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Lessons in the Shanghai dialect

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Lessons in the Shanghai dialect
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Hawks Potts, F. L.
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Commercial Press, Ltd.
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English
Chinese
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Revised Edition
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174 p. : 19.5 cm.

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Asia -- China -- Shanghai -- Shanghai
亞洲 -- 中國 -- 上海 -- 上海
亚洲 -- 中国 -- 上海 -- 上海
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31.228611 x 121.474722

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SOAS University of London
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LESSONS
IN THE
SHANGHAI DIALECT
BY
Rev. F. L. HAWKS POTT, d.d.
w ...':
SED EDITION

Printed at the Commercial Press, Ltd,
Shanghai, China
1924




TABLE OF
CONTENTS
page no.
Ability to do . 3956, 73
Abstract Nouns formed
of two Adjectives . .109
Adjectives .. . 8
Adjectives, Comparison
of...... 82
Adverbs, Interrogative 22, 30
Adverbs of Place and Time 35
Aspirates .. vi
Classifiers . 1
Comparison of Adjectives 82
Compass, Points of . 86
Compound Verbs . 104
Connectives . 19
Dzaky Use of . . 27
Family Relations .. 99
Finals..... vii

Importance, Expressions
as to..... 56
Initials..... vi
Interrogatives . . 1122
Necessity, Expressions
of...... 4961
Negatives ...., 11
Not At All .., .61
Numerals . ,6,52
PAGE NO.
Numerals Ordinals 78
Passive Voice . ..35
Polite language . ..120
Postpositions . ..19
Potential Mood . .22
Prepositions . ..19
Pronouns . . ..3, 52
Proverbs . . ..125
Questions, Asking ..69
Reduplication of Verbs 27
Reflexive Pronouns ..27
Siang, Use of ..65
Subjunctive Mood ..22
Time .. . .3078
TimeThere is or is not 56
Tones .
Useful Phrases . 113, 117
Verbs . .15
Verbs, Auxiliary .44
Verbs, Compound . .104
Verbal Idioms .
3956, 61, 657378
VocabularyChinese-
English .....128
VocabularyEnglish-
Chinese .....149
Weights and Measures 95




PREFACE
T a time when there is much discussion in China as to
the desirability and possibility of the adoption of a
uniform language all over the Empire, it may seem
strange to put forth a book on the Shanghai Dialect.
The writer sympathizes fully with the aims of those who
would make Mandarin the Medium of Communication through-
out China, but at the same time feels very strongly that a great
many years must pass before this can be accomplished.
Local dialects die hard, as witness the still existing varieties
of speech found in Great Britain. Even more perfect means of
communication binding the parts of a country closely together,
and even the introduction of a common language into the School
System, are not able of themselves to do away with the speaking
of the old local dialect. Men cling persistently to the speech
of their forefathers.
When we reiSect that the so-called Shanghai Dialect is in
reality the ancient language of the Wu Kii)g(3pm, and is perhaps
more closely akin to the original language of the Chinese people
than Mandarin, we can understand why it will last for. many-
years.
Further, it has a very wide range. Although local varieties
occur every few miles, in the main the Shanghai Dialect is
understood by at least 20,000,000 people.
For the missionary working in the Kiangsu Province n
knowledge of the local dialect is indispensable, and the acquisi-
tion of it would be most useful for all those whose lot is cast in
this part of China. Foreigners living in Shanghai would find it
a great advantage to speak the native language, and in theiv


PREFACB
business relations with the Chinese would be greatly helped if
they could converse in something better than the jargon known
as uPidgin" English.
It is for the purpose of making the attainment of a speaking
knowledge of the language somewhat ess difficult that the writing
of this book has been undertaken.
It has seemed to the writer that the acquisition of a knowl-
edge of the written characters, and of the spoken language are
two distinct things. One may learn to speak the language
without being able to read the characters.
By the use of the clear and simple System of Romanizatioii
adopted by missionaries in Shanghai, it is possible to represent
approximately all the sounds employed in the dialect.
In these lessons this system is adopted, and the student is
urged to master it thoroughly. If he will do sohe can use these
lessons and learn to speak the language even without knowing
the characters.
The characters of the words and sentences employed are given,
but they are put in the book for the benefit of the Chinese
teacher. It would be unwise to trust entirely to the Romaniza-
tion. The student in using the book should have a teacher by
his side, who by reading the Chinese corresponding to the
romanized sounds can give him a clearer idea of the pronuncia-
tion.
Although in a sense the book is a short cut to learning the
spoken language, of course it is not meant to discourage the
student from mastering the written language. This is however,
a distinct study, and should be undertaken in a different way.
The best method for this will be to use a primer in vernacular
containing the most familiar characters, and then to advance
from it to the reading of the New Testament or other books in
the vernacular. Vernacular books should be read first, for


^RfePA'CiE
the reading of theiri will be a greiat assistance in learning the
spoken language. After the first year, books in the literary
style (W^n-li) should be begun.
In using this book, the first thing to be mastered thoroughly
is the introductory matter. The student must get this firstfor
it is the key to the rest of the book. He must also learn to
distinguish the tones, and the inflections of the voice which they
imply. Then he will be ready to get on with the lessons.
Although the book is divided into thirty lessons, it is not
expected that the student will be able to master a lesson a day.
Some of the lessons will require three or four days' work.
In putting the English sentences into Chinese, the best plan
would be to write out in the Romanization what the student
thinks the proper way of translating them would be. Then these
sentences may be read to the teacher, who will correct them, and
from the Chinese text will be able to tell the right way to say
them.
At present only thirty lessons are published. The writer
hopes, however, if the method proves to be useful, to extend
these lessons still farther in the future.
In preparing these lessons, many books have been consulted,
especially the lessons by Dr. Yates, which contain a most useful
collection of words and sentences, and have long been the stand-
ard book for learning the Dialect; the Grammar by Dr. Edkins
which contains a mass of useful information in regard to the
structure of the language, and the Mandarin Lessons by Dr.
Mateer, a most exhaustive work on spoken Chinese.
The writer's thanks are due especially to Rev. J. A. Silsby
for the permission to make use of his clear statement of the
Shanghai System of R'oroanization' knd to Prof. F1. C. Cooper for
many suggestions and bhe trbuble lie has taken in reading the
proofs.


iy
The unfailing courtesy of Rev. Gr. F. Fitch, D. D., Messrs
Gilbert Mcintosh and C. W. Douglass has been much appreciated
in the care they have taken in seeing the book through the press.
F. L. H. P.
January 1st, 1907.
THE REVISED EDITION
The compiler of these lessons is gratified to find that they
have proved useful to students of the Shanghai Dialect. He
regrets that he has been too much occupied to prepare additional
lessons.
In reprinting them care has been taken to make the necessary
corrections. The copy used by the late Prof. W. 0B. Harding
has been of great service in the work of revision, as in it almost
all the errors in tone marks, punctuation, and typography had
been noted. Dr. A. W. Tucker has very kindly compiled the
vocabularies at th6 end of the book, and in this way has en-
hanced its value.
The author's thanks are due to all those who have glvien him
suggestions and pointed out mistakes.
F. L. II. P.
April 28th, 1909.
NEW EDITION
In preparing the. new edition, the author has received most
valuable help from his colleague, Prof, F. C. Cooper. The two
new lessons were su^gusied by him, and the one containing


PREFACE
more useful words and phrases is the result of his experience,
gained through teaching the book to a class of beginners.
My thanks are also due to him for the time and care he has
spent in correcting the proofs, and seeing the book through the
press.
The author hopes the book will continue to be a useful step-
ping-stone in the acquisition of a knowledge of the Shanghai
Dialect.
Inasmuch as Davis's Shanghai Dialect Exercisesmay be
used as a second book after the completion of this, it has not
been deemed necessary to add many new lessons.
F. L. £[. P.
October 29th, 1913.
In putting out this new edition, the author has made neces-
sary corrections, and added a few new terms. The Chinese
language is changing rapidly at the present time. Some expres-
sions and terms formerly used have become obsolete and new
ones have taken their place.
The French Fathers at Siccawei, with the author's permis-
sion, have published a French edition, and it is gratifying to
think that the influence of this book has in this way been
farther extended.
Attention is called to a very good little book, Conversa-
tional Lessons in the Shanghai Dialect prepared b}' Dr. Frank
Rawlinson and Rev. J. W. Crofoot, which has as its subtitle A
Supplement to Dr. Pott's Lessons. The author would recom-
mend it as a second book in the course on the study of the
Shanghai dialect.
F. L. H. P.
November 18th, 1924.


DESCRIPTION OF THE SHANGHAI
ROMANIZED SYSTEM
Nearly all the syllables are represented by the combination
of an initial and a final, a system which has been found to Ix
well adapted to the Chinese language.
INITIALS
Chinese sounds are divided into upper aiid lower Series.
Tlie initials to represent the Upper Series are~~,mw t, ts,
s, H, n'ny, ,ng, ky ky, hwi and These initials are
pronounced in most cases much the same as in English, but
without aspiration, higher in pitch and with very little vibration
of the larynx. The apostrophe before a letter indicates that the
letter belongs to the higher series. Pure vowel initials also
belong to this series.
ny has a sound similar to that of ni in spa?iiel.
]cy = ch in chuk with all aspiration eliminated.
i as an initial has the sounds of i in dahlia.
The Aspirates are~ph, /th, tsh, hy, chkhw, h, hyy and hw
(th as in Tkovusonnot as thing).
ch = ch in c/mrch.
hy is nearly like ti in Por^a.
The other aspirates are like the corresponding initials of the
liigber series with the addition of a strong aspiration (indicated
by h).


DESCRIPTION OF THE SHANGHAI ROMANIZED SYSTEM Vii
Tlie initials to represent the Lower Series areb, m, vd,
dz) z, I, n, ny, ng, g, j} gw y, and w. Their pronunciation is
much the same as in English. They are lower in pitch than
corresponding initials of the "higher series," and have more
voice being pronounced with more decided vibration of the
larynx. The lower vowel initials, indicated by an inverted
comma (and attended with a slight aspiration, belong to this
series. It will be noted that this sign differs from that employed
to indicate that a consonant initial belongs to the upper series,
an apostrophe being used to denote the upper initial. This
inverted comma is used only before vowels, and if, by mistake,
this sign is used before a consonant instead of the apostrophe,
this need not confuse the reader, for the sign of the upper series
is properly used only before the initial consonants m, v, I, n, ny,
ngwand r.
It should be noted well that the difference between the
corresponding initials of the upper and lower series is not so
much a difference in consonantal quality as a difference in pitch,
but there is a real consonantal difference. The higher series may
be classified as surd and the lower as sonant.
FJNALS
1. The Vowel Endings area, e, i, au, o, oo, eu, u, uiy
ia, iau, ieu, and ie.
2. The Nasal Endings are(a) an, en, ien, and oenin
which the nis not sounded, but lengthens out and imparts a
nasal quality to the preceding vo\vel; (b) ang, aung, oong, vng,
and icing, in which ng has the value of ng in ong; (c) uin, in
which n is sonant and has a value varying between n and ng.
3. The Abrupt Vowel Endings areakaheh, ih) auh,
ok, oeh, uh, and iak, in which h and k, are the signs of the zeh-


yiii DESCRIPTION OF THE SHANGHAI ROMANIZED SYSTEM
A
sung (A and the vowel is pronounced in a short, abrupt
manner.
The sounds of the vowels are
a as in far, except when followed by n or h, when it has the
sound of a in man or mat.
e as in prey; before h it has the sound of e as in met.
i as in caprice before h or ng it is shortened to i as in mit
or sing.
au as in August,
o as in so.
oo as in too.
oe as in oe Goethe (German o).
eu as in French Monsieur.
u as in oo in foot (always preceded by an s sound).
ui as in fruit (or rather, French ii).
In ia, iauieu, and iewe have short i followed closely by
a, au, and ey as described above.
Of course it is understood that the Chinese sounds in a
majority of cases vary somewhat from the English sounds which
are given as the nearest equivalent. The true pronunciation of
Chinese sounds should be learned from a Chinese teacher, and
the student should always bear it in mind that any Romanization
used does not represent English sounds) but Chinese sounds. This
fact can not be too strongly emphasized.
The Dok-yoong Z-moo"Initials used alone, i.e., without
vowels, areis, tsh^ dz) s, 2 m ng, and r. The first five are
followed by the vowel sound in the second syllable of able
prolonged. Mateer and Baller^use 'i for this sound and the new
Mandarin Romanized uses i. It is not written, but understood
in the Shanghai system, m has the sound of m in chasm and
ng the sound of ng in hanger, r is a sound between final r
and I.


DESCRIPTION OF THE SHANGHAI ROMANIZED SYSTEM
Vii
TONES
The tones are four in number, each occurring in the upper
and lower series. As has been stated, the upper and lower series
can be distinguished by the initials. Sounds in the upper series
are of higher pitch and those in the lower series of a lower pitch.
The names of the tones are
Bing sung=Even sound .
Zang sung = Rising sound .
Cliui sung = Going sound .
Zeh-sung = Entering souiul .
TONE SIGNS
Oto the left of a word indicates the tone to be zang-sung.
Oto the right indicates the chui sung. Final h or k indicate
the zeh-sung. All other words are in the bing-sung.
SOUNDS OF THE TONES
The sounds of the tones of course can only be learnt from
the Chinese teacher.
The Bing-sung is an even tone, the voice being level, with
a slight falling inflection, as when we say Come,"Hear,in
our imperatives.
The Zang-sung in the upper series is a twanging sound, and
sounds something like the vibration of a string of a musical
instrument,
In the lower series it has a wave sound which can be
symbolized to the eye by the curve ------n the voice first falls
and than rises.
The Chai-sung has the same sound in both the upper and
lower series. The voice rises much as it does when we ask a
question.


x description of the shanghai romanized system
The students should practise with the teacher on the follow-
ing table of sounds, and in time will be able to distinguish the
tones clearly and to make the proper inflection himself.
Foreigners are seldom able to perfect themselves in the use of
tones, but this is due not so much to inability as to the lack of
attention paid to the matter at the beginning of the study of the
language.
It should be understood that the names of the tones are
those of the original tones and often bear no relation to the
inflection now used, which varies in different localities.


DESCRIPTION OF THE SHANGHAI ROMANIZED SYSTEM
Vii
oe
oen
oeh
Oo oo
Oong ooig
Au au IHJ
Aungaung
Auh auli
0 o PJ
Ok ok
DOK YOONG Z-MOO
Consonants used as words



CJ u
Ui ui
Uin uin
.
The student should practise repeating after the teacher the
pronunciation of the characters in which these sounds occur.
COMPLETE LIST OF INITIALS AND FINALS USED
IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
ZAUNG-HE LOO-MO Z
IUNG-YUIN
Vowel sounds and finals
Z-MOO
Initial sounds

n h
G 6e
Q o o

n s
6 G 6 -1 .le*1 1IL
^ hellngh
E E E LInIh






I n k u U
a a a u e
1 *1 *1 1
ngk u u
o3 a uae
I I I I I




A a
Ang ang
Ak ak

an
ah W
An
Ah
f



.







SZ^RN
00
=tslldz
MeTshDZ

0
g
nnh
e u u
crD
n n h
E u u


N

,Ng 'ng
Ng ng

K k
Kh h
G g

ky
ch
ivy
Oh



kw
khw
Kw
Khw
Gw

I
Y

W

y w
h h h
y w
H H H



__o o I _______





pphb
P
Ph
B

m
M
,v f y
^ F V
th
d
T
Th
D

tshdz
sslh
T TD

S
z

L

,n n


description of the shanghai romanized system
EXERCISE IN TONES
Upper Bing-sung. Tau, Pa, Si,
Lower Bing-sung. Dau, Ba, Zi
Upper Zang-sung. Tau, Pa, Si
Lower Zang-sung. Dau, Ba, Zi
Upper Chui-sung. Tau Si
Lower Chui-sung. Dau, Ba, Zi,
Upper Zeh-sung. Tauh, Pah, Sih,
Lower Zeh-sung. Daub Bah, Zih,
The student should practise upon the sounds illustrating
the different tones. The columns should be read from the top
down. The teacher can guide him by first pronouncing the
Chinese characters


LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
LESSON I
The Classifier
A or an is translated into Chinese by the numeral ih (~-)
one, and a classifier placed between the numeral and the noun.
There are over forty classifiers, different nouns taking different
ones, according to the class to which they belong. Nouns being
generally used with classifiers accounts for the fact that in Pidgin
English we have the oft recurring expression, u one piecee.
Most concrete nouns take classifiers, but not all. Exceptions
will be pointed out later on. Sometimes when the object spoken
of is quite definitely known, the noun is used without the classifier.
In this lesson, the two most common classifiers will be
introduced, and in succeeding lessons the others will appear
gradually.
It must be remarked that some nouns may take more than
one classifier, sometimes one beii]g used and sometimes another.
The most common classifier is kuh (. It is applied to
sucli nouns as have no special classifier, and may upon occasion
be applied to almost any noun as a substitute for the special
classifier (Mateer).
The classifier tsak (is used with animals, birdsfowls,
insects; also with articles of furniture having legs or resting oil a
base; also with vessels, boats, etc.
VOCABULARY
A man, ih kuh nyung .- [A teacher, ih kuh sien-sang* (lit. born
A woman, ih kuh nyui-nyung (lit. | before) .
female human.being) f I A child, ih kuh sian-noen .


2'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
An egg, ih kuh dan .
A cash, ih kuh doong-dien .
A dollar, ih kuh yang-dien
(See second note at end of lesson.)
A servant, ih kuh yoong~nyung
.
A table, ih tsak de-fcs .
A chair, ih tsak iui-ts .
An oran^, in tsakkyoeh~ts .
A pupil, ih kuh *auh-sang-fcs
.
To want, to wish, iau .Also used
in forming the future of verbs, as wiil
be explained later.
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) 111 kuh liyung iau ill tsak de-ts. (2) 111 kuli nyui-
nyung iau ill tsak iui0-ts. (3) Ih kuh siau-iioen iau ill kuh
doong-dien. (4) Ih kuh taub-sang-ts iau ih kub sien-sang.
(5) Ih kuh yoong-nyung iau ih kuh dati. (6) Ih kuh yoong-
nj^ung iau ih kub yang-dien. (7) Ih kuh siau-noen iau ih
tsak kyoeb-ts.
(.
(
(..
(.
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) A pupil wants an orange. (2) A woman wants a dollar.
(3) A servant wants a casli. (4) A teacher wants a table.
(5) A man wants an egg. (6) A pupil wants a chair. (7) A
teacher wants a pupil.
(.
..
...
(.
Notes. (1) It is difficult to form idiomatic sentences in Chinese until a larger
vocabulary has been given.
(2) With yang'dien (the classifie'r generally used is khwe9 (,
a piece or sl'co.


3' LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT

(3) It will be noticed how many words are formed from the combination
of two or more words. This is a characteristic of the Chinese
language; for instance the word yoong-nyung ()is com-
posed of the verb yooug(use, and the word nyang (A) man,
and means the man whom you use or employ.
(4) With sien-sang (,the classifier wt (is generally used.
(5) Nouns take no change in form for the plural, but the classifier is
omitted.
(6) With iui-ts (,the classifier po (is sometimes used.
The definite article the is not expressed directly in Chinese,
but the demonstrative pronoun takes its place.
The demonstrative pronouns are
The demonstrative pronouns change their forms with different
nouns, being formed by the di(or i (and the classifier
belonging to the noun. Thus "this tableis not di-kuh de-
fo but di't§ak de-ts (.
When the demonstrative is used with a numeral it retains the
form di-kuh (or i-kuh (and the classifier of the
noun comes between the numeral and the noun. Thus this one
tableis di-kuh ih tsak de-ts (
The personal pronouns are as follows:
LESSON II
Demonstrative, and Personal Pronouns
This or these, di kuh .
That or those, i-kuh ,
SINGULAR NUMBER
Nominative and Objective
Possessive
I. Person: My or mine, ngoo-kuh
I. Pert on Ior me, ngOO .
II. Person: Thon, theo, or you,
.
II. Person: Thy, thine, or yours,
noong-kuh .
III. Person: Hip, hers, its, yi-kuh
noong0 .
III. Person: He, she, it, liim, her, yi
.


22' LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
II.
III.
PLURAL NUMBER
Nominative and Objective
Person: We, or us, nyi or I Person
ngoo-nyi K.
Person: You, or ye, na .
Person: They, or them, yi-la II. Person
.
III. Person
Possessive
Ours, nyi-kuh or
ng'oo-iiyi kuh
.
Yonror yours, na-kuh
.
Their, or theirs, yi-la-
kuh.
The use of kuh (j) in the possessive case must be noted.
Kuh (serves to form the possessive case of nouns as it does of
pronouns. Thus to say u a man's tablewould be ih kuh nyung
kuh de-ts ( . Exercises in possessive case
formation will be found in this lesson.
VOCABULARY
A sheep, ih tsak yang c
A bird, ih tsak tiau .
A bed, ih tsak zaung
A son, ih kuh feu-ts or ih kuh nyi-
ts
A daughter, ih kuh noen0
A friend, ih kuh bang-yeu .
Po (is the classifier used with tools, instruments, or
articles grasped in the hand.
An umbrella, ih po sail jfi .
A knife or sword, ih po tau
A fork, ih tsho .
A spoon, ih. po tshau .
To have, or has, yeu
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) Ngoo iau ih po tau. (2) Di-kuh nyung yeu ih
kuh yang-dieD. (3) Noong-kuh bai)g-yeu kuh feu-ts yeu ih
tsak yang. (4) I-kuh nyui-nyung kuh noen0 iau ih tsak tiau.
(5) Yi iau ihpo san. (6)Ngoo iau ih po tsho. (7) Nyi
iau ih tsak zaung. (8) Na yeu ih khwe yai]g-dien. (9) Di-
kuli sien-sang yeu ill tsak kyoeh-ts, (10) Yi-kuh yoong0-
nyung' yeu ih kuh dan.


5' LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT

(..
..
(...
(..
.
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) Your teacher has a table. (2) My friend has a son.
(3) Their daughter has an umbrella. (4) They want a bed.
(5) That servant wants a knife. (6) This pupils teacher has a
chair. (7) My son wants a dollar. (8) He wants a fork. (9)
She wants a spoon. (10.) The woman's daughter has an orange.
(11) He has mine. (12) He has yours.
()
...
(.
..
(..
(..
Notes. (1) Verbs undergo no change in form for the singular and plural num-
ber. Tense formation will be explained later.
(2) The verb yeu is often used for the expression 4'there is." Thus,
yeu ih-kuh nyung iau doo^g-dien ()means,
There is a man who wants casi.,
(3) yeu-kuh ()means "some Thus, yeu kuh nyung (.)
is some men.
(4) Sometimes the huh is omitted and we have yeu nyung. Thus, yeu
nyung iau yang-dien ( M) means some men want
dollars."


6'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
LESSON III
The Numerals up to One Hundred
One, ih .
Two, nyi orliang .
Seven, tshih .
Eight, pah .
Nine, kyeu .
Ten, zeh .
Six, lok .
Three, sail ,
Four, s .
Five, ng .
From ten to twenty the numerals are formed by adding the
digits after ten.
Thirty, san-seh .(Lit. three tens.
The Z sound in zeh becomes S when
preceded by another word.)
The intervening numbers between twenty and thirty, etc.,
are formed regularly by adding the digits to the decimals. Thus
twenty-one is nyan-ih. Thirty-one is san-seh-ihetc.
Thirty-five is pronounced san-so-ttff.
In using the numeral with the noun, the classifier of the
noun is introduced between the numeral and the noun. Thus
Four men is s kuh nyung ( 4not s nyung. Six
chairs" is lok tsak iui-0ts (not lok iui-ts.
In speaking of a thing well understood the noun is often
omitted, and we have simply the numeral with the classifier, as
lok kuh9 tshih tsak, etc.
Eleven, zeh-ih .
Twelve, zeh=nyi etc.
Fifteen, zeh-ng, pronounced 6e-ng
Forty, s-seh .
Fifty, ng-seh .
Sixty, lok-seh .
Seventy, tshih-seh .
Eighty, pah-Beh .
Ninety, kyeu-seh .
One Hundred, ih-pak IT.
.
Twenty, nyan .(In speaking of
the day of the month nyi-seh is
used) .


25' LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
VOCABULARY
A cow, ih tsak nyeu .
A native, ih kuh pung-di-nyung

A foreigner, ih kuh nga-kok-nyung
-.(Literally, outdde
kingdom man.)
Children, siau-noen 0.
A large box or trunk, ih tsak siang-
ts .
A small box, ih tsak 4ah-ts .
A fiin, ihpo sen-ts
A broom, ih po 0sau-tseu
A tea pot, ih po dzo-'oo .
To be, is, are, .
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1)Ngoo iau0 san tsak siaDg-ts. (2) Dipo sen-ts
z noong-kuh. (3) Yi-kuh eu-t.s yeu ih tsak ah-0ts. (4)
0Ngoo-kuh sien-sang iau ih *po dzo-oo. (5) San-seh-ih tsak
3,ang z yi-kuh. (6) Nyan-tshih tsak nyeu z yi-kuh. (7) I-kuh
nga-kok-nyung 3'eu liang tsak iui-ts. (8) San-seh, z san
kuh zeli. (9) Ih pak,z zeh kuh zeh. (10) So-ng kuh
nyung yeu so-ng tsak de-ts. (11) Sien-sang z pung-di-
nyung, ngoo z nga-kok-nyuDg. (12) Yooiig0-nyung iau ih
po sau-tseu.
()..
..
..
..
..
..
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) He wants three tea pots. (2) Four pupils want four
fans. (3) This large box is my friends. (4) He has thirty
knives. (5) These five dollars are the pupils. (6) The tencher
has twenty-five pupils. (7) These two fans are his. (8) That
small box is the foreigner's. (9) Six tens are sixty. (10) My
friend has five children, three sods and two daughters.


8'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
() _ .
(.
.
.
..
.
Note. Ah-0ts is a small box in distinction from Siang-Ptsf a large box, but as
will be seen later the adjectives for large and small may also be used
with both of these words.
LESSON IV
Adjectives
Certain words in Chinese are distinctly used as adjectives
but many other words, such as nouns, verbs, and adverbs may
be used to qualify nouns. In the expression dok-su-nyung (
meaning "a scholar," we have the verb dok ().to
read and the noun su (bookqualifying nyung ()
man; the whole expression being literally the reading-book-
man.n
Adjectives may be compared as follows: tien (is added
after the adjective to make the comparative degree, and 0thfff
(is placed before the adjective to form the superlative degree.
Thus, Positive Degree, Goodis hau ( Comparative
Degree Betteris hau tien (.Superlative Degree,
"Best,ting hau (
There are, however, many other ways of expressing the
Superlative. Thus we may have 0hau-le- si (which
is literally u good-come deaththat is, good to the death.
That is a very frequent expression.
We have also tsoehau (or juh hau ( Very
good is usually 9manhau (.Hau-tuh-juh (
means superlatively good.


9' LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT

The adjectivehau (has a very wide use. Everything
that is good suitable, correct, or proper, may be said to be hau
()
VOCABULARY
Good, hau .
Bad, cheu (fft). More oftenveh
hau ( Veh means not.
Cold, lang .
Hot, nyih .
White, bak .
Black, huh .
Large, doo .
Small, siau .
A scholar, ih kuh dok-su-nyung
.
A dog, ih tsak keu
Water, s (Generally used without
a classifier.)
A horse, ih tsak mo . phih
is sometimes used as the classifier of
horse.
Pung (is the classifier for book.
A book, ih pung su .
Diau (is the classifier used with long, winding, or limber
objects.
A bridge, ih dian jau .
A street, ih diau ka .
A road, ih diau loo0 .
To read, to study, dok .
To come, le .
To go, chi .
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) Di-tsakkeuz
(3) Ngoo iau lang 0s.
I-tsak nyeu z bak kuh.
liang tsak huh kuh mo.
iau le. (8) Yi-kuh sien-sang iau chi.
nyih kuh. (10) Di-diau jauz doo knh
>hau kuh. (2) Ngoo iau dok su.
(4) Di-tsak yangz huh kuh. (5)
(6) I kuh pung-di-nyung yeu
(7) Ngoo yeu ih kuh bang-yeu
(9) Dikuhsz
(11) Di-kuh ih
diau ka z siau kuh. (12) Di-kuh ih diau loo0
(13) I-pung su z sien-sang kuh, di
(14) Di-tsak de-tsz siau tien.
ting doo.
z ?veh hau.
3z Dgoo-kuh.
pnng su
(15) Di-tsak zaung z


10'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
(-)...
(.
..
...
(..
(.
.
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) These five oranges are bad. (2) The teacher wishes
me to study. (3) The native's cows are good. (4) I have a
white bird. (5) I want warm water. (6) The dog is very
black. (7) That bed is smaller. (8) This box is larger. (9)
The tea pot is very white. (10) My teaclicr will come. (11)
The foreigner will go. (12) I want a large dog.
(.
(..
...
(..
..
.
Kotes. Xi) Adjectives generally take kuh after them; the kuh standing
between the adjective and the noun. In some cases the kuh is
omitted, as in the expression lang s (cold water."
We do not say lang kuh s.
(2) Dok-su (is the common expression for to study."
(3) In such a sentence as I want warm water the ngoo (may
be omitted. In speaking to a servant one would say iau0 nyih 9s
( 7),1 want hot water."


11' LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
LESSON V
Interrogative, and Negatives
Va (is used as the sign of a direct question, expecting
the answer yes or u no." It is added at the end of the
sentence. Thus di'kuh noong0 kuh va?(
means, is this yours? Di kuh hau va?(
means, is this good?(the verb z being omitted). The
Chinese do not use a rising inflection of the voice to indicate that
a question is being asked.
Meh (is used for asking a question when the action is
presumed to have been completed. Thus van chuh meh?(
means, have you eaten your rice?or liave you dined?
Sien-sang chi meh (^fe means, has the teacher
gone?M
Nyi (is used for asking a question impl}dng the alter-
native. Thus noong0 chi0 nyiueh chi?(
means, "are you going or not going?" Noongle nyiveh le?
(means, are you. coming or not coming?"
Nyi (is also used in a question expecting a negative
answer, but the explanation of this must be reserved until later.
Who is sa ().In this sense it is always joined to the
noun nyung ( Thus sa nyung? (P^ )means, who?
Pidgin English, who man?
Sa (is also used in the sense of "what.It sometimes
precedes the noun as sasanff-i? (Hwhat business?"
In a sentence like what do you want," it follows the verb. Thus
noong iau sa?().Literally, you want wliat?
Sa is also used with va~ in the sense of "any in asking a
question. Thus noong iau sa va?( pmeans,
do you want anytlnDg?" Yeu sa nyung iau chiva?


12'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
(means, "does any one wish to go? Noong0
yeu sa0 doong-dien ra7 ()means, have
you any cash?
Which is 0ga-0li It is always used with numeral
and classifier. Thus ih kuh nyung?(
means, which man? A-0li ih diau loo?(
means "which road? 0M-K ih pung su?(
meanswhich book?liang po tau?()
means, "wliicli two knives?" When the subject is understood
about which you are conversing, the noun may be omitted, and
0a-0fi with the numeral and the classifier are sufficient. Thus
in speaking of roads ih diau? would be enough.
"Noor notis expressed byveh ( Thus yiveh
iai£chi(means, he does not wish to go.
M-meh (is used in the sense of not anyin an-
swering a question asking whether you have any, thus noong
yeu sa yang-dien va? (>(§ have you any
dollars?the answer might be m-meh.
Sometimes m-sa ( is used in answering questions in
the negative. Thus noong yeu sa tsoova?( P
41 have you anything to do ? (Have }7ou any employment?) The
answer might be m-sa isoo ( n)not anything to do.
No one is m-sa nyung ( ).Thusyeu m nyung
le va?(''has any one come?The answer
might be m-sa-nyung ( p).
VOCABULARY
Rice (growing)dau . A carpenter, ih kuh mok-ziang
Rice (uncooked),mi . .Lit. Wood worker.
Rice (cooked), van0 . A band, ih tsak seu
A hat, cnp or bonnet, ih ting mau- A foot, ih tsak kyak .
ts or ih tsak i-mu-ts
.


31' LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT

Kurig (is the classifier denoting objects long and
generally stiff.
A cane or stick, ih kung baung
Zco0 (is the classifier for hills and buildings.
A house, ih zoo0 vaung-ts Sometimes ih, zak vaung-
ts .
Sen0 is the classifier for broad objects.
A door, ih. sen mung Pi
To eat, eats, eat, chuh .
To invite, invites, invite, tslling .
(Also need in the sense of please,
when making a request of any one).
To take, tan @ or nau .
To call, calls, call kyau0 .
Tb open, opens, open, khe .
To shut, shuts, shut, kwan .
To do, does, perform, make, tsoo .
To enter, enters, come in, tsing .
o
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) I-kuh sien-sang vanchuh meli? (2) Ngoo iau
tshing ill we sien-sang. (3) Khe khe mung. (4) Di-kuli
kyau sa? (5) Kwan muiig. (6) Di-pung su sa nyung
tan-le kuh? (7) 0,A-li ill kung cbaungz nooi]g-kuh? (8)
oiA-li ih zoo0 yaung-ts z yi-kuli? (9) Sa r^ung tan-chi
kuh? (10) Nyung yeu 0liang tsak seu, liang tsak kyak.
(11) Noongyeu sasa]g-itsoo va? (12) Ngoo m-sa
sang-i tsoo. (13) Noong kyau sa? (14) Yeu sa nyung
tsing-le va? M-sa nyung. (15) NooDg mau-ts yeu va?
M-meh.
( .
m..1

.
(
.
.


14'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) Have the children eaten their rice? (2) Which cow is
yours (3) Which bird is black (4) Bring tlie hot water.
(5) Bring the boiling water. (6) Please come in. (7) Who
did it? (8) Who brought it? (9) Who'took it away? (10)
Who wants it? (11) AVho entered? (12) Who opened the
door? (13) Who shut the door (14) Which table is yours
(15) Wliat do you want (16) Have you anything to eat?
(17 I have nothing to eat. (18) Have you any. oranges (19)
I have. (20) I have none.
()
..
(.

(

(..
(.
Notes. (1) Note the difference between tshing (kyau (and han (.
cTshing is used in speaking to an equal or to a superior. Kxjau
in speaking to a servant. Han i& even more curt tlian kyau.
Thus lshing yi le (means, invite him to come, and
is the polite form of speech if you wisli an equal to come to you.
Kyau yi le (or han yi le (would be used if
you tell some one to call your servant or a workman to you,
(2) Notice the repetition of the Jchc (in the third sentence of the
first exercise. This makes it more emphatic.
(3) The verbs tan ()take and le ()come are often used
together in the pense of tl bring." Literally take-come. So
also with tan ()and chi()this means, "Take away.
Literally 'Take-go. Sometimes the tan aud the le, and the
tan and the chi are separated from one another by other words
in the sentence. Tims tan su le ()neiins bring the
book, The above remarks also hold true of nau.
(4) In the sixth sentence of the first exercise the words di-pung su
stand first. This is because tliey nre emphatic. Tt is difficult


15' LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT

to give any hard and fast rule in regard to the order of words in
a Chinese sentence, but generally speaking, we may say that
the most emphatic word is placed first. In this sentence it is
the book which is being talked about, and so it occurs first.
(5) The words in the thirteenth sentence of the first exercise would
only be addressed to a servant or to a child. What are you
called?means, what is your name? not what is your
surname?
In polite phraseology, in speaking to a person the pronoun noong
is never employed. The third person is used instead of the
second. To ask your teacher bis name, you would say Tsung
sing (which means, wliat is your honorable name?"
(surname). If you wish to inquire farther as to his other name,
you would say tshing kyau0 da (ciuf P-which means,
please tell me your great official Dame?" The requirements
of etiquette as to the use of words will be explained later some-
what fully.
(6) In the fifth sentence of the second exercise, the expression boiling
water is used. For this the words khe (open and s ()
water are used. It signifies that boiling water is open water
on account of the bubbles which proceed from it.
LESSON VI
Some Remarks on the Verb
In a monosyllabic language like the Chinese the words them-
selves are never inflected, and therefore the Moods and Tenses of
the Verbs are formed by the addition of auxiliary words to mark
the change of meaning.
We will take the verb chuh ()to illustrate.
INDICATIVE MOOD
Present Tense, Simple Form, I eat,
ngoo chuh .
Present Tense, Continuous, I am eating,
ngoo leh-li chuh
ngoo la chuh
Past Tense, Simple Form, I ate, ngOO
chuh kuh
Past Tensey Cordinuoas, I was eating,
ngoo leh-la chuh .
Past Tense, Emphatic Form, I did eat,
ngoo z cliuh. kuh .
Perfect Teiue, I have eaten, ng'00
ehuh tse Ongoo chuh la
tse ngoo chuh koo tse
.


16'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
Past Perfect, I bad eaten, ngOO i- Future Tense, I will or shall eat, ngOO
ky ung chilli tse iau chuh.
ngoo i-kyung chuh la tse The Future Perfect Tense cannot be ex-
.ngoo i-kyung chuh pressed directly.
koo hyih ise.
The only change for the different persons in the above will
be in the use of the pronouns of the different persons.
IMPERATIVE MOOD
Eat, chuh (chuh meh tse ().
PARTICIPLES
PresentEating, chuh ()Past, Having eaten, chull-ts ().
A few words of explanation are necessary. The use of leh-
li and leh-la are a little difficult to understand at first. As
stated 0ngoo leh-li chuh (means, "I am eating.
If, however, a third person asked your servant Sien-sang van
chuh meh?("Has the Teactier ^aten his l.ice?
the servant would answer, if you were still eating, yi leh-la
chuh (meaning "he is eating. If you yourself said
ngoo leh-lachuh, it would m^an, I was eating. In the
Perfect Tense the word koo (means, literally to pass over."
In the Past Perfect the wordsi-kyung (mean "already.
The real force of leh-li (is "here, and the real
force of leh-la0 (is tliere.
There are a great many ways of expressing completed action
in Chinese. These will be explained later. In this lesson one
of the most common will be explained. It is by the use of the
objectivehau after the verb. Thus chuhhau tse (
means, I have finished eating Dok hau tse (_
means, I have finished reading/'
Hau ('good is also used before the verb to qualify
it,. Thus we have the expressions hau chuh kuh ( j
meaning Good to eat. Hau dok kuh (Easy to
read." cHau tsoo0 kuh (,Easy to do," etc.


17' LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT

VOCABULARY
A horse boy or coachman, ih kuh mo
foo .
A pear, ih tsak sang-li .
A peach, ih tsak dau-ts .
A tailor, ih kuh ze-voong
China or Chinese, Tsoong-kok ()
Lit. Middle Kingdom.
Shanghai, Zaung-he .
is the classifier denoting garments, pieces of baggage
To arrive, tau .
To give by hand, peh .
To buy, ma .
To speak, wo .
To burn or cook, sau .
To learn, ailh .
A table boy, ih kuh si-tse
.
Jien
and merchandise, and also an affair.
A garment, ih jien i-zaung
Saung (is the classifier denoting pairs.
A pair of shoes, ih saung 4a-ts
.
A pair of socks or stockings, ih saung
mah
New, sing .
Old, jeu or ]au .(Of persona,
only lau is used.) Lau.is old as to
time1. Jeu generally means worn
out, in bad condition. (Lau is
often used as a title of respect,
meaning venerable.)
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) Ngoo iauauh wotsoong-kok wo. (2)Ngoo iau0
auh dok tsoong-kok su. (3) Noong0 iau dok su va? (4) I-
tsak siang-ts tan-chi meh? (5) Kyau0 yi chimeh tse. (6)
I-kuh mo-foo iau ma san tsak mo. (7) Ngoo peh yi ng
khwe0 yang-dien kyau yi chi ma ill tsak yang. (8) Ngoo
i-kyung wo koo tse. (9) Zanng~he tau koo hyih meh?
(10) Tau koo byih tse. (11) Ngoo-kuh i-zaung ze-voong
tsoo0 hau meh? (12) Yi leb-la tsoo. (13) Nooig chuh-
hau-ts van iau0 tsoo sa? (14) Chuh-0hau-ts.van iau dok
su. (15) Ngoo iau chi ma ih saung sing kuh ca-ts. (16)
Van sau hau meh (17) Sau hau tse. (18) Lau sien-
sang kyau si-tse chi ma sang-li. (19) Kyau0 yi le tsoo
meh tse. (20) Di-kuh tsookoo hyih meh? Tsoo koo
liyih tse.


18'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
(-)..
.
(
.
(.
.
..
.
..
.
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) I have already read this book. (2) Do you want to buy
a dog? (3) When I arrive at Shanghai, I wish to buy an
umbrella. (4) Has my friend come (5) I gave him four
dollars and told him to buy a table. (6) The teacher is eating
his dinner. (7) I have already given him ten dollars. (8) Come
along. (9) When the teacher has come, call me. (10) Have
you ever eaten Chinese peaches (11) I have eaten them.
(12) Those pupils are studying Chinese. (13) The foreign
teacher is learning to speak Chinese.
(.
(.
(.
.
.
..
.
Notes. (1) China is known by many different names. The most common is
Tsoong-lcok ( fii) We also have Da tshing koh ( tthe
great pure kingdom, Tsoong-wo ("the middle civilized
kingdom and Zeh pah mng ()the eighteen provinces"
(used of China Proper, without its dependencies). A modern
name is Ts-na (|J). It represents the sound of China, and
was much used by the roform jwty. The name adopted for Tlie


19' LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT

Republic of China is Tsoong-wo ming kok (The
middle civilized people's kingdom.
(2) In the ninth sentence of the first exercise the force of the Tau0 ()
is visiting the place for the first time.
(3) In the twentieth sentence of the first exercise the meaning is,
''Have you ever done this before?
(4) In the ninth sentence of the second exercise, you use the past
participle, le-ts ( After it meh (is often used for
euphony, thus the sentence would be Sien-sang le-ts meh, le
kyau0 ngoo (.
(5) In the twelfth sentence of the second exercise su (is added after
Tt'o^ng kolc ( The meaning is "The pupils are studying
Chinese books.
(6) In the thirteenth sentence of the second exercise, the foreign teacher
would be nga-Jcok sien-sang ( Nga-kok is used as
an adjective.
LESSON VII
Prepositions and Postpositions, and Common Connectives
The words expressing the relations of nouns to one another
are placed, some of them before and some of them after the
governed substantive. Ator tois expressed by la0 (.
Thus ngoo peh la yi ( I gave it to liim.
To or (towardsin the sense of direction is expressed by
tau (.Thus: ngoo iauZaung-he chi(
"I wish to go to Shangljai. To or 'towards' is also
expressed by te (as in the expression to speak to a person.
Thus: ngoo te wo ("I said to hiin. From,
is expressed by dzoong ().Thus: ngoo dzoong Zaung-
he fc ( came from Shanghai.
Witliis expressed by tah or doong .Thus: ngoo
tah yi hak wo (or ngoo doong yi hak wo
(talked with lim.
Instead ofis thi (or de thi ( Thus: ngoo
de ihi yi tsoo (I do it instead of liim."


20'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
The idea of doing it for a person is expressed bjr theh (
Thus: ngoo theh yi tsoo ( I will do it for him.
Inis expressed by placing la (or leh-la (
before the noun andli (or lirhyang(after the
noun. Thus: la vaung-ts li (means, In the
house." La siang-Qts li (means In the box.
Onis expressed by placing la 01' leh-labefore the noun
and laung^ (after it. Thus: la0 loo laung (
means, "On the road La0 de-ts laung (means,
On the table
Nga ()means mit. The usual expression is nga-
deu (outside It follows the noun.
Other prepositions will be introduced later.
The most common connective is lau (and corresponds
quite closely to our use of "and. Thus: ngoo iau ma 6a-ts
lau mah (meansI wish to buy shoes
and stockings. Nouns are often placed beside one another with-
out any connective between them. Jah-ts (is used much
in the same sense aslau (.
Alsois 0ta-z ()or (a ( Thus: di-kuh ota-z
hau kuh (meansTliis also is good.Ngoo
iau ma (means, I also wish to buy.
Ngoo wan iau ma ()means, U1 still wish to buy.
VOCABULARY
A city, ih zoo dzung
A school, ih kuh 'auh-daung
.
A hat, ih ting maii-ts .
A head, ih kuh deu M .
A foot, ih tsak kyak
A hand, ih tsak seu .
A heart, ill kuh sing .
Father, ya .
Mother, nyang .
A body, ih kuh sung-thi .
Home, ok-li .
To sit, zoo .
To live, dwell, dzu .
To wear, tsak .
To place, faung pa .
To use, yoong .
To wear 011 the head, ta


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
21
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) Sa nyung peh la yi kuh (2) Yi-kuh ya peh la yi
kuh. (3) Di-kuh iau tan tau ok-]i chi. (4) Mau-ts
iau ta la deu laung. (5) cA-ts iau tsak la kyak laung0.
(6) I-zaung iau tsak la sung laung. (7) Sien-sang dzu la
dzung0 li va? (8) Auh-sang-ts iau tau auh-daung li
chi. (9) Ngoo kyau0 si-tse pa ngoo-kuh i-zaung la
siang-ts li. (10) Sien-sang dzoong nga-kok tau Tsoong-kok
le. (J 1) Sien-sang kyau0 siau-noen 3^ooiig sing dok su. (12)
'Veil iau0 zoo la0 zaung laung0, iau0 Ozoo la iui-ts laung.
(13) Su faung la de-ts laung0. (14) Bang-yeu i-kyung le
koo-ts lau chi tse. (15) Sang-li z hau chuh kuh, daa-ts
0(a-0z hau chub kuh. (16) Di-kuh siau noen 'm ya n}'ang
kuh. (17) Sa nyung la auh-daung li? Sien-sang tali-ts
auh-sang-0ts. (18) Noong0 wan iau ma sa va? 'Veil iau.
.
..
..
.
..
.
..
..
.
..
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) I placed the knives and the forks on the table. (2)
Who lives in this house? Mr. Tsang. (3) The father and
mother wish the child to study. (4) Do you live in the city or
out of the city (5) The cat is on the table, (6) Take it in
your hand. (7) Keep it in mind (place it on your heart) (8)


22'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
The heart is in the body. (9) That child has no shoes on his
feet. (10) That man has no hat on his head. (.1.1) To whom
do the cows and sheep belong? (12) When you have put on
your clothes, come and eat. (13) The horse boy wishes to feed
the horse also. (14) You and I are friends. (15) Have you
ever been to foreign countries?
(.
.
..
.J
..
.
.
Notes. (L) There are many different ways of saying "father" and "mother,
but these will have to be explained later.
(2) Laung0 is really the character cZaung. It has the latter sound
when used in the adverb "above, which is Zaung-deut .
(3) The seventh sentence of the first exercise is correct grammatically,
but would not be used in polite speech. The usual way of
asking a gentleman where he lives is to say Sien-sang foo laung0
la
(4) In the eleventh sentence of tlie first exercise the expression yoong
sing means "to be diligent or "to pay attention.
(5) In the second sentence of the second exercise Mr. Tsan is trans-
lated Tsang Sien-sang. Taang is a common surname in Chinese.
The Sien-sang follows the surnnme.
(6) Doong (is generally used with ih-dau ((])Doong coming
before the norm, and ih-dau after it. Thus Ngoo doong ngoo
kuh bang-yeu ih-dau tau 0Zaung-0he chi.
LESSON VIII
Potential and Subjunctive Moudsand some
Interrogative Adverbs
Mayor canis expressed by khaU"i (.Tims
I may or can eatis 000 khau-0i chuh (
When physical ability is implied nung-keu (g is frequently


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
23
used. Thus I have the physical ability to dois ngoo nung-
keutsoo( When acquired ability is to be
expressed we ()is generally used. Thus: I have the ability
to speak Chineseis ngoo we0 wo Tsoong-kok wo (
).
The Subjunctive Mood is expressed exactly like the Indicative
Mood except that some word meaning Ifis placed at the
beginning of the clause, and that the particle meh (is
generally placed at the end of the clause.
Ifis zak (zak-s(zaAxsrew (thaung
zen (thaung-s (.Thus If I go, I will call
youis expressed zak-zen ngoo chimeh, ngoo iau kyau
noong0 ().
Very often the word implying If is omitted at the begin-
ning of the clause, and the condition is implied simply by the use
of the meh (at the end of the clause. Thus: When he has
finished it, come and tell meis yi tsoohau meh, le te
ngoo wo (.
"Howis/ia-wim.Tims How do you know,
is noong0 na-nung hyau-tuh?(.
When?is kyUz (.Thus When did you come?
is noong0kyi-z le kuh?( When did you
arrive? is noong0 kyi-z tau?(Beginners in
Chinese often make the mistake of using lcyi"Z as the ordinary
adverb of time. To express such a sentence as u When I come he
will gowe say ngoo le-ts meh yi iau chi((
the past participle being used, and meh implying that it
is conditional. It is incorrect to snv ngoo kyi-z leyi iau
chi. Let it be remembered that kyi-z is only used in asking a
question.
"VVe have the kyi-z used after the verb in such a sentence as
noongtou-fecyi-z tse?(meaning, "How


24'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
long since you arrived?or yi chi-ts kyi-z tse?(
meaning, "How long since he went?
VOCABULARY
To sel], ma or ma-theh .
To see, khoen r khoen-kyieii,
seen.
To walk, tseu .
To run, ban .
To know, hyau-tuh .
To know a person, nyung-tuh .
To understand, toong or ming-bak
.
A pagoda, ih zoo thah .
A sedan chair, ih ting jau-ts
.
A visitor or guest, ih we khak-nyung
.
A doctor, ih we laung tsoong
or ih wei-sung .
A grave mound, ih kuh vung-san
.
A mouth, ih kuh. kheu or ih
tsangts .
A doorway, ih kuh mung-kheu
(Mouth of the door) or
mung-kheu-deu .
An ear, ih tsak nyi-too .
A nose, ih kuh bih-deu .
An eye, ih tsak ngan-tsing .
A face, ih kuh mien-khoong
.
Boo (is the classifier used with carriages, and vehicles
on wheels.
A carriage, ih boo om0-tsll0
.
A ric-sha, ih boo toong-yang-tsho
.Lit. East ol the Ocean
carriage.) Japan ia known as the
land East of the Ocean, and ric-shas
were first used there.
A wheelbarrow, ih boo tsho-ts
or csiau-tsho .
Short, toen .
Long, dzang .
Fast, khwa
Slow, man .
To-morrow, ming-tsau .
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) Noong0 ming-bak va Veh ming-bak. (2) Tsoong-
kok wo, noong0 we0 wo va? Ngooveh we0 wo. (3)
Tsoong-kok su noong0 we dok ya? Ngoo ;yeh we0 dok. (4)
Tshing sien-sang ming-tsau le. (5) Noong0 kyi-z khau-i
chi? Ngoo ming-tsau kbau-i chi. (6) Di-tsak mo 'veh
nung-keu bau le khwa0. (7) Zak-zen sien-sang le meh, noong0
te yi wongoo 0Zaung-he chi0 tse. (8) Chi0 kyauill boo


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
25
toong-yang-tsho. (9) Di-zoo thah noong khoen-kyien hvih
meh? (10) Mok-ziang zoo-ts siau-tsho-ts tau0 Zaung-he
chi tse. (11) Di-kuh nyung noong0 nyung-tuh va? 'Veh
n3^ung0-tuh. (12) Noong na-nung chi kulj? Ngoo zoo-ts
mo-tsho chi kuh. (13) Iau noong0 chi 0tshing i-sung le.
(14) Tshing sien-sang wo le mantien. (15) Zak-zen sien-
sang wo le khwa meh, ngooveh toong. (16) Di-kung
baung z dzang kuh, di-po tau z toen knh. (17) Kbak-
nyung tau-ts mung-kbeu-deu iau tshing yi li-hyang zoo.
(18) I-kuh siau-noen kuh miea-khooDg 'mai] hau khoen0.
(19) Nyung yeu liang tsak nyi-too, liang tsak ngan-tsmg,
ih kuh bih-deu, lau ih tsang-ts. (20) Di-zoo vaung-ts i-
kyung ma-tbeh tse.
(.
).)
.
.
..
(.
..
..
.
..
.
..
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) Please take a seat. (2) When will that teacher come?
(3) He said he will come to-morrow. (4) Have you seen my
dog? (5) Ask tlie visitor to come iii. (6) The sheep is on the
grave mound. (7) I wish to ride in a sedan chair, and go into
the city. (8) When the doctor comescome and call me. (9)
Call two ricshas. (10) How long have you been in China?


26'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
(11) If men had no eyes they would not be able to see. (12) If
the pupil is not diligent he will not be able to learn Chinese.
(13) I do not know how to say this. (14) When will the doctor
come? (15) To-morrow he will come. (16) The road to Shang-
hai is very long. (17) If you do not understand you can ask
the teacher to speak more slowly. (18) The ears of that dog are
very long. (19) The child runs very fast. (20) Do you know
my friend? I do not.
(-).
.
...
(..

..
(.
(..
.
..
.
Kotes. (1) In the sixth sentence of the first exercise, notice that the adjective
hhwa is turned into an adverb by the le coming before it.
Adjectives are often used with verbs in this way.
(2) In tlie twelfth sentence of the first exercise, notice the expression
for tra vol ling in a carriage. In Chinese yon sit a carriatre."
(3) 111 the first sentence of the second exercise we liave the usual polite
expression for asking one to be seated Ts/iing zoo. This should
be snid as soon as a pui'st or strmei. enters the room, but of
course in not used in sppnkin to inferiors. In such cases it is
enough ro ?:iy zoo zoo (.
(4) Notice the difference between ma)to buy and ma ()to
sell. To our ears the souiids are hard to disringui.-li. The only
difference is in tlu1. tones.
(5) The new term for i ic-siui is ih boo waung bau tsho ,a yellow
ruDiiiJig Ciirriage.


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
27
LESSON IX
The Use of DzakReduplication of Verbs,
Reflexive Pronouns
In expressing the carrying of the action of the verb into effect
dzak (is often used after it. Thus zing dzak (means
that a thing has been actually found. Zing means 'to find.
There are a great many active verbs which can take the dzak
after them. For example we have tuh-dzak (meaning a
thing has been obtained. Tuh means to get. Bang-dzak
(means a person or thing has been met. Bang(
means fto strike against.'
Verbs are often repeated for emphasis. We have had an
example of this in the expression zoozoomeaning "sit down."
Thus khoen0 khoen0 (means Look, look."
In many cases ih (-) is inserted between the verbs, as
khoen0 ih khoen In such cases the last verb is changed into
a verbal noun. Literally it would be Look a look.
The Reflexive Personal Pronouns hardly require any explana-
tion. They are formed by adding z-ka (after the Per-
sonal Pronouns. Thus I myself" would be ngoo z-ka (
.You yourselfwould be mwng0 z-ka (
and so on for the rest.
VOCABULARY
To teach, kau .
To write, sia .
To ask, mung P
To pay, foo .
To build, zau .
To look for, zing .
To hear, thing g£ or thing kyien0
(heard).
To know a Chinese character, suh .
To strike against, bang0 .
To get, tuh .
A mason, ih kuh nyi-s-ziang
.
A water buffalo, ih tsak 0s-nyeu
.
An apple, ih tsak bing koo
A dining table, ih tsak chuh-van-de~
ts .
An office desk, ih tsak sia,-2-de-ts
.


28'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
A Chinese character, ih kuh zc
A drawer of a table, ih tsak tsheu-thi
ih tsak tsheu-teu
.
An unmarried woman, ih kuh siau-
tsia .
Tea, dzo .
Now, yien-dze .
Not yet,veh zung .
Still not yet, wanveh zung f*.
Why? we-sa or we-sa-lau
.
Because, iung-we or we-ts
.
In using iung-we the particle lau ()is generally added
at the end of the clause. Thus: u Why did you not go? Because
I did not want to gois noong0 M?e-sa 9veh chi0? lung we
ngooveh iau chiZcra (
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) Tshing sien-sang kan ngoo dok Tsoong-kok su. (2)
Yien-dze ngoo ian auh sia Tsoong-kok z. (3) Noong0
ma-ts ih tsak 0sia-z0-de, doong-dien foo meh? Veh zung.
(4) Di-kuh z ngoo 'veh suh. (5) Zak-zen noong0 'veh suh
meh khau-i muiig0 sien-sang. (6) Vaung-0ts zau Ghau meh?
Wan 'veh zung- (7) Ngoo-kuh sen-ts tshing noong0 theli
ngoo zing zing-khoen. (8) Sen-ts i-kyung zii]g-dzak tse.
(9) Noong0 we-sa-0]auveh zung chi? Iung-we ngoo iau
dok su lau. (10) Tshing sien-sang chuh dzo. (11) Tshing
sien-sang yoong dzo. (12) Zak-zen nyung m-meh nyi-too,
yi-laveil nung-ke-u thing, (13) Ngoo ?veh zung tau Tsoong-
kok le, s-nyeuveh zung khoen0-kyienhyih. (14) Nyi-s-
ziang bang-dzak hyih meh? 'Veh zung. (15) 0Sia-z-de-0ts
laung kuh su z sa nyung kuh? Z ngoo-z-ka-kuh. (16)
Ngoo kyau noong faung ngoo-kuh i-zaung la tsheu-thi li,
noong we-sa 'veh zung faung kuh? (17) Chi0 khoen0
kboen0 sien-sang le meh. (18) Ngoo-kuh san noong zing-
dzak meh? Zing-'veh-dzak. (19) Zak-zen m-meh bien-sarg
meb, noong0 z-ka khau-i dok su. (20) Iau ngoo fop0
doong-dien meh^ kyau yi-la z-ka ]e


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
29
(
..
..
...
(.
..
(.
.
.
.
.

(.
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) Why don't you pay it? (2) Why do you do this? (3)
When will you do it? (4) I don't want it now. (5) When did
you go? (6) I do not want to go now, I will go to-morrow.
(7) Does the teacher teach well? (8) Does the pupil write well?
(9) Why do you not look for my fan Because I have already
found it. (10) This carpenter can make a dining table. (11)
Go, see if the doctor has come. (12) They themselves said they
wished to build a new house. (13) I told the table boy to go to
the city and buy me four chairs, a trunk, a bed, and an office
desk. (14) When the teacher comes, ask him please to be seated
and to take some tea. (15) If one does not study he is unable
to know characters. (16) My office desk has three drawers. (17)
This unmarried girl also wishes to study. (18) Have you bought
the apples? They cannot be obtained. (19) Do you know
whether the guest has already arrived? I do not know. (20)
Can you obtain these? They are unobtainable.
(
.


30
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 30
.

.
.
.(

..)
..
(.
..
Notes. (1) In the seventh sentence of the first exercise notice the Jchoen0 after
the reduplicated verb zing. This gives the force of try to look
for it. uLook, look, see. Khoen is used after many verbd
in this way. Thus: Tsoo0 tsoo0 Jchoen0 means try to
do it. Sia sia khoen means try to write it.
Wo wo khoen means, try to say it. S s khoen
means "try to do it/
(2) In the tenth and eleventh sentences of the first exercise we have
two ways of asking a person to drink tea. The second is the
polite form. Literally it means that you ask a person "to rise
tea."
(3) In the nineteenth sentence oi the first exercise, notice the use of
meh for euphony after sien-sang^ and so also in the twentieth
after doong-dien.
(4) /n the eighteenth sentence of the first exercise, notice the way in
which }veh comes between the zing and the dzak. This means
seek not find" or it can not be found. So also in the second
exercise in the eighteenth sentence They cannot be obtained
should be translated 0ma- ieh-dzak and in tlie twentieth sentence
"They are unobtainable should be tuh-veh-dzak.
LESSON X
Divisions of Time. More Adverbs
An hour" in Chinese is ih tien tsoong ( M) or ih
kuh tsoong-deu (j. Literally one point of the
clock. This is a foreign division of time. The Chinese divide
the day into twelve periods of two hours each, known as z-zung


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
49
(.Now, the division into hours has become very familiar.
Ih tien tsoong may also mean one o'clockand the
other hours are indicated in the same way by the change of the
numeral. Thus u Two o'clock" isliangtien tsoong ( Ifi
.Two hours would be liang kuh tsoong deu (
or liang tien tsoong koong foo ( ifi Three
o'clockis san tien tsoong (,etc.
"A dayis usually ih nyih ( The character nyih
literally means sun. In speaking of the heavenly body, in
the colloquial, deu is added to tlie ihmaking the expression
nyih-deu ( Sometimes the word thien (meaning
Heaven is used for Jay. Thus san thien means three
days. No classifier is introduced between the numeral and the
nyih or the thien. Thus we have for 4(four days8 nyih
(or sthien (.
"A weekis ih kuhUpa (or ihli'pa
(.This, of course, is a foreign division of time which
has been adopted into Chinese. It takes its name from the name
of Sunday, which is usually li-pa-nyih ( Lit. "the
day of ceremonial worship.^ Li means ceremony, pais to
worship. The other days of tlie week are formed with the addi-
tion of the numerals as follows: Monday is li-pa-ih (-).
Tuesday isli-pa^nyi\ Wednesday isU-pamiL Thursday,
li"pa0'80. Friday,li-pa0-ng, and Saturday, 0lUpa-lok.
A new way of expressing the days of the week is b}^ the use of
the words singji ()meaning the star period. Thus: Sun-
day is sing-ji nyih (Mondaysing-ji ih (
Tuesday, sing-ji nyi (and so on for the other days.
A month is ih kuh nyoeh ( Lit. a moon.
The Chinese year is made up of twelve lunar months. The first
month is called tsung nyoeh (tlie second, nyi nyoeh
(tlie third, san nyoeh (and so forth.
A yearis ih nyien ( No classifier is used between
the numeral and the word year nyien.


S2
LESSONS IN THE QHA^GHAt DlALECt
How many?or How much?is kyUhau?(
Thus kyUhau nyung le?(means How many
men came?" KyUhau s?()means How much
water
Kyi is often used without the hau. In such cases it is
followed by the classifier of the noun. Thus How many men
came?might be kyi kuh nyung le?( How
many horses have you?noongyeu kyi tsak mo?(
). .
"Where?is ( Thus (4 Where are you go-
ing is noong tau0ia_li chi?( Where
are you?is noong0 la0-0a-0li?(.
Sa meaning whatwith di-faung meaning place
also expresses Where Thus sadi-faung (We
also have sa dzanghau(meaning u What place?,
or "Where?but this refers to a more circumscribed area than
di-faung. We also have sa 6oo-daung (used
much in the same way as sa dzang-hau.
VOCABULARY
A fish, ih diau ng .
To return, tsen-le Lit. To come
bade tsen-chi Lit. To go
back.
To come out or forth, tsheh-le .
To go out, tsheh-chi .
To thank, zia .
Near, jung .
To-day, kyung-tsau .
Yesterday, zauh-nyih .
A painter, ih kuh tshili-ziang0
.
Thus, zeh-ke or zeh-ke-nung
.
Then (uned as a conjunction), nail-
meh.
Only, pih-koo .
South, nen .
Immediately, zieu .
Time, z-euzung-kwaung
or koong-foo .
But, dan-z dok-z .
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) Tshing sien-sang niing-tsau kyeu tien-tsoong le. (2)
Kyung-tsau z li-pa-ib, ming-tsau z li-pa-nyi. (3) Di-


LESSONS- IN THE SH^NGfHAI DIALECT

kuh nyoeh yeu san-seh nyih. (4) Ih ci-pa0 yeu tshih nyife.
(5) Noong-kuh baog-yeu dzu la sa di-faung? La dzung:
li. La dzung li, sa dzang-hau? Jung nen mung. (6)
Ngoo-kuh tau noong0 faung0 la-0 dok-ts ng tien-tsoong su, nan-meh tsheh-chi tseu loo. (8)
Kyi pung su z noong-kuh lau kyi pung z yi-kuh (9)
I-kuh nyung yeu kyi-kuh 4eu-ts? Yi pih-koo yeu ih-kuh.
(10) Noong0 tau-ts Tsoong-kok kyi-kuh nyoeh tse? Ngoo
le-ts san kuh nyoeh. (11) Noong0 kyi-z iau0 tsen-chi? Li-
pa^-san iau tsen-chi. (12) Zaung-he kyi-z tsen-le kuh?
Zauh-nyih 0tsen-le kuh. (13) Noong0 we0-sa-lauveh tsheh-
chi tseu tseu? Iung-we m-meh koong-foo lau. (14) Zia
zia noong0 chi0 tshing i-sung le. (15) Ngoo dok-hau-ts su
zieu0 iau chuh van. (16) Z zeh-ke va? 0Z zeh-ke kuh.
(-).
..
..

.
.
.
.
..
(.
..
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) Where have you put my shoes (2) I put them in the
box. (3) I do not want to study on Sunday, but I will study on
Monday-. (4) How many weeks are there in a month? (5) How
many peaches have you eaten? (6) How many dollars did you
give your servant? (7) What time is it now? (8) Where do


u
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI BtALUCT
you live? (9) When you have bought the fish, return im-
mediately. (10) The guest will stay here four months, and then
will return. (11) Please tell the painter to come. (12) The
teacher, having taught for three hours, left immediately. (13)
Why do you do it this way Because the teacher told me to do'
it thus. (14) I wish to do it, but I have no time to do it. (15)
Go see what time it is now.
(
(.:
.
?
(.
..
.
.(C.
.
Notes. (1) Thank you is expressed by repeating the Zia. Thus "Thank
you" is Zia-ziaQ noong. In speaking to an equal or superior^
the Noong would be dropped. Often in Chinese when yon ask
a person to do a thing for you, you preface the request by thank-
ing the person. Thus Zia-zia noong ehi tan ngoo-kuh san
& (means "Thank you, go bring my
umbrella.
(2) Koong-foo baa the double sense of work or time. Thus:
Tsoo0 koong-foo means to do work. But M-meh koong-foo means
I have no time. You never say Sa koong-foo, meaning
"What time?" but Sa z^eu0? or Sa zuug-icwaung In asking,
what time it is by the clock the usual expression is 0Kyi0tien'
tsoong f
::(3) The force of the question in the third sentence of the First Exercise
is due to the fact that some Chinese months have thirty day
and some have twenty-nine. A month of thirty days is called
J)oo nyoeh (,a large month," and one with twenty-nine
days is "a small month,Siau nyoeh (.In order to make
the seasons come right, an intercalary month is put in about
every three years. This in Chinese is called Nyung nyoeh


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
35
(4) Notice the elliptical form of expression in the seventh sentence of
the First Exercise. Literally it means "Yesterday I read five
hoursbook."
(5) In the third sentence of the Second Exercise the Chinese idiom is
peculiar. You say Li-pa nyih ,veh iau dok su, li-pa-ih lau dole
hh. Literally Sunday not want to study, Monday and study.
(6) In the eleventh sentence of the Second Exercise, the "please,,
should be translated Zia-zia0 noong0.
LESSON XI
The Passive Voice, and Adverbs of Place and Time
Peh ((Mandarin is used to form the Passive, and is
the regular and proper form of the Passive. Thus: the verb
Hang ( means to Strike. Ngoo Hang yi (
means "I strike him. To put this into the Passive we would
say ngoo peh yi tang (.Literally I gave him
strikeor I was struck by him.
Here is expressed by leh-li ortsh-di0 (
or di'deu (.Tsh-dimeans literally this place.
ccThere" is leh4a (or Udeu (or i-khwe
() I am hereis tigoo leh-li ( I am
thereis ngoo leh-la (
These adverbs are often used as adverbial nouns and may
take prepositions before them. Thus Taudi-deu le (
)means Con]e here. Lit. To here come. Tau i-deu
chi (means Go there/' Lit. To there go.
0Pa totsh-di(means Place it here. Lit.
Place it at here. Pa la i-khwe(means
uPlace it there.n Lit. 4cPlace it at there.
VOCABULARY
Half an hour, pen0 otien-tB00ng Iu the morning, zaurig,-pen0 nyih .
(pen means half), .Lit. Above half day.
'Quarter of an hour, ih khuh . In the afternoon, 0 A minute, ih fung . Lit. Lower half day.


36'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
Night, ya* .
At night, ya-deu or ya-li
.
Day before yesterday, koo-nyih-ts
zien-nyili-ts H i-
nyih-ts.
Day after to-morrow, 0 Early in the morning, tsau-zung-deu
Tsail is early.
In the evening, ya-khwa .Lit.
Night coming fast.
In the middle of the day or noon,
nyih-tsoong .
To cook, sau .
To strike, tang .
To wait, tung .0Tung-ili-0tung(
means "Wait a little. _
To rest, hyih .Hyih-ih-hyih means
Wait a little." We also hayetung-
ih-hyih.
To remember, kyi or kyi-tuh
.
To forget, maung-kyi 15.
An affair (abstract), ih jien-z-0thi
or ih tsaung z-thi .
A thing or object (concrete), ih-kuh
meh-z .
Wind, foong .
A loaf of bread, ih-kuh men-deu
.
A mosquito, ih tsak mung-ts
or ih kuh mung-ts.
A boat, ih tsak zen .
Many, much, too-hau0 or too
To sting, ting .
To bite, ngau .
To spoil, wa or, wa-theh
(completely spoil).
A snake, ih diau zo
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) Vansauhau meh? Sauhau tse. (2)Ngoo-kuh
i-zaung tan tau0 tsh-di le. (3) I-zaung tsoo hau meh? ^Veh
zung, iau hyili liang nyih tsoo0 liau. (4) Tshing sien-sang
ming-tsau zanng-pen-nyih zeh tien-tsoong le. (5) Van sau-
hau-ts meh zieu iau chuh. (6) Ngoo nyih-li dok tsoong-
kok su, ya-li dok nga-kok su. (7) I-tsak rno we-ts tseu le
man0 lau peh la mo-foo tang. (8) Zien-nyih-ts ngoo la
Zaung-he ma-ts too-hau meh-z. (9) Di-tsaung z-thi
ngoo theh noong0 wo, dan-z 'yeh iau0 peh i-kuh nyung
hyau-tuli. (10) Tsau-zung-deu z ting hau dok su kuli
lang-kwaung. (11) Tnng-ih-hyih ngoo zieu iau le. (12)
Soong0 dok koo hyih kuh su kyi-tuh va? (13) Ih pen0
kyi-tuh, ih pen maung-kyi. (14) Ngoo peh la0 mung-ts
ting. (15) Men-deu peh la siau-noen chuh theli tse. (16)


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
37
Ngoo-kuh kyak peh la0 zo ngau-ts ih kheu. (17) Zen peh
la doo foong tang wa. (18) Tsbing sien-sang di-deu zoo.
(.*
(.
'..
.
..
(.
..
(
..
..
..
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) When will you come, in the morning or in the afternoon?
(2) I do not know; if I have no affairs to attend to, I will come in
the morning. (3) Has the carpenter finished making the table
c If so, I will come and look at it. (4) Place the bed here and the
table there. (5) These fish are cooked badly. (6) The day
after to-morrow I have invited some guests to dinner. (7) It is
already twenty minutes past ten, and my teacher has not yet
come. (8) Do you remember what I told you yesterday I have
forgotten it. (9) In studying Chinese, you must not forget what
you have already learnt. (10) Please sit down a little while;
there are many things I want to say to you. (11) How did you
come? I came in a carriage. (12) My child was struck by your
child. (13) My face and hands were bitten by mosquitoes.
().

.
..
.7


38'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
.)
.
..
(
.
Notes. (1) It will have be^n noticed that in Lesson VI Leh-li was used in the
Present Tense Continuous of the Verb, and that Leh-la was
used for the Past Continuous. It was pointed out then that
these words really signify Here and There. The literal
sense would be I am here eating, and I was there eating.
(2) It is very important that beginners should distinguish clearly be-
tween meh-z and z-thi. Any concrete ooject may be called a
meh-z0 Bat an abstract action or affair is always z-thi.
In mandarin-speaking districts toong-si (Lit. East-West,
is often used for meh-z} and sometimes it is beard in the Shang-
hai district.
(8) In the fifth sentence of the First Exercise, notice how the cts is
tacked on to the haut and not to the sau.
(4) In the tenth sentence of the First Exercise notice how the dok su
has become a verbal adjective. Lit. Reading book time."
(5) In tlie fifteenth sentence of the First Exercise the force of the theh
after chuh is that it has been entirely eaten up. Theh often
comes after verbs to express completed action. ,
(6) In the sixteenth sentence of the First Exercise, Ngawcts ih Jcheu
means literally Bitten a mouthful.
(7) In the seventeenth sentence we have two verbs used together
tang and wa. Literally beat or strike spoil.
(8) In the seventh sentence of tlie Second Exercise twenty minutes
past ten is expressed zeh tien koo nyan fung, Tien is a
shortentd form lor Lien4sooug. Koo means passed over or
beyond.
(9) In the twelfth sentence of the First Exercise notice the use of kuh.
In has the force of the relative pronoun, and the translation
would be the books which you have read."
(10) In the sixth sentence of the Second Exercise some inuy be
translated by /cyi-kuh.


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 39
LESSON XII
Some Verbal Idioms
We have already explained the use ofkhau-H, nung-keu9
and we. There are other ways of expressing the possibility and
impossibility of doing things in Chinese. For instance one way
is by the addition of tuh-le orveh-le after the verb. Thus:
Dok-tuh-le (means Able to read. Dok-,veh-le
(means Unable to read it. Many verbs of one
character admit of this construction. Thus: Wo0-tuh-le means
"Able to speak. Wo-9veh'le means Unable to speak.
Tsoo"tuh'le () Abe to do.Tsoo0-,veh-le (
Unable to do."
Verbs made up of two characters do not take tuh-le and
veh-le after them. Thus we do not hearhyau_tuh-veh-ie
for Unable to know," butveh wehyau-tuh ()
The literal meaning of tuh^le is Obtain, comeand the
literal meaning of 9veh-le is "Not come."
We also have tlie use of tuh-kuh after verbs, expressing
possibility, andveh-tuh, expressing impossibility. Thus we
have tsoo-tuh-kuh (meaning it is possible to do a
thingand tsoo-9veh-tuh (meaning it is impossible
to do a thing. With verbs of physical action, we have tuh-
doong ()andvek_doong ()used after the verb
implying possibility and impossibility. Thus we have
tuh"doong (meaning I have the physical ability to
walkand tseu^veh"doong ()meaning I have not-
the physical ability to walk. In the same way we have tsoo-
tuh:doong (and tsoo^veh-doong (
9Veh"doong literally means Not move.
Strange to say we have zoo-9veh-0doong (meaning
I have not the physical ability to sit up,1' andzoo-tuh-0doong


40'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
(meaning I have the physical ability to sit up.
Ma-tuh'doong (means "Possible to buy.
Ma-9veh-doong (means Impossible to buy?
With verbs of hearing and seeing impossibility is expressed
in still another way. Thus we have khoen0-tuh-kyien (
meaning "It is possible to see,and Jclwen0-veh-kyien
(meaning It is impossible to see it.Literally trans-
lated these expressions are "S(e, obtain, behold," and See, not
behold." We also have khoen0-tuh-lsheh (meaning
to see a thing clearly. Literally "Seeobtain, come forth," and
khoenveh-tsheh (meaning not to be able to see, or
literally See, not come forth
In the same way we have thing-tuh-tsheh (and
thing:vek-tsheh (in regard to hearing. Instead of
thingtuh-kyienand thing-9veh-kyien9 we have thing-tuh-
dzak (and thing-9veh-dzak (g| Literally
.Hear, obtain and Hear, not obtain.
We have already explained the use ofhau after verbs
expressing completed action. We also, have other words used
much in the same way. Thus dok-hau-tse (dok-
wen-tse (or dok-ba_tse (all mean the same
thing. The verb wen means to finish. Accordingly in
asking a question tsoo0hau-meh (tsooiven-meh
(and tsoo-ba-meh (all mean have you
finished it?
Verbal nouns are often formed by the addition of deu (
or fah (after the verb. Thus tsoo-deu (or tsoo*
fah (means the manner of doing a thing.
VOCABULARY
To move, to excite, doong .
To hear, thing .Heard, thing-
kyien
To knock, to strike, khau .
To finish, wen .


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
41
Kan (^) is the classifier used with rooms.
A room, ih kan .
A bed room, ih kan vaung-kan
.
A guest room, ih kan khak-daung-
kan .
An office, ih kan sia-z-kan
.
A shroffs room, ih kan tsang-vaung-
kan .
A study, ih kan su-vaung .
A dining room, ih kan chuh-van-kan
.
A kitchen, ih kan sau-van-kan
or dzu-vaung or tsau0-
kaii.
All, loong-tsoong or koong-
tsoong .
All in general, most, da-ke .
Few, sau .
Each, me .
Every, kauh .
Other, bih .
High, kau .
Low, ti .
Broad, khweh .
Narrow, 'ah .
Deep, sung
Shallow, tshien .
Too (denoting excess) thuh .
Above, zaung-deu B.
Below, 0 .au-l;i.
Under, benetitli, ti-0 Outside, nga-deu .
After, 0 Behind, 0eu-ti 0eu-0ti-deu
eu-deu.
Before, zien zien-deu .
Earth, di or di-jeu .
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) Zaung-deu yeu thien, 0,au,deu yeu di. (2) Yeu
too-hau z ngoo sia-,veh-le. (3) Noong we-sa0-lau tseu
le man-le-si? Iung-we ngoo tseuveh-cdoong lau. (4)
Tsoong-kok wo zak-zen nyung wo le khwa0 meh, ngoo thing-
'veh-tsheh. (5) Yeu-kuh su ngoo dokveh-le. (6) Di-zak
vaung-ts kyi-hau kau, Gkyi-han khweh? (7) Di-zak vaung-
ts yeu kyi kan? (8) Yeu ih kan khak-daung, ih kan 0sia
z0-kan, ih kan chuh-van-kan, lau s kan vaung-kan. (9)
Di-kuh meh-z yeu sa yoong-deu va? M-sa yoong-deu,
(10) Sa nyung la khau mung? Ngoo 'veh zung thing-kyiena
yeu sa nyung la khau mung. (11) Didiau loo thuh ah,
ting hau noong0 tseu la zien-deu, ngoo tseu la oteu-deu.


42'
LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
(12) Tshing khak-nyung khak-daung li zoo. (13) Dzoong
Zaung-he tau tsh di yeu kyi-hau loo0? (14) Vaung-ts
nga-deu z lang tien, yaung-ts li-hyang z nyili tien.
(15) Di-diau oo yeu-kuh di-faung z sung tien, yeu-kuh
di-faung z tshien 0tien. (16) Noong na-nung hyau-tuh
di0 tsaung z0-thi ? Iung-we ngoo thing-tnh yeu nyung wo
lau. (17) Ze-voong tsoo0 leveh hau, loong-tsoong kuh i-
zaung thuh doo. (18) Kauh nyung yeu kauh nyung kuh z-
thi.
( .
(H).
..
(..
(.
(.
.
..
(

.
.
..
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) Where is your teacher He is in the study writing.
(2) Did you tell the table boy to bring the tea? (3) If the
carpenter does not make it well, I shall call another man. (4)
This manner of doing it is bad; I want you to do it better. (5)
I walked to Shanghaiand then I could walk no further. (6)
Then what did you do? I called a ric-sha and jame back. (7)
Is the master in? He has gone out. (8) Three days ago I went
to see the pagoda. (9) There is water beneath the earth. (10)
The cat is under the chair, (11) "When I have finished reading


tESSONS I THE SfiANC^HAi DtALiJCT
43
the book, I wish to learn to write characters. (12) Tell him to
come inside. (13) This table is too low: I cannot write charac-
ters on it. (14) May I come in Come right in.
(.

..
(.
..
..
..)
..
.
Notes. (1) In regard to sau, meaning "few," it should be noted that it never
occurs before a noun. If you wish to say a few men the idiomatic
expression would be yeaveh too Icy i-kuh nyung (
)or m-meh Jcyi'hau nyung () The men are
few would be nyung sau ().Sau is often used to qualify
verbs. Thus we have saa dok knh, meaning to read less.
(2) As already pointed out in a previous lesson what correspond to
prepositions in English are really postpositions in Chinese, as
they come after the nonns instead of before them. "When used
as adverbs, however, they generally precede the verbs. Tims
we have li-hyang zoo for "Sit inside,zaung-deu zoo (
for take a higher seat.This is the usual polite phrase
said to a guest when he enters yonr guest room. He will take a
seat near the door, and yon ask him to be seated higher."
(3) The first sentence of the First Exercise is really an oath, and is
used when one is calling Heaven and Earth to witness that his
words are true.
(4) Note the impersonal use of yeu in the second sentence of the First
Exercise. Literally it is There are many characters.
(5) In the seventh sentence of the Second Exercise you liave the usual
form of inquiring whether the gentleman you wisli to see is at
home. You say Sien-sang leh-la evae f i8 the master there?"
The answer is leh-la, if he is at home, meaning He is there."
If he is not at home, the answer may be tsheh chi la0, "he haa
gone out," or 9veh leh-la, he is not there."


a
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 62
LESSON XIII
Auxiliary Verbs
The verb chi (is often used as an auxiliary verb after
the principal verb to express the idea of inception. Thus dok-
chi (means Begin to read. Chi also expresses the
idea of erectness, but when used in this sense, le ()follows the
chi. Thus Lih-0chi-le (means Stand up. Lolc-
chi-le ()means "Get up. It also has a progressive
meaning, as when you say Dok"chUle (it means read
on, "go on reading.
We have thechi, used also in combination with tuh (
Thus Lok-tuhchi (means Able to get up. Lok-
9veh-chi (means £Unable to get up. 0Ma-tuh-
chi (means Can afford to buy it. Maveh-chi
(i^eans Cannot afford to buy it. Khwung-veh-
chi (Bmeans unable to sleep. Khoen-9veh'chi
(means to look down upon to disdain
Zaung (and KAu (are used both as principal verbs
and as auxiliaries. Thus we have the expressionsZaung san
(meaning to go up hill. 'Au san ("to go
down hill.'Au zen (to go on board a boat Zaung
su (to take an advanced lesson in a book etc. In
these cases they are used as principal verbs.
As auxiliary verbs, they express motion upwards and motion
downwards.
They are not confined to verbs of motion, but are used freely
with other verbs. To both of them le (and chi (are
frequently added.
Thus we have dok- 'au-chi0 (meaning Read on
down. Tsoo0"0 £au-chi (meaning Go on doing
it. Thiau-au-le (meaning Jump down."


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
45
Thiau"(zaung-chi meaning u Jump up to tha
place." Thiau0 zaung-le u Jump up to th.%
place.
Although the Chinese language is, strictly speaking, o
monosyllabic language, yet as has already been noticed there
is a strong tendency to use two or more words together
forming as it were dissyllables or trisyllables. In this lesson
some verbs are used, composed of two characters occurring
together.
VOCABULAKY
To like, to enjoy, hwen-hyi .
I'o play, take recreation, beh-siang
.
To converse, bak-wo or dan-
dan m.
To believe, siang-sing B .
To fall, lauh (of things) or till
(of men or animals).
To stand uplih .
To get up, lok .
To be willing, khung'
To back the book, pe .
To think, siang .
To sleep, khwung .
To wipe, kha .
To fly, fi .
To reckon, soen .
To build, zau .
A stove, ih kuh hoo-loo
or ih tsak hoo-loo.
A rut, ih tsak lau-ts or
ih tsak lau dzoong .
A washstand, ih tsak kha-mien-de-
ts .
A temple, ih zoomiau.
A window, ih sen tshaung .
Ban (|) is the Classifier for firms, shops, etc.
A tea shop, ih ban dzo-kwen
.
A pair of chop-sticks, ih saung khwan
.
Word?, seh-wo or wo-deu .
A sentence, ih kyui0 seh-wo
.
Only, pih-kooor dok-cz
or tsuh-tuh K
Not only,.veh-dan0-0z or
'veh-dan0 or 'veh-ba .
Heavy dzoong .
Light (in weight), chung .
Cheap, jang .
Dear (in price), kyui .
Happy, kha-weh .
Clear or distinct, tshing-saung ft
Soochow, Soo-tseu .
Therefore, soo-i or keh-]aii
.
First, sien .
Together ih-daH ih-doong .


L'
ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 46
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) Di-kuh liang we bang-yeu hwen-hyi ih-dau bak-
wo. (2) Ngoo dok-ba-ts su iau tsheh-chi beh-siang.
(3) Zak-zen yi khung ma meh, noong0 ma-meh-tse. (4)
Di-zoo vauDg-ts zau-chi-leman khwa. (5) Ngoo kyau
i-kuh siau-noen lih-chi-le pe su. (6) Ngoo siang di-kuh
kok nyung chuh van0 yoong ih saung kliwan, nga-kok nyung
yoong tau lau tsho. (8) Zauh ya-deu la0 vaung-kan-li
ngoo thing-tuh ih tsak ]au-ts Ieh-la kyau. (9) Zak-zen yi
wo yiveh zung tan meh, yi-kub seh-wo ngoo khung siang-
sing0. (10) Thien hau meh ngoo iau tau dzo-kwen-li
clii zoo-zoo dan-dan chuh dzo. (11) Yeu bih sauDg-0(a-ts
va Ngoo pih-koo yeu di-saung. (12) Zauh-ya-deu
ngoo khwung-'veh-dzak, soo-i kyung-tsau lok-'veh-chi.
(13) Thien nyih kuh zung-kwaung iau khe tshaung lau mung,
lang meh iau kwan. (14) Tsoong-kok wo, wo le Jveh
tshing0-saung meli bih nyungveil toong kuh. (15) Di-tsak
kha-mien-de-ts noong0 0ma le jang ya? Veh hau soen
jang, ngoo siangman kyui0. (16) Noong0 kyi khwe
yang-dien ma le kuli Zeh khwe0 yang-dien la. (17) Noong0
we0-sa0-lau 0ma le zeh-ke kyui? lung we tsnh-tuh di-kuh
ih tsak. (18) 0Ngoo tsheh-clii bau loo ?veh-dan khoen-
kyien ih zoo0 miau, miau mung zien 'a yeu ih zoo thah.
(19) Di-tsak hoo-loo z Odzoong kuh nyi chung kuh? Zman
dzooDg kuh. (20) Tshing sien-sang zoo zaung chi. (21)
Sien-sang kyau0 auh-sang-0ts dok-0 dzoong de-ts laung0 lauh>c iui-ts laung0 tih-0au-le. (24) Ngoo khoen-kyien ih tsak
tiau dzoong thien laung0 fi-au-le. (25) Ngoo ming-tsau iau
0au zen tau0 Soo-tseu chi.


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
47
()
.
..
(.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) Do you like to eat this? (2) In the day time men
work, in the night time they sleep. (3) The cat came in by the
window and the rat ran out by the door. (4) I conversed with
him, and he taught me many words in Chinese. (5) I want you
to wipe the windows. (6) Last night I slept only four hours.
(7) I not only bought a washstand, I also bought a stove and
three chairs. (8) Children like to play, men like to study. (9)
Why do you go to the tea shop? Because there I can hear many
men conversing, and so learn many Chinese words. (10) Are
you willing to go with me to see the temple? (11) To-day I am
very happy, because I have finished the book. (12) The child
jumped down from the table. (13) Please write on down. (14)
When will you go up the hill with me to take a look (15) The


48
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 48
teacher firat hears the scholars back the bookand then gives
hem ail advanced lesson.
(
.
..
..
(
..

.
.
..

.
(
Notes.
1) Note that siang-sing means "to like as well as to believe. Ngoo
siang-sing ih kuh nyung (means, I like him.
2) The expression to back the book arises from the old Chinese
custom of the pupil turning his back upon the teacher when he
recites his lesson.
3) Notice the order of the words in the eleventh sentence of the First
Exercise. The verb Yeu comes first in the sentence.
4) The word la is added at the end of the sixteenth sentence of the
First Exercise merely for euphony.
5) In the twentieth sentence of the First Exercise we have another
polite way of asking a person to take a higher seat in the guest
room.
6) In sentences twenty-two and twenty-three of the First Exercise we
have the use of lauh and tih for fall. It is difficult to dis-
tinguish between the two, but tih is used always when we speak
of a person falling down.
7) The correct way of translating the first sentence of the Second
Exercise is Di-yang meh-z noong0 hwen-hyi chuh vaf Di-
yang means "this sort.
8) The thirteenth sentence of the Second Exercise of course refers to
the fact that Chinese write from the top down and not across
the page.
9) The last clause of the fifteenth sentence of the Second Exercise
should be nan-meh theh yi-la 0zaung su. "Then for them,
advances in the book.


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
49
LESSON XIV
i
Causality and Necessity
The idea of causality, in the sense of causing a person to do
a thing, is expressed in Chinese by the use of the auxiliary verbs
kau ()and tsha (. Thus I caused him to do it," would
be ngoo kau yi tsoo(."I caused him to go
would bengoo tsha yi chi( The word tsha
literally means ilto send." The word kau is the same as kyau,
but used with different pronunciation and different tone. When
one of higher rank causes a person of lower rank to do a thing
the word s ()is used. Thus S ngoo ieu-mung, '1 Caused
me to sorrow.
"Mustis expressed by the expressions tsoong-iau0 (
)pih-ding0 iau(ih-dingiau0 ()
It must beis tsoongz ( Thus "It must be so"
is feoowflr-zzeh-ke(
Ought, implying obligation, is expressed by iung-ke (
.Thus You ought to do itis noong0 iung-ke tsoo0 kuh
()
VOCABULARY
Perhaps, khoong-pho .
Just now, a little while ago, khail
khafe ,orveh too kyi-z
.
Quick-, 4au-sau or khwa-
khwa.
Moreover, ping-tghia or r-
tshia,or hwaung-tshia
.
Although, soe-zen or soe-z .
Yet, ze:nr .
Still (in the sense of in addition), wan
or wan-iau .ngoo wan
iau ma I still wish to
buy more."
On the contrary, or on the other hand,
tau .
To complete, dzung-koong .
To light (a lamp or candle)tien .
To light (a fire), sang .
To take with you, ta chi .
To bring with you, ta le .
To kill, sah ,or sah-theh .
To kill with a blow, tang sah .
To die, si or si-theh .
To live, weh .
A lamp, ih tsan tung
To tell, narrate, kau-SOO .
To sweep the ground (floor), sau-di
.


50
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 50
Foong (is the classifier used for letters and other sealed
parcels.
A letter, ih foong sing0
An envelope, ih foong sing0 khauh
It or ih foong sing0 foong
.
A candle, ih kung lah tsok
.
Fire, hoo .
Tsang (is the classifier denoting sheets.
A sheet of paper, ih tsang ts or ih | A fowl, ih tsak kyi
tsang ts-deu .
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) Ngoo-nyi iung-ke tsoo-kuh z-thi, tau 'veh tsoo.
(2) Thien lang-ts meh pib-ding iau sang boo. (3) Ya-
deu iau dok su meh, tsoong-iau tien tung. (4) Ngoovel
hyau-tuh na.nung tsoo-deu, ngoo-kuh bang-yeu i-kyung
si-theh tse. (5) Tan ih tsang ts-deu le, Ongoo iau sia ih
foong sing0. (6) Ngoo. la su-vaung li zing ngoo-kuh mau-
ts, soe-zen tien-ts lah-tsok ota zing-veh-dzak kuh. (7) Ngoo
iau 'auh dok tsoong-kok z ping tshia ian 4auh sia tsoong-
kok z. (8) Soe-zen noong wo 'veh zung tan tsheh chi zen-r
ngoo 'veh khung siang-sing. (9) Khwa-tien chi kyau
i-sung le, 0khoong-plio0 yi iau si tse. (10) Sien-sang leh-la
va? Yi khan-khan leh-li, yien-dze 'veh hyau-tuh a-li chi0
tse. (11) Zak-zen yi wan 'veh zung le, ngoo tung yi 'veil tuh.
(12) Ngoo kyau yoong-nyung sah ih tsak kyi, la chuh van0
kuh zung-kwaung iau chuh kuh. (13) Di-tsak de-ts mok-
ziang tsoo le wan hau. (14) Ngooman kha-weh thing-
tuh noong wo ngoo yeu ih foong sing0 le, kboong-pho z
ngoo-kuh bang-yeu sia le kuh. (15) Nyung iau sien tsoo
dzung-koong ih tsaung z0-tbi, nan-meh khau-i tsoo bih yaug.
(16) M-meh ih kuh nyung hwen-hyi si.


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 69
:1
s
(.
..
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
..

..
(.
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) I told you a little while ago that I did not want you to
open the window; why do you not listen to me? (2) Light the
lamp and put it on the table in the study. (3) If a guest comes,
I want you to light the fire in the reception room. (4) Do not
strike the dog; perhaps you will kill him. (5) Yon must study
diligently, and then }7ou can learn to speak Chinese. (6) How
many hours a day ouglit I to study? I think you should study
at least four hours a day: two in the morning and two in the
afternoon. (7) If your letter has been written, I will send the
servant to take it. (8) Early in the morning I want you to
sweep the floor and wipe the table and chairs. (9) Although the
carpenter works quicklylie cannot finish it in a week. (10)
When you have finished this do not think there is nothing more
to do, but come and tell me. (11) I did not tell you to take it
awa)but on the contrary told j^ou to put it in the office. (12)
If the doctor does not come immediately, this man cannot live,
(13) Who caused you to do it? He caused me to do it


6
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 70
(-) (

..
. 0

..
(.
.
.
..
(.
Notes. (1) Wan is sometimes used to qualify adjectives. Thus Wan hau
(means fairly goodor pretty good."
(2) Soe-^.en and Zen-r are generally used together; the first introduc-
ing the first clause, and the second, the second clause.
(3) In the first sentence of the First Exercise notice the formation of
the verbal noun, the things which we ought to do.
(4) In the ninth sentence of the First Exercise notice that khwa tien
does not mean faster but is used for "quickly.^
(5) In the eleventh sentence of the First Exercise Tang yi 9veh tuh
means, lit., Wait him not get; that is, I cannot wait for
him.
(6) In the fourteenth sentence of the First Exercise notice the use of
le. Le iind. chi are frequently used witli otlier verbs to make
the direction of the action clear. Thus Sia le is, ''Write come
to rne Sia chiis "Write send awiiy," or "Write go.,
(7) In the fifth sentence of the Second Exercise, Diligently can be
expressed by Yoong sing, 'Use heart or mind,
(S) In this Lesson frequent use lias been made of the verb Si (
In speaking of a person dying the more euphonious expression
is Ioo-s
LESSON XV
Further Remarks on Numerals, the Relative Pronoun
Numbers above one hundred are expressed as follows: One
hundred and one, is ih pak ling ihand so on to ih pak ling
kyeu; then the ling is dropped, mid we have ih pak zeh (


JLESS0N3 IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
3
ih pak zeh ih, ih pak zeh nyiih pak zeh san, etc.
Ling really means "in addition.
The hundreds are expressed simply by nyi0 pak (
two hundredsan pak (three hundred etc. One
thousand" is ih tshien (.In expressing one hundred
and onewe say ih pak ling ih ( .In expressing
"one thousand and one we say ih tshien ling ling ih.
Ten thousandis ih maw.One million'' is
ih pak man. The ordinal numerals are expressed
in Chinese by prefixing di(before the cardinal. Thus the
first is cKih (or deu-ih ( "the seconddi
nyi ( and so forth.
Soo ((lit. a place) is often used as a relative pronoun.
It translates the English who,"whicl] whatthat
and the things which.^ The clause it introduces usually comes
before the subject of the sentence. Thus All that you do, I am
able to do also," would be noong0 soo tsookuh z0-thi ngoo
ota nung-keu isoohuh. As has already been pointed out
kuh often has the force of the relative.
VOCABULARY
To wonder^ be surprised, hyi-ji .
To wear, tsak .
To take ofl; thoeh or thoeh-theh
.
To wear a lnit, ta .
To take off a hat, dzu .
To laugh, siau .
To ridicule, lang-siau (Lit.Cold
laugh)or hyi-siau .
Laughable, hau-siau .
Very augluiblesiau-sah-tse .
By the side of, piei:~deu or
banng-pien .
Plnce, han-ilea .
My place, ngoo han-deu .
Right (Direction), yeu .
Right hand, yeu seu .
Left, tsoo .(Sometimes pronounced
tsi.)
Left hand, tsi seu .
Right side, yeu pien (yeu
pan-pan (
Early, ctsau .
Late, ail .
Sharp, khwa .Same character a?
that used for fast.)
Dull, dung0 .
-Sweet., dien .


54
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 54
Bitter, kllOO .
Ugly, pho . (Same character as
that used for to fear.)
Pretty, tshui
A shop, ih. ban tien .
Take care, taung-sillg or siau-
sing.
Take great care, too-0taung-sing
.
Tool.-, implements, ka-sang .
Furniture, ka-hoo .
A tea pot, ih po dzo-'oo .
A class (in a school)ih pan .
To sing, ts'aung .
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) Ngoo tau0 tien Ii chi khoen0-kyien0 too-liau meh-
z, dan-zma-veh-cli kuh. (2) Taung sing tseu hau.
(3) Taung sing di-kuh yang-dien, faung0 hau la siang-ts
li. (4) Zung-kwaung antse, zieu chi khwung0. (5)
Kyung-tsau ngoo cm-sa hau, lok-'veh-chi. (6) Ngoo soo
kau-soo noong0 kuh ih tsaung z-thi 'veh iau le bill nyung
wo0. (7) Yoong0-nyung wanveh zung le z peh ngoo hyi-ji.
(8) Tanng-sii]g di-po tau zman khwa kuh. (9) Yi te
ngoo wo kuh z-thi z bau-siau kuh. (10) Ngoo loo
laung bang yi 'veil dzak, 'veh hyau-tuL tau c(a-li chi tse.
(11) Di-po dzo-^o tan tau sien-sang han-deu chi. (12) I-
kuh nyung tsi seu sia. z, da-ke nyuiig yeu sen sia kuli.
(13) Nyih-li soo tsak kuh i-zaung, ya0-0Ii kbwung0 kuh z-en
iau0 tlioeh-theli kuh. (14) Nga-kok sien-sang tsing mung-
kheu thoeli-theh mau-ts, fsoong-kok nyung 'veh tboeh-theli
kub. (15) I-tsak man 'man hau khoen0dan-z i tsak keu
z pho-le-si. (16) Too-hau liyung hwen-hyi cliuh dien kuli
meli-z,m-nyung hwen-hyi chuh khoo kuh. (17) Dzung Ji
yeu kyi-bau njuing? Khoong-pho yeu zeh man. (18)
Di-kuh z deu-ib. (19) Ih kah nyung tan le ih pak ling san kuh
doong-dien.
(-).
..


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 55
.
.
..
.
..
.
.
.
.
..

.
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) When I was in the carriage, I told the coachman to
take care. (2) The clothes which that maiden wears are very
pretty. (3) The boat is by the side of the river. (4) Yesterday
I met a man who told me that he saw a carpenter kill a man with
a sharp knife. (5) Although I do not speak Chinese well, please
do not laugh at me. (6) I asked a man which road to take; he
told me to go to the right. (7) I did not meet a single person
on the road. (8) This bird is very beautiful; can it sing? (9)
When it is warm you do not need to wear many clothes. (10)
This tea is bitter and not good to drink. (11) Yesterday I
walked very far, and so could not get up to-day. (12) Take
this letter to the teacher.
(-).)
..

..
(.
.)
.


56
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 56
(.
.
Notes. (1) Han-deu is very frequently used with persons and personal pro-
nouns. Thus you do not say 7an tau yi for take it to liim, but
Tan tau yi han-deu chi0. 'Leave it with me" would be Pa la
/ ngoo han-deu,
(2) The second sentence of the First Exercise is often used in speaking
to a giiest when lie is departing. When he is about to go, he
announces the fact by saying Chi tse (,meaning I am
going. You say Man chi ),meaning Go slowly,"
and then when he is walking away, Taung sing tseu hau (
)
(3) In the fifth sentence of the First Exercise M-sa-hau means not
at all well.
(4) In the tenth sentence of the First Exercise notice how the object
yi splits up the verb into two parts.
(5) In the sixth sentence of the Second Exercise to the right ia
expressed by yeuseu ()
LESSON XVI
Verbal Idioms
The idea of there being time to accomplish a thing is ex-
pressed by adding the words tuh^ji0 (after the principal
verb. If there is not sufficient time to do a thing you addveh
ji(after principal verb. Thus Tsoo-tuh-ji(
means there is time to do a thing. Tsoo-,Vh-ji(
means uthere is not time. ^
This expression is used most frequently with the verb /e (
Le-tuh-jimeans there is time," and le-'veh-ji0 means there
is not time. ~
The idea of a thing being important is expressed by the words
iau'kyung kuh ( Not being important," by the
words 'veh iau kyung (or 9veh nge sa (
''Is it important? '' or 1 c Does it make any difference? would
be nge saQ va (


L'ESSONS IN THE
SHANGHAI DIALECT 75
57
9 Veh lauh is often used after verbs giving the idea of in-
ability to do a thing. Thus Chuh 9veh lauh (means
^unable to eat. Zoo ,veh lauh (Unable to sit
because of lack of room. We also have the affirmative forms
zoo tuh lauh (and chuh tuh lauh (.
VOCABULARY
Lesr,f?an9ts .
Either,,ok-z ok-tse .
Difficult, van-nan 18, or na.u .
Easy, yoong-yi .
Slowly, gently, man-man-nung
.
Walk slowly, man-man-ts tseu
.
Besides, in addition, ling-nga
dze-nga or wan .
How much more, oo-0hwaung
(with nyi at the end of the chiuse).
Still more, knng-ka or yoeh-
ka.
To Ptart (on a journey), doong-SUng
.(Lit. to move the body.)
To become ill, sang-bing0 .
To heal, i-hau or khoen-hau
.
To welcome (a guest), nyung-tsih
.
To return (a debt or thing borrowed),
wan .
To cry, khok .
To lead, ling .
To borrow or to lend, tsiae .(See
Note.)
To wash, zing0 .
Illnessmau-bing0
A sedan coolie, ih kuh jau-pan
of ih kuh jau-fao
A star, ih knh sing .
A grave mound, ih kuh vung-san
.
A goat, ih tsak san-yang .
A hog or pig, ih tsak ts-loo
.
A stool, ih tsak ngeh-ts .
A chest of drawer.-, ih tsak tsheu-deu
.
A drawer, ih tsak tiheu thi
A wash howl, ih tsak mien-bang

A plate, ih tsak bung-ts
A Chinese eating bowl, ih tsak weiL

A farmer, ih kuh tsoong0'dien
nyung fi.
Kwen (is the classifier for tubular tilings
kwen
A Chinese or foreign pen, ill
pih .
A Chinese ink tablet, ih kuh nyien-
ts or nyien-de .
A piece of ink, ih khwe muh .
Foreign ink, inuh-s .
Clean, koen-zing .
Stop, ding1 .
Moon, nyceh-liang )].
Precious, cpau-pe


58
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 58
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) Di-knh z iaTi-kyung kuh, tshing noong0 'yeh iau0
maung-kyi. (2) Di-kuh siau-noen van0 chuh 'veh lauh,
khoong-pho yeu mau-bing0. (3) Kyung-tsau le-'veh-ji,
ming-tsau lau tsoo0. (4) Liang kuh nyung ih tsak iui-ts
laung0 zoo-Weh-lauh. (5) cAuh-sang-ts mung0 sien-sang
'a-li-deu dok chi lau 0 hau-ts meh, faung0 la tsheu-thi li. (7) Tsoong-dien-
nyung i-kyung ma-ts san tsak san-yang, jd-kuh bang-yeu
liugO-ngawan iau ma s tsak, (8) Noong0 iung-ke de
loong-tsoong nyuiig hau, nyi. (9) Bung-ts lau wen iau kung-ka koen-zing. (10)
Noong0 iung-ke tsau-zung-deu doong-sung, olau-pen-nyih
Odoong-sung le-'veh-ji0 tau0 kuh. (11) Noong kyi-z wan peli
la ngoo? Ok-tse kyung-tsau 0 tsau-zung-deu. (12) Ngoo-kuh bang-yeu sang-bing soo-
i iau0 tshing i-sung khoen0 khoen0. (13) Ya-li la thien
laung0 0khan-0i khoen0 too-hau sing lau nyoeh-liang0, nyih-
li pih-koo khoen0-kyien0 nyili-deu. (14) Di-kuh siau-noen
nyih-liveil kliok, dan-z ya-deu doo khok. (15) Ngoo
tsia-peh yi san-seh khwe yang-dien, 'veh Lyautuh yi kyi-z
wan. (16) Kyau jau-foo man-man0-ts tseu iung-we di-
diau ka ah lau. (17) Iung-we loo0veh nyung tuh soo-i
jigoo tshing bill nyung ling loo. (18) Ngoo la0 bang-yeu
ban-deu tsia-ts nyan0 khwe yang-dien iung-we iauma ih
tsak kha-mien-de lau s tsak ngeh-ts. (19) Kha-hau-ts
mien, mien-bung iau0 faung0 hau. (20) Ngoo tseu tau0
mung-kheu-deu nyung-tsih khak-nyuDg. (21) Ngoo mung i-
sung dikuh raau-bing i-tuh-hau va, yi wo man-inan0
iuing we hau kuL. (22) Ts-deu, muh, pih, nyien-de.
IsooDg-kok nyung soen0 dok-su-nyung kuh s yang pau-pe.


JLESS0N3 IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
59
(-).
..
.
..
.
(.
.
.
.
.)
.
..
(.
.
.
..
(
._
.
(Translate into. Chinese)
(1) Which is easier, to learn to read Chinese or to learn to
write Chinese? (2) I told you there was not time to do it; why-
do you still want to do it? (3) Why do you cry? Because I
have heard that my friend is dead. (4) We will go early to-
morrow morning to meet our friends, who have come from
abroad. (5) Goats like to stand on the tops of the grave
mounds. (6) You say this temple is so fine to see, that I want
to go more than ever to see it. (7) Please, teacher, do not speak
so fast. If you will speak more slowly, I can understand. (8)
If you do not return it immediately, no matter, I can wait two or
three days. (9) Why did not the pupil come to school Because
be was sick. (10) I told the servant to put my clothes in the


60
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 60
drawer. (11) The Chinese when they eat, use bowls; the
foreigners use plates. (12) This fan belongs either to the teaclier
or to the pupil. (13) If you want to learn to write you must
buy a pen, a piece of ink, and an ink tablet. (14) If you borrow
money from another person, and do not return it he will be un-
happy. (15) I told the driver to stop the carriage at my friend's
house.
(

.
.

.
.
.
..
(.
.
.
(
..
Notes. The word for to borrow and to lend" is exactly the same in
Chinese. The only way you can distinguish between them is by
auxiliary words used in connection with them. Thus Tsia peh
(means "to lend Tsia le (means "to borrow.
Again Tsia ehi (means to lend. But we have such
constructions as Ngoo lsia la yi (meaning I
lend to him," and Ngoo Ia yi han-deu-tsia kuh (
meaning I borrowed it from hi in.
(2) In the fifth sentence of the First Exercise Dole0 chi means read
begin,'" and ding means stop." This is an ordinary form for
asking where to begin the lesson and where to end it.
(3) In the fourteenth sentence of the First Exercise notice how doo
qualifies the rerb kkok.
(4) The twenty-second sentence of the First Exercise is ft paraphrase
of a Qhiiiese proverb.


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
61
LESSON XVII
More Verbal Idioms
In asking question yeu-tuh?(sometimes precedes a
verb with the sense, Is there to be had? Thus Yeu-tuh 0ina
Va?(means, Is there to be bought? Yeu-tuh
chuh va?(means, Is there anything to eat?
The answers to these questions would be yeu"tuh ma kuh
(l/eu tuh chuh kuh (It can be
bought. There is something to eat.
9 Veh pih (means It is not necessary. ThusVeh
pih khok ("It is not necessary to cry. 9Veh pih
chi( It is not necessary to go.
Ih nganveh (before verbs means, "Not at all
ThusNgoo ih nganveh hyau-tuh ( Bmeans,
I do not know at all. Ih ngan 9veh zung khoen-kyien0
hyih (means, I have not seen it at all.
Ih nganveh iau khoen(means, I do not
want to see it at all.
VOCABULARY
To visit, to pay respects to, maung
or pa maung .
To worship, pa .
To pay a ceremonial visit, pa khak
.
To bathe, zingyok .
To catch, seize, arrest, tsauh .
To prepare, to provide, yui-be .
To move a thing, doong
Loose, unstable,doong lau doong
.
Immovable, Odoong-0aveh-0doong
.
To remove (a residence), pen or
pen-dzang .
To commence work, doong-seu
or khe koong .
To open school, khe auh
To dismiss school, fauiig0 'auh .
A finger, ih tsak tsih-deu M-
A toe, ih tsak kyak-tsih-deu
.
A cup, ih tsak pe-ts .
A clock, ih tsak z-ming-tsoong
.
A watch, ih tsak piau .
A well, ih tsak tsing
A basket, ih tsak Ian .
An apple, ih tsak bing-koo
.


62
LE330NS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
A crab apple, ih tsak hwo-oong
.
A towel, ih diau 0seu-kyring
.
A life, ih diau sing-ming
.
A hall, mountain, ih Z00 san
A board, ih khwe pan
Fok (is the classifier of paintings or engravings.
A painting, ih fok wo .
L chart or map, ih iok doo or
ih fok di^li-doo .
A picture, ih fok wo doo .
One time, ih we ih thaung
.
Two times, twice, liang we or.
liang thaung0 .
Whosoever, van-i .
No matter who, 'veh lung sa nyung
.
Whatsoever, no matter what, 'veh
lungsa dzoe-bien-sa0
or 'veh kyui-sa
Whichever, dzoe-bien0 .
Whatever time you please, dzoe bien6
kyi-z.
Wet, sak .
Dry, koen .
Always, dzang tsaung
dzang-dzang .
or
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) Z-ming-tsoong kuh yoong-deu z peh nyung hyau-
tnh zung-kwaung. (2) I-tsak maum-sa0 yoong-deu, ih ngan
'veh we tsauli lau-ts. (3) Ming-tsau ngoo iau0 tsheh chi
maung0 baDg-yeu. (4) Ngoo thing-tuli sien-sangm-sa0 hau
soo-i le maung0 maung0. (5) Ngoo mung mok-ziaiig zau
vaung-ts kyi-z iau0 doong-seu. (6) Liaug tsak seu yeu
zeh tsak tsih den, liang tsak kyak yeu zeh tsak kyak-tsih-deu.
(7) Sang-bing meh tsoong-iau tshi]ig i-sung we-ts nyuiig
kuli sing0-ming0 z iau0 kyung kuh. (8) Zaung san z van-
nan, au san z yoong-yi. (9) Di-foong singiau0 sa nyung
tan chi? 'Veh lung sa nyung khau-i tan chi0. (10) Kyung-
ya-deu iau0 yui be hau, we-ts ming-tsau tsau-zung-deu
iau doong-sung. (11) Yien-dze chi ok-tse ming-tsau chi0,
dzoe-bien noong0 meh tse. (12)Tsiig li s i-kyung koeD
tse, veil hyau-tuh na-nung tsoo-deu, (13) Zing-ts yok


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
81
iau yoong0 seu-kyui]g kha koen sung-thi. (14) Klian-klian
ngoo faung nyan tsak bing-koo la lani, yien-dze pih-
koo yeu Oso-ng tsak, 'veil hyau-tuh sa nyung tan-theh kuh.
(15) Tsh-di piau yeu-tuh ma va? Tsh-di yangyang
yeu tuh ma kuh. (16) Loong.tsoong kuh z-thi ngoo i-
kyung liyau-tuh, noong'veh pih te ngoo wo. (17) Di-
pung su ih ngan m-meli wo-doo. (18) I-tsak pe-ts li yeu
sa meh-z? Pih-koo lang s. (19) Tsoo0 di-tsak de-ts iau
yoong kyi khwe 0pan? (20) Di-sen tshaung tsoo0 le ih
ngan 'veh hau, dzang-tsaung doong-lau-doong. (21) Chi
koo hyih meh? Chikoo-ts liang we. (22) Sien-sang woc
ming-tsauveh hau le, we-ts iau pen-dzang lau. (23) Van-
i nyung yoong0 sing meh khau-i dzung-koong z-thi.
(-)..)
..
(.
.
.
..
.
.
..
(.
.
(.)
.
.
..
.
..


64
L'ESSONS IN THE
SHANGHAI DIALECT 64
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) When I have finished studying, I shall go to visit my
friends. (2) No matter who comes; tell him I am busy (have
affairs) (3) When the weather is wet I cannot go out to walk.
(4) The pupils should not at apples in the school room. (5)
Children like to play the game of catching men. (6) The pupils
read badly to-day I think they did not prepare. (7) At what
time does the school open, and at what time does it close (8) I
shall be pleased to have a conversation with you whenever you
come. (9) This child does not want to study a bit; I think it
would be best for him to go and do business. (10) I have already
told you two or three times; do not forget. (11) Next month we
shall remove our residence. (12) Near Shanghai there are no
high hills, only grave mounds. (13) I cannot open this win-
dow it is immovable. (14) Has the clock already struck
(15) How many eggs are there in the basket?
(.
..
(.
.
.
.
.
..
..
(
Notes. (1) In the fourth sentence of the First Exercise 9m-8a hau means
"not at all we]L
(2) In the eleventh sentence of the First Exercise the expression Dzoe-
hien0 noong0 meh tse is one very frequently used. It implies,
"do it whenever and however you please.
(3) In the fourteenth sentence of the First Exercise Tan-theh mean?
'take away." We have already had the use of Theh after verbs,
as Thoeh-lheh, 'to take off clothes.n It can be used with almost


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
65
uny verb of motion. We have Peh thehto give away. Chuh-
theh "to eat up. Chi0-theh, to cast off, disown. Ma'theh,
to sell away, etc."
(4) In the fifteenth sentence of tlie First Exercise Yang9 yang0 repeated
means, ^Things of every sort,
(5) Note that the usual expression in Chinese to say you are busy ia
Ngoo yeu z-lhi. It is never very polite to tell any one that
you are busy. A person asking whether you were busy would
say maung va Are you busy?
(6) In the fifth sentence of tlie Second Exercise the game Tsauh nyung,
frequently played by Chinese children, is referred to.
(7) In the eighth sentence of the Second Exercise the clause should be
reversed. Noong0 dzoe-bien kyi-z-le should come first.
(8) In the ninth sentence of the Second Exercise to go and do business"
is Chi tsoo sang-i.
(9) In the fourteenth sentence of the Second Exercise Tsoong Ichau koo
meh is the usual way of asking the question. Tsoong is shortened
form of Z-ming tsoong
LESSON XVIII
More Verbal Idioms
Siang (is often placed before transitive, verbs and usually
gives the idea of mutual or reciprocal. In some cases it is
reflexive. As instances of reciprocal action we have siang-0tcmg
(to fight with one another. Siang-mo( to
revile one another." Siang-lien (to be connected
together. Siang-paung ("to help one another.
Khe (or khe-le (is used with many verbs to give
the idea of spreading wide open. Thus Than-khe-le ()
means to unroll a bundle. Hyih-khe-le (means
to open a box. Fung-khe (to dividesankhe
()to scatter wide cast. Tshih-khe (or tshih-
khe-le (means "to cut open, etc
Not inclined to do a thing is expressed by the phrase 9veh
Icau-hj/ung(.Thus 9 Veh kau-hyungchi(
not inclined to go.


69
LESSOiS'S IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
VOCABULARY
To follow, kung .
To tie, vok .
To tie tinniy, vok-lau or vok
lau-dzu.
To desire, to expect, maung0 or
po-maung.
To bite ngau p.
To bark, kyau P.
To blow, ths .
To blow out, to extinguish, ths iung
.
To blow into a blaze or flame, ths
yaung0 .
To fly, fi .
To explain, ka-seh .
To forsake, desert., depart from, i-
khe.
To permit, hyui .
To allow, nyang .
Colour, ngan-suh .
Variegated colours, ng-ngan-loh-suh
.
Thouglit. or meaningi-s Xk
A thief, ih kuh zuh .
Mien0 (is used as tlie classifier for flat objects
A druni, ih mien koo .
Hope, maung-deu .
Wind, foong1 .
Wine, tsieu .
Rope, ih diau zung, or ih
kung zung
Tsung ()is tlie classifier denoting idols or caimon.
A Buddliist idol, ih tsung veil
or ih tsung fcoo-sah .
A Taoist god or idol, ih tsung zung-
dau .
l piece nf bread, ih khwe men-deu
.
l piece of meat, ih khwe nyok
.
Khoo (is the classifier used with plants, trees, and
flowers.
A t ree, ih khoo zu .
A ll(j\vering plant, ill khoo hwo
.
Cotton seed, hwo-ts .
A Chinese mile, ih li or ih li-
loo .
To regret, to be placed in an embarras-
sing position, nan-we-dzing .
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) Dikuli liang kuh auli-sai}g-0ts Dgoo 'yehhyui
tslieh chi beh-siang we-ts la cauh-daungli siang mo0Iau.
(2) Di-kyui seh-wo kuli i-s ngooveh toong tshing sien-


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
67
jangka-seh. (3) Di-tsak tiau fi le kau-le-si. (4) Tsauh-
dzak-ts i-kuh zuli iau yoong ill kung zung yok-lau-ts. (5)
Di khoo hwo kuh ngan suh 'man tshui. (6) Ya0-0li khwuiig0
kuli z-'eu tung iau tsh iung. (7) cNgoo faung0 la0 ts.baung-
0kl]eu laung kuh ih tsang *ts-deu peh foong tsh-theh tse. (8)
Zak-zen tshing khak lau m-meh tsieu z nan-we-dzing kub.
(9) 'Veh iau pho, di-tsak keuveil 0ngau kulj. (10)
Ngoo tau miau0 li khoen-kyien ih tsung veh]au too-hau
boo-sah. (11) Ngoo thing-tuh yeu nyung la0 khau koo.
(12) Di-deu tau Zaung-he yeu so-ng li-loo. (13) Soe-
zen di khoo 2u 'man hau khoenzen-r 'ven khe hwo kuh.
(14) Zak-zen noong iau tau0 san laung0, nyang0 Ongoo kung
noong chi. (15) Men-deu tshing noong tshih-kbe-le peh ih
khwe la ngoo chuh. (16) Bing sang ]e 'man dzoong,
yien-dze i-sung m-ineh maung-deu. (17) Tsoong-dien-
nyung nau hwo-ts san-khe-le. (18) 'man kau-byung, dok suveh da kau-hyuiig. (19) Li-khe--
ts Zaui]g-he nan-meh ngoo tau Soo-tseu chi tse. (20) Ngoo
po-maung yi le, veh hyau-tuh yi na-nung wan 'veh zung le.
(-)
..
(.
..
.
..
..
(.
..

..
(.
.
..


68
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 68
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) The dog bit the sheep two or three times perhaps it will
die. (2) To-day there is no wind, and so it is not cold. (3)
Men ought not to drink too much wine. (4) I have eaten a slice
of meat and drunk a cup of tea, and now am able to walk. (5)
Men can walk, only birds can fly. (6) There are many trees and
flowers on the hill. (7) Many Chinese worship Buddhist and
Taoist idols. (8) I wanted to follow you, but the teacher would
not permit me. (9) Let nie go and tell him that you have
already returned. (10) I will use my knife and cut open this
pear. (11) I heard the dogs barking in the night and so could
not sleep. (12) Children like to play at beating the drum.
(13) These flowers are of many different colours. (14) How
many miles is it to Soochow (15) When the pupils take an
advanced lesson, the teacher should first explain it to them.
(.
..
..
(.
..
..
(.
..
.
.
Notes. (1) In the Buddhist religion in China a Buddha or one of his mani-
festations is known as a 9veh; the bodhisattvas are known as
Soo-sah.
(2) A Chinese mile is about one-t.l)ird of an English mile.
(3) In the sixteenth sentence of the First Exercise notice the ex-
pression 'man dzoong, "very heavy." This is the way the
Chinese speak of a serious illness. Tliey also speak of a disease
beinj? light, chung just aa we do.
(4) In the eighteenth sentence of the First Exercise veh da meana
not very." This is a very frequent expression.
(5) In the seventh sentence of the First Exercise tshaung-0kheu laung0
means "on the window sill


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
69
LESSON XIX
Asking Questions, Expecting Negative and
Affirmative Answers
In addition to the interrogative forms already given there
are ways of asking questions when a negative, or when an
affirmative answer is expected.
Tims when the negative answer is expected, the clause begins
with chi (and ends with nyi (.Thus Chi yeu sa
yoong-deu nyi ( Is it of any use?" It
implies that it is not of any use and expects the negative answer.
Chi (corresponds to the Latin num, and implies No, or a
negative of the proposition conveyed.
When the affirmative answer is expected the clause begins
with chi 9veh (and ends with the usual interrogative va
(
ThusChiveh iung-ke tsoo0 va(
Ought you not to do it? Implies that you ought to do it and
expects the affirmative answer.
It will be seen that in this case also the chi ()expects the
negative of the proposition conveyed, that is, the negative of a
negative proposition which is an affirmative. In other words the
answer is, That you ought not to do itor You ought to
do it.
VOCABULARY
Every place or everywhere, kauh tshu
or kauh-tau-lauh-tshu
.
Of course, z-zen .
Afterwards, hereafter, eu-0seu
0 Until, dzuh-tau wait until,
tung-tau .
Daily, nyih nyih oi, nyih-dzok
.
Abont, iak-kwe or iak-tsak
.
About ihe same (not much difference)
tsho-'veh-too .
Secretly, en- enli .
True, tsung S.
Fnlse,ka"".
Secure, 'wmig-taung
A long time, dzang-yoen dzang
oyoen-tse or ta-z-tse


70
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 70
Phih (is the classifier denoting whole pieces of dry goods.
A piece of cloth, ih phih poo

A pieco of shirting, ih phih yang' poo
.
A piece of silk, ih phih dzeu
..
A piece of satin, ih phih doen-ts
.
Gmstshau .
Vegetation in general, hwo-tshau-
zu-mok.
Ooiil, me .
To add, ka n.
To add H little, ka-thien .
Holiest, lau-zeh .
A piece of land, ih khwe di-bi
.
A piece of stone, ih khwe0 zak-deu
.
To pawn, taung or taung-theh
.
To mortgage, ah or ah-theh .
To change a dollar into cash, de ft-
A ten cent piece, ih kauh .
One cent, ih fung .
Twenty cents, liang kauh s
khe.
A half a dollar, pen0 khwe yang-
dien.
Small money, siau kauh-ts ,
or siau yang-dien .
Change, tsau-den Hit
Eicsha coolie, tsho-foo .
A great many, kyau-kwan .
EXERCISES
(Translate into English) *
(1) We-ts laDg lau hoo-loo li iau ka-thien me.
Ma-hau-ts, tsau-deu iau0 peh ngoo. (3) JVeh zung zoo
toong-yang-tslio iung-ke tah tshofoo sien kaung ding0 peh yi
kyi kauh. (4) I-kuh nyung i-kyung taung-theb-ts yi-kuh
i-zaung. (5) Ngoo ian ma i-khwe di-bi dan-z ngoo
thing-tuh i-kyung ah-theh tse. (6) Moman hwen-hyi cliuh
tshau. (7) Ngoo pih-koo yeu pen khwe yang-dien soo-
i 0ma-veh-chi. (8) Yiveh khung lau-zeli wo soo-i
ngooveh hau siang-sing. (9) Noong0 chi 'veh iung-ke
tsoo0 dzuh-taa tsoo0 hau ya (10) Ngoo soe-zen kauh-tau-
lauh-tshu zing 0a zing-'vob-dzak. (11) Noong wo lau-zeh-
vvo, nyung z-zen siai]g0-sii]g0 kub. (12) Nyih nyili dok su
z-zen khau-i 4auli kuh. (lo) Tung-tau noong0 dok-wen ts
di-pui]g su lian-meh noong we wo Tsoong-kok wo. (14)
Di-kuh liang phih poo kuh ngan-suh tsho-'veh-too ih yang


JLESS0N3 IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
71
kuh. (15) En-en-li tsooz-thichi 0yeu sayoong-dcu
i)yi? (16) Di-deu tau Soo-tseuyenkyi-haulisoo?
Iak-kwe jeu san pak Oli-loo0. (17) Di-khwe zak-deu iau0
pa le 0'wuDg-tauDg0tien. (18) Yi chi-ts dzang-yoen-tse
wanveh zuiig tsen le. (19) .Ngoo sien iau auh dok su:eu-
le auli sia z. (20) Hwo-0tshau-zu0-mok nyung ryung hwen-
byi khoen0. (21) Doo yang-dien de-ts siau yang-dien
ian taung sing iungwe yeu too-bau siau kauh-ts z ka
kub. (22) Tsung lau ka van-nan khoen-tuh-tsheh. (23)
Di-pung su yeu kyau-kwan z ngoo suh-'veh-tsheh kuh.
(.
.)
..
.
(.
.?
(&.
..
&.)
.

..
..
(.
.
..
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) I do not know where the child has gone to; I have
looked for him everywhere and do not know where to find liim.
(2) Call the servant to come and add some coal. (3) I told tlie
pupil to sit here until the teacher returned. (4) I was nearly
beaten to dealh by him. (5) Take this dollar and change it into


72
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 72
cash. (6) An honest man speaks true words. (7) I thought
lie was coming, but afterwards he wrote a letter to me and told
me he could not come. (8) The children have played for a lcmg
time and now they should go to sleep. (9) Can you say that you
did not know this? (10) Is it not good to do things so as to
please others? (11) I had to walk here because I had no small
money, and so could not call a ricsha. (12) If he said he would
do it, of course he will do it. (13) How many cash can you get
for a dollar? (14) That man is not at all honest, and he has
already pawned a lot of clothes which were not his own. (15)
This man wears silk and satin he must have a lot of money.
(
..
..
..
.
.

(
..

.
.
Notes. (1) In the third sentence of the First Exercise the expression kaung
dir\g ()means "to settle the price. Literally it signifies
declaiming to a fixed point.
(2) In the sixteenth sentence of the First Exercise Soo (is added
after li (for the sake of euphony.
(3) In the twenty-third sentei)ce of the First Exercise suh (is used.
This is always used of knowing characters in the Chinese
langnatre. Sometimes it is used in the expression Suh hoo kuh
(meaning to understand affairs." A man who does
not suh hoo is a stupid fellow.


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
73
LESSON XX
More Verbal Idioms
Tuh-dzu(andveh-dzuQ (are often used
after the verb Lih ()to stand, and give the sense of ((ab]e to
stand," or uunable to stand. Thus Lih-tuh-dzu(
means able to stand," and Lih-9veh-dzu (unable
to stand. The same words are used after other verbs also. Thus
we have Khau-tuh-dzu0 ( meaning u Worthy to be
trustedand £Jiau0-,veh-dzu (meaning Unworthy
to be trusted.
Tuh-koo0 (is also used after verbs, and 9Veh-koo
( Thus we haveTang-tuh-koo0 (meaning
"Able to beat him.Literally "Beat, obtain surpass. Tang_
veh-Jcoo(tr means Unable to beafc him. Literally
u Beat, not surpass
The expressions I-tuh-koo(and I'9veh'koo
(are also idiomatic. The former means, Within the
range of pity;the latter uBeyond the range of pityor
u greatly to be commiserated
VOCABULARY
Year, nyien or soe .
To steal, theu .
To beg, thau .
A beggar, 0thau-van0-kuh .
Lit. "To beg rice,or kau-hwo-
ts.
To marry a wife, thau-nyang-ts
.Lit. To beg for a wife. See
note.
To tie (aa a small parcel), tsah .
To bind with a cord, paung .
To command, fung-foo
Price, ka-dien (M )oi, aung-dzing
'|f. Most frequently used in the
market.
How much is it, or what is the price?
Sa ka-dien? or sa 'aung-
dzing?
A soldier, ih kuh ping-ting .
A thief, ih kuh zuh .
A robber, ih kuh jang-dau 5


74
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 74
A. magistrate or rr^indiirin, ih. kuh
kwen-foc, or ih kuh kwen
.ih. we (is often u.^ed us
the classifier.
Mandarin dialect, kweil-wo0 or
kok-nyui .
Shanghai diaJect, Zaung-he thoo-
bak.
Tsang (is the classifier
A newspaper, ih tsang sing-vung-ts
.
A prochunation, ih tsang" kau-z
.
Kwen ()is the classifier
A fl^te, ih kwen dih
A pen, ih kwen pih -
A pencil, ih pkwen khan-pih
.
Green, lok .
Ked, 4oong .
Blue, lan .
Yellow, waung .
Black, huh .
Few, sau .
Truly, ze:i-dze .
More than, 'ell Ooa .More than
a hundred men isveh ba ih pak
nyung.
Less than,veh siau or 'veh
pmen il,
A small quantity of, tien (used alfter
tlie verl>).
People, pak-sing0 .
A Buddhist priest, ih kllh OO-za mg
'.
A Tuoist priest, ih kuh dauc-z f@

A nun, ih kuh nyi-koo .
Number, soo-mak .
used for sheets of things.
A sheet of paper, ih tsang ts-deu
.

for tubular things.
Tea, dzo .
Tea leaf, dzo-yih .
The whole of a thinih tshih .
A man or two, koen-0po-nyune^
.
About (used with a number), po .
About a hundred, pak po $.
Nearly, mau .
Nearly tliree miJes, mau san li-loo
.
A queue, ih diau bien-ts
Hair on the head, deu-fah .
News, sing-sih .
To tnke things by force, tshiang ,
or tshiang doeh .
To tie up, paung or vok .
To put forth a proclamation, tsheh
kau-z & .
Pau (is the classifier used for bales of things.
A bale of merchandize, ih pau hoo-suh .
le ()is the classifier used for piles of things.
A pile of timber, ih te mok-deu
.
A pile of bricks, ih te lok-tsen
.


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
75
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) I-kuh zuli dzaDg-tsaung le then meh-z, tsauh-dzak-ts
meli iau paung yi chi-le. (2) Ngoo khoen-kyien sing-
vung-ts laung0 wo kwen-foo i-kyung tsheh kau z tslm
ping-ting chi tsauli jang-dau. (3) Noong na-nuiig ]au
peli yi tang, iuDg-we 0ngoo tang-'veh-koo yi lau. (4)
Ngoo la0 miau li khoen-kyien too-hau coo-zaung la pa
boo-sah. (5) Noong0 iau auli kwen-wo nyi (auh 0Zaung-l)e
thoo-bak. (6) 'Oo-zaung0 tah-ts dau-z z liaDg vang kuh,
'oo-zauDg m-meli deu-fah, dau z yeu-bien-ts kuh. (7)
Ngoo dzang-yoenveh khoen0 sing-vuDg-ts tse, kyung-tsau
yeu sa siDg-sih va? (8) Di-kuh ih pau hoo0-suh sa0-ka0
dien? (9) I-kuh siau-noen kyi soe tse? Lok soe. (10)
N_yi-s0-ziang0 0i-kyung ma-ts ih te lok-tsen yni-be zau
vaui)g-ts. (11) Ya-liyeu nyoeh-liang, nyung hwen-hyi
tsli dih. (12) Di-kuli ih pau 0li-hyang0 yeu 0kyi-0kwen pih?
cYeuih pak kwen. (13) Yi we-sa-lauveh tbau-iiyaDg-[s?
Iung-we yien-dze thau-'veh-chi lau. (14) San laung0
ngoo kl)oen0-kyien too-hau0 liwo,yeu 'oong lau waung 0lau
bnk, zeli-dze khau-i wo ng-ngan-loh-suli kuh. (15) Nga-
k >k nyung ]iwen-hyi yoong kban-pih sia z. (16) Tau
Zaung-heveh men nyan li-loo, lauveil ba zeh-nyi li-
loo. (17) Iung-we0 ngoo khoen-kyien i-kuli tbau van-
kuh dzang-yoenveil chuh sa, keh-lau kyau yoong-nyui]g
peh tien meli-z yi chuh. (18) Dikub pau iau tsah hau
ian tautien li chi. (19) Lau-zeh kau0-soo Dgoo z zeh-
ko ka-dienva0 ? (20) S lau tshih lau pah z sa kuh soo-
mak Z zeh kyeu. (21) Nyi-koo z 'veh tsbel) ka knb
siau-tsia.
(-.
(


76
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 76
..
.
.
.

.
..
.
.
.
..
(
..
(
.(.
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) If you do not read the newspaper, you will not know the
news, and then, when you converse with others, you will have
nothing to say. (2) When a man dies the Chinese invite
Buddhist and Taoist priests to the house to perform funeral
ceremonies. (3) I put my pen and pencil on my writing table,
but now I cannot find them has any one been in and taken
them (4) Which do 37011 think is the pleasanter to listen to,
mandarin or the Shanghai dialect? (5) When I was young I
liked very much to pi a}7 the flute. (6) A thief enters secretly
and steals things, a robber kills men, and enters and takes things
by force. (7) Chinese are called yellow men, foreigners white
men. (8) When you go to the shop, ask the price of the boots,
and come and tell me. (9) I caught that thief and bound him
to the tree. (]0) If you use a foreign pen to write Chinese
obaracters, they do not look well; you must learn to use a
Chinese pen. (11) The beggars in the cit}^ are numberless.


JLESS0N3 IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
77
Notes. (1) To marry a wife is expressed by Thau nyang-ts. When we speak
of a woman being married we use the expression Tsheh ka (
literally to go forth from the house or family. The woman
leaves her own family entirely and joins the family of the
husband whom she marries.
(2) The wordsVeh-0ba (more than, (,
less than, are used in answer to questio^p'Tlie wordsVeh
men (are often used for less than, meaning literally
Not full.
(3) In the second sentence of the Second Exercise "to perforin funeral
ceremonies" should be translated Taookoong-tuh (or
Nyan9-kyung ().It means to say masses for the soul oi
the departed.
(4) In the thirteenth sentence of the Second Exercise, More than a
thousand soldiers" can be expressed Ih tshien too ( )and
in the fourleenth sentence "More tiian five hundred chests of:
tea, Ng pa/c too (.
(12) When the Mandarin has important things to announce to
the people, he puts forth a proclamation. (13) I saw more than
a thousand soldiers. (14) The merchant bought more than five
hundred chests of tea. (15) Are three hundred dollars sufficient
to buy the house Less than three hundred will do.
(-)
.
.


.
.
.^.
.
.
.ft
.
.
.


78
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 78
(5) In the fifteenth sentence of the Second Exercise the answer would
be Veh siau san pak lchu:e (.
(6) In the fifth sentence of the Second Exerciae WJien I was yormg"
is translated Nyien kyi chung kuh z^eu (
literally "The time wlnai iiy years were Jiglit."
(7) In the eleventh sentence of tiic Second Exercise "Numberless"
translated m'soo'mak (),literally ''Without number."
LESSON XXI
Verbal Idioms, Ordinals, and Remarks on the
Expression of Time
To express the idea of 4'about to do a thingm Chinese you
can use the words tsiang-iauQ (.Thus Tsiang-iau-chi
(means about to go. Tsiang iau0 si (
means about to die." Anotlier way of expressing i]ie same
idea is by adding khwa tse after the verb. Khwa meaiis
fast. Chikhwatse (means I will go fast,
that is, in a moment. Le khwa0 tse (means v
come fast that is, in a few minutes. Thih-isung is often
used, meaning "just on the point of doing a thing." Thus
Ngoo thih-tsung iaixchi(means I was
just going.n
The expression u According to or as it seems to me is
expressed in Chinese by tlie words ngoo khoen(
Tsaungoo (used alone would mean "Follow
ne Follow my example."
The Qrdiiuils tire formed from the Numerals in a very simple
vray. The word deu (is prefixed before the first numeral and
di (before all the others. Thus uthe first is deu ih (
)tlie yecond is di nyi( tlie third is discm (),
and so on. When first" is used with the verb in Ujo seiise of
the action being prior to some other action the word sien ()is
used. Thus we have Noong0veh zung tsheh chikuh zieit"


JLESS0N3 IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
79
deu ngoo sien iaucau0 soonoong ih tsaung z-thi
(meaning,
Before you go, I first want to tell you something. Again
Sien tsoo di-yangnan-meh tsoo0 i-yang(
means First do this, and then do that." Again
we have for the same expression Sien tsoo0 di kuh, man
tsoo0 i-kuh ("First do this, slowly do
that.
REMARKS ON TIME
About midnight, peh-ya-po
.
Just before daylight, tieng-liang-
khwa
In the evening, waung-hwimg-deu
,or waung-hwung-doong
.
Last month, zien-nyoeh or zien
kuh nyoeh
Next month, Oau-nyoeh or 0au
kuh nyoeh
First part of the month, nyoeh deu
or nyoeh-deu-laung }}.
The end of the month, nyoeh ti .
The middle of the month, nyoeh-pen*

Every month, nyoeh-nyoeh
nyoeh-too orme-nyoeh
.
First day of the month, tshoo-ih
second day of the month, tshoo-
nyi and so on np to the tenth
day of the month, which is tshoo-
zeh. After that di is used in-
stead of tshoo. Thus the thirfeenth
of tbft month wonld be di zeh-san
.
A year, ih-nyien .
Half a year, pen-nyien
This year, kyung-nyien .
Last year, jeu-nyien .
Next year. klie~nyien le-nyien
ming-nyien.
Every yeui-, nyien-nyien eiich
year, 'me-llien .(See note.)
The new year, sing-nyien
Now year's day, nyien-tshoo-ih
The end of the year, nyien ya
literally "the night of the year,"
Also we have nyien-ti .
At the beginnino- of the year, nyien"
deu-laung0 .
To pass from the old year to the new,
koo nyien
Zaung-pen and 0 with year, month, and night, just as
they are used with day, to denote
the first lialf and tlie second half.
Tims we have zaung-pen-nyien
for the firdt half of the year,
and 'au-pen-iiyieii i'oi. the
second half.
Rice (bought in the shop), mi .
Work, sang-weh JS".
Answer, we-sing .
Beginning, chi-deu .
Again., tse.


80
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 80
EXERCISES
(Translate into English)
(1) Leh-la nyoebpen, nyoeh-liang0 ting hau khoen0.
(2) Hoo-loo iau iung khwa0 tse soo-i iau ka-tien me.
(3) Tsan ngoo khoen0, di kuh nyung z ldmu0-veh-dzu0
kuh. (4) Tsau-zung-deu iiyih-deu tsheli le, ya-khwa lauh-
san. (5) Di-kuh z ngoo di nyi kuh nyi-ts, deu ih kuh
i-kyung tsheh mung tse. (6) Nyien tslioo ill too-hau0 nyung
chi pa nyien. (7) Jeu nyien mi kyui-le-si, kyung nyien
jang tse. (8) Noong0 'a-li-deu koo nyien Ngoo siang
laok-li koo nyien. (9) Noong0 su dok-ts kyi-z tse? Pih-
koo pen0 nyien. (10) Nyien ya nyung DyuDg yeu z-thi,
siug-nyien li loong-tsoong nyung beh-siang. (11) Yi
tsiang-iau0 chikuh z-eu0 yeu nyung le kyau0 yiveil iau
chi. (12) Tshing zoo ih hyih, sien-sang iau le khwa0 tse.
z (13) Tliien-liang0-khwa zting lang kuh z-eu0. (14)Au
kuh nyoeh ngoo iau tsheh rnung, tau Soo-tseu chi. (15)
Jeu-nyien sang-i ih iiganveh hau kyung-nyien po-maung
yi hau-tien. (16) 0Zaung-pen-nyien di kuh su dok le man hau, 0 I-zak vaung-ts kyi-z khau-i zau hau? Ngoo siang khe-
nyien khau-i zau hau. (18) Lok nyoeh tshoo-san ngoo
sia ih foong sing0 peh la yi, yien-dze z tshih nyoeh tshoo-ih
dan-z wan 'veh zung yeu we-sing le. (19) Noongveh
zung tsheh chi, sang-weh iau sien tsoo0 hau. (20) Nyoeh-
deu laung0 peh doong-dien, yien-dze 'veh hau peh kuh.
(.
..
.
..

.


L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT
81
.
..
(.
..
(.
(.
(
.
..
(Translate into Chinese)
(1) We will close the school on the fifth of next month.
(2) For how many weeks will you close the school? For about
six weeks. (3) Sometimes in the evening as the sun is sinking
there are many beautiful colours in the sky. (4) As it appears
to me you can finish this book in six months. (5) Just as I was
about to go to sleep, I heard some one call out that the house was
on fire. (6) The thief enters about midnight. (7) Before you
go to school you should first wash your face and hands. (8) On
the first day of the year all the shops close their doors. (9) When
will you begin to study Chinese again I think next year. (10)
A year has twelve months, a month has thirty days or twenty-
nine days. If it has thirty days, it is called a large month; if it
has twenty-nine days, it is called a small month. (11) Last
month I was sick, but now I am better. (12) Where were you
yesterday afternoon? I had gone out to pay New Year's calls.
(13) At New Year's time every one wears their best clothes.
(14) Now I have no money I will pay you at the end of the
month.
(
.
.
.


82
L'ESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 82
(.
.
(.

.
.
.
..
Notes. (1) In regard to the expreBsions Nyien-nyien and Nyoeh-nyoeh it may be
remarked that a very common way of forming the plural in
Chinese is by the repetition of the noun. Thus Nyung-nyung
means men in genera).
(2) In the sixth sentence of the First Exercise the expression Pa nyien
means "to pay respects at New Year's time. Pa to worship,
is used of worshipping deities, and also of worshipping or paying
respect to men.
(3) In the fifth sentence of the Second Exercise the expression for a
house to be on fire is Hoo-dzak tse (
(4) In the eighth sentence of the Second Exoi-ci.-e "all the shops,, is
translated loong-tsoong huh tien zen ()the zen
(makes the assertion more emphatic.
LESSON XXII
On Comparison
The usual way of forming the Comparative Degree of Adjec-
tives has alread}'' been stated.
When two things are compared with one another in Chinese
the wordspi (jor pi-t8 (are used between them.
Thus Mo pi-ts keu doo (meansthe horse
is larger than the dog. Yipi noonghau (
he is better than you.
Th^re are a good many other ways of expressing comparison.
Thus 9Veh jih (means, not equal to. Also we have
9Veh zu (meaning, not equal to or not up to.


Full Text

PAGE 3

LESSONS IN THE SH.L~NGHAI DIALECT BY REV. F. L. POTT, D.D. NptrIQN .. .. Jr .. PRINTED AT THE COMMERCIAL PRESS, LTD, SHANGHAI, CHINA 1924

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE NO. Al,ility to do . 39, 56, 73 Abstract Nouns formed of two Adjectives . 109 Adjectives . . 8 Adjectives, Comparison of . . . 82 Adverbs, Interrogative 22, 30 Adverbs of Place and Time 35 Aspirates . vi Numerals Ordinals Passive Voice Polite ]anguage Postpositions Potential Mood Prepositions Pronouns Proverbs Questions, Asking PAGE NO. 78 35 120 19 22 . 19 3, 52 125 69 Classifiers 1 Reduplication of Verbs 27 Comparison of Adjectives Compass, Points of Compound Verbs Connectives 82 86 104 19 Reflexive Pronouns Use of Subjunctive Mood Time 27 65 22 30, 78 Dzak, Use of Family Relations Finals Gender Importance, Ex!i ressions as to Initials Interrogatives Necessity, Expressions of Negatives Not At All" Numerals 27 I "Time, There is or is not,56 99 I Tones . . . ix vii I Useful Phrases 113, l 17 90 I Verbs . . 15 Verbs, Auxiliary 56 I Verbs, Compound vi I Verbal Idioms 44 104 11, 22 39, 56, 61, 65, 73, 78 49, 61 11 61 English Vocabulary-EnglishChinese 6, 52 vVeights and Measures 128 149 95

PAGE 7

PREFACE Ta time when there is much discussion in China as to the desirability and possibility of the adoption of a uniform language all over the Empire, it may seem strange to put forth a book on the Dialect. The writer sympathizes fully with the aims of those would make Mandarin the Medium of Communication throughout China, but at the same time feels very strongly that a great many years must pass before this can be accomplished. Local dialects die hard, as witness the still existing varieties of speech found in Great Britain. Even more perfect means of communication binding the parts of a country closely together, and even the 'introduction of a common language into the School System, are not able of themselves to do away with the speaking of the old local dialect. Men cling persistently to the speech of their forefathers. we reflect that the so-called Shanghai Dialect is in reality the ancient language of the Wu Kingd9m, and is perhaps more closely akin to the original language of the Chinese people than Mandarin, we can understand why it will last Jor. many years. Further, it has a very wide range. Although local occur every few miles, yet in the main the Shanghai Dialect is understood by at least 20,000,000 people. For the missionary working in the Kiangsu Province n knowledge of the local dialect is indispensable, and the acquisition of it would be most useful for all those whose lot is cast in this part of China. Foreigners living in Shanghai would find it a great advantage to speak the native language, and in tlieii

PAGE 8

ll PREF ACX :telations with the Chinese would be greatly helped if they could converse in something better than the jargon known as "Pidgin,English. It is for the purpose of making the attainment of a speaking knowledge of the language somewhat less that the writing of this book has been undertaken. It has seemed to the writer that the acquisition of a knowl edge of the written characters, and of the spoken lnngunge are two distinct things. One may learn to speak the language without being able to read the characters. By the use of the clear and simple System of Romanization, adopted by missionaries in Shanghai, it is possible to represent approximately all the sounds employed in the dialect. In these lessons this system is adopted, and the student is urged to master it thoroughly. If he will do so, he can use these lessons ai1d learn to speak the language even without knowing the characters. The characters of the words and sentences employed are given, but they are put in the book for the benefit of the Chinese teacher. It would be unwise to trust entirely to the Romanization. The student in using the book should have a teacher by his side, who by reading the Chinese corresponding to the romanized sounds can give him a clearer idea of the pronunciat1on. Although in a sense the book is a short cut to learning the spoken language, of course it is not meant to discourage the student from mastering the written language. This is however, study, and should be undertn ken in a way. '!'be best method for this will be to use a primer in vernacular containing the most familiar characters, and then to advance from it to the reading of the New Testament or other books in the vernacular. Vernacular books should be read first, for

PAGE 9

l>REFAcE Ill the reading of be a great assistance in learning the spoken language. After the fitst yei1r, books in the literary style should be begun. In using this book, the first thing to be mastered thoroughly is the introductory matter. The student must get this first, for it is the key to the rest of the book. He must also learn to distinguish the tones, and the inflections of the voice which they imply. Then he will be on with the lessons. Although the book is divided into thirty lessons, it is not expected that the student will be able to master a lesson a day. Some of the lessons will require three or four dayswork. In putting the English sentences into Chinese, the best plan would be to write out in the Romanization what the student thinks the proper way of translating them would be. Then these sentences may be read to the teacher, who will correct them, and from the Chinese text will be able to tell the right them. At present only thirty lessons are published. The writer hopes, however; if the method proves to be useful, to extend these lessons still further in the future. In preparing these lessons, many books have been consulted, especially the lessons by Dr. Yates, which contain a most useful collection of words and sentences, and have long been the standard book for learning the Dialect;the Grammar by Dr. Edkins which contains a mass of useful in regard to the structure of the language, and the Mandarin Lesrnns by Dr. Mateer, a roost exhaustive work on spoken Chinese. The writers thanks are due especially to Rev. J. A. Silsby for the permission to make use of his clear st&tement oi the Shanghai System ofRomanization; and to Prof. F. Q; Cooper for many suggestions uhd he has taken in reading the proofs.

PAGE 10

lV. .PREFACE The un-f ailing courtesy of Rev. :G. F. Fitch, r;>. D;, Messrs, Gilbert Mcintosh and Douglass has been much appreciated in the care they have taken in seeing the book through t.be F. L. H.P. January 1st, 1907. THE. REVISED EDITION The compiler of these lessons is gratified to find that they have proved useful to students of the Shanghai Dialect. He regrets that he has been too much occupied to prepare additional lessons. In reprinting them care has been taken to make the necessary corrections. The copy used by the late Prof. W. O'B. Harding has been of great service in the work of revision, as in it almost all the errors in tone marks, punctuation, and typography had been noted. Dr. A. W. Tucker has very ki_ndly compiled th? vocabularies at the end of the book, and in tl:iis way has en hanced its value. The authors thanks are due to all those who have give11 him suggestions and pointed out F. L. H.P. April 28th, 1909. NEW EDITION In preparing the new edition, the author has received most valuable help from hjs collearue, Prof. F. C. Cooper. The two uew lessons were by him, and the one containing

PAGE 11

PREFACE v more useful words and phrases is the result of his experience, gained through teaching the book to a class of beginners. My thanks are also due to him for the time and care he has spent in correcting the proofs, and seeing the book through the press. The author hopes the book will continue to be a useful step ping-stone in the acquisition of a knowledge of the Shanghai Dialect. Inasmuch as Davis'sShanghai Dialect Exercises" may be used as a second book after the completion of this, it has not been deemed necessary to add many new lessons. F. L. H.P. October 29th, 1913. In putting out this new edition, the author has made neces sary corrections, and added a few new terms The Chinese language is changing rapidly at the present time. Some expres sions and terms have become obsolete and new ones have taken their place. The French Fathers at Siccawei, with the authors pennis sion, have published a French edition, and it is gratifying io think that the influence of this book has in this way been further extended. Attention is called to a very good little book,Con versa tional Lessons in the Shanghai Diale c t,prepared by Dr. Frank Rawlinson and Rev J. W. Crofoot, which has as its subtit]e "A Supplement to Dr. Pott's Lessons." The author would recommend it as a second book in the course on the study of the Shanghai dialect. F. L. H.P. November 18th, 1924

PAGE 12

DESCRIPTION OF THE SHANGHAI ROMANIZED SYSTEl\tf Nearly all the syllables are represented by the combi11ation of an initial and a final, a system which has been found to LE well the Chinese language. INITIALS Chinese sounds are divided into upper a1id lo,,,er series. The initials to represent the UPPER SERIES ts, ky, kw, i andw. These initials are pronounced in most cases much the same as in English, but without aspiration, higher in pitch and with very little vibration of the larynx. The apostrophe before a letter indicates that the letter belongs to the higher vowel initials also belong to this series. ny has a sound similar to that of ni in spaniel. ky=ch in chuk with all aspiration eliminated. i as an initial has the sounds of i 1n dahlia. The ASPIRATES hy, and hw (th as in Thomson-not as thiug). ch= ch in church. hy is nearly like ti in Portia. The other aspirates are like the corresponding initials of the higher series with the addition of a strong aspiration (indicated by h).

PAGE 13

OF THE SHANGHAI ROMANIZED SYSTEM \7ii The initials to represent the LowER SERIES ngg, j, and w. Their pronunciation is much the same as in English. They are lower in pitch than corresponding initials of the "higher series," and have more pronounced with more decided vibration of the larynx. The lower vowel initials, indicated by an inverted comma (') and attended with a slight aspiration, belong to this aeries. It will be noted that this sign from that employed to indicate that a consonant initial belongs to the upper series, an apostrophe being used to denote theupper initial.,This inverted comma is used only before vowels, and if, by mistake, this sign is used before a consonant instead of the apostrophe, this need not coufuse the reader, for the sign of the upper series is properly used only before the initial n, ny g, w, and r. It should be noted well that the between the corresponding initials of the upper and lower series is not so much a in consonantal quality as a difference in pitch, but there is a real consonantal difference The higher series may be classified as surd and the lower as FINALS 1. The VowEL ENDINGS ui, ieii, Which the n, is not sounded, but lengthens f>ut and imparts a nasal quality to the precedi1]g vo\rnl in which ng has the value in (c) iii,in which n is sonant and has a value varying ng. 3. The ABRUPT VowEL ENDINGS olc, oeh, uh, and in which hand k, are the signs of the zeh.

PAGE 14

viii DESCRIPTION OF THE SHANGHAI ROMANIZED SYSTEH sung and the vowel is pronounced in a short, abrupt manner. The sounds of the vowels are-a as in except when followed by h, when it has the sound e as in prey;before h it has the sound of e as in met. caprice;before h or ng it is shortened to i us in or as in August. o as 1n so. 00 as in too. oe as in re Goethe (German o). eu as in French Monsieur. ii as in oo in foot (al ways preceded by an s sound). ui as in fruit (or rather, In and ie, we have short i followed closely by and e, as described above. Of course it is that the Chinese sounds in a majority of cases vary somewhat from the English sounds which are given as the nearest equivalent: The true pronunciation of Chinese sounds should be learned from a Chinese teacher, and the student should alwavs bear it in mind ., used represent English Chinese sounds. This fact can not be too strongly emphasized. The DoK-YOONG without vowels, r. The first five are followed by the vowel sound in the second syllable prolonged. Mateer and Baller'use i for this sound and the new Mandarin Romanized uses i. It is not written, but understood in the Shanghai system. m has the sound of m in chasm and ng the sound of ng in hanger. r is a sound between final r and l.

PAGE 15

DESCRIPTION OF THE SHANGHAI ROMANIZED SYSTEM ix TONES The tones are four in number, each occurring in the upper and lower series. As has been stated, the upper and lower series can be distinguished by the initials. Sounds in the upper series are of higher pitch and those in the lower series of a lower pitch. The names of the tones Bing sung=Even Zang sung=Rising Obni sung =Going TONE SIGNS the left of a word indicates the tone to be the right indicates the chui Final h or k tl1e zeh-sung. All other words are in the bing-sung. SOUNDS OF THE TONES The sounds of the tones of course can only be learnt from the Chinese teacher. The Bing-sung is an even tone, the voice being level, with a slight falling inflection, as whenwe say "Come,,Hearin our imperatives. The Zang-sung in the upper series is a twanging sound, and sounds something like the vibration of a string of a musical instrument, In the lower series it bas a wave sound which can be symbolized to the eye by the voice first falls and than rises. The Chui-sung has the same sound in both the upper and lower series. The voice rises much as it does when we ask a question.

PAGE 16

X DESCRIP'fION OJ!' THE SHANGHAI ROMANIZED SYSTEM The students should practise with the teacher on the following table of sounds, and in time will be able to distinguisli the tones clearly and to make the proper inflection himself. Foreigners are seldom able to perfect themselves in the use of tones, but this is due not so much to inability as to the lack of attention paid to the matLer at the beginning of the study of the language. It should be understood that the names of the tones are those of the original tones and often bear no relation to the inflection now used, which different localities.

PAGE 17

DESCRIPTION OF THE SlIAN~HAI ROMANIZED SYSTKM xi COMPLETE LIST OF INITIALS AND FINALS USED IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT ZAUNG-HE LOO-MO Z Initial sounds Vowe l sou11ds

PAGE 18

xii DESCRIP'fION OF THE SHANGHAI ROMANIZED SYSTEM EXERCISE IN TONES Bing-sung. Tau, Pa, Bing-sung. Dau, Ba, Zi, Zang-sung. Zang-sung. Chui-sung. Chui-sung. Dau l Zeh-sung. Tauh, Pah, A Sib, Zeh-sung. Bah, Zih, The student should practise upon the sounds illustrating the tones. The columns should be read from the top down. The teacher can guide him by first pronouncing the Chinese characters

PAGE 19

LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT LESSON I The Classifier A or an is translated into Chinese by the numeral ih and a classifier placed numeral and the noun. There are over forty nouns taking different ones, according to the class to which they Lelong Nouns being generally used with classifiers accounts for the fact that in Pidgin English we have the oft recurring expression,one piecee., Most concrete nouns take hut not all. Exceptions will be pointed out later on. Sometimes when the object spoken of is quite definitely known, the noun is used without the classifier. In this lesson, the two most common classifiers will be introduced, and in succeeding lessons the others will appear gradually. It must be remarked that some nouns may take more than ope classifier, sometimes one being used and sometimes anoLher. The most common classifier is kuh is applied 1.o such nouns as have no special classifier, and upon occasion be applied to almost any noun as a substiLute for the special classifier,(Mateer). The classifier is used with animals, birds, fowls, insects;also with articles of furniture having legs or resting on a base ;also with vessels, boats, etc. VOCABULARY A man, ih I A teacher, ih born A woman, ih (lit. i female human.. I A child, ih

PAGE 20

2 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT An egg, ih kuh A kuh A dollar, ih kuh yang-di (See second note at end of lesson.) A servant, ih kuh A table, ih tsak A chair, ih tsak An orange, in tsak A pupil, ih To want, to wish, Also nsed in forming the future of verbs, as wiil be explained later. EXERCISES (Translate into English) (1) Ih kuh nyung tsak (2) Ih nyung tsak (3) Ih kub doong-dien. ( 4) Ih kuh kuh sien-sang. (5) Ih kuh iau ib kuh dan (6) Ih kuh nyung kuh yang-dien. (7) Ih tsak into Chinese) (1) A pupil wants an orange. (2) A woman wants a dollar. (3) A servant wants a cash. (4) A teacher a table. (5) A man wants an egg. (6) A pupil wants a chair. (7) A teacher wants a pupil. NoTEs. (I) It is to form idiomatic eenteuccs in Chinese until a vocabulary .Las been given. (2) With the classifier generally used is a piece or st:c,,.

PAGE 21

LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 3 (3) It will be noticed how many words are formed from the combinat.ion of two or more words. is a characte>isticof the Chinese language;for instance the \\'ord is composed of the verb yo01,g0 use, nn<.l the lllllll, and means the man whom yon use or employ. ( 4) With the classifier w,0 is generally used. (5) Nouns take no chauge in form for the plnral, but the classifier is omitted (6) With iu-i0-0ts the is sometimes used. LESSON II Demonstrative, and Personal Pronouns The definite article the is not expressed directly in Chinese, but the demonstrative pronoun takes its place. The demonstrative pronouns are This or these, di0 I That or those, The demonstrative pronouns change their forms with different nouns, being formed by the or i and the classifier belonging to the noun. Th us "this table ,is not di0-kuh debut de-0ts When the demonstrative is med with a numeral the form di0 -kuh or i-kuh and the cla.:;si fl.er of the noun comes betwec11 the numeral and the noun. Thusthis one di~kuh ih de-0ts The personal pronouns are as follows: SINGULAR NUMBER Nominative and O~fective I. Perrnn: II. Perrnn: Thon, III.. Person: He, she, it, him, her, yi Possessive I. Person: My or II. Person: Thy, thinP, or yours, III. Person: Hi~, hers, its,

PAGE 22

LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT PLURAL NUMBER Nominatit'e and O~i ective I. Person : us, II. Person : You, or Ill. Person: They, or them, I Person: Ours, nyi0lmh or II. Person: Yonr, o r yours, III. Person: theirs yila The use of kuh in the possessive case must be noted. Kuh serves to form the posse ssive case of nouns as it does of pronouns. Thus to say '' a mans table,would be ih kuh nyung kuh de-0ts Exercises in possessive case fo1'.mation will be found in this lesson. VOCABULARY A son, ih kuheuts or ih kuh nyi. A danghter, ih kuh A friend, ih kuh A sheep, ih tsak yang < ,, A bird, ih A bed, ih tsak zaung is the classifier used with tools, instruments, or articles grasped in the hand. A. knife or sword, I An umbrella, A fork, I To have, or haB, A spoon, ih 0po EXERCISES (Translate into English) iau0 tau. (2) ih kuh yang-dien. (3) Noong0-kuh bang-0yeu kuh 'eu-0ts 0yeu ih ts a k yang. ( 4) kuh ih tsak 0tiau. (5) Yi tsho. (7) tsak zaung. (8) ih (9) Diekuh ih tsak (10) Yi-kuh yoong0 ih

PAGE 23

LJESSONS IN THE SHANGHAr .i>IALECT 5 (Translate into Chinese) (1) Your teacher has a table. (2) My friend has (3) Their daughter has an umbrella. ( 4) They want a bed. (5) That servant wants a knife. (6) This pupils teacher has a chair. (7) My son wants a dollar. (8) He wants a fork. (9) She a spoon. (10.) The womans daughter has an orange. (11) He has mine. (12) He has yours. Verbs und e rgo no change in form for the singular and plura'J number. Tense formation will be explained later. (2) The verb 0yeu is often used for the expressionthere is.,Thus, ih-kuh nyung 0iau doo,-g-dien There is a man who wanta cash,, meanssome.,Thus, 0yeu issome men. (4) SomPtimes the lcuh is omitted and we have 0yeii nyung meanssome men want dollars.

PAGE 24

LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT LESSON III The Numerals up to One Hundred One, Two, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Ten, From ten to twenty the numerals are formed by adding the digits after ten. Eleven, Twelve, Fifteen, zeh-0ng, pronounced Twenty, (In speaking of the day of the month nyi0-seh is Thirty, (Lit. three tens, The Z sound iu zeh becomes S when preceded by another word.) Forty, Sixty, Seventy, Eighty, .One Hundred, The intervening numbers between twenty and thirty, etc., are formed regularly by adding the digits to the decimals. Thus twenty-one is Thirty-one is etc. Thirty-five is pronounceo In using the numeral with the noun, the classifier of the noun is introduced between the numeral and the noun. Thus Four men,is s0 kuh nyung not s0 nyung.Six chairs,is lok not lok In speaking of a thing well understood the noun is often omitted, and we have simply the numeral with the lok kuh, tshih etc.

PAGE 25

LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 7 VOCABULARY A cow, ih tsak A native, ih A foreigner, ih kingdom man.) A large box or trunk, ih tsak siang. A small box, ih tsak A fan, A broom, ih A tea pot, To be, EXERCTSES (Translate into English) tsak 0z (3) ih (4) sien-sang iau0 ih po dzo-'oo. (5) San-seh-ih tsak yi-kuh. (6) Nyan-tshih tsak yi-kuh. (7) I-kuh tsak (8) f'an kuh zeh. (9) Ih zeh kuh zeh kuh tsak de0 ts. (11) (12) iau0 ih (Translate into Chinese) (1) He wants three tea pots. (2) Four pupils want four fans. (3) This large box is my (4) He has thirty knives (5) These five dollars are the The tencher has twenty-five pupils. (7) These two fans are his. (8) That small box is the foreigners. (9) Six tens are sixty. (10) My friend has five children, three sons and two
PAGE 26

8 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT N OT!il, is a small box in distinction from i;trg:e box, but will be seen later the a
PAGE 27

LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 9 The has a very wide use Everything that is good suitable, correct, or proper, may be said to VOCABULARY Bad, More often 'veh meansnot., Hot, White, Black, huh Large, A scholar, ih kuh A dog, ih tsak used withont a classifier ) 1 .A. horsP ih is sometimes used as the classifier of horse. 0Pung is the classifier for book. A book, is the classifier used with long, winding, or limber objects. A bridge, ih diau A street, ih diau A road, ih diau To come, 'l'o EXERCISES (Translate into English) (1) kuh. iau0 dok su. 0s. (4) Di0-tsak huh kuh. (5) I-tsak bak kuh. (6) I tsak huh ih kuh (8) Yi-kuh sien-sang iau0 chi0. (9) nyih kuh. (10) (11) Di0-kuh ih diau ka 0siau kuh. (12) ih diau (13) l-0pung sien-sang kuh, (14) (15) Di0.tsak

PAGE 28

fO LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT (Translate into Chinese) (1) These five oranges are bad. (2) The teacher wishes me to study. (3) The natives cows are good. (4) I have a white bird. (5) I want warm water. (6) The dog is very black. (7) That bed is smaller. (8) This box is larger. (9) The tea pot is very white. (10) My teacher will come. (11) The foreigner will go. (12) I want a large dog. NoTES. .(1) Adjectives generally take kuh after them;the between the adjective and the noun. In some cases the kuh is omitted, as in the expresi,ion "cold water., We do not (2) Dok-su is the common expression for to study." (3) In such a sentence asI want warm waterthe may iJe omitted. In speaking to a servant one would say want hot water.

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 11 LESSON V Interrogative, and Negatives is used as the sign of a direct question, expecting the answeryesor is added at the end of the sentence. Thus Oz noong0 kuh va? means, 'is this yours T,Di0 va0? means,is this good ?,(the verb being omitted). The Chinese do not use a rising inflection of the voice to indicate that a question is being asked. Meh is used for asking a question when the action is presumed to have been completed. Thus van chuh meh? means, "have you eaten your rice?or have you dined?, Sien-sang chi meh ? means,has the teacher gone?, Nyi is used for asking a question implying the alter native. Thus noong0 veh means, '' are you going or not going means, '' are you coming or not coming? Nyi is also used in a question expecting a negative nnswer, but the explanation of tliis must be reserved until later. Who,is In this sense it is al ways joined to the noun nyung Thus sa0 nyung? Pidgin English,who man?, is also used in the sense ofwhat.,It sometimes precedes the noun as sa0 sang-i? business? 111 a sentence like "what do you want,,it follows the verb. Thus Literally, 'you want wlrnt?, a]so with seuso of "nny,,in asking a qnestion. Thus sa0 va0? means 'do you want

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12 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT means, "does any one wish to go?,Noong0 0yeu sa0 doong-dien va0? means,have you any cash?, Which is It is always used with numeral and classifier. Thus O ih kuh nyu.ng? means,which ih loo0? means,which su? means,which 0po two the subject is unde rstood about which you are conversing, the noun may be omitted, and with the numeral and the classifier are Thus in speaking of roads ih would be enough. No ,ornot" is expressed Thus yiveh means, 'he does not wish to go. M-meh is used in the sense of not any,in answering a question asking whether you have any, thus 0yeu va? you any dollars?,the answer might be m-meh. Sometimes is used in answering questions in the negative. Thus sa0 tsoo0 va0? have you anything to do ?,(Have you any employment?) The answer miglit be anything to do., No one is m-sa0 nyung Thus 0yeu le va0? any one come?,The answer miglit be VOCABULARY Rice I A carpe nt e r,ih kuh Rice Lit. Wood worker. Wee ( c ooked), A band, ih A 1Jo1111d, mau0-I A foot.ih tsak kya' ih I :

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 13 Kung is the classifier denoting objects long a11d generally stiff. A cane or stick, ih kung is the classifier for hills and buildings. A bonse, ih zoci0 Sometimes i}!. zak vaung. the classifier foi broad objects. A door, ih To eat, eats, eat, To invite, invites, (Also nrnd in the sense of please, when making a request of any one). To take, To call, calls, call To opeu, opens, ope1},khe DH. To shnt shuts, shut, To do, To enter, eu ters, con1e i EXERCISES (Translate in to English) (1) I-kuh sien-sang meh? iau0 ih (3) Khe khe mung. (4) (5) Kwan mung. (6) su tanle kuh? ih kung (8) ib yi-kuh? (9) kuh? (10) tsak kyak. (11) s:mg-i O (13) tsing0-le va0? M-mch.

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14 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT (Translate into Chinese) (1) Have the children eaten their rice 'l (2) Vi7hich cow is yours? (3) Which bird is black? ( 4) Bring the hot water. (5) Bring the boiling water. (6) Please come in. (7) did it? (8) Who brought it? (9) 'took it away? (10) wauts it? (11) who entered 'l (12) opened the door? (13) shut the do0r? (14) table is yours (15) What do you want? (16) Have you anything to eat 'l (17) I have nothing to eat. (18) Have you any.oranges? (19) I have. (20) I have none. Non,s, (1) Note the difference betwee11 kyau0 (PJ~) and han is nsed to an equal or to a snperior. in speaking to a servant. cYen more curt thnn yi le means, "invite him to come,'; and is the polite form of speech if you wi:oh an eqnal to come to you. Kyau0 yi le 0han yi le 1rnuld be used if you tell some one to call yonr se1 vant or a W<>rkman to you (2) Notice the repetition of the khe in t.l1e third sentence of the first exercise. This makes it more emphatic. (3) The verbs tan and le often used together in the Fense ofbring.,Literallytake-come,So "i th tan and chi0 away., Literally "Take-go.,Sometimes the and the le, r.nd the tcm and the separated from one another by ot.her words sentence. Ti111s tan su le meansbriui the book." The above remarks also of nau. (4) In the sixth sentence of the first exercise the words su This is tl1ey :ire emphatic. It is difficult

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 15 to give any hard and fast rule in regard to the order of words in a Chine se sentencf', bnt we may say that th u most emphatic word is placed first. In this sentence it is the book which is being talked about, and so it (6) Tile words in the thirteenth sentence exercise would only be addressed to a servant or to a child.What are you called?means,what is your name?notwhat is your surname? In polite phraseology, in speaking to a person the pronoun is never employed. The third person is .used instead of the second. To ask your teacher his name, you would say Tsung singe? which means, "what is your honorable name?, (surname). If you wish to inquire[nrther as to his other name, you would kyau0 da0 'cm! whic h means, plea se t e ll urn your great official name?The ,equirements of etiquette as to the use of word s will be explained later somewhat fully. ( 6) In the of the second exercise, the expression boiling water is used. For this the words khe "water ,are used It signifies that Loiling water is open water on account of the bubbles which proceed from it. LESSON VI Some Remarks on the Verb In a monosy Ila bic language like the Chinese the words themselves are never inflected, and therefore the l\foods and Tenses of the Verbs are formed by the addition of auxiliary words to mark the change of meaning. We will take the verb chuh to illustrate. INDICATIVE MOOD Present Tense, Simple F o rm, I eat, 0ngoo Present 'l'ense, I am eatinl!, 0ngoo la0 Past Tense, Simple Past I was eating, l'ast Tense, Emphatic Form, I did eat, chuh I'i:1ject Tenie, I have chuh chuh Ia0 chub

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16 LESSONS IN THE DIALECT Past I had Ft1ture Tense, I will or shall kyung chuh iau0 la0 The li'uture Perfect 1'eilse cannot be ex chuh I pressed directly. The only change for the different persons in the above will be in the use of the pronouns of the different persons. IMPERATIVE MOOD Eat, chuh chuh meh tse PARTICIPLES Present, Eating, chuh Past, Having eaten, A few words of explanation are necessary. The use of lehO Ii and a little difficu It to understand at first. As leh-0 Ii chuh means,I am eating., If, however, a third person asked your servant chuh meh? the Teac4e~ eaten his rice?, the servant would answer, if you were still eating, yi chuh meaninghe is eating.,If you yourself said it would mean,I was eating.,In the Perfect Tense the word koo0 meanl:l literallyto pass over., In the Past Perfect the words meanalready. The real force of is hereand the real force of is there., There are a great many ways of expressing completed action in Chinese. These will be explained later. In this lesson one of the most qommon will be explained. It is by the use of the after the verb. Thus tse means, "I have finished tse means,I have finished reading., also used before the verb to qualify it. Thus we have the chuh kuh meaning '' Good to dok kuh to read." a tsoo0 'kuh to

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LESSQNS THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 17 VOCABULARY To arrive, 'l'o give by h and, To buy, To 1:0 bnrn or cook, f?QU To A table boy, ih kuh A horse boy or coachman, ih A pear, ih tsak A peach, ih tsak A tailor, ih kuh Ohina or Chinese, Tsoongkok Lit. Middle Kingdom. Jien is the classifier denoting garments, pieces of baggage and merchandise, and also an affair. A garment, ih jien is the classifier denoting pairs. A pair of shoes, ih saung A pair of socks or stockings, ih saung New, (Of is old as to generally out, in bad condition, is often used as a title of respect, meaning venerable,) EXERCISES into English} wo0. auh dok tsoong-kok su. (3) su (4) Itsak siang-0 ts (5) tse. (6) san peh ih tE.ak yang. tse meh? (10) tse. i-zaung ze-voong meh? (12) Yi (13) (14) 0ts SU, ih saung sing kuh (16) meh ? (17) tse. siensang kyau0 si0-tse0 sang-Ii. (19) Ryau0 yi le meh tse (20) Di0-kuh O hyih meh ? hyih tse.

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18 IN TH~} SHANGHAI DIALECT (Translate into Chinese) (1) I have already read this book. (2) Do you want to buy a dog? (3) When I arrive at Shanghai, I wish to buy an umbrella. (4) Has my friend come? (5) I gave him four dollars and told him to buv a table. (6) The teacher is eating his dinner. (7) I have already given him ten dollars. (8) Come along. (9) When the teacher has come, call me. (10) Have you ever eaten Chinese peaches? (11) I have eaten them. (12) Those pupils are studying Chinese. (13) The foreign teacher is learning to speak Chinese. NoTES, (1) China is knowll by many different names. The most common is Tsoongkok We also have kok great pure middle civilized eighteen provinces" (used of China Proper, without its dependencies). A modern name is Ts-na It represents of China, and was much used by The name adopted for The

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 19 Republic of China ming kok middle civilized peop!es kingdom., (2) In the ninth sentence of the first exercise the force of the is visit.ing the place for the first time. (3) In the twentieth sentence of the first exercise the meaning i,, H,we you ever done this before? ( 4) In the ninth sentence of the second exercice, yon use the past participle, After it meh is often use,1 for euphony, thus the sentence would be Sien-sang le-ts meli, le kyau0 0ng110 (5) In tlie t1>;elfth se:itence of the second exercise su is added after Trn:mg ko1; The meaning is "The pupils are studying Chinese books., (6) In the t hirteenth sentence of the second exercise, the foreign teacher wonld be sien-sang is used as an adjective. LESSON VII Prepositions and Postpositions, and Common Connectives The words expressing the relations of nouns to one another are placed, some of them before and some of them after the governed su bst:1 n ti Ye.Atorto' is expressed by Thus 0ngoo peh gave it to him., 'To or 'towardsin the sense of direction is expressed by Thus chi0 wish to go to Shanghai.,'To' or 'towardsis also expressed by in the expression to speak to a person. W0 said to him.,From is expressed by dzoong le came from Shanghai., \Vithb expressc,1 by yi W0 doong yi wo0 talked with him 'Instead of,is or thi0 0de thi0 yi do it instead of him.,

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20 LESSONS IN TlI]'l SHANGHAI 1>1AL:EC'l' The idea of doing it for a person is expressed by theh theh yi will do it foi: him., 'In' is expressed by placing before the noun and after the noun. the house.,La0 means'In the box." On' is expressed by placing the noun and laung after it. Thus laung0 means, ''On the road.,La0 laung0 means, On the table. Nga0 meansout." The usual expre8sion is nga0 deu follows the noun. Other prepositions will be introduced]ater. The most common connective is and corresponds quite closely to our use of'and.,Thus : 0ngoo means,I wish to buy shoes and are often placed beside one another without any connective between them. is used much in the same sense Also' is kuh means, '' This also is means, "I also wish to buy., 0Ngoo means,l still wish to buy., VOCABULARY A ci!y, ih J Mother, nyang ih A body, ih I Home, A A head, ih lrnh A foot, ih tsak A hand, ih A heart, ih kuh F,1ther, ya lla. To To To wear, To place, To use, To wear on the

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IJESSONS IN THE SHA NG HAI DIALECT EXERCISES (Translate into English) 21 (1) peh kuh? (2) Yi-kuh ya peh krth. (3) chi0. (4) Mau0-0ts O la O den Jn.0 kyak (6) 1-zaung (7) Sien-sang (8)A O goo kyau O i-zaung (10) Sien-sang dzoong le. (11) Sien-sang dok su.(12) 'Veh (13) Su (14) i0-kyung le koo0 (15) chub kuh, chub kuh. (16) noenm ya: nyang kuh. (17) la0 Sien-sang tah-ts auh-sang0ts. (18) eh (Translate into Chinese) (1) I placed the knives and the forks on the table. (2) vVho lives in this house? Mr. Tsang. (3) The father and mother wish the child to study. (4) Do you live in tbe dty or out of the city? (5) The cat is on the table. (6J Take it in your hand. (7) Keep it in mind (place' it on your heart). (8)

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22 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT The heart is in the body. (9) That child has no shoes on his feet. (10) That man has no hat on his head. (11) To whom do the cows and sheep belong? (12) When you have put on your clothes, come and eat. (13) The horse boy wishes to feed the horse also. (14) You and I are friends. (15) Have you ever been to foreign countries? NoTEs. ( l) There are many different ways of saying "father,and motlier,, but these, will have to be explained later. (2) really the character O Zaung. It has the latter sound when used adverb "above," which (3) The seventh sentence or exercise is correct grammatically, bnt would not be used in polite speech, The usual way of asking a geutleman IYhere hP lives is to say 0Joo laung0 ( 4) In the eleventh sentence of the first exercise the expression yoong0 bing meansto be diligent,01'to pay attention., (5) In the second sentence of the s e cond exercise Mr, Tsang is trans. lated Tsang Sien-sang. common surname in Chinese, The Sien-sang follows the s1mrnme. (6) Doong is generally used with coming before the noun, and after it. 0ngoo k1th chi0. LESSON VIII Potential and Subjunctive Moods, and some Interrogative Adverbs May,or "can,is expref:sed O i 'l'lius I may or can chuh When physical ability is implied nung-keu0 is frequently

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 23 used. Thus I have the physical ability to do,,is O ngoo nung keu0 tsoo0 When acquired ability is to be expressed we0 is generally used. Thus :I have the ability to speak Chinese,is O ngoo we0 wo0 Tsoong-kok wo0 The Subjunctive Mood is expressed exact]y like the Indicative Mood except that some word meaningIf,is placed at the beginning of the clause, and particle meh is generally placed at the end of the clause. If,is zak 'zak-s0 zak-zen zen Thus If I go, I will c all youis expressed Very often the word implying "If,is omitted at the beginning of the clause, and the condition is implied simply by the use of the meh at the end of the clause. Thus :When he has finished it, come and tell me,is yi tsoo0 wo0 How'' ThusHow do you know, is ''When?,is Thus when did you come? is le kuh? did you noong0 kyi-z Beginners in Chinese often make the mistake of as the ordinary adverb of time. To express such a sentence asWhen I come he will go,,we le-0ts meh yi the past participle being us e d, and meh implying that it is conditional. It is incorrect to kyi-z le, yi chi0. Let it be remembered is only used in asking a question. e have the used after the verb in such a sentence a& O kyi-z tse? meaning,How

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24 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT long since you arrived?or yi tse? meaning, 'How long since he went?, VOCABULARY To Rell, To see, To ;iE;. To To know a person, To mingbak A pagoda ih :zoo0 A sedan A visitor or guest, ih we0 khak-nyung A doctor, ih ih A grave mound, ih A mouth, ih A doorway, ih kuh mung-0kheu (Mouth of the An ear, ih A nose, ih kuh An eye, ih A face, ih kuh Boo is the classifier used with carriages, and vehicles on wheels. A. carriage, ih boo I A wheelbarrow, ih boo tsho-0ts A ric-sha, ih boo toong-yang-tsho I (Lit. East of the O~ean I Long, carriage.) Japan is known as the I Fast, land East of the Ocean, and ric-shas I Slow, were there. I To-morrow, EXERCISES (Translate into English) (1) Noong0 ming-bak va O?Veh ming-bak. (2) Tsoong kok 'veh (3) Tsoong-kok su 'veh we0 dok. (4) Tshing sien-sang le. (5) ming-tsau chi0. (6) 'veh le (7) Zak-zen sien-sang le meh, 0 he (8) boo

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LESSON!! IN THE SHANGlIAI DIALECT 25 toong-yang-tsho. (9) meh? (10) (11) Di0-kuh nyung va0? 'Veh (12) chi O chi kuh. (13) i-sung le. sien-sang (15) Zak-zen sien sang (16) dzang kuh, tau 0z 0toen kuh. (17) Khaknyung tau heu-deu (18) kuh (19) ih kuh ih (20) Di O kyung tse. (Translate into Chinese) (1) Please take a seat. (2) When will that teacher come? (3) He said he will come to-morrow. ( 4) Have you seen my dog? (5) Ask the visitor to come iii. (6) The sheep is on the grave mound. (7) I wish to ride in a sedan chair, int.o the city. (8) \\Then the doctor comes, come and call me. (9) Call two ricshas (10) How long lia,,e you Leen in China?

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M LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT (11) If men had no eyes they would not be able to see. (12) If the pupil is not diligent he will not be able to learn Chinese. (13) I do not know how to say this. (14) will the doctor come? (15) To-morrow he will come. (16) The road to Shanghai is very long. (17) If you do not understand you can ask the teacher to speak more slowly. (]8) The ears of that dog are very long. (19) The child runs very fast. (20) Do you 1'llow my friend? I do not. Korns. (1) In the sixth sentence of the first exercise, notice that the adjecti\'e is turned into an a
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LESSONS IN 'fHE SHANGHAI DIALECT 27 LESSON IX The Use of Dzak, Reduplication of Verbs, Reflexive Pronouns In expressing the carrying of the action of the verb into effect is often used after it. Thus: means that a thing has been actually found. Zing meansto find. There are a great many active verbs which can take the after them. For example we have meaning a thing has been obtained. Tuh meausto means a person or thing has been met. meansto strike against. Verbs are often repeated for have had an example of this in the expression meaning "sit down." Th us khoen khoen meansLook, look., In many cases ih is inserted between the verbs, as khoen ih In such cases the last verb is changed into a verbal noun. Literally it would be "Look a look., The Reflexive Personal Pronouns hardly require any explanation. They are formed by adding after the Per sonal Pronouns. ThusI mvse]f" would be 0ngoo You yourrnlf" would be and so on for the rest. VOCABULARY To teach, 'l.'o To ask, To pay, To To look for, To hear, thing kyien To know a Chinese character, 'l'o at.-ike against, To get, A ih kuh A water buffalo, ih An apple, ih tsak A dining table, ih tsak An desk, ih

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28 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT A Chinese character, ih kuh I Now, A. drawer of a table, ih tsak tsheu-thi I Not yet,veh tsheuStill wan 'veh I Why? An unmarried woman, ih I Because, we0-ts In using iung-we0 the particle 0lau is generally added at the end of the clause. Thus: "Why did you not go? Because I did not want to go,is chi0? Jung we iau0 EXERCISES (Translate English) sien-sang dok Tsoong-kok su.(2) Tsoong-kok z0. (3) 0ts ih tsak doong-dien zung. 'veh sub. (5) Zak-zen suh mung0 sien-sang. (6) rneh? Wan 'veh zung. 0ngoo zing (8) g zing-dzak tse. (9) zung dok su 0lau. sien-sang chub dzo. sien-sang (12) Zak-zen nyung yi-laveh 'veh zung kok zung (14) hyih meh?Veh zung. laung0 kuh (16) i-zaung noong0 zung faung0 kuh? (17) khoen" sien-sang le meh. zing dzak meh? Zing-'veh-dzak. (19) Zak-zen m-meh sien-sang dok su. (20) foo0 qoon~-dien meb, le :pa1,.1.

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LESSONg IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 29 (Translate into Chinese) (1) Why don't you pay it? (2) Why do you do this? (3) When will you do it? (4) I dont want it now. (5) When did you go? (6) I do not want to go now, I will go to-morrow. (7) Do e s the teach e r t eac h well? (8) D oes the pupil write well? (9) Why do you not look for my fan? Because I have already found it. (10) This carpenter can make a dining table (11) Go, see if the doctor has come. (12) They themselves said they wished to build a new house. (13) I t old the table boy to go to the city and buy m e four chairs, a trunk, a bed, and an d esk. (14) When comes, ask him please to be seated and to take. some t ea. (15) If one does no t study he is unable to know characters. (16) My desk has three drawers. (17) This unmarried girl also wishes to study. (18) Have you bought the apples? They cannot be obtained. (19) Do you know whether the gue s t has already arrived? I do not know. (20) Can you obtain these? They are unobtainable.

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30 LESSO:'\S IN SHANGHAI DIALIWT NoTEs. (I) In the seventh sentence of the first notice the khom0 aflet the reduplicated verb zing. This gives lhe force of try to look for it.Look, look, see." u se d a[ter many in this way. Thus: to do it." Sia O sia0 to write it." fVo0 to say it.S0 "try to do it., {2) ln the tenth and eleventh sentences of the first exercise we haYe two ways of askillg a person to drink tea 'l'he second is the polite form Literally it means that you ask a personto nse tea., (3) In the nineteent.h sentence of the first exercise, notice the use of meh for euphony after and so also in the twentieth after doong-dien. (4) In the eighteenth sentence of the first exercise, notice the way in whichveh comes between the zing and the d zak. This mrnns "seek not find" orit can not be f o nnd.,So also in the second exercise in the eighteenth sentenceThey cannot be obtai11ed, should be u11d in the "They are unobtaiuable,should be tuh-'veh-dzflk. LESSON X Divisions of Time. More Adverbs An hour" in Chinese is tsoong or i,h kuh tsoong-deu Literallyone point of the clock." This is a foreign division of time. The Chinese divide the day into twelve periods of two hours each, known as z-zung

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LESSONS IN 'i'Hlil SHANGliAt l>lALEcT 81 Now, the division into hours has become very familinr. lh 0tien tsoong mav also meanone oclockand the other hours are indicated in the same way by the change of the numeral. ThusTwo oclock,is Two hours would be kuh tsoong deu O tien tsoong koong foo Three c'clock,is san tien tsoong etc. A day,is usually ih nyih The cha,racter nyih literally meanssun." In speaking of the heavenly body, in the colloquial, deu is added to the nyih, making the expression .nyih-deu Sometimes the word thien meaning Heaven,is used for "qay." Thus thien means '' three days No is introduced between the numeral and the nyih or the thien. Thus we have for four days or s0 thien A ih This, of course, is a foreign division of time which has been adopted into Chinese. It takes its name from the name of Sunday, which is -nyih Lit. "the day of ceremonial means ceremony, to worship. The other days of the week are formed with the addi tion of the numerals as follows: Mond a y is Tuesday is O Wednesday Thursday and A new way of expressing the days of the week is by the use of the words sing-ji meaning the star p e riod. Thns: Sun day is sing-ji nyih Monday, sing-ji ih Tuesday, sing-ji nyi0 and so on for the other days. A month" is ih kuh nyoeh Lit.a moon." The Chinese year is made up of twelve lunar montlis. The month is called tsung nyoeh the second, the third, nyoeh and so forth. A year,is ih nyien No classifier is used bet.ween the uumeral and the word ' year,'' nyien.

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S2 tN tRE SHANGlIAt DIAt:Ect e How many?orHow nyung le? meansHow many men came? means How much water ? is often used without the In such cases it is followed by the classifier of the noun. ThusHow many men came ?,might be kuh nyung le? many horses have ''Where?is Thus '' Where are yon going T,is chi0? '' Where are you?is noong0 Sa0 meaning meaning "place" also ?,Thus We also have sa0 this refers to a more circumscribed area than We also have used in the same way as VOCABULARY A fish, ih diau I zeh-ke0-nung To To come I To go j Then as a nan back. i I e out or I To go out, I Ouly, I Sonth, Near, I I Tin A painter, ih But, EXERCISES (Translate into English) sien-sang le. (2) ming-tsau

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI' DIALECT 33 : kuh san-seh nyih. ( 4) tshih nyiih. (5) bang0yeu dzu0 O di0-faung? 0li. 0Jung nen mung. (6) tau (7) su, nan-meh (8) yi-kuh? (9) I-kuh nyung Yi ih-kuh. (10) ts nyoeh le-ts san kuh nyoeh. (11) 0Li paP-san kuh? kuh. (13) 'veh tsheh(14) i-sung le. su zeh-ke0 kuh. (Translate into Chinese) (1) Where have you put my shoes? (2) I put them in the box. (3) I do not want to study on Sunday, hut I will study on Monday-. ( 4) How many weeks are there in a month? (5) How many peaches have you eaten? (6) How many dollars did you give your servant? (7}What time is it now? (8) Where do

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;34 LESSONS IN THE BHANGHAt l>lALE!CT you live? (9) Wheri you have bought the fish, return im. mediately. (10) The guest will stay here four then will return. (11) Please tell the painter to come. (12) The teacher, having taught for three hours, left immediately. (13) Why do you do it this way? Because the teacher told me to do it thus. (14) I wish to do it, but I have no time to do it. (15), Go see what time it is now. NoTES. (1) "Thank yon,is expressed by repeating the ThusTliank yon,is In speaking to an equal or superior, the be dropped. Often in Chinese when you ask. a person to do a thing for preface the request by thank ing the p e rson. ngoo-kuh le meansThank you, go bring my umbrella ., .(2) Koong-Joo has the double sense of '' Thus: means to do work. Bnt M-meh koong foo means "l have no time .You n e ver say meaning "What time?,but Sa or .f In asking what time it is by the clock the usual tsoong f The force of the question in the of the First Exercisei is due to the fact that some Chinese months have thirty days: and some have twenty-nine. A month of thirty days is called .n),a large monthand one with twenty-nine days is "a small nyoeh ) In make the seasons come right, an intercalary month is put in about every three years, This in Chinese is called Nyung n'Voeh Jl ).

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 35 (4) Notice the elliptical form of expression in the seventh sentence of the First Exercise. Literally it means "Yesterday I read five hours book., (5) In the third sentence of the Second Exercise the Chinese idiom peculiar. You say su, li-pa-ih dok kuh. Literally Sunday not want to study, Monday and study. (6) In the eleventh sentence of the Second Exercise, the please, should be translated LESSON XI The Passive Voice, and Adverbs of Place and Time Peh is used to form the Passive, and is the regular and proper form of the Passive. Thus: the verb means to '' Strike. yi meausI strike him.,To put this into the Passive we would say O ngoo peh Literally "I gave him strike,'or '' I was struck by him., Here ,is expressed by or O literally this place., There" is or i-deu or i-khwe0 am here'' leh-0 li am 0ngoo These adverbs are often used as adverbial notins and may take prepositions before them. Thus le means '' Corne here i-deu chi0 means "Go there.,Lit.To there go. it here." Lit. Place it at i-khwe0 means Place it there.,Lit.Place it VOCABULARY Half an honr, Iu the nyih mean~ half). I Lit. Above half day. Quarter of an hour, ih J In the A minute, ih I Lower haH day.

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36 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALEC' r Night, ya :gi. [-,To remember, At }To forget, Day before I An affair (abstract), ih or ih tsaung A thiug or obje ct (concrete), ihkuh Day after Early in the I Wind, is early. J A loaf of bread, ihkuh Iu the even coming fast. A mosquito, ih tsak In the middle of the day or noon, ih kuh I A boat, ih tsak _.-To cook, J Many, much, To .. J 'fo means Wait a little., spoil, wa To rest, Hyih-ihhyih means J (completely spoil). Wait a little.,We also I A snake, ih diau zo ih.hyih. EXERCISES (Translate English) (1) meh? tse. i-zaung tan (3) I-zaung meh?Veh zung, iau0 nyih sien-sang le. (5) Van saumeh dok tsoongkok su, dok su. (7) le peh (8) theh i-kuh nyung 0hyau-tuh. 0hau dok su kuh iung-kwaung. 0ngoo (12) kuh SU (13) Ih kyi0 -tub, ih peh ting. (15) M;ndeu peh chub iheh tse. (Hi)

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 87 kyak peh 0ngau-ts (17) Zen peh la0 doo0 wa0. sien-sang 0zoo. (Translate into Chinese) (1) When will you come, in the morning or in the afternoon? (2) I do not know ;if I have n0 affairs to attend to, I will come in the morning. (3) Has the carpenter finished making the table? i If so, I will come and look at it. ( 4) Place the bed here and the table there. (5) These fish are cooked badly. (6) The day after to-morrow I have invited some guests to dinner. (7) It is already twenty minutes past ten, and my teacher has not yet come. (8) Do you remember what I told you yesterday? I have forgotten it. (9) In studying Chinese, you must not forget what you have already learnt. (10) Please sit down a little while ; there are many things I want to say to you. (11) How did you come? I came in a carriage. (12) My child was by your child. (13) My face and hands were bitten by mosquitoes.

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38 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALEf;T NoTES. (1) It will have be1;n noticed that in Lesson VI used in the Present Tense Continuous of the Verb, and thut used for the Past Continuous. It was poi11ted out then tl1at these really signify "Here,and "There.,The !item! sense would be I am here eatingand "I was there eating.' (2) It is very important that beginners should distinguish clearly M. tween Any concrete be called a meh-z0 But an abstract action or affair is always In mandarin-speaking districts is often used for sometimes it is heard in the Shanghai district. (8) In sentence of the First Exercise, notice how the 0ts is tacked on to the 0hau, and not to the (4) In the tenth sentence of the First Exercise notice how the dok su has become a verbal adjective. book time., (5) In the fifteenth sente11ce of the the force of the theh after chuh is that it bas been eaten often comes after verbs to express completed action. (6) In the sixteenth sentence of the First means literallyBitten a mouthful., (7) In the seventeenth sentence we have two verbs used Literally 6beat" orstrike spoil., (8) In the iaeventh sentence of the Second Exercife twenty minutes past ten is expressed is a shortenrd form over,or "beyoud., (9) In the twelfth sentence of the First Exercise notice the use of kuh In has the force of the relative the translation would be "the books which yon liave read., In the sixth sentence of the Second be translated by

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT LESSON XII Some Verbal Idioms 89 have already explained the use of t, and There are other ways of expressing the possibility and impossibility of doing things in Chinese. For instance one way is bv the addition of tuh-le or ,veh-le after the verb. Thus: Dok-tuh-le meansAble to read.Dok,veh-le means "Unable to read it.,Many verbs of one character admit of this construction. Thus: means '' Able to means 'Unable to speak." to do.,Tsoo0-,veh-le to do., Verbs made up of two characters do not take tuh-le and veh-le after them. Thus we do not hear ,veh-le forUnable to knowbut veh The literal meaning of tuh-le is Obtain, come,,and the literal meaning ofveh-le is Not coine., We also }1ave the use of tuh-kuh after verbs, expressing possibility, andveh-tuh, expressing impossibility. Thus we have tsoo0-tuh-kuh meaningit is possible to d9 a thingand tsoo0-'veh-tuh meaningit is impossible to do a thing.,With verbs of physical action, we have tuh~ and veh-0 doong used after the verb implying possibility and impossibility. Thus we have meaningI have the physical ability to walkand meaningI have not. the physical ability to walk. In the same way we have tsoo~ and tsoo0-,veh-0doong literally meansNot move., Strange to say we have meaning I have not the vhysical abilitv to sit up,land 0ZOO-tuh-0dQOng

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40 tESSONS 1N 'tHE SHANGHAI DIALECT meaning "I have the physical ability to sit up., meansPossible to buy. meansImpossible to buy., With verbs of hearing and seeing impossibility is expressed in still another way. Thus we have meaningIt is possible to see,and khoenc,'veh-kyien meaning It is impossible to see it.'Literally trans lated b}1ese expressions behold,,and See, not behold." We also have khoen-tuh-tsheh meaning to see a thing clearly. LiterallyE See, obtain, come forthand meaning not to be able or literally See, not come forth., In the same way we have thing-tuh-tsheh and thing-veh-tsheh in regard to hearing. Instead of thing-tuh-kyien and thing-'veh-kyien, we have thing-tuhdzak and Literally Hear, obtain ,and Hear, not obtain. have already explained the use of after verbs expressing completed action. We also have other words used in the same wav. Thus dok wen-tse or dok-0 ba-tse all mean the same thing. 'l'he verb wen meansto finish .,According]y in asking a question tsoo0-wen-meh and all meanhave you finished it? Verbal nouns are often formed by the addition of deu fah after the verb. Thus tsoo0-deu or tsoo0fah means of doing a thing. VOCABULARY To move, to I To To hear, Heard, thing / To finish,

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LESSONS IN THE SHA NG HAI DIALECT is the classifier used with rooms. A room, ih A bed room, ih kan A guest room, ih ,kan khakdaung. An office, ih A shroff s room, ih kan Every, Other, bih ,JJIJ. High, Low, Broad, Narrow, Deep, Too 41 A study, ih kan A dining room, ih kan '"F A kitchen, ih kan t.sau0 koong0 All in general, moat, Under, Outside, Before, Earth, EXERCISES (Translate 0yeu 0sia-'veh-le. (3) tseu le ( 4) Tsoong-kok nyung khwa0 thing veh-tsheh. dokveh-le (6) Di O -zak O O khweh? (7) vaung. 0kyi kan? ih kan khak-daung, ih ih kan vauug-kan. (9) yoong0 -deu. (10) Su O nyung 'veh zung thing-kyien<1 0yeu sa O nyung mung. (11) Di0diau 0hau

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42 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT (12) 0Tshing khak-nyung (13) lJzoong (14) Vaung-0ts (15) (16) Noong" di0 tsaung ? nyung (17) Ze-voong tsoo0 le kuh i zaung thuh (18) Kauh kauh nyung kuh thi. (Translate into Chinese) (1) Where is your teacher? He is in the study writing. (2) Did you t ell the tu ble boy to bring the tea? (3) If the carpenter does not make it well, I shall call another man. (4) This manner of doing it is bad ;I want you to do it better. (5) I walked to Shallgbai, and then I could ;alk no further. (6) Then you do? I called a ric-sha and ,pme back. (7) Is the master in? He has gone out. (8) days ago I went to see the pagoda. (9) -:t;'here is water the earth. (10) The cat is under the chair. (11) When I have :finished reading

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IN i>lAU:cr 43 the book, I wish to learn to write characters. (12) Tell him to come inside. (13) This table is too low: I cannot write cbarac ters on it. (14) May I come in? Come right in. NOTES. (1) In regard meaning "fewit should be noted that it never occurs b e fore a non 11. If yon wis h to say a few men the idiomatic expression would be 'veh too Tile me11 are few w o uld is often used to qualify verbs. Thus we dok read less. (2) As alrea dy pointed out in a previous lesson what correspond to prepositions in E11glish are re11lly postpositions in Chinese, as they come after the nouns instead of before them. When us e d however, they generally precede the verbs. Thns we forSit for take a higher seat.,This is the usual polite phrase said to a guest when .he enters your gnest room. He wil I take a seat nenr the door, and yon him to be seated higher., {3) The first sentence of the First Exercise an oath, and is us e d when one is calling Heaven and Earth to witness tltat. J1iR words are true. (4) Note the impersonal nse of 0yeu in the second sentence of the First Exercise. Literally it isThere are many characters., (5) In the seventh sentence of the Second Exercise you have the usual form of inqniri11g whether the gentleman you wish to see is at l1ome. You say Sien-sang leh-la 0va0 '!is the ma~ter there? The answer is he is at home, meaningHe is there., If he is not at home, the answer may be tsheh chi0 ha11 goue 'veh is not there.

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44 IN THE SHANGHAi iHALilCT LESSON XIII Auxiliary Verbs The verb is often used as an auxiliary verb after the principal verb to express the idea of Thus dok0chi meansBegin to read." Chi also expresses the idea of erectness, but when used in this sense, le follows the 0chi. Thus Lih-0chi-le meansStand up.Lok means '' Get up.It also has a progressive when you say it meansread on,'go on reading." "\Ve have the used also in com bi nation with tuh Thus Lok-tuh 0chi meansAble to get up.Lok. means "Unab]e to get 0chi means '' Can to buy meansCannot afford to buy it.,Khwung0-'vehmeansunable to sleep .,Khoen-'veh-0chi meansto look down upon"to disdain." are used both as principal verbs and as auxiliaries. Thus we have the expressions meaningto go up go down go on board a SU take an advanced lesson in a book," etc. In these cases they are nsed as principal verbs. As auxiliary verbs, they express motion upwards and motion downwards. They are not confined of motion, but are used freely with other verbs. To both of them le and chi0 are frequently added. Thus we have meaningRead on down., meaningGv on doing meaningJump down."

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LE!':JSONS IN THE DIALECT meaning "Jump up to tba up to pl a ce. Although the Chinese language is, 11 monosyllabic language, yet as has already been noticed there is a strong tendency to use two or more words together forming as it were dissyllables or trisyllables. In this lesson some verbs are used, composed of two characters occurring together. VOCABULARY To I To sleep, l'o play, take I To I To fly, To convers P dan I T o reckon, I To To believe I A stove, ih To fall, or ih (of meu or auimal s), To stand up, get up, lok To be To b ack the \Jook, To ih .A. washstand, ih tsak .A. temple, ih zoo0 .A. window, ih ) is the Classifier for firms, shops, etc .A. tea shop, ih ban t8 .A. pair of chop-sLicks, ih saung khwan .A. sentence, ih Only, or Not only, Light (in weight), Cheap, Dear (in pri c e), Happy, Clear or dist.iuct, Soochow, Together

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46 LES:!ONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT EXERCISES (Translate into English) (1) ih-dau bakdok-0ba-0ts su (3) Zak zen ( 4) a kyung-tsau 'veh zung kha (7) Tsoong kok nyung chub saung khwan, nga0-kok nyung tsho. (8) Zauh ngoo thing-tub ih 0ts (9) Zak-zen yi zung tan meh, yi-kuh siang(10) dan-dan chuh dzo. (] bib (12) Zauh0ya-deu kyung-tsau lok-'veh0chi. (13) Thien nyih kuh zung-kwaung mung meh (14) Tsoong-kok 'veh meh bib nyung kuh. (15) le jang 0siangman (16) le kuh? Zeh (17) le lung ih tsak. miau0 mung ih (HI) kuh nyi chung kuh? 0Z 'man kuh. (21) Sien-sang dok -(22) su dzoong 0 'au-le. dzoong iui0 0ts tsak dzoong thien ming-tsau zen chi.

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 47 ( Translate in to Chinese) (1) Do you like to eat this? (2) In the day time men work, in the night time they sleep. (3) The cat came in by the window and the rat ran out by the door. ( 4) I conversed with him, and he taught me many words in Chinese. (5) I want you to wipe the windows. (6) Last night I slept only four hours. (7) I not only bought a washstand, I also bought a stove and three chairs. (8) Children like to play, men like to study. (9) Why do you go to the tea shop? Because there I can hear many men conversing, and so learn many Chinese words (10) Are you willing to go to see the (11) To-day I am very happy, because I have finished the book. (12) The child jumped down from the table. (13) Plea se on down. (]4) When will you go up the hill with a look ? (15) The

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48 LESSONS IN TH.E SHANGHAI DIALECT .teacher first hears the scholars back the book, and then gives them an advanced lesson. NoTES. (1) Note that siang-sing0 meanst.o like" as well as to kuh nyung means, "I like him." (2) The expression to back the book" arises from the old Chinese custom of the pupil turning his back upon the teacher when he recites his lesson. {3) Notice the order of the words in the eleventh sentence of the First Exercise. The verb 0Yeu comes first in the sentence. (4) Tlte word added at the end of the sixteenth sentence of the First merely for euphony. (5) In the sentence of the First Exercise we have another polite way of asking a take a higher seat in the guest room. (6) In sentences and twenty.thiee of the First Exercise we have the urn of lauh and tilt for fall.,It is d itficult to dis. tinguish between the two, but tih is used a]ways when we spe ,ak of a person falling down. (7) The correct way of first sentence of the Second Exercise is chuh yang meansthis sort.,. (8) The thirteenth sentence of the Second Exercise of refers to the fact that Chinese write from the top down and not across the page. (9) The last clause of the :fifteenth sentence of the Second Exercise should be nan-meh theh au.Theu for them, advances in the book."

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 49 LESSON XIV Causality and Necessity The idea of causality, in the sense of causing a person to do a expressed in Chinese by the use of the auxiliary verbs and ThusI caused do it,,would be O ngoo kau yi caused him to go,, would be The word literally means "to send." The word is the same as but used with different pronunciation and tone. one of higher rank causes a person of lower rank to do a thing the word S0 is used. Thus ieu-mung,,Caused me to sorrow., Must" is expressed by the expressions tsoong-iau0 It must be,is Thus It must be so, is tsoong-z0 Oughtimplying ol.,ligation, is expressed by iung-ke Thus "You ought to do it,is tsoo0 kuh VOCABULARY Just now, a little while ago, khah Quick, khwa0. r. Although, Yet, Still (in the sense of in addition), wan wan still wish to bny more On the contrary, or on the other hand, To complete, To light (a lamp or ~. To light (a fire), To take with you, ta0 To bring with you, ta0 To kill, To kill with a To To live, A lamp, To tell, 11arrate, To sweep the ground

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50 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT Foong is the classifier used for letters and other sealed parcels. A letter, ih foong I A candle, ih kung lah tsok An envelope, ih foong ih foong 1(. i is the classifier denoting sheets. A sheet of paper, ih ih / A fowl, ih tsak EXERCISES (Translate into English) iung-ke z0 (2) meh (3) Ya .0deu su meh, tung. 'veh si-theh tse. (5) Tan ih ih foong man0ts, zing-veh-dzak kuh. dok tsoong-kok 0sia tsoong kok (8) Soe-zen zung tan tsheh chi0 zen-r 0ngoo (9) i-sung tse. (10) Sien-sang Yi khan-khan 0li chi O tse. (11) Zak-zen yi wanveh zung yiveh tuh. sah ih tsak kyi, kuh zung-kwaung kuh. (13) de0ts mok'man kha0-weh thingtuh ih foong 0ngoo-kuh bung-le kuh. (15) Nyung dzung-koong ih tsaung 0i yang0. (16) M-meh ih kuh nyui1g

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 51 (Translate into Chineee) (1) I told you a little while ago that I did not want you to open the window;why do you not listen to me? (2) Light the lamp and put it on the table in the study. (3) If a guest comes, I want you to light the fire in the reception room. ( 4) Do not strike the dog ;perhaps you will kill him. (5) You must study diligently, and then you can learn to speak Chinese (6) How many hours a day ought I to study? I think you should study at least four hours a day in the morning and h.o in the afternoon. (7) If your letter has been written, I will send the servant to take it. (8) Early in the morning I want you to sweep the floor and wipe the table and chairs. (9) Although the carpenter works quickly, he cannot finish it in a week. (J 0) ,vhen you have finished this do not think there is nothing more to do, but come and tell me. (11) I did not tell you to take it away, but on the contrary told yon to put it in the (12) If the doctor does not come immediately, this man cannot liYe. (13) Who caused you to do it? He caused me to do it

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IN THE SEtANGEtAt DtALECT NorE:3. is sometimes used to qualify adjectives. TlrnA means "fairly good,or "pretty good. (2) and Zen-r are generally nsed introducing the first clause, and the second, the second clanse. (3) In the first sentence of the First Exercise the formation of the verbal nonn,tbe things which we onght to do., (4) In the ninth sentence of tbe First notice that does not mean "fasterbut is nse
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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAi DIALECT 53 ih zeh zeh zeh etc. Ling really meansin addition. The hundreds are expressed simply by two hundredetc.One thousand,is ih tshien In expressingone hundred and eay ih ling ih In expressing one thousand and one,' say ih tshien ling ling ih. Ten thousand,is ih mil]ion.,is ih The ordinal numerals are expressed in Chinese by prefixing before the cardinal. Thus the first' 1 is or deu-ih second and so forth. (lit. a place) is often used as a relative pronoun. It translates the English that,, andthe things which.,The clause it introduces usually comes before the subject of the sentence. Thus "All that you do, I am able to do a]so,,n ould be As has already been pointed out kuh often has the force of the relative. VOCABULARY To wonder, he rnrprised, To wear, To take thoeh-theh To wear a To take off a To laugh, To ridicn Cold Very Ianghable, By the side or, Place, iVI y Right (Direction), Right hand, Left, tsoo0 (Sometimes prononnced Left Right pien yeu0 pan-pan Late, (SLine character a~ that for fast.) Sweet.

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54 LESSONS IN THE SHANGH.A.i DIALECT Bitter, U,dy, (Same character as nsed for to fear.) Pretty, A shop, ih ban Take Take great care, Furniture, A tea A class (in a school), ih To sing, ts'aung EXERCISES English) kuh. sing sing (4) Zung-kwaung an tse, (5) 0soo ih tsanng 'veh nyung wo0. (7) wan 'vel}zung hyi-ji. tau 'man Yi te0 wo O kuh bang yi 'veh dzak, (11) dzo-'oo tan han-deu (12) Ikuh nyung nyung kuh. (13) tsak kuh i-zaung, kuh. (] 4) Nga-kok sien-rnng kheu thoeh-theh tsoong-kok nyung 'veh thoeh-theh kuh. (15) I-tsak i (16) chuh dien kuh kuh. (17) O nyung? zeh (18) 'man dok deu-ih. (19) Ih kuh nyung tan le ih pak ling san kuh doong-dien.

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 55 into Chinese) (1) When I was in the carriage, I told the coachman to take care. (2) The clothes which that maiden wears are very pretty. (3) The boat is by the side of the river. ( 4) Yesterday I met a man who told me that be saw a carpenter kill a man with a sharp knife. (5) Although I do not speak Chinese well, please do not laugh at me. (6) I asked a man which road to take ;he told me to go to the right. (7) I did not meet a single person on the road. (8) This bird is very beautiful ;can it sing? (9) When it is warm you do not need to wear many clothes. (10) This tea is bitter and not good to drink. (11) Yesterday I walked very far, and so could not get up to-day. (12) Take this letter to the teacher.

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56 LIJ:SSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALEC'f NOTES, (1) Han-deu is very frequently used with persons and personal pro nouns. Thus you do uot say 7 yi for take it to liim, but Tan chi0.Leave it with me" would be han-deu {2) The second sentence of the First Exercise is often nsed in speaking a gtiest when he is departing. When he is abont to go, he announces the fact by saying Chi0 t s e meaning "I am going.,You say slowly,' and then when he is walking sing 0tseu 0hau (S) In the fift4 sentence of the First ExerciEe meansnot at all well., (4) In the tenth sentence of the First Exercise notice how the object yi splits up the verb into two parts. (5) In the sixth sentence of the Second Exerciseto the right,is expressed by LESSON XVI Verbal Idioms The idea of there being time to accomplish a thing is expressed by adding the words tuh .. after the principal verb. If there is not time to do a thing you add veh after principal verb. Thus meansthere is time to do a thing." Tsoo0-,veh .. ji0 is not time. This expression is used most frequently with the verb le Le-tuh..ji0 meansthere is time,,and le-,veh-ji0 meansthere is not time., The idea of a thing being is expressed by the words kuh Not being important," by the words veh 11 Is it important?" orDoes it make any difference?,would be

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALEO'J: 67 Veh is often used after verbs giving the idea of inability to do a thing. Thus Chuhveh lauh means unable to lauh to sit because of lack of room." We also have the forms tuh lauh and chuh tuh lauh VOCABULARY Either, { ,r, Difficult, Slowly, Walk slowly, Besides, in addition, How much (with nyi at the entl of the Still more, '.I.'o ~tart (on a (Lit. to move the body,) To become ill, To heal, To welcome (a guest), To return ( a debt Of borrowed), To cry, To To borrow or to lend, (See Not<>.) To wash, lllnes~. coolie, ih kuh ih kuh A star, ih kuh A grave mound, ih kuh A goat, ih tsak A hog or pig, ih tsak A stool, ih tsak A chest of tsak tsheudeu A drawer, ih tsak t:.heu A wash bowl, ih tsak A plate, ih tsak A Chinese eatiug bowl, ih A farmer, ih kuh tsoon.g0dien is the for tubular things. A Chinese or foreign pen, ih I;Foreign I Clean, A Chinese ink tablet, ih kuh nyien I Stop, ding Moon, nyceh-Iiang0 A piece of ink, ih khwe0 I Preciou:;,

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58 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT EXERCISES (Translate into English) (1) iau noong0veh iau0 (2) lauh (3) Kyung-tsau ming-tsau lau kuh nyung ih teak (5) 'A uh-sang-0ts m 0li-deu ding. (6) Tshau meh, (.7) Tsoong0 -dien-san tsak san-yang, yi-kuh bang0yeu 0s tsak. (8) loong-tsoong nyi. (9) koen-' (10) 0doong-sung (11) wan peh Ok.tse -nyih, ok-tse ming-tsau i-sung (13) Ya0-0li la0 thien khoen (14) Di nyib-0}iveh khok, doo0 khok. yi san-seh wan. (16) diau ka (17) nyung bih han-deu tsia0-ts nyan ih tsak s0 tsak (19) khak-nyung. mung i sung 0hau mmg muh, pih, L:oong-kok nyung kuh

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LF.:680.NS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 59 {Translate into Chinese) (1) Which is easier, to learn to read Chinese or to learn to write Chinese? (2) I told you there was not time to do it;why do you still want to do it? (3) Why do you cry? Because I have heard that my friend is dead. ( 4) We will go early to morrow morning to meet our friends, who have come from abroad. (5) Goats like to stand on the tops of the grave mounds. (6) You say this temple is so fine to see, that I want to go more than ever to see it. (7) Please, teacher, do not speak so fast. If you will speak more slowly, I can understand. (8) If you do not return it immediately, no matter, I can wait two or three
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6v LESSONS IN THI<~ SHANGHAI DIALECT drawer. (11) The Chinese when they eat, use bowls ;the foreigners use plates. (12) This fan belongs either to the teacher or to the pupil. (13) If you want to learn to write you must buy a pen, a piece of ink, and an ink tablet. (14) If you borrow money from another person, and do not return it, he will be unhappy. told the driver to stop the carriage at my house. NoTES. (L) The word for "to borro w,audto lend" is exactly the same in Chinese. The only way you cau distinguish between them i s by anxiliary in connection with tht m Thus means "to l end.Tsia0 le means "to borrow., Agai II Tsia0 ehi0 meaust o l e nd. ,Bnt we have such r.onstructioos meaning ' I leud to han-de u-tsiu O lcuh meauingI borr o wed it from him. (2) In sentence of the First Exercise meansread ding This is an ordinary form for asking where to begin the les son. and where to end it. (3}In the fourteenth sentence of the First Exercise notice how doo0 qualifies the nrb khok. (4) The twt>nty-second sentence of the First, is a pRraphr11se of a Qhiuese proverb,

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LESSO.SS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 61 LESSON XVII More Verbal Idioms In asking question yeu-tuh? sometimes precedes a verb with the sense,Is there to be had?,Thus means,Is there to be chuh va0? there anything to eat?, The answers to these questions would be tuh chuh kuh can be bought.,'' There is something to eat. Vehpih meansIt is not necessary.,Thus Veh pih khok is not necessary to cry.,Veh pih chi0 is not necessary to go., lh before verbs means,Not at all., Thus ih hyau-tuh means, I do not know zung hyih means,I have not seen it at all., lh khoen means,I do not want to see it at all. VOCABULARY To visit, to pay respects to, maung0 pa0 To worship, To pay a ceremonial To bathe, To catch, seize, arrest, To prepare, to provide, To move a Loose, To remove ( a residence), 'l'o commence or khe koong To open school, 'l'o dismiss school, A finger, ih tsak A toe, ih tsak A cup, ih tsak A clock, ih tsak A watch, ih tsak A well, ih A basket, ih tsak An apple, ih tsak ~.

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62 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT A c rab apple, ih tsak A life ih diau sing0ming0 A ih I .A. board, ih Fok is the classifier of paintings or engravings .A. painting, ih fok .l. chart or map, ih fok ih fok A picture, ih fok wo0 One tim P ih Two times, No matter nyung Whatsoever, no matter what,veh 'veh kyui Whichever, Whatever time you please, dzoe bien Wet, Dry, Always, EXERCISES (Translate into (1) Z0-ming-tsoong kuh yoong0 peh nyung tuh zung-kwaung. (2) I-tsak man 'm-sa O yoong0 ngan veh we0 tsauh (3) chi yeu. ( thing-tuh le vaung-0yeu zeh tsak tsih deu, liang tsak zeh tsak kyak-tsih-deu. (7) i-sung we0-ts nyu11g kuh kuh. san z van (9) n yung tan tan chi0. (10) Kyungya0-deu ming-tsau 0tsau-zung-deu (11) ming-tsau dzoe-bien tse. koen tse,veh yok

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 63 kha koen (14) Khan-khan tsak bing-0koo pihtsak,veh tan-theh kuh. tuh 0ma kuh. kuh pih (17) Di" su ih ngan m-meh wo0-doo. (18) I-tsak (19) de0ts (20) tshaung ih ngan (21) meh? Cbi0 we. (22) Sien-sang woe ming-tsau le, 0lau. (23) Van 'i0 nyung dzung-koong 0tbi.

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64 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT (Translate into Chinese) (1) When I have :finished studying, I shall go to visit my friends. (2) No matter who comes;tell him I am busy (have (3) the weather is wet I cannot go out to walk. ( 4) The pupils should apples in the school room. (5) Children like to play the game of catching men. (6) The pupils read badly to-day ;I think they did not prepare. (7) At what time does the school open, and at what time does it close? (8) I shall be pleased to have a conversation with you whenever you come. (9) This child does not want to study a bit ;I think it would be best for him to go and do business. (10) I have already told you two or three times ;do not forget. (11) Next month we shall remove our residence. (12) Near Shanghai there are no high hills, only grave mounds. (13) I cannot open this window ;it is immovable. (14) Has the clock already struck? (15) How many eggs are there in the basket? (1) In the fourth sentence of the First 0hau means "not at all well., (2) In the eleventh sentence of the First Exercise the expression Dzoe. is one very frequently used. It implies, do it whenever and however you plense., (8) In the fourteenth rnntence of the First Exercise Tan-theh mean~ take awny.,We have nlready had the use of Theh after vefos, as Thoeh-tl,eh, "to take off clothes." It can be used with a]most

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALEC' 65 anv verb of motion. We have Peh theh, "to ?ive away.,Chuh thehto eat up." Chi0-theh,to cast sell away, etc ., (4) In sentence of the First Exercise Yang of every eort., (5) Note that the usual expression in Chinese to say you are busy is yeu0 I~ is newr very polite to tell any one that you are busy. A person aeking whether you were busy would say,aung va0fAre you busy ? (6) In the fifth of the Second the game frequently played by Chinese children, is referred to. (7) In the eighth sentence of the Second Exercise the clause shonld be reversed. Noong0 should come first. (8) 1 n the ninth sentence oi the Second .Exercise to go and do business" is Clli0 tsoo0 (9) In the fourteenth sentence of the Second Exercise Tsoong khau koo0 meh is the usual way of asking the is shortened form of Z-ming tsoong. LESSON XVIII More Verbal Idioms Siang is often placed before transitive. verbs and usually gives the idea of mutual or reciprocal. In some cases it is reflexive. As instances of reciprocal action we have "to fight with one another." revile one be connected help one another., Khe or khe-le is used with many verbs to give the idea of spreading wide open. Thus meansto unroll a means to open a box.Fung-khe scatter wide cast.'' Tshih-khe tshih khe-le meansto etc., Not inclined to do a thing is expressed by the phrase veh Thus Veh go.,

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63 LESSONS IN SHANGHAI DIALECT VOCABULARY To folio", kung J!i!:. i To tie, I To To tie tirmiy, or vok I To depart fro Ill, 0) i. I To de-ire, to r>xp,!cl, To bite To bark, kyau m~. To blow, ths n), To blow ont, to extiugnish, To blow into a blaze or flame, ths To permit, To allow, Colour, Variegated colours, 0ngnganlohsuh Thought. or 111eani A thief, ih kuh Mien" is used as the classifier for flat o bjt:cts. A drn111, ih Wind, I Rope, ih diau ih I ku:i.g Tsung is the classifier denoting idols or ca1rnon. A Bllddhist id0l, ih tsung piece of bread, ih khwe0 mende,1 ih tsung A Taoist. g,Hl or idol, ih tsung zung I A piece of meat, ih khwe0 Khoo is the classifier used with plants, trees, and flowers. A trel', ih khoo I A Chinese mile, }, J>laut,ih k.hoo hwo To regret, to be placed in an embannsCottou I sing position, EXERCISES (Translate into English) (1) kuha uh-sang0ts 0ngoo 'veh.hyui tslieli siang u. (2) seh-wo" kuh sieu-

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LESSONS IN THE flHMWHAI DIALECT 67 ,iang.lrn-seh. (3) 0tiau ti le (4) Tsa11t1i-kuh zuh kung zuug vok-la n0ts ( 5) hwo kuh ngnn suh 'man (6) 0li kh wung0 knh z-ih tsang ts-den peh foong tsh-theh tse. (8) nau-we-dzing knh. knli.(10) ia.u O 0li tsung boo-sah. nyung (12) O. (13) Soe zen khe kuh. (14) Zak-zen san kung tshing peh ih chub. (16) yien i-sung m-meh maung0-deu. (17) nyung nan man su veh (]9) Li-khe chi0 tse le,veh hyau0 -tub yi wanv e h zung le.

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68 LESSONS IN THE BHANGHAI DIALECT (Translate into Chinese) (1) The dog bit the sheep two or three times;perhaps it will die. (2) To-day there is no wind, and so it is not cold. (3) Men o.ught not to drink too much wine. (4) I have eaten a slice of meat and drunk a cup of tea, and now am able to Men can walk, only birds can fly. (6) There are many trees and flowers on the hill. (7) Many Chinese worship Buddhist and Taoist idols. (8) I wanted to follow you, but the teacher would not permit me. (9) Let me go and tell him that you have already returned. (10) I will use my knife and cut open this pear. (11) I heard the dogs barking in the night and so could not sleep. (] 2) Children like to play at beating the drum. (13) These flowers are of many different colours. (14) How many miles is it to Soochow? (15) When the pupils take an advanced lesson, the teacher should first explain it to them. NoTEil. (1) In the religion in China a Bnddba or one of his manifestat.ions is known as the bodbisattvas are known as Boo-sah. (2) .A. Chinese mile is abont one-third of an English mile. (3) In the sixteenth sentt>nce of the First Exercise notice the ex. pressiouman dzoong,very heavy.,This is the way the Chinese speak of a serious ill11<>ss. They also spt>ak of a disease being light, chung, jnst as we do. ( 4) In the eighteenth sentence of the First Exercise not very.,This is a very frequent expres sion. {5) In the sev~_nth of the First Exercise tshaung-J.:h e u means "ou the window sill.,

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LES50NS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 69 LESSON XIX Asking Questions, Expecting Negative and Answers In addition to the interrogative forms already given there are ways of asking questions when a negative, or when an affirmative answer is expected. Thus when the negative answer is expected, the clause begins with 0chi and ends with nyi sa0 yoong0 -deu nyi it of any use?It implies that it is not of any use and expects the negative answer. corresponds to the Latin num, and implies No, or a negative of the proposition conveyed. When the answer is expected the clause begins and ends with the usual interrogative va0 iung-ke Ought you not to do it?Implies that you ought to do it and expects the answer. It will be seen that in this case also the expects the negative of the proposition conveyed, that is, the negative of a negative proposition which is an affirmative. In other words the answer is,That you ought not to do it,'orYou ought ~o do it., VOCABULARY Every place or everywhere, kauh Of course, Until, wait until, Daily, nyih nyihdzok Abont., iaktsak About. 1liesame nee) t:;ho'veh 'l'r1H0, tsung jji{.. A long t.i1ne,

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70 LESSONS IN THE S:HANGHAI DIALECT Phih is the classifier denoting whole pieces of dry goods. A piece of cloth, ih phih A shirting, ih phih yang A piece of silk, ih phih A piece of sat.in, ih phih Vegetat .ic II in general, Oo:il, To add, ka :!Jo. To add a little, Holllst, A piece of laud, ih A piece of stone, ih To pawn, taung0-theh To mortgage, To change a dollar into A. ten cent piece, ih One cent, ih Twent.y kauh A half a dollar, Small Ricsha A ma1iy, EXERCISES (Translate into English) (]) 0thien me. (2) (3) 'Veh zm1g 0zoo toong-yang-tsho iung-ke tab tsbo-foo yi kauh. ( 4) I-kuh nyung 0i-kyung yi-kuh i-zaung. ah-theh tse. 'man chnh (8) Yi lau-zeh siang-sing0. (9) veh inng-ke va0? soe-zen zing-veb-dzak. (11) wo0, nyung (12) Nyih nyih dok su z0 kuh. 0 pung su nan-meh (14) pbih poo0 kuh ngan-suh tsho-'veh-too ih

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LF.ScONS IN THE DIALECT 71 kuh. (15) sa 0yoong" -dc-u (16) san (17) iau O (18) Yi dzang-0).oen-tse wanvel1 le. sien dok le z0.{20) nyung nyu11g hwen khoen (21) 0siau yang-dien sing too-hau0 0siau kauh-0ts 0z 0ka kuh.(22) van-nan (23) sub-veh-tsheh kuh. Chinese) (1) I do not know where the child has gone to ;I have looked for him everywhere and do not know where to find him. (2) Call the servant to come and add some coal. (3) I told the pupil to sit here until the teaeher returned. (4) I was 11early beaten to death by him. (5) Take this dollar and cl]ange it in to

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72 LESSONS IN 'l'HE SHANGHAI DIALECT ca.sh. (6) An honest man speaks true words. (7) I thought he was coming, but afterwards he wrote a letter to me and told me he could not. come. (8) The children have played for a long time and now they should go to sleep. (9) Can you say that you did not know this? (10) Is it. not good to do things so as to please others? (11) I had to walk here because I had no small so could not call a ricsha. (12) If he said he would do it, of course he will do it. (13) How many cash can you get for a dollar? (14) That man is not at all honest, and he has already pawned a lot of clothes which were not his own. (15) This man wears silk and satin;he must have a lot of money. NoTEB. (1) In the third sentence of the the meansto settle the price." Literally it to a fixed point. (2) In the sixteenth sentence of the First ExerciEe 0Soo is added after li for the sake of euphony. (3) In the twenty-third sentence of the First is used, This is always used of knowing characters in the Chinese Sometimes it in the Suh meaning "to understand affairs.,A man who does 11ot suh a stupid fellow,

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LESSONS JN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 73 LESSON XX More Verbal Idioms and are often used after the verb Lih to stand, and give the sense of "able to stand,'orunable to stand." Thus Lih-tuh-dzu0 means "able to standand Lili-'veh-dzu0 The same words are used after other verbs also. Thus we have -tuh-dzu0 meaningWorthy to be trusted ,and meaning Unworthy to be trusted. Tuh-koo0 is also used after verbs, and Veh-koo0 Thus we have meaning Able to beat him.Literally obtain veh-koo0 meansUnable to beat him." Literally Beat, not surpass., The expressions l-tuh-koo0 and 1-,veh-koo0 are also idiomatic. The former means,Within the range of pity ;,the latter Beyond the range of pityor greatly to be commiserated., VOCABULARY Year, To steal, To A Lit. "To beg To marry a Lit.To beg for a wife." See note. To tie (as a small To bind with a To command, Price, ka 0dien Most frequently used in the market. How much is what is the price? Sa0 sa0aung dzing? A soldier, ih kuh I A thief, A robber, ih

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74 LESSONS :,iH1'GHAI DIALECT A ma::istrat e or rr,,mdrin, ih kuh J A Buddhi H t priest, ih kuh i'h kuh ih we0 as I A Taoist kuh classifi er. I Mandarin I A nun, ih kuh I is the classifier used for sheets of things. A newsp a p er ih tsang I A sheet of A pro cla111atio11, ih tsang is the classifier used for bales of things. A bale of merchaudize, ih pau 1e is the classifier used for piles of things. A pile of ti111 l>er, ih te A pile of bricks, ih te is the classifier for tubular things. A flute, A pen, A pencil, khan-pih Green, Blue, Ian~Yellow, Black, More More than a hundred me11 ih pak 'veh 'veh A sniall q11antity ( used after the verl>) m,~ Tea, Tea leaf, The whole of a A man or two, About (used with a About a hundred, Nearly, three miles, mau san Ii-looo A queue, ih Hair on the !wad, deufah News, take t l ,in .~s by To tie To pnt forth a proclamation, tsheb

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALEC'f 75 EXERCISES (Translate into (1) I-kuh zuh dzang-tsaung le theu meh singkwen0foo 0i-kyung tsbeh tsha pillg-ting (3) peh yi 0tai1g, ( 4) la0 boo~sah. (5) Noong0 iau0 'auh 0 lie deu-fah, kub. (7) 'veh tse, kyung-tsau (8) ih dien? (9) soe0 tse? Lok (10) ih te lok-tsen vanng-0ts. (11) tsh dil1. (12) ih pih? (13) Yi 0-I (14) San 0lau waung 0lau kuh. k ,k: nyung 0sia (16) 0Zaung-0he (17) van kuh chub sa, chub. (18) Di0 kuh pan Lan zeh ke0 (20) tshih 0lau pah soo0(21) tsheh

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76 IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT (Translate into Chinese) (1) If you do not read the newspaper, you will not know the news, and then, when you converse with others, you will have nothing to say. (2) When a man dies the Chinese invite Buddhist and Taoist priests to the hom;e to perform funeral ceremonies. (3) I put my pen and pencil on my writing tQ.b!e, but now I cannot find them;has any one been in and taken them? (4) do yon think is the pleasanter to listen to, mandarin or the Shanghai dialect? (5) When I was young I liked very much to play the flute. (6) A thief enters secretly and steals things, a robber kills enters and takes things by force. (7) Chinese are called yellow men, foreigners white men. (8) When you go to the shop, ask the price of the boots, and come and tell me. (9) I caught that thief and bound him to the tree. (l 0) If you use a foreign pen to write Chinese :iharacters, they do not look well ;you must learn to use a Chinese pen. (11) The beggars in the city are numberless.

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IN THE SHANGHAI DIALEC'f 77 (12) When the Mandarin has't,important things to announce to tlrn people, he puts forth a prdclamation. (13) I saw more than a thousand soldiers. (14) The merchant bought more than five hundred chests of tea. three hundred dollars sufficient to buy the house? Less than three hundred will do. NoTJB. (1) To marry a wife is expressed When we speak a woman being married we use the expression literally to go forth from the house or family The woman leaves her own family entirely and joins ,.H~e family of the husband whom she marries. (2) The more than, less than, are used in answer to wordsVeh are often used for less than, rneuniug literally 'Not fnll. (3) In the second sentence o[the Second Exerciseto perform funeral ceremonies,should be translated Of Nyan-k.yung It means to say masst>s for the wul oi the departed. (4) In the thirteenth sentence of the Second Exercise, ''More than a thonrnnd soldiers" can be expresstd Ih tshien and in the fourteentl1 than five hundred chts of 1mk too

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78 U:SSO:-IS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT (5) In the fifteenth sentence of the Second Exercise the answer would siau srm pak lch (6) ln the fifth sentence of the I was is trauslated Nien kuh z-'eu0 literally ''The time wh,m m were light." (7) In the eleventh senteuce of ti1t Second translated literally Without numLer., LESSON XXI Verbal Idioms, Ordinals, and Remarks on the Expression of Time To express the idea of 'about to do a thing,in Chinese you can use the words tsiang-iau0 Thus means about to go." means "about to die. ,Another way of expressiug 1]1e :::nrne idea is by adding khwa0 tse after the verb. fast.,Chi0 khwa0 tse meansI will go fast,p that is, iu a mo111e11 t. Le khwa' tse means""i 1J come fast, that is, in a few rniuules. is ofteu used, "just on the point of doi11g a thih-0 tsung meansI was just going." The expressionAccording "as it seems to me,'is expressed in Chinese by tlie words khoen used alone would mean '' Follow 1ne,)) my example.'' The O .rdinals are formed from the Numerals in a very simple way. Tlie word deu is before the first numeral anJ di0 before all the others. Thus "the first" is deu ih the Hecond is tlie tl1ird is and so on. used with tlie YerL iu of the action being prior to sorne other actiou the siln is u,;ed. Tlrns we haYe zung tsheh zien-

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J,!sSSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALIWT 79 sien Before you go, I first want to tell yon Sien tsoo0 tsoo0 meansFirst do this, do Again we have for the same expression Sien tsoo0 man '' First slowly do that., REMARKS ON TIME About midnight, Jnst before daylight, tieng-liangIn the waunghwung-doong Last month, zien kuh Next kuh First part of t.he month, nyoeh The end of the month, The middle of the month, nyoeh-pen JJ Every month, nyoeh-too First day of the month, -;second day of the month, tshoo so on np to the tenth day of the is tshoozeh After that nsed in stead of tshoo. Thns the thirteenth of t.hP. month wonlil be A year, Half a rear, This year, Last Next yeH, Every ye;lr, (See notP.) The new year, N e w year's day, The e11d of the year, nyien literally the night o{the year," Also we lrnye At the year, nyien To pass from the old year to the new, nse,l 'll'itb year, month, and just a they are met! with
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80 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI EXERCISES (Translate into English) (l) khwa0 iau O me (3) nyung 0z kuh. nyih-deu t8heh le, san. (5) deu ih kuh tsheh mung t.se. (6) Nyim t.shoo ih (7) kyung nyien jang tse. (8) (9) tse? Pihnyien. (10) Nyien ya0 nyung sing-nyien i O nyung (11) Yi nyung le 'veh hyih, sien-sang ..-(13) kuh kuh iau0 tsheh mung, tau0 chi0 (15) kyung-nyien su dok le man -nyien ih (17) I-zak khe(18) Lok nyoeh ih foong tshih nyoeh tshoo-ih wanveh zung 0yeu (19) zung tsheh (20) Nyoeh den doong-dien, peh kuh.

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 8i (Translate into Chinese) (1) We will close the school on the fifth of next month. (2) For how many weeks will you close the school? For about six weeks. (3) Sometimes in the evening as the sun is sinking there are many beautiful colours in the sky. (4) As it appears to me you this book in six months. (5) Just as I was about to go to sleep, I heard some one call out that the house was on fire. (6) The thief enters about midnight. (7) Before you go to school you should first wash your face and hands. (8) On the first day of the year all the shops close their doors. (9) When will you begin to study Chinese again? I think next year. (10) A year has twelve months, a month has thirty days or twentynine days. If it has thirty days, it is called a large month;if it has twenty-nine days, it is called a small month. month I was sick, but now I am better (12) Where were you yesterday afternoon? I had gone out to pay New Years calls. (13) At New Years time every one wears their best clothes. (14) Now I have no money;I will pay you at the end of the month.

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82 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT NOTES. (1) In regard to the expressions Nyien-nyien and Nyoeh-nyoeh it may be 1emarked that a very common w a y of fonni11g the plural in Chinese is by the repetition of the noun. Thus means men in genernl. (2) In the sentence of the First Exercise the expression meansto pay respects at New Years worship, is used of worshipping deities, and also of worshipping or payiug respect to men. (3) In the fifth of the Second Exercise the expression for a house to be on fire tse ( 4) In the eighth sentence of the Secoud EXl'l'< the shops,is tien zen ; tlie z,n makes the more emphatic. LESSON XXII On Comparison The usual way of forming the Comparative Degree of Adjectives has already been stated. two things are compared with one another in Chinese the words 0:t) are used between them. Thus doo0 means,the horse is larger than the dog. he is better than you., There are a good many other ways of expressing comparison. Thus Veh jih means,not equal to.,Also we have Veh zu meaning,not equal to,ornot up to.,

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LF:SSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 83 VOCABULARY 'l'o pres e11t or send, to escort a person Oil tile To c<)UUI,1'o reeko11, T ) send (a perno.i), To send a letter, To deport oneself, to treat others, Tu treat '.L'o kvep, To knock the head Oil the to kow-to\\, A loaf, ih kuh A sto11e-nrnson, ih kuh A hammer, ih kuh A .wine shop, ih ban Te0 is the classifier denoting a pair or a brace. A pair of te0 f A husband and wife, ih A pair 0 te0 l is the for some articles of furniture, and for a well. A hook case, C o11venient, Clever, Pro1}rietJ',cn~tom, Coffin, To compar lt. An HCCOllllt, EXERCISES into English) (1) nyung (2) (3) 0-tsheh (4) 'veh byil1. (5) Yi tlzallg'man 011goo iau0 yi. (6) Su-dzu 'J

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84 LESSONS IN THJ.c SHANGHAI DIALECT (7) Khak nyung tsheh iung-ke t.au0 (8) kwen-ze (9) kuh (10) Di0-knh 0tien. (11) Di0-kuh ih khoen, ih ngan m-1neh doo0 (12) I-kuh.liang kuh nyung (13) bien kuh nyoeh. (14) ih te0 ih nganveh (15) nyung jih i-kuh (16) kuh in11g-ke kheh-deu. nyung chuh Yan kuh zung-kwaung chuh men-den. (]8) nyung ih veh zmig dok liyih su. (19) Sien-sang dzang-tsaung k we0 kyui. (20) 'Veh nyung.

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IESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 85 (Translate into Chinese) (1) The Chinese use rice to make wine. (2) This man treats his servants very well. (3) According to Chinese custom before a man dies his coffin is made. ( 4) If I wish you to come, I will send you a letter. (5) To take the child along with us will not be convenient. (6) He is older than yon. (7) The stonemason uses stones, tlie carpenter uses wood. (8) I pay my bills at the end of the month. (9) He and I have had a quarrel because he treated me rudely. (10) the carpenter to come and make a bookcase. (11) I have forgotten so many characters, it is as if I had not read this book before. (12) A scholar is wiser than a farmer. (13) If a man takes too much wine he can not do bis work. (14) My friend came to visit me, and then I escorted him to his borne. (15) This book I will present to you;do not return it. NOTES. ( 1) In the of the First Exer ci~e 11otice the of Soo11go meansa few t .}d 11g~., (2) Int.he of the Fir s t mean s "very mnch {3) In the sixt P elllh sentence of the Fir s t Ex ercise the expression deu refers to th e most formal salute of tlie 01,inPse. It is us, d by an infl rior lwfore a snperior. polite salntnt.io11 is to clasp the and m tliem t.J,e feet to the Thi~ ia called ( ft;

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86 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT (1) In the nineteenth sentence of the First Exercise we have the ex. pression This is very freqnently used. It meane to act accordi11g to the laws of propriety. It is a command frequently given to children. LESSON XXIII The Points of the Compass The four cardinal points of the compass in Chinese are expressed: Toong, nen, si, pok North. Thus it will Le seen that the Chinese do not follow the same order as we. North East is Toong-pok lit. East North. North 'West is Si-pok lit. West North. South East is Toong-nen, and South West is Si-nen The word J?ien is generally added when direction or place is indicated. Thus we have for the North Pok-pien, for the West Si-pien. Pien literally meansside,'' and is a shortened form of pien-deu In giving directions as to locality, the Chinese make very frequent use of the points of the compass. If you wish a :person to go towards the North you say pok the North., VOCABULARY To break, smash, T begel to sang '1'0 lose, to forfeit seh.theh T,> attend to matters, to direct, A To To point with the hand, To To hinder, To;,nswer, To exchange, to barter, To attend to a make ii. right,

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 87 To distinguish, fungpih I CooliP, A lmh A dnck, ih tsak }.:r]. ~ A broom, Wage~, ih diau Sal,.ry, A stick of bamboo, ih kung tsokdeu I I Glass, Ra I A glass (for the ih tsak poo.Ii / To rain, lauh I is the classifier for casks, tubs, and buckets. A bucket of water, Bing is the classifier for botties. A bottle of medicine, ih bing yak is Lhe classifier for boxes of things. A box of dollars, ih siang yangdien I I Thin, A box of te,ih siang Iustead Tired, Square, I Toget her with (two persons doing a Round, Little ( to a small extent), To get wet; lingsak I EXERCISES (Translate into English) (1) Tsoong-kok tsok-deu (2) 0ts yi san we, yi ih we-deu. (3) too-hau0 kyi 0lau ah. (4) (5) 0tien chuh-ts kyungtsau 0tien. (6) Nyih-deu too11g-pien si-pien lauh. (7) 0lau nen-pien noP n ka saung-liang (9)

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88 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI bok kuh, (10) kuh z0-0thi meh, yi. (11) seh-theh-ts ih tsak zing yi. (12) Sien-sang sok-sieu? khwe 0yang-dien ih nyoeh. (13) Noong-0kuh 0kyiih nyoeh? Zeh ih nyoeh. (14) Toong-pok foong ih 0ting san ling-sak, (16) Zauh-nyih kyung sa-doo. peh yi khoen ih diau zo. (18) kwen0foo 'veb (19) tbih-tsung (20) nyung seh-theh0ts yi-kuh dzang-yoen kuh (21) tsak faung kuh, yoen-kuh. (22) Tsheb-tien le ih 0po (23) thuh bok chi0 kuh. (24) le (25) khe, (26) Yi-kuh fung-pih. (27) kuh nyung dzang-tsaung meh

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 89 (Translate into Chinese) (1) Is there any answer? Yes, please wait until I write it. (2) The cold wind blows from the North;you ought to wear more clothes (3) The scholar was unable to answer what the teacher asked him. ( 4) I want to consult with you on an important matter. (5) When it rains the children cannot go out to play (6) I have a fan, you have a knife, I want a knife, you want a fan, let us exchange. (7) I killed the snake with a stick. (8) Tell the compradore what you want to buy and he can buy it for you (9) I have lost my watch and am willing to give five dollars to the man who finds it and returns it to me. (10) My salary is not must ask you to increase it. (11) This coolie wipes and sweeps very clean. (12) I pointed out the river to him on tbe map. (13) I cannot go away until I have arranged this matter. (14) I could diligently to-day because I was too tired. (15) How many bottles of medicine have you taken? I have already finished three.

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90 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT NoTEs. (1) Those learning to speak Chinese must be careful never to refer to the remuneration given to their bnt polite form of speech, sok-sieu or Sok-sieu means literally "dried meatand com e s from the anci ent custom of paying a teacher in kind. The te>acher himself could refer to as sing0-soe and Bok refer to things. In speaking of a person b e i i:g thin we use the word and of fat, t..he word tsaung0 (3) The fourth sentence of the First Exercise is the usual salutation do you do?Does it go well with you? Ti,e answer is also the usual one. (4) In the ni11th sentence of the Second Exercise meansto be willing ., (5) In the seventh sentence of the.First Exercise means "warm, (6) In the ele1enth sentence of the First Exrcis e rnea11s~hephenl,Literally (7) In the eentence of the First ExerciE e the word v e ry wide mea11ing. TIH're is m1ytl1i11g in China cannot that is,put to rights.' LESSON XXIV Some Remarks on Gender As already in Chinese do not change their ?arm t.o indicate g ender. Sometimes, however, words indicating are placed before them. Nen and female," are used with human beings in this way. Thus \\"e haye Nen-nyung for manand

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Ll
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92 LESsn:s;s IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT Happines8, Slippery, Hard, Smooth, Roogh, Good Wicked, F;erce, Clear, tshing Muddy, Level, Light (opposite of dark), liang0 Dark, At last (in the end), EXERCISES (Translate into English) (1) (2) S0. toong. ih kuh 0dzoe, Yi wo0veh iau0 (4) sang-i, ih nyien (5) Nyieu tshoo ih, nyung iung-ke 0hyi, fah-dze. (6) Nyung kuh (7) nyung iau0 dzo-dzak nyung (8) Ya O then (9) Tsoong-kok sak le sen kuh, mung0 yoong .. yak-dz le 0soo kuh. la O chi0 (11) Yoong tiau tsh tiau 'veh (12) Tsh yoong ka hyoong. (13) Di0-knh san kuh ih (14) meh (16) ih kaus0 dzung leu. (17) Di0-diau bing, van-nan.tseu kuh. (18) Tshing chub chub. (19) men-deu

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 93 kuh. (20) nyung ih ding0 tnh-dzak (Translate into Chinese) (1) In the gar
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94 LESSONS IN THE SHAl\GHAI DIALECT life. (13) This man is very fierce;he is always .fighting. (14) At the end of the year, all the scholars in the college 1nust be examined. (15) I have lost my key and cannot open my box. (Hi) I think you have not lost it, but you have hidckoned right,should be translated te kuh meansnot in agreement.

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 95 LESSON XXV Weights and Measures The following three Tables are very commor}ly need in and the speaker of the language ehould be familiar wiLh them. MEASURE OF WEIGHT One One catty ( 16 ounces), ih One picul (100 MEASURE OF DISTANCE 1/ J 0th b..t an One inch, ih One foot (ten inches in Chinese measure), ih Ten MEASURE OF A REA One square foot, ih faung One one sixth of an acre). CURRENCY Until recently, aside from copper cash, the Chinese had no regular system of currency. An ounce of silver was taken as a standard. The following Table is based upon An ounce of silver, 1/lOth of an ounce, ih 1/ 10th of a dzien, ih 1/lOth of a fung, ih 1/lOLh of a

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96 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALEO'f VOCABULARY To expound, explain, To To exhort, To gather, as fruit or To boil, in regard to water), or 0kwung To weigh, To measure, To carry in arms like a To carry a load (one man, with load suspended on two ends of a bamboo), To carry a load (load suspended on a bamboo pole between two men), To carry a load on the back, To carry a load on the shoulder, jien To carry a load in one hand, A tiger, ih A. dish, ih tsak dzang A saucer, ih tsak dzo A wine A cooking stove, ih tsak (foreign 0de.n (Chinese), Gold, Silver, Tin, Brass, Lead, khan A railroad carriage, ih boo 0hootsho A steam boat, ih A pair of spectacles, ih A set of tools or instruments, ih foo0 A cannon, ih tsung Cotton, Cotton stalks, Cotton (already ginned), mienhwo A plant of wheat, ih khoo A plant of rice, ih khoo Dishes of vegetables and meat on the table for ih tsak kyien A bag, ih tsak Back, ih khwe0 Soil, mud, Poor man, Rich man, Kwhung is the classifier denoting bundles of things. A bundle of fuel, hung Among, All (collective), Still, yet, I

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 97 EXERCISES (Translate into English) (1) (2) Khoen kuh nyung mel~ iung-ke choen-'ooyi-la. (3) liangsan tshak khweh. (4) beh sian (5) 0liang tsak siang0ts ih kuh nyung thiauiung-ke kaung kuh. (6) Kyung, nyung, doong;, thih, sih, Tsoong-kok nyung k yung. (7) dien-nyung hwo. (8) kyung taung-tsoong kuh tsoo0 kuh. O ih0kwung. (11) Dze0t su-nyung tsak dzeu O joongnyung tsak poo0. (12) thing. (13) Dih 0mi tshung-tshung kboen (14) Di0 kbwe0 iak-tsak 0yeu Tsoong kok pho0 (16) noen (17) Nyok (18) vauug-0ts (19) kuh yang-dien khan kuh. (20) wan 0tsieu pe. (21) 0i ling ih kung mokjien meh nyien zien-deu, Tsoong-kok 0hoo-lung-zen, zen yeu-kuh. (23) Tsau-zungthing-tub ping-ting faung0 (24)

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98 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALEC'l' m-meh sn.n (25) (Tran s late into Chinese) (1) The Chinese make most of their clothing out of cotton. (2) Among the pupils this one is the brighte st. (3) I will tell you a wonderful thing: two men fighting, and a woman came and exhorted them to peace. (4) Amollg the metals, gold is the most precious. (5) The dollars used in Cliina are made of silver. (6) How many men will it take to carry the stove? (7) I think four men can carry it. (8) How much ought the ricsha coolie? (9) I think thirty CE,nts is (10) There are still many mell' in Shanghai who have never been in a raiiway carriage. (11) l\lost of the Chinese scholars wear

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 9 spectacles. ( 12) I have been gathering apples and peaches in garden. (13) The carpenter has not brought his tools, nnd so can do no work. (14) A Chinese foot has ten inches, a foreign foot has twelve. (15) In China, wood and rice and cotton stalks are used as fuel. No1Es. (1) 1n the fifth of the First Exercise m e ans '' to car ry. (2) In the sixth sentence of the First is generally pronounced kyung, as it is a vur,.g-li expression, (3) In the ninth sentence of the First means "near-sighted., (4) In the thirteenth sentence of the First Exercise notice buy rice,is not (5) In the ninth s entence of the Second Exerc;ice "sufficient" may be LESSON XXVI Family Relations The relations in Chinese are exceedingly complex. Here only the simplest will be given. To be able to tbe complicated ramifications will take a long time, and can 01ily be learnt by long experience.

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100 LESSONS IN THE SHANGITAI DIALECT It must be noted that words are t1sed when one speaks of his own relations from what are used when another person is referring to them. In the latter case more polite language is em ployed. Thus the following words for father ,are used : If you yourself are speaking of your father, you might call him or or tshing or Other peop]e would refer to your father if they were polite as honorable great man,p Ling0tsung Children often call their father or or So in regard to mother. If you speak of her you say or or O Moo-tshing or Kyadz If you speak of the mother of another person you may say Ling0 Brother is as to whether you refer to an older or a younger one. An older is Ak-koo A younger Brothers (plural) hyoong or A familiar term for a younger brother is O An older sister is A younger sister is Me0-me0 0 Tsi-me0 me:rns sister or sisters. In referring to a son a father would call him Nyi-0ts would refer to your son by saying Ling0 -laung In speaking of one's own daughter you would would refer to her as Tshien-kyung Lit. '' A thousand catties of gold," or Ling0-e0 VOCABULARY To love, I To To love reciprocally, I To be

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 101 To A kheTo repair, To take hold of, to grasp, To receive or To 0zeu. To hand, to deliver in person, To save, be To save To waste, to be extravagant, To seal officially, or to seal an to deify ;to exalt to a high station, To rely entrust, thauh ;f-1;. A battery or a fort, ih kuh A deer ih tsak To A hare, ih tsak A fox,ih tsak A wolf, ih tsak za-laung i s; A squirrel, ih tsak A weasel, ih teik A pheasant, ih tsak A goose, ih tsak ngoo A set of dice, ih To gamble with doong-dien To gamble w ith dice, zak deu0-0ts A set of foo0 To gamble \\ith dominoes; Again, Medic ine, Tobacco, A gun, Lit. Fiery medicine. Tide flowing Tide comin g in, ( Firmly, lau $. As, (collective), EXERCISES (Translate English) (1) yang-tshiang san tsak lok ih tsak 0bang-dzak-0ts ih kuh nyung la ih (3) zak thok 0bau. ( 4) phau O -de tsung (5) waung-laung theu 0z watmg-laung nyi 'oo-]j, kyung-

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102 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT yi le 0Jau yoong0 sab yi. ban-den zen-0ts 0tien sa O (7) Di O -foong sing0 ia 0bau (8) Seu-tsauh den, zak-zen tse (9) Too too chub saung (10) Di0-knh0 tuh-juh, chuh (11) 0i doong-dien. (12) sizeh-dze k thauh noong? tsaung zung (14) saung koong-foo, (15) hyoong iungke da-ka siang-e0, veh siang (16) O. (17) Ya tsheh rnung, pih koo0 ak-koo ih kuh zen? Laub0s khe. (20) 'man chuh yang. (21) ih pe yak chub. (22) kuh 0siau-iloen.

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 103 (Translate into Chinese) (1) You should do to others as you would they should co to you. (2) If we do not call the carpenter and mason to repair this house, we shall not be able to Ii ve in it. (3) I began I considered the study of Chinese very difficult;now I consider it easier. ( 4) The younger brother should listen to words. (5) You should love others as yourself. (6) On the other side of the river there are many forts (7) This mnn wastes his money in drinking wine. (8) Where did you get the money to buy these clothes? I saved it from my wages. (9) The deer can run faster than the dog, but gets tired sooner. (10) The father is head of the house. (11) Hand this bowl of tea to the guest. (12) I trust to you to help me do the work. (13) The fox comes at night to steal chickens. (14) Pheasants are fine birds to look at and are very good to eat. (15) Geese and like to remain in the water. (16) The older sister takes care of her little sister. (17) Take hold of it firmly in your band and do not let it fall on the ground. (18) According to what Chinese say, to become a good man you rnuf't repair your heart.

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104 LESsONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT NoTES. (I) Iu the sixth sentence of the First Exercise notice the expression "to make a small present., (2) In the eighth sentence of the First Exercise notice the expression Lit. 'again late;,the idea is if we wait any longer., (8}In the fourteenth sentence of the First Exercise notice the expres 0hau Lit.Follow my saying then good., (4) In sentence of the Second Exercise the sentence wonld be tnrne{I round in Chinese, 1111d we wonld say, iung-ke 0de bih nyu11g LESSON XXVII Compound Verbs By compound verbs we mean those made up of more than one verb. As we have already seen, Chines~ words having a distinct meaning when used by themselves also form part of larger compound words. This is true especially of verbs. A good example is the verb to strike. It enters into combination with many other words to form verbs. Thus: To fight a To attack an enemy,

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 105 To gain a To suffer a To To make To fool with one To injure by To To dress in a showy VOCABULARY To collect, to receive payment, To collect accounts, To receive payment for a lease, seu. To be imprisoned, To build a wall, tshi0 or tshi0 To build a partition, tshi0 To mend a path, tshi0 To be To prosecute at To cut with a sharp knife, To cut in two, cut with sword, or heavy k11i[e or axe, To split, To saw, To boil, To broil, To smoke (meat), To bake, To sew, to stitch, To take a stitch, ling-ih tsung mea118 needle). To iron, to burn, To brush, To rise (as t.l1e tide), To fall, Dut.y, Rnmour~. Receipt, seudiau A bell, Piles (snch as are driven into the gronnd), Tide, dzau kuh JapanesP, Pain, Wheat, Miserable, A biscuit, ih kuh '1f. A grate, ih kuh A sparrow, ih tsak mo-tshiak

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l06 LKSSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALEC'f ~ .swallow, ih tsak I A sheet, ih diau j Unripe or raw, i\.n ax, I Ripe, Also nse d in of I being thoroughly cooked. I ih tsak / Face or Spread out. than EXERCISES (Translate into English) (1) trnn;heh kh00 (2) ka ih ngan veh bi1ig, au0 (3) zung-kwaung, Toong-yang-nytrng Ngoo-kok-nyung (4) tau ~oeh kuh ming-vung0 'Ii sau ruh (6) I-zaung koen nan-meh (7) La O ka ri-la ih kuh zuk, han-deu ieu-kan. (8) le ih ngan veh liang0. (9) Khan-0ts kuhallh sien-sang le,veh (10) ziang meh sien tsaung. (11) Dzau neh zieu O zen 'ang ding. (12) rnh mok-za le phih-khe-le. (13) 0ts yang-dien peh seu-diau (14) rnh le thuh sang, (15) Kyung-tsau 'yeu khak-nyung le, iau0 kyi-dan thah'ping. (16) Peh bih meh ting (17) kuh mak

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 107 u meh? '\Van 'veh zung dzang-lsaung (18) Iau0 nyung 0zau di O -ku}>yau-yien. (19) kuh rneu-deu tan tau" O hoo-khaung0 pien-deu (20) Kyau0 mok "ka-khe mok-deu. (21) ih ih tsak (22) Mo-tshiak "lau chub, chuh kuh. (23) than laung0. (24) Ng meh tan le chub chuh khoen. (25) I-kuh nyung koongdih.'veh-dzue yi, peh (26) kuh

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108 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT (Translate into Chinese) (1) In cold countries the swallows fly away in the winter and return in the spring. (2) To have a lawsuit is a miserable for you must use up much money. (3) My clothes were very I told my servant to brush them well. ( 4) In the summer when it is warm you do not need a quilt, but in the winter you do. (5) The mandarin gave robber's head. (6) Some wicked people do not fear shame. (7) Has the school bell rung? If so I am late. (8) the matter with your foot? It was scalded by hot water. (9) When the tide rises the boat can travel very fast. (10) In front of my house I want to erect a fence. (11) coal in the grate;probably to-night I shall want to light a fire. (12) When you have split the fuel, tie it up in a bundle. (13) At the beginning the boys were only fooling, but afterwards they began and one of them was hurt. (14) A hammer, a saw, a plane, and a file are useful implements. (15) These pears and apples are unripe ;if you eat them you will becouie ill. (16) At the end of the month the man goes out to collect his accounts. (17) Every one should do his duty.

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 109 Norns. ( l) In the ninth sentence of the First Exercise, notice the expression sit quiet. (2) In the ele venth s entence of the Fir s t ixercise Khe zen means to start the boat." Literally it is "to open the the same sentence meausslack water., (3) In the eightee:h sentence of the First Exercise zau-yau-yien m e ans a rumor., ( 4) In the sentence of the First Exercise meansunable to oppose., (5) In tbe t:ifth sentence of the Second Exercise,to cut off the robbers headis kuh deu (6) In the ninth s e ntence of the Second Exercise ''to travel" is (7) In the tenth sentence of the Second erect a fence,'is LESSON XXVIII Abstract Nouns formed from two Adjectives of opposite meaning Very often two adjectives of opposite meaning are joined to form an abstract noun of quality. Nat'urally the Chinese language is defective in abstract nouns, and their lack is partially supplied in this way. Thus "Muchlittlemeans,quantity. Thick-thin,meansthickness.,Khweh-~ah narrowmeansbreadth.'' 0 '' Deep-shallow,, means "depth." Chung-0 dzoong means "weight." Tshoo-si0 texture,(of cloth).

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110 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALEC'l' Verbs are also used in much the same way. Thus we have "Corne-go," Leback and forth.,It generally occurs as sell meansb 11si11es5., VOCABULARY To To forgive, khwen To comfort, To sharpen, To drive To cl'iticize, phi To To To a To string (as casl}) To thread To shmder, To stay with a person, To nurse, To crawl, To climb, bo ~. To jump, to leap, To reject, the To feel, to touch, To hoist (as a sail or flag), To mu ( as water), To t11rn over, To upset (as water), To tnrn round, ,. zien-0 tsen le To manage, To prny, To offer prayer, To repent, To regret, A crow, ih A hawk, ih tsak 0lau A bn rterfly, ih A pair of So n fl(. A screen, ih sen A sail, ih sen A gong, ih mien Flour, Ji. Milk, Sugar, EXERCISES (Translate into (1) (2) Di 0. tsak oen, lrnn

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LgssONS IN THE SHA:SGHAI DIALE;J'f 111 khweh-'ah. (3) ih thEh di0 tsang ih (4) Thircn-bing 0z kuh tshung meh-z0 kuh ui mien-zien jeu yi sang nyang 'veh li-khe ng pie11-dt u su yi (7) 'Veh phi-bing bih nyung, keh-meh bih nyung kuh phi-bing. (8) bih nyung be 0ngoo chi0. (9) tau ih nganveh (10) daung, (11) Thah (12)Auh-sang-0ts bih nyung yi, sien-sang khok,lau oen-we0 yi. yi meh, yi zieu0 le (14) ih tsaung z0-0thi sa0 nyung kuh. (15) Bo 'veh O tih tili rnung. (16} noen. (17) 'fsha boong meh, zen 'angle khwa0. 'veh (19) Dzang-z 'lau-it:rng dzoong thien kyi. (20) (21) Ping-ting kyungloo. (22) zak-deu dzoong 'au-le.

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112 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT (Translate into Chinese) (1) These two men constantly have intercourse with one another. (2) The servant did not take cnre, and so upset a bucket of water. (3) Butterflies are very pretty, and children like to catch them. ( 4) Children before they learn to walk can first crawl on the ground. (5) If a man wants to be forgiven he should first repent. (6) What is the depth of this creek? (7) If you wish to know the texture of the cloth, you must feel it with your hand. (8) If you do not wear you are old, you will be unable to thread your 11eedle. (9) I drove away because he followed after me calling out. (10) What is the distance between the sun and t l1e earth? About ninety two millions of miles. (11) The cat. cl im Led up the tree and the dog could not catch it. (12) The little girl has no time to study, because her mother is sick, and she mus t stay at home and nurse her. (13) The water flows down from the top of the hill. (14) I I told him, because he ,rent and told every one, an
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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 113 No'l'Es. (1) In the seventh sentence of tbe First Exercise notice how phi-bing is used both as a uou n and as a verb. (2) In the of the First Exercise Zok which means ripe,of fruit, also meanswell-known." It also has the meaning of the expression dok-zok meaning "to read thoroughly., (3) In of ti>e deu the and the This in Cl>inese. Verbs are broken up in (4) fifteenth sentence of the First meanssafe., LESSON XXIX Some Useful Phrases As will be seen from the lessons already gone over, Chinese is very largely composed of idiomatic phrases. The only way to become acquainted with these phrases is by the constant hearing of the spoken language. shall introduce in this lesson a few useful phrases and show how they occur in sentences. All Lit.One lire, one world." "To run Lit.Run come, run go.,To Lit.To stand still the will.,

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114 IN THE SHANGHAI Good-bye Lit. '' We will meet lateror Tse0 -we0 Lit.I will see you The ordinary way of sayinggood-bye,when you have been to call on a person is to say Lit.I am host will say meaning Go slowly., The expression would meanI will see you in a day or or 'Eh-thien. 'au Lit.Beneath the whole of heaven., Useless, in vainis dispensa ble '' tuh VOCABULARY If it be zeh By At the point For the most part, generally, Suddenly, Instantaneous, toongka Heavenly Lord (a term used for God), Thi God, Omnipotent, Omnipresent, Life, A dragon, ih diau An account-book, tsang0 A small blank book, To A diau is the classifier for sets of books. A set of books, A flag, ih Angry, Still, Drowned, Sign, A mirror, th mien

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THE DIALECT EXERCISES (Translate into English) 115 (1) te0 yi wo", yi dzung thing. (3) Sien-sang tsiang te0 te0 yi wo0, (4) iung-ke 0tshoong kuh (5) (6) Nyung mien -khoong meh, ih (7) 0yeu (8) ba.u-le-tsauh dzak kuh. (9) (10) zeh~ (11) 'A uh-sa1}g kuh (]2) I-kuh nyung ih kuh nyung]e thoo yi clii0-le. (J3) u-lrn-eh-zen doo0 foong le. (14) J -Da"-iak 0yeu san pak kuh. (16) Tsoongkok khoen (17) Di O -kub auh goo di0-diau (19) Noong0 foo0 -tsheh iau0 (20) Di0-kuh a

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116 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT (Translate into Chinese) (1) The man is very sick, even at the point of death. (2) One should think not only of bow to get profit for oneself, but how to give advantage to others. (3) In the evening the master gave the servants their wages. ( 4) I think that he me purposely, and therefore I am angry. (5) A student should learn not only while in school, but should be learning all his life. (6) I saw a dragon come up suddenly out of the water. (7) Truly all men under heaven are brethren, and ought to Jove one another. (8) A business man can see from his account book how much he has gained in his business or how much he has lost. (9) If you really ran very fast, how is it that you did not arrive sooner? (10) I have looked over this book in a general way, but I have not read it carefully. (11) If you wish to repent and become a good man, the first thing is to make up your own mind. (12) I knew the 'boat was a Chinese one, because they hoisted the Chinese flag. (13) A man's life is most precious, so he ought to take care of his body. (14) When I bad finished this work I found he had already done the same thing, and so I had wasted my time to no purpose. (15) The children like to run about and play in the garden.

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 117 N Ol'E ,. ( 1) is the term used for God by the Romanists aud by some The other terms used for God are Zung Lit. a Lit.The Celestial Ruler., (2) ln the fourteenth sentence oi the Second Exercise for to no can the b(tk can be nserl with the verb. Thus we can say B ale fi0-theh Bak is often used in this way with VPrbs. '.l'hn, to do in think in vain, to 110 purpose," etc. (3) In the eleventh sentence of the First Exercise Wan-z be translatedor., LESSON XXX More Useful Words and Phrases In the precediug lessous emphasis has been laid upon idiom nu
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118 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT Bedding, Cilarcoal, Cl.~imney, Post (Foreign) yeu Cook, (head) Cook, (ordinary) sauvankuh Dust, Coal, (hard) Coal, (soft) Farmer, Fresh, (of meat or fish) Hospital, Kettle, (copper) Marks or signs, Mistake, not correct, Relative, (family) Salt, (adj.) Trousers, da0 izaungkuh Postage stamp, I EXERCISES (Translate into English) (1) foong nyi 'veh iau tshehfoong. ung Jaung0. (3) san pak 'aung 0li. (4) sau-ts ien me. (5) kuh thaung thuh an, sau yien. i(7) thiau tshe ~-~q9,ng iau0 nau tau0 n)'ung-deu t.hih]a (9) peh la kuh (10) (11) 0tse iau0 khe ih kuh. (12) knh boong-dz.ung i.heh. tse.{14) Di O -ku li ien-tshoongveh thoong. byau-

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LESSONS IN THE SHAi\GHAI DIALIWT 119 t.uh au0 (Translate into Chinese) (1) My relative is sick in the hospital. (2) Salt is good, but if it has lost its savour, wherewithal shall it be salted? (3) I told the cook to buy some stamps at the Post (4) How much money have yon in the bank? (5) When you are going on a journey, yon should take your bedding along with you. (6) To-day is Sunday, and I went to church in the morning. (7) I told him to buy some charcoal, some hard coal and some soft coal. (8) There is much dust in the market place. (9) In the summer time it is important to eat only these things which are fresh. (10) If there is no oil in the lamp, how can you light it? (11) Your pronunciation of this word is not correct. It is aspirated. I met a on the jetty, who had just come from America. (13) Put the kettle on the stove. (14) The farmers are busy in the spring of the year. (15) If the wind blows down the chimney, the room will be full of smoke.

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120 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT (1) In the third sentence of the First the verb dmng means deposit. (2) In the fourth Sentence of the First Exercise means ton. (3) In the ten th sentence of the First Exercise Soong0 means to send on his as we put it to see off., LESSON XXXI Polite Language In the Chinese language there are a polite phrases used in conversation. The ability to use these is a sign of educa tion. Every student of the language should become acquainted with the most common ones, for he will have occasion to use them constantly. Some of these phrases have been introduced and explained in these lessons already, but here an attempt will be made to gather all those that would be used ordinarily in con versation. When you meet any one for time, according to Chinese etiquette you are at liberty to ask him what his honorable name may be. The expression for this is or In answer he will tell you his surname, doing so he will refer to it as his hum b]e name. Thus he will say (if his surname is Tsang). Next you might proceed to inquire what his other name was, private name in distinction from his surname. This you would ask by

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT U1 teach me your great appellationor The In answer he might Kya-foo meaningthe grass are he might say is taken as an example of a name.) Then you might proceed to ask his age. This you would do by saying The answer would hyui doo0 san Lit.I have vainly passed thirty years.,If you ask an old gentleman his age, you would Lit.What is your high longevity? If you ask a person how he is, as has been already intimated, you would The be fok meaningI depend upon you happiness., If a person asked you how many years you had been in China, he would ~ay z-tse You would answer O Ngoo nyien I arrived in your honorable country twenty years ago,(or any length of time you had been in the country). When you are asking a guest to take a seat, if he is at all an honorable guest, you must request him to take an honorable seat. This you do by O zoo meaningPlease sit up higher., In asking how many children you have your guest would say many little princes have you.,Your answer is or or san At table, if you finish before others, you raise your chop sticks and say to the others slowly."

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122 LESSONS IN THF.: SHANGHAI DIALECT Then you place the chop-sticks on top of the bowl. Your hosl woold answer meaningTake plenty." When a gnest is leaving, in additi~ to saying he may say meaningI have troubled you. Your answer may be meaning "I have t.reated you without proper lH, nrny i::ny, as he is wnlking lieu kyung-bco0 meaning '' Plen.se restrai11 your orderly footsteps' p;or simply meaning '' to come out.,Jf von have to excuse yourself after a short stay, you should say VOCABULARY England, Hwoji. Lit., Kingdom of the Flowery Flag. France, Germany, Tuhkok Russia, Anti Nei~hbor, A doo0 Tricky, Communication, interconrse, le Matches, Next (juxtaposition), Promise, To meet with misfortune, Literally, "Eat bitterness., Comfortable, The earlier the yoehtsau To relax the mi11d, san Soap, To strike a matcl.J, EXERCISES into English) (1) chi0. Tsoong-kok tah-ts bih-kuh 'veh (3) Jung-le Ngoo-kok tab-ts Toong-yang (4) k~h-pih kuh nyung 0z

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 123 bi. (6) tsau11g-ts too-lw H lt kuh si-tse, zak zen tsoo O meh iau0 ka yi-kuh koong-dien. nyung cbuh khoo. (10) Tsbong-kok tsho-veh-too ih 0siau. (] uyung 0z dzoong Iung-kok le kuh. (12) Di0-foong 0sia kuh? Yoeh0tsau yoe (13) I-kuh nyung le koen-zing (15) z0-le-0hoo tsoong iau0 wak zen meh 'veh (Translate into Chinese) (1) You should love your neighbor. as yourself. (2) All over China now there are post an
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124 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT to one another on the map. (6) The fox is one of the most tricky of all the animals. (7) How long have you been in my humble country? I arrived in your honorable country only about one year ago. (8) Since I have promised it, I will certainly do as I said. (9) In ancient. times most men were unable to read and write ;no\v a large portion of the people can
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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 125 LESSON XXXII Proverbs As is well known, the ~hinese are very fond of proverbs. Their language is exceedingly rich with sententious sayings. They also make use of mally felicitous expressions on New Years etc. Here is a short list of those in common use. Most of them are in literary sty le, but are used in ordinary speech. Ih tsho tsoong sung ts hwe0. The evil done in a moments thought may entail the reJJentance of a life time. Ih yien i tsheh, nan tsoe. When a word has gone forth, four horses cannot overtake it. Ih sing O kyui A heart holding oue though t;a set on one pnrpose. Ih thah oo-doo. Everything in confusio. Chuh s0 hwen If you eat half a bowl oi rice of an other man, yon thereby are placed under obligations. Waung Thien peh zung sing. Great Heaven never forgets the desire person in misery. we deu kyung peh wen. The repente11ce of a prodigal is more precious than gold. The tsho dzaung ts pih. To wheel the cart against the wall,equivalent to knock your head a gainst a stone wall. r jeu To forfeit what is near and seek what is far. It implies the folly of giving up the bird in the hand for the bird in the bush. To forget benefits received. Note that the character for man is pronounced Nyung in the vemacular and Zung in the literary language.

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126 IN 'fHE SHA~GHAI DIALECT Zung0 ji. J nyah pihdau. To float the the wind. This I To catch hold of the no"e of a man who implies "to follow the crowdand I is to the cxpreg, applies to a person of whe I down., Zung sing kya doong. I chung. Human nature is one. I To pr 0 ss a drowning man down in the water. Tl>ishas much the same prece u auh pau0, zaksveh pau, z khuk vi tsu tse muh tse huh. Evil has an evil recompense-virtue I red ink makes you red. has a good recompense. If the rec.I Contact with black ink makes you ompense does not appt>ar, it is I black because the time has not yet arrived. i I Sung zung li0 kyi zung. deu, tsu. I To injure auotber to yourself, Enmity has a source, ju~t as debt has a I is the pnrt of a creditor. Chi zung z0. To cheat others is to cheat oneself. peh chi ih, In dealing with all, you do not deal harshly with any one in partic ular. Zu0 kau yih lauh kwe kung. thien sing. Although the tree may be ten thou-I The dog looks at tl1e sky fnll of stars. feet fall down to I This deEcribes a stupid person who the roots. I does not understand what he sees, Zung sing. tsoong zu ih. He has the face of a man and the heart I To the same from the begin of an animal. i ning to the end. *This means that al11 sooner or later, return to their

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LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT 127 fl. To give up haliway. fileu z0 dze zung, dzung ,:0 dze thien. Man accomplishes. Eqnivalent proposeth, God disposeth. :W kau. May yon rise step by step. nen zu toong 0he. May y.onr longevity be like the South-ern Monntain, a nd your happiness like the E1slern Sea Jung seh the harp and gnit.nr harmonize Note. Tl.is is 11 ,redding wish, the l1arp and gnitar signifying the bride and groom. Pak nyien May you have hnppiness for a hundred year. A wedding wish. Dzung saung May the couple remain nnited until old ago. wi,h. Tshung sing everything b e according to your own wishes. tshien May you have a long li{e of a thonsand years. Ih May you have favorable winds 011 your ]oumey. fah ze. wealth and happiness both be your s May you h a ve peace tlirough t he four sensons. rilis wish is often used at New Years time.

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CHINESE-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 'A mortgage. dnck. older brother. mortgage. older sister. regret, ichd. lff. small box. (adj.). of a Ii (in cnne11cy). month. con down. Au-nyoeh, month. O Au-pen half of year, half month. ha]f Hight, O go on board a ship. learn. A scholar, a pupil. B nrrange in order. verb), gives force of completed actio11. bite. I vain. coal. converse. classifier for shops. crawl. direct, to attend to a matter. friend. strike against. meet. rnn. run about. carry in the arms. plane. the side of. cane, a stick. accompany, to stay with a perso11. play, to take rec.. reat10n. hide. hide oneself.

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129 Bizau0, quilt; a blanket. queue. nose. bottle. screen. apple. bf carriages. ela~sifier for sets of hooks. Bnd, a nwal. dining table I dining room. D of rows of Da0i-zaungkuh, washerrnan in general, most. the most part, gen erally, chief cook, Da ifame of}Ohina. Dan egg. suppose; to tlfrnk. peach. 'bundle of fuel. plant of rice. priest. table. exchange a dollar into cash. deport oneself, to trent others. treat rudely. of. Deu, the chief, the first. hair on the head. ice, crow. a series. brethern. is, these.

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130 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT side, h e re. sort. tile earth. earth. map, a chart. for long, winding, or limber object .a. exchange, to barter. flnte to oppose. stop. a minute piece of satin. read. stu
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CHINESEENGLISH VOCABULARY 131 for stories of a house or ladder. city. yet. complete. love. En E son. afterwards. after to-morrow. F become rich. tnrn over. tn rn over. uare feet. square foot. place, let go. dismiss school. fly. waste. for paintings or enand wife. ax. pay. of letters and sealed parcels. to to a high position. cent. separate. of an inch, 1/10 of a dzien separate. difference;to dis tinguish. plaster. plaster a wall. H call very, action. prnfit. if, like. fire. !!'< grate. stove. railwa:v engrne. steam boat. bake. repent. slander.

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132 LEsso.:,;s IN 'tHE SHANGHAI DIALECT flowering plau t. cotton, flower. stalks. seed. ve-etation in general. garden. kuow. wonder, to b\> su ,r-prised. ri,licule rest . wait a littk oren a box youug brotl,er, permit. roast (meat). I heal. those that time. docto r. hereafter. that. aud proper, leading to no ment. because very hospital, wish, will. is im portant. coal. chimney. make motions. i SWl\llow. ;Ih, -, a, one : with. i ceut, centa. at all~ hundred, lifl. time, time. chair. promise, J robber, bridge. sedan chair coolie. sedan chair coolie. chair. pray. last year, flag, on the shoulde1

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CHHlESE-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 133 of garments, baggage and affairs, an affair. superlative degree. kneel. ed. street. Ka, add. K implements. add. e:,::pla.in. saw. (juxtaposition), roorn. see you or two. teach. beggar. to tell, to narr e. proclamation. ten cent piece. Ka uh-tau e\'erywhere. carry ( two men with pole). expound, to explain settle the price, preach, saw, therefor!!, pigeon, dog. enongh, washsta11d. a guest room. guest, a vis tor. now, a little while ago. lead pencil, knock, strike. examine a class. rely upon, to trust. rely upon, to trnst, hide a thing. hide a thing. open, open, opens. open school, beginning. Khe-koong, commence work. open wide. year, water. kowtow. of fnrniture. mouth. see. heal. cry. of plants,

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134 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT be willing. cut (with a sharp knife). cut in two. man or tw o drive away. drive away. drum. an-cie ntly. pass over. from the old to the new yea1. past. t11ue. die. past tense. Koong-di work. son. attack an en emy. of the genitiv e; a g e neral classifi P r;a final particl e follow. classifier donoting objects gen e rally more shnt. bright. propriety. classifier of tubular things. mandarin, a mng i s t rate. a mngistrate. dia l ect. coffin. sharp. t o do a t hing. a slice. forgive. forgive. classifi c d e n o tin g bundles o f sleep. boil. roll. r o ll. mother. foot. to e. m a ny. call. s ave fowl. sp o n g e cake. many? many the point of. sed a l'i)tter,

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CHINESE-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 135 or marks. rem e mber. that be so. orange. (in sentence. catty. gong. year, manage. mirror. L in, of past tensP. candle. basket. lazy. perature. ridicule. venerable crow. rat. tiger. hawk. father. rat, fall. going out. rain. hammer. La unztsoong, upon {used after a noun). come back and forth. year. in forming the su. perlative. is timP, is not time. sign of past teme. sign of present tense. two-storied house. two-storied house. leak. Ii (in currency). forsake desert, depart from. Chinese mile ( use d after noun). (used after noun). Chinese mile, week church. measure. ounce. cents.

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136 LESSONS SHANGHAI DIALECT times, twice. times1 twice. (opposite of dark). stand np. stand still. cide. carry a load in one hand. sew, to stich. take a stitch, get. wet. neighbot. lead. mother. da1i!thter. son, addition. father. get up, deer. brick. road. dragon. attend to a thing, lo make it right. attend to a make it set a house on fire. M any. any. one. mow. bny. com pradore. sell. sell. stockings. plant of wheat, thousand. gently. slowly. cat. three miles. carpet. hat, a cap,
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CHINESE-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 137 temple. of flat objects. Mien washbowl. face. underst.and, year. Motsiang, sparrow. horse. jetty. carriage, feel, to touch, Mok-deu ;,k lumber. Mokziang, caq)t:Uiter. sharpen. mother, ink, Mung, r,, a door, doorway. doorway. mosquito. ask, N yours. regret, to be in an position; tal,e. Nau bring here. t11ke otf. th. gngan -lo gatl'd co. lonrs. outside. foreigner. pee tacles. eye. bnrk, it important? stoo}. chance, .. Ngookok~nyung, me. place. my. us. y;ou. thine, yours, take hold of, to grasp. funeral cerem onies. a llow. forgive. cow.

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138 LESSONS IN THE SHA NG HAI DIALECT button. particle. (cheek). mason. son. ear. us our. year. beginning of the year. year. end of the year. N yien Years day end of the Chinese ink tablet. Obinese ink tablet. day, the sun. N in the middle of the day Nyoeh, month, a moon Nyoehdeu, part of a month, Nyoehdeu-laung0, _ij part of a month. moon. month. P)iddle of the mouth end of a month. forgive. .. woman. bank. postage stamp. welcome. to know a person. comfort. or. or. much more? Buddhist priest. kettle, buerfly. fox. p place worship. pay a ceremonial VISlt. visit, to pay to, hundred. a hundred. class (in school). board, canal, a creek, bale, of bales of tilings. tie up, to bind with a cord. cup. carry on the back,

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CHINESE-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 139 back a book, to recite a lesson Peh, give. Peh, fa, used to form passive. remove (a residence). remove (a residence). half Pan-kwhe0-yangdien, a half of a dollar a year. midnight. c,rnnon. fort, a battery. criticize, criticism. split. of "'liole pieces of dry goods. of horses. J:r., to compare. I ustration. compare. watch. the side of. pen. soldier. pect, to hope. of tools and articles grasped in the hand. tumbler, a g]ass. of books. natiw. R s water lmffalo. four sensons. what? any? interrogative particle. Sa mncb is it? what price? Sa much is it? here? kill. kill. bolt or bar of a door. San three-storied lious e goat. umbrella.

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140 LES!!ONS IN THE S.HANGHAI DIALF.CT scatter wide cast. relax the mind. light (a fire), to beget. raw. become iii. ness pear. nourish save, to be economiral. save time. burn, to cook. kitchen. a cook. few. broom. for pairs of things. wast!', to be extrnYarrant. consult. smash. lose, to forfeit. hrush. forfeit. bar or to bolt a door. for broad objectB. fan. collect. receipt. be imprisoned. collect receive payment for a keep, to observe. han
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CHINESE-ENGLISH VOCABUtA RY 141 repai.r. heart. star. new year. Jetter. ([ envelope. life. reckon. lock. pronoun--who, wliich, what. lock squirrel. to escort a person on the way. book. bookcase. nnrse. study. know a Chinese character. body. T long time. wear (a hat). take away with you. bring with you. itli take, sheet. 'take away. bring here, take away, picnl. sn ffer a defeat. suffer a de[eat .. fool with an other. upset (water). at Jaw. himt. hunt. in a showy manner kill by a blow. wound smash, to bre!lk. consider. snffer a defeat. gain a victory. make inquiries. a battle. injure by strikl in:,:. a victory.

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142 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT the on the other l1a11d. to arrive. prayer. take care. pa1Y II. for piles o[ things of a brace, a pair. gamble (with do. pagoda. biscuit. Thankhe-le, nnroll. beg. marry a wife beggar. rely upon, to entrust. iron, to burn, to fCald. r e ject. to rt 1 j ec t. after verb a s ign of completed action. steal. of. carry (a l oa d suspended from ends of a pole). to l eap Thi a day. before daybreak. Thi Hea veuly Lord. cookii1g stove (foreign). the poin t of (doing;t t Iii h ea r. take off. take off hare. (for a person). (excess). beneath. bird. ml;, to point with the hand. small quantity of (after verb). light (a candle). of c,,mpar,1tive degree. liour. shop. fall. sting. of s uperL1the degree. much. mnch. rn ucl1 ca r e gamble. Toong, JI[, eas t.

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CHINESE-ENGLTi!H VOCABULARY 143 Japanese. ricksba, und erstand. pig, a hog. China. sl,eet o f sheet of paper. point (with the hand). tie (as bundle). wear. of bugs, on legs, etc. cut (with sword, ax, or heavy knife). for sheets of things, account. the tide). account book, rising tide. room. in the mornrng, to. Chinese cooking kitchen. my ex amplP. it seems to me. catch, to seize, to arrest. (as driven in ground), (persou). article denoting complet-ed action. revoir. to a place. return from a place. walk. blow. blow out, to tingui s h. blow into a blaze send (per~on)", to cause. hoist (as a sail). foot (10 inches). spoon, window. gather (as fruit). Ts go o ut. marry (a bus b,md) put forth a proclamatiou. come out. coolie. Ts (as cash). thread a needle. chest of drawers. drawer (of a table). build a wall, build a wan. build a partition. mend a path. take by force.

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LESSONS IN THE !:!HANGHAI DIALECT take by force. thon:'aud a daughter. cnt open. cut open. painter. Tshing, r (fam ily). distin!!t. invite, please. correct. cooqe. wheelbarrow. the same, not muc:h difference. tl.1e first da~ of the month file. wise. weigh. Ts in c h. you11ger s ister. hand. borrow, to lend. to do a thing. grill, to broil. wine glass, win'3 fi1)ger. enter, come in. of the super lativ e degre<'. barn b,oo stick. hinder, to op1>ose. hinder, to oppo s e do, to m a k\), to perform. perform fueral ceni1a1onius. be eco110mical.. b e ll. faq11er, 0Tso o.ng-iau must be. must be so. lord, master. master. for idols and cannons father (in a dd1e ,si11g thei r father politely). consnlt. get. verb expresses a bility Tuh-0doong, verb expresses po,s i liility. offeud. ability,

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CHlNESEENGLISH VOCABULARY 145 to dQ a. thing. verb]it is possible. to he11r. lamp. to wait. a I tttle. a little. until, ,, particle. ( I}oiled). bedroom. house. no. Buddhist idol. after verb) iro possible. mattei; what, verb}impo~sible. \\liat, matter who. than. important, i!s not necess!lrY. than. oor rect. now, while ago. after vr&i;b) im po, sible. verb) impossi hie. only. not so. than. t, equ;d to. verb yet. inability. I tie'. very. [ tie only, I tie firmly. J verb exJ presence, im 1: potent. imI' portant. ii\clil\!l4 to, qco a scient. ladder. grave nq.

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146 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT w spoil. spoil. strike (a match). addition. (addition), return (a not yet. the evenm g the ev emng. weasel. answer. can. li v e. Chinese eating bowl. completed action. exc hange, to barter. speak. painting. slander. slander. safe, y pheasant. the evening night. key. sheep. dollar. gun. bt~get, to nourish o f every sort. postage stamp. have, there is. men. enough. thE>re to be had? (direction). side. side. hand, she, it. (noun). its. the irs. more. e a rli e r tlie better. use servant.

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Cl:UNESEENGL!Sii 147 pay attention, to be diligent. prepare, to pro vide. z market. of a character. match. clock. affair. course. wolf. stone. gamble (with-dice). stone mason. Zaung, 11,t;, a bed. go up. i dialect. come up. lialf the :year. 110011, l,alf of the month. half night. go up it hill. take au advanced \e8SOl1. lose (in business). lose (in bnsiness). Zeh-ti lose (in business). (collective). boat. yet. (moral). receive, accept. be injured. suffer. suffer. be wounded. thank. month. before yesterday. month. turn around, saw. look for. Zing0, wash. \\'asherma1}. bathe.

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148 LESSONS iN T.EtE SHANGHAI J)[ALEC'.! srinke. thoroughly cooked, well known, sit. for build tree. thief. rope. Taoist god or ido'I.

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ENGLISH-CHINESE VOCABULARY A A or an is expressed by the use of e.g., Able, About, li nnm to wa used after the verb), Above. Accept, a friend on leaving, According, to, Account, an, of, Account-book, an, Add, to, Advantage, iuli-Affair, an, ih OT ih tSall ng zO 0'eu Afternoon, E:I. Again, Age, k Ago, a colltc tively), Although, Among. one, ih pak ling Answer, to, Anyone, dzoe-bien you any? Anywhere, Apple, an, ih tsak Are, Arr.i.nge, to,

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150 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT As,for example, it seems to me, yoii plea se, Ask, to, Aspirate, to, At, chi night, ya0 Attack, to, Attend, to, to heed, yoong-si to matters, to a thing to make it Autumn, Ax, an, B Back, the, come -, 0tseu le, tlte book, Bad, chen, Baggage, as a rnercltandize, ih :Bamboo, a stick kung Bar, of a door, Bar, Bark, Barrow, a, ih Barter, to, Basket, a, ih tsak yok, I Battery, a, ih kuh Battle, to fight Be, one anot/1e1, a drum, khau Because, Bed, a, ih tsak ih kan Bedding, Before, Beg, Beget, Beggar, Begin, khe. to Beginning, of the Bell, a, Beneath, Beside, Besides,

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ENGLISH-crrr:-ms~; VOCABULARY 151 quicker the Beyond, Big, Bill, iii tsang (t Bird, a, ih Biscuit, ih kuh a)f. Black, Blanket, a, ih Blow, to, a flame or Blue, Board, a, ih Board, to, a Boat, a, ih tsak ih to Body, a, ih kuh Boil, to, Boiling water, Bolt, of lt cloth, ih phih Bolt, a door, tsak Book, a, set of account b .Borrow, to, Both, Bottle, a, (used as a tsak mie11 Box, a tsak tsak as a classifier), Boy, a, ih kuh Brace, a ( used ih te0 Brass, Bread, a loaf kuh men-den, phien Breadth, Break, Brick, a, ih 01 le Bridge, ih diau back, a, l

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152 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT Brush, I Canal, a, ih Bucket, a, (used as a ih I Candle, a, ih I Buddhist, a idol, ih I Candles, a, of -s, ih priest, ih I ; kuh I Cane, a, ih Buffalo, a Cannon, a, ih tsuug I Cap, a, ih mau0Build, a partition, I tslri0 Bundle, a ( used as a ih Careful, But, Butterfly, a, ih tsakoo-dih, But.ton, -1-. Buy, By, (the peh, means of, side of, 0ngeuwhat means, 11a0-nnng, c Cake, a, ib kuh Ca.n, ability, acquired do it, not do it, Carpenter, a, ih kuh Carpet, a, ib diau Carriage, a, go hand, in the arms l{ke a on the shoul-der, on the pole on shoulder, one pole by -a foo11g 0kheu any-i kulr docrng-
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ENOLISH-CHINESE VOCABULARY 153 Cent, ih kanh, -s, Jiang kauh, Chair, a, ih tsak Chance, by Change. to -a dollm,de" ya11~-d1en, Character, a knh of Cha,rcoaI, Chart, a, i-h fok fok Cheap, Cheat, to, Chicken, a, ih .tsak kwi, Child, a, ih Chimney, China, Chinese, kuh know a character, Church, City, a, ih Class, a (in school), ih pa11, Clause, a, ih Clean, Clear, Clever, Clock, a, ih tsak Cloth, a piece phih Clothe, to; Clothes. pile dzanng0 ta ke theh Coachman, ih kuh Coal, (soft) Collect, OoUege; a, Colour, ftve -s, fort-b, Comfortable, Commence, journey; Compare, Complete, Compradore, a, ih Congratulate, to, -a Connect, to be -ed together, siang Consider,

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154 LESSONS lN TltE SltAN'GHAI DIALECT Consult, Convenient, Converse, to, Cook (a chief), (an Cooking, a, stove (Chinese), ih tsak store (foreign), ih tsak Coolie, a, kuh Cord, to bind with Cotton, already gin11ed), bale pau cloth, seeds, Cow, Crab apple, a, ih tsak Crawl, to, Creek, a, ih diau
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ENGUSH-CHfNESE VOCABULARY 155 Dependon, to, t! i:tn Deport, to oneself, Descend, -a Desk, an Dice, a set of, ih gamble Die, Diference, a, Difficult, Diligent, lrnn table, ih trnk Dirty, Dish, a, ih tsnk dzang Dismiss, to school, fanng0 Distinct, Divide, to, it, tsoo0Dog, ih Dollar, a, ih ih khwe0 of -s, ih siang of, ih foo0 Door, a, ih s e n the khe Doorway, a, ih kuh kuh Dragon, a, ih diau Drawer, ih tsak Drawers, a chest tsak tsheu Dress, to, Drive, Drum, a, ih Dry, Duck, ih tsak Dull, Dust, Duty, Dwell, to, E you -? I E,,r, a, ih for, Doctor, i h Earlier, the the better, we I yoe h

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156 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT Earth, the, East, the, side, toongEasy, dok Eat, to, rice or chuh chuh tsak Ebb-tide, Economical, to Egg, an, ih kult Eight, Eighteen, Eighty, Either, Eleven, Else, Embarrassing, to be in Emblem, an, Enemy, England, Enjoy, to, Ensign, Entrust, to, an, jh knh kuh sing0-foong, Equal, ih Erect, to a Error, tsho, to a person to the Evening, waung hwung Every, place, khanh lauh Examine, to -carefully, -a Exalt, to to a high position, foong, Explain, Expound, ti. Extinguish. Extra, Extravagant, Eye, an, ih tsak F Face, ili. knh mien Fall, to, -do1Q11,

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ENGLISJI-OHJNESE VOCABULARY 157 tide Fan, a, Farmer, Fast, Fat, :ik-pak, Female, Fence, to erect Few, sau, ~Fierce, Eif Fight, to with other, si ang a ih 9po. Finger, a, ih tsak Fin.ish, to, a ih diau Flag, ih Flour, Flower, plant, ih khoo Flute, Fly, Follow, to, Food, Fool, with the, ih tsak measure aj ih tenjeet, ih faung feet, ih For, (instead of), Force, to take a Foreigner, iii Forget, to, Forgive, to, Fork, Forsake, to, Fort, a, ih kuh Forth, the-day, Four, the part of a month, Ji i Fowl, ih tsuk o.f den -s, ih of a m,o.utk, yeai-,, Fox, pen, i franee1

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158 LESSO!'
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ENGLISH-CHINESE VOCABULARY Happy, Ha.rd, 11 Hare, a, ib ts:1k Hat, ih tsak He, Head, ih kuh on bow to Hear, kuh Heaven, Height, Help, one an. other, Hen, a, ih tsak ths Her, Here, Hers, Hide, to oneself, to a thing, High, Hill, ih Him, Himself, yi Hinder, to, 0 His, Hit, Hog, a, ih tsak Hoist, to, as a flag arms, Hole, Honest, Hope, a, Hope, to, Horse, a, ih tsak boy, ih Hospital, Hour, ih kuh an House, ih ih zak vaung dzung leu, i ? (price)'! sa end of you? -old hau0 llyi<-kyi,ln111 kyi However, Hundred, ih

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160 LESSONS SHANGHAI I I, tsung tsnng at end nf not so,veh zen veh be so, kyi-zen Ill, to become, Illness, Immediately, Implement, In, i" he -f yi go -, addition, order Inch, an, ih Inconceivable, siang-' Inquire, to Instantaneous, Instead of, Instruments, a set of, ih Intercourse, Invite, Iron, there to be is not necessary,vet\ pih, Its, J Japanese, Jetty, to start Just now, too(JJL tli-e of befo1e lhiylight, thien-1 i K I Keep, Kerosene, I Kettle, be -ed, Key, a, ih 0pu be -ed by striking, I I with a Ink, (t piece of, i .ii Kitchen, a, ih tab'let, ih kuh ih kub I Kneel,

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ENGLISH-CHINESE VOCABULARY 161 Knife, a, person, Kowtow, to, L Ladder, a, ih dzung voo-tbi, Lamp, a, ih Large, Laugh, to, Lead, Lead, to, Leap, to, Learn, Left, pronounced tsi0), Lend, to, Length, Less than,veh 0meu, Letter, a, ih foong Level, Life, ih diau Light (not dm'lc), Light Light, to, (li or candle),
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162 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT Man, ih kuh 01' Mandarin, a, iii knh ih k11li dfolect, Many, ih fok fok Marks or signs, Marry, ih knh Master, Matches, strike Meaning, of-, ii, Medicine, go a mi~fortune, Men, Mend, to, sien, -a Merchandise, Method, Midday, Middle, month, Midnight, Mile, a O]j. Milk, Mind, to r elux Minute, a, ib Minor, a, ih Misfortune, to Miss, a, ih Mistress, Mrs., Moist, Money, Month, a, ih k11h 1st day beginning of the end 0'au k111I l~oon, ih knh much-, Moreover,0 in,

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ENGLli!HCHINESE vo' cABl:JLARY 163 Mosquito, a, ih kuh Mostly, Mother, kuh vnng-san, Mountain, a, ih zoo Mouth, a. ih knh Move, Mow, a, Much, -i (price).~ sa0 Muddy, N Name, your tsnng g,'.ve is yow.-.2 ming-den Native, a, ih Nearly, three miles, mau san Necessary, pih iau0 iau0-kyung Necessity, N Jedle, Neighbor, New, New Years day, nyien tshoo News, Newspaper, ih tsang Next, Night, Nineteen, answer to -matter who,veh lung sa0 matter what,veh lung0 bieu0 iung, Noon, North, North-east, toong west, ,Nose, a, ih kuh wanveh veh -at all, ih nganh, incUned,veh-kau-hyungo,

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164 LESdONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIA,LECT Nourish, Now, Nun, a, ih kuh Object, a n, ih knh meh-z0, Obtain, Of, (sign of possession), course, Office, an, i Ii kan sia CHi, Old (not young), Oppose, Orange, i h t~uh Other, bih, JJIJ. Ought, Ounce, an, i-11 Our, Ours, nyi0kuh, Out, come Outside, Omnipotent, I I Own, Omnipresent, I, Omniscient, a, ih I Pagoda, a, ih On, la ung I noun,) the table, of, the oth er Once, ih One, cent, ih ih Only, pih school, khe hyih khe, khe p Painting, a, ih[O k 1. kh we sheet Pardon, Part, a portion, ih the Partition, ts

PAGE 183

E:-SGLISH-CHINESE VOCABULARY 16.'5 Pas,to from the old year to the new, Path, ih dian mend a Pawn, to, pa0 respects to, pa0 respects to nyien, Payment, to receive Peace, Peach, a, ih tsak Pear, a, ih tsak Pen, a, ih 0kwen Pencil, a, People, Perhaps, Permit, Person, ih knh Phrase, a, ih Pheasant, a, ih Picul, a, ih tan, -i!!.Piece, a, ih (dry goods), ih Pig a, ih teak Pigeon, a; ih tsak ih Piled, one on top ojanather, Piles, Pity, the r.inge of range Place, -? Place, be -J, in position, nan-we Plane, a, ilt tsak Plaster, to, Plate, a, ih tsak Point, Politeness, Poor, Post sing-jok, po Powder, joen-pi might, Pray, Preach, to, Prepare. to, Present, to, Price, is the -.f sa0 to settle

PAGE 184

166 LESSONS SHA:\GHAI DIALECT Bi.iddhist, ih kuh kuh Proclamation, ih tBang p ut make business, Promise, Propriety, Prosecute, to, to -at kwen Provide, to, Pupil, ih kuh Q Quantity, a f/j Quarrel, to, hour, ih Queue, ih dian Quickly, Quiet, to Quilt, a, ih R carriage, ih Rain, to, Rat, a, ih Raw, Read, Receipt, payment, -payment sent:;ih-khak, Reckon, to, Recognize, Regret, to, Reject, Itelative (fa ,mily), Relax, mind, Rely, to upon, Remember, to, Remove, Repair, to, Repairs, Reply, Return, on e another, Rice, . buy - Rich, to

PAGE 185

ENGLISH-CHINESE VO CA BULA RY 167 Iticsha, a. ih boo boo coolie, tsho Ride, a horse, to-in a sedan Right ( hand, side, yeu0 pien, Ripe, Rise, to up, -as the River, a, ih diau Road, a, ih diau Robber, a, ih Room, a, ih Root, Rope, a, ih diau Rough, Round, Row, of things, trees, ih da0 Rumours, start Run, baule-bau-chi, Russia, Russian, s Sail1 a, ih sen Sake, for th e of, Salary, Salt (noun) 'an, Same, ih Satin, Saucer, a, ih tsak dzo Saw, a, Say, to, wo0, thing Scald, Scales, balance, Scholar, ih School, a, ih of, ih po Scorch to, Screen, a, ih seu0 Seal, Season, a, four

PAGE 186

LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT Seat, a, zoo, See, to, Seek, to, Seize, to, Self, Sell, to, Send, to, a person, tslrn, Sentence, a, ih Separate, to, Servant, a, ih kuh Settle, to the Seven, Shall, Shameful, Sharp, Sharpen, to, She, Sheep, yang, Sheet, a, ih ih Ship, Shirting, a piece oj, ih phih yang-poo0, saung Shop, a, ih b an ih ban go time, ih hyih Should, Shroff, a, s e n yang-dien ?'Dom, ih kan Shut, to, Side, Sign, a, Silver, Since, -it i s so, kyize n then Single, Sister, older, Sit, -Six, Sixty, Size, Skin, black, water,

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ENGLTSHCBINESE VOCABULARY 169 Slippery,. Slow, 11ga11-ngan OJ, yang
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170 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT ta .ke Stockings, a pair sauug mah, Stone, a, ih khwe0 mason, ih kuh Stool, a, ih tsak dini;Story, cla.~s,:ji,er for stories of a house, Stove, a, ih ih tsak lhih ih tsak ts Street, ih diau Strike, injure by -ing, String, to (as cash), Study, a, ih kan Such, Suddenly, Su!fer, -an Sugar, Sun, Supper, Suppose, to think, tannyiirig-ts, Surprised, to be, Swallow, a, ih tsak Sweet, Sword, a, T Table, a, ih tsak a kuli Tablet, a Chinese knh nyien kuh Tailor, ih knh for ce), -off (re move), off -off (hat), dzn, hold of, with one, to great a Talk, to, Tall, priest, idol or god, ih tsung zung-dan, Tea, siang dzo. yih, s hop, ih Lmn Teach, to, ih kuh sien-sang,

PAGE 189

ENGLISH-cHfNESE VOCABULARY 171 Temple, ih oent pfrce, ih TeKture, That, Thee, Their, theirs, Them, Then, There, These, They, Thick, (not Thickness, Thief, ih knh Thin, bok, (in reference to p1'T son), Thine, Thing (conerete), ih kuh affair), of every sort, Think, Thirty, This, Those, Thou, Though, Thought, Thousand, ih Thread, a, 51 Through, Throw, to, Thus, Thy, Tide, flow ing in, out, Tie, to, a small parcel), up, !au Tiger, iii te Time, Tin, Tired, sa~doo, To, yi (it) -me, peh ngoo, -and fro, le-l e Tobacco, To-day, Toe,.a, ih tsak Together, da ih To-morrow, Tongue, To-night, Too, thuh, ic\:j. Tools,a s e t of, ih foo Towards, Towel, ih

PAGE 190

172 LESSONS IN THE SHANGHAI DIALECT Town, Travel, to, rudely, Tree, a, ih khoo Tricky, Trousers, True, Truly, Trunk, a, ih tsak Trust, to, to be -ed, unworthy to be -ed, khau0-'veh-
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ENGLISH-CHINESE VOCABULARY 173 Wall, build Wash, to, zi the face, kha Washbasin, or tsak Washerman, Washstand, ih Watch, a, ih tsak doong buffalo, ih tsak Way, Wear, to, a hat, ta0 mau. Weasel, ih tsak Week, a, Weigh, to, Weight, cl11111g-dzoong, Well, a, West, Wet, What, ii! the -is the price? sa0 Jrn--i.s youi nanie? tsqug. Whatever, lung0 veh time you Wheat, boo Whichever, White, Who, Whole, the '-of a thing ,ilr tsbih, Whosoever, Why, Wide, Wife, to nya11g-0ts, Will, au:c-ili
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1"14 LESSO:-SS I:'l THJ!: DIALECT With, Wolf, ih tsak Wonder, to, Wood, Word, Work, sang-web, Wound, be y Year, a, ih tshoo 11 yien-uyien, end oj the beginni.'ng of thr -, uyien