , no t eve n a n imag e coul d b e found . Eigh t fee t distan t fro m th e centra l stup a rise s a bric k wal l \ hig h an d 2' thick , whic h encompasse s th e pagod a i n a circle ; the n follow s a ro w o f 2 4 smal l circula r pagoda s buil t o f brick ; the y ar e al l i n ruins ; th e whol e structur e i s enclose d b y a n octagona l wall , 8—io 7 thick , wit h a n entranc e t o th e south . Th e templ e cour t i s overgrow n wit h dens e jungle , whic h ha s als o take n roo t al l ove r th e centra l pyramid . Th e buildin g impose s b y its massivenes s ; i n styl e i t represent s th e ordinar y Burmes e pagod a ; bu t th e barrenes s o f decorativ e design s an d th e absenc e o f structura l skil l characteriz e i t a s peculiarl y Arakanese , an d i t differ s onl y i n siz e fro m th e man y utterl y tasteles s pagoda s buil t b y th e Arakanes e branc h o f th e Tibeto-Burma n family . Th e Ratanapo n was erecte d fo r purpose s o f defenc e an d form s a lin k i n th e syste m o f fortification s whic h protec t th e approache s t o th e palac e fro m th e north . TH E DUKKANTHEI N PAGODA . Opposite , an d abou t 300 7 t o th e north-wes t o f th e entranc e t o th e Shitthaun g pagod a (se e ma p o f Mrohaung) , rise s o n a lo w elevatio n th e Dukkanthei n an d Lemyekhn a temples . The y were , lik e th e Shitthaun g an d Anda w shrines , erecte d b y Kin g Minbin , th e 12t h o f th e Myauku dynasty , betwee n th e year s B.E . 893—91 5 (A.D . 1531—1553) ; the y ar e als o temple-fortresse s an d place s o f refug e i n war , chiefl y fo r th e Buddhis t priests , wh o reside d i n numerou s monasterie s buil t fo r the m b y th e sam e kin g i n th e vicinit y o f th e shrines ; bot h ar e constructe d o f massiv e ston e block s an d layer s o f brick s ove r th e roof . Th e Dukkhanthei n stand s o n a n elevatio n 30 7 hig h ; i t measure s 190 7 fro m nort h t o sout h an d 200 7 fro m eas t t o west , an d i s walle d i n o n al l side s ; a staircase , 8 ' broad , lead s fro m th e nort h an d eas t t o th e platform , whic h i s 22 7 abov e th e bas e o f th e wall ; eac h step consiste d originall y o f a ston e bloc k 8 7 long , 2' thick , an d 2—3 ' broa d ; som e ar e no w broken , an d th e positio n o f al l i s curiousl y distorted—th e effects , th e native s assert , o f th e vehemen t seismoti c disturbance s i n A . D . 1761 . Th e platfor m i s th e carefull y levelle d surfac e o f a lo w hill ; i t i s no t pave d an d contain s nothin g o f interest . Th e mai n bod y o f th e templ e run s i n a straigh t lin e 106 7 fro m nort h t o south , an d th e sam e distanc e fro m eas t t o wes t (se e Plat e XIX , No . 31) ; th e wes t side , however , bulge s ou t int o a

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27 TH E DUKKANTHEI N PAGODA . semicircle , an d a n additiona l chambe r connect s th e pagoda wit h th e oute r wall ; th e substructur e rises , slightl y slanting , t o a heigh t o f 18' ; th e material , i s ston e ; the n follo w thre e cupola r superstruc ture s on e abov e th e other ; th e whol e i s cappe d b y a circula r turret ; th e tota l heigh t o f th e pagod a fro m th e to p t o th e platfor m i s 84/ ; viewin g th e wes t side , th e outline s o f th e templ e appea r distinctly ; o n th e eas t sid e th e successio n o f semicircula r contour s o f th e roo f i s broke n b y th e dimension s o f inne r chamber s an d straigh t flights o f staircase s whic h lea d fro m th e platfor m ove r th e outsid e o f th e buildin g t o a vaulte d chambe r o n th e to p (se e Plate XIX , No . 33 , sectio n o f th e Dukkhanthein ) ; th e inne r chamber s an d passage s o f th e templ e ar e al l constructe d wit h well-fittin g an d cemente d stones ; th e uppe r part s o f th e structur e have , especiall y toward s th e west , protectiv e layer s o f bricks , ofte n fro m 10—15 " thickness. Ove r eac h o f th e fou r corner s o f th e lowes t terrac e stan d th e remain s o f a smal l circula r bric k turre t o r pagoda , soli d throughout . Th e platfor m i s densel y overgrow n wit h jungle , th e eas t sid e excepted . I t ha s alread y bee n state d tha t a staircas e lead s fro m th e platfor m ove r th e eas t sid e o f th e templ e t o a roo m i n th e uppe r par t o f th e structure ; th e onl y othe r entranc e t o th e interio r i s throug h a n opening , als o o n th e eas t fa9ad e o f th e templ e an d sout h o f th e staircas e ; i t i s 8 " high , 10 ' 10 " long , an d 3 ' 10 " wide ; th e linte l consist s o f tw o larg e ston e slab s lai d horizontall y ove r th e sides ; o n eac h sid e o f th e entranc e li e th e fragment s o f ston e image s o f Gotam a i n th e usua l sittin g attitud e (se e Plat e XVIII , No . 30) . Th e passag e run s 16' t o th e west , the n 12 ' t o th e south , the n 86 ' t o th e west ; th e latte r portio n widen s t o 6 ' breadth , an d th e roo f i s vaulte d ; th e labyrint h no w turn s i n a curv e t o th e north ; advancin g 56 ' w e me t wit h a smal l apertur e t o th e left , onl y 3 ' hig h an d 2' wid e ; creepin g throug h i t w e lande d i n a small , square , an d roofles s roo m ; th e wall s ar e o f ston e an d 1 2 hig h ; fro m th e floor a ston e staircas e lead s t o th e roo f o f th e templ e ; fugitive s acquainte d wit h th e intri cacie s o f th e dar k labyrint h coul d easil y escap e fro m pursuer s throug h thi s narro w opening . O n on e en d o f th e door-sil l an d linte l o f th e openin g t o th e chambe r i s a cuplik e depression , intende d t o receiv e th e axi s o f a swingin g door ; tw o me n coul d defen d th e outle t o f th e passag e int o th e roo m agains t al l comers . O n th e opposit e sid e o f th e roo m i s anothe r openin g o f th e sam e dimension s a s th e first; i t i s io ' lon g an d open s int o a hal l 26' fro m nort h t o sout h an d 15 ' fro m eas t t o wes t (se e Plat e XIX , Nos . 3 1 an d 33 , pla n o f pagoda) ; th e roo f ha s falle n i n an d th e debris cover s th e floor; th e wall s ar e als o 1 2 hig h an d buil t o f larg e ston e block s ; n o image s o r decorativ e design s coul d b e foun d ; thi s portio n o f th e buildin g i s jungl e overgrown . But w e retur n t o th e principa l passag e i n th e pagoda ; continuin g anothe r 56 " alon g th e curve , th e labyrint h the n turn s t o th e east , the n 86 ' t o th e south , agai n 7c / t o th e west , an d a vaul t o f 1 2 lengt h lande d u s i n a roo m o f peculia r shape ; th e floor i s a trapezoi d approximately ; th e eas t sid e measure s 42 ' an d th e chambe r 15 ' across ; th e wes t wal l incline s considerabl y toward s th e eas t side , s o tha t th e room , th e floor o f whic h i s 15 ' broad , ha s a ceilin g onl y 8 ' broa d ; th e latte r i s slightl y vaulte d ; t o th e lef t o f th e entranc e th e wal l i s sharpl y indente d an d pierce d b y a smal l loophol e no t mor e tha n a n inc h wid e an d 8 " high , openin g ou t o n th e first ben d whic h th e passag e make s t o th e south , clos e t o th e mai n entrance . Leavin g th e roo m a narro w gangway , hardl y 2' broa d an d 4 high ) lead s t o th e secon d convolutio n ; thi s i s io ' wide , \2 high , vaulte d an d slightl y ascendin g ; walkin g 68' t o th e west , abou t 90 ' i n a curv e t o th e north , an d agai n 66' t o th e east , w e crep t throug h a lo w passag e 2 6 ' lon g wit h a considerabl e ascen t an d wer e afte r havin g grope d ou r wa y throug h ove r 70 0 carefull y measure d fee t o f thi s disma l labyrinthia n passage , filled wit h palpabl e darkness , wit h bats , guano , spiders , centipedes , &c. , no t a littl e relieve d i n finding ourselve s i n a spaciou s roo m pervade d b y sola r ligh t an d breathabl e air . I t mus t b e mentione d tha t o n bot h side s o f th e entir e passag e niche s 1broad , i ' deep , an d 2 hig h ar e sun k a t regula r interval s o f 20 " int o th e wal l containin g eac h a sittin g stone-imag e o f Gotam a ; th e linte l o f th e nich e i s a horizonta l ston e sla b ; n o ornamenta l design s o f an y kin d wer e observed . Fro m Plate XVIII , No . 30 , i t wil l b e see n tha t th e uppe r portio n o f th e first terrac e i s honeycombe d wit h

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2 8 TH E DUKKANTHEI N PAGODA . larg e hole s 4 ' wid e b y 3 ' high ; the y penetrat e th e massiv e walls , slopin g downwar d an d graduall y becomin g narrower ; the y ope n int o th e passag e o f th e oute r convolutio n o f th e labyrint h ; th e inne r orific e i s square , measure s onl y 8 " al l round , an d i s 8 ' abov e th e floor o f th e gangwa y ; thes e air-hole s ar e no w filled wit h rubbish . W e penetrate d th e passage s b y th e ligh t o f lamp s ; th e rus h o f th e disturbe d bat s extinguishe d th e torche s w e trie d first; w e protecte d ourselve s b y holdin g outsprea d umbrella s befor e u s a s w e advance d agains t th e strea m o f bats . Th e chambe r abov e mentione d measure s 28 ' fro m eas t t o wes t an d 18 ' fro m nort h t o sout h ; i t i s abou t 30 ' hig h ; th e roo f i s a vaul t slightl y pointe d a t th e ape x ; . toward s th e eas t i s a larg e openin g 7 ' high , 4 10 " broad , 6 ' 6" long , an d io ' abov e th e floor o f th e chambe r ; tw o protrudin g stone s assis t th e ascent . Plat e XIX , No . 34 , give s a vie w o f th e openin g fro m th e outsid e ; th e architrav e consist s o f tw o ston e slab s overtoppin g th e side s ; th e lowe r sla b i s plai n ; th e uppe r ha s o n bot h end s a circula r elevatio n a foo t i n diamete r an d 2" high ; th e surfac e i s convexl y rounde d an d ha s a depressio n an d kno b i n th e centr e ; th e tw o slab s ar e surmounte d b y wha t appear s t o represen t th e outsprea d hoo d o f a cobra ; th e smal l nich e beneat h probabl y hel d originall y a n imag e o f Gotama ; th e circula r elevation s o n th e uppe r ston e sla b represen t th e dhammacakka , o r " whee l o f th e law, " symbolica l o f Buddhis m ; fro m thi s openin g a ston e staircas e (alread y mentione d o n pag e 27 ) 8 " broad , lead s ove r th e eas t sid e o f th e pagod a t o th e platfor m ; th e staircas e consist s simpl y o f a serie s o f ston e slab s restin g o n th e slopin g bric k o r stonewor k o f th e mai n buildin g ; a t it s lowe r en d th e staircas e protrude s fa r int o th e platfor m (se e Plat e XIX , No . 33) ; thi s portio n i s supporte d b y a com pac t mas s o f stones , filling th e spac e betwee n th e wal l o f th e pagod a an d th e platfor m underneat h th e steps . Thi s i s th e constructio n o f al l ascent s o r descent s mediate d b y stair s i n thi s temple , wit h th e exceptio n o f tha t whic h lead s fro m th e smal l chambe r attache d t o th e wes t sid e o f th e pagod a (se e pag e 27 ) t o th e roof ; her e a serie s o f ston e slab s protrude s fro m ou t th e sid e wal l o f th e room ; the y hav e n o othe r suppor t tha n th e firm insertio n o f on e en d o f th e sla b int o th e mura l work . Th e staircase s ar e withou t rails , ballusters , o r latera l walls . O n th e wes t sid e o f th e chambe r whic h w e ha d reache d throug h th e inne r passag e a staircas e o f 1 0 step s 8 ' broa d lead s t o th e topmos t chamber ; a t th e foo t o f th e ascen t i s o n eac h sid e a squar e ston e alta r 2 high ; upo n i t i s seate d a ston e imag e o f Gotam a o f th e Mahamun i type ; i n fron t o f i t lie s a gilde d image , 2 long , representin g a huma n figure lyin g o n it s face , wit h th e arm s stretche d ou t ove r its hea d an d th e palm s o f th e hand s joined . I t i s th e asceti c Sumedha , wh o live d durin g th e Buddhahoo d o f Dlpankara ; b y a n ac t o f kindnes s an d devotio n t o th e latte r h e obtaine d th e promis e fro m hi m tha t h e (Sumedha ) wil l i n a fa r distan t futur e als o becom e a Buddh a ; wit h th e appearanc e o f Gotam a Buddh a thi s prophec y was fulfilled , fo r Gotam a was thi s ver y sam e Sumedh a i n a forme r existence . Th e Buddhavams a an d th e Jataka s (se e Fansboll' s Jataka , Sumedhakatha , Vol . I , page s 2—17 , o r Rhy s Davids ' translation , page s 2—30 ) giv e ful l detail s o f thi s event . Th e mai n point s o f th e stor y ar e a s follows . " Fou r asankheyya s an d 100,00 0 cycle s ag o a wealth y " Brahma n name d Sumedh a dwel t i n a cit y calle d Amaravat i o r Amara. Addicte d t o stud y an d medi " tation , th e convictio n graduall y gre w upo n hi m tha t wordl y possession s an d pleasure s wer e worth " les s an d illusor y ; h e divide d hi s wealt h amon g th e Brahman s an d th e poor , an d retired , a recluse , t o " th e Dhammak a mountai n i n th e Himavant a ; ther e h e acquire d th e powe r o f supernatura l knowledge , " an d whil e livin g i n th e blis s o f th e (eight ) attainments , th e teache r (an d first Buddha ) Dlpankar a " appeare d i n th e worl d ; th e latter , accompanie d b y 100,00 0 saints , travellin g fro m plac e t o " place , reache d th e cit y o f Ramma . Th e inhabitant s ha d mad e grea t preparatio n fo r hi s recep " tion , an d wer e mendin g an d adornin g th e roa d ove r whic h Dlpankar a wa s t o walk . Sumedh a " ha d als o repaire d t o Ramma . A smal l portio n o f th e wa y prepare d fo r th e Buddh a was no t ye t " finished a t hi s approach . Sumedh a reflecte d thu s : ' Thi s da y i t behove s m e t o mak e a sacrific e o f " ' m y lif e fo r th e Buddha ; le t no t th e Blesse d On e wal k i n th e mire , na y le t hi m advanc e wit h hi s

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29 TH E DUKKANTHEI N PAGODA . 100,00 0 saint s tramplin g o n m y bod y a s i f walkin g upo n a bridg e o f jewelle d plank s ; thi s dee d wil l " ' b e fo r m y goo d an d happiness. ' H e the n loosene d hi s hair , an d spreadin g i n th e ink y mir e hi s her " mit' s ski n mantle , rol l o f matte d hair , an d garmen t o f bark , h e la y dow n i n th e mir e lik e a bridg e o f " jewelle d planks , wit h th e firm resolutio n t o becom e a Buddha b y allowin g th e Buddh a t o wal k ove r hi s " outstretche d bod y whic h covere d th e breac h i n th e road . Th e blesse d Dipankar a havin g reache d th e " spot , an d beholdin g th e hermi t Sudhem a lyin g i n th e mire , though t t o himself : ' Thi s hermi t wh o " lie s her e ha s forme d th e resolutio n t o b e a Buddha ; wil l hi s praye r b e fulfille d o r no t ? ' An d castin g " fort h hi s prescien t gaz e int o th e future , an d considering , h e perceive d tha t fou r asankheyya s an d " 100,00 0 cycle s fro m tha t tim e h e woul d becom e a Buddh a name d Gotama. " Th e mos t interestin g featur e i n thi s traditio n i s tha t th e Arakanes e believ e Rammanagar a t o hav e bee n a tow n i n th e ancien t kingdo m o f Dhannavat i (Arakan ) ; th e " Paccantadesavisaye , i n th e regio n o f th e borde r districts, " the y conside r a s referrin g t o thei r ow n native-land . I n th e histor y o f Araka n a Ramanagar a (no w Ramu ) i s ofte n mentione d a s bein g withi n th e dominion s o f th e ruler s o f Myauk-Q . Thi s i s on e o f th e man y instance s o f historica l after-thought s o n par t o f recen t . compiler s o f indigenou s records . Man y event s an d entir e episode s recorde d i n India n Buddhis t annal s a s havin g transpire d i n RamavatI , Kusinanagara , Hamsavati , &c. , wer e mad e t o tak e plac e i n Burm a becaus e a regio n o r tow n o f th e sam e nam e (albei t o f moder n origin ) happene d t o b e foun d i n it . Nex t t o Buddh a Gotama , Dipankar a i s o f al l othe r Buddha s hel d i n th e highes t veneratio n becaus e o f hi s visi t t o Ramma . I n th e presen t Peg u distric t Dipankar a i s supplante d b y th e 13t h Buddh a Padumuttar a becaus e th e Buddhavams a state s tha t " hi s cit y " wa s Hamsavat i (tass a nagaram " Hamsavat i nam a ahosi ) ; Hamsavat i i s th e classica l nam e o f Pegu , an d henc e th e nativ e chronicler s inferre d Padumuttar a t o hav e bee n a Talain g bor n i n Pegu . Worthles s thoug h thes e inference s be , ye t i t i s expedien t t o tak e carefu l cognizanc e o f the m a s the y explai n man y peculia r feature s an d loca l colourin g i n th e Buddhis t pantheo n an d worshi p i n Burma . I n Plat e XXVIII , No . 57 , Sumedh a i s depicte d a s h e la y prostrat e o n th e groun d t o serv e a s a bridg e ; th e imag e ha s bee n place d uprigh t t o affor d a bette r vie w o f th e bod y an d features . Th e throne s upo n whic h th e figures ar e place d consis t o f square-hew n stone s an d exhibi t n o decorativ e designs . Th e topmos t chambe r i s oblon g an d measure s 20'b y 14' ; th e heigh t i s 24' ; th e roo m i s ellipsoi d i n outlin e ; a t th e bas e th e wall s ris e perpendicula r t o a heigh t o f 16' ; the n follo w fou r squar e equidistan t air-hole s o n th e sout h an d nort h side s o f th e roo m ; th e roo f i s dome-shape d ; th e stone s ar e lai d i n ellipsoi d course s ; th e stone s whic h for m th e tw o opposit e curve s o f th e ellips e ar e thicke r tha n thos e o f th e sides , whic h -result s i n th e ellipsi s graduall y passin g ove r int o a circle , narrowin g i n an d finishing of f i n a rounde d centra l ston e i n th e apex . A fe w broke n image s o f ston e li e abou t i n th e chambe r ; th e linte l o f th e doorwa y i s a ston e sla b lai d horizontally . Th e interio r o f thi s gloom y templ e i s throughou t i n goo d order ; nothin g sav e a terribl e earth quak e o r a continue d bombardmen t ca n distur b th e compactnes s o f suc h masse s o f well-fitte d an d cemente d stone s mantle d wit h thic k strat a o f brick s ; th e latte r hav e bee n considerabl y distorte d b y creeper s an d th e root s o f jungl e tree s whic h force d themselve s throug h the m ; th e exterio r o f th e wes t sid e o f th e pagod a i s completel y i n ruins . N o us e whateve r i s mad e o f thi s templ e fortres s ; th e native s d o no t ventur e t o ente r th e laby rint h ; a superstitiou s aw e impel s the m t o avoi d eve n approachin g it . Th e peculia r feature s o f th e Dukkhanthein , o r " shrin e o f misery, " ar e th e absenc e o f decorativ e designs , th e intricat e constructio n o f th e interio r an d th e mean s employe d t o rende r th e shrin e indestructible . I kno w o f n o prototyp e o f thi s probabl y uniqu e structure .

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3 ° TH E LEMYEKHN A PAGODA . TH E LEMYEKHN A PAGODA . T o th e north-wes t o f th e Dukkanthei n an d a t a distanc e o f 150 ' i s th e Lemyekhna , o r " th e four side d pagod a ; " i t was erecte d b y orde r o f Kin g Minbi n betwee n th e year s A . D . 153 1 an d 1553 . I t i s a squar e structure , wit h a fa r protrudin g porta l toward s eac h cardina l poin t (se e Plate XIX , No . 32 ) ; th e interio r roo m i s octagonal ; i n th e centr e o f th e latte r i s a n octahedra l colum n intende d t o sup por t th e circula r towe r erecte d ove r th e centr e o f th e roof ; ove r eac h corne r o f th e latte r a smalle r circula r towe r o r pagod a ha s bee n built ; th e whol e structur e i s enclose d b y a wall , leavin g a spaciou s platform , no w overgrow n wit h jungl e ; th e exterio r o f th e pagod a i s muc h damaged , th e interio r i n fairl y goo d order . Eac h sid e o f th e squar e o f th e shrin e measure s 52' ; th e portal s ar e 13 ' broa d an d protrud e int o th e platfor m ; th e passag e leadin g t o th e chambe r i s vaulted , 3 ' io / / wide , io ' high , an d 20 ' 4 " lon g ; fou r ston e step s lea d fro m th e outsid e t o eac h entranc e ; th e oute r perpendicula r wall s ar e 20 ' hig h fro m th e platfor m t o th e roof ; th e whol e squar e i s constructe d o f ston e blocks , tightl y fittin g an d cemente d ; th e smal l turre t i s buil t o f bric k 7—8 ' hig h an d 30 ' circumferenc e roun d th e bas e ; the y ar e bell-shaped . Th e centra l towe r i s circular , ha s th e shap e o f a dome , wit h a circumferenc e o f 8o ' a t th e bas e ; i t i s constructe d o f ston e an d appear s t o b e massiv e throughout . Eac h sid e o f th e octagona l chambe r withi n th e squar e measure s 16 ' 5" . Eac h alternat e sid e contain s thre e niche s 5 " high , 2 3 " broad , an d T 6 " deep , holdin g a sittin g imag e o f Buddh a o f th e Mahamun i type ; th e othe r side s o f th e octago n hav e onl y tw o suc h niches , on e o n eac h sid e o f th e entranc e ; th e widt h betwee n th e oute r wal l o f th e roo m an d th e octagona l centra l column , whic h i s constructe d o f bricks , i s 17' , th e heigh t 14" ; th e passag e ha s a vaulte d ceilin g ; th e side s o f th e colum n ar e concave , measurin g 9 ' 7 " eac h ; i n eac h concavit y i s fitte d a plai n ston e altar , wit h a conve x oute r sid e 3 ' 6 " hig h ; nearl y al l th e image s seate d o n thes e throne s ar e demolishe d ; the y ar e representation s o f Gotam a Buddh a o f th e sam e type a s thos e o f th e Shitthaun g pagoda ; the y diffe r onl y i n siz e ; ther e ar e n o ornamenta l design s o f an y kind . Th e platfor m i s no t pave d ; th e enclosin g wal l i s buil t o f ston e wit h a laye r o f brick s o n i t (fo r pla n se e Plate XIX , No . 32) . Plate XIX , No . 35 , show s th e south-eas t corne r o f th e temple . A t presen t n o us e i s mad e o f thi s pagod a ; i t i s totall y neglected . Th e Anda w (se e pag e 24) , Shitthaun g (se e page s 20—24) , an d Dukkanthei n pagoda s ar e struc ture s peculia r t o Mrohaun g ; the y can , a s fa r a s I know , no t b e assigne d t o an y know n prototype , no t eve n i n Paga n ca n a structur e o f thi s natur e b e found . Th e Ratanapo n (se e pag e 26 ) ma y hav e fo r its patter n th e ordinar y Talain g pagoda , suc h a s th e Shwesanda w i n Peg u cit y an d th e Shw e Dago n pagod a i n Rangoo n ; th e Lemyekhn a i s a n imitatio n o f temple s o f a simila r styl e commo n i n th e ancien t an d moder n capital s o f Burmes e monarchs . W e no w pas s ove r t o a mor e moder n grou p o f pagoda s i n Mrohaung ; thei r architectural styl e i s th e sam e a s tha t o f th e ordinar y Burmes e templ e eas t o f th e Araka n Yom a ; i t ma y b e briefl y describ e d a s a spire , massiv e throughout , risin g fro m a circular , square , o r octagona l basis , i n a successio n o f tiers , belts , o r circles , o f whic h th e uppe r i s alway s narrowe r tha n th e on e immediatel y beneat h it , taperin g graduall y of f t o a poin t a t a heigh t whic h i s usuall y on e an d a hal f o r twic e tha t o f th e diame te r o f th e base . Porche s ar e attache d t o th e side s o r niche s le d int o th e wal l t o receiv e image s ; th e whol e i s surmounte d b y a " t i " o r umbrell a o f iron , ofte n gilded , consistin g o f a numbe r o f concentri c hoop s o r ring s risin g i n ever-narrowin g circles , finishing of f i n a lon g iro n ro d whic h rise s con siderabl y abov e th e ti ; t o th e uppe r en d i s ofte n fastene d a glas s ball . (Tha t glas s i s a non-con ducto r o f electricit y seem s t o hav e bee n know n i n Ceylo n an d Burm a fro m ancien t times. ) Th e side s o f th e ro d ar e barbe d wit h pennan s ; th e lowe r en d pierce s th e topmos t rin g an d i s inserte d i n

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PITAKATAIK . 3 1 a stron g woode n post , whic h carrie s th e t i an d i s perpendicularl y thrus t dow n throug h th e ape x dee p int o th e bod y o f th e pagod a ; th e lowe r en d o f th e pol e i s fitte d int o a hol e cu t throug h th e middl e o f a ston e sla b lai d horizontall y o n th e bric k o r stone-wor k an d burdene d wit h th e superincumben t weigh t o f tha t portio n o f th e spir e whic h lie s betwee n th e ston e sla b an d th e apex . Ther e is , however , tha t marke d differenc e betwee n th e pagoda s o f Mrohaun g an d thei r Burmes e prototyp e tha t th e forme r ar e buil t o f stone , th e latte r o f bricks ; al l ornamenta l design s o n th e forme r ar e wrough t o n th e unplastere d stone , wherea s o n th e latte r decoratio n i s execute d o n th e plaster coatin g o f th e brick s whil e i t i s stil l soft . I n durability , architectura l skill , an d ornamentatio n th e Mrohaun g temple s fa r surpas s thos e o n th e bank s o f th e Irrawaddy . A bric k templ e i s ancien t whe n 5 0 monsoon s hav e passe d ove r i t an d become s a complet e rui n i f no t repaire d ; th e stucc o mus t b e renewe d ever y tw o o r thre e years ; th e ston e pagoda s i n Mrohaun g wer e buil t thre e an d fou r centurie s ago , an d man y hav e bee n totall y neglecte d fo r th e last 15 0 year s ; th e side s o f th e ponderou s ston e block s fi t compactl y an d ar e joine d wit h cement , thu s resistin g th e absorptio n o f moisture , th e pene tratin g forc e o f th e tenaciou s creepers , an d th e root s o f ficus , whic h ar e capabl e o f reducin g a bric k pagod a i n a fe w year s t o a numbe r o f detached , shapeles s heap s o f bricks . Kin g Narapatigyi , wh o reigne d betwee n th e year s A . D . 163 8 an d 1645 , an d Kin g Candasu dhamma , th e 23r d o f th e Myauku dynasty , wh o rule d betwee n A . D . 165 2 an d 1684 , erecte d th e followin g temples,—th e Tipitakataik , a receptacl e fo r th e Buddhis t scripture s ; th e Mangalamaraun g («8cofel§©33o8) , Jinamaraun g (8)^>o1^gj»o8) , Sakyamaraun g (od@1^co3o6) , Ratanamaraun g (qoo$o©l£ [ ©3DO8) ? Lokamaraun g (©COOODO"!^©asoS) , Dipayo n pagod a (So^sajeps) , Limpanhmaun g (c6So§gGgo 6 ©}Gps) , an d th e Anom a shrin e (33©$o©:q©ps) . O f thes e temple s th e Pitakataik , th e Limpanhmaung , Dipayon , Anoma , an d Mangalamaraun g ar e situate d i n th e sam e valle y a s th e Shitthaun g pagod a an d t o th e nort h o f th e latter . Abou t hal f a mil e t o th e nort h o f th e Dukkanthei n i s the — PITAKATAI K (Bc^oS) . Th e buildin g wa s use d a s a depositor y fo r th e Buddhis t scripture s ; i t measure s 14 ' fro m eas t t o wes t an d io 7 fro m nort h t o sout h ; i t i s buil t entirel y o f ston e (se e Plate XX , No . 36 ) ; th e bas e i s squar e an d th e mai n bod y o f th e structur e widen s i n a curve d lin e toward s th e top , s o tha t th e uppe r par t i s broade r an d wide r tha n th e fundament ; heigh t fro m groun d t o roo f g ; th e entrance , a n arche d passage , open s toward s th e east ; onl y th e nort h wal l i s no w standing ; th e othe r thre e side s an d th e roo f hav e falle n i n ; th e latter , t o judg e fro m th e shap e o f th e stone s scattere d about , mus t original l y hav e bee n a hemispherica l cupola . Th e Buddhis t scriptures , commentarie s an d scholia , whic h Narapatigy i ha d receive d fro m Ceylo n wer e deposite d i n thi s receptacle . Plat e XX , No . 36 , give s th e detail s o f th e decorativ e design s o f one-hal f o f th e nort h sid e ; th e othe r hal f i s it s exac t counterpart . Styl e o f structur e an d ornamentatio n i s purel y Burmes e ; th e prototyp e seem s t o b e th e woode n frame , decke d ou t wit h carve d an d decorate d sideboards , whic h hold s th e bod y o f a defunc t priest , o r othe r perso n o f note , prio r t o bein g burne d o r interre d ; suc h bier s ca n b e see n a t nearl y ever y funera l i n Burma , an d i t i s probabl e tha t th e Arakanese ^ copie d fro m thi s mode l an d wrough t th e design s o n stone , i n relie f \ a n inc h hig h ; th e coloure d leaf-shape d tablet s consi s o f burne d clay , glaze d o n on e side , staine d i n fres h brigh t colours , red , green , blue , yellow , white , an d le t int o a closel y fittin g impressio n o n th e surfac e o f th e stone . Th e buildin g i s rathe r top-heav y ; t o giv e stabilit y t o th e uppe r portion , th e architect s constructe d th e bas e wit h heav y thic k block s o f stone , whic h graduall y becom e thinne r bu t longe r a s the y ap proac h th e roof , s o tha t th e uppermos t cours e consist s o f onl y tw o thi n slabs , th e end s o f whic h mee t i n th e centr e o f th e side . Thi s precautio n appear s no t t o hav e ha d th e desire d effect ; th e roo f

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3 2 TH E MANGALAMARAUN G PAGODA . presse d th e wall s asunder , th e latte r fallin g forward , wit h th e exceptio n o f th e nort h wall . • Th e constructio n o f th e buildin g i n ston e i s fault y throughou t an d impractical . Ther e i s a simila r shrine , wit h th e sam e exquisit e carvin g i n stone , i n th e Launggye t circl e (se e Kad o shrine , Chapte r III) . Fift y fee t t o th e nort h o f th e Pitakatai k i s a bric k wal l abou t 4 hig h an d 2 ' thic k ; i t run s fro m south-eas t t o north-wes t acros s th e botto m o f th e valle y betwee n th e bas e o f th e easter n an d wester n hil l rang e ; th e wal l i s ver y dilapidate d an d wa s erecte d b y th e Burman s durin g th e first wa r wit h th e British , afte r th e latte r ha d occupie d th e height s o f Shwedaun g an d th e palac e ruin s ; the y mad e thei r las t stan d behin d thi s defenc e an d the n fled throug h th e Chinkai t gate , whic h close s th e nort h sid e o f th e valley . A fe w yard s t o th e nort h o f th e wall s begin s th e enclosur e o f the — LIMPANHMAUN G PAGODA , als o calle d Limpanpyaungpara . Th e wall , whic h surround s th e spaciou s bu t no w jungle-covere d temple-court , i s buil t o f ston e block s ; th e oute r surfac e o f i t i s divide d int o squar e fields b y a serie s o f perpendicula r lines , forme d b y th e stone s projectin g a n inc h ou t o f th e wall ; i n th e centr e o f eac h i s a rosette , consisting , simila r t o thos e o n th e Pitakataik , o f eigh t coloure d cla y tablets , red , yellow , blue , an d gree n alternately , wit h a w'hit e centr e ; • th e diamete r o f th e ornamen t i s i ' 8" ; th e wal l i s stil l i n tolerabl y goo d repair . A n openin g fro m th e eas t an d on e fro m th e wes t lead s t o th e platfor m raise d abou t 6 ' abov e th e leve l o f th e surroundin g groun d ; th e cour t i s no t paved . Th e massiv e ston e pagod a i n th e centr e i s a n octagona l pyrami d ; eac h sid e measure s a t th e bas e 33 ' an d rise s i n ever-recedin g tier s t o a heigh t o f abou t 120" ; ther e i s n o t i a t th e to p an d no t a singl e ornamenta l desig n o n th e bod y o f th e pagoda . O n th e first tier , i n th e middl e o f eac h o f th e eigh t sides , stoo d originall y a porc h consistin g o f tw o squar e pillar s formin g th e side s o f th e porch ; the y ar e a foo t broa d al l roun d an d 2 ' 8 " high ; th e architrav e i s a bloc k o f ston e 5 ' lon g an d P 5 " high ; thi s i s agai n surmounte d b y a thir d piec e 3 ' high ; eac h nich e containe d a n imag e o f Gotama , bu t the y hav e bee n removed . Th e oute r surfac e o f th e appendag e display s a n exquisit e patter n o f carvin g i n ston e (se e Plat e XX , No . 37 ) ; th e desig n i s i n th e mai n feature s th e sam e a s th e ornamenta l plaste r wor k o n shrine s buil t b y Burman s o r Talaings . Th e pagod a ha s n o othe r opening s o r niche s ; i t i s i n fairl y goo d order ; n o us e o f i t i s mad e a t present . Fift y step s t o th e nort h ar e th e ruin s o f th e D'tpayon shrine; th e bas e i s octagonal ; th e uppe r par t ha s falle n down ; th e materia l i s stone ; th e spaciou s templ e cour t i s surrounde d b y a wal l i n disrepair ; t o th e eas t i s a tank , no w filled wit h rubbis h an d vegetation , an d th e trace s o f th e avail s o f a squar e sim a o r ordinatio n hal l fo r Buddhis t priest s ; nothin g o f interes t coul d b e foun d abou t thes e ruin s ; A stone' s thro w t o th e eas t i s anothe r partl y ruine d ston e pagod a wit h enclosin g wall ; th e bas e an d first fou r tier s ar e octagonal ; th e nex t fou r ar e squar e an d th e uppe r circular ; n o t i surmount s th e ape x ; th e circumferenc e o f th e pagod a measure s 160' ; i t i s devoi d o f al l ornamentatio n o r othe r object s o f interest . MANGALAMARAUN G PAGODA . Hal f a mil e t o th e wes t o f th e Dipayonpar a i s a n octagona l soli d ston e spire , withou t por ches , niches , o r ornamenta l work ; i t i s overgrow n wit h dens e jungle . Th e pagod a was built , a s alread y stated , b y Narapatigy i betwee n th e year s 163 8 an d 164 5 A . D . O n th e sout h sid e o f th e stup a ar e fou r ston e slab s covere d o n on e sid e wit h Burmes e inscriptions ; on e i s completel y defaced , th e othe r thre e ar e tolerabl y wel l preserve d (se e Plate s XXI , XXII , an d XXIII) . Th e record s bea r th e dat e B . E . 107 8 an d 108 0 (A . D . 172 0 an d 1722 ) an d wer e se t u p b y Kin g Candavijaya , th e 34t h o f th e Myauku dynast y ; thoug h i n Arakanes e histor y calle d a n usurper , h e style s himsel f i n th e inscriptio n " great-great-grandso n o f Narapatigyi, " wh o erecte d th e Mangalamaraun g pagoda .

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TH E MANGALAMARAUN G PAGODA . 3 3 I . OOggCp&OO ^ pqooco l 5 coa o $oc o q 06 9 ejogScgj ^ $ o c ©803 8 o o o o j £ o ^ 8o>o o c p o o g oo o £ 5 ooo 6 Q o o 9 GO O ©o>o q § © o q o 8 o g £ O D ^ F o o g S ©o o S g E G o q § a o ©qco o o c O L cgyoojgSeoo^ygloogSi i ©gooSoog5G30o888$8«>Gpaq$©S«>Gtoo6co ^ ©oooSoqSq $ gS^ooc^S^SooSoogcooS i Gooo£co^gS©cq)£ooooSoosco(^33G5|co^GOo8n«©sj|o 6 c{)3'C5^o^G J g ) ooo8D3og£cg8jo5^o6GG|§Sa^$a)ooo5i i II©OTO £ qSooSgSooScooSs^ogScooocog S qq8)CoS^a8negoc8oo^3©Ggoo5©oooScoc8^ScqggospSoogosaGqco^Gt^s^gS . K > GfOcScopSjGOoSqo S COO8NS«OS©OOSAOC00033GO G CG^O^OJGJOOOJDOOG S .Gaoo£q8co 5 ©col8©^8§8co8oGq5o^8goog8©ooo8co^o^^Goo8G^o8ssGg|co ^ ooo6oooo2oq(c § scqooq ^ Ggoo8^8o3G^oc8cc^ccn § ODoogoqigsocpoq f cgggoSfc&ooo s aocgScgSjoSJjoSGqgSsqScoool . nGoooSo3^o6cpGgo5oa©§i^8Ggoo5co^cor8a D «080^g3CGpsf^^G^oo8co^ooooosGg]o£cg^o8 l G^oo'j29aogSc^S^o6^o5Gq§8£^^oooon » •Gooo8gq8cooo8oooopo q oo§qco3c$/3qo5©G$c^oq©gG p aoc l coo5coc6g6oo8aoc 6 c^83©5|^g£oo^oo5 . oo ^ (Sa88fGoooSgc6oocggo6©cgSe@o£oo8§oo^GOo8go5c§eoooS5©ooSqoo^GOOO)g'1oqog o qac^ o oo©cooSoo8c^Gg©OG(go£GqcDo3©og8'o8§33o833©5)Oo8©oT8Gco S ooc6og]^ogSa3G a q|£©ooo8cg)^o6coo5gc ^ co^SgpSoooocoaSoogaoo^cfl S og j cBS@8oo$Gqe> » GOOoSoo^ao^glopEogooScogSoooqD^aoaSaoGgoo^oSG p O0a3^IIGO00ScO^g£c8Sc88o8Gg0o5cO^00^G000£GSJ|0803G^ 5 CO(£^G7pS
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3 4 TH E MANGALAMARAUN G PAGODA . oqScqpScgoc ^ c8SG5)oo8GODOo$dbcoo8cooooc8ooc^8g|9398q(^cg 6 ©aoo8co^^©coo6a5)Gq|9833©3Co^GOoo8cgoo8^ 8 G^OoScO^asSqoBGqpSoO^QOO^SogSoDCOl ^ 00GSjp800o| n . ooggqo&ooo o oosq^cosqo S a qc8oGf«8co] S ©oq)o6r^8©ooGoo 8 ^qocSgooooSjGOo S qoofoqgGcqjoScgSooS i cog§oo 5 oo^asc^SGTOoS^GODSqoo^OGOooiOqgGajjoSogSooSioo^aD^gS^oscoosoGC^Sofi ^ aaoScoooSgqSeoDDSoo S o g oo§8g^rq)^39Coo5g2cg8o3G5Co^GOOOGqjo8GCoo8co^Ga30o5@9oqio S osc^ocSco^ S g8Gqp 8 gcgoco ^ a>©a8ocq g GJjpSoo^eoogScg S ODCooS^oS^goocqcog S coScDoSgcqpSosGfooS^ S Ggon6co^ol8og|cqjo8GOOD6co^gcSg©qjo8«^ 5 oo^o3cgScg8c^8q5oqg3CGpcooSoocg)^ooooo5c^Soo5 § oacooSooaoaS^Scgjgi i so©qco^ol§oq|osj)o8GOOD8co^^88soG p oo^coo5f8©a>o8^9Co§o83GG^oc8co^G8c^8oq8oo5jk83^gc8aq ] Th e inscription s ar e damage d i n severa l places ; th e ston e i s a dar k gra y sandston e ; the y ar e 3 ' 6 " hig h b y 2 ' 8 " broa d an d 10 " thick . Th e followin g i s a translatio n o f th e text : "O n day , th e 7t h wanin g o f Kaso n sakkara j 1073 , th e Kin g (Candavijaya) , followin g i n the wak e o f hi s great-great-grandfathe r Narapatigyi , th e builde r o f th e Ratanaram a monastery , erecte d o n it s sit e th e Ratanatej o cloister . An d he , fo r th e maintenanc e o f thi s monastery , se t apar t thes e land s situate d i n th e village s o f Musanagyisinda n Kwuntapmyinm o (tjG>togaoSoo$g$ooSgSl}8» ) an d Habar a (coocpn),—1 0 paddy-field s bounde d b y th e Kacchabhanad i (Kalada n river ) o n th e east , b y Ganzwun kyaun g (ro$g§Gsp8 ) o n th e south , b y Minga n (oSro$ ) o n th e west , an d b y the Ginkyaun g (ooScspc ) o n the north , thre e paddy-field s bounde d b y th e Ganzwunkyaun g (oo$§$©q]DS ) o n th e south , b y th e Myinmoyuakyaun g (§8£}8qoesj]o8 ) o n th e north , b y th e Nabinkyaun g (^o8Gqjo8 ) o n th e west , an d b y th e Legyawyuakyaun g (eco©@5§pcqp6 ) o n th e east ; on e paddy-fiel d bounde d b y Ganzwunkyaun g (oD$g$Gsjp8 ) o n th e south , b y Habaranla y (a>oqo$cooo ) o n th e north , b y th e Nabinkyaun g (^o£©sjo8 ) o n the east , b y Gambaingkyaun g o n th e west ; 1 0 paddy-field s bounde d b y Byinteimlambaw , (gSc8Sco£ ) an d Kumarathingyila y (cqooqooSo^DoaS ) o n th e west , an d als o b y th e Kumarathingyila y o n th e south ; thre e " kyaung s " (©qp8 ) o f paddy-fields , bounde d b y Kumarathingyila y (oqooqoDfi ^ cooS ) o n the east , b y Nantetzayathingyila y ($$ooc8;aoqDa>&j)couS ) 0 n th e south , b y th e Zeitkyaun g (a8o5cqp8 ) o n th e west , b y Gwunthibinlampi t (og
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35 TH E MANGALAMARAUN G PAGODA . on e be k (oooS) ; 2 0 paddy-field s bounde d o n th e eas t b y Dagyakyaun g (oosoqjcsfloS) , o n th e sout h b y th e fiel d o f Nitdizay a singy i (^SSssoGpcofi^ ) an d Taungyualampi t (eocoSgpcoSoS) , o n th e wes t b y Mingolopla y («6c§8cq8^oS ) an d Bonyuekgyakyaun g (c^cScrRcsfloS) , o n th e nort h b y th e ridg e betwee n Kyaungsaukyeth o (©sfloSccooS©qc£}8) , an d Gyekgyayom o (go5oq]©cp38). " Translatio n o f th e secon d ston e inscriptio n i s a continuatio n o f th e first : " Thes e paddy-field s " numbe r 6 0 i n all ; they , togethe r wit h th e monasteries , pagodas , images , gardens , tanks , fruits , trees , " an d an y sanghik a propert y (i.e., belongin g jointl y t o th e priesthood ) shal l no t b e appropriate d o r des " troye d b y others . Whosoever , b e h e a priest , disciple , townsman , minister , o r countryman , look s o n " thes e grant s wit h a n enviou s eye , or , bein g actuate d b y avariciou s motives , eithe r destroy s o r insti " gate s t o b e destroyed , ma y suc h a n offende r b e smitte n t o deat h b y th e na t wh o keep s watc h ove r th e " perso n o f th e Buddha , wh o i s revere d i n th e thre e abodes , wh o practised , durin g fou r asankheyya s an d " 100,00 0 kalpas , an d ofte n unde r advers e circumstances , th e 1 0 paramita s beginnin g wit h Dan a an d " endin g wit h Upekha . " O r ma y suc h a n offende r b e kille d b y th e na t wh o keep s guar d ove r th e hol y mola r an d canin e teet h (o f Buddha) , th e Bodh i tree , an d th e hol y shrine s i n heave n an d eart h fo r 5,00 0 years , whic h i s th e perio d allotte d fo r th e duratio n o f th e religion . O r ma y h e b e kille d b y th e na t wh o guard s an d protect s Buddha' s disciples , th e blesse d Ariyas , wh o hav e attaine d t o th e Magga/Zhana s an d PhalaZZhanas . O r ma y h e b e destroye d b y Sakka , th e lor d wh o rule s ove r Meru , Sattaparcw a (Echites scholaris), Yugandhara , th e Sun , an d th e Moon . O r ma y h e b e killed b y th e fou r Maharaj a nats , wel l know n t o all . O r b y th e fou r Lokapal a nats , wh o kee p guar d ove r th e worl d o f men . O r b y th e fou r Asur a nats , wh o ar e fierc e an d false , an d addicte d t o intoxication . O r b y th e othe r nat s wh o kee p guar d ove r th e fou r grea t island s togethe r wit h th e 20,00 0 lesse r islets . Ma y he , durin g th e whol e o f th e presen t kalpa , no t b e rebor n eve n a s a commo n an t o r a re d sou r ant ; ma y h e no t b e save d thoug h hearin g th e la w preache d b y th e Buddh a wh o wil l appea r i n th e future . Ma y h e b e bor n a s a bein g whos e natur e i s tha t o f th e submarin e stum p calle d th e Bosamsarakharak a (GolcDaDoqolqco) . An d eve n i n thi s hi s presen t existenc e ma y h e b e afflicte d wit h leprosy , deafness , epilepsy , hysterics , dulnes s o f th e head , dumbness , an d ma y h e suffe r fro m th e malic e o f others. " Th e thir d inscriptio n i s shor t an d th e lowe r portio n o f th e tex t i s defaced : " O n Saturday , th e " sevent h wanin g o f sakkara j 108 0 th e kin g erecte d th e Ratanatejoram a monaster y "fo r th e abod e o f th e precepto r o f hi s mother , th e Norther n Queen ; i t i s buil t o n th e sit e o f th e " Ratanaram a monaster y founde d b y hi s great-great-grandfather , th e Kin g Narapatigyi . Fo r th e " maintenanc e o f th e precepto r an d hi s disciple s residin g i n th e abovename d monaster y th e followin g " lands , formin g a par t o f Mundawgy i (^e^gg) , situate d i n Tapkyaukdahlab & (ooScoqpoSocqeoo) , nea r " th e norther n pagoda , ar e se t apart : Twent y paddy-field s bounde d o n th e eas t b y Shwezing a (g§|o>u5) , " o n th e wes t b y Sekkalampi t (COO5OODCO8O8) , o n th e nort h b y Waptina t (oScB^oS) , o n th e sout h b y " Paragya w toqp^Q 3 ) an d Lekthakyaun g (coo8coD©qp£) . Further , 1 7 paddy-fields , bounde d o n "th e eas t b y Sing a (o>o5o) , o n th e wes t b y Yankyaun g (c$eqp 8 o r «§) , o n th e sout h b y Kyaukhlega " kyaun g (coqpo8ecga>:>s ©qp8») , o n th e nort h b y Thekkyaun g (coo5®cpS) . Als o tw o paddy-field s bounde d " o n th e nort h b y Thankyaun g (o^csjpS) , o n th e eas t b y th e headwater s o f th e Thekkyaun g (aooScqpS ) " an d Shinhlakyaun g (98 cge=p8) , o n th e wes t b y th e wall s o f Kin g Kar a (oc p probabl y Minkhari , wh o reigne d fro m A . D . 143 4 t o 1459 ; a portio n o f thi s massiv e wal l stil l exist s t o th e wes t o f th e palace) , an d o n th e sout h b y th e Tantaingkyaun g (ooo^8©q]o8) . " An d thes e 3 9 paddy-field s * * " S o fa r th e tex t i s readable . O f th e Ratanatej o monaster y an d o f th e man y othe r cloister s onc e numerou s i n thi s valle y no t a trac e remains . Exceptin g thes e inscription s nothin g o f interes t wa s foun d abou t th e Mangalamaraun g pagoda .

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3 6 TH E MANGALAMARAUN G PAGODA . W e retur n t o th e Dipayonpar a (se e ma p o f Mrohaung ) an d th e smalle r pagod a t o th e eas t (se e pag e 32) ; th e latte r i s calle d Anomapar a an d stand s o n th e bas e o f th e easter n hil l range . Th e valle y fro m thi s pagod a t o th e nort h gat e was onc e th e camping-groun d o f th e Arakanes e mai n army . Th e groun d alon g th e foo t o f th e hil l i s levelle d int o a broa d platform ; t o th e eas t rise s a projecting , steep , an d rock y ridge . Th e platfor m i s her e an d ther e covere d wit h th e ruin s o f smal l pagoda s an d image-houses ; severa l larg e bu t mutilate d ston e image s o f Gotama wer e notice d ; th e summit s ar e crowne d wit h smal l massiv e shrine s withou t porches , niches , o r ornamenta l designs ; the y serve d a s look-out s t o th e guards ; th e plac e i s no w a wil d chao s o f broke n images , stones , demolishe d pedestals , pillars , etc . Thi s spo t wa s th e scen e o f th e fiercest struggl e betwee n th e Burman s an d th e Arakanese . Torward s th e north , an d nearl y 3 mile s fro m th e palace , th e end s o f th e tw o paralle l hill-range s converg e t o withi n a distanc e o f abou t 30 0 feet ; acros s th e openin g run s du e eas t t o wes t a hig h rampar t o f eart h abou t 50 ' hig h ; o n i t stand s a ston e wall , 5—6 ' i n heigh t an d 3 ' thick , pierce d b y loophole s fo r smal l arm s an d cannons ; i t give s additiona l strengt h t o th e defence . Beyon d i t i s th e Panzemraung , a disma l moras s (se e ma p o f Mrohaung) , whic h stretche s i n a bowlin e fro m th e north-wes t sid e o f th e tow n t o th e north-east ; o n th e opposit e sid e i t i s line d b y lo w range s o f hills , leavin g a flat-bottomed valle y hal f a mil e broad , covere d wit h wate r throug h th e rain y season ; i n th e ho t seaso n i t i s a fever-breeding , pestilentia l swamp , wher e eve n buffaloe s refus e t o wallow ; th e native s als o shu n th e place . Unti l th e beginnin g o f th e 15t h centur y a branc h o f th e Lemr o rive r flew throug h thi s valley ; Kin g Minkhari , wh o reigne d durin g th e year s A.D . 1434—1459 , erecte d extensiv e embankment s t o th e north-eas t o f th e town , stoppin g th e influ x o f th e river . Clos e t o th e nort h sid e o f th e wal l whic h connect s th e tw o hil l range s li e tw o ston e slabs ; on e i s 4 ' 2 " high , 2' 4 " broad , an d 8' ' thick , th e othe r 5 ' 8 " b y 2' 4 " an d 8 " thick ; the y ar e inscribe d o n on e sid e only ; th e inscriptio n i s a n equilatera l square , subdivide d int o 9 1 smalle r fields , eac h contain in g on e o r tw o numerals ; th e ke y t o th e meanin g o f th e inscription s i s lost . I n Plat e No . XX X a cop y i s given ; unde r eac h Burmes e numera l I hav e adde d th e Englis h equivalent ; th e uppe r righ t corne r o f th e first ston e i s broke n of f an d fou r fields wit h it . O n th e easter n bas e o f th e hill , o n w r hic h th e Udarit—no w ofte n calle d th e Khari t pagoda — stands , th e inhabitant s o f Mrohaun g hav e erecte d a cluste r o f smal l pagoda s o f th e moder n Burmes e type ; her e the y worship ; bu t al l th e shrine s situate d i n th e valle y t o th e nort h o f Mrohaun g hav e bee n abandone d an d totall y neglecte d sinc e th e Burmes e invasio n (A.D . 1782) . Th e ol d monasterie s hav e al l disappeared ; th e orchard s an d paddy-fields , int o whic h th e botto m o f th e valle y ha d bee n converted , ar e no w fo r th e greates t par t overgrow n wit h jungle ; th e numerou s well s an d tank s ar e i n a dilapidate d condition ; th e whol e valle y i s a desolat e wilderness . W e retur n t o th e palac e an d the n tak e th e jungl e path , whic h run s i n a north-easterl y directio n alon g th e bas e o f lo w hill s t o th e north . A t a distanc e o f a mil e an d a hal f rise s the — SAKYAMARAUN G PAGOD A (A>GOO£JCO3OECQCPS) . Th e erectio n o f thi s stup a i s ascribe d t o Kin g Candasudhamma , th e 23r d o f th e Myauku dynast y ; h e reigne d betwee n th e year s A.D . 165 2 an d 1684 . Plate XXIV , Nos . 4 1 an d 42 , give s th e groun d pla n an d photograp h o f th e pogoda . Th e outlin e o f th e bas e i s peculia r an d probabl y th e onl y instanc e o f th e kin d i n Lowe r Burma ; i t represent s eigh t brace s joine d t o a n irregula r octagon , th e brace s formin g th e side s o n th e fou r cardina l point s ar e wide r tha n th e intermediat e ones . Fro m th e first tie r upwar d th e structur e become s octagonal : th e side s ove r th e fou r mai n brace s pas s int o a straigh t line , thos e ove r th e intermediat e brace s int o a chevrone d o r zigza g design ; afte r th e nint h tie r th e outlin e o f th e spir e become s circula r an d continue s s o t o th e top ; a t i appear s t o hav e originall y surmounte d it , sinc e th e ti-y o ("umbrell a bone" ) i s stil l see n protrudin g ou t o f th e ape x o f th e stupa .

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TH E RATANAMARAUNGPARA . 3 7 O n eac h sid e o f th e secon d an d thir d tie r stand s a niche , o r rathe r a porch , containin g a sittin g ston e imag e o f Gotama . Th e fac e o f th e porc h exhibit s ornamenta l design s simila r t o thos e o f th e Limpanpyaungpar a (se e Plate XXI , No . 37) . Th e circumferenc e o f th e pagod a measure s a t th e bas e 280' ; th e whol e structur e i s soli d ston e wor k throughou t an d stil l i n a fairl y goo d stat e o f preservation . Th e spaciou s templ e cour t contain s n o othe r buildin g o r othe r objec t o f interest ; i t i s overgrow n wit h reeds ; th e enclosin g ston e wal l o f simpl e constructio n ha s a n openin g toward s th e eas t an d west , an d i s stil l wel l preserved ; n o worship . Hal f a mil e t o th e nort h o f th e Sakyamaraun g i s the — RATANAMARAUNGPAR A (QOO^O^GOAOS^EPS) . Thi s pagod a i s als o ascribe d t o Kin g Candasudhamm a (A.D . 1652—1684) . I t i s a soli d ston e structure , octagona l fro m th e bas e t o th e top , an d measure s roun d th e bas e 344' ; ther e ar e n o niches , porches , openings , o r decorativ e design s o n th e ma m bod y o f th e stupa . T o th e eas t i s a smal l squar e buildin g wit h a protrudin g portal ; th e passag e t o th e interio r chambe r i s arched , th e latte r squar e wit h vaulte d roof ; i n th e backgroun d i s seate d a ston e imag e o f Gotama , 8 ' high , o f th e ordinar y Mahamun i typ e ; th e image-hous e i s constructe d o f a bloc k o f sandston e an d i s stil l i n goo d order . I n th e north-wes t corne r o f th e enclosur e i s a n oblon g quadrangula r thei n (sima) , 36 ' lon g an d 22 ' broad ; th e roo f i s vaulted , bu t partl y i n ruin . Th e inne r chamber , whic h i s likewis e vaulted , ha s a ston e floor; throug h it s centr e run s longitudinall y a ston e groove , o ! wid e an d 8 " deep . Thi s shrine , whic h contain s n o image s an d exhibit s n o ornamentic , i s sai d t o hav e serve d a s a confessiona l t o Buddhis t nun s ; th e groov e wa s fille d wit h wate r an d th e nun s mad e thei r fortnightl y confession s ove r th e wate r t o th e pries t standin g o n th e othe r sid e o f th e groove . Ther e ar e a fe w othe r smal l shrine s o n th e platfor m an d neighbourhood , bu t the y ar e completel y ruined . (Photo grap h o n Plat e XXIV , No . 43 , represent s th e pagod a fro m th e south-wes t corne r o f th e enclosin g wall. ) Th e templ e cour t i s covere d wit h jungle ; th e centra l pagod a i s i n fairl y goo d stat e o f preservatio n ; th e t i ha s falle n down . T o th e eas t o f th e palac e ar e th e Alays & an d Thayeto p village s ; o n th e surroundin g lo w bu t stee p hill s stan d smal l ston e pagodas , octagona l o r squar e a t th e base , constructe d o f ston e an d usuall y provide d wit h a smal l porc h facin g th e east . Thes e shrine s wer e constructe d b y orde r o f Kin g Minbin , whos e roya l titl e wa s Sirisuriyacandamahadhammaraja ; h e i s th e 12t h o f th e Myauku king s an d reigne d betwee n th e year s A . D . 153 1 an d 1553 . Nea r Thayeto p (1 ^ mile s fro m th e palace ) i s th e Nibbuddhapabbata , wit h th e ruin s o f th e smal l Nibbuddh a shrin e o n it s summit ; clos e t o i t i s a roughl y hew n ston e sla b 3 " high , i ' 6" broad , an d 8 " thick ; on e surfac e i s covere d wit h wha t appear s t o b e Burmes e letter s intertwine d i n wil d confusio n (se e Plat e No . XXV) . I fea r th e in scriptio n i s undecipherable , i f indee d i t purport s t o b e a writte n recor d ; th e letter s ar e onl y abou t fou r centurie s ol d an d appea r t o b e th e wor k o f a novice , wh o utterl y faile d i n hi s attemp t t o writ e Burmes e characters . T o th e south-eas t o f Alays^yu a ( f mil e eas t o f th e palace ) rise s th e stee p Shwedaun g hil l crowne d b y th e Shwedaun g pagoda ; th e latte r i s circula r fro m bas e t o ape x ; th e t i ha s falle n dow n an d th e shrine , unimportan t i n itself , ha s muc h suffere d fro m shots . Her e th e Burman s had , durin g th e firs t Anglo-Burmes e war , erecte d som e earthwork s wel l mounte d wit h guns , whic h inflicte d som e los s upo n th e Britis h forces ; portion s o f th e earthwork s ar e stil l standing . Hal f a mil e du e nort h o f th e Shwedaungpar a i s anothe r smal l hill ; th e side s ar e covere d wit h stone s tha t onc e forme d par t o f a n ancien t Hind u shrin e crownin g th e to p ; o n th e latte r ar e a numbe r o f ston e sculpture s appertainin g t o th e Hind u pantheo n ; the y constitute d th e content s o f 1 0

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3 8 TH E RATANAMARAUNGPARA . 38 th e temple . Th e hil l i s calle d th e Wuntitaun g (o r Wantitaung ) an d th e shrin e Wunticeti ; th e latte r i s o f unknow n age . I n nativ e record s i t i s first mentione d i n connectio n wit h Kin g Amrathu , so n o f CandadevT ; h e wa s a chie f o f th e Mr u trib e an d i s sai d t o hav e erecte d a palac e o n th e Gyet tharetaun g i n Myauku (Mrohaung ) i n th e yea r B . E . 320 , A . D . 958 . Th e sculpture s ar e muc h damaged . Th e centra l piec e i s a femal e figure, standing ; th e hea d i s wanting ; th e arm s han g dow n b y th e sides ; th e pal m o f eithe r han d rest s o n a smalle r nake d figure i n squattin g attitud e ; th e bod y o f th e latte r i s human , th e hea d apparentl y tha t o f a monke y ; heav y bangle s cove r th e wrist s an d ankle s ; a narro w stri p o f clot h i s fastene d t o th e loins , otherwis e th e whol e figure i s nud e ; i t i s 2' 3 " highlan d T 5 " acros s th e shoulder s ; th e bas e o f th e pedesta l rest s i n a massiv e ston e socket ; th e statu e i s coarsel y hew n ou t o f dar k standston e ; th e fingers an d toe s ar e brough t ou t b y fou r incise d line s o f th e sam e lengt h an d runnin g parallel , s o that ' eve n th e thum b i s no t distinguishe d b y it s positio n an d size . Th e figure i s i n high-relief . T o th e lef t i s a smal l ston e image , io' 7 high , i n demi-relief ; i t appear s t o represen t a femal e figure t o judg e fro m th e hig h head-dress , th e lon g pendant s i n th e ears , an d th e necklac e ; th e lef t han d hold s a lon g staf f wit h a n ornamenta l conch-lik e top ; th e imag e i s to o muc h damage d t o dis tinguis h detail s an d i s beside s no t wel l finished. T o th e righ t han d i s a ston e sla b 2' 8 7 / hig h an d 2 7 2 broa d ; si x figures ar e cu t ou t i n demi relie f : th e centra l an d highes t i s th e imag e o f a femal e deit y standin g uprigh t o n th e bac k o f a bul l ; sh e wear s a simpl e dres s roun d th e loin s ; th e hai r i s boun d i n a kno t o n th e to p o f th e head ; th e fac e i s wel l rounded , th e nos e prominent , th e eye s straight , th e chee k bone s no t protruding ; n o othe r characteristic s ca n b e distinguished , th e surfac e o f th e ston e bein g muc h corrode d b y exposure . T o th e righ t i s a mal e figure, onl y a foo t hig h ; th e lef t le g i s bent , th e lef t han d rest s o n th e knee , th e outstretche d ar m supportin g th e weigh t o f th e bod y ; th e le g fro m th e kne e downwar d i s draw n unde r th e bod y ; th e righ t kne e i s raise d ; i t i s nearl y a squattin g posture , bu t th e knee s ar e turne d outwar d ; a stri p o f cove r hang s ove r th e lowe r par t o f th e abdome n ; h e squat s o n th e bac k o f wha t appear s t o b e a horse . T o th e lef t o f th e centra l imag e i s a femal e figure somewha t smaller , bu t i n al l othe r feature s identica l wit h it s neighbour ; beneat h its fee t i s a winge d creatur e i n flying attitude , wit h a huma n bod y an d a monkey' s head ; th e hand s ar e joine d ove r th e breas t i n th e attitud e o f payin g homage . Nex t follo w tw o smalle r ston e image s ; the y ar e muc h injure d an d almos t deface d ; on e appear s t o represen t Buddh a sittin g cross-legged , wit h hi s righ t han d ove r th e righ t knee , th e lef t restin g i n hi s lap . Th e othe r depict s a huma n figure squattin g i n adorin g attitude . Th e las t grou p i s agai n a larg e ston e slab , 3 ' 4 " hig h an d 2 8' 7 broa d ; i t exhibit s tw o femal e an d on e mal e figure, th e imag e o f a bull , a horse , an d a winge d monkey-heade d being , al l i n th e sam e relativ e positio n a s o n th e othe r ston e slab . Clos e t o th e image s lie s a stone , 5 " 8 / 7 lon g an d 2' 8 7 / hig h wit h a badl y execute d Burmes e in scription , bearin g th e dat e B . E . 88 3 (A . D . 1521 ) ; th e letter s ar e partl y deface d (se e Plate XXVI , No . 47 ) an d record , i t appears , th e repai r o f th e temple . Th e inscriptio n read s thu s : oog^cgSGpcg b ©3coq|qoo^ 8 coa o qc8ooq$1og8iiGoooScg)8oo . ..^ooooocpo l aj S oc 8 cgp S « 8 00 < a oDgo5Gcqjoo5(oos) . " I n th e yea r sakkara j 883 , o n th e da y o f th e waxin g moo n o f Februar y i n Batun a ( ? ) , th e Lor d Maharaj a eigh t Wunt i (temple ) repaire d (b y the ) Kin g agai n ; th e inscriptio n " Kin g Minraj a reigne d a t Myauku a t th e tim e indicate d b y th e inscriptio n ; w e ca n gathe r fro m th e latte r tha t th e Wunt i shrin e wa s repaire d b y hi s orde r an d tha t h e cause d hi s goo d dee d t o b e recorde d a s indicated .

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TH E SANTIKA N MOSQUE . 3 9 Thi s inscriptio n i s on e o f th e oldes t Burmes e record s foun d i n Arakan . Th e peculiaritie s i n spellin g ar e thos e o f th e contemporar y Talaing-Burmes e inscription s : CDQ S fro m th e Sanskri t sakra raj a (Pal i sakkaraja ) ; 03 8 (eight ) fo r th e moder n G| S ; GO O (ten ) fo r ooo S ; 0 9 (three ) fo r CQ S ; OO£J8C^ > fo r oogo g ; coo o (waxin g moon ) fo r coao^ g ; 03 8 fo r g) S ; cg ^ (t o repair ) fo r q] 8 ; « 8 (king ) fo r «Ss ; oogo S fo r oDg^ g (inscription) . Th e Shw e Dago n inscriptions , engrave d i n th e yea r B . E . 88 5 (A . D . 1523 ) spel l th e abov e wor d i n th e sam e way . Bu t th e technica l executio n o f th e Wunt i an d othe r record s o f th e sam e dat e i s ver y imperfec t an d clums y whe n compare d wit h th e hig h finish o f Burmes e an d Talain g inscription s eas t o f th e Yom a o f eve n a n earlie r date . Th e Burmes e alphabe t bega n t o b e use d i n Araka n a t th e beginnin g o f th e 15t h century . Th e shrin e is , a s alread y state d a complet e rui n ; th e image s hav e suffere d muc h fro m shot s an d exposur e t o th e weathe r ; th e hil l i s covere d wit h jungl e an d th e existenc e o f thes e interestin g ancien t relic s i s no w hardl y know n t o eve n th e native s o f th e place . The y ough t t o b e preserve d b y remov in g an d bringin g the m unde r shelter . Tw o an d a hal f mile s t o th e east-south-eas t o f th e palac e i s anothe r non-Buddhisti c temple . I t i s a Mahomeda n mosque , calle d SANTIKAN , buil t b y th e follower s o f Kin g Minzawmwu n afte r h e ha d returne d fro m 2 4 year s o f exil e i n th e Surata n (Sultan ) countr y (fro m A . D . 140 6 t o 1430) . Sout h o f th e roa d whic h lead s t o Alayseyu a ar e tw o larg e tank s wit h ston e embankment s ; betwee n the m i s th e mosqu e surrounde d b y a ston e wal l 4 " high . Th e templ e cour t measure s 65'fro m nort h t o sout h an d 82 ' fro m eas t t o wes t (fo r pla n o f buildin g an d photograp h se e Plate XXVII , Nos . 4 9 an d 50). , Th e shrin e i s a rectangula r structur e wit h 33 ' fron t an d a lengt h o f 47' ; i t consist s o f a n ante-roo m whic h occupie s th e whol e breadt h o f th e eas t fron t 33 ' b y a dept h o f onl y 9. A passage , 6 ' high , 3 ' 3 " broad , lead s fro m th e north , south , an d eas t t o th e ante-roo m ; th e wall s ar e 4'8 " thic k ; th e passag e i s vaulte d ; th e arc h consis t o f a serie s o f wedge-shape d stones ; th e roo m i s als o vaulted , bu t outsid e th e roo f ove r i t i s a slantin g plan e fro m th e cupol a o f th e centra l chambe r t o th e easter n fron t wal l o f th e building , whic h i s onl y 9 high . Throug h th e centr e o f th e wes t sid e o f th e ante-roo m a passage , 3 ' wide , 6 ' high , an d 6 ' 10 " long , an d als o vaulted , bring s u s t o th e principa l chambe r ; i t measure s 19 ' o n eac h sid e ; a narro w openin g i n th e nort h an d sout h wall s admit s som e light ; o n th e wes t sid e a semicircula r niche , 2 wid e acros s th e opening , T deep , an d 5 ' high , i s le t int o th e wall , bu t i t contain s nothing . Th e ceilin g i s a hemispherica l lo w cupol a constructe d o n th e sam e principl e a s th e dome s i n th e Shitthaun g an d Dukkanthei n pagodas . Th e whol e shrin e i s buil t o f well-cu t ston e blocks , th e floors inclusive , bu t i t i s absolutel v bar e o f al l decorativ e design s o r anythin g els e o f interest . Th e templ e ha s o f lat e year s bee n pu t t o som e exten t i n repai r b y Mahomeda n tradesme n o f Mrohaun g an d i s no w i n thei r custod y ; a Mus sulma n live s o n th e premise s t o kee p the m i n order ; i t i s no w use d a s a hous e o f worship . T o th e nort h o f th e Santika n mosque , betwee n th e roa d an d th e Krakaunlaungmraun g (se e ma p o f Mrohaung ) lie s a ston e slab , 6 ' 4 " long , 2! 4 " broad , an d 10 " thick ; th e uppe r hal f o f on e sid e contain s i n demi-relie f th e sittin g imag e o f a Buddha , th e lowe r hal f contain s th e followin g shor t Burmes e inscription: — qanOQa8GOD5d}8a)£(y S f00g:c8 $ qqcoo Gqo.oo&pDso^qjpSooic^ooSq^C»C£}8 M OD0^8gaDo5oD8cq^7 * oodcngcq l G CO 0 6 G J t o
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4 ° TH E JINAMARAUN G PAGODA . tinu e fo r al l tim e t o com e (a s heritag e t o th e donee) . H e als o gav e awa y i n charit y hi s tw o attend ant s t o b e i n futur e regarde d a s slave s o n th e religiou s establishmen t h e no w founds. " Naradhipat i i s know n i n Arakanes e histor y a s Minrajagyi , wh o ascende d th e thron e i n th e yea r B . E . 95 5 (A . D . 1594 ) an d reigne d til l A . D . 161 2 ; " hi s wis h t o b e fulfille d " ha s probabl y referenc e t o hi s anticipate d ascensio n ; th e gran t i s apparentl y mad e t o hi s Brahma n astrologer , wh o dre w hi s horoscop e an d predicte d th e event . Th e inscriptio n uses , lik e th e record s o f th e Burman s an d Talaing s o f th e sam e period , n o sign s fo r th e ligh t (aukmyit ) an d th e heav y accen t (shyebauk) ; 03 8 stand s fo r 9 8 (lord ) ; oc£}56 g fo r oogd g (February ) ; olsg S fo r ola § (July ) ; s8 8 fo r (t o speak ) ; cf} 8 fo r cf j (particle) ; 3O S fo r j> S (two) . Th e letter s ar e badl y an d irregularl y engraved , bu t stil l wel l preserve d ; th e ston e lie s i n th e ope n field, whic h i s no w no t cultivate d o r claime d a s a grant . Kanbran g (Ginbyin ) was a villag e a mil e t o th e sout-eas t o f th e Santikan , nea r th e presen t Paungdokprang . JINAMARAUN G PAGODA . Th e nam e (B)^«18jc33o8o^cp3 ) implie s th e shrin e wher e Jin a (Buddha ) overcome s (csooS ) th e Kin g o f Death (Mara) . I t wa s erecte d b y Kin g Candasudhamm a betwee n th e year s A . D . 165 2 an d 1684 . Th e pagod a stand s o n a lo w stee p hill , hal f a mil e t o th e sout h o f th e palac e ; a dilapidate d bric k staircas e lead s ove r th e easter n an d wester n slope s ; th e templ e cour t i s surrounde d b y a quadran gula r wall , als o mad e o f brick s ; th e platfor m i s overgrow n wit h jungle . Th e stup a i s octagona l an d measure s 296 " roun d th e base . Toward s th e eas t i s a porch , whic h lead s t o a chambe r occupy in g th e centr e o f th e pagoda . Th e fa9ad e o f th e porc h i s 13 ' 4 " wid e an d 16' 12" high ; lengt h o f passag e 17 ' 2", heigh t 13 ' 4" , widt h 5 ' 2' ; th e centra l roo m i s 13 ' 4 " wide , 15 ' 7 " long , an d 18 ' hig h ; th e centr e o f th e wes t sid e o f th e chambe r ha s a n alta r (pallin ) constructe d wit h roughl y hew n ston e block s withou t ornamenta l design s ; upo n i t ar e seate d thre e ston e image s o f Gotam a i n sittin g attitude ; the y ar e al l broke n ; th e ceilin g i s vaulted . Th e fa9ad e o f th e porc h exhibit s som e goo d carvin g i n ston e (se e Plat e XXVII , No . 51 ) ; th e frontispiece , minu s th e vaulte d passag e an d opening , i s repeate d o n th e second , third , an d fourt h tier s o f th e pagod a i n a straigh t ascendin g line . I n th e centr e o f eac h o f th e eigh t side s o n th e first tie r stoo d originall y smalle r niche s wit h th e sam e carvin g an d constructio n a s exhibite d o n th e principa l nic h t o th e east ; the y originall y containe d images , bu t the y hav e bee n removed . Eac h o f th e eigh t corner s o f th e pagod a i s protecte d b y a lio n o r griffi n ; th e bod y i s doubl e (se e Plate XXVII , No . 54, ) ; th e singl e hea d show s fierce whisker s an d a lon g beard . Th e clums y figure i s cu t ou t o f a singl e bloc k o f sandston e ; th e heigh t o f th e fron t i s 3 ' an d th e breadt h acros s th e hindquarter s 9 ; amon g th e native s i t i s calle d " Sihamanussa, " o r " lion ma n ; " its prototyp e i s probabl y a simila r sculptur e foun d nea r ol d Talain g pagoda s i n th e Amhers t district , especiall y i n Ayetthim a an d Taikkula . A t th e latte r plac e th e first Buddhis t missionaries , Son a an d Uttara , ar e suppose d t o hav e lande d tw o centurie s befor e Christ ; the y me t wit h oppositio n ; a n ogress , wh o wit h he r retinu e subsiste d o n huma n flesh , threatene d t o kil l an d devou r th e inhabitant s o f th e town . " Manussa, " record s th e Kalyan i inscriptions , " ta m disv a bhitatasit a viravanti ; tad a " dv e ther a ativiy a bhayanak e rakkhas l sihasadisekaslsadvidhabhutaslhakay e disv a tat o rakkhasagaw a " t e diguzz e attabhav e mapetv a anubandhitv a ruddhapesu m ; ath a t e pisac a t e theramapit e dvigun e " attabhav e disv a ' maya m p'idan i imesaw z bhakkh a bhavissam a 't i bhit a samuddabhimukadhavizzzs u " sabbesa m abhinavajatadarakanazzc a rakkhasaranivarazzattha ^ bhuj e v a pa nn z v a tad a therama " pitattabhavarupaw z likkhitv a sls e paridhapayizzzs u ; nagarass a c a pacinuttaradisabhag e girimattak e " theramapitattabhava m pazwsilamaya m katv a dhapayims u ; tar n rupa w yavajjatan a dissati. "

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41 TH E MANGALAMARAUN G PAGODA . " Th e men , seein g her , crie d ou t wit h fear . The n th e tw o Theras , seein g tha t th e ogres s (wit h he r attendants ) ha d assume d th e surpassingl y frightfu l appearanc e o f lions , o f whic h eac h ha d on e hea d an d tw o bodies , create d b y thei r magica l powe r monster s o f th e sam e frightfu l appearance , bu t twic e th e numbe r o f thos e accompanyin g th e ogres s ; the y close d i n upo n the m an d obstructe d thei r fur the r progress . Whe n th e pisaca s sa w themselve s confronte d b y doubl e thei r ow n numbe r o f lik e monster s create d b y th e Theras , the y crie d ou t ' w e shal l b e devoure d b y them, ' an d fled frightene d toward s th e se a T o shiel d al l newbor n infant s fro m th e dange r o f th e ogress , bracelet s o r (palm ) leaves , o n whic h wer e trace d th e supernatura l appearanc e (th e lio n wit h tw o bodies ) create d b y th e Theras , wer e place d o n thei r head s ; a ston e o n whic h th e sam e figure wa s sculpture d wa s se t u p o n the . to p o f th e hil l upo n whic h stoo d th e north-easter n portio n o f th e tow n ; thi s ston e ma y b e see n t o thi s day. " Amon g th e Taking s th e childre n eve n no w wea r a circula r flat piec e o f silve r o r ti n fastene d wit h a strin g roun d th e nec k an d wit h th e double-bodie d lio n trace d upo n it . Th e Sihamanuss a o f th e Jinamaraun g pagod a is , I believe , th e onl y on e o f th e kin d i n Arakan . Th e shrin e i s constructe d entirel y o f ston e an d i s surmounte d b y a n iro n t i stil l i n passabl y goo d orde r ; th e garbh a ha s bee n broke n i n a t severa l place s an d looted . Th e pagod a i s totall y neglecte d an d n o longe r use d fo r worship . Clos e b y ar e tw o smal l bric k pagodas , on e octagonal , th e othe r square , wit h a smal l porc h t o th e east ; i n fron t o f on e stand s .a n alta r (pallin ) upo n whic h offering s wer e place d ; i t i s 3 ' hig h an d cu t ou t o f a singl e bloc k o f ston e (se e Plat e XXVII , No . 53 ) ; nothin g els e worth y o f not e wa s found . South-wes t o f th e palace , a t a distanc e o f hal f a mile , i s th e ancien t Mokda w pagod a no w completel y demolishe d ; nothin g bu t th e octagona l ston e basemen t an d a fe w broke n image s remain . Crossin g th e Zekyaun g a lo w rang e o f hill s rise s ; th e summit s ar e crowne d wit h smal l pagoda s o f ordinar y typ e an d withou t interest . Clos e t o th e ban k o f th e creek , righ t opposit e th e Mokda w pagoda , stand s a larg e ston e imag e o f Buddh a sittin g cross-legge d o n a thron e constructe d o f block s o f ston e ; th e imag e i s o f th e usua l Mahamun i typ e ; i t measure s io ' 6" i n heigh t (withou t th e throne ) an d 7 " 6 " fro m kne e t o kne e ; n o ornamenta l design s ; th e bod y o f th e ston e imag e i s hollo w an d open s a t th e bac k b y removin g a squar e ston e sla b inserte d i n th e apertur e ; th e fron t o f th e alta r bear s th e follow in g inscriptio n i n Burmes e : oogSog^qofJo S I n th e yea r 85 7 Z o Mi n " th e res t i s defaced . Th e inscriptio n consist s o f onl y on e line . Kin g Z o Mingath u governe d i n Mrohaun g fro m th e yea r B . E . 85 6 t o 86 3 (A . D . 149 4 t o 1501) . I n th e immediat e neighbourhoo d ar e th e dilapidate d remain s o f smal l shrine s o f n o importance . T o th e wes t o f th e palac e ar e als o numerou s temples , mos t o f the m i n ruin s ; th e terrai n i s in tersecte d b y man y creeks . Te n minutes ' wal k bring s u s t o th e Waz £ villag e ; a n ancien t ston e wall , calle d . th e Khariy o fro m it s constructo r Minkhar i (B . E . 796—821 , A . D . 1434—1459) , extend s abou t 400 ' fro m eas t t o west ; i n man y place s i t i s 40—50 " high , wit h a broa d rampar t o n th e to p 10— ; I5 ' across ; i t i s buil t o f stone . O n th e nort h sid e o f th e wal l i s th e larg e Ponw a tank ; wes t o f th e Waz £ villag e rise s a narrow , steep , an d rock y ridge , wit h five smal l ston e pagoda s o n th e top , al l mor e o r les s i n ruin s an d architecturall y o f n o interest . Th e centra l stup a ha s a smal l porc h facin g th e east ; traditio n report s tha t th e bon e o f th e fourt h finger o f Gotam a i s her e enshrined , an d i s there for e calle d Lekkyodcitpara; a stee p staircase , 5 ' broa d an d constructe d o f bricks , lead s fro m th e bas e o f th e hil l t o th e summit . O n th e Peinnegun , anothe r smal l hil l t o th e north-wes t o f th e Waz £ villager s th e Kotanz i pagoda , s o calle d fro m it s founder , a Burmes e officia l o f th e last century ; th e stup a i s soli d throughout , squar e a t th e base , pyrami d type , small , an d unimportant . Th e north-wes t bas e o f th e hil l i s covere d wit h th e ruin s o f building s o f smal l dimension s ; amongs t the m th e Shwegyathein deserve s mentio n 1 1

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4 2 PARAB O PAGODA . fo r th e ston e carvin g ove r th e fa$ad e o f th e templ e (se e Plat e XXVIII , No . 55) . Th e imag e shrin e wa s buil t b y Kin g Candasudhamm a (A . D . 1652—1684 ) ; i t i s a smal l squar e structur e o f stone , measurin g 18 ' fro m eas t t o wes t an d 15'fro m nort h t o south ; th e roo f ha s falle n i n ; th e heigh t o f th e wall s i s 16' . T o th e eas t protrude s a porch , 15 " long , 14 " high , wit h a n arche d passag e (14 ' long , 4 ' 2 " wide , an d io ' high ) leadin g t o th e image-roo m measurin g 13 " b y io ' 8" ; o n th e wes t sid e o f th e chambe r i s a larg e ston e imag e o f Buddh a 6 ' high , sittin g cross-legge d o n a roughl y hew n ston e alta r ; i t i s o f th e ordinar y Mahamun i type . Th e fac^ad e o f th e porc h i s cu t int o ornamenta l de sign s ; th e pillar , s o rar e i n Arakan , appear s her e a t leas t i n conception ; o n eac h sid e o f th e entranc e a pillaste r stand s ou t i n bas-relie f a n inc h hig h ; th e natur e o f th e ornamenta l desig n abov e th e capita l i s unfortunatel y n o longe r discernible . N o us e i s a t presen t mad e o f th e shrine , whic h i s fas t fallin g t o pieces . Wes t o f th e Shwegyathei n i s th e Byinz & village , an d nort h o f th e latte r th e Kyaukyityua ; be twee n th e tw o village s i s th e Lokamu pagoda o r th e Lokamaraungpar a (©ccooowo^erooSo^Gps) . Thi s templ e wa s als o buil t b y Candasudhamm a (A . D . 1652—1684) . I n th e spaciou s templ e court , shade d b y mang o an d tamarin d trees , th e pilgrim s use d t o assembl e wh o intende d t o visit th e dis tan t Mahamun i pagod a (4 8 mile s north) ; th e ol d roa d t o Vaisal i an d Mahamun i begin s here . Th e shrin e i s constructe d o f ston e blocks , wel l hew n an d cemente d ; i t i s squar e a t th e base , eac h sid e measurin g 74' ; th e firs t fou r tier s ar e als o squar e ; i n th e centr e o f eac h sid e o f th e tier s stand s a porc h containin g a n imag e o f Buddha ; th e side s o f th e porc h ar e ston e slab s ; th e architrav e i s simila r t o tha t o f th e Linpanpyaun g pagod a (se e Plat e XXVIII , No . 56) ; ther e ar e trace s o f orna menta l design s ove r th e surfac e o f th e porches . Unfortunatel y th e villager s hav e durin g recen t repair s covere d th e outsid e o f th e pagod a wit h plaste r an d the n whitewashe d th e whole ; th e decorativ e design s hav e thereb y becom e obliterated . Ove r eac h corne r o f th e firs t fou r tier s stand s a smal l circula r pagoda , solid , an d withou t niche s o r appendage s ; th e lowes t i s 10 ' high , tha t o n th e last o f th e fou r belt s onl y 4. Fro m th e garbh a upwar d th e centra l spir e i s circula r ; th e ape x i s crowne d wit h a n iro n t i onc e gilde d an d stil l i n passabl y goo d order . Th e eas t fa<^ad e o f th e pagoda ha s a porta l 20 ' high , protrudin g i ' fro m th e mai n wall ; a vaulte d passag e 4 8 " wide , 16 ' high , an d 29 ' lon g lead s t o a chambe r i n th e centr e o f th e pagoda ; i t con tain s a ston e imag e o f Buddh a 7 ' high , sittin g cross-legge d o n a plai n ston e altar ; th e ceilin g i s a hemispherica l dom e ; th e ape x i s 16 ' fro m th e ground . I n fron t o f th e entranc e a larg e bambo o she d ha s latel y bee n erecte d ; toward s th e enclosin g ston e wal l th e templ e cour t i s overgrow n wit h jungle . Th e Locam u an d Parab o pagoda s ar e th e onl y temple s buil t i n Mrohaun g durin g th e reig n o f Arakanes e king s whic h stil l receiv e som e attentio n an d car e fro m th e presen t inhabitant s o f th e plac e ; the y worshi p her e occasionall y ; i t i s t o b e regrette d tha t th e deteriorate d tast e o f th e presen t generatio n induce d th e native s t o hid e th e tastefu l deco rativ e design s o n th e porche s unde r plaste r an d whitewash . Crossin g th e Parabokyaun g w e reac h anothe r grou p o f pagoda s an d image-houses , mos t o f the m i n ruins . Th e larges t an d mos t importan t i s the — PARAB O PAGOD A (als o spelle d Parabaw ) standin g o n th e ban k o f th e tida l creek . Th e templ e wa s buil t b y Minrajagyi , th e 17t h kin g o f th e Myauku dynasty , i n th e yea r B.E . 965 , an d wa s repaire d b y th e first Burmes e Myowuno f Mrohaun g i n th e yea r 1786 . I t i s constructe d o f brick s ; th e bas e i s a squar e ; th e wall s ris e perpendicula r t o a heigh t o f 20' ; the n follo w fou r tiers , on e abov e th e other , a circula r dome shape d garbha , an d the n a successio n o f 1 2 concentri c bell s o r rings , graduall y taperin g off t o a point ; a rust y iro n t i surmount s th e whol e ; th e entir e structur e i s 70 ' high ; th e eas t sid e o f th e squar e bas e measure s 48' . T o th e north , east , an d sout h a porta l protrude s ; a passag e wit h a pointe d arc h

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43 PARAB O PAGODA . lead s t o a centra l roo m ; a thron e i s buil t agains t th e wes t wal l o f th e chambe r an d o n i t i s seate d a larg e ston e imag e o f Buddh a o f th e ordinar y Mahamun i type . A numbe r o f smalle r ston e an d woode n image s ar e groupe d aroun d th e centra l figure; the y represen t Buddhas , mal e an d femal e Rahan s (se e Plate XXVIII , No . 57 ) ; on e exhibit s th e prostrat e figure (i n th e photograp h se t u p straigh t t o admi t a vie w o f th e fac e an d habiliment ) o f th e Brahma n Sumedh a i n th e ac t o f bridgin g ove r th e unfinishe d portio n o f th e wa y ove r whic h th e Buddh a Dipankar a wa s t o wal k ; th e detail s o f thi s traditio n hav e bee n give n o n pag e 28 . O n th e templ e cour t stan d a fe w smal l pagoda s o f moder n Burmes e typ e latel y erecte d b y th e inhabitant s o f th e Pinz £ village . O n eac h sid e o f th e thre e entrance s i s seate d a ston e imag e o f Gotama , 3—4 / high , o n a plai n ston e o r brick pedestal . I n fron t o f th e eas t entranc e rise s a cone , 15 ' hig h an d 9 ' roun d th e bas e ; i t i s cu t ou t o f a singl e bloc k o f ston e ; th e surfac e i s divide d int o a serie s o f belt s girdlin g th e stone ; eac h ban d i s subdivid e d int o a numbe r o f smal l fields containin g i n bas-relie f image s o f Buddh a i n standin g an d sittin g at titude . A simila r monumen t i s foun d clos e t o a monaster y o n th e south-sid e o f th e Prom e pagod a hill . Th e templ e cour t i s partl y pave d wit h brick s an d i n goo d order ; thi s shrin e i s no w usuall y visite d b y pilgrim s t o th e Mahamun i pagoda , wh o als o hav e o f lat e effecte d som e repairs . Th e principa l entranc e t o th e platfor m i s guarde d b y tw o griffin s o f th e moder n Burmes e type . A n ordinatio n hal l fo r priest s stoo d originall y outsid e an d t o th e eas t o f th e enclosur e t o th e Parab o pagoda ; nothin g no w i s lef t o f i t excep t trace s o f th e wal l an d a fe w ston e image s o f Buddha ; th e sam e mus t b e sai d o f th e othe r ruin s i n th e neighbourhood . Ther e ar e als o si x smal l pagoda s alon g th e ban k o f th e creek ; the y wer e latel y buil t b y th e natives , an d al l tha t ca n b e sai d o f the m i s tha t the y ar e conica l heap s o f brick s plastere d ove r an d whitewashed . Ther e ar e a numbe r o f smaf l pagoda s i n Mrohaung , whic h ar e o f n o interest ; the y ar e dimi nutiv e imitation s o f th e Mangalamaraung pagod a (se e pag e 32)—massiv e stone-wor k throughout , wit h a porc h t o th e east ; thei r histor y an d eve n thei r ver y name s ar e forgotten . Plat e XXIX , No . 58 , show s a copper-plat e inscriptio n foun d b y a nativ e o f Mrohaun g i n a n ol d pagoda ; th e plat e i s 8 " lon g b y 4 " broad ; i t i s ver y muc h corrode d an d onl y a par t o f th e legen d i s readable . Nos . 5 9 an d 6 0 exhibi t th e character s o n th e stone-slab s (se e pag e 36) . Plate s XX X an d XXX I sho w photograph s o f Arakanes e cannon s an d inscription s thereon , capture d b y th e Burman s a t th e clos e o f th e las t century ; the y wer e foun d i n th e arsena l o f Kin g Thebaw . Myauku ha s a t al l time s bee n a n unhealth y place ; th e plai n o n whic h th e cit y no w stand s ha s i n ancien t time s ofte n bee n selecte d a s a sit e fo r a capital , bu t a s ofte n abandone d owing , a s th e Arakanes e chronicle s state , t o " men , elephants , horses , an d cattl e dyin g o f pestilentia l fever. " King s Minzawmwu n an d Mi n Khar i ha d extensiv e bund s erected , extendin g betwee n th e Parabo chaun g an d th e Lemr o rive r (se e ma p o f Myauk-u) ; the y wer e t o regulat e th e influ x an d efflu x o f th e tide s fro m bot h th e Kalada n an d Lemro . Th e Lasuguen , Anoma , an d Kassap a lake s ar e beautifu l sheet s o f swee t water ; originall y the y wer e thre e dee p valleys , wit h ver y precipitou s hill s betwee n them , an d opene d toward s th e north . Minzawmwu n ha d th e aperture s close d b y immens e bond s (se e map) , whic h retaine d th e surface-wate r o f th e monsoo n pourin g dow n fro m th e hills ; th e brackis h wate r o f th e plain s an d swamp s aroun d coul d no t contaminat e thes e lake s ; superstitio n pre vent s th e native s o f toda y t o mak e an y us e o f thes e artificia l lakes .

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MAHATI . 4 5 CHAPTE R III.—MAHAT I (OODOCSS) . Th e Mahat i pagod a stand s o n a lo w hil l a t th e junctio n o f th e Launggye t cree k an d th e Baw myi t (GOO3§8) , i n th e Launggye t circl e o f th e Mrohaun g township , Akya b district , 1 0 mile s south , o f Myauk-u . Th e Bawzotaun g an d Maungshwetaun g hills , which i n thei r norther n bifurcatio n hol d th e Lekzin , Anoma , an d Kassap a lakes , ru n south-south-east , an d ar e surrounde d o n th e eas t an d wes t b y disma l swamp s ; o n th e southernmos t spu r stand s th e Kyaukny o o r Mahat i shrin e an d imag e ; a n ol d roa d pave d wit h stone-block s follow s th e wester n bas e o f th e hil l rang e connectin g Mahat i an d th e intermediat e village s directl y wit h Mrohaung . Th e ridge , whic h ha s thre e summits , i s know n i n th e ol d histor y o f Araka n a s th e Culapabbata . Eac h o f th e thre e hillock s i s crowne d b y a shrin e ; th e northernmost , a mil e t o th e nort h o f th e Mahat i village , i s o f ancien t date , bein g th e remain s o f th e Paungdawdha t (GO"1SGOO5©1O5 ) pagoda , erecte d b y Culataingcandr a i n th e yea r 31 6 B.E . (95 4 A.D.) . Accordin g t o traditio n th e famou s Anandather a passe d on e o f hi s forme r existence s o n thi s hil l a s a hermit ; hi s thigh-bon e wa s foun d ther e an d a shrin e erecte d ove r it ; i n th e yea r 95 3 B.E . (159 1 A.D. ) th e sthup a wa s repaire d b y Minpalaung , th e 16t h rule r o f th e Myauku dynasty ; a n inscriptio n (se e Plat e No . XXXII ) date d 95 3 B.E . record s th e meritoriou s dee d an d th e grant s o f paddy-field s an d othe r benefice s i n suppor t o f th e monasterie s attache d t o th e pagod a ; th e letter s an d th e languag e ar e Burmes e ; th e forme r ar e irregula r an d partl y deface d ; th e inscription , a s fa r a s i t ca n b e read , run s thu s : cog & g39qoo$qcoGeoo8gg $ pqoSoooooSQo * §o5 u ogqSoSoGCooSoq u ogqSoSoQc^ooGooooGooooDoScqolsc^GqjoSog S co8o8gGoo8cg8oDog|^o o oocq« S Ggoo8GOOOogSpoblcg58c^o§cf 8 (r^GsjpSogScgj^cq S ogS^oqi^cqSoccjoScqdcbo Q oocqjpSsb3cg|^ x )Go1co 8 sbog |8c>ob ] ^ S ^ S ojOSGOO I I B GGOGOOOG Q o S cqqSoSoGcooSc^GGlSGODSoGblsGqGnoooSgSogSoSc^c^SG o ODOSGOOGOO O 0 8 c^ S Qcooo^ooo s GOOO8GOO8ODQ5OOOGCOO1C^8^GCCO I C^'GOC S 33OLOG8OI > O D oocsoSoqSdl ( 3 Th e ston e record s tha t Minpalaun g restore d th e pagod a i n th e yea r B . E . 95 3 an d mention s th e paddy-fiel d an d othe r grant s bestowe d upo n th e monasterie s an d thei r inmate s entruste d wit h th e keeping-u p o f th e pagod a an d it s premises . Th e pagod a itsel f i s completel y i n ruins , nothin g bein g lef t sav e a formles s hea p o f stone s an d a fe w broke n image s o f Buddh a ; th e shrin e wa s bu t a smal l one . Th e Mahat i pagod a stand s o n th e centra l hil l which rise s behin d th e villag e o f th e sam e name ; a n ol d road , pave d wit h ston e slab s o f variou s size s an d her e an d ther e wit h bricks , lead s fro m th e rive r ban k t o th e hill ; a t th e bas e o f th e latte r ar e larg e tank s walle d i n wit h stone s o r brick s ; a staircas e o f 5 2 steps , 8 ' broad , wit h latera l wall s j ' high , connect s th e roa d wit h th e platfor m o f th e pagoda . Th e latte r i s a squar e structur e (se e Plat e No . XXXII , Nos . 6 5 an d 66 ) wit h a protrudin g porta l toward s th e eas t an d a centra l chambe r ; eac h sid e o f th e squar e measure s 25V' ; th e wall s ris e perpendicula r t o a heigh t o f 12" ; the n follo w thre e tier s o f brick s als o square , wit h indente d corners , graduall y narrowing-i n a s the y ris e on e abov e th e other ; th e structur e finishes of f i n a circula r garbh a an d a n iro n t i gilde d ; th e entir e sthup a i s 40 " hig h ; th e porc h t o th e eas t protrude s 6 / 8 / / ; i t i s 11 ' hig h i n front ; a vaulte d passag e 4 ' wide , 8 ' high , an d 12 " 2 " lon g lead s t o th e centra l squar e roo m ; eac h sid e measure s 15" ; a t a heigh t o f 12 ' th e wall s begi n t o converg e an d mee t i n a n ape x 18 ' abov e th e floo r o f th e chamber . Th e vaul t o f th e passag e an d th e ceilin g o f th e chambe r i s constructe d o n a principl e differen t fro m th e on e followe d i n th e constructio n o f th e vault s au d cupola s i n Mrohaun g ; i n th e forme r th e arc h i s forme d b y allowin g th e en d o f eac h succeedin g bric k t o overto p th e on e immediatel y beneat h i t b y abou t a n inc h til l th e tw o side s finally meet . Thi s mod e o f buildin g arche s ha s bee n adopte d fro m th e Burman s an d Talaing s ; vault s an d roof s thu s constructe d hav e littl e stabilit y a s th e superincumben t weigh t lie s upo n th e arc h withou t th e perpendicula r side s sharin g muc h i n resistin g th e stress . O n th e wes t sid e o f th e 1 2

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4 6 MAHATI . chambe r i s a pedesta l 2 high , 14 / 10 " broad , an d 8 ' thick , apparentl y cu t ou t o f a soli d ston e bloc k ; it s outlin e i s circular ; th e fron t sid e i s smooth , th e othe r part s roughl y hew n withou t an y orna menta l desig n o n either . Th e ston e imag e seate d o n th e palli n i s o f th e ordinar y Mahamun i typ e ; i t measure s 7 ' 9 " fro m kne e t o kne e an d 8 ' i n height ; i t i s gilde d al l over . Th e shrin e a s i t no w stand s i s onl y 4 0 year s old , i t havin g bee n buil t b y tw o merchant s o f Akyab , Maun g Maun g an d hi s so n Maun g Shw e Po . Durin g th e firs t Anglo-Burma n wa r th e Bur mans , t o guar d th e approac h t o Mrohaung , ha d take n u p a positio n o n th e hill ; durin g th e engage men t wit h th e Britis h force s th e templ e was destroye d an d th e imag e muc h damaged . Th e side s o f th e hil l ar e covere d wit h th e fragment s o f images , ston e inscriptions , an d th e debri s o f th e ol d pagoda . Th e ne w shrin e i s buil t o f brick s an d covere d wit h plaster ; n o ornamenta l design s excep t a wavin g lin e roun d th e garbh a an d a n egg-and-tongu e desig n nea r th e ti , al l trace d i n plaster . Th e platfor m spread s ove r th e whol e o f th e levelle d surfac e o f th e hill ; i t appear s onc e t o hav e bee n pave d wit h stone-slab s an d brick s ; th e wal l whic h surround s th e templ e cour t i s dilapidate d an d th e latte r covere d i n mos t place s wit h th e ruin s o f smal l pagoda s an d image-houses . Tw o ne w bu t unimportan t pagoda s hav e bee n erecte d o n th e sam e templ e cour t t o th e sout h o f th e Mahat i ; the y ar e buil t o f brick s covere d wit h plaste r an d whitewashe d ; on e i s circula r a t th e base , th e othe r tw o square , bu t sho w n o decorativ e design s (se e Plat e No . XXXIII , No . 66) . O n th e nort h sid e o f th e platfor m ar e als o thre e smal l ne w shrines , wit h porches t o th e east , i n whic h image s o f woo d an d ston e foun d abou t th e premise s hav e bee n placed . Som e o f th e image s represen t Buddh a sittin g cross-legge d o n a thron e wit h a nag a spreadin g its hoo d ove r hi s hea d ; other s depic t Rahan s i n kneelin g attitud e o f adoration ; mos t ar e cu t ou t o f piece s o f a dar k sandston e ; a fe w consis t o f alabaste r an d ar e moder n importation s fro m Mandalay . Th e ston e inscription s appea r t o hav e bee n shattere d t o smal l fragment s b y shot s ; notwithstandin g a carefu l searchin g an d collectin g o f th e piece s n o continuou s tex t coul d b e restore d ; bu t th e letter s an d languag e ar e Burmese , an d th e forme r o f th e sam e characte r a s thos e o f th e Paungdawdha t inscriptio n (se e Plat e No . XXXII) . Th e celebrate d Kyaukny o imag e ( " dusk y ston e ") , whic h i s sai d t o hav e bee n se t u p b y Kin g Goliy a i n th e yea r 49 5 B.E . (113 3 A.D.) , i s t o b e foun d o n th e to p o f th e southernmos t hill . Th e shrin e whic h containe d th e imag e wa s totall y destroye d durin g th e firs t Anglo-Burmes e war , th e hea d o f th e imag e wa s knocke d of f ; eve r sinc e th e statu e ha s stoo d unprotecte d o n th e hill . Las t yea r th e villager s erecte d a bambo o she d ove r it , se t th e hea d o n th e body , re-adjuste d th e stone s whic h for m th e throne , covere d th e imag e wit h blac k la c t o receiv e th e gilding , an d remove d th e jungl e o n th e platform . Th e statu e i s seate d cross-legged , th e righ t han d hang s ove r th e righ t kne e an d th e lef t lie s ope n i n lap , th e pal m turne d upwar d ; agains t th e commo n custo m th e rob e cover s bot h shoulder s an d close s tightl y roun d th e nec k ; th e lob e o f th e ear s touc h th e shoulders ; th e expressio n o f th e fac e i s altogethe r peculia r (se e Plat e No . XXXIII , Nos . 6 7 an d 68) ; th e eyelid s an d eyebrow s ar e raise d ; th e eye s hav e a fixe d star e ; th e nos e i s broa d a t th e end , th e nostril s largel y developed , th e bridg e rathe r fla t ; th e mout h ha s a complacent , self-containe d expression ; th e chi n i s broa d an d double , th e cheek s wel l rounded , th e nec k shor t an d thickl y set ; th e hai r curl y an d gathere d i n a kno t o n th e to p o f th e head ; th e latte r i s gilde d al l over ; th e imag e measure s 5 ' 4 " fro m kne e t o kne e an d i s 6 ' 6 " high . W e hav e see n (pag e 45 ) tha t th e Paungdawdha t pagod a nort h o f Mahat i i s sai d t o contai n th e thigh-bon e o f Ananda , o r rathe r o f th e reclus e wh o i n a subsequen t existenc e becam e Ananda , th e famou s -pupi l o f Gotama . Th e expressio n o f th e fac e o f th e statu e suggest s mor e Ananda , th e " joyful, " tha n Gotama ; th e deviatio n fro m th e usua l cas t o f th e feature s i s th e mor e remarkabl e a s al l othe r image s abou t Mahfit i an d i n Araka n i n genera l ar e clos e imitation s o f th e Mahamun i representatio n o f Gotama . Th e ston e thron e i s 5 ' 4 " hig h ; th e circumferenc e a t th e to p i s 27' , roun d th e bas e 38 ' 5" . I t consist s o f nin e tier s o f ston e blocks , th e oute r surfac e o f whic h i s

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LAUNGGYET . 4 7 cu t int o flowery designs , huma n an d anima l figures ; th e latte r ar e o n th e thir d an d fourt h ro w fro m th e base ; ther e ar e i n al l 4 4 figures arrange d s o tha t a bloc k wit h a floral desig n an d a bloc k wit h a figure follow s alternately ; th e latte r represen t (1 ) a n ogre , (2 ) a ma n i n dancin g attitude , th e puzo s tugge d u p i n Burmes e fashion , els e n o othe r clothes ; (3 ) a tittir o o r partridg e ; (4 ) a mal e huma n figure 5 (5 ) a parrot ; (6 ) a ma n dancin g a s i n No . (2) ; (7 ) a do e ; (8 ) a ma n dancin g a s i n Nos . (2 ) an d (6) ; (9 ) i s to o muc h damage d t o b e mad e out ; (10 ) huma n mal e figure; (11 ) a crow ; (12) , (13) , (14 ) defaced ; (15 ) a lio n wit h tw o head s ; (46 ) a pigeon ; (17 ) a woma n givin g suc k t o a n infant ; (18 ) deface d ; (19 ) a manussiha , havin g a huma n hea d o n a lion' s body ; (20 ) a hors e ; (21 ) a n ogr e ; (22 ) jungl e goat ; (23 ) a mal e an d female , bot h nude ; (24 ) elephant ; (25 ) a woma n kneeling , wit h th e hand s folde d ove r th e breast , holdin g betwee n the m he r hai r twiste d int o a plait ; (26 ) a kinnara , a fabulou s animal , havin g th e bod y o f a bir d wit h a huma n fac e ; (27 ) deface d ; (28 ) a bird , chloropsis auvifrons; (29 ) a manussih a a s No . (19) ; (30 ) a parrot ; (31 ) manussiha , a lion' s bod y u p t o th e waist ; head , thorax , an d arm s huma n ; (32 ) a Garud a bir d ; (33 ) a woma n nursin g a n infan t a s No (17) ; (34 ) a horse ; (35 ) a n elephant ; (36 ) a deer ; (37 ) a ma n dancing , a s i n No . (2) ; (38 ) a horse ; (39 ) a ma n dancing ; (40 ) a peacock ; (41 ) a ma n dancing ; (42 ) deface d ; (43 ) a ma n danc in g ; (44 ) a bir d resemblin g a dove . Th e pedesta l appear s t o hav e bee n demolished , th e stone s subsequentl y collecte d an d loosel y se t togethe r i n tha t orde r whic h appeare d prope r t o th e repairer , bu t ca n hardl y b e th e sam e a s tha t o f th e origina l palli n (se e Plate No . XXXIII , No . 67) . Th e figures ar e i n bol d relie f 4" t o high . Ther e ar e stil l trace s o f a templ e cour t an d enclosin g walls , bu t the y ar e no w overgrow n wit h jungle . Th e Mahat i villag e wa s onc e th e sit e o f a considerabl e town . Durin g th e reig n o f Minpalaun g road s wer e constructe d alon g th e rive r an d pave d wit h brick s an d ston e slab s ; th e remain s stil l exist ; th e numerou s tank s alon g th e bas e o f th e hil l ar e als o ascribe d t o th e sam e king ; h e reigne d fro m 157 1 t o 159 3 A.D . Th e followin g traditio n i s connecte d wit h th e Kyaukny o o r " dusk y ston e " image : Kin g Go liya , th e sixt h kin g o f th e Pari n dynasty , wh o rule d fro m 113 3 t o 115 3 A.D. , dream t tha t i n th e be d o f th e Launggye t rive r wa s a massiv e stone , fro m whic h h e wa s t o for m a n imag e o f th e Buddh a (?) . H e cause d searc h t o b e mad e b y diver s an d suc h a ston e o f dusk y hu e wa s found . Thi s wa s raise d wit h re d sil k cord s an d a n imag e carve d therefrom . I t ha s alread y bee n pointe d ou t (pag e 46 ) tha t th e statu e i s probabl y mean t t o represen t Ananda , th e Mahuthera , who , accordin g t o th e Sailagir i tradition , visite d Araka n wit h Gotama . Th e Burman s shorte n " ther a " t o GOO£ } an d pronounc e i t " ti ; " an d a s th e imag e wa s originall y calle d " Mahati " i t i s jus t possibl e tha t thi s i s a corruptio n o f " Mahathera, " an d th e statu e an d shrin e wer e calle d s o a s a n off-se t agains t th e Mahamun i imag e an d shrine , an d t o commemorat e th e sojour n o f thi s celebrate d pupi l o f Gotam a i n ancien t Dhannavat i an d hi s havin g passe d on e o f hi s forme r existence s a s a reclus e o n th e Culapabbat a nea r th e presen t Mahfit i village . Anand a figures largel y i n th e legendar y tradition s o f Arakan . Abou t 1 2 mile s nort h o f Mrohaun g ar e th e ruin s o f th e Thingya t pagod a (o^fiocflSsojcps ) o n a hil l o f th e sam e nam e ; her e th e Mahather a live d throug h on e o f hi s forme r existence s a s a thingya t ( a kin d o f snake ) ; th e fronta l bon e ($
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4 8 LAUNGGYET . th e Roya l famil y remaine d i n exile . Minrebhaya , th e so n o f Mi n Bilu , ha d a mal e hei r bor n t o him , know n i n histor y a s Letyaminna n (Si r A . Phayre' s History of Burma , pag e 46) . Th e fathe r havin g died , th e reignin g Kin g o f Pagan , Alaungsithu , determine d t o plac e th e so n o n th e thron e o f Arakan . Accordin g t o popula r tradition , hande d dow n i n song , a n arm y o f 100,00 0 Pyu s an d 100,00 0 Taking s wa s sen t b y se a an d lan d t o Araka n a t th e clos e o f th e rain y season . Th e usurper' s grand so n Minpat i offere d stou t resistance , an d i t wa s no t unti l th e followin g yea r 46 4 B.E . (110 2 A.D. ) tha t th e restoratio n wa s effected . Minthan , th e so n o f th e usurper , destroye d th e Mahimun i pagoda , whic h th e Paga n Kin g Alaungsith u ha d rebuilt ; h e the n erecte d i n it s plac e a ne w shrin e ; th e Talaing s an d Pyu s retaliate d thi s ac t b y demolishin g Minthan' s shrin e ; 5 0 year s late r Dasaraja , th e 7t h rule r o f th e Pari n dynasty , restore d th e temple . Letyaminna n founde d th e cit y o f Launggye t (pronounce d Longgra t b y th e Arakanese ) i n th e yea r 46 5 B.E . (110 3 A.D.) . But th e sit e prove d s o unhealth y tha t i t wa s abandone d afte r thre e years . H e founde d anothe r capita l 3 mile s furthe r north , o n th e wes t ban k o f th e Lemr o an d calle d i t Parin ; trace s o f wall s an d o f ston e an d bric k building s stil l exist . Her e h e an d hi s descendant s reigne d til l 116 5 A.D . Launggye t wa s agai n chose n a s th e sit e o f th e Roya l residence . I n th e yea r 123 9 A.D . Alomapyu , th e so n o f Nganalum , rebuil t Launggye t an d i t continue d wit h fe w interruption s t o b e th e capita l o f th e Arakanes e king s til l 140 1 A.D . Shan s appeare d o n th e Lemr o rive r i n 129 4 A.D . an d agai n i n 132 4 ; the y appea r no t t o hav e succeede d i n conquerin g th e plac e ; the y move d furthe r t o th e sout h an d too k Ramr i conjointl y wit h th e Burmans . I n th e yea r 139 5 th e Talaing s conquere d Launggyet ; Rajathumin , th e the n king , fled , bu t returne d tw o year s later , an d pu t t o flight th e Talain g Governo r Mintheingy i an d hi s countrymen . Sanghathu , th e brothe r an d successo r o f Rajathu , established , i n th e yea r 1401 , th e offic e o f a Sanghariijagyi , o r suprem e Bisho p ove r th e Buddhis t clergy , th e first o f th e kin d i n Arakan . I n 140 6 A.D . th e Burman s invade d th e country , drov e th e Kin g Minzawmwu n int o exil e an d capture d Launggyet . O n Minzawmwun' s retur n i n 143 0 h e remove d th e sea t o f governmen t furthe r inlan d t o Mrohaung . I n th e meantim e th e Talaing s drov e th e Burman s ou t o f Launggye t (140 7 A.D.) ; th e Kin g o f Pegu , Rajadhiri t (Rajadhiraja ) place d a noble , Maun g Kwin , ove r i t a s Governor . Bu t i n 140 8 th e Burmans , reinforce d b y troop s fro m Sandoway , ascende d th e Lemro , attacke d th e un fortunate city , an d gaine d possessio n o f i t afte r a sanguinar y engagement ; th e Talaing s gav e agai n battle , worste d th e Burmans , an d force d the m t o retir e t o Ramri . A fe w year s late r th e Talain g Governor s Uluki n an d Uzek a remove d th e sea t o f governmen t t o Parin , whic h cit y ha d bee n abandone d sinc e (116 5 A.D.) ; Uluki n rebuil t th e town . I n th e yea r 142 9 A.D . h e was kille d b y tw o emissarie s fro m th e Cour t o f Delh i an d immediatel y afte r Minzawmwun , th e proteg e o f th e " Suratanmi n " (Sultan ) appeare d i n Launggyet , bu t resolved , followin g th e advic e o f hi s astrologe r Canindaraja , t o buil d a ne w capital , th e Myauku city , th e presen t Mrohaung . Launggye t the n drop s graduall y ou t o f Arakanes e history . Minpalaun g (crowne d 157 1 A.D. ) attempte d t o rebuil d it ; bu t th e insalubrit y o f th e climat e eve r stoo d i n th e wa y o f Launggye t risin g t o a populou s an d importan t place . Kin g Narapatigy i (crowne d a t Myauku 163 8 A.D. ) wa s recommende d b y hi s astrologer s t o se t u p a larg e numbe r o f image s o f Gotam a abou t Launggye t t o expe l th e fever ; th e statues , blac k wit h ag e an d exposure , stil l si t i n th e paddy-field s abou t Nankya , bu t th e climat e i s a s ba d a s ever . Th e dominio n o f th e Launggye t dynast y was bounde d o n th e eas t b y th e Lemr o river , o n th e sout h b y th e Mraungbway , o n th e wes t an d north-wes t b y th e Launggye t creek . Wit h th e ex ceptio n o f a lo w hil l o n th e norther n extremit y th e islan d i s a perfectl y leve l plain , studde d wit h numerou s tank s an d fringe d alon g th e ban k o f th e water-course s wit h frui t tree s an d villages ; th e in terio r i s a wast e paddy-fiel d wit h hardl y an y othe r vegetation . O f archaeologica l remain s ther e ar e few ; o n th e summi t o f th e hil l t o th e nort h ar e a fe w smal l pagoda s buil t o f bric k wit h a smal l porc h

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LAUNGGYET . 4 9 t o th e east ; the y wer e buil t 2 5 year s ag o o n th e sit e o f olde r bu t ruine d pagodas , an d hav e sinc e bee n wholl y neglecte d b y th e villagers . T o the sout h o f th e hil l i s the Nandawgon , a squar e enclosur e containin g onc e the roya l residenc e an d th e " cit y " o f Launggyet ; i t mus t hav e bee n a smal l town ; th e wall s ar e 20 ' high , constructe d o f eart h mixe d wit h stone , £ mil e lon g fro m nort h t o sout h an d hardl y a thousan d fee t fro m eas t t o west ; her e an d ther e ar e heap s o f brick s an d stone , indicatin g probabl y th e sit e o f ruine d pagodas ; th e whol e plac e i s overgrow n wit h dense , shrubb y jungle ; nothin g wa s foun d worth y o f note . Sout h o f the enclosur e paddy-field s begin . Larg e image s o f Buddha , 8 ' hig h an d 6 ' fro m kne e t o knee , seate d o n pedestal s 3 ' t o 4 / high , an d unpro tecte d b y an y shelter , stan d her e an d ther e a s melanchol y solitar y guardian s i n th e ope n fields ; w e hav e see n tha t the y wer e place d ther e b y Kin g Narapatigy i (164 0 A.D.) . Th e statue s ar e imi tation s o f th e Mahamun i imag e an d ar e al l o f stone . O n the souther n extremit y o f Nanky a village , an d clos e t o the ban k o f the Lemr o rive r i s a shrin e constructe d o f stone , th e onl y buildin g partiall y preserve d i n th e norther n hal f o f th e island . I t wa s constructe d b y Mindi , th e nint h kin g o f th e Launggye t dynasty ; h e wa s crowne d i n th e yea r 127 9 A.D . Th e for m o f th e shrin e i s ellipsoida l an d measure s (no t includin g th e portal ) 24 ' fro m eas t t o wes t an d if fro m nort h t o south ; i t contain s onl y on e chamber , als o ellipsoid , 21'lon g an d 14'wide ; the roo m i s entere d throug h a porta l whic h open s toward s th e east ; i t protrude s if fro m th e mai n building ; th e passag e i s 8 ' 10 " wid e an d 14 ' long ; th e roo f i s vaulted , th e arc h bein g constructe d i n th e sam e wa y a s i n th e Shitthaun g an d Dukkanthei n i n Mrohaung . Th e entir e templ e i s con structe d o f squar e ston e bloc k (dar k sandstone) , eac h sid e measurin g 1 ' 7" , th e thicknes s bein g 8" ; th e stone s ar e wel l hew n an d cemente d together ; th e roo f o f th e chambe r ha s falle n down ; t o judg e fro m the shap e o f th e stones , whic h onc e constitute d th e roof , i t mus t hav e bee n a vault , a s on e en d o f th e block s i s narrowe r tha n th e opposit e one ; th e heigh t o f th e wall s i s o n a n averag e 18' ; th e narro w unpave d templ e cour t i s surrounde d b y a lo w ston e wal l i n dilapidate d condition . Alon g th e wal l o f th e chambe r ar e place d nin e ston e pedestals , fou r o n eithe r side , an d th e ninth , the larges t one , o n the wes t end ; upo n the m ar e seate d image s o f Buddha , cross-legged , i n th e usua l attitud e o f th e Mahamun i prototyp e (se e Plat e No . XXXIV , No . 71) ; the y ar e al l o f ston e an d th e larges t i s io'hig h an d 8'fro m kne e t o knee ; thes e statue s have , however , on e peculia r featur e ; th e righ t han d ha s onl y fou r fingers, th e forefinge r bein g wanting . Th e followin g legen d i s connecte d wit h thes e four-fingere d image s : " Kin g Mind i (wh o reigne d fro m 127 9 t o 138 5 A . D.) , wel l know n fo r hi s ster n justice , ha d a ne w palac e erected . A s hi s betel-chewin g subject s ar e i n th e habi t o f cleaning , afte r removin g chuna m (lime ) fro m th e bo x an d la y i t o n th e betel-leaf , thei r soile d forefinge r o n th e doorpost s o r othe r con venien t places , th e kin g issue d th e orde r tha t th e doorpost s o f hi s ne w palac e wer e no t t o b e soile d i n th e manne r indicated ; an y on e infringin g agains t th e rul e wa s t o b e punishe d b y havin g th e offendin g finger cu t off . Afte r som e tim e the king , forgetfu l o f hi s ow n order , cleane d hi s finger b y rubbin g i t agains t on e o f th e palac e doorposts . Th e attendin g Minister s mad e a carefu l not e o f it , writin g dow n th e dat e an d hou r whe n i t occurred , bu t di d no t remov e th e lim e fro m th e post . A fe w day s late r th e kin g observe d th e spo t o n th e palac e doo r and , unconsciou s tha t h e himsel f wa s th e cul prit , angril y ordere d hi s Minister s t o ascertai n th e offende r an d se e th e punishmen t fo r suc h a n offenc e inflicte d upo n him . Whe n th e Minister s produce d th e proo f o f hi s ow n guilt , th e king , wit h hi s ow n sword , cu t of f hi s forefinger , sayin g " tha t eve n a kin g shoul d no t issu e order s fo r himsel f t o brea k wit h impunity . T o commemorat e th e even t h e ha d th e image-hous e erected , an d instruct e d th e sculptor s t o allo w onl y fou r fingers t o th e righ t han d o f th e image s o f Buddha. " O n th e south -eas t sid e o f th e shrin e w e du g u p a larg e ston e slab , measurin g 8 ' b y 3' ; on e sid e o f i t i s covere d wit h Burmes e letters , bu t s o deface d tha t th e tex t canno t b e restore d ; th e onl y 1 3

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5 0 KADOTHEIN . legibl e portio n i s th e beginnin g o f th e firs t line ; i t contain s th e dat e Sakkara j 84 0 (0DQ8090) , 148 7 A.D , N o othe r remain s exis t abou t Launggye t city . Passin g th e village s Gyw e Te , Thigya , an d Maun g Nyo , whic h li e t o th e sout h an d south-wes t o f Launggyet , w e reached , abou t 8 mile s sout h o f th e latter , th e smal l Mingaloppara ; i t deserve s bein g mentione d o n th e groun d o f it s ol d age , i t havin g bee n buil t b y Kin g Mind i a t th e clos e o f th e 13t h century ; th e shrin e i s squar e (20 ' b y 12'an d io'highl , th e roo f ha s falle n in ; i n th e quadrangula r roo m stand s a n imag e o f Buddh a 8 ' hig h ; a porta l wit h a vaulte d passag e open s toward s th e east ; th e structur e i s wholl y buil t o f stone , roughl y hew n an d barre n o f al l ornamenta l design s ; th e shrine s stan d a t th e corne r o f a larg e walled-i n tan k constructe d b y th e sam e king . Nea r th e villag e Thanbyingy i i s th e Zitkethein , buil t abou t 20 0 year s ag o b y a n Arakanes e noble ma n ; th e pagod a i s square , eac h sid e measure s 32'; . th e wall s rise , perpendicula r t o a heigh t o f 24' ; o n th e roo f rise s a conica l spir e wit h th e remain s o f a n iro n "ti " ove r th e apex . Th e structur e i s hollow ; throug h eac h o f th e fou r side s a n arche d passag e 8 ' hig h lead s t o th e centra l chambe r wit h vaulte d roof . Fiv e ston e images , representin g th e five Buddha s o f thi s Kalpa , ar e seate d o n bric k throne s ; thei r feature s an d attitud e ar e alik e i n all . Th e onl y objec t o f interes t i n thi s pagod a i s a ston e pilla r whic h stand s i n fron t o f th e centra l image ; i t i s 3 ' hig h abov e th e socket ; th e latte r i s burie d i n th e groun d ; th e shaf t i s octagonal , slightl y tapering , an d 2 hig h ; th e nex t fou r inche s o f th e shaf t ar e circula r i n th e outline , the n squar e fo r anothe r fou r inche s ; eac h o f th e fou r side s contains , i n relief , th e imag e o f Buddh a i n th e usua l attitud e ; th e remainin g fou r inche s o f th e shaf t ar e cu t int o a serie s o f circula r concentri c rings , graduall y taperin g t o a poin t a t th e top . Th e pagod a i s buil t o f bricks , th e plaste r ha s falle n off , th e wall s hav e gapin g fissures, th e templ e cour t i s covere d wit h jungle , an d th e enclosin g wal l i s i n a dilapidate d conditio n ; th e shrin e ha s lon g bee n abandone d t o neglec t an d ruin . KADOTHEIN . Th e ge m o f th e ar t o f stone-sculptur e i n Araka n i s th e Kad o shrine , i n th e Launggye t circle , a mil e nort h o f Kamaungda t village , 1 0 mile s du e sout h o f Launggyet . Tw o year s ag o i t wa s burie d i n th e jungle ; it s ver y existenc e appear s t o hav e bee n forgotte n ; th e villager s o f Kamaungda t dis covere d th e shrine , cleare d th e jungl e roun d abou t it , an d repaire d i t a s wel l a s the y coul d withou t muc h outla y t o themselve s ; a she d wa s buil t ove r it , s o narro w an d lo w tha t n o photograp h o f th e shrin e itsel f coul d b e taken . O n Plat e XX X V P I giv e a drawin g o f th e desig n o f th e eas t fa5ad e o f th e temple . Kadothei n wa s erecte d b y orde r o f Kin g Cand a Vijay a (1710—173 1 A.D. ) i n th e yea r Sakka ra j 108 5 ; tw o well-execute d ston e inscription s i n th e templ e cour t recor d th e meritoriou s dee d an d th e grant s o f lan d whic h h e settle d upo n th e adjoinin g monasterie s fo r th e suppor t o f thei r inmate s (se e Plate s Nos . XXXVI I an d XXXVIII) . Th e followin g i s a translatio n o f th e inscriptions: — I . " Ma y ther e b e victory ! O n th e 2n d wanin g o f Pyatho , Sakkara j 1085 , Shw e Vijayaraja , th e Lor d o f th e palac e an d th e Lor d o f lif e an d death , mad e grant s o f paddy-field s t o enabl e Shaun g Ata p Kawda n t o buil d a thei n (sima ) an d t o surroun d i t b y large r an d smalle r monasteries , inhabite d b y th e preceptor s o f th e father , mother , an d son s o f th e king . Th e fields hav e th e followin g boun daries . " Te n paddy-field s situate d o n th e bank s o f th e Maykwi n («©?§£ ) nyaun g strea m whic h i s t o th e eas t o f th e Tawra n (coo8q ) for t i n th e norther n divisio n o f th e Nanggyi ; the y ar e bounde d o n th e eas t b y th e Tant a (oo$coo ) an d Ang e (ooSro ) stream s ; o n th e sout h b y th e Nyaungkyaun g

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KADOTHEIN . 5 1 (cgoScqjoS ) ; o n th e wes t b y th e Ta-dvar a (ooosgicp ) strea m an d th e Ting e (ooSob ) field ; o n th e nort h b y th e Ang e (3380b ) village . " Eigh t paddy-field s havin g th e followin g boundarie s : th e Sanghik a {i.e., monastic ) lan d o f Ran daun g (qcoooS ) t o th e east ; th e Sanghik a field o f th e Mromasay a t o th e sout h ; th e Ranauktant a (6pG$oc5oo$oo33 ) strea m t o th e west ; th e Angeyu a (osSdbgp ) cree k t o th e north . " Thre e paddy-field s havin g th e followin g boundarie s : t o th e eas t th e Pr e (eg ) cree k ; t o th e sout h th e Sigyapsinyi n (8g£oSqS ) strea m ; t o th e wes t Gyunloptai n (ng)$cqSc£}S) . an d Gathnai n (008JS ) stream s ; t o th e nort h th e Aun g (03336 ) creek . " Te n paddy-field s situate d i n Yitkaungbya n (ooScolSg^ ) wit h th e followin g boundarie s : t o th e eas t Gywelappauktaun g (r^coSGoloSGoooS ) strea m ; t o th e sout h The t (coed ) an d Gywelappau k creek ; t o th e wes t Thitkaungbya n (OO8GG1S(C^ ) creek ; t o th e nort h th e Yanthi n fields. " paddy-field s havin g th e followin g boundarie s : t o th e eas t th e Thitkaungbya n ( oaScs" ! creek ; t o th e sout h th e Kul a (oqcoog ) creek . " Fiv e chaungs o f paddy-field s situate d i n Tabettatky i village . On e shi n (0 3 j§ ) an d on e pav a (ools ) o f paddy-fiel d situate d i n Muky a (qqj ) village . Fiv e shin s an d on e pav a o f paddy-field s be longin g t o th e Gyaungpyut a (cnqpSgoo ) monaster y i n Kamaungda t village . Thre e pava s o f lan d o n whic h th e monasterie s an d th e Kad o sim a ar e built. " II . " Thes e sixt y paddy-fields , th e sima , monasteries , shrines , scriptura l writings , gardens , tanks , fruits , trees , an d an y othe r propert y belongin g t o th e priesthoo d a s sanghik a ; whosoever , b e h e a menia l i n a monastery , a pries t o r hi s disciple , o r an y clerica l brother , a citizen , a minister , hi s sub ject s (subordinates ) o r a peasant,—bein g motione d b y feeling s o f covetousnes s o r entice s b y th e nin e kind s o f malice,—bring s about , o r cause s t o b e brough t about , thei r destruction , ma y h e b e stricke n t o deat h b y th e Na t wh o watche s ove r th e Buddha , wh o durin g fou r asankheyya s an d 100,00 0 kappa s preache d an d himsel f fulfille d wit h grea t energ y an d devotio n th e threefol d te n Pararnit a s beginnin g wit h Dan a an d endin g wit h Upekkha , an d i s highl y revere d i n th e thre e worlds . O r ma y h e b e smitte n b y th e Nat , wh o fo r 5,00 0 years , th e perio d allotte d t o th e religion , keep s constan t guar d ove r th e hol y toot h relics, th e Bodh i tree , an d th e innumerabl e image s an d shrine s bot h i n th e devaloka s an d o n thi s earth . O r b y th e Na t wh o keep s watc h ove r th e hol y disciple s (wh o hav e attaine d t o the ) blesse d an d revere d Maggatthana s an d Phalatthanas . O r b y Sakyamin , wh o keep s guar d ove r Moun t Meru , th e seve n concentri c circles o f rock , th e Yugandhar a pea k to gethe r wit h th e su n an d moon . O r ma y h e b e kille d b y th e hand s o f th e fou r grea t king s (catu maharajas) , th e fou r renowne d an d might y Nats . O r b y th e fou r Lokapala s wh o guar d th e worl d o f me n ; o r b y al l th e othe r Nat s wh o guar d th e fou r grea t island s togethe r wit h th e tw o thousan d sur roundin g islets . Ma y suc h a destroye r no t b e rebor n i n thi s worl d o f men , no t eve n a s a n ant , a white-ant , wood-ant , o r a quail ; an d no t bein g save d b y an y o f th e Buddha s tha t ar e t o appear , ma y th e chai n o f hi s transmigrator y existence s b e cu t of f a s th e tre e stum p calle d th e Bisamsarakharak a ; an d eve n durin g hi s existenc e i n thi s worl d ma y h e b e stricke n wit h leprosy , deafness , epilepsy , an d lunac y beyon d al l cur e ; an d bein g grossl y ignoran t an d no t knowin g th e ar t o f speakin g ma y h e in cu r th e implacabl e hatre d o f others. " Th e inscriptions"ar e writte n o n light-gray , scal y sandston e ; th e first i s 3 ' high , 2' 2" broad , an d 3 " thic k ; th e secon d 3 ' hig h b y 2 5 " broa d an d 4 " thick ; th e botto m line s o f bot h record s ar e de faced . Letter s an d languag e ar e Burmes e ; bot h th e shor t an d hig h accent s ar e marke d ; nothin g o f th e peculiaritie s o f th e Arakanes e dialec t appea r i n th e inscriptio n (se e Plate XXXV , Nos . 7 3 an d 74) .

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5 2 PATAW . Th e Kadothei n i s constructe d entirel y o f stone ; i t i s squar e wit h corner s indented ; fro m bas e t o roo f i t i s 9 high , fro m th e roo f t o th e centra l ape x f 8" ; s o tha t th e whol e heigh t o f th e shrin e i s onl y 16 ' 8" ; eac h sid e o f th e squar e measure s \2 . A vaulte d passag e 2 wide , 5 ' 4 " high , an d 3 ' 4 " long , open s toward s th e eas t an d lead s t o a chambe r (fo r pla n se e Plate XXXIV , No . 69 ) ; th e roo f i s a hemispherica l cupola , th e stone s bein g lai d i n concentri c course s a s i n th e Shitthaun g pagod a i n Mrohaung . Th e entir e oute r surfac e o f th e shrin e i s covere d wit h ornamenta l design s o f th e Paga n typ e (se e Plat e XXXVI , No . 77 ) ; i t i s constructe d o n th e sam e pla n a s th e Pitakattai k nort h o f th e Lbmyekhn a pagod a (se e II , Mrohaung , Plat e XX , No . 36 , an d pag e 31) ; th e uppe r portio n o f th e buildin g doe s not , however , protrud e s o muc h ove r th e bas e a s i n th e latter ; bu t stil l i t i s top heav y ; dee p an d lon g rent s i n th e wal l leav e n o doub t tha t i t wil l shar e th e fat e o f its prototyp e i n Mrohaung , unles s i t b e pu t i n thoroug h repairs , whic h coul d b e don e wit h littl e cost . Th e inne r chambe r i s 7 ' 6 " high , 5 ' 6 " deep , an d f wid e ; o n th e wes t sid e i s a ston e thron e nearl y circula r i n th e outlin e an d 2 hig h ; upo n i t i s seate d a n ordinar y ston e imag e o f Gotam a 3 ' hig h ; o n eithe r sid e o f th e thron e ar e 2 inche s le t int o th e wal l eac h containin g a n imag e o f a Buddha . Thre e othe r an d partl y broke n sculpture s li e abou t o n th e floo r o f th e roo m (se e Plat e XXXV , No . 75 ) ; th e centra l figur e i s 13 " hig h ; o n eithe r sid e o f th e thron e i s a kneelin g raha n wit h th e hand s folde d ove r th e breast ; a nich e i s cu t int o th e fron t sid e o f th e thron e containin g i n high-relie f th e uppe r portio n (th e lowe r i s broke n off ) o f a huma n figure, whichhold s a cudge l i n th e righ t han d an d th e lef t th e hai r o f th e hea d twiste d int o a lon g plai t draw n ove r th e shoulde r an d hangin g ove r th e breast ; th e image s (se e Plate XXXV , No . 76 ) t o th e righ t an d left , respectivel y 10 " an d 8 " high , ar e cu t clumsil y ou t o f whit e limestone ; thes e kind s o f sculpture s ar e commo n i n pagoda s o n th e Salwee n an d Sittan g river s an d ar e o f Sha n origin ; i t i s probabl e tha t the y foun d thei r wa y t o Araka n throug h th e Talaing s o r Shan s whe n the y occupie d Launggyet . Th e inne r chambe r wall s an d th e throne s an d niche s ar e barre n o f decorativ e designs ; th e whol e exterio r o f th e sim a wa s originall y gilded . Th e shrin e i s surrounde d b y a doubl e ston e wall ; th e inne r templ e cour t measure s 24 ' fro m nort h t o sout h an d 29 ' fro m eas t t o west ; i t i s pave d wit h quadrangula r tile s a littl e ove r a n inc h thic k an d 8 " t o eac h side ; th e uppe r sid e i s vitrified , coloure d blue , green,'o r brow n wit h floral designs , figures o f bird s an d othe r animal s draw n i n whit e line s o n th e surfac e ; th e materia l o f th e tile s i s burne d clay ; the y ar e no w nearl y al l broke n an d covere d wit h eart h an d rubbis h (se e Plate s XXXIV , No . 72 , an d XXXV , No . 75) , whic h sho w a fe w specimen s o f carvin g o n ston e an d pattern s o n tile s place d fo r convenien t photographin g o n th e wal l whic h surround s .th e inne r templ e court) . Th e stone s o f th e shrin e wer e originall y cemente d wit h mortar ; th e oute r cour t measure s 88 ' fro m nort h t o sout h an d 94 ' fro m eas t t o west ; i t i s no t paved ; bot h wall s ar e i n a dilapidate d conditio n an d ar e constructe d o f sandston e block s loosel y se t together ; outsid e th e enclosure s ar e her e an d ther e group s o f ston e image s o f Buddh a i n lif e siz e standin g amids t th e ruine d roofles s wall s o f th e shrine s whic h formerl y enclose d an d protecte d them . Th e villager s o f Kamaungda t hav e latel y buil t a smal l monaster y nea r th e Kad o shrin e wher e a pongy i reside s durin g th e rain y season . I t i s hope d tha t th e shrin e wil l b y hi s car e b e preserve d fro m furthe r destruction . PATAW . O n th e wes t ban k o f th e Launggye t creek , wher e th e Mroungbwa y join s th e latter , i s th e Pata w villag e ; 2 mile s inlan d rise s a lo w hill-rang e abou t 5 mile s lon g runnin g fro m nort h t o sout h ; i n ancien t time s i t wa s know n a s th e Gandhapabbata . O n th e highes t pea k i n th e centr e o f th e hil l rang e stand s th e smal l Ukunda w cet i (gg c •o6cod8..g§Gcc8) ) a shrin e sai d t o contai n th e skul l o f a snake , i n whic h for m Gotam a passe d on e o f hi s forme r existence s i n thi s place ; th e sthup a i s buil t o f stone , squar e a t th e bas e an d circula r fro m th e garbh a upwar d ; a n iro n t i crown s th e apex ; a smal l porc h

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PATAW . 5 3 protrude s t o th e east , bu t contain s n o image ; th e structur e ha s latel y bee n repaired , covere d wit h plaster , an d whitewashe d b y th e villager s o f Pataw ; i t i s wholl y barre n o f ornamen t o r an y othe r poin t o f interest . Alon g th e easter n bas e o f th e hil l ar e numerou s tanks , embankments , trace s o f building s an d othe r vestige s indicatin g th e sit e o f a onc e importan t cit y know n i n Araka n a s Sigunmyo ; i t was buil t b y Kin g Gajapati , th e nint h o f th e Myauku dynasty ; h e rule d betwee n th e year s 152 3 an d 1525 . Fou r mile s t o th e north-wes t o f Pataw , a t th e foo t o f tha t portio n o f th e hil l rang e calle d Udukinzain , i s a roc k 1 1 lon g an d 4 2" high ; th e sid e facin g th e eas t i s covere d wit h Burmes e letter s (se e Plat e XXXIX , No . 80) ; th e inscriptio n i s date d Sakkara j 88 6 (152 4 A.D.) ; th e languag e i s Burmese . Mos t o f th e letter s ar e to o deface d t o enabl e restoratio n o f th e text . Furthe r u p th e hillsid e ar e severa l othe r stone s wit h dresse d surfaces , bu t n o inscriptions ; the y containe d figures i n relief , bu t the y hav e al l bee n chippe d of f wit h das ; a fe w mutilate d ston e image s o f Buddh a li e abou t an d trace s o f th e fundamen t o f pagoda s ar e me t wit h al l alon g th e hill ; th e ruin s ar e burie d i n almos t impenetrabl e jungle . Clos e b y i s a settlemen t o f Qwemi s (Kamis) , wh o hav e latel y com e dow n fro m th e hil l tracts ; the y tol d m e tha t a tree-na t (rukkhazo ) ha s hi s bein g nea r th e inscribe d stone , s o t o secur e hi s goo d will , which , a s taungya-cultivators , the y ar e ver y anxiou s t o do , the y stuc k gol d leave s o n th e ston e (se e photograph ) an d du g a hol e nea r b y til l the y struc k wate r ; an d no w th e long-neglecte d sylva n deit y enjoys a clea r poo l o f swee t wate r wherewit h t o quenc h hi s thirs t an d ofte n h e finds plantain s an d ric e o n th e stone , a n offerin g fro m th e cautiou s childre n o f th e forest . Tw o mile s furthe r sout h th e bas e o f th e hil l i s line d wit h hug e boulder s o f ferruginou s sand ston e ; o n al l i s distinctl y traceabl e th e corrosiv e actio n o f flowin g water . Age s ag o a river , o r th e ocea n probably , washe d th e foo t o f th e hill . Thes e boulder s are , however , o f grea t interes t t o th e antiquarian ; rud e figures ar e engrave d o n th e surfac e o f eigh t o f them ; th e positio n o f th e rock s ha s evidentl y bee n selecte d wit h th e ai m t o giv e th e prope r sequenc e t o th e stor y whic h th e figures cu t upo n the m recor d i n a languag e whic h canno t b e misinterpreted . Plat e X L show s th e relativ e positio n o f th e stone s an d th e rock-cu t figures, th e onl y one s o f th e kin d a s ye t foun d i n Lowe r Burma . I ventur e t o interpre t th e figurative recor d a s follows : is t stone : o n th e sid e facin g th e nort h ar e th e rud e outline s o f a shi p sailin g du e wes t toward s th e mountain . 2n d ston e : stranger s ste p o n shor e ; th e native s oppos e them ; the y come , however , t o a n agreement , whic h i s expresse d b y th e tw o partie s stretchin g ou t a n ar m toward s eac h other , pressin g thum b agains t thumb , th e littl e finger agains t th e littl e finger, th e knuckle s o f th e thre e othe r fingers meetin g eac h other . 3r d stone : th e strange r become s violen t an d oppressive ; wit h hi s kne e o n th e breas t o f th e prostrat e nativ e h e ha s take n hol d o f th e latter' s hea d wit h on e han d an d swing s a swor d o r d a i n th e othe r (th e lowe r portio n o f th e figures i s muc h defaced) . 4t h stone : th e strange r ha s cu t of f th e hea d o f hi s victi m an d i s dancin g wit h exultation . Th e 5t h ston e ha s a slop e t o th e wes t an d on e t o th e east ; i t i s in tende d t o represen t th e hil l range ; th e image s ar e deface d i n som e places . Th e strange r i s i n ex clusiv e possessio n o f th e easter n sid e o f th e hil l an d make s himsel f a t home ; th e nativ e was drive n acros s th e hil l an d alight s o n tiger s an d elephants , wit h who m h e ha s t o shar e hi s ne w home ; h e i s represente d a s havin g falle n wit h hi s ful l lengt h upo n th e bac k o f wha t appear s t o b e a n elephant , wit h hi s hea d toward s th e tai l o f th e animal . Th e figures o n th e 6t h ston e ar e ver y indistinct ; on e represent s th e shi p o f th e intruder ; abov e i t ar e tw o wavin g lines , whic h probabl y shoul d intimat e tha t th e vesse l o f th e enem y ha d bee n sun k t o th e botto m o f th e rive r o r sea ; th e native s recove r courage . O n th e 7t h ston e th e naked , emaciate d figure o f th e ejecte d aborigi n stand s b y a tre e i n th e attitud e o f makin g a n oat h (mos t o f th e uncivilize d tribe s i n Burm a swea r t o thi s da y b y a particula r tree ) ; th e trun k ha s tw o eyes , an d th e thre e additiona l line s abov e i t ma y indicat e th e numbe r o f kindre d tribe s wh o entere d int o a solem n compac t t o attac k an d ejec t th e intruder , whos e mai n ' 4

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5 4 MINBYA . strengt h la y i n hi s ship , o f which , however , h e wa s no w deprived . Th e eight h roc k depict s th e strange r i n th e ac t o f departin g i n undignifie d hurry ; hi s righ t han d hold s a stou t walking-stick , th e lef t han d a tin y bundl e o f " fre e luggage, " whic h wil l no t imped e hi s swif t journe y t o th e south ; h e i s scantil y dressed , a stri p o f clot h roun d th e loin s bein g hi s onl y vestment ; th e hai r hang s dow n over th e bac k o f th e hea d an d th e shoulde r i n a singl e plait , tie d a t th e en d wit h a string ; flyin g arrow s an d stone s bles s hi s departure . Th e outline s o f thi s figur e ar e cu t half-an-inc h dee p int o th e surfac e o f th e rock . Absolutel y nothin g i s know n a s t o th e dat e an d authorshi p o f thes e rock-carvings ; no t eve n a legen d i s afloa t concernin g them . I t ma y her e b e pointe d ou t tha t a t th e ver y daw m o f Arakanes e histor y certai n appellation s wer e give n t o mountain s accordin g t o image s o r figure s foun d engrave d o n rock s o r stone s abou t them . Clos e t o th e pictur e rock s ar e severa l larg e ston e image s o f Gotam a o f th e usua l typ e ; als o ston e pallin s (pedestals ) wit h fin e decorativ e design s engrave d upo n them ; th e thorn y bambo o jungl e i s her e s o dens e tha t fo r wan t o f roo m an d light , photographin g become s impossibl e an d sketchin g stil l mor e s o owin g t o th e fearfu l pes t o f thi s kin d o f jungle , th e soldier-ant . A t th e bas e o f th e hil l ar e numerou s ol d tank s ; th e plac e i s th e sit e o f th e ol d Kyeitmy o destroye d b y th e Taking s ; i t was th e capita l o f th e Kyei t dynasty . MINBYA . Fou r mile s t o th e south-eas t o f Pata w rise s anothe r hil l runnin g 3 mile s fro m nort h t o south eas t ; its origina l nam e was Renusarapabbata ; i t i s no w calle d Myotaun g (city-hill ) o r Pamwetaung , becaus e a smal l pagod a o n th e souther n portio n o f th e hil l i s sai d t o contai n a hai r fro m th e cheek s o f Gotama . Th e easter n an d wester n bas e o f th e hil l ar e line d wit h larg e tank s ; ther e ar e als o trace s o f walls , pagodas , an d othe r bric k an d ston e structures . O n th e north-wes t en d o f th e rang e i s th e sit e o f Thaymy o founde d i n th e yea r 68 9 B.E . (132 8 A.D. ) b y Kin g Mindi , th e 9t h o f th e Launggye t dynast y ; i t w : a s soo n afterw-ard s destroye d b y th e Shans . Durin g th e Burmes e regime th e plac e wa s selecte d a s th e residenc e o f a Myoz a o r Governo r o f a tow n ; numerou s pagoda s an d image-house s wer e built , whic h i n par t stil l exist , bu t ar e o f n o interest , a s the y ar e al l constructe d i n th e ordinar y moder n Burmes e styl e ; the y consis t o f a soli d con e o f brickwor k wit h a porc h o n th e squar e bas e upo n whic h th e con e rest s ; th e villager s o f Athayyua , Ngapi-ing , an d Talinggy i village s clos e b y d o nothin g fo r th e preservatio n o f th e ruin s ; the y hav e buil t a smal l pagod a o f thei r ow n wher e the y worship . O n th e north-eas t bas e o f th e hil l onc e stoo d Campavakmyo , founde d b y Kin g Kinnarupo , th e thir d rule r o f th e Kyei t dynast y i n 117 8 A.D . Arakanese , Shans , Burmans , an d Talaing s struggle d alternatel y fo r it s possessio n ; afte r th e foundin g o f Launggye t th e sit e wa s abandoned . Campava k i s o f historica l importance , bu t n o remain s ar e lef t o f i t t o interes t u s here . Th e norther n summi t o f th e hil l rang e was i n age s pas t th e burial-groun d o f th e Mros , a n indigenou s tribe , whic h onc e occupie d al l th e wester n hil l range s o f Araka n an d ha d alway s bee n a sourc e o f dange r t o the , stabilit y o f th e dynastie s whic h rule d a t Vesali , Dhaimavati , Launggyet , an d Myauk-u . Lik e th e Chin s an d kindre d tribes , the y burne d thei r dead , collecte d th e ashe s i n a po t o f burne d clay , an d deposite d i t o n th e summi t o f a seclude d hil l o f difficul t access . Th e burial-groun d abov e Athayyu a occupie s severa l acre s o f groun d o n th e woode d mountai n top ; eac h grav e consist s o f a n ur n filled wit h a hard , greyis h yellow ' substance , th e ashe s o f th e departe d mixe d wit h eart h an d san d ; th e pot s ar e o f variou s shape s an d sizes , fro m 8 inche s t o iJ fee t hig h an d 1 \ t o 3 fee t i n circumferenc e roun d th e wides t girth . I foun d the m burie d clos e t o th e surfac e o f th e groun d ; th e spo t wher e a n ur n lie s i s indicate d b y a laye r o f brick s o r stones , roughl y hewm , arrange d radiatel y aroun d th e mout h o f th e po t ; som e wer e enclose d wit h a secon d circle , 3 t o 4 ' fro m th e centre , consistin g o f unhew n stone s an d fragment s o f brick s ; th e urn s ar e usuall y barre n o f decorativ e

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URITTAUNG . 5 5 design s upo n them , sav e occasionall y a fe w wavin g line s roun d th e rim . Th e ag e o f thi s burial groun d i s unknow n an d ther e ar e n o clue s t o eve n approximatel y ascertai n it . Whil e Pari n (eas t o f Mrohaung ) wa s th e capita l o f th e Arakanes e kings , th e Mro s ar e describe d a s invadin g th e roya l dominion s fro m th e north ; Kin g Goliy a (1133—115 3 A.D. ) le d hi s armie s u p th e Lemr o rive r t o punis h th e maraudin g Mros ; fro m thi s i t ma y b e inferre d tha t alread y eigh t centurie s ag o the y ha d bee n drive n bac k t o th e headwater s o f th e Lemr o river , an d tha t the y burie d thei r cimmeria l urn s o n th e Minby a mountain , lyin g s o fa r south , durin g a perio d whic h antedate s th e foundatio n o f Pari n (1103A.D.) . O n th e summi t o f th e souther n portio n o f th e hil l rang e stan d a grou p o f smal l pagoda s know n a s th e Kyeindaw-shin-par a ; th e spo t i s th e sit e o f a n ol d shrin e whic h ha s lai n i n ruin s unti l th e lat e Myoo k o f Minby a rebuil t an d whitewashe d it , an d se t u p si x smalle r pagoda s o f th e ordinar y conica l typ e wit h a porc h t o th e east . Fro m a n antiquaria n o r artist' s view-poin t thes e pagoda s de serv e n o notice . Th e histor y o f th e ol d shrin e I coul d no t ascertain . Fro m th e summi t o f th e hil l a staircas e lead s straigh t dow n t o th e bas e o f th e hill ; th e tota l lengt h i s 93 0 feet ; th e steps , 65 0 i n all , ar e 5 fee t wade ; a wall , 2 fee t hig h an d iJ fee t thick , close s th e staircas e i n o n eithe r sid e ; th e entranc e belo w i s guarde d b y tw o smal l griffin s ; th e whol e structur e i s buil t o f bricks; . i t i s th e longes t staircas e i n Burma , an d ther e ar e fe w lik e i t i n th e worl d ; th e cost s o f materia l an d constructio n amounte d t o Rs . 12,000 , pai d b y th e lat e Myoo k o f Minbya . I t i s distressin g t o know tha t i t cos t s o muc h sinc e nobod y eve r ascend s it , th e fe w worshipper s preferrin g th e shad y an d eas y fores t pat h t o reac h th e top . Th e numerou s tank s betwee n th e bas e o f th e hil l an d Minby a tow n wer e du g b y th e orde r o f Kin g Cand a Vijaya , wh o reigne d i n Myauku betwee n th e year s iyioan d 173 1 A.D . Her e an d ther e li e th e ruin s o f smal l shrine s an d th e fragment s o f image s i n th e dar k shad e o f ancien t mang o tree s ; group s o f lagerstroemias an d coc o palm s indicat e lan d formerl y cultivated . Nea r th e villag e Pupin , 2 mile s south-wes t o f Minbya , i s a n ol d image-hous e o f a uniqu e type ; th e mai n bod y i s circula r an d measure s 36 ' i n circumferenc e ; th e wall s ar e perpendicula r t o a heigh t o f 7 feet ; the n follo w seve n concentri c graduate d tiers , eac h succeedin g on e a fe w inche s narrowe r tha n th e on e immediatel y beneat h it ; o n th e ape x stand s a pinnacl e representin g a lotu s flowe r an d stal k wit h rudiment s o f leave s a t th e base ; th e ornamen t i s carve d ou t o f stone . O n th e eas t sid e o f th e buildin g protrude s a porta l 5 ' lon g o n th e outsid e an d 6 ' hig h ; a passag e wit h a pointedl y vaulte d roo f 2 wid e an d 5 " hig h lead s t o a centra l chambe r als o circular ; th e ceilin g i s graduate d lik e th e roo f outside . Th e roo m hold s a n alabaste r imag e o f Gotama , 2 fee t high , sittin g cross-legge d o n a ston e pedestal ; th e statu e i s o f th e moder n Burmes e type , an d ha s bu t latel y bee n place d int o th e shrin e ; o f th e latter' s ag e o r histor y I coul d ascertai n nothin g ; i t ma y b e thre e t o fou r centurie s old . URITTAUN G PAGODA . Th e URITTAUN G PAGOD A i s situate d o n a low , bu t stee p an d rock y hil l opposit e th e villag e o f Punnakyu n i n th e Urittaun g township . O n thi s hil l Gotam a onc e live d i n a forme r existenc e (se e I , Mahamun i Pagoda , pag e 3 ) a s a Brahma n o f hig h birth . " Afte r m y death, " say s Buddh a i n hi s discours e hel d o n th e Selagiri , " m y skul l (i.e., th e skul l o f th e onc e Brahman ) wil l b e foun d o n thi s hil l an d a pagod a wil l b e erecte d ove r it. " I n th e nativ e record s i t i s no t state d wh o founde d th e origina l templ e ; th e firs t mentio n o f i t i s mad e i n th e yea r 88 3 B . E . (A . D . 1521) , whe n Kin g Gaja pati , o f th e Myauku dynasty , descende d th e Kacchabhanad i (Kaladan ) an d repaire d th e pagoda ; thi s wa s replace d b y a large r templ e erecte d b y orde r o f th e Kin g Minpalaun g i n th e yea r B . E . 95 3 (A . D . 1591) . Th e Rdjavamsa give s th e followin g accoun t o f th e event : " I n thi s golde n lan d o f " Araka n Kin g Dhammasok a o f olde n day s buil t ceti s wherei n h e enshrine d som e o f th e Sariradhat u " (bod y relics ) o f th e Buddha encase d i n preciou s receptacles . Kin g Minpalaun g ordere d al l suc h

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5 6 URITTAUNG . " temple s t o b e repaired . Befor e th e kin g se t ou t leadin g a n arm y int o th e Mru n countr y h e promis " e d t o repai r th e Urittaun g pagod a o n th e Selapabbat a i f h e cam e bac k triumphant ; h e conquere d " th e Mru n countr y an d o n hi s return , t o redee m hi s promise , h e ha d th e summi t o f th e Selapabbat a " levelle d an d cleare d o f rubbis h lyin g thereon . H e the n engage d numerou s mason s an d architects , "who m h e lef t unde r th e supervisio n o f hi s son , th e Governo r o f Urittaung . A pagoda , whos e girt h " a t th e bas e was,.8 0 imperia l lan s ( 1 lan= 4 cubits) , was buil t o f dee p gree n stone . Afte r th e " completio n th e kin g mad e preparation s fo r a charitabl e offerin g lik e th e grea t Asatissadan a ; h e " embarke d o n th e roya l floating palac e surrounde d b y a grea t numbe r o f boat s an d descended th e " rive r Kacchabha . I n du e cours e h e reache d th e mout h o f th e Lampaikchyaung , situate d betwee n " th e Urittaungdha t an d Camuttawdhnt , wher e h e too k u p hi s temporar y residence . O n bot h bank s " o f th e strea m h e ha d larg e tank s du g t o provid e wate r fo r charitabl e offerings ; th e Brahman s an d " Rahan s receive d libera l provisions . " Th e distanc e betwee n th e temporar y roya l residenc e an d th e platfor m o f th e Urittaun g pagod a measure d 9 0 ussabha s (12,60 0 cubits ) ; th e kin g connecte d th e tw o point s wit h a goo d road , s o tha t elephants , horses , chariots , an d foot-soldier s migh t pas s ove r i t wit h ease . I n th e intervenin g space , betwee n th e Camuttawdha t an d th e Urittaungdhat , a larg e hal l wa s constructe d ; alon g th e road s representation s o f th e 10 1 race s o f men , o f scene s i n th e 55 0 Jatakas , o f aquati c monster s wer e paraded . Th e street s wer e decorate d wit h banner s an d streams , vases , an d wate r jar s holdin g lilies . O n Sunday , th e firs t da y o f th e wanin g moo n o f Tag u Sakkara j 953 , o r 213 5 o f th e er a o f religion , was celebrate d th e festiva l i n honou r o f th e relic-receptacl e (i.e., th e festiva l attendin g th e ceremon y o f depositin g th e reli c i n th e reli c chamber) . A t it s conclusio n th e eigh t kind s o f priestl y utensil s wer e offere d t o thousand s o f priest s ; fo r seve n day s th e festiva l laste d an d offering s t o th e valu e o f nin e lakh s wer e give n away . The n Minpalaung , th e grea t lor d o f lif e an d death , returne d t o hi s capital . H e die d o n Sunday , th e sixt h waxin g o f Waz o Sakkara j 955 , i n hi s 59t h year. " I n th e yea r B . E . 101 0 (A . D . 1641 ) th e Urittaun g pagod a was agai n repaire d b y Kin g Thad o (Mintara) , an d onc e mor e b y Kin g Varadhammaraj a i n B . E . 105 0 (A . D . 1688) . Eigh t year s ag o th e templ e underwen t thoroug h repair s an d wa s gilde d b y M a Mya t U . A n inscriptio n o n a sla b o f alabaste r se t u p clos e t o th e pagod a record s th e meritoriou s dee d thus : |2q8GOOoS©oooG©c8G035gSogGp8i i fGG O C O ODDOO O O G00©33 q OOGOO O OD g 3 CO g [ g COD " ooGa3$OD0 3 0C»Goooqg.'00gGgooDoa3rooqct6 " iiGoooSGaoiiclsolSGOooSgS n oqGps^SoogSiiGjgi i gcgocgSsoguooGix^iiGooljgoSas^ooo n 0 0 ©5 o 000831 8 a s o g 1 1 33G$ooo1qn3 D @8^0SgDlia30O^0H(^CO0G00Sq§iiODgGg00OOODO33qaDiiOqG005G0008s00Gp3l l OqgOSOOOOO^ O I 0g§8CoSs000G0D033G@0$ j <^»03000llQGCo5qGCoQ>lODOGD8$Or o QS^^G^OOSO^OS " C ] 8 GOO:>S^Ss§OS H 00 0 868 $ qO|iaDDCO^OGOo5(qo5aD^iiODgOMOQOlo8c88sHc8gcq H -^$sU^^gGOHOOo5oO^G^C§iiG@Q036|sii^2gggSgo8nOO^Co8GOo5 q GOODOOgSs' ' ho8CO300G30D8 I cQ$sa3SsG§oS8SiiGq]oo5GGpS(§;c ^ q^SgogoS n 0D0og@i§..(^8.@g@.JriS . oSSs^OSoSnO^OgSGp^b n 33808808S"00 8 ogiSsoGOgiigg6GOG033»oSG3g(|o8o"I..Go5c8o5^33gS u GqjSGuooSs q |..3gs£jo5qgDiiaDgod8c o ioqoo©303MO£30)q ^ C^SGD^llOCX>O8(gjG0Ofl«i.ogo5gsOD.. g -^ftSCgo l i>G000^05i8llC^38o5cX)Gp||O^Sq]08god5uOD^olq8G©IIGO>o8o5Gg| g iGOOO q c^cS©38ug8GO0D0!v.qii8g0§8g0D^..Gp80q:cqG3gM03g[Gg(ii^i^c^oSG00S©08 n o5cgllG^o8goSa3§^l l 9^GO^^aDD8ii8c8Do500D8§ M Cg|3D:>Sg§i6. | OoSq^GOOOSsilCOCgOGOlSSGq n 0q|GC033G@D62l l GODoSsclsGCODSGCqjSa q . OftoJoSuO* * g g$g08| | >8Ggo8 « G § )8s0g08000n^c8ttj]OOgS u GOo8cgCOoSGOi.Gg)g g ^83$-a>OCqi(^$?»ggg§«?§g3ii^g|OCOC§«.'qoo8olcOG@355l l GaOGOD058q$gO'.<^dl$8q00308i,33)a5|s3308G@0§l l GCOSOD 3

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URITTAUNG . 5 7 oloSiiaqsogoSooDD0081 1 clgqSqoqnogg$090881 1 oqoooSooooSsc^ii3300008sooooo n ooooStoqopoooMog^o^'iooo^ogg M 073 0 coiioo8g|oiig^qo"lGOiiGoooSicqood5iioqGgoo^,88iio8gGooGp«8)9o§i i GOOoSgooooBueoo^iicoooo^iiGgooj^i.QSooSSqGp ! coo8GOO S 1 c ^ s GooSiioo g gcx £ ^20008.1 5 8ocx£oo 5 ©pnooD^ooc B 1 1 o^qp s ©ooonoqjoogpoTc^ooos n qggosd1SG©93g]GO
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61 URITTAUNG . a t th e top , indicatin g th e roa d constructe d b y th e monarch . Th e pagod a i s situate d a t th e north ernmos t extremit y o f th e hill . Th e groun d pla n o f th e structur e i s simpl y a circl e : ther e ar e n o niches , porches , o r ornamenta l design s o n th e centra l pagod a itself ; th e bas e i s circular , wit h a girt h o f 387' , an d rise s perpendicula r t o th e heigh t o f 8' ; a successio n o f concentri c rings follows , eac h succeedin g narrowe r tha n th e on e belo w it ; th e bel l o r garbh a come s nex t an d taper s of f a t a heigh t o f 190' ; th e surmountin g t i ha s los t th e topmos t iro n rod ; th e lowe r par t o f th e spir e i s no t gilde d ; th e gildin g begin s a t th e garbh a o r bell ; th e bas e consist s o f well-hew n stone s 10 " broa d b y 6 " high , th e uppe r par t o f brick s ; th e whol e pagod a ha s a coatin g o f ingat & (plaster ) (se e Plat e XLI , Nos . 8 4 an d 85) ; her e an d ther e th e plaste r ha s bee n inlai d wit h squar e piece s o f mirro r glass . O n th e nort h an d eas t side s o f th e pagod a ar e tw o smal l bric k building s plastere d an d whitewashed , thei r back s touchin g th e bas e o f th e forme r (se e Plate XLI , No . 85 ) ; the y ar e 8 ' high , 12 ' long , an d 9 deep ; th e ceilin g o f th e roo m i s flat, s o als o th e roof ; th e edge s onl y ar e relieve d b y a n undulatin g lin e ; tw o entrances , finishing i n a pointe d arch , lea d fro m th e fron t sid e t o th e quadrangula r chambe r whic h contain s nothin g bu t a smal l bric k altar , whereo n flower s an d othe r offering s ar e deposite d ; the y hol d n o images . Thes e structure s ar e imitation s o f th e smal l Hind u temple s s o commo n i n Arakan ; the y ar e moder n an d replac e th e beautifu l turrette d tazaung s whic h stan d o n th e fou r cardina l point s o f al l large r temple s i n th e Irrawadd y valley . Th e platfor m i s level , bu t no t paved ; contou r ver y irregula r an d no t marke d b y a wall . O n th e eas t sid e i s a new , zinc-roofe d zaya t (rest-house ) ; i n fron t o f i t stands , betwee n tw o ston e pillars , th e alabaste r slab , bearin g th e inscriptio n i n th e Burmes e languag e o f whic h th e tex t an d translatio n ha s bee n give n above ; th e ston e measure s abov e th e socke t 3 ' 7 " b y 2 4 " broa d an d 5 " thick ; th e head-piec e o f th e ston e show s goo d carvin g (se e Plate XLI , No . 86) , an d th e top s o f th e latera l pillar s (als o alabaster ) ar e cu t int o lotu s flowers . I n th e north-eas t corne r o f th e platfor m stand s a Garuntaing , i.e., th e Garud a bird , mad e o f wood , mounte d o n a hig h pole ; a t th e bas e o f th e latte r ar e fou r woode n figures o n woode n post s (se e Plat e XLI , No . 85 ) ; th e figures ar e nearl y life-size , finely carve d an d gilded , th e fringe s o f thei r garment s an d head-dres s bein g inlai d wit h smal l piece s o f variousl y coloure d glass . O n th e nort h sid e a flight o f stair s lead s i n a straigh t lin e fro m th e foo t o f th e hil l t o th e platfor m ; i t wa s buil t b y Minpalaun g an d i s no w i n a ver y dilapidate d conditio n ; th e staircas e i s \ wide , wit h a bric k wal l \ 6" hig h o n eithe r sid e ; th e step s ar e als o constructe d wit h brick s se t o n thei r end s i n rows . A ston e imag e o f Gotam a 4 ' high , sittin g wit h leg s crosse d unde r th e body , stand s i n a smal l shrin e o n th e sout h sid e o f th e platform . Th e absenc e o f ornamentation , eve n o f th e floral design s i n stucco , s o commo n i n al l religiou s building s eas t o f th e Araka n Yoma , characterize s th e Mahamuni , Urittaung , an d nearl y al l othe r pago da s repaire d withi n th e las t 5 0 year s i n Arakan . Decorativ e art , eithe r execute d o n stone , i n plaster , wood , o r metal , ha s becom e nearl y extinc t o n th e wes t coas t o f Burma , thoug h i t ha d ther e attaine d t o a hig h stat e o f developmen t i n th e 15t h an d 16t h centuries . Th e Urittaun g pagod a i s visite d b y worshipper s fro m al l part s o f Arakan . Extensiv e repair s ar e no w carrie d o n o n th e platfor m ; th e pagod a i s t o b e gilde d anew , th e t i mended , th e templ e cour t i s t o b e pave d an d enclose d b y a bric k wall ; a ne w an d roofe d staircas e i s t o b e constructe d fro m th e foo t o f th e hil l t o th e platform , an d a praye r hal l erecte d o n th e nort h sid e o f th e pagoda . O f th e Camuttawdha t an d th e origina l Uritdha t pagoda s (se e pag e 56 ) n o trace s ar e left , un les s i t b e a smal l dilapidate d cet l o n th e nort h sid e o f th e hill ; a fe w cla y tablet s o f unknow n dat e wer e foun d ; on e tablet , 8 " broad , 6 " high , ha d th e surfac e divide d int o smal l regula r fields o f abou t a n inc h squar e wit h th e imag e o f Buddha , i n th e usua l sittin g posture , stampe d i n relief .

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AKYAB . 5 9 U KINDAWCETI . Thi s smal l pagod a stand s o n a precipitou s roc k o n th e wes t sid e o f Yathe taun g a t th e confluenc e o f th e May u rive r an d Yathechaung . " T o th e wes t o f Urittaun g (se e discours e o f Gotam a o n th e Selagiri , Ch . I , Mahamun i Pagoda , pag e 3 ) an d a t a distanc e o f abou t 3 league s ther e i s a rive r calle d Mallay u (no w Mayu) ; o n th e eas t ban k o f thi s rive r i s th e Rajapabbat a (no w Yathetaung ) ; o n thi s hil l I live d durin g on e o f m y birth s a s a Chaddant a elephan t (i.e., a n elephan t wit h si x tusks ) ; whe n I di e th e fronta l bon e o f thi s elephan t wil l b e foun d an d enshrine d i n a tabernacl e bearin g th e nam e o f U Kindawcet i (Kumbha ceti). " Th e nativ e chronicle s d o no t repor t th e nam e o f th e origina l founde r o f th e pagoda ; i t was re buil t b y Minpalaun g i n th e yea r B . E . 95 5 (A . D . 1591 ) a t th e sam e tim e whe n th e Urittaun g pagod a wa s bein g repaire d b y him . Th e spir e i s buil t o f block s o f sandstone , i s circula r a t th e base , an d rise s t o a heigh t o f abou t 8c / i n a successio n o f concentri c ring s narrowin g i n a t th e to p ; a n iro n t i sur mount s th e spire ; i t i s constructe d exactl y i n th e sam e styl e a s th e Urittaun g cetT , onl y o n a smalle r scale ; th e to p o f th e hil l i s to o narro w fo r a templ e court ; n o ornamenta l design s o f an y kind ; i t i s kep t i n tolerabl e goo d repai r b y th e inhabitant s o f Yathetaun g ; thi s sthup a require s n o furthe r notice . A fe w smal l an d moder n pagoda s crow n th e to p o f th e hil l t o th e north-east . LLNYODAWCETI . Thi s pagod a i s o n th e hil l rang e whic h separate s th e May u valle y fro m th e ocean , abou t 7 mile s t o th e wes t o f Buthitaung , clos e t o th e roa d leadin g t o Mongdo . Th e classica l nam e o f th e hil l rang e i s Kasinapabbata , an d her e Gotam a passed , accordin g t o th e Selagir i traditio n (se e pag e 3) , on e o f hi s existence s a s th e kin g o f peacocks . " O n m y deat h m y neckbon e wil l b e discovere d an d enshrine d ther e i n a pagod a t o b e calle d th e Linyodawcetl. " Traditio n an d nativ e re cord s affor d n o othe r informatio n ; i t i s no t no w know n wh o buil t it . Th e pagod a ha s completel y falle n t o ruin s ; i t mus t hav e bee n a smal l circula r ston e pyrami d t o judg e fro m th e trace s left . Th e sam e fat e wa s share d b y th e pagoda s o n th e Mallapabbata , th e Ve/uvannapabbata , Gandhagiri , an d Sandalamaya , whic h ar e mentione d i n th e Selagir i tradition . AKYAB . Th e tow n o f Akya b i s a moder n plac e an d owe s its origi n an d growt h chiefl y t o th e removal , i n th e yea r 1826 , o f th e Britis h garriso n fro m Mrohaun g (Myauk-u) , th e climat e o f whic h prove d pestilentia l t o th e troops , t o a smal l fishing villag e a t th e mout h o f th e Kalada n rive r no w develope d int o th e capita l o f th e Araka n division . Ther e are , however , som e haz y tradition s stil l lingerin g amon g th e Arakanes e whic h connec t fou r smal l pagoda s situate d o n a lo w sand y ridg e t o th e north-wes t o f Akya b tow n wit h th e famou s Selagir i traditio n o f Gotam a (se e Ch . I , Mahamun i Pagoda , page s 3 an d following ) ; the y ar e calle d th e Ankyei t o r Akyatta w (fro m th e latte r i s derive d th e nam e " Akya b ") , th e Thingyittawdhat , th e Letyatalundaw , an d th e Letwetalunda w pagoda , o r th e shrin e o f th e "bac k par t o f Gotama' s jaw, " tha t o f th e thig h o f Buddha , tha t o f th e righ t shin-bone , an d tha t o f th e lef t shin-bon e o f Gotama . Th e ridg e o n whic h the y stan d i s know n a s th e Akyatkundaw . Th e erectio n o f th e origina l pagodas , th e trace s o f whic h ar e stil l seen , i s sai d t o dat e bac k t o th e 16t h centur y ; the y fel l int o disrepai r an d latel y ne w " temple s " wer e erecte d o n th e ol d foundations . O n Plate s XXXIX , No . 83 , an d XLI , No . 87 , a photograp h i s give n o f th e Thingyitta w an d Akyatta w pagodas . Th e latte r i s buil t o n th e circula r fundament , measurin g 113 " i n circumference , o f th e ol d ston e templ e o f th e sam e nam e • th e superstructur e erecte d i n 187 3 b y P o Th a Za n o f Akya b i s al l brickwork ; it s heigh t i s 20' . Ther e ar e n o niches , images , flowered o r an y othe r design s o n the m o r th e res t o f thes e fou r pagodas , whic h hav e probabl y fe w equal s i n Burm a i n poin t o f uglines s an d tota l wan t o f an y featur e o f art , architecture , o r archaeologica l interest .

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6 o AKYAB . Ther e ar e a fe w moder n temple s i n Akya b whic h ar e interestin g inasmuc h a s thei r architectura l styl e i s a mixtur e o f th e Burmes e turrete d pagod a an d th e Mahomeda n four-cornere d minare t structur e surmounte d b y a hemispherica l cupola . Plate s XLI I an d XLII I sho w examples . Th e worship , too , i s mixed ; bot h temple s ar e visite d b y Mahomedan s an d Buddhists , an d th e Buddermoka n ha s als o it s Hind u votaries . Th e Buddermoka n (Plat e XLII , No . 88 ) i s sai d t o hav e bee n founde d i n A . D . 175 6 b y th e Mussulman s i n memor y o f on e Budde r Auliah , who m the y regar d a s a n eminen t saint . Colone l Nelso n Davies , i n 187 6 Deput y Commissione r o f Akyab , give s th e followin g accoun t i n a recor d preserve d i n th e offic e o f th e Commissione r o f Araka n an d kindl y len t m e : " O n th e souther n sid e " o f th e islan d o f Akyab , nea r th e easter n shor e o f th e Bay , ther e i s a grou p o f masonr y buildings , " on e o f which , i n it s styl e o f construction , resemble s a n India n mosqu e ; th e othe r i s a cave , con " structe d o f ston e o n th e bar e rock , whic h superstructur e onc e serve d a s a hermit' s cell . Th e spo t " wher e thes e building s ar e situate d i s calle d Buddermokan , Budde r bein g th e nam e o f a sain t o f " Islam , an d mokan , a plac e o f abode . I t i s sai d tha t 14 0 year s ag o o r thereabout s tw o brother s " name d Manickan d Chan , trader s fro m Chittagong , whil e returnin g fro m Cap e Negrai s i n a vesse l " loade d wit h turmeric , calle d a t Akya b fo r water , an d th e vesse l anchore d of f th e Buddermoka n rocks , " O n th e followin g night , afte r Cha n an d Manic k ha d procure d wate r nea r thes e rocks , Manic k ha d " a drea m tha t th e sain t Budde r Aulia h desire d hi m t o construc t a cav e o r a plac e o f abod e a t th e " localit y nea r wher e the y procure d th e water . Manic k replie d tha t h e ha d n o mean s wherewit h h e " coul d compl y wit h th e request . Budde r the n sai d tha t al l hi s (Manick's ) turmeri c woul d tur n int o " gold , an d tha t h e shoul d therefor e endeavou r t o erec t th e buildin g fro m th e proceed s thereof . " Whe n mornin g cam e Manick , observin g tha t al l th e turmeri c ha d bee n transforme d int o gold , con " suite d hi s brothe r Cha n o n th e subjec t o f th e drea m an d the y conjointl y constructe d a cav e an d " als o du g a wel l a t th e localit y no w know n a s Buddermokan . "Ther e ar e order s i n Persia n i n th e Deput y Commissioner' s Cour t o f Akya b date d 183 4 fro m Willia m Dampier , Esquire , Commissione r o f Chittagong , an d als o fro m T . Dickenson , Esquire , Commissione r o f Arakan , t o th e effec t tha t on e Hussai n All y (the n th e thugy i o f Bhudama w circle ) wa s t o hav e charg e o f th e Buddermoka n i n toke n o f hi s goo d service s rendere d t o th e Britis h forc e i n 1825 , an d t o enjo y an y sum s tha t h e migh t collec t o n accoun t o f alm s an d offerings . "I n 184 9 Mr . R . C . Raikes , th e officiatin g Magistrat e a t Akyab , ordere d tha t Hussai n All y wa s t o hav e charg e o f th e Buddermoka n buildings , an d grante d permissio n t o on e Ma h Min g Oung , a femal e fakir , t o erec t a building ; accordingl y i n 184 9 th e presen t masonr y building s wer e con structe d b y her ; sh e als o re-du g th e tank . " Th e expenditur e lo r th e whol e wor k cam e t o abou t Rs . 2,000 . Afte r Hussai n Ally' s deat h hi s so n Abdoola h ha d charge , an d afte r th e deat h o f th e latte r hi s siste r M e Moorazamal , th e presen t wif e o f Abdoo l Marein , Pleader , too k charge . Abdoo l Mareini s no w i n charg e o n behal f o f hi s wife. " Plate XLI I show s th e genera l feature s o f th e exterio r o f th e buildings ; th e interio r i s ver y simple : a squar e o r quadrangula r room . Ther e ar e reall y tw o caves , on e o n th e to p o f th e rock s (se e photograph) ; i t ha s a n entranc e o n th e nort h an d sout h sides ; th e arc h I s vaulte d an d s o i s th e inne r chamber ; th e exterio r o f th e cav e i s 9 ' 3 " wide , 1 T 6 " long , an d 8 ' 6 " high ; th e inne r chambe r measure s 7 ' b y 5 ' 8 " ; heigh t 6 ' 5 " ; th e materia l i s partl y stone , partl y bric k plastere d ove r ; th e whol e i s absolutel y devoi d o f decorativ e designs . Th e othe r cave i s similarl y constructed , onl y th e floo r i s th e bar e rock , slightl y slantin g toward s th e sout h entranc e ; i t i s stil l smalle r tha n th e preced in g cave . Th e principa l mosqu e stand s o n a platfor m ; a fligh t o f bric k an d ston e stair s lead s u p t o i t • th e eas t fron t o f th e templ e measures 28 ' 6" , th e sout h sid e 2 6 ' 6" ; th e chambe r i s 16 ' 9 " lon g an d 13 ' wide ; th e ceilin g i s a cupol a ; o n th e wes t sid e i s a niche , le t i ' int o th e wall , wit h a pointe d arc h

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SANDOWAY . 6 l an d a pillaste r o n eac h side ; ove r i t hang s a cop y i n Persia n o f th e gran t mentione d above . A smal l praye r hall , als o quadrangular , wit h a lo w cupola , i s presse d i n betwee n th e rock s clos e b y ; al l th e building s ar e i n goo d order . Th e curiousl y shape d rock s cappe d b y thes e building s for m a ver y pic turesqu e group . Th e principa l mosqu e ha s becom e th e prototyp e fo r man y Buddhis t temple s lik e th e on e o n Plate XLII I ; thi s pagod a i s th e mos t perfec t typ e o f th e blendin g o f th e India n mosqu e an d th e Burmes e turrete d spire . SANDOWAY . W e continu e wit h th e descriptio n o f th e sthupa s connecte d wit h th e Selagir i tradition . Afte r th e castin g o f th e Mahamun i imag e Gotam a i s sai d t o hav e lef t fo r Dvaravati , i.e., Sandoway . Whil e standin g o n th e Tantawmutaun g h e predicte d (se e Ch . I , Mahamun i Pagoda , pag e 5 ) th e erectio n o f th e Andaw , Nandaw , an d Sanda w pagoda s ove r relic s o f hi s bod y o f forme r existences . ANDAWCETI . Thi s pagod a stand s o n th e Sanda w hill , upo n th e lef t ban k o f th e Sandowa y river , abou t half-a-mil e distan t fro m th e tow n an d a mil e t o th e sout h o f th e Nanda w pagoda . " Ananda, " sai d Gotama , " I wh o a m you r elde r brother , was man y a tim e i n forme r existence s a kin g o f me n i n thi s ver y cit y ; i n on e o f m y birth s I was a harmadrya d kin g o n th e Pasura pabbata ; o n m y deat h m y mola r toot h shal l com e t o b e enshrine d o n tha t hil l i n a pagod a t o b e calle d th e Andawceti. " Buddha' s prophec y wa s fulfille d i n th e yea r B . E . 12 5 (A . D . 762) . Kin g Minzecho k o f Dviira vat i buil t a pagod a ove r th e mola r toot h o f th e harmadryad , th e Bodhisat . Th e shrin e wa s repaire d A . D . 132 3 b y Kin g Mahaz o (Launggye t dynasty ) ; agai n b y orde r o f Minrajagy i o f th e Myauku dynast y i n B . E . 96 9 (A . D . 1626) . I n th e yea r 103 8 (A . D . 1676 ) th e piou s Kin g o f Myauk-u , Canda sudhamma , thoroughl y restore d th e Andaw , Nandaw , an d Sanda w pagodas , erecte d monasteries , an d mad e larg e offerings . Abou t 1 0 year s ag o th e Andawcet i wa s rebuil t wit h bricks , plastered , an d whitewashe d ; th e inhabitant s o f Andawyu a an d Sandowa y kee p th e sthup a an d premise s i n order . A n iro n ti , gilded , was pu t o n th e pagod a i n B . E . 121 0 (A . D . 1848) ; th e dee d i s recorde d o n a ston e lyin g outsid e th e templ e cour t (se e below) . Th e pagod a i s octagona l a t th e bas e ; eac h sid e measure s fro m 2 5 t o 2 7 feet , th e circumferenc e bein g 24 4 feet ; fro m th e bel l upward s th e spir e i s circular , graduall y narrowin g i n a t th e to p ; tota l heigh t 4 6 feet ; n o porch , niches , o r ornamenta l design s o f an y kind ; no t eve n a n imag e o r alta r ; th e templ e cour t i s no t pave d ; i t i s narro w an d encompasse d b y a quadrangula r wall ; a n irregula r octago n draw n i n a squar e i s th e groun d pla n o f th e platfor m an d spir e ; th e structur e i s badl y buil t an d o f littl e interes t t o th e antiquarian , excep t throug h it s connectio n wit h th e Selagir i tradition . A smal l ne w bel l i n th e north-eas t corne r o f th e platfor m bear s th e dat e B . E . 123 6 (A . D . 1875) . Outsid e th e templ e court , o n th e eas t sid e o f th e hill , lie s a circula r ston e measurin g 15 " i n circumferenc e ; i n th e centr e a squar e hol e ha s bee n cut , eac h sid e measurin g 2 2' • th e sla b i s T 2 " thick ; th e spac e betwee n th e hol e an d th e edg e o f th e ston e i s covere d b y a Burmes e inscriptio n recordin g th e puttin g u p o f a ne w t i a t a cos t o f ove r Rs . 35 0 ; th e inscriptio n i s modern , bu t th e ston e i s ol d ; whe n breakin g dow n th e ol d pagod a t o rebuil d i t th e sla b was foun d immure d abov e th e bel l (garbha ) ; th e squar e hol e i n th e centr e receive d th e " ti-yo, " th e bea m o r pos t whic h support s th e ti , th e lowe r en d bein g walled-i n i n th e uppe r par t o f th e pagoda . A peculia r superstitiou s practise , whic h I hav e me t wit h onl y i n Arakan , i s connecte d wit h suc h unuse d umbrell a stone s ; i t prognosticate s th e succes s o r failur e o f a contemplate d undertakin g ; th e ston e i s place d fla t o n th e groun d withi n th e templ e court ; a twi g o f th e tamarin d tre e ( Tamarindu s indica) i s plante d withi n th e squar e hol e ; i f th e twi g thrive s well , succes s ma y b e expecte d ; bu t i f i t 1 6

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6 2 SANDOWAY . dies , failur e i s certai n ; th e ston e o n th e Anda w pagod a wa s pu t t o thi s us e a fe w year s ago ; th e plante d spri g drie d up ; th e sla b wa s rolle d outsid e th e templ e cour t an d i s no w tabooed . Th e followin g i s a cop y o f th e inscriptio n : cssoSeaoD^p i c»g S ojooq^ S dS'oqgooooSoSgJoaoS^cf j cooSoo " [3800 0 cpS n £»GOo8GOc8oooS(^r^I I CGCFIAOO J GOOOS J ojc^iicoSoq . OQOGGGOO'QPCO ^ cq
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SANDAWSHIN . 6 3 surmount s th e whole . Th e templ e cour t i s no t paved , bu t kep t clea n ; th e wal l aroun d th e platfor m i s als o octagonal , buil t o f bricks , 5 ' high , an d provide d wit h thre e entrances , bu t onl y th e on e staircas e alread y mentioned . I n th e north-eas t corne r hang s a ne w bel l bearin g th e dat e Sakkara j 1211 . Decorativ e ar t ha s no t touche d th e pagoda ; ther e ar e n o niches , porches , no t eve n a singl e imag e o r anythin g els e wort h noticin g o n th e platform . O n th e foo t o f th e hil l ar e a fe w smal l shrine s o f moder n date . On e deserve s notice . I n appearanc e i t i s lik e a n ordinar y Mahomeda n buria l monu men t ; i t was buil t fo r th e purpos e o f preservin g manuscript s (se e Plat e XLIV , No . 90 ) ; th e inne r chambe r i s square , th e ceilin g follow s th e contou r o f th e roof ; th e whol e structur e i s mad e o f brick s an d coate d wit h plaster . Th e NANDAWCETI , o n th e Nanda w (Lokula ) hill , standin g upo n th e lef t ban k o f th e Sandowa y rive r an d distan t a mil e i n a northerl y directio n fro m th e town . O f thi s plac e Gotam a sai d (Selagir i tradition ) : " No t fa r fro m th e Pasur a hil l i s th e Lokul a " hillock , wher e I onc e live d a s a partridge-king . Whe n I di e m y namadhat u (? ) wil l ther e b e foun d "an d shal l b e enshrine d i n a pagod a t o b e calle d th e Nandawcet i (Rib-relic-pagoda). " Th e sthup a i s sai d t o hav e bee n buil t i n th e yea r Sakkara j 12 4 (A . D . 763 ) b y Kin g Minby a ; repaired , o r rathe r re-built , b y Mahaz o A . D . 1323 , Minrajagy i A . D . 1626 , Candasudhamm a A . D . 1676 , an d b y th e inhabitant s o f Sandowa y i n 184 9 an d 1878 . Originall y i t i s describe d a s havin g ha d onl y th e heigh t o f 6' ; eac h repaire r constructe d a ne w pagod a ove r th e ol d on e an d i t i s no w abou t 40 ' hig h fro m th e bas e t o th e ti ; it s circumferenc e a t th e bas e i s 1 1 o feet ; i t i s octagona l below , circula r toward s th e en d ; it s styl e i s exactl y tha t o f th e Anda w an d Sanda w pagodas , onl y o n a smalle r scale , an d i s a s barre n i n ar t an d object s o f anti quaria n interes t a s it s siste r shrine s ; w e hav e mentione d the m becaus e the y ar e connecte d wit h th e Selagir i traditio n an d th e foundatio n o f th e Mahamun i templ e ; th e sit e o f th e thre e pagoda s i s un doubtedl y a s ol d a s tha t o f DvaravatI ; bu t no t a trac e o f th e ol d shrine s no w remains , unles s the y b e enclose d withi n th e ne w structure s erecte d ove r th e ol d ones . Th e origina l sit e of . Dvaravat I mus t hav e bee n abou t 1 2 mile s wes t o f th e presen t tow n o f Sandoway , o n th e lef t ban k o f th e river ; bu t al l searche s fo r antiquitie s wer e withou t success . Fro m Sandowa y t o Kw a ar e n o archaeologica l remain s o f an y importance . Ngapoli , Go , an d Myochaun g t o th e sout h an d south-eas t o f Sandoway , an d nea r th e seashore , wer e visite d an d carefull y examine d a s thes e part s o f th e coas t an d adjacan t island s wer e ofte n occupie d b y Portugues e pirate s an d adventurer s fro m Goa ; n o trace s o f thei r settlement s wer e found . Myochaun g i s sup pose d t o b e s o calle d because , I wa s told , ther e ar e stil l th e remain s o f a n ol d tow n ( § myo ) an d for t t o b e see n o n th e bank s o f th e streamlet ; w e followe d i t u p its sources , bu t i n vain . I n th e 15t h centur y th e Taking s ha d conquere d Araka n fro m Kw a t o Launggye t an d Mrohaung . Th e mai n bod y o f th e Myo s (pronounce d i n Araka n " Mr o " ) wer e drive n t o th e nort h o f Kalada n ; a por tio n o f thi s onc e powerfu l mountai n trik e retire d t o th e valle y o f thi s strea m an d stubbornl y an d suc cessfull y defende d thei r ne w hom e agains t th e Takings . Hencefort h i t wa s calle d Myochaun g o r Mrochaung . W e reache d Araka n a t th e en d o f April ; th e monsoon , beginnin g i n June , prevente d m y visitin g th e uppe r region s o f th e Mayu , Kaladan , an d Lemr o rivers . SANDAWSHI N PAGODA . Th e Nandawcet i i n Sandowa y i s th e southernmos t an d las t o f religiou s edifice s i n Araka n con necte d wit h th e Selagir i tradition . O n th e Borong a o r Myainyoo n island , whic h form s th e easter n ban k o f th e Gacchabh a o r Kalada n rive r a t its junctio n wit h th e sea, ar e foun d th e ruin s o f a smal l pagod a buil t o f ston e wit h a nich e toward s th e eas t containin g a fe w image s hew n clumsil y ou t o f

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6 4 SA N DAW S H IN . whit e limestone . Exceptin g th e niche , th e shrin e i s massiv e throughou t an d wa s originall y a simpl e pyrami d o f th e Shw e Dago n type . Wit h thi s Sandawshi n par a begin s anothe r importan t traditio n whic h commingle s wit h an d partl y overlay s th e legen d o f th e Mahamun i temple . I t i s th e stor y o f th e journe y o f th e tw o brother s Taphuss a an d Pallika , wh o travelle d a s merchant s betwee n Suvannabhum i (Burma ) an d Bengal . Th e stor y run s thu s : " Whil e journeyin g i n Indi a the y cam e upo n Gotam a whil e h e " reside d i n Yajagy o (Rajagriha) ; the y pai d hi m devou t homag e an d presente d numerou s offerings . " Gotam a Buddha , observin g th e grea t respec t an d devotio n show n him , mad e the m a presen t o f eigh t " o f th e hair s o f hi s hea d t o tak e wit h the m t o thei r nativ e country . O n thei r journe y t o Ukkalap o " (suppose d t o b e region s o f th e delta o f th e Irrawaddy ) i t cam e t o pas s tha t fro m stres s o f weathe r " th e tw o brother s calle d a t Nagamma w situate d o n th e Borong a islan d ; the y foun d th e se a to o boister " ou s t o procee d further . I n th e interi m durin g thei r stay a t th e plac e i t s o occurre d tha t a Nag a o r " sea-drago n struc k wit h th e divin e effulgenc e o f Gotama' s hai r assume d th e for m o f a huma n bein g . " appearin g i n thi s stat e befor e th e tw o traveller s h e promise d the m that , shoul d the y presen t hi m tw o " o f Buddha' s hairs , h e woul d becal m th e weathe r t o enabl e the m t o procee d o n thei r journey . They , " complie d wit h hi s request , th e se a becam e calm , an d Taphuss a an d Pallik a reache d Ukkalap o i n " safety . Her e the y erecte d th e Shw e Dago n an d othe r pagodas , an d deposite d th e hairs , place d i n " golde n caskets , i n th e reli c chamber s o f thos e shrines. " Th e Mahamun i templ e i s th e centr e o f th e Selagir i tradition , th e Shw e Dago n i n Rangoo n tha t o f th e hai r legend . The y ar e th e tw o oldes t i n Burm a an d w e shal l ofte n hav e t o refe r t o the m i n futur e reports . Th e journe y o f Taphuss a an d Pallika , an d th e presentatio n o f hai r t o the m b y Buddh a i s mentione d i n th e Mahavagg a o f th e Vinay a Pitak a (se e m y repor t o n th e Shw e Dago n pagoda) . Befor e concludin g th e repor t o n Araka n I mus t onc e mor e rever t t o tha t curiou s book , th e Sabbathanapakaranam , alread y mentione d o n pag e 2 , Chapter I , Mahamun i pagoda . Amongs t othe r interestin g informatio n i t give s a lis t o f th e 19 8 ancien t an d moder n citie s i n Arakan , 99 o n eac h sid e o f th e Gacchabh a o r Kalada n river . Th e spellin g i s throughou t tha t o f th e origina l manu script . The gg cities to the east of the Gacchabha Nadi (Kaladan). (19 ) ooSfteooo S Ti n (o r Tang ) Rutaung . (1 ) Dvaravatl . (2 ) o|oc 8 Pannavati . (3 ) d8gc 8 Sibbali . (4 ) oSscSsgS g Minthamipyi n (o r prang) . (5 ) oSsooosgS s Minthabyi n (o r prang) . (6 ) cocSooSo ^ Thaktinwun . (7 ) scSoq s Zintu . (8 ) GOISGCOO S Baunglaung . (9 ) c^SsJ S Taingkyain . (10 ) OOOO^GOO S Kavantaw . (11 ) GDDoc8g 5 Thaukpyi n (o r prang) . (12 ) ©gSGoooSoooo S Zibhaungtaung . (13 ) ocbcooo S Paletaung . (14 ) of>lg S Gangapyi n (Gangaprang) . (15 ) GblSgcooo S Khaungprutaung . (16 ) o§oo S Wunti n o r Wantang . (17 ) Muncari . (18 ) oocqogo o Velupabbata . (20 ) G^SGOOQ S Netaung . (21 ) GG|sg«Ss2^ 8 Yekhyamaing . (22 ) G§|O§8GOOO S Shwepantaung . (23 ) ogg o Paiic a (Binza) . (24 ) GoqjooSolsGoco S Kyaukpantaung . (25 ) cS^qo S Sirigut . (26 ) soSafjJ s Zhinkyo . (27 ) ©goc 8 Dhannavati . (28 ) 00^209 6 Kanthonin g (o r ang) . (29 ) osgjoc B Ajjhavati . (30 ) c8^«ooc 8 Slrimavati . (31 ) «Dcoou}gB^os§Gpago S Rajaky o (Raja griha) , clos e t o th e Malay u river . (Th e Malay u rive r i s no w calle d Mayu ; i t i s th e westernmos t o f th e larg e Arakanes e rivers ; a "Ne w Rajakyo " ha d bee n founde d there) .

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ARAKAN . 6 5 (3 2 ) HI 0 0 ® Rannavati . (33 ) GODcoo^§g8ao8|i!Goo>oc 8 Vesali , nea r th e Selanadi . (Th e ruin s o f Vesal i ar e abou t 2 0 mile s nort h o f Mrohaung. ) (34 ) Pancavat L (35 ) ^goc B Sammavati . (36 ) ooqa8cqggo8£ j Karamsuttavagiri . (37 ) Kywepyi n (Krweprang) . (38 ) GCO8^5«GOOO 8 Lehningtaung . (39 ) ^g 0 0 ® Kummavati . (40 ) olcS o Pasiva . (41 ) ©gg ^ Cancana . (42 ) c»o8dJ S Thavingaing . (43 ) S £ c 3 s Pyaingtaing . (44 ) G§OO8GOOD S Khwethintaung . (45 ) OII^SSGOOO S Payintaung . (46 ) Gsogl f (coog]$ ) Cheddana( ? Bheddana) . (47 ) @o5c»Gq©ooo 8 Kyettharetaung . (48 ) o^odoo6codo 8 Zithabhintaung . (49 ) §So8 $ Yinkattei n (Ran g Khaptein) . (62 ) ogooc B Cammavati . The gg Cities to the west of the (1 ) (c§°o«co § Kylmasari . (2 ) cqcc"$3> 8 Kulapanjing . (3 ) go o Phyum a (Phruma) . (4 ) Kantamajjhima . (5 ) ooSo q Pakhingara . (63 ) «$GOGO S Manaung . (64 ) O$S}$OD O Pannantha . (65 ) Minz a (Maiica) . (66 ) o^ogi^soo o Zapokywuntha . (67 ) S8O5OGOODC 8 Zheitmatauk . (68 ) co8Lingl o (Langlo) . (69 ) gco § Th e cit y o f Kammal a nea r th e Vas u river . (83 ) OOG|O5GOOO 5 Tharaktaung . (84 ) Muni . (85 ) o8ooco 8 Zittaling . (86 ) Go^ooSccgo l Kyaukhlekha . (87 ) cooScsoo o Lakphaya . (88 ) §0 5 Hmanku . (89 ) coS g Lin g (Lang ) my o (th e cit y o f Ling) . (90 ) eg g Myemy o (Mremro) , th e cit y o f My e (Mre) . (91 ) G^qggc p Neranjara . (92 ) oqooooc B Kusavatl . (93 ) Th e cit y o f Nat l (?) . (94 ) ogoc8g s Myauk u (Mrohaung) . (95 ) O G l £ Parin g (Prang) , t o th e eas t o f Mro haung . (96 ) ccqol o Cat u (r ) gama , know n unde r th e mor e moder n nam e o f Launggyet . Th e remainin g name s ar e effaced . Gacchabha (.Kaladan) river. (6 ) ooo>8ooc o Kajingkala . (7 ) mfococo Santakala . (8 ) OO A OOOG P S > Kantakaraj . (9 ) c^ 0 ^ 2 ! 3 ^ Zikuraj . (10 ) GODooooooGp§ ) Sotakaraj . 1 7

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6 6 ARAKAN . (11 ) ooDoogooGpS> g Mahapabbatarajmy o (th e cit y o f th e Mountai n Chief , a n hono rar y titl e bestowe d b y Arakanes e an d Burmes e King s upo n submissiv e tribu tar y Hil l Chiefs) . (12 ) qgoracp& g Culakarajmy o (th e cit y o f Culakaraj) . (13 ) oocoooDcpS ) Kalakaraj . (14 ) oggc8oo8cp & Pa7zcalikinraj . (15 ) oogSolo q Kapingvaku . (16 ) c|oooGp & Candasaraj . (17 ) o^oco o Pankhala . (18 ) D3£gc§§ g Anjatanadimy o (th e cit y o f Anjat a river) . (19 ) o^oooooc B Parccakamavatl . (20 ) oo^Giggco l Ta w carar a capo . (21 ) aoggoo ^ Ajjhatan . (22 ) Suvanumagiri . (23 ) gs g Myimy o (Mrimro ) (th e cit y o f Mri) . (24 ) o§©coo^>o q Pathidhalanagara . (25 ) ©S^ ^ Pa/ffianagor . (26 ) ^go^ R Ramapura . (27 ) colcgq ^ Pakkharanandi . (28 ) CDOOOIO O Samavaya . (29 ) GOCO3O$GOOO 8 Velapantaung . (30 ) oDooq g Th e cit y o f Kakara . (31 ) COD^OO ^ Ngatansar& . (32 ) Mallaraj . (33 ) wrgo^o q Yakkhagandhara . (34 ) s^ 0 ^ Samaglri . (35 ) Candagiri . (36 ) coqq g Th e cit y o f Catura . (37 ) QCS^CPS ) PULINTARAJ . (38 ) 000^(330$, ) Bhavant i ( ? Avanti) . (39 ) coDooooDGpS . Kokakaraj . (40 ) OOOGOCCO S ZHATALING . (41 ) ©GtoSc q Khamaungton . (42 ) coqoS^ S Tharakaing . (43 ) cggScoooo S Kyientauk . (44 ) o$«g S Panpyi n (Panprang) . (45 ) ©?SGOOJCO|IIOD8O5GOOG6 H Thapeittaun g i n Y o Vebhula . (46 ) o|og8$os|nooS©ooo£GoooSi i YingChaung taung , nea r th e rive r Panna . (47 ) GODOggoo§gso*|a»8sg8sGooo S In g (Ang ) Kyintaung , nea r th e rive r Sokkatan . (48 ) c§)o( 5 Shw e Sankyan . (49 ) ao8c8§gsgs^os|iiao£eoo g Th e cit y o f Zhin the , nea r th e rive r Zintainkhyin . (50 ) Zhaddanaing . (51 ) oDo$cg$ g Savankywun . (52 ) ©SOO^IOO S Zittanting . (53 ) 0300 5 Sama k (Thamet) . (54 ) g 03 0 ^ ® Yaukkhama . (55 ) 300^ 8 Zhantunbw& . (56 ) odo }© ooo 8 Th a (Sa ) lutaung. (57 ) Th e cit y o f Tap . (58 ) GoooSog^ s Taungkywun . (59 ) o9jc8gooSgooo S Kyektawtaung . (60 ) oDocq q Kasura . (61 ) G00008Taukzon . (62 ) d^cocjcqjo S T&lamuchhaung . (63 ) GCSGODOO S Phekauk . (64 ) conga s Phekywun . (65 ) OGOOSc8oS(s8o5 ) Khamaun g Chei t (zhei t ? ) (66 ) gSs|?cooo$8©ooo8 i Nilapantaun g i n Hmain . (67 ) ^ Kh&lu . (68 ) Surananda . (69 ) oDo^cpS ) Samantaraj . (70 ) 6)OOGOD O Patako . (71 ) oocfjSoo S T a (n ) Taingthin . (72 ) q|©o5.Gooo S Khyinthetaung . (73 ) goSeooGooo S Myatthetaung . (74 ) ^gcp^oogcpS, ) Andara j ( ? Bhandaraj) . (75 ) ro &Bd^S Kinbhiaing . (76 ) ^§08^ 8 Y b (Rb ) Y o (ro ) pintaing . (77 ) GOOOGODOO S Themathauk . (78 ) oooscj ^ Thapyongo . (79 ) oo^g8^os|©oq)oo5oo©T 8 Kyaukt a (n ) Kh a nea r th e Takh o river . (80 ) ocq8GsjjoSs^08§ooq8oD$ g Th e cit y o f Tarop ka n (Chines e quarter ) nea r th e Taro p creek . (81 ) c§?Goo g Th e cit y o f Khwethe . (82 ) egoo q Omara . (83 ) ogpg g Cakk'avanna . (84 ) eoqg g Veranja . (85 ) ooqS g Taropmy o (Chines e city) . (86 ) oooooo g Thayamy o (th e cit y o f Thaya) . (87 ) o^o g Th e cit y o f Mala . (88 ) ©ooo8oDo g Th e cit y o f Aungtha . (89 ) ?coog£ g Th e tow n o f Nilapyi n (Nilaprang) . (90 ) cggSeoooo S Kyientauk .

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ARAKAN . 6 7 (91 ) acSgcooo S Zhinphyutaung . (92 ) G^OOSGSJJOS S Nyaungchaung . (93 ) Zinyinpya . (94 ) oocfjSso S T a (n ) taingvin . (99 ) * Som e o f th e name s ar e moder n an d quit e fanciful , lik e (98 ) an d (99) . prov e usefu l t o th e studen t o f th e ancien t histor y o f India . (95 ) * O G l § Nagaramy o (? ) (96 ) ccooqoo g Th e cit y o f Lorama . (97 ) Pyasatu . (98 ) ^ooooo g Th e cit y o f Nattisal a (? ) ^oco g Th e cit y o f Nattibal a (? ) Th e lis t wil l probabl y